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No.__.42._fc_l__ DATE_i2.-.isa5: 

SouRCE^^U_UllTl.V :j:.auds. 







ElllTET) HY 



formkiu.y hkad gardener to caleb cope, esq., at sprixgbrook, and .it the bartkam liotaxic 

(;ardi:xs, near Philadelphia; graduate of the royal botanic gardens, kew, (loxddni 

england. member of the academy of natural sciences. author of 

"american hand-book of ornamental trees," etc. 

VOLUME XX, 1878. 


CHARLES H. MAROT, Publisher, 

No. 814 Chestnut Street, 



Frontispiece— Chrotno Andromeda arbokka 


Abutilon rosa^florum 3H4 

Acalyplia macrophylla H(>4 

Adiantuni princeps 2:>o 

Anthurium ornatum 2(iS 

Apple, Ohio l.',i 

■' Oregon Crab, Pyrus rivularis lol 

Artificial Wood Tiles — four cuts ;5.'>i) 


Bedding Plants, Arrangement of— three cuts 34 

Begonia achrne 60 

" kallista , 61 

Blanching Celery 23'.» 

Blandifolia princeps 10 


Carpet Bedding— six cuts 'J8-0'.t 

—five cuts 130-131 

Centaurea Clematii 75 

Coleus pictus 44 

Croton Disraeli 363 

Cycas Norraanbyana 108 


English Daisy 134 


Feast, John, Portrait of 317 


Glass Panels— six cuts 298-299 


Mennonite Grass-burner 172 

" End View 173 

" Ground Plan 173 


Odon toglossuni crisj^uni 12 


Ribbon Bedding — three cuts 60-67 


Rustic Summer House 34 


Selaginella Japonica 262 


Tropyeolum Lobbianum hyperbum 5 

Turnip, Yellow Mont Magny 20'.t 


Wahlenbergia tuberosa 198 

Window-box Ornaments— seven cuts 265-266 

Window-hood for Ornamental Vines 325 







Vol. XX. 

JANUARY, 1878. 

Number 229. 

Flower Garden and Pleasure Ground. 


An American garden is not particularly attrac- 
tive in Winter time, but there is no reason why 
it should not be so ; and when tlie time comes, 
which we look forward to, when there shall be a 
distinctively American style of gardening, much 
more attention will be given to it than there is 
now. In our text books of landscape gardening 
the great anxiety is to bring out the lights and 
shadows as cast by the umbrageous foliage of 
masses of trees or of fine specimens. The 
contrasts of brown and grey of the ground with 
sunny leaves of the trees, the due proportion of 
earth, or sky, or water, the periods of blooming 
of trees and flowers, or the tints of color in which 
Nature clothes herself all about us — these 
are the chief concern of the landscape gardener 
of the books. To him there is no Winter gar- 
den except such as he makes under glass. Win- 
ter in the open air is a dies non in the calender 
of his art. Give us, he says, " earth, and air, 
and water, and sky," and he will give you the 
perfect garden. The fact is, that in those parts 
of the world where our great lights in landscape 
gardening flourished, the Winter is no time for 
open air enjoyment. The days are dark, the 
nights are long, and the chief pleasures must 
necessarily be in the light of the hearth, and in 
the social festivities of drawing-room life. 
Our clear, bright skies and long Winter days, 
cold though thev be. are still favorable to t\w 

enjoyment of beautiful landscape scenery. In- 
deed, there are few things more pleasant than a 
beautiful landscape as seen from an American 
, window on a Winter's day. It may be but a 
j mass of oaks with their sturdy branches braving 
j the fury of a north-west storm ; or it may be the 
I waving of the hemlock in the breeze, as wave 
j the ripples over a summer sea. At times there 
> are the icicles swinging to and fro with the 
1 branches, reflecting the sun-liglit, or even the 
j moon-light, and seeming, from our cosy obser- 
j vatories, as if nymphs and dryads, the elfs and 
j the faries were about to get up an entertain- 
j ment peculiarly their own, but of which we are 
I favored with a private view. It is indeed almost 
j impossible to look on an American winter scene 
at any time of the season, without seeing some- 
thing to excite our admiration, or to lead us to 
an increased love of nature. Nothing of this is in 
our text books ; but why cannot we see it without 
them, and improve it withal? Let every one as 
he reads this look out from his window and see 
how mucli there is to enjoy, and with a little 
study he will be able to plant or to arrange 
things that will give beauty where there are 
now none, or give new beauties to those which 
already exist. 

In the matter of what he already has, he will 
want some practical hints as to something to do, 
for it is not thought that there is much to think 
about in a garden in January in our country. 
But this is all a mistake ; there is plenty to do. 

Pruning sliould be completed as soon as possi- 
ble. Some judgment is required in pruning 



llowering shrubs, roses, &c., although it is usual 
to act as if it were one of the most common-place 
operations. One of the most clumsy of the hands 
is commonly set with a shears, and he "goes 
through" the whole place, clipping off every- 
thing indiscriminately. Distinction should be 
made between those flowering shrubs that make 
ii vigorous growth, and those which grow weakly \ 
and between those which flower on the old 
wood of last year, and those which flower on the 
new growth of next season, as the effect of pi'un- 
ing is to force a strong and vigorous growth. 
Those specimens that already grow too strong 
to flower well, should be only lightly pruned ;j 
and, in the same individual, the weakest shoots | 
should be cut-in more severely than the stronger i 
ones. Some things, like the Mock Oranges, 
Lilacs and others, flower on the wood of last 
year. To prune these much, now, therefore, 
destroys the flowering; while such as Altheas, 
which flower on the young wood, cannot be too 
severely cut-in, looking to that operation alone. 
In pruning Roses, the fall-blooming kinds, 
which flower on the new growth, may be pruned 
as severely as we wish; in fact, the " harder" 
they are cut-in the better. In this class are the 
Noisette, Bourbon, Tea, China and Hybrid Per- 
petual and Perpetual Moss. Without considera- 
ble experience, it is difficult for the amateur to 
distinguish these classes. The best way to get 
over the difficulty is to obtain the catalogues of 
the principal rose-growers, in which each kind 
is usually classified. Amateurs should pay more 
attention to the scientific — if we may so term it 
— study of the Rose, and its classification and 
general management. Ifo class of flowers is 
more easily understood, and no one affords so 
rich a fund of perpetual interest. 

Hyacinths, or other hardy bulbous roots that 
may not have yet been planted, may still be put 
in where the ground continues open. The beds 
of all such bulbs should be slightly protected I 
with manure or litter, and be carefully watched 
for mice and vermin, which are likely to avail 
themselves of the shelter and feed on the roots. 
Lawns that are impoverished by several sea- 
sous' mowing, will be improved by a good top- 
dressing. This may be applied any time after 
the leaves are gathered up, and before the snow 
falls. Soot, wood-ashes, guano, or any prepared 
manure, is best for this purpose. Barnyard ma- 
nure is objectionable, as generally containing 
•many seeds of weeds. 

Evergreens set out last Fall in windy or ex- 

posed situations, will be benefited by a shelter 
of cedar branches, corn stalks, or mats, set 
against them. Whether hardy or tender, all 
will be benefited thereby. 

Hedges that have not had their winter dress- 
ing, should be attended to. If the remarks we 
have before made on hedges have been attended 
to through the Summer, there will be very little 
now to do. We have said that pruning in Sum- 
mer weakens a plant, while pruning in Winter 
strengthens it ; and so, as hedges naturally get 
spoiled by growing vigorously at the top, and 
weakly at the sides, they should be severely 
Summer-pruned at the apex, and Winter-pruned 
near the base. Now will be the time to see to 
the latter, taking care not to make it toonari-ow. 
A good hedge should be nearly four feet wide at 
the base, and be cut into a point at the top. 

Manure for flower-beds, borders, etc., may be 
hauled convenient to where it is likely to be 
wanted in Spring ; many spread it on at once ; 
but if the soil is frozen very thick, it prevents 
the early thawing of the soil in the Spring, and 
so no time is gained. 

Very small plants in borders or on the lawn, 
or lai'ger plants that may have been set out the 
past season, should be mulched with anything 
that will prevent the ground thawing, and so, 
the plant "drawing out." Most readers have 
done this in the Fall, but there is good to be done 
by it yet by those who have neglected it till now. 
Keep a sharp look-out for mice under the litter, 
however, where it is wise from the value of the 
specimen to run no risk ; brown paper, after- 
wards tarred, may be wrapped around the stems 
as far as the litter covers them. 

A great deal of trenching and sub-soiling can 
be done through the Winter if mamu-e be thrown 
over the surface before it is frozen too deep ; a 
little snow even, dug in, will not injure the oper- 
ation, as we find in our own experience. 




On page 327 of the November Monthly, " W., 
Norfolk, Ya.," with reference to the above, says : 
"As far as tested, they are most suitable for 
bedding plants, surpassing the geranium in their 
beautiful foliage and large flowers of richest 
hues, and will soon become a great acquisition 
to the garden and lawn. In England they have 




already superseded it to a great extent, being 
more vigorous and floriferous." Now, tliis is 
direct contradiction to my experience. As green- 
house plants tliey are magnificent, but in the 
ilovver garden my own practical experience and 
that of my neighbors emphatically testify that 
tuberous-rooted begonias are utterly worthless. 
"We can do something with the Rex and fuchsi- 
■oides sections, but Bolivienses and Veitchii must 
stride miraculously ere "General Grant" need 
hide his face. If "W." means that these bego- 
nias have, to a great extent, superceded gera- 
niums in English flower gardens, his statement 
^vill be absolutely wrong. I have tried them 
there myself and seen them tried by others ; but 
our attempts were fruitless. The plants Avould 
grow moderately and bloom a little, but in no 
way sutlicient to compensate for the care and 
space devoted to them, as compared with results 
from other subjects. Their notoriety for out- 
door gardening in England originated at Y eitchs' 
nurseries, London, where these begonias were 
planted in the flower garden — sheltered on every 
side by ranges of greenhouses —and where, on a 
little rock-work, I know the tubers to have sur- 
vived the Winter. In that flower garden, time 
and again, I have seen these begonias, in mode- 
ratel}^ fair condition, I admit, but in no way 
.surprisingly excellent. 



I notice in the November number of the j 
Monthly a complaint from a Philadelphia cor- | 
respondent of a new disease which has of late at- ' 
tackedthat queen of climbing roses the"Marechal | 
Neil," and that you express surprise thereat and 
ask for the expression of your readers regarding it. j 

I fear you will receive similar discouraging ■ 
reports fro.m .this latitude also ; but whether the 
actual cause has been ascertained or not, I am | 
not informed. My own opinion is, that the 
severity of our climate is the only assignable 
•cause, and that this rose is more delicate than 
others of its class. I judge this to be so from 
the fact that it flourishes most luxuriantly in 
Florida, and we hear nothing of the disease 
aSectiug it there ; and from the manner in which 
tlie disease attacks the stem here. The bark, 
for about one-third of the circumference, and 
with it the wood extending to the heart, seems 
to die as with blight or frost, of course sapping 
the life of the tree. It is, however, a lingering 

death, for the uninjured wood struggles man- 
fully and often nearly surrounds the dead with a 
new growth, but only to prolong its uncertain 
existence, for the fatal wound is never fully 
healed. There may also l)e the knotty excres- 
cence of which your correspondent speaks. This 
applies to old bushes only, the young and newly 
imported trees, cliiefly on grafted or budded 
stocks, as yet show no signs of disease, and were 
more beautiful than ever this Autumn, with 
their immense flowers. But there are many old 
and very large bushes here, and the complaint is 
general that thej are dying, no remedy having 
been found eflicacious. Many roses, the "Chro- 
matella," for instance, will outlive such an in- 
jury, and new wood will soon cover the old scar 
and the bush become as vigorous as ever. Not 
so with our favorite. Another disease which has 
not yet attacked the rose to any extent, though I 
have noticed it slightly upon a large and thrifty 
"Lamarque," has killed the beautiful evergreen 
Euonymus latifolius. Nearly all are dead, and 
the few remaining in the city are fast yielding 
up the ghost. No remedy for this has been 
discovered. It is a species of the bark-lice 
family, perhaps the same that attacked the 
orange in Florida several years ago, and unlike 
that pest of the apple tree, but one wliich I have 
never seen until the past year. Whale oil soap and 
whitewash have no efl'ect upon it. Cannot some 
of your correspondents give some information 
with regard to this pest, or how we may exter- 
minate it? I noticed yesterday, in a new ceme- 
tery near the city, but one large bush killed by 
this disease ; the other and younger ones had 
thus far escaped, but their time will shortly 



It's a great comfort to have started a new interest 
in anytliing that grows. My plea for the Ailan- 
thus seems to have done for it and your readers 
some good. I am not a botanist, only a lover of 
nature and of her products. I have for many years 
wondered why that beauty of the Ailanthus, 
which I have noted in your journal, had not won 
for it some respite of the much ciu'sing which it 
has endured. And now it comes out in your 
September number that it is dioecious. The 
nauseating smell, it seems, belongs only to the 
separate estate of its masculine gender. The 
lovely seed plumes, whose bright tinted masses 



in autumnal garb I have so much acmired, we 
are told belong solely to the feminine branch of 

the family. ^ ^ ^x 

Now, I confess, I had suspected this. But the 
books at my command said nothing about this 
separate sexual habitation of the Ailanthus. 
So for fear my ignorance would be taken to task, 
and learned quotations thrust at my suspicion 
of these separate connubial dwellings, I kept 
up a respectful and watchful silence. 

Some of those nearly mid-August Ailanthus 
phimes I have sent to Mr. Veitch, of New 
Haven, and to J. Stauffer, of Lancaster, Pa., both 
of whom have obliged us all with desired notice 
and information. To the latter and to your 
readers I would say, that my ^'Ailanthus boquet 
is not that of the Staghorn sumach. 

The Ailanthus variety, which I described, 
arows to forty or fifty feet in height, and becomes 
quite a large tree. I think the most brilliant 
specimens grow in a rather shallow and sandy 
soil thus maturing rather earlier, and like other 
trees so stationed, taking on sooner a more 
brilliant tinge. Oneof these "toweringbouquets 
is so fine an object by itself, and mingles so 
tastefully with either the Summer or Autumn 
tints of other trees, that its merits, habits and 
varieties, if any, should be well studied. We 
may thus very likely acquire a plant whose 
tint in leaf and seed plumes shall rival those ot 
the new Japanese maples. Let's hear from 
other observers. 

all grew and flowered finely. After flowering: 
I removed the bulbs and placed them in a box 
of fine loam, in which they remained until May, 
1877, when they were set out in a corner of the 
garden for .the small bulbs to perfect their 
growth. In July I noticed flower buds on one v 
in August it was in bloom. The last of Septem- 
ber flower buds appeared on another ; it is now 
over a foot high, with a number of buds ready 
to open. The old bulbs must have bloomed a 
second time, or the young bulbs, which were 
only an eighth of an inch in diameter, made a 
wonderful growth and bloomed in a single sea- 
son. If the latter was the case, the old bulb 
decayed entirely, as on examination there were 
no signs of any but the one in bloom ever hav- 
ing existed. I did not remove the parent bulb 
in^planting, but planted it surrounded as it was. 
by four or five small bulbs. Can any one say 
whether the bloom was from the old bulb, or a 
young one of this season's growth? 




The beautiful and delicate tuberose requires 
no encomiums from any pen; its popularity is 
insured forever. Other flowers may fade m the 
estimation of Flora's devotees, but the tuberose 

laever. , ^ , ^ 

As all amateurs know, a tuberose blooms but 
once •, the buUi then gives birth to a number of 
small bulbs, which, with two years of good 
culture, will produce good flowering bulbs. 
A departure from this rule of blooming but 
once has very seldom been chronicled, and will 
be received with doubt by cultivators in general ; 
but be this as it may, I would only give them my 
experience, and leave them to judge. 

In May, 1876, 1 planted a number of tube- 
rose bulbs from a well-known firm. These bulbs 

The Oriental Plane.— Mr. Samuel Par- 
sons gives a timely caution to planters to avoid 
the American and choose the Oriental Plane in 
planting. The Oriental seems free from any 
disease except a little trouble from a white mil- 
dew in the fall, which does not materially aff"ect 
its beauty •, while the American suflers terribly 
all over the United States in May by a fungus 
which destroys the young growth as completely 
as a hard frost would do. It pushes out a new 
growth, but the result is a crow's nest appear- 
ance, anything but agreeable. 

When in Europe last year, the writer exam- 
ined the trees planted in Prance and England so 
abundantly, and a similar disease seems by no 
means uncommon, but it is very trifling in it& 
effects compared with the attacks here, and, we 
should judge, in that country it would make 
little difference which species is planted. 

Weeping Blood-leaved Beech.— The com- 
mon Blood-leaved beech has a weeping habit 
! when old, and people seeing this have propaga- 
ted from it, believing it to be a real weeper. 
But the Belgian nurserymen insist that there is a 
^veritable weeper, and that it originated ui 



Hybrid Trop^olums. — In very dry and hot 
reasons Nasturtiums are not as good as they 
anight be, but in seasons such as the last, they 
■are wonderfully beautiful objects. On the 
a^rounds of Washington Pastorius, Esq., of Ger- 

IIandsome leaved Pear Tree. — The 
Garden says, that in England the leaves of the 
Doyoenne Boussock pear tree turn to as beautiful 
color in the fall as those of the Virginia 

HoTEiA JAPONICA, also Spiriaja japonica and 
Astilbe japonica of our various catalogues, goes 
also as Astilbe barbata on the continent, and 
which is perhaps the correct name. 


inantown, last Autumn, we saw a specimen of the 
variety T. Lobbianuni hybridum, (see cut) which 
•attracted universal attention. If the roots are 
in a cool piece of ground, the plants themselves 
•do not mind the Summer heat. 

Cfpressi^s Lawsoniana. — And now our old 
■friend has fallen amongst the Philistines. It 
has been weighed in the nomenclatorial balance 
by the Horticultural Botanists of the Continent 
and found wanting. Hereaftei our American 
friends who look for "all the new things" 
from Europe, had better hesitate when they 
come to the name of " Chamaecyparvis Bour- 
sieri," unless they have room for an extra plant 
■of Cupressus Lawsoniana. 

Culture of the Native Water Lily.— 
We are glad to see that this beautiful plant is 
becoming a favorite with cultivators. A West- 
•ern paper says : 

" The cultivation of the Water Lily is an easy 
inatter, and there is nothing that better repays 
culture than that. Mr. Brand has been success- 
ful in its culture for the last two years, thus 
demonstrating its suitableness to the climate. 
We published from the Gardener''s Monthly, 
some weeks since, the method of growing this 
beautiful plant successfully." 

As concerns aquatics, on the grounds of Mr. 
Ware, Tottenham, England, where recently we 
•saw one of the best collections of hardy plants 
in the world, aquatics are grown by simply 
linking tubs in the ground. The water seldom 
needs replenishing, as there is little evaporation 
Jiinder these circumstances. 

I Andromeda japonica.— With a beautiful 
! colored plate the l^ondon Garden gives the fol- 
[ lowing account : 

I Japan Andromeda (Pieris japonica) is a tall, 

smooth shrub, with pointed, lanceolate leaves 

about two inches long, which are serrated or 

waved at the margin, and narrowed at the base, 

i and numerous drooping branched or panicled 

I white, waxy flowers. It is a native of shrubby 

places in the mountainous region of Japan, 

j where it was discovered by Thunberg, who 

figured and described it in his "Flora Japonica," 

t. 22 (published in 1784), and specimens from 

whom are in the British Museum Herbarium. 

' A variety, having narrower leaves, occurs in a 

I wild state, as well as one having the foliage 

I margined with white. Although at present 

'scarce, this most graceful plant bids fair to 

I become a most useful addition to our stock of 

i Spring-flowering slu'ubs ; it is said to be even 

hardier than A. floribunda and is much more 

; ornamental than that species. Our figure is from 

i a plant that flowered in Messrs. Thibaut & Ket- 

I leer's nursery, at Sceaux, in March last. The 

i living specimens from which the plate was made 

was sent by post from Paris to London, so that 

; the artist did not see them in their best state. 

A more lovely shrub, when seen veiled over with 

pendent racemes of white waxy balls, it would 

be difficult to imagine, and we hope it may soon 

become frequent in gardens. 

PiCEA ACicuLARis. — Under this name a new 
Conifera from Japan is advertised in Belgian 
catalogues. The foliage is said to be of a very 
deep green, with a silvery reflection. It is said 
to be the most distinguished of tlie genus By its 
appearance and in its sharp needles it approaches 
P. polita. 




New Race of Chrysanthemums. — The 
Florist and Pomologist tells us that a race 
blooming much earlier than the common kind 
has been obtained in France, and that many of 
the varieties are now offered in English cata^ 


Moving Large Trees.— "Carlos." — ''Can 
you give any idea how large it would be safe to 
move trees? "We have some Norway Maples, a 
foot round, in the way of some improvements, 
which we do not wish to lose. If they can be 
moved, when and how?" 

fit is hard to give an "idea" without seeing 

the trees. So much of success depends on con- 
stitutional health and other circumstances. A 
moss-grown tree or one growing weakly would 
die if a "foot round ;" while, if in vigorous healthy 
it would make no difference if it be a foot thicfcr 
provided all the roots are obtained. To get all 
the roots you must dig in a circle, say for a tree 
the size of yours, six feet from the tree, making 
a circle twelve feet wide. Dig this ditch two 
feet deep, and then "undermine" the roots. 
You cannot carry a ball of earth twelve feet 
wide and two feet deep, except at an enormous 
expense ; but you can get all the roots by this 
system, which is of more importance to the tree 
than all the earth. Spring will do for it in 
Brooklyn.— Ed. G. M.] 

Green House and House Gardening, 


Flowers in Winter, flowers in Spring, Autumn 
flowers, all in turn bring their special pleasures; 
but the first get the heartiest welcome, and 
chiefly, we suppose, from the difficulty experi- 
enced in obtaining them. Yet it is not so difficult 
if one has plenty of sun-light. If the plants 
have any tendency whatever to bloom in Winter, 
sun-light will bring them on. Where windows 
or greenhouses be so that they can have every 
ray of sun, from early morning to noon at least, 
the houses or rooms may not have a high artifi- 
cial temperature. A house at 45°, with plenty 
of sun-light, will have more flowers than one at 
65° with the same sort of plants, and only 
general light, without the direct rays of the sun. 

This will give a hint to all who are building 
greenhouses for Winter flowering, to have the 
roof-pitch very steep. It is almost impossible to 
get flowers of any consequence in Winter from 
a very flat-pitched house. 

We note, with much interest, the increase of 
these grateful winter pleasures ; but they are not 
near as common as they might be, through a fear 
that the expense is more than can readily be 
borne. But this is generally through the pro- 
prietor himself not giving the matter much 
thought, but depending altogether on the car- 
penter. It is best always, in this matter to have 
the advice of an intelligent and experienced 

; gardener. Every twenty-five dollars invested m 
\ this way will save hundreds from the carpenter^s 
I bill. We note many places rendered worthless 
I for a thousand dollars, which, with a proper 
i undei-standing of the wants of plants, and proper 
arrangements, might have been made pleasanfr 
places for half that sum. 

i In the arrangement of plants in the green- 
I house, continual change is commendable. Every 
' few weeks the plants may be re-set, and the 
houses made to appear quite difterent. In the 
; end where the lowest plants once were set, now 
the taller ones may be placed; here a convex 
group, and there presenting a concave appear- 
ance. Drooping plants on elevated shelves, and 
hanging baskets from the roof, make little para- 
dises of variety in what were once unbearable 
monotony. Gardeners often wish to know the 
secret of mai'^taining a continued interest, on 
the part of their employers, in their handiwork, 
and this is one of the most potent — continued 
change and variety in the appearance of every 
thing. Beautiful flowers, graceful forms, elegant 
combinations, all developing themselves with a 
healthy luxuriousness and evei'-changing end- 
lessness, will wake up an interest in the most 
indifferent breast. 

The temperature of the greenhouse at this 
season should be maintained at about 50°, allow- 
ing it rise 10° or 15° under the full sun, and 
sinking 10° or so in tlie night. Though many of 
our practical brethren diller from us, men, for 



some of whose opinions we entertain the highest 
respect, we do not recommend a very great 
difference l)etween night and day temperature ; 
we think 10° ample allowance. It is following 
nature, no doubt; but we would rather strive to 
beat nature. She cannot make the specimens 
we do, nor flower them so beautifully or pro- 
fusely, and in many other respects we think the 
practical gardener can much improve on her red- 
tape notions and old-fashioned courses. 

The management of a greenhouse fire is 
worthy of a thought. Few of those who attend 
them know much about their proper manage- 
ment. In lighting a fire a good jack-knife and 
a piece of pine wood is as good as an armful of 
shavings. Shave the piece a little without 
taking the shavings wholly off. Start these with 
a match, and, being connected with the main 
piece, they will fire it. A few pieces crossed over 
this nucleus, and off the whole goes. This little 
hint will save considerable time in hunting 
paper and shavings, or straw. The fire lighted, 
it must be kept bright or dull according to the 
probable weather. To do this use wet ashes. 
If it is desired to keep a body of heat for a long 
time without burning away, proceed in this wise : 
Start the fire at noon, for instance, and get the 
coal thoroughly red hot. Then, say an hour 
after, put on a shovelful or two of fresh coal, and 
let it burn about half through. When it has 
done this, which will be towards evening, cover 
with three or four shovelsful of wet ashes, leav- 
ing a very small opening through to the coal at 
the far end. If such a fire be properly made in 
this way, there will be little necessity to look at 
it again till next day at noon. Then throw a few 
shovelsful of coal on the hot mass of ashes, 
doing no more than this for an hour or so. The 
coal by that time will be thoroughly warmed, 
and in that condition readily burns. It is worthy 
of remembrance at all times, that warm coal 
will ignite more rapidly than cold coal. Having 
warmed it on the hot ashes, we may now watch 
the weather. If we want to get up the fire in a 
hurry, we now rake out a little ashes from the 
bottom, so as to induce a little draft, and suffer 
the coal on the top to drop into the ashes. As 
soon as it begins to redden, we can rake it moi'e 
if we want to hurry it, or less if we do not. Of 
course how much or how little of this raking or 
ash covering is to be done depends on the 
weather, the capacity of the furnace to heat the 
house, and lots of other little things. But one 
who understands this well will need no dampers 

in the fines, no ash-pit door, nor any of the usual 
contrivances for regulating draft. It is surpris- 
ing what a nice art "stoking" is. There is far 
more fun in this than playing base ball or the 
piano, and we are surprised at so few learning 
to do it well. Besides there is money in it, too. 
One who knows the art well will do as much 
with ten tons of coal as others will do with 
twenty, or even thirty. 




In your valuable Monthly of November 
edition, I notice an article with the above head- 
ing, by Mr. Woodruff. After reading it I feel 
called upon to reply. Geranium B. Wood I 
raised from seed three years ago last summer, 
being one of over four hundred seedlings. I 
don't think that Geranium Guillion Mangilli 
was thought of at that time. Mr. Woodruff does 
not inform us who claims the honor of raising G. 
Guillion Mangilli, nor does he take it into con- 
sideration whether it is above suspicion or 
not. Of course we are to take it for granted 
that all gardeners in Europe are honest, and all 
Yankee tricks must be played by Yankees. 
However, let that be as it may, the two gerani- 
ums are distinct, and it is a surprsie to me that 
Mr. Woodruff was not able to see the difference. 

B. Wood has large, smooth, round flowers, 
petals broad, of good substance ; while G. M. 
has smaller flowers, petals long and narrow, 
edges inclined to fall back, trusses not so 
large, color very near the same. Probably it 
would be more interesting if I would change 
my subject a little. I have taken a good deal 
of interest in growing geraniums for more than 
ten years. Have kept pace with the importa- 
tions, and have been the author of a number of 
good results. Asa Gray is one of the best to 
raise seed from, as it seeds very freely, and we 
may get almost any color that is among the 
single varieties by crossing any desired variety 
with Asa Gray. In proof of the above fact, I 
have tried it with wonderful success. The last 
good result was Jenny Read ; I obtained it by 
crossing Asa Gray with Gaiety, which is a very 
dwarf, scarlet, and free-blooming variety. J. 
Read does not resemble Asa Gray in any par- 
ticular, except in being dovible ; it partakes of 
its male parent in color and free blooming 



qualities, and more dwarf than either. One 
thought more, then I am done. Last winter there 
was a host of double white geraniums sent over 
from Europe, some of them not worth growing. 
Among them, however, there are three varieties, 
Yenice, Adelaide Blanchard and Madame Emily 
Baltat, which are really good. 



I notice the remarks of (x. H. Woodruft'in the 
last number of the Gardener's Monthly. 1 
can vouch for the Oeranium Bishop Wood being 
raised by W. K. Harris, having seen the first | 
bloom standing very conspicuously amongst other 
seedlings, some two or three hundred in number. 
There must be a difference in the Geranium ! 
Guillon Mangellon, sent out by Messrs. Veitch i 
and Bishop Wood ; or Mr. Court representing i 
Messrs. Veitch at the Centennial, and Mr. Out- j 
ram, the representative of B. S. Williams of the I 
Victoria Nursery, London, would not hav.e i 
ordered Bishop Wood, each of them sending 
home twelve plants of this American seedling. 

For the information of those not having the 
two geraniums to compare, granting there is a 
similarity in color ,the petals of Guillion and Man- '■ 
gellon are long and straggling, while those ofj 
Bishop Wood are short and compact ; the habit 
also is better, flowers earlier and more abundant. 
This is my experience ; it may differ with others. 1 

favorite is, that it being bedded out, not only 
stands the sun perfectly well, but obtains, also, 
a dwarfish appearance, and blooming the whole 
season. By these rare qualities this variety will 
be heartily welcomed by every one having a 
flower-garden as an incomparable edging for the 

Reading the different remarks made about 
Torenias, my attention involuntarily was applied 
to one fact, that not one mentioned more 
than these two kinds ; whether the others have 
already passed from memory, or by experience 
found not worth growing, I Avill not undertake 
to dispute nor decide, but simply call back to 
our recollection some of them which have in 
their time been received as favorably as the new 
Torenia Fourneri, T. concolor, native of China, 
flowers in Autumn ; blue T. edentula, from East 
India, flower yellowish white, distinctly marked 
with purple violet, the sidelips have a deep 
purple spot; T. bicolor, raised by L. Van 
Houtte, (Gand), of a drooping habit; T. Lar- 
pentai, (Synon. Ceratostigma Larpentai), from 
North China, flower of lively blue, with a red 
throat, nearly quite hardy; T. plantagina?, 
(Ceratostigma plantaginte), found and introduced 
by Dr. Tindel, in Africa, from the shore of the 
White Xile, flower blue, labellum deep blue 
with white and light blue stripes ; T. scabra, 
(Artanema fimbriata), from Australia, with blue 
flowers, the center being white, good for bed- 
ding out; T. pulcherrima, from China, flower 
purplish blue. 



The introduction of the new ''Torenia Fourneri" 
from Cochin China has created quite a sensa- 
tion in the floricultural world ; several articles 
have already been written about it, and the 
Gardener's Monthly, in the October number, 
says: "That it is true the old T. Asiatica has 
long been popular and long will continue to be ; 
but tills charming novelty will divide the honors." 
Torenia Asiatica (Synon. T. hians and vagans), 
native of the East India, bears dark violet flowers, 
is more of a drooping habit, and is preeminently 
fit for hanging l>askets. T. Fourneri, on the 
contrary, is an erect growing variet}', distinctly 
differing from the previous one, having an 
orange spot in the ground center of the flower ; 
but the real attraction and ))eautv of this new 



Perhaps some of the many lady readers of 
your Monthly would like to know how to get 
two flowers instead of one from every flowering 
sheath of their Calla lillies. As soon as the 
joint flower is cut, or begins to wither, pull the 
stalk down through the open sheath clear to the 
bottom. At the bottom will be found standing 
close to the stalk another bud, enclosed in a 
delicate covering. Cut the old stalk away as 
close as possible without injuring the bud, and if 
it has not been kept back too long it will grow up 
very quick. I have never failed to get both buds ■ 
to flower. I never tie up the leaves close, but 
leave them free. 




Glazing. — We do not quite understand the 
following, which we tind in the Polytechnic 
Review. Illustrations would perhaps be required 
to make it plain. But as there may be some- 
thing, if properly understood in the principle, of 
value to our greenhouse people, we give it in the 
hope that it may bring out further information : 

'••We lately saw a defectively glazed glass roof 
under treatment toward restorating broken panes 
and stopping leaks. Counted by the acre, the 
surface of such glazing is enormous in the city of 
St. Louis, and would be increased were the im- 
munity from leakage and breakage nearly assured. 
The system of glazing used on the roof of the 
Koyal Aquarium, London, is held up as a model 
of this sort of protection and convenience ; it 
•consists of a series of zinc bars of pot-hook sec- 
tion, with a return bend, the bars being screwed 
•on the purlins. The top is simply a pot-hook 
or hanger section, at the bottom of the same sec- 
tion reversed. The glass rests in the groove of the 
lower bars and back groove of the intermediate 
upper one, in which it has full vertical play. 
The panes of glass lap each other; and the 
theory is, that no water can find its way inside 
the building covered by a roof glazed on this 
principle. The advantages of this system 
appear to be the diminution of breakage of glass 
from vibration, and expansion and contraction 
and other causes due to rigid fixing in the 
ordinary system, and the facility with which 
glass can ])e fixed or a damaged pane removed 
and replaced. The grooves carrying oft" water 
from the inside as well as from the outside is of 
course another advantage, for unless the roof be 
-u very flat angle, indeed, water will not leave 
the glass, but will run down into the outside 
groove. Condensed water and vapors are, there- 
fore, thus well got rid of." 

Heating Small Greenhouses. — In refer- 
ence to our note in the November number, the 
Galena Industrial Press has the following useful 
facts : 

"We know of an instance where house plants 
are kept thriving winter after winter in a room 
heated b}- a hard coal base-bm-ner, and healthier 
plants or brighter flowers we have not seen 
anywhere. We do not suppose that leaky 
stoves, from which the gas is constantly escaping, 
would be healthy for either plant or animal life ; 
shut we have long since come to the conclusion 

I that what promotes the health of man, cannot 
I be injurious to the plants. It is only necessary 
I to refer to the bay-window, where the plants of 
1 Mrs. Cephas Foster may be seen from J^all till 
; Spring, to assure our readers on this point. The 
window plants are, however, only a small part 
j of those constantly kept in the two rooms heated 
I by the same coal stove, year after year, and 
j very few persons, if anj^, can show more thrifty 
j plants, with equal care, than hers. The stove 
is an old-fashioned one, which has been in use 
for many years, and has no particular advantage 
over the more modern ones, so far as we know^ 
Our conclusions are, therefore, favorable to that 
method of heating. Hard coal is used of course. 
} The only secret is a constant supply of moisture 
j from a cup of water on the stove. 
} A Fine Geranium. — We like to hear of 
! well-grown plants, and give place to the foUow- 
: ing from the Prairie Farmer : 
j "In a recent issue we alluded to a wonderful 
i geranium, the property of W. H. Perkins, 
Barnard, Vermont. The following letter from 
; that gentleman under date of October 22, com- 
pletes the history of the plant. Mr. Perkins 
says : 'The geranium has a single scarlet 
blossom and green foliage ; is five years old ; 4 
feet high and 10 feet in circumstance. It has 
twenty-nine branches from the main stem. The 
1.3,000 blossoms are the number of individual 

The blossoms on a sufficient number of 
clusters were counted so as to eiiable me to 
make a correct estimate of how many individual 
blossoms a certain number of clusters w^ould 
average to bear, so that only the clusters were 
counted, and the number of clusters multiplied 
by the number of individual blossoms that the 
clusters would average. The clusters contained 
from thirty to seventy blossoms each. It is not 
called a large story about here. The plant is 
still in the yard and in blossom as bright as 
ever, notwithstanding the chill}^ weather and 
the 24 inches of snow which fell here last night. 
If the plant survives I will let you know of its 
wonders next season.' " 


Blandfordia princeps. — This strikingly 
handsome greenhouse perennial was introduced 
b}- Mr. W. Bull, and gained the first prize as the 
best new fiowering greenhouse plant at the Royal 
Horticultural Society's Exhibition in the sum- 



\_ January, 

merofl875. The stifi' sub-erect distichous leaves | a serrulate border. The scape is a foot high, 
are narrowly-linear, five to eight ribbed, and with | bearing a corymb of many flowers, which are two 


andahalf inches long, pendent, regularly funnel- j as the most beautiful of the Blandfordias yet 
shaped, with a bright crimson tube and deep known. It has been figured in the Botanical 
golden yellow erect limb. It must be regarded I Magazine for January, 1876, tab. 62091 




Carnation Peter Henderson. — Nanz Neu- 
ner & Co. send us a photograph of which we can 
truly say that it fully justifies all that they say 
of it in the following note : 

" We take great pleasure in sending you a 
photograph of our new double white carnation 
' Peter Henderson.' It is a true representation 
of a one-year old plant grown in a 9-inch pot, 
bearing at the time, when the photograph was 
taken, over 160 flowers and buds, besides showing 
an abundance of young flower stems breaking 
from the base and joints. The flowers are large, 
pure white, and average 2i inches in diameter, 
although there are a great number of blooms on 
the plant which measinre three inches and over." 

Clematis indivisa. — This lovely clematis 
should be looked after by owners of cool con- 
servatories, who, as it may happen, know not 
what to plant in them. There may be little 
excuse for the "not knowing," perhaps; but a 
note, should certainly be made of this clematis 
as one of the most useful plants for the purpose. 
It grows fast, but is not a coarse plant ; it flowers 
freely, but is not showy. Its flowers are small- 
ish, at first greenish, afterwards whitish, delicious 
to behold en masse, pretty when examined in 
detail, invaluable to cut from for decorations. 
In the Slough nurseries there is a plant of this 
clematis in company with a grand Marechal Niel 
rose. It must be owned that the marechal does 
his duty ; would that every marechal merited 
similar eulogy. But really it is a question if, 
all things considered, the yellow rose, producing 
its hundreds of lovely flowers, is a really more 
meritorious plant than the clematis. If you ask 
how to grow it, soil, &c., I can only say plant it 
in a good border, train it under the roof, and 
"there you are." The fact is, it will tlu-ive 
under any conditions, provided it has the 
shelter of glass ; for it is not hardy enough for 
the open quarters in this climate. I know it 
well in its native clime of !N'ew Zealand, and I 
was rather astonished to find Mr. Turner's plant 
.equal in quality to a wild garland of it as it 
appears at home, although, of course, no green- 
house specimen can compare with the vast 
breadths of such a plant as it riots in its own 
woods, and laughs at calamities it knows noth- 
ing of.— Gardeners'' Weekly. 

Aloxsoa albiflora. — Xew distinct -species 
from Mexico, introduced by M. Roezl, the dis- 
tinguished collector, flowering freely, from 12 
inches up to two feet in diameter, producing 

long terminal spikes of pure white flowers with* 
yellow eye. It is recommended for pot-culture, 
as in the conservatory it will produce a succes- 
sion of its flowers throughout the autumn and 
winter, when most acceptable for bouquets audi 
table-decoration. It will be found a desirable 
substitute for Lily of the ValVfey, as used in our 
bouquets with so charming an eftect when ar- 
ranged so as to overtop the other flowers by one 
or two inches.— Carter. 

Fuchsia racemosa. — A most distinct species^ 
collected by Mr. Thomas Hogg, in St. Domingo,, 
1872, but now for the first time oflfered for sale, 
we believe, either liere or in Europe. It was 
exhibited in full bloom at New York Horticul- 
tural Society's show in June of 1876, and at- 
tracted general admiration. It grows not more 
than 18 inches high, forming around bush, every 
shoot being terminated with a raceme of orange- 
scarlet, wax-like flowers. It is of the easiest 
culture, and will undoubtedly become a standard 
plant, both for the greenhouse in spring, or for 
bedding out in partial shade in summer. As a 
market plant, from its distinct and beautiful 
appearance, it will have few equals. — P. Hen- 


Snails. — W. G. J., Ithaca, N. Y., asks: 
" What will stop the ravages of snails in green- 
houses ? They appear to work at night, and are 
very destructive on plants of the Salvia and 
Dracaena kind. I have found some four to five 
inches long." [They are easily captured by 
placing slices of turnips, potatoes or similar 
things about, covering somewhat to keep them 
cool and dark. Ed. G. M.] 

Fine Amorphophallus. — Hon. C. W. Taylor, 
Hulmeville, Pa., writes: "I lifted an Amor- 
phophallus Rivieri on the 5th of this month that 
measured 42 inches in -circumference and weighed 
26 pounds. It was sent me by Mr. Dreer, three 
seasons ago, and was then about one inch in 
diameter. I thought it was good growth for that 
length of time." [It is always a pleasure tO' 
receive accounts of superior culture. Ed. G. M.] 

Camellias.— J. C. C, Phila., writes: "I 
should be much obliged if you would let me 
know through the Gardner's Monthly the 
proper temperature for Camellia Japonica and 
Azalea Indica ; also whether they should be- 




kept rather moist or dry. I liave not had any 
experience with them until this season, and as I 
have some fine plants, with n great many buds, 
I wish to treat them properly." [Camellias do 
not like a temperature over 60° or below 45°, 
and the Azalea is mucli like unto them. Any 
ordinary greenhouse atmosphere suits them. 
The air of living rooms is generally too dry. 
Ed. G. M.l 

and clean it with a paint brush and common 
soapy water. It was a tough job, but in less 
than half a day it was done. I did not wait six 
months and give them a chance to recover, but 
in a couple of weeks had him go over the plants, 
killing those that had escaped. This was but an 
hour's job. In another couple of weeks we gave 
them another tussle. I have no mealy bug 
now. The true remedy is forehanded industry." 

Cure for Mealy Bug. — A "Hard-Fisted 
'Gardener" writes: "I agree with you point 
blank that there is no infallible remedy for 
curing bug-ridden plants with outany trouble ; 
still there is a plan, that is, my plan, and which 
I know by experience works very well. I had a 
^Stephanotis in my greenhouse that used to keep 
as white as snow, in spite of all the drenches 
we gave it. At last I had our bov take it down 

Floral Decorating. — Mrs. R., Columbus, 
Ohio, makes the following inquiry. If there is 
such a work it has escaped our notice. Does 
any reader know of one ? 

"If it will not be asking too much, can you 

\ tell me where I can get a book on the subject of 

i Floral Decoratings, or How to Decorate ? I saw 

an advertisement not long since, but have for- 

. gotten where I saw it." 

Fruit and Vegetable Gardening. 


Many complain of the struggle with insects 
and fungoid diseases. Some of tliis may be 
cured b_v washing trees in the winter season. 
Under glass, the best peach and grape growers 
would never think of letting the season go over 
without washing the trunks after pruning, with 
a mixture of soot, sulphur and lime. If the 
bark, as in the grape, be loose, it is stripped off 
first. The eggs of thrip, red spider, scale, and 
seeds of many "blights" and mildews, are thus 
destroyed. It is just the same benefit to wash 
young orchard trees. And this is especially true 
of scale covered trees. If the young trees are 
bad, cut away the twigs, so as the more easily to 
cover the whole tree, to the enemy's destruction. 

It will be well to note what has been said 
about linseed oil in our last year's volume. 
There is no doubt but it will destroy scale and 
improve the health of the trees ; but in a few 
cases it has been destructive, evidently from the 
use of mineral oil, and not pure linseed. The 
purity of the article should be ascertained. 
'Trees that have suffered badly from scale often 
get hide-bound— a slitting up and down with the 
pruning knife will set them on their feet auain. 

This is generally supposed to be the pruning 
season. Orchard trees generally get too much 
pruning. In young trees only thin out so as not 
to have the main leaders crossing or interfering 
! with one another. Or when a few shoots grow 
much stronger than the rest, cut these away. 
i Insist on all the branches in young trees growing 
j only on a perfect equality. On older trees which 
' have been in bearing a number of years, it will 
! often benefit to cut away a large portion of the 
; bearing limbs. By a long series of bearings, 
branches will often get bark-bound and stunted, 
j preventing the free passage of the sap to the 
I leaves. In such cases the sap seems to revenge 
I itself by forcing out vigorous young shoots a , 
[ long way down from the top of the tree. It is 
j down to these vigorous young shoots that we 
I would cut the bearing branches away. One must 
use his own judgment as to the advisability of 
this. If the tree bears as fine and luscious fruit 
j as ever, of course no such severe work need be 
done, but if not, then now is the time. 

And, above all, look after the nutrition of the 
trees. Some people say that land which will 
raise good corn will grow good fruit trees, which 
i is all right; but they should add that, like corn, 
: they require regular and continuous manuring. 
There are some parts of the country where corn 

1878. J 



can be successively taken fur half a lifetime 
without manure. On these soils we need not 
manure fruit trees, but in all others we must, to 
have aood results. This is particularly essential 
where trees are grown in grass, as both the trees 
and the grass require food. Where trees are 
grown in grass, we prefer top-dressing in June or 
July; but if it has not been done then, do it 
now. Where trees are kept under clean surface- 
culture, the manure is of course ploughed or 
harrowed in with the crop in the spring of the 
year. To know whether trees require manure 
ur not, ask the leaves. If in July they are of a 
dark rich green, nothing need be done to them ; 
but if they have a yellow cast, hunger is w^hat is 
the matter. This, of course, is supposing they 
are not infested by borers, in which case they 
will be yellowish in the richest soil. 

In the vegetable garden preparation is being 
made for early spring crops. Radish, lettuce 
and beets require but very little heat to start 
them, and may be put in at once when the 
ground is warm and cky, and there is no fear of 
much more frost. A little frost will not hurt 
them, even though it does follow the sowing, 
unless the germ is about pushing. This is the 
time when most hardy seeds suflfer from frost, 
Avhen they do suffer at all. The pea is also one 
of these early vegetables which a little frost 
will not hm-t. Except, however, in the extreme 
South, the most of our readers will not think 
much of these things till next month. 




The puff ball is wholesome, nutritious and 
delicious, cooked in any way that mushrooms are. 
The large, smooth sort contain the most food, 
and taste like the mushrooms of the West. 
The Starry puff ball, small, with a leathery 
coat which cracks off in a star-shaped setting, 
tastes like the X. E. mushroom and the morel 
of Ohio, and is to nie more pleasing. In a 
country where many suffer from hunger, it is a 
pity that this quality of the putt' ball is not 
known and appreciated. 



Yes, the ''Putt' Ball," or Lycoperdon, is eat- 
able, and makes a very delicious dish : but is not 
so good as ''Tuber album,'' the ijreat white 

truflie. That is an irregular mass, sometimes, 
almost as large as a loaf of bi-ead, and of just 
such a delicate brown on the top. When fit for: 
eating the rind is cracked irregularly all over.. 
When that is taken off (don- 1 eat a fungus which: 
cannot be peeled easily)— the tlesh is as white as 
snow and as tender as fresh curds. Should be 
steamed ten minutes, and them simmered in 
cream, or an}"^ sauce you like. Don't cut, but 
break it in flakes for cooking. It is only fit for- 
use when the flesh is white. I have cooked putt" 
balls in the same way. 



In reply to T. I., Hamilton, 111., I would state: 
that the Hoosac Thornless blackberry has proved, 
to be of very little value— I may say, almost. 

! worthless with us. Although it is a moderately 
good grower, it has not been winter-killed in the 
least; and I have purposely given it every 
exposure, subjecting it to severe winds with no 
covering whatever. It is free from most dis- 
eases and comparatively without thorns — (not 
entirely so, however). The fruit is small audi 
imperfect, so sparingly produced and so hard and', 
unpalatable that it is only useful for variety's. 
sake. I esteem the Dorchester and Lawton, or 
Xew Rochelle,the two old varieties that we have 

i almost discarded, as of more value than Hoosac- 

I Thornless. 



Further discussing the above subject, I earn- 
estly desire to assist those who have started to 
[cultivate the grape vine under glass, in order 
! that they may more successfully cope with the 
I rigorous changes om- climate is subject to, viz:: 
extreme cold., heat and drouth. The following 
remarks are intended more directly to apply to 
the treatment of a cold graperv, where the vines 
1 are planted in a prepared border outside. The 
roots require to be protected with a covering of 
leaves or rough stable manure to the depth of 
fifteen inches, otherwise roots near the surface 
1 — where it is all important they should be— will 
i get destroyed. When a top-dressing can be 
given, equal parts of sods chopped fine and well 
rotted manure will be an additional advantage 
before covering up. Covering should be done 
early in Decem1)er: uncovering about middle of 




Pruning should be done when the leaves have 
'dropped. If any msects are concealed between 
the loose outer bark and inner, the former 
requires to be stripped, being careful not to 
injure the eyes on the spurs. A thorough wash- 
ing with the engine dislodges and destroys all 
insects out of, every crevice. The method is 
more simple and effective than painting the rods 
with the usual compounds. In this way I 
■cleaned a large grapery infested with mealy 
TDUgs, and kept it so for three seasons. Before 
■severe weather sets in, the vine rods require to 
be protected, otherwise* the frost will injure or 
Mil them outright. A good way is to lay them 
:together along the front of the house in shape 
'of a ridge, then cover with earth to the depth of 
lour inches, leveling the earth back to its place 
when severe weather is past. Extreme heat^ 
-which would be the case in a span-roofed 
grapery, where both sides are exposed to the 
■sun's rays, and the glass indicating 90° in the 
shade. My practice is to shade with a thin 
coating of whitewash outside, made by dissolv- 
ing equal parts of lime and salt. It can be put 
on thin, tiot to darken the house much. The 
■salt and lime crystalize on the glass, and is 
not easy washed oft' with rain. From the sec- 
>ond week in June till the middle of August is 
tlie period it should be kept on. The past sea- 
son it had to be renewed but once, and by the 
latter date it was nearly or all washed oft". The 
method of giving air is important, especially in 
the early part of the season ; ventilators should 
open all along the house at the highest point. 
"Whenever the temperature inside indicates 85° 
to 90°, raise the ventilators slightly, increasing 
as the temperature rises. The temperature 
should be kept as even as possible, rising and 
falling with the temperature outside. It is not 
safe to use bottom ventilators when they admit 
a current of cold air through the house. When 
the thermometer indicates 75° at night, a little 
air should be left on the top. To counteract 
extreme droughty it is greatly to the advantage of 
the grape vine to mulch the border during the 
Summer months. A covering of salt hay or 
stable manure is well suited for this purpose. 
We used it the past season with best results. 
The border was top-dressed last Tall as recom- 
mended ; now the border is a complete network 
ot feeding roots within an inch of the sm-face, 
where they get the full benefit of air and mois- 
ture. A good plan is to plug up the leaders, 
and put stops in the gutters ; let the water run 

over on the border. The gutter breaks the 
! force, and the mulching material will keep from 
washing, providing the fall is slight on the 

A liberal use of water on the floor inside is 
of great advantage. A covering of sand to the 
depth of four inches is needed, as it absorbs and 
evaporates freely. Although it is customary to 
keep the floors dry during the period of bloom- 
ing and coloring, yet this season we kept the 
floors thoroughly watered from the time of 
starting the grapery till the crop was ripened, 
and better colored or larger berries are not often 
seen than we had from this practice, the vines 
clean and healthy, and with well ripened wood. 


Highland Hardy Raspberry. — Mr. E. P. 
Roe says, in his recent trade catalogue, that 
" the fruit is small, and of very ordinary flavor," 
but yet he thinks it has value. 

Ben Davis, from MicniGAisr. — Mr. Hoppe 
places before us some Ben Davis apples from 
the Grand Traverse region in Michigan. They 
are very beautiful in color, and twelve inches 
round. Can anybody beat this ? 

Apples in Philadelphia. — Apples are sell- 
ing in Philadelphia, this season, at $3.50 per 
barrel ; Spitzenbergs, on account of their in- 
creasing scarcity, bringing from 25 to 50 cents 
more. If any one can get a new kind that will 
be of the peculiar flavor of the Spitzenberg and 
yet be vigorous and healthy and an abundant 
bearer, there is room for it. ISTewtown Pippins 
are scarce; the agents say they " blast" under 
the skin. The Baldwin and Greening are the 
commonest kinds offered, though the Northern 
Spy increases in quantity every year. Chenango 
Strawberry for the first time appears in great 
quantity last autumn, and seems popular. 

Vine Disease from America— Max. Corun 
charges a new vine disease in France on Amer- 
ica, introduced, he says, by American vines. 
He calles it the Anthracnose. There are white 
spots on the leaves, which afterward become 
charcoal black. It is caused by a fungus, Phoma 
viticola. He also complained of another disease 
on the leaves, looking like velvety spots, which 
he says is caused by another fungus, Cladosjio- 
rium viticola, and then still another fungus 
Peronospora viticola, "attacked the leaves 
and voun<r shoots in a most destructive manner." 




CuLTUKE OF Coffee in the Southern 

States. — We see it stated that efforts are being 
made to introduce cotVee culture into the South- 
ern States ; and that Government is eitlier to 
recommend it, or in some way to be called on 
to aid it. It is a beginning at the wrong end. 
Let some one plant a few hundred trees, and 
show by the facts and figures that it can be done ; 
but this importing trees by the thousand, and 
scattering them "pell mell" everywhere, does 
no good at all. Besides, it is very doubtful 
whether the coffee would do well in any part of 
our territory. In Liberia, where they have what 
is regarded as a peculiarly hard}'- and good kind, 
the temperature is verj^ equable and the land 
low. Sixty degrees is about their lowest and 
ninety degrees their highest temperature ; and 
it does not do well even here, when we go much 
over 5000 feet. 

don recently delivered an address before the 
Industrial Convention of Alabama. He referred 
especially to the apple, peach, pear and grape, 
and believed no State in the Union better 
adapted to fruit culture than Alabama. But 
there are few orchards in Alabama. Many trees 
have been planted, but they, die of starvation. 
The collar borer is the worst foe to the apple 
and peach ; though soft soap put about the root 
will keep him out. Southern varieties of apples 
are the best. Ten thousand barrels of Western 
apples come annually to Mobile. 

Of the peach, after referring to the curculio 
and borer, Mr. Langdon says : 

"Notwithstanding these serious drawbacks, 
the peach crop seldom fails entirely in our State, 
and frequently a full crop is realized; and, tak- 
ing in view the whole ground, I am confident 
that peach-growing is destined soon to become 
one of the most important of what are called 
our small industries. For supplying the Western 
and Northern markets, we enjoy peculiar ad- 
vantages. The peach ripens here a month or 
six weeks earlier than there, and during that 
period we can find a ready market in the cities 
of the West and North for all we can grow. 
The very early varieties recently introduced, 
enable us to commence shipping the last week 
in May, and it can be continued, with other 
varieties in succession, to the middle of July. 
Some estimate of the probable extent and value 
of this trade in the future may be formed from 
what has already been done this season by one 
man. A fruit-grower in Mobile county (Capt. I- 

Donovan, now present in this convention) ship- 
ped to St. Louis alone, this season, between the 
last of May and the 20th of July, some six thou- 
sand boxes (containing one-third of a bushel), on 
which he realized, in cash, after deducting all 
transportation charges and commissions, a clear 
profit oijive thousand dollars ! Now, if one man. 
in one county of our State, shipping to only one 
city, can accomplish such results, who can esti- 
mate the value and extent of this trade when 
enough shall engage in peach-growing to suppl}- 
all the thousand cities, great and small, of the 
West and North? Suppose ten men in every 
county of the Stat€ should do, on an average, 
what my Mobile friend and colleague has done 
this season, there would be realized, from this 
one product alone, over three and a half million 
dollars! And this from one of our "small in- 
dustries!" But before these results can be 
reached, we must have, on all our principal 
railroad lines, better and additional facilities for 
transportation. We must have special fruit cars, 
fast freight trains, and cheap freights. And 
these we shall doubtless have whenever the 
business will authorize it." 

Californian Frttits in California. — Our 
correspondent Mr. T. G. Yeomans. is traveling 
in California. In a letter to his family, he says : 
" While it grows that of almost every variet}^, 
it is generally conceded, by those who are best 
informed on the subject, that their fruits, of the 
apple and pear at least, while they attain large 
size, are inferior in quality to those grown in the 
portion of the Atlantic States where they are 
grown most largely ; and I think it is generally 
admitted that the same difference, in a greater 
or less degree, exists between peaches, cherries, 
berries, and other fruits. The .apples I have 
tasted, from time to time for the last two months, 
are insipid in comparison with the same varieties 
grown with us in western New York; and the 
same difference appears in such pears as I 
have tasted. If this be true of the green fruit, 
i it will follow with the same fruits when evapo- 
I rated or canned. The strawberries and other 
j small fruits are almost exclusively grown by the 
free use of irrigation, which unquestionably gives 
I large size at the expense of fine quality. I am 
! inclined to the opinion that the foggy weather, 
j so characteristic of this State generally, taken 
i in connection with the wonderful fertility of the 
I soil and irrigation, tend to give size of product, 
[ but wanting in flavor or quality. Beets, squashes 
and other vegetables are forcible illustrations ; 



\^ January. 

and the efforts to manufacture sugar from beets, 
in this State, have shown this vegetable to be 
wanting in saccharine quality. And the quality 
of grapes grown in the most fertile valleys is 
admitted to be inferior to those grown on the 
higher lands, either for raisins or wine; and it is 
probable that the want of popularity of Cali- 
fornia wines may be owing to an inherent orig- 
ignal want of an essential element in the grapes. 

" As evidence of the apparent effect of fogs and 
moisture on vegetable growth, witness the mossy 
trunks and branches of apple trees in every part 
of the State ; and not on apple trees only, but on 
almost all fruit trees, as well as many trees not 
fruit-bearing ; also on the roofs of buildings and 
fences — often on one side only, but generally on 
every fence of many years' standing. 

'' In corroboration of the foregoing news, let 
me mention that, while peaches are grown plen- 
tifully and sold cheaply here, and also canned in , 
large quantities, yet the canned peaches that are i 
conceded to be the best quality and sell at the ; 
highest prices, are put up in Baltimore. The ! 
sweet corn that sells at the highest price is canned i 
in Maine." 

AsPAKAGus-FoRCiNG IN Pakis. — I have lately I 
visited a very extensive establishment for the [ 
forcing of asparagus in Paris, of which a few | 
words may not be without interest to the readers 
of The Garden. In all, about a half an acre of 
glass is devoted to the culture, and a supply is i 
obtained from early in September to the end of 
April. It is forced in three ways : in houses 
heated with hot water; in frames sunk in the 
ground and heated in the same way ; and lastly, 
in frames plunged in warm stable manure. It 
appeared to be forced with equal success in each 
case, though the stable manure seemed to offer 
the simplest means. As usual, here the frames 
are small — about four feet wide. The roots are 
placed directly on the manure, not flat, as they 
would be in the open ground, but packed as 
closely as possible, from 500 to 2000 roots - ac- 1 
cording to size — going under one light. A mere ! 
sprinkling of soil is placed over them. As a 
i-esult, the shoots come up very thickly. The '. 
roots employed are strong and fine ones, three : 
years from the seed. As many as five crops of | 
roots follow each other throughout the autumn, | 
winter and spring, in the same frame. The uni- 
versal straw mat is used to cover the frames at 
night. A dozen persons were employed solely 
ingathering and "bundling" the asparagus for 
market ; so that the quantities gathered for use 

are considerable. All is done in the simplest 
and rudest manner, the securing of good crops- 
being the only thing considered. — R. W., in The 

Hybridization of tup: Monukka ani> 
Black Hamburgh Grapes.— The Black Mo- 
nukka is a grape believed to be of Indian origin, 
which was received from the late Mr. Johnson,, 
gardener at Hampton Court, and distributed by 
the Royal Horticultural Society. It is a grape 
of great peculiarity and of great excellence. It 
is of exceedingly robust growth, and a somewhat 
shy bearer. The bunches produced are, how- 
ever, very large, from twelve to twenty inches 
or more in length, and of a regular, taperhig 
form. The berries are small, long-ovate, inclin- 
ing to be conical like an acorn, measuring seven- 
eights of an inch in length and five-eights of an 
inch in diameter. In color it approaches black,, 
when well ripened, but is more fi-equently of a 
dull reddish-brown. It has a thin coating of 
bloom. The skin is thin, adhering to the pulp, 
which is firm, fleshy, and not melting, yet very 
tender and full of juice. It contains no perfect 
seeds, only one, or at most two, half-formed, and 
these being soft, like the pulp, are eaten with it,, 
as well as the skins. The flavor is rich and 
sweet, of the most agreeable character, not in 
any way peculiar, yet refreshing and pleasant to- 
the palate. The black monucca Is termed a 
seedless grape. It is so, however, only so far as 
the seeds remain immature. The seeds are 
formed, yet, from some cause, they are not per- 
fected. This failing may, perhaps, in some 
measure, account for the smalhiess of the berry. 
The peculiarity may possibly be due to defective 
setting. — A. F. Barron, in I'he Journal of the 
Royal Horticultural Society. 



Strawberry — The Phenomenon. — A sin- 
gular strawberry under this name has appeared! 
in Belgium. On the one stem there are always 
two strawberries, so that the old expression 
of " two bites to a berry" is not a choice but an 
actual necessity, irrespective of size ; and yet it 
is not a small berry or " berries," for it or 
"they" is, each half, two inches long by one 

Stram'bei!Rv— Prof. Ed. Pynaert.— This 
strawberry, is said to be an " enormous fruit.'" 
It is figured four inches across, which is 
about twelve inches in firciunference : but 




as it is one of the Cockscoinliy kinds, ci-oss 
measurement is deceptive. How nuieh will a 
dozen weijjh? This is the true strawhen-y 

Stump Apple. — While absent from home last 
Fall, some specimens of this fruit were received 
from ^Ir. J. R. Stone. Our contemporary, the 
Country Gentleman — than whose Hort. Editor, J. 
J. Thomas, there is none more competent to 
ijive a fair opinion of a new fruit — thus speaks 
of it : 

" The Stump apple has excited considerable 
attention of late years in the neighborhood of 
Rochester, and was briefly described in the '■■ 
Report of the Committees on Native Fruits at 
the Winter Meeting of the A\^estern New York i 
Horticultural Society, in January, 1876. It is | 
distinguished for its beauty of appearance and 
its great productiveness, and sells at a high price 
in market. It ripens about the middle of 
Autumn. The following is a description : Size 
medium or slightly above; form long conical, 
smooth and regular, obtusely and securely 
ribbed; skin smooth, striped, blotched and mot- 
tled with brilliant red on light, clear yellow 
ground, with a few large russet dots; stem quite 
short, in a narrow, even cavity; basin narrow 
and ribbed ; tiesh white, partly stained with pink, 
with a very good sub-acid, arojnatic flavor — some- 
what in its character like the Fameuse, and 
nearly as good. 

This fruit resembles the Red Stripe of Indiana 
in several particulars, but the stem of the Red 
Stripe in the specimens we have examined is 
much longer than those of the Stump? This 
difference, however, often occurs betw^een large 
and small specimens, the smaller having the 
longest stem, which might result from growing 
on older and more crowded trees. We give the 
above description to assist further investiga- 

Dr. Warder, in speaking of the Red Stripe, says, 
•• Mr. Rockhill, of Fort Wayne, who introduced 
this apple, made more money from the trees 
than from twice as many of any other sort," in 
which respect it corresponds with the account of 
the Stump, which has proved eminently profit- 
able as a market apple. It is impossible to 
pronounce on the distinctness or identity of the 
two apples when grown so far apart and in so 
dissimilar latitudes and soils as Rochester and 
Fort Wayne, by the mere examination of speci- 


1Iidp:-Bound Trees.— J. K. S., Cincinnati, 
writes: "Among the Germans over the Rhine, 
as we call their location here, there is a practice 
of slitting up the bark of some trees that do not 
grow freely. They say they are hide-bound. What 
i« the philosophy of this practice ? It seems 
to me very absurd. I would as soon slit up 
my leg to cm-e the rheumatism. What does the 
Gardexer's Monthly say?" 

[Say what it has always said, that experience 
proves it to be an ^excellent practice in hide- 
bound trees. We place our advice on the broad 
basis of experience, and if our correspondent 
really wishes to test the question in the way he 
himself proposes, we are ready to do it. He 
may take his rheumatic leg and slit it down an 
inch deep, if he likes, from the knee joint to the 
heel, and we will slit our best pear tree; and 
after all this has been done, and we have the 
effects l)efore us, then discuss the "philosophy" 
of the thing. Please w^'ite us word when the 
comparative test is to begin, so that we may 
make a note thereof for the benefit of our 
readers. Ed. G. M.] 

Lime for ax Apple Orchard.— A Rucks 
Co., Pennsylvanian, writes: "My fruit crop has 
been very good this year ; I had nearly as many 
apples as last year. The prices obtained were 
from CO cents to $1.20. My apples were extra- 
ordinarily fine, owing to the wet season. I am 
spreading 35 bushels per acre of lime over my 
orchards. I am a little afraid of it ; some say 
that lime is ruinous to orchards. I wish I knew" 
about it. Give me your opinion of lime for 

[We know of no reason why lime, as suggested 
I by our corresj)ondent, should not be an advan- 
! tage. Ed. G. M.] 

' Dwarf Apple Stocks.— J. G. B., Newburgh, 

I N. Y., writes : "I have been a constant reader 

i of your highly esteemed journal for many years, 

! but do not recollect of having seen any detailed 

j account of the history of the so-called Paradise 

and Doncain stock. To what class of trees do 

they belong botanically, what is their nativity, 

how are they propagated, and which of the 

two is more desirable for dwarfing the apple ? 

Any information regarding the above query 

will confer a favor upon your humble servant." 

[The Paradise and Doncain apples, used for 

stocks, are not distinct species, although it has 



I January J 

been thought so by botanists of the past, and is 
stilly so thought by some of the present age. 
But horticulturists understand variations better 
than many botanists do, and there is no doubt 
we think that these apples are dwarf varieties 
of the ordinary apple, Pyrus Mains, just 
as we have dwarf box or dwarf anything. 
Of course there are some "characters" noted 

in botanical descriptions, but they are worth 
no more than the characters which divide 
a Red Astrachan from a Lady apple. 
For very dwarf apples the Paradise is 
used, as it is the weakest growing stock. The 
Doncain grows stronger, and an apple on this 
will often grow nearly as vigorous as one on an 
ordinary apple stock. Ed. G. M.] 



The Eucalyptus in Algieks. — Mr. Play- 
fair, the English consul at Algiers, has sent a 
report to his government on the improvements 
brought about by the planting of the Eucalyptus. 
He very properly condemns the nonsense that 
has appeared in relation to the Eucalyptus as 
injuring the real value of the tree. Many hun- 
dred thousand have been planted in Algeria 
since 1870. TJiey were planted in marshy ground. 
The immense growth calls for an increased sup- 
ply of moisture, and in this way marshy ground 
is made dry, and with this root-di^aining mos- 
quitoes as well as fevers disappear. It is by 
acting as a drainer of the soil that its merit as a 
purifier of the atmosphere exists; and in this 
respect Mr. Playfair considers it has been a 
'great boon to that fever-stricken country. He 
also adds that the tree is not so tender as some 
people think, but can be made to thrive in any 
part of the world where orange trees will live 
through the winter. 

Eucalyptus Timber. — isfow that the Cali- 
fornians have timber from their fast-growing 
blue gum, they fear it will be of little use for 
many purposes. It splits with the least heat. 
There are many things required to make first- 
class timber. We lioped for much from the yel- 
low locust, a few years ago, and the Philadel- 
phia, Wilmington & Baltimore Railroad had 
their cross-ties of it, but had to take them all 
■out in :a year or two. It Avas too hard to hold a 

Eucalyptus in India. — It is to be hoped 
that the blue gum will flourish in manj^ places 
!on our continent where there is no frost i but we 

must try to profit by others' experience. It has 
been found a failure on the plains of India, where 
very much was expected from it. 

Large Cherry Tree.— Though not included 
in botanical works, the cherry of our gardens is 
one of the commonest of wild trees in Pennsyl- 
vania, and they, in the short time since their 
escape from culture, have grown to enormous 
sizes. The editor of The Gardener's Monthly 
has one on his grounds that is 8 feet 6 inches 
round, 5 feet from the ground; and this is 
considered a very large trunk ; but there is one 
on the grounds of Mr. Richard Cripp, of By- 
berry, Pa., that is double this, or sixteen feet. 
Can any one beat this ? The cherry is highly 
esteemed for its timber by cabinet-makers. It 
resembles mahogany, when polished. It is also 
a very valuable fuel ; but we do not know^ of any 
other demand for it. 

Hardiness of the Eucalyptus in Phila- 
delphia. — Mr. Joseph Wharton reports to the 
Academy of Natural Sciences, that trees, even 
when somewhat protected, died last winter. 

A New Product from the Pine. — Vanillin 
exists in the sap of the pine (Pinus sylvestris) 
and of the larch. For the purpose of procuring 
it, the trees are felled during the period when 
vegetation is most active, and are stripped of 
their bark. They are then immediately scraped, 
and the product collected in vessels of tinned 
iron, is immediately heated on the spot to pre- 
vent fermentation, filtered, concentrated, and 
allowed to cool and settle. A substance is thus 
obtained which resembles powdered sugar, and 
which is known as coniferin. This is a stable 
compound, and is sent in barrels to Paris, where 
the vanillin is extracted. The process of ex- 
tracting the vanillin is an expensive one, but the 




product is procured at a less cost than the natu- 
ral vanilla of commerce can be purchased at. — 
Scientific American. 

A Redwood. — Mr. James English is still at 
work on the redwood tree which he felled at 
Russian River station, California, some few 
months ago. He has already made from it 
250,000 shingles, 1000 fence posts, 6000 stakes, 
lumber for a dwelling-house and out-buildings, 
and has timber left for 300,0(J0 shingles. The 
tree was fourteen feet in diameter. 


Lemon Wood.— W., West Philadelphia, 
writes : "Ha\ing occasion to have use for some 
boxwood recently, I found it very dear ; I sup- 
pose it grows too slow to make a profit in our 
country, for I have noticed some edgings here 
in an old garden that are no higher now than 
they were twenty years ago. When in Rome, a 
few years ago, I was shown some work made 
out of wood of the lemon tree that was con- 
sidered almost as good as if made from box ; and 
I venture to make the suggestion that a planta- 

tion of lemon trees for the sake of the wood, to 
say nothing of the fruit, would be profitable. 
In the black, peaty soils of New Jersey it ought 
to grow very fast. The lemon tree is generally 
grown in rooms and tubs about here, but it 
would no doubt do well out if tried. Can you 
tell me of any experiments that have been made 
in this direction ?" [We know of no such ex- 
periment, and have not the slightest idea that it 
would succeed. We are surprised that our 
correspondent sent this communication to us. 
It was no doubt intended for some of the daily 
newspapers. Ed. G. M.] 

PiCEA Engelmanni. — A correspondent, who 
is very familiar with the Coniferall of the 
American continent, writes : "Is it possible that 
the beautiful spruces collected by you and Mr. 
Hoopes from the highest timber growths of 
Gray's Peak in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado, 
are really of Abies Eugelmanni ? If they are, 
} they do not agree with the description recently 
I given of this species by Prof. C. S. Sargent." 

fWe can only say that what we take to be 
I Picea Engelmanni are the same, and we think 
j from the same location, as those from which Dr. 
i Parry made his original description. Ed. G. M.] 

Natural History and Science. 




I notice in the August number of the 
MoNTPiLY, notice of a new forage plant, Cyno- 
glossum Morrisoni — Beggars' Ticks. I thought it 
would be well to call your attention to the same, 
as there is a mistake about it. Cynoglossum 
Morrisoni is Beggars' Lice, and is of the Borage 
family. The Beggars' Ticksis Bidens frondosa, 
and is of the Composite family. As it may mis- 
lead others, hence my reason for calling your 
attention to it. 

I hope you will continue to publish your notes 
of your travels. They are very interesting to 



I think the Boston Journal of Chemistry has 
made a mistake as to the Rhamnus frangula be- 
ing used for the manufacture of gun-powder ; for 

in Science Gossip for June, 1877, is a comment 
on a previous article about Cornus mascula, 
which is called in Europe the "cornelian cherry," 
£tnd which the writer adds, "if my memory is 
correct, is used for the manufacture of gun- 

Gray says that Cornus mascula is sparingly 
planted here. It is a tall shrub or low tree, 
with yellow flowers ; fruit bright red ; the pulp 
eatable and pleasantly acid. 

The first article to which I referred (Science 

Gossip for April, 1877), says "it is a native of 

I Austria, and little cultivated in England. In 

j Switzerland the berries are eaten by children, 

and made into sweetmeats and tarts." 

Our most beautiful of the Dogwood family is 
Cornus Florida. Tree 12 to .30 feet. More 
common South; very showy in flowers, which are 
white. The wood has been used for domestic and 
other purposes. Virgil says : " Bono bello cornus^'''' 
and Evelyn — later — "that wedges made of it 
are durable as, or rather like iron." There is a 
trite adage of the farmers derived from its early 



\^ January,. 

rtowering, indicating the peculiar season for cottonwoods. 

planting their corn. I would like to know the j. Populus angulata—Michaux, Carolina Pop- 
saying. Is the bark still used as a substitute j^r. Michaux says this species, which he met 
for Cinchona? (xray says "it is bitter and ui^der the name of Carolinian Poplar, was foun(J 
tonic." I southward, in Virginia, and on the Mississippi 

Query last, why called Dogwood V and Missouri rivers growing with the Cotton- 

[The Cornus of the ancients comprised two ^ood, Canadensis. He describes it as tall-grow- 
species— the male, which we now call Cornus ! }ng and upright, which is the character of the 
mascula, and the female, now Cornus sanguinea, | Carolina. The buds are short, dark green, and 
These are the only two with which they I destitute of the tesin found on those of the Cot- 
were acquainted. The bono bello cornus of tonwood, and other poplars. This is believed to- 
Virgil refers to a light lance made of the wood ^e the tree so prevalent in parts of Belgium, 
of one of the species, and which was used in ; where it is planted along the canals, for which 
war. The American Cornus florida has much ! purpose it is especially adapted by its upright 
the same good properties as its European sisters, ' babit. 

for Cornus, even includmg the male cornel, is a | 2. Populus Canadensis, o^Mxchwxy.. The Cot- 
noun feminine. The wood is still used for tonwood is considered by Dr. Gray* to be the 
wedges, and other things where strength and ' monilifera of Alton, and" the laevigata of Will- 
small bulk is desired. It is in common use in denow. Wood's Xo. 5 monilifera of Alton. 

Philadelphia among lumbermen and draymen 
for spring levers, for in addition to its great 
strength it will bend any way without breaking. 
During the late war the bark was in common 
use in the South as a substitue for quinine, and 

seems to be dift'erent with habitat "on the 
Hudson, near Troy, N. Y., apparently native. "" 
"Fide Beck.'"t 

Michaux found this species as far northward, 
as 43°. It is abundant in the Black Swamp.. 

it is still regarded as perhaps the best substitute in northwestern Ohio, and fine trees may be 
for it. According to one author, it is called seen on the hanks of the river below Detroit,. 
Dogwood because in olden times^a decoction of Mich. Michaux describes the tree as larger- 
it was the popular wash for mangy dogs. But than the angulata, and the bark as thicker andi 
another, with more probability, refers it to the niore deeply furrowed, having a wider head andl 
Celtic dagge, from which our "tlagger'Ms de- with the boughs more thickly branched. This 
rived, and which is in accordance with its class- character of the outer bark has attracted the^ 

ical history.— Ed. (I. M.] 



In the Gardener's Monthly for November, 
1877, are some strictures upon the name Populus 

attention of the fishermen on the banks, who 
utilize it as a substitute for the more costly bark; 
Quercus suber, or cork. Sections of this sub- 
stance, often three inches thick, are turned into 
oval form and perforated, so as to be i*sed as- 
floats to their gill-nets. 
Michaux reports this species rare on the Atlan- 

angulata used l)y my friend, Dr. Furnas,, of Dan- ^f slope, but very t'ommon on the Mississippi 
ville, Indiana, as applied to the Carolina Poplar. 
His stock was received from Mr. Parry, New 

above the Arkansas. At the mouth of the last 
named river it grows abundantly around the 

Jersey, and through him it came under my town of Napoleon. It is the chief source of the 
notice. insomecuttings received lastspring,which steamboat fuel on our southern streams, 
have made a growth of three to four feet. For 3- The Virginian or Swiss Poplar, P. momli- 
the suggestion of the name angulata, as applied A'"" of Michaux, supposed by Gray to be P. 
to these plants, I must assume the responsi- monilifera of Alton, does not apper to have 
bility, and it mav be an error. The conclusion been found in this country by the Michaux' 
may have been reached too hastily. It was ^^'^^^r or son, but they say it is extensively cul- 
given on the authority of Michaux' Sylva i tivated in Europe, especially in Switzerland. 
Americana. ' ^^^ France the males only are found. The 

^ Having been induced to look up the authorities \ yo""g ^^^oots are angular. Comparing it with 
withinreach, the following analysis of the genus, 

the result of this investigation, is presented for ^Manual of Botany, Asa Gray, 2d Edition, 18S6, His. No. 4^ 
the benefit of your readers. ^Tciass'Boolt, Alplionso Wood, 41st Edition, I855, page 50T. 




Cottonwood, Mr. Fancourt, director of forests 
:and water-courses, says the leaves are smaller 
?iiul less distinctly heart-shaped; the young 
shoots and twigs are smaller and less angular, 
becoming cylindrical in the third year, and the 
limbs are less divergent than the cottonwood. 
It also grows faster, and succeeds in drier soils, 
hence its popularity in France.* The wood is 
«aid to be softer than the cottonwood or, P. Cana- 
f^ensis, of Michaux. Dr. Torrey found it in 
western Xew York, on Lake Oneida and Gene- 
see river.i' 

4, The Cotton Tree, Populus argenten, Michx., 
■and according to (^ray P. heferophylla, L., is 
found in the Middle, Western and Southern 
States; and Micheaux, especially, refers to a 
large swamp in southern Illinois, and to Fort 
Mapac, on the Ohio river, as habitats. 

The tree is large, with thick bark, the shoots 
are round, thei young leaves very downy, becom- 
ing large, and having the lobes at the base over- 
lapping each other. 

The wood is described as inferior, becoming 
yellowish at the heart. 

All of these would probably receive the name 
of Cottonwood among our Western wood-chop- 
pers ; and, indeed, they bear very near resem- 
blance, and have close analogies. The first 
botanical descriptions have been purposely omit- 
ited in this resume. 


Populm balsamifera — Tacamahaca, or Balsam 
Poplar, is a very distinct species. This is par- 
ticularly northern, extending to Stoneleake, lat. 
(lo.l Leaves on round petioles, dark green 
above, rusty brown beneath ; tree of medium to 
large size, with open, straggling branches. 
Though unseemly, it is often found in cultivation. 

Populus candicans, of Alton, Balm of Gilead, 
IS a variety called also Ileart-leaved Balsam 
Poplar. This form is chiefly seen in cultivation, 
though it has little to recommend it. 

Populus migustifolia, of James, is described 
by S. B. Watson, of Clarence King's survey of 
the 40th parallel, as a common tree in the Rocky 
Mountains. It is now grouped with candicans 
and balsamifera, of which it is a very distinct 
western form, having also quite a diversity in its 
foliage, some leaves being ovate, while in other 
trees they are nearly linear, and with a drooping 

*N. Amer. Sylva, vol. ii, page 120. 

tNew York Natural History. Botany, vol. ii. page 21.5. 

iDr. Torrev, Nat. Hist., N. Y. Botany, vol. II., p. 816. 

spray. The resemblance to willows is very strik- 
ing, as seen on the Platte river, Colorado. 

8. Populus trichocarpa, Torrey, is western, 
found in Truckee Valley. 

9. Populus nigra, L. European, was not recog- 
nized by the Michaux in this country, but trees 
found near Albany, N. Y., on the Hudson, and 
in New York city, were described by them as T. 
Hudsonica, and by Pursh as the betulifolia. 
There is little doubt about its having been intro- 
duced from Europe, where it grows to a large 
size, and with P. alba is much used along the 
Danube in reclaiming low overflowed lands, 
whose thickets arr«st the drift of floods and fur- 
nish abundant material for the fascines used in 
the wing dams and levees, and for improving 

10. The Lombardy poplar, Populus dilataia,of 
Alton, is no longer looked upon as a species, but 
merely a variety or sport from the nigra. 

i This is extensivel}^ grown as an alley tree along 
the highways of Southern Europe, where it is a 
great favorite, despite its extremely formal 
i habit. II was early introduced and extensively 
planted in this country also, particularly in the 
streets of towns and cities. In the Eastern 
States, very large trees may yet be seen in good 
condition. In the Western States, especially in 
Northern Illinois and Wisconsin, it has been 
largely planted m fence rows as wind-breaks, 
and the effect in a prairie country is very pleas- 
I ant ; but in our Westei'u soils the tree does not 
prove to be long-lived. The plants found in 
I this country appear to be only staminate or 
; males. How is it in Europe ?* 

Watson, in his "Annals of Philadelphia," says 
I this tree was introduced into that city in 1784 by 
;Wm. Hamilton, Esq., of "The Woodlands," 
' (near the Centennial Exhibition), and all the 
I Lombardy poplars in the United States may be 
I sidered branches, elongations or offsets of the 
I tree from which Mr. Hamilton obtained his 
! specimen.! 

Aspens, or Abeles, form a distinct group among 
the poplars. They are usually smaller trees, 
especially the American species. 

*This question i§ already answered by my friend and jury 
colUague at Vienna, ra«)-(^'ovani Carlo Siemoni, who fxya 
tlii? poplar ia but a form of P. nigra, and that all the plants are 
males. He adds th;it it has long b"cn extensively plan ed in 
Lombardy. particularly along thi^ river Po. In evidence of its 
«nnqnity,lie quotes Ovid's reference Xo it.— ManuaU d' Arte. 
Forestal", Firenze, 1872, p. 13T. 

tDarlington's Agr. Botany, 2d Ed., page 332. 



\_ January y 

11. Populm tremuloides, Michaux. Quaking 
asp, is here but a small tree of the second or 
third class, seldom more than twenty to forty 
feet high, particularly toward the north, where 
it becomes a mere shrub. A form of this species 
in the parks of the Rocky Mountains springs up 
spontaneously in the greatest abundance wher- 
ever the woodlands have been burned over. The 
older trees had handsome shafts fifty to sixty 
feet high, and are used in construction. This is 
almost unique as a deciduous tree among the 
conifers of that region. 

Generally speaking, this species has little 
value, but there are some peculiar forms which 
are cultivated and placed for effect in gardens 
and parks. 

12. Populus grandideniaia, Michx., Michigan 
poplar of nurserymen is a much finer tree, also 
northern in habitat. On account of its rapid 
growth, this had received considerable attention 
by Western planters, and though only a poplar, 
merit is claimed for it as a fencing material •,* the 
poles cut in early Summer and peeled have been 
found to last well as rails nailed to posts for 

13. Populus canescens, or the Populus alba,JAn- 
nseus, the common white or gray poplar, with its 
many forms or varieties of Abeles, Athenian, 
maple-leaved and silver poplar. 

Though widely diffused and planted every- 
where, and multiplied wonderfully by numerous 
suckers in their new home, these are believed to 
be of European origin. If correctly understood, 
my good friend. Professor Karl Koch, of Berhn, 
who has made a life study of trees, considers 
this species to be American, or common to both 
hemispheres. His valuable workt is unfor- 
tunately not at hand. 

Populus tremula, Linn, is a small tree in Eu- 
rope which may some day be united -with our 
P. tremuloideus. It is chiefly valued as a first 
crop on devastated tracts to prepare the soil for 
that of greater utility, says Simone.t 

In Southern Europe the white poplar becomes 
a noble tree, and the timber is much used in the 
construction of dwellings. It may be found 
valuable by our Western planters. Michaux 
claims two distinct trees, the white and the gray, 
attributing superiority to the latter. 

* Bryant's Forept Trees, page 124. 

t Kook's Dendrolof/ie. 

t Manaule tf' Arte ForeMale. 


The Wages of Insects. — A botanical friend 
wrote to the Monthly some months ago, sug- 
gesting that the editor had "caricatured" the 
views of those who dwelt on the great advanta- 
ges to be derived from cross fertilization through 
insect agency. We have already given some 
quotations showing that we have in no way mis- 
represented what was once taught, whatever 
may be the lessons now; and we give here 
another extract from a recent paper by Professor 
Beal, in the Scientific i^a/^er, showing that he 
not only understands the position of our friends 
as Ave have done, but evidently adopts the view.s 
as entirely sound : 

" We are prepared to understand that honej' is 
placed in flowers as wages to pay insects for 
serving the plants. The gay colors and odors 
are advertisements to call the attention of insects 
to the rich supplies of food in store for them. 
Saunders, of Canada, cut off the petals of rasp- 
berries, and by so doing made it difficult or 
impossible for the bees to find honey." 

The Root of the Tupelo Tree. — Physi- 
cians, when they wait on us, are very particular 
to have their prescriptions in Latin. They say 
it avoids mistakes ; but when they are among 
themselves they do not seem as particular. The 
Medical and Surgical Reporter says that the root 
of the Tupelo is very useful in obstetrics, being 
" the lightest of all woods." Now, the Tupelo 
is generally supposed to be Nyssa sylvatica, but 
the root of this tree is a long way from being 
" the lightest of all woods." The Tupelo is also 
called " sour gum," and the Liquidambar is the 
" sweet gum," which has light roots, " and it is 
not at all unlikely that the Reporter is talking of 
the Liquidambar when it meant the Nyssa, the 
" sweet" and not the " sour" gum. 

Common Names of Plants. — Easy in com- 
parison as these seem to be, no one not in the 
secret can have the least idea of the labor and 
trouble they give to those who wish to under- 
stand what they hear or read about. A case in 
point we find in a recent Chicago Tribune. A 
correspondent from Missouri tells a wonderful 
story about the " Wan" weed, and which is also 
the "Dyer's weed." It grows in the State in 
great abundance everywhere, and may save 
thousands of dollars to tanners in leather making. 
The editor considers that the easy common 




name informs nobody, consults his books and 
finds it to be, he sa,ys, ^^ Reseda luteola;''' while 
the innocent plant is, no doubt, Polygonum 
amphibium. It would have been hard, no doubt, 
for that correspondent to have sent his specimen 
to his State Botanist, and have had to learn so 
"hard" a name as Polygonum amphibium. 
instead of writing "Wan" to his editor; but it 
will be harder still to unlearn the fact started in 
this loose way that Reseda luteola is a good 
plant for tanning leather. 

The Prickly Pear. — In some tropical coun- 
tries hedges of the prickly pear have been 
recommended in order to check the progress of 
forest fires. But there seems to be no blessing 
without its attendant evils, and so it is here. 
The birds scatter the seeds, and the plant spreads 
so that it is one of the worst possible of weeds. 
Being a succulent kind of cactus, hoeing and 
cutting up, of course, only increases the pest. 

lN,y;RY FROM Euphorbia. — Often reports get 
into the papers of injury from plants that are evi- 
dently apocryphal : but an account in a Southern 
paper of injury to a lady at Macon, Ga., from 
the juice of the Euphorbia is no doubt correct. 
The juice is extremely acrid, and is used to burn 
out warts. 

PiNus BouRSERi.— This is figured in a recent 
number of the Garden, and Pinus contorta is 
said to be synonymous with it. We have no knowl- 
edge as to the priority or history of this name or 
who is its author. 

Agricultural Axts. — Dr. McCook, of 
Philadelphia, has been telling us about ants in 
Texas that sow, reap, and store grain in grana- 
ries. There ai"e some, also, that keep stock : 

" It has been stated by Sir John Lubbock that 
certain kinds of aphides are preserved by ants 
for purposes of the food afforded by a certain 
sweet secretion in the former, the eggs being 
carefully guarded and the young larvee fed and 
cherished until they ultimately attain their per- 
fect form, when they served as contributions to 
the dietery of the ants." 

Flax Blight.— Among the plagues of Egypt 
mentioned in Genesis, was a blight on the fiax 
fields, and this trouble has continued more or 
less to our time. At the late meeting of the 
French Association for the Advancement of Sci- 
ence, it was announced that the disease was 
caused by a species of thrip, and which is so 
very small that it can be readily transported by 
the wind. 

Abies venusta. — In the vegetable kingdom 
the conifers bear a markedly high and deserved 
rank, but none more so than the abies, or fir 
family. One variety of the abies is found alone 
within the borders of San Luis Obsipo county, 
and is so rare that, until quite recently, but one 
specimen was to be found in all Europe. So rare 
is a knowledge even of this beautiful tree that 
we have heard but two persons mention it in 
our two years' residence in San Luis. These 
gentlemen Avere Dr. W. W. Hays and Mr. Ernst 
Krebs. Mr. Krebs has spent large sums of 
money to obtain specimens, but has never suc- 
ceeded in getting healthy ones until the present 
week, when he received seventeen fine young 
plants. The foliage resembles, slightly, the 
common firs of the forest. It is far more deli- 
cate, the leaves longer and not so crowded upon 
the limbs, which are slender and graceful. The 
upper side of the leaf is a deep bright green, 
while the under surface is straited with silver, 
white and pale sea green, perfectly beautiful in 
their delicate blending. It is said to be the most 
beautiful object among all California's forest 
treasures, and when the wind puts in motion its 
airy branches are said to resemble undulating 
waves of silver foam. From these young speci- 
mens in the grounds of Mr Krebs, we can 
imagine what a forest would be where the spiral 
trunks rear themselves to a height of fifty or 
sixty feet, and are clothed with a profusion of its 
delicate foliage. 

The habitat of this treasure is a circumscribed 
spot of a few acres in the deep recesses of the 
Santa lAicia mountains, on the border of Mon- 
terey county, and so inaccessible that but few, 
even of the hardy hunters, have ever seen it. 
This is said to be the only spot in the known 
world where the tree is found. In the early 
days of California the padres used to send In- 
dians to gather the resin that exudes from the 
trees where sacrificed by accident or design ; and 
this resin was burned in the censors before the 
high altars upon great occasions. From this 
fact it derives the local name of "Pinabeta de 
los Padres." Mr. Krebs has made arrange- 
ments to have a supply of seed gathered next 
season, and will, we hope, be successful in intro- 
ducing it into common cultivation.— »?«/! Lnis 
Obsipo Tribune. 

Something About Parks.— The South Park 
Commissioners of Chicago have refused further 
appropriations for keeping up the Botanic 
Gardens, for the reason as stated that these 



grounds made no show for the expense incurred. 
As though, an Arboretum, or a system of 
botanic specimens intended to illustrate the 
botany of a country, or the world, was expected 
to make a display merely to catch the eye. In 
consequence, the work already done and the i 
specimens on hand will be lost. The decision of 
the Commissioners is mcedng witli general 
reprehension, especially since the amount of i 
money spent has been comparatively small, 
mere nothing in comparison to the immense ! 
sums of money spent in making drives in the 
parks, of advantage only to those who can afford i 
to drive their splendid equipages. It is to be 
hoped the Commission will reconsider their 
decision, although much damage has already 
taken place. The English people are not so i 
much afraid of expense where real utility is to j 
be gained. The Kew Botanic Gai'dens and 
grounds of England, cost yearly Jri^lKlOOO. while > 
only $170,000 is yearly expended on St. James j 
Green and Hyde Parks. These are respectively ! 
the finest of their kinds in the world. The j 
expense of keeping up some other noted public 
grounds in England is as follows : Regent's 
Park, %50.000; Victoria Park, $40.000 ; Ken- 
sington Gardens, ^30,000; Richmond Park, 
>i;14,000; Hampton Court Grounds, ^10,000, and 
Hampton Court I'ark, a4,700. — Prnirie Faxmer. 


RnoDODEKDKox BoiiKH.— With a badly bored I 
stem of a Rhododendron, a Philadelphia corres- 
pondent sends the following note : 

" Can anything ])e done to prevent an insect 
from killing the branches of the Azaleas and ■ 
Rhododendrons? I enctlose you a bit of the 
wood. Even those in pots have suft'cred." 

Restoring Dead .Seeds. — Miss B. writes: 
" Let me relate my experience. Three years ago 
I gathered some seeds of Golden Pyrethrum, 
and planted half the next spring. Not one came 
up. I supposed they wei-e not ripe. Yet un- 
willing to give up trying for the beautiful plant, 
the following spring, more than a year after 
they were gathered, I planted the remainder of 
the seeds, and sprinkled the earth with camphor- 
water. They all came up. Slips which have 
traveled thousands of miles, and apparently 
have no vitality, when soaked in camphor-water 
grow green and fresh." 

Akgt'LLI'LA kadkoj.a. — R. M., Emporia, 
Kan., writes: "I am troubled with a kind of 
knot or excrescence growing on the roots of 
plants, causing me great loss. It is not confined 
to any particular kind, but has injured Helio- 
trope, Begonia, Scdum, Solamun, «fcc. 

•' I su])mitted specimens to Prof. C. Y. Riley, 
and he pronounced it the result of the work of 
• a nematoid worm, closely allied to, if not^den- 
tical with, Angullula radicola.' He tells me 
that you hiive been troubled with it, but does 
not seem to know any remedy for it other than 
to advise the destruction of the infected plants 
and soil. 

" If you have had trouble from this source, have 
you found any application that would check its 
ravages? It seems to me that such applications 
as have Ijeen found beneficial in cases of grape- 
vines aflected by phylloxera vestatrix would 
prove beneficial. I should be pleased to have 
your experience and opinion as to the best treat- 
ment for the. disease.'" [Allusion is here made 
to the insect on the roots of the violet, to which 
much reference was made in our last year's 
volume. If any of our readers who suttered so 
badly from the insect, have found any remedy, 
we should l)e glad to know. — Ed. G. M.] 

Literature, Travels impersonal Notes. 

CO MMUAU CATIONS. the yellows in the peach. The law was not 

made universal to apply to all counties of the 

State. For example, the people of Berrien 

LAWS AGAINST THE YELLOWS. county were so much opposed to the law that it 

I'.Y PiiOF. w. T. BEAL, LANSING, MICH. ^ould not be passcd unless that county (and oth- 

In speaking of the last report of the Michigan - ers) were exempt. The yelloA\s was then quite 

State Pomological Society, the editor refers to common in Berrien county. The people would 

the law in our State preventing the spread of ' not attempt to prevent it by cutting out the dis- 




eased trees. The yellows have conquered, and 
sound peaches in that county are verj' scarce 

In \'an Buren county, as an example, the 
people cut out the diseased trees. Mr. Dyckman, 
who has sixty acres of peaches at South Haven, 
took out about fifty trees last year and about the 
same this year. The Horticultural Society of 
that place has a committee to look after the 
yellows. Those engaged in raising fruit as their 
chief business understand the law, and are ready 
and willing to live up to it without any notifica- 
tion by the committee referred to. 

There are some farmers in the outskirts of the 
peach region who need watching. They all 
yield to the request of the committee when called 
on to cut out the trees. If they are likelj- to be 
slow, the committee take along an axe and do 
the work themselves, at once. The law is well 
enforced, so far as I can learn, in the counties 
■which wanted the law and which obtained its 
passage. They believe that the execution of the 
law is their only hope for a peach crop — that 
without this thinning jirocess all must soon yield 
to the yellows. Some others, as I heard say in 
Berrien county, believe that in a short time the 
yellows will overcome all opposition in South 
Haven and other places where they remove dis- 
eased trees. 



As all understand, a patent gives to an inventor 
and his assigns the exclusive right of making, 
using and selling the patented article for a term 
of years specified in the letters patent. If cor- 
responding rights and privileges were extended 
to an originator of a new variety in horticulture, 
they would secure to him and his representatives 
the exclusive right of propagating, selling and 
planting for fruitage or flowering trees or plants 
of his variety for the time fixed by law, regard- 
less of the name, under wfiich such variety might 
be propagated, sold or planted. Hence, though 
a man might buy a tree in entire ignorance of the 
fact that it was of a patented variety, if upon its 
fruiting it proved to be such, he would have to 
pay the patentee his own price for a waiver of 
his right, or lose the tree, and be subject to all 
the pains and penalties or the patent law. This 
feature of the law, taken in connection with the 
fact that as to most varieties it is quite impossi- 
ble for even the most experienced nurseryman 
to distinguish them with certaintv in advance of 

fruitage, would undoubtedly create such distrust 
and anxiety upon the part of would-be planters 
as to largely decrease rather than stimulate 
planting. Herein, to my view, lies the one great 
objection to horticultural patents. They would 
defeat the very ends sought to be secured by 
them, for with such chances of trouble, the 
masses would entirely abstain from buying hor- 
ticultural goods ; and if they did, originators of 
new articles would derive no income therefrom. 
The nursery trade would be paralyzed, and before 
two years had expired there would be a loud and 
universal ^y for the repeal of the law. If it 
could be shown tljat a similar objection would 
lie against the proposed copyrights I should think 
it fatal to them ; but such a result cannot be pre- 
dicted of the latter, for while a patent follows 
the article to which it is applied, and reduces 
both seller and user e(]ually punishable, a copy- 
right acts only on the publisher or seller. Hence 
any one desiring a copyrighted article may safeh' 
buy it, wherever it is offered, without enquiring 
into the right of the seller to deal in it ; and 
therefore, inasmuch as buyers could not be prose- 
cuted tinder the proposed /aw, it could not create 
apprehensions or engender fears of litigation upon 
the part of planters ; hence it could not act as a 
hindrance to planting. But its effect in this 
respect would not be merely negative. 

We have seen that it would lessen the sale of 
fraudulently labelled goods by deterring evil dis- 
posed persons from attaching copyrighted names 
to trees, plants andseedsof inferior varieties, but 
this is not all it would do. Copyrights upon the 
names of good sorts would become valuable, and 
it would place the control of these names in the 
hands of the originators of the respective varie- 
ties. They would have the ability, and the pres- 
ervation of their property, and the copyrights 
would give them every incentive to see that all 
who were allowed to use these names respectively 
w^ere supplied Avith genuine stock from which to 
propogate. Hence a copyrighted name attached 
to a tree or plant would become hi a great 
degree a symbol of its genuineness. This w^ould 
weaken the prejudices of those who now abstain 
from planting through fear of getting spurious 
trees ; and as the possibility of obtaining a valu- 
able copyright would stimulate experiments in ar- 
tificial hybridizing, and thus improve the varieties 
of fruit and flowers open to cultivation, it cannot 
be doubted that the proposed law^ would natm-ally 
add to the interest taken in these branches of in- 



\^ January, 

The objection has been suggested that under j 
the operation of the proposed law much embar- 
rassing litigation would result from the difficulty 
in distinguishing between different varieties at 
the time of sale, and this would be eminently 
true of horticultural patent law ; but as the only 
possible contingency in which this question could 
arise under the copyright law, would be when a 
nurseryman or dealer claiming that a copy- 
righted name had been fraudulently applied to 
an old sort, persisted in selling such sort under 
the new or copyrighted name rather than the old 
or free name. This objection can never become 
formidable. All copyrights would be presump- 
tively valid, and nurserymen would not make 
use of such names without authority, unle&s the 
evidence that they were a fraud upon the law 
was clear. If otherwise, theirs would not be 
cases for sympathy. 

In discussing this subject in your columns, I 
have paid less attention to showing the import- 
ance of adopting some measure as a means of 
encouraging hj^bridizations, and thus securing 
new and improved varieties, than I otherwise 
would, for the reason that it has seemed to me 
certain that all must recognize the fact that there 
is now really no encouragement to this work, and 
without it we cannot hope to have such varieties. 
A single illustration of this point will suffice. 
Mr. James A. Ricketts, of ^N'ewburgh, N. Y., as i 
the result of thousands of experiments, has pro- ! 
duced quite a large number of varieties of grapes, 
which are said to promise better than any sorts 
now before the public ; but the fact that he can- 
not transfer to purchasers of the stock of the 
respective varieties even the most limited protec- 
tion in the sale of vines thereof, has not only 
prevented him from realizing an adequate return 
for his outlay of money, time and skill, but it 
has, thus far, deprived the public of the ben- 
efit of varieties which may prove much supe- 
rior to any now open to its choice. To extricate 
both parties from this dilemma, the dangerous 
precedent of asking Congress to buy the stock 
of these varieties and disseminate them through 
the Agricultural Department, has been proposed. 
The inevitable result of doing this would be, 
that thereafter Congress would be asked to buy 
the stock of every seedling which even the orig- 
inator thereof might think valuable ; and before 
the Agricultural Department could propagate 
Mr. Ricketts' sorts to an extent that would 
enable it to supply a tithe of those desiring them, 
the country would be flooded with spurious vines 

through the scoundrels in the trade to whom I 
have adverted. 

A single question of interest to the general 
public remains to be considered. "Will the pro- 
posed law give additional currency to inferior or 
worthless varieties ? Feeling confident not only 
that it will not do this, but that it will render 
the introduction and sale of such sorts much 
more difficult than it now is, I will make this 
featm-e the subject of another and closing com- 


European Notes By the Editor, No. 5.— 
At Combe Wood, in Surrey, is the tree nursery 
of Messrs. J. Veitch & Sons, of London. It is a 
pretty rolling piece of ground, with hills for those 
trees that love to be above others, and deep peat 
beds in the lower parts for " American" shrubs, 
and such as love the shelter and rich soil of the 
valleys. It is remarkable how much better the 
plants of our country do here than at home; but 
I should not say plants, for it is only the ever- 
greens. The deciduous trees do better here than 
in England, though most of them do well enough 
on the whole. It was a great treat to find here 
man}^ of our own plants, but which we seldom 
see, because so few nurserymen in comparatively 
new countries have the encouragement to keep 
novelties as they have in older ones. Here for 
the first time I saw living plants under culture 
of the Fremontia Californica, a very beautiful 
shrub with orange colored flowers. When I say 
that this is allied to the Althiea, it is botanically 
true, but yet it will give no correct idea of the 
real appearance of the plant. Of the many things 
new or old that I saw here, I think few things 
were more beautiful than the blood leaved 
Beech, trained as pyramids. Clothed with 
branches to the grountl^ few trees could surpass 
it. Here are some newer colored leaved things, 
however, that will make their way. A blood- 
leaved Norway Maple, Acer SchAveidleri, and 
the Golden Cottonwood, are surely of this 
number. Much attention is given to variegated, 
silver and gold, coniferse especially of cypress, 
arbor vitse, and allies. To my taste they are 
not remarkable, but in England there seems to be 
quite a "rage" for these sort of novelties, and the 
nurserymen have therefore to keep immense 
stocks of them. I fancy, however, that it is the 
terribly long Latin names given to these varie- 




tics that chietly attract. Roses were immensely 
grown. They were then in the budding season, 
and expected to finish 60,000 before the season 
closed. Most of the stocks are of the Dog Rose, 
though I saw a block of about 4,000 Mannettis 
waiting to be manipulated. The part more 
exclusively devoted to evergreens occupied 
about 56 acres. Here, as in most first-class 
places, much attention is given to making fine 
specimens by trimming, and in keeping them in 
honest condition for customers by frequent trans- 
planting. Some of the rarer kinds were especi- 
ally beautiful to behold. What would our 
readers think to see in an American nursery 
numerous specimens of Sciadopitys six feet high, 
Retinospora lycopodoides five feet, and a beau- 
tiful J;hing it is, every inch of it! Retinospora 
filicoides five feet ; Juniperus chinensis aurea, 
four feet; Picea Alcoquiana, five feet; Prumn- 
optys elegans, the new Japan yew, three feet ; 
the Washington yew, six feet; and so on of 
numerous others. " But how about the prices ?" 
Well, away up in the guineas ; but we will not 
talk about that to-day. I had the pleasure here 
of Mr. Court's company, who is the well-known 
American traveler for the firm, and it seemed 
like being with some one from home. 

It is not my purpose to go into detail in these 
hasty sketches. I will only say that I found a 
much greater trade in hardy perennial, rock, 
and permanent flowers, generally, than I sup- 
posed ; a nuich larger trade in Orchids and rarer 
palms and leaf plants ; a very great trade in 
Evergreens ; a comparatively limited sale for 
deciduous trees, except of the few English native 
trees, as Oak, Elm, and Ash ; and in comparison 
with what we in America do, very little 
business in the beautiful flowering shrubs. Once 
in awhile there seems a run on some few items. 
In improved Clematises thousands on thousands 
are sold. In fruit trees our people would say 
that there was nothing done. The most showy 
articles in this line would generally be peaches 
for growing on walls or in houses. These seem 
always grafted on plum stocks; and as they 
grow in the nurseries, light sticks are placed to 
make the trees grow fan-shaped. A peach tree 
nursery here looks more like one of our vineyards 
with these stakes in every direction. Apples 
and pears, however, are often met with in 
orchards of an acre or two ; but I must say that 
in no instance did I see trees which on the 
average were near equal to the average of our 
American trees in health and beauty. And this 

Avas true also of the orchards of the northwest of 
France ; and I have no hesitation in saying that 
while we are far behind the people of these two 
countries in the knowledge of many branches of 
gardening ; in all that pertains to fruit culture 
we are a very long way ahead. The cherry 
seems to be much more popular in France than 
I supposed. Orchards of immense extent 
abound in every direction within a hundred miles- 
of Paris ; but I was surprised to find very few of 
what we suppose to be " fine French varieties" 
at all extensively grown. 

But I will again step back to London once 
more, for I was anxious to spend a day or two in 
wandering about alone over the spot where I was 
born, and about which the first four years of my 
life were spent. I traveled along the same- 
road over which Johnny Gilpin in times long 
gone took his lamous ride. I went from town to 
town— for here in this miniature world of England 
you can get through a dozen of them in a day, — 
trying to recall some one spot. But the great one,, 
the deepest seated in my childhood's memory, 
I once thought I had found. I had been toddling 
along the road side of a market-garden, and the 
raspberries hung temptingly from their prickly 
boughs. The hawthorn hedge had no terrors 
for me. I crawled tlu-ough, but the ogre in 
charge saw me and gave chase, but alas ! a 
stump caught my apron string, and I was held 
fast until justice caught me; and I was made to 
" remember coming in there as long as I lived. "^ 
As I thought I recognized this spot, I inquired 
whose that quaint old house might be V and wa.s 
told Mr. Shirley Hibberd lived there. It was 
near the " Seven Sisters," and though this 
I revealed to me that I was a good long distance 
ifrom the location of my early adventure, it was 
just as well with me,for Mr. Hibberd is a brother 
editor, as every one who reads the Gardener''s 
Magazine, as many in America do, very well 
know Mr. Hibberd is well known for his devo- 
tion to hollies and ivies ; and as I entered the 
carriage gate the profusion of these two beau- 
tiful evergreens testified that I was truly in- 
formed as to who their owner was. But the 
front steps told as well that I was at the house 
of the author of "Homes of Taste;" for a more 
beautiful sight I never beheld. Quite a num- 
ber of steps lead to the front door, but on each 
side was a bank of zonale geraniums, scarlet, 
white, pink, all in full flower. They were grown 
in pots, and so arranged on each side that they 
seemed living balustrades. I was fortunate 



\ January, 

-enough to find Mr. Hibbinxl at home, and we had j 
a right good " old" time for it was to Mr. 1 
Hibberd's magazine, then the Floricultural \ 
Cnbrnet^ that I paid my first horticultural sub- ( 
scription to forty years ago, and to wliose pages | 
I made my first horticultural contribution, show- 
ing how to raise "double stock gillies,'' nearl}' 
as long back as my subscription dated. Mr. Hib- 
berd's strong point seems to be a thorough love of 
the beautiful in nature, and a taste for that more 
cultivated intelligence which can throw a charm 
around the common things. In my wanderings 
among the horticulturists I found his Magazine 
almost everywhere, showing that it was very ex- 
tensively read. The few hours I spent with Mr. 
Hibberd ended a very pleasant day. The Horti- 
cultural, or as they are justly more proud of say- 
ing, the Gardening press of England, is a great 
power. On the tables of the most intelligent, 
although you might not anticipate any gardening 
proclivities, you may not be surprised to see the 
Gardener's Chronicle, of which Dr. M. T. 
Masters is the editor-in-chief. Being somewhat 
of an "■ onrestless person," as a good darkey in 
Mississippi once told me, I was always out when 
the good doctor did me the honor to call at my 
hotel, while it was my misfortune never to catch 
him in ; and I am soi-ry to feel that I failed to 
master all the ins and outs of London, but I 
hope for better success another time. The 
Journal of Horticulture, another excellent paper, 
edited by Dr. Hogg, is also doing good work, 
but this also I failed to get a chance to hear of by 
word of mouth. I was more fortunate Avith the 
Garden^ for in my determination to study Covent 
Garden Market to perfection, I had taken my 
hotel almost over it, so that T could see all from 
my bed-chamber, and it chanced to be right near 
the Garden office. Tins is a large three story build- 
ing, occupied wholly by the business of the 
Magazine, and, if I remember rightly, owned by 
the editor Robinson. The success of the Garden 
has been wonderful. It was started at a time 
when it was thought there was no room for more; 
but it had its own specialty, and kept to its own 
path, and has more than fulfilled its projector's 
desires. The colored plates in connection with 
a weekly work, is an eftbrt of great magnitude. 
One hun(h-ed have already been issued. But 
besides the great labor attendant on editing the 
Garden^ Mr. Robinson is continually at work 
preparing new matter for new editions of "Parks 
and Pleasure Gardens," " Hardy Flowers," 
"Alpine Plants." and other books of which he is 

the author. All these papers have excellent 
assistant editors attached to them ,whose acquaint- 
ance it was a pleasure to make. Indeed I do 
not know of greater profit to me on my whole 
jaunt than the little time I was able to enjoy 
with my newspaper friends. 

OuK Last VoLU3iE.—We have many compli- 
ments on the beauty of our colored plate, which 
we gave as a frontispiece for our last volume. 
We appreciate these compliments the more 
because it was not part of the original pro- 
gramme of the magazine, and is regarded by the 
publisher as a free gift over and above the 
regular subscription price, his motto being not 
to promise much and do little, but rather to do 
more than he promises. How much has been 
done for a comparativelv small subscription 
price, the very full index, given in our last, 
shows. To still be up with the times, the 
Monthly appears this month in an entirely new 
dress, which, we think, will be appreciated. 
The new arrangements may perhaps delay by a 
day or two its usual prompt appearance, which 
we hope will be excused "for this one'' only. 

Value of a HoRTUuLTrr.AL Papek.— Peo- 
ple often say to themselves, "I hardly know 
what benefit a horticultural paper is to me," but 
like the air and sunlight, we get innumerable 
blessings we are hardly conscious of. In Eng- 
land they have a Gardener's Benevolent Insti- 
! tution to care for poor old gardeners who are 
i unable to help themselves -, and the singular fact 
; has recently been developed that of every thou- 
I sand whom the society has assisted 013 never 
subscribed a cent to a horticultural paper. It is 
clear, therefore, that it is not being extravagant 
j on horticultural literature that will ever send a 
I man to the poor house. 

j Patenting Xew Frlits. — The idea so per- 
j sistently urged for so man}' years that fruit trees, 
flowers and vegetables, should be patented does 
I not seem to have many advocates now since we 
[ showed how impossible it was that any olficial at 
I Washington could possibly decide one fruit from 
j another. Since then a new plan is urged, that only 
the name be patented or protected. Thus, a man 
pretending to sell Concord grapes would have 
i to show that he had a right to sell grapes called 
Concord grapes. Every fair-minded man desires 
that those whose luck or whose skill improves 
our gardens should be well rewarded, and which 
is seldom the case now. We are giving a 




series of papers by Mr. (xlen on the newer sug- j 
gestions, without endorsing them, but asking for 
tliem the consideration which the importance of 
the subject demands. Mr. Glen has no more 
interest in this matter than au}- other horticul- | 
turist ; and whether his v ews shall be found | 
practical or not, he should have everybody's j 
thanks for the thought and work he is giving the j 
subject. I 

BrsiXESs AND Pleasuke. — Most persons j 
know that the editor has no relation to the ad- i 
vertisements, or to any business matter. On all 
these affairs letters should be addressed to Mr. 
Chas. H. Marot. When people write to the 
editor to notice this or that advertisement, it is 
time and labor thrown away, for he does not se^ 
the advertisements until the magazine is issued. 
Occasional letters make this notice necessary. 
The publisher looks after the business ; the edi- 
tor the pleasure of the concern. 

Mixing up English Names. — The Garden- 
er's Chronicle., in speaking of the confusion 
among English names of plants, mentions over 
tAvo dozen distinct plants to which the name lily 
is applied, which do not belong to the genus Lil- 
ium of botanists ; and among these we may 
mention, as samples, the *•' wild lily," which is a 
Convolvulus; African lily, which is an Agapan- 
thus ; (ruernsey lily, which is a ^N'erine ; lent 
lily, which is a Xarcissus ; St. Bruno's lily, 
which is an Anthericum ; lily of the valley, 
which is a Convallaria-, day lily, which is a 
Ilemerocallis. Others might be added. And 
yet they give us a friendly midge once in a while 
because* our people call all training plants 
'•vines; while in p]urope only the grape is the 

Remarks on Insects, by Prof. C. V. Riley.— 
We have on our table, the "Proceedings of the 
Academy of Sciences of St. Louis, with Accounts 
of Various Entomological Discoveries, by Prof. 
Riley." There is an account of the larval habits 
of the Blister Beetles, about which nothing much 
has l)een known. Also a new beetle, very trou- 
blesome to bee-keepers. This has been dedicated 
to Philadelphia's distinguished entomologist. Dr. 
Horn, and is named Ilornia minutipennis. Mr. 
Riley also defends himself from an attack on 
some of his statements about the yucca moth. 
There is no doubt but yucca is never fertilized 
or produces seed except by the aid of the yucca 

moth. Much of what appears in the papers iu' 
regard to the action of insects on flowers is pure 
speculation ; but this discovery of Mr. Riley's i& 
unquestionably true, and is the result of careful; 
observation, and we class it as one of the great 
discoveries of the age. Those who undertake to- 
dispute with Prof. Riley on this fact will un- 
doubtedly get the worst of it, and we suspect the 
writer whom Riley has here paid his respects to^ 
is somewhat of this opinion by this time. 

Valuable Books for Sale.— Mr. R. H. 
Rathbun, South Amboy, !N^. J., oilers for sale a 
set of Paxton's Magazine of Botany, and DeCan- 
doUes' Prodromus. ' It is not easy to get these 
sets, and yet they are of inestimable value. Xo 
horticultural library, horticultm-al editorial 
rooms, or places Avhere horticultural references 
are to be made, can well afford to be without 

The Farmer's Magazine. — Our old corres- 
pondent. W. Duncan, whose association with 
the Farmer's Home Jowrna/, of Louisville, was sa 
favorably known, has started a new magazine, 
as above named. The first number is before us, 
and has a very varied and extensive table of 

Music from T. W. Helmick. Cincinnati, " Pretty 
Little Blue-Eyed Stranger," is among the books, 
and exchano;es on our table. 


Shitti:m Wood. — A lady from Ohio sends us. 
some leaves of Bumelia lycoides, and the fol- 
lowing letter, which we give because it has an 
interest, though the true shittim wood was most 
likely Acacia Farnesiana, which is by no means 
extinct : 

" Have you ever become interested in the dis- 
cussion concerning the idenity of the Biblical 
shittim wood ? Some claim tl\at the tree was a 
sort of acacia and others a laurel. Still others 
beleive it to have been an evergreen, and all 
agree that the species is non-extinct. The ques- 
tion is a peculiarly interesting one to me since I 
have for a dozen years been acquainted with a 
tree in the JTeosho Valley, Kansas, called 
shittim wood, and believed to be identical with 
the shittim of the Bible. I enclose some of the. 



leaves, which you will see closely resemble 
laurel. But contrary to the habit of other 
laurels the leaves color in December, yellow 
and red, and hang on until the sap starts ifi the 
Spring. The branches are slender, tortuos, 
thorny, and of that peculiar toughness of fibre 
which marks the Acacia family. Any one seeing 
u branch destitute of leaves would pronounce it 
an acacia. Yet it bears black berries like the 
laurel, called ink-berry in Massachusetts. It is 
A remarkably slow growing tree, no appreciable 

difference having been marked in its size during 
the fifty years which it has been known, and 
that in a land noted for its rapid and gigantic 
growtlis. It is a small tree with wood as hard 
as iron, in a country where these qualities are 
exceptional. This one of which I speak is be- 
lieved to be the last one of its kind in the world, 
at least it is so far as I know, unique. Have 
you ever seen anything of the sort, and are the 
settlers in tlie iN'eoslio Valley wrong in their 
veneration for it '? Wliat do j'ou call it ? " 

Horticultural Societies, 



(Continued from page 380.) 

Such are some of the statistics which I have 
been able to gather, but it is hoped that the 
response of our own Vice-Presidents to our cir- 
cular will make the report of our resources more 

In view of the wonderful progress which has 
already been made, we begin to realize the 
great importance of American Pomology, nor 
should we forget, as among the great benefits of 
fruit culture, tlie employment of thousands of 
men, women and children, or the immense 
amounts paid for freight on fruits to railroads, 
steamboats, etc., and the profits to dealers. 

But who can estimate the amazing quantities 
of fruits that are to be produced on this conti- 
nent, when the lands suited to fruit culture are 
brouglit into use ! Look at the vast amount of 
these in the eastern slope of our country, and 
still more wonderful, tlie land on the Pacific 
slope. Of these, California alone has a terri- 
tory 800 miles in length and 200 in breadth — 
three times as large as all of the New England 
States — four times as large as the State of I^ew 
Yoi-k or Pennsylvania, having millions of acres 
for fruit cultivation. 


The introduction of new American varieties 
from seed, adapted to all sections of our vast 
territory, not only in itself, -but as incentives to 
further progress, connot be overrated. To this, 
more than to any other cause, are we indebted 
for the rapid progress of American Pomology. 
Fruits of foreign origin, although of great value 
in certain sections of our country, have not as a 

rule yielded such favorable results as those 
selected from our new and improved native 
fruits. By this means we have not only intro- 
duced new viirieties, adapted to every section of 
our country, but vafieties which have prolonged 
the season of fruits in some sections, either by 
early or late kinds, for one or more months. 
Especially is this to be seen in the peach, grape 
and sti'awberry, so that many of our markets 
are supplied for a much longer period than ever 

By the introduction of earlj^ peaches, the sea- 
son for this fruit has been advanced nearly a 
month. In South Carolina and Georgia ship- 
ments have been made this year to northern 
markets as early as May 25th. Similar illustra- 
tions might be given of the prolongation of the 
season of the strawberry, the grape, and the 
pear, in our markets ; those of the north being 
now supplied with the strawberry from the first 
of May to the middle of July ; and ,with the 
grape and the pear from the first of July until 
April or May. And why may not those who 
have the means, supply their tables with fruits 
in some form through the year? Some of us 
already enjoy this luxury, beginning with the 
strawberry and following in succession with the 
other small fruits, the grape, the pear, and the 
apple, thus furnishing a circle of fruits which 
delights the eye, gratifies t-he taste, improves the 
health, and crowns our daily meals throughout 
the year. 

California seems to be the most favored spot 
on earth for the production of new varieties of 
fruits, if we may judge by such pears as the 
Fox, Barry, Wilder and others, raised from seed 
by Mr. Fox, our Vice-President from that State. 
If his success should be taken as a criterion, and 
these fruits should prove adapted to other 
climes, that State alone can supply the world 




with improved varieties, not only of the pear 
but of other fruits. Matured as the seed is in 
the warm, dry Summers and Autumns of Cali- 
fornia, we have reason to hope for g^at vigor 
and hardiness. 

Great advances have been made in the im- 
provement of our Avild fruits, such as are seen 
in the varieties of the Chickasaw and Wild 
Goose Plum, of which these are types, and the 
new varieties of grapes for the South, from 
which regular and profitable results are obtained 
where none were before. In this connection we 
may also mention the crab apple, which, though 
not indigenous, has furnished, in its improved 
varieties and hybrids, fruit of the greatest value 
for the extreme north. 


Much of our progress in pomology and horti- 
culture is due to the increase of facilities for 
trousportation afforded by railroads and steam- 
boats. Especially is this the case in Southern 
and Western States, and California. These rail- 
road and steamboat facilities have induced fruit 
growers to increase their products, being assured 
they would arrive in good condition in distant 
markets. But these improvements in transpoi-- 
tation would have been of but little advantage 
had they not been supplemented by careful 
packing. Steamers and cars are now provided 
with large refrigerators, by which delicate fruits 
can be sent long distances, even to Europe. 
The various styles of fruit packages, every class 
of fruit being provided with one suited to its char- 
acter, are wonders of cheapness and efficiency. 
The obstacles with which we formly had to con- 
tend have been mostly removed, so that fruits 
can be sent safeh^ to very distant markets, 
where it was impossible to send them ten or 
fifteen years ago. This increased supply has 
increased comsumption and caused a correspond- 
ing decrease in prices. It has made fruit almost 
a necessary portion of our daily meals, thus 
largely fostering its production. The packing 
of trees has also received more attention than for- 
merly. Experience has taught us much on this 
point, especially in adapting it to the character 
of the voyage and the climate through which 
the trees are to pass. Thus trees shipped by 
our friends, Ellwanger & Barry, to Australia, 
after a voyage of fifteen thousand miles and be- 
ing one hundred and fifty-three days on the way, 
were received in safe condition. Only three 
trees out of one hundred and sixtv were dead. 

! In this connection I desire to impress on the 
j packers and shippers of fruit to foreign lands, 
; since our best American apples have sold in 
; London at much higher prices than English and 
I French apples, the great importance of especial 
[ vigilance in seeing that no inferior fruit ever 
j crosses the ocean, thus preserving the integrity 
of our fruit growers and dealers, and the reputa- 
I tion of our nation for the superiority of our 
j fruits. 

I England esteems American apples beyond all 
I others. As long ago as 1773, when the crop of 
apples had failed the previous year, English im- 
j portations from this country had been made and 
were highly appreciated. In a letter from 
Michael Collinson to John Bartram, of Phila- 
delphia, he writes as follows : — " Yom* Ameri- 
can apples have been an admirable substitute 
: this season, some of our merchants having im- 
I ported great quantities of them. They arc, not- 
j withstanding, too expensive for common eating, 
j being sold for two pence, three pence, and even 
I four pence an apple. But their flavor is much 
! superior to anything we can pretend to, and I 
1 tliink even superior to the apples of Italy." 

I (To be continued.) 

Massachusetts Horticultural Society. 
Death of Tiiom.vs Rivers.— The decease of 
this eminent horticulturist, well known to our 
readers as the author of the Miniature Fruit 
Garden., was announced too late for our last 
I number. We had prepared a brief notice, but 
I give place to the following, which we take from 
[ the proceedings of the Massachusetts Horticul- 
I tural Society, on December 1st : 
I President Parkman announced as the firstbusi- 
I ness before the meeting, resolutions in memory 
of Thomas Rivers, of Sawbridgeworth, England, 
one of the most eminent horticulturists and po- 
mologists, which would be appropriately pre- 
sented by Hon. Marshall P. Wilder, the fore- 
most American pomologist. 

i " Mr. Wilder said : " Mr. President, I thankyou 
for suspending the usual order of business, that 
j we may render proper honor to the memory of 
one of the oldest and most respectable corres- 
I ponding members of the society. I am advised 
I by the memorial card which I hold in my hand, 
that Thomas Rivers died at his residence, Saw- 
I bridgeworth, England, October 17, 1877, aged 
j seventy-nine years. It has been my privilege 
! to have a personal acquaintance and correspond- 
' ence with Mr. Rivers for nearlv fiftv vears. He 



\^ January, 

was one of the most eminent horticulturists of I 
the age. As a nurseryman, pomologist, tree and 
rose grower — especially as a hybridizer, in the ] 
production and dissemination of new and choice 
varieties — his name will long be remembered [ 
with veneration, gratitude and respect. For 1 
nearly, sixty years he was actively engaged in 
the nursery business, and it can be said with 
truth, that no man in all Europe ever main- 
tained a higher character for fidelity and integ- 
rity. As a pomologist he will be remembered 
for generations to come, especially for the pro- 
duction of new and valuable fruits for seed, ' 
which exercised a fascination over him, as he 
said, ' growing with his growth and strength- \ 
ening with his decline.' As a raiser and intro- 
ducer of new fruits, the editor of the London j 
Gardener'' s Chronicle (than which there is no ■ 
higher authority) said of him, 'The name of 
Thomas Rivers stands preeminent. We have 
had no English pomologist to compare with him 
in this department, if we except Thomas An- 
drew Knight.' The same paper gives a list of 
more than seventy new varieties of fi'uit raised 
and sent out by him. Mr. Rivers considered as 
one of his greatest triumphs the production of 
early peaches, by which tlie season is extended 
for several weeks, and which are now distributed 
throughout the fruit-growing world. 

'' As a lover of the rose, and the great leader in 
its improvement in England, his name will be 
embalmed in the hearts of grateful millions, 
while the rose shall unfold its petals to the 
morning light, or shed its fragrance on the pass- 
ing breeze. Of his love and devotion to the 
rose, an author remarks, ' Age cannot wither his 
loyalty, and beneath a hundred medals, orders 
and clasps, his brave heart is still with the rose.' 
His catalogue of roses, published forty-four years 
ago, was pronounced by Mr. Ijouden ' the most 
useful catalogue of roses in the English lan- 
guage.' Besides writing many excellent prac- 
tical works on horticulture, Mr. Rivers has been 
for many years a large contributor to the peri- 
odical press, and his various books and papers 
on the rose, the pear, root-pruning, double-graft- 
ing, the construction of orchard houses and other 
cheap protections against the uncertainties of an 
English climate, and other subjects, are among 
the most valuable contributions to horticultural 
literature. But, Mr. President, time would fail 
me, were I to enumerate the various Avays in 
which Mr. Rivers' name has been associated 
with the progress of rural economy and the hor- 

ticulture of the world. Truly it may be said of 
him, 'His works do follow him.' His books are 
the best record of his life. 

"In view of Avhat I have said, I beg the priv- 
ilege of presenting the following resolutions : 

"Resolved, That in the death of Thomas Riv- 
ers, one of the oldest and most respected corres- 
ponding members of this society, we recognize, 
in common with the horticultural world, the loss 
of a friend of horticultural science, rural im 
provement and ornamental culture, and a bene- 
factor of our race. 

"Resolved, That while we deplore the loss of 
so useful a man, we desire to thank the Supreme 
Disposer of all events that he was spared to us 
for so long a course of years, and was at last 
gathered to his fathers 'like a shock of corn 
fully ripe in its season.' 

" Resolved, That the members of this society 
sympathize sincerely with the bereaved family 
in their affliction, and that a copy of these pro- 
ceedings be forwarded to Mrs. Rivers as a token 
of the respect and esteem in which her late 
husband was held in America.'' 

W. C. Strong, James Cruikshanks, and Presi- 
dent Parkman spoke to the resolutions, which 
were unanimously adopted. 

South Carolina State Horticultural 
Society. — Following in the wake of the Georgia 
State Horticultural Society, which under the 
care of Mr. P. .L Berckmans established a society 
a few years ago. South Carolina has now founded 
one wliich promises a large and useful career. 

Hon. R. M. Sims has been the active spirit. 
Tlie Editor of the Gardener's Monthly ac- 
knowledges the honor of election to correspond- 
ing membership, of which he has been informed 
in a very graceful letter from the Secretary, Dr. 
Otto A. :\rose.s. 

The Pennsylvania Horticultural Soci- 
ety. — This, the oldest Horticultural Society at 
present existing in the United States, passed its 
I fiftieth birthday on the 21st of December, and 
\ the occasion was taken to have a happy re-union 
of the members. 

Three of the originators are still living, David 
J^andreth, and Jeremiah and Closes Brown. 
The former still continus at the head of the great 
, seed firm of that name, as active as many a 
I younger man, and the last named still rides 
around enjoying the numerous beautiful hemlock 
hedges about Philadelphia, of which he is in a 
measure the father. 







Vol. XX. 

FEBRUARY, 1878. 

Number 230. 

Flower Garden and Pleasure Ground. 


In many parts where our magazine goes it will 
iDe necessary to bring up the preliminaries for 
tactive spring work. 

Many delay pruning shrubbery until after se- 
vere weather passes, so as to see what injury 
may be done— but with March all should be 
finished — taking care not to trim severely such 
shrubs as flower out of last yearns wood, as for 
instance, the Wiegela — while such as flower from 
the spring growth, as the Althsea, Mock Orange, 
&c., are benefitted by cutting back vigorously. 

Those which flower from young wood, cut in 
severely to make new growth vigorous. Tea, 
China, Boui-bon and Noisette roses are of this 
class. What are called annual flowering roses, 
as Prairie Queen and so on, require much of last 
year's wood to make a good show of flowers- 
Hence, mth these, thin out weak wood, and 
leave all the stronger. 

To make handsome, shapely specimens of 
«Tirubs, cut them now into the forms you want, 
and keep them so by pulling out all shoots that 
grow stronger than the others during the summer 

Graft trees or shrubs where changed sorts are 
desirable. Any lady can graft. Cleft grafting is 
the easiest. Split the «tock, cut the scion like a 
wedge, insert in the split, so that the bark of the 
stock and scion meets; tie a little bast bark 
around it, and cover with Trowbridge's grafting 
wax, and all is done : very simple when it is 
understood, and not hard to understand. 

If flowers have been growing in the ground for 
many years, new soil does wonders. Rich ma^ 
nure makes plants grow, but they do not always 
flower well with vigorous growth. If new soil 
cannot be had, a wheelbarrow of manure to 
about every fifty square feet will be enough. If 
the garden earth looks grey or yellow, rotten 
leaves — quite rotten leaves — will improve it. If 
heavy, add sand. If very sandy, add salt — about 
half pint to fifty square feet. -If very black or 
rich from previous year's manurings, use a little 
lime, about a pint, slacked, to fifty square feet. 

If the garden be full of hardy perennial flow- 
ers, do not dig it, but use a fork, and that not 

Dig garden ground only when the soil is warm 
and dry. Do not be in a hurry, or you may get 
behind. When a clot of earth will crush to 
powder as you tread on it, it is time to dig — not 

If perennial plants have stood three years in 
one place, separate the stools, replanting one- 
third, and give the balance to your neighbor who 
has none. 

Box edgings lay well now. Make the ground 
firm and level, plant deep, with tops not more 
than two inches above groimd. 

Roll the grass well before the softness of a 
thaw goes away. It makes all smooth and level. 

In planting trees remember our repeated ad- 
vice to use the pruning knife freely. 

We would again repeat a suggestion we re- 
cently made in regard to rustic summer houses. 
They can often be very cheaply made. In our 
country they should be open on all sides. 




Here : 
In this 

s an old tree turned into a rustic seat, 
case we would strip the bark off, as 

well as open the soil about the collar of the tree, 
and tar well to preserve it from rotting there. 




Regular Flower-beds. — Figure 3 represents what 
we may call "regular flower-beds." Should lie 
3 to 5 feet from the walks, and there might 

the beds in about the same convexed shape as 
the soil of the bed represents when raked ; and 
the same with the Aohyranthus. The tri-coloredi 
Geraniums, though beautiful some of them are,- 
seem to defy our endeavor to make anything 
solid of them, from the fact that their growthi 
during the hot season is so very feeble ; but let 
us modify this defect by planting something: 
between them, such as Viola cornuta or Yerbenai 

For the parallelograms, 1, 1, 7x15, we have im 
the first place the Geraniums, but do not take 
pride in having many varieties. If there are- 
flfty beds to be filled with only Geraniums, it is- 
better to have four kinds of the choicest than a 
score not fit for bedding. General Grant is the- 
best as a bright scarlet, being moderate in. 
growth, and giving abundant flowers through the 
season, if due attention be paid to watering and; 
cutting away of the seeds. Then there is Lucius, 
orange scarlet ; Master Christine, pink andi 
white, and Princess, white. With the exception 
of Asa Gray and a couple of others, there is- 
hardly any double Geranium that does tolerably 
for bedding. Other plants for these beds are 
Shrubby Calceolarias, Salvias, Begonias, Helio- 
tropes, and Yinca alba and rosea. In some 
places it is the custom to border these plants- 
vvith one or two ribbon plants, but let us keepi 
them for the ribbon beds, and use one kind for 
each ; it will make them look larger. 

Roses, Dahlias and Gladioluses may be- 
planted on beds of an}^ shape 5 to 10 feet 
from the walks ; but my experience here (pn the; 

Fig. 3. 

be a continuance of these on both sides of a 1 37th latitude) makes me sui<;gest that we in the 
straight walk, with every other to be a circle, or j South had better plant every other row or circle 

either circle or the rounded parallelograms may 
be placed singly wherever a flower-bed is desired. 
It is not necessary, as in the old German style, 
that flower-beds of same shape, etc., must 
lay opposite each other. The circle 2 is 
supposed to be ten feet in diameter, and will 
do first-rate for solid beds of Coleus (strictly 
only one variety), tri-colored Geraniums and 
Achyranthus. The Coleuses should be trimmed 
all the time, or they will not stand the Fall 
wind and rain. My practice is to take one joint 
above another from time to time, and to keep 

on the Gladiolus beds a'month or so later than 
the first set, in order to prolong the time of 
blooming, or that will be over too soon, and 
make the bed an empty spot on the ground. 



In the strict sense, Alpine plants are such as. 
grow in latitudes ranging ^from the greatest 
elevation, or perpetual snow line towards the 
equator, to less elevated situations noai- the- 




poles. Thus it is on the Andes and Himalayas, j 
at an elevation of from 12,000 to 15,000 feet a j 
similar flora exists, and many species are identi- j 
oal with those found in Central Em-ope at not 
more than 4,000 to G,000 feet elevation. And ' 
these again have an agreement with those of 
Lapland and Siberia on low mountain ranges, 
or still farther north at the level of the sea. 

But in speaking of a collection of Alpine , 
plants it is not necessary to be confined within 
such limits as this would impose. At the same 
time a collection pure and simple from those 
high latitudes would be of rare value, and em- . 
l)race many of the most unique and interesting 
productions in the vegetable kingdom. But no 
violence could be done, or improper alliances 
formed, by associating with these as many as are 
diminutive in size whose natural habitats are 
the mountains and meadows of more temperate 
regions. Out of this larger field a fuller collec- 
tion could be obtained, and the enjoyment of its 
possession increased in a corresponding degree 
by the great diversity of forms which it would 
present ; each and every one so distinct and 
attractive as to keep awake his interest all the 
year through. When Spring comes, and even 
before the rigors of Winter have succumbed to 
gales from the South, which blow softly, there 
is an awakening in a full collection which tells 
that in their native homes many flourish and 
bloom, even up to the skirts of perpetual snow. 
And thus there is an early beginning to the 
floral year, which need suffer no abatement 
on and down to its rounded close. 

In getting together such a collection, the first 
move to be made is to collect as many as might 
be deemed suitable in the neighborhood of home, 
and at the same time add to these, as circum- 
stances permit, the most approved varieties of 
other parts of the country. This would necessi- 
tate excursions to the woods, the meadows, and 
the sea-shore, from all of which places materials 
could, be gathered every way fitted to satisfy the 
craving of the true naturalist. The South and 
West also would contribute of their riches ; and 
if what could be got in this way did not suffice, 
thousands more may be had in Europe at reason- 
able rates, culled from many of the most 
interesting families. Primulaceiy alone would 
make an interesting groun, embracing as it does 
a goodly number of the most beautiful plants in 
cultivation. Xot alone is Primula ricli in species 
b.ut Aretia, Androsace, Soldanella, Cyclamens, 
<S;c.. are equally so. and all fitted to fill no moan 

place in every collection. Saxifragaceje, too, 
as has been Avell said, "constitute the glory and 
delight of the cultivator of Alpine Plants." 
And although inferior to the Primrose family in 
the beauty of their flowers, the}' more than rival 
them in the diversity and evergreen character of 
their leaves. But any attempt to give a list of all 
that is worthy cannot be done here, as it would 
be incomplete without the enumeration of many 
hundreds ; and therefore it would be better for 
those who wish to embark in the enterprise to 
communicate with those nurserymen and florists 
who now happily devote a portion of their time 
to this most interesting department of plant 

In the cultivation of these plants various 
methods have been resorted to with a fair degree 
of success. The free-growing varieties do well 
planted in front lines in herbaceous borders, 
while the more delicate species do better in pots, 
when they can be conveniently placed in pits or 
frames during the Winter months. But for a 
large proportion of those that are pei'^actly 
hardy, small compartments or beds for each 
species, divided by tile or slate set on edge, and 
I'aised several inches above the ground level, is 
the most satisfactory way of any, as it not only 
prevents the difterent sorts from running 
together, but the beds can be raised above the 
genei'al level to suit those that delight in dry 
situations. But whichever method is adopted, 
care should be taken to supply the various 
species with a suitable compost in Avhich to 
grow. And this is not hard of accomplishment, 
: as the overwhelming majority delight in a mix- 
ture of peat or leaf mould, loam and sand. 

The interest in the collection would be greatly 
enhanced by the whole being arranged on some 
intelligible plan ; and there is none belter, per- 
: haps, than that pointed out in the Natural System 
■ of Botany. Accordhig to this method, all those 
of a family would be brought together, at once 
showing their relationships, and also their specific 
difterences. But we have seen fine collections 
arranged simply in lines according to height, 
; color, and times of flowering, which, when cor- 
rectly named and properly cared for, afford both 
\ i)leasure and instruction. 


i;y n. f. flitton, waverly, md. 
It is conceded on all hands that a good lawn, 
well kept, is one of those adornments which 
ought to be more frequently seen. 




I wish to offer a few remarks, expressing no 
new ideas, perhaps, probably nothing of merit 
and certainly no theory, but drawn from the 
book of experience, the lessons from which are 
usually well remembered. 

It would, of course, be folly to expect a good 
lasting sod on land which needs draining ; equally 
so from seeding down poor, stift' clay on land 
with a southern exposure, where the beams, of 
a tropical sun pour down its fiery rays day after 
day for two or tliree months in the year. In 
preparing ground for a lawn, some prefer to take 
a ci'op ; but a Summer fallow, with early Fall 
seeding, is preferable, according to my experi- 
ence. In the first place, weed seeds can be per- 
suaded into growth more readily by giving the 
ground a harrowing, as soon as dry enough, after 
every shower, finishing with a light rolling, 
which can only be done, of course, when the 
land is clear of a crop. As to subsoiling, trench- 
mg, &c., as a general rule, I care very little to 
what depth the earth be loosened, provided the 
rule of keeping the surface soil at the top be 
rigidly adhered to. The writer has seen land 
deteriorated as much by subsoiling — that is, b}^ 
breaking up the subsoil and leaving it in the 
same place when in improper condition as by 
bringing it to the surface. Whenever the subsoil 
breaks up in lumps it is safe to leave it alone as 
hard pan, and get six inches of surface-soil in 
thorough condition. 

There is a considerable difference of opinion 
as to the best kinds of grass, the proportion of 
each, and quantity to use per acre, &c. I sow 
grass seed, for all purposes, thicker than is usual, 
and for lawn sow narrowcast, strictly to a mark, 
twice in a place, and both ways of the ground, 
using more white clover than many gardeners 
think necessary. My reason is, white clover 
can hold its own against most of the stolonifer- 
ous grasses as well as against the lawn mower. 
Panicum sanguineum is a troublesome grass in 
late Summer and early Autumn, and although 
an annual, manages to increase yearly in almost 
every lawn where it once gets foothold. Its seed 
stems go creeping along so near the ground that 
the lawn mower fails to take the head off. 
"When a lawn is mown with a scythe the seeds of 
this kind of grass is more likely to be cut off, as 
the raking up of the cut grass pulls up the heads 
of stoloniferous grasses. As this makes things 
appear rather rough, the scythe is brushed over 
the lawn again, taking ofi' what was before 
missed, and just what our lawn mowers miss ] 

also. It is possible that we may find on careful 
examination that our lawns do not deteriorate 
under the lawn mowers in consequence of their 
close cutting propensities, but rather because 
they give those grasses whose stems creep along 
the ground and emit roots the advantage over 
their more upright growing congeners. The 
Winter care of laAvns depends on circumstances. 
It is better to run the risk of putting a little 
weed seed on the lawn than to forego the benefit 
of manuring wherever it is considered necessary. 
Dandelions and plantains must be cut out when- 
ever they appear. The former is easily eradi 
cated in early Spring, just when coming into 
flower. Of course every one admits the neces- 
sity of thoroughly rolling lawns when in proper 
condition, yet this is much oftener preached 
than practised. The mower should be put 
to work as early in the Spring as the grass can 
be cut, setting to cut very low the first time. If, 
during the drougth of Summer, it becomes neces- 
sary to run the machine oftener than would 
otherwise be desirable on account of some kinds 
of grass growing faster than others, set it to cut 
quite high. This gives the grass a more even 
appearance without exposing the roots so much. 
Cut the grass so often at all seasons, if possible, 
that there may never be necessity for taking off 
anything which is cut. 

I have often heard the remark that our lawns 
will not bear comparison with English lawns. 
Admitted; but I have seen in Uncle Sam's 
garden-patch Indian corn, tomatoes, melons, 
cantaloupes, &c., growing with a wild luxuriance 
that our English cousins cannot equal even under 
glass ; and I have also seen lawns and pastures 
get so badly scorched " over the water" as to 
show that the usual beauty of their lawns was 
not entirely owing to the skill of the gardener. 
What most concerns us is to find out what kind 
of grasses withstand the drought of our Summers. 
If they happen to be a little coarse we must 
endeavor to get accustomed to it. It is far more 
pleasant to look upon a lawn that is green the 
whole Summer, besides being more comfortable 
to walk upon, than one which is brown and burnt 
a considerable part of the season, even if it is 
not composed of the finer growing grasses. 

Now, a word as to lawn mowers : For sim- 
plicity, ease of operation and facility for repairs, 
I have seen nothing equal to the Philadelphia. 
There are several machines which do good work, 
and so far as the horse machines go, ease of 
draught is, perhaps, of less consequence than 




with hand mowers. For the accomplishment of i This climber has the merit over others, that 
the most work in the least time I have found the I when the season of leaf and bloom have gone, 

Philadelphia to excel. 





The late Wm. R. Prince, of Flushing, in 


fanciful advertising style, declared that in the 
Dioscorea "had been discovered the alimentary 
basis of the Chinese Empire." Whether it fills 
so vast a space in food jiroduct may well be 
doubted. Rice and chopsticks are generally 
supposed to furnish a pretty big part of sub- 
stance to the "heathen Chinee." The plant, 
however, even in Republican soil, goes for a 
basis deep down towards the Chinese Empire. 
I have, in a made soil, dug tubers full three feet 
long, and in the largest part full four inches in 

The Dioscorea is a very toothsome vegetable. 
Baked or boiled its flesh is white and very deli- 
cate ; not exactly mealy but much softer and 
more pulpy than the common potato — in fact, 
very much of the consistency of the latter, 
when boiled, mashed, well mixed and buttered, 
and browned in its dish in an oven. My family 
and friends consider this immense tuber a great 
curiosity, and a great treat when cooked. 

If one desires a patch, and is not very nice 
about the order of their coming, he never need 
plant but once. Thereafter it takes care of the 
business itself. From either a last year's root 
left undug, or from some of the little tubers 
which are strung plentifully along its tendrils, it 
gives you a crop every year. I have not failed 
in twenty years of an annual supply without 
care since my first planting. 

The best way is to confine its growth -to some 
deep, rich soil, studded with tall and stout cedar 
poles. There Dioscorea will climb up and fes- 
toon from one to another* with the most ram- 
pant vigor. 

My special purpose, however, in this note, was 
to mark the peculiar fitness of this plant for 
many situations and duties as an ornamental 
climber. It is almost as comely a bloomer as 
the Madeira vine, and has very much its style of 
growth and leaf. Its flowers have a most 
honeyed perfume. But the Dioscorea is the more 
rapid grower, has larger leaves, and stretches 
out to greater length. Its foliage is larger and 
darker, and much of it wears a greenish purple 
hue. 1 think too it stands the drouth much better. 

you can get "a good square meal" out of its 
deep-growing tuber. A relish for the repast is 
made keen and toothsome by the three-foot 
shaft, whicli you must mine along side of the 
Heathen Chinee, into which to slide the un- 
broken bulk of his " alimentary basis." 

Of late there is a variety of this Dioscorea 
which I have not seen, growing a more rounded 
tuber at a reasonable depth. Of one or the 
other kind, I think it would pay all having the 
room, to try a few plants. On our rich prairie 
land it would yielS and enormous product. 


The Shade Trees of Washington. — The 
Parking Commission of the city of Washington, 
consisting of Messrs. W. R. Smith, Wm. Saun- 
ders and John Saul, have planted many miles 
of streets, and it is conceded to be one of the 
plantnig jobs which will challenge competition 
with any similar task in the United States for 
low cost and great success. This comes from 
having men who know what they are doing, 
and of high personal character, in the manage- 
ment of such things. 

Already 40,000 trees have been planted, 
some thirty kinds being used, the bulk, however, 
being of ten kinds. These, named in the order 
they are valued by the commission, are the fol- 
lowing : Silver or White Maple [Acer dasycar- 
pum), then American Linden (Tilia Americana), 
American Elm [Ulmus Americana), Scarlet Ma- 
ple {Acerrubrum), BoxElder {Negnndoaceroides), 
Sugar Maple {Acer saccharinu7n), American White 
Ash {Fraxinus Americana), English Sycamore 
{Acer Fseudo-Platanus), Button Ball {Plat anus 
orientahs). Tulip Tree {Liriodendron Txilipi- 
/era), Honey Locust {Gled.itschia triacanthos), and 
i^forway Maple {Acer platanoides). 

Roses on the Manetti Stock. — Thirty 
years ago the Manetti Rose was used as a stock 
to bud the finer roses on. They throve amaz- 
ingly for a while, till the numerous suckers had 
it all their own way, when rose-growers voted it 
more plague than profit, and it was banished 
from American gardens. Not one nurseryman 
in a thousand at this time knows what a Manetti 
Rose is. But as we threw it out of our gardens, 
it was found by English rose-growers, and has 
had a rapid run in England. But at length, as 
we learn from the Gardener's Magazine, they are 




tiring of their new-found friend. Already "Own 
Root Roses" are at a premium. 

The English Pbimkose.— Th<? Garden de- 
serves credit for introducing us to a good old 
friend whom most of us have forgotten — tlie 
English Primrose, through a beautiful colored 
plate, of many pretty varieties — crimson rose, 
white, and scarlet. In America tho difficulty is 
to keep them well over through dry summer 
atmosphere. But the good gardener can easily 
manage this. With vei-y little care they may be 
made to do well. 

American Tuberoses.— These still maintain 
their great populai'ity in England, retailing at 
aliout S1.50 per dozen. 


Rheitm nobile. Hooker. — Of this remarka- 
ble species of rhubarb, till now unknown in our 
gardens, I am gratified in being in possession of 
fresh seed for the first time. This is a native of 
Sikkim. where it was originally found by Dr. 
Hooker, in whose valuable Himalayan journals 
it is thus described: "The individual plants of 
Rheum nobile are upwards of a yard high, and 
form conical towers of the most delicate straw- 
colored shining semi-transparent concave imbri- 
cating bracts, the upper of which have pink 
edges ; the large bright glossy shining green 
radical leaves, with red petioles and nerves, 
forming a broad base to the whole. On turning 
up the bracts the beautiful membranous fragile 
pink stipules are seen like red tissue paper, and 
within these again the short branched panicles 
of insignificant green flowers. The root is very 
long, often many feet, and winds among the 
rocks ; it is as thick as the arm, and bright yellow 
inside. After flowering the stem lengthens, the 
bracts separate one from another, become coarse 
red-brown, withered and torn ; finally, as the 
fruit ripens they fall away, leaving a ragged- 
looking stem covered with panicles of deep 
brown pendulous fruits. In the winter these 
naked black stems, projecting from the beetling 
cliffs, or toM^ering above the snow, are in dismal 
keeping with the surrounding desolation of the 
season . — Gar dun. 

Philodendron amurense. — This interesting 
hardy tree, made known to our readers through 
Prof. Sargent, is attracting attention in Europe. 
Mr. Max Leichtlin, writing to the Garden^ says : 

" This, a native of Siberia and Mandschouria, ' 

is just now a beautiful object in my garden. My 
specimen of it is about twelve feet in height, and 
has a tall pyrsimidal crown of from three to 
six feet. The form of its foliage, which is deeply 
lobed, gives it a singular appearance, and the 
coloration of the leaves, which are bright red, is 
very fine. It is also all the more valuable on 
account of its keeping its foliage much longer 
than other deciduous trees, which hereabouts 
have shed their leaves a fortnight ago. It has a 
spongy bark, and is called the Siberian cork- 

Hibiscus (rosa sinensis) albo variegata. — 
A free-growing and elegantly-marked stove plant, 
obtained from the Pacific Islands ; of a closely 
branched habit, with pale green stems, and ovate 
slightly toothed leaves, which are freely mottled 
and variegated with greyish color and white, 
breaking out irregularly in a manner similar to 
the markings of H. Cooperi, to which it would 
form a companion plant, having the variegation 
white instead of pink. It should be grown in 
full light, near the glass, to bring out its proper 

H. (rosa sinensis) CARjriNATA PERFECTA. — 

A charming stove plant, in habit resembling H. 
rosa sinensis, recently imported from the South 
Sea Islands. It has stalked ovate obscurely 
three lobed leaves which are deeply toothed, and 
very large flowers, nearly five inches across, with 
broad and slightly undulated petals, forming a 
full round flower, of perfect shape, and of a rich 
soft carmine-rose with a deep crimson e3'e. The 
staminal column is very prominent, and adds 
much to the beauty of the flowers, the column 
being of a rosy hue, the numerous stamens bright 
yellow, and the five stigmas a rich velvet^v 

H. (ROSA sinensis) miniata semi-plena. — 
This remarbably showy stove plant has firm, 
almost, leathery, ovate leaves, M'hich are coarsely 
toothed, and brilliant flowers of a vermillion- 
scarlet color, darker towards the base of the 
petals. The flowers are semi-double, the petals 
very much waved and recurved, forming an 
irregular undulated mass four inches across, from 
which the partially petaloid staminal column 
projects two inches. The brilliant and attractive 
flowers are remarkable for the absence of for- 
mality, the shape bemg wild and abounding in 
fantastic curves, but nevertheless they are re- 
markably handsome. It has been imported 
from the South Sea Islands. — Wm. Bull. 

New Escholtzias. — The common golden 
yellow escholtzia, of California, has been so 
skilfully selected that a race Avith flowers almost 
crimson has been produced. A beautiful colored 
illustration recently appeared in the Garden. 




Green House and House Gardening. 


The best feature of a garden in Winter is a 
•nice greenhouse, filled with healthy plants. 
They need not be forced flowers, for there are 
numbers which bloom naturally at this season of 
tlie year. 

Xew Holland and Cape plants, such as Epac- 
;ris, Acacia, Heaths, &c., are now the glory of the 
igreenhouse ; hot bursts of sun on them should 
be avoided, as it lays in them the seed of" con- 
sumption," which frequently carries them off 
the following summer. 

Chrysanthemums should now be raised from 
cuttings for fall flowering. They make better 
'blooming plants than offsets. 

Auriculas, Carnations, Pinks, and Polyanthus 
—the prettiest of florists' flowers must be kept 
cool, just free from frost, with plenty of air, if 
best results are desired. 

Azaleas succeed well by grafting with the half 
•ripe shoots of the present season's growth on 
plants raised either by seeds or cuttings. Old 
wood does not take readil}'. 

Geraniums, Pelargoniums, Cinerarias, and 
■Chinese Primroses, must be kept as near the 
glass and light as possible ; they do little good in 
shady places. Keep oft' ttie green Aphis ; for 
this, on a small scale, ffliere is nothing like hot 
water; on a large scale, tobacco smoke, in sev- 
eral successive light doses, is st&ll the best 

Camellias will require rather more w^ater while 
growing than at other times. Just before they 
grow is a good season to gitift. Cut down the 
stock, cleft graft in the crown, wax, and plunge 
in a bottom heat of 70°. A great many kinds 
may be had on one plant by the "bottle system — 
a shoot about to grow is obtained, and attached 
to the stock as in inarching, the end of the shoot 
being put in a small phial of water suspended 
beneath it. This plan does best, however, with 
Ihalf-ripe wood in Jifly. 

Pansies are coming now mto flower. They 
like an airy frame, where they will not be 
roasted in mid^day nor exposed to drying winds, 
:and yet have a free circulation of air and plenty 
of light. Planted out in -such a frame, and the 
»old shoots cut away as soon as the plant has done 

flowering, the plants will keep healthy over till 
the next season. Superior varieties can be raised 
from seed. Choose those with the roundish 
petals, best colors, and the first flowers that 
open, to raise seed from. 

Look out for a good stock of bedding plants in 
time ■, by striking cuttings of such things as grow- 
rapidly, and sowing seeds of such annuals as may 
be advanced to advantage. 

Window plants are as much appreciated at 
this season as at any time of the year. There 
are few things more beautiful than the old classes 
of roses — the Borbon and China. We have seen 
some beauties in windows recently, and w^onder 
they are not more grown. In another case we 
saw a handsome Chorozema cordata. Usually, 
Australian plants do not thrive in our climate, 
but this plant was simply plunged in partial 
shade in summer, rewarding the owner with its 
pretty brown and purple butterfly-like flowers 
all winter. This, and many other window-flow- 
ers, are liable to suffer from the minute insect 
known as red spider. Very minute whitish 
green spots on the leaves usually indicate the 
insect's existence. It is best to lay the plants on 
their sides, in the open air, and treat them to a 
powerful syringing with strong soap-suds, and, 
while still damp, sprinkle a little sulphur on 
them from a pepper-box. Ked spiders do not 
hanker much after sulphur. Sometimes window 
plants sufter from mildew, and sulphur is a good 

remedy for it also. 





Many people are under the idea that it is 
necessary to have a very high temperature for 
all Orchids; but this is a mistake, and has been 
often pointed out in the European gardening 
periodicals, but usually with the recommenda- 
tion of a house specially devoted to this class of 
plants. This is quite unnecessary, for many of 
the most charming species will grow better in 
an ordinary greenhouse than in any other place. 
; In former times, when the high temperature 
; system was believed in for Orchids of all kinds, 
I the specimens from mountains and compara- 
tivelv cool localities died oft' soon after importa- 




tion ; but now a more rational system is adopted 
we hear of wonderful success. Of course in this 
climate we can never expect the same success 
with a few of the very delicate specimens. Por 
example, I have never seen a presentable 
plant of Odontoglossum Alexandrte in this 
country. I do not refer to the miserable little 
plants charged at catalogued price (and a good 
price at that), but to extra large plants pur- 
chased at also an extra large price from Euro- 
pean nurserymen by a few of our wealthy 
growers. I do not despair of being able to grow 
this if I could obtain some respectable plant 
from its native country, and begin with them 
before they had been spoiled in two inch pots 
in Europe. 

Most of the cool house Orchids are plants 
with small bulbs, and although many are found 
in large masses, the greed of the collectors and 
agents induce them to tear this into little bits, 
forgetting that any one having a knowledge of 
plants would rather pay $10 for a large mass 
than $1 for a small piece. For that reason I 
have often placed from twelve to thirty of these 
so-called plants together to make one. Of course 
buyers should not expect to purchase such 
masses at the same price they would pay for the 
little bits called plants sent from Europe. I 
heard recently of one comparatively common 
Odontoglossum purchased in Europe and made 
up with these small pieces for which the 
moderate price of 25 guineas was paid. I 
should have liked to get the same number of 
dollars for such a plant, and when twenty 
per cent, duty and freight was added, the price 
would be tolerable good for the seller, and 
rather high for the buyer. I may mention it is 
quite a waste of time and money to attempt 
growing very small plants of this class, for they 
all require keeping moist at all times, and little 
bits in pots are drowned and on blocks wasted. 

I may also mention it is little use for amateurs 
to invest in freshly imported plants, unless they 
are well posted in their treatment, and have lots 
of spare time to continually look after them ; for 
the plants are usually in very poor condition, so 
that it is a chance under good treatment if they 
will grow ; most frequently from inaporting at the 
budding season, delay in transportation, &c , 
the growth is made and delays in the boxes, and if 
another growth pushes it is usually much weaker, 
and probably produced at the wrong season. 
But I must give a list of a few specimens which 
I have proved do well iu a cool house, just 

mentioning that I tried a few first as an experi- 
ment in the Camellia house. This is a large span- 
roof house 120 feet long, 20 feet wide, and 10- 
feet high, well ventilated on both sides of the 
top, and one side under the side shade. In Sum- 
mer, of course, the house is very warm in hot 
weather, although generally cooler than outside,, 
the roof being whitewashed and the floor damp, 
with air day and night. In Winter when most 
of these give cutting flowers, we ventilate most 
days if the house will not go below 40°, and keep' 
it from 40° to 45° with fire heat ; of course no shad- 
ing is required in the Winter. The first species I 
tried were Lailia anceps, Lselia acuminata, Cat- 
tleya citrina, Odontoglossum Eossi, O. Cervaen- 
tesii, O. Alexandi'fe, O. Tui'leagi leopardicum 
(this last flowers better in a little more heat),- 
Oncidium pelicanum, 0. Filipae, and Oncidiunii 
tigrinum. This grows well, but flowers better in 
a little more heat. 

I have since added a few more Ltelias, which: 
are growing and showing flower fine, and I think 
will be as satisfactory as the others ; also, Odon- 
toglossum, Rossii major, which I consider the 
most satisfactory of all. I have had one plant in 
flower for more three months ; I have also- 
Odontoglossum grande in splendid flower, and! 
all the plants are growing well, although the 
first growth was killed in transit. O. corda- 
tum with the best growth I have seen in this, 
variety, and showing flower. 0. nebulosumanda. 
species of Odontoglossum sold forcitrosmum,but 
is probably maculatum, which we shall soon see as^- 
it is showing flower, Odontoglossum Medusae,, 
a new species, the flower having the scent 
of water lilies. These were in such poor- 
condition when received that I should not 
have been surprised if the plants had died,, 
but I have dozens of fine young shoots., 
and lots of flower stems. Some have been in. 
flower for months. This is a gem, and only costs- 
in Europe two guineas for the ordinary sized' 
plants. I need not mention that Disa grandi- 
flora is quite at home in this house. I had 
eight flowers on several stems last year, but this^ 
is a rather difficult subject to manage in this dry 
climate, it being a native of Table Mountain,. 
Cape of Good Hope, where the air is always 
saturated with moisture, so that thrip and red; 
spider required constant watching ; but there are 
few growers in England that do it well. I have 
grown it outside here in the Summer, but it wa&x 
then more trouble to keep clean than when, 






I have just read the article by W., of Norfolk, 
Va-, ou disease of Marechal Niel liose, but 
think he mistakes in assigning the cause to om- 
severe climate. 

Up to two years ago I think I had the finest 
single specimen for its age (three years) I ever 
saw ; but now it is going in the way your cor- 
respondent speaks, viz : a knotty formation 
above the root. I had thought perhaps it was 
being on its own root; but last week, on a visit 
to the rose-houses of the late George Pum- 
pelly at Tioga, X. Y., I found the great 
Marechal oSTiel rose in a worse condition 
than mine — in fact, just about dead. It is a 
grafted rose that Mr. Pumpelly procured at 
Boston, about six years ago, and is a remarkable 
bush, having a trunk at the graft, I should thmk, 
some 18 or 20 inches in circumference. It is 
mournful to see such destruction ; and can't some 
of our horticulturists find a remedy ? I should 
state that the Pumpelly rose is all right below 
the graft, say 18 inches above the ground, but 
just above the Marechal Niel wood is affected as 
mine is, and as your correspondent speaks. 

[Water heated to 120° is an infallible remedy- 
against all insects where the plants can be dipped) 
for an instant therein, and where a plant is 
trained on a trellis it might, perhaps, be un- 
twined and get a dip when infested. — Ed. G. M.] 



I notice your correspondent, ''Reader," in- 
quires for a remedy for mealy bug : 

I have succeeded best in keeping them down 
by using a small stream of water with consid- 
erable force. I either plug the end of the hose 
nozzle or apply my finger, so as to produce a 
stream say the size of a large knitting-needle,, 
then apply it directly around the leaves and, 
flowers. This dislodges them at once, and with, 
less harm to the plants than any other remedy 
I have tried. 




As it is apt to confuse some of the readers of 
the Gaedexer's Monthly, when reading ex- 
tracts from English gardening papers, in which 
the sizes of floAver pots are too often technicall}^ 
enumerated, I beg to herewith append a table 
which, I trust, may be of service to them :^ 

Thumbs, 2 in. to 2i in.; sixty's (60's), 3 in.; 
forty-eight's (48's), 4i in. ; thirty-two's (32's), 6 
in.; twenty-four's (24's), 8 in.; sixteen's, (16's), 
94 in.; twelve's (i2's), lU in-; eight's (8's), 12 
in.; six's (6's), 13 in.; four's, (4's)~ 15 in.; two's 



Your correspondent, "Reader," asks: 
there any ciure for mealy bug?" 

I have been using for some years, and do still, 
undiluted alcohol, applied with a small brush, 
and find it quite satisfactory and much more 
agreeable to use than whale oil soap. 


BY W. H. P. 

A few days ago I found a young plant of 
Browallia with a multitude of mealy bugs on it, 
and as said insect is my favorite aversion, I put 
the whole affair in the feeding tank of my hot 
'water fixings, and, I think, I fixed the bugs, 
while the plant seems none the Avorse, "Water 
not over 120° Fahr. Let " Reader" try it and 



A small tree from Madagascar, having large 
green leaves and gorgeous scarlet flowers, pro- 
duced in large heads which are suspended in a 
drooping manner on rather long stems. In the 
greenhouses of Europe it has long been aui 
inmate, but is seldom seen in this country. It 
requires a high temperature, but under good 
conditions makes rapid growth. A plant well 

I furnished with leaves makes a beautiful object 

I for out-of-door decoration during the summer, its 
large dark green leaves making it very conspicu- 

I ous and ornamental. A large plant in a tub we 

! have here, formed, associated with other plants, 
of similar nature, quite a subtropical group oil 
the lawn this summer. It succeeds well in a 
good rich fibrous loam, and when growing vigor- 
ously requires abundance of water. Good drain- 
age is indispensable for maintaining a sweetness to 
the soil. Insects do not trouble it much if proper 

I attention be paid to its several requirements; 

\ but if mealy bugs once get a foothold they- 
are diflicult to eradicate, finding good sheltcK- 

I from the stipules at the base of the leaves.. 





with America in orchideous plants was very 

much increasing, and on the whole, satisfactor}-. 

We take on ourselves some of the credit of this, 

Orchid Culture. — While the writer was in as we have taken man}' opportunities of showing 

Europe last year, he learned with great pleasure that while the old-time notions that it requires 

-from the leading nurserymen that their trade ; rare skill and very expensive houses to grow 


them, is true only in a few instances. We are tion to this 

'Orchid commencement" of a 
pleased to say tliat we have several articles on '. beautiful one recently introduced by Mr. Wil- 
hand on Orchid culture, and we have thought liam Bull, from Bogota, who says of it " Odon- 
we could not do better than to give an illustra- toglossnm crispum, also known under the names 




of O. Ahxandrce and 0. Bluntii, is one of the gems 
of the cool Orchid house, since hy a little man- 
agement its charming flowers may be had all the 
year round. It is a plant which varies to an 
almost endless extent, no two of the many 
thousands imported being perhaps exactly alike, 
and very considerable difterences in size, color- 
ing, or crispness in the flowers constantly occur- 
ring. In typical forms the sepals and petals 
are white, ovate or ovate lanceolate, the petals 
being much undulated, and often fimbriately 
toothed. The lip is oblong-acuminate, yellow 
•and crested toward the base, beautifully crisped 
at the margin, and more or less spotted towards 
the front with blotches of reddish brown. It has 
been very largely imported from Colombia, and 
in some of its forms is flushed with a lovely tint 
of rose." We note by Mr. Bull's catalogue that 
this is not among the very expensive Orchids. 
Good plants being obtainable in England for 
about S5. 

Cultivating Old Plants. — Fine specimens, 
showing great skill in culture, can be as well 
shown by growing old things as new ones. It 
is said that the common candy tuft makes won- 
derfully beautiful specimens when well grown. 

Plant Culture in the West. — An im- 
pression prevails that the culture of plants, 
amidst the prevailing rage for mere cut flowers, 
and perhaps the prevailing depression, is declin- 
ing, but a correspondent tells us that L. B. Case, 
of Richmond, Ind., has done a very satisfactory 
business in them the past season. 

Beautiful Australian Plants. — It is a 
■matter of astonishment that the beautiful Aus- 
tralian plants, generally winter-flowering, are 
not more generally grown in our greenhouses. 
Some of them with delicate hair-like roots, suf- 
fer from our dry summer heats, but those with 
heavier ones do well. At a recent Germantown 
Horticultural Society meeting, Mr. Lonsdale 
exhibited a plant of Grevillea robusta, which, 
besides the beautiful and curious flowers it will 
have, as it grows older, has pretty fern-like foliage. 
It ought make a good room plant as well as a 
• desirable one for the greenhouse. 

Double Chinese Primroses.— Since the dis- 
'covery that double Chinese Primroses could be 
■obtained readily from seed, great improvements 
have been made therein. The Florist and 
Pomologist gives a colored plate of a beautiful 
■peach blossom variety called Miss Eva Fish, the 
-flowers of which are an inch and three-quarters 

across. In our own country, there is much im- 
provement going on, notably by Mr. John Saul, 
of Washington, and Mr. Edwin Lonsdale, of 
Germantown. In England there are long lists 
of named kinds as of Dahlias and Geraniums. 

Winter Decorations.— Mr. W. T. Bell, of 
Franklin, Pa., contributes an excellent paper on 
" Decorative Plants," to the Franklin Spectator. 
The great value of the Holly in English decora- 
tions is from its bright scarlet berries. We can- 
not always have these; but we can mix other 
berried plants with evergreen with good effect. 
Prinos verticillata, ^Celastrus scandens, and 
Mitchella repens among others that could be 
usefully employed, as Mr. B. observes. 


Davarf Crested Japanese Cockscomb. — 
We note with pleasure the efforts of our own 

I florists to improve garden flowers. Messrs. Xanz 
& Neuner, of Louisville, have very much im- 

' proved the Japan Cockscomb, by developing a 
regular row of small ones under the main head, 

; as per Illustration annexed. 

The stock is in the hands of Messrs. D. M. 
Ferry »fe Co., of Detroit, Mich. It grows about 
15 inches high, with a collar of leaves under the 
crimson head, and small collars under the 
smaller heads. It ought to make a capital sub- 
ject for plant growers to try superior skill on. 

President Degraw Carnation.— A West- 
ern correspondent writes that this variety has 
degenerated in that section this season, and asks 
is it general ? 

CoLEUs PiCTUS.— While in Mr. Bull's green- 
houses, near London, recently, the new and very 




distinct Coleus pictus attracted om- attention. 
We were very much pleased recently to see the 
same pretty novelty in the collection of H. A. 
Dreer, of Philadelphia. The following illustra- 
tion was taken from Mr. Dreer's plant, but the 
description is Mr. Bull's : 

This distinct and attractive plant has been 
introduced from Duke of York Island. Its divers 
colors are curiously blended, and very effective, 
the leaves, which have a green ground, being 
more or less, but yariably flushed with yellow in 

Agave Siiawii. — This new species, named by 
Dr. Engelmann in honor of Mr. Shaw, the gene- 
rous proprietor of the Missouri Botanical 
Garden at St. Louis, has recently flowered on 
Mr. Shaw's grounds, and has been a topic of 
much interest with St. Louis horticulturists and 

Summit of Perfection Geranium.— Kretsch- 
mar Bros., Flatbush, L. I., write : "We sent you 
two plants of a new double seedling Geranium,, 


irregular patches. The leaves are also marked 
in the direction of the veins, with longitudinal 
bars, varying in size and outline, of a rich choco- 
late brown, which where it meets the parts 
flushed with yellow, assumes a reddish brown 
hue. The marginal teeth are bordered with 
chocolate color. These peculiar markings, and 
the unusual form of the leaves, give the plant a 
bizarre and curious apj)earance. 

Nanz & Neuner's jSTew Double, White, 
Perpetual Blooming Carnation, "Peter 
Henderson." — This choice novelty was raised 
from seed, by Mr. John Charlton , of Rochester, X. 
Y. The plant is of a strong-growing, dwarf, 
compact habit, with rich, dark foliage, producing 
an immense number of flowers, both in winter 
and summer, being in fact as well as in name a 
perpetual blooming carnation. The flowers are 
usually 1\ or 3 inches in diameter, or nearly 
double the size of any other variety; fine form, 
pure white, extra fragrant, and never bursts the 
calyx, which is the usual rule for all carnations, 
but the flower remains bright for over two weeks. 


begging you to report on them in the Gar. 
dener's Monthly after a Summer's trial. 

Our seedling, exhibited at the Xew York Hor- 
ticultural Society's Spring Show, Maj^ 26th, 1877,. 
was granted a special premium, and at the same 
society's Pall Exhibition, September 26th, 1877,, 
a specimen plant of it, of two feet diameter,, 
with fifty-two flower stems, M^as awarded the first 
premium. " Summit of Perfection" we have 
named it. 

[These were planted in the open ground, and 
l^roved to be remarkably free bloomers, which 
the doubles are generally not. It is a scarlet va- 
riety, and the flowers not so double as some 
others. There is a striking resemblance between 
it and another seedling called Conrad Kirchner, 
sent us also to try, and Ave are unable to decide- 
which is best.— Ed. G. M.] 


Scale on the Ivy.— Mrs. H. P., Guilford,. 
Conn., writes, " Can you tell me, through your 



■magazine or otherwise, what the insect on the 
enclosed leaf is, and what will rid them from 
my plants? My large ivy and some roses are 
thickly infested." [This is the common green- 
house scale, and a sponging of whale-oil soap is 
generally effective. — Ed. CI. M.] 

TiiRiPS ON Azaleas. — C. T. W., Hartford, 
•Conn., writes: "I haye noticed lately that the 
buds of some of my Azaleas are growing to look 
like the enclosed ; and while I have no doubt 
that some insect is at the bottom of the trouble, 
I have not been able to discover (although I 
havn't used a glass) anything of the kind. I 
have found, accidentally, a very small black fly 
in the under surface of some of the larger beans. 
I have never had any experience with the thrip, 
which I understand is sometimes a great pest on 
Azaleas; so that if it is this that is troubling 
me, I am unable to recognize it. If you think 

, that the delay will make no difference to the 

j plants, please give me what light you can through 

j the Gardeneh's Monthly." [This is a case of 
thi'ips, which are generally easily kept under 

I when in greenhouses, by tobacco smoke. Where 
there is but a plant or two, the hot-water remedy 

! may be tried. The water must not be over 120°, 
and the plant be dipped in only for an instant. — 
Ed. >G. M.] 

Archbishop Wood Geranium.— A corres- 
pondent writes, reminding the readers of the 
magazine that the correct name of this geranium 
is Archbishop, not Bi§hop Wood. It is a small 

I matter, but we agree with our correspondent that 

J it is as well to be accurate as not. 

Amaryllis and their Culture.— J. H., Jr., 
Glendale, Mass., would feel obliged if some cor- 
respondent could tell a little about Amaryllis 
and the plants related to them, &c. 

Fruit and Vegetable Gardening. 


In (<rder to grow good fruit, w^e need only re- 
peat in a general way, that trees require as much 
food as a crop of corn, or potatoes ; but it is very 
important to keep the feeding roots at the sur- 
face, and therefore that the very best way to 
mature fruit trees is by surface dressing. 

Manuring of grapes should be regulated by 
the nature of the soil. If it be damp — in most 
cases a bad condition for grape growing — stable 
manure in great quantities means diseased vines. 
In dry ground, it has a beneficial effect. Many 
Ijersons of small places have grapes in damp 
ground, or can have none. They must take care 
to keep the roots near the surface ; never crop 
the ground about them to destroy the small 
fibres, if it can be avoided; and even good may 
often follow, when the vines seem failing, to 
carefully follow up the roots, lift near the sur- 
face, and encourage, as much as possible, those 
remaining there. Wood-ashes, bone-dust, and 
such like fertilizers are best for grape-vines in 
low ground. 

All fruit trees like a rather dry, rich soil. On 
■a cold, clayey bottom, diseases are usually fre- 

quent. Do not plant deep ; cut off tap roots, 
I and do all you, can to encourage surface fibres. 
i Surface manuring is the best way of doing this 
after the tree is planted. Do not allo\v anything 
to grow vigorously around your trees the first 
year of planting, nor allow the soil to become 
' hard or dry. Let trees branch low, and prune 
a little at transplanting. 

I Pruning of fruit trees, when required, should 
i be proceeded with at favorable opportunities. 
We write when required., for in our climate more 
injury is done by the knife than by the neglect 
to use it. Gooseberries, for instance, are usually 
I ruined by pruning. In Europe, it is customaiy 
1 to thin out the centre well to " let in the sun and 
[ air." Here it is the sun and air that ruin them, 
by inviting mildew ; and so the more shoots the 
I better. Our country farmers are the best goose- 
berry growers, where weeds run riot and grass 
and gooseberries affect a close companionship. 
Wherever, in fact, the gooseberry can a find cool 
corner, well shaded from the sun, and with a soil 
J which is never wet, nor yet by any means dry, 
■ there will gooseberries be produced unto you. 
! The English kinds mildew so universally as to 
be almost gone out of cultivation south of the 
St. Lawrence. Nor, indeed, is it to be so much 




regretted, since tlie improved seedlings of large 
size and fine qualtity, raised from the hardier 
American species, are becoming known, and 
their merits appreciated by growers. 

The rule, in pruning grape-vines, is to shorten 
the shoots in proportion to their strength ; but if 
the advice we have given in former Summer 
hints has been attended to, there will be little 
disproportion in this matter, as Summer pinching 
of the strong shoots has equalized the strength 
of the vine. Those who are following any par- 
ticular system will, of course, prune according 
to the rules comprising such system. As a gen- 
eral rule, we can only say, excellent grapes can 
be had by any system of pruning ; for the only 
object of pruning in any case is to get strong 
shoots to push where they may be desired, or to 
increase, with the increased vigor of the shoot, 
which pruning supposes will follow the act, in- 
creased size in the fruit it bears. j 

In the Northern States, Broccoli, and Cauli- j 
rtower when sown in March as recommended, do \ 
not head early enough in Fall. It should be 
sown about the time of Early York Cabbage, in 
the hot-bed, during this month. 

About the middle or end of the month, or still 
later in the Korth — say the middle of March — 
Celery and late Cabbage may be sown. Here, 
we usually sow the second week in March. 

In the more Southern States, the gardener will 
lose no time in getting in his Potatoes, Beets, : 
Carrots, Parsnips, Peas, Spinach, Radishes, Let- ; 
tuce, Onions, and Salsafy. These should be the ' 
first crops put in after the season breaks up for ; 
good. The earlier they are in the better. As- j 
paragus, Rhubarb and Horse-radish beds may 
now be made. Asparagus roots are generally | 
planted too thickly to produce fine shoots,— | 
they starve one another. A bed five feet wide 
should have three rows, and the plants set about 
eighteen inches apart. A deep soil is very im- 
portant, as the succulent stems require every 
chance they can get for obtaining moisture. 
About four inches beneath the soil is sufficient 
to plant them. Rhubarb also requires a deep, 
rich and moist soil. Horse-radish beds are best 
made by taking pieces of strong roots, about one 
inch long, and making a hole about a foot or 
fifteen inches deep, with a dibble, and dropping 
the piece to the bottom of the hole ; a clean, 
straight root will then rise up through the soil. 
Crowns or eyes are better than pieces of roots, — 
where they can be had— and a rich clayey soil 
better than a light sandy one. 

In the Middle States the work for February- 
will, for the most part, consist of preparations 
for future operations, and particulary for deal- 
ing with the manure question. All those kinds 
that are grown for their leaves or stems require 
an abundance of nitrogenous manures ; and it 
is useless to attempt vegetable gardening without 
it. To this class belong Cabbage Lettuce, 
Spinach, etc. The other class, which is grown 
principally for its seeds or pods (as Beans, Peas, 
etc.), does not require much manure of this char- 
acter; in fact they are injured by it. It causes 
too great a growth of stem and leaf, and the 
earliness — a great aim in vegetable growing — is 
injuriously affected. Mineral manures, as wood, 
aslies, bone-dust, etc., are much better for them. 
For vegetables requiring rich stable manure, it 
is better that they have it well rotted and de- 
cayed. IN'othing has yet been found so well, 
fitted for the purpose as old hot-bed dung : 
though to the smell no trace of " ammonia" re- 
mains in it. 

One of our most interesting parts of a vegeta- 
ble garden is a hot bed for starting seeds early. 
The end of the month will be time enough for 
those who Iiave not command of a large supply 
of stable manure, as the very low temperature 
we often get at the end of the month soon ab- 
sorbs all the heat the hot-bed possessed. It is in 
any event best to put up the beds in the warmest 
and most sheltered spots we can find, and to 
keep cold winds from the manure, by covering it. 
with branches of trees or mats ; and the glass- 
should always be covered with mats at night.. 
Tomatoes, Egg-plants, Peppers and Cucumbers 
are the first seeds to be sown this way. Cooler- 
frames can be got ready for Cauliflower, Lettuce,. 
Beets, Celery and Early York Cabbage, a little 
of which maybe sown about the end of the 
month for the earliest crop. The Caulifiower is^ 
a particularly valued vegetable, and no expense 
spared to get them in perfection will be regretted, 
when one's efforts are successful. 

In the open air, should the weather prove 
favorable, as it often is about the end of the 
month, Peas and Potatoes may be planted. 
Frost seldom gets deep enough in new dug 
ground to injure them after this date. 

In managing the vegetable garden the highest 
excellence should lie aimed at. This is the chief 
source of pleasure in a garden. If one can take 
no pleasure in his garden— if the watching of the 
beautiful processes of nature in furnishing him 
food — and the manv lesson-? they teach him_ 




which he in a thousand ways can so pleasurably 
and profitably apply, have no charms and attrac- i 
tions tor him, he had belter give up gardening; 
for assuredly, in most cases— even to 99 in 100 { 
instances— the market gardener will bring the | 
vegetables to his own door cheaper than he can 
grow them. Amateur gardening should prima- 
rily be pursued for the lessons it teaches, and 
the pleasure it aftbrds ; when it ceases to do this 
it should be abandoned. 




The grape crop here in New England has been 
in some respects exceptionally good. Our warm 
and dry October has ripened up many varieties 
to an unusual excellence, and made us appreciate 
them more highly than ever before. And yet 
the amount of our crop, in some cases at least, 
sadly diminished by the unprecedented number 
of rose-bugs. Xever, in all my experience, have 
I seen such swarms of them before. I have re- 
peatedly taken from one to two dozen from a 
single cluster. The consequence was that, not- 
withstanding my utmost eflbrts, some of my 
vines were entirely stripped. Some large vines 
did not ripen a single berry, while on others I 
succeeded in saving from a tenth to a half of 
what they would have borne but for the bugs. 
How shall we get relief? 

Miner''s New Seedlings— It has been known 
for some time past, that Mr. T. B. Miner, 
of Linden, N. J., has several white seedlings of 
Concord, which have been pronounced, by those 
who have seen the vines and tasted the fruit, 
exceedingly promising. If I am not mistaken, 
Mr. Andrew S. Fuller has commended them 
quite warmly in the N. Y. Tribune. Mr. M. 
sent me a box of the fruit for exhibition at our 
Massachusetts Horticultural display in Septem- 
ber, but they reached me in such impaired con- 
dition as to be utterly unfit to place upon the 
tables. I could, however, get some idea of the 
quality of the fruit. The berries that I tasted 
were very sweet and delicious, but not so free 
from toughness of pulp as is desirable. But I 
ought to add that I had no such specimens of 
fruit to test as were adapted to do the variety 

Brighiofi. — Xo fruit of this new variety was 
shown at our annual exhibition, and I canot speak 
of its quality. But T am very much pleased with 

the vigor and healthfulness of the vines. It is. 
a strong grower, and yet not rampant, and bids, 
fair to prove hardy and prolific. Its fruit is 
highly praised by those who have eaten it. 

Lady. — This still proves with me a very feeble 
grower. A splendidly-rooted two-year-old plant,, 
received last spi'ing from Mr. Campbell, and 
planted with extra care, in good soil, has grown 
only about twelve inches. My vines that have 
been planted two years grew this year only three 
or four feet, while Brighton, Black Eagle, and 
Delaware, beside them, have made from twice to 
four times the amount of wood. Lady, however, 
seems entirely healtliy, so far as my brief expe- 
rience enables me to judge. 

Early Champion. — There are two grapes of 
this name in the market. One originated in New 
York, and is an early, hardy, vigorous grower, 
and probably identical with the Tallman. In 
quality it is only tolerable. The other originated' 
in New Orleans, and is a much better grape. It 
is very early, more so than Hartford, vigorous, 
healthy, productive, and of very good quality. 
Both are black. The latter is one of the most 
promising grapes we have for early market. But 
in some way the diff"erence between the two< 
should be indicated by a change of name in one 
or the other. 

Lady Washington. — It is very agreeable news 
to all lovers of choice grapes, that Mr. Ricketts, 
of Newburgh, has at last decided to otler this 
splendid variety to the public. He deems it,^ 
all thmgs considered, one of the best of his entire 
collection. If the vine shall prove healthy and: 
hardy, so that we can all raise such fruit as Mr.. 
R. does, then indeed the grape millenium will 
seem to have come at last. 


Orchards in Grass. — When, at the commence- 
ment of the Gardener's Monthly, we showed 
that the best kind of cultivation for orchards was 
to well care for them in grass, few of our younger 
readers can have any idea of the storm of indig- 
nation on the one hand, and ridicule on the other, 
which we had to encounter. Our advice was 
contrary to that given in "the books;" but we 
knew, from the lessons of experience, tliat the 
advice of the books was wrong, and dared to say 
so. We lost some subscribers by telling the 
truth as we found it, but we quieted our (then), 
publishers by the assurance that it would all 




turn out right, by and by. Pears especially we 

u-ecommended should be well cultivated in grass, 
putting it particularly on the ground of its health- 

'fulness, and illustrating it as the experience of 
Abraham Barker, near Philadelphia, whose or- 
chard, on the plan invented by ^sop, wliich, 
" dug around and manured, to let in the air and 
the food" to the roots, came near being a disas- 
trous failure, till he took our advice and sowed 
it down in clover and grass, and top-dressed with 
manure afterwards. To-day that orchard is one 
of the best about here. "We have also referred 
to another orchard of 50,000 pears, set out by its 

■enthusiastic owner to show expressly that we 
were wrong. This orchard has been the victim 

•of disease till but a few are left. Immense num- 
bers were dug up and burned ; and this orchard 
too within gun-shot of the very successful one 

-of Abraham Barker. These and similar facts 
we have continually referred to ; but we have 
been told that we must be wrong — that Elwan- 
ger and Barry "cultivated," and they had no 

'disease; that Marshall P. Wilder "cultivated, 
that C. M. Hovey and Patrick Irwin "culti- 
vated," and they had no disease. But on our 

•own examination of the orchards of Wilder and 
Hovey, we found that though they were not 

: actually in grass, they were practically on our 
plan ; for the surface was barely stirred, and the 

Qatter top-dressed with seaweed. However, we 
need not here go over again with all that has 
passed ; but we now know — everybody now 
knows — that the best orchards in the Union 
everywhere are those which are well cultivated 
in grass. 

It gives us great pleasure to append the fol- 
lowing from the Country Gentleman. We give 
it with the more satisfaction because we always 
felt that the Country Gentleman., while oppos- 
ing our views, did so honestly, in the belief 
that we were advocating not good culture in 
grass, but absolute neglect in grass ; and we had 
full faith that as it came to understand us fully, 
thei'e would be little difference of opinion be- 
tween us ; for the Country Gentleman is too pro- 
gressive a paper not to be willing, as we ai'e, to 
learn as we go along. It says : 

" Since the wide prevalence of the blight in 
the pear, a large number of instances are reported 
of greater immunity from this disease in trees 
growing in grass ; while in rarer cases the reverse 
has been observed. The evidence, however, pre- 
ponderates in favor of pear orchards in grass— 

.this remark applying to standard trees." 

California Wine. — It is said the Califor- 
! niatis intend to make a strong exhibit of their 
j wines in Paris. 

! Pride of the Hudson Raspberry. — This is 
a new variety which is spoken of in intelligent 

I The Pig in Ohio. — The Montgomery (Ohio) 
1 County Horticultural Society reports that the 
Fig can be quite successfully grown in that 
I State, with but slight protection in Winter. 

I Tea Plants in California. — Recent exper- 
iments do not seem to be a great success. It is 
said the leaves fall in Summer from the warm, 
dry atmosphere. 

{ The Beauty of the Philadelphia Pear 
Tree. — The Belgian Horticultural Review says 
that in the fall of the year, the American Pear, 
\ Philadelphia, has its leaves turn to the beauti- 
ful brown color so characteristic of some Maples 
and Sumachs. It also speaks of Clapp's Favor- 
ite, in connection with its large and showy 

Phylloxera and Grape Rot. — The Valley 
Naturalist tells us that at a recent meeting of 
the St. Louis Academy of Science, the President 
C. V. Riley, alluded to the prevailing impression 
that the Phylloxera caused the grape rot. It 
says : "In consequence of some official statements 
by Prof. Cook, of the Michigan Agricultural Col- 
lege, the President desired it to go on record 
that he totally disagreed with the professor as to 
there being any connection between phylloxera 
and the rot on the vine. 

Dr. Engleman agreed with the President in 
this view." 

Best Apples for Miasissippi.— The most 
popular apples in this State, seem to be Schock- 
ley, Yates, Kentucky Streak, and Nickajack. 
The last name has a wide popularity in the 
South. The apple does very well in the north- 
ern part of the State. 

Grape Disease and Phylloxera.— It is 
the misfortune of many good ideas to be so rid- 
den as get run into the ground, and this is the 
way with the Phylloxera. This pest is bad enough 
in all conscience. It injures roots to such an ex- 
tent, that, once effected, the plant is liable to 
mildews and many other diseases. But now 
come people who forget that there are many 
other enfeebling causes ; and moreover, mildews 
and moulds do not always wait for weak plants, 
before beginnino; their destructive work. Mr. 




W. Saunders records an experiment where he 
took a branch of a grape vine out of a vinery, 
part in the house, and partiin the open air, and, 
■while the plant inside kept heallthy, the exposed 
"branch was mildewed, and this accords with the 
•experience of the best gardeners. Phylloxera 
•does a good deal, but far from all of our grape 

Tropical Frttits. — It is -saiid that plants of 
the Japan Persimmon are introduced into Califor- 
nia, duty free, as " tropical fruits." We pass 
no opinion here on the policy of duties on trees and 
plants; but are interested in the geographical 
problem. "We had no idea that even an Ameri- 
■can Congress would regard Japan as "within the 
tropics;" but then an American Congress is a 
thing wonderfully and fearfully made. It was 
•only a year or so ago, we had to call its atten- 
tion to the fact, that aHhododendron, when it 
reached the shores of Boston, from England, 
Ijecame a "semi-tropical fruit." We are sorry 
for the plants, but must keep our geographical 
heads level. 

Testing old Seeds. — People often have seeds 
on hand that they would like to sow, if only sure 
■of their vitality. A correspondent of the 
Gardener''s Magazine gives the following for tur- 
nips, audit may do for many others : — 

" Before sowing a field of turnips the seed was 
invariably tested in the following simple man- 
ner : An ordinary dinner plate was taken, and a 
circular piece of fine flannel just large enough to 
cover the lower part was laid upon it. The 
plate was then placed on a table before a win- 
daw on the sunny side of the Taouse. The whole 
mass of seed to be tested was then thoroughly 
mixed by hand, so that a fair sample could 
"be taken from it by a small spoon. The seeds so 
taken were laid on a piece of paper and care- 
fully counted, but without selection for quality, 
and a number, say 200 seeds, were then spread 
evenly on the piece of flannel before named, 
after which a little cold water was gently poured 
over the flannel until it was saturated, but not 
quite covered ; in this way it was allowed to 
stand for a few days exposed to the influence of 
light and air, when the swollen seeds were seen 
to have germinated and thrown up long and 
slender white shoots of half an inch or more in 
height. All that was then necessary was simply 
to count the number of dead seeds that lie ex- 
posed 'on the flannel in the same condition in 
^which they were placed there, and hence the 

precise percentage of live and dead seeds were 
accui-ately ascertained. When this percentage 
was unsatisftictory, my father invariably returned 
the seed to the merchant and bought some other 
in its place, but he never lost a crop of turnips 
from using dead seeds." 


ScuiBXER Spitzenbitkg Apple. — J. W. B., 

Plattsburgh, N. Y., writes : " Referring to your 
remarks on the want of a more hardy and vigor- 
ous tree of the peculiar flavor of the Esopus Spitz- 
enburg, and as abundant a bearer, I have to say 
that I have that variety. I exhibited the fruit 
at the annual meeting of the New York State 
Agricultural Society, 1859, and received a silver 
medal for it, named Scribner's Spitzenburg. It 
is hardy and vigorous, of the form and peculiar 
flavor of the Esopus variety, and the tree more 
hardy and vigorous, color a lighter red than 
Esopus. I propagated trees of this variety, and 
sold it from my nursery for several years ; but as I 
have not propagated any trees for several years, 
I have none for sale at present, but can supply in 
small quantities next Fall. I will, if possible, 
send you a sample of the fruit next week." 

[The apple was a little over ripe. We should 
judge from this that it is a little earlier than its 
parent. The fruit is also more angular, but in 
other respects very much like the Esopus Spit- 
zenburg. So far as we can judge from these, the 
variety is nearly, perhaps quite, as good as the 
original. — Ed. G. M.] 

Rescue Pear. — P. D. S., Haitford, writes: — 
" I sent you to-day through the post office a 
small box with a pfear of a variety, I think, un- 
known, having never see.n it at any of our pomo- 
logical exhibitions. I esteem it one of the very 
best late keeping Winter pears. Of its beauty 
and quality you can judge for yourself. This 
variety came into my possession some 10 or 12 
years since. A friend living in the city of !N'ew 
York knowing that I was interested in pear cul- 
ture, stated to me that there was growing on his 
uncle's place, in the upper part of the city, a 
very old pear tree, which they had just discov- 
ered was a very choice Winter variety. The 
family had always been in the practice of cook- 
ing the pears in the Fall of the year, thinking 
them a common cooking pear, but accidentally 
a quantity of them was put into a trunk and placed 
away in a dark closet, and were left until some- 




time in the month of February, when upon open- 
ing the trunk they were much surprised to see the 
pears fully ripened,and of a beautiful golden color. 
I obtained a few gyafts from this original tree, 
and do not know that any were given to any 
other party. I have distributed a few of the 
grafts to friends in our city, some of whom have 
fruited it, and are much pleased with them. 
Should it prove to be a new or unknown variety 
I have thought to give it the name of "Rescue," 
presuming that the original tree has disappeared 
in the extension of the city of New York, and 
that it has been rescued from extermination 
through the few grafts obtained by me. The 
pear' that I have sent is one of the largest that I 
have grown, being above the average size. 
Should the pear come to you in a good condition, 

I should be pleased to have your views respect- 
ing it. 

[It came to hand early in January. It is some- 
thing in the way of Beurre Diel, but superior to anj- 
other variety we have met with for many years. 
It is not known to us, and we can say thttt as to 
size, flavor and general appearance it is a truly 
first-class fruit.— Ed. G. M.] 

Burnet Grape. — This Canadian variety is^ 
receiving much praise in Northern papers. It 
was originated in Prince Edward County by Mr> 
Peter C. Dempsey, one of our most skillful 
growers. The fruit is large, purplish black, 
sweet and rich, and ripens earlier than the Con- 
cord. The vine is vigorous, productive and 




BY W. 

No doubt many of your numerous readers, 
who have interests outside of the greenhouse 
and potting-shed, will be pleased with your 
department of Forestry. 

This is a branch of industry which has been 
far too much neglected, and yet it is one that 
requires an extensive range of knowledge, which, 
unfortunately, has not yet, in our country, been 
brought to bear upon it. An increasing interest 
is, however, apparent among the people. This 
is manifestly the case in the Western or prairie 
States, where, in the horticultural societies. For- 
estry vies with Pomology in the rank assigned 
to it. Your prairie farmer soon learns the 
benefits conferred by groves and shelter belts. 

Your readers may be glad to know that this 
matter gave rise to a very spirited discussion 
before the American Nurserymen's Association, 
at their meeting last June in Chicago. This 
resulted in the appointment of a large commit- 
tee, who were charged with the duty of preparing 
a memorial to Congress, asking that a commis- 
sion be appointed to visit, study, and report fully 
upon the forests of Europe. That memorial 
has been presented to both houses of Congress, 
and, with a bill providing for its proper execu- \ 
tion, referred to the appropriate committees. 

It is earnestly hoped by the memorialists 
especially since the matter has received the en- 
dorsement of the Secretary of the Interior, that 
Congress will soon act in the matter and make a 
suitable appropriation for the commission. 

The several agronomic associations, especially 
those of the "Western States, now holding their 
annual winter meetings, are warmly endorsing 
the action of the memorialists, and urging their 
delegates in Congress to lend the project their 
I hearty support ; so that it is hoped that the bill 
now before Congress may become a law; then,, 
j if the President be fortunate in finding a suitable 
[ nominee, we may anticipate a good and useful 
report, that will convey to the people a vast deal 
of really valuable and practicable information 
upon this branch of agriculture that is, as yet, a 
terra incognita to us. 



Since sending you my article on the above, I 
came across the following in Loudon's Encyclo- 
paedia of Plants : " Rhamnus frangula has dark 
purple berries. The flowers are particularly grat- 
ifying to bees. Goats devour the leaves vora- 
ciously, and sheep will eat them. Charcoal 
prepared from the wood is used by the makers 
of gunpowder. The berries of this species, and 
also of the Cornus, are said to be brought to 
market and sold for those of the buckthorn ; but 
they are easily distinguished, the true buckthorn 
having four seeds, this two, the Cornus one." 





Forest Commissioners to Europe.— The 
Xurscr3^men's Association petitioned Congress to 
send a commissioner to Europe to learn how to 
preserve American forests and plant new ones; 
and Dr. Hough will probably be sent there, as 
we learn from the daily papers Congress is likely 
to vote $;G,000 for that purpose. Dr. H. has sub- 
mitted a very full report of his last year's ope- 

Catalpa Timber. — The Practical Fanner has 
a good word for the Catalpa, from the editor's 
personal experience of its value. He says it has 
an additional advantage over locust in being free 
from borers. 

J^atural Transplanting. — A Western pa- 
per has the following curious paragraph: "A 
blue ash tree seven feet in circumference and 
eighteen feet in height, its top having been pre- 
viously cut off, was recently dislodged by a 
swollen stream In Ohio, floated 340 yai'ds, and 
again took root, six ^eet above the present level 
of the creek, and is doing well." 

Forestry or Ohio. — Ohio was a densely 
timbered .State, having about 14,000,000 acres, at 
its settlement. Of these it is computed that 
about 6,000,000 acres have yet the original stand- 
ing timber thereon. 

Cambridge (Mass.) Botanical Garden and 
Arboretum. — The annual report of the director, 
Prof. C. S. Sargent, is full of interest. It shows 
the progress which has been made in the work to 
the 31st of August, 1877. We make the following 
<'xtract as of a matter of interest to all of us as 

W"ll as to the Harvard University, to which the 
I report is addressed : 

' "Judging from the immense number of letters 
which are annually sent me in regard to trees 
and tree-planting, it seems evident that there is 
I a steadily increasing interest felt in arboricul- 
j ture, which it should be t'.e duty of the arbore- 
tum to foster in every possible manner. The 
i mere answering of the letteis. communications 
I and inquiries received from nearly everv State in 
I the Union, and from almost all the countries of 
I Europe, would have more than occupied my 
j whole time ; and they must have been neglected, 
j had not Mr. Francis Skinner voluntarily assumed 
! charge of this department, and relieved me of 
I all correspondence of a merely routine de- 
1 scrip tion. 

j It is but five years since the first establishment 
of the arboretum, but its influence and useful- 
j ness are already evident. To its establishment 
1 can be directly traced the planting during the 
past season of nearly half a million trees in the 
I New England States alone. Through its influ- 
ence attention has been called to the necessity of 
! the more general cultivation of the American 
White ash, a tree of the first economic value, and 
now rapidly disappearing from all but the more 
i-ecently settled portions of the country. Up to 
the present year young ash for general planting 
I could not be' procured either at "home or abroatf. 
I They are now raised in such numbers as to be 
within reach of all. 1 have been able to de- 
i monstrate, also, that seedling forest trees, for 
i which the Eastern States, at least, have largely 
I depended on foreign nurseries, can be produced 
I equally well and at cheaper rates than abroad. 
So that in the future, this business, which 
promises an immense development, will be a 
source of profit to American industry, while 
planters will be saved the risks and expenses 
which necessarily attend the importation of such 
perishable goods as.liviug plants." 

The work which Prof. Sargent is doing is 
really a national one, and he deserves the hearty 
thanks of all who desire to see American arbori- 
culture prosper. 

Natural History and Science. 




I have often been impressed with the mixed 
nature o^ foreign nomenclature, and I now notice 
that you propose to call all conifers with erect 
cones Abies^ and those with pendant cones Picea. 
You thus make our common Balsam Fir and its 
congeners Abies. It will be difficult to make 
gardeners recognize this distinction. 

If you will show an observing, intelligent man 
a Norway Spruce and a Silver Fir as types of 
their respective classes, and let him study them 
well, he may go through the most varied nursery 
and will infiillibly place all of each class by 
themselves, whether the cones are erect or pen- 
dant. The difference in the foliage of the two 
classes is very marked and clear. You would 
scarcely call the Norway Spruce Picea excelsa : 
and yet if you preserve the old name of Abies 
excelsa the distinction is so great that it is diffi- 
cult to a.(\oY>i Abies Balsamea as the true name of our 




American Balsam Fir." Moreover, in experi- 
menting for twenty years, we have never suc- 
ceeded in grafting any of the Norway Fir class 
upon the Balsam stock or the converse. There 
is so marked a difference in the roots that our 
propagator, Mr. Trumpy, can always recognize 
them when shown him without the tops. Nearly 
all the Abies^ as we have hitherto termed them, 
grow freely from cuttings ; the Piceas grow from 
cuttings with great difficulty. 

"We are accustomed humbly to bow to the 
dicta of botanists, but do they all agree in this 
nomenclature ? If not, let us adhere to the old 
names which are dear to some of us by asso- 
ciations. Virgilia lutea, with its liquid Italian 
sound, was a pleasant name to utter. Cladrastvs 
hndoria, its successor, is harsh and discordant. 
The Corchorus of our childhood was a beautiful 
flower. The Kei-ria does not bring up so pleasant 
a memory. The strong growth and showy bloom 
of the Bignonia was always a pleasure. The 
Tecoma will never seem quite the same thing. 
For all purposes we need correct scientific no- 
menclature, but without strong reason do not let 
us break up the association of the past. 

[Our correspondent, we fear, misapprehends, 
for there is no intention of confusing the Spruce 
and Silver Firs together. But the names are 
wrong. The disagreeable changes to which he 
refers in the latter part of his c<?mmunication 
come from the indifference to being right. If 
people would be careful to be " right before they 
go ahead" in plant's names as in other things, 
the trouble of changing names, to which he 
refers, would not occur. 

We "are not changing names now, but are 
simply pointing out that which is right, for Picea 
is the oldest and proper name for the spruces, 
and Abies for the firs. At one time we feared to 
advocate the right, lest it might make trouble; 
but no more confusion can possibly arise than at 
present exists in Europe, scarcely two writers 
agreeing as to whether a plant in question is a 
Picea or an Abies. Indeed, the Balsam Fir, 
used by our correspondent as an illustration, is 
as often called Abies Balsamea in European 
works as anything else. 

Our best botanist in Conifera3,Dr. Engelmann, j 
refuses to recognize the modern Abies and Picea, j 
but contends that they should be transposed to { 
their proper places. In view of the confusion i 
already existing in European nomenclature, it 
will make no trouble now to hold out for the 
right.— Ed. G. M.] ! 


Cracking or the Pear. — It must be clear 
to all who have given close observation to the 
subject, that there are several, if not many causes, 
which make the fruit of the pear crack — that 
one cause is the operation of a minute fungus ; 
and we believe this has been made quite clear to 
our readers, as well as to the readers of the pro- 
ceedings of the American Pomological Society. 
The knowledge we have gained in this countrj'^ 
on this subject does not, however, seem to have 
extended to Europe, for we find the following in 
one of our European exchanges, given as an 
original discovery : 

" M. Prilleux has communicated to the French 
Academy some observations on the black spots 
sometimes found on pears, and which are known 
to the Paris gardeners asiavelures. He has noticed 
that cracks in the fruit usually originate in these 
spots. All varieties are not equally subject to 
them. Doyenne d'hiver suffers most frequently 
and most severely. Wet seasons favor the ap- 
pearance of these spots, and standards generally 
sutter more than wall-trees, and those with a 
southwest or western more than others with an 
eastern aspect. Some trees are affected year 
after year, while others similarly circumstanced 
escape altogether. The spots he finds to be pro- 
duced by a small fungus, Cladosporium dendrit- 
icum, Wallroth, which was first noticed by that 
naturalist on apple trees. The filamentary 
spores take root in and penetrate the superficial 
tissues, swell at the extremities, and divide into 
small cells, which again divide, forming a mass 
of minute blackish cells (as may be seen by lifting 
the epidermis of a leaf thus affected), spreading 
their sporiferous filaments in all directions. The 
effects are different on different parts of the plant. 
On a leaf the part affected blackens and dies, but 
the rest of the leaf remains sound. On the bark 
crevices and nodes are formed, which, however, 
are not generally conspicuous. On the fruit it is 
different. The superficial growth is partially 
checked by the presence of the parasite, whilst 
that of the minor parts continues ; consequently, 
unless relieved by early excision, the fruit be- 
comes deformed, the dead parts distend, and the 
exterior cracks, exposing the sound portions 
within. The existence, sometimes unnoticed, of 
the fungus on the bark of particular individuals 
explains its reappearance year after year on their 
fruit, although it may not be found on their neigh- 
bors. The peculiarity may be communicated by 


The Wp:ather in New York.— S. F. T., 
Saratoga Springs, New York, under date of 
Januarv 4, writes : " Thinking that the en- 




closed might be of some value to show the 
sudden changes of a northern New York climate, 
I send it, and also the weather report for De- 
cember, 1877, which you will notice is very 
mild. Our first real snow storm (northeast) is 
at hand to-day, after another change last night 
from 7° below zero to 10° above. 

" The January number of the monthly is just 
prime A 1, and j^ou see that the article on 
* Stoking a Fire ' is needed in this part of the 

[The Daily Saratogmn, New York, as referred 
to above, says : 

'' Between 11 o'clock last night and 7 o'elock 
this morning the temperature of the weather 
changed 27 degrees. At Terwilliger's green- 
houses on South street at 11 o'clock the ther- 
mometer indicated 14° above zero, and at 7 
o'clock 13° below, making a difference of 27° in 
eight hours." 

It has been, so far. n delightful winter. For 
a couple of nights in Germantown the ther- 
mometer made a hasty visit to 10° above zero, 
but to-day, January 12th, the temperature is 50°, 
and the atmosphere as genial and balmy as an 
April day.— Ed. G. M-] 

Literature, Travels I Personal Notes. 




The first part of the superb work, which bears 
the above title, has lately been issued by the 
Naturalists' Agency. A work which should 
accurately describe and appropriately illustrate 
our American species of ferns, has long been 
needed in this country. The few which have 
been delineated are scattered through so many 
foreign publications that considerable trouble is 
experienced in finding them. Even in many of 
our finest libraries these works are generally 

But the one before us, judging of the whole by 
the past, cannot fail to meet the necessity. The 
high character of Prof. Eaton, who prepares the 
text, and the reputation of Mr. Emerton, the 
artist, whose drawings are unequalled, are assur- 
ances that the work will be carefully, thoroughly 
and accurately done. The interest which is 
manifested in the undertaking by Dr. Gray, and 
others no less eminent in science, should con- 
vince us of the excellence of the work, even 
though other guarantees should be lacking. 

Ferns have always attracted the attention and 
won the admiration of every true lover of 
Nature, not more by the elegance of their dark 
green foliage than by the gracefulness of their 
forms. Although ignorant of their names and 
the details of their growth and structure, man 
has never ceased to show his fondness for them. 
Shut out from such knowledge by the technicali- 
ties of science which enters so largely into our 
common text-books, a deep interest is never- 

theless manifested in these beautiful objects of 
creation. This is evidenced by the care bestowed 
upon their culture, and upon the arrangement of 
them into suitable devices for the boudoir and 

Who does not love ferns? The laughing, 
romping schoolgirl, as she trips leisurely along, 
anon stops from her journey to pluck them from 
their hiding places. And even the careful, busy 
housewife steals away from her weary labors to 
tend these idols of her affection. It is not merely 
to the scienti^c student that they bring unnum- 
bered pleasures, for all in whom dwell a love for 
the beautiful in Nature render homage to these 
lovely children of the groves. But it is to the 
naturalist that they yield their profoundest 
wonders and most inspiring beauties. 

There is no reason why these things ghould be 
hidden from minds that move in narrower 
spheres. Every effort that is made tending to 
the popularization of science, should be en- 
couraged by every laudable means. Books should 
be written, not to reflect the erudition of authors, 
but to render easy and simple, as well as intelli- 
gible to the masses, the truths of which they 
speak. A due amount of pure science is often 
indispensable and sometimes unavoidable. En- 
glish writers should adhere more rigidly to the 
Saxon element of the language and show less 
preference to the Latin and Greek elements. 

Few books of a scientific character are written 
that fully commend themselves to popular favor. 
Those that do exist are mostly replete with the 
dryest details, which are clothed in Latinized 
expressions. Their tedium is often unrelieved 
by a single illustration. Not so with the 
one about which we are writing. In it a happy 




medium has been kept in view. It contains j 
enough of science to satisfy, without cloying, the 
abnormal appetite of the thorougli-going sci- 
entist ; but, at the same time, the popular reader 
is drawn to its pages by the perspicuity of its 
phraseology, the simplicity of its arrangement, 
and the beauty of its illustrations. 

I cannot allow the present opportunity to 
pass unnoticed without making a few favorable 
comments upon the mechanical part of the work. 

every household in the land. The holder of the 
name of a poor sort could not afford to pursue 
this course, because every time it was brought 
in comparison with better varieties its reputa- 
tion would suffer ; and yet this method of de- 
veloping a demand for a variety would become, 
in a greater or less degree, a necessity of the 
trade. Hence it would become necessary to 
know that a variety is good before increasing 
the expense of placing it on the market. Mere 

The excellence of the typography and the supe- 1 novelty would cease to attract attention, and 
rior quality of the paper, which was manufac- the returns from pressing poor varieties would 
tured expressly for it, are in harmony with the become so unremunerative that the number of 
other particulars. The enterprising publisher is these which would pass beyond the crucial stage 
deserving of unstinted praise for his part of the of testing, and be brought to the attention of 
undertaking. May this beautiful and matchless the general public, would be proportionately 

work meet with a success commensurate with the 
wishes of all concerned. 



In discussing the probable result of a horti- 
cultural copyright law upon the sale of inferior 
sorts, we must, of course, consider its permanent 
rather than its immediate effect. It may be 
true that while the system is new, and the pub- 
lic are unacquainted with its nature, some igno- 
rant people may be led to believe that the fact 
that a variety has a copyrighted name is an 
additional reason for purchasing specimens of it ; 
but it is difficult to conceive that on the start 
such people can be humbugged any more than 
they now are ; and as even this class now under- j 
stand that a plow or other implement is-"o bet- 
ter because it is patented, it cannot be doubted 
that they will soon learn that the same is true 
of a tree or plant upon which a copyrighted 
name is claimed. 

What is necessary to protect people from 
inferior varielies is familiarity with the claims 
of good sorts ; and if we place those having good 

much less than it now is. 

If any one questions the correctness of this 

j conclusion, let him calculate the chances of 

! profit he would have in introducing to the public 

' a dictionary or sewing machine wanting in real 

I merit, in competition with " "Webster's " or the 

"Singer" on the grounds that his book or ma- 

I chine is novel in its arrangement, and cannot be 

I had of other publishers or manufacturers. He 

[ will then be enabled to determine, in great de- 

! gree, whether the proposed law would retard or 

quicken the sale of "Utah Hybrid" cherry, 

"Vermont Seedling" peach, "Tree Alpine" 

I strawberry, and other mythical or worthless 

i varieties which are now sold in large numbers 

to even intelligent farmers who are not familiar 

! with their merits. 

Under existing conditions a man does not 
really press the sale of any variety of trees, 
plants, or seeds beyond the stage of its novelty, 
because people learn to k-now it by its name 
wherefor the expense of so doing would inure 
largely to the benefit of less enterprising dealers, 
who also offer it by this name — genuine or spur- 
ious. At that point it must give way to a leader 
hitherto unknown ; and the period during which 

sorts to offer in a position where they will be 
reasonably certain of a fair return for so doing, I ^ leader can be successfully pressed as such, is 
they will not hesitate to incur the e.^pense of \ »« limited that it becomes comparatively un- 
familiarizing people with the merits of these I important whether or not the article possesses 
varieties. Under the proposed law, a nursery- i actual merits. As illustrating this point, let me 
man holding a copyright upon the name of a 

good sort would see that all trade for it which 
could be developed under that name would come 

say that an intelligent nurseryman who has suc- 
cessfully introduced a variety which he believes 
to be superior, all things considered, to any of 

to him, and that no such advantage could accrue ' its species going before it, and has brought it to 
to the advertiser of it under any other name. ^ Poi^t where others are now producing it to a 
Hence he would exhibit its products and adver- ' limited extent, and a still larger number supply- 
tise its name and qualities in other ways so j !"§ spurious specimens, recently informed one 
thoroughly that they would become familiar to ' that he already saw the importance of getting a 




movelty in the same species, not because he can 
■hope to iiet a better sort, but for the reason that 
he cannot much longer expect to retain the ben- 
•efits of his advertising of this, and because he 
must hereafter sell his genuine goods in compe- 
tition with the spurious specimens referred to. 
Surely this indicates a vicious state of trade ; 
and yet it is everyday experience. 

1 have now shown as clearly 1 as can, without 
■unduly trespassing upon your columns, the na- 
ture of and necessity for the proposed law ; that 
it differs radically from, and is not open to any 
•of the serious objections which may be raised 
•against a horticultural patent law ; that in all 
■essential particulars it is analogous in principle 
to the law of trade-marks, which have their 
foundation in natural equity, and have been rec- 
ognized and protected in all civilized countries 
for ages ; that while it would prove a stumbling 
block to rogues, it could not create monopolies, 
and would not introduce anomalies into the laws 
•or interfere with the rights of anybody ; that it 
would lessen frauds now glaringly prevalent, 
which from their nature, the circumstances un- 
•der which they are committed, and the period 
which must elapse before their discover}', cannot 
be reached directly, and by elevating horticul- 
tural trades in public esteem inure to the benefit 
of every honest member of those trades ; that 
it would encourage the origination and introduc- 
tion of new and improved varieties, and lessen 
the sale of inferior sorts ; that it would weaken 
-existing prejudices and stimulate many to take 
increased interest in the growth of fruits and 
flowers. If my discussion of the subject has 
been full, and my arguments sound, the measure 
would be productive of great good, I may be 
mistaken ; but having clearly set forth the 
grounds of my opinion, and made at least a 
s^oo^ prima facie case, unprejudiced people will 
not believe the measure unwise or impracticable 
unless its opponents, if any, point out specifi- 
cally wherein it will fail, and demonstrate the 
correctness of their assertions. If my reason- 
ing has been fallacious in essential particulars, 
•or if I have omitted to answer vital objections 
to the proposed law, surely some of your many 
readers will have discovered it, and be able to 
point out wherein I am at fault. In view of the 
importance of the subject, I trust that some one 
will not hesitate to do this regardless of the con- 
sequences to any argument. At the same time 
,1 would remind such as may require it, that as 
ithe proposed law4®es not resemble the patent 

i system in any respect, it will not answer here to 
I set up that as a target, and proceed to ridicule 
it, as some have done. 

\ I have several times invited opposition. I 
i would have been glad to have encountered it at 
i an earlier stage of the discussion. Thus far I 
! am without an adversary ; but I am not willing 
j to believe that the opponents of this measure, if 
any, will permit the public to enter judgment 
against them pro confesso., as the lawyers S|iy. 


European Xotks by the Editor— No. 6. — 
One of the most striking contrasts between 
what may be termed the average crowd in Eng- 
land and America, is a certain respectful tone 
mingled with considerable familiarity on the 
part of the former. The typical Yankee of the 
story-books comes at you at once with the air of 
an old acquahitance. He acts as if he thought 
that in this world one man is about as good as 
another, if not a little better ; and he sticks his 
questions right into you without any compunc- 
tion or apology whatever, as if no one you know 
has any better right to do it. Not so with the 
Englishman. He goes in pretty closely at first, 
but lands a long way off in a sort of cat and 
mousical way that leaves little room to be of- 
fended by the time he brings up. It was in 
Wiltshire, and he had a tolerably nice beaver 
at the summit, and a " La Reine " rose (about 
four inches over) on the lappel of his coat. We 
had just emerged from the station, and with 
hand towards his hat, he very politely remarked, 
" American, I observe, sir. A great many 
Americans call here, sir." Of course you can 
only reply, "Indeed !" and he at once responds, 
" Yes, sir ; and we likes 'em, too. They is gen- 
tlemen who never bothers about odd sixpences." 
We found in the long run that our friend was 
the owner of " flys," and vve made up our minds 
that we knew a thing or two, and that there 
should be no occasion for any " bother about 
sixpences." To think you can see this beautiful 
country by railroad, is a fraud. I found the best 
plan was to take a " fly " for the day, and go 
your own road, and suit yourself to your own 
time. This was my first experiment at " flying." 
I found our friend of the beaver hat in due time. 
" How much," said I, " will you charge to take 
us to the Marquis of Salisbury's? As you re- 
marked, we are Americans, and are perhaps lib- 




eral, but we like to know beforehand just what 
we are to pay." It was twelve miles out, and 
the bargain was made that for eighteen shillings 
we should have that " fly " for the whole day, 
and " we could pay it to the driver " on return. 
We hand the driver the money when back, 
who takes it very thankfully, and we close our 
pocketbook, but are brought up with, " You have 
not remembered the tiger, sir." " Remembered 
the tiger!" "Yes, sir; every gentleman re- 
members the tiger, sir, and I was sure you would 
like me to tell you, sir, what the gentlemens 
here does." It is no use, of course, and we half 
surrender with, " Well, how much is it ?" " We 
allays leaves that to the gentleman hisself, sir ; 
but they never thinks, sir, the tiger worth less 
than five shillings." And the five shillings go, 
for you cannot forget that an "American never 
bothers about sixpences." But it is over, you 
think, and you feel relieved. But not yet, 
my friend. ' ' There was four puts up, you know, 
sir, and these cost a shilling each — four shil- 
lings." It begins to be rather warm, and you 
say, " We enquired first what we had to pay, 
and was told just eighteen shillings." "Yes, 
sir ; its all right, sir ; that was for the horse and 
fly, sir ; but every gentleman, sir, pays for his 
horse when he is fed." It is all done so gen- 
teelly, and so politely, that I think the Ameri- 
can man comes rather to like these extras at 
last, and never feels so happy as when he has a 
" bob " between his fingers just ready to bestow 
on the first appeal to his " gentlemanship." 

But that " fly ride " to Lord Salisbury's was 
worth all we paid. We passed the monument 
which told of one of the bloodiest battles be- 
tween the adherents of the Red and White 
Roses. Far behind us, towards the great city, 
we could just see in the horizon the glass domes 
of the great Alexandra Palace twinkling like a 
hundred stars in the morning sun. In the fields 
in every direction were hundreds of mowers at 
the hay, swinging the old scythes one after 
another as unconcernedly as if tliere never was a 
Yankee mowing machine in the world. Men \ 
with forks were turning, and girls and women 
with hand rakes gathering hay together, just as it 
used to be in the olden time. It brought up all I 
the poetry of hay-makmg, and seemed to put our 
plain matter-of-fact way of disposing of the crop ! 
at a sad discount. But of course farming is for I 
money ; we were out for a pleasure ride, and 
had but the poetry to see. All around were i 
country seats, some small and full of art. others 

immense estates glorious with the touch of na- 
ture. But no matter how large or how small 
the gardens might be, they were always well 
cared for. We go through enir country, and we 
see where people have built great houses, and 
laid out large grounds when they were well off,, 
but now in neglect and weeds. It is still the 
"style" to keep the house, but no one seem* 
to think he has gone down in society because he 
lets his garden go down. But here the sign of 
his status hangs from his garden, and when he 
lets that go down, he may bid good-bye to his- 
rank, and take "apartments" somewhere. It 
was certainly among the most remarkable of all 
our English and French experiences, that a neg- 
lected garden, in the sense in which we should 
understand it, never came once before my eyes- 
Once I thought I had this unique sight. The 
gate entered from the public highway. For 
many rods the gardener took us through rank 
weeds higher than our heads — much to our sur- 
prise, till the old gardener explained that " it be 
a notion of master's. He think the thieves be 
fooled, and won't bother themselves to come ini 
after the fruit." And we must say that the gar- 
den proper, when we got there, was a model of 
cleanliness. The currants and gooseberries es- 
pecially, which thrive so well in the English 
climate, being sights to see. We ride along the 
smooth turnpike road. The hawthorns are out- 
of flower, but the Dog rose, which, in spite of the 
assertion of the books — which give the name to* 
the sweet briar — we look on as the real "Eglan- 
tine " of the poets, was in full bloom everywhere' 
by the wayside, and filled the air with a perfume 
we doubt not fully equaled any that ever floated! 
over "Araby the blest." The colors vary from 
white to deep rose, and the plants make huge 
bushes by the wayside, often four or five feet 
through. Near these are the blackberries. 

"That fruit full well the schoolboy knows, 
Wild bramble and the brake," 

the brake especially, or bracken fern as it fs; 
sometimes called, which grows in the parks 
where there is game, in immense profusion, for 
which it makes a good cover. 

We knew at once when we came to the estate 
of the Marquis, not only by the profusion of this 
fern, under the huge old oaks, but by the im- 
mense quantities of Rhododendrons then in 
bloom. Laurels (or kind of cherry with huge 
evergreen leaves) and other things betokening 
the large landed estates. Besides this a wall of 
concrete lined the main road for miles alono- the 


estate. These walls are cheaply made of gravel | dition it would perhaps be nnfeir to say that we- 
mixed with the slacking lime, and then is put on in America can gi-ow vegetables far better than 
as so much mortar between a frame of ])oards. i can be grown in England and at half the cost^ 
This was a great failure, probably from the fact | for no doubt much better results will follow when 
of the lime not having been properly slacked in | things are put to rights •. but when we get to the 
the operation, or of too much clay being in the forcing houses we see sights that make an 
gravel, and the weather had eaten large quantities [ American look out of all the corners of his eyes- 
away, requiring, evidently, constant patching to j at once. Of course, with our thousands of miles- 
keep it up. Those with me thought it an evidence \ of territory, where, as I have seen, almost zero- 
that concrete walls were a failure ; but in other \ in Chicago, with or9,nges and scarlet sages two- 
parts of England I saw them " solid as a rock" I days after along the Gulf, there i« not the same 
after thirty years of use. It strikes an American | necessity for forced fruit ; but this does not take- 
strangely, after being accustomed to so much from the merit due to the wonderful skill of the 
forest variety in his own country, to see so much ; English gardener in forcing house fruit. Here- 
sameness here. In almost all the woodland you i there were strawberries — not by the single one 
come to it is the same old tree — ^beautiful enough ' sliced to go all round, as one might suppose, but. 
in itself, but when continually repeated, as it is, | hundreds on hundreds, of a size which would not 
causes us to exclaim, that ''everlasting oak!" I disgrace the fine fellows our Dr. Knox used to- 
With so vast a field to choose from, the absence j raise, hanging from the sides of the pots on the- 
of variety in English planting is very remark- ! shelves or lovingly reclining on the eajth in the 
able. That I am not alone in this opinion, I j pots in every direction. Strange, very strange, 
may be pardoned, I hope, for quoting from a i it seemed to me from a country where we are 
private letter from Sir Joseph Hooker, written | not satisfied unless we have a new kind of straw- 

since his return from America, and who says," It 
seems strange to me that your beautiful Ameri- 
can trees are not more appreciated by our people. 
I believe they in time will be, though I may not 

berry every year or two, to hear Mr. Norman 
avow that the best kind he had yet was the 
"Keen's Seedling," a vai-iety which may soon 
advertise its " centennial show." But there were 

live to see them grown up in grandeur as they ; " Sir Charles Napiers', very large and handsome 
are with you." | too, but not to be depended on like the Keen."' 

But our "Tiger" announces that we are at I The grape houses occupied perhaps 300 feet of 
Hatfield, and we are set down at the ponderous i length of glass; and though the fruit was good 
old oak gate. After a ring from a bell which j for so early a time of the year, they were not 
might serve for one of our churches, a sort of | superior to what we have seen among our own 

port-hole flies open, and we hand our cards to 
the stately porter, with an inquiry for our old 
friend, the gardener, whom we knew among our 
associates ; it did not seem so very, very long ago. 

June fruit crops under glass. The Foster's Seed- 
ling Mr. Norman considers the best white for 
early forcmg. He also praises highly the Mad- 
resfield Court, a long purple-berried variety, 

But it was the same old story, " dead or miss- j which he regards as quite as good as Black 
ing;" and after the good old man had gone back Hamburg, and which ought to be high praise. 

over about a dozen names, we gave it up for a 
bad job, and not without some wonder at the 
many changes, for we had looked on a gardener's 
situation in England as one to be held according 
to the strict interpretation of the " tenure of 
office act." However, we were directed to " Mr. 
Norman," whom we found a comparatively 
young man, and, as it is a pleasure to say, with 
a full share of that intelligence which gives such 
a charm to the best Old World gardeners, and 
makes their company appreciated by what is 

The plants were also very interesting. There 
may have been about two dozen houses in all ;. 
everything good, but nothing so superb as the- 
perfect pot strawberry culture. The park and- 
grounds embrace about 1,500 acres, and under 
the gardener about thirty hands are regularly 

Almost all these old places are laid out on the 
same general plan — straight avenues of trees,, 
often a mile or more in length, down which you 
look through the vista from the windows of the 

called in the Old World "the highest in the | house. These trees were of Linden, and with' 
land." The vegetable garden comprised about j the peculiarity which struck me strangely in 
seven acres, had been but newly laid out, and many trees of England of having huge bulbous 
had no box as vet; and in its unfinished con- bases. Our trees swell a little at the ground,. 




Imt here they commence four or five feet from 
the ground to swell, and in these the lower parts 
•of the trunks were double the size, in many cases, 
of the upper portion. As already noted, the trees 
in England do not grow near so tall as ours, but 
they spread more ; and I should judge these Lin- 
•dens were not more than from forty to sixty feet 
high. I measured an oak here which proved 18 
feet round, and yet could not be more that 50 feet 
high. There is nothing more interesting about 
these old places than their associations with 
remarkable events in history. It was here that 
Elizabeth, afterward Queen of England, was 
Ttept a sort of prisoner during her sister Mary's 
reign. She was very fond of gardening, and 
'during her residence here she gave her taste free 
scope. There is a walk lined with Lindens which 
have been sheared and clipped into arches and 
•alcoves, planted by her direction, and which is 
still called.Qucen Elizabeth's Walk. But their 
•comparatively youthful age seems to me to indi- 
•date that they may have been set out in much 
later times. A tree which she did plant, an oak, 
is guarded with zealous care by a fence around it, 
though but an old stump now. Prince Albert 
set out two near it, one for himself and one for 
the Queen, which are thriving, and also are pro- 
protected by a fence. There is also on the 
■ground a queer old maze, in which it is said the 
Trincess Elizabeth loved to wander. This is of 
Yew, while the one I saw at Hampton Court was 
•of Beech. I should think after one journey 
through such a place the novelty would wear off. 
At least, on this occasion I was willing to sit on 
the grass and admire the "• gowans fine," w hile 
Tny companion amused herself in the tangled 
paths ; and I cheerfully submitted to her decision 
that I only I'emamed outside for fear of being 
lost, and had not as much courage as she had. It 
is said that in these grounds, while in her favo- 
rite garden walk, Elizabeth received the news of 
her sister's death, by which she walked out one 
^step from this pretty prison to the heavenly 

It is one of the pleasant characteristics of the 
English aristocracy, that they take pleasure in 
•sharing with the rest of the world the treasures 
'of history and of art that they may possess, and 
it is rarely that a respectable person fails to gain 
admittance to anj' part of the establishment 
when the family is not at home. On the present 
•occasion the only requirement was that we should 
leave our cards for the inspection of the Marquis, 
■and enter our names in a book in the grand hall. 

I As everywhere we went, so here we found traces 
i of America; for in the attendant's hand were 
: cards from one of our Philadelphia neighbors, 
i and of Mr. Munn — we supposed of the Scientific 
American — New York. Everything that may 
remind one of the past is religiously preserved, 
I even to Queen Elizabeth's silk stockings — the 
j first pair ever known in England — and her old 
I garden hat. If I mistake not, the Marquisate 
! was created early in the seventeenth centur}- ; 
! and as the portraits of the gay lords and fair 
ladies hang everywhere on the castle walls, and 
j there are mementoes of innumerable descrip- 
tions in every direction of all these distinguished 
I people for these past three hundred years, the 
I only regret one feels at seeing them is that he 
; cannot have a few weeks instead of a few hours 
\ to study them. 

, Hatfield House makes no pretension to any 
' superb gardening. There are many places far 
\ superior in these respects ; but it is an average 
j of the general run of these comfortable old 
homes, and so we selected it. 

It was my purpose to take about three or so 
of these old mansions as a type of the grounds 
; of the older section of England's nobility ; but 
: what can I do in a little magazine which comes 
' out but once a month, and Methuselah's expe- 
i rience not likely to be repeated in any case. I 
I cannot close the chapter on this branch without a 
brief sketch of the home of thejenkinsons — aname 
historical in connection with English politics, and 
of which family the late Earl of Liverpool was so 
I widely known ; Buxted Park, in Sussex, and now 
j in the possession of Colonel and Lady Catharine 
i Harcourt — Lady Catharine being the daughter of 
I the late Earl. 

; I have already noted how far away from school 
I was in my boyhood days, and how many diffi- 
1 culties were in the wa}^ of obtaining an education 
in the higher branches of intelligence. I often 
! look back gratefully to the friends who kindly 
j aided me under these difficult circumstances, 
j and there are few whom, in after life, I felt so 
much indebted to for their warm and substantial 
; encouragement, as to Colonel and Lady Har- 
I court. The last letter of good wishes, when a 
j boy I resolved to leave my native land, was 
from them, and it was naturally grateful to find, on 
I my landing in England now, a letter awaiting me. 
i inviting me to spend a few days at Buxted Park. 
I Lady C. had for some time been an invalid, and 
even intimate friends had rarely been admitted 
i to her presence of late, and I thus felt it the 




n<ox-e an honor to be allowed to see and talk 
with my early benefactress and friend. 

The estates are very large — lam almost afraid 
to say how large, for fear I have forgotten accu- 
racy, but I believe about 15,000 acres. The large 
house is delightfully situated among particularly 
grand old trees, and it is no wonder that it was 
% great favorite with the Dutchess of Kent, and 
the Princess— afterwards Queen Victoria — who 
frequently visited there. Most of the trees that 
I met with in England gave the impression of 
under size in comparison with ours, but on this 
estate were some of the most remarkable trees 
that 1 saw in all England. In the old church- 
yard near the mansion house, is a Yew tree which 
measured twenty-six feet in girth several feet 
from the ground. I took the trouble to make an 
accurate measurement of its height, which was 
fifty-nine feet, and the diameter or "spread'' of 
the branches was seventy-five feet across. I have 
no doubt the tree was much older than the oldest 
of the mammoth trees of California. As inmost 
of the old English places, a grand vista formed 
by a double line of trees leads from the house. 
In this case these were of Elms, and were perhaps 
-eighty feet high. I measured an average one, 
and found the trunk fourteen feet round. Many 
specimen trees on the grounds were of majestic 
proportions. A Beech tree, twenty-three feet in 
■circumference, was quite remarkable, and a meas- 
urement near the ground — as so many measure — 
made it forty feet I The huge head was ninety 
feet across. Among English Ashes, twelve feet 
in circumference was a common measurement; 
and as they had had room to develop their heads 
for perhaps hundreds of years (for trees live to 
a great age in England, as compared with ours), 
they were perfect models of beauty. It is strange 
how much the climate of England favors long 
life in trees. One of the earliest introductions 
•of our Locust is here eight feet round; but its 
life is nearly gone. Though the tree is native to 
our own country, I never saw it in such wonder- 
ful beauty as it exhibits in England and France. 
And then the Rhododendrons! On this estate 
ihey were truly grand. Specimens sixteen feet 
high, and nearly as wide, were common. They 
are planted here in immense quantities; indeed 
natural sown seedlings abound. Their favorite 
place of germination seemed to be under the 
coniferous trees. I lifted the branch of a beau- 
tiful Deodar cedar, in order to measure the trunk, 
a-nd found seedling Rhododendrons in thousands 
beneath. On my own grounds I have an Abies 

Pindrow, which I have been twenty years getting 
up to three feet high, and I could not but so far 
i envy a climate which gave one here twenty-five 
feet. What a beautiful thing it is with age ! The 
habit is pendulous as it grows. The Turkey oak, 
with its beautiful spread of branches, makes a 
grand object. I afterwards saw larger ones on 
other estates in England, but these — one nearly 
I ten feet round — were large enough to be remark- 
I able. One of the most remarkable objects in 
the tree line is a Silver Fir — Abies pectinata — 
which was thirteen and a half feet round, as 
perfect m form as we generally see this beautiful 
tree ; but at five feet from the ground a huge 
arm extended itself in a horizontal direction. I 
suppose it was an accident in its younger days ; 
but I wonder people do not often make such 
accidents on purpose, so as to have such pictur- 
esque objects as the trees grow. 

I have already remarked on the general scar- 
city of American trees in English gardening. It 
was a pleasure to find more than usual here. But- 
ternuts, Catalpas, Red Oaks, and others showed 
that we were quite at home. An Abies nobilis, 
some fifty feet high, was very beautiful, and the 
Douglas Spruces and other representatives of the 
coniferse of our western coast, made me wish 
our Atlantic district would grow things like these. 

The flower-beds here, as is generally the case 
in most of the old English gardens, are on a 
complex geometrical plan, when near the dwell- 
ing, as more in keeping with architectural design. 
The more natural styles are reserved for the more 
distant parts of the grounds. In the geometrical 
gardens but one, or at best a few kinds are 
grown in each bed, arranged according to har- 
monies. The plants for these are selected by 
Lady Harcourt, as is the usual practice with cul- 
tivated English ladies, and the gardeners see to 
having all the kinds ready by bedding time in 
j Spring. Hardy ferns are a great delight to Lady 
H., and the Fern garden is one of the attractions 
j of Buxted Park. It is arranged as a rockery, in 
I a piece of wood, with walks through in every 
j direction, aflbrding easy access to all. Here were 
many hundreds of kinds, species and varieties, 
all plainly and accurately named. I made here 
! the memorandum, that while there were many 
things so beautiful in England our climate and 
circumstances would deny to us, there was no 
reason why any one who had a piece of woods 
should not have a hardy fern garden ; and I made 
a resolve when I returned to my own land that 
I would have one for myself at any rate. 




I haJ thought to give three sketches of laxge 
estates in this chapter, but it is already too long. ; 
I may perhaps yet give the third; but there are 
public parks, botanic gardens, cemeteries, woods 
and forests, and numberless other things I thought 
I vk^ould like to give brief sketches of, and all 
before Spring, when I may again fly away some- \ 
where. ' 

Since writing the above, the papers tell of the 
death of the good Lady of Buxted Park. An 

never have been his task. He believes that int 
his humble way his work has given pleasure to- 
thousands, and who will therefore share with hims 
his sorrow at her death. 

A Bogus Agent. — A man calling himself A. M.. 
Waters and other names, professing to be an 
agent for the Gardener's Monthly, has fleeced 
a number of poor gardeners by otfering premiums- 
as inducements, worth about seven dollars, for a 
$2 subscription. Of course, every one who reads 


editor's life is not his oWn. Twenty years of 
association with his readers make a history that 
might be personal, partly theirs. In this view, 
the editor of the Gardener's Monthly felt 
no hesitation, in the former part of this sketch, 
in expressing his deep sense of obligation to 
Colonel and Lady Catharine Harcourt for their 
early countenance and encouragement, and with- 
out which this Gardener's Monthly might 

the Monthly knows we never offer " shears " 
or any thing else as " premiums," and it is 
hardly worth taking up room by a "warning"' 
here. We fancy the rogue aims to be something 
of a wag, as he proposes the gift of a pair of 
shears to his victims. It is strange that any one 
will trust $2 to a total stranger before even the 
shears are in hand; and only that we are told 
hundreds have done so, we could not believe it. 




Catalogues of Jas. Vietch & Sons, Chel- 
:SEA, LoiSTDON.— The commercial literature is so 
voluminous that it is only in exceptional instan- 
ces we can aftbrd space to enter into details. 
"The leading nurserymen not only spend im- 

beautifuUy illustrated. Messrs. Vietch are 
among the pioneers in introducing the new half 
hardy tuberous rooted Begonias, and which 
have recently attracted so much attention in our 
magazine, in view of their probable adaptation 


mense sums in obtaining everything valuable, j to out-door summer gardening. That our read- 
but also largely in instructing the people. Here j ers may compare the American varieties with 
"before us is a set of catalogues which are really I those being introduced into English gardens, we 
books beautifully printed, and which altogether ! give with this illustrations of two new ones from 
make two hundred and thirty-seven pages, often ; Messrs. Yietch's catalogue. 




Trees for Public Work. — Professor C. S. 
Sargent, as we see by the Boston papers, is 
doing Horticulture good service by showing Bos- 
tonians how much they have to pay for the lack 
of wisdom. Instead of going directly to the 
nurseries, and finding for themselves where they 
can get things the cheapest and the best, it 
appears the Boston City Fathers, like their 
brethren elsewhere, are attracted by pretty pic- 
ture books, and smooth tongues, which come 
before them, and kindly "save them all trouble" 
— for three prices on original cost ! In addition 
to this evil, it is only the commonest kind of 
trees that are bought in this way, as it is only 
the overstocks doomed by the regular nursery 
trade to the bon-fire that get " pushed off " by 
this personal urgency or agency, and thus few of 
our rai'e or beautiful trees get a place in the 
public works. In this category of silly public 
officers, Ave must, however, exclude the Central 
and Prospect Parks of New York, when under 
the control of F. L. Olmstead; the Buft'alo 
Parks, the Board of Public Works at Washing- 
ton, and possibly a few others which employed 
purchasing agents of the highest honor and tree 
knowledge who were above receiving " commis- 
sions," or any other bribes for sales, and the 
result is, these places have trees which for rare 
value, and in the lowness of their cost, compare 
favorably with the trees of any public gardens 
in the land. Robert R. Porter, in a recent paper 
on "Public Debts," says that the "trees in 
most of our public parks have ' steal ' written 
all over them." We are willing to believe that 
it is as often ignorance or indifference as "steal;" 
but in any event they are most disgraceful, and 
we again thank Prof. Sargent for his good offices 
in trying to induce abetter state of things. 

Sylviculture. — By Hon EliK. Price. This 
essay on forest culture is a paper read before the 
American Philosophical Society, and by them 
published in the Transactions. Mr. Price has 
passed his three score and ten, but ih still hale and 
hearty, and has spent his many years in great 
activity for the public good. As one of the 
Board of Commissioners of Fairmount Park, 
its tree-planting interests have mainly been un- 
der his control, and in every way possible he has 
thrown the weight of his great influence into the 
cause of tree culture. The great botanist 
Michaux left a sum of money to Philadelphians 
for tree-planting, and Mr. Price shows m this 
essay how much good it has done. He is a be- 
liever in the theorv that trees and the rainfall are 

intimately connected, and enters into the histori- 
cal questions connected with that view. This, in- 
deed is the key-note of the essay. He shows what 
has been done in some quarters for tree-planting, 
and points out the good that will follow from a. 
more extended practice. 

The Science Observer, Boston, a monthly 
published by the Amateur Scientific Society, at 
50 cents per annum. Astronomical matters 
receive particular attention. 
The Americ^vn Naturalist has been removed 
from Boston to Philadelphia, having been pur- 
chased by some Philadelphia scientists. It is 
now under the joint editorship of Messrs. Packard., 
of Salem, Mass., and Cope, of Philadelphia. The 
January number shows that the scientific value 
of the magazine has not sufiered by the change,, 
while the publishers' department is as perfect- 
as need be. McCalla & Stavely are the new 

The Game of Botany. — By C. W. Seelye,, 
Rochester, N. Y. This is a game of playing 
cards, in which botanical characters are used., 
and it serves alike to while away a pleasant 
evening in amusement, and conveys instruction 
at the same time We thought the best test 
would be to submit the cards to a nest of chil- 
dren, and as in a few minutes they were very 
much absorbed in it, we feel bound to say th& 
idea is a great success. 

Acknowledgements. — John R. Anderson, 
of New York, is issuing handsome little books,, 
giving the " Little Folks " described in Dickens" 
works. "Little Paul," of Dombey & Son, is 
now on our table. 

The Illustrated Annual of Rural. 
Affairs, by J. J. Thomas, published by 
the Country Gentleman. This is the twenty- 
fourth year of the appearance of this very useful 

The American Bookseller is a list of 
books — almost everything in the book trade — 
that may be had of the American News Co., 
New York. It gives copies of some of the illus- 
trations contained in the leading works, and 
which make this catalogue itself a beautiful 
book. It is sold at a nominal price— 30 cents. 

Vick's Illustrated Monthly Magazine^ 
— This, which has long been published quarterly 
as Vick^s Floral Guide, is to be henceforth issued' 
monthly under the above title. The first number 
is now before us, and we need scarcely say to those 
i who were familiar with it in its old form, that it 
is a very useful publication. Mr. Yick is full of 




life and enterprise in his business, and has the 
good \vishes of all in whatever he undertakes. 

H. E. Chitty. — This gentleman, formerly 
superintendent of the Bellevue Company, of 
Paterson, and well known to our readers, has 
commenced business for himself, as a florist, in 
the same town. The Bellevue Company con- 
tinue the old business as before. 

Dr. C. C. Parry.— This indomitable botan- 
ical explorer is about to make a collecting tour 
through Mexico. 

Col. M. p. Wilder. — It will please our read- 
ers to learn that this veteran horticulturist is 
still in excellent health ; at least we judge so 
from the full account the Boston papers give of 
his address before the recent annual mating of 
the New England Historical and Genealogical 

Mr. Briggs, of Marysville.— Almost every 
one who has followed the development of Califor- 
nia fruit growing, is familiar with "Brigg's P6ach 
Orchard," at Marysville, one of the pioneers of 
this branch of horticulture in California, and 
will learn with regret of his decease, as we note 
by a recent California paper. 

Thomas J. Mackenzie. — We regret to 
announce the death of Mr. Thomas J. Mac- ; 
kenzie, the well-known florist of Philadelphia, '■■ 
who died on the 6th of January, in the 40th year 
of his age. He was the only son of the late Mr. 
Peter Mackenzie, who was one of the earliest 
and most enterprising of Philadelphia florists, ■ 
to whose successful business the son succeeded. ' 
Mr. Mackenzie was elected a member of the i 
of the City Council of Philadelphia last year, j 
and died on the day appointed for taking his seat ! 
in that body. 

Dr. J. P. KiRTLAND.— It it to be expected 
that, now its twentieth year, many of the earlier 
friends of the Gardener's Monthly should be 
passing away. Our venture had no better friend 
than Dr. .J. P. Kirtland, and, though full of 

years and honors, we learn of his decease with 
profound regret. His private letters of encour- 
agement were always welcome ; and he loved 
to dwell on the welcomeness of the Monthly 
as reminding him of the city in which he 
received his medical education. The Mass. 
Horticultural Society, ever alive to the honor of 
Horticulture all over the Union, recently passed 
I'esolutions of sorrow in his behalf, and we hope 
to give in our next the preparatory remarks of 
Col. Wilder ,as a brief but excellent condensation, 
of the life and services of our deceased friend.. 


Floral Decorations.— A New York pub- 
lisher very kindly sends the following note :. 
"Floral Decorations for the Dwelling House," 
etc., by Annie Hazzard, "American edition re- 
vised, London and New York, Macmillan & Co.. 
Retail, jfl.75. In reply to Mrs. R., page 12,. 
Gardener's Monthly, Jan., 1878 : Not a bid for- 
a trade, as we don't have it." 

Shittim Wood.— Thoughtlessly, while writing 
last month, we gave Acacia Farnesiana as the pro- 
bable tree, which, as we are kindly reminded by a 
correspondent, is a native of the New World.. 
If we had referred to works, instead of trusting 
the memory, as we ought to have done, it would 
have saved us the mistake. That an Acacia 
really existed in Egypt seems to be proved by 
the researches of Braun, as recently translated 
from the German in the Gardener's Chronicle. 
Bruce, in his Travels, remarks that "the Aca- 
cia in the Thebard seems to be the only indigen- 
ous tree.'' Dr. Shaw, another Eastern traveler,, 
speaks of the Acacia as growing in Arabia Pe- 
trpea, and suggests that it may be the Shittim 
Wood. As we knew the Acacia grew there, and' 
that it agrees with accounts of the wood, it is 
probably correct that the Acacia Nilotica, or- 
Acacia vera, of Wildenow, is the real Shittim- 

Horticultural Societies. 




The eleventh annual meeting of this institu- 

tion was held at Parsons, on the 11th, 12th, an^t 
13th of December, 1877. 

Several gentlemen from Missom-i, and a lady 
from Illinois, favored us with their presence, 
and participated in the exercises of the meetings 
Each year new recruits are enlisted, and we hope 
the Societv'^ fleld of is enlarged.. 




Only eight yeaa-s ago the place of tueeting was 
ithe home of the Osage Indians, Consequently | 
the orchards are young, and but few apples could 
Tje shown that were gi'own dn the immediate vi- 
cinity of Parsons. But the old^er counties were 
not behind in displa5dng the products of their 
orchards for the pleasure and instiniction of those 
-attending the meeting. I think there were per- 
Tiaps no finer apples shown at the Centennial i 
Exhibition by Kansas than were seen upon the I 
tables of the Society here at home. 

One of the most interesting subjects during the 
meeting was '' The ISTew Early Peaches in Kan. 
:sas," which was introduced by a special report 
by a member of the Society, and discussed at \ 
length by nearly every one present. Amsden, j 
Alexander, and Early Beatrice take the lead ' 
now, as the newer varieties have not yet fruited | 
here. There are at least fifty new seedlings ] 
reported from different parts of the State that j 
are perhaps as good as Amsden or Alexander. ' 
Do not be surjorised if Kansas takes the early j 
peach prize yet. 

The result of the discussion on the cherry was j 
similar to that of former years — that the Early 
Richmond and other varieties of the Morello 
family are the only kinds that succeed in our 
State. All the Mazzards, the Biggareau, and 
even the Kentish varieties are almost a total 
failure here. The trees die from sun-scald, or 
some such disease. 

Vegetable gardening occupied an important 
part of the meeting. The use of the horse was 
strongly urged in place of so much hand-hoeing, 
as is common. Even in our rich, and in some 
■cases loose soil, underdraining is thought to be 
■almost indispensable to a good garden. 

There were many valuable papers on the vari- 
•ous subjects connected witli horticulture, which 
were quite fully discussed. All these Mill ap- 
pear in the report of the Society for 1877, which 
will be published within a few months ; and if 
any of the readers of this little sketch feel inter- 
ested enough, and will send to G. C. Bracket, 
Lawrence, who is seci-etarj', he will receive a 
>copy of the same as soon as published. 

The officers elected for the current year are 
for President, Prof. E. Gale, of Manhattan." 
Vice-President, Robert Milliken, of Emporia; 
Secretary, G. C. Brackett, of Lawrence ; Treas- 
urer, F. Wellhouse, of Leavenworth ; Trustees, 
H. E. Vandeman, of Geneva; E. P. Diehl, of 
Olathe ; G. Y. Johnson, of Lawrence, 


(Continued from page 31). 


The canning process has been brought to gi-eat 
perfection, and that of drying promises to become 
even more useful, when it shall have arrived at 
its utmost development, possessing the great 
advantage for transportation of reducing the 
weight three-four tlis or more by the removal of 
water, and rendering it capable of shipment to 
all climes, and of being preserved perfectly for 
years. We need not fear an overstock, as many 
new ways will doubtless be devised for its use. 
The extent of this business is already immense, 
but I li|iv.' been unable to procure any statistics. 
Six canning firms in California employ two 
thousand women and children, and turn out from 
one and one-half to two millions of dollars 
yearly in amount of goods. Figs and grapes 
are being extensively dried in California. The 
quantity of raisins already produced annually is 
estimated at 400,000 pounds or more. Although 
not yet equal in quality to those imported from 
Europe, it is believed that with further experi- 
ence they will be produced of the highest excel- 
lence. Of dried fruits there were cured in that 
State, by the Alden Company alone, seventy- 
five tons. As time advances there will doubt- 
less be many other modes introduced for utilizing 
any surplus of abundant seasons. Well does a 
writer remark, " There ought to be a score of 
elegant and nutritious preparations in all our 
markets, thus adding to the variety of fresh and 
prepared fruits, and superseding the wretched 
pastry and other abominations now in vogue." 


The foreign market for our fruits is now as 
well established as that for our wheat. Compe- 
tent judges unite in the opinion that the Euro- 
pean and Australian markets are prepared to 
take increasing quantities of fresh and dry fruit 
if landed in good condition. Australia and Ger- 
many will consume immense quantities of dried 
fruits, but England prefers fresh fruit. 

There have been shipped to foreign ports 
from this country since last October three hun- 
dred and ninety-six thousand barrels of apples. 
In December last (1876), there were sent on an av- 
erage over twenty thousand barrels per week, or 
ninety thousand barrels for the month. These 
consisted mostly of the Baldwin, Rhode Island 
Greening and Newtown Pippin. The English 
like red apples best, and so it has been from the 
reign of Henry VIII, red apples generally com- 
manding the best price. A decided preference 
is given to American apples. The English mar- 
ket can take from twelve to fifteen thousand 
barrels per week, and shipments sell readily, 
varying in price from three dollars and fifty 
cents tio ten dollars per barrel. 

(To be continued.) 






Vol. XX. 

MARCH, 1878. 

Number 231. 

Flower Garden and Pleasure Grqund. 


This is particularly the month to pay attention 
to the hardy annuals. The sooner they are 
■sown, the finer they will flower; that is, provided 
they are really hardy. Tender annuals, such as 
Globe amaranthus. Balsams, &c., rot if they are 
sown before the weather becomes quite warm. 
The seedmen^s catalogues usually distinguish 
these classes for their customers. In sowing an- 
nuals, the soil should be slightly stirred with a 
broad-bladed knife or trowel ; and after the seeds 
are sown, they should have a little soil sprinkled 
over them, about one-sixth of an inch deep, ac. 
cording to the size of the seeds ; barely enough 
ito cover is all that is required. Failures usually 
arise from the seeds being buried too deeply. 
Failures also frequently occur from the soil with 
which the seeds are covered being to stiff or 
clayey, "baking" after a rai"n. Light sandy 
earth or decayed vegetable loam from the woods 
should be employed for the purpose. Stick a 
peg in where the seeds are sown, so that when 
turning out the plants in May from pots, the an- 
nuals will not be disturbed. Also take care to 
preserve the names of the kinds. This is a great 
part of the interest an flower-garden. 

Walks should now have their spring-dressing — 
the verges cut, and a thin coating of new gravel 
laid on. Before putting on the new, harrow up 
the face of the old gravel with a strong iron- 
toothed rake. Roll well after the new is laid on. 

This is the proper season to lay down box- 

edgings. To make them properly, the soil along 
the line of the edge should be first dug, and 
then trod very hard and firm, so that it may 
sink evenly together, or the line will present 
ugly-looking undulations in time. Rooted plants 
should be emplo3'ed; cuttings are sometimes 
used, but frequently die out in patches ; a good 
edge can rarely be made from them. The plants 
should be set pretty low down, leaving the 
plants, when set, one or two inches above the 
soil, according to their stockiness. Sometimes 
box edgings are laid around beds formed in grass. 
When so, a few inches of clear ground should be 
kept clean between the grass and the box, or the 
weeds will he so intermixed with the box, after 
awhile, as to render it a nuisance. 

Herbaceous plants do badly if several years in 
one place. Every second year, at this season, 
take up and divide them. Sow as soon as possi- 
ble some hardy annuals. The earlier they are 
in the ground after the frost leaves it, the finer 
they bloom. 

Ornamental hedges judiciously introduced into 
a small place, add greatly to its interest. No 
easier method offers whereby to make two acres 
of garden out of one in the surveyor's draught. 
The arbor-vita3 (Chmese and American), Hem 
lock, Holly, Beech, Hornbeam, Pyrus japonica, 
Privet and Buckthorn may be applied to this 

Shrubs are not near enough employed in plant- 
ing small places. By a judicious selection a 
place ma}' be had in a blooming state all the 
year: and they, besides, give it a greater interest 




by their variety, than is obtained by the too fre- 
quent error of tilling it up with but two or three 
forest trees of gigantic growth. Plant thickly at 
first, to give the place a finished appeai'ance, 
and thin out as they grow older. Masses of 
shrubs have a fine effect on a small place. The 
center of such masses should be filled with ever- 
green shrubs, to prevent a naked appearance in 
the winter season. 

Many things that appear frosted a little at the 
tops should be severely cut down ; it will pre- 
vent disappointment in the end. Shoots that are 
injured in winter — especially in the case of the 
rose — will often have just sufficient vigor left to 
enable them to put forth leaves, and sometimes 
even go so far as to attempt to flower, and then j versicolor 
die oft' suddenly under the first hot sun. 




Of all shapes of beds, the circle is preferable 
to decorate as ribbon bed. If there is any such 
in the centei- of a crosswalk, or other central 
place, it should be chosen. Fig. 4 represents a 
bed twenty feet in diameter, for which we Avill 
propose a choice as follows : 

Set I.— The 

maritima ; 7, Chameepeuce cassabonte ; and 8, parthenifoliem aureum. 

Set IV. — 1, Cannabis gigantea ; 2, Canna 
Marechal vaillant ; 3, Zea japonica fol. var; 4, 
Salvia coccinea ; 5, Centaurea gymnocarpa; G, 
Geranium General Grant ; 7, Achyranthus Gil- 
sonii ; and 8, Lobelia speciosa. 

Set v. — IjKicinus sanguineus; some of this 
genus grow almost too large, especially com- 
munis, and are rather too rough for foliage-beds, 
single specimens in a sheltered situation are good ;: 
or may be put in occasional openings in the 
shrubberies. 2, Nereum 01eand<:r; 3, Salvia 
patens; 4, Salvia patens; 5, Achyranthus Lin- 
denii; 6, Salvia candidissima ; 7, Alteranthera 
and 8, Cerastium tomentosum. 

Set VI. — Gynerium argenteum ; 2, Lantana ; 

3, Lantana; 4, Coleus Emperor Napoleon; 5, 
Cineraria maritima ; 6, Coleus Queen Victoria ; 
7, Ageratum album nanum ; and 8, Alteran- 
thera spathulata. 

Set VII. — l,Solanum Warscewiczii ; 2, Cala- 
dium esculentum ; 3, Amaranthus melancholicus : 

4, Cineraria maritima ; 5, Achyranthus Yer- 
schaffeltii ; 6, Geranium Mrs. Pollock ; 7, Cuphea 
platycenta; and 8, Lonicera aureo reticulata t<» 
be pegged down on the border. 

Set VIII. — 1, Arundo donax variegata; 2,. 
Canna discolor; 3, C, tricolor ; 4, Achyranthes 
Lindenii ; 5, Vinca alba; 6, Geranium Luicus ; 
7, Glaucium corniculatum ; and 8, Tropa^olum. 
star of fire. 

Set IX. — 1, Arundinaria falcata; 2 Salvia 
splendens alba; 3 Salvia splendens alba; 4.. 

dobulus ; 

Fig. 4. 

Set II. — 1, Eucalyptus globulus; 2, Canna 
zebrina; 3, Abutilon striatum; 4, Dactylis 
glomerata fol. var. ; 5, Coleus Verschaffeltii; 6, 
Centaurea gymnocarpa ;* 7, Cuphea platycentra ; 
and 8, Geranium Happy Thought. 

Set III.— 1, Nereum Oleander; 2, Salvia 

center 1, Canna 

glauca ; 2, C, War- 

czewiczii ; 3, C, 

discolor; 4, Perilla 

n ankinensis; 5, 

Calceolaria hy- Coleus refulgens ; 5, Artemisia Stelleriana; 6, 

brida ; (shrubbvK Chamapeuce cassabonae ; 7, Santolina incana : 
and 8, Altenanthera paronychioides. 

Set X. — 1, Zea gigantea; 2, Solanum pur- 
pureaum; 3, Solanum purpurea; 4, Abutilon vex- 
illarium variegatum; 5, Coleus Verschaffeltii; G, 
Geranium Mountain of Snow ; 7, Altenanthera 
versicolor; and 8, Caprosma Baueriana, etc.,. 
etc. The whole to be kept in a pyramidal shape- 
by trimming, and not allowing the leaves of 
either riband to interfere with the other. 

rig.5, a Terrace border, and a scale of an eighth 
of an inch to two feet, may be decorated a.s 
follows: 1, Lobelia speciosa, bordered by 

6 , Achyranthus 
Verschaffeltii ; 7, 
Centaurea c a n - 
didissima; and 8, 

splendens; 3, Salvia splendens; 4, Amaranthus t Pyi-ethrum parthenifolium aureum; 2, Lobelia 
melancholicus; 5, Vinca rosea; 6, Cineraria | Paxtoniana, bordered by Altenanthera versi- 
color ; 3, Coleus Queen Victoria, bordered by 

*Thi8 beautiful plant has, wheresoever I have seen it in this 
country, shown a disposition to rot during the summer, and it 
is therefore risky to use it in a ribbon bed, where if only a few 
spoil, the whole.effect is lost, but perhaps does better in other 

Ageratum Mexicanum nanum and Santolina 
incana; 4, Coleus Verschafteltii, bordered by 
Centaiu'ea candidissima and Althenanthera 



spathulata, &c., in difterent sets according to 
supply of plants; 5, is graveled paths, and fi a 
two feet wide sod border. 

Fig. G, a ten feet wide border on the edge of a 
large shrubbery. 1 , Phalaris arundinacea ; :2. 


l'.Y .]. M. 

These two Globe Arbor Yit^es are now com- 
paratively conuuon around Philadelphia, several 

Fig. 6. 

Perilla Nankinensis ; 3, Geranium Chun der Sen ; 
4, G. Lass O'Gowrie; 5, G. Crimson King; 6, 
G. Golden Fleece ; 7, Coleus Emperor Napo- 
leon ; 8, Pyrethrum parthenifoliuni aureum ; 9, 
Lobelia Blue Stone ; 10, Mesembryanthemum 
cordifolium var. ; and 11, Echeveria secunda. 



In a communication in the December number, 
it is stated that the Ivy is not to be depended on 
as being hardy (even in the latitude of Phila- 

One of our hard winters a few years ago, was 
very severe on evergreens (but this was an 
exceptional season); some of the Ivies suflfered 
at that time, among which were luxuriant plants 
covering a brick building three stories high,which 
had withstood our hard winters in Charlestown, 
Mass., for upwards of twenty years before that 
time. I have also seen it growing luxuriantly on 
some of the churches in Brooklyn, N.Y., without 
the least care, and in a private place in the 
neighborhood of Boston, a low wall is com- 
pletely covered with it by a little care being 
taken with it. 

nurseries having distributed them extensively 
thereabouts. The German variety Thuja pumila 
''■ is a stronger grower than the other, and is of a 
darker green, but it is not so compact a grower. 
\ The American Thuja globosa is preferred by 
I many because of its more globular form ; though 
if one's grounds are of fair size there will be 
plenty of room for both. These beautiful Arbor 
Vitas are not near so well known as they ought 
to be. Nurserymen complain that, like many 
} other nice things, they do not pay to raise, as 
I the average customer is too much inclined to 
! value their products by their size, and not ac- 
! cording to their rarity, nor the time taken to 
j produce them. Hence fast-growing trees pay 
the best, and rarer ones, if of slow growth, are 
in a measure discarded. 



The Monthly will now be well freighted 
with advertisements enlightening its readers 
where and how to buy ; and especially instruc- 
tive as showing the rapid progress which horti- 
culture has made since the establishment of this 
magazine. In the nurseries, there are the vari- 



ous species of useful and ornamental herbs and 
trees from every clime in the universe, all fit for 
sale. Many of the seed and implement ware- 
houses are towering temples of greatness, and 
stored with seeds of the most improved species 
and varieties suitable for culture in all parts of 
our extensive domain. The hand-tools and ma- 
chines for man and horse are of the latest inven- 
tions and improvements to lighten, cheapen and 
facilitate the labors of field and garden. The 
ingeniously constructed and handsomely finished 
rustic designs, to ornament and diversify the 
garden, the parlor, and the park, are as curious 
as they are beautiful. In herbs and trees, seeds 
and implements, curious ornamental designs, 
dried flowers and grasses, cut flowers and floral 
decorations; flowers for Winter, flowers for 
Summer, and fruits for all time ! The reading 
columns of The Monthly afford a profitable 
study, but scarcely less so are the advertising 
pages. It is gratifying to those who know how 
highly floral taste is estimated by intelligent 
Europeans, to note how much we are advancing 
* in the same directions ; and nothing shows how 
tliis is going on more than the numerous adver- 
tisements in the Gardenek's Monthly. 



These are two of the most beautiful flowering 
shrubs of California, and are found on the sum- 
mits of the low hills to the north of the bay of 
Monterey, generally among other shrubbery, 
but in the shade. 

The former is deciduous, the latter evergreen ; 
the former bearing large masses of sweet-scented 
white flowers which are often shaded with yel- 
low and rarely with pink, growing in rather dry 
ground it sends down large deep roots, which 
supply it with abundant moisture, though 
blooming in a rainless Summer. It sends up 
numerous shoots from a knotty root crown, and 
from its appearance would seem to be hard to 
transplant. My experience, however, is to the 
contrary ; for, after hacking a plant to pieces 
with an axe, I managed to get a few stems, each 
with a chunk of the crown and a stray rootlet, 
and after being carried two days on horseback, 
they were potted in old cans ; now, a year after- 
ward, they have filled their cans with a mass of 
fine roots, and having just shed their leaves, 
show a fine lot of buds for next year. 

The Pickeringia blooms similarlv to Swain- 

sonia, but the flowers are much brighter and the 
racemes longer. I believe it blooms six months 
in the year, and where it does well is very hand- 
some, often growing eight feet high; its leaflets 
are about the size of those of the Clianthus and 
are glaucous green, the stem is beset with 
thorns, and if the plant would submit to trim- 
ming, would make a fine hedge. I have been 
able to find but three seeds in several years 
experience with the plant, though as its immense 
truncate roots seem to sprout freely wherever 
they are exposed, I presume it might be prop- 
agated by the root. 



Your Bridgeport correspondent who, I notice, 
still writes to you regarding the merits of the 
much abused Ailanthus, has, I believe, not men- 
tioned as yet the fact observed by several 
naturalists, that the rosebug is stupefied, sickened 
and probably destroyed by either eating the 
leaves, or getting within the atmosphere sur- 
rounding the male or staminate plant of this 

Great numbers of this pest of the garden have 
been seen on several occasions in a crippled or 
dying condition beneath the tree, one instance 
being given where the ground was literally 
covered with them. 

This being the case, would it not be politic for 
those who cultivate the rose either for pleasure 
or profit, to try the experiment of introducing 
the male Ailanthus into their grounds as a means 
of reducing the numbers of this destructive 

I would suggest its use as a shrub, and indi- 
vidual specimens of it could be placed wherever 
they would appear to the best advantage, or they 
could be set in an uneven row as a background 
to the protected plant. 

Like Genl. Noble, I am an admirer of both the 
staminate and piintillate Ailanthus, and think 
that the former is one of the best adapted of all 
trees for shading our city streets, owing to its 
very open habit. 



This plant was noticed in the Monthly some 
time last year, and recommended for the deco- 
ration of our gardens in Summer, and the seed 
catalogues for the present year are also recom- 



mending it for the same pm-pose ; but owing to 
the attacks of a black, flea-like insect — the same 
which preys upon Sweet Alyssum and some 
other plants — with me, last year, it was not a 
success. In the Autumn a plant was lifted and 
potted, and placed in a light and warm green- 
house, where it is now, and has been for some 
time past, a mass of bloom, and from present 
appearances it is likely to remain so for some 
time to come. 

It is an improvement on the older species — B. 
elata^ — the flowers are larger, and the plant in 
habit is more graceful and free-flowering, which 
will make it a favorite for the decoration of the 
greenhouse and conservatory, and for cut flowers 
for the florist. The seed under my treatment 
did not germinate well ; only two plants were 
raised from as many packets of seed. 

So far the plant has failed to perfect any seed, 
but it may readily be increased by taking cut- 
tings of the young shoots, and inserting them in 
sand in a warm place, in the ordinary way. 

The color of the flower is pure white, with a 
yellow center, very delicately shaded with azure 
blue, reminding one of the pretty little Hous- 
tonia ccerulea of om- meadows, though this is not 
so noticeable in the flowers on the plants under 
glass in Winter, as it was when growing outside 
in Summer. 


The Oriental Spruce.— Mr. Samuel Par- 
sons says — and we quite agree with him, only 
more in its favor— that it is unlike the Norway, 
even when young, in its silvery bark and dark 
black green foliage. It is unique among ever- 
greens in this peculiar dark shade : 

'' The Oriental spruce is the very best of all 
spruces, if people did but know it. Unfortu- 
nately, while young it resembles the Norway, 
lacking somewhat of that spruce's early vigor. 
As age' increases it develops more rapidly, and 
finally, in no great time, towers into a solid mass 
of dark, lustrous foliage, possessing a very pecu- 
liar beauty and marked character on the lawn. 
It is, moreover, extremely enduring and hardy." 

The Trees of Washington. — In reference 
to the remark we made last month in regard to 
the low cost and excellent variety of the shade 
trees of Washington, we find the following in 
a Washington paper before us : 

" Of the cost of the planting and care of trees 
m this city, we may safely challenge comparison 

with any similar work of its kind that has ever 
been undertaken. This statement is made from 
a somewhat extended knowledge of the cost of 
tree-planting in cities, both in this and other 
countries, and the claim is fully warranted by 
facts. This arises from the circumstance that 
everything has been done in accordance with a 
well-considered schema, which was formed pre- 
vious to commencing operations, in which every 
possible contingency that could be foreseen was 
provided for, based upon a lengthened and diver- 
sified experience^ in this and kindred matters 
relating to rural improvements. This scheme 
and the practical execution of its varied details 
has been projected and carried out under the 
direction of a Park Commission, which was 
organized by the late Board of Public Works, 
in the latter part of the year 1871. This com- 
mission is composed of three of our citizens, 
who have given much personal attention to the 
work, and with as little interference as possible 
to their daily professional duties. To them it is 
a labor of love for the public good, and their 
only reward is the inward gratification that re- 
sults from the execution of good deeds." 

Oak Hill Cemetery, Upper Sandusky, 
Ohio.— The Wyandot Times reports this as a 
highly successful undertaking. It embraces thirty 
acres of land, and has three miles of avenues. 
Mr. W. T. Harding, who designed and laid out 
the grounds, and which he still superintends, 
receives gieat praise for mucb of the success 
which has attended the work. 

Public Parks in England.— Notwithstand- 
ing the prevalence of beautiful gardens every- 
where, the English are still multiplying their 
public grounds. Leeds has just purchased 300 
acres, four miles from the city, as a park for the 

Standard Eunonymus.— It is said that the 
Eunonymus radicans grafts readily on E. Em-o- 
j pteus, and makes very pretty lawn plants when 
j so treated. 


\ Pentstemon Cobcea. — This is one of the 
j finest hardy species of Pentstemon, and is yet 
! very rare in cultivation. The flowers are among 
I the largest of the genus and are produced in 
i loose spikes of 8 to 12 inches in length, broadly 
' bell-shaped and two inches or more long, of a 




purplish white, and remain for some days. The 
plant is hard}^ and vigorous, and improves Avith 
careful cultivation. It cannot fail to become 
one of the tinest of the many hard}' herbaceous 
perennials just now becoming so popular in 
Europe and America. — /. M. Thorburn. 

Eryxgit M Leavekworthit. — The showiest 
of annuals, with stem from one to three feet 
high, and very branching. The heads are of a 
beautiful purple. Branches cut after the flowers 
and leaves have matured will last two or three 
months, making it a valuable addition for Winter 
bouquets. One of the most valuable plants 
introduced in many years. — /. M. Thorburn. 

Spiraea palmata elegans. — Kew Hybrid 
Spiu.ea. — Under the name of Spirfea palmata 
elegans M. Ed. Pynaert figures and describes in 
the current number of the Revue de P Horticulture 
Beige a plant, as it would seem, of great interest 
and beauty. The interest resides in the circum- 
stance that the plant is stated to be a cross 
between Astilbe barbata and Spira-a palmata, 
while the inflorescence is intermediate between 
the two parents. The flowers are ver}- numerous i 
their pink stamens contrasting well with their 
clear white petals. Whatever its origin, the 
plant will probably prove hardy, and Avill be 
very useful for forcing and for house decoration. 
— Gar. Chronicle. 

Daphne fortunei. — This was sent to the 
Royal Horticultural Society by Mr. Fortune, 
from the Chusan Hills, Ningpo, and Shanghai. 
It is a small downy-branched bush, with thin 
deciduous opposite and alternate ovate-oblong 
leaves, covered with very soft fine hairs. The 
flowers, wliich generally appear very early in 
Spring, are bluish-lilac, arranged in clusters of 
four, upon branches scarcely beginning to put 
forth their leaves. They are rather more than 
an inch long, covered externally with soft, closely 
pressed hairs, and divided in the border into four 
roundish, oblong, obtuse, uneven lobes, of which 
the two inner ones are the smallest. In the 
inside of the tubes of the calyx are eight nearly 
sessile stamens in two rows, with narrow sharp- 
pointed anthers. The ovary, is smooth, stalked, 
one-celled, with a small fleshy scale at its base, 
and a single suspended ovule; it produces 
abruptly from its summit a very short cylindi'ical 
style, ended by a capitate hairy stigma. No 
species yet described approaches very nearly to 
this, which has been named after its enterprising 
discoverer ; the seed being unknown, it can only 
be conjectured that it belongs to the Mezereum 
divisions of the genus. It is a greenlu»use or. 

! perhaps, half-hardy shrub, and is a charming 

I addition to this class of plants, more especially 

i since it appears to be well adapted for forcing. 

— Garden. 

■ ••♦. 


i Stocks for Grafting. — G. B. G., Manches- 
ter, York Co., Pa., writes: "Will you be kind 
! enough to answer the following queries through 
i the March number of The Monthta' : How 
i and when are the following trees grafted, and 
[ what kind of stocks are used for the difterent 
i varieties ? Is the operation performed in the 
j same manner as for fruit trees ? Such as the 
i finer varieties of Japanese Maples, Weeping 
I Beech, Elm, Ash, Willo^^% &c- i also the new 
f Japanese Persimmon. Your answer to the 
I above will much oblige." 

[The Japan Maples are grafted on Acer stria- 
{ tum,the Moose or striped bark maple ; Weeping 
' Beech on either the European or the American 
I species ; the Elm on any species ; they intergraft 
1 one with another. So also with the Ash, but 
I the European makes the best stock. The Goat 
I WiUow is the best stock for Willows; and the 
I common Persimmon does well for the Japanese 
varieties. They " take " by either cleft or whip 
grafting, just as fruit trees do. — Ed. G. M.] 

Worm on the Juniper. — A Babylon, N". Y.. 
correspondent says: "Please ask, through the 
; Gardener's Monthly, of nurserymen, if they 
know anything of this worm that is destroying 
I my Junipers. It is a quarter of an inch long, 
i and forms a web covering through the winter. 
j I have not observed it in summer. It evidenth^ 
j feeds on the young leaves, while in its active 
I state ; the ends of limbs become knotted, and 
; show such an appearance as fire would produce." 
I Is Aspidlstra lurida Hardy ? — I. C. W., 
j Fishkill, N. Y., writes : " Mr. John Pettie, a gar- 
j dener of the first water, told me a few weeks 
j since that the Aspidistra lurida variegata was 
a hardy plant, and should be used in the herba- 
j ceous border. He states that he has tried it at 
the Kelly Gardens, at Rhinebeck, N. Y., and 
j that it proved hardy then ; and also states it has 
I stood out in England, and went through the 
I winter finely. We have always grown this as a 
j stove or warm greenhouse plant, and supposed 
[ it was tender. Do you know of another instance 
of its standing the winter in the herbaceous bor- 
der in this country. If it has not been published, 
would it not lie well to state the fact through 
your journal." 




Green House and House Gardening. 




Having had considerable success in growing 
orchids in a mixed collection of plants, I think 
that other amateurs would be glad to do so did 
they only know how easily it may be done, and 
in my estimation, how much better they appear 
when grown with Ferns, Begonias, etc., than 
when grown in a house entirely devoted to them. 
I have never seen a collection of orchids except 
one in which the plants were grown for commer- 
cial purposes ; and any success that I have had 
has been from the study of these wonderful 
plants in their native habitats. I remember as 
well as if it was only a week ago, the first orchid 
that I ever saw. It was on Christmas day, 1839, 
almost forty years ago. I was a sailor boy at 
Rio de Janerio, and having a holiday to go on 
shore on Christmas, I had climbed up the moun- 
tain back of the city. Tired and hungry I sat 
down to rest, when I observed quite a large 
white flower not far from me. On examining it 
I discovered that a limb of a tree had been bro- 
ken off by the wind, and that the bloom belonged 
to a plant growing on it, but entirely distinct. I 
think now that the flower was Cattleya crispa, 
■or some one of the white La^lias from Rio. 

Some six or eight years ago, circumstances al- 
lowed me to indulge in the luxury of a green- 
house. I immediately commenced to collect 
a few orchids, and my collection of these plants 
has gradually increased until I have some of 
nearly each species. Thej- have been grown in 
two small houses, each 12X32, heated by flue 
and hot water, the heat so regulated that when 
one house stood at 65° the other would be 50° or 
less. These houses have been torn down, and a 
.house 55X17 substituted. In these houses were 
grown all manner of winter-blooming stuff. Be- 
gonias, Bouvardias, Epiphyllum, Tydtea and 
other gesneraceous plants, Geraniums, &c. My 
Azalias, Camellias, and many other plants that 
can stand as low a temperature as 35° at times 
and still seem to bloom better for it, are grown 
in another house. 

I have bloomed among other orchids, in the 
last year, Dendrobium nobile, D. heterocarpum, 
D. monilliforme,I). mosohatum, D. fimbriatum, 

Oculatum and several other Dendrobes ; Ansel- 
lia Africana, brides odoratum and A. virens, 
Vanda teres, Cattleya Mossse, C. labiata, C. 
Forbesii, a plant with sevent3f-five flowers open 
at one time ; C. citrina, C. guttata, C. Loddigesii, 
C. chocoensis, C. Triante, C. superba, and a 
half-dozen other varieties ; Odontoglossum, 
about ten varieties, with Tricopilias, Miltonia, 
Epidendrum, Stanhopiaes, La?lias, Calanthes 
Lycaste, &c. As I have never seen a 
collection of orchids I do not know how they 
compare with others, but friends who have 
seen them tell me they are well-grown 
and healthy, and as they bloom well, I suppose 
they are handled about right. With these re- 
marks I propose to give a i&w notes on my man- 
ner of growing orchids. In the first place, any 
one wishing to grow orchids with a mixed collec- 
tion, must divest himself of the idea that the 
house must be saturated with moisture. Such a 
condition would be injurious to the beauty of 
many foliage plants, and would cause the blooms 
of many other plants to mildew. I grow very 
few on naked blocks after they are once estab- 
lished, but either in well-drained pots, buckets 
made of cedar, (Juniperus Virginianus) or on 
blocks well covered with moss. I use sphagnum 
moss alone, for all but the terrestrial orchids ; 
and I water my orchids, as I do other plants, at 
the roots when they need it, and use the syringe 
no more than I would for Begonias and gesnera- 
ceous plants. It is impossible in a short article 
to give any idea of the treatment of the different 
species, time of bloom, manner and time of 
growth, etc. My experience is that the idea that 
nearly all orchids should be at rest from Nov. to 
March, is not according to their wants. I find 
that very many Brazilian orchids, blooming 
from Aug. to Nov., start into growth in the fall, 
which is the spring and wet season of Brazil, and 
at this moment many of my Brazilian orchids 
are growing finely. But they need no more heat 
than is requisite for Bouvardias and Heliotropes 
to keep, them growing and making good bulbs. 
I propose later to give you a few articles on the 
different species that I have grown, and will then 
try and make clearer my views given from my 
experience. I would here also remark that an 
almost universal error in growing orchids is 
keeping them too wet, too hot, and too densely 
shaded. I do not remember seeing manv orchids 




growing, either in dense shade or thick woods, 
but mostly on the trees overhanging streams or 
on the edge of forests. 


BY "W. W., DOBB's ferry, N. Y. 

Having read with interest the remarks of your 
correspondents on the above subject with some 
diffidence, in regard to rushing into print and 
difficulties, &c.. I am induced to send you my 
experience in the hope that the disease may be 
well defined, and some one prescribe a remedy. 
Two years ago I had a very fine plant on a 
Manetti stock, which showed all the symptoms 
described by your correspondents. The stock 
outgrew the rose three to one, forming an excres- 
ence at the point of union, and the gradual decay 
of the plant was the result. I had at the same time 
plants worked on LaMarque and Solfaterie, 
which were in excellent health, and are yet, being 
entirely free from any appearance of disease. I 
have noticed the same disease, or the same cause, 
produce the same eft'ect in other grafted trees 
where the stock has not been suitable from some 
cause to the growth of the scion. I have also 
noticed that a very little neglect in disbudding 
old plants in the early part of the summer, when 
they are usually put outside or the sashes taken 
off, will cause the decay of the leading branches 
farthest from the base of the plant, the sap 
preferring to support a lot of younger branches 
nearer the roots and leaving the old ones to die 
or starve. It is not my wish to raise any point 
for controversy, but I would certainly advise 
anyone who intends growing the Marechal 
on light, sandy soil, to keep from planting 
imported Eoses. In the hands of our leading 
flower-growers on strong clay or loamy soils 
they do well for a few years and are replaced 
fi-om lime to time; but in my opinion, better re- 
sults could be obtained under any circumstances 
with plants worked on the strong growing varie- 
ties of the Noisette class. 



In reply to the inquiry made about this article 
in The Gardener's Monthly of November 
last (page 329), we can say that we re-introduced 
this very old Dutch method of cultivation some 
years ago. We exhibited collections of Antipo- 
dean Hyacinths at the horticultural shows at 

Haarlem and Utrecht, in 1874, and got large 
silver medals as first prizes. Again we showed 
two collections at Haarlem in 1875, and got the 
first and the second prize. Both the lots exhib- 
ited at the last international spring show at 
Amsterdam (1877) which got the first and second 
prize, came from our nursery. These lots seem 
to have attracted very much the attention of 
the visitors— at least they were spoken of in 
various horticultural periodicals, and illustra- 
tions given of such pairs of Hyacinths cultivated 
in a double glass, in the Gardener'' s Chronicle, 
1877, page 591, and t)\e Gardener'' s Magazine, 
1877, page 262. Both these illustrations, how- 
ever, are riot correct as to the form of the leaves.. 
Of these you find an exact figure (No. 47 page 
113) in our German catalogue, 303 C. An Eng- 
lish edition of this catalogue is in preparation.. 
In the said catalogue you find some details as to 
the management of this method of culture, which 
you will find differ evidently of what is said 
about the matter in the Gardener''s Mafrazine, 
1877, page 261, and the Gardener'' s Chronicle, 
1877, page 632. Till now no other house here 
seems to have made a specialty of this method 
of culture. We have always ready a number of 
double glasses to suit our customers. The form 
of these presently used is a perfection (at least 
as concerns a legacy) of the old Dutch forms 
which we used half a century ago, when the 
under part had an inverted funnel form, in which 
there was more and better room for the flower 
of the so-called antipodean bulb to develop itself.. 
In the new form it sometimes occurs that the 
flower develops so long, that it is obliged to bend 
upwards with is top to find room. 

This method of cultivation, to be done well,., 
claims much attention, but gives, by the extra- 
ordinary eftect, no small satisfaction. 

We suppose the above particulars will be suf- 
ficient to clear up this matter. 



Your correspondent, on page 2 of January 
Monthly accuses me of over-estimating the 
value of the above acquisition to our list of plants^ 
for our-door culture. As he is from England 
quite recently, he ought to know better than I 
of their merits there ; but on page 202 of the 
September number of " J'Ae Garden,'''' 1877, pub- 
lished at London, I think an unpredjudiced 
reader will find my statement'.' in part, if not 
■wholly substantiated : and I suppose the au- 




thorities there given are equal to Mr. "W. Fal- 
coner's experience, or the Editor would not give 
them his unqualified approval by publishing 
without comment. One writer says : " No one 
who has not seen these most beautiful and in- 
valuable plants, either bedded out in masses in 
circular beds slightly raised in the center, or as 
single specimens, each in the center of a small 
round bed, can form any adequate idea of what 
a brilliant and continuous display of color they 
provide during the whole of the three summer 
months, from the middle of June to the middle 
of September. Also, that even when in full 
bloom they are almost insensible of the heaviest 
rain, as torrents which would knock every blos- 
som off a bed of Zonale Pelargoniums (Gerani- 
ums are so called in England) do not cause a 
single bloom to drop before its time, merely 
making the pliant foot-stalks bend their heads 
to the storm, raising their lovely blossoms in all 
their brilliancy and beauty on the reappearance 
of the sun, when the storm has passed." And 
much more in the same strain is said by Mr. W. 
E. Gumbleton, for whom Van Houtte, of Ghent, 
the foremost and most successful raiser of the 
best varieties, has seen fit to name one of his 
two (only) new ones the past season. Could 
more be said for the famous " General Grant" 
itself? Another correspondent on the same page 
begins a short notice, equally laudatory, by say- 
ing : '' We have no plant the equal of the Fuch- 
sia for in-door and out-door decorative purposes, 
unless it be the new race of Tuberose-rooted Be- 
gonias," and goes on to describe those of Messrs. 
Veitch's collection at Chelsea, and closes by say- 
ing : When grown out of doors, one great advan- 
tage they possess over most other plants is that 
no amount of wet appears to have the slightest 
influence in damaging their flowers, which they 
go on producing until cut off by frost." In 
favored localities the tubers will sometimes sur- 
vive the Winter ; and when lifted, they can be 
made to bloom in the greenhouse till after 
Christmas, as they have done at Norfolk this 
season. He further says, " For planting on rock- 
work, these Begonias have few equals." 

I call this " practical experience " of the right 
sort, and it must be borne in mind that it is only 
since 1874 that they have been grown, even in 
England, to any great extent. 

Now for what they will do here in America, 
and this I can testify to from personal knowl- 
edge. They stood the blaze of a Virginia sun in 
the open air unprotected by any shade whatever, 

both planted out and in pots, all la»st Summer^ 
till frost cut them down, and were a perfect mass 
of continuous bloom. The severe storms and 
showers (and any soldier who has campaigned 
in Virginia knows what thunder-storms are here, 
as well as blazing suns) have always left them 
uninjured, fully corroborating the above quoted 

If your correspondent will visit Norfolk we 
will convince him with regard to this matter- 
One thing I ought to add for the information 
of amateurs who-, like myself, will try to 
raise them from seed and will fail four times 
out of five, that they require unusual care 
and attention, the seed being as Kne as a 
mere powder; but when fairly up and trans- 
planted, it is wonderful how rapidly they push 
forward and begin to throw out their rich and 
charming blossoms. I may be too hasty, but 1 
predict for this lovely species a success far sur- 
passing any plant of recent introduction for sim- 
ilar purposes. 



1 This fine plant is a native of Costa Rica, and 

j consequently requires a good warm temperature 

I to insure success in its culture. There are several 

' varieties of this plant in cultivation, some of 

I which, especially the small-leaved ones, ai-e not 

worth growing ; the varieties are the best having 

! large leaves and large flowers or spathes, as it is 

j in the bright color of the spathe where the 

! beauty of the plant is. As I consider a plant 

' which we have here a good variety I shall give 

1 the size of the leaves and flowers. The leaves 

i are of a bright green color, about sixteen inches 

long, the leaf starts about a foot high ; above 

j this rise the flower spikes, the spathes being 

\ two inches wide and fully three inches long, of 

j the brightest scarlet. The spathe is twisted and 

I also bright scarlet, therefore forming a beautiful 

i and very attractive object. The plant has been 

in flower since last April, having only now 

(November) two flowers. A mixture of 

sphagnum moss, charcoal and pieces of fibrous 

peat is what I grow it in, with abundance of 

water in its growing season ; plenty of drainage 

is necessary to allow the water to pass freely oftV 

A cooler temperature and less water when in, 

: flower than when growing makes it retain its 

! beauty longer. The insects which attack the 

' foliage of this plant most are the white and 

' brown scale, which can be easily kept under by 




•occasionally washing the leaves. It is propo- ; quantities, and at Christmas there could be seen 
gated by seeds and divisions. I would advise [ two long span-roofed houses quite filled with 
the people when purchasing a plant of this some thousand plants of A. cuneatum, the great 
Anthurium to endeavor to get the large leaved majority in 32-pots, with larger examples in pots 
variety, for be the culture ever so good, but little ; of an increased size. Every plant was a perfect 
satisfaction is derived from the small leaved specimen in itself, so admirably was it grown, 
■kinds. , The plants are not marketed, but simply grown 

'••■ [for the fronds, and thej- are constantly being 

j sent to London. The ripened, developed fronds 
are those gathered, as they stand much better 
and last longer than the young ones. The}- arc- 
gathered and carefully laid in baskets, and reach 
•cies we have enumerated some of the best stove I their destination without taking harm. A gra- 
■climbers that can be grown, but none are more i cillimum is wonderfully grown at Ascot. There 
admired^^than the Stephanotis, and it deserves j ^r^ those who term it a ''■ mifty grower," and say 
attention wherever there is room for it. Pot I -he}^ cannot do anything with it, but at Ascot it 
plants are nothing compared with a good climb- I is the very perfection of vigor, and if anything, 


Stephanotis floribunda.— With this spe- 

ring specimen, yielding flowers in abundance both 
large and fine. Goood loam and peat in equal 
•quantities, and plenty of sand, make the proper 
•compost for it. A bottom-heat from 75° to 80° 
is high enough, good drainage is essential, and i 
plenty of water at the root durinir the growing ! 

more robust than A. cimeatum. It is a very 
fast grower. 

A large number of plants had been raised from 
seed, and it was curious to note that in a ver)-^ 
young state the pinnse were as large as those of 
A. cuneatum; but when it gets into size, the 

season, but not much in Winter. The shoots i joui^g fronds take on that small elegant form 

will grow to an enormous length if allowed, and 
as it breaks freely there is never any difticulty in 
keeping the wires furnished from top to bottom. 
To keep the shoots clean and free from mealy 
bug, its worst enemy, not more than two or 
three should be trained to one wire, and the 
wires should be five inches or six inches apart, 
and within eight inches of the glass. The only 
way to keep down a mealy bug is by vigorous 
syringing, so as to never let it obtain a peaceable 

peculiar to it. So rapidly do the plants come on 
from seedlings, that there were admirable speci- 
mens in 48-pots that were in the seed-pans a 3'ear 
ago. Some extra-large specimens showed ofl" 
the character of the species to the very best 
advantage. It may be that failures with this 
Fern arise from the use of too much peat in the 
soil ; at Ascot no peat whatever is used. The 
soil is a sandy, turfy loam, and a little horse- 
manure, and strong plants have a little weak 

footing, and attention with the brush to prevent ! nianure-water once a week, and rather more in 

the enemy clustering in about the axils of the ! summer-time. The experience gained at Ascot 

In a stove the flowers continue to be teaches that A. gracillimum will not grow h) 

or two 
an inter- 


produced for a period of six weeks 
months, but by having a plant in 
mediate-house also the blooming season may be 
prolonged considerably, None of the species 
here treated of require shade in summer pro- 
vided the ventilation be sufficient ; but when the 
stove has to be shaded for the sake of its other 
inmates, the climbers will suff^er no injury if the 
shading be not too thick nor used oftener than 
required.— i^ze/c^. 

Winter Decorative Plants.— In addition 
to the many flowering plants grown for decora- 
tive purposes at mid-winter. Ferns play an im- 
portant part, and especially the Maidenhair 
Fern, A. cuneatum, and the elegant A. gracilli- 
mum. At the Royal Nursery, Ascot, Messrs. 
Standish & Co. grow these two in immense 

peat. The cuneatum is increased by dividing 
the plants when they break into growth after 

1 being cut over for the I^ndon 


plants, as soon as they begin to be active, are 
cut to pieces, and potted in 32-pots. 

Asparagus decumbens is much grown for table 
decoration at Ascot ; its long handsome shoots 
are very acceptable for clothing the stems of tall 
epergnes. This species was growmg m 48-pots, 
and a line of plants along the front of a stage of 
Camellias, etc.. hung down like a fringe. The 
plant puts forth pseudo-bulbs like an Orchid, and 
is nearly deciduous in Summer, but most orna- 
mental in Winter. — Gardener''s Chronicle. 

A New Fashion in Cut Flow^ers. — A very 
pretty innovation is to wear the same flowers in 
the hat or ])onnet as are held in the bouquet in 




the hand; consequently, only llowers that are in j 
season are worn. Xow, of course, we have a j 
<;reat choice, but in Winter we shall have only j 
ivy. heath, and branches of tir-tree, with a few j 
of the tiowers reared in hothouses. The flowers i 
on the hat, also, must be perfumed as if they i 
were real tlowers. There is a poetry in the i 
fashion, which will not fail to please. Even i 
-elderly ladies may follow this fashion; for they 
will choose flowers adapted to their age, or. if j 
not flowers, they may wear the foliage of the i 
flowers — or. better stilL faded flowers. And ; 
perhaps these are the most beautiful of all. 
Imagine a large over full-bloomed rose, the half 
of which still clings to its stem, whilst the other 
half appears to fall leaf by leaf amongst the 
foliage. It is extremely lovely and graceful, and 
is arranged with so much art by the florist that 
■one lady who wore such a rose at the Grand 
Prix was warned by another lady standing near 
her "that she was losing her flowers." I can 
therefore recommend faded flowers to most 
ladies. Feathers also are greatly worn, es- 
pecially on hats— the large-brimmed Rubens 
ihats, which are now so much the fashion — now 
more than ever, indeed. At the Grand Prix, 
fancy fair, and review, the ladies wore little else. 
Hats at the back of the head are now no longer 
■L'onsidered comme il faut. Duchesses, baron- 
esses, princesses, countesses, etc., all wear large- 
brimmed hats bending over the face. And how 
pretty they are I They may perhaps not be 
Kjuite so saucy as the jaunty sailor's hat, but if 
they look less provoquants, ladies can, at least, 
look blushing beneath their shade ; and what is 
moss to a rose so is blush to a woman. — ^'Echoes 
from. Paris,'''' in Pictorial World. 

Ce:xtauhea Clemkxtii. — Among the silvery 
leaved plants now so popular for carpet bedding 
there are few tribes more useful than the Cen- 
taureas which give us so many good ones. Some 
years ago we noted the appearance of a beauti- 
ful variety in Europe, but it has been slow in 


Skmi-double Gloxixi.vs. — These are by no 
means rare, but a.s yet they can scarcelj' be 
termed meritorious. I have recently seen a 
number of them in flower, but cannot help con- 
sidering them good flowers spoiled. The outer 
calyx is not continuous but disjointed, a circum- 
stance which gives the flower a ragged appear- 
ance : if, however, it can be so far improved 
upon as to be developed into a perfect outer 
calyx as is seen in some of the forms of the 
•Canterbury Bell, it may then become very 
efiective. The forms of Gloxinia are well worth 
the attention of the rtori>t. — T). in Garden. 

getting into our country. A correspondent tells 
IS he had it out last Summer, and that it stands 
the sun very well. We give with this an illustra- 
ion of a leaf. 

CuPHEA RoEZLi. — This new and beautiful 
species, which has been introduced into the mar- 
ket by M. Charles Huber, nurseryman at Nice 
I Maritime Alps), was discovered in the district 
of Tepic, in Mexico, by M. Roezl, who sent the 
seeds to M. Ortgies. The first sowins was made 




by M, Charles Huber in August, 1875. The 
plant forms a soft-wooded, very vigorous shrub, 
often growing to the height of 3 ft., or even 
more. The flowers are extremely abundant ; 
they are covered all over with light down, and 
are slightly gibbous, or slipper-shaped. From 
its vigor, the abundance of its bloom, and the 
length of time it keeps in flower, the Cuphea 
Roezli will be much sought after for the orna- 
mentation of cold greenhouses in the climate of 
Paris, and for gardens in the open air in the 
south of France. If grown properly, there is 
no doubt that this plant will soon be common in 
our markets. Planted in good time in the open 
air, in a well sheltered and sunny position, the 
Cuphea Roezli, which a very free flowering plant, 
will begin to bloom in the course of the Sum- 
mer, and continue to do so without interruption 
right into the Winter. The plants, however, 
must be well protected from frost. This species 
of Cuphea may, according to circumstances, be 
cultivated as a biennial by leaving the plants in 
the open air, as is already done in the case of 
several greenhouse plants, such as Pelargoni- 
ums, or it may be looked on as a greenhouse 
plant proper, and re-potted and pruned in the 
spring according to the purposes for which we 
intend it. — Garden. 

Neav Geraniums. —Xew varieties are out in 
force. Besides those offered by W. K. Harris in 
our last month's advertisements, there are two 
in the West of some promise. Fanny, a bronze 
zonale, flower salmon color, and Ralph, with 
crimson flowers. 


Hyacinth Blooming.— R., New York City, 
asks : ''What has been on an average the re- 
sult of Hyacinth forcing this year ; do they 
all remain behind the general run, or is it 
more, so in those regions of our country where 
the winter has been wet and the skies over- 
cast? I have taken a short trip over the 
West last month, and found the Dutch Hyacinths 
very backward. Around here I have hardly yet 
seen what to call aj^ne blooming specimen. The 
same report I read in the last number of the 
London Gardener'' s Chronicle. I can only ascribe 
it to the blight which damaged the foliage of the 
Dutch Hyacinth last May, before the bulb had 
time to fully develop and mature. The Dutch- 
men themselves did not seem to know what to 
make of it, when I saw them last June, as thev 

said the oldest growers did not recollect such an 
event. They certainly appeared very much cast 
down about their prospects to raise a large crop- 
for this season ; and so far I hear it corroborated, 
that fewer Hyacinth bulbs have been planted in 
Holland last fall, for the season of 1878, than has. 
been done in other years. Other bulbs 1 saw,, 
were doing well on an average." 

[No flowers have bloomed as well generally 
this winter as usual, perhaps owing to the- 
absence of snow. The more light the more 
flowers; the more snow generally the more light.. 
We merely offer this as a guess. — Ed. G. M.] 

Flowers in Milavaukee. — T. G. A., Milwau- 
kee, Wis., writes : " Camellias, Azaleas and 
Oranges ; this class of plants do not appear to do 
well here. Florists and others get them in a. 
very good condition from the East, but a few 
years generally uses them up. I have got some 
from Mr. Buist, and others have some from Mr. 
Dick and ol her florists, all of which came in toler- 
able good condition, but they are now in three 
years nearly worthless. In fact, I have seen none- 
in Wisconsin in a good, healthy condition. ThC' 
same maybe said of the Rhododendron. Is the 
cause attributable to atmosphere, or soil V I> 
believe it would be of great service to many 
gardeners here, to get some light on the matter- 
through the Gardener's Monthly. 

[Years gone by, the Editor has seen excellent 
Camellias at Milwaukee. No doubt it is but 
some temporary and local cause that those you 
refer to do not do well. It is probably no per- 
manent cause. — Ed. G. M.] 

Butterfly Flowers. — While our correspon- 
dents are teaching us how to grow Butterfly 
Orchids, Mr. Rolker, of New York, sends us- 
samples of paper butterflies, looking so much 
like real living things, that even one 'in the flesh" 
might take them for brother "flies." They 
are used to give life to boquets and floral work, 
and must have the full eff'ect desired. 

Double White Oleander.— Mrs. W., Wor- 
cester, Mass., kindlj- writes: "In your num- 
ber for September, I noticed 'E.' inquires 
under scraps and queries, page 268, if there- 
is really a double white Oleander. In reply^ 
I will say, I have a double white Oleander 
which bloomed fully for the second time, last 
summer ; it was a slip three years since. There 
j are now five stalks, from one to two and a half 
I feet deep, each with a branch of buds. A friend 
! from whom this slip came, has a plant equally^ 




Aspect of a Greenhouse.— S. B. B., War- 
renton, W. Va., writes : " I am about to build a 
greenhouse, and ask that you would favor me with 
your advice as to position. The place I would like 

all day. I have another place I could put it in 
where the gable would face a little west of south, 
with sun all day." 
[Supposing the chief object will be flowers in 

to put it is so fixed that I would be compelled to winter, either aspect would do vei-y well. The 
have the gable end (which would be of glass) fac- one giving as much direct sunlight from the 
ing a little south of east ; the sun shines on the spot southeast having the preference. — Ed. G. M.] 

Fruit and Vegetable Gardening, 


Grape-vines in the open air, on arbors and 
trellises, should have their pruning finished be- 
fore warm Spring days set in, or they will bleed. 
It does not iujiu-e them much, but it looks bad. 
The pruning must be regulated by the condi- 
tion of the vine. If the vines are young and the 
shoots weak, cut them all back, to make a new 
and vigorous growth. If already a fair quantity 
of strong shoots of last season's growth exists, 
cut out the weaker ones, so as to leave enough of 
stronger ones. The cane system, slightly modi- 
fied, is best for arbors and trellises in the hands 
of amateurs generally. This implies a new set 
of canes every year or two. If, as frequently 
happens from bad management, all the young 
and strong-bearing wood exists only at the end 
of the vines, — and these latter have become 
nothing but long, ropy-looking apologies for 
what a vine should be — the whole cane may be 
buried down in the soil to where the strong 
shoots spring from, and the young wood of last 
season trained up from this. The plant will then 
recover its good appearance quite as well as by 
■cutting down, with the advantage of not sacri- ' 
ficing a year's crop of fruit. I 

Many kinds of raspberries, especially in dry j 
soils, have a tendency to throw up innumerable ; 
suckers. These should be thinned out. Three 
or four canes are enough to leave in a "hill." 
We like, however, to grow raspberries in rows, 
where each cane may have a chance to enjoy an 
independent existence of about a square foot of 
soil for itself. 

"We have before remarked that fruit trees and 
bushes should invariably be cut in severely, and 
not allowed to bear the same season of planting. 
It is a fatal mistake to look for fruit the same 
season of setting out the trees. This is at the 
expense of future growth, and without future 
-growth there will be no future crops. 

Raspberries, blackberries, «S:;c., frequently bear 
and die when so treated. The canes should be 

inches on transplanting, 
in fall should always be 
It is not essential with the 
kinds, but it aids them 

cut back to a few 
Raspberries for fruit 
pretty well cut back, 
regular Fall-bearing 

In the vegetable garden we might give a hint 
in asparagus culture, that if very large stalks are 
desired the soil must be very rich, and the plants 
set as wide apart as rows of corn. It is to be 
observed that those who believe there are some 
varieties of asparagus that may be reproduced 
fiom seed, urge the necessity of planting very wide 
apart. We do not know that very large stalks are 
especially desirable, and for ordinary use would 
set the plants about twenty inches apart ; about 
four inches beneath the surface is deep enough to 
set. Good deep soil is generally good ; but if in 
a stiff soil, deepening it for asparagus, only makes 
a well into which the surrounding waters drain. 
It is much better in such situations to plant 
in raised beds. The alleys between, then serve 
as surface ditches. Many failures in planting 
asparagus, arise from this depth of bed, under 
such circumstances. The plants rot from water 
about them. 

In the open ground Peas and Potatoes receive 
the first attention. Then Beets and Carrots. 
Then Lettuce, Radish, Spinach, Onions, Leeks 
and Parsley. Beyond this, unless in more favor- 
able latitudes than Pennsylvania, little can be 
done till the first week in April. There is 
nothing gained in working soil until it has be- 
come warm and dry. 

Those who have no Spinach sown in the Fall 
should do that right away ; no amount of stable 
manure but will be a benefit to it, though 
guano, in even smallish doses, will kill it. 
Guano produces excellent Cabbage, mixed with 
the ground while it is being dug for that crop. 
Cabbage, is ready; and Potatoes are better in 




before the beginning of next month, if the 
ground is not too wet; many plant Cabbage be- 
tween the Potato rows. 

Onions are better put in early, but the ground 
ought to be dry, and trodden or beaten firm when 
the sets are planted; the ground ought not to 
have rank manure — wood ashes and pure un- 
dunged loam will alone produce an excellent 

To have Turnips good in Spring they must be 
sown very early ; the}'^ are hardy, and must be 
put in as soon as the ground can be caught 

Parsley delights in a rich gravelly loam, and 
should be sown very early. 

Parsnips, another crop which should receive 
early attention, also delights in a deep gravelly 
soil, but detests rank manure. 

Lettuce and Radishes continue to sow at 

Herbs of all kinds are best attended to at this 
season — a good collection is a good thing. 

The Carrot will thrive in soil similar to the 
Beet; lime is an excellent manure for it — we 
use Long Orange. Celery may be sown about 
the end of the month, in a bed of very light rich 
soil, and Tomatoes, Egg Plants and Peppers 
sown in pots or boxes, and forwarded. It is as 
bad to be too early with these as too late, as they 
become stunted. 

In vegetable garden culture it must be remem- 
bered that we have to operate the reverse of 
fruit culture. A woody growth is what we 
require for fruit trees ; but we need for vege- 
tables a soft, spongy, succulent character, the 
very reverse of this. For this end the ground 
cannot be too deep, too rich, or too much culti- 
vated. The hoe and the rake should be kept 
continually going, loosening the surface and 
admitting "air and light," as the old books used 
to say. There is not only an advantage in this 
for the direct benefit of the plant, but an early 
use of these tools keeps down the weeds, and 
thus we save labor. It is a great thing to be 
''forehanded" in the weed war. 




I shall at present confine my observations to 
that portion of the State with which I am most 
familiar — the counties of Alameda and Santa 
Clara, embracing the great valley which extends 

from San Pueblo on the north to Gilroy on the- 
south. This district, embracing over one thou- 
sand square miles, is one of the most important 
fruit sections of the State. All the fruits of the 
temperate climes are grown in perfection, and 
many of the so-called semi-tropical. 

The climate is varied and much modified by 
the ocean winds, which are chiefly felt in the 
northern portion, lying near the bay of San 
Francisco. The southern portion is warmer and 
drier, hence produces earlier fruit. It may be 
safely said that the whole district under cultiva- 
tion produces in great perfection apples, pears, 
peaches, plums, cherries, the leading nuts, etc. 

Very large quantities of the small fruits are 
grown. The vicinity of the San Lorenzo Creek 
has proved the best soil for currants, the Cherr}- 
being the leading variety, as the Red Dutch does 
not succeed. San Jose, Santa Clara and vicinity 
supply most of the strawberries used in San 
Francisco and the interior towns. The British 
Queen, an old favorite, has been discarded, and 
now Peabody's Seedling takes the lead. The 
new Monarch of the West is coming into favor.. 
Blackberries, raspberries and gooseberries grow 
well everywhere. The foreign varieties of grape 
do extremely well in the foothills of this entire 
region, and over much of the valley, but are dis- 
posed to mildew near the bay. This can be pre- 
vented by using a trellis to keep the vines oft 
the ground. The favorite kinds are Black Ham- 
burg, Malvaise, Rose de Peru, Flame Tokay, 
Muscat of Alexandria, Chasselas, &c. 

Figs, pomegranates, olives, lemons, limes and 
oranges have been grown, of excellent quality, 
and it is not unreasonable to expect large 
orchards of these at no very distant day. In. 
some sheltered places we have even fruited the- 
banana ; but this is a rare event. 

The apple is extensively grown in this entire 
section, and in great variety. The size attained'; 
by many varieties is larger, perhaps, than in any 
other part of the State ; but apples grown with 
us are somewhat lacking in that sprightly acid 
\ which characterizes the same varieties when 
grown in more mountainous regions. They are 
also lacking in keeping qualities. With few 
exceptions, the Winter apples of the East ripen- 
in the Fall or early Winter. The following 
: apples ifave succeeded best with us : Early 
i Harvest, Red Astracan, Summer Queen, Ameri- 
! can Summer Pearmain,Gravenstein, Fall Pippin, 
j Holland Pippin. Washington Strawberry, Maiden 
! Blush. Smith Cider, Yellow Belleflower, Rhode- 




Island Greening, Cayuga Redstreak, or Twenty 
Ounce ; Jonathan, Vandevere, Wagener, Canada 
Reinette, White Winter Pearmain, Nickajack, 
Ben Davis, Skinner's Seedling, Large Striped 
Pearmain, Yellow Newtown Pippin. The last 
is our best keeper, and most reliable market i 
apple. I 

Pears have been grown for nearly a century at j 
the old Spanish Missions, and both soil and cli- 1 
mate have proved congenial in the highest 
degree. Large quantities are grown for the home 
mark^^ts and also for export. Almost all the 
varieties known have been experimented with ; 
but the tendency among large growers is now to 
plant only a few kinds, selecting those best 
adapted to transportation to a distant market. 
The following have been most profitable : Bart- 1 
lett, Clapp's Favorite, Flemish Beauty, Seckel, | 
Beurre d'Anjou, Beurre Clarigeau, Easter ' 
Beurre, Winter Nelis. Only second in import- 
ance are the Yirgalieu, Madeleine, Bloodgood, 
Beurre Hardy, Yicar of Winkfield, Duchess 
(rAngouleme and Glout Morceau. 

The peach is grown largely in all this district 
south of San Leandro. This delicious fruit does 
not ripen so early in this region as in the warmer 
interior valleys ; hence the attention of orchard- 
ists is directed mainly to the medium and the 
late peaches, in which we excel. For the local 
demand, however, all varieties are grown. Our 
most popular kinds are: Alexander's Early, 
Briggs' May, Tillotson, Strawberry, Large Early 
York, Shinn's Rareripe, Crawford's Early, 
Crawford's Late, Orange Free, Morris White, 
President, Salway and Smock's Late. The Thur- 
I)er, Susquehanna, Foster, Silver Medal, Nanti- 
coke and many others are yet on trial. Early 
Beatrice is not a success. 

The Cherry, also, does admirably with us if it 
is trained low so that the branches protect the 
trunk. The leading varieties are : Knight's 
Early, Early Purple Guigne, Elton, Black Tar- 
tarian, Gov. Wood, Napoleon Bigarreau, May- | 
duke, English Morello. The cherry is prefei-red i 
on Mazzard stock, but bears well on the ! 

The Pkun, Prune and Apricot are staple crops, i 
entirely free from insect ravages, and peculiarly I 
adapted to our soil and climate. They market j 
well while fresh, and are dried with ease. Our i 
best plums are the Washington, Columbia, Peach ' 
Plum, Quackenboss, Duane's Purple, Coe's I 
(rolden Drop and Imperatrice. Of prunes, the ! 
Early Felenberg, German, Hungarian and Petite 

Prune d'Agen. The most popular apricots are 
the Early Golden, Ro3^al, Moorpark and Hem-- 

The almond and English walnut are grown in. 
every part of the valley, with promise of entire- 
success. Many orchai'ds of almonds have been 
planted, and some have paid largely. The 
almond does best in a place somewhat sheltered" 
from the north wind. A line of Eucalyptus 
globulus is usually sufficient protection. 

There are few difticulties in the way of the- 
fruit-grower of this' section. No destructive 
insects have troubled us, and we are near the- 
leading markets of the State. In dry seasons, 
the increased price of fruit compensates for the 
short crop. But in some respects the home 
market is overdone, and Ave must make an out- 
let by exporting more fruit, either fresh, canned 
or dried. Much interest has been shown in 
various methods of drying, but the present ten- 
dency is towards cheap family driers, which will 
utilize the waste in small orchards, and enable 
each orchardist to prepare his own fruit. 

The region whose leading varieties of fruit I 
have briefly described, constitutes one of the 
most desirable portions of California for the 
orchardist. The business of raising fruit is 
rapidly extending, and many farmers are aban- 
doning the growth of cereals and planting or- 
chards and are beautifying their places. The 
awakening of public interest on this topic has 
been wondei-ful, and it is hardly too much to say 
that probably in a very few years this entire 
valley will be occupied by orchards, vineyards, 
small fruits and market gardens. 



This fruit is found in Japan and China in the 
same varieties of soil and climate as the wild 
persimmon of our own country. It will proba- 
bly succeed as far North as Lat. 42°, and from 
that to the Gulf. 

Like other fruits, it differs widely in size,flavor 
and value, according to the soil, climate and 
culture. It is stated that there are a hundred 
varieties, of which but few are of value for 
general cultivation. Some are the size of a 
musket ball, and others have exceeded a pound 
in weight. Some also ripen on the tree like the 
apple, while others (and some of the choicest 
kinds) are subjected to a process of ripening to 
remove the astringency and develop the peculiar, 
rich and luscious tlavor. 




An exact description of all the varieties is yet 
to be prepared. Owing to the diversity of names 
and variations in the fruit, it is difficult to obtain 
a complete and reliable account of the various 

From careful observation and comparison of 
authorities I have selected the following as desir- 
able varieties for introduction here, and I give as 
far as possible a condensed account of each. 

Nihon is usually slightly oblong, is round in 
shape, color yellowish red, with black spots in 

Royal, similar in shape to the Taikoon,but 
more yellow in color, large size. Is said to be 
good for drying. 

Mikado, shaped like a tomato, medium size, 
bright yellow color. Called in Japan "Tarngaki" 
(from tarn a tub), as it is usually plucked and 
packed in casks to ripen. A very common and 
popular fruit in Yedo and vicinity. Not much 
used for drying. Some of the specimens are 
seedless, and especially when the trees are 


the surface and also in the flesh. It is not large, | Imperial or Yamato, this is shaped like an 
but very productive and early. The flesh is solid acorn or minnie ball. It is very large, reddish 
and it keeps well, ripening on the tree in Sep- color, with sometmies dark stripes on the surface, 
tember. It is much esteemed for its peculiarly i The flesh is soft when ripe and particularly sweet 
sweet flavor. Grown about Tokio. i and fine. When peeled and dried it resembles 

Daimio, oblong with rounded apex, color red | figs, being covered with sugar that exudes from 
with black or dark stripes about the eye, ! the fruit. It will ripen on the tree, but is 
medium size, flesh soft, ripens in October. Called 1 usually ripened in casks. Season, later part of 
" Yedo's best Persimmon." October to January. The most popular variety 

|fTaikoon,round, of a pale or greenish yellow : among the Japanese. From Mino in Central 
color, medium size, ripens on the tree in October. ', Japan. 
A great favorite in Western Japan. I Gogen, like the Imperial except in size, but it 




is said that the trees are more prolific. Ripens 
on the tree. Is used for drying. 

Kanosan, color yellowish red, oblong, good 
size, ripens off the tree. The apex is bent to one 

There is a variety called the " Mame Gaki " 
(or bean persimmon from its size), that is not 
good for eating, but the juicR of which is used for 
making paint. The wood is very beautiful, 
being mottled and black like ebony. It is prized 
very highly for cabinet ware. The wood of 
other varieties is not generally of as fiiie a 

There is a small seedless persimmon found in 
Southern Japan that is used chiefly for drying. 
It is probable that the trees sold in this country 
as " seedless " are either the same or else amis- 
take. No large and seedless variety, as has been 
represented, is tf^ be obtained. 



"We have used lime on our apple orchard for a 
number of years, and consider it beneficial in 
moderate quantities, say twenty bushels to the 
acre. We have an old orchard that has borne 
heavy crops for several years, that we have limed 
with good results. 


New English Gooseberries. —There are 
several new gooseberries being put on the market 
just now, " remarkably large, free from mildew," 
&c. We are glad to see experiments made in 
this direction, for it is not at all impossible that 
varieties of the English gooseberries may be 
produced that will be more successful in our 
climate than the English gooseberries of the 
past. It is well, however, to remember that these 
gooseberries belong to the English race, though 
they may have been raised from seed in this coun- 
try ; and the fact that they have remained a few 
years free from mildew in any one locality is no 
proof of then* general adaptation to our climate. 

Neglecting Orchard TREES.—The Country 
Gentleman tells of two neighboring orchards at 
South Haven, Michigan, one is "cultivated," 
and the owner raises fine fruit. The other allows 
his trees " to stand" in grass, and the trees are 
" mossy," " eaten by borers," have " yellow 
leaves," and " no fruit of any value." The only 
matter of surprise is that our cotempoi-ary 

should go to Michigan for its example, when 
New York State can show as many such cases 
as Michigan. We do not ])elieve Michigan one 
j whit behind New York or any other State in its 
; illustrations of neglected orchards ; on the con- 
I trary, as the writer of this has seen with his own 
i eyes, the fruit growers of Michigan are, as a 
i whole, among the most wide-awake in the Union. 
i We can assure our cotemporary that a neglected 
j orchard has no more chance in New York than 
' any other State. Only good culture can raise 
j apples or any othgr fruit anywhere. 

Grafting Rooted Eyes — Mr. G. W. Camp- 
! bell, of Delaware, Ohio, takes rooted eyes of 
i grapes for grafting. He says the process is much 
I more certain in this way. The benefits are a 
I very rapid growth from the union on a strong 
I rooted stock. 

Carter's Blue Apple. — Mr. G. W. Stoner, 
of Louisiana, says this Southern apple is much in 
the way of Ben Davis, but prettier, fine flavored, 
1 and keeps as long as Rome Beauty. 

I Apples for Missouri. — A correspondent, evi- 
i dently of great experience, from Caldwell county, 
: tells the Rural World: " If I were to plant out 
a new orchard of 100 trees, I would make it about 
as follows : 50 Ben Davis, 10 Lawver, 10 Wine- 
sap, 10 Jeneton, 3 Red June, 3 Early Harvest, 5 
Maiden Blush, 3 Smith's Cider, 3 Bellflower, 3 
i Tallman Sweet. For an orchard of 200 trees I 
I would add 75 Ben Davis, 10 Rome Beauty, 10 
Lawver, and 5 Red Astrachan to the above list. 
For an orchard of 1,000 trees, I would begin 
with 750 Ben Davis, and the balance Lawver«, 
Jenetons, Winesaps, etc." 

East India Millet. — Under the name of 
Penicillaria spicata, Mr. W. H. Carson, of New 
York, is introducing a new forage plant. It 
grows to eight or ten feet high before fall, the 
stems rarely reaching an inch in diameter, and 

i very leafy. Two quarts of seed, drilled, is enough 

I for an acre. All farm stock like it. 

! The Northern Spy Apple.— The Gardener'' s 
\ Chronicle figures the Northern Spy Apple, and 

says it is one of the best apples in England. 

It was first introduced to public notice by Ell- 

wanger & Barry, of New York. 

Blight-Proof Stocks. — In Australia they 
call the Aphis lanigera " American blight." 
They are using an old English apple, the Ma- 
jetin, for stocks, which they say is " blight- 
■ proof." 





Teosinte reaka ltjxuriax^. Mef^sip. Vil 
moriu, of Paris, give? the following account of a 
new grass, which may be worth looking after by 
our Southern agi'iculturists : "Much has been 
spoken lately in the agricultural and horticul- 
tural papers of this gigantic graminaea, botk as 
an ornamental as well as a forage plant. It is 
a native of Central America ; perennial in hot 
climates, it will not stand our Winters; resem- 
bles Indian Corn in aspect and vegetation, but 
produces a great number of shoots, growing 3 to 
4 yards high, thickly covered with leaves, and 
yielding such an abundance of forage, that one 
plant is estimated to be sufficient to feed a pair 
of cattle for twenty-four hours. In our northern 
countx-ies it is doubtful whether it will be availa- 
ble for forage, but it will certainly find its place 
in large gardens as a decorative plant, for sown 
in Spring in pots and planted in May in the 
open ground, it will produce a mass of shoots 
forming a large bunch of more than a yard in 
diameter by three yards in height." 


Cuttings in Arkansas. — Mrs. S. S. T., 
Alexander, Ark., writes: "Herein Arkansas 
almost every thing of the tree and shrub kind 
grows from cuttings put into the ground in Feb- 
ruary, but the inhabitants do not generally avail 
themselves of the fact, and indeed many are not 
aware of it. I know of whole orchards of ap- 
ples, pears, peaches, plums, &c., now in bearing 
which were started from cuttings a foot or 
eighteen inches long. We removed here a year 
since, and have found Arkansas a country of such 
wonderful capabilities as to constantly stimulate 
us to improve its peculiar advantages." 

Fall BLOOMiNa of Apple Trees. — J. P. 
asks : " I would like to be informed, if possi- 
ble, of the reason of and cure for two Maiden 
Blush apple trees belonging to a friend of mine, 
blooming for several years past in October and 
not in Spring. Situated at Red Bank, N. J., 
light, sandy soil, about seven miles from sea 

[Trees which usually bloom in Spring or 
Summer, bloom only in Autumn wlien the 
leaves have been destroyed or injured before the 
proper time for the fall of the leaf in Autumn. 

Sometimes it is by leaf-blight, sometimes by 
caterpillars, but in some way the leaves of your 
friend's trees have been injured towards the end 
of Summer, and in this direction you must look 
for the cause. — Ed. G. M.] 


Bailey writes : " I do not think that there is 
much difference in time of ripening of the 
Esopus and Scribner Spitzenburgs. This year 
we had very warm weather, ripening the fruit 
earlier than usual on the trees, and followed by 
very unusually warm weather after packing. 
All our apples are over-ripe for the season." 

Fruit-Citlture for Market. — J. C. W., 
Hudson River, New York, writes : " Will you 
please answer the following queries through 
your journal? We wish to plant 1000 standard 
and from 1000 to 3000 dwarf pear, to grow fruit 
for New York market. What sorts would you 
advise us to plant ? We wish also to plant five 
acres of grapes. Could we do better than plant 
the Concord, with a view to grafting to leading 
white or other sorts ? Further, what variety of 
crab-apple would you advise us to plant, with a 
view to selling the fruit in New York, and 
Geneva, N. Y. V Nurserymen advise us to plant 
Hyslop. What work can you recommend as the 
best on the cultivation and management of the 
standard and dwarf pear? also on the grape ? " 

[While visiting the fruit farm of Col. Edward 
Wilkins, of Maryland, last fall, Mr. W. told the 
writer that he had had so much profit from an 
orchard of dwarf pear trees, that he was about 
to set out — we believe — 50,000 more. These were 
of the Duchess d'Angouleme. Another of our 
large standard pear-growei's finds the Bartlett,for 
fall, and the Lawrence, for winter, the best stan- 
dard varieties. For market, however, one has 
to study what is his market, and what is the 
demand there. We have known some old people 
about Germantown make fabulous sums from 
old Catharine Pear Trees, by merely whipping 
off the fruits, and selling them immediately, on 
the market prices of Philadelphia. But this 
would be useless in a place where they could not 
be all patthered one day and sold the next. Con- 
cord W( ul 1 be the best variety in most localities 
not over-favorable for grape-culture ; but if you 
are on liijht, dry ground, as on the Hudson 
you probably are, the Salem, Brighton, Dela- 
ware, or others of the better class, ought to do 
well. All kinds do better grafted on Concord or 
Clinton Roots. Hyslop or Transcendent Crabs 
are very good market fruits, but many prefer 




the smaller, old-fashioned kinds. A week or two 
un watching the market in which you will prob- 
ably sell, is good practice for one who intends to 
set out an orchard for profit. 

It is unfortunately the case that those who 
have been the most successful in fruit-growing 
seldom write books. Some of the best — at least i 
the most taking — of the literature of fruit-grow- i 
jng in this country, has been the product of en- 
thusiastic, well-meaning men, who earnestly be- 
lieved in all they wrote, but whose orchards 
t(when they had any) afterwards proved disastrous 
failures. With Barry's Fruit Garden and Thomas' 
Fruit Culturist in hand, and then some good 
judgment in adapting their experience to your 
surroundings and circumstances, you will, how- 
ever, have as good a start as you will need on 
your road to successful fruit-culture. — Ed. G. M.] 

Pruning the Old Canes of Raspberries. 
— M., Newark, Ohio, writes: "There is a dis- 
pute among our fruit-growers as to the best time 
to prune out the Raspberry canes that have done 
l)earing. Some say as soon as you have picked 
the last fruit ; others, not till Winter or Spring. 
What is the practice in the East ? and which is 
.the best ?" 

[Theoretically, if the old branches are cut 
away, there will be more "air and light," and 
perhaps " food," for the rest; but in practice no 
«pecial benefit is found. Indeed, in some re- 
spect, injury seems to result. The winter is 
often very severe on the canes. The wind whis- 
.tles through and dries out the sap. To some 
•small degree the branches of the old canes help 
to break the force of the wind, and so far protect 
the young canes. We think, on the whole, there 
lis nothing gained either way. The practice here- 
abouts is to cut away after the fall of the leaf 
'Or towards Spring. — Ed. G. M.] 

Outside Grape Borders. — R. T. Littleton, 
N. H., asks : " Would you advise making a grape 
border outside for forcing, in a cold climate like 
Franconia, N. H. ? I see you do in Pennsylva- 
nia, in December number, page 367. I had 
thought the reverse the best in this cold climate." 

[Yes ; but cover the horder in winter with leaves 
or some other material. Frost will not injure 
the roots of a grape vine ; but then it does them 
no good. — Ed. G. M.] 

Linseed Oil for Pear Trees. — E. J. B., 
Philadelphia, writes: "Please to publish the 
following, in order to save others from the an- 
noj^ance to which I have been subject, and the 
destruction of fine orchards. We bought a farm, 
with fine Apple, Pear and Cherry trees, about 
twenty years old. They yielded quantities of 
fruit, but wormy. Seeing in your Gardener's 
Monthly, Vol. xix., No. 220, April 1877, page 
115, Query, Oil for Fru^t Trees, 'The writer of this 
washed some hundreds of trees with linseed oil 
a year ago ; it destroyed all insects, and the trees 
were all the season and still are models of health. 
It is far preferable to anything that we know 
of.— Ed.G.M.' 

"My trees, perfect models of health, are now 
all dying. The bark has split, and is now covered 
with a white fungus growth to a height of twenty 
feet, or as far as the oil went. When touched it 
falls off, and the wood beneath is dead. It looks 
as if I should lose thirty or forty well-grown, 
handsome trees. No money could repay the 
damage done in the loss of shade and comfort 
afforded. Thinking it would be impossible to have 
better authority, I had them carefully washed 
at the end of March or beginning of last April. 
Perhaps you may be able to suggest something 
that will save our orchard and our bitter disap- 
pointment in losing all our shade and fruit trees." 

[The trees referred to in the extract quoted are 
still " models of health," though now two sum- 
mers have elapsed. We feel quite safe in saying 
that jawre linseed oil will not only not injure, but 
be of great advantage. Those who have had 
losses must have used adulterated oils. We would 
advise them to get some more of the same sort, 
use a little to kill a branch of another tree, get 
the balance analyzed, and then sue the seller for 
damages. Any court would award it on such 
evidence. — Ed. G. M.l 





Some of the Southern species of oaks, among 
which are the two named above, creep up a con- 

siderable way towards a colder clime. In 
Wood's Botany the location of the Quercus 
Phellos, Willow Oak, is given as from N. J. to 
Fla., and Western States, and of the Q. falcata, 
Spanish Oak, as from Va. to Fla. 
I was pleased one day last fall, to find some 




fine specimens of the Phellos just outside of 
Philadelphia county, across the Darby Creek 
where the bx'idge takes one across to Delaware 
county. There are some five or six trees in a 
small clump of woods, the largest of them per- 
haps fifty feet high, and growing side by side 
with the Quercus palustris, which abounds in 
this neighborhood. I have been told of speci- 
mens of the (^uci'cus Phellos which formerly 
grew in Gray's woods, some four miles north of 
these of which I am writing grow. 

It would be interesting to know the furthest 
northern point that this beautiful Oak has been 
where found growing wild. 

In the same vicinity that I name are scattered 
specimens of the Quercus falcata, but this ex- 
tends further up towards Philadelphia city, and 
even above it, as a large tree grows in Lans- 
downe Ravine, quite near Horticultural Hall, 
Fairmount Park. Specimens can also be found 
in Mt. Moriah Cemetery and adjacent places. 
The deeply lobed leaves, so tomentous under- 
neath and so leathery to the touch, make it easily 
recognized from others. 

Country folks hereabouts call the Quercus coc- 
cinia the Spanish Oak, but our botanical works 
give this name to the Quercus falcata. 

I namental plantations for several months in the 
summer. Plant the seeds in October in a green- 
house, give the roots a large box, put out in June 

I in warm, dry soil, give water sufficient to keep a 
lively growth. Thus you can have a plant of 

j great beauty by October, ten to fifteen feet 
He also sent seed of twenty-one varieties of 

i Eucalyptus, a portion of which have been given 
to Mr. Miller for propagation, at Horticultural 

I Hall in the Park. 

: Our friends, in the Southern States especially,. 

; should take notice where they can secure the 

I books on the Eucalyptus and the seed. 




Mr. Elwood Cooper, brought up in Lancaster 
county. Pa., after making a fortune in the West 
India trade, went to Santa Barbara, California, 
and settled down to the cultivation of a large 
ranche— 4,000 Olive trees, 4,000 English Wal- 
nuts, 12,500 Almond trees, and 50,000 Eucalyptus 
trees constitute a portion of the orchards and 
forest he has set out. 

Appreciating the importance of growing large 
quantities of trees and the especial value of the 
Eucalyptus, he opened an intercourse with Baron 
Ferd. Yon Muller, Director Botanic Gardens of 
Melbourne, and received numerous pamphlets of 
the Baron's writing on Eucalyptus. These he 
has collected and edited, with matter of his writ- 
ing, making an important contribution to our 
works on forest culture. Close with as much of 
the circular as you choose He has sent a gift 
of a copy of his book to the Phila. Library, 
where it can be seen. 

In a letter to a gentleman of this city he says : 
"All of you can have the Blue Gum in your or- 

Yellow Pine.— It is well worth while askmg^ 
What is the Yellow Pine ? to remember that in 
the Pacific States Abies grandis is the Yellow 
Pine, It is also said that Thuja gigantea is; 
called the Oregon Red Cedar. The Libocedras 
decurrens is the Yellow Cedar of the Pacific 

The Spanish Chestnut. — This, though wild 
in many parts of Europe, is now supposed to- 
have been originally introduced by the Greeks^ 
from Asia. The American species is no doubt 
truly indigenous to the American continent. 

Willow Bark. — This is successfully used in 
Russia for tanning purposes. 

The Cinchona in Jamaica. — In the forestry 
of this island the Cinchona tree is a leading 
" staple." It is thought there are 80,000 trees^ 
of it. Somebody must use quinine. 

Rapidity of Timber Growth.— We have 
repeatedly given instances of the rapid growth 
of timber, as opposed to the popular impression,, 
and are glad to insert the following, which we 
find in a Western paper. We are particularly 
glad to republish it, as Mr. Schofield deserves 
great credit for what he has done to stimulate 
tinvber-planting in the West : 

" Mr. D. C. Scofield, of Elgin, 111., from trees 
planted since he was 50 years old, ha,s produced 
the timber to build himself a fine house. In this 
he has taken pride to finish it with elegant- 




Avainscoting, and finishing lumber from some 
twenty-five varieties of the most vakiable hard 
and soft wood grown by himself. It was not the 
actual necessity for timber that induced this, for 
the country about Elgin, on the Fox river, is 
well wooded and contains ample timber even 
for firing purposes. Mr. Scofield, many years 
ago, was thoroughly alive to the necessity of 
timber growing in the West, and he has shown 
that a man past middle age may rear noble trees, 
€ven of the slow growing sorts, while yet he 
remains a hale and hearty man." 

Eucalyptus Fire-Wood. — It has been 
thought that the Eucalyptus would be a great 
boon to California in the way of fire-wood, but 

Dr. Baer has recently addressed the California 
Academy of Sciences on this subject, and insists 
that the wood is almost incombustible. lie says 
it is impossible to fire a roof made of blue gum 
shingles, so that what may be lost in fire-wood 
may be a*gain in making it a substitute for slate. 
Willows for Railroad Ties. — Mr. Jesse 
W. FeP, of Bloomington, 111., has created some 
consternation in forestry quarters by asserting 
that the white willow makes durable timber for 
railroad ties. If this is borne out by good tests it 
would be an extremely valuable fact — so valu- 
able that it is well worth waiting for the actual 
figures before making up one's mind that it is 
no good. 

Natural History and Science. 




We read in the Bible of " a barren Fig tree ;" 
but of the many hundreds I have seen I know 
of only one instance, and that in my own 
orchard. I will record its strange freaks, so that 
if you or any of your readers have seen a simi- 
lar case, I may have the benefit of your sugges- 
tion as to the cause of barrenness and the 
remedy. The habit of the Fig under out-door 
<;ultivation in our latitude is briefly this : 

In the Spring, as the leaves unfold and the 
new wood forms, there is a fruit-bud in the axil 
of each leaf, which begins to develop and grow 
rapidly. This process continues until about 
mid-Summer or after, so that there is a succes- 
sion of fruit varying in age, and ripening in 
their order of growth. Towards Autumn, al- 
though the wood and leaves continue to grow 
vigorously until frost, no fruit-buds develop, but 
they remain dormant as buds. These dormant 
buds, on the approach of Spring, begin to swell 
and grow off rapidly, unless it has been previ- 
ously killed by an unusually severe Winter, and 
give us what is known as " first crop," ripening 
early in June. This generally is not as abun- 
dant as the later or main crop, but the fruit is 
larger. What is known, therefore, as "first 
crop " is the result of fruit-buds formed the 
Autumn before, and remaining dormant through 
the Winter. The second or main crop is from 
buds of the present growing season. 

j Now for the case of my barren Fig tree. In 
i the Autmn of 1873, when I took possession of my 
present residence in Aiken, I found this a well 
grown tree, some 10 or 12 feet high, with several 
j trunks or branches from 4 to 5 inches in diame- 
ter, quite large enough to have been in bearing 
for several years. It had been somewhat neg- 
lected, but I had it well manured and pruned. 
During the Summer of 1874 the shoots made vig- 
orous growth, but no fruit formed. I tried in 
various ways to force out the fruit-buds by 
pinching the terminal growth, and by the use of 
strong manures, but in vain. In the Spring of 
1875, the fruit-buds, which should have been 
pushed the previous Summer, developed finely, 
and were fully half-grown when they were killed 
by a late frost. During the Summer of 1875, 
although there was a healthy and vigorous 
growth of wood and leaves, no fruit formed. In 
the Spring of 1876 the same thing was repeated. 
At the approach of warm weather, the axil of 
every last year's leaf pushed out its fruit-bud, 
and there was promise of an abundant " first 
crop ;" but again a severe Spring frost, coming 
after an unusually mild Winter, killed not only 
the fruit, but injured the tree to some extent. 
Again no fruit was developed in the Summer of 

This is the first example of a barren Fig tree 
u'. e., barren of Summer fruit) I have met with. 
The proximate cause seems to be want of exci- 
tability, and consequent non-development of 
the fruit-buds during the growing season. What 
could have caused the change in the usual habits 
of the Fig, I am at a loss to conjecture. This 




is the Lemon Fig (as I ascertained by one or 
two fruits which partly escaped the effects of 
frost), tlie variety most commonly cultivated in 
Charleston, but which does not succeed here so 
well as the Celestial and Brown Turkey. These 
two last named I have found to be the best for 
our climate ; both hardy, good bearers, and 
quality of fruit excellent. The main crop of 
Celestial begins to ripen about 1st of July, and 
continues for a month. Brown Turkey ripens 
early in August, and continues into September. 
They both occasionally, when the Winters ai"e 
mild, bear a small number of "first crop " fruit. 
The Fig being a dioecious plant, we have, of 
course, only the female in cultivation, and the 
seeds are immature. The fleshy receptacle 
swells out and becomes a luscious fruit, but for 
want of proper fecundation the seeds are defec- 
tive. Do you know of any male Fig plant in 
this country ? It was said many years ago that 
there was one in New Orleans. If we could 
raise new seedlings, there might be good pros- 
pects of improving our stock, and introducing 
more hardy varieties. 



Old residents say that the rains commenced here 
nearly two "months earlier than usual. There 
were very few fine days in October, fewer still in 
November, and the steams were higher than had 
been known for years. December, however, has 
been very pleasant, especially the last week, 
which has been clear and frosty. Plowing and 
wheat-sowing have been going on for two months 
or more, and are still in progress. 

As might be expected in so moist a climate, 
ferns, mosses and lichens abound. In many 
places the trees for afoot or two from the ground 
are covered with flat, leathery lichens, in shape 
resembling the flat, branching antlers of some 
kinds of deer. Some of these are green, some 
brown, laced with silvery grey. I never saw 
such riches of moss. In low grounds every 
shady place has its carpet, every stone and 
stump and fallen tree its covering, every fallen 
twig or strand is taken possession of, and covered 
■with little green plumes overlapping each other 
with exquisite grace. Finest of all is a kind 
that seems partial to the ends of oak logs, which 
looks like long, graceful, interwoven leaves, fine 
and soft as velvet. The timber of this region is 
chiefly fir and oak, and the oaks are completely 
covered with a fine light-green pendant moss. 

I which looks at a distance like leaves in early 
j spring, and contrasts agreeably with the dark 

I One of the prettiest things at this season is an 
'• evergreen shrub known here as " Oregon Grape," 
' but which has leaves like a Holly, though I have 
i not seen flower or fruit. It has glossy dark- 
I green leaves with sharp spines, and is said to 
bear black, or dark purple berries. [Mahonia. 
aquifolia. — Ed.] The "Oregon curranf'^must be a 
; beautiful shrub. Usually, flowers, like prophets, , 
; are without honor in their own country ; but 
I specimens are found in nearly every yard and 
I garden, and every flower-lover is enthusiastic in 
' its praise. The leaf is similar to that of the 
I common garden currant and its habit of growth ^ 
! only it is very much larger, and in spring it is 
said to bear a great profusion of bright scarlet 
j flowers. [Ribes sanguinea. — Ed.] 
j Almost every clear day I go out to look at Mt. 
! Hood, only a few steps up a hill, and I see it 
I rising in calm majesty from the dark surrounding- 
ridges, glittering snowy white in the sun. From 
1 other hills, not far away, we can see four of these 
j snowy giants : Jefferson, Hood, Ranier, and St. 
Helen's. Somehow these bold isolated pealvS,. 
i standing in lonely grandeur, landmarks for 
hundreds of miles, seem even more inspiring 
than the long line of the Nevadas, seen from the 
California hills. No wonder that the dwellers 
among mountains love their " ain countree ;" 
no wonder that something of the calm steadfast- 
ness of the eternal hills abides in their souls. 



You tell your readers in your January number, 
what I suspect most of them were previously 
unaware of, that the action of the Eucalyptus is; 
not curative but preventative ; that is to say, the 
plant rapidly acts through its roots instead of its 
leaves, taking up with the former the moisture 
which, if left to be acted upon l)y the sun's heat,, 
would produce unwholesome vapors. These ever- 
thirsty roots create innumerable streams in tha 
soil, and so prevent stagnation and its unpleasant 

Can you tell me whether the sun-flower — 
the large-flowered one grown in gardens — acts in 
a similar manner ; as it also comes strongly rec- 
ommended as a " destroyer of fever in the air."' 
We are told that it was some years since grown 
around the grounds of a certain hospital at or near 
Washington, where ague had previously beeiii 




very prevalent. The result, we are further 
assured, was the complete elimination of ague 
from within the area named, a result which it is 
dithcult to understand as being produced cither 
by the absorption of the poison through the leaves 
or the extreme moisture by the plant's roots. 

The sun-tlower, though a rank grower, is a 
puny aliair as compared with the Eucalyptus, 
which must spread out its roots either horizon- 
tally or vertically to a great distance. If the sun- 
flower's action coincides with that of the Austra- 
lian plant, then one would suppose that it should 
be grown thickly like a grain crop, covering the 
entire ground. As the broken stalks of the sun- 
flower are an excellent substitute for the corn- 
cob as kindling, and as the seeds are greatly rel- 
ished by poultry, it would not be an altogether 
unprofitable work for those living in localities 
afflcted with the ague, to give the plant a thor- 
ough test as regards its sanitary value. 

Have any other plants been successfully tried 
for a like purpose in another climate, or could 
you name any which it would be worth while to 
try experiments with? 

[There are few trees better adapted to dry up 
marshy land than Willows and Poplars. The 
roots drink up enormously. It is the cheapest 
kind of underdraining. 

We have no doubt that any plant that will aid 
in ridding the soil of superabundant moisture, is 
so far a benefit to public health. — Ed.G.M.] 


Caknivoiious Plants.— Mr. Francis Darwin 
has proved very conclusively the truth ot his 
father. Charles Darwin's position, that the so- 
called carniverous plants do make use as food of 
the plants they catch. A large number of plants 
were fed on meat, and as many on what they 
could get from the earth as best they could, and 
the ditference in growth and final product were 
very much in favor of the meat-fed plants. 

Fungi and Disease.— Prof. Burrill, of the 
Industrial University of Illinois, and one of the 
most conscientious investigators of minute fungi, 
has the following attributed to him, going the 
"rounds" in the agricultural papers : "There 
is good evidence that the theory of the fungus 
origin of the fire-blight of the pear, and the 
common twig-blight of the apple, is well founded, 
but, th»ugh particular species, or what have been 
regarded as species, are known to accompany the 

disease, proof has not yet been obtained as to 
their causing the death of the limbs, nor a.s to 
the real action of any fungi upon these limbs. 
In the meantime, besides every attention to se- 
cure vigor and healthfulness of development 
with little pruning, carefully washing in winter 
time with a strong alkaline substance in solu- 
tion is recommended for trial, and as careful re- 
moval and burning of every dead limb or twig 
as soon as observed, winter or summer." If 
the origin of apple and pear blight is, " on good 
evidence," fungoid, and it thus becomes an ad- 
vantage to " burn every diseased twig," to keep 
the spores from settling on healthy wood, and 
spreading disease, what is meant by the state- 
ment that " proof has not yet been obtained as 
to their causing death V " What is the difference 
between " good evidence " and " proof? " Prof. 
Burrill has no doubt been incorrectly reported. 

LiBERiAN Coffee. — This new species of 
coffee which is attracting so much attention in 
Europe at the present time, was brought to the 
notice of the Kew Gardens, by the Philadelphia 
firm of Edward S. Morris & Co., who have been 
the pioneers in the Liberian trade. They have 
also a large trade in Palm Oil soap, which is 
made in the Liberian colony, from the Oil Palm, 
Elais guiniensis. It has been heretofore the 
practice to bring the oil to Europe or America 
for soap-making purposes. It is found that the 
fresh oil on the spot makes a better article. 

Dwarf June Berry. — The Iowa Horticul- 
tural Society warns people that agents are sell- 
ing "Dwarf June Berries" for real "Huckle- 
berries." What are Dwarf June Berries ? 

Submerged Roots in Winte:r. — A case is 
reported in the Journal of Forestry, where a 
Cupressus macrocorpa was submerged for two 
months in the winter without injury. This ac- 
cords with American experience. No tree 
suffers from submergence for months in winter, 
though a few days of submergence in the growing 
season is fatal. It seems also understood in France, 
where winter submergence is recommended for 
grape vines, to destroy the phylloxera. . 

What is a Fruit ? — At a recent meeting of 
the Montgomery Co. (Ohio) Horticultural Soci- 
ety, Professor Morgan gave a very interesting 
lecture on botany. At the conclusion of the 
lecture the following proceedings are reported : 

" Mrs. Powell asked the Professor where the 
drops of moisture came from which are found in 
the Crown Imperial. 




" Professor Morgan— They come from the sur- 
rounding tissue, undoubtedh'. They are merely 
a secretion of the plant, altogether analogous to 
the milk of the milk-weed and that class of 

" A lady member desired some light upon that 
class of plants termed the carniverous, and 
alluded to in the essay, to which the Professor 
replied by saying that the great Linnseus rejected 
the idea that there were any such plants in ex- 
istence. But the great naturalist was mistaken. 
Sucli plants do exist, and it has been clearly 
demonstrated that they feed upon and digest the 
soft parts of insects caught by them. The diges- 
tion is performed by a sort of gastric juice 
secreted by the plant. They are found about 
the bogs of the Carolinas and nowhere else in 
the world. 

" It was suggested to the Chair that if the 

sort rarely ever occur in other plants. The 
original tree is quite old, and is unfortunately in 
a dying condition. Grafts have, however, been 
made, so that this peculiar monstrosity will not 
be lost to science by the death of the original 
tree. It has been suggested that the fruit may 
also have an economic value, as, in an orchard 
away from other apple trees, blooming at the 
same time, the large, early fall cooking apples 
would probably be quite seedless." 

Jumping Beans of Mexico. — From the so- 
called "jumping beans" of Mexico whose mo- 
tions are caused by an insect within, Mr. 
Henry Edwards has succeeded in obtaining a 
beautiful moth of the Tortricidae family and 
probably a new species. The case is curious, as 
an instance of one of the lepidoptera piercing a 
seed capsule with its ovipositor, and laying an 
egg to produce a larva which will destroy the 

strawberry is not a fruit, as affirmed in the essay, j seed. This sort of performance is mostly con- 
that 'Othello's occupation is gone '-that he | fmed to coleopterous insects. The account of 
(Mr. O.) is no longer a fruit-grower, but a grower j this new moth was given before the San Fran- 
of something else, and the chief point of interest cisco Microscopical Society. 
is vvliat sort of a nondescript did he grow. | l.^j.^for Tropical PLANTS.-Professor 

Professor Morgan exnlamed very intelligently I g,^, ^^j^^s the idea that tropical plants need 
and satisfactorily to all present, the difference | ^ ^ ^ ,^,^^^^,^^, ^^ ^.^^^ .^ ^^^ ^^-^^^^^^ ^^ ,,, 
between a true ffuit and the strawberry, which | j.^^^^^^^ t^ ^^-^^^ l^j„^ ^^ ^^^^^t ^^,^^^^ 

IS no moie a fruit than the tip of an asnara<^us i i .i ^i x , i. p ^^ \ t. • *. • ^ 

, ^ , „ ,, * 1 ^ whether the actual amount of light m a tropical 

plant or celery stalk." ^ . ^ ^, x. . • 

' _, . , ,, . country IS anj'^ greater than the year s average in 

There is probably some misapprehenson of- temperate one. We have been surprised to 
Irofessor Morgan's position. The fleshy por- find the Banana and many tropical plants make 

tion of the "fruit" which we so relish in the 
strawberry is, of course, but the receptacle; but 
even in a technical sense it would hardly do to 
say that the receptacle was not part of the fruit, 
certainly much more so than the "tip of an 

Malformed Apple Blossoms.— A corres- 
pondent of the Valley Naturalist says: "We 
have recently received some monstrous apple- 
flowers collected by Prof. Keigh, of New York. 
There may be seen on turning down the five 
minute, pointed, sepal-like organs, into which 
the petals are transformed, the fifteen pistils en- 
closed. The outer ten extra pistils form a ten- 
celled, superior core, and the five regular pistils, 
within, extend down through them to the regu- 
lar five-celled ovary below. The number of 
petals is occasionally but four, and the pistils 
vary from twelve to fifteen. We see no other 
way of accounting for the ten extra pistils, 
except to consider them as transformed from 

green, healthy growth in warm rooms, where the 
light was comparatively limited. 

The Potato Beetle in Europe. — Some of 
the European entomologists are amusing them- 
selves with pelting Prof. Riley, l)ecause he cau- 
tioned them to look sharp after the potato beetle. 
This is what Dr. Candeze, of Liege, says at the 
Entomological Congress in Brussels, in October 
last. Speaking of Prof. Riley's paper, he says : 
" There is apparently no doubt there was an 
increase in the price of potatoes at St. Louis 
during 1873 ; but the author himself, in his pam- 
phlet, attributes it as much to suppression of 
culture as to the ravages of Doryphora — many 
farmers, he says, not daring to plant potatoes. 
Let us hope that St. Louis is the town in which 
Mr. Riley resides and publishes his articles. 

" Certainly the Minister for the Interior would 
be very much surprised if the publications of his 
department, by frightening the farmers without 
reason, produced the same result here next 

the twenty missing stamens ; this is however i season. 

contrary to analogy, as transformations of this " Another fault we find with this pamphlet is 




that of extolling, for the destruction of the Do- 
ryphora, an agent of which the handling is most 
dangerous. Every one knows the gi'ave acci- 
dents caused by Paris green to those who breathe 
the dust ; one is warned with just reason against 
its employment in industrial arts. Medical men 
have warmly discountenanced its usage in the 
■ornamentation of carpets and cloth. It is not 
then without surprise that we find it advised to 
powder the fields of potatoes with it broadcast, 
leaving its management in hundreds of inex- 
perienced hands. 

" It is a case in wliich the remedy is worse 
tlian the evil. Mr. Riley assures us as a fact 
that avsenite of copper decomposes, and is not 
noxious once that it is deposited on the earth. 
But before that ? He says that its judicious 
employment has no inconveniences. We are 
not of his opinion ; and can we reckon on the 
judicious prudence of a farmer's boy, to whom 
Avould be left, in most cases, the care of arseni- 
•cating the potato fields?" 

All this reads very funny to us over here, who 
appreciate fully the value of Professor Riley's 
labors. The logic of the critic is wonderful. It 
was not the Doryphora which made potatoes 
scarce in 1873, but the dread of the Doryphora by 
the planters ! In Dr. Candeze's eyes this is a 
great difference. 

The tirade against Paris green is as funny as 
tlie rest. There is little doubt but the watch set 
on the Dorypora through Prof. Riley's cautions 
will save them a year or two's crop at any rate, 
which ought to be worth some milllions of francs, 
and well worth the expense of the few thousand 
pamphlets distributed by European governments. 
But they will be very foolish if they conclude to 
accept Candeze's advice and throw over Riley's, 
and look on " the remedy (Paris green) as worse 
than the disease." Still it will be our gain if 
they do. If Dr. C. were a " bull" in the potato 
market he could not send .potatoes higher for our 
interest. Riley's advice is at least for their good 
and not ours. 


The Construction of a Tree. — S. says : 
" Contemplating once a redwood tree in Cali- 
fornia — three hundred feet high and perhaps 
forty-five feet in diameter — the question arose. 
Out of what was this stupendous mass of wood 
manufactured? It could not have been made 

out of the earth, for there was no hole in the 
ground out of which it had been sucked up. It 
would seem that the living force of the organism 
must have converted gases and water (itself 
another form of water) into the solid material 
before us. Of course we recognize a certain per- 
centage of mineral in the ashes of the wood, but 
that must be a very inconsiderable "pur cent, of 
the tree. May we hear from you on this subject? 
[Almost the whole of this huge mass is derived 
from the atmosphere, and is carbon and water. 
—Ed. G. M.] 

The Ironwood.— J. R. P., Frankfort, Ky., 
writes : " "Which is the Ironwood, the Ostrya 
Firg-im'cffl, or the Carpinus Americana 7 I have 
always regarded the latter as the Ironwood — in 
this State — but I see that on this there is a disa- 
greement among botanists. In Torrey's Flora 
of New York he calls the former (the Hop Horn- 
beam) the Ironwood. 

[In these parts the Ostrya is known as Iron- 
wood. The Carpinus is " Hornbeam " in the 
books, but among the woodmen it is generally 
Blue or Water Beech. — Ed. G. M.] 

The Cinnamon Vine. — B. M., St. Louis, Mo., 
says: 'I have not hitherto appreciated what 
you say about the disadvantages of common 
names ; but I now do, at least to the extent of 
three dollars ! Years ago the indomitable Billy 
Prince introduced to us the Dioscorea Batatas, 
or Chinese Yam, and, with my love of novelties, 
I invested a dollar therein. It was fair enough 
for a novelty, but the odor of roses which scented 
the advertisements soon disappeared, and I let 
my Chinese Yam go. But— tell it not in Aska- 
lon ! — I saw a nice little advertisement of a 
"Cinnamon Vine," and invested three dollars 
in that same, only to find on receipt that it was 
my old friend, the Dioscorea, come back again ! 
I wish I had them three dollars back ; I am op- 
posed to common names. Now walk straight 
in, Mr. Editor, and break it all up. Must I lose 
them three dollars ? What is to be done ? I 
am sick of common names that cost me three 

[Old things come out as new under botanical 
names sometimes, as well as under common 
ones. Of course it is easier to get into such 
trouble by common names than by the scientific 
ones, yet the "common" name is hardly re- 
sponsible here. It may be by design that the 
name of " Chinese Yam " has been changed, so 
as to make a good " strike ;" or it may have been 




started as " Cinnamon Vine " in ignorance that 
it was the old Chinese Yam. No intelligent nm-- 
seryman or florist would sell a root under such a 
name without stating that it was " Dioscorea 
Batatas," because such " deceptions " or " mis- 
takes " always react unfavorably on his perman- 
ent business. We fear "them three dollars"! 
are -'gone" beyond recovery ; and the only good ] 

advice we can give is that when you see things 
advertised that are not in the best nursery cat- 
alogues, whose issuers are always in the advance, 
wait till you do ; but if you are very anxious to> 
be in first on a new thing which even the best 
men in the trade have not — well, then you must 
pay for that glorious privilege, and even three 
dollars is a cheap sum to pay for it. — Ed.] 

Literature, Travels i Personal Notes. 




Last winter, in conversation with a leading 
nurseryman, I ventured the opinion that not 
more than one-third of the Pear trees theretofore 
sold as Souvenir du Congres had been genuine. 
He agreed with me. Another very active and 
intelligent nurseryman standing by insisted that 
the proportion of genuine treee of that variety 
had not exceeded one-sixth of the whole number 
sold as such. Be this as it may, it is bad 
enough ; but unfortunately what is true of the 
variety mentioned is true of every other new 
variety, for which its actual merits or the efforts 
of its introducers have created a demand in 
excess of their ability to supply at very moderate 
prices. Unscrupulous nurserymen and dealers 
are not found willing to accept the profits of 
selling Apple trees at twenty-five cents each, or 
Pear trees at fifty cents each, when by simply 
changhig labels the same trees may be readily 
passed oft' at from one to three dollars each, and 
so long as no easily enforced penalties are at- 
tached to the commission of frauds of this char- 
acter, they will continue to be committed. 

To such an extent do they now prevail that 
the agents of nurserymen and dealers, be their 
principals ever so honorable, are insulted in or re- 
fused access to thousands of houses all over the 
country, simply because the inmates or their 
friends have been so repeatedly humbugged that 
they persuade themselves that honesty hasentire- 
ly departed from the nursery trade. I need scarce- ' 
ly say that this state of things v-^orks a great out- 
rage upon the public, and that it puts a tax upon 
the business of each of the many honest members 
of the trade. ' 

Frauds in merchandise are by no means con- j 
fined to the horticultural trade, but they are so ' 

much more serious in their results when com- 
mitted in this trade than m any other that they 
may well be the subject of special legislation. 
If a man buys a box of ground spice for twenty- 
five cents, and it proves to be largely burned 
rye, his loss by reason of this cannot exceed 
twenty-five cents, and he readily accustoms him- 
self to such losses ; but if he buys by name an 
Apple tree for the same amount, thinking it is a 
fine sort and just what he wants when it is some 
worthless thing entirely unadapted to his wants, 
at the end of five years or more the fraud is 
developed. His loss then includes the original 
consideration and interest, the use of the ground,, 
the care, he has given the tree, and the pros- 
pective profit or enjoyment which the genuine 
tree would have afforded. After repeatedly 
sufliering such losses, it can hardly be a matter of 
surprise that men are discouraged and ready to- 
denounce the entire trade. 

In determining what may be done to suppress 
this evil, it ])ecomes important to consider what 
is the existhig law upon the subject, and whj 
does it fail to reach the desired end. 

While it may startle some to learn it, tliere 
can be no doubt that it is now, and for many 
years has been, the well-settled law of England 
and the United States that a seedsman who sells 
seeds under a name which it is not in fact, 
thereby becomes answerable to the purchaser to 
the full extent of the damage sustained, includ- 
ing the profits of the crop which might have been' 
realized, estimating it at an average crop from 
genuine seed in that year, had the seed been 
genuine. (Randall vs. Roper, 90, Eng. Com. Law, 
82 •, Page vs. Parry, 8 ; Carr & Payne, 709 ; Pas- 
senger vs. Thorburn, 34, N. Y, 034; Van Wyck 
vs. Allen, N. Y., 1877. 

By parity of reason it will be seen that a nur- 
seryman or dealer who sells a tree under a name 
which it is not in fact, does so at his peril, and is 
answerable for the difference in value to the 




planter of the tree supplied, and the tree which 
purported to be supplied, at the period of prowth 
when it becomes practicable to discover th^ 
fraud or mistake with certainty. Of course this 
difference ma}^ many times exceed the original 
consideration for the sale of the tree. 

It is needless to say that if even all of those 
who are the victims of honest mistai<es should 
enforce their claims under this law, the nursery 
and seed trades would soon be annihilated. But 
there is no danger of a general enforcement of 
this law; and it is a knowledge of this fact which 
prompts men to sell spurious trees, plants and 
seeds with impunity. 

The laws must assume that nurserymen and 
other merchants supply just what they agree to 
supply, and hence it throws upon their victims 
the burden of proving the contrary. With most 
varieties the question of identity cannot be deter- 
mined with certainty until the trees have fruited. 
This may involve waiting five years or more, and 
even then it may require the evidence of experts 
or experienced horticulturists. The production 
of this class of evidence is necessarily expensive, 
and unless the amount in controversy is large, 
the victims cannot afford to attempt the enforce- 
ment of their rights. Beyond all this is the fact 
that nursery stock is and must continue to be 
mostly sold through canvassers. Many of these 
canvassers are irresponsible. They are in the 
business to-day and out of it to-morrow, or they 
or their principals must be sought, and claims 
enforced against them at great distances — often 
in other States. 

It may be said that the evil can be arrested by 
making it a penal or criminal offense to falsely 
label any tree or plant, but then we would have 
to encounter the same presumption of hniocence. 
We would require the same class of expert 
proof. We would be obliged to wait for evidence 
of the alleged fraud to develop ; oftentimes until 
all other offenses committed at the same time, 
save murder, would have outlawed. We would 
have to seek the offender where he might 
happen to be, and the fraud in each individual 
case would require to be tried separately. Expe- 
rience in other things shows that the wheels of 
the law would require to be set in operation by 
the victims. In most cases this would involve 
an outlay which the damages sustained would 
not warrant them in. making, and for no part of 
this outlay could they lawfully re-imburse them- 
selves Hence, except in aggravated cases, the 
law would remain as dead a letter as the present 
law is. 

The question now arises, Can nothing be done 
to lessen this great evil? I think there can be, 
and it was its supposed capability of doing thi& 
that first directed my attention to a horticultural! 
copyright law. As any discussion of this feature 
of the subject was omitted in the order of publi- 
cation intended, I will in another communica- 
tion endeavor to show how a copyright law 
would act on frauds, and why such a law may be 
expected to materially lessen the commission of 
such frauds. 


European Notes, by the Editok.— No. 7. — 
I fancy the young men who learn gardening in 
these days, can scarcely take the same delight in 
their profession as did the young men forty or 
fifty years ago ; or perhaps it may be that the 
older ones of to-day do not know what the youn- 
ger ones are doing. At any rate, at the time of 
which I am now thinking it was not the fashion 
for young gardeners to think their school educa- 
tion finished as soon as the school-room ceased 
to enclose them. When passing through the 
Midland counties of England, I had a vision of 
one who once in a while dropped in on me, of a 
long winter evening, in the warm greenhouse 
" stoke hole," and who, by the light of a piece 
of wax candle stuck in the mouth of a porter 
bottle, helped to conjugate Latin verbs together. 
My young friend was now in charge of Newstead 
Abbey, and one of the best-known and respected 
among the intelligent class of British gardeners. 
Besides the weight of this early attraction, I had 
never seen these beautiful grounds, so much of 
which is familiar to every one who has read any- 
thing of the history of Lord Byron. I switched 
off, therefore, at Nottingham, and, armed with a 
card of admission from Mrs. Amelia Jane Webb, 
who with Captain Webb delights in nothing so 
much as sharing with others the treasures of 
histoi'y and art that abound in the Abbey, I took 
a "fly" for the long ride into the country, in 
spite of the assurance that we would save much 
time by rail. The road took us round a ceme- 
tery in which most of the dead were in natural 
caves in the rock. The entrances to some of 
these caves presented a sight I had often read of 
but never seen, and I think it one of the most beau- 
tiful sights I ever saw in nature — the iridescent 
moss. As we looked in the entrances to some of 
these hollows, at some little distances, the sides 
would glisten with red and green and gold, which 
would all disappear as you reached the spot, and 




leave nothing but the appearance of green paint- 
like slime, but which, under a lens, could be seen 
as a minute moss. Columns of red and white 
-sandstone here and there supported the roofs, 
and made beautiful cathedral-like resemblances, 
in keeping with the graves. The grounds are 
wisely kept as nature washed them out for us, 
and the chief floral adornments are the yellow 
bedstraw,the furze, and the broom ; and in spite 
of the beauty of many an artifical cemetery, 
there did seem to me a singular appropriateness 
m the return of " dust to dust, and ashes to 
ashes," in a place so fresh from the hand of 
nature as this. 

We pass on through Sherwood Forest, made 
memorable by Sir Walter Scott, and the many 
stories of Kobin Hood and his men ; but little is 
left to suggest the tales of the olden time but 
tavern signs, and the names of old ruins or vil- 
lages, as we pass through. The " Forest" must 
have disappeared long ago, and the places where 
the good old monks 

" Sang and laughed, 
Au(i the rich wine quiff'd, 
Til) they shool< the olden walls,'' 

are gradually disappearing too, in spite of the 
traditional regard for old ruins in England. But 
we found the old abbey still there. This is built 
on this ancient royal forest land. King Henry 
had slain the Archbishop a Becket of Canter- 
bury, and, as was the custom at that time, had 
to bring forth fruits worthy of repentance before 
his sins could be forgiven, so he built this glor- 
rious pile and presented it to the church, in 
whose possession it remained until King Henry 
yill.'s time. 

I was fortunatf^ in finding my friend, Mr. John 
Lawrence, at home. The gardens are kept up 
very much as the old monks left it, and it was 
particularly interesting to notice in their work 
thus fortunately preserved for us, what good 
gardeners thej were. The huge terraces must 
have involved an immense amount of manual 
labor, which, if really performed by the novices, 
shows that they did not altogether despise hard 
work in their efl'orts for a better life. We are 
told by history that it is to the labor and skill of 
the old monks that we owe many of our enjoy- 
able fruits and vegetables. The long, straight 
garden wall border, in which tliey made their 
experiments, now so many hundreds of years 
ago, possessed a great charm for me. They were 
also adepts in fish culture. They managed al- 
ways to keep a good supply of the best in the 
■" slew pond," and this so artistically arranged by 

their great skill in combining the beautiful with 
the useful, that I have rarely seen a sheet of 
water that seemed to make everything about it 
so beautiful. They, however, unlike so many 
wealthy people of our own time, knew the ad- 
vantages of good advice, and in the planning of 
their grounds had the assistance of the celebrated 
Le Notre, who designed the Palace Grounds of 
Versailles, and assisted the great Cardinal 
Woolsey in his gardens at Hampton Court. These 
sheets of water are rectangular, but the branches 
of neighboring trees, stooping down to kiss the 
placid waters, have extended some more and 
some less, until the margins are bayed out and 
inletted in a manner sufficient to satisfy the 
devotee of the most irregular in garden art. A 
gi-eat amount of this overhanging foliage was of 
the yew, some of the trees known to be at least 
700 years old. These dark green masses gave a 
peculiar tint to the waters that can scarcely be 
described. Water birds, with their young, were 
darting in and out und^r the living shade, seem- 
ingly so little in fear of interruption, that at first 
I thought them tame. The breast-works of 
some of the dams were so completely overgrown 
with cotoneaster, creeping on through the cen- 
turies, that the only knowledge of their existence 
came from the foaming water as it dashed through 
the scarlet-berried branches. The landscape 
gardener may make a place which will be pro- 
nounced perfect, but the charm which age brings 
j is Nature's own. 

The fern garden seems especially a favorite 
with English ladies. It affords scope for a nice 
combination of earth and rock with the shade and 
romance of the wild woods; and here, also, I 
found one beautifully designed. There are piles 
of rocks and caves, and everywhere, inside and 
out, the filmy foliage of some beautiful fern. 
Even history is made to lend a hand in the intel- 
lectual feast in many memorials; and among 
them all I could not help feeling a more than 
usual interest in a small carved seyenite column 
from Thebes, perhaps among the oldest pieces of 
workmanship of civilized man. We may have 
advanced some in the arts as we have had oppor- 
tunities afforded us, but here is the evidence that 
when the human race was being rocked in its 
cradle, it knew how to do first-class work. 

The grounds are full of interesting memorials. 
Livingston was a guest of Captain Webb, and 
here wrote the last work he ever published. As 
is the prevalent custom in this country, his pres- 
ence here is marked by a tree planted by his 




own hand — in this case our famous mammoth of 
California. The memorial tree of all others j 
that interests the traveler is one planted by 
Byron before he left the home of his fathers, j 
This is an English oak, and is now feet 9 i 
inches round, not a slow growth, as so many | 
think is the fate of all oaks, by any means. If 
the relic-hunters had their way, there would not 
be much growth left to tell of its increase, but 
not a twig is allowed to be broken off. It so 
happened that a violent rain storm the night 
before had placed a very little twig with a 
couple of leaves or so on the mossy lawn be- 
low, and for all my smiles at those who " gath- 
ered old sticks," and pulled mortar out of old 
walls, my companion felt highly privileged 
when she was permitted to bring the treasure 
away to her home in the New World. The cel- 
ebrated twin tree on which Byron cut the initials 
of himself and sister, is not an oak as stated in 
some of the biographies of the poet, but a beech, j 
Augusta's branch has been long since dead, but i 
the piece is preserved by Captain Webb, as is 
everything belonging to the poet or any one 
connected with him. A straight walk through 
a dense wood, the walk made more dark than it 
would be by beins; taken through a matted mass 
of Rhododendrons, is a particularly gloomy 
place, but was a favorite haunt of the young 
poet. The gloomy effect is heightened by full 
size statues (of course, copied from life) of 
satyrs and imps of various kinds, and it is 
said to be next to impossible to get any of the 
neighboring peasantry to go through the place, 
and among whom it is reverently known as the 
Devil's woods. 

A cold English rain, thin shoes, an umbrella, 
and rheumatic limbs to carry it along, are not 
very favorable to garden sight seeing, so 
we had to make up the rest of our day in ex- 
ploring the rich treasures of the old Abbey 
itself, and admiring the magnificent scenery as 
displayed from every window, as we wandered 
from room to room, and all made by the art of 
the landscape gardener, a wonderful tribute from 
the hand of man ! 

But I must drop for the present the large 
country seats, and say a word or two of the 
beautiful public gardens with which England 
abounds, and which, indeed, constitutes some 
of her proud institutions. We leave New- 
stead Abbey, and, retaking our " fly," conclude 
to go around Robin Hood's barn, instead of 
along the side of which we came ; for we sup- 

pose it is pretty well known that this celebrated 
structure comprised the many thousand acres of" 
Sherwood forest, and that the King's deer were 
always stored therein for Robin, whenever veni- 
son was scarce. We reached Nottingham at night 
fall after a charming drive, and put up at "The 
George," uncomfortabl}- crowded by Americans, 
chiefly drawn there through that city being the 
center of the lace trade. The good lady — most 
of the English hotels seem kept by ladies — by 
hook and by crook, managed to make up a suite 
of rooms for us, ami we were made quite 
comfortable. Staying over Sunday in this town, 
it was interesting to notice that no one, not even 
the poorest, seemed dressed without a rose in his^ 
button-hole or her bosom. My readers will take 
notice that I say a rose, and not a rose-bud ; but 
I will not risk their good opinion of me by giv- 
ing the circumference of the roses in inches. 
The fact, however, will give a good idea of the 
climates of the two countries. Under such cir- 
cumstances with us, the rose would be a with- 
ered corpse of a flower in ten minutes. It M^as a 
pleasant sight to see the town and its people on 
this fine summer's day. Almost everywhere 
that I have been, in the Old World, on Sundaj^ 
or in week days, I see in ever}^ town some signs 
of wretchedness, together with evidences of cul- 
ture and wealth. I suppose Nottingham must, 
have its poor quarter as the rest, but if so, I 
could not find it. Neat lace curtains in every- 
window ; some love for art in humblest homes ; 
neatness of dress and appearance in the poorest, 
and flowers in yards and windows everywhere.. 
My chief visit to Nottingham was to see its pub- 
lic gardens of which I had read in my Ameri- 
can home, and I thought no wonder that such a. 
town had a garden of so much reputation, when 
I saw and talked with people that lived therein, 
for, as I have before noted in these recollections, 
the measure of an Englishman's refinement can 
always be taken from his garden. I fancy, how- 
ever, it will be best to defer an account of these 
public grounds till the next number, when I 
may perhaps work up those of several of the 
English and Erench cities into one chapter. 

The Gardener's Monthly and no Gar- 
den.— S. J. B., of Biddle University, Charlotte, 
N. C, writes: "If it should be any encourage- 
ment to the publisher and the editor, I might 
say that I appreciate The Monthly so highly ,^ 
that I have taken it the past two years merely 
for the general information contained in it, al- 
though I had no ground to cultivate ; but here- 




after I shall make use of Mr. Meehan's experi- 
ence to my own profit, I trust. Paradoxically, 
one need iiot ' vegetate ' with The Monthly 
on his table." 

Melbourne Botanic Garden. — Baron 
Yon MuUer, to whom Ave owe the introduction 
•at the Centennial of the majestic Australian 
tree ferns, receives much praise from the Mel- 
hourne Argus, for what was accomplished when 
he was at the head of the Botanic Garden there. 
Andrew Murray. — All who are interested 
in the coniferous trees of the Pacific coast, will 
he familiar with the name of this gentleman, 
whose decease the English papers have just an- 
nounced. He was among the earliest of the 
(describers of the coniferous trees of the Pacific 
coast, and we owe much of our knowledge of 
them to his labors. American botanists might 
diff"er with him as to matters in relation to these 
plants, but he never allowed diff'erences of this 
character to interfere with the most cordial per- 
■sonal relations, and in this exlnbited the highest 
type of scientific character. The services which 
he had rendered to American Botany obtained 
for him an election to corresponding member- 
ship in the Academy of Natural Sciences, an 
honor we know he highly appreciated, as, in a 
letter to the writer but a few months before his 
death, he expressed his determination to visit 
the institution should he ever return to America, 
" though he would have to go a hundred miles 
out of his way to do it." He took a great deal 
of interest in the probable introduction of the 
Colorado Beetle into England, knowing from 
actual experience on this continent how destruc- 
tive is its character; and much of the activity in 
England in devising schemes to save the Eng- 
lish crops from destruction, is due to him. 

Transactions of the jSTebraska State 
Horticultural Society. — Krom D. H. Whee- 
ler, Secretary, Plattsmouth, Neb. We always 
value these as keeping us posted on the suc- 
cessful progress of horticulture in a State 
where so much has to be learned from actual 

Proceedings of the Worcester County 
Horticultural Society, Mass., for 1878.— 
Erom E. W. Lincoln, Secretary. These are 
always among the most valuable. Horticultural 
Proceedings we receive. In the present, are 
essays on" the Apple, by 0. B. Hadvven ; the 
Pear, by James Draper; the Strawberry, by W. 
H. Earle ; Garden Vegetables, by Sylvanus 
Sears ; and the annual reports of the Librarian 
and Secretary. In our last year's notice of the 
Proceedings, we called attention to the refiec- 
tions made by the Secretary on the Pomological 
judsxes at the Centennial. He thought they 
might be honest, but were incapable. What 
we said about that is quoted in this volume, and 
Avhich the Secretary thinks "concedes every- 
thing essential." Dissatisfaction with judges 
appeal's, however, to be chronic with the Worces- 
ter County Society. The Secretary says of their 
own judges, "• A miracle would be needed to 
provide you with committees, whose tireless 
services and adequate knowledge should be at 

your beck and call, frequently till midnight, 
without even the poor retainer of rations or the 
prospect of the most meagre pay. Nevertheless 
dissatisfaction exists." The (Jentennial chickens 
have evidently gone home to roost. 

The London Florist and Pomologist, 
which, under Mr. Thomas Moore's management, 
has so long had a successful career, and which 
gives suchadmirable colored plates of fruits and 
flowers, enters on a new series, with a much larger 
page than before. This will admit of plates of 
larger things than heretofore — a Californian' 
pear, for instance. 

Yick's Illustrated Catalogue.— It is im- 
possible to estimate the good which the modern 
catalogue does in spreading substantial informa- 
tion. In this before us a species of every genus 
is given in illustration, so that people at a glance 
can have an idea of what the whole genus is like. 
Some of these catalogues which people get for 
nothing are often worth more, in a botanical 
point of view, than old-fashioned treatises that 
cost a great deal of money to procure. Of course 
they are not always up to the latest botanical 
I'ules, as, for instance, Bartonia as here given, 
the botanist would call Mentzelia ; but for use- 
ful pioneer work they cannot be excelled. 

Vegetable Plants— How to Grow Them. 
—By Isaac Tillinghast, Eactoryville, Pa. Pub- 
lished by the author. This is a neatly bound little 
book of about 100 pages, which expresses its full 
measure of usefulness in its full title. We have 
seen few works of its class likely to be more 
useful to those it is intended to serve. 

Correspondence Botanique. — By Edward 
Morren Liege, Belgium. This, which is a list of 
botanists, botanic gardens and nurseries through- 
out the world, has been found so useful that the 
fifth edition is here called for. 

Mound Making Ants of the Allegha- 
NiEs. — By Rev. Henry C. McCook, Philadel- 
phia. Published by John A. Black, 1334 Chest- 
nut St., Philadelphia. Price 75 cents. 

"Goto the ant thou sluggard; consider her 
ways and be wise," was a vei\y good admonition 
in its time, but it was good for others as well as 
the sluggard. Indeed it is doubtful whether the 
wise man who recommended this remedy for 
laziness knew a hundredth part about the ant 
that he might have known had he lived in these 
days, and had Dr. McCook for a teacher. It has 
the merit of not being "spun out" in the text, 
and it is fully illustrated by plates taken from 
photographs. We have given the title in full, 
as the' many free lectures on ants and spiders 
which Dr. McCook has given the public, deserves 
all the encouragement those who love intelli- 
gence can.give. An interesting fact developed by 
Dr. McCook that we knew not of before, is that 
the "carpenter ant" does not confine itself to 
dead wood in its house-building operations, but 
takes to living trees ; and there are many cases 
in which borers or some other " worms " have 
the odium of injuring trees which really should 
be laid at the door of these industrious but often 
annoving little creatures. 




Horticultural Societies. 




The fourth annual meetiuij of this society was 
held at Humboldt, on the 9'th and 10th of Jan., 
1878. The attendance was good, and the speci- 
mens of fruits and flowers upon the tables cred- 
itable. Mr. James Truitt, of Quincy. Ky., sent 
about ninety varieties of apples to compare with 
those of Kansas. Owing to early gathering and 
long transit, they did not compare favorably ; 
but'Mr. Truitt certainly deserves the thanks of 
the people here for his interest shown. 

An appropriate address of welcome was de- 
livered by Hon. John R. Goodin, and responded 
to by D. B. Skeeles in behalf of the society. 

Tlie society proposes to hold a fruit show next 
fall, in connection with one of the agriculural 
fairs, within the district. 

The otficers elect are H. E. Yan Deman, of 
Geneva, President ; D. B.vSkeeles, of Galesburgh, 
Vice-President ; G. W. Ashby, of Chanute, Sec- 
retary ; C. C. Kelsey, of Humboldt, Treasurer; 
C. H!' Graham, of Le Roy, J. B. Torbert and S. 
B. Roth, of Chanute, Trustees. The next annual 
meeting of the society will be held on the first 
Wednesday and Thursday of December, 1878, at 
such place as the board of directors may direct. 
Any person who wishes to avail himself of the 
advantages r.f a copy of the proceedings of the 
society, which is published with those of the 
State Horticultural Society, can do so by sending 
his name and fifty cents, as an annual member- 
ship fee, to the secretary. 



(Continued from page 64). 

The foreign market for peaches will be vei-y 
great if prices can be made moderate, and when 
our refrigerating ships shall be perfected, Eng- 
land can take "much of the surplus of our im- 
mense crops of this fruit. The same is true of 
pears, but all sales depend on the condition of 
the fruit. 

Formerly a large crop was not a blessing, 
owing to limitation of the market and the ex- 
pense of gathering the fruit, and it has been 
estimated that a loss of several millions of dol- 
lars has been sometimes sustained in an abun- 
dant year by the waste of fruit. .The whole 
crop may now be saved and utilized by the new 
methods which are being constantly invented 
for curing and distributing this surplus. In fruit 
districts large amounts of capital are invested 
in establishments for the drying and canninij of 
fruits, which promise to put the surplus of abun- 
dant seasons in condition for preservation till 
wanted for consumption or exportation. Some 
of these are yet to be tested, but no doubt exists 
that we shall eventually thus utilize our fruits, 

and make them not only profitable, but a source 
of increa^ing revenue to our country. 

With reference to the demand for dried fruits 
the consumption is rapidly increasing, and if 
dried peaches can be furnished at as low prices 
as apples, the demand, it is thought, will be 
very great. Of dried fruits there were exported 
for the year ending June 30, 1877, 14,318,052 
pounds. Of preserved and canned fruits, espe- 
cially peaches, there have been exported 762,- 
344 dollars' worth in the year ending June 30, 
1877. The trade fol- these is well established 
and the demand is constantly increasin<;. Al- 
though the exportation of fruit has beerT going 
on quietly for a long time, it was not large till 
the year ISOS ; but since that time the trade has 
been rapidly developed. These exports have 
varied much in yearly amounts, occasioned by 
scarce or abundant seasons. Ip 1861 the amount 
was only *269,000. In 1871 it was 3^509,000, 
while for the year ending June 30, 1877, it 
amounted to S2,937,025, as kindly furnished me 
by Dr. Young, chief of the Bureau of Statistics 
— showing an increase of more than five-fold for 
the, last five years. 


Whatever the fruit cultivators of ancient 
times may have known in regard to the cross- 
impregnation of varieties for their improvement, 
we have no evidence, if we may judge by the 
quality of the fruits which have come'dovvn to 
us, that they were acquainted with this process. 
The first experiment to ascertain the possibility 
uf producing varieties by cross-fertilization ap- 
pears to have been made in Germany, by Koel- 
reuter, who published reports of hii proceedings 
in the acts of the Petersburg Academy, about 
one hundred years ago. Knight, Herbert and 
the Lindleys commenced the work some fifty or 
sixty years since, but it had scarcely been Rec- 
ognized by Duhamel, Noisette, or "Poiteau, in 
their writings, and Yan Mons absolutely dis- 
couraged it. Poiteau remarked that all of the 
ameliorated and superior fruits had their origin 
in woods and hedges, where superior fruits were 
rare and unknown. Nor was it more than 
alluded to by Coxe, Lowell, Manning, Thomas, 
Prince and such leaders in our own land. Coxe, 
who may be styled the first American pomolo- 
gist, alluded to it as "a curious discovery which 
had been made by Mr. Knight in the natural 
history of fruit trees, by which one variety might 
be impregnated with the farina of another, so'me 
of the products partaking of the properties of 
the male, others of the female parent." 

But with the publication of Hovey's Magazine 
of Horticulture, Downing's Fruit and "Fruit 
Trees, and the Horticulturist, the experiments 
in hybridization became well known in our 
country. This process, applied to the grape, 
said Andrew Jackson Downing, thirty years ago, 
will give hundreds of hardykinds," adapted to 
every orchard and garden in the Union. How 
fully this prediction has been fulfilled we have 
seen in the new varieties of hybrid grapes pro- 
duced by Allen, Rogers, Moore, Campbell,"and 




especially by Mr. Ricketts, whose wonderful 
success in cross-fertilization has been achieved 
on the very soil where this prophecy was made. 
With this knowledge commenced a new era in 
the production of improved varieties of fruits, 
flowers and vegetables ; an era which has so en- 
larged the sphere of experiments in fertilization 
that its originators will ever be gratefully re- 
membered as benefactors to mankind, who have 
illustrated one of those wonderful and beautiful 
laws by which the whole universe is regulated, 
and by which improvement in fruits, vegetables, 
and animal life may be advanced until absolute 
perfection is attained. 


The progress in correct nomenclature has been 
most gratifying, and the labors of the American 
Pomological Society, in connection with its 
great exhibitions of fruits, have had a promi- 
nent leading influence in this result. 

Mr. John J. Thomas says: "I well remember 
the continued disappointments I met with when 
a young man in procuring trees that were true 
to the name — in some fruits accuracy seemed to 
be decidedly the exception. In corresponding 
on this subject some forty years ago with the 
elder Robert Manning, he^ remarked that the 
account of my disappointment was a history of 
his own." At the present time, all respectable 
nurseries are accurate throughout, and pur- 
chasers scarcely find an error." One of the ob- 
jects of the founders of this Society was to 
correct the evils which formerly existed ; to aid 
in determining the synonyms by which the same 
fruit was known, and thus to establish the cor- 
rect names and impart a knowledge of the value 
of varieties. 

Much has been accomplished by the Society's 
Catalogue, whereby a permaijent Xoundation has 
been laid, which will eventually result in the 
complete abrogation of such names as are used 
without fitness, propriety or even truth. We 
especially desire, for the honor of our science, 
that all inelegant or absurd names, such as Cat- 
head, Hogpen, Sheepnose, Stump the World, 
and the like, should no longer be applied to 
fruits. In this respect we have made great ad- 
vances by the suppression of vulgar names and 
the adoption of such as have reference to the 
origin, introduction, or the characteristics of our 
fruits. How absui'di to give to a luscious fi-uit, 
radiant with the loveliest tints of nature, and 
fragrant with the spices of Arabia— a fruit pos- 
sessing almost supernal grace — such vulgar 
names. How inappropriate the dedication of 
fruits to warriors and statesmen, to generals 
and colonels, presidents and senators, or the 
long roll of titled nobility, which have no 
natural connection, or analogy, with fruits. 
How much more appropriate, for instance, ai'e 
the names of the Baldwin and Porter apple, the 
Bartlett and the Sheldon pear, the Early Craw- 
ford and Late Admirable peach, the Concord 
grape, and Wilson's Albany strawberry. Some 
of these have come down to us from former gen- 
erations, and will survive as long as the varieties 
which bear them exist, without the use of three 

hundred and seventy names for twenty-nin& 
kinds of apples, as stated in Dr. Howsley's Re-^ 
port of 1875. Our catalogue already abounds 
with the names of fruits of American origin, 
and they will ere long surpass in number those- 
of foreign climes. Let us, then, labor to estab- 
lish a pure, proper and practical nomenclature 
of fruits for our land, which shall be correct, 
definite, intelligible and which shall endure foi- 
all time. 

Among the most important acts of this Soci- 
ety was the rejection, as unworthy of cultivation, 
(in 1858, nineteen years since,) of 625 varieties 
of fruits, then known in the catalogues of nur- 
serymen, but since suppressed. Not less impor- 
tant was the adoption of its own Catalogue of 
varieties adapted to the various sections of our 
widely extended country. This took place in 
1862, but it was reserved for the year 1871 to in- 
augurate the present grand quarto form arranged 
in Northern, Southern and Central Divisions,, 
similar in climate and other characters attecting 
fruit culture, with columns for fifty States and' 
Territories, thus presenting to the world the 
most perfect and practical catalogue of fruits; 
extant. Thus shall we improve our pomology 
and thus hand down inestimable blessings "to 
the world; not for ourselves only, but to glad- 
den the sight, gratify the taste, and cheer the 
hearts of the advancing millions that are to oc- 
cupy this blessed land. And what mox-e endur- 
ing memorial of valuable service to posterity 
can we render than to transmit a fine fruit 
which shall survive when we have passed from 
our labors on earth. The pleasures of sight en- 
hance the pleasure of taste, and thus generation 
after generation will rejoice in the beauty as 
well as the richness of fruits which have adorned 
our orchards and cheered our social meal, and 
which, with each successive year, cause us tO' 
realize the thought of the poet, that 

" A thing of beauty is a joy forever." 

Ohio Horticultukal Society. — Mr. Bate- 
ham informs us that the annual meeting of the 
State Horticultural Society, at Ravenna the past 
week, was counted the best of the thirty years'" 
history of the society. 

The officers of the Horticultural Society elected 
for the ensuing year are mostly the same as last 
year : Dr. J. A. Warder, President, North Bend ; 
N. Ohmer, Vice President, Dayton ; M. B. Bate- 
ham, Secretary, Painesville ; "G. W. Campbell, 
Treasurer, Delaware-, Leo Weltz, Wilmington ; 
J. J. Harrison, Painesville ; G. M. High, Middle 
Bass; Frank Pentland, Lockland; and C. C. 
Miller, Norwich, Committee. 

Montgomery (Ohio) Horticultural So- 
ciety. — This well known and useful society 
seems in a prosperous condition. Its last report 
tells us that " during no preceding year have our 
meetings been so uniformly well attended as 
during the one just closing, and at no former 
time have our discussions been participated in 
by a larger number of people, imparting thereby 
unusualinterest to our proceedings, both verbal] 
and printed." 







Vol. XX. 

APRIL. 1878. 

Number 232. 

Flower Garden and Pleasure Ground. 


April is a good planting month. There is not 
much art in planting trees, though it is often 
much of a mystery. ^NTot to let the roots dry for 
an instant between taking up and planting, 
everybody knows, but everybody don't do it; in 
fact, everybody deceives himself. We have 
seen this distingnished individual leave the tops 
of trees exposed to the sun, with a mat or straw 
thrown over the roots, and think all v/as right — 
or heel in for a day or two, by just throwing a 
little dirt over the roots. This is a little good; 
but everybody's fault is, that although this may 
be ten minutes of good, he expects to get ten 
hours, or even ten day's value out of it, and thus 
lie suffers more than if he had done nothing, 
because he forgets that the branches evaporate 
moisture from the roots in a dry wind, and the 
juices go from the roots through the branches, 
very nearly as well as directly to the air from 
the roots themselves. So with heeling in. The 
soil is thrown in lightly, or at most just "kicked" 
down. " It is only temporary," verj^ few of the 
roots come in contact with the soil. They can 
draw in no moisture to supply the waste of evapo- 
ration , and thus they stay day after day--every- 
body satisfied because he sees the roots covered, 
really w^orse than if they had been exposed. 
We have no doubt that more trees are lost from 
imperfect heeling in than from any other cause 
whatever. Of course, if the tops be covered as 
well as the roots, there is less Avaste of moisture 
and more chance of success. 

This hint will help us in planting. That is, 
pound the soil in well about the tibres, so that 
they may be in close contact with it ; or they 
cannot draw in the necessary moisture. Should 
i the trees appear a little dry, or the roots badly 
■ mutilated in digging, or have few fibres, cut 
away the plant according to the severity of the 
injury. It is scarcely necessary to repeat that 
for this evaporation reason, it is best to plant 
trees when the ground is rather di-y, because it 
then powders best in pounding, and gets well in 
about the roots. Wet ground j^Zas/ers, and leaves 
lai-ge hollows in w^hich roots cannot work. 

Where evergreens can be benefited by prun- 
ing, April is a very good month to attempt it. 
j If a tree is thin in foliage at the base, the top of 
the tree, leader and all, must be cut away. It 
j makes no difference what the kind is, all will 
I make new leaders after being cut back, if pro- 
: perly attended to. We make this remark be- 
' cause there is a prevalent idea that Pines will 
j not stand this cutting. Of course the trimming 
1 should be done in a conical manner, so as to 
' conform to the conical style of the evergreen 
i tree. Sometimes an evergreen, especially a 
Pine, Avill rather turn up some of the ends of its 
I side branches than push out another leader ; 
when this is the case, cut these aw'ay, and a real 
leader will form the second year. 

Evergreen hedges should be trimmed now, 
cutting them conically, so as to give light to the 
lowermost branches. 

There is so much to be done in April, that 
the briefest hints must suffice. First, of course, 
we must prepare the ground for planting. Soil 




loosened two feet deep dries out less in Summer 
than soil one foot deep. Rich soil grows a tree 
larger in one year than a poor soil will in three. 
Under-drained soil is cooler in Summer than soil 
not under-drained. The feeding roots of trees 
come near the surface ; therefore, plant no deeper 
than necessary to keep the tree in the soil. If 
there be danger of its blowing over, stake it, but 
don't plant deep. One stake set at an angle is 
as good as two set perpendicular. Straw or mat 
set round the tree keeps the bark from rubbing. 
Large stones placed around a transplanted tree 
are often better than a stake. They keep the 
soil moist, admit the air, and encourage surface 
roots. Shorten the shoots at transplanting. 
This induces growth, and growth produces roots ; 
and with new roots your tree is safe for another 
season. Unpruned trees produce leaves, but 
little growth, and less new roots. 

Unless inside of a round ring, or circular walk, 
don't plant trees or shrubs in formal clumps. 
They are abominations in the ej^es of persons of 
taste. Meaningless irregularities form the oppo- 
site extreme. Remember, " art is nature better 




In Germany the arrangement of bedding 
plants is ver}' neat. At the numerous villas in 
the vicinity of Hamburg there are some very 
good ribbon and carpet beds to be seen, the 
style being light, and not so sharp, geometri- 
cally, as that of the English. In the gardens at 
Paris are some splendid ones, especially in tfie 
Jardin de Luxembourg, Jardin des Plantes, 
Jardiu des Tuileries, Pare de Monceaux, Souare 
des Buttes Chaumont, and Champs Elysees,etc. 
In France there is in some places an excava- 
tion dug out, on which bottom the so-called 
carpet beds are arranged, in order to obtain a 
view of them from above, while in the parks of 
London the beds are often raised a few inches, 
in order to make them show distinct above the 
grass lawn, and both methods look well. 

In designing, there is hardly any limit for 
variation, but it must always be kept in view to 
join one sort to another of greatest difference in 
color, the principles being about the same as in 
bouquet making. I beg leave to give a few 
illustrations, with description of arrangement, 
leaving it to your individual consideration. 

The beds to lay tlu-ee to five feet from the 

walks, should be quite flat, with sharp sloping 
edges or sides, on which should be planted 
Echeverias, Semijervivums, Sedums, etc. After 
the planting of the two first mentioned, a coat of 
clay and soil made up into a thick mortar to be 
given around the plants, to prevent the soil from 
being carried away from the roots, or the break- 
ing of the edge, by the rain, or 
watering, will be found very 

Fig. VII. — 1, Alternanthera 
amabile latifolia; 2, Alternan- 
thera versicolor; 3, Pyrethrum 
parthenifolium aureum ; 4, Al- 
ternanthera amcena; 5 (the 
sides), Sempervivum calcara- 

Fig. VIII. — Ten feet in di- 
ameter, is an exception, in- 
tended to have an even slope 
from the center, Avhich is sup- 
posed to lay one foot above 
the lawn. The center, 1, is 
Coleus Emperor Napoleon ; 2, 
Santolina incana; 3, P3Teth- 
rum parthenifolium ; 4, Alter- 
nanthera versicolor; 5,Eche- 
veria secunda glauca; 6, Alter- 
nantheraparonychioides; 7 and 
-^^g"- "^^ 8, Mesembryanthemum cordi- 

folium variegatum; 9,Sempervivum Californicum- 
Fig. IX. — Twenty-four feet long by eight wide. 

Fig. 8. 

1, Agave Americana folia, variegatum (single 
specimens in the center of all the cii'cles) ; 2, 
Echeveria macrophylla ; 3, Pachyphytum brac- 
teosum; 4, Sempervivum ciliare ; 5, Sedum 

*(The outer circle or border will always represent the sides.) 
The circles, in the center, a specimen of Sedum ele^ans pic" 
tum ; around them Alternanthera magnifica, to Pyrethrum. 
Alternanthera versicolor, and Sedum acre. 




glaucum; 6, S. acre elegans ; 7, S. spectabile Alternantliera am<ena, also bordered by Pyre- 
roseum ; 8, Leucophyton Brownii ; 9, Pyretli- thrum ; and 6, Sempervivum montanum. 
rum partheuifolium aureum ; 10, Alternanthera j 1, are small specimens of Agave Americana 
paronychioides ; 11, Leucophyton Brownii; 12. j variegata ; '2, Echeveria sanguinea glauca; 3, 


Achillea umbellata; 13,Hutcliinsia alpina : 14, 
Mesembryanthemum cordifolium variegatuni ; 
the dots that will be noticed on the same border 
are single specimens of Eclieveria metallica, 
and Sempervivum Donckelferi, or anything 
similar will do ; 15, Alternanthera amoena ; and 
16, Echeveria secunda. 

EiG. X. — Supposed to be ten feet in diameter. 
1, Yucca filamentosa fol. var. Around the spe- 

Hutchinsia Alpina; 4, Mesembryanthemum 
Fig. XI. — Twenty-four feet long by eight wide, 
cordifolium vai-iegatum ; 5, Alternanthera versi- 
color; 6, Leucophyton Brownii; 7,Pyrethrum; 

I 8, Ajuga reptans rubra ; 9, Veronica Candida ; 

! 10, Alternanthera paronychioides ; Echeveria 

I pumila. 

! Fig. xii.— Of ten feet diameter. 1, a speci- 

I men of Yucca filamentosa; 2, Pyrethrum; 3, 

Fig. 10. I 

cimen to cover tlie ground, Sedum acre, then i Oxalii 
a circle of Aloes, and another of Pyrethrum ; 2, nifica 
Alternanthera paronychioides, bordered by 
Pyrethrum; 3, Leucophyton Brownii; 4, Alter- 
nanthera versicolor, bordered by Pyrethrum ; 5, Sempervivum Californicum 

Fig. 12. 

tropi^oloides ; 4, Alternanthera mag- 

5, Alternanthera spectabile ; 6, Sedum 

acre; 7, Lobelia Crystal Palace; 8, Cuphea 

platycentra ; 9, Cerastium tomentosum ; and 10, 




NOTES FOR 1877. 


Perhaps the most useful contribution to the 
public that a horticulturist can make is to give 
the results of his year's work. 1877 has been so 
fruitful that it has given us an opportunity to 
test thoroughly and favorably many kinds of 
fruits and flowers. 

1. In answer to your question concerning the 
apple blight. It has reached as far north as 
northern New York. It is occasionally the 
cause of death to trees, especially those culti- 
vated in rich soil much manured. Apples grown 
in sod seldom sufter badly. There is, however, 
a difterence in varieties. The Pound Sour and 
Crab apples with me were considerably defaced, 
and the crops damaged. 

2. The theory is again confirmed by the expe- 
rience of the year that pear blight is at least 
most successfully pi-evented by culture in sod ; 
hj feeding with salt and ashes aud keeping the 
trees well mulched, perhaps with sawdust or 
ashes is best. Any exposure of the soil to sun 
and weather has a disastrous eftect. 

3. The grape crop has been admirable, ripen- 
ing tolerably in spite of too frequent wet days 
throughout October. I am inclined to think 
more and more highly of the Goethe, if grown on 
open trellis, in a warm exposure. Of the lona, 
well ripened, I would raise my figures constantly. 
Both are withal excellent-keeping grapes. I 
have lonas, now the 10th of December, in as 
good condition as my Isabellas. The Diana 
keeps best of all ; but is so very tough and 
skinny that even those who like its peculiar 
flavor cannot enjoy it. But we must have it. 
The simplest and best method of preserving 
grapes for Winter is after all to spread them 
thinly on oil-cloth floors in cool dry rooms ; or 
on shelves similarly covered. 

4. Among small fruits I have given up the en- 
deavor to raise cultivated blackberries without 
cultivation. ISo matter what may be said by a 
few who have raised an occasional crop in grass, 
we must take the Kittatinny in hand and rule it. 
Mine are wired to stakes and well sheared in. 
The easiest method is to clip the arms with an 
ordinary sickle. 

5. In managing extensive hedges I have found 
this same instrument of great service. For 
Buckthorn I generally use shears ; but for 
Arbor Yitie I have rarely use for anything except 
a moderately sharp sickle. Give generally an 
upward stroke, and walk backward. You can 

I trim in one hour in this way as much as you 
could with shears in half a day, and do it quite 
as well. Of course this will not apply to hedges 
not already well formed. By the way, most 
evergreen hedges that we see are seriously in- 
jured by making the sides too erect, and flatten- 
ing the tops. It is impossible to keep for a long- 
time a handsome hedge of Arbor Vitse or Hem- 
lock without the base is nearly double the thick- 
ness or depth of the top, and the top cut in an 
arched form like nature. 

6. It is exceedingly necessary to eliminate' 
only tolerable small fruits from the catalogues 
as Avell as from our gardens. Por instance, the 
Turner Raspberry, a w^orthless humbug, to one 
who can have the Philadelphia. You can saj'^ 
no better of most of the new strawberries. The 
older nurserymen can do us good service by 
classifying established fruits. The Monthly 
has done much good by its conservation concern- 
ing novelties. 

7. In landscape gardening plant for all seasons. 
There are some things which make no note of 
themselves until late Autumn. Others like the 
purple berberry, and some of the dogwoods, are 
valueless except in very early Spring. 



One of the false impressions that have long- 
prevailed with much force and endurance, is the 
alleged necessitj'' of preserving the top shoots of 
evergreens. Birds are looked upon with appre- 
hension and disgust as they press destructive feet 
on this valuable growth. Stakes are even used 
to support such important elements of health 
and symmetry ; and the purchaser who seeks 
choice specimens, carefully avoids all evergreens 
that have lost their leaders, almost superstitiously 
regarding it as impossible that the lost, in this 
case, can ever return. 

What are the real facts of the case as indicated 
by intelligent experience? Simply that the de- 
struction of the leading shoot is often an actual 
benefit to the tree when its aspiring habits become 
too strong, and that, so far from birds fatally 
injuring the symmetry of trees by breakinglthe 
topmost shoots, cases happen, frequently, where 
the preservation of symmetry has been largely 
due to the action of their little feet. 

As long as the leader grows in due proportion 
to the rest of the tree, its presence is most neces- 
sary : but, unfortunately, this upward tendency, 




•vvhen excessive, seems to draw away the sap j are not universally known ; hence the idea of 
from properly doing its work in the tree's lower 1 inviting the attention of your readers to this 
portions, or, in other words, destroys the equilib- special mode of propagation, 
rium. Diminished growths then appear at the i The management is extremely simple : a deep, 
base, exhibiting irregular, open spaces in the j rich loam hi an open situation, but not exposed 
foliage w^hich in that part should be most dense. ; to rough, high winds, and to select such varieties 
The growth, forced aloft, becomes concentrated as are known to do well as ordinary standards, 
farther and farther up the tree, until all symme- \ and are on their own roots. I find the following 
try is destroyed, and we behold a monstrosity, ; very satisfactory : Madam Margotten, Madam 
where we had gloried only a few years before in Bosanquet, Lamarque, La Pactole, Hermosa, 
perfect proportion and grace. Silver Firs are j Devoniensis, Duchess de Brabant, Arch Duchesse 
especially liable to this tendency, and conse- 1 Isabella, Beauty t)f Greenmount, Agrippina, 
quently are apt to possess their highest beauty | Gen. Jacqueminot, Jean Goujon, La Reine, 
at a comparatively early age. j John Hopper, and Washington ; all of which I 

An efficient remedy may be applied to all ever- 1 received with a hundred more from the nurseries 
greens by pruning such shoots during youth, 1 of the " Dingee & Conard Rose Co.," who, it is 
until a satisfactory base is acquired, when a very | well known, send out specially fine plants ; not 
occasional removal of the offending member, one of mine at least, ever wilted, 
will readily prevent deformity. The fear which j Do not attempt to grow worked roses in this 
f^ometimes exists that the amputated leader will way, for the suckers from the old parent will 

choke them. A bed for this purpose may be 
started in March or October ; but whether in 
Spring or Autumn, pack the surface of the bed 

never return, is perfectly groundless; although, 

when the operation is performed on a plant of 

considerable age, reappearance may be delayed 

for several years. This delay will" however, be j immediately after planting, and each spring 

found rather a benefit than otherwise, as in the after pruning and clearing, tramp the soil down 

meantime, the proper furnishing of the tree will 1 firmly. This holds 

rood I find with all rose 

be established before any strength of the sap is 
drawn off" to assist the upward growth of the 

The lesson taught, of course, is that the equi- 


If you use small plants, do not prune the first 
year, but peg down all new shoots; for this pur- 
pose I use strong hair-pins. If, however, they 
librium of the various parts of the tree should be ' are vigorous, cut down six or eight inches from 
always maintained by pruning any shoots that each shoot ; what we want here is a vigorous 
evince rampant tendencies. Systematic manage- i growth, so as to have abundance of fiowering 
ment will thus preclude the necessity of all severe i shoots the next year. Keep watered the first sea- 
pruning in the sense of amputation. | son and cut off" the ends of all flowering branches , 
The simple processes hereby pointed out are and the hips as soon as done flowering, and then 
doubtless familiar to most experts ; but it has I soak the bed with manure water, repeating this 
been our wish to secure from all who possess ! every third day for a month, which will soon 
evergreens, a greater attention to such operations, j start the plants into a new growth. 
It is simple pruning with thumb and finger, or | These plants will become well established in a 
knife, and not shearing into formal shapes. Only year, and will grow on vigorously all the season, 
experience can afford an adequate conception of I sending up strong young shoots about three feet 

the quality of growth thus retained. 



The rose is such a universal favorite, that one 
need scarcely apologize for making any sugges- 
tions that might appear likely to aid those who 
(like myself) must have them blooming 1)oth 
winter and summer. So much satisfaction have 
I had in grovping certain varieties pegged to the 
ground, and so seldom have I seen this plan fol- 
lowed, that I besrin to think its beaut v and value 

in height, which, with the ever-blooming class, 
will be a mass of flowers each month. Peg 
down the young shoots over vacant spots of 
ground, and if too many are made, cut away the 
weakest of them, and keep those pegged down 
about eight inches apart. 

As a greater quantity of blooms are obtained* 
from young than from old wood, it will be seen 
that each year the wood of the preceding season 
is to be cut out. Before covering for the winter 
remove the pegs, so as to allow it to rise up a 
little from the ground and cut away the old 




wood, then cover with sods and a layer of 
manure. Early in March cut back all the shoots. 
The strong ones to two feet, the weakest to a 
foot or sixteen inches, fork in the manure cover- 
ing and tramp down well; we are then ready for 
the season , and right royally will the queen of 
flowers show forth her beauty. 

An English work names the following roses 
for this purpose : William Griffiths, William 
Jessee, Chas. Lafebvre,Annie Alexieff, Senateur 
Vaisse, Alfred Colcomb, Baronne Prevost, Gen. 
Washington, Gen. Jacqueminot, Jean Goujon, 
La Reine and John Hopper. I believe that some 
prefer roses on Manetti stock for pegging down, 
but I like them on their own roots. Hazel-rods 
cut into lengths of three and four inches make 
excellent forks for pegging. 

A rose mount is beautiful covered in this way, 
and where this is large various combinations of 
scarlet Geraniums and Delphiniums (the latter 
pegged down). Cloth of Gold and Blue King 
Lobelia will form a lovely edge to circles of 
bloom ; but to begin to enumerate the charming 
effects of combination in this regard is to occupy- 
so many columns of the Gakdener's Monthly 
that I should be voted a bore. 

I had intended when I commenced to speak of 
a Rose Temple, Rose Wilderness, and several 
other pretty rose arrangements, to which I am 
partial, but the pegged-down bed has led me 

There is a point, however, and upon which I 
would like to say a word. There are many 
ladies who do not possess the advantage of a 
heated conservatory, but depend upon bay win- 
dows or small plant-rooms, for their winter 
treasures; the temperature of these frequently 
grow so low during the night that their jjlants 
are found entirely frozen. Now if these persons 
were to use one of the small kerosene stoves 
during intensely cold weather, merely lighting it 
at bed-time, they would find it to answer every 
purpose, and they are both economical and con- 
venient. During one of our most severe winters 
I kept a large bay window (stocked with delicate 
ferns, &c.) quite safe by merely tilling a huge 
wash-kettle with boiling water and placing it 
beneath the window box, which was perforated 
with auger-holes in the bottom. This window 
was on the north side of the house, with a west- 
ern, northern and eastern exposure, and with 
only single sash. Again, I kept large plant- 
stands last winter by merely placing iron kettles 
of hot ashes beneath them. One frequently has 

more plants than the conservatory will contain 
or enjoys them in the windows ; in such cases, 
the means just described prove valuable. The 
plants kept warm with hot ashes, were never 
troubled with vermin. 


Winter Carpet Bedding.— The Belgian 
Horticultural Review tells us that by a judicious 
selection of low hardy evergreens, carpet beds 
are had at Vallbon in the Winter time. It 
gives the following list of the plants employed : 

Euonymus pungens, Santolina chamsecyparis. 
Thymus citriodorus aureus, Sempervivum tecto- 
rum, Aubrietia deltoidea variegata, Ajuga rep- 
tans folius pur., Saxifraga denticulata, Semper- 
vivum Calif ornicum, Sempervivum soboliferum, 
Sempervivum Funki, Sempervivum Montanum, 
Sempervivum triste, Antennaria tomentosa, 
Bellis perennis aucubiefolia rubra, Pyrethrum 
aureum, Aubrietia deltoidea. Another bed is 
made of evergreen herbaceous plants as follows : 
Cerastium Biebersteini, Sempervivum tectorum, 
Sempervivum soboliferum, Sempervivum Cali- 
fornicum, Lamium aureum maculatum, Ajuga 
reptans fol. purp., Arenaria ceespitosa, Bellis 
perennis aucuboefolia, Sedum dasyphyllum, Au- 
brietia deltoidea. 

Winter Heliotrope. — This is the common 
name of the Coltsfoot, which it appears is now 
grown for winter flowers in England. 

Red Beet for Decorative Purposes. — In 
some situations and arrangements it has been 
used with good effect as a bedding plant, and it 
is not less effective when vised for the purpose I 
am about to mention. As a receptacle for bulbs, 
such as Hyacinths, &c., it is what we might 
term a living basket, which forms a very curious 
and interesting object to hang in the conserva- 
tory or plant house during the Spring months. 
This being the usual time at which preparations 
are being made for the bulb season, the hint 
may induce some to try the experiment ; not 
that I mean to say it is anything novel, but if 
successful it caimot fail to please. Select a few 
well-matured moderate-sized Beet-roots, being- 
careful not to injure the crowns ; cut a few 
inches from the bottom end, leaving say, a little 
more than one-half; then hollow this bottom 
end out, leaving just room enough for a little 
compost or silver sand, and one bulb of a Hya- 
cinth ; but do not scoop out more than is need- 




ful, that as much nourishment as possible may 
be left for the crown. To prevent the bulb fall- 
ing out, place a little green moss close around 
it, and fasten the whole with some small wire, 
A handle to this Beet-basket, by which to sus- 
pend it, can easily be formed by twining a piece 
of galvanized wire, fastening the ends in the 
opposite sides of the Beet. This will also an- 
swer as a support for the flower-spike. It will 
require to be kept constantly moist to induce 
the Beet-root to send leaves freely from the 
crown, which faces downwards. The result of 
this is that the foliage twines gracefully round 
the sides in an upright direction, shrouding 
evei-ything from view, the dark leaves being in- 
termixed with the inflorescence of the Hyacinth, 
which by that time will be in its perfection. 

The effect is exceedingly pretty. — C. J. White, 
The Gardens, Ferniehurst. 


Yakibties of Primula. — The Japan Prim- 
rose, Primula japonica, introduced some years 
ago by Mr. Wm. Bull through Mr. Fortune, has 
hitherto resisted all attempts to break it up into 
varieties. Now a rosy crimson is figured in the 
Belgian Horticultural Review. Two pretty 
varieties, one a mottled, of Primula cortusoides, 
are also figured. 

Venus Looking Glass. — This, Campanula 
speculum of old authors, has been produced in 
Europe with double flowers. It is said they 
come true from seed. 

Green House and House Gardening. 




Among Orchids, Oncidiums are probably one 
of the best for an amateur to try his hand 
on. Though, as a whole, they have not the 
beauty or fragrance of many other species, their 
easy culture, free blooming, and comparative 
cheapness recommend them strongly to l)egin- 
ners. Yellow, striped, or speckled Avith light 
brown or chocolate, are the predominant colors, 
though there are some noted variations, which I 
will nolice later. Owing to the length of the 
flower spikes, most Oncids show to better 
advantage grown in hanging baskets, which 
should be made of red cedar (Juniperus Yirgini- 
anus) or the locust (Robinia pseud-acacia). If 
well made, using strong copper wire, they will 
last many years. They also give a more natural 
appearance to the plants, the roots of which will 
soon attach themselves to the wood. The bas- 
kets should be half filled with broken crocks and 
charcoal, using fresh green moss next to the 
plants. All Orchids should be set on top of the 
moss, just inserting the plants deep enough to 
keep them steady until the roots have penetrated 
the moss. By having the plants above the 

' moss, it will be easy to see the young growth, 
j which should never be kept very wet, as they 
are apt to rot oflT in their early stage of growth. 
Oncids difter in their growth more than any 
other species of Orchid that 1 have seen. Some 
j varieties have short corrugated bulbs. Some 
others have long smooth bulbs, and other varie- 
ties, such as luridum and Lanceanum, have no 
I bulbs, but thick, succulent leaves. Then, again, 
there is a little group with long terete leaves, 
j and no bulbs, of which 0. junceum is a 
I noted example. In the shape of the flowers 
there is great similarity, except 0. Papilio (the 
Butterfly Orchid i, which many botanists con- 

I sider a diff"erent species, and not a true Oncid. 

I I will now give a short description of some that 
I have bloomed, commencing with the bulbless 
group, having thick, fleshy leaves. I will here 
remark, that all Orchids vvith thick fleshy 

i leaves are apt to spot if kept too moist and 
cold from November to February. 

Oncidium Cavendishii. Guatemala, South 
Mexico ; bright thick leaves ; blooms in Winter; 
flower stems from 2 to 4 feet long ; flower about 
U inch diameter; sepals and petals yellow, 
barred In-own lip, bright yellow. 

O. bicallosum Growth like 0. Cavendishii; 
flower stem about 15 inches, stift' and upright ; 
sepals and petals brown, lip yellow, blooms in 
Winter ; Guatemala. 




0. stramineum. Like O. bicallosum in every 
way except the blooms are nearly all yellow ; 

O. intermedium. Cuba; l)looms in Winter; 
leaves longer and darker than O. Cavendishii; 
very beautiful and graceful ; flower stems from 
2 to 5 feet long, blooming on short lateral 
branches the whole length ; color rich chocolate 
and yellow, spotted on lip and sepals. In some 
the yellow predominates, in others the choco- 
late. Flowers 1 4 inches in diameter. I had over 
400 blooms open at one time on one plant, and 
think I wir have full as many this winter. This 
plant is scarce in collections, but it should not 
be, as it is very easily procured near Havana. 

O. luridum and 0. luridum guttattim abounds 
in all the Caribbean islands, and varies consider- 
abl}"^ in the marking of the flowers. Blooms in 
Summer, and requires more heat than the above 
mentioned varieties. Flowers brown, orange 
and yellow, with a pink callosity at the base of 
the column ; flower stems often 10 feet long. 

O. Carthaginense. Appears to be merely a 
variety of the O. luridum, with olive colored 
flowers spotted with brown and orange. 

0. Lanceanum. When well grown probably 
the handsomest of the Oncids. From Guiana, 
and requires a temperature of not less than 70° 
at any time to grow it finely. Blooms nearly 
2 inches in diameter, and closely set on an up- 
right stem from 1 to 2 feet high. Sepals and 
petals yellow spotted crimson ; lip violet ; has a 
fine odor. I bloomed a variety with a nearly 
white lip. There is no Orchid that has given me 
more trouble than this. I have bloomed several 
newly imported plants, but after a year or so 
they dwindle away. Probably they do not get 
heat enough in the Winter, which is the hot 
time at Guiana, where they make two growths 
in a year, and, I believe, bloom twice. There 
are several other Oncids with thick leaves and 
no bulbs, but I believe they are only varieties of 
the above. 

0. juncifohum, 0. Cebolleta. Under both these 
names I have received from Europe and Trini- 
dad the same plant, diflering only slightly in the 
markmg of the flowers. They have no bulbs, but 
round, rush-shaped leaves, about 1 foot or 15 
inches long, on upright flower stem, about U 
feet long; small yellow flowers, spotted brown 
and black. Requires good heat, and grows well 
on a cocoanut husk with moss. 

0. Papilio (the Butterfly Orchid). A native 

of Panama, and all the sea coast of the S 


main, and the island of Trinidad. This has a 
small dark green bulb, surmounted by a single 
leaf, beautifully variegated and spotted with red- 
dish brown on a dark green base. Flower stems 
long and slender. The blooms come out singly, 
and last about ten days, when another makes its 
appearance in a week or so, until four or 
five have bloomed. The same stem will bloom 
for three or four years, each year from a lower 
point. Blooms in early Summer, and requires 
considerable heat. Blooms rich brown, barred 
and spotted with bright yellow, and are nearly 4 
inches in diameter. At a distance would easily 
be taken for a butterfly. Does well on a piece 
of cork or cocoanut husk. There are several 
varieties of this. 

0. sphacelatum., 0. Baueri, 0. altissimum, and 
several others from Central America, have 
light green ribbed bulbs, with long pendant 
flower stems ; flowers profusely. Flowers bright 
yellow, barred brown in sepals and petals, lip 
pure yellow, and bloom mostly in early Sum- 

0. leucochilum. Mexico and Guatemala. A 
beautiful Winter bloomer. In growth like O. 
sphacelatum, etc. Flower stem often 6 feet 
long, blooming the whole length on short later- 
als. Flowers about 1 inch in diameter, sepals 
and petals greenish white, with small red dots ; 
lip pure white ; slightly scented. Keeps in 
bloom five or six weeks, and resembles Odonto- 
glossum laive. 

O. ampliatum. Panama and Costa Rica, has 
large yellow flowers on a branching stem about 
2i feet long. The back of the flowers has a 
whitish hue. 

O. ornithorhynchum . A dainty little variety 
from Mexico. Small bulbs and leaves, and 
blooms in the Wmter. The flowers are small, 
rosy lilac. Avitli a yellow spot in the center. 
They are delightfully fragrant. Does best in a 
cool house. 

O. Barkeri. Mexico. This often is sold as O. 
tigrinum, but I think erroneously. I see in the 
Messrs. Veitch's catalogues that they claim 
them to be diff"erent, though coming from the 
same locality. O. Barkeri, true, has a ribbed 
bulb, and is somewhat stronger in growth than 
the 0. tigrinum. It blooms in the Winter. 
Mine will be in bloom in February or Marcli. 
It is a remarkably handsome Orchid. The 
petals and sepals are rather small, yellow barred 
brown, lip H inches in diameter, briglit yellow. 
This also does in a cool house. 




0. tigrinum. I received this from Mexico. 
It has smooth bulbs, but looks much like 
Barken. Mine bloomed in the Fall. Sepals 
and petals light orange yellow, lip quite light 

0. crispum. From Rio de Janeiro. Has short 
•dark bulbs, and dai'k green foliage. Flower 
stems two to three feet long. The flowers are ' 
from 2 to 24 inches diameter ; coppery red color, i 
with bright j-ellow markings on the center of 
the lip. There are several varieties of this 
beautiful Oncid. Blooms with me in the fall. 

O. divaricatum. I have received from Rio de 
•Janeiro several very difierent plants under this 
name. I have one in bloom now, with long 
flexible flower stems about two feet long. 
Flowers over an inch long ; yellow and brown. 
I have several other plants identical nearly in 
growth and flowers, but they always bloom in 
the Summer. 

0. jiexuosum. A very common Orchid from 
Brazil. Bulbs smooth and green, about 24 inches 
long. It is a very free bloomer, covering 
itself with sprays of small delicate yellow flrnvers 
in the Spring. 

(). phymatochilum. Brazil. A rare Orchid, 
with round dark bulbs, and one stiff" reddish 
green leaf. Blooms in the Spring, and has 
flowers on a long slender stem. Yellow and 
reddish brown in the sepals and petals ; lip 
white. If kept in a dry place, will remain in 
bloom six weeks. 

O. roseum, or 0. Eenchmanni. A remarkably 
beautiful and distinct variety from Honduras 
and the warm parts of Central American coast. 
It is in growth like a small O. luridum. The 
flowers are ros^y white, spotted dark rose and 
crimson, and are borne on long flexuose stems. 
Blooms in Summer. There are several varieties. 

0. aurosum. Peru. Blooms in the Spring. 
Has a growth like O. sphacelatum. The flower 
spike is long and branching ; flowers very pro- 
fusely; rich yellow, blotched with cinnamon 
brown on the sepals and petals. Cool culture. 

O. mrcodes. One of the handsomest Oncids 
grown, when true. I have sent to Belgium and 
Brazil for this, but have never been able to get 
it true. I have O. amictum, with dark green 
bulbs about 5 inches long, and beautiful large 
yellow and brown flowers. It is a near relation 
to O. sarcodes. There are several Oncids from 
Brazil, of inferior bloom, that resemble sarcodes 
in growth. Mr. Buchanan told me that he 
sometimes thought that O. sarcodes was either 

remarkably scarce, or there was no such plant. 
He had made importations very often from 
Brazil direct, but had never yet got the true 

These are only a few of the many varieties of 
Oncids. Lately some elegant additions have been 
made: O. macranthum, O. Rogersii, O. splen- 
didum, O. phaltenopsis, and O. seriatum. These 
are yet comparatively scarce and costly, and I 
have not seen them in bloom. 



I much doubt if there is another plant in culti- 
vation so widely spoken of as the Verbena, yet 
there are but few who thoroughly understand the 
nature of this plant. Some gardeners attempt to 
grow it at a temperature ranging from 40° to 45°, 
which is entirely too cold; others think they can 
grow the same plant in the greenhouse where 
there are Dracaena, Palms, Crotons, &c., at a 
temperature ranging from 70° to 75°, which is 
entirely too warm. My experience with the 
Verbena for the past fifteen years induces me 
to write as follows : I would make the starting 
point the first of March, at that date taking cut- 
tings from clean, healthy plants; see that they 
are in a proper condition. If the stock plants 
were growing in a temperature ranging from 
55° to 60°, which in my opinion is the 
proper temperature to grow the Verbena, cut- 
ting of such plants would be just the style 
I required by cutting them off at or below the third 
I joint. They would root in eight or ten days 
i sufliciently tobe potted off" in two and a half inch 
pots, and will make fine, healthy plants by the 
first of April. At that date they require to be 
transferred into tliree-inchpots, at the same time 
pinching the tops of each plant ; it will cause 
them to strike out with greater vigor, and enable 
I them to become fine, tlirifty plants to be set out 
m the open ground by the first of May. By the 
I middle of August they will have spread to a dis- 
i tance of three feet ; at that date they are covered 
! with flowers and seed pods. This profuse flower- 
ing and seeding somewhat lessens the vitality 
\ of the plants and puts them in a weak condition; 
and should they be left in this exhausted state 
they would very soon receive the disease which 
I so affects this plant, known as black rust ; and 
I now there must be something done to prevent 
this disease from putting in an appearance, and 
regain the vitality of the plants. I know of no 




better method than to cut back the extremities 
of the shoots some eight inches, and loosen 
the soil around the plants and in between 
each layer, by means of a pointed stick or 
iron. Then adding one gallon of manure 
water to each plant once a week. Should 
this liquid be inconvenient, guano would 
answer the same purpose by adding one 
pound and a half to twenty gallons of water. 
This mixture will be sufficiently strong for a sin- 
gle watering each week, and continue this opera- 
tion until the plants produce a clean and healthy 
growth, which by the middle of October will give 
just the style of cutting that is required. I^'ow 
the propogation begins. I may here state that 
great importance is attached to the necessity of 
taking off the cuttings immediately after rain, as 
the moist weather refreshes the young growth 
and puts them in a proper condition to be taken 
off at, or below, the third joint. Cuttings should 
be potted immediately on being rooted, not 
allowing the roots to become larger than a half 
inch. On potting the cuttings they are placed in 
the greenhouse and shaded for three or four days, 
or as long as the condition of the weather may 
require. As soon as they have struck root in 
the soil of the pots, they should be sprinkled 
with sulphur water by adding one pound to ten 
gallons of water ; one watering each week will 
be sufficient to keep them clean and healthy . 
fumigate with tobacco two or three times each 
week, and there is no doubt whatever of having a 
healthy and vigorous stock; provided proper 
attention has been given to temperature, water- 
ing and fiuiiigation by tobacco. 



At ]). 234 of the August 1877 Monthly, I re- 
ferred to the excellence of the Cinerarias grown 
by my neighbor, Mr. Paterson, of Oakley, Water- 
town, and now (Feb. 11) I send you a few blos- 
soms from the Oakley greenhouses. Their chief 
merits consist in the size, beauty and purity of 
coloring of the blossoms, and the massive propor- 
tions of the plants, points gained and main- 
tained by a careful selection of home-saved 
seed and good cultivation. No attempt is made 
at the florist's nicety of perfection in blos- 
som, Mr. P.'s end being to haye fine spec- 
imens for conservatory decoration and for 
furnishing cut flowers to have each plant bear a 
great wealth of large and brilliant blossoms, and 

this purpose he certainly has attained. Mr. P. 
' neither exhibits nor sells plants or seeds, there- 
! fore those who wish to see them should see them 
' at Oakley, where Calceolarias, Cyclamens, Prim- 
j roses,Azalea.s and other flowering and greenhouse 
1 and stove plants are cultivated with equal suc- 
cess, and a more civil, cordial, and generous- 

I minded person than Mr. P. you will seldom 
' meet. 

' Among the blossoms sent I have numbered a 
few, so that you may speciallj^ notice them. No. 

I I is 2f in. across ; No. 2, 24 in. and almost semi- 
! double -, No. 3, 2| in. ; No. 4, 2-i in., and of a 
' glowing, purplish violet ; and No. 5 over 1\ in. 

and goodly florist's flowers. 

I Mr. Paterson saves his seed from the finest 
flowered plants and sows it about the end of 

I June, in pans of fine, light soil in a cold frame — 

I one of the spent Spring beds. As soon as the 
seedlings are fit to handle he pricks them off into 
other pans, and when they grow a little, pots 

I them singly, and afterwards re-pots them two or 
three times just as they demand it. He makes 
it a point never to allow his Cinerarias to become 
pot-bound before they are shifted, or show flower- 
buds before they receive their final potting, 

: which is usually in late October or November,. 

land sometimes a few in mid-winter, when they 
will be in from seven to ten inch pots. From' 
the time they are sown up till November, or as 
late as frost can well be excluded from frames by 
means of a straw mat over the sashes, the Cin- 
erarias are grown in cold frames. Just before 
hard frosts are likely to occur, however, they 
are transposed from the frames to the graperies, 

; where, on elevated table-like benches, they are 

I wintered with a minimum temperature of 38°. 

■ "While in the frames they are roomily arranged,. 
I kept near the glass, abundantly watered at the 
root and overhead, and kept as cool as practica- 
ble by a little whitewash shading on the sashes, 
and liberal ventilation. In the graperies they 
are treated to generous libations and almost daily 
j sprinklings, and when it is evident that the pots 
I are filled with roots and the flower-buds are being 
' formed, a little liquid manure is given, until the 
i flowei-s open, when its application is discontinued. 
! The first appearance of flower buds, too, is pinched 
j out, in order to secure a wider and more compact 
' head. 

j The most forward of the Cinerarias are placed 
i in a division of the grapery where the minimum 
temperature is 40° to 44°, and are consequently 
\ rushed earlier into blossom than those wintered 




in cooler quarters. In this way a succession of 
Avell-flovvered plants is maintained from the end 
of January until up into April. A high tempera- 
ture curls and weakens the foliage and therefore 
is avoided, and green-fly, so persistent an enemy 
to these plants, is, by frequent doses of cold 
tobacco-smoke, denied an existence. 

Grown as above, these plants in eight and nine 
inch pots are now (Feb. 11) perfect massive 
specimens from two feet to three and one-fourth 
feet through, with large, succulent, deep green 
leaves and wide-spread but dense heads of flower 
buds. The more advanced are in blossom and 
arranged in the conservatory, and another large 
succession will yet be obtained from the warmest 
grapery ; those in the latest grapery are not much 
more than showing flower buds. 

[The flowers were very fine and created much 
attention at the rooms of the Germantown Hor- 
ticultural Society, where thev were exhibited. — 
Ed. G. M.I 


Vines for a Bay Wmoow.— Mr. W. T. Bell 
in the Venango Spectator gives the following as 
his choice : 

Abutilon vexiU.arium and A. vexillarium 
pidum ; shrubby plants, to be climb- 
ers, flowering freelv, and the latter having leaves 
variegated with yellow. 

Ampelopsis Veitchii, a woody climber from 
Japan, somewhat similar to our Virginia 

CobcBa scandens, a rapid grower, clinging by 
tendrils, and having large bell-shaped flowers. 
There is also a variegated-leaved variety of the 
same. Ivy^English, and other woody kinds; 
also, what is commonly known as German or 
Parlor Ivy, a fast-growing herbaceous plant. 

Lygodium scandens, a climbing fern, of great 
beauty, introduced from Japan. 

Myrsiphillum, or Smilax, one of the most 
beautiful climbers in cultivation. While the 
plant is in active growth the soil about its roots 
should never be allowed to become very dry. 

Senecio macroglossxim, Cape Ivy, one of the 
very best rapid-growing climbers, similar in 
habit to the German Ivy, but with thick, glossy 
leaves, and much superior to it. 

Drooping or creeping plants : 

Fuchsia procumbens., a new and distinct species, 
a real trailer. 

Geraniums., Ivy-leaved. 

Lobelia., flowers bright blue. 

Lycopodiums, moss-like plants, in great vari- 
ety ; suitable for carpeting. 

Lysimachia, or Moneywort, flowers yellow. 

Othonna crassifotia, a pretty little plant, with 
cylindrical, fleshy leaves and yellow flowers. 

Polygonum scandens. 

Saxifi-aga sarmentosa. a common plant, in- 
creasing by sarments, or runners, like the straw- 

Tradescantia, or Wandering Jew ; several 

Vinca., or Periwinkle ; vines grow several feet 
in length, some of the varieties having variega- 
ted leaves. 

Other suitable plants : 

Abutilon, Boule de Neige, with white bell- 
shaped flowers ; and P. Thompsonii., leaves va- 
riegated with yellow. 

Achyranthus, plants with red foliage. 

Agave, or Century Plant. 

Azaleas, shrubby plants, flowering in early 

Calla Ethiopica. 
I Camellias — Carnations — Centaureas, plants^ 
with downy, white foliage. 

Echeverias — Farfugium — leaves spotted with 

Ferns in variety — Fuchsias, Geraniums, — Hya- 
cinths — Jessamines — Myrtle — Oleanders, Palms, 
of certain kinds, Pelargoniums — Chinese Prim- 
rose — Roses — Solanums, &c. 

Coal Oil Lamps for Small Window Cab- 
inets. — The Journal of Horticulture says : 

" An amateur, writing to us on paraftin lamps- 
for excluding frost, states that he has employed 
one for three years in his small greenhouse with 
great satisfaction and he would not hesitate if 
required to place a smaller lamp in a frame. 
He describes the reservoir of the lamp, which is 
of block tin, as resembling an inverted soup 
plate. This forms the base and supports a 
moveable cylinder a little more than a foot high^ 
and six inches in diameter, with an aperture at 
the bottom for the burner to pass through, and 
an ornamental lid at the top with apertures for 
the escape of heat. After the heat has been 
turned ' full on ' for a quarter of an hour the 
cylinder becomes quite hot, and is afterwards 
kept sufficiently so by a very small flame. If 
he ' fires hard in severe weather ' he places a 
shalb.w tin dish of water on the top in place of 
the lid. No injury whatever has resulted from 




the lamp, but on the contrary he has "two 
hundred Geraniums which have been preserved 
through the present Winter at the cost of one 
gallon of oil.' " 

Leap Plaxts for Room Decoration.— 
Among the plants which can be used Avitli beau- 

the open border in our climate, and can be taken 
upm September and potted for Winter work. Of 
late years there have been many new species 
introduced, of which one of the prettiest, C. 
:N"ormanbyana, introduced by Mr. Bull, of 
Chelsea, we give with this. There is an ad- 

cycas normaxbyana. 

tiful eflfect in room decoration are those known | vantage in these not possessed by some other 
as Sago Palms, of which the most common form plants. The older they are the more valuable. 
IS, perhaps, C. revoluta, and which indeed is now j We have seen old Saso Palms sell for »«100 at 
tolerably well known. They grow very well in | public sale. 




Tuberous Begonias as Bedders. — A cor- 
respondent in the February London Journal of 
Horticulture says : 

" The great merits of these plants are as bed- 
bers. In my estimation they are more beautiful 
than Zonal Pelargoniums and more enduring. 
Pelargoniums when at their best have every 
particle of beauty washed away by a few days 
of wet weather. Not so Begonias ; they revel 
in moisture like all sub-alpines — percolating 
moisture secured by thorough drainage. Those, 
therefore, intending their culture (and it will be- 
come general) will do well to provide thorough 
drainage and a sheltered situation, as the plants 
being succulent cannot stand twisting currents 
of air and cold positions. They prefer a vegeta- 
ble soil, and do well in the wide interstices of 
rock-work holding a goodly amount of compost, 
in which they may remain permanently, having 
a mulch over them in Winter of cocoa-nut fibre 
refuse 3 or 4 inches thick. 

For Summer bedding pot the corms in March, 
plunging the pots in ashes in a cold frame, keep- 
ing close and protecting from frost until growth 
takes i)lace, then admit air moderately, sprink- 
ling overhead in the afternoon of bright days, 
closing early. By the middle of June they will 
be in good growth, and being hardened off 
should then be planted out. In cold localities I 
advise their being planted in borders along the 
sides of plant houses with a south exposure, in 
which with a covering of cocoa-nut fibre refuse 
three inches thick they will no doubt prove 
hardy. In wet and cold soils the roots may be 
lifted after the first frost, and be laid in a shed 
for a few days to dr}', and having most of the 
soil removed be stored away like Dahlia tubers 
in sand in a cool place safe from frost, where 
they may remain until potting time in Spring. 
But an amateur tells me all this ' potting and 
bother ' is quite unnecessary, as the Begonias 

only require the treatment he gives his Dahlias 
— viz., planting the roots in April three inches 
deep, inverting a flower pot over them until 
the growth cracks the soil, then removing 
the flower pots every fine day and night, 
covering the plants only when there are 
signs of frost, and ' you know I have the best 
display of flowers of those plants until frost of 
anybody hereabouts.' " 


New Regal Pelargonium, Mrs. John Saul. 
— Mr. John Saul has issued a plate of this variety, 
which originated in his own establishment. The 
writer of this had the opportunity of seeing the 
best of the new ones, in the leading establish- 
ments of England, last year— some of which are 
not sent out yet — and he can say that Mr, John 
Saul's is equal to the best of any of these 
prospective new ones. 


Growing Epiphyllum truncatum.— E. B. 
C, Winona, Ohio, says : '' Will the editor of the 
Monthly please give the method of growing 
Epiphyllum truncatum and vars, so as to induce 
them to bloom. I have plants one year from 
cutting, on their own roots, which, as yet show 
no indications of flowering, although they have 
made good gi'owth. What season of the year is 
best to propagate so as to mduce them to flower 
about New Year's, and what method of treat- 
ment would bring about this ? Perhaps some of 
the correspondents of the Monthly, for instance, 
J. Taplin, could write an article, giving detail 
wanted. I understand James Taplin has been 
very successful with these plants, is why I 
instance him. 

Fruit and Vegetable Gardening. 




In the February number of 1877 is a statement 
from the Country Gentleman., that the Wilson's 
Early Blackberry is not hardy much farther 

north than Philadelphia ; and your statement 
that you supposed it as hardy as the Lawton, 
The Wilson's Early Blackberry is about as hardy 
here as the Lawton \ but both are killed about 
every other winter. The Lawton may be a little 
hardier, but generally, when standing side by 
side, the canes of the Lawton have been killed 
whenever the Wilson Early has been destroyed. 




I notice also an inqniry from a subscriber here, 
about the Highland Hardy Raspberry, asking 
whether it is an old berry with a new name. A 
gentleman near here, who cultivates the High- 
land Hardy and Kirtland, declares that there is 
no difference between them. As he procured his 
plants of Highland Hardy from Rev. E. P. Roe, 
on the Hudson, I presume they ai*e genuine. I 
have not seen this gentleman's plantation, but 
«aw the Highland Hardy in fruit last summer, 
and compared it with the Kirtland, and think 
there is a difference. The large berries of the 
Highland Hardy are somewhat conical, while the 
Kirtland is always round. It has been claimed, 
too, that the Highland Hardy is identical with 
the Elm City. I have never seen the Elm City, 
but as William Parry, of Cinnaminson, IsT. J., 
has cultivated all three without discovering their 
identity, I am inclined to think they are distinct. 
One fruit grower here has ploughed up his High- 
land Hardy plantation after three years' expe- 
rience with them. He said that he could not 
make them produce vigorous canes. I presume 
the foliage failed during summer. There is one 
thing remarkable in connection with this berry, 
and that is that the party who could furnish evi- 
dence of its producing a thousand dollars per 
acre, had plants for sale at $4 per thousand, a 
lower price than any berry plants — old or new — 
are offered. 



Rev. W. H. W., of Reading, Mass., complains 
that the crop of grapes, " in some cases at least, 
are sadl}' diminished by the unprecedented num- 
ber of rose-bugs." Xow that gives me an 
opportunity once more to speak a word for the 
Ailanthus. Some years ago in passing under an 
Ailanthus, I observed a great number of rose- 
i bugs under it. Some apparently dead, others 
! helpless and not able to fly, while many were 
trying to creep up the body of the tree and sur- 
\ rounding shrubbery. I mentioned it to my 
husband (who was an invalid), and he said he 
had observed it before, that he thought the 
flowers of the tree had attracted and then sickened 
them; and that as a proof that instinct does not 
always guard from mistakes, he had observed 
that the young robins would alight on the Alder 
Buckthorn (Frangula Caroliniana) and eat the 
berries until they were very sick. By-the-by, 
that same Frangula was a very handsome tree , 
twelve or fifteen feet high, with beautiful glossy 
foliage, and berries first turning red and then a 
shining black. It was thought worthy of being 
photographed. But again, the Ailanthus— has any 
one observed a diminition of rose-bugs in its 
neighborhood ? We had very few in after years. 
Perhaps they come periodically. 



We have used lime on our apple orchards for 
a number of years, and consider it beneficial in 
moderate quantities, say twenty bushels to the 
acre. We have an old orchard that has borne 
heavy crops for several years, that we have 
limed wth good results. 



I have fruited this apple on two trees, one a 
seedling tree grafted at the crown with the 
Chenengo, the other top grafted on a young tree. 
Both have borne three or four years. Fruit of 
good size. Tree an early and profuse bearer. 
Fruit rots before ripening, and must be gathered 
before it colors, as it specks before it ripens. 
Not worth cultivating where there are so many 
better apples. 



I will now fulfill my promise. My pear trees 
I are looking finely, have lost but three out of 
about two thousand by blight, while trees gener- 
ally in this section suffered greatly. I think I 
have hit upon a preventative for blight. It is this: 
In June I wash my trees with a wash made 
of one pmt of soft soap to one gallon of water, or 
! take good strong lye and wash the trunks of the 
trees and larger branches. Applying this to the 
! trees keeps them in good healthy condition. My 
I trees are six years old, and have been mulched 
i for two years and cut back, but no cultivation. 
I have been using this wash for three years, and 
j have lost but very few trees while before using, 
\ I lost near two hundred in one season. 
! [Accumulating facts tend to show that the 
spores of the Fire Blight fungus develop from 
j the outside, and give increasing weight to the 
judgment of those who believe that washes 
I will destro}' these spores. — Ed. G. M.] 





i;y p. h. foster, babylon, l. i. 
I see in the Feb. Monthly, page 52, your 
Xotes on the cracking of the Pear ; you claim it 
is clear to all who have given close observation 
to the subject, that there are several, if not 
many causes ; as much as to say we are all grop" 
ing in the dark. I have never as yet learned of 
a remedy from our men of superior wisdom ; but 
hold they do not see the exact process in 
which the fungus is conveyed to the fruit. I am 
fully satisfied from the experiments I have 
made, the disease can be exterminated. In order 
to test my theory, an isolated specimen should 
be selected which is bearing cracked fruit, all 
the last summer's growth or wood taken off ex- 
cept a few blossom buds. I hold the fungus 
after being established on a tree, is perpetuated 
on that tree, by its propagation on the young 
wood and fruit ; there is no doubt a difference in 
the susceptability of fruits, in taking on this con- 
dition; but close observation will disclose the 
fact, that the young wood of all varieties of Pear 
trees do not present the same appearance. 
Some contain an unbroken cist wherein the fun- 
gus lies ; in others the cist has opened the fall 
before, and become harmless. I will give you 
an extract of a letter to P. W., Feb. 18, 1874: 
Dear Sir: — "I find the wood on the Lawrence 
Pear least infected by fungus; Duchess, Bartlett, 
Belle Lucrative, very slightly; Beurre Diel, 
Flemish Beauty, and White Doyenne most. The 
above observations are pointed. To one year old 
wood, it should appear a thick skinned pear may 
resist the injury done in a measure ; think the 
living principle of fungi on some varieties re- 
mains enclosed in the cist during the winter, and 
and does not open until spring when new growth 
commences, while in other varieties the cist 
opens the latter part of the same season of fun- 
gus propagation, and thereby becomes harm 
less. It would be well to look for the living 
spore or seed and ascertain the point." 



There is plenty of room above, as was said to 
the youth who thought a certain occupation too 
crowded ; so with fruit. So the catalogue is full 
to overflowing, yet there is plenty of room for 
the finest productions. 

Dr. L. S. Mote has placed ever}' lover of fine 
fruit under lasting obligations by originating this 

I delicious apple. It certainly merits all the good 

things Dr. Warder has said of it. When first 
I brought to notice by him, he wrote that it " per- 
i haps excels the famous Dyer or Pomme Roy- 
' ale ;" but after a number of years' experience 

there is no room for doubt. It "excels" the lat- 
! ter in all particulars : growth, bearing, size, 

beauty and quality. Grown in the same or- 
I chards with such fine varietes as Early Joe, 
{ Champlain, Garden Royal, Richard's Graft, Fall 
1 Pippin, Ohio Nonpareil, Sparks, Evening Party, 

Grimes, Golden, &«<. What the Cincinnati Horti- 
i cultural Society said of Ohio Nonpareil 20 years 
I ago may more emphatically be said of Celestia : 

better than the best. The tree is a fine, upright 

stocky grower ; shoots rather short-jointed, dull 
: reddish-l)rown with considerable light-grayish 

marking, somewhat downy and spotted; buds 
j prominent, pointed; leaves dark-green, thick, 
I ovate, acuminate, irregularly crenate. One of 

the most beautiful and healthy trees in all stages 

of growth, and an excellent bearer. To describe 

the fine quality of the large beautiful yellow 
j fruit, is not easy ; but Dr. Warder comes as near 
i it as words will allow : " Flesh yellow, very fine 
! grained, very tender, juicy; flavor sub-acid, 
! sprightly, aromatic, delicious. Use, table or 
j kitchen; season, September; quality, very best." 

— {American Horticultural Annual., 1867, page 


Its one fault is that it does not keep till April. 

But in higher latitudes this will not be against it, 
\ for it is well known that Cogswell and other apples 
! which keep well in the N^orth, are ripe and gone 
j in Southern Ohio, before the first of November. 
i Here, about one degree north of ihe place of its 
I origin, Celestia ripens in October, being a month 

later ; and with no particular care keeps sound 
I and perfect until after Clu'istmas. 


Fruit Culture in Tex^vs.— Professor S. 
B. Buckley saj^s that the apple does not 
[ succeed well in the warmer parts of Texas, 
i unless " Southern varieties from Southern nur- 
1 series" are planted. The blight, which it 
! seems now to be proved is caused by a minute 
I fungus, kills thousands of trees in the State. On 
his grounds at Austin few have died. There are 
old trees at El Paso nine feet in circumference 
three feet from the ground. They were planted 
by the Spaniards a hundred years ago. Dr. 
I Buckley thinks they are the largest pear trees in 




the United States ; but we doubt this. Peaches 
are at home in Texas. Quinces promising. 
Plums, only the native selections do well. 
Cheri-ies, currants, and gooseberries do not do 
WL'll. The grape, we gather from his re- 
marks, is not very successtul. The fig does well 
in Middle and Southern Texas. Oranges only in 
the counties bordering on the Gulf. Black- 
berries do well. Raspberries, only the Black 
Caps. Strawberries very well. Prof. Buckley 
thinks that a little more fruit in addition to the 
present abundant '' hog aud possum " would do 
the Texan farmer no harm. 

The American Vines in France.— The 
French vines grafted on the Clinton,at Montpeil- 
lier, introduced at once on the report of Prof. 
Planchon's mission to this country has proved 
completely Phylloxera-proof. Has any one tried 
the same experiment in our country? It is 
likely fair success would follow the European 
grape on a native stock in the open air of 
Eastern America. It would be worth an experi- 

Coffee in America. — The Scientific Farmer 
having announced that " coffee has proved 
very productive in California since its intro- 
duction four years ago, Mr. W. Saunders 
offers ten dollars for a pound of the berries 
from plants that have been tliree years in 
the open air of any part of the United States. 
He does not want the Kentucky cofiee. Rye 
coffee, or any coffee but the genuine Arab berry. 

Profit of Grape Growing. — Mr. E. F. 
Ellwanger makes the good point, that those 
who find grape growing " don't pay, " are 
generally those who have gone into it from some 
other business, and who thought plants ought 
to "grow into money while they slept." Honest 
profit means honest labor ; no work no pay, is 
nature's law in gardening. Mr. Ellwanger 
thinks that the man who first loves his trade and 
then sticks to it, generally works out fairly at 
least, and we quite agree with him. 

The Most Populae Pears in France. — 
It is said that about one-seventh of all the 
pear trees sold in France are of the one we 
know as Bartlett, and the Duchess. 

Service Berries. — The Californians ''prove 
all things." Now according to the Independent of 
Stockton, Mr. Milco has introduced " Sorbula " 
trees from which much is expected. This is no 

doubt the service berry, Sorbus domestica.. 
" Blessed are they who do not expect much, for 
they shall not be disappointed." 


Brewington Pippin Apple. — Mr. Charles 
Downing kindly sends us a specimen of this 
apple. Mr. D. says : " The apple is of good 
size, showy, and the quality good, although a 
little wanting in juice. It will no doubt be valu- 
able for the locality where it originated as a late 
keeper and for market." We agree with Mr. 
Downing. It is an improvement on Ben Davis, 
and that in itself is a great gain. Mr. Brew- 
ington, of Prince of Wales, Breckenridge Co., 
Ky., the raiser, gives the following account of 
its origin : 

" N^ow, this is to certify that the Brewington 
Pippin is a seedling of the Joe Allen (New York 
Pippin — Ben Davis) apple, and produced its first 
fruit about the year 1871. I grew the tree, and 
it is now to be found in my orchard, about five 
miles east of Hardinsburgh, where I reside at 
this time. It blooms one week later than Ben 
Davis, and ripens from February to April; if 
kept in a warm place during early Winter will 
be in good eating condition by first of January. 
The tree is of vigorous growth, upright, and 
becoming spreading as it grows older. Fruit 
suffered some this season from bitter rot; about 
fifty apples in all for first time. I believe the 
late frost caused the rot by a freeze, and then 
the disease developed itself as the fruit matured. 
Have had grafts to grow eight feet in length in 
one season (first year's growth of grafts set by 
Aaron Norton, who is one of my neighbors), 
and bore fruit the second year after the grafts 
were set. You will notice that the bark of 
these scions are redder than the Ben Davis 
scions, and this apple is a darker red, more like 
the bark on the scions of Ben Davis, while the 
bark of the Brewington Pippin scions is colored 
more like the Ben Davis apple. I think, on the 
whole, the Brewington Pippin a finer, showy 
tree and leaf than the Ben Davis tree, and the 
apple has more flavor and is a better keeper. J 
have about thirty young trees of this latter 
variety set out for a new orchard as late keepers. 
" I subscribe myself, 

"James Brewington." 





Limp: fok Orchards.— X. AV. A., Lowell, 
Mass., writes that in the Vol. of the Horticul- 
turist for 1875, page 22, there is an excellent 
paper on the application of lime to orchards. 

Utah Ctjrrant.— A correspondent from 
Michigan enquires if any have had more expe- 
i-ience with this east of the Rockv Mountains, 

than the provisionally favorahle notices that 
have in times past appeared in the GARDENEri's 


Fruit of Japan Persimmon.— Mr. Loom is 
sends us a preserved fruit from Japan. It has a 
flavor partaking of the fig and the date when 
dried. The one sent was jjerhaps the kind 
known in Japan as Yamato. It has small seeds. 
We believe it will be hardy anywhere that the 
common Virginian Persimmon will stand the 





In your March number .7. M. says " it would 
be interesting to know the farthest Northern 
point that Willow Oak (Quercus Phellos) has 
been found growing wild. For the information 
of your correspondent and readers, I may state 
that this oak is common near Washington, 
Middlesex county, K. J. Two trees near that 
village are each between GO and 70 feet in 
height, and nearly 3 feet in diameter. I do not 
recollect ever seeing this tree elsewhere in the 
central or northern parts of this State. There 
are said to be several near Mt. Holly. I think 
that at each of these localities the tree is limited 
to a comparatively small area. 

Your note on a large cherry tree, page 18, 
.January number, suggests a measurement which 
I made of a wild cherry tree (Prunus Pennsyl- 
vanica) growing on the roadside, about a mile 
south of Warwick, Orange county, N. Y. This 
tree, three feet above the ground, had a circum- 
ference of 17 feet 7 inches. It is one of the 
largest trees which I have seen in that part of 
Xew York, and the adjacent Highlands of New 



To J. M. I answer, that there is a large Wil- 
low Oak on the east side of the Woodlands, near 
the southwest corner of the alms house, and 
three Spanish Oaks in the Woodlands, two or 
three hundred yards eastward of the mansion : 

one on the north side of Chestnut street, in front 
of Mr. Keene's house, near Thirty-seventh street ; 
and several in the Park, near the southwest 
corner of the bridge over Belmont Valley, that 
is, northeast of Horticultural Hall. 



In connection with your remarks upon the 
" Hardiness of the Eucalyptus," it may be of 
interest to you to know what success is met with 
in this locality. 

With slight protection small ti'ees have stood 
a moderately severe Winter, but without protec- 
tion they have thus far been killed by the first 
severe frost. I speak of the E. globulus. 
i Whether the'E. bicolor is more hardy or not, I 
) shall be able to determine after a trial I am 
\ now making. I might say in this connection 
I that another Australian plant, the Cassia fistula, 
} will not stand our Winters, but, when protected, 
j has produced fruit abundantly the second sea- 
I son, in my garden. 


American Forestry and Horticulture 
AT Paris.— The forestry exhibit from the nur- 
\ series of Thomas Meehan, of Germantown, and 
I which went on the "Constitution" with the 
! others from Philadelphia, for the Paris Exhibi- 
I tion, is not included in the recently published 
! Philadelphia list of exhibitors, because at the 
request of General Le Due it was transferred 
from General McCormiok's special list in order 




to make part of the National exhibit under the 
auspices of the department of Agriculture. So 
far as we have heard this is the only American 
nursery that will be represented there. If there 
are others we will gladly publish them. The 
same firm, as already stated,desired to make an 
exhibit of over eight hundred species and varie- 
ties of living trees, but was prevented by the ! 
strictness of the French rules. 

Tree Planting in Minnesota. — S. D. i 
Payne planted 100,000 trees last year, and ex- 
pects to have 100 acres in all completed this 


A rlooi) Move. — The President ©f the 
Missouri River, Fort Scott, and Gulf R. R., has 
made a contract with Messrs. Robert Douglass 
«& Sons, of Waukegan, Illinois, to grow for that 
road 50,000 Black Walnut, 75,000 Catalpas, and | 
75,000 Red Cedar seedlings. These trees are to ! 
be planted on the company's land, at a point ' 
not far from Fort Scott, Kansas. 

Wood of Cerasus Serotina. — An Illinois 
correspondent sends us a sketch of a stem of this 
tree which has made an average growth of three- 
quarters of an inch a year. The timber ought to 
very useful for cabinet work ; though we do not \ 
think quite equal to the Wild Cherry trees, : 
escapes of the cultivated Clierry which so 
abound in Pennsylvania. We wish some better | 
name than "Wild Black Cheri-y" could be given 
this tree, as it is certain to become confused with 
these escapes from garden culture. ' 

The Profit of Forestry. — Judging by the 
following from an English contemporary, they 
do not calculate profits from the same basis that 
we do : j 

"The expenditure upon the Windsor Parks and 1 
Woods exceeds the income from them by nearly i 
jE:20,000, the New Forest yields a profit of £1300, 1 
the Forest of Dean one of over £6000, the High } 
Meadows Wood over £4000, Alice Holt over \ 
£1000, Woolmer Forest and Bere Wood, Hants, 
nearly a £1000 ; Parkhurst AVoods, Isle of Wight, 
yields a profit of £148 — the total receipts from 
the Royal Forests, says the Journal of Forestry^ 
being £33,129 Qs. 8c?., the expenditures £l8,5i9 
10s, 2d. Windsor Forest, being entirely excep- 
tional, is not included in the foregoing total. 
Like our contemporary, we have no doubt that 
the revenue from the Crown Woods might, in 
course of time, be very materially increjised, 
while the expenditure on Windsor Forest might 

probably be diminished, and the income in- 
creased without diminishing the beaut}'^ of the 
forest, the comfort of the Sovereign, or the plea- 
sure of her subjects," 

In our country the income over expenditure 
in any one year would not be considered " pro- 
fit." We should want to know how much ex- 
penditure of capital and labor there had been for 
years previous ; and we should perhaps want to 
charge six percent, against all this outlay, that 
had for so many years brought in nothing, 
before calculating what the profits were. It 
seems to us that a full grown forest might yield 
in one year twenty times the expenditures of 
that year, and still the forest not to be a very 
profitable investment. 

Forestry will pay, — well managed and rightly 
located, it will pay handsomely; but here, as in 
the meteorological aspects of the case, it is best 
to guard people from planting under misappre- 
hensions. No cause is permanently successful 
that does not stand on a solid body of facts. 

Catalpa Timber. — When a few years ago 
the Gardener's Monthly called attention to 
the fact that the Catalpa was one of the most 
rapid growing trees as well as giving very dur- 
able timber, planters were very incredulous. 
Since then facts have come to light showing it to 
be even more valuable than we supposed. 
We take the following from the proceedings of 
the Mont. Co. (O.) Horticultural Society: 

"Prof. F. J. Burrill writes : From the experi- 
ments so far at the Illinois Industrial University, 
the catalpa is one of the cheapest, and easiest to 
grow, and one of the most rapidly growing of 
om- forest trees, native or introduced. In one 
plantation, containing about twenty selected 
species, only the soft maple and white willow 
have in eight years time surpassed it. It has out- 
grown the White or American Elm, White Ash, 
Em-opean Larch, Osage Orange, Black Walnut, 
&c., upon the same ground, and under the same 
treatment. It is not attacked by any insect, nor 
does it appear to be subject to any disease what- 
ever. Our trees were raised from seed planted 
in the spring of 1869, and were transplanted in 
1871. When reset the tops were cut to the 
ground, because they were crooked and much 
branched, and were set two feet by four feet to 
induce erect growth, cultivated like corn three 
years, and plowed once each of the two follow- 
ing years, since which time nothing has been 
done to them except a very little pruning. Next 




spring every other row will be removed and used 
for stakes in vine^yards, fences, &c. 

The average height is now sixteen feet three 
inches, and average diameter lone foot from the ' 
ground three inches, some much larger. They , 
are as straight and erect as can be desired, and 
grew in 1877 an average of thirty-three inches. 

"While collecting specimens of the trees of 
Illinois for the Centennial I found some boards 
sawed from a log two feet in diameter which was 
proven to have laid upon the ground one hundred 
years. One man had known the log to have thus 
lain during forty years of this time, and he had 
the information directly from another as to the 
previous sixty years. This was in the extreme . 
southern portion of Illinois, about twelve miles 
from Caii'o and the Missippi riv<;r bottoms. The 
wood is still sound and strong, and susceptible 
of a fair polish.'" : 


Hardiness c>f the Eucalyptus. — H., 
Philadelphia, sends us an extract from a 
California paper, showing that a Eucalyptus 
globulus stood in Oregon, and without injury, 
when the thermometer fell 17° below freezing 
point, and asks " why it would not do as much 
in Philadelphia." We are nearly tired of this 
Eucalyptus matter. If people want to plant 
Eucalyptus trees here in the East, we know of 
no law against ik As our friend, Mr. Price, 
told us last year, they do not try the experiments 
at anybody's expense but their own. But if we 
must answer our correspondent's question we 
should say, as the child says, "It won't live in 
Philadelphia at the same temperature as in 
Oregon, because it won't." Hardiness, as most 
of our readers ki\ow, is not decided by the ther- 

Natural History and Science. 




I notice with considerable interest a commu- 
nication on page 83, of the Monthly^, in refer- 
ence to the bad effects of the use of linseed oil 
on Pear trees, and also notice that the editor is 
disposed to attribute the trouble to " adulterated I 

Now I have most thoroughly tested this sub- 
ject, with precisely the same results as E. I. B., 
and can further advise that when blight sets in 
after the trees have been well oiled, the death of 
the entire tree is bound to follow. My last year's 
experience was very discouraging. Usually, i 
with me, when a tree has become seized with 
blight, I can arrest its progress by trimming out 
the diseased parts, which still does very well if 
the tree has not been oiled ; but when it has, no 
care or attention will save it, and even a slight 
attack means certain death. I 

My orchard is planted on a southern slope, i 
well drained, and the trees carefully looked 
after. But the destroyer still comes, and this j 
last Summer it took Manning's Elizabeth, 
Clapp's Favorite, Flemish Beauty, Buffum, St. I 
Ghislain, Madelaine, and others, and those I i 

have remaining look black and ugly. Some of 
the trees have been done two years. 

I feel quite certain the oil is pure, as it came 
from the most reliable druggist I know of, Robt. 
Shoemaker & Co. I am now experimenting 
with oil on Marechal Neil Rose, but can tell 
better later on. 

[This is valuable testimony, and seems to put 
a solution of the enigma further away than ever. 
The success of the Mississippi trees under oil is 
un-doubted ; and several hundred apple and pears 
on the grounds of the editor of the Gardener's 
Monthly were painted with linseed oil from 
top to bottom, with the very reverse of injurious 
effects. We have offered our explanation why 
other people's died, which does not seem wholly 
satisfactory. We will now ask why these cases 
should have been so successful.— Ed.] 



The illustration and description of the Japan 
Persimmon, in 3^our March number, reminds me 
that efforts to obtain satisfactory information 
from several sources as to the fertility of the 
plants offered for sale, have failed. If the Japan 
Persimmon be a true Diospyros, it is dioecious 
—bearing pistillate and staminate flowers on 
separate trees — hence single specimens may not 




produce fruit, though I grant that does not 
always follow, for I remember a pistillate tree 
of the Madura which bore fruit abundantly, a 
staminate tree not being within many miles. 
The fruit, though apparently perfect, was, how- | 
ever, on examination without seed. If, then, 
such be the capacity of nature in the Osage j 
Orange, it may be repeated in the Japan Per- 
simmon, though it is not, I think, the case in | 
our native sort. I have a Virginia Persimmon j 
tree of some age which has never borne fruit, 
and efforts at engrafting it have failed. It is 
said, I believe, that the Kaki may be readily 
engrafted on our native stock. 

Please, Mr. Editor, as I start the ball, give it 
a push onward. Information may gather as it 

[If these Japan varieties are to be reproduced 
by seed, and not by grafting, our correspondent's 
warning is timely; for, as he says, the flowers 
are irregular in their sexual character. Many 
are male plants, having no power to develop 
anything but stamens. AVe suppose there are 
some with imperfect stamens, and which have 
yet the power of developing imperfectly, with- 
out pollen ; at least that is our guess at the 
origin of the seedless fruited kinds; but there are 
some which are truly hermaphrodite, and indi- 
vidual trees of these will bear fruit anywhere. — 


Carnivorous Plants. — xV Salem, Mass.^ cor- 
respondent kindly says : " Find an important 
error, March No., page 87, Ed. Notes, fifth line. 
Should have been insects not plants.'''' The worst 
of it is that the editor cannot put the mistake on 
the " compositor," for it fell carelessly from his 
own pen. 

LiNUM PERENNE. — The pretty blue flax of 
the Rocky Mountains has hitherto beeii thought 
to be the same with the Old World Linum per- 
enne. Some of our earlier botanists named it 
Linum Lewisii. In a recent number of Silli- 
man^s Journal Dr. Asa Gray remarks that it 
may possibly yet prove to be a distinct species, 
and to bear this name. 

The American Poplars. — These are in such 
confusion, that it becomes necessary to go over 
the whole subject from fresh specimens. Mr. 
Sereno Watson, of Canibridge, Mass., has un- 
dertaken the arduous task. It will serve horti- 

culture as well as mere botanical science to help 
him all we can. Any one who can send fresh 
cut catkins, male or female, or good specimens 
of any sort, of our native kinds to him, will do us 
all good service. 

Pear Blight. — As we surmised m our last, 
Prof. Burrill was likely to be misunderstood as 
he himself explains in the following note. The 
very careful examination of pear blighted 
branches by Prof. J. Gibbons Hunt, showing the 
presence and action of fungi, as already detailed 
in our pages, could not have escaped Prof. Bur- 
rill's attention, and we feel sure that he must 
have meant to favor that view : 

" I send you the article to which you refer in 
your March number under the title Fungi and 
Disease, page 87. I see your quotation is not 
far wrong, but reference was made to the species 
named in the article not being definitely proved 
to be the cause of the death of the limbs. Fur- 
ther, I meant to state that we did not know the 
mode of action and special effect of any species 
upon these trees, whether named or not. I 
have little or no doubt but that the disease is 
in some way due to fungous parasites. Am 
continuing the search. "^ 

The Pear Blight.— Tliis is the most popu- 
lar topic in the agricultural papers just now.. 
We see no reason for doubting the conclusions 
of Dr. J. Gibbons Hunt, the accomplished presi- 
dent of the Microscopical Section of the Academy 
of Natural Sciences, of Philadelphia, who, after 
a careful microscopical examination of fresh 
specimens, decided that it was caused by a small 
fungus working from the outside of the wood 
j inwardly, as we have already detailed in the 
Gardener's Monthly. Dr. Leighton, of 
': Norfolk, Virginia, has in a measure confii-med 
, these facts, by showing that pear blighted trees 
I had perfectly healthy roots, no fungus about 
them ; so it is not likely fungoid material wa& 
carried up in the liquids, and so worked from the 
' interior's they do in the peach yellows. 

Taking off Potato Blossoms. — A certain 
Dr. Booghe or Bogy, according to the news- 
papers, increases his "• tubercles " one-fourth, by 
pinching off the blossoms as they open. Now 
four hundred instead of three hundred baskets 
of Mm-phies is worth trying for ; but others be- 
sides this Bogy who have tried it assert it can- 
not be done. We venture the opinion that this 
doctor is like some others we wot of, who think 
out results and then publish them as if they 
were facts accomplished. 




[Specific IIkat in Tubes. — The (iardener^s 
Chronicle gives the following- skelcli of some 
proceedings in Germany : 

" Dr. Bolle recently commmiicated to the 
Horticultural Society of Berlin some interesting 
particulars of the relative hardiness of different 
trees in Germany. Species of Carya which suc- 
ceed admirably in the Central States of North 
America suffer from May frosts. Pterocarya 
Caucasica survives, but onlv on dry soil. The 
Cedar of Lebanon, although it ascends to the 
snow region in its native country, is not perfect- 
ly hardy, whereas the Deciduous Cypress, Taxo- 
dium distichum, is not injured. The latter in- 
habits the Southern States of Northern America, 
and is one of the few instances of plants which 
will bear a climate colder than that of the ; 
countiy in which they now exist in a wild state. 
In his useful Book of Evergreens Josiah Hoopes 
says, 'The Deciduous Cypress, although strictly 
a Southern tree, thrives admirably in the climate 
of the Middle States. Its most northern natural 
limits are the Cypress swamps of Maryland, and 
the extreme southern part of Delaware. — 
Throughout every portion of the Southern States 
this tree is found in the low miasmatic swamps 
and occasionally very plentifully, especially 
along the borders of the rivers and larger \ 
streams. Indeed, in the Gulf States these Cy- ; 
press swamps cover thousands of acres, and 1 
along the Mississippi river particulai'ly they ex- i 
tend for hundreds of miles.' Like the Arbor- j 
vita3 this tree sheds not only its leaves but also j 
its ultimate branchlets, which may possibly ex-! 
plain its hardiness. The Mexican variety, of! 
which a tree girthing 100 feet is said to exist at i 
Chapultepec, is tender. Dr. Bolle thinks these j 
peculiarities in the constitution of plants are 
governed by the distribution of heat in the dif- 
ferent seasons of the year. One of the mem- 
bers present observed that deciduous shrubs 
generally withstand frost better than evergreens, 
because they are at rest in "Winter, mentioning 
as examples Magnolia glauca and Larix 

It has long been known here that deciduous 
trees are hardier , and evergreens more tender 
in America than in Europe, as a general thing. 
Our hot, dry Summers enable the trees to, get 
rid of their surplus moisture ; and, as they have 
little evaporating surfaces during Winter, what 
they have they keep. They have no excess to 
freeze and rupture the cells, and have accumu- 
lated heat enough and secreted non-congeala- 

ble matter sufficient to prevent the freezing of 
what it has retained, while the evergreen is all 
the Winter long exposed to evaporating influ- 
ences which dry out the moisture to an extent 
utterly unknown to the moist atmosphere of 
Europe, wher ■ people say deciduous trees are 
"■at rest" in Winter, as compared wiih ever- 
greens. It is hard to tell what is really meant. 

Internal Heat of Plants. — In France 
they are troubled much by ISIay frosts in the 
vineyards. An article has recently appeared 
in the Annales des Sciences Naturelles showing 
that two grape-growers sow- the vineyard with 
rape seed in October, which by May is several 
feet high. The heat given off by this mass of 
living vegetation is said to be sufficient to raise 
the temperature a few degrees, and thus protect 
the vines from frost. It may also have the 
effect of shading the ground, and prevent sun 
warming, thus keeping back growth a little. 

Slitting the Bark of Trees. — An impres- 
sion prevails in some intelligent quarters that 
the bark of trees never becomes indurated, or 
"hide-bound," in technical language, unless 
something is wrong Avith the roots. It often 
does result from root injury ; but there are many 
causes, quite independent of this. Nature her- 
self provides for the rupture of bark in the 
formation of suber cells. It is by their action 
that " rifts " take place. Every kind of tree has 
its own species of suber cells engaged in this 
work, and hence the rifts in no two species are 
exactly alike. The effect of these growths has 
been checked in " hide-bound " trees, though 
often every other part of the tree is in a normal 
and healthy condition. In these cases the knife 
aids very acceptably in slitting such bark, the 
work the suber cells failed to perform. 

Ripening of Fruits. — Prof. Albert Prescott 
conti-ibutes to the Popular Science Monthly a 
paper on the chemistry of fruit ripening. The 
sweetest fruits to the taste may not really have 
as much sugar as those which taste more sharply. 
Currants have 6 and gooseberries 7 per cent, of 
sugar, w^hile a peach and an apricot have little 
over one per cent. The grape has over 14 per 
cent.— more than any other fruit. It is gener- 
ally supposed that sugar is made from starch in 
ripening, but there are some fruits with sugar in 
] which no trace of starch has ever been found. 
1 Moist heat favors the chemical process of fruit 
i ripening, just as unripe fruits are made mora 
! edible bv boilinij. 




The whole article will well repay a careful 
perusal. We are glad to know that the Popular 
Science Monthly is prospering. It deserves the 
great success it has achieved. 


Seedless Mountain Ash.— Mrs. Lucy Mil- 
lington writes : " Can you tell me how it hap- 
pens that the berries of some of our Mountain 
Ash trees have no seeds? It is only those 
which the birds spare. All the seeded berries 
are eaten in the early Fall, so that there is great 
disappointment as to the decorative qualities of 
the tree. Please answer this through the 
Monthly, as many people enquire. I only 
know that there are trees bearing seedless bei" 
ries, that hang on the trees all Winter, and the 
trees with full-seeded berries are stripped by 
birds for the sake of the seeds." 

Botanical ^N'ame of the Sweet Potato. — 
A Virginia correspondent writes : Having failed 
to find out the botanical name of the Sweet 
1 Potato plant, I beg you will have the kindness 
to state its nativity, or what else you please in 
your Monthly. Though simple, I trust it will 
interest many of your readers. Am under im- 
pression that it is a Calystegia. 

[It is Convolvulus Batatas, not so very far 
from a Calystegia. — Ed.] 

Seeds or Plants from other Localities. 
— A., Philadelphia, asks : " Is there any use in 
a change of seeds from other localities ?" 

[There may be " use," or there may be loss. 
If. we turn a wheel round, it keeps going awhile 
after the hand is withdrawn. The same law 
holds good through all nature. A Peach forced 
for several years in hot-house will bloom a week 
or two before a Peach of the same kind fresh 
brought into the heat ; and peculiar forms of 
plants — new species or varieties — continue to 
exist long after the circumstances which created 
them have ceased. Hence, seeds or trees may 
carry with them to a new location certain charac- 
ters desirable or undesirable, which will last for 
a time, though perhaps the same species or 
variety already there may not have, or may 
have lost them. — Ed. G. M.] 

PiNUS ARiSTATA. — Mr. Siler, of Ranch, 
Utah, writes : I send a few cones of Pinus 
Balfouriana. I also send in saeparate bundle 
limbs of Pinus Balfouriana, which I hope 
will prove very acceptable to you. 1 would 

like for you to present limbs and cones of 
those I send to the Philadelphia Academy of 
! Natural Sciences. Pinus Balfouriana is a low- 
' growing tree, very scrubby, presenting a very 
beautiful appearance when loaded with cones, 
' as they cause the limbs to hang down, when 
they look like a cat's tail when angered ; hence 
I thft local name of Cat Tail Pine. It is found 
growing on high, dry points of Tricito, where 
there appears to be no soil, the roots penetrating 
'"■ the crevices of the rock. This Pine I have never 
I found at an altitude lower than 6,000 feet above 
sea level. It is very local, growing only, as far 
as I have been able to trace it, about the rim 
j of the basin in Southern Utah, about the head 
waters of the Sauvro river. It is a solitary tree. 
You will seldom find two of them growing near 
together. A peculiarity of the species is its 
i growth. I found a dead tree last August, 18 feet 
I high, 20 inches in diameter 2 feet from the 
; ground. The grain of the wood, instead of running- 
up and down the tree, runs around it, and resem- 
ble large hoops driven on a barrel. About 5 
j feet from the ground there was a swell of at 
I least 2 inches, about 6 inches long up and down 
j the tree. I have noticed several other trees and 
j parts of trees. All bear the same character. 

[These were beautiful specimens, with the 
cones rather more slender than the cones of the 
P. aristata from Colorado, but still not so slen- 
der as the form from California, figured by Mr. 
Murray as P. Balfouriana. It is proper here to 
say that for a long time American botanists be- 
lieved that the Colorado and California forms 
were both the same, and were willing to drop, 
their own name and adopt Mr. Murray's by 
right of priority. Mr. Murray, however, always 
contended for their distinctness, and the writer 
of this promised him to investigate the matter 
further. The result has been so far toward 
showing that Mr. Murray was right, and we are 
sorry he is not alive now to receive this 
acknowledgment. We believe this of Mr. Siler 
is P. aristata, and not P. Balfouriana, which is 
confined to California.— Ed.] 

The Name Imatophyllum. — N., Cuyahoga 
Falls, O., says : "I notice that, in several of 
our best plant catalogues, the Amaryllid, 
Imatephyllum is written, Imantophyllum. 
Loudon says Imatophyllum, and this is doubtless 
right. This name was evidently intended to be 
descriptive. It is some sort of phyllum (leaf). 
Imanto is not significant, and of course is not 
descriptive. Imato is significant. It means a 




coat (vestment). And Iniatophyllum means a 
coatleaf. Loudon gives no derivation, and I 
have no authority for this. But it is certainly 
not a strained one. For, if you strip oft" one of 
the outer leaves, and invert it, you will find 
more than a fanciful resemblance to the typical 
swallow-tail coat. Or if not found, in the 
absence of older or better, the authority of Lou- 
don, I suppose, is sufficient to determine Ima- 
tophyllum to be the right name. 

[Botanists do not always tell the reasons for tne 
names they give the plants. Therefore in matters 
of orthography, unless they be clearl)'^ and mani- 
festly wrong, we take the names just as the 
author of the botanical name gives it to us. In 
this case Sprengel gives itHimantophyllum, and 
this we suppose is the oldest orthograph)\ As \ 
in the case of Haplopappus, and other words;! 
when it got to London the H was dropped, and 
then we read of it as Imantophyllum. Hooker 
we l)elieve to be the first to use it in this form, 
dropping the n also, and making it Iniato- 

phyllum. It is not clear to our mind whether 
derivation is from mas, a leather thong, per- 
haps from the strap-shaped leather-like leaves, 
or from imato, a vestment, as our correspondent 

At any rate,the name might as well be dropped 
in general use, as we take Chvia nobilis, under 
the rules, to be the correct name for it. — [Ed. 
G. M.] 

Double Amaryllis. — J. D., Bridgeport, 
Conn., writes : " I send you by post two flowers 
of a variety of Amaryllis, said to be found grow- 
ing wild near St. Johns, Florida. Will you 
please let us know tlirough your Monthly what 
you know of the variety, &c." 

[As far as we could judge from a flower it ap- 
pears to be Amaryllis Johnsoni. It is not a 
native of Florida ; if Avild the original must be 
an escape from some garden. It is very double, 
beautiful, and ought to be a valuable florists' 
flower.— Ei). G. M.j 

Literature, Travels I Personal Notes. 



1!Y W. II. P. 

In your reply to " F," Boston, you say that 
tradition says that all our Weeping Willows 
come from a cutting of that one at Kapoleon's 
grave, and you speak of Capt. Jacob Smith as j 
probably the ancestor of a former correspondent. 
Now it is my custom on receiving yonr magazine 
to commence reading it at once, and when I find 
anything likely to interest our domestic circle, 
I read it aloud. When the above was thus read 
a venerable lady of excellent memoiy, said : 
''I remember seeing a very large old Weep- 
ing Willow, when I lived in Newport, E. I., 
and it must have been as early as 1812, for 
our family all left Newport before then, as Mr. 
Madison's embargo and the war left little for 
people to do in Newport. Napoleon died in ] 
1821, nine years after, and not long enough ago to ' 
make a search for ancestors very ditlicult." Thank 
you very much for your European Notes ; how 
they must awake long-slumbering echoes in 
many wanderers from Albion! Even I, Yan- 
keefied beyond belief, and certain to pass with 
your friend, the "guard," for an unmitigated 
" furriner," was so far affected by the little word 

" Uckfield," that my eyes involuntarily closed ; 
many, many years were retraced, and among 
many recollections Avas one of a secluded pond, 
with Willows on one side and Pine trees on the 
other, the cones from the latter giving the boy of 
six years practical illustrations of the laws of 
"interference of vibration in elastic media," 
which have made the study of acoustics and op- 
tics pleasanter and easier. The Newport Wil- 
low, above mentioned, was in Third sti'eet 
on the 'Point," and there may be many who re- 
member it as long ago as the time stated. Your 
Boston friend "F." can make inquiries around 
Long Wharf, and the boat builders, when he 
visits Newport next summer . 

[We are much indebted to our corresponden- 
for these notes. In our former remarks the ref- 
erence was intended to be in regard to the intro- 
duction of the Weeping Willow into New Eng- 
land, rather than over the whole country. 
Weeping Willows were not uncommon as side- 
walk trees in Philadelphia, in 1803, and there 
may be older dates elsewhere.^ED. G. M.] 



In 1876, Congress enacted a law by which 
it was made a penal offense, punishable 
by tine not exceeding *1,000 or imprisonment 




not exceedins; two years, to knowingly imitate 
any registered trade mark or deal in merchan- 
dise bearing such imitated marks without au- 
thority. Of course, the invoking of criminal 
law cannot be justified in this case merely as a 
protection to the private interests of those who 
hold trade marks, and it was not upon the theoi-y 
that the law was passed. It was seen that those 
who acquire a reputation for their goods because 
of their superiority, have every incentive to pre- 
serve their purity, and that if they are protected | 
in the use of their brands the public will have | 
greater security for obtaining good qualities of \ 
the merchandise it may require. Hence it be- 
comes a public injury to counterfeit these brands, ] 
and for the punishment of this the strong arm | 
of the criminal law may be properly invoked. ! 
Likewise it is a grevious i3u1jlic injury to have i 
spurious trees and plants disseminated; and if the | 
protection of the public from spurious brands of j 
coft'ee and soap, for example, will justify the in- 
terposition of the criminal law, how much more 
will its protection from the yearly increasing 
damages resulting from the dissemination or 
spurious trees, plants and seeds, warrant a simi- 
lar interposition of that law ? 

As will be readily seen, when a variety has 
become so generally distributed, that all nur- 
serymen have had an opportunity to obtain gen- 
uine stock and propagate liberally from it, the j 
price of specimen trees or plants of that variety 
will drop to the general average for specimens 
of that species, and then there will be little in- 
ducement to supply spurious specimens of it. 
Hence if we prevent frauds ii> the sale of new 
varieties, we shall put an end to the greater 
part of the frauds now practiced. The fact that 
with genuine stock from which to propogate any 
nurserymen can produce treeis of the identical 
variety produced by another nurseryman , renders 
it impracticable to effect this reform by means 
of simple trade marks, indicating by whom the 
trees to which these marks may have been at- 
tached were grown. But a copyright law would 
give to an originator and his assigns, for alimitpd 
term, the exclusive use of the name he might 
originally adopt to indicate his variety. As this 
term would cover the entire period of the nov- 
elty of a variety, and it is only by the wrongful 
me of an established name that these frauds can 
be made profitable, the conclusion seems to me 
irresistible, that a properly guarded copyright 
law would aflbrd substantial protection against 
such fi-auds. 

As to the scope of that law I would suggest 
briefly, that any person who should make oath 
that he had originated a new and distinct vari- 
ety of trees, shrubs, vines, plants, bulbs, tubers, 
seeds or cereals, which had never been dissemi- 
nated, should, under proper conditions, receive a 
certificate entitling him to protection in the use 
of the name he might originally adopt to indi- 
cate that variety, for the period now given to 
authors under the copyright law, with appropri- 
ate damages in case of an infringement of his 

Provision should be made for declaring void 
certificates granted on varieties which should 
prove to have been previously disseminated 
in any degree, and also for requiring the origi- 
nator to indicate on all specimens, and in all 
adveiLisements of the article, the fact and date 
of his copyright. 

It should further provide that the willful use of 
a valid copyright name without authority in con- 
nection with the advertisement or sale of goods 
of the species to which the copyright name had 
been applied, should be a penal offense, punish- 
able by fine or imprisonment, as m case of trade 
mark violations. 

As I have already shown, the property in 
copyright thus created, if the variety to which 
it might have been applied was in fact superior, 
would become valuable ; and it may be safely 
assumed that the self interest of those who hold 
copyrights upon names, which shall have ac- 
quired sufficient reputation to offer any temptation 
to their fraudulent use, will see that their rights 
are generally respected, and that the chances 
of having to surrender the profits of their fraud- 
ulent sales and be prosecuted criminally, will 
deter the great majority of those who now thrive 
by frauds from continuing the same. These two 
influences operating together cannot help secur- 
ing to the public a much larger proportion of 
genuine stock than it now gets, or fail to give 
to honest members of the trade a better chance 
in the race than the)"- now have. 


European Notes by the Editor. No. 8. — 
The public garden at Nottingham is called the 
"Arboretum," and comprises, perhaps, twenty 
acres, but the ground is of a more than rolling 
character, and so well taken have been all the 
advantages that one might really believe it was 
double the extent. This, indeed, is the most 




■striking feature o*^ English landscape gardening \ 
and, for the matter of that, French garden art ; 
also, to so make the most of ground that a very j 
little goes a great way. The tract was secured j 
by the'city in 1850, and all that has been done is | 
wholly the work of art since that time, nature j 
giving nothing but the irregular piece of ground, j 

It was in a driving rain, and we expected to ; 
' have a quiet stroll through by ourselves ; but I | 
had to learn over again what I had forgotten, | 
that weather like this, the half-normal condition | 
of the English climate, is no bar to the open 
air enjoyments of an Englishman or woman, and 
so we found, with umbrellas and overcoats, 
water-proofs and sensible, thick-soled shoes, 
some hundreds enjoying the walks through the j 
beautiful grounds. As all the walks were ! 
asphalted, there is no difficulty about this to one \ 
wlio does not care for the rain overhead. ! 

The effort to make a small place look larsje [ 
recjuires gref#t skill in its accomplishment; and I i 
tliink it is because this effort has been so success- j 
ful here that this "Arboretum " has such a world- 
wide reimtation ; the irregular contour of sur- 
face is, of course, very favorable. But not only i 
are the paths varied in width, and led around 
knolls wherever there might seem no excuse for 
going any other way, but" the whole style of art i 
i one continual change, and even the plants an 
trees are all of separate characters as we go | 
along. Here, for instance, in a hollow, is a 
mass of red Colchicuni Maples ; we follow a 
winding walk, and there in a sheltered nook ; 
come on a sort of Rhododendron garden ; pass- 
ing then around a curve we come on a belt of 
mixed shrubbery of no special importance, and 
perliaps really intended to keep from us the 
knowledge that we are very near some point we 
went over an hour ago ; but in front of this belt 
of shrubbery, and beyond the stretch of nice 
green grass, there is a Sweet William garden. 
Continuing to give way to the enchantment of 
the walk, we turn again around a knoll and are 
brought to face with a stretch of Laurels and other 
evergreens, having in front of them broad belts 
filled with blooming Hollyhocks, their gay 
flowers showing to great advantage by the help 
•of the wall of green foliage behind them. 
Leaving the irregular masses of shrubbery, we 
are then introduced for a change to a very for- 
mal Privet hedge with a narrow border of earth 
in front, and then a row of our common woolly 
Mullien, Verbescum thapsus, as courtly and 
severe as the hediie itself, as if each vied with 
eacli other as to which should be the most stately 
In the beholder's tye. 

The " Landscape Gardener " that Downincr, I 
believe, once told about, who took a handfull of 
stones, scattered them, and where each one fell 
stuck in atree, would find his "art" at a sad dis- 
count here, where every yard is a new surprise. 

From these curvy walks and continued succes- 
sion of floral changes, we come suddenly into 
the " Bell Garden," a square and level piece of 
ground, full of architectural objects, geometri- 
cal lines, and carpet beds gay with bright colors 
to match. 

The bell is a war trophy taken by a Notting- 
ham regiment from Hong Kong in 1857. The 
tower which supports it is a beautiful piece of 
architecture. It stands on a broad square plat- 
eau, reached on all four sides by flights of stone 
steps. On the fttur corners of the square plat- 
form are four cannon taken from Sebastapol in 
the Crimean war. This w^ar trophy seemed to give 
a reason for the broad plateau, and the numer- 
ous pretty beds of leaf plants and flowers spoke 
as if they were the decorations in honor of the 
victories gained by English arms. It is this 
fitness of things, this appropriateness, this defer- 
ence to the ideal, tjiat is the chief charm of these 
successful pieces of English landscape gardening. 
Then there are terraces from which we look 
doAvn on smooth gardens with bedding plants, 
the sunken places not looking as if they were the 
remains of some old canal, "the grave of which 
had been florally decorate'dby some sympathetic 
hand, but the space so cut out as' if it could 
not help being just what it was, and we should 
rather wonder if we saw it in any other way. 
Then there are nice seats and arbors where you 
can ?it and enjoy each particular scene, and see 
it so well from nowhere else. Now it is some 
beautiful public buildings in the city, appearing 
[ as if it was built expressly for you to admire from 
that spot. Tlien it may be some scene in the dis- 
I taut Sherwood Forest ; or, perhaps, a mass of 
i flower beds, water fowl and lake, parade ground 
or some other nice little bit on its own ground. 
; The points which struck me in the beautiful 
garden as being particularly worthy of note 
were that it was admirably designed in the first 
j place ; and in the second,that though the common- 
est materials were employed in decorations, they 
I were used with such admirable skill that no one 
'\ would think of them in any other light than as 
the highest effort of art. It Avas a cheap day in 
my English experience, giving one of the best 
lessons" in public gardening I could possibly 
I have. 

j As we cannot do more than take some types 
i of various classes of garden work, suppose we 
1 skip over some huncked miles or more in a 
south-easterly direction, and spend a day at the 
1 celebrated Sydenham palace in Kent. This 
! also is a public garden ; but it is owned by a 
j private company, the idea being to do a little 
gardening for profit as well as just for the pleas- 
ure of the thing. 

j Before I left America I had been kindly furn- 
ished with letters of introduction by distinguished 
{ Americans in various walks of life, to diflerent 
j English gentlemen ; knowing, however, that the 
i acceptance of hospitality and attentions, seri- 
I ously interferes with the seeing a great deal in a 
j short time by one whose busy life suffers him 
1 not to tarry' long in one place, I seldom used 
j any except where it was necessary to see some 
desired point not otherwise attainable. But as 
the Crystal Palace project is supposed to be a 
I pecuniary failure, I was really anxious to know 
more about its financial prospect than I could learn 
by looking about alone. Finding a letter in my 
wallet to Mr. Thomas Hughes, the President, I 




determined to iiiake use of it, as \ understood he 
was on the ground. I was directed to a room as 
the Secretary's office. At the far end were two 
or three clerks busy with their pens. It was some 
time before these gentlemen deigned to take any 
notice of my inquiry if Mr. Hughes was to be 
found. One at last came to me hurriedly, and on 
my repeating the question he replied sharply 
that he was, but was engaged and could not be 
seen. Before scarcely finishing his answer he 
was off, and at his desk again. There was noth- 
ing left but to follow him, when I explained 
that I was from America, and was the bearer of 
a letter from a friend of Mr. Hughes, and where 
could he be seen? "You can't see Mr. Hughes 
now, but you can leave the letter with me, or 
you can see the Secretary in that room." I 
walked into that ro(;)m, found it empty, came 
back and so reported. "Well, I don't know Avhere 
he is," was the busy man's reply, and he went 
on with his pen work. It did not seem to 
me a matter of supreme importance to see Mr. 
Hughes. I should probably learn something by 
ear I could not by eye, but then there was quite 
enough to keep eye and brain employed without 
that, so I did not see Mr. Hughes and walked 
away, and the only reason I mention the circum- 
stance is to say that such incivility is extremely 
rare in England. 1 found officials occasionally 
curt, especially on one occasion at Brighton, but 
the mention of the word "American" had in 
every other instance, been a complete passport 
to polite attention, in many cases to a degree I 
was quite surprised at. 

It was an admirable idea to preserve this 
building — the first in the inauguration of these 
wonderful exhibits ; and it is to be hoped that 
the enterprise which has staked so much on the 
venture will be ultimately successful. The 
building itself is a sort of a combination of the 
Main Exhibition Building and Horticultural Hall 
of our Centennial. Huge Acacias, ^lyrtles. 
New Holland Araucarias, with numcruus' hang- 
ing baskets of Rose Geraniums, interspersed with 
dolphin fountains, adorn the main promenade, 
while the side portions are used for the various 
collections of art, music halls, &c. 

The grounds are pretty, but I must say that, 
considering the reputation of the landscape gar- 
dener, Paxton, I believe, it did not strike me as 
a first-class specimen of art. In my poor 
opinion, it was terraced, va.sed, and fountained 
to death. The fountains had no water in them, 
and the lakes were chiefly dark mud and weeds. 
It may be, perhaps, that it was a bad season for 
these features; and, indeed, the lawns were as 
brown and burnt as any I ever saw in our own 
liot-summered country. There is a huge mound, 
which, after you reach its crown, you wonder 
what it was made for, for there is no view from 
it, and it seems almost incredible that it should 
have been thrown up for no other purpose than 
to make a base for the fiag pole Avhich surmounts 
it. Indeed, it seemed to be the weak point in 
the designing of these grounds, that there was 
no ideal ; it is mere ornamentation with 
nothing to ornament. This ornamentation, in 

j itself, was beautiful. The carpet bedding was- 
elaborate and tasteful, and I saw few specimens 
of such work in England that was its superior.. 
It is worthy of note, that with all our ideas of 
the superiority of the English climate for garden- 
ing, they have but a very short season in which 
to enjoy it, compared with what we have. It 
was then the 10th of July, and some of the beds- 
were only being planted. It takes thousands 
and thousands of" plants to carry out the bedding 
of the English gardeners, because, owing to their 
short seasons, they have to set the plants very 
close together, so that, a day or two after the 
planting, the bed is a complete carpet at once. 
As they have frosts often in September, they 
have generally little more than two months to 
enjoy these beautiful eftects. 

I must pass by the beauties of Hyde Park, and 
the numerous public parks of Eondon, and take 

I only one for my brief space to make a few notes 
on, 'as I thought it the best of its clJiss — Batter- 

{ sea Park. It'is some miles up the Thames from 
the heart of London, but the steamer takes you 
for a few pence, and it seems a very cheap ride ; 
but when I remembered our own beautiful river 
boats, with their numerous comforts and con- 
veniences, I had to remember the lesson I fre- 
quently had taught me in my traveling experi- 
ences, that Europe was a mucii cheaper place to 
live in than America, provided you bought 
nothing. Of course I knew Battersea of all my 
old haunts. Although over thirty years ago, I 
ran my mind through its slimy ditches, and cab- 
bage gardens, and "wild grass, and felt sure I 
could go right to the spot where we botanical 
boys used to go to get our Rumex Brittanicus, 
and other rare (for those parts) species of Docks, 
for these fields were our favorite hunting 
grounds. But it was not to be, for all around 

I were beautiful buildings, and a beautiful park 

! was on that very spot. It is perfectly amazing 
how young old London is. If the author of 
"Elora Londoniensis " could see it now, he 
would w\ant to emigrate to the United States. 
There is scarcely room even for a dock to grow 
about old London now. 

It was, for England, an uncomfortably warm 
day, though the thermometer was only 70°, and 
we began to long for some of the pleasant, cool- 
ing Smnmer drinks of our own land. There was 
a fair looking restaurant at the park entrance, 
with ai'bors of living vines, and seats and tables 
that seemed pleasant enough. People at the 
tables were indulging, in the favorite national 
beverage, while our eyes caught sight of " Ices " 
on a piece of pasteboard swir%ing in the wind. 
It came in a sort of sherry glass, and in a mo- 
ment had wholly disappeared. It was a very 
homojopathic dose for so serious an ailment,, 
so we had to take comfort from a newspaper by 
us, which gave a terrible account of the awful 
death of some one a few days before from eating 
ice cream. It was terrible to think of dying so 
far away from home, so we asked for glasses of 
" very cold water," and goblets holding nearly a 
quart were brought to us. Still it would not go. 
We had taken nothinLr which needed an emetic 




so we timidly inquired for ice, and to our great 
delight some chunks soon floated in the liquid. 
T cannot describe the curiosity with which we 
were regarded by those in the vicinity as we sat 
indulging in that" delicious drink; and. relating 
the, to us, amusing incident a day or two after, 
while dining with a leading Englisli nurseryman, 
he assured us that he did not wonder at it, for he 
did not remember that he had ever tastod ice 
water in his life ! 

But we were nicely cooled off, and started for 
a tour round the park. It seems to have an out- 
line of about two miles, and has much of the 
continually varying character of the Notting- 
ham arboretum, already described, only with 
more room ; there is, of course, a much greater 
variation, and these variations of a much more 
elaborate character. The land is flat and the 
great work has to be wholly one of art. The 
ancient ditches, to which we have referred, have i 
been gathered into great lakes, and scores of; 
boats "with ladies in them showed that the 
healthy exci'cise of rowing was a feminine ac- 
complishment. There were more varieties of 
American trees here than I had seen anywhere, 
the Silver Maple especially in considerable 
quantity, but it does not grow with the vigor it 
does in our river bottoms at home. Among the 
specialties of this park were bark basket beds 
which had painted cable rope for borders ; beds 
wholly of Moss roses, then beds of other roses, 
forming regular rose gardens ; beds of Zonale 
geraniums, in which immense quantities of one j 
kind would be massed ; and only imagine a gar- 
den in which the tobacco was the leading leaf 
plant of beauty, while the purple Senecio or : 
Jacob(jea formed a sort of base color between the '\ 
large tobacco leaves. The sub-tropical garden | 
is a special feature of Battersea Pai'k. To this ' 
end palms, tree ferns, Indian rubbers, and simi- 
lar things in pots and tubs are sunk in the | 
ground for the Summer. It is a principal ele- ] 
ment in giving the great variety this park pos- 
sesses, and so far a success. Then there are | 
rock gardens; and of this we must sayit seemed j 
the most successful attempt at rock-work we 1 
ever saw, and does great credit to its designer, 
Mr. Pulham. The stones in some places are 
arranged so as to resemble natural strata, in 
which effort considerable geological knowledge 
must have been called into service. Then to 
make the work look still more natural, across on 
the opposite side of the wide plain, rocks are ar- 
ranged in a very similar way, so that the way ap- 
pears as a gulch through the rock torn out by na- 
ture. Then rock-Wving bushes and genuine'rock 
plants are introduced among the rocks with little 
rills and cascades ; all so natural and yet so beau- 
tiful that you stand and look enraptured, not 
thuiking of it as a work of art, but only wonder- 
ing why you had not met with so charming a 
sight in the wild haunts of nature before. I had 
often heard of the carpet beds and tropical gar- 1 
dening of this park, but never of its wild rock i 
garden, but to me it was the loveliest of all. j 
The carpet beds, to be sure, are exquisitely 
beautiful. They were real carpets, for the leaf 
plants are kept down by scissors and shears to 

a perfect level, and no color is allowed to in- 
trude a hair's breadth on the line marked out 
for another. The plants used are all the same 
as we use for " massing ;" for carpet bedding, as 
I understood here, is almost unknown in our land- 
': We have mosaics, but no carpets. I had noted a 
silvery plant used in these carpet productions 
; not found in our gardening, and desirous to 
know its name, with the inquiry I handed my 
card to one of the foremen, as I had found by 
' experience the value of an American card in 
i obtaining kind consideration. After saying the 
plant was Leucophyton Brownii, and looking at 
the card he observed that one of the honorable 
Commissioners of the London parks was on the 
ground, and he was sure he would not be forgiv- 
en if he allowed me to go without an introduc- 
tion. I knew what this meant ; and as I had cut 
out for part of my day's work the use of one of 
my American letters to James McHenry, Esq., 
whom I had understood had a model suburban 
garden, and which I might take as a type of that 
style of English gardening, it was not without 
some reluctance that I went with my new found 
friend and was introduced to Mr. Rogers. On 
reading my name he treated me with the utmost 
cordiality, and was kind enough to say there 
was no one from America whose visit to the 
park gave him more pleasure than this of one 
with whose writings he had been so long famil- 
iar ; and there wa.s no help for it, I had to go 
over the pretty grounds again. And yet I was 
not sorry, for we cannot do more than learn 
Avherever we are, and I found Mr. Rogers a gen- 
tleman remarkably well versed in horticultural _ 
taste, and I could not but wish that all park" 
commissions were as ably and intelligently 
served. From Mr. R. I learned that there are 
occasionally changes among the personnel of 
Park Boards as with us, but the Secretary of 
the Board, and all other officers of Departments 
are in a measure permanent, and this ensures 
the carrying out of a uniform plan of manage- 
ment. There is no waste of public funds which 
follow changes, and no useless officers. There 
are two hundred acres in the park, and notwith- 
standing the many varied details, all un- 
der one foreman. 'There are men who have 
charge of divisions, who were first taken as 
laborers; these are "advanced men." The 
number of guards vary with the seasons. At 
times when thousands throng the park they may 
be as high as sixty. The lowest number is aoout 
sixteen. The plants for bedding purposes are all 
raised on the grounds. Fuf these purposes 
there are eight greenhouses, each 2U feet by 100, 
besides frames.' It may give some idea of the 
immense number of plants required for orna- 
mentation of this character, when I say that i.i 
the beds this season there were no less tha'i 
75,000 Lobelias, and 48,000 Geraniums. So great, 
however, is the national love of gardening 
among all classes, that whatever feelmg there 
may be against public expenditures, those on 
parks and public gardens are rarely objected to. 

The Boston Public Treks.— A correspoi 
dent writes that in our remarks on trees f( 




public grounds some injustice nn2;ht be done. 
Among articles furnished to the Boston author- j 
ities were some for which they paid $150 per ; 
100. This was a subject for investigation by the | 
city. It is contended that the price was not ex- 
horbitant, but was the regular wholesale rates 
of that grade of plants in this country. It is 
said that the investigating committee reported 
substantially to this effect. So far as this par- 
ticular case may be referred to by our remarks, 
he thinks that one should be excluded. 

The Post-office Kuler Again. — The Post- 
office schoolmaster is after Uncle Sanjuel's bad 
boys again, and the hands have to be held out 
for the ruler. !N'ow that our reformed Congress 
has re-enacted the franking privilege for its 
members, so that their dirty linen can be sent 
free through the mails to their' laundries at 
home, horticulturists have to be looked after, 
and their facilities cut down to the lowest possi- 
ble ebb. In all large cities a special agent has 
been appointed, whose duty is to open packages 
and examine their contents. The smallest 
package must be "open at the ends," or it is 
subject to letter postage. It has been hitherto 
thought to be quite sufficient that the general 
envelope be open, but now every 5 or 10 cent 
package of flower seeds must be " open at the 
ends," as well as the main wrapper; even 
good Mr. Cresswell's "transparent wrapper" 
will pass no more now. On making inquiry at the 
Philadelphia post-office whether, in the case of 
coarse seeds, bags sewn at the ends roughly, so 
that the seeds could be examined through the 
stitches, would do, we were told it would not. 
The package must be so that " the whole interior 
can be easily examined." 

It is strange that in these days, when a person 
can send a message by a penny postal card, that 
a great Government like ours should imagine its 
"customers" would steal a message through 
under cover of a package of seeds "or cuttings. 
'The whole of these " rules " are insulting to the 
American people. The fact is, there is no idea 
that any one will cheat the Government out of a 
penny postal card in this way. The real inten- 
tion is to favor the express companies as much 
as possible, by embarrassing the postage of 
seeds and cuttings through the mail, and this 
makes the insulting insinuation that we are all 
on the alert to rob the Government of a penny 
message the more unbearable. It will not do, 
in the "face of the liberal postal facilities of other 
countries, not to stem to be as liberal as they are 
to their people, so our Government can pretend 
to be progressive also, and then so embarrass 
the working of the law as to make it practically 

The express companies have gained a new 
triumph, and all under the pretence that we will 
" diddle " the Government out of a penny postal 
card ! 

Horticultural Importations.— Those re- Mr. Robinson's Wild Garden. — Of a new 
■ceived into the port of Philadelphia from j edition of this work a recent notice tells us : 
Europe have not been heavy the past year. Of !" Illustrations for a re-written and beautifully 
•articles not subject to duty, there were dried illustrated edition of this book are now being- 

flowers valued at $1,229; seeds $11,263, and of 
dutial)le article were bulbs, $1,547; dried grasses, 
*1.()U7: seeds, $15,851; trees and plants,'S5,729; 
of other articles of a more agricultural charac- 
ter on which duties were paid, were $150,000 
worth of potatoes, perhaps from Bermuda in 
early crops. 

Why Gardeners should Marry. — As 
noted elsewhere, the "agent" has been trapped 
and caught by the Gardener's Monthly 
folks, after he has had. for over a year, the 
good picking under his "agency" for many 
other periodicals, seed houses, anrl nurserymen, 
and could not be caught. We learn that one 
gardener near Germanl;own was saved by the 
good sense of his wife. He had agreed to get 
the Gardener's Monthly, "to be weekly, in 
future, with no increase in price," and the 
" shears," and he went rejoicing to the house for 
the $2 for the gentleman, who politely assured 
him that " he need not pay the money now until 
after he got the magazine," if he did not w'ant to; 
but as he had the receipts at hand it might save 
trouble to pay at once." But the wife forcibly 
inquired what he was "after in paying out money 
to a stranger," which happy thought struck the 
gardener as sensible, and so " Mr". Waters " was 
asked to "call again." A wife like that is a 
treasure to any man, and School Lane, German- 
town, should be proud of her. It seems clear 
that a man who consults his wife before giving 
money to a bogus agent, has decidedly the best 
of it, and we recommend the practice to those 
who have never been visited by Mr. Waters, 
or C. E. Anderson, or any such man. 

Darwin and Bryant. — The portraits of the 
philosopher and poet, as published, have a strik- 
ing resemblance to each other. 

Prof. Riley in Europe. — We noticed re- 
cently the misconceived criticism of an Euro- 
pean" author on Prof. Riley's work. We note 
that they are not all of that gentleman's opin- 
ion. Prof. Charles Joly , in La Science Povr tons, 
ending a review of the work of Prof. Riley 
relative to Doryphora, says : "We do not hesi- 
tate to highly commend "the labors of a man 
who is an honor to the learning and intelligence 
of his country." 

Transactions of the Minnesota Horti- 
cultural Society.— From Prof. Charles Y. 
Lacy, Secretary, St. Paul. There are few trans- 
actions of so truly a horticultural character. 
The work of the society covers every branch of 
the art, and the work is done Well. Those who 
think the State can grow nothing but crab 
apples, -will learn better by reading this volume. 

Drew's Window Garden.— Our correspond- 
ent, Mr. Drew, has written a small pamphlet on 
Window Gardening, which may be had for 25 
cents of Geo. W. P'ark, Mount Vernon, O. 




drawn in black and white b}' some of the best 
artists in London and Paris. These illustrations 
will show some of the results already obtained, 
and sugsrests Avhat is possible with niany types 
of vegetation. This book is written in the inter- 
est of the most charming phase of picturesque 
gardening, and we should be greatly obliged to 
any persons interested in such for permission to 
see any photographs or sketches showing beauti- 
ful flower life in a wild or semi-wild state. 
What is wanted are not portraits of individual 
tlowers, but wreaths, fringes, or colonies of them 
as they arrange themselves in a wild state, or are 
permitted to do so in the garden. American 
readers would also greatly oblige by letting us 
know if any photographs are obtainable showing 
flower life in the Northern, Eastern, Western, or 
Pacific States." 

Horticultural Catalogues.— We have 
several hundreds of catalogues before us, a 

large proportion asking " please notice." We 
would gladly do this if we had four or five pages 
to spare ; for, indeed, the greater part of them 
are extremely creditable and deserving of all 

The Rural New Yorker. — We do not know 
that any one should care to have more than his 
money's worth in a 'good paper when he sub- 
scribes therefor the full subscription price, but 
if it is to be, the Rural New Yorker^ s oft'er of a 
"combined clock and watch," seems about as 
good as any. We cannot, however, recommend 
a subscription on this account, for the paper is 
all any reasonable person ought to expect with- 
out it. 

That Bogus Agent. — He has been caught at 
last, and as we are writing this is in prison, in 
Philadelphia, awaiting trial, for though he is 
" such a nice young man," he could get no one. 
to go bail for his appearance. 

Horticultural Societies. 


address of rMARSHALL P. WILDER. 


Fomological Literature. — Among the most 
important agencies which have contributed 
largely to the advancement of the pomology of 
our country, we desire to speak especially of its 
literature. One hundred years ago this had not 
begun to exist in our country. Then there was 
not an agricultural, horticultural or pomological 
society, not a periodical or paper devoted to the 
cause of terraculture. When the Philadelphia 
and the Massachusetts Societies for Promoting 
Agriculture were formed, our only pomological 
literature was limited to a small number of 
European works. These were, as far as possible, 
collected in the libraries of these societies, and 
we early trace the beginnings of an American 
pomological literature in papers contributed to 
the publications of these same societies. The 
first of these communications appeared in the 
Massachusetts Agricultural Repository in 1796, 
on the natural history of the canker worm. In 
this paper Prof. Peck gave a very full account 
of this insect, still so injurious to our apple trees. 
This attention on the part of agricultural socie- 
ties to fruit culture has continued and increased 
to the present day, and I am of the opinion that 
however much we may be indebted to the State 
societies and other prominent organizations, we 
owe much to the unpretending reports of local 
societies for the interest which now pervades the 
masses and popularizes pomological knowledge. 
All of these may be counted in the history and 
literature of American pomology. Many of 
these are not only examples of real practical 
knowledge, but are highly creditable for their 
literary and scientific character. From these, 
our own publications have derived much of the 
information which gives them their excellence, 

all combining to make up the literature of Amer- 
ican pomology. Only fifty years ago the difficulty 
of obtaining'correct information from our own 
countrymen in regard to fruit trees and the cul- 
ture of them, was almost insuperable, and we 
were compelled to resort to such European 
authors as we could obtain. But those of the 
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, such as 
Merlet, Quintinye, I)uhamel, and the like, were 
in foreign languages, and not generally available 
for our uses if we except the "Pomologia" of the 
Dutch gardener, Herman Knoop, which had 
been translated. It was not, however, until 
about the beginning of the present century, even 
in these countries, that the new enterprise in 
fruit culture, which characterizes the present age, 
had sprung up. The publications of Van Mous 
in Belgium, Forsyth and Knight in England, 
and Poiteau and Noisette, in France, awakened 
a new interest in their own and other lands, but 
it was reserved for a later day, when their suc- 
cessors, George Lindley, Thompson, Rivers and 
Hogg of England ; Esperen, Bivort and Berck- 
maus, of Belgium ; Decaisne, Leroy and Mas, of 
France, and others of our own land, should 
infuse into the minds of cultivators that new 
zeal in fruit culture which has now spread 
throughout our own continent. But it was not 
until the establishment of horticultural societies 
in the United States, such as New York, in 1818, 
the Pennsylvania and Massachusetts, in 1828 
and 1829, and the publication of their proceed- 
ings, that the glorious era in which we live com- 
menced the development of our wonderful fruit 
resources. The first strictly pomological woi'k 
published in America was Coxe's "View of the 
Cultivation of Fruit Trees," which appeared in 

Through foreign correspondence and commer- 
cial intercourse, "the zeal which had been awa- 
kened in Europe soon extended itself to our 
shores ; trees, scions and pomological books of 
foreign oriain, w^ere freely added to our own 




collections. Societies were formed, new nurser- 
ies established, catalogues published, and a gen- 
eral desire manifested for new and improved 

In this new enterprise, Coxe, of ITew Jersey ; 
Hot^ack, Buel, and David Thomas, of New 
York; Mease, Carr, and Landreth, of Pennsyl- 
vania; Lowell, Manning and Downer of Massa- 
■<'husetts*. Young, of Kentucky ; Smith, ofRhode 
Island; Ives, and Miinson of Connecticut; 
Corse, of Canada; Hildreth, Longworth, and 
Kirtland, of Ohio ; Corse and Rogers of Mary- 
land ; Kenicott and Dunlap, of "Illinois, and 
■others— soon became actively engaged. 

We have spoken of the early publications of 
Horticultural Societies, but there is another class 
of publications to which we are even more 
indebted. In 1819, appeared the forerunner of 
ihe present host of Agricultural papers, the 
American Farmer, which still continues in a 
green old age, and it is a pleasant coincidence 
jthat we meet in the city where this first journal 
saw the light of day, and whose editor is the 
Secretar}' of the society whose hospitality we 
are now enjoying. 

Then came the New England Farmer, the 
Genesee Farmer, and the Albany Cultivator, 
through whose columns information began to be 
widely disseminated. Then came the fruit books 
and publications of the elder and younger Prince, 
Thacher, Manning, Kenrick, the Downings, 
John J. Thomas, Hovey, Barry, Brinckle, War- 
der, Hooper, Elliot, Field, Fuller and others. 
Nor should we fail to mention as powerful agents 
in advancing the cause, Hovey' s Magazine of 
Horticulture, the Horticulturist', the Gardener's 
Monthly, and the American Journal of Horti- 
culture. Another class of pomological literature 
deserves prominent recognition, viz. : the host 
of descriptive catalogues, of our nur- 
serymen, many of which are of the 
most reliable, instructive and interesting 
character. Ultimately, as a consummation much 
to be desired, came the Proceedings of the Amer- 
ican Pomological Society for the last twenty- 
nine years, embracing in consolidated form the 
reports of the various States and districts, the 
discussions, the catalogues of fruits adapted to 
each section of our country, and other informa- 
tion, such as is nowhere else to be found in the 
history of pomological literature. Through 
these publications the reputation of our Ameri- 
can fruits has attracted the attention of foreign- 
ers, so that European catalogues now possess 
many names of American varieties. 


But while I congratulate you on the prosperity 
of our institution, on its increasing influence, and 
on the lively interest manifested in its objects 
throughout our country, I am reminded of the 
absence of some who have labored with us for 
the promotion of our cause. Since our last ses- 
sion, there have been removed by death the fol- 
lowing persons, who have held official positions 
in the Society : Dr. Benjamin F. Edwards, of 
Missouri; William Blanchard Towne, of New 

Hampshire; Bartlett Bryant, of Vermont: Dr. 
Edwin S. Hull, of Illinois; Daniel W. Coit, of 
Connecticut ; and Dr. John S.Houghton, of Penn- 

Dr. Benjamin F. Edwards, of Kirkwood, Mis- 
souri, held the office of Vice-President for that 
State from 1867 to '69, and again in 1875 and '77. 
He was born in Darnestown, Maryland, July 2, 
1797, and died at his beautiful residence in Kirk- 
wood, April 27, 1877, at the ripe age of eighty 
years. His love of horticulture and kindred pur- 
suits commenced early in life. He was intimately 
associated in the culture ot the grape with Mr. 
Longworth, of Ohio receiving cuttings from 
him of all the native and foreign grapes, which 
he scattered a niong the most enterprising of his 
numerous patients, and which made Madison 
county one of the first in the State in grape cul- 
ture. He established a large vineyard in Jeffer- 
son county, on the German plan of close plant- 
ing, having fifty varieties of grapes, which he 
eventually reduced to four : the Concord, Ives, 
Norton and Herbemont. His interest in all mat- 
ters pertaining to horticulture continued through 
life. Dr. Edwards had lived in Kentucky and 
Illinois for a time, but he finally removed to St. 
Louis, with a great reputation as a physician, 
which in after life he fully maintained. Even in 
his busy profession, he constantl}- sought to pro- 
mote all benevolent and Christian enterprises, 
believing "that what he had belonged to God, 
and was given to him to be used for His cause." 
He was carried to his grave in a full old age, 
j universally beloved and respected. Many of us 
I well remember his introduction as the oldest 
j Vice-President at Chicago, and his appropriate 
reply ; also his affectionate speech at St. Louis, 
' as he placed a wreath presented by the ladies of 
, that city, on the head of your presiding officer. 
[ William Blanchard Towne, a Vice-President 
j of this Society for New Hampshire, was born in 
j Bow, N. H., October 12, 1810, and died suddenly 
in Boston, April 10, 1876, aged 65. He was in 
I early life employed in farming ; afterwards a 
merchant in Boston. He was Treasurer of the 
New England Historic-Genealogical Society, and 
one of its Vice-Presidents, and an active member 
I of the New Hampshire Historical Society; Pres- 
I ident of the Skovvhegan National Bank, and the 
j Milford Five-Cent Savings Institution, and mem- 
ber of the New Hampshire Legislature in 1872-73. 
1 Some years ago he purchased his father's home- 
' stead in Milford, and took a deep interest in the 
j exhibitions of his State and county. Mr. Towne 
I was a very useful man, and universally respect- 
j ed. 

I Bartlett Bryant, a Vice-President of this Soci- 
I ety for the State of Vermont, was born at Han- 
j over. New Hampshire, Feb. 26, 1822, and died at 
I Derby Centre, April 26, 1876. He was from 
early life attached to the cultivation of fruits, 
I and feeling the need of hardy fruits in his region 
j he established nurseries in Stanstead, Canada 
I and in Derby Centre and Enosburg, Vermont, 
I introducing new fruits, and doing a large business 
j in the distribution of hardy trees in the north and 
' north-west, especially with regard to oiu" colder 




regions. No man, says a friend, has done more 
in the last twenty-two years in the promulgation 
•of choice, hardy fruits than Mr. Bryant, for which 
his name will be honored in our north-eastern 
boundaries. His success in grafting the apple 
on the crab stock, to prevent injuries by frost, 
and the planting of large orchards of the crab 
varieties, and other very hardy apples, is well 
known. He was also 'much engaged in stock 
raising, especially of fine horses, possessing nine 
farms, and at the time of his death, lai'ge nurser- 
ies of fruit trees. He was a benevolent man, 
having made donations for schools, orphan 
children, etc., and his loss was much deplored. 

Dr. Edwin S. Hull, of Alton, Illinois, was 
born in Connecticut, May, 1810, and died at his 
residence Nov. 8, 1875. In 1844 he removed to 
the famous Hull farm, near Alton. He planted 
lai'ge orchards of fruit trees and soon became a 
leader in this line. As frequently is the case in 
new enterprises, he met with disappointments in 
his culture, but, never discouraged, he contended 
with the evils of insects, blight, etc., ever looking 
forward to better results which made him an au- 
thority on such subjects He gave much study 
to the character and depredation of insects, espe- 
cially the curculio, and invented methods for its 
destruction. He wrote extensively on the causes 
of pear blight, and his eftbrts by root-pruning to 
prevent it. He aided largely in founding the 
Alton Horticultural Society, of which he was 
President ; was State Pomologist ; a member of 
our Committee on Foreign Fruits for 1867 and 
^G8, and President of the Illinois State Horticul- 
tural Society, and for several years was horticultu- 
ral editor of the Prairie Farmer. Many of us will 
remember how courteously, as President of the 
Illinois Horticultural Societ}', he welcomed us 
at Chicago two years since, when he said, "these 
meetings bring us together from the North, 
South, East, West, and British Provinces, to form 
friendships stronger than an)^ i)olitical ties," 
and expressed the hope that at no distant day 
we shouldmeet again. These hopes were blasted, 
for in a few weeks he passed into the spirit 

Daniel Wadsworth Coit, at the time of his 
decease, was the oldest person who had held 
membership or office in our Society. He was 
born in Norwich, Conn., in 1787, and died in that 
city on the 18th of July, 1870, in the 90th year of 
his age, under the majestic elms where his widow 
now resides. Early in life he was engaged 
in New York in commercial pursuits, and highly 
respected as a merchant. In 1819 he went to 
Peru, where he resided for some seven years, in 
business relations with England, Ameiica and 
Spain, having more than once crossed the Andes, 
visiting the mountains and the ruined cities of the 
Incas. He repeatedly visited Europe and partic- 
ularly Spain, in whose schools of art he took a 
great interest. In 1840 he returned to his native 
home ; but just before the breaking out of the 
war with Mexico he went to that city, where he 
was established in business for awhile. From 
Mexico he went by way of Acapulco to Califor- 
nia, where he was for some years engaged in 

business. On his return to his home at Norwich, 
he devoted the remainder of his life to horticul- 
tural pursuits with as much energy and enterprise 
as he had given to mercantile affairs. As a cul- 
tivator of fruits and flowers he was one of the 
most scientific and successful of our times, 
proving all of the novelties and retaining only 
those in his opinion most worthy. He was 
formerly Chairman of the Fruit Committee for 
Connecticut. His good taste and discrimination 
made him an authority in the selection of the 
finest fruits. Mr. Coit was somewhat distin- 
guished as an artist, and during his wanderings 
exercised his skill in making sketches which are 
of great merit. These, together with those which 
he had collected in Europe and America, he left 
to his family, among which are views in Lima 
and Mexico, the ruined cities of the Incas, of the 
Cordilleras, and especially sketches of San Fran- 
cisco, then only a group ol' rough huts. His skill 
he retained to the close of life, and his works are 
prized not only as mementoes but as works of 

Dr. John Skillin Houghton, of Philadelphia, 
was born in Dedham, Mass., Oct. 18, 1816, and 
died suddenly in Philadelphia, Dec. 11, 1876. 
Dr. Houghton was an active worker in the field 
of pomology and horticulture, and was chairman 
of the State Committee for Pennsylvania from 
1869 to 1873. For many years he was a zealous 
experimenter in fruit culture, and although he 
failed to make it profitable he exerted an'influ- 
ence that was widely felt. His pear orchard 
consisted at one time of many thousand trees. 
He experimented extensively on the cutting and 
pinching-in system with pears, for the production 
of fruit, even at the expense of the vitality of the 
trees. He was a great worker and an invalua- 
ble member of the Pennsylvania Horticultural 
Society — full of enterprise, energy and despatch 
— and his death was much regretted. 

Nor can I close this record without recogniz- 
ing the sudden death of one of our members at 
Chicago, whither he went to attend our meeting. 
I allude to Mr. Samuel H. Colton, delegate from 
the Worcester Horticultural Society of Massa- 
chusetts, who died at the Grand Pacific Hotel ia 
that city on the 13th day of September, 1876. 
Mr. Colton was largely interested in horticultu- 
ral pursuits, and formerly in the nui'sery business. 
He was an influential member of the above 
named society, and for many years its treasurer. 
He took great pleasure in discussing and dissem- 
inating native fruits, was a frequent correspond- 
ent of horticultural journals, and for some j'ears 
editor of the Massachusetts Spy. He was also a 
director in the Quinsigamond Bank, and ti-eas- 
urer of the People's Fire Insurance Company, 
and was a gentleman of sterling worth, most 
amiable in his disposition, and upright in all the 
relations of life. 

Thus, three Vice-Presidents, and three others 
who have held official relations, have been re- 
moved since our last meeting. They have gone 
before us, their places have been made vacant, 
and are now filled by others. How long we shall 
remain, is only known to Him who holds the 




issues of life in his hands. Some of our lives are 
wellnigh spent, and ere we meet again our sun 
will have set below the horizon of this world. 
Let then these lessons of mortality prompt us to 
greater diligence for the promotion of our cause. 


Standing here as conservators of American 
Pomology, enjoying as we do such peculiar privi- 
leges for research and discovery , let us use every 
eftbrt to advance our cause by diligent 
experiment and observation, so that as 
we come up from session to session, we 
may add something to the common stock 
of information, and thus develop for the 
good of mankind the rich treasures which our 
science has in store for the world. Thus let us 
work on, hand in hand, to scatter these blessings 
broadcast through the land. Others may seek 
for the honors of public life or the victoi-ies of 
war, which too often carry with them the recol- 
lection of wounded hearts and painful disappoint- 
ments. But let us continue to work on, feeling 
assured that our labors will cause no regret. As 
Mrs. Sigourney has beautifully versified my 
former remark — 

"No sting in the l)osora of memory we're leaving, 
No stain on llie pinion of time." 

Let us commence the new century in the history 
of our Republic with increased enterprise and 
zeal for the promotion of our cause, and should 
any of us be called from our labors on earth, let 
us feel assured that others will continue the work 
we have begun, and carry it forward to still 
greater perfection. Let the successes of the past 
stimulate us to greater exertions for the future. 
Let us work on, "full of hope, regardless of all ob- 

"Still achieving, still pursuing,"' 

until we shall reach that better land whqre the 
garden shall have no blight, fruits no decay, and 
where no serpent lurks beneath the bower — 
where harvests are not ripened by the succession 
of seasons— where the joys of fruition shall not 
be measured by the lapse of time. 

Horticulture in California.— A Horti- 
cultural Society has been formed at Los Ange- 
los, the first, we believe in the State. 

New York Horticultural Society.— At 
the March meeting of this Society, Mr. Boileau, 
who has charge of Trinity Cemetery, and is an 
enthusiastic landscape gardener, addressed the 
Society on the pruning of fruit trees, having pear 
and apple trees to illustrate his method^ He 
made an admirable exposition of this subject, 
and was listened to with marked attention. Hya- 
cinths, Camellias, Azalias, Carnations, Bego- 
nias, Orchids and Pelargoniums had premiums 
awarded to them. 

The Kentucky Horticultural Society 
has determined to compete for the Wilder medal 
to be awarded at the meeting of the American 
Pomological Society, to be held at Nashville, 
Tenn., in September, 1879. This medal is given 
to such societies only as make a meritorious 
display of fruits. The Kentucky society expects 

\ to place upon the tables not less than one thou- 
I sand plates of fruit. 

: Maryland Horticultural Society.— The 
\ practice of having instructive talks about tlie 
objects exhibited we are pleased to see is grow- 
j ing. At the Feb. meeting of this Society Mr. 
j Wm. Eraser, who has demonstrated in the con- 
[ servatory at Patterson Park, how in practice the 
I best results are obtained in plant growth, read 
I an exctfllent paper, on this interesting subject 
j tracts in our next. Mr. Pentland made a spirited 
little speech, bearing rather severely on the 
j deficiency of floml display and taste in 
I Baltimore as compared with some other 
cities ; and the President, Mr. Perot, made 
j some remarks on the adaptation of gloxi- 
nias, achimenes and similar subjects, to the orna- 
mentation of the greenhouse in summer. 

The committee gave a special commendation 
to a seedling Carnation "Waverly," shown by 
\ August Hoen, for its large and brilliant flowers, 
I free-blooming qualities and great fragrance ; to 
I James Pentland for his seedling Camelia, "Stone- 
wall Jackson," exhibited for "the first time, of 
good form and color and beautifully variegated; 
to W. D, Brackenridge for a specimen in flower 
, of Mahonia japonica ; to S. Feast & Sons for cut 
Camellias, Roses, Pansies and White Hyacinths ; 
I to Captain Snow for fine display of Orchid 
1 blooms ; to Robt. J. Halliday for a general col- 
lection, including a fine Pandanus Yeitchii; and 
to Patterson Park (Wm. Fraser, Supt.) for a 
^ handsome and well-filled table, including nota- 
' bly well-grown specimens of Phajus Wallachi. 
, Abutilons John Hopkins and Darwinii, &c. 

Ma.ssachusetts Horticultural Society.— 
At the meeting on March 2d the best winter pear 
i exhibited was decided to be the BeurreD'Anjou, 
' from J. Y. Wellington ; the next best winter 
! variety from the same. C. E. Grant's Baldwins 
were the best winter apples. Mr John E. Bar- 
; ker received a vote of thanks on his retirement 
I from long and active service as chairman of the 
■ Floral Committee. A testimomial of thrt-e craj-on 
photographs of himself was presented to Mr.Park- 
i man for his distinguished services to Horticul- 
ture. Hon. M. P. Wilder presented a copy bound 
of all his speeches and addresses. 

The president read the following letter, which 
had been received by him : 

; ' The undersigned, intrusted in advancing a 
practical taste for floriculture, especially among 
the children of the laboring classes, desire that 
i the Massachusetts Horticultural Society shall 
j oft'er prizes for window gardening, and conduct 
j all the business of advertising, exhibiting and 
I awarding prizes necessary to insure success." 
j Signed, Rufus Ellis. 

] Henry W. Foote. 

! C. A. Bartol. 

It was voted that the Committee on Plants 
and flowers, with Mrs. J. W. Wolcott, Mrs. C. N. 
S. Horner and Mrs. E. M. Gill, be a special com- 
mittee to establish and award prizes, for window 
I gardening, agreeably to the above communica- 







Vol. XX. 

MAY, 1878. 

Number 233. 

Flower Garden and Pleasure Ground. 




I am a recent subscriber to the Gardener's 
Monthly, and am well pleased with it. I have 
noticed a complaint of Dutch bulbs deteriora- 
ting in the South after a few years. I have this 
day sent to your address by express a box of 
hyacinth blooms for 3'our inspection and judg- 
ment, and your opinion as to their retrogade 
movements. I have been cultivating these 
same bulbs from five to seven years. They 
were bought of Henry A. Dreer, of your city. 
Many of the bulbs send up from three to five 
spikes. The three White Double Pink Eye in 
the package all grew from one bulb. Should 
you wish to hear about the cultivation, I can in- 
torm you at another time. Many of the best 
spikes were faded. I have not sent you all the 
kinds 1 have. I have a garden of flowers, in- 
cluding nearly everything desirable to please, 
that will grow in the open ground. The Hya- 
cinths were mixed kinds without names. Tu- 
lips, the same, just beginning to bloom. The 
Peach blooms are the Double and Italian and 
Van Buren Dwarf, &c. 

fWe have rarely seen finer flowers. They 
were superior to the average of newly imported 
bulbs. The offered account of their culture 
would be very acceptable. — Ed. G. M.] 



It is one of the regrets of planters in this 
region of Philadelphia that we cannot have the 
grand Elms of our Eastern States, because of 
the terrible attacks made on them by insects. And 
just here let me ask the wise men who made the 
nurseries for the "park," if they know of this 
sad depredation, for we see they are setting out 
vast numbers of the attacked — and therefore 
useless for ornament — Elm trees. But this apart, 
for time is to test the wisdom brought to bear 
on our park planting. I want Mr. Median's 
opinion as regards the freedom of the Slippery 
Elm, Ulmus fulva, from insects. My own ex- 
perience is that it is free from attack, and if so, 
as it has a weeping habit, it will be invaluable 
in the Middle States. I have a specimen equal 
to any of the great ornamental Elms of New 
England, and I learn with pleasure, Mr. Editor, 
that you also have a perfect tree unattacked by 
enemies. But more, I hear that you and Mr. 
Parsons have propagated largely from this, and 
I want to know all that you know on the subject. 

[The Slippery Elm in this region has its leaves 
badly riddled by a small beetle— a species of 
Galeruca — during the latter end of Summer ; 
but the trees do not look near so shabby after- 
wards as other species do after similar attacks. 
Chestnut avenue, Germantown, has its side- 
walks planted with them. They are now about 
twenty years old, and are very beautiful. — Ed. 






I send you a copy of the English election list, 
and one of Mr. Ellwanger (of Ellwanger & 
Barry) called the American List of Roses, taken 
from the Garden of Xov. 17th, 1877, hoping that 
you may find it of sufficient interest to publish it. 
If you do it might lead to a further discussion of 
the merits of many of the roses and benefit all 
lovers of them, and the trade also by making a 
greater demand for what might prove the greatest 
favorites. Other points of interest would arise 
as to fresh bloomers, the most perpetual, «&c., 
of the hybrids, of which the list is largely com- 
posed. Why should such general favorites as 
General Jacqueminot, Safrano, Bon Silene, &c., 
be left out, when they have been so generally 
adopted as forcing roses in this country ? 

Best 48 Roses, English Election and Mr. Ell- 
wanger's lists : 

rare about me, indeed, never abundant any- 
where; but last fall I saw very beautiful and 
stately trees on the edge of the swamps near 
the Savannah river rice fields. A few years ago 
I procured two or three trees, a foot or two in 
height, but they have hardly grown at all in 
this dry and sandy soil ; and yet I have seen 
them grow in such situations as Caleb ogue 
Sound, Hilton Head— within sight of the ocean. 
But they usually prefer the rich wet knolls of 
the swamps, but never anywhere do they form 
forests of pines as do the others. 

[Hoopes, Bro. & Thomas had a nice specimen 
in their collection at the Centennial Exhibi- 
tion.— Ed. G. M.l 

Marie Bauman. 
Alfred Colomb. 
Charles Lefebvre. 
La Prance. 
Marechal Neil. 


6 Baronne de Rothschild 


Francois Michelou. 
LouiB Van Houtte. 
Etienne Levet. 
Marquise de Castellane. 
Mad. Victor Verdier. 
Duke of Edinburgh. 
Mdlle. Marie Rady. 
Comtesse de Oxford. 
Doctor Andry. 
Senateur Vaisse. 
Xavier Olibo. 
Mdlle. Eugenie Verdier. 
Edouard Morren. 
Catherine Mermet. 
Horace Vernet. 
Marguerite de St. Amand. 
Emilie Hansburgh. 
Ferdinand de Lesseps. 
Dupuy Jamain. 
Camille Bernardin. 
John Hopper. 
Reynolds Hole. 
Victor Veredier. 
Prince Camille de Rohan. 
Mdlle. Marie Van Houtte. 
Captain Christy. 
Madame Lacharme. 
E. Y. Teas. 
Duke of Wellington. 
Souvenir d'un Ami. 
Pierre Netting. 
Souvenir d' Elise. 
M. Marie Finger. 
Mad. Marie Cointet. 
Fisher Holmes. 
Monsieur Norman. 
Comtesse de Serenye. 
Sir Garnett Woolsley. 
Mad. Charles Wood. 
Star of Waltham. 
Mdlle. Annie Wood. 

La France. 
Marechal Neil. 
Marie Bauman. 
Louis Van Houtte. 
Alfred Colomb. 
(Charles Lefebvre. 
(Ferdinand de Lesseps. 
Catherine Mermet. 
Mdlle. Marie Van Houtte. 
Mad. Victor Verdier. 
Mdlle. Marie Rady. 
Francois Michelon. 
Marquise de Castellane. 
Baronne de Rothschild. 
Etienne Levet. 
Mdlle. Eugenie Verdier. 
John Hopper. 
Abel Grand. 
Comtesse de Oxford. 
Senateu Vaisse. 
Victor Verdier. 
Glorie Dijon. 
Comtesse de Sambac. 
Captain Christy. 
Chehunt Hybrid. 
Prince Camille de Rohan. 
Comtesse de Serenye. 
Mdlle Marie Cointet. 

Belle Lyonnaise. 
Comtesse de Chabrillant. 
Marguerite de St. Amand. 
Mad. de Ridder. 
Mdlle. Therese Levet. 
Horace Vemet. 
Exposition deBrie. 
Souvenir de Malmaison. 
Marie Dncher. 
Fisher Holmes. 
General Washington. 
Pierre Netting. 
Mad. Norman. 
Mdlle. Bonnaire. 
Mad. Berard. 
Mad. Trifle. 
Maurice Bernardin. 
Reynolds Hole. 
Mad. Marie Finger. 



This is a splendid tree, and I have often won- 
dered that it has not been cultivated. It is 



Fig. 13, 24 feet long by 8 wide. 1 is Alter- 
nanthera Paronychioides major ; 2, A. versicolor ; 

Fig. 13. 
3, A. amoena; 4, Leucophyton Brownii ; and 
5, Sedum acre elegans. 

Fig. 14 has a diameter of 15 feet, with thereon 
arranged thirteen smaller circles ; the center 
circle a is to be a specimen of Agave Americana 
variegata in the center, then Sedum spectabile 
roseum ; one ring of Rocliea falcata; one do. 
Cerastium arvense ; one do. Aloes ; and one 
Pyrethrum. Circles 6, centres Agave A.mericana 
var,, Sedum micranthum, Rochea falcata, and 
Pyrethrum. Circles c, specimens of Cotyledon 

Fig. 14. 




pulverulentum, Sedum acre, and Pyrethrum. 
"Circles d^ Agave filifera nana, Sedum glaucum, 
"Cacalia, and Pyrethrum. Circles e, Agave veru- 
cosa, Sedum acre aureum. Aloes, and Pyreth- 
rum. Cu-cles/, Agave Americana, Sedum op- 
positifolium, Sempervivum Donklari arborea, 
•and Pyrethrum. 1 is Alternanthera amabilis 
latifolia sin-rounded by a lingermg ribbon of 

Fig. 15. 
Pyretlirum; 2, A. amoina; 3, Leucophyton 
Brownii ; and 4 Sempervivum montanum. 

Fig. 15 is the half part of a bed, 40 feet by 8 
wide. 1 is Alternanthera magnifica, bordered 
by Pyrethrum, as well as is 2, Cerastum arvense ; 
3, Alternanthera amcena; 4, Pyrethrum; and 5, 
Sedum acre elegans. 

Pig. 16, 27x8. Alternanthera versicolor ; 2, 
A. spatulata; 3, Sedum acre; 4 Pyrethrum; 5, 
Alternanthera magnifica; 6, A. paronychioides ; 

--' VINES. 

1. Every vine, shrub or tree that approaches the 
condition of evergi-een, is valuable for its winter 
beauty. Hall's Japan Honeysuckle is the most 
valuable of all the family of hardy Honeysuckles. 
It is hardy, luxuriant, a real everbloomer the 
Summer tlu-ough, of fine green leaf, and, except 
under long continued severely cold weather, it is 
evergreen. Under my window, as 1 write, is a 
vine spread upon the ground, as green as in mid- 

The Flexuosa, or Chinese, is near by, quite 
shrunk with cold, and will do no more till 
Spring. If one can have but one, that one 
should be Hall's. If suffered to grow along the 
ground, it will root at almost every joint, and 
furnish abundance of new plants without trouble. 

I have enjoyed a method of treating Honey- 
suckles on the lawn, viz., putting about a 
vigorous root five or six stakes, say four feet 
high, surrounding them with twine, about three 
hoops at equal distances, and allowing the vine 
to cover them. By the second year an altar of 
green will be formed, most comely to the eye. If 
the Aurea reticulata shall be used, it will give a 

7, A. amoena; 8, A. spectabilis ; 9, Pyrethrum; 
10, Cerastium tomentosum ; 11, Mesembryan- 
themum cordifolium variegatum ; 12 Sedum acre 
elegans; 13, Peristrophe angu«tifolia ; and 14, 
Sempervivum Californicum- 

Fig. 17. 1, single specimens 'of Chamapeuce 
diacantha; 2, Pyrethrum; 3, Alternanthera 
paronychioides; 4, A. amoena; 5, Leucophyton 
Brownii; 6, Mesembryanthemum cordifolium; 
and the small circles on the lawn are single 
specimens of Sempervivum Donklari. 

splendid golden effect. Golden vines should not 
be suffered to twine with others, as the appear- 
ance will be that of a sickly vine mixed with a 
healthy one ; but, kept separately, the effect is 

The Lonicera fragrantissima is a shrub that 
comes very near being evergreen. In sheltered 
places it will hold its leaves till after Christmas. 
At Peekskill, forty miles north of I^ew York, on 
the flanks of the Highlands, it is yet (Jan. 4) in 
good condition, though it has passed through 




several severe freezings. Its perfume in Spring 
is delicious. 

2. Why has not the Styrax been brought into 
notice? It has gone through last Winter, at 
Peekskill, without being harmed. There are 
few shrubs that can compare with it for beauty 
in its blossom season, and it ought to be in 
every garden. I can get it only by sending to 
England for it. It is finer than Andromeda 
arborea, which with me is not hardy enough to 
flourish, or I am not skillful enough to make it 
live except as an invalid. I do not know the 
specific name of my Styrax, but I think it is 
Styrax japonica. There are several native 
species that deserve to be introduced to our nur- 
series, to say nothing of scores of other things 
unknown and unattainable now. I know the 
reply. Nurserymen cannot afford to cultivate 
stock for which there is no demand. True, in 
large quantities ; but American nurseries have 
now reached a degree of development that will 
enable many of them to bring forward unknown 
plants, and give them such publicity as shall 
create a demand. Some agreement might be 
had by which one would fill out a special depart- 
ment, another a different one, so that out of six 
or eight nurseries a gentleman might secure 
what he wished. I cannot secure from any or all 
American nurseries the hardy Pines. Even 
Pinus mitis, so abundant in the fields, is a 
stranger to most nurseries — not to the catalogues. 
Oh, no ! the catalogues are all right, but orders 
come back unfilled in a manner that leads one to 
think that catalogues are copied from European 
lists, or are made up as fancy work. 

3. Speaking of Conifers, much is written about 
transplanting. My experience is, that ever- 
greens may be transplanted at any time of the 
year when the ground is open and workable. I 
do not lose the half of one per cent, of the hun- 
dreds that I annually move. If they are ripped 
up and jerked out of the ground, laid in the sun, i 
and, worse yet, in the mud, until others have ! 
been slaughtered, and then hauled in an open I 
cart, stuck into a cramped hole, chunks of dirt < 
thrown in, and trodden down by one's feet, no I 
wonder they die. It would be a shame if they : 
did not. Take up the roots largely, cover them , 
from the light as you would your children's i 
bodies, plant them in a larger hole than that 
which they have left ; take time ; press the roots \ 
as if you were combing your own hair for a j 
party ; see that they are not planted an inch j 
deeper than they stood before moving, and then ' 

— mulch — mulch — mulch — them. After that you 
may whistle at Summer droughts or Winter 
freezing. I have had as good luck in orders 
from nurseries in September and October as in 
March or April. I lost some — I always do, for 
the most careful nurserymen are careless, judged 
by my standard. I had as lief transplant in July 
as in May, in November as in June. It only 
requires a little more care. In that murderous 
season, four or five years ago, I had planted 
many scores of Coniferous evergreens, but did 
not lose one per cent. — on the windy hills and 
sharp climate of Peekskill — and all because the 
plants were abundantly planted and abundantly 
mulched. Mulching, Summer and Winter, is 
supreme safety, for ornamental trees and for 
fruit trees. I have saved a pear orchard by a 
system of mulching in Summer as well as 

4. I mean to write you bye-and-bye of my 
mistakes and blunders ; successes are all very 
well ; everybody likes to narrate them. But 
there is great instruction in well-considered 
blunders ; only, men are ashamed to re- 
late them ; and so much knowledge is lost. 
There is hardly a department of cultm-e, escu- 
lent vegetables, ornamental trees, fruit trees, 
flowers, vines, etc., etc., in which I have not 
been rich in mistakes. Ought they to die unre- 
corded? Enough. My paper has given out, 
and your patience, too, doubtless. 

[It is not often Mr. Beecher makes such mis- 
takes as that suggested by the last four words.. 



There are many plants allied to the Amaryl- 
lis, as we find by looking through catalogues 
and books on Bulbs. The following were 
taken from a Dutch list of Bulbs : 

Alstroemeria — Fhowers of great beauty and 
easy culture. Brunsvigia — Large bulbs, pink or 
crimson flowers. Buphane — Allied to Bruns- 
vigia, nink or scarlet flowers. Coburgia — Green- 
house bulbs, flowers yellow, or orange-red. 
Crinum — Flowers resembling the Amaryllis, 
white or rose. Grifiinia — Rose, blue, or violet 
lily-like flowers. Habranthus — Allied to Ama- 
rylis, fine for pot culture. Hippeasti-um — Gene- 
rally known as Amaryllis Ismene. — Very pretty 
flowers of white or yellow. Lycorus — Bears 
beautiful flowers, golden lily. Nerine — Guernsey 
lily the type, vermillion scarlet flowers. Pan- 




cratiuni — Delicate white sweet-scented flowers. 
Phsedranassa— Yellow, or bright scarlet flowers. 
Phycella — Charming flowers, yellow, red or 

Of the above we have oloomed the Crinums 
(Capensis and Amabile) Griflinia,IIippeastrum, 
Ismene, Nerine, and Pancratium; and have 
cultivated Brunsvigia, Coburgia, Lycorus, Al- 
strcemeria ; Phsedranassa, and Phycella without 
blooming them. Our Alstrcemeria died of heat 
■and a dry atmosphere. Brunsvigia, and also 
Belladonna lily, may have been disturbed too 
often ; they grew vigorously. The Lycorus (a 
lovely flower) divided into two, and refused to 
ibloom. The Phycella ingloriously gave up and 
died. The Phtedranassa grew well, but de- 
clined to give us one blossom to satisfy our 
longing eyes, and the Coburgia followed its ex- j 

I tried for many years to learn in what 
situation the Hippeastrum variety grew, but 
■excepting a mention of one, by Livingstone, 
which he found in a grassy meadow, heard 
nothing, nor of any one that knew, till pre- 
sented with " Herbert's Amaryllidea." In 
*his I learned that the yellow, or orange vari- 
ety grew among the rocks, in a forest, and some- 
times in the crotches of trees. Since then I 
have met a florist in Baltimore who has been 
•on several United States Expeditions, and who 
informed me that he had seen the evergreen (or 
fall blooming) variety growing in the "West 
Indies, in damp spots behind rocks. After that 
a florist told me that he had been speaking with 
:a physician who had been to the West Indies. 
'This gentlemen told him that he had seen the 
Hippeastrum in bloom, by the acre, in or near 
the edges of forests. An English lady travel- 
ing in the West Indies, mentions them as grow- 
ing in the foiest. Herbert describes Crinums as 
^rowing in or near ditches of water. A large 
variety brought from Africa was said to have 
"been fouiid growing close to a river. I have 
found, too, when cultivating the Crinum, ama- 
"bile, Capense, Americanum, &c., that if freely 
watered (as freely as for a Calla) they grew 
with astonishing luxvn-iance. 

Since writing last upon tlie Amaryllis, I 
have heard of various modes for its treatment, 
and some very successful ones. Lately a lady 
told me that it had been her practice, at the time 
she removed her plants to the garden, or yard, 
to place her Amaryllis (Johnsonii) in the cellar, 
putting the pots on top of a cupboard, where they 

remained, without water, till September. She 
generally put them away in the pots, but some- 
times without. The cellar was a slightly damp 
one. In September they were re-potted in a 
mixture of garden earth and chicken manure, 
the latter being taken from the floor of the 
chicken coops, where it was partially mixed with 
earth. They were then put into the windows of 
a warm sunny kitchen, and never failed to 

Another lady reversed the mode just described. 
As soon as decidedly cold weather approached 
she placed her Amaryllis in the cellar, and left 
thei'e with occasional watering (the cellar being 
a dry one), till warm spring weather, when they 
were sunk in the garden border. They bloomed 
after this treatment without fail, after being 
previously kept in a sunny chamber window, 
during the winter, without blooming. 

A lady of Philadelphia plants hers out in the 
Spring, pots them in the rich earth as soon as 
cool weather approaches, then rests them in the 
cellar till the middle of December, when they 
are taken into a warm, sunny room. In two 
weeks they are, generally, in bud, and never fail 
to bloom. One lady kept the fall-blooming (or 
evergreen) kind out of the ground for 8 months ; 
it was then put into the garden where it bloomed 
finely during the latter part of Summer. 


Horticulture in Japan. — The Japanese, 
after having furnished our gardens with some of 
our best treasures, are retaliating, and our popu- 
lar flowers now appear in their gardens. 

Lamium purpureum. — This pretty European 
species is becoming somewhat common in culti- 
vated ground in the North Eastern States. If 
we must have imported weeds, it is some com- 
pensation when they are pretty ones. 

LiLiUM Krameri. — This superb Japan lily, 
with others has been imported, in some quantity, 
direct from Japan, its native country, by Mr. 
Such. We have hitherto been dependent on 
European enterprise. 

Forest Grove Cemetery, Utica, New 
York. Under the management of Mr. Roderick 
Campbell, this is achieving an eminent repu- 
tation. A newspaper article now before us 
speaks of it in terms of the highest praise. We" 
like to note these things, as nothing is more 




melancholy than the neglected grave yards one 
sees so commonly in traveling through the 
country, " Honor thy father and thy mother," 
was surely not intended to cease with their lives. 
Of course, this care for the memory of the dead 
often degenerates to vulgarity ; but all things 
have their extremes. 

The English Daisy.— From time to time 
the beautiful little English Daisy is taken in 

hand by the improvers, with new styles or at 

They are very beautiful spring flowers, but in 
our country somewhat difficult to keep over sum- 
mer. They require a cool soil and situation,, 
such as a sunk pit, for instance. Though so many 
Americans have heard of the Daisy, few have 
seen it. The accompanying illustration will 
give them an idea of it. 


The Thick-leaved Elm. — The American 
Jigriculturist has a good word for the Ulnms 
crassifolia. It was gathered by the Agriculturist 
twenty-five years ago near San Antonio, and 
was previously figured in I^uttall's addition to 
Michaux' Sylva and named Ulmusopaca, though 
in the Flora of Arkansas, he had already de- 
scribed it as U. crassifolia. It seems likely to 
be hardy enough to stand where the Madura 
does, which is a native of the same State. 


The Bartram Oak. — This rare form, named 
by Michaux, Quercus heterophylla, is very much 
desired by Mr. Eli K. Price, one of the Honora- 
ble Commissioners of Fan-mount Park, to help 

least, some new feature. In taking up Messrs. | complete the Michaux Oak grove. If any one 
Yilmorin's (the celebrated Paris seedmen,) cat-; has a specimen that is transplantable, Mr. Price- 
alogue, we notice a fresh illustration of this fact, i would like to secure it. 

Green House and House Gardening. 




The following notes, written from memory, 
are the result of a flying visit during the first 
fortnight of December. 

There is no greater sign of the advancement of 
horticultiu-e in the East than the increasing de- 
mand for, and high appreciation of, Orchidete. 
Anything and everything is not indiscriminately 
grown, but the finest species and varieties, and 

the largest specimens are the most in demands 
Big specimens sell at a profit, but little plants- 
can hardly be got rid of at a sacrifice. Europe 
and America are scoured for the treasures, and 
direct importations from Mexico and South; 
America are often met with. In the interest of 
some of our prominent orchid owners, J. S.. 
Rand, Jr., late of Dedham, Mass., is now on a 
collecting tour to Brazil. The cultivation of 
most of the tropical species is easier here than 
in England, but when it comes to Masdevallias- 
and some Odontoglossoms, we have either a deal! 
to learn or contend with, as regards growing 
them compared with results in Europe. 

On entering the greenhouses at Menaud's nur- 




series at Albany, the first plant I noticed was 
Vanda ccerulea in a suspended basket, and with 
three spikes, six and nine blooms respectively. 
Cymbidium Mastersiihad three spikes of expand- 
ed flowers. Cypripedium hirsutissimum — a very 
shy bloomer, especially in the case of small 
plants — had several large waxy flowers, and a 
specimen of C. Roezlei had four spikes — one a 
branched one, and several blossoms. Many 
plants of Odontoglossum grande were growing 
like weeds, and several of them had three and 
four spikes of immense flowers. 0. Insleayii, 
and O. I. leopardinum, were also exceptionally 
thrifty and in bloom. Mr. M. prefers pot ta 
basket culture for most of his orchids, and I ob- 
served most of his Odontoglossums were grown 
in earthy compost. He also distributed his or- 
chids amongst his general collection of other 
plants, because he dislikes the formality of an 
isolated mass of Oi'chidepe. Mr. Corning has an 
immense collection of orchids ; indeed, as far as 
I know, it is by far the largest in the country. 
He has many fine specimens, and his Phalsenop- 
sis — particularly Schilleriana, are large and 
healthy. Oncidium tigrinum was prettily in 
bloom, as was likewise the showy O. Rogersii. 
O. ornithorhyncum displayed some very hand- 
some spikes, and the white flowering variety, 
of it — very scarce — was also in bloom. Large 
plants of Angrtecum eburneum showed several 
bold spikes, and a very fine specimen of Anselia 
Africana promised a speedy reward. Odonto- 
glossum grande and Insleayii were both in 
bloom, and, too, in excellent health. O. Rossii 
majus was also in flower. Mr. Gray, the gar- 
dener, told me that he has difficulty in growing 
0. Phatfenopsis. I also noticed some of the red- 
flowering Masdevallias in bloom. 

General Rathborne has a select and valuable 
collection of orchids, but not nearly so many 
kinds as Mr. Corning has. The general's plants 
however, are the very pictures of health and vigor, 
cleanliness and ripeness, and many of them, es- 
pecially Vandas, are large specimens. Two 
plants of Vanda ccerulea were in flower, each 
having ten blooms on a spike, and they were 
lovely. Angrtecum ebm-neum with several long 
spikes was bursting into bloom, and if I remem- 
ber rightly it was here I saw A. sesquipedale 
with two spikes of long-tailed flower-buds. A 
white Phalsenopsis was in bloom, and the many 
neighboring spikes that were appearing prom- 
ised early wealth. Saccolabium giganteum had 
one developed spike, and Cymbidium Mastersii 

had three with more to follow. Cypripediums 
were in great profusion, particularly venustum, 
one specmien of which had several dozens of 

No shadings whatever are used during the 
winter months, and the robust sturdiness and 
flower-promising look of the plants, bespeak 
their appreciation of the short-day sun. 

The general drew my attention to diseased 
spots in the leaves of same of his Phala?nopsis 
Schilleriana, and which were spread along the 
upper surface like large and deep pock-marks. 
When in England last summer he had a talk 
with Dominy at Veitch's, about this disease, and 
he expressed the opinion that he believed it to be 
the work of parasitic fungi, and recommended 
the application of powder-sulphur, which the 
general has applied. Of course the sulphur can 
only prevent fungoid growth, and not restore to 
good the evil already done. The general also 
spoke to me about diseased spots sometimes ap- 
pearing on the leaves and flowers of his orchids 
during the summer months. I recommended a 
little fire-heat by night throughout the whole 
summer, even if the ventilators be kept open 
night and day, This is to provide a sweet and 
constantly circulating atmosphere, and my expe- 
rience in the United States has proved it an 
excellent plan and more than worth the money. 



In the last number of your valuable Monthly 
you notice two Western Geraniums, Fanny and 
Ralph, raised by John Goode, Esq., of this city. 
Will you allow me to say a few words in their 
favor ? I have grown Fanny for three years, and 
tested it thoroughly, both as a pot plant and a 
bedder, with the most satisfactorily results. As 
a pot plant (in my opinion) it is unsurpassed, 
always in bloom, Summer and Winter. The 
flower is a rich salmon color, of fine form and 
substance, the finest I have ever seen on a 
bronze Geranium. 

Ralph is also a very fine Geranium ; it is a very 
robust grower, habit first-rate, and as a bloomer 
it is simply immense. A bed of it last season in 
Ellis Park attracted a great deal of attention, 
both from fiorists and the public ; the fiowers are 
a peculiar shade of crimson, trusses very large 
and carried well above the foliage, and has the 
property of holding its center until the whole 
truss is fully expanded. I grow 150 of the 




newest and best English, French, and American 
varieties, all fine, but as a bedder, Ralph is king. 
I have no interest in the sale of plants ; my 
object is to call the attention of lovers of plants 
to two good things, and to encourage home 

[Since our note appeared we have seen blooms 
of Ralph, and agree with all that is said of it. 
The shade of color is similar to one now well 
known as General Lee, but it is much superior 
in form and other good characters.— Ed. G. M.] 



For more than a year I have used kerosene to 
destroy mealy bug and scale louse, and have 
found it the most convenient and effectual 
remedy. 1 apply it to the backs of the insects 
witn a feather, and brush lightly aroun d the 
axils of the leaves infested, and I cannot perceive 
any injurious effects of its use upon the most 
tender plants. Hot water cannot be used upon 
large specimen plants, besides, there are some 
succulent plants, like Mimulus, which will not 
endure 120° without injury. Of late years it 
seems utterly impossible to keep a conservatory 
or bay window free from these two pests, for 
the reason that every accession of new plants 
from the large greenhouses brings a new stock 
of bugs. For my own part I would rather pay 
double price for clean plants, than deal with a 
lousy florist. 





These three species of orchids are closely 
allied, botanically, to the Oncidiums, and resem- 
ble them in their growth and manner of bloom- 
ing. They all send their flower stems from the 
base of the bulbs, which stems vary in length 
from a few inches to three to five feet. 
^ Brassia. Although many orchid growers do 
not place much value on these, yet some are 
really pretty, and all are curious and free 
flowering. They all belong to the Western Con- 
tinent, and come mostly from the warmer parts, 
and with me do well in the hottest place with 
the E. India orchids. The sepals and petals in 
all the varieties are long and slender, and resem- 
ble at a distance some huge insects. 

Brassia Lanceana and Lawrenceana are both 
from Guiana, resemble one another very much, 
and grow well in shallow baskets with broken 
crocks and charcoal. The sepals and petals are 

greenish yellow barred and spotted brown, lip 
yellow spotted purplish brown. 

B. Caudata. Sepals and petals greenish white, 
lip pure white, spotted brown. West Indies B. 
verrucosa [Mexico and Guatemala) sepals and 
petals pale transparent green ; lip white, with 
green warts. B. Gireoudiana. This is the hand- 
somest species that I have seen. Comes from 
Centi-al America. The flowers are bright orange 
yellow spotted with reddish orange. Flower 
stems two feet long. 

There are several other species, differing from 
tlie above slightly, in marking. They mostly 
bloom in the Sprhig, just before they commence 
to make new growth ; but they do not always do 
so, as the Guiana varieties will bloom twice a 
year if handled properly. 

Miltonia. This beautiful genus comes from- 
Brazil. A few species from Mexico are now 
placed as Cyrtochilum, and these latter are not 
remarkable for their beauty. Miltonias mostly 
bloom in the late summer or early autumn 
months, and will commence to make new growth 
in the fall and winter. If kept in a good heat sa.y 
from sixty to seventy degrees; and I find all or- 
chids coming from South Brazil grow through the 
winter months^ and do well and bloom well if kept 
warm and near the glass. At this time nearly all 
my Cattleya, Ltelia, Miltonia, Oncidium and Zy- 
gopetalons from Brazil are growing strongly, 
and this coincides with what I have seen in Bra- 
zil, for it is late summer there now. Miltonias 
have two distinct styles of bulbs, one small, from 
two to tliree inches long and flat. These belong 
.to the M. spectabilis varieties, and have short 
flower stems with one or two large flowers. The 
other form of bulb is more cone-shaped, narrow- 
ing to the top, and from four to seven inches 
long. M. Candida belongs to this class and they 
have longer flower stems and more flowers. 

All Miltonias have very small roots, which I ♦ 
think are only annual, the plants deriving suste- 
nance from roots emitted from the young 

I find the spectabilis varieties do admirably on 
rough cork, the rougher the better. The stronger 
growing varieties grow well in small pots, well 
drained, always keeping the plants well above 
the pots. Those on cork need syringing twice a 
day when in active growth. They should never 
be allowed to get too dry, as the bulbs are 

Miltonia spectabilis. Tht; flowers of this 
species are quite large, sometimes over three 




Inches in diameter; sepals and petals white, with 
a slight greenish tinge ; lip white, with a large 
purple spot at the base. The flowers come 
singly from the base of the bulbs, though I have 
had occasionally two when the bulbs were very 
strong. There are many varieties of M. specta- 
bilis. Some entirely white and others with a 
pink spot on the lip. 

M. bicolor. I think is only a variety of spec- 
tabilis with larger and brighter flowers. 

M. Moreliana. This resembles spectabilis very 
much, both in of growth and shape of 
flower, but it is far handsomer. Sepals and 
petals rich purple ; lip large and rosy purple 
veined with rose. This is a rare plant. I have 
had many sent from Rio for M. Morelana, but 
never got but one that was true. Blooms in 
August or September. 

Miltonia Candida. This beautiful plant has 
from four to seven flowers on the stem, w^hich is 
upright. Flowers in the sepals and petals are 
rich chocolate, barred with bright yellow ; lip 
pure white, marked at the base with rosy purple 
-or pink. In this species the lip is shaped some- 
thing like the lip of a Lselia, but in most of the 
other species it is flat. 

M. Clov)''sii. Growth like the last. Flowers 
on a flexuous stem, with from four to ten flowers 
two and a half inches in diameter. Sepals and 
petals chocolate and yellow; lip flat, white, 
with a purple base. Blooms in October and is 
very graceful. There are several other beautiful 
species of Miltonias, but they are rare. The 
blooms of all kinds of Miltonia are very easily 
effected by water, and it is best to remove them 
when in bloom to a cool dry place, taking care 
not to let any water fall on the blooms in water- 
ing them. If the flowers are kept dry they will 
remain good three weeks. 


In the whole orchid family there is no genus 
that has caused more discussion among orchid 
growers than the Odontoglossum. Coming, in 
many instances, from elevated regions, where 
they are surrounded by fogs and' mists, they 
•are exposed at times to great vicissitudes of 
temperature. i>rothing is more changeable than 
the climate of tropical mountainous regions. I 
have seen the thermometer indicate from 90° to 
'95° at mid-day and clear, then 40° at daylight j 
the next morning and misty ; at the same time \ 
•the daily change of temperature at the base of 1 
the mountain would not exceed probably 12° to 
.15°. That there is something peculiar needed 

in the treatment of this genus is evident from 
the fact that while in England and on the Conti- 
nent some succeed marvelously with them, 
others fail. Some grow them in cool houses, 
which they try to keep between 40° and G0° ; 
others do not mind if the mercury sometimes goes 
up to 85°, and in both cases succeed. That their 
proper cultivation should be sought is natural, 
for I think they are unsurpassed among orchids. 
Some pure white, or white spotted red, brown or 
yellow, others yellow or brown, or both these 
colors mixed in many ways ; and again, pink or 
red are the predominating colors. In size from 
an inch in diameter as in O. putchellum to 
nearly six inches in 0. grande magnificum ; 
stems from a few inches in length as in O. Rossii, 
to three or more feet in O. Lseve and O. car- 
niferum. Nearly fifty species are now offered 
for sale in English catalogues, and yearly the 
number is increased. Ko doubt varieties sur- 
passing any that we have yet seen will be dis- 
covered, though to look at a plant of O. Alex- 
andrse, O. vexillarium or O. triumphans in 
bloom, it would seem hardly possible. 

There appears to be a great diff'erence in the 
Odontoglossums coming from Mexico and 
Gautemala, and those from the countries in the 
north of South America. With the former I 
have succeeded admirably, but with the South 
American species I have failed. I find that the 
Mexican varieties make but one growth in a 
year, and remain dormant for some months; but 
the South American varieties show a tendency 
to grow all the time, and I believe that in their 
own homes the South American species bloom 
twice a year. It is well known, that countries 
near the equator have two Summers, and two 
crops are made on the same ground in a year. 
Now in New Grenada, Venezuela, and Ecuador, 
the home of the O. Alexandra;, and 0. trium- 
phans, «&c., the sun is always near, which gives 
them heat, and coming from elevated positions 
they have an ample supply of moisture all the 
time. But Mexico lies near the Tropic of 
Cancer, is a much drier country, and though 
vegetation is always green, has really only one 
long Summer, then a long Autumn or Winter, 
and the same is the case with South Brazil. 

The climate of all countries near the equator 
is less subject to variation than farther North or 
South. At Demerara and Para, the anuual 
variation is not over 15°, say from 75° to 90°. 
Bogota, nearly under the equator, but nearly 
six thousand feet above the sea level, has a varia- 




tion of about 25°, say from 42° or 45° to 70°. 
This latter elevation is the home of some of the 
finest Odontoglots. I find that our extreme Sum- 
mer heats are far more fatal to these than the 
Winter cold — in fact, it is the only cause of our 
failure ; and if we ever expect to succeed with 
them, we will have to build houses facing, the 
north, partly underground, and plenty of ar- 
rangements to keep a cool moist atmosphere 
during the months from May to October. After 
that they may be placed anywhere in a temper- 
ature of 50° to 65°, and they will do well. I 
will give a few remarks on varieties that have 
done well with me in a temperature of from 50° 
to 65° in "Winter, and as cool as possible in the 
Summer. I put mine in my Camellia house in 
Summer, which is well shaded and keeps from 
70° to 85° in the hottest weather in day-time, 
and lower at night. 

O.grande. (Mexico and Guatemala). Bulbs and 
leaves dark green. Flowers from four to twelve 
in number, and from four to six inches in diam- 
eter ; sepals and petals browni and rich yellow, 
mottled and striped ; lip white and purple, 
blooms in August or September, just after the 
leaf growth is perfected ; keeps in bloom from 
three to four weeks. There is considerable 
variety in the size of flowers and marking. 
Should be grown largely, as it takes but little 

0. Indeayii. This resembles 0. grande very 
much in growth and bloom. It is, however, 
more graceful. The flowers are smaller ; it 
blooms in December, January, and February. 
The lip in 0. Insleayiiis yellow, spotted purple. 

0. Insleayii leopardinum. This I purchased at 
one of Young & Elliot's sales. It is much finer, 
than O. Insleayii, and the flowers are larger ; 
petals and sepals yellowish green, with bars and 
bands of rich reddish brown ; lip beautiful bright 
yellow, bordered by a row of crimson spots. 

0. citrosmum. (Guatemala). Large, smooth, 
light green bulbs and leaves ; makes its bloom in 
the Spring with the young growth; flowers about 
two inches in diameter, and from eight to twelve 
on a pendulous stem ; flowers white, with pur- 
ple markings on the lip. There are some varie- 
ties in which the flowers are rose and flesh color. 
It is said to require more heat than most 
Odontoglots, but it does well with me with the 
Mexican orchids. 

O. nebulosum. I have not bloomed this yet, 
but it grows well and is making fine bulbs, so it 
is only a question of time. It is also from Mex- 

I ico. Flowers come with the young growth and 

j are borne on a pendulous stem. Flowers white 

! in all parts spotted with reddish brown. The 
bulbs look like a citrosmum but are more 

! wrinkled. Blooms four inches in diameter. 

0. Bidonense (Guatemala). Blooms in Kov- 

[ on an upright spike. Sepals and petals brown ; 

I lip lilac and sometimes white. 

I O.cariniferum. (Central America.) This has 
long, branching flower stems. Sepals and petals 
chocolate ; lip, white ; gets light yellow in a few 
days. Flow^ers one and one half inches diam- 

cordatum. (Mexico and Guatemala.) Small 
bulbs. Sepals and petals yellow barred dark 
red, lip white with reddish brown markings. 
There are many varieties of 0. cordatum, and 
O. maculatum which resembles it in bulbs and 
growth, and is often sold for it. 

O. Bossii. Has very small bulbs and leaves. 
Flowers on short stems two or three together. 
Sepals and petals white barred brown ; lip pure 
white or whitish purple. I grow this in broken 
crocks and moss, and one half dozen plants can 
be grown in a six inch pot. Blooms from one to 
three inches in diameter. 

O. pulchellum. (Mexico.) Small bulbs. 
Blooms nearly pure white and fragrant. This 
also requires a half dozen plants to make a show. 
0. LcBve, 0. Uro Skinneri, 0. Cervantesii, and 
several other Mexican Odontoglots, succeed well 
with me and are desirable, as they last long in 
bloom and do not take much room. 

0. Alexandrce and its varieties 0. Bluntii and 
O. Andersonii,come from New Granada. I have 
bloomed O. Alexandra; finely, but lost all my 
plants in the hot weather. The flowers are 
borne on half pendant stems, twelve to twenty on 
a stem ; are nearly pure white with sometimes a 
few brown or red spots on the sepals, petals and 
lip. There are a great many beautiful varieties. 
I would be glad to hear of any one who had suc- 
ceeded well with this most beautiful orchid. 

O.gloriosum. (New Granada). Has long branch- 
ing flower stems. Flowers about three inches 
in diameter, white spotted, brownish-red. I 
bloomed this, but came near losing it last sum- 

O. triumphans. Very beautiful short bulbs 
and dark leaves. Flowers three inches diameter.. 
Sepals and petals golden yellow, spotted crim- 
son brown •, lip, white and rose. (New Granada.) 
0. vexillarium. (New Granada). The whole 
flower soft ; rose three inches broad, and from, 




five to seven on a stem. I do not know if this 
has been bloomed in this country yet. It is con- 
sidered in Europe the finest Odontoglot. 

O. pescatorei. This is another beautiful New 
Granada plant with white flowers and rosy yel- 
low lips. The flowers are borne on long spikes. 
This was bloomed by a gentleman in Baltimore 
whose plant is doing well now. 

0. radiahim and 0. luteo purpureum are beau- 
tiful NeAV Granada plants with brown and yellow 
sepals and petals ; lip white with brown mark- 
ings. There are a great many more species and 
varieties from South America, but I cannot as yet 
recommend any from that country as of easy 
culture ; and as I propose these articles for the 
use of beginners in orchid culture, I can say that 
I have found the Mexican varieties to grow well. 
They can bear more sun than the others. This 
remark applies to all Mexican orchids. 


BY O. 

Last week I saw the geranium New Life in 
flower. It is said to be a sport from the Vesu- 
vius, which is the most popular geranium in 
England, both for bedding and marketing, and 
also as a scarlet for winter-blooming. 

" Wonderful," another sport from Vesuvius, 
has semi-double flowers. It will, no doubt, su- 
persede its parent — bearing more persistently 
than the single varieties, and not sufficiently 
double to impair its free-blooming qualities. 

It is now reported there are two other sports 
from the same source, a salmon color, and a 
pure white. A white geranium, flowering as freely 
as Vesuvius, will be an acquisition. It will cause 
as much of a sensation in England as a white 
sport from " Gen. Grant" would out here. 

Vesuvius is offered in the advertising columns 
of the London gardening papers by individual 
growers, by the 100,000, at eight shillings per 
100 — less than two cents apiece — and yet we 
are told plants are sold cheaper here than they 
are in England ! 

According to the wood-cuts which I have seen 
of New Life, it is a sport from " Harry King !" 
a seedling from "Jean Sisley," and sent out 
by Messrs. Standish & Co., Royal Ascot Nur- 
series, England. The only diflference between 
the "cuts" of each is the stripes. The stripes 
on the flower are not so conspicuous as they are 
in the cut, being quite faint and irregular. If 
the flowers I saw are a fair representation of 
the whole stock, it is of very little value only as 
a curiosity. 


LucuLiA GRATissiMA. — This is a very old 
but very beautiful plant from Australia, with 
large heads of Hydrangea-like flowers, and 
which gardeners have always found difficult to 
keep alive. It is now said in the London i^/omf 
and Pomologist., that this difficulty has originted 
from too much fear of its tenderness. If treated 
more roughly — just in fact as we would treat the 
common Hydrangea — it is a grand success. Has 
any one this plant in American collections ? 

Oakland Cemetery, Syracuse. — We hear 
that this progressive company intend to build a 
" Chapel of Roses," modeled after that designed 
by Mr. Campbell for the Eorest Cemetery at 


Watering Small Plants. — W.M. G.,Niles, 
Mich., says : "Will you please inform'me how you 
treat thumb pot plants on hot days to keep them 
from wilting. Watering morning and evening is 
not sufficient, and it is said that we must not 
j water when the sun shines, neither must we let 
! them wilt, and the same difficulty arises when 
' plants are plunged out of doors." 

[The objection against water when the sun 
I shines on the plants is a purely theoretical one, 
I and appears only in the writings of those who 
have had but little actual experience. You may 
I take our advice, and water whenever the plants 
I need it. The only plan beyond this is in your 
case to partially shade the plants from the full 
sun.— Ed. G. M.] 

Culture of Medinella magnifica. — Mrs. 
E. B.S. writes : "Will you please give me in 
the next number of the Gardener's Monthly 
the name of the plant to which the enclosed 
leaf belongs and instructions for its care ? I 
hope you will pardon my demand on your time, 
but I do not know to whom else I can apply, 
and I thought that as I subscribed to the 
Monthly you would be kind enough to answer 
my questions, and oblige Mrs. E. B. S." 

[The plant sent was Medinella magnifica. It 
is a beautiful leaf plant, and those who possess 
good specimens have a prize. The plant loves 
warmth, though it can be kept over Winter in a 
cool greenhouse, or possibly a well warmed 
room. The pot with the plant will do very well 
in the open air in Summer. 




The lady's letter is published in full, so that 
we may take occasion to say that such inquiries 
are always welcome. What one wants to know 
is generally the want of hundreds of others, 
and we are very glad to help them in this way. 
—Ed. G. M.] 

Beautiful Cyclamens.— By what we read 
in the English periodicals, we see how great has 
heen the improvement in Cyclamens ; but a 
sample from Mr. Barker, of Norfolk, Va., shows 
that they are even more beautifully improved 
than we supposed. This sample comprises 
fifteen different shades of color or form. They 
seem to be a mixture of three species, Cycla- 
men coum, C. persicum and C. Europseum. 

Seedling Verbenas. — G. B., Colora, Mo., 
sends blooms of a seedling Verbena. It is a 
soft and agreeable shade of vermilion. There 
have been so many shades of Verbena intro- 
duced of late years since Verbena seed raising 
has been so common, that we do not feel safe in 
saying the color is novel, but we may say that it 
is a very good variety. 

Variegated Cobcea scandens. — Speci- 
mens from Mr. C. Th. Schueren, florist of Cleve- 
land, O., shows this to be a remarkably beautiful 
plant. We do not take kindly to many of these 
variegated-leaved things. They look diseased. 
This does not, but is bright and live looking. 
It is a good addition. 

Fruit and Vegetable Gardening. 




The sharp controversy of twenty years ago, 
on the question, " Can pears be profitably grown 
for market?" died away without any decided 
issue. If the same men could again discuss that 
point, the results, I think, would be far diflerent 
and of greater value to fruit growers. 

The statement that the pear is not well suited 
to our climate, and will never be abundant in 
our markets, has proved false; for so large a 
quantity of this fruit now fills them, that thou- 
sands of barrels have to be shipped •, an occur- 
rence which was not then thought possible. On 
ihe other hand, the notion that " cultivation by 
■constantly working the soil is the only success- 
ful way," received a severe shock when the 
-Gardener's Monthly^ demonstrated that a 
profitable cultivation for the pear is better ac- 
complished in a well enriched and frequently- 
jnown grass sod. 

It is known that the roots of the quince suffer 
in light soil, or in cultivated ground. And I 
have found that injuries in the root cause the 
pear tree to produce small, curled leaves in the 
spring. But all our trees, especially dwarf 
pears, suffer more or less from climatic influ- 
ences ; and so far as these effect the roots, the 
best treatment is protection by means of a thick 


It was found that a large number of the dwarf 
pear trees, that died m the spring of 1875, were 
frost killed at the roots, being planted in ex- 
posed places or cultivated soil. On my own 
grounds I found that dwarfs in cultivation, and 
so protected from the S. W. winds that the snow 
lodged in them, lived, but a few immediately 
I beyond this protection were killed ; while a large 
I lot near these, but six years in grass, did not 
suffer at all, though in the most exposed place. 
In fact, not any trees in my orchard (in grass) 
suffered, though fully exposed to the winds. 
; The crop of pears that year (1875) was large, 
1 besides a fair growth of wood. Last year there 
were an extraordinary yield not only in quantity, 
but in size and beauty. The average income 
from dwarfs, in grass, was $400 per acre,except- 
' the Vicar, which brought twice that amount, 
and some B. Clairgeau and B. d' Anjou brought 
$12 per bbl. in New York. 

Having, dm-ing the past season, cultivated a 
i few rows of trees in the center of my dwarf pear 
orchard, to change the shape of the l)ed,. I 
' found that the blight in these was much more 
severe than among those in grass. The actual 
record was as follows : 
Louise Bonne, cultivated, 88 trees 14 blight. 

"■ "■ in grass, 87 " 8 " 

Vicar, cultivated, 12 " 4 " 

" in grass, 70 " 7 '' 

I have not yet succeeded, and do not expect to 

succeed, in making my trees of uniform beauty ; 

but since they have recovered from the first 




shock received by being put in grass, they are 
improving from year to year, as the fertilizing 
materials — maniu-e, leaves, rotten grass, and 
occasional dressing of soil — accumulate on the 
surface. The expense of manuring, to which 
many object as more costly than cultivating, 
does not exceed $30 per acre, at S3 per cord 
delivered in the orchard. 

I have many dwarf pear trees over 20 inches 
in circumference. One Duchess d'Angouleme 
of 27 inches, 30 years old and 18 years in grass, 
which produced 6i bushels of fine fruit last year, 
besides making a growth of from 6 to 15 inches. 
Others bearing a light crop, made a growth of 
twice that length, also in grass. Where irriga^ 
tion can be applied once or twice during the 
month of July and August, it will not only im- 
prove the crop, but will cause a rich growth of 
grass under which the quince root cannot be 
reached by frost. And I do not believe that 
grafting the pear or quince stock so changes its 
constitution as to make it a feeble tree. Protect 
its roots from the extremes of heat and cold ; 
give it enough nourishment to sustain a healthy 
growth of the top ; prevent its tendency to over- 
bear (which seems the only reason for its being 
weaker than when on its own root), and the 
dwarf pear will no longer be denounced as un- 
reliable, short-lived, and unfit for cultivation in 
tfhis climate. I believe if it were so treated, the 
more vigorous growth of the pear top would 
induce a larger than natural growth of the quince 
root ; and through this equality live as long as 
the pear top can be kept in a thriving condition. 



In your issue for March I notice allusion 
is made to the action of our State Horticultural 
Society, in regard to the Dwarf Juneberry 
being sold by agents for real Huckleberries. 
I have never known of the Juneberry being sold 
for Huckleberries; but I must say whoever buys 
them under that impression will not get cheated, 
as they are much more valuable to grow on 
Iowa soil than the real Whortleberry, as the 
genuine Whortleberry does not flourish in Iowa. 
This Dwarf Juneberry is an Amelanchier, a 
native of the Rocky Mountain country, and may 
have been sometimes called Mountain Huckle- 
berry, as the fruit resembles in size, color, and 
taste, the genuine eastern Huckleberry. The 
trees or bushes grow from four to seven feet 
high, rarely exceeding six feet, and stool out 

from the root like the lilac bush, so that at 
three to five years old there will be six to a 
dozen trees to one root, which will produue 
several quarts of fruit every year. 

They are very productive, and the fruit is 
relshed by nearly every one. This variety was 
introduced into Western Iowa, by the writer of 
this, several years since, and is now well known 
throughout this region, and is also known to 
some extent through the Eastern States, and 
is, I think, highly prized wherever known. 

[The regular Juneberry of the East grows to 
a. small tree. We were not aware that there 
was a dwarf Juneberry of the superior character 
noted by Mr. Terry. 

While we were writing the above paragraph 
Mr. A. S. Fuller dropped into our office, and he 
I tells us he has had this Western Juneberry 
underculture sometime, and that it retains in the 
East the good qualities it possesses in the West. 

In New Jersey and some other States are 
dwarf forms of Amelanchier, but they are so 
poor in the quality of their fruit in comparison 
with the larger forms, that we hardly thought of 
it in connection with the one referre d to by the 
Horticultural Society. — Ed. G. M.] 



Being somewhat interested in the growing of 
this desirable fruit, both as dwarf and standard, 
and watching the successes and failures of 
fruit growers in this vicinity, and having read 
with much interest the different experiences of 
fruitgrowers, as discussed through your valuable 
journal, I thought, with your consent, I would 
state a few instances or peculiarities of the blight 
in this section. One of my neighbors has an 
orchard of about 200 standard pear trees, from 
8 to 10 years set; soil a rich loam, underlaid 
with coble. The latter is from 3 to 4 feet under. 
The first 8 or 10 inches is a good loam in which 
small flattish stone is pretty freely mingled, but 
after the first 8 or 10 inches it becomes a clean 
deep loam free from stone. The trees were set 
about 15 feet apart each way, and head formed 
3 to 4 feet high. The ground has been carefully 
tilled with hoed crops, generally potatoes, but 
sometimes a part of it has been planted to corn. 
All have been pretty liberally manured with 
barnyard manure, and, as a matter of course, 
the trees have made a splendid growth. The 
sorts were mostly Bartlett, though some F. 
Beauty, B. Bosc, B. Clairgeau and Vicar were 




set. The Bartlett and F. Beauty have borne 
two or three nice crops, and the fruit was excep- 
tionally fine. In the year 1875 about one- 
fifth of the orchard was seeded down to clover, 
and as it become pretty well mixed with weeds, 
the whole was mown and placed around the 
trees in the last mentioned one-fifth for a mulch. 
In the Spring of 1876 the clover came on finely 
and made a large growth, and getting down 
early, and the season at that time being pretty 
dry, he concluded to leave it, thinking to keep 
the ground cool and moist. The Bartlett and 
F. Beauty were cropping pretty well at the time, 
but he noticed instead of the trees in the clover 
making a fine growth they grew but lightly, and 
the leaves turned a sickly color like ripening up, 
while the trees in the cultivated portion of the 
orchard grew finely. By the middle of August 
some of the trees in the clover portion showed 
patches of bark on the stems and larger 
branches, signs of dying, and turned black, 
while those standing in the cultivated portion 
showed no signs of the disease, and have not to 
this time, but have kept growing right along, 
and have borne a fine crop the past season, 1877. 
I should have said the F. Beauty are the only 
trees that suffered sevei-ely. The Beurre Bosc 
and Bartlett ripened up their leaves early, and 
made but small growth. ISTow was this the fire 
blight, and if so, why did not the F. Beauty in 
the cultivated portion show it also ? Or did a 
portion of them, in both the cultivated and the 
«od. receive a slight freezing of the sap the pre- 
vious "Winter and those in the cultivated portion 
grow out of it ; and those in the sod being 
checked by being robbed of some of the essen- 
tials by the crop of clover, and being already 
weakened by the blight and taxed or deprived 
by the clover could not throw it oft', consequent- 
ly the disease already seated, and the tree weak- 
ened, as before stated, gave way at that time ? 
Now was this the frozen sap blight or was it 
something else V Would farther say none of the 
trees died fully, but are slowly recovering. 

Another, but still different case. Another 
neighbor having a fine young orchard of Bartlett, 
F. Beauty, B. Bosc and Vicar about 8 or 10 
years set, and the two former having borne a 
couple of crops or so — the trees having stood in 
sod for a few years, and not making satisfactory 
growth— he decided to plow the orchard, which he 
did in the Spring of 1877, and planted it to corn. 
The trees started up and made a nice growth, 
particularly the F. Beauty and Vicar. The 

former set a fair crop of fruit and carried it 
through finely. Shortly after the first cold snap, 
say about November 20th, the F. Beauty and 
Vicar showed signs of dying in part or whole, 
the larger branches became suddenly shriveled 
and partly dry. Sometimes the whole head, and 
again a part of the branches, and occasionally 
the stem in part or whole gave way, and up to 
this date the disease continues to make itself 
manifest ; and while the larger branches and 
main stem become dry in part or whole, the 
ends of the branches are fresh and apparently 
healthy. Now, if this was caused by freezing of 
the sap, when was it frozen ? When it was first 
discovered the freezing had been very light. Or 
did they receive their check the Winter previ- 
ous, and being weakened by the crop of fruit 
and the dry weather, which prevailed at that 
time, cause them to give way at that late date ; 
and if so why did the Vicar die also, having no 
fruit to tax it ? Did the crop of corn take from 
the trees what was essential to their lives, and 
if so, why did not the Bartlett and B. Bosc also 
die ? Trees of the F. Beauty, which matured a 
bushel or more of fine fruit in 1877, are in some 
cases now entirely dead. 



With your permission I will give a few prac- 
tical remarks on outside grape borders which 
will probably suit the enquirer on page 83. 
Having the management of vineries which pro- 
duced a fair crop of fruit but poor flavor, I 
found the cause as I expeeted, i. e., insufficient 
di'ainage and the roots almost all outside in a 
temperature of 34° two feet below the surface, 
and covered as you suggested. First, I di-ained 
it properly and then added a few feet of inside 
border. In the past season the result was no 
shanking and a fair crop. This season they 
have started strong and regular, look promising, 
and are now in bloom (12th of March) ; while at 
this date of the past year, under the same treat- 
ment, a few shoots were nine inches long and 
many not started. I presume the obvious suc- 
cess is the result of drainage, and the inside bor- 
der in which the roots have now grown consid- 
erably. Temperature at the roots 73°, two feet 
deep ; temperature of outside border 50°. For 
forcing, from November to March, there 
can be no doubt of the superiority of the inside 
border practically. 

An outside border may be of benefit when the 




roots come into action before the full develop- 
ment of foliage and branches, if after this only 
useless laterals are produced. 

If the outside border is persisted in it should 
be covered with boards to throw oft' rain and 
snow, otherwise the ground will be cooled down 
beyond the growing degree. 

Under the heading of "Seasonable Hints" is 
the following on pruning the grape vine : "These 
latter become nothing but long roi:)e-looking 
apologies for what a vine should be." There is 
more science in it than advocating training 
them down a back wall. It is impossible to dis- 
cuss this article in a few lines. 



Some recent notices in the Monthly on the 
■quality and culture of pears invite remark. It 
is plain that the favorites in the garden and nur- 
sery need sifting and change, and more rigid 
tests of merit. When such a fickle and tedious 
pear as the Buffum is held beside the princely 
;Sheldon, as mutual subjects of undeserved neg- 
lect, it is plain that somebody lacks a taste 
educated by a larger trial of kinds. The editor 
packs an essay into his pungent counsel for a 
careful weeding out of lists and new methods in 
their make-up. 

The pith in " Lacon " about saints is very 
close in point as to pears, that "a good many 
canonized as saints ought to have been cannon- 
aded, and a large congregation cannonaded ought 
to have been canonized." Special friends there 
always will be about this or that taste or texture 
in a fruit. But that "there is no disputing 
about tastes," long since laid down as an 
axiom, only gains that force, when those who 
dispute know the whole of that wherein they 
differ. When, therefore, a lover of this or that 
fruit rates it into the roll of honor, it is in point 
to ask how much the judge knows about the 
others, which the promotion of his favorite 
over-rides and out-laws. 

Now, rank in pomology must not be left to 
whim or caprice. Diplomas of merit should 
■only be granted under the test of strict rules and 
standards. Otherwise, as many opinions would 
flash out about a fruit, as wrangled of old over 
the varied tinges, which from whim or environ- 
ment, the chameleon wears. A like doughty 
debate was once held over the birth-place, name 
and merits of the Pinneo pear, whose worthless- 

ness dawned upon the world in Eastern Con- 
I necticut. 

i The need of some closer tests of merit in a 
j fruit, and a new deal of kinds, is best shown by 
j an example. There is a pear of the same sea- 
I son as the Buffum (perhaps a little earlier) 
I never yet oft'ered on any regular sale list in this 
country, yet in every quality of tree and fruit 
[ very much its superior. This pear is the Heri- 
I cart. It is a Belgian pear, as old as Von Mons. 
{ perhaps one of his seedlings. None of our fruit 
books but Elliot's has it rightly placed as to 
season, tree or fruit. It is nearly as large as a 
I Bartlett, ripens perfectly on the tree or in the 
I house, and does not readily wilt. It is good as 
I a worm-fall, or when picked from the ground at 
\ full maturity. It never rots at the core, and is 
very resistant to decay. Its flesh is buttery, 
juicy, and of the most delicate aroma. At ma- 
turity it is a handsome pear, of a tender, but of 
yellowish green, sometimes darker on one 
cheek, with a rosy blush. It bears well every 
year, and holds fast its fruit. Its tree-growth is 
fairly vigorous, somewhat struggling and jagged 
in youth, but shaping into graceful droop with 
years. It is as hardy as an oak, and thrives 
when the Bartlett fails and dies. It never mil- 
dews or leaf-blights, but holds its rich, green, 
broad foliage till late, maturing every twig. 
Yet this pear is never heard of, while the Buf- 
fum holds a choice place in every catalogue. 

Now, the Buffum, though so much favored, is 

a very fickle pear. When picked at just the 

right time, thinned so that each fruit gets full 

size, carefully laid away in the house, and 

watched for its exact point of ripening, it is a 

good, and sometimes a very good pear ; but if 

you delay the picking or the eating beyond that 

right time, or if when picked it is not favorably 

placed as to its surroundings, or if it is not a 

specimen grown large by the sacrifice of its fel- 

j lows, it is simply good for nothing, not a whit 

I better than the common Harvest pear, Amire 

j Johanette. 

j The very fact that of these two fruits of the 
same kind and season, the inferior is so known 
I and cherished, while its superior seems " born 
to blush unseen, and waste its sweetnes?," 
speaks for a new deal in fruits. Some should 
come to the front, and others should " go away 
into outer darkness." It proves, too, that one 
fruit should not be placed high among the choice, 
and another ignored or banished, except under 
tests of quality less arbitrary than the individual 




vote or taste. The chances for whim or interest 
to go wrong, even under these, bespeaks the 
wisdom of some large, well-endowed horticul- 
tural garden where kinds of promise should 
have trial and test. About where that ought to 
be and how sustained, I shall say more beyond. 
In another article some simple rules for fixing 
the merit of a fruit will be offered, which may 
do till better are devised. 



I send you a few notes in regard to some of 
the new fruits which I have been testing. Souv- 
enir du Congress pear; fruit very large, bright 
yellow, with a red cheek on the sunny side ; 
quality good, and keeps well. Its large size and 
fine appearance add to its market value. The 
tree is a strong grown, comes early into bearing, 
and produces large crops. It ripens a little be- 
fore the Bartlett. 

Pitmaston Duchess, a seedling of John Pit- 
mas ton, of England. A very large handsome 
pear, nearly of first quality. The tree is a good 
grower, comes early into bearing, and with me is 
a better pear in every way than the Duchess 
d'Angouleme ; ripens October. Beurre d'As- ; 
sompsion ; fruit of the largest size, an early and 
good bearer; yellow and red, very handsome,; 
melting and juicy, not high flavored. Eipens last 
of July. Brockworth Park, a seedling of Mr. | 
Laurence, of Brockworth Park, England. This 
pear was sent out with high commendations, 
but with me it is quite worthless. I have several 
trees of this variety. It is a feeble grower, 
and the fruit cracks badly. Eipens October. \ 
Louis Vilmorin ; fruit large, color a fine cinna- 
mon russet, flesh fine grained, juicy, perfumed, | 
sweet ; promising Winter pear. Ripens January. 
Monsieur Heberlin; tree a strong grower, hold- 
ing its leaves till killed by the frost, a great 
bearer; fruit large, yellow, very fine grained, 
melting, juicy, sweet, slightly vinous. This pear 
resembles the Bartlett in appearance, ripening 
from one to two weeks later — September. \ 
Madame Andre Leroy, raised by Andre Leroy, 
of Angers, France ; tree a good grower, fruit 
large, but cracks" badly ; October. President 
Coupre, a very large pear, from Belgium;' 
color yellow with a brown cheek. A prom- 
ising late keeping pear ; December. Compt. 
Lelieur, a Belgian pear of large size, looking 
much like Onondago, or Swan's Orange ; color 
yellow, very juicy, quite promising. Chaumontel 

d'Ete, or Summer Chaumontel; fruit large^ 
yellow with a fine red cheek, handsome and good' 
quality. A promising Summer pear ; August. 
St. Therese, one of Leroy's seedlings, of 
France ; fruit medium, skin j^ellow and bright red, 
handsome and very good ; ripening in October. 
Beurre Ballet Pere ; tree a strong grower, and 
bears young, fruit large, yellow, handsome, and 
good; October. Goodale ; this is a native seed- 
ling, and promises to be valuable. The fruit 
strongly resembles the Buerre d'Anjou, but 
with me it is larger, and nearly as large as that 
fine pear. The tree is a strong grower and 
holds its leaves late in the season. It is a great 
bearer, and I think one of the most promising 
varieties ripening in October. Micado, from 
Japan. The leaves of this tree are verj^ large 
and ornamental. Fruit medium, very flat, dark 
russet color, half melting ; ripening October. 
Japan, another variety from that country which 
promises to be valuable. The tree is very orna- 
mental, leaves large and glossy, and a prodig- 
ious bearer. Fruit quite large and nearly round ; 
half melting. Skin a fine golden, russet, a 
beautiful fruit, fine for canning. 

For the first time in ten years, the blight 
has made its appearance, and left its mark on 
a large number of pear trees. Some only a 
small limb, others have lost one-half their limbs,, 
and in some instances the whole tree has been 
destroyed. Some of our old apple orchards, last 
fall, put on the appearance of a visit from the 
seven year locust, the leaves on the ends of the 
limbs from six inches to a foot, turned brown. 
On examination! could not trace any insect, and 
concluded that the blight that was destroying 
our pear trees had attacked the apple trees.. 
This blight was more noticable on some varieties 
than others. Rhode Island Greenings and Fall 
Pippins suffered the most. 


Great care should be taken by authors in the 
use of words to convey their meaning, for dis- 
astrous results may sometimes follow by using 
the wrong word, or not sufficiently explaining it 
so that it ma}' be understood as it is intended. 

In a much valued work on grape culture un- 
der glass, now lying before me, directions are 
given for the use of sulphur as a remedy for red 
spider and mildew, using these words, '' There 
need be no fear of sulphur doing harm to the 
foliage, so long as ignition does not take place ; 




it may be used with confidence ;" and in another 
place these words are used, " Without being 
ignited f also in another work it is recom- 
mended to scatter sulphur upon the brick flues, 
hut care must talcen not to let it ignite. Now I 
do not believe there is any harm intended in the 
use of the word ignite, but I have met intelli- 
gent people who have an idea that to ignite 
means to blaze ; that sulphur or any other sub- 
stance is not ignited when it comes in contact 
with fire unless it blazes. I will cite* a case to 
the point : A wealthy lady of this town sent 
her gardener to me last Fall to see if I knew of 
a remedy that would destroy red spider in the 
hot-grapery. I gave him one in which sulphur 
was to be used, but cautioned him to use great 
care and not let it come in contact with fire un- 
der any circumstances whatever. I saw no 
more of him for nearly two weeks, when he 
came back with a very long face and said that 
he had done as I had advised him, but it had 
not destroyed the largest of the red spiders. 
His employer had been reading in a work on 
grape culture that sulphur could be used as I 
have quoted above ; so in order to finish 
up the business, she ordered him to burn a very 
small quantity to try it, but he must be very care- 
ful not to let it ignite. Now 3'ou see she had 
been misled into this error by the use of that 
baneful word ignite, and the consequence was 
the gas or fumes from the burning sulphur de- 
stroyed every leaf in both the hot and cold 
graperies, for she ordered him to treat both 
houses to this dose. A little while after this hap- 
pened I went to see those graperies, and I must 
say that it was about the sorriest -sight I ever 
beheld ; every leaf was as brown as a piece of 
leather. The grapes in the hot grapery had 
ripened off" in very good order (quite a large 
number of bunches still hanging on the vines) 
before the igniting process had been applied, 
and were not much injured, but those in the cold 
grapery had just begun to color, and, of course, 
were completely ruined. It was a scene of des- 
olation I do not wish to see very soon again. 

There is another case of a neighbor whom I 
met on the street one day last Fall, and wished 
I would go with him and tell him what was the 
matter with his grapery. As soon as I entered 
the house I thought it looked as if sulphur had 
been burnt, and asked him if it was not so. He 
said he had only burnt about as much as would 
lay on a five-cent piece. He had heard some 
one say that it was a good plan to burnit, and did 

not suppose it would do any harm. He wanted 

to get rid of those white thrips that were tor- 
menting him so much. I told him that a small 
quantity of burhiug sulphur was enough to de- 
stroy everything that was green in a house of 
that size, and if he had used the remedy I gave 
him in the early part of the season, he would 
have been all right. 

I have written this article to show how easily 
people may be led astray, and hope it may be 
the means of saving some one the experience of 
the two cases cited above ; and would say that 
if sulphur mast be used in a grapery or green- 
house, never let it come in contact with fire, for 
ruin will certainly follow such use of it. 


MahaLiEb Stocks. — A correspondent of the 
Rural New Yorker says : "The Mahaleb stock is 
peculiarly liable to the attack of a worm at the 
root, very similar to that infesting the peach 
tree. Perhaps our entomologists can toll us 
whether it is the same species." 

If there is any insect preying on the Mahaleb 
stock, it would be worth knowing ; but we fancy 
the insects seen had no connection with the 
injury. The questions put to the entomologists 
seem to have been unaccompanied by specimens 
of the insects. 

Crescent Seedling Strawberry. — Many 
years ago there was a variety with this name, 
and some are afraid that the new one will be 
mistaken for that; but we doubt whether there is 
a plant of the old sort now in cultivation. 

The Phylloxera.- -This little insect is on 
its travels. At the latest accounts it had reached 
Australia, and is receiving the attentions of the 
grape growers there. 

The Champagne Apple. — This has recently 
been brought to notice by Col. Stichter, of Read- 
ing, Pa. It was introduced by Mr. Fehr from 
Switzerland, fifteen years ago, and grown in his 
orchard as the " Champagne." Mr. Charles 
Downing, judging from some specimens sent to 
him, thinks it is an acquisition, and worthy of trial 
in other localities ; and gives the following as 
the description : 

Fruit of medium size, ablate, slightly angular; 
skin smooth, almost waxen, pale, whitish yellow, 
shaded with light red where fully exposed to the 
sun, and a few scattering brown dots, which are 
areoled on the colored side ; stalk short, small; 




cavity rather large, deep, sometimes slightly 
russeted ; calyx closed, segments long, recm-ved ; 
basin rather small, nearly smooth; flesh white, 
fine grained, tender, juicy, with a mild, sub-acid, 
pleasant flavor, slightly aromatic ■, core small, 
quality very good. 

Neglected Orchards. — The Country Gen^ 
tleman explains that its paragraph, at p. 38, to i 
which we referred in our March number, was not 1 
really intended for " neglected" orchards, as 
stated in the paragraph, but as a covert hit at ! 
the theory of culture in grass. This explanation j 
surprises still more than the original statement; [ 
for what possible connection there can be ] 
between an orchard well cultivated with grass, | 
corn, or potatoes, and one neglectedand uncared i 
for, whether "grassy" or otherwise, it is hard to ' 
see. We repeat that no sensible man expects to 
get good fruit from a neglected orchard, whether 
in Michigan, New York, or anywhere else. 

Drying Fruits and Vegetables. — The 
progress made in the art of drying fruits and 
vegetables has been very great of late years. It 
does not pay any longer to string apples and 
peaches like beads, and hang them from the 
garret window. There are, however, some 
small machines, such as the American drier, with 
which any one who wishes to dry his own, can 
still save the fruit for his own family use, and 
perhaps save money by not having to buy. But 

those who have large quantities to do, and who 
can make a business of dried fruit, by the ex- 
penditure of one or two thousand dollars can 
put up driers, which, weight for weight, will 
put fruit on the market at lower rates than the 
perfect and fresh gathered fruit can be. There 
is now the Williams, a Michigan invention, 
and the Alden, both in some respects rivals. 
We have before us circulars of both, and both 
have goojl points, the agents of each, of course,, 
dwell on these separate advantages to such 
good purpose, that after a careful perusal the 
reader will be most likely to feel that both are 
decidedly the best However, on reading them 
we have derived the advantage of being more 
than ever impressed, that the fruit driers in 
their several inventions deserve well of the 
community. Only imagine— as the Williams' 
claims — 600 pounds of apples dried in twenty- 
four hours, at a cost of six and a half cents 
per pound ! We have to pay five cents on our 
streets for a " twenty ounce" apple weighing 
less than half a pound. 


Japan Persimmons.— We have samples of 
dried persimmons, from James Waters, of Wat- 
sonville, California, of about the same good qual- 
ity as those already noted in these pages. 




BY C. S. S. 

The wonderful durability of the wood of the 
American Catalpa has long been known ; but 
Mr. E. E. Barney, of Dayton, Ohio, has done 
an excellent work in collecting together several 
letters written by him at different times to the 
Railway Age in regard to the economical value, 
especially with reference to the employment, 
which can be made of it, for railway sleepers. 
To these letters are added satisfactory evidence 
of the astonishing durability of the wood of this 
tree, its adaptability to many useful purposes, 
besides some excellent suggestions as to the best 

methods for cultivating it. The whole forms a 
neatly printed pamphlet of 26 pages under the 
title of Facts and Information in Relation to the 
Catalpa Tree {Catalpa bignonoides) , which can be 
procured from the author. 

Mr. Barney calls attention to the fact, which 
has heretofore escaped our notice, that in some of 
our Western States a variety of the Catalpa is 
found in cultivation with very large white blos- 
soms,appearing two weeks earlier and much more 
abundantly than in the common form. Exper- 
iments, too, show that this early blooming vari- 
ety is of more upright, rapid growth, and consid- 
erably hardier, and so more valuable for forest 
planting : a fact well worth beai'ing in mind. 
To all with whorii the question of a supply of 
fence posts is getting- to be a serious one, and 




especially to the manacjers and owners of rail- 
roads, Mr. Barney's pamphlet will be found 
useful and instructive reading. 



Some time during the past season I read an 
extract from the pen of one of our savans — Prof, | 
Winchell, I believe, on the above subject, 
wliich, if I remember correctly, teaches doctrine \ 
at variance with the facts of the case. The posi- I 
tion of the professor, as I now remember it, is j 
that the treeless condition of the prairies of the 
West is caused by the physical condition of the 
soil composing this part of the country. I under- i 
stand the article referred to teaches that a very i 
finely pulverized soil is not congenial to tree | 
groM^th ; that a coarse soil, with more or less [ 
rocks and gravel, is essential to the growth of i 
timber. The Western prairies being composed | 
of very tinely comminuted soil, are uncongenial, 
and, indeed, detrimental to arboreous growth. 
Assuming that I have correctly understood and I 
remembered the meaning of the author — for I 
have not the article now before me, I object j 
to the teaching of the theory for the following j 
reasons : First — a soil of fine texture is not neces- ! 
sarily unfriendly to tree growth. There is no j 
finer soil in the world than some of the clay soils | 
of Indiana and Ohio where timber grows, and j 
has for ages grown luxuriantly. Second — it is [ 
not true that all the soils of the prairies is of the | 
fine tilth represented. It is true that a large part ' 
of prairie soil Is of vegetable origin, and of coiu-se | 
this is generally finely comminuted, but there 
are extensive districts where rocks and gravel 
abound, and they are yet as destitute of timber 
as other parts. Portions of Kansas are as rocky 
as the hills of New England, and yet are with- 
out timber. True, in some cases, the summit of 
rocky hills is crowned with timber, that it is 
only where the grass grows so scant that the 
annual fires can never reach them. Third — tim- 
ber is found growing in ravines, and, especially, 
on the borders of streams, out of the reach of 
fire, but where .the soil is as fine in texture as 
can be found anywhere. Fourth — it is not true 
that timber will not grow in the soil of our prairies. 
The millions of trees now growing luxuriantly 
in all the settled portions of the prairies in a suf- 
ficient refutation of "the assertion. I have been, 
all my life, familiar with timber growth, hav- 
ing grown up in intimate acquaintance with the 

forests of Indiana; but I never saw, in that 
State, timber grow with the rapidity and luxuri- 
ance that it does here, on these vast plains. 
Seedling trees set at one year old often grow 
from five to seven feet the first year, and some 
kinds often make a growth of eight to twelve 
feet in height, and one to one and one-half inches 
in diameter, in a single season, after being estab- 
lished. Does this look as though the soil of these 
piraries is too fine for timber to grow ? I think not 
Lastly — the soil of the Western prairies is as 
various and diverse in both physical texture and 
chemical constituents as that of any other part 
of our country ; therefore, whatever may be the 
cause of their treeless condition, it is clearly not 
attributable to the fineness of the soil. The 
cause of this distinction is, I think, clearly found 
in the annual burnings that consuiue the grass 
and with it all incipient tree growth. That this 
is the cause is evident from the two following 
considerations : First — it is abundantly adequate 
to produce such a result. All over these plains 
the fires have been accustomed to sweep every 
year from time immemorial. These fires when 
driven through the dry grass before a strong 
breeze such as generally prevails during the 
season that this burning takes place, are 
almost resistless. These fiames, when going 
fairly with the wind, often travel with the 
speed of a race horse, leaping sometimes 
100 feet or more at a single bound. 1S.0 smaL 
timber can stand before such fires. A second 
evidence that this the true explanation of the 
absence of timber is the fact that, when- 
ever the fires are kept out for a few years a 
spontaneous growth of timber comes in and takes 
possession. All over these prairies are strag- 
gling shrubs and seedling trees that want only 
immunity from these destructive fires to spring 
up and produce groves and forests. 



1 am now prepared to report full}' upon the 

hardiness of the Eucalyptus in this latitude. 

: E.bicolor (though with slight protection of straw 

j and matting) perished the last season — and this 

j is the mildest winter known since 1825 in this 

section — proving it no more hardy than E. glo- 

\ bulus and other varieties. I also lost Cassia 

fistula (from Australia), when left out, slightly 

protected ; which leads me to the conclusion that 

Australian plants and shrubs will not stand out 

north of Georgia. Our winters are too severe 




for them, and the Eucalyptus globulus is there- 
fore a fanciful dehision, as far as any l)enefits 
our low, flat, swampy and malarious country is 
to derive from its general culture here, as in 

As a proof of the unusual mildness of the 
season, I will say I plucked a Louis Phillippe 
Rose in my garden, in bloom, January 20th, and 
the same bushes are now set with buds. The 
Marechal Neil buds look as though a few more 
days' warm sun would open them. 



In the current number of your journal for 
Ai>ril, 1878, page 113, J. M. says : " It would be 
interesting to khow the farthest northern point 
that the Willow Oak, Quercus phellos has been 
found growing wild." In the spring ,of 1862, 
Mr. Hensel, Sr., brought me a branchlet, with 
leaves on it, of a beautiful large tree, growing 
in an open field, as he informed me, desiring a 
name for it, stating where it grew. I considered 
it the Willow Oak. June 13th, 1864, stopping, 
with others, on our way to the Susquehanna, at 
the public house in Martin ville, Lancaster Co., 
Pa., it occurred to me that we were near the 
locality of said oak. On inquiry, one of the 
party had seen the tree before, and Professor 
Porter, then of Franklin College, had given him 
the name. We walked out a short distance, and 
sure enough, there stood a vigorous tree, densely 
covered with its pretty foliage, forming a full 
round head, about thirty feet high, a veritable 
Quercus phellos. How it came there the oldest 
inhabitant could not inform us. This brings it 
somewhat farther north than Philadelphia. 


Value of Fast-growing Timber. — It is 
worth noting on how slender foundation gener- 
ally accepted theories often stand, and it ought 
to be a lesson not to take all preaching for sound 
doctrine. We all know how universally accepted, 
a half century ago, the belief was that rapid-grow- 
ing timber was good for nothing — only that which 
grew slow was worth touching. People saw that 
the Hickory and Oak grew slow, and that the 
Willow and Poplar, which grew fast, were only 
fit for the paper mill. But now we find that the 

Allan thus, Catalpa, Osage Orange, Mulberry , and 
the faster-growing kinds of Oaks, the Blue Gum, 
and other fast-growing things, are among the 
best timber trees in the world. 

It was the old notion that hard timber grew 
slow that created such a ghost in the public 
mind about the disasters to the nation to come 
from the disappearance of the forests. When 
timber gets scarce enough to make it profitable 
to raise more, the enterprising " Yank" will get 
up a new supply on short notice ; and he will not 
want to send a commissioner to Europe to find 
out what trees grow fastest in the American 
climate, but will look to American facts for 
American people. 

The Massachusetts Premiuivls for Tree- 
Planting. — The prizes for tree-planting offered 
by the'TMassachusetts Society for Promoting Ag- 
riculture have closed with thirty-two entries, 
principally from the eastern part of the State. 
This competition necessitates the planting, this 
Spring, fourteen acres with White Pine seed, 
four acres with Scotch Pine seed, 52,000 White 
Ash plants, and 30,500 European Larch. 

Tea Culture in the South. — There is little 
doubt, from all the facts before us, but the real 
Chinese Tea plant can be grown well, and the 
article made cheap enough to have a commercial 
value in some of the Southern States ; and we 
look for it in time to be as high among staple 
Southern farm products as sugar or oranges. 

The Catalpa Tree.— Mr. E. E. Barney, of 
Dayton, O., has collected facts and issued a neat 
pamphlet in regard to tliis tree, which we are 
glad to see, having been among the first to call 
attention to the great durability of its timber. 

Dogwood Timber. — It is found tliat the tim- 
ber of Cornus florida, our common Dogwood, is 
quite equal to Box Wood for some pupoaes to 
which, in England, Box Wood has been wholly 
in use ; and there is an annually increasing de- 
mand for it on America. Recently one of the 
American Line steamers from Philadelphia car- 
ried out four hundred and fifty logs of it among 
its cargo ; and a number go with many others. 

Sycamore Timber. — The "Sycamore" of 
English forestry is the Acer pseudo-platanus. 
In this country we call it Sycamore Maple, to 
avoid confusing it with the Sycamore or Button- 
wood. The Journal of Forestry says the timber 
is highly prized in Lancashire for cloth-finishing 



rollers in machinery, and is rather scarce. The 
trunks of four trees, containinp; only 200 cubic 
feet, on the estate of the Earl of Wilton, re- 
cently sold for S125, which is considered very 
high for timber in England. 

Big Trees in Australia. — These do not seem 
to be confined to Blue Gums. The Nelson Daily 
Times of New Zealand states that a gigantic 
Black Birch tree was felled recently by a 
surveyor's party at Staley Creek, near Ahaura. 
It is stated to have measured fifty-seven feet in 
circumference at the butt. But this " Black 
Birch'- must not be confounded with the Amer- 
ican Black Birch — Betula rubra — though that 
sometimes grows to a very large size. 

Notes on Tree-planting.— Prof. C. S. Sar- 
gant. Director of the Botanic Garden and Ar- 
boretum of Harvard University , has issued a very 
interesting pamphlet on the subject. He re- 
marks on the Red Pine, "Wild Black Cherry" 
— Ulmus racemosa — Ailanthus.with minor notes 
on other timber trees. 

BiKNAM Woods. — Every reader of Shakes- 
peare knows all about Birnam woods, as men- 
tioned in Macbeth. From the Journal of Fores- 
try we learn that three of the trees are 3'et 
standing — two Oaks and one Plane tree — they 
being over 1000 years old. Yet they are not 
extra large for their age. The Oak is 18 feet, 
and the Plane 19 feet 8 inches. 

Oak Staves. — Louisiana and Mississippi are 
asking why some Northern men do not come 
down there and go into the oak stave business, 
instead of building up th se industries in the 
West, as the Oak is so abundant in these States. 
It seems a strange question to ask. People gen- 
erally go where they see other people making 

Coffee in California. — The Los Angeles 
Express says that Badillo Brothers, of that place, 
have fruited the genuine Arabian Coffee, but 
that the success was not proportionate to the 
labor and expense attending it. 

Trees in North Carolina. — The following 
are the dimensions of some North Carolina trees, 
as reported from Cherokee county by the Board 
of Agriculture of that State : 

White Oak, 13 feet 4 inches in circumference, 
and 50 feet to first limb ; Yellow Locust, 10 feet 
circumferenc ' , and 60 feet to first limb ; Chestnut, 
18 feet 6 inches in circumference ; Poplar. 11 feet 

9 inches in circumference, 70 feet to first limb. 
Poplar. 11 feet in circumference,? feet to first limb 
Yellow Locust, 7 feet 7 inches in circumferennce 
45 feet to first limb ; Shingle Oak, 11 feet in cir- 
cumference, GO feet to first limb ; Black Gum, 9 
feet 7 inches in circumference. 40 feet to first 
limb ; Hickory, 9 feet in circumference, 50 feet 
to first limb ; Grape Vine at Valley Town, 18 
inches in circumference. 

The Mammoth Trees of California.— 
Two thousand acr-es, including the famous mam- 
moth grove of Sequoia gigantea, were recently 
sold at pulplie sale to S. W. Sperry, of Calaveras 
county, who, it is believed, will take good care 
of them. 


Value of Cherry Timber. — A correspon- 
dent asks : '' Why do you think the wood of the 
escaped Garden Cherry is better for cabinet work 
than that of C.serotina? See G. Monthly, p. 144, 
April No. Have you ever seen the former used? 
and when and where shown. lam interested in the 
subject of this Wild Cherry wood, as you have 
seen, if you have i-ead my last 'Notes;' but I 
want to get any additional information I can on 
the subject. So your paragraph at once arrested 
my attention and causes tliis inquiry." 

[The Wild Cherry, which is indigenous (Ce- 
rasus serotina), and the Wild Cherry which is an 
escape from our gardens, are both in abundance 
in the vicinity of Philadelphia. One is as easy 
to be obtained as the other. We have since 
learned that both are used, and both liighly 
esteemed, and in many cases where the wild 
garden cherry is not to be had, the cerasus sero- 
tina is wholly employed. — Ed. G. M.] 

Black or Yellow Locust.— D. says : " We 
consulted your book, but could not ascertain 
from itif Robinia pseudo acacia (Yellow Locust) 
is the same as White and Black Locust, and if 
it is only the soil that makes the difference. We 
find in Bryant's Forest-Tree Culturist, that he 
claims they are different, but gives them all 
under the head as above. An early answer will 

[Does any one know of any difierence in the 
wood or location, that gave rise to the distinctive, 
names of Yellow and Black ?— Ed. G. M.] 




Natural History and Science. 




Some days since, whilst searching for wild 
flowers, in a forest on the Brandywine, about 
a half-mile above "Wilmington, Del., I discovered 
the English ivy — Hedera helix— growipg over the 
exposed roots and the lower portion of the trmik 
of a tree, fifteen or twenty years of age. No 
house, nor barn, nor ruined wall was in sight 
from the spot where the specimen was found, 
and I could see no reason why any one should 
have selected this particular tree and place for 
setting out the plant. 

Had the tree been a beech, and had 1 found 
four and a half feet directly above the ivy a pair 
of monograms sunk with a knife deeply into the 
bark, and surrounded by symbols, carefullj' cut, 
but of mysterious import, I would have strongly 
suspected the planting to have been the work of 

The circumstances in this case I think certainly 
prov<; that a little bird planted the seed, and 
that Iledera helix, if it has not heretofore been 
detected away from its proper wall, or garden 
border, will have hereafter to be classed among 
the strays. Perhaps some of the readers of the 
Monthly may tell us whether this waywardness 
is of old or recent date. 



Considering the great economic importance of 
the apple to the inhabitants of the north tem- 
perate zone, I must confess I am disgusted at 
the small amount of attention it has received 
from our botanists. The native species of the 
Old World, even, do not seem to be well studied 
and characterized, and our New World botanists 
have probably not improved on this condition of 

Nevertheless, I wish to bring before your 
botanical as well as horticultural readers two 
species that I think should be better known, for 
the purpose of eliciting such information as may 
exist concerning them. 


Pyriis rivularis. Doug. It seems to be fii;;ured 
with the incorrect name of Pyrus coronaria in 
the report of the Department of Agriculture, 
1870, p. 414. (See cut, Fig. 1, herewith). Dr. 
Vasey, in his report on the Forest Trees of the 
United States, in the report for 1875, describes it 
as a '• small tree, ranging from California north- 
ward into Alaska. The fruit is of the size of a 
cherry, of an agreeable flavor, and used, particular- 
ly in Alaska,by the natives of the country for food." 

In Washington Territory, according to a pam- 
phlet by Mrs. Stuart (1875), " the Crab apple in 
many localities forms orchards on the prairies. 
Its presence is an indication of good soil. The 
wood is hard and tough, and the fruit well 

Has this tree been fruited or planted on this 
side of the Rocky Mountams ? Has the close- 
ness of its relationship to other species of the 
apple been tested by budding or grafting one 
upon the other? Has it more hardiness than 
other species in endurance of cold, &c. ? Does 
it promise by such a process of amelioration as 
the Siberian Crab is now going through to be- 
come a valuable fruit V 

Leaving these questions to get aiiswered, I 
would next ask for information concerning the 


Lindley, in his Vegetable Kingdom, mentions 
an indigenous and solitary species of apple 
as found in the Sandwich Islands. James, in his 
I history of the Sandwich Islands, mentions among 
'the indigenous and plentiful fruits "the Ohia 
juicy and red, but of poor flavor." Whitney, 
in his Hawaiian Guide Book (Honolulu, 1875), 
' describes 


" The wilderness of Koolan, Maiii, contains a 
I forest of Ohias (native wild apple trees) count- 
j less in number, stretching from the sea far up 
i the mountain sides. The trees vary from forty 
I to fifty feet in height, and in the harvest season, 
I from July to September, are covered with fruit, 

some white, but mostly red. We passed through 
I the forest when the trees were loaded with ripe 
I and ripening apples. What a sight I For miles 

around us, up the mountain and toward the sea- 
j shore, was one vast grove of Ohias, literally red 




-w'ith ripe fruit, their branches bending to the and solitary waste, would fill a fleet of one hun- 
ground with the bounteous harvest. Birds of dred steamers of the size of the Mikado, for the 
•^oro-eous colors of mingled red, blue, green, orchard stretches from five to ten miles wide by 
yelfow and black, were feasting in countless twenty miles long, and many of the larger trees 

numbers, and making the forest ring with hap- bear at least fifty barrels [bushels ?] apiece. The 
py choruses. The crop of these orchards which fruit furnishes the traveler excellent repast, ap- 
nature has planted so generously in this wild ' peasing both thirst and hunger. So far as is 




now known no commercial use can be made of 
the Ohia, as when ripe it cannot be kept more 
than four days." 

Who can tell us something of this apple? I 
have not been able to ascertain its botanical 
name, nor to learn whether it be a true apple. 
Have any of our Southern California horticul- 
turists experimented with it ? It is possible that 
for the extreme Southern States here is some- 
thing worth a trial. 

[This article possesses a melancholy interest 
in being, perhaps, the last literary production of 
our friend, who died on the 30th of March, it 
having been received by us a little while before. 
There was nothing to indicate any fear of losing 
him beyond the line, " Haven't felt well enough 
to write a letter, or I should have written," in 
a brief note with the article. 

The upper figure in the engraving is the 
Pyrus.— Ed. G. M.] 

rather in the harmonious relation between the- 
two above nutritive powers than with insect 
pollenization. — Gardeners'' Magazine. 

Hills of Pennsylvania. — By the Proceed- 
ings of the American Philosophical Society for 
1877, we find that the highest land in Indiana 
county, Pa., is on the divide between the Alle- 
gheny and Susquehanna rivers, and is put down 
as 1999 feet. 

March Weather at Saratoga, N. York.^ — 
By the record at Terwilliger's greenhouses, it 
appears that the warmest day was 64°, the 
coldest 8° above zero, and the average for the 
month 38° — variety enough to please the most 



An Arboretum at Nashville. — By the 
\ Nashville Daily American of March 2Gth, we 

learn that the Vanderbilt University has decided 
to plant a complete arboretum on the grounds. 
They have started with two hundred and fifty 
species of deciduous trees and shrubs, contrib- 
uted by a member of the American Association 
for the advancement of Science, which body 
held its annual session there last year. 

The Vegetative and Reproductive 
Forces. — The Seeding of Wistaria sinensis is a 
subject full of interest for the vegetable physi- 
ologist, and especially for the Darwinist. At 
the last meeting of the Linnean Society a paper 
from Mr. T. Meehan was communicated by the 
Rev. G. Henslow, " On the Laws governing the 
Production of Seed in Wistaria sinensis.'''' The 
author alludes to the fact that the Wistaria, 
when supported, grows amazingly, but is seed- 
less; on the contrary, the self-supporting so- 
called " tree Wistarias," produce seeds abun- 
dantly. These cases illustrate the difierence 
between vegetative and reproductive force. They 
are not antagonistic, but supplement each other. 
While Wistaria flowers freely without seeding, 
it has been supposed this arises from the bees 
not cross fertilizing. Mr. Meehan submits data, 
however, in which he thinks the question lies 

The English Sparrow. — M. C, Fort Dodge,, 
Iowa, writes : '' I see by the public papers that 
you are having an excitement about the English; 
sparrow, and are trying to make laws to drive 
him out. Some of our people are anxious to get 
the bird to our western towns, but I hope you 
will give them a word of warning as to the folly 
of the thing from your Philadelphia experience. 
I have just had a word of warning from a relia^ 
ble Englishman. He tells me that since the 
introduction of the sparrow to the English 
dominions it has driven out all the other singing 
birds. That at one time England was the home of' 
the sky-lark, the nightingale, the goldfinch, the 
thrush, blackbird, and many sweet singers, buti 
that they have all taken their flight across the 
straits of Dover, and that there is hardly a bird 
left but the sparrow in all England. He says 
that the grape was once a great product of Eng- 
land, and wine was made there equal to the best 
in France, but the introduction of the sparrows 
has effectually killed the wine trade. The apple 
and the pear tree never fruit any more, since 
j these rapscallions eat out all the blossom buds, 
j and that thousands of orchards in the old cider- 
I making districts have had to be cut down for fire 
wood, as never an apple do they bear any more. 
He says that whole flocks of the good old-fash-^ 
ioned song birds may be seen any day collecting 
at Dover to fly across to France to get out of the 
way of those pugnacious sparrows, and leave 
forever their native land. The grain crops, he 




says, suffer like fruit— at least half tlie product go- 
ing to these feathered robbers; and when he left 
the Old Countr}' they were about getting an act 
of parliament, a sort of legislation I suppose, to 
reimburse the farmers for the loss through the 
English govertiment having introduced the bird, 
lie is sure that the scarcity of bread-stuflfs in 
England is from the prevalence of the sparrow, 
which are as thick there as the sands of the sea, 
and he thinks that the bird must have been sent 
over here by some enemy of our country, who 
was jealous of our sending so much bread-stuff 
to England. Now, Mr. Editor, surely a word to 
the wise is sufficient ; and if you are going to 
expel the wretch from Philadelphia, don't let 
him come here." 

[All this is news to us in Philadelphia. That 
reliable Englishman would make a good war 
correspondent in the next fight between Russia 
and England. "We will only speak for Phila- 
delphia, that she grows as many apples and 
pears as she ever did. Our own pear and apple 
trees bear abundantly, and swarm with spai-- 
rows. There were no insectivorous birds in 
Philadelphia before the sparrows came, and 
therefore, insects abounded. It was because they 
abounded that the sparrow was introduced. Since 
they came here the measuring caterpillar does not 
exist. They do not care greatly for caterpillars, 
but they have a great love for the moths which 
lay the eggs, and that suits Philadelphians just 
as well. As for there being any excitement m 
Philadelphia, we have not heard of it. There 
are, of course, some who, like our correspon- 
dent, listen to " reliable reports " of others, and 
who can readily trace the apparition of their 
great-grandparents in an old tree stump by 
night, who think the sparrows are dreadful 
things. But such people always will have an 
existence. As to the sparrow itself, it is cer- 
tainly not an unmixed good, and it will, there- 
fore, get friends and enemies, just as people 
happen to look at its work in relation to their 
own desires. — Ed. G. M.] 

A Christmas Flowek. — Reader, Burling- 
ton, N. J., writes : " Having noticed the foUow- 
mg article in different papers, copied from the 
Boston Free Press : Last year we made men- 
tion of a curious plant which John Atwalt had 
in his garden. On Christmas eve, true to its 
nature, the ' Christa watzel' was up out of the 
frozen ground; and between 12 and 2 o'clock 
Christmas morning it bloomed. To-day (April 

8th) it has disappeared and there is no trace of it 
left." Can you give any information on the sub- 
ject ? I can find nothing of it in any of the works 
on Botany- Please answer through the columns 
of the Gardener's Monthlv next month and 

[We are not sufficiently versed in the German 
vernacular names of plants to identify this for our 
correspondent, — but the account reads very much 
as if the plant might be the Black Hellebore 
which is called Schwarze Christwurz in Germany.. 
The German family name of the Hellebore is 
Neisswurz. In England it is known as Christ- 
mas Rose. It is generally in flower about 
Christmas, and continues to send up flowers till 
March, when it ceases to bloom. — Ed. G. M.] 

Bo'i*ANiCAL Names of the Sweet Potato.. 
— In our last we gave Convolvulus Batatas, as 
the name of the Sweet Potato. Convolvulus 
and IpouKee have many points in common, and 
some botanists confuse them. But this species. 
is properly related to the last, and should strictly 
be Ipomcea — not Convolvulus Batatas. 

Imatophyllum. — "Plausible and amusing as 
is the theory," says a correspondent, " that this 
name began as Himantophyllum, and dropped 
its H in London, the reverse happens to be true. 
It began in the Botanical Magazine, in 1828, as 
Imatophyllum, and got its H, also the n in its 
middle, in Germany, from Sprengel, sometime 
afterwards. The n was put in for a very good 
reason, and one that goes against your Cuyahoga, 
correspondent's surmise. The name is said, in 
the Botanical Magazine, to have the first part 
from ' I/<a5, t^atoi, a thong or strap.' Now, i/xai, 
does not make its genitive i.uaroj , but i^ai-ro^, 
in our letters imantos, or with the aspirate 
which belongs to it, himantos. As to the drop- 
ping of the H in London, the editor of the 
Monthly is aware that though usually dropped 
in ' Olborn' and 'Ighgate/ it is picked up at 
Hepping and ' Hessex,' and many other places 
around London." 

Insectivorous Plants. — Miss M. M. writes : 
I have just finished Darwin's Insectivorous 
Plants" and see in Field and Forest for Novem- 
ber, that C. de Candolle has been investigating 
the structures and movements of the leaves of 
Dioncea muscipula with th.e following results r 
The absorption of animal matters is no direct 
advantage to the leaves, and not necessary for 
the development of the plant.. 

2. The marginal appendages and edge of the- 




leaf are distinct from the remainder of the leaf 
and their motion is not simultaneous with that 
of the "clappers." 

3. The stellatea hairs and glands are developed 
from the epidermis, but the sensitive hairs from 
the sub-epidermal tissues. 

4. Stomata exist on both sides of the leaf, but 
only on the under sides of the "clappers." 

5. The structures and developments of the 
leaves suggest the hypothesis that the move- 
ments of the " clappers" are du^ to variable 
turgescense (absorptions of sap) on upper 
parenchymal surface alone. 

6. Sensitive hairs are the active organs that 
convey the impulse of irritation direct to the 
sub-epidermal tissues. — Bot. Zeitung, Oct. 1877. 

Literature, Travels i Personal Notes. 




Since it turns out that our members of Con- 
gress pass laws that are liable to be evaded by 
their dishonest constituents (judging us, of course, 
by themselves), taking this, the most charita- 
ble view of the situati«n, for we do not want to 
believe they are influenced by the express com- 
panies' money, I would suggest that you origi- 
nate in your journal a petition to the honest 
members of Congress, to be signed by postal 
card, addressed to you, and by you presented to 
the cleverest member you know of, for the law 
to be so changed as to not admit of a construction 
that excludes from the benefits of the office 
Agriculturists, Horticultui-ists, Seedsmen, and 
•Scientists, in the transmission of their products. 
The principle feature of the petition to be that 
parcels of plants, seeds, specimens in natural 
liistory, &c., may be sent through the mails at 
the rate now fixed by law, with labels or tickets, 
printed or written, securely tied to secure safety 
in transmission, subject only to inspection at the 
delivery office by the sender paying three cents 
additional to the amount required by law\ This 
•would be a boon to thousands of us who do not 
•care so much about saving a penny as we do 
about losing a pound, and certainly ought to 
save us from suspicion of stealing our messages 
through, when we could send them on a postal 
card. This, it is true, would be an additional 
burden imposed upon this large class of respect- 
able (except in certain high law-making quar- 
ters) citizens. Yet I believe that all who are 
prescribed by recent constructions and rulings in 
the law, from the use of the mails at all, would 
gladly welcome this additional tax on their busi- 
ness than be deprived wholly of its benefits ; and 

let us all pray that the time may come when 
writing on the wrapper of a pai'cel of seeds, the 
word "seeds" shall not subject the whole to letter 
postage. What a terrible offence to somebody 
that must be ! Were any other people but our- 
selves ever guilty of such ridiculous absurdity ? 



In a recent number of the Monthly, you 
made inquiry concerning the introduction of the 
Weeping Willow into ^Rew England, and also 
about the !N'apoleon Willow, introduced by Capt. 
Jacob Smith, into Rhode Island. 

It was in the year 1826 that Captain Smith, 
who had touched at St. Helena on his homeward 
voyage from the East Indies, presented a plant 
of Weeping Willow to a gentleman of this city, 
(the late well known and much respected 
Thomas P. Ives, Esq.), who had it planted in his 
garden. It was a slip taken from the tree, grow- 
ing over Napoleon's grave in that island, which 
the Captain planted and brought home in a nail 
keg. This I learned from the person who set 
out the tree. I saw this tree, for the first time, 
in 1844. It was then a vigorous .and shapely 
tree, the parent of a numei-ous progeny, and 
an object of no small interest. 

In the month of December, 1866, it fell to me 
as gardener, to take down this notable tree. It 
had become much decayed, and was in danger of 
being blown down at any time, to the damage 
of surrounding objects. 

When prostrate, the trunk presented a singu- 
lar spectacle. The interior for many feet from 
the ground was completely rotten. Much of this 
decayed mass had become genuine vegetable 
mould. Into this, the tree in its efforts to live, 
had sent numerous rootlets. One of these was 




•seven or eiiiht feet louij, thicker than a hoe han- 
dle, penetratmg and rooting firmly in the oround. 

The tree, two feet from the gronnd, was 
tkh-teen feet in circnniference, about sixty-five 
feet in height. The expanse of branches was also 
about sixty-five feet. 

For aught I know; Captain Smith may have 
introduced other trees besides this one, but I 
never heard of any other. 

The Napoleon Willow was introduced into 
Britain in 1823. In Loudon's Hortus Britanicus, 
published in 1830, it is put down as a distinct 
■species (Salix Napoleona) and as an ever- 
green house plant or tree ! But coming from a 
tr<^pical island, and being then but comparatively 
■of recent introduction, this is not much to be 
wondered at. Before the above period (18.30), 
my father planted a specimen of it in the gardens 
he had charge of, in the south of Scotland, which 
I think Mr. Loudon must have seen hard}^ and 
thriving, the following year, when he visited the 
gardens in his tour throughout the country 
" taking notes." I remember him well, and the 
sensation he used to make amongst the gardeners 
upon such occasions. But withal, he was a 
worthy and a talented man— a great friend of 
gardeners and gardening. 

The Xnpoleon Willow is now, I believe, very 
generally considered merely a variety of the old 
Weeping Willow, S,alix Babylonica^ introduced 
Into England in 1G92 from the Levant. Travel- 
-erssayit still adorns the banks of the Euphrates, 
as in the days of Daniel and the captivity of 
Judah, when it was immortalized in the language 
of one of the most beautiful and pathetic of the 
inspired Psalms. 

I am not sure whether the Weeping Willow is 
indigenous to St. Helena or not, but incline to 
lielieve it was introduced to the Island from 
England during the latter half of the last cen- 
tury, when a great variety of all sorts of trees 
and shrubs were introduced, including even 
Furze and Scotch pine, for fuel and also protec- 
tion in exposed situations. I was well acquainted 
"with a person who could have easily informed 
me, and have often felt sorry I never 
inquired of him concerning the Napoleon 
Willow. This was Mr. William Thomson, with 
whom 1 worked many a day, some forty odd 
years ago, in Messrs. Dickson & Co.'s mu-sery, 
Edinburgh. He spent a number of years as a 
soldier on the island, and having been brought 
up to gardening before joining the army, he was 
detailed to look after the ijrounds around Long- 

wood house, the abode of Napoleon during his 
exile. These grounds he said were nothing very 
extra, consisting of some sort of a lawn, with 
walks, some trees, shrubs and a few flowers. 
Mr Thomson could tell much about the island, 
its productions and the exiled Emperor, whom 
it would appear, manifested but very little in- 
terest in gardening affairs (as indeed it could not 
be expected he should in his then situation ;) 
w^alking, however, much around the grounds, 
and often at a quick pace, seldom meeting or 
speaking to any one, being seemingly always 
absorbed in deep thought. When Napoleon's 
remains were removed to France, many years 
ago, I remember Mr. Loudon considered the 
Willow that grew over his grave an object of 
sufficient interest to cause him to apply to the 
Government to have it properly cared for. 

As to the introduction of the Weeping or 
Babylonian Willow into New England, from 
all I can learn or judge of, I think it must have 
been introduced in Colonial times. Large and 
ver}^ old specimens abound in many places. The 
1 common yellow branched or Golden Willow, 
Salix vitellina, the Haw^thorn, the Lilac, the 
Sweet Briar or Eglantine, and even the Barberry 
and many other trees, shrubs and plants, un- 
j doubtedly were very early introduced from old 
I England. The largest Hawthorn tree, I think, 
i I ever saw, was growing and thriving in this city 
i a few years ago. It had to be cut down to make 
way for a new street. It must have been, judg- 
I ing by its appearance, nearly two hundred years 
old. In fact the early settlers ot New England 
j with true English instinct, appear to have had 
much more taste for gardening and love of Nature 
than is generally supposed. Endeavoring to in- 
troduce whatever was useful, familiar and loved 
by them at home, or that would remind them of 
the old ancestral land. Many of these are now 
found in a wild state all over the counti-y, making 
it difficult to determine whether they are in- 
digenous or not. 

But I must stop this. I have digressed and 
transgressed enough. I am happy to see the 
Monthly improving and growing. I have 
taken it from the beginning, and could not do 
without it now by any means. There is always 
something in it for the novice and the proficient, 
the amateur and the professional, the simple 
and the scientific. I hope you will continue to 
give us a few more of your Em-opean notes. 
Theyare vastly more valuable than many people's 
notes these hard times. What has become of 




your correspondent Mr. Harding, who used to 
give us such interesting and valuable accounts 
of his travels in Australia, &c. ? I should like 
to see some more of the same from him again. 
[We have one from Mr. H. to appear soon. Ed.] 


European Notes, by the Editor. — No. 9 
While on the subject of public parks, it may ; 
be as well to cross the English Channel, and 
look at some of the French ones, though we 
shall have to come back to Old England for 
other matters before we return to America. We 
have to cross the sea to get to Erance, as most : 
of the readers know, and as I like the sea I nat- ' 
urally chose the longest way of going across. I ! 
may say I love the sea. She and I were always 
bosom friends. Once when in the dai-kness \ 
around me, I had to swim for life on her broad 
waters, with no knowledge of the compass 
points, and I was as likely to go away as 
toward the shore, she brought me though insen- 
sible to land; and on another occasion, when in ! 
the cabin and our vessel sunk to the bottom, she ' 
kindly helped me out of my little prison, and ' 
favored me over other unfortunates in aiding me ; 
to swim to shoi-e. There are few things so sweet to i 
me as to be rocked to sleep by my good old friend; | 
so instead of the hour or so required for a toss | 
over the Straits of Dover. I got on a steamboat I 
at New Haven about dark, went at once to my j 
berth, and, after a sound sleep, woke at eight j 
o'clock next morning to find the boat at Dieppe, i 
in France. But I must skip some days of obser- i 
vations in the fields and forests, gardens and 
orchards, and go at once to my task of describing 
the public gardens of Paris. I have been told, 
and no doubt the reader has often been told, that 
Paris is France; but I can say that whoever takes 
this saying in an universal sense, will miss 
somethhig if he does not see France for himself 
as well as Paris. Most travelers make a fatal 
mistake here. They go to a few large cities, or 
to some special points, as perhaps picture galler- 
ies, churches, nurseries, and the public gardens, 
the grand stores, the Boulevards and the Royal 
Palaces, and they have "seen France." But the 
France of the guide books and guides in general, 
is very difterent from France as one may find it 
if he will only use his own judgment and go 
poking about for himself. He may find at first, 
as I did, that the French language he thought 
he knew, may do to make himself fairly under- 

i stood, but it will take a fcAV days to understand 
I the rapid, lightning-like sounds you hear in reply 
! to your questions. Still it is well worth trying 
j by one who wants to see France. It is probable 
' that the reason why foreigners keep to the large 
; cities is on account of the difficulties of the lan- 
guage. In all the large cities people who speak 
English are common. It is remarkable that so 
' fcAV English people though so near France know 
; French. Once our train stopped for some reason 
' somfe fifteen minutes in a long, dark tunnel. It 
was not long before noisy shouts and jokes came 
out all along the line from the numerous coach- 
es forming the train, but not a word of French 
\ did I hear. I suppose this "Who's afi-aid ?" way 
\ of shouting, under these circumstances, is 
i not a French characteristic. However it 
showed me there were many English 
people on the train, but, though for some reason 
we were detained at our journey's end, and I had 
a chance to mix with this crowd of English- 
speaking people, I did not find one who knew 
French. Such people cannot see France. 
i As to the Public Gardens of Paris, a beautiful 
! little one is that called the garden of the city of 
' Paris, in the Rue d'Anjou. It is well worth 
: visiting by those who wish to see how beautiful 
a little piece of ground can be made. The spot 
was the place where Louis XVI and Marie Antoi- 
nette were beheaded and buried during the Revo- 
lutionary troubles. The bodies were afterwards 
removed to the Cathedral of St. Denis, and a 
memorial chapel built by Louis XVIII on the 
ground, and the little plot about it laid out for 
the public. Immediately around the building the 
ground is arranged in parallelograms, well in 
accord with the style, and the only plants used 
in the decorations are green grass, borders of ever- 
green ivy, box edging, and standard roses, which 
come from among the trailing ivy up to three or 
four feet from the around, and furnish all the 
sweet flowers that teil the bees the story of the 

The little square forms the entrance, as it were, 
to the Memorial Grounds. The peculiar feature 
of the landscape gardening is the raising and 
lowering of the ground so as to produce an un- 
dulating svn-face, on what would otherwise be 
naturally a level piece of ground. It requires an 
immense amount of true art to conceal the fact 
I that these undulations were made by the hand 
I of man, yet it is just here that the art is success- 
: ful. It strikes the eye as a naturally rolling 
piece of ground, and which man has simply pol- 




ished and put in order. In such a small place all 
the room possible is required, hence very little 
planting had to be indulged in, and the effect is 
obtained by very thick masses of shrubs, judi- 
ciously placed. They have, of course, an advan- 
tage in this sort of work over us in the 
kind of plants they can use. These masess were 
of Aucubas, Hollies, Privet, Euonymus, Yews 
and similar things which are not suitable to our 
gardens, and we have no substitutes. The most 
common trees in the little park were the Plane 
and the false Plane or Sycamore Maple, Horse 
Chestnuts, and I was pleased to note a very 
pretty specimen of our own Kentucky Coffee-tree 
— pleased because our American trees are aston- 
ishingly rare in these foreign countries. I will 
digress a little here to say that there is a great 
exception to this in the Yellow Locust or "Aca- 
cia," as they call it here. It is all over France, 
and grows with a luxuriance and blooms with a 
beauty we never see in our own land. It was a 
new instance of a fact not new, that nature does 
not arrange things over the earth for their own 
good so far as vigorous growth may be to their 
good, though it is, doubtless, to the ultimate 
good of these respective races, that they grow 
where they are found. 

The leading streets of Paris are in a measure 
public gardens, by the care taken of their 
street trees. That is to say in their leading or 
wide streets, known as Boulevards. These trees 
are generally the Plane or Sycamore, or But- 
tonwood, as our people would say. They are 
set three feet from the curb, which prevents 
destruction by horses. The pavements are of 
broad flag stones, under wliich trees Vi^ould not 
grow in ordinary cases ; but here they have a 
circle of six feet wide exposed around each tree, 
but covered with an iron grating, so that the 
rain can get in, and the roots come up to have 
the advantage of the air. Men are employed to 
water the trees duriag the Summer season, 
small hose on wheels are drawn about and the 
nozzle applied to the circle at evening when the 
trees are watered. I was told in Paris that it 
cost the city about S16 a tree a year to look after 
them. Itseemed to me agreat price, and I still do 
not think my informant can have had the figures 
right ; but they certainly do cost something, and 
deservedly so, for these streets would be nothing 
without them, and I am sure the Parisians would 
not lose them for double tlie cost. "We 
hare heard a great deal about the wonderfully 
large trees they move in Paris, and the delicate 

machinery used in the operations. I took the 
trouble to hunt up some of these famous illus- 
trations and found they were, as a rule, not half 
the size of the large trees which are continually 
\ being moved about Germantown, and perhaps 
I near large American cities generally, at not a 
' tithe of the expense, and I was forced to the 
conclusion, that though in a great many old arts 
in gardening we are a long way ])ehind the 
I French, in the art of moving large trees, thej 
i might take good lessens from us instead of our 
learning from them. 

I In the gardens of the Tuileries a large number 
of these trees had been moved last year, and 
the expense of the machinery was heavy. A 
gardener told me the cost was near 200 francs 
per tree or about $40 of our money, which would 
be heavy even for us. I sought out the largest, 
which was only twenty-four inches round, most 
of them only fifteen inches. These were chiefly 
of Horsechestnut and Elm trees, not at all hard 
to transplant, and men were then in the early 
part of July daily watering them. The Elms 
of the public parks of Chicago, moved under Mr. 
Cleveland's direction, would astonish the French 
gardeners. The gardens of the Tuileries were 
not up to the idea I had formed of them. The 
most striking feature, and this in with 
English, and still more American gardening, 
was the great number of men employed in doing 
a very little work. The flower beds are fre- 
quently watered, and this, of course, cakes the 
ground a little. Early in the morning, before the 
watering, men are employed cracking the ground 
with finger and thumb, breaking up the surface. 
Around the grounds are huge orange trees in 
tubs, brought annually from Versailles, and two 
men to a tree were employed in pruning and 
picking the leaves so that one tree did not extend 
an inch more out of line than another. Under 
this pruning and pinching system the gardener in 
charge informed me they never bore fruit, 
plenty of flowers being the only aim. They 
were then being syringed with tobacco water, to 
keep down insects. It shows that even in these 
favored regions, as we suppose, it Ls only hard 
labor that keeps down insects and disease. 

The Luxembourg Palace gardens are, on the 
whole, mdl-e interesting than those of the Tuil- 
eries. Sunk gardens, grass, and box-edging are 
brought into good company with architeetural 
ornaments, which abound. Our Virginian creeper 
is more used in these gardens than I have seen 
anywhere. In some cases it is led from tree to 




tree along straight avenues, sweeping down to 
the ground and up again, making a living dra- 
pery of wreatlis and festoons in connection with 
vases and statues, tliat was particularly pleasing. 
A leading feature of the Luxembourg gardens is 
the statuary, all in historic connection with events 
in French history. There is St. Genevieve, the 
Saint Patroness of Paris, her hair, though braided, 
extending to within a foot of her toes; and with such 
beautiful features that, if a true representative 
of the lady, an artist might have canonized her 
for her beauty alone ; though the Holy See had 
neglected to reward her virtues. Then there is 
Marie Stuart, " Reine de France 1549-1587" — as 
the inscription tells us — and many other celeb- 
rities, especially of the female sex. The Pillar 
Roses, trained to iron rods and arches, were par- 
ticularly good; but the Pear trees, of which we 
had heard so much in the past, were yellowish 
to my eyes, and not near equal to the good looks 
of the Pear trees of our own country. On in- 
quiring for M. Hardy, in the hope of a good old 
French Pear talk, we found, as in so many cases 
in our travels, nothing but the name and memory 
remained. He also had passed away. 

We must pass the Champs d' Elysees, the Bois.| 
du Boulogne, Bois de Vincennes, Versailles, and 
other places, to have a special notice of one 
very particularly pretty spot — the Pare Mon- 
ceaux. It is rather hard for a stranger to find, j 
though not far from the beautiful Boulevards. | 
I think I inquired a half dozen times in a walk 
of half a mile ; for the fondness of a Frenchman 
for a long name, and the way he i-attles it oft" for 
you is " a caution." So as to be near the 
great center of these parks, I had taken up my 
residence at the " Hotel de la ville de Paris, 
Place Lavelavec, Rue Cambaceres;" but a 
Frenchman would get this out in less time than 
you could say " nonsense." But we keep on in 
faith, and find at last, by an unpretending iron 
gate, that our kind directors had told us to " keep 
on to avenue Velasquez." Said aveaue is but a 
few hundred feet long, but it lands us at once 
into the pretty morceau of landscape gardening, 
the Pare Monceaux. The superintendent, loaded 
down with medals which made a perfect show- 
case of his breast, we found, as in England, ap- 
parently delighted with the word " American," 
and kindly gave me all the information I desired. 
The Park contained, according to his statement, j 
'' neuf hectares.^'' I should judge, by appearances, ' 
about twenty acres. But the art I have before I 
referred to, of tlircwing up and depressing the | 

surface, made it appear very much larger. In 
fact I do not know that I have ever seen in the 
world the art of making a small place look large^ 
carried out better than here. Prepared as I was 
for this art, and certain that 1 could not be de- 
ceived, I was somewhat astonished to find, on 
crossing a rustic bridge of not over fifty feet 
long, I was on a popular drive along which I 
hoji walked a half hour before, and within reach 
of which by a stone's throw I had been all the 
while. Yet, by judicious planting and elevating 
the earth here and there, views are so arranged 
that you continually see something fresh. Art 
is strained to the utmost to bring in this contin- 
ual variety. Of course, some of these efforts faiL 
There are some views intended to represent some 
old Grecian buildings of three thousand years 
ago. The work is very natural. It is precisely 
as we see it in pictures. The evergreen ivy has 
covered the whole, and done its part well. Still 
you don't believe in its antiquity. You miss the 
Date Palms. The tumbled columns are not 
there. You could not, under the wildest stretch- 
of the imagination, believe yourself to be " Ma- 
riius sitting among the ruins of Carthage ;" not 
even can you think Carthage has been brought 
there for you. Even the masses of the classical 
Acanthus growing near the wall, as naturally 
as it grew in the first instance on the fair maid- 
ens' Grecian grave, does not deceive. You mut- 
ter, " Pretty, but humbug," and pass on. 

But there is enough in genuine art here to 
please even the critical. There seems nothing 
at least untried. Imagine a clump of crooked 
trees — large trees — and then you come to an- 
other ground where they are mostly straight; 
groups of our Yuccas among rocks, and masses 
of our variegated Negundo on a closely sliaven 
lawn. So we go on in variety — now a lot of 
India Rubber trees — then a bed of our garden 
Egg Plants — and pretty indeed their leaves did 
look — and perhaps next a bed of common Petu- 
nias. Perhaps it may be a group of the rare but 
beautiful leaf plant Carolina princeps — scarce 
Begonias ; and then perhaps the common Ivy 
or Spiderwort. Nothing is too common, but it 
is turned to excellent use ; nothing is too rare to 
give richness and character. It is indeed a 
model park. 

I thought I would finish here, and get back to 
England ; but one who was with me says, " The 
flower markets and the artisans' windows are pub- 
lic gardens — the Champ de Mars, with its Expo- 
sition Grounds are public gardens— the Botanic 




Gardens are public gardens— tell something of | ly, must do their own prosecuting. If Mr."C.E. 
what we saw of these." But 1 cannot tell much , Price" is to live decently at the public expense, 
in a few letters at any rate. I might as well \ he may as well do it without all this fuss and 
8top as continue with so little ; but to please her I I trouble to so little purpose. If such fellows 
will go on with at least one more; and if, gentle i were set for a year or two to break stones to 
reader, you are in haste to get this out of the way, mend turnpikes instead of being confined for a 
so as to be ready for planting your potatoes and i few days in a cozy, comfortable parlor with a 
beans, please don't blame me for detaining you. Bible to read, and a kind prison agent to visit 
That Fraudulent Agent.— The Country ^"^ talk to theni about the " enormity of their 
(jentlemnn has the following from a correspon- 

dent : "I have read the item headed Swindling 
Offers, in your paper of Feb. 21st. I have no 
doubt the person ot whom complaint was sent 
you is the same one that was operating for you 
(in his own behalf) last Spring. He has been 
at work in this section for over a year, and has 
no doubt fraudulently collected several thous- 
and dollars. He has thousands of victims. The 

offences," and such like stuff, which has as much 
hold on their consciences as water on a duck's 
back, there would be fewer of these fellows out- 
side to plunder the unwary. As he will be out 
about the last of May, let the Delaware people 
take him, and give him a share of that State's 

Baltimore Park Commission. — Annual 
Report for 1877. — This interesting document 

Country Gentleman, Germantown Telegraph, ' shows how much can be done by system. All 
Gardener's Monthly, American Agriculturist and the parks of the city are under one commission, 
the Farm Journal, all received his attention, ^^^ one engineer. Mr. Pauls, at a salary of 
besides nearlv all the seedsman, of whom he ^2,000 a year, superintends them all. The total 
was 'cousin' or 'brother.' The fellow is now ' f'ost of all these parks for the year was but 

$286,000. The cost of the great Druid Hill 

hi limbo, and at the hearing, the court-house 
appeared to be full of witnesses against him. 
He was held on nine charges in $300 each." 
By the efforts of the publisher of the Gar- 

park was about $106,000. The number of visi- 
tors was 913,000. Thus we see that this beau- 
tiful park cost ten cents per head to each visitor, 

DENER's Monthly this fellow was causht, but ; ^^^d we venture to say that there is no visitor 

it appeared on the trial by the statements of per 
sons in court that this man has been perhaps all his 
life engaged at his business. There were a quantity 
of foolish young girls to all of whom he was 
engaged to be married, and one, whom he mar- 
ried, was in the vicinity. How many more in 
other parts of the country is not known. A 
large number of photographs of probable vic- 
tims were found in his possession. It seemed 
hard to the publisher of the Gardener's 

who would have thought double that sum too 
great for the pleasure the trip afforded him. A& 
much of the expense is for construction , which 
will stop some day, and nothing but mainten- 
ance remain, while the number of visitors will 
annually increase, we can understand why pub- 
lic parks are so popular. They are the cheapest 
of all public gratifications. 

Horticulture at the Paris Exposition. 
— We have been officially informed that 


Monthly that no effort but his own should be • beside the exhibit of capsules, seed vessels, 
made to bring such a consummate scoundrel to . seeds, &c., representing the forestry and horti- 
justice, but the result shows the wisdom of the culture of America, made by Thomas Meehan, 

"parties of the other part." All his efforts 
simply resulted in sending this gentleman to 
pretty fair board and accommodations at the 
public expense for sixty days, after which he 
will have liberty to go on again with his swin- 
dles. It would have been cheaper, and have 
done just as much good to have paid the rascal's 
board for sixty days than to have gone to the 
trouble of catching him and the annoyance of 
prosecution. Justice of this sort is an outrage- 
ous farce, and in future those who choose to 
give money to strangers under pretense that 
thev are collecting for the Gardener's Month- 

the only other representation of American horti- 
culture at Paris, will be the Iowa State Horticul- 
tural Society, which will exhibit the beautiful 
models of apples made by it for Col. Brackett, 
and which we feel sure will attract marked 
attention. They will give a better idea than 
has ever before prevailed in Europe of the 
wonderful beauty of American apples. 

Massachusetts Horticultural Society. 
—Premium list for 1878, from the Secretary, Mr. 
Robert Manning. $4,575, and are appropriated. 
Liberal premiums are offered for essays on va- 
rious Horticultural subjects. 




Double Amakylms.— After readino; VirgiPs 
account of Amaryllis, it is not surprising some 
should find lier a coquettish damsel. Still H. 
M. Worcester, Norfolk, Virginia, desires to 
make her afcquaintance, and if the gentleman 
who sent us a specimen of her double-faced do- 
ings lately, will send his address to him he 
would take it as a favor. 

North American Botany. — Bibliographical 
Index by Sereno Watson. Part the first — Poly- 
petalse. — Yery few persons who love flowers 
have any adequate idea of how much they owe to 
the working botanist, whose labors systematize 
knowledge, so that any one can readily find out 
all that is known of what has gone before. Hor- 
ticulturists have continually to look to the 
Botanists for advice and assistance. Without the 
Botanists our art and pursuits would be shorn of 
half their charms. This work of Mr. Watson's 
is just one of those pieces of hard labor that is 
extremely valuable to everybody, and yet with- 
out any chance of that glory which springs from 
what are known as original investigations or bril- 
liant speculations. It is simply a work of refer- 
ence. It gives the book, with page and in order 
of publication, so that any one can turn to the 
original authors for what he wants to know. 
For instance, about the yellow Locust, or 
Robinia, the first author is Linnaeus Gen. PI. 1, 
p. 101. Then Du Roi " Obs." Bot. 28. The 
next authority is our own, Walter " 186," and 
then follow some twenty-five others, including 
Loudon, Curtis, Torrey, Gray, Chapman, and 
other familiar names. The monopetalous plants 
will follow as soon as Mr. Watson gets it ready. 
Mr. Watson, on application to his address, 
Cambridge, Mass., will furnish it for $2 and 
postage, which aa it contains 475 pages, one can 
imagine to be iiac one-half its cost. We hope, 
however, M' Waison will receive large orders 
for it, for he aeserves all the encouragement we 
■can give him to keep on with this very hard but 
very useful work. As a full catalogue of 
the plants of the United States, it has great 
value; as heretofore few knew where to look for 
them, scattered through scores of books and 

Canadian Horticulturist. — This is a new 
monthly magazine, published at St. Catharines, 
under the auspicies of the energetic Fruit Grow- 
ers"* Association of Ontario, and devoted mainly 
to fruit growing interests. 

Cultural Catalogue of the Greenbrook 
and Paterson Nurseries, Paterson, N, J. We 

had thought that superior as are American nur- 
sery catalogues, as a general thing, to those of 
Europe, they could not possibly be brought to 
I a greater degree of usefulness, but here is one 
! which goes beyond any which we have seen in 
I this, that it gives a historical sketch of the plants 
where they have any history, as well as cultu- 
ral details. Such efforts must add immensely 
to the intelligence of American flower lovers, 
and it comes within our province to commend 
I all such eftbrts. 

i WiLLARD Cutting Flagg. — Horticulture 
i has suff"ered few more severe losses for many 
I years past than in the death of this gentleman, 
' which occurred at his house, at Moro, Illinois, on 
the 30th of March, in the 49th year of his age. 
He attended the meeting of the American 
Pomological Society, as its Secretary, at its last 
' meeting, at Baltimore, and had an attack of the 
: typhoid fever soon after his return, and it was 
j from the effects of this attack that he died. His 
j love for agriculture and horticulture grew out of 
\ his scholarly attainments, grafted on a thorough 
! love of nature, and together made him a rare 
I type of all that is most admirable in a Horticul- 
j turist. Thus his love for the art was for its own 
I sake, and not for the mere bread and butter or 
I the social power it would bring. 
i Yet he was not without honor, as such single- 
I heartedness rarely is. He had been already an 
\ honored Senator in his own State Legislature, 
: and had been prominently named as a represen- 
■ tative of his State in the United States Senate ; 
and though not perhaps known to him, there 
were warm friends who had resolved that he 
i should sometime have a chance for the Presi- 
I dency of the United States. It was the writer's 
I good fortune to know him intimately as well 
: as personally as a mere lover of Horticulture, 
; and he can heartily say, that in his long experi- 
I ence with Horticulturists, he has rarely met 
i one whose example in every walk of life was 
so worthy of following as that of Willard 
C. Flagg. His sympathies were not, however, 
confined to Horticulturists or Agriculturists, but 
were for all. All have lost a friend. 

Science in the Department of Agricul- 
ture. — We note with great pleasure that Gen- 
eral Le Due has appointed Prof. Riley as Ento- 
mologist to the Department. With such men as 
Riley, Dr. Vasey in the Botanical, and Mr. 
Saunders in the Horticultural, the most enthu- 
siastic " Why don't you do it ?" can ask no more. 

American Pomological Society. — Pro- 
ceedings for 1877. We have no hesitation in 
pronouncing this, by great odds, the most useful 
volume ever issued. The reports and essays 
are wonderfully full and complete, and give a 
field view of American Pomology never before 
afforded. It must have been a heavy task for 
Secretary Flagg to organize and work the machin- 
ery for so admirably executed a task. And to think 
that this should be his last I President Wilder 
closes the volume with a proper Memoriam to his 
worthy associate. 







Vol. XX. 

UNE, 1878. 

Number 234. 

Flower Garden and Pleasure Ground. 



HY Mrss A. a. 

(Coiitiiiued from pa^e 133). 

A florist told me he had discovered the secret 
of blooming them well, which was to give the 
bulbs plenty of sun and regular heat; and I 
agree as to the regularity of the heat being one of 
the causes cf bloom, as at times when we could 
not command this, the buds, which had partially 
emerged from the bulb, would remain stationary, 
or, after several spasmodic growths, decayed. 
Some rare varieties, and seedlings, caused me 
keen regret by this failure to develop the beauty 
I was anticipating. Had I known then that 
hot water was so efficacious in their treatment, 
I might not have failed so ignominiously. 
They are sometimes, however, very accommo- 
dating. I have bought them in bud, removed 
them from the pot, and at a point of my journey 
re-potted them, again removed them to resume 
travel, and at the end of the route again potted 
them, when they resumed the process and 
finished blooming as if undistui'bed. I state this 
that buyers may not be discouraged from pur- 
chasing or sending for them, if it is desirable, at 
their blooming time. 

For a grand show of bloom and large dowers, 
I still prefer large pots for the Amaryllis, and 
an undisturbed state of the roots— except for top- 
dressing — for two or three years. A more gor- 
geous sight than a stand of these in bloom can 
"cldom be seen, even among flowers. I have 

seen crowds before a window thus adorned; and 
those who had carped at a partiality for " the 
odd bulbs," stand silenced before an unexpected 
sight of these in their royal beauty : for " Solo- 
mon in all his glory was not arrayed like one of 

To raise Amaryllis from seed is not difficult. 
If the seed is well developed they all come up 
with vigor. If intended to bloom early they 
should not be disturbed. I did not know this 
in time to save my thrifty seedlings. I did 
not kill them, but they did not bloom, their vigor 
being decreased by the frequent re-potting given 
them, without care as to disturbing the soil about 
the roots. One florist I know of, put his 
Amaryllis seed into a pan and let them remain 
till they bloomed ; this was in three years. They 
were of the orange variety, forming a greenish 
white star in the center. 

My Amaryllis seed were sown in pots, in 
winter, and placed behind a stove. They came 
up in two weeks, but one or two seeds failing 
out of the whole. This seed was obtained from 
Dreer, and said to be Van Houtte's. Another 
set was raised from seed matured on one of my 
own bulbs (the rosy salmon, with a white stripe 
in each petal, shaded ofl^" with maroon red pen- 
cilings) obtained from Mr. Fairly, of Baltimore. 
I cut off all the seed pods but one, which 
ripened in about a month's time, and was full of 
good seed. I raised thirty seedlings and gave 
as many more seed away. At a florist's in Bal- 
timore I saw several pods maturing on one 
stem. I doubted the result which did prove 




disastrous, as every pod failed. Another one^ 
however, having his plants in a warm, sunny 
corner, over a flue, had all the pods mature. 
They were on a bulb which came directly from 
South America, and with a number like it, were 
pulled up from among the rocks hj sailors. 
The handsomest varieties of the Amaryllis I 
have seen, were most of them, unnamed. 

The Johnsonii, a crimson scarlet, with a white 
stripe down each petal, is one of the easiest to 
cultivate, and few surpass it in beauty when well 
cultivated. Next to this, for constancy of bloom, 
is one (obtained of T. Fairly, of Baltimore,) said 
to be the aulica, though all the catalogues 
describe the auHca as bearing two flowers, of a 
crimson and green color. This aulica is of a 
rosy salmon pink, with a white stripe down 
each petal, which is shaded at each side with 
delicate pencilings of a maroon red. When in 
full vigor, it bears two stems a yard high, with 
six blossoms on each stem. It is then regal in 
its beauty. A very rich deep velvety crimson 
flower, with a white stripe down each petal, was 
bought of T. Fairly, and was said to be a seed- 
ling raised in Baltimore. I called it King's 
Beauty. It glowed with richness, and seemed to 
radiate with beauty, when I first beheld it. « 

Several orange colored Amaryllis I have 
seen in great beauty, bearing from two to four 
flowers on a stem. One very large flowered 
kind, was treated with very rich earth, and had 
chicken manure sprinkled around the edge of 
the pot, that was previously covered with fine 
coal— tin thracite — which is said to promote the 
health of the bulb. Meteor, a very rich orange 
scarlet variety, was obtained of Geo. Such. It 
had two stems with four flowers on each. From 
him I obtained, also, the Reticulata striatifolia, 
having a short green leaf, witli a white stripe in 
the center, and bearing pink flowers. This is a 
tender evergreen variety, and said to have very 
handsome flowers. 

The Vittata is another handsome variety, 
varying a great deal as to beauty, some having 
an ungTaceful flower and others very beautifully 
shaped. One rosy pink seedling, obtained of J. 
Feast, was the handsomest flower I ever saw 
of the light varieties. It is said the hybrids are 

The fall-blooming kinds do not show so many 
fine vai'ieties. The Tettuii, Aulica, and a name. 
less one, with a broad disc and rich velvet}^ 
scarlet petals, are all that I can praise. The 
Tettuii is of a bright scarlet, veined and shaded 

with maroon. The Aulica is of dull scarlet 
shaded with green. One variety I saw, called 
Aulica, had immense bulbs and flowers, but wa-** 
coarse lookuig and not desirable for the house. 



In the May number of the Monthly, I notice 
the Comparative Rose List, giving the result of 
the English rose election of last year with my 
list of the best 48. The question' is asked by 
the writer why such general favorites as Gen. 
Jacqueminot, Safrano, Bon Si)ene, etc., are left 
out, when they have been so generally adopted 
as forcing roses in this country? The reason is 
this : the election called for roses possessing 
peculiar qualities, such as render them suitable for 
exhibition purposes, and they must, therefore, 
have fullness of form and .symmetry of outline, 
besides other qualilications, to be considered 
exhibition varieties. Now, the sorts named are 
certainly very valuable for forcing, but are not 
at all suitable for exhibition. Gen. Jacqueminot 
is rarely full enough to be used ; the others 
never. General Jacqueminot will, however, 
always be a popular sort, for in addition to its 
forcing qualities it is of excellent habit, and 
yields a large crop of flowers, which picked in 
the bud or when half expanded are very useful 
for cut-flowers. Safrano and Bon Silene are 
well known as two of the best Teas for forcing. 
The following are also excellent: Aline Sisley, 
Catherine Mermet, Duchess of Edinburgh, 
Isabella Sprunt, Mme. Francois Janin, Mme. 
de St. Joseph, Mme. Jules Margottin, Mile. Laz- 
arine Poizeau (new), something like Mme. F. 
Janin, Marie Van Houtte, Monsieur Furtado 
and Rubens. 

Among hybrid perpetuals some ot the best 
are Abel Grand, Anne de Drisbach, Countess of 
Oxford, John Hopper, LaFrance, Mme. Lach- 
anne, a splendid sort for this purpose; Mile. 
Eugenie Yerdier and President Thiers. All of 
these are among the lighter shades. They will 
give a much larger crop of flowers, as a rule, 
than the crimson varieties, though the latter are 
more generally used. 

Among the best crimson hybrids for forcing, 
are Alfred Colomb, Beauty of Waltham, Charles 
Lefebvre, Duke of Edinburgh, Marie Bauman 
and Maurice Bernardin. 

Number 22 in the list of 48 should read Comte 
de Sembui. Other slight errors are more appa- 
rent, and do not require correction. 






Fig. XVIII. — 1, Trifolium repens pentaphyl- | 
lum ; 3, Alternanthera spectabile ; 3, A. amoena ; ; 

4, Meseinbryanthemiim cordifolium variegatum ; | 

5, Alternanthera paronychioides ; and G, Eche- ! 
veri secunda glauca.^jThis bed may be seven or 
eight feet across. , 

Other Fancy Beds. — Fig. xix, is, as it will be I 
seen, seventeen circles of various sizes, con-i 
structed on a parallelogram thirty feet long, by ■ 
six wide. The center of circle a\ 1, Thujapsis ! 
dolabrata variegata; four specimens Araucaria ^ 

the circles; 1, to be filled with Koniga folia 
variegata, to grow free and bloom ; 2, Caprosma 
Baueriana; and 3, Xertera depressa. 

Fig. XX.— a Roccocco bed, thirty-four feet in 
diameter, should, if convenient, be placed where 
a view of it could be had from above, such as a 
balcony or piazza, when the designs will show to 
greatest advantage. The surface should be a 
gentle slope from the center to the surrounding 
walk, (including the grass border), and may be 
decorated as follows : 1, a specimen of Amar- 
anthus salicifoliua, and around it six or eight 
plants of Abutilon maculatum niveum aureum, 

Fis. 18. 

Fis. 20. 

excelsa ; and four specimens Agave rotundifolia 
glauca, bordered by Cineraria maritima, and 
Pentstemon Colvillii : 5, Tradescantia discolor 
vittata, bordored by Maranta zebrina, and Cen- 
taurea candidissima ; c, Tillandsia zebrina, 
"bordered by Geranium Bijou, and Lamium 
aureum purpureum ; d. Fuchsia Tom Thumb, 
bordered by A Iternanthera versicolor ; e, Fuchsia 
Sunray, bordered by Alternanthera versicolor , 
/jColeus Verse haffeltiijthe whole space between 

bordered by Coleus Verschaffeltii ; Chamapeuce 
Cassaboni ; Geranium Happy Thought; and the 
border inclosing the four spaces 2 and 3 ; Thymus 
aureus; 2, Alternanthera versicolor; 3, A. 
amabile magnifica; 4, Centaurea candidissima; 
5, Pyrethrum Parthenium aureum ; 6, Geranium 
Prince of Wales (or any golden tricolor); between 
them as undergrowth, Verbena celestial blue ; 
and bordered by Althernanthera amoena; 7, 
Geranium Mysterious Night (or any silver tri- 




color between); Viola cornuta Blue King, bor- 
dered b_v Alternanthera spatulata; 8 and 9, 
Lobelia Erinus Crystal Palace compacta, bor- 
dered by Hyssopus officinalis ; 10, specimens of 
Chamapeuce diacantha, bordered by Pyre thrum, 
and the rings that open on the outer side to be 
laid with broken bricks; 11, specimens of 
Mesembryanthemum crystallinum, bordered by 
Alternanthera paronychioides, and the open 
rings to be laid with coal-dust ; 12, Cerastium 
tomentosuni, bordered by Alternanthera amcena ; 

13, Oxalis tropa?oloides, bordered by Pyrethrum ; 

14, to be laid with silver-sand ; 15, is a two feet 
wide grass border, and so forth in many different 
sets on the same principles. 

At the planting of those intended to form 
figures or ribbon in tfie carpet, the plants should 
be put together as close as can be afforded, to fill 
as soon as possible, and should, in fact, do so at 

Having got our carpet beds planted, let us be 
attentive to the trimming of the plants. All that 
are to be level should be so as a table, but it 
requires care at every pinch ; that all stumps be 
hidden by the foliage, and every figure kept in 
its intended shape, not allowing the foliage of 
two adjoining kinds to intermix with each other, 
nor allowing any openings whatever. 



And now about the Ailanthus. I fully believe 
that it is an " antidote " for the Rose bug, and 
other insect pests as well. At least our place, 
which is plentifully shaded with them, is very 
free from many sorts which torment our neigh- 
bors, and the canker worm has never visited us, 
except upon a few trees in the remote corner of 
the orchard, the furthest removed possible 
from any Ailanthus. But our trees are all of 
the sort called male Ailanthus, yet some of 
them have now obtained an age at which they 
bloom every year, scattering their seeds far and 
"wide, every one of which germinates. The 
young Ailanthuses are in fact the most abun- 
dant weed on our place. How can that be 
accounted for ? They are all of one sort, being 
thryses of blossoms resembling those of the 
grape, feathery whitish, looking like delicate, 
white plumes, and smelling like — whew! They 
fall off, bringing the stamens upon the corolla. 
They are apparently all alike. Are they male 
trees ? Then why do the seeds germinate ? Is 
not the female Ailanthus an entirely different 

tree, and is not this sort monaecious rather than 
di.^ecious ? 

[Thei'e is a popular misapprehension regard- 
ing the sexual character of the Ailanthus. 
There are trees which are pm-ely stameniferous, 
sterile. These are odorous. There may be 
trees which are purely pistillate, but we have 
seen trees separated by perhaps half a mile from 
any other tree bear fruit freely, and we suspect 
they are often hermaphrodite. Cases have been 
known where trees for years producing one kind! 
of flowers only, have made branches yielding 
the other. Afh.ny rate, it is the staminate trees ^ 
as we generally see them, the odor of which is- 
not that of roses. — Ed. G. M.] 



In my botanical researches in California, I 
have found few flowers which were discovered 
with as much pleasure as our various Dicentra. 

I well recollect the first time 1 found the 
variety known as D. formosa. At that time I 
did not know we were so highly favored as to 
have any members of the family within our 
borders. It was in a little grassy vale. When 
I saw it, so much did it resemble D. spectabilis, 
that I thought it was a stray plant of that well 
known Chinese variety, the Bleeding Heart of 
our gardens. On a slight examination, how- 
ever, I soon saw my error, but so highly pleased 
was 1 with it, that I dug it and removed it to my 

The Dicentra belongs to the Natural Order 
Fumariacea?. In California we have three va- 
rieties that 1 am acquainted with. 

Dicentra formosa in the Sierra Nevada, at an 
altitude of 6,000 to 8,000 feet, is found in grassy 
vales near streams of water. It grows from one 
to two feet high. The flowers are borne on a 
compound racemose scape, from which they 
hang pendent. The flowers are of a rosy purple 
color ; the center is a bright cream color, thus 
forming one of the grandest combinations 
among flowers. 

Dicentra uniflora is found in the northern part 
of the State, high up on mountain sides. It is a 
dwarf-growing variety, never exceeding six 
inches in height. The flowers are borne on a 
simple racemose scape. They are a delicate flesh 
color throughout. 

Dicentra chrysantha is the most robust and 
vigorous of our native varieties ; often growing 
four to five feet high. The leaves are immense » 




•often fifteen inches long. Tlie tiowers are borne 
on long racemes, from which often branch out 
shorter scapes. The flowers are large, one-half to 
one inch in length being the average size. They 
are of the most brilliant yellow color, and when 
the sun shines, they sparkle and glisten as 
though freshly varnished. This variety, while 
it lacks much of the graceful habit of the other 
varieties, supasses them in brilliancy and show. 
In their natural haunts they grow in a moder- 
ately light soil, in the vicinity of running 
streams. In cultivating them it will be best to 
plant in similar places, if possible. The finest 
flowers I have always found on plants growing 
in the shade of trees. 



Within the great tract of United States, there 
is rot to be met with a single species of Erica; 
"but in place of the " Blooming Heather," nature 
has liberally supplied this country with various 
species of Andromeda vaccinium (Whortle- 
berries and Cranberries) ; not to mention other 
genera which are nearly allied to Erica. [The 
Heather of Europe, Calluna vulgaris, is also 
indigenous, though rare in the United States. — 
Ed.] The greater part of Andromeda are 
natives of North America, a few ai'e found within 
the tropics, and only one in North Germany, 
the Andromeda polifolia, with reddish-white 
flowers ; this plant is strictly poisonous. In 
the north the Andromeda appears shrubby-like; 
in the tropical parts,more arboreal. The An- 
dromedas are in general, far less difl'used in our 
parks and gardens than they should be, and 
yet the culture is very light; and as rightly 
remarked by the Gaudener's Monthly, a 
well worthy one for their gracefi>l habit of flow- 
ering and the pretty foliage. The fruit is a dry 
■capsule. Whether the Andromeda arborea 
(Oxydendron arb., Lyonia arb.) is a native of 
Pennsylvania it is not easy to determine ; but it 
is safe to say, on an average, it belongs to the 
Northern States. This tree is from thirty to 
sixty feet in height ; the flowers are pure white, 
Tesembling much the Lily of the Valley {Con- 
"vallaria majalis), the foliage turnmg red in fall ; 
tastes sour like the common sorrel ; flowering 
time, July. As natives of Pennsylvania, I would 
I'efer to Andromeda spicata (Zenobia racemosa, 
Andr. paniculata, Lyonia ligustrina) a shrub 
growing in the wet low lands ; willow-leaved ; 

flower white ; July — August. Quite common in 
the south of Pennsylvania and Maryland, is 
the Andromeda Tlfanana (Cassiope marginata),a 
shrub ; the flowers yellowish white with red 
spots ; are very narcotic ; poisonous ; honey 
gathered from them by the bees is also poisonous, 
like that from Kalmia angustifolia. To the 
natives of the Northern States belong also the 
Andromeda rosmarinifolia, an evergreen shrub ; 
flowers in June ; reddish. 

Andromeda tetragona (Cassiope tetr.) evergi-een, 
creeping ; blosson white, in April, May. 

Andromeda bradeata. Often known under the 
name of Gaulteria Shallon, a pretty little shrub 
from the Northwest shores ; flowers in May, 
June ; reddish white ; fruit black ; ripe in 
August, September; tastes like our common 
black Whortleberry. 

Andromeda ccerulea (Menziesia coerul., Erica 
arctica, Phyllodoce taxifolia); a very pretty alpic 
shrub, growing solitary on the northern moun- 
tains ; blossoms in June, July ; the flowers four 
and five inches in length ; bluish ; ground color 
light red ; culture very difficult. 

Andromeda hypnoides (Cassiope hypnoides); 
evergreen creeping sh)ub from Canada; strongly 
resembling and also growing among mosses; 
flower, in April, June; either white or of a flesh 

Andromeda calyculata (Cassandra calyculata 
Cham{>3daphne calyc, Lyonia calyc) ; evergreen 
Canadian shrub; flower white in March, May. 
And of Andromedas, growing in Southern States 
are worth being mentioned, 

Androm. jiorrbunda (Leucothw florb., Portuna 
florb.) ; shrubs on mountains in Carolina and 
Georgia; flower white, in June. 

Androm. axillaris^ (Pieris lanceolata, Leu- 
cothoe spinulosa) shrub from Carolina and 
Georgia ; blossoms beautiful ; greenish white ; 
from May to July. 

Androm. speciosa ; (Zenobia dealbata), a shrub 
from Virginia, Carolina, and Florida; flower 
white, large and bell-shaped; from June to Sep- 
tember ; the finest species of all. 

Androm acuminata (Andr. laurina) a shrub; 
from Georgia and Floi-ida; flower white; in 
July, September. 

Androm. eassincefolia ; much resembling the 
Andromeda speciosa. 

Androm. racemosa ; (Eulotris frondosa) ; from 
Virginia ; flower white ; in June, July. 




Androm. ferruginea (Lyonia rigida) ; from 
Carolina ; more like a tree ; flower white ; in 

Androm. tomentosa (Xerolotris toment. Arbu- 
tus nuda) ; an evergreen shrub from Kew Cali- 
fornia ; flower large white and wooly •, in August. 
Besides these American varieties of Andromeda 
there are also a few strangers : 

Androm. lycopodioides ; a creepmg .shrub from 
Kamtschatka (Siberian Asia) ; flower, reddish 
white ; corolla red. 

Androm. chinensis ; flower light-red ; in Aug. 

Androm. jamaicensis ; high on the mountains 
of Jamaica ; blossom faint red. 

Androm. buxifolia ; native of Isle de'Bourbon ; 
also on mountains ; flowers deep red ; from April 
to June. 

Closely allied and related to the Andro- 
medas is the genus Arctostaphylos ; also an 
Ericaceie, valuable for the fruit (berry). 

Arctos. tomentosa ; northwest on the Columbia 
river •, the fruit is eatable and chiefl}'^ serves as 
nutriture to the grizzly bear. 

Arctos. glauca ; evergreen shi'ub on mountains 
and hills of California; flower white, tinged with 
flesh color ; the berries black and flat pressed. 

Arctos. alpina (Arbutus alp. Mairaniaalpinai ; 
evergreen shrub ; high on the Alps, in Switzer- 
land (Europe), and at the Arctic regions; flower 
reddish in May ; berries pretty red ; fit for eating. 

Arctos Uva-ursi (Arctos. officinalis, Arbutus 
buxifolia, Arbutus procumbens); a small slirub 
from the north of Europe and America ; flower 
reddish white ; from May to June ; the entire 
plant resembles much the common red bill- 
berry, only the berries are larger. Arctosta- 
phylos Uva-ursi is greatly extolled as a remedy 
for Lithiasis. 

[We give the above excellent abstract of the 
general European literature of these plants 
without alteration — because it will be very useful 
as it stands- -only remarking in one instance on 
the Heath, as that is an important fact. Ameri- 
can botanical literature, however, would very 
much extend the information. It would not by 
a long way limit Cassandra ealyculata to Cana- 
da, nor the Bearberry to the " North" as strictly 
understood, as it is a common plant in New Jer- 
sey, and some parts of Pennsylvania. -Ed.] 

of our native plants reminds me that I used to . 
do something of that myself. I have found one 
of the prettiest very easy. O. spectabilis, blos- 
somed in March with no special care. Set in 
the garden it blossomed several years in succes- 
sion. C. pubescens, O. parviflorum and C. specta- 
bile all blossomed in a sandy loam, and the two 
first increased largely. I have no doubt that O. 
acaule could be made to bloom in a bed of de- 
cayed pine wood, as that is almost always its 
location. I have seen a long row of them 
perched like birds on a soft, moss-grown log, 
that let one^s feet sink in like snow. I have 
grown Gentiana Andrewsi much handsomer 
chan they were at first, finer in color, and with 
more flowers. Uvularia grandiflora and uper- 
foliata grow much handsomer in a few years 
I with care. Our common Aquilegia Canadensis 
becomes a perpetual bloomer if not permitted 
to ripen seeds. Have seen a mass of roots 
nearly a foot th/ough that had to be divided with 
an axe, having become woody and solid. 



Seeing some communications on the culture 



In this locality, at present date (April 17th), 
the standard Oranges and Lemons are a little past 
their fullest bloom, much fruit having plainly 
set. Some dwarf Oranges, imported from Japan , 
are hardly so far advanced, but the white buds 
begin to gleam through the leaves, and will soon 
be wide open, 

We have been interested in observing the 
order in which our roses began to bloom this 
year. The Gloire De Rosamond came first ; 
next, the Madam St. Joseph ; then the Jules 
Margottin, Luxembourg,, Jas.Sprunt, Bon Silene, 
and others ; lagging in the rear came the 
Banksias, the double white Cherokee, and the 
old-fashioned, but never superseded. La Marque. 
The last of all, it is apprehended, will be that 
charming, but troublesome rose, the Yellow 

Our garden of April is not a beginning, but 
only a half-way station. The Acacias, Lilacs, 
and Tamarix gollica, the Oxalis, Crocuses, Jon- 
quils, Hyacinths, and Daffodils — all these have 
come, and smiled on the green and dripping earth, 
and so have departed. Then Nature seemed to 
take a breath, and the Pansies lifted their won- 
derful faces from the stillness of their dark 
leaves, plant after plant, until dozens were in 
bloom ; the Anemones and the Ranunculuses, 
grew to be flashes of color; the Nemophila corner 




became full of tiny blue flowers, and wbite and 
dark circled ones, and spotted; Canterbury 
bells, stocks. Wall-flowers, Petunias, Scbizan- 
thus, and a host of similar flowers — all these 
welcomed April. 

Lobelia cardinalis is a garden perennial of 
much value here, producing its brilliant flowers 
through the entire Summer, if seed are not 
allowed to ripen. The leaves also have a rich 
metallic luster when grown in favorable soil. 
Delphinium formosum retains its value for cut 
flowers, and is now in bloom. Aquilegia chrys- 
antha is getting its display ready ; and Astilbe 
japonica is in its prime. 

Among the bulbs, Brodeea coccinnea, B. gran- 
diflora, Camassia esculenta, Cyclobothra alba, 
C. aurea, and others, are in bloom, whilst 
Lilium Humbokltii is nearly so. The remaining 
Calif ornian lilies, and those from Japan, have 
evidently chosen May as their month of appear- 
ance. The earlier Irises were friends of March, 
but some still linger beneath the whitening 

The Diosmaalba, a dwarf, fine leaved. Heath- 
like shrub, blooms with us all Winter, and the 
fragrance of both flower and leaf is charming. 
Among the newer plants is Jochroma tubulosa, 
which forms a fine single clump on a lawn or in 
a sub-tropical bed. Its oval, hairy, dark, and 
heavily veined leaves, its firm outlines and 
massive growth, and its large clusters of blue, 
tubular flowers — these unite to make it valuable 
on this coast. Some experiments have been 
made with the Cycas revoluta, which make it 
probable that, in sheltered places, it will stand 
the Winter of Central California. If so, another 
tropical effect may be added to our landscapes. 


Acer rufineroe. — A beautiful colored plate 
of a variety of this maple is given in the March 
^o. of V Horticulture Bela;igue, taken from a 
plant growing on the celebrated grounds of M. 
Lav.allee, at Sevres, in France. It is a native of 
Japan, and allied to our striped barked maple. 
It would be hardy in our country, if not already 
in some collection not known to us. 

Gardening in Norfolk.— The Public Led- 
ger of Norfolk, Virginia, remarks on the grow- 
ing taste of the ladies and gentlemen of that 
city for gardening, and attributes much of it to 
the successful venture of Mr. D. Barker, with 
his " Brambleton" green houses. 

The Dwarf Pyracantha.— This, or as it is 
strangely enough called, the "White Berried 
Pyracantha" has proved entirely hardy at Bm-- 
lington, Iowa. We suppose the ordinary scar- 
let berried Pyracantha would not be hardy that 
far north. 

Quercus iieterophylla.— They seem to 
know more about the Bartram oak under cul- 
ture in Europe than we do, for a correspondent 
of the Garden, writing from Newry, in Ireland, 
says : — 

" This oak is very nearly hardy, and it retains 
its leaves here until January or February ; in 
fact, it never loses them until we have a sharp 
nip of frost. Its flexible shoots, graceful habit, 
and diversified foliage make it a desirable addi- 
tion to collections of hardy trees. It is some- 
times called in catalogues Q. agnostifolia." It is 
however just possible that this refers to Quercus 
Robur heterophylla, quite another thing and 
i which is already in the 

Fairmount collection. 

Green House and House Gardening. 




While there may be a question as to the suc- 
cessful culture of some Orchids— coming from 
elevated regions where they are at all times sur- 
rounded by a cool, moist atmosphere, — with re- 
gard to the splended genus Cattleya, there can 
be none ; and it is my opinion that they will be 

grown and bloomed in this country much finer 
than either in England or on the Continent. In 
beauty they are surpassed by no member of the 
Orchid family. They are easy to cultivate, free 
to bloom, blooms lasting from 20 to 50 days, 
nearly all shades of color, except blue, and 
blooming in s«me one or other of the species at 
all seasons. A house properly constructed and 
filled with nothing but Cattleyas and their con- 
geners, the large La^lias from Brazil, would be 
in bloom all the year round. And I find all 




Cattleyas, whether they come from' Brazil, New ; May, Jmie or July, and rest until the middle of 
Granada, Venezuela, or Central America, can | November. 

be grown in the same house, and under the j C. crispa^ also called Ltelia crispa. From 
same treatment, only having a correct knowledge | Brazil. Sepals and petals, slightly white tinged 
of their proper season of growth. My experience purple and curled on the edges; lip crimson vio- 
is that all Cattleya grow best in pots, except a let,edgeswhite,and the edge is beautifully crisped, 
few small growers. But in growing them in pots, bloom in the summer. Flowers four inches 
the pots should be filled three-quarters full of ' diameter, and last about 3 weeks, 
drainage, and the plants kept well above the- C i/bssos, Venezuela, growth like C. labiata; 
pots, and the lower bulbs covered with sphagnum ; sepals and petals from nearly white to rose ; lip 
moss. As the roots of Cattleyas are perennial, \ rosy purple, with a bright orange disk. In the 
great care should be taken to keep the snails ! markings there is no Orchid that varies more 
and wood-lice from eating them; and at the time than this, and also in the size of the flowers, 
the plants are making new roots they should be ; But all are beautiful, and it should be grown 
kept well mossed up. The old roots, if kept I largely. Fowers from 5 to 8 inches in diameter, 
sound, will emit new laterals, which will add ! and from two to tive on a stem ; can be brought 

into bloom in May. 

C. Triance, C. Bogotensis and C. Warscewiczii. 
These seem to me to be very closely allied and 
all bloom in the winter, and appear to me to be 
no more separate species than the different va- 
rieties of C. Mossfe ; sej^als and petals white or 

much to the vigor of the plants. 

Cattleyas and LaUias suffer more from injudi- 
cious watering than any Orchids that I liave 
cultivated, and will do with less water. I grow 
small ferns in the moss with the Cattleyas, and 
as long as the ferns show no want of water, I 

know that the Cattleyas have enough. There is I rosy white, lip rosy lilac, with an orange blotch 
less danger of over-watering, when the plants at the throat. Blooms two or three on a stem, 
are kept well above the pots. In a few years, and are nearly 6 inches in diameter. If kept in 
the moss will be a mass of fine, healthy roots. 
Cattleyas. need a long season of rest, differing 
according to their time of blooming. I will 
note later, in describing the species, what I 
have found to be the dormant season. 

a dry, cool room, the blooms will last four weeks. 
C. chocoensis. Bulbs about 9 inches long and 
more slender than C. labiata. Blooms in 
winter ; sepals and petals white, lip purple and 
orange with a crisped margin. The flowers are 
and have a waxy appearance, very fra- 

There seems to be three distinct forms of , thick 
growth among Cattleyas : 1st, like C. labiata, : srant. 

which has a bulb a])out 5 or 6 inches long, and I ^'- guadricolor and C. maxima are like C. 
one strong leathery leaf varying in length from 6 cAocoewMS in growth and form of flower, but I 
inches to a foot; 2d, like Skinnerii, which has have not bloomed either of them. They come 
clavate or club-shaped bulbs with two leaves fro'^^ the Pacific side of New Granada, 
from 3 to G inches long; 3d, like C. Harrisonii. C. Dowm^ia, Costa Rica. This by many is con- 
with slender bulbs from 1 to 24 feet long, sm-- sidered finer than C. labiata. It is a strong 
mounted by two or three leaves. These latter grower, sepals and petals nankeen yellow ; lip 
are all Brazilian species. Cattleyas all bloom I purplish crimson, with golden yellow veins, 
from a spathe coming out of the top of the 1 1*' lowers from 5 to 6 inches in diameter, and from 
bulbs, and vary in the number of the blooms ' three to six on a stem. I saw this in bloom with 

from two to a dozen. 

Of the first group with one leaf, C. labiata, 
from Brazil, is probably the handsomest. Flow- 
ers six inches in diameter; sepals and petals 
rose ; lip rich crimson ; blooms from June to 
October; has three or four flowers on a stem, 
and lasts in bloom four weeks. There are quite 
a number of varieties of this grand Qi-chid. I have 
one with nearly white sepals and petals. This 
species commences to grow late in the Fall, and so 

the late Mr. A. Hack. It is getting scarce in 
Costa Rica, 2d class. 

C. Skinnerii, Guatemala. Has upright club- 
shaped bulbs 8 to 10 inches in height and 
two leaves; flowers from three to ten on a stem. 
Rose with crimson lip. Flowers about 4 inche." 
in diameter, and blooms in May. 

Csi/per^a, British Guiana. Bulbs and leaves much 
like C. Skinnerii, but much darker. Flowers five 
inches in diameter, about four on a stem, and 

will all Cattleya.s that come from Brazil, if kept in ' blooms through the Summer and Fall. Sepals 
a temperature of 00° to 65°. They will bloom in and petals splendid rose-lip cnmson with white 




margin. This requires more heat than any other 
dattleya, and seems to do best on a bloek with 

C. Acklandii, Brazil. Not a very strong grower, 
but lias the bulbs club-shaped and two dark green 
leaves. Sepals and petals light olive green bar- 
red purple, lip purple with a yellow blotch, 
grows well on a piece of rouuh cork. 

('. Schilleriana, Brazil. Nearly related to the 
last, but stronger in growth. Both will sometimes 
bloom twice in the season. If grown on a block, 
they must not be allowed to get too dry and 
shriveled, as they seem to sutler from it more than 
•other Cattleyas. 

C.marginata, C. biilbosa^ C. pumila, ai'e three 
beautiful small growing Cattleyas from Brazil, 
■and grow best on rough cork. They have rose 
■flowers with crimson lip ; ?>d class. 

C.Harrisonii has long slender bulbs about 16 
inches long, and two or three leaves. Flowers in 
Summer. Flowei's rose ; lip light rose with yel- 
low center. Has about four blooms on a stem. I 
hada plant with over fifty blooms open at the same 
time, each 4 inches in diameter. I may here re- 
■naairk that all the Brazilian Cattleyas with terete 
bnlbs, have narrower sepals and petals and 
shorter lip than the varieties like C. Mossae. 

C. Loddigesii. In growth like C. Harrisonii, 
but not quite as strong a grower. Flowers pale 
rose with some light purplish blotches, lip light 
rose and whitish yellow. Blooms in Summer- 

(J. Forbesii. In growth like C. Harrisonii, sepals 
and petals greenish yellow, and in some varieties 
bronze yellow ; lip very handsome, white outside 
■orange yellow inside, streaked crimson. This is 
probably the least showy of the Cattleyas ; but a 
large plant in bloom is very showy , and it is much 
better than many other Orchids. C. intermedia,C. 
Intermedia violacea and C.i. araethystina,are vari- 
eties of the same species. In growth rather 
shorter and stouter than C. Harrisonii ; sepals 
and petals white, blush or rosy white ; lip white, 
with a purple blotch on the end. I have now 
four plants in bloom, no two exactly alike. It is 
a very neat and easily bloomed Cattleya, and if 
tept in a dry room, the blooms remain from four 
to six weeks. All Orchids in bloom should be put 
where no water can fall on the blooms, as they 
spot very easily. 

C. Guttata. Brazil ; bulbs two feet long ; flow 
ers four to ten, about 4 inches in diameter ; sepals 
and petals greenish yellow, with crimson spots ; i 
lip white with purple blotch ; blooms in Sum- ! 
xoer and last three weeks. j 

1 C. Guttata Leopoldh. Growth like C. Guttata; 

sepals and petals dark green, mottled brown 

and yellow ; lip crimson purple ; bears from six 

, to twelve flowers on a spike ; blooms in Summer. 

C. amethystoglossa. Fall ; slender bulbs two to 

I three feet high; sepals and petals light rose, 

1 spotted purple ; lip purple ; blooms in March and 

j April. I have had several plants sent from Brazil 

j for the species, but have never got the true one. 

C. citrina. Mexico; dwarf plant with small 

bulbs covered with a white skin ; has two glaucous 

leaves about six inches long ; bears one or two 

flowers of a rich yellow in all parts except the 

: edge of the lips, which is white. The flowers are 

! large for the size of the plant, are very beauti- 

:ful, and have the odor of lemons; it is found 

i growing with the leaves down. This plant has 

! no resemblance to any other Cattleya, and I 

I have doubts of its being a true Cattleya ; if it is, 

I it would be a fine one to cross with some of the 

I others. 

j There are a great many other Cattleyas, some 
distinct species, but many others are only varie- 
ties or natural hybrids. Among the new ones 
highly recommended are C. gigas, C. Eldorado, 
C. Exoniensis (hybrid); C. Mendali,C. speciosis- 
sima, C. velutina and C. Warneri. Any one 
growing Orchids cannot have too many Cattleyas. 
I have never seen one that w^as not handsome. 



The Orchid-Grower's J/anwa/.— Talking about 
Orchids, I may say that General Rathbone 
mentioned to me, that when he began Orchid- 
growing several years ago, he knew nothing at 
all about it, but he got a copy of the Orchid- 
Grower^s Manual, by B. S. Williams, of London, 
studied it carefully, and adapted his practice to 
the directions of the Manual, modifying,of course, 
as he best knew how, to suit our American 
climate; and what is the result? One of the 
very healthiest and best-grown collections of 
Orchids in the United States. 

There are other Orchid collections at and near 
Albany, but not being pre-advised of their being 
there, unfortunately I had no time to visit them. 
At other places on the Hudson, I found a few 
Orchids, but nothing to speak of. 

For Orchids, South Amboy is to New Jersey 
what Albany is to New York. At Such's nur- 
series, the Orchid collection is very extensive, 
and for a commercial establishment, the speci- 




mens of Cattleyas, DendrobiumSjCj^pripediums, 
Angrtecums, Vandas, &c., are exceptionally 
large. Health and vigor are everywhere appar- 
ent. The tiny hut charming Sophronites were 
at their best. Most all of them were attached 
to earthernware blocks, on which they .seemed 

quite at home. S. granditiora has the largest \ Cypripedium insigne as I 
and brightest scarlet tiowers ; cernua, red to | series, at Flatbush, L. I 

is one of the finest and easiest grown species of 
the genus growing very freely, and to a cer- 
tainty producing annually in early Summer, its 
long arching spikes of lovely white tiowers; and 
substantially corroborates his statement. 

I never saw so many large plants together of 
did at Bennett's nur- 
; there were several 

orange red; and violacea, mauve to purplish | scores of them, and all in bloom. Mr. B. also 
violet. Oncidium ornithorhyncum, growing on ' grows Dendrobium nobile in great quantity, for 

similar blocks and in a cool house, had many 
massive spikes of deliciously fragrant blossoms ; 
and mats of Odontoglossum liossii majus,withfive 
blooms on a spike, also depended in the Camellia 
house. Massive specimens of the ever-blooming 
Cypripedium Roezlei had many flower stems, 
and specimens of C. caricinum in 18-inch pans were 
growing like sedge-grass in a swamp. A plant of 

furnishing cut flowers for market. At Mrs. 
Gardner Brewer's, at Newport, R. I., is a 
famous collection of Orchids. The plants, par- 
ticularly the Cattleyas, are small, but their clean 
fresh leaves and pseudo-bulbs and solid fleshy 
roots permeating to almost matting the lumpy 
peat the pots contain, foretell what we may ex- 
pect as the result of Mr. Hill's practical care. 

Angrnscum eburneum showed nine flower-spikes, ■ Mr. H. was one of the most noted Orchid groweis 
and near it was a pan containing a Peristeria i in England, and apparently his labors are to be 
elata that showed the ends of three flower-stems j as successful here as they were — to my own 
which Mr. Taplin says were six feet high when I knowledge — at Manchester, Wandsworth, and 
in perfection. ?Ie mentioned that he gave these | Blandford, in England. Here Oncidium Roa- 
plants plenty roof-room and a rich spongy soil. | ersii has three spikes — two small and one me- 
The display of Calanthes was fine. ! dium-sized, and some 150 blooms and O. verru- 

Here, that most beautiful Cape of Good Hope cosum is likewise prettily flowered. The beauti- 
ful Cattleya Eldorado splendens is also in bloom, 
and there is quite a display of Calanthes and 



Premising that among the readers of the 
Monthly there are some who like to turn aside 
from the beaten track, wherein grow Callas, 
Geraniums, Abutilons, &c., to "rarer fields and 
pastures new," I give herewith a brief sketch of 
my success with some of the less commonly 

Orchid, Disa grandiflora, is better grown than I 
know of anywhere else, either in this country or 
any other. I saw them in perfection in 187G, but 
when I w^as there this season it was too late, — 
the Disas had done blooming. In England, five 
blooms on a spike is good, and seven is excellent ; 
but Mr. Taplin grows pans of it with from seven 
to nine blooms on a stem, and several, I forget 
how many, stems to a pan. It is no mean variety 
either, for the blooms are of a bright scarlet to 
crimson color, and 4 inches across. 

At Mr. Rathbun's— just beside South Amboy 
depot— is a very fine collection of Orchids in ex- 
cellent health and rigid cleanliness. I noticed I grown window plants. And for ease of culture 
about a score of plants of Oncidium Papilio in ' and showiness of foliage, I consider the Croton 
bloom, also a very excellent variety of that most ; at the head of the list. I have a Croton inter- 
beautiful of butterfly Orchids— O. Kramerianum. j ruptum, which I bought of Mr. Saul one year 
O. Rogersiihad 149 flowers, andL^eliaancepsand i ago last May, then a very small plant, and to- 
autumnalis were nicely in blossom. A few j day it is thirty inches high by as many broad,, 
varieties of Lycaste Skinnerii were opening their j flnely branched and richly colored. I do not, how- 
blossoms, and there was a goodly show of ever, think interruptum nearly as handsome as- 
Cypripediums, notably insigne, and a nice little j some of the others; indeed, pictum, though an 
plant of niveum. Mr. R. has some fine plants i old variety, is more showy. 1 have one of the 
of Dendrobium Falconerii — one of the loveliest } last, w hich is very lovely, with its gold and crim- 
exotics in existence ; and Mr. Clements, the gar- | son markings. Of the newer varieties, Youngii, 

dener, is now resting it in a cool house ; he ex- 
pects it ought to bloom pretty well this year. 
Mr. C. tells me that Odontoalossum citrosmum 

Veitchii and undulatum are splendid species. 
In my opinion the latter is the prettiest, though 
all are magnificent. Crotons require strong snn-' 




light, and the warnitst place at command. I 
shower mine daily with warm water, and keep 
them on the highest shelf ; and they well repay 
this slight care with their brilliantly-colored 
leaves, more ornamental, I think, than flowers. 
Dracicnas are also both ornamental and easy of 
culture, and give a nice look to a stand of plants. 
But for a north window, and a cooler location, 
I think Aspidistra variegata the finest thing I 
have ever tried. I have one that has over thirty 
of its long, broad, glossy leaves, from four to 
six inches across, each elegantly striped with 
white, and gracefully recurved. It is never trou- 
bled with insects of any sort, and ought to be 
more often seen than it is. It requires a liberal 
supply of water, both over the foliage and at 
the root. Of rarer plants, I have grown with 
good success Palms, Pandanus, Marantas, 
Tilland.siaand Dieffenbachiamaculata, the latter 
an especially fine, free-growing plant, with broad 
green leaves, prettily spotted with white. It is 
recommended for wardian cases, but I have had 
no trouble with it in my sitting-room. Of course 
these more delicate plants require thought and 
care in their treatment, but they amply repay 
the extra troub'e by the elegant effect they give 
to a stand of blooming plants. I think we might 
grow many more of what are classed as " stove" 
plants in our rooms, by proper attention to 
cleanliness, and moisture in the air. In addition 
to water on the stove, I keep large sponges, con- 
stantly wet, lyiifg among my plants. I have, in 
this room, a Maiden-hair Fern, which has thrown 
up between thirty and forty fronds, some of them 
two feet high, and the mass more than that 

I will stop to mention but one blooming plant, 
as this article is already too long. One year 
ago last spring, in looking over Mr. Saul's cata- 
logue for something new for winter blooming, 
I came upon the Rogiera. I sent and got one 
by way of experiment. And I wish to testify 
my extreme satisfaction with this pretty, fra- 
grant plant. The variety I had, bore pinkish- 
white fiowers, in heads like the Bouvardia, only 
the clusters were three times as large, and the 
fragrance is peculiar and exquisite. It needs 
heat and sunshine, and grows freely without 
further trouble. 



No house in "Washington is such a Japanese 
gem as the home of General Horace Capron. 

I This gentleman, going to Japan in 1871, took 
with him his carriage and horses. He was soon 
requested to lend his turn-out to the emperor, 
I and then invited to the palace, where his- 
i majesty said to him : '■' Sir 1 I have sent for you 
; to thank you personally for introducing such 
animals into my country. I never knew before 
that they existed on the face of the earth." The 
General was then employed to put Up a flouring 
mill — as bread was no less unknown than horses 
to the Japanese. Nor were his rolls less wel- 
come than his rcTad-ters. He also built a saw- 
mill which cut twelve thousand feet daily — 
which was all that six hundred sawyers could, 
do. Among other services he showed how to 
can salmon, and so rendered that fishery ten 
times more valuable than it had been. 

He had his reward. Everything rich and rare 
that had been garnered up in the imperial 
treasure-house was lavished upon him, and he 
came home laden with the spoils of the farthest 

If repui licans were as rich as the Mikado, the 
Nebi'askans would bestow a similar testimonial 
on the Mennonites who have settled among 
them. Those Russian exiles have introduced a. 
variety of fuel which will prove as great a boon 
to prairie States, as horses or mills to Japan. 
They have demonstrated that every farmer 
may find on his own homestead, if not a coal 
mine, yet whatever he needs to burn on his 

Though I was long ago a traveler in Russia,, 
my attention was never called to the Russian 
style of heating until 1873. In that year, being 
on a western tour, I fell in with seven Mennon- 
ite deputies in quest of a new home for their 
people, who for conscience sake, were forced to 
leave their old one on the Black Sea. We were 
together in various parts of Nebraska. Along 
the Republican and smaller streams, we found a 
good growth of timber— but every acre it stood 
on had been snapped up, either by settlers or 

Much to my astonishment 1 discovered that my 
companions liked the counti-y. In talking with 
German squatters whom we had called upon, they 
had ascertained that the crop was twice as large 
as that where they came from. When I asked 
" what will you do for fuel ?" their answer was:. 
" Look around. We see it ready to our hands in 
every straw stack and on every prairie. Grass and 
straw are what we, and our fathers before us, 
have always used." We passed one even- 



I June, 

ing by a brick kiln in Crete, which was fired ] -with letters begging for further particulars, not 
up with coal. They remarked to me that only from various .States but from abroad, and 
they could burn brick without either coal or even from Xew Zealand. These letters I could 
wood. not answer, even with a manifold letter-writer, 

Their report on their return to Europe was and I have therefore, prepared the present 
such as to bring a thousand of their co-religion- circular, which the post office can scatter like 

ists into !N'ebraska. And while a large number 
of these people have gone into Manitoba, Min- 
nesota, Kansas and Dakota, it is true, I think, 
that the best class have made their homes in 
Nebraska, and in that State are to be found the 
^nost prosperous colonies. Two of their settle- 
ments there I chanced to visit last autumn — one 
near Beatrice, on the Big Blue, and the other 
farther west in York county. Mindful of my 

The grass furnace or stove is nothing costly, 

: or complicated, or likely to get out of order. On 
the other hand it is a contrivance so simple that 

i many will say of it as one man did when he first 
saw a railroad track : " Nobody but a fool could 
have thought of so simple a thing." In a word, 
as the Irishman made a cannon by taking a 
large hole and pouring iron around it, so the 

conversations four years before, my first inquiry \ Mennonite mother of food and warmth is de- 
was regarding fuel, and the mode of using it. In j veloped by pilmg brick or stones round a 
every house I entered, my curiosity was gi'ati- j hollow. 

Aware that such generalities are too vague, I 
will make my description more specific, and 
since the eye catches in an instant what the ear 
cannot learn in an hour, I have also had a 
diagram prepared which will render the whole 

fied. The first dinner I ate cooked with grass, I 
«et down as a novelty in my experience. A few 
words of mine concerning the Mennonite device 
for cooking and heating were inserted in a letter 
which appeared in the Chicago Times last Octo 




Furmui- Door to Firo-Bo.\. 



Chamber with Iron Shutter (hinged) to let 

out heat. This Chamlier has floors on both 

sides of Furnace. • 
Oven or cooking place on Kitchen eide of 



ber, and in a pamphlet entitled a "September I mystery plain and level to the lowest capacity. 
Scamper." This notice has overwhelmed me ! (See diagrams.) 

The material used for the Russian 
furnace seems unimportant. Some 
employ common brick, others stone; 
one builder told me he preferred 
to mix one part of sand with two of 
clay. In his judgment this mixture 
retained heat longest for radiation 
through a house. The position of 
the furnace is naturally as cen- 
tral as possible, because heat 
tends to diffuse itself on all sides 

Furnaces will, of course, vary in 
size with the size of houses. A 
good model is that shown in the 
diagram. Its length is five feet, its 
height six, and its width two and a 
half. The bricks employed are 
about six hundred, unless the walls 
be of exti'aordinary thickness. The 
structure may be said to have six 
stories. 1, the ash-box; 2, the fire- 
box; 3, the oven; 4, smoke passage; 
5, hot air chamber ; 6, smoke pass- 
age either to a chimney or to a drum 
iu an upper room. 

Many questions have been asked 
me as to the size of the fire or fuel- 
box. Its lensjth is about four feet, 

I I I 




J L_ 

^n — r 





' 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 \ 

II 1 1 1 1 

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 

1 1 1 1 1 1 I 

1 ' 1 1 1 1 : 


AND horticulturist: 


its width and height, each about a foot and to secure their honey— and at his neighbor who 
a half. It is asked, " How is the grass pressed I put into his stove the corn which he might have 
or prepared for the fire-box':"' It is not sold, the same year, for fifty cents a bushel. 


Showing Location of Furnace. 






(.4) Furnace Door 

to Fire-Box 

(B) Lower open- 
ing, as showu in 

side, and used 
f o r coo Ic i n g 

(C) Heating or 
upper opening 
ou sitting room 

or b e d room 

prepared at all, but is thrust in with a fork as 
one would throw fodder into a rack. People sup- 
pose they must be putting in this fuel all the 
time. This is not the fact. At the house of Bishop 
Peters (48x27 feet), which is a large one for a 
new country, the grass or straw is pitched in for 
about twenty minutes, twice, or at most three 
times in twenty-four hours. That amount of 
firing up suffices both for cooking and comfort. 

It will be observed that the heated air strikes 
the oven, and also the reservoir of hot air both 
above and below, and that no particle of hot air 
reaches the chimney till after turning four 
corners. It works its passage. The iron plates, 
doors and shutters are such as any foundry can 
furnish. They are inexpensive. In a case where 
I inquired the cost, it was five dollars. 

Near a score of years ago, when I first pushed 
west of the Missouri, my feeling was, " "What a 
corn-and-wheat-growing capability here i-uns to 
waste ! What myriads of buffaloes, too, have 
been shot merely for the petty dainty of their 
tongues !" So now in the light of Mennonite 
experience, many a Yankee in Nebraska sees 
that he has thrown away a cooking and warming 
power that had millions in it. He long ago 
laughed at his father smothering bees in order 

He now laughs with the other side of his mouth 
at himself for burning out doors that prairie 
produce which, if burned in doors, would have 
saved him ,too,many a dollar. He who thus laughs 
will need no preaching to make him square his 
practice in the matter of cookery and house- 
warming according to the Mennonite plan. His 
faith will be stronger than ever, that the Provi- 
dence which created quinine where cliills pre- 
vail, as well as perfumes where negroes are 
most numerous, and provided buffalo-chips for 
the Indian in the far west, has there also fur- 
nished fuel for the civilized setttler—" grass of 
the field, which to-day is, and to-morrow is cast 
into the oven"— a gift which, if he makes full 
proof of it, will be sufficient for all his needs.. 

Straw and old prairie grass have been thought 
as useless as grave stones after the resurrection.. 
But the recent utilizing of them is in keeping 
with the .spirit of the age — with developing 
patent fiour best suited to human uses from 
that part of wheat which had been the food of 
hogs, and with planing mills so contrived that 
they feed their boilers with their own shavings.. 
Indeed, it surpasses all witty inventions in its 
line, unless it be the proposal, just now started, 
for turning even tramps to account, by clapping 
them mto the regular army, and sending them 
among Indians to scalp, or to be scalped, no 
matter which. 

Many Nebraska Yankees were made happy 




last winter, thanks to the Mennonite stove. 
More will be next winter. That household 
blessing to an outsider seems capable of little 
Improvement. But the Yankee will improve 
at, for he has improved everything else he has 
borrowed — everj^thing, from watches to steam 
engines, ships, and even religion. In fact his 
"betterments in the last article are said to be as 

"As if religion were intended 

For uotliingelse but to be mended." 

Thus Yankee cuteness may render the Russian 
stove simpler, smaller, cheaper, of better mate- 
rial, of more elegant design, of more economi- 
•cal combustion. But as now used by Nebraska 
Mennonites, it is worthy of all acceptation by 
every prairie pioneer. A Hibernian hearing of 
a stove that would save half his wood, said he 
would buy two and save the whole. The save- 
all that he was after, he would have found in a 
Mennonite grass burner. 


A Room Garuen. — We were agreeably sur- 
prised, a few days ago, by finding the JMdies'' 
Iloral Cabinet on our table. Not being in sight 
•for so many years, it had passed out of mind. 
The one before us has a nice illustration of the 
room garden of Mrs. Clara R. Sweetzer, of Pea- 
body, Mass., which we notice particularly to 
comment on the wisdom of the lady in the 
selection of honeysuckles, ivy, and such hardy 
plants to grow over the pretty wire frames that 
flank and arch over her windows. Most persons 
fail wilh room flowers, because they choose ten- 
der things tbat require much light or heat, or 
•otherwise great care. There are many things 
which are nearly hardy, evergreen, and in many 
ways interesting, that would make a room look 
beautiful in winter; and the lady has shown ex- 
cellent judgment in the selection, as the pic- 
ture of her pretty room fully proves. 

Lent Lilies. — In the quotations of the Lon- 
don cut-flower market, are frequent references to 
" Lent Lilies." It appears this is the new fash- 
ionable name for the Daffodil. As Daffodil it is 
only worth a few farthings a dozen, and would 
hardly be tolerated on an exalted occasion; but 
as " Lent Lilies " they bring fair prices, that 
more than cover the first cost of roots. 

Tea Roses ix England. — Of the marriage of 
Lord Roseberry, in which three thousand Tea 
Rose buds were used, it is remarked that " even 
a Rothschild might doubt the possibility of get- 
ting that number" in March. If our English 
friends must have rose-buds in March at their 
weddings, let them marry in our large Eastern 
cities, and any florist will get them 10,000 on a 
week's notice. It does look as if our florists 
had " patronage." 

Progress of Orchid Culture in the 
United States. — From all we can learn, the 
taste for Orchid-growing is increasing very much 
among our people ; and Mr. Thomas Hogg and 
Mr. Rand have been collecting in tropical 
America. Among a recent consignment from 
the former were no less than 700 fine plants of 
Cattleya Mossse. Besides numerous shipments 
have been made by nurserymen from Guate- 
mala, all of which were sold at public sale in 
New York, and brought fair prices. 


Lady Washington Pelargoniums. — M. A. 
S., Baltimore, asks : " Why are these called 
Lady Washington Pelargoniums? I find no ref- 
erence to any such in Paxton's Dictionary." 

[When botanists came to calling all garden 
Geraniums Pelargoniums, the people had to 
make some distinction for convenience sake. 
The old scarlet Geraniums are now Zonale Pel- 
argoniums, and many other "Pelargoniums" 
— and this Pelargonium — the old Pelargonium 
of the florists, had no distinctive name. It had 
long been known among American market-peo- 
ple as the "Washington Geraniums," and the 
florists seem to have caught it up as a conveni- 
ence. It is an American issue, and not likely 
to be in " Paxton ;" but there is no more reason 
why it is not legitimate to call them by this 
name as for a section to be called "Regal" or 
any other name in England. — Ed. G. M.] 

Variegated Pelargonium.— S. F. T., 
Saratoga, N. Y., says: "I have a seedling 
Pelargonium (Lady Washington), that is varie- 
gated with white on the leaves. The leaves are 
not flat like the green kinds, but cupped and 
very much toothed on the edges. Has not yet 




Fruit and Vegetable Gardening, 




And first, no pear, new or old, should cum- 
"ber our lists, not in tree, fruit or pretty nearly 
equal to the best of its season (say, for Sum- 
mer) to those luscious favorites which crown 
your table, till the full ripeness of the late 
Autumnal varieties into which they glide. 

Second. A pear should be either at home 
everywhere, or named as partial to some locality. 
-Some are as whimsical as humans about the soil 
in which they dwell, or the winds that blow on 
them, or the latitude of their home. Many 
kinds are as sensitive to the situation as are 
those European grapes, vphich on one side of a 
mountain yield a wine the pride' of princely 
tables, whose vintage on the other slope makes 
but the common drink of the peasant. 

Third. The world has no room for small pears, 
new or old, that do not grade pretty closely up 
to the very best of their season. There is no 
market for small pears much below such a 
standard of excellence as, say for Fall pears, 
the Seckel. Big kinds, which do not grade quite 
up to that high level, may do. Fiaiit dealers 
buy no small pears when big ones, about as 
good to eat, are at hand. In fact, small pears 
must be mighty good to command a market. 

Fourth. However large or good a fruit your 
tree may bear, to elevate special care or culture, 
yet it must be hardy in leaf axid limb, and a 
good thrifty grower, not prone to bliglit on 
twig or foliage. Its bark must show none of 
those deep, unseemly cracks and gashes, which so 
mar the looks and health, and life of some of 
the very best pears. Unless exceptionally reli- 
able for fruit, good and large, no tree deserves 
planting that is tender to over-bearing or to 
tearing winds. 

Fifth. A pear worthy of the highest grade 
and large culture, unless a AYinter kind, should 
ripen readily and slowl}', either on tree or in 
the house, needing no extra watching. Some 
pears in this regard exact as much care as young 
turkeys, or bees in swarming time. There are 
others whose very wind-falls are good, and 
which keep on improving up to full maturity. 

There are pears which if not picked just at the 
right time, will rot at the core ; others are prone 
to take on general decay, or to become mealy 
and insipid, unless picked and house-ripened; 
even then, if not eaten at the very moment f^i 
maturity they are worthless, or rot. There are 
some that give no such trouble, which, on the 
tree or the house, "will hold good and sound, and 
slowly ripen till all are gone — pears into which 
the roots of the rot fungus make no headway, 
and about which you need not worry much more 
than over your apple or potato crop. 

jSIow, how many of the pears, recommended 
for each season, come up to these standards, in 
tree or fruit ? Take the Summer kinds. The 
Madeline is the earliest ; yet who ever had a 
good one ? They pass because they cook well, 
and are early; but they are astringent and 
choke. The Bloodgood is hardly better. The 
Summer Doyenne is too little for market, and 
only sought because so early and so pretty. Os- 
band's Summer, one of the earliest and hand- 
some, though sometimes very good, needs early 
picking and good house care; bat then it is 
small and uncertain, and does not crop well. 
The Gifltard is as yet the only fine, full standard, 
very early pear that I have eaten. It often 
overbears; but in deep soil, and not loaded with 
too big a crop, it is a very fine fruit, and a good 
deal above medium sis^e. It is never insipid, 
ripens well on the tree, though better in the 
house. The tree is healthy and thrifty, and 
with early pruning gains a graceful form. One of 
de ShurLlift"'s seedlings, the Pemberton, a full me- 
dium summer pear, would be most desirable, as 
it is the most beautiful of fruits, were it not for 
its proneness to leaf-blight. I am not going 
over the list of this class; but there is ample 
room for better large Summer pears, fulfilling 
all the terms of our rules. We need not slight 
even mediums as good and large as well grown 
Dearborn Seedlings. 

In face of such fickleness and defects in kinds, 
and the crude and untaught tastes so common, 
it is plain that pomological judges and fruit 
fanciers should hold as well for pears, as do the 
poultry-men, a scale of points; up to those stand- 
ards every fruit should score pretty closely, to 
gain acceptance. Its record or its ofter for sale 
should state that score. The Fall kinds, new or 




old, both in tree and fruit, would come before us 
under a measure of merit — better than any mere 
endorsement. Such a regimen would save the 
average planter a world of trouble. No more 
wasted years of patient waiting would end in 
re-grafting the fickle, cracking, blighting things. 

I need not canvass the Fall and Winter pears 
put forward for our planting. They have no 
exemption from the frailties of their kind. Lots 
of them are "uncertain, coy and hard to 
please" into a luscious ripeness. Even after 
careful cuddling and watching, fine grown speci- 
mens often woefully dash our hopes. The 
leaves blight, and the fruit never gets over the 
bereavement ; or if the season is too wet or too 
short, a whole crop of some kind is fit. only for 
the stew pan or the pigs. 

But we want even more than rules — some 
choicely located Pomological Garden, where all 
fruits may be tested over broad acres. No ordi- 
nary planter can alford the time, even if he has 
the facilities, to test every kmd for which high 
qualities are claimed. I despair of such a gar- 
den, except under the Agricultural Bureau of 
the general Government. Fortunately, the cli- 
mate of Washington is so near a medium of our 
two exti-emes that any variety there perfecting 
would have a fair chance to suit every latitude. 
That Bureau should get out of that petty seed 
distribution, in which so much blunder and plun- 
der is off-set by so little good. In that business, 
the seedsmen, whose catalogues and seed boxes 
reach every country store and border post ofiice, 
will beat them forever ; but a Pomological Gar- 
den will furnish it a lasting and blessed work, 
too long and large for an individual task. If it 
now and then gives a Congressman a tree, its 
scions would reach a good deal closer to his con- 
stituents than one of Mullett's choice plans for 
a Senatorial mansion. There are but few lines 
of culture in which the clumsy, time-serving 
hands of the Government are not out of place. 
There is little work which the people can do in 
which government should ever dabble. But 
there are lives of experimental trial whose task 
is too broad, and whose direct results are too 
profitless, to tempt, or to pa}' for individual 
effort. These are just those to which a wise 
(xovernment will put its powerful and tireless 
hand and plentiful resources — a grand Pomo- 
logical Garden is one. Go in for it, Mr. Le Due, 
and you can have the pomological world back 
you for the coveted dignity of a cabinet appoint- 




I see an inquiry in the March number of the 
Gardener's Monthly, asking what is the 
dwarf Juneberry. It is a dwarf species of the 
Service berry that grows wild in the woods of 
Kentucky, Ohio, and probably in other States. 
Tlie fruit and foliage of the two are alike ; the 
only difference I ever could discover between the- 
two, one is a tree growing fifty feet high, the other 
is a little dwarf, growing three to four feet high- 
I have had them bearing abundantly at eighteen 
inches in height ; have had it in bearing for the 
last ten years. I brought a few plants with me 
when I came here : and found it growing here 
with one of my neighbors ; he says it bears pro- 
fusely here. Here it is easy grown from layers, 
and bears fruit the second year from planting. 

[The point we are not quite clear about is the 
distinction between the " dwarf" June Berry 
and any other. The common one — Indian 
cherry of these parts — grows 25 to 30 feet high ; 
but for all that it bears fi eely, and with nice large 
fruit, at two or three feet, and at two or three 
years old. What we wish to find out for our 
readers is, whether they could call the ordinary 
June Berry the " dwarf" June Berry, without 
being considered '" a fraud." For there is no use 
in having distinctive names without ditierences. 
—Ed. G. M.] 



A few years ago, I received from the Ptocky 
Mountains some plum trees called the Yose- 
mite, which is likely to prove of great value in 
this section. The tree is quite distinct from any 
other kind of plum that I have seen. It is a 
very strong grower, very large leaves, and as 
free from disease as an apple tree, and thoi'oughly 
curculio proof. There are two varieties : One 
strongly resembles the Damson, in size and color, 
and is quite equal to that variety for canning ; 
the other is quite large, bright yellow Avith a 
scarlet cheek, very handsome. The trees bear 
when not more than two or three years old, and you 
are sure of a crop of fruit ; not a plum is destroyed 
by the curculio. Ten years ago I planted an 
orchard of 25 varieties of our best plums, but 
never gathered a peck of fruit from the trees, 
which are now nearly destroyed with the black 
rot. I have the Wild Goose plum, but get but 
little fruit. There are a number of kinds which 




have been sent out under the name of Wild 
Goose, all diflerini,' hi size, color, and (luality, 
which are only varieties of the Chickasaw. The 
following are improved varieties of the Chick- 
asaw and will to some extent resist tlie attack of 
the curculio : Norman, Mountain Plum, IncUan 
Chief, Miner, and Richland. 

"Within a few years a large numher of new 
Strawberries have been added to our list of im- 
proved varieties. Monarch of the West, Cen- 
tennial, Capt. Jack, Cumberland Triumph, 
Dumem, President Lincoln, Durand's Beauty, 
Great American, Star of the West, Franklin, Ster- 
ling, Duchess, Prouty's Seedling and Crescent 
Seedling, may be named as promising, if we ex- 
cept Star of the West, which with me is entirely 
worthless. It may be said that most of the 
kinds here named are under trial and it will take 
time to ascertain their value in different soils, 
climate, &c. My experience with the Monarch 
of the West has been very satisfactory ; it has 
much to recommend it. The plant is very strong \ 
does equally well in light or heavy soil ; fruit 
very lai'ge and of uniform size ; bright scarlet, 
fine quality, and commands a high price in 
market. It is a good bearer, and I think will 
yield as much profit to the acre as any other va- 
riety. AVe may except the Crescent Seedling, if 
what is said of that variety be true, that it will 
produce 400 bushels to the acre, which is from 
two to three times as much as any other kind. 
I have had but'one season's experience with this 
variety; it is certainly very promising. Having 
had some experience with most of the kinds I 
have named, I shail the coming season exti.nd 
their cultivation. The kinds planted last year for 
fruiting the coming season, are mostly Charles 
Downing and Monarch of the West, of which I 
have an aci*e of each ; I have fruited the Charles 
Downing ten years or more, and it has always 
given satisfaction. I consider it one of the most 
valuable varieties known. 

The list of new Raspberries is not as long as 
that of the strawberries ; but it is evident that 
much progress has been made. In order to get 
a crop from our best old varieties, the canes 
must be buried. This involved much labor and 
expense, and often discouraged the fruit grower 
from planting largely of one of our finest fruits. 
We name the following new kinds: Xew Roch- 
elle and Caroline, as being perfectly hardy, pro- 
ducing very large crops of fine fruit of the largest 
size. The New Rochelle originated at New 
Rochelle, Westchester Co., N. Y. My atten- 

tion was called to this variety about three years 
ago. The originator claimed tbat it would pro- 
duce three times as much as any known variety. 
This is a seedling of the Catav\issa; fruit of the 
largest size ; color, a dark red or a little darker 
then the Philadelphia; very firm, and of the 
finest flavor; the canes are very strong, some of 
them more than an inch in diameter. It propa- 
gates from tips, makes no suckers, and is as hardy 
as an oak, Carolina : this also originated at New 
Rochelle, and is said to be a cross between 
Brinkle's Orange aiid Catavvissa. This is also per- 
fectly hardy, and a pr,.'digious bearer; the fruit 
strongly resembles Brinkle's Orange ; fruit large, 
bright orange, moderately firm, and in quality as 
good as Brinkle's Orange. It is a perfect hybrid ; 
propagates both from tips and suckers, but spar- 
ingly either way. I have tested both these va- 
rieties in my grounds, and endorse all that is 
claimed for them. 

The Pride of the Hudson is another new 
hardy variety said to be very promising ; it is to 
be sent out this Spring, strongly endorsed by 
some of our most I'eliable HorticulturistvS. 

Early Andrews : I have fruited this variety 
for over fifteen years. It was sent to me by A. 
G. Coe,of Meriden, Conn. He informed me that 
it was found in the garden of a Capt. Andrews, 
aneigliborof his. With me it has jiroved nearly 
hardy; fruit medium size, bright red, fair quality, 
ripening several days before any other variety. 
I have sent the Early Andrews to several fruit 
growers, who inform, through my friend Charles 
Downing, that it is the same as Highland Hard}'. 
If this is so, some one ha.s re-christened the Eaily 
Andrews and sent it out under a new name. 



In passing through Thomasville, Georgia, on 
the 20th of March, I was much impressed with 
the beauty and rapid growth of a variety of pear 
know there as the Chinese Sand Pear. I could 
not recognize it as the variety, under that name, 
with which I had been familiar for thirty years. 
The fruit of that watt worthless, while this 
Georgia varietj* is said to be nearly equal to the 
I Bartlett, and to ripen in Jul}-. It is said to 
have been found growing on the coast by M. 
Le Comte, the well-known entomologist, and 
believed by him to have been brought from 
China. A more distinctive name would be the 
Le Comte Pear As an ornamental tree it 
possesses great beauty. Its habit is more pyra- 



I June, 

midal than that of the Buffum pear, and greatly 
resembles that of the Lonibardy Poplar. Its 
foliage is large, thick, with a light color and 
glossy stem, which is remarkably attractive. 
Its vegetation is also very early. Other pears 
near it had Just commenced showing life, while 
the Le Comte pear was in full leaf. Its most 
remarkable feature is its great rapidity of growth. 
I saw some specimens three years from the 
cutting, and bearing, which were twenty feet 
high, with a girth circumference of ten and a 
half inches. I saw others, seven years from 
cutting, which were thirty to thirty-five feet high, 
with a girth circumference of eighteen inches, 
and which had borne several bushels of fruit. 
The mother plant has borne eighteen to twenty- 
four bushels. The soil in which they were 
growing was sandy and poor. Whatever may 
be the origin of this pear, it is destined to be of 
great value to the South by its adaptation to a 
light poor soil, and there is quite a fever growing 
up for its Culture. Its fruit came in small quant- 
ity to New York market last July, and brought 
twelve dollars a bushel. If any one has tried it 
at the North, I hope he will publish his experi- 
ence in your journal. 

Another plant which gave me pleasure was a 
Magnolia fuscata, seven feet high and seven feet 
in diameter, loaded with hundreds of blooms, 
with banana-like fragrance. The tea plant also 
looked flourishing. The South is full of grand 
capabilities. When faith and action go together, 
the whole country can be made a garden. 



I don't think all trees will bear slitting the 
bark any more than all will bear " oil." It 
seems to me that your grounds must bcarre- 
markabl}' sturdy specimens that can bear any 
thing ; as we see cliildren that do grow up into 
six feet manhood, in spite of paregoric and sooth- 
ing syrup in babyhood, and tobacco in their 
callow youth. I do know that w^e lost a great 
quantity of cherry trees by slitting the bark 
thereof, under the eye of a noted horticulturist 
and warm advocate of that theory, about twenty 
years ago. We had fruit enough, besides what 
the birds ate, to use and to sell, before that ter- 
rible experiment was tried ; and now we have 
none to speak of. The few trees that survived 
the ordeal have never borne enough for the birds; 
in fact they are mere cumberers of the soil only. 
Being valuable sorts, we cannot bear to dig 
them up. 


Pear Culture in the North west. — We 
see paragraphs in the papers that the Pear is 
an utter failure in Illinois, Iowa and Wiscon- 
sin. Such sweeping statements are worth atten- 
tion. The writer of this has seen Pear trees in 
Michigan as large as the oaks of the forest, and 
as sure to bear as abundant crops every year as 
an oak would be to bear acrons. He has an im- 
pression that he has seen similar results in 
younger trees in Iowa and Illinois, but in the 
Michigan case he has the trees now " in his. 
eyes." Why these should not grow well and 
bear good fruit on the Western as well as on the 
Eastern shore of the Lake, is not clear, and it is. 
worth a further inquiry whether there is any 
such universal failure as here implied, and if so^ 

Enough of a Good Thing. — The English, 
like us, are getting embarrassed at the number of 
good fruits. Says the llorist: " The varieties 
of new Peaches of American and English origin 
have become so numerous, that amateurs and 
others who cannot test them as they appear,'* 
are embarassed. It is easy to get a good fruit 
from seed. We want no more good ones named 
and distributed. Only those fruits should be 
disseminated that are in some respect better than 
an existing kind, and only a competent authority 
can decide this. 

Pear Clapp's Favorite in Canada.— Mr. 
D. W. Beadle, in Canadian Horticulturist^ says 
this variety is all that its friends claim for it, in 
his region, which is St. Catharines. It is hardy, 
vigorous, healthy, and fruit of superior quality. 
It ripens just before the Bartlett. 

The Lady Apple. — American-raised fruit of 
this variety brought good prices m London, ac- 
cording to the March market reports. 

Souvenir du Congres Pear. — Specimens 
were exhibited before the Massachusetts Horti- 
cultural Society last year, which weighed a 
pound, and measured in length seven inches. In 
quality it was not found " best," but still " very 
good." It was raised by Mr. Morel Lyon, Vaise, 

The Early Season. — Among the most re- 
markable appearances of the season, was an 
abundance of curculioby the end of April in Phila- 
delphia. With so much time to work, there 
will be very little chance for an unaiJed crop of 
plums. By the same date, myriads of Colorado 




Beetles were after the " early worm " in the 
shape of potato leaves. As fast as a little green 
speck was seen, a hundred sharp eyed-beetles 
were after it. It is very unusual to have to go 
for the Paris green box so early. 


Ploughing Among the Roots of Trees. — 
H. J. R., Riverside, Cal., writes : "As one of the 
oldest subscribers to your journal, I am tempted 
to trouble you with a few questions in relation 
to the cultivation of the Orange and Lemon. 
The growth of these fruits in orchards is one of 
the great industries of this portion of the Pacific 
coast. We have in this colony about 200,000 
Orange and Lemon trees in orchard, and about 
500,000 in nursery. The trees in orchard are 
planted about twenty feet apaj-t. Nothing is 
grown between the trees, and the usual custom 
is to plough the orchard twice each season with 
a heavy two-horse plow, and cultivate with a 
diamond-tooth cultivator as often as may be 
necessary to keep down weeds or keep the sur- 
face, of the land loose and friable after each 
irrigation ; as we cannot rely upon growing any- 
thing here without irrigation. It has seemed to 
me that this frequent deep ploughing would de- 
stroy the surface roots, and ultimatelj'^ injure 
the trees •, but in our oldest orchards, six years 
transplanted, we do not as yet detect any injury. 

The seedling trees begin to bear in six to 
eight 3'ears from the seed, according to the care 
and attention given. Budded trees bear in one 
to two years from the time of budding. So 
much for prelude, now from your experience in 
the cultivation of deciduous fruit trees, would 
you advise such frequent deep ploughing of the 
orchard after the trees are planted ? Will 
not budding dwarf the growth of the seedling 
tree ? Would it answer to seed the orchard to 
Alfalfa, and take an occasional crop of grass, 
and leave an occasional crop, say during the 
Winter, to rot upon tlie ground ? AVe can cut 
the Alfalfa eight times a year, and on good 
fields it will yield two tons of dried hay per 
acre, but requires thorough irrigation to do this. 
Would like hear your opinion upon these points, 
and any suggestions you may be able to give in 
regard to the cultivation of the different varieties 
of the Citrus family." 

[There is no general rule in regard to plough- 
ing orchards. There are many cases where it is 
absolutel}-^ best to plough orchards, and others 

where one may absolutely refrain from plough- 
ing them. Then there are cases which cannot 
be settled so decisively, but it is to be a balance 
of advantages or disadvantages whether we 
should plough or not. Ploughing or non-plough- 
ing of orchards is just one of those cases in gar- 
dening where nothing but practical skill and 
experience of one's wants and one's surroundings 
on the spot can decide. 

To giv an illustration :— There is in no case a 
doubt but that a tree has need of all its roots, 
and more if it could get them ; so some people 
would say, w ■ will sow the orchard in grass, and 
thus avoid ploughing, which must injure some 
roots. But the roots are of no use unless they 
have something to eat ; and if we let the crass 
have the best of the food, there is no gain, and 
often a loss. In such cases, it is better to plough 
the ground and destroy the grass, though some 
roots are destroyed, because the roots left have 
at least all the food to themselves. But if we 
are so situated that we can give the grass all the 
food it wants, and the tree roots all the food they 
need, then it is far better not to plough the 
ground, because then you have not only all the 
roots to work for you, but some cool shade be- 
sides. It follows that in those parts of the world 
where little manure can be had for top-dressing, 
it would be the height of absurdity to keep an 
orchard in grass, no matter how great the theo- 
retical advantages might be. The surface should 
be ploughed to keep down grass and weeds so 
that the tree may have all the food there is in 
the soil. All that we can say is, that as a prin- 
ciple of culture, those trees are the healthiest, 
the largest leaved, every vvay the best, which, 
with plenty of food, have their roots the least 

Budding or grafttng does not dwarf en Oranges 
or Lemons, unless a dwarf variety happens to be 
employed as a scion. — Ed. G. M.J 

Stocks for Grafting Gooseberries.— 
Mrs. M. E. W., Sublette, Mo., writes: In the 
Gardener's Monthly of July, 1875. there is 
an article from the pen of Albert Benz, Baj-- 
side, L. I., on the <?ubject of grafting gooseber- 
ries ; and as I am going to undertake gardening 
in a small way, I, of course, wish to do every- 
thing in the best possible manner. 

It it would not be presuming too much upon 
your valuable time, I would like to have you 
inform me in regard to the stocks used. 

What is Kibes aureum,and Ribes Floridanum, 
and where can the latter be obtained? I have 




several catalogues, but do not see them adver- 
tised m any of them. 

[Ribes aureum, is the common yellow Mis- 
souri Currant of the old gardens ; and Ribes 
Floridanum is the wild native black Currant of 
the Eastern States. They are used for stocks 
because the roots are more suited to our hot 
Summer ground than the foreign varieties are. 
It is this heated ground whicb induces mildew in 
the large English Gooseberries, and when on 
these native stocks they are therefore mildew- 
free. They are not common in country nur- 
series, because theie is little demand for them ; 
but any nurseryman who knows his business 
could generally get them for you. if you give 
him time enough, as it is part of their business 
to know where they can get things wlien ordered 
by responsible parties. There is seldom any- 
thing to be had in the trade at all, that a first- 
class nursery cannot obtain when ordered by 
their well-known customers, though you may 
look through hundreds of catalogues without 
finding the thing desired.— Ed. G. M.] 

The Pear Slug.— C. B. J., Camden, Del., 
writes : The pear slujr occasions great trouble 
and loss in this section. Is there no method of 
preventing their invasions':* People here, very 
generally, I believe, know of the expedient of 
dusting with diffei'ent substances ; but this pro- 

cess I have found tedious, not always practicable 
nor effectual. 

If you could put our fruit growers in posses- 
sion of a preventive of these attacks you would 
confer a great favor, and I should be glad to help 
make it known in connection with your name. 
Or perhaps you could communicate a specific 
through your Monthly. 

I am not much acquainted with the natural 
history of this pest. I do not suppose it ascends 
from the ground, as the first generation of a 
season that appears on the leaves is very minute. 
Perhaps in the case of small trees, the emanations 
of salt placed at the proper time in the trees in 

I small bags would effect something. I have read 

I that Iodine would attract them. 

j In small nursery trees, I have found it best to 

jar them off after they had advanced somewhat 
in growth,and send the cultivator over the ground. 

[Does any one know of any thing better than 
dusting or sprinkling, as our correspondent 
says these processes are tedious. But we know 
of no other.— Ed. G. M.] 

Fkuit Prospects at Boston.— Col. Wilder, 
under date of May 3d, writes: "Splendid 
weather 1 84°. Peaches, cherries, pears, all in 
bloom. There will be a small crop of pears, 
with few exceptions. Anjous are full of bloom. 

This the earliest season since 1865, when we 
cut grass 13 inches high, on 19th April." 




S. F. R. R. CO. 

The subject of Forest Culture is without doubt 
a momentous question, and one of vast import- 
ance, in view of the future wants of the whole 
counti-y. While there is evidently a growing in- 
terest in the subject, there at the same time 
seems to be a great want of knowledge of just 
how to commence the growing of a forest, and 
be successful therein. 

In view of these facts, and to encourage the 
planting and growing of trees in Southern Kan- 
sas, the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railroad 
Company, in the spring of 1873, established ex- 
perimental stations at difierent points along the 
line of their road, extending from Hutchinson 

westward, for the purpose of testing the ditferent 
varieties of trees, learning the kinds best adapted 
to our soil and chmate, and the best mode of 

The results of these experiments, running 
through the past four years, justify the conclu- 
sion that forest trees for shade, wind-breaks, fuel, 
timber and ornament ai-e easily, cheaply and 
quickly grown ; and we are confident that, from a 
few acres of trees planted and attended to with a 
proper degree of intelligence and care, the farmer 
may, in four or five years, supply himself with 
fuel, and also with mucn mateiial that will be of 
service to him about a farm, besides add many 
times the cost to the saleable value of his farm. 

Among the several varieties that have proved 
successful with us, as far as tested, we would 
recommend the following as amons. the best for 
general planting: Ash, Bhick Walnut, Box 




Elder, Cottonwood, Honey Locust, Osage Orange, 
Silver Maple, and, for fuel and fruit, the Peach. 
The Ash is a beautiful, fast-growing tree, and 
makes valuable timber, being used extensively 
in' the manufacture of farm implements. It 
grows along nearly all the streams in Kansas. 
The seed can be easily gathered from the trees, 
as it ripens in the Fall. It should be kept in 
damp sand till Spring, and then planted about 
one inch deep, dopping ten to twelve seed to the 
foot, in nursery rows, to be transplanted to the 
forest at one or two years old. 

Black Walnut is a handsome, hardy, fast-grow- 
ing tree. The valuable properties of its wood 
are so well known that I need not speak of them 
"here. In a few years from planting the annual 
crop of nuts vvill amply pay all cost. The nuts 
a,re easily obtained Irom the trees which grow 
•along the streams, and should be gathered in the 
Fall for seed, and bedded in the ground, covering 
them wnth e^arth to keep moist till Spring, and 
then plant two to three inches deep where the 
trees are to remain. 

Box EMer is one of the hardiest trees we have ; 
makes a rapid growth for the fii-st eight or ten 
years, and is a handsome tree, but seldom gets 
over thirty or forty feet in height. The quality 
■of its wood is similar to that of the silver maple. 
The seed can be gathered the same as the Ash, 
and at the same time. They should be mixed 
with sand, and kept damp (never wet) through 
the Winter, in a cool place. Plant as recom- 
mended for Ash. 

Cottonwood grows rapidlj', with little care ; 
makes a quick shade or wind-break, and is pretty 
good fuel when dry. Young plants are often 
found along the streams, and may be transplanted 
to the grove •, or it may be easily propagated 
from cuttings of the last year's growth, which 
may be taken ofl' at any time in mild weather 
<iuring the Winter. Cut twelve inches long, and 
pack ;.iway in earth till Spring. Plant in mellow 
soil, leaving onl\' two or three inches of the top 
a/bove ground. 

Honey Locust is a beautiful, hardy tree, well 
suited to our soil and climate. The seed should 
be gathered as soon as ripe in the Fall, and kept 
in moist sand till Spring, and then planted about 
two inches deep. The seed should be soaked in 
warm water till it begins to swell, before planting. 
Osage Orange is one of the most valuable trees 
Ave can cultivate. It makes a tolerably rapid 
growth. It is a hardy tree, easily propagated, 
and the wood is exceedingly tough, hard and 

durable, making g-iod fuel, and (he timber is of 
great value whenever strength and durability are 
required. For the manufacture of wagons and 
farm machinery, it is said to be the best tim\)er 
in the world. In its native forests in Texas, it 
makes a tree two and one-half to three feet in 
diameter, and sixty feet high. It is usually 
cheapest to buy the plants afr one or two years 
old, of growers. 

Silver Maple is a rapid grower ; the wood is fine- 
grained, and is used to some extent in cabinet 
work. It is, however, liable to be broken by 
high winds, and by ice and snow accumulating 
on the branches. When closely planted in groves 
or belts, this is less likely to occur. The seed 
ripens in May and June, and must be gathered 
and planted soon after, in drills, covering about 
one inch deep. 

The Peach tree grows well on the prairies — 
makes a rai)id growth — and for quick returns is 
a good substitute for some of the slower-growing 
forest trees. It will produce a large amount of 
fuel in four or five years from planting, and the 
fruit may pay well for all cost of planting and 
tending. Cover the seed lightly to keep them 
moist during the AVinter, and in the Spring crack 
all that are not cracked by the frost, and plant 
about two inches deep. 

There are other trees of more or less value 
that we are testing upon our experimental 
grounds, that promise well, so far as tried, and 
may be planted by those who want a great va- 
riety, or can afford the greater care and cost ne- 
cessary to insure success — among which we might 
name as worthy of attention the Burr Oak, 
Hackberry, American Elm, Kentucky Coffee 
Tree, and Ailanthus. 

Burr Oak.— The seed of the Oak ripens in the 
Fall, and should be treated as recommended for 
Walnut. The Hackberry and Kentucky Coffee 
Tree ripen their seed the same time as the Oaks, 
and should be treated as recommended for Honey 
Locust. The Elms ripen their seed in May and 
June, and should be treated as recommended for 
Silver Maple. 

Native Trees.— All the trees I have named, ex- 
cept the Allan Ihus and Osage Orange, are natives 
of Kansas, and can be depended ujion. The seed 
can be easily gathered from them all as they ripen. 



Will you or some of your cerresjior dents in- 
form me as to the value or merits of the Swamp 




Dogwood ? It grows here along the banks of the 
JJ^eosho River, and I have been told that it grows 
in the swamps of Virginia. It is of a dwarfish 
babit, growing from eight to ten feet high ; foliage 
resembles the white lowering Dogwood, but 
smaller ; the flower and berry is white (so I have 
been informed). They are not quite in bloom yet. 


Black Walnuts and Orchards. — Corres- 
pondents have become frightened about Black 
Walnut trees. Tliey believe them injurious to 
trees growing near them. Others growing under, 
or even close to them,suflfer, because the Walnut 
is a gross feeder, and takes all the eatables to 
its own table; but it has no ill eftect in any other 
way. We have known of AValnut trees of im- 
mense age and size within fifty feet of old apple 
trees, and both apparently well satisfied with 
their companions. 

Pine Lumber of Utah.— At a recent meet- 
ing of the Academy of Natural Sciences of 
Philadelphia, specimens of boards from the coni- 
fers of Utah, were presented from Mr. A. L. 
Siler. Juniperus Virginiana, the common Red 
Cedar, is precisely like the wood of the Red 
Cedar of the Atlantic States ; though growing so 
many miles inland, and at so high an eleva- 
tion. Juniperus occidentalis, the Western 
Cedar, has, however, the heart wood brown 
instead of a rosy red, as in the Eastern kind. 
Pinus ponderosa, more nearly resembles the 
wood of Pinus palustris, or Yellow Pine of the 
East. It is known as the "Heavy Wooded 
Pine," but we doubt whether it is as heavy, foot 
for foot, as Pinus palustris. Abies Douglasii is 
the "Red Pine," and much like, in character and 
apparent qualities, the Norway Spruce, or 
"Deal" of Europe. It is evidently a much 
better wood. Pinus ilexilis has no common 
name among the settlers in Utah. The wood is 
a whitish brown, rather soft, and showing hardly 
any grain. Pinus edulis is the " Pinou" of the 
Mexicans. The wood is as white as a piece of 
Linden, and brittle. It takes on a remarkably 
smooth surface under the plane, and may be of 
some great use by these peculiarties. The most 
remarkable wood of the whole is the Pinus 
aristata, or " Cat Tail Pine." The color is 
almost as dark as Mahogany, and the fibre is 
curiously twisted and contorted, so that it is j 
diliicult to get a piece for a board free from a j 

flaw ; but where a good piece is found, it ex- 
hibits a fine silk-like grain, and it would, no 
doubt, be very useful in fine ornamental work. 
Mr. Siler remarks that the Pinus ponderosa, 
called " Heavy Wooded Pine" in the books, 
is known as the " Lons; Leafed-Pine" in Utah. 


A Large Chestnut Tree.— In Byberry 
township, Montgomery county, Penna., a chest- 
nut tree, on the farm late of N. Richardson 
measures 20 feet in circumference four feet from 
the ground, which is the smallest place. This 
tree is traced back to four generations, which 
have picked the nuts from under it. 

The Birch. — As we look on these trees gen- 
erally in our gardens, or even in our forests, we 
have little idea of its great use of the birch to 
man. A lumber paper tells us that the birch is 
a true hardy mountaineer, loving the rugged 
mountain side and luxuriating in the wild savage 
glens of the cold North. It is the last tree seen 
on approaching that hitherto inaccessible spot, 
the North Pole, disappearing entirely at the 70th 
parallel. The ancient Caledonians made canoes 
of birch branches and bark, covering the outside 
with skins. From birch they made every imagi- 
nable kind of implement and vessel. The writer 
has seen, in the remote part of the Highlands, cot- 
tages in which every utensil was made of birch, all 
being cut out of the solid timber in the most 
primitive fashion. Fancy, if ye can, ye elite of 
the modern tea-drinking world, your cups and 
saucers composed of wood. Yet such was once 
the fashion, and our glorious ancestors "punchy 
bowl" and "bicker" were made of such primitive 
material. It is recorded, that during the years 
272, 300 and 310, years of great famine, the; 
inhabitants of Britain were compelled to eat. 
birch-bark. In Sweden, it has been used to mix. 
with corn for food. In Russia and Poland, this 
tree enters largely into constructive arts, from 
the fittings and furnishings of the palace to the 
manufacture of the tobacco pipe. 

Persimmon Gum. — It may not be generally 
known, says the i^wra/ JJ/eisenger, of Petersburg, 
Va., that the common Persimmon tree of this 
State (Diospyros Virginifma) yields at a certain 
serson a gum, which, when boiled and strained, 
afterv/arJs being dried in thin layers, is equal in 
adhesive qnality to ordinary gum arable of the 
shops. The method is to cut with an axe or 




broad chisel cups in the body of the tree, from 
the root up as high as you can reach. Do this 
in the spring, and in a short time the cups will be 
filled with the crude gum, which should be re- 
moved before becoming too hard. The gum 
should then be placed in a small iron or earthen 
vessel, and this be put in a larger one containing 
water, which must be raised to the boiling point. 

frequently stirring the gum in the \meanlime. 
In about an hour's time remove from the fire 
and strain the liquid through a coarse cloth to 
remove the sediment and mipurities. Spread it 
thinly over the bottom of pltiites or dishes to cool 
and harden , after which it may be.easily removed, 
and can hardly be detected from the gum of 
! Arabia. 

Natural History and Science. 




The periodical change of vegetation has often 
been discussed, and its process has been confirmed 
in every country. Thus Grisebach in his classical 
work " die Vegetation der Erde,''^ relates the fact 
that in the valleys of Guiana a secular change 
has taken place between woods and grass. This 
is not an isolated fact ; on the contrary, many 
more are extant, and of the most patent ones I 
•shall here put down a few. 

In the lowest strata of the moor and peat 
lands of Jutland, that much split-up tongue of 
land, in Western Europe, trunks of pine trees. 
Pica exce.lsa, Lamb, have been found, proof of 
former existence of pine woods. That tree not 
only is nowhere to be found any more in Jut- 
land, but not even tradition hands down any 
knowledge of its former existence there. On the 
top of this layer of pine trees, trunks of the 
German oak are found. There are but few isolated 
trees of that oak found in Jutland nowadays. 
The prv'sent woods are mostly Beech. 

Another tree that has disappeared is Piceafuc- 
c'nifera, Rick; there must have been once vast for- 
ests of it on the eastern shores of the Baltic, and 
in some sections of Southern France. Its prec- 
ious petrified rosin is our present amber. 

The same process is now going on in New 
Zealand with the Kauri fir, Dammara Austrahs, 
Lamb., it disappears and, spite of pains and trou- 
ble taken, will not succeed any more when 
planted. In places where that tree does not 
exist any more for a long time, clumps are found 
of its rosin, in a more or less hardened state. | 
Wherever that fir disappeared, there appeared j 
Fteris esculenta, the roots of which serve the 
Maoris as food. A poor substitute for the valua- 
ble ship-timber of the Kauri fir. 

Another evidence of the law of vegetable 
change is the quick acclimatization and aston- 

ishing spread of plants which have migrated intf> 
distant countries. This is the case, notably 
with Cynara scolymus, Linn., orartichoke, the 
seed of which is easily transmitted by the wind 
or by adheiing to the coats of ani-mals. Thus, 
it was carried to the pampas of La Plata by 
a donkey, about the year 1769. Much to 
the chagrin of the Gauchos, and to the disad- 
vantage of their cattle industry, this plant 
now covers very many square miles. It 
seems, in fact, to have found there a most 
favorable soil, for its dimensions and devel- 
opment may be called gigantic when com- 
pared with its native ones. The traveler through 
such districts of the Pampas must not leave the 
narrow-trodden paths; if he does, he will be 
lost amongst the dense and growing artichokes. 

Erigeron Canadensis has been imported into 
England in the body of a bird ; has from there 
spread all over Europe, and is now one of the 
most troublesome weeds, found everywhere, 
even on roofs and old walls. 

Xanthinm strumarium, Linn., and X. echina- 
tum, Murr, came from the lower Danube, by 
droves of pigs, into Hungary, and now troubles 
all pastures as far as Nothern Germany. 

That water pest, Elodea Canadensis, Mich., has 
multiplied enormously in the waters of England, 
Scotland, Belgium, Holland and Germany, often 
stopping up entirely drainpipes, and, in canals, 
driving before it all other vegetation. 

The " Bulletin de la migration des vegetaux" 
make mention of Linderma pyxidceria, Linn., a 
scrophulartcB, as having covered toward the end 
of the last century the waters of the Sevre, near 
Nantes, where that river joins the Loire. It is 
five years ago that a botanist of Nantes found to 
his surprise that this Lindernia was driven out by 
an American llysanthes. M. Hedates found in 
18()9, a great many of these Ilysanthes, on the 
slimy shores of Mayenne, and amongst them 
choked the native Lindernia. 

On the other hand, how many migrations of 


ihb: ga'Rdener's monthly 


plants have not succeeded, or have occurred 
without further consequence ? The last Franco- 
German war furnishes such an instance. About 
163 different species of plants were imported into 
France in the forage of German horses. Not 
finding favorable elements there, they gradually 
disappeared, all but seven of them, which are 
now citizens of French soil. 

These phenomena of vegetation can be ex- 
plained by physiological laws, by the eternal 
mutation of chemical and physical properties of 
the soil, and by climatic influences. 

There reigns in nature a constant motion, a 
continual change, the laws of which are fixed 
and immutable. The change already of one sin- 
gle factor of the conditions of vegetation of a 
place or country produces a (corresponding 
change in its plants or in their vitality. Take 
the trouble and mark on your next meadow the 
spot where a certain plant now grows, return to 
it after one or several years and you will not find 
it there any more, but replaced by some other 
one. The same takes place in the woods, only 
trees live longer, and so the change takes more 
years. Every pomologist knows that, in the 
place of a dead fruit tree, no new one of the 
same kind can be planted without giving it new 

Every plant, in accordance with its specific 
individuality, appropriates to itself such ele- 
ments of the soil as are most suitable, return- 
ing to the soil the unsuitable ones, which, how- 
ever, are absorbed in their turn by other and dif- 
ferent plants. 

This explains a steady change of our earth's 
green dress. 

Greater attention to this process and more 
precise records of its details seem to be most 

taria rarely fruits, but last year was exceptional. 
Three standards of ''Tree Wistaria" came under 
my notice — two bore no fruit, and the third, al- 
though a very large plant, had then a dozen, 
while two supported plants in the same neigh- 
borhood were loaded with pods. 

[Newspaper abstracts seldom do more than 
let the reader know that a paper of the nature 
indicated has been offered. The paragraph we 
gave, was just as it appeared in our contemporary, 
and tus mere news. The Wistaria fact was merely 
given to illustrate the different effects of vegeta- 
tive from reproductive force ; and we fancy, if 
our correspondent gets an opportunity to read 
the whole article, he will not find much to ob- 
ject to. In relation to the Wistaria itself and 
its seeding, we are not sure just now that the 
original paper says the Wistaria never produces 
seeds except as a tree, any more that it alwn s 
seeds when grown on a tree ; for we certainly 
know of tree Wistarias which do not seed some- 
times. But the words, if employed at all, are in 
a general sense. The principles sought to be 
illustrated in the paper, will show that there can- 
not be this exact dividing line, for it will be 
seen that it is not a question of support, or non- 
support, but of exhausted vegetative fonce that 
governs seed production. It may, and no doubt 
often does happen, tliat this exhaustion will occur 
as well or better on some vines which have run 
over trellises than in the self-supportmg case ; and 
when this occurs Mr. Meehan's paper will show 
the plant ouglit to be correspondingly more pro- 
ductive.— En. G. M.] 




The fact that Wistaria sineyisiSy when support- 
ed, that is, grown as a climber — if I understand 
the phraseology— is seedless ; while the "tree" or 
self-supporting plant beai-s "ruit abundantly. 
This, which Mr. M;3ehin alludes to in his paper 
'*0n the Laws Governing the Production of Seed 
in Wisfara sinensis, (see Gardener's Monthly, 
page 152), is hardly of very general application. 
The first lime I ever saw Wistaria in fruit was 
two yeare ago, when I saw a plant well covered 
with pods running over the pf)rch of a house in 
New Jersey. In this latitude (Boston), the Wis- 

New Varieties by Grafting.— The experi- 
ments on apples, by the editor of the Garden- 
er's Monthly, show that new varieties can be 
obtained by grafting; and observations, previ- 
ously recorded by other pei-sons in various 
departments of culture, prove that the verv old 
idea is not without some foundation. Duiing 
the visit of the Emperor of Brazil tn the sugar 
plantations, he communicated to some gentle- 
men there that new varieties of sugar-cane had 
been, originated by grafting, and promised 
to send the documents in relation thereto. 
These have been recently received and trans- 
lations made, by which it appears that a vai-iety 
known as St. Julian w^as obtained in that way. 
It was raised by Commander Julian Ribeiro de 
Castro by splice-grafting ; the Cayenne being 
the stock and the Molle being the scion. The 




eyes and leaves of the product were of the Molle, 
"l>ut the stem and the size of the Cayenne. In 
this case, the two eyes were selected and split in 
halves, as taken by the editor of the Garden- 
er's Monthly with his apple ijrafts, and the 
alternate halves united before grafting. Trials 
were made to set these united lialves as cuttings, 
"but no hybrid results came. Only wiien grafted 
on a growing stock did hybrids result from the 
"halved pieces. 

In order to test the matter, the Imperial 
Agricultural Institute undertook to investigate 
it. Accordingly, in 1867, Dr. Glasl, of the 
Botanical Garden, grafted a number between 
October and January, at different times. Many 
various plans of grafting were employed. Dr. 
Olasl concluded that the results favored the idea 
of hybridizing by bud-grafling, whereupon there 
was a committee of learned men appointed, who 
reported that, after long examination of the 
-specinaens themselves, they concluded that the 
theory was untenable, because inconsistent with 
the views of Mirbel and I)u Petit Thours on 
Vegetable Physiology. They found there was 
no absolute union of parts, and consequently no 
grafting. The variation, therefore, they regarded 
as a mere sport, just as likely to occur in a piece 
■with another sort fastened to it, as in many 
plants tliere is change without grafting. The com- 
mittee, therefore, concluded to report against 
the graft-hybrid idea, and Dr. Glasl signed the 
paper with the rest. 

For our part, and for the reasons given in the 
first part of this notice, we regard the conclu- 
sion as unsound. We see no reason why hybrids 
^lay not be had from bud-grafting the sugar- 
cane, and, therefore, have made this condensf- 
tion of the facts so as to draw attention to the 
subject. AVe have no doubt of the soundness of 
the teachings of Du Petit Thours and Mirbel. 
We should not want to discuss that question ; but 
we do want to see a few experiments tried by 
different people, which would take no more time 
to make, tlian to read through a volume by these 
celebrated naturalists. 

Hairs of Plants— Their Forms and Uses. 
— Under this head, a valuable paper by Prof. 
I3eal is contributed to the May number of the 
American Naturalist. Representations of a 
great number of hairs are given, many species 
having forms, in many respects, peculiar to 
themselves. As to the uses of hair and hair-like 
glands. Prof. Beal asks, " May not these glands 
also draw nourishment from the particles of dust 

which fall on them from the ground ?" and he 
i-efers to Mr. Darwin's experiments to prove that 
"some of these plants (Tomatoes, Tobacco, 
Petunia, and many others) do certainly absorb 
and appropriate g:\-seous and liquid bodies." 
Prof. Beal believes that there is a great 
mass of useful knowledge yet to be obtained 
from a study of these appendages. 

Abies and Picea. — The reason why we have 
to call the Spruces Picea, and not Abies, and 
the Firs Abies, and not Picea, is thus given by 
Dr. Engelmann in his recent monograph on th© 
Firs of the United States : 

" I follow Link (Linncea, xv., 525, 1841) in his 
name, definition, and circumscription of the 
genus, which seems to be a vei-y natural one, 
comprising the Silver or Balsam Firs. The 
synonym Picea (Don) in Loudon, Arb., iv., 2329, 
1838, is the older name, and enjoys the Linnaean 
prestige, (but is contrary to classical Plinius, 
&c.,) and philological authority. The name 
Abies is generally adopted on the continent of 
Europe, while Picea was heretofore principally 
used in England, but is now being abandoned. 
Picea, Link (the same Abies, Don), is the proper 
name for the Spruces. Tournefort, the elder 
De Candolle, Gray, and others, comprise under 
the name of Abies both Firs and Spruces. The 
generic distinctions between them are based 
both on the floral and fruit characters, as well as 
on the leaf anatomy." 

The Origin of the Prairies.— We rarely 
meet an intelligent man who has not made up 
his mind as to how the praiiies were formed ; 
and further, rarely found one person develop his 
theory that did not unexpectedly receive a 
"poser" from Some wily antagonist. Prof. 
Lesquereaux has written on the subject, and 
now O. P. Hay, in the American Naturalist, 
offers some reasons why belief in Prof. Lesquer- 
eaux should be foi bidden. 

Botanical Contributions.— Professor Asa 
Gray contributes an account of some new plaYita 
to the April number of the Proceedings of the 
American Academy of Arts and Sciences. No 
less than seventeen new species of Astragalus 
are described, some of which will probably 
prove of gardening interest. Acanthacefe, not 
a large order in the United States, has two new 
genera added to it. 

Parasite on the Codling Moth. — Mr. 
Chas. D. Zimmerman, of Buffalo (Pine Hill 
Xurseries), has discovered a new and useful 
j enemy to the Codling Moth, which latter is so 



I June, 

great an enemy to apple cultivators. It is a 
black cannibal beetle, the Tenehrioides laticollis, 
which eats up the caterpillar and empties the 
chrysalis of the Codling Moth. 

Abies regin.e ameli.e. — A correspendent 
of the Gardener's Record says that in Greece 
this species will sprout up and form a new tree 
after the trunk has been cut down, and that it is 
the only species of Conifer that will do this in 
that country. 


The Dwarf June Behry.— Mr. Sereno Wat- 
son kindly contributes the following note : 

" The 'Dwarf June-berry,' of page 141 is doubt- 
less Amelanchier alnifolin, Nuttall. a species 
very distinct from any form of A. canadensis, 
abundant in all the mountains from Colorado to 
California, and fruiting fully. 

Another con*espondent says : "There is a very 
good account of the Dwarf June Berry in the 
American AgricuUurist^K\)V\\^\^l\,-p. 144. I tried 
it for three or four years, and in all that 
while did not get a quart of fruit. At the 
first hint of ripening the birds go for the fruit, 
and not one do they leave. I got out of patience, 
and threw all out but a few to keep as flowering 
shrubs, and they are very floriferous and worth 
growing as such. It suckers very finely, 
which is an answer to the nurseryman's question, 
'Will it cut?'" 

And we have the following from Mr. H. A. 
Terry, Crescent City, Iowa. : 

"Since I wrote the article in regard to the 
Dwarf June Berry, in your May number, I have 
learned that tree agents are preparing to llood 
our State with plants of the true Whortleberry or 
Blueberry of the East, which are entirely worth- 
less in this State. Now what shall we do to 
prevent the people from being imposed upon? 
Dr. Hall, of Davenport, has been growing this 
Dwarf June Berry for several years, and sending 
it out as the true Huckleberry, making it appear 
that the Huckleberry succeeds in our State ; and 
now the tree agents are taking it up, and the 
people will try it on the recommendation of Dr. 
Hall. If you have access to the Report of our 
State Horticultural Society for 1877, I would 
suggest that it would be very proper for you to 
publish the resolutions on page 205 of said re- 
port. Unless I forget it, I will at the proper 
lime send you more plants of the genuine Dwarf 
June Berry." 

Hybrids. — A correspondent writes that he has 

"crossed Amaryllis Johnsoni, and Richardia 
^thiopica, and last week planted four perfect 
I seeds." The families to which these plants be- 
I long are so very widely separated that it is more 
i probable that the seed-bearing plant, in spite of 
j all care, received some of its own pollen. Still, 
I as our correspondent has the seed, kthim by all 
j means wait and see what it comes to. It takes 
two or three years of very good growth to flower 
a seedling Amaryllis. 

Lightning.— Miss B. asks, " can the Beech 
tree be struck by lightning?" AVe are almost 
sure we have read somewhere of an authentic 
case of a Beech being struck by lightning. There 
is really no reason why it should not be liable, 
and doubtless people in Indiana, or other States 
where the tree is abundant, could give instances 
within their own knowledge. 

Robin Hood Plant.— J. G. D., King of 
Prussia, Pa., says: — "I wish to know if there' is 
a plant called Robin Hood. Have been informed 
that it is used by florists in the making of bou- 

Gall on the Wild Cherry Leaf. F.McM., 
Fair Haven, N. J., writes : "Would you please in- 
form me through the Gardener's Monthly, 
what it is, and what causes the growth upon the 
AVild Cherry leaves enclosed ?" [These are pouch- 
like galls, made by some small fly in which to 
deposit her eggs. — Ed.] 

Rose Gall. — A correspondent sent us, some 
time ago, a beautiful burr-like gall on arose leaf. 
Any such pretty thing sent to the writer of the 
following letter from any readerof the Garden- 
er's Monthly will be appreciated by Mr. Bas- 
se tt. 

Waterbury, Conn., May 6, 1878. 

"The galls seem to be the Fhodites bicolor, hut 
this species is not common here, and I have nev- 
er seen young galls on our rose-bushes, and the 
mature ones always appear to come from a bud 
rather than from a leaf. 

I shall be greatly obliged if you can send me 
some of these galls late in the Summer or in 

The gall-flies of Rhodites hicolor winter in the 
galls, and the flies made their appearance ten 
days ago (here) from galls collected this Spring. 

I should be pleased to hear whether the 
Strawberry has a gall on the petiole in your dis- 
! trict, also if there are any affecting the canes of 
the various varieties of red Raspberries. 

Diastrop' us turgidus, Bassett, is found here on 
the "Philadelphia" and the "red Antwerps," 
and farther north on the common Wild Red." 




Literature, Travels i Personal Notes. 




From Salem to Portland by rail, Feb. IGth. 
The country that, last August, was so refresh- 
ing to the eye after the scorched plains of Cali- 
fornia was now promising, rather than beautiful, 
presenting chiefly an alternation of newly-sown 
wheat-fields, and forest lands in process of clear- 
Oregon City, one of the oldest towns in the 
State, is the most picturesque in situation I have 
yet met with. Here are the falls of the Willa- 
mette,and a line of high, rocky bluffs rise abruptly, 
leaving only a narrow strip of level ground 
along the river. The railroad is built on this. 
The town is wholly on the bluffs, and is reached 
by long flights of stairs, some of them set zig-zag 
in upright frames. The town is neat and pretty, 
with gardens, shade and fruit trees in abundance. 
The rocky face of the blulf is covered with 
mosses, ferns, and vines, and two or three little 
silver ribbons of aiountain streams leap spark- 
ling from its brow. 

From Portland twelve miles down the Willa- 
mette to its confluence with the Columbia. The 
meeting of two such rivers is a theme for the 
poet's pen. Leaving their native mountains so 
far asunder, flowing onward through rocky 
gorges and dark forests, gathering tribute as they 
go, here they unite at last, and the great Ocean 
rolls m its waves to meet and embrace them. 

Twenty-five miles more down the Columbia, 
its banks rising in bold precipitous clifts, or 
clothed with dark fir forests to the water's edge, 
the sea-gulls sweeping round us, or diving for 
their prey. Scenery too lonely and sombre to 
be termed beautiful, yet nowhere unworthy the 
majestic river. Now we turn northward into 
Lewis river. It is a small stream, and very 
crooked in its course. Oaks and other forest 
trees mingle with the evei'-present firs. Above 
high-water mark every trunk and bush is clothed 
with moss, and old trees are so densely matted 
with this moss, that great tufts of fern find root 
in its masses. 

The little Hydra, true to its name, winds in 
and out the narrow, crooked river, and lands us 
safely at La Center, eight miles from its mouth. 

The bank is steep and high, and there is just 
enough level ground for the street and its row of 
buildings, and the town lots run up the hill, and 

: look over the tops of the houses. 

! Now we are out among the giant firs, three 
miles from the river. A young growth of fir is 
so closely set, and densely branched as to form 
a perfect hedge, almost impervious to light, or 
to any living creature. As growth advances, the 
lower branches die until the wood becomes only 

\ a collection of bare poles, with each a little tuft of 

■green at the ton. Then I suppose that Nature 
begins the course of selection that results in "the 
survival of the fittest," and a fir tree in its perfect 
maturity is a noble and beautiful object. Tow- 
ering straight upward, two hundred, and even 
three hundred feet, with a regular and beautiful 
taper of which the eye never tires, and though 
really large in girth, they are so tall that the}' 
seem slender, and have even an appearance of 

, airy lightness as they wave to and fro in the w ind. 

j At some time long past fires have swept over 
great tracts of these Fir Forests. A dense 
growth of underbrush has covered the ground, 

\ and the huge charred trunks encumber it, yet 

I many still remain standing, black and hideous. 
These "burned districts," however, are preferred,. 

; as being much easier to clear. 

The climate is mild, such hardy flowers as dai«- 
sies blooming in gardens all winter. Now, early 
in April, deciduous trees are nearly in full leaf, 
and many shrubs in flower, the most conspicuous 
being the Dog-wood (Cornus Nuttalli); the most 
beautiful the Oregon Currant (Ribes sanguin- 
ea). Of smaller flowers, Trillium grandiflorum 
is most noticeable, and Golden Club (Orontium) 
in low places. 


European Notes, by the Editor.— No. 10. 
— As we walk through the streets of our leading 
American cities in these, our times, it is not un- 
usual to read that Hong Wing, or Hang Lee has 
a " Laundry," and you may enjoy from the 
street the sight of a pig-tailed head, placed on 
the top of a sort of nether garment, squirting 
water from its mouth on the whitened linen 
before it. In Paris you read it as " M. Blanc, 
blanchiseuse" and the frequency of these "Blan- 
chisseries" is suggestive of a very cleanly set of 
people. What struck me as singular was that 




what I took to be the " washer-woman" was 
always a big, burly man, who seemed to be 
lazily sitting in the street door, while a dozen or 
so of delicate girls plied the implements of 
their trade within. It did not look right to see 
the " washer-woman" having so easy a life ; but 
when I saw him arranging a little bouquet, and 
placing some pretty flower pots in one of the 
windows, I felt sure there must be some good in 
his heart, and I finally found that he was not 
the "■ woman," but the one who took the heavy 
goods home, and did other unwieldly work. It 
was a lesson how easily one who goes hurriedly 
through a strange land, may be mistaken in his 
impressions, and it makes me very careful how 
I put down my experiences. But I think there 
can be no mistaking that the love of the French 
people — Parisians at least, for flowers is a very 
universal one, pervading all classes, from the 
highest to the lowest alike. The roofs, the win- 
dows, the backyards — wherever it is possible to 
stow away a flower, a flower is found. I was inter- 
ested in a small shoe-mending shop. It was so 
small there seemed scarcely room to '"turn 
round." A narrow cot bed at the end, indicated 
that the shop was his " castle" as well. He was 
sitting on its edge drinking coffee with a crust — the 
bread, by the way, being all crust in Paris. It 
was evident that all the room possible was 
needed in his little business, but he spared of 
this treasure for his flowers. He was willing to 
spend even his alabaster box of ointment on 
that which he loved, and thus his little window 
and shelves were full of floral beauty. Of course 
we can see instances of this pure devotion in other 
lands, once in a while, but I give it here because 
it is not exceptional. It is rather the rule in 

It is on account of this universal love for flowers 
that the flower markets are so great a success ; 
and those who go to Paris without seeing the 
flower markets lose a great treat. There are a 
large number of them in different parts of the 
city. They are given up wholly to flowers. 
The one I have .just now in niy mind is in the 
'■ Place Madeleine." The broad square is paved 
with artificial stone, and very neat iron pillars 
support as neat slate roofs, so as to make shelter 
from sun and protection from rain, but open on 
every side. Familiar names showed th;it the stands 
were occupied l)y the best classes of French flor- 
ists,but the rare and choice plants themselves told 
an intelligent story, endorsed, as we might say, 
l)v the attendants, whom I found to have a 

much more correct knowledge of the plants they 
were handling than is usual among the sellers 
of plants on the street corners, or ordinary 
markets of other lands. The classes of buyers, 
too, were evidently high. Ladies, elegantly 
attired, and attended by their servants, wer? 
making purchases as freely as those of more 
limited means, whose sou was as much to them 
as the Napoleon to their neighbors. And it 
seemed to me that good and choice flowers 
brought higher prices than such do in our coun- 
try. Of course the poorer class of articles are 
cheap — very cheap. A bouquet, tolerably well 
made up of ordinary flowers, I was asked 35 
centimes for ; and as I walked away the sales- 
woman called after me, " then what will you 
give me for it?" as if I had thought the eight 
or nine cents of our money too much. But then 
there were plenty of bouquets that would have 
taken a dollar and a half or two dollars of our 
money to buy. Five francs, or a dollar, buy 
very fair bouquets of half-blown roses. Palms 
and rare ferns were very common among the 
higher priced plants, and w^ere found, I was told, 
to do much better as room-plants than the ordi- 
nary flowering things. The most common 
articles were (it was July) small India rubber 
plants, Aralia papyrjfera, Forgef-me-not, Car- 
nations, Fuchsia.^*, Camellias, Marigolds, Ger- 
aniums, Jasmines, and among pretty things in 
great abundance not so often seen with us, the 
Fucharidium,a Clarkia-like plant; Convolvulus 
minor, grafted Mesembryanthemums, Veron- 
icas, Viscaria oculata, and the true double white 
Oleander. In many cases the growth of the 
plants would do no discredit to some of our 
horticultural exhibitions. On one pot of scai'let 
Verbena 1 noticed twenty heads of flowers, all in 
beautiful bloom. Candytufts and Venus' Look- 
ing-Glass, and a hosts of common plants, made 
up the general view. Cactuses and succulents 
generally seemed very popular ; our old friend, 
Rochea falcata, with its beautiful crimson 
flowers, was quite common, and the Crassula 
coccinea was a very common plant indeed. The 
pretty way in which the plants are oftered, sets 
tlie market off. Many of the pots are washed 
clean, and enveloped in pure white paper, the 
leaves and flowers peeping out of the top like 
the fiibled fruits from the mouth of the cornu- 
copia, gilding even the Lily, and adding fresh 
beauty to the handsomest flowers. The market 
is thickly planted with the Pawlownia, our Blue 
j Trumpet tree, and is an agreeable change from 




the everlasting Sycamore and Plane, beau- 
tiful as in themselves they are. 

In another part of the city, up by the Bois de 
Boulogne, are the gardens of the Acclimatisation 
Society, which are well worth seeing, jis it is 
thought to be a model by many for imitation 
here. It is a sort of stock affair ; but is nearly 
or quite self-sustaining by low admission fees, 
60 centimes. It is really not much more than a 
zoological gardln. The " Acclimations" Ave 
fancy, do not go for much. In some particular 
departments, the collections are tolerably full. 
Imagine a vineyard for "testing" varieties, in 
which were growing fifteen hundred and eighty- 
four kinds of grapes ! The large glass house 
was prettily laid out with winding walks, rock- 
eries, ferneries, and with most of the plants, such 
as Camellias, Araucarias, Acacias, planted in the ] 
open ground. It would no doubt be a charming i 
Winter garden ; but imagine a climate where a 
large house like this needs no heating apparatus 
and then do not wonder why we " do not see 
such things so often in America;" .^o with 
the tlower markets. People who go to Paris, 
come back surprised at the lukewarmness of the 
American people, and large " flower markets as 
in Paris," in all our large cilies are being con- 
tinually urged. But it is not that Americans 
are not as fond of flowers as the French, but 
with our houses closed from the frost in Winter, 
and the sun in Summer, window and house 
gardens, as we see in Paris, is impossible. 

I must, however, leave all the nice gardens and 
parks, public and private, to take the readers to the 
Jardiu desPlantes, before we say good-bye to this 
fairyland. After a grasp of the hand of good old 
Mons. Houllet, whose name in connection with 
many new plants, the cultivator so well knows, I 
was fortunate in finding in Mons. Neumann , assist- 
ant Director, one of my early companions, who, 
not like so many of whom I inquired in my 
travels, had not yet gone to" theSpiritland." It 
was a treat to him to have to scour up his ru<ty 
English, and me once more to hear my mother 
tongue. The gardens are full of celebrated trees 
— historical in their botanical relations, accounts 
of which are neatly painted and attached to 
them. Here is a "Judas tree," 7 feet round, which 
the plate tells us was planted by Buftbn in 1775. 
There is the first Robinia — our Yellow Locust — 
nine feet two inches, round, " planted by Jean 
Robin, in IGOl." Connected with the gardens 
are museums of science, and in them rare horti- 
cultural remains find a place. Here th^re is 

preserved a piece of the celebrated Beech tree 
which lived six years after being completely gir- 
dled, to the dismay of vegetable Physiologists, 
who were sure it ought to have died within 
twelve months after ; and then there is the trunk 
of a Date Palm, sown in 1810, and died in 1872, 
having in that time made a stem of nine feet 
high. Many things, alas! died in 1872, for the 
Siege of Paris was hard on the gardens. The 
shells of the Germans had no respect for glass,ancl. 
the tenderest plant fell into the arms of the frost 
king, as the whole city did into the arms of the 
German emperor. Of course, the gardens^ 
grounds, and museum buildings are not what 
they have been. Military troubles can do in a 
day what it takes weeks to restore, but the 
French government is doing a great deal to re- 
vive the ancient glor}' of the gardens, and large 
numbers of workmen were digging foundations, 
for new buildings and repairing the old ones. In 
the Botanical department, large letters told 
of the "Ilerbier Durand," the gift of the former 
Philadelphia Botanist as a sign of his patriotic 
love for the land of his birth. Here encased was 
the chief work of a lifetime. I may be wrong, but I 
have an impression that it has been but little 
used, and it led me to think whether it would 
n t often be better to donate these scientific re- 
mains to active workers, but whose means may 
be limited, than to lond down public institutions 
which perhaps regard it as a favor to you to receive 
ihem. I know of a Philadelphian who took this 
view. He wished before his death to arrange his 
elTects. His scientific material did go to a public 
institution, but the books went to a worker. 
There will be little future "renown" perhaps, in 
this case to the benevolent Quaker who took 
this course; but he has the satisfaction of know- 
ing that his act is being made such use of now, 
that thousands are being benefited by his good 
deeds, when not a score perhaps would, had 
his books been buried under the dust of some 
public library shelves. The arFangement of the 
grounds is much more in view of Botanical sci- 
ence than are those of many similar establish- 
ments in England ; yet the many beautiful spec- 
imens in the plant houses, the shaded avenues 
o" Linden and other trees, the nicely ornamented 
gi-ounds in connection with the zoological de- 
partment, make the gardens a very popular 
place of resort. At the time of my visit, the 
houses were gay with orchidcse, and the aqua- 
rium drew large numbers of visitors by reason of 
the blooming of a beautiful rose-color variety of 




the sweet water Lily. It was marked Nym- 
phaea dentata. The botanic garden proper is di- 
vided into sections for the testing of various 
things. There is a vegetable testing ground. 
Lettuce, cabbages and such things, were 
growing together in great variety, all neatly la- 
belled for the instruction of whomsoever might 
look on. Then there were all sorts of plants 
used in the arts, in commerce, in medicine, and 
in the various pursuits of man, all neatly labelled. 
These labels are of different colors so as to 
indicate the different uses of the plant. A green 
color may indicate a poisonous plant, a yellow 
an edible one, and so forth; and charts explain- 
ing the color are freely placed about the grounds. 

It was pleasant to notice in Paris how her 
horticulturists and agriculturists and her men of 
science generally, are honored. Streets, squares, 
public buildings are named for them ; and thus, 
while you may be drinking from the Fountain 
Cuvier, you are reminded of how great were the 
benefits which the science of these great men 
conferred on the people at large. 

1 have no disposition to underrate America. 
Indeed, after careful comparison of all sorts of 
things, 1 feel that in very many things we are 
far superior to Europe, and in many things, too, 
an wl ich we are very apt tounderrate ourselves; 
but in this matter of honoring science and the 
useful arts by public respect to its professors, I 
must say we are a very long way behind the 
French people. 

A Small Fraud. — "For ten cents or three 
for a quarter," the brokers and bankers of Phila- 
delphia, near the "," were purchasing 
sticks of the common Sweet Gum, one day last 
April, on the assurance of the street vender that 
it " bore a large blue flower, so deliciously 
scented, which would burst into beauty in one 
week after the stick was planted, and scent the 
whole house from cellar to garret with a deli- 
cious perfume, and which the buyer would not 
be without for $;100." 

The writer of this being invited to " invest," 
spoiled the fun by incautiously observing : " 1 
will give you one minute by the watch to leave, 
or you shall be arrested for swindling these peo- 
ple." Without a word, the vender gatheretl his 
bundle of sticks and departed, to the astonishment 
of the crowd, who, with the purchased treasures 
in their hand, looked on in wonder, and some in- 
quired what it meant, and whether their " choice 
alligator plants" were not what they ought to be V 
Mentioning the matter to his Honor, Mayor 

Stokley , he said if the writer of this would prose- 
cute he would send a detective to buy a branch, 
for he did not want complaints so much as 
evidence of guilt. This struck us as very reason- 
able, and a detective went along till we found 
the lively young man sitting down on a corner 
attempting no business, but merely answering 
questions put to him. Of course we stood back 
while the detective went to work, but in spite of 
all encouragement the flowei^ would not be 
"blue" nor would they be " scented." The per- 
fume of the businevss had vanished, and then, 
as the detective reported, that " Sam Madiera 
spoiled the business, for when he asked the name 
of the plant and the vender said it was the 
Florida Alligator plant," Sam, who seems to 
have smelled the alligator in that wood pile, 
" wanted to know what was its name in New 
Jersey?" So we walked away without our 

On our way to the Mayor's office we passed a 
hardware store wherein one of our little folks had 
exchanged a quarter dollar for a pocket knife 
" warranted pure steel," the blade of which bent 
like a piece of pewter ; further on was a store in 
which beautiful fabrics were displayed and " only 
50 cents a yard" noted thereon, and which our 
better half thought she bought, only it was not 
from that piece, "but just the same," as the polite 
attendant assured her, — but which proved in the 
end to be a much more worthless article ; again we 
came to the office of a periodical especially " down 
on humbugs," which advertises that it has "a 
circulation of twenty thousand copies," when it 
is well known to those in the secret it has not 
five thousand ; and finally as we were musing on 
these things, during our street walk, we came on 
the poster of the great showman, and from the 
pictured lips we heard the voice " if you give 25 
cents Avorth for 25 cents, it is honest. If people, 
are fools enough to believe they are to get a dol- 
lar's worth for a quarter, it is no business of 
yours !" "We did not stop to decide this very 
questionable bit of morality ; but it was clear 
that if this street man gave "a stick worth ten 
cents, for ten cents, and his buyers were fools 
enough to believe it was worth SI 00," there was 
no difference that we could see between him, 
Barnum, newspapers, and tradespeople gen- 
erall}'^; and we were rather glad than otherwise, 
that the ten cent swindle got oft" on that occasion, 
while so many dollar ones flouiishcd everywhere 
around, and were held to be quite respectable be- 
sides. The curiously corked bark of the branches 




of the gum made it well worth ten cents to the 
citizen who had never seen it. 

Stealing Snowdrops.— Two men convicted 
at Maidstone, in England, recently, of dig- 
ging up Snowdrop roots iu a private garden, were 
recently sentenced bj' an English Judge to seven 
years' penal servitude. This is in striking con- 
trast with the law of a Philadelphia court, 
where a systematic swindler, of several years' 
duration, was given a comfortable rest for sixty 
days, instead of servitude or hard labor ; and 
with another case, where the same Judge Thayer 
actually discharged a prisoner who had stolen 
pear trees from a nurseryman, on the ground 
that Pear trees were real estate, which a man 
"could not steal." When the Snowdrop thieves 
get out they will probably emigrate to Phila- 

Gardeners and Farmers.— Mr. Peter Hen- 
derson made an admirable address before the 
American Institute Farmers' Club, on the 
29th of April. Besides the excellent practical 
hints as to the formation and management of 
farm-gardens, he made a strong point on the fact 
that many of the best men in the garden busi- 
ness were originally farmers, and even from 
other ranks have some of the best recruits been 
drawn. Of an old New York firm he says : 

" This I know to be the fact, in scores of in- 
stances where the business of nurseryman, market 
gardeners or florists was, as it were, just forced 
upon the farmer by his village neighbors desiring 
to buy the products of his garden. 

The original proprietor of one of the largest 
seed-houses in the city of New York emigrated 
from Scotland some time about the beginning of 
the present century. lie was a nailer by trade, 
and was entirely ignorant ot anything pertaining 
to seeds or gardening; but one day, coming 
through the Bowery, then half farm, half citj' 
he saw a Rosebush in a cottage window. It was 
a Rose in the wilderness, for probably there were 
not a score more in the city of New York. He 
went in and bought it for 50 cents, took it home, 
painted the pot-green, and placing it in the 
window of his nailshop, quickly sold it for a 
dollar. This was easier Avork and better pay 
than nail-making. He started out daily, buying 
plants of all kinds, always painting the pots 
green (a practice that modern science would 
frown at), and doubling his money rapidly. 

From plants, the transition to dealing in seeds 
was natural ann easy, so that in less than twenty 
years from the time this humble Scotch nail- 

maker had purchased his Rosebush in the 
Bowery, his seed-house had become the largest 
on this continent. 

An Exceptionally Honest Man.— A Mr. 
W. V. Andrews, who signs himself "Cor. Secre- 
tary of the Long Island Entomologist's Society, 
U. S. A.," sends a communication to Hardvvick's 
Science Gossip, advising the English people not 
to use Paris green in case the potato beetle 
appears there, as "its use is entirely unnecessary. 
For small plots of land, hand-picking by boys 
and girls is efficacious, and without danger, for I 
do hope that your readers are not believers in 
the foolish stories told of the beetle being poison- 
ous. For larger lots, an ordinary butterfly 
bag-net, swept gently along the potato-tops, will 
capture more beetles in an hour than Paris green 
will kill in a week." He then goes on to tell 
how Paris green came to be used in this country, 
in these words : 

"Mr. Rye tells you that Paris green is a 
favorite remedy here, but he does not understand 
the American mode of doing things. Some 
State entomologist or other probably had a friend 
in the oil and color business, and gave a friendly 
puff to Paris green. Then (he oil and color man 
advertises in some agricultural papers that he 
has the 'never-failing exterminator' of potato 
biigs— Paris green, and the editor of that journal 
at once strongly recommends it. You do not do 
things in that wa}' in honest old England, but 
we do here." 

Paris green was first recommended in the 
Gardener's Monthly. We doubt whether 
any advertisement, not merely of Paris green, 
but of any "oil or color man," ever appeared in 
its pages. AVe have been a pretty close reader 
of the leading agricultural papers of our country 
for years, advertisements and all, and we have 
rarely seen an ac vertisement of Paris green. . At 
any rate, Ave are quite sure there was at no time 
any necessity for "editorial notices" to make it 
go. If they have any room for another honest 
man in honest old England, America can very 
well spare this Mr. Andrews. 

Science in the Department of Agri- 
culture. — We note with great pleasure that 
general Le Due has appointed Prof. Riley as 
Entomologist to the Department. With such 
men as Riley, Dr. Vasey iu the Botanical, and 
Mr. Saimders in the Horticultural, the most 
enthusiastic '' why don't you do it?" can ask 
I no more. 





The Christma-S Rose.—" Sub" says : If 
" Reader" will look in " Breck's Book of Flow- 
ers," or Mrs. Loudon's ''Companion to the 
Flower Garden," he will find the '' Ilelleborus 
niger" or "Christmas Rose" spoken of. This 
is probably the llower he has seen mentioned in 
different papers. This plant is cultivated in 
some parts of New England with success. 
Chambens' Cyclopedia has an illustration of it 
under the article *' Hellebore." 

FRENCri Notes. — A correspondent kindly 
says : — " Knowing the desire of the editor that 
the Gaudener's Monthly should be strictly 
accurate, even to the 'dotting of an i, and the 
crossing of a t,' I make no apology for offering 

the following corrections : "The proper ortho- 
graphy of some of the places mentioned in the 
French notes is Champs-Elysees, Bois de Bou- 
logne, t'arc de Monseaux. And allow me to 
say that l^ouis XVI and Marie Antoinette, were 
beheaded in the "Place de la Concoi-de," and 
not on the spot of the " Chapelle Expiatone." 
The latter is the spot where they were buried, 
and where their bodies laid for twenty-one 
years, until removed by Louis XVIII, in 1815,. 
to the royal vault of St. Denis." 

The First Horticultural Magazine.— 
We have never seen a copy of the Magazine 
referred to by a correspondent in the following 
note : "Have you heard of the first Horticultural 
Magazine published in this county about 1831^ 
by Mr. Dickshut, of Baltimore?" 

Horticultural Societies, 


Proceedings of the American Pomolo- 
oiCAL Society. — We received the volume for 
1877 just as we were going to press last month, 
and had room for only a brief note of Mr. Flagg, 
the late Secretary of the Society. On looking 
through it carefully, we are more than ever sur- 
prised at its value. Most of the material in this 
number is fresh, it not having been made up of 
matter that has previously been published in 
most papers, as has been the case in some of the 
former issues. Through Mr. Flagg's sickness, 
most of the labor of preparing this unusually fine 
volume has fallen on the volunteer shoulders of 
Mr. P. Barry, to whom so much of the good 
work has previously fallen, and Mr. R. Manning 
and President Wilder have had the revision of 
the proof sheets. They may all be well proud of 
their work, and the public at large owes them a 
debt of gratitude for their labor. 

Germantown Horticultural Society. — 
J. Jay Smiih.— Philadelphians and their papers 
sometimes verify the adage that prophets are 
not without honor save in their own country, and 
it is to contradict this adage that notice is here 
taken of t'.ie action of the Germantown Horticul- 
tural Sccii ty, at the April meeting. Mr. Charles 
Miller, in ottering a resolution, said : "We have a 
gentleman connected with this Society who will 
feel honored by our appreciation of him, not 

I only as our first President and our eainest co- 
j worker, but also as a widely and well-known 
Horticulturist and Patron of Gardening. But as 
he requires no eulogy from me, I offer tlie fol- 
lowing: Resolved, That Mr. Jno. Jay Smith 
be hereby elected an Honorary Member of the 
Germantown Horticultural Society." The reso- 
Itition, being seconded by Mr. Alexander New- 
ett and others, was unanimously adopted. 

Fiftieth Anniversary of the Pennsyl- 
vania Horticultural Society.— On the 21st 
of Dec, 1877, this Society celebrated its 60th birth- 
day ,as already stated in our columns. This is the 
report of the proceedings on the occasion, and 
contains in full the address of Mr. J. E. Mitch- 
ell, giving a history of the work of he Society 
duiing that time. 

Neav York Horticultltral Society. — W. 
J. Davidson, Recording Secretary. The Spring 
exhibit is June 19, 20, 2lst. The Fall, Sept. 25, 
26, 27th. The premiums are very liberal, the 
list varied, and competition free to all. The 
regular meeting, the first Tuesday in the month, 
are at the Society's rooms, 55 west 33rd Street, 
New York. 

In ofiering its monthly Premiums, it makes them 
in duplicate. Nurserymen and Florists are not 
allowed to compete with "amateurs," by which 
we understand those who keep gardeners, as well 
as those who do their own gardening, to which 
last the term is generally restricted in Europe. 







Vol. XX. 

JULY, 1878. 

Number 235. 

Flower Garden and Pleasure Ground. 




I am anxious to bring to your attention a new, 
'light wheelbarrow, patented by a meclianic of 
this place. He makes a small size for ladies' 
gardening, which is a great treasure. I have 
•one which I use constantly, being my own gar- 
dener, and think other ladies may be glad to 
have the same. It is not a toy, but strong and 
also very light, and some are very prettily 
painted. Mine is simply the natural wood, oiled 
and varnished. I send the address where they 
are sold in I^ew York, and feel sure if you see 
them, you will be glad to recommend them to 
your readers. 

I desire to add my protest to that of many 
others against the sending of plants from insect- 
infested green-houses. It is too bad to have 
scale and mealy bug brought into one's collection 
■of choice, clean plants. 

[We know our correspondent very Avell, and 
respect her delicacy in not putting in the name 
of the party making the light wheelbarrow ; for 
it is too common for writers, under the guise of j 
"information," to smuggle in an advertisement, I 
thereby doing an injustice to those advertisers | 
who honestly and squarely pay for them in their j 
proper columns. For that reason — and not : 
from mere financial reasons — we never allow | 
such smuggled goods to pass, when they happen 
to be of the same class as other people pay for. j 
In the case of an entu'el}' new and valuable 

plant, fruit, invention or idea, distinct from all 
others already in the trade, and which we feel is 
of benefit to the public, we never ask editorially 
whether the parties in interest have " been to 
the counting-room," but give the discoverers all 
the benefit from their discoveries, and they can 
afterwards advertise their wares and prices or 
not, as they choose. So, in this instance, we 
have no hesitation in saying that the name the 
lady sends, is Pugsley & Chapman, New York 
city. The fact that so good a gardener as we 
know this lady to be, should recommend this 
barrow, is in some respects better than looking 
at it with our large editorial eyes. — Ed. G. M.] 



Regular Foliage Beds should properly be some 
distance from the walks, say 40 to 60 feet, and 
where convenient, be placed behind the carpet- 
beds for which they may serve as backgrounds, 
while they lose nothing in appearance thereby. 
The shape of these beds is not subject to much 
restriction, though circles, ovals or parallelo- 
grams are preferable. 

Only one variety of foliage plant should be put 
in each bed as chief plant, and these two or three 
feet apart, with Petunias, Verbenas, Alyssum or 
such like plants between them as undergrowth, 
bordered by one or two ribbons. The following 
plants may be used for this purpose : 

Aralia papyrifera, Caladium esculentum, 
Polymnia grandis, Wigandia caracassana, Canna 




discolor, C. Zebrina, C. mustefolia, C. Marechal beds ; such as Dicksonias, Lomarias, and other 
Vaillant, Solanum robustum, S. Warsewiczii, S. ferns, by the edge of a brook. Yuccas and Aga- 
purpurea; another variety, S. salicifolius, I ves are in place at the foot of rocks ; and ferns 
have often found attacked at the roots by | might be planted in natural or artificial Iree- 
gi-uljg, I stumps with Lysimachia numularia or such like 

" Sub-tropical Beds.— On the same principles, ! to droop down around the sides, 
with such plants as Grevillea robusta, Ficus i Arrangement of specimens, as well as almost 
elastica, Aralia Sieboldi, Rhus glabra laciniata, ! every other variation, has been for some years 

Acacia lophanta and others. As the surface of 
these beds will be in view the whole season, we 
might use a more ornamental arrangement for 
undergrowth. The surface should be fiat, by 
which it will appear as if the standards were 
planted on carpet beds, if we plant small circles 
of Pyrethrum parthenifolium aureum around the 
stems, and fill the rest of the space with Alternan- 
thera. The circles of Cerastium elegantissima, 
and the spaces, Tradescantia zebrina; or, circles 

much admired in the public parks of London, 
especially Battersea, Victoria and Hyde Park, 
where some of the carpet-bed designs originated. 
These parks are acknowledged by most travelers 
as taking the lead in Europe ; but as we know 
everything there is not adaptable here •, and to 
describe an arrangement of plants to prove 
equally successful all over this extensive country 
would be impossible. 
It will be seen and understood that it has not 

of Alternanthera, and the rest of the space to be I been my object to go through the whole list of 

filled with Stellariagramineaaurea. This remark- bedding plants considered good, but merely to 

able species of chickweed, as well as a few other ' show how those mentioned may be combined 

plants, I have not yet tried in this country, and and arranged. 

have, indeed, not even seen it in any American " 

catalogue. I have noted it down, supposing that WHAT IS A GARDEN ? 

such useful plants, not yet in our collection, will ^^ ^^^ ^^ uebe. 

soon be brought thither by our active nursery- ] We go up a high mountain, and here the grand 

men and florists. Said plant may be inferior to ; view bursts upon us, storming the gates of our 

Pyrethrum (of the same color) in ribbon borders, soul and letting the vast" sight flood into it and 

but superior in massing, especially if a shaded saturate it. Now that we have quafi'ed the drink, 

place can be procured. we turn to such details as strike us most, and try 

Sub-tropical Plants Promiscuously.— Oi beds of to make them out fully ; or we follow the course 
any size and shape, where may be used Datura of a chain of hills, or of a river, or of the roads, 
Knightii, Cycas revoluta, Dimorphanthus letting our eyes walk along these threads as 
manschuricus, Eucalyptus globulus, and E. mar- though with spider's feet. That is to say, from 
ginatus, Phormium tenax, and P. t. fol. var. : 1 a moment of sublime feeling we have quickly 
Dracfenas, Yucca aloifoliavariegata,Y. gloriosa, ' turned into our natural channel of part curiosity 
Cordyline Rhumphii, Chaniffirops humilis,Phoe- and part the desire for smaller objects more di- 
nix dactylifera, Coryphe australis, Ferdinanda j gestible to our nature. The panorama has first 
eminens,Zea Japonicafol. var., Erythrina crista [ elevated us a very brief while, then interested 
galli, Araucarias, Abutilons, and Acer Japonica us a longer while, and now weary of the vast- 
in varieties. I ness, we turn and descend the mountain. By- 

Specimem— Tree Ferns, Palms, etc., make , and-by the foreground, which got lost more and 
an excellent impression when planted (plunged 1 more as we went up, comes to meet us. There, 
in the ground) as specimens or groves, or they ! at the bend of the road, where it emerges from 
may be made to represent undergrowth to large i between the woods, we see, like unto a picture 
trees, where especially the ferns delight in the | in aframe,the village that we are bound for; there 
shade. The size and character of the plants on ] is the church and the steeple, a load of hay 
hand may somewhat rule the manner in which going into a barn, ducks — yes, we can actually 
to place them. So, for instance, will a Panda- ^ discern ducks on the village pond— boys and girls 
nus, Latania, Seaforthia, or Ph<£nix, if four or i coming home from school — oh, how pleased we 
five feet high, appear well as single specimens ' are ! Once more we feel comfortable, enjoying 
on the lawn at a bending and ten feet from the the small measure of our human capacities ; 
walk ; while if seven or eight feet they are strik- 1 once more our human soul is played upon by 
ing objects on some distance behind the flower- human sights. The vast panoramic view of our 




globe on the mountain top, how small a place 
has it taken up on our innei' shelves ! But this 
narrow picture and the likes of it, how they fill 
and how they feed our eyes and our mind ! 

So we may conclude that grandeur and sub- 
limity on this, our parent planet, can be but 
rare moments, and that the true nourishment of 
our soul admits only objects of comparatively 
small dimensions, such as will develop feelings 
of goodness, of taste, of pleasure, of enjoyment, 
of comfort, running down the scale of our harp 
from the divine to the human. 

Happy the man whose lot is cast in a spot with 
a pretty view, no larger than his eyes can digest — 
not so small as to dwarf the capacity of his eyes. 
His craving for the beautiful will be daily satis- 
fied; the pitch of his soul will be strengthened 
and maintained, and the demon of meanness is 
less likely to find a hold on him there. 

Unfortunately, the spots with pretty views are , 
comparatively rare. We cannot, all of us, live | 
in a rolling, undulating country, drained by 
numerous streams and brooks,pleasantly wooded. 
On the contrary we, most of us, live on spots, \ 
stale and flat, but profitable. Not to satisf}^ the 
angel in us do Ave settle on the interminable 
prairie, but to satisfy^ the inner and the outer; 
animal; to make a living; to earn plenty of, 
food and of warm clothing for self and family ; 
and, these obtained, to get for self and family as 
much of mental food as circumstances will per- 
mit — and sometimes there is but scant measure of | 
that article. In proportion, however, that the 
animal gets appeased, the angel — heaven be 
thanked — will strive to get the upper hand. And 
so the well-to-do man will try to improve the 
looks of his fruitful, but otherwise uninteresting 
home. He will seize on whatever little aid 
nature will lend him ; he Avill plant trees on a 
bare hillock ; will cut a vista through a cane- 
brake ; clear symmetrically apiece in the woods, 
teach a wayward spring to run its fantastic rip- 
ple through his meadow ; or, if he does nothing 
better, he will plant a living screen before his 
manure-heap. His eyes, the windows of his soul, 
demand it ; to them he ministers. But what is 
the unfortunate individual to do, who has of 
God's own earth only as little as to "farm a pig" 
or to "swing a cat" in ? or who is cramped up in 
a city lot in the city ? 

Natui-e will out. That unfortunate individual, 
unable to reproduce on his ground even the 
smallest features of nature, one fine Spring 
morning, standing in the full light of the glorious 

sun on his small and bare patch, was overheard 
to say : "There is not the space for a landscape 
here, nor the elements for it, sufficient for the 
aesthetic wants of a field mouse. But there is 
enough of it to have with me a good many of 
the flowers of the moderate zone of this or any 
other country, with here and there a bush and 
here and there an evergreen." 

This, patient reader, I believe was the origin 
of the garden, and this is the aim and end of a 
garden. In default of living in a delightful spot, 
where nature spreads her beauties, both in the 
landscape and in the vegetation, we try to make 
ourselves that landscape and that vegetation ; or 
where landscape is impossible, at least to raise 
that vegetation as far as it can be coaxed into — a 
garden. How far man has succeeded may, per- 
haps, form the subject of another and a later 



The name of Bitter-sweet of right belongs, sole- 
1)^, to the Solanum dulcamara. Some likeness of 
its red fruitage, to the fiery crop of the Celastrus, 
doubtless made our climber its namesake. But 
our Bittei'-sweet will not now readily give up a 
name so long and lovingly borne. 

The Celastrus is sometimes also called the 
Staff tree. This name comes from the fancy by 
many, in a cj^ie of that spiral twist by which the 
Bitter-sweet lifts itself up any handy sapling. 
But its wood is hardly staunch enough to help 
much as a staff". 

Our Bitter-sweet is one of the loveliest of 
climbers. It is a blithesome plant, either in its 
woodland home or beside the threshold. Its 
summer color and shelter, and its blazing crown 
of wintry garlands, should be made a feature in 
all decorative planting ; yet, either to home or 
grounds, it has won but a sparse and stingy wel- 
come. Perhaps its lavish woodland fruitage, 
within easy reach of so many, has much to do 
with this neglect. 

The trouble is, it is a native, and by nature 
largely planted along the forest borders and the 
hedge, and beside the rippling stream ; it shares 
lovingly with the grape, the lift of low down 
trees. The children, coming home with the nuts 
rattled down by the early frosts, joyfully round 
their baskets with the Bitter-sweet's golden treas- 
ure. So, like many other lovely plants to be had 
for the digging, we too rarely welcome its cheer 




and shelter to our door-step or our grounds. But 
were it just now found as with tinted wood and 
fruit, heralded as from some far-off flowery land, 
people would go wild after it, as they often have 
for things not half so lovely. 

Nature has denied the Bitter-sweet the bloom 
and fragrance which are the ruling charm of so 
many of its fellow climbers. But she has made 
it their equal as a decorative plant, by the rich, 
green shelter of its leafy mantle and its sturdy 
stretch of A'ine. With naught else, it is fit to 
deck and shield alike, the humblest and the most 
ambitious home. Flowers and perfume are 
fleeting ; but the rich foliage of the Bitter-sweet 
holds against the scorching sun a dense and 
spreading growth of brightest green, outlasting 
the breath and tinge of flowers. 

But the signal glory of the plant, compassing 
the year, is the clusters of its berries. From the 
size and tinge of tiny grapes till the early frost 
strips the wrap of white and gold from its coral 
fruitage, the plant at every step puts on new and 
changeful features ; each gain toward ripeness, 
brings to deft woman a dainty store for tasteful 

First, following its modest bloom, come little 
globes of lively green. These soon swell and 
change their tint to a greenish-bronze. A little 
farther toward the chilly nights of early frosts, 
slender gaps in those tawny globes reveal the 
white wrap, hiding the flashing glint of its ripen- 
ing seeds. Those opening slowly, widening more 
and more, unmask the glorious store within, of a 
fiery fruitage. By and by, as the early frost 
thins and brightens its foliage to a tenderer tint, 
the Bitter-sweet bears to Autumn a blazing 
crown of clustering coral clasped in lips of gold. 

This fruitage of our climber, plucked and 
stored at each stage of this advance, yields a 
wondrous harvest for adornment. For every 
place and posture becoming winter bouquets 
and unfading garlands, it furnishes unrivalled 
aptness and grace •, and its little green clusters, 
Inid by to dry, while they still bide and tightly 
clasp their treasure, or when first the fiery glint 
of gold and scarlet flash from their opening screen, 
or garnered after the frosts from its still unfal- 
len and tender tinted leaves, uncovers its blazing 
store to the full sunlight, the Bitter-sweet, at 
each phase, offers no end of help to decorative 
taste. No outcome of the seasons in fruit, leaf, 
or blossom, so brightens the home, so helps out 
the dearth of flowers or faces the wintry gloom, 
with such blazinof fireside tint and cheer. 

Out doors, smiling above the threshold, it wel- 
comes the lodgment of the drifting snow and peers 
gaily out from its chilly mantle. Tlu'ough the 
ice storm's crystal sheath it sheds a hopeful 
glow. Down over the porch, a window cap 
drooping, it greets, with rival ray, the flash 
from the blazing hearth. Sheltered only a little 
from the thrash of the winter's wind, and its 
coral fruitage clings, defiant of the frost, and 
wears a joyousness all through its gloom and 
storm. Thus endowed, the Bitter-sweet brings 
to the home abright companionship, and bridges 
with hope of coming Spring and flowers in the 
stretch of its garlands, along the woodland spray. 

Within doors, amid tiie festivities of Christ- 
mas, the dawning year, in home or temple, or 
in public hall, those stored-up pluckings from 
along its way to ripeness, cheer all through the 
winter's gloom. They bring to the matron apt 
and blithesome succor in her graceful struggle 
to brighten and fitly deck, when bereft of the 
grace and perfume of summer flowers. 

The Bitter-sweet, out of those stored-up cul- 
lings from its growth and harvest, offers in itself 
every form and tint for a rich winter bouquet. 
But wreathed into evergreen festoons, tufted 
amongst them and other bright seed pods and 
berries, or with them and autumnal leaves, dried 
ferns, grasses, and the feathery seed whorls of 
the wild white Clematis, fringing and crowning 
the mirror, gaily bordering the paintings on the 
wall or grouped with them and living plants in 
vase or hanging basket, the Bitter-sweet beyond 
anjr bloom or growth of the year, helps in the 
welcome of the holidays, and keeps up bright- 
ness and cheer in the household, till the longed- 
for coming of the flowers, whose loveliness its 
brilliant treasures measurably replace our 
climber. So rounr^s the year with its cheery 
presence, made brighter by the dainty placing 
of deft woman ; that, if in the transmigration of 
souls^ the human ever takes on the form and 
essentials of the plant, I pray for mine — its lodg- 
ment in a Bitter-sweet. 

One of the loveliest lessons I have ever seen 
in Nature's handling of color and tasteful plant- 
ing, was our climber, belting the wealth of its 
glowing harvest over a group of New England 
cedars. On a bright, dewy morning of early 
Autumn, beside a little rest in the climb of a 
hilly country road, I came upon a group ofsome 
half-dozen well-grown, thrifty, young cedars. 
They stood in easy distinctness around one 
of stouter form and taller spire. Every 




wood earth with which the beds were liberally to keep the little hair-like roots from ever being 
dressed. A wash of lime and sulphm- will | water-logged. The older planted Rhododen- 
branch drooped with rich, full verdure, and dron beds are particularly charming. In 

a store of berries for the winter tarrying 
birds. Around this group thus arranged, 
circling from one to another, and up the 
central pinnacle, wound and festooned a vigor- 
ous Bitter-sweet. Its tender, frost-tinged foli- 
age, sparse in such untutored soil, and a girt 
of blazing berries along every tendril, flashing 

the case of Mr. John Haines, the branch 
bent down with the weight of bloom, and 
actually had to be shored up in some instances 
as in an overloaded fruit tree. Mrs. Harry 
Ingersoll's are simply magnificent, some being 
nearly twenty feet high, and of an immense 
variety of color. The best clump of these were 

from out its fringe, hung out distinct against the admirably assisted in the general effect by a 
dark background of these cedars. very large and well-proportioned purple leaved 

To emphasize this tasteful array of color, [ Beech tree. Miss Fox, a neighbor of Mrs. 
the frost-tinged crimson drapery of a climbing j Ingersoll, has some beds of charming varieties. 
Sumach, threaded and girt a couple of the furth- i but ai'e only about twelve years set out. They 
ermost Cedars, and stretched its gay streamers '■ are now about five to eight feet high, and form 
up that central spire. So perfect was the grace one broad sheet of bloom. 

and coloring of this group that, to human eye, it \ On our trip we learned that there may, in the 
seemed rather the living mosaic of some master ' future, be some little troubles, which it Avill be 
taste than one of nature's careful rearing. well for Rhododendron growers to look after. 

This woodland lesson tells to the heedful new I and guard against. In one, the trouble was 
uses for the Bitter-sweet and its like. What i from a very lively aphis, which keeps to the 
infinite variety might be tastefully wrought out under sides of the leaves and gives the foliage a 
of tlie kaleidoscope of bright colors or growing i musty look on the under surface. It makes the 
things V For example, imagine added to the I plants unsightly, and is an injury, though not to 
pencilling of this group, the golden foliage of the t a very serious extent. 

Japanese Honeysuckle, delicately robing one of | A worse trouble comes from a borer,a species of 
these cedars, and threading its tendrils among j Buprestis, which hollows the stems in the cen- 
those crimson ribbons streaming up that central ter. It does not enter at the ground, as does the 
spire. Again, how would look in this mosaic, \ Quince or Peach borer, but on the branches. It 

girt around the base of this cedar group, a fringe 
of scarlet, say in company with the bright tints 
on leaf or flower of other brilliant plants. These 
are but hints. The chances for like effects are as 
infinite as the varied tinge on leaf or flower, or 
as their unlike growths. 


is more after the fashion of the common Cur- 
rant borer in the kind of work it does. The Bel- 
gian Azaleas near Avere also attacked with it, 
but it may be a foreign insect introduced here, 
and may not spread to any great extent. 

Another very serious trouble was found in a 
very interesting collection about twelve years 
old. The leaves had a withery look, and some, 
attacked last year, were quite dead. Examining 
the stems just beneath the ground, we found the 
coarse, wooly threads of a fungus, eating its 
Rhododendrons. — Our magnificent Spring course around, in many cases completely gird- 
weather has made gardening more than usually i ling them. It is a very common fungus in 
enjoyable, and there has been little openly | woods, and many persons may have seen it on a 
expressed hankering after the Horticultural i piece of board on which a flower pot has stood, 
advantages of other lands. The writer of this j It is no new thing that this coarse, thready fungus, 
could not resist the temptation to take a run of I so generally on dead wood, will leave it and 
a few hours to look at his neighbor's little gardens i attack living stems. Mr. William Saunders 
recently, and he was particularly struck by the called the writer's attention, some thirty years 
immense number of Rhododendrons every where ago. to a casein a cold grapery, where it had 

planted, and which seem to be thriving so well, 
since their simple culture is so well understood, 
and which is simply deep, cool soil, the surface 
sufficiently elevated above the surrounding soil 

left an old board and eaten a way for itself 
around the stem of a huge Grape vine. But it 
is not often it does this. In this Rliododendron 
case, it evidently came from the half-decayed 




probably help those that are not beyond i iio more trouble in growing Rhododendrons here 
recovery. than cabbages. 

On the whole, we feel that evenfrom our small Wahlenbergia tuberosa.— Wahlenbergia 
Germantown point we may congratulate the is a genus being closely allied to Campanula, 
friends of Rhododendron culture on their great ' and affords us many very beautiful hardy herba- 
success. It has been a x-eproach that we have to go \ ceous plants. W. grandiflora is particularly well 


to England to see American plants. We thought known in American s^ardens by its very large 
it was a hard task to raise them ; but since we flowers and parsnip-like roots. While at the 
find that all we need is a cool, airy soil, carefully nurseries of Messrs. J. Veitch& Sons, of Chelsea, 
avoiding wet soil, or even heavy soil, there is England, last year, the writer was particularly 




interested in one with singular potato-like knobs 
•on the surface of the ground, as well as a 
profusion of beautiful flowers. It is one of the 
iloveliest things of its class that could possibly 
"be. The following is a representation of it as 
growing at Messrs. Yeitch, with a description 
^taken from Sir Joseph D. Hooker's magazine for 
1875 : 

" In the whole genus, which is a tolerably uni- 
form one in habit, I know of no feature so re- 
markable as the tuberous root stock of this, which 
resembles a cluster of potatoes placed on the 
!top of the pot ; the contrast of these grotesque 
■objects with the exquisitely graceful thread-like 
^sterns and profusion of pearl-white rose-streaked 
•blossoms is exceedingly striking, and recommends 
;the plant as a desirable one for greenhouse, and 
probably for out-of-door culture. Care must be 
taken not to overwater the plant when not in. 
"flower^ or the tubers will soon rot." 

All About Roses. — Under the name of 
-Journal des Roses, a magazine exclusively devoted 
to the Queen of Flowers, has been started in 
France. "We note that the editor agrees with 
us, and against the authority of the ''books," that 
the true Eglantine is the Dog Rose, and not the 
Sweet Briar. 


Lawn Grass.— W. B. LeV., Philadelphia, 
•writes : " The enclosed sample of grass was 
grown from seed sold me for " Kentucky Blue 
Grass," and as it makes a beautiful lawn and dis- 
places the " Fall Grass," I am anxious to have its 
proper name. "Will you oblige me by giving me 
the same ? Being in want of more seed this 
Spring, I called at several seed establishments, 
but they did not seem to know what it was. On 
consulting The Gardener's Monthly, I found 
in March, 1876, an article on " Rhode Island Bent 
Grass." I then called on the seed stoi-es again, 
but they discouraged me from buying the latter 
as it would not suit our climate, and that it would 
not make a good lawn. One firm said it was 
nothing but common Herd grass. I found none 
in this market ; so I sent to "W. E. Barret & Co., 
Providence, R. I.; and the result is at present 
writing, my lawn looks if it will exceed any in 
"W. P. "With thanks for your article on R. I. 
[The little piece sent appears to be Poa tnvialis, 

and not either Blue Grass or Rhode Island Bent 
Grass and which we have seen occasionally,lately , 
in lawns about Philadelphia, and promising very 
well. But it is known that the Kentucky Blue 
Grass makes an admirable lawn grass for Phila- 
delphia and vicinity, and nothing better is to be 
wished for ; it, as well as the Rhode Island 
Bent, Avill crowd out every weedy thing in time. 
Rhode Island Bent is Herd grass, or Red-top of 
some stores; but by no means the " common" 
Herd grass. Dr. Channing, in the article re- 
ferred to by our correspondent, pointed out the 
difference. A small patch of the plants from 
seed sent by Dr. Channing, corroborates all Dr. 
C. says of the value of the Rhode Island variety 
as it may as well be called for a popular distinc- 
tion sake. From the growth of this in our 
flower border, we see no reason why it may 
not make an excellent lawn grass here, as well 
as in Rhode Island. The only remark we can 
make on this matter seems to be that Poa cam- 
pestris, the Kentucky Blue, or Pennsylvania 
Green grass, seems quite good enough for all 
our purposes. — Ed. G. M.] 

Transplanting Hollies.— C. A. D., New 
York, says : " Can you tell me the reason why 
the Ilex opaca is so difficult to transplant suc- 
cessfully ? I have tried it repeatedly before, 
but I thought that in a large one having been 
repeatedly transplanted, there would be some 
good chance of success. Yet one I tried the 
past Spring, is either dead already or so near it 
that there is no hope of its resuscitation ; while 
another one much smaller, given me by a friend 
and transplanted but a small distance compara- 
tively, and had its roots exposed to the air 
scarcely at all, died before the frequently trans- 
planted one, and, in fact, never gave any sign 
of intending to live. If you can give me light 
on this question, I shall be very much obliged 
to you." 

i [The Holly has very sluggish roots, while its 
I evaporating powers through its leaves are enor- 
i mous. To be successful with transplanting 
Hollies, we have to regulate these extremes, 
which we do by cutting off" the leaves in cases of 
doubtful success. We have never known a case 
where the leaves and half-hardened wood were 
cut away, that perfect success did not follow. 
Many people hate to lose even for a short time 
the beautiful leaves ; but it is only for a couple 
of months ; and it is better to lose this two 
I months of gratification than the whole tree. — 
JEd. G. M.] 




Green House and House Gardening. 




r. L. Amos, Esq., at North Easton, Mass., 
has a lai-ge and select collection of Orchids, in- 
cluding many fine specimens recently purchased 
at South Amboy and Albany, and also the ex- 
tensive and rare collection he purchased about a 
year ago of J. S. Rand, Jr. Just iioay he has a j 
finely flowered plant of Phahienopsis grandiflora 
aurea — a most excellent variety, with immense 
flowers ; it is a recent purchase from Menand, at 
Albany. . 

Cypripedium Sedeni is still in flower. This is j 
one of my greatest favorites, because it is always , 
in blossom, and the flower-spikes are shorter 
than those of Roezli or the Lowei section, and 
they often fork off into two or more branches. 
Constitutionally it is robust and free growing, : 
and one of its greatest merits is that we have i 
not to " wait a lifetime " to see it bloom, as is 
the case with small plants of hirsutissimum, 
Stonei or Lowei. 

At the Botanic Garden here, a specimen of 
Zygopetalum Mackayi, with sixteen flower- 
spikes, and five to eight, mostly six blooms, on 
a spike, is going out of bloom. Lycaste Skin- 
neri is coming into bloom; one plant with two 
of this year's bulbs is showing seventeen flowers. 

The Calanthes are fine ; we had them in a cool j 
house to prolong their beauty, but as I noticed a | 
little spotting near the tops of some of the j 
Veitchii bulbs, I immediately removed them all 
to the warmest house, where I keep them quite i 
dry. i 

Lfelia anceps is very fine. Two 14-inch pans ! 
of Maxillaria picta -have several hundreds of 
blooms apiece. This is not a fine Orchid, but its ; 
profusion is extreme. ' 

Cypripedium purpuratum is blooming freely ; 
the flowers have a bold and erect bearing, and 
are of a white and rich brownish purple color. 
The foliage, too, is handsomely variegated. } 
Dendrobium chrysanthum, a pendulous Indian | 
species, with beautiful yellow flowers, has now I 
wreaths of blossoms. ! 



Being engaged somewhat in growing green- 
house and bedding plants, and especially 
Orchids, I have been much interested in such, 
articles as have appeared from time to time in 
the Monthly upon the culture of Orchids. 
The articles from Mr. Chas. H. Snow, of Balti-- 
more, I think very practical. I like that kind 
of information very much, and hope Mr. Snow 
may continue his articles as often as he can get 
facts together for the benefit of Orchid growers ; 
and I think the number is increasing very fast 
in this country. At a late sale of imported' 
Orchids from Brazil or Venezuela, which were 
collected by Mr. Thomas Hogg, of New York, 
there was a large attendance and good prices- 
were realized for most of the articles sol'd, which; 
consisted largely of Cattleya Mossise. There 
was sold on the same day and place (Messrs.. 
Young and Elliott), quite a collection from 
Guatemala, which were fine plants in fine con- 
dition and brought good prices. Mr. E. S. Randl 
is now in Brazil, up the river Amazon, where he 
has now a large collection of Orchids ready to 
ship when the proper time arrives. I suppose 
these will be sold in New York when they 
arrive, thus giving Orchids growers a chance 
to purchase and establish plants for themselves,, 
which takes from one to two years before the 
plants are strong enough to blossom. Dry- 
plants of Orchids hot established, should be 
bought with considerable caution, as they will' 
not all come boldly up to our wishes ; and then 
there has been many sold which were not true 
to name. This is very annoying after getting 
the plant established and having them turn out 
much inferior to the varieties which they were 
purchased for. I hope to see new names writ- 
ing up articles on Orchids and their culture for 
the Monthly. 



Having read with much interest the notes of 
your correspondents in regard to the disease (?'); 
which has made its appearance on the Marechal 
Niel Rose of fete, aod having had personal 




experience with it, will relate it and my remedy- 
as a cure. We have a Marechal Niel worked on 
the Dog Rose. It is about four years old. It ! 
has grown finely and bloomed very well all | 
along until last Fall, when we cut it back to | 
throw blooms for Christmas. It attracted our \ 
attention by being very slow breaking ; but we i 
judged the cloudy weather as the cause of that. \ 
But at length it did break, and bloomed about | 
five or six dozen blooms. Some of the blooms 
were medium good, others were not. After it j 
finished blooming, our rose began to turn back, 
dropped its leaves, showed no inclination what- ! 
ever to break. We concluded our rose must 
have the same disease (?) your correspondents I 
described in the Monthly. We examined it 
and found it exactly so, namely, with a large j 
shapeless excrescence just above the union, and ! 
also numerous very small ones at intervals along : 
the stem, like warts. Our proprietor informed : 
me that it was "going to die, and I might try 
any experiment I wished." I began work by cut- j 
ting all the small excrescence off close, and about i 
one-third of the large ones also. I then washed ! 
the wounds well with strong sulphur water, 
and rubbed sulphur well in the wounds, and Avet , 
some sulphur, adding water enough to make it i 
stick; then gave all of the wounds a good coat > 
of it, let it remain two weeks or so, when I j 
found it began slightly to heal. I gave it another | 
washing, and treated it the same as before, and ! 
let it remain for tAvo Aveeks more, when it had ; 
healed nearly over. I made two more cuttings | 
of the large excrescence, and treated it in the 
same way as described, and in course of time it ' 
healed completely over again. I found the 
excrescence inside to be of a very brittlely \ 
nature, having rusted dead streaks through it. j 
My rose did not make any headAvay for a Avhile ; j 
but as time wore on it began to break, increasing \ 
more vigorously as the weather began to get 
fine, and now. May 5th, you could not wish to 
see a more healthy plant. It has " set" more 
than one hundred buds, and is continuing to 

I somewhat agree with W. W. as regards the 
cause of the disease, for it plainly illustrates his : 
statement ; whereas it prefers to break just i 
above the union. In conclusion, I might say I ! 
have found the Marechal Niel more sensitive j 
and impatient of any neglect than any rose I 
have met Avith, though when properly cared for j 
it will amply repay any extra trouble the ope- { 
rator may have had. i 



The use of flowers for the table is, we are glad 
to know, exciting general attention among the- 
more tasteful of our community ; even though 
they be those residing in cottages and setting 
but simple tables. 

What, indeed, has wealth or grandeur to do 
with this subject of lloAvers ? Those SAveet and 
refreshing, those silent messengers,which whisper 
to the weary, toil-worn, working man or woman, 
of peace and rest 1 

We say, therefore, to that large middle class, 
composing the majority of our American homes,, 
never set a table without giving it that last 
dainty touch — a vase, basket, or stand of 
flowers, or if not flowers, the "bit o' green," 
which imparts such a charming grace. 

Now, during the Summer season, it is sup- 
posed that any lady may be able to secure her 
pretty ornament for each meal, by merely run- 
ning into yard or garden, there to gather the 
treasures so dear to most Avomen's hearts ; the 
buds and flowers, feathery sprays and plumes of 
green Avhich form the most eff"ective of table 
adornment. In order to help those inexperi- 
enced in this class of floral arrangement, Ave 
Avill make a few suggestions that Avill perhaps 
aid in the work; Avhich, once commenced, will so 
groAv upon the taste, that the tasteful houseAvife 
will as readily relinquish the table meats and 
napkins as the more charming addition of 
flowers or greenery. 

The variety of " stands," baskets, vases, &c., 
exhibited in our china and fancy-stores for this 
class of ornament is " legion," and one becomes 
confused in the very eflfort to select the most 
beautiful, where all are striking. 

In this day, even the humble may array their 
tables tastefully, with glass and china; for 
though it may not be " cut" in the one instance, 
nor " Sevres" in the other, still very cheap ; 
" fruit sets" of glass, if carefully polished, and 
simple Avhite china, entire and quite pure in its 
color, Avill impart that air of refinement which 
even the costly articles fail to do, Avhere rough- 
handed " Mary Anns" have charge of the din- 
ning room. 

We advise, therefore, that Avhetlier of richest 
" cut-glass" or simple crystal of domestic manu^ 
facture, glass should form in a large measure 
the table adornment, especially the receptacles 
for flowers. 

Pretty glass baskets, long trumpet-shapedi 




vases, and slender little specimen glasses, may- 
be purchased for various sums, from twenty-five 
cents to as many dollars ; and nothing can have 
(especially in Summer) a cooler or more satis- ; 
factory effect. The pretty Parian baskets — with 
open work or perforated walls, lined with 
amber, crimson, blue or green glass (which is 
strongly effective, gleaming through the creamy- i 
white exterior), are equally charming and within : 
the reach of all ; as even in the " dollar stores" 
we have picked up a few designs faultlessly per- 
fect in manufacture and artistic in design. 

The March-stand, consisting of a lower tazza 
of size about two-thirds larger than an upper 
one, with which it is connected by a slender 
stem. The stands may be purchased in various 
sizes, but are easily imitated by a "home-made" 
affair, far less expensive. 

In the upper tazza, it is our custom to place a 
slender trumpet-shaped vase, the taller and | 
more slender, the prettier in our opinion. 
Again, by making such a stand of tin, neatly 
painted, then filling with damp sand, or even soil, j 
we may possess a living ornament of surpris- ' 
ing beauty. We had such an one made at \ 
trifling cost, consisting of a circular tin pan, 
eight inches in diameter, connected with an 
upper one, of five inches, by a rod twelve 
inches long, which has been a charming object 
all Winter. Filling the pans with damp sand, 
(kept constantly wet), we inserted in the lower 
pan cuttings of Tradescantia aquatica, several 
variegated Ivies with delightful foliage, and a 
root of Madeira vine ; in the upper, the faithful 
old Lysimachia, and two little boxes well 
covered with Linaria cymbalaria, which have 
grown on and keep bubbling over the edges in 
billowy masses, beautiful to behold. Of course 
the stem is covered, and mosses make a close 
carpet on the surface. Now there is no sameness 
about this one stand of the season; for be it 
known, we insert cut flowers all through the 
surface, while in the top tazza or pan, we place 
various pretty arrangements, sometimes a tall | 
trumpet of cut flowers, or a Parian vase of rose- 
buds ; again, a little basket filled with moss and 
any treasui-e we can secure, or indeed (tell it 1 
tjot in Gath), very often a fine grown Sweet- | 
Potato vine, which has elicited more praise than i 
any other addition to our home-made stand. \ 

We could go on and on, describing the varied 
means used in our own flower-loving families, | 
for embellishing the table for each meal—" the I 
girls" taking turns in this pleasant duty, of I 

which the little individual vases at each plate is 
considered the dearest, most enviable act of all; 
for, if by any means, the special rose-bud 
admired by the dear paterfamilias, the waxy- 
white Hyacinth always loved by "mother," or 
the drooping bells of the young sister's Lily of 
the Valley, can be forced to bloom, the Winter 
through, and gathered each day from the garden 
bed, then indeed are the successful florists 
happy beyond measure. 

We would, in conclusion, ask our sister friends, 
are not such teachings worth much to the rising 
generation of 1878 ? I would suggest for you 
that perhaps Mr. R. of Columbus, 0., alludes 
to " Floral Decorations for the Dwelling House, 
an English work by Annie Hassard," published 
here by McMillan & Co., N. Y. 



I noticed a query as to this plant being in 
cultivation in this country. We had a plant of 
over one hundred fine heads of bloom last 
winter, and any of those heads of flowers would 
perfume a large greenhouse. This plant has 
been planted in the Camellia house for three 
years. There must be quite a number of plants 
in the country, for I have sold them to people 
from New York to San Francisco. It will 
always be a higji priced plant, being difficult 
to propagate, and still more difficult to import 
from Europe. We imported it three times 
before we obtained it alive. The Luculia is not 
a good pot plant, but is of easy cultivation 
planted out in a cool greenhouse. It requires 
an abundance of water, both overhead and to 
the roots when growing, and to be kept free 
from insects, which are very fond of its large, 
succulent foliage. 



I found, two j-^ears ago, before the publication 
of the same fact by a correspondent of the 
Monthly, that a solution of White Hellebore 
and soap puts an end to the slug on Rose-bushes. 
My next experiment with the same solution was 
on certain house plants infected with scale — 
cousin-german of the mealy bug. One thorough 
application seemed to clear the plants of this 
pest, though a second application was needed 
two or three weeks after, to dispose of a new, 
sparse and soft-shelled generation. Any kind of 




■strong soap answers well in solution with White 
Hellebore. I have a partiality for good soft- 
soap for such purposes, having found it as effec- 
tive as whale-oil soap with house plants, and less 
disagreeable as well as cheaper. 

The enquiries of a "Reader," last Autumn, for 
a cure for mealy bug, recalled my experience 
with the Hellebore solution in the case of scale ; 
and I suggested to my friend, Mr. Wm. H. Hogg, 
florist, of this city, to try it upon a large Ste- 
phanotis, on a trellis in one of his houses, on 
which the mealy bug had been long established. 
The following experiment was devised and con- 
ducted entirely by Mr. Hogg, who permits me 
to report it : He made a ball of powdered White 
Hellebore and whale-oil soap, suited to the 
cavity of one of Wheeler's screw-globes, attach- 
able to a hydrant or force-pump, for the purpose 
of distributing insecticide liquids or manures. 
The action of the water flowing around the 
ball, inside of the globe, is to dissolve the ball 
gradually, and distribute the solution of Helle- 
bore and soap through the hose without further 
trouble. In Mr. Hogg's house the globe and 
hose were connected with the city water-pipes, 
and commanded all the pressure needed or 
desirable. The Stephanotis was washed with 
the hose at first dail3^ After a week, or say six 
applications, the mealy bug had very much 
diminished, and, with occasional washings, the 
plant and house have been for several weeks 
apparently free of the pest, except on closest 
examination, when some slight traces can still 
be found. Practically, the success has been 
perfect, and the cost in trouble and labor small. 
Mr. Hogg also bears testimony to the complete 
effectiveness of this application with the hose to 
plants infested with scale. I think gardeners 
will recognize the importance of this experiment. 
White Hellebore must now be considei-ed as the 
most powerful insecticide known, which is not 
also a planticide. 

about the middle or latter part of May, I place 
the plants in a small house ; close all ventilators. 
I admit no air but only once a week to let 
the foul air escape. Here I keep the plants 
saturated with water until the 15th of Septem- 
ber, when I partially withhold water until the 
end of the month, when I remove all the plants 
to a cool, airy place, so that the leaves in some 
shape or other assume a yellowish cast ; but the 
plants must not be allowed to shrivel. About the 
middle of ISTovember I take one or two or more, 
as according to what stock I m.ay have, and in- 
troduce them into heat, and do so at an 
interval of six to ten weeks. This is all that I 
know of the Eucharis to make it flower the entire 
year. I do not pot my plants every year ; I allow 
them now four to six years in the same pot, if 
the drainage is good. 



Many are deterred from the enjoyment of a 
a greenhouse or conservatory in connection with 
the dwelling house, under the idea that certain 
Southerly exposures are necessary. I would say 
to tho , that from experience, I have learned 
to refjctrd the difterence in exposure as of no 
practical consequence, at least not sufticient to 
prevent the erection of the house where most 
convenient. The element of success is rather 
in a house constructed properly, to enable the 
plants to be near the glass. And for the Camel- 
lia, the Erica and the Rose tribes, and for many 
other of our most desirable plants, I would con- 
sider a Northern exposure a£ desirable. In this 
case, however, more care may be necessary in 
providing shelter from Winter winds. Double 
glazing on the exposed part is an eftective and 
not expensive method. 



About cracking in Pears, several times I have 
known of its being radically cured by burying 
old rusty iron about the roots, or watering 
plentifully with copperas water. In fact, I have 
never known either to fail ; though the cracking 
of Pears mentioned by your correspondents may 
be occasioned by some cause which cannot be 

before using, in a dry place, and at the time of} removed by " Iron in the Soil." 

potting 1 place through the compost pieces of j 

cow-dung, well dried, as large as walnuts, using 

pots according to the size of plants wanted, ; 

will drained ; the draining must be complete or j 

failure follows. After all is potted, which I do i 



I pot all the plants at one time, that is in a 
compost of turfy loam and sand, well mixed 
together •, let the compost lie at least two months 


Beautiful China Asters.— The Garden has 
colored plate of beautiful Asters. How won- 




derfully they have been improved. One of these 
flowers measures four and a half inches across. 
The Aster is an excellent plant for one to 
exercise skill in plant-growing on. 

The Amakyllis. — The London papers tell us 
the taste for the Amaryllis is becoming quite 
general in England. The writer of this, when 
in England last Summer, saw a large house at 
Mr. B. S. Williams' wholly devoted to these 
bulbs, showing a large demand for them. In 
our own country we fancy the taste will also 
increase. The admirable sketches of Miss G. 
in our pages, show how much there is in them 
to admire, and hovy easy it is to manage them. 
The writer of this has, every Summer, beautiful 
blossoms of A. longifolia in the open ground, 
with no more trouble than the taking up of the 
root in the Fall and putting it " anywhere," and 
then setting it out in the Spring. At this writing. 
May 25th, it is throwing up an unusually long 
flower stalk. 

The Chinese Primrose.— Everybody knows 
and admires the Chinese Primrose, but few know 
how beautiful it may be until they see the chromo 
issued by the Gardener's Chronicle of May 4th. 
The flower stem is a quarter of an inch thick, 
and the head, on which 16 flowers are seen, is 
six inches across. Each flower is one inch and [ 
three-quarters wide, of a rich crimson purple, ! 
and with a bright golden star in the center. i 


bench near the glass in an "intermediate" house, 
and had some leaves that I found on measure- 
ment to be 15 by 13 inches wide, and flowers 
from 2 to 3^ inches across. Mr. Taplin. 
the manager, tells me that they grow well in the 
coolest greenhouse, and again they do not object 
to a little heat, providing they have a light and 
airy position. They grow most luxuriantly, and 
bloom most profusely in autumn and winter, 
after which they rest for a period. F. 

Abutilon Geo. A. Stanley. — A double 
Abutilon is a great novelty. We have Double 
Hollyhocks, Double Altheas, Double Chinese 
Hibiscus, all of the Malvaceous family, but one 
Double Abutilon that we know of under the 
above name. A Cleveland correspondent sends us 
a colored photograph of one which has retained 
the semi-double character for several years. The 
color, a rosy crimson, and is in itself a novelty.. 

Begonia FRCEBELii.--This is a newly dis- 
covered and recently introduced (three years I 
ago) species, a native of the Republic of Ecua- 1 
dor, and named in compliment to Froebel of! 
Zurich, who first grew and distributed it. It is 
a tuberous-rooted species, nearly allied to Be- I 
gonia cinnabarina, and one of the easiest to \ 
grow and most gorgeous of the genus. Its j 
leaves are radical, large, thick, uniformly green ; 
and pubescent, and in well grown plants envel- i 
op the flower-pots like the leaves of thrifty I 
Cinerarias. The blossoms vary in color from ! 
rose to the most intense and vivid scarlet and I 
glowing carmine, and are produced on long! 
stems clear above the leaves. 

The finest specimens of this lovely Begonia I 
have seen or heard of, I saw recently at 
Mr. Such's Nurseries, South Amboy, N. J. The 
plants wei-e growing in seven-inch pots, on a 


Double Geranium Ethel Beale. — As- 
most gardeners know, the best of the Double 
Geraniums have a ragged and confused set of 
petals. In English works, Ethel Beale is intro- 
duced to us as one for the first time presenting a 
regularly elegant form. The following is the 
description given : 

One of the most beautiful and distinct Double 
Geraniums in cultivation, with clusters of bril- 
liant-colored flowers, resembling the finest 
Double Balsam in perfection of outline. The 
petals are evenly and perfectly reflexed, and the 
immense trusses of bloom present a most unique 
and charming appearance. 

The color of the flowers is rich pink, shading 
off to brilliant crimson, reflex of petals silvery- 
white, and the perfectly developed form of the 
flowers, combined with its remarkably free 
habit, makes it a most valuable acquisition as 
an exhibition plant, or for cut blooms. It is un- 
doubtedly far before any other of its class, and 
we recommend it with the utmost confidence to 
all Geranium growers. It is particularly well 
adapted for market work. 

Mrs. E. B. H., Michigan City, Ind., says :— 
"Can thee give any information as to the best 
method of cleaning plants of lice (green). I am 
very much troubled Avith them upon my pot 
plants and those in the garden beds as well." 

[In most cases syringing with soapy water is the 




best way of getting rid of Apliides. Tliere are 
waslies of various kinds, but a powerful syruige 
is generally equal to the work, and little prepa- 
ration is required for its use. See the article of 
Dr. Channing .in this month's issue. It has rela- 
tion to scale and mealy bug chiefly, but may be 
useful against other insects. — Ed. G. M.] 

Span or Lean-to Greenhouse— C. H. S., 
Newmarket, Ontario, Canada, says : — "Being 
compelled by the narrowness of my lot, which 
runs east and west, to build my greenhouse end- 
ing the same way, I would be thankful to you 
for information as to whether there would be 
any advantage in building a span-roofed house 
■over a lean-to V 

[So much depends on what one wants to grow, 
and the circumstances attending management, 
■that it is difficult to say, independently of these 
considerations, whether one should have a span- 
roofed house, or one on the lean-to principle. 
■So far as we can understand our correspondent's 

wants, there seems to be no objection whatever 
to a lean-to house under his circumstances. — Ed. 
G. M.] 

Gardenia Flower.— J. L. E.., St. Joseph, 
Mo., writes : — ''With this mail I forward the 
bloom of a plant for identification. You will see 
I have been dissecting it. I would send you a 
perfect bloom if I could procure it. The leaves 
are rather thick and leathery. The bark bears 
a strong resemblance to the common Alder, hav- 
ing a verucose appearance ; the plant bloomed 
finely, and is just through. If it were not for my 
short attention to Botany and thinking myself 
incompetent, I would class it in the Madder 

[We give this letter entire, as an encourage- 
ment to young Botanists to persevere with their 
structural investigations, for this young man has 
come near the mark in placing it in the Rubia- 
cese or madder family, the relics of the flower he 
sends, showing it to belong to one of the large- 
flowered tropical Gardenia's. — Ed. G. M.] 

Fruit and Vegetable Gardening. 




With your permission I send a few items con- 
'Cerning the Dwarf June Berry, of which inquiry 
was made in March number. I have grown the 
Dwarf June Berry many years, and prize it 
highly, as I believe does every one who is the 
fortunate possessor of one or more bushes. It 
■is not very extensively disseminated here as yet, 
owing to the fact that no one has ever propa- 
-gated it for sale. The first stock of plants was 
brought from Maryland many years since, and 
has attracted marked attention wherever grown, 
not only by its dwarf habit, but by its immense 
fproductiveness. With me its productiveness has 
been a matter of wonder and surprise, "literally 
covered" seeming to be a term especially suited 
to a description of its prolific character. In 
size, the berries approach, when fully ripe, 
nearly that of the Early Pui-ple Cherry. Its 
.large size may be due, however^ to the fact that 
mine are growing on land freshly cleared of 
limber. Here its season of ripening lasts several 

days, furnishing a supply of fruit of several days' 
duration. It is of neat habit when properly 
cared for, and may be grown as a small tree 
with a single stem, or it may be grown in clumps 
or stools. It has thus far been entirely, free 
from insects and disease. As it does not evince 
any tendency to overspread all creation by 
throwing up suckers, it is admissible in the 
smallest garden. 

The only defect it has (and it is not the fault 
of the fruit) is the inordinate fondness that birds 
have for the fruit. Strawberries, Raspberries and 
Cherries are all forsaken by these feathered 
pilferers as soon as the June Berries begin to 
ripen. Where birds are destructive to the early 
small fruits, the June Berry might be grown 
specially for the birds, as they seem to prefer it 
to anything else ; and a small area would furnish 
pasture sweet for a great many robins, catbirds 
and redheads. 



I am glad this valuable fruit has been brought 
to the notice of your readers. I think with Mr. 




Terry, of Iowa, that it is very far from being a 
humbug. I have this Spring set out several 
hundred more plants to grow for the fruit. 
Although there is no doubt of this being an 
Amelanchier, I cannot find any species in the 
books that exactly coincides with this one. The. 
stock from which my plants came Avas brought 
to Kansas from Illinois about ten years ago, and 
so far as I am able to ascertain, the plants there 
were grown from seeds obtained in Pennsyl- 
vania. The old-fashioned tree Service Berry, or 
June Berry, nearly every one knows, as it grows 
all over the Eastern and Middle States, and most 
of the Western States, too. If this dwarf species 
grows wild in Pennsylvania or Virginia, I hope 
some of our friends there will tell us. I have 
two sub-species growing on my place. The one 
mentioned grows about three feet high here, but 
in Illinois it grew to six feet. The other kind is 
like the first, except that it grows only half as 
high. Both kinds bear prodigiously. The flavor 
is mild, rich, sub-acid, and is very good eaten 
raw or in any way that Raspberries may be used. 
In size almost as large as the Houghton Goose- 
berry. Mixed with the Gooseberry, a very nice 
sauce is made without the use of sugar. The 
nurserymen here are just waking up to the 
importance of disseminating the plants. Many 
of them do not know there is such a thing. By 
experiment, I have lound that it will grow 
budded or grafted in the apple, and no doubt it 
will grow in other stocks of the Roseasca^ family. 
I do not know that this would be any benefit, 
as it progagates easily and does well on its own 
roots. I have heard rather indirectly that the 
smaller variety that I have was found in one of the 
extreme southern counties of this State, and that 
it grows abundantly there along the blufl:s. Cul- 
ture greatly improves this fruit, and I hope that 
it may be more generall}^ grown. It certainly is 
here a great acquisition to the small fruits. 



Having a group of Pyrus japonica seedlings 
which I noticed to be unusually fruitful, some 
five or six years ago, I have kept the stock 
since that time, for the purpose of raising seed- 
lings for hedge plants. The habit and vigor of 
growth of these plants suggested the idea of 
using them as stocks for budding with the Pear. 
I reasoned as follows : — This P. japonica is 
quite as nearly allied to the common Pear as is 

the Quince ; indeed, it is rather classed as Pyrus 
than Cydonia. It is a more hardy variety than 
the Quince, being never injured in root or 
branch by the winter. It is vigorous and adapts 
itself to a great variety of soil, and is in this re- 
spect quite in contrast with the Quince stock. 
Lastly, it will be likely to dwarf the Pear, and 
induce fruitfulness quite as much as does the 
Quince. Reasoning thus, I made trial upon a 
few stocks during the last summer, which were 
planted with no reference to this purpose. The 
result was that the buds "took" with great read- 
iness, and we now have young pears with luxu- 
riant growth upon this stock. My partner and I 
are so well pleased with the appearance and 
promise of this stock that we have planted out 
our whole crop of last year's seedlings, about 
15,000, for the purpose of budding, this August. 
"We find the habit of growth of the seedlings to 
be clean and upright, quite the contrast with the 
plants usually propagated by root cuttings. The 
average height of the plants in the seed bed the 
first season was a foot and a half, although many 
attained to a height of nearly three feet, and 
would have taken a bud, the first year, from 
seed. Possibly this particular variety and its 
descendents may be more vigorous than the 
common type. However this may be, it is clear 
that such seedlings will "work" well. To my 
mind the prospect is decidedly encouraging that 
a new and valuable stock for dwarfing the Pear 
is here promised. But I am fully aware that the 
experiment is not yet tested to a conclusion. 
Yet it can be but a question of a comparatively 
short time before definite results will be ob- 




\ Have we any hybrid strawberries ? Several 

j propagators of new varieties of this fruit say 

'\ "yes," and claim to have produced them. Now, 

let us look a little into this subject. When we 

plant difterent varieties near each other, we find 

that there is no mixing in ih.Q fruit in the least 

j degree, even if a hundred kinds were growing on 

I a bed ten feet square. Suppose, then, that the 

i seeds of the fruit grow on such a bed he 

i sows, what will the plants be produced from this 

bed? Horticulturists would call them either 

"chance seedlings," or "chance hybrids,'''' while 

in fact they are only chance crosses, the term 

"hybrid" being in such a case entirely improper. 

This cross is effected by insects carrying the 




pollen from the blossoms of one variety to those 
of another, till perhaps each of the blossoms of 
the entire hundred varieties would become fruc- 
tified, in some degree, by the pollen of every 
variety in the bed. 

ISText, we will suppose that a thousand of these 
so-called chance hybrids are growing, will any 
of them be exactly like the one hundred parent 
plants? Not one, but all will be difterent in 
some respect; and the entire lot will be one 
thousand new varieties, the nature of which can 
never be changed by the art of man. 

Again, we set a variety by itself, say a stami- 
nate that is self-fructifying ; no other variety 
within a mile, if you please ; no possible cross, 
in this case, and we sow the seed of this isolated 
plant and produce another thousand 7iew vane- 
ties, with not one exactly like the purer sort nor 
any other known to exist. How do these plants 
correspond in their fruits with the one thousand 
varieties first spoken of above ? The fruit is 
about the same in size, color and quality, some 
small, some large, some good and some pooi, 
and so far as appearances go, they seem to be as 
good in all respects as the first-named thousand 
varieties, not following the parent plant as re- 
gards size of berries, unless it be by mere chance. 

Now we will come to what is said to produce 
the real hybrids. We take a choice staminate 
and also a good pistillate plant, and set them b}^ 
themselves, about a foot apart, with no other 
varieties so near that there will be any danger 
that the pistilate variety can become, in any de- 
gree, fructified by any sort, but by the selected 
male staminate set by it ; and when this pistillate. 
plant fruits, we plant the seeds from it, and the 
result is claimed to be perfect hybrids with 
the good qualities of both parent sorts. Are they 
so? I say no — only chance seedlings, like the 
two thousand varieties previously introduced. 
Let any one take the largest two varieties, male 
and female, that exist in the world, say each 
producing bervies twelve inches in circumfer- 
ence, as it is now claimed that one or two do 
produce, and let them be set one, five, or ten 
miles from every other variety, would the seed 
of the female plant produce plants that would 
bear berries as large as those of the parent 
plants ? Only b}^ chance ; and in one thousand 
such plants perhaps not one would produce ber- 
ries over half the size of those yielded by the 
parent varieties. If this is "hybridization," so 
be it. I shall call it simply chance crossing. 
[It may be proper to note that Mr. Miner uses 

the term "staminate" in the sense oi hermaphro- 
dite. No pure staminates are grown now. What 
he says of crossing is correct. A hybrid is a 
mixture of two distinct species. A cross is a 
mixture of distinct forms of one species, but, 
practically, the distinction is not of much im- 
portance, for botanists themselves disagree as 
to what is a species, and what is but a distinct 
form of one. Yet as the matter stands, if we 
could get progeny between an Alpine strawber- 
ry, called botanically, Fragaria vesca, and the 
common garden strawberries — F. Virginiana, 
they would be considered hybrids ; but progeny 
between Hovey's Seedling and Albany Seed- 
ling, would be regarded as but a cross. But 
we are glad Mr. Miner has introduced the ques-. 
tion. Instances are gettmg ridiculously common 
for people to talk of their new seedlings as hyb- 
rids or crosses between this and that, when there 
is no evidence whatever that they are more than 
natural variations . — Ed. G. M.] 



The question of the identity of Elm City and 
Highland Hardy is in a fair course of final settle- 
ment. Mr. Charles Downing sent me plants of 
H. Hardy to plant beside my Elm City, and I 
sent him the Elm City to test beside the H. 
Hardy, so have patience for a year or two. I 
presume the adaptation of soil to the different 
varieties has more to do with the success of 
Raspberry culture than most persons are aware. 
I have found that the Elm City will completely 
run out on dry land which is adapted to Phila- 
delphia, while on low, moist ground Philadel- 
phia will produce nothing, and Elm City is in 
its glory. We should not condemn a variety of 
fruit because of one failure. If any one succeeds 
with it, let us look for the element of success. 
I am certain the failure of H. Hardy, referred to 
by J. A. D., was due to dry soil or southern ex- 



Several years ago I tried the experiment of 
transplanting some shrubs of the High Blue- 
berry, Vaccinium corymbosum, into a rich and 
not very damp garden soil. The two specimens 
that I planted did so well that I have often 
thought of trying it as a hedge-plant for moist 
soils, selecting plants which produce the largest 
and best berries in abundance, and so securing a 




hedge that will bear valuable fruit. It will 
undoubtedly make a good, thick hedge ; but the 
slow growth, I thought, might be a great objec- 
tion. I did not know that the experiment had 
ever been tried, till last week, I found in this 
town a row of the bushes, a hundred or more, 
that were taken up fifteen years ago and set out 
•on the banks of the old canal. These bushes 
were very small when transplanted, but are now 
ten or twelve feet high, with trunks, some of 
them, I think, more than two inches in diameter. 
'They stand in the track of the New Mystic 
Valley Railroad, and are all to be cut down im- 
mediately. I have spoken for some of the wood, 
and if you would like, will send you some of 
the largest samples, showing the rate of gi'owth. 
They were set out by Mr. Josiah Curtis, of North 
^Voburn, who still owns the land where they 
■stand. I should like to see the experiment tried 
•of raising from the seeds of the largest and best 
berries, a lot of these shrubs, to be used for a 
Tiedge in cold, moist lands. "Why may not a 
larger and better berry than any of the wild 
varieties now produced be obtained in this way? 


The First Georgia Peach. — They have a 
Tivalry down South, as to who should have the 
first ripe peach. Samuel Bumph, of Marshall- 
ville, one of the Vice Presidents of the Georgia 
State Horticultural Society, secured the honor 
this year with the E?a-ly Amsden, on the 18th of 
May. That part of Georgia grows Peaches for 
Northern markets, enjoying a monopoly till the 
Maryland and Delaware orchards wake up to 
their work, which is about the end of July, so 
that the Georgia fruit-growers have a full six 
weeks to work. 

Growing (trapes in Vineries.— Some years 
■ago, some attention was given to growing 
Grapes on what is known as the extension sys- 
tem ; that is, training a Grape vine so that in 
time one plant filled a Avhole house. In the 
"hands of a good grower, we believe it is a 
much better plan than the single rod system. 
In hopes to recall attention to this good plan, 
we give the following from an Irish paper on 
the single vine in one large house at the Vice- 
Eegal Lodge, Dublin : 

"Taking it all in all, we ai-e strongly of 
opinion that the great vine at the Vice-Regal 
Lodge, Phoenix Park, may fairly claim to be the 
.finest example of a single vine grown on what is 

called the extension system to be found in these 
islands, or, perhaps, outside of tl:kem. It is quite 
possible, and very probable, too, that there are 
other monster vines monopolizing entire houses, 
and covering a larger space ; but we doubt if the 
Finchley or any other celebrity in its way pre- 
sents such a picture of successful grape culture 
as does at this present moment the large vine at 
the Vice-Regal Lodge. The crop this year is, 
perhaps, the heaviest it has yet matured, cer- 
tainly the size and weight of the bunches is 
beyond the average. Not a few of these would 
turn the scale between three and four pounds, 
and the weight of the general run of bunches 
will be fully two pounds each. The number of 
bunches which are strung along the lines of rod 
with almost mathematical precision is some- 
Avhere about five hundred, and everyone of them 
fit for the exhibition table. The heaviest 
bunches are, as a matter of course, to be found 
at the extreme end of the house, opposite to that 
at which the vine is introduced, and from which 
rods are conducted horizontally the entire length 
of over seventy feet. The large-sized bunches 
illustrate the fact in grape-growing that size and 
sable are not at the same time attainable ; to 
have the former you must forego the latter to 
some extent. Notably, too, the bunches which 
crowd the hip or back portion of the roof, which 
is less exposed to light and sunshine, have the 
color laid on more decidedly than those which 
are more fully exposed to these elements. 
Nothing can be more robust, clean, and healthy 
than the foliage. Altogether it is a triumph of 
cultural skill and good management, and the 
worthy and skilful chef who holds the horticul- 
tural helm at the Lodge may well be congratu- 
lated on the present aspect of his noble Black 


Swayzie Pomme Grise Apple.— Of this ex- 
cellent Apple Dr. Burnett says in a recent 
number of The. Canadian Horticulturist : 

"We are led in the same connection to speak 
of the Swayzie Pomme Grise, so named, we have 
been told, from Col. Swayzie, an inhabitant of 
the Niagara District. Beadle's Canadian Gar- 
dener expresses the opinion that the apple 
originated on this farm. The original tree was 
blown down, the author says, during the Summer 
of 1870, and was standing in an irregular clump 




>of apple trees, having the appearance of being 
the original seedling nursery, from which were 
raised the first apple trees planted out in 
•orchard form on the farm. However this may 
l)e, we confidently afSrm that this variety of 
apple is not as widely cultivated as it ought to 
be. To some tastes it is superior to its congener, 
the Pomme Grise. Certainly its flavor and 
'delicacy go far to recommend it. It, too, might 
appropriately enough l)e called leather-skin, 
•only it is of a lighter color than the Pomme 
•Grise ; sometimes with a blush on the cheek, 
•and sometimes not, oftener with none. Both 
"varieties are noble keepers, only fit for use in 
the Spring of the year. To those who have 
cultivated the varieties, and have plenty of them, 
it need not be said that they are as good for 
cooking as for dessert. Their dessert and cook- 
ing qualities are unexceptionable. The best 
mode, perhaps, to keep them is to store them in 
barrels, and only open when about to be used. 
'Their long-keeping qualities commend them to 
•dealers in fruit. We are not acquainted with 
any two other varieties more likely to give 
•satisfaction to fruit-growers than these. The F. 
G. A. of Ontario did well to disseminate the 
Swayzie Pomme Grise. It will rind its way 
wherever tried, and prove lasting comfort to the 

A Beautiful Turnip. — In the Paris market 
the writer of this saw a beautiful Yellow Turnip 
.introduced to public notice, chiefly through the 

•efforts of Messrs. Yilmorn, Andrieux «fc Co., the 
•distinguished seeflsmen of that eity, who kindly 

gave us the accompanying drawing of it. It was 
called the "Yellow Mont Magny." 

It appears to have been raised by some market 
gardener near Paris. The skin is of a pretty 
smooth and clear yellow at the base of the 
turnip, while the upper portion is of a violet- 
red. The flesh is of a clear yellow, and has the 
sweetness so characteristic of the yellow kinds, 
and which makes them grow so increasingl}' in 
public estimation. A very interesting feature in 
it is, the remarkably small knot of leaves at the 
top — a feature which the cook generally appre- 
ciates in a good turnip. As Messrs. Vilmorn 
have numerous correspondents among our seed- 
houses, it is quite likely to be in the trade for 
Fall sowing. 

The Crescent Seedling Strawberry. — 
We have accounts of this berry from New Jersey 
this year, and on the testimony of some uninter- 
ested friends wiiom we have engaged to examine 
the plants in bearing, we have no hesitation in 
giving it the aw^ard of very great superiority. Of 
so many new things of which we hear, few last 
over a year or two, before we find there is 
nothing in them. We believe this promises 
better than any we have heard of for a good 


Diseased Peach Leaf.— R., St. Joseph, Mo., 
says : "1 send the leaves of some Peach trees 
that are entirely out of shape. I notice it on 
several trees in this section of the country. 
Please tell us what is the cause of this, and the 
preventative or cure. We had a very early 
Spring, which brought everything out very 
quick ; then comes that snapping frost the first of 
May. I have attributed this as the cause, but of 
course will wait for your opinion, which will be 
of much importance to your readers of the 
Monthly in this section of the country." 

[The leaves are affected by a fungus, similar 
to that which induces the ordinary Peach blister. 
This form we have not seen before; Instead of 
the irregular blotches, as generally seen, the 
leaf is apparently drawn downwards, folding the 
surface in regular plaits like the slats of a 
Venetian blind. Send specimens to Prof. Far- 
low, at Cambridge, Mass., or W. H. Seaman, 
Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C, 
who pay especial attention to the Peach fungi. — 
Ed. G. M.l 




Profitable Cherries. — L., Pittsburg, Pa., 
writes: "I am thinking of setting out two 
hundred cherry trees for profit this Fall ; what 
.variety would you recommend me to use ?" 

[The only answer we can give, would be to 
note the kinds that sell best in the market in- 
tended for them. As a general rule, the Early 
Richmond is a very profitable cherry ; but if 
the people you propose to sell to want eating 
cherries, there will be little sale for these. 
Very few persons succeed at fruit-growing by 

going into it in a blind way. It generally grows 
by degrees, and in fact the market is seen, or 
the grower has some distinct idea of where and 
what will be wanted before he plants. Judging 
from your inquir}^ you will not make out mucU 
with your venture, and in kindness would sug- 
gest that you plant only twenty instead of two 
hundred the first year, and in the meantime look 
around and see what kinds are in demand in the 
places where you think you may sell, after you 
get the crop ready. — Ed. G. M.] 





In answer to yoxxx query with reference to 
Yellow and Black Locust, I would state that 
there are two varieties. The Yellow Locust is 
erect in growth, has very thin sap-wood, is very 
durable, and of smooth cleavage. A gate-post, 
set to my knowledge in 1801, is as sound to-day 
as a " trade dollar." 

Black Locust is irregular in growth, nearly as 
much so as Catalpa, is rough in cleavage, has 
darker wood, and is not so durable as the Yellow ; 
variety, and has thick sap wood even when ! 

Yellow Locust is harder and more durable, 
but not so tough as the Black variety. The 
difference does not arise from soil or situation, as 
both grow in the same groves here. I shall at 
an early day send you sections of wood from 
each, and in the meantime try to determine 
other specific differences. 


Tea Plants at Washin'gton. — The Fruit- 
tst and Florist says : Tea-plant bushes may be 
seen at the Agricultural Grounds also, which 
survive the winter almost like privet. We saw 
bushels of the tea-seed or nut there, grown and 
ripened in Georgia and South Carolina, a fact to 
be remembered. Mr. Wm. Saunders, the Super- 
intendent, has full faith in tea growing in the 
southern portions of this country. 

Expense of Preparing Tea.— It has been 
objected that the Tea-plant, though proved to 
do well in the climate of our Southern States, 

could not be prepared for a profit in this country, 
in competition with cheap Chinese labor. It is 
well known that the Canothus Americanus was 
extensively prepared as " Pennsylvania tea" a 
few years ago, and it is this which is referred to 
by the following correspondence of the Phila- 
delphia Press : 

" 1 noticed in a late issue of The Press an 
article relating to the culture of Chinese tea 
in America, and the only obstacle to a full 
competition would be the high price of labor in 
this country. You observed that Yankee 
ingenuity would soon obviate the necessit}'^ of 
hand labor in its manufacture. This is true, 
as the following narrative will demonstrate. 
A company was formed in this part of the 
State to manufacture tea from an indigenous 
plant growing spontaneously in our moun tarns. 
I was employed, with others, in its manufacture 
by hand at first, and subsequently by machinery. 
I am acquainted with every department of its 
manufacture, from the plucking of the leaves till 
prepared for the tea-pot. By hand, it will cost 
about twenty-five cents per pound ; by ma- 
cliinery, such as we used, it can be manufactured 
ready for market at about ten or twelve cents 
per pound. This includes the gathering of the 
leaves and all other expenses. There were ex- 
pended, I suppose, some S20,000 in different ma- 
chines before a successful one was obtained. It 
met every requirement, from the steaming of 
the green leaves till they were given that bloom 
and spiral shape so noticeable in foreign teas. I 
write this letter that you may still urge its cul- 
ture in America and bring to the notice of indi- 
viduals that there is no barrier to successful 
competition with any foreign nations. 

McElhattan, Pa. W. M. Q." 





Cherry Timber.— The English Furniture ! and the sliores of Lake Tahoe, but the young 

Dealer has this to say of Cherry timber : "The 
bark of the Cherry tree is so peculiar, as to 
render it distinguishable at first sight. The 

trees are growing up, and the forests are in no 
danger of decreasing in area, unless in Santa 
Cruz, and we believe not there ; while in the 

trunk is regularly shaped, but the bark is black- | valleys the planting of fruit, timber, and orna- 

di and rough, and detaches itself semi-circu 
larly, in thick narrow plates, which are renewed 
after a considerable lapse of time. The pei-fect 
wood of the American wild Cherry tree, is of a 
dull, light-red tint, which deepens with age. It 
is compact, fine-grained, and brilliant, and not 
liable to warp when perfectly seasoned. It is 
extensively employed for every species of furni- 
ture, and when chosen near the ramification of 
the trunk, it rivals Mahogany in beauty. Its 

mental trees is making gratifying progress. The 
irrigation ditches and reclamation dykes are ex- 
tending every year, and trees will go with them ; 
and we expect that in fifty years the economy of 
water will have made such advances that the 
Sacramento, San Joaquin and Salinas valleys 
will be as thickly settled with dwellings em- 
bowered among trees as are Napa, Sonoma, and 
Petaluma now, and the changes made for tlie 
better there within the last quarter of a century 

wood is generally preferred to the 131ack Walnut, I are little short of the marvelous, 
whose dun complexion with time becomes ; Yellow and Black Locust. Recently a 
nearly black. Among trees that grow east of ! correspondent inquired whether there was any 
the Mississippi, it is the best substitute for j difference between these two, and a correspond- 

Mahogany, audit is also useful for ship-building, 
and for the felloes of wheels. 

"The Wild Orange ti-ee, which is a species of 
Cherry tree, appears in North America to be 
nearly confined to the islands on the coast of the 
Carolinas, of Georgia, and of the Floridas. 
Except the margin of the sea, it is rarely found 
on the main land, even at the distance of eight 
or ten miles from the shore where the tempera- 
ture is five or six degrees colder in Winter, and 

ent we have gives further information . It is singu- 
lar that lumbermen often find differences, though 
botanists fail to see distinctions. We are often 
told of yellow and white Poplar among the Liri- 
odendrons, but botanists see no differences. Some- 
thing similar exists among some English timber 
trees. At a recent meeting of the Tloyal Horti- 
cultural Society Dr. Hogg showed a very inter- 
esting series of varieties of Hornbeam, Birch and 
Hazel, known to the woodmen of Sussex, but ap- 

proportionately milder in the Summer. The parently overlooked by botanists. The color of 
wood is rose-colored, and very fine grained, but, j the bark was different, the habit also, while for 

as this species is not extensively multiplied, it 
does not appear to be appropriated to any use, 
as other wood, in no respect inferior, can readily 
be 'obtained. The Red Cherry tree is common 
only in the Northern States, and in Canada. 
Its size places it among trees of the third oi'der. 
It rarely exceeds, and often does not equal 25 or 
30 feet in height, and (3 or « inches in diameter. 
The trunk is covered with a smooth brown bark, 
which detaches itself laterally ; the wood is fine- 
grained, and of a reddish hue; but the inferior 
size of the tree forbids its use in the mechanical 
arts. This species of Cherry tree offers the same 
remarkable peculiarity as the Canoe Birch, of 
producing itself spontaneously in cleared 
grounds, and in such parts of the forest as have 
been burnt." 

TijMker in California. — The Rural Press 
tells us that so far as the tree question is con- 
cerned, there is no cause for alarm ; the State is 
gaining more trees every year than it loses. 
The destruction of old trees is rapid in Mendo- 
cino, Humboldt, Santa Cruz, Western Sonoma. 

practical purposes the distinctions were even 
more important as variation in the degree of 
brittleness, toughness, &c., accompany the dif- 
ferences in color. The specimens exhibited were 
white and red Hazel, white and red Birch, white 
and red Hornbeam. The Hornbeam is called in 
the Weald of Sussex the Beech, and the red va- 
riety the Husbeech. The true Beech (Fagus) is 
distinguished as the "Timber Beech." The labor- 
ers never use the red Hornbeam or Husbeech for 
withes because of its brittleness. Dr. Hogg also 
showed twigs of Willow with galls produced b}' 
a species of cecidomyia. 

The Eucalyptus.— Some time since a Con- 
necticut correspondent wrote to us about his 
prospects in planting in Connecticut,coolly asking 
us to "send him a copy of our magazine contain- 
ing our reply." We answered his communication 
in the magazine, but did not "send the copy." 
AVe suppose that the gentleman did not profit 
by our advice, for we hear that some one is ar- 
ranging to plant it there extensively the coming 
Spring. We should hardly believe this, only we 




happen to know of a tree dealer who is anxiously 
looking up plants in all directions for a customer 
in that State. 

Report Upon Forestry— By Franklin B. 
Hough. From Hon. W. G. Le Due, Commis- 
sioner of Agriculture. In 1877 Congress ordered 
the Commissioner of Agriculture to " appomt 
some man of approved attainments, and practi- 
cally well acquainted with the methods of statisti- 
cal inquiry with a view of ascertaining the annual 
amount of consumption, importation and expor- 
tation of timber and other forest products, the 
probable supply for future wants, the means 
best adapted to the preservation and the renewal 
of forests ; the influence of forests upon climate, 
and the measures that have been successfully 
employed in various countries for the preserva- 
tion and restoration or planting of forests, and 
report." Dr. Hough was appointed, and this is 
the report of his first year's work. 

In many quarters regret has been expressed 
that some one was not appointed for this work 
who had an acquaintance with forest trees, and 
with the practical details of forest culture ; but 
the act of Congress called for simply one ac- 
quainted with the methods of statistical inquiry, 
and Dr. Hough is fully as competent for this 
work as any ong who could be selected. In this 
report he has industriously collected together an 
amount of material comprised in over 600 pages of 
what numbers have said of the Forestry question. 
With much of it every one interested in the subject 
is already acquainted. Emerson's report on the 
trees and shrubs of Mass. ; Curtis woody plants 
of North Carolina; the writings of Becqueral, 
Marsh, and other well-known authors are 
liberally drawn on. Newspaper paragraphs, 
extracts from public meetings and discussions, 
and an immense amount of items, good, bad and 
indifferent, have been gathered together from 
home and foreign sources ; and, which is especi- 
ally of great value to us, have been indexed and 
given to us here in a shape that is readily acces- 
sible. Granting that a Commissioner charged 
with a more original line of investigation would 
have been more valuable, still the work as it is 
is well worth all the money it has cost, and we 
hope the subject will still be continued by the 
Department. As the field to be covered is 
simply the collecting of all sorts of paragraphs 
and copying from all sorts of works, it would be 
well to suggest that the statistician confine him- 
self to this and not hazard guesses as to the botany 
of his timber trees. For instance, he tells us that 

the " Red Pine" of which the Mormon taberna- 
cle is built, is " understood to be the Pinus con- 
torta," and worse yet, that the " White Pine" of 
Utah, is " Abies Engelmanii(?)''^ If we cannot 
have a Forest Commissioner who is acquainted 
with American Forest and timber trees, it will 
at least be well that he avoid such blunders as 
these by letting the text he collects alone. It 
is best to let the timber go as Utah Red Pine 
and Utah White Pine, than to propagate such 
fearful errors as these. 

Aside from the value of the collection of 
opinions and facts here presented, the " mea- 
sures" recommended are fairly estimated, we 
think, by General Le Due in his presentation of 
the report to the House of Representatives : 
" While the information Dr. Hough has acquired 
has been extensive and in some cases exhaustive, 
— and while from the European worlds much 
may be learned — the differences that exist be- 
tween our own country and foreign countries in 
the ownership of lands, make it impracticable 
to appl}^ for the present, if ever, the systems of 
administration that prevails elsewhere." 

This has always been our view ; and yet we 
see Dr. Hough " is to make a personal inspection 
of European Forests," for which $6,000 is re- 
quested. AVe really believe that S6,000 spent 
by one acquainted with our own Forest products, 
among our own Forest trees, amongst our own 
Forest tree cultivators, and by one practically 
acquainted with Forestry work, and who has a 
knowledge of the principles of our Government' 
and what it ought and could and what it should 
not do, would be infinitely more profitable to us ; 
still we are not the less thankful to the Govern- 
ment and Dr. Hough for what they have given 
us. The whole proceeding is a step in the right 
direction. We have not got what we want — but 
we have the worth of all it has cost. 


Utilizing the Pine Tree.— T. C, 3221 
Chestnut St., Phila., says : — "Can you tell me 
through the Gardener's Monthly, whether you 
have notice of any work on the special culture 
and mode of utilizing the Pine tree?" 

[We do not know of any special work on this 
subject.— Ed. G. M.] 

The Agricultural Gkounds. — The Arbore- 
tum, at the Agricultural Grounds at Washington, 
just now is very interesting, the many hun- 
dreds of trees and shi-ubs being in nearly full 
foliage. Farmers who wish to identify or find a 




name for any new or curious tree or shrub, which 
they happen to find on their farms, can do so by 
a walk in the Arboretum. Those designing to 
ornament their lanes and grounds can here see 

every sort known in this zone ; and artists who 
wish to delineate any particular foliage can here 
find every specimen. — ¥ruit and Floral Maga- 

Natural History and Science. 




Mr. Riley exhibited certain seeds which pos- 
sessed a hidden power of jumping and moving 
about on the table. He stated that he had 
recently received them from Mr. G. W. Barnes, 
of San Diego, Cal., and that they were generally 
known by the name of Mexican Jumping Seeds. 
They are probably derived from a tricoccous 
euphorbiaceous plant. Each of the seeds meas- 
ures about one-third of an inch, and have two 
tiat sides, meeting at an obtuse angle, and a 
third broader, convex side, with a medial carina. 
If cut open, each is found to contain a single fat, 
whitish worm, which has eaten all the contents 
of the seed and lined the shell with a delicate 
carpet of silk. The worm very closely resem- 
bles the common Apple Worm (Carpocapsa po- 
monella ,and, indeed, is very closely related, the 
insect being known to science as Carpocapsa sal- 
titans. It was first recorded by Westwood in 
the Proceedings of the Ashmolean Society of 
Oxford, in 1857 (t. 3, pp. 137-8), and repeatedly 
referred to under the name of Carpocasap Dehai- 
siana in the Annales of the French Entomolog- 
ical Society for 1859. The egg of the moth is 
doubtless laid on the young pod which contains 
the three angular seeds, and the worm gnaws 
into the succulent seed, which, in after growth, 
closes up the minute hole of entrance, just as in 
the case of the common Pea "Weevil {Bruchus 
pisi). Toward the month of February the larva 
eats a circular hole through the hard shell of its 
habitation, and then closes it again with a little 
plug of silk so admirably adjusted the future 
moth, which will have no jaws to cut with, may 
escape from its prison. A slight cocoon is then 
spun within the seed, with a passage-way leading 
to the circular door ; and the hitherto restless 
larva assumes the quiescent pupa state. Shortly 
afterwards, the pupa works to the door, pushes 
it open, and the little moth osca^pes. When ripe, 
the shell is very light, and, as the worm occu- 
pies but about one-sixth the enclosed space, the 

I slightest motion will cause the seed to rock from 
one of the tlat sides to the other. But the seed 
I is often made to jerk and jump, and, though this 
I has been denied by many authors, Mr. Riley had 
■ had abundant proof of the fact, and had seen the 
seed jerked several lines forward at a bound, and 
raised a line or more from the surface on which 
it rested. If the seed be cut, the worm will soon 
cover up the hole with a transparent membrane 
of silk ; and if two of the opposite angles be cut, 
the movements of the worm can then be seen, if 
the seed be held against the light. It then be- 
comes evident that the jerking motion is con- 
veyed by the worm holding fast to the silken 
lining by its anal and four hind abdominal pro- 
legs, which have very strong hooks, and then 
drawing back the forebody, and tapping the 
wall of its cell with the head, sometimes thrown 
from side to side, but more often brought directly 
down as in the motion of a wood-pecker's head 
when tapping for insects. In drawing back 
the forebody the thoracic part swells, and 
the horny thoracic legs are withdrawn so 
as to assist the jaws in receiving the shock of 
the tap, which is very vigorous, and often given 
at the rate of two a second, and for twenty or 
more times without interruption. It is remark- 
able that this, of all the numerous seed-inhabiting 
Lepidopterous larva?, should possess so curious 
a habit. The seed will move for several months, 
because, as with most Tortricidous larvae, this 
one remains a long tune in the larva state after , 
coming to its growth and before pupating. 

Mr. Barnes gives the following account of the 
plant, received through Capt. Polhamus, of 
Yuma, A. T. It seems to be called both Yerba 
de jiecha and Colliguaja by the Mexicans : 

"Arrow-weed [Yerba de Jiecha].— This is the 
name the shrub bears that produces the triangu- 
lar seeds that during six or eight months have a 
continual jumping movement. The shrub is 
small, from four to six feet in height, branchy, 
and in the months of June and July yields the 
seeds, a pod containing three to five seeds. 
These seeds have each a little worm inside. 
The leaf of the plant is very similar to that of 




the 'Garambullo,' the only difference being in 
the size, this being a little larger. It is half an 
inch in length and a quarter of an inch in width, 
a little more or less. The bark of the shrub is 
ash-colored, and the leaf is perfectly green during 
all the seasons. By merely stirring coffee, or 
any drink, with a small branch of it, it acts as 
an active cathartic. Taken in large doses it is an 
active poLson, speedily causing death unless 
counteracted by an antidote." 

Mr. Riley stated that the seed of Tamariscus 
was known to be moved by a Coleopterous larva 
{Nanodes tamariaci) that fed within it; and he 
concluded I)y describing and exhibiting a still 
more wonderful jumping property in a seed-like 
body which may be observed in our own woods. 
It is a little spherical seed-like gall produced in 
large lumibers on the underside of tlie Post and 
other oaks of the White Oak group. This gall 
drops in large quantities to the ground, and the 
insect withui can make it bound twenty time.s 
its own length, the ground under an infested tree 
being sometimes fairly alive with the mysterious 
moving bodies. The noise made often resem- 
bles the pattering of rain. The motion is im- 
parted by the insect in the pupa and not in the 
larva state. He presented the following descrip- 
tion of the gall, which may be known by the 
name of Quercus saliatorious, the black fly which 
issues from it having been described as Cynips 
saltatorious by Mr. H. Edwards, of San Francis- 
co, addressed to the Academy of Sciences, St. 
Louis, Dec. 6th, 1877. 

Gall of Cynips saltatorius. — Formed in 
summer on the underside of the leaves of Quer- 
cus obtusiloba^ Q. macrocarpa, and Q. alba, often 
to the number of 1,000 on a single leaf: each 
gall inserted in a deep cavity which causes, on 
the upper surface, a bulging of a straw-yellow 
color, irregularly sub-conical, with the top liat- 
tened or concave, and vvith a minute central 
nipple, sometimes obsolete ; the galls becoming 
detached and falling to the ground in autumn, 
leaving a pale, fulvous, circular disc at the bot- 
tom of the; cavity. The gall has an average 
diameter of 1 mm., and the color and 
general appearance of a miniature acorn — 
the base being paler than the sides and conically 
produced to the central point of attachment. 
The apical portion is slightly constricted into a 
deep purple-l)rown rim, and the top within this 
rim is flat, with a small central nipple. 

Received at different times from. M. W. Har- 
rington, of Ann Arbor, Mich. : from Irviu Arm- 

I strong, of Vevay, Ind. ; from N. B. Baldwin, of 
Elgin, Ills., and from Wm. R. Howard, of For- 
syth, Mo.; also sufficiently common in St. Louis 


The Philosophy of a Fruitful Straw- 
j BERRY. — Every one knows that some strawber- 
ries bear more abundantly than others ; but few 
could give any intelligent reason why. The 
leading reason is, the capacity of a plant to stool 
or make crowns. Wlien a strawberry plant goes 
I to rest in the Fall, it generally seems content with 
I one good terminal eye ; but some varieties will 
i make half a dozen or more. These multiplied 
i eyes seldom make good, strong stalks, throwing 
i the fruit well up from the ground, but have 
I generally a number of smaller ones. 
I The Crescent seems one of this class, as we judge 
I by a plant sent us by Mr. Ezi-a Stokes. Mr. S. 
i says it is a last year's plant. It had ten of these 
j sub-crowns on it, and the first crop was in propor- 
I tion. This is why it is such an abundant bearer. 
I Of course, the reason why these crowns are so 
1 multipled is another question ; but we generally 
1 have to go down a good many steps to get to 
j the bottom of the well in which truth lies. It 
I is a gain when we have successfully made one. 

j Geraniums and Snakes.— We take the fol- 
! lowing from an exchange, but it would be worth 
j while enquiring how far away the snakes are 
! driven ? We have certainly seen the garter snake 
j within flfty feet of a Geranium bed : 

" We lately read an account of a mining 
locality in Calaveras county being infested with 
snakes. In this connection we may observe that 
the report is that every species of snake may be 
permanently driven away from an infested place 
by planting Geraniums. In South Africa the 
Caffir people thus rid their premises of snakes. 
I A missionary of South Africa had his parsonage 
j surrounded by a narrow belt of Geraniums, 
; which effectually protected the residence from 
I any kind of snake. A few yards away from this 
j Geranium belt a snake would occasionally be 
found. It is well known that the whole Gera- 
nium genus is highly redolent of volatile oils — 
lemon-scented, musk-scented, and peppermint- 
scented. What, therefore, is a very pleasant 
; nose-gay for man is repugnant to the serpent 
j tribe." 
1 It is hardly safe to take newspaper reports for 




pure science. How often, for instance, have we 
been told tiiat the honey-bee in California never 
stores honey, and there have been no end to 
pretty theories " to account for the fact," built 
on this report ; yet we find the following quiet 
paragraph in a recent California paper : 

" Immense stores of honey were recently 
found in the fissures of the rocks in the mountain 
regions in California, by the workmen engaged 
in blasting a roadway for the Southern Pacific 

And we see by it that the story that bees do 
not stow away honey in California is all fudge. 


Fruiting of Wistaria sinensis. — This little 
matter seems to have created considerable 
interest. We are glad to have the following 
-corroborative experiences that it is not till the 
vegetative forces have, in a measure, exhausted 
ithemselves. that the reproductive follows and 
fruit results. We have never known of a Wis- 
taria fruiting while actively engaged in twining. 
Only when some branches find nothing to cling 
to, do they seem to think it time to think about 
seeding. Of course it makes no difference 
whether these branches hang from a horizontal 
iron rod or from a self-supporting stem. Branches 
flower when actively engaged in twining ; that 
is, when these branches are supported, and it 
•would be interesting to know from our corres- 
jpondents if any have ever been known to seed, 
and if they have, whether or not some accidental 
■circumstance, such as an injury to its bark, 
which interfered with the vegetative force pro- 
duced it ? 

in the meantime, we are glad to have these 
confirmatory notes from our friends. The first 
iis from Prof. Beal : 

" Friend B. W. Steere : Thomas Meehan 
says that Chinese Wistaria, when supported, 
grows amazingly, but is seedless. On the con- 
trary, the self-supporting so-called 'Tree Wis- 
tarias produce seeds abundantly, «&c. What do 
you say? I remember collecting seeds from 
a vine on j'our house. Please write a sentence 
or two on this sheet anywhere, in pencil or 
otherwise, and return. W. J. Beal, 

Agr'l Col., Lansing, Mich." 

B. W. Steere is an old reliable nurseryman of 

"W. J. Beal, Est. Friend: Our Wistaria, 
which runs up a column of the verandah and 
along an iron rod, &c., in all 20 or ;^0 feet, has 
borne seed abundantly for many years ; though 
my recollection now is, that it did not seed 
much, if any, for several years at first. Hence, 
I conclude that mature age has more to do with 
it than the manner of pruning or training. I 
have had no experience in training it tree-fashion 
but am unable to see why that course should 
cause it to seed more freely. If the question 
has any bearing on its propagation, I should say 
the less seed the better, as the pods are not 
ornamental, and it roots very easily from layers. 
Very truly, B. AV. Steere, Adrian, Mich." 

The next is from Mr. W. C. Strong, of Brigh- 
ton, Mass. : 

"Your suggestion, as communicated to the 
Gardener's Magazine, that the luxuriant vege - 
tative growth of this vine when supported upon a 
trellis is the cause of its barrenness, is suggestive 
and worthy of consideration. It certainly seems 
reasonable to suppose that the self-supporting 
tree-form of training would check over-luxuri- 
ance of growth, and give free circulation of light 
and air, thus tending to fruitfulness. But I 
should like to inquire how extensive are the ob- 
servations in regard to fruitfulness in different 
positions? I suppose we are agreed in the 
opinion that this vine, as ordinarily trained to 
porches and buildings, is profusely free-flowering, 
but rarely fruitful. Yet I know a vine in New- 
ton, Mass., trained to a porch and luxuriant in 
growth, which gives an annual crop of about a 
peck of pods. Now, I would ask if instances of 
fruitfulness are numerous when trained in the 
tree-form ? Not having observed such instances, 
I had concluded that we were to regard this as a 
peculiarity of certain seedlings. It is well- 
known that many seedlings set their fruit much 
more profusely than others, c. g"., the Vicar 
Pear much more than the Duchesse d' Angouleme. 
Those which are decidedly shy in setting fruit, 
although profuse in flowering, are rare excep- 
tions, among which as conspicuous examples 
may be mentioned the Wistaria sinensis and the 
Pyrus japonica. And I have thought that this 
peculiarity tended to its own perpetuation. We 
are forced to propagate this peculiarity by layers 
and cuttings and roots. Seeds by which to ob- 
tain new and fruitful varieties are not to be 
found, and hence we multiply the individual 
variety bji artificial methods and confirm all its 




peculiarities. The Dix Pear will be shy in 
fruiting, however treated, until the end of time. 
But a seedling from it may rival the BufFum in 
productiveness. I now recall your inquiry made 
several 3'ears ago, Mr. Editor, where I obtained 
my Pyrus japonica seed. My reply is, that I 
have a seedling Pyrus which fruits abundantly, 
giving two or three bushels of fruit annually. 
Doubtless you and your readers have observed 
that some varieties of Pyrus j. are moderately 
fruitful, but I think this instance of regular 
futility is marked, and not dependent upon 
position or mode of training. But we shall agree, 
of course, that position and training may greatly 
affect the vigor and productiveness of all fruits, i 
My point is to recognize individual peculiarities, 
so far as they may be traced.'" 

Endurance of Seeds of Tender Things. 
— Nothing IS more interesting in botanical gar- 
dening than the fact that some plants, which ; 
will be destroyed by the first white frost, will ; 
resist extreme degrees of cold. T. D. R., Phila- 
delphia, contributes the following in relation to 
this : This Spring the following plants came ' 
up from self-sown seed exposed all winter. I 
do not know whether this is unusual, but you I 
cannot expect to get wheat without chaff: j 
Castor Oil, Balloon Vine, Four O'clock." j 

Abnormal Growth of a Potato.— H. C. ; 
Y., 3502 Spring Garden street, Philadelphia,! 
sends us an old Potato with a new one growing i 
in the middle of it from "a number of similar i 
instances in his cellar." Though rare, it is occa- 
sionally seen. The "sprout" of the potato has 
simply taken a turn in towards the center, 
instead of out and away as is usual. On cutting 
this open the thread connecting the young tuber 
with the outside was very well shown. 

Japan wrapping, around Lily Bulbs.— 
T. S., Brooklyn, writes: "There was lately in 
New York a sale of imported Japan Lilies, such 
as Auratum, Krameri, &c. These bulbs on 
opening the cases were packed, not in sawdust 
as usual, but in a coating of what I took to be 
clay, cow-dung and a something which kept 
them as sound as if they had just been packed. 
In order to ascertain what that stuff really is, 
I send you with this some of it in a little tin box, 
and would be pleased if you could have it 
analyzed and tell your readers the parts of com- 
position, and if you consider it good for shipping 
Lilies and such like bulbs. Cue of my Califor- 

nia friends asks me how I thought he could 
pack best his Lilium pardalinum, and your an- 
swer to the above will not only oblige him, but 
many of your readers who ship or send bulbs for 
long distances. About Trilliums, he thinks it 
would be best to have them matured, and then 
ship them dry ; while my theory is, to take the 
bulbs up when and where found, transplant 
them in the garden and ship them in Fall,, 
when they show signs of fresh starting, say end 
of September. About Rhododendron occiden- 
tilis, he says : 'I now believe that every piece of 
the crown with a shoot or stem will grow, if 
shipped perfectly dry, in a dormant state, from 
November to February. A number of the 
shoots I put in the ground when I set out the 
R.'s here started leaf butls, but I find no roots 
on those I have examined as yet.' If you con- 
sider the answering of these questions of general 
interest, I would like you to mention them in 
your paper." 

[We have taken pains to examine the coating 
carefully, and find it is nothing but manure of 
some herbivorous animals and clay, very finely 
worked up together ; just the sort of stuff, in 
essence, as our forefathers used for grafting 
before wax compositions came into general use. 
—Ed. G. M.] 

Remedy for the Colorado Potato 
Beetle. — A Philadelphia correspondent writes : 
"The Potato bug has again begun its ravages. 
Cannot the Academy of Natural Sciences inves- 
tigate its habits and devise some cheap and sure 
remedy? A soapy compound of crude petro- 
leum might answer. A strong decoction of 
Tobacco stems has no effect — I have tried it. It 
is a very important matter, and well worthy of 
your notice." 

[There is really nothing needed beyond Paris 
green. In the writer's own experience, it is 
mixed with very fine ashes, in the proportion of 
twenty to one. A Tomato-can with holes in the 
bottom like a grater, Avith the cover on the top 
and a long pole to keep it from the operator, is 
all the machine. An acre can be dusted in a 
few hours at a trifling expense. The writer's 
crop SAvarmedwith the vermin as soon as the 
plants were above ground. The dose has been 
twice applied. At this writing (June 15th) it is 
impossible to see a more promising looking lot of 
plants. It is a poison, of course, but in careful 
hands there need be no more trouble with it than 
with gun-powder or lucifer matches.— Ed. G. M.] 




Literature, Travels i Personal Notes. 




It i.s difficult for one whose winters have always 
been spent in a northern clime to realize that these 
glorious, balmy days are December and January. 
In front of the large open veranda upon which I 
write, is a large orange tree loaded with ripen- 
ing fruit and just bursting into blossom. Nearer, 
a huge Calabush tree, Crescentea Gvjete, hangs 
full of the immense green fruit, showing most 
conclusively that thoush nature has placed the 
pumpkin on the groimd, and the acorn on the 
tree, it was not from ignoi-ance how to suspend 
the pumpkin. Plants that with us are purely 
greenhouse specimens, here grow into great 
bushes, and are covered with a wealth of flowers. 
One of the surest ways of becoming familiar 
with the fruits of a country is to visit the markets. 
Here (in Para) the market opens at day-light ; 
so immediately after cotifee we walked to the 
lower market, a long, low, ambling structure, 
and not especially clean ; but the display was 
most interesting. Although not the season of 
fruit, there w^as no lack, and great piles of 
oranges, baskets of limes, bananas, such as one 
never sees out of the tropics, and many other 
fruits left us in doubt which to try flrst. 

The oranges are of medium size, generally 
dark colored or greenish, very sweet and very 
cheap ; a few cents will buy a basketfull. To 
those who have tasted oranges fresh from the 
tree no words of description are necessary ; to 
those who have not, no words will convey an 
idea. The banana probably suffers less from 
transportation than any other tropical fruit, but 
there is a delicate flavor to those ripened under 
a tropical sun which those we get in temperate 
zones never attain. There were many varieties, 
generally yellow, though the large red were not 
uncommon, and there were many of the long 
slender yellow, but the greater proportion were 
very small varieties, about as long as the middle 
finger, and deliciously sAveet and melting. The 
limes, Citrus limetia, were small, round, bright 
yellow, and very fragrant ; strange to say lemons 
are not grown ; I have not seen one in Brazil ; 
I was told that the climate was too hot, but can 
hardly believe it. Leaving the market we 
walked along the quay, shaded by a magnificent 
line of palms (Oreodoxa regia) and passed the 

custoni house, witliin a stone's throw of which 
we found large clumps of the showy orange milk- 
weed (Asclepius curassavica) which we grow in 
greenhouses. In a narrow ditch near at hand a. 
light purple Pontederia was in full bloom, and 
some tall Colocasias had a showy, but ill-smell- 
ing white flowers. A few steps further there was 
plenty of a beautiful white Pancratium or more 
properly Hymenocallis, a tangle of light purple 
Lantana, and a wilderness of strong growing 
Convolvulus with a light purple flower. The tall 
Assai palms (Euterpe caulis) are very beautiful, 
and the strinos of purple fruit very ornamental.. 
This fruit, which we saw in great quanties in the 
market, is about the size of a marble ; when ripe 
the purple pulp is rubbed off of the seed in water, 
is sweetened and drank as a beverage or taken 
with farina. In appearance it resembles elder- 
berry tea ; to most tastes it is not at first agree- 
able, but one soon learns to like it. Some (all 
fences were a mass of bright scarlet cypi-ess 
vines (Quamoclit coccinea) the air was heavy 
with the fragrance of masses of jasmine (Jasmi- 
num Sambac). Castor oil beans (Ricinus) grew 
into trees and orange Lantanas formed huge 
bushes. * * * 

We visited the old Botanic Garden, which has 
for years been neglected and allowed to grow to 
a mass of foliage. There were many large 
palms, but all Brazilian species ; a hedge of the 
pink and white Clerodendron in full bloom and 
scenting the air ; Cape Jasmines (Gardenia), 
and Taberna?montana coronaria, large enough 
to sit under. A large pond was full of 
Pontederia crassipes in full bloom, the tall 
spikes of light purple flowers are very orna- 

All through the garden and by the road sides, 
Caladiums in many varieties, with bright leaves, 
w^ere w^eeds. 

There were tall PapaAv trees (Carica citri- 
formis) full of yellow fruit which is edible, but 
insipid. It is called by the Brazilians, "Mamma 
or Papa," as the plant is dioeious. There was 
also a tall tree of Plumiera rubra in abundant 
bloom. * * * * 

On a second visit to the market we found a 
I most meagre display of vegetables ; tomatoes 
j about the size of a large walnut, a few small 
I turnips, cabbage leaves, for in the tropics cab- 
! bage does not head ; onions, little bunches of" 
Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) and a profusion 




of small bright, various colored, peppers. There 
were large. bunches of Purslane which is used as 
a salad ; but even this, with us, pestiferous weed, 
does not here grow with the luxuriance vvhich so 
annoy us in our nortliern gardens. 

There were large quanties of Sesuviuni pertu- 
lacastruni covered with purplish tlowers, which 
seemed to be in great demand as a pot-herb. Of 
the squash family, which 1 expected to find well 
represented, these was only a small, crooked, 
rich S(|uash, and a heap of little yellow pump- 
kins. There were musk and watermelons, but 
very poor, such as in Boston would not be thought 
fit to bring to market. They are very inferior 
in fiavor, but are considered great delicacies. 

Large baskets of shrimps, both alive and ' 
cooked, seemed to meet with ready sale ; long | 
strings of a small, dark colored turtle were ; 
waiting for the epicures of Para ; negroes were ' 
buying very unpleasant looking fish ; and in one ; 
stall a huge alligator was being cut into sections i 
to suit customers. ! 

Tlie fruit market was most attractive; oranges, 
limes, and bananas, in any quantity ; huge piles | 
of Plantains (Musa paradisiaca) which, although 
palatable and often eaten raw, is far better \ 
cooked, and is prepared in many ways, all good ; * 
and bright fruits of various palms, including | 
huge baskets of Assai. '' 

Mangoes (Mangiferalndica) were seen at every \ 
stand, but they are not a popular fruit, having 
the reputation of causing fever, and a taste for 
them must be acquired, as the fiavor of sweet 
resin or turpentine is not at first pleasant. The 
fruit of the cocoa (Theobroma cacoa), the seeds I 
of vvhich form the cocoa of commerce, is seen in \ 
considerable quantites ; it is orange colored, 
pentagonal, about nine inches long, and contains '• 
numerous seeds, bedded in a white pulp : from \ 
this pulp, mixed with water, an agreeable acid! 
drink is prepared. Pineapples were delicious, | 
the whole pulp melts away in the mouth, and { 
one's only regret is that frequent indulgence in | 
pineapples is not considered prudent. Little j 
heaps of Sapodilla, S. achras, and of S. mam- 1 
mosa, more properly Lucuma, attracted my at- i 
tention, but I was unable to discover an edible ' 
quality to