(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "The gardener's monthly and horticultural advertiser v.15"

Title: The Gardener's monthly and horticultural advertiser, 

V. 15 

Place of Publication: Philadelphia 

Copyright Date: 1873 



Master Negative Storage Number: MNS# PSt SNPaAg1 14.3 



Volume 



15 



J 



1873 



SUhiJ (§ixrAtMfB 




0ntltlg 



AND 



HORTICULTURAL ADVERTISER 

DEVOTED TO HORTICULTURE, ARBORICULTURE, BOTANY & RURAL AFFAIRS. 



Edited by THOMAS MEEHAN, 

FOKMERI^V HE*D GaBDENSR TO CALEB UOPE. Esa.. AT SPBINGBBOOK. AN« AT r„K BaBTRAM BoTANIC <Jah,.KS» 

NEAR Philadelphia; Obaduatb of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kf.w (London) Engl, 
Member of the Academy oP Natpbal Sciences. Author of •' American 
Hand-Book of Ornamental Trees," Etc. 



.AND. 



-♦•♦- 



VOLUME XV^, 1873 



PHILADELPHIA: 

CHARLES H. MAROT, PUBLISHER, 

No. 814 Chestnut Street. 

1673. 



SB I 



f 






LU 



iU 



I 

ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Colored Plate, Frontispiece El^agnus Parvifolius. 

B 

Brussels Sprout 

147 

c 

Canada Victor Tomato '. go 

Carnation, Perpetual-Flowered, La Belle gjy 

Coxcomb, New Japan ^^. 

Coxcomb, New Tricolor ^^. 

^ , lo4 

Cucumber, Improved 

.144 

■ F 

Fruit Drying' Apparatus ^^ 

c 

Grape Berry Moth, Larva and Cocoons, (i Cuts) ^^1 

Greenhouse, Small, Plan of. *' | 

Godctia Dunnettii 

316 

H 

Hot Water Heating, Method of. 

Houses of S. B. Parsons & Co., Diagram of. ..!!!!!i!!....7..*.l.... 106 

Lobelia, Carter's Cobalt-Blue 

155 

Marblehead Squash 

Mimulus Cupreus, Variety Brilliant ^ ^^^ 

Mole Traps " ^^^ 

237-238 

o 

^-'range Apple 

• 844 

Parterre, Design of 

Peas, New English 

Pipes to warm a Greenhouse, Situation of ''|''" -q^ 

s ■ • 

Scarlet Runner, The 

Tomato Trellis 

m , ,, , 297-298 

Iwin Nozzle, The, (2 Cuts) g^^ 



I i 



Absorption of Moisture by 

Leaves, 61, 376 
Abutilon Boule de Neige, 220 
Academy of Natural Sciences 
of Phila., 128, 320 
Acclimation Society, An, lOT 
Achyranthus Casei, 29 
Acknowledgments, ii'ersonaliSS 
Adams, Dudley W., as a candi- 
date for Gov. of Iowa,299 
Address by President Hoopes, 
'1 he Annual, 63 
•* of Marshall P. Wilder, 
202, 325 
Adlantum Farl^yense and Be- 
gonia 8anguinea,360 
" Formosa, 376 

Adiantums, 296, 338 
Advantages of Hot Water over 

Steam, 3o4 
Advertisers, Addresses of, 309 
African Lily, Blue, Treatment 

of the, 331 
Age of Trees, Relative, 359 
Agricultural Fairs, 311 

" Papers, New, 92 

'• Society, Worces- 

ter, Muss., 378 
Alcohol a remedy for i he Mealy 

Bugs, 2<:0 
Alexander Peach, 29 
Allen, C. L., The Flower Farm 

of, 69 
Altemanthira Amabilis, 5fi 
Altheas, Raising, 91 
Amaranthus Salicifolius, 30 
Amaryllis, Treatment of the,300 
Amorican Ferns, 312 

" Horticulture, 68, 107 

" Pomological Society, 
31, 85, 192, 221, 318 
America, The Problem of, 107 
Ampelopsis Dissecta, 65 
Andromeda, Origin of the Bo- 
tanical Name, 249 
Anemone Japonica, 220 

Alba, 142 

Angular divergence in the 

branches of Plant8,189 

Antharium Scberzerianum,233, 

306, 349 
Apple, Crittenden, 153 
** Jonathan, South, 125 
•* Old, 67 
•• Orange, 343 
" Pen, 21, 93, 162 
*• Pike's Fall, 64 

Red Hawthornden, 64 
Seedless, 53 
Seed, Old, 148 
Smith's Cider, Origin 

of, 281 
Stark, 379 
Trees, Destruction of, 

916 
Volney, 163 
Wagener, in Michigan, 

68. 103 
West Brook or Speckled 
93, 163 
Apples and Pear.s, Improved, 63 
£leven Summer,at Lan- 
sing, Mich., recom- 
mended, 346 



It 



<« 






(t 



(• 



INDEX— VOLUME XV. 



Apples for Central Illinois, 188 
'^ How to keep, 347 
" Illinois Pippin, 93 
<* Sweet and Sour, 123 
Apricot, Moor Park, The, 378 
April Number, Notes on the,170 
Aquilegla Leptocera Aurea.278, 

279,344 
" " Lutea 2i0 

" The Yellow, 314 
Aralia Spinosa, 51 
Arboretum, Mr. Cope's, 6) 
Arborvitse and Garden Edg- 
ings, 214 
" New Golden, 187 

Architecture, Landscape, 217 
Ariculas, 307 

Article about the Lilies, Ad, 7 
Articles on hand, 182 
Asbestos Roofing, 120 
Ashes and Lime for Pears, 23 
Asparagus, Green, 1 82 
Atmospheric influence upon 

Vegetation, 336 
Australia, Recollections of, 223 
Azalea, Best White, 62 
Indica Alba, 147 
" Gloxinias, etc.. Propa- 
gating, 90 



Baltimore, A Horticultural So- 
ciety wanted in, 378 
Bankrupt Nurserymen 308 
Bartram, Dr. Darlington's Life 

of, 68 
Beatrice Peach, 218 
Beautiful Letter, A, 338 
Beautifying of Grounds, The, 64 
Bedding Plant^ Pelargonium 
Mane Lemo ne, 377 
Bedding Plants, 24 
Beech, Knowfleld, The, 30 
Bee-keeper's Society, The North 

American, 94 
Bee Plant, Polanlsia Purpurea, 

311 
Bees and Honey in France, 284 
Beet, New forms of Ornament- 
al, 166 
Begonia Cocclnea, 308 
" Intermedia, 167 
•' Sanguinea, 360 
Belle Magniflque, Cherry, 276 
Berberis Darwinii, 167 
Best time to cut Grafts, The, 119 
Beurre Dubnisson Pear, 244 
Bigelow, Dr., 311 
^ilberglas. Propagating, 20 
Birch, Cut-leaved Weeping,219 

" Purple-leaved, A, 67 
Black's Early Peach, The, 28 
Bland's Hardy Hybrid Fuch- 
sias, 30 
Blackberries In California, 373 
Blood- Leaved Peach, History 
• of the, 142 

" " The, 183 

Blue African Lily, The, 377 
Blunder, A Printer's, 149 
Boiler for a Propagating House, 

215 
Boilers, Hot water, 6, 233 

•' Leaky. 249 
Bonne Sllene Rose, 120 



Book on Flower Cultivation, 123 
Borer.s, Fruit tree. Tarred paper 

against, 306 
Boston Florists, Excursion of, 
283 
'« Rhododendron Show,223 
Botanist, An undevout, 109 
Botany, 6^ 
'* and Gardening, The 
Literature of, 109 
Bouquets, Ornamental leaves 

for, 38 
Bouvardias, New, 188 
Bouvardia Vreelandii. 220 
Branching of some Coniferse, 
Numerical order in 
the, 333 



Cabbage early, Experiments 

with, 282 
Calceolaria, Seedling, 216 
Calceolarias, Improved, 306 
California, Blackberries in, 373 
•' Horticulturist,The, 92 
•' Medical Botany of,188 
Californian Thistle, The, 250 
Calla Ethiopica, Double, 338 
• ♦' Flowering of,89 

Lily, 89 
Calycanthus, White, 57 
Camellia, Carter's Cobalt Blue, 
166 
" Princess Alexandre, 
155 
Campanula Medium Calycan- 
thema, 279 
" Turbinata. 94 

Canada, Hale's Early Peach In, 

373 
Canada Victor Tomato, 62 
Canning, Pears for, 63 
Capital riddance. A, 276 
Carnation, Perpetual-fl»wered, 

La Belle, 219 
Carnations, New Perpetual 

flowering, 280 
Caroon Cherry, The, 218, 313 
Carter's Champion Scarlet Run- 
ner, 241,306 
" Cobalt Blue Camellia, 
155 
Cassia Corymbosa, 169 
Catalpa, The, 25 
Catching the Codling Moth, 189 
Cedar, Deodar, Disease in, 183 
Celosia Japonica, Note on, 136 
Centennial Committee on Hor- 
ticulture, 88 
" Exhibition, The, 62 

" Horticultural Ex- 

position, 285 
'• World's Fair, The, 

12 
Chamber's Pear, 314 
Chameleon Coleus, 120 
Chemical Powers of the Sun- 
light, 61 
Cherries and other Frults.names 
of. Touching, 340 
•' Names of, 215 
Stock for, 104 
Cherry, Belle magniflque, 276 
Carooo, The, 218, 313 
History of the, 273 



(• 



Cherry, Wild Black, Grafting 

the, 21 
Chestertown, Md., Climate of, 

341 
Chilopsls Linearis, 339 
Choisia Ternata, 376 
Chromo, Oar, 36) 
Cinerarias, Double, 371 
Circulation of Hot water. As- 
cending, vs.. the 
Descending Prin- 
ciple, 77 
Clematises, New, 244 
Climate of Chestertown,Md ,341 
Climber, A Mexican, .S31 
Clover In Orchards, 312 
Cockscomb, New Japan, 124 

'• Tricolor, New, 164 

Codling Moth, Catching the, 189 

" " The, 63 
Cold, Extreme, Influence of, oa 
the Curcullo, 13 
'• Weather, The, 89 
Coleus, Chameleon, 125 
ColUnsia corymbosa, 6 ) 
Colorado and Kansas, Capabili- 
ties of, 85 
♦• The Flora of, 128 
Compost for Grapery Borders, 

Suitable, 41 
Concord Grape going back- 
wards, 368 
Coniferse, On numerical order 
in the branching of 
some, 333 
Connecticut State Board Ag., 
6th Annual Report 
of, 342 
Conservatory, Grt enhouse and, 

24 
Cope, Alfred, 69 
Cope's, Mr., Arboretum, 69 
Correspondents, To, 21 
Cotton, Singular variety of, 69 
Covering, Grape, 6 
Crab Apple, The Soulard, 218 
Crawf rd and Sterling Straw- 
berries, The, 218 
Crittenden Apple, The, 153 
Ciocns Scharajanl, 65 
Cross Fertilization, 173 216 
«» .» Hybrid I z a- 

tionand,S02 
" •« on Seed, Im- 

mediate Ef- 
fects of, 104 
Cryptogamic Plants in the Re- 
gion of the Yel- 
lowstone, 149 
Cucumber, Improved 144 
Cultivating Double- English 
Primroses, 275 
" Fruit Trees, 311 

•* Orchards, 91 

Cultivation of the Fuchsia, 204 
'* Latura Arbore*, 

358 
Culture, Fruit, 166 

" of Ferns, The, 2i6 
of Fruit Trees, 34(^ 
Orchard, 140 
•• Soil, 30i 
•* Tree. 38 
Cnrcullo and the Pea Beetl*, 
The, 111 
Influence of extren 
cold on the, 13» 






TffU QABDEJVER'S MOJ^'-THLY. 



Curcullo, The, 52, 280 
Currants, 287 

Cut Flowers, Prices of, 308 
Cat-Leaved Weeping Birch, 219 



Dahlia, Emperor Franz Joseph, 
» » 125 

Dahlias, New, 30 
Darlington's, Dr.. Life of Bar- 
tram, 68 
Batura Arborea Cultivation of 

3^3 
Death of Dr. John Torrey, 114 
" Elias Dur.ind, 311 
" Hon. Simon Brown. 
C 115 

" John L. Russell, 213 
" Joseph Breck, 241 
" J. S. Downer 83 • 
" Lawrence Touiig, 49 
" Luther Tucker, 83 
" Samuel Feast, 82 
Deceased members, Amer. Po- 

mol Society, 328 
Degenf ration of Pansies, 242 
Delachampsia Koezeliana, 23 
Delicious Pear, 29 
Delphinium Belladonna, 156 

•' Nndicaule, 94 

Dendrobiam Macrophyllum Gl- 
ganteum, 2«)1 
^lerardil, 201 
Pulchellum Purpu- 
reum, 88 
Deodar Cedar, Di.sease in, 183 
Destruction of Apple trees, 215 
" the Mealy Bug, 

Dicentranthera Macrophylla,55 
DiefTenbachia Nobilis, 245 
Dinner Table Decoration, Pub- 
lic, 374 
Disease in Root Grafts, 143 
" the Deodar Cedar, 

] go 

Distinguished Citizens, 70 
Double Lwarf Pelargoniums, 

Mr. Laxton's, 160 
Flowered Peaches, 243 
Cinerarias, 371 
Downing, 109 
Downing's Fruits, Appendix to, 

28 
Dracocephalum,37 
Duke of Buccleugh Grape. 

The, 28 
Dutch Bulbs, Short Purses and, 

39 



1* 



i< 



ii 



Early Ascot Peach, 151 
" Barnard Peach, 54 
" Beatrice Peach, 315, 339 
" Out-door Flowers, 233 
•' Pea, An, 281 
Echasserie P< ar, 'I he, 153. 
Echovcria Rosea, 278. 
Editorial Notes, Domestic, 17 
47, 83. ll.>, 
146, 179,105. 
239 
'• " Foreign, 14 44, 

80, L'lO, 236, 

Education Age. The, 108 

ii-flects of Climate on the Har- 
dine<<8 of trees, 363 

•ilaagnuB Parvifollu-— Silver 
Thorn— Frontis- 

-p„ . piece, 370 

Jsllwanger k Barry, Catalogues 

» , of. 312 

England, Horticultural Obser- 
vations in, 127, 159. 

r, 271 ' 

English Grapes. 34S 

^'Pyphyllums, 377 
Errata, 86 
Errors excepted, 12 
MpwtoGnws.The, 548 • 



Eucharis Amazonica, Growing 
and flowering, 284 
Eucoide Bartonoides, 169 
Euphorbia Variegata, 169 
Evergreen H.-rbaceous Plants, 

50 
Evergreens, Death of, 288 

•* How to grow, from 

seed, 201, 268 
•• Japan, 21 

•' Winter killing of, 

263 
Exhibition Roses, 349 
Exotic Grapes, 171 
Experiments with Peas, 357 
Express Charges, 23 
Expressive Names, 281 






L. Allen, 

Pleasure 
1, 33 65, 
161, 19J, 



Fairs, Agricultural, 311 
Farm Laborer in Prussia, The,62 
'• School, The Centre Co., 
64 
Favored Guests, The, 126 
February Number, Our, 88 
Fence.si, A few remarks on, 63 
Fence Posts, Live, £69 
Ferns, 369 

American, 812 
Culture of. The, 266 
Hardy, 157 
Fertilization, Cross, 173 
Field Associations, 108 
Figs, 70, 190 
Filberts, 189 
Flattened Shoots, 14S 
Flora of Colorado, The, 126 

" the Prairie, The, 126 
Floriculture, 58 

" in Phllada., 100 

Florist and Pomologist, The,186 
Florists, Boston, Excursion of. 

283 
Flower Cultivation, Book on. 
123 
'* Farm of C. 
The, 59 
'* Garden and 
Ground, 
97, 129, 
22;3, (^21, 353 
" Shrubs in, 24 
Flowered Zonale Geraniums, 

Double, 124 
Flowering of Calla Ethiopica,89 
" Treating Hyacinths 
after, 89 
Flowers at the New York Stock 
Exchange, 372 
'• Early Out-door, 235 
** Hardy Herbaceous, for 
June, 214 
Improveirent of, 112 
Insect agency in, 265 
in Winter, 46 
Native, 2?8 
0.1oi>< of, 241 
. by natural heat, 78 
Foresi.s ard Forest Culture of 
8w«if«jn, Report of 
Dopar t m e n t of 
Statu un, 1S5 
Foreign trees to be preferred, 

70 
Foster, P. H., 88 
France, Boes and Honey in, 2S4 
Franciscea MAgniflca, 2S0 

•' Violacea Qrandi- 

flora, 280 
Praxlnus Ornus, 216 
Freezing of Sap in Plants, 113 
Winter, 242 
Fries, Pref., A Mycologist. How 

he became, 375 
Prittlllaria Tuliplfoiia, 279 
Frvst, Smoke aud 37.t 
Fruit and Berry Baskets, Paper, 
85 
Committee, Annual Re- 
port of the, 63 
Culturo, 166 
Drying, 17 
Finest in the world, 285 



<i 
« 



Forcin; 



ti 
it 

it 



(t 
ti 
it 



f i 



«i 



*• Growing, Kemarkablo 
exi<erience in, 47 



it 



Loude< 218 

•• M-leb, The, 343 
" Now Native 343 
Grapery Borders, Suitable com- 
post for, 41 



Fruit Garden, 2, 34, 66, 98, 130, 
162, 195, 227, ^259, 
291 322 
•' Grower's Societ yof Pa., 

31, 62, 91, b78 
" Instructor, Purdy's, 92 
" North Carolina, 253 
" Northwestern Penna., 339 
" Notices, 330 

Peculiarities of, 6 
Prospects at South Pass, 
Ills., 120 
" Recorder, The, 27 
" Trees, Cultivating, 311 
" Culture of, 340 
Fruits, 32 

" Best soil for, 199 
" Large and small, 109 
" most in favor witfi Penn- 
sylvania, The, 64 
'• Stocks tor working, 335 
Fuchsia, Cultivation of the, 204 
Fuchsias, 149 

New Hardy Hybrid,30 



Garden Edgings, Arborvitce and ' 
214 
The London, 92 
Gardens of Mrs. Packer, Wash- 
ington Heights, N.Y., 
o62 
Gardener's Mats, 281 

Monthly, Stoppage 
of the, 26 
" Subscrib- 
ing to the, 
50 
" " Value of 

the, 23 
'■ Wages, 200 

Gardening for Women, 282 
" in the United States. 

309 

VegeUble, 261 
Gas Tar, 3S 

*• in Greenhouses, 264 
" on Greenhouse bench- 
es, 'JOS 
Geranium, Pride of Mt. Hope, 

New Bicolor, 29 
Geraniums, Double Flowered 

Zonale, 124 
Germautown, 69 

Daily Chronicle, 
The, 110 
" Horticultural So- 

ciety, 84, 160', 
263, 351 
" is waking up, 110 

The Ne i g h b r- 
hood of, 108 
Qladoli, Soucbet's New, 154 
Qladioluvi Bulblets, 120 

*• New varieties cf.The 
43 
Glazing Greenhouses, .310 
Gleicbeuia Kupestris, 376 
Gloxinias, Propagation of, 25 
Qodctia Dunuettl, 315 
Good Breeding:, Rules for, 21 
Goo.^eberries, 287 
Grafting Mice-Girdled trees,183 
" Natural. 2^:4 
•* The Wild Black Cher- 
ry, 21 
Grafts, Best time to cut, 1!9 
•' Root, Disea8e in, 148 
Grape Beny M . th. The, 121 
*' Champion, Th-», 343 
" Concord going back- 
ward s, C68 
•' Covering, 6 
*• Cultur*', 64 
•' Duke of Buccleugh, The. 

23 
*' Gros C<-lman, 152 



ft 



ti 

it 



Grapes, 287 

English, 348 
" Exotic, 171. 
" Foreign, 363 
" Native, 363 
" Rare, Foreign, 122 
Grass, Esparto. The, 348 

'• Lawn, 183 
Green Asparagus, 182 
Greenhouse, 290 

'* and Conservatory. 

24, 61 
'* Benches, Gas Tar 

on, 203 
Pitch of, 25, 310 
Plants, 134 
Small, 79 
Greenhouses, Gas tar in, 264 
Glazing, 31 ' 
Heating, 178 
Wood Lice in, IJO 
Gro9 Colman Grape, 152 
Growing and Flowering Eu- 
charis Amazonica, 284 

H 

Hardy Ferns, 157 
" Herbaceous Flowers for 
June, 214 

" " Plant8,24 60 

Hawthorn, 216 
Heating a Plant Case, 128 
" by Hot Water, 216 
" by Steam, 303 
" Greenhouses. 178 

Hot Water, 14 
" ** Small pipes 

in, 140 
" Natural, Forcing by,78 
" Specific, in Plants, 5 
Hedge Plant for the shade, 122 
'• " Pyrus Japonica 
as a, 122 
" The Tupelo as a. 
142 
Hedges, Address on, 120 
" Ornamental, 373 
Herbaceous Vegetablesxhanges 
in the pr. ximate 
principles of, 348 
Herstine and Saunders Rasp 

berries. The, 53 
Highly Ornamental Exotic 

Shrubbery, 169 
Historical Sketch, 293 
History of the Blood-Leaved 
Peach, 142 
•' " Cherry. 273 

" Strawberry. 307 
Holly, The Engli.sh, 248 
Horticultural Directory wanted 
215 
•• Exposition, Cen- 

tennial, 286 
•• Library, A,107,369 

Observations in 
England, 127,159, 
251 

•• Paper, A monthly 

23 

•• Society, German- 

town, Phila , 84 
160, 253, 361 
Society, Illinois, 
Tran.saction8 *»f 
the, 27 

•• Society, III., Slaje 

37S 
•* Society, Ma.s8a- 

chusetts, 15 1,287, 
352 

** Society. Missouri 

State, 31, 96 
•* Society. Mtmtir'y 

Co., Pa., 2.4 
Society, Penna., 
190 252,286,320. 
360 
*' Society wanted in 

Baltimore, 373 
•• Phllada., 109 

" Western N. Y , 32 

HorticQllare, Advance In, 108 
. '* American, 68, 107 



TEE GARDE J^EB' IS MOJVTMLY. 



«( 



(t 



Horticulture ftt Salt Lake^ 342 
«« Centennial Com- 

mittee on, The, 
88 
»• in the country ,276 

HothouBe and Greenhouse Stag- 
ing, Tar on, 134 
Hot Water, Advantages of, over 
Steam, 364 
Boiler Flues, 143 
Boilers, 6, 233 
Circulation of. As- 
cending vs., the 
Descending prin- 
ciple, 77 
Experience, 76 
Heating, 14, 216 
" small pipes 
in, 140 
House Culture of Roses, 149 
Houses of S. B. Parsons & Co., 

105 
How to grow Evergreens from 
Seed, 201, 268 
♦' keep Apples, 347 
Hoy a Bella, 250 
Humboldt College, Address de- 
livered at open- 
ing of, 27 
Hyacinths in Water, 249 

" after flowering, treat- 
ing. 89 
Hybridization and Cross Ter- 

tilizatlon, 302 
Hybrid Raspberries, 314 

" What is a, 216 , 

Hvdranffea Paniculata Grandi- | 

^ flora, 219 

Hydrophobic Insects, 375 



I 



Illinois, Central, Apples for,188 
't Horticultural Society, 
Transactions of, 27 
«• Industrial University, 
Experiments with, 
Early Cabbage, 282 
«« Pippin Apple, 93 
" State Horticultural So- j 
ciety, 378 
Improved Cucumber, 144 
Improvement of Flowers, 112 
Index, Our, 365 
Inflaence of extreme cold on 

the Curculio, 137 
Insect Agency in Flowers, 265 

»» on the Linden Trees, 307 
Infects, Hydrophobic, 375 
Interpretations of the Postal 

Laws, 22 
Inauirert and Correspondents, 
^ To, 307 

M Our, 52 
»« T 0, 216 
Iowa, Tree Planting in, 89 
Iris Itherica, 125 
Items of Late Experience, 169 
It Is not good for man to live 

alone, 208 
It/, The, 150 



JapanEvergreets, 21 
Jonathan Apple South, Th«,126 
Journal of Agriculture, The,160 
June, Pruning in, 136 
Junlperis Chinensu Aurea, 56 



E&nsM and Colorado, Capabili- 
ties of, 86 
" Timber Trees for, 341 
Knowfield Beech, The, 30 



Landscape Architecture, 217 

'♦ Gardener, The, 107 

Lansing, Mich., Eleven Sum- 
mer Apples recom- 
mended at, 346 
Lapageria Rosea, 306 
Large Hickory Nut, 53 
Late Peaches, 340 
Lawn Grass, 183 , . ^ , 
Lawns, Touching their Grades 

and Grasses, 361 
Lawrence Pear, Trouble with 

the, 287 
Leaky Boilers, 249 ^ ,, . ^ 
Leaves. Absorption of Moisture 

by, 61, :^76 
Letter, A Beautiful, 338 
«« A mysterious, 88 
Lexington, Ky., Magnolias at, 

283 
Library, A Horticultural, 107, 

369 
Lilies, An Article about the, 7 
" On, 164 

" Successive increase ol the 
Genus from Linne 
to our time, 10 
Ulj, Blue A/P-.3J-;?""' 
«• Blue African, The, 377 
" Calla, 89 

" from Tyro, Mis;*, 216 
Lilium Auratum, A good, 38 

" Washingtonianum, 187 
Lime and Ashes for Pears, 23 
Linden Trees, Insect in the, ^v 
Linne, from, to our time, Suc- 
cessive increase of 
the Genus Lilies.lO 
Lislanthus Princeps, 156 
Live Fence Posts, 369 
Lobelia, Carter's Cobalt Blue,155 

" New Variegated, 187 
Locust Seed, Boiling, 50 
London Garden. The, 92 
Longest Lived, The, 110 
Longiflora, Fuchsia, 30 
Lonicera Tartarica, 276 
London, 109 

Lord Palmerston Peach, <J7U 
Louse, Grape, 248 
Luther Tucker, Death of, 8d 



Missouri (C. V. Riley) State En- 
tomologist, Fifth 
Annual Report of, 
166 
«« State Horticult u r a 1 
Society, 31, 96 
Monarch of the Park, The, 60 
Montgomery Co., Pa, Horticul- 
tural Society, 154 
Moor Park Apricot, 378 
Mountain White Pine, Pinus 

Flexilis, 341 
Moth Codling, Catching the, 189 
•« •' The, 63 
'• Grape Berry, The, 121 
Muhlenbeckia Complexa, 122 
Museum, Sir W. Hooker's, 108 
Mushrooms, 70 374 

" at Washington, 221 

Myostis Alpicola, 279 
Mytteries of the Postal Laws, 

' The, 242 

Mystery of Metropoli6ville,The, 
' 187 



North American Bee Keeper's 
Society, The, 94 
•« Carolina Fruit, 253 
Norway Maple.Managing young 

182 
Note on Adiantum Farleyenso 
and Begonia San- 
guinea, 360 
Notes at the Rosedale Nursery, 
Philada., 358 
*' Domestic, 17, 47, 83, 115, 

146,179,205.239 
" Foreign, 14, 44, 80, 210, 

236, 270 
♦• from Western Penna., 5 
«' on April number, the,170 
" on Celosia Japonica, 135 
" on some Hardy Herba- 
ceous Plants, 36 
" on the Season in Western 
Pennsylvania, 363 
Notices, Fruit, 330 
Noticing Advertisements, 50 
Nurserymen, Bankrupt, 303 
Nympheea Odorata, 168 



THE GARDE JEER'S MOJVTHLY. 



Ladles, The, 110 
Laelia Anceps, 135 



Magnolias at Lexington, Ky.,283 
Malva Tree, The, '.^78 
Manual of Weeds, or the Weed 
Exterminator, 150 
Manures, Root attraction to, 5 
Maples, Norway, Managing 

young, 182 
Marblehead Squash, The. 23, 34 

53 
Maryland Vineyard, A, 245 
Mass. Horticultural Society ,150, 

287, 352 
Mats, Gardeners'. 281 
Maturity of Peaches, 57 
Maxwell, T. C. & Brc, Cata- 
logue of, 313 
McArthur, Son & Co., 51 
Mealy Bugs, Alcohol a remedy 
for the, 260 
«• Destruction of the, 

358 
Medical Botany of California, 

The, 188 
Medinella Magniflca, 347 
Melia Azaderack, A choice 
tropical plant, The,143 
Mercury in the Allegheny 
Mountains, The, 52 
Mexican Climber, A, 331 
Michigan State Pomological So- 
ciety, Transactions 
of the, 27 
« Wagoner Apple in, 
68, 103 
MilesGrape, The. 343 
Milton's MansflelJ, Essay on 

Adiantums, 338 
Mimulus Cuprous, Variety bril- 
liant, 277 



li 
«< 
(i 
(t 

(i 

« 

(( 

(• 

II 
(i 

t( 
(• 

i( 
(( 

CI 

(i 
l( 
II 
II 



li 
t( 
•( 
t( 

II 



New 



NaUing Vines to Stakes, 91 
Name of Mammoth Tree, Cor- 
rect, 338 
Plant, 148,184, 216,243 
Names, Expressive, 281 
" of Cherries, 215 
u « and other 

fruits,touch- 
ing, 340 
National Park, 108 
Native Grapes, 363 
Natural Grafting, 234 

" History of Grape Bi rry 
Moth, 121 
Nature and Origin of Soils, 261 

" Variations in, 39 
Nebraska, Prize Essay on Fruit 
tree growing in,l 87 

Nectarine, The, 248 
Neglected American Trees and 
Shrubs, 81 
« Plants, 137 
Nertera Depressa, 37 
New Agricultural Papers, 92 
" Bicolor Geranium, Pride 
ofMt. Hope, 29 
Bouvardias, 188 
Clematises, 244 
Coxcomb, Tricolor, 154 
Dahlias, 30 
forms of Ornamental Beet, 

166 
Fruits, 325 „ ^ ,^ 

Fuchsias, Hardy Hybrid, 

30 
Gladioli, Souchet's, 154 
Golden Arborvitce, 187 
Holland,Ob8ervation8 and 
Recollections of,173,197 
Holland, Peregrinations 

in, 71 
Japan Coxcomb, 124 
Magenta Primrose, Lady 
Madeline Taylour, 30 
Ornamental Trees, 165 
Peach, Late, 244 
Pears, 343 

Perpetual Flowering Car- 
nations, 280 
Poinsettia, 157 
Roses, 371 

Roses, Speculating in, I08 
Seedling Strawberry, 29 
South Wa!es,Recollection8 
ofParammatta.Sydney 
and Botany Bay, 324 
Species of Rose, A, 316 
Style of Pansy, A, 219 
Variegated Lobelia, 187 
Varieties of Oladiolus.The 

43 
Vegetable, A, 260 
White Rose, Madelaine 
Lacharme.Observations 

on, 277 
York Stock Exchange, 
Flowers at, 372 



It 



Oakwood Horticultural Society, 

239 
Obituary, 49, 82, 114, 213, 241 
Observations and Recollections 
of NewHolland,17,3,197 
Odors of Flowers, 241 
Ohio State Horticultural Society 
Sixth Annual Report 
of, C43 
" Strawberry culture in.lSl 
Orange Apple, The, 343 
Orchard Culture, 140 

" Pear, A handsome, 311 
Orchards, Clover in, 312 
'• Cultivating, 91 

" Preparat'n of ground 

for, 63 
Orcharding, Profitable, 64 
OrchidetB. U, 172, 201, 360 
Orchids, 346 

«< another word about,203 
Origin of the Botanical name of 

Andromeda, 249 
Ornamental Hedges, 373 

" Leaves for Bouquets, 

Trees and Plants, 32 
" New, 166 
Osage Orange, 372 
Osmanthus Ilicifoli»«, 125 
Our Chromo, 366 
'« Index, 366 



Packing trees for 8hipment,148 
Pansies, Degeneration of, 242 
Pansy, A new style of, 219 

White, 275 
Park Cities, 68 
Parks, Public, 16 
Parry's, W., small fruits at, 345 
Parterre, The, 40 
Parsons, S. B. &Co., Houses of, 

105 
Patrons of Husbandry, 341 
Paullinia Thalictrifolla, 188 
Pea, An Early. 281 
•• Beetle, The Curculio sad 
the, 111 
Peaoh, Alexander, 29, 315 
•' Beatrice, 218 
•« Black's Early, 28 

Blood-leaved, The, 183 
•• History of 

the, 142 
Early Ascot, 161 
** Barnard, 54 
« Beatrice, 316,339 
a ,•« Hale's Early, la Canada 
373 ' 
" Lerd Palmerston, 370 
•« New Late, 244 
•» Piquet, Late, 162 
Salway, 220 



li 
ii 

II 
II 

II 



Peach, Tellows in the South,69 
Peaches, Culture of, The, 63 
Double Flowered, 243 
Early Beatrice and Lord 

Palmer.ston, 315 
Late, 340 



li 



II 

li 



Maturity of, 57 



i« 
11 
li 

IC 



II 
ii 



<i 



i( 



Peake's Fall Apple, 54 
Pear, Beurre Dubulsson, 244 
Brockworth Park, 29 
Chamber's, .314 
Delicious, 29 
Echasserie, 153 
Lawrence, Trouble with 

the, 287 
Orchard, A handsome, 311 
Pond, 54 
Pears, Lime and Ashes for, 23 

" New, 343 
Peas, Experiments with, 357 
Peculiarities of Fruit, 6 
Pelargoniums, Double dwarf, 
Mr. Laxton's, 156 
'* Marie Lemoine as 

a Beddirg Plant, 377 
Pen Apple, The, 21, 9.3, 152 
Penna. Fruit Grower's Society, 
31, 62, 91, 378 
'• Horticultural Society, 
192, 252, 286, 320, 350 
" North-western Fruit in, 

339 
<* Women's Med. College 
24th Annual Re- 
port of, 185 
Pentstemon heterophyllum,279 
People, The best, «9 
Peregrinations in New Holland 

71 
Persimmons, 283, 340 
Personal Acknowledgment.s, 88 
Peter's, Randolph, Wilmington, 
Del., Catalogue of, 342 
Philada., Academy of Natural 
Sciences, 128 
Floriculture in, 100 
Horticultural Society 
. 109 

Phylloxera, Correction, •?42 
Picquet Peach, Late, 152 
Pinus Flexili8,Mountain White 
Pine, 319 
'• Parvi flora, 56 
Pitch of Greenhouses, .310 
Plant Case, Heating a, 123 
'* Cases, Portable propagat- 
ing, 90 
'* Choice Tropical, Melia 
Azaderick, 143 
Name of, 148, 184,216,243 
Not too old to, 107 
What shall we, 70 
Plants, American, 108 
" Angular divergence in 
the branches of, 189 
Bedding, 24 
Evergreen Herbaceous, 

50 
Freezing of the sap in, 

113 
Hardy herbaceous,24,50 
** '* Notes on 

some, 36 
in bloom at Rhosyn- 
myndd, 24, 50 86 
In Islands of the Dela- 
ware rlver,Growth 
of, 148 
In Sleeping Rooms, 178 
Neglected, 137 
Speciflc heat in, 5, 141 
Specific Heat of, 359 
Rare, 91 

Stove and Greenhouse, 
61 

" Sub-troplcal, 107 
Pleroma Elegans, 306 
Poinsettia, A new, 157 

" What 1 know of, 336 

Polanasla Purpurea, Bee Plant, 

311 
Pomegranate, The, 348 
Pomological and Horticultural 
Society, Southern, 
215 



11 
ii 
II 



li 



II 



II 



II 
II 
II 
li 
il 
ii 



Pomological Society, American 

31, 85, 192, 318 
Pomology, 25 
Pond Pear, The, 54 
Portable Propagating Plant 

Cases, 90 
Postage on Seed Packages, 182 
" Seeds, etc., when the 
law goes in eflect,52 
Postal Laws, 88 

" Interpretations of 

the, 22 
'• Mysteries of the, 

242 
Postal Seed Business, The Fath- 
er of the, 122 
Post Office Rulings, 86 
Potting, Rapid, 204, 260, 300, 

330, 3ii2, 368 
Precocious, Bearing of Vines, 6 
President Wilder Strawberry 

ia the South, 152 
Prices of Cut Flowers, 308 
Primrose, New Magenta, Lady 
Madeline Taylor, 30 
Primroses, Double Engli8h,Cul- 

tivatinf?, 275 
Primula Japonica, 55, 219 
". Sinensis, 6 
'♦ '' Seeds of, 184 

Princess Alexandria Camellia, 

155 
Prizes, Something like, 96 
Problem of America, The, 107 
Productions, Wonderful, 234 
Profitable Orcharding, 64 
Progress, 68, 294 
Propagating Azaleas, Gloxinias, 
etc., 90 
'' Billjergias, 20 

" Curly wooded forms 

of trees, 120 
" House, Boiler for a, 

216 
" Shrubs, 147 

Propagation of Gloxinias, 25 
Pruning in June, V.Q 

'* Street Trees, 274 
Prussia, The Farm Laborer in, 

62 
Public Dinner Table Decora- 
tion, 374 
Public Parks, 16 
Pulverizing the Soil, 145 
Purdy's Fruit Instructor, 20 
Purple-Leaved Birch, A, 57 
Pyrus Japonica as a Hedge 
plant, 122 



Q 



Quince, The, 285 



Railroad, Sending Seeds and 

Trees by, 26 
Raising Altheas, 91 
" Seedlings of trees, fruits, I 
etc., 182, 270, 304 
Rapid Potting, 204, 260, 300, 

330, 332, 368 
Rare Foreign Grapes, 122 

" Plants, 91 
Raspberries, 287 

" Heretine and Saun- 

der's, 53 
" Hybrid, 314 

Raspberry, Seedling, from Mr. 

Price, 276 
Red Hawthornden Apple, 54 
Ronnie's Illustrated Catalogue, 

27 

Recollections of Australia, 228 

' ' Parr a m a 1 1 a, 

Sydney and 

Botany Bay, 

New South 

Wales, 324,.3.55 

•' Traveling,336 365 

Report of Prof. C.V. Riley, State 

Entomologist of 

Mo.,5th annual, 186 



Rhododendron in the West, 171 
Show, The Boston 
223 
Rhododendrons, 216 
Rhus Osbeckii, 315 
Rochester Seed Firm, 123 
Roofing, Asbestos, 120 
Root attraction to manures, 5 
Rose, A new species of, 316 
" Bonne Silene, 120 
" New White, Madame La- 
charme. Observations 
on, 277 
" Slug, Remedy for the, 215 
" The, 110 
Rosedale Nursery, Philada., 

Notes at the, 35 8 
Roses, Exhibition, 341 
" Hou.se Culture of, 149 
" Hybrid Perpetual, 871 
•' New 371 

" New, Speculating in, 158 
" Tea, Perle de Lyon, 278 
•' Tree^ Stock for, 310 
Rules for Good Breeding, 21 
Runner, The Scarlet, 176 
Rural Improvements, 135 
Rustic Work, Rough Cork for, 60 



s 



Sage, White Scarlet, 26 
Salt Lake, Horticulture at, 342 
Salway Peach, The, 220 
Sap, Freezing of, in winter, 242 
Sawdust, Utilization of, 57 
Saxifraga Pel lata, 278, 279 
Saxifrages, The Large-leaved,36 
Scarlet Runner, 170 

" " Carter's Cham- 

pion, 241, 306 
" Sage, White, 26 
Seed, Apple, Old, 148 
" Cross Fertilization, Im- 
mediate efl'ects of, 
104 
" How to grow Evergreens 

from. 201, 268 
** Locast, boiling, 50 
" Package, Postage on, 182 
Seedless Apple, 53 
Seedling Calceolaria, 215 
" Pears, 2*^7 
'• Raspberry from Mr. 

Price, 276 
" Strawberry, New, 29 
♦' Via, 29 
Seedlings of Trees, Fruits, etc., 
Raising, 182,270,304 
Seeds and Trees by Railroad, 
Sending, 26 
*' of Primula Sinensis, 184 
Sequoia and its History, 28 
Shepherdia Argentea, 23 
Short Purses and Dutch Bulbs, 

39, 86 
Shrubbery, Exotic, Highly Or- 
namental, 169 
Shrubs in Flower, 24 

'* Propagating, 147 
Silene Alpe^^trLs, 37 

•* Vlrginica, 124 
Situations, 21 

Silver Thorn— Elaeagnus Parvl- 
folius — Frontis- 
piece, 370 
Sleeping Rooms, Plants In, 178 
Small Fruits at W. Parry's, 345 

*' Greenhouse, 79 
Smilax Hlsplda, 342 
Smith's Cider Apple, Origin of, 

281 
Smoke and Frost, 373 
Sell Culture, 305 
" for Fruits, The best, 199 
" Pulverizing the, 145 
Soils, Nature and Origin of, 261 
Soulard Crab Apple, 218 
Southern Planter and Farmer, 
Richmond, Va.,187 
" Pomological and Hor- 
ticultural Society, 
215 



South Pass, 111., Fruit Prospects 
at, 120 
'< Spring In the, 149 
Specific Heat in Plants, 5, 141 

•• of Plants, 359 

Spring In the South, The, 149 

" Late, 148 
Sprouts, The Tanyah, 43 
Spruce, White, 309 
Squash, Marblehead, 23, 24, 53 
Standards, 110 
Stark Apple, 370 
Steam, Heating by, 303 
Stock for Cherries, 104 
Stocks for Working Fruits, 335 
Stove and Greenhouse Plant8,61 

" Plants, 134 
Strawberries, 287 

*♦ Crawford and 

Sterling, The,218- 
" Varieties of, ,0n, 

132 
" Culture In Ohio, 

131 
«* History, 307 

" New Seedling, 29- 

" President Wilder 

in the South, 152 
Strelitzea regina, 89 
Sirophanthus Hispidus, A new 

poison, 282 
Sualig&t, Chemical powers of 

the, 61 
Sweet and Sour Apples, 123 
Swindlers, 122 



Tanyah, The, Sprouts, 43 
Tar on Hothouse and Green- 
house staging, 134 
Tarred paper against Fruit 

tree borers, 306 
Tea Rose, Perle de Lyon, 278 
Texas, Tulip Tree in, 306 
Theory and Practice of Treo 
_^ Planting, 240 

Thistle, The Californian, 260 
Thujopeis Standishil, 56 
Thynus Citriodorus Aureus 

Marglnatus, 125 
Timber trees for Kansas, 341 
Tomato, Canada Victor, 52 
" TrelliP, 297 
•' Troubles, 90 
Transparent Blue Wash, 183 
Traveling Recollections,336,36 5 
Treating Hyacinths after Flow- 
ering, 89 
Treatment of Amaryllis, 300 
Tree Carnatlon,Perpetual Flow- 
ering, 66 
" Culture, 38 
" Malva, The, 278 
" Mammoth, Correct name 

of, 338 
' ' Planting, Theory and prac- 
tice of, 240 
" Planting in Iowa, 89 
♦' Roses, Scock for, 310 
" Tulip, in Texas, 306 
Trees and Plants, Ornamental, 
32 
" and Shrubs, Neglected 

American, 81 
" injured by last winter, 

267 
" Effects of Climate on the 

Hardiness of, 368 
" Mice-Girdled, Grafting, 

183 
" New Ornamental, 155 
Packing for Hhipment,148 
Propagating curly wood- 
ed forms of, 120 
Relative Age of, 369 
Street, Pruning, 274 
" " •• The ori- 

gin of, 
200 
" Timber for Fansas, 341 
•• Trimming, 243 
" Uses of, The, 107 



il 



II 



\ 



THE GARDEJTER'S MOJ^TELY. 



Treet.Watering in drj weather 
184 
• Western, 233 
♦• Whitewashing, 6 
Trellis, Tomato, 297 
Trimming Trees, 243 
Tucker, Luther, Portrait of, 369 
Tulip Tree in Texas, 306 
Tupelo as a Hedge Plant, The, 
.J 1*2 

u 

Under-draining, 64 
Under the Violets 282 
United States. Gardening in the 

309 
Utilizing waste material, 168 



Variations in Nature, 39 
Tarieties of Strawberries, On, 

1.32 
Tegetable, A new, 250 

•• Garden, 4, 35, 67, 

99. 181, 163. 196, 
2i8, 259, 354 



Vegetable Gardening, 261 

Vegetable8,herbaceou8,changes 
in the proximate 
principles of, 348 

Vegetation, Atmospheric influ- 
ence upon, 335 

Verbena Montana, 289 

Via Seedling, 29 

Viclc's Illusfd Floral Guide, 27 

Vines, Nailing to Stakes, 91 
" Precocious bearing of, 6 

Vineyard, A Maryland, 245 

Viola Connuta, 168 

Violet Sensation, 245 

Violets, Under the, 282 

Volney Apple, 153 

w 

Wages, Gardener's, 200 
Wandering, 241 
Washington, Muahrooms at,221 
Waste material. Utilizing, ItiS 
Water, Hyacinths in, 249 
Watering trees in dry weather, 

184 
Watson, Wm., Brenham, Tex., 

Catalogue of, 217 
Weather, The Cold, 89 



Weeds, Noxious, ft4 

West Brook or Speckled Apple, 

The, 93, 153 
West, Rhododendron in the, 171 
Western New York Horticultu- 
ral Society, 32 
«' Pennsylvania, Notes 

from 5 
" Penna., Noteson tha 

SeasioQ in, 36} 
•' Trees, 233 
What I know of Poinsettia, 335 
When the Postal Law goes 

into effect, 52 
White Calycanthus, 57 
Pansy, 275 
Scarlet Sage, 26 
Spruce, 30f) 
was'iVo^: trotja, 5 
Wild Black Cherry, Graftin^:: 

the, 21 
Wilder, Marshall P., Address 

of, 292, 325 
Williams, H. T., 53 
Wiater, Flowers in. 46 

•' Freezin;^ or sap in, 242 
»' Killing of Evergreens, 

2t53 
•• Last, Trees Injured by, 
267 



Wonderful Productions, 234 
Wood Lice in Greenhouses, 120 
Worcester Co., Mass., Horticul- 
tural Society, Pro- 
ceedings of, 150,185 
" Mass., Agricultural 

Society, 378 
World's Fair, The Centennial, 
12 



ti 



Xantboceras sorbifolia, 241 



Yellowstone Region, Cryptoga- 
mic Plants in the, 
149 

Yucca Baccata, 278 



Zonale Geraniums, double flow- 
ered, (24 



* 



@h« ($mitMx'% 




011 tit Id, 



DEVOTED TO 



Horticulture, Arboriculture, Botany and Rural Affairs. 

EDITED BY THOMAS MEEHAi^^. 



Old Series, Vol XV. fAJYUAR7, 1873. New Series, Vol. VL No, 1 



HINTS FOR JANUARY. 



HINTS FOR THE MONTH. 

At the beginning of every new year we note 
in our audience new features, among the many 
old faces, to whom some little introduction seems 
necessary. Be it known then that once on a 
time there was a little plot of land much given 
to gardening, which contained several millions 
of people, and they were all willing and anxtous 
to do all things by rule and square. In those 
days there was little science. No one cared to 
know the reason of things. It was enough for 
them to know that work was to be done, and to 
do it. This little tract of land did not contain 
naore than perhaps 8000 square miles, about the 
size of one of our average states, and as the sun 
rose and set generally at one time, and spring 
came in and spring went out nearlv on the 
same day— nay, even the sun shone,\and the 
ram fell, and the winds blew, pretty much all 
alike at one time over every part of it, it was 
very easy to set forth every day a job of work to 
be done that day in the garden. Hence arose good 
men who got up gardener's calenders, in which 
all the work of a garden was mapped out for the 
year-just what should be done on a certain day 
and what should not. Some of the descendants 
of these men came to America, and of course 
they wanted the same thing done here. But how 
was this to be in a country where at one end the 
snow has hardly began to melt, and at the other 
end has ripe strawberries I A calender is prepos- 
terous 1 But besides this there is not the need in 
these days for this precise way of working. 
Science has pervaded the masses. They may not 
call it science, but the general application of ab- 
stract knowledge picked up here and there, is 



but science applied. All people need now is gen- 
eral suggestions, and what they have seen and 
heard of before enables them to turn these sug- 
gestions to a useful account. Thus we give Tn 
these columns but seasonable hints, generally 
timing them so much in advance, that any one 

in any part of the Union may profit by some of 
them. 



*•••»■ 



FLOWER GARDEN AND PLEASURE 

GROUND. 

To many of our readers the only ** pleasure 
ground " they will have at this season is the few 
pots growing in windows or plant cabinets. But 
since the introduction of coal gas into our dwell- 
ings, it is not so easy to grow plants well as in 
former times. But as this gas is only lit up at 
night, if provision be made for enclosing plants 
from the fumes at night, they do pretty well 
This IS accomplished very easily where there are 
bay windows, by drawing curtains across, or by 
having plants so arranged that cases can be 
closed around them. New beginners in ^rowing 
window plants often ask us how often they 
should water plants. The more freely a plant is 
growing, the more water will it require ; and the 
more it grows, the more sun and light will it need. 
In all cases, those which seem to grow the fast- 
est, should be placed nearest the light. The best 
aspect for room plants is the south-west. They 
seem like animals in their affection for the morn- 
ing sun. The first morning ray is worth a dozen 
m the evening. Should any of our fair readers 
find her plants, by some unlucky calculation fro- 
zen in the morning, do not remove them at'onc6 



2 



THE GARDEJ^'ER'S MOJ^TBLY, January, 



to awarm place, but dip them in cold water, and 
set them in a dark spot, where they will barely 
escape freezing. Sunlight will only help the 
frost's destructive powers. 

Tt is better to keep in heat in cold weather by 
coverincr, where possible, than to allow it to es- 
cape, calculating to make it good by fire-heat, 
which is, at best, but a necessary evil. Where 
bloom is in demand, nothing less than 55 will 
accomplish the object ; though much above that 
is not desirable, except for tropical hot-house 
plants Where these plants are obliged to be 
wintered in a common greenhouse, they should 
be kept rather dry, and nut be encouraged much 

to grow, or they may rot away. 

After Cyclamens have done blooming, it is 
usual at this season, to dry them off; but we 
do best with them by keeping them growing till 
snrincr then turning thrm out in the open bor- 
der a'^nd repot in August for winter flowering. 

In potting window plants, the soil for potting 
Bhould be used rather dry ; that is it should be 
in such a condition that it will rather crumble 
when pressed, than adherecloscr together. Large 
pots-those over four inches, should have a 
drainage This is made by breaking up broken ^ 
pots loathe size of beans, putting them in the | 
bottom a quarter or half an inch deep, and put- , 
ting about an eight of an inch of old moss or any , 
Biinilar rough material over the mass of 'crocks" 
to keep out the earth from amongst it. Little 
benefit arises from draining pots below four 
inch the moisture filtering through the porous 
pots' quite fast enough; and the few pieces of 
u drainage " often thrown in with the soil placed 
riRht oveT, is of Utile or no use. 

Ferneries are now so deservedly popular, that 
we must have a word to say for them at times, 
though their management is so simple there is 
little one can say. It is probably their ease of 
niana^^emeht, and the great results obtained for 
the litUe outlay of care that has rendered them 
80 popular. It should not, however, be forgot- 
ten that the case in which they are enclosed is 
not to keep out the air, but to keep in the mois- 
ture as ferns will not thrive in the dry atmos 
phere of heated rooms. A few minutes' airing 
every day will, therefore, be of great benefit to 
ihtm Decayed wood, (not pine), mixed with 
• about half its bulk of fibrous soil of any kind, 
and a very small proportion (say a tenth of the 
bulk) of well rotted stable manure, makes a good 
compost. Most kinds particularly like well- 
drained pots. This is usually.effected by filling 



a third of the pots in which the ferns are to 
grow with old pots broken in pieces of about 
half an inch square, on which a thin layer of 
moss is placed, before filling the pots, to keep out 
the soil from choking the drainage. 

In regard to the kinds of plants for windows 
and rooms, as a general thing bulbous or succu- 
lent plants do best. Those plants which in their 
native places of growth choose dry places, seem 
also especially adapted to room culture if they 
have plenty of sunlight. The old wall-flowers 
and stockgillies are excellent for this purpose ; 
and there are few things superior to the modern 
race of carnations, known as the perpetual or 
tree carnation. The English, single and double, 
and the Chinese primroses, together with the 
whole race of violets are capital for window cul- 
ture, where the room is not too warm— they do 
not do well where the temperature is over 55°. 
These last named plants, especially, as well as 
many others, are liable to the attacks of the Red 
Spider, which is the great foe to window plant 
culture. They are so small as seldom to betray 
their existence until some damage is done. The 
first we know is a slight yellowish tint among the 
healthy green of the leaves, and then a common 
pocket lens will decide whether the little insect 
is doing the damge. On primroses and violets 
they usually koep on the under surface of the 
leaves, and hence are very diflicult to be got at. 
We have found the best thing is the plan first 
recommended some years ago in the Gardener's 
, Monthly, to take warm water, say about 120^ or 
1 130% just a little greasy, and with a little pow- 
' dered sulphur floating on it, and dip the plant in 
I for an instant only. It will rarely destroy a leaf 
' unless very tender, by growing too much in the 
' shade, while it bothers the red spider badly. 
' The Green Aphis may be got rid of in the same 
manner. 



<•■ » 



FRUIT GARDEN. 
There are few things connected with fruit 
f^rowing which gives greater pleasure than a 
knowledge of the names of the varieties. Utili- 
tarians may say with truth that of all the long 
lists in the cfitalogues and in the books, the half 
of them are worthless, and of the other a dozen 
at most is all one need have. But there is a sat- 
isfaction in a good number of kinds, and though 
we find most men desirous to cut down their 
lists to two or three kinds, they always hesitate 
to do it, when the time for action comes. As 
then people will have an ** assortment ' ' of kinds, 



1873, 



THE GARDEJ^ER'S MOJ\/THLY. 



3 



it becomes an important question how to label 
them so that it shall be permanent, and yet not 
take too much labor and trouble to accomplish- 
In planting, the trees of course are in some kind 
or order, usually in rows, and a book should, at 
once on setting out, be provided, and the names 
entered therein in the order they run on the 
ground. But we do not want to have the book 
always with us, so must have labels attached to 
the trees in some way. The cheapest and easi- 
est is the Wilder plan with the zinc labels. 
These are cut about four or six inches long and 



fVom one half to an inch wide, ^r^^lZl {^^'^ Z^^V.^^ 7 '' ^'^ 
put in water a dav or so to nw.ii.n ... ,..u. " I u..i.k„ .1^ ''^''^ ^''° ^''^ ^^^"^^ ^^ revenge 



season. Orchard trees generally get too much 
pruning. In young trees only thin out so as not 
to have the main leaders crossing oi^ interfering 
with one another. Or when a few shoot:? grow 
much stronger then the rest, cut these away. 
Insist on all the branches in young trees growin<^ 
only on a perfect equality. On older trees which 
have been iu bearing a number of years, it will 
often benefit to cut away a large portion of the 
bearmg limbs. By a long series of bearincrg 
branches will often get bark bound and stunte'l 
preventing the free passage of the sap to the 



put in water a day or so to oxydize, are written 
on with a common lead pencil. It needs no 
" chemical " ink. It is not very legible at first, 
but blackens with age. We believe such labels 
will last perfectly plain for fifty years or more 
The only trouble we have found is in the wear- 



itself by forcing out vigorous young shoots a long 
way down from the top of the tree. It is down 
to those vigorous young slioots that we would 
cut the bearing branches away. One must use 
his own judgment as to the advisability of this. 
If the tree bears as fine and luscious fruit as ever 



ing away of the holes through which u^iti^i ::rZz:'^:::z:7^z^ t:a " T^ 

mg wire passes, by the wind. Tf «om. <^ ...i.f „ ;p .... .u„„ . r'^''. ^""^^ "^'^'^ ^^ ^^^°«. but 



ing wire passes, by the wind. If some " eyelet " 
of durable material could be stamped in the hole 
for the copper wire to rub against, it would be 
perfection. The wire must of course be loose 
enough to allow of the branch increasing in size 
but even with this wires must be looked^to some- 
times, for wood does not grow as we all thou-ht 
It did a few years ago, by a downward layer from 
the leaves, which would naturally push out of 
the way any foreign thing on the outside of the 



if not, then now is the time. 
* And above all look after the nutrition of tl.e 
trees. Some people say that land which w\\ 
raise good corn will grow good fruit trees which 
18 all right ; but they should add that like corn 
they require regular and continuous manuring 
There are some p.xrts of the country where corn 
can be successively taken for half a life time 
without manure ; on these soils we need not ma- 
nure fruit trees, but in all others we must to 



bark ; but by the germination or budding ou 7f la;; Z re^ts tLI i" .t' r ", T ""^ '' 
cells, and thus even a loose wire will h^ .n.«i_ i SJlf.l''!''^^'' ^^.'^ '' Particularly essential 



cells, and thus even a loose wire will be envel- 
oped by the new growth of wood, as badly as if 
It fitted tight, provided the wire be perfectly sta- 
tionary. It is a good season to go over and ex- 
amme the wires of fruit trees and attend to these 
other labeling and naming matters ; of course 
when the weathor is sufficiently warm to allow 
ot It being done with comfort. 

In young orchards some species of scale in- 
sects are likely to be troublesome. These should 
be killed by washing at this season. If the trees 
be very badly infested, cut back the young shoots 
and the stouter branches can then be more 
thoroughly done. Some people use weak lye for 
washing, with good results ; we do not object to 
some hrae and sulphur going in with it. Old 
trees are very much assisted by having the rou-h 
bark scraped off* of the trunk and main branches, 
and then coated with a similar wash. ISTever 
mud what people say about stopping up the 

breathing pores." Try it once, and you will 
always want to repeat the practice. 

This is generally supposed to be the pruning 



where trees are grown in grass, as both the trees 
and the grass require food. Where trees are 
grown in grass, we prefer top dressing in June 
or July, but if it has not been done then do it 
now. Where trees are kept under clean surface 
culture, the manure is of course ploucrhed or 
harrowed in with the crop in the spring of the 
year. To know whether trees require manure 
or not ask the leaves. If in July they are of a 
dark rich green, nothing need be done to them 
but If they have a yellow cast, hunger is what is 
the matter. This of course is supposing they 
are not infested by borers, in which case they 
will be yellowish in the richest soil. 

Yellowness will also sometimes come from 
trees being in wet ground while they are grow- 
ing ; but fruit trees should not be planted in wet 
ground. At the same time if one has a piece of wet 
ground desired to be used for orchard planting 
we would not uuderdrain it. Wo do not think 
It ever paid any man to underdrain for an or- 
chard. The roots in time, will very likely get 
into the drains and choke them. We would 



THE GARDEJSTER'S MOJ^'THLY, January, 



1873. 



THE GARDEJfER'S MONTHLY. 



5 



r. 



rather plough the ground into narrow ridges, on , 
which plant the trees. This can easily be done j 
by starting the plough on the line where the trees | 
are to go, and then continuing to plough towards 1 
this line on both sides, until a breadth of twenty | 
or twenty-five feet is done. By another or sev- j 
eral ploughings in the same beds, one can get \ 
the tree line a foot or two higher than the ditch, \ 
and in this way no surface water will ever be 
able to stay about the tree. After the trees are 
in, in succeeding years, the earth may be . 
ploughed towards the stems of the trees, which | 
will carry the beds still higher. The burying of 
the roots by this process will not hurt the trees, 
as the fibrous roots, which are the feeders, and 
are the ones which suffer from water, come to 
the surface with the increasing deposits. This 
will not only be found to be a mu<;h cheaper plan 
than underdraining, but the deep soil where the 
trees are <:?rowing will be found to have a won- 
derful effect on their growth. This plan is pop- 
ular in some of the flat lands of the West. The 
celebrfited orchard of Mr. M. S Dnnlap, of the , 
Chicago Tribune, is treated in this way. | 

In regard to grapes we have a groat partiality 
to rich soil for these. Many so called failures , 
undoubtedly arise from exhaustion of the soil. , 
In this connection we must refer to Mr. Riley's 
valuable discovery of one very great cause of ' 
failure— presence of numberless small insects— , 
the grape louse— feeding on the roots. One can , 
tell by an examination with a good lens whether 
he is favored by a vit^it from these notables. If 
he is he will not want to entertain them long. 
But how to get rid of them is not yet well known. 
In lawn culture, and in greenhouse pot culture, 
we have found that lime water will drive out all 
forms of animal life. A lawn watered with lime 
water will be covered soon afterwards with my- 
riads of "worms." Before people knew the 
value of the earth worm, this was how ihey were 
destroyed. Perhaps it may "do for" the PhyU 
loxera. At any rate something will surely be 
found out, which while inoccuous to plants, will 
destroy the life of these minute pests. 



«a w » 



VEGETABLE GARDEN. 

There is nothing so much relished in early 
spring as the first vegetables— it hardly matters 
what they are. Many of these things can be 
forwarded several weeks by the use of glass, and 
considering how cheaply this may be had, it is a 
wonder that more hot bed vegetation is not in- 



dulged in. Radishes, lettuce, asparagus, straw- 
berries—these in particular can be forwarded by 
simple frames, without the aid of manure^ 
although where this can be had, of course it is 
an advantage. An asparagus bed, made in the 
open ground, of such length and width that any 
desired frame will cover it, may have rich soil 
put over it inside the frame, several inches— even 
six or more, and en this radishes and lettuces bo 
sown. The radishes will be in use before the let- 
tuce is much interfered with, and the asparagus 
will not find much in the road when it pushes 
through. For this kind of cold frame it is best 
o have the glass slope very much to the south. 
If the frame be made, say two feet above the 
ground at the back, and six or nine inches in the 
front, it will be all the better. These cold 
frames may be much aided by having an ever- 
green hedge on the cold side. This will make a 
shelter from the wind, and very much help the 
carliness. A strawberry bed in the open ground 
will yield fruit nearly two weeks earlier if a low 
glass frame be put over the plants. A very little 
! heat tickles the strawberry, and will make it 
' laugh in delicious berryness. Even the planting 
I on a warm rich bank, sloping to the sun will 
give us fruit considerably in advance of level flat 
ground. 

I In getting ready for spring vegetables do not 
fear to pile on the manure. It is the rank rich 
sirowth which gives the agreeable tenderness to 
them, and without an abundance of manure this 
cannot be done. Deep soil is also a great ele- 
ment of success Though we do not favor sub- 
soiUng and underdraining for fruit trees, we 
regard it as very profitable in vegetable growing. 
In arranging new vegetable gardens, it is 
always best to have it in a pirallogram, as 
whether it is to be worked by a plough or the 
spade, this form saves much time and labor. 
Those who have not much money to spare, or 
who are to grow vegetables on a large scale, will 
want to use the plough, and for this of course a 
long narrow strip is preferable to a square. For 
this, one walk through the centre may be enough, 
and box edgings, or even a narrow grass border 
may do to line the walk. This is a very good 
arrangement for a farm garden. Along each 
side of this central walk may be the currants and 
gooseberries, and even garden flowers, a row 
or so of dwarf pears and dwarf apples or straw- 
berries, or other low growing things that would 
; not do to grow in the land which we want to 
keep under the plough. At each end of the long 



narrow strip, space could be left for the plough 
to turn. The walk perhaps may be all of grass, 
made level, and kept neatly mown. During the 
year, as the successive crops are to be put in, 
the digging fork will easily prepare the ground 
once ploughed in spring, even in those neater 
kept gardens where the plough does not enter, 
the digging fork will be found to do fourfold the 
work of the spade in the same time. But 
whether the plough or spade be used, and in 
whatever way the garden be laid out, w^e should 
recommend the greatest care to have everything 
neat and in order. It annoys us considerably 
when asked to look at some friend's orarden, to ! 



see things slovenly and untidy. When we h:nt 
as much— for we never hesitate to say in as kind- 
ly a way as possible, just what we think of such 
neglect, we are often reminded that it may be all 
very well for fine people to have fine gardens, 
and things kept nice, but they have a living to 
get, and such work "don't pay." We get out 
of patience with such people. As a general rule 
it will be found that it takes no more time to do 
things neatly than untidily. There never was a 
truer saying than that lazy people take the most 
trouble. There is no more excuse for a dirty, 
untidy garden, than for going with one's clothes 
torn, or flesh unwashed. 



M M U N I C A T I N S. 



NOTES FROM WESTERN PENNSYL- 
VANIA. 

BY A. IIUIDEKOPER, MEADVILLE, PA. 
PU00RE8S. 

As the evenings grow longer I find it pleasant 
to bring the 'old and new" face to face, by 
looking over the back numbers of the Garden- 
ers Monthhj, noting the chancteristic dltfuse- 
ness of young theorists, the "compactness of ex- 
perienced scientists, the change of opinions, and 
the origin and development of new fruits. One 
meets with a great many articles passed over 
hastily at the time of publication, which are in- 
teresting now in the light of a wider experience. 

Then amid the suggestivencss of its pages I 
wish to say that one cannot but be impressed 
with the real character and dignity of the 
Monthly, with its mild but firm criticisms and 
general spirit of fairness. I am sure its readers 
must feel and catch its generous inspiration. 

WHITE WASHING TREES. 

If I had not already obtruded on its pages 
more than my share of horticultural matter, I 
would like to suggest that when you admitted ' 
you saw nothing but bad taste to be urged 
against white washing trees that it might have ! 
been well to add that thougli a gray wash of 
fioot and sulphur might destroy lichens and 
mosses, yet there is this superior advantage in 
white wash, that it reflects and wards off the 
sunshine, often detrimental to the trunks of 
trees alike in summer and winter. 



.SPECIFIC HEAT IN PLANTS. 

There was an article in the volume of 1870, 
page 47, "on specific heat of plants," by Dr. L. 
Fritsche, based upon observation in the Cana- 
dian forests, in which he attributes the interval 
of an inch or two between the trunks of trees 
and the snow, to vegetable 'heat, upon which I 
intended at the time to express a doubt, but it 
escaped me before I did so. 

I have often noticed the same phenomena in 
our western forests, but the cause of it was two- 
fold, and neither the one in that article assigned 
for it. When the wind is blowing strongly at 
the time the snow is fulling it will drive a cur- 
rent of air around the tree that forces the snow 
away from it. An other cause is the happen- 
ing of a bright sunny day in the winter time? 
when the solar heat reflected from the bark, or 
absorbed by it melts the snow from about 
it ; I do not wish to controvert the theory that 
there may be such a thing as some vegetable 
heat, but take away the agencies I have stated, 
and you w^ill find snow rest against trees all 
winter without thawing or separating from their 
trunks as indicated. I should be glad, as win- 
ter is at hand, to have the observations made 
which the writer of that article in the true spirit 
of research calls for. 

ROOT ATTRACTION TO MANURES. 

I had occasion last week to tear down an old 
vinery and to give away the vines. On digging 
up the latter we turned up many an old bone, 



6 



THE GARDEJ^EB'S MOJ^THLY. January, 



1873. 



THE GARDEJVER'S MOKTHLY. 



but failed to find that *' historical" tendency ofj 
the grape roots to interlace and fill up the inter- 
stices with spongioles ; on the contrar}'', the ! 
roots had r imbled free and far, apparently pay 
ing no attention to the bones. I am beginning 
to think there is something in the doctrine, not 
to make borders too rich, but to let the vines do 
something towards " workins: for a living.'' 

COVERING GRAPE. 

^ I trim and cover my vines always by the first 

i orXovcmber, as I think they are bcttL^r covered 
than to be exposed to the great changes of late ' 
autumnal weather. If there is any objection to 
this course I fail to discover it. 

PRECOCIOUS BEARING OF VINES. 

The precocity of bearing (in following season) 
a tributed to early pruning by an English jour- 
n il some years ago, Gardener^s Monthly, 18G7, 
pige 368, may possibly be owing to the vine, 
w'tli surplus sap, doing some of its spring work 
i'.i the fall, may it not, instead of its being an 
cTort of enfeebled vitality. 

I would that you were more accessible that I 
might send you some siiecimcns of fruit ; per- 
h ips il 1 cannot do this the next best thing will 
be not to trouble you with a surplus of individu 
al speculations. 

PECULIARITIES OF FRUIT. 

I send in a small box herewith, followimr 
specimens : 

A medium sized Winter Nelis Pear, to show 
, how early they will Hpai with ns, notwithstand- 
ing being wrapped in paper and kept in a mod- 
erately cool room. 

A few berries of Muscat of Alexandria grapes 
to show how near they will ripen in a cold 
grapery without fire heat. 

A f(?*^ berries of Gros Maroc, ripened in cold 
grapery. I believe Mr. Buist considers this the 
same as Black Morocco, but catalogues })lace 
them as distinct. 

[The fruits were very fine. In regard to the 
ripening of fruits there is evidently something 
more ihan latitude to be taken into account. 
Early in October, Major Freas, of the German- 
town Telegraph, sent us some Glout Alorcv-au 
pears, which in size and quality, including j.er- 
fect ripening, rivalled anything California could 
produce.] 



*•»•* 



and having had some experience in both ways 
of heating mentioned in the said article, would 
like to ask you some questions and give you 
some of my experience in both ways of heat- 
ing by hot water and flues. I would like to 
know what kind of a boiler your correspondent 
used ; but I think it must have been a very in- 
ferior one, that had to have a clear bright fire to 
keep up a circulation. Now the question as to 
which is the best and most economical boiler, is 
of interest to every greenhouse man, more espe- 
cially new beginners, and I would like to see it 
more fully discussed in all our agricultural pa- 
pers. But I do know that he must have had a 
miserable affair of a boiler if it would not keep 
up a circulation with as much heat as he says it 
took to do it, if he could keep his flue warm 
enough by banking his fire ; why did not the 
boiler do the same ? Then again, I ask you how 
water can absorb heat when it is contained in- 
side of cast iron i)ipes ? would the pipe absorb 
more heat with water inside than it would if it 
was heated with liot air to the same degree ? 
Now if the water takes the heat from the coal as 
you say in the fiist place, why did it not do so 
in the second case and not heat the chimney so 
hot? Then a heating api)aratus must be very 
small, or the heat would not get up and tlien 
cool so soon. I have used a flue two winters, 
and am now using hot water (one of Ilitching's 
Corrugated, No. 15, boilers,) and if your corres- 
pondent wishes to hear my experience, I will 
give it him cheerfully, and am positive that with 
the coal that he used in one winter, I could heat 
mv house twelve winters. House, 54x15. 

[We know nothing of the facts of our former 
correspondent's failure with his boilers, beyond 
what was given in his communication. We feel 
that we can answer for our correspondent as 
well as for our other readers, that they will be 
very glad to have Mr. Jones' experience as of- 
fered.] 



HOT WATER BOILERS. 

BY A. p. JONES, FOND DU LAC, WIS. 

I have been reading an article on page 336, 
Gardener^s Monthly, on heating greenhouses, 



PRIMULA SINENSIS. 

BY MR. MANSFIELD MILTON, NORTHEASTON, 

MASS. 

The Chinese Primrose is known and admired 
by all lovers of fli)wers. It has been so improved 
by crossing and cultivation that some of its va- 
rieties, especially the double ones, appear dis- 
tinct species from the original ; and its culture is 
so simple that the occupant of a single room may 
have his window adorned with its beautiful 



flowers, as well as the owner of the best cared 
for greenhouse. 

For spring flowering the seeds should be sown 
in August, in a seed pan or small box filled 
with a soil of equal parts of loam, leaf mould 
and sand, watering well before sowing the seeds, 
covering them lightly with fine sifted soil, and 
then cover the top of the pan or box with a 
piece of wood which retains the moisture, and 
hastens germination ; as soon as they ger- 
minate, remove the covering and shade for a 
few days. When the plants are large enough 
for handling, put them singly into thumb pots, 
afterwards shifting into three inch pots, and 
finall}" into six inch pots, with a soil composed 
of loam, leaf mould and well rotted manure. 

For winter flowering most people sow the 
seeds in March ; but I practice the following 
method, deeming it more satisfactory. In Octo- 
ber I sow the seeds and treat as previously de- 
scribed, only 1 keep them in the three inch pots 
until tliey flower. I then choose those worth 
growing, pick off all the flowers, pot them into 
six inch pots, and towards the end of May put 
them out doors, plunging them in some place 
well exposed to the sun, and give a liberal sup- 
ply of water during summer ; by fall they make 
excellent plants, and commence blooming as 
soon as taken into the house, continuing so all 
winter. As double ones cannot be increased by 
^ seeds, they have to be propagated by cuttings, 
/ treating otherwise the sime. I have sown a 
good many packets of seeds advertised by nur- 
serymen as *' saved from the finest double flow- 
ers," etc., not expecting to raise any double va- 
rieties, but supposing them to be saved from 
some superior strain I might get some excellent 
single varieties ; I am sorry to say, however, I 
was always extremely disappointt^d. 



AN ARTICLE ABOUT THE LILIES. 

BY P. DUCHARTRE. 

Translated from the ♦' Revue Hwtieole'' of July \st, 1871, /or 
the Gardener's Monthly. 

In one of our former numbers we have spoken 
of an article about the Lilies, published by M. 
Huchartre, member of the Institute, in the An- 
nals of the Central Society of Horticulture of 
France. An account, as short as the one given 
hy us or even a much larger one, would be insuf- 
ficient to do justice to the important work in 
question, whose modest title, "Observations 
about the genus Lily," does not indicate its 
value. It is, one may say, the history of this 



genus of plants, so interesting in many respects, 
as complete as it can be made. What increases 
the importance of this work, but surprises no 
body, is the impartiality shown by the author ; 
the numerous researches he had to make to give 
each his proper share of merit of showing the 
successive increase of species introduced. It is 
not necessary to add that the scientific part has 
not been forgotten or that the citations made by 
Mr. Duchartre are the results of close studies of 
the best sources. We consider it, therefore, a 
good thing, and intend to make known this valu- 
able work by increasing its publicity. • The genus 
lily, (Lilium of Tournefort) of the family lilia" 
cese, from which it has its name, is not only one 
of the prettiest of the branches of Monocotyledo- 
nous plants, but of all the phaenogameous or 
flowering plants. The species forming it have 
an elegant port, their flowers combine graceful- 
ness and distinction of form, with a variety of 
colors ; fulness of dimensions, and are nearly 
always sweet scented. Besides this, the culture 
of most of them is very simple, on account of 
their hardiness under the climate of Paris ; and 
the more tender ones require only to be shelter- 
ed against frost and dampness during winter. 
Notwithstanding that all these good qualities 
are seldom found combined, the lilies have not 
yet found in gardens the prominent place occu- 
pied by other kinds of plants, certainly beautiful, 
but in total, of less value. Besides the White 
Lily, (candidum), which is the widest spread o^ 
all, the Martagon, l»ulbiferum and umbellatum, 
already less common, nothing is found but three 
or four fine species of Japan origin, while the 
rest of the genus is only to be met with in some 
botanical gardens, collections of amateurs, and 
a small number of large commercial horticultu- 
ral establishments, such as Messrs, Van Houtte, 
in Ghent, Belgium ; Krolage, in Harlem, Hol- 
land ; Laurentius, in Leipzig, Haage & 

Schmidt, Erfurt, Prussia, (mem. of translator.) 
It is hard to explain what is the reason of this 
so little justified neglect ; perhaps we must look 
for the motives in the slowness by which these 
plants increase, giving very few offsets of bulbs, 
and through seeds, very limited resources. In 
the high prices asked for most of them, by the 
large number, one is exposed to loss even with 
an exten«led experience ; the difficulty to get 
them even at high prices, and mostly in the in- 
contestable fact that they are little or badly 
known. It is therefore of the first importance to 
get acquainted with them, and then to make 



8 



THE GARDE JEER'S MOMTELY. January, 



1878. 



THE GARDEJVER'S MOJVTHLY. 



their acquisition easier than it has been so far. 
Concerning the necessity to get perfectly ac- 
quainted with them, we must collect for that 
purpose as largely as possible, species and varie- 
ties, in order to bring forward large quantities, 
and in that way to see and make our study on 
the live plant, to be in the end enabled to pub- 
lish the result of our observations. Concernin<r 
the second point, it is important to make out of 
this a collection— in the first instance got up for 
personal gratification and study— a centre of dif- 
fusion, which could be reached without too many 
difficulties by those who would like to follow so 
laudable an example. 

This is the double object acted on by Mr. Max 
Leichtlin, distinguished horticultural amateur, 
who is at the head of a large industrial establish- 
ment in Carlsruhe, Baden, Germany. Passion- 
ate amateur of the lilies, he has tried for several 
years to get together the species and varieties of 
this fine genus, has for this end made us one of 
his commercial correspondents, has set himself 
n relation not only with foreign countries, but 
also with travelers and collectors of plants. The 
botanical gardens of Kew and St. Petersburg 
have assisted him from their rich stores— even 
from their latest acquisitions, or given him the 
means to extend the circle of his acquaintances ; 
besides this, money was no object to him, and 't 
is known that he has spent large amounts tc ^et 
hold of some lots of species very rare or new in 
Europe. By thesi' means he has succeeded in 
bringing together the largest collection of species 
and varieties of lilies existing anywhere, and is 
enabled to make a perfect study of these plants ; 
besides this, being very obliging, he helps others 
in their studies. I, who am myself several times 
under his obligations, am glad to find this op- 
portunity to express to him herewith my best 
thanks. This first point gained, Mr. Max Leicht- 
lin has sought to obtain the other. In posses- 
sion of his marvelous collection, he has come to 
the decision to let others, who love these beauti- 
ful, profit by it, by disposing of a part of the 
samples he has succeeded in collecting by great 
pcrseverence and numberless ways and steps. 

"We consider this good news for the amateurs. 
Mr. Max Leichtlin has lately communicated to 
me the list of species and varieties of lilies he 
possesses, and on my request, has given the al- 
lowance to publish it. In consequence, I profit 
by his consent, and reproduce the list such as I 
received it. By perusal, it will be seen how far 
my correspondent has outrun the most renown- 



ed horticultural establishments, and then how 
largely and splendidly the genus lilies can be 
represented in the gardens. But as this list is 
only a show of the actual state of science of hor- 
ticulture in this regard. I think it would be in- 
teresting to accompany it by details, particular- 
ly historical, in order to show the gradual ex- 
pansion of the knowledge of this genus lilium 
Irom Linne to our time. By so doing I give a 
rapid view of the geographical distribution of the 
species of this genus over the globe, but at the 
same time I must observe that I have not the 
pretention to say that my recital is complete. I 
ofien take species as they are published, without 
trying vigorously to investigate its value. A 
discussion to obtain such a result could only be 
reached by a more graphic exactitude, for which 
I feel myself far from being competent. 

Herewith is first the list of the collection of 
Mr. Max Iv-ichtlin, such as I have received it ; 
the historical details of the successive increase of 
the species of lilies as they became known, will 
follow afterwards as explanations and comple- 
ment of these first indications. My correspond- 
ent has added to the names of the plants, the 
following signs of great utility : 

The sign f ! placed before a name shows that the 
decision of the specie is regarded by him ascertain. 
On <he contrary, the sign (V) following a name, 
snows that the determination of the specie or 
variety should not be regarded as certain. With- 
al that the name in question miy be often found 
in gardens, it docs not guarantee the scientific 
appellation. The names accompanied by an (N) 
are now, either lor the gardens or entirely. Mr. 
L. has an (K) behind the names of lilies of par- 
ticular beauty of form or color Sometimes the 
name of plants are accompanied l>y the designa- 
tion of the locality where they came from. In 
that case it is to be presumed that a close scruti- 
ny will show in them as many forms or distinct 
varieties. 

List of species and varieties of lilies, represent- 
ing the collection of Mr Max Leichtlin, in Carls- 
ruhe, Grand Duchy of B.iden, Germany ; 
Lilium abchasicum, ? 

alternans, I Sieb. and Ve 

aurantiacum, ? 

auratum, 1 Lind. 

auratum, I macranthum R 

avenaceum, I Fich R 

Brownii, 1 Brow. 

1 bulbiferum L 

I Buschianura Lodd. 



u 

(( 

u 
u 
u 



ii 



u 


Buschianum granditlorum R 


(( 


Buschianum nanum 


(( 


Californicum, I Hort. N. R 


(( 


callosum, ? 


(( 


Camtschatcense, ? 


ct 


Canadense, L., of New Hampshire 


(< 


Canadense, I L., of Brentwood 


(t 


" L., of Sheffield 


(( 


" L., Superbum 


(( 


candidum, ! L 


(( 


** 1 fol. argenteo variegatis 


(( 


I carniolicum Bernh 


t( 


Carolinianum, of Chester R 


t( 


1 Catesb{ei, Walt. R 


(( 


I Chalcedonicum L 


(1 


Chalcedonicum, flore luteo 


(( 


'■ majus 


(( 


*' punctatum, ? 


(( 


Columbianum, ? Oregon 


(C 


I con(;olor Salisb. 


(C 


I cordifolium Thunb 


(( 


1 Coridion Sieb. and Ve 


(( 


I croceum, Fuchs (and Chois) 


ii 


croceum praecox 


it 


*' fl. saturato N. R 


(i 


I davuricum Gawl. 


ii 


! eximium Court. 


. (i 


1 formosum Ch. Lem. 


it 


formosissimum, ? 


(( 


fulgens var. Leichtlinii, ? 


ii 


giganteum AVall. 


ii 


1 ilumboldtii Roesl. N, R 


(< 


japonicum Thunb. ? 


»t 


JeflTersoni, V 


(i 


latifolium, ? 


ii 


I Leichtlinii D. Hooker 


(( 


Leichtlinii splendens, ? 


K 


lilacinum, ? 


it 


I longirtorum Thunb. 


ii 


I longitlorum de Lin-Kin 


ii 


I '* de liin-Kin praecox ' 


it 


I '* Takesima 


U 


1 *• Wilsonii R 


t( 


1 Martagon L 


C( 


I "• album 


{( 


1 " Catauii, Vis. N. R 


(i 

i t 


^ *' dalmaticum Maly. 


tl 


I ** maculatum splendens Leicht- 




lin, N. R 


i' 


'* Superbum 


t 1 


** tigrinum tardivum 


1 1 


'' hort varieties 


(( 


1 Mazimowizii Regel, X 


u 


1 Monadelphicum Bieb 



(( 

(( 
(I 
(k 
(( 
(( 
n 

u 

(( 

u 

(( 

u 

t( 

(t 

i. 

ii 

n 

I( 

ii 

ii 

i( 

(i 

i. 

n 

(( 

ii 

(I 

l( 

t( 

ii 

(( 

I . 

tl 

ii 

(( 

(( 

t( 

i\ 

(I 
ii 
l( 
(( 

(( 
n 
n 
(i 
t( 
ti 
il 
u 



I pardalinum Kellogg, N. R 

I parvum Kellogg, N 

I Partheneion Sieb. and Ve 

1 Pennsylvanicum 

peregrinum Will, ? 

1 Philadelphicum L 



I 



it 
ii 
ii 
ii 
it 
i( 



andinum Hook, R 

of Brentwood 

of Connecticut 

of Massachusetts 

of Orange Mountains 

WansharOicum 



(1 
it 
tt 
li 



pinifolium, ? 

polyphyllum Royle, N 

1 pomponium L 

majus 

flavum, ? 

pandanoides, ? 

var. Hort. Enofl. 

I ponticum C. Koch 

I pseudo tigrinum Carr. 

1 puberulum Torr., N. R 

1 pubescens Gernh. 

I pumilum Red 

1 puniceum Sieb. and Ve 

pygmaeum,? 

Sanguineum, ? 

Sieboldi, ? 

Sinicum Lind., R 

I Speciosura Thunb. 

I Speciosum Kaempferi Zucc. 

punctatum 

*' late maculatum, R 

atropurpureum R 

roseura Wilsoni, R 

rubrum 

" sanguineum Red. R 

Schrymakersii R 

Vestalis 

I Spectabile Link Fisch. 

" bicolor. V 

** maculatum, ? 

I Superbum L 

*' from Connecticut 

*' " South Carolina 

I tenuifolium Fisch. 

1 testaceum Lindl. 

1 Thunbergianum Roem & Schult 
tk 

ii 

It 



it 
it 

t( 
tt 
it 
it 
i( 
it 



R 



i< 

t( 



atrosanguineum 
aurantiacum 
aureum 
rtora pleno R. N 
marmoratum grandi- 
florum 



10 



THE GARDEJ\rER'S MOJfTELy. January, 



187S. 



THE GAEDEJVEIt'S MOJVTHLY. 



11 



(( 



cc 



Scarlatiaum Leichtlin, 
N. R 
" ! Thomsonianutn Lindl. 
•* I tigrinum Gawl. 
** 1 *' Fortunii 
*' " erectum 

*« " t'oliis variegatis N 

*< " flora pleno E. N 

" Splendens Lichtl. R 

tricolor, ? 

tubiflorum Wight R 
" ! venustum Ilort. borol 
*' 1 Wallichianum Roera & Schult 
•* 1 Washingtonianum Kellogg N. R 

1 Wilsoni Ilort. N. R 



(( 



44 



(( 



(( 



Lilies still without Name. 

No. 3, 4, 15, 16, 17, 18, 20, 200, 201, 203 from 
California. 

No. 131, 1G4, 165, 166, received from the botani- 
cal gardens of Kew. 

No. 163, from Wisconsin. 

No. 187, received from tho botanical garden in 
Berlin. 

No. 23, 132, 134, received from the botanical 
garden in St. Petersburg. 

Martagon from Japan N. R. 

Successive Increase of the Genus Lilies from 
Linne to our time. 

In the third edition of his "Species Pljiiila- 
rum," dated 1762, Linne indicated nine species, 
composing the whole genus lilium, which 
species are found again without change, even in 
the order in which they are enumerated, in his 
* Systema Vegetabilium," dated 1774, bearing 
the name of F. A. Murray as its author, but to 
the making up ot which book the great Swedish 
Naturalist is known to have contributed 

Here are the names of the nine species, with 
the indication of the countries given as their 
home in the " Species Plantarum :" 

1. Lilium candidum, of Palestine, Syria and Ca- 

diz, with two varieties. 

2. Lilium bulbiferum, of Italy, Siberia and Aus- 

tria, with seven varieties. 

3. Lilium pomponium, of the Pyrenees and Si- 

beria, with two varieties. 

4. Lilium Chalcedonicum, of Persia and Paltina, 

in Carniola, with two varieties. 

5. LiHum Superbum, of Middle America. 

6. Lilium Martagon, of Hungary, Switzerland, 

Siberia and Leipzig. 

7. Lilium Canadense, of Canada. 
Lilium philadclphicum, Canada. 



9. Lilium Kamtschatcens, Canada and Kamt- 
schatka. 
Concerning the characters by which Linne 
distinguished these nine species, the four last 
ones, most of which have verticillate (forming 
rings) leaves, may be separated from the five first 
ones, whose leaves are always scattered, that is 
alternate or better in a spiral form ; two of them 
have bell shaped, upright flowers, that is, wide 
open and not rolled up on the outside ; these are 
L. candidum and bulbiferum. The flowers of 
the others are pending or reflected, rolled up on 
the outside, or revolute ; these are L. pomponi- 
um, L chaledonicum and L. superbum. From 
the two first ones the L. candidum is easily to be 
recognized, the flowers being of s ) pure a white, 
that it has become proverbial and glossy on the 
inside, while the L. bulbiferum distinguishes it- 
self through its deep orange colored flowers, the 
inside face of which is covered with numerous 
little papillas or prominences. Besides this 
developes in the axles of the upper leaves, as the 
name indicates, very small bulblets, which might 
serve for multiplying. Between the three species 
with pending or recurved flowers, the American 
one, the L. Superba, is a large, fine plant, whose 
flowers are deprived of the inside prominences, 
are red, passing to yellow, and marked by numer- 
ous brown-black dots ; between the othor two 
whose flowers have the same figure, and can 
vary in color from the most deep red to yellow. 
Linne makes the distinction that the one, L. 
pomponium, lias lineal leaves, that is, very nar- 
row, sharp, hollowed out on the upper face, in 
the form of a prism of three angles ; while on 
the other, L. chalcedonicum, the leaves are 
wider, lanceolate, nearly covering the whole 
stem. Between the four species, most of which 
have verticillate (forming rings) leaves, the one 
is particularly remarkable by its reflected flow- 
ers, most of purplish color, but often also found 
of other shades, whose calyx is rolled up to the 
outside turban shape, to such an extent that it is 
commonly called the Turban lily, this is L. Mar- 
tagon. Another one, the L. philadclphicum, Is 
easily distinguislied on account of its upright 
flowers of orange red color, turning to yellow in 
the centre, where are many purplish black dots ; 
have the b. pieces (?) slightly turned inside, and 
ending in a long spur ; the flowers m )re or less 
reflected, campanulated and slightly turned up 
of orange yellow color, the inside marked with 
many purplish black spots of the L. canadense, 
are sufficient to distinguish this specie from L. 



Camtschatcense,with upright, small, campanula- 
ted, bell-shaped flowers of dark purplish red 
color, getting lighter and turning to yellow on 
the base, where numerous little black spots are. 
As it is seen by the indications which Linne 
gives of the nativity of his nine species, five of 
his plants are found all over Middle Europe, and 
the others natives of North America. It follows 
that the eastern part of Asia and particularly 
Japan, which has contributed since much more 
than any other countr}" to the increase of the 
species of this genus of bulbous rooted plants, 
were entirely neglected by the immortal botan- 
ist, with all that is his. *Araaenitates academi- 
cae, (5d fasc, pp. 870-872) published in 1712, 
Kaempfer had mentioned several lilies belonging 
to that part of Asia, particularly those which 
later received the names L. cordifolinm, specio- 
sum and tigrinum. But the Japanese species very 
soon dispersed the dark in which Linne had left 
them. Thunberg, who in his " Flora Japonica,*' 
1/ublishcd in 1784, was only pre-occupied by the 
one idea to bring them all under the European 
species, very soon found out how much forced 
were the imitations so made by him. In a 
memorandum entitled ''Botanical observations 
on the Flora Japonica," which he inserted in the 
second volume of Transactions of Linua^an So- 
ciety of London, he created, but only cliaracter- 
izu'd them brieliy : 

1. The L. cordifolum, (p. 332) the Sjire, Sjiroi 
and Osjirsi of the Japanese and Kaempfer, whifih 
previously figured under the name of Hemorical- 
lls cordata,Thuiib., in the flora Japonica (p. 143 ) 

2. The L Speciosum, (p. 332), the Kesbiako 
or Konokko Juri of the Japanese of Kaempfer, 
which was named L. superbum in his first work, 
(p. I'M). 

3. The L. longiflorum, (p 333 j, named by him 
L. candidum in the Flora Japonica, (p. 133), or 
the Tiakko of Kaempfer. 

4. The L. lancifolium, (p. 333), whose name 
was unfortunately transferred by all our horti- 
culturists to L. speciosum, and thereby occasion- 
ed a great confusion ; he had it in his flora the 
L. bulbiferum. lie is wrong to attach as syn- 
onym, the Kenton or Oui Furi, of Kaempfer, 
(Amoen. ex. p. 871j which can only be, it seems 
to me, a species described later by Gawler, in the 
Botanical Magazine, under the name of L. tigri- 
num. 

5. The L. maculatum, (p. 334 , which he 
mixed up in his *' Flora Japonica,'* (p. 135), 
with L. canadense. 



i Thunberg, later on, took up with more care, 
the same subject, and made the description of 
the Japanese lilies a special writing, which ap- 
peared in the 1st volume of the Memoires do 
Pacademie imperiale de St. Petersburg, (1811, 
under the title of ''Examen Liliorum Japonico- 
rum," (pp. 200-208, pi. 3, 4, 5.) In this new 
work, which comprises eight species, he speaks 
more completely of the five species already men- 
tioned in his first work, gives very badly exe- 
cuted figures of three of them, (L. lancifolium 
L, longiflorum, L. maculatum), and then de- 
scribes or figures two new ones,* under the 
the names of L. elegans, (p 203, pi. iii. fig. 2)> 
and japonicum, (p. 205, pi. v. fig. 2). Persisting 
nevertheless in his wrong tendency to refind the 
European plants in Japan, he brings in this 
work under the name of L. pomponium, L., the 
lily which Siebold and Zuccarini in their Flora 
Japonica, has described and figured 1035, as their 
L. callosum. 



ORCIIIDE^ No. 8. 

BY Mii. JAMES TAPLIN, MANAGER TO GEORGE 
SUCH, ESQ., SOUTH AMBOY, N. J. 

DENDR013IUM PULCHERIMUM PERPUREUM. 

This pretty little plant is a native of Sylhet, 
and like all the fine species from that district, 
requires a brisk heat during the growing season, 
with abundance of moisture. Urlike most den* 
drobiums which make shoots from two to eighj 
feet long, this species seldom exceeds that num- 
ber of inches, but the shoots on a well grown 
plant will be covered with flowers the entire 
length, and as it annually makes abundance of 
shoots, it should be a :5ias8 of bloom, the sepals 
and petals arc white, edged with green, with a 
bright orange blotch in centre of lip, and beauti- 
fully fringed ; the flowers last in perfection for 
two weeks. 

This is a very easy plant to grow, and may be 
managed in a warm greenhouse, for it makes its 
growth during our hot weather and is at rest in 
the coldest season of the year, when it may be 
kept day or night— temperature of 50'' will not 
hurt it. 

This plant should be grown in a round wire 
basket, and the shoots pressed round the out- 
side, when they will root into the spagnum and 
rough peat witli which the basket should be 
filled, and in a short time make a perfect ball. 
This is the best plan for amateurs, as the plant 
will not be so liable to suffer from neglect of wa- 



12 



THE GARDE JEER'S MOJfTHLY. January, 



1873. 



THE GABDEJVER'S MOJV'THLl. 



IS 



! 



( 



? 



tering in the growing season as when grown on 
a block of wood, which is the system we adopt 
I select a hard block of oak and fasten the plant 
to it by copper wire, with a little spagnum moss, 
when it at once roots on to the wood and requires 
no more attention, excepting abundance of water, 
with slight shade during the growing season, 
and to be kept dry from November until it shows 
flowers about February, when it requires occa- 
sional watering and plenty of light until the (low- 
ers expand. It being a deciduous species, will 
lose all its leaves previous to flowering. I 
would stron<^y recommend this species to alj 
lovers of Orchidese— it is very pretty, easily 
grown, and the plants are not expensive. 



ill 
III 

[J! 
ill 



ERRORS EXCEPTED. 

BY EDWARD II. BEEBE, GENEVA, ILLS. 

I find copied in the November number of the 
Gardener''s Monthly, Prof. Asa Gray's address 
on the Distribution of Plants, and the sime 
error, as it appeared in the d lily papers of Du- 
buque in August last. It was then siid, and 
now repeated, that ''a relative of this is Podo- 
phylluni, our mandrake, a common inhabitant of 
the Atlantic United States, hut found nowhere 
c?se." "Somebody has blundered." Not the 
Gardener''s Monthly -yon have followed copy. 

Prof. Wood, in his Manual, says of Podophyl- 
lum, *'in woods and fields common in Middle 
and "Western States; rare in New England.''' 
Prof. Asa Gray says in his Manual, (5th edition) 
page 54, "found in Ohio by W. C. Hampton, 
with two carpels " I can c mfirm both of 
these statements, for we know it to be common 
in the Western States. Prof. Gray says it is 
found in Ohio, consequently it is found some- 
where else besides the Atlantic States, and the 
statement above is somehody'^s error. Whose is 
it ? In my paper in the same number, page 331, 
the scourge of the apple tree bark louse is named 
Chalcis "Aspidiatus Conchiforinis.'" I would 
state that this was the name given to the stran- 
ger before it was scientifically christened, Dr 
W. Le Barron now calls it Chalcis Apholinus 
raytilaspidis. (We outsiders that are not very 
buggy call it the bark louse chalcis for short. ) 

A full scientific description is given of the in- 
sect by Dr. l^e Barron, on page 3G0, vol. 2 
American Entomologist. I would state that in 
1871, 1 made the attempt to colonize the Chalcis. 
Doctor Le Barron furnished me with a number 
of twigs taken from trees in Kane County, and 
supposed to be infesled with Chalcis larvae. The 



twigs were taken to Galena, and tied upon trees 
in three different orchards, the trees of which 
had been carefully examined, and not a trace of 
a chalcis could be found ; the nearest point at 
which they had been observed was in Lee Coun- 
ty, eighty miles south of Galena. In July last, 
fifteen months alter the twigs had been placed 
upon the trees, Dr. Le Barron and myself dis- 
covered the chalcis mark upon them — a few, only 
got enough to prove that the chalcis was around* 
We could find no marks except upon the trees 
on which the twigs from Kane County had been 
tied. The presumption is that the experiment 
of eolon'zing is a success. But we prefer wait- 
ing until another year, expecting that they wil^ 
have increased sufliciently to enable us to find 
the insect instead of his mark, and the absence 
of the chalcis between the points where it is now 
known to exist, some eighty miles, will go to es" 
tablish the fact that it can be colonized and the 
bark louse cleaned out. 

[Our correspondent fails to perceive that when 
Dr. Cray uses the term "Atlantic United 
States," it is in contradistinction to States on the 
Pacific coast. There are, however, several 
errors of a typographical nature in Dr. Gray's 
address as given in our columns -not ours, but 
errors made in the copy we used. We had not 
at the time one from Dr. Gray himself, as we 
since have. Some of the errors we saw and cor- 
rected, but others escaped. At page 361, line 
15, * translated " should read tabulated.; next 
line, "I ever'' should be Ileer ; 304, line 5, 
"print "should be fruit; line 15 from bottom 
should be totality not "vitality;'' line 15 from 
end of the article, " the " should be this. There 
are other mistakes of a similar character, but on 
the whole we have no doubt any intelligent mind 
will see them, and that no great evil will follow. 
We supposed that by following printed copy 
from first class authority, we had the best se- 
curity against error, but the best of us can fall, 

it seems.] 

» » . 

THE CENTENNIAL WORLD'S FAIR. 

BY W. L. AKERS, JOHNSTOWN, PA. 

What shall ice do for the Centennial ? Only 
three more years for action, and yet so much to 
be done I Doubtless many of our leading horti- 
culturists are j)Zan?7ingf and perhaps j^reparingr for 
the great display. But is isolated effort the best? 
or could we, by organization and concert of ac- 
tion accomplish greater results? 

The world has never witnessed such an event 



as this, it is altogether new and distinct in the 
history of mankind, and must exert a wonderful 
power in meltin^down national asperities, and 
bringing all the people of the world nearer to 
each other in one great brotherhood. In view 
of this great international feature of the exhibi- 
tion, it has been suggested that gardeners and 
nurserymen should unite in an effort to produce 
a grand display of all the leading wood plants of 
the world. But is it possible ? who shall say no? 
The gardeners and nurserymen of this country, 
united and aided by their correspondents abroad, 
would be a wonderful power. Think of such a 
meeting I All the oaks of the world brought in- 
to one great family, and the pines I What a j 
glorious wondrous display they would make I 
The old historic trees that have been connected 
with the history of man from the days of his 
creation, would salute those of the western con- 
tinent, hoary with the thousands of years of 
solitude they have witnessed. The idea is so 
grand and so beautiful that practicability alone 
comes in the way, and if no financial crisis 
should mtervene, such an approach towards 
completeness could be made as would astonish 
even those who are aware of the nature of the 
task. It is sincerel}' hoped that the project may 
not be considered altogether .visionary, but may 
have that consideration and discussion which it 
is entitled to 

[This timely letter demands serious attention, 
and our columns shall be cheerfully open to any 
suggestions. Our iiupression is that horticulture 
has been wholly ignored by the general commit- 
tee, at least we have watched the proceedings 
very closely, and if a committee on horticulture 
has been appointed, their names have strangely 
escaped us, and we shall be glad to be set right 
by those who have the chance to know.] 



INFLUENCE OF EXTR*EME COLD ON 
THE CURCULIO. 

BY T. T. SOUTHWICK, DANSVILLE, N. Y. 

In seeking for some u-eful lesson taught by 
the last winter, it has occurred to me that 
something possibly could be learned in reference 
to the curculio and his works. The winter was 
marked for long continued cold and almost en 
tire absence of snow. The soil froze to a great- 
er depth and more solid than for years. 

The plum crop— I speak for this section of the 
State — was the largest known for years. The 
last good crop previous to the one referred to 
was after a winter quite similar to the past win- 



ter. The trees seldom or never fail to bloom 
freely and set well, but the little " turk'" marks 
them for destruction. The past summer I hard- 
ly saw the mark of the curculio on plum or 
other fruit. 

The theory I draw from the facts is, that dur- 
ing winter when the soil is much exposed to long 
contined freezing, the frost penetrates to a depth, 
and with sufficient intensity to reach and destroy 
the pupa. In the foregoing facts, and the}' are 
true, and they are, 1 think, the lesson learned, 
would be to freeze the curculio out. On the 
approach of cold weather to clear the ground un- 
der and about the fruit trees from snow, and allow 
the frost to penetrate the soil as deep as may be. 
I think no harm would result to the trees, as 
they do not suffer when the soil is naturally ex- 
posed. 

I do not make any positive assertion that 
there is any positive connection between a cold 
and snowless winter and a short crop ef 'bugs" 
the season following, but I think there is. What 
do you think ? 

[We are glad that Mr. Southwick has intro- 
duced this matter, as it suggests a couple of 
questions that we believe have not been settled 
by that positive evidence which which is re- 
quired to establish a scientific truth. 

First, does the curculio hybernate in the 
ground, — and in what state or condition ? As 
we understand, the weight of evidence is asjainst 
the earth shelter of the curculio ; Itut entomolo- 
gy is such a vast study, that only those engaged 
in its special pursuit are competent to decide on 
these disputed questions, and we bhould be glad 
to have the latest exposition of well ascertained 
facts. 

Secondly, will cold destroy hybernating insects 
in any of their forms ? We know it is the gen- 
eral imprc ssion that it will ; but some assert it 
will not. " It is said" fishes have been thor- 
oughly encased in ice, and kept so for some time, 
but that the vital ])rinciple has been sufficient to 
keep up the animal heat and to keep out the 
frost. Of course if they would lose their heat 
and become thoroughly frozen, they would die, 
but it is said the vital principle is sufficient to 
resist the freezing and keep things going till the 
warm weather returns. 

What we would like to know is, can "It is 
said" be relied on ? who is he ? where did he try 
his experiments ? and on what did he try them ? 

We have found, unfortunately, that even emi- 
nent scientific men are very often not to be fully 



u 



THE GARDEJ^EB'S MOJ^TELY. January, 



1873. 



THE GARDEJTER'S MOJ^THLY. 



15 



V. 



trusted in their facts. They adopt too readily 
a part from other people to add to their own,— 
when even a very full personal observation, like 
a telegraph message, will bear repeating before 
one can be sure it is true. It is a pleasure to 
note that the area of careful original observers 
is widening. TVe should like to hear from Pro- 
fessor Riley on these matters. Few entomolo- 
gists have more fully gained the public confi- 
dence than he.] 



**m»* 



HOT WATER HEATIXG. 

BY W. SAUNDERS, WASHINGTON, D. C. 

Referring to your editorial, page 336. I would 
remark that the heating of small greenhouses is 
sometimes a perplexing question, especially 
where the idea prevails that the old fashioned 
flue is obsolete. The first cost of a hot water 
apparatus is a large item when brought in con- 
trast with the expense of building a moderate 
sized house, without considering the necessary 
waste of fuel connected with boilers when used 
as exclusive heating mediums. 

The most economical mode of heating a glass 
structure of say 80 feet in length by 24 feet in 
breadth, is by a 
combination of 
hot water and 
the hot air flue. 
A small boiler set 
so as to form a 
cover to the fur- 
nace, is perhaps 
the most com- 
plete arrange- 
ment of this kind; 
Buch boilers have 
frequently been 

advertised in your columns. The furnace should 
be placed near the centre the length of the house, 
one end of the building being warmed by pipes 
attached to the boiler, and the other end heated 
by the flue. The piping may be increased at the 
end farthest from the furnace as shown in the 
sketch, and in all cases of laying hot water pipes, 
the principle of a constant descent from the boiler, 
or a high point as near to it as practicable, 
should be strictly adhered to. 

In localities where a boiler proper cannot 
readily be procured, a coil of piping placed in 
the furnace will answer as good a purpose, or a 
simple bent pipe as figured at page 215, volume 



7th, Gardener's Monthly, which can be cheaply 
made at any plumbing establishment, will heat 
200 feet of piping, provided tlife pipes are laid so 
as to form a triangle, as shown at page 263 of 
your September number. 



*•»•» 




EDITORIAL NOTES. 

FOREIGN. 

Death of Lady Hooker.— This distinguished 
lady who assisted her husband, the late Sir W. 
Hooker, in his scientific pursuits, died recently 
at Norwich, England, aged 75. Mrs. Lindley, 
widow of the distinguished Professor Lindley, is 
still living in the same town. 

Government Aid to Science.— In striking con- 
trast to the action of some of our State Govern- 
ments is the liberality which some of the be- 
nighted governments of the old world show to 
science. They seem to act on the theory that 
the object of governments should be to do for 
the people collectively what the people cannot 
do for themselves in an individual capacity. In 
Pennsylvania, Prof. Porter, at his own expense, 
gets together a magnificent flora of the State, 
but unless he consents to let it go as government 
''pap'' to feed a public printer, the State will give 

nothing towards 
its publication. 
On the other 
hand, such an 
old fashioned 
government as 
Spain has for a 
number of years 
past granted a 
large sum of 
money annually 
to Jose Triana 
to enable him to 
publish the flora of Columbia. The result is one 
of the most beautiful and valuable works in the 
world. It was expected to be finished by this 
time, but not being, the government has extend- 
ed the grant to five years more to enable him to 
do it. Our national government is a little bet- 
ter than some of the States. It as trustee of the 
Smithsonian Institution, did undertake to issue 
a valuable work on the lower order of water 
plants by Dr. Horatio Wood. Some thousands 
of dollars have been very well expended on it, 
but wanting some thirty dollars more than has 
been appropriated, it must wait for another 
year. 



Kew Onion— The Queen— The English papers 
say that this is an extra early kind. '• If sown 
in February it will produce onions from one to 
two inches in diameter in four months." It is 
also said to be a good keeper. 

Expenditure of Force by Plants in Overcoming 
Gravitation.— Vnder this head the editor of this 
magazine contributed a paper to the Academy 
of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, showing 
how much vital force was spent by plants in 
their erect growth, in opposition to the gravita- 
ting power, which drew them towards the earth. 

A practical use has been made of this law by 
a French fruit grower, which is thus described 
in a French magazine : 

"An amateur horticulturist noticed that whenever a 
pear produced upon liis Rrpaliers (trees trained against 
a wall) rested upon a branch, its size was always larger 
than those which were not thus sustained. He sur- 
mised that this difference was caused by tlie weiglit of 
a fruit, when arrived at a certain size, causing the sap 
vessels of the stem to be compressed, thereby prevent- 
ing a large flow of sap, and consequently as full expan- 
sion as when a fruit was placed in a position favorable 
to receive all the nourishing sap. 

Several experiments confirmed this opinion. A pear 
grown upon a branch and not resting upon a support 
measured on the 13th of September nine inches and 
one-sixteenth; another measured at the same date eight 
Inches and a quarter. This was supported by a piece of 
board, allowing it a rest. On the 30th of September fol- 
lowing, both pears were culled. The first had increased 
but one thirty-second of an Inch ; the other gained one* 
quarter of an inch in measure." 

The Rustic Orchard House. — This is the name 
of a new idea in fruit culture under glass, origi- 
nated in England. The house is simply a dou- 
ble pitch glass structure, as in all greenhouses, 
but the sides — about six feet high — are lattice 
work. The fruit is said to be of much better 
quality than when wholly enclosed in an ordina- 
ry house. 

Influence of Strange Pollen on the Form of 
Fruit. — A few years ago we believed that pollen 
did not affect the fruit, but only the progeny of 
that fruit ; but facts that the editor and some of 
our correspondents have observed and noted, 
have gradually led us to a contrary opinion. "We 
recently offered a few thoughts on this very sub- 
ject. The Gardener's Chronicle has now the fol- 
lowing confirmation : 

"In reference to the influence of strange pollen on 
the form of fruit, some interesting experiments are re- 
corded by Maximowicz. The species experimented on 
were L. davuricura and L. bulbiferum, and the plants 
were kept in a sun-warmed apartment. The pollen of 
each species of Lily was applied to the stigmas of the 
other species, the process being repeated upon several 
Individual plants. Tiie result was that the capsules 
borne by the several plants were found to have the form j 



characteristic of the pollen parent; while the form of 
the seeds was intermediate between that of those of the 
two parents. The subject was incidentally alluded to at 
one of the meetings of the Scientiflc Committee some 
time since." 

Unity of Origin of Deodar and Cedar of Xe6- 
anon. — Dr. Brandis, in a paper read before the 
British Association for the Advancement of 
Science, read a paper in which he takes ground 
that the Cedars of the Himalayas, of Lebanon, 
of Taurus and of Atlantis, have all sprang from 
one original form, and are therefore but fixed 
varieties one of another. 

A Sensitive Oxalis. — The late Dr. Welwitsch, 
of the Gardener's Chronicle, tells us he discover- 
ed in Angola, an Oxalis so sensitive that its 
leaves would close by a mere foot-fall near it. 
But the leaf stalk does not fall as in the common 
sensitive plant, but closes in over the crown 
— going up instead of going down. 

Portrait of ^Professor Gray. — The London 
Gardener's Chronicle has an excellent likeness of 
this distinguished Botanist, with a brief account 
of his life and great services to science : 

" Dr. Gray was born at Paris, Oneida county, N. Y., in 
1)^10; graduated in medicine in 1831, and became Profes- 
sor of Natural History in the Harvard University, and 
director of the Botanic Garden at Cambridge (Mass.) — 
oflfices he still holds. In many of his works he has been 
associated with the veteran Dr. Torrey, in, others with 
Dr. Engelman, of St. Louis, and as a university Profes- 
sor he is the colleague and associate of such men as 
Longfellow,nolmes, Agassiz, ond others who have given 
Boston a world-wide celebrity. Dr. Gray is a foreign 
member of our Royal and Linnean Societies. 

How to Keep Birds from Strawberry Beds. — 
An English correspondent of the Gardener'^s 
Chronicle has his plants growing in long narrow 
beds. He has a post at each end, a wire stretch- 
ed to each, a ring on the wire, a string or light 
rope on the ring, and a cat on the other end of 
the rope. Pussy can walk up and down the bed 
but nowhere else. The birds decrease in num- 
bers, and pussy likes the job. 

Succession of Forest Trees. — It appears Amer- 
ica is not the only place where one set of trees 
succeed another. When the chestnut trees of 
Mo\int Cenis are cut down. Larches follow, but 
the people uf the old world do not look on it as 
anything mysterious, or that the seeds of the 
larch have been there since the creation of the 
world. 

Aubergines. — Under this name goes our long 
purple egg plant in France, where it seems to be 
very popular. Our English friends are debating 
whether to eat it or not, *' so many of the Sola- 
nacese being poisonous," but Mr. Forsyth in the 



16 



TEE GARDENER'S MOJ^THLY. January, 



■ 



the Oardeners Chronicle^ assures them that 
thousands have ate egg plants for the past two 
hundred years without being poisoned. 

Retinospora o6(wsa.— This beautiful evergreen, 
which has been found so thoroughly hardy in 
the United States, is thus referred to by a cor- 
respondent of London Gardener'' s Chronicle : 

" Said to grow in Japan to the lieiglit of from 70 to 100 
eet, and from 8 to 5 feet in diameter. In tiiis country it 
Is already widely spread, thriving witli less or more 
luxuriance wherever planted, if in soil at all good, and 
In a moderately sheltered situation. It appears to be 
quite as hardy as most of our ordinary shrubs, and 
where well established grows nearly as freely as does 
the Cupressus Lawsoniana, formingan important addi- 
tion to our finest lawn plants. Its foliage when in fine 
health is almost of an emerald green, its branches are 
spreading, the lateral ones, in two rows, spreading out 
almost like a fan. Mr. Gordon, in the Pinetutn says, 
•It constitutes a large portion of the forests in the 
mountains on the Island oi Nippon, in Japan. Its tim- 
ber is wliite, fine grained, compact, and acquires, when 
worked, the brilliancy of silk, and in consequence of its 
valuable properties the Japanese dedicate it to the God 
of the Sun ; and construct chapels and small temples 
out of its timber, for divine purposes.' This beautiful 
tree is called Hennak by the Chinese, and Fa-si-no-ki 
(Tree of the Sun) by tlie Japanese. 

JVeio Canterbury Bell. — Almost everybody 
knows the Canterbury Bell. Large blue ®r 
white flowers, and covering a pretty large plant 
with large blossoms, there are not many new 
plants showier than this old fashioned thing. 
Lately this has been " improved." At the base 
of the bell shaped corolla there is usually a green 
five cleft calyx ; but in this new race the green 



calyx segments have been developed into broad 
petal-like processes of the same color as the co- 
rolla, giving the plant a very unique and grand 
appearance. But our readers must not look for 
it in the seed catalogues as Canterbury Bell, 
This is too vulgar, but they will see it as Cam- 
panula medium calycanthema alba. 

Weeping Sequoia.— So far as we know the 
mammoth tree of California does not succeed 
except in a very few favored locations, such as 
at EUwanger and Barry's, at Rochester, New 
York. But it has found itself a home in En- 
gland, except in a few places, where it seems lia- 
ble to the attacks of a fungus, similar or the 
same to the one which takes it off in the Eastern 
United States. In England they are even get- 
ting "improved" varieties, a Weeping Sequoia 
being among the latest announcements. 

Improved Varieties of Strawberry. —We think 
it hard that we cannot get out a new strawberry 
that will hold ; but with every new attempt still 
have to fall back on Wilson's Albany and such 
old kinds. There may be a sort of satisfaction 
in the feeling that they are no better off in the 
Old World. In a recent paper by one of their 
most distinguished strawberryisls, we find the 
most popular sorts still the very old ouf s. El- 
ton, Black Prince, Alice Maud and Vicomtesse 
Hericart de Thury are called the best. Frog- 
more Pine and Eleanor, two old sorts, also get 
much praise. 



E D I T H I A L . 



PUBLIC PARKS. 

It is to be supposed that the time may come 
when the average public mind will be ruled by 
common sense. We all know how it is 'now. 
Though we know we shall be robbed, —though 
we are absolutely certain our money will be 
wasted,— we must go with the party whichever 
it may be, and all the offices in all the details 
must be filled with party men, rather than with 
capable men, in order that we may be sure of 
the party triumph next time. It is too much to 
hope that party shall not rule. Indeed it may 
be desirable that it shall rule,— but at least com- 
mon sense should dictate that the details of every 
day life should be removed far from its influence. 
Then wo may have public parka and public 



grounds that will be a credit to us, and cost no 
more than the figures honestly show. In the 
meanwhile we may help the good time coming 
by studying a lesson from what we have done. 

The New York Central Park is the earliest of 
these great efforts. The idea originated, we be- 
lieve, with Downing and Mayor Kingsland, 
chiefly. It took form, and plans were advertised 
for. Over thirty plans were submitted, and the 
one by Olmstead and Vaux selected. The work 
was commenced in 1856, under a commission 
nominated by the Legislature, and independent 
of the city government. To the astonishment 
of every one familiar with our " system," party 
politics was kept out of this business till 1870. 
The work, under the original designers, was 



1873. 



TEE GARDE JEER'S MOJ^TELlL. 



17 



honestly and creditably done. Whatever may 
have been the opinions of men educated in the 
various schools of landscape gardening, there 
was no dispute about the work as a whole. It 
was universally conceded to be a magnificent 
piece of work, and one of the chief glories of the 
State of New York. 

All who have had experience in even local 
landscape gardening know what it costs. A 
few thousand dollars soon go when we haul a 
little dirt here and cut it down there,— build 
now this little bridge, and now set there the lit- 
tle fountain, — and when we come to make the 
good and substantial road — but here we may as 
well drop the veil. But the Central Park Com- 
missioners carried on this tremendous work for 
fourteen years, at a cost of but $6,000,000— a 
large sum to be sure, but really very little in 
proportion to the- magnitude of the design. 

But in 1870 the long feared event came. The 
local politicians got hold of it, and ruin ran 
*' like mad." We need not particularize here, 
for the shame is already published world wide. 
How bronze statues were painted white ; how 
the restored fossil skeletons of ante-diluvian 
monsters were smashed to atoms ; how museum 
buildings were ransacked and wrecked; how cow 
yards and other common place objects were 
erected where the most refined elegancies of art 
previously found a home ; how trees generously 
nature gifted, were trimmed to *' bare poles," 
and gorgeous masses of ten year growing shrub- 
bery cut away to let in the " light and the air," 
as well as to pay by a few days work for the 
votes hired on election day ; all this and more, 
is it not too well known ? And to crown the 
whole, two millions and a quarter of dollars spent 
in eighteen months I 

Happily this is ended now. The men who 
conceived this noble work and carried it on so ably 
and 80 honestly for ten years, are mostly back 
to their posts, ButhoWloagwillitbe? There is not 
a New Yorker, poor or rich, but who is proud 
of the Central Park. No one seems to begrudge 
paying for it. Nothing is too dear for this 
whistle. But the number of those who know 
what is true art, is but as a drop in the ocean 
to those who do not. For every one who 
would select a portrait of Washington, by Peale, 
there are a thousand who would rather admire 
thCFather of his country'' on some swinging 
tavern sign or hackney wagon ; and it is these 
^ w ^^"^ the average man which rules. 
We need pursue no further the moral to 



which these reflections point. Those who have 
at heart the elevation of the masses, by furnish- 
ing them true art for their education instead of 
vile counterfeits, have to guard their cherished 
objectagainst the half educated prejudices which 
culminate in a " popular vote." Wherever this 
can be successfully done, we hope for good pub- 
lic parks,— where it is not, we are in constant 
danger of the repetition of the vandalism and 
iconoclasm of the eighteen months of popular 
rule in Central Park. 



FRUIT-DRYING. 

No subject has a greater interest to horticul- 
turists, than what to do with their surplus 
fruits ; and of all methods which suggest them- 
selves, fruit-drying is the most practicable. But 
the old system of sun-drying is too slow, an&, 
for the matter of that, too dirty ; while machine- 
drying has been too cumbrous and too expen- 
sive. We are glad, therefore, to give prominence 
to a neat little aflair, which all may use, and 
which is represented in the cut given herewith. 




This machine is the offspring of the fertile 
brain and the patent right of Dr. B. L. Ryder, 
of the Horticultural and Health Institute of 
Chambersburg, who has already contributed to 
our pages many useful hints to his gardening 
brethren. The fruit which we have seen dried 
by the process, were as near perfection as we 
think dried fruit can be. All kinds of fruit or. 
vegetables can be dried in a few minutes. We 
do not go into particulars here, as those who 
wish for further details will consult the adver- 
tisements. 



<•••» 



EDITORIAL NOTES. 

DOMESTIC. 

Nailing Grape Vines to Stakes.- -A correspon- 
dent of the Ohio Farmer says he trains his vines 



18 



THE GARDE JVEB'S MOJ^TTELY. January, 



1873. 



THE GARDEJ^ER'S MOJ^THLY. 



19 



I 



to the top of the seven feet stakes, and then 
nat7sthe branches to the top, thus saving all tying 
forever afterwards. This is, no doubt, an ex, 
cellent idea, and it is a wonder no one has 
thought of it before. He says he has applied 
for a patent, and if granted, people shall be al- 
lowed to drive the nails *'on most reasonable 
terms." 

Pears in Canada.— ^Ye find in the Canada 
Farmer the address of the President of the 
Fruit Growers' Association of Ontario, in which 
he says the Flemish Beauty is there preferable 
to the Scckel ; Louise Bonne de Jersey is next in 
value. Gray Doyenne is preferred to Sheldon ; 
Glout Morceau " is A No. 1 ; " Beurre Diel re- 
ceives high praise, often so large and good as to 
be mistaken for Buchesse. Elliott's Early he 
thinks will supersede Doyenne d'Ete and Made- 
leine as an early pear. It was raised by Judge 
Elliott, of Amherstburg, Michigan. Onondago 
thrives superbly on clay soils. Easter Beurre is 
a noble pear; Duchesse d'Angouleme is uncer- 
tain, but excellent when well grown ; Bartlett is 
everybody's favorite ; Brandywine is one of the 
best of pears, and Beurre d'Anjou looking up ; 
"Winter Nelis is a superb pear ; Belle Lucra- 
tive is a splendid pear, but Fondante de Ma- 
ines and Fondante de Cornice are "splendider ;" 
Lawrence the best pear for winter use ; Vicar, 
uncertain ; Beurre d' Amanilis "too little known. ' ' 
Other pears named as doing very well are B. 
Superfin, B. Bosc, B. Langelier, Delices de Har- 
den pont. Ananas d'Ete, B. de Noel, (as a mar- 
ket variety, ripening at Christmas,) St. Ghislain, 
Kingsessing, Clapp's Favorite, Josephine de 
Malines, Baron de Mello, Graslin, Triomphe de 
Jodoigne ; others are named, but these seem the 
most highly praised. 

The Oum Trees of Australia.— lS,lo8t of our 
readers who have followed Mr. Harding's inter- 
esting account of Australian vegetation, will re- 
member the gigantic Eucalyptus or gum trees, 
little inferior to the great Mammoth of Califor- 
nia. They are being freely introduced into those 
countries where they will thrive. Immense 
numbers are being planted in Spain by the rail- 
road companies, and in our own country Califor- 
nia leads in extensive plantations of them. We 
do not hear of them in the Southern States, 
where it would do as well as in its own country. 
White Orapes.—Dr. Parker writes to the Hor- 
ticulturist that at Ithaca, New York, the Maxa- 
tawney did not ripen when first introduced, be- 
fore October 25th, now old vines mature the mid- 



dle of October. He thinks highly of it. He 
names Cuyahogo, Croton, Lydia and Rebecca 
as all varying in quality with soil and season,— 
the last named seems to be his favorite next to 
Maxatawney. 

Horticulture at the Michigan Agricultural Col- 
/efjfe.—Under the wise management of Prof. Beal, 
horticulture progresses hero. Mr. Adam Oli- 
ver, an experienced landscape gardener, has 
beed engaged to lay out the grounds. Mr. 
AVhittel is highly spoken of for his abilities as 
pardoner ; an arboretum has been begun, and 
the fruit departments are in a prosperous condi- 
tion. 

Apples for Southern IlUywis.—At the Novem- 
ber meetini: of the Alton Horticultural Society. 
Dr. Long said the Ben Davis is now the first ap- 
ple in esteem. He also praised Early Harvest, 
Red Astrachan, Maiden s Blush, Dominie, New- 
town Pippin, Gilpin, Pennock, Pryor's Red, 
Wincsap ; would not plant Janet because the 
markets are glutted with them. Mr. Redaker 
liked Janet because it bloomed after the lato 
frosts, and he was thus sure of a late crop— val- 
ued Smith's Cider. Dr. Hull valued Lady ap- 
ple and Newtown Pippin. Remarking on the 
above, the editors of Prairie Farmer say they 
would add Primate. Chenango Strawberry, Be- 
noni, Limber Twig and Carolina Red June. 

Number of Varieties.— The Country Gentleman 
says : 

There are more than a thousand named and described 
varieties of the pear raised in this country, in the gar- 
dens of pomologists and others, and about 2.j()0 varieties 
of the apple. But few practical cultivators will want 
more than a dozen of each. 

This is true enough, but what troubles nur- 
serymen, who have to keep on hand what the 
public want, is to know which is that dozen 
which the few praptical cultivators want? 

Culture of Peach Trees,— At a recent meeting 
of the New York Farmer's Club, Dr. Trimble 
said that Thomas Meehan recommended a man 
in southern" New Jersey to put his peach orchard 
in grass. He took the advice. The trees grew 
worse and worse, and the man had to move away 
to keep himself from ruin. Poor fellow I Mr. 
R. J. Dodge very properly replied that Mr. 
Meehan did not merely recommend keeping 
trees in grass, but he also insisted that they 
sho it. be properly fed at the same time. When 
this poor broken down peach grower reads Mr. 
Dodge's explanation, he will probably joyfully 
return and try it again. It is generally your 
half idea people that give the most trouble. An 



acquaintance of ours recently went to a lecture 
by Charles G. Ames, the distinguished orator. 
The speaker was discoursing, we suppose on 
love matters, for he is reported to have said that 
•*it was a mistake for couples to cease courting 
with marriage." Our informant thought it a 
horrible doctrine to teach that ^' married people 
should go courting other people through life." 
She was astonished at our suggestion that pos- 
sibly married folks could court each otiier as well 
as other people I We suppose there always will 
be some people who will never understand the 
difference between grass orchards starved and 
neglected, and grass orchards kept up in fertili- 
ty. For such we have hardly the charity our 
friend Dodge exhibits. We are generally dis- 
posed to let them '^ run away or burst,'' which- 
ever they please. 

Grapes 'Which Mildew.— In wh^i is called the 
science of pomology, we have a difficult task. 
The Held is full of writers and thinkers who seem 
unable to look beyond their own gate posts. 
Here is a long article before us in which the 
writer says the Croton and Senasaua is good for 
nothing, and the Eumelan milde'ws worse than 
any grape he has. The Martha is not only 
worthless, but is positively a nuisance, the fruit 
having a poor, bad flavor ; but the Delaware, 
Crcveling, and so forth, do not mildew ; these 
are the kinds for people to plant. 

We have been careful to keep such stuff out 
of our magazine. We suppose that by this time 
everybody knows that all grapes are as liable 
to mildew and other diseases as are all men to 
cholera or 8mallpox,-and that a grape usually 
reputable will sometimes disgrace itself by bad 
flavor, as that a tolerably good Christian n>.iy 
once la a while have a very bad temper. This 
Kind of pomology has no charms for us. The 
mere fact that some varieties do well and others 
do not, or how they vary with varying seasons, 
are wull enough as /acfs; they lead us to form ideas 
01 general character. But to imagine our little 
experiences in a season or two, should be a gen- 
eral rule for all others and for all time, is poor 
pomological science. 

I'rep'U'iwj Ground for Fruit Trees,— In one of 
our issues last year, we remarked : 

•'onlTJ''"*^;'" P''^*P^^»'in« i"i orchard, about making 
biuit "°'«"^«r all ti.e trees. This seems wilti'. 

Pav wl ^"^^^''^^ ^l»l^-l^ very few orchards will ever re- 

oom.nenH , ''^ ''"^''^ ^'^ '^^'''^^ ''» ^'»^^ <»««P »»«l«« wo re- 
tothH*.v?." "^ *" '^"^•'» C'^^Gs we would, ratlier than go 

dera.arin"''*^"'''"'''^"*''''^ the whole orchard, or un- 
»^' i"g, plant higher than they grew belore-hlgh- 



er than the surrounding soil, mounding the earth as It 
were, above the level. No water- will ever stand here- 
and the money spent In making " one big hole" of the 
whole orchard, or in underdraining, we would spend in 
annual surface dressing the ground. 

Commenting on this the Western Bural, one 
of our most intelligent and resiiected western 
contemporaries, says : 

"The ]resfcrn Rural has firmly advocated one large 
hole for the trees in an orchard, that is. making the 
xvhole plat of one uniform depth in tilth, and it has the 
sanction of those who best know our prairie soils Tho 
advico has also been coupled with the additional state- 
ment tliat to insure perfect success in extra deep plow- 
ing, whether in the orchard or out, tiiat it must be pre- 
ce.lod by thorough drainage. The reason is obviou'= It 
is to prevent the mortaring of soils, and other unto- 
ward mechanical action." 

For our part we do not understand how the 
water will pass away more readily from *'ono 
large hole" in an acre than* from forty small 
ones. But after all, the main suggestion intend- 
ed to be conveyed was that the stereotyped ad- 
vice to underdrain and subsoil an orchard two 
feet deep, is a profitless operation in the vast 
majority of cases. We think that by mounding 
or ridging the soil, so that the trees can be plant*^ 
ed higher than the natural ground was, and the 
water drain away over the surface, the trees will 
do just as well, and the results be in every way 
as good, as by going to the enormous expense of 
making 'Une large hole" all out of one acre. 

Moreover, we believe that, notwithstanding 
this century hallowed advice, few, if any, have 
ever followed it. It is one of those things which 
book makers think ought to be accomplished, 
but which orchardists seldom do. 

Who has underdrained and subsoiled two feet 
deep an orchard of say several acres ? Will ^e 
please report the fact and the results. The de- 
t ails of such an experiment, extending over say 
ten or fifteen years, would be read with great 
interest by our readers. 

The Benoni Apple.— In various quarters we 
note the rising popularity of this rather old ap- 
ple. In the southwestern and western States, 
we have of late seen frequent notices of its good 
behavior. The most recent is by a correspondent 
of the Maine Farmer, and shows how well it 
does in the east. Some beautiful specimens 
were sent to the Editor, who says of it ; 

•♦ In regard to the name of the apple we can give no 
Information, other than that It originated in Dcdham 
Mass.. and its good qualities have caused its culture to* 
be widely extended, although Thomas says it has not 
succeeded well In all localities. It Is n late sunnuer 
fruit, highly esteemed for dessert purposes, and Warder 
says 'indispensable to the amateur.' It Is possible, 
could Its history be fully known, that It might be found 



^0 



THE GARDEJ\rER'S MOJ^THLY. January, 



187S. 



to perpetuate some event in family history of which we 
know notlilng." 

The Trophy Tomato. — The Tomato varies very 
much by soil, and by general health. To so 
great an extent docs this occur, that people of- 
ten think they have the wrong kind, or tl at 
there is no difference between one kind and an- 
other. To get at the real value of a variety 
we have therefore to look to its general behavior. 
As a rule we believe the Trophy has given satis- 
faction the past year. Tf care be taken in the 
selection of the seed, weeding out sickly plants, 
and by gathering only those fruit for seed which 
are typical of the best virtues of the Trophy, it 
may keep in popular estimation for years. We 
believe it is only because care has not been given 
in these particulars that other, once good, varie- 
ties " ran out." 

Underhill, NewsonS; Co., Nashville, Tenn., says 
a prominent western agricultural paper, have 
one of the " largest, best assorted and most re- 
liable nurseries in the Southern States." 

The Bed Maple.— The. Country Gentleman say ^ 
that 

"An English horticultural work says that the rc<l 
maple, so common in all parts of this country, is one of 
the handsomest of maples, on account of its scarlet 
flowers in spring, its red fruit in early summer, and the 
red tint of its decaying foliage in autumn." 
And this is just what we have been telling our 
people over and over again for years past. The 
time will come when this native tree will be as 
popular for general planting as the Norway 
Maple now is. 

The American Fomological Society.— The Ex- 
ecutive Committee have decided to fix September 
10th, 11th and 12th for the meeting this year in 
Boston. Although sixty acres of their good old 
city is burned, we are pleased to learn that no 
part of their disposition to welcome their friends 
has been consumed by the devouring element, 



T:EI; GARDEiN-EWS MOJ^THLY, 



but that the horticulturists are determined that 
those who attend there this session shall class 
their visit among the most pleasant reminis- 
cences of their lives. 

Boston Losses by the Fire.— So far as we are 
able to learn, the horticulturists of Boston have 
not been among the serious losers by the fire. 
The names of Parker, Wilder & Co. were in the 
published lists as among the very heavy suffer- 
ers, but we are pleased to be able to say that, 
except by failures, in some few instances, of in- 
surance companies to make entirely good their 
responsibilities, there will not be much loss* 
This will be cheering news to Col. Wilder's 
host of friends. 

Tree Labels.— In one of our earlier numbers, 
Prof. Page, of Washington, D. C, communica- 
ted an interesting article, showing how mica 
might be made to protect the writing on wooden 
tree-labels, so as to make them last for many 
years. We have often been surprised that this 
excellent hint remained dormant. It required 
every one to do the work for himself; but people 
have too much to do, and if it could only be 
(lone cheaply for them, it would be immensely 
popular. 

And now we have it. Some samples from 
Wood & Hall are very neat. The label consists 
of a flat piece of brass, with the edges turned 
down over a piece of mica, through which we 
read the neatly printed label, as though we were 
reading time from a watch dial-plate through 
the glass. For durability and neatness, it is as 
near perfection as it is possible to get. 

If now some one will invent a plan by which 
one may easily open and close a similar label, by 
which we ourselves can write any name we need 
beneath, absolute perfection of labeling will be 
reached. 



^1 



SCRAPS AND QUERIES. 



Propagating Bilbergias.— 5. K P., St, 
Joseph, Mo. : '' Will you please inform me in 
what way Bilbergias are propagated, either by 
seed or otherwise. I have a packet of seed from 
which I very much desire to grow a few plants, 
as they are difficult to obtain from florists ; also 
whether the ' Ilermannia' and 'Sparmannia' are 
the same plant ?" 



[Bilbergias, like all the pineapple family to 
which they belong, usually propagate by suckers 
which generally appear freely when the plant ia 
in flowering condition. The seeds will doubtless 
grow readily in a moist stove heat of about 70®. 

The Ilermannia and Sparmannia are very 
different plants. The common Ilermannia odo- 
rata is a dwarfish finely cut leaved, yellow flow- 



ering greenhouse shrub, and sometimes called 
Mahernia odorata. Sparmannia africana has 
large coarse Linden like leaves, and orange and 
white flowers.] 

The Pen Apple.— T. Z., writes: "Some 
three or four years ago, more or less, there was 
quite a talk about a new apple which orit^inated 
somewhere in Pennsylvania, and I think Lan- 
caster county. It was called " Pen'' apple, not 
the old Wm. Penn. I believe it was exhibited 
two or three times at the winter meeting of the 
Pennsylvania Fruit Growers' Society, where it 
was highly praised ; also I believe a premium 
was offered and given at the annual exhibition 
of the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society in 
September, 1871. Can you or any of your rea- 
ders give any further information as to its ori- 
gin, character, &c., and has it really proved a 
new and valuable variety ?" 

[We have several accounts of this apple, and 
have stated in former numbers what we know 
about it, and should be glad to hear direct from 
headquarters what they say of it.] 



Grafting the Wild Black Cherry.— TT. 
T. B., Hammonton, N. ,/., says : "I Imve se- 
cured some young and thrifty wood of the Wild 
Black Cherry, and would like to be informed in 
the Monthly if there is any way to propagate it. 
I can get good stock to graft on if that can be 
done successfully. Can it be propagated by 
grafting, budding or by cuttings, and if so, will 
you please inform when it should be done and 
mode of doing it?" 

[The Cerasus serotina is the cherry probably 
meant. There has been no occasion probably 
before to make the grafting of this desirable, 
but by analogy in other cases, no doubt it would 
graft or bud readily on seedlings of its own kind. 
No doubt slit layers of young wood would also 
root readily.] 



Situations.— The past two months we have 
been inundated by letters from parties wishing 
'suitable men," or from others oflering their 
services for all sorts of purposes. It would re- 
quire a couple of hours each day to answer these 
letters. We have not these hours to give to the 
subject. There are some personal friends who 
have a claim oti our time. We must try when 
these come to us to serve them, more than this 
we cannot do. If letters come we read them. If 
It come in our w.iy wo -a-W d) what we can for 



the writers, but under no circumstances €an we 
enter into any correspondence on these matters. 

Rules for Good Breeding.— A correspon- 
dent remarks that a note he contributed to the 
Oardener^s Monthly some years ago drew him in- 
to a correspondence which consumed considera- 
ble time, he had little ability to spare. No gen- 
tleman writes to another without having personal 
reasons for knowing that such correspondence will 
be agreeable. And persons who presume to 
write to perfect strangers without this know- 
ledge, have no right to be offended when they 
receive no replies.* Knowing that many persons 
do not understand these rules which prevail in 
good society, we usually withhold the fu'l name 
of many of our correspondents, except in cases 
where we know it is perfectly agreeable to them. 
If any one have anything to ask of our corres- 
pondents, our pages afford the proper medium 
for all legitimate enquiries. 



To Correspondents.— We have to return 
our best thanks to our numerous correspondents 
for their many favors during the past year, 
which, judging by the number of excellent com- 
munications now on hand, bid fair to be conj 
tinued for the future as in the past. We some- 
times like to keep these on hand a little while, 
in order to have the chance of varying the con- 
tents of each number. In case the favors are 
not immediately used we hope our friends will 
not therefore imagine their favors are not valued. 

We once in a while receive offers from parties 
to write for "fair pay" for our magazine, but 
the Oardener^s Monthly was established to afford 
horticulturists a medium for communication one 
with another, whereby all may learn. This is 
the reason of the low price of the magazine — 
two dollars a year. If we were to make it a mere 
money speculation, the price would be four dol- 
lars a year. We feel that we have a moi-al 
claim on any good idea from our readers ** with- 
out money and without price." We do not ask 
for long articles, such as high priced magazines 
would expect to pay for, but good hints, and 
perhaps brevity has the advantage. 



Japan Evergreens. — /?. B., Philadelphia^ 
says : *' I do not see that any of you have given 
a reason why the evergreens of Northern Asia 
stood the extent of the past spring's severity 
better than the American natives. Crack that 
nut." 



THE GARDE JEER'S MOJVTELY. January, 



187S. 



TEE aARDEJVER'S MOJVTHLY. 



2S 






31 






[That is a "nut, ''.and well worthy of the 



" There is nothing in the postal law to pro- 



fitudy of those who are engaged in evolving the hibit the enclosure of printed matter in packages 
laws of creation. There never was a better at- of merchandise, proyidecl tho postage is prepaid 



tested fact than that all of the plants of Asia — de- 
ciduous as well as evergreen, stood our last win- 
ter comparatively uninjured, in the midst of the 
terrible destruction among our own trees. 

It has also been demonstrated by the Garden- 
er^s Monthly/ correspondents that the physical 
cause of the loss was the drying out of the 
moisture in the plants faster than the roots could 
supply it. 



thereon — 2 cents for each 2 ounces or fraction of 
2 ounces.'' We suppose under this decision one 
might send packages of circulars or catalogues 
to one address in this way. 

Any wniting^ even an 'alteration," subjects a 
printed article to letter postage. This will ne- 
cessitate our catalogue makers to look sharp af- 
ter the proofreaders. 

Manuscript for magazines, and all other 



This reduces the question to this : why have , manuscript but hook manuscript, can only be 
the plants of Asia a greater power of resisting I sent at letter rates. 

Nothing must be written on the wrapper but the 
address. If printed matter be sent, and "print- 
ed matter'' be written on the wrapper, the whole 
package is subject to letter postage, and the re- 
ceiver pays double letter rates on the whole 
thing. It used to be required to write on the 
wrappers "seeds," "bulbs," "plants,'' and so 



winter evaporation than so many of our own 
trees V 

In connection with this subject may perhaps 
be associated the fact that the plants of the Pa- 
cific coast all do so indifferently in the Eastern 
States, while the plants of the colder parts of 
Asia do so well ; and further may be considered 
the interesting fact so ably devclopi^d by Prof, i on, as a guide to the postmaster to see whether 



Gray in his Dubuque address, that while the 
plants of the Pacific coast rather favor the flora 
of Europe ; that of the Atlantic States favor Ja- 
pan. There is evidently h(.'re a mystery not al- 
together beyond the solution of man ; and we 



these things were so. It will be seen this is for- 
bidden. 

Packages of herbs and roots will only be for- 
warded when the wra[)pcrs arc so arranged that 
the contents may be examined without destroy- 



commend the whole subject to Mr. Darwin, Dr. I i»g or injuring the v.q-apper. 



Gray or Prof. Shaler of Harvard, who have op- 
portunities in the line of their studies for some 
intereslinji discoveries. 



Interpretations of the Postal Laws. — 
As no one can iell the meaning of the postal 
laws by reading them, we have had recourse to • scape gardeners and architects who have heroto- 



Cards, circulars, and ''&c.,'' whatever this 
may be, go at one cent for each two ounces or 
fraction thereof. 

Manuscript drawings are not to be considered 
l)rints or engravings, and so must pay letter 
postage. This will operate badly on our land- 



the general office at Washington. Post offices 
through the country go by these interpretations. 
The decisions affecting horticulturists are : 

Dealers in seeds must prepay two cents for 
each fraction of two ounces. 

Letters not fully paid must pay double the 
prepaid rate which should have been paid, when 
it reaches its destination. 

All merchandize is limited to twelve ounces. 
"The dealer in plants is on the same footing as 
dealers in any other kind of merchandise." 

Chromos and engravings are not merchandise. 
These may go in packages of 4 lbs., at one cent 
for each fraction of two ounces. 

Any, matter contained in a sealed envelope 
must pay letter postage ; even tutting or notch- 
in'; at the end makes no difference. 



fore sent their plans by mail. 

Letters addressed to initials are to be sent to 
the dead letter offices. This will operate against 
gentlemen advertising for gardeners or garden- 
ers advertising for places unknown to each other. 
" Apply to J. B.," or "pro bono publico," or 
any similar sign, will now have to be banished 
from the newspapers. 

Any writing of any character inside a pack- 
age of seeds, plants, grafts or cuttings, subjects 
the whole package to letter postage. Thus one 
may not write the name or in any way desig- 
nate by any "character" the names of the seeds 
or scions sent, unless such characters are prinf- 
ed. Large dealers can print the names, but for 
amateurs and others for who.se use one would 
suppose the law made, will find it troublesome. 



Proof sheets of all descriptions, ex( ept of One can perhaps cut out the ])rinted letters or 



hooks^ must pay letter postage. 



figures in a newspai)er or hand bill and wrap 



around each little piece of graft, and refer in a 
letter to these letters or numbers. 

Another decision says that the government is 
not liable for any mail matter after it is out of 
its control. There are many of us would like to 
know whether it is responsible before it leaves. It 
would be a good many dollars in some of our 
pockeis if it were Tiie Postmaster General evi- 
dently thinks it is responsible by the form in 
which this decision is given. We believe he is 
wrong, but he ought to know best. 

This close our " post office" chapter for to- 
day. There are few matters more worthy of the 
attention of horticulturists than this one of post- 
age, and we feel we need no apology for the 
space we devote to it. 

Since this was written, Messrs. Ilarmer and 
Townsend of the Pennsylvania delegation deter- 
mined to get relief at once, but the difficulty was 
to get rid of " routine." They enlisted General 
Butler of Massachusetts in the cause, who, al" 
ways distinguished in the ways of Parliamentary 
law, got Mr. Townsend's bill an immediate 
hearing. Now the rate and weight are put back 
to last year ; but it is manifest from our abstract 
of "decisions," that the whole code needs a re- 
vision. Let horticulturists still keep the ball 



movmg. 



SiiEPiiERDiA ARGEXTEA. — The Buffalo Berry 
is the plant refened to by E. Y. T., Bichmond^ 
//uZ., in the following: "1 enclose twigs and 
leaves of what I called Nebraska Currant, a na- 
tive of a marshy place in Nebraska. It is said 
to bear enormous crops of fruit almost exactly 
resembling Red Dutch Currant, one kind red and 
one yellow. 1 am told it has many seeds like a 
currant. The plant looks to me like Black Haw. 
Do you know from these what it is ?" 



Express Charges.— We have expensive rea- 
sons for again saying to our correspondents, that 
unless their packages are marked "paid thro','' 
and the receipts marked "paid thro','' in like 
manner the receiver has to pay again. If merely 
marked "paid," the companies insist they are 
only paid in part, and we very often have to pay 
over again as much as the sender originally paid. 
This is especially the case with the Adams\ 



He says: " A monthly paper is almost unen- 
durable to a western man, but the Gardcner^s 
Monthly may possess quality enough to bear 
with it.'' 

[We hoped long a-:;© that the taste for pure 
horticulture as distinguished from mere agricul- 
ture, would advance so as to warrant a first- 
class weekly. When the time comes it will no 
doubt be done. Those who wish for this thing 
must work more for the " love of horticulture" 
than most have been in the habit of doing.] 



Delachampsia Roezeliana is the name of 
the plant referred to below by a "subscriber.'' 
"Will Mr. MeeVian please inform me the botan- 
ical order of the enclosed, 'Delacampia carnea' 
by florists?'* 

[It belongs to the natural order of Euphorhia- 
cecc, of which the common Poinsetta is an illus- 
tration. The flower, properly speaking, is in 
the centre of the heart shaped flesh colored 
bracts ; just as they are in fact in the Poinsetta, 
where the crimson leaves are well known to bo 
but floral bracts. ] 



Value of the Gardener's MoNTnLY.— In 
accordance with our rule, we have no " free 
list. '' We have al wayapreferred a fair list of good 
paying subscribers, than to boast of " our circu- 
lation," when that circulation is half made up 
of 'dead heads," who hardlj' deign to read what 
they do not think worth paying for. Hence the 
publisher feels gratified by the following note from 
one of his " renewals :'' "I have free, three lead- 
ing papers and a hard dry summer to contend with 
and little time to read them ; but still the Month- 
ly comes every time like a flower, fresh and gay, 
and will always be found interesting, old or new. 
I will not give it up. Enclosed is my subscrip- 
tion for 1873. " 



Lime and Ashes for Pears.— JE7. H. S., 
Suspension Bridge, says : "I have applied lime 
and ashes when digging the pear trees in the 
fall, consisting of bones and all sorts of rubbish, 
in the spring close pruning and thinning out of 
branches. Fruit wonderfully improved, especial- 
ly the Seckel variety, which is now No. 1.'' 



A Monthly IIouticultural Paper.—/. 

o., Walhridge, Pa.aski county, Illinois, was told | 
by a friend, and we wish we had hundreds of* 
such friends, that the Monthly might suit him. ' 



Marblehead Squash. — Mr. Gregory writes: 
"I send you a couple of pieces of my new 
squash, 'Marblehead.' I find on an average 
this new sort has a more flinty shell than the 
Hubbard, of a diflercnt color, and is, as a rule, of 



H 



TEE GARDEJ^TER'S MOJVTHLY. January, 



187S. 



THE GAEDEJVER'S MOJTTELY. 



96 



\ 



I 



Ik; 



kii 






a different shape, being flatter on the stem end, 
and has a greater specific gravity ; it combines 
sweetness and dryness more, and keeps longer. 
One capital characteristic is that it is perfectly 
pure from all admixture with any other sorts, 
and none but those who have undertook the 
task of working a badly mixed variety up to a 
standard of comparative purity, can fully appre- 
ciate this. In size and yield it equals the Hub- 
bard. I have tested scores of kinds of squashes 
sent me from every part of the United States 
since first I introduced the Hubbard, but have 
found but this and one other variety worthy of 
being introduced as standard sorts." 

[The above was not intended for publication, 
but we like to help a good thing along— our 
** chief cook,'' to whom we referred this matter — 
And if she does not know, nobody does, asserts 
that it is the best thing out. The editor agreed 
with her at the eating.] 



The Marblehead Squash.— Mr. Gregory 
says : '' I omitted to state when writing of the 
specimen of squash sent on, that they must not 
be confounded with a blue variety that some- 
times grows with the Hubbard, which is a hy- 
brid, and when planted by itself the fact is more 
strikingly shown by the numberless sports that 
come from it. It was made originally by grow- 
ing a thin skinned blue variety along side the 
Hubbard ; we used to call the thin skinned sort 
the Middleton Blue. The new kind I send you 
is on the contrary as remarkable for purity, be- 
ing without exception the purest squash 1 ever 
grew." 

' Plants in Bloom at Rhosynmynydd, the 
suburban residence of J. P. Jones, Esq., Block- 
ley, West Philadelphia, Pa.— October, 1872. 



Sedum 


Japonicum, Stonecrop 




variegata 


. 


BEDDING PLANTS. 


Aloysia 


citriodora. Lemon Verbena , 


Celosia 


cristata. Cockscomb 


Erythrina 


cristagalli, Coral tree 


Petunia 


hybrida 


Ruellia 


formosa 


Salvia 


coccinea, Sage 




splendens 


Verbena 


chamedrse folia 


Viola 


tricolor, Pansy 




SHRUBS IN FLOWER. 


Cydonia 


japouica, Japan Quince 


Eleagnus 


hortensis. Oleaster 


Lonicera 


Belgica, Monthly Honeysuckle 




flexuosa, Chinese 




Ilalleana, Japan 




sempervirens, Trumpet 


Spiraea 


Douglassi 


Rosa 


(Hybrid Perpetual) 




Baron Prevost 




Geant des Battailes 




Jules Margottin 




(Bourbon) 




Souvenir de la Malmaison 




(Indica) 




Archduc Charles 




Hermosa 




Rose 




(Indica fragrans) 




Bougere 




Cells multillore 


GREENHOUSE AND CONSERVATOUY. 



HARDY 

Achillea 
Anemone 

Begonia 
Centaurea 

Chrysanthemum 

Coreopsis 

Erysimum 

Gentiana 

Lychnis 

Phlox 

Plumbago 



HERBACEOUS PLANTS. 

ptarmica. Yarrow 
japonica alba, Wind flower 

rubra 
Evansiana 

Americana, Blue Bottle 
cyanus 

indicum var.. Chusan Daisy 
lanceolata, Tiokseed sunflower 
PeroflTskianum 
Andrewsii, Closed Gentian 
dioica albo pleno. Bachelor's 
paniculata, Lychnidea [Button 
Larpeutse, Lead wort 



Abutilon 



Ageraturo 

Asclepias 

Bouvardia 

Canna 

Cestrum 

Clerodendron 

Cuphea 



Cyclamen 
Daphne 



album, Chinese Bell 

Adolpho Burangere 

niviura 

striatum 

Thompson iana 

vexilarium 

grand iflorum 

Mexicanum, Blue Mist 

curassavica, Swallow wort 

jasminiflora 

triphylla 

indica, Indian Shot 

Warscewiczii 

regale 

japonicum fl. pi. 

Daniolsiana, Cigar flower 

platy<!entra 

strigulosa 

hederajfolium, Sow bread 

odora. Spurge Laurel 



Eupatorium 

Fuchsia 

Geranium 

Jasminum 

Justicia 

Malcomia 

Olea 

Oxalis 



Passi flora 

Plumbago 
Primula 
Russeir.a 
Salvia 



Serissa 



Solanum 

Tricyrtis 

Tropajolum 

Thea 

Veronica 



fruticosum. White Mist • 

coccinea var., Ladies Eardrop 

zonale, Crane's Bill 

grandiflorum, Jasmine 

carnea 

maritima, Virginian stock 

fragrans, Olive 

Bowii, Cape Sorrel 

flabellifolia 

floribunda alba 
rosea 

grand i flora 

intermedia, Passion flower 

Kermesina 

capensis. Lead wort 

sinensis. Primrose' 

juncea 

coccinea. Sage 

involucrata 

splendens 

foetida 

flora pleno 

albo margin a ta 

jasminoides 

variegata 

hirta, Japan Uvularia 

Lobbianum, Indian Cress 

viridis. Tea [well 

Anderson ii, Shrubby 8peed- 



The Catalpa.~P. B. Tt.^ Des Moines, Iowa, 
says: '* The Catalpa grows three feet i3 ft.) 
from seed the first year in Iowa. I have several 
ofthat height (and one 37 inches) raised from 
seed sown about April 20th, on old land 22 years 
in cultivation, and never manured, the only pre- 
paration being to fork it up eleven inches deep 
and rake it fine. 

With other tree seeds I have had only tolera- 
ble success. Better with Norway Spruce, Scotch 
and White Pine than some others. Contrary to 
expectation, I succeeded better with late than 
early sown evergreen seeds. Winter comes ear- 
ly and suddenly ; on the 12th of December I was 
planting trees and shrubs, on the 15th it froze 
up to stay.'» 

[The Catalpa is not only a very rapid grower, 
out the timber in durability is superior to Chest- 
uut. The worst of this tree is that the terminal 
oud gets killed when young, and as a side bud 
has to make a leader, the trunk becomes some- 
what crooked. But this could no doubt be 
remedied by cutting back the young trees to the 
ground when about three years old, when a vert/ 



vigorous straight trunk succeeds. We regard 
the Catalpa as among the most valuable of all 
our timber trees.] 



Propagation of Gloxinias.—/?. S., SL 
Louis, Mo., writes: "Will you please tell me 
where Gloxinia seeds is to be had, and how is 
best to raise them ? I do not see the seed ad- 
vertised. I have a small greenhouse attached 
to my dwelling, and wish to grow some of these, 
having been attracted by their beauty when 
east." 

[These are seldom raised from seed except by 
hybridists who wish to raise new varieties. 
They are propas:ated from leaves. These are 
planted just as one would cuttings, and placed 
in a close atmosphere with a temperature of 
about 70, when a small bulb is formed at the 
base of the leafstalk from which a plant pushes 
up next year.] 



Pitch of a Greenhouse.— e7?io S., Balti- 
more, Md., says : " I am about building a 
small conservatory, and in reading up on the 
subject see it recommended that the roof should 
have an angle of 45^ My carpenter thinks this 
entirely too steep, and as I have no gardener 
who understands this matter— only a good fel- 
low who looks after my horses, and by whose 
aid I expect to manage the little conservatory, I 
apply to you, seeing that you invite all to come 
with their little troubles." 

[We can hardly advise as to the pitch of a 
plant house without knowing the width, aspect, 
kinds of plants to be grown, and so on. It is the 
fault of most books on this subject, that they 
take these things into small account. 45° is 
steep, but for winter flowering a house will get 
more light, and plants will bloom better than in 
a flatter angle. Steep pitches have also other 
advantages. They are stronger, do not get out 
of repair as soon, and less breakage of glass than 
flat houses, and then the drip, which in our cli- 
mate is very troublesome, from condensed moist- 
ure inside, runs down the rafters and ribs of a 
steep house, instead of falling about every whore 
in the other kind. Without knowing what cir- 
cumstances of especial moment might interfere 
to warrant another decision, we should incline 
to say go on with your 45^ angle.] 



Pomology. - A correspondent asks " why we 
do not give more attention to pomology. Draw- 
ings and descriptions of new fruits would make 



I 



! ■'; 



.i 



'I' 

If! 



i' 



K 



w w 



i 




S6 



THE GARDEMEB'S MOJ^TELJ. January, 



the Monthly particularly attractive to some of 
us, at any rate." We believe we give as much 
attention to pomology as to any other depart- 
ment of gardening. Indeed, it has more charms 
for the editor than many other brandies of hor- 
ticulture ; but we mustdifler from friends, if any 
there be who consider "Everybody's Pippin," | 
*' Cute-eye's Beurre," "Amor's Lovely Ann," 
or "Puffem's Delight " as the essence of pomol- 
ogy. We never had much weakness for tliis 
style of literature ; and if we have any sins to 
answer for, it is very likely to be that we did 
give more attention to it in the earlier part of 
our editorial life than it was worth. But we 
notice that other first-class papers have profited 
by experience, as well as we. The Jiaral Neiv 
Yorker, American A(jnmlturisL Countrfj GenilC' 
man, Prairie Farmer, and others which one time, 
like the Gardener's Monthh/, deli,',htcd in "cuts 
and descriptions of new fruits," are all now very 
chary of them, leaving them almost wholly to 
heads le^s gray ; and when one is necessary, it is 
not unlikely they can find a cut to match 
among the old stores on hand. In leed, we are 
quite sure we see "the same old cut" doing 
duty over and over again for lots of 'new 
things." We keep our readers ])03te(l on all 
that we feel satisfied is really new in fruit-cul- 
ture, in its widest sense, but will not lend a hand 
to the multiplication of hundreds of things 
which are of no value in the end. 

We are glad to find that not only our leading 
magazines, but leading horticulturists, are in 
hearty accord with us. One of our leading 
authors, commending our coiirsi^ in this matter, 

sayn : 

" The fruit question is also a puzzle to me - 
that is, to know when and where to stop, and 
what to introduce and recommend, now that so 
many new fruits are coming forward, and I am 
sometimes almost disgusted with it, and think I 
will have nothing more to do with it ; but, as 
people will introduce them and bring them be- 
fore the public in catalogues and various ways, 
I concluile that the better way is to find out 
what is best, adopt it, and let the rest go ; or, 
at any rate, note it as unworthy." 



Stoppage of the Gaudenisr's Monthly. 
—We are informed by a friend, that he inlnnds 
to "stop the Grrdtner's Monthh;'' i\i the con- 
clusion of his present subscription, because an 
article, which the Pennsylvania Horticultural 
Society thought worthy of one of its highest 



premiums, received no notice whatever in our 
report of the October exhibition. 

The October meeting of the Horticultural So 
ciety was held very late in the month. If we had 
waited till the end of the exhibition, we could 
have given no notice of it whatever, as the pub- 
lication of the Monthly at its regular time cannot 
be put off for these things. The notes we made 
were taken before the judges had examined the 
articles on exhibition. Some things were thus 
brought into the room after our examination was 
made, which was a misfortune for the exhibitor, 
but not, we think, our tault. 

It would be a greater blow to our thousands of 
readers and to the publisher than it would be to 
the editor, who would not care at all, to have 
the Monthly thus summarily "stopped ;" and we 
hope, for their sakes, that our injured friend 
will kindly allow tlic Monthly to "so on" 



again, after 



the explanation we have made. 



White Scarlet sage.— A correspondent 
says : " I like your sui^rgestion that the long 
latin name for this new s ige ia entindy too much ; 
but then it seems so absurd to say White Scarlet 
Sage. How can a thiog which is scarlet be 
white? Can you not give us somethmg more 
pleasing to the ear ?" 

[This is rather an old objection for these cases, 
and arises from persons not distinguishing be- 
tween a mere name and the thing itself. There 
is a celebrated English judge by the name of 
Scarlet ; but so far as we know he is never scar- 
let except when he blushes. At all other times 
he is classed with white men -yea 1 a white 
Scarlet. There be also Browns and Blacks, 
and Whites all in the same race— white " Black '» 
men and black " White " men. So also in pro- 
fessions, a "Smith" may be a gardener, and a 
" Knif^ht," who never took up arms in his life, 
but bo the broadest of Quakers. 

One might as well quarrel with the name of 
" Scarlet Sage " itself, for there are hundreds of 
saues as scarlet as this one, and it has no right 
to claim to itself the distinction of the Scarlet 
Sage. Let our friends remember that a name is 
but a sound Its only use in life is to distin- 
cTuish sotnething, and when it does that positive- 
ly, it is a good name.] 

Sending Seeds and Trees by Railroad. 
—if., New York City, says : " I do not know 
why you think the going back a half dozen years 
in our postage laws was not intended to benefit 



1873. 



THE GARDENER'S MOA''TMLY. 



27 



the express companies. You are altogether too 
cliaritable. I happened to be in an express office 
recently as they were changing loads, and the 
number of small parcels with our leading seeds- 
men's brands, was astonishing. 

I hear that thn old stage coach companies are 
taking heart at Mr. Cresswell's new postage law, 
and have some hope of getting Congress to pro- 
hibit certain goods from going by railroad. 
With the railroad and post-office cut ofl', they 



expect jolly times. It is hardly credible that 
the Government will take so retrograde a step as 
this ; but it is not at all unlikely that they may 
abolish the three cent letter rate and go back to 
the old six cent charge Retro, not progression, 
seems the order of the day." 

[Our correspondent writes seriously, but were 
it not for our unfortunate experience witli the 
last postal law, we should think he was in 
jest] 



BOOKS, CATALOGUES, ETC. 



The Fruit Recorder.— No one magazine 
can do everything well. It is always an advan- 
tage when one specialty can be managed so as to 
receive undivided attention. Purdy started a 
paper to be devoted exclusively to small fruits. 
It has ]>roved a complete success, and we note 
that ho is seriously thinking of making it appear 
twice a month. 



Transactions of the Michigan State 
Pomological Society.— We are under obliga- 
tions to Mr. C. J. Dietrich, Secretary, for a copy 
of this handsome and useful publication, which 
came to hand sometime since, —but got removed 
to our library cases from the "book table" be- 
fore we had examined its contents. 



Transactions of the Illinois IForticul- 
TURAL Society for 1872. -From O. B Ga- 
lusha, Secretary, another handsome and useful 
volume highly creditable to all concerned. $1 30 
pays for membership, and membership entitles 
to the report. The discussions and reports are 
very fully given, and afford an excellent inside 
view of pomology as it now is in Illinois. 



Address Delivered at the Opening of 
Humboldt College, Springvale, Iowa, by 
President S. II. Taft. -Nothing interests on.' 
traveling in the far west more than the great 
importance evidently given to education. The 
bare necessities of life are hardly secured, -in 
any new settlement, before the school house 
goes up. and this often proves for some years, 
the handhomest building in the town. But it is 
not only in the mere matter of an education 
which shall in time enable the student to gather 



together the more easily dollars and cents, that 
the western men concern themselves with, but 
the love of truth for its own sake, call it science 
if you will, but it amounts to the same thing, 
seems to have a stronj; foot-hold among these 
people Nothing surprises an eastern man more 
than the knowledge of the science's dis})layed by 
the average of peo])le he meets. The deeper know- 
ledge would probably be found in a few select 
eastern instances, but the general acquaintance 
with these things is a western trait. 

These suggestions occur to us in reading this 
address. Here is a college which has started 
out with the deliberate intention of outshining 
Harvard,— and this too on a tract of land which 
fifteen years ago was but "a howling wilder- 
ness." AVhat is more to the point, they are 
succeeding in getting towards that eminent po- 
sition at a prett} rapid pace. Humboldt College 
is already among the great and wonderful suc- 
cesses of this wonderful west. May it have all 
it desires. What would this country have been 
without Harvard ? What will it be when we 
have a score or so like it ? 



liENNiE's Illustrated Catalogue, Toron- 
to, Canada. — Most catalogues are so very much 
alike, even in their excellencies, that it is seldom 
we can find any with special points which will 
permit of a special notice, but in this very largo 
and full catalogue we note sketches of several 
agricultural implements, which appear to have 
some merit, but which are not in use this side 
of the St. Lawrence to any great extent. 



ViCK's Illustrated Floral Guide.— It is 
a pleasure to liandle so beautiful a catalogue as 



2S 



■■■]. 



m 



TEE GARDE JEER'S MOJVTHLY. January, 



Mr. Vick alwaj's issues,~and then independent- 
ly of its value as a seed catalogue, it is filled 
with directions and bints for ornainentin<y 
grounds, that it is equal to a good garden book 
at the same time. There is a beautiful colored 
plate of the new Japan Cockscomb, which is 
scarlet instead of maroon, as in the common 
kind. Tick's chromo this year is a collection of 
Holland bulbs, very distinct from his former 
ones, but quite as beautiful as any. 



Appendix to Downing's Fruits.— We have 
received this, which gives the fruits named and 
described in various places since the appearance 
of Mr. Downing's large book. 

We find by this that during tlie past three or 
four years we are enriched to the tune of one 
hundred and fifty new apples, and fifty-nine new 
synonyms, which ^ for " pomological" purposes, 
are as good as new varieties. Grapes have be- 
come disgusted, and give us only five new ones. 
Peaches have shown more courage, and have 
brought forth eleven. Pears give thirty-three, 
but America furnishes but six of these. The 
quince has but one improvement ; and the rasp- 



berry but four. In the index we find named the 
apple, grape, peach, pear, quince, raspberry and 
"Susqueco," whatever class of fruit that may 
be,— and shade of W. R. Prince ! no new straw- 
berry I However, the other departments have 
done their share. Mr. Downing deserves the 
thanks of the whole community for his arduous 
labors in keeping us in the run of all these new 
things. But where is it to stop ? Are we to go 
on this way for the next few years ? if so we 
shall have a "new" fruit for each member of the 
community, when a man may not only sit under 
" his own vine and fig tree," but have his own 
variety also. But seriously, if this thing is to 
continue we had better give up naming things 
at all, and each sow seed for himself, for it must 
be evident that if the majority of this immense 
number of fruits was really worth naming, a 
poor fruit in a lot of seedlings must be the ex- 
ception rather than the rule. 



Sequoia and its History, by Prof, Asa 
Gray.— This is the Dubuque address of Presi- 
dent Gray, issued in neat pamphlet form by the 
Essex Institute, Salem, Mass. 



NEW AND RAllE FRUITS. 



The Duke of Buccleuch Grape.— After | 
what has already been said in favor of this 
Grape, it may appear unnecessary to add any- 
thing in its favor. I am, however, of opinion 
that those who have spoken well of it in other 
respects, underrated its keeping qualities. I am 
led to Ray so from having on the l*2th inst. seen 
a bunch, of it at the Tweed Vineyard, in a good 
state of preservation. Some of the berries were 
showing signs of shrivelling, still the bunch was 
in a presentable condition, and, considering that 
it was ripe early in July, the flavor, to my taste, 
was decidedly good. The Duke is undoubtedly 
a stroMg grower, when compared with other 
standard varieties growing side by side with it 
Its superiority in this respect is very evident. 
My visit to the Tweed Vineyard was of a hur- 
ried nature, a circumstance I much regret, as 
any one interested in Vine or Pine growing 
could not fail to benefit by a thorough examina- 
tion ©f llie various structures devoted at this 
place to the culture of these fruit*. The Lady 



Dowue's house is at the present time worth 
going a day's journey to sec. Fancy a span- 
roofed house 200 feet long by 25 wide, furnished 
on each side from floor to ridge-board with an 
extra heavy crop of Grapes, as black as Sloes, 
and fine both in bunch and berry as regards size, 
and you have a Grape picture not to be seen 
every day.— J. H., Brayton, in Gardener''$ 
Chronicle, 



Black's Early Peach.— Z. writes : ** Your 
correspondent will find an engraving and a full 
description of Black's Extra Early Peach, by 
Dr. J. Stayman, in the Poinologist and Garden- 
er of 1871, September number, page 217. Als» 
a notice of it ia the appendix to Downing's. 
Fruits and Fruit Trees, of 1872. ' 

[We now remember the introduction, and 
that we were so much disgusted with the state- 
ment thai it was '' ten days earlier than Hales,'* 
that we made no note of it for the Gardener's 
Monthly as we generally do of "likely " things. 



TEE GARDE JEER'S MOJ\fTHLY. 



1873. „_ „„ „ 

39 

It is strange that all these wonders should be | smel7fra!?ranf nnH fw \ ' 

just ten days in advance. Won't some one have I sample Mr Tm^h T n ■""" '^"'"*°'- '^"^ 
the goodness to vary this thing a little -nine or ' tJ^J.l:f , ''"' '*"' "'' '"^^ '""^en ^om 

even nine and a half would b^ a chan-r o^Tf I ' T" •■'''''"2- "« «ay« h" has been 

tenisnottobethelimitjetitbe etvef butin k'n^'T''"'^^^ '"^"^ *^«« "^ ^^"0«» 

any event do not keep he raise ev rriime 1° It' "l"™!^'''^'' incidentally that he found 



more money in the cultivation of the soil than in 
any other pursuit he had ever engaged in.- 
Petersburg Messenger. 



New Seedlikg Strawberry._i have re- 

cently received from G. Cowing, of Muucie Ind I n 
a box of his Seedling strawberry, contLinin^ I .^fO^^^^Of™ Park Peak. -This new En- 
some of the largest berries I have ever seen The ' f"^" P'^="">which has already been noticed in the 
fruit is produced in immense clusters, berries ' ^^''"""f' ^PP^'*'"^ ^ keep up a high reputation 
frequently irregularly flattened, is of dark red i '° ^"§'^"''- 



color, firm texture, sprightly, not very acid fla- 
vor, and excellent. The plant is an extraordi- 
narily strong grower, and apparently more har- 
dy than most varieties, and I hope will be a 
valuable addition to the small list of varieties 



Alexander Peacil-Wc noticed some time 
a^o a peach raised by Messrs. Jabez Capps & 
teons and by a plate now before us we find it 
has been named the Alexander. If the colored 



,...«c.„.v. c.v^«xtiuu Lu uic smaii iist or varieties "'"'' '^^'^^ uamea Uia Alexander. If the colored 
that are really adapted to general cultivation 'A ^^^^^ ^^ correct, (and as it is made by Prestele 
but of course it will require an extended trial in i '^^ "^^Y assume that it is) it is the most beautil 
different localities to prove its general value, i ^"^ ^^^"S in the peach way we have ever seen It 
Mr. Cowing is an intelligent amateur, who has ; ^^^^'^^ ^^ ^^'^^e shaded stripes like an apple -and 
given many years to the cultivation of strawber- ! '^I'^ost as dark as a Red Astrachan. Indeed 



Ties, and selected this as the best from among 
many thousand seedlings, and after years of 
watching, has full confidence in its value. I 
believe he has no plants for sale at present.— E. 
Y. Teas in Country Oentleman. 



Via Seedling.— We have received from Ur. 
W. T. Justice, of Lunenburg County, samples 
of a fine looking apple called the Via Seedling, 
for which he will please accept our best thanks 



except of course it is not as large, one mi-ht 
suppose that an apple like the Alexander, sucr, 
gested its name. " 



Delicious Pear-A correspondent in north- 
ern Maryland, sends us a box of Pears and a 
letter, saying '* don't publish,'' which is rather 
a hard hint for an editor. There is perhaps no 
harm in saying that at this date, December 20 
the pears are being eaten, and that they are' 
equal to Seckels, and are about the same size 



NEW AND EARE PLANTS. 



New Bicolor Geranium, »* Pride op 
Mount HoPE.>'-It is a seedling of Messrs. 
*|Uwanger & Barry, and a cross between Buist's 
i^eauty and the well-known Mrs. Pollock ; foli- 
age large and of a brilliant yellow color, with a 
^road chocolate zone. Unlike all other Bronze 
geraniums we have yet seen, this succeeds best 
^nuer the hottest sun; the bright colors of the 
aveg do not appear on plants grown in the 
«naae or under glass. Its vigorous habit and 
^^chly colored foliage will make it, we think a 



very effective and valuable plant for borders, 
edgings, &c. ** It is certainly far more effective 
than any tricolor or bicolor yet introduced,'* is 
a reliable English opinion of it. 



ACHYRANTHUS Casei— During the summer 
of 1871, Mr. Case, of Richmond, Ind., secured a 
Sport from Achyranthus Lindenii, very similar 
in its markings to Achyranthus Aurea Reticu- 
lata, but differing from Achyranthus Aurea Re- 
ticulata in haying perfect leaves, like the origi- 



ii 



]'< 



^1 



If: 



I 



I 



iii 



H; 



Iii! 



so 



TEE GARDEJSTER'S MOJ^TELY. January, 



nal Achyranthus Lindenii. It stood the sun 
well during the past summer, retaining its color, 
and every way proved, Mr. Case says, a good 
bedding plant 

New Magenta Primrose. Lady Madel- 
ine Taylour (Knox)— Mr. Cannell, in his En- 
glish Catalogue, says :— Who, when they first 
see the clear old English Primrose showing its 
bright yellow bloom, can help but welcome it as 
the herald of approaching spring, and feel that 
stern and dreary winter has passed and gone, 
and that the glorious and flowery summer is near 
at hand ; but how much more is that beautiful 
yellow emblem surpassed by the introduction of 
the above splendid bright magenta colored vari- 
ety, which valuable kind was raised in Ireland ; 
its habit of growth and freoness of bloom is in 
every way similar to the yellow variety, it is 
figured in the Floral Worlds and considered by 
the editor of that periodical, who had a plant 
submitted to him for inspection, to be one of the 
choicest hardy gems of new plants this year. 
A great acquisition for spring bedding. 



* Kew Hardy Hybrid Fuchsias.— Under 
this head the English papers are advertising a 
race of Fuchsias, as having ''stood" the En- 
glish *' winters of 1871 and '72. '' Of course they 
will not stand the winters of the Northern and 
Middle States of America, but will be much more 
hardy than the ordinary classes of greenhouse 
Fuchsias. These originated with the writer of 
this paragraph in 1841, with Fuchsia fulgens, a 
tender Brazilian species as one of its parents ; 
**St. Clare,'* the best selection of the seedlings 
from this cross, being first in the field. These 
later races have been raised between hardier 
species, and will bear considerable frost, provi- 
ded it be in an atmosphere not very dry, in 
which frost is much more trying to plants. 

The following are the names and characters of 
BO me of these sub-hardy kinds : 

Bland's Hardy Hi^brid No. 1— Is a per- 
fect Qlobosa in shape, and when its buds are 
about to burst exceeds in this respect the old va- 
riety ; free graceful habit ; flowers of a fine col- 
or ; growth from 4 to 8 feet high. 

Bland's Hardy Hybrid No. 2- A most 
profuse blooming variety, medium size ; flowers 
of bright color, evidently the result of a cross 
with the old Gracilis; it grows up to quite a 
bush, and is particularly attractive. 

Bland's Hardy Hybrid No. 3— Somewhat 



similar, but a very late, small, and abundant 
bloomer. For a mild climate, and fine autumn 
months in England, it is a most valuable out- 
door variety. 

Bland's Hardy Hybrid No. 4— Has the 
largest blooms, and evidently a fine cross with 
Glohosa tind Try Me '0; its large unexpanded 
and perfectly round pods and small tubes give a 
very striking appearance-, strong grower, and 
a profuse bloomer. A fine out-door variety, and 
for shrubs and hedges this must ultimately form 
a conspicuous object in our garden decoration. 

Longiflora (species}.— This hardy variety 
appears to have been introduced many years ago 
into the garden of II. Doubleday, Esq., of Ep- 
ping, Essex ; and although possessing great 
beauty, stmng vigorous habit, and produces 
abundance of long pendulous blooms of the 
brightest coral scarlet ; glossy and ornamental 
'foliage. It appears to be totally unknown in 
this country, and in consequence of its long flow- 
ers I have named it as above. It is certainly one 
of the best hardy species that we possess, and 
ought to be in every garden, says Mr. Cannel, 
whose language we use. 



The Knowfield Beech.— Every one knows 
the beauty of the Blood-leaved Beech. This new 
variety is advertised in England at a high figure. 
It is said to have stripes of green and gold, 
through the regular blood colored leaves. The 
little plants are $5.00 each. It is said to have been 
a sport from a blood leaved Beech, and hab main- 
tained its character under propagation. If it 
comes out as it is represented, it ought to be one 
of the finest things ever introduced. 



New Dahlias.— Mr. Gerhard Schmitz, the 
amateur Dahlia fancier of Philadelphia, still con- 
tinues in the good work of improving his favor- 
ite flower. We have before us a list of twenty- 
four new ones for 1873. One thing we do not 
understand is, why names should be so scarce 
that two should have the same. Here we have 
'* Ceres, rose shaded white ;" and another^ 
"Ceres, orange shaded buff." Is this a typo- 
graphical error, or what ? 



Amaranthus salicifolius.— This new plant 
of last year did not please in the early part of 
the season ; but in the f^ill, when it change! the 
color of its upper leaves, it became a great fa- 
vorite. 



187S. 



THE GARDEJ^ER'S MOJ^THLY. 



31 



HORTICULTURAL NOTICES. 



AMERICAN POMOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

Fourteenth Session, to be held at Boston^ 

Mass., on Wednssday, Thursday and 

Friday, the 10th, ll(h and 12th of 

September. 1873. 

Dear Sir :— 

In view of making the next above-named 
meeting a complete success, and with regard to 
the probability of a large attendance, we respect- 
fully ask of you to suggest a system of orders or 
rules for its daily sessions. 

If you have any special item upon which you 
wish a discussion, please name it distinctly ; and 
at the same time, state how much time, in your 
opinion, ought to be occupied by it. 

If you have any names of persons whom you 
think should be on the Committees, please name 
them and state the Committee upon which they 
should be placed. 

Please address your reply to F. R. Elliott, 
Cleveland, Ohio, to be received on, or before the 
2d day of January, 1873. 

Marshall Pinckney Wilder, 
F. R. Elliott, President. 

Secretary, 



MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL 

SOCIETY. 

The Fourteenth Annual Meeting of this Socie- 
ty will be held at Jefierson City, on Tuesday, 
"Wednesday, Thursday and Friday, January 
7th, 8th, 9th and 10th, 1873. Delegates are cor- 
dially invited from other State and local Horti- 
cultural Societies, and a full attendance of the 
Farmers, Fruit Growers and Gardeners of Mis- 
souri is earnestly solicited, and all lovers of Hor- 
ticulture are requested to be present and partici- 
pate in the discussions of the meeting. 



. PENNSYLVANIA FRUIT GROWERS' 

SOCIETY. 
The Fourteenth Annual Meeting of this flour- 
ishing society, will be held in the city of Read- 
ing, Pa., commencing January 15, 1873, at 2 
clock P. M. Visitors to the meeting are re- 
quested to bring with them such fruits as they 



may possess. New varieties of merit are speci- 
ally desired, and improved horticultural imple- 
ments will also be regarded as appropriate. The 
following will be the order of business : 

Election of Officers ; Report of the General 
Fruit Committee, &c. 

Address by the President. New and unfin- 
ished business. 

The remainder of the sessions will be devoted 
to discussions on the following topics, as report- 
ed by the Committee on Business. Gentlemen 
whose names are affixed to each, are expected to 
open the same with a short essay or impromptu 
address. 

1st. What is the most economical kind offence 
for farms, orchards, or gardens, and what is the 
best method of treating live fences ?~TiiOMAS 
Meeiian. 

2nd, What is the best time to plant fruit trees? 
— T. B. Jenkins. 

3rd. What is the best preparation of ground 
for an orchard ?— H. M. Engle. 

4th. What is the most profitable way of man- 
aging a fruit orchard and garden ?— E. Satter- 

THWAIT. 

5th. What is the best method of manurinsr 
fruit trees ?— T. M. Harvey. 

6th. What new or little known varieties of 
pears or apples are believed to be worthy of more 
notice ?— Tobias -Martin. 

7th. How does water benefit plants ; how do 
plants feed ; and has science aided fruit-culture ? 
—J. S. Stauffer. 

8th. What method of propagating grapes pro- 
duces the healthiest plants ; has grape-growing 
jiroved profitable ; has any grape introduced 
since the Concord, been generally reliable ; and 
why have so many gaapes failed ?— F. F. Mer- 

CERON. 

9th. How can we best promote the interests 
of fruit-growing ?— A. S. Fuller. 

10th. Is it profitable to beautify one's 
grounds ?— Chas. H. Miller. 

11th. What are the must profitable modes of 
securing fertilizers for the soil ?— Willeam 
Saunders. 

12th. What are the best methods of ripening 
and preserving pears ?— Samuel W. Noble. 

13th. Is underdraining profitable ?—H. T. 
Williams, 



r 



82 



THE GARDEJ^EB'S MOJfTHLY. January, 



1 1 I 



fi I 



f' ■■*' 



ilnrff 



14th. What are the most troublesome weeds 
to the fruit grower, and should there be laws en- 
acted for weed extermination ?— Wm. Parry. 

15th. Are there any advantages to be derived 
from shelter belts around orchards V — J. Hib- 

BARD BARTRAM. 

Each member of the Society will be expected 
to hand to the Secretary, at the opening session 
a written answer to the following question, and 
the result will be announced before the adjourn- 
ment of the convention, viz : — What are the best 
six Apples, six Pears, six Peaches, two Straw- 
berries, and two Grapes for Eastern Pennsyl- 
vania ? 



WESTERN NEW YORK HORTICUL- 
TURAL SOCIETY. 

We very much regret that we do not receive 
notices of the meetings of the various Horticul- 
tural and Pomological Societies, to serve them by 
a notice of the time and place of meeting in 
these columns. There are some, we suppose, 
which do not feel that any notice is of any value 
to them ; but, on the other hand, we know that 
there are others who imacjine that when their 
efforts are unnoticed, it is because the Garden- 
€r's 3Ionthly is indifferent to their success, when 
really it is the fault of the Societies themselves, 
in not furnishing us with early information. 

Just as we go to press, we receive the circular 
of the Western Horticultural Society of New 
York. It is to be held at Geneva, commencing 
January 8th. People do not generally "get up 
and go," but like to arrange their little trips a 
week or two in advance. W<e hardly suppose, 
therefore, that any of our readers will be able to 
go after receiving this number; but, to show 
our new friends that we wish to serve them if 
they will only give us the news in time, we ap- 
pend below, as a matter of interest, the titles of 
the subjects they intend to discuss : 

FRUITS. 

Apples. — 1. What is the best way to keep 
Apples for family use ? On shelves, in boxes, 
barrels, &c., &c.? 2. What new varieties of 
Apples promise well ? 

Pears.— 1. What are the best six market 
Pears ? Discussion and ballot. 2. How late 
«hould winter Pears be gathered as compared 
with Apples, and what is the best mode of keep- 
ing ? 3. Is the cultivation of the Dwarf Pear 
becoming more successful in general ? 4. What 
new varieties give promise of excellence and 
value ? 



Plums, Peaches and Cherries. — 1. What are 
the best market sorts ? 2. What new sorts pro- 
mise well ? 

Small Fruits. —1. Which of the small fruits 
are most profitable for market culture ? 2. What 
experience have we of the superior value of 
small fruits with extra care of raising and pack- 
ing for market, as compared with ordinary man- 
agement ? 3. What new varieties of Strawberry, 
Raspberry, Gooseberry, &c., promise well ? 

Ompes. — 1. What does recent experience sug- 
gest in regard to the proper distance for setting 
Grapes in the vineyard V 2. What are the great- 
est crops that vines can safely bear at different 
ages ? 3. What is the experience of the past 
year with the newer sorts— the lona, the Eume- 
lan, the Rogers' Hybrids, the Arnold's Hybrids, 
Underbill's, &c. ? 

Nuts. — 1. Can any of the Nuts be grown here 
with profit ? 

Dryincf Fruits. — 1. Has there been any recent 
improvement in the method of drying fruits and 
vegetables, by artificial heat? 2. Is it likely 
that the drying by artificial heat will greatly in- 
crease the demand for fruits ? 3. Can Raisins 
be successfully made from any of our Grapes ? 

Insects. — 1. What insects are most injurious to 
fruits and fruit trees, and how destroyed? 2. 
What is the best contrivance for destroying the 
Curculio ? 3. What new facts have we relative 
to the Codling Moth ? 

ORNAMENTAL TREES AND PLANTS. 

1. What was the cause of so much injury to 
Evergreen trees in the winter of 1871 and '72 ? 

2. What newly or recently introduced orna- 
mental trees, shrubs or plants are worthy of 
special commendation ? 

3. What are the best six and twelve orna- 
mental foliaged plants for garden decoration in 
summer, especially for ribbon-gardening ? 

4. What are the best large foliaged plants for 
what is called subtropical-gardening ? 

GENERAL SUBJECTS. 

1. What experiments have been made in re- 
gard to thinning fruits, and results on crops, 
prices in market and condition of trees ? 

2. Is there any encouragement for the produc- 
tion of new varieties of fruits and ornamental 
trees, plants and flowers by hybridizing ? 

3. Have we made any real advancement in the 
improvement of fruits during the past ten years ? 

4. Is it not the duty of nurserymen, fruit- 
growers, &e., to contribute more freely of their 
experience to the horticultural press ? 




dard^iur's 




on tit I u. 



DEVOTED TO 



Horticultitre, Arboriculture, Botany and Rural Affairs^ 



EDITED BY THOMAS MEEHAN. 



Old Series, Vol. XV. FEBBUARJ, 1873. NC'^ Series. Vol. VL No. 2 



HINTS rOK FEBHUAEY. 



FLOWER GARDEX AND PLEASURE 

GROUND. 

Very few of our readers, except of those who 
have been in Europe, know what standard roses 
are. There is in Europe a species of wild rose 
known as the Dog Rose, one closely allied to the 
sweet brier, but which has a very hard woody 
stem. These are collected from the woods when 
about one inch in diameter, and cut back to 
about five or six feet from the roots. Near 
where the head is cut off from three to five 
shoots are left to grow during the next season, 
and when the proper time comes in the summer, 
these are buflded with any kinds desired. Thus 
they make heads on these straight stiff stems, 
and are then standard roses. In this country 
no great success has followed their introduction. 
In the first place the majority of our pretty va- 
rieties are not hardy enough, and in the next, 
the hot dry suns evaporate the juices so rapidly 
that not enough gets to the growing head. The 
circulation up the stems becomes obstructed, 
and while the head becomes^ weakened, the sap 
which wants to get up the stem and cannot, 
finds a vent in a crop of suckers, which still 
more divert the course of the sap from the head, 
and thus the plant we have grafted and cared 
for, soon dies out. Many have often regretted 
that we cannot have standard rosjshere as they 
have in Europe, and yet we now find Europe- 
ans getting up an outcry against the whole 
thing. For our part we feel that the standard 
rose business has been overdone in the old 
world, and should be sorry to see them succeed 
here to the extent they are used there ; and yet 
we like a little of this kind of art in our garden 



arrangements, and feel that we have much too 
little of it. 

So far as the rose itself is concerned, the Dog 
Rose as we have said, does not well suit our cli- 
mate ; but it is said just as good stocks can be 
made of our Prairie Rose. This is worth trying. 
The Prairie Rose strikes as easy as the Manetti, 
and it would not be hard to get up a good sup- 
ply of them. Not only the rose, but many other 
striking objects can be had by grafting things 
" standard high," and in other ways. It is this 
principle which gives value to the Kilmarnock 
Weeping W^illow and similar trees. Besides 
this, much may be done by training up trailing 
things to a certain height, and then leaving 
them to take care of themselves. The trailing 
junipers treated this way, make very pretty ob- 
jects ; and the Chinese Wistaria is particularly 
grand. While however we favor this artificial 
style to some extent, one must be careful of too 
much trimming and pruning Some places are 
laughing stocks to every person of true taste — 
every thing sheared and cut into one regular 
formal shape all over the ground. 

As a general rule evergreens please best when 
they are close and densely clothed with foliage. 
If one has thin open trees they can be made into 
the most enviable specimens by a judicious use 
of the kuife. As soon as the frost has probably 
departed is an excellent time to do this. Cut 
back the growth of last year to within a few 
inches of where it started from. It is very essen- 
tial, however, to remember that the whole plant, 
leading shoot included, must be done at one time. 
It is particularly essential that the leader be 
shortened. A new one will push, and generally 



• .1 



■«« . 





I 



34 



THE GARDEJSTER'S MOJ^THLY. February, 



will grow straight ; if not, a little art will help 
it. Several leaders will come out sometimes, 
but of course all must be sprouted off but one. 
By this simple treatment, any dilapidated old 
scrub may be brought to the perfection of beau- 
ty, if it have not lost its lower branches, when 
of course, it is beyond grace to restore. Prun- 
ing of all kinds should be got through with as 
soon as possible— the earlier this is done the 
stronger will plants push in spring. Nothing 
weakens trees or shrubs more than to be cut 
severely just as the new growth is pushing. 

Rustic adornments very often highly embel- 
lish grounds. These can be made of split wood 
nailed to board frames. The worst feature is that 
they rot away so soon in our climate as scarcely 
to serve long enpugh for the labor. To guard 
against this every part of the frame work should 
be tarred or painted, and the pieces used for the 
fancy work should be stripped of its bark, and 
painted of various shades of color to represent 
natural shades of bark. The effect is not so 
striking as when the bark is left on, but we have 
to sacrifice a little to permanence. 

In those parts of the Union where frost is over, 
February is the great planting month, but do 
not plant immediately after the frost leaves the 
soil ; wait till it dries a little, when you can 
tread the soil firmly about the roots without risk 
of rendering it hard as it dries more. If circum- 
stances make it necessary to plant in wet soil, 
do not press the soil much until it gets drier. It 
is important to have the so' I well pressed about 
the roots, but it injures soil to press it when 
wet. 

As soon as the frost leaves the ground, the 
lawn should be rolled with a heavy roller, while 
it is yet soft ; this will make it have a smooth 
surface, take out many small inequalities, and 
press again into the soil the roots of the finer 
grasses which the frost may have drawn out. 
AVhere new lawns have to be made next spring, 
the seeds should be sown as early in March as 
possible, and the ground should be prepared for 
that now, if opportunity offers. For a good lawn 
the soil should be loosened at least twenty inches 
deep, and be well enriched with stable-manure, 
where practicable, in preference to any concen- 
trated preparations. Guano, super-phosphates, 
<fec., are well enough ; but they do not give the 
soil that/t'6re, or lend it i\\2it porosity by which it 
retains moisture and air, so essential to perfect 
vegetation. 



FRUIT GARDEN. 

Grape Vines are of course all pruned and tied 
up. Just as the buds are bursting the steel blue 
beetle attacks them. Hand killing is the remedy. 
AVhere Grape Vines are to grow fast, use twiggy 
stakes or wire trellis for them to cling to. It is 
as good as manure. Also in planting Grapes be 
sure to have a dry bottom. The best security 
against wet roots is to raise the soil above the 
level of the surface. Also the drier the soil the 
richer it may be without risk of injury. Organic 
manures sour rapidly in wet places, and injure 
fibres. 

Remember to keep a sharp lookout for the 
root insect — the Pliylloxiera It is impossible to 
estimate the importance of this discovery. It is 
believed that most of the failures arise from this 
root insect, and the man who shall succeed in 
discovering a cure will be one of the great bene- 
factors to grape culture. We noted some time 
ago that it could be drowned out. Forty-eight 
hours under water will kill them ; but this can 
be done only when the plants are not growing. 
Forty-eight hours under water to a growing 
vine will kill it as well as the insect. We hardly 
expect much will be done in this way this year. 
It will take the whole season for those who are 
interested to become familiar with the insect. 
They say that though so minute, it will rapidly 
take every part of bark from the roots, leaving 
them powerless to supply food to the plants. 

The rule, in pruning grape-vines, is to shorten 
the shoots in proportion to their strength ; but if 
the advice we have given informer summer hints 
has been attended to, there will be little dispro- 
portion in this matter, as summer pinching of 
the strong shoots has equalized the strength of 
the vine. Those who are following any particu- 
lar system will, of course, prune according to 
the rules comprising such system. As a general 
rule, we can only say, excellent grapes can be 
had by any system of pruning ; for the only ob- 
ject of pruning in any case is to get strong 
shoots to push where they may be desired, or to 
increase, with the increased vigor of the shoot, 
which pruning supposes will follow the act, in- 
creased size in the fruit it bears. 

Gooseberries and Currants should have their 
weaker shoots thinned out, and a little of those 
left, shortened. It makes the fruit much larger. 
The foreign varieties mildew badly unless grown 
where the roots will be moist and cool in sum- 
mer, but not wet. All these mountain or high 
northern races, want a < ool summer aoil. Wit!) 



187S. 



THE GARDEJVER'S MOJVTHLr. 



36 



the exception of the Cluster there has not been 
much improvement on the Houghton's Seedlint^ 
which is the most popular of the more hardy 
American class Of Currants the Red and 
White Dutch and Versaillaise are we think still 
the best. 

Of Strawberries, Wilson's Albany remains the 
rr.oiit generally popular ; deficient in flavor, as it 
undoubtedly is. Of course they 'may be set 
out now," if the spring has cone, but such hints 
are almost too stereotyped to be of service to our 
readers. 

Of the Fruit Garden for February we may say 
in a general wny— Raspberries and Blackberries 
may be planted towards the end of the month ; 
they should be cut down to within a foot of the 
ground at planting ; they will of course, not then 
bear the next season after planting. But this is 
a benefit ; no fruit tree should be allowed to bear 
the same season. In planting these have a care 
of deep planting, Even two inches lower than 
the roots are is often fatal. Plant on a dry day, 
barely cover the roots ; but beat or press the soil 
very hard and firm. 

As to tjie best varieties of fruits to plant, that 
is a question which a work, intended as ours is 
for the whole United States, cannot answer. 
We are continually publishing fruit lists adapted 
to the different sections in the body of our work, 
aed to them we rfer. 



VEGETABLE GARDEN. 

In the Middle States, the work for February 
will, for the most part, consist of preparations 
for future operations, and particularly for deal- 
ing with the manure question. All those kinds 
that are grown for their leaves or stems, require 
an abundance of nitrogenous manures, and it is 
useless to attempt vegetable gardening without 
it. To this class belong cabbage, lettuce, spin- 
ach, etc. The other class which is grown prin- 
cipally for its seeds or pods, as beans, peas, etc., 
do not require much manure of this character, 
in fact, they are injured by it. Ic causes too 
great a growth of stem and leaf, and the earli- 
uess— a great aim in vegetable growing— is inju- 
riously affected. Mineral manures, as wood 
ashes, bone-dust, etc., are much better for them. 
For vegetables requiring rich stable manure, it 
IS best that they have it well rotted and decayed. 
Nothing has yet been found so well fitted for the 
purpose as old hot-bed dung ; theugh to the 
8mell no trace of " ammonia " remains in it. 

One of the most interesting parts of a vegeta- 



ble garden is a hot bed for starting seeds early. 
I The end of the month will be time enough for 
; those who have not command of a large supply 
! of stable mixnure, as the very low temperature 
we often get at the end of the month, soon ab- 
, sorbs all the heat the hot-bed possessed. It is in 
! any event best to put up the beds in the warm- 
j est and most sheltered spots wo can find, and to 
j keep co'd winds from che manure, by covering it 
with branches of trees, or mats ; and the glass 
I should always be covered with mats at night. 
I Tomatoes, egg-plants, peppeis and cucumbers, 
I are the first seeds to be sown this way. Cooler 
, frames can be got ready for cauliflower, lettuce, 
beets, celery and Early York cabbage, a little of 
; which may be sown about the end of the month 
; for the earliest crops. The Cauliflower is a par- 
I ticuhirly valued vegetable, and no expense spared 
! to get them in perfection will be regretted when 
i one's efforts are successful. 
1 Thrse who have hot-beds will now sow Toma- 
toes, Egg-plants, Peppers, and other vegetables 
: that can be forwarded by this means ; and those 
I who have not, will sow them in boxes or pans, 
1 and forward them in windows. Every garden 
ought to have at least a few hot-bed sashes to 
; forward early vegetables ; for if they liave no 
I means of applying artificial heat to them, the 
I sash will of itself forward some things consider- 
ably. 
j Many parties like to have Turnips sown in 
spring. The only way to succed with them is 
j to sow as early as possible, and on a very rich 
piece of ground, where they may grow speedily. 
If they do not swell before the hot weather 
I comes, they will certainly run to seed. 
I About the middle or end of the month, or still 
' later at the North— say the middle of March— 
, Celery and late Cabbage may be sown. Here 
j we usually sow the second week in March. 
I All gardens should have beds of herbs. They 
I are always looked for in the fall, and nearly al- 
ways forgotten in the spring. Now is the time 
to plant Thyme, Sage, Mint, Balm, and other 
perennial herbs, and Parsley and other seeds of 
hardy kinds may be sown. When we say now, 
it is of course understood to mean where the 
frost has evidently broken up for the season. 
Our readers in less favored climes will not forget 
it when it does. ^ 

In the anxiety to have early crops, people often 
work the ground while it is wet. But nothing 
is gained, not until it will powder, when it is dug 
is it fit for turning up. 



36 



THE GARDEJ^ER'S MOJiTHLY. February, 



1873. 



THE GARDEJ\rER'S MOJVTHLl. 



37 









i , 




?1 



» 



Hit!. 



I 



C M M U N I C A T I N S. 



NOTES ox SOME HARDY IIEHBACEOUS 

PLANTS. 

py JOHN DUNCAN, LEXINGTON, KY. 
THE LARGE LEAVED SAXIFRAGES. 

8. Stiacheyi.— This, well marked species is fig- 
ured in the "Botanical Register '' under the 
name of S. ciliaia of Royle, which it is not. It 
differs from true S, ciliata in having glabrous 
leaves, and also in the circumstance that here 
the leaves are sessile, that is willnnit stalks. 
The blossoms are arranged in good large pani- 
cles, and present themselves in spring. The 
corolla is white, or sometimes with a plight in 



of the most commanding objects that can be put 
upon rockwork. An idea of what a good speci- 
men of this kind is like, may be conveyed by the 
fact that I have measured leaves two and a half 
feet long, inclusive, of course, of the stalk, the 
blade on such being from twelve to fourteen 
inches across. It is not evergreen. The blos- 
soms are in panicles, and coming early in spring 
before the leaves, are not near so effective as 
they would be were the leaves evergreen. The 
petals, though uncommonly pile in color, arc 
nevertheless very pretty. Branches are pro- 
duced pi 'utifully, and by means of these it is 



fusiou of rose color. The plant is a native of the , quite easy to increase the stock; and the opera- 
Himalaya Mountains, quite hardy in England, ! tion should bo i)crrormed early in autumn or in 
and I expect will prove the same in this coun- spring, after flowering is over. Almost any 
try when introduced, which it well deserves to be. ' kind of earth will do, but there must be no stag- 
It is evergreen, admirably adapted to rockwork \ nant water. The best carlh is a rich loam, con- 
decoration as well as pot culture, and its in- ' taiuing a good amount of leaf mould —and I re- 
crease and general treatment is the same as that i peat again, every care must be taken to have the 
required to do Justice to IS. ciliata. I never drainage good. A neglect of this precaution is 
saw our present subject except at Kew Gardens, . sure to result fatally, and may further lead to 
En<yland, ! the erroneous belief that this sort is tender. A 

S. purpurascens.-Tlurc are only live large , native of the coldest parts of the Himalayas, and 
leaved species of the present genus in cultiva- j pretty common in the gardens of Europe, 
tion, and this is by far most handsome, ami j S. lirjulata.—lt is not easy to see to what part 
amongst the rarest of all. The leaves are ever- I of the jdant this specific name has reference, 
green and (luite destitute of hairyness on any ' An evergreen which flowers in spring, and does 
part, and in these two respects they may be said ' so perhaps more freely than any allied sort. The 
to resemMe theleaves of >S cra.ssi/o/m, but in the I leaves are inversely egg-shaped, stalked, and 
kind (ui(!< r consideration the leaves are simply ; hairy along the edges only. This last character 
ovat ■. the broadest part, of course, below the i separates our subject from S. ciliata^ which, 



middle, whereas in S. crassffoUa the leaves are 
obovate or inversely egg-shaped, the broadest 
part being nearer the extremity than the base of 
the blade. And besides, to the experienced aye, 
the flowers can yield important aid in distin 



strange as it may appear when one thinks of the 
name, is hairy all over, and as S. jri.rpura.^cens 
and S, crissifolia arc completely destitute of all 
hr^iryness from them also. Also our subject may 
be known from S. .sUackeyi by the well defined 



guishing the kind before us from the one with j stalks, present here, but absent there The 



which w^! have been comparing it. The blos- 
soms come early in spring, and all their parts 
are of a deep red or purple color, bright and 
beautifu , and in this way even the peduncles 
an; tinted down to the very base. A native of 
the Uimal.iyas, and probably |^ould be hardy in 
America to which it has not yai, I presume, 
been introduci'd. As regards culture, propaga- 
tion, etc., it should be dealt with according to 
the details given below for S. ciliata. 

S. ciliata - This tar sur[>asses all its relatives 
as regards IMi ige, and on this account forms one 



(corolla of a rose is not unfrequently a purple col- 
or, and the inflorescence a panicle. For partic- 
ulars relating to culture, etc., see under S. cras- 
nifolia. A native of the Himalaj'as. 

S craa-sifoUa. An old favorite, needing no 
recommendation. The leaves are stalked in- 
versely egg shaped, and without hairs, and also 
evergreen. The fl )wers bloom out early in spring, 
and are arranged in considerable panicles. The 
corolla is very beautiful, the petals being each 
about half an inch long, and of a rose or purple 
color, [ucrease by parting should take effect 



after the flowers fade. Does best in a stony, 
well-drained deep loam, and is fit for border or 
pot culture, and looks admirable on rockwork. 
A native of Siberia. There is a variety of this 
species known as intermedia, or sometimes cordi- 
folia, and readily distinguished by the short 
roundish leaves. 

NERTERA DEPRESSA 

This is an extremely peculiar little plant, and 
is also at the same time exceedingly beautiful. 
Its habit and size are about the same as that of 
Sagina procumbens. The flowers are produced 
very plentifully, but being small and green, just 
the color of the leaves, it is not an easy matter 
for the uninitiated to detect them. The berries 
are the principal ornament of our subject, and 
they reach the zenith of their beauty in autumn. 
They are about as big as the fruit of the English 
mountain ash, colored pretty much like that, 
but rather more delicate and pleasing, and made 
80 partly by a polished glistening surface. The 
wonder is that all this happens on a plant no 
bigger than a moss, and that the berries not un- 
frequently form quite a dense mass, as the quan- 
tity of blossom already referred to might lead 
one to expect. Probably in this country, except 
in the sunny South, it would not prove hardy, 
because in the neighborhood of London, Eng- 
land, in very severe winters, it required a little 
protection ; but it deserves this and far more. 
It is a native of New Zealand. I do not think 
it has yet been carried to these shores in the 
living state. What a gem it would be for a 
Wardian case, or any similar place I It is al- 
most as readily increased as a Selaginella, and 
delights in a rich loam. Either seed or partiniz 
may be resorted to for the purposes of ic-iiii pli- 
cation, the former to be sown in spring, and the 
latter may be done almost any time if care is 
exercised 

DRACOCEPHALUM. 

i>. peregrinum. — In this species the stem and 
branches are of the same general character as 
those of D. austriacum, but a distinguishing 
mark may be found in the leaves, these being 
lanceolate and irregularly toothed along the 
edges. In the plant before us the blossoms are 
purple, and about three-fourths of an inch long, 
and produced in handsome racemes at the end 
both of the primary and secondary shoots. In- 
crease by parting by cuttings or by seed, the first 
to be done early in the fall, and the second and 
last in the spring. A rich deep loam. A na- 
tiye of Siberia, and would prcbably prove hardy 



any where south of Boston, and well deserving 
of introductitjn, if not already in the land. In 
many European collections. 

D. austriacum. — This is a most beautiful plant 
— herbaceous in the sense that it dies down 
every year, but the shoots are of a hard woody 
texture, and grow almost a foot high. The 
leaves are opposite, and cut into four or five seg- 
ments. The flowers are large and handsome, 
being an inch long ; purple for the most part, 
and produced in terminal spikes. The lower lip 
of the corolla is very delicately spotted, much in 
the same way as the inside of the corolla of D/gr- 
italis purpurea, or English Foxglove. The blos- 
soms exhibit during summer, and the species is 
easily increased, either by cuttings or seed after 
the manner referred to above under the other 
sort. A native of Austria, and probably would 
be hardy anywhere in the States south of Massa- 
chusetts. Not very rare in collections in Eu- 
rope. 

SIXENE ALPESTRIS. 

This beautiful plant grows about six im hes 
high. The blossoms seem almost whiter than 
snow, so pure do they look when they first ex- 
pand, and they are produced at the extremity of 
the erect and slender shoots. Strictly herba- 
ceous and almost evergreen. The stems are of 
a red color, and the greater part of the plant is 
viscid, to the discomfort, if not ruin of any small 
fly that may be in the way. I do not know a 
more charmingly effective little mountain gem 
than this. The tlowers begin to display them- 
selves early in summer, and do not like some 
other flowers of other members of the genus, 
close and unclose again, but continue open 
without intermission from the first expansion 
until the fading takes i)lace. Our lovely subject 
can develop perfectly, either in a sunny or sha- 
ded situation, and loves a deep, well enriched 
loamy soil, enriched not by manure, but by de- 
cayed leaves, peat, or such like. Also plenty of 
moisture during the whole of the dry and warm 
portion of the year. The rockwork is the near- 
est approach to its native Alpine home that art 
has yet discovered, and after growing in one po- 
sition for a couple or three years, it should be 
taken up and the earth renewed, when it can be 
put back again in the same place. It does very 
well on a border or in a pot, but stones should 
always surround it. S. viscida, a synonym. In- 
crease by parting or seed. A native of Austria. 



3S 



THE GARDENER'S MOJ^'TRLY. February, 



1873. 



THE GARDE JETER'S MOJ\fTHLY. 



S9 






\ 



iii. 



A GOOD LILIUM AURATUM. 

BY W. L. AKERS, JOHNSTOWN, PA. 

Dr. John Lowman of this place has a plant of 
the above variety growing in his grounds, wor- 
thy of note in connection with those mentioned 
by "J. B." in the November issue of the Gar- 
dener's Monthly. It has remained in the same 
position for several years, sending up but one 
stem each season ; but increasing in size and 
number of flowers each year. This season the 
stem was full five feet high, and an inch in dia- 
meter, with fifty-six flower buds -some thirty of 
which were developed at one time, and all came 
into flower during the season. It was a magni- 
ficent spectacle, and filled the air with perfume. 



* • 



ORNAMENTAL LEAVES FOR BOU- 
QUETS. 

BY G. C. T., rniLA. 
R. M. in Gardeiier'^s Chronicle^ quoted in No- 
vember Gardener''s Monthly^ recommends Ber- 
beris aquifolium as a border for bouquets. I 
have for years used these leaves for bouquets, 
and consider them equal to anything I know of. 
The evergreen fern, common about German- 
town, is also a fine bordering.giving the bouquet 
a star-like look. In thn late spring and early 
summer months, I make great use of the young 
shoots of the Hornbeam. Their pleasing red- 
ish brown liuu ami beautifully- crimped leaves, 
have a fine effect in bouquets The leaves of 
nearly all the Begonias can be used They are 
striking and unique in bouquets. Eew persons 
seem to be aware of the great beauty of leaves 
and their value in floral decoration. I make 
great use of leaves ; have even at times used 
successfully the blades of our ordinary roadside 
grasses. 

GAS TAR. 

BY THOMAS OTTAWAY, MIDDLEBURG, OHIO. 

I have been using Gas Tar for eight years on 
greenhouse, staging, pit benches, cucumber and 
melon frames, and never seen any damage re- 
sult from it, but now I am told by Mr. Bundy, 
that EUwanger & Barry, also Mr. Hooker, both 
of Rochester, have lost piles of plants by it. 

As regards Gas Tar, I believe it contains car- 
bon and ammonia. Certainly there is nothing 
injurious in that. As an application there is 
trouble when the ammouical properties are too 
strong for vegetation. Twelve months ago I 
built a new pit 40x13, divided it in the centre, 
had all the woodwork well tarred over, mid three 



days after filled it with roses, geraniums, &c., in 
cool part. The hot part was filled with tender 
plants and general stock. Now I would like to 
hear from other friends on this subject. 

Gas tar I find the best thing I can use on 
greenhouse benches for preserving the wood- 
work ; water lime the next. I have used gas 
tar on eight separate rooms. My plants always 
grew and looked well, as other parties can testi- 
fy. My cucumber and melon frames I always 
tar inside and out. I would like to see the par- 
ties that had better luck. Never missed cutting 
the first week in May since I have been growing 
them, I have seen twelve cucumbers (Long 
Greens) growing from one light at one time. 
Surely gas tar did not hurt them. 

[Gas tar often contains creosote, then it is dan- 
gerous ] 



<•••> 



TREE CULTURE. 

I Theoretical and Deductive P/dlosojyhies about it. 

BY A. UUIDEKOPER, MEADVILLE, PA. 

A New Englander told me the other day that 
a fellow coach passenger had called his atten- 
tion to some white washed trees, remarking, 
I '* that shows the fools are not all dead yet ; it is 
1 stransre that farmer don't know that the bark of 
! a tree is like the skin of a man, if you stop up 
I the pores of the latter the man will die.'' This 
shows reasoning by analogy is dangerous, cspe- 
I cially when we .jump at the analogies. If the 
' critic had been put to it he would probably have 
J found little in common between the bark and 
' the skin, except that of position ; the functions 
being quite different. He might as well have 
said to a surgeon, do not cut off* that man's mu- 
tilated feet, they are to him what the root is to a 
tree. Every body knows if you cut away the 
roots of a tree it will die. 

I picked up the other day an essay on Or- 
chards, which I thought sensible until 1 came to 
the advice not to scrape the loose bark from the 
trees, because if nature had not a use for the 
bark it would not be there. Now nature in 
loosening that bark is making an effort to get 
rid of it, and the scraper is an aid, not an antag- 
onist of nature. A hostler would have smiled 
if the lecturer had said to him, do not curry that 
horse while he is shedding his coat, if nature had 
not a use for that looselv attached hair it would 
not be on the animal. 

Wlieu I was full of boyish faith in what I 
found in print, I came across the direction of 
some theorist to prune fruit trees in June, be- 



cause being then full of sap, the wounds would 
the sooner heal up. I applied the saw to some 
(fortunately worthless) seedling apple trees, and 
found the sunshine on the exuding sap produced 
canker and nearly destroyed the trees. In the 
autumn I saw a Rambo apple tree split in the 
centre with its weight of fruit. The half that 
fell down was cut away, leaving a large wound 
exposed to the frosts of the following winter. 
Very bad theoretically for its recovery ; yet it 
started next year with a healthy healing pro- 
cess, which has gone on for thirty years, while 
the tree has in alternate seasons been bearing 
large crops of fruit. From this T concluded that 
"an ounce of practice is worth a pound of 
theory," and 1 have since done pruning that 
seemed necessary in the autumn, as soon as 
the main growth of the tree was over and the 
wood began to ripen —not hesitating to cut away 
limbs where they grew too thickly, or to shorten 
in for a season a vine or the shoot of a i)ear tree, 
when they were slender, in order to get a better 
base, nor to advise my neighbor when his vines 
had become a wilderness of self strangling com- 
})lications, to cut awaj' nine-tenths of the wood 
that the residue might ripen and bear better 
fruit. I even believed, that where an apple tree 
had a tendenc}- to shoot up to such an altitude 
that a fiirmer could only look at its fruit, but 
would be unable to come to it without tlie aid of 
a balloon, that it would be well t© cut otf the en- 
tire stem of such a tree six or eight feet from the 
ground, and make it throw out strong laterals, 
which would give an open head to the tree, and 
place its fruit where it could safely be reached 
with a ladder, when my settled convictions were 
run into by somettiing I saw in the Gardcner-s 
Monthly (I cannot find it as I write) aliout 'all 
pruning being a shock to the vitality ot a tree." 
This would be a very popular gospel among 
some of our lazy orchardists. 

This elementary principle is reached, I be- 
lieve, by deduction, the formula being as follows: 
A tree can be pruned to death ; therefore any 
pruning is a shock to its vitality. I use the for- 
mula in a different way, thus : A plant can be 
watered to death •, therefore any water is a shock 
to the vitality of a plant, and I find the rule has 
Its limitations or contradictions in practice. 
Knowing how eminently wise is the Gurdener''s 
Monthly^ I sought for some broader inU^rpreta- 
tion of its *' shocking " theory, that I could sub- 
scribe to, and I think I find it in the ambiguity 
of its terras. Thus the ''Monthly " teaches that 



when a tree is transplanted, the top should be 
shortened into a proper relation to the mutila- 
ted roots. Neglect of this is death— observance 
of it promotes growth. Now the vitality of a 
tree consists in its life and development, and 
the " shock " of pruning here referred to is akin 
to the shock of a galvanic battery when applied 
to a paralyzed limb, to which it is expected to 
restore healthy circulation and its normal func- 
tions. A^'itality in plants and trees depends 
largely on relations to sunshine and shade to 
proper proportions of the top to the stem or the 
top to the roots. So I suppose the ''Monthly'*'* 
uses that word '-shock'' in a double sense; 
constructively, when the pruning shocks a tree 
into better conditions, and destructively when 
the work is ill-timed or too radical The doc- 
tors tell us that a drug may be a narcotic or a 
stimulant, in accordance with the quantity of it 
that is taken. The Ganlener\s Monthly, I am 
pretty sure, will permit us to cling to our faith 
that pruning is beneficial or otherwise, accord- 
ing to the good sense or the bad judgment that 
may direct the arm holding the saw or the pru- 
ning knife. Will it not ? 



VARIATIONS IX NATURE. 

BY C. 

Just as I read thy paper on variation not 
caused always by domestication, 1 was cours- 
ing the memoirs of El Baber, the founder of the 
Mongol dynasty in India, (16th century) a great 
fiuhter, and a close observer of nature, and an 
ardent admirer of pretty flowers. In one of his 
military expeditions in the mountainous region 
N. E. of Cabul, he found immense numbers of 
wild tulips, of whieh he noticed twenty-five dif- 
ferent kinds, and in one locality a hundred- 
leaved tulip, which appears to have delighted 
him much, both by its beauty and unusual form, 
and also because it was found only in that one 
locality of limited extent. The art of man evi 
dently had done nothing in this case. 



»•■»> 



SHORT PURSES AND DUTCH BULBS. 

BY R. W., LANSINGBURa, N. Y. 

These few words are addressed to persons of 
limited means especially, for the reason that a 
supposition exists that t« enjoy the delights of 
bulb culture necessitates the possession of a 
very long purse well filled, and this supposition 
frequently prevents that inquiry which would 
prove the perfect falsity of the previous impres- 



!ii 



40 



TEE GARDEJ^ER'S MONTHLY. February, 



1873. 



THE GARDE JEER'S MOMTHLY. 



41 






n 



t 



''•^ 



sion. Thus many persons miss an innocent | blue, and one pink, to be planted together. They 
pleasure, a source of much real enjoyment, and j look very pretty grown in this way, and take 
pass the long, dreary winter without one flower ' less room. Any of the following are as good as 
to cheer and gladden their sense of the beautiful, the best. Mdl'e. Hodson Norma, Mdlle. Zont- 
To prove that a good collection of bulbs may be ' man, and Bouquet Royal. The first named is 
obtained for a small outlay of money, and to give rery good, having a rich bright color and deli" 
the names of such as are best calculated to grow ' cate fragrance. Norma has fewer bells to the 
and bloom satisfactorily in the hands of the no- | truss than most others, but what is lacking in 
vice, is the object of the writer. ; number is made up in size, each tlower being 

We will suppose our readers to be familiar ' very large. Do not plant Bouquet lioyal with 
with the fact that Dutch Bulbs are cultivated any of the others mentioned, as it blooms later 
in immense quantities in Holland, where peculi- than they. Planting in groups we wish all to 
arities of soil and climate, and the scientific cul- bloom together, and did we expect Bouquet Roy- 
ture given them, induce their fullest develop- ! al to bloom with Crantatus or Grand Vain- 
ment. It is from Holland the world draws its I queur, we would be disappointed. Any of the 
supply of hyacinths, tulips, crocuses, narcissus, | hyacinths specified can be bought of the dealers, 
etc., and from Holland alone. | at twenty- five cents singly or three dollars per 

In selecting hyacinths, the bewildering con- | dozen. And should you mention that you were 
fusion of names, the expansive lists of colors— | making your first attempt at bulb growing, we 
dark blue, light blue, porcelain and lilac, red, ; would not be surprised if upon opening your 
pink, rose and blush— requires considerable i parcel after getting home you fouud a little addi- 
courage on the part of the beginner in bulb cul- j tion to your order, given by way of encourage- 
ture to be attacked by him ; but he need not be ! ment to you from the kind hearted dealer— for 
disheartened- nearly a?? good; some are better , most seedsmen and fiorists are very kind of 
suited to his pui'pose than others, and these are I heart. Perhaps goodness and tenderness are 
equally found among the cheapest sorts as well j exhaled with the fragrance which fills so large a 
as among the higher priced. Of course we wish 1 portion of their domicil. We have often thought 
white, pink and blue, and for our white variety so ^ 



let us have Gran^ Vainqueur. If we have one 
or a dozen, we can find none superior to it. Its 
especial recommendations are earliness, a tall 
Btem, and truss of large size, bearing no tinge of 



Hyacinths have boen given the first place, not 
because we think them so superior in beauty to 
ottiers, but because being so sure of bloom, so 
brilliant of color and so sweetly fragrant, the 



color ; pure and stainless as new fallen snow. ! preference is usually given them. 
For many years the writer has enjoyed its beau- 1 Polyanthus Narcissus, Tulips of some varie- 
ty and sweet smell, thinking it each year more ! ties, and Crocuses also do well with window cul- 
beautiful than the year previous. In others of ture, and are not less desirable than hyacinths, 



different shades there are many of great merit at 
a low price. 

Crantatus for a light blue, is excellent. Al- 
ways bearing a large truss, oftentimes an im- 
mense one, of flowers, good in shape, and of 
cerulean blue. It is fit to be the companion of 
Grand Vaniqueur — and is, for they bloom at the 
same time when planted together. 

Charles Dickens, for a darker sort, is very su- 
perior. Blue, of medium shade, with a darker 
line through the centre of each petal ; sweet and 
Bpicy in smell ; always sure to bloom. We must 
indeed have at least one of this variety. 

If we can afford another blue let us select 
Prince Von Lux Weimar. He is clothed in roy- 
al livery, and worthy of a place in our collection. 
We must have some pink kinds, for if but three 
roots are purchased, one must be white, one 



and as they are of low price, and so of interest 
to the short pursed lover of flowers, we will con- 
sider their merits at some future time. 

Nothing has been said of cultivation, for where 
our beginner is fully persuaded to try his luck 
in bulb growing, he will find directions, which 
are very simple, in any of the catalogues pub- 
lished, and these he may procure without difla- 
culty— without money and without price. 



4«»»» 



*'THE PARTERRE." 

BY W. B. WICKEN. 

The writer has seen many pleasure grounds, 
which in many respects were laid out with taste 
and propriety, but with an almost total neglect, 
or at best, a poor attempt at the Parterre, which 
if tastefully planm d and executed, adds greatly 
to the beauty and interest of any grounds. 



Beautiful colors, arranged and contrasted in 
elegant and tasteful figures, in their combina- 
tion, give an effect that is wanting when each 
are separate from the other. There is often seen 
on beautiful lawns, a circle described here, a 
diamond shaped bed there, and yonder perhaps 
a crescent, suggesting the idea they had dropped 
from the sky, and had been let remain where 
they fell, there being no attempt at symmetrical 
arrangement or system. 

It is evident that the beauty and pleasing 
effect of any geometrical design is dependent on 
the relative bearing of one line on the other, as 



selves anywhere, but it is possible for us to make 
use of this beauty in such a manner that we may 
derive greater pleasure thereby. Of course some 
judgment is required in planting, habit and 
color considered. 

It is decidedly not the object of this paper to 
advocate laying out of pleasure grounds, with 
walks and general features in a style of geomet- 
rical precision. But there can be no place laid 
out in whatsoever style to which the parterre 
will not be an interesting and beautiful addition. 
If at all possible, the parterre should be laid out 
near the terrace or house, as its beauty is great- 




there is certainly as much respective harmony 
in form as in sound. Perhaps the accompany- 
ing sketch of a few beds may help to demon- 
strate the ideas of the writer, and perhaps may 
set some of your fair readers thinking; and plan- 
ning, and so bring about a better state of things 
next season. 

There may be some impression that similar 
beds would require an extra quantity of bedding 
stuff to fill them, but there are many plants 
that are planted in one corner or another and so 
on, that might be planted here with heightened 
effect. Of course flowers are beautiful in them- 



ly enhanced when seen from some point above, 
as the piazza, terrace, or house, then all the 
shape in detail can be taken into the eye at once. 



SUITABLE COMPOST FOR GRAPEUV 

BORDERS. 

BY MANSFIELD MILTON. 

The cultivation of the grape vine has been 
practised by all nations from their earliest ages, 
and no fruit better repays good cultivation. lu 
delicious flavor and health giving qualities 
making it preferable to every other. 

Although several species are indigeueoui to 



i 



Jf'2 



THE GARDEJVEB'S MOJ^THLY. February, 



187S. 



TEE GARDENER'S MONTHLY. 



SS 



\ 
\ 

t 



1 



nil I 



« 



II 



11 



I 



III 



■t* 









this country, and well-flavored varieties by hy- 
bridizing and crossing been raised, still none 
equal in flavor the different varieties of the Eu- 
ropean species Vifis vinifera Very good 
hybrids have been raised from hybridizing some 
of the American species with the European 
species. We, however, believe that a greater 
success will yet be attained, and varieties raised 
possessing the hardiness of the American species 
and the delicious flavor of the European. 

As the European varieties cannot with anj'- 
thing like success in the Northern States, be 
grown out doors, it is consequently necessary to 
cultivate them under glass. We shall, therefore, 
give a few remarks upon the compost best suit- 
able for grapery borders. 

Turfy loam should constitute the main part of 
the compost. The surface of old pasture, half 
decayed sods, or any good fibrous loam that has 
not been under cultivation for a good while 
being the most suitable. The more fibrous loam 
is, the more adapted it is for supplying for years 
vegetable nourishment. If of an inert state 
when put into the composition of a border, it 
soon acquires that sour, deadened state so detri- 
mental for supplying suitable food for plants, 
especially grape vine roots, as they aro very im- 
patient in stagnant or inactive soil But if of a 
fibrous nature, it for years retains that life and 
porosity so necessary for soil which has to be 
undisturbed for years. Another evil to guard 
against is chopping the soil too (inc. We believe 
in leaving it, (especially loam th:it is to be used 
for a grapery or any permanent border) in a 
rather rough state. We have seen several bor- 
ders with all the soil carefully sifted, one of the 
most foolish ideas, as no one of ordinary ol > i- 
vant qualities but knows the b.7st of the soil is 
taken out by sifting. Peat or muck in part is 
very good for borders if not of too spongy a na- 
ture, as it is then so apt for getting saturated 
with water, especially if a large quantity of it is 
used, and also converts the loam into the same 
inactive state. If the loam is good there is no 
need for using much peat, but if of a gravelly na- 
ture peat may with advantage be more freely 
used. Well decomposed leaf mould is better 
than bad peat ; carefully clearing out all pieces 
of wood, as they create a fungus, which prove 
injurious to grape vine roots. 

Manures for grapery borders are very numer- 
ous, each liaving its advocate, but from personal 
experience, and observing the results of the ex- 
periments of others, we think but few are really 



suitable. Plenty of manures there are that for 
a year or two create a most luxuriant effect, 
then as quickly in effect decay. The principle 
aim being to secure fertilizers not only suitable 
for causing a vigorous growth to the vines, but 
the essential qualities of which are of a lasting 
nature. 

The best animal manure for this purpose is 
horse manure, which ought to be mixed with the 
soil in a half decomposed state, for if allowed to 
decompose, too much ammonia escapes— the 
most important component of the manure, as 
from it nitrogen is derived, which is the main 
food for the grape vine The more ammonia 
therefore that pervades the soil, the more bene- 
ficial the results in procuring strong, healthy 
vines and foliage. Unless the vines be possess- 
ed of a strong constitution in the commence- 
ment of their growth, they ever after show the 
effects of early weakness 

Cow manure does not contain so large an 
amount of ammonia as horse manure, ndV does 
it possess so warm a nature. It is also slower 
in action, and is apt for becoming a deadened 
mass when used in large quantities, but when 
mixed with horse manure, and well fermented, 
it then becomes highly serviceable, and thought 
by many when so used to be more beneficial than 
horse manure alone. 

Pig manure, although containing more ammo- 
nia than either horse or cow manure, assimi- 
lates the latter in other qualities, and therefore 
should be used, mixed with horse manure. 
Without being well decomposed it should not be 
allowed to come directly in contact with the 
roots, being so strong as to generally (](>-Ui)y 
them. , 

Crushed bones is one of the most useful ma- 
nures there is for grapery borders. If crushed 
into dust their effect is immediate, but not so 
lasting as when broken into one inch pieces. 
Not only do they supply vigorous growth to the 
vine, but also contribute suitable nourishment 
required for the enlargement of the fruit. 

The dead bodies of animals in a crude state 
have been extensively used in thi^ formation of 
borders. Few people using them once, and close- 
ly observing the effect, will do so a second time, 
and would advise those intendins: doing s» to 
abandon their intention. Dead bodies in their 
crude slate are more antagonistic than useful as 
food for vegetation, and not until an advanced 
stage of decomposition has been reached can 
plants derive any nourishment from them. 



Those intending to use them for border purposes 
should decompose them before applying, by 
burying in loam or muck until well rotted, and 
mixing well by several turnings of the whole 
mass. One particular part to be attended to is 
mixing the soil for the border and manure tho- 
roughb^ before either forming the inside or out- 
side border. About one fourth of the whole 
mass should be animal manure, and we have 
advantageously used from eight to twelve bar- 
rels of bones for the borders of large houses. ; 

We deem about fifteen feet wide and three feet 
deep sufficient for outside borders. Giving good 
drainage, for unless all superfluous water is car- 
ried off* (allowing the compost to be of the best ; 
materials) only a few years will be suffieeiit in [ 
showing the evil effects of improper drainage, ' 
or both vines and fruit 



THE NEW VARIETIES OF GLADIOLUS. 

BY GEO. SUCH, SOUTH AMBOY, N. J. 

I notice in the Decembt i* number of the Oar- 
den€r\^ Monthltj^ a short article taken from the 
London Journal of IIorHcuUurc^ in which com- 
ment is made regarding the new varieties of 
Gladiolus. The writer says, ''From what I 
have seen here and elsewhere, there is but little 
new or good amongst them ; indeed some of 
them are merely repetitions of the old sorts." 

Allow me to say that this judgment is ex- 
tremely unjust, and by n ferring to the Journal 
of Horticulture for October 24th, you will notice 
that the liev. Mr. Dombrain, one of the very 
best authorities on the Gladiolus, says that '' so 
far from thinking the sorts sent out last autumn 
the worst set we have had for some years, I think 
them one of the best." 

Having grown all the new varieties but one, 
in my own garden, the following impressions 
may be of some value : 

Antigone is certainly a very fine flower, being 
tender rose color, flamed with crimson, and with 
a very long flower spike. 

Aria7ie has a white ground more or less blazed 
with rose and lilac ; very handsome. 

Alcyon and Arsinoe are good, but not very 
remarkable. 

Antiope is a showy and very neatly shaped 
flower, its general tone of color being cherry 
tinted with orange. 

Beatrix is admirable ; a pure white ground, 
slightly marked with crimson lilac. 

Oelimene I do nol ?« > much like, however, as it 



is a shade of red, to my taste, not at all pleasing. 

Dtdon is a flower that Mr. Dombrain con- 
siders only second rate, but as I saw it, no taste, 
however critical, could fail to be pleased with it. 
The throat of this flower is largely pure white, 
gradually deepening towards the edges into the 
most delicate lilac imaginable. 

Jupiter is gorgeous, a dark and superb crim- 
son, flaked with blackish crimson. 

Minerva was the only one I did Hot see. 

O.isian has a fine spike of rose colored flowers, 
tinted with deep violet and carmine ; not suffi- 
ciently remarkable to be in the first rank, but 
decidedly fine. 

Phoebus is very fine indeed, throwing up a 
flower spike of striking fire-red flowers, finely 
lighted up with white. 

Virginalis is exquisite, being very pure white 
bordered with delicate rose color. 

These few remarks I make in the spirit of jus- 
tice merely as to the new varieties, and by no 
means intending to make little of the older kinds, 
many of which are of such superb beauty as to 
be quite unsuri)assable in their peculiar sections. 

I am from time to time called upon by custom- 
ers to name what I consider, say, the best dozen 
kinds of Gladiolus, and it is a dilficult matter to 
decide. Not long ago, replying to a letter from 
Boston, I named i welve that were all admirable, 
and the gentleman to whom I wrote expressed 
his surprise at not seeing the name of any one 
of the latest novel 'ies mentioned in the dozen ; 
but in reality there was no cause for surprise, 
the novelties beini; novel from the fact of beins: 
distinct from the other kinds rather than as sur- 
passing them. 

Such flowers as Shakespeare^ Meyerbeer, and 
Madame D'-Sporta -not mentioning others of 
former years -have such claims upon our admi- 
ration as will enable them to securely hold their 
own against all new comers. Shakespeare and 
Met/erheer especially, stand distinct from all 
others, and to attempt a comparison between 
these and others, whether new or old, would be 
like attempting to compare a very fine peach 
with a pear of cquall3' fine quality. 



THE TANYAII-SPROUTS. 

BY J. 1. CLOW, M. D. 

As the season for preserving this valuable es- 
culent for winter use is approaching, a few sug. 
gestions, dictated by a long experience in their 
cultivation and use, may not be unacceptable to 
some of your numerous readers. As the fall up 



t 



] 



■i 



u 



THE GARDEJ^ER'S MOJVTHLY. February, 



1873. 



THE GARDE JVER'S MOJVTHLT. 



45 









I 



I 



to this time (Octoi)er 7^, has been unusually dry 
for this latitude, the roots have made but little 
progress toward maturity, but as we have just 
had a fine shower, and the prospect of more rain 
is favorable, it is not too late for them to make 
yet, as I have found that the roots make more 
from this time until the top is killed by frost 
than ill all the preceding part of the season ; 
and under no circumstances should they be dug 
until the top is entirely killed, for they continue 
to enlarge their roots after the frost has killed 
the leaves, and I never dig them until just before 
Christmas, and sometimes not until January. 

I accidently discovered a plan of raising 
sprouts two winters since, which I have success 
fully employed, and for the benefit of those who 
are fond of them I will now describe. In dig- 
ging a patch, and after separating the small 
roots, from the large central bulbs, the latter 
were thrown into a conical heap and covered 
with dry weeds and dirt ; and as I had housed 
those intended for eating in the potato house, 
those in the heap were left undisturbed until 
about the last of February, when, on opening 
the heap it was found that the bulbs had sent 
up large sprouts, which had penetrated the in- 
terstices of the whole heap, some of them a foot 
long and as thick as my wrist. By introducing 
a knife and cutting them otf near the crown of 
the root I soon gathered a large mess, and had 
them cooked by boiling and then dressing with 
butter, pepper and salt, and all who partook of 
them pronounced them a first-rate dish. We 
continued to use them for a month Like Aspa- 
ragus, as fast as you cut off the sprout it put out 
again, and by the time you go over the bank the 
first will be ready to cut again. Since that time 
I have made a bed of the bulbs by placing them 
on top of the ground, close together, as in ma- 
king a potato plant bed, and after covering with 
a thick coat of dry weeds or corn stalks covering 
them with dirt five or six inches deep. The bed 
should l^e made in a place exposed to the sun, 
and if there was a coat of some fermenting sub- 
stance, such as stable manure or cotton seed, it 
would be still better. 

I had a bed of four or five barrels last winter, 
from which [ used in February and March. 
About the first of April the roots may be taken 
up and planted in hills, and they grow as well 
as if they had not been sprouted. 

[We take the above in regard to the common 
Caladium (Colocasia esculentem), from Our 
Home Journal of New Orleans.] 



EDITORIAL NOTES. 

FOREIGN. 

The Tthuhnrh of Commerce. Prof. Baillon, in 
the recent session of the French Association for 
the Advancement of Science, says : Chinese and 
Russian rhubarb appears to be the result of a 
single species growing in Thibet, on a tract of 
land so inaccessible that it has been but seldom 
examined by Europeans. It is in latitude W. 
It is said that the Chinese have zealously guard- 
ed this plant from stranger eyes ; but in 1868 a 
plant reached France alive, which flowered Inst 
year. It is ^^Y>roba,h\y Rheum palmatum."> It 
is not herbaceous as in our species, but has *' a 
stem one to two feet long covered with a black 
bark ; is soft, humid, and containing yellow sap 
wood." The leaves resemble rather those of 
our common castor oil plant, than the common 
rhubarbs. The commercial article is not the 
root as we have all along supposed, but ''the 
aerial stems and branches. " It is found to be 
hardy in France. 

The Quinoa—Chenopodium Quinoa. The -Lo?i- 
(lon Journal of Pharmacy says that in Mexico 
this plant rates in agriculture in importance 
with the potato, maize and wheat. On high re- 
gions where rye and barley will Hot ripen, it is 
the chief object of agriculture. It grows three 
or four feet high, and bears an immense quanti- 
ty of seeds. Its general appearance might ha 
likenened to a gigantic spinage. It is used as 
"mush," the meal not being tenaceous enough 
to make bread. The leaves are eaten as spinage. 

The Boldo. We note in our Western papers 
that rising importance is being given to this in 
medicine. It is Peumus boldus of Baillon, and 
Boldoa fragrans of Jussien. It has a distant re- 
lation to our sassafras. 

Timber of the Yellow Cypreaa. A correspond- 
ent says that the timber of the Cupressus Nut- 
A:aen,?i.s has been found superior for ship building, 
and is likeW to come into extensive use for this 
purpose. 

The Mammoth Sequoia in England. As recent- 
ly noted, the wild plants of California are found 
to be much more closely allied to the wild flora 
of England than are the wild species of the East- 
ern United States. So when the trees and plants 
of California are introduced to England they 
find themselves at home, as they will not east of 
the Rocky Mountains. A correspondent of the 
Gardener s Chronicle says of the mammoth tree : 

''One of the finest plants in England is said to be 
at the Marquis of Huntley's, Orton Hall, in Hunt- 



ingdonshire. Mr. Sharp'reports it as being 36 feet 
in height ; circumference of trunk at the base, 5 feet 
8 inches ; circumference of branches, 45 feet. As is 
well known, there are numerous others of nearly 
equal dimensions, as at Windsor, Boconnoc, &c 
In Scotland, there are several fine plants ; one of 
the largest is at Dalzell, Motherwell, Lanarkshire, 
the residence of Major Hamilton, M. P., which he 
reports as measuring ' 35 feet 6 inches in height; 
its girth at 3 feet from the ground is 4 feet 2 inches ; 
it was planted alxjut 12 inches high, in November, 
1857,' consequently it must have made an average 
growth of nearly 3 feet for the twelve years it has 
been planted. There is a specimen of nearly equal 
dimensions at Murthly Castle. The best plant at 
Castle Kennedy is about 18 feet in height, growing 
in deep moss —a perfect cone, feathero(r to the 
ground, and in fine health. Judging from some 
specimens which I have seen in various parts of 
Ireland, it is highly probable that it will, in that 
bumid climate, reach a size not to be surj)assed in 
anj other parts of these islands " 

The Phylloxera Vantatrix. Tins terrible grape 
enemy is imitating the goings on of the Colora 
do potato bug, in giving a preference to another 
kind of food than that which first sustained it. 
Though said to be an American insect, it is giv- 
ing its moai delicate attentions to the roots of 
the hot house or European grape, and this to so 
ardent a degree that it is becoming a fearful 
scourge to the English grape grower. Some 
graft the vine on American bottoms, under the 
idea that the insect does not like so well its na- 
tive root. 

Ttoses for Orecnhoase Floweriny. The Gar- 
denerKs Chronicle, in reply to a correspondent, 
gives the following list of six climbing roses for 
wall of greenhouse : M.irechal Niel. Celine, For- 
estier, Charles Lefebvre, Gloire de Dijan, Belhi 
de Bordeaux, Glory of Waltham. Six roses for 
pots : Beauty of Waltham, Madime Victor 
Verdier, Alfred Colombe, Madame Alfred de 
Rougemont, Anna Alexidflf, Madame Willer- 
moz ; and in reply to another inquirer in recrard 
to 

Gardenerls Situations in America, gives ano- 
ther correspondent the following information, 
for which we return our thanks : 

*' G. L. Advertise in the American Gardener'^ 
fomiy^ publislied at 814 Chestnut Street, Phila- ' 
aelphia; or in any other of the American horticul- ! 
lural journals." j 

Vegetable Gardening in Rome. In and around 
all large towns, on account of the advantage of 
^heap and abundant fertilizers, vegetable°gar- 
aenin r prospers. For some reason or other 
there does not seem to be much of this kind of 
gardening about the Eternal City ; but the sup- 
ply 18 drawn from other regions a long way otf. 



The Rome correspondent of the London Times 
wrote : 

*' I was yesterday in one of these, hard hv a gate 
of the city. Part of its boundary consisted of the 
loop-holed wall through which the Papal Z'.uaves 
fired on the approaching Italian troops in 1870. 
There was a glorious avenue of trees, interlacing 
overhead, a vault of foliage hundreds of yards long, 
a cool and delicious summer retreat. The damask 
Roses bloomed in profusion, and happy, bare-headed 
children were playing on the grass and in the shrub- 
bery walks. It was like a warm spring day in En- 
gland. At a corner of this pleasant domain "l looked 
over a gate into a large kitchen-garden, whieli, pro- 
perly cultivated, might sui)plv a small town. But 
rhe Roman owner thought not of the advantage to 
be derived from it. It contained a larize bed of 
gigantic Cabbages, rising rank amid a wilderness of 
weeds, and it contained nothing else. While reflect- 
ing on this deplorable insouciance and neglect, I 
heard the railway whistle, and saw in the distance 
the train from Naples, bringing crates of crushed 
vegetables for to-day's market." 

Tree Planting in the Public Streets In Eng- 
land street trees are generally the property of 
the city, and are planted by the authority and 
under the oversight of the city councils, instead 
of being all left toindividual notion as here. The 
city (»f Brighton has recently advertised for '• five 
hundred planes, poplar-, limes, elms and syca- 
mores, tifteen to twenty feet high, for tliis pur- 
pose." 

' New Peas. Our fever in the way of grapes 
and. potatoes, is about equalled by the English 
in new peas. By the immense interest taken 
there in new peas one might almost suppose all 
England lived wholly on peas, and that it was 
the i)ea, and not the turnip which paid the in- 
terest on the national debt. 

Chrisfmas Trees. The idea of the Christmas 
tree we have received from the fiermans. It has 
now spread to the English. A few years ago no 
one thought there of the Christmas tree. The 
Holly and the Mistleto were all. Now the 
Christmas tree enters largely into the annual 
festivity. 

Tuberoses. The climate of England is not hot 
enough to bring the tuberose to flowering perfec- 
tion though they will bloom there after being 
once grown. Italy furnished the crop ; but 
recently America supplies them largely, and our 
roots are found of the highest excellence. 

Bud Variation. In an article in the Popular 
Science lieiuew, Dc M. T. Masters examines the 
whole subject, and concludes by saying : 

'To sum up, then, we may say that there is 
no absolute diflferencc between bud variation and 



Jf6 



THE GARDE JETER'S MOJVTMLY. February, 



1873. 



TEE GARDEJ^ER'S MOJ^'THL Y. 



^7 



seed variation. The (3han£res manifest them- ; difference between a bud formed as the result of 
selves in the same manner and in the same or- j fertilization, ?'. e., an embryo, and one formed 
gans, in the case of buds or seedlings respective- without the direct agency of the two sexes, i, e., 
ly. The conditions, so (iar as we know, that a bud." 

produce variation in the one are the same that ' The Oarrhnerl^i Chronicle and the Oardener^s 
are effectual in the other. F.astly, ai)art from Monthly are credited with the leading facts 
the different mode of origin, there is no essential which have wrought out this conclusion. 



E D I T E I A L . 



FLOWERS IN WINTER. 

Many would have the kixury of llowers in 
winter^ if they could do so without the heavy 
expense which usually attends their produc- 
tion. To such there is a good opportunity in 
the plan of growing half hardy plants in the 
natural ground, under glass. This is the me- 
thod generally adopted by llorists in i roducing 
the immense quantities of (lowers now in de- 
mand in large cities. The results in dowers are 
wonderful, while the expense is comparatively 
small. 

In Philadelphia one of the largest cut dower 
establishments is that of Pennoek Bros. One of 
the firm, A. L. Pennoek, has a large quantity of 
glass, devoted to winter llower growing at Dar- 
by, near Philadelphia, and we dropped in ©ne 
day about the end of December, to see what we 
could pick up for our readers. The glass covers 
over three-quarters of an acre, and is on the 
southern slope of a gentle hill. On three sides 
of the square are the larger houses. In one are 
planted out chietly Camellias, and in the upper- 
most—on the highest ground— the Roses. Of 
the varieties of Camellias, the light kinds, chietly 
the old double white are grown. In the rose 
house, Tea roses chietly rule ; of these the most 
popular are Satfranoand Isabella Sprunt. There 
are also large quantities of the half tea, half 
noisette rose, Marshal Neil ; but as a general 
rule noisette roses do not flower as freely under 
glass as tea roses, unless in situations fully ex- 
posed to direct sunlight. The space between 
the large boundary houses is filled by numerous 
parallel low narrow houses- so low that one can- 
not stand upright in them. They are made this 
low in order to get the plants in the ground near 
to the glass, which is essential to the production 
of an abundant bloom. 

Each of these houses is deycted to ons thing 



I only. One has violets alone, another tree car- 
I nations, another mignonette ; and so on with 
I Poiusettas, Sweet Alyssum, Heliotrope, and the 
I other staple items which all winter bouquets 
I and baskets must have. The whole of this mass 
I of glass is teated by four Pennoek boilers— the 
j invention of the proprietor, and with which all 
readers of our advertising columns are familiar. 
I In the construction of these boilers, Mr. P. has 
; aimed to use every atom of heat from the coal, 
I so that none shall be lost, as so often is the case, 
! up the smoke flues. In one which we examined 
j here, the hot water pipes were so warm that one 
I could not bear the hand on them, while the 
I smoke flue, which rises direct from the furnace, 
and is not carried arouud the houses, as is so 
j often done, was barely warm. The pipes are 
I carried through the houses in every direction, 
, and are laid along a few inches from the ground. 
I The houses and heating arrangements cost about 
, ten thousand dollars, but we believe have been 
I found very profitable. This immense mass of 
I vegetation, through its growing in the natural 
ground, requires very little expenditure of labor. 
Three hands manage the whole. 

Intended solely for commercial purposes— to 
make money, there has been no attempt here to 
make things neat and substantial. No one who 
wished houses for his personal gratification, and 
to add to ihe attractions of his home, would 
want structures exactly like these ; but with a 
very little extra cost, any one might hare an ele- 
gant flower house, which would add immensely 
to their winter pleasures. What, for instance, 
could possibly be more interesting than a small 
house of Roses, or of Heliotrope, or Bouvardia, 
or Tree Carnations ; or anything which will 
make continuous flower all through winter? 
There would be missing, to be sure, the charm 
of variety which the mixed greenhouse affords ; 



but then the planting in the ground is a perma- 1 ture. Prof. Agassiz laid himself out on Darwin 
nent thing. ; to a considerable extent. As reported in the 

There is not needed any skilled knowledge in : Cultivator, he did give the author of the Origin 
watering and general attention, for when one ; ^/species full and particular attention. It is the 
thing alone is grown, one soon becomes familiar j misfortune of Darwin that the wits have hold of 
with all its wants. We really do not see why \ him as they have of Horace Greeley, and what is 
these open ground greenhouses- little winter Darwinism and what is not is about as hard for 
gardens they may be called— should be confined i the public to understand as it would be were we 
to florists. There is no reason why they should to read Mark Twain's explanations of " What I 
not be on every place-evgn jmore common than ' know of Farming," instead of the ori<^inal work 
greenhouses and graperies. j it is pardonable when one of the mere public 

'•■•* mistakes the teachings of a irreat man but 

REMARKABLE EXPERIENCE IN GRAPE : when a leader like Prof. Agassiz so errs!'there 

GROWING. I is no justification. We quote what is said in 

Opposite to Mr. Pennock's cut flower estab- j reference to natural selection in regard to 
lishment at Darby, two young men named j plants : 
Price have started in the cut flower growing 
trade also, and have several houses well filled 
with Roses, Heliotrope, Lilies, Spiraea Japonica, 
and other popular flowers of this character. Be 



1- 



" T do not know how animals originated; a bri 
liant imagination that of Darwin ; a very necessary 
faculty iu the scientist. The sense I know too well 
to misquote him. Hasty generalizing of observa- 

- --- i ^lon is Darwin all over. Natural selection is out of 

sides this they have a vineyard of about an acre I generation. Natural necessltv, what is it ? Do wo 

in which are most of the rare and nonular I i ^ .^^'''^. ?."^^p"''^ ^H^""^ beget families ? Observe 
cranes crrowincr in n ^fafn.f 1.1 ' P^PUiar pi.nts at the foot of the White mountains, where 

grapes, giowmg in a state ot luxuriousness rare- I are large trees, and so up the summit, where tliev 
ly seen. What is most remarkable is that while ^^^ "^^re shrubs. The weak may and do survive as 
such a usually delicate grower as Allen's Hybrid n^^\^^ ^^^® strong. Ignorance 'lies at the base of 
he. grows wi.h the U.xuriance an.l vigor of " a j !!o„:''CnreVesf^rdVr"rrKt •'J"''^- 
weed." The Concord, wh.ch usually does so j If the learned Professor had ever „roperlv read 

W r.7 V' 'T/'" ^'''■'' "*■ "" "'°'"'- "^ understood Mr. Darwin's works, he woud 
We could scarcely ered.t our eyes that the long j know that Mr. Darwin never contended that 
row of puny growth ever came from the Con- : mere size was strength. Mr. D. knows quite as 
ord, wh, e the row next to it, with the rankness i well as Prof Agassiz that the largltrees are 
a w,ld fox grape should be our old friend the found at the base of the mountain, and smlll 

fl™ ::""'• • '^'" ""^r'^' ^'^ "'°""" ^™^ ' ""'""=« ^' "^« '°P ; -<! he contends that the 

™1"'' " ""' '"'"' '"^""'""^ of Ismail bushes are hardier, and that it is because 

grapes when grown on vigorous vines like these, j they are hardier that they are found in these in- 

vye have always insisted that grapes, as a clement places, to the exclusionfcof the lar^-er 

drv inT. '"' ^ r"^' "'' "'■"""^ "*" ""' *"■ '°° ^"''"- "T*^" ^^'-^"^ '"^y =^"'1 dT survive The 
M? '" P • K ,'" ^"'''^'''*- P«'-f'-''="°"- The strong." Yes, but if there be war between the 
Messrs. Price believe especially in the latter, two, the weak will not survive long, and it is 

wouI,fwTi i" "^'""•■''".y "^"'""g' "^^l '^a'" only in cases where there is this war- a 6(r«!;iJe 
Zrn , -T ^^, " "" "• ^" '*•''""''" '" "^'^ i-^'"' ''^^' ^' ^^'- O^'^'^in terms it, that he claims 

ln!/lVI^\°^r' "''''''"''''''' ''''''y'''''''''P' '■"^ ""^ P"""l"« ^"y '^g^n^y in regard to the 
along one side of the square formed by the vin- origin of species 



yard. But besides those drying advantages, the 
whole is traversed by several well constructed 
under-drains, which render it impossible that 
water can remain in the ground long. But why 
's It the Concord gets no benefit from these 
conditions ? 



I... 



EDITORIAL NOTES. 

DOMESTIC. 

/^Wm on Darwin. At the winter meeting 
the Massachusetts State Board of Agricul- 



Whether Mr. Darwin's generalizations are 
wholly true or not is not the question here ; but 
those who love trees and flowers are too much 
indebted to this great man for the many natural 
laws he has been the means of revealing to 
them, to take patiently the insinuations of Prof. 
Agassiz that he is a mere ignoramus, and ruled 
mainly by a " brilliant imagination." 

Postal Laics. We have not yet seen the bill 
which has passed all branches of the Govern- 
ment in regard to nostal relief, but no post- 



:||l, 



4S, 



TEE GARDENER'S MOM'TULY. February, 



1873. 



THE GARDEJVER'S MOJYTELY. 



49 



H; , > 






1^ 



master can act on it till the Postmaster General 
has had the chance of making decisions on 
'» what it means." We have already seen that 
the attempt to be guided by the letter of the law 
instead of the spirit, led to all sorts of absurdi- j 
ties, and unless the law is worded so as to put j 
decisions out of the question, it is by no means t 
certain that there will be no mo-e trouble. | 

There is, indeed, one point on which there pro- i 
bably will be trouble, unless the law is worded I 
so a's to avoid it. Merchandize must pay one j 
cent an ounce,and weigh not over twelve ounces. 
If seeds or plants go for half these rates, and in j 
four pound parcels, how are the postmasters to 1 
know whether the packages contain seeds or I 
merchandize ? Once we were not only allowed 
but ordered to write ''seeds'' or 'plants" on i 
the outside, and this gave the cue to tke post- > 
master who could "open the wrapper without 
destroying,'" if he suspected things were n )t as I 
represented. Without this cue there is nothing i 
but to open every four pound package to see that 
it is not merchandize. Of course this will not ; 
be done, and all sorts of merchandize will steal 
through under the seed law. But the Tost- 
mastJr General has decided that any writing ex- 
cept the address, subjects the whole package to 
letter postage. 

But there are many other matters of detail 
which require looking to ; and it would be well 
for some one to try, while we are about it, and 
get up a sensible law— one just to the Govern- 
ment, accommodating to the people, and easy to 
be understood. Why, for instance, if one tiuds 
he has sold out an item in a catalogue, and runs 
his pencil through to erase it from the list to in- 
dicate the fact, that should subject the whole 
catalogue to letter postage, does not seem clear 
to common sense, as the Government could not 
possibly be injured. Why a name or written 
number, or anythmg to indicate the naine of 
the plant, seeds or cuttings sent, unless printed, 
should be forbidden, is equally incompr^^heusi- 
ble ; and that small packages of seeds enclosed 
under one wrapper -every little pinch and grain 
must be in an "open paper," not pasted or 
gummed to make it secure against getting into 
the mail bag, seems of no benefit to any body, 
nor ot any effect to any purpose but to obstruct 
a branch of the postal service that one would 
suppose the intention was to encourage. 

Above all, these laws should be clear. Some 
of our friends may think we have borne rather 
hard on this matter, but other papers have had 



more trouble to understand the rulings than we 
have. The Cincinnati Gazette says the Post- 
master General himself is " bothered" to decide 
things, and gives the following as a specimen of 
some of his recent " rulings :'' 

" A postmaster is not permitted to make any 
material change in the site of his postoffice with- 
out affixing a two-cent stamp for every two 
ounces He can charge double postage for sight 
of the postmaster. 

Shirts may be mailed at the rate of two cents 
for every two ounces of shirt. If the owners' 
name is on the shirt, letter postage must be 
charged. This rule is indelible. 

A subscriber residing in a county in which a 
paper is printed, can take the paper, provided 
he pays in advance, and urges his neighbors to 
subscribe. If he does not live in the county in 
which he resides, and the paper is not printed in 
the same county in which it has its press work 
I done, then the county must pay double postage 
: on the man— we mean a two cent county must 
; be affixed to every posiage stamp -that is to 
say, every two ounces of a man— we mean the 
paper county— the— mau— well, we must leave 
this ruling to the discretion of the postmaster." 
Japan Wax—Bkus Succedaniam. This wax 
is coming into extensive use, and is the product 
I of the plant we have named. If it could be cul- 
tivated in the United States it would be of im- 
i mense value. The. writer of this paragraph was 
fortunate in raising two plants from seed of the 
Perry expedition. One was left out to test, but 
was killed by a Philadelphia winter ; the other 
was sent to Mr. Berckmans, of Augusta, Ga., 
in 1859 or 'bO, but whether still in existence or 
not we do not know at Ihis writing. 
I Flora of California. Dr. Brewer is engaged 
' on this good work. It is in such a state of for- 
wardness as to be probably ready for the press 
by the end of the year. Prof. Gray and Mr. 
1 Sereno Watson are lending a hand, so as to 
hurry on the work to an early completion. 

T/te Apple Worm in California. A few spe- 
cimens of the Carpocapsa pomana have at length 
been captured in California. It is believed that 
the present comparative immunity from eastern 
insects, will not long last in the Golden State. 

Zanthoxylon fraeineum for Hedges. We see 
the prickly ash named as a hedge plant. It is 
thorny enough, but surely it cannot everywhere 
be as troublesome in ihe way of suckers as it is 
wherever we have known it, or no one would be 
found to s»ay a word ia its I'avjr. 



mstory of the Blood-Leaved Peach. The Bu- , flowers are grades towards masculinitv and 
ral S«H seems to imagine we gave the legend of | that whether a seed germ becomes of one sex or 
the origin of the blood-leaved peach, which we the other depends on the amount of nutrition it is 
found floating about in the newspapers, as a I able to assimilate in a very early stage of life 
mat er of fact It will be remembered the story i The lowest power of assimilation produces the 
went that a dying General ate the peach from i double flower. 
the stone of which this tree sprung. The Rural \ In one capsule are many seed germs. Some of 



Sun shows that this could not be, as the battle 
of Fort Donelson was fought amid the snows 
of February, when peaches were not about. 

We hardly supposed when we gave the cur- 
rent story, that any one would take it in earnest, 
much less have thought it worth while to "ex- 
plode'' it. It seems like undertaking the 
job of examining the facts in relation to the Red 
Rose having sprung from the blood of Venus, 
when a thorn pierced her foot in her hunt 
through the woods in the search for Adonis. 

As a matter of history, however, we should 
like to know where the original tree did spring. 
The Baral Sun, quoting the Baral Carolinian', 
says it originated "in Mississippi in 1870.'' If 
we are not very much mistaken, Mr. Hatch, of 
whom we first heard of it, told us it grew' at 
Fort Donelson, so far in accordance with the 
legend, and of course the only part we regarded 
as true. 

Single and .Double Flowers. Some time since 
the Baral Carolinian had tke following' para- 
graph : ° 

"Why do some of the seeds from a double flower 

?rom"fh/^«''^' ^r''^"^« ^^^^"^^' ^^^"^^ other seed 
from the same flower produce double flowerinxr 

^^.'^lV^1'''^/' ^"^'^^^^'•' ^« ^'^ sometimes gJt 
nearly all double flowering plants from a planting 
of seeds, when another plantinii from the same 
package, made at another time, oFin another place 

feTUL'J'u^^ ."" '"^^ ^"^^^^^ This 1ms oecu?- 
Itij^rt^'^^^ '" ^"'' «^'" expeiience. For in- 
stance last year we had one of the finest displays 
double znmias that we ever saw, but few of our 
&l!/5?l"^"l^..«i"g^« flowers. Cs y^r we 



these will not have the life principle so thorough- 
ly incorporated in them as the others through a 
defective supply of a certain kind of nutrition, 
and will yield double flowers sooner than others' 
Without perceiving this law as clearly as it has 
been since demonstrated, those who have had t« 
do with raising double flowers have yet often 
approached it. For instance in raising double 
stock gillies, seed being saved from single kinds, 
it has been found that the first flowers formed 
produce chiefly double flowers, and the last chief- 
ly single. This is an experience of more than 
thirty years. The reason is that on the first for- 
mation of flowers, the plant is still devoting 
much of its nutrition to plant growth. After 
that is satisfied, it gives its whole attention to 
perfecting seed. 

It is curious to notice in the production o^ 
double flowers, how when nutrition fails, it effects 
the male organs of a flower before the female. A 
stamen for instance is a higher organized body 
than a petal ; indeed it is formed out of a petal, 
which in its turn is formed out of a leaf. But 
when there is not jiower enough to turn the 
petals into stamens-that is when the flower be- 
comes double, as it is called -the pistil will never- 
theless remain perfect. Hence we can often 
raise seed from double carnations, double roses, 
double hollyhocks, and so on, if we can only ob- 
tain foreign pollen to fertilize them. 

Whether or not any weakening influence on 
the seed, a/^cr it has once been fully formed, will 
planted' some' of the^t^edT'iyt over VromTe'same ^'''''^ ''''^' influence in producing double flowers 
vp«r a^n'i^'"'"'' ^'''",' ^^'^ fl"^«^ ^o"^>'<^ flowers of last '^^ ^^^^""^ ""^y ^^^"^ ^ur own experience; but there 
se'dsmen 'K rtultsTom'^.l/'ru ^•'"^^^^^^^^^ "««<! to be a belief prevalent among English gar- 
very few exceptionrtt'r hMmmS^sir.: '^"'^^^ ""^ ^''' '~ "^^^ ^ ' 

Sed^ditor nrT"'V>^°^.^^^^^"^ ^' theaccom- 
snmi • ^.^ ? ^hc Gardener's Monthly inve us 
some light on this point in vegetable physiology ?" 

Not wishing to ^'take the job ^' out of the 
hands of the other friends named, we have left 
tion tn rr/l""'' ^"' ^^ they show no disposi- 

ul«r .u ''^^ "^ ''^ '^'''^ "^'-^3' ^« "^ ^^^^^^ in 
uogesting that the papers on the " laws of sex," 

stalt r'f '^"^^ •^'""^"^^' ^^P'^i" thecircum- 
Btaiice referred to; Ic is there seen that double 



deuers that old seeds of the Balsam, or '' Lady's 
Slipper," would more certainly produce double 



than single flowers. 



OBITUARY. 

LAWRENCE lOUNG. 

This distinguished horticulturist died on the 
23d of December, at Louisville, Kentucky, in the 
eighty-second year of his age. Mr. Young was 
not well known to our readers, as he ceased con- 



tributing 



to the horticultural press with the pass 



50 



TEE GARDE JEER'S MONTHLY. Fehrxiary, 



1873. 



I !! 



I 



I 



ing away of the Horticvlturist from Downing, by 
his death ; but most of us who are no longer on 
the green side of life, will remember how much 
profit in the years gone by we derived from 
the writings and labors of Lawrence Young. 
In the earlier years of the American Pomologi- 
cal Society, Mr. Young took an active part in 
its successful working, and the only time the 
writer had the pleasure of his personal acquaint- 
ance was at one of the Pomological Society's 
meetings in Philadelphia, twenty years ago. It 
was, we believe, the last he ever attended. In 
his own immediate vicinity, however, he labored 
effectively for horticulture up to the time of his 
death. The Kentucky Horticultural Society is 
one of the live societies of which we have much 
too few ; and very much of this useful activity 
has been due to the intluence of Mr. Young. 



He was born in Caroline county, Virginia, 
but from three years old was brought up in Ken- 
tucky. He worked in early life on his father's 
fiirm, educating himself in a great measure* 
finally becoming a school teacher. At length 
he devoted some time to merchandize, and the 
study of the law. At thirty he married, and 
after finishing his university studies, again 
opened a school ; but finally gave up all for farm- 
ins: and orchardins:. When the Western Rural- 
ist was started, he admirably edited the horticul- 
tural department, and up to quite a recent date 
contributed to other papers in his vicinity. He 
was buried on Christmas day, and leaves three 
sons and one daughter, besides a name which 
will long endear him to the horticulturists of 
what may almost be called his native State. 



TJIE GARDE JVEM'S MOJYTHLY. 



51 



SCUAPS AND aUERIES. 



Noticing Advertisements. — We have oc- 
casional offers of "good pay " if we will "notice" 
advertisements in our reading columns ; and one 
firm, very respectable of course, refuses to adver- 
tise in the Gardener's Monthly because we will 
not do so. Not one line that has ever appeared 
la the body of the Gardener"* s Monthly has ever 
been paid for directly or indirectly, and we do 
not mean that it ever shall be. At the same 
time it is not fair that one shall have a free 
notice and another none. Equal justice to all 
our advertisers is our motto. We trust our 
friends will spare us the pain of declining " no- 
tices." We think every one reads our adver- 
tisements, 60 that the notice is superogatory at 
all events. 



which any one reader desires information, a line 
to the editor will always bring it, if in his power. 

Boiling Locust Seed.— A correspondent 
asks if it is proper to boil the seed of the yellow 
locust before sowing. Boil the seed I What a 
question ! He says he is told so. If they ever 
grew after, the water must have been boiled on 
the top of Pike's Peak, where they say water 
boils at a temperature not so very many degrees 
above the freezing point I But w^e do not recom- 
mend it here. Pour boihng water on the seed if 
i hard and dry, but do not boil in this part of the 
world. 



Subscribing to the Gardeners Month- 
ly. — The publisher desires to thank the many 
subscribers, who with their renewels have en- 
couraged him by kind expressions of their regard 
for the magazine. In this connection one of the 
most gratifying events is the unusually large 
number who on account of the war, misfortune, 
or some other cause, had to cease subscribing to 
the Montlily^ have renewed again with frank con- 
fessions of their feeling of loss by its non-appear- 
ance all the long years. After all, the Monthly 
is just what the subscribers themselves wish to 
make it. If there be any topic neglected on 



1 Plants in Bloom at Rhosynmynydd, the 
I suburban residence of J. P. Jones, Esq., Block- 
; ley, West Philadelphia, Pa, 
j NOVEMBER, 1872. 

] HARDY HERBACEOUS PLANTS. 

' Anemone Japonica alba, Windflower 

I Chrysanthemum Indicum var. Chusan Daisy 
I Helleborus niger, Christmas Rose 

' Lychnis dioica fl.alba pleno, batchelor's 

[button 

EVERGREEN HERBACEOUS PLANTS 

that enliven the dreary winter walks in the plea- 
sure grounds, by their curious and beautiful 
foliage. 



Ajuga 



Acorus 
Arabis 

Aubretia 

Arum 

Dianthus 



Helleborus 
Lilium 



(( 



a 



reptans. Bugle 

variegata 

calamus variegata, sweet Rush 

alpina. Wall cress 

variegata, " 

purpurea 

maculatum. Wake Robin 
barbatus. Sweet William 
Caryophyllus, Carnation 
plumarius, Pink 
niger, Christmas Rose 
candid um, Lily 
variegata a urea 
Pachysandra procumbens 
Pyrola elliptica, false Wintergreen 

baxifraga Andrewsi, Saxifrage (Irish) 

crassifolia 

sarmentosa. Wandering Jew 
umbrosa, London Pride 
virginiensis 

GREENHOUSE AND CONSERVATORY 

Abutilon striatum, Chinese bell 

vexillarium " 

grandiflorum ** 
Ageratum mexicanum, Blue Mist 

cpelestinum, " 
Asclepias curassavica. Swallow-wort 

Bouvardia triphylla 

Browallia Jamisonii 

Cactus speciosum 

Camellik fl. alba pleno, Camellia 

testrum regale 

Cuphea Danielsiana,* Cigar flower 

platycentra, ** 

Btrigulosa, •» 

^ypripedium insigna, ladies slipper 
i^aphne odora, spurge laurel 

£upat0rium fruticosum, white mist 

G^rTn-* coccinea, var., ladies eardrop 

^eranmm Zonale, var. 

Jasminum grandiflorum. Jasmine 

Justicia carnea 

Malcomia maritima, Virginia stock 

^^ea fragrans, Olive 

^^^18 floribunda rosea. Sorrel 

alba 
grandiflora, 
lutea, ti 

p . versicolor, *« 

Kn^^l^ sinensis, Primrose 

Kusselha j^oca 

^^^ coccinea, Sage 

involucrata, Sage 
splendens, " 



Serissa 
Solan um 



Tropaeolum 
Thea 

Veronica 



foetid a 

Jasminoides 

variegata 

Lobbianum, Indian cress 

viridis. Tea tree 

speciosa, Speedwell 

Andersonii, " 
The garden rocket, (Hesperis matronalis fl. 
pleno albo) or Dames Violet, an old favorite 
hardy herbaceous plant of England and Ireland 
recently introduced here, is well worth a little at- 
tention as to its culture. I will give my experi- 
ence with it. It being a true biennial in its 
single state, (commonly called Gilliflower) of a 
purplish red color, bearing seed and sowin- itself 
profusely. Therefore the subject of my remarks 
being double flowered, and bearing no seed it 
requires to be propagated every year by side 
shoots or cuttings oft' the old plant in earlv 
spring or fall. I found that when the plant was 
wel established, not being transplanted or 
parted, it grew coarse and straggling, but by 
parting the crowns every spring as soon as it 
shows signs of growth, I have beautiful com- 
pact spikes of its double white clove scented 
flowers, rivalling the Pink or Carnation, and 
very sliowy. 



Mc Arthur, Son & Co., Meridian, Miss 
--The publisher begs to return thanks to the 
above firm for a complimentary notice of the 
Gardener^s Monthly inserted in their nursery 
catalogue. 



Aralia spinosa.-^. F. 8., MoUne, Ills., 
writes: "I enclose herewith a few seeds for 
name. They grew upon a small tree, perhaps 
now about eight feet high, and at this time there 
IS not the sign of a limb upon it, they having all 
lallen ofl; to come out again in the sprincr The 
limbs and the side limbs, or more properly 
speaking, the foot stalks of the leaves are attach- 
ed to the tree by clasping around the stem or 
stems, and when frosts come they loosen up and 
tail to the gromid. The body is covered with 
short blunt thorns. Having been a subscriber 
to the Gardener^s Monthly from the beginnincr 
I take the liberty of addressing you. Please give 
ns a name and somewhat of its character. The 
flower grew upon the extreme top of the tree • 
was not very showy, although large as a bucket,' 
and grew very much like the elder flowers." 

[This is the Aralia spinosa, or Hercules Club 
Also called angelica tree. It is one of the most 



6^ 



THE GABBEJVEB'S MOJ^THLY. Februarij, 



1873. 



THE GABBEJVEB'S MONTHLY. 



53 



ill 



it' 



etriking objects one can possibly bave on a lawn . 
inferior in many respects to some tropical 
plants yet more popular. It is liable to annoy 
a little by suckers, and should be planted where 
these will not be very objectionable.l 

The Centennial Exhibition.— Mr. Akers 
gays : "Mr. Morroll, who is Chairman of the 
Executive Committee of the Centennial Commis- 
sion, informs me that the Committees which will 
be charged with the details of the exposition, 
have no" yet been appointed. He also assures 
me that the great horticultural interest shall be 
recognized in all its importance. This I can 
weirconfide in, as I know him to be ardently 
devoted to that interest himself." 

[The committee to which we had reference was 
the local committee of finance. Sub-committees 
were appointed to represent every branch of 
trade and all the professions. There were com- 
mittees on agricultural implements, on seeds, on 
agriculture, and so forth, but we believe no com- 
mittee for horticulture. It was perhaps a mat- 
ter of little consequence in this stage of the pro- 
ceedings, as horticulturists are found in every 
other ''calling, and besides these committees 
were merely for the question of local finance ; 
but we are very jealous of the position of horti- 
culture in this great affair, and feared even this 
small slight might be but the prelude to greater 
ones. We do not want to feel that horticulture 
is but the tail end of a seed shop.] 



The Curculio.— a Johnstown, Pa., corres- 
pondent says : " Mr. Southwick's experience in | 
regard to the curculio is fully corroborated by | 
results here. We had a most extraordinary 
crop of plums last summer. Hope the "little ; 
turk '' will stay frozen. He is getting another ^ 
gi)od freezing this winter, only there is plenty of j 
snow to save his infant jacket.'' | 



I shall put up a small greenhouse myself, this 
summer. Shall not have room for many articles. 
I shall try to grow Camellias, and especially 
want a real good white Azalea. Which one 
would you recommend to me ?" 

[We think, taking all things into considera- 
tion, perhaps the azalea indica alba is still the 
best. ' Mr. Buist is one of the best authorities on 
azaleas. If he thinks there is a better, we should 
like to know.] 

Our Inquirers. -Our last number must 

bave been an unusually satisfactory one, if the 

small number of queries on hand this month be 

any te.st. But we may say to our readers that 

this column is always at their service. If one 

I want to know nothing of anything but grass or 

I cucumbers, still we are ready to tell even what 

! we may know about these. 

Canada Victor Tomato. -While sending 

! the engraving of the Marblehead Squash, Mr. 

Gregory sends us a sketch of a new tomato, of 

which he speaks very highly, as near the perfec- 

, tion of earliness and beauty. We know nothing 

of it from our own experience. 




The Mercury in the Alleghany Moun- 
tains.— A correspondent from Johnstown, 
says : " The mercury in the thermometer made 
the following record this winter: December 
22d, ten degrees below zero ; December 24th, 
five below ; December 25th, fifteen below.'' 

Best White Azalea.— ili., Qou^crs'pori, Pa. 
writes : " In this far away region, horticul- 
turally considered, you may not expect to find 
gardening highly appreciated, but it is growing 
n^re th&n you may imagine, perhaps. I think 



When the Law goes into Effect.— So 
many enquiries reach us as to when the new law 
goes into effect, that we appUed to the Hon. A. 
C. Harmer, who, as we have before said, has 
taken a warm interest in the matter, t© get the 
information for us. The following is the letter 
in response to Mr. Harmer's query : 

Sir:— Please inform your correspondent, Mr. 

Thos. Meehan, that this Department, though not 

officially notified, is advised that the President has 

now signed the bill rei^ently passed by Congi^ess, 

whereby seeds, bulbs, roots and scions, arc 

classed with printed matter in regard to postage 

I and weight of i)ackages— that is, one cent for 

each two ounces or fraction thereof, limited to 

' four pound packages— and the same is now the 

' law. Postmasters will be advised as s©on as 



possible after the official notice from the Depart- 
ment of State is received. 

The same law provides that all third class 
matter must be prepaid in full by stamps affixed 
at tlie office of mailing, otherwise the same shall 
not be forwarded. 

Very respectfully, 

J. W. Marshall, 

1st Ass't P. M. Gen'l. 
Hon. A. C. Harmer, 

House of Representatives. 

Since this was in type, " effect'' has be taken. 



The Herstine and Saunders Raspber- 
ries.— It is our habit to give our readers all the 
information to be had in regard to any horticul- 
tural topic, whether the information accords 
with our own experience or not. In regard to 
the raspberries named above, our experience is 
in favor of their extra productiveness, but Mr 
Purdy says in his Fruit Recorder: "Judging* 
from the crop and fruit on plants set one "year 
ago last spring, we cannot see wherein they ex- 
cel either the Clark or Naomi, while neither of 
them have shown so much fruit on our plants as 
either of the last two named sorts.'' 



from Illinois, twenty or thirty years ago. It was, 
I think, two inches through ; it is now twenty- 
five feet high, eight or nine inches in diameter. 
Last June I cut a ring around It quarter of an 
inch wide, leaving four points, (say eighth of an 
inch), equally distant uncut to insure safety. It 
did not heal over^ but the sap run some, keeping 
the lips of the wound wet and raw. The upper 
lip enlarged some. Several of the top shoots 
dropped their leaves early. What species is it 
with so large a nut ? Will it bear next year 
with the upper lip enlarged so little ?" 

[In this section th& large fruited varieties of 
the hickories belong mostly to the shellbark, 
Carya alba, though very often they belong to 
Carya sulcata, which after all is probably but a 
"development" from the shellbark species, and 
not very far advanced at that.] 



Marblehead 
Squash.— In a re- 
cent number of the 
Oardener^s Mojithly 
we had to speak fa- 
vorably of this va- 
riety from a sample 
furnished by Mr. 
Gregory. We now 
give an engraving 
furnished by Mr. 
Gregory, which will 
enable those who 
grow it to identify the correctness of the variety. 

Large Hickory Nut. -A Connecticut cor- 
respondent says: '»I planted a hickory nut 




H. T. Williams. — Among the most welcome 
visitors to the Fruit Growers' Society at Reading, 
was Mr. H. T. Williams, editor of the well 
known Horticulturist. Mr. W. 's cordial suavity 
of manner, and willingness to contribute all in 
his power to the pleasure and instruction of his 
fellow horticulturists, always make his ])resence 
gratifying to the members of these societies. He 

reports the Horti- 
culturist as in aTlour- 
i s h i n g condition, 
and his new ven- 
ture, the Floral 
Cabinet., which by 
some accident has 
not come to our book 
table, as being a par- 
particular favorite 
with the ladies of 
the country. Few 
men better deserve 
success than Mr. Williams, and his very nu" 
merous friends will be glad to know he is obtaiu- 
inirit 



NEW AND HARE FRUITS. 



Seedless Apple.- J. Donaldson, Kittanning, 
Armstrong Co,, Pa , says: ''I send you this 
day two samples of a seedless apple, which I con- 
sider a valuble acquisition to our list of Ameri- 
can apples. It is a regular and prodigious 



bearer, long keeper and vigorous grower ; it is 
worthy of general cultivation, and saves much 
time in preparing it for the table, as it needs 
not to be cored. The flower is without petals, 
and apparently without pistils. The quality of 



5Jf 



THE GARDEJ^ER'S MOJYTHLY. February, 



1873. 



TEE GARDE JfER'S MOJ^THLY. 



55 



fi 



%lk 



% 



the apple is left for you to decide from speci- 
mens sent." 

fWe regard this as a valuahle acquisition for 
the reasons given h}- our correspondent. There 
is no "core" to'speak of. The flavor is excel- 
lent, something akin to that of a Newtown Pip- 
pin, from which it may be a seedling. It is, 
however, smaller than an average Newtown. 

Besides its comnirr, ial value, it has some in- 
tellectual interest. It is no wonder that it pro- 
duces an "apple" without having perfect sexual 
organs, for many things are known to do this. 
The Osage Orange will produce seedless balls, 
when there is no pollen near to fertilize it with. 
The cucumber also does this. But this gives us 
a capital illustration of the doctrine that a fruit 
is but a bundle of altered leaves. We see that 
the outside of the apple is made up of five leaves 
which end in the i:sual 5 calyx sepals ; but the 
union is so perfect that no one can trace any 
distinction. AVhen we cut an apple through, 
there is ahvays seen a fibrous incurved line mid- 
way between the core and the rhind, termi- 
nating in the calyx basin. In this we sec that 
this line is capped by five hard gland-like pro- 
cesses, which are all that represent the petals ; 
these are divided some distance, showing that 
five leaves went to form the interior layer, 
which is bounded by the fibrous line in the ap- 
ple. Generally there seems to be a rapid ab- 
sorption of the cycle or cycles which go to form the 
stamens,— but the carpels— which form the set of 
five divisions known as the core, usually takes a 
new start, and make the core cavities. In this 
case they are nearly abortive, something having 
interfered with the nutritive process necessary 
to their development. 



pears for many years, some of which are valua- 
ble acquisitions to the list of American varieties. 
The " Pond' is of medium size, has a rich, su- 
gary flavor, and would be highly esteemed by 
those who prefer sweet pears to those of a sub- 
acid or vinous flavor.— iVeu? England Farmer. 

Peake's Fall apple is described as an Octo- 
ber apple from South Carolina, resembling the 
Rawle's Janet in tree and fruit. The Prairie 
Farmer thus describes it : Shape flattish-conic. 
An ordinary specimen of the present year meas- 
ures 2f x2:[ inches. Calyx medium, rather open in 
a shallow and small basin. Stem rather long and 
slender, in a deep and open cavity. Flesh white, 
brittle, very juicy, of a sprightly acid, and good 
to very good in quality. Capsule rather small, 
closed, with rather small brown oblong and not 
plump seeds. Season here November rather 
than October, and would probably keep through 
December. A little farther North it would be- 
come a Winter apple. Tree vigorous, but not a 
strong grower thus far. 



The Early Barnard Peach —Mr. Fla<y<T 
says : Two points in this confusion we thiiik we 
have settled to our own satisfaction . Fi rst, that the 
true Yellow Rareripe is a peach ripening a little 
later than or with Early Crawford, a deeper col- 
ored and better peach. Secondly, that Early 
Barnard is a well marked variety, differing from 
the Yellow Alberge in being of better quality 
and having the dark brownish red color noticed 
by Thomas. It ripens before Early Crawford. 
But we confess to being at sea as regards the 
Ye low Honest John. 



The " Pond Pear."— This is the name given 
to a new pear by Dr. S. A. Shurtleff, of Brook- 
line, Mass. The Dr. has been introducing new 



Red IIA^vT^ORNDEN Apple.— Thouch so 
old an apple, the Ilawthornden is yet a rare one 
in collections, and merits notice here. The fol- 
lowing correspondence will have an interest. It 
is a very profuse bearer : "I notice an article 
in th Baral New Yorker, Dec. 7, concerning 
* Red Hawthornden.' Why do you call a lohite 
apple, with an occasional blush cheek, 'Red 
Ilawthornden? ' I have grown the Hawthorn- 
den with great satisfaction for many years. It 
is a great producer of very uniform fruit, and 
sells well in market for culinary use, but is not 
80 good for the table as the Maiden's Blush, 
which it closely resembles. It relieves itself of 
its surplus fruit somewhat prematurely, but al- 
ways perfects a Fall crop. But it is in no re- 
spect entitled to the prefix ' Red' to its old-fash- 
ioned name. Better continue to call it plain 
Ilawthornden, and then we shall understand 
what apple we arc talking about.— I. D. G. Nel- 
son. 

If our good friend will read the article to 
which he refers, again, he will sec that we were 
quoting from an English journal a description 
of a fruit known locally in England as * Red 
Ilawthornden ;' and if he compares that descrip- 
tion with Downing's description of * Ilawthorn- 
den,' or the old ' White Ilawthornden,' he will 
see some dissimilarity, although the two apple • 
may possibly be the same. But in England the 
the apple is known as Red Ilawthornden, and 
as such we gave it. — Rural New Yeyrker. 



NEW AND RAllE PLANTS. 



The following new plants have recently been 
illustrated in some of the European magazines. 
Alternantjiera amabilis — Amarantacea). 
Tills is one of the finely-colored dwarf bushy- 
growing foliage plants used for color massing in 
geometrical gardening, and which has been so 
remarkably beautiful at Battersea and elsewhere 
during the past summer. It has considerably 
larger and more richly colored foliage than the 
species already known (spathulata, &c.); the 
leaves are of an elliptic acuminate outline, 
greenish in some stages, with the principal ribs 
stained with red, but under free growth becom- 
ing almost entirely suffused with rose color 
mixed with orange, the midribs continuing to be 
of a deep red hue. It is a native of Brazil, and 
has been introduced by M. A. Verschaffelt. 

Ampelopsis dissecta.— VitaccfB. A slender 
and very elegant free-growing hardy climbing \ 
f^hrub, furnished with long reddish branches^ - 
which tear palmisected leaves having pinnatifid ' 
segments, so that the leaves closely resemble in 
form the fronds of Litobrochia pedata. It bears 
small roundish, bluish, glaucescent fruits. Two 
or three varieties of the plant have been intro 
duced from China to the Jardin du Museum at 
Paris. 

Collinsia cORYMBosA.-Scropliulariace«. 
This pretty dwarf free-blooming annual is of a 
much-branched habit, and has ovate-stalked 
leaves, the upper ones becoming sessile under 
the umbel-like inflorescence of numerous white 
and blue flowers ; the lower lip is white, three- 
parted, larger than the grey-blue upper one, its 
middle lobe is compressed or folded, while its 
two lateral lobes are flat and spreading. Native 
of Mexico, and introduced by Messrs. Haage & 
Schmidt. 

Crocus Scharojanl— Iridaceje. A pretty 
»iardy, autumn-flower bulb, related td C. Su- 
warowianus, and producing its blossoms before 
deleaves appear. The flowers are of a deep 
satTron color, and are developed in the early au- 
tumn months. It is found in the western Can- 
casus, and has been introduced to the St. Peters- 
»>urg Botanic Garden. 

DiCENTliANTHERA MACROPHYLLA.-Acan- 

tiiaceai. An ornamental stove shrub, with very 
^arge obovate lanceolate leaves, and terminal 
erect spikes a foot long, of handsome bilabiate 



bell-shaped flowers, which are rosy purple exter- 
nally, and almost pure white within. It comes 
from tropical Africa, and has been raised and 
flowered in the Glasnevin Botanic Garden. 



Primula JAPONICA. -We have given before 
notices of this remarkable Primrose. It will do 
no harm to reprint what Mr. Cannell says of it 
! after another year of trial. 

Primula jnponica, which has been recently 
figured in the Florist and Pomologist, Floral 
Mayazine-aud Botanical Magazine; the opinion 
of every-one who has seen it in blossom may be 
expressed in one word "lovely I" When exhibit- 
ed before the Floral Committee of the Royal 
Horticultural Society, it was voted a First Class 
Certificate by acclamation. 

The Florist says of it,~" Hail I Queen of the 
Primroses ; for so its introducer designates the 
lovely flower we now figure, which is hardy as a 
peasant, resplendent as a princess. It is just 
ten years since Mr. Fortune met with it in Ja- 
pan, a basketful of blooming plants having been 
brought to his door ; they were, of courle, se- 
cured, but the journey home was too much for 
them, and despite every care none reached En- 
gland alive. Ever since that time, endeavors 
have been made to introduce this lovely plant, 
but till now without success, the seeds having 
been found to loose their germinating power in 
the course of transmission to Europe. At last, 
however, perseverance has been rewarded, and 
from seeds imported by Mr. Fortune, plants 
have been raised in the establishment of Mr. W. 
Bull, of Chelsea. Our gardens have thus se- 
cured a perfectly new, thoroughly hardy, and 
exquisitely lovely Primrose, one which is really 
valuable on account of its intrinsic beauty. Of 
the hardiness of the Primula japonica there can 
be no doubt, since plants which have been stand- 
ing all the winter, fully exposed, in the trying 
atmosphere of London, are perfectly healthy, 
and came into bloom about the middle of May, 
some two or three weeks later than the plants 
which had been potted and flowered under 
glass." 

Its Treatment, tt'c, bf/ an Amateur,— Thin 
hardy new Japan Primrose is one of those gen- 
uine acquisitions to our floral wealth that occurs 
only at rare intervals, and in the hands of hy- 



56 



THE GARBEJVER'S MOJ^ITHLY. February, 



1873. 



THE GARDEJ^ER'S MOJfTRLH. 



57 




bridizers it will probably become the parent of a 
series of new varieties that will play an impor- j 
tant part in the spring decoration of the flower 
garden. A Primrose growing to the height of 
18 inches, and producing whorl above whorl of 
flowers of a rich magenta color, each flower 
measuring from half an inch to an inch in diam- 
eter, is likely to reverse all our previous notions \ 
of Primroses. The sentiment of humble beauty 
universally attached to the common Primrose 
cannot be applied to this variety, which may be 
said to assume magnificent proportions. It is 
pow excellence, a plant for the amateur, for its 
great beauty, its hardiness, and its free-seeding i 
qualities, whilst its culture is of the easiest i 
kind. Strong plants should be at once planted ' 
in any deep rich garden soil, and although it is ; 
believed to be perfectly hardy, it might be well, ! 
until a stock is in hand, to plant it where some ! 
slight natural protection is afforded. By mid- 
winter the whole of the large handsome leaves ' 
will have decayed, and a few only of the small- ' 
est will be left to mark the heart of the plant ; I 
this being its habit, no uneasiness need be felt, ! 
but when in this state, should the weather be | 
unusually severe, it may be well to invert a pot i 
or pan filled with dry leaves over the crown ; im- 1 
mediately the weather moderates this must be 
removed. A plant treated in this manner last 
winter threw up a very strong flower stem in the 
spring, and was altogether the finest we have yet 
seen. 

It produced eight whorls of its lovely flowers 
in succession, one above the other, and from it 
was gathered nearly a quarter of an ounce of 
good seed. Coddling should be strictly avoided, 
for the only failure of a good bloom we have 
noted resulted from over carefulness in the mat- 
ter of protection. The most effective way of prop- 
agation is by division of the plants after bloom- 
ing, as it secures strong blooming plants for the 
next season. In most cases every bloom spike 
will cause the plant to multiply by two. When 
these off*shoot8 are! of a good size the plant 
should be taken up and divided, each crown 
with its own portion of roots. Replant in good 
soil in a half shady border, from whence, when 
the plants are well established, they should be 
removed with large balls to the situation in 
which it is desired they should bloom. 



amongst golden leaved Conifers must be accord- 
ed to Mr. Maurice Young's Juniperus chinensis 
aureus. The Chinese Juniper is well known as 
one of the hardiest and handsomest of Conifer- 
ous shrubs, and when we state that the novely 
just referred to is the exact counterpart of its pa- 
rent, in all but its color, and that that color is 
equal at least in richness of hue to any golden 
Conifer hitherto known, but little further men- 
tion of it is needed. We may however add, 
from a recent personal inspection of the stock, 
that it is thoroughly constant. Not a plant 
amongst the entire stock shows the least ten- 
dency to run back, but all, whether infants of 6 
inches or adolescents of 3 feet high, appear in 
the same aristocratic 'cloth of gold' array. * * * 
Our notes indicate that the propagated plants 
take on a close pyramidal habit, and have more- 
over the twofold character of foliacie which is 
seen in the parent, and that the color of the 
more prominent portions of the plants as bright 
as the tint of a Golden Holly. Taking these va- 
rious points into account, and coupling with 
them the free-growing hardy character of the 
plant, there is no exaggeration in pronouncing 
this novelty to be one of the best and most de- 
sirable of ornamental Conifers." 



Perpetual Flowering Tree Carnation, 
La Belle. — The forerunner of a new race of 
varieties. The flowers of the purest white, are 
very large and smooth, perfectly double, and de- 
lightfully fragrant, and are produced, all the 
year round, in such profusion that one or more 
plants should be grown wherever cut blooms 
are in request.— Gardeners' Magazine. 



TnuJOPSis Standisiiil— Introduced from 
Japan in 1861 by Mr. Fortune, who discovered it 
growing near Yeddo. It somewhat resembles 
the T. dolabrata in its general appearance. Its 
leaves are smaller, of a bright glossy green 
above and dull glaucous color below ; its branches 
are slender and pendulous. It is quite hardy, 
and, like its congener, of slow growth, at least 
when young, requiring apparently similar treat- 
ment to T. dolabrata.— A. Fowler, Castle 
Kennedy, in Oar. Chronicle. 



Juniperus Chinensis aurea. Young's New 
Golden Chinese Juniper.— The Gardener's Chron- 
icle says : '* Certainly one of the foremost places 



PiNUS PARViFLORA.— This is One ot the pret- 
ty, small-sized, coniferous trees recently intro- 
duced from the northern parts of Japan, and al- 
though not likely to prove of any value in this 
country for its timber, it promises Jo be of some 



importance as an ornamental tree, particularly 
in situations where a larger-sized one would be 
inadmissable. 

When seen in good health it has a pleasing 
appearance, although it is rather stiff* and formal 
in habit ; its branches are horizontal and spread- 
ing, its foliage is glaucous on both sides, twisted 
and tortuous, and about two inches in length. 
It is one of the fine-leaved varieties, but quite 
hardy. A strong loam suits it best, but it 
thrives well in most ordinary soils, preferring 
an open if not exposed situation to close shaded 
or confined ones. — Gar. Chronicle. 



White Calycanthus.— Mr. Berckmans re- 
ports in the Farmer and Gardener, that a white 
flowered variety of the Calycanthus has been dis- 
covered in middle Georgia. It blooms continu- 
ously till frost. This sweet shrub will be in 
great demand by the cut flower folks, as we 
should judge it would force easily through win- 
ter. 



A Purple-leaved Birch has been found 
by some one connected with the firm of Transon 
Bros., Orleans, France, and is now under propa- 
gation. It is a variety of Betula alba. 



DOMESTIC INTELLIGENCE. 



An Old Apple.— In the window of the store 
of Messrs. E. R. Laighton & Co , on Congress 
street, is exhibited a genuine curiosity ; perhaps 
the only one of its kind and age extant— an ap- 
ple one hundred years old- the property of Mr. 
Henry Shute, of this city. It was picked up in 
the year 1772, the outside being carefully stuck 
with whole cloves, so that no part of the fruit 
could be discovered peeping through. The 
grandfather of Mr. Shute, who died at the age 
of 85 years, came into possession of this curiosi- 
ty when quite a youth, and at his decease it 
descended to the present generation The flavor 
of the cloves even is still quite perceptible, while 
the apple itself is plump and solid. Looking at 
this remarkable specimen of fruit preservation, 
we are reminded that a gentleman of this city 
has a doughnut which is within a few weeks of 
being twelve years old, kept as a relic of a dona- 
tion party held in Stratham in 1861. It is in 
good condition, and with care must last for many 
years yet— Portsmouth Journal. 



ly saturated with urine or sewer-water. Saw- 
dust thus treated may be used on partially ex- 
hausted soils with great a dvanta.ize.— Depart- 
ment OF Agriculture. 



Utilization of Sawdust.— M. Gustave 
Hueze says that, though sawdust decomposes 
very slowly, yet it may be economically used as 
litter in stables, and left for several months in 
contact with the solid and liquid excrement of 
animals, which it readily absorbs. It may also 
^ composted with quick-lime and left in a heap 
for about a year. Additions may be made to 
this heap from time to time, but, when such ad- 
ditions are made, the whole heap should be well 
stirred. It will be improved by being frequent- 



Maturity of Peaches— In comparing our 
notes, made during a period of fifteen years, as 
to the periods of maturity of the leading varie- 
ties of peaches, we find the variation small when- 
ever the fruit crop was an abundant one ; but 
when the yield was small, the difference in time 
of maturity has. always been more marked, and 
usually later than in good fruit seasons 

On the 3d of August we had splendid speci- 
mens of Amelia, a variety which we have seldom 
kept as late as July 20th. Hale's Early com,, 
menced to mature June 10th, and continued until 
the middle of July, when the last specimens were 
eaten. In 1871 the whole crop was gone on the 
10th of June. Some seasons our Early York 
matured before the Early Tillotson, althouirh 
the latter is conceded to ripen a week before the 
former. These variations are, as before stated, 
more marked when late spring frosts have in- 
jured the fruit crop, and likewise upon the first 
productions of a tree newly transplanted. Many 
persons complain of the behavior of Hale's Early 
when first fruiting, its season of maturity being 
sometimes lengthened for several weeks, instead 
of embracing only a period of ten days. These 
defects become less apparent when trees becorat 
older, unless caused by climatic influences ; and 
these causes not bemg: generally known, hav« 
occasioned the numerous controversies lately 



58 



TEE QARDEJVEB'S MOJYTHLY. February, 



1873. 



THE GARDEJ^ER'S MOMTRLY. 



69 





II 



* 



circulated in the horticultural mai^azines. 
Berckmans, in Bural Caroliniar}. 



-P.J. 



Park Cities.— The plan of Ridley Park has 
been confided to one of the ablest landscape gar- 
deners in the country — Mr. Robert Morris Cope- 
land, a Harvard graduate and citizen of Boston, 
but now for a long time resident on the spot he 
is improving. He knows well how to compose 
his picture, arranging the groves and lakes in 
the most beautiful sequence, leaving sites for 
fine houses in the manner of pedestals for beauti- 
ful statues, and shading with discreet and natural 
veils the more utilitarian and prosaic features of 
the scene. He has already had much experience in 
the laying out of towns on novel plans adapted 
to the situation ; his improvement of parts of 
Newport has elevated his name into very proud 
notoriety. At Martha's Vineyard he has built 
a summer village known as Oak Bluffs ; on Long 
Island he has designed a beautiful city of sum- 
mer worship for the Methodists, half encamp 
ment and half metropolis— a very Jerusalem for 
loveliness ; lie has established and designed an 
ornamental village on the seashore at Duxbury, 
near Boston ; and has planned another near 
Grantville, on the Boston and Albany Railroad. 
He is also the author of an ingenious public plan 
for the improvement of Boston with a constella- 
tion of small parks and pleasure grounds, skil- 
fully arranged in the portions where land is 
cheapest, and most available. Even in his tem- 
porary residence at Ridley, the restless itch of 
artistic skill has not permitted him to leave the 
place without changing an i yesore into a master- 
piece. A little judicious rustic work has trans- 
formed the farmhouse assigned for his residence | 
into a beautiful vine-clad chalet, and he has sur- j 
rounded it with spacious and rare flower-beds, ; 
which look like cathedral windows lying on the ' 
ground. The railway-station, even, at Ridley | 
Park is a novel and interesting piece of architec- j 
ture, bridging the whole breadth of the road, j 
provided with elevators for the baggage and fan- \ 
cifully sheeted with slate.— Ltppmco«'s Maga- 
zine. 



|| 



Floriculture. -The Floral is the beautiful 
garden spot in the field of horticulture. It is as 
a paradise full of that influence which refreshes 
and delights the physical senses, and elevates 
the moral, the social and the spiritual nature. 
It brings us nearer home— nearer rest— carries 
us beyond the results of menial labors, and 



teaches us that it is not on bread and meat alone 
that we hve. This garden of beauty, however, 
does not encourage inaction, nor reward without 
some labor. God requires of us no labor or duty, 
which, if properly performed, is not only plea- 
surable in the performance, but fruitions in 
results. In assigning women to thU depart- 
ment in horticulture, requiring her delicate and 
refined taste and judgment, we do not infer that 
I her presence or assistance would in any other 
department be dishonorable. As man's auxili- 
I arj, her ability and circumsiances in life must 
; suggest her labors and duties. But in this brief 
essay we must confine our suggestions alone to 
1 the influence of floral embellishments and adorn- 
ments of home. 

! The education of woman cannot be regarded 
: as complete in all the refinements without a 
I knowledge of floriculture. What to her is a 
1 knowledge of the dead languages if she cannot 
I converse with the living flowers? What to her 
is the French dialect if she cannot teach the 
silent tongue of the flowret to speak ? What to 
her to be able to count and appellate the stars 
so far above, and blush in ignorance of the 
names and structure of the smiling flowers at 
her feet. In this respect the education of woman 
should in no wise be neglected. No motlur with 
children under her charge, no wife with a hus- 
band whose heart she deli-ln- lu gladden, can 
afford to be destitute of ihis knowledge of the 
beautiful. As knowledge refines the feelings of 
the soul, so do the feelings of the soul beautify 
nature, and she who through this proper know- 
ledge appreciates these beauties will find them 
gathering about her. No diff^erence how humble 
her cottage or limited her means, like angels' 
spirits or divine agencies, they will come to cheer 
and felicitate her and hers, purifying and sancti- 
fying the associations of her home. What would 
life be ? What would home be without these 
creatures of loveliness and perfume, or without 
the faculty within us to enjoy and appreciate 
them. In this we perceive and must acknow- 
ledge the goodness of God.— Mrs. J. A. Blair. 



The Wagenek Apple in Michigan. —The 
Michigan Farmer says: "Here is the great 
home of the Wagener apple, and we had a fine 
opportunity to see it in all its various stages, 
from first bud up to trees eighteen years old. On 
this soil and in this section of Michigan this 
apple not only seems to do well, but does well. 
Here were trees on a farm close by that had been 



set out eighteen years, and had borne every year 
good crops since they first started. Last year 
these trees had borne a good crop. This year 
we saw them laden with fruit, and with a 
healthy vigorous growth of wood, and the foliage 
perfection. On the other hand, there were in 
the nursery young frees growing about five feet 
in height, this being the third year from the bud ; 
at the top of the second year's growth there were 
one or two clusters of young apples, and nearly 
the whole slock of this variety at the same ago 
had thrown out flower buds. On trees of an 
older growth there were fruit also, all going to 
show that here was an appfe that could Ikj relied 
upon to produce a crop at an early age ; and this 
is a point not to be overlooked in this section of 
the State where settlers are cutting their way 
into the woods and making fiirms, and cannot 
buy fruit even if they had the money to spare for 
its purchase, which they have not. Mr. Husted 
said he had tried many kinds, and especially the 
Red Canada, and whether it was the soil or the 
climate, or the treatment, he could not say, but 
the stock was not successful. The reputation 
and favor with which the Red Canada, or 
Steele's Red was viewed when he first established 
his nurseries, caused him to devote to it a very 
large share of attention, but it did not prove a 
successful sort. It was diflScult to grow, and 
especially difficult to get a well formed tree. It 
was quite slow in coming into bearing, ho 
thought even slower than the Northern Spy*^ and 
when grown the fruit was not perfect, like the 
Esopus Spilzenburgh. Ihe Wagener was just 
the reverse, and a man might grow two orchards 
of Wageners, and market the crops of one of 
them before the Canada Red would bear an 
apple. The Wagener was also a handsome 
compact upright growing tree, that might be set 
in rows not over twenty feet apart. No apple 
nad given more satisfaction at the West than 
this one. He had adopted it as a leading sort, 
rather against his worst impressions, and after 
havmg proved that it was adapted to the climate, 
the soil and wants of the people of western 
Michigan. The original Wagener tree at Penn 
^an. New York, only died out about two years 
ago, after bearing full crops to the last, being 
then about eighty years old. '» 



excursionists, and looked after their safety and 
comfort while on his road. Fifty or sixty mem- 
bers and guests formed the party, and were de- 
barked, literally, in the midst of a fifty acre 
flower farm, radiant, just now, with acres of 
Gladioli and Lily blooms. 

There were eighteen acres of Gladioli in blos- 
som. Perhaps our readers can imagine the mass 
of gorgeous color which three hundred named 
varieties, massed to this extent, would make. 
Perhaps they may have some conception of the 
adjectives used and the number of exclamation 
points required to report what the Club and its 
guests said on being pushed off" a plank into this 
sea of bloom. Then, in addition to the three 
hundred named varieties, there was a bed of 
I 3 500 seedling Gladioli— among them as fine spe- 
cimens as can be found among the three hun- 
dred named varieties ; and several that will 
become distinguished for their unique beauty. 

Tben imagine ten acres of Lilies, a large pro- 
portion of which were in bloom. These embrace 
also about 15,000 seedlings, most of which take 
the form and characteristics of Tif/rinum and 
Fortunei. We saw here the only Leltchlinii in 
bloom to be found in the country, it was said. 

Fifteen or twenty acres are cultivated in Tube- 
roses. John Henderson's new dwarf variety is 
here—about half as tall in growth as the old sort, 
and double- a decided acquisition, Mr. Allen 
says.— KuraZ New Yorker. 



Tite Flower Farm of Mr. 0. L. Allen. - 

Ahe Central Railroad of Long Island very gen- 

the ri 1^^^""^ a special train at the disposal of 

^"^- ^^^^ Superintendent accompanied the 



Peach Yellows in the South. -Peach 
trees are never attacked by the yellows in this 
section, the sickly color of their foliage is, doubt- 
less, caused by their stunted and consequently 
starved condition, and the presence of borers at 
the roots. To guard against the latter, remove 
all the worms you can discover under the bark 
of the root?, apply a handful of lime or ashes and 
afterwards hill up the trees as you would a hill 
of potatoes. Leave the trees earthed up until 
November, when the cone of earth should be 
levelled ; and repeat the hilling up every Spring, 
before insect life becomes active.— P. J. Berck- 
mans in Farmer a7id Gardener. 



Singular Variety of Cotton.— Dr. T. L. 
Anderson, of Wilkes county, Ga., has developed, 
by cultivation and careful selection of seed, a 
variety of cotton which is certainly a curiosity, 
and may prove a very valuable variety. This 
cotton is peculiar on account of its excessive 
fruitfulne.ss and the manner in which the balls 



60 



THE QARDEJ\rER'S MOJVTELY. February, 



1873. THE GARDEJVER'S MOXTHLY. 



61 




'! 



are developed. As described by the AVashing- 
ton Gazette^ in growth and appearance, the weed 
has the resemblance of the prolific varieties, 
growing up in a somewhat conical form, though 
we think the growth is more vigorous than these 
varieties. The squares and blooms grow in 
clusters, and very thick. A very large propor- 
tion of the bolls are what we would call double 
for want of a better word ; that is, two bolls are 
produced from the same square. This tendency 
to doubling is exhibited throughout the plant, 
and stalk and limbs of many specimens seem to 
take on the same characteristic, there being a 
groove on each side, presenting somewhat the 
appearance of a double-barreled gun. This 
crowding of the bolla does not seem to diminish 
their size, but they are generally very large and 
healthy in appearance. Upon one stalk in his 
field Dr. A. exhibits fifteen young bolls so closely 
clustered as to be cevered with a single open 
hand. He has taken great pains during the past 
two or three years to preserve the seed pure and 
unmixed with other varieties. He has now 
several acres planted in this cotton, and we wish 
that his experiment may be of value to himself 
and the cotton interestsof the country.— C7iarZes- 
Von Courier, 



The Monarch of the Pauk.— Near the 



West State street entrance to the park, on the 
north side, stands a grand old elm, whose leafy 
boughs and long branches extend from the out- 
side of the pavement, west, over to the sloping 
bank in the park in an opposite directioH, cover- 
ing an area sixty-five feet in diameter, or about 
195 feet in circumference. The elm is supposed 
to have been planted some time between 1816 and 
1820, by the late Gov. Shunk, who was then 
clerk of the House of Representatives, after the 
capitol was built, and has since that time, had 
several narrow escapes from the attacks of 
storms and tornadoes. The trunk is 8 feet 3 
inches in circumference ; and has a heavy iron 
bolt, with nut and plate through it, about eight 
feet above the ground, where it had been split, 
several years ago. At a point about fifteen feet 
high it has another iron rod and bands, and still 
higher up, (probably twenty-five feet) it is again 
secured with a stout iron rod and bands — which 
brace the heavy branches, and prevents their 
breaking off" by the annual storms. The foliage 
of the elm is very thick, of a dark green color, 
and its shade is sought daily (except at this sea- 
sou ) by hundred s of visitors to the grounds. The 
superintendent, Col. Reinehardt, has given spe- 
cial instructions to his assistants to keep a con- 
stant watch over the big Q\m.— Harriahurg State 
Journal. 



FOREIGN INTELLIGENCE. 



Rough Cork for Rustic Work.— Some few 
years since a company, owning large Cork for- 
ests in Portugal, introduced for rustic work, and 
other horticultural purposes, a quantity of Vir- 
gin Cork. This first crop of the bark of the 
Cork Oak (Quercus Suber) is very rugged and 
uneven on its outer surface ; it is, moreover, of 
a dusky grey color, is frequently covered with 
Lichens, and has altogether a weather-worn as- 
pect : all which appearances recommend it for 
the purposes for which it was introduced. Be- 
tides its uses, however, for growing Ferns and 
Orchids upon, it is much used for imitation 
work in aquariums, and its latest application 
was for a similar purpose, but on a much more 
gigantic scale, for in the pantomime which has 
been played at the Crystal Palace, we under- 
stand the rock-work was formed of this Vircrin 



Cork. The more general utilization of this 
Cork in Europe must be a great advantage to 
the owners of the Spanish and Portuguese Cork 
forests, as, from the fact of the Cork beins; un- 
even, comparatively hard, and full of holes, it is 
useless for bottle corks. This virgin or original 
bark, is usually taken from the tree when it is 
about 25 or 30 years old, and it is removed with 
much care so as not to injure the mner bark, 
which, of course, would interfere with the for- 
mation of the second crop, besides injuring the 
tree itself. After the removal of the first crop 
the following crops are taken off about every 
eight or ten years, but the third and succeeding 
crops are of the best quality, and consequently 
the most valuable. A remarkably fine speci- 
men of Cork, stripped in one piece from a tree 
which grew in the Sierra Morena, Estrcmadura, 



has lately been presented to the Kew Museum. 
When we state that it is 5 feet 9 inches high* 
and 8 feet 8 inches in circumference, it will be 
seen that the tree from which it has been taken, 
was of no mean size. — Gardeners'^ Chronicle. 



Stove and Greenhouse Plants.— For win- 
ter and spring blooming the best are : 

stove. 

Franciscea confertiflora. 

Eucharis amazonica. 

Euphorbia jacquiniseflora. 

Stephanotis floribunda. 

Gesneria exoniensis. 

Aphelandra cristata. 

Gardenia florid a. 
** citriodora. 

Imatophyllum miniatum. 

Poinsettia pulcherrima. 

Franciscea calycina. 

Plumbago rosea. 

Eranthemum pulchellum. 

Clerodendron Balfourianum. 

Impatiens Jerdonite. 

Amaryllis, of sorts. 

greenhouse. • 

Lapageria rosea. 
** alba. 

Bouvardia leiantha compacta. 

Acacia Drummondi. 

Statice profusa. 

Epacris Lady Panmure. 
'' Sunset. 
" salmonea. 

Richard ia ajthiopica. 

Monochietum sericeum multiflorum. 

Epiphyllum Ackermani. 

Camelias, of sorts. 

Cinerarias, of sorts. 

Azaleas, of sorts. 

Cyclamens, of sorts. 

Chinese Primroses. 

Daphne indica rubra. 
Gardeners' Chronicle. 



ticular action of the different rays is now pretty 
well known. The various-colored rays which 
compose white sunlight, as shown on analysis 
! by the prism, are generally classed as the red 
j (including the ultra red), the yellow and the 
blue (including the violet and the ultra violet) 
rays. The })rincipal effect of the last, or blue 
rays, is chemical, actinic as it is termed, and 
chiefly influences the germination of seed ; their 
illuminating and heating powers are smallest, 
instead of, as erroneously stated, their giving 
"giving the largest quantity of solar heat." 
The yellow rays, which have the greatest illumi- 
nating power, influences the growth of the 
plant, the decomposition of carbonic acid, and 
the formation of coloring matter. The red rays, 
the heating power of which is the greatest, in- 
fluence fructification mainly. 

As a ray of ordinary sunlight consists of rays 
of all the colors of the spectrum, the eflect ef 
blue glass is in reality to intercept the comple- 
mentary rays— i c, the yellow, red, and ultra 
red, and it would consequently be more correct 
to say that the sun cast a diminished portion of 
yellow and red rays on every leaf in the grapery, 
instead of *' cast a beam of violet light," as if 
the violet were an addition to instead of a com- 
ponent of the ordinary ray. If, therefore, the 
effect of violet-colored glass should be to auor- 
ment the growth of plants in the extraordinary 
manner stated, it necessarily follows that the 
influence of the other rays which are intercept- 
ed by the glass— i. c, the yellow and red rays — 
is to diminish vegetation, which is quite incon- 
sistent with all experiment. 

These facts are perfectly well known to physi- 
cists and those conversant with vegetable physi- 
ology. The chief practical result in this direc- 
tion of scientific investigation is the introduc- 
tion for conservatories of a glass colored green- 
ish by the oxide of copper, which intercepts the 
excess of the red or heating rays.— Spectro- 
SCOPIST, in London Journal of Horticulture. 



Chemical Powers of the Sunlight.— The 
facts stated in an article under this heading, 
quoted in the Journal of Horticulture, if correct, 
must be erroneously attributed to the cause as- 
signed. The author is obviously verjj imper- 
fectly acquainted with the results of recent re- 
search into the constitution and effects of light, 
the influence of which upon vegetation has been 
the subject of many experiments, and the par- 



Absorption of Moisture by Leaves -Mr. 
M. Cailletet has lately been investigating Uie 
question as to whether the leaves of plants are 
capable of absorbing water in a liquid state ; and 
sums up the result of his experiments, by stating 
that the fact seems to be demonstrated that a 
plant growing in a humid soil and receiving by 
its roots the quantity of water necessary to its 
normal condition, does not absorb the water 
which moistens its*leaves, but that such absorp- 



I If"' 



62 



THE GABDEJ\rER'S MOJ^THLY. February, 



1873. 



THE GARDENER'S MOJVTHLY. 



63 



h\m 



tion takes place as soon as the leaves begin to 
wither, in consequence of the dessication of the 
soil. In this way he explains the phenomenon 
of certain plants maintaining a healthy condi- 
tion without any contact with the soil, and even 
absolutely isolated from all assimilable substan- 
ces. Thus, a specimen of Fourretea a rootless 
Bromeliaceous plant, maintained a healthy ex- 
istence and exhibited considerable increase in 
weight, while suspended for more than six years 
in the air by a wire. K^ moisture ever reached 
it except that from the garden syringe, and yet 
it was continually putting out new leaves and 
flowering abundantly. 



fi, , The Farm Laborer in Prussia —Prussia 
has been the favorite theme for the eulogy of 
English economists, jet what does Mr. Howard 
(Bedford) tell us that he found near Cologne? 
''The men, as in France and other parts of the 



Continent, sleep in the stable with their bullocks 
and horses. The wages to farm laborers are 
paid all in money, and are from Is. 2d to Is. 6d. 
per day in summer, and Is. to Is. 3d. in win- 
ter ;" and this after a rise of 25 to 20 per cent, 
within the last 25 years, and amidst agricultural 
operations on a splendid scale of expenditure. 
On another Prussian farm, where Beet is largely 
grown, and additional quantities bought for the 
distillery, the wages throughout the year are Is. 
2d. a da}^ ; in the summer months the. working 
hours are from 5.30 A. M. to 8 P. M. The 
woman get lOd. a day ; and in this district of 
German}', " there are a great number of small 
holdings. ' In Prussian Silesia, life uses the 
wretched laborer still more cruelly. In winter 
he has 4d. a day, the spring raises him to an ad- 
ditional Id., and he attains his climax in sum- 
mer, when 7^d. to lOd. constitutes his share of 
the rewards of the harvest. —Blackwood. 



HORTICULTURAL NOTICES. 



PENNSYLVANIA FRUIT GROWERS' 

SOCIETY. 

The annual meeting was held at Reading, on 
the 15th, 16th, 17th of January. The amount 
of business transacted was very large, and from 
time to time during the year we hope to avail 
ourselves of much of the material that may in- 
terest our distant readers. In the meantime 
the following from the correspondence of the 
Philadelphia Press, will give an idea of some of 
the topics introduced and the manner of their 
treatment : 

The Fruit Growers' Society of Pennsylvania 
is one of those institutions, of which we have 
many in the State, which, beginning in an un- 
pretentious, modest way, has grown to be one 
of useful influence, and to reach a commanding 
position. Its scope originally was to aid the 
fruit growing interest ; but it has since taken in 
broader subjects, and now discusses all matters 
of a scientilic and practical nature that have any 
reference to the profitable culture of the soil. It 
is rather a horticultural society, in which fruit 
culture is the most prominent feature. Though 
discussing pear culture for proGt, a talk on ros°8 



I does not come amiss to these gentlemen ; and 
essays on beautifying grounds seem as accept- 
able as the ascertaining to a pennyweight the 
exact figures which any given pippin can attain. 

THE MEETINGS 

are held in different towns in the State, and an- 
nually grow in interest and the numbers who 
attend them. Of late years the State has deemed 
: the proceedings worth publishing, and makes an 
appropriation for the purpose, and the last two 
volumes issued in this way have done credit to 
the Legislature and to the Society. The mem- 
bers are usually a liberal set of fellows in com- 
municating their discoveries freely, and in utter 
forgetfulness of all patent laws, and thus the 
public become possessed of a large amount of 
useful information without price, but at the cost 
of money and time to the good old souls who 
attend. On the present occasion the Reading 
Railroad shared in the good work by a liberal 
reduction in the rate of fare, much to the good 
feeling of the members of the Society. 

ONE GOOD THING 

lias resulted from the labors of the Society. Be- 
fore its existence most of our best fruits were 



natives of other States ; now it is found that our 
own seedlings are equal, and some superior, to 
any outside productions. For instance, wher- 
ever we go praises are heard of the Lawrence 
pear, a Massachusetts variety, and whoever 
plants thinks he must at least have one tree of 
these. But this meeting developed the fact that 
a variety raised here, known as the Reading 
pear is a superior variety for winter use to this 
celebrated Lawrence, and will no doubt, in time, 
completely take its place. 

THE CULTURE OF PEACHES. 

An interesting discussion, started by Mr. Levi 
Reist, of Lancaster, resulted in demonstratintr 
that there was no serious trouble in peach cul- 
ture which could not be overcome, so as on all 
occasions the peach should be healthy and toler- 
ably productive. Overbearing was one great 
evil, shortening the life of the peach tree ; and 
this thinning out the fruit while quite young 
would remedy. Borers in the stem near the 
ground could be kept out by the use of paper gas 
tarred on the outer surface. Fungus at the root, 
one cause of yellows, could be destroyed by pour- 
ing hot water, if the tree be small, about the 
roots, or by adding caustic potash or gas tar to 

the soil. The fourth evil -poverty— manure 
cured. 

IMPROVED APPLES AND PEARS. 

Tobias Martin, of Mercersburg, introduced 
the subject of improved apples and pears in an 
admirable address. Most of our market apples, 
he said, come from other States. These are such 
as Rhode Island Greening and Baldwin, and 
then our people plant these trees, but they are 
not the best for us. The summer Rambo was 
our best summer apple. He also named as the 
best applet for Pennsylvania, Smith's cider, Im- 
perial russet, York imperial, and Hubbardson's 
Nonsuch. In pears he named among the best 
Tyson, Brandywine, Kingsessing, Dana's Ho- 
vey, Dix, Glout morccau, and Lawrence. 



FOR CANNING PEARS, 

Wr. Williams, of the Horticulturist, said the 
Lawrence was the best he knew. Pears were 
profitable for this purpose. Some not worth 
eight dollars per bushel in the general market 
had brought twenty dollars this way. 

^r. Engle, of Marietta, said the Howell was 
another excellent pear for this purpose. The 
demand for pears for canning was increasing, 
out was not yet equal to that for peaches, 
^lass IS more expensive than tin for cans but 
seems most popular. 



j THE ANNUAL ADDRESS BY THE PRESIDENT. 

President Hoopes' annual address gave an ac- 
count of the progress of the year. He had the 
past season examined the fruit gardens in Eu- 
rope, and except in glass houses, saw no such 
fruit as we can raise. We had the finest climate 
for fruit in the world, but hardly knew it. 

A FEW REMARKS ON FENCES. 

Mr. Meehan was called on to open a discussion 
on fences. He referred to the growing price of 
lumber, the improbability that individuals would 
largely engage in timber raising, and the desira- 
bility of Government fostering tree culture. He 
thought live fences the cheapest, and named the 
various kinds of plants adapted to hedge pur- 
poses ; but he thought the perfect hedge plant 
had not yet been found. With many defects, 
the Osage Orange was the best. Too much kind- 
ness was given it. It ought not to be cut while 
young. Let it grow as it will for three or four 
years, then cut to the ground and trim the sub- 
sequent young growth to shape. 

THE PREPARATION OF GROUND FOR 
ORCHARDS. 

The best way of preparing ground for orchards 
produced an animated discussion, with some di- 
vergence of views. Messrs. Ed. Satterthwaite, 
William Parry, Williams, Engle, Reist, Paschall 
Morris, Stauffer, and others participated. Some 
thought the ground should be ploughed deep, 
subsoiled, and under-drained ; others, that this 
was too expensive to be profitable, and by ridg- 
ing up the ground by the plough so as to keep 
away the surface water from the roots, success 
was as much assured. All agreed, however, 
that in some way the roots of the trees must be 
secured against water lying long about the roots 
in the summer time. 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE FRUIT COMMITTEE. 

Edwin Satterthwaite read the annual report of 
the Fruit Committee. He thought the reason 
for the immense crops of last year not yet well 
explained, and thought it well worthy of a better 
study from close observers, so that perchance we 
might profit from the lesson for all time to come. 

THE CODLING MOTH. 

In the discussion on insects injurious to the 
apple crop, it came out, that pieces of old shin- 
gle, screwed loosely together, formed so attrac- 
tive a nest for the codling moth, the apple's great 
enemy, that it^vas no longer to be the dreaded 
scourge it had been. 



64 



THE GABDEJfEK'S MOJfTHLY. February, 



PROFITABLE ORCHARDING. 

On the question how to make orchards the 
most profitable there was a difference of opinion. 
Apples and pears are some years coming into 
bearing, and what best to grow from the first 
planting of ground was the question. Some 
thought an annual manuring of the trees and of 
the gras8 brought heavy and profitable crops. 
Others would not grow grass, but grain. AVni 
Parry would grow raspberries and small fruits 
between the trees ; had known as much as $700 
per acre to be had in this way before the apples 
came to bear 

THE BEAUTirYiNG OF GROUNDS 

Is it profitable to beautify one's grounds ? was 
introduced by Mr. C. H Miller, of Germantown, 
and produced a very animated discussion. All 
seemed eager to agree that beauty was not only 
mighty pleasing to the eye, but a capital thing 
for replenishing one's purse in the case of a sale 
of one's house and grounds, and many a farmer 
will go home from this meeting with a determi- 
nation to have his pi^ yard a little further away 
from his front door than ever before. 

UNDER-DRAINING. 

In regard to the profit of under-draining, mem- 
bers did not seem as enthusiastic for the practice 
as they used to be. Swamps, they all agreed on, 
were benefited ; but the English experience that 
nearly all lands could be profitably uiiderdrained 
did not seem to b.'. borne out by American expe- 
rience. 

GRAPE CULTURE 

was introduced by Mr. Merceron, of Catawissa. 
He raised a sensation by asserting that a seven 
years' experience in not stirring the ground, but 
growing grass between his grapes, had proved 
it to be the best plan. The prices of grapes had j 
been downward for some years. They were 
hardly profitable of late, and how to utilize the 
surplus grapes was a question. Some thought 
of wine. Rev. Mr. Calder, of the Agricultural 
College, hoped wine-making would be discour- 
aged. Jellies, preserves, and other plans would 
take large quantities of the surplus. Mr. Wil- 
liams said grape vinegar had been found very 
profitable. In regard to varieties, the Concord, 
Clinton, Telegraph or Christine, Hartford, and 
Ives, were named as still the best. 

NOXIOUS WEEUS, 

'by Wm. Parry, brought out the fact that the 
Canada thistle and the horse nottlo were the on- 



ly very bad pests. Parry thought some judi- 
cious legislation would do no harm in regard to 
preventing their spread. 

THE CENTRE COUNTY FARM SCHOOL. 

Rev. Mr. Calder was asked to give some ac- 
count of the farm school in Centre county. He 
explained the immense difficulties of the posi- 
tion. Death and other misfortunes had re- 
moved five presidents. He had been president 
but eighteen months (about as long as the long- 
est), and the frequent change of plans with 
heads could not but be injurious. The institu- 
tion was heavily burdened by debt, and original 
errors which could not be immediately helped 
now depressed the spirits of the trustees. But 
they were determined time should mend these, 
and they were being slowly mended, and it was 
fast gaining public confidence. When he took it 
there were but 37 students, now there were 150, 
32 of whom were girls. They were not only 
taught the higher branches of learning, but also 
to work— and horticulture was among the sub- 
jects of instruction. There had been a great 
deal of adverse criticism, but he was sure the 
public did not know of the immense difficulties 
under which the institution*had labored, or how 
much with small means had been done to re- 
move them. He felt it would not be long before 
the institution would be one to do credit to the 
State. 

THE FRUITS MOST IN FAVOR WITH PENNSYL- 
VANIA. 

In a vote to indicate which fruits were most 

in favor with Pennsylvania fruit -planters, the 

apples Smoke-house, Smith's Cider, and Fallo- 

water received very heavy votes. Pears — Bart- 

' lett, Lawrence andSeckel. Peaches— Crawford's 

j Early, Crawford's Late, Old Mixon, and Smock. 

: Strawberries— Wilson's Albany and Triomphe 

! de Gand ; and in grapes only the Concord had 

! any votes worth speaking of. 

\ THE NEXT PLACE OF MEETING. 

! in addition to the encouragement given by the 
1 Reading Railroad, the hotel proprietors also re- 
; duced their rates of board, the Mansion House 
j being particularly attentive to a numerous body 
I of guests. The Library Company granted the 
! use of their splendid hall free of charge, and 
, the members generally were delighted with their 
reception. York and Mechanicsburg, in Cum- 
berland county, made a bid for the next January 
meeting, and the latter place was adopted. 



ill* (Sard^n^r's P0ntltlo,. 



DEVOTED TO 



Horticulture, Arboriculture, Botany and Rural Affairs. 



EDITED BY THOMAS MEEHAN. 



Old Series, Vol. XV. MARCH, 1873. New Series.VoL VL No. 3 



FLOWER GARDEN AND PLEASURE 

GROUND. 

March is one of the worst times for a maga- 
zine like ours to offer hints for the mouth. While 
at the southern end of our "parish " the dutch 
bulbs are almost out of blossom, and the rose 
season well nigh come ; on our northern coast 
winter "still lingers in the lap of spring," and 
scarcely a snowdrop has handed its clear white 
cup up from mother earth to our admiration. 
But our hints are always to be taken as general, 
rather than as special directions -and if in some 
places the time should be gone by for any useful 
action, what we say can be remembered, and we 
hope they will profit some one next year, if too 
late for this. 

We have very little to chronicle this year as 
especially new in gardening taste. There is pos- 
sibly not so exclusive a regard for mere masses 
of plants for the effects of their color as there 
was. Flowers are more loved for their own 
sakes than formerly; and this will brin<r up 
again the Hollyhocks, Chrysanthemums, Dah- 
lias, Pansies, Pinks, Phloxes, Polyanthuses, and 
other old fashioned things which the rage for 
massing nearly drove out of sight. Still the 
beautiful effects on the garden landscape pro- 
duced by the newly introduced colored leaves 
Winch continue to come, will keep the massin- 
style popular for many years yet. It is 
ound that a very slight variation in colors of a 
leat make a remarkable difference in the effect 
wnen massed. Thus we may have two plants of 
wo kinds of Coleus together, and we see little 
umerence between them ; but when there are a 
^ew dozen of each kind in a mass together, we 



HmTS FOU MARCH. 



take in the aggregate of the difference, and the 
effect seems very striking. As these plants vary 
very much from seed there will be room for 
many unique effects in this way from them for 
many years to come. 

There have been some interesting and novel 
features introduced into European flower gar- 
dens the past year in the employment of dwarf 
hardy shrubs as permanent borders for tlower 
beds. The little dwarf variegated Japan Euony- 
mus, E. radicans variegata, for instance, makes 
a charming border for Coleus, Achyranthus 
and such other things. Then the Golden Arbor- 
vitses, Golden Yews, and so forth, by a little 
shearing, such as we give box edgings, come 
nicely into play with many brilliant colored leaf 
plants. There is an additional merit in this 
style, that the beds do not look so naked in win- 
ter as they do when annual plants alone are em- 
ployed. The Ivy is very much employed for 
this purpose, and there are now so many varie- 
ties of Ivy that a set of a score or more of beds 
may be given a very varied appearance by the 
means of Ivy borders alone. 

So far as the general hints applicable to the 
every year management of the flower crarden 
department is concerned, the annual prunin<. 
must be got through with as soon as possible. ° 

Many delay i)runing shrubbery until after se- 
vere weather passes, so as to see what injury 
may be done, but with March all should be tin- 
ished, taking care not to trim severely such 
Shrubs as flower ouc of last year's wood as for 
instance the Wiegelia ; while such as' flower 
from the spring growth, as the Althea, Moc 



66 



THE GARDEJVER'H MOJVTHLl. March, 



1873, 



ll*^ 



Orange, &c., are benefitted by cutting back vig- 
orously. 

Do not transplant extensively till the ground 
is warm and the buds are about to push. Many 
things die by exposure to winds for a few weeks 
before they have warmth to push roots and 
leaves into growth. 

The rule for pruning at transplanting is to cut 
in proportion to apparent injury to roots. If 
not much the worse for removal, cut but little of 
the top away. Properly pruned, a good garden- 
er will not have the worst case of a badly dug 
tree to die under his hands. In a nursery, where 
these matters are well understood, trees "never 

die.' 

Box edgings lay well now. Make the ground 
firm and level, plant deep, with tops not more 
than two inches above ground. 

If flowers have been growing in the ground 
many years, new soil does wonders. Eich ma 
nure makes flowers grow, but they do not always 
flower well with vigorous growth. If new soil 
cannot be had, a wheelbarrow of manure to 
about every fifty square feet will be enough. If 
the garden earth looks gray or yellow, rotten 
leaves- quite rotten leaves— will improve it. 
If heavy, add sand. If very sandy, add salt- 
about half a pint to fifty square feet. If very 
black or rich from previous years' manurings use 
a little lime, about a pint, slacked, to fifty square 

feet. 

If the garden be full of hardy perennial flow- 
ers, do not dig it, but use a fork, and that not 
deeply. 



»•■•> 



FRUIT GARDEN. 

Take borers out of fruit trees, and wrap tarred 
paper round the stem at the collar to keep them 
out for the rest of the season. 

Wash the bark of trees, where not done, to 
kill the eggs of insects, and soften the old skin 
80 as to permit it to swell freely. 

For small places, a plentiful supply of Straw- 
berries, Raspberries, Blackberries, Gooseberries, 
and Currants should be provided, and the Grape- 
vine by no means forgotten. These seldom fail 
to do well. Stra>>fberries do well on a rich, dry, 
but deep soil. On banks that are not too poor 
or dry, they seldom fail to do well, and are often 
three weeks earlier than when on level soil. The 
Blackberry also will do on dry, rich bank. We 
mention this as there are often such spots in 
small gardens which it is desirable to render use- 
ful. Strawberries seldom do well in low, wet 



ground. Raspberries and Gooseberries do better 
there. 

Of course all our readers know by this time 
that deep planting causes the annual death of 
hundreds of thousands of both Blackberries and 
Raspberries. An inch under ground, and the 
earth beaten or trodden firm, is enough for 
these plants. 

The Strawberrv, where it has been covered 
during the winter, should be uncovered as early 
as possible in spring, that the warm spring suns 
may exert all their influence on producing an 
early crop. As soon as growth commences, a 
sowing of guano has been found to be of great 
benefit to the crop of fruit. 

In planting fruit trees aim to have them so 
that the hot dry sun will not have full effect on 
the ground about the roots. The great heat in 
this way injures the trees. Many who have trees 
in gardens plant raspberries under them. The 
partial shade seems to be good for the raspber- 
ries, and helps the trees. Blackberries would, 
no doubt, do well in the same situation ; and 
Strawberries, it is well known, do not do badly 
grown in the same way. 

The gooseberry and currant also do well in 
partial shade. In fact if you would have the 
gooseberry and currant in great perfection, get 
a lot of old brush wo .d and cover the rows close- 
ly, so that the plan is will have to push through 
and you will be astonished at the growth and 
healthfulness of the bushes. The decaying wood 
also lurnishes an excellent manure for them. 
The finest currants ever grown can be had by 
mulching with old chestnut burrs, or even saw- 
dust. 

Tn fruit growing remember that fruits are like 
grain and vegetable crops, in this, that they 
must have manure to keep up fertility. Unlike 
vegetables and grain, however, their feeding 
roots are mostly at the surface. It is best, 
therefore, annually to top-dress fruit trees. If 
manure cannot be had, any fresh earth from 
ditches or road sides, spread a half an inch or so 
under the trees, will have a wonderful effect. 
Indeed, we do not know but that for the pear 
tree a thin layer of road sand is one of the best 
of manures. We have seen apples thrive ama- 
zingly with a coating of coal ashes. 

Apple trees in orchards are often so thickly 
matted with branches, that none of the leaves 
get their full share of light and air. This should 
never have been permitted, but as it is, a vigor- 
ous thinning should be effected, though the axe 



THE GARDE.YER'S MOJ^TELY. 



and saw be called in to effect it. Sprouts wi'l 
corae out thick next summer, after such prunino- 
but they should be torn out while green. °' 

Peaches, is is said, grow too strong generally 
and should not be prune d ; but the same rule 
holds good as with apples. Thin out all weak 
or crowded shoots. Our experience is that if a 
peach tree's constitution is not impaired by bad 
treatment, it seldom grows too strong for its 
own good. 

Grapes that have become weak from acre mav 
be renewed by layering down a branch some feet 
just under the surflxce, and then cut back, so 
that one good eye only be left at the surfac^ of 
the soil. The plant will then recover its <.ood 
appearance quite as well as by cutting down 
with the advantage of not sacrificing a year's 
crop of fruit. ° ^ 



67 



VEGETABLE GARDEK. 
In the open ground Peas and Potatoes receive 
ThentpH "''^"•. "^'^^ ^^^^« -^ C-^tl 
and Parsley. Beyond this, unless in more favor- 

one St 'T. ^--^^--a, little can be 
done till the first week in April. There is 
nothmggai,,, in working soil 'until it has b! 
come warm and dry. 

Those who have no Spinacli sown in the fall 
should do that right away ; no amount of saSe 
manure but will be a benefit to it, though guano 
■> even smallish doses, will kill t. Guano nro' 

wh le It 18 bemg dug for that crop. Cabbage 

beginnL !.^ ^^* "^ ^^^^ '" ^^''^^ 'be 
too we t 'f '"'"*'"' '*■ ">« g^°"nd « not 

When the t. ^^' """^ "■°''*'^" »' "«*'«» flr-n 

not to havetnkm ''""'''= '"^ «'"""" -«•>' 
nnduna» n manure-wood ashes and pure 

undunged loam will alone produce an exceUenI 

ow 18 the time ; the ground should be rathe^ 



moist than dry, and be trenched two feet deon 
mixing ,n with it a goodquantity of stable dungi 
and If the ground be inclining to sand, add some 
salt ; the beds should be marked out four feet 
wide, and the alleys about two feet. If pegs are 
driven down at the corners of the beds pwrna- 
nently, they will assist operations in future 
years. Having marked the positions of the beds 
and procured a stock of two year old plants, 
place them on the soil nine inches apart in rows 
one foot asunder, making three rows in each 
bed ; then cover the whole with soil from the 
alleys and rich compost a couple of inches. 

To have Turnips goed in spring they must be 
sown very early ; they are hardy, and must be 
put^ m as soon as the ground can be caught 

Jc^ul^ ''"'='''' '" '^ ''"^ S^'^^^'ly loam, and 
should be sown very early. 

Parsnips, another crop which should receive 
early attention, also delights in a deep gravelly 
soil, but detests rank manure. 

Lettuce and Eadishes continue to sow at in- 
tervals. 

Herbs of all kinds are best attended to at this 
season-a good collection is a good thing. 

The Carrot will thrive in soil similar to the 
iieet ; hme is an excellent manure for it-we 

t"hL H^?^''='• ^''"y "''y ^ ^o^n about 
the end of the month, in a bed of very light rich 

oil, and Tomatoes, Egg Plants and feppers 
sown m pots or boxes, and forwarded. It is a» 
bad to be too early with these as too late, as they 
become stunted. ' 

In vegetable garden culture it must be remem- 
bered that we have to operate the reverse of 
what we do in fruit culture. A woody growth 
IS What we require for fruit trees ; but w! need 
for vegetables a soft, spongy, succulent charac- 
ter the very reverse of this. For this end the 
ground cannot be too deep, too rich, or too much 
cultivated. The hoe and the rake should be 

.nH „r°!'.°"'"!?' ^"'"S' '°°««°'°« 'be surface 
and admitting "air and light » as the old book. 

used to say. There is not only an advantage in 

this for the direct beneBt of the plant ; but an 

early use of these tools keeps down the weedF. 

and thus we save labor. It is a great thing to 

be forehanded " in the weed war, 



68 



TEE GARDEJ^ER'S MOJ^THLY. March, 



187S. 



THE GARDE JVER'S MOJVTSZr. 



69 



,. ... 



i|i"l 



COMMUNICATIONS. 



AMERICAN HORTICULTURE. 

AddrcM delivered before the Oermantown ITorticultural 
Society, January, 1873. 

BY THE PRESIDENT, JOHN JAY SMITH, ESQ. 

[Ccmdensed for the Gardener's Monthly.'] 

Mr. Smith, after returning thanks for the 
honor of his election, put his audience in a good 
humor by the anecdote of a witty old gardener, 
who when asked after his health, said he had no 
exact disease, but was afraid he had a little touch 
of the complaint called Anno Domini I and that 
it was probably this gardener's reckless son who 
said the only botanical terms he ever could re- 
member were Aurora Borealis and Delirium 

tremens ! 

A large and attentive audience then listened 
to an address, from a stage elegantly decorated 
with the rarest exotics, &c. : 

PROGRESS 

This country has something yet to do before 
we entirely rival the planting and the gardening 
of Europe, for which science, time, labor and 
money have done so much. We began by cut- ' 
ting down the forests with which the whole land | 
was covered. Wc are beginning to replant it | 
with beauty, utility, shelter and shade. * 

The condition of horticulture only 60 years ' 
ago, may be inferred from the fact that there 
were then very few greenhouses, and they were 
mostly filled exclusively with lemon trees. Eu- 
rope itself had made but incipient progress ; and 
with our small culture, and the difficulties of 
importation, in sailing packets, l)ut Utile ad- 
vance in either theory or practice had been 
made. 

BARTRAM 

had a commercial nursery, and was himself a 
great pioneer botanist and amateur. The 11am- 
iltons, at the Woodlands, near by, set a good 
ex:in)|»le. The Landreth brothers began to en- 
lui gc their open air and glass accommodations, 
and did much to excite a taste for the improve- 
ment ot the garden. Thm came Pratt's private 
establishment, including spacious gardens, at 
one time under the direction of ]Mr. Buist, who 
is still living, and who made of the whole estab- 
liyhmint a fairy scene. With these exceptions 
and McMahon's, wc must close the catalogue ot 
accessible or even known places in our neighbor- 



hood, where the few results of horticulture could 
be studied. It marks the humble nature of our 
comforts, when we know that ice in families, so 
late as 1812, was an unknown luxury. We then 
lighted our fires and our cigars by means of a 
tinder-box and a Hint. As to planting the trees 
of other countries, that pleasing occupation was 
almost unknown. To the many it was utterly 
so. The Bartrams were supplying seeds of our 
native trees to England, and perhaps to the con- 
tinent of Europe, but they received little or 
notliing from abroad. 

Their plantation still contains the best evi- 
dences of their love of nature ; but their speci- 
mens it will be remarked from those still stand- 
ing, w^ere mostly American, some of them 
brought by the elder brother in his saddle-bags 
from southern climates. All this story is inimi- 
tably told in 

DR. DARLINGTON'S LIFE OF BARTRAM, 

with its simple and yet enthusiastic correspon- 
dence with Collinson, Fothergill, and Lord 
Petre, a book not inferior, in its way, to Bos- 
well's Johnson. 

See what progress we have made in the brief 
lifetime of a single person I Let us go forward 
with the hope of more progress ; we can never 
hope to /i?n'.s/i the work ; for the duties and plea- 
sures of a garden are endless, and are constantly 
increasing in interest. In this line, however, 
beauty is only to be obtained by toil, but it is 
toil conducing always to pleasure and to health, 
and to what Bacon calls the " purest of human 
pleasures." 

BOTANY. 

It should be the desire of every young garden- 
er to follow the exatnple of Bartram, called by 
Linnseus, the greatest natural botanist, and to 
make botany a subject of his studious attention. 
It will assist him in every attempt to improve 
himself, and will be, in fact, his right arm. He 
will be very apt to fiiil in the highest aspirations 
of his profession if without the immense advan- 
tages it affords. The only possible objection to 
the botanist, and it is a very slight one indeed, 
is that he takes his draughts of kuowledgu from 
ins herbarium rather dry I 

No man is Lhorou-jlily educated who has 
ignored what was so dear to Linnaeus, Darling- 



ton and Gray. We have in this place several 
good botanists to refer to in difficulties. All 
must admit, however reluctantly, thfit in our 
floral concert, the botanist plays the first violin. 
There is immense enjoyment in this science when 
attained ; but Lessing declared that if he had 
been offered between the possession of truth and 
the pleasure of seeking for it, he would have un- 
hesitatingly preferred the latter. Botany offers 
the best illustration of this perhaps, that could 
be adduced. 

Let me hint to all young gardeners that there 
is no such thing as luck. What does Richard 
Sharpe say ? " Untoward accidents will some- 
times happen ; but after many, many years of 
thoughtful experience, I can truly say that 
nearly all those who began life with me have 
succeeded or failed as they deserved.'' If this 
be true of life, may it not also be said of the 
greenhouse and garden cultivators ? 

THE BEST PEOPLE. 

The best people and the best trees are cynical- 
ly said to be the scarcest and rarest. So it is with 
precious stones. Diamonds are rare and dear, 
but because diamonds and pearls, and taper- 
ing rare pines are too expensive for the masses, 
the masses should not despise elrcrance easily 
attained. We need not forego the fragrance of 
the hyacinth because a neighbor has a plant of 
the Olea fragrans cultivated at a heavy cost. In 
all probability the hyacinth of our own cultiva- 
tion will afford the greater pleasure to us. 

As a converse to the proposition that the best 
trees and the best people are the scarcest, it may 
be said with equal epigrammatical accuracy, 
that the cheapest trees are the dearest. To be 
very cheap they must be of rapid growth, and 
rapid growth is followed by rapid decay. 

OERMANTOWN. 

This society is, perhaps, the opening wedge 
which, by bringing together the leading minds 
of the district, will inspire a determination to 
improve our neighborhood, and while we put 
our own shoulders to the work, induce legislation 
for our just share of improvements. That we do 
want a little more public spirit about our sur- 
roundings must be evident to all. Successors of 
the original German element, which was apt to 
be satisfied with the necessaries of life, we are 
purchasing and pulling down their teneuKMit.*, 
or building on their pastures. We are, in fact, 
erecting dwellings suited to the more wealthy 
period which has overtaken the country, and is 
everywhere exhibiting the happiest results. If 



we are true to the objects we propose to realize, 
other results will surely follow, until our whole 
region becomes an example of horticultural 
beauty. 

The speaker then alluded to the remarkable 
trees around Germantown, and gave the follow- 
ing account of the most interesting arboretums 
around Philadelphia and in Germantown, that of 

ALFRED COPE, ESQ., 

on the old York road, above Fisher's lane, which 
contains one of the best selected collections of 
trees and shrubbery, chiefly exotic, that can be 
found in this part of the United States. This 
collection embraces more than two hundred and 
fifty species and varieties of hardy forest trees 
and shrubs, and has been made with great judg- 
ment. It is especially rich in specimens from 
Siberia, Central Asia, China, Japan, and our 
own far western regions. Although of too 
recent origin to contain many large specimens, 
it is highly worthy of attention irom scientific 
botanists, as well as from professional horticul- 
turists, who will there find some of the rarest 
and most interesting trees and shrubs of the old 
and new worlds. I hand the secretary a list 
prepared by Mr. Cope himself. 

With the exception of the remarkable trees 
named, our predecessors have left us but little to 
admire in the way of fine productions. Occa- 
sionally you meet with a large, old box bush, 
and wonder who was good enough to plant even 
that I 

MR. COPE»S ARBORETUM. 

It will doubtless occur to many of my hearers 
that there is a vast difference between the future 
of the work done at Fairfield and the work gen- 
erally done in a plant house. That difference 
consists in the fact of the arboretum planting 
having a permanent character, and the cultiva- 
tion of herbaceous plants a more temporary one. 
Mr. Cope is preparing knowledge and enjoyment, 
not only for to-day, but for all time. When the 
hothouse has ceased its ornamentation, however 
beautiful and valuable its results, and decay has 
laid the structure low, the arboretum will have 
improved. Its curious and teaching treasures 
will have attained their growth, and many of its 
trees will have become like giants of the forest, 
while the permanent, slow growing kinds will 
have the appearance they put on in their native 
habits. 

Not that we would in the least discourage the 
lover of the hothouse. Each has its great 
merits, but where there is space, we advise the 



4 







THE GARI)EJ\/ER'S MOJ^THLY. 



March, 



1873. 



THE GARDENER'S MOJVTHLY. 



71 





cultivator of the closer quarters to look some- 
tiraes out of doors, and see if he cannot find a 
few spots for permanent growths also. 

The two occupations and exporiences harmon- 
ize well together, and should, in fact, wherever 
possible, be united in the same person. 

MUSHROOMS. 

The way to become useful as well as famous, 
is to suppl}' some of the many unsupplied wants 
of human beings. Who will not agree that 
there is a lack of some desirable articles for the 
table which might be sold in quantities, and 
which almost every taste appreciates. To men- 
tion one article — the Parisian market is supplied 
with abundance of fresh mushrooms. Every 
bill of fare announces them, and everybody eats 
them. How they are grown so abundantly is 
told by William Robinson, in a little London 
book. He goes so far as to say there is no diffi- 
culty whatever, and he would undertake to pro- 
duce them even in so inauspicious a locality as 
an old shoe I There are various places where 
this desirable esculent can be grown ; there is no 
reason why plenty should not be provided. 
There is a gold mine in this to any one who will 
raise a regular supply. The hotels alone would 
take large quantities. 

FIGS. 

In a climate like ours, every addition to its 
luxury of fruits is to be studied. We cannot 
have many of the productions of more southern 
climes, but we can have some not generally 
grown, by a little attention and thought. For 
instance, ripe figs are very acceptable to many, 
if not to most persons ; but how very few grow 
them here. That it is perfectly practicable to do 
80 is shown in several places round us. 

Mr. Smith then exhibited fine cones of the 
Cedar of Lebanon, planted thirty-five years ago, 
by himself, at Laurel Hill Cemetery, of which 
he is the founder and President, showing that 
in this latitude this noble tree may be acclimated. 
He has done the same with the Magnolia Gran- 
di flora, which blooms profusely with him. The 
Franklinia, now Gordonia pubescens, is also 
hardy at Philadelphia, and with the yellow 
wood, Virgilia lutca, should be in every planta- 
tion. 

DISTINGUISHED CITIZENS. 

The speaker in the course of his remarks allu- 
ded with feeling to the decease of three remark- 
able scientific residents of Germantown, who 
have lately gone to their long homes; two of 
them ladies. Charles J. Wister was remarkable 



for his extensive knowledge in all science, espe- 
cially of astronomy and botany, having an 
observatory of his own, and a garden of rare 
plants. Margaretta and Elizabeth Morris ; the 
oAe a writer of merit on insects injurious to vege- 
tation, the locusts and the hessian fly ; the other 
an accomplished botanist, the friend and coad- 
jutor of Gray, and both the correspondents of 
Agassiz and the companions of learned men. 

[Mr. Smith might here, but for his modesty, 
though we hope not for years to be classed with 
the deceased, have said that he himself was the 
successor of Downing in editing the famous Hor- 
ticulturisU so that Germantown makes no mean 
pretensions to be known as a seat of science. -Ed.] 

WHAT SHALL WE PLANT ? 

is the constant enquiry of beginners. What we 
shall not plant is almost equally important. 
That we should employ trees and shrubs on our 
home grounds, foreign to our own immediate 
locality, is a general, though with slight reser- 
vations, a universal rule. It is a truth that 
seems even now startling. It was known long 
ago, but Loudon enforced it to the popular mind, 
his argument running thus : 

FOREIGN TREES TO BE PREFERRED. 

*' In modern landscape gardening, considered 
as a fine art, all the more important beauties 
and effects produced by the artist, may be said 
to depend on the use which he makes of foreign 
trees and shrubs, for the principle is established 
that all art, to be acknowledged as such, must 
be avowed. This is the case in the fine arts. 
There is no attempt to conceal art in music, 
painting or sculpture ; none in architecture, and 
none in the geometrical style of landscape gar- 
dening. Why should there be an attempt to 
conceal art in modern landscape gardening? 
Because, we may be told, it is an art which im- 
itates nature. But does not landscape painting 
also imitate nature ? and yet, in it the work pro- 
duced is acknowledged to be one of art. Recur 
to what is meant by the imitation of nature, and 
reflect on the diflference between repetition and 
imitation. In the imitative arts, the imitation 
is always made in such a manner as to produce 
a totally distinct work from the thing imitated, 
and never, on any account, so like as to be mis- 
taken for it. In landscape painting, scenery is 
represented by colors on a flat surface In sculp- 
ture, forms which in nature are colored, are rep- 
resented in colorless stone. The intention of the 
artist, in both cases, is not to produce a copy 
which shall be mistaken for the original, but 



rather to show the original through the n)e- 
dium of a particular description of art ; to reflect 
nature as in a glass. Now to render landscape 
gardening a fine art, some analagous process 
must be adopted by the landscape gardener. In 
the geometrical style, he has succeeded perfect- 
ly ; his straight lines, forms, and artificial sur- 
faces, so different from nature, are at once recog- 
nized as works of art. A residence thus laid out 
is clearly distinguished from the woody scenery 
of the surrounding country, and is satisfactory 
because it displays the working of the human 
mind, and confers distinction on the owner as a 
man of taste and wealth A place laid out in 
the modern style, with the surface of the ground 
disposed in imitation of the undulations of 
nature, and the trees scattered over in groups 
and masses, neither in straight lines nor cut into 
artificial shapes, might be mistaken for nature, 
were not the trees planted chiefly of foreign 
kinds, not to be met with in the natural or gen- 
eral scenery of the country. Almost everything 
in modern landscape gardening, depends on the 
use of foreign trees and shrubs ; and when it i> 
properly understood that no residence in the 
modern style can have a claim to be considered 
as laid out in good taste in which the trees and 
shrubs are not either foreign ones or improved 
varieties of indigenous ones, the grounds of every 
country seat, from the cottage to the mansion, 
will become an -irboretum, differing only in the 
number of species which it contains." 

We might illustrate this by a forcible example. 
Suppose a man living in a pine woods should 
make a pleasure ground, we should be tempted 
to smile at him if he planted only the surround- 
ing pine trees. His visitors would surely see 
little beauty inside the territory. 
( To he Continued.) 



PEREGRINATIONS IN NEW HOLLAND. 

r.Y W. T. HARDING, NONANTUM HILL NUR- 
SERY, BRIGHTON, MASS. 

The good people of Armadale, New South 
Wales, who had hiflierto enjoyed peace and 
quietness in their pastoral pursuits, secluded as 
they were withiif a pleasant and romantic val. 
Icy, were one day aroused from their semi-repose 
with the startling intelligence that they were 
absolutely walking throunrh streets literaliy paved 
With gold. The gold fields of Uralia were adja- 
cent, and Armadale being on the North Road, 
370 miles from Sydney, and near to Trial Bay, on 
the Pacific coast, rapidly changed from its former 



quiescent state, to a stirring and busy town of 
considerable importance. 

Such exciting news, though doub ful at first, 
was soon corroborated on the arrival of that in- 
dubiatable personage who settles all doubtful 
questions, "the reliable gentleman," who seri« 
ously assured the bucolic plodders who earnest- 
ly inquired, "are ye sure the news is true?" 
with the affirmative yes, and as "seeing is 
believing," exhibited specimens of "nuggets'' 
and "dust." Like a theatrical transformation 
scene, everybody and everything suddenly 
changed as the whirl of excitement spread more 
speedily than their destructive bush fires, and 
flashed the news from the centre to the circum- 
ference of New Holland. 

The first Australian gold was discovered in 
the neighborhood of Bathurst, by a Mr. Ilar- 
greaves, in 1851, and the excitement which ^V 
lowed was then at its height. The "gold fever" 
became contagious generally, and during its 
paroxysms so affected the people, that men like 
maniacs, rushed from their legitimate callings 
and went off instanter to the diggings. The 
lonely shepherd and stockman, far in the wilder- 
ness, left their flocks and herds to take care of 
themselves. The skilled artisan and cunning 
craftsman in the city, left their employment, and 
side by side with the professional man, eminent 
in science, the hoary headed "old lag," on 
whose sinister looking features, convict was dis- 
cernable, were eagerly delving for the hidden 
treasure with the wildest enthusiasm. Ships 
were deserted in the harbors, and left without 
either captain or crew. Everything mundane 
seemed topsy-turvy throughout the land, and 
especially so in the sequestered little town of Ar- 
midale. Strange as it may seem, the thirst for 
gold and the thirst for brandy seemed unquench- 
able. Nearly every house was turned into a 
store or tavern, in which the shrewd venders 
soon amassed fortunes and retired from business, 
as becoming to Colonial yentlcmen. 

At the principal hotel, "The Jolly Diggers' 
Uetreat," they were keeping open house, the 
bar-room door of that imposing edifice having 
been removed, and placed under the wide spread- 
ing boughs of a large blue gum tree, Eucalyptus 
piperita, for a dance board, where a party of 
lucky diggers had joined a jovial crew of run- 
away sailors, who were heel and toeing it in their 
bare feet, to the screechy tones of a weasy old 
fiddle. 
In years gone by, I remember seeing Cook, on 



72 



THE GAEDHJVJSB'S MOJVTHZr. 



March, 



187S. 



THE GARDEJVER'S MONTHLY. 



78 



the London stage, as " William," in the' play of 
"Black-eyed Susan," delight the happy play- 
goers with his matchless Sailor's Hornpipe, but 
never since then did I ever see such terpsichore- 
an feats as were performed by "Jack ashore.'' 

I departed shades of Paganini and thy inimi- 
table violin, whose soul stirring strains wil' 
never echo again. How blessed is thy spirit, 
where no wicked bush fiddler, with the ai^onizinff 
wail of persecuted music, can awaken thy 
slumbers ! 

1 have long since forgiven, though not forgot- 
ten, poor Paganini the second, wiio I believe 
*' did his level best " as a professor of " the art 
divine." No, worthy man, I entertain no un- 
kind feelings toward Ihee ; I rather feel to pity 
thee with all thy musical fliults, and love thee 
still. 

Such carousals were commbn to Australia in 
those days. Ludicrous in the extreme were the 
antics and vagaries of the jolly diggers and rol- 
licking sailors. Some experts had shown their 
skill as portrait painters, and had produced some 
such striking likenesses as would have put the 
"Old Masters " to blush if they could only have 
seen them. A party of miserable blacks were 
hanging around, whose naked bodies had been 
painted, some in all the colors of the rainbow, in 
a succession of stripes, after the fashion of a 
barber's pole, while others, according to the 
fancy of the artist^ had some humorous pictures 
delineated on their faces and bodies. As a fron- 
tispiece, one pot-bellied fellow was ornamented 
with a figure of "Neptune," trident in hand, 
while another equally proud, was decorated with 
an allegorical subject, namely, "Old Nick" on 
the rampage. It has happily been my good for- 
tune to see the celebrated portraits of the mem- 
bers of the famous " Kit Cat Club," by Sir God- 
frey Kneller, and the no less celebrated Gallery 
of Portraits, by Hogarth, but never did I see 
" the human face divine '' so wonderfully painted 
as were these of the sable ladies and gentlemen 
in New Holland. 

The veil of night was gently falling over the 
setting sun, which gradually withdrew to the 
eventide shades, as the rude and boisterous 
revellers, one by one, succumbed to the potation 
so freely imbibed, and were soon oblivious to all 
the cares of life. 

Bonniface, mine host of " The Jolly Diggers' 
Retreat," was "all the worse for liquor," and 
his wife was not much better. The only .sober 
one connected with the hotel was ''Tow8er,''a 



sagacious and sullen bulldog, whose temper 
seemed soured with the lax state of affairs. 
He, "Towser," had assumed the responsibilities 
of house keeper and bar tender, and sternly re- 
fused to admit any one within. A moreeflicient 
house Iceeper I never knew, as he sat grimly and 
defiantly on the counter, growling vengeance 
against all intruders. He reminded me of that 
ominous warning of Dante's: "abandon hope 
all ye who enter here." 

Footsore and weary as I was, I retired to rest 
in an empty bullock dray, which luckily for me 
was unoccupied, and proved a snug and cosy 
little bed room, in which I slept soundly. When 
morning broke, the gibbering savages, who had 
figured so in the previous day's doings in all the 
glorious colors the motley paint pots of Arma- 
dale could ])roduce, had brought in some other 
sable "beauties without paint," anxious to be 
similarlv ornamented, and who I doubt not^ 
were made equally happy in due time. 

We started in search of something to eat, 
which having obtained, and laid in a fresh sup- 
ply for the onward journey, we bid adieu to Ar- 
madale and the jolly diggers therein. Taking a 
southwesterly course for some distance, we 
crossed the Poel River, which waters the rich 
pasture lands of Liverpool plains. The soil is 
very fertile, and is farmed to a considerable ex- 
tent. Here Palms, the " Princes of the vegeta- 
ble kingdom," as Linnseus very appropriately 
terms them, were numerous and strikingly beau- 
tiful. 

Generally adjaci nt to the sea beach are found 
the Pandanas spiralis, or screw pine, as they are 
commonly called, from their resemblance to a 
huge pine apple plant ; of spiral growth. Some 
unusually lar2:e specimens were here met with. 
Old plants have a i)eculiar appearance, and are 
remarkable for the large aeriel roots, which seem 
to rise from the rarth, instead of descending to 
it. Very oddly tbey seem to stand, propping up 
to some thirty or forty feet high their immense 
crowns of handsome foliage. In cultivation they 
are indispensable as hothouse ornaments, where 
they have sufficient room to grow and flourish 
in. 

Of the singular family of marsupials which 
abound in New Holland, the red-necked Kanga- 
roo, Helmaturis ruficoUis, is perhaps the most 
numerous and conspicuous. Here seemed to be 
a favorite feeding ground, where they quietly 
graze on the rich grasses which cover the allu- 
vial plains. It is amusing to watch the gambols 



of the young ones as they lightly bound with 
surprising agility in their sportive play. They 
are somewhat chary of the too near approach of 
man, or rather that remorseless biped, sportsman, 
(so called) who, when armed with the deadly 
rifle, ruthlessly slaughters the poor inofiensive 
animals. Poor timorous, meek lookins: creature, 
there seems to be no guile in thy mild and come- 
ly countenance, yet man, both white and black, 
are at enmity with thee I The "Boomerang," 
that curiously shaped wooden weapon, when 
thrown by the savage, whose practised hand di- 
rects its eccentric course, is alike fatal when 
within range. They seem to sniff* the preda- 
ceous blacks in the wind, who cunningly and 
stealthily approach them loe-ward to cast their 
death dealing missile. When one of them falle, 
quick as lightning, and with incredible speed, 
the remainder bound ofl' with astonishing leaps, 
to the fiistness of the forest. 

Serpents, of which 1 have a mortal fear, and 
as ugly and loathsome as appeared the first one 
after beguiling "Mother Eve,'' were more 
numerous than I had hitherto seen them. Some 
species have absolutely "the jaws of death," 
their bite is fatal, while others are more or less 
dangerous. 

I shall ever remember when at Toowoomba, 
some eighty miles from Brisbane, a rich grazing 
district, which reaches from the summit of the 
great dividing range to the Darling Downs, how 
near I was to a deadly black snake, which glides 
about the tree tops with the same facility they 
do on the ground. Singular as it may seem, 
they appear to have a penchant for figs. I, too, 
confess to a weakness of the same kind, and with 
the permission of a friend, was indulging to my 
heart's content in some luscious fruit on the 
upper branches of a large tree in his garden, 
when, to my horror and dismay, I beheld several 
disgusting snakes wriggling towards me. I 
vacated in a summary manner, at the peril of 
broken bones. 

The black and white wattle trees, Acacia aflS- 
nis and A. mollissima, seemed alive with wood 
ducks, so named from their habits of perching 
and roosting among the branches of high trees. 
As I stood to gaze upon this fertile spot, teeming 
with agricultural and mineral wealth, a splendid 
crane, Grus Anstralis, stalked by without exhi- 
oitmg the least symptom of alarm. It is a large 
and stately bird, gay in its bright red hood, 
which covers the back part of the head, and 



meets like a fancy crayat or necktie round the 
throat. 

After being several days out, and still pursu. 
ing the same course, we crossed a number of 
small streams, and finally struck the Maquarie 
River. While passing through the river region 
we frequently met with large tracts of Marsilea 
macropus, or Australian Nardoo. It is a sub- 
acquatic plant, and covers extensive fields in the 
low or swampy grounds. The natives collect 
and prepare it for food by pounding it to a mass, 
which is then rolled into balls and covered with 
hot ashes to bake ; when so prepared they seem 
to relish it. 

When the luckless traveler's appetite is sharp- 
ened by hunger, almost anything that can be 
swallowed to appease the craving for food is 
greedily seized, as was a quantity of Nardoo, 
found in a 4' gunya," or native hut, by the only 
survivor of the ill-fated Burk's exploring party, 
and which sustained the wretched man for two 
weeks. Newly baked Nardoo approximates 
more to the consistency and taste of hot putty 
than any other substance I can compare it to^ 
and is about as nutritious as a southern clay 
eater's food, with which he regales his vitiated 
appetite. 

Vast and extensive undulating prairie-like 
plains, which at intervals are varied by the wild- 
est of earthly scenes, alternate with the impene- 
trable jungle, scrub, and illimitable forests. 

Some two or three hundred miles from the 
coast, on the elevated table lands, is the great 
wool growing region, where countless flocks, 
spreading for miles, fatten upon the rich grasses ' 
which roll like the billowy sea in deep smarag- 
dine waves. There, too, horses and cattle 
increase and multiply amazingly, and to such an 
extent as to greatly diminish their value. Hun- 
dreds and thousands may be seen herding 
together. 

As we strolled along the bed of a dried ttp 
water course, which only flows during heavy 
rains, we were led to a deep and romantic pass, 
guarded on each side by grand old rocks, nearly 
half a mile in perpendicular height, and seemed 
as if riven asunder by some supernatural agency 
or convulsive throbs of nature. Here we paused 
to contemplate and reflect on "what aspects 
old Time in his progress has worn " from the 
beginning until now. 

At best but a mere speck, an atom, on the 
earth's surface-man seems indeed but a puny 
creature, weak and feeble, when he looks around 



7Jf 



TEE GARDEJ^TER'S MONTHLY. 



March, 



1873. 



TEE GARDEJiTER'S MOJVTHLY. 



75 



»*■ 




it 



and feels bewildered with the stupendous and 
wonderful works of Him '* who laid the founda- 
tions of the earth.'' This deep defile was about 
two miles wide and sixteen in length. In the 
bottom were several deep pools and miuature 
lakes, well stocked with fish, and literally cover- 
ed with water fowl. How the fish had got there 
was a puzzle to my inquiring mind, and a mys- 
tery I could not solve — it seemed beyond human 
ken. 

Here 1 met with a solitary specimen of Phj'lo- 
cladus rhomboides, remarkable as being the only 
one I ever met with in Australia. In New Zea- 
land I saw thousands of them. It is a hand- 
some tree of the genus Taxacse, and generally 
known as the celery topped pine. 

Some of the ponds were completely hidden 
beneath the luxuriant foliage of the Nelumbium 
speciosum, or the Sacred Lotus. It is a beauti- 
ful acquatic plant, nearly allied to the Nym- 
pheas, or water lilies. In the lagoons and estu- 
aries of the Murry, Darling, Warrengo and 
Munumbigee Rivers, they grow in vast quanti- 
ties. 

The history of the Sacred Lotus, has frequent 
ly bc! n given by modern writers, who quote from 
Herodotus, Strabo, and Theophrastus, who each 
mention it, and describe the religious associa- 
tions connected therewith. It was held in the 
greatest veneration by the heathenish devotees 
of Isis. 

The Egyptian beau of Pythagoras is supposed 
to be the fruit or seed of the Nelumbium he al- 
ludes to. The color of the flowers are liarht 
pink, and in form are very beautiful ; both roots 
and seeds are edible. There are about seven or 
eight species in all, and are widely dispersed 
from India to Egypt, Australia, Malabar, Ja- 
maica, the Caspean Sea, and several parts of 
the United States of America. I planted some 
Nelumbium luteum in Cleveland, Ohio, which I 
procured at Sandusky ; and also in Fairmount 
Park, Philadelphia, which I dug from a creek 
flowing to the Schuylkill, at the Neck, near the 
city. 

*' Fair Flora'' seemed to have chosen this 
beautiful defile as a garden spot wherein to 
grow her flowers, and had lavishly and profuse- 
ly scattered them around. Some of her loveli- 
est and fairest floriferous productions were ex- 
panding their charms in all their native gran- 
deur. The graceful Babingtonia camphorosma, 
a perfect mass of prettiness, like coy beauties, 
were peeping through their leafy bowers]; with 



Boronias, blended Banksia integrifolia, a really 
handsome shrub, and is to be found generally 
under cultivation in the colonists' gardens ; it is 
called the Australian Honeysuckle, and is re- 
markable for the quantity of honey stored in its 
pretty flowers. A more gayish beauty, in gay 
attire, was the Grevillea robusta or silk oak. It 
is a noble tree, often attaining to one hundred 
and forty feet high, and is a fine representative 
of the order Proteaceaj, to which it belongs. The 
varieties are numerous, and well known to the 
practical gardener. They are a peculiar genus, 
and well worthy a place in every conservatory ; 
the flowers are mostly red, and are produced on 
long spikes, often measuring from ten to fifteen 
inches in length. 

Some fine Dendrobium cassythoides, a climb- 
ing orchid, allied to the Vanilla, had embraced 
the trunk of a splendid Flindersia australis or 
Australian Mahogany, a useful and beautiful 
tree, the wood of which is valuable for cabinet 
work. 

This charming locality seemed to abound in 
Westringea rosemarinifolia, so like a Kosemary 
in habit of growth and foliage, but unlike one in 
its florescent state. Its flowers are a pretty pale 
blue and very profuse. It is a very ornamental 
evergreen shrub, and grows to about eight or 
ten feet high. 

Sphenotoma capitata, with their dense 
heads of immaculate blossoms, looked like 
mounds of snow. Pultnoeas, and when I men- 
tion them, it seems rather invidious to name 
any in particular, as all that interesting family 
are as pretty as they well can be. Their comely 
garments of various shades of green, mottled 
with golden clusters of flowers, are beautiful in- 
deed. Here the}' seemed to surround us as we 
gently stepped among them while passing along. 

I noticed several terrestrial orchids, namely, 
Prasophyllum fimbriatum, a kind more singu- 
lar than beautiful, Pterostylis gibbosa, P. re- 
flexa and P. grandiflora, with other interesting 
kinds ; also fine specimens of Trichilia glandu- 
losa, a very ornamental tree, growing from sev- 
enty to one hundred feet high, of symmetrical 
form. 

The richest and softest of living carpets, Ly- 
copodiura densum, spread thickly beneath the 
noble trees, flowers and shrubs, which adorned 
this floral defile, where I could truly say "pure 
emotion, kindled by the sweetness of nature, 
sufficed to please'' the appreciative traveler who 



heartily thanked God for the boon of beholding 
so fair a scene. 

In all probability the Caucasian's foot had 
seldom, if ever, brushed the dew from the grass, 
or left its imprint on the soil of this primeval 
glen, with its myriads of flowers, where we wan- 
dered at will. 

As a fitting accompaniment to the romantic 
scene, I watched the gambols of two Satin Bow- 
er b'rds, Pielorcorhynchus holosericeus ; the 
plumage of the male bird is a beautiful black 
satin-like texture ; nothing could bc more inter- 
esting than the habits of the Bower birds, they 
seem to exhibit a taste for architecture, and 
weave together twigs, leaves and feathers, and 
con^^truct little arbors with them, to and from 
which are neatly formed covered passage ways, 
through which they run in and out after each 
other, in a very amusing and playful manner. 
It is really laughable to see them meet and pro- 
foundly and respectfully bow to each other. No 
courtier, belle or beaux, however schooled in 
etiquette, could i)ossibly salute each other with 
more grace of manner than do these singular 
birds ; they seem the very models of Chester- 
fieklian politeness. Their little love bowers are 
tastefully and cunningly constructed. 

The ever present Turquoisinc Parrots made 
things lively above as they chattered incessantly 
m the trees, while the lovely little zebra grass 
parrots hopped about the grass and low bushes ; 
Its note is not so ear torturing as are some of its 
bigger kindred. This exquisite little creature is 
one of the most interesting and beautiful of 
cage birds, thousands of which are annually im- 
ported to England and various parts of Europe ; 
see '* Gould's Ornithology of Australia,'' pub- 
lished in 1841, in which they are fully described. 
Feeling assured that I should never return 
again to ''view those scenes so eh irminir,'' which 
everywhere presented some original and pleas- 
ant features, and delighted the senses and filled 
the heart with such earthly joys, I decided to 
remam until the next day. Heaven knows 
a poor horticulturist as I was, that I felt "as 
tiappy as a king" and " as rich as a Rothschild" 
n the sequestered arcadia wliere I camped for 
the night. 

My cup of bliss was filled to the brim, and the 
nectar was sweet which the soul quaffed, and 
le t satisfied that there was happiness on earth 
A he soft and refreshing night breezes were gently 
P'aying among the trees, and wafted the "balm 
01 a thousand flowers'' fresh from the great labo- 



ratory of nature, and which would have de- 
lighted the olfactory organs of a Phalon, Lubin 
or Rimmel with their exquisite perfume. The 
twinkling stars, bright celestial gems, glittered 
and sparkled in the blue arch above, like fairy 
lamps lighting the sky. 

Stretched on the ground, snugly wrapped in a 
Wombat-skin rug, and with a Banksia log for a 
pillow, thinking of beloved ones afar, and'recall- 
ing the poet's words, 

V " O'er the past too fondly wandering, 
On the hopeless future pondering." 
went soundly to sleep on a bed of flowers. Some 
time near midnight I awoke with an idea that 
somebody was touching me to see if I was asleep 
or not. Perhaps some cut-throat, bush-ranger or 
treacherous native was about to rob and murder 
me. With the courage of the Cid, grasping ray 
gun, I sprang to my feet on the defensive,"feel. 
ing determined to do something to somebody, 
but not a soul could I see. "The sweet silver 
light bonny moon," in full splendor, illumined 
the forest with the light of her silvery sheen, so 
peculiar to New Holland. Looking around for 
the intruder, but a few paces from me, ^nd evi- 
dently more astonished than I, stood an inofl^en- 
sive littleWombat, which in its nocturnal wander- 
ings had stopped to ascertain what usurper was 
ensconsed within its fellow Wombat's skin. With 
a hearty laugh at the poor animal, I bid him 
good-night and went back to dream-land again. 
Refreshed with sweet slumbers, we awoke 
with the morning chorus of thousands of plum- 
aged birds, whose unmusical notes seemed 
strangely out of tune in the noisy burlesque of 
ornithological carrols. After the morning's ab- 
lutions among Lotus and water lilies, we break- 
fasted and traveled on. Leaving the middle of the 
valley for the shady side of the lofty and rugged 
cliff's, we were delighted beyond measure with the 
many Helichrysum apiculatum bushes which 
clung to;the steep face of the frowning rocks. As 
a greenhouse plant they rank high among the rare 
and beautiful. I suppose every practical gar- 
dener remembers Helichrysum odoratissimum 
as "one among ten thousand." Running among 
them were the most luxuriant Eustrephus lati- 
folius, a pretty evergreen climber as I ever saw, 
their light purple flowers are uncommonly beau- 
tiful. The ornamental Ficus mutia, an ever- 
green shrub, had accommodated itself in a fis- 
sure at a considerable altitude, where it stood 
all "alone in its glory." The curious green- 
flowering herbaceous plant, Geitonopleaium 



76 



TMJi GARDE JEER'S MOJVTBLY. 



March, 



1873. 



THE GARDE JEER'S MOJVTHLl. 



77 




raontannm, grew in masses on the scarped sides \ 
of the rocks in pleasing contrast to its more : 
showy compeers. Goodyeria gracilis and G. he- j 
terophylla, the former a pretty yellow flowering 
kind, and the latter red, two as handsome her- | 
baceous plants as are to be met with, formed j 
handsome beds at the base. Kennedya coccinea i 
and K. ovata, with several other beautiful ever- j 
green climbers, draped the projecting crags, , 
where they hung like curtains or screens of pret- i 
ty foliage and flowers. 

As we neared the opening of this wildly pic- ! 
turesque defile we had so happily rambled i 
through, we were delightfully surprised with ; 
the number of Telopea specio5<issima, so beauti- i 
ful and brilliant were they in the full blaze ofj 
scarlet flowers. In the greenhouse, it is one of I 
the most conspicuous ornaments. 

The most rugged surface man ever attempted j 
to pass over was before us. Ugly masses of i 
conglomerate ironstone rock, varied with lumps 
of sharp edged quartz, were scattered in every 
conceivable way, as if to prevent our further 
progress. Trul}^ it was " a hard road to travel," ; 
but the worst plague I ever encountered was await- ; 
ing us further on. Our onward course, in the 
direction we were pursuing, was abruptly check- 
ed by a nettle brake, which stretched to a con- 
siderable extent before us. A previous acquain- 
tance with them had taught me that nothing 
mortal could ever be induced to face one a second 
time after once experiencing the infernal torture 
they are capable of inflicting. 

Urtica gigas, the gigantic stinging nettle of 
Australia, known as the "traveler's terror,'' 
and well named indeed. I do not remember 
ever having met with a more terrible vegetable 
monster than the subject under notice. Most of 
the Monthly readers are well acquainted with 
the common stinging nettle, Urtica dioica, and 
have a lively remembrance of how keenly they 
were made to smart when incautiously handling 
them ; the sensation of pain, though sharp 
enough, is of a very mild type when compared 
to the torture inflicted by the Australian pest. 
The fabulous effects of the baneful Upas tree of 
Java, Antiarus toxicaria, could not possibly be 
worse or more to be dreaded by man or beast, 
than this diabolical nettle tree of New Holland 

In a previous communication I alluded to 
having seen U. ferox growing in New Zealand, 
and fierce and formidable they were, but were 
somewhat dwarfed by its gigantic compeers U. 
gigas, the stings of which cause a maddening 



pain, almost beyond enduring, the effects of 
which are dangerous indeed. From forty to 
sixty feet high is a usual size, with a stout tree 
like trunk. The foliage is gigantic too, having 
measured leaves of sixteen inches. The near- 
est comparison to this horrid barrier I ever saw, 
was a Cactus hedge, in Central America, the 
thoughts of which stop my communication 
with a shudder. 



HOT WATER EXPERIENCE. 

BY A. P. JONES FOND DU LAC, WIS. 

According to your wish, I will give you my ex- 
perience in heating greenhouse. I built my 
greenhouse in the i\\\ of 1870— (54xlG.) Put in 
a flue for heating, 56 fe'et on the ground and 25 
foot higli chimney. The flue was 6 inches wide 
and 1 foot deep inside. Then I had the fire-place 
built 4 feet square, with two separate fire holes, 
two doors and two grates ; then I put in a coil 
of pipe in one of the fire holes for heating water 
in propagating tank. Flue bothered all winter 
by -moking— no draught, and by being a great 
deal Colder on farther end of house than at the 
end nearest the fire hole— generally ten degrees 
difference, and could hardly ever get the fiirther 
end of the flue w^armer than blood heat. The 
next winter, 1871, I rebuilt a part of my flue and 
fire holes, put in a coil of pipe, (1 inch gas pipe), 
instead of grate ; then I put in T's between my 
grate and propagating tank, and run a pipe 
around the house as far as the chinmey and 
back to grate ; this helped to heat house very 
much, besides affording me means to regulate 
the heat in tank by means of valves ; but the flue 
would smoke in all damp weather, or when the 
fire was first started. 

I cannot tell how much wood I burned, as the 
wood was used from the same pile that was used 
in the dwelling house, but I do know that it was 
a continual stream of wood, and continual firing 
up ; especially the first winter, besides the dam- 
age it must have been by its continual smoking j 
and I made up my mind that if I should have a 
thousand greenhouses, that not another brick 
flue should ever be built in them. Accordingly, 
I commenced corresponding with all the manu- 
facturers of heating apparatus that I could hear 
of, and I at last decided on the one to get, 
although not the cheapest, but the dearest one 
that I had offered to me, and that was '^Hitch- 
ings " No. 15, corrugated boiler, with 220 feet 
3 inch pipe, and I can say with much pride and 
confidence, that it works to perfection I In the 



coldest weather the thermometer does not vary 
over 3 or 4 degrees in any part of the house ; and 
I am using peat at twenty cents per 100 lbs., and 
it takes from 75 to 100 lbs. per day when the 
thermometer is to 10 below zero outside to keep 
the temperature at 50 to 55 inside— water in 
pipes at 140 to 150 ; and I intend to put another 
greenhouse up, 60 by 14, to be heated by the 
same boiler, as soon as I can make it pay to do 
so. I have burned some coal this winter, but 
find that it makes too strong a heat with the ap- 
paratus that I now have. My greatest difficul- 
ty is to keep the fire small enough, and to keep 
it burning the longest, and I find that peat comes 
the nearest to what I want until 1 have more 
house or room to heat. 

Now, Mr. Editor, I think it depends altogether 
on the way the pipes are laid or arranged in 
heating greenhouses, when they are less than 
100 feet in length. I am positive that one, or 
even two houses of 50 feet can be heated more 
economical and better by hot water than by flue, 
if the hot water apparatus is of the right kind 
and properly arranged and set up. 

I will send you a diagram of my boiler and 
pipes if you wish it, and would say that I would 
like to hear from some more experienced green- 
house man upon this subject, as I intend to 
make some alterations in my house, and perhaps 
build more in addition to what I now have, and 
am anxious to get all the information I can. 

We have had seven days here that the ther- 
mometer was below zero, and went as low as 34, 
and my greenhouse has not been below 48 F. 
this winter, and shall consider my heating appa- 
ratus all right until we get colder weather. 

[Send plans and the cost.— Ed.] 



CIll(;ULATION OF HOT WATER. AS- 
CENDING vs. THE DESCENDING 
PRINCIPLE 

BY oil AS. F. HITCHINGS, NEW YORK. 

In the Gardener^s 3Iontlily for January, page 
14, reference is again made to the principle of 
laying the line of heating pipes in a greenhouse, 
on a constant descent from the highest to the 
lowest parts of the boiler, so that the pipes and 
boiler form a triangle, with the boiler one side 
of the triangle, as decribed in the September 
number of the MontJihj. It is claimed that the 
most rapid circulation of water is secured when 
the pipes arc laid on this descending principle, 
and consequently the most eflicient apparatus. 

Unquestionably water will circulate through 
pipes so laid, but not with the same rapidity or 



eflaciency as it does when the boiler is placed be- 
low the line of heating pipes in the usual man- 
ner ; nor does the descending plan offer the same 
advantages in locating the pipes within the 
house, nor the same facilities in laying pipes to 
convey heat from the same boiler to several 
houses, or several divisions of the same house, 
without obstructing the paths and doorways. 

The circulation of water is due to the differ- 
ence in the density of two columns of water, the 
one of water expanded by heat and contained 
within the boiler and the ascending flow pipe, 
the other the column of water within the de- 
scending return pipe, which is at a lower tem- 
perature and consequently more dense ; and the 
rapidity of the circulation increases with the in- 
creased height and greater difference in the tem- 
perature of these two columns of water. This 
being the case, it follows that the height of the 
ascending and descending columns of water is 
of the first importance. To secure this, the 
boiler is placed below the level of the house 
which it is intended to warm, and the flow and 
return pipes carried upward from the boiler to 
connect with the Jieating pipes within the house, 
then from the point of connection with the ver- 
tical pipes from the boiler ; the heating pipes, 
both flow and return, should bo carried round 
the house, both on the same grade, either level 
or with an ascent as they leave the boiler, as 
may best suit the levels of the house. Any as- 
cent to the line of heating pipes increases the 
force of the circulation. 

By the arrangement described, we have the 
full eflect of the height of the column of water 
within the boiler and ascending flow pipe, at 
the highest temperature and most expanded 
state produced by the fire, opposing a column of 
cooler water of similar height within the de- 
scending return pipe,— water that has made the 
entire circuit of the heating pipes and has been 
reduced in temperature equal to the amount of 
heat imparted to the atmosphere through which 
the pipes have passed, and consequently has at- 
tained the lowest temperature and greatest 
density when it enters the descending pipe to 
add force to the current. Nor do the advantages 
stop here ; when the boiler is set below the level 
of the house which is to be warmed, the main 
pipes leading from the boiler may be readily car- 
ried below the level of the doorways and paths 
with branch pipes rising at suitable points in 
the house or in several houses near or adjoining, 
and there connect with the several lines of heat- 



78 



THE GARDE JETER'S MOJ^'TELY, 



March, 



1873. 



THE GARDEJ\rER'S MOXTHLY. 



79 



.nil 




ing pipes, and the water will circulate through 
all with promptness and certainty. It also ad- 
mits of placinpf the heating pipes under the side 
benches and near the floor, where the heat radi- 
ated from them is most effective in warming the 
house. 

Thus far I have endeavored to explain the ad- 
vantages of elevating the heating pipes above 
the boiler, and the necessity of making a quick 
descent in the return from these pipes to the 
bottom of the boiler. 

Now if we turn our attention to tho descend- 
ing plan, we find that the conditions necessary 
to produce the quickest circulation are not so 
fully carried out. The height of the opposing 
columns of water is limited to the distance be- 
tween the upper and lower pipes at the boiler, 
this in practice cannot exceed two, or at most 
three feet, without placing the upper pipe at an 
inconvenient distance from the floor, and where 
the heat from it would be less effective in heat- 
ing the house. Then when the line of pipes is 
laid with a gradual descent from the top to the 
bottom of the boiler, the force exerted by the de- 
scending column ©f water is but little more than 
one-half of that which is properly due to the 
height of the column and the difference in tem- 
perature of the two ends of the pipe, for the rea- 
son that the water is reduced in heat and in- 
creased in density gradually as it descends from 
the high point through the line of pipes, and 
when it has reached the end of the line and at- 
tained the lowest temperature and greatest 
density, it has already reached the lowest point 
in the descent and ceases to exert force, so that 
instead of the eff*ective force due to the height of 
the columns of water at the extremes of tem- 
perature, we have only the force due to the aver- 
age temperature of the whole line of pipe. 

Even should we set aside the fact of the di- 
minished force of the circulation, there still re- 
mains the objections and difficulties in the ar- 
rangement of the pipes to avoid obstructing the 
doorways and paths. It would be impractica- 
ble to follow this plan and carry the heating 
pipes into several detached or adjoining houses, 
or to regulate or stop off the heat from the pipes 
in several divisions of the same house (as is fre- 
quently done when pipes are laid in the usual 
manner) without interfering with the doorways 
and paths, and without waste of material and 
heat. 

To my mind, there is not a single advantage 



attending this plan, except perhaps the saving 
i in the depth of the boiler pit ; even in that re- 
! spect the advantage is doubtful, as there is an- 
I other and in some respects a better way of ac- 
complishing that object when absolutely neces- 
sary to do so. 



FORCING BY NATURAL HEAT. 

BY JAMES WEED, MUSCATINE, IOWA. 

A writer in the Scientific American, of Novem- 
ber 23d, upon '' Scientific and Mechanical Pos- 
sibilities," says : 

"Heat increases about one degree to every 
fifty feet that we penetrate the earth ; shafts are 
now sometimes sunk to a depth of 2,000 feet. It 
is not within the possibility of mechanism to 
bore 4,000 feet more. At that depth we should 
find a heat of at least one hundred and fifty de- 
grees, and in many places even greater than this. 
Mechanical power could be obtained from the 
steam and water forced up from this depth. 
Heated water and steam from these wells could 
be carried into our houses and warm our dwell- 
ings to a summer temperature. Conducted in 
pipes under the soil protected by glass, we could 
cheaply grow in New England, all of the South- 
ern and tropical plants and vegetables. The 
snow could be kept melted frem the streets of 
New York, and all of the buildings warmed from 
this spontaneous flow ; useful also for cooking 
and other purposes. 

The Garden of Plants in Paris is heated by 
water from an artesian well 1800 feet deep, 
which has a temperature of 82° Fah., and is 
carried in pipes under the soil. A salad garden 
at Erfurt, in Saxony, is heated in the same man- 
ner, and is said to have yielded ^60,000 a year to 
the proprietor." 

That the cost of artesian wells is not too great 
to grow tropical plants in New England cheaply 
by heat thus obtained, is not shown. Whether 
the internal heat of the earth cannot be made 
available for winter forcing, is a question worthy 
of careful consideration. 

In this locality a uniform temperature of 52'* 
is found at a depth of not more than twenty 
feet, and probably it would be about the same in 
the latitude of 42*" from this to New England. 

It would seem to be among ''scientific and 
mechanical possibilities »' to utilize this proxi- 



mate internal heat, in securing to plant structures 
a proper night temperature, which need not be 
above 45^ for greenhouses— the sun, in bright 
days, giving a day temperature of sixty to eighty 
degrees. This, cheaply accomplished, will it not 
inaugurate a new era in winter gardening ? 



«♦••» 



SMALL GREENHOUSE. 

BY W. C. STRIPE, KEOKUK, IOWA. 

Agreeable to promise I herewith hand you 
apian and estimate of my greenhouse recently 
erected. It answers my fullest expectation, and 
I am entirely satisfied with the operation of the 
boiler, which I procured from Mr. Ellis of New 
York. It has generally been supposed that the 



erection of a greenhouse entails a great expense ;. 
mine cost as follows : 

Brick work, $103 

Carpenter work, 145 

Boiler, 60 

Pipes, 55 

Incidentals, 50 

Glass, • 42 



S455 



Total, 

I would not be without it for thrice the cost. 
The furnace is charged at 6 P. M., and every- 
thing is warm and comfortable next morning. 

The house is 35x15 feet in the clear (inside). 
The potting table is under the stage, the flue 
running around one end, and the front, and 
doubling on itself. It will work admirably and 
to my entire satisfaction. 




Z/frr 




80 



THE GARDE JEER'S MOJ^THLY. 



March, 



1873. 



THE GARDEJSTER'S MOJfTRLY. 



SI 




EDITORIAL NOTES. 

FOREIGN. 

37ie Chrysanthemum. This beautiful fall bloom- 
ing plant maintains a high popularity in En- 
gland. As a guide to some of the best varieties 
still grown in England, we copy the following 
from an article in Shirley Hibberd's Magazine: 

*' Not only are all the new and most popular kinds 
represented, but old floweis which were at one time 
held in high estiniatiou, but are now nearly forgot- 
ten, had a i)lace allotted them. Here was Etoile 
Polaire, an incurved flower of the deepest yellow, 
which is but little known, although one of the best 
in its Color. Then there are also examples of Beau- 
te du Nord, rich violet carmine, a glorious shade of 
color; Madam Poggi, brownish crimson, wonder- 
fully effective ; Prince Albert, another flower of the 
richest shade of crimson ; Progne, Amaranth, Tri- 
omphe du Nord, reddish chestnut and wonderfully 
deep crimson, very large and showy. Of those 
which are well known, Guernsey Nugget was rep- 
resented by plants bearing flowers six inches in 
diameter; Miss Isabella Bott, with flowers propor- 
tionately large, as also were General Bainbrigge, 
Golden Trilby, which I sent out many years ago, 
and which well holds its own against new coiners; 
Miss Marcheaux, Mrs. G. Ruudle, which should be 
grown in every conservatory in the country for its 
fine habit, freedom of flowerinir, and the purity of 
its flowers; White Globe, Miss Mary Morgan, 
Prince of Wales, Lord Derby, Prince Alfred, Venus, 
and others too numerous to mention." 

How to get Pyramidal Grown Plum Trees, 

Scott's Orchardist says : 



under which he can grow other crops, notwithstand- 
ing what may have been said against his practice or 
his want of knowledge as a fruit tree cultivator." 

The Andcharis alsinastrum. It seems to be 
the fashion of travelers to put on airs and to cut 
up generally when they get away from home, 
and plants seem to do much the same. A water 
weed, with the above long botanical name, does 
not interfere much with our disposition of Amer- 
ican waters ; but it found itself in England, and 
there grew to such an enormous extent as to ob- 
struct navigation in some of the rivers. Swans 
were introduced to keep down the weed, but it 
appears the people are now crying out to be 
saved from their saviour : 

*'At a meeting of the Thames Angling Associa- 
tion held recently, a resolution was passed request- 
ing the chairman (Mr. li. J. Gilman) and the ofla- 
cers of the association to form themselves into a 
sub committee, with a view to prevail upon the 
authorities to reduce the number of swans on the 
Thames, which belong partly to her Majesty, the 
Queen, and partly to two City Companies. A letter 
was addressed to the Lord Chamberlain by the 
committee, from which we take the following ex- 
tract: ' Tiiese birds, as is well known to all who 
frequent the river, are very destructive of the fish- 
spawn. We do not desiie their entire removal, but 
only the reduction of their number. We would also 
respectfully suggest that while in their excessive 
number mischievous here, a portion of them would 
be useful and ornamental in other public waters.' 
To this letter an answer was received by Mr. With- 
ered, M. P., from the Lord Chamberlain's ottice, to 



" I have found that Plums are more difticnlt to 
manage as pyramids than any other kind of fruit i the eflect that there had been no increase of late in 
tree. To overcome their seeming obstinacy, I found the number of her Majesty's swaus, and that his 
that by leaving them upon short stems, eighteen lordship had no control over those belonging to the 
inches to two feet, and regularly taking them up 
without cutting either the roots or l)ranches much, 
replanting them on a hardened surface, merely cov- 
ering the roots a few inches deep, they were as 
manageable as the others," 

Soil for the Paradise Apple Stocks. Scott says 
in his Orchardist.^ that the Paradise stock is ad- 
mirably suited to wet soils, where the common 
stock will not do well Of these dwarf apples 
he says : 

" Dwarf bushes, on my Pommier de Paradis 
stocks are useful in small gardens, where space can- 
not be spared for large trees, and are easily managed 
by thinuing the branehes and keeping them short 
by pruning in winter, or by pinching them in once, 
in summer, taking care not to pinch too close, as 
then they will be a mass of un ripened young wood 
unfit to bear fruit ; however, when a tree begins to 
get loo gross, or to grow too much, take it up and 
replant. This is an easy matter with trees ui)on the 
above stock, as all the roots are near the surface, 
and like the Quince, form masses of fibre by being 
occasionally lifted. Api)le culture, as pyramids or 



City Companies. His lordship had given directions 
that a gradual reduction should be made in the 
swans belonging to the Queen ; but he would ob- 
serve that when some few years ago, upon a similar 
complaint from the Thames Angling Preservation 
Society, a considerable reduction was made in their 
number, the weeds in the river increased so rapidly 
that on the representation of many persons connec- 
ted with the river, anglers amongst others, it was 
thought that the number of swans should not be 
greatly diminished. Mr. T. O. Wethered, M. P., 
has written to thank the Lord Chamberlain for his 
answer, observing that whilst recognizing the use of 
the swaus in checking the giowth of weeds, he re- 
si)ectf'ully submits that the present nu.nber of birds 
is excessive, especially in the neighborhood of Mar- 
low. On the last occasion of the swans being num- 
bered, there were 372 grown birds aud 145 cygnets. 
-Mr. Wethered concluded by requesting an interview 
with the Lord Chamberlain." 

J{»se Stocks for Grafting On. The Gardener^ s 

Magazint is not satisfied that they have yet 

found the best stock. It thinks the choice will 

lie between the Dog Hose, and the Itatian, as 

lish friends 

We 8U8- 

endsbest served by growing tolerably large trees, ' pect it will be found in this that America will 



dwarf bushes, is very interesting, and to amateiu's ^XiQW call the Manetti. Let our Englif 

will be a source of pleasure and amusement, but II, n • • •> i 

opine that the commercial cultivator will find his , ^^'^^ ^"^' ^^'^^''^^^ ^^'^«^' ^.'^^ '^^P^^'^ ^>^^ ^^• 



distance both England and Italy. The subject 
is becoming quite an exciting one in Europe. 

Lilium Washingtonianum. This lily, not 
many years ago named and described by Prof. 
Alphonso Wood, is becoming rapidly popular in 
Europe. Large consignments of bulbs from 
California are being sold at hii^h prices in En- 
gland. 

A Great Walker. We find the following para- 
graph in an Encrlish paper. The person refer- 
red to was an em ilovee of the father of the wri- 
ter. As he has trained one to walk so much 
and a son to wiite, some ingenious calculator 
might as well see how many times round the 
world the editor's printed lines would reach : 

"According to a local contemporary, some man 
of figures has taken the trouble to compute the ex- 
traordinary distance walked by Mr. W'lliam Wheel- 
er, a gardener of Brading, who lias worked at West- 
ridL'^e, Ryde, for a period of fifty-one years, three 
months and seven days, and has during the present 
month left his employment. The distance from his 
home to Westridge is six miles, and for the period 
above mentioned he has walked there and back 
daily (with the exception of two daj''s holiday year- 
ly and one month's absence through sickness.) 
ThiK gives a total of 92,G40 miles. Taking the cir- 
cumference of the globe at 25,020 miles, it would 
appear that he has walked a distance of four limes 
the circumference of the globe (except 4,44'» miles) 
in Lining to and from his work. But if only one 
mile a day is allowed for walking about the garden, 
&c., then his pedestrian feat would be increased by 
15,028 miles, making a total of 108,568, or four times 
the earth's circumference, with 11,488 miles to i 
spare." 

Extraordinary Growth of Grape Vines. Some 
of the French newspapers are analyzing General 
Pleasonton's figures in his blue glass pamphlet. 
A Monsieur De Jeune says that in five months 
from the time of planting, the vines had grown 
forty-five feet, which supposing they did not 
start in a very rapid growth for soqie weeks 
after planting would make a daily growth of 



between four and five inches. He says there 
were thirty vines, each with forty-five feet of 
wood, which bore fruit the following year, and 
he says "on the best authority," there was 
estimated 12,000 lbs. of grapes. This is 343 
lbs. to each vine. Supposing the odd five feet 
was all that these canes were shortened, leaving 
40 feet to bear, and that the nodes or eyes were 
nine inches apart, and that two bunches were 
left from each eye, it would give 3^ lbs. to each 
bunch of grapes. But as it is not likely he says 
every bunch was exactly the same weight, some 
less than this, he thinks many might have been 
four or five lbs. The next year he says the same 
canes produced ten ton— 22,000 lbs., this giving 
an average of six lbs. to each bunch. He says 
he believes, therefore, in blue glass, and we think 
he ought to 

There is no doubt but General Pleasanton had 
a magnificent crop of grapes, and it is to be 
regretted that so many figures were merely 
estimated. 

Colors on Plant Life. M. P. Bert, in the 
Horticole Belgique, has been going over the ex- 
periments of General Pleasanton, and after 
detailing the different degrees oi' injury resulting 
from various colored glasses, concludes by say° 
ing: 

'* Lastly, all colors, taken alone, are detrimental 
to plant life ; tlieir union in the proportions consti- 
tutmg ordinary or white ligiit is requisite to healthy 
vegetation, and it therefore behooves horticulturists 
to renounce the idea of employing colored glasses 
or other colored materials for glasshouses and 
garden frames." 

A recent writer on the Dead Sea Flora says 
he saw 'quantities of Maiden llair flourishinty 
in a waterfall not more than twenty yards from 
the Sea. » In America he would probably find 
considerably more of Jute in the waterfall than 
Maiden Hair, or any other kind of hair. 



E D T T 11 I A L . 



NEGLECTED AMERICAN TREES AND 

SHRUBS. 
In a letter before us. Dr. Hooker of the Royal 
Gardens, Kew, expresses his surprise that after 
examining American nursery catalogues, he 
learns that but few of the many beautiful trees 
and shrubs of America are systematically culti- 
vated 1 But Dr. Hooker will doubtless be still 



more surprised when he learns why this is. It 
is not because these beautiful plants are not 
appreciated, but because the most of our rarer 
kinds of nursery stock is imported from Europe, 
and we are of course unable to sell again what 
they have not on hand to sell to us. In regard 
to these native trees we have great difficulty, 
A very large number of American nurserymen 



8£ 



THE GdBDEJ^EB'8 MOJVTMLl. March, 



1873. 



VHR GARDEJVER'S MOXTHLY. 



8S 



1 

.aim 



I 
III 



do not understand the business. They will graft 
fruit trees- no country can produce men who 
can equal American propagators in this line- 
but when it comes to seed raising, or propaga- 
ting rare trees and plants rapidly and cheaply, 
they know nothing at all. There are not per- 
haps, a score of nursery firms in America to-day, 
which could take in hand a general assortment 
of plants as an European nursery would, and go 
through with their successful propagation. 

But there is yet another difficulty. The price 
of labor— skilled labor is enormous ; and with the 
heavy competition of European stock, very few 
American nurserymen can afford to pay for the 
intelligent labor necessary to raise this stock, if 
even they be convinced of the value of possessing 
it. It may be objected that surely the "score 
or so" of intelligent firms referred to might be 
exceptions. They might show some attention 
to these neglected things. Still there are diffi 
culties. First, there are few chances of finding 
any one in the locations where the neglected 
things grow, who knows them and would get 
them. Secondly, if they can be had, it costs 
enormously to get them, a* the average Ameri- 
can man will not go out of his ordinary track to 
do a job of this kind, unless he can make five or 
ten fold his average day's wages. Perchance a 
few individuals of a less graspiug kind are found, 
but these often go about the work honestly, but 
80 clumsily, that a very large bill for a very 
small stock is the result, and the enterprise is 
disheartening in the extreme. 

One might think, however, that having over- 
come all these obstacles, and some desired rarity 
obtained, then it would be easy for these few 
intelligent firms to increase them rapidly, and 
then get a heavy sale for them. Alas 1 No 1 
The American tree lover rarely visits an Ameri- 
can nursery. He has no time for this. He is 
fond of these rare things, and would gladly have 
them. He reads about them in the books and 
magazines, and wishes he could get them. 
Though they may probably be grown by the 
hundreds in his next door neighbor's nursery 
grounds, he does not know it. Catalogues are 
sent him, but he has no time to read them, or if 
he reads, no time to make out a list and send for 
them. So the matter goes, and at last the tree 
agent comes along with his score or two of com- 
mon things, the order is taken, and there is no 
room for more. It is probably not far wrong to 
say that not one hundredth part of the trees and 
shrubs sold in the United States are between the 



nurseryman and the customer direct ; and that 
probably not one in a thousand who buy trees and 
plants were ever in a nursery where trees and 
plants are raised. One may go through some of 
our most popular nurseries day after day, or 
week after week, and rarely find a visitor inter- 
ested in the subject, unless it be a peddler, dealer 
or nurseryman on the lookout for saleable stock. 
If people who like these pretty things were to go 
to nurseries, and thus personaUy encourage the 
culture of them, they would be raised ; but those 
who do the selling— who stand between the pro- 
ducer and purchaser— know very little about the 
things they sell, and of only a few common 
things at any rate, and thus it is that there is 
hardly any encouragement to the enterprising 
nurseryman to introduce and propagate the 
rarer kinds. 

In the letter referred to. Dr. Hooker kindly 
suggests that '' probably the taste for these beau- 
tiful American trees and shrubs is not highly 
developed,'' but we think it is. It is not the 
lack of appreciation, but the supposed lack of 
time which keeps the nurseryman and his cus- 
tomer forever apart. Some of our most popular 
trees and shrubs arc Americans. The Hemlock 
Spruce and the American Arborvitse are univer- 
sally grown and planted by hundreds of thous- 
ands ; and the Balsam Fir, and the White Pine 
are also very popular ; but these would not be in 
the demand they are, if they had not got into the 
hands of dealers and pedlars, who *'push»' 
them everywhere. The Holly, the Sweet Mag- 
nolia, the Wood Azalea, the Rhododendron, the 
numerous Andromedas, the Stuartias and 
Franklinias, rare deciduous and evergreen trees 
and shrubs, as well as beautiful native plants in 
great numbers, are well known and appreciated 
by the American people. But the difficulties we 
have mentioned, and especially tho difficulty of 
<Tettin<r the lovers of these things to go to nurse- 
ries and let the raisers know of their regard for 
these things, have hitherto been the great bar- 
riers to their wide dissemination. 



«•■•» 



OBITUARY. 

MR. SAMUEL FEAST. 

We have only just learned that our good 
friend has passed away, and beyond the simple 
fact h%ve no particulars of time or place. The 
Feasts have been, we m.iy say, for several gen- 
erations intimately connected with horticultural 
Baltimore, and in connection with the Camellia-j 



Prairie Roses, and other matters, have a world 
wide reputation. 

He was one of the earliest friends of the Qar- 
dener^s Monthly, and so continued up to the time 
of his death. Last year he sent us sixty sub- 
scribers, and always had a good word for us in 
every way. It was not our good fortune to meet 
him often enough to know him intimately, and 
should be glad if some of his personal friends 
would contribute a worthier sketch of his life 
and services to horticulture. 



LUTHER TUCKER. 

After the Gardener^s Monthly went to press 
last month, came the news of the death of this 
distinguished man. We do not refer to it now 
as a mere matter of news, but we cannot let the 
occasion pass by without reminding our readers 
how much horticulture as well as agriculture is 
indebted to the good friend who has passed 
away. 

The several notices which have appeared of 
him tell what he has done for agriculture, and 
truly this has been much. He was the father, 
or at least one of the early fathers of our present 
high grade of agricultural literature ; but even 
this to our mind is not so great a subject for 
gratitude as that he left us the Country Gentle- 
man, which, as we have freely stated on several 
occasions, is equal if not superior in ability to 
any similar journal published in the old world. 
It is one of those distinctively American insti- 
tutions of which all of us have long been proud. 
But we are not sure but we owe him as much as 
the agricultural folks do. He was the original 
publisher of the Horticulturist, under the editor- 
ship of A. .T Downing Whether he was the 
instigator of this publication, or whether the 
idea and plan were altogether Downing's, we 
never knew ; but their nameswent together with 
the publication, and ceased together with Down- 
ing's death. Hovey's Magazine had done much 
to elevate American gardening ; but with Down- 
ing and Tucker's Horticulturist, a seemingly 
new class of enthusiastic friends of the cause 
came into being ; and we all know that it is one 
of the most marked eras in American garden 
history. 

But his interest in American gardening did 
not pass away with his ownership of the Horti- 
mltuHst. The Country GentUman has been of 
marked service to it. In those branches of gar- 
dening in which almost every farmer may inter- 
est himself, the paper has always borne a high 



character. At his death, Mr. Tucker was seven- 
ty-one years of age. 

J. S. DOWNER. 

Just as we go to press we learn, with regret, of 
the death of Mr. J. S. Downer, of Fairview, Ken- 
' tucky, which occurred on the 10th of February. 

So soon following another of Kentucky's ener- 
getic horticulturists, Mr. Laurence Young, his 
loss will be the more keenly felt. For°forty 
years Mr. Downer has occupied a very promi- 
nent position, and many of our best fruits owe 
their origin to him. His experiments in the 
cherry resulted in some first class varieties, some 
of which are yet indispensable to a complete 
list. Of late years he has been prominent in the 
improvement of the strawberry, Downer's Pro- 
lific, though now an old sort, is yet one of the 
best ; and Charles Downing and Kentucky Late 
grow in public estimation. 

Mr. Downer was the type of honor, and in 
his dealings with his fellow men, always com- 
manded their esteem and highest regard. 
Painstaking in all he undertook, his seedlings 
when offered to the public were taken hold of 
without any hesitation, the public feeling satis- 
fied that the name of Downer was a sufficient 
guarantee of excellence of character. His opin- 
ions in the American Pomological Society 
always carried weight, through the great confi- 
dence all felt in his intelligence and honor. At 
the last meeting at Richmond, in Virginia, he- 
was among the most welcome of all the members 
present ; and we well know that this announce- 
ment of his death will be received with sorrow 
by his late associates there especially, as well a* 
by the whole horticultural public. Mr. Downer 
was 64 years of age. 



■-*♦ 



EDITORIAL NOTES. 

DOMESTIC. 

The Commissioner of Agriculture. There ha» 
been of late a species of attack on Commissioner 
Watts, with which we do not sympathize. That 
he makes mistakes is certain. His ignominious 
dismissal of Dr. Parry, as we said at the time 
was one of these. His criticism of Dr. Parry's^ 
language, also has provoked a fair retort by the 
'*want of perspicuity" in his own. In this 
respect his reports are by no means good models 
of the English language. There are also many 
other matters which, if one were disposed to be 



8Jf 



THE GARDEJ^ER'S MOJ^THLY. March, 



1873. 



THE GARDEJ^ER'S MOJVTHLY. 



85 





critical, ceuld very readily be turned against 
this officer, some of which from time to time, it 
seemed but our duty, in connection with some 
subject discussed, to freely state. But of late 
the opposition to the Judge has taken a very 
puerile turn, and we feel as much disposed to 
protest against this as to criticize real defects. 
It is charged that his sons are appointed to 
clerkships ; but if they are respectable, educated 
men, and fit for the position, why not they as 
well as any others ? And then he " distributes 
seeds " That this is a waste in many respects 
we believe, and have freely stated ; but he did 
not inaugurate this, and if he were out to-mor- 
row, we suspect his successor would have to dis- 
tribute seeds all the same. But perhaps the 
silliest attack was in the House of Representa- 
tives, when Mr. Farnsworth supposed the Com- 
missioner cooked the seeds of the department for 
his own family table I It was not bad when 
another member responded that a former Com- 
missioner had occasionally " made butter for 
the Presidential table ''—and indeed the whole 
matter reminds one of the attacks made on the 
former Commissioners, Newton and Capron. 

But Mr. Cox furnished the climax He does 
not like Latin names for bugs and plants— and 
the Commissioner has been guilty of the great 
enormity of using these in his annual reports I 
After taking some trouble to select and pro- 
nounce a few of what seemed to be hard names, 
Mr. Cox said in triumph, "now these reports 
have been published at great expense, and this 
information, sir, is of course, intended for the 
common people.'^ But why blam(3 Mr. Watts 
for Latin names ? He does not make them. 
And if plants have no other, what is he to do V 
To be sure some things have common names 
and it is possible some Commissioner may be 
found who will in such cases use these names. 
Tlieu we may read in a Government report that 
"about this time the 'Skunk Pot ' comes into 
flower, to be succeeded by ' Robin-run-in-the- 
hedge, followed by the ' Ued-hot Poker.' Child- 
ren may find in shady places the ' Preacher in 
the Pulpit,' when it will be time to sow in good 
garden soil the ' Devil in the bush.' Those who 
have hanginjj baskets may put in the middle a 
* Beef steak plant,' and around this set in a few 
sprigs of ' Aaron's beard,' and to hang over the 
edges a few plants of the ' Wandering Jew,' and 
see that ' Forget-me-not ' be not forgotten. A 
few pieces of 'Blow-mc-up ' will give elegance to 
the whole, and if in early spring a ' Datty down 



dilly ' can be contrasted with the ' Hoop petti- 
coat,' it will have a cheering effect." 

The common people forsooth 1 We are tired 
of such stuflf I Judge Watts is not a paragon ; 
but judging by the past Commissioners, he is 
much about "as good as they make them,'' and 
as good as they are likely to be made at $3000 
a year, unless some one can befound who expects 
to make the office subservient to some ulterior 
purpose. 

Qtrmantjown Horticultural Society.— It is not 
perhaps generally known that Germantown has 
for the past twenty years been a part of Phila- 
delphia, though originally it was a borough of 
some six miles away. It is an older place than 
old Philadelphia, having been settled by Swedes 
and Germans before the Philadelphia colony 
was formed under Penn. Being on high land, 
and some two or three feet above the Delaware 
River, and with the charming Wissahickon 
scenery forming a part of it, it has always been 
a po]mlar place of resort for wealthy Philadel- 
phians, as well as carrying on distinctive 
branches of business of its own. Whatever 
gardens old Philadelphia may have had they 
have now mostly disappeared.' Pratt's, Camac's, 
Longstreth's, McArran's, Landreth's and others 
have long since gone "into brick and mortar ;" 
while McMahon's and some more have little 
more than some of the old buildings, or here and 
there a rare tree which happened to come into a 
street line to mark the spots so once celebrated. 
Indeed Germantown alone has managed to re- 
tain anything of much moment of the ancient 
garden character of Philadelphia. It was 
thought a great credit to Germantown that Mr. 
Robinson, the talented English Garden author, 
should say of it, that it was the only place in all 
his American travels, that reminded him of the 
careful cultivated gardening of his own country. 
Most of Philadelphia's leading botanists of the 
past age either resided in Germantown or spent 
most of their time there. Nuttall, McClure, 
Collins, Haines and others known in scientific 
history, have all left the impress of their hands 
on the old place. For a little while German- 
town rested under a cloud, — but with the pass- 
ing of its railroad— the first in the United States 
— into the hands the Reading Railroad, and the 
consequent increased accommodations and care 
for the comfort of passengers, the grand old 
place has again revived, and is prospering in 
every line. 

It is only meet th It horticulluro should pro- 



gress with the rest, and the new Horticultural 

Society will assuredly become one of its leading 

institutions. 
From the considerations given, the address of 

Mr. J. Jay Smith will possess more than a local 

interest, — and we have, therefore, made full notes 

of it for our readers in another column. 

Capabilities of Kansas and Colorado. — Every 
once in a while we meet with people east who 
have somehow imbibed the notion that these far 
away countries are very poor places, that it 
hardly ever rains, and that trees " can't be made 
to grow there." We never believed so much as 
this,— but still it was a surprise to find on our 
first view of Kansas and Colorado that the 
popular view was so very far away from the 
truth. There is not a richer soil in the world, 
it does rain in most part of it, and where it does 
not rain, irrigation is a cheap and effective sub- 
stitute,— and as for trees not growing, they will 
do as well as in any part of the world. 

Col. Dickinson recently took occasion to cor- 
rect some of the misapprehensions regarding 
these States, in some rcMnarks before the New | 
York Farmer's Club, which in the main we can 
confirm from our own experience. He says : 

"It is at all times, sir, a pleasure to correct a mis- 
statement, and imrticularly so when that correction 
makes our position stronger in asserting that the 
soil and climate of Kansas are as well adapted as 
any, and better tlian that of many of the States, for 
the production of all kinds of cereals, fruits, and 
vegetables. I would further say, Mr. Chairman, 
that there are some men who will never do well 
anywhere ; if you would place them in Mahomet's 
seventh heaven, they would want then a place 
where somebody would wink their eye-lids for 
them They are not willing to work, and they 
have looked to Kansas as a place where they can 
live without any exertion ; they go there, and find 
It a mistake ; then they complain. At the Soldiers' 
Convention in Philadelphia a few nights since, there 
was just such a man, and his voice was louder and 
his words were plentier than the best men there. 
He denounced Kansas as a place where a man could 
not make a living. But when he sat down some 
one got up and said that no wonder he found fault 
With Kansas, for he had been trying for forty years 
to live in Philadelphia without work, and was not 
worth a sou-markee ; he tried Kansas, and as every 
man there had to "root hog or die," he namf> hack 
^^/^^i^adelphia, where he could spong • nn a few 
soft-hearted friends. In my opinion, no <>\ni man's 
statement should be taken as a guide for any section 
or btate. In the multitude of counsel and with 

good judgment to discriminate, alone is there wis- 
uom." 

The lack of timber was the only drawback to 

Perfection. But even this is not without some 

advantages. There is no forest to clear, no 

stumps in the road,— and as trees will grow 



there as well as anywhere when once planted, 
all people have to do is to plant tliem. The leg- 
islature is encouraging it. A law of Kansas 
says : 

"Every person planting one acre or more of 
prairie land, within ten years after the passage of 
this act, with any kind of forest trees, and success- 
fully growing and cultivating the same for three 
years, or one-half mile or more of forest trees along 
any public highway, said trees to be so planted as 
to stand at the end of said three years not more 
than one rod apart, shall he entitled to receive for 
twenty-five years, commencing three years after 
said grove or line of trees has been planted, an an- 
nual bounty of two dollars per acre for each acre so 
planted, and two dollars for one- half mile for each 
mile so planted, to be paid out of the treasury of 
the county in which said grove or line of trees may 
be situated. The hounty to be paid so long as said 
grove or trees are cultivated and kept alive, and 
kept in growing condition. That the County As- 
sessor shall not assess lands planted and encumber- 
ed with forest trees any higher than the lands ad- 
joining on account of the said lands being so en- 
cumbered ; and that any person planting an osage 
or hawthorn fence, or who shall build of stone a 
fence of the height of four and one-half feet around 
any field, within ten years after the passage of this 
act, and successfully growing and cultivating the 
same, or keeping up the fence until it successfully 
resists stock, shall leceive an annual bounty of $2 for 
every forty rods so planted and cultivated, or built and 
kept up— the bounty to commence as soon as said 
fence will entirely lesist cattle, and to continue for 
eight years thereafter. Said bounty to be paid from 
the treasury of the county in which said fence may 
be situated." 

American Pomological Society. — Col. Wilder, 
Secretary Elliott, and other good workers, are 
busy with the arrangements for the meeting of 
the Society next fall, in Boston. We have let- 
ters from these gentlemen, Mr. Saunders and 
others, all seeming enthusiastic in their efforts 
to make this one of the most valuable meetings 
in the Society's history. The President, Col. 
Wilder, feels a personal pride in this meeting 
near his own home, and is leaving nothing un- 
done to make everything pleasant and agreeable 
in every way. 

Paper Fruit and Berry Baskets.— We believe 
the Gardener^s Monthly has the credit of inau- 
gurating the movement which resulted in the 
attempt to make fruit baskets so cheap that they 
could be given away, and thus save much trou- 
ble in the return of crates and boxes to the fruit 
grower. Si ill the idea has not been wholly a 
success. Baskets and crates have still to be re- 
turned in large numbers. 

In a recent issue of Purdy's Frm't Recorder^ 
there is an account of a cheap paper basket 
which can be given away, and is as good ia 









I : 



^! 






I 



;( 



*»'' 



m 



ii^Hl 



III' 



86 



THE GARDE JfER'S MOJ^TELY, 



Marchf 



every way as any woodea one. Mr. P. says it 
is an entire success. 

Post-office BuUngs. — Since our last went t© 
press, some new concessions have been made in 
the Postmaster General's interpretations of the 
law. We pointed out that by the rulings up to that 
time we could not alter a figure in a price list, 
unless it were a bona-fide proof sheet, without 
subjecting the whole to letter postage. It is 
now decided that we may alter when the print- 
ed figures are manifestly not what they were in- 
tended to be ; but no erasures or alterations, 
other than corrections are to be allowed. If, 
therefore, a nurseryman erases the name of an 
article of which he may have sold all, the re- 
ceiver must pay letter postage on the catalogue. 

Then it was ruled that the numerous small 
papers of seeds which seedsmen and others send 
in boxes, or under one envelope, gummed 
or pasted, must pay letter postage. Not only 
the one outside wrapper, but each little paper 
beneath " must be open at the ends.'' This is 
so absurd, that if insisted on, there might as 
well be no seed law. Few people would go to 
the trouble of folding each little package so that 
it ct.'uld be open so as to be *' examined without 
destroying the wrapper.'' A patent has recent- 
ly been taken out for '* oiled muslin transparent 
bags,'' and curiously enough the department 
rules simultaneously, that *' transparent muslin 
bags" may be closed at the ei^ds. Surely the 
j;aper in use by most seedsmen is transparent 



enough to show that it is really seeds and not 
** merchandize," without attempting to compel 
the whole United States to throw all its trade 
into the cap of one transparent bag firm. 

There are yet some other matters we might 
refer to, but cannot afford the space. The 
whole of this post-office business has been a dis" 
graceful piece of legislation. Mr. Cresswell 
himself has been compelled to appeal to the At- 
torney General for an interpretation of the laws, 
for it is conceded to be past the power of the 
most skilled grammarians to understand. It 
would be best to repeal the whole thing, and 
start anew. 

Horticulturists and agriculturists probably 
make use of the mail to a greater extent than 
any other class. Wise post-office laws are so in- 
timately connected with horticultural progress, 
that we have felt warranted in going out of our 
usual course in avoiding these questions. It 
has been our pride that the Gardener^ s Monthly 
should favor no religion and no politics. It ig- 
nores *'free trade'' and '• protection,''— it is 
neither '* Jew" nor "Gentile," — it sides neither 
with the *' north" nor with the "south,''— it 
seeks only to add to the horticultural pleasures 
of man^ under whatever state or condition he is 
found. In the present case we found a matter 
which seemed to aff'ect us all alike of every 
shade of thought and opinion, and we trust some 
good has resulted from our work. 



SCKAPS AND aUERIES. 



Errata. — In the article in the February 
number, "Short Purses and Dutch Bulbs," 
"Crantatus" should read Orandatus; "Lux 
Wiemer'' should be Sax Wiemer; "doraicil" 
should be domain. 



OxTR February Number —From some cause, 
which is a mystery to the editor, a very large 
number of letters have been received compli- 
mentary of the February number. One enthu- 
siastic friend wishes it was "double the size, 
even though fourfold the price." It is probably 
owing to the extra interest which has been grow- 
ing the past year in the spirits of our correspond- 
ents, who are aiding us generouslj^ with their 



little hints and observations from every section 
of the Union. Such encouragement always puts 
spirit into the dull soul of an editor. We have 
quite a number of good things on hand from 
valued correspondents, but still have abundant 
room for more. 



Plants in Bloom in the Grecnbouse and 
Conservatory at Rhosynmynydd, the suburban 
residence of J. P. Jones, Esq., Blockley, West 
Philadelphia. DECEMBER, 1872. 
Abutilon striatum, Chinese bell 

Thompsonianum, " 

vexillarium, " 

grandiflorum, *' 



a 
u 



IS7S. 



TEJ£ GARDEJ^ER'S MOMTHLY. 



87 



Age rat um 
ti 

Azalea 
Bouvardia 



Blue mist 



Cactus 

Browallia 

Camellia 

Canna 

Cestrum 

Cuphea 
(( 

<t 



(( 



(( 



coeruleum, 
raexicanum, 
Indica narcissiflora 
Hogarth 

** Hendersonii 
tryphylla 

speciosum, Crab cactus 
Jamesonii 

Jap. alba pleno, Japan Rose 
indica, Warscewiczii, Indian 
regale [shot 

Danielsiana, Cigar flower 
platycentra, 
strigulosa, 
C>pripedium insigne. Ladies' slipper 
Daphne odora. Spurge laurel 

Eupatorium fruticosum, White mist 
Geranium aonale, Crane's bill 

" " var. 

Jasminum grandiflorum. Jasmine 

Justicia carnea 

Lopezia lineata 

Malcomia maritima, Virginian stock 

Narcissus tazzetta alba, Narciss 

Olea fragrans, Olive 

Oxalis grandiflora, Sorrel 

" versicolor, " 

Phlox Drummondii, Phlox 

Primula sinensis. Primrose 

Russellia juncea 

Salvia 

involucrata, 

splendens, 

f'»rtida 

j isminoidcs 

** variegata 

Tropaeoluni Lobbianum, Indian cress 
Veronica speciosa, Speedwell 

** " Andersonii 

Viburnum suspensura 
Dwarf Evergreen Shrubs and Climbers that are 
very beautiful most of the winter in the open 
air, slightly protected from the full sun 
and cutting winds by Pines, Firs, &c. 
Akebia quinata 

Andromeda pulverulenta 
Aucuba Japonica 

" longifolia 
" macrophylla 
Buxus arborea variegata aurea, Box 

'* " alba 

Japonica 
Cotoneaster microphylla 
Crataegus pyracantha, Fiery thorn 



coccinea, Sage 



i( 



Serrissa 

Solanum 
it 



•i 



li 



(( 



(( 



Daphne 
Eleagnus 

Erica 
Evonymus 






C( 



(( 









It 



it 



(( 
(( 



pontica. Spurge laurel 
hortensis 

" aurea marginatus 

carnea. Heath 

Japonicus, Burning bush 

" " variegatus, *' 

" macrohpylla, 

radicans fol.argenteo raarginata" 
Gaultheria procumbens. Tea berry 
Hedera Helix 

" " dentata, Ivy 

" hibernica, '* 

** " variegata," 

" maculata, 
" tricolor. 
Ilex Aquifolium, Holly 

cornuta, 
opaca , 
Kalmia latifolia Sheep laurel 

" glauca, " 

Ligustrum sempervirens. Privet 
Lonicera brachypoda, Honeysuckle 

" " reticulata, " 

** flexuosa, " 

Magnolia grandiflora, Magnolia 

" ferruuinea, 
angustifolia, 
Mahonia Aquifolium, Barberry 

Japonica, 

" Beali, 

repens, 
Mitchella repens. Partridge berry 

Rhododendron amoenum, Rose bay 

Catawbiense, " 
Cunninghamii, " 
maximum, 
ponticum, 

punctatuni, " [cotton 

Santolina chamaecyparissus. Lavender 

Spartium scoparium, Broom 

Vaccinium macrocarpon, Cranberry 
Vinca minor aurea var , Periwinkle 

major argenteo " " 

Yucca filamentosa, Adam's needle 

angustifolia, Bear's grass 
glauca, 
gloriosa, 

Shrubs with ornamental berries and seed pods 
that hang on through the winter, that are 
very beautiful things to have in the 
shiubbery. 
Celastrus scandens, Staff" tree 

Cephalotaxus Fortunii, Yew tree 

masc, " [bower 






c« 

C( 

tt 
it 



tc 



it 
tt 
tt 



tt 
II 



tt 



t( 



88 



THE GARDE JEER'S MOJfTELY. 



March, 



1873. 



THE GARDE JEER'S MOJ^THLY. 



89 



$p 




Clematis 






u 



grandiflora azurea, Virgin's 

" var., Virgin's bower 
Virginiana, " 

vitalba, Traveler's joy 
Crataegus pyracantha, Fiery thorn 

oxyacantha, Hawthorn 

" punicea, " 

•* rubra pleno, *' 
Eunonymous atropurpureus, Burning bush 
Gaultheria procumbens, Tea berry 
Ilex glabra, (prinos glabra), Ink berry 

opaca, Holly 

verticillata,(P.verticillata),Black 
Hedera Helix, Ivy [alder 

Ligustrum sempervirens, Privet 
Mitchella repens, Partridge berry 

Rhamnus lanceolatus. Buckthorn 

Symphorioearpus racemosus, Snow berry 

vulgaris, Indian currant 



one of which all the Union will be proud, shall 
have to be sustained by such a handful of devo- 
ted men. 






P. II. Foster, Babylon, N. Y.— The pub- 
lisher returns thanks to Mr. P. H. Foster for a 
kind notice of the Monthly in his nursery cata- 
logue, which catalogue, besides the usual popu- 
lar kind of fruits, has the names and descriptions 
of some rare and valuable kinds. 



(( 



Dendrobium, pulciiellum purpureum. — 
This should have been the title of Mr. Taplin's 
last paper on Orchidses. The incorrect orthog- 
raphy was the printer's fault. 



Personal Acknowledgments.— The Edi- 
tor's thanks are due to the Practical Farmer^ 
American Farmer, and other journals, for kind 
personal remarks in regard to the Editor of this 
magazine, in connection with the Reading meet- 
ing. When these comi)liments are paid to the 
magazine, we regard them as much for our 
readers and correspondents as for the editor, and 
transfer them to our pages ; but in the present 
case all the editor can do is to assure his friends 
that he will at least, try to deserve the kind 
opinions they hold ot him. 



The Centennial Committee on Horti- 
culture.— We understand that the reason why 
horticulture seemed to have been overlooked in 
the arrangements ot the local committees, was 
because it was understood that the Pennsylva- 
nia Horticultural Society should take full charge 
of this department of the national exhibition. 
Under date of February 7th, a note from Mr. J. 
E. Mitchell, Chairman appointed by the Horti- 
cultural Society, we are informed that a finan- 
cial sub- committee has at length been appointed. 
The Horticultural Society is moving energetical- 
ly in the matter, but it seems to us, sadly needs 
the encouragement of our local horticulturists. 
At the meetings for the arrangements, barely a 
dozen attend. Jt is gratifying to feel as we do, 
that this dozen are quite enough to see the pro- 
ject through to success. It will be a grand suc- 
cess, whether any more lend a hand actively or 
not. But it seems a shame that the horticultu- 
al branch of this affair, which we feel will be 



Postal Laws. — A lady writing from Llewel- 
lyn Park, Orange, Neio Jersey, says : '* I read 

j with interest what you said in January number 
about postal matters, and agree with you in 

I thinking the laws rather imperfect as applied to 

] the transfer of miscellaneous articles. They are 
subject to too much risk. For instance, I sent 
off yesterday, some pressed specimens of the 
Climbing Fern that I procured in Hartford this 
winter. The package was carefully examined 
and approved by the postmaster here, and that 

! would seem to be enough ; but at the other end it 
is to go througli the same thing, and some ruth- 
less hand will perhaps, mash all the beauty and 
delicacy of that most beautiful and delicate of 
plants. Should not the power of endorsing such 
packages he granted to the offices from which 
they are sent, so as to secure them from farther 
examination ?" 



A Mysterious Letter.— Sometimes friends 
not knowing the address of the publisher, send 
their letters to the editor, and though on the 
publisher's account, in which the editor has no 
manner of interest, he is always glad to accom- 
modate. Thus the following fell into his hands. 
The letter was unpaid, and cost the editor ten 
cents. Feeling assured that one who "never 
takes unpaid letters,'' would not send any, we 
suppose the whole thing a hoax, and wait further 
information before giving the letter to the pub- 
lisher : '* Sir — Please send me specimens free, 
as I wish to get or subscribe for a good paper. 
Address, Wm. H. Cooper, Dorchester Station P. 
O., Ontario, Canada N.B. — Please prepay the 
whole postages, as I never take unpaid papers 
out of the P. O." 



The Cold Weather.— Thursday, January 
30th, will long be remembered as one of the cold- 
est days the United States ever knew. At the 
Germautown Kurseries, the lowest was 14^ below 
zero, two lower than in the memory of its oldest 
inhabitant. But letters from numerous corres- 
pondents speak of various grades between this 
and 45°. On the Hudson it ranged about 30° 
below. In our vicinity we do not see that any 
thing is hurt. What a lesson for those who are 
studying the effects of cold on plant life ! So 
much hurt last year, and the glass hardly to 
zero ; and this year so little, and yet the glass so 
low I 



Tree Planting in Iowa.— A Clinton cor- 
respondent says: *' We have had a terrible 
winter here and north us. I fear for stock, un- 
less thoroughly matured, and even then it is 
hard to conceive of any fruit trees escaping with 
the mercury at 45°, as in Northern Wisconsin 
and Minnesota. I really fear that after the 
destruction of those great pine forests, that 
entire country will be inhabitable. Down here 
I think we are planting out about as fast as they 
are destroying, so we will probably be in shape 
to meet the storm, which sooner or later must 
come." 



Flowering of Calla Ethiopica.— ' Li7?/," 
Cincinnati, Ohio, says: '^To me one of the 
charms of the Gardener's Monthly, is the many 
interesting lessons we receive in rei^ard to the 
habits of our tloral friends. They seem to be 
always furnishing us fresh lessons of wonder at 
the amazing beauty and order which all nature 
seems anxious to teach those who are willing to 
learn. I noticed a fact in my Calla lilies which 
seems new to me. 1 have six very strong ones, 
and ten weaker ones. The six large olies all 
flowered about the same day together, between 
Christmas and New Years ; but the smaller ones 
did not flower at all, and I thought this w(,uM 
oe all the blooms I should have, but now, (Feb. 
•10th) all the small ones are showing flower, and 
stninge to say, the old ones are also going to 
bloom again, and I do n«t believe there will be 
a «ay's difference between the second flowering 
ot the old plants and the first flowering of the 
younger ones. How is this ? There appears 
just about two months between the two sets of 
Dowers.'* 

[One who has the gift of observing these 
things as '* Lily '> does, will not fail to enjoy flo- 



riculture. There are thousands of just such 
observations yet to be made which nobody has 
seen yet. In the calla, a certain amount o^ 
growth and peculiar form of vigor has to be 
obtained before flowers are formed. In the 
strong callas, this point had been reached when 
the plants went to rest last summer. Witli the 
new growth, there was nothiuGr to do but to un- 
fold the already pre formed bud, which was 
nestling down in the concealed leaves near the 
bulb. The second flowers are from the offshoots, 
which are about the same age as the younger 
plants, and ought therefore to come in about the 
same time as they do. ] 



Calla "Lily.''~A^. L., Oak Park, Ills. 
writes : '* I wish to ask one question, but shall 
not feel hurt if you do not pay any attention to 
it in the Monthly— it is this. Is the Calla a 
lily ? I cannot think that it is, still I see it 
called Egyptian Lily, Lily of the Nile, etc., in 
catalogues of some that should know." 

[Our correspondent's remarks illustrate the 
folly of those who would have no latin names for 
plants, but all English ones ; for in time one 
half the people would not know what the other 
half talk about. As he remarks, the Calla is 
not a lily, but of the arum, or as the botanists 
would say, the aroid ftimily, and very distinct 
from the Liliaceous plants. But travelers in 
Egypt have accustomed themselves to call the 
Calla, the Lily of the Nile, and hence the absurd 
term here of Calla lily. In different parts of the 
world other things are termed lilies. In Eng- 
land the Convolvulus arvensis-'m very commonly 
known as the lily.] 

Strelilzia regina.— ^ E. B., Dover, New 
Jersey, writes : *' Please inform me in the 
Monthly of the botanical family of the Strelitzia, 
and oblige." 

[It belongs to the Plantain or Banana family. 
Notwithstanding the very great apparent dif- 
ference between the flowers of this and the musa^ 
or Banana, the organic structure is very close. 
The leaves will suggest an external resemblance 
more than the flowers do.] 



i( 



Treating Hyacinths after Flowering. 
A lady amateur, Cazenovia, N". Y., says: 
Will you inform a lady reader of the Garden- 
er's Monthly, through its 'inquirer's column,' whal 
is the proper treatment for Hyacinths and Polyan- 
thus narcisRus in pots, after flowering? I have 



90 



THE GARDEJ^ER'S MOJ^THLY. 



March, 



1873. 



TEE GARBEJVER'S MOJVTRLY. 



91 



^ 



w 



•m 



i 



1 

4 




very fine ones this year, and would like to know 
whether they will bloom again, and how to treat 
the offsets.'* 

[Hyacinths, as we get them from Holland, have 
not been allowed to flower, and hence have much 
concentrated strength in them, which they never 
regain after once flowering. But they will pro- 
duce some flowers another year, if well cared for. 
As soon as the flower fades cut away the stem, 
and give the plants all the benefit of light possi- 
ble, and keep the soil rich by a light top dressing 
of manure, and as soon as possible after the 
ground opens and frost is certainly gone, plant 
them in the open ground. The offsets will, how- 
ever, make the best bulbs. Plant these in spring 
in very rich ground, and in the fall replant again 
in rich earth, picking out the flower buds which 
it may make the succeeding year. The season 
following they will approach the foreipjn bulb in 
excellence. We have not so far been able to 
equal the Hollanders in raising bulbs, but Mr. 
Such was experimenting some years ago with 
some hope of success.] 



In regard to time, *' come and see " if the nur- 
sery is neglected The editor says very little 
about his nursery in the pages of the Gardener' % 
Monthly^ because the magazine does not belong 
to him, but to Mr C. H. Marot, and he feels he 
has no more right to use its columns to his own 
personal interest than he has to allow any other 
nurseryman to use it for his. He takes his place 
along with the rest of his nursery brethren in 
the regular advertising pages. He gives one 
afternoon a week to the Gardener^s Monthly^ and 
for the rest of the week idles away his time at 
home waiting for customers, perhaps sitting on 
fern clad rocks, gazing in thoughtful reverie on 
the waters of the Wingohocking babbling at his 
feet, or in some other way equally pleasant, 
until some one catches his eye, who may possi- 
bly need a bill of goods, or have some new thing 
in facts or philosophy to report to him. 



m\ 



Propagating Azaleas, Gloxinias, &c.— 
J. J. B. 11,^ Indianapolis^ Jnc/., writes : ''How 
do you propagate Azaleas? Can't you write 
up Gloxinia and Achimenes culture, also Gesiu'- 
ria ? I often wonder when you find time to edit 
a paper and attend to a nursery too. Do you 
work harder than other people, or do you neglect 
your nursery ?" 

[Cuttings of the half ripened wood, in a pot or 
pan of sandy soil, sunk to the rim in a bed of 
sand or earth which has a temperature of about 
60^, and under partial shade, will root in a few 
weeks. Gloxinia, Achimenas, and the tuber- 
ous rooted Gesnerias, are beautiful things, and 
will never bring shame on the pen which 
''writes them up." To raise the plants of the 
bulbous kinds, leaves are planted under much 
the same conditions as given for Azalea. In the 
course of time, a little bulb will form at the 
base of the leaf stalk, and next year a plant, will 
spring up from the little bulb. The tuberous 
rooted kinds increase very rapidly by their under 
ground scaly roots or tubers. They like a turfy 
soil, through which the water will rapidly drain 
away, and must have a moist atmosphere^ with a 
temperature of 60 or 70^ to do well in. Towards 
fall, as the leaves wither after flowering, the 
roots are kept rather dry till the new growth 
shows signs of starting when they are again put 
into new soil, for a fresh season's growth. 



Portable Propagating Plant Cases.— 
A lady amateur asks: "I wish to know 
whether you know of any plant cases manufac- 
tured in this country, for forcing seeds and cut- 
tings in the house. They are made in England, 
and are mentioned in ^Window Gardening,' 
by Williams." 

[We do not know at the present tinu^ any one 
who makes these, as the descriptions so often 
published, are intended to aid any handy car- 
penter in puttins: them together. In the early 
numbers of the Gardener^s Monthly^ Mr. James 
Daniels advertised them. For some years past 
he has been in Norristown, Pa., we think still 
in the florist business, and would no doubt make 
them if ordered.] 

Tomato Troubles. — '' Subscriber since 
1860," New YorJc^ asks : " The last two years 
the crop of tomatoes has been remarkably small 
in this section of our country. Nothing in our 
market used to be as abundant as tomatoes— of 
late years they comr; along sparingly. Worse 
than that, they were but half ripe, and even 
those that were fully ripe were watery and had 
no flavor. Has the same been experienced in 
other parts of this country ? I shall be sorry to 
learn that tomatoes degenerate, following the 
example of U. S. Senators. Another question. 
I have eaten a good many varieties of the toma- 
to, but never found one with the slightest differ- 
ence of flavor. Are there any differently or 
stronger flavored than the rest ?" 

[Our New York friend starts a subject of 



which we had no knowledge, for we had not 
known before that the tomatoes were so bad in 
New York market last year. We have not 
heard that there was any degeneration particu- 
larly last year, though we do know that the 
tomato is one of the worst of all vegetables to 
keep pure. Only by the most careful selection 
of seed can any one variety be kept long from 
degeneration. 

As to how one variety excels another is also a 
hard question. There is a great difference in 
size of some varieties, and also in the smooth- 
ness of their outline. Also are some more solid 
than another ; but yet as we have said all these 
will vary more or less in seed of the same kind.] 



Cultivating Orchards.— When we have 
recommended growing orchards in grass— not 
neglecting orchards in grass— we have been met 
once in a while with the objection " possibly it 
might do in the Middle States, but it will never 
do in Western New York." As the letter from 
which the enclosed is an extract, is ''private,'' 
we withhold the writer's name and address, but 
we may say in connection with the reflections 
given above that it is from Western New York : 

^^If 1 would plant another orchard again 1 
would neither prune or cultivate so much. I 
believe that if your teachings in regard to the 
management of orchards would be more follow- 
ed, fruit growing would be more profitable to 
many than it is now. Having an orchard in 
grass and neglect seem ingeparable with many. 
From this notion I differ, for sirce I have my 
orchard in grass I take more c:\re of it then I 
could do before, for in open winter weather it is 
almost forbidden to walk in cultivated clay soil, 
while in grass orchard, pruning, destroying 
insect nests, &c., can be done with the greates't 
ease and pleasure. This letter is not intended 
for publication. I conclude with the remark 



that I wish you would be able for many years 
to come to conduct the Gardener^s M(mthlyj for I 
have no paper which gives me so much instruc- 
tion." 



Nailing Vines to Stakes.— 3fr. /. H. 
Simpson, of Vincennes, Knox County, Ind.^ says : 
"In your January number you mention that 
some one in Ohio expected to get a patent for 
nailing grape vines to posts and trellises. This 
mode of fastening vines was explained to us free 
of charge at our State Horticultural meeting in 
January, by a Mr. Tillinghast, of Indianapolis, 
who adopted this method two or three years 
ago.'' 



Rare Plants.— J5. A. K., Concord, N. If , 
asks: "In your February issue for New and 
Rare Plants, Golden Chinese Juniper and Per- 
petual Flowering Tree Carnation — where can 
they be obtained ? Can they be grown in this 
climate with any degree of success ?" 

[The tree carnation La Belle, and the Golden 
Chinese Juniper were described in the English 
works from which we quoted. We do not know 
whether or not they are yet in this country If 
not it is likely they soon will be. Enterprising 
American florists are not long behind their Eu- 
ropean brethren. R. Buist, Philadelphia, often 
has new plants as soon as they are announced in 
Europe.] 



Raising Altheas.— O. P., Marietta, Ga.: 
" Will you please tell me how to propagate the 
Althea. I raised some from seed a few years 
ago ; but they flowered last season and are not 
double like their originals. I suppose there 
must be some other way to raise them." 

[They grow by cuttings, put in in spring, or 
by budding on other stocks in June.] 



BOOKS, CATALOGUES, ETC. 



Pennsylvania Fruit Growers' Society. 
-Annual report for the year 1 872. Philadelphia 



meeting 



This is beautifully illustrated with lithographs 
of the Reading Pear,— and the Fallawater, 



Krauser and Smith's Cider Apples. It is the in- 
tention of the Society to continue in each vol- 
ume sketches and histories of all the leading 
Pennsylvania fruits. 
Former volumes have had expensive illustra- 



PS 



THE GARDE JEER'S MOJ^THLY. 



March, 



1873. 



THE GARDE JEER'S MOJ^THLY. 



93 



tions of Insects, beneficial and injurious to the 
fruit grower. The present has plates of some 
twenty four of the leading birds of Pennsylva- 
nia, with descriptions from the able pen and 
pencil of Mr. Jacob Stauffer. Besides these 
beautiful illustrations are the excellent reports 
of the several committees, and such of the es- 
says as were given in in writing. The Secreta- 
ry's notes of ihe discussions are very meager, 
and would have been better entirely omitted. 
He does not seem to have caught well the spirit 
of the speaker ; for instance, Mr. Carville (Car- 
bell he is called in the report) made some high- 
ly interesting remarks on fruit culture, — but he 
is credited only with stating that when he ''dug 
and manured round an old apple tree, a vast 
change was etfected,'' a cause and an effect which 
has followed one another for so many hundred 
years, that if this was all Mr. Carville had to 
say, it would not have been worth his while to 
have spoken at all, or worth the Secretary's 
while to have reported what he did say. Mr. 
Eaton asks to be excused, — but from what he is 
to be excused, the reporter does not say. Har- 
rison is rcportod as wishing to '* grow trees by 
high fertilization, so vigorous that they may be 
vigorous ;'' and also is credited with the won- 
derful discovery that when "people are healthy 
physicians are not needed." Meehan is made 
to say that "old beets and such like offal" is a 
good mulch for the gooseberry ; and that ever- 
greens make "the ground" in which they grew 
warmer, which is a very absurd thing for Mee- 
han to say, and the Secretary would have been 
justified in leaving such nonsense entirely out of 
his report. Members are continually made to 
say they agree or disagree with some other 
speaker, but what it is they are to agree or dis- 
agree with, is not visible through the report. 

'In spite ©f this defect the Proceedings are of 
great value. Paschal Morris, Editor of Practi- 
cal Farmer^ says of one of the meetings, that 
it was worth SIO to be present, —but surely a 
volume like this is worth alone the membership 
fee. 



M 



'i^ 



New Agricultural Papers.— On our ex- 
change table we find two uew agricultural 
papers. The Shenandoah Valley Farmer^ from 
Martinsburg, Va., and the Farmers^ Advocate^ 
of Jackson, Tcnn., both promising in appear- 
ance and contents. The last name is already in 
use by a Canadian paper, and it is to be regret- 
ted that original titles cannot be found. 



The California Horticulturist, The second 
volume of this excellent publication has just 
closed, and we are sorry to learn that it has not 
received the patronage which its merits deserved. 
It has passed into the hands of Carmany & Co., 
publishers of Overland Monthly, and they pur- 
pose to make it so valuable that no' Western 
horticulturist can afford to do without it. We 
wish them every success. 

The Eclectic Buralist is the title of a small 
periodical to be published at a cheap rate by Mr. 
Geo. T. Fish, of Rochester, Kew York. The 
object is to aid in the advancement of horticul- 
tural knowledge, and at the same time keep in 
view the interests of the nursery trade. 



PuRDY's Fruit Instructor.— The value of 
Purdy's Small Fruit Instructor^ which has been 
advertised in our columns, heretofore, may be 
judged from the following subjects which it con- 
tains. "Advice to new beginners;" "What 
we would do with ten acres ;'' " Profits of small 
fruits ;'' " Secrets in making small fruits profit- 
able ;>» " Marketing fruits ;" " Gathering fruit;" 
"Wagons for drawing fruit;'' "Shipping fruit 
that perishes quickly;" "Size of shipping 
crates ;'' " Plan for laying out and planting a 
twenty acre plot with fruit and vegetables ;" 
"Plan for kitchen garden for fruit and vege- 
tables ;" "Stands for gathering the fruit;" 
"Protection from winds ;" "Raising new sorts;'* 
"Manures;" "Liquid manures." Strawber- 
ries—Their profit — Time to set — Preparation of 
the soil— To grow large fruit — To produce fruit 
late in the season — Mulching material — Winter 
protection — Taking up plants for setting — Large 
and small plants— Growing plants for resetting 
— Directions for setting— Care^ of plants after 
setting — Crooked and straight rows— Different 
modes of culture and varieties. The same of 
raspberries, blackberries, currants, gooseber- 
ries and grapes. "Fig culture;" " Plan for a 
drying house ;" Propagating plants from root cut- 
tings, &c., &e. The work is finely illustrated with 
plain, easily understood drawings, and is of such 
a practical character that it should be in the 
hands of every man who owns even a rod of 
grourid. Price only 25 cents. 

Address, A. M. PuRDY, 

Palmyra, N. Y. 



gardening, commenced the publication of a 
weekly paper in London, called The Garden, 
Though ordered several times through our regu- 
lar importing sources, it only recently came to 
hand. Mr. R. had the advantage of an early 
love for gardening, and a continuous practical 
experience as a gardener. This, with his culti- 
vated literary and scientific attainments, 
would lead the public to expect a superior pub- 
lication in the Garden, nor will they be disap- 



pointed. England already has at least three, if 
not more garden papers, that seem as near per- 
fection as anything in this line can be. The 
Gardener's Chronicle, the Gardener^s Magazine, 
and the Journal of Horticulture, seemed to cover 
all the ground. But a perusal of the Garden 
shows that Mr. Robinson has found a large un- 
occupied tract, and he is cultivating it so well 
that in speaking of the superior English papers 
on gardening, the four must go together. 



NEW AND KAHE FRUITS. 



Apple— Illinois Pippin. —The Horticultu- 
rist for Februar}^ figures and describes an apple 
under this name, which promises to be a good 
thing. It is rather large, flattened, yellow, 
striped with carmine, with a white, sub-acid 
flesh. In season in January. 

Mr. Hammond of Warsaw, says it is likely to 
be an honor to the State. It is superior in qual- 
ity to Ben Davis and Willow Twig, and has 
most of their good qualities. It flowers two or 
three days before Rawles' Janet, and is a native 
of Warsaw, Illinois, from seed sown by a Mrs. 
Chandler in 183.^. 



Pennsylvania, and shall be glad to diffuse it to 
any wishing grafts ; it would more than replace 
the often failing Bellflower. Nor is it known in 
Eastern New York or New England. Mr. 
Downing made a great mistake in supposing it 
identical with some New England variety — I 
forget the name. It is abundant only where I 
have myself distributed it, in Western New 
York. 

Very Truly and Respectfully, 

LORIN BlODGET.'' 



The London Garden.— About a year ago, 
Mr. W Robinson, well known to and esteemed 
by so many of our readers through his books on 



The West Brook, or V Speckled " Apple. 
—The following letter was received after the 
writer of this paragraph returned from Reading. 
Mr. Downing supposed it was identical with the 
Fall Orange of Western New York. In order 
to test the matter, the writer of this has a tree 
of each in h s specimen orchard, and the growth 
of the two is so widely different, that they can- 
not possibly be identical, however near they may 
approach in the appearance of the fruit : 

"Apropos to the Reading Convention, which I 
greatly regret that I cannot attend, I beg to send 
you a few last specimens of my ' Speckled, or 
West Brook Apple'— ^n apple unequalled in 
productiveness, hardiness of tree, and general 
excellence as a dessert market apple. I have 
grown it for thirty years, often to the extent of 
five hundred bushels (from about 23 trees) in a 
single year— and I have never met its equal. It 
ranges from September to January in keeping, 
as you see I have often before kept them until 
January and February, 

" I regret that it is not known in Eastern 



The Pen Apple.— Our reader.^ may remem- 
ber that some years ago there was quite a sensa- 
tion raised by the 'uinouncement that an apple 
far superior to Baldwin in general characteris- 
tics, had been raised in Lancaster County, Pa. 
Not from seed, but by a natural branching off 
or developement, which is technically known in 
the craft as " sporting." It was also said that 
this apple was known as the Pen Apple. 

Mr. Engle took the matter in hand last win- 
ter, and went personally to the place of origin of 
the Pen, and obtained specimens which he 
brought to the meeting at Reading, and it turns 
out that the '' Pen " is not at all like Baldwin 
but is a very different and inferior fruit. Those 
therefore who have received these apples under 
the name of Pen, have not the Pen, in all proba- 
bility, but have a very superior article of Bald- 
win. 

We still think that there is enough difference 
between the Lancaster County Baldwin and the 
original to warrant a separate distinction, and 
would suggest that as the name of Pen must be 
dropped, it be known as the Lancaster Baldwin. 




9Ji. 



TEE GARDEJ^ER'S MOJ^THLY. 



March, 



1878. 



THE GARDENER'S MOJfTHLI, 



96 



!'■>' 



T'. ^ I 





NEW AND RARE PLANTS. 



Campanula turbinata.— For upwards of 
two months this gem has been producing its 
charming flowers in the greatest profusion in my 
London garden, and although now on the wane, 
it is still very handsome, and the delight of all 
beholders. It forms a dense compact tuft, never 
exceeding 8 or 9 inches in height, blooms inclu- 
ded. The flowers are large, erect, bell-shaped, 
and rich dark purple. There is also a white 
form, which resembles that described in every 
respect saving color. I would ask why these 
are not more grown, for they are perfect jewels 
in the flower border. They come from the 
mountain regions of Transylvania. — Journal of 
Hfyi'ticulture. 



Delphinium nudicaule.— This species is a 
new introduction from California, and to all my 
readers who have not yet purchased the plant 
my advice is, do so at once. Tt is dwarf in 
habit, seldom exceeding 18 inches in height ; the 
leaves are somewhat small, palmately lobed, and 
of a dark green. The flowers are large and free- 
ly produced both in terminal and axillary spikes; 
the sepals and spurs are bright orange, and the 
petals bright red. This plant, I think, cannot 
fail to please every one when it becomes estab- 
lished, its dwarf habit and brilliant color being 
great recommendations ; but I cannot endorse 
the views I have heard respecting its becoming 
' a good bedding plant.— eZburnai of Horticulture, 



HORTICULTURAL NOTICES. 



THE NORTH AMERICAN BEE-KEEP- 
ERS' SOCIETY. 

Bee-keeping has grown to be a great interest 
during the past few years. Bee-keepers have 
their separate periodicals, and meet in Conven- 
tions and discuss bee matters as enthusiastically 
and intelligently as any other class of citizens do 
their special fancies. We have before us the 
report of the Bce-Keepers meeting held at Indi- 
anapolis, last December, and find it replete with 
interesting matter. Bee-keeping would seem to 
be a branch of agriculture than of horticulture ; 
and we find the speakers at this meeting class it 
with stock raising and milk dairying. Yet flow- 
er raising in connection with bee-keeping, brings 
home the subject so nearly to our own special 
department, that we make no apology for refer- 
ring to the interesting proceedings of this con- 
vention here. 

One of the questions discussed was : " Will 
right management of bees develop peacefulness 
of disposition, as we know wrong management 
develops the opposite." 

Dr. Bohrer, of Louisiana, thought not. 

Dr. liUcas, of Peoria, thought ihey could. 
They could be taught to know their keeper from 
other people. 



Mrs. Tupper thought it could only be done by 
*' natural selection " in breeding from good tem- 
pered bees. But they could be taught to know 
their owner. 

Many joined in this discussion. It seemed to 
be the impression that bees from home or over- 
fed, did not care to sting, and thus the '-tamed " 
bees often exhibited at fairs were accounted for. 

In regard to bee feed it was decided that sugar 
did not pay, nor make good honey if it would. 

About wintering bees there was much said. 
It appeared however that the advantage depen- 
ded on location. 

D. L. Adair, of Ky., said of course the man- 
agement had to be adapted to the climate, but 
housing could be advantageously adopted at the 
South, yet bees wintered so well in the open air, 
that very few would take the trouble to house 
them. They could not be made to understand 
that it was necessary. Mr. Moon had said that 
if bees could fly but once in three weeks they 
would not suff^er from disease. In the South, 
even as far north as Kentucky, there was seldom 
a time but what bees could fly out that often, 
yet in 1868, the bee disease was very fatal there, 
in some parts destroying all the bees over large 
districts. 



I. Z. Smith, of Ohio, said he built a wintering 
house 26x12 feet and 10 high, with double walls 
filled in. Had an eight inch square hole at top 
and bottoms for ventilations. Has in it fifty-two 
colonies. 

How should extracted honey be managed to 
prevent souring ? 

Mrs. Tupper never has had any extracted 
honey to sour. Extract when nearly ready to 
cap. Lets it stand twenty-four hours, then 
takes off* and puts it up. Dealers reject boiled 
honey as not good. 

How to bring back run away swarms seemed 
to show that anything which confused the colo- 
ny succeeded. 

W. R. King, Ky., had stopped a valuable 
swarm after they had gone three -fourths of a 
mile, by throwing dirt among them. Had seen 
them brought down several times, by shooting 
among them with a shot gun. 

We have frequently "brought down'' geese, 
ducks, and before we believed in their value to 
the tiller of the soil, the crow, and other birds in 
this way; but we should be afraid the bees 
" brought down " in this way would be useless 
for honey making purposes. 

'What is honey ?'» 

D. L. Adair, of Ky. There is no distinct f^nb- 
stance that can be called honey. Bees gai her 
anything that has enough sugar in it to give it 
a decided sweet taste. Three kinds of sugar are 
recognized, fruit sugar, grape sugar, and cane 
sugar. They are all vegetable secretions and 
difier but slightly in their constituent elements. 
They only vary in the amount of hydrogen and 
oxygen (which are the elements of water) and are 
convertible into each other. As ordinarily gath- 
ered from flowers, honey is a mixture of sugar 
and other secretions of plants, and consequently 
differs widely in its composition, depending on 
the source from which it is obtained. The pecu- 
liar scent and flavor of the honey is imparted to 
it in the hive by the absorption of the musky 
particles given off* by evaporation from the 
bodies of the bees, a scent that all bee keepers 
will recognize who have opened a hive or walked 
among them of a calm evening. 

As to honey plants, Catnip was recommended ; 
also Polanisia purpurea, and Dr. T. B. Hamlin, 
presented a dried specimen of Vesicarla Lescurii, 
a I)lant peculiar to the vicinity of Nashville, one 
of the best early honey plants he knew. 

I. Z. Smith, Ohio. All farmers could keep 
bees with profit. He kept his bees as his hired 



men. to work all the time, and he made it a 
point to furnish w«rk for them. What was lack- 
ing in natural forage he supplied by planting 
honey crops. Alsack clover could be made very 
valuable by cutting the first crop at different 
times. It was valuable also as a forage crop. 
Made good hay. 

In regard to the Profits of Bee-Keeping, said 
Mrs. Tupper, of Iowa, I met a farmer and his 
wife coming out of Des Moines. He had re- 
ceived $12 for 4 loads of corn while she had $25, 
the proceeds of three hives of bees. Women could 
make it successful whether men could or not. 
It will pay in suburban homes, and even on the 
house tops of cities. 

And J. AV. Hosraer, of Minn., said it was as 
profitable as to raise milk and butter, and he 
considered it an argument against keeping cows 
to say that every body did not make it profitable, 
as it was against bees to say every body could 
not manage them successfully. Not one family 
in a thousand in Chicago had honey, and not one 
in a hundred oven see it once a year. 

Mr. Quinbys question was, ''The cause of 
the mortality among bees last winter, and can it 
be remedied in the future.'' 

Mr Zimmerman. Too many old bees and 
long cold winters were causes of the dysentery. 
Let some of his bees fly in a warm room last 
winter and saved them, while others wintered 
with them that did not fly out died. 

The next topic discussed was, " Is the Italian 
superior to the little black bee ?" 

The discussion was a lengthy one, and was 
participated in by Dr. Lucas, Dr. Bohrer, Mrs. 
Tupper, J. B. Smith, of Ohio ; Hoagland, of 
Penna ; Dunlap, of Ills.; H. A. King, of N. Y.; 
Disler, la.; Southworth, Ills.; J. S Hill, Ohio; 
Zimmerman, Ohio; Shipley, Ohio; Allen, Mo.; 
Dr. Hamlin, Tonn., President Clark, N. C. 
Mitchell and other. 

None of the speakers expressed a negative 
opinion, though some contended that they had 
been puffed too much and had virtues attributed 
to them that they did not possess. The speak- 
ers did not all praise them for gentleness, and 
many agreed that in natural swarming they 
were more likely to become intelligent in hiving 
than the black bee. They were also accused of 
having some other faults. 

We have referred to but a very few matters 
discussed in this convention, but they are enough 
to show how wide is the field, and how interest- 
ing is the subject of bee culture. 



96 



THE GARDEJVER'S MOJVIHLY. 



March, 



li'*' 




MISSOURI STATE IIORT. SOCIETY. 

The Missouri State Horticultural Society met 
at JefTerson City, January 7th, 8th, and 9th 
The reports of a few of the committees appointed 
at the preceding annual meeting were listened 
to with decided interest. The guess papers were 
present as usual ; but only those that gave accu- 
rate experiment and experience were accorded 
attention. The discussion concerning the grape 
preceded all others, and was led by George 
Hussman. He was closely and persistently 
questioned by the members present, and very 
many facts elicited of great value to the 
vinyardist. 

Besult. — That the Concord has proved itself 
all in all the most reliable and useful gra]>e for 
Missouri. But it has been overplanted, and the 
market is now so glutted that in this season 
Concord's being only two to four cents a pound 
in St. Louis. More varieties should be planted, 
although the Concord should still head the list. 
Martha is recommended as doing finely. Ives 
useless. Goethe as standing the test, and rank- 
ing next to Concord. Underhill's seedlings, 
Croton and Senasqua as doing well so far. 

The discussion on Apples was led by one of 
our largest growers, O. H. Leah. For about 
one hour he answered questions concerning dif- 
ferent varieties, and their adaptiveness to the 
soil and climate of the State. 

Besult — The Rawles' Janet is the standard of 
quality and fecundity. But it has also glutted 
the market, and docs not pay for picking. A 
score or more of varieties were named that are 
especially good. Among these stand prominent, 
Ben Davis, White Bellefleur, Wine Sap. &c. A 
superb show of apples was spread ©n the tables 
of the Societ3\ 

The discussion on Pears was mainly led by 
Rev. E. P. Powell. 

Results.— Vl&nt in well drained heavy soil. 
Cultivate in the sod ; that is, grow them in 
grass, but well worked about and thoroughly 
mulched. Plant trees limbed low ; thin out 
weak shoots in summer, and cut back the 
remaining wood in autumn, till the tree gets too 
large to manage. Every way grow the tre^ 
slowly, and get ripened wood ; and protect the 
roots from tlie effect of extreme changes of tem- 
perature. In this way Mr. P©well had preserved 
two orchards, one in New York, the other in 
Michigan, from any traces of blight. 

Judge Krekel discussed Cherries, as did the 
Chairman, Henry T. Mudd. 



JJesuZf.— Deal with the finest cherries very 
much as with the pear. Slow growth and care- 
ful mulching will preserve the trees in a healthy 
condition. 

It can hardly be said that any special person 
led in the discussion of the wine The commit- 
tee that retired with the social fluid had a pro- 
longed session, and reported as men well 
acquainted with the subject. Most of the pre- 
miums went to Dr. Claggett. 

Tuesday and Thursday evenings were occu- 
pied with addresses by Rev E. P. Powell and 
Prof. C. y. Riley. The first on Horticulture in 
Cities ; the latter on Entomology. 

The session was of much practical value to the 
State, as it has tended to correct a tendency 
to plant too few varieties, thus glutting the 
market with a pet grape or apple, and reducing 
the price below the cost of gathering. 

The Society will hold its next session at Han- 
nibal, in January, 1874. 



<•»•» 



SOMETHING LIKE PRIZES. 

At the Annual Rose Show of the Mass. Horti- 
cultural Society, at Boston, elune 17th, special 
prizes for Hybrid Perp'3tual Roses, offered by 
H. II. Hunnewell. Esq. Open to all. 
For the best six new varieties, never before ex- 
hibited, S40.00. 
For the best six named varieties, $20.00, 

For the next best, $10.00. 
For the best twelve of any one variety, $20.00. 
For the next best, $10 00. 
All roses competing for these prizes, to be ex- 
hibited in boxes the same size as those compe- 
ting for the Society's prizes ; the size of the 
boxes for the six new varieties and the named 
varieties, one foot six inches long, one foot six 
inches broad, six inches high at the back, and 
four inches high at the front. 

Special Prizes for Roses, offered by 0. S. 
Sargent, Esq. Open to all. 
For the best twenty-four distinct named varie- 
ties, three flowers of each, $G0 00. 
For the next best, $40.00. 
All roses to compete for this prize to be exhi- 
bited in wooden boxes to be four feet long, one 
foot six inches broad, six and one half inches 
high at the back, and four and one half inches 
high at the front. The roses to be placed on a 
neatly arranged carpet of moss. Regard will be 
had to the manner in which the roses are 
exhibited. 



®li« (Sard^tt^r's Ponthlj, 



DEVOTED TO 



EorticuUure, Arboriculture, Botany and Rural Affairs. 



EDITED BY THOMAS MEEHAN. 



Old Series, Vol, XV. 



APRIL, 187 S. ^ew Series,Vol. VIH^o. A 



HINTS FOU APRIL. 



FLOWER GARDEN AND PLEASURE 

GROUND. 

Here is a picture before us, which the artist 
says is '* the old, old story." A trustful heart 
has been drinking in the music of a sweet love 
song, and both the singer and his one beloved 
auditor both seem happy. It is indeed the old, 
old story, but to thousands of souls it comes as 
fresh and joyous as if their young morning of 
life was the beginning of a newly created world. 
And to us who love trees and flowers, gardens 
and garden art, April brings the same old story 
of faith and hope— of work to do. and trust to 
enjoy the labors of our hands. Digging and 
raking, seed sowing and tree planting, planning 
and designing— the same old story it is every 
year ; but yet not the same, for flower garden 
history, like the general world's history, never 
repeats itself. Our trees hare grown larger, the 
shrubs are bushier, the vines have lovingly cov- 
ered every deformity, even our flower beds 
will be somewhat changed, and the very plants 
we grew in them not as the plants were last 
year. 

The flower gardens of the old world are 
renowned ; but yet with some judgment we 
might excel them, because in our hot climate we 
can take advantage of so many tropical things 
for out door decoration which they cannot grow, 
besides most of what they rely on for their best 
effects. Of these valued for their colored leaves 
are the increasiagly numerous varieties of Cole- 
U8, Irisene and Achyranthus, Alternantheras, 
Dracoenas, and the like. There has been also 
much attention given to the silvery leaved 
plants, which are almost essential in forming a 



proper contrast with the more brilliant hues. 
Centaurea ragusina, or as it is sometimes called, 
C. candidissima, was the first step in this direc- 
tion, unless indeed the «»ld Cineraria maritima 
can be said to have been in use for this purpose. 
Now we have C. Clementei and C. plumosa, 
Gnaphalium tomentosum, and some others, 
which give us a variety in form and stature, as 
well as keeping up for us the silvery hue. 

While speaking of silvery hued leaves, one 
may refer to the beautiful silvery plumes of the 
Pampas Grass, which towards the fall of the 
year give a magnificent appearance to a lawn, 
especially if the plants are grown in very rich 
soil. The Erianthus Ravennoe is also a very 
striking grass of this character. 

Of flowering plants which thrive well in our 
climate, we have a good selection. The Gerani- 
ums are amongst the best, although, botanically 
they are not distinct from Pelargoniums ; yet it 
serves a good purpose to retain the name as a 
popular designation of an useful class in flower 
gardening. There are now double varieties ; but 
for flower gardening purposes, double flowers are 
inferior. These varieties do not flower as freely 
as the single ones. This has proved to be the 
case with the Petunia, the Pansy, and other 
things, and we suppose the rule will hold good 
here. The Rose Geraniums flower somewhat 
steady throughout the year, and are indispensa- 
ble for their delightful fragrance and elegant 
foliage. The Verbena used to be the main reli- 
ance for bedding— but the great ravages of the 
verbena rust, has made it somewhat unreliable'; 
and, although it is indispensable yet, it does not 
take the front rank as formerly. 



98 



THE GARDEJVER'S MOJ^TTHLJ. 



April. 



1873. 



Ill 



In the clapB of Kcontcd flowers, the Hehotrope, 
the Mianonette, and the Sweet Alyseum, com- 
mand a prominent place. The last is liable to 
suffer much from the cabbage-fly. A syringing 
with water, in which a few drops of coal oil has 
been spread, soon settles his business. There is 
a variegated Sweet Alyssum which is very 
pretty. 

Lantacas are very desirable ; but to have the 
best results from them, they should be planted 
in poor soil. A very pretty species, trailini; like 
a Verbena, but not much known, is Jj, Sf.llotcii. 
The varieties of Lobelia make fair bedding 
plants if not put in too dry a soli, or too warm a 
situation. 

The old double white Feverfew is one of the 
most desirable of bedding plants. White flowers 
can be cut from it all summer, and yet have 
plenty left to bloom. The Petunia, though of 
no account for cutting, keeps up a brilliant show 
the whole season. They do also very well in hot 
places where little else will do. The singles give 
the most flowers. For cutting purposes, the 
Monthly or Tree Carnations are lovely things, 
though they are ugly growing plants and do not 
make much show on the grounds. The blue 
Ageratum is not very showy, but blooms so 
profusely, that every one likes to have it. 
The old Nierembergia gracifis is another n<it 
very showy plant, but flowers so well, and is so 
satisfied with indiflerent treatment, that one 
cannot let it go. The Gazania is curious, and 
makes a brilliant show of orange and black on a 
fine day, but is not well adapted to a hot place. 
The little Cvphea platycentra has rather too much 
green for a show plant , but if the soil is not too 
rich, gives fair satisfaction. 

For late summer and fall blooming, we have 
Giadiolus, (excellent for cutting for baskets and 
l)lates of flowers', Tu')erose^', (ditto), Chrysan- 
thcmuuiS, Dahlias, atid paiticulariy llie Scarlet 
Sage, without which no garden is complete. 
These are very well known and popular bed- 
ding plants. 

Besidis these, there are some not so well 
known bui which will, pcrha])s, become as pop- 
ular tor some purposes as the others The Ivy 
Geraniums are being much improved, and an; 
\w^X the things for vases and growing over 
mounds or elevated p'aces. All the forms ot 
Sedums are also excellent for vases and dry 
places- as are also several varieties of hardy 
Cactuses, half hardy Kcheveria*-, and other suc- 
culents. 



Aloes of many kinds suit the centre of these 
vases and flower beds remarkably well. The 
variegated Geraniums, and variegated leaved 
plants generally, do only where protected from 
hot suns. The common Perilla, with dark coh 
ered leaves, however, does best in the full sun. 
The shrubby New Zealand Veronicas flower mest 
of the season, and are suited to many localities. 
But perhaps if it be put in very rich soil it might 
do better. Even England, which in some re- 
spects may be regarded as the home of the Pansy, 
and where so much use is made of some of the 
varieties for bedding purposes, it is found neces" 
sary to a continuous bloom to put a shovelful of 
manure under each plant, in order to secure a 
bloom long into the summt r >• iison. 

The new hybrid DianthuMS promise to be 
amongst the most popular of bedding flowers. 
The Bouvardia leiantha and other Bouvardias 
are rather ragged growers, and seldom have 
many flowers on at a time ; but one can cut for 
ever from them, and new flowers rapidly suc- 
ceed. The Viola cornuta does not make much 
show, but blooms well in our climate all sum- 
mer. 

There is quite an excitement on new Clema- 
tises as summer blooming plants. They bring 
yet, very high prices, and have to be tested more 
in our climate, though they will probably be a 
success. In Chrysanthemums, a great advance 
has been made in the production of an earlier 
class of bloomers. It has always been against 
the Chrysanthemums tliat they have been a little 
too late lor decorative cardeninji. Lilies of all 
kinds are also growing in popularity and cheap- 
ness, and there arc some double rose-colored 
Feverfews that add much to the beauty of a 
flower garden. 



TEU GARDEJSTER'S MOJ^THLY. 



99 



FRUIT GARDEN. 

Grafting can be continued till the bud a of the 
trees are nearly pushed into leaf. Sometimes^ 
from a pressure of other work, some valuable 
scions have been left on hand too late to work. 
It may be interesting to know, that if such 
scions are put into the ground, much the same 
as if they were cuttings, they will keep good for 
six weeks or two months, by which time the 
bark will run freely, when the scions may be 
treated as buds, and will succeed just as well as 
buds taken from young summer shoots. 

In planting dwarf Pears, it is very important 
to have them on a spot that has a moist j^ubsoil, 



either natur.^l]y or made so by subsoiling or mix- 
ing some material with the soil that wilfgive out 
moisture in dry weather. Trees already planted 
on a dry gravelly subsoil, should have a circle 
dug out two feet deep, and two or three feet 
from the tree. This should be filled up with 
well enriched soil. If the dwarf Pear does not 
grow freely, it is a sign that something is wrong- 
It should at once he severely pruned, so as to afd 
in producing a vigorous growth. 

In Europe they find much advantage from 
often taking up the dwarf Pear and replantin*^ • 
and the result in this is to disprove the observa- 
tion of Poor Richard, who ^* never saw a tree 
or an oft removed family, which did so well as 
those which settled be." 

Strawberry beds are very frequently made at 
this season, and though they will not bear fruit 
the same year, are much more certain to crrow 
and will produce a much better crop next year 
than when left till next August. Though it is 
a very common recommendation, we do not 
value a highly manured soil. It should be well 
trenched or subsoiled ; this we consider of great 
value. In rich soils there is too much danger of 
having more leaves than fruit. 

Buds that were inoculated last fall should not 
be forgotten ; but as .soon as vegetation has 
pushed forth, the buds should be examined, and 
all other issues from the old stock taken away 
It may also be necessary to make a tie, in order 
to get the young shoot of the bud to go in the 

Udlpar ""^"'^ ^""^ "^"""^'^ ''''^ h^Ti^^^t^v have 

without posting yourself afresh on the various 
methods recommended for destroying insects, or 
preventing their attacks. The advant^.ge of a 
stitch in time is never more decided than in the 
great sruggle with fruit destroying insects A 
mass of information on this point lies scattered 
through our past volumes, that will well repay a 

mshing one's ideas in that line. 

anv wi •^i'''^' ^'^°'' ^"^^^^ ^^ P"«h watch for 
any which may seem inclined to push out 

trees t''' ?.^''^ '^^"^^ ^" "^ ^'"^« ^^^^^^ ^» ^^uit 
the!; ^^'^'^y''^ is to get all the branches of 

tl e tr ""! '™ '*''"S*^ ^"^ ^ig^^ throughout 
e tree, and this cannot be done where t^o or 

ree vigorous fellows arc allowed to take to 

tjemjlves all the nutrition which the root^ 



"^3^ 



VEGETABLE GARDEN. 

South of Philadelphia, the more tender kinds 
of garden vegetables may now be sown -beans 
corn, cucumbers, squashes, &c.~that it is not 
pruident to plant in this latitude before the first 
of May ; and tomato, ^gg plants, etc., may alsa 
be set out in those favored places. Cucumbers 
squashes, and such vegetables can be <rot fori 
ward as well as tomatoes, egg plants, etc., by 
being sown in a frame or hot-bed, and potted off- 
into three inch pots. They will be nice plants 
by the first week in May. Rotten wood suits 
cucumbers and the squash tribe exceedincrly well 
as a manure. Tomatoes and ^gg plants That are 
desired very early, are best potted, soon after 
Uiey come up, into small pots. They can then 
be turned out into the open air without any 
check to their roots. Of course they should 
be gradually inured to the open air-not sud- 
denly transferred from a warm and moist air to 
a very dry one. 

Bean poles may be planted preparatory to sow- 
ing the Lima Bean in May. Where bean poles 
are scarce, two or three hoop poles, set into the 
ground one foot from each other, and tied 
together at the top, make as good a pole, and 
perhaps better. 

Dwarf beans should have very warm and deep 
soil-sow them only two inches apart. The 
Valentine is yet the best early, take it all in all 

Peas should be sown every two weeks for a 
succession-do not make the soil very rich for 
them. 

Lettuce, for a second crop of salad, should be 
sown about the end of the month Tlie Drum 
head cabbage is usually sown for a summer crop • 
but the old kinds of Cos lettuce would, no doubt' 
be found very valuable in rich soils. 

Early York Cabbage for early use should be 
set out early this month. It is an excellent plan 
to make the holes with a dibble first, where the • 
cabbage is to be set ; then fill up the holes with 
manure water, and, after the water has soaked 
away, set in the plants. It is rather more labori 
ous than the old way-but the cabbage grows 
so fast afterwards that it pays pretty well. 

It is not a good plan to cut all the Aspara^rus 
as soon as they appear. A few sprouts should 
always be left to grow from each, to strengthen 
the plants. ° 

Celery, with most fomilies, is an important 
crop, and should be sown about this period. A 
very rich, moist spot, that will be shaded from 



100 



THE GARDE JEER'S MOJSTTHLY. 



April, 



1873. 



THE GARDEJ^ER'S MOJ^THL^. 



101 




\%^^' 



the midday April sun should be chosen— or a 
box in a frame, by those who have the conveni- 
ences. 

Few things mark a well kept garden better 
than an abundance of all kinds of herbs. Now 
8 the time to make the beds. Sage, Thyme and 



Lavender grow from slips, which may be set in 
now, precisely as if an edging of box were to be 
made of. them. They grow very easily. Basil 
and Sweet Marjoram must be sown in a rich 
warm border. Salsafy and Scorzonera like a 
damp, rich soil. 



C M M U N I C A T I N S. 



FLORICULTURE IN PHILADELPHIA. 

. BY X Y. Z. 

It has occasionally occurred to me that somcr 
thing is at fault with the florists of Philadelphia 
and its vicinity. They have not increased the 
taste in flowers that the standing of society here 
might demand. Philadelphia, geographically, 
is as well suited for the growth of exotics as any 
other city on the sea-board ; her people have 
more room about their dwellings, are as refined, 
have more real wealth than any other large city 
in the United States. 

At the present time, the florists here are 
somewhat behind the same class of men in 
other cities east and north of us. Not a few 
around New York, though brought up to some 
mechanical branch, are proficient in the cultiva- 
tion of flowers, and are classed among the suc- 
cessful florists. They have studied to grow a 
few flowers well, and they do it, so much so that 
many of them are in comparatively easy cir- 
cumstances, and most of them are approaching 
that way. 

But in taking a view of the florists around 
the city of Philadelphia, we are debarred from 
arriving at the same conclusion, for during the 
last twenty years little or no progress has been 
made. The same variety of ornamental plants 
has, with ^QVf exceptions, been produced, and 
the sales in the spring have not embraced a 
large area of the city. 

We might, with propriety, suggest that this 
economy in production has contributed largely 
to the lack of progress. They almost invari- 
ably heat their greenhouses with the old brick 
flue, which, in severe winters, is very hurtful to 
vegetation, for should the plant escape being 
dried with heat or saturated with moisture at a 
distance from the fire, every plant in the house 
is retarded in its growth by the fumes of sul- 



phur escaping from the flue, combined with a 
humid atmosphere. Any, indeed all of these, 
are evils that the gardener is unable to success- 
fully guard against where such an imperfect 
agent is used. To conduct the business of a 
floriculturist with such inefficient means for the 
production of heat, is disheartening in the ex- 
treme, hence we find, too often, plodding and 
grumbling in the place of successful enterprise. 
To help my fellow workers out of this '' slough 
of despond'' is the object of this article. 

The Philadelphia florist is well aware that 
those who use water to distribute heat, have 
their establishments superior to those who use 
the brick flue ; their houses are apparently com- 
fortable, their plants healthy, with no obnoxi- 
ous gases to impair or destroy the flower. On 
the other hand, those who still adhere to the 
old system, use every device but the right one 
to nurse and economize In support of this as- 
sertion, I may remark that I made a few visits 
among the florists a couple of weeks ago, and 
found that those who clung to the brick flue had 
lost as much by the fumes uf sulphur and by 
frost as would have put up a hot water appa- 
ratus. 

Most of them are well aware that labor con- 
sumes one-third of their sales, even under the 
most successful management ; another third 
goes for material, while the remaining third is 
all that is left for repairs, rent and profits ; this 
is without doubt the only safe basis on which to 
calculate. But by continuing the old method of 
heating, one half is taken for labor, one fourth 
for material, (they boast of this) and the balance 
for rent. Profits and repairs are deferred till 
next year, and they console themselves with the 
thought that those who use the improved method 
of heating are just so much poorer than them- 
selves ; whereas the latter economize in labor 



nearly one-half, an important item in these 
times of high priced and inefficient service. 

It is my sincere desire to put the florists of 
Philadelphia in the position they ought to oc- 
cupy, and therefore I place before them my 
views, the result of many years experience, con- 
cerning the heating of greenhouses by the com- 
mon air flue or distributing heat with hot water. 
Before I describe the mode of heating, a few 
remarks may not be out of place about the erec- 
tion of a planthouse. Many plans have been 
adopted, but most of them have very imperfect- 
ly answered the purpose they were intended to 
serve. Some maintain that a house with the 
roof at an angle of 35° or less is the cheapest 
and best, and much easier to keep at a moder- 
ate temperature than one with a greater angle : 
Others approve of a low narrow house, as then, 
the plant being so much nearer the glass, grows 
better ; others adopt the large moderately high 
house as the best. Of the three, the last is de 
cidedly to be preferred, being much easier to 
manage. A house twelve feta from ground to 
apex will contain nearly double the quantity of 
air that a low^ flit or low narrow house would, 
and may be considered the medium height a 
house ought to be ; it has the disadvantage of 
holding more air to vvarm ; but on the other 
hand there is more to mol at night. Such a 
house can be used from November to April with- 
out giving air. The low house is easily warmed, 
(or rather overwarmed) and requires as many 
feet of pipe to keep it at the same te.Tiperature 
as the high house, with this disadvantage, that 
it cools much more rapidly. This may be looked 
upon by some as a mis-statement, but it is 
nevertheless correct. Nearly everybody will say 
that a house containing 5000 feet of air can U ! 
kept at the same temperature as one containing 
7500 feet, and so it may if the area it covers be 
one-third less ; but if both cover the same area, 
there will be the same cool surface and less air 
to cool. Ilcnce I conclude that a house ten or 
twelve feet from ground to apex is easier to be 
kept at an equal temperature, with the same 
quantity of fuel, than a low house, and without 
having to admit cold air for nearly five months. 
We will estimate the cost of putting up the 
heating apparatus in two ways— water and the 
common brick flue. A house 100 feet by 25 feet 
by 11 feet would allow the walls to be 4 feet and 
the roof 45^ making It a span roof. To keep 
the atmosphere at 65^ or 70°— mercury outside 
at zero-it will require 1000 feet of 4 inch pipe 



(a fire surface of 4 feet inches is capable of 
making the water 180° in the boiler, and per- 
haps a trifle higher, which will keep the house 
nearer 80° than less) to keep the same tempera- 
ture, which with the brick flue would require 
four fires and four flues. The fire places would 
each be 2 feet by 1 foot, altogether 8 feet of fire 
surface for the boilers against 4 feet 6 inches ; 
diff*erence in favor of hot water, 3 feet 6 inches. 

But it will be said that the larger furnace will 
consume more fuel in proportion to the greater 
body of fire, and that if no flue be used from the 
fire, there will be a greater draught. Let me 
try the question by figures : — 

The cost of 1000 feet of piping, ] 
&(•., to be from $320 to S350, \ S350.00 
say the largest sum, ) 

Boiler, with necessary fixings ) 
in a plain, substantial man- > $65.00 
ner, put in place, ) 

Ijabor, etc., for completing the ) 



same 



J 



Whole cost. 

Each furnace and flue. ])lain und 
well-built, will cost .^50 00 ; at 
the end of two years will require 
rebuilding at half cost, $25.00 ; 
and at the end of two years 
more, renewal, $50 00, S125, 
which multiplied by 4 gives 



$245.00 



SGOO.OO 



$500.00 



$160.00 



Difference in favor of brick in six 
years, , 

But at the end of the six years, the flue be- 
gins to be more costly than hot water, for the 
only renewal required by the latter is occasion- 
ally new fire bars or a pipe. If made of cast 
iron, the waste is very little indeed, and may 
last fifty years. With the former, the same 
labor and cost are expended during the second 
period of six years as during the first. It has, it 
is true, its lower original cost to recommend it, 
but its disadvantages are so many and so seri- 
ous to the gardener, that the wonder is why he 
has suffered so long without a murmur. 

The saving by hot water may be estimated at 
fully two-thirds in labor alone. Healthy plants, 
plants in bloom just at the right time, are ad- 
vantages worth far more than the difference in 
the prime cost between hot water and air flues. 

As an appendix to what has been said before, 
a few general remarks may not be without in- 
terest. Three or four days' absence of sun will 
cause the atmosphere of the greenhouse to be- 
come heavy and humid ; but the admission of a 
little fresh air, or even one hour's sun, will re- 



1/ 



102 



THE GARDEJ\rER'S MOJ^THLY. 



April, 




H 




m 



store it to its proper state. In the absence of 
sunlight, carbonic gas increases, though not suf- 
ficiently to injure vegetation ; but the brick- 
flue, in very cold weather with a brisk fire, has 
a red heat near the fire, and all the oxygen that 
comes in contact with that part is converted 
into carbonic gas. Any person who uses hot air 
for his dwelling, will tell you that in very cold 
weather the air which is shut in from the fur- 
nace causes a sensation of partial suffocation, 
the air being overcharged with carbon and the 
oxygen proportionately diminished. In large 
halls, if the warming be not thoroughly attended 
to, and if the audience be numerous, many be- 
come drowsy, this is occasioned by the carboni- 
zation of the air before entering the hall. It is 
the same with greenhouses and plants. The 
makers of hot-air furnaces would but fulfil their 
duty to society by producin-,' an efficient article, 
at a price that men of moderate means could 
afford. 

There are some low-pressure steam-boilers in 
use, but with the small amount of knowlcdize 
possessed by domestic help, they may prove 
very dangerous, and so are not likely to be ex- 
tensively used. The only improvement I can 
suggest in the system of heating dwellinss is, 
that the furnace and air chambers be larize 
enough to give the required heat without put- 
ting the former to a red heat, as is the case in 
greenhouses where the air flue is used. 



the same) in the pipes deposits a bluish-black 
sediment very much like varnish, which dimin- 
ishes the radiating power of the iron The ope- 
rator puts this down te the insufficiency of the 
boiler, because the house does not get warm as 
quickly as before. To remedy this, it is neces- 
sary to empty the boiler in summer, and allow 
air to circulate through the whole for two or 
three months, when both boiler and pipes will 
perform their work as well as at first. The ope- 
rator should be instructed by the mechanic that 
puts them up, if the latter know his business as 
he ought to know it. 

To successfully warm a green-house, ?'. ^., to 
produce an equable temperature, the pipes must 
be placed with some judgment. If the house be 
100 feet in length, and the water travel quickly, 
the return pipe near the boiler will not be many 
degrees cooler than the flow, and very few feet 
more piping at the further end from the fire will 
be necessary ; but should the pipes be so laid 
that the water has a sluggish motion, or should 
the boiler be of imperfect construction, the 
lengths of piping will have to be materially in- 
creased. However, to most of the boilers now 
in use and for sale, that complaint does not ap- 
ply. If the house be 200 feet long, it might re- 
quire 25 per cent, more piping at the further end 
from the boiler ; and for a general assortment of 
hot-house plants, I would place my pipes in the 
following manner : 



1873. 



THE GARDEJYER'S MOJs'THLY. 



10 S 




Complaints have frequently been made by 
those using hot water in greenhouses and steam 
in factories, that the heating power of both 
diminishes. That this is true there can be no 
question. The gardener lays it to the boiler, 
the factory owner to anything but the right 
cause. Pipes newly used radiate boat very 
freely, but in two years the water ^team does 



The figure represents the end of a span-roofed 
house, 25 feet wide, and as long as the owner 
might require. A. is a table on each side of the 
house, at a distance of 4 inches from the wall. 
The usual way is to cover the table close to the 
front wall in order to economize room. This is 
false economy, for during cold weather a stra- 
tum of cold air is generated under the glass to 



the depth of about 12 inches at the bottom of best of opportunity to compare with several hun- 
the glass, and in this atmosphere nothing will dreds of other varieties, also in my orchards ; 
grow during cold weather. It is better for the besides which 1 have not failed to watch its suc- 
cultivator to have an opening as shown at a. cess in other localities in the State, and I have 
To convey the air so cooled to the heated air become satisfied that what po})ularity it has 
under the table in the direction of the arrows, acquired has mainly arisen from its vigor and 
When spring opens, that space may be occupied , excellent habit of growth in the nursery ^ and its 
at a time when comparatively no artificial heat j very early productiveness ; and my observation 
is required. Each table has a double bottom ; i both at home and abroad has but confirmed ray 
the lower one of boards, the upper one of slate | early conviction, that its early and excessive pro- 
Between the floors is one of the pipes to serve for i ductiveness, unless checked by careful thinning, 
bottom heat for small plants or cuttings (b). \ (which with us, is not to be hoped for), is infalli- 
Under the table four pipes at a convenient dis- ! bly fatal to the proper growth and development 
tance from the floor (c) ; making in all five pipes j of the trees, while it further results in inferior 
on each side of the house— three for the flow and ! size of the fruit, and on account of the short stiff 
two for the return. The object in using two re- I fruit spurs, and the consequent crowding 
turn pipes is to regulate the heat, equalize the j together of the fruit upon the branches, in the 
pressure and to cause occasionally a slight vari- . actual crowding off of more or less of the fruits 
ation in heat. j in the process of growth, and as a result of the 

At this writing, it is snowing ; mercury about \ same habit, at the time of gathering, fully one- 
33deg; inside of 61 degrees at front wall. Nine | half the entire crop is found upon the ground, 
inches below the glass 58 deg. This is a slight ' and consequently worthless except for cider. 
Vdriation, but the house is five degrees lower 
than it would be if there were no snow : and the 
mercury at the lowest part of the roof is five de- 
grees higher than it would be with outside at 
zero. 

In conclusion : What is the excuse for not 
adopting the better method of heating green- 
houses ? Is it the first cost ? Certainly not, for 
the labor saved in one winter is fully one-eighth 
of its cost. Is it the want of means ? That can 
be overcome in one j'car. Is it the habits or 
education of the man that prevent him from 



Inasmuch as I have an intimate personal 
knowledge of the circumstances under which 
the article in question found its way into th 
Farmer^ I will take occasion to say that the nur 
seryman in question, (Mr. Husted), has made 
this variety a specialty, and no doubt he very 
honestly believes it to be all that he claims, as 
his personal acquaintance with it is believed to 
have been mainly in the nursery. I am how- 
ever well acquainted with the fact that many 
who have been induced to pant it extensively 
upon his recommendation, already regret the 
doing himself a service? This is the most likely I step. These plantations are mainly in newly 
solution; and if these few remarks be the means I settled regions, and hence on virgin soils, on 
of leading any one to exercise that faculty of which the tendency to wood growth will proba- 
judgment, given to all in a greater or less de- j bly in part remedy the natural tendency of the 
gree, the object of the writer will be answered. , variety. Yet notwithstanding this, it is to be 

„,„ I feared that the experience of the next few years 

will determine the extensive planting of this 



THE WAGENER APPLE IN MICHIGAN. 

BY MR. T. T. LYON, TLYMOUTH, MICH 

I obsnve, with a degree of regret, an article 
in your February issue, extracted from Midiujan 
Farmer, speaking very highly of the success of 
the Wagenor apple in Michigan. I regret this 
not because this variety is believed not to be 
successful here, but because I can see no reason 
to believe it more successful than in many other 
localities. 

I have in my orchards a number of trees of 
Wagener, planted when it was first introduced ; 
say about 1840 or 1847, which I have had the 



variety to have been a mistake, so far as finan- 
cial results are concerned. 

Mr. Ilusted also takes occasion to apeak of 
Red Canada as comparatively unsuccessful. It 
is obvicus to all who may be familiar with both 
varieties, that with its weak, slender habit of 
growth while young. Red Canada can never be 
either popular or profitable with nurserymen, 
and had it not chanced to win popularity upon 
top-grafted trees, it would in all probability have 
been comparatively unknown among us as a pro- 
fitable market fruit ; but coming into notice as 
it did, when an extensive region which in the 



10 J^ 



THK GARDE.N'ER'S MOJVTHLY. 



April, 



1873. 



THE GARDEJVER'S MOJ^TBLY. 



105 




early settlement of the State had been planted 
with seedling orchards were being regrafted, it 
established itself fn eastern Michigan and in the 
markets of the northwest, as beyond all compar- 
ison the most profitable of our market apples. 
In western Michigan the growing of fruit for the 
market is a comparatively recent business, and 
although in eastern Michigan, after a forty years 
continuous acquaintance with Red Canada 
(generally under the spurious name of Steele's 
Red Winter), fully one-third of all the recent 
orchards are of this variety, it has been but 
slightly known and sjiarsely planted at the 
west, a fafct largely to be attributed lo the cir- 
cumstance that it was known as ''Steele's Red 
Winter;" and when trees were ordered from 
Eastern nurseries under this name, such orders 
were invariably filled with Baldwin, a fact that 
beyond doubt has much to do with the general 
distrust of foreign nurseries among our orchar- 
dists. 

Although I am not warranted in questioning 
the allegation of Mr ITustod, that Red Canada 
is unsuccessful with him. I can confidently state 
that it has been grown, but a few miles distant, 
for more than fifteen years, and that those who 
grow it claim that it is quite as successful as it 
has proved at the cast. 



STOCK FOR CHERRIES. 

BY ADDI. 

May I say to your Mr. L. B., that experience, 
two years in succession, proves to me practical- 
ly, that either grafting or budding of our Ccrasus 
sylvestris, or what we know as our cultivated 
Sweet Cherry, upon the wild common sort of our 
woods, or Cerasus serotina is a waste of time. 
The buds or grafts will grow to three or four 
leaves, and possibly a few will continue the first 
season with five, but that will be their end. 






IMMEDIATE EFFECTS OF CROSS FER- 
TILIZATION ON SEKD. 

BY C. ARNOLD, PARIS, CANADA WEST. 

In your February number, for 1871, I sent you 
a sample of fruit, said to be grown upon the 
brangh of a tree that had for years previous (and 
this year also) produced pears and pear leaves. 
The appearance and taste of the pulp, in the 
opinion of all who saw it and tasted it, being 
apple. In my communication sent at that time 
I remarked : *' We all know that if we plant a 
few grains of dark purple corn, and near by we 



plant white sweet corn, that we shall find in the 
fall both varieties of corn in the same ear." To 
this, Mr. Jacob Moore, of Rochester, in the Au- 
gust number of Horticulturist^ replies : '* I differ 
with him entirely. I don't know any such thing, 
in fact, I am confident they will show no mix- 
ture whatever the first year." 

Mr. Moore's remarks appeared to me so very 
dogtuatic and uncourteous, that I did not consi- 
der them worthy a reply ; but for the sake of ex- 
periment, I planted last spring a grain of dark 
purpln corn, of a variety that I knew was not 
grown, nor would be grown this year near this 
place, and I now send you two ears, one all purple^ 
the other without a purple grain in it, but un- 
mistakably composeil of two other distinct vari- 
eties. Both ears grew upon the same stalk and 
sprung from this purple seed, and my sole object 
in sending them, is to show you that I have 
proved, beyond a doubt, the existence of a phe- 
nomenon that most naturalists have called in 
question, and no one that I am aware of, has 
ever before proved, viz : What has been termed 
superfoetation In the vegetable kingdom, or in 
other words, one seed being the joint 'issue of 
two males. 

As stated above, both the ears of corn grew 
upon the same stalk, nnd from the seed of a 
dark purple corn like thit upon the large ear. 
This ear was allowed to 'oe fructified by pollen 
grown upon its own stalk. The pollen of this 
purple variety was then ail removed and destroy- 
ed. And as the silken pistils of the smaller ear 
began to show themselves, pollen of a yellow 
variety of corn was supplied, by suspending small 
bottles filled with water ami the stalk bearing 
the pollen plunged therein, then after a short 
time this yellow pollen was removed, and pollen 
of a white variety of corn was furnished in the 
same way. By examining the individual grains 
upon the small ear you will observe that they 
are yellow at the base and white upon the top. 
You will tht n please remember the purple seed 
from which i he stalk and the two entirely dilTerent 
ears grew, nnd after a thorough examination, I 
feel contident that every unbiased intelligent per- 
son will agree with me that in corn at any rate, 
two different varieties of pollen can be made to 
intluence one seed, and that the pollen will have 
an immediate efftct upon the color of corn^ if upon 
nothing else. 

Thus far I have confined myself to a simple 
statement of the facts as they have developed 
themselves. No doubt many persons who have 



given this subject but little attention, will say 
that even if all this be true, of what practical 
value can it be to horticulturists or agricultu- 
rists. Upon a moment's reflection, however, I 
think incalculable benefits will be obvious, pro. 
vided fruits, flowers, cereals, and vegetables shall 
be found to yield to the same influences in the 
hands of skilful operators. There is one kind 
of superfoetation that was observed by Mr. An- 
drew Knight, of England, many years ago. 
That is by using two kinds of pollen to the same 
flower, he succeeded in producing different 
kinds of peas in the same pod the first season. 
The same thing occurred with me last year by 
using pollen of Champion of England and Alpha 
upon the pistil of Little Gem. The product was 
three different kinds of peas in the same pod. In 
sowing the seeds of a singlo raspberry or straw- 
berry, the result will be similar. And in apples, 
I have reason to believe the first mentioned kind 
of superfetation is attainable, viz : One individ- 
ual seed being the joint issue of two males. I 
send you two apples, that in my opinion, point 
very strongly in this direction Both apples 
grew from seeds of a Northern Spy, and 
although pollen of Spitzenberg and Wagner was | 
applied to its pistil, I have always thought it 
probable that pollen of a large yellow apple tree | 
that stood close by stole a march upon me and 
furnished the yellow skin of the apple marked 
No. 8. The other apple marked No. 4, seems to 
give almost the fine flesh of Wagner, with the 
spice and habit of tree of Spifzenberfr. 

It. would be easy to conjecture a thousand 
articles that might be improved by this process, 
and no doubt many will suggest themselves to 
your numerous readers. I will mention only one 
other that I have had experience with that would 
seem to be a good subject for such improvement, 
viz: Wheat. The greatest difficulty that I 
have had to contend with in crossing wheat has 
been its tendency to sport and run into different 
forms after being thoroughly crossed. To such 
an extent has this peculiarity shown itself in 
some instances, that a person who did not know 
to the contrary, would have supposed on cxara- 
inmg the straw and grain, that several varieties 
of wheat had been sown. This has always 
appeared to me strange and unaccountable, and 
1 believe was equally so to Mr. Knight in his 
aay. I now hope that this difficulty has been 
overcome and that by selection and using pollen 
ot two different varieties of wheat to one pistil, 
this difficulty will be overcome. Some three 



years ago I determined to try this method of 
crossing wheat, and although I must confess I 
had at that time but little faith in being able to 
place one embryo grain of wheat under the influ- 
ence of pollen of two other distinct varieties of 
wheat, yet the wheat produced by the operation 
seems to me to strongly indicate it. At all 
events its character seems perfectly fixed, and it 
is so improved in productiveness, hardiness, and 
quality, that the Ontario Agricultural Society, 
after appointing a committee to investigate it, 
awarded me a gold medal for producing it. 

I am well aware that many intelligent persons 
are of opinion that so soon as a pollen grain falls 
upon the stigma, it passes entire and immediate- 
ly into the ovary, and that it can then be influ- 
enced by no other pollen. For my own part I 
would much rather believe that each pollen grain 
is filled with thousands of minute separate parti- 
cles, each etheralized. It may be that some of 
these particles of thi.s fovilla, as it is called, may 
exhaust themselves upon the stigma, and thea 
other particles may be supplied of another varie- 
ty, and conjointly aid in the formation of one 
individual seed. But my object in writing is 
not to advocate or condemn any theory, new or 
old, but merely to state facts as I have found 
them. 

I trust that you will submit the two ears of 
corn to a thorough examination by the scien- 
tists of Philadelphia, and then return the small 
ear to me, that I may further experiment with 
it. 

I have put in two apples of another variety, 
No. 1, to show that the several seeds in the 
same apple will produce quite distinct varieties 
of fruit. These three kinds all come from the 
seed of one Northern Spy. 



«•■•» 



HOUSES OF S. B. PARSONS & CO. 

BY X. 

The following is a diagram of a range of houses 
recently erected by S. B. Parsons & Sons, of the 
Kissena Nurseries, Flushing, N. Y. They are 
erected on locust posts with tinned valleys 
between the houses and the sides bricked up with 
brick on edge. There is a grade of two feet from 
north to south, and three feet from east to west. 
Each house opens by a glass door into the pro- 
pagating house and packing room, thus enabling 
the foreman to see at a glance the whereabouts 
of the men, and also giving facilities for carrying 
out plants from each house for packing, or other 



106 



THE GARDEJ^ER'S MOJVTMLY. 



April, 



187S. 



TEE GARDE JEER'S MONTHLY. 



107 




t 



lil 



purposes. Under the packing room is a capa- 
cious cellar into whicli a trap door opens from 
the front of each h©use. By this means stocks 
in pots for grafting can be handed up from the 
cellar with great ease. Between the doors of 
the greenhouses and in the potting room, and 
also below the outside windows of the potting 
room and potting benches, soil and pots are 
passed on these benches from carts through the 
outside windows, or can be carried in on a light 
railroad track to run through the centre of the 
potting shed and connect all the houses with the 
playing ground. Thus stocks for grafting kept 
in the cellar can be handed up through the trap 
doors into the grafting houses, and after being 
kept close the required time, can be put on the 



connecting these houses with valleys was bor- 
rowed from England in 1859, and the first 
houses in this country on that plan were erected 
by S. B. Parsons, in 1860. It has since been ex- 
tensively used, and is found to be an economical 
and useful mode. 

The heating apparatus was furnished and put 
up by the Shawmut Iron Works, Cambridge- 
port, Mass. The boilers, three in number, are 
arranged side by side in the boiler room at the 
lower end of the lean-to house, and are so con- 
nected that either one can be used separately or 
all in connection. But two are required to heat 
the houses, the other being held as a reserve. 
Each boiler has a heating capacity of about fif- 
teen horse power, and is connected to an eight 



OPEENHOUSE WITH 
BOILERS BEMEATH.46^20ft 



r 



PROPACATINCHOUSE \^Zy^^?\. 




K 

CO 



LJ 

CO 

o 

< 

'J 

< 



PACKI.\'(; AND POTTING ROOM WITH CELLAR SE NEATH 147 x HK 



N 



T " — 

OFFICE 



w 



railroad and run out to the frames in the plung- 
ing ground. The potting room is heated by one 
flow and one return pii)e, which enables work to 
be done safely in the coldest weather. The office 
is also heated by hot water. 

Watering pots are very little used, and one 
man in a few hours can water all the houses by 
means of a hose connecting with a hydrant in 
each house, to which the water fiows from a 
reservoir on a neighboring hill. The mode of 



inch main and return flow pipe with six inch 
pipe, fitted with valves to shut off* either boiler 
if necessary. The main flow pipe passes through 
the entire length of the lean-to, and across one 
end of the upper house, at which point is placed 
an expansion tank to receive the expansion of 
water for the whole block of houses. From this 
point the distributing flow runs buck toward the 
boiler room, and from it the branches are taken 
for supplying the circulating pipes. These are 



also connected to the return flow which carries 
the water back to the boilers to be re-heated 
Each house has two sets of heatin;?, or circula- 
ting pipes, which are so arranged that either or 
both can be shut off*, or so checked in their flow 
as to regulate the heat to any required tempera- 
ture. All the pipes are so arranged as not to 
interfere with the grade of the walks. 

Since they were erected the cold has been 22^ 
below zero, and the houses were kept in a state 
entirely satisfactory. During that extreme cold 
the circulation was shut oflT from the large west- 
ern house, and yet the temperature was kept 
sufficient because the grade enabled it to gather 
in heat from the other houses through the trench 
which held the connecting pipes. 



AMERICAN HORTICULTURE. 

Adflress delivered before the Oe^-mantovm florticulturnl 
Society, January, 1873. 

BY THE PRESIDENT, JOHN JAY SMITH. ESQ. 

\Condenfted for the Gardener's ^^onthly.] 

( Concluded. ) 

NOT TOO OLD TO PLANT. 

Many persons think they are too old to plant. 
This is an absurdity. Men at even seventy do 
not hesitate to lay up means for their children ; 
then why not plant f®r posterity, and why give 
up to self what was meant for mankind ? It is 
founded on a vulgar error, on mistaken and pre- 
judicial notions. Many trees only ten years 
planted are known to be between thirty and 
forty feet in height. At thirty feet, a tree, prac- 
tically speaking, will effect all the general pur- 
poses for which trees are planted. It will then 
afford shade and shelter. It will display indivi- 
duality of beauty and character, and confer ex- 
pression on landscape scenery, while during all 
the period of its growth, it will give pleasure and 
inspire hope. Very many trees bear fruit in a 
much shorter period than ten years. 

THE USES OF TREES 

is a large subject, on which time will not now 
permit us to enter. One instance must suffice. 
There is a variety of Gleditschia called horrida, 
which has a tremendous crop of ugly spines 
attached all over its body, thrice as numerous 
aud dangerous as the triacanthos. It is put to 
a moral use. When a man has committed a 
cnme against society, he is stripped aud sent to 
the top on a ladder. The ladder being removed, 
he gets down as well as he can. This mode of 
punishment is said to be more effectual of 



reform than even the famed Delaware whipping 
post, and might be economically substituted. 

THE PROBLEM OF AMERICA. 

Our ancestors were too hasty in cutting down. 
Hence our sjreat problem in America is how to 
replace what has been ruthlessly wasted. We 
must provide shelter for the prairies, and with 
our great stretch of sea-coast, we want to know 
what trees will flourish near salt water, exposed 
to pitiless winds; and we want information 
regarding the suitability of different vegetations 
in our variable climates. All this is beinor 
studied and made known. I do not despair of 
seeing the transactions of this society published, 
containing such knowled2:e as this, and much 
more that our young country is yearning to 
know. Here is work for a horticultural society 
to employ its extra means on experiments of 
world-wide interest. 

AN ACCLIMATION SOCIETY 

is much required in America. \yho shall say 
that Germantown may not initiate it ? but with 
aid from other kindred societies. 

SUB-TROPICAL PLANTS 

also afford a wide field for inquiry and instruc- 
tion. The subject has been treated with eff'ect 
in a new work by a rising English writer, Wil- 
liam Robinson, whose book should be in the 
hands of every practitioner of horticulture. And 
this leads naturally to the subject of 

. A HORTICULTURAL LIBRARY, 

an acquisition we should not be slow in secu- 
ring. To this a portion of the society's means 
should be devoted. Very probably many mem- 
bers have books to bestow. 

THE LANDSCAPE GARDENER 

The rule enforced by Loudon being as previ- 
ously stated, if not always to its full extent, we 
see the necessity of the gardener, the horticul- 
turist, the nurseryman and the landscape gar- 
dener ; for very few will undertake the importa- 
tion of the plants or trees of each kind required* 
We must have large magazines of plants, so to 
speak, from which each can draw his limited 
supplies. 

The landscape gardener is appearing in 
America wherever his services are demanded. 
We have good artists among us in this line, and 
perhaps a few pretenders. Sir Joseph Paxton's 
will not be wanting as demand creates supply. 
His art should always be called in where the 
best permanent effects are desired. He can tell 
to what size a tree will attain. Without him a 



108 



THE GARDE JfER'S MOJfTBLY. 



April, 



187S. 



THE GARBEJ^EKS MOJ^THLY. 



109 




*!■ 



few years must brine into roquisilion the dreaded 
axe and the knife. If it is almost as diffioult to 
keep money as to make it, so we may say it is 
more difficult to know what to plant than to 
bring numerous specimens together. On the 
subject of planting it is still well to remember 
Cicero's advice : '' When to build is the ques- 
tion, a man should reflect a great while, and 
perhaps not build at all ; but when to plant, he 
should not reflect, but plant immediately.'' 
Much time is frequently wasted and years lost 
by not commencing with trees the first year your 
property is in possession. 

THE EDUCATION AGE. 

We have had our Iron and our Golden Aije. 
This is emphatically that of Education. It is 
now proposed that every human being shall have 
an opportunity in life to rise with the world's 
rising fortunes. Schools without individual 
payment for instruction are formed almost 
everywhere, and they are to teach apt scholars, 
differing wonderfully from the old and mentally 
idle Spaniards of California, all now unheard of. 
No sooner had we secured possession of that 
great State, then a mere terra incognita, than we 
picked up gold by millions of dollars, found the 
great tree\'^ and the Yo-Semite, and in the heart 
of the Rocky Mountains we arc now surveying 
a great 

NATIONAL PARK, 

more wonderful than anything related in the 
Arabinn Nights, with geysers more astonishing 
than t lie long believed unique water spouts of 
Icehuul. 

AMEIUCAN PLANTS. 

From those once far off countries we shall have 
new introductions for the garden. We must 
take care that Europeans do not surpass us in 
these, as they have surprissed us in the skill with 
which they cultivate what they call "American 
plants," including one of our greatest and 
most neglected glories, the Rhododendron. The 
"Yew grows more rapidly here than in England. 
Suppose our predecessors of two hundred years 
ago had planted Germantown simply with 
cedars of Lebanon, Rhododendrons and Yews 1 
These alone would have made our district the 
admiration of the world, and shall we, because 
they grow but slowly, deprive our successors of 
the next two hundred years, of this imposing 
beauty— this joy? Loudon immortalizes the 
planters who introduced "Cedars" on their 
domains. A Scotch Duke planted his bleak 
lulls with the Larch, and lived to see shi;i 



launched from the timber, and now the Larch 
plantings are yielding imm ense profits, from the 
demand for railroad ties. The Marquis of 
Blandford, afterwards Duke of Marlboro,' did 
not hesitate to pay enormous prices for every- 
thing beautiful, and he is remembered for this 
single act of bounty to his country, and for this 
alone. Let us imitate all this. 

ADVANCE IN HORTICtTLTURE. 

All the good things of Europe have been, or 
are to be, repeated in America. I have record- 
ed but three or four greenhouses in Philadelphia 
sixty years ago. A valued friend, who knows, 
assures me there are now in Germantown alone, 
seventy-five greenhouses, graperies, and plant 
cases which deserve the name, besides uncount- 
ed hotbeds and appliances for an early salad. 
Twenty years ago I doubt if five could have been 
found. This neighborhood, too, abounds in plant 
structures. 

The advance in horticulture is one of the great 
triumphs of onr age. This period of a few 
decades has seen the products of the whole world, 
once unknown and despised, brought to our 
doors and cultivated. Manufactures and the 
arts are vastly indebted to the garden for their 
success. We have em[)loyed new grasses for 
useful purposes, and even sul)dued the hard 
trees of the forest for paper. 

SIR WILLIAM HOOKER'S MUSEUM. 

One of the very useful thiuirs done by the late 
Sir Wjlliam Hooker, was the formation of a 
museum in which he collected all the i)lants and 
their woods that are useful to manufactures, 
adding, with singular success, every manufac- 
tured product from each kind ; an institution 
that it will be well to ke( p in mind in our city, 
where the products of the mill, thi- loom, and 
the workshop, so predominat(\ It should be 
side by side with the proposed art gilU-ry, and 
may be considered quite as useful 

THE NEIGHBORHOOD OF GERMANTOWN, 

as I have said, is replete with means of study. 
We have some native advantages of soil, eleva- 
tion and water. We have resources in conser- 
vatories, greenhouses, plant cases, and garden?. 
We have also celebrated botanical fields. 

FIELD AS.'-OCTATIONfJ. 

It is now the custom in Great Britain, the 
faslr.on I might say, to form field associations 
from the members of the various horticultural 
societies, to explore different neighborhoods for 
new and curious plants. They are attended by 



both ladies and gentlemen, affording opportuni- 
ty for social intercourse, while teaching valuable 
information. Herbariums are thus formed, and 
a taste for botany is implanted. The members 
of this little band might with great advantage 
institute such an association. Let them at the 
same time, caution their excursionists, when 
they discover a rich placer of the fringed Gen- 
tain, the untamed Epigsea, or a rare fern, not 
wantonly to pull all up by the roots, leaving 
nothing for successors. vSome of the best botan- 
ical grounds have suffered total ex^tinction in 
this way. The native Kalmia, which was for- 
merly abundant in this vicinity, has mostly dis- 
appeared. The Gen tain and Epigfea are such 
favorites that we are doing our very best to ex- 
tinguish the race. This association should also 
set its face against the too common theft of the 
tops of evergreens for Christmas trees. 

If we are rich beyond the average, in appli- 
ances for instruction, we are moreover fortunate 
in being near to our co-workers, the great 

PHILADELPHIA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY, 

of which many of us are members. To all the 
associates of that time-honored institution we 
shall extend the cordial hand of greeting, hoping 
that we shall often have the pleasure of acknow° 
ledging their presence, as well as their contribu- 
tions and good will, and not only so, but all 
similar societies everywhere. When they may 
have new, rare, or useful, or ornamental objects, 
we shall always welcome these also to our exhi- 
bitions. 

These displays should present some great 
beauty or novelty. In this rural neighborhood, 
where almost every householder has space 
enough f«r cultivation of some fruits or flowers, 
we shall he expected to show results that cannot 
be obtained in the closely packed city. We shall 
not grudge them their triumphs, but will endea- 
vor to outvie them. ^ 

I must refer you to 

THE LITERATURE OF BOTANY AND GARDENING, 

as well as to their poetry. Fortunately these 
are extensive and entertaining, from Pliny and 
^-velyn to Cowper, while but yjterday Whittier 
nas given us a poem about G^rmxntown, Pasto- 
rius, the Aloe, and all that. 

We place Cowper among the most pleasin^r of 
the po.t8 for his delicate appreciation of'^thc 
dehghts afforded by a garden. Who does not 
leraember the lines beginning, 

" Who loves a garden^loves a^greenhouse too ?" 



But there may be others who will listen to the 
description of the labors and troubles inevitable 
to the cultivator. They forcibly recall the care 
and attention bestowed upon the flowers and 
fruits provided for the table and ball room. They 
should be conned by the belle of the dance when 
she is carelessly holding the petals that have cost 
so much : 

*' Grudge not, ye rich,»' &c. 

THE BOOKS OF THE MASTER MINDS, 

the great explorers of nature, are full of anec- 
dote and interest, of knowledge and of fact. 
The whole world has been, as it were but yester- 
day, explored for the benefit of the botanist and 
culturiat. 

AN UNDEVOUT BOTANIST. 

If it be a truth that *'an undevout astrono- 
mer is mad," shall we not also say as much of 
the undevout botanist ? For, when he studies 
the mystery of the science, he must arrive at the 
fact 4hat in the entire range of even the inani- 
mate world there is the most evident design~-2i 
design running through the whole enormous 
catalogue, so extensive that the life of man is 
not long enough to understand it all. This con- 
sideration cannot fail to lead him onward in the 
sublime pathway 

'*FroDi Nature up to Nature's God." 

LOUDON 

is our great leader. His works may be consul- 
ted with advantage by even the best informed. 

DOWNING. 

In our country. Downing happily appeared 
just after steam navigation rendered it possible, 
nay, easy, to import into America tli(; rare trees 
and plants of all distant regions. He inau^ura- 
ted the era of fine planting, and may be still 
consulted on his topics, with the certainty of 
obtaining correct information. He has been 
followed by apt students, well informed, aad 
with a genius for his pursuit. His premature 
death will be long mourned as a misfortuue. 

Remembering the 

FRUITS, LARGE AND SMALL, 

we must not forget, also, that to this society is 
entrusted the teaching as to what fruits are the 
best. The best raspberry or strawberry to 
plant, will continue to be of interest so long as 
new kinds are brought forward. The best 
peaches, the best grapes for indoor or outdoor 
«julture, are wants of everybody who has a gar- 
den. This society must keep pace with the 
knowledge of the day, and it must show each in 



110 



THE GARBEJ^ER'S MOJ^'TELY. 



April, 



187S. 



THE GARDEJVER'S MOJ^THLY. 



Ill 





its seaeon the very best, not only for marketing, 
^r that is often only the best for looks or easy to 
transport, but the best for private families in 
resiKict to flavor and beauty, as well as produc- 
tiveness. The public will look forward to the 
exhibitions of the Germantown Horticultural 
Society for facts and truths in these matters, and 
I feel sure they will not bo disappointed. 
In Europe, and especially on the continent, 

THE ROSE 

assumes an importance as yet comparatively 
unknown among us. This again is due partly to 
climate ; but they employ art, by grafting or bud- 
ding the finest kinds as 

STANDARDS, 

four feet high, on the Manetti, or Dog rose 
stocks. We have then a living bouquet of unri- 
valled beauty. 

Life seems to me worth taking care of when, 
every day in winter, we can enter and enjoy the 
fragrance and the beauty of a well kept conser- 
vatory or rose house. Gardeners should prepare 
such gratifications for themselves, for according 
to late statistics, they are 

THE LONGEST LIVED 

of all the professions. A recent paper read to 
the Institute of Actuaries of Great Britain, on 
the influence of occupation on health, shows the 
ratio of mortality per thousand persons from 25 
to GO years of age to be of gardeners, 10.4 ; ma- 
sons, 17.6; beer sellers, 21.5 ; wine and spirit 
merchants, 25 ; inn and hotel keepers, 27. Be- 
tween the ages of 45 and 65, 32.2 hotel keepers 
die for every 14.5 gardeners. Let the German- 
town vomers of poison take note of it. It seems 
as if, 1 might say, there is, besides the reform 
association, an old man with a scythe on his 
shoulder close behind them. Against his deci- 
sion they will have no vote of option, local or 
otherwise. 

GEIIMANTOWN IS WAKING UP— 

this society is one evidence, while there are 
several other indications. Our infant society is 
not alone ; but we have an especial aid to this 
new impetus, without which our efforts would be 
much retarded, in 

THE GEIIMANTOWN DAILY CHRONICLE, 

a most valuable institution for all good purposes, 
and already aflbrding evidence that it will give 
to all our rightly directed movements its sub- 
stantial aid. We have also the Qar(Untr'>s 
Monthly, edited in Germantown, by one of the 
best botanists and practical cultivators in Amer- 



ica, which circulates everywhere, to the enlight- 
enment of thousands. Then we have the long 
established Telegraph, a weekly so well-known 
for its advocacy of farm and garden culture, that 
it is only necessary to name it as another evi- 
dence of Germantown progression. 

[Mr. Smith then gave a vivid description of the 
additional pleasure to be derived from a know 
ledge of plants, which, wherever seen, stand \x\ 
to shake hands with us ; and added that in an 
imaginary model republic, no one should bo 
allowed to travel who could not distinguish the 
families at least to which flowers belong, or 
know at sight our principal botanical riches. 
He closed with the following, which is so good 
that we cannot omit it, and with a vote of 
thanks to the orator and contributors, a very 
pleasant evening closed :] 

THE LADIES. 

There can be no man here who is not cheered 
to-night by the presence of the ladies. Woman's 
rights aro sometimes discussed, but there is at 
least one right she shall never be deprived of— 
the right to possess, to control, t* work in, and 
to thoroughly enjoy a garden. They do not 
require, and do not want defenders. In a new 
translation of Aristophanes, by an English cler- 
gyman named Collins, I find the following free 
lines from the women's chorus of a Greek play, 
which run so trippingly, and are so appropriate, 
that with them I close these hasty remarks, 
which have already detained you too leng. But 
the subject is really inexhaustible. 

Without the presence and approbation of the 
ladies, no Horticultural society, no garden would 
be attractive. They are the best patrons of the 
advanced gardener. They are the best of crea- 
tion—our household gods, in fact the fairest flow- 
ers we have, or can hope to see : 

" They're always abusing the women 
As a terrible plague to men ; 
Tbey say we're the root of all evil, 
And repeat it again and again. 

Of war, and quarrels, and blood -shed, 
All mischief too, be what it may ; 

And pray, then, why do you marry us, 
If we're all the plagues you say ? 

And why do you take such care of us, 

And keep us so safe at home. 
And are never easy a moment 

If ever we chance to roam ? 



When you ought to be thanking Heaven 

That your Plague is out of the way, 
You all keep fussing and fretting— 
'* Where is my Plague to-day ?" 

If a Plague peeps out of the window, 
Up go the eyes of the men ; 

If she hides, they all keep staring 
Until she looks out again." 



THE CURCULIO AND THE PEA BEETLE. 

Dx S. S. R. 

At the late meeting of the Pennsylvania Fruit 
Grower's Society, held at Heading, Penna., it 
appears that Col. John A. Sheetz, of Womels- 
dorf, stated "that he had discovered a remark- 
able similarity between the curculio of the plum 
and the jm i beetle, and from a microscopic ex- 
amination, regarded them as the same." To 
our apprehension, that *' discovery " was not a 
very "remarkable »' one, for there is a mimicry 
in the insect realm, through which a superficial 
observer may readily confound one species with 
another, even belonging to different orders. But 
when a "microscopic examination " is made by 
one professing to study the distinctive charac- 
ters of insects, we look for conclusions more 
definite and reliable than those Mr. Sheetz has 
come to. 

The plum curculio and the pea beetle are no 
more "the same " than a sheep and a goat are 
the same, or a horse and an ass It is a reflec- 
tion upon the entomological researches of more 
than half a century to make such a statement at 
this time. If they were the same «ve might soon 
be rid of them ; for it would only require a uni- 
versal consent to destroy all the infested peas 
and such is the antipathy to the cure lio, that 
the country would cheerfully make the sacrifice 
m order to destroy so formidable a foe to peaches 
and plums as that insect is. 

The statement hardly needs a refutation-the 
two insects being so dissimilar in their stuctures 
and habits ; and yet it was made so confidently, 
and before such an intelligent body of men, in- 
volving as it did, such an important interest, 
that many of the members were taken "aback,' 
and hardly knew wh it reply to make. Of course 
|t 18 well known to the commonest observer that 
the pea beetle passes its larval, pupal, and Ijy- 
bernating periods within the seed of the pea, and 
nowhere else, unless the life of a mature iudivi- 
aual should be prolonged into the winter folio «v- 
ing Us summer sojourn. 



This is not the case with the plum curculio, 
which it is just as well known, passes its larval 
period in a plum, a peach, a cherry, or some 
other kind of fruit, and its pupal and hyberna- 
ting periods in the ground. But these two in- 
j sects differ quite as much in their forms as they 
I do in their habits. They do not belong to the 
same family, and therefore quite distinct. 

The pea beetle, {Bruchus 2nsi), is the type of 
the family Bruchidce^ a term derived from the 
Greek, which means to hite; and it has not the 
extended proboscis, or snout, which distin- 
guishes the plum curculio, nor yet its rough or 
tubercular wmg covers. There are at least fif- 
teen species of these bruchians known to Amer- 
ican entomology, all of which deposit their eggs 
in the germs of peas, beans, and other legumi. 
nous plants. But there are several other allied 
gonera also destitute of the long snout. 

Curculio, which is Latin, and simply means a 
corn worm, is the type of a large family of '* snout 
beetles," or weevils, [Gurculionidce), but as a 
distinctive genus, has now, so far as I know, not 
a single species in this country. They are all 
ruled out into other genera. In the time of Lin- 
naeus, this term would have included the whole 
^hree hundred species or more, now known to 
American entomology, but not one of which is re- 
tained in the original genus curculio. This term 
has become popularized, and is mainly applied 
to the insect that infests the peaches and the 
plums, Conotrachelns nenuphar, and yet we have 
twelve or fourteen species belonging to this 



genus. 



Practically speaking, therefore, we have at 
least three hundred species of circulians, or 
snout beetles, divided into some seventy-five or 
eighty genera, without including any of the 
bruchians ; and these vary in size from the head 
of a small pin up to an inch and a halt or more 
in length. They infest si'cds, grains, nuts, fruits 
and timber, as well as the leaves and stems of 
vegetation. Each is organically adapted to the 
substance upon which it feeds. Those which 
infest the chinquapin and the chestnut, have a 
rostrum or snout, long enough to penetrate the 
fruit, in sjnte of ihe defending spines. Each has 
an interesting, if not a useful history, which 
will probably never be written, and if writteDf 
perhaps never would be read. 

1 regret that these things are not more gener- 
ally read and retained, for no true entomologist 
desires to monopolize the knowledge extant on 
this subject, aud hide it " under a bushel.'' Nor 



):' 



112 



THE GARDEJVER'S MOKTELl. 



April, 



1873. 




THE GARDEJ\rER'S MONTHLY. 






1 




do I degire to so magnify this subject that it will 
discourage amateurs or others from investiga- 
ting and exploring the deep arcitna of the insect 
world. But I wish to impress the fact that the 
scientific status of the plum weevil and the pea 
beetle have been fixed long ago, and therefore 
all speculations intending to identify them as the 
same insect, are worse than useless, and is not 
the kind of knowledge tkat the farmer and fruit 
grower now most needs. Science has establish- 
ed what these insects are, and when and where 
to look for them, and it is left to those who 
encounter them in their daily avocations to de- 



113 



termine what is the best remedy for their destruc- 
tion, and how and where to apply it. 

Col. Sheetz said that he found jarring the trees, 
and syringing them with dilute carbolic acid, 
effective remedies. This is good common sense, 
and without disregarding other auxiliary reme- 
dies, is perhaps, the best that has yet been dis- 
covered. T3ut if we can bring our fruit trees 
into a profuse bearing condition, one need not 
dread the curculio. There were as many curcu- 
lios when I was a boy as there are now, but there 
was immensely more fruit, and this insect pruned 
it out. 



EDITOR lAL. 



IMPROVEMENT OF FLOWERS. 
Every one knows how great a variety a few 
«imple forms of flowers have given us. A 
very few years ago we had but one or two Ver- 
benas, Pansics, Geraniums, Fuchsias, Chrys- 
anthemums, and so forth,— but how many we 
have now needs no remark. 
It is usual to speak of the vast changes in these 
few simple flowers, as being the result of the 
florist's skill. It is said that these numerous va- 
rieties are the result of the florist's knowledge 
in hybridizing ; and it is very common to give to 
hybridization all the credit for the great change. 
We have to thank the florist undoubtedly ; but 
it is rather the florist's care than the florist's 
skill. It is Nature herself which changes. The 
Florist does little more than say in which direc- 
tion the change shall go. 

It is recognized that Nature will change of 
her own unaided power. Florists call these 
changes "variations." There is no hybridiza- 
tion required ; no peculiar soil or treatment 
brings it about; but all at once, and no one 
knows why, some new form will appear, so far 
as the human mind has yet discovered, inde- 
pendent of any extraneous agency whatever. 
Science has recognized this tendency to change 
under the name of "Evolution;" and some 
have endeavored even to account for the origin 
of species by taking these known variations as a 
basis, and running change back to an unlimited 
degree. 

However this may be, our purpose here is to 
show our readers that this principle of inherent 



chan,2;e is possessed by all plants, independent of 
cross fertiliz ition, and that this principle is 
really of more import:ince in the improvement of 
our races of flowers than is generally supposed. 
For instance, there was but one species of 
Dahlia introduced. There was nothing to hy- 
bridize with, yet by watching for Nature's vol- 
untary changes, saving seed from these ad- 
vanced individuals, and so on again and again, 
we have brought the Dahlia up to its present 
stage. In the Dahlia there has been hardly the 
attempt at hybridization, yet we see how nume- 
rous and how striking have been the changes. 
The original wild Dahlia, when first brought to 
the notice of cultivators, had little more to re- 
commend it than the wild asters of our woods 
and fields 

The Cineraria is another plant of which we 
had but one solitary species to begin with, as is 
also true of the Carnation, Heliotrope, Pansy, 
Petunia, Hollyhock. China Aster and many 
other things. There are allied species of some 
of these known, but thoy had no hand in the 
change we now see. In a state of nature these 
things change just as much as they do under 
culture ; but Nature does not select as man 
does, and hence, they generally get crowded 
out. Indeed, it has always seemed to the writer 
that the principles of the struggle for life, on 
which Mr. Darwin founded his theory of natu- 
ral selection to account for the origin of species, 
would in as many cases operate against the con- 
tinuance of new forms, as in favor of their pre- 
servation. A single individual, though with 



Brobdignagian proportions, is likely to suc- 
cumb if attacked at once by a thousand Lillipu- 
tians. 

So far as hybridization is concerned, we do 
not owe very much to it in starting our first 
variations in florists' flowers. The Fuchsia 
Pentstemon, Phloxes, Tropoeolums and a few 
others were, it is true, of not much importance 



they are wholly correct, get us into trouble all 
round. 

In Horticulture this is particularly the case. 
One man institutes a set of experiments, which 
result in a certain way, and all the world forever 
afterwards applies this single experiment to all 
sorts of things, in all sorts of times, and under 
the most opposite circumstances. To-day, if we 



as florists' flowers, until cross imprecmation Z T ^'^'^'''' circumstances. To-day, if we 

was resorted to. Bu^ it is just as likX th^tT he I T . "'' ^'T ^"'''^'^ ^^ ^^^^^^^^^^^ P^^^^^^' 
attempt had been made indenenlL o^^^^^^^^ ogy,it is a rare chance if we are not referred to 



attempt had been made independent of this 
cross practice, that just as striking changes 
might have been found to result from simple 



Grew, or Hale, or Seuebier, or Loudon, or 
Knight, or Lindley, who made a few score of ex- 
periments, in the long dim light of ages past. 



evolution with selection, as from the use of he ^'""^'^^'' '\ .'^^ ^^^^^^ ^'"^ ^^^1^^ ^f ages past. 

pollen of diifering forms'in hybridization l^ T 7"^"^^ '"^r. ^''^' ^^^^^« '^ ^-^^^e, 

Our object in this paper is to encourac^e our "\ 'T.Z T ''"'' '^''' '^^^ ^^ ^^ ' ^"* 

aders to try themselves and aid flnr.l n.^...ee ^ '^^^}^^^ that common sense is a better guide 



than the most inspired leader science ever bore 
for us. In regard to the sap freezing question, 
we found years ago that "authority" was 
against us. We thought however we had placed 
it in the light of common sense, and that the 
world had followed us wholly by this time. But 
it appears not wholly, as the following from the 



readers to try themselves and aid floral progress 
in the evolution of new forms. There is no one 
who grows a flower of any kind, but may pro- 
duce something more striking than the horticul- 
tural world has yet seen. It may be that we 
have a plant growing which produces a long, 
narrow petal, and we know if it were broad or . 

round how beautiful it would be. Sowin^ seed V^^'T^'i '''!,* ^^'''"^' ^' ^^' 
from this we note among the progeny one ;hich ^''" ^'^^^"^ ^^'^'^ '^^"^^ '' 
has a little broader petal than another. Seed ''.^^ the risk of being classed with the irreverent 
from this again, and selecting ac^ain the brond- ^^^^^^^^^ ^ feel obliged, notwithstanding my great 
est wnun an probability ,rJ..:t,. desi Jt S'^,^ ^^^^i^^-^^y T^i 
suit. This ,s tlie way the Pansy was first I ff the freezing of sap m plants. 1 cannot agre^w"^^ 
Drought to Its present perfection of form In its i , " "•" '*P '" P'auts, like tlie blood in ani- 

wild state, in English coru-fields thn two i.nnov I ™»'^'f"?r'ot freeze and retain life." From the 

petals are much tie largest, and ItX^Z -P' ' """""'' ' "^' " """""' ''''" 

io +..„„! , ., . _ " For instance : I have repeatedly taken gerani- 

ums from my garden and potted them for the house 
after the succulent leaves had been frozen stiff, and 
those same leaves remained on the plants green and 
healthy for months afterward. Here the sap was 
surely frozen ; but cold water was freely showered 
over the plant, and it came out uninjured. If the 
tender geranium can thus live after the freezing of 
Its sap, It would seem likely that the oak and pine 
can do it as well. 

*'As to the freezing of the roots of plants— who 
doubts that the roots of the parsnips we leave in the 
ground through the winter freeze with the ground 
in which they are enclosed ? Do we not leave them 
there because we believe freezing improves their 
flavor ? It IS no uncommon thing for turnips to be 
Irozen into the ground in the autumn— frozen 
thoroughly to the heart-and yet wlion tliey have 
afterward thawod gradually with the ground, and 
been carefully harvested and stored where they will 
not again freeze, they nuiy the next season be suc- 
cessfully UFed to raise seed from. It also frequentlv 
happens that small turnips which are left in the 
ground all winter where they grew, will, in the 
spring, send out new leaves, and shoot up a seed 
stem. In this we have evidence that the sap in the 
roots or some plants may be frozen without destroy- 
ing the plant ; and if the roots of these very juicy 



lateral ones are less than the bottom one ; but by 
gradually selecting from those which exhibited 
an increase in the proportionate size of these 
lower petals, the perfectly round ones so prized 
by florists have been obtained. It is the same 
m regard to the thick velvety petals, so much 
admired in this flower ; color, markings, outline 
and so forth ; and it is in this way that we have 
got so much more of value in floral variety, and 
m the rare and beautiful form. 

There is no mystery about it. Any one raav 
oe an improver who so desires. 



FREEZIKG OF THE SAP IN PLAINTS. 

If people would only reflect that very few 
^^ings are more than partially true, we should 
tiave fewer errors in the world. Absolute truth 
|s rare yet in society, in politics, and in science 

which / ^''"''^l'/"" " a^« brought forward on 

^ c to establish law, which are onlv correct • .1 , - 1 ""^" j ^^ ...,..^.. »yitiiuutuesi,roy- 

80 far as they go ;" but on the sunnosition fhnf *T ♦ ^^^^^ ' "^^^ ^^ *^'^ ''^^^^ ^^ ^'^^«« very juicy 
Jo, uui on uie supposition that plants may survive severe freezing, does it not seem 



."^I 




114 



THE GARDEJ^ER'S MONTHLY. 



April, 



1873. 



THE GARDEJVER'S MOJVTRLY. 



115 




li ■*■ 




I 



■ 




at least as likely that the roots of any of m\xx liardy 
trees may be so constituted as to bear uninjured the 
effects of frost?" 

We like the tone of this comraunication. The 
appeal to the plant suits us exactly ; but lest we 
mistake the plant's language, let us first take 
common sense. This great authority tells us 
that life itself is but heat transformed, that with- 
out heat there can be no life. When, therefore, 
a plant is frozp/a — when, in other words, it has 
lost its heat, for life cannot be sustained at so 
low a temperature as 32'', we think the living 
thing must go. If therefore the plant tells us 
'* it is alive '' after its internal temperature has 
fallen below 32°, we prefer not to believe it, but 
would rather imagine that its spirit has been 
called up by some medium to answer for it. 

Again, common sense tells us that water when 
it freezes expands. If there be any who do not 
understand this, let them put a bottle of water 
out in the frost. It will burst. A turnip or par- 
snip is mostly water, and if it really froze there 
would be the biggest kind of expansion ; but a 
parsnip three inches thick in the fall of the year, 
will be found to be only three inches thick in the 
ground, though the thermometer be at zero, and 
we should therefore doubt whether the parsnip 
told the truth if it said to us that it was frozen 
through. But common sense still helps us fur- 
ther. In all the liquids frozen through, we have 
never been able to make a knife penetrate. If 
any one doubt this, let him try the nearest icicle 
hanging from tree or roof. But we never yet 
saw the parsnip, however badly "frozen,'* that 
we could not readily run a knife through and 
through, though mostly water. 

Beyond all this, every one knows that at the 
fall of the leaf, there is no sap to speak of in the 
maple tree. We may not only pierce the bark^ 
but cut a branch clear across, and only see the 
faintest moisture. A frost follows at once. The 
branches are " frozen solid," for of course if the 
roots protected by earth freeze, the unprotected 
branches must have a worse ordeal. They 
remain " frozen solid *> till towards spring, when 
though all nature is still *' frozen solid," the sap 
flows vigorously from the wouaded stem. Now 
common sense tells us that liquid will not flow 
up through matter "frozen solid,'' and yet this 
liquid somehow did flow up' through the system 
during this severe winter weather. 

Well all the great names may tell us the plant 
was frozen through— the plant itself may, as our 
New England correspondent says it does, say it 



ia frozen through, but we prefer common sense, 
and don't believe it. 

But we have often been over this ground iu 
the Gardener'>s Monthly, and in these past arti- 
cles, have shown that the plants themselves told 
us a different tale from what they told to our 
New England friend. But we thought in this 
article we would appeal rather to common sense 
than to isolated facts, and notice whether or not 
it would have more effect than the other line of 
argument seems to have had. 



-• — ♦- 



OBITUAKY. 

DR. JOHN TORREY. 

On the 10th of March, in the 80th year of his 
age, passed away the father of modern botany. 
In its early history, America had many who did 
it honor ; but the botany of every age seems to 
be of a distinct character from that which pre- 
ceded it, and botany as it is now in our land, 
dates in a great measure from the commence- 
ment of Dr. Torrey's career. When the Whip- 
ple Exploring Expedition returned, the plant 
collections were determined chiefly by Dr. Tor- 
rey, and the result placed him at once, though 
still young, among the leading botanists of the 
world. He was so painstaking and so thorough 
in his investigations, and his knowledge of plant 
structure and plant life through all its morpho- 
logical and physiological changes so complete, 
that he was particularly apt in taking in the 
best specific and generic character in his dis 
crimination, and thus it came that a plant 
named by Dr. Torrey was rarely found to belong 
to any other position than that in which he had 
placed it, and his names consequently rarely 
changed or disturbed. 

But the great charm of Dr. Torrey's career 
was his personal character, which seemed to 
attract others to him almost on a mere acquaint^ 
ance, and led them on to share his overflowing 
enthusiasm in the pursuits he loved. It is very 
questionable if we should have had an Asa Gray 
if we had not first been blessed by a Torrey, and 
in one way or another, thousands can trace their 
enhanced love of nature, and consequent increas- 
ed pleasures of life, to the character and labors 
of this good man. A poet says that when a 
good man dies the angels weep. They love man- 
kind, and they know how rare and how benefi- 
cent to his fellows is a truly good man. Such a 
character as Dr. Torrey's might well have sug- 
gested such a thought as this. 

Though well nigh an octogeDarian, he seemed 



so strong and active that it is hard to realize 
that he is taken away. It seems but yesterday 
that we could almost hear the sound of his voice 
coming out of the letters of his clear and distinct 
hand writing. He had written for the writer's 
photograph, and the letter was in reply. As a 
general thing, we seldom publish private corres- 
pondence, but this last note we ever received 
from him is so overfiovving with good will for all, 
and so characteristic of the enthusiasm of the 
man, that we are sure his friends will pardon 
us : 

New York, October 12th, 1872. 
My Dear Mr. Meehan :— 

On my return frrmi California and Colorado, 
after an absence of more than two months, I 
found your esteemed favor of August 7th, en- 
closing a photograph of yourself. I shall place 
the latter in my album of botanists, of which I 
have now a pretty laroje number. Please accept 
a carte of my own old face, taken from a nega- 
tive for which I sat in July last. 

My late journey was the second I have made 
to California, for I was there in 1805 ; but I had 
never till this season visited Colorado. On my 
way (accompanied by one of my daughters) 
across the continent, I met at Cheyenne, Mr. 
John Redfield and his daughter. They had just 
come from Colorado, and were going to Califor- 
nia, so we had their pleasant company for near- 
ly a month. Mr. II., although an active busi- 
ness man, is an ardent lover of natural sciences, 
and especially of botany. A letter just received 
from him, states that in his journey he collected 
specimens of .570 species of plants, and brought 
them home in good condition. He is a member 
of the Philadelphia Academy Natural Sciences, 
and you may be acquainted with him. 

I collected pretty largely myself, and although 

I found little that was new, I had great pleasure 

in seeing and preserving a goodly number of my 

old acquaintances. In Colorado I spent most of 

nay time in the mountainous part of the territory, 

and visited Gray's Peak. Saw Dr. Parry, and 

spent two days with him at Empire City, which 

nad been his headquarters for several months. 

I wo or three times a week, he ascended some 

mountain to collect herbarium specimens and 
seeds. 

Do you correspond with Bolander & Bloomer, 
Of California ? Both of them collect roots, bulbs 
and seeds as part of their business. 

I did not go to Dubuque, for to do so would 
prevent my visiting the more interesting regions 



west and southwest. You have probably read 
Dr. Gray's address on the " B g Trees." 

Hoping to see you next winter, or earlier, in 
Philadelphia, and to have a good botanical talk 
with you, 

I remain, cordially yours, 

John Torrey. 

P.S —Don't you rejoice over Dr. Hooker's 
triumph ? 

As to specifying all the work which Dr. Torrey 
has done, it is so well known that it is unneces- 
sary. It is like painting the lily. It is enough 
that we present the flower, and ask all to admh-e 
its purity and fragrance. 



HON. SIMON BROWN. 

Agricultural literature has met with a loss in 
the person of Hon. Simon Brown. For years 
past he has been one of the editors of the New 
England Farmer, which by his labors, has 
achieved a leading position amongr the agricul 
tural literature of the day. Like so many agri- 
culturists and horticulturists recently deceased, 
Mr. Brown was as highly esteemed for his many 
virtues as a man, as for the excellent influence 
he exerted on progressive agriculture. 



«>»>» 



EDITORIAL N0TE9. 

DOMESTIC 

Tenperature to Grow Mushrooms, In past 
numbers of the Gardener's Monthly, we have 
stated that the chief points in successful mush- 
room culture is to be able to preserve an uniform 
atmosphere as regards moisture and heat, and 
that about 65^ is the temperature required. We 
have heard it stated that a much lower tempera- 
ture than this is sufficient. This winter we have 
had an opportunity of observing the continuous 
production of mushrooms naturally in a green- 
house. Plunging a thermometer in the ground 
the earth proved G2°, and the atmosphere at the 
surface 72^ We still think about 65° is the 
figure to aim at. 

American Pomological Society. We notice in 
some quarters a disposition to urge on the 
American Pomological Society a departure from 
its legitimate work and enter the field of general 
horticulture. The same class of persons have 
been for years urging that we should add an 
** agricultural department," a *' household de- 
partment," a ** youth's department,'' and no 
end of other "departments '' to the Gardener^s 
Mmxthly. 



116 



THE GARDEJSf'EK'IS MOJ^TBLY. 



Jprily 



We cannot enter here into the reasons why we 
are compelled to dissent from the opinions of our 
good friends, nor will we attempt to show why 
it would be unwise in the Pomologlcal Sr.ciety to 
depart from its chosen mission. But we will 
say emphatically and briefly to the gentlemen 
who have at heart the interest of the society, 
don't make the change proposed. 

WImi are Good Flowers. In Europe, the im- 
provers of florist's flowers i-eek to get races of 
flowers on certain set standards. A perfectly cir- 
cular outline is generally the first consideration. 
All those which have not this character are gen- 
erally discarded, no matter what other good 
points they may have. In this matter we have 
reference chiefly to the Dahlia, Pansy, Gerani- 
um, Cineraria and Primula. Then the colors 
are to be distinct when there are more than one, 
not run into one another, as if one had been try- 
ing to write with ink on damp paper. The Cin- 
eraria and Pansy particularly have been brought 
to great perfection in these particulars. 

Errors. Once in a while some friend calls to 
our attention some error in some body's paper, 
which it is thought we ought to notice and cor- 
rect. But we feel that we have blunders enough 
of our own, and it is none of our business what 
other people do. But when an intelligent cotem- 
porary writes the Cryptomeria japonica as the 
Cryptogamia japonica, the blunder is so amusing 
that one may be excused a laugh just this one 
time. 

Post- Office Peculiarities. Among the papers 
which have ably aided us in our efibrts for Post- 
office reform, the New York Weekly Tribune has 
been particulary conspicuous. Quoting some 
remarks of ours recently, it pointedly adds : 

"The Post-Office is the people's institution. It 
is a necessity of their prosperity and happiness nnd 
comfort. Its management should be plain and sim- 
ple, and the price of its services should be as small 
as possible. What it undertakes to do it should do 
promptly,always manifesting a spirit of accommoda- 
tion, and keeping clear of ungenerous suspicions. 
The number of those who care to cheat tlie Post- 
Office is very small, but the Department always acts 
as if everybody had entered into a conspiracy to 
swindle it out of a shilling or so." 

Cut Flowers, Large numbers of people in our 
Eastern towns, who feel that it is inconvenient 
for them to grow flowers for themselves, now 
have a basket or bouquet of flowers sent regular- 
ly to their houses once a week from the florists. 
It is a very pretty custom, and one which gives 
perhaps as much real gratification as any one of 
the many fancies which society people indulge 



in. A New York paper, noticing this growing 
fashion, says the following are some of the prices 
which ruled there the past season : 

"The following will show the prices paid for 
leadinc: sort? this winter : The price of a handsome 
basket is from five to fifty dollars. Bouquets can 
be made at from three to twenty-live dollars. Single 
rosebuds cost twenty five cents, and carnations 
twenty cents. Smilax is sold at one dollar a yard, 
and violets by the dozen at twelve cents. One 
spray of lilies of the valley costs twenty-five cents.'* 

WliaVs in a Name? Some of our English 
cotemporaries are joining with us in protesting 
airninst the ten rod names some varieties are 
receivinsf. One says he was looking at what he 
supposed to be an old fiishioned Daflfodil, when 
he thought he heard it exclaim : " Look at me I" 
*' They call me now Pseudo-Xarcissus aureus 
maxim us flore pleno sive roseus Tradescanti. 
and have doubled my price accordingly." 

The Poison Vine. We have frequently seen 
cows eat the young growth of the poison vine, 
and never knew any harm result to the cow. 
Some people however have an idea that ** milk 
sickness '' in children results from this milk, 
but it may be but a supposition. 

The following from the Pacific Bural Press, 
shows that it has not resulted in injury when 
eaten there : 

"Experiments with animals go to prove that 
Poison Oak, {rhus toxicodendron), may be eaten 
with impunity. Indeed, we have frequently heard 
it asserted by persons in California that they have 
seen it eaten by men, with a view of its acting as an 
antidote to its poison externally, or from mere brag- 
gadocio. All Californians are aware of the violence 
with which its juice acts when applied to the skin 
of most persons, many being severely poisoned by 
its slightest touch. It is also claimed that some 
people are so sensitive to its action as to be seriously 
poisoned by its exhalations, without any contact 
whatever with either its juice or foliage. — Pacific 
Rural Press. 

New English Peas. Beccntly we remarked 
on the passion developed by our English friends 
for new peas. They are quite excusable, for 
there has been remarkable improvement in them 
of late years. The English climate is more 
favorable for the full development of the pea than 
ours is, and those who have had no experience 
in English gardening can scarcely imagine how 
very fine they ar^. In order to give our readers 
an idea of how fine these new peas are, and how 
magnificently they grow in Europe, we give an 
engraving from a photograph taken in England 
of Carter's '* G. F. Wilson " marrow pea. Most 
of the wrinkled marrow peas are late peas. 
This one ranks with the very early kinds. 



187S. 



THE GARDEJ^ER'S MOJfTHLY. 



117 




lis 



THE OARDEJ^ER'S MOJ^TELY. 



April, 



187$. 



THE GARDEJVER'S MOJ^'THLY. 



119 



Hot-Water Heating. When a couple of years 
or 80 ago, we tried to explain how hot water cir- 
culated, and expressed our belief that gravita- 
tion had more to do with it than any other prin- 
ciple — though of course not alone — we had no 
idea of starting such an interesting discussion as 
has since taken place. Mr. Saunders has since 
become the leading centre around which the 
gravitating men have gravitated, and he de- 
serves the honor, for he has attempted what so 
few disputants do, the proving of his faiih by his 
works. In a local newspaper before us, we find 
an account of his boiler erected on this principle. 
The account says it has worked like a charm 
this winter. The pipes are 2500 feet. At 340 
feet from the boiler, one may get the St. Vitus 
dance by accidentally sitting on the pipe. 

Essay on Tree Culture. The Nebraska State 
Horticultural Society offered a premium of ^200 
for the best essay on tree culture. This has 
been secured by Mr. J. T. Allan, of Omaha, one 
of the largest timber growers in that part of the 
world. 

The Madrona Tree. This is the Arhutus 
Menziesii. Dr. Kellogg, in California Horticul- 
turist, writes enthusiastically in praise of this 
Californian tree. In its evergreen character, he 
says it is the equal of Magnolia grandijlora. The 
orange and red berries are delicious to the taste 
— the white and hlushing blooms are magnifi- 
cent. Even the old leaves are grand when they 
fade, changing from green to gold and purple 
It throws up " knees '' like the Taxodium distich- 
um. Reading this article made us feel a deep 
regret that all attempt to make it like our Atlan- 
tic climate has failed. 

Drouth as a Fertilizer. Our agricultural 
friends do not keep pace with their horticultural 
brethren, in pressing advancing science into 
their cause as they go along. Witness the fol- 
lowing from the Country Gentlemen : 

" B F. J. attributes tlic favorable condition of the 
corn crop to the protracted drouths of 1870 and 1871 , 
and points to it as 'a piece of strong testimony, 
going to show that the tendency of plant food is al- 
ways, except during a rainfall, toward the surface of 
the earth.' 

*'Thi8 may be; and fruitful seasons follow a 
drouth, but only when they are favorable or rainy 
seasons, showery and warm, like the present. One 
drouth following another, as in tlie past two years, 
shows little or no difference. Would another anc' 
another added make the difference more clear ? 
Have we data to this effect ? On the other hand, 
will not two or more favorable (moist) seasons in 
uccession produce good crops ? Not so good the 
last, probably, in consequence of material being 
abstract! d from the soil, which is less the case wheie 



the growth is less as in a drouth, and may account 
for the improvement, as land lying idle or ' resting^ 
is thought to improve. 

" If the fertilizing matter is brought to the surface 
by the heat, or the dryness of the land, or by any 
other means during a drouth, it is clear also that it 
may be carried further and escape, and there is no 
question but this is the case where the soil is quite 
dry and well heated. In this light a drouth is a 
damage ultimately, as though it may set loose unde- 
composed matter, it will also lose some. We pre- 
fer moist, growing seasons — avoidinir extremes of 
moisture -as they are not only the most productive, 
but furnish material for enriching the land. Thus 
what the rains bring down and the air furnishes to 
the plant, increases the root material, the refuse of 
the stem and the aftermath. Timely rains and 
warmth are the great agents of agriculture What 
interferes with these must be a loss." 

We think our readers have learned the lesson 

so well that we never, never repeat it again. It 

is that dry earth absorbs ammonia from the 

atmosphere— wet soil does not, therefore, a dry 

time is particularly favorable to enriching a soil, 

so far as ammonia will do it This is the under- 

lyinir principle of the fertilizing of soils by 

drouth. This fact is now so well demonstrated, 

that "earth closets '' are the result. 

Seventeen Year Locusts. Prof. C. V. Riley is 
very anxious to get information about the ap- 
pearance of the Cicadas, or so called 17 and 15 
year locusts. It will oblige the editor of the 
Gardener''s Monthly if any one who may get any 
information this year will send it at once to Prof, 
R., at St. Louis. We extract from Mr. Riley's 
report below by which people will see what he 
wants to know : 

BuooD yii.—Tredeeim — 1859, 1872. 

In the year 1872, and at intervals of thirteen years 
thereafter, they will in all probability appear in 
.Jackson county and around Cobden and Joncsboro, 
in Union county, south Illinois, in Kansas, Missou- 
ri. Georgia, Louisiana, Tennessee and Mississippi. 

According to Mr. Paul Frick, of Jonesbero, they 
were in Union county, 111., in 1858, and he also 
thinks it was a great year for them about 1832. 
Those of 1858 were prol)ably premature stragglers 
of the 1859 brood, while Mr. Frick is most likely 
mistaken as to the year 1832, since the Rev. George 
W. Ferrell, of Cobden, Union county, witnessed 
their appearance at that place in 1838, and also in 
1840 and 1859 ; and Cyrus Tliomas has also record- 
ed their appearance in 1859 in the fifth report of the 
Illinois State Agricultural Society, page 458, while 
a paragraph in the Baltimore CMd.^ Sun, of June 
18, 18 '9, says "the locusts have made their appear- 
ance in ' Kgypt,' in southern Illinois, and cover 
woods and orchards in swarms." This brood not 
improbably extends westward into Missouri, for 
several of the old settlers around Eureka, in St. 
Louis county, Mo., recollect it being *' locust year" 
about the time of its last appearance, while Mr. L. 
D. Votaw. of Eureka, and Wm. Muir, of Fox 
Creek, Mo., both believe it was exactly nine years 



ago, or in the year 1859. Dr. "Smith records it in 
DeKalb, Gwinett and Newton counties, Georgia, in 
1846 and '59; in the northern part of Tennessee, 
also in 1846 and '59 ; in the whole eastern portion 
of Mississippi from the ridge, which is 45 miles from 
the river, on the west to the eastern boundary in 
1820, '33, '46 and '59 ; in Carroll Parish, Louisiana, 
in 1859; and in Philips county, Kansas, in the 
Bame year. 

By referring to brood XV, it will be seen that in 
1846, or during the first year of the Mexican war, 
this thirteen year brood appeared simultaneously 
with a seventeen year brood in western Pennsyl- 
vania and Ohio. 

I have abundant proof of their appearance in 
south Illinois, especially in Union county, in St. 
Louis county, in Missouri, in Tennessee and Missis- 
sippi, but not in Georgia or Louisiana. 

BROOD viir. — Sepetemdecim — 1855, 1872. 

In the year 1872, being the same year as the pre- 
ceding, and at intervals of seventeen years there- 
after, they will, in all probability, appear in the 
southeastern part of Massachusetts, across Long 
Island ; alons: the Atlantic coast to Chesapeake Bay, 
and up the Susquehanna at least as far as to Carlisle 
in Pennsylvania ; also, in Kentucky, at Kanawha 
in Virginia, and Gallipolis, Ohio, on the Ohio river. 
This is the brood referred to in brood V., and which 
there is every reason to believe is the one recorded 
by Morton in his ''Memorial," as occurring in 
1633. 

Dr. Fitch, in the account of his third brood, (N. 
Y. Rep L, p. 39), says: "The third brood ap 
pears to have the most extensive geographical range. 
Prom the southeastern pait of Massachusetts, it ex- 
tends across Long Island, and along the Atlantic 
coast to Chesapeake Bay, and up the Susquehanna 
at least as far as to Carlisle in Pennsylvania ; and it 
probably reaches continuously west to the Ohio, for 
It occupies the valley of that river at Kanawha in 
Virginia, and onwards to its mouth, and down the 
valley of the Mississippi probably to its mouth, and 
up its tributaries, west, into the Indian Territory. 
This brood has appeared the present year, 1855, and 
I have received specimens from Long Island, from 



south Illinois, and the Creek Indian country west 
of Arkansas," etc. 

There is every reason to beieve that Dr. Fitch, 
in this account, has confounded this sepetemdecim 
brood VIII., with the great tredecim brood XVIII., 
for it so happened that" they both occurred simulta- 
neously in 1855, but the exact dividing line of these 
two broods is not so easily ascertained. Certainly, 
after reaching the Ohio river, the septemdecim brood 
extends beyond Gallipolis, Ohio, for Prof. Potter, 
in his "Notes on the Cicada decem septima," 
records their appearance at that place in 1821 ; and 
Pr. Smith records their appearance at Frankfort, 
Lexington and Flemingsburg, Kentucky, in 1838 
and 1855. But I strongly incline to believe that 
well nigh tlie rest of the territory mentioned by Dr. 
Fitch was occupied by the tredecim brood, the 
reasons for which belief will be found in the 
account of brood XVIII. 

Cicadas also appeared in Buncombe and McDow- 
ell counties, North Carolina, in 1855, but until they 
appear there again it will be impossible to say, pos- 
itively, w^hether they belong to this aeptemdecitn^ 
brood VIII., or to the tredecimhrood XVI II. 

Horticultural Journals. — Miss B. L. P. — 
The Gardener'' s Monthly, Philadelphia, and 
the Horticulturist, New York, are the principal 
horticultural journals. You will also find much 
horticultural matter in the American Agricultu- 
rist, 

Agreed, but don't ignore the Farmer and Gar- 
dener, which has some claims upon Southern 
horticulture. So says the Farmer and Garden- 
er, and we extract its remarks for the purpose 
of saying that no Southerner can afford to do 
without the Farmer and Gardener, which, with 
its horticultural department in the hands of Mr, 
Berckmans, treats horticultural matters suited 
to that section of the country in a way which 
not even the best magazines of Philadelphia or 
New York has the opportunity to do. 



SCRAPS AND aUERIES. 



Best Time to Cut Grafts. — /S. asks : 
'* Does there take place any chemical change in 
the sap of a scion remaining on the tree till mild 
wmter or early spring ; or is there any change 
in the physical condition between say December 
let and March 1st ? I have often been told by 
those who make orchard top grafting a business, 
that they would much rather have scions cut in 
March to those cut in early winter, no matter 
now well the latter are preserved. Conversing 



with a man who has, probably, set more orchard 
grafts than any man in the United States, he 
said twenty-five years of extensive experience 
had proved to him beyond doubt, that scions cut 
in March, if not hurt by winter, were far better 
than those cut in early winter, no matter how 
well kept. Nurserymen think scions for root 
grafting must be cut early. Spread a little ink, 
friend Meehan, on this subject." 

[We see here the importance of what is termed 



190 



THE GARDE JEER'S MOJ^TELY. 



April, 



** abstract science.'' Those who believe that 
the sap of trees remain frozen solid through the 
winter, must of necessity, answer this question 
negatively— that is that there is no change in 
the sap, for vital action cannot go on when the 
juices are frozen solid. The change from starch 
to sugar is a vital, not a chemical process, and 
the change of the starchy matter of the sugar 
maple in the fall to the saccharine juice of 
spring must be the result of vital action going 
on in the unfrozen juices during winter. 

We see, therefore, that there is vital action in 
vegetation during the winter, and thus under- 
stand that it is quite possible for some difference 
to be seen in the vitality of grafts as noticed by 
our correspondent. We do not know from expe- 
rience that it is so ; but it is evident from the 
experience referred to, that it may not be alto- 
gether an illusion.] 

Gladiolus Bulblets.— TT. K. T., Barnes- 
ville, O. asks : " Will you please give through 
the Gardener's Monthly, the best mode of grow- 
ing Gladiolus bulbs from small bulblets.'' 

[Our own plan is to put them thickly in boxes 
of earth, as soon as taken from the parent bulb 
in the fall. Let them sprout as they may in the 
cool greenhouse during winter, and then dibble 
them out in spring.] 

Address on Hedges.— B. F., Camden, X. 
J. writes: "I have seen with some interest, 
the remarks of Mr. V Morris in regard to your 
address at Reading, on the hedge question. It 
is a subject which we are all interested in about 
here, and there was just enouijh rej)ortcd to 
make us wish for the whole. Cannot you give 
it entire in the Gardener's Monthly?''' 

[The address referred to was given oft-hand, 
and we are, therefore, unable to meet our corres- 
pondent's wishes. There was a phonographic 
reporter present, but in whose employ we do not 
know. We suppose it will turn up some day, 
and if so, will make a note of it for our corres- 
pondent's benefit.] 

Bonne Silene Rose.— A correspondent asks 
whether we know this rose to be distinct from 
Gouboult? We have not seen this rose for 
some years, hut our impression is that it is not 
the same. It is, however, difficult to decide a 
question of this kind from memory, and without 
the two plants side by side. ' 

There is getting to be as much trouble in ' 



identifying roses as in strawberries or apples. 
It is quite likely roses themselves take to vary- 
ing a little at times independently of seeds. For 
instance there is a Triumphe de Luxemburg 
about Philadelphia, which is much better than 
some others. Some florists regard them as dis- 
tinct, but there is little doubt they are all from 
one stock. Some think this improved Luxem- 
burg is the same as Bonne Silene, but there 
seems to us to be a slight difference. The fact 
is for winter cutting, for which Bonne Silene is 
so popular, any one of these roses will satisfy 
any one. 



Fruit Prospects at South Pass, Ills.— 
P. E., March 1st, writes : " Peaches all killed 
in Illinois, except a few at Villa Ridge, near 
Cairo. The trees generally killed in the central 
part of State. It has .been a disastrous winter 
for western horticulture. Pears not injured 
here, but reported so farther north. Mercury 
went 35 and 40^ below in central Illinois— here 
it was 14°." 



Asbestos Roofing.— Cheap roofing material 
is eagerly sought after by so many people, that 
every new idea is welcomed when it promises 
well. We have had our attention called to the 
asbestos roofing material, introduced by Mr. 
Johns, and believe from all that we have heard 
of it, that it does not disappoint those who have 
put their faith in it. It is said to be fire proof, 
and this alone gives it advantages over many 
articles in common use. 



Wood Lice in Greenhouses. --_¥rs. D. E. 
H., Middlehun), asks: ''Will you please tell 
me throuiih your Monthly, without giving my 
name, how to rid my grer-nhouse of the wood 
lice, which trouble very much. At the time the 
greenhouse was built, an old building was 
removed tf) make room for it With all my 
efforts, the bugs infrst the house." 

[Th(>y are easily caught by putting pieces of 
boiled potatoes in flower pots, and some dry 
sweet hay loosely over this. These traps exam- 
ined once a day. will soon »'.lear a greenhouse of 
the pest.] 



Propagating Curley Wooded Forms of 
Trees. ~r. T. N„ Carthage, hid., writes: 
''Cannot curly walnut, or other kinds of curly 
timber be propagated by budding or grafting 
young stocks of such trees with buds or jrrafts 



1873. 



THE GARDEJSTER'S MOJ^THLY. 



121 



taken from trees that are known to be curly ? 
Such timber is very valuable, and walnut being 
a rapid grower, a supply could soon be produced 
if there is any known way of propagating trees 
that have the trait of growing in that peculiar 
way. I was led to make such an inquiry by ob- 
serving that the wood of the Summer bon Cre- 
tain pear tree has always a similar twist, 
whether from graft or bud, so far as my know- 
ledge extends.'' 

[We have never been able to form a theory 
which satisfies us completely as to the cause of 
curled grain in trees. We can, therefore, offer 
no opinion in advance of experiment, as to the 
probability of success. It is, however, as our 
correspondent suggests, a matter well worth 
trial, and we should be glad to know that some 
one is testing it.] 



The Grape Berry Moth.— A ''New Sub- 
scriber,''— the post-office name illegible— asks : 
•* Can you or any of your correspondents give 
me any information in regard to habits of the 
insect, the maggot of which is found in grapes 
in the fall. It seems to be on the increase in 
the vineyards of the Hudson river, and if it con- 
tinues to increase at the present rate, grape 
growing as a business will have to be discon- 
tinued. I have not heard of it in any of the ag- 
ricultural or horticultural journals of the day, 
and hope you or some of your correspondents 
will be able te inform me (through Gardener's 
Monthly) of its habits, and the means of its de- 
struction. When it first appeared it confined 
Itself to one jor two trellises, affecting all the 
fruit, but now has spread over the whole vine- 
yard. What is the root insect, Phylloxera, you 
speak of in February number ? I have not heard 
of It. I need not say I am a new subscriber. 
^ [This is the Grape Berry Moth, which, with 
Its larva, is represented in the figure 1.] 

Fig. 1 




[The color (a) is deep brown, pale buff and slaty ; 
KO) 18 ohve green, or brownish. ] 



ITS NATURAL HISTORY 

may be given as follows : About the 1st of July, 
the grapes that are attacked by the worm begin 
to show a discolored spot at the point where the 
worm entered. (See Fig. 1 c) Upon opening 
such a grape, the inmate, which is at this time 
very small and white, with a cinnamon-colored 
head, will be found at the end of a winding 
channel. It continues to feed on the pulp of the 
fruit, and upon reaching the seeds, generally 
eats out their interior. As it matures it becomes 
darker, being either of an olive-green or dark 
brown color, with a honey-yellow head, and if 
one grape is not sufficient, it fastens the already 
ruined grape to an adjoining one, by means of 
silken threads, and proceeds to burrow in it as 
it did in the first. When full grown it presents 
the appearance of Figure 1 b, and is exceedingly 
active. As soon as the grape is touched the 
worm will wriggle out of it, and rapidly let itself 
to the ground, by means of its ever ready silken 
thread, unless care be taken to prevent its so 
doing. The cocoon is often formed on the leaves 
of the vine, in a manner essentially characteris- 
tic. After covering a given spot with silk, the 
worm cuts out a clean oval flap. leavin«T it 
hinged on one side, and rolling this flap over 
fastens it to the leaf, and thus forms for itself a 
cozy little house. One of these cocoons is rep- 
resented at^ Figure 2 b, and though the cut is 

sometimes less regular than 
shown in the figure, it is un- 
doubtedly the normal habit 
of the insect to make just such 
a cocoon as represented. 
^ Sometimes, however, it cuts 
two crescent shaped slits, and 
rolling up the two pieces, 
fastens them up in the middle as shown at Fitr- 
ure 3. And frequently it rolls over a piece of 
the edge of the leaf, in the manner commonly 
[M ff. 3]. adopted by leaf-rolling larvse, while we 
have had them spin up in a silk hand- 
kerchief, where they made no cut at 
all. 
In two days after completing the 
cocoon, the worm changes to a chrysalis. In this 
state (Fig. 2 a), it measures about one-fifth of 
an inch, and is quite variable in color, being 
generally of a honey-yellow, with a green shade 
on the abdomen. In about ten days after this 
last change takes place, the chrysalis works 
itself almost entirely out of the cocoon, and the 




a 



'^olor, (a) honey yellow. 




in 



THE GARDE JTER'S MOJ^THLY. 



April, 



little moth represented at Figure 1 a, makes its 
escape. 

Mr. Riley, who prepared the cuts illustrating 
this insect, writes to us that it is, in all probabili- 
ty, like so many of our worst insect foes, an im- 
portation from Europe. It was first described 
in this country by Dr. A. S. Packard Jr., as 
Penthina vitivorana^ but subsequently proved to 
be the European Eudemis hotrana, W. V. ; 
treated of in European works under the synon- 
yms of reliquana and vitisana. He also says 
that, according to the observatieus of Dr. Hull, 
the second brood of worms make their cocoons 
under the sheltered places afforded by loose bark 
and stakes, and that they may be allured and 
destroyed by means of rags or other traps, as in 
the case of the apple worms 



Rare Foreign Grapes.—^., Augitsta, Me.: 
*' Will you have the kindness to give me some 
more definite and reliable information concern- 
ing the following foreign grapes than can be 
found in the catalogues. I desire to know the 
American experience as to their season, quality, 
productiveness, and health in cold vineries, as 
compared with the Black Hamburg as a stan- 
dard of excellence : Due de Magenta, Golden 
Champion, Trentham Black, Golden Hamburgh, 
Muscat Hamburgh, Royal Ascot." 

[Will some of our grape growers who have had 
the experience kindly respond.] 



The Father of the Postal Seed Busi- 
ness.— We cordially endorse the following by 
Mr. F. R. Elliott : 

'* I believe it is part and parcel of your life to 
give credit, in your public writings as well as in 
your private life, to men for the good thej have 
done, or the item valuable they have inaugura- 
ted. Let me suggest, therefore, that when from 
the time the postal laws come up, you insert 
this, my belief, that B. K. Bliss, formerly of 
Springfield, Mass., now of New York, was the 
first to make a specialty, and so draw attention 
of the public to the value of transmission by 
mail at a cheap rate, of seeds, plants, etc. 1 
think it well to keep these little items— if so we 
may call them, of men's acts, before the people, 
that during one's life they may see and know of 
the appreciation. Is it not better so than a 
record after death ?'* 



Hedge Plant for the Shade.— 5, Au- 
pasta Maine : *' Will any hedge plant do well 



under the shade of quite large trees ? Most of 
our New England cities are well shaded with 
elms and maples, bordering the lots. A hedge 
running from tree to tree would be much shaded 
at the ends." 

[No plants do very well under the shade of 
trees. Pyrus japonica and the Silver Thorn are 
the best.] 

Muhlenbeckia complex a.— -Dr. H. C. W., 
Mathawom, N. Y. This is the name of the 
plant referred to by this correspondent : '* Will 
you oblige me by naming the enclosed plant in 
your journal ? It puzzles the gardeners here, 
and some in New York, Mr. Flemming inclu- 
ded. It is a climbing perennial, and bears clus- 
ters of waxy white flowers, and I should judge 
it to be half hardy.'' 

[In old catalogues it was known as a Polygo- 
num. It is closely allied to this genus. It is a 
native of Australia. The flowers are not white 
but green, but after flowering, the green sepals 
become succulent and of a waxy white. This 
change always interests students in botany. In 
the centre of the waxy cup, is a triangular black 
seed, like buckwheat, which is also a Poly- 
gonum] 



Pyrus Japonica as a Hedge Plant.— 
B., Augusta, Maine, asks: "What do you 
think of the Pyrus Japonica for an ornamental 
hedge ? It is hardy with us as a shi'ub.'' 

[One of the best hedge plants in the world for 
beauty and effectiveness. The only drawback 
is that it is too slow for fast people, requiring 
nearly double the time that most other hedge 
plants reqiTire.] 



Swindlers. — We have received the following 
from W. A. B., Zanesville, O.: "As the swin- 
dling operations of men acring as tree agents are 
on the increase, I think it would be well if nur- 
serymen would give such names publicity, and 
thus protect others. 1 warn all parties to keep 
clear of men traveling under the names of * * 
* * * * * hailing from Sago^ 
Ohio.'' 

[We have striken out the names, but yet pub- 
lish the letter, in order to add a word on this 
subject. We feel as heartily as any one — indeed 
we do not know but we have greater reasons in 
dollars and cents for the feeling than himdreds 
who read these lines— the want of soma means 
of protection against horticultural swindlers, 



187S. 



THE GARDE JEER'S MOJVTSLl. 



ns 



but cannot make up our minds that the publica- 
tion of names in the Gardener s Monthly is the 
proper way to reach the matter. Here in Penn- 
sylvania, the law tells us it will take the whole 
responsibility of punishing criminals. It not 
only tells us how we are to proceed in criminal 
cases, but tells us it will punish us if we take the 
law into our own hands and punish the criminal. 
It says to us in effect, "you wou'd have a pretty 
state of society if individuals are to be judge, 
jury and executioner." There is at the present 
time an editor in Philadelphia under sentence 
because he stated a fact in his paper, which the 
court decided ought to have been given in a 
court of justice, and not in a newspaper. It is 
not for us to question the wisdom of these laws, 
but as we know it is the law, we have to abide 
by it. 

Now it seems to us the best way to guard 
against swindlers of this class is for the horticul- 
turists of a neighborhood to do as farrriers do 
against horse thieves— form an association to 
prosecute offenders. It is not fair that one or 
two men should have the burden in time and 
money of ridding a neighborhood of these swin- 
dlers. It is to the interest of the whole neigbor- 
hood that they should keep the place pure in its 
reputation. At Springfield, Ohio, for instance, 
there is a person flourishing who has for years 
been preying unmolested on the public, and the 
result is that the whole horticulture of Spring- 
field suffers in public estimation. There is no 
doubt but the Springfieldians on the spot could 
catch the fellow if they had a mind to, but it is 
no one person's business, and so the whole have 
to suffer— an ori:anization could do it. 

Philadelphians have set some such an exam- 
ple. The wine plant men were once driving a 
good trade, but a few farmers combined to pro- 
secute, and a conviction with six months in jail, 
for " selling as wine plants what they well knew 
were but rhubarb plants, with intent, '» and so 
forth— to get forty dollars per hundred for what 
was worth but five -completely broke up the 
'* wine plant »' trade. 

With every desire to aid our friends in their 
fight with the swindlers, we do not see that we 
can aid them in the publication of names. In 
the co-operative plan of prosecution, we see the 
only chance.] 

Heating a Plant CASE.-Dr. H. C. TT., 
Mathawom, N. Y.: "Is there any device for 
heating an enclosed window garden ? It is shut 



off from the room on account of coal gas, which 
makes it too cold for plants to thrive." 

[In cases like this it is not unusual to heat a 
miniature boiler and pipes with a gas or lard oil 
jet. The gas light must of course be entirely 
secured from the plants, or the fumes will injure 
them. A pipe must bring fresh air from the 
outside of the case to feed the lisrht, and another 
must convey the fumes away. In one case we 
have seen a simple " drum " heated in this way 
by a gas jet without any hot water arrange- 
ments, and it answered perfectly.] 



Sweet and Sour Apples. — A correspond- 
ent sends us an elaborate argument founded on 
"laws of vegetable physiology," from some 
paper he does not name, to account for the phe- 
nomena of sweet and sour apples on the same 
tree, or even in the same fruit. We have read 
it over and do not understand it. We doubt 
whether the writer of the paragraph understands 
it himself; and we doubt whether any one of our 
readers would make anything of it - and we have 
no room to merely "fill in a column." There 
is indeed no need of any theory of "blending of 
sap from scion with stock to account for it " — 
as the Rhode Island Greening, generally a sour 
apple in the Atlantic States, is nearly always, 
indeed so far as we can say from our own experi- 
ence, is always sweet on the Pacific, "blending 
of blood " notwithstanding. 



Book on Flower Cultivation.— P. B.y 
New Castle, Pa., writes: "1 wish to ask a 
favor of you. Is there such a book published in 
America or Europe as a botany on flowers, or 
"Floral Botany'' in the English language? 
One that would be a great help to a young flo- 
rist. I have Gray's Botany and Lessons, but it 
is not the book that I would like to have. I 
would like to have a work giving the name, des- 
cription, picture of flower, and cultivation of all 
the different plants and flowers at present in 
cultivation. If you know of any such, you 
would greatly oblige me by giving me the name 
of the book, where it can be had, and the proba- 
ble cost of the same, and oblige.'' 

[There is no such work. Loudon's Encych- 
poedia of Plants is the nearest approach to it.] 



Rochester Seed Firm.— i^. B.,CorpusdriS' 
ti, Texas. — The person you refer to is Jas.Vick, 
Jr., one of the most honorable men in the seed 
trade. 



nA 



THE GARDEJVER'S MOJ^THLY. 



April, 



NEW AND RARE PLANTS. 



New Japan Cockscomb.— The old cocks- 
comb is an universal favorite. It used to be one 
of the stock things which the gardeners of the 
old school loved to grow. The effort was to get 
them as dwarf as possible, and then the flower 
as long and wide as they could be induced to 
grow. Still it was simply a ''show" plant. 
The flowers could not be cut or made much use 
of when taken from the parent plant. One mag- 
nificent head and that was all. 

Japan, which has given us so many good 
things, now sends us a kind which is as hand- 
some in color as the old kind, but divides itself 




up into a large number of small bunches. Tliis 
will allow of cutting if desirable without sacrifi- 
cing the whole plant. The cockscomb is easily 
raised from seed, after the weather gets warm, 
but requires very rich soil to develop itself pro- 
perly. To get the best results, a rather humid 
atmosphere is the best, and for this reason, 
although they are very beautiful in the open 
ground, they never are quite so fine as when 
grown in a hot-bed frame. 

We observe in Carter's advertisements that it 
is known as Cclosia japonica, but whether a dis- 
tinct species or not from the old one we cannot 
say. Our illustration gives an idea of its branch- 
ing character. 



Double Flowered Zonale Geraniums. 
—Mr. Jean Sisley, wh© has had such remarka- 
ble success in raising double zonale geraniums, 
is a wealthy amateur of Lyons, and one of the 
leading officers of the horticultural society of 
that great French city. Last year he was fortu- 
nate in producing a double white of a first-class 
character. A French nurseryman is now send- 
ing out a new set raised by Mr. Sisley last year. 
They are : 

Aline Sisley^ which is a white of the style of 
the single Madame Vaucher. 

Asa Gray. This is after the fashion of Gloire 
^e Corbery, and is said to have made a sensa- 
tion at the Exposition Universelle of Lyons. 

Charles Lyell. This has a coppery ground, 
and shaded on the edges to a white. *' Thii 
color is the admiration of all the leading horticul- 
turists who saw it at Mr. Sisley's." 

Jeane- Alegatiere Brilliant rosy lilac. After 
the style of Y ictoire de Lyon. 

Exposition de Lyon. A cherry magenta Of 
fijreat brilliancy, also after the style of Yictoire 
de Lyon. 

Last spring the French had in the market 
several other first class double geraniums which 
ought to be now ready for sale by our own 
florists. The best of these were Charles Darwin, 
Francois Aries Dufour, Emilio Castellar, Kose 
Pur, Deuil de Strasbourg, and Alba plena, which 
is, we note, advertised by Mr. Buist. 

Jeane Alegatiere and Exposition de Lyon are 
not Mr. Sisley 's seedlings. 

Xothwithstanding the very low prices at 
which things are sold in France as compared 
with our country, and the large number of 
people who purchase novelties of this character, 
these new doubles sell there in large quantities 
at $2.50 each. 



SiLENE VIRGINICA.— For the introduction of 
this really beautiful plant we are indebted to 
the unwearied energies of the Messrs. Backhouse 
& Son, of York, who deserve the thanks of the 
horticultural world for their endeavors to popu- 
larize and foster the love for herbaceous plants 
amongst the rising generation of amateurs and 
gardeners. This Silene attains a height of from 
1 to 2 feet. It is a native of the United States 
of America, and is familiarly known as the 



187S. 



THE GABBEJVER'S JUOJVTHZY. 



125 



"Fire Pink," from the brilliant appearance of 
its large, deep crimson flowers, which are pro- 
duced throughout the months of June and July. 
To succeed well with this plant it must be placed 
in a somewhat shady situation, and the soil 
should consist of about two parts good leaf 
mould to one of light loam, with the addition of 
a small portion of sandy peat. — Journal of Hor- 
ticulture. 



OsMANTHus iLTCiFOLius.— This lovcly shrub 
is not well known, although it cannot now be 
classed among the novelties. It deserves a note, 
for amateurs who take an interest in hardy 
shrubs may properly consider the world a blank 
80 long as they are without it. In botany it is 
allied to the privets, in aspect it is allied to the 
hollies. But there is no green holly so elegant 
and lady-like as this osmanthus, and its leaves, 
which are of a rich green color and highly 
polished, suggest to a fanciful observer, not 
what a holly is, but what it ought to be. It 
grows fast, and makes a remarkably elegant 
dark green bush, distinct from every other ever- 
green in the garden, Shepherd's Holly included. 
As to hardiness there can be no doubt, for my 
plants have stood three years on a damp border 
of heavy clay under a wall which screens off the 
sun all the year round, except for an hour or so 
in the morning, from the beginning of May to 
the end of July. The variegated Osmanthus is, 
in my opinion, scarcely worth growing.— Gar- 
dene?' 's Magazine. 



Thymus Citriodorus Aitreus Margika- 
Tus (Lemon-scented Gold-edged Thyme), raised 
by Fisher Holmes & Co.— An exceedingly pret- 
ty Thyme, of an erect-growing but much 
branched habit, with large obovate leaves, 



which are of a very bright dark green in the 
centre, and with a broad rich golden yellow mar- 
gined variegation ; is very handsome and attrac- 
tive. It will prove very affective for edging 
flower beds, borders, or riband planting, and 
for growing in masses on banks, or in other 
varied forms ; it may be grown as bushes or py- 
ramids for winter bedding, having proved per- 
fectly hardy. Altogether, it may be considered 
as one of the most charming bedding plants 
known, and with the additional delicious fra- 
grance of the sweet-scented Lemon Thyme. 

It was exhibited at the Royal Horticultural 
Society on June 21, 1871, and received a first- 
class certificate ; also at the Royal Horticultu- 
ral Show at Nottingham, a first-class certificate. 



Dahlia Emperor Franz Joseph.— It is 
the grandest acquisition of a variegated foliage 
Dahlia ever introduced into this country. It is 
of a free growing and branching habit ; foliage 
bright green, with a beautiful silver-white mar- 
gin ; grows about two to three feet high, and 
gives a most wonderful contrast when planted as 
an outline of a Dahlia group. 



CoLEus Chameleon.— It is one of the finest 
new Coleus, of various colors, somewhat chan^^e- 
able, blotched, and margined with white, yellow, 
dark crimson, green, rose and magenta colors ; 
strong habit and growth ; good for bedding, and 
an admiration for the conservatory and green- 
house. 

Iris itherica.— This rare and beautiful Iris 
has recently flowered in the collection of the 
Bellevue Nurseries, at Paterson, New Jersey. 
Mr. Chitty, the Superintendent, is very enthusi- 
astic in getting together valuable, rare, and 
beautiful thinsrs. 



DOMESTIC INTELLIGENCE. 



The Jonathan Apple South.— A South- 
ern paper, we forget which, says of this variety : 
" It is really astonishing how slowly some of our 
best fruits are working their way into the favor 
of Southern fruit growers. 

The Jonathan Apple is a marked illustration 
of the general distrust with which all Northern 



emanations are received, however much their in- 
trinsic excellence may entitle them to our esteem. 
We have been practically acquainted with this 
variety for a quarter of a century in the South, 
and have studied its character closely as devel- 
oped in other sections, and have yet to see or 
hear the first objection made to it as a fall and 



196 



THE GARDEJfER'S MOJ\rTBLY. 



April, 



1873. 



THE GABDEJtTER'S MOJfTHLY. 



1S7 



early winter fruit. So far as a large and lono: 
experience goes, we believe it succeeds just as 
well in the South as it does in the West, and bet- 
ter than it does in New York where it originated. 
Of course it ripens earlier here, in September, 
or about the time of the Koxbury Russet, Hub- 
bardson, Nonsuch and Taunton— and like the 
two first requires good soil and culture to bring 
out all its good qualities. One chief reason of its 
unpopularity no doubt is that in the nursery, 
the tree is a miserable grower— but in the 
orchard it makes a fine tree and bears large 
crops of sound, handsome, long keeping (after 
gatherinsj) fruit, which for quality is excelled by 
no other variety with which we are acquainted." 



The Flora of Colorado.— Captain W. W. 
Nevin, a distinguished member of the newspa- 
per press of Philadelphia, thus writes of the 
flowers of the plains abutting the Rocky Moun- 
tains, near Colorado, Pike's Peak : 

THE FLORA OF THE PRAIRIE, 

which wantons in a bewildering brilliancy and a 
beautiful luxuriance, which recalls the efflores- 
ence of the tropics. Whole acres of the golden 
coriander, the blue larkspur, the scarlet cactus, 
or the black and yellow sunflower, make the 
prairie gorgeous, and yet hormonize with each 
other as thoroughly and artistically as if some 
student of effects had planned their pianting. 
Indeed, the plains often look like some garden 
planted to produce its effects by the massing of 
colors. 

It is wonderful to see how every flower of 
home is reproduced here, and what are the new 
ones I cannot tell. The contributions of Colorado, 
•however, to the national flora must be regal. 
The nameless beauties of hill and plain are 
countless. Several distinguished botanists have 
been making collections this summer, and their 
enthusiasm is boundless. Their stories of new 
•discoveries I shall not imperil my character for 
veracity by repeating. 

I cannot give any better idea of the floral 
wealth and luxuriance of this country than by 
making a list of the flowers gathered yesterday 
evening in a single walk by two or three of us, 
none of whom were professional, or even ama- 
teur botanists, and whose pleasant labors were 
therefore, by no means exhaustive of the field. 
All these flowers, I must repeat, grow within 
half a mile of our hotel, which is a specially 
favored spot, it is true, in the way of beauty. 



being situated just where the prairies roll up and 
break against the foothills of the mountains. 
There are here in profusion wild roses, the wild 
clematis, wild heliotrope, violets, blue gentian, 
the wild jessamine, cacti, pale pink in single 
flowers, and again flaming in huge piles like 
burning bushes, strawberries, wild bergamot, 
the larkspur in every variety and shade, portu- 
laccas in profusion, the brilliant coriander, dai- 
sies, buttercups, forget-me-nots, prairie pinks, 
sunflowers, poppies, tiger lilies, the graceful 
eglatine, wild geraniums, beautiful in the grace 
of leaf and flower, the statuesque yucca, chaste 
and stately ; a brilliant scarlet flower of peculiar 
grace, drooping and lovoly, known as a cypress, 
the real blue bell of Scotland (campagnola), 
ferns, primroses, verbenas, foxglove, four-o'- 
clocks, the fresh brilliant morning glories (con- 
volvulus), wild cherries, Missouri currants, 
gooseberries, the widow's tear — that rustic sar- 
casm — the sweet columbine, the white-fringed 
spirea, and the queenly fleur-de-lis (iris). All 
these are the glories and pride of the Springs, to 
say nothing of the fairer flowers which pay 
eighteen dollars a week for the privilege of bloom- 
ing on the piazzas and adorning the croquet 
grounds. 

It must be borne in mind, too, that many of 
these flowers are repeated in an infinite variety 
of shade and species, and that some of them, as 
the rose and ferns, represent whole fami'ies. 
And this wealth of beauty covers the whole Ter- 
ritory — whether it be plain, prairie, mountain, 
or park country. Sometimes you can ride for 
days over rolling hill and grazing land, richly 
and brilliantly carpeted as far as the eye can 
reach with ever-changing hues. When swept by 
the winds the fields often seem to tremble as 
under a kaleidoscopic shower of color. 

Nor is the vegetable wealth of Colorado mere- 
ly ornamental. Currants and gooseberries and 
strawberries grow everywhere wild, as do also 
grapes of many varieties. Professor T. C. Por- 
ter, recognized authority on botany, has discov- 
ered near Canon City three distinct varieties of 
indigenous potatoes, and he, in common with 
every student of the natural sciences, is in i*ap- 
ture over the bounteous promise of this land. 

It is worth while knowing who are enjoying 
all this waste of beauty. 

THE FAVORED GUESTS 

of this first great Western reception of Flora 
held at these Springs of Colorado, curiously 
enough, came this year from two or three main 



localities. Of these Philadelphia leads, Pitts- 
burg comes next, and then Chicago. This from 
the East. Of course, nearly one-half of the 
transient visitors come from the West itself, i.e., 
west of the Missouri river. These guests gen- 
erally come bringing their own equipage, men- 



age, and servants, and camp out in tents. Their 
neat domestic encampments— their brilliant little 
bivouacs— their parked trains and horses, teth- 
ered by the guardian lariat, relieve the prosaic 
details of hotel life, and lend the pleasing charm 
of novelty to the scene. 



FOREIGN CORRESPONDENCE. 



HORTICULTURAL OBSERVATIONS IN 
ENGLAND, No. 3. 

Newton Ahhot^ Devonshire. 

I cannot refrain from adding my testimony to 
others, of the geniality of the climate, the salu- 
brity of the atmosphere, the fertility of the soil, 
and the beauty and variety of the scenery in 
this part of England. The crop of grain just 
harvested has been more than an average one, 
and for three weeks during the time they were 
getting it in, there was not a shower of rain. 
In some places two good crops of grass have 
been cut off" the same meadows, consequently 
hay will be reasonable in price the coming win- 
ter. We hear complaints all the time of the 
potato-rot. There are a good many diseased, 
but on high land there are pretty good crops- 
price in the market this week, twenty-eight cents 
'per twenty lbs. 

The *' American Rose »' is becoming a favorite 
here— scarcely any rot amongst them. Read a 
repor* from a grower yesterday, who from three 
lbs. of seed, dug eighty lbs. Those that have 
them are keeping them for seed. 

There are also in this district some very fine 
•crops of ruta baga and mangel wurzel. The 
favorite variety of the latter grown is the 
*' Champion Orange Globe.»» The many agri- 
eultural, horticultural and cottage garden exhi- 
bitions held here, tend materially to foster a 
taste and excite a generous rivalry among the 
people. Premiums are offered for the best kept 
flower and kitchen gardens. Competent judges 
go round and examime them a few days before 
•the show, and you would be surprised and 
pleased to see how skilfully some of them are 
laid out, planted and kept. They would do cre- 
dit to any professional gardener. 

The little flower gardens at the various rail- 



road stations are also a pleasing feature. At 
this station there is a small greenhouse for pro- 
pagating and keeping the plants in winter. On 
a sloping green bank, are seventeen beds cut in 
the turf, filled with scarlet and var. Pelargoni- 
ums, Calceolarias, Lobelias, Fuchsias, Agera- 
tums, &c. , and scattered between the beds are 
forty-five standard roses, many of them now in 
full bloom. Trained on a fence at the back are 
various climbers. Across the way, in a nursery, 
is a regal plant of the Pampas Grass, (Gyneri- 
um). Over fifty spikes of its beautiful, graceful 
silvery plumes are out now. 

Fernmouth is a pretty little place— a favorite 
resort for health seekers and bathers. A flower 
show was held here a few weeks ago, which was 
well patronized. The plants were exhibited in 
tents on a lawn facing the sea. There was a 
fine collection of scarlet and variegated Pelargo- 
niums. Two of the best in the bronze section 
were A. H. Wills and Sultan. Three of the best 
in the tricolors, Sophia Dumaresque, Sir R Na- 
pier and Lady Callam. The best silver leaf, 
Almo ; an extra fine pink variety with white 
eye,' (Rose Rendatler) a splendid trusser. The 
Fuchsias were fine, also the Ferns ; among the 
latter, Adiantumconcinnum, three feet through'; 
do. A. Farleyense, nearly as large ; Neottopte- 
ris australacia, (fine) ; Lomaria gibba, a 
noble plant of Caladium, Prince Albert Edward, 
veined and marked with crimson ; also C. Chan- 
tinii ; Scuttellaria macciniana, is a showy plant, 
scarlet tube and upper lip, lower lip yellow ; 
Croton longifolia, and two noble specimens of 
0. picta, Allamanda Hendersoni, Yucca alioe- 
folia variegata, jEschynanthus refulgens ; also 
a very fine plant, well flowered, of Lapageria 
rosea. 

The show of fruit was nothing extra, except- 
ing Cherries and some fine specimens of Necta- 



If' 



ns 



TEE GARDEJ^ER'S MOJ\rTELY. 



April, 



< I 



rines and Gross Mignonne Peaches. A good 
show of Potatoes— among them Breeze's Prolific, 
do. Peerless. Best Cabbage, Enfield Market and 
Sutton's Imperial— the latter particularly fine. 

A fine collection of Roses from Messrs. Carter 
& Co.'s nursery, at Torquoy. This firm, I find, 
carries away the palm in this part of the coun- 
try. They had a fine seedling, '' Bessie John- 
ston," on exhibition, which will be quite an 
acquisition to rose fanciers ; also, John Hopper, 
Leilia, Reine de Blanche, Duke of Wellington, 
fine dark, Alfred Colomb, Madame Rothschild, 
Zavier Pluto, Charles Lefevre and Pierre toll- 
ing, good, and the finest box, thirty-six blooms, 
of Marechal Niel I ever saw. 

I have seen some very fine Dahlias in various 
places. The following are some of the best, 
ranging in colors from white to black : Redan, 
Formosa, Admiration, Prince of Wales, Leah, 
Peri, Mephistopheles, Criterion, Monarch, (splen- 
did dark), Goldendrop, Julia Wigalt. 

Passed through Powderham Park the other 
day, the seat of Earl Devon, eleven miles from 
here. The castle is situate on elevated ground, 
near the centre of the park, which is ten miles 
in circumference, and contains some magnificent 
specimens of forest trees, evergreens, &c. I 



thought the Elms in New Haven and the Con- 
necticut valley were grand, but these surpass 
them. One English Oak, whose branches 
touched the ground, I measured the outer cir- 
cumference seventy yards, an Elm over eighty 
do. ; also a grand old cork barked oak, a Cryp^ 
tomeria perfect in shape, fifty feet high, circum- 
ference eighty-one feet. Trained up on the 
mansion walls were Magnolia grandiflora, cover- 
ed with buds and bloom right up to the roof; 
Eugenia myrtifolia. Lemon Verbena, Oleanders, 
Lamarque Roses. Right in front a large geo- 
metrical flower garden brimful of flowers, with 
perfect specimens of Irish Yews, fifteen and 
twenty feet high— one Auracaria imbricata, 
eight feet round the stem ; also some fine Se- 
quoia gigantea, over twenty feet high, Cupres- 
sus macrocarpa, &c. 

On an eminence near the castle, is a triangu- 
lar tower called the Belvidere, seventy-five feet 
high ; from the summit you have a grand pano- 
ramic view of the country for miles around, 
including Exeter, (only six miles off), with its 
filmed cathedral, the river Exe, villages, ham- 
lets, &c. This noble estate I believe ha« been 
in the Devon family for many centuries. 

J. W. W. 



HORTICULTUML NOTICES. 



PHILADELPHIA ACADEMY OF NATU- 
RAL SCIENCES. 

At the meeting of the Academy on February 
18th, Mr. Thomas Meehan said that as was 
well known, the Violet and the Balsam, (Impa- 
tiens), produced two distinct formof flowers— one 
with a corolla and the other without, and the 
former producing the last class underground. 
It was remarkable that these secretly produced 
(cleistogenous) flowers, in which there was no 
opportunity for anything but self fertilization, 
should be more fertile than those which had the 
most abundant opportunities of aid from wind, 
insects, and other favoring influences. 

The Catalonian Jasmine of our greenhouses 
was another illustration of this phenomenon. 
He had observed, and no doubt others had often 
done the same for many years past, that there 
was a great tendency to a supposed abortion of 
the flowers in this plant. But this year he had 
some plants which failed to produce a single per- 



fect flower. To his astonishment, these plants 
were covered with developing seed vessels, while 
in the plants producing perfect flowers there was 
no sign of any such tendency. On examining 
these imperfect flowers, he found a mfhiature 
corolla was formed, but so closely twisted 
together that it could not open, and always 
remained inside the calyx segments. The pistils 
in these flowers were differently formed from 
those in the perfect flowers. The last have 
the two segments of the divided pistil coiled 
in spiral manner— the former has no appear- 
ance of any division, but seem united into a 
small cone. In many cases the style was 
somewhat flattened, and there appeared to be a 
stigmatic surface along each edge. It appeared 
from his examination that there was very little 
pollen in the anthers of these flowers, and the 
apex of the pistil was pushed beyond them, and 
the idea occurred to him that possibly fertiliza- 
tion might occur along the apparent stigmatic 
surface referred to. 



Whi #a:rd«n«r^s 




onthh, 



DEVOTED TO 



HorticuUiLre, Arboriculture, Botany and Rural Affairs. 



EDITED BY THOMAS MEEHAN. 



Old Series, Vol. XV. 



MAT, 1873. 



New Series. Vol. VI. No. 5 



HINTS FOR MAY. 



FLOWER GARDEN AND PLEASURE 

GROUND. 

Flowers in pots and tubs, for adorning roads 
and gardens, now spring like lovely butterflies 
from their winter's hiding places. Cellars give 
forth their treasures, and barns, pits and green- 
houses bring forth their lovely things each after 
its kind. 

This branch of gardening has not been enough 
valued. There are many things which do not 
well endure our winter, that are truly beautiful 
when a little protection is afforded them ; but 
because they are only half hardy, are not grown 
at all. The following are well worthy of being 
grown in this way : 

Magnolia fuscata, Pittosporums, Cleroden- 
dron Bungei, Hydrangea, Figs, Oleander, pink 
and white ; Pomegranate, single for fruit and 
double for show; Bignonia Capenses, Bouvar- 
dia triphylla, Oranges, Lemons, Laurel, Bay, 
Laurustinus, New Zealand flax, Mahonias, par- 
ticularly M. Darwinii, Euonymus japonicus. 
Aloes, Agaves, and others. In very cold cli- 
mates, Peaches, Nectarines, Apricots and Plums 
might be grown in this way, and would not only 
charm the eye during the flowering season, but 
add their mite to more material pleasure, in a 
way agreeable to most persons of taste, if not of 
refinement. 

Flower-gardening, as wc have often said 
before, aflbrds scope for many pretty fimcies, 
besides arrangement of color, which, in the 
hands of a person of taste, render a garden a 
paradise of enchantment. Borders and edgings 
of Ivy, Periwinkle or variegated plants, may be 
made to appear as frames to the pictures of pret- 
ty flowers enclosed by them. Waves and fringes 



of green may be led along through a large flaw 
er-bed, and the various divisions formed be filled 
with its own color, making a natural and living 
bouquet ; different colored gravels may be cho- 
sen for paths between beds ; different shades of 
green may be made by the selection of grasses 
of different hues, where grass walks are employ- 
ed. Old stumps or roots may be occasionally in- 
troduced in the centre of beds, and covered with 
green vines, or flowering climbers, as taste may 
dictate ; rustic baskets and vases, and even in 
many instances where artificial styles prevail, 
the topiary art may be called in, and good effects 
result from the use of the knife and shears on 
certain plants. 

To grow flowers well fresh soil is very impor- 
tant. Have a care that the roots of neighborinsr 
trees do not get into the bed ; they rob it and 
dry it, and the flowers dwindle and die. If beds 
are near trees, go round the bed once a year 
with a spade and cut of all the roots that may 
have strayed into the bed. This is very impor- 
tant in beds of evergreen shrubs, like Mahonias, 
Euonymus and Bliododendrons, which like shade, 
but not dry, impoverished soil. 

Leaf mould is good for flowers if two or three 
years old, and very much decayed ; when but 
half rotten it is an injury. Rotten sod is the 
best soil for flowers, and cow manure, which 
has lain two years to rot, the best fertilizer. 
Where rotten ^d is not easily obtained, the 
edging parings of walks may be preserved in a 
heap for flower purposes. 

In planting out flowers don't take them at 
once from the hot liousc to the open ground, set 
the pots out for a few days in a cold frame, with 
plenty of air, or uudcra tree in a sheltered place. 



ISO 



THE GARDE JEER'S MOJfTELY. 



May, 



1873. 



Before turning them out of pots, water ; and I Watch all young fruit trees against bearing 
when set in the earth, press the soil very hard | too abundantly while young, and the first season 
about the flower roots. If the ground be dry, | after planting. There can be no objection to 
the earth cannot be pressed too hard. the ripening of one or two fruits on a tree the 

l!)on't make the beds very high, or the rains j first season of setting out, in order to test the 
in summer will run off too rapidly. After | kind, or to administer to curiosity, if the tree be 
smoothing the surface peg down the plants as ] otherwise growing freely. If little growth is 
much as possible so as to cover the surface soon, making, no fruit at all should be permitted. It 
The plants also push out side shoots easier, j is a better practice to disbud or take out soon 
Where small twigs can be had, split and double I after shooting all shoots that are needless to the 



them like hair pins, for pegging down ; where 
these are not at hand, small pieces of bast mat 
or twii\!B, doubled and dibbled in the earth by 
the ends, make very fine pegs. 



perfect shape of the tree, than to wait till fall or 
winter. The pruning knife need then only be 
used to shorten a branch in to where several 
branches are desired to push, or to induce a 



In this climate, hothouse plants often make j more vigorous growth from the pruned parts, 
noble bedders. The Chinese rose Hibiscus, is In the gooseberry, raspberry and strawberry 
a first class thing, making a gorgeous show all | also, no more shoots should be suffered to grow 



summer. The Geranium also, is getting im- 
mensely popular. The tree Carnation is also in 
much request. The Madagascar Periwinkle, 
rose and white, is also now often seen in beds 
and masses. 



than will be required to bear the next season. 

Where water can be commanded, there is 
nothing so profitable as to well soak the soil 
about small fruits ; first about the time that 
they have set their fruit. Much of the value of 



Climbing plants grow faster on trellis than if : this operation, however, will depend on the na- 
left to themselves ; stick them in as soon as the i ture of the soil. The advantages are least in a 
climbers are set out. i tenacious, and greatest in porous soil. It is 

Tuberoses, Gladiolus, Tigridias, Dahlias, and I sa-id that an animal derives most benefit from 



other bulbous things which cannot be put out 
till the ground gets warm, ought not to be kept 



food when it is hungry before it begins to eat — 
it is certainly so with plants. . Water applied to 



out of the earth any longer than necessary. It i soil already wet is an injury; and water never 
was once supposed they thrive best in poor soil has so telling an advantage on vegetation as 
— an error; they love rich food. , when every leaf is about to wither up for want 

Mow lawns very early the first mowing, or at of it* A plant that never seems to want water 
every subsequent mowing, the lawn will look i is in a very doubtful condition in regard to its 
brown. A thin sprinkling of salt is good for the health, 

lawn, just enough salt to see the grains on the ; In summer pruning or dis-budding, it is also 
surface, about a quarter of an inch apart. An worth while to watch for shoots pushing strong- 
overdose will destroy the grass. Frequent roll- , er than others, and always take them out. This 
ing is one of the best ways to get a good close ; is the only way that shoots of equal strength can 
sod. When coarse weeds get in the lawn, hand i be encouraged in every part of the tree. This is 



weeding is the best remedy. 



particularly true of grape vines. If a shoot once 
get the start of the others in strength and vijror, 
the others will gradually get weaker to the 
other's increasing luxuriance. 
We gave in a former volume the pith ©f what 



FRUIT GARDEN. 

In this part of the world the Black Knot on 
the Plum and Cherry commences to work in , we considered the philosophy of vine pruning, 
May. A mere sappy abrasure, green and spon- and as we have not yet seen anything to add to 
gy, first appears above the bark ; cut it out and or take from what we then expressed^ we repro- 
burn as fast as it appears, It is no use to cut it j duce the remarks here. 

out after a month old. Fire blight in the pear, i As to the best system of pruning grapes, there 
and many other diseases of fungoid origin may are several '* schools,'* all contendiHg that their 
be kept down by watching for their first appear- ' views are »' decidedly best." In such cases, we 
ance and cutting away, or by using a lime and have generally found there is much to admire in 
sulphur wash, as recommended by Mr. Saun- I them all— situations and peculiar circumstances 
^®^s» deciding the point in each individual instance 



THE GARDE JEER'S MOJ^THLY. 



ISl 



There are a few points incontrovertible to insure 
success, and it matters little what system of pru- 
ning is followed so that they are secured. First, 
a healthy set of roots of the previous year's 
growth is essential to produce vigorous start of 
growth the year following. Secondly, after 
starting, these roots can only be kept vigorous 
by encouraging an abundance of healthy foliage, 
to be retained on the vine as long as possible. 
Thirdly, the leaves of the first growth are at 
least of double the value to the plant than those 
from secondary or lateral shoots, they should, 
therefore, be carefully guarded from injury. 
Fourthly, checking the strong growing-siioots 
strengthens the weaker ones, equalizes the flow of 
sap to every part of the vine, and insures regular 
and harmonious action between all the parts. 
Any system that secures this, does all that is 
necessary for the general health and vigor of the 
vine ; and where some special objects are desira- 
ble, such as dwarfing, particularly early bearing, 
productiveness at the expense of longevity, spe- 
cial means must be employed to bring them 
about. 



<•■•» 



VEGETABLE GARDEN. 

In the cultivation of garden crops, the hoe 
and rake should be kept continually at work. 
Weeds should be taken in hand before they are 
barely out of the seed-leaf, and one-half the usu- 
al labor of vegetable gardening will be avoided. 



I Hoeing or earthing up of most garden crops is 
of immense advantage in nearly every case. One 
would suppose that in our hot climate flat cul- 
ture would be much more beneficial ; but a fair 
trial, say on every other row of a bed of cab- 
bages, will show a great difference in favor of 
the earthed- up plants. It would be easy to ex- 
plain the reason of this, but in this column we 
try to confine ourselves to " hints," and leave 
reasons to our other departments. 

Cabbage, Cauliflower and Brocoli, are now 
set out for fall crops, and Endive sown for win- 
ter salad. Lettuce also for summer and fall use. 
This, however, must be sown in very rich soil, 
and in a partially shaded situation, or it will go 
to seed. Peas, Beans, and other crops should be 
sowed every two weeks. They do much better 
than when a large crop is sown at one time, and 
then have too many on at one time to waste. 

Melons, Cucumbers, Corn, Okra, Squash, 
Beans, Sweet Potatoes, Lima Beans, Pepper, 
Egg-plants, Tomatoes, and other tender vegeta- 
bles that do well till the sun gets high, and the 
ground warm, should go into the soil without 
delay. 

Bean poles should be set before the beans are 
planted ; and near cities where they are compa- 
rative high priced, their ends should be charred. 
This will make them last some years. Try also 
short stout poles for cucumbers and tomatoes. 
They do remarkably well this way. 



COMMUNICATIONS. 



STRAWBERRY CULTURE IN OHIO. 

BY M. B. liATEHAM, PAINESVILLE. 

The extraordinary cold weather of December 
and January destroyed nearly all the chances for 
any crops of raspberries, blackberries and cher- 
ries, except Morrellos, in most parts of Ohio, 
and doubtless in several adjacent States. Straw- 
berry plants were generally so protected by 
snow as to escape serious injury, hence this fruit 
will be almost the sole reliance of our people for 
the first part of summer, with little else but cur- 
rants to follow until apples and grapes appear, 
as peaches of course are out of the question. It 
|8 therefore quite certain that strawberries will 
oe regarded as more of a luxury, and bring high- 



er prices in our markets than for several years 
past, and as a consequence, a fresh impetus will 
be given to the culture of this fruit. Then, too, 
the old question will be discussed by the grow- 
ers : What varieties shall we 2ylantf 

I think it will be admitted that Ohio has done 
as much as any other State in the production of 
new and fine varieties of strawberries, and in 
teaching the best modes of culture. Still it is 
true here, as elsewhere, that in spite of all the 
progress that has been made in the matter of 
varieties, the old Wilson, with its admitted in- 
ferior quality, is yet the staple supply of our 
markets, and the sole kind in a majority of pri- 
vate gardens. Like the Concord among grapes, 



133^ 



THE GARDEJ^ER'S MOJ^TELY. 



Majff 



1873. 



THE GARDEJ^ER'S MOJ^TTHL^. 



ISS 



it is regarded as the berry *;for the million,'* 
because it is of the easiest culture and the surest 
to produce a crop. 

At the same time, it is true that with the 
growth of our cities in population and wealth, 
and the increase of intelligence about fruits 
among the people, there is more discrimination 
made by the buyers in regard to quality, and 
better prices than formerly are obtained for 
superior fruits, so that the growers are finding 
it for their interests to plant the best varieties 
and give them the best of culture, and then send 
the fruit to market in the best manner. This 
was the lesson so plainly taught and so clearly 
demonstrated by our lamented friend, the late J. 
Knox, of Pittsburgh, whom we claimed as an 
Ohioan, though of late years he lived over the 
border of our State. His motto, as everybody 
knows, was plant the best varieties on the 6est 
soil and give the last of culture, then you will 
obtain the h^sX prices, and find the highest satis- 
faction in the business of fruit growing. Many 
of the strawberry growers of this country owe 
more than they are aware of to the teachings of 
Mr. iCnox. Let us keep his memory green, for 
we have not many such wise and genial teach- 
ers. 

The best school of strawberry culture in our 
^ate, for several years past, has been the 
grounds of Mr. Louis Ritz, of Plainville, near 
Cincinnati. For a dozen or more years, Mr. R. 
has been engaged in collecting all the approved 
varieties of this fruit that he could find or hear 
of, in this country and in Europe, then testing 
them in his grounds with different modes of cul- 
ture. He has also experimented largely in grow- 
ing new varieties from seed, and although the 
required standard of excellence is now so high, 
it is the opinion of experienced judges that he 
lias two or three varieties which have now been 
five or six years on trial, that give promise of 
much value. The finest of these has been named 
Br, TTarder, in compliment of the worthy Presi- 
dent of our State Horticultural Society. At the 
late annual meeting of this society, Mr. Ritz, by 
request, read an essay on small fruits, which 
was of considerable jntcrest. 



<•■•» 



ON VARIETIES OF STRAWBERRIES. 

BY LOUIS IlITZ. , 

What varieties to plant will depend on your 
soil and your market ; for distant shipment the 
]ist is very limited, while for home markets there 
axe many sorts that will, with fair treatment, 



make ample returns. It is best not to rely on 
any one kind, however good it may be, as one is 
not always able to command a sufficient number 
of pickers, or your markets may be glutted just 
at the time the bulk of your crop comes in. 

For distant shipment, we have for earliest the 
Princess of Wales, which ripens a few days after 
the Downer's Prolific ; it is firm, large, showy 
and of excellent flavor, though of foreign origin, 
it grows on the hill system, in a well enriched, 
heavy clay soil; strong and vigorous, is quite 
productive, and commands a very high price in 
market, as it has to compete only with soft ber- 
ries. But I would not advise its planting, ex- 
cept where good culture is given ; and I may 
mention here, that foreign varieties will do bet- 
ter if annually renewed, a plan that is generally 
adopted on the continent, and I incline to think 
that our native sorts would likewise yield better 
returns, if this plan was adopted. 

Next we have the Wilson and Seth Boyden, 
maturing about medium season, both very pro- 
ductive on the matted row plaa ; the former 
yielding a larger amount of fruit, the latter, 
however, commanding a much higher price in 
market. The Seth Boyden is not reliable in 
light and sandy soil. Mr. Wm. Parry, of New 
Jersey, informs me that in 1871, the Seth Boy- 
den surpassed any strawberry crop he over 
raised ; very perfect, large and productive. But 
this year he had ten acres of light, sandy soil in 
strawberries, all of which looked well until the 
fruit began to form, when the severe draught set 
in and the Seth Boyden suffered most, the Chas. 
Downing least, while Wilson and Kentucky 
were only moderate crops. The Seth Boyden in 
my grounds has always given satisfaction, 
neither suffering from extreme heat nor cold. 
Mr. Samuel Miller, of Missouri, and others 
attest to the same fact, and say it is with them 
all that is desirable in a strawberry. 

For late market there is the Jacwnda, wher- 
ever it does well, as in Belmont county and some 
other localities in this State, and the Triomphe 
de Oand, both requiring hill culture ; the latter 
in compact, rich soil, well mulched, being one of 
the best paying varieties. 

For homo markets there arc besides the Elea- 
nor, which grown broadcast, is of no account, 
but cultivated in hills, yields a very early and 
large crop. I picked one season from 500 stools, 
830 quarts. Berries are rather above medium 
size, and of a peculiar, to most palates, very 
pleasant flavor. 



BurrK^ New Pine. A great bearer, in matted 
rows, annually renewed ; its fine light color and 
excellent flavor, make it a favorite everywhere, 
and it will bring in Cincinnati twice as much as 



rich deep, and above all, a moist soil, can grow 
any variety to perfection. 

Most of the varieties named will do equally 
well for the home garden. Lovers of fine fruit. 



the Wilson, if the berries have been properly j however, should not do without the Lennig's 
^^^^^^^^' I White or the President Wilder, and for the epi- 

Charles Downing. Another large, bright i:ed \ cure, who does not mind time, labor or cost, 
and regular shaped berry, having made many \ there are numerous other sorts, combining the 
friends during the last two years ; will only do j highest standard of excellence, size and flavor, 
well in stools, but yields then heavily ; rich But my list of varieties would be incomplete 
sandy loam is its favorite soil, and Mr. Parry ' without mentioning the Ida and the General 
considers it his second best berry. | Meade, and more particularly the first. Mother 

Lady of the Lalce. An old favorite of mine, I earth seems to grow them spontaneously for 
and worthy of more attention than it has thus those of her favorites who like to reap without 
far received, as it seems to stand neo:lect even I sowing. Let those who are afllicted with this 



better than the Wilson. Mr. Scott, of Massa 
chusetts, for the last thirty years the most ex- 
tensive strawberry grower in the ITew England 
States, has informed me that the Lady of the 
Lake yields with him 40 or 50 bushels more per 
acre than the Wilson, or about 200 bushels 
actual count, which averaged him $^9 50 in Bos- 
ton market. 



failing, try the Ida. Plant it close enough for 
the runners to cover the ground the first season, 
and they will afterwards take care of the weeds 
themselves. 

And now a few words about new seedling 
varieties, some of /which promise a bright 
future : 

1. The Col. Cheeney I saw for the first time in 



Fillmore, which Mr. Knox used to style his ^^"it last summer at Barnesville, in what I con- 
second best berry, has to be kept in stools, and j si^er one of the regions best adapted to small 
gives in strong, rich loam, an abundant crop of j ^^'"it culture in our State, of which fact our Bel- 
large berries. niont county friends, I am happy to add, seem 

Agriculturist does not succeed everywhere, to ^e fully aware. The berries on exhibition 
but should be grown where it does. were extremely large, of fine showy appearance. 

Green Prolific. Yielding in hills a very large i fair taste, but rather soft. In productiveness 
crop. It has averaged with me, some seasons, i the Col. Cheeney appears to rival the far-famed 
two quarts to the stool, and is, on account of its \ Mr. Xicaise, as the berries were few and far 
color, very saleable in market. It is the only i between— it certainly took a good many plants 
variety which will live and give satisfaction in j to fill a few quarts. I suppose the plant to be 
the warm, sandy soil of our Miami bottoms, ( pistilate, as by far the larger number of berries 



where neither the Wilson nor any other sort ever 
outlived a single season ; it will, no doubt, do as 
well in other similar localities. 



were small and of no account. 

2. Black Defiance. Raised by Mr. Durand 
from the Green Prolific and Triumph. It is a 



js.entucky, which, in matted rows, hill or ' strona, healthy grower, and seems to have many 
oroaccast, seems to do equally well ; and in ap- • good qualities, but with me the fruit stems ar» 
pearance size and flavor, a most excellent ; so short tliat the berries cannot be kept clean : 
fI7 „i ?'• '**"'" ''"'™ * ^'^ °*' 1200 , this, however, may be a defect in the soil, as it 

Wn "/"^"'ig the bed, which had not is highly spoken of in the Eastern States, 
fonr kIk , Z "f »»'•«<' fo-- three years, over 3. Monarch cf the West. Plant very strong 

These v'h°,'''" ^^'^''' "f"'^'- I '^-'^ '««"hy. fruit large and handsome. I lear^ 

mLuril ''"' "'*™"' '° "'^ '""^" "'■"'"'■^ i ^""^ ^'^^ Wm. Parry, that it is the largest and 

of them ;mT'"'""" T'"" """ ''""*'"• •^°""' ^°"«' strawberry he has ; foliage remarkably 
than annl " ''?"''' ^*'"'"" '° "°* '''*''*'"y ' "'■""S '*°'' vigorous, standing the past hot and 
bvpvr^ ' ^"^""^ =''°'^'"" '"'^ ^° ''""' '"" I '"'■y summer without injury, when the AVilson 

best for i""^"'*' "" "■ **""" *"'''''' '"'''•='' '*'"® the . and other sorts were nearly ruined. The fruit 
cons!rW,r ""T,' ''*'^'''" "■■ '""' '■'*'''"" "''^'^y' '° '' '''^'"' delicious and handsome, selling at $1 
red coin? ,r, / '■'"'^^'* *""■"*" of a bright per quart in Philadelphia, when the Wilson sold 
derat t Whoever has the great desi- at twenty-flve cents. 

wm of the strawberry vine, a well drained, 4. Malihla. A seedling from Triomphe de 



ISA 



THE GARDEMER'S MOJ^THLY. 



May, 



187S. 



THE GARDEJVER'S MOJ^THLY. 



135 



Gand ; a large, handsome, strawberry, firm and 
quite productive. Mr. A. S. Fuller recommend- 
ed it as a market berry, though deficient in fla- 
vor, while Mr. Charles Downing, who has 
repeatedly visited the original plantation, speaks 
very highly of it, and says that the Matilda (ac- 
cording to his taste) will class very good or best. 
The berries sell about one-third higher than 
Wilson's, while there is only a little difference in 
the yield. I 

5. And last, but not least, the Dr. Wavders. \ 
If this berry will show during the next six years 
as bright a record as it has through the past, 
(and I have no doubt it will), then it cannot fail 
to occupy as prominent a position among straw- 
berries, as its godfather, our noble president, so 
deservedly occupies amongst horticulturists. In 
another year we will hear more from it, as it is 
being largely planted in New Jersey, Missouri, 
Kentucky and other States for market purposes. 

The actual yield with me of 200 feet on the 
matted row plan, without winter covering or j 
manure, was two bushels and twelve quarts of I 
such berries as I exlnbited here in Zanesville | 
and other localities, without counting what was 
taken off" by visitors. 

To show the relative value of strawberries in 
market, I may mention that the following varie- 
ties ranged on the same day in Cincinnati at 

50 cents for Jucunda. 

40 cents for Triomphe de Gand and Seth Boy- 
den. 

30 to 35 cents for Kentucky and Agriculturist. 

20 cents for Charles Downing. 

10 to 15 cents for Wilson's Albany. 

TAR ON HOTHOUSE AND GREEN- 
HOUSE STAGING. 

BY W. BENNETT, GARDENER TO O. BREWER, 
ESQ., NEWPORT, R. I. 

Eighteen months ago my employer built three 
ranges of houses here, and being advised to tar 
the stages to preserve the wood, to our mis- 
fortune it was all well tarred ; two span roof 
houses, the wood work/ all being tarred before 
fixed. As soon as the houses were filled in with 
plants, and we commenced firing, we soon found 
out the dangerous effects of tar. The plants 
began to look sickly, the leaves became black- 
ened and dropped off ; consequently the whole 
of the stages was removed -every particle that 
had tar on, and replaced by new. I then filled 
these two houses again with a general collection 



of stove plants and orchids, &c., when they soon 
began to make new leaves and assume an 
healthy appearances. 

The other range, which is a hothouse and 
greenhouse, the staging all being fixed before it 
was tarred, consequently the man when putting 
the tar on the staging, spilt a quantity on the 
pipes. Now after having the whole of the sta- 
ging removed from these two houses, and put- 
ting new staging in, we feel the evil effects of 
the tar as soon as the pipes become heated. 
Last fall all the leaves come off" in two or three 
nights, both in tho hothouse and greenhouse, 
and the plants had to be cleared out again, and 
the few common plants I left in during the win- 
tor are nearly dead. 

The following plants are what suffered moat : 

GREENHOUSE PLANTS. 



Acacias, 

Camellias, 

Aphelexis, 

Hederomas, 

Tremandras, 

Chorizemas, 

Correas, 

Mvrtles, 

Ericas, 



Boronias, 

Adenandras, 

Pimelias, 

Diosmas, 

Dracophyllum, 

Croweas, 

Taxonias, 

Oranges, 

Polygalas, 



Kenncdyas, and a host of others. 

STOVE PLANTS. 



Marantas, 

Crotons, 

Clerodendrons, 

Cyanophyllums, 

Dieffcnbachias, 

Stephanotes, 



Pandanus, 

Dipladineas, 

Ixoras, 

AUamandas, 

Francisceas, 

Palms — some varieties 
nearly killed. 
Anthureums, Euc^haras, &c. 

• Last winter I moved some Yandas into the 
stove, on account of being more heat there than 
in some of the other houses, which were show- 
ing flower spikes ; to my surprise, in three days 
the flower spikes turned black and withered 
away. Cypripediums and Cattleyas, Oncidiums, 
Aerides, Saccolabiums, Phaloenopsis, all lost 
their leaves in that house, and would have died 
had I let them remain there. For instance, an 
old plant of Justicia carnea, which has been in 
the house all the winter, continually keeps drop- 
ping off" at the joints, and I believe the plant 
will be quite dead by the spring. 

Now we are quite sure the tar is the cause of 
all our trouble, and unless we can remove the 
evil, we shall never have a healthy plant in these 
two houses. For instance, a plant not only 



requires its roots and stem, but its leaves to per- [ the remainder filled with the fibre of orchard 
form its functions ; but strip a plant entirely of peat, keeping the plants in a night temperature 
its leaves, and its vital actions for the time of from 50^ to 55° in the winter, and place them 
cease. In my opinion, tar is dangerous to plant in a^ open greenhouse with air day and night in 
life ; however, I have found it so here. I should summer, shade from bright sun during the heated 
be pleased to hear from some of your correspond- weather, and expose to full light in a'utumn. 



ents if there is any remedy for removing the tar 
from the pipes. 



The plants flower from December to January, 
and last in flower more than a month, so that it 
-^-^ I flowers at a very desirable season, when choice 

NOTE ON CELOSIA JAPONICA ^'^^'' ^^^ scarce and always in request. The 

flowers are about four inches across ; beautiful, 
BY MRS. F. very lilac and deep purple. It lasts for a long 

A subscriber to the Gardener's Monthly, who time when cut and placed in water in a raoder- 
saw at the floral exhibition of the Western New \ ate heated room. 
York Fair last fall, the new Japan Cockscomb, 
Celosia Japonica, which is being introduced this 
season by Mr. James Yick, of Rochester, N. Y., 
writes to the editor as follows : 
As regards the beauty of this novelty, it must 



*•>•» 



RURAL IMF^ROYEMENTS. 

BY WALTER ELDER. 

^, „.. Nothwithstanding the many books published 

be seen to be fully appreciated. Imagine a plant i "P<5» the culture of fruits and vegetables, our 
growing from two to three feet high, very \ horticultural magazines are mostly taken up 

branching ; the stalks of which are of a bright -"'''" "" ' 

scarlet or crimson, and every branch, however 



with things to eat; their foreign readers will 
think that "we Yankees" are awful people for 



small, terminating in a comb, or rather a clus- | "stuffing our kites." 

ter, consisting of an immense number of combs. The love for the beautiful and fragrant in or- 
having the appearance of the finest scarlet or j namental gardening is fast spreading among our 
crimson silk velvet ; ruffled and crimped into j wealthy citizens. Almost every family wishes 
large heads in a most delicate and beautiful for a rural retreat of their own, so as to improve 
^^^^^^- j it to suit their fancies. Our seedsmen, florists 

The fohnge is also very fine, being of a dark, i and nurserymen are using their best endeavors 
changeable crimson, green and bronze, which in ! to further their desires. It is astonishing to see 
sunlight gives to the plant a most splendid ap- I the numerous new species and improved" varie- 
pearance. This certainly is no "5fpor«," but a ! ties of annuals, biennials and perennials of areat 
true and distinct variety, entirely new, and alto- . beauty and delightful fra^rrance. 



gether different in habit from the old varieties. 



*•■>» 



LAELIA ANCEPS.— No. 9. 



BY MR. JAMES TAPLIN, MANAGER TO OEORGE 
SUCH, ESQ., SOUTH AMBOY, N. J. 

J If aImI ''""f f .?""' ^•"' ^y ''""''''- 1 """'^"•^ !"«"'« f«- their embcllishme..t. But in 



The same is the case with ornamental trees 
and shrubbery. The great increase and surpass- 
ing beauty of ornamental vines is also very en- 
couraging. Those having rural estates to im- 
prove, need only to visit our commercial gardens 
and examine the various stocks therein, to choose 



finn ^e ri^^w 1 • n ... « -^ -"t^ck^.v. ^MrtiiLo lui Liieir emueiiisument. I5ut m 

t'^S'^'::i:'\^^'^''^^''^^^r'''\^^^^^"^ -^ •J'-ting the i,npr,ve„.e„ts, we 



by those who grow but few other varieties of 
choice plants, it being one of the species which 
IS easily grown by any one possessing a green- 
house for winter flowering plants. This being 
a Mexican species, does not require a strong 
heat, but would in time be so much weakened 
by a high temperature that few or no flowers 
would be obtained. 

This plant may be grown either in a pot, bas- 
ket, or on a block, but the pot or basket is the 
best in this climate. We grow the plants in 
Jrame, three parts filled with broken pots, and 



quote a sentence from the Philadelphia Public 
Ledger: ^'It is necessary to have a man who un- 
derstands the business.''' Such a man will repre- 
sent himffclf, and not carry bundles of script to tell 
what he can do; nor will he ride upon other peo- 
ple s shoulders to get up in the world. 

We earnestly beseech all our commercial gar- 
deners to encourage rural improvements, rather 
than discourage them, in commending suitable 
men to direct the works, independent of their 
"being regular customers.'' No man can buy 
all he needs from each individual dealer. A 



136 



THE GARDEJ^EB'S MOJ^TBLY. 



May, 



1873. 



THE GARDEJ\rER'S MOJ^THLY. 



137 



I 

man's qualifications should be the mark—h\% \ 
doings will be sure to bring trade to the firm. 
He may save ten times the amount of the price 
of his hire in his direction. He will make selec- 
tions of nursery stocks as will flourish upon the 
soil and exposure of the place, and will set them 
out in a way to insure their thrifty growth, and 
give the most pleasing effect. Every place will 
require a plan to suit itself. A pleasing diversi- 
ty can be made upon very small grounds. Ever- 
green hedges make the most beautiful and last- 
ing enclosures for small grounds. Perhaps some 
large grounds may be belted with trees, many of 
them being evergreens for winter shelter, and to 
shut out the vulgar stare. 

Several species of fruit trees are highly orna- 
mental upon a fine lawn. The Cherry, Pear, 
Peach, American and Spanish Chestnut trees, 
&c., are all beautiful, and their fruits valuable. 
The number of individual species and varieties 
of deciduous trees and shrubs are vast, and their 
diversity surprising ; so it is with flowering 
plants, their splendors are dazzling, and their 
sweet perfumes are charming. Our rural and 
suburban improvements have made rapid strides 
within the past twenty years, and I feel assured 
that the ensuing twenty years will quadruple the 
past in the extent and gorgeousness of their im- 
provements. 



«•»•» 



PRUNING IN JUNE. 

BY L. J. TEMPLIN, KOKOMA, IND. 

I have become so much accustomed to accept- 
ing the teachings of the Gardener^s Monthly^ as 
sound doctrine, that I feel somewhat surprised 
to feel compelled to dissent from anything found 
in it. But I find I sometimes have to disagree 
with those who are my best friends, and who 
are also competent to teach me on almost all 
subjects. The spirit that pervades the pages of 
the Gardener's Mont My ^ both editorial and com 
municated, assures me that any effort to either 
discover or communicate truth, will bo not only 
tolerated, but encouraged. 

In an article on tree culture, in the February 
Dumber of your magazine, I find among some 
very good things, that we should do well to take 
heed to a fling at pruning fruit trees in June, as 
a theory fit only for boys who are full of faith in 
what they see in print. Now I believe that 
aith, even when found existing in boyhood, is a 
good thing, and departinir from the faith of 
childhood has led many a man to his ruin ; but 
fortunately or otherwise, I had no faith on the 



subject of tree pruning till after boyhood had 
fled forever, as my thoughts and studies all led 
to different fields of knowledge, and when I was 
led to investigate the subject of tree culture, I 
first became prejudiced in favor of winter and 
early spring pruning, and it was only after seve- 
ral years of both study and practice that I 
became convinced that for certain purposes in 
pruning, June is the best possible season of the 
year. 

I presume that everybody will agree that a 
single fact is hardly sufficient to either establish 
or overthrow a general principle. Mr. II. 's ex- 
periment in pruning in June does not necessari* 
ly prove that it is folly to prune at that season. 
The trees may have been in bad health, or some 
other unknown cause may have produced the 
evil. 

In the fall of 1865 I pruned a young orchard 
in the month of November. The previous sum- 
mer had been one of excessive wet ; the follow- 
ing winter was a very cold one. The weather 
up to the time of pruning, and for some time 
after, was mild and fine, but the result was that 
a large number of the trees died, and the trunks 
of those that survived were generally as black as 
tar, below the wounds made in pruning. Now 
I do not think it was the season altogether that 
produced all this evil, but think perhaps it was 
caused by a combination of unfavorable influen- 
ces with which I was at that time unacquainted. 
For seven years past I have pruned somewhat 
extensively, both in orchards and nursery, and 
have observed with considerable of interest the 
experien( e of others, and have arrived at the fol" 
lowing conclusions : 

1st. If the design is to increase the vigor of a 
tree and produce a large, strong wood growth, 
pruning should be done as early in the season, 
after the fall of the leaf, as we can be sure that 
it will not be followed by excessive freezing. 

2nd. If it is desired to check excessive wood 
growth, and throw the tree into bearing, pru- 
ning should be done late in the summer— say 
latter part of July and during August. 

3rd. When the wish is to merely thin out sur- 
plus and improperly placed branches, and regu- 
late the bhape of a tree, and leave it, so far as 
vigor is concerned, iii statu quOy it should be 
pruned at the time it has fairly commanced to 
make its most vigorous growth for the season, 
whether it be in May or June. 

These opinions have been formed not only on 
the facts as they have presented themselvis to 



my mind, but the why and wherefore of these 
results have been carefully inquired into, and 
every effect so traced to its cause, that I con- 
ceive it would not be a hard task to show that 
the above conclusions are based upon sound 
physiological principles. This is a question of 
great practical importance to myself and thous- 
ands of others— too important to be laughed out 
of company, and if my conclusions are erronous, 
no man would rejoice more than myself to have 
the error pointed out ; but to make this plain, 
will, perhaps, require something more than a 
simple intimation that such opinions are based 
exclusively in childish credulity. 

I will not at this time, ask to occupy your val- 
uable space by going into an investigation of the 
scientific principles involved in these questions, 
as this might be considered theorizing, which is 
estimated very lightly by some, but shall con- 
tent myself with giving some experimental testi- 
mony. 

In 1866 I had a young orchard that I began 
to prune in February, and continued at intervals 
till August, and those pruned in June, did bet- 
ter, healed over sooner, than any pruned either 
before or after that period. In 1871 I began to 
renovate an orchard ten years old, that had been 
trained according to the absurd fashion of low 
heads which prevailed at that time. It took a 
great deal of cutting and trimming, but I was 
determined, and persevered ; the result was that 
every wound made in June- the time the work 
was done, began at once to heal over, and by the 
time growth stopped in the fall, every place 
where a branch had been cut off, had a beautiful 
ring of new bark and wood, of from one-third to 
one-half inch in width all around it, and still 
they are doing well. 



*•»♦» 



NEGLECTED PLANTS. 

BY JOHN TULLY, ROSEDALE NURSERY, PIIILA- 

DELPklA. 

Passiflora Princeps racemosa. This 
charming old plant is one of the many all-but- 
forgotten in the race for novelties. It is a stove 
climber, of easy culture, and this, coupled with 
the beauty of its flowers, should make it a gen- 
eral favorite. What can have a more pleasing 
effect in one's stove than these beautiful raceums 
of scarlet flowers hanging from the rafters. By 
the following treatment I had it in bloom for 
nine months in the year : 

In front of my house, and immediately under 



my hot water pipes, I excavated a pit, from two 
feet to two and a half feet deep, and about two 
feet in width. For drainage I put in about 
eight inches of coarse lime rubbish ; I then filled 
my pit with a compost of one-half rough fibry 
loam, one-fourth turfy peat, with a free admix- 
ture of well decomposed cow manure and fresh 
water sand. I put in my plants in February, 
placed a board between tlu m and the pipes ; by 
the middle of June they were to the top of my 
stove and showing bloom. 

I have grown Passiflora quadrangularis very 
successful in this way. I also planted it early 
in February, took it up to the roof, fertilized my 
flowers as they expanded, and by the end of 
August I had fine large oval fruit fit for dessert, 
some swelling, and plenty of beautiful flowers at 
the same time ; it acts as a shade for the plants 
in summer, and in winter it will bear to be 
spurred like a vine. I have grown that beauti- 
ful scarlet trumpet flower, Bignonia Cherei, in 
the same manner, with great success. At the 
Rosedale Nurseries, Philadelphia, there is a 
plant of Bignonia venusta grown in a similar 
manner, and I am sure it has well repaid the 
trouble bestowed on it some years ago, for it is 
at present literally covered with its fine clusters 
of beautiful bright orange-colored blossoms, 
which one will not often see at this time. 



INFLUENCE OF EXTREME COLD ON 
THE CURCULIO. 

BY PROFESSOR RILEY, MISSOURI STATE 
ENTOMOLOGIST. 

It is with difficulty that I find time now-a- 
days to write anything fugitive ; but as you 
have expressed the desire (p. 14) to hear mj 
opinion on the above subject, I will give it, 
however briefly, 

Ist. In assuming that the Plum Curculio (for, I 
take it, no other is intended) hibernates in the 
pupa state in the ground, Mr. Southwick starts 
out with a mistaken premise, which, of course, 
very materially weakens his conclusion, that 
"when the soil is much exposed to long con- 
tinued freezing, the frost penetrates to a depth, 
and with sufficient intensity^ to reach and destroy 
the pupa." 

2d. Prolonged expi'rience and experiment have 
convinced me that this insect invariably hiber- 
nates in the perfect beetle state, either above or 
just below the surface of the ground. This is a 
settled fact, and there can be no good reason 



138 



THE GARDEJVER'S MOMTELY. 



May, 



187S. 



THE GARDEJYER'S MOXTHLY. 



139 



given for doubting it. I have invariably found 
that the beetles issue from the ground long before 
the frost sets in, and have kept numbers all 
through the winter, and found them at that 
season in their winter quarters out of doors. 
(For details see 3d Mo. Ent. Rep. pp. 11-13.) 

3d. Intense and continued cold in winter is 
not so apt to destroy insect life as constant 
freezing and thawing. Once torpid, most insects 
may be frozen solid with impunity, and our 
little Turk is as tough us any of them. Re- 
peated freezing and thawing is far more prejudi- 
cial than continued freezing, and if we are to 
attribute the scarcity of the Curculio in 1872 to 
anything at all, I should prefer myself to attri- 
bute it to the unprecedented heat and drought 
of the summer of 1871 ; for it is an established 
fact that excessive heat and dryness will destroy 
many insects which transform underground, if 
it occur at the time they are undergoing such 
transformations. 

[As a matter of interest we quote what Mr. 
Riley says of the Curculio in the third report of 
the Missouri Entomologist. — Ed. ]: 

" I shall not here repeat what has already 
been published about this insect ; but shall con- 
fine my remarks principally to the unsettled and 
mooted points in its natural history, aad to the 
new discoveries that have been made since the 
appearance of my first Report. I am glad to be 
able to say that I have forever settled the prin- 
cipal question, namely, as to its being single or 
double brooded. Authors have, from the begin- 
ning, held different views on this subject, and 
this fact should not surprise us, when we bear 
in mind that they reasoned simply from conjec- 
ture ; nor will it surprise us when we under- 
stand the facts in the case. The facts that 
fresh and soft Curculios are found in this lati- 
tude as early as the last of June, and that they 
still come out of the ground in August, or as 
late as September, and even October in more 
northerly latitudes, are well calculated to mis- 
lead ; while it was difficult to imagine an insect 
living ten months before ovipositing, without 
dwindling away through the action of its 
enemies. But in the beetle state, the Curculio 
has few, if any enemies, and in my former 
writings on this subject, I have shown that the 
other facts do not in the least prove the insect 
to be double-brooded. AmoHg those whose 
opinions commanded respect, from their pro- 
found entomological knowledge and general 
accuracy, was Mr. Walsh, who, during his last 



years, strenuously contended that this insect 
was double-brooded. For several years I have 
entertained a different opinion, believing that it 
was single brooded, as a rule, and only exception- 
ally double-brooded ; and the facts so fully bear 
me out in this opinion, that were ray late asso- 
ciate living to-day, I should bring forth the 
testimony with a feeling of triumph, for he was 
not often in the wrong I It is worthy of remark, 
however, that Mr. Walsh's first impression, as 
given by him in the year 1867*, was that this 
insect is single brooded ; his first opinion thus 
coinciding with what I have now proved to be 
the facts in the case. In my first Report I have 
reviewed the experiments which led him to 
I change his opinion, and have shown that they 
! did not warrant his final conclusion. 

I The many words that have been penned in the 
discussion of this question would fill a volume ; 
but one stern fact, one thorough experiment, is 
worth more than all the theories that were ever 
conceived, or the phrases that were ever writ- 
ten on the subject. At first it seems to be a 
very simple question to settle, but the fact that 
it remained unsettled so long would indicate the 
reverse. Judge A. M. Brown, of Villa Ridge, 
at my suggestion, endeavored in the summer of 
1869 to solve the problem by imprisoning the 
first bred beetles and furnishing them with 
plucked fruit. Dr. Hull partially performed a 
like experiment, and I did the same myself; but 
we were met by the advocates of the two- 
brooded theory with the objection that such a 
test was of no value, as the Curculio would not 
deposit «n plucked fruit or in confinement ; and 
to add weight to their argument they could cite 
us to numerous instances among butterflies to 
prove that many insects really will not deposit in 
confinement. But, as we shall see. they placed 
too much confidence in the instinct of Mrs. 
Turk when, from such premises, they made 
these deductions apply to her. 

As I proved over and over again, the question 
could not be solved with any more certainty, by 
confining beetles to living boughs containing 
fruit, as the boughs could not well be covered 
with any substance through which the beetles 
would not gnaw their way out. So I deter- 
mined last spring to build a frame over a large 
tree and entirely enclose it in stout gauze, that 
would neither let a flea in or out, much less a 
Curculio. Having accomplished this before the 



♦Practical Entomologist, Vol. II, No. 7. 



blossoms had fallen off the tree, I awaited with ' 
pleasurable interest the result from day to day, i 
from week to week, and from month to mouth ; 
engaging a competent person to watch, when, ' 
from necessity, I was obliged to be awav. It 
were worse than waste of time to detail here the 
many interesting observations made on this 
tree which I had under control, or to enumerate 
the many other experiments which I conducted \ 
in other ways, or the innumerable flicts obtained ; \ 
and it will suffice to give in a summarj- man- 
ner the results — premising only that every pre- 
caution was taken, and no expense spared, to ' 
prevent failure ; that the experiments were 
satisfactory beyond my expectations, the results 
conclusive beyond all peradventure, and that I 
can prove every statement I make. To sum up i 
then : — The Plum Curculio is sinfjle hmnded, and 
I have a number now alive which were bred 
during the latter part of Jane from the first stung 
peaches. (At the time the printer is ready for 
this Report the beetles are still alive and flour- 
ishing—February 24th, 1871.) But, as there 
seem to be exceptions to all rules, so there are 
to this ; yet the exceptions are only just about 
sufficient to prove the rule, for as far south as 
St. Louis not more than one per cent, of the 
beetles lay any eggs at all, until they have lived 
through one winter ; or in other words, where 
one female will pair and deposit a few eggs the 
same summer she was bred, ninety-nine wilt live 
on for nearly ten months and not deposit till the 
following spring. In more northern Latitudes I 
doubt if any exception to the rule will be found. 
"As to the other mooted point, namely, 
whether this insect ever hibernates under ground 
in the larvfe state, I am perfectly satisfied that 
it never does, but that it passes the winter inva- 
riably as a beetle, under all sorts of shelter in 
the woods ; generally, however, near the surface 
of the ground. Indeed, it often makes for itself 
a hole in the ground, seldom, however deep 
enough to more than barely cover its own body. 
In short, there is very little to alter or modify in 
the eslablished facts in its natural history, 
which I have already published. The egg, 
instead of being * ova V as there stated, would 
be better described as ' oblong-oval,' measuring 
exactly 03 inch in length, and being nearly 
three times as long as wide. It should also be 
remarked here, that when depositing the eggs in 
apples, the female often neglects the usual 
symbol of Mohammedanism, which she so invari- 
ably inscribes upon stone fruit : and that where 



this mark is made on apples, it more easily be- 
comes obliterated. 

*' During their beetle life, these insects feed 
continually, just as long as the weather is mild 
enough to make them active. While fruit lasts, 
they gouge holes in it, and after peaches have 
gone, apples are badly attacked. They also 
gnaw large holes in the leaves, and when 
nothing else presents, will feed on the bark of 
the tender twigs. 

" The beetles often make a peculiar creaking 
noise (a fact not mentioned before of this 
species) by rubbing the tip of the abdomen up 
and down against the wing-covers.'^ 

" Let us be thankful, therefore, that there can 
no jonger reasonably be difference of opinion, or 
discussion on these questions, which, though of 
no very great practical importance, were yet of 
great interest to us all. ' ' 



*A great many different beetles belonging t(» widely dif 
foront families have the power of making a stridulating 
creaking noise, and though the instrument is found 
upon d iflfer en t ) tarts of the body in difl'erent species, yet 
it is always made after one plan, namely, a file-like rasp 
and a scraper. In Darwin's new book (Descent of Man 
pp. 8G()-7.'{) an interesting account of the diflferent meth- 
ods employed will be found. Every entomologist 
knows how commonlj" this creaking noise occurs in 
the Long-horn beetles, and that the rasp is situated on 
the mesothorax, and is rubbed against the prothorax. 
In the Burying beetles (Necroi'HORID.=e) these rasps 
are situated on the fifth abdominal joint, and are 
scraped by the posterior margin of the elytra. In the 
Dung-beetles again it is variously situated upon differ- 
ent portions of the body. Dr. Fitch (lOth Ann. Rep* 
p. 12) has noticed the creaking noise by the Three-lined 
Leaf-beetle (/vC7na Ar«7///ea/:rt) which l» produced by the 
same motions as those witnessed in our Curculio; but 
in this instance, as iu all other stridulating Chrysome- 
lidje, the rasp is situated on the dorsal apex of the 
abdomen known as the pvgidium, and is scraped by 
the wing-covers; while in the closely allied Curculio- 
nida^ which have this power the parts are completely 
reversed in position. Any one who will take the trou- 
ble to carefully examine t.ie wing-covers of our Plum 
Curculio will find on the lower apical edge of each, a 
horny, slightly raised plate, about a third as long as the 
whole wing-cover, and transverselj- and obliquely 
ribbed by numerous paralU^l ridges. There is also a 
longer cord or carina near the sutural edge which may 
help to intensify the noise. The dors il apex of the 
abdomen or pygidiuin forms a yellowish and rough" 
ened plate, with the sides liorny and emarginate, so 
that wnen the abdomen plays up and down, these 
horny edges grate or scrape at right angles against the 
rasp. 

In some instances the stridulatlon is possessed prln' 
cipally by one sex and serves.no doubt as a sexual call ; 
but with our Curculio as with most other stridulating 
beetles, both sexes seem to share alike in the power, 
and it then no doubt serves as a mutu.al call, or is used 
under the influence of distress, fear, or even pleasure 
for I have always more particularly noticed the noise 
of an evening when the Curculios were most adtlve 
and preparing for their active night work. 



IJfO 



TEE GARDEJSTER'S MOJfTHLY. 



May^ 



1873, 



TEE GARDE JEER'S MOJVTELY. 



141 



:i 



♦ 



SMALL PIPES IN HOT WATER HEATING 

BY L. B. G., ROCHESTER, N. Y. 

In Oardener'>s Monthly, Vol. VI, p. 53, you 
discourage the use of small pipe in the fire. 
Last fall I built a small propagating house, and 
to heat tank I suspended the boiler, holding two 
gallons, over the fire. I found when the furnace 
was banked I could not obtain sufficient heat. 
I then made a boiler 10 inches long by 3 inches 
in diameter, to receive flow and return pipes, 
to the bottom of which I attached 1| inch gas 
pipe, which drops through the fire nearly to the 
bottom of the grate : to keep up circulation in 
this pipe I placed inside a .{ inch tube, reaching 
from near the bottom of the gas pipe nearly 
to the top of the boiler. I now get as much 
heat with a dull fire. The boiler works so well 
that I thought of using such an arraui'ement on 
a larger scale in a propagating house I am about 
to build. How can pipe in the fire give out 
when it will not get much hotter than the water ? 
Do you think a small saddle boiler would answer 
better? I notice houses here with both brick 
and cement flues leak gas badly on dull days. 
In a house 80 feet long, 11 feet wide, would it 
not be better to rum the flue forty or fifty feet, 
and heat the balance with water ? Suppose clay 
or tile pipes had one end coated with pitch, then 
the joints butted together and cemented with 
mortar, similar to the collar illustrated in Oar- 
denei^'s Monthly, Vol. V, p. 86, would not the 
pitch by preventing the mortar from adhering 
to the pipe allow the pipe to expand, and yet be 
sufficiently tight to prevent leakage ? 1 enclose 
clipping from Scientijic American relating to the 
same subject : 

A. B. says : —The heating pipes of a greenhouse 
are common sewer tiles, composed of lime and 
gravel, the end of each joint slipping into the next 
one. I find the heat or cold expands and contracts 
them, breaking the cement that I put them together 
with, consequently permitting the smoke to escape 
and fill the greenhouse, to the no small detiimeat of 
the plants. How can I obviate this evil, and is 
there any kind of springy cement with which I 
could join them ? 2. What is the force per square 
inch of freezing water? 3. The news dealer 
charges me 8 cents for the Scientific American, that 
is 14.16 per year. Does $3 sent to you include 
postage ; if not, what would the postage be ? An- 
swers : 1. As an expedient, we suggest that you 
cover the joints with a band of thin sheet tin, the ends 
of which you can lap and bend over with your 
fingers with sufficient tightness. 2. The expansive 
force of water in freezing has been estimated at 
thirty thousand pounds per square inch. 3. The 
postage on the Scientific American is 5 cents a 
quarter or 20 cents a year, payable by the sub- 
scriber. 



Perhaps these inquiries are answered in Gar- 
dener^s Monthly, 1862, for which Vol. I have just 
sent. As I have neglected to take the Monthly 
for the past five years, I find myself behind the 
times in regard to new improvements. The 
volumes I have I would not exchange for the 
best book in the country, and will soon send for 
those I have neglected to take. 



ORCHARD CULTURK. 

BY G ZIMMERMAN, BUFFALO, N. Y. 

I In your editorial of the January number, the 
I remarks on '' Preparing ground for fruit trees," 
! will be valuable to all those who wish to plant 
i an orchard on land which is not naturally 
j underdrained. 

j The general opinion is, that such land is not 
fit for successful fruit growing, which seems to 
i be true to the observer who passes through the 
: countrv and sees the difference between orchards 
I planted on sandy or gravely knolls and hill- 
sides, and those planted on level clay land, 
i managed in the ordinary way, viz : of constant 
i plowing and cropping between the trees. 
j I have in my mind two orchards, both within 
; four miles of Buffalo, the planting and managing 
of which, with the results, may give light on 
\ the question. 

I The one belongs to an old German, who never 
reads any paper or book but his Bible, but 
whose keen observation and shrewdness make 
him, in my estimation, one of the best fruit 
growers I ever knew. 

His trees are all planted on the surface, then 
plowed up several times, so that the beds on 
which the trees stand are at least two feet higher 
in the middle than the side furrows. He then seeds 
it down, keeps it mowvd, and never plows again, 
but give the trees an annual dressing on the 
surface, either of compost or stable manure, 
which he covers with creek sand, to which he 
has easy access. The trees are among the best 
I ever saw. His mode of pruning, too, shows 
more knowledge than the work of most farmers, 
for they generally do too much. He is well 
known to the fruit dealers in Buffalo for his fine 
fruit, more especially the cherries, which is a 
favorite fruit with him ; next in his estimation 
is the apple. 

That he realizes large profits from fruit grow- 
ing is clear by what he said a year or two ago, 
when buying as usual a number of apple trees. 
If I were only 50 years old instead of over 70, 



I would come with the hay-rake and get wagon 
loads. ^^ 

The other is an orchard of about twenty-five 
acres, and was planted about twenty years ago, 
on a piece of rolling land of a light sandy loam, 
mostly new at that time, the whole well under- 
drained and otherwise prepared, as is recom- 
mended by the best writers on the subject. The 
owner is a very sensible man, of a liberal char- 
acter, who never hesitated a moment to make 
an outlay when the success of the enterprise 
seemed to require it ; the whole orchard was 
kept in the highest culture, and vegetables grown 
between the trees. The result was, the trees 
grew vigorously in the extreme, but several 
times the blight made sad havoc among the 
pear trees, and even a number of the apple trees 
were badly aflfected, but these mishaps could 
not shake the enthusiasm of our friend— new 
trees were procured, and the vacancies filled as 
fast as made ; but this excessive growth had a 
more serious fault ; the fruit, although fine, was 
very little in quantity, making the difference in 
the balance sheet from year to year larger on 
the wrong side. Unfortunately, too, for the 
orchard, it happened that about that time 
(when trees were expected to bring good returns) 
that a tree carpenter (as you so fitly call them) 
saw the orchard, and I presume expressed the 
opinion that these trees are not properly 
pruned, and would not bear. They must have 
the shape of an inverted umbrella, so that the 
air and sun can get in. This seemed reasonable ; 
the pruner got the job, a;id he did it thoroughly. 
The centre of each tree was cut out down to a 
few of the lowest tier of branches. Dwarf and 
Standard, Apple and Pear trees, were all treated 
ahke. The consequence was, that this expen- 
sive orchard was half ruined, and did not pay 
the owner any better afterwards. It lost its 
charm for him, and a few years afterwards was 
6old to a market gardener, who now cuts down 
one lot of trees after the other, and threatens to 
cut down all the apple trees if they do not soon 
bear better. 

These two orchards are not over three miles 
apart: the one which is made and managed 
with comparatively little cost brings the shrewd 
owner such satisfactory results, that he says : 

nothing 2Jays hi7n so well as his orchard.'' He 
has an experience of over thirty years' fruit 
growing on the same place. 



(t 



SPECIFIC HEAT IN PLANTS. 

BY G. DROBISCII, COLUMBUS, OHIO. 

Is there any specific heat in plants ? From 
time to time I have seen this question discoursed 
in different papers, and always read the argu- 
ments, for and against the existence of such, 
with great interest, yet without being fully con- 
vinced as to which is the true theory. 

In your January number, page 5, I see a 
short notice on the subject by a correspondent, 
in which he refers to a former article, by Dr. 
L. Fritsche, and in which he explains in a very 
plausible way the phenomena on which Dr. F. 
based the existence of specific heat. 

I consider myself entirely incompetent to give 
any opinion as to which is the right explanation 
in the mentioned case, as I never observed those 
facts under the same circumstances, but I will 
give you my experience, in making an observa- 
tion which spoke much in favor of vegetable 
heat. 

Four years ago, in the latter part of February, 
I noticed one morning after a cold night a heavy 
fog or dew deposited all over the surrounding 
landscape, forming a peculiar coating of frosted 
particles of the finest texture, and formation on 
trees, shrubs, and vines, giving them a very 
interesting appearance. The weather remained 
very dull and cloudy all morning, preventing the 
bright rays of sunshine to break through even for 
one minute, yet the temperature rose gradually 
towards noon, without reaching actual thawing. 
At 12 o'clock at noon, I noticed, in passing °a 
number of grape vines, this fine frosted coating, 
which rested on them in the morning, had dis- 
appeared wherever the vines had any life 
in them, but on the extreme ends, which 
were of matured growth, and consequently 
winter killed, and also on the dead tendrils all 
over the vines it remained on. This was cer- 
tainly a very strange phenomena, and surprised 
me very much, and in trying to find any expla- 
nation for it, I could come to no other conclusion 
but what this could only be specific heat in the 
vines, which caused the thawing of this fine 
frost. Had it been the effect of exterior heat, I 
should suppose it to thaw first where deposited 

I in smallest quantity, that is, on the fine tendrils 
and the slender tips of the vines, but the fact of 
being just the reverse, and to see all the tendrils 
still covered with frost, while the live canes to 
which they were attached were thawed ofi; made 
it most striking that this was to be attributed to 

I some other agency. 



U2 



THE GABDEJVER'S MOJfTELY. 



May, 



1873. 



THE OARDEJVER'S MOJYTHLr. 



I have never since been able to make the same ! 
observation again, and I think it was owing to ; 
the peculiar weather and temperature at that j 
time, for if the temperature had been any lower 
I don't suppose the specific heat of those vines 
would have been strong enough to thaw that 
frost, and again at a higher degree (which it 
reached an hour later) it would have thawed off 
80 suddenly at once, without giving any oppor- ' 
tunity of making any observation at all. 

In the above, I simply state the facts as I 
found them, and should like to have your, and 
some of your readers, opinion on the subject, 
whether there is any other explanation for this 
phenomena. j 



143 



HISTORY OF THE BLOOD-LEAVED 

PEACH. 

BY A LADY SUBSCRIBER, VICKSBURG, MISS. 

Seeing in the Gardenerls Monthly for Febru- 
ary a desire expressed to know where the 
** blood-leaved Oen. Tilfjhman Peach tree" did 
spring, I wrote out to Mr. DeHebron, at Bovina, 
for the correct history of it, and I take the 
liberty of enclosing his reply. I have one of the 
trees growing finely. It certainly presents a 
very singular appearance when in i3loom, the 
flowers being very large and nearly white, and 
the foliage dark red. I enclose a twig. I hope 
this information may prove as acceptable as it 
is reliable. 

Dear Madam — Your letter was received a 
few days ago, and in reply T take pleasure in 
giving you a full statement of the General 
Tilgham Peach tree. It was found at Champion 
Hills, in Hinds County (near the spot that Gen. 
Tilgham was killed) by my nurseryman, Mr. P. 
T. Connor. 

Mr. C. belonged to Cowan's Battery, and was 
present when the General was shot. In 1866, 
Mr. C. took a stroll over the battle-field, and 
near by the spot where the General died, in a 
cluster of briars, this singular peach tree stood. 
He brought it to my nursery, and it still bears 
its bloody appearance. 

Yours very ro^spectfuUy, John L. Hebron. 

[Our correspondent has our best thanks for 
this note. She says her peach has large whitish 
flowers ; ours is small and deep pink. The twig 
pushing into leaf alse seems to have broader 
leaves than the one sent to us before. Are 
there two kinds ?--Ed.] 



AKEMONE JAPONICA ALBA. 

BY R. W., LANSINBURGH, X. Y. 

Mr. Duncan's notes on hardy herbaceous 
plants, in your February number, were very 
good, and called attention to some worthy of 
more consideration than they receive, particu- 
larly the saxifrages, but I was disappointed in 
finding no mention made of the anemone japon- 
ica alba. There is no herbaceous perennial in 
my garden I value so highly as I do this, and it 
is a matter of surprise to me that it is not more 
fully appreciated. AVhen in bloom, loaded with 
its snowy blossoms, it never fails to excite the 
admiration of those who see it, and during the 
summer its tufts of leaves are always bright and 
fresh, presenting none of the weedinesa common 
to many plants in general cultivation. This 
plant undoubtedly possesses the very quaUties 
which place it foremost among hardy herba- 
ceous plants, viz : great beauty and perfect 
hardiness. In conclusion, allow me to quote Mr. 
Robinson, who, in his '-Parks and Gardens of 
Paris," says: this beautiful autumn bloomer 
should be in every garden where a hardy flower 
is valued," and I fully agree with him, and 
trust those who have not the anemone japonica 
alba will be persuaded by these words to add a 
root or two to their flower border. The addition 
will certainly not he regretted. 



THE TUPELO AS A HEDGE PLANT. 

BY W. M. NOBLE, BRIDGEPORT, CONN. 

You say at some Society's report in the July 
Monthly, that the perfect hedge plant had not 
been found. True, but in the search, let me 
offer to your consideration " Nyssa sylvat- 
ica Tupelo Gum or Pepperige tree." I have 
never seen it named, but I think it will be 
found as hardy, handsome, and impenetrable as 
any other plant. As a fence plant, I believe it 
has a natural growth and aptness, which, with- 
out the shears no other can boast. 

I know a natural pepperige hedge near here, 
never shorn, growing up twelve feet high, beside 
a stone wall, on a high and dry bank, which no 
creature could break through. The very hori- 
zontal or depending branches and style of this 
tree, fits it by nature, to interiace its wiry shoot 
into a ready formed hedge and stout barrier. 

The foliage and form of this tree is striking 
and attractive in every season. Its winter spray 
is stout, yet gracefully depending, and of a pleas- 
ing grey. The bright and glossy leaves of its 



summer form, rival the richest verdure of the 
season. In autumn, no foliage but that of the 
scarlet maple can rival the rich and enduring 
tints, which glow upon and adorn the woodland 
drapery. 

It should be much oftener sought for— the 
arboretum on the lawn, clustered with others, or 
standing alone, its spire-like form yields a rare 
and stately beauty. 

Cut out its leader when twelve feet high, and 
the whole strength of its vegetation crowds' into 
the lower depending limbs, and quickly makes 
of this a lovely weeper. I have seen such. The 
shoots, which push up so vigorously in most ! 
trees when so treated, only shows in this after | 
a long interval, during which the depending 
branches extend and perfect its new form. 

I confess, so strong is this weeping tendency 
of the Tupelo, that I leok, ere long, to find some 
sport therefrom, which has taken the form of a 
persistent weeper. 



HOT WATEH BOILER FLUES. 

BY W. B. WICKEN. 

The writer is by no means one of those who 
believe there is nothing like the ."good old 
times," but it is his intention to write a letter 
in favor of the old and now-a-days despised Flue. 

There are men of small means starting into 
business who cripple themselves too much by 
putting in expensive hot water apparatus, when 
properly constructed flues would answer equally 
as well, and could be furnished at much less 
expense. 

And for more pretentious structures than 
tlie commercial florist would build, the flue 
could be made available. There are many who 
would build small conservatories, but are deterred 
>J ilio consideration of expensive hot water 
apparatus. An objecticn against the flue in 
this case may be urged against its unsightly , 
appearauce, which could be easily met by a little 

001 ot the house, and covered witii ornamental 

7ZT' ?'^ ""^ '' ^^^'^ ^^^^ ^^'''^ pipes are 
used in such places. 

drvr'fr'" M '^^ ^^' ^^^* ''^^"^ ^ ^1"« i« 'nore 
h a th'v r n'"' ''""^ ""'' '^^'"'^ ^^^ i« ^«t so 
eas tlfo '''' ^'"^"^ ^^P^^^*«' ^^t in either 

nrmofshr '"^^^'^^ ^^ ^ "^'y ^'^'^ ^« there can 
moisture pass through the pipes ; the one 



advantage the pipes have in this instance, is 
that the heat is radiated from a surface of lower 
temperature, and does not decompose the atmos- 
phere to such an extent as does the superheated 
flue, but that fault can be counterbalanced by 
j having on or near the flue pans of water, with 
^ large evaporating surface. Too often flues are 
I built too narrow, and the draught too rapid 
' thereby consuming more fuel than is necessary' 
j and overheating the material of the flue. 

[ The writer's idea of a good flue would be one 
) somewhat of more capacity than those in ordi- 
: nary use, and with a slower draught, giving a 
larger heating surface and radiating heat at a 
lower temperature, and consequently consuming 
less fuel ; another advantage the flue possesses 
(and will not admit it is a valuable one) it can be 
left without attention from four to six hours 
longer than can a boiler. 

Flues are certainly as economical in point of 
fuel as hot water apparatus, if not more so. 

The writer would not wish to be understood 
to claim that flues are better in every case than 
hot water apparatus, but believes in many cases 
flues are entitled to consideration as answerincr 
equally as well, and being cheaper than heatin* 
by hot water. "* 



THE MELIA AZADERACK-A CHOICE 

! TROPICAL pla:n-t. 

I 

. BY F. T. 

I While on a recent visit to the commercial 
establishment of James Ritchie, exotic florist, of 
Philadelphia, who grows one of the choicest and 
varied collections of tender exotics, and has been 
famous for a third of a century past for a plenti- 
ful production and artistical arrangement of cut 
flowers to public and private entertainments, a 
pretty plant in bloom, attracted my attention 
and got its name as Melia azaderack. It is of 
neat habit and lovely blossom, of lilac color and 
sweet scented, and in bloom in early February 
I predict for it a wide distribution amon- the 
admirers of beautiful tropical plants. There 
were about two score of plants on the shelf, and 
all being in flower, made a fascinating show. It 
IS yet rare, and commonly called *' Cuban 

W [This is the China tree, a popular ornamental 
tree in the South.— Ed.] 



■ 



lU 



TEE GARDENER'S MONTHLY. 



April, 



187S. 



THE GARDENER'S MONTHLY. 



U5 



i 



:>. 



3; 



EDTTOK lAL. 



IMPROVED CUCUMBER. | 

In its wild Persian home, the cucumber would i 
hardly know the improved varieties of English 
gardens. Even our readers accustomed to the | 
wagon loads of *' short pricklies '' which abound 
in our markets, can have but a faint idea of the i 
beauty and perfection of form to which garden- 1 



they are highly prized, and the gardener who 
expects to get a first-class situation there, 
must be sure not to omit from his advertisement 
that he is well acquainted with the growth of 
cucumbers. Even if the cucumber were not 
valued as a delicate article of food in these old 
world establishments, a cucumber house would 




MARQUIS OF J.OBNB CUCUMKER. 



«r8 bring them, who have them under glass cul- 
ture. There are some who cannot eat cucum- 
bers—indeed now and then are individuals who 
affect to regard them as lit only for hogs ; but 
such arc not the great mass of the people, as the 
enormous quantity raised and sold in the United 
States abundantly testifies, as well as does the 
fact that in every aristocratic garden in Europe 



still be esteemed as much for the interest attached 
to its culture, and the really attractive show 
it makes, as for the mere production of fruit 
itself. 

Where houses arc not constructed especially 
for cucumbers, they arc grown in hot beds, made 
of stable manure, and only those who have been 
throudi it all know with what enthusiasm the 



first seed leaves are received, and how the plants' 
growth is almost hourly watched, until from leaf 
to flower— from the opening of the flower to the 
artificial setting of the fruit— from the first set- 
ting until through hollow glass tubes they have 
been made to grow straight and slender, and 
covered with a lovely waxy bloom. 

The properties of a good cucumber are, that 
it should be long, two feet if it likes, not very 
thick, two to three inches is enough— be almost 
round, that is to say with the ribs or ridges near- 
ly obliterated ; and the end which is nearest the 
parent stem should start with the thickness it 
is to have all the way through, that is it should 
not be bottle nosed. Then the seed should be 
small, and the space to be occupied by the seed, 
confined to the smallest possible compass. When 
to this there is a mild flavor, the perfection of 
cucumber growing has been reached. 

We givfe with this, an illustration of the Mar- 
quis of Lome, one of the most celebrated of the 
new English varieties. It not onlv serves to 
show off this fine variety to advantage, but it 
gives a general idea of what we have written in 
this chapter. 



PULVERIZING THE SOIL. 

All of us admit that when our very ancient 
forefathers turned up the soil with a stout 
crooked log, drawn by a steady old ox, there 
was considerable room for improvement. Indeed 
there has been a great advance. The plough 
and the spade sing a merrier song, and by their 
aid, happiness has been added to thousands. 

But it is worth while occasionally to ask our- 
selves whether we have gained from nature all 
she will give us. For our part we firmly believe 
we have not learned by cultivation to get from 
her the half she is willing to bestow. 

We know that it is not pleasant to lead oflf in 
opposition to popular sentiment. Generally it is 
not till long after a man is dead that the truth 
he taught comes to be recognized as just the 
thing to enter into a general creed. Most people 
shrink from the ridicule and the combat which 
the enunciation of a new truth is sure to bring 
forth, and rest satisfied with simply recording 
their facts and observations for other men to 
make use of; but those other men seldom come, 
and thus hundreds of valuable facts are thrown 
on the great public sea, which are not like that 
proverbial bread, which, cast upon the waters, 
returns after many days. 

Now the Gardener's Monthly has faith in pro- 



gress. It does not believe we have learned all 
that is to be known of the best culture. It has 
braved, and is willing to brave any amount of 
ridicule for what it believes to be true. It has 
lived t© see many of the principles for which in 
the past it battled, accepted as valuable general 
truths, and in the future, it hopes to know that 
many more have been added to the list. 

Well just now we want to ask our readers 
what is the use of the continual upturning of 
the soil which so much ground receives ? Why, 
replies one, only plant on two inches of soil, and 
along side set out the same things on soil six 
inches or a foot, and note the difference. Th s 
is true, but we do not ask what is the use of deep 
soil —this we know all about, but after you have 
it deep, why turn it topsy turvy every year, as 
if the world were naturally made wrong side up ? 
We must remember that by the aid of the Oar- 
dener's Monthly, we now know that there are 
two distinct sets of roots in plants, as distinct 
from one another in their functions as the leaves 
are from the branches, and that while one set of 
roots are like branches in this that they are mere 
supports and conductors of fluid ; the real work- 
ers, or providers of plant food, are the numerous 
small fibers, which like the leaves, perish when 
their year's work is done. We further now 
know that the surface soil, when dry, absorbs 
nutritious gases from the atmosphere, and that 
it is at the surface that the small fibers feed. 
Now the bottom soil can never, under any cir- 
cumstances, be as good for plant food as the sur- 
face, and the fibres do not go there to feed ; yet 
we year after year turn the surface down, where 
there are few fibres to make any use of it. We 
know much more now than we did fifty years 
ago about the advantages of surface manuring ; 
but even those who have learned this lesson, dig 
and plc^gh so as to bury deep the manure 
beneath the surface of the ground, and all 
because they think, the soil needs an annual 
loosening before crops will grow. 

Now there have been, time and again, facts 
given which prove that all other things being 
equal, the solid soil has the advantage over the 
loose soil. Stephens, in that magnificent work, 
the '* Book of the Farm,'» tells how it was found 
by careful experiment, that wheat sown after the 
land had been suffered to be long enough ploughed 
to become packed and solid, always yielded much 
better than when sown on the newly loosened 
soil. Mr. Downing, a quarter of a century ago, 
in the Horticulturist, gave numerous facts °to 



UB 



THE GABDEJfER'H MOJSTTHLY. 



May, 



187S. 



THE GARDE JEER'S MOJVTELY. 



147 



show that -garden vegetables and small fruits 
yielded better on the compact soil of alley ways, 
than in the loosened soil of the beds between. 
The best plant cultivators in pots, use dryish 
soil, and then pound it in as hard as a blunt 
stick can make it ; and about Philadelphia, the 
most successful tree planters ram the trees into 
the earth with a rammer, precisely as they 
would a post. All along our public highways, 
we find trees which have to push their feeding 
roots among the hard rocky bed of the road, or 
under the flag-stones of pavements making 
growths which the same kinds of trees never 
make in the looser ground of gardens which the 
sidewalk bounds. In fact without going more 
into detail here, we may briefly express our 
opinion that thousands of dollars, and the swoai 
of ten thousand brows are annually wasted in 
digging and turning up ground which would 
have borne just as good crops without it. 

Of course there are thousands of ca^es where 
the surface must be turned under. There is 
grass, and there are briars ; weeds, long strawy 
litter, and rough stufl*of many kinds. There arc 
rows of trees to be planted, corn stalks of last 
year — in short, lots of good reasons why the sur- 
face should at times be turned over, but we want 
to enter our protest against the act being any 
special benefit to the soil itself, or of any benefit 
to the roots which are to collect food in it. They 
want ric/i soil, and would sooner go into the 
pores of a solid bone to find it than into the 
loosest soil without manure. 



» ♦ 



EDITORIAL NOTES. 

DOMESTIC 

Tkt Japan Gold Banded Lily. We wonder 
whether the Japanese do anything to Lilium an- 
ratum to make them bloom extra stronu^? As we 
generally see them they never flower as well 
after the first year. The Hollanders pinch out 
the flowers of young Hyacinth roots, and wlv n 
we get them they are thus extra strong. They 
never do as well any succeeding year as the first 
Do the Japanese do something the same with 
this prince of Lilies ? 

Orchid Culture in America. The cultiva- 
tion of th( se curious and beautiful plants is very 
much on the increase in this country. It is 
found that many of them at least do not requir. 
auch expensive arrangements as was tliought 
necessary years ago. The newest idea is to 
grow them in connection with grape culture, it 



is said that the hothouse grape and the orchid 
generally agree very well together. 

Complimentary. Our thanks are due to tho 
Farmers^ Home Journal^ of Louisville, and the 
Western Farmer^ of Madison, Wis., for kind 
personal notice 8. 

Pilinq on the Agony. There is a certain man 
at Springfield, Ohio, who has perhaps fleeced 
more nurserymen in the Union than any other 
living man, but who always manages to keep 
''strictly within the law,'' so the Springfield ians 
say. Not long since he got a New Yorker into 
his m;t, and refused to open the mouth— by a 
letter to say he was alive, that he might find 
his way out. Our New York friend started tor 
the Buckeye State to learn what the matter was. 
Arriving at Springfleld, he learned that the 
"fruit farm '' was some distance out. He 
started for his Mecca. On the road he met a 
" gentleman " in a wagon and inquired the way, 
stating he was a stranger and from New York. 
The 'gentleman' gave the required informa- 
tion, but added that he happened to know the 
"proprietor of (his wife's) fruit farm " had siu- 
Linlarly enough started for New Y<^rk that very 
daj, on a bill paying expedition I Sad and sor- 
rowful our wear}' traveler looked back on distant 
Springfield, and enquired for some way to get a 
ride. The wagoner was not going exactlv there, 
but would take New York to the siation for fifty 
cents. This was paid. Happening to tell his 
disa|)pointment in the car on his return, he had 
an eye opener in the news that the man who 
broui-ht him in was the man he was in search 
ofl 

P.S.- Fifty cents has been added to the claiii 
against the husband of the celebrated fruit 
farm. 

A New Hitch in the Postal Law. Until the 
l)reReut mysterious mass of matter called tho 
"revised postal code *' is utterly swept away, 
an<l some common st-nse enactment substituted, 
we hoped to let the queer thing die peacefully. 
Hut here comes the Postmaster General with 
another " Wliat is it ? ' in the shape of a deci- 
sion, which aflects horticulturists severely. 

The Posnufister G^'ueral got so bothered in 
his efforts to make any Kn^jlish out of the law in 
regard to partly unpaid postages, that he gave 
It up in despair L'e Lh«)nght the lanj:ua<^e said 
that a letter partly unpaid must pay double the 
pre-jtaid rattj on deliv.'ry ; but wlnither it was 
to Ih) double the amount actually j)re-paid, or 
double the amount which ought to be pre-jmid, 



DO one ever knew. Finding the English lan- 
guage of the postal code too much for him, he 
called in the Attorney General, whose know- 
ledge of English led him to a different conclu- 
sion. It was not "double the pre-paid rate," 
but the unpaid part only. 

But now the Postmaster General is sure that 
if this is so, the code only "says letters," and 
therefore, all matter of '-the third class," not 
being letters, must pay "double the pre-paid 
rate." Our readers therefore must be sure 
that their seed parcels, cuttings, circulars and 
so on, are fully paid, or their innocent corres- 
pondents will have some pretty heavy bills to 
foot for other people's inadvertence. 

The Sprinyfidd Republican gives vent to its 
feelings on the subject in this wise : • 

" The postal department claims the right to charge 
double rates on anything not absolutely and specifi- 
cally forbidden by law, and there is no knowing 
where its ingenuity will break out next. There is no 
law against running the mails through a hay cuiter 
and charging three cents on every separate particle 
of the chaff,and we may come to that some day." 

For our part we only express a regret that a 
knowledge of the English language does not seem 
to be at all necessary to men sent to make laws 
for a great nation like this. 

The Brussels Sprout. Of the various forms 
into which the original wild cabbage of tho Eu- 



ropean coasts has developed, the Brussels sprout 
is one of the most singular. It throws up a 
straight stem two or three feet high, and after 
forming a small head on the top, produces a 
large number of small hard cabbages, about the 
size of an ordinary orange, all along the length 

of the stem. They are 
deliciously sweet, and are 
very much grown in En- 
gland. They are not as 
popular in America, indeed 
so fewknowanythingof them 
that we have thought this 
account will be like descri- 
bing a new thing to many. 
The seed requires to be 
sown about the same time 
as the common late Drum- 
head cabbage. 

In order that our readers 
may have a better idea of 
how they grow, who have 
not seen them, we give the 
accompanying illustration. 
There are many good va- 
rieties This one is known 
as Scrymgcr's Giant, and 

is esteemed as the best now grown in the old 

world. 




SGHAPS AND aUERIES. 



Azalea indica alba ^Mrs. A. E. F., Can- 
andaigtia, AT. F., writes: "In the February 
number of the Oarde^-er's Monthly, I nr)tice an 
inquiry as to the best white azalea. Noticing 
also that you recommend the Azalea Lndica 
Albans being the best, and having one of ihat 
kind in blossom, among other plants in my hay 
window, I take the liberty to send you a stereo- 
graph taken from it. 

**I obtained the plant last spring after flower- 
ing, from Mr. John Cadness, Flushing, Long 
Island. Although less than two fec^t in height 
it has now sixty-five buds and blossoms, many 
of which are semi-double ; and is also making an 
abundance of new growth for anotiicr season.'' 

iThis makes a beautiful stereograph. The 
flowers are remarkably large and lino. We have 



rarely seen larger flowers, though under the 
hands of the best gardeners.] 



PiiOPAGATiNQ Sni|UBS.-J. K., Tidioute, 
Pa., writes : " I wish to inquire the method of 
|)rop.igating f-hrubs. The best season, whether 
U'ider ghi>s or out doors is the best, and id fact, 
the general manner as practised by nursery- 
men." 

[There fire scarcely two kinds of plants that 
are propagated in the same way. Some are 
gn)ft':d, others layered, some inarched, some by 
cuttings ; and some which are raised in one way 
will not grow by the other. Then some will not 
do ov.t of doots, and i^nme only that way. Others 
inu^^t be operated in the fall, others in spring, 
and some during the growing summer time. If 



148 



THE QARDEJ^ER'S MOJVTBLY. 



May, 



1873. 



THE GARDEJVER'S MOKTHLY. 



IJfi 



our correspondent will specify any one particu- 
lar thing we will gladly help him.] 



Name of Plant.— T. 3f., Hartford, Con- 
necticut, says : *' I have enclosed an orchid 
bloom, of which I will thank you for its name. 
It has been in bloom about five weeks. The 
pseudo bulbs are from nine to eleven inches 
long, and the leaves from five to seven inches in 
length.*' 

[The crushed and almost shapeless mass seems 
to be Epidendrum ciliare.] 



Late Spring.— A Johnstown, Pa., corres- 
pondent says, under date of 26th of March .. 
"Winter still lingers with us. Last week we 
had six to eight inches snow, which melted away 
on Sunday. To-day we have five or six inches 
more, and mercury at 29° >' 



Growth of Plants in the Islands of 
THE Delaware River. — J, D. K., says : "I 
have been surprised since living here at the 
growth of fruit on reclaimed marsh land. At 
the pea patch islands, (Fort Delaware) pears and 
grapes fruit profusely year after year. Pruning 
or no pruning, cultivation or sod, it is all one ; 
and the site is below tide land, but properly 
drained. Fine hedges abound in the same 
region 



»> 



Old Apple Seed.—" Pomology,^^ Blooming- 
ton, Ills., writes : " I find a difference of opinion 
among nurserymen as to whether apple seeds 
will grow when one year old. I should be glad 
if you would insert an inquiry in the Gardener's 
Mcmthly as to whether any one can say of his 
own knowledge that apple seed a year old grew 
to any considerable extent. Of course four or 
five per cent, is not what I want get at. Will it 
grow any thing near as good as new seed ? '' 



Disease in Root Grafts.— J. D., ' Kiitan- 
ning, Pa., writes : '* I have been engaged in 
the nursery business for twenty years. I have 
never had any difficulty in keeping root grafts 
(apple) until three years ago, when I lost fifty 
per cent.— last winter about ten per cent., and 
this winter's grafting, as near as 1 can tell now, 
about ten per cent. I keep them in a cave, with 
a rtue from the centre for ventilation, six inches 
square. I pack in oyster boxes with sawdust, 
(pine or hemlock), the grafts being set upright, 
the points are exposed to the iKx. The difficulty 



seems to be fungus or mould. Whether it 
attacks the top or splice first I am unable to say ; 
but I know that it spreads. It kills graft or 
scion (not affecting the roots) about one inch of 
the lower end or splice, and the same of the up- 
per end or top. Is there any preventative or 
even cure for the disease ? Do you suppose the 
cave is not ventilated sufficient, or does the fun- 
gus spread from the o'd boards which form the 
roof, and are beginning to decay ? By giving 
me any information on this matter, you will con- 
fer a great favor upon me.'' 

[Decaying wood often, much oftener than 
people think, originates fungus, which after it 
has once got into active life, will attack healthy 
vegetation and destroy it. The facts are so well 
established that there is no doubt «f this now. 
No doubt if the cave be thoroughly white- 
washed— a little sulphur in the white-wask would 
be a benefit, for these minute fungi hate sulphur 
—and all decaying wood kept away from the 
grafts, they would do as well as they formerly 
did. One of the most successful grafters we 
know, so hates wood that he does not use even 
sawdust, but sand. We doubt whether he loses 
one grafted plant in ten thousand — and has the 
same uniform success every year.] 



Packing Trees for Shipment.— 5. says : 
" I wish you would start the subject of tree 
packing again, and call for communications 
from your readers. Ask your readers to answer 
the question : Is quite wet, or only moderately 
damp packing best ? Will very wet or rather 
dry packing best stand frost ? Does much water 
hurt the roots ?" 



Flattened Shoots.— T. S. says : *' In cut- 
ting scions for grafting or budding, I occasion- 
ally come across a scion flat, and the buds 
arranged peculiarly. These singular shaped 
branches are most frequently found on the top 
of heart and biggareau cherries, and sometimes 
found on pears of the soft wood varieties. I 
can't remember ever having seen one on an 
apple, Crab, or Morello cherry. I send you a 
very good sample bv mail of a Bartlett scion. 
Of course you have often seen the same thing. 
Pray tell us the cause. The balance of the trees 
seem like other trees. It would look as though 
two buds had formed a natural union. If this 
is so, it would go to show that buds could b« 
joined artificially, as claimed by the *' Sweet and 
Sour Greening '' writers. 



[These appearances used to be attributed to 
great vigor, but are in reality just the reverse. 
Except that in some way or another the plant 
has lost in this particular part, some of its vital 
power, no one has been able to get to the imme- 
diate cause. The subject was pushed this far in 
a paper published in the proceedings of the 
American Association, at Troy, New York, in 
1870. This view is confirmed by the specimen 
sent. The pith and interior wood is diseased. 
This may not prove that disease caused the flat- 
tening ; but it certainly shows it is not vigorous 
health.] 

FvCHSiAS.— Miss L. B. M., EddyviUe, (no 
State named ; one State will often suggest varia- 
tions in treatment. It is best always to give it) 
says : "I wish to enquire, through your 
columns, the manner that Fuchsias should be 
treated in order to secure an early bloom. I 
have a conservatory, and keep a large assort- 
ment of flowers, and while my Geraniums, Roses, 
Heliotropes, Verbenas, etc., are flowering so 
freely, my Fuchsias still refuse to put forth a 
single blossom I have often noticed how florists 
have them to flower so beautifully when so very 
small. If you could write up Fuchsia culture 
you will greatly oblige." 

[The Fuchsia deservedly holds a place in our 
correspondent's regard. We are always glad 
when any one asks us to write about Fuchsias, 
for a well grown fuchsia is among the most beau- 
tiful of all flowers. In regard to early flowering, 
there are some which have a natural tendency 
to bloom earlier than others. Coecinea rosea, 
Lustre, and Bianca marginata are of tlii.s rlass. 
But to get early flowers, plants a ye:u ol<l nre 
better ihau young ones. After being a little 
dried up by the summer, prune in severely, and 
after the buds have pushed a little into new 
growth, shake out of the old soil, put in small 
pots with new earth ; encourage this new 
growth, and when they are housed for the sea- 
son, keep them in a temperature of about 60^, 
with plenty of sunlight, and they will probably 
flower well by February or March at latest.] 



The Spring in the South.— J. H. S., 
Alexandria, La, March 28th, says : " We had 
a killing frost on the morning of the 26th,— ther- 
mometer 28° at sunrise. Corn cut off", and all 
oottonup, killed. '» 

And by the same mail, J. W. M., of Ladore, 
Jfeosha Co., Kansas, says: *'The weather is 



very warm and spring like. Prospects excel- 
lent.'' It is reversing things when Kansas 
crows over Louisiana. 



A Printek's Blunder. — Advertisements 
do not pass through the editor's hands, hence 
printers who do not know botany or technical 
terms, are always thankful when the hand wri- 
ting is very plain. Mr. Campbell usually writes 
a very clear, plain hand, and there really seemed 
no excuse for printers, or anybody else, when 
at page sixteen of April number, they made him 
say his potatoes yielded one or two ''berries,' 
instead of barrels. The public, however, know 
pretty well by this time, that Mr. Campbell's 
potato is a pretty good thing, and berries or 
barrels, have no doubt laid in a good stock, or 
if ihey have not, they ought to. 



House Culture of Roses.— H. B., Dela- 
ware, Ohio, writes as follows. We should be 
glad if some of our rose growers would give their 
experience : "I wish to ask a few questions in 
regard to roses. Do you think ihey do as well 
grown on the side staging of the greenhouse, in 
close proximity to the glass, (from 4 to 8 inches), 
or on the middle staging, from 10 to 20 feet from 
the glass ? Several years ago we grew them on 
the middle staging, and never saw roses do bet- 
ter. On removing our greenhouses, we put up 
all small houses, and now in the spring, about 
the latter end of April, they seem to scorch and 
burn as if under the direct influence of fire, not- 
withstanding they are freely ventilated. Some 
of the tender growing kinds it seems to cut down 
altogether, and others it only blights the buds 
and prevents flowering. We have tried paint- 
ing the glass with whitewash, and find it bene- 
fits ; but are uncertain the true cause of this 
calamity. AVhen one wishes to begin growing 
roses in large quantities, what season of the year 
is best to buy preparatory for propagating ? To 
buy in spring and propagate in summer and fall, 
or buy in fall and propagate in winter ? Please 
give me a few leading ideas on propagating 
roses— the best and most rapid, &c." 



Cryptoqamic Plants in the Region of 
the Yellowstone. — a correspondent who 
was on this expediton, writes: '*We made 
large collections of Lichens, few Mosses and 
Hepaticas, but very few Ferns, and no Lycopo- 
diums. The Algaj were quite numerous, espe- 
cially Desmids and Diatoms." 



150 



THE GARDENER'S MOJ^THLY. 



May, 



1873. 



THE GARDE JVER'S MOJVTHLT. 



151 



BOOKS, CATALOGUES, ETC 



Manual or Webds, or The Weed Ex- 
terminator. —By Dr. Ezra Michcner : Pub- 
lished by Henry L. Brinton, Oxford, Chester 
County, Pa. The war against weeds is a right- 
eous war, and we welcome into the ranks every 
new recruit that* offers especially such a valu- 
able volunteer as Dr. Michener. There have 
already appeared works on weeds ; but the 
weeds progress faster than their literature. Be- 
fore a work which describes them all is hardly 
from the press, numbers of .new weeds appear. 
New works therefore are always appreciated. 
Dr. M.'s work is not a large one — it being sold 
by the publisher, mail free, for seventy-five 
cents, but it contains a great amount of valuable 
nformation. The weeds are brought down to 
date, and described both botanically and popu- 
larly, so that any intelligent person can recog- 
nize them. Besides the particular means for 
weed destruction given with each species, there 
is a special chapter devoted to the advocacy of 
weed destruction by law. The Doctor wants an 
inspector of weeds appointed in each agricultural 
district. We suppose these things are all right. 
We have no wish to meddle with politics. But 
here in Philadelphia we have found to our sor- 
row, that *' inspectors '' will not work without 
pay— and that their pay comes out of the taxes ; 
and as we have ^'inspectors" for almost every- 
thing:, from peanuts to fiddle-strings, our taxes 
to pay them have swollen to beautiful propor- 
tions, till we, that is the Gardener's Monthly, 
sometimes wonder whether it is not as well to 
confine *' inspection" to those cases wherein life 
and health are in immediate danger, at a moder- 
ate expense, than to be paying such enormous 
sums in order to show we have "rights.'* 

It may be that being only the "'Gardener's 
Monthly,'*'' we may be very ignorant of politics, 
and it may be owing to our having no politics, 
that we candidly confess we would rather pitch 
our farm down in the midst of a whole district 
of Canada thistles, and agree with Brother 
Southwick that the Canada thistle is a blessinc 
to creation, rather than have our farm taxes in- 
creased to pay a lot of fellows to '' inspect," the 
half of whom would not know a Canada thistle 
from a bull-rush. A weed inspector, indeed I 
Why ninety-nine out of every hundred farmers 



don't kuow a noxious weed when they see it. 
Let us have an inspector of agricultural igno- 
rance, and fine every fellow ten dollars who doe» 
not subscribe to and pay for the Gardener'^t 
Monthly. It can be readily demonstrated that a 
hundred million a year would be saved to the 
country if every cultivator read this invaluable 



magazme. 



Proceedings or the Massachusetts Hor- 
ticultural Society for 1872.— There are 
few horticultural societies which give such sub- 
stantial evidence of vigorous usefulness as the 
Massachusetts Society. In its exhibitions; its 
influence of the whole social atmosphere of Mas- 
sachusetts ; in the value of its published proceed- 
ings to the whole country, it is perhaps unrival- 
led by any existing American institution. We 
always receive their publications with pleasure, 
and lay them carefully aside for future reference. 
The present one is equal in value to any which 
have preceded it. 

The Journal of Agriculture, St. Louis, 
Mo. — This venture of but a few years ago, ha« 
proved a great success. It has recently been 
sold for $100,000 to a company, in which the old 
proprietors are among the leading stockholders. 
General Marmaduke still remains managing 
editor ; Thos. T. Turner is live stock editor ; 
W. Muir, horticultural editor ; C. V. Kiley, en- 
tomological editor ; Rev. M. L. Lewis, editor of 
the light reading. It has been before conducted 
with marked ability ; the chief secret of its great 
success. 



The Ivy. — A monograph : By Shirley Hib- 
berd. Editor of the Gardener'^s Magazine. Lon- 
don : Groombridge & Son. No plant has struck 
so deep into the hearts of men as the Ivy. The 
holly, the rose, the cypress and myrtle— these 
and others have appealed in various ways to our 
affections ; but none have come so close to us as 
this. The others seem rather the companions 
of our lighter hours; the ivy seems almost a part 
of ourselves. 

The association of the plant with old ruins, 
churches and monuments, no doubt, has much to 
do with this. We consign to earth the remains 
of our loved ones ; but not solely to the cold em- 



braces of death, for the ivy lives and grows, and 
fteems to offer itself as a barrier against decay 
and ruin. We can do nothing more, but the ivy 
still protects when we are gone. 

Those who have not been in Europe can 
scarcely appreciate the depth of the associaticms 
which cluster round the ivy ; but yet all who 
have a knowledge of English literature in some 
degree share the feeling. Americans can 
scarcely be expected to be found among ivy wor- 
shippers ; and yet there is not a reader of these 
lines but is more or less interested in ivy history, 
ivy knowledge, and ivy culture. 

We almost envy Mr. Hibberd the pleasure of 
his task, for that it has been a pleasure the work 
itself abundantly shows. Starting with the 
cover in green and gold, beautifully embroidered 
with ivy leaves, there is scarcely a page which 
has not a halo of poetry round the dry facts, 
perfectly glorious. The first part of the work is 
devoted to a sketch of the causes which induced 
Mr. H. to write ; the second, a historical and 
literary examination of the subject. Here he 
tells us how in the most ancient times the ivy 
was associated with religious rites and ceremo- 
nies How the most classic nations joined in this 
form of veneration equally with the most bar- 
barous. How it entered into mythology ; and 
how even Bacchanalian orgies paid a tribute to 
the ivy's wand. Scripture history even is not 
complete without a reference to ivy, the "cor- 
ruptible crown " of 1 Cor. ix : 25, being the ivy 
crown of the Isthmian games. It entered into 
the politics of the Greeks, but more largely into j 
the' literary excellencies of that polished people : 
*' An ivy wreath, fair learnings prize, 
Raises Maecenas to the skies." 



In the earliest Christian times the ivy figured 
largely. The holly, the symbol of jollity, was 
always enlivened with ivy to give it a more un- 
dying tone. In these and numerous other ways, 
Mr. H. works up a curious ivy history. The 
second part is devoted to the characteristics of 
the plant. Here one may learn how it grows, 
or trails, or climbs— what it does in all circum- 
stances. What it can do is not yet known, for 
no tower or tree has yet been built the top of 
which the ivy could not reach; How long it will 
live is equally unknown, for buildings many 
hundreds of years old, crumbling into dust, still 
are covered by its ancient ivy halle and green, at 
if but of yesterday. As Dickens says : 

*' Whole ages have fled and their works decayed, 
And nations have scattered been ; 
But the stout old ivy shall never fade 
From its hale and hearty green." 

The uses of the ivy are told in an interesting 
chapter, showing how, in numerous ways, sel- 
dom thought of, the ivy may be made to aid us 
in the adornments of our homes, and to add to 
the attractions of our gardens and grounds. 
Then there are chapters on cultivation, and on 
the species and varieties in cultivation, excellent 
illustrations being given to guide the reader in 
distinguishing them. 

The growing attention to ivy culture in Amer- 
ica at this time, will make the work particularly 
sought after by our readers. TL ough a very 
beautiful work, it is not so large as to be costly, 
but we are not advised of its price. It can be, no 
doubt, obtained by ordering it through any 
bookseller who has connections in the large 
cities. 



NEW AND RAKE FRUITS. 



Early Ascot Peach.— Of this choice second- 
Parly Peach the Rev. W. F. Radclyffe has grown 
excellent samples. '*It was raised a few years 
since by Mr. Standish, of the Royal Ascot 
Nursery, and proves to be a variety worth intro- 
ducing to general cultivation. Our note of Mr. 
Radclyffe's fruit runs thus : -Fruit middle-size, 
roundish, some^vhat depressed, with a shallow 
suture Skin flushed with bright red on nearly 
all parts, suffused on the shady side with crim- 



son, and on the exposed side with a deeper 
blood-red, almost black. Flesh slightly tinted 
with red at the stone, from which it parts freely; 
pale greenish straw-color, with abundant juice, 
and an excellent flavor. Mr. Radclyffe reports 
that the tree is hardy, and a good setter, and, 
moreover, suggests that its name ought to have 
been called Royal Ascot. ^This variety belongs 
to the section which bears small flowers, and 
has small roundish reniform glands on its peti- 



K! 



15^ 



TEE GARDEJ^EB'S MOJ^TELY. 



May, 



1878. 



TEE GARDEJ^ER'S MO JV TEL J. 



16S 



oles. We learn from Mr Standlsh that it was 
raised from the Elruge Nectarine fertilized either 
by the Noblesse or Barrington Peach. — [Florist 
and Pomologist^ 3s., v. 6., p. 1.) 



Gros Colman Grape.— I will not attempt, 
nor have I the means to demonstrate, to whom 
we are indebted for this continental production 
— whether to casual results or judicious selec- 
tions by some worthy member of the craft ; but 
whatever its origin, I am certain of one thing, 
that in it we possess a Grape of the first quality. 

Gros Colman is of free growth, robust in con- 
stitution, and sets under any ordinary treatment 
like Hamburg. The bunches are produced in 
great quantities, of a compact round form, some- 
thing after the style of the Hamburg, an average 
when fully swelled from 1 to 4 lbs in weight. 
The berries are quite round, very thin-skinned 
as compared with those of other late kinds, and 
are the largest blacks in cultivation. Their jet 
exterior carries a magnificent bloom. Their 
flavor when rip«j is very juicy, mellow, and rich, 
and loses nothing by the bunches hanging 
months alter ripening, as the berries retain a 
plumpness found in few Grapes in March. This 
observation applies alike to it when planted in a 
house with Lady Downs, Alicante, Barbarossa, 
Black Prince, and others, or under pot culture. 
Why the sterling merits of this Grape as regards 
flavor, color, &c., should be impugned by some as 
they have been, I cannot understand. Probably 
the imperfect representatives sometimes met with 
may have furnished erroneous inferences, and 
therefore should not be regarded as conclusive.— 
J. M. C, in Journal of Horticulture. 



President Wilder Strawberry in the 
South.— In strong sandy loams or alluvial soils 
we have never .--een a strawberry that pleased us 
80 well for all purposes as this new variety. 
The plant is very vigorous, hardy and product- 
ive, and the fruit of the largest size, of the hand- 
somest shape and color, and of the most delic- 
ious quality. When we add that it is also a 
good keeper and shipper, we have said about 
enough to give our readers an idea of how highl^^ 
we esteem it. Jn our opinion it is the coming 
** upper-ten " market strawberry for the South ; 
but it will take two or three years more to 
decide that point. In the meantime all should 
test it, and thus be enabled to judge for them- 
selves. Perfect blossoms. Rather late.- i?Mra/ 
Alabama. 



Late Peach, Picquet.— In a late number 
of the Rural Alabamian^ the editor gives a list of 
market fruit for the south, among which the 
Picquet peach is considered as unrivaled at its 
season. He says: *'This variety is by no 
means as widely known and planted as it should 
be.. For its season, it is the evidence of all who 
fruited it, that it has no compeer. Large to 
very large, bright yellow, and of the most excel- 
lent quality, it cannot lail to become one of our 
most profitable market peaches, ripening as it 
does when good peaches are scarce, and the 
^ trees being fine growers and abundant bearers. 
Season, first half of September ; freestone.'' 

This ma'jnificent peach originated in the 
orchard of Antoine Picquet, Bel-Air, Georgia. 
In 1858 we cut the grafts from the original tree 
which died the following year. After fruiting it 
for four consecutive seasons, we put it in the 
trade, feeling assured at that time that it was 
destined to become a most valuable market 
peach. In this we have not been disappointed; 
and it is a source of congratulation to us to have 
added this peach to our list of superior fruits 
and saved it (rom destruction. It ripens with 
the Smock to which it is immensely superior in 
size, appearand* and quality. The Salway also 
matures at the ^same time, but is also inferior to 
the Picquets, fmm a limited experience in fruit- 
ing the former, and from reports of others who 
fruited boih varieties side by side. 



Pen AppLE.~iVr. //. M. E^ujlesays: *'The 
article on Pen apple in March number of 
Gardener^ s Monthhj will, I think, bear further 
comment. The apple exhibited as Pen — re- 
ser hlhuj Baldwin, is grown on trees received 
from the Xursery ol Huston & Milllin, Columbia, 
Pa. The trees were, no doubt, sent out by mis- 
take, as the real Pen Apple which I exhibited 
at Reading, were handed to me by Mr. James L. 
Richards, of Columbia, who assured me that 
they were from the original Pen Tree, which 
grew near a pig pen, — hence the name. Mr. 
Richards is related to the right family on whose 
premises the tree stands. He has also fruited 
young trees of the Pen on his own ground. 

The fruit under the name of Pen, (by mis- 
take,) is now concedeil to be Baldwin ; compe- 
tent judges have pronounced them identical. 
Their habit of growth is the same. What has 
been most puzzling is, that the so-called Pen is a 
better keeper than Baldwin ; but we have as yet 
no instance where the two were fruited side 



by side ; and, therefore, soil and situation may 
have their influence. My own theory is the 
above named nurserymen, having introduced 
the Baldwin many years ago, and having propa- 
gated it for successive generations, it has thus 
become somewhat acclimated, — hence the slight 
difference between it and the Baldwin, planted 
direct from New York, or Eastern nurseries. 
Whether this, or the theory of it being a sport, 
be correct, will probably require further investi- 
gation or stronger evidence. 



VoLNEY Apple. — We have before as (April 
10th) a specimen of this new apple, sent us by 
Prof. Volney Munson, of Lexington, Ky. He 
also sends us a description which, so far as the 
fruit is concerned, we can endorse as accurate. 
The perfume was delicious, in this respect, 
equalling any we know. It has not yet been 
distributed ; but we see, by a paragraph in the 
Farmer's Home Journal, of Louisville, that the 
nurserymen of that region have it under propa- 
gation. 

" Volney."*^ — Origin, orchard of Wm. Munson, 
of Fulton County, Ills. Tree vigorous, with a 
broad upright head ; a good, regular bearer. 
Fruit ; large, oblate, regular and uniform in 
size, of a rich waxen-yellow color with a bright 
pink cheek, sprinkled all over with light brown 
dots ; stalk short, usually bearing a gland near 
the insertion, set obliquely in a shallow cavity 
surrounded by slight russet stripes ; calyx closed, 
in a broad, shallow, slightly wrinkled basin ; 
flesh, white, tender, juicy with a rich, subacid, 
pineapple flavor, very good to best ; core very 
small and firm ; endures handling and transpor- 
tation remarkably well. Season, January to 
May. 



West-brook or Speckled Apple. — In 
March number of the Gardener's Monthly, Mr. 
Blodget and yourself, think I am mistaken as to 
the identity of this apple with the fall orange, 
but I believe I am right, and give you some 
proof of it. Mr. Blodget, in September of 1870, 
sent me specimens of S[)eckled or West-brook, 
which I concluded were Fall Orange, and not 
having any of the kind on hand, sent to three 
difterent persons in western New York for fruit, 
which reached us in a few days, and confirmed 
me in my opinion. I immediately sent speci- 
mens to Mr. Blodget, with some of the West- 
brook or Speckled apples he had sent me. In a 
few days he replied, *' the samples you sent me 



are identical with the speckled.'* Is not this 
some proof that they are one and the same 
apple ? 

I have taken some pains to ascertain the 
origin of this apple, and without going into a 
long history, say that it came up near the hog- 
pen of Deacon Allen, in the town of Holden, 
Massachusetts, nearly a hundred years since, 
and was first called "Hog-pen'' apple, but was 
afterward changed to *' Holden," which is still 
the common name in that State. I am inform- 
ed that grafts of it were taken to Western New 
York, some forty or fifty years since, and the 
name probably having been lost, it received the 
name of " Fall Orange,'' which name has been 
retained because more generally known, — which 
is the case with Bartlett instead of Williams 
Bonchretieu, the original name. It has the fol- 
lowing names in the different parts of the 
country : 

Holden, Holden Pippin, 

Hog-pen, Red Cheek. 

Orange, Jones' Pippin, 

Speckled, West-brook, 

White Newell, Long Island, 

New York Bell flower, White Graft. 

I am satisfied that 'Fall Orange,'' and Speck- 
eled or West-brook, are identical ; but if any 
doubt, I propose that both kinds be sent to 
American Pomological Society in September next, 
to be decided by the committee on synonyms, that 
is, if the Society approves of it.— C. Downing. 



The Eciiasserie Pear.— This is the excel- 
lent old pear referred to in the following note 
from a New Jersey correspondent. We place it 
under this head for, although not by a very long 
way a "new fruit,'' it has been so much dis- 
carded for worse new ones, that it is "rare'' : 

" I do not wish to annoy you with my mania 
for winter pears, but having toiled the past 
twenty j'cars of my life in vain dependence upon 
nurserymen and pomologists, to give me pears 
that would keep at least lo the holy days, I feel 
somewhat elated at having found two growing 
right here that keep like russet apples. These 
that I now send you were shaken from the tree, 
put >in barrels in a damp cellar, where they 
have remained till now." 



The Crittenden Apple.— The following 
memoranda in reference to the above wore 
obtained from Mr. Winn Gunn : 

This apple originated in Shelby county, about 



t^j 



I. 






"M 




THE GARDEJ^ER'S MOJ^TELY. 



May, 



187S. 



TSE GARD EATER'S MOJTTRLY. 



155 



four miles from Shelbyville, on a farm formerly 
owned by Mr. Gunn, but now the property of 
Mr. W. Belloo. Tree rather a slow grower ; 
the fruit about the same size as that of the 
Prior's Red ; sweet, fit for use throughout the 
whole winter, and has been known to keep until 
September of the year following its ripening ; 



Mr. Gunn has himself kept the fruit until June. 
The tree never received any pruning during the 
time it was in Mr. Gunn's possession. Under 
better treatment, doubtless, the fruit would be 
larger in size and better in quality. Mr. Gunn 
named the variety in honor of John C. Critten- 
den. — FarmtfB Home Journal, 



NEW AND RAHE PLANTS. 



SouCHET'8 New Gladioli —Monsieur Sou- 
chet, of Fontainebleau, who is unusually suc- 
cessful in the cultivation of Gladioli, has again 
raised somti new kinds, remarkable for their size 
and perfection of form, as well as for new colors. 
Among them, the following will be found desira- 
ble additions to any collection, viz.: 

Addison.— Sp\ke large ; flowers very large and 
of a deep amaranth, striped with white. A love- 
ly plant of middle height. 

Benvenuto.Sinke long and striking; flowers 
very large, much open, of a pink or pale orange 
color, very brilliant and transparent, spotted 
with white. Plant of a middle height. 

Elvire. — Spike long and fine ; flowers large 
and pure white, edged with carmine. Plant 
middle height. 

Eva. — Spike ample ; flowers large, ground 
color white tinted and shaded with rose and pale 
lilac. A fine flower. Plant of middle height. 

2^tfiraro.— Flowers large and open, rose or red- 
dish-orange, tinted with a deeper shade, and 
having large spots of pure white. A grand 
plant. 

Xc P/iare. —Spike very long; flowers large, 
brilliant bright red and very open. Plant me.li- 
um height. 

XuHi.— Spike good ; flowers large and perfect ; 
bright cherry slightly tinted with orange ; 
ground color clear, the inferior division striped 
with carmine. Plant of middle size. 

Macdulay —Spike long and splendid ; flowers 
large, deep crimson slightly tinted with violet 
and spotted with deep carmine ; centre clear 
and transparent Plant of middle height. 

Margarita,— Spike very long; flowers large 
with a white ground, tinted with carmine. A 
strong growing and beautiful variety. 

Octavie.— Spike long ; flowers large, of a pret- 
ty pale pink, slightly edged with red, and lined 
and spotted with pure white ; centre very clear. 



A low growing variety, but one that is exceed- 
ingly beautiful. 

Beine Blanche. — Spike very long ; * flowers 
beautiful ; pure white with small spots of deep 
carmine. 

Venus. —Spike very long ; flowers large ; pure 
white flushed with pale pink. A splendid varie- 
ty of middle height. 

— E. A. Carriere, in Garden. 



New Cockscomb, Tricolor.— In our last 
we gave an illustration of a new cockscomb in- 
troduced from Japan, and to which a lady refers 
in our present nuinbor. The one we now illus- 
trate is a florist's improvement, and has a head 




of various colors. There is a broad stripe of 
crimson, then of gold, and the next of rich car- 
nation. It is surprising^ that this character has 
become so well fixed as to reproduce Itself from 
seed, but they say this Tricolor does it, and 
does it well. 



Lobelia — Carter's Cobalt-Blue. — We 

saw this flowering last year ; and nothing is 
handsomer than the dwarf compact form— more 
like a mass than a flowering plant, only that it 
is crowned by the dense mass of light blue flow- 
ers. Mr. Shirley Hibberd says of it in the Qar- 
dcner''s Magazine of January 6th, 1872 : *' There 
was one piece of a new bedding Lobelia which 
surpassed every thing of its class on the greund, 
ft better thing even than Blue King, but in that 
way; the color a clear pure blue, the growth 
tompskct ; in fact the whole thing perfect, as if 
4UI ti la mould and colored by a master of par- 
terre planting, who knows exactly what is 



sis borealis alba, is a charming plant, originally 
a sport from T. borealis, and although bearing 
a resemblance to Cupressus Lawsoniana albo- 
spica, it is distinct from it. This is another 
valuable acquisition to our hardy Conifera. A 
fine example of Quercus pannonica, with its ' 
large dark green foliage, is to be seen here, and 
it is a species which should find its way into 
every villa garden and shrubbery. Acer poly- 
morph um dissectum is a lovely small growing 
Japanese Maple, the foliage of which is just now 
of a bright scarlet color. Messrs. Standish Jb 
Co. possess also the stock of a very distinct, 
hardy, and almost evergreen Maple from Japan, 




LORKLIA— C VRfER'S C.»BALT-Bj.UE. 



^^5- 



wanted. I was desired to name this, and pro- 
posed it should be called Carter's Cobalt-Blue, 
and under this designation it will probably be 
ofiered to a discriminating public ; the stock is 
to be made from seed, and the variety is to be 
distributed in seed.'* The distinguishing char- 
acter of this plant is that it has no white in the 
eye of the blossom, nor any purple on the calyx ; 
so that the brilliant blue has the entire posses- 
sion of the field of color. 



Acer rufinerve, a strong growing kind, which 
retains its foliage until Christmas, and in very 
mild districts would be really evergreen.— W. 
Dean, in Gardener^s Chronicle. 



New Ornamental Trees.— Messrs. Stan- 
dish have in their collection the new Japanese 
Larch, Larix leptolepis, which resembles the 
common Larch in habit, but is of more robust 
growth and larger foliage ; this tree will be a 
great acquisition. Their new Conifer, Thujop- 



Camellia Princess Alexandra.— A very 
beautiful addition to the regal group of Camellia 
Japonica. In growth this variety is free and 
robust, in verdure a rich deep lustrous green, in 
bloom above average size ; near to perfection in 
its circular outline, uniform and evenly imbri- 
cate in its structure and build : petals thick and 
leathery in substance, the outer ray of petals 
nearly round (rose-like), graduating in size and 
outline to the full centre. In color a delicate 
rosy-blush, suff*used with a rich carmine tint, 
delicately traced with ramose veins, leaving an 



1-1 



I 
mi 



m 



% 



166 



THE GARDEJ^ER'S MOJ^THLY. 



May, 



187S. 



TEE GARDEJVER'S MOJVTRLY. 



167 



outer margin of blush white on each petal, the 
outer ones being occasionally marked with broad 
crimson bars. The union and varied contrast 
of rich roseate tints blending with an outer zone 
or margin of silvery white, forms an exquisite 
feature in this beautiful flower. So says an Eng- 
lish writer. 



Delphinium Belladonna.— Although by 
DO means new, it is undoubtedly one of the 
choicest of border flowers. Unfortunately with 
me it is somewhat delicate in constitution, yet 
it flowers abundantly ; still, it does not increase 
much in size from year to year, and as it is per- 
fectly barren there is no method of propagating 
it save by division. The flowers are of a lovely 
sky blue, a color so rare amongst plants that it 
renders it at once conspicuous and efllictivo. — 
Journal of Horticulture. 



appeared, and I have no doubt that I shall be 
able, time and opportunities permitting, to bear 
out Dr. Denny's remarks, and obtain by cross- 
breeding the result sought, or at all events an 
approximation thereto, although I have been 
anticipated in this respect, to some extent, by 
Nature, who it appears on this occasion, as she 
frequently does, has favored our Continental 
neighbors. I hope to send you shortly some 
remarks on Dr. Denny's paper on hybridization. 
—Thomas Laxton. 

[Of the flowers sent. Jewel is much the best. 
It is rich and clear in color, and remarkably full 
and well formed. No. 30 is a little more open- 
eyed, while Aurora is semi-double, and the 
brijQjhtcst of all. E. J. Lowe does not appear to 
open well, and in consequence, looks pinched up. 
We look upon Jewel as a real and decided acqui- 
sition.— Eds. Gardener'' s Chronicle.] 



Viola Cornuta we noticed a few years ago. 
It grows about six inches high. The flowers 
are borne all well up above the foliage, and 
forms a compact mass of rich, deep violet color- 
ed flowers. Its hardy constitution and profuse 
blooming qualities renders it one of the most 
beautiful of Spring and Summer bedding and 
border plants. There is now a variety resem- 
bling the above in all the characters and habits, 
excepting color, which is pure white. "We see it 
is advertised by a Rochester flrm. 



Mr. Laxton's Double Dwarf Pelargo- 
niums—I have forwarded a small box contain- 
ing blooms of my new seedling double dwarf 
Zonal Pelargoniums, Jewel (First-class Certifi- 
cate, Royal Horticultural Society), E. J. Lowe, 
No. 30, and semi-double Aurora. The flowers 
of the two former are almost mimics of various 
Roses, and if mounted with small rose foliasre 
and buds in a miniature stand, would almost 
pass for Liliputians amongst the queen of flow- 
ers. E. J. Lowe, from the white exterior of the 
petals, has a striking eflect in the truss, and 
Aurora is a very free blooming, bright colored 
variety of the Tom Thumb race, to which all the 
varieties belong, having none of the blood of the 
old coarse growing Inquinans, or Gloire de Nan- 
cy type in them. 1 have also been cross-breed- 
ing for variety in color, and have obtained some 
striking novelties in dark purplish tints ; and 
although I have not yet succeeded in getting a 
pure white— one of the ol\jects I have been aim- 
ing at, several blush and light pinks have 



LisiANTHUS PRINCEPS.— It has bccn called a 
greenhouse plant, but there is little doubt it will 
be found to thrive best in an intermediate house. 
This superb Gentianaceous plant was consider- 
ed by the late Dr. Lindley to be " one of the 
best plants in existence." It is a compact 
branching shrub, growing about two feet in 
height ; the leaves are opposite, oblong-lanceo- 
late, acuminate audi dark green on the upper 
side, paler below ; the blooms are produced in 
graceful drooping racemes of from three to five ; 
the flowers are tubular, the calyx being about 
half an inch long, and the corolla about six 
inches in length, and upwards of an inch wide ; 
the color of the tube is rich scarlet, melting into 
golden yellow at each end. It is found growing 
at elevations of from 10,000 to 11,000 feet above 
the level of the sea, in the province of Pamplo- 
na, in New Grenada, but it is a rare plant even 
in its native country. 



New Forms of Ornamental Beet.— Mr. 
John Clark, gardener to Mr. Mitchell Jones, of 
Edinburgh, furnished a surprise for the habiteus 
of South Kensington, on the 15th inst , by send- 
ing up a box of his new forms of ornamental 
Beet, and which in tlie stage ef growth as exhi- 
bited, presented some of the richest and most 
beautifully marked foliage to be found in plants 
outside the stove, and which elicited from Mr. 
J. Bateman the declaration that even the Or- 
chids would have to look to their colors, other- 
wise they would lose the honors of the day. Mr. 
Clark's box of Beet comprised twenty-one plants, 



all growing in 48 sized pots, and all about nine 
inches in height, the habit in most cases being 
good, and some of them as dwarf and compact 
as could be desired. The diversity of coloring 
was great, no two plants being exactly alike, 
and comprising shades of silvery white, buflf, 
orange, red, scarlet, vermillion, claret, maroon, 
crimson and purple. Some of the leaves had 
veins of one color and the edges of another. It 
is a peculiarity of these forms of Beet, that 
whilst all the taproots are of the ordinary color, 
the small rootlets are of the same color as the 
fohage. They were highly commended for green- 
house and conservatory decoration in the win- 
ter, and for that reason was awarded a First- 
class Certificate, but if they produce these bril- 
liant colors in the open ground they would be 
inyaluable for bedding. — Gardener'' s JRecord. 

Berberis Darwinil— (1^ to 2^ feet). This 
is the most beautiful of the tribe. It is q lite 
evergreen, and covered in spring with deep 
orange-colored flowers of a large size . It is well 
adapted for a large bed or ornamental fence, or 
as individual plants. 

Begonia intermedia. — This remarkably 
fine hybrid Begonia is the result of a cross 
between the B. Veitchii and B. boliviensis. In 
habit it partakes strongly of the B. boliviensis, 
being a strong upright-growing plant, branching 
freely, and attaining an average height of fifteen 
to eighteen inches. The leaves have much the 
form and substance of the Veitchii, but are 



toothed like boliviensis. The flowers are of the 
size and form of Begonia Veitchii, and resemble 
it also in color, but are of a rather darker shade. 
This is the hardiest hybrid we have yet raised. 
It succeeds well in a greenhouse, and can be 
wintered in a cold frame ; indeed, it has lived 
during a mild winter out-of-doors with us. It 
was awarded a First-class Certificate at the Ex- 
hibition of the Royal Botanic Society, June 14, 
1871. — Vietch's Catalogue. 



A New Poinsettia.— When in the nursery 
of Messrs. Veitch & Sons, at Chelsea, a short 
time since, I had an opportunity of seeing a 
variety of our old friend Poinsettia pulcherrima^ 
which will undoubtedly quite take the place of 
the old form, both for market work and home 
decoration. It differs from the latter in havin<y 
much broader bracts, packed so closely together 
round the flowers as to form a double series, 
instead of being set at right angles like the sails 
of a windmill. The color is also much richer, 
and the bracts are fully developed quite fifteen 
days earlier than those of plants of the normal 
type grown under precisely the same conditions. 
To say more in its praise is not necessary ; those 
who are interested in having poinsettias in full 
bloom earlier than is now possible to have them, 
and of a finer quality, without increased efforts, 
will act wisely in looking after the variety which 
will, in all probability, be distributed by Messrs. 
Veitch as Poinsettia pulcherrima major.— Gko, 
Gordon, in Gardener^s Magazine. 



FOREIGN INTELLIGENCE. 



Hardy Ferns.— To grow hardy Ferns in 
perfection a humid atmosphere is necessary, and 
when they are making fresh growth the house 
which holds them should be shut up in the after- 
noon, and the plants syringed through a rose. 
Under such circumstances the young fronds de- 
velop themselves as if by magic, and are a 
source of much enjoyment to those who take an 
Interest in this class of plants. Ferns from 
warm latitudes, as a matter of course, require a 
higher temperature— 55° in winter is a good 
medium for them, and from 65° to 70° in summer 
18 essential as a night temperature. Nearly all 
the species luxuriate in a compost of equal parts ! 
turfy loam and tough fibry peat, with the addi- ' 



tion of a fair proportion of silver sand and a few 
lumps of charcoal. 1 1 is of vital im portance that 
the drainage be perfect, as the Fern, though a 
moisture loving plant, dislikes stagnant water 
about the roots. Tlie potsherds used must be 
clean, and placed with the convex side down- 
wards, the largest pieces at the bottom, the 
smallest at the top, and over this some fibry 
material must be placed to prevent the mould 
used in potting from mixing with the drainage. 
In potting press the compost in firmly, but not 
so much so as is done with fruit trees or hard- 
wooded greenhouse plants. Overpotting should 
also be avoided, as indeed, this is frequently the 
cause of failures. The fresh compost gets sod- 






I 

i 



168 



THE GARDEJ^ER'S MOJfTHLY. 



May; 



1873. 



THE GARDEJ^ER'S MOJFTHLY. 



159 



den with water before the roots can ramify into 
the mass, and mischief ensues. 

Then with regard to propagation. Some of 
the species are very easily increased by division, 
and it is thus that most of the Adiantums and 
Pterises are reproduced. Take, as an example, 
that most useful of all the Maiden-hairs, Adian- 
tum cuneatum. "We are continually using its 
delicately cut fronds for hand, button-hole, and 
other bouquets, and well grown plants of it are 
always ready for dinner table and genera' 
in-door decoration. You may take a large plant, 
and with a knife or small trowel divide it into a 
dozen pieces, which if put into small pots, and 
placed in a close moist atmosphere and a stove 
temperature, will each make a nice plant in a 
few weeks. Some species grow with a single 
Btem, and therefore cannot be divided. Of these 
the Lomaria gibba is one, and a very desirable 
species. It is very freely propagated from 
spores ; about sowing which, there is no need to 
trouble, as, if they are allowed to ripen, the 
young plants will be plentiful enough. How- 
ever, should a large quantity be required, it is 
as well to sow them. Sei^d-pans or ordinary 
flower-pots should be used for this purpose. 
Drain them well, and fill up with the compost 
already recommended, but with the addition of 
a third part of pounded bricks. The spores 
when matured should be placed on the surface, 
and after being watered with a fine rose, covered 
with a square of glass to maintain a moist 
atmosphere.— JbirnaZ of Horticulture, 



Speculating in New Roses.— My motto 
in respect to roses is, '•''Prove all things; hold 
fai^t to thai which is good!^^ This, it will be said, 
is good advice to the rosarian of limited means, 
and is intended tor him. Propagate and buy in 
tl^e good roses, now abundmtly proved, lists of 
which are periodically placed before the readers 
of the Gardener's Magazine, written by men ot 
undoubted talent, judgment and honesty. The 
wjitcrs of arti(jl(s on roses and other flowers in 
the Magazine, be it known, have nothing to 
gain but the gratitude and good will of their bro- 
ther ro.sarians and florists generally. It is to 
the s:r«*ut humbug our neighbors, the French 
nurserymen, are imposing upon us that I wish 
to direct attention ; it is now an ascertained 
fact that not more than about one new rose in 
ten rmiains in the English catalogue more than 
tbiee or ibur years. 



There are two classes of rosarians ; the first 
are the gentlemen of great private means, who 
can easily aflford to ride hobby-horses, and buy 
in all the new roses as soon as they are to be pro- 
cured. They select those which they think best, 
and are led on, year after year, by glowing 
descriptions given by the French raisers, and 
not by the English nurserymen, who cannot 
possibly describe a rose unseen. In July the 
great rose exhibitions are held at Kensington 
and the Crystal Palace, and are anxiously 
attended by amateurs, who note down all the 
varieties which take their fancy. The poor 
amateur is often deceived with his eyes wide 
open. The rose that has taken his fancy per- 
haps, turns out a weak'grower, most delicate in 
habit, and not at all suited to his soil or situa- 
tion. Bui his mind is made up ; he must have 
it in his collection ; it was really so very beauti- 
ful at Kensington, He never once thinks that 
that particular rose has been grown by a most 
skilful cultivator, who has spared no pains to 
bring it to its present state of perfection. If it 
were not for that natural longing for change, 
advance and improvement, we should hate toil, 
and treat work and exertion as a curse ; but 
kind Nature has made improvement in flowers, 
the rose particularly, as well as other things, 
both the law and necessity of our existence, and 
has so made us that the inspiration, the com- 
mand, and the spur are all within. 

The second class of rosarians have the same 
feelings and desires as those of the first class, 
but are limited in their means, and must be con- 
tent to ride third class. They get to their jour- 
ney's end slower than by the '* express.'' They 
have the advantage of buying roses that have 
been proved good ; they have seen them with 
their own eyes, and they procure them at a much 
cheaper rate than their richer brethren, who 
purchase things unseen. Another great advan- 
tage awaits them— the road has been cleared and 
the rubbish swept away. The rich rosarians 
must be encouraged by high prizes being given 
to them, and nurserymen also, for introducing 
new roses of merit, else they would cease to im- 
port them, and bring them before the public— 
Oardener'^s Magazine, 



Nymphs A Odor at a.— In Nymphse odorata 
we have a perfect miniature of the N". alba. Its 
flowers are white, about the size of a florin, and 
highly fragrant, and they usually appear about 
July or August. When cultivated in the op a 



air the leaves average about two inches across, 
but when grown in the stove or greenhouse (as 
it often is, though perfectly hardy) the flowers 
will be two inches and the leaves four inches 
across, the latter generally of a reddish-purple 
underneath. 

It is of all others the plant for small tanks or 
basins, requiring only a depth of from six inches 
to nine inches of water for its perfect develop- 
ment. If planted in a pond, it shoiild be near 
the margin, and must not be planted more than 
a foot below the surface. It will also be advisa- 
ble to introduce a few rough pieces of rock, so 
placed that the water can flow in and out, to 
separate it from the rest of the pond ; and also 
to lay a few smooth pebbles over the surface of 
the soil, to keep it in its place. 

The native habitat of this desirable acquaiic is 
in ponds and slow-flowing streams from '' Cana- 
da to Carolina.*' It is the most lovely of all the 
small growing water plants, save and except 



that it has a rosy-cheeked cousin across the At- 
lantic, which, when introduced from the Cana- 
dian lakes, will become a formidable rival to it. 
Be it known, therefore, unto *< Ye Englysshe »» 
that the Nymphaea odorata rosea does exist in 
those lakes, and when we get the two to flower 
side by side, one rose and the other white, both 
equally fragrant withal, and corresponding in 
size, it will be a sight to see, and would almost 
justify us if we were to adopt the old name for 
these flowers, viz.. Water Roses, for thus they 
were termed in this country about the time, now 
nearly three centuries ago, that Prosper Alpi- 
nus wrote his work on '' Egyptian Plants,'' the 
13G plates of which, containing the Nelumbium, 
Papyrus, &c., were cut in ^'brasse." The N. 
odorata occasionally ripens seed in the open air 
in this country, and young plants have been 
raised therefrom ; still it is slow to increase, and 
is, therefore, comparatively rare.— W.Buckley, 
in Florist and Pomologist. 



FOREIGN CORRESPONDENCE. 



HORTICULTURAL OBSERVATIONS IN 
ENGLAND, No. 5. 

January 7th, 1873. 
The weather here at the present time is a 
prolific theme of conversation, and I suppose I 
am a little tainted with the epidemic myself, as 
I cannot resist the temptation to make a few 
remarks about it to you and your readers. In 
the first place we have had a very wet season so 
far, not only here but all over England, and also 
for this season of the year a very uniform high 
temperature. 

In a former communication, I think I told 
you that we had a slight frost on the 23d of 
September, which cut some of the tender plants 
on low ground ; that is the only approach to 
frost we have had excepting a similar touch on 
tbo 12th of December. I have a very correct 
thermometer, and have kept a careful record 
since the 1st of August last three times a day, 
▼12 : at 9 A. M., 12 and 6 p. m , and I have not 
seen it yet down at the freezing point, 32-^ 
^ough it must have just gone down to that in 
ine night, as the ground was a little crisp in the 
mornmg, but my glass marked 34^ each time a^- 

«in« \' ^""^ ^^'® ^"""^^^^ '^ *^^8 been at that time, 
since December 12th, has been 40^ and at that 



only once, December 30th. if you think It 
worth printing, I will give you an abstract of 
my record from December 20th to January 8Lh. 
December 21st, 9 A. M., 48^ ; 12 m., ;'G^ ; 6 p. m., 
5(5; 22d, 56^ 62^ 56^; 23d, 56^ 60\ 56^ 24th 
5(5°, 58^ 56° ; 25th, 56°, 60°, 56° ; 26th, 54\ 55°i 
53°; 27th, 52°, 56°, 53°; 28th, 54o, 55°, 52°. 
29th, 51°, 53\ 50° ; 30lh, 40°, 50°, 49^ ; 31st, 50°,' 
52°, 48°; January 1st, 46°, 50°, 5|°; 2d, 48°, 
48°, 48° ; 3d, 48°, 52°, 50° j 4th, 52°, 55°, 55° ; 
5th, 46°, 52°, gO° ; 6th, 50°, 55°, 54° ; 7th, 50°. 
51°, 52°. ' • 

With such a temperature you can imagine the 
appearance the country assumes under such 
favorable conditions. I passed a meadow yester- 
day on a sunny slope, and it was nearly white 
with daisies in full bloom, and in an orchard 
close by was a thrush in full song. I could 
actually hear him for near half a mile. 

In almost every garden the English sweet- 
^ scented Violet is in bloom, and in two or three 
, places I have seen the native Primrose in bloom . 
already. In one of the squares is a residence 
with a piazza fifty feet, with a plant of Passi- 
flora coerulla in full leaf, covered the whole 
length with the lemon-colored seed pods: two 
ornamental boxes outside on the window silU 



fl 



160 



THE GARDE JEER'S MOJVTBLY. 



May, 



•I 



I 



(never been taken inside yet) full with gera- 
niums, some of them in bloom. 

In several places I see fine plants of Veronica 
Andersonii in full bloom. Laurustinus, every- 
where beautiful, single specimen plants eight 
feet high and more through ; perfect hedges of 
them three and four feet high some in bloom, 
but all full of buds ready to burst. Plenty of 
double Daisies, and a polyanthus I saw in 
bloom to-day ; also the old China or Belmont 

Rose. 

Evergreens, and evergreen shrubs, are in 
their glory here. Arbutus unedo, some in 
bloom, some going out, and others covered with 
their beautiful pink pericarps ; fine specimens 
also of Aucuba Japonica, Alaternus, Portugal 
and Common Laurels, Magnolia grandiflora, 
with its regal glossy foliage ; another beautiful 
evergreen shrub, which blooms continuously 
from August to December, is Escallonia maca- 
rantha. There are three distinct plants which 
flourish and make extraordinary growth in this 
locality, viz : the Weeping Ash, Cupressus 
macrocarpa, and the Cotoneasters : the two first 
make shoots in one season from two to five feet 
long, and the last you will see as a beauti- 
ful upright hedge, in other places covering rock- 
work, and again trailing over the walls, hanging 
down four or five feet, and all covered thick 
with berries. Yesterday, to my astonishment, 
in passing a house, where not more than two 
months ago, I saw the common Nasturtiam 



trained up the walls, and now here were a 
whole batch of seedlings, three inches high, 
come up, and growing and flourishing as if it 
was midsummer. Take a walk in the woods 
with me and I will show you the holly and ivy, 
the latter running to the tops of the tallest 
trees, covered with berries; here again is the 
dainty little evergreen, the Butchery broom 
(Ruscus aculeatus) with its bright solitary 
berries '' ruddier than tlie Cherry;'^ here on the 
ditch banks a thick mass of Ivy ; also the ground 
Ivy (Glechoma hederacea) and various other 
plants, with the young leaves and buds of the 
primroses trying to forc^ their way through; 
but without exception the most shewy native 
plant we have in the winter here is the Iris 
foetedissima : it grows in the woods and lanes, 
and its tri-parted pericarpt burst open in the 
pale, and reveals and exposes its future progeny 
in its bright scarlet persistent berries, which 
remain all winter, even if you cut them and put 
them in a vase on the chimney piece, and then 
to add to its beauty is its bright green Gladioli- 
like foliage, eighteen inches long. Yesterday, 
by a fine plant of Scolopendrium (which grows 
every where here) I saw a plant of Lamium 
Album in full bloom. But enough, Mr. Editor, 
I fear if I expatiate any more on the native 
beauty of Devonshire, you may be tempted to 
advertise your establishment for sale, and come 
over here to *' roam the woods with me.'' 

J. W. W. 



HORTICULTURAL NOTICES. 



OERMANTOWN (Pa.) HORTICULTURAL 

SOCIETY. 
The first exhibition of this young Society, 
held early in April, was a great success. A large 
number of members are enrolled, and some Of- 
teen hundred tickets were sold to non-members 
at the door. The exhibition was well sustained 
in all its departments; and in the rarity of 
some of the specimens, and the excellent growth 
of others, would have done credit to much older 
and better known societies. Most of the florists 
and nurserymen of the vicinity contributed; 
amongst them Messrs. Miller & Hays, John Kin- 
nier, David Fergusson, Wm. Grassie, L. C. Ban- 
nan, Mrs. Waltemate,'Wm. Young and Thomas 



Meehan. Mr. Kinnier took the leading part in 
the great work of the details of the aff'air. 

Of the gardeners and amateurs who exhibited 
there were chiefly Alfred Cope, Frederick Wes- 
sel, gardener to Jos. H. Lovering ; T. T. Mather, 
Dr. Levitt, James Thomas, gardener to E. J. 
Buckuor; Joseph Ilouseley, gardener to W. H. 
Sowers ; John Casey, gardener to Dr. Ashtoa ; 
Alex. Lawson, gardener to T. Charlton Henry ; 
John Warr, gardener to Mrs. Fisher ; Tlios. 
Hendricks, gardener to J. Jay Smith ; Geo. 1. 
Morris, John Kelley, gardener to E. W. Clark 
Alex. Newitt, gardener to H. Pratt McKean 
Dr. Haryjy Roop. 

The next meetino: is in June. 




ht (Sard^n^r's 




mililn, 



DEVOTED TO 



Norticultfire, Arboriculture, Botany and Rural Affairs, 



EDITED BY THOMAS MEEHAN. 



Old Series, Vol. XV, 



JU.ArE, 1873. 



New Series, Vol. VL No. 6 



HINTS FOR JUNE. 



FLOWER GARDEN AND PLEASURE 

GROUND. 

A worthy friend of ours visiting Europe last 
summer, found himself in a beautiful garden 
owned by one of the cWef of England's aristoc- 
racy. The gardener was apologizing for the 
appearance of things, on the ground that "his 
Lorrlship" had met with some reverses, and it 
was tliought best to cut down expenses. " We 
had, said he, always fifty men employed, but we 
have now to do the best we can with twenty- 
five.'' 

People often ask the question here why we 
cannot have gardens as they have in Europe, 
and some few attempt to have them, with- 
out ever giving a thought to the skilful care 
necessary to keep them in condition. These few 
attempts generally end in failure, and then we 
are told the country is not adapted to gardening 
as England is. Our people are fond of garden- 
ing and flowers, but they attempt too much. A 
place is fitted up with work enough for a dozen 
men, and after it is done, the gardener is expect- 
ed to keep things in order with one or two. He 
is always on the drive. It is as much as he can 
do to keep things neat, and as to putting forth 
any superior skill in order to excel in anything, 
it is impossible. He soon gets into a regular 
**dog trot.'' There is nothing especially in 
which he takes a pride ; the true gardening am- 
bition dies out, and he "goes into some other 
business.'* 

Now one of the first things in laying out a gar- 
den should be the consideration how many men 
we can afford to keep about it-one, two, three 
-^we will hardly say a dozen, for we suppose 

' "0 r.r'* not a dozen places in America where 



that many are kept. AVhen this is decided on, 
then lay out and build with regard to that ; and 
we might say, always aim to keep within bounds. 
If you think you can keep four men, lay out 
enough work for two, and so on through the 
whole scale. We have before called attention to 
this matter at an earlier period of the season ; 
but it is as well that we take a June view of the 
situation, and unless we are much mistaken, 
there will be in most places annoyances at hosts 
of things being but half done, or undone, than 
we hoped for. 

But there are a large number of our readers 
who are their own gardeners, who keep no one 
employed, or at least only get a laborer's aid 
once in a while to see through the rougher work. 
We would advise these also in the same way to 
curtail their gardens one-half. The great beau- 
ty of one's place is in its excellencies. These can 
never be done when one is overworked. 

One always feels with the incoming of June, 
that something must be said of Roses. There is 
always a struggle between the tender tea and 
china roses which bloom ''all the time," and the 
hardy ones which after the glorious June dis- 
play, produce bat a scattering flower or so in the 
later summer months. If we could only winter 
out these charming arud sweet everbloomers, 
how glorious it would be. We have stated 
before in these columns, that if bent down and 
covered with earth, they will generally do well. 
But it is often hard to get the branches down 
without breaking, and besides with all this, they 
often suffer from the damp. A friend tells us 
that he has improved on this by burying them 
standing up. The weak unripe shoots are cut 
off* in the early winter or late fall, and a wheel 



f^ 



16S 



TEE GARDENER'S MOJVTSLY. 



June, 



1878. 



TBE GARDEJ^ER'S MOJVTHLl, 



16S 




ii 






barrow load of earth put in over and about them. 
This is taken away early in spring, and the 
whole plant comes out in splendid order to bloom 
again in double profusion the next season. We 
repeat this valuable note here just now, that it 
may be kept in view to protect them in this way 
when the season comes round. 

Rare roses are increased by layers, buds and 
cuttings ; layers arc made of the strong growths 
as soon as the wood gets a little hard, a slit is 
cut in the upper feide of the shoot to be layered, 
and it is bent down into rich soil. Everything 
roots sooner in rich than in poor soil. The cut 
used to be made on the under side, but they are 
then liable to break on bending down. Budding 
is done by taking out a piece of bark with an 
eye, and inserting it under the bark of another 
kind and then tied in. It is nice amusement for 
ladies, and any Uorist will explain the process 
to those who do not know. Budded roses are 
not very popular owing to the tendency of the 
kinds used for stocks to throw up suckers, 
which, unless the intelligence of the grower is 
equal to keeping them ofl', in the end kill the 
kinds budded on them. Rose cuttings arc gen- 
erally easily raised by those who know little 
about it. In proportion as one becomes a skilful 
florist, the failures to strike Rose cuttings in- 
crease. Almost every one who puts in a few 
** slips " of half ripe wood into a pot of earth, 
and sets the pot under a shady fence, succeeds ; 
but as soon as he or she knows " all about it," 
they can't strike roses. Here at least is an en- 
couragement to the new beginner. 

Peg down roses where a heavy mass of flow- 
ers is desired. The side shoots push more freely 
for this treatment. 

Cut off" the flowers of roses as they fade— the 
second crop will be much better for the atten- 
tion. Seeds of all flowering plants should be 
also taken ofl"; all this assists the duration of 
the blooming season. 

Propagation by layering may be performed any 
time when strong vigorous growing shoots can 
be had. Any plant can be propagated by lay- 
ers. Many can be readily propagated no other 
way. Cut a notch on the upper side of the shoot, 
not below, as all the books recommend, and bend 
down into, and cover with rich soil. In a few 
weeks they root, and can be removed from their 
parents. Stakes for plants should be charred at 
the ends before using, when they will last for 
years. 

Flower-beds should be hoed and raked as soon 



as the ground dries after a rain. Loose surface 
soil prevents the under stratum drying out. 
Peg down bedding-plants where practicable. 
Split twigs make the best pegs. In dry weather 
do not water flower-beds often ; but do it 
thoroughly when it is done. See that the water 
does not run off, but icto and through the soil. 



FRUIT GARDEN. 

Whoever grows wheat or any other farm crop, 
knows that the soil will not maintain its fertility 
without manure. He knows that however rich 
a virgin soil may be, it cannot long remain rich 
without his artificial aid. Hence, an annual 
manuring becomes in time, as necessary as an 
annual sowing of seeds. How few remember 
this in orchard management. The tree has to 
flourish in the same soil for years— or perchance 
after all the best of the soil has been taken away 
by regular farm crops, and then comes the 
*' wonder why our climate will not grow trees as 
it once did." Soils calinot well bo too rich for 
fruit trees ; not to have manure dug deeply in, 
but spread on the surface. Possibly we suffer 
more from the Apple and Plum borer than we 
one time did, but these are so easily kept out by 
oil paper about the collar of the tree, that ex- 
cuses for not raising fruit, on account of injury 
to the trees by borers, is only exhibiting one's 
laziness. Fire blight and plum knot may be 
easily kept under, and the curculio *' fixed " by 
hull-catchers. The codlin moth may bo pretty 
well kept under by persistence in destroying 
wormy apples, so that with the exception of leaf- 
blight and injuries from frost, there is really no 
formidable obstacle to the way of successful fruit 
trrowinji. Leaf blight is not yet mastered. If it 
is true as appears probable, that the fungus 
which produces the effect we see, can only germi- 
nate in a high temperature, we may, by taking 
steps to keep the great refl^^ction from our sum- 
mer sun parched soil from operating on the 
leaves, yet master this last great evil. 

The evil effects of severe summer pruning on 
fruit trees arc also now clearly recognized. AH 
pruning, winter or summer, is an injury to 
vitalit3\ Frequently the injury is so slight that 
the tree soon recovers, and some other advan- 
tage being gained, pruning on the whole may be 
a benefit. It is well, however, to always keep in 
view the principal that pruning always weakens, 
in order to do as little of it as possible, consist- 
ently with what we wish to accomplish. At this 
season we may do some good in saving the 



necessity for winter pruning, by pinching out 
shoots we may not want, while they are in a 
young and immature state. 

Grapes first coming in bearing should not be 
permitted to perfect large crops of fruit while 
young. It is excusable to fruit a bunch or so on 
a young vine, '* just to test the kind, " but no 
more should be permitted till the vine has age 
and strength. Vigorous growth, and great pro- 
ductiveness, are the antipodes of the vegetable 
world. Encourage as much foliage as possible 
on the vines, and aim to have as strong shoots 
at the base as at the top of the cane ; this can be 
done by pinching out the points of the strong 
shoots after they have made a growth of five or 
six leaves. This will make the weak ones crow 
stronger. Young vines grow much faster over 
a twiggy branch, stuck in for support, than over 
a straight stick as a trellis, and generally do 
better every way. Where extra fine bunches of 
grapes are desired, pinch back the shoot bearinjx 
it to about four or five leaves above the bunch. 
This should not be done indiscriminately with 
all the bunches. Too mutch pinching and stop- 
ping injures the production of good wood for 
next season. These hints are for amateurs who 
have a few vines on trellises ; for large vine- 
yard culture, though the same principles hold 
good as far as they go, they will vary in their 
application. 

Strawberries, when grown in hills— the most 
laborious, but most productive method of grow- 
ing them— should have runners cut off as they 
grow, and the surftice soil kept loose by shallow 
hoeings occasionally. Short litter, half rotten 
as a mulch, is also beneficial. Lawn mowings 
are often applied, but with little benefit. Where 
they are grown in beds, they should not be too 
thick, as they starve one another, and the crop 
next year will be poor. 

Blackberries are not always ripe when they 
are black. Leave them on till they part readily 
from their stalks. 

Currants are so easily grown as to require few 
hints for their management. If they throw up 
many suckers, take out a portion now, instead of 
waiting till winter to cut them away. The Cur- 
rant borer is a great pest, eating out the pith of 
the young shoots, and causing them to grow 
poorly, and bear but small fruit next year. 
Gummy *' flypaper » is, wo think, the best thing 
to catch them. 

Gooseberries should have the soiL and even 
the plants, if it were practicable, shaded a little. 



VEGETABLE GARDEN. 

Peas for a fall crop may be sown. It is, how- 
ever, useless to try them unless in a deeply 
trenched soil, and one that is comparatively cool 
in the hottest weather overhead, or they will 
certainly mildew and prove worthless. In Eng- 
land, where the atmosphere is so much more 
humid than ours, they nevertheless have great 
difficulty in getting flUl Peas to go through free 
from mildew ; and to obviate these drying and 
and mildew producing influences, they oftea 
plant them in deep trenches, made as for Celery, 
and are then much more successful with them. 

Cabbage and Brocoli may still be set out for 
fall crops, also requiring an abundance of ma- 
nure to insure much success. Lettuce, where 
salads are much in request, may yet be sown. 
The Curled Indian is a favorite summer kind ; 
but the varieties of Cos, or plain-leaved kinds, 
are good. They take more trouble, having to be 
tied up to blanch well. Many should not be 
sown at a time, as they soon run to seed in hot 
\veather. 

At the end of June, some Celery may be set 
out for early crops, though for the main crop a 
month later will be quite time enough. It was 
once customary to plant in trenches dug six or 
more inches below the surface ; but the poverty 
of the soil usually at this depth more than de- 
creases tli^ balance of good points in its favor. 
Some of our best growers now plant entirely on 
the surface, and depend on drawing up the soil, 
or the employment of boards or other artificial 
methods of blanching. 

Beans produce an enormous crop in deeply 
trenched soils, and are improved as much as any 
crop by surface manuring. We hope this method 
of fertilizing the soil will be extensively adopted 
for garden crops this season. Those who havo 
not yet tried it will be surprised at the economy 
and beneficial results of the practice. 

Cucumbers for pickling may be sown this 
month, and Endive for fall Salad set out. Pars- 
ley for winter use may be sown now in boxes of 
rich soil, and set in a cool, shady place till it 
germinates. 

Asparagus beds should not be cut off after the 
stalks seem to come up weak, or there will be but 
a poor crop the next season, and the beds will 
'* run out " in a few years. 

Tomatoes, after trying all kinds of trellises 
recommended, will be found to do best on stakes 
tied up singly. It is best to plant a strong pole 



♦ ii 






164 



THE GARDEJ^ER'S MOJsTTELl. 



June, 



187S. 



THE GARDE JETER'S MOJYIMLY. 



165 



as for Lima Beans, with the plants when first 
get out, and tie up as they grow. Marketmon 
generally let them f?row as they will, on the 
ground, which, perhaps, although not yielding 
as much, costs less lahor, and may thus be most 
profitable. 

The Swede Turnip or Ruta Baga should be 
sown about the end of the month. A well en- 
riched piece of ground is essential, as by growing 
fast they get ahead of the ravages of the fly. 
Manures abounding in the phosphates— bone- 
dust, for instance, are superior for the Turnip. 

Sweet Potatoes must be watched, that the 
vines do not root in the ground as they run, 
which will weaken the main crop of roots. They 
ghould be gone over about once a month, and 



with a rake or pole, the vines disturbed some- 
what from their position. 

Parsley for winter use may be sown now in 
boxes of rich soil, and set in a cool, shady place 
till it germinates. 

Herbs for drying for future use, should be cut 
just about the time they are coming into flower. 
Dry them in the shade, and after sufficiently dry 
to put away, tie them in bunches, and hang in a 
cool shed, or place them loosely between the 
paper, and stow away in cupboards or drawers. 
The last mode is by far the cleanest and most 
approved plan with the best housekeepers. 
Some, indeed, powder the leaves at once after 
drying, and put them away in bags, ready for 
use. 



M M U N I G A T I N S. 



ON LILIES. 

BY P. DUCUAUTRE. 

TranslaieO from the Reveu Horticole of Julf/ ICtth, 1871, /or 

Gardener's Monthln. 

Several of the Japan Lilies which Thunberg 
had published, are to-day well known in the gar- 
dens. These are distinctly characterized, and 
therefore it is impossible to confound with any 
of these the Lilium cordifolium, Thunb., which 
resembles only one species, discovered much 
later in the Nepaul, by Wallich— Lilium gigan- 
teum, Wall., by its particular part, its heart- 
shaped leaves, its long nearlj^ tubulous and little 
opened flowers, whose color is of a dirty white, 
and which have on the outside purple stripes and 
spots, drawing near together and forming a band 
on the median veia of the petals ; but its smaller 
size, (1 metre the largest), the generally less 
number of little opened flowers, its capsules with 
prominent longitudinal corners, make it a spe- 
cies totally different from the one from Nepaul. 

The Lilium speciosum, Thunb., is a magnifi- 
cent plant, of which Siebold brought later bulbs 
to the botanical gardens at Ghei^t, who have 
since their first flowering, in 1833, made a veri- 
table sensation. The straight and glabrous stem 
bears alternate oval-oblong leaves, at the base 
more or less rounded, or short stems with gener- 
ally five or seven longitudinal nerves. These 
leaves get narrower near the top of the plant, 
which has many branches, so that it bears nu- 
merous flowers. These are very large reflected, 



re volute, and the leaflets of their calyx are cov- 
ered with warts, generally colored pink ; more 
or less brilliant. This superb lily has produced 
numerous varieties, the flowers of which vary 
from the deepest pink to a pinkish white— even 
to pure white, and of which one variety is a 
monstrosity ; with flattened stem, flowering in 
much greater profusion, but having much small- 
er flowers than the others. It is to be regretted 
that the Belgian gardeners, following herein the 
example of Mussche, the head gardener of the 
botanical gardens at Ghent, have transferred, 
without any reason whatever,to this species, the 
name of Lilium lancifolium, under which name 
it is more widely known than under its own 
denomination. The true L. lancifolium, Thunb., 
has not yet been introduced in Europe. Thun- 
berg, who then had only seen our Lilium bulbi- 
ferum, recognized herein, later, a different spe- 
cies, (Trans, of the Linn. Soc, II., 1794, pp. 
333.) characterized by its stem of only about 
33 metres height, angulous, rough or reddish ; 
by its alternate, numerous, sessile, lanceolated 
and pointed ; glabrous leaves, rather small and 
getting smaller near the top of the plant, where 
bulblets are produced in the areoles, and by it« 
white small solitary, upright, nearly companu- 
lated flower, the leaflets of whose calyx shrink 
together to a sharp point. 

Another Japan Lily, which like the foregoing, 
has also not yet been introduced in Europe, i» 



the one which 1 hunberg had taken first in his 
flora (p. 135) for L. ranadense, and of which in 
1794 he made his Lilium maculatum. Later he 
gave a figure of this plant, (mem. dii 1' acad. 
imp, des Soc. de Saint Petersbourg III. p. 204, 
plate 5, fig. 1.) To judge by this figure and the 
description to it, the spotted lily is of an average 
height of about 0.33 metres ; its glabrous stem is 
rounded, striped or furrowed, single to where the 
flower appears ; it has numerous small or mid- 
dle sized leaves, lanceolated, pointed towards 
the base, but without stem, they have on the 
under side several projecting nerves, these leaves 
draw together to a whirl at the base of the flow- 
er. The plant has from 4 to 6 middle companu- 
lated sized flowers, which throw the pieces of 
their calyx a little outward ; their color is blood 
red, colored on the inside with dark purple points 
and spots. Dr. Asa Gray, (Diagnostic charac- 
ters of new species of Phaenog. plants, collected 
in Japan by Chr. Wright. Mem. of the Ameri- 
can Acad., VL, p. 434) cites with doubt this 
plant as a variety of L. superbum, L., which 
determination it seems to me might be attacked. 
The Japan Lily which Thunberg named Lili- 
um elegans (mem. del' acad. de St. Petersbourg, 
III., p. 203, plate 3, fig. 2) and which he had 
first called L. philadelphicum in his flora, (p. 
135) and then L. bulbiferum in his memiors of 
Japan plants, (Trans, of the Linn. Soc, IL, p. 
333) is also not possessed in Europe. It is, says 
the Swedish botanist, a plant of about 0.33 
metres height, has middle sized, alternate, erect 
leaves, and ends in a large flesh colored cam- 
panulated flower, which throws the ends of the 
oblong pieces of its calyx a little to the outside. 
Thunberg compares this species willi h. bulbi- 
ferum, from which it is distinguished, he says, 
by its single, smooth, or flower bearing stem, 
neither striped nor divided by its leaves, more 
oval oblong, and distanced, and lastly by the 
pieces of its calyx, which are oval, and not ter- 
minating in a point at the base. The figure he 
publishes gives only a very imperfect idea of the 
plant. Lilium longiflorum, Thunb., (Trans. 
n., p. 133, and mem. de 1' acad. de St. Peters- 
bourg, III., p. 203, plate 4) is not only well 
known, but also to-day frequently cultivated in 
the gardens. It belongs to a group of Japan 
blies, with large white flowers, of which Thunb. 
had already distinguished an other species under 
the name L japonicum. (See mem. de 1' acad. 
de St. Petersbourg, III., p. 205, plate 5, fig. 1). 
It IB easy to characterize the L. longiflorum, 



a plant of a height from about 0.33 to 0.50 me- 
tres, whose round glabrous stem has many alter- 
nate, thick, lanceolated leaves, rather long for 
their size, sharp-pointed, having on the under- 
side three prominent nerves, and terminating in 
one or two (seldom three) large fine flowers, pure 
white on the inside, and of a white, a little dirty 
on the outside, pending a little, and having the 
tube comparatively a little short, this tube en- 
larges gradually from its base, to become at its 
end large, quite open, and very showy. Less 
easy is it to understand that it is the plant 
which Thunberg has designed since 1783, in his 
Flora japonica, (p. 133) under the name L. 
japonicum. We thei'efore see that in the cata- 
logue of his collection, Mr. Leichtlin indicates 
by a sign of interrogation, (?) that he is not at 
all sure of the specific identity of the Lily which 
he cultivates under that name. Truly the char- 
acters by which Thunberg distinguishes his 
species, lack precision, and the badly executed 
figure he gives, certainly cannot destroy the 
doubts his description creates ; it is evtn in oppo- 
sition in certain respects, with the text, forwhile 
it represents the leaflets of the calyx as being 
oblong, lanceolate, very much and sharply 
pointed, his text describes the same leaflets as 
elliptic. The total, after this botanist, tht; L. 
japonicum is a plant of about 0.65 metres height, 
whose rounded glabrous stem has few leaves, 
about 0.20 metres (Si)ithamaea) long, alternate, 
seldom opposite, glabrous, pale on the under- 
side, where five nerves are to be observed. The 
stem terminates in a single whitish flower, cona- 
panulated, and about 0.081 metres (palmnris) 
long. This Lily Thunberg qualifies as being 
very fine, and adds that simultaneously at Mia- 
co and elsewhere, it is often cultivated by the 
Japanese as an ornamental plant. These s'pe- 
cies of Japan lilies which are due to Thunberg, 
being retrenched, it remains only the one which 
he compared wrongly to our Lilium pomponlnra, 
or from Pompone, and of which more recently 
Siebold and Facharini have made their Liliuo^ 
callosum. 

While Thunberg at the end of the last century 
studied and made known the Japan lilies, the 
French botanist, Andre Michaux, explored the 
United States to examine their vegetable i>ro- 
ductions. The results of his explorations are 
consigned in his Flora boreali Americana, pub 
lishcd in 1803. He made us acquainted with 
many new plants, and added considerably to the 
already known species of several genus of plauta; 



( 



166 



TEE GARDMJTER'S MOJVTSLY. 



June, 



1873. 



TEE GARDEJVEB'S MOJVTELY. 



167 



but the genua lily he left nearly in its prior state, 
in fact he mentions in his work only three spe- 
cies ; the first one of Linne, the Lilium cana- 
dense, L., the second, which had already been 
distinguished by Walter, in his flora of the Caro- 
linas, published in 1788. I have reference to the 
charming Lilium Catesbaei, Walter, a plant of 
the Middle States, already distinguished and 
figured since 1733, by Catesby. Its stem is of 
about 0.33 to 0.50 metres height, round, glabrous, 
and somewhat brownish on the inside ; has 
alternated, distanced, lineal-lanceolated pointed 
leaves, a little glaucus on the upper side, and 
nearly upright, and has one large upright flow- 
er, of a blood-red color, which turns to yellow 
towards the middle, where it has many brown- 
ish, purple spots ; the very much rolled up leaf- 
lets of its calyx are undulated at the edges, ter- 
minating at the top end in a long point, and 
also getting very narrow at their base. The 
third specie, considered new by this botanist, he 
named Lilium carolinianura. He characterized 
it by its leaves, nearly all in whorls, without any 
apparent nerves, and by its flowers, either single 
or numbering two or three, which are reflected, 
very much rolled up, of scarlet color, turning to 
yellow, more or less orange towards the middle, 
where numorous brownish-red spots are scatter- 
ed. This pretty Lily, instead of forming a sepa- 
rate species, is only a variety of L. superbum, 
L.— smaller than the type of this fine plant. It 
is the same plant which received later, by Poi- 
ret, the name of L. Michauxii, (Encyclo. Sup., 
III., p. 157), and by Roemer and Schultes, the 
one of L. Michauxianum, (Syst. Vlt , p. 404). 

Summed up, at the beginning of this century, 
in 1805, when Persoon published the first vol- 
ume of his Synopsis plautarum, or Enchiridum 
botanicum, containing all the phaenogamous 
plants know at that time, the genus Lily was in 
this work only represented by seventeen species, 
of which hereby the names belonging to the two 
sections in which they were divided by this 
botanist, viz.: First, upright flowers with corn- 
pan ulated calyx : 

1. Lilium cordifolium, Thunb. 

2. ** longiflorum, " 
^ ** candidum, Linne 
i. •* japonicum, Thunb. 
ft» '' lancifolium, *' 

i. '* bulbiferum, Linne, and C. croceum, 
a plant from the Dauphinc, Switzer- 
land, and which was before and right- 
ly considered a distinct species, 



under the name L. croceum, by 
Chaix, in the history of the plants 
of the Dauphine, by Villers, (1786), 
and even before that time by Fuchs. 
Second, flowers, the leaflets of whose calyx are 
rolled up to the outside : 

7. Lilium Catesbaei, Walter 

8. " Speciosum, Thunb. 

9. ** Pomponicum, Linne 

10. *' Chalcedonicum, ** 

11. *• * Superbum, 

12. " Martagon, 

13. ** Carolinianum, Michaux 

14. *' canadense, Linne 

15. '' maculatum, Thunb. 

16. ** Camschatccnse, Linne 

17. " Philadelphicum, *' 

Is it necessary to observe that this list would 
have been augmented by another species, if in 
1805, Thnnberg had already distinguished hii 
Lilium elegans ? 



(( 



(C 



-<# » » 



FRUIT CULTURE. 

BY J. STAUFFER, LANCASTER, PA. 

The remarks made by Tobias Martin, of Mer- 
cersburg, at the meeting of the Pennsylvania 
Fruit Growers' Society, assembled at Reading, 
January 16, 1873, arrested my attention ; the 
facts stated in his plain practical manner, and 
his well known success, led to a further inquiry. 

In answer to a letter, he writes to me under 
date February 10, 1873, from which I copy a few 
statements: *'lst. He planted on a very deep, 
rich limestone loam, composed of decayed vege- 
table matter. The trees grew finely but did not 
last. 

**2nd. Then on red and some black slate, 
which had a soil from six to eight inches deep. 
This was broken up to the depth of eighteen to 
twenty-four inches, with two plows, four horses 
in each, in the same furrow, throwing up the 
crumbling slate, which gave the field the appear- 
ance of a macademized road. These slates 
crumbled, and by the action of the frost, rain, 
and sunshine, became a surface soil in a few 
years of a fine mellow condition, eighteen inches 
deep, and proved to contain all the elements 
essential to produce choice fruit of the finest 
flavor and color, and in great abundance. The 
wood growth was very strong and solid, the foli- 
age of a dark rich green." He adds, the sand- 
stone soil is hilly, the slate only moderately so. 
He then continues : " We also have 17,000 
trees in an orchard at the base of the North 



Mountain, two miles from town. The surface 
soil is sandy with clay mixed ; sand and iron- 
atone on top, and limestone subsoil, with iron 
ore cropping out in many places. The soil evi- 
dently contains iron in large proportion, hence 
the high color and flavor of the fruit." 

In giving the above abstract, I desire to ap- 
pend a few geological and meterological consi- 
derations suggested, not so generally under- 
stood as the subject deserves. Let us consider 
the locality, 1st, in a geological aspect. We find 
that the North Mountain belongs to what is 
termed tlie upper Silurian, while the village of 
Martinsburg, but a few miles east of it, is located 
in the lower Silurian. (For a fuller understand- 
ing of the terms of upper and lower Silurian, 
consult Dana, or other works on geology.) We 
can but briefly refer to the facts for a ground 
work to our comments At Gettysburg, we find 
the new red ; the cambrian or hilly region inter- 
spersed on the border of Adams and Franklin 
Counties. A strip of limestone on the East, 
while the Cumberland Valley is limestone, as in 
portions of Lancaster County. The trap rock 
ascends and descends the slopes of North Moun- 
tain. These belong to the palse ozoic system, 
and often connected with iron ore, especially on 
the margins of the limestone formation. Hence 
we find this locality peculiar in the close prox- 
imity and blending of various geological forma- 
tions in the soil. The black and red slate men- 
tioned, over a limestone subsoil. Trap or iron- 
stone mixed with sand, iron ore and clay, as 
mentioned in the other case. These facts are 
sustained by Leslie and Rodgers, in reference to 
Mercersburg and vicinity. 

The shales or argillaceous rocks, which split 
in some degree like slate, are so little altered as 
to be easily reducible to clay by mechanical rub- 
bing and pounding, and differ from schists in 
being almost entirely argillaceous, and slightly 
metamorphic, iron and limestone occur mixed 
with them, but are not essential to form shale. 
There is a general similarity in the appearance 
of shale, slate and schists, requiring some study 
and attention. Pyrites (sulphuret of iron) de- 
composed, may be altered into alum, t. €., a 
crumbling rock or shale, thus impregnated with 
alum. In short, we find a combination of alum, 
soda, or ammonia in the place of potash, oxide 
of iron, or of manganese in the place of ammo- 
nia, together with carbonate of lime. The whole 
forming a combination intermixed, which may 
be called a calcareous, argillaceous, ferruginous 



and tyritiferous conglomeration, containing all 
the essential elements of plant food, simply 
requiring the aid of frost, rain and sunshine to 
dissolve in and impregnate the soil and bring it 
to the condition required for absorption by the 
root-hairs and spungeoles of the plant. 

Having briefly considered the geology of the 
soil, let us consider what this has to do with 
vegetable growth. It is well established that 
atmospheric water enters crops through the soil, 
with which it becomes incorporated. Carbonic 
acid is composed of say thirty-two parts by 
weight of oxygen, and twelve parts of carbon. 
It exists in immense quantity thus combined in 
nature. Limestone, marble and chalk contain, 
when pure, 44 per cent, of this acid united to 
lime, as in carbonate of lime or carbonate of 
soda. The carbonic acid is present in the atmos- 
phere. This is very apparent by the white film 
of carbonate on exposing lime water in an open 
vessel to the air for a short time. Water dis- 
solves carbonic acid according to the degree of 
the temperature and pressure, taking up about 
its own volume ©f the ixas. At the freezing 
point it may absorb nearly twice as much. 

So early as 1771, Priestly, in England, found 
that the leaves of plants immersed in water, 
sometimes disengaged carbonic acid, sometimes 
oxygen, and sometimes no gas at all. A few 
years later, Ingenhou.ss proved that the exhala- 
tion of carbonic acid takes place in the absence, 
and that of oxygen in the presence of solar light. 
But according to Sennebier, the oxygen exhaled 
came from the water in which the plants were 
immersed. No one now doubts the absorption 
of the carbonic acid of the atmosphere by foli- 
age. In short, vegetation, in order to flourish, 
must be in an atmosphere which at least con- 
tains a certain amount of carbonic acid, which 
is absorbed by the leaves, and by the influence 
of the sunlight decomposed within the plant, and 
converted into the tissues of the wood, while the 
oxygen is exhaled into the atmosphere in the 
free state. Oxygen is endowed with great chem- 
ical activity, and performs an important part in 
germination to develope the buds ; it is also ab- 
sorbed by the roots of plants, and in the process 
of growth to build up the vegetable structure. 
The function, so far as known, of free gaseous 
oxygen in vegetable nutrition, is in aiding to 
effect the conversion of the materials which the 
leaves organize, or which the root absorb, into 
the proper tissues of the growing parts— the 
opening of the bads, flowers, and ripening of the 



'iPi 



168 



THE GARDEJ^ER'S MOJSTTHLY. 



June, 



fruits. T^o opposite processes go on— the ab- 
sorption of oxygen and exhalation of carbonic 
acid, and the absorption of carbonic acid and 
evolution of oxygen. Similar to the respiration 
of animals, in one case, the other may he termed 
as the fixation of carbon as woody fibre. Of 
course this inter-changeable action is governed 
by the cell action, which counter balance each 
other in their effects by the atmosphere sur- 
rounding the plant. The experiments made 
during many years are too numerous to mention 
— often contrary views are had, but the sum and 
substance is that a slight alteration in cell action 
modifies the simple elements, and gives charac- 
ter to'each specialty in the resultant or product, 
80 diverse in the vegetable kingdom, all however, 
derived from the few primary elements essen- 
tially necessary. 

Huxley says: "Life depends on the pre- 
existence of certain compounds, namely, carbon- 
ic acid, water and ammonia ;'' he adds, ^'with- 
draw any one of these three from the world, and 
all vital phenomena comes to an end." I how- 
ever recognize a force existing, independent of 
all matter— a crcn tive force. It is true this force 
may not be manifest to our physical senses with- 
out the intervention of matter, yet it exists none 
the less and like space and duration and Deity, 
belong to the infinite, which our finite minds 
cannot grasp. This is that hidden mysterious 
power that begets and works out the wonderful 
combinations presented to us in the physical 
world that surrounds us. Light, electricity and 
heat, however much we may experiment with, 
are yet like mind itself, a terra inco(jnito^ which 
our savans can see but superficially, and simply 
note the phenomena resulting— however diversi- 
fied and unknown, are not the less interestino' to 
investigate, so far as we can go ; but let us go 
softly and rev( rently. There is a power behind 
all this that demands our filial fear and adorinf^ 
love. 

To get back to the main subject. In physical 
geogrjiphy there is shown what are termed 
Isothermal zones, having the same mean tem- 
perature. We find how much the high mass 
of the Alleghenies reduce the temperature of the 
central counties of Pennsylvania, deflecting the 
isothermal lines to the South. Along the imme- 
diate valley of the Susquehanna, these lines 
curve very sharply northward, and this valley is 
really warmer than can be represented by the 
position of these lines. Again, the shelter, like 
that afforded by the North Mountain from the 



northwest winds, is a consideration as favorable 
as is proximity to the Lakes or the waters of the 
Ocean. To conclude. So many contingencies 
may exist, that each special result must be 
traced to the conditions and surroundings. A 
vast field is open for investigation. I must now 
abruptly stop. More may be said at a future 
day. 



UTILIZING WASTE MATERIAL. 

BY J. JAY SMITH. 

In the address delivered before |<he new Ger- 
man town Horticultural Society, and which you 
have honored by republishing, I took occasion 
to remark that there were still unsupplied wants 
of the human family, and instanced the absence 
in America of purchasable mushrooms, so much 
employed abroad. It interests me to know that 
an intelligent gardener has already adopted the 
idea, and has a mushroomery in successful com- 
mencement. 

Are there not other things that are also 
neglected, and which ingenious minds and 
hands could turn to very profitable account. 
This idea is enforced by a paragraph from a late 
St. Louis paper, describing a new. industry now 
in operation lliore. Some time since, a party of 
citizens conceived the plan of turning to profit 
the gas water running waste from the gas 
works. It contains a large per centage of am- 
monia. They separated the ammonia held in 
solution and reaped a great profit. The sul- 
phate of ammonia produced was of superior 
quality, and the demand exceeded the capacity 
of the works, while there grew up at once a 
demand from distant points, including places 
east of the Alleghanies, New Orleans, and 
Charlestown, S. C, &c. 

This was utilizing waste. Let us see if we 
can give a profitable outlook for some other per- 
son, be he gardener or housewarmer. As I pass 
a certain large woolen factory, I am often sur- 
prised that somebody does not take possession of 
the waste steam which is continually discharged 
on the level of the ground, and which creates a 
cloud sufficiently large to frighten unaccustomed 
horses as they pass it. Now, Mr. Editor, why 
should not this warmth be conducted to and 
through the neighboring tenant houses ; or 
could not you tell some one how to convert it 
into grapes by erecting over it a grape house ? 
Again, could not unlimited amounts of saleable 
flowers and fruits be produced in the unused 



1873. 



THE GARDEJ^EB'S MOJ^THLY. 



169 



garrets of great factories by utilizing the waste 
steam always discharging ? 

Is the above a practical idea ? If you can say 
it is so, I will charge nothing for it, valuable as 
I conceive it to be, except a bunch of the first 
Black llamburgs that result*. 



•♦- 



ITEMS OF LATE EXPERIENCE. 

by j. c. johnston. 

Cassia corymbosa. 
In the spring of 1870 I raised from seed a few 
plants of Cassia corymbosa. So far, have ob- 
tained no returns from this shoot within doors, 
(which was the object in view). But planted 
out in May, the result is well worth noting for 
the benefit of all desirous of a choice subject for 
flower border decoration. Towards the middle 
of September, at latest, our specimens, some two 
feet high, and of a graceful, bushy form, are 
literally covered with a mass of lovely blossoms ; 
pea shaped, and of a rich canary color. And so 
it remained until cut down by frost in October. 
For over four weeks it was sheeted over with 
these lovely flowers, and attracted the admira- 
tion of all visitors. I am ignorant of any subject 
that can rival this elegant shrub for the purpose 
indicated. As the centre of a bed, surrounded 
by scarlet Zonales of dwarf habit, nothing could 
be better. Cuttings root promptly, and any 
ordinary cultivation will suffice, provided the 
early growth is not permitted to be lanky, and 
the roots pot bound. 

Euphorbia variegata. 
This is an annual of late introduction, more 
worthy of commei\dation than some others which 
have been hoisted into notice. Its merits are 
confined to the foliage, which is a peculiar shade 
of green, that sets off a silvery white edge better 
than any other shade. It reminds one of a sil- 
ver-edged Zonale, that in old times everybody 
grew, (the name slips my memory now) but only 
in the combination of color. This plant grows 
some fifteen or eighteen inches high, with some- 
what slender stem. Three or four ought to be 
grown together and attached to slender stakes 
as they grow. It is a pretty contrast among 
Bouvardias, Gladiolus, and Dwarf Zonales, in a 
mixed bed, if about midway between the edge 
and centre. 

EUCNIDE BARTONOIDES. 

Let those who prize Primula Sinensis of all the 
shades, and wish to blend with these a similar 
plant of a fine yellow color, take the hint here 



offered. It is an annual, but of no use in our 
climate out of doors. Treated just as one do 
Primulas for blooming in January or Febru- 
ary, it is a real gem, giving a succession of love- 
ly flowers eight weeks or more. A single pot of 
it in a greenhouse elicits high commendation. 
The young seedlings must not be permitted to 
run up spindly, but be developed as much as 
possible. The shoots should not be trained 
upward., but kept low by attaching to small and 
very slight stakes, round which the shoots ought 
to be led. As the foliage is slender, very moder- 
ate watering will suffice. There can bo no more 
worthy companion plant to associate with Cin- 
nerarias and Primulas than this. 



HIGHLY ORNAMENTAL EXOTIC 
SHRUBBERY. 

by WALTER ELDER, PHILADELPHIA. 

Ahutilon Thompsonii is one of the most oma-' 
mental foliage plants we have for decorating the 
summer shrubbery. It is shrubbery, grows seven 
feet tall ; the leaves are beautifully marbled with 
green and golden yellow, and are brightest when 
growing in full sunshine, and the soil not too 
rich. The strong growing shoots should have 
their points nipped off every fortnight, to make 
the plant a massy bush. It is a greenhouse 
plant, but is planted in the open ground in June, 
and dug up in fall before hard frost sets in. 

Hibiscus Sinensis. — There are several species 
or varieties. One bears large and splendid crim- 
son single blooms. Carnea bears buff colored, 
double blooms, very beautiful. Lutea has yel- 
low, double blooms, very ornamental. Rubra 
pleno has deep crimson double blooms. Varie- 
gated plcno has double variegated blooms. All 
these Hibiscus bloom the whole growing season. 
They are hothouse plants, and are planted in the 
open garden in June, and have a rich appear- 
ance all the growing season. They are shrubbery 
plants, and show well either set out as indivi- 
dual standards or massed in groups. They 
thrive in almost every fertile soil, and are most 
ornamental in the hottest weather. They grow 
four and five feet tall ; the points of very ram- 
pant growing shoots are nipped off, and the 
plants grow more bushy and bloom more pro- 
fusely. They are dug up and set in pots just 
before hard frosts in the autumn ; tkey are kept 
in glasshouses all winter. 

Layerstraemia has four species or varieties. 
Indica has pink blooms ; Elegans, pale pink ; 



170 



THE GARDE JEER'S MONTHLY. 



JunSf 



Regia, red ; purpurea, purple blooms. They al 
bloom in August and September, and are among 
the most beautiful of all exotic shrubs. They 
are tender north of Philadelphia, but are planted 
out in May and dug up before hard frosts, and 
set in tubs or boxes, and kept in cellars or caves 
all winter. 

Plumbago capensis is a glasshouse exotic 
plant, half herbaceous and half ligneus. It forms 
a shrubby bush thirty inches high when full 
grown. It is admirable for bedding out when 
even small ; it is set out in May and du<x up 
before hard frost in fall. It will keep all winter 
in a cellar or iilasshouse with its roots in a box 
or flower pot. It keeps up a continual bloom 
from June to November. The blooms are lis;ht 
blue— that makes it doubly valuable, as blue is 
80 scarce a color among flowers. It blooms most 
profusely in not too rich a soil, and in full sun- 
shine. 

Night Smelling Jasmine. Is a glasshouse 
exotic shrubbery plant, five feet high ; it is of free 
growth, requiring the most simple culture, and 
is admirable for setting out in the growing sea- 
son, either with its roots in the ground or in a 
pot ; it keeps up a constant bloom from June to 
November. It is set out in May and dug up 
before hard frost in autumn. It blooms most 
freely and grows most compact if the soil is not 
too rich ; and if placed in full sunshine, it will 
keep all winter in a room or glasshouse, moder- 
ately warm. The blo:)ms exhale a delightful 
fragrance after sunset, or as the poet writes it, 
** scents the evening gale.'> 

Let us now suppose that there is a summer 
group of exotic shrubs upon a well kept lawn — 
let it be a circle or an oval, edged with a dwarf 
ArhorvitCE or Retinispora ericoides^ and kept fif- 
teen or eighteen inches high by annual clipping. 
8et a stately plant of Lagerstroemia in the 
centre, and next to it, Abutilon Thompsonii, 
then arrange all the Hibiscus and Night Smell- 
ing Jasmine around, and Plumbago capensis on 
the outer edge. There will be ornamental foU- 
agc and a splendor of blossom of various colors, 
all perfumed with the sweet odors of the Jas- 
mine. The plants may all be planted in the 
ground, or their roots kept in pots or tubs as 
might be desired. 



NOTES ON THE APRIL NUMBER. 

BY F. R ELLIOTT, CLEVELAND, O. 

Your April number of Qardener^s Monthly 
does me good. Truly to me it seems the best 



you have issued, and 1 suppose because it agrees 
with my own impressions. The old, old story 
is of ray own daily record, and I think of every 
writer of and operator in horticulture. Those 
who write, feel that the touching up again of the 
old, old story, and teHing again and again of how 
to prune, plant, etc., is but a repetition of pre- 
vious life, and while here and there comes in an 
item new, yet the whole is so much a repetition 
of years gone by, that were it not for our innate 
feeling, that of the readers, there are many 
young, and who have the, to us, old, old story 
to begin anew, and that our respect of years 
gone by of practice, is to them, like life to the 
new made bride and bridegroom, a lovely start 
in the production of blooming beautj' ; surpass- 
ing all the world ever saw, we should hesitate 
to repeat our teachings, or rather records of 
what we know life's pursuits need and require, 
and the results thereof. And so with us in 
practice. As we go out among our flowers, 
plants, shrubs and trees, note the bursting here 
of beautiful Saxifrages among a cluster of rocks, 
the fresh bright colors of Crocus and Lily of the 
Valley as they peep up amid the old leaves blown 
over and covering them in winter, as perfectly 
as does the downy damask of manufacture the 
early budding of Eve's generation. 

But leaving this, you touch me again in feel- 
ing when you uphold the Managers of the Amer- 
ican Pomological Society in holding to its origi" 
nal and chosen mission, whicb, crude and im- 
perfect as it may be to-day, has accomplished an 
advance creditable and credited all over the 
country, and in its objects and labors covers a 
specific ground of value and interest to our 
country, hardly equalled by any other product 
of rural life productive pursuits. 

Your touch on errors is one over which your 
laugh is all right, but you know that wo often 
read proof, make our corrections, but when it 
comes before our readers, we find the compositor 
neglected his duty, and we have often worse 
blunders than your Cryptogamia for Crt/ptome- 
ria. But we laugh over it and say to ourselves, 
well if the reader knows aught he will see that 
it is a typographical error, and if he does not 
know anything at present, it may possibly 
induce him to wonder what the word means, and 
so try to hunt it up, failing of which, he writes 
and asks a question, thus bestirring his brain, 
when if we or the compositor had not made the 
blunder, he would never have exerted himself to 
correct our, to him, error. All of these blunders. 



187S. 



THE GARDEJ^ER'S MO.N-THLY. 



171 



I think, stir up the egotism of humanity, and as 
oft do good as bad. 

The weather is warm here. A heavy fall of 
rain— more than we have had any one week in 
four years. Cherry, Pear, Apple and Plum 
buds and trees all good. Peach buds gone, but 
trees and wood all right. Grapes, such as Dela- 
ware, Teleuraph, Concord, etc., appear all right 
in wood, and the buds of fruit on three-fifths will, 
I think, prove perfect hereabouts, and ten miles 
or more east of Cleveland, on the high locations, 
and twenty miles west of Chicago. My Naomi, 
Herstine, Clark and Kirtland raspberries, all un- 
protected, are good to the very tips. 



EXOTIC GRAPES. 

BY A. HUIDEKOPER, MEADVILLE, PA. 

The enquiry of B. in the April number of 
Gardener's Monthly as to the relative value of 
sundry exotic grapes in comparison with the 
Black Hamburgh, expresses a want felt, no 
doubt, by many others. It is very desirable our 
leading cultivators should jrivc the public the 
benefit of their experience with the varieties of 
grapes lately introduced Such reports would 
have the weight of proximate, not absolute au- 
thority, sensible readers making the necessary 
allowance for difference of taste and success in 
culture. 

B. will find in Oardener'>s Monthly for 1862, 
page 16, " Fox Meadows '' opinion of Trentham 
Black, viz.: that it is inferior in size, and by no 
means superior in quality to the Black Ham 
burgh. The opinion of Fox Meadow illustrates 
the conflict of experience I have referred to. He 
says, **the Golden Hamburgh will never have 
the flavor of the Buckland Sweetwater.'' With 
me the Golden Hamburgh ripens the earliest of 
the two. has the most flavor, and the largest 
bunches, as a general rule ; and yet sometimes 
the fruit of the two kinds will be so much alike, 
it would puzzle any one to tell the difference. 
The Golden Hambursjh is a free srrower, and 
does not harden or ripen up its wood quite as 
well as the Black Hamburgh, and the fruit has 
80 many shoulders or branches, that it requires 
to be well thinned out and tied up, or the lower 
berries will be soft and flavorless. It is but a 
moderate keeper after maturity, but when well 
grown and ripened, it is one of the most popular 
and showy grapes for a cold vinery I have yet 
grown. 

The Muscat Hamburgh was accused at first of 
lacking constitution, and was sometimes grafted 



on Black Hamburgh to improve it. With me 
the vine is vigorous enough, but the fruit stems 
are not stout enough, and the grapes at the low- 
er end of the bunch are smaller and ripen imper- 
fectly in consequence. Being a musk grape, any 
comparison as to flavor must depend on taste. 
It is rich, sweet, with a sub-acid base to it, and 
when well fertilized has a good bloom and is a 
showy grape. A novice would succeed better 
with a Black Hamburgh. The fruit ripens soon 
after Black Hamburgh— early enough for a cold 
vinery. The Golden Champion I hope to fruU 
this year. 

A revision is needed of vinery grapes by a 
competent authority. The books give little in- 
formation about the new kinds of fruit, and 
when an error creeps in about the older kinds, 
it is repeated and perpetuated in the catalogues. 
Mr. Allan's long list gives some information, bat 
lacks systematic arrangement. 

There is some confusion of names that needs 
clearing up. Thus Charles Downing, under the 
head of " Royal Muscadine," describes the 
variety largely disseminated as the Golden Chas- 
selas, as is evident from his describing the wood 
as stouter, and the fruit as somewhat larger than 
the Sweetwater. Golden Chasselas, Chasselas 
de Bar-Sur Aube, and Chasselas Fontainbleau 
are often given as synonymes, while some 
authors describe the fruit as quite distinct. 
Prince, in his catalogue of 1860, makes the Roy- 
al Muscadine a synonyme of the White Nice and 
Xeres, fruits quite distinct from the Royal Chas- 
selas. Allan says bunches of Royal Muscadine 
sometimes weigh six pounds. Mcintosh, page 
439, quotes Parkinson as saying the same, and 
adds, in our day it yields no such fruit— clustert 
out doors weighing a pound, and in vinery a 
half more. One would think the identity of one 
of the most popular varieties might be by this 
time clearly established. 

THE RHODODENDRON IN THE WEST. 

BY ARTHUR BRYANT, FRTNCKTON, ILLS. 

In the Monthly for June last, your correspond- 
ent *' D." asserts that Rhododendrons, Azaleas, 
Kalmias and Ericas cannot be successfully cul- 
tivated in the Mississippi Valley, and assigns as 
the principal reason the presence of lime in the 
soil. I believe it is true, that many, perhaps 
most attempts at their cultivation in the West 
have failed. My observations have not qualified 
me to speak positively in regard to the unfavor- 
able influence of lime upon plants of this class ; 



172 



THE GARDE JEER'S MOJSTTHLY, 



June, 



but a brief detail of my experience in the treat- 
ment of some of them may, perhaps, show that 
the case is not quite so hopeless as your corres- 
pondent seems to suppose. I may here premise 
that the water of wells, springs and streams in 
this part of the country, everywhere contain so 
much lime as to incrust the inside of tea-kettles. 
With the culture of Rhododendrons I have 
had little to do. 8ome twenty years since, I 
received some from EUwannjer & Barry, of 
species maximum, I think. These perished the 
first winter, and I concluded, somewhat hastily 
perhaps, that the climate was too severe for 
them. 

My first attempt at cultivating Azaleas was 
with two or three plants of A. nudidora, which 
were planted in black prairie loam in an open 
situation. These bloomed two seasons, but 
never thrived, and perished the third year. 
Afterwards, along with some evergreens import- 
ed from France, I received five or six each of 
Azalea nudiflora, A. viscosa, and A. calondula- 
cea. These were also planted in open ground, 
and in like manner perished within three years, 
excepting one or two of the last named species. 
The survivors were transferred to the shade of 
a fence, where one of them has grown to the 
height of six feet. In the month of June this is 
commonly covered with a mass of bloom of such 
exceeding beauty, as fo show that Pursh was not 
far wrong when he pronounced it the handsom- 
est shrub in North America. I have since set 
several of A. nudiflora on the north side of a 
fence, mulching (hem with decayed chips, where 
they have bloomed and flourished for more than 
ten years. It would seom that those which 
perished, did so from exposure to the fierce rays 
of the sun, rather than from the effects of lime. 

Six years ago, I received thirly small plants of 
the Mountain Laurel. [ Kalmia latifolia). These 
were planted in prairie loam, partially shaded, 
and well mulched with rotten chips. All lived 
and I have not yet lost one of them. They have 
usually made an annual growth of six inches or 
more, and the brilliancy of their foliage shows 
good health. The only injury they have re- 
ceived from the climate was in the winter of 
1871-2, when the extreme dryness of the cold 
weather bleached and destroyed a great part of 
the leaves on most of them. They have since 
recovered ; and the intense cold of the winter 
just past does not seem to have done them any 
damage, except that some of the flower buds 
appear to be injured. 



With some others of the Heath family, I have 
been less successful. I have three times, to no 
purpose, tried to cultivate the Mayflower, (Epi- 
gaoe). I have several times planted the Winter- 
green, (Gaultheria), but it obstinately refuses to 
thrive, or even live more than two or three years 
under any circumstances. Six years since I 
planted twenty-five of the Blueberry, (Vaccinium 
corymbosum). They all lived through the first 
year, but began to die in the second. At pres- 
ent only one remains, which is not as large as 
when first planted. 

I once saw the cranberry growing and bearing 
fruit in dry ground on the side of a hill in Mas- 
sachusetts. It had been there for years, and 
appeared to be perfectly naturalized. I took 
some plants home, but they perished in two 
years, like those which I had previously tried. 
Clethra ainifolia, a plant of the same class, suc- 
ceeds perfectly well. 

The intense cold of the winter just past, has 
done great damage to fruit trees and nursery 
stock in this region, but it is yet too early (April 
1st) to determine the full extent. I have long 
held the opinion that the greater dryness of the 
atmosphere is one reason^ perhaps the principal, 
why a given degree of cold is often more fatal to 
many trees and shrubs in the West than in the 
Atlantic States. The winter of ISlo-G, which 
was so destructive to fruit trees in the Mississip- 
pi Valley, was followed by an unusually dry 
spring ; and the parching winds of March and 
April appeared greatly to aggravate the injury 
done by cold. It may be that some of the 
Heath family cannot thrive in a dry atmos- 
phere. 

Is the Azalea arborescens now in cultiva- 
tion ? Torrey and Gray describe it as growing 
in the mountains of Pennsylvania and Virginia, 
attaining a greater size than others of the genus, 
and producing very fragrant rose colored flow- 
ers—larger than those of A. nudiflora. 

The shoots of the Japan Sophora mildew here 
every season, so that its progress is very slow. 
Is there any way to prevent it ? 



» ♦ 



ORCHIDE^ No. 9. 

BY JAMES TAPLIN, MANAGER TO GEORGE SUCH, 
ESQ , SOUTH AMBOY, N J. 

CCELOGYNE CRISTATA. 

This is one of the most lovely of the winter 
blooming Orchideee. Of easy culture and taste ; 
in perfection four or five weeks. The flowers 
are a beautiful white with a blotch of yellow on 



187S. 



THE GARDEJVER'S MO^''TELY. 



173 



the lip; there are usually from four to eight 
flowers on a spike. I notice Williams in the 
*' Orchid Growers' Manual,'' mentions a speci- 
men with as many as sixty spikes. I exhibited 
a plant with ninety-six spikes at one of the meet- 
ings of the London Horticultural Society, on 
which occasion the Gardener'>s Chronicle stated 
it WIS the most magnificent Orchidese ever ex- 
hibited. I notice also this winter there have been 
plants exhibited in London with even one hun- 
dred spikes of bloom. There are at present no 
such large plants in this country, but some larcje 
enough to show its great beauty. 

There are two points to be noticed by growers 
of this plant ; one is never to fumigate a house 
without removing the plants, for smoke spoils 
the foliage ; and the second, never to allow the 
plant to get at all dry, or the bulbs shrivel and 
never plump up again thorougnly, which is a 
great check to the plant. Any house which is 
not allowed to fall below SC on winter nijrhts, 
will grow this plant, but it must be shaded from 
bright sun from end of February until Novem- 
ber. 

I used to grow them on blocks of wood in 
England, but find it best in this country to grow 
in well drained pan^, with bulbs raised well 
above the surfiice, in a mixture of peat fibre and 
spagnura moss. By this plan they do not suffer 
from want of water so quickly as when grown 
on blocks. This is a charming flower for a 
ladies' hair, or for using in bouquets, for like 
most Orchideaj, it lasts a long time when cut. 



«•»•» 



CROSS FERTILIZATION. 

BT REV. li. J. TEMPLIN, KOKOMA. IND. 

The question of the immediate effects of the 
cross fertilization of plants is both a very curi- 
ous and interesting one, and also a very impor- 
tant one practically. Mr. A mold's experiments 
seem to be conclusivi; that the immediate fruit is 
effected by the cross, but so far as the experi- 
ment with corn is concerned, it is no more than 
occurs in thousands of cornfields at the West 
every year. 

Every farmer out here knows that if two dis- 
tinct varieties of corn are planted in contiguous 
plats or fields, there will be an admixture of the 
two varieties for some distance, gradually dimin- 
ishing or receding from the line of separation, 
till it finally disappears entirely. I have ob- 
served such results in, I think, hundreds of 
cases. The planting of a single row of sugar or 
sweet corn, or of blue or red corn through a field 



of common white or yellow field corn, invaria- 
bly results in a similar admixture for some dis- 
tance on both sides of the row. Another in- 
stance of the immediate effect of cross fertiliza- 
tion is often seen in the common sorgum— the 
cane and broom corn mixing to such an extent 
as to greatly injure the quality of both, the cane 
becoming dry and spongy, and the broom corn 
losing length and flexibility of brush. That 
the crossing did not take place the year previous 
is certain, from the fact that there was no expo- 
sure to such fertilizing influences, and of the 
whole field which was planted with homogene- 
ous seed, none was found mixed but that ex- 
posed to the fertilizing influence of a different 
variety the current year. What the experiment 
of carefully selecting this mixed seed and plant- 
ing it would result in I am not able to say, but 
the opinion prevails among careful farmers that 
such mixture is not best for seed, hence it is 
usually avoided in the selection of seed for 
planting. 

I shall look with interest for the results of Mr. 
Arnold's experiments. A series of carefully 
conducted experiments in this field, would cer- 
tainly result in some interesting discoveries. 
My past observations seem to favor the idea that 
each grain of corn takes the color of the variety 
by which it is fertilized ; but I cannot, in the 
absence of careful experiments, speak with con- 
fidence, and merely sugi,^est the thought to stim- 
ulate inquiry in this direction. If every farmer 
and gardener would but keep his eyes open to 
the various workings of nature around him, we 
should soon be in possession of thousands of 
her secrets that now lie hid frovu our observa- 
tion. 



«•»•» 



OBSERVATIONS -AND RECOLLECTIONS 
OF NEW HOLLAND. 

BY W. T. HARDING, NONANTUM HILL NUR8H- 
RY, BRIGHTON, MASS. 

On the way we passed through the town of 
Tambaroora, where we replenished our stock of 
provisions and journeyed on. Went along the 
banks of the Tambaroora creek, where several 
hundreds of miners were busily engaged at their 
exciting toil, and on the whole, were mostly suc- 
cessful. Inclining to the south-east, we were 
fairly on the way, through dingle and dell, over 
cultivated fields, where pleasant habitations 
dotted the sylvan plains. 

The cQurse followed was on the ascent, which 



174 



THE GARDE JfER'S MOJVTBLY. 



June, 



1873. 



THE GARDEJVEB'S MOJ^THLY. 



175 



fd^i 



gradually attained to a height of several thous- 
and feet. In this upper region, tlie air was 
sharp, cold and bracing. The atmosphere so 
clear, from the earth to the heavens, where not 
a streak or the outline of a cloud intervened in 
the illimitable space. The scene was like a vast 
panorama laid before me, where bird's eye views 
of the distant landscape could be had, which 
seemed to have neither limit nor end, like the 
space in the blue ether above. The situation 
seemed to be one of those which prompts the 
mind to meditate and reflect, and set in motion 
speculative thoughts and conjectures — one of 
those spots which makes us think of by-gones. 
There are times, too, '' when pensive thought 
beguiles a tear," and relieves the heart qf its 
pent up sorrows, when the flood gates of the 
soul burst open— not with remorse, but with sad 
regrets for the loved ones, whose "absence makes 
the heart grow fonder," and whose like we shall 



never see agam. 



"There's a grief that wrings the heart, a grief more 

sad tlian death can give, 
From scenes of early home to part, and leave thr^ 

friends that live." 

** Up above the world so high," on the lofty 
ranges, I met with Delabachea rupestris, or bot- 
tle tree, so called from the form of the stem, 
which singularly swells out in the form of a huge 
bottle, and contains a gum like substance, which 
the natives eat. Altogether, the tree has a gro- 
tesque appearancp, and will claim attention as 
an arboreal oddity. Several '' Bush Apple " 
trees, Achras australis, from thirty to forty feet 
high— not edible of course, were in fruit. It is a 
very thorny subject, more pleasant to look at 
than to handle. In the natural order Sapota- 
cese, to which it belongs, includes the West 
Indian Sapota, a pleasant and agreeable fruit. 
When ripe, the flesh is soft, rich and juicy, of 
the color of an apricot, and about the size of a 
Golden Russet apple. Bossoea linophylla and 
B. rufa, two excellent greenhouse plants, with 
Platylobium murrayanum, Scottia Icevis and S. 
dentata, elegant little evergreens, were really 
beautiful. Cold as it was, they seemed to like 
i\ic high life they were enjoying. 
^ The natural picture, as seen from every stand- 
point, was grand and imposing. The vast area, 
so varied with a boldness of outline of such a 
striking nature, as to arrest the beholder's atten- 
tion, whose enraptured gaze is fascinated with 
the scene. As 1 stood on the highest point, 
looking over the great picture which extended 



far beyond the eye's range, I felt how applicable 
was the poetical sentiment : 

" Earth how beautiful ! how clear 
Of cloud or mist the atmosphere I 
What a glory meets the eye!" 

The descent was gradual to the country before 
us, which was beautiful and park like, with gen- 
tie undulations alternating with forest and moor- 
lands, picturesque ravines and bosky dells, 
where babbling brooks meander along romantic 
glens, in the primeval solitudes. Such a blend- 
ing of beautiful trees, shrubs, and flowers, from 
the mammoth Eucalyptus, the stately Palms, 
the beautiful Araucarias, the graceful Alsophi- 
las and Cyatheas, (tree ferns), the elegant Aca- 
cias, the many lovely leguminous shrubs, the 
curious Orchids, epiphytal and terrestrial, 
the pretty herbaceous plants, and humble cryp- 
togams, could no where else be seen. Here the^^, 
country was thinly sprinkled with trees, with a 
velvety turf covering the open glades, where un- 
counted thousnnds of sheep and cattle would at 
no distant time fatten, where now herds of kan- 
garoos were disporting themselves undisturberl. 

The Fauna of Australia is as remarkable as 
the Flora. It abounds in marsupial animals of 
such singular and abnormal types, as to greatly 
astonish the new comer with their novel appear- 
ance, when seen for the first time. For instance, 
what animals could seem more strangely formed 
when first seen than the hairy-nosed Wombat, 
Phascolomys latifrons, or the Derbyan Kanga- 
roo, Ilelmaturas Derbyanus, especially if near 
enough to see the fumaks carryins: their young 
families in the pouches beneath the abdomen. 
The little ones seem very cosy when peeping out 
of the comfortable receptacles nature has pro- 
vided for them. There is another marsupial 
which lives in the trees, and is as expert a climb- 
er as either monkeys or squirrels, namely, the 
Vulpine Phalanger, or Phalengista vulpina. Its 
food consists of leaves, bark, buds, fruit or seeds, 
which it gathers only up the trees. I never 
heard of its having been seen on the ground, 
although I see no reason why it should not 
when in its nocturnal movements seeking for 
food. It is rarely seen by daylight, as it keeps 
concealed in the hollow trees. Tlic noisy par- 
rots and screaming cockatoos are screeching and 
yelling at all times, their abominable din never 
ceases until darkness puts an end to their noisy 
clamors. "Pretty Poll " and "Pretty Cocka- 
too ' ' are not there regarded as household pets 
by any means. All the feathered tribe, although 



80 beautifully plumaged, are wretched songsters 
indeed. 

It is said of Linnajus, that he wept when he 
came suddenly upon a wide expanse of Golden 
Furze, Ulex Europea. The heart of the writer 
has been often moved with like familiar scenes, 
scenes which will never be erased from memory 
until life's last lingering hour obliterates all 
recollections. Here Epacrises, in place of the 
Golden Furze, presented in some respects, a 
similar scene, and covered a wide expanse o 
rising ground. The flowers are beautiful, and 
are produced on pretty evergreen shrubs, grow- 
ing from two to six feet high. They cover im- 
mense tracts of land in the untrodden wilds of 
Australia. Could the gentle Linnseus but have 
sion them, the joyous tears would have glistened 
on his honest cheeks as when he saw the fifld of 
Golden Furze, 

Next to Ericas, Epacris rank high among the 
exquisite beauties which adorn the conserva- 
tory. They are gems of the greenhouse, and 
like diamonds, and rubies among precious 
stones, are deservedly admired for their rare 
beauty and intrinsic value. The most delicate 
kinds require the highest horticultural skill to 
grow and flower them successfully in this coun- 
try. Epacris impressa alba, an excellent free 
flowering kind, is grown largely in the neigh- 
borhood of Boston for florists' uses. For in- 
stance, at the nursery where I am at present 
engaged, (W. C. Strong's, Brighton, Mass.) we 
cut twenty-three thousand five hundred sprigs 
during Christmas and New Year's anniversary. 
Of the more choice and delicate kinds, a few will 
suflice to mention, namely, Epacris grandiflora, 
scarlet ; E. nivalis, white ; E. impressa, crim- 
son ; E. variabilis, pink ; E. purpurescens, pur- 
ple ; E. paludosa, flesh colored ; E. carapanula- 
ta, deep blush ; E. alba odorata, white, and 
very sweet scented. In Australia, their native 
home, they are as frequently met with as are the 
Furze, or heath covered moors of Great Britain. 
I remember some years ago, when I had charge 
of Wade Hampton's estate, near Columbia, 
South Carolina, having some handsome Furze 
bushes, which blossomed annually in front of 
some of the finest English Laurel I ever saw, 
and that is saying a great deal, as England is 
justly famous for them, and also the Furze. I 
have no doubt but that the native born Anglo- 
Saxon of Australia, will at some future time, 
regard his Epacris covered hills with the same 



veneration the Scot does his " bonny Highland 
heather." 

Happy are the people of whatever country or 
clime, whose simple tastes are so cultivated as 
to see a beauty in the humble little flowers of 
their native homes, and whose souls are in rap- 
tures when they, perchance, meet with them in 
some distant land. Such happy reminders of 
the past often occur. The mute appeals for ad- 
miration and love the littlo floret makes as it 
almost beseeches us with its sweet humility to 
caress and regard it, as a type of His goodness, 
who, in the economy of nature, created it and 
us for some undoubted good. Only think what 
a gloomy and cheerless world this would be if 
there were no flowers. In an event so dire, of 
course there would be no fruit. Neither " Flo- 
ra," ''Ceres,' nor "Pomona" could offer their 
bounteous gifts to unhappy mankind. Thank 
God it is not so, for we are promised that " while 
the earth remaineth, seed time imd harvest, cold 
and heat, summer and winter, and day and 
night shrill not cease." 

As I have wandered personally and figurative- 
ly among the Epacris bushes, both here and in 
Australia, I must return again to the many 
readers of the Monthly.^ and give them a pen- 
picture of the gigantic climber, Cissus antarcti- 
ca, or the monster vine of New Holland. Ima- 
gine before you a gigantic vine, whoso deatlly 
grip had destroyed many a goodly tree of fair 
proportions. Its appearance was truly remark- 
able, not only on account of its enormous length 
— six hundred and seventy feet, and in circum- 
ference at the base, three feet nine inches, but 
from the manner of its growth. Originally, at 
some distant period, it had undoubtedl3'' climbod 
up the trunk of a large tree, and whose close 
embrace had death in its coils, as it silently 
wound around its victim, anaconda like, and 
pressed it to death. Literally, it was an arbo- 
real thug of the forest. 

I will endeavor to draw the outline sketch as 
clear as my pen can trace it. Fancy then you 
sec a smooth and lofty column, nearly two hun- 
dred feet high, spiral in form, (and like a mam- 
moth cable, strong enough to moor all the fight- 
ing ships at the Battle of the Nile) and from the 
summit of which, stretched in an horizontal 
line, its huge, continuations for more than ono 
hundred and thirty feet, without any support, 
until it reached a Eucalyptus tree, on which it 
rested and encircled the trunk several times, 
and then threw out a number of stems, which 



176 



TEE GARDE JEER'S MOJ^THLY. 



June, 



seemed to be taking possession of all the trees in 
the neighborhood of its wanderings. It was the 
opinion of an intelligent shepherd, a burly York- 
shire man, who directed me to the spot, that the 
vine, having strangled the trees which formerly 
supported it, had perished and wasted away, 
and 80 left it standing as I saw it, a marvel 
indeed. Without making any pretentions to a 
knowledge of botany or nomenclature, the shep- 
herd had named it '^The Devil's Cork Screw." 
Not far from the monstrocity I have depicted, 
was a fine specimen of Callistemon salignum, 
or paper bark. It is a remarkably graceful tree, 
BO like a weeping willow in habit of growth. 
While young the leaves are rose colored, and 
when seen at a distance, have the appearance of 
flowers Of very striking appearance, and grow- 
ing contiguous, was a round headed bush of 
Grevillea rosmarinifolia, of about ten feet high. 
It is an elegant shrub. Pimelia drupacea, or 
cherry fruited Pimelia It is a curious over- 
green shrub, and produces a mass of pretty 
white flowers, which are succeeded by a crop of 



fruit, (not very edible of course) very much like 
Black Heart Cherries to look at. 

As we journeyed onwards, the scenery assumed 
a varied aspect, while the vegetation also seemed 
in unison with the savage scene. Huge snow 
white blocks of quartz lay in unshapely masses 
on all sides, and rendered locomotion very diflfi- 
cult and fatiguing. Of the extensive order 
Geraneacea, I saw but two species in Xew Hol- 
land, namely. Pelargonium inodorum and P. au- 
stral. The former a small light purple flower- 
ing kind, and the latter rose colored. When 
growing in masses they had a pretty eflect. 
There are nearly three hundred species indige- 
nous to Africa, and are mostly found about the 
Cape of Good Hope, where I was so captivated 
with the flora, especially the Ericas. To exam- 
ine their elegant fl'owers afforded me a never 
ending pleasure, when rambling among them. 
I feel to regret their absence now, whose exqui- 
site charms, so dear to remembrance, I shall 
never see again. 

( To he Conlinued.) 



EDITORIAL. 



THE SCARLET RUNNER. 

It has always been a matter of surprise that 
the Scarlet Runner has never obtained a foot- 
hold among the cultivators of garden vegetables. 
In almost all portions of Europe, it is one of the 
most esteemed, and we think there is scarcely a 
garden where any fair collection is grown, that 
this one is not found among them. They are 
used as much as our dwarf beans — broken or 
cut to pieces, and eaten in the green podded 
state. On rich ground they have very thick suc- 
culent pods, much more so than any dwarf bean, 
and the flavor is very different from them. The 
plant in fact, belongs to another species, Pliase- 
oliis muUifloras, althousjh until the last century 
it was generally believed to be a form of the 
East Indian or dwarf bean, Phaseolus vulga- 
ris. This is from the warmer parts of South 
America. 

The flowers are of great beauty, rivaling the 
color of the brightest scarlet Zonale Geranium, 
and give more gaiety to a vegetable garden than 
any plant known. It is a great fashion in some 
parts of England to make them border the gar- 
den walks. Very light poles are employed— not 
thicker than broom handles, and two are attach- 



ed together somewhat like the letter X, only 
that the point of crossing is near the apex. 
Another pair is made, and one set at the upper 
line of the walk and ono at the lower. Then a 
horizontal series is fixed from the points where 
the pieces cross, and the whole when finished, 
very much like a common "saw buck" or 
" wood horse." The frame is then filled by nu- 
merous poles, set about one foot apart, and all 
in the X manner. This is imrtiensely strong, 
takes little time, allows of the use of lighter ma- 
terial than our lima bean does, and when in 
bloom, gives a solid sheet of scarlet flowers, 
which any one who once sees will never forget. 

We cannot tell why it has been so much 
neglected with us. It does not come into use 
quite so early as the dwarf bean, but we think 
would be in before the lima. It is likely many 
would prefer the lima in an absolute choice 
between one and the other ; but we all like varie- 
ty, and do not want to live on one thing, no 
matter how good it may be. 

The old time beans were considered good at 
six inches long. The one we take to illustrate 
this article, is a great march in the way of im- 
provement. It is called Carter''s Champion, 






SraSORSKSif^sSitS 



%^^^- 

i|<;^^^^ 



















/( 



/;' 








•{"'.''V 



f 







178 



THE GARDE JEER'S MOKTELY. 



June, 



1873. 



THE GARDEMEWS MO^'THLY. 



HEATING GREENHOUSES. 
The many articles which have appeared on 
hot water heating, boilers, and so on, during the 
past year, show how great is the interest in the 
question of heating plant structures. And it is 
not to be wondered at when it is remembered 



again instead of wasted ; and we have on several 
occasions, shown how vae^tly superior are pii^es 
made of fire clay over common brick flues. The 
thinness of the material— one inch, over the two 
and a half inch of brick, makes all the difference, 
and for just the same reason that a common 



that it is a very poor garden which has no green- ' brick flue consumes less heat than a column of 
house ; and that greenhouses, with their cheerful hot water. That these pipes will crack is true, 
winter flowers, give more pleasure than half the i and so will brick flues sometimes. The pipes 
best summer gardens goinir. ! have the advantage in this that a wire can be 

Many more, very many more greenhouses \ firmly put round each ])iece, and then no matter 
would be built, and the pleasures of gardening i if they do crack there is no esc ape of gas or 
he considerably increased if it were not for the \ smoke, except after a fire has been suffered to 
fear of heavy cost in the building and in the ', die entirely out, and the pipes allowed to become 
heatinir apparatus For those who have the | damp and cold. In this respect the pipes have 
means to enjoy gardening on a very lariie scale, i the same objection as flues— the same, no more, 
and whose greenhouses are proportionately ex- ; As to the combined economy of these suggest- 
tensive, there will be no question about how to | ed plans, there is now no question. We know a 
heat them. Hot water will alw\ays carry away ! set of small houses built somewhat on Mr. 



the prize. It is so neat, and the pipes can be 
carried anywhere where it is most convenient, 
that houses may be built on almost any plan 
desired. But where hot air is to be used, there 
arc only certain forms to be employed, as the 
heavy flues cannot be carried about here and 
there as hot water pipes can. Again, unless the 
builder or planner is very well versed in the 
knowledge of draughts and currents, it is almost 
impossible to warm a house well and satisfacto- 
ry if with flues of any considerable extent. 



Strong's principle, which occupy three thousand 
square feet of ground, and are heated by one 
hundred and sixty feet of fire clay pipe, the most 
of which pipe have seen fifteen years of constant 
service. These houses cost only SIOOO, and 
have had a profusion of flowers all winter, inclu- 
ding such flowers as Stanhopeas, Phajus, Cypri- 
pediums, Poinsettas, and other great heat lovers, 
at an expense of only about thirteen tons of coal, 
and this too during one of the most terrible win- 
ters on the coal bills under record. We venture 



But all this is very different with small houses. \ to say that no such results could be had with 
If properly constructed, and the laws of heat ' any set of houses built on other principles thau 

Mr Strong's, or even on Mr. Strong's principle, 
if heated in any other way than by fire clay 
pipe. 



circulation well attended to, hot air will be 
found very satisfactory and much cheaper, both 
in the first cost and in the subsequent mainten- 
ance. We need not go over here with what has 
already been stated in this magazine, that it 
takes a bushel of coal to heat a house by hot 
water to the same temperature that three 



PLANTS IN SLEEPING ROOMS. 

A great deal of nonsense originates with peo- 
ple who think but do not observe. They take 
fourths of a bushel will by hot air; and though | hold of what is reallv true, and imagine a great 
this is more than made up in a large house by \ deal more, by means of which they build up a 
the greater distance the heat can be conveyed, ' tolerable '' bugaboo," at which people who trust 
and by other advantages recently well explained to the learning of the builders, get very much 
by our correspondents, th«n-care few correspond- frightened. Thus it is known that plants give 
ing advantages in a small house. \ off" carbonic acid gas at night, and straightway 

But much as the advantages of hot air in \ arises a commotion as to the danger of having 
economy in a small house is conceded, not near them in sleeping rooms at that time. 
as much is made of it as might be. Mr. Strong i The quantity which they give out is so small 
once pointed out, in one of the most valuable I that it does not compare in a slight degree with 
articles we ever published in the Qardencr's what human beings give out. We venture to 
Monthly^ how heat instead of escaping through say that a sleeping infant would exhale more 
the apex of the house, as most commonly it does, j carbonic acid in one night than a hundred pot 
can Ixi made to a considerable extent, to pass ! plants, yet whoever suggested that the health of 
into one of a higher elevation, and thus be used i a mother was seriously aff*ected by the baby rest- 



179 



mg in her arms ? As to the mj„ry from vegeta- had more carbonic acid l.v ni.^it thau by dav I 

Uon those of us who have had to sleep at vari- gathered two specimens of ai; u diff «ut ^arts 

ous .mes m woods, w,th but green branches for of the house, at two o'clock P. m 1 pH nfh 

a pillow, and the sweet wild green grass instead Thtse >.ave 1 40 md 1 ^K ,.^J.J'l . ^ 

of a feathered bed, know well after a few davs of in 10 iinn !/ ' ^ carbonic acid 

such experience, that it is the moTt healh .Win! ' Lm . f "/"'"'•'*=« "* ^'^^ !'«'•'«■ showing 

of all luxuries, 'notwithstandinrt!:r'"l;V7^ Tn did Tl^:tr'' ™'^" ^""""'^ "'' 

injuries it ougM t^ S theTu Js' mo': l^ ' J! rin^^'trd"'^'"'"'^. '""", ''''''''' ''''' '' 
cially than any other part of the .ystem vet thl Z , ' ^^ '"°"*"'' '*'*' '^'^"""'^ »«'<* 

experience of Lmvlif.Tsabunda^l,t^»*^ '^^/leeping-room ,>n this continent, we 

^ight as we„;.,ie f;r ^z::^::'^ t s^;"::^ ^r^^^^:^ ^^ 

woods and fie ds as "on i ff-ithpr h«.i • o.,.i t* • ^ i^juic mc ^leep.rs. 

4 • « .1 \ feather bed, and , It is so easy to be deceived bv a namp ' T 

« ™,d., th. c.rt„„„ »o,j „, „„„ ,„ „,„.. „„„„,„ „„,„„„ ,,„."; ;°„*:,:iz;i 

tstiii f.,„t. „ 1 p , ^^' "** ^'S*^* ^^^ smell of flowers, and without 

Gov To tir l''T ' "'" '""^' people, question their innuence is .ood Yet flowers 
Irov. Molt addressed a etter to Vmf lc«^,i^io ^f u i ^i • c^"^^^^- ^*^^ nowers 

the Michigan Agricultur Collo.^ re.^n Iv o bS T '^^^ ""'^ "f •''"" '' "''' """^ 
thP RiibioPt tL t> r 1- . recnriy, on b} night I The flowers, bv the r agreeable odor 

makSfonowiir.i^t:':':'"^ '' '"^""- ^"^ . -^-^ f^^^ ''"'"'-'^ '■"'-■■^ -- ^'- °^ ^''-^'"'■ 
S ~^ra'S^L:r''ThuT'-''r't" V ''''' ''-''"^'^ "^ ^"-"- "■ -•'-- -'<^ - 

tikini the :r, f ' '" ""' "^ ""^ ""' ""■>■ '!"<'«""" i" regard to the hbalthful- 

ilts I LT,-;/°°^r"r^'r" " *■*"" •"-"'•pi-^^'-'vroom. The state of moisture 
house wh,:ro,?eH rZ '' ?'"''""" "'''"■ '" ""■' =^'^ "'' *''« ^""'" '"'^y '^''''^""'e ^" '"'Portant 
iTthV^eru air b'fo ' "'*' ="•« growing , question, especially in the case of persons afflict- 

ingsofA r, CH ^'f ;';''"""' "" t'-e morn- , cd with rheumatic or. pulmonary complaints. 

do4d o^^ T ! ', ' '^" """" '""' '""^" ' ""' I "•"' ""' "»ke up that subject. 
Closed tor more than twe ve hours and if tho I ^' o „ 

plants exhaled cnrbonic acid to „„ iniuHous It- ' "'' "''"'=''""-^' -^""^ *''^'^'^"' ^•^"''"'' 
tent, the analysis of air from such a room would ! ^* ^' Kedzie.'» 

certainly disclose this fact. The three speci- 
mens of air -alhered on the morning of April 
16th, from different parts of the room, -ave 4.11, 
4.00 parts of carbonic acid in 10,000 of air, or an 



EDITORIAL NOTES. 

DOMESTIC 

average of 4 03 in in Of^n t^i f ' "' " ^"J ^^'^ Amenities of Horticultural Literature.— 

air gatlrcd AprVl7r..vI^Vn'^' T^Z"' "' ' '^'' ^' ^' ^^'^^^""' '^ "^^ ""^'^^^^'^ ^--^^' ^^s 
Of e;rhoni:'atir V '^r:^^^^^ ^ ^^'^'^ ^ ^^^ -^.1-^ ^^^h which we cordial- 



Of carbonic acid in 10,000, or an average on the 
Whole of 3.94 parts of carbonic acid in 10,000 of 
^n'^rinn ^''"^ ^^'^ outdoor air contains 4 parts in 



ly agree. Tie says there has been a marked inir 
provement in the tone of papers which appear 
in horticultural journals of Jate years. That 



10,000 It will fi..,. ^ ;/7 r ^ '"^ noriicuitural journals of late years. That 

gr enhouse was h t '''r\'^''' '''' "" ^" '^' ^^^'"^« ^"^ correspondents write more friendly 

ThTs d fi^^^^^^^^ ""'"'^ ^ ^t^^r «Pint than they ever did! 

^^ol!:^lr:Z:^ ::'^^ I 7'^- - y- ^^- -eeptions to thi^ he thinks, 



due to the absorption of carbonic acid and con- 
sequent accumulation of oxygen during daylight, 
since the windows of the greenhouse were closed 
% and night on account of the cool weather. 
10 ascertain whether the air of the greenhouse 



but on the whole there is a great improvement. 
We like to see this encouraged. A man^s mo- 
tives may be bad, but then again they may not 
be. Let us always give those who oppose us the 
benefit of the doubt. 



180 



THE GARDEJ^ER'S MOJ^TELY. 



June, 



1873, 



THE GARBEJ^ER'S MOJ^THLY. 



181 



Dahlias, Philadelphia has an amateur who ; 
hae stuck to the Dahlia through all its varying 
phases of popularity, and now that it is regain- 
ing high favor with all classes, he feels justly 
proud of his faithful love. He raises auHually a 
large number of seedlings, and many of them 
have proved superior to either French or Eng- 
lish varieties. Mr. Gerhard Schmitz deserves 
the thanks of all Dahlia lovers for his persistent 
and successful efforts for their improvement. 

Does Sap Ft'ceKC in the Winter ? We find in 
a recent number of the Rural New Yorker, an 
article by our friend J. R. Temple, on the Gar- 
dener^ s Monthly's recent article on this subject. 
As we like to have all that can be said for or 
against a position, set side by side together, we 
give the major part of the communication : 

" I regard the editor of the Gardener'' 8 Monthly as. 
one of the ablest vegetable physiologists living ; but 
he is not alone in holding and teaching the doctrine 
that a temperature of 320 cannot be endured by a 
plant and the life of the plant be preserved. But 
notwithstanding these high authorities, whom I 
delight to follow in most things, on an appeal to the 
plant itself, which they have encouraged me to 
make, I feel compelled to accept the statements of 
the plant in opposition, as it appears to me, to their 
teachings. 

Prof Leconte teaches that the sap of trees and 
shrubs does become frozen without the slightest 
damage to them. Pictet and Manrico, of Geneva, 
made observations on a horse chestnut tree from 
179G to 1800, which developed the fact that there 
was not more than 0.04 of a degree's difference 
. between the temperature of the centre of the tree 
and the atmosphere surrounding it. In 1826, Hol- 
der found trees below the freezing point and in a 
congealed state, without injury to their vitality. 
Many other experiments, made by the most able 
and careful observers, go to prove the same point. 
During the past winter we have had a temperature 
as low as 33^ Fah. It froze through thirteen-inch 
brick walls. Are we to believe that the sap in an 
apple tree three inches in diameter could resist such 
a degree of cold and not congeal ? Even i\w 
branches and small twigs endure it and live. Now 
one of three things is true : 1 The sap does not 
freeze at all, or, 2. it freezes without injury to the 
plant; or, 8. there is no sap in the tree or plant at 
the time of the cold weather As to the first, we 
have the evidence of our senses that it is frozen. 
By chopping into a tree during a long continue.l 
spell of very cold weather, it will be found that the 
cells of the wood are filled with small particles o; 
ice. A turnip may be taken from a pit so hard that 
it can scarcely be cut with a knife ; by scraping, it 
will be found full of icy particles. That a tree or 
plant can survive this freezing is evident fn m the 
fact that forest trees do survive the cold, even ot 
high northern latitudes. As suggested by the cor- 
respondent of the New England Farmer y the roots 
of vegetables do freeze and survive. That they are 
frozen is evident from the fact, as I stated abovt, 
they are found full of ice, and if one is taken and 



thawed in a warm atmosphere, or in tepid water, 
its texture will be destroyed and it will be soft and 
spongy ; while those left in the pit till warm wea- 
ther will live and grow. I have observed this phe- 
nomenon often. 'Whether there is less sap in a tree 
in the fall- than in the spring, or whether it is only 
less active, I am not able to say ; but any one who 
doubts the presence of sap in sufficient quantities to 
freeze, may easily satisfy himself of its presence by 
filling his stove with green wood on a cold day and 
sitting and listening to it frying, provided he can 
get it hot enouorh to fry. That a frozen turnip is 
full of sap is evident from the fact that a frozen tur- 
nip is as heavy as the savne not frozen ; and when 
thawed in a warm, dry atmosphere it becomes a 
mere sponge saturated with water, and if left alone 
it would have grown." 

It is hard to tell what our friend is driving at. 
He tells us distinctly that a turnip frozen, when 
thawed in a warm, dry atmosphere, becomes a 
mere sponge saturated with water. Of course 
we all know that one ''not frozen" does not 
come to this conditioo under the same circum- 
staaces. We suppose Mr. T. means to say that 
the frozen turnip lost its vitality when it turned 
to a "mere sponge,'' which is exactly what we 
contend. 

Trees Given to the Goveniriunt. Much talk is 
made in the daily papers about a gift of 30,000 
seedling Scotch Pines by an European firm to 
the American Government. The Government 
" proposes to distribute them at once in order to 
ascertain whether or not they are adapted to ex- 
tensive planting in the West." It is rather 
strange that the "Government" should thus 
want to "ascertain" a fact already well known 
to thousands of Western men, who well know 
that the Scotch Pine does as well as any other 
of the hardy pine trees. If the " Government" 
will write to Douglass, Bryant, or any other of 
the many pioneers in Western planting, it may 
find all it wishes to " ascertain " about the mat- 
ter. The ignorance displayed in this matter ex- 
plains many of the mysteries of the few years 
past. Not long since it was proposed by an act 
of Congress, suggested it was said at Washing- 
ton, to allow trees imported by amateurs to come 
in duty free, while all imported by nurserymen 
were to pay duty. We believe, for no one knows 
but a few hours at a time whether a law is or is 
not— that this proposition never became the 
law. But supposing it was made in good faith, 
it must have been through a belief that Western 
nurserymen were a poor set, and need not be 
considered or consulted. We may say for the 
information of the "Government, ' that Scotch 
Firs, Larches, and many other timber trees are 



raised in the West by the milUo7is, and we have 
no doubt if the " Government " will give as much 
for 30,000 as it paid freight on this gift, and dis- 
tribute them in small lots, saying with each as it 

will do with these, "raised by Ills.," 

a "gift"' of 30,000 from Illinois will soon be 
forthcoming. 

At first we were disposed to think this 'gift 
distribution '' would do no harm at any rate — 



ent of the Philadelphia Public Ledger, gives hope 
of a fair average crop— probably 3,000,000 has 
kets may go forward. Strawberries will be 
enormous ; and Asparagus is being raised in 
immense quantities over other years. Much 
diflficulty is however felt in marketing, and prices 
will perhaps rule low. 

P. 0. Rulings — with a Crooked Ruler. And 
now our poor publisher is in a quandary. He 



that it might encourage many to experiment has to prepay postage to Holland, Belgium, Aus- 



who would not otherwise ever be interested, but 
on second thought it will probably work the 
ether way. Packages will be sent from now to 
middle of June to hundreds of persons who care 
little for them, and the result will be they will 
nearlv all die, and then we shall have news- 
paper paragraphs by the score that " the Scotch 
Pine has been extensively tried and found to be 
utterly unadapted to the Western climate." 

An Incident in the Life of Dr. Torrey. We 
do not know how true the statements in the fol- 
lowing paragraph from a daily paper may be, 
but similar trifles have fixed the bent of many a 
distinguished man : 

"The late Dr. John Torrey, the distinguished 
scientist, is said to have first acquired a taste for 
scientific pursuits in the following remarkable 
manner : His father held some oflflcial station 
which required him to visit the prisons of the 
city of New York, and the lad frequently 
accompanied the parent on these tours of 
inspection. In the old State Prison, which at 
that early day was somewhere about Twenty- 
third street, and situated in the country, they 
found a man in the office of the superintendent 
who had been condemned to serve out a short 
term, but was generally believed to have been 
innocent of any offence. This prisoner was 
taken into the office to keep the books. He was 
a man of learning, and especially a fine botanist. 
Whenever young Torrey appeared at the prison 
the book-keeper would point out from the win- 
dow some plants growing in the vacant lots 
opposite, and ask the boy to go and fetch them ; 
the two then sat down in the office to analyze 
and dissect the specimens, presenting the curi- 
ous spectacle of a prisoner in convict's costume 
teaching a well dressed boy. The lad never 
forgot the lessons, and from the taste thus 
acquired dates his application to the study of 
botany, in which science he was destined to 
achieve the most distinguished success.'' 

The Delaware Peach Crop, The correspond- 



tralia, and South America, in which distant 
places he has a fair list of subscribers. This has 
l^een 72 cents each per year. Now the " ruler '» 
decides this is wrong, and 96 cents is the " legal 
fare." He collects from his subscribers in ad- 
vance, resting on the good faith of his respected 
Uncle at Washington, and of course will rather 
so to sleep and dream over being plundered by 
the Government, than enter into distant negoti- 
ations with numberless subscribers for the paltry 
sum of each, but a great deal to him on the 
whole. 

It may be that one of these days the postal 
wheel will turn round, informing us that two 
cents is all that is required for these distant 
postages, when we shall have already coUeoted 
ninety-six cents from our unfortunate subscri- 
bers. Well we know that there is a '' conscience 
fund '' always open for us where we can return 
all we thus unwittingly rob others of ; but un- 
fortunately we are not in a position to vote our- 
selves "back salary pay," when the joke is on 
the o;her side. 

An erican Pomological Society. The coming 
quarter centennial of the American Pomological 
Society, at Boston, will undoubtedly be a bril- 
liant feature in the annals of Pomology. Besides 
what the circular of the Society, published in 
another column indicates, we hear that the dis- 
tinguished scientists, Professor Gray and Agaz- 
zis, will take part in the proceedings. There 
will be an additional programme of particulars 
issued next month. 

Horticulture and the ^kntennial. The Penn- 
sylvania Horticultural Society is working ener- 
getically for the success of the Centennial. The 
eaWy neglect of horticulture by the Centennial 
CoMimittee, of which we complained in our past 
issues, has been tardily atoned for by the 
appointment of a committee. We do not know 
any of the gf^ntlemen named except Col. FurnaSi 
of Nebraska, but if they are all like him, they 
are the right kind of material to make a com- 
mittee out of 



18$ 



TEE GARDEJ^ER'S MOJ^TEL y. 



June, 



1873. 



TEE GARDEJfER'S M0J\'2ELY. 



1S3 



SCRAPS AND QUERIES. 



Green Asparagus. —A Cunberland Coun- 
ty, Pa., correspondent writes : "I have quite 
a number of seedling asparagus in my lot of 
plants growing. It mainiains a yellowish white 
all through. Do you think it worth separating 
and placing separate to raise a new variety ? 
Please give me your views." 

[All plants, and animals too for that matter, 
produce what are known as albinos at times— 
that is pale forms in which the color is wanting. 
In asparagus this has long been known, and the 
pale form is the "green top," while the original, 
or rather most natural, is the "purple top." 
Albinos are all less vital than the normal forms, 
and are generally the first to disappear. Hence 
it is not often that the green top is seen in culti- 
vation. This one before us appears to be only 
an albino— the usual "green top" asparagus. 
The continual disappearance of the green top is 
also aided by the fact that the asparagus plant 
being dioecious, cannot fertilize itself. Pollen 
from the " purple top " would therefore be con- 
tinually getting to the "green tops,' and the 
seedlings would not come like the originals. It 
is impossible therefore to reproduce any aspara- 
gus true from seeds, and hence what are called 
"new varieties'* have no real existence. By 
selecting a few dozen plants of the " green tops " 
however from a seed bed. and planting them by 
themselves far away from any other kind, the 
rar,€ of albinos may- be preserved, and though 
the plants among themselves will vary, and 
there is no way to make any variety keep itself 
pure, the race will continue. Whether or not 
the plants in this case will be worth selecting and 
preserving will depend on taste. As a rule we 
think the " purple topped ' shoots are preferred, 
though some may like the green ones.] 



Postage ON Seed Package— 7? G, White 
Willow, Kansas, says: "Some time since I 
had to pay thirty-six cents double distilled extra 
postage through the neglect of a correspondent, 
and through no fault of my own, the authorities 
thus punishing me for another man's fault. 
Now I have a package of seeds from another 
friend, on which he has innocently placed twelve 
cent stamps instead of two as he intended. I 



a.^k our postmaster for the return of fifty cents 
overpaid, but he only laughs at me. Can I not 
recover ? I suppose you in the East with so 
much business, know how to go about these 
matters. It is small, but I suppose there is a 
principle involved which I should be glad to 
understand.'' 

[All we have to say is, " poor fellow I"] 

Raising Seedlings of Trees, Fruits, &c. 
— Under this caption, " J. M ," of Philadelphia, 
furnished a very interesting article for the 
Monthhj of September. 1871, (for which he will 
please accept my thanks) from which it is evi- 
dent that he knows a thing or two about seed- 
lings. Would he be so good as to give his expe- 
rience nnd practice with evergreens the first 
winter— how he obviates the throwing out? Mere 
covering with litter on the approach of frost, 
does not seem to be effectual with me. — TIORTO, 



Articles on Hand.— We have several ex- 
cellent communications on hand, and trust our 
friends will not lay aside their pens whea they 
do not immediately appear. We like to have a 
lot on hand, as it gives us a better opportunity 
of varying the contents of each number— a great 
point in giving interest to the Monthly, 



Managing Young Norway Maples—/. 
i/.. Old Westhury, L I., says: " We have ob- 
tained 30 many useful and profitable hints 
through the Gardeners Monthly, that we would 
like to know thy experience in the management 
of the Norway Maple in the nursery rows. Sev- 
eral kinds of shade trees are greatly improved 
by cutting them off after one year's growth in the 
rows ; but we cannot decide from the short ex- 
perience we have had whether Norway and 
Sycamore should be so treated. We think that 
they had bettor remain for two or more years 
until they are well rooted before they are cut, 
and if those that are thrifty and straight ought 
to be cut back, then we wish to know. If thee, 
when thee replies, would give thy views, if thee 
has time, we will be much obliged, and will, if 
desirable, at a leisure season, give our ideas of 
trimming trees in the orchard and nursery for 
the ^,\irdener's Mfmthly,'* 



[Whether it is best to cut back the young 
trees depends on the reason for cutting back, of 
which there are two. Sometimes it is necessary 
to cut back somewhat to save life. The roots 
may be dry, or there may be proportionately but 
few roots. In this case we cut back young 
plants the first year, or very often the second 
year. For this reason, however, we seldom cut 
much more than the young twigs, leaving a good 
proportion of the leading stem. To cut back for 
making a straight stem, we leave the whole mat- 
ter until the plant has made an abundance of 
roots, and then cut back pretty close to the 
ground. The Norway and Sycamore will gen- 
erally bear this after the first season's growth, 
though sometimes it is best to leave it to the 
second. The notes on trimming orchard trees 
will be very acceptable. 



Disease in the Deodar Cedar.— An Ala- 
bama correspondent writes : " We have in our 
yard the most beautiful ornamental tree I have 
ever seen ; about thirty feet high, rich in foliage 
and graceful in form— a Deodar Cedar. Some 
three or four weeks ago, it began to show a dead- 
ness in one of the limbs. Since then several 
other limbs are affected, and all the foliage is 
beginmng to turn of a brownish tint, and to fall 
off. My wife and I are much distressed about 
it, and fear we will lose our pet tree. Can you 
tell me what to do for this sirk tie.- ? What 
is the matter, and what treatment shall we 
bestow ? Something must be done or our favor- 
ite will die. Will you have the kindness to tell 
me what is to be done ? 

[Never having seen or heard of any such dis- 
ease in the Deodar Cedar, we were at a loss to 
know what reply to make to this when it was 
first received, but we have since learned that a 
small borer attacks the trees in the South, and 
this is probably what is the matter in this case. 
Specimens of the diseased part would be accept- 
able.] 



attention to it, as these things need referring to 
again and again. There is one original feature 
in Mr. D.'s plan. The connecting piece, after 
being shaved on its inner face, and cut the ex ct 
length, is nailed in inst ad of being tied. It is 
therefore firmer, and we th' nk this an advantage. 



The Blood Leaved Peach. — In a recent 
number we stated that the blood leaved Peach 
we had seen from Mississippi, had small flowers, 
while that described by a recent correspondent 
had large flf>wers. Since the*^ we have seen the 
same plant flower again, ft has large flowers* 
We were mistaken : there is hut the one kind. 



Grafting Mice (tirdled Trees.— Mr. 
Adam Deisher, of Tuckerton, Berks Co., Pa., 
leaves at our oflice specimens of trees whicli had 
been completely girdled by mice, ^nd yet saved 
by taking young pieces of the same tree, and 
grafting them in connecting the upper and 
lower edges of barks. This plan has been long 
known to our readers, and is generally practiced 
by them when they desire to save valued trees. 
But Mr. D. has our best thinks for calling our 



Transparent Blue Wash. -A correspond- 
ent sends us a sample of blue wash for shading 
greenhouses in summer time. General Pleas 
anton's paper has made blue popular, but those 
who think they are following him forget that he 
only used blue glass in alternate strips with 
comrpon glass. In the remarks made on his 
paper by those in Europe who have criticized 
it, this fact seems to have been overlooked. 
Although we have not been able to feel that the 
crops in General Pleasanton's greenhouse was 
wholly due to those alternate strips of blue, yet 
it is but justice to his paper to notice the weak 
point of his critics. 

In regard to blue powder, we can, of course, 
oflTer no opinion. Most plant-houses in America 
require shading of some kind during the hot 
weather, and it is just possible that this may do 
as well as the Rye flour, and whitening com- 
monly used. These things are not well under- 
s*^ood yet, and we are glad of any experiment in 
that direction. 

In most washes used, a difficulty is found in 
either keeping it on long enough, or getting it 
off when not needed. Our correspondent says 
his wash will come off" when hot water is used. 



Lawn Grass. — B., Pittsburg, Pa., says: — 
" I want to sow a small piece of lawn this fal), 
and on consulting authorities I find three things 
named by diflferent writers — mixed lawn grass, 
rye grass, and green grass — which do you regard 
as the best?" 

[Mixed lawn grasses are mostly theotler two, 
with a little sweet vernal or other English 
grasses mixed with them, and which soon die 
out in a lawn in our climate. Rye grass is 
rather coarse, and it will not bear to be cut very 



18Jf 



TUB GARDEJ^ER'8 MOJVTHLY. 



June, 



1873. 



THE GARDE JEER'S MOJ{THLY. 



135 



close by a lawn mower, or it may die out under 
a very hot sua; but it comes into " green '» so 
very early in Spring, and has such a cheerful 
shining tint, that we are very partial to it. 
Green grass stands the vicissitudes of our cli- 
mate better than any grass, and makes a capital 
bed for a lawn mower. A mixture of the two 
would not be unobjectior»able, for if the close 
mowing did injure the rye grass, the green 
would creep in and take its place. It may save 
mistakes to add that what we call green grass 
is Poa campestris, and Lolium perenne the Rye 
grass. ] 



Watering Trees in Dry Weather. ~J5., 
Pittsburg. Pa., says: -'I find a difference of 
opinion among some who know more than I 
about gardening, as to whether some trees I 
planted this Spring should be watered or not. 
Most say water, but a few whom I reg'^rd as 
knowing something say not. Which is the 
** approved " pra'^tice ?" 

[A difficult question to answer in a general 
iWay. There are times when water is almost 
essential, but it is best to avoid it if possible. 
In many cases trees are injured far more by the 
kind hand which holds a water pot than they 
would by full exposure to dry weather. If a 
iiewly planted tree shows sign of withering its 
leaves on the least warm weather, we should 
most likely cut off a few. of its branches, which 
would lessen the evaporating surface. If it 
still seemed to suffer, choose a dry day to loosen 
the earth on the surface about it,— loosen say 
half an inch, and then with a rammer give it an 
"unmerciful" punching and pounding. This 
will so thoroughly pulverize the soil that it will 
attract moisture from the surrounding ground. 
If after all the leaves do not wear a cheerful 
aspect, make a shallow basin about the roots, 
and pour in a bucket full or two of water, and a 
day or 80 following fill in again with the dry 
earth, iiressing it in closely. This will do for 
the wlmle season.] 



Kame of Plant.— £., Fairfield County, 0.: 
*' I send you three bulbs, attached in a triangu- 
lar position, one of them with a leaf like a Tigri- 
dia, the others without leaves, and seeming to 
be respectively one and two years older than the 
lirst. They were growing in the woods in rich 
ground, on a north hillside, and not far below 
the surface. 1 1 is new to me. Will you be kind 



enough to tell us its name and something about 
it in the Monthly.'*'* 

[This appears to be an orchid— probably a 
Cypripedium, but the species can scarcely be 
made out from a bulb. It is planted, and when 
it grows we may be able to say more about it.] 

Seeds of Primula Sinensis.—" One of the 
Under Current " writes : " Oblige by informing 
me, (and I presume the information would be 
acceptable to others) how I may obtain seed 
from Primula Sinensis. I have now many 
years, sought in vain for seeds, but find only an 
inflated capsule devoid of seed. The Eastern 
continental seedsmen must find them more 
readily or they could not afford us fifty or a 
hundred seeds of their choicest varieties for a 
dollar. But the question is how is it done. 
While the ink is moist, let me make my record 
as being one of those who would commend the 
plant to the cultivation of all flower lovers, as 
being one which will not disappoint their ex- 
pectations. Now-a-days, especially when there 
are so many lovely varieties, both in foliage and 
flower, and if I cannot raise seed, I can buy 
enough for a dollar or two to raise a hundred 
plants, which yield me pleasure for a whole year. 
They trouble me a little before coming into 
rough leaf by damping off, but as soon as they 
obtain their rough leaf, no more difficulty, but 
all gratification until they bloom, when it is 
intensified, and continues throughout the winter 
a source of pleasure by their continued bloom. 
Endorse this if you can consistently." 

[It has been discovered by Mr. Darwin, that 
many plants have a horror of self fertilization, 
and though stamens and pistils may seem per- 
fect in the same flower, it is often difficult to get 
seed from those which rely on their own pollen. 
They will have the pollen from other flowers or 
none at all. This resulted in the discovery of 
the wonderful part performed by insects in cross 
fertilization The genus Primula is especially 
one of those which generally refuses to be self 
fertilized. In the common English Primrose 
and Polyanthus, there are two classes known to 
florists as the " pin eyed " and the ** Ihrum '' 
eyed. In the former case the pistil is above the 
anthers, filling the centre of the flower; the 
apex protruding like the head of a pin. This 
one will never take its own pollen. It seems as 
if it pushed beyond the anthers expressly to 
avoid being fertilized by them ; but with the pol- 
len from another flower it generally sets very 
well. In what are called the *' thrum '' eyed 



forms, the anthers have pushed beyond the pis- 
til, and close up the throat. They rarely, though 
sometimes, succeed in fertilizing their own flow- 
er ; but when the pollen from these get to the 
*''pin '» eyed forms, the result is almost always 
in favor of a full seed vessel. These facts may 



serve our correspondent in becoming more suc- 
cessful next time with the Chinese kind. With 
our correspondent's estimate of the Chinese prim- 
rose we quite agree. There is no plant which 
will usually furnish more varied gratification 
than this.] 



BOOKS, CATALOGUES, ETC. 



Report to the Department of State 
ON THE Forests and Forest Culture of 
Sweden. By C. C. Andrews, United States 
Minister : This is a pamphlet published by the 
Department of State, at Washington, and is a 
very valuable document, especially just now 
when timber planting is one of the greatest of 
present American questions. The Government 
of Sweden takes an immense interest in the 
growth of its forests, and the whole subject is 
treated by Minister Andrews in the most exhaus- 
tive manner. 



Twenty-Fourth Annual Report of 
the Womens' Medical College of Penn- 
sylvania. Whether any practical good to 
Society will ever result from the exercise of the 
ballot by women, or by the triumph of what is 
knowH politically as "womens' rights,'' is a 
question which does not concern the Gardener's 
Monthly in the least ; but it does believe that the 
interests of horticulture are served greatly by 
every effort for women's higher education. One 
of the best institutions for this purpose that we 
know of is the one represented by the little pam- 
phlet before us. It is gratifying to find it flour- 
ishing. The list of matriculants numbers 
seventy, and are from nineteen different States. 
Among the professors are Miss Rachel Bodley, 
Br Henry Hartshorne, and Dr. J. G. Hunt, all 
eminent as botanists, besides in the chairs they 
fill in the college. 

Proceedings of the Worcester County 
(Mass.) Horticultural Society, for 1873. | 
As a general rule the proceedings of societies ' 
are dry reading, and we are sorry to say that ' 
some of them are worth but three cents per ' 
pound. Not of this class is the annual volume ' 
from this Society. It is carefully read— always ' 



with profit— and preserved with respect. Th^ 
present issue is equal in value to any of its pre- 
decessors. Besides the dry record of who takes 
the premiums, there is generally an intelligent 
essay by the chairman of each committee, en- 
deavoring to sum up the neft results, and a sort 
of record of progress made. Here we have 
excellent reading in the report of W. T. Harlow, 
of the fruit committee. He takes up the thread- 
bare theory of Knight as to the wearing out of 
varieties, and puts new floss on it. He shows 
that the theory may not be, as we all know it is 
not, true in the narrow way in which it has been 
presented to us ; but yet that it is a general philo- 
sophical principle, and must be true in some 
sense ; and we cordially agree with him. Not 
so cordially can we agree with him in the pro- 
position that "every winter, doubtless," all 
trees in this latitude are completely frozen, root, 
body and branch. It has been stated in the 
Oardener^a Monthly, that grape vines with their 
roots out in ground may liave the earth frozen solid 
about them, and yet when the canes in the house 
have been forced they have grown and flowered 
while these roots were out in the solid frost. 
And that Hyacinth roots put four inches or six 
inches deep in the ground in November, and 
frost immediately set in on and around them, 
will yet have their crowns at the surface when 
the first spring thaw comes, though the whole 
mass has been frozen solid all that time. We 
know these facts are true as represented, but how 
can '' things frozen solid " make several inches 
of growth while in that condition ? It is aston- 
ishing to us that this "frozen solid '' theory ever 
had any place in an intelligent mind. If we 
saw any living thing "froz'^n through," and yet 
live, we should doubt the evidence of our own 
eyes. Certainly they may appear frozen some- 
times, as a drowned man sometimes appears 



186 



THE GARDEJ^ER'S MOJ^THLY. 



June, 



1873. 



I'HE GARDEJ^ER'S MOMTRLY. 



187 



dead ; but when the drowned man recovers we 
are bound to believe that the raan was not really 
dead, in spite of all appearances. 



Transactions of the Plymouth County 
(Mass.) Agricultural S?ociety, is another 
serial we always welcome to our table. The 
editor or "supervisor," has some sensible re- 
marks on the relation of labor to the value of 
manures. He also deals extensively in figures 
in regard to the profitablo.npss of the various 
modes of culture of various crops ; and there is 
a capital chapter on tree culture for timber in 
the county. The progress of agriculture there 
is shown in no better way than by the statement 
that though the area under farm culture has 
decreased in the county, the sum of the products 
is as great as ever it was, and profitably so. 



Fifth Annual Report of Prof. C. V. 
Riley, State Entomologist of Missourl — 
The State of Missouri deserves the thanks of, 
not only her own citizens, but also of the people 
of other States, whose legislatures have not yet 
been able to see the importance of aiding 
science, especially those branches which imme- 
diately affect the wealth and prosperity of a 
people as do entomology and those of a kindred 
character. In the preface, Mr. Riley expresses 
hie gratification to find his work more and more 
appreciated, but we think that not he himself 
has a faint idea of tho high degree of estimation 
in which his labors are really held. 

The present volume has a timely chapter on 
the relation of the science to agricultural pros- 
perity, and gives brief instructions for collecting, 
studying, and preserving insects. 

A chapter on the Codling Moth, brings down 
k nowledge of it to the present time. In regard 
to traps, Wier's shingle trap was found to be of 
some use ; but paper bandages, rags, or some 
similar matter, tacked on and around the trunk, 
and when full of larvie taken of' and burnt, were 
found better ones. 

The Colorado Potato Beetle receives some 
attention. The Apple twig borer has reached 
the Atlantic States, and there are many other 
brief notes of insect advances during the past 
year. There has been much of importance dis 
covered in regard to the Phylloocera, all tending 
to sustain Mr. Riley's previous position that 
this minute root insect is one of the leading 
causes of grape failure in America. 



The oyster shell bark louse is figured and de- 
scribed under the name of My^ilaspis pomicor- 
ticis, Riley; and its history and character fully 
given. He gives reasons for changing from the 
old name of Aspidiotus conchiformis. Another 
chapter is that relating to a very common nui- 
sance—the Pine Scale insect — which so often 
completely cover the leaves of pine trees with 
minute white specks, and which is so destruc- 
tive to the trees on which it feeds. Mr Riley 
has found a certain remedy. Pines, as a general 
thing, will not make a new set of "needles" if 
the old ones are destroyed ; but if taken oif just 
as they are expanding new ones will then 
appear, and by thus taking off the leaves, eggs 
and all are involved in one common ruin, and 
the new growth comes forth insect free. 

A new species of Hickory borer, Scolytus 
careyoe, of Riley, is described, and its bad deeds 
fully told. The Rose bug has a chapter devoted 
<^o it, as also has "a new en^my to the grape 
vine and others," named nymis destructor by 
^Tr. Rile}' : then there is a chapter devoted to 
"insects injurious to the grape vines." 

In this volume also appears a full history of 
the new discovery, Pronuba yuccasella, the 
insect by the aid of which the yucca is supposed 
to be alone fertilized. This discovery is remark- 
able in this that for the fifty or more years 
the Yucca has been in cultivation about Phila- 
delphia and other places abounding in Ento- 
mologists and who must or might have seen 
thousands of capsules bored by this insect (for' 
the writer doubts w'^ether he ever saw one that 
was not), no one seems to have thought of 
looking for the insect which did it, and should 
leave it to Mr. Riley's industry to let us know 
all about it. 



The Florist and Pomologist.— This beau- 
tiful English publication is not as well known in 
the United Sta'es as it deserves to be. It is a 
monthly, in small octavo form, and every num- 
ber beautifully illustrated. A set now before us 
has colored plates of a new variety of the 
English Primrose, Early Ascot Peach, Lilium 
tigrinum, Lishmanni, Iris ibirca Perryana, 
Maranta makayana, Young's Weeping Birch, 
Ricotees, Gladiolus Alice Wilson, Geonoma 
Seemanni, and other plain cuts and lithographs. 
This will show that a wide range ?8 taken. The 
articles on Horticultural subjects are numerous 
and varied, embracing matters of science as 
well as plain cultural details. 



The Southern Planter and Farmer of 
Richmond, Ya., has always maintained a 
high character among Southern Agricultural 
magazin'-'s. It has changed hands frequently of 
la*e years Now it is edited by T. L. Payne, 
and published b}'^ L. R. Dickinson. 



Prize Essay on Forest Tree Growing 
in Nebraska— by J. T. Allan. This is full of 
facts as to what has actually been done in 
Nebraska in tree raising, and will be a valuable 
guide to those who are settling in that »'pgion, 
as well as to tree plantc s generally in the West. 



The Mystery of Metropolisville. By 
Edward Eggleston. Published by 0»^ange Judd 



& Co. It is generally beMeved that for some 
time after the passing of the Hearth and Home 
nto the ownership of the proprietors of the 
American Agriculturist^ it wns what is known 
to those who understand money matters as a 
heavy load to carry. But of late it has been 
rather the other way, and we are glad of it, for 
there are few papers of its class so intelligently 
conducted, and yet so weU adapted to the moral 
wants of "Home circle and the Hearth's side." 
The poorly educated and the most learned ; the 
young and the old ; the rural-st and the citizen, 
all derive profit from its pages. Egg'eston's 
stories have had much to do with this prosper- 
f'ws, tide in the affairs of the paper. This one 
has been through its columns, and is now pub- 
lished ir book form. 



NEW AND RARE PLANTS. 



New Golden .KnBORYVTM.-Burrmv & Wood 
Fishkill, N F., write : "We think we have a 
very fine Seedling Golden Arborvitse of dwarf 
habit, which originated with us about the year 
1858. We hand you a young plant by to-day's 
mail for a sample, and in return would like 
your opinion." 

[There are now many of these golden Ameri- 
can Arborvitaes under cultivation, and the merit 
of any new one will depend on how the plants 
look after they acquire a little age. That is on 
their mature habit. The one sent us has a dif- 
ferent habit from any other golden Arborvitse 
we have seen, and we are inclined to think it 
will be a desirable addition. This, however, 
only a large plant can definitely decide ] 



Dr. Kellogg had ten years previously named and 
described this lily in the proceedings of the Ca'i- 
fornia Academy of Sciences for 1858, and tho 
remarkable part of Prof. Wood's remarks is 
rather that he should have been ignorant of what 
other botanists had done. Through the unusual 
circumstance of two authors employing the same 
name, the confusion and trouble which loose 
and careless habits in describers bring to scien- 
tific students, the inconvenience in the present 
case will not be great, but it is but justice to Dr. 
Kellogg that this correction should be made in 
ihe records of the Academy, 



LiLiUM Washingtonianum.— At the meet- 
ing of the Philadelphia Academy Natural 
Sciences, on May 20th, Mr. Thos. Meehan re- 
ferred to a paper entitled a sketch of the Liliacece 
of the Pacific Coast, read by Prof. Alphonso 
Wood, and published in the volume of proceed- 
mgs for 1868, in which he describes a ''new 
species " of Lilium as L. Washingtonianum, giv- 
ing as a reason for the name that it was gener- 
ally known as " the Lady Washington " by the 
miners. Prof. W. said in his paper that it wa^ 
remarkable that so fine a plant had been over- 
looked by other botanists. It so happens thai 



New Variegated Lobelia.— Messrs. Clag- 
gett & Munger, St. Joseph, Mo., write : " At 
a time when baskets filled with plants are so 
much in use, and especially variegated plants 
so much admired for that purpose, we take plea- 
sure in sending you a Lobelia which originated 
in our establishment last season, and as we have 
not noticed any such plant advertised in any 
catalogue, we thought it might be of interest for 
your readers to know that such a plant will be 
offered for sale at an early day. We leave you 
to pass an opinion whether such a plant wduld 
be welcome to lovers of fiowers at large. This 
Lobelia appeared in a lot of seedlings last year. 
At first we thought it to be caused by sickly 
growth, but by close examination we found it ta 



IS 8 



THE GARDEJ^ER'S MO.YTHLY. 



June, 



1873. 



THE GARDEJVER'S MOJVTHLY. 



189 



be in a perfectly healtky condition, but still was 
not cared for as mucb as ought to have been. 
This season we find it to be one of our finest 
growing plants of that class. It has white flow- 
ers edged and dotted with rich blue and has by 
U8 received the name of Lobelia PaxtoniaVarie- 
gata " 

[This is a valuable addition to our srarden 
plants. The white is clear and the green is live- 
ly, while the plant itself is in viororous health 
We are sorry for its long name. Why not call 
it at once Claggett's Variegated or the " Clag- 
gett." Latin names are bad enough for species, 
although we cannot do without them there, but 
they serve no useful purpose whatever in a gar- 
den variety. — Ed.] 



New Bouvardias. —Attention is being given 
in England to the improvement of these beau- 
tiful winter blooming flowers. The following 
are some that have just been introduced : 

Alha Oc/orrtta.— This is a valuable addition to 
the group, differing from B. longiflora in its more 
compact and vigorous, yet dwarf, habit, also in 
its greater profusion and longer continuance of 
bloom. The flower trusses are large, with pure 
white petals of great substance, and very richly 
fragrant, the snowy whiteness of the lobes form- 
ing an elegant contrast with the rose-tinted 
trumpet like flower tubes. 

Bridal Wreath.— T\\\% fine h>'brid Bouvardia 
is recognized from its allied forms by the pecu- 
liar greyish, or white-tinted stems, and obscure- 
ly hairy or pilose leaf margins ; in other features 
it is free, vigorous and compact in growth, inter- 



mediate between B. longiflora and B. jasmia-i 
flora. The bloom is produced freely in lar^^e 
cymose clusters of snow-white flower-lobes, 
broader than any other in its section ; delight- 
fully fragrant, and fading off with a delicate car- 
mine tint. The greater width of its petals and 
large racemes of bloom, render it a very effective 
plant for late autumn and winter flower groups. 
Queen of Roses. — A very beautiful variety in 
the colored group of Bouvardias, and the first 
known with fragrant colored flowers, producing 
large terminal branching clusters of pure bright 
rosy-pink trumpet-like blossoms, on crimson 
tinted flower tubes. Its neat, vigorous, and 
freely branched growth yields a long succession 
of bloom during the late summer and autumn 
months, forming a very distinct and desirable 
plant for pot culture in the greenhouse, conser- 
vatory, or open front border in the summer flow- 
er garden. 



Paullinia Thalictrifolia.— a very beau- 
tiful semi-scandent stove foliage plant, which 
will be most useful for all kinds of decorative 
purposes. It is of slender growth, producing 
very freely its beautifully cut leaves, which 
resemble the fronds of a highly-divided Maiden- 
hair Fern. The matured leaves are of a striking 
bright green, the young shoots and foliage being 
of a beautiful rosy tint. 

The plant may be grown either on a trellis or 
in the bush form, and as such is a very great 
acquisition, both as a plant for table decoration 
or to cut from. This plant was introduced from 
the Brazils through the late Mr. Bowman.— 



DOMESTIC INTELLIGENCE. 



Apples for Central Illinois.— Rural, 
of the Chicago rnftunc, says : — '* We must not 
have all regard for high prices ; for, while the 
liady apple may sell readily at $2.50 per bushel, 
it is less profitable than the willow twig at 50 
cents. We must, therefore, take all things into 
consideration, if we would make a wise selection. 
Then, again, the farmer who grows apples for 
market should confine himself to a few varieties, 
for his customers will desire the same kinds,— 
that is, if they are good ones. For summer and 
fall apples, Saps of Wine, Red Astrachan, Lovel, 



Rambo, Fall Wine, Porter, Standard and Snow 
are amongst the best. For sweet apples, Goideu 
Sweet, Rumsdell's Sweet, Baker's Sweet, Pound 
Sweet, and Paradise are as good as any," 



The Medical Botany of California. - 
Dr. W. P. Gibbons, of Alameda, has been devot- 
ing considerable time and labor to the investiga- 
tion of the medical properties of the plants pecu- 
liar to this Coast, and solicits the aid of his 
professional brethren in different quarters. In 
a paper, lately read before the State Medical 



Association, he describes a number of cases 
showing marked benefit from the Grindelia in 
Asthma, and thinks it will prove a valuable 
remedy, if employed with proper discrimination. 
There are two species which appear equally 
active, the rohusta growing in low places, and 
the hirsutula on dry fields and hills. The infu- 
sion he regards as the best preparation.-^ CaZi- 
fornia Horticulturist. 



The Angular Divergence in the 
Branches of Plants. — Some grow quite 
prostrate, and others, though closely allied spe- 
cies, might be strictly erect. Late in the 
autumn we may note plants with prostrate 
leaves or branches, which in spring, will have 
them in a sharp, upright angle. The Verbas- 
cunis, especially Verbascum Blattaria,j had 
their root leaves so firmly pressed against the 
ground, that on lifting they would fall back 
with a spring ; as soon as the central axis grew, 
the leaves from that would be almost upright. 
In some respects, erection or prostration became 
almost specific characters. The Rubus villosus 
usually grew erect even from infancy, and the 
Rubus canadensis generaly trailed ; yet the last- 
named would sometimes throw up strong erect 
stems, which could scarcely be distinguished in 
that stage from R. villosus. Again, the same 
species of tree would often produce individuals 
quite erect, and at other times very pendant, 
and hence we had in horticulture the class of 
weeping trees. All trees seemed to have this 
power of producing pendant individuals. The 
Oaks, Ashes, Poplars, Elms, all ^furnished 
tamiliar examples. 

It was usual with botanists to pass these 
things over as '* weaknesses." But the term 
weakness explained nothing. To say that these 
plants had lost the power of erection was simply 
restating the primary fact. Moreover, some of 
these prostrate forms had apparently more vigor 
than the erect ones. Rubus canadensis was 
weaker than R. villosus, truly ; but, on the other 
hand, some of Russian trailing Junipers were 
far more vigorous than any of the upright indivi 
duals. The Weeping Beech also was in appear- 
ance more vigorous than the ordinary forms. 
All Beeches had their young growth pendant. 
As the growth matured, the branches became 
erect ; but in the weeping form erection did not 
come with maturity, and hence it remained pen- 
dant. In the Ashes, however, there was no pen- 
dency in the young growth ; but the Weeping Ash 



was one of the most decided of all drooping trees. 
In such ^ases as these, the law which governed 
the angles of divergence must either be different 
in each case, or operate at different stages of the 
development of the branches 

Mr. Meehan, in his late travels in the Rocky 
Mountains, came on a track covered profusely 
with one of the small creeping Euphorbias, 
probably E. cordata, in which a large quantity 
grew perfectly erect. Sometimes only a portion 
of the plant exhibited this character, at other 
times all the plant was upright. The specimens 
he exhibited were of the erect class. In all these 
cases the plant was attacked by a small fungus, 
^cidium Euphorbia^ hypericsefolia of Schwein- 
itz. He thought that the fact that this little 
fungus should be able to make a usually creeping 
plant, rooting from every joint, entirely lose 
this character and become erect, was worthy of 
some notice by students in this branch of botany. 
— T. Meehan. — Extracts from a Paper in Pro- 
ceedings of the Academj/ of Ifafural Sciences, 
Philadelphia, 



Filberts — We were surprised, on visiting 
one of our Broadway fruit shops, to find fresh 
filberts, imported from Kent, in England, selling 
with their heavy green husks on for eighty cents per 
pound, and this has been the average for several 
years. Why should not our farmers in the Middle 
and Southern States grow filberts ? The climate 
wliich will produce good peaches will also pro- 
duce filberts, and all of our light tobacco lands 
in the bnsin of the Chesapeake are as well suited 
to their growth as the soil of Kent, and certainly 
at the prices ruling now in New York, or at 
even half these prices, filberts would prove the 
most profitable product within the whole range 
of agriculture. Nor is the adaptation of the 
soil and climate of our Middle States to the 
growth of these nuts at all problematical, for 
they have been grown in a small way on some of 
the old homesteads in Virginia for more than a 
hundred years. — lurf, Field and Farm. 



Catching the Codling Moth.— There has 
been a great deal of superficial instruction given 
in this country for the trapping of noxious 
insects. Bottles with sweetened water, and 
lighted lamps hung in trees, were recommended 
by A. J. Downing many years ago, and copied 
by a number of writers since. It was supposed 
that curculio, codling moth and other insect 
depredators might be easily caught in this way. 



wo 



THE GARDEMER'ti MOJ\-THLY. 



June, 



1873. 



THE GARDEJVER'S MOJV'THLJ. 



191 



_ I 

In contrast with this conjectural advice are the ' 
careful and accurate scientific examinations of; 
C. V. Riley, State Entomolon;ist of Missouri, who \ 
says in his last report to the State Board of | 
Agriculture : '• I have elsewhere ^iven it as my • 
decided opinion that neither fires, lights, or ' 
bottles of sweetened water, vinegar or any other ' 
liquid, can be used with any degree of success in 
fighting the codling moth.' lie then states 
that three years ago he kept a trap of this kind, 
made of bright tin, well lighted, and that he ' 
never caught a single specimen. During another 
summer, two kerosene lamps and a bright re- 
flector attracted hundreds of insects, yet only 
one or two codling moths were caught among 
all this multitude. At the same time many \ 
wide-mouth bottles, with decoying solutions, 
were hung in trees. Many insects were caught^ 
—small harmless moths ; some that were injuri 1 
ous, and others known to be beneficial. Among I 
the latter were numbers of two species known to 



jwey on the codling moth~whi\e but three codling 
moths were caught all summer. Mr. Riley fur° 
ther adds that on showing specimens of the cod- 
ling moth to intelligent cultivators, they candidly 
confessed that they did not know it by sight, 
and hence other moths were mistaken for it. 
We note these observations to show that the 
common loose way of making such examinations 
is too careless and vague for reliance. --OoM7?trv 
Qentlemen. 



Figs.— There is no more delicious or healthful 
fruit than the fig, and we are surprised that so 
little attention is given at the South to its culture 
and propagation. It will thrive well in any 
part of the cotton States. Figs dried in the sun, 
by simply mashing and placing them on tins, 
are superior in flavor to those imported, and 
will keep as long.— P^/,r)<a<ton. 

But they get wormy. Dry them on a kiln, or 
even in a large cook stove.— J1fo6i7^ liegisfer. 



HORTfClILTURAL NOTICES. 



THE PENNSYLYAKIA TTORTTCULTU- 
RAL SOCIETY. 
The Society decided to hold this year a grand 
spring exhibition, with the idea of affording the 
citizens of Philadelphia a jrlimpse of whatllow- 
ers arc at this season ; the fall exhibition izener- 
ally resolving itself into a first class fruitdisplay, 
with the flowers rather as a collateral. This 
season, however, was so late that gardeners and 
nurserymen found themselves up to their eyes in 
work, and thus very reluctantly were compelled 
to forego the pleasure of exhibiting. Notwith- 
standing these drawbacks the exhibition was an 
excellent one, and in many respects more inter- 
esting than any of its predecessors. 

There is a great lack in all our exhibitions of 
well grown plants ; indeed the idea of growing 
things in a very superior 7nanner, except in a 
very few instances, is becoming one of the lost 
arts. Most of our exhibitions depend on the 
miscellaneous matter hastily gathered up from 
gardens anl greenhouses, and while showing' 
ordinary skill, and worthy of ordinary commen''- ' 



, dation. litt'e of it is of that superior order which 

I horticultural exhibitions are expected to foster 

and bring forth. This is said by way of encour- 

agem.Mit to better exertion. We all need a hint 

' or two as to what we may do sometimes. 

There were on this occasion several things 
well worthy of being classed with superior excel- 
lencies. One of these was a hanging basket by 
C. W. Trotter. The centre was a fuchsia, Rose 
of Castile, we believe, grown as well as any oftep 
seen in pots. It had seventy-five expanded flow- 
ers. The outside filled with luxuriant pendant 
vines of various kinds. A large Red Azalea, by 
Robert Scott, was four feet high and four feet 
across, bearing, we may surely say, thousands of 
flowers. A very beautiful Yucca quadricolor, 
by H. C. Gibson, was nearly three feet high in 
the stem, and with a profusion of luxuriant 
healthy foliage. 

An Anthurium Schurzianum, by Mr. Alex. 
Newett, gardener to H. Pratt McKean, Esq., 
had seven flowers on. The scarlet waxy texture 
of the flowers of this plant will ever make it a 



popular favorite. Every one admires the satiny 
surface and pretty markings of the leaves of Oy- 
anophyllum magnificum. Mr. Lucking, gar- 
dener to M. Baird, Esq., had a plant with 
numerous leaves two feet long by about one 
wide. 

The bouquets and table designs, were of the 
highest excellence, and did much credit to the 
taste of the exhibitors. It is long since such 
excellent material appeared on the Society's 
tables. In Mr. John Dick's excellent collection, 
use was made of the rather rare fern Lomaria 
gibba. Pennock & Bro , in a magnificent pla- 
teau of flowers, seemed to rest chiefly on Roses 
(Marshal Neil, Bon Silene, Saff'rano, mostly) 
and Lilies of the Valley, with ferns. Robert 
Sherwood had more CarnHionsand Pinks in his 
than the others, and gave it a markevl character 
by having the roses thrown out from the mass 
of flowers on longer drooping stems. Among 
other articles deserving of special notice, were 
some Pansies by Mr. J. Thomas, r^ardener to A. 
J. Bucknor, Esq., some of which were two 
inches across. His dwarf Cinerarias were ab*^ ut 
eighteen inches across their flower heads ; and 
Calceolarias, on one of which we counted a few 
over one hundred open Uowers. These are wo^th 
ranking with "well grown plants." In Mr. 
Newett's collection, as well as in one or two 
others, was the new Coleus, •* Camellia." It 
has a stripe of vermillion in the leaf, a tint not 
before known in Coleus ; but it is hard to keep 
in this condition, as it '* runs '' out, as variega 
ted leaves do sometimes. It is a variety raised 
last year near New York. A fine Nephrolepis 
in this collection reminds us to say that it is one 
of the best of all ferns for hanging baskets. This 
on-* was N. bulbifcra, but all the genus is good 
for this purpose. In the same collection were 
well grown plants of Dracoena regina, Calocasia 
macrorhiza variegata, with leaves about ten 
inches long, Clerodendron splend ns, Begonia 
glaucophylla scaudens, with nice white and rose 
flowers. 

Mr. H. A. Dr«^er had f. neat collection of small 
plants, in which wis exhibited for the first time 
the Scarlet Larkspur, Delphinium nudicaule. 
The Fuchsia Sun-ray, a variety with three 
colors, and Lobelia Snowflake, also attracted 
attention. Alongside of these were some admi- 
rable forced strawberries, the fragrance of which 
added much to the pleasure of the occasion, even 
if the fruit had not been so remarkably fine as 
they were. It is rare to see in market as fiiM 



ones as these were. They come from Mr. Blair, 
of Roxboro. Albany Seedling and Triomphe de 
Gand. 

In Mr. Fergusson's collection, from his Lau- 
rel Hill nursery. Azaleas made a particularly 
striking show. One of the best was a white 
with carmine stripes and fringed edges— Alexan- 
dra IL Mr. Harris, florist, of Darby Road, 
always excels at these exhibitions in the well 
grown florists flowers in his collections. Some 
beautiful "Elm City" Fuchsias, and the well 
known Coleus, Beauty of Windmere, were much 
admired. 

Mr. G. Huster, gardener to J. B. Heyl, Esq., 
had in his collection a very full flowered Epiphy- 
num Jenkinsii, which made the visitors wonder 
why this fine old plant is so seldom seen now-a- 
days. Here also was an old fashioned purple 
Gloxinia with over one hundred flowers on i^. 

Mr. Moon, of Morrisville, had a large number 
of hardy evergreens in pots. 

The honor of exhibiting the best quantity of 
rare, new, or interesting plants, was borne on 
this occasion by Mr. J. Dick. Among a splen- 
did collection of Tricolor Geraniums, Miss Gohr- 
ing had four colors in the leaves ; and is a 
superior variety to Lady Cullum, and this is 
saying a great deal. " Mrs. John Dick " is also 
an excellent variety. Among the new plants is 
Aiocasia zebrina, with striped stems ; T'iUandsia 
Lindeni, flowers purple and white ; Dracoena 
Guilfoilii, with narrow leaves, striped white and 
pink; the curious leaved Chamoepeuce cassa- 
bona, Croton aucubtefolia, with distinct gold 
markings, and some others. 

Mr. Johnston, gardener to Dr. Camac, had a 
collection of one hundred species of ferns, all 
remarkably well grown. 

Miller & Hayes, of Mount Airy, one of the 
most enterprising of our younger firms, had an 
elegant lot of plants, in which Echeverias played 
an important part. They also had some new 
roses and varieties of rare evergreens. 

In one of the halls the experiment was tried 
of holding a flower market, in which auch as 
desired might sell their i»lants and flowers. It 
was well patronized by the public, and promises 
to be a valuable feature of the spring exhibition. 
Great credit is due to Mr. Thos. C. Andrews, on 
whom the whole arrangement, in the absence of 
the regular committee, fell. Messrs. J. S. 
Houghton, J. E. Mitchell, and Secretary Harri- 
son, also did almost superhuman work on it. 



<^« 









192 



THE GARBEJ^ER' a MOJ^TELJ. 



June, 



AMERICAN POMOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

FOURTEENTH SESSION, AND QUARTER CEN- 
TENNIAL CELEBRATION. 

Whereas, the American Pomological Society, 
at its last session, accepted the invitation of 
the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, to hold 
its Quarter Centennial Celebration, and Bien- 
nial Session, in the city of Boston, in 1873 ; 

Therefore, in conformity with said acceptance, 
the undersigned give notice that the Fourteenth 
Session of this National Association will be 
held in the hall of the Massachusetts Horticul- 
tural Society, Treraont Street, in Boston, com- 
mencing Wednesday, September 10th, 1873, at 
10 o'clock A. M., and continue for three days. 

All Horticultural, Pomological, Agricultural, 
and other kindred associations, in the United 
States and British Provinces, are invited to 
send delegations, as large as they may deem 
expedient, and all persons interested in the 
cultivation of fruits, are invited to be present 
and take seats in the Convention. 

The coming session will be especially intiTest- 
ing, commemorating, as it will, the termination 
of the first quarter of a century of the existence 
of the Society, and it is believed, will be one of 
the most important and useful that the Society 
has ever held. On this occasion there will be 
brought together the best cultivators and fruits 
of our widely extended country, when may be 
examined and compared, the fruits, not only of 
the cooler climes of the North, but of the South, 
the West, and the Pacific Slope. It is therefore 
very desirable that every State, territory, and 
province of America, should be fully and' ably 
represented in this convention, thereby p-omot- 
ing the advancement of one of the great re- 
sources of our national wealth,— the extension 
and perpetuation of the amicable and social 
relations which have heretofore existed amon^r 
the members of the Society,-and the diff-usion 
throughout the land, of our deliberations, for 
the benefit of our constantly expandinc. terri- 
tory. '^ 

It is therefore hoped that there will be a full 
attendance of delegates from all quarters of our 
country, thereby stimulating more extensive 
cultivation by the concentrated information and 
experience of cultivators, and aiding the Society 
in perfecting its Catalogue of Fruits. This will 
be one of the prominent subjects which will 
come before the Society, and we therefore re- 
spectfully urge the various State and Local 
Committees which have not already responded 



to the circulars of P. Barry (Chairman of the 
General Fruit Committee, Rochester, N. Y.,) to 
do so, with such information and lists of fruits 
as may aid in determining what varieties are 
best adapted to their several localities. 

At this session the Society will appoint the 
place for its next meeting, and also decide what 
action it shall take on the invitation to partici- 
pate in the National Exhibition at the Centen- 
nial Celebration of 1876, in Philadelphia, and it 
is respectfully requested that members come 
prepared to express their opinions in regard to 
this subject. 

Arrangements will be made with Hotels, and 
as far as p'^ssible with the railroads termi- 
nating in Boston, for a reduction of fare, and of 
which notice will be given in a future circular. 
Similai- arrangements can undoubtedly be 
made by the various delegations, with roads in 
their localities. 

Members and Delegates are requested to con- 
tribute specimens of the Fruits of their respec- 
tive districts, and to communicate in regard to 
them whatever may aid in promoting the objects 
of the Society and the science of American 
Pomology. Each contributor is ^-eq nested to 
prepare a complete list of his collection, and to 
present the same with his fruits, that a report 
of all the varieties entered, may be submitted 
to the meeting as early as practicable. 

The Massachusetts Society for Promoting 
Agriculture have kindly appropriated Five 
Hundred Dollars, and liberal sums have been 
promised by other generous patrons. See pre- 
mium list. 

An increased interest will be given to the 
occasion by the Grand Exhibition of Plants and 
Flowers by the Massachusetts Horticultural 
Society, which will occur at the same time. 

Packages of Fruits, with the name of the 
contributor, may be addressed as follows:— 
"American Pomological Society,'' care of E. 
W. Buswell, Massachusetts Horticultural Soci- 
ety, Boston. 

All persons desirous of becoming members 
can remit the fee to Thomas P. James, Esq., 
Treasurer, Cambridge, Mass. Life Member- 
ship, Twenty Dollars ; Biennial, Four Dollars. 
Marshall P. Wilder, President, 

Boston, Masp. 
F. R. Elliott, Secretary, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Newspapers and Periodicals that take an 
interest in Pomology, are respectfully requested 
to publish the above. 




f*-rx r 




®f Af pE^«^@i ®®Et®. 



Crop 1873. 

Particulars on Application. 



-^"*^ 



OUR WHOLESALE PRICED LIST, 

Will be Mailed to Applicants. 







I 



Nos. 21 and 23 South Sixth Street, 



BOOKS FOR RURAL LIFE. 

WUI be forwarded hj mail, post-paid on receipt of price. 

Allen's, R. L , Amerieaa Farm Book $1 ^0 

Allen's, R. L., Diseases of Domestic Animals 1 60 

Allen's, L. F., Raral Architecture 1 60 

Allen's, L. F., Aroerioan Cattle 2/5" 

Allen's, R. L A L. V., New Amerieaa Farm Book 2 HO 

American Architect 7 00 

American Agricultaral Annual, paper 60 ; cloth 75 

American Horticultural Annual, " " 75 

American Bird Fancier (Brown's) 30 

American Farmer's Encyclopedia 8 00 

American Weeds and Useful Plants 1 75 

ArtofSaw Filing 7J 

Architecture, Modern American, CummingH & Miller 10 00 

" Principles and Practice of By Loring & Jenning 12 00 

Baker's Fruit Culture 4 00 

Bassetton Cranberry Culture 3'> 

Barry's Iruit Garden 2 60 

Bement's Poulterer's Companion 2 00 

Bement's Kabbit Fancier 3 

Beet Root Su^ar 1 ^ 

Bicknell's Village Builder, 77 plates 2 00 

Bommer'.M Method of Makiog Manures 2.5 

Hook of Roses. F. Parkmao 3 00 

Boussini^au't's, J. B., Rural Economy I 60 

Brown's Field Book of Manures 1 &0 

Krowue's Trees of America 6 00 

Breck's N»^w Book of Flowers 1 75 

Bridgcmnn's American Gardener's Assistant 2 W 

Bridgeman's Florists Guide 1 00 

Bridgeman'8 Fruit Cultivator's Manual 1 00 

Bridgeman's Kitchen Gardener's Instructor 1 00 

Buist's Robert, Am. Flower Garden liirectory 1 6D 

Buist's, Robert, Family Kitchen Gardiner 100 

Burr's Field and Garden Vegetables of America $ OJ 

Carpenter and Joiner (R. Riddeil) 7 oO 

Carpenter and Joiner's Hand Book (Holly) 75 

Ohorlton's Grape Grower's Gu de 75 

Chemistry of the Farm (Nichols) I 25 

Cleveland's Villas and Cottages 4 00 

Cobbett's American Gardener 75 

Cole's, S. W., American Fruit Hook 7') 

Cole's American Veterinarian 75 

<':ooper's Rural Hours 2 00 

Copeland's e:onntry Life 5 00 

Dadd's,Geo U., American Cattle Doctor 160 

Dadd's Modern Horse Doctor 1 50 

Dadd's Anatomy and Physiology of the Hurse (plaiu plates) 3 50 

Dana's, Samuel H., Muck Manual 1 25 

Darwin's Variations of >«nimalsand Plants (2 vols) 6 00 

DeVoe's Market Assistant 2 50 

Downing'st A J.. Landscape Gardening 6 50 

Downinif's Cottage Residences 3 On 

Downing's Fruits and Fi nit Trees of America 4 00 

Downing's Rural Kssays 5 00 

Du Breull's Vineyard Culture (Dr. Warden^ 2 00 

Eastwood on Cultivation of ihe Cranberry 75 

Elliott's Western Fruit Grower's Guide 1 60 

Elliot's Lawn and Shade Trees 1 60 

Every Woman her own Flower Gardener .,,,., 50 

Farm Talk (Brackett) 1 00 

Farming for Boys 1 50 

Field's. Thomas W., Pear Culture i 2j 

Fishing in American Waters (Scott) 3 60 

Flagg's European Vineyards i fio 

FlaxCulure. 50 

Klint, ChHH. L., on Grasses 2 50 

Flint's Milch Cows 2 60 

Flower Gardens for Country Homea , 25 

Fowler's Homes tor All i fio 

Frank Forester's Fish and Fishing, 8 vo. lOO engravings.... 6 60 

Frank Forester's Manuel for Toung Sportsmen, 8 vo 3 Ot> 

French's Farm Drainage , i 60 

Fuller's Grapn Culturist : 150 

Fuller's Small Fruit Culture ., 150 

Fuller's strawberry Culturist .,,* 25 

Fuller's Forest Tree Culturist 150 

Fulton on Peach Culture j qq 

Geyelin's Poultry Breeding \ 125 

Gray's How Plants Grow . \ 25 

Oray'-< Manual, Botany and Lesvons, in ooe vol, . . 4 Oi> 

Gray's School and Field Book of Botany 2 5J 

Green on Trout Culture *.'. ] 00 

Gregory on 8qaa.she8, paper 

Gueraon on Milch Cows .•••..„,,, 75 

Gnide to Fortune * | qq 

Haratthy'H Gr»tpe-culture and Wine-making [^ 5 qq 

Harazthy's California Grape-culture !!**!! 6 00 

Harris' Insects Injurious to Vegetation, clo. $4; col. eng's..*.*. 6 60 

Harris on the Pig J^'J j qq 

Hatfield's American House ''arpenter *.*.'.!!IIJ 8 60 

Henderson'a Practical Floriculture , .....I.'!!I 1 60 



Henderson s Gardening for Profit. •• 1 60 

Herbert's Bints to HorMkeepers 1 75 

Hoopes on Evergreens. 3 00 

Hooper's D4g and Oun, paper 30 cents, cloth 60 

Hop-culture 40 

How to Buy a Farm, and Where to Find One 1 75 

How to Manage a Building Association 2 00 

Hussmau's Grapes and Wines 1 fO 

Jacques' Manual of the House. 1 60 

Jricques' Manual of the Garden 1 00 

Jennings' Cattle Doctor 1 76 

Jennings on the Horse and his Diseases 1 76 

Jennings' Sheep, Swine and Poultry 1 76 

Johnson's How Crops Grow..... 2 00 

Johnson's Peat and its Uses 1 25 

Johnston's Elements of Ag. Chemistry and Geology.. 1 50 

Johnston's, J. S. W., Agricultural Chemistry 1 76 

Kemp's Landscape Gardening..... 2 60 

Klippart's Farm Drainage 1 75 

Langstroth, Key. L. L. on the Hive and Honey Bee ^ 0') 

Leuchars' How to Build Hot-house 1 60 

Leibig's, Justus, Familiar Lectures on Chemistry 76 

London's Encyclopeedia of Plants 16 00 

Lyman's Cotton-culture 150 

Mayhew's Practical Book-keeping for Farmers 90 

Mead's Grape-culture 3 00 

Mechanics' Companion (Nicholson) 3 00 

Meehan's Ornamental Trees 1 00 

McMahon's American Gardener 2 26 

Mileson the Hor>e's Foot 75 

Miner's. T. B., Bee-keeper's Manual , 1 25 

Mohron the Grape-vine 1 (0 

Money in the Garden 1 60 

Munu's, R., Practical Land-drainer 75 

My Vineyard at Lakeview 1 26 

My Farm of Edgewood 1 75 

My Ten-rod FHrni 66 

North American Sylva, 6 vols., 156 col. plates, in .SO parts, 

unbound 60 00 

" •* h« If Turkey Antique, gilt 70 00 

full " 76 00 

Neil'sPac. Fruit, Flower & Kitchen Gardener's Companion.. 1 25 

Nichol's CheniKsiry of the Farm and Sea 1 26 

Norton's, John P. Elements of Scientific Agriculture 75 

Norris' Fish-culture 1 76" 

Onion-culture 20 

Our Farm of Four Acres, paper .SO cents, cloth 60 

Packard*8 Guide to the Study of Insects, 8 parts, each 60 • 

Pardee on Strawberry-culture 75 

Parson, Samuel B.. on tlie Roe 1 60 

Parkman's Book of Roses 3 00 

Peat and its Uses 1 26 

Pear-culture, Fields 1 25 

Pedder's, James, Farmer's Land-measurer 60 

Percheron Horse 1 00 

Peters- n's Preserving, Pickling and Canning Fruit 60 

Phin on Wme-mtikitig 1 60 

Qi linn's Pear-ciiitut-e tor Profit 1 00 

Quinby's Mysteries of Bee-keeping Explained 1 60 

Randall's Sheep Husbandry 1 50 

Randall's Fine Wool Sheep Husbandry 1 00 

Raud's Bulbs 3 00 

Raiid'H Flowers for Parlor and Garden 3 00 

Rand's Seventy-five Flowers 1 60 

Rand's Flower Garden 3 00 

Reemelin's, Charles. Vinedressers' Manna! 76 

Richardson on the Dog, paper 30, cloth 00 

Riddell's Architect 16 OC 

Roosevelt's Five Acres Too Much „ 1 60 

Rose Culturist, pa^er.SO cloth 76 

Robbins', R , Produce and Ready Reckoner 76 

Rural Studies 1 76 

Saunders' Domestic Poultry, Paper 40 cloth 76 

.Saxton's Hand-books, in four series, each 1 60 

Schenck's Gardener's Text-book 76 

Scribner*8 Ready Reckoner and Log-book 36 

Strong's Cultivation of the Grape S 00 

Ten Acres Enough 1 60 

Thomas' Fruit-culturist; new edition 3 Ou 

Warder's American Pomoiofiy S 00 

'' Hedges and Evergreens 1 M 

Waring's Drainage for Protit and Health 1 60 

*' Eiemnntsol Agriculture 1 00 

'* Farth Cllosets , *5 

Webster's Dictionary, Unabridged 13 00 

Well's Every Man his own Lawyer 2 06 

Window Gardening 1 W 

White's Gardnning for the South 2 00 

" Cranberry Culture 1 26 

Workingman's Way to Wealth 75 

Wright's Practical Poultry Keeper 2 00 

Tonattonthe Horse 1 76 

Youman's Household Science ~... 2 00 

Address, OfiAS. H. MABOT, 



DEVOTED TO 

Horticulture, Arboriculture, Botany and Rural Affairs. 

EDITED BY THOMAS MEEHAN. 



Old Series, Vol. XV. 



JULY, 1873. 



New Series, Vol. VI. No. 7. 



HINTS FOR JULY. 



]|^=^SEE FIRST PAGE, FACING COVER. 



FLOWEU GARDEN- AND PLEASURE 

GROUND. 
If thanks be due to the man who invented 
sleep, as some writer particularly insists, how 
many thanks are due to him who invented 
lawn mowing machines. When the writer was 
a boy he had to rise *' with the lark, '» and go 
out with the mowers, in order that the grals 
might be cut before the dew went offfrom it ; now 
if he chooses he can lie in bed and dream his 
thinks to the sleepy fellow, resting assured that 
with a jrood mower he can cut any time in the 
day. But thanks are not only due to the inven- 
tor of the mowers, but to those who have so 
sedulously improved them. It is not more than 
a year or two ago but we could hardly go over 
a lawn wit'i our machines without a pony. 
Now the hand mowers will do an immense 
amount of work in a short time, and unless in 
v-ry extensive places, a horse is not thought of. 
But to us the greatest triumph of the mower is | 
that we need no! set aside all other man- 
ner of work whatsoever, and go to mowiucr 
because the cutting time has come. We can 
now mow long grass as well as short grass-and 
indeed this is perhaps the greatest gain of all. 
It was the f^ult of some of the earlier machines 
that we had to cut often, whi-h meant of course 
pretty close, and this close cutting weakened the 
grass to such an extent that small creepinor 
weeds were aided in their growth by being 
brought fair to the sunlight, and in the struggle 
|or lite, the grass was crowded out. In view of 
ihi8 we have had to recommend that the lawn 
Should be lea to grow without mowing every 
ew years, if grass was to be permanent. Now 
we have machines which will cut at any height 



For our part we do not see the beauty of a very 
close shave, and think that an even and reorular 
growth of a half to one inch, prettier than one 
cut so low down. But this is a matter of taste, 
and we do not insist, only a very short cut is 
fatal to a long lived lawn. With the improved 
hand mowers of the present day. there is proba- 
bly no one among our readers but will want to 
have a neat little bit of grass in good keeping 
about his house. ° 

But passing from the lawn to the trees upon 
it-the time is coming when transplanted trees 
of the past fall and spring will suffer more than 
during any other part of the season. If they 
show a vigorous growth of young wood, no dan- 
gi^r need be apprehended, as it indicates that the 
roots are active, and can supply all the moisture 
the foliage calls for ; but if no growth has been 
made, no roots have been formed, and the 
leaves are living for the most part on the sap in 
the wood and bark, and hot, drying weather will 
tell with injurious effect on such trees. This is 
generally first shown by the peeling off of the 
bark on the southwestern side of the tree-the 
most dryini: aspect ; and where such exhaustion 
appears probable, much relief may be afforded 
by cutting back some of the branches, syringing 
with water, occasionally, shading the trees where 
practicable, or wrapping the trunk in hay bands, 
or shading the southwest with boughs or boards. 
Plants set against walls and piazzas frequent- 
ly suffer from want of water at this season, 
when even ground near them is quite wet. Draw 
away the soil around each plant so as to form a 
basin ; fill in with a bucketful of water, allowing 
it time to soak gradually away, and when the 
surface has dried a little, draw in loosely the soil 



!• 



^ii 



194 



THE GARDE JEER'S MOJ^THLY. 



July. 



1873. 



THE GARDEJVER'S MO^THLl. 



o?er it, and it will do without water for some 
weeks. This applies to all plants wanting 
water through the season. If water is merely 
poured on the surface, it is made more compact 
by the weight of water, and the harder the soil 
becomes, the easier it dries ; and the result is, 
the mere water you give the more is wanted. 

Keep the pruning knife busy through the trees 
and shrubs, with the object of securing good 
form. Judgment will soon teach one which 
shoots would spoil the shape if not taken out. 

In most kinds of soil the keeping the surface 
loose by hoeing and raking in dry weather, will 
be an excellent method of keeping the main body 
cool and moist— admitting the air, which is a 
good non-conductor. In soils, however, which 
are deficient in loam, and in which sand prevails 
to a great extent, frequent stirrings have a dry- 
ing tendency, and a mulching of short grass, or 
decaying vegetable matter of any kind, will be 
found very useful around transplanted trees, 
shrubs and other things. 

We should like to call attention to a note we 
gave last year, that some beautiful objects for 
lawn decorations can be made of Wisterias, by 
training them as standards. A young plant is 
selected and trained to a stake six feet high. 
When the plant reaches this it is headed off. 
The second year the stake may be taken away, 
and the young plant will support itself. It will 
never make running branches after this, as it 
takes all its nutritive powers to overcome grivi- 
tation and sustain itself erect. A beautiful um- 
brella-like head is formed, and its hundreds of 
drooping flowers in spring thus shown off to 
beautiful advantage. Another point of interest 
to a nurseryman in this is, that with this check 
to growth the reproductive powers are called into 
play, and the plants then usually produce seed 
abuvdantly. There is hope for numerous im- 
proved varieties as soon as these facts become 
generally known. This is a very good season to 
train plants up for this purpose. 

Many of the earlier sown annuals will be seed- 
ing now, and those flowers which opened first 
will make the best seed to save. Where seed is 
not desired, it is best to cut away all as it forms. 
The annuals will continue to bloom much lont^er 
for this care. In getting seed of Double Holly- 
hocks, much difficulty is often experienced. The 
petals prevent the pollen from falling on the pis- 
til. It is best, therefore, to fertilize them by 
hand. They then produce as much seed as the 
single ones. Another advantage of this artificial 



195 



4 



hybridization is, that we can get any color we 
please from seed. If, for instance, we want to 
reproduce the kind perfect, fertilize with its own 
pollen ; but if we would raise new varieties, use 
pollen from a plant of different color from the one 
we employ for seed. 

Those who wish for a good supply of window 
flowers next winter, should commence prepara- 
tions about the end of the month. The Chinese 
Primrose, Cineraria, Mignonette, Alyssum and 
other desirable plants should be sown in pots, 
and kept in a cool frame until they grow. Most 
people fail with these beautiful plants by sowing 
too late. The Wallflower is a nice old-fashioned 
window flower, and cuttings of the double kinds 
should be struck at once. Cuttings of Gerani- 
ums and other things for this coming winter's 
blooming may still be put in. 

We have so often spoken of hedge manage- 
ment in these hints, that it seems to us as if 
every one ought to know about it ; but it is won- 
derful how few do. Only recently one whom we 
know to be one of our most attentive readers, 
and to have been one from the beginning, 
remarked as he passed, what everybody calls "a 
very beautiful Norway Spruce hedge on our 
grounds, that it was really beautiful, but it was 
a great error to have it so unnecessarily wide at 
the base. This hedge is five feet high and five 
feet wide as the base, which makes it rather 
wider than it is high ; of course it is trimmed 
into a truncate triangular form. 

Now it is one of the essentials of a permanent 
prosperous hedgp, that it mu^t be at least as 
wide at the base as it is high, and that it must 
be trimmed with a flat or gently curved surface 
to a point at the top. The light then has a chance 
to play directly on every part of the leaf surface, 
without which, it is impossible to have a hedge 
long in order. For that part which receives the 
greater share of sunlight, w|l}^get stronger, and 
that which gets the lea»i' 'gradually grows 
weaker, till a thin, poor base is the final result. 
This is one great object in pruning to remedy. 

The Gladiolus has become one of our most pop- 
ular summer flowers. Those who have collec- 
tions of them arrange the varieties very taste- 
fully according to their colors. Take a list of 
colors as they flower, so as (o arrrnge them pro- 
perly next year. We give the same advice for 
Petunias, Verbenas, and Geraniums. The 
various shades of colors of these varieties pro- 
perly arranged, make beds peculiarly pleasing. 
This is one of the arts of modern flower-t^arden- 



ing, to arrange flowers properly according to 
shades of color. 



«•••» 



FRUIT GARDEN. 
One of the worst inflictions a writer has is 
dealing with stupid people. Large numbers 
have an idea that fruit culture is an exact 
science, and that after they have learned to do 
a few things, the sura total of success ought to 
follow as regularly as the rule of three. This is 
especially the case in fruit culture. If you tell a 
man that deep soil is essential to good culture, 
like enough he turns all his rich top soil down 
two or three feet, and sticks his plants in the old 
poor clay he has brought to the surface, and at 
the end of the season, points to the result as a 
specimen of your folly. If you say that soil 
pressed firm enables the little roots to touch the 
earth and draw in moisture better than loose 
earth, ten chances to one if he don't drill holes 
in the middle of a turnpike road, and after drop- 
ping a grain of corn into it, assert in the end 
that you are the veriest of humbugs. If they 
read that summer pruning fruit trees weakens 
them, under no circumstances will (hey touch a 
branch ; and when you teach that fruit trees 
are often very much benefitted by summer pru- 
ning, they think you are the most iaconsistent 
wretch living. It is indeed very unsafe to give 
such people rules, and yet illustrations serve 
them no better. Say to them that the roots of 
most of our fruit trees suffer by the heat of our 
summers, and that the best success follows 
where the roots are cool, and they will imagine 
you mean to import a cargo of ice to pack around 
them. Then you say that this is extravagant, 
you would sooner mulch with any old vegetable 
material, they will tell you it is too expensive— 
they cannot afford it. Tell them in reply to put ' 
the orchard in grass or clover, and they will say ! 
to you that the land is poor, and will not sup- i 
port two crops. Point out that this is another ' 
question, that the two crops must have manure. 
But after all they have not the manure. Then 
in despair you say, well then keep the grass 
mowed, and let it lay where it falls. It will be 
better than no manure at all. 

But after all, it is no use to talk to such peo- 
ple ; they are bound to ** have " you, but there 
are intelligent people who well know that to 
have success in fruit growing, there is no rule of 
three. A man must know with the tree before 
nina what that tree v^ants. Books will not tell 
bim ; principles will not tell him ; the most ex- ' 



perienced tree grower at a distance cannot tell 
him— he must listen to that tree's own tale. 
Then he may apply what he has read and seen 
to the immediate case. There is no other road 
to success. With this view, let our readers re- 
member that the roots want plenty of food, as 
much so as any other garden crop ; want to have 
their feeding roots near the surface of the 
ground, and want to be kept at a temperature 
below 80^ Whatever accomplishes this is favor- 
able to the best results in fruit culture. All the 
discussions about clean culture or grass culture • 
harrowing early or harrowing late, and many 
other matters about which some people love to 
argue, are of but secondary consequence. They 
are but the tools with which the work is to be 
done. Which does the best, is best to be done. 
Sometimes it is one, sometimes the other— ask 
the tree. But this matter of earth heat is of 
great consequence to the cultivator. Many roots 
cannot stand 80^ and the plants remain healthy. 
The gooseberry is particularly of this class. As 
soon as the earth's heat goes over 70°, the goose- 
berry commences to mildew. Any surface cov- 
ering that will keep down the temperature, is 
good for the gooseberry. 
j In the fruit garden, if trees set out last fall or 
. spring do not show signs of growing freely, cut- 
I ting back a portion of the branches will make a 
j great difference in their favor. It is a great 
, point with good fruit-growers to havp all the 
branches in a tree of uniform vigor. This can 
be gained by pinching off the growing points of 
the stouter ones, leaving the weaker ones to gain 
strength by the check to the others. Where the 
branches are likely to be too thick, some may 
be taken out while green, instead of waiting till 
winter to do it ; not fori^etting, however, that a 
loss of foliage is, in some degree, an injury to 
the tree ; and that as little of this should be 
done as is consistent with necessity. Some re- 
commend trees to be pruned in summer, because 
the wounds heal better then. It is true the 
wound does heal better, but the loss of so much 
I'oliage is an injury not compensated by the heal- 
ing of the wound. However, where the trees are 
young, and the branches to be cut away but a 
small fraction of the foliage, the injury is little, 
and the summer trimming is thus a gain. Nur- 
sery trees are best served in this way. Straw- 
berries, Raspberries and Blackberries are ** sum- 
mer pruned " chiefly by thinning the suckers 
and runners. Strawberries are often grown in 
beds, and the mass of runners suffered to grow 



196 



THE GARDENER'S MOJVTBLY. 



July, 



1878. 



TEE GARBEJVER'S MOJ^THLY. 



197 



Apple and Peach— and summer-pruning are the 
main suhjects of attention at this particular sea- 
son. Where the soil is not very good, as may be 
noted by a weak growth of the trees, a surface 
manuring may be yet given with advantage. 
Every day's experience more decidedly shows 
the great advantages to the pomologist of this 
method of applying manure. 

It used to be, and is yet to a great extent, the 
recommendation of writers to cut away rasp- 
berry canes as soon as they have borne fruit ; 
fruit-growers know better now. The slight 
shade these old stalks afford, is agreeable to the 
new growth which is to bear next year. 

In regard to training fruit trees, this is the 
most important month in the year. If a shoot 
appears where it is not wanted, pinch it off, this 
throws the sap into other directions where 
strength and vigor is desired. A good summer 
pruner does not leave much to be done in the 
winter time. 



♦•»»» 



together as they will. This is the best way for 
parties who have little time to give to their gar- 
dens. When grown in hills, or with the run- 
ners cut off, something is necessary to place 
between the rows or the plants, in order to keep 
the fruit from getting gritty after rain. When 
they are in beds, the fruit keeps cleaner without 
much difficulty. But with this plan, the run- 
ners should be thinned out at this season of the 
year, leaving them only about three or four 
inches apart. Of course, we weed these Straw- 
berry-beds ; a large part of the runners should 
be treated as weeds and taken out at the same 
time. Raspberries and Blackberries should be 
gerved the same way. All the suckers not 
wanted to bear next year, should be taken out 
as they appear. If the kind be valuable, the 
young offsets taken up may be transplanted any 
time through the season, by well watering and 
nipping out the young tender tops. About the 
end of the month it is often the practice to clip 
off the growing ends of Blackberries and Rasp- 
berries. It is said to stiffen the canes, and it 
renders stakes to support them in a measure un- 
necessary. 

People sometimes are anxious to get rare kinds 
of strawberries to fruit early, and hence planta- 
tions are made in the fall. For general crops 
we think there is not much gained by fall plant- 
ing. In the case of rare varieties, however, it 
is often worth a little extra trouble \o do things 

well. The best way to proceed, is to get small 

pots with rich earth, and sinking them in the 

ground, layer runners into it. Such plants be- 
come very strong, and can be transplanted from 

the pots without injuring the roots, and will 

imake strong stocks which will fruit very well 

.next year. We raised some excellent President 

Wilder's this way last year. Of course the 

result was not sufficient to enable one to form 

an opinion of its whole character ; but we may 

gay, that in spite of the excessively hot weather, 

it has turned out remarkably well. In regard 

to the best strawberries, it is remarkable that the 

bulk of all the thousands of bushels which come 

to the Philadelphia market is still Albany Seed- 
ling. Amongst amateurs there is no one that 

carries universal supremacy with it, as personal 

taste dictates the favorite. But certainly those 

which arc grown the most extensively are Green 

Prolific, Triomphe de Gand, Jucuuda, Agricul- 

t-irist and Downer's Prolific. 
The thinning of fruit— watching of insects, Tomatoes trained to stakes give the sweetest 

especially the borers in Dwarf Pears, Quince, fruit, and remain in bearing the longest ; but 



VEGETABLE GARDEN. 

Preparations for the Celery crop is one of the 
chief matters in this department at this season. 
No plant, perhaps, requires a richer soil than 
this, and of all manures, well decayed cow dung 
if found to be the best. After so many trials 
with difl'erent ways of growing them, those who 
have their own gardens— amateurs, for whom 
we write— find that the old plan of sinking the 
plants in shallow pits is about the best. Trenches 
are dug about six inches deep, and three or four 
inches of manure then dug in, of which cow ma- 
nure is the best. They can be watered better 
this way in dry weather, when in these trenches, 
and it is so much easier to fill the earth about 
them for blanching purposes than when grown 
on the level surface. Salt in moderate doses is 
usually a wonderful special fertilizer for the 
Celery plant. 

Late Cabbage is often planted in gardens be- 
tween rows of potatoes, where it is an object to 
save space. Some fancy that the Cabbage is 
better preserved in this way from the Cabbage- 
fly, which they say prefers the potato ; but on 
this point we are not sure. We do not think the 
Cabbages do quite as well as when they have the 
whole ground to themselves ; but of course a 
double crop could not be expected to be quite so 
fine. 



many cultivators who grow for size and quantity 
only, believe they have the best results when 
growing them on the level ground. 

For winter use. Beets are occasionally sown 
now, and also Cucumbers for pickling purposes ; 
but not often ; and at any rate it must be attend- 
ed to early in the month. 

The Lettuce is another cool country plant. It 
can only be grown well in hot weather when in 
very rich and cool soil. 

Bush Beans may also be sown for late crops. 
A very deep rich soil is necessary to tender, crisp 
pods. The Lima Bean will now be growing 



rapidly. It is time well spent to tie them up to 
poles as they grow. The poles should not be too 
high— about eight feet is enough. They com- 
mence to bear freely only when the top of the 
pole is reached. 

In many amateurs' gardens late Peas are 
valued. It is essential that they be planted in 
the coolest part of the ground. The Pea is a 
cool country plant, and when it has to grow in 
warm weather, it mildews. The Marrowfat 
class are usually employed for late crops. They 
need support. All Peas grow better and pro- 
duce more when grown to stakes. 



COMMUNICATIONS. 



OBSERVATIONS AND RECOLLECTIONS 
OF NEW HOLLAND. 

BY W. T. HARDING, AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE, 
COLUMBUS, OHIO. 

(Concluded.) 
In this hemisphere, Ericas are meagrely repre- 
sented by a few free growing imported kinds, 
which appear to thrive tolerably well, while the 
more delicate, choice and beautiful varieties seem 
only to grow under protest. The skill required 
to grow them is obtainable, no doubt, but some- 
how there is a something wanting for their suc- 
cessful cultivation. Doubtless an uncongenial 
climate is the chief cause why they do not flour- 
ish. At the " Golden Gate " nursery, San Fran- 
cisco, I saw the best examples of successful 
Erica and Epacris growing on this continent. 

England is famed for her many rich and ex- 
tensive collections, where the highest skilly with 
every necessary aid is employed in their cultiva- 
tion. There are upwards of six hundred species 
known to the botanist, all natives of the Cape 
of Good Hope. In this country there is but one 
in Nova Scotia "native to the manor born.'» 
Keither are they in Australia. In Europe there 
are several pretty kinds, which cover large tracts 
of uncultivated land, and are used for various 
domestic purposes. It is known in Great Britain 
as the Heath, or *Mieather bell »' of the poets. 
If the reader has unweariedly followed my 
footsteps thus far, I will conduct him still far- 
ther, and introduce him to the gold fields. Here, 
and on every side were the holes or mines, 
Where anxious men were picking and digging in 
warch of the precious mettle with untiring zeal 



—I had almost said with a zeal worthy of a bet 
ter cause, when I looked at the toiling, dirty, 
ragged, unkempt grovellers, burrowing like rats 
in their holes, some up to the thighs in water, 
scratching for '* filthy lucre,''— I thought surely 
the folly of the ancient Israelites was being 
enacted again in the nineteenth century by wor- 
shipping a golden calf. 

Near by was a sight more grave than gay, as 
the narrow bed just excavated was awaiting the 
weary one, who had ceased from his labors ; 
notwithstanding, the scene partook more of the 
serio-comic than the dramatic. The angel of 
Death, while hovering around the sick man, had 
lovingly descended to receive his disembodied 
spirit, and silently ascending to the realms above, 
had ushered it within the portals of bliss. 

In an open tent adjacent, which, by the way, 
was of primitive construction, without either 
sides or top, having only a mud bottom, on 
which were seated the surviving **chum3"ol 
the deceased digger, who had but a few hours 
before "shuffled off his mortal coil," and waa 
laid in a stringy bark coffin, awaiting the last 
sad obsequies the living pay to the dead, his 
late companions were having a "wake" over 
the silent remains, according to the ancient 
usages and custumes of their fore-fathers in old 
Ireland. They, the mourners, seemed to be 
more whiskey full than mournful., having treated 
their noble selves to big lashings of the same. 
Lustily they sang : 

" Terry O'Rau was a nate young man, 
And was loved by the lassies of Derry O,** 



198 



THE GARDEJ^ER'S MOJ^THLY. 



July, 



1873. 



THE GARDEJVER'S MOJVTHLY. 



199 



which was all true, no doubt, and then quaffed 
another dram to the memory of their departed 
comrade. 

Whether from being infused with the spirit of 
wine or influenced by the Spirit divine, I cannot 
•ay, but at any rate they seemed to hare come 
to the conclusion 

" That to talk about trifles is trifling folly, 
So the best aim of life is to live and be jolly." 

Alas! poor fellow, I exclaimed, he is but a 
young man, "cut down like a flower.'' The 
grim tyrant "that spares neither age nor condi- 
tion," has followed him here. "Poor fellow I 
you may well say," remarked a grimy bystand- 
er. "But then it was his own fault, his being 
pisoned. You sec, sir, he bad not long come 
from the old country, and had brought out some ■ 
queer notions with him ; he was a tee-total chap, 
and refused to drink anything stronger than 
pison water we get about here. It is rank 
enough to pison the strongest old lag at the dig- 
gings, unless he mixes it with good liquor. Only 
fools wet their whistles with such belly ven- 
gence, and if they are not pisoned outright, why 
they get water-logged, which is just as bad." 

The once beautiful landscape was sadly mar- 
red by the operations of the diggers. Its sylvan 
and picturesque features were disfigured by loose 
heaps of earth and stones the miners had thrown 
out of their " claims. " To pick ones way among 
them from one hole to another was no easy task^ 
especially during the heat of the day, when the 
fierce rays of the sun glistening on the quartz, 
to almost blind and scorch whoever makes the 
attempt. A fight about some disputed '-claim," 
brought to the surface hundreds of men who had 
been vigorously plying pick and shovel below. 
Like a resurrection scene, they arose from the 
earth where they were immured, to see that the 
pugilists had fair play in their fisticuff- encoun- 
ter. How the battle ended T know not. Whether 
the best man lost or the worst one won I care 
not. 

The basest passions which influence mankind 
were exhibited among the lawless and unscru- 
pulous adventurers, who swarmed around the 
diggings ready for anything and cverythin^r but 
honest labor. Some were lucky in finding the 
precious metal, and some were lucky in stealin<r 
it. and from the condition of Lazarus were trans^ 
formed in a moment to rich gentlemen. Other 

unlucky dogs " made nothing, but lost the lit- 
tle they had-all their hopes, their health, and 
happiness, and di«d. To many a villainous old 



convict the mines proved a God-send. Little 
did the taxpayers of Great Britain think they 
were doing a kindness to the scoundrels whose 
passages they paid to the modern El Dorado. 
The mortality among the diggers was great. 
Dysentery seemed chronic among all classes, 
superinduced by the unnatural mode of living,* 
and especially from the use of the brackish 
water, which was dirty and disgusting to the 
palate, and unwholesome to the stomach. 

Wattle and daub huts, stringy bark wigwams 
and canvas glory holes, were called restaurants, 
hotels and dining saloons, and at which the uni- 
versal pabulum, grog, the great panacea for all 
the ills a digger's flesh is heir to, could be readily 
exchanged for gold dust or nuggets. I saw but 
few of the softer sex there, and felt sorry for 
them. It seemed to be a shocking place for love- 
ly woman to degenerate in. 

As I turned my back to " the tented field" in 
search of more congenial scenes, heavy rain 
drops began to patter on the trees, indicative of 
a coming storm. Australia is proverbially a 
dry country, but for all that, it does rain some- 
times. The hot wind had scooped up all the 
loose particles of dust and sand and whirled it 
about in the air, to the discomfort of all living 
creatures. During a dust storm the atmosphere 
becomes dark and gritty; like the Egyptian 
darkness it can he felt, and from which there is 
no escaixj, neither indoors nor out, until the south 
wind bearing heavy masses of clouds from the 
ocean, meets the withering hot blasts from the 
interior, and in the war of elements which fol- 
lows, discharges the deluging rain. All nature 
seems gladdened and refreshed with the welcome 
showers. The dried up river beds and water 
courses are suddenly filled, and flow for a few 
days and then form ponds and mud holes until 
the intense heat evaporates the remaining moist- 
ure, and then the river bed becomes dry again. 
The sticky mud which follows a shower "is 
something to be talked about," and is as like 
* Spaulding's liquid glue'» as anything I can 
compare it to. 

By dint of perseverance I plodded through 
the semi-fluid, among struggling horses and 
floundering oxen, and landed among the scrub. 
Twilight had begun to throw its uncertain light 
across the fading landscape, while the lengthened 
shadows of the lofty Eucalyptus grow longer 
and longer as the fiery chariot of "Phoebus" 
rolled on in iis downward course, and left an 
evanescent halo in his track, and disappeared in 



the immeasurable space where the Eternal has 
placed him, and whose unending day has known 
no night from the dawning of Creation until 
now. Catching a sight of a red handkerchief 
elevated on a pole, and doing duty as a flag, to 
indicate the spot where something could be had. 
Urged on by hunger, and in a sorry plight, I 
wended my way to the "Big Nugget Hotel." 
Peeping through a chink in the shanty, I 
observed a noisy crowd had gathered within, 
and were guzzling " nobbier »' after " nobbier '» 
of the fiery fluids, dispensed by a blear eyed ruf- 
fian and a tawdry dressed female. I hesitated 
some time before entering such dubious quarters, 
but as "necessity knows no law,'' I yielded to 
the importunities of a rebellious stomach, and 
ventured within. The murky atmosphere was 
redolent of Burton ale, nasty tobacco smoke, red 
herrings, old cheese, onions and Jamaica rum. 
As a great favor, I obtained a tin cupful of 
boiled tea with some molasses stirred in, and 
some putty bread and fly-blown mutton, for 
which I paid the moderate sum of seven shil- 
lings, equal to about $1.75. As I had my bed 
on my back, I retired to rest outside on a pros- 
trate tree, as I had often done before, and slept 
as soundly as "the sceptred king " on a regal 
bed of down within his palace chamber. 



«•■»» 



THE BEST SOIL FOR FRUITS. 

BY B. MANNING, HARRISBURGH, FRANKLIN 
COUNTY, OHIO. 

Much has been said and written in regard to 
the cultivation of fruits, and the adaptability of 
certain kinds of soils for certain kinds of fiuit 
For instance, that soil will bring good apples, 
and that good pears, &c. This idea contains a 
good deal of truth ; but not all truth. For ex- 
ample, I find after an experience of eighteen 
years in fruit growing, that my greatest success 
is in putting the different varieties of apples and 
pears in certain localities where the greatest 
results can be obtained. I am forced to the con- 
clusion that nearly all upland soil varies very 
greatly in chemical compounds, from the fact 
when I planted my grounds first, I supposed any 
variety of apple or pear that would do well any- 
where on it, every variety would do equally 
well. Such is not the fact, and for a want of a 
proper knowledge of adaptability of certain 
varieties to certain spots, I have been under the 
necessity to regraft one-half of ray grounds. All 
the authorities 1 have on pomology say the New- 
town Pippin is a slow grower as a general rule. 



I grant it, but plant it on soil that just suits it, 
and it is a very rapid grower— as much so as 
Fallawater, Baldwin or Fall Pippin. At first I 
had my Newtown Pippins scattered in difierent 
places. I soon discovered that in some places 
they had a stunted, haggard appearance— the 
leaves of a yellowish green appearance ; in other 
places the trees grew rapidly, the leaves of the 
richest dark, silvery green color, remarkably 
l>eautiful at the distance of seventy-five yards. 
Where the trees were thrifty, I got the finest 
possible fruit ; where they were unthrifty I got 
nothing but small gnarly fruit, not fit for sale at 
all. The only reason this variety has the name 
of a slow grower, is for the reason I have just 
indicated. Put in the right place and it is one 
of the best for profit. Nor is this all, the Ben 
Davis, Black Apple, and others will bear and 
do well where the soil is so thin, that the Red 
Astrachan, Fourth of July and Shockly would 
starve. The Bellefleur is another of peculiar 
habit ; in some spots I find after it attains six 
inches or so in diameter of trunk, it almost en- 
tirely ceases to grow and be so unthrifty as to 
shortly end its life, while in other places not far 
distant, it is a very rapid grower. The only 
remedy I have found is to top graft with another 
variety that does well in the same locality. 

We now come to pears. When I first planted 
the Beurre Clairgeau pear, I planted it on the 
strongest, or what I thought was the best 
pear soil I had. The trees were very unthrifty, 
scarcely growed at all, and what few fruit they 
bore were wretched small, nasty specimens. I 
tried this variety in different places, all on strong 
soil— all were a failure. 1 had condemned the 
variety as worthless, and top grafted all ; mean- 
time I had previously grafted one tree over, 
standing on high thin soil, and to my surprise, 
when it bore fruit it was of the largest and most 
perfectly developed— and the tree thrifty. I find 
the Bvjurre d'Anjou on strong soil is a rapid 
grower; on thin soil it will starve. I regrafted 
one over that stood still on high thin soil with 
Beurre Clairgeau, and it was very thrifiy. Th 
Doyenne du Comice I find does far better on Ihin 
soil than on r.trong The Golden Beurre of Bil- 
boa is a very poor grower on thin soil, and rapid 
on strong. Had I left my orchard as I firs 
planted it, one-half would have been worthless, 
as on these principles do the whole or greatest 
success of fruit growing depend — on putting 
varieties where the soil will produce a thrifty 
tree and good fruit 






200 



THE GARDE JEER'S MOJfTHLY. 



July; 



1873. 



Now, Mr. Editor, for the truth of this position, 
my trees are living witnesses. I could show you 
plenty of trees formerly so unthrifty as to be 
worthless, now regrafted with another variety 
suitable to the place, and doing finely. These 
evidences show beyond dispute, that in at least 
Bome localities where most persons would think 
the soil Has very nearly the same, the chemical 
combination is quite different. As the combina- 
tion of both wood and fruit of different varieties 
is very different, it follows that different varie- 
ties require different food. I have never seen 
any very perceptible benefit from leached or other 
ashes when applied to the pear ; but all varie- 
ties of apples are greatly benefitted, the Newtown 
Pippin, I think, as much so as any other. 

Kow then, Mr. Editor, these views may seem 
rather strange, or they may not accord with 
your experience ; if so I have only to say your 
soil then is not so varied as mine. To all whose 
experience is different from mine at this locality 
these remarks don't apply. To all those who 
have had similar experience, the remedy I have 
suggested is the only one. I do not offer these 
views supposing all will be benefitted, but do 
think If they are followed out, at least some 
will be. 



fields was spread over the surface three inches 
thick, and raked and rolled as fine as a flower 
garden ; grass seeds were sown early in Septem- 
ber, and soon the equinoctial rains made the 
whole grow, and soon the surface was covered 
with the young grass. Noxt June, when the 
families moved out, the grass had been mown 
and rolled smooth ; all were delighted with the 
improvements. 

These merchants had lar£:e trees at their ware- 
houses in the city, and got them also headed 
down, and they became handsome trees-others 
did the same, the practice spread from city to 
city and town to town, until it became univer- 
sal. Laboring men out of work in winter got 
ladders, saws and pole-shears and Mmmed street 
trees, and still continue to make an honest living 
in that way. Some people want their trimming 
done cheap, and the trimmers cut the trees to suit 
the prices-many trees are killed by that. Re- 
monstrance is folly, as people are hound to have 
their own ways with their own properties. The 
Gardener's Monthly has been indiscreet in slur- 
ing the industrious men who make honest livings 
in trimming trees to please the people. 



TJfE GARDEJ^EWS MOJ^THLY. 



201 



THE ORIGIN OF PRUNING STREET 

TREES. 

BY CHRONICLER. 

All Scotch forester became forester for a wealthv ^ .u , — f'-j- 

nobleman in England, who admired all sDeciP« ' »PP^»cants usually inquiring of us the 

of American trees, and had many growin- unon '^\^' "^^'^ '° ^^"^ ^''^^' ^« * g"^^« *<> «"c»>> 

his estate. He sent his forester to the -fand of ? ^"^ ^^^^ ""^ ^'""^ '° replying, we here state 

Washington" to see American trees in thpir i^^^*^® ^^^^^^^ ^^ ^^c vicinity of New York, vary 

natural forests, and gave him notes of introdur [""" ''."^ ™^'' ^'"""^ ^^^ *^ ^^^ P«^ ™o«^h and 
tion fnun^^^^i „.„_,.. """^- board, and for married men from 1^35 to $75 

nrSfli K/MioA i^ i:— ^ ;„ rr<i _ . _ 



GARDENER'S WAGES. 

BY PETER HENDERSON. 

We are constantly having applications for 
gardeners from our customers, in sections of the 
country were none have been previously employ- 
ed ; the applicants usually inquiring of us the 



x;^^ ■ • o - - "wk^_o ui lUirOQUC- 

tion to several wealthy merchants in New York 
I^k" ; ' ^'■'"r'' '^"""^ merchants took him to 



With house to live in. The average of the former 
may be given as $40 per month and board, of 

f.hA l£l<for> of «S;n ««- ii_ , , _- 



see their rural summer retreats Manv oTihl T^ ^ ^'''^° ** *^*^ P*"" ™°°"> ""^ board, of 
mansions stood at the edges of forests and ,om! J*"*"" *' *^° P*"" '"°°*'' ^^^ house. The 

mside a little way, so in lookin<r out at the w^ I ^[^ " "'" "^""^ P*'"^ "^ <=""'■«« '» '» the ratio of 
dows the bare earth and naked stems of tho uZ. \ ^ ^'^' ""^ *""'""' "'' *=''*'"g« *" ^^ '"^en. In no 
were only seen. The forester expressed surnX i °'*'"P''"°° '« «° """^h inj-ry done as in the gar- 
atthe uncomely surroundings of such fine dwell ' ^fT^" '"" S'^^^'^^^e, by changing of 

Ings, and advised improvements whirh w»ll" "!f°" horticulture, the work done is nearly 
afterwards fully executed. Two-thirds of th! " f°8P«ctive, and what the gardener does or 
trees were uprooted and hauled off In thrwin fu^ '* ^ ^^ ^"'^"^ "'" °°* probably show for 
t«rfnii„».„.. .„,-. • " t^e '""- three or six months after. Hence, the necessity 



terfollowmg all left were headed down ; fnThe 
Wnl^.f "■"■""'• '^'>'° '•^'^ '"«« had bushy 
' n'r 'r .r ."P^""'^'' ' '•>« ground Cleared 



of keeping the man satisfied in his position, for 
if not satisfied, and on the alert to move, it is not 
probable that he will interest himself as much in 



and smoothed; the surface grubbed and all ^ . '^'^ '*' ^"^ ^'^'''^«' *^'™««^^^« ™"<^^i^ 
weeds hauled away ; fresh loam from ploughed FnrTh "' ^'' ""f ^oui^r^i^d with his place. 

n piougned I For this reason we have ever considered it bad 



policy to displace a good man for a few dollars 
advance in salary. We, ourselves, even with all 
our opportunities of selecting men, and with our 
thorough personal knowledge of the business, 
have often paid foremen one-half more than we 
could have got equally good men for, just to 
keep them contented. 



ORCHIDE^ No. 10. 

BY JAMES TAPLIN, MANAGER TO GEORGE SUCH, 
ESQ., SOUTH AMBOY, N. J. 

Dendrobium Pierardii. 

This is an old and very easily grown plant, 
which, to show its beauty, must be grown in sus- 
pended baskets. The plant being of a naturally 
pendulous habit of growth, it makes shoots of 
from two to four feet long, and will flower the 
whole length of the shoot, leaving all its leaves 
and the buds advance, and making new shoots 
after flowering to bloom the following winter. 
It requires plenty of moisture and heat while 
making its growth, and to be kept dry until the 
flower buds appear. The variety called latifolia 
18 much larger in all its parts, and usually flow- 
ers later if kept in same house. It is much 
•career than this type. These varieties have 
been neglected of late years, but I consider them 
well worth a place in any collection. Their 
graceful habit and free* flowering qualities added 
lo Its delicate white, almost transparent flower, 
make it very desirable. 

Dendrobium macrophyllum giganteum, 
Or as it is now called, Superbum giganteum. 
ini8 IS a scarce and very magnificent plant, 
in fact, I recollect but one very fine speci- 
men besides the large plant here, which I am 
surprised at, for it is a very free grower if allowed 
plenty of heat and moisture in the growinor 
season. ° 

This should be grown in a suspended basket. 
Where the drooping shoots will hang down four 
leet, and at the end of February be covered with 
H8 rich rosy purple flower the .whole length, the 
flower being over four inches across. A hundred 
or so make a grand display. It has lasted in 
fi^l beauty with me this year for a month, 
fln u}^ deciduous, losing its leaves as the 
nower buds advance, and commencing a new 
growth as the flowers open. I give this plant 
ifie high temperature of the East Indian house, 
and keep it dry when the growth is complete. 



HOW TO GROW EVERGREENS FROM 

SEED. 

BY J. C. WOOD, FISHKILL, N. Y. 

Having a few leisure moments, and havin<r 
had some experience in growing some of the hart 
dier varieties of evergreens from seed, I thought 
your Journal would be a good medium to aive 
many readers the results of our experience. "^ In 
the first place, I would say our mode of growing 
evergreens from seed is not new, but with us has 
been very successful, and any one, either on a 
large or small scale, who wishes to try it, by fol- 
lowing the simple directions here laid down will 
be certain of success: In the first place,'pro- 
cure good seed*, which is not a difficult matter, 
providing you order of reliable parties. I have 
bought seed of most of the larger dealers in the 
United States, and have generally found them 
good ; however, for the past five years, I have 
bought my evergreen seeds of Thomas Meehan, 
of Germantown, Pa., and they have invariably 
proved satisfactory. 

I generally order my seeds in the fore part 
of winter, or as soon as I can get a list of 
varieties and prices. Then I take moderately 
moist sand and pass it through a quarter sieve, 
so as to rid it of all stones or lumps, then 
take glass boxes or any other boxes of a conve- 
nient size for handling, then spread in the bot- 
tom a layer of sand, say ^ inch thick, then a 
layer of seed, moderately thick, say \ inch, and 
then a layer of sand, and so on until the box is 
filled, when the lid is fitted nicely to it, and then 
the box is taken outside in some sheltered place, 
usually against the side of some brick wall or 
building, and buried just under the surface of 
the ground, and then allowed to push just as 
hard as they have a mind to until time for sowing, 
which in this latitude is from the 1st to the 20th 
of April. As soon as the ground gets in nice 
working order I manure and plough it thorough- 
ly, having prepared a year ahead a composrof 
muck and manure-about two parts of the for- 
mer to one of the latter, then after leveling down 
with a good harrow, my ground is ready°to lay 
out in beds, which is done in the following way: 
We use hemlock strips five inches wide and thir- 
teen feet long, dropping two of them in a place 
across the piece, then I have prepared a lot of 
small posts as large as a man's arm, and from 
fifteen to eighteen inches long, and drop two at 
each end of the strip and two in the middle, then 
I stretch my line the whole distance across the 
piece, and draw it tight with a strong real, after 



I 



II 



to? 



THE GABDEJ^BB'S MOJ^THLY. 



July, 



1873. 



THE GARDEJVEB'S MOJ^IHLY. 



SOS 



which I drive one of the posts in the ground, 
leaving out about seven inches right along the 
line. When I set up my board or hemlock 
strips, my post at the end answers for two ends 
of boards. I have three railing for each board, 
one at each end and one in the middle — three 
eight-penny nails we find sufficient. After the 
first line is completed, I take a common builder's 
lath, pine or hemlock, four feet long, and put 
one end of it against the post just set, which 
sticks up above the hemlock piece two inches, 
and drive another post down to within five 
inches of its length, which makes the bed just 
four feet between the posts or three feet ten 
inches in the clear, when I continue on in the 
same way until the bed is any desired length I 
may wish, or the length of my plot, which is 
about three hundred feet. After which I set a 
man forking and raking the bed, being particu 
lar to have it forked up good and dug and raked 
level, which is not a very severe piece of work, 
from the fact that the ground has been thorough- 
ly prepared with the plow before hand. Then I 
lay the beds out with a drill, four inches apart, 
or a gang of them nailed together, the right dis- 
tance apart, with their lower edges beveled, 
blunt wedge-shaped, then with two good boys or 
men the drills are laid out by mashing the driller 
down in the soft ground at any desired depth, 
according to the size of seed intended to be sown, 
then the seeds are dumped from the boxes in 
which they have been stored through the win- 
ter, into pans or measures of convenient sizes 
for sowing out of and the seeds are strewn along 
the drills by hand, which with a little experi- 
ence is done quite rapid. A good handy man 
will sow five pounds of such seeds as pines or 
Bprucu in an hour, aiid do it good, after which 
I cover the seeds with the back of an iron rake, 
walking backwards and drawing and pushing 
the rak« carefully after me, after vvhich I roll 
the ground moderately with a moderately heavy 
roller, or pack with a board. Then if the wea- 
ther has the appearance of being dry for a few 
days, I give the beds a pretty thorough water- 
ing through the nose of a watering pot, or 
through a hose and force pump, after which I 
place on my shades, which are made in the fol- 
lowing way : We take a ten inch pine board, 
thirteen feet long and one inch thick, as free 
from knots as possible, and rip it in two four 
times, making each strip two inches wide, thir- 
teen feet long and one inch thick, upon which I 
nail common lath half inch apart, the lath bein^y 



about one inch wide. I use shingle nails for the 
purpose, putting two nails in each end of the 
end lath, so they will not pull off in lifting about 
which is necessary at different times through the 
summer for weeding, &c., when they are imme- 
diately placed on the beds before they are allow- 
ed to get dry, always taking the precaution to 
distribute poison pretty freely in the beds imme- 
dately after sowing. I have used with pretty 
good effect, Bennetts Sure Death and Coster's 
Rat Exterminater, mixed with butter or lard,and 
spread on bread, the bread being cut up in small 
pieces and spread along the beds. I find it 
quite necessary to be particular in this matter, 
as mice are very fond of some of the different 
kinds of evergreen seeds, particularly pines and 
spruces. I do not have any trouble from birds 
like I saw at Mr. Douglass', of Waukegan, 111., 
when I paid him a visit last June, from the fact 
that my shades fit so nicely, and the laths are 
so close, that birds cannot get in them. I find 
I have no further trouble with my seeds the first 
summer except to keep them free from weeds, 
which I do by hand weeding, always taking 
them as soon as they show themselves ; the 
seeds usually come up according to kinds from 
ten to twenty days. Spruces usually show them- 
selves first. I have in a few instances watered 
the beds occasionally, two or three times in the 
course of two or three weeks after the seeds were 
sown, but never after during the summer, and 
my experience has been a fine lot of nice ever- 
green seedlings in the autumn. 

I treat the larch in the same way as the ever- 
greens, and always prove successful. As for 
varieties I usually sow the Norway and Ameri- 
can Spruces, Hemlock Firs in variety, Piiuvs iu 
variety, such as Scotch, Austrian, Norway, 
Weymouth, &c., Arborvitse, American, &c., at 
the end of the first summer's growth. The size 
of our plants depends a little upon the summer. 
If a very dry and hot one like the two past, with 
the exception of pines and larches, they will be 
but from one and a half to three inches high, 
but if the season is moderately moist, they are 
usually double that size, and larches quite often 
from ten to fifteen inches hiarh. In about the 
month of November of the first season, I draw 
leaves and cover the beds over about three inches 
deep, and then place on the shades to keep the 
winds from blowing them off when they are left 
until about April 1st, when they are raked oflf 
with a cover-toothed wooden rake and taken 
to the manure yard to rot— and I most alwayi 



find my plants bricrht and in fine condition. I 
should have stated if the autumn is reasonably 
moist, I remove the shades altogether about the 
first or middle of September, but if dry, like the 
fall of 1872, I leave them on all of the season. 

Now for the results. The material for making 
a bed four feet wide and thirteen feet long, every- 
thing complete, including labor, 65 cents. I 
sow thirty-five rows of seeds in thirteen feet ; 
each row will produce on the average, two hun- 
dred nice plants, which will make for the one 
length of 4x13 feet, seven thousand plants, 
which if you are growing for market, at the end 
©f the scond year, will bring at least $2.00 per 
thousand, or $14.00 per length, which even at 
this low figure, if one is growing in large quanti- 
ties, will pay very well. 

With your permission, will give you the 
second and third year's treatment of small ever- 
greens. [Please do.] 

ANOTHER WORD ABOUT ORCHIDS. 

BY GEORGE SUCH, SOUTH AM BOY, N. J. 

You are quite right in what you say as to the 
increasing taste for Orchid growing in this coun- 
try. A very considerable amount of credit, how- 
ever, belongs to you, Mr. Editor, for your help 
in inducing amateurs to make a beginning, no 
matter how small, in the cultivation of these 
glorious plants. 

Still there is one point, I think, on which you 
have not laid sufficient stress, and that is on the 
absolute necessity for would-be Orchid growers 
to make their beginning with good strong plants. 
Naturally enough all wish to get as much as 
possible for their money, and therefore most 
begmners aim to get as many varieties as they 
can for the sum expended. But this is quite 
^rong. Be the money to be spent much or little, 
the buyer should insist upon having strong 
plants of good, standard sorts, so that he may 
have a reasonable expectation of seeing his 
plants soon in bloom, and also a proper amount 
ot satisfaction from the flowers when thev 
appear. "^ 

This advice of mine may seem to *' smell of 
the shop," but my aim is not in that direction. 
I do not advise persons without experience to 
spend much money for Orchids, under any cir- 
cumstances, but the idea is that whatever money 
IS spent should be laid out for fine plants only- 
that none other be tak. u, no matter how cheap 
apparently. 



All who import Orchids from their native 
country, are sure to have among the number 
some that are botanically interesting, but the 
flowers of which are thoroughly insignificent. 
A large mass of Govenia now ornaments (?) the 
rubbish heap behind our orchid house, thrown 
out for the reason that the flowers are absurdly 
small and strikingly deficient in color. I am so 
much a lover of plants that I scarcely consider 
any of them " common or unclean,'' but I con* 
fess that I grudge the space occupied in the 
orchid house by so inconspicuous a plant as this 
Govenia. It is evident that eight or ten dollars 
spent on a fine Cattleya would give to most men 
more satisfaction than the purchase of twenty 
Orchids no more showy than the one above 
mentioned. 



GA8 TAR ON GREENHOUSE BENCHES. 

BY PETER HENDERSON, JERSEY CITY, N. J. 

In your May number, a correspondent men- 
tions having had plants injured by the use of 
gas tar on the wood work of his greenhouse. 
We have used gas tar on the boarding for our 
benches for over twenty years without injury in 
the slightest degree to the plants ; but it is put 
on boiling hot, and when dry covered with sand 
an inch or so in depth. I apprehend that your 
correspondent had not had the tar covered, and 
on the application of heat, gases were thrown off 
that caused the mischief. * 

Where it has got on the pipes, there is no 
remedy I think but having the portion taken out 
and subjected to a heat strong enough to burn it 
out. Tl ere w^as a notable instance of this kind 
that occurred in Brooklyn, N. Y., some dozen 
years ago. A Mr. Park, a well known florist, 
took it into his head one day to paint his pipes, 
and as black was a suitable color, and gas tar 
cheaper than paint, he set to work and painted 
the whole of them, numbering several thousand 
feet. All went on well enough until getting into 
severe winter weather, when the pipes had to 
become heated to a temperature high enough to 
throw off the deleterious gas, when off came the 
leaves in showers, destroying nearly everj plant 
in the houses for that season. He tried every 
expedient to get it off, but all failed, and there 
\v:)s nothinj: for it but to take down the pipes 
and subject them to a red heat, which was com- 
pletely effectual. 



ii 



.'ti 



^OJf 



THE GARDEJ^ER'S MOJ^TELY, 



July^ 



1873. 



THE GARDEJYER'S MONTHLY, 



CULTIVATION OF THE FUCHSIA. 

BY THOMAS F. WEBB, GARDENER TO MR. A. C. 
GIBSON, OAK LANE, PHILADELPHIA. 

The Fuchsia is a universal favorite, and de- 
servedly 80, for there are few plants that come 
under the care of the gardener that are possessed 
of so many useful properties for the decoration 
of the greenhouse or cottage window ; if we take 
into consideration the graceful habit, the abun- 
dance of blossoms and variety of color, and the 
length of time it continues in bloom, there are 
very few plants that are more worthy of general 
favor. The best time I find to propagate the 
Fuchsia from cuttings for growing fine speci- 
mens the following season, is from the middle to 
the end of August, and always select young 
healthy shoots for the cuttings; avoid the points 
of shoots from a flowering plant, for they will 
not make such fine plants as a young healthy 
shoot without flower buds upon it ; cuttint^s 
from flowering plants, however, will come 
earlier into bloom, and upon very small plants. 
The best way that I know of is to select a plant 
of each sort we intend to grow, and plant them 
out about the middle of May in a well prepared 
compost of turfy maiden loam in a shaded situ- 
ation, and by attention in giving them water 
when they require it, and pinching out the 
points of the shoots to prevent them from flow- 
ering, they will supply a stock of fine healthy 
cuttings. The best material for striking them 
is in equal parts of leaf mould and sand, 'a 
Composition that almost any plant will readily 
strike roots in. I generally put one cutting in a 
thumb pot. If the cuttings are put in at the 
time mentioned, and sprinkled over the foliage 
with a fine rose watering pot, and placed in a 
close frame and well shaded from the sun, they 
will strike root freely without artificial 'heat. 
As soon as they commence to grow, give them 
a little air to prevent them from getting weakly. 
As soon as they are well rooted, they should be 
removed to a more airy situation, with as much 
light as possible, avoiding the sun, to harden 
thera for the winter. About October they 
should be shifted from the small thumbs to 
three inch pots, which will be large enough to 
winter in, for tlie less growth they make durincr 
that season the better for them in future. A 
soil composed of turfy peat, leaf mould, and 
river sand, equal parts, is best for winter 
potting, for being porous it allows the water to 
pass off" quickly. Those who wish to have their 
plants early in bloom should place them in heat 



205 



in the month of January, in a temperature of 
from 45° to 50^ increasing the heat as the season 
advances. If not convenient to start thera so 
early, let them rest till March, for if they are 
started early and then get a check to their 
growth, they will not grow freely afterwards. 
When the plants commence to grow, allow the 
soil to get rather dry, then turn out of their 
pots and shake as much of ihe mould off" as 
possible without breaking the roots, and re-pot 
into five inch pots well drained, in turfy loam, 
turfy peat and leaf mould, equal quantities, and 
sand ; water overhead with a fine rose pot and 
replace in a close frame or warm greenhouse, as 
near the glass as possible ; shift from time to 
time as the plants fill the pots with roots. They 
will not stand the summer sun, the leaves will 
be scorched up. They must, if planted out, be 
placed in a shaded situation ; if somewhat moist 
in the atmosphere they will grow far finer. If 
the syringe is used freely during dry weather, 
it will keep the plants clean and healthy, and 
free from the attacks of insects. In fact, if the 
Fuchsia is properly grown, it is seldom troubled 
with any insect but the green fly, which some- 
times attacks it, but a fumigating with tobacco 
smoke (from the stalks of the leaves I find 
strong enough) in the evening : if damp, dull 
weather, it is better, as the smoke will not so 
readily escape. Syringe the plants freely the 
next morning to wash off the dead flies. Fuch- 
sias laid on their sides, under the stage in the 
greenhouse during winter is the best place for 
them : they will, however, do in any cellar or 
out building, where frost can be excluded. 

Dark Fuchsias, I find, are the hardiest when 
the plants are intended to be grown during the 
season in a well-ventilated house. Very fine 
plants can be obtained by standing the pots on 
a bed of well rotted dung and loam, and 
allowed to root through their pots into it, 
taking care not to remove them from their 
position. 



*•■•» 



RAPID POTTING. 

BY PETER HENDERSON, JERSEY CITY, N. J. 

A few months ago I gave an account in 
another journal, of the extraordinary rapidity 
attained by one of our workmen here, James 
Markey, in pottiug and other greenhouse opera- 
tions. The statement then made created con- 
siderable comment and some doubts that there 
must have been error in the article. I stated 



that he had accomplished the feat of potting 
seven thousand (7000) rooted cuttings in ^ inch 
pots in ten hours. The fact of the accuracy of 
the statement being doubted, stimulated "Jira'» 
to such a degree that he declared that he would 
yet pot ten thousand in the same time, which he 
actually accomplished by starting at 7 A. M. on 
the morning of May Sth, and finished potting 
ten thousand (10,000) verbenas by half past 5 
P. M., of the same day, doing the work in his 
usual excellent style,— of course he did nothing 
but pot, the plants being brought to him and 
taken away so as to afford him evei:y facility. 
Where it is known that pitting two thousand is 
considered fair average-work for a hand, the 
wonder is how much this man has excelled his 
fellows. It is true, he has been with me 
since he was 12 years of age, (he is now 26) and 
has passed in that time millions of plants 
through his hands; but we have perhaps a 
dozen others who have been with us as long, 
who, having had equal opportunities, have show°n 
no special ability. Markey is rather a small 
man, but of great muscular development, and 
excels in all feats of agility. 1 think it quite 
impossible that the feat of potting ten thousand 
plants m a day has ever before been accomplished ; 
and as most of the florists and nurserymen in 
the country are readers of the Monthly, this 
wonderful day's work may have some interest 
for them. His work is almost exclusively that 
of poLtmg young stock ; and the average number 
he pots, when cuttings are in proper condition, 
IS about five thousand daily. 



-• — ♦- 



EDITORIAL NOTES. 

DOMESTIC 

I>mo^t in t/ie Deodar Cedar. Recently 
we had an inquiry about a disease in the Deo- 
dar Cedar, unknown to us in this section. We 
have since seen the following in the Farmer and 
hardener : 

»i" Deodar Cedars are similiarly affected in <his 
section. The loss of their branches is caused by 
insects of the hylobius class, whose larv«e are de- 
posited under the bark, and whose soft inner 
surface they devour. The larvae deposited in 
fall begin to show their presence in the spring 
when branches begin to die out ; again, in the 
summer another generation seems to spring into 
existence, as we have noticed during S^eptember 
a number of trees affected in the same manner, 
i-nis denotes that the insects must undoubtedly 



deposit their eggs both in spring a^d fall The 
only remedy which we found to arrest the rava- 
ges was to cut off the limbs close to the body im- 
mediately upon showing signs of being attacked 
by the insects. This can be seen by the leaves 
turning yellow. The branches must be burned 
before the larvae hatch and a new generation of 
insects is produced." 

There is, however, another drawback, caused 
by an insect which often destroys the leader of 
the Deodar, and seriously affects its future per- 
fect growth. This insect is the pissodes strobi, 
or white pine weevil, and whenever the leader 
shows signs of disease it must be cut out, a pole 
attached to the stem, and a side shoot tied to it. 
This must be made to replace the leader, and if 
attended to at the beginning of the trouble, the 
future growth of the tree will not be interfered 
with. 

The Twin Nozzle. As a general rule, we have 
a suspicion of implements which are to do every- 
thing. The writer remembers well how proud 
he was in his boyhood days of a pocket knife, 
which was knife, corkscrew, screw driver, and 
one can now hardly remember what else, except 




that its weight was that of a little tool chest, 
but after a year or so of experience it did seem 
really of no use to carry about every day so 
much which was to be used only once in a while, 
and perhaps it was this experience which gave us 
the prejudice we speak of. But in regard to this 
nozzle we may say that we also remember how 
with every syringe and garden engine came lots 
of pieces, which are sure to get lost just about 




the time they are needed. Here are two very 
essential pieces which are needed almost every 
lime the machine is used, all in one, so that it 
cannot be lost. We think it an excellent idea. 
It has been sent us by Piatt & Green, of Phila- 
delphia, although Wheeler, of Chicago is the 
maker. 

Pinckneya pubens. Thii beautiful tree used 
to be one of the leading ornaments in the old 



I 



ii 



m 



206 



THE GARDIiJfER'S MOJVTSLY. 



JU'ly, 



1873. 



THE GARDE JETER'S MOJfTHLY. 



S07 



Landreth collection, (the site now occupied by 
busy Philadelphia) but we find it in no collection 
now anywhere. The following full account of it 
is from Mr. Berckman's department of the Far- 
mer and Gardener: 

"This fine tree was first discovered by the elder 
Michaux. on the banks of the St. Mary's, in South- 
eastern Georgia. It must be very rare, for during 
extensive travels through the South we have never 
met with it but once, and that was in cultivation at 
a planters near Newberry, in South Carolina, who 
told us that it was indigenous not far from his resi- 
dence. Nor have we ever received specimens of it 
from any Southern botanist in exchanging plants ; 
nor do we find it in any nursery catalogue. Michaux 
states that it is still more interesting, by the pro- 
perties of its bark, than by the elegance of its 
flowers and of its foliage. Its flowers are white, 
tubular, with longitudinal rose colored stripes. The 
flowers are quite large, and collected in beautiful 
panicles at the extremity of the branches, rendered 
quite conspicuous by its ovate, pink colored floral 
leaves. Each flower has one of these floral leaves, 
which is bordered with rose color near the upper 
edge. 

'*It is a low tree, with numerous branches rarely 
more than twenty-five feet high, with a diameter of 
trunk of from five to six inches. According to 
Chapman, it is found on the marshy banks of 
streams in the pine barrens in Florida, and north- ' 
ward to South Carolina. | 

"Michaux carried seeds and young plants of it 
to a garden which he had near Charleston, South ' 
Carolina, and although the soil was poor, yet in six- i 
teen years they grew to be about twenty-five feet ' 
high and seven or eight inches in diameter. This ' 
proves that the Pinckneya will grow in poor sandv ' 
land. -^ 

" According to Michaux, the wood of the Georgia ! 
bark is soft and unfit for use in the arts, but its in- i 
ner bark is extremely bitter, and appears to partake ' 
ot the febrifuge virtues of the Cinchona. He says I 
that the inhabitants of the southern parts of Georgia ' 
employ it successfully in the intermittent fever, ' 
which, during the latter part of summer and autumn ' 
prevail in that region. A handful of the bark ii ,' 
boiled in a quart of water till the liquid is reduced ' 
one-half, and the infusion is given to the sick ' 
From the properties of its bark it derives its com- ! 
mon name. Its botanical name is in honor of I 
Charles Cotesworth Pinckuey, a prominent citizen ' 
ol Charleston many years ago. 

"We hope that the Pinckneya will, ere long be ' 
common in cultivation at the South. Its rarity has 
kept It in the background, while many other thincrs 
of less beauty and value are extensively cultivated 
The medical properties of its bark ought to be tested* 
It It be a good substitute for Cinchona, it should be 
known and grown on that account. 

" The planter who had it in cultivation at New- 
berrv, lived on the edge of town, and he had quite 
a large number of the young trees. We would give 
his name, but we have forgotten it : nor have we 
the diary which we then kept to refer to. It was 
in 1858 when we were there, hence the Pinckueyas, 
by this lime, ought to be quite large seed-bearin- 
trees. Named in honor of a worthy man whose 
name is identified with the history of the country 



it is a monument more enduring for Pinckney than 
one of bronze or marble. 

*|The habitat of *Pinkneya' is very circum- 
scribed, and, so far as we have ascertained, it is 
found only in a few localities near the coast of Geor- 
gia and South Carolina. Seed seems diflicult to 
germinate, as we have failed with all we have ever 
received." 

The First Fuchsia. Round and round the 
circle during the past twenty-five years, has been 
printed an account of how Mr. Lee first bought 
his first Fuchsia "from a poor woman whose 
husband brought it from the West Indies ;'» but 
the poetry has long since been taken out of the 
story by its being pretty certain the ** first*' 
Fuchsia was stolen from Kew Gardens, We 
now have another history in the Rural New 
Yorker, concerning F.fulgens, which we suspect 
is equally apocryphal. Still, as it will go its 
." rounds,'' we give it here : 

" Some twenty years ago, an old Scotch garden- 
er told me a story which will answer very well as a 
sequal to the above, although I would not like to 
vouch for the truth of either. Many years after the 
introduction of the ' first Fuchsia,' the agent of Von 
j Humboldt, who had lately returned from his travels 
j in Mexico, called upon Mr. Lee, desiring to sell him 
j the entire stock of a new fuchsia which they had 
j brought home with them. Years before this, two 
I Spanish naturalists, by the name of Mocino and 
Jesse, had met with a remarkable species of this 
I genus in Mexico, the flowers of which were some 
I tour or five inches long and of a bright Vermillion 
, color. Of course, this was a treasure which any 
! florist might be excused for coveting, especially as 
I no fuchsia with flowers more than half as long was 
, then known to European florists. When the agent, 
I referred to above, informed Mr. Lee that the plants 
offered were of this long coveted species, upon 
which a botanist had bestowed the name of Fuchsia 
fulfjena, (Glowing;, it can be readily imagined how 
anxious he must have been to close a bargain for 
the stock of this wonderful plant. A thousand gui- 
neas was the price nsked and paid, the agent giving 
xMr. Lee a written guarantee that the plants pur- 
chased comprised the entire stock brought home. 
In the days of no steamboats and few iravelers visit- 
ing Mexico, there was no danger from competition, 
tor several years at least, and the possessor of choice 
plants haa little fear of rival gardeners. Mr. Lee 
propagated his new fuchsia as rapidly as possible, 
and as soon as the stock on hand would warrant, 
the plants were offered to the public at that good old 
price of a guinea each. 

*' But an unknown rival appeared in the market ; 
Cunningham, of Edinburgh, Scotland, announced 
that he had good plants of the said new fuchsia, 
price half a guinea. Mr. Lee dispatched an agent 
to Edinburgh to learn what this meant, and if possi- 
ble, ascertain where Mr. Cunningham obtained his 
stock, provided he really had the genuine sort. The 
said agent obtained no further information than thai 
Mr. Cunningham's plants were the same as Mr. 
Lee's, and the number on hand nearly if not quite 
as great. Mr. Lee reduced the price to half a gui- 
nea ; then Cunningham followed by putting the 



price of his plants down to five shillings. This was 
too much for Mr. Lee, and he got out an injunction 
to prevent his rival disposing of more plants at such 
a ruinous Cto him) low price. Cunningham paid 
no attention to the injunction but continued to sell 
his plants, while Mr. Lee held on, hoping to make 
Cunningham pay for the loss. The suit came up 
before the courts, Cunningham getting the trial ad- 
journed from time to time, or carrying up the suit to 
higher courts, in order to increase the costs as much 
as possible. After bafiJing his opponent in ^very 
manner possible, and he (Cunningham) being driven 
to the wall, where he must show his title or have 
the case go against him, he brought forward his cash 
book, and showed that at a certain date in the same 
year that Mr. Lee bought the imported plants of the 
new fuchsia, he had purchased for a small sum of 
one of the axemen of the party, a package of fuch- 
sia seed. 

"Of course, Mr. Lee was beaten, and had the 
costs to pay, which had amounted to many thous- 
ands of pounds. It was said that the Lee*s never 
fully recovered from this blow upon their finances. 
Mr. Lee got all he purcfiased, and the agent deliver- 
ed to him every plant as agreed upon ; but neither 
party probably ever thought that there were any 
seed in existence— at least not in Europe. Of 
course, Mr. Cunningham came as honestly by his 
plants as Mr. Lee by his first and last fuchsia. 

Producing Double Flowers, To obtain double 
flowers in Geraniums, Petunias, and other 
things, is now well known. The process is to 
watch for flowers which have a tendency to form 
small petals on their stamens, instead of perfect 
anthers. The pollen of such flowers placed on 
the pistils of single flowers are likely to yield 
double ones. 

This has long been understood by practical 
flower breeders, but not so well known to the 
general public. Col. Wilder long since employed 
this law in the raising of Camellias, in which 
field he was once very successful. The Country 
Gentleman thus condenses what Col. Wilder said 
about this recently : 

"Col. Wilder stated, in a lecture before the Mas- 
sachusetts Horticultural Society, that the Rhododen- 
cron and Azalea, distinct genera, had been hybri- 
uized, but no one had ever succeeded in making a 
nybrid between the apple and the pear, or between 
the raspberry and the blackberry, which belong 
respectively to the same genera. It was doubted 
tor a time that hybrids could be obtained between 
ine vitis vinifera and V. labrnsca, but Rogers, Un- 
niii, tanripbell and others have settled the question 
and produced them. Col. Wilder said that his ear- 
liest experience in hybridizing was in the floral 
Kingdom, in crossing species and varieties of the 
^amellia. He discovered that, to produce double 
uowers, it was important that the pollen be taken 
flm?}i* Pff""^^ anther, that is an anther born on a 
small petal, (the filament being flattened out in its 
was Rtti'Tr?/"'''!? i^^ """Sinai form), and that this 
n/rf. A^'^^^ ^^ ^^"^"^ a double flower. He also 
thi fl^"?^^ interesting experiments with the lily : 
ine nrst was the red Japan and the Tiger lily. Seed- 



lings were produced with different shades, from deli- 
cate rose to dark crimson. He also found that pol- 
len preserved its fertilizing power a long time. In 
one instance, a camel's hair pencil, which had not 
been used for several days, was found with pollen 
on it. This was applied to the stigma of a lily, and 
produced impregnation. In another instance, he 
fertilized with pollen carried a long time in his 
pocket. 

" The science of hybridization, says Col. Wilder, 
is yet in its infancy. To use the language of Dr. 
Lindley : * We have but stepped over the borders, 
and the whole field of hybridizing lies widely spread 
before us; its boundaries are lost in the horizon, 
and we shall find them si ill receding as we ad- 



vance. 



>>t 



D, W. Adams, one of the candidates for Gov- 
ernor of Iowa, is thus spoken of by the Chicago 
Tribune : 

"Mr. Adams was born in Winchester, Mass., in 
1832, and is a member of the famous Adams family, 
of whom that State and the whole nation are justly 
proud; He graduated at a good school, and at the 
age of 23, removed to his present home a confirmed 
invalid. In a rough-and tumble fight with disease 
and poverty for nearly ten years, he was at last vic- 
torious over both. He became convinced, at an 
early day, that fruit-growing could be made a suc- 
cess in this State, and devoted his whole attention 
to its development. Experimenting with varying 
success for many years, he now has the solid satis" 
faction of having the finest bearing orchard in the 
Northwest, a large nursery (of fruit trees), a com- 
fortable competence, and a wide and unsullied repu- 
tation. For many years he has been favorably 
known as the Secretary of the State Horticultural 
Society, an active member of the State and many 
diflTerent County Agricultural Societies. He has 
also been a generous contributor to many of the 
leading agricultural and horticultural papers, and 
his articles have always been marked for their clear- 
ness and conciseness. Lately he has been Master 
of the State Grange, and at present occupies the 
enviable position of Master of the National Gramre. 
That Mr. Adams is a man possessed of rare ability, 
is beyond doubt." 

Our readers will remember a contribution of 
Mr. Adams to the Gardener's Monthly, in which 
he pointed out that apple roots partook of the 
branching character of the trees grafted on them. 
We have always regarded this paper as one of 
the most valuable contributions to horticultural 
science. 

Testing Kew Varieties. We find the followinir 
in the *' dairy of a gentlemen'* in the liaral 
New Yorker. We do not know how this hard- 
hearted fellow could write so cooly about this 
tender subject. Our thoughts have often been 
in the same direction, though we disliked to 
hurt any one's feelings in saying so. But as the 
*'cat has been let out of the bag," we may as 
well say that if we were to *' try »' all the things 
sent to us for the purpose, it would require us to 



I 



W8 



THE GARDEJ^ER'S MOJ^TELY. 



July, 



187 S. 



THE GARDEJ\rER'S MOJVTHLY. 



209 



set on half a dozen more men, and require an 
expenditure of about $3000 per annum. Some- 
times it is a sore temptation, and we feel grate- 
ful for the good intentions of the donors. Here 
for Jinstance is a case of pulses, lentils, and 
grains of various kinds from the East Indies 
No doubt one or two of the many scores of seeds 
might be found of benefit to our country, but we 
cannot try them. One lot of soven hundred 
kinds of hardy flower seeds was too great a 
temptation to withstand. There was such a 
chance to get *' knowledge," to "get wisdom," 
and to get " understanding,'' that the writer had 
to take a couple of men for a week away from 
the regular work, much to the indignation of the 
foreman, who could " hardly get through as it 
is.' 

It is pleasant perhaps to feel that you are 
worth being tempted ; but on the whole we 
rather subscribe to the doctrines of the extract 
below : 

*' These remarks were provoked by a letter ask- 
ing me to accept of a few plants of a new fruit, the 
donor hoping that I would '• find it worthy of com- 
mendation." That last remark exposes the motive, 
which is merely to get the thing indorsed, and per- 



haps, mentioned in this Diary, or in other words 
advertised free in the Rural New Yorker. I beg 
to decline the honor; having pretty nearly escaped 
such inflictions in my younger days, I do not now 
propose to enter the arena and be shot at for telling 
the trulh, or falsehood either. If such men as 
Downing, Hoopes, Meehan, Elliott and Fuller can 
be coaxed into trying every new fruit that is sent 
to them, well and good ; for they have been fired 
at so often by disappointetl originators of new varie- 
ties tlffet no ordinary shot takes effect on their well- 
tried armor." 

Oardening at Johns Hopkins Hospital. Mr. 
Johns Hopkins, of Baltimore, has donated a 
large sum of money for a hospital in Baltimore. 
It is gratifying to note that Mr. W. D. Bracken- 
ridge has been selecte ' as the landscape gardener. 
It is an encouraging sign when those who have 
charge of these public works have judgment 
enough to select the right sort of talent to do 
credit to these undertakings. The selection of 
Mr. Brackenridge is a rare instance of good judg- 
ment, and the Commissioners deserve encour- 
agement for such a judicious choice. 

2/ie Benom Apple in Iowa, Oar correspond- 
ent. Dr. J. Weed, regards the Benoni as the 
best apple in all his orchard. Besides its excel- 
lent qualities, it makes straight nice trees. 



EDITOR lAL. 



IT IS NOT GOOD FOR MAN TO LIVE 

ALONE. 

The unity of natural law is an interesting 
theme. We discover a fact, and suppose it ol" 
little account ; but it finally proves to be univer- 
sally applicable, and another illustration of the 
one universal law which makes the whole world 
akin. " It is not good for man to be alone," 
has had its separate and special application - 
and yet it is but part of one great truth. Whether 
it is in the animal kingdom or in the vegetable, 
it is not good to be alone. The most perfect 
happiness is to get out of ourselves, and to 
gather in from abroad some stranger ones to 
share life with us. 

This is the law of nature, urging us not only 
onward, but outward. We have love and regard 
for our immediate relations, but these bonds 
must be broken, and in the reunions of the bro- 
ken circle, heaven showers the greatest blessin<r8 
generally on those who know each other leas" 



The agriculturist finds the same law. By close 
breeding he makes a race, and he can develop 
in this manner a few leading points by inheri- 
tance, but it is generally at the expense of other 
qualities, and evea then does not last. Race 
after race appear in this way, only in time to 
disappear to be replaced by some new one from 
the original heterogeneous stock. In the vegeta- 
ble world we find it still the same. Here we 
supposed the great natural hatred of close rela- 
tionship ceased. A plant with its stamens and 
pistils in the same flower, was surely arranged 
especially for the perpetuation of an individual 
family race. But no— the discoveries of Spren- 
gel, Darwin, Gray, and others, have shown that 
even these little floral children of both sexes, 
raised so lovingly together in one family home, 
finally look abroad for their future companions, 
and in this, strive to harmonize themselves 
with this one universal law. In some flowers 
the pistil protrudes itself from the floral envel- 



opens long before the anthers are mature, and 
receives the pollen from strange flowers in ad- 
vance of the maturity of the pollen in its own 
flower. This pollen as it advances to ripeness, 
performs the same ofldce for other strange flow- 
ers; and thus, as we should say of animals, there 
is a continual infusion of new blood into family 
life. The rushes, (Juncus) Luzulas and sedge 
grasses [Carex) are familiar examples of this 
kind of cross breeding. Others depend on the 
agency of insects in the matter, which take on 
themselves the part of " the intimate friend," 
and introduce the strange but yearning parties 
one to another. In many flowers, as if for the 
very purpose, are arrangements for covering 
the insect with pollen, at the same time guard" 
ing the pistil, and which pollen the insect must 
take to the pistil of some flower before it can get 
the honeyed reward. The plant, as well as the 
animal, has learned to the fullest extent that it 
is not good for man to live alone. 

Indeed when we come to look closely into 
things, we find that man alone of all created 
beings, understands less fully the depth and 
capacity of this universal law. He knows it is 
true of all these matters in the limited family 
circle, but he does not generally know that it is 
as true of man in society as of man as an indivi- 
dual, and that it extends to the whole of his 
relationship with nature. 

We are divided into city and country ; but if 
either try to live wholly to itself, it is unnatural. 
Man collectively as the country, or the country 
as a set of people living together, can no more 
live alone" than one man or woman, one fami- 
ly, one flower, or any other part of nature can. 
Ihere is m every human heart a response to this 
sentiment. The one brought up to city life 
continually hungers for life in the country, and 
the ambition of many a country youth is to get 
to the city to live. These yearnings are natural, 
and are only unnatural whenever the country or 
the town endeavors to keep all to itself alone. 

There are now in all our larger cities, men 
Who recognize this natural principle, anal who 
are striving to bring about these marriages of 
town with country in various directions. Ihey 
torm settlements in the country near to the town, 
and by the aid of railroads, bring the two closely 
together. In the vicinity of Philadelphia, there 
are many of them on all the leading railroad 
'ines. Gerraantown and Chestnut Hill are much 
Of this class, and they have the advantages of a 
railroad running closer into the heart of the city 



than any other, and this matter of time iff of 
great moment to a business man. Ridley Park, 
on the southwest of Philadelphia, is another of 
these bridal spots, and of which we gave the 
wedding account last year. There was a sort of 
christening there early in June. The Board of 
Brokers of Philadelphia visited the spot, and the 
Oardener^s Monthly was taken along to partici- 
pate in the happy ceremony. Within the year, 
several beautiful houses have been, and others 
are being built. The boarding house is about 
finished, and already the projector feels the warm 
breath of popular encouragement. 

These newer settlements learn from the errors 
of their predecessors. Once a company took a 
tract of land, surveyed it, took the plans and 
sold 'Mots.»' Everything else was left to chance. 
Society shaped itself, just as each individual 
might operate on the whole to make it. Very 
often they were to be settlements of certain' 
classes. Here was an aristocratic quarter—there^ 
the location of mechanics. Perhaps this was to 
be a German settlement, and that a Hebrew 
quarter. People of a peculiar theological shade 
would herd together, or perhaps a literary, or a 
commercial class. The wants of man as among 
men were seldom considered. Roads, markets, 
labor, beauty— a thousand other things were left 
to shift for themselves. Wc know scores of such 
places struggling along, trying almost in vain to 
find their buried treasures. Here in German- 
town, for instance, after a man has his '*lot'' 
secured, he finds it costs him more to " civilize 
it '' than the original purchase, and even then it 
won't come up to the mark. The roads are in 
a great measure just as they were on the paper 
plans when the 'Mots " were bought, perhaps a 
hundred years ago. At various seasons peoplfe 
wade through the mud to their homes on stilts, 
or grope their way through dust clouds as 
through a fog. Having begun at the wrong end 
first, there are too many interests involved now. 
Though every one wants better roads, and are 
willing to pay for better roads, no one knows 
how to go about getting them. In these new 
places such as Ridley Park, all these things are 
thought over and arranged far in advance. They 
know people when they go to the country, want 
country in perpetuity. Hence small tracts and 
large tracts are devoted to park purposes, to be 
sustained by a fund from the purchase money. 
They know that rich and poor cannot live apart 
from one another, so there are lots at figures 
within the incon^e of the respectable working 






gio 



THE GAEDUJVDE'S MOJVTHLY. 



July, 



1873. 



THE GARDEJVEB'S MOJVTHLJ. 



SII 



man^s means, as well as for the man of wealth- 
Then the roads are all made, and well made, 
and shade trees planted, so that all the settler 
has to do is not to begin with a home, but to 
finish with one. 

We are glad to see these efforts to bring the 
country and the town together, in a manner so 
adapted to modern wants. It is not yet all. 
Companies must yet take in hand to furnish 
even more than this. They must solve the soci- 
ty question, and the female servant question, 
and they must remember that most men now 
a-days have busy lives, and will need help even 
In the building of the houses, for the details of 
which so many have no time. But we are going 
beyond our usual space. Our object is to show 
that even the most home-like body must go 
abroad for its fullest happiness— that communi- 
ties are under the same law, and that the greater 
the growth of a city, the greater is the need of 
the country being brought to the citizens, and" 
really made ready for them. Such experiments 
as this at Ridley Park, are all in the right line, 
and we wish them every success. 



*•■•» 



EDITORIAL NOTES. 

FOREIGN. 

The Phylloxera, or Orape Root Louse.— Too 
much attention can scarcely be given to this 
very destructive insect, which Prof. Riley be- 
lieves to have caused more trouble in American 
grape culture than anything else. Many things 
have been found which will destroy the insect 
without injuring the grape roots, but nothing 
thus far very practicable. 

. The Garden gives the following, which seems 
more practical than anything we have seen 
before : 

* Sulphuret of calcium dug in around the roots of 
vines is considered to have a powerful eflect in 
destroying Phylloxera. This gives rise to a true 
sulphuric acid, in consequence of the moisture of 
the soil and the gentle disengagement of carbonic 
acid. It serves also equally well to destroy cater- 
pillars and other injurious insects which are fre- 
quently so difficult to remove from vegetation." 

Cissvs discolor.— It is a matter of surprise 
that this lovely climbing plant is not used for 
out-door summer gardening to a greater extent 
than it is. The Garden says : 

'In the gardens of Mr. Linden, at Gand, there is 
now growing one of these plants which during the 
past year produced new shoots, the total aggregate 
of the length of which amounted to 1,625 feet. 
We are informed that the plant was grown in a 
mixture of coal ashes and spent tan." 



Hoteia japonica, — This plant, which in some 
catalogues goes as Spircea, and in others as 
Astilbe japonica, has been found one of the best 
white flowers for forcing that we have in Ameri- 
can greenhouses The following hint, which 
we find in Mr. Robertson's Garden, will help 
those who have not yet tried to grow it : 

** This beautiful hardy plant may be increased by 
division of the roots, or by means of cuttings, and 
plants produced in both ways soon make good 
flowering specimens, if well supplied with water 
during spring and summer, when the weather is 
dry. Divide the old plants into small pieces, each 
furnished with eyes, and plant them in good rich 
ground, a foot apart. Plants to be broken up must 
not have been forced this year. If cuttings are 
preferred, take them from plants that have done 
flowering, and strike them in heat. When rooted 
pot them off into 3-inch pots, and place them in a 
warm dung frame until they have become well 
established, after which harden them off. Plants 
raised from divisions may be put out in the latter 
end of May or in the beginning of June, well 
watering them in at planting time. In order to 
prepare them for forcing, they should be lifted in 
October, and plunged in leaves, as they root all 
winter. After they have been introduced into heat, 
give them plenty of water, or they will not flower." 

Hoses which will not Sucker, — We find the fol- 
lowing in the Garden : 

" The first idea of raising Briar stocks from seed 
has been claimed by M. Riviere for M. Guillot, a 
Rose grower at Lyons, who has raised his stocks in 
this way for the last twenty years. To M. Guillot, 
also, belongs the credit of ex-cogitating a means of 
preventing his Briars from producing suckers. 
Reflecting that suckers are nothing more than sub- 
terranean branches, which, like all other branches, 
must issue from the axil of a leaf, he considered 
that by inserting the bud on the part of the stem 
below the axils of the lowest or cotyledonous leaves 
Cwhich are usually under the surface of the soil] he 
would deprive the stock of all power to produce 
suckers in future. In practice, M. Guillot simply 
removes the soil from about the lower part of the 
stock and inserts the bud close to the neck The 
result is that his Roses seldom or never show 
suckers, and if one chances to appear, it is sure to 
be from the buried part of the Rose graft, and not 
this from the Briar stock." 

We have not much faith in, however, as those 
of us who have had experience in the raising 
root cuttings, know that it is not always by any 
means necessary for an "axillary bud " * 'above 
a leaf," to produce a growth. Adventitious 
buds come out anywhere, and it is these which 
give trouble in Rose stock. 

The Nanie '''•Black Hamburg ^^ Grope.— The 
histories of nations, peoples, or things, are often 
sought to be wrought out by tracing analogies 
of language, or by taking up some clue which 
language is supposed to afford. But language 
changes so arbitrarily, that it is dangerous to 



accept its suggestions. When the Fastolf rasp- 
berry was introduced it was as much as the hor- 
ticulturists could do to keep the people from 
calling it Falstafl: They had heard of this old 
fellow, but they knew nothing of the castle, and 
they held out for the Shakspearian name. In 
like manner we have had to argue with very 
smart people that the Vicar of Winkfield Pear 
was not the Vicar of Wakefield of Oliver Gold- 
smith, and it has been quite an effort to keep 
the original name pure and uncorrupted. Know- 
ing all this we are disposed to listen to the fol- 
lowing note from the Journal of Horticulture, 
although it seems to us at the time it refers to 
the Alhambra palace was nearly as well known 
to the English people as the city of Hamburg 
itself: 

"'What's in a name?' Not much, perhaps, 
unless it leads to correct apprehension ; and the 
name 'Black Hamburg Grape' does lead to the 
erroneous idea that the original Grape was brought 
to England from the German port of Hamburg, 
sometimes spelt Hambro', a place where the vine 
does not grow, except under hothouse culture. 

"The Vine in question was introduced into 
England, I believe, by Mr. Warner, about 150 
years ago, the original vine being found by him at 
the Moorish palace in Spain called the palace of Al 
Hambra, whence he called it the Black Hambra 
Grape. Now, the palace in question being little 
known in comparison with the town of Hamburg, 
the spelling was soon by many persons corrupted 
to Black Hambro', the final letter only being 
changed. When that spelling became general it, 
no doubt, somewhat obscured the history of the 
Grape ; but the present spelling, Black Hamburgh, 
does 80 effectually, and it seems to me, therefore, 
desirable that the original spelling, Black Hambra 
Grape, should be at once destroyed.— T. Thompson 
Welton, Brough, Yorkshire.'' 

The Best Orchid. Since so much attention 
has recently been given to the growth of these 
curious and beautiful flowers in this country, it 
is well to know that what in Europe is called 
"one of the best,»» belongs to a class very easy to 
grow. Generally the Cypripediums will do in a 
cool greenhouse, almost as well as geraniums, 
or any common plant. A report of a meeting 
in Brussels, says : 

•'In the class (confined to nurserymen) for ten 
J^ypripediums, there was no competition. The best 
Urchid m the whole show was contributed by Mr. 
tjmden m the next class as a single specimen— viz. : 
^ypripedium villosum, a grand specimen, beautiful- 
ly bloomed, with upwards of fifty flowers. This 
plant deservedly received the first prize, the second 
oemg awarded to Mr. Van Geert for a nice plant of 
Udontoglosum Pescatorhi, with five spikes of 
bloom." 

Ficus repens. The Journal of Horticulture 
calls attention to this plant. We have found it 



one of the most beautiful things for covering the 
back walls of greenhouses. It grows in partial 
shade almost as well as the common ivy, and 
clings to the wall in the same manner. It is a 
first-rate vase or basket plant. We have found 
it endure the freezing point without injury. The 
Journal says : 

" This is a creeping-stemmed plant, and attaches 
Itself very closely to walls and woodwork. For the 
former it is particularly suitable, and grows more 
freely than on the latter, as the wall retains 
more moisture. The plant has proved itself to be 
hardier than was thought years ago, it being now 
introduced freely into warm greenhouses and con- 
servatories, and thrives there very satisfactorily. 
Very little rooting space is needed as compared to 
many other plants, for it throws out rootlets at 
almost every joint. Too much moisture must be 
guarded against with these cooler temperatures, 
otherwise the foliage will be apt to damp-off." 

Culture of Persimmons, There have been many 
attempts to select and cultivate persimmons in 
our country, over and over again ; but notwith- 
standing they " have an apricot flavor blended 
with medlar," as our excellent cotemporary, 
the Journal of Horticulture says the Japanese 
kinds have, they do not grow fast in popular esti. 
mation. Still it is well to know all about per- 
simmons, and the following is of interest in con- 
nection therewith : 

"Messrs. Teutschel & Co., Colchester, have a 
sale at Messrs. Stevens' on the 10th, of a New 
Fruit Tree from Japan, the Persimmon, in eight 
varieties. It is the first time this tree has been 
offered in Europe. There have to be sold 105 trees 
received from Mr. Kramer, also some new and rare 
Lilies, Wilsoni and Krameri from Japan, Michauxii, 
Humboldtii, Puberulum, and Washingtonianum 
from North America, with Colochortus and Eryth- 
ronium. The fruit tree is a Diospyros, respecting 
the proper name of which there has been some con- 
troversy ; M. Carriere calling it at first Diospyros 
Kaki, afterwards D. costata ; and M. Decaisne, who 
objects to both of these names, D. Schi-tse. It is a 
native of Eastern Asia, and has bright orange-col- 
ored fruit, which, in the climate of Paris are from 
2 to 2^ inches in diameter, and have an Apricot 
flavor, blended with that of the Medlar. It will 
probably succeed against a wall in the warmer parts 
of this country." 

Phajus grandiflorus is the name of a very 
popular warm greenhouse plant with us, which 
is, perhaps, as well known and as deservedly as 
any orchid grown— under the name of Bletia 
Tankervilloe. The following little bit of history 
from the Gardener's Magazine, also has some 
good hints for its culture and management : 

"This is an old inhabitant of our gardens, having 
been introduced from China in 1772. It is a terres- 
trial Orchid of the easiest possible culture, and flow- 
ers most profusely about this time of the year. 
When well grown, it soon develops itself, and forms 



tm 



TEE GARDEJ\rER'S MO.YTHLY. 



July, 



1813. 



THE GARDEJ^EB'S MOMIRLY. 



213 






fine specimens, with from twenty to thirty spikes of 
effective white, brown, and purple flowers. It is a 
gross feeder, and does well in a compost of fibrous 
loam, well decomposed hot bed manure or leaf- 
mould and coarse sand. Drain the pot effectually, 
and then give an abundant sui)ply of water at the 
roots when the plants are making their growth. 
Like many more terrestrial Orchids, it is found 
growing in its native country by the margins of 
streams. A little weak liquid manure may be /riven 
with advantage when it is in full growth, and this 
also greatly assists such plants of it as are pot-bound. 
Good specimens are very useful at this season for 
conservatory decoration." 

Triloma uvaria. It always has seemed to us 
that the botanical name Tritoma was easy 
enough and pretty enough for any one, and that 
the usual complaint of hardwords surely did not 
apply here. But our people have chosen to call 
it the *' red-hot poker plant," and we really can- 
not see that it is any improvement on Tritoma. 
The English however call it " torch lily," and if 
our friends will insist that Tritoma is too hard 
for " the people," let us take to torch lily rather 
than to a whole set of fire irons, and all in a 
glow at that. 

Japan Pea. Sooja hispida, is the name of the 

plant referred to in the following extract from 

the London Garden: 

" ' We claim the honor,' says the Mobile Register^ 
* of having started a new interest in Japan Peas, 
and we are proud of it, for the Japan Pea is un- 
doubtedly one of the best things for our climate. It 
is easily raised, will grow on almost any soil, and 
yields enormously. As food for man we think it 
has no equal in the Pea or Bean way.' What is 
this Japan Pea?" 

Peter Lawson & Smx., the celebrated Scotch 

nurserymen, have gone into bankruptcy. Their 

assets are regarded as about $400,000, while 

their liabilities are reported at about $1,750,000. 

A Lawson Company, in which the old firm are 

interested, and which carrries on the chief part 

of the old firms business, is said to be unaffected 

by the failure. 

Tower Qrove'^0»rdens. We are very glad to 
find that Mr. Shaw's princely benefactions to the 
people of St. Louis, but in which after all, any 
one from every quarter who goes to St. Louis 
also shares, is meeting with that recognition 
abroad which has long been accorded to them 
here We find the following note in the Oardin : 
" The Missouri papers record an act of munifi- 
cence on the part of Mr. Shaw, an English settler at 
St. Louis, which, though happily not rare in this 
country, is almost unexampled in the United States. 
It is the free gift of a noble park to the inhabitants 
of St. Louis. The tract set apart for this purpose is 
situated close to the town, is richly wooded, and 
abounds in picturesque scenery. It covers an area 



of over 300 acres, and its value is estimated at about 
£100,000. 

Hardy Bamboos. Some of these recent intro- 
ductions from China seem to be hardier than we 
have supposed. The Garden says of some recent- 
ly introduced into France : 

*' The following species of Bamboo are stated by 
M. E A. Carriere to he " very hardy " about Paris, 
viz.: Bambusa viridi-glaucescens, violascens, aurea, 
mitis, nigra, (perhaps a shade less hardy than the 
rest) si?Tionii, and Metake. These are the most in- 
teresting species grown in the neighborhood of 
Paris, and are mentioned in the order of individnal 
merit M. Carriere adds that except in unusually 
severe winters even B. aurea and B. nigra do not 
suffer in the least from the cold there, and that all 
the kinds grow bett, according to his experience, in 
a cool sandy-clay soil. 

Gesyiera elongata. For some years past this 
old plant has bv^cii coming into appreciation 
amongst those wlni love cut flowers in winter, 
about Philadelphia. When the flower is fully 
expanded it soon falls, but cut just before it 
opens, it remains as long in good condition as 
anything The rich velvety brown gives a pecu- 
liar character to it which those who are real 
artists in flower arrangements, know how to 
avail themselves of. We see also that it is beins 
revived in Europe. The Garden says : 

"Last December there were in the warm houses 
of the Museum at Paris some fine specimens of this 
Gesnera completely covered with brilliant scarlet 
flowers. This fine old plant seems to have become 
rather rare in France. It is one of the finest win- 
ter-blooming kinds, the flowers, although small, 
being very numerous and of the most exquisite deep 
scarlet color, while the habit of the plant itself is 
very pleasing and elegant. It was originally dis- 
covered by Humboldt and Bonpland in Peru, not 
far from the city of Quito. 

Insects on Peac/i Roots. The discovery of 
small insects, known as Phylloxera^ or grape 
roots, and their connection with the vine disease, 
promises to develop further knowledge. Mr. 
Berkely, in the Gardener s Chronicle, thus speaks 
of some similar appearances on peach roots : 

"It is only by slow degrees that one becomes 
acquainted with the manifold diseases to which 
plants are subject, and where these depend cither 
upon very obscure or minute moulds and insects, 
the progress is necessarily very slow. We have 
long since been acquainted with certain small ex- 
crescences on peach roots, which ultimately become 
more or less confluent and decay, but we have been 
quite at a loss to account for them. The excrescen- 
ces which are so common on pear leaves have at 
last brought to light an extremely minute four- 
footed acaroid, belonging to the same category as 
that which is so destructive to Nuts and Black Cur- 
rants, and one of which is well known as inhabiting 
certain gall-like tubercles on Lime leaves. This 
bids fair to explain a host of affections to which the 



leaves of various trees are subject. We have now 
before us an explanation of the peach root excres- 
cences Mr. G. F. Wilson, to whom horticulture is 
60 much indebted, has, in conjunction with Mr. 
Joshua Saunders, just sent to us from the Rev. J. 
Heyworth's, Westbury-on-Trym, solne roots attack- 
ed by a minute insect which is clearly verv closely 
allied to the Phylloxera. The way in which the 
roots are affected is almost precisely that in which 
the vine roots are attacked. Tlie insect, either alone 
or in company, settles upon the roots, the tissues on 
either side swell from hypertrophy, and there is thus 
a little nidus for the insect which lives upon the 
juices. The little nodes gradually decay, and the 
whole root eventually becomes highly diseased. 
The insect is yellow, like the young Phylloxera, 
about one thirty-fifth of an inch in length, and two- 
thirds as much in width in the broadest part, with 
six legs and two three-jointed antennse, which have 
two very minute bristles at the tip. How far this 
may be constant it is difficult to say, without an 
opportunity of examining the matter on the spot, 
for the insect does not travel well, and out of eleven 
pieces of root one only could be found bearing the 
little pest after very diligent search. Apparently the 
insects have just lost their activity, and are now 
gradually entering upon the coccus state, like the 
Phylloxera, for one or two specimens occur twice 
as large as the rest and much stouter. Further op- 
portunities will doubtless occur of studying the in- 
sect, the discovery of which, especially considering 
its close resemblance to the Phylloxera, is of some 
importance." 

Labels for Arboretums. This has engaged the 
attention of many persons in America, and 
though some plans are excellent as fur as dura- 
bility is concerned, they have been too expen- 
sive, or wanting in that handiness which is es- 
sential to a popular article. We find the follow- 
ing in a recent number of the Journal of Horti- 
culture, which sceras to possess the germs of a 
good idea : 

" At the meeting of the Royal Horticultural Socie- 
ty, held on Wednesday last, Mr. Green, gardener 
to W. Wilson Sauader, Esq., exhibited some ex- 
ceedingly useful plant labels. They consisted sim- 
ply of cast iron of various forms for large i)lHnts ; 
that part which is inserted in the earth was pjiinted 
lead color, and that for writing on white. After the 
white portion has become thorouiihly dry a coating 
of black paint with :i goodly admixture of drying in- 
corporated with it, is applied over the white, and 
four or five minutes afterwards the name may be 
written on it. A flat piece of board with a hole in 
it for the reception of the shank was also exhibited, 
and by means of this a rest for the hand in writing 
is obtained, without any fear of touching the paint 
The names are written with a pencil consisting of a 
piece of wire inserted into a wooden socket. The 
writing is white, somewhat resembling that done 
with a fine camel-hair bru^h and it is extremely 
lasting ;v for labels made and written on in the man- 
ner described were quite as good, clear, and distinct 
after five years' wear as those newly written on. For 
small pot plants zinc labels painted and written on 
in the same way are neat and legible. No delay need 
be experienced on account of wet paint, for a certain 



quantity can be painted first, and after a lapse of five 
minutes written on without halting. 

Gardener's Wages. The following from the 

London Gardener's Magazine, applies with still 

greater force to America : 

"The present position of the gardener is, then, a 
very unsatisfactory and critical one. Good places 
are becoming fewer every year. Many gentlemen 
who formerly kept good establishments in the coun- 
try are getting to live in suburban villas, so as to be 
near to town, and are engaged in the intricacies of 
financial schemes instead of cultivating the love of 
a garden. Moreover, gardener's wages, as a rule, 
are much too low ; taking a wide circle for an aver- 
age, it would appear to be about 24s. per week. 
This is less than is paid to a good laborer, who has 
no need whatever to bring any scientific knowledge 
to the performance of his duty, while the gardener 
is expected to be acquainted with the thousand and 
one things which have to do with his profession. 
No one expects a carpenter, a builder, or a smith to 
work for laborer's wages, and yet even their work 
entails very little responsibility compared with the 
gardener, who has to battle against many enemies, 
among which may^ be named untoward seasons, 
when the crops are killed in the spring ; grubs and 
insects that come sometimes (as the past summer) 
so numerously as to destroy all his winter provision ; 
cross and cantankerous cooks, who never can have 
the right thing in the kitchen, and who frequently 
set the ball a rolUng which knocks the gardener out.