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u< OU_1 60778 





Habeo opus magnum in manibus 



Vol. I. February 1927 
Vol. II. February 1928 
Vol. III. January 1929 
Vol. IV. January 1930 

(All rig his reserved) 

Printed in Great Britain by 


IN response to requests from various sources we have again altered 
the arrangement of contents. Matters of permanent interest in 
tabular form are collected at the beginning. Miscellaneous articles 
and cultural articles, with appendices complete Part I. All 
chronological and reference matter, directories, etc., will be found 
together in Part II. A tree, as it grows, needs training and' pruning; 
so with a Year Book. The ideal reference book does not change 
the arrangement of its subject-matter, and with our fourth issue 
we trust that a finally satisfactory arrangement has, through 
experience, been reached. 

The suggestion of Mr. Taylor, Hort. Com., Ministry of Agricul- 
ture, that we should include reports from experimental stations 
last year, proved of such practical interest that we hope to make 
it a yearly feature. Many people are still unaware of the mass 
of horticultural investigations in progress, and it is hoped that these 
abbreviated accounts of the work being done may not only be 
helpful to many, but arouse among a wider public increased interest 
in this work of national and imperial importance. 

While the Editor takes general responsibility for the Year 
Book contents, the papers by contributors may express individual 

As in a book of this kind it is desirable to have a uniform 
standard of spelling, the rule adopted has been mainly to follow 
the Index, Kewensis and Johnson's Gardeners' Dictionary. 

The colour question is a difficulty. Undoubtedly it adds to the 
value and interest of lists of flowers if the colours in every case 
are given. When possible the general colour is noted, but apart 
from the point of space, necessarily limited, the same flower will 
be found sometimes in half a dozen catalogues with varying 
descriptions of its colour. To take a concrete example, the 
National Sweet Pea Society classed Mary Pickford "cream-pink 
(pale)/' the Scottish National Sweet Pea and Rose Society classified 
it as "cream-pink (deep)." 

We can only make the Year Book what we wish it to be, and 
what it ought to be, by the kindly help and co-operation of all who 
take any interest in gardens and the very many subjects that are 
connected with horticulture in all its branches. It could never have 
been attempted had we not received the greatest help and encourage- 
ment from the Ministry of Agriculture, the authorities at Kew, 



the Royal Horticultural Society, the National Rose Society, the 
National Gardens Guild, and others. 

We have again to record our gratitude and our thanks for 
generous help to the Ministry of Agriculture, the R.H.S., to The 
Gardeners' Chronicle, Mr. F. Kingdon Ward, Messrs. Williams & Nor- 
gate, Messrs. Martin Hopkinson, and Mr. W. E. Shewell-Cooper for 
permission to use blocks for illustrations; to the Bishop of Gloucester, 
Mr. Lionel de Rothschild, Prof. E. J. Salisbury, Prof. Patrick 
Abercrombie, Major Vaughan Wardell, Mr. H. C. Long, the Editor 
of the Journal of the Ministry of Agriculture, Dr. Kate Barrett, 
Principal of Swanley Horticultural College, Mr. W. B. Cranfield, 
B. Hunt, A. W. Silver, Mr. Geoffrey Roper, Mrs. Rawnsley, Mrs. 
Ailhusen, Lady St. John, Mrs. Wardell, Mrs. Howard Vyse, V. 
Sackville West, M. M. Sydenham, Miss Pearson, Mr. Kingdon 
Ward, Mr. W. E. Shewell-Cooper, Mr. Gordon W. Gibson, Mr. E. 
Speyer, Mr. C. J. Gleed, Mr. A. Edwards, Mr. B. Cant, Mr. Stuart 
Boardman, Mr. Richard Suclcll, for reviews, articles, photographs, 
and miscellaneous help; also to all the Secretaries of Institutes 
and Societies who have sent information about their work. 

We shall continue to welcome any help for future issues in the 
way of suggestions likely to be helpful, corrections to keep our 
matter up-to-date, or fresh information. 


December 31, 1929. 


FORDE ABBEY Frontispiece 




























GARDENS Dove Cottage, by Mrs. Rawnslcy. Forde Abbey, by 

Geoffrey Roper 33 























GARDEN ENEMIES: Some Diseases and Pests of Bulbs, by 

Gordon W. Gibson; Control of the Greenhouse White-Fly, 

by Edward R. Speyer; Slugs, and Their Control, by Herbert 

W. Miles; Some Pests and Remedies 90 

















WISLEY TRIALS [1921-8] 229 


OBITUARY, 1929 236 










ABBREVIATIONS . . . 1-2, 201 
ALLOTMENTS . 135, 138, 142, 147, 149 

APHIDES 99-102 

BEES 133, 174, 230 

BIRDS 112-13 



BULBS 135, 142, 144 


BULB PLANTING . . . . u 

IRISES 19-20 



ING 25 


137, 142, 154 


MIDGE 102 


ROSES 62-3 

C.O.D 232 

COMPOSTS . . .65, 68, 71, 118-19 
CROQUET COURT . . . .123 


See also NARCISSUS. 

DAHLIA DISEASE . . . .103 
BY SIGHT-SEERS . 133-4, 141, 148 
DESIGN, GARDEN .... 41-3 
DISEASES . 67, 69, 70, 71, 79, 149, 165, 
166, 167, 173 






. 69-70, 91 

. 103, 231 
. 47-50, 70 
136, 272-3 






FORDE ABBEY .... 37-4O 


FRUIT . . 137, 138, 139, 150, 152, 153, 

164, 165, 167-70, 171* 177, 

225-6, 229, 232 

APPLES 85, 86 

BLACK CURRANTS . . 138, 231 


PLUMS 85, 86 

STRAWBERRIES . 133, 164, 177, 231 



FUNGUS . . .67, 68, 79, 90, 91 

GARDEN DESIGN .... 41-3 
GARDEN ENEMIES . . . 90-108 


GARDEN WASTE .... 120 

DOVE COTTAGE .... 33-7 
FORDE ABBEY . . . 37-4<> 

ROCK 44-6 

TOWN 113 

WALL 46 

WINDOW .... 59-6i 
GLADIOLUS . . 69-71, 90, 91, 135 


INSECTICIDES . 166, 171, 173-4, 175 


IRISES 19-20 

DISEASES . . . . 91, 92 

158-9, 160-3 

LAWNS 166, 178 




LIME 120 



LITTER 133, 134 

LORETTE PRUNING . . . 83-6, 176 

MANURES 119-20 

MARKETING OF PRODUCE 138, 140, 143, 
144, i55, 156 







201-228, 329 

OBITUARY'. . . . 236-9,329 
ORCHIDS . 28, 140, 142, 220-5, 239 
PEST PARASITES . . . 93-6, 108 
PESTS 67, 77, 79, 9<>, 99, *66, 230-1, 234 

REMEDIES FOR . . . 99-108 
PLANT ECOLOGY . . . 47-50 
PLANT NAMES .... 114-17 




BY 134, 145 


SIDE . . 28-32, 134, 135, 143-7 

PRUNING 21-4, 86 

LORETTE'S SYSTEM . . 83-6, 176 
RAMBLER ROSES .... 62-3 
RATS 108, 231 


DANYSZ VIRUS FOR . . 105, 108 

RECIPES . . . .67, 71, 79, 90 



HARDY 72-5 


FOR BEGINNERS .... 44-6 
ROSES .... 138, 143, 145, 147 






ROSES continued. 


SCHOLARSHIPS 76, 258, 259, 261, 272, 273 



SLUGS 96-8 


SOILS 118-19, *75 









TOWN GARDENS . . . .113 

TREES 134, 135-6, 138, 139, 140, 141, 

142, 143, 145, 146, 147, 148, 

153, 154, 155, 232, 235, 3io 

FOLKLORE OF .... 51-4 

GOOD TURNS TO .... 32 




ROSES 157 


WISLEY 229, 329 

TULIP DISEASES . . .90, 91, 93 

VEGETABLES . 133, 138, 139, 140, 152, 

165-6, 171, 173, 226-8, 229, 235 

BROCCOLI . . 171-2, 177, 178 


CELERY 143, 166 


POTATOES 136, 137, 138, 139, 141, 

144, 148, 149, 152, I5H, 154, 

155, 156, 165, 166, 173, 230, 

231, 232-4, 235 


WAYSIDE 231-2 

TREES FOR .... 54, 232 
WEFDS . . 48, 109-11, 154, 191 
WILD FLOWERS 28-9, 32-47, 48, 49, 230 
PLANTS FOR .... 59-61 

IN 1930 329 





A. = Annual. 

A.Brier= (Roses) Austrian Brier. 

aff.= affinity. 

A.G.M. = Award of Garden Merit 

(Wisley Trials). 
Alp. = Alpine. 
A.M. = Award of Merit. 
ang.= angular. 
aq.= aquatic. 
axill.= axillary. 
Ayr. = (Roses) Ayrshire. 

B. = Biennial. 

B. = (Roses) Bourbon. 

b. = (colour) blue. 
Bh. = Bush. 

bk. = (colour) black. 

bks.= banks. 

blk. (colour) black. 

Bour. = (Roses) Bourbon. 

br. = (colour) brown. 


C. = Commended. 

C. = (Roses) China. 

c. = (colour) cream, 
calc. == calcareous. 
C-h. = Cool house. 
ch. = chalk. 

cl. = climber. 

Cl. Bour. = (Roses) Climbing Bour- 

cop. = copse. 
Cor. Corolla. 
cr.= creeper. 

D. = (Roses) Damask, 
decid. = deciduous, 
decumb. = decumbent. 
dit.= ditch. 

dp. damp. 
ent.=s entire, 
f. =form. 

F.L,S. = Fellow Linnean Society. 
fl.= flower. plena= double blos- 

fol.= foliage. 
F.R.H.S.=Fellow Royal 

cultural Society. 
Gall. = (Roses) Gallica. 
g. = (colour) green. 
glab.== glabrous. 
glauc. = glaucous. 


H. = herbaceous. 

H. A. = Hardy Annual. 

H.B. = Hardy Biennial. 

H.B. = (Roses) Hybrid Bourbon. 

H. Brae. == (Roses) Hybrid Brac- 

H. Bour. = (Roses) Hybrid Bour- 


H.Brier= (Roses) Hybrid Brier 
H.C. = Highly Commended . 
herb. = herbaceous. 
H.H. = Half Hardy. 
H.H.A. = Half Hardy Annual. 
H.Musk. (Roses) Hybrid Musk. 
H.N. = (Roses) Hybrid Noisette. 
H. of sp. = Hybrid of species. 
Hort. = Horticultural, 
H. P. = Hardy Perennial. 
H. P. = (Roses) Hybrid Perpetual. 
H. rug. = (Roses) Hybrid rugosa. 
H.T. = (Roses) Hybrid Tea. 
I. -h. = Intermediate house. 
imbric. = imbricated. 
int. = introduced. 
L. or l.=Leaf. 
1. = (colour) lilac. 
m. = (colour) magenta. 
marg. = mar gin. 
min. = miniature. 
Min.Prov. = (Roses) Miniature Pro- 


mult. ramb. = (Roses) multiflora 
rambler, climbing polyantha. 
mu It. scan. == multiflora scandens. 
N. = (Roses) Noisette. 


nat.= native. 

Nat. ord.= Natural order. 

N.D.H.= National Diploma in 


N.R.S.=National Rose Society. 
o. = (colour) orange. 
Ord.= Order, 
orn. = ornamental, 
p. = (colour) purple. 
P. aa Perennial. 
Pern.=(Roses) Pernetiana. 
Perp.Moss = (Roses) Perpetual 

Perp. Scotch = (Roses) Perpetual 



poly. pom. = (Roses) Dwarf Poly- 
antha or pompon. 

Prov. = (Roses) Provence. 

pu. = (colour) purple. 

R.=Rock garden plant. 

r. = (colour) red. 

ramb.=*(Roses) rambler. 

R.G.=Rock Garden. 

R.H.S.=Royal Horticultural So- 

riv.= river. 


rug. (Roses) rugosa. 

S.= Shrub. 

s.= (colour) silver. 

s-aq. = semi-aquatic. 

S. Brier = (Roses) Sweet Brier. 

sc.= scented. 

seg.= segment. 

sep.= sepal. 

sh. = shrubby. 

sha.= shade. 

shb.= shrubby. 

Shb.= Shrubbery. 

si. = (colour) silvery. 

S.H.P. = (Roses) Single - flowered 

S.H.T. (Roses) Single-flowered 


Sp.= Species. 
sp. = (after genetic name) species 

spp.= ditto, plural, 
st. = stove, 
st. = stem. 

S.T. = (Roses) Single-flowered Tea. 
sta. = stamen. 
stig.= stigma. 
syn.= synonym. 
T. = (Roses) Tea. 

Temp. = Temperature, 
ten. = tender, 
tend. = tendril. 
v.= (colour) violet, 
v. or var.= variety. 
VJVlH.=Victoria Medal of 


w. = (colour) white. 
wds.= woods. 

Wich. = (Roses) wichuraiana. 
Wich. pom. = (Roses) wichuariana 


W.R.A. = Wisley Rose Award. 
y. = (colour) yellow. 


NOTE. Dates for garden operations are approximate only, and 
must be considered dependent on weather, soil, and locality (earlier 
in warm and sheltered districts). 


GENERAL WORK. Seeds and implements needed for the year 
should be ordered as early as possible. In open weather trench 
any vacant ground. Get as much planting done as possible. Clean 
turf, edgings, and walks. Collect leaves for leaf-mould and hot-beds. 
In bad weather clean up where possible, put tools in order, wash 
pots, prepare sticks, labels, and composts. Remove and burn dead 
wood and rubbish. FLOWER GARDEN. Renovating a lawn may 
be done now. Rake thoroughly, then dress with finely sifted mix- 
ture of manure, loam, or old potting soil, charred garden refuse 
and soot, three or four barrowfuls per square rod. Dig over and 
manure beds when weather permits. Clear away dead growths 
and all litter. Divide and replant herbaceous stuff as required. 
Climbers (except roses) on walls and pergolas may be trained ; first 
cut out dead wood and weak or crowded shoots. In the shrubbery 
cut out dead wood, overcrowded branches, etc. Protect tender 
subjects with fern, evergreen branches, ashes, or mats, and cover 
roots with litter. After snowfall shake snow from evergreens. 
VEGETABLE GARDEN. Finish digging, to allow frost and weather to 
work the soil before spring planting. Sow: Broad Beans. 
Plant: Shallots. Early Potatoes (under a south wall) [South]. 
ORCHARD. Finish pruning and burn primings. Clean wall fruit 
trees, examine and renew trees, top-dress roots. Examine grease- 
bands and renew where required. Spray. Finish tar spraying. 
Prepare ground for planting. Plant fruit trees. Examine stakes 
and replace where needed. FRAMES AND PITS. Ventilate when 
weather permits. Keep bedding plants as dry as possible, cover 
with mats during frost. Plant for forcing : Asparagus crowns, 
early Potatoes, Rhubarb, Seakale (with light excluded). Sow : 
Early Carrots, Cauliflower, Kidney Beans (in pots or boxes), Onions, 
Lettuce, Mustard and Cress, Radishes. GLASS-HOUSES. Keep clean 
and free from blight. Water with care when needed early in the day. 
Give air when possible. Take cuttings of Carnations, Chrysanthe- 
mums, etc. Top-dress Cucumbers. Sow: Alonsoa, Begonias, 
Clarkia, Collinsia, Gloxinias, Helipterum, Ipomoea, Meconopsis, 
Mignonette, Nemesia, Primulas, Schizanthus, Sweet Peas, Cucum- 
bers, French Beans. 



GENERAL WORK. Weed and roll paths. Attend to drains. 
Finish digging and trenching ground for crops. Press plants lifted 
by frost firmly into soil. Clear up all debris. FLOWER GARDEN. 
Sweep and roll lawns. Fork over borders carefully. Top-dress 
with leaf mould where required. Mulch rose beds. Top-dress Rock 
Garden with grit and firm in plants lifted by frost. Continue work 
with herbaceous plants. Lift and divide Montbretias where 
necessary. Plant out Primroses, etc. Finish planting trees, 
shrubs ; also hardy plants so far as possible. Prepare stocks for 
grafting Rhododendrons. VEGETABLE GARDEN. Finish cleaning 
and nailing wall fruit, and pruning all small fruits. Sow: Beet, 
Broad Beans, Carrots, Onions, Dwarf Peas, Parsnips, Spinach. 
Plant : Cabbage seedlings, Chives, Garlic, Jerusalem Artichokes, 
Onion sets and autumn-sown Onions, early Potatoes in sheltered 
border, Shallots. ORCHARD. Finish spraying Feb. i4th. Spray 
mossy trees with caustic alkali. Renew grease on grease bands. 
FRAMES AND PITS. Cover in severe weather. Ventilate freely 
when weather permits. Make up extra hot beds. Sow: Broccoli, 
Brussels Sprouts, Cabbage, Carrots, Cauliflower, Celery, Cos and 
Cabbage Lettuce, French Beans, Marrows, Onions, Parsley, Ridge 
Cucumbers, and Radishes. Also Canterbury Bells, Pansies, Violas, 
Wallflower, etc. Plant: Strawberries, Seakale. GLASS-HOUSES. 
Ventilate, as weather permits. Examine and clean generally. 
Keep down blight. Pot up ferns and repot Begonias, Gloriosa 
tubers, Gloxinias, etc. Cut back as required Fuchsias, Zonal 
Pelargoniums, and Plumbago capense, shake the soil from the 
roots and repot into slightly larger pots when an inch of new 
growth has been made. Take cuttings of Chrysanthemums, 
Dahlias, Fuchsias, Heliotrope. Sow: Lobelia, Pyrethrum, Leeks, 
Tomatoes, Cucumbers. Put vine borders in order. 


GENERAL WORK. Weed, clean, and finish up all winter work. 
FLOWER GARDEN. Roll paths and lawn. Lay turf if required, or 
sow new lawns. Transplant evergreen shrubs. Trim Ivy. Finish 
pruning, training, and tying up all climbers. Prune hardy Roses 
after St. Patrick's Day. Top-Dress and finish planting R.G. 
Sow : Calendulas, Annual Chrysanthemums, Coreopsis, Eschschol- 
tzias, Annual Lupins, Linums, Mallows, Nemophila, Nigella, 
Phacelia campanulata, Poppies, Salvias, Sweet Peas (for late 
flowering), etc. Plant : Layered Carnations and Pinks, Galtonia 
candicans, Gladiolus, Schizostylis, etc. VEGETABLE GARDEN. 
Weed borders and paths. Prepare ground for French Beans and 
Scarlet Runners. Sow vegetables which do not require fresh 
manure in soil manured for a previous crop : Carrots, Parsnips, and 
Beet in soil manured the previous year; Peas, French Beans, and 


Runners on old Celery trenches. Get nets and wire guards ready. 
Mulch wall fruit. Sow : Broad Beans, Beet, Carrots, Cauliflower, 
Kale, Onions, Parsnips, Parsley, Peas, Radishes, Spinach, Turnips, 
Winter Greens. Plant : Autumn-sown Cauliflowers, Herbs, Let- 
tuces on warm border, Early Peas (raised in boxes) on warm border, 
Potatoes on warm border, Seakale. ORCHARD. Finish all nailing 
up, planting, and training. Keep ground clean. Mulch newly- 
planted trees. Treat trees attacked by American Blight with 
paraffin emulsion or methylated spirit. Graft in suitable weather. 
Spray against aphis at end of the month. FRAMES AND PITS. 
Ventilate freely, as weather allows. Harden off bedding plants in 
cold frames. Prick out Cauliflower and Lettuce seedlings in cold 
frames. Sow: Annuals (H. and H.H.), Brussels Sprouts, Celeriac, 
Celery, Cos and Cabbage Lettuce, Marrows, Mustard and Cress, 
Radishes, Tomatoes, etc. Plant: Asparagus, French Beans, Sea- 
kale, Strawberries. GLASS-HOUSES. Ventilate freely when possible, 
but guard against sudden variations of temperature. Keep plants 
sufficiently watered. Economise firing in sunny weather. Get 
shade blinds ready for use when and where needed. Sow : 
Asters, Campanula pyramidalis, Capsicums, Carnations, Cinerarias, 
Clarkias, Cosmos, Annual Larkspurs, Ipomoea, Malope, French and 
African Marigolds, Nemesia, Petunias, Phlox Drummondii, Stocks, 
etc. Take cuttings and box up Begonia and Dahlia tubers. 
Syringe fruit trees in fine weather. 


FLOWER GARDEN. Mow and roll lawns. Trim edges. Sweep, 
roll, and clean paths. Relay box edgings where required. Hoe 
shrub borders. Clean fernery, divide and plant ferns, and top-dress 
with leaf mould. Finish Rose pruning, and keep young growth 
free from maggots and blight. Stake Hyacinths. Divide and 
replant Snowdrops where too crowded. Divide Kniphofias if 
necessary. Sow : All Hardy Annuals as Aethionema, Annual 
Chrysanthemums, Clarkia, Godetias, Shirley Poppies, Tropaeolums, 
etc., where they are to flower. Finish sowing Sweet Peas for late 
flowering. Plant : Agapanthus, Carnations, Crinums, Gladioli, 
Phlox, Penstemons, Pinks, Sweet Peas, Violas, Yuccas. At end of 
month plant out H.H.A. seedlings and tender Shrubs wintered 
under cover. Finish planting evergreens. Transplant Bamboos. 
Divide and plant Water Lilies. VEGETABLE GARDEN. Keep paths 
in order. Weed assiduously. Finish cropping. Keep the hoe 
going. Dress Asparagus beds with salt, and make new ones. Make 
mushroom beds. Mulch rows of early Peas. Guard wall fruit 
against late frosts, and disbud as needed. Sow: Asparagus, 
Dwarf Beans (shelter), Beet, White Broccoli, Brussels Sprouts, 
Cabbage and Red Cabbage, Carrots, Cauliflower, Leeks, Lettuce, 
Kale, Mustard and Cress, Onions, Parsnips, Peas, Radishes, 


Salsify, Savoy Cabbage, Scarlet Runners (shelter), Scorzonera, Sea- 
kale, Turnips. Plant : Cauliflowers (water in dry weather), Onions 
(raised in heat), Peas, finish planting Potatoes. Prick out seedlings. 
ORCHARD, Attend to grafted trees. FRAMES AND PITS. Air 
freely and keep sufficiently watered. Pot cuttings of bedding plants 
and put on bottom heat to root quickly. Pot or prick off seedlings 
as ready. Remove Seakale to open ground after cutting. Sow: 
Cucumbers, Marrows, Tomatoes. Finish sowing Annuals. \ GLASS- 
HOUSES. Keep clean everywhere and guard against blight. Venti- 
late freely but cautiously. Water regularly. Repot hard-wooded 
plants where needed. Pot Humeas. Take cuttings of Geraniums 
(for late flowering), Fuchsias, etc. Sow: Balsam, Celosia, Gloxinia, 
Lobelia, Petunia, Verbena, Zinnia, etc. Tie and pinch back Vine 
shoots. Rub unrequired or weak shoots off fruit trees. Thin 
fruit as needed. Pot plants of Azalea mollis, Lilac, Guelder Rose, 
Andromeda, etc., water carefully and regularly. 


FLOWER GARDEN. Keep hoe going, and weed thoroughly. 
Use weed-killer on paths in dry weather. Clip Box edgings. 
Remove seed pods from Azaleas and Rhododendrons. Stake 
herbaceous plants. Prepare borders for bedding plants, and bed 
out as weather and aspect permit. Divide and replant in reserve 
Aubrietia, Daisies, Primroses, Polyanthus, etc. Lift Hyacinths, 
Narcissus, Tulips as foliage withers, or as required. Mulch Holly- 
hocks and late-planted Shrubs. Sow : Biennials and Hardy 
Perennials. Plant : Chrysanthemums, H.H. Annuals, Stocks, etc. 
Spray Roses to prevent blight. VEGETABLE GARDEN. Hoe freely 
and weed everywhere. Take preventative measures against blight. 
Spray bush fruit if affected. Keep Asparagus beds clean, give 
manure, and thin shoots thoroughly. Hoe up early Potatoes. 
Mulch Beet, Carrots, Onions, Turnips. Thin out seedlings. 
Prepare Marrow beds and plant under handlights. Remove pro- 
tection from fruit trees, stop and pinch back shoots, water if 
required. Sow: French Beans, Broccoli, Cardoons, Coleworts, 
Dandelion (winter salads), Lettuce, Kale, Mustard and Cress, 
Peas, Radishes, Scarlet Runners, Spinach, Spinach-Beet, Turnips. 
Plant: Brussels Sprouts, Cauliflowers, Celery, Leeks, Lettuce, 
Scarlet Runners, Tomatoes. ORCHARD. Remove grease bands. 
Attend to grafts. Commence summer pruning. FRAMES AND 
PITS. Ventilate freely, but guard against night frosts. Make Melon 
and Cucumber beds. Finish hardening off bedding plants. Use 
frames as emptied for plants from glass-houses. Sow : Cucumbers 
and Melons. GLASS-HOUSES. Water and ventilate according to 
weather conditions. Wage war on all insect pests. Syringe in hot 
weather. Pot up winter flowering subjects as needful, and offshoots 
of Primula sinensis. Repot, as needed, Fuchsias, Geraniums, Helio- 


trope, etc. Take cuttings of winter-flowering Begonias, Coleus, etc. 
Take cuttings of most greenhouse plants in small pots of sandy 
soil and place in a glass-covered box in greenhouse or warm frame. 
Top-dress Cucumbers with rich compost and give manure water. 
Sow:* Calceolaria, Cineraria, Indian Corn (Maize), Primulas. 


FLOWER GARDEN. Roll, mow, and water (when required) lawns. 
Keep edges trimmed. Tie up climbers. Finish bedding. Cut off 
all dead blossom. Attend to Carnations, stake, tie, and water as 
required. Stake Dahlias, Hollyhocks, etc. Stick and tie Sweet 
Peas as required. Keep Roses clean of blight. Sow : Biennials 
and Perennials for next year. Remove seed heads from Laburnum 
and Lilac. Plant : Mignonette, all tender plants, cuttings of 
Violas, Double Wallflower, etc., pipings of Pinks. Tulips can be 
lifted carefully and laid in soil till the foliage dies. VEGETABLE 
GARDEN. Hoe continually. Mulch generally with lawn mowings. 
Prepare Celery trenches. Make up Mushroom beds. Earth up all 
Potatoes. Mulch Globe Artichoke, or give manure water. Thin 
Beet, etc. Cut no Asparagus after 24th; manure beds, or dress 
with i oz. nitrate of soda per sq. yard. Cut off and burn tops of 
Broad Beans if blighted. Spray aphis-infested trees with nicotine 
wash. Stake Peas and Scarlet Runners. Sow: Beans (late), 
Cauliflower, Endive, Lettuce, Parsley (winter stock), Peas (late), 
Spinach, Radishes (Turnip), Turnips. Plant: Broccoli, Brussels 
Sprouts, Cabbage, Cauliflower, Celeriac, Celery (dust with soot or 
spray), Cucumbers, Kale, Leeks, Marrows, Savoys, etc. Plant 
Tomatoes against a sunny wall or fence, or in a sunny sheltered 
corner, in prepared ground. Tie plants to a stout 4-foot stake. 
ORCHARD. Summer-prune. Thin fruits. Spray if blight begins. 
FRAMES AND PITS. Shade from noon sun and keep well watered. 
Get seedlings of winter-flowering plants on in pots. Keep Cucum- 
bers, etc., clean and thoroughly watered. "When the foliage 
of Nerines begins to turn yellow lay the plants on their sides in a 
sunny frame to ripen the bulbs. Give no water until the flower 
stems begin to appear." (R.H.S.D.) GLASS-HOUSES. Give plenty 
of air. Attend to watering and syringing. Take precautions 
against blight. Shade when required. Tie up climbers. Pot 
up Chrysanthemums, perpetual-flowering Carnations, etc. Repot 
Azaleas if needful. Layer Malmaison Carnations. Sow: 
Cinerarias, Hippeastrums, Tomatoes (winter crop). 


FLOWER GARDEN. Cut off blossoms as they fade. Thin out 
Annuals. Prick out Biennials and Perennials in shady border. 
Plant : Colchicums. Attend to Chrysanthemums, tie, disbud, etc. 
Mulch Dahlias. Bud Roses. Sow : Primulas and Meconopsis. 
Take pipings of Pinks. Layer Carnations. Water as necessary. 


Give Roses dilute manure water. Layer Rhododendrons. VEGE- 
TABLE GARDEN. Keep the hoe going. Dig waste green stuff into 
beds where vacant. Water and earth up early Celery. Train 
Tomatoes and pinch out side shoots. Cut and dry herbs. Thin 
seedlings. Plant : Winter Greens, Broccoli, Cauliflower, Colewort, 
and Potatoes for late crop of "new." Sow : Dwarf Beans, Globe 
Beet, Short-horn Carrots, Early Cabbage, Endive, Winter Lettuce, 
Onions, Parsley, late Peas, Radishes, Winter Spinach. Mulch and 
water fruit trees. Spray with paraffin emulsion trees attacked by 
pests. ORCHARD. Protect fruit from birds. Bud fruit trees. Thin 
fruits where required. FRAMES AND PITS. Give air and water 
freely. Shade as required. Attend to Cucumbers and Melons, 
remove weak fruits and shoots. Take cuttings of Geraniums 
and greenhouse Shrubs. Pot up young stuff for winter flowering. 
Sow Cucumbers and Melons for late crop. GLASS-HOUSES. 
Do all repairs. Give as much air as possible. Water and syringe 
as required. Keep down greenfly. Put out all H.H. pot plants. 
Repot hard-wooded spring-flowering plants where necessary. 
Give full sun to Succulents. Keep climbers trained. Take cuttings 
of Pelargonium, Hydrangea, etc. Bud and graft Citrus, Camellias, 
Azaleas, etc. Sow: Cinerarias, Cyclamen, Mignonette. 


FLOWER GARDEN. Hoe beds. Cut off dead flowers and seed 
pods. Sow : Forget-me-not, Lilium seeds when ripe. Transplant 
Amaryllis Belladonna, and Tulips if necessary. Plant : Lilium 
candidum. Prune Ramblers after flowering. Layer Shrubs. 
Take cuttings of bedding stock, Pansies, and Violas. VEGETABLE 
GARDEN. Weed, hoe, and water when required, clear crops when 
finished. Thin seedling Asparagus and dress with salt. Cut herbs 
for drying. Earth up Celery, dust with soot and keep well watered. 
Water and manure Cucumbers and Marrows. Mulch Runner Beans. 
Lift early Potatoes and Beet. Sow : Cabbage Colewort, Cauliflower, 
Winter Lettuce and Onions, Spinach, Turnips. Plant : Broccoli, 
Colewort, Endive. Protect fruit from birds and wasps. Prune 
wall fruit trees after fruit is gathered and mulch as required. 
ORCHARD. Gather early Pears and Apples. Finish summer 
pruning. FRAMES AND PITS. Ventilate and water freely, shade 
as required. Top-dress Cucumbers. Sow : French Beans, Early 
Cauliflowers, Spring Cabbage, Turnips. Take cuttings of Alpines 
and root in shaded frame. Cuttings of Calceolaria, Heliotrope, 
Salvia, Verbena, in closed frames. Remove Hippeastrums to cold 
frame in full sun. Plant : Violet roots for early winter flowering. 
GLASS-HOUSES. Reduce shading as required. Ventilate and water. 
Plant : Friesias, Lilium candidum (for pot flowering), early 
Hyacinths, Narcissus, and Tulips. Sow : Cucumbers, Hippea- 
srums, Tomatoes. Pot up Arums, Lachenalias, Carnation layers. 
Gradually dry off Gloriosa tubers. 



FLOWER GARDEN. Sow lawns where needed. Remove all seed 
pods and dead flowers. Trim hedges. Lift and divide Alpines 
where needed. Plant : Bulbs. Take Viola cuttings. Lift tender 
subjects to winter under glass before early frosts catch them. 
VEGETABLE GARDEN. Hoe and rake. Weed and clear off crops 
as finished. Dust Brussels Sprouts with soot. Tie up Cardoons 
for blanching when ready. Keep Leeks well watered. Lift and 
store Beet, Carrots, Onions, and main crop Potatoes. Sow : 
Lettuce, Radishes. Plant: Spring Cabbage, Lettuce. Fork wall 
borders and water wall fruit in dry weather. ORCHARD. Gather 
and store ripe fruit. Prepare ground for planting. Examine budded 
stocks and readjust ties if needed. Begin to grease-band trees. 
FRAMES AND PITS. Sow: Cauliflower for spring. Take cuttings of 
Pentstemons and Veronicas. Fill spare frames with winter salads. 
GLASS-HOUSES. Water and ventilate according to requirements 
and weather. See that houses are ready for winter, thoroughly 
cleaned, and space cleared for half hardy plants and winter flowers. 
Repot Cinerarias. Sow : Annuals for pot flowering. Pot Roses 
for forcing. Plant bulbs for succession. Pot Cucumber and 
Tomato seedlings for forcing. 


FLOWER GARDEN. Clear up litter and dead flowers and leaves. 
Get all tender plants under cover. Lift Begonias, Cannas, and 
Dahlias. Transplant Anemone japonica, Delphiniums, Paeonies, 
Papaver orientalis, etc. All hardy perennials may be lifted and 
divided if required. Take cuttings of Roses and Shrubs. Plant 
bulbs, hardy spring plants, hardy biennials and perennials, rooted 
cuttings and layers of Carnations and Pinks, early-flowering Gladioli. 
Commence transplanting trees and shrubs. Prune trees. Trim and 
tie climbers. Set zinc rings round choice plants that need protection 
from slugs. Attend to Rock Garden : remove dead leaves, top- 
dress with compost, cut back or divide overgrown clumps, place 
glass over choice plants that need protection from damp. VEGE- 
TABLE GARDEN. Collect leaves and soil for compost. Dig, clean, 
trench, and manure. Cut and dry herbs. Clear away bean and 
pea haulms. Earth up late Celery. Bring unripened Tomatoes 
indoors (on stems) and hang up to ripen. Cut Marrows and 
bring under cover. Lift Beet, Carrots, Onions, Potatoes. Sow 
Radishes. Plant: Cabbage, Colewort, Endive, Lettuce, Fruit trees 
and bushes. ORCHARD. Finish harvesting fruit. Plant fruit 
trees as weather permits. Root-prune where needed. FRAMES 
AND PITS. Ventilate carefully and water with discretion. Keep 
good salad supplies in succession. Plant Cauliflower seedlings, 
and Rhubarb and Seakale crowns for forcing. GLASS-HOUSES. 
Ventilate carefully. Do not overwater. Pot Spiraeas for forcing. 


Keep Hippeastrams dry. Sow: Sweet Peas, Tomatoes. Prune 
fruit trees and top-dress. 


FLOWER GARDEN, Keep paths clean and rolled. Finish 
planting bulbs. Lift Dahlias and Gladioli. Protect plants of 
doubtful hardiness. Clear up leaves and store for leaf mould. 
Transplant Alstromerias if necessary. Plant : Azaleas, Rhodo- 
dendrons, Roses, and Shrubs. VEGETABLE GARDEN. Dig, manure, 
trench, and destroy weeds and rubbish. Fork over Asparagus bed 
and give thick dressing of manure. Protect Globe Artichokes with 
fern or litter, or pot up suckers to store under glass. Ridge up 
Celeriac, Parsnips, Turnips. Cut leaves from Rhubarb and Seakale 
and cover for winter. Clean and plant herb beds. Plant Seakale 
in trenches. Lift Carrots, Chicory (for forcing), Parsnips, Jerusalem 
Artichokes. Sow : Broad Beans on sheltered border. Plant : 
Leeks for late supplies. Finish pruning and tying wall fruits. 
Plant: Wall fruits. Dust under stone fruits with slaked lime. 
ORCHARD. Grease-band trees. Start tar spraying. Plant fruit 
trees. FRAMES AND PITS. Ventilate as weather permits. Give 
water only when needed. Cover at night if frosty. Force Aspara- 
gus, Chicory, Seakale. Sow: Carrots, French Beans. Plant: 
Endive and other salads. GLASS-HOUSES. Ventilate according to 
weather. Water sparingly. Protect against damp. Attend to 
heating. Force Azaleas for early flowering. Pot up Tulips, etc., 
for late flowering, and Hippeastrums^ for early flowering. Pot 
Tomato seedlings. 


FLOWER GARDEN. Trench herbaceous borders where possible. 
Lift and divide Lily-of-the-Valley where overcrowded. Plant : 
Trees, Roses, and Shrubs, as weather permits. VEGETABLE 
GARDEN. Dig, manure, clean and trench ground whenever and 
wherever possible. Protect Celery. Cover Rhubarb and Seakale 
for forcing and bank up with manure and leaf mould. Lift Jerusa- 
lem Artichokes. Sow : Broad Beans, Peas (round). Finish 
re-tying and nailing up wall trees. Clean walls with insecticide. 
ORCHARD. Plant, prune, and clean. See to winter spraying. 
Clean walls, fences, and hedges. FRAMES AND PITS. Ventilate 
as weather permits. Water only when needed and then early. 
Prepare forcing beds. Sow: Lettuces, Radishes, Peas. Plant: 
Potatoes. GLASS-HOUSES. Ventilate when possible. Keep heat 
regulated according to weather. Water early and sparingly. Take 
Chrysanthemum cuttings. Keep Cacti dry. Clean fruit houses. 



Anemone fulgens . . 
(St. Brigid) 
Belladonna Lily 

,, Colvillei type 

Iris, English 
,, reticulata 


Lily of the Valley . . 
Lilium aura tuna 

,, Henryi 

speciosum . . 

,, pardalinum 

,, tigrinum 
Orange Lily 
Scilla sibirica 

Tulips, long-stemmed 
Winter Aconite 
White Lilv .. 

Best Month 

Depth of top 
of Bulb below 


to Plant. 



. Oct. 



. Oct. 



. Oct. 



. Oct. 



. Aug. 



. Aug. 


3 to 4 

. Oct. 



. Aug. 



. Oct. 



. Aug. 



. Aug. 


3 to 6 

. Oct. 



. Oct. 



. Aug. 



. Aug. 



. Aug. 



. Aug. 


4 to 9 










. Oct. 



. Sept. 


4 to 6 







. Sept. 









. Oct. 

6 to 8 



6 to 8 


. Oct. 

6 to 8 





. Oct. 






. Oct. 



. Oct. 

6 to 8 


. Oct. 



. Aug. 



. Aug. 

3 to 4 


- Jiy 






. Oct. 






. Nov. 






. Aug. 

2 to 3 

3 to 4 

. Aug. 






Apples : Plant. Finish pruning. Cut back trees requiring regraft- 
ing. Prepare scions in open weather. Nail up on walls. Spray 
with winter wash. Apricots : Plant with lime and old mortar. 
Prepare scions in open weather. Blackberries : Cut close back 
after planting. Mulch with manure. Cherries : Plant in open 
weather with lime or old mortar. Currants : Black Take cuttings. 
Thin out old wood. Red and White Prune to 2," spurs. 
Damsons : Prune. Prepaie scions. Figs : Sow in light soil. Take 
cuttings of 4*-5* ripened tips. Plant with brick rubble. Goose- 
berries : Take cuttings. Thin out and tip shoots. Protect from 
birds with black cotton or syringe with soot and lime water. 
Grapes : Take cuttings of eyes. Finish pruning. Wash and tie in. 
Top-dress borders and keep soil moist. Greengages : Plant in 
open weather. Prepare scions. Under glass give liquid manure. 
Loganberries : See Blackberries. Medlars : Plant in open weather. 
Melons : Sow in warm compost, plunge pots in bottom heat and 
cover with glass. Mulberry : Plant in open weather. Nectarines : 
Plant in open weather. Under glass top-dress borders and keep 
soil moist. Peaches : Plant in open weather. Under glass top- 
dress borders, keep soil moist, syringe. Pears : Plant. Prune. 
Cut scions in mild weather. Nail up on walls. Prune. Plums : 
Plant, with lime or old mortar. Prune. Prepare scions. Nail up 
on walls. Quinces : Plant in open weather. Raspberries : Pull out 
suckers. Cut close back after planting. Shorten shoots. Straw- 
berries : Firm in young plants. Fork in manure on surface. Under 
glass bring in for forcing, clean pots and remove dead foliage. 
Water with restriction. Use sulphur wash for mildew or red spider. 
Veitchberry, Wineberry, etc. See Blackberry. 


Apples : Finish planting. Mulch new planted with manure. 
Prepare scions and head back stock for grafting in open weather. 
Apricots : Manure, clean, prune, and nail up. Blackberries : Finish 
planting. Cherries : Spray with nicotine wash. Under glass clean 
and prune. Water with tepid water. Currants : Finish planting. 
Manure. Prune. Black Examine for big bud. Figs : Take cuttings 


of eyes. Thin out weak wood. Train out shoots. Gooseberries : 
Finish planting. Sow in pots or open bed. Take cuttings. Prune. 
Grapes : Take cuttings of eyes. Renovate outside borders. Make 
new borders. Loganberries : Finish planting. Melons : Under 
glass sow and plant seedlings in prepared borders. Nectarines : 
Prune, clean and tie in. Top-dress borders. Nuts : Sow. Graft. 
Peaches : Prune, clean, and tie in. Spray before buds open to pre- 
vent Leaf Curl. Top-dress borders. Syringe under glass. Prepare 
protection for early bloom. Pears : Plant. Mulch newly planted. 
Head back for grafting. Cut scions. Finish cutting back hori- 
zontal trained. Clean and prune under glass. Plums : Plant. 
Mulch newly planted. Clean and prune under glass. Raspberries: 
Finish planting. Tip old canes. Cut newly planted down to 6". 
Prune and train. Cut down for autumn fruiting. Top- dress with 
manure. Strawberries : Finish planting. Top dress with leaf-mould. 
Veitchberries, Wineberries, etc. See Loganberries. Walnuts : Sow. 


Apples : Finish planting. Mulch new planted. Hoe round. 
Graft. Apricots : Prune. Manure. Protect blossom and pollinate. 
Blackberries : Mulch. Cherries : Graft. Top-dress. Tie in and 
stop. Protect early blossom and pollinate. Spray. Under glass 
shade trees when flowering, keep ventilated, and syringe. Currants : 
Take cuttings. Give salt on light soils. Spray or dust with lime 
for blight. Hoe. Figs : Plant. Remove protection where used. 
Thin old branches, remove dead wood and long sappy shoots. Tie 
in. Under glass pinch shoots and thin fruit, give liquid manure, 
syringe. Gooseberries : Take cuttings. Hoe. Spray for Red 
Spider and Scale. Grapes : Plant. Disbud as needed. Give liquid 
manure. Syringe with tepid rain water. Prune laterals to 2 buds 
beyond bunches. Thin berries. Outside, trim, nail up, and prune 
to one good bud. Loganberries : Mulch. Melons : Top-dress. 
Thin fruits if crowded. Nectarines : Winter prune. Disbud. Pro- 
tect blossom and pollinate. See also Peaches. Nuts : Sow. Graft. 
Prune. Remove suckers. Peaches : Winter prune. Thin shoots. 
Disbud. Protect blossom and pollinate. Under glass water and 
feed pot trees; stop growths at 8th joint; syringe. Pears : Graft. 
Finish planting. Mulch newly planted. Finish cutting back fan 
trained. Prune. Hoe. Graft. Protect early blossom and pollinate. 
Under glass thin crowded bloom. Plums : Hoe. Graft. Protect 
early blossom and pollinate. Spray for Leaf-Curl Aphis. Under 
glass spray, give dilute manure water. Quinces : Graft. Rasp- 
berries : Cut down autumn fruiting. Hoe. Spray for caterpillar. 
Strawberries : Clean. Top-dress with leaf-mould. Hoe when dry. 
Sow Alpine Strawberries in gentle heat. Under glass give fruiting 
plants liquid manure. Walnuts : Sow. 



Apples : Graft. Hoe. Mulch. Spray for Aphis. Disbud. Thin 
young growths. Apricots : Water newly planted. Thin shoots. 
Disbud if needed. Protect blossom. Cherries : Graft. Syringe for 
Aphis. Spray for Leaf-scorch. Currants : Syringe for Aphis. 
Black remove and burn infected buds. Spray. Figs : Plant pot 
trees. Prune. Cut damaged growth to sound wood. Under glass 
reduce syringing as fruit ripens and give liquid manure. Goose- 
berries : Remove caterpillars. Dust with lime for blight. Crapes : 
Layer. Repot cuttings. Shake to scatter pollen. Thin laterals. 
Remove old mulch and work top-soil. Syringe if not in flower. 
Keep floor damp. Give manure water. Loganberries : Spray for 
Raspberry beetle. Medlars : Graft. Melons : Sow on hot beds. 
Prepare beds in frames for seedlings. Nectarines : Water newly 
planted. Disbud if needed. Protect blossom. Under glass remove 
unrequired young growth, keep border moist. In pots water and 
feed roots. Keep atmosphere drier. A 7 ///s : Prune. Peaches : 
Water newly planted. Disbud if needed. Protect blossom. Under 
glass see Nectarines. Pears : Plant. Graft. Plums : Spray for 
Aphis. Syringe with cold water for Red Spider. Quinces : Graft. 
Raspberries : Spray for Raspberry beetle. Strawberries : Replace 
defective plants. Hoe. Mulch. Give liquid manure. Under glass 
water twice daily and give manure water. Veitchbcrries, Wine- 
berries, etc. See Loganberries. 


Apples : Mulch. Thin crowded shoots. Manure heavy croppers. 
Spray for blight. Apricots : Give liquid manure. Pinch shoots to 
form spurs. Tie in long shoots. Thin fruit if needed. Blackberries : 
Layer young shoots. Currants : Remove suckers. Spray for blight. 
Damsons : Spray for Aphis. Gooseberries : Mulch. Thin fruit. 
Remove suckers. Spray for blight. Grapes : Thin and shorten 
laterals and tie down. Dress with lime and water in if needed. 
Spray occasionally. Thin berries on early vines. Remove faulty 
or decayed berries. Keep floor damp. Ventilate. Outside, disbud 
young shoots. Greengages : Give liquid manure. Stop young 
growths on walls. Loganberries : as Blackberries. Melons : Pre- 
pare beds. Sow on heat. Water carefully. Keep atmosphere drier. 
Ventilate. Mulberries : Sow. Nectarines : Mulch. Remove fore- 
rights. Disbud. Under glass in pots harden off after fruiting. 
Peaches : See Nectarines. Pears : Thin crowded shoots. Manure 
heavy croppers. Plums : Give liquid manure. Thin crowded 
shoots. Spray for Aphis. Stop young growths on walls. Rasp- 
berries : Hoe. Mulch. Pull up weak and unrequired suckers. 
Strawberries: Mulch with straw and lawn clippings. Dress with 
superphosphates. Prepare nets. Remove runners. Water 


in dry weather. Plant out Alpine Strawberry seedlings. In pots 
water frequently and give liquid manure. Veitchberries, Wine- 
berries, etc : See Blackberries. 


Apples : Mulch. Cut suckers. Remove ties from March grafts. 
Pinch shoots on seedlings, and remove irregular growths. Thin if 
overcrowded. Remove defective fruit. Apricots : Dress borders 
with lime and water in. Give liquid manure. Prune side 
shoots to 6", leave leaders. Thin fruit. Syringe. Net. Black- 
berries : Cut away all weak canes. Tie up young shoots. Mulch. 
Cherries : Summer nrune Desert to 4" and burn cuttings. 
Syringe for Black iiy. Mulch Morellos, thin shoots if crowded, and 
dust ground with lime and water in. Currants : Net. Red 
top side shoots to 3" and burn cuttings. Figs : Give liquid manure 
and mulch. Thin fruit. Under glass keep well watered, pinch 
back rank growth, and remove weak or crowded shoots. Goose- 
berries : Summer prune. Thin fruit. Grapes : Mulch borders. 
Thin bunches to i per foot of rod's length. Thin berries. Spray 
with sulphur and water for mildew. Rub off weak and poor shoots 
on outdoor vines. Stop growths if crowded. Greengages : Give 
liquid manure and mulch. Thin if crowded. Loganberries : Cut 
away weak shoots. Tie up young shoots. Give dilute manure 
water. Melons : Plant outside under handlights. Keep watered. 
Sow in frames. Remove male flowers till required for pollen. 
Syringe. Nectarines : Thin fruit. Give liquid manure. Syringe 
if dry. Stand out pot trees after fruiting. Under glass remove 
fruited wood. Water well after fruiting. See also Peaches. Peaches: 
Thin shoots on outdoor trees by degrees. Syringe daily after noon 
till fruit ripens. Thin fruit. Dress borders with lime and water in. 
Stand out pot trees after fruiting. Under glass remove fruited 
wood, water well after fruiting. Pears : Summer prune. Pinch 
side growths. Cut suckers. Remove ties from March grafts. Fasten 
up on walls. Mulch. Plums : Prune side shoots on walls to 6", 
leaving leaders. Cut suckers. Fasten up on walls. Remove ties 
from March grafts. Thin fruit if crowded. Net. Raspberries : 
Cut out suckers, leaving strongest only. Thin canes for autumn 
fruiting and tie up. Hoe. Strawberries : Hoe. Dust ground with 
lime and lay straw between rows. Layer runners. Select runners 
and layer in pots for forcing. Veitchberries, etc : See Loganberries. 
Walnuts : Gather green for pickle. 


Apples : Bud in wet weather. Summer prune cordons and wall 
trees. Prune side shoots to 5 leaves, leave leaders. Remove wind- 
falls. Finish thinning. Apricots : Bud in wet weather. Give 


liquid manure. Cherries : Bud in wet weather. Summer prune. 
Tie in Morellos, thin shoots, and give dilute manure water. Clean 
trees after fruiting with insecticide. Currants: Finish summer 
pruning. Damsons : Bud in wet weather. Figs : Top-dress pot 
trees or repot if needed. Keep borders moist. Gooseberries : Pro- 
tect exhibition fruit from rain. Summer prune. Grapes: Plant 
young vines. Manure and syringe pot vines. Greengages : Bud 
in wet weather. Loganberries : Layer points of young shoots. 
Melons : Sow for late fruiting under glass. Remove weak shoots 
and poor fruits. Shorten shoots without fruit. Pollinate. Syringe 
with tepid water. Mulberries : Bud in wet weather. Nectarines : 
Bud in wet weather. Give liquid manure. Remove old fruited 
wood and tie up shoots. Peaches : as Nectarines. Pears : Bud 
in wet weather. Summer prune. Finish ininning. Give liquid 
manure. Plums : Bud in wet weather. Summer prune. Quinces : 
Bud in wet weather. Raspberries : Hoe. Cut away unneeded canes 
and fruited canes. Strawberries : Layer runners. Clean beds. 
Remove old leaves and surplus runners. Pot runners for forcing. 
Plant. Veitchberries, etc. : as Loganberries. 


Apples : Bud in wet weather. Finish summer pruning. Apri- 
cots : Bud in wet weather. Trench round trees for lifting. Cherries : 
Bud in wet weather. Give liquid manure when dry. Currants : 
Black thin old wood. Gooseberries : Thin old wood. Grapes : Thin 
late fruit. Keep drier as fruit ripens. After fruiting syringe freely 
and moisten borders. Give old vines liquid manure. Green- 
gages : Bud in wet weather. Loganberries : Cut out fruited canes. 
Mulch. Tie in young shoots. Melons : Raise fruits on inverted 
pots. Give less water as fruit ripens. Remove laterals. Mul- 
berries : Bud in wet weather. Nectarines : Bud in wet weather. 
Repot pot trees if needed. Spray and keep watered. Protect fruit 
from wasps. Peaches : as Nectarines. Mulch. Pears : Bud in 
wet weather. Finish summer pruning. Give manure water. Tie 
up heavy fruit. Protect fruit from birds and wasps. Plums : 
Bud in wet weather. Raspberries : Cut out old canes. Hoe. Mulch. 
Pinch tops of summer shoots. Thin young canes. Strawberries : 
Plant. Pot for forcing. Cut off runners. Dig up old beds (4 years). 
Make new beds with July layered runners. 


Apples : Remove irregular growths on seedlings. Pinch side 
shoots to 5 leaves on maiden standards. Apricots : Plant. Trans- 
plant maidens and cut back roots for fan or cordon. Blackberries : 
Cut out old canes. Cherries : Shorten side shoots on standards. 
Give liquid manure if dry. Currants : Spray for caterpillar. Black 


thin old bushes. Red and White finish summer pruning. Goose- 
berries : Spray for caterpillar. Finish summer pruning. Grapes : 
Remove useless growths. Keep well fastened up. Overhaul 
borders. Guard against red spider, mildew, and wasps. Logan- 
berries : Cut out fruited canes and weak shoots. Melons : Give 
liquid manure if needed. Nectarines : Prune after fruit is gathered. 
Root prune if needed. Peaches : as Nectarines. Pears : Shorten 
side shoots on low standards. Plums : Cover with doubled net to 
retard on north walls for late fruit. Raspberries : as Loganberries. 
Strawberries : Plant. Hoe beds. Pot for forcing. Walnuts : Bud 
in wet weather. Gather as fruit falls. 


Apples : Plant. Sow. Root prune if needed. Transplant seed- 
lings. Grease band. Apricots : Plant. Lift and replant maidens 
for fan and cordon. Mulch with straw manure against walls. 
Cherries : Root prune if needed and give old mortar. Currants : 
Plant. Take cuttings. Black remove old and weak wood. Red 
and White prune. Damsons : Plant. Gooseberries : Take cuttings. 
Plant. Start pruning and transplanting. Grapes : Plant. Cut back 
when leaves fall. Prepare for early forcing. Prune laterals on early 
vines in borders. Keep clean. Greengages : Plant. Root prune 
if needed. Loganberries : Plant. Train out shoots. Medlars : 
Plant. Leave fruit till ready to fall. Mulberries : Plant. Nec- 
tarines : Plant. Dress ground lightly with salt. Nuts : Plant. 
Peaches : Plant. Dress ground with salt. Root prune late varieties 
if needed. Pears : Plant. Sow. Take cuttings. Root prune if 
needed. Plums : Plant. Root prune if needed and give old mortar. 
Quinces : Plant. Pick before ripe for jam, matured for keeping. 
Raspberries : Plant. Finish thinning young canes. Strawberries : 
Clean beds. Top-dress. Remove side crowns from pot plants. 
Veitchberries, etc. : Plant. Train. Remove old canes. Walnut : 
Plant. Sow. 


Apples : Plant. Transplant seedlings. Prune. Root prune if 
needed. Apricots : Plant against wails. Blackberries : Plant. 
Prune. Cherries : Plant. Dress ground with lime. Prune for spurs. 
Remove useless shoots. Tie in Morello shoots. Currants : Plant. 
Take cuttings. Black cut away old wood. Red and White prune. 
Damsons : Plant. Dress ground with lime. Figs : Plant and 
mulch with straw. Bring in pot trees. Gooseberries : Plant. Take 
cuttings. Prune. Cut back young bushes to 3 shoots. Grapes : 
Plant. Remove and plant rooted layers. Finish priming. Top- 
dress. Greengages: Plant. Loganberries: Plant. Prune. Medlars: 
Gather fruit when fully ripe. Plant. Mulberries : Plant. Nec- 
tarines : Plant. Finish pruning under glass. Top-dress. Dress 



ground with lime. Nuts : Plant. Peaches : as Nectarines. Pears : 
Plant against walls, and in open. Root prune if needed. Plums : 
Plant against walls. Dress ground with lime. Quinces : Plant. 
Raspberries : Plant. Prune. Strawberries : Pot for forcing. Top- 
dress beds with dry manure. Veitchberries, etc. : Plant. Prune. 
Cut out old wood. 


Apples : Plant. Prune. Cut back for regrafting. Apricots : 
Plant. Mulch with dung. Blackberries : Plant. Cherries : Plant. 
Prune. Cut back for regrafting. Currants : Plant. Finish pruning. 
Damsons : Plant. Prepare scions. Figs : Plant. Gooosebernes : 
Plant. Take cuttings. Finish pruning. Protect buds with black 
cotton. Grapes : Mulch with dung. Greengages : Plant. Prepare 
scions. Loganberries : Plant. Medlars : Plant. Cut back for 
regrafting. Mulberries : Plant. Nectarines : Plant. Mulch with 
dung. Nuts : Plant. Peaches : Plant. Mulch with dung. Bring 
in pot trees. Pears : Plant. Prune. Prepare scions. Plums : 
Plant. Prune. Prepare scions. Quinces : Plant. Cut back for 
regrafting. Raspberries : Plant. Veitchberries, etc. : Plant. 

NOTE. All dates for operations are approximate only, the exact 
dates must be determined by locality, weather conditions, and indi- 
vidual peculiarities. When pruning, etc., is mentioned in two or 
more consecutive months this does not imply that the work is to 
be repeated. 


JANUARY. In flower : I. alata, I. bakeriana, I. Danfordiae, I. 
Histrio, I. palestina, I. unguicularis (stylosa), I. histrioides. To be 
planted : None. 

FEBRUARY. In flower : I. bakeriana, I. caucasica, I. Danfordiae, 
I. persica, I. reticulata, I. sindjarensis, I. unguicularis, I. Winkleri. 
To be planted : None. 

MARCH. In flower : I. Aitchisoni, I. caucasica, I. orchioides, 
I. reticulata, I. rosenbachiana, I. sindjarensis, I. tubergeniana, I. 
tuberosa (Hermodactylus tuberosus), I. unguicularis, I. warleyensis, 
I. willmottiana, I. Winkleri. To be planted : I. Collettii, I. minuta, 
I. nepalensis, I. verna. 

APRIL. In flower : I. Aitchisoni, I. aphylla, I. Bloudowii, I. 
bucharica, I. Chamaeiris, I. darwasica, I. ensata, I. fosteriana, I. 
Grant-Dunii, I. Griffithii, I. imbricata, I. japonica, I. mellita, I. minuta, 
I. orchioides, I. pseudopumila, I. pumila, I. Reichenbachii, I. Stocksii, 
I. subbiflora, I. tigrida, I. tingitana, I. Urumovii, I. verna, I. warley- 
ensis, I. Wattii, I. willmottiana. To be planted : I. Wattii. 

MAY. In flower : I. acutiloba, I. Alberti, I. albicans, I. aphylla, 
I. arizonica, I. atrofusca, I. atropurpurea, I. Barnumae, I. Biliotti, 
I. bismarckiana, I. bracteata, I. bulleyana, I. Chamaeiris, I. chryso- 
graphes, I. Clarkei, I. cristata, I. darwasica, I. douglasiana, I. ensata, 
I. Farreri, I. flavissima, I. Fontanesii, I. Forrestii, I. Gatesii, I. ger- 
manica, I. goniocarpa, I. gracilipes, I. graminea, I. Grant-Dumi, I. 
Grifi&thii, I. hoogiana, I. hookeriana, I. humilis, I. iberica, I. imbricata, 
I. Korolkowi, I. kumaonensis, I. lacustris, I. longipetala, I. Lortetii, 
I. macrosiphon, I. Madonna, I. Meda, I. mellita, I. minuta, I. mis- 
souriensis, I. montana, I. orientalis, I. pallida, I. paradoxa, I. pavonia 
(Morea Pavonia and M. tricupis), I. prismatica, I. Pseudacorus, I. 
pseudopumila, I. Purdyi, I. Reichenbachii, I. ruthenica, I. Sari, I. 
scartosa, I. sikkimensis, I. Sintenisii, I. Sisyrhinchium, I. sofarana, 
I. stolonifera, I. susiana, I. tectorum, I. tenax, I. tenuis, I. tenuissima, 
I. tingitana, I. trojana, I. Urimovii, I. verna, I. versicolor, I. Xiphium. 
To be planted : I. bracteata, I. cristata, I. dichotoma, I. douglasiana, 
I. flavissima, I. Griffithii, I. japonica, I. lacustris, I. macrosiphon, 
I. mellita, I. Purdyi, I. ruthenica, I. tenax, I. tenuis, I. tenuissima, 
I. Wattii. 

JUNE. In flower : I. arizonica, I. aurea, I. Biliotti, I. Boissieri, 
I. bulleyana, I. cypriana, I. Delavayi, I. filifolia, I. foetidissima, I. 
foliosa, I. Fontanesii, I. fulva, I. graminea, I. halophila, I. hexagona, 
I. juncea, I. junonia, I. Kaempferi, I. kashmiriana, I. laevigata, I. 
longipetala, I. mesopotamica, I. Milesii, I. missouriensis, I. montana, 
I. ochroleuca, I. orientalis, I. pallida, I. Pseudacorus, I. setosa, I. 
sibirica, I. Sintenisii, I. Sisyrhinchium, I. spuria, I. tripetala, I. trojana, 
I. variegata, I. versicolor, I. Wilsonii, I. xiphioides, I. Xiphium. To 


be planted : I. bracteata, I. cristata, I. dichotoma, I. douglasiana, 
I. gracilipes, I. lacustris, I. macrosiphon, I. Purdyi, I. ruthenica, I. 
tenax, I. tenuis, I. tenuissima, I. verna. 

JULY. In flower : I. aurea, I. Collettii, I. dichotoma, I. foliosa, 
I. fulva, I. hexagona, I. Kaempferi, I. Milesii, I. ochroleuca, I. tripetala, 
I. xiphioides, I. Xiphium. To be planted : None. 

AUGUST. In flower : I. dichotoma. To be planted : I. Alberti, 
I. aibicans, I. aphylla, I. JBiliotti, I. Chamaeiris, I. cypriana, I. foliosa, 
I. fulva, I. germanica, I. Griffithii, I. halophila, I. hexagona, I. imbri- 
cata, I. junonia, I. Kaempferi, I. kashmiriana, I. laevigata, I. longi- 
petala, I. Madonna, I. mesopotamica, I. Milesii, I. palestina, I. pallida, 
I. pseudopumila, I. pumila, I. Reichenbachii, I. scariosa, I. tectorum, 
I. tigrida, I. trojana, I. variegata. 

SEPTEMBER. In flower : I. aphylla. To be planted : I. Aitchisoni. 
I. aiata, I. Alberti, I. aibicans, I. aphylla, I. arizonica, I. aurea, I. 
bakeriana, I. Biliotti, I. Bloudowii, I. Boissieri, I.bucharica, I.bulleyana, 
I. caucasica, I. Chamaeiris, I. chrysographes, I. Clarkei, I. cypriana, 
I. Danfordiae, I. Delavayi, I. ensata, I. Farreri, I. filifolia, I. flavissima, 
I. foetidissima, I. Fontanesii, I. Forrestii, I. fosteriana, I. germanica, 
I. geniocarpa, I. graminea, I. Grant-Duffii, I. Histrio, I. histrioides, 
I. hookeriana, I. humilis, I. imbricata, I. japonica, I. juncea, I, junonia, 
I, kashmiriana, I. kumaonensis, I. laevigata, I. Madonna, I. mellita, 
I. mesopotamica, I. minuta, I. missouriensis, I. montana, I. ochroleuca, 
I. orchioides, I. orientalis, I. palestina, I. pallida, I. persica, I. pris- 
matica, I. Pseudacorus, I. pseudopumila, I. pumila, I. Reichenbachii, 
I. reticulata, I. rosenbachiana, I. scariosa, I. setosa, I. sibirica, I. 
sikkimensis, I. sindjarensis, I. Sintensii, I. Sisyrhinchium, I. spuria, 
I. Stocksii, I. subbiflora, I. tigrida, I. tripetala, I. trojana, I. tuber- 
geniana, I. tuberosa, I. unguicularis, I. Urumovii, I. variegata, I. Vartani, 
I. versicolor, I. warleyensis, I. willmottiana, I. Wilsonii, I. Winkleri, 
I. xiphioides, I. Xiphium. 

OCTOBER. In flower : I. aphylla. To be planted : I. acutiloba, 
I. Aitchisoni, I. atrofusca, I. atropurpurea, I. aurea, I. bakeriana, 
I. Barnumae, I. bismarckiana, I. Bloudowii, I. Boissieri, I. bucharica, 
I. Bungei, I. caucasica, I. Danfordiae, I. darwasica, I ensata, I. Farreri, 
I. filifolia, I. foetidissima, I. Fontanesii, I. fosteriana, I. Gatesii, I. 
goniocarpa, I. Grant-Duffii, I. Histrio, I. histrioides, I. hoogiana, I. 
hookeriana, I. iberica, I. juncea, I. Korolkowi, I. kumaonensis, I. 
Lortetii, I. Meda, I. ochroleuca, I. orchioides, I. orientalis, I. paradoxa, 
I. persica, I. Pseudacorus, I. reticulata, I. rosenbachiana, I. Sari, 
I. sikkimensis, I. sindjarensis, I. Sisyrhinchium, I. Stocksii, I. stoloni- 
fera, I. susiana, I. tingitana, I. tubergeniana, I. Vartani, I. versicolor, 
I. warleyensis, I. willmottiana, I. Winkleri, I. xiphioides. 

NOVEMBER. In flower : I. alata, I. palestina, I. unguicularis. 
To be planted : I. tingitana. 

DECEMBER. In flower : I. alata, I. Histrio, I. palestina, I. ungui- 
cularis, I. Vartani. To be planted : None. 


FEBRUARY. Actinidia (Thin out and shorten if needed) ; Ailanthus 
glandulosa (Cut down nearly to ground, retain only one shoot); 
Artemisia (Cut out old wood when needful, shorten previous year's 
growth); Buddleia variabilis (Cut back previous year's growth, 
thin out shoots) ; Bupleurum fruticosum (when against walls) ; 
Caesalpina japonica ; Cassinia (Shorten if straggling) ; Ceanothus 
(Cut back previous year's shoots of deciduous species); Celastrus 
(Thin out and shorten if needed) ; Cestrum ; Clematis davidiana, 
Flammula, Jackmanni, lanuginosa, Viticella (Cut back previous 
year's shoots) ; Colutea (Thin and shorten if needed) ; Coriaria 
(Thin out, shorten dead shoots); Cyrilla (Cut off dead flower 
heads); Desmodium (Cut out previous year's shoots); Eccremo- 
carpus scaber (Cut back dead stems) ; Elsholtzia (Cut back shoots) ; 
Ercilla volubilis (Shorten and thin if needed); Ficus (Thin occa- 
sionally) ; Fuchsia (Cut to near main branches, remove dead wood) ; 
Hedera (Cut back close on walls) ; Hedysarum multijugum (Shorten 
shoots) ; Hydrangea arborescens (Cut out old shoots, shorten last 
year's wood), H. grandiflora, H. paniculata (Remove old flower 
heads, cut weak shoots); Hypericum (Thin old wood, shorten 
young), H. calycinum (Cut right back), H. moserianum (Thin and 
shorten shoots half back) ; Indigofera gerardiana (Cut well back on 
walls, remove dead wood on bushes) ; Itea virginica (Thin old shoots, 
shorten young), /. ilicifolia (Shorten shoots); Lespedeza (Cut 
back young shoots); Lippia (Shorten long shoots); Lupinus 
arboreus (Thin old wood, shorten shoots half back); Marsdenia 
(Thin and shorten if needed) ; Menispermum (Cut unneeded growth) ; 
Microglossa (Thin old wood, shorten shoots half back) ; Myricaria 
(Thin old wood, shorten young shoots) ; Paulownia imperialis (Cut 
down for large leaves); Penstemon (Remove dead growth and 
thin) ; Periploca graeca (Cut if needed) ; Pipanthus (Remove old 
and dead wood, shorten long shoots half back); Polygonum 
baldschuanicum (Cut back on walls); Rhus (Cut back for large 
leaves) ; Rosa (Prune Ayrshire, Boursault, rugosa t sempervirens, 
Wich. Ramb.); Romneya (Cut dead or oldest shoots, trim back 
long branches); Sambucus (Cut down for foliage); Schizandra 
(Thin and shorten if needed) ; Spiraea (Prune hard all species 
flowering on young wood) ; Stauntonia (Thin and shorten if needed) ; 
Tamarix pentandra (Cut young shoots hard back); Tecoma (Cut 
back secondary shoots) ; Teucrium (Cut back secondary shoots) ; 
Vitex (Cut back secondary shoots on walls) ; Vitis (Prune closely if 

MARCH. See also Spring. Clematis florida, C. lanuginosa, C. 


montana, C. patens (Cut dead and overcrowded shoots) ; Hedera 
Ivy (Clip against walls); Lavendula (Cut back if needed); Rho- 
dodendron (Old bushes can be cut back); Rosa (Prune Bourbon, 
Brier, China, Damask, H.P., H.T., Moss, Noisette, Pern., Poly, 
pom., Provence) ; Salix (Cut back hard for coloured bark). 

APRIL. See also Spring. Arbutus (Cut if overgrown); Arundi- 
naria (Trim, cut out worn old shoots) ; Arundo (Cut out old shoots) ; 
Aucuba (Cut back if needed); Bamboo (Cut out weak old shoots 
and trim) ; Choisya ternata (Trim if needed) ; Laurus (Cut back if 
overgrown); Olearia Haastii (Cut back if overgrown); Prunus 
Laurocerasus, P. lusitanica (Finish cutting back); Rosa (Prune 
Banksia, Dwarf and standard Teas, Noisettes); Salix (Cut back 
for peeling rods) ; Syringa Lilac (Thin out, remove weak shoots). 

SPRING. Clerodendron fallax (Cut to ground) ; Cornus (Cut back 
if overgrown, or for coloured bark); Diostea (Shorten shoots); 
Fremontia calif ornica (Shorten only longest branches) ; Hedera (Cut 
back straggling plants) ; Magnolia grandiflora (Cut back and tie) ; 
Rhus (Cut back on walls); Pyracantha (Shorten shoots); Rosa 
(Finish pruning); Ruscus (Thin old shoots). 

MAY. Magnolia conspicua (Trim) ; Salix (Cut back for peeling 
rods) ; Syringa Lilac (Remove weak shoots). 

JUNE. See also Summer. Hedera (Remove long shoots on 
walls); Syringa Lilac (Remove weak shoots). 

JULY. See also Summer. Hedera (Remove long shoots on 

SUMMER. Azara (Shorten if needed); Buxus (Clip box-edging 
and topiary work); Carpinus (Trim hedges); Deutzia (Remove 
old wood occasionally, prune back for forcing) ; Discaria (Shorten 
shoots if needed) ; Eleagnus (Shorten straggling shoots) ; Euonymus 
japonicus (Clip hedges) ; Evodia (Trim if needed) ; Griselinia (Trim 
if needed) ; Kadsura (Cut back if needed) ; Laurus (Trim) ; Ligu- 
strum (Clip hedges as required) ; Lonicera (Thin and cut back bushes 
occasionally) ; Magnolia (Trim if needed); Micfalia (Trim if 
needed); Osmanthus (Trim if needed); Robinia hispida (Shorten 
shoots); Tilia (Cut back shoots in pleached walks). 

AFTER FLOWERING. Abelia (Remove flower heads, thin if 
needed); Akebia (Thin and shorten if needed); Azalea; Berberi- 
dopsis corallina (Shorten shoots, tip branches); Berberis Aqui- 
fotium Mahonia (Cut over) ; Bruckenthalia spiculaefolia (Cut 
flower heads); Bryanthus (Cut flower heads); Calluna vulgaris 
(Cut flower heads); Caryopteris Mastacanthus (Tip shoots); Cas- 
sandra (Cut flower heads) ; Cassiope (Cut flower heads) ; Ceanothus 
(Cut back against walls); Ceratostigma (Cut flower heads); Chi- 
monanthus fragrans (Cut back secondary shoots against walls); 
Choisya ternata (Cut back against walls) ; Cistus (Cut flower heads) ; 
Clematis (Remove dead ends); Coronilla (Cut back if needed); 
Crataegus (Cut out straggling branches) ; Cydonia (Cut back hedges) ; 
Cytisus (Cut back); Daboecia (Cut dead flower heads); Diervilla 


(Cut back flowering branches); Dipelta (Cut back flowering 
branches); Dorycnium (Tip shoots); Erica (Trim tall, cut flower 
heads off dwarf species); Escallonia (Cut back against walls); 
Fabiana (Tip shoots); Forsythia (Thin out and cut back), F. 
suspensa (Cut back) ; Halimodendron argenteum (Tip longest shoots) ; 
Helianthemum (Cut dead flower heads); Hydrangea (Cut dead 
flowers); H. petiolaris (Cut back); Jasminum nudiflorum, J. 
primulinum (Cut back flowering shoots), /. officinalis (Thin); 
Kerria (Cut out old wood or shorten) ; Kolkwitzia (Thin if needed) ; 
Lavendula (Cut off flower stalks) ; Leptospermum (Shorten branches 
if needed) ; Leucothoe (Thin old shoots if needed) ; Linum arboreum 
(Cut dead flower heads) ; Lonicera (Cut back if needed) ; Neviusia 
(Thin old wood); Olearia Haastii (Prune lightly); Oxydendron 
(Cut dead flower heads) ; Philadelphus (Thin and cut back flowering 
wood); Pieris (Cut dead flower heads); Plagianthus (Cut back 
against walls); Prunus triloba fl. pi., P. japonica fl. pi. (Cut back 
flowering branches); Psoralea (Shorten branches); Raphiolepis 
(Cut back slightly against walls); Rosa (Cut out old wood from 
Ramblers, prune Weeping Standards); Ruta (Shorten leading 
shoots); Santolina (Cut to below flower stalks); Schizophragma 
(Cut back against walls); Spartium (Cut dead flower heads); 
Tamarix (Prune hedges); Trachelospermum (Cut back shoots 
against walls) ; Ulex (Trim) ; Zenobia (Cut dead flower heads). 

WHEN YOUNG TO TRAIN. Caragana; Cercis; Hamamelis; 
Notospartium junceum. 

No REGULAR PRUNING Shorten straggling shoots. Actinidia 
chinensis; Ampelopsis; Aristolochia ; Camellia japonica; Celas- 
trus; Escallonia; Fallugia; Hydrangea scandans; Pittosporum; 
Vinca major, V . minor. 

No REGULAR PRUNING. Acer; Adenocarpus; Amelanchier; 
Andromeda; Aralia; Arctostaphylos ; Aristotelia Macqui; Asimina 
triloba; Astragalus; Berberis; Bursaria spinosa; Buxus (bushes 
and trees, except in topiary work); Calophaca wolgarica; Caly- 
canthus; Carmichaelia; Carpenteria calif ornica; Cephalanthus ; 
Cercidiphyllum japonicum ; Cercocarpus; Chiogenes; Chloranthus; 
Cladrastis tinctoria; Clerodendron Fargesii, C. trichotomum; 
Clethra; C ley era; Cliftonia; Cneorum; Colletia; Coprosma; 
Corema; Corokia; Corylopsis; Cotoneaster; Cudrania; Cydonia; 
Daphne; Daphniphyllum; Dendropanax; Desfontainia spinosa; 
Dichotomanthts tristaniaecarpa ; Dirca; Disanthus cercidifolius ; 
Distylium; Drimys; Echinopanax; Edgeworthia; Empetrum; 
Enkianthus; Ephedra; Erinacea pungens; Eucryphia; Euonymus 
japonicus; Eurya; Fatsia; Fendlera rupicola; Fontanesia; 
Forestiera; F other gitta; Garry a; Gaultheria; Gaylussacia; Genista; 
Gordonia; GrevilUa; Halesia; Heteromeles; Hibiscus syriacus; 
Hippophae; Hymenanthera; Illicium; Jamesia americana; Kal- 
mia; Koelreuteria ; Laburnum; Ledum; Leiophyllum ; Ligustrum 
(bushes) ; Lindera; Lithospermum; Loropetalum; Lyonia; Margy- 


ricarpus setosus; Medicago arborea; Meliosma; Menziesia; 
Metaplexis; Muehleribeckia ; Myrica; Myrsine; Myrtus; Neillia; 
Nuttallia; Ononis; Pachistima; Pachysandra; Parrotia; Pernettya 
mucronata; Petteria; Philadelphus coronarius, P. grandiflorus, 
P. Lewisii; Phillyrea; Photinia; Poliothyrsis ; Potentilla; Ptelea; 
Pyracantha; Rhamnus; Rhodotypos; Ribes; Rosmarinus officinalis; 
Rubus deliciosus; Sambucus (bushes); Sarcococca; Shepherdia; 
Skimmia; Smilax; Sophora; Spiraea; Stachyurus; Staphylea; 
Stranvaesia; Stuartia; Styrax; Symphoricarpus ; Syringa (Lilac); 
Tamarix (bushes); Umbellularia calif ornica; V actinium ; Vero- 
nica; Viburnum; Vinca; Vitis; Xanthoceras; Zanthoxylum. 


WHEN a branch is being removed the cut should be made parallel 
with the bark of the main branch, and when branches are being 
shortened they should be severed to a branchlet or to a bud. As 
soon as wounds are made they should be pared smooth at the 
margins and be coated with coal tar or some other preservative. 

In pruning ornamental trees, and particularly those that grow 
to considerable dimensions, care should be taken to restrict the 
trees to single trunks. Theoretically all that the cultivator has to 
do is to keep removing lower branches as they appear and direct 
all vigour into the main stem. From a practical point of view 
this is not possible. Therefore he removes two or three lower 
branches with caution and shortens others. 

Cavities in trees are due to decaying wood and their neglect 
may hasten the death of a tree. To deal with them, remove as 
much as possible of the dead wood, paint the decayed surface with 
a strong solution of carbolic acid; when dry, coat with tar, then 
fill up with cement, concrete, asphalt, or hard tamped clay. 
Finish with a surface that will throw off water and coat with tar 
or some colouring matter that is near the colour of the bark. 

All trees cannot be pruned alike, and this is particularly 
noticeable in the case of fruit trees.' It is a good practice to keep 
the centres of fruit trees and bushes open and to remove cross 
branches, but it is not always advisable to shorten branches very 
much. In some kinds of apple tree flowers are borne freely from 
the points of the previous year's shoots, and it is only by leaving 
them intact that full crops of fruits are procured. In other cases 
rather severe pruning can be practised without much loss of flower- 
ing wood. Then the object for which, or the manner in which, 
trees are grown has a very distinct bearing upon the manner in 
which pruning should be conducted. With garden Roses again 
the different types and even different varieties often require separate 
consideration. Among hardy shrubs there are some kinds that 
require pruning during late winter and others that must be left 
until the flowers are over. 


s = depth to sow or set. p ~ distance to plant or thin out. 
w = width between rows. Measurement in inches. 












Beans, Broad . . 






Dwarf .. 





,, Runner . . 





Beet, Globe 

Jan. -May 





Jan. May 



,, Spinach . . 





Borecole, Kale . . 










Brussels Sprouts . 


Mar.-Ap . 



Cabbage, Autumn 











Spring . 




12 2O 








Jan. Aug. 




J i 













Feb. -Mar. 







Corn Salad (Lambs 





Jan. Sep. 










Kohl Rabi 






























Onions, Autumn . 

i" 1 




Spring . . 


Jan. Mar. 





Mar. Aug. 















Jan. -May 




Jan. Sep. 























Shallots .. 

6 10 



Spinach . . 





New Zea- 

land . 





,, Perpetual 





Turnips ... 







THERE are two kinds of unsuitable plants for any kind of garden : 
those that will not grow, and those that grow too much. The 
latter divide themselves into two sections : the ones which increase 
by vegetative growth, and the ones which increase by seeds or 
bulbils. Some of them spread by means of underground stems, 
often miscalled roots, while others usually spread along the surface, 
sometimes rooting as they go. The underground spreaders are the 
source of most trouble. Most of the worst weeds the almost 
ineradicable ones belong to this group with underground stems, 
usually brittle and jointed, and capable of sending out roots and 
shoots from each joint, so that every small piece left in the ground 
can form a new plant. There are a few bulbous plants, too, especi- 
ally AUiums, which can give great trouble, due to the numerous 
small bulbs, which the parent bulbs throw off underground every 
year. Some of these garlics are pretty plants, but the more repro- 
ductive ones, like roseum, neapolitanum, and triquetrum, should have 
plenty of room. Subterranean spreading is by no means confined 
to herbaceous plants and rock plants. It is this that makes the. 
Snowberry, Symphoricarpus racemosus, and the suckers which 
Cherries and Plums, and some kinds of Elm, Poplar, etc., 
throw up such a bother. Water-plants also mostly increase 
rapidly by means of horizontal stems which push through the 
mud Typha, Sparganium, Potamogeton, Acorus, Scirpus, Iris, etc., 
and this makes the care of the small water garden difficult unless 
such plants are excluded. 

The plants which spread along the surface of the ground are 
more easy to control. These are mostly rock-garden subjects, 
and it is in the rock garden that they can do most harm. 
The more rampant are best placed outside the rock garden altogether. 
The rest are best planted with their kindred at a safe distance from 
the Kabschia Saxifrages and other little treasures of the rock garden. 
There are smaller things, too, which, while quite harmless among 
strong-growing plants, are highly dangerous among small or low- 
growing treasures. Helxine Soleirolii can be an absolute pest. 
Even the very tiniest of the rock plants, the dainty Arenaria 
balearica and the peppermint-scented Mentha Requieni, can be a 
great trouble among the small high-alpine cushion-plants. 



Acaena Buckananii. Spreads rapidly. 

Acer Pseudo-platanus. Seeds profusely. 

Ajuga reptans. Bugle, with varieties, except in wild garden. 

A Ilium roseum, neapolitanum, triquetrum. Use with caution. 

Alnus glutinosa. Seeds freely. 

Anchusa sempervirens. Seeds freely. 

Anemone japonica. Spreads rapidly when once established. 

Arenaria balearica. Dangerous among choice plants in R.G. 

Aster. Michaelmas Daisies seed profusely if permitted. 

Be tula alba. Seeds freely. 

Campanula pusilla. Spreads in R.G. 

Cerastium tomentosum. Roots and spreads rapidly. 

Clerodendron foetidum. Suckers. 

Convolvulus tenuissimus (althaeoides). Troublesome in R.G. 

Crucianella stylosa. Roots and seeds, very troublesome. 

Epilobium, in variety. Seeds freely. 

Euphorbia capitata. Spreads underground. 

Gaultheria Shallon. Spreads underground. 

Helxine Soleirolii. Devastating ramper. 

Hieracium aurantiacum, rubrum. Spreads and seeds. 

Hypericum calycinum. Spreads rapidly. 

Linaria pallida, repens. Spreads underground. 

Mentha, in variety. Spreads underground. Requieni. Troublesome 

among choice rock plants. 
Myosotis. Common forms seed profusely. 
Petasites fragrans. Spreads underground. 
Physalis Alkekengi. Spreads underground. 
Potamogeton. Spreads in ponds. 

Potentilla ambigua and several others. Spreads rapidly. 
Sambucus nigra. Seeds. 
Scirpus. Spreads in ponds. 

Sedum acre, album, reflexum, rupestre, sexangulare, spurium. 
Solidago virgaurea. Spreads and seeds. 
Sparganium. Spreads in ponds. 
Spiraea. (Some of the common shrubs.) Suckers. 
Symphoricarpus racemosus. Spreads underground. 
Tiarella cordifolia. Spreads quickly. 
Typha. Spreads in ponds. 
Veronica filiformis. Spreads rapidly. 
Vinca major, minor. Spreads rapidly 
Waldsteinia trifolia. Spreads underground. 

The Editor will be glad to receive notes of any plants that should 
be included in this list. Notes should include some details beyond 
names, for plants rampant in one garden may be difficult in another. 

Additional plants put on the Index : Caleslegia pubescens; running 
roots. Helianthus "Miss Mellish"; running roots. Polygonum cupsi- 
datum ; running roots. Laburnum vulgare ; seeds profusely. 

C. N. (Cornwall). 


EVERY gardener ought to be interested in keeping the country- 
side as beautiful as possible, as each garden is only one plot 
in the larger garden which Nature has planted. 

His first duty is to refrain from doing anything to diminish 
the floral beauty of the country. Many gardeners require 
briers for grafting roses. They must not pillage the hedges; 
it would be quite easy for them to grow them from seed and 
have a continuous succession. Sometimes we want whole 
beds of common primroses for wild gardens. It is a stupid and 
wasteful way to go out into woods and take them up by the 
root. They can be grown far better from seed. A single 
packet of seed will produce plants which can be established 
easily and successfully. 

I have known people transplant wild orchids they always 
die. If you are to grow the hardy orchids you must grow 
them from seed. 

The gardener is one who knows how to propagate, and he 
ought to be increasing the number of wild flowers and not 
decreasing, and what we do at home we ought to do abroad. 
The collector who brings home packets of seed does no harm 
to the country he has left and beautifies our gardens ; but I am 
told that the Lilium Henryi is extinct in the valley where it 
was first found, for great masses of bulbs were sent to this 
country. I remember seeing a statement of a nurseryman that 
he had brought 50,000 bulbs from the neighbourhood of 
Smyrna. No countryside will stand depletion in that way. 

Then there is work that a gardener can do. Everyone 
should take their part in planting trees, flowering shrubs, 
ornamental trees in suitable places. A person driving through 
the country ought to feel that he is always driving through a 
country park. There are many village greens where the 
planting of a few trees would change the whole aspect, and we 


should think of the outside of our houses and the view of them 
from the road as well as the seclusion of our own garden. 

Our country is naturally beautiful, but if everyone having 
a cottage garden or vicarage garden or a park considers his 
neighbours as well as himself, its beauty may easily be increased. 
I think, too, something might be done in restoring to the places 
for which they were famous our rarer wild flowers. It is easy 
to get the seed from abroad without damage to the country 
from where we get it. The sowing of a few seed pods will 
restore plants which are almost lost. 



MR. BELLOC has somewhere said that in his opinion the only 
contribution of the landowning class to Society has been the 
Landscape of Rural England, " the character of the Paradise," 
as he calls it. It is not given to many people to have the 
creation of a Paradise to their credit, or even to have been 
prime contributor towards its formation and maintenance. 
But only at the moment when our countryside is threatened 
with dissolution do we awake to the fact that what the 
landowners have bequeathed us is a commercial asset worth 

That this grudging acknowledgment is literally true is no 
question. Up to the end of the middle ages, though each 
succeeding possessor of this island had left his mark Iberian, 
Celt, Roman, Saxon, Dane, and Norman and glorious marks 
many of them were, tumuli, roads, market towns, villages, 
castles and cathedrals nevertheless, the agricultural country- 
side to our eyes must have appeared bare and cheerless. As 
the wastes receded, the land was divided into common fields 
and narrow strips of private cultivation; the countryside out- 
side villages and towns must have resembled large collections 
of allotment gardens, utilitarian but hardly beautiful. There 
would be no hedges and few trees outside the forests. During 
the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, however, a profound 
change must have come over the appearance of the country: 


the formation of great estates and the building of country- 
houses surrounded by their parks gave a richness to the land- 
scape; the allotment fields were absorbed into farms, the 
wastes separating the villages reclaimed and enclosed. Whether 
this was sound on social lines or no, it increased the efficiency of 
farming and altered the general appearance of the countryside. 
The owner of a large estate wished to draw attention to its 
extent by a boundary, hedge or trees. The larger and per- 
manent fields showed their divisions by stone walls and hedges, 
whichever was most appropriate, in place of the temporary 
dividing off of parts of the common field with hurdles. Iso- 
lated trees in fields and hedgerows enclosed and enriched the 
picture, and under the system of tenant farming they were not 
cut down. This park-like effect of the country (which always 
astonishes foreign visitors) was evidently the result of a desire 
to irradiate the influences of the private garden and park sur- 
rounding the country house : the need of coverts and belts of 
trees for sporting purposes also added its quota. 

Some early examples have fortunately been preserved. In 
the seventeenth century French influence was in the ascendant, 
and an attempt was made to classify our landscape after the 
Continental model: the Duke of Beaufort thrust his radiating 
avenues in all directions round Badminton, obtaining per- 
mission from neighbouring landowners to traverse their 
property in order to focus his vista upon some church tower. 
The surroundings of Ragley are even more formal, but the 
avenues are swallowed up by wooded hills. The attempt was 
defeated by the invincible undulation of the greater part of 
English scenery, and because we had a less extravagant nobility 
and kings who spent their money on other things. But the 
desire persisted, and Mr. Christopher Hussey, in his delightful 
book on the Picturesque, has shown how the landowners' energy 
was turned into the more feasible channel of Landscape 
Design. This new school accepted the natural informality of 
the country and aimed at emphasising it. Kent and Capa- 
bility Brown, the gardener, were the protagonists of this new 
method, and like all reformers they swept away much that was 
beautiful in the formal gardens surrounding the houses. But 
their parks were superb, as may be seen at Blenheim and Chats- 
worth. Every country squire became an amateur of planting 


and a disputant in the art of the Picturesque. It is by no 
means realised, if it can even be definitely known, how much of 
England was consciously laid out during this time, far beyond 
the boundary of the home park. For example, in the Thames 
Valley, in the neighbourhood of the Goring Gap, the downs 
were nearly bare 150 years ago; there is evidence here of the 
careful work of landscape planting which gives that charac- 
teristic appearance to this beautiful stretch of the river. The 
regularising hand of man has thus been softened into heighten- 
ing an effect here, opening a prospect there, planting out an 
unseemly object, framing a lovely view. 

Moreover, though like M. Jourdain, he did not know it, the 
landowner was practising the modern mystery of zoning; he 
decided where the houses were to go, grouped into a village; 
what land was reserved for agricultural use and what for 
recreation, both public and private. There was no litter, no 
advertisements, and the grass verges and hedges were trim and 

The countryside withstood the great nineteenth-century 
ravage of the railways : their scars remain, but they are largely 
healed, because there was the same quiet influence at work, and 
indeed it remains to-day where the estates are not broken up. 
But these areas grow smaller every year, and so in place of the 
landowners as guardians of England's Beauty, we have The 
Council for the Preservation of Rural England.* No fewer 
than 29 different organisations and a host of affiliated societies 
are now necessary ; and so far the spoliation of the countryside 
has only been partially checked. I would suggest that we ask 
ourselves what it is that we really need to keep in the country, 
for so much of the damage is done by people misguidedly 
making use of it for their imagined pleasures. Bungalows and 
houses in strings along the road new main roads " opening 
up " remote patches or ploughing through existing villages 
petrol stations: these are all provided to make the country 
more accessible. A new approach to the study of Landscape 
Design is necessary; the break up of the old estates must 
mean change; more people can get into the country for per- 
manent or occasional residence. Do not let us be so foolish 
as to try to stop the change as Ruskin tried to stop the rail- 

* See Societies. 


ways, but let us all agree to adapt the changes to the genius of 
our countryside. It can be done, but it must be done quickly 
if we are to continue to enjoy it. 


Hon. Sec., C.P.R.E. 

GOOD TURNS TO TREES. Under this title the Men of the 
Trees Society published a useful pamphlet for Girl Guides. 
Among the hints given some of the "don'ts" should be 
generally remembered: 

Don't build a fire close to a tree ; even though not set on 
fire its roots may be injured. 

Don't start cutting a stick and then leave it. 

Don't cut a sapling. 

Don't cut the bark of a tree. . 

Don't tie up a horse near a tree. . . 

Don't run along snapping off twigs. . . 

Scott Harris published in Los Angeles ten commandments. 
These included : 

" Thou shalt learn to know the Wild Flowers of thy 

"Thou shalt consider the places where they grow as thy 
great garden, and make it thy aim to protect it." 

" Thou shalt remember the seedtime of another year, and 
the joy of others who are to look upon the flowers " 

" Thou shalt not destroy, but shalt use thy best knowledge 
to bring two blossoms to the coming year where last year 
counted one." 



IT is doubtful whether any plot of land has been more ardently 
loved than the little garden-orchard which lies behind Dove 
Cottage, known all over the world as the home to which Words- 
worth and his sister Dorothy came in December 1799. Few 
gardens can have a more enduring place in our literature, for 
almost everything in this nook of ground has been written 
about, delicately and beautifully, by Wordsworth in his poems, 
and by Dorothy in her journal. 

Here the poet spent hours wrestling with the difficulties of 
verse making, or lying in the orchard watching the birds, the 
butterflies, the leaves, and flowers; or talking with Coleridge; 
and at all hours of the day and night walking backwards and 
forwards on the tiny terrace with Dorothy. They both 
laboured in the garden. " My trees they are, my sister's 
flowers." William stuck peas, Dorothy sowed beans ; together 
they built the walls, cleared the rocks and the little well, and 
planted flowers brought back from the lakeside and fells, and 
from the gardens of their village neighbours. From the seat 
in the orchard Dorothy drank in " the overwhelming beauty of 
the vale below." She sat on the wall making her shifts, read 
Boswell and Spenser, and noted "all the goings-on" of life 
around her. " The blackbird sate quietly on its nest, rocked 
by the wind and beaten by the rain." She watched " the little 
birds busy making love, and picking the blossom and bits of 
moss off the trees. They flutter about and about beneath the 
trees as I lie under them " 

Both brother and sister were poets, both had not only 
sympathetic imagination and the power of intense enjoyment 
in natural beauty, but also such rare gifts of delicate and sure 
expression that we are admitted in a very special way to share 
their experiences in " their life of observation and emotion." 
Dorothy could condense the deep calm of her happiness, her 



ecstasy of feeling, into a few words. She stepped outside for a 
last look at the lake in the evening, and wrote, " Grasmere very 
solemn in the last glimpse of twilight. It calls home the heart 
to quietness." And " Grasmere looked so beautiful that my 
heart was almost melted away." Or, again, " What a beautiful 
spot this is the greenest in all the earth, the softest green 
covers the mountains to the very top Silverhow is before my 
eyes, and I forget I have ever seen it so beautiful." 

We know that for her this little home, shared with her 
brother, was the perfect fulfilment of her earlier dreams. In 
1792 she had written with longing desire: "If we could erect 
a little cottage and call it our own, we should be the happiest 
of human beings. I see my brother fired with the idea of 
leading his sister to such a retreat. Our parlour is in a moment 
furnished, our garden adorned by magic, the roses and honey- 
suckles spring at our command, the wood behind the house 
lifts its head and furnishes us with a winter's shelter and a 
summer's noon-day shade." 

Here in Grasmere eight years later the dream was realised, 
and in entire contentment she wrote, in 1800, to a friend: 
" We have a boat on the lake, and a small orchard and a smaller 
garden, which, as it is the work of our own hands, we regard 
with pride and partiality. The garden we enclosed from the 
road, and pulled down a fence which formerly divided it from 
the orchard. The orchard is very small, but it is a delightful 
one from its retirement and the prospect from it. Our cottage 
is quite large enough for us, though very small. We have made 
it nice and comfortable within doors, and it looks very nice on 
the outside, for though the roses and honeysuckles which we 
have planted are only of this year's growth, yet it is covered 
all over with green leaves and scarlet flowers, for we have 
trained scarlet beans up on threads, which are not only exceed- 
ingly beautiful but very useful, as their produce is immense. 
We sit a great part of our time under the apple trees." 

Wordsworth tells us in The Waggoner that the house was 
once an inn, " The Dove, and Olive Bough." From this came 
its present name, which, however, was never used by the 
Wordsworths. They wrote "Town-end" at the head of their 
letters the name still used for the southern end of the village. 
Formerly there was an uninterrupted view from the house over 


fields to the lake and fells beyond, but soon after the Words- 
worths moved from the cottage the present main road was 
constructed, and beside it, later, buildings were erected which 
block the outlook from the windows; though from the seat in 
the orchard a view can still be had, over the tops of the build- 
ings, of the lake and valley and fells beyond. In the poet's 
time the turnpike road passed the cottage, and Dorothy con- 
stantly made mention of the foot-travellers who went by. 
There can have been but little traffic, for she noted, as if it 
were a rare event, " To-day, a chaise passed/' 

In front of the cottage are " the two yew trees still breaking 
the glare of the white walls," and a little strip of garden between 
the windows and the road. Behind the house the ground 
slopes steeply upward. Stepping-stones in the grass, laid by 
the poet and one of his cottage neighbours, John Fisher, lead 
to steps cut in the rock, and on to a short terrace which curves 
beneath a few apple trees. Above, again, is a grassy bank, and 
a seat sheltered beneath a wall. Beyond the wall a wood 
rises to the open fell and crags. Below the terrace is a little 
rocky well. 

If you listen, all is still 

Save a little neighbouring rill 

That from out the rocky ground 

Strikes a solitary sound. 

In the spring, clustering in the rocks about the well, are scores 
of little wild daffodils, children of the flowers planted by Words- 
worth and Dorothy, descendants perhaps of the "jocund 
company" that fluttered and danced beside Ullswater, which 
both brother and sister have commemorated for all time. 
Half-way up the bank is the rock which Coleridge discovered 
and formed into a seat. 

The whole place is haunted with memories, made vivid for 
us by the simplicity and perfect naturalness of Dorothy's 
writing. Everything, as she describes it, seems to take on life. 

" A sweet morning, we have put the finishing stroke to our 
bower, and here we are sitting in the orchard. It is one o'clock. 
We are sitting upon a seat under the wall which I found my 
brother building up when I came to him. He had intended it 
should be done before I came. It is a nice cool, shady spot. 
The small birds are singing, lambs bleating, cuckoos calling, 


the thrush sings by fits, Thomas Ashburner's axe is going quietly 
(without passion) in the orchard, hens are cackling, flies hum- 
ming, the women talking together at their doors, plum and 
pear trees are in blossom, apple trees greenish, the opposite 
woods green, the crows are cawing, we have heard ravens, the 
ash trees are in blossom, birds flying about us, the stitchwort 
is coming out, there is one budding lychnis, the primroses are 

In The Recluse, The Green Linnet, The Daisy, The Butterfly, 
The Kitten and the Falling Leaves, and other poems, Words- 
worth has described and praised the gardening and the joy he 
had in it. 

In 1802 Wordsworth and Dorothy left the cottage for some 
months in order to go to France, and later to Yorkshire for 
Wordsworth's marriage. This departure marked for Dorothy 
the end of her time spent as "sole companion" in perfect 
sympathy with her beloved brother. As elsewhere in her 
journal her few spontaneous words show the necessity she felt 
of giving expression to the beauty and poignancy of those 
brief years in which her happiness had been exquisite. "O 
beautiful place, the hour is come, I must prepare to go. The 
swallows I must leave them, the wall, the garden, the roses, 

all " And no record of Wordsworth's love for his home 

is more complete and tender than the Farewell he wrote at 
this time : 

Farewell, thou little Nook of mountain ground, 

Thou rocky corner in the lowest stair 

Of that magnificent temple which doth bound 

One side of our whole vale with grandeur rare; 

Sweet garden-orchard, eminently fair, 

The loveliest spot that man hath ever found, 

Farewell! we leave thee to Heaven's peaceful care, 

Thee, and the cottage that thou dost surround. 

O happy garden! whose seclusion deep 
Hath been so friendly to industrious hours; 
And to soft slumbers, that did gently steep 
Our spirits, carrying with them dreams of flowers, 
And wild notes warbled among leafy bowers; 
Two burning months let summer overleap, 
And, coming back with Her who will be ours, 
Into thy bosom we again shall creep. 


Nowadays, during the summer months, the cottage and 
garden are often thronged with visitors. Most of them do not 
stay long. 

They see all sights from pole to pole 
And glance and nod and bustle by . 

But there are some who care to linger and who climb to the 
seat beneath the orchard wall and look out over the meadows 
and the shining levels of the lake to Silverhow and Easedale. 
And perhaps these find in the outlook from this little walled 
space, in "the blended holiness of earth and sky/' that there 
is still something here, known of old to Wordsworth and to 
Dorothy, which " calls home the heart to quietness " 



I HAVE been asked to write a description of my garden, and 
although I have loved it and worked in it all my life, I find the 
task of describing it a difficult one. I cannot tell you of its 
beginnings the monks must have started many hundreds of 
years ago to make the Abbey garden. We have their stew 
ponds still, and very beautiful these are, and the yew trees that 
they planted. After all, a garden that has unlimited water 
and trees is already half made. Our great difficulty is the 
shallow light loam which lies on top of gravel, but even this 
has its advantages, for we can work the ground immediately 
after rain, which gardeners with richer soil find impossible. 

The herbaceous border is backed by an old brick wall about 
7' high and faces south. It is 8' wide and is divided into five 
60' sections by Irish yews. These divisions we keep strictly 
to the following colour scheme: red and white in the centre 
block; yellow and orange on either side; and blue and white at 
both ends. It is surprising how much more effective this 
simple massing of colour proves rather than the usual " Joseph's 
coat " of the ordinary border. We make no attempt to have a 
show of flowers here before the middle of July, and in this way 
blank spaces are avoided, which is inevitable if you are too 
ambitious. The red section is the most difficult. We have 


been defeated in our attempt to keep it truly perennial. It 
has been particularly good this summer with large groups of 
Salvia splendens, Fuchsia fulgens, Impatiens Holstii, American 
Zinnias planted with Lobelia cardinalis: with a background of 
scarlet and white Dahlias. There are also two big groups of 
Tritomas. In the yellow division Aster lutea promises to supply 
a long-felt want as a foreground plant. We find that Asters 
Edith Gibbs and Ideal are useful in the blue section, as with 
their feathery growth they can be pulled over plants which 
flowered earlier. Before leaving the border I should like to 
say that now, in the middle of October, it is still looking 

Beyond the border was once a neglected shrubbery of 
Laurels and tall Elms, the latter becoming dangerous with old 
age. As the rest of the garden had no suitable soil for growing 
the better Rhododendrons, we cleared this piece of ground, 
which gave us about a quarter of an acre of good leaf-mould. 
Rhododendrons, Kalmias, and Escallonias are all doing well here. 

From here you cross a large mown lawn bordered on one 
side by a nut walk carpeted in the spring by Snowdrops and 
Lent Lilies. There are two large beds with flowering shrubs 
and small trees in the centre, including Laburnum Adami, a 
tricoloured graft-hybrid which one rarely sees. And growing 
into a really fine specimen is a shrub which ought to have a 
place in every garden, Berberis Bealei, a peari among plants, 
for it flowers continuously from December to March. It has long 
racemes of golden flowers which smell like Lilies of the Valley 
and it even braved the frost and snow of last winter. Another 
midwinter joy is Rhododendron nobleanum, which flowers 
unfailingly at Christmas. Here, too, there is a group of 
conifers, Libocedrus, Cupressus pisifera squarrosa, Montezuma 
Pine, Cryptomeria japonica, and C. elegans. Among them 
Daffodils run riot in April and Martagon Lilies in July. 

At the furthermost limit of the garden is a sunken corner 
surrounded by old gnarled willows. The alluvial soil is perfect 
for the growing of all the water-loving Primulas -pulverulenta, 
japonica, Florindae, helodoxa, bulleana, rosea, and the Micro- 
donta Hybrids seed themselves here in wild profusion. Two 
streams drain this one-time swamp, and along their banks 
grow spiraeas, Osmunda ferns, and Iris. Meconopsis Baileyi 


and Hartley Hybrid Primulas made a lovely picture this summer 
in a shady corner. Bamboos and Gunneras do almost too 
well, for they are ever encroaching on their smaller neighbours. 

One of the lower ponds is rather a feature. It is surrounded 
at one end by old yew trees, which make a background for a 
large group of Iris sibirica Perry's Blue, and Hemerocallis flava, 
a happy combination. Long stretches of white Iris laevigata 
and Iris Kaempferi still flower freely every summer, though 
they were imported from Japan twenty years ago. We have 
another young planting near here, a mixture of Azaleas and 
Lilies. We grew the latter from seed and they flowered well 
this year. Making a background and shelter for them is a belt 
of flowering shrubs and brooms. 

Crossing the top of the lawn in front of the Abbey, where 
there are two fine specimens of Pinus insignis, you enter one of 
the most interesting parts of the garden. Gravel was once 
quarried in this corner and the ground having been left uneven 
it is a perfect site for a rock garden and for heaths. Ericas 
are a joyful addition to any garden as there is seldom a month 
without at least one variety in flower. We grow Gentians here 
also. These, too, have nearly as long a flowering season, from 
acaulis in the spring to sino-ornata which now in October is 
a carpet of blue. Two other good blue flowers growing on the 
same bank are Lithospermum graminifolium and Ceratostigma 
Wilmottii, the latter to my mind being one of the most satisfying 
of autumn flowers. Crowning the rock garden is a little old 
Umbrella Pine, and round it Chinese Berberis are growing. 
We raised these from seed and their berries have been a glory 
since they were three years old. We are also rather proud of 
two bushes of Crataegus orientalis grown from haws given to 
us by Sir Henry Peto from his garden at Cheddington. 

Returning to the Abbey on an autumn day there is a blaze 
of colour from Vitis Coignetiae, Vitis rubra, and both the old 
and new Virginia creepers. We take full advantage of the 
buttresses, between the cloister windows, for here we grow all 
manner of creepers: Ceanothus papillosus and dentatus, Akebia 
quinata, Clematis tangutica, Lonicera sempervirens, Buddleia 
auriculata and Tecoma grandiflora. 

The kitchen garden is mostly utilitarian, with a wide 
herbaceous border down the centre. On the back wall of the 


carnation house are our two greenhouse treasures. The first 
is Phaseolus caracalla, grown from seed given to us from the 
Orange Free State. This is its second year, and flowering for 
the first time it won an Award of Merit at the R.H.S. October 
show. It is growing rampantly up the 12' wall and the flowers 
are both strange and beautiful and smell of Orange blossom. 
Our second treasure is a perennial blue pea, Lathyrus pubescens, 
which grows from 10' to 12' high and flowers freely. 



THE plot of land attached to every house has its own particular 
problem. He is a lucky gardener who possesses a stream 
meandering across the bottom of his plot, where the land 
slopes gently down from the house. Environed with woods 
and hills, with a house lifted a little above the common plateau, 
I can imagine no more ideal site for a garden. But too often 
the plot of land is not at all to our heart's desire. It is usually 
a rectangular piece varying from ten rods to ten acres, and 
may be a flat field, so that whatever is introduced in the way 
of landscape architecture has to be created, as it were, on a 
bare canvas. But Nature and Art are not lacking in materials 
to effect a prompt transformation. There are trees of speedy 
growth, shrubs whose luxuriance can be hastened with proper 
treatment, and climbers that quickly cover up walls and fences. 
Materials are obtainable from a distance in these days of rapid 
transport, and whether a rock garden of natural formation, 
a dry stone wall, a sunk garden, or a paved path is our desire, 
modern industry will enable the landscape architect to obtain 
what is necessary for construction. 

A site might be entirely unsuitable for certain types of 
garden. It is costly and heartbreaking to try and grow 
Rhododendrons where there is a chalky subsoil. In some 
gardens thirsty plants, like Dahlias and Phlox, only thrive in 
very wet seasons. So, when designing a garden and preparing 
a planting scheme, knowledge is required of what the soil is 
capable of producing. 

End in View. It has been finely said that " the beautiful is 
as useful as the useful." It is equally true that beauty in 
design and form is only truly beautiful in its relation to the 
end in view. In the garden this is emphatically the case. If 
the owner of the garden is keen on rock plants, then he must 
have provision in his garden design for that feature. If his 
interest runs to fruit, space must be allotted for this type of 



garden, and if to games, turfing and levelling create problems 
at once. The first principle of good garden design should be 
to study the owner's end in view. This is also governed by 
locality, finance, interests of owner, and other conditions. 

The next important consideration is the style of house and 
its relation to the garden. Here the architect joins hands with 
the horticulturist, and the garden designer must be a person 
who has a knowledge of horticulture as applied to the garden 
of the home. The true art of landscape architecture can only 
come by practice and experience, and should take its place 
alongside other great branches of art. 

Object of Lay-Out. In setting out a garden, the third 
essential is to secure adequate footpaths. Without convenient 
and clean access to the garden on all possible occasions, the 
opportunities for the full enjoyment of the garden are lost. 
The direction of the paths is governed by the position of door- 
ways and entrances, and their object by the features of the 
garden. There is one certain necessity about footpaths, they 
should be in proportion to the house and garden. But even 
in a small garden there is no need to make single-file Indian 
tracks. These are bad relics of the Victorian era. Let us have 
good wide paths. 

Whether the design is to be strictly formal or informal is 
a matter of choice. But formality is essential near the house. 
It is here that architecture meets the garden, and both the 
design and planting need careful consideration to secure the 
best effect. It is very rarely that one sees a good example of 
planting and planning the garden close to the house. There 
are objects around the house which are best hidden, and the 
most effective method is by proper planting, or by climber- 
covered screens. 

Objects in the garden, such as flower-beds and ornaments, 
should bear a symmetrical relationship to each other. Propor- 
tion is also needed in the relation of features in the garden to 
the actual size of the garden and the house itself. Glaring 
examples of badly proportioned features are tiny vases on a 
substantially built wall. 

The formation of a British Institute of Landscape Architects 
is a sign of the times. The vast increase of interest in the 
cultivation of gardens is not without its effect upon the basic 


problem of all good gardening the lay-out and planting 
schemes involved. When we build a house, we call in an 
architect to prepare a plan, incorporating our own ideas and 
wishes with all that is known to be best in modern architecture. 
And it is the same with the garden. If we would get the most 
from a garden in the way of beauty of lay-out and design, the 
problem is one for an expert, and I am glad that an Association 
has been formed to spread a knowledge of the principles of 
good Garden Design. 

Summarising the features in garden design, I would say that 
the following are important: 

1. For gardens of moderate size, the design should be 
simple and of straight lines. Spottiness and f ussiness should be 
avoided; by this I mean the dotting about of specimen trees 
and shrubs in lawns and borders. 

2. It is desirable to continue the lines of the house into the 
garden design itself, and into the planting of the garden. 

3. Garden ornaments should harmonise with the archi- 
tectural style. If flower tubs or receptacles are employed near 
the modern flat-roofed house, these should be of rectangular 
pattern in preference to round or ornamental tubs. 

4. Views should be considered as seen from the windows. 
Remember that we live mostly indoors, in the winter-time 
especially, and the garden as seen from the house is of great 
importance. Across the breadth of garden there should be 
some object to catch the eye from a window and form, as it 
were, a central motive for the picture. 

5. Trees in and around the garden need to be considered 
when planting is done. They can very often be brought into 
the picture with a little thought in planting. Nothing 
emphasises the beauty of a flower border so much as a back- 
ground of trees. 

6. The paths should be of sufficient width to allow at least 
two persons to walk abreast comfortably. 

7. Material employed for the paths should harmonise with 
the walls of the house. 

Landscape Architect. 


SPEAKING generally, rock garden plants are found on the mountain 
ranges throughout the world. If the beginner will review in his 
mind the conditions he would expect to find there, he will be on 
the way to learn something of the way in which these beautiful 
plants live, the extremes of weather they have to withstand, and 
the wonderful manner in which nature protects them. They are 
covered through the winter months with a thick blanket of frozen 
snow that is a great protection to the foliage against cutting winds 
and severe frost. In the summer they have to withstand the 
evaporating heat of almost tropical suns. To meet this condition 
nature has blessed them with a tufted habit, often dense with 
thickened leaves covered with down or waxy scale-like excretions, 
plus a root system one would think out of all comparison with 
their needs. Their roots, however, must penetrate often a yard 
or more down some crevice, or through the shingle of the scree 
bed, to obtain anchorage and the moisture which, in spring and 
summer, percolates its way through from the melting snows above 
to the small rivulets and streams below. 

Compare this with our climate, with a tolerably cool summer, 
which does not always ripen the foliage. How best can the gardener 
meet these conditions and give his rock plants a position to with- 
stand the elements for which they were never intended? This 
question may lead him to thoughts of a rock garden in which his 
plants may obtain a cool root run, quick drainage, yet sufficient 
moisture during summer; and, at the same time, a place where 
the foliage will be reasonably dry during winter. 

Types of Stone. There are two types of stone generally used, 
sandstone and limestone. Some thought must be given to district 
before either be employed. If very dry and with a small annual 
rainfall, a rough porous sandstone would be best. With a heavy 
annual rainfall, a limestone of the Westmorland weatherworn type 
might be more suitable. The latter is certainly much more 
picturesque in effect, also easier to arrange to give pleasure to the 
eye. Rocks ought to harmonise one with another, and, where 
possible, with their surroundings. 

Situation and Soil. The position should be as far as possible 
from the shadows cast by high walls, tall buildings and trees. 
The roots of the latter would sap the life-blood of the plants in 
summer, while drip from the boughs would rot the small plants in 



winter. There are plants that like these conditions, but they are 
few, and in the main ferns or plants with little beauty except in 
foliage. If the ground be heavy and wet, some form of drainage 
will be found necessary if constructing on a level piece of ground. 
A natural bank is ideal. Excavate to a depth of 15 inches, saving 
all soil if fit for further use, fill up the excavation with brick-bats, 
clinker-burs, etc., and roll in to prevent sinking. Then cover this 
with a layer of turfs grass side down.* Over this, heap up the soil 
excavated, though before doing so it ought to be mixed with its 
own quantity of sand and half-inch chips to provide drainage. 

Many alpines prefer soil of a limy nature. The following 
compost is as near their requirements as possible one-sixth sand, 
one-third loam, one-sixth limestone chips or old mortar rubble, 
one-third peat and leaf-mould. A section should be left in order 
that the pockets may be filled with soil containing granite chips 
instead of limestone for those plants which prefer it. This compost 
should be added to the required height and tramped firmly before 
commencing the actual construction of the rock garden. 

Construction. Lay the stones on their broad sides two-thirds 
sunk in the ground, with the weathered side exposed to view. 
Link them together here and there so that they resemble small 
hills and valleys, making sure the natural lines of the rock har- 
monise one with another, but not so severely as to suggest an 
ideal base for a monument. Tilt the rocks slightly towards the 
bank so that all water may be trapped; also that soil may not 
be washed away from the base of the plants. Pack the soil firmly 
round each stone, when placed, for air pockets spell death to 
plants, and also allow the upper stones to sink. A small stream 
and waterfall may be incorporated in the design. One may picture 
mentally a natural stream and work to it, making the pools and 
waterfalls harmonise with the rest of the rockwork by well-placed 
smaller stones. 

Plants and Shrubs. Most rock plants are raised easily from 
seeds or cuttings, but the owner of the small garden very often 
has neither room nor time to do more than divide large clumps, 
which is perhaps the best and easiest of ways once stock has been 
secured. For effect, half a dozen or more ought to be planted in 
a pocket together, as patches of colour are more effective than 
odd plants dotted here and there without reason. Dwarf flowering 
and evergreen shrubs are desirable, as they give height and distance 
to the garden if planted judiciously. The broad-leaved shrubs, 
where possible, should be kept to the front and the narrow-leaved 
ones towards the back. Light colours are best planted towards 
the back, of course with care that the patches are sufficiently 
mixed to give a natural effect, and also that each plant has a suitable 
home. The shrubs should be grouped in twos and threes on knolls 

[* Use only good turf. If couch, nettle, or creeping buttercup is in the sods 
these may prove a source of future mischief. Ed.] 


and high places, whilst an odd, very dwarf, and compact evergreen 
often gives a most pleasing effect. 

Planting is best done in spring and autumn, spring preferably 
in and around our larger towns. At these times of the year also 
the rock garden should be overhauled, deaths replaced by division, 
or new plants added. All plants should be pressed in firmly after 
the winter's frost, and a top-dressing of good gritty soil to a depth 
of half an inch forked in with a small hand fork over the surface. 

Rock Garden Bulbs. Bulbs may be added with great effect, 
and should be planted in August or September some 3 or 4 inches 
below the surface, care being taken to surround them with a thin 
layer of sand. Bulbocodium, Chionodoxa, Colchicum, Crocus, 
Galanthus (Snowdrop), Hyacinthus, Iris, Leucojum, Muscari, 
Narcissus (dwarf), Scilla, Zephyranthes, and, of course Lily-of-the 
Valley in some shady place, are all excellent genera from which to 
pick desired species. 

(In charge of Rock Garden, Kew). 


POINTS TO NOTE. (i) The wall should be built on a firm foundation 
in order to prevent settlement and subsidence. 

(2) It should be backed by a bank of good earth, to allow thorough 
root-run in good soil. 

(3) The wall should not be true to plumb, but at a tilt backwards, 
of not less than 3 inches in 6 feet. 

(4) The stones of the wall should slope slightly inwards. 

(5) The plants should be put in place as the wall is built, not 
pushed between the stones afterwards. 


[To f ace p. 


THE most superficial observer is aware that Buttercups and Ox-eye- 
daisies, the glory of our meadows in May and June, will be vainly 
sought in woodlands or on heather-moors; that Anemone, Cuckoo- 
Pint, and Honeysuckle are denizens of the woodland ; and that to 
cull Reed-mace, Goats-rue, or the fragrant leaves of the Sweet-Flag 
we must search river banks. Yet the significance of this is less 
commonly appreciated, namely, that not only has every wild plant 
its appropriate habitat or habitats, but that certain kinds of plants 
commonly grow together. It would be comparatively easy to make 
lists of wild flowers that would be almost all met with in any salt- 
marsh, chalk pasture, beech-wood, or oak-wood in England. In 
other words, wild plants are naturally grouped in communities 
comparable to the social assemblages of human individuals, inasmuch 
that each type of individual occupies a definite niche in the social 
organisation. Some communities are so well defined that they have 
received popular appellations and it is quite unnecessary to be an 
ecologist, a trained student of the relation of live organisms to their 
surroundings and to one another, in order to be able to distinguish 
a woodland or a salt-marsh. But if we look at woodlands more 
closely it becomes apparent that the constituent trees may be all of 
one kind or several species intermingled, and with these differences 
in the trees there are correlated differences in the accompanying 
shrubs and herbs. So while we may recognise grassland, desert, 
or forest by the general appearance because, despite these differences 
in constitution, there is a common physiognomy, yet the communi- 
ties that can be distinguished are very numerous and differ not only 
in the kinds of plants present and their relative frequencies, but also 
in their structure. In a vague way we can recognise also that the 
" sort of place " in which one kind of community grows is different 
from the " sort of place " which bears another kind of vegetation. 
But we shall have to look much more closely if we would detect the 
distinctions that make them different. 

The nature of these wild communities depends on a number of 
influences or, to borrow a simile from the realm of mechanics, they 
are the resultant of a number of interacting forces. Of these the 
chief are in general, the climatic conditions, the soil conditions, the 
relations between plant and plant, and between plant and animal 
population. Modification of soil conditions will entail an altered 



demand for water; change in the drainage conditions may enable a 
plant to persist upon a soil where previously it perished. Many 
species which the gardener cultivates are nearly at their geographical 
limit of climatic tolerance. In consequence a slight change in their 
conditions of growth profoundly modifies their well-being. It is 
in harmony with this fact that many a plant in the wild state will 
be found, in the north of Europe, growing in situations and on soils 
quite different to those with which it is associated in the centre of 
its range of distribution. 

If we delve beneath the surface in a wild community the mechan- 
ism of nature's profusion and the seasonal kaleidoscope of floral 
display are in part revealed. The root systems of the associated 
species often occupy different levels and exploit different strata of 
the soil. Their shoot systems perhaps develop at the same season 
of the year, in which case they will compete with one another for 
light and air. If their foliage develops at different seasons, species 
of very diverse height may flourish in juxtaposition without conflict. 
Such a dovetailing of the requirements of plants makes possible a 
large population upon a small area. This principle is clearly of the 
first importance in cultivation if we would attain the maximum 
display throughout the growing season. 

Of all the features of plant life which the pursuit of gardening 
emphasises, perhaps the most striking is the possibility of growing 
species under conditions of cultivation in soils quite other than those 
in which they ever occur in the wild state. The wild species, it 
must be remembered, is subject to the competition of its neighbours, 
and these may suppress its growth by their greater vigour, by exces- 
sive shading, by their demands on the supplies of water and mineral 
salts, or in other ways. Under natural conditions a plant flourishes 
best where the pressure of competition is least; it grows where it must 
rather than Where it will. The Scarlet Pimpernel which we find wild 
on sand-dunes and shingle-beaches will form much larger plants and 
flower much more profusely on rich soils, but the latter are occupied 
by dense vegetation of grassland or woodland, and the annual Pim- 
pernel cannot survive amidst the perennials. As a cornfield weed 
it is common because the processes of agriculture maintain a rela- 
tively sparse vegetation in which such a cornfield annual can per- 
sist. Many a plant which appears naturally to be associated with a 
particular type of soil, characterised it may be by some feature 
usually detrimental to plant growth, is found there because the 
conditions though somewhat adverse to its growth are still more 
inimical to the vigour of its natural competitors. So we are con- 
fronted with the apparent anomaly of the complete absence of some 
kinds of plants from habitat conditions which are extremely favour- 
able to their growth, and with the presence of others in situations 
that can most aptly be described as plant slums. 

It would be quite impossible here even to outline the features 
which characterise the social aggregates of wild plants, but atten- 


tion may be drawn to a few aspects which have a more direct bear- 
ing on the establishment and maintenance of an artificial assemblage 
as exemplified by an herbaceous border. Here our aim is to attain 
a pleasing display of bloom either at particular seasons or more or 
less continuously throughout the summer and autumn. We are 
trying to obtain effects beyond what Nature usually attempts, but, 
in so far as our aims are not inconsistent, the more closely we imitate 
what Nature herself presents, the more completely we can subor- 
dinate the artificial to the natural, the more likely are we to accom- 
plish a pleasing ensemble. 

Natural communities of plants are not stable but change with the 
passage of time, a feature which is well illustrated by the fact that 
grassland left to itself, unmown and ungrazed, will eventually become 
woodland. The intermediate phase which we term open scrub 
probably has more features in common than any other wild com- 
munity with the herbaceous border, which we artificially create and 
by continued attention maintain in apparent stability. Open scrub 
is rich in species and, unlike the grassland from which it came and 
the woodland towards which it is trending, is composed of plants 
having a great diversity of habit. In consequence the profile is 
extraordinarily irregular and the distribution is notably patchy. 
It is this irregularity that constitutes its chief charm. It is a feature 
that we cannot do better than imitate, and is the antithesis of the 
type of herbaceous border which is regularly graded in height from 
front to back. The border with recurrent bays is a nearer approach 
but lacks that suggestion of spontaneity which a less formal irregu- 
larity confers. The variety of species though great is not a uniform 
mixture, but with the arrival of each successful immigrant into the 
original grassland the scrub vegetation gradually accretes by the 
growth of colonies from each. It has long been empirically recog- 
nised that large clumps, and not continued repetition, should be 
accorded to one's favourite flowers, a maxim that not only ensures 
the most pleasing effects but is also good horticulture. The large 
clump of one species is the counterpart of the growing colony. 
Moreover, the scrub presents us with species of varied height and 
enables us to see how these can grow together in conditions of mutual 
tolerance. Adequate width is essential for the establishment of a 
successful border, but provided space be available a study of the 
natural community combined with imagination in the use of culti- 
vated species will go far to ensure its achievement. 

The gardener is in the position of an experimenter who, while 
he can judge from the wild habitat of a species as to the conditions 
which a particular kind of plant will tolerate, must empirically 
determine whether or no other, perhaps quite different, conditions 
may not suit it even better. Unconsciously the gardener is neces- 
sarily a student of competition, but a conscious appreciation of the 
fact will add much to the intellectual enjoyment of his pursuit and 
will, moreover, make him a better craftsman. One of the most vexed 


questions which confronts the experimenter in the higher branches 
of the gardener's art is, what species can be successfully and effec- 
tively grown together? An acquaintance with the structure of 
wild communities, with the nature of the species which associate 
together, will materially help towards an appreciation of what the 
problem involves and towards the method of its solution. 

The nearest approach to the conditions of a natural community 
are attained in the rock garden where the minimum disturbance 
is essential, not merely for the well-being of the plants themselves, 
but also to achieve the verisimilitude of untended freedom. Here 
especially is indispensable a recognition of the characteristics which 
enable species to live together without undue aggression on the part 
of any. A study of vegetation in the wild state emphasises that 
some of the most important of these characteristics are the depth 
and extent of the rooting system; the average height and density 
of the foliage canopy ; the period of foliage formation and its duration ; 
and by no means least the mode and rate of vegetative spread and 
the normal output and viability of seeds. 

Those who take an intelligent interest in their gardens could do 
much to advance both their own craft and our general knowledge 
of the biology of competition by careful observation and records 
of such features respecting which the available data are meagre 
in the extreme. By studying the growing literature of descriptive 
ecology we can learn the natural associates and habitat conditions 
of many garden species. That they will respond differently under 
the artificial conditions of cultivation and protection is almost cer- 
tain, but these very differences will enable us to appreciate some- 
thing of the warp and woof of the intricate pattern of nature's 
weaving. Those who agree with Bacon that the planting of a 
garden " is the purest of human pleasures " will not be far from 
discovering that the comprehension of its maintenance is one of the 
most exhilarating of intellectual pursuits. 

E. J. SALISBURY, D.Sc., F.L.S., 

Hon. Sec. British Ecological Society. 


THERE was a child that lived in Connacht a short while ago, 
and he could play the fiddle, the flute, and the pipes from the 
day he was three years old. If any person vexed him, or hit 
him a slap, he would say: " Be careful now or my brother will 
have your life." " And how could that be, Soneen, and you an 
only child? " was the answer he got from his mother, his aunt, 
and his friends. Well there came a day when a stranger, 
travelling the roads, craved a drink at the door. Didn't the 
young child hand him his own mug of buttermilk, very civil and 
kind, and then he set up a dancing tune on the pipes. The 
stranger was footsore, so the music vexed him, and he hit the 
child a slap. " It's too late for you to be careful," says the boy, 
"my brother will take your life." With that the stranger 
departed, but before he went a quarter of a mile an ash branch 
fell on his head and cracked it in two where the soul wins out 
of the clay. 

That is a Breffny tale I heard in childhood, and which much 
subsequent reading of folklore bids me refer to the Ayran 
myth that men are descended from trees. In his Mythologie 
des Plantes Professor de Gubernatus gives us a vast amount of 
information on the subject. The pages of The Golden Bough 
and of other authoritative works are full of tales on the trees 
and their influence on mankind. In the course of a short 
article it would not be possible to treat of trees in a compre- 
hensive manner. Wherever there are woods and copses local 
variants of old stories, local beliefs and customs can be dis- 
covered. There are seasons for cutting, for planting, for 
carving and working in wood; there are good moments to 
gather leaves for salves and lotions, hours when it is dangerous 
to rest even in the shade of particular trees. 

Certain ideas are very widely distributed. In most countries 
one is told that trees should only be cut at the waning of the 
moon. To plant a hedge against the course of the suu is to 



invite disaster by admitting evil spirits to the enclosure. This 
belief, if not older, certainly goes back to the witchcraft of the 
Middle Ages, when sites were especially prepared for the practice 
of black magic and the raising of Robin Aubiron, the fiend. 
He, under the shade of a suitably planted tree, piped and sang 
to the votaries, and gave them power over man and the elements 
as a reward for their adoration. 

It is also an ancient custom to plant the yew near the 
dwellings of the dead, to whom it is a good guardian, drawing 
unto itself the venom of the powers of darkness. On the other 
hand, yew is unsale to keep near the abode of the living. On 
St. John's Eve it has the power of movement to a bow-shot's 
length, and it may peep in at the windows of a house. Should 
its vampire gaze rest on young and comely persons, the yew 
may overlook them, drawing strength from their bodies, and 
causing them to die of decline. 

A child whipped with either broom or willow will have its 
growth stunted; birch and ash are the safe woods to employ. 
Rowan protects against witchcraft, and a plank of it in a ship 
guards against running on a reef or the fury of the waves. 
Oak is best of all for the roof-tree of a house, and ash is also 
kindly, but hawthorn brings fairies in its wake. The old idea 
was, of course, that the tree had a soul, as we have, and this 
spirit had to be propitiated before the timber was safe to use. 
Certain species were, on the whole, well disposed towards man : 
to our modern unbelieving minds it provokes a smile to note 
that the good natured trees were those of which most and best 
use can be made. Oak, ash, and pine, the indispensable, were 
not, on the whole, dangerous, though certain rites attended their 
cutting and employment. To sleep under an oak, the druid's 
tree, or on a pillow stuffed with oak leaves, gives the gift of 
prophecy; but to sleep in the shade of yew brings insanity; in 
the shade of elder an acquaintance with the fairy folk best 
left alone. In Sicily it is still said by the peasants that every 
leaf of a fig tree harbours an evil spirit. Another curious belief 
is that trees can be overlooked and even killed by the evil eye. 
De Gubernatus gives many instances of this. Only a dozen 
years ago, at my old home in Ireland, I was accused by the 
workpeople of having spoilt our apple trees by employing a 
man with the evil eye to work in our orchard. 


Elms are not well regarded, possibly because they have the 
dangerous habit of dropping rotten branches or falling on a 
still day. In France and Ireland it is even believed that bees 
cannot live in their neighbourhood, because the bee is blessed 
and the elm under the especial protection of the evil one who 
once hid from God among its boughs. 

" With the flowers of holly," says Pliny, quoting from 
Pithagoras, " water is made ice/' Our own John Parkinson, 
in his Theatrwn Botanicum, adds: " And againe a staff e of the 
tree throwne at any beast, although it fall short by his defect 
that threw it, will fly to him as he lieth still, by the special 
property of the tree : this I here relate that you may understand 
the fond and vain conceits of these times, which I would to 
God we were not even in these days tainted withall." * He tells 
us many other wonders in the same book: " If one that is 
cured of the biting of a mad dogge shall within one twelvemonth 
after touch the Cornus f aemina or dogge berry tree, or any part 
thereof, the disease will return again." 

In certain families a tree acts as a death warning, by dying 
first or dropping a branch, the oak of the Hays of Errol 
being one of the most famous. At Magdeburg in Germany 
I was told of a lime tree that sheds its leaves, even when new 
grown in spring, if danger threatens the head of the house; 
if the leaves are not expanded, as in winter, then it drops the 
swollen buds where leaves should come. As a trysting-place 
trees have ever been a good landmark, and they thus gave 
rise to many legends, like that of Thomas the Rhymer, who met 
his fairy queen by Eildon tree. Cuchulain, the hero of Ulster, 
first saw Faud, the pearl of beauty, by the strand of the yew, 
a haunted spot this day. In one of the Breton folk-tales a 
giant kept his life in an ancient box tree, and he could not be 
killed until it was uprooted. When St. Mogue was born on 
Templeport Island a willow sprang up to shelter his cradle. 
Earth from that spot is still carried by the people of County 
Cavan as a protection against fire, water, and toothache. The 
whole island would have disappeared long since but for the 
unwritten law that bids each visitor bring out a handful of soil 
from the shore to renew the supply. At Kilronan there is a 
tree whereon people still hang votive offerings, and it is often 

* 1649. 


quite brightly decorated, but no one will go near it at night, 
because it is then guarded by the appearance of a wolf. The 
wolf also figures in Breton stories of St. Ronan, who crossed the 
sea from Ireland in a dish made of oak leaves pinned together 
with spines of hawthorn. 

A quaint old saying runs: " In the gall of the oak there 
breedeth three small creatures which will prognosticate the 
course of the succeeding year. If a creeping worm be found 
in the gall it foretells scarcity of food; if a white worm, a 
murrain of beasts; but if a spider, a pestilence to man." Oak 
leaves were also used for divination by burning them and in- 
haling the smoke, the vision was supposed to appear before 
the closed eyes in the form of sparks or threads of coloured 



Acer platanoides. A. Lobelii. A. Pseudoplatanus. A. p. var. 
Schwedleri. A . p. var. Reitenbachii. A.rubrum. Aesculus carnea. A. Ailanthus glandulosa. Be tula. Carpinus Betulv.s. 
Castanea vesca. Catalpa bignonioides (Southern Counties). Crataegus 
cordata. C. prunifolia. C. punctata. Fagus sylvatica. Fraxinus excelsior. 
Ilex. Populus alba var. pyramidalis. P. Eugenei. Prunus Aviumfl. pi. 
Pyrus Aria. P. intermedia. P. pinnatifida. P. rotundifolia. Quercus 
Ilex. Q. rubra. Robinia Pseudacacia. Tilia dasystyla. T. euchlora. 
T. petiolaris* Ulmus stricta. U. stricta var. Wheatleyi. 


COUNTRY-HOUSES ought to be impregnated with the fragrance 
of dried flowers. I have tried dried flowers of all kinds. 
These are fragrant for a time, but the scent quickly disappears. 
The only way to keep them fresh is to use jars with well-fitting 
stoppers and to remove the lids very occasionally. Rosemary 
mixed with lavender makes a pleasant, clean, and fresh smell. 
The lavender from the Dauphine Alps is particularly good for 
potpourri. Verbena and the old-fashioned scented geranium 
are always successful. The great secret is, I am sure, never to 
pick the flowers after rain, and to dry them thoroughly. I find, 
too, that a little Eastern perfume, such as attar of roses, 
improves the mixture and makes the scent more permanent. 

Author of "A Book of Scents and Dishes." 

Take leaves of old-fashioned roses (red and pink preferred) 
and lay them in the sun for a few hours, also flowers of jasmine, 
lavender, sage, and leaves of bay and laurel, mint, thyme, 
rosemary, " Balm of Gilead," lemon, orange, verbena, sweet- 
scented geranium, sweet bergamot, stripped from their stalks. 
Put all into an open basin or jar and cover with bay- (or rock-) 
salt. When adding fresh leaves always cover over with salt, 
and daily stir the mixture. When a sufficient quantity has 
been collected, pack it into a covered jar in a damp cellar for 
one month, tightly covered. After 4 to 6 weeks turn it out 
and weigh it, and to every 4 Ibs. add the following spices: 
2 oz. cloves, 2 oz. cassia buds, 2 oz. crushed cinnamon, 2 oz. 
crushed sandalwood, 2 oz. powdered gum-storax, 2 oz. gum- 
benzoin and orris root. One teaspoon each of the following: 
oil of cedarwood, oil of violets, oil of bergamot, oil of musk, 
oil of carnations. To this proportion mix the leaves and spices 
well, and again pack into a jar and cover tightly. After 
another month in a cool damp cellar the potpourri is ready 
to put into bowls and place about my lady's house. 



From the House Book of Millicent Langford, " Pot Pourri ; 
No. 18, From the Palace Armagh. The Lady Anne Berisford, 
her book." A lemon if it be not hard to come by, take out 
the pith, stick the skin with cloves and when dry stuff with 
powdered orris roote and 3 tonquin beans. Take four handfuls 
Apothecarys' rose petals, one handful sweet-briar leaves, one 
handful mixed of mint, sweet thyme, lavender plucked from 
the stalk, old man of Bergamotte. Four leaves of the sweet 
Balm, and four of verbena. Dry on a wooden platter until 
the moisture goes. Heat an Apothecary's jar in the sun, and 
pack it with dried leaves also warm, strewing bay-salt on each 
layer. Cover close for a month, take out and spread on platter 
to dry from the salt. If you have an alembic distill also from 
the Apothecarys' rose his scent. This takes many roses but 
for a few drops, but the scent is true and may be sprinkled on 
your sweet pot. That from the druggist may but mar it. 


2 Ibs. bay-salt, 2 oz. cedarwood chips, sandalwood chips 
and coriander seeds, I oz. orris root, cinnamon, cloves, all spice, 
storax, benzoin, gum-benjamin, all powdered; dried sweet 
verbena leaves, and lavender, ad lib, to about two large tea- 
trays, heaped up, of the dried rose leaves. Use only really 
sweet-scented roses, and gather the leaves when quite dry 
and just ready to fall; spread out in a dry, airy room (but not 
in the sun), and when all are perfectly dry, turn them into a 
large pan or bowl, mix in the bay-salt, and leave for a day or 
two; then mix in all the other ingredients. 


From " Delights for Ladies/' 1628. Another way for the 
drying of Roseleaves. Dry them in the heat of a hote sunny 
day, upon a Leads, turning them up and downe till they be 
dry (as they do hay) : then put them up into glasses wel stopt 
and luted, keeping your glasses in warme places; and thus you 
may keep all flowers: but herbs, after they are dried in this 
manner, are best kept in paper bags, placing the bags in close 


A Scottish handwater. Pute Tyme, Lavender and Rose- 
mary confusedly together, then make a lay of thicke wine Lees 
in the bottome of a stone pot, upon which make another lay 
of the said hearbs, and then a lay of Lees, and so forward: 
lute the pot well, bury it in the ground for vi weekes, distill 
it, and it is called Dames water in Scotland: A little thereof 
put into a bason of common water, maketh verie sweet washing 

A sweet and delicate Pomander. Take two ounces of Lab- 
danum; of Beniamin and Storax, one ounce: musk, six graines, 
civet six graines: Amber grease, six graines; of Calamus Aroma- 
ticus and Lignum Aloes, of each the waight of a groat : beat all 
these in a hot mortar, and with an hot pestell, till they come 
to a paste : then wet your hand with Rose-water, and roule up 
the paste suddenly. 

To renew the sent of a Pomander. Take one grain of Civet, 
and two of Musk, or if you double the proportion, it will bee 
so much the sweeter: grinde them upon a stone, with a little 
Rose-water; and, after wetting your hands with Rose-water, 
you may work the same in your Pomander. This is a sleight 
to passse away an old Pomander: but my intention is honest. 

Lady Betty Germaine's receipt, 1750. Gather dry, Double 
Violets, Rose Leaves, Lavender, Myrtle flowers, Verbena, Bay 
leaves, Rosemary, Balm, Musk, Geranium. Pick these from 
the stalks and dry on paper in the sun for a day or two before 
putting them in a jar. This should be a large white one, well 
glazed, with a close-fitting cover, also a piece of card the exact 
size of the jar, which you must keep pressed down on the 
flowers. Keep a new wooden spoon to stir the salt and flowers 
from the bottom, before you put in a fresh layer of bay-salt 
above and below every layer of flowers. Have ready of spices, 
plenty of Cinnamon, Mace, Nutmeg, and Pepper and Lemon- 
peel pounded. For a large jar J Ib. Orris root, i oz. Storax, 
i oz. Gum-Benjamin, 2 ozs. Calamino Aromatico,* 2 grs. Musk, 
and a small quantity of oil of Rhodium. The spice and gums 

* The powdered dried root of Sweet Sedge (Acorus calamus). 


to be added when you have collected all the flowers you intend 
to put in. Mix all well together, press it down well, and spread 
bay salt on the top to exclude the air until the January or 
February following. Keep the jar in a cool, dry, place. 


A Fine Handsome Sweet Pot. Put into a large China jar 
the following ingredients, making sure that they are thoroughly 
dry, as the least moisture would mould it all. Put them in 
layers, with bay salt strewed between each layer. Roses (the 
old cabbage-rose is best of all) part in buds and part blown; 
violets, orange flowers, jasmine, a handsome handful of each; 
sliced orris root, benjamin and storax, two ounces of each; 
a quarter of an ounce of musk; quarter of a pound of angelica 
root sliced; a handful of the red parts of clove gillyflowers, 
two handfuls of lavender flowers; half a handful of rosemary; 
bay and laurel leaves; three Seville oranges, stuck full of 
cloves, dried in a cool oven and pounded; half a handful of 
knotted marjoram; two of balm of Gilead dried. Leaves of 
lemon thyme are an improvement; while such as like them can 
add mint, sweet-briar, verbena, woodruff and the rind of 
lemons cut in strips. Cover all quite close. When the pot is 
uncovered the perfume is very handsome. 



IT is said that the custom of pot gardening originated with the 
Adonis gardens of Ancient Greece. Wheat, barley, fennel, and 
lettuce were sown for the midsummer festival in earthen pots 
filled with soil. When the rites were no longer practised, the 
custom of planting quick-growing seeds remained as an amuse- 
ment for children, to which many references can be found in 
classical works. The Roman ladies decorated their balconies 
with pots of flowering plants, and both pots and tubs formed 
a feature of Oriental gardens at a very early date. During the 
Middle Ages the custom seems to have spread all over Europe, 
if we are to judge by the illustrations to old romances. Perhaps 
the first list published in England of plants suitable for growing 
in a room is that of Platt, who mentions rosemary, sweet brier, 
bay, and germander.* Naturally the habit of keeping a few 
flowers indoors remained popular. People in towns often had 
nowhere else to put them ; and the busy mother of a family in 
some country cottage had no time for gardening out of doors. 
To the infirm, and the bedridden also, a plant has ever been 
company, though nowadays we are brought up to know that 
it is not advisable to keep either cut or growing flowers in a 
sleeping-room at night. Readers of Nicholas Nickleby will 
remember Tim Linkinwater's box of mignonette and the four 
flower-pots, two at either side, which formed his horticultural 

The tiny and intimate garden that is in a window may often 
contain the most beautiful specimens of plants. Some years 
ago most cottages possessed a pot of musk, tended with care, 
covered in season with little yellow flowers and scenting the air 
almost too heavily. Nowadays musk has lost its savour and 
a plant with the authentic smell would be worth a fortune. 

* Florae s Paradise was first published in 1608, and an enlarged edition 
as The, Garden of Eve in 1653. Sir Hugh Platt 's other book, The Jewel 
House of Art and Nature, was published in 1594. 



It is possible that somewhere in England there lurks undis- 
covered a genuine " antique " musk.* If so the finder will be 
as pleased as was the nurseryman Lee when he saw the fuchsia 
that was to make his fortune flowering in the window of a 
sailor's wife at Wapping.f A friend of mine who collected 
cacti once discovered a rare kind blooming in a workman's 
house in a back street of a small town. She tried in vain to 
buy it, but finally procured a cutting, which grew, yet never 
in her conservatory made so fine a plant as the parent. As to 
its history, the owner had bought it at a rummage sale in aid 
of a church restoration fund; how it got there no one knew. 
" A bit of a withered thing, I only took it for the sake of the 
pot, then I forgot it awhile and it came out a-blowing and 
a-blowing something beautiful." 

Long ago in Germany it was the custom for a young girl 
to tend a pot of myrtle for her own bridal wreath. In France 
a cutting struck from a wedding bouquet is still regarded as 
lucky. I have always remembered with especial interest a 
removal I saw in one of the poorest quarters of Paris. On a 
handcart were perched a few bits of furniture, some paper 
parcels of clothes, cooking utensils and crockery. Amongst 
them a flower-pot with a camellia plant, which, though quite 
small, bore eight or nine beautiful blooms. The leaves were 
clear, shining, and healthy: never in any greenhouse have I seen 
its equal. Every head in the street turned to look after it, 
and the faces of the owners beamed with pride. 

Of course, all window plants are not so successful. Who 
has not seen dingy ferns and aspidistras that cast an air of 
gloom over their surroundings. One of the most beautiful 
of green things, the maidenhair, is a particular sufferer. It 
hates draughts, loaths sun, and is faddy about getting the right 
amount of water in the right way. I remember a huge and 
healthy maidenhair that lived in a lobby window facing north. 
Its owner would never allow anyone to touch the fronds, 
because she said the human hand was poison to them. She also 
encouraged her favourite from time to time with very weak tea, 
and with water in which a little seaweed had been steeped. 

From the humble orange pip one can grow delightful little 

* Musk was introduced in 1826 from North-West America, 
f See Year Book, 1929, p. 92. 


flowering trees. Most famous of its tribe, the Grand Bourbon, 
began life as a pot plant. In 1421 the Queen of Navarre gave 
the pip to the King of France's gardener, who grew it success- 
fully. It lived for a time at Chantilly; in 1532 it was moved to 
Fontainebleau ; and in 1684 Louis XIV had it taken to Versailles, 
where it survived until 1876. The orange is not hardy in our 
climate or in that of the north of France, but so long as the 
room is heated enough to keep out frost in winter the plants 
should thrive. They are very free flowering as small trees, if 
they are not given too much root room. Some people plant 
several pips together, so that they really have a collection of 
tiny bushes instead of one tree, and the intertwining roots 
check each others growth. It is better, I think, to have one 
in a small pot, and to repot only when absolutely necessary; 
but in that case great care must be taken to give the right 
amount of water and some fertiliser. 

Campanula isophylla is an excellent plant for hanging in a 
high window, the long trails of bloom will completely cover the 
receptacle. At a Devonshire farmhouse it was grown with 
pink geraniums on the sill beneath it, and some quaint succu- 
lents that never seemed to flower formed a complete contrast 
to their comrades wealth of bloom. Geraniums and fuchsias 
seem to be the favourite window plants; but I have even seen 
little saucers of sundews growing in peat and sphagnum moss. 
In planting for a window it is always best to obtain roots or 
cuttings from plants grown under like conditions. To take 
specimens from a heated greenhouse is to invite failure. Many 
annuals that are easily raised from seed will grow into mag- 
nificent pot plants. I have seen Schizanthus wisetonensis 
looking like a lovely little tree. A collection of the smaller 
houseleeks made a bathroom window in a town flat quite 
interesting to garden lovers. In fact, there is no end to the 
experiments that might be tried, always bearing in mind the 
fact that windows are meant to give us light and air and must 
not be blocked unduly. 



MANY an ugly place has been converted into a vision of beauty, 
thanks to the Wichuraiana class of Rose. The growth is so free, 
the colours so various, that a transformation speedily takes place. 
No Rose Garden is complete without the climbing Rose to enhance 
its loveliness. We allude to well-known growers such as Excelsa, 
Dorothy Perkins, Emily Gray, Scarlet Climber, Minnehaha, White 
Dorothy Perkins. A bare arch, trellis, or even bank will soon be 
covered, the latter by pegging down that is, bending the long shoots 
over and pegging them to the ground. 

Climbing Teas and Perpetuals. Nowadays we are not confined 
to the Wichuraiana class of climber, for many of our beautiful 
Hybrid Teas and Hybrid Perpetuals have come to our assistance. 
Here we get beauty of form and also continuity of blooms. To 
mention a few among many: Climbing Madame Abel Chatenay, 
Climbing Los Angeles, Climbing Madame Butterfly, Climbing General 
McArthur, Climbing Hugh Dickson, and Climbing Snow Queen. 
In 1853 we were instrumental in distributing the famous Gloire de 
Dijon, which may be found in many an old world garden and also 
in modern ones to-day. 

How to Plant. In planting climbers prepare the beds as for 
ordinary dwarf bushes, but remember the roots must have plenty 
of room to extend, especially the climbing Hybrid Teas, and all 
must be firmly planted. To make them sufficiently firm this is 
accomplished by spreading out the roots and covering them with a 
little earth. Then tread on them well, spread more earth, and 
repeat the process until the hole is filled and no winds can possibly 
cause the roots to shift. The Wichuraiana class are so hardy that 
they require but little attention when correctly planted. The rose 
loves the sun, therefore, when possible, avoid planting on the north 
side of a wall, arch, pergola, etc. This refers especially to the 
climbing Hybrid Teas. 

Pruning. The Wichuraiana class are so vigorous that they very 
often are overlooked as regards pruning. At the end of the flowering 
season these require attention. Cut out all dead wood and tie up 
the beautiful new shoots which have started to grow. These will 
produce flowers next year. The following spring keep the canes 
neatly tied in where determined, whether on arch, pillar, etc., on 
which the climber is to grow. Sometimes a new plant may appear 

weakly. TJiis will need drastic pruning in the spring, so as to give 



the roots less work until qualified to strengthen the new growth. 
Climbing Hybrid Teas should be pruned more sparingly, but all dead 
and weakly growth must be cut away, and new shoots trained and 
fastened where required. When climbers have been placed against 
a wall and the season is dry see that sufficient moisture reaches the 
roots. If not newly planted some mulching is beneficial in the 
spring. All climbers, such as Mermaid and Cupid, are not equally 
vigorous at first, but after the second year they soon make a good 
show, and a lovely garden is the reward of waiting. 

Climbers for a North Position. The best climbers for an unfavour- 
able position are Bouquet d'Or, F&icite-et-Perp&ue, Reine Marie 
Henriette, Madame Alfred Carri&re. 

Roses for a Chalky Soil. The best for a chalky soil or by the 
seaside are J. B. Clark, Caroline Testout, Hugh Dickson, George 
Dickson, Lady Pirrie, Etoile de Hollande, Madame Butterfly, Snow 
Queen, Covent Garden, Melanie Soupert, Madame Jules Bouch, 
Lady Dixon-Hartland, General McArthur, La Tosca, Madame 
Ravary, Red Letter Day. 



THE National Rose Society has decided that a distinction should 
be made between Climbers and Ramblers. Climbing Roses: those 
varieties that are suitable for pillars, including such varieties as 
Paul's Scarlet Climber, Gloire de Dijon, Albertine t Mme. Alfred 
Carrier e t and the Climbing sorts of dwarf varieties. Ramblers: 
varieties that are suitable for covering arches, pergolas, and low 
roofs, such as the multiflora and wichuraiana types. 


THE National Rose Society lists the following groups as too much 
alike for exhibition purposes: 

(i) Coral Cluster (poly, pom.) and Juliana (poly. pom.). 
(2) Dorothy Perkins (wich.) and Lady Gay. (3) Lady Godiva 
(wich.), Dorothy Dennison, and Christian Curie. (4) Louise 
Crette (H.T.) and Lemon Queen (H.T.). (5) R. lucida plena 
(species) and Rose Button. 


THE culture of cucumbers (Cucumus saliva) is one of the oldest arts 
known, and this vegetable has been popular in China and Egypt for 
thousands of years. It has now become a very large industry and 
glasshouses have been put up all over England for the purpose of 
growing cucumbers alone. This article is a careful recording of the 
methods employed at the Cheshire School of Agriculture and by the 
leading cucumber growers of the County of Chester. 

Seed Sowing. Seeds can be sown at any time from early January 
onwards in 3" pots a seed being placed point downwards in the 
centre of each pot. Compost may consist of 3 parts light loam and 
i part well-decayed leaf -mould. The bottom of the pot should 
be well crocked and covered for i" with a few lumps of turf. 
After sowing the seeds are covered with \" . of light compost, and 
then well watered with water at the same temperature as the house. 
The pots are placed on a cinder-covered shelf in a house where 
strong bottom heat can be obtained. In large commercial nurseries, 
however, seed sowing is often carried out in ordinary seed-boxes 
usually 48 seeds to a box \" of soil covering the seeds. These 
boxes are then placed i" above the flowpipes and glass placed 
over the boxes. The temperature of the house at this stage should 
never be allowed to fall below 70 F. at night-time. 

Potting Up. In ten days to a fortnight the plants should be ready 
to be transferred to their permanent beds, but if these are not ready 
shift into a 5" pot temporarily, the soil for the compost being 
similar, but with more leaf-mould. This compost should be at the 
same temperature as the house. Cucumbers differ from most plants 
in that they should not be potted firmly. Each plant should be 
inserted up to the seed leaf. A good soaking is again necessary. 
Watering after need only be done when the soil appears dry. 
Good root development cannot take place in continually wet soil. 
Staking. After a week the plants will need support, and an 18* 
piece of fine bamboo should be inserted into the soil and a loose 
tie made on the cucumber stem in order to allow for development. 

The House. A type of glasshouse which seems under present-day 
exigences necessary is 15' wide, with 3' rise to the gutter-board. 
Often these are built together with brick pieces to support the 
gutters. Singly, however, the house should be erected in a sunny 
position and protected from the north and east cold winds. Hot- 
water pipes will be necessary for bottom heat, and as it is wise to 



have the heat as near the cucumber-bed as possible, usually 4 rows 
of 4* piping is used, this giving two flows and two returns. Ven- 
tilation is rarely necessary, and air should be admitted with great 
caution. Ventilators should be provided, but, if used, should be 
closed quite early in the afternoon at all seasons. Towards July 
a slight ventilation may be given to change the air in the house, 
particularly on the leeward side. 

The Bed. It is very important to ensure good drainage all 
the time, and water must be able to get away quickly. Land 
drain pipes may have to be laid, and these should be covered with 
clinkers to prevent them being sealed up. Further clinkers should 
be provided under the main bed. For the borders fresh stable 
manure is useful with turves 10" in depth cut one year beforehand, 
and rotted in heaps. A layer of turf should be placed 12" in depth, 
followed by the manure, which should always be made with straw. 
Over this, sterilised soil should be placed for 3". In some districts, 
where turves are difficult to get, old rhubarb crowns are used 
those which have just been forced, or those which were forced 
last year, and have been stored in heaps. This year I saw very 
good cucumbers grown on a base of spent forced mint roots. Any 
organic material of an open texture which will allow for drainage 
to make a satisfactory base. The beds should be made 2 weeks 
before planting, if possible, and should be at least i' 6" wide at 
the base and i' wide at the top. If new turf cannot be purchased, 
old beds may be sterilised by heat and used again. On the bed 
mounds should be made about 2' apart consisting of a good rich 
compost, 3 parts good turfy loam, i part well-decayed manure. 
This soil should be sterilised, if possible, by heat. These mounds 
should be made moderately firm, and so arranged as to allow 
drips from rafters falling between the plants. The whole house 
should be heated for a week to ensure all the soil, etc., being 
warmed through before introducing the young plants. 

Transferring the Plants. When the plants are 6 "-9" high they 
may be transferred to their permanent beds; the greatest care 
should be taken that they are not chilled in so doing. The pots 
should be immersed in the middle of each mound, and should 
remain in the holes thus made for 24 hours before knocking the 
ball of soil out, and planting it firm in the hole the pot occupied. 
The top of the ball of the plants should be 2" below the surface 
of the bed. Watering may then be carried out, a gallon being 
given to every 3 mounds only. A stake must now be provided 
for the purpose of training the new growth to the wires or trellis. 

Temperature. The atmosphere of a cucumber house must never 
feel dry, and a brisk temperature should be maintained at all 
times. Syringing: damping down must be done frequently, 
Sundays included. The night temperature should be 70 F., and 
in the daytime may rise to 90 F. 

Routine Work. Before planting it is a good idea to place a 



bamboo in the mound in order to liberate ammonia, as if this is 
not done the mound is apt to get overheated and the plant dies. 
Syringing has to be done regularly twice a day, the usual amount 
of water in the mid-growing season being I gallon to every 3 plants. 
The walls and paths must also be damped down, especially in hot 
weather liquid farmyard manure may be used in the afternoon 
for this purpose if diluted. No laterals must be left on the young 
plant below the first wire. 

Training. In an article of this kind general ideas can only 
be given. The plant may be stopped at the fifth wire; this enables 
the bottom fruits to swell quicker, and so gives earlier fruiting 
and marketing. 

The rules following this practice are as follows: (i) Do not 
allow a cucumber to grow on the main stem. (2) Do not allow 
the lateral to grow further than the second before stopping. 
(3) Do not take a cucumber and a growth at the same joint; the 
ideal should be first a cucumber, second a growth where it is 
stopped, and so on. (4) A good idea is to stop the main laterals 
at two joints, and the sub-laterals at one joint. (5) Aim at having 
two fruit-bearing joints on every lateral, and not more than three 
breaks. (6) Rub up all the male flowers. 

Further than this it is difficult to say, as growers seem 
eventually to know by instinct what they should leave in and 
what to cut out. All growths must be tied in to the wires loosely, 
or growth will be impeded. All young fruit should be kept clear 
of ties and wires, and should hang cleanly downwards. 

Watering. As much harm is done to cucumbers by over- 
watering as underwatering ; if a good deal of farmyard manure 
has been used the soil is apt to get sour when overwatered. 
Moderate waterings are of little use soak the bed well through 
twice a week. The water must be at the same temperature as 
the house, and if the house contains no tanks for this purpose 
water-barrels should be wheeled in the day before and allowed 
to heat up. 

Shading. When the sun gets bright and scorching in May, 
shading must be commenced by spraying whitewash over the 
outside of the glass; towards July this may have to be repeated 
more heavily as rains will probably wash the first application off. 
(Some growers never shade, but this makes ventilation a more 
difficult problem.) 

Top-Dressings. Top-dressings and mulchings are essential, 
and should be given whenever required. Soil should be wheeled 
into the house at least 12 hours before it is required for use. The 
first top-dressing may be given 10 days or so after the planting 
date. It is usual to top-dress again as soon as the white root 
fibres are seen coming through the surface of the soil. Only a 
little soil should be put on every time. Compost for top-dressing 
should be: farmyard manure, half a barrow load; sandy loam, 


ij barrow loads; superphosphate, 16 ozs.; slaked lime, i Ib. 2 ozs. 
This has given excellent results in trials. 

Leaf Cutting. Too often growers are fond of cutting away 
quantities of leaves. No drastic cutting of foliage is really necessary, 
what should be done is to take out enough leaves to give the 
cucumbers light and to cut out any leaves that are turning yellow. 

Diseases and Pests. (i) Red Spider (Tetranychus telarius).lt 
is very important to be able to spot this pest immediately. If 
tackled in its early stages it can be controlled by cutting out and 
efficient damping down. Keeping all parts of the house damp 
is certainly a prevention rather than a cure. Volck has proved 
very satisfactory at the Cheshire School of Agriculture as a control 
and should be sprayed on as soon as spider is seen, using a good 
deal of force. (2) Wood Lice (Armadillidium speyeri). This 
insidious pest often damages the plants in the growing season. 
The only preventive here seems to be trapping a good trap is 
a mangold cut in half and scooped out, and placed upside down 
on the borders. The woodlice must then be shaken out every day 
into a bucket of paraffin. (3) Cucumber Root Fly, (Sciaridae). 
Can cause considerable damage in the propagating stage and in 
the borders. A very simple control is heavy watering. If this 
is done the pest is never a serious matter. 

Fungus Troubles. (i) Leaf Spot (Cercosporamelonis and Collelo- 
trichum oligochaetum) . Has in the past caused very serious damage ; 
the introduction of a disease-resisting variety " Butchers " has, 
however, proved a boon to many growers. Prevention. Uniform 
temperature, lime added at each top-dressing, thorough clean- 
liness, not too humid an atmosphere, perfect drainage. Spray 
with the following wash directly the trouble is first seen ij ozs. 
flour, ij ozs. potassium sulphide, 2 gallons of water. Fourteen 
pints of water are placed in a bucket, and ij ozs. of Liver of 
Sulphur added. Then mix a flour paste, water down with 2 pints 
water till as thin as milk. Then boil, stirring all the while, 
and add to the other bucket containing the Liver of Sulphur 
and stir. (2) Mosaic. This disease, noticeable by the mottling 
and sometimes wrinkling of the leaves, can be transmitted by 
affected seed, and care should be taken to obtain seed from a 
nursery free from mosaic. All plants with mosaic should be left 
until last when trimming, as the sap from the diseased plant may 
be carried on the knife to a healthy plant. After trimming a 
mosaic plant the knife should be sterilised in formaldehyde. No 
effective cure for this disease has been found. But here again 
" Butchers Disease Resister " is found to be resistant to mosaic. 
(3) Foot Rot (Bacillus carotovorus) . Appears at the soil- level, the 
outer tissues turn brown and rot begins, the disease organisms 
enter the wood and ultimately kill the plant. Control. Keep 
the base of the plant dry; do not water close to the stem. Dust 
round the base of the plant if attack is suspected with a dust 


composed of 10 parts dry slaked lime, 3 parts fine copper sulphate, 
and 3 parts flowers of sulphur, apply by means of a tin with 
perforated lid. (4) Verticellium Wilt (Verticellium albo-atrum). 
Appears usually in the lowest leaves which wilt, turning yellow, 
the upper leaves then gradually get affected and the whole plant 
may then become limp and die. Control. The disease is at its 
work when the temperature is low, and this is bad in Autumn and 
Spring. Increase the boiler heat immediately the disease is first 
seen; close the houses for 2 hours in the middle of the day. Do 
not water heavily. Encourage the plant to make new roots by 
giving a suitable top-dressing. Soils affected with Verticellium 
must be sterilised before using again. 

Culture in Frames. Success may be obtained by growing 
cucumbers in frames if the following suggestions are carefully 
carried out. Beds may be made in the frames 2-3' deep, 
and a suitable mixture consists of 3 parts of rotted leaves and 
i part strawy manure. The leaves and manure should be mixed 
together and allowed to stand for a few days before putting in 
the frame. The bed will be well trodden down, and a bucket full 
of earth placed on the bed in a mound at the back of the frame 
one mound for each plant, two plants to a 6' x 4' light are quite 
sufficient. The whole bed may be covered with soil 2' deep, 
and this allows for even sinking. Planting should then be done 
a few days afterwards when the soil has warmed up, the same 
routine being carried out as in the glasshouse. Ventilation will 
be given if necessary in the daytime to dispel condensed moisture 
on the frame. During the night it is advisable to cover the frame 
lights with sacking or good litter. Top-dressing will be carried 
out regularly as previously mentioned, and the growths thinned 
out, being careful not to overtax the plant with fruits. If the 
young shoots are pegged down they themselves will strike and 
provide fresh vigour to the plant. Regular cutting of the fruits 
when ready is also important. 

Varieties. We can here claim to have done some research as 
20 varieties have been on trial in our nursery for three consecutive 
years, and the following remarks are based on these trials. There 
are many varieties offered by seedsmen, and we cannot claim to 
have tried them all, but the varieties that have been constantly 
successful in our trials have been: Clucas Improved Telegraph, 
Daniels' Lord Roberts, Dickson's and Robinson's Bounteous, 
Dobbie's Improved Telegraph, Kelway's Perfect Model, and Button's 
Improved Telegraph. 

W. E. SHEWELL-COOPER, C.D.H. (Lond.), F.R.H.S,, 

Horticultural Superintendent, 

Cheshire County Council and Head of the Horticultural 
Department of the Cheshire School of Agriculture. 


THE Gladiolus, Sword-flag, or Corn Lily, belongs to the Iris Family, 
Iridaceae. The genus was named from its sword-shaped leaf (Lat. 
gladius, a sword). Species have been grown in English gardens 
since the sixteenth century, but having no known medicinal value 
were not included in the older gardens of herbs. In the eighth 
edition of Philip Miller's Gardener's Dictionary only six species are 
recorded; three of these were from the Cape. He mentions that 
G. tristis " was formerly cultivated in English gardens, where the 
roots have multiplied so freely as to become a most troublesome 
weed." The Gladiolus is not included in a collection of lists of 
Popular Plants dated 1844, but in the 1929 competition for popu- 
larity it stands seventh on the list. 

The genus did not for the most part provide very attractive 
subjects for cultivation until nineteenth-century hybridisers took 
the species in hand. The first hybrid is believed to be Van Houtte's 
gandavensis (psittacinus x cardinalis)* from Ghent in 1837. An 
English hybrid grown at Brenchley, hence its name, followed before 
the French hybrids produced by Victor Lemoine, Lemoinei (ganda- 
vensis x purpureo-auratus) , in 1885, nancieanus (Saundersii x 
Lemoinei) in 1889. The Childsii hybrids Saundersii x Gandavensis 
came from Max Leichtlin, but were named in 1893 after an American 
grower who bought up and subsequently improved the German 
stock. The American A. E. Kundered grew the first distinctly 
American type. With the introduction of G. primulinus from East 
Africa in 1890 a new strain was brought into cultivation, providing 
a host of varieties of seemingly easy culture and great decorative 

Widespread trouble was reported by Gladiolus growers during 
the year 1929. Investigations are in progress with a view to dis- 
cover the cause, or causes, of the mischief, but have not as yet 
reached a stage where it is possible to give authoritative information 
as to means of control. To some extent abnormal weather condi- 
tions were responsible. The corms failed to make sufficient root 
growth, and through resultant weakness were predisposed to attack 
by disease. Growers can at present only be advised to destroy 
affected stock as in any case this would not produce satisfactory 
spikes to plant only sound and healthy corms, and, if possible, not 
to grow these on ground that carried Gladiolus the previous year. 
(For further advice, see pp. 90, 91.) 

* Gr. psittacinus x oppositiflorus according to Herbert. See Nicholson. 



But the weather was not entirely responsible for all the trouble. 
Foreign importations are accused of having brought accompanying 
disease, as has happened with other imported plants in the past. 
The disease once introduced into the soil might affect fresh and 
healthy corms planted in the same position subsequently. In 
addition to this the very popularity of the Gladiolus threatens to be 
its undoing. It gives quick results, is very effective, blooms in 
succession may be had over a long period, and it is generally con- 
sidered an easy thing to grow, requiring at most staking when in 
bloom and lifting for the winter, and not always getting even that. 
Consequently the corms have been grown in some cases under most 
unfavourable circumstances, and in ground entirely unsuited to 
their needs, with the result that successive crops became more 
likely subjects for disease. 

Generally a successful garden is one in which local features have 
been adapted and exploited. The increasing study of plant ecology 
is bringing home to gardeners the need to consider local soils and 
conditions before selecting subjects for cultivation; to grow for 
preference plants similar to those which grow naturally in the 
vicinage, or those associated with them. The plant associations 
among which Gladioli are found are certainly not those common in 
Great Britain. The genus is represented in the flora of this country 
by one species, G. communis, " believed to be indigenous," said 
Bentham and Hooker, in the New Forest. Even there it is listed as 
rare. South and East Africa supply the bulk of the Gladioli, with 
some from the Mediterranean regions and one or two outlying 
species in Asiatic highlands. To expect plants whose natural 
habitats are so diverse to average conditions here to do well with 
us, everywhere and in every way, is to expect more than is reason- 
able. That the genus flourishes in the humidity of Africa does not 
imply that it will survive on cold, wet, and heavy soil in England. 
Rich soil must be the substitute for hot and damp conditions, com- 
bined with thorough drainage to mitigate the evils of our uncertain 
climate. Its only English home is comparatively dry, and with a 
gravel subsoil has good drainage. 

The Gladiolus requires a fine tilth to grow properly. If the 
corms cannot root quickly and easily the development of the plant 
and flower spike will be affected. A poor soil properly prepared 
and enriched is preferable to heavy ground however good. Prepare 
beds in September by thoroughly working the soil to a depth of not 
less than 18''. Heavy ground should be trenched and left rough for 
winter to weather it. Unless the ground has naturally sharp 
drainage a layer of broken brick or stones should be put in and 
covered with litter before replacing the soil, which must be well 
mixed with manure (well rotted, never fresh) and dug over with the 
second spit of soil, never less than 6" below the surface, to avoid 
contact with the corms and new rootlets. Corms of the early- 
flowering hardier types may be replanted early in October. If the 


winter is severe a mulch of dung is a precaution. The general, and 
safer, procedure is to plant in March and April up to June for 
succession. Depth for planting should be not less than 4". Only 
perfectly sound, clean corms should be put in. Sand above and 
below them is advisable in soils other than light. Good drainage, 
good loam no lime and sun are the chief requirements, with clean 
cultivation. Where it is not possible to secure these the gardener 
would be wise to grow something other than Gladioli. Stakes 
should be supplied when the plants are a foot high, and the stems 
secured with one good tie of raffia. Large and heavy varieties may 
require a further tying. Any plant that shows signs of unhealthi- 
ness should be dug up at once and immediately burnt with the soil 
surrounding it. Dead and dying leaves and plants should never be 
left lying about in the vicinity. Until the life-history of the organ- 
isms causing disease in the Gladiolus are fully known it is not possible 
to say at what stage infection may commence.* Prudence, there- 
fore, dictates that all possible care be taken in all stages of its cultiva- 
tion. As a precautionary measure the corms can be dusted when dry 
with sulphur and lime. In America the corms are soaked for a couple 
of hours before planting in a solution of formaldehyde (i gill to 30 
quarts of water). 

With regard to watering, this, on properly prepared ground, 
should not be necessary in the early stages, when watering would be 
a danger owing to the possibility of late frosts. In hot, dry summer 
weather an occasional soaking may be helpful when the flower spikes 
are showing, but should not be given unless obviously needed. Good 
tilth, rich soil, and mulching should make watering only an excep- 
tional measure. If it must be done it should be thorough and at 
intervals, not a repetition of sprinklings. For specially fine blooms 
selected plants may be given an occasional dose of weak liquid 
manure: if the ground is dry they should be well watered the day 
before the liquid manure is given. This should not be done till the 
flower spike is well above ground. 

After flowering, when the foliage yellows, the plants should be 
lifted, the offsets removed, the old corms cleaned, dried, and stored 
for replanting. They must be kept in frost proof, but well venti- 
lated and unheated, storage during winter. The offsets can be 
grown on in nursery beds and will flower in from one to^three years, 
according to size. New varieties can be raised from seed, sown in 
the spring in gentle heat. The seedlings should not be transplanted. 
Compost: 6 parts fibrous loam, 2 parts leaf-mould, 2 parts old 
manure, i part silver sand, with a 5" pot of bone meal and another 
of wood ashes added to every barrow load of compost. 

* Such knowledge cannot be gained hurriedly, and we are informed that 
results of investigations in progress must not be expected for many months. 


FROM time to time articles appear in the newspapers of a 
marvellous Rhododendron bush that has both purple and red 
flowers on it at the same time. This, of course, is due to the 
ponticum stock having suckered. If the suckers are not 
removed, they will take all the nourishment away from the 
named variety and the bush will revert to the wild. Every- 
body knows that Roses are usually grafted and briers are 
removed as they grow, but in the case of Rhododendrons, 
suckers are more difficult to recognise, and in many a small 
garden they often escape notice; whilst in Azaleas they are 
almost impossible to distinguish, and the public should refuse 
to buy any of them grafted: they are easily propagated from 
layers, and once a nurseryman has a few stools down, he can get 
as many as he may wish. 

All the hybrid Rhododendrons can be raised from layers and 
require no attention afterwards. It is not practicable to pro- 
pagate the newest varieties in this manner, as layering is slow; 
but nobody should buy Pink Pearl, for example, to-day unless 
it is on its own roots. 

There is a great deal of difference in the grafting. Some 
nurserymen take a great deal of trouble, graft the plants quite 
low on the collar and plant them very low the first year, so 
that as a rule the plant gets on its own roots. Others take less 
trouble in the matter. 

The grafting of Rhododendrons is quite an art. The 
ponticum stock should have a woody stem, not much bigger 
than a lead pencil, and be from 6 to 12 inches in height. It 
should be potted up in the early autumn and, when the plant is 
thoroughly established, should be brought into a little gentle 
heat, when a piece of the variety which it is wished to propagate 
should be grafted on to it as low down as possible and the 
union surrounded with grafting wax. A little bottom heat is 


an advantage until the stocks are united, when the plant can be 
gradually cooled off and should be ready to plant out some- 
time in the summer. One of the cleverest propagators of 
Rhododendrons grafts his plants rather later in the year with 
a little bottom heat from rotting leaves. 

But for the amateur who only wishes for a few extra plants 
of some variety which he enjoys, layering is the simplest form 
of propagation. One of the lower branches is bent down till 
a piece of the hard wood reaches the ground and it is held in 
position by a stick which has been cut with a crotch at the end : 
a little earth is then put over the branch, and a piece of sand- 
stone on the top will help to keep the moisture in during the 
summer. A couple of years should see this well rooted, though 
some of the smooth-bark Rhododendrons may take a little 
longer. As soon as sufficient roots have grown out, the plant 
may be separated from its parents with a sharp knife and 
planted out. This is really the only way to propagate those 
Rhododendrons which have not ponticum blood in them, such 
as Shilsoni, Cornubia, and all the various Himalayan hybrids 
which have been produced of recent years, as they are not 
really happy with ponticum and never unite properly, being 
very apt to split off at the graft should a strong current of air 
catch them. The layering method is also undoubtedly the best 
one for deciduous Azaleas, but the evergreen Japanese Azaleas 
are easily struck from cuttings taken in August with half- 
ripened wood under a bell-glass in a cold frame. The same 
applies to all the Lapponicum series of Rhododendrons, and in 
this way the best forms can be selected and propagated for 
the garden. Caucasicum hybrid Rhododendrons will also 
strike without great difficulty, and Cunningham's Sulphur is 
easily raised in this way. 

Generally speaking, however, the species of Rhododendrons 
are best raised from seed. To make absolutely certain that a 
bee has not cross-fertilised any of the flowers, they should be 
hand fertilised with pollen taken, if possible, from another plant, 
though if this cannot be done pollen from another flower on 
the same plant will do. Select a truss which is not yet fully 
open on a strong piece of wood, cut off any of the flowers which 
have already burst and leave on three or four buds which would 
open that particular day if left to themselves. I carefully open 


the buds and, with a pair of grape scissors, cut off the corolla, 
so that the bees shall no longer be attracted by the flower; 
I then carefully cut away all the anthers, leaving the stigma 
alone, and make absolutely certain that no pollen has by any 
chance got upon it. In some of the Fortunei and other series 
the corolla has to be very carefully removed in order to avoid 
this. I then leave the stigma for a day or two, or, in the case 
of some of the species like maximum and Ungernii, some four or 
five days, till the stigma is sticky and ready to receive the 
pollen. If I want the true species, I then put its own pollen 
upon it and mark the particular truss with a label so that I can 
find it again at the end of the year, or early January, when the 
seed pod will have to be removed. 

The same method can, of course, be applied to making 
hybrids, and the amateur whose amusement it is to raise new 
plants may get a lot of fun out of raising Rhododendron hybrids, 
and may almost ensure success if he uses a species on one side. 
For instance, discolor crossed on to any of the best red hybrids 
will give quite an attractive pink-flowering Rhododendron, 
some better than others, but nearly all worthy of a place in the 
garden. The same remark applies to Fortunei. Of course, two 
species crossed together will almost always give a constant 
and intermediate result, but at all costs one must avoid crossing 
together two Rhododendrons which both have ponticum or 
catawbiense blood in them, as in this case the majority of plants 
revert to the purple ; even a red, like Doncaster x Pink Pearl, 
will throw mauve Rhododendrons, absolutely useless ; whereas 
Doncaster x Aucklandii, which was first made by Mr. Lowinsky, 
has given a range of Rhododendrons from pink to scarlet all 
of them worth growing, though perhaps rather tender except 
for the favoured sheltered garden. 

But for seed raising one must have patience. The seed is 
picked as the capsules split, and in any case the first week in 
January. The capsules are then put into an envelope to dry, 
which takes about a week in the house, and the seed is then 
cleaned. I like to sow my seed on granulated peat -moss litter, 
which, after being soaked, is rubbed fine and placed in a shallow 
pan which has been well crocked. A very thin layer of silver 
sand will help to keep the moss down. The seed is sown 
towards the middle or end of January and kept in a gentle heat. 

(See "Botanical Expeditions") 

Photographed by F. Kingdon Ward] 

[To face p. 74 


Great care must be taken in the watering, as the seed is very 
fine, and a mist is the best for this purpose. Seed must never 
be allowed to become dry, and if kept in a little frame inside a 
greenhouse will germinate all the quicker. Once it is up and 
growing strong the sooner it is pricked off into boxes con- 
taining a mixture of leaf mould, good fibrous loam, and silver 
sand the better. It is not necessary for me to add that there 
must be no lime in the loam, as most Rhododendrons dislike 
it and will not grow in it. I try to get the Rhododendrons 
pricked off in April or May, so as to give them a chance to make 
any growth before the winter comes, as that is their dangerous 
time. The smaller Chinese Rhododendrons are very apt to 
damp off during the winter months and the plants should be 
watered as little as possible overhead. If necessary the box 
or pan can be soaked by being immersed in a shallow pan of 
water. The house wants well ventilating all the winter, but 
the plants do not like a cold draught. Some of the weaker- 
growing Rhododendrons may have to be planted out in a frame 
for a year after this, or, if they have made good growth, they may 
be put out straight into the nursery, where they should stay 
until they are twelve to eighteen inches in height, when they 
may be planted out in the woodland or garden. I have raised 
thousands of seedlings in this way, and though I first began 
by using ponticum hybrids I was warned of this by a friend 
who told me a year after I had done them to burn the lot. 
I did not do so then, but have practically followed his advice 
since ; whereas all those which have been raised from species, 
or species x hybrids, if not all first class, at any rate those which 
have flowered have given me pleasure, and I hope some of my 
friends also. 



THE opportunities for women to undertake research work in 
problems relating to Horticulture are at present strictly limited. 
Investigations in such subjects as pomology, plant breeding, 
diseases of cultivated plants, and fundamental problems of plant 
nutrition, etc., can only be undertaken at fully equipped 
research institutes or in University departments. There is no 
question that women with the necessary aptitude for this type 
of work and with the knowledge acquired during a general 
horticultural training should be successful in this field. Research 
work is, however, so specialised in character that further 
training in pure science, such as chemistry, botany, or mycology, 
is often required in preparation. It must, moreover, be recog- 
nised that, although most intelligent women can be trained in 
the methods of scientific research, the ability to initiate and 
carry through successfully a piece of investigation is an 
uncommon gift. No woman should therefore seriously con- 
sider the possibility of a career in this field unless she is pre- 
pared for a long and arduous training, and with the possibility 
in mind that events may prove that her special abilities do 
not lie in the field of research. 

Scholarships for the training of investigators are offered 
both by the Ministry of Agriculture and by the Department of 
Scientific and Industrial Research. For these competition is 
keen and the standard of a First-Class Honours Degree is 
generally requisite. 

The opportunities for employment for trained investigators 
are practically limited to the Research Stations subsidised by 
the Ministry of Agriculture and to University departments. 

I have confined my remarks to Research, but there are 
other avenues along which women can apply a scientific and 
practical knowledge of Horticulture, e.g. Inspectors under the 
Ministry of Agriculture and Advisors and Instructors under 
various County Council Authorities. Again, the positions are 
not numerous, but they are open to men and women who have 
not the necessary ability to pursue research. 




DURING the last few years the strawberry crop has proved a very 
difficult one, almost everywhere, and a number of reasons have 
been advanced to account for this e.g. the so-called " Red-Plant/' 
Eelworm, and Strawberry Aphis. The vigour of the actual stocks 
of plants has also been blamed. Many wild statements about the 
future of strawberry-growing have been made. It has even been 
stated in the Press that the fruit will be more or less extinct in a 
few years. 

The difficulties have been particularly noticed during the post- 
war period, and seem to be the result of the combination of a 
number of factors, probably starting with the wholesale indis- 
criminate propagation that followed the war when plants were 
needed in large numbers to replant and increase beds, whereas 
the supply of really good plants was very limited. This shortage 
was further intensified by the drought of 1921, which crippled 
many young beds and seriously checked runner production. The 
result was a distinct loss in vigour of large numbers of plants, 
which seems to have made them much more liable to certain pests 
and diseases and less resistant to the extreme climatic conditions 
which have prevailed during recent years. 

It is advisable, therefore, for the grower to start with a vigorous 
stock of plants, and this is of such importance that the Ministry 
of Agriculture issues certificates to growers of the most popular 
varieties whose stock reaches the necessary standard as to vigour, 
purity, freedom from disease, etc.* 

Land for strawberries in gardens should be thoroughly well 
prepared by double-digging or trenching, soon enough to allow the 
soil to settle before planting, adding any reasonable amount of 
dung that is available. Some bone-meal or basic slag might also 
be worked in at the same time. If pot runners are obtained, these 
should be planted on well-firmed ground as early as possible. In 
normal seasons planting is usually possible from mid-July onwards, 
and the earlier the planting the better, but in a dry season runners 
are later and it is unwise to plant until soil conditions are suitable, 
unless watering can be efficiently carried out. Where open-ground 
runners are used, these will not generally be available until Septem- 
ber, or even later, and suitable soil conditions are even more 
necessary than for pot plants, since they receive a much greater 
check from moving and replanting. 

* See Official Notices. 


Distances for planting vary considerably according to soil, 
variety, and other conditions, but 2'-2j' between the lines and 
I2"-I5" apart in the lines covers the usual distances for average 

Cultivation. Plant firmly so that the base of the " crown " 
is just covered with soil. If planted too deeply there is risk of 
rotting should a wet winter follow planting; while too shallow 
planting increases the risk of drying out during a period of drought 
and reduces the root-production of the young plant. Lightly hoe 
occasionally between the plants to keep the weeds down and the 
soil open. Should a frosty period follow planting, examine plants 
carefully, and if any have " lifted " press them back firmly into 
their former position or the plants will probably dry out during 
the following spring. 

As soon as soil is dry enough in February or March hoe through 
again and apply a dressing of some well-balanced fruit manure, 
this will then become available to the plant when the roots are 
actively feeding and will not only help the fruit but the develop- 
ment of the crowns for the following year's crop. Keep the hoe 
going until the flowering period, and then bed down with good 
clean straw, preferably barley straw. Stable manure is often used 
in gardens, but clean straw is far more hygienic ; moreover, straw- 
berries readily absorb any taint, and there is never any certainty 
that the stable manure will be washed clean before the fruiting 
season. The straw should be tucked well under the flower trusses, 
and sufficient spread over the soil to prevent heavy rains splashing 
the fruit with grit this is the main object of the strawing. As a 
deterrent to slugs soot may be freely dusted round the plant before 
bedding down. 

Before fruiting has finished, runners will begin to develop from 
the young plants. These will be the best with which to plant a 
new bed. It is a good practice to make a new bed each year, since 
the life of a bed is generally only three or four years. The runners 
may be laid into small pots (about 3") filled with any well-drained 
soil, fixed in position either with a small wire hook or hairpin or 
by a stone laid on the stem of the runner on top of the pot. If 
the soil is kept moist the runners should be nicely rooted in three to 
four weeks and ready to remove from the parent plants. Only 
three to five of the strongest and healthiest runners should be taken 
from any plant (and these only from really good plants). Indis- 
criminate and unlimited runner- taking is a fiequent cause of 
deterioration. At one time runners were not usually taken from 
maiden (or one-year-old) plants, but were often taken from old 
worn-out beds. Modern practice is to take them almost entirely 
from maiden plants. After the runners are removed the bed 
should be cleaned up (by removing the bedding, old fruit trusses, 
and dead foliage), and then well hoed, drawing the soil up towards 
the rows as far as possible, as this helps to encourage root pro- 


duction. At this stage the application of some quick-acting 
soluble manure, such as liquid manure in some form, may prove 
beneficial in helping to build up crowns for the following season. 

The rooted runners should be stood in an open situation and 
kept well watered so that they will be ready to plant out at the 
earliest practicable moment. Trials carried out over several years 
have demonstrated that, under normal weather conditions, runners 
planted in July or early August develop into far larger plants the 
following season than later planted runners. In some seasons a 
difference of seven to ten days in the planting date causes an almost 
incredible difference in the first season's crop, apart from the 
increase in the size of the plant. If the weather is dry at planting- 
time give the plants a really good soaking of water. After that 
keep the hoe going regularly to conserve soil moisture. The 
routine work on the two-year-old or other beds is similar to that 
described for young beds, except that no runners are taken from 
them, and as beds become unsatisfactory they should be destroyed. 
A succession of young beds should be kept going to replace them. 

Diseases. A number of mysterious strawberry diseases have 
been much advertised in the Press, but the principal troubles 
seem to be due to a few definite causes: (i) Lack of vigour in the 
plant, (2) Strawberry Aphis, (3) Red Spider, (4) Mildew, (5) Slugs. 
Strawberry Aphis (Capitophonis) is distinct from the common 
aphis so often found on forced strawberries. It is pale in colour 
and is found mainly on the quite young unfolding leaves and 
central crown, though in a severe attack it may be almost all over 
the plant. A relatively small number can seriously cripple a plant, 
resulting in the production of small " miffy " leaves and flat crowns, 
also severely checking root production. As a control all plants 
from which runners are to be taken should be examined. If the 
pest is present the plants and runners should be sprayed thoroughly 
with nicotine and soap, or some similar wash. Before planting, 
the runners should be well dipped in a similar insecticide. Dry 
spraying with nicotine dusts may be substituted for wet spraying, 
and is probably more practicable and economical on large areas. 
If sulphur is incorporated in the dust, as it is in some cases, the 
dusting will also help to control mildew. Mildew, contrary to 
general opinion, is often severe in a dry season. Occasional 
dustings with sulphur generally control it effectively. Red Spider 
is a more serious trouble of strawberries outside than is generally 
realised, especially in hot, dry seasons. Its effect bears a good 
deal of resemblance to the damage by Capitophorus, the foliage 
being small and pale and the crowns flattened. It is very difficult 
to control outside as the dense webs protect the pest from either 
dustings or wet sprays, unless the latter can be applied with con- 
siderable force, which is not easy on low-growing plants like straw- 
berries. Slugs are often a serious problem, but some of the pro- 
prietary slug controls are highly recommended by users. Frequent 


hoeing and well sooting before bedding down will go a long way 
towards control in a normal season, but in a showery season they 
may become a most difficult problem. 

Strawberry Varieties. As in most garden subjects we find far 
too many varieties. The majority could be lost altogether with 
advantage. Personal fancy and local conditions are important 
factors in the choice of varieties. The following are mostly well 
known. Royal Sovereign (very similar to, if not now synonymous 
with, King George V). A first early of good flavour, colour, shape, 
and cropping power. The most popular variety in cultivation, but 
many stocks are lacking in vigour so that a good stock should be 
secured. Madame Lefebvre. Less well known, though grown ex- 
tensively for market. A few days earlier than R. Sovereign. Very 
vigorous grower, of splendid habit, heavy cropper, fruit large, 
rather dark in colour but flavour poor. Duke. Early and heavy 
cropper in some districts, but not so generally reliable as R. 
Sovereign. Sir Joseph Paxton. An old variety which for a mid- 
season crop is still hard to beat, especially for quality. Fruit firm, 
darkish, good shape, and excellent flavour. It is essential to 
procure a good vigorous stock. Bedford Champion. A good variety 
for succession, though not too robust. Fruits over a long season, 
berries large and of moderate flavour. Madame Kooi. A very 
strong-growing variety which can often be grown where other 
varieties fail. Fruit large, often rather ugly, colour and flavour 

To summarise : 

(1) Start with a really good stock. 

(2) Plant firmly and as early as is practicable. 

(3) Hoe frequently, always slightly towards the plants, but 
avoid deep tillage, especially near the plants. 

(4) Keep plants clear of weeds, insect, and other pests. 

(5) When propagating take only a limited number of runners, 
and these only from vigorous, healthy, fruiting plants. 



LIST of up-to-date varieties selected by the Floral Committee of the 
National Sweet Pea Society: 

BLUE. Bluebird, Boy Blue (Carter Cup), Reflection.*! (LIGHT). 
Gleneagles,*! Mermaid, Porcelain. (MEDIUM). Tom Webster (A.M., 
1928). (DARK). Commander Godsall, Fortune* (A.M., 1926), Jack 
Cornwell, V.C. 

BLUSH (PINK). Dainty Maid, Valentine. *f (LILAC). Elegance, 
Lilac Queen.* 

CARMINE. Brilliant Rose,* Marjorie Stevenson. 

CERISE. Charming. (PALE). Nina,! Rosy Morn.* (DEEP). Charm,* f 
Daventry, Hero. (SALMON). Delightful, Mrs. A. Searles (F.C.C., 
Reserve G.M., 1926). (SCARLET). Flamingo,*! Grenadier, Pimpernel. 

CREAM. Matchless, What Joy.*t 

CREAM PINK. Mary Pickford (A.M., 1924), Susan,* Venus. (PALE). 
Mrs. Arnold Hitchcock. (DEEP). Ambassador, La France, Picture,*! 
(SALMON). Idyll*! (A.M., 1928), Magnet. 

CRIMSON. Honour,* Sybil Henshaw. 

FANCY. Skylight,! Carnival. 

FLUSHED (CREAM GROUND). Big Ben (A.M., 1929), Britannia, 
Jack Hobbs.* (WHITE GROUND). CarmeHta (A.M., 1926), Mrs. H. J. 

IVORY. Ivory Picture* (A.M., 1924), Leslie Rundle. 

LAVENDER (Rosy). Austin Frederick Improved, R. F. Felton*! 
(A.M., 1912; S.M., 1913). (PALE). Wembley! (F.C.C., G.M., 1924). 
(LILAC). Gladys, Lilac Time, Powerscourt*! (A.M., 1921). 

MAROON (RED). Hawlmark Maroon, Splendour.* (DARK). The 
Sultan* (A.M., 1921), Warrior. 

MAUVE. Chieftain,*! Guardsman, Royal Mauve. (ROSY). Inter- 

ORANGE. Orange Picture, Royal Sovereign.*! (DEEP). Colorado,*! 
Prince of Orange, Wizard. (PINK). Crusader, Geo. Shawyer! (A.M.), 
Royal Pink.* (SCARLET). Mammoth! (A.M., 1924). 

Jean Ireland (F.C.C., 1915), Sunkist.* 

PINK (PALE). Ascot,*! Supreme. (DEEP). Hebe. Pinkie.*! 

PURPLE. Olympia,* Purple Monarch. 

ROSE. Corona,* Sunset (Bolton's) (A.M., 1921). (OLD ROSE). 
Wild Rose.! 

SALMON (ORANGE). Gold Crest.! 

SCARLET. Huntsman*! (A.M., 1927; Gold Medal, 1927-28), 2 LO. 
(BRIGHT). Flaming June (A.M., Gold Medal, 1928-29). 

WHITE. Avalanche,*! Vectis. (TINTED). Constance Hinton, Model.* 

* Considered the best in each colour. 

! Of special value for cultivation under glass. 

7 8t 



Not more than one of the grouped varieties may be shown on the 
same competitive stand at any exhibition of the National Sweet Pea 
Society unless otherwise stated. 

BLUE, (i) Bluebird, Mrs. T. Jones; (2) Boy Blue, Heavenly 
Blue. (DARK). Commander Godsall, Jack Cornwell, V.C. (LIGHT). 
Gleneagles, Porcelain, Silver Sheen. 

BLUSH. Felicity, Valentine. 

CARMINE. Mascotts Ingman, Renown, Brilliant Rose, Marjorie 

CERISE. (PALE). Doris Lucifer, Rosy Morn. (DEEP). Centaur, 
Charm, Glorious, Daventry, Hero. (SCARLET). Flamingo, Grenadier, 
Pimpernel, Royal Scot, Wonderful. 

CREAM. Daffodil, Majestic Cream, Matchless, What Joy. 

CREAM-PINK. (PALE). Cecily, Fair Lady, Mrs. A. Hitchcock, 
Radiance. (DEEP), (i) Hawlmark Salmon Pink, Pink Perfection. 
(2) Miss California, W. J. Unwin. (3) Edith Cavell, La France, Picture. 

CRIMSON. Charity, Crimson King, Marjorie Ryder, Sunproof 
Crimson, Sybil Henshaw. 

FLUSHED (WHITE GROUND). Carmelita, Mrs. C. W. J. Unwin, Mrs. 
H. J. Wright. (CREAM GROUND). Britannia, Faerie Queen, Jack 

IVORY. Ivory Picture. Leslie Rundle. 

LAVENDER. Austin Frederick Improved, R. E. Felton. (LILAC). 
Gladys, Powerscourt. (PALE). Blue Butterfly, Wembley. 

MAROON (RED). Hawlmark Maroon, Splendour. 

MAUVE. Chieftain, Guardsman, King Mauve, Lady Eveline, 
Royal Mauve. 

ORANGE (DEEP). Poppy, Wizard. 

PICOTEE EDGED (CREAM GROUND). Jean Ireland, Sunkist. 

PINK (DEEP). Hebe, Hercules, Miss Philadelphia. 

PURPLE. Mascotts Purple, Olympia, Purple Monarch, Purple 
Perfection, Royal Purple. 

ROSE. Private Jack Smellie, Sunset (Bolton's), Verdun. 

SCARLET, (i) Hawlmark Scarlet, Mascotts Scarlet. (2) Huntsman, 

WHITE, (i) Avalanche, Edna May Imp., Joan Ryder, Mascotts 
White, Moneymaker, Nora Unwin, Vectis, White Perfection. (2) Con- 
stance Hinton, Model. 

VARIETIES RECOMMENDED by the Floral Committee of the N.S.P.S. 
for general garden cultivation: 

Ascot (pale pink), Avalanche (white), Bonfire (bicolour), Charming 
(deep cerise), Corona (rose), Delightful (rose cerise), Elegance (blush, 
lilac), Grenadier (cerise scarlet), Huntsman (scarlet), Ivory Picture 
(ivory), King Mauve (mauve), Magnet (deep cream-pink), Mrs. Arnold 
Hitchcock (pale cream-pink), Mrs. H. J. Wright (flushed white ground), 
Olympia (purple), Picture (cream pink), Pinkie (deep pink), Powerscourt 
(lavender, lilac), Reflection (blue), Sybil Henshaw (crimson), Warrior 
(maroon), Wembley (lavender, pale), Youth (picotee-edged). 


SOME form of summer pruning is essential in order to thin out the 
number of new wood growths on fruit trees and to utilise the sap to 
develop fruit buds in their stead. Such treatment also admits sun 
and air to the growing fruit, which improves its quality and appear- 
ance. It can be done by pinching back the shoots while they are 
still immature, and continuing the process as new growths develop 
throughout the summer. As this pinching back only checks growth 
to a very slight extent it has to be done over and over again, with the 
result that it is scarcely ever properly done. 

Lorette has tried to reduce summer pruning to a simple method 
of shoot cutting carried put at regular intervals of time throughout 
the summer.* No pruning is then necessary in winter. His whole 
system is based on the fact that he found by experience that shoots 
emanating from the stipulary eyes are less rank and more fruitful 
than shoots growing from the buds found in the axils of the leaves. 
To understand his system it is essential that his definitions of the 
various growths of fruit trees should be comprehended. It is of 
primary importance to carry out his ideas as to the spacing of the 
branches and spurs on the trees, and the adequate fertilisation of 
the soil. It must be borne in mind that he only enunciates principles, 
and that these principles must be adapted to the climate, soil, and 
conditions under which the trees are growing. Scab is especially 
inimical to good results from his methods, as it seems to attack the 
weak stipulary buds in preference to the axil buds. This causes 
bare patches of fruitless and leafless branch, a condition which this 
system of pruning is meant to obviate. 

Anyone who has grown fruit for a few years must have been 
struck by the variations in growth from year to year, due to climatic 
conditions; also by the great differences in the type of growth 
produced by different varieties of apple and pear trees. Soil, too, 
modifies growth to an extraordinary extent, and greatly affects the 
disease-resisting properties of the trees. From this it will be under- 
stood that modifications will have to be made according to the 
weather, the soil, and the type of fruit tree. 

Lorette's system of pruning is divided into two distinct 
operations : 

* Cf. The Lorette System of Pruning, by Louis Lorette, Professor of Arbori- 
culture, late Chief Instructor in Practical Horticulture at Wagonviile, near 
Douai. Translated by the late W. R. Dykes, M.A., L.-&S-L. It must be 
remembered that this book was written for use in France, where conditions 
vary considerably from those in this country. 


(1) The pruning of the extension growths those shoots which 
are required to continue the building up of the framework of the 
tree, in other words the main branches. They require to be cut 
back yearly so that their buds may develop down to the base of the 
new wood. If left unpruned, the lower buds will remain dormant, 
making bare and fruitless spaces. Lorette allows these extension 
growths to grow unchecked throughout the summer, and to remain 
at full length throughout the winter. 

After the buds have started growing in the spring it is possible 
to see how much of the shoot will remain leafless if left unpruned. 
This will give an idea of the cutting back required. As the buds are 
growing it is easy to select and cut back to a strong leaf bud. The 
hard summer pruning makes the extension growths very strong. 
After a wet growing season they require hard pruning. After a 
dry season they need only be lightly cut. In any case, where the 
branches are trained horizontally they only need light pruning, as 
the flow of sap is checked and the lower buds, those nearest to the 
trunk of the tree, get an ample supply of sap to enable them to 
become fruit buds, or to grow into wood shoots. 

(2) Pruning of the laterals. As growth continues some of the 
upper buds in the extension growths will develop into shoots. 
Other shoots will grow out from the old spurs and branches down 
the tree. Lorette advocates going over the trees about the middle 
of June and cutting out any of these shoots which have attained a 
length of 12 inches, are as thick as a pencil, and whose substance is 
what he describes as half woody. The top shoot is not cut, as this 
will be the extension growth to be pruned in the following spring. 
The cutting is very severe, only leaving a stump J to J of an inch 
long. He relies on the stipulary buds developing into weak shoots 
or fruit buds. Shoots which are not of the requisite dimensions are 
left unpruned until the trees are again gone over in the middle of 

Some weak shoots will grow which would never be thick enough 
to be pruned. These should be split with the point of the pruning 
knife above the third leaf, then bent down and tied to the branch. 
This will check the flow of sap and help the lower buds to develop 
into fruit buds. Another type is the shoot that will never attain the 
requisite length for pruning yet is quite thick and woody. If short, 
4 to 8 inches long, these shoots should not be pruned. Generally 
the apical bud will blossom and bear fruit. It longer than 8 inches 
I generally cut back to two or three buds. Many of the shoots cut 
back in June produce new shoots which are ready to be cut back in 
like manner when the trees are gone over in July and August. 

Old fruit spurs are more difficult to deal with. If neglected 
they develop far more fruit buds than the sap can render productive, 
resulting in undersized fruit or barren spaces. Three or four buds 
is ample for one spur. The surplus should be cut off, keeping the 
spur as short and compact as possible. When pruning shoots on 


This illustration is taken (torn "The- Loretie System* of Ptumtig," ly Lento 
Lorette translated by the late W. R. Dykes, end published by Martin 
H*KmJ*.,W. WOC.P.H 


old spurs the cutting back must be regulated to the run of the sap. 
In a wet season some buds must always be left to allow an outlet 
for the surplus sap. Shortening shoots to two or three buds does 
not check growth to anything like the extent that cutting back to 
the base does. The top bud of the shortened shoot begins to grow 
in a few days and provides an outlet for the sap. Later on in the 
year the new growth from this top bud will have grown into a shoot 
which is of the requisite dimensions to be cut back to its base, or, 
if growth is still very rank, to one bud. If it has not grown suffi- 
ciently to be cut back before, then in September, when the trees 
are finally gone over, the whole of the year's growth should be cut 
back to the second or third bud. At the same time shoots which have 
been split and tied down should be cut back to three buds. 

Lorette gives rules and examples for dealing with many varia- 
tions of shoots growing out of spurs. During wet years my experience 
has been that it is much better to prune them lightly, owing to the 
danger of starting growth in buds that are normally developing into 
fruit buds. This would mean less fruit in the ensuing year, and the 
needless trouble of cutting back shoots forced into growth by inju- 
dicious severity with the pruning knife. 

Lorette's principles are more easily applied to pear than to apple 
trees, but I have borne the latter in mind when writing these notes. 
I have found the system very satisfactory with plum trees trained 
on walls, but for bush plums in the open I found that thinning out 
branches to admit light and air, and rubbing out surplus buds and 
shoots was all they required. Varieties of apples which make thick 
heavy shoots, such as Bramley's Seedling, Newton Wonder, Upton 
Pyne, and Charles Ross, answer most readily to this method of 
cultivation. With Cox's Orange Pippin on heavy soil, where they are 
always liable to attacks of scab, I found it better to cut the shoots 
back to three buds, and to cut the subsequent growths on these 
back to one bud. With varieties that have very thin shoots, such 
as Egremont Russet, I found on my soil (in North-east Devon) that 
the shoots from the stipulary eyes were too thin to bear fruit, so I 
treated this variety in the same manner that I treated Cox's Orange. 
With other varieties, such as Allington Pippin, which threw out an 
extraordinary number of shoots if too heavily pruned, it proved 
better to allow them to grow much longer spurs, by leaving four to 
six buds when first cutting back their shoots. These long spurs 
seem to use up a greater quantity of the sap and not to make so many 
useless growths in the ensuing years. 

In spite of our variable climate and the great differences in the 
types of growth to be found in the fruit trees in our gardens, I am 
certain that anyone who tries a modified form of Lorette pruning 
will be gratified by the results. Not only will the trees blossom and 
in good seasons fruit over the whole length of their branches, but 
the effect of going over and regularly pruning the trees will imbue 
the owner with a greater interest in fruit culture. In far too many 


gardens in England the fruit trees are subjected to the ministrations 
of a jobbing gardener, who treats all varieties alike to a rule of thumb 
pruning to three spurs. Bush trees under this system gradually 
turn into topiarian models, but they are very poor fruit bearers. 



Experiments in the healing of woody stems when pruned go to 
prove that wounds made from May to August become rapidly 
impervious to the entry of disease. September and October wounds 
block only in part, and November to April do not heal till the 
following spring. 


AMERICAN BLIGHT. Reported immune: Irish Peach, Northern 
Spy, Winter Majestic. Susceptible : Allington Pippin, Beauty of Bath, 
Bismark, Cox's Orange Pippin, Prince Albert. 

INJURED BY SULPHUR SPRAYS. Cox's Orange Pippin, Lane's 
Prince Albert, Stirling Castele. 

INJURED BY BORDEAU MIXTURE. Allington Pippin, Beauty of 
Bath, Lord Derby. 


GOOD FOR MARKET. Count Althann's Gage, Czar, Denniston's 
Superb, Heron, Jefferson, Oullins Golden, Victoria. 


THE last few years have brought about a wonderful advance both 
in the wider cultivation of Daffodils and in the striking results 
obtained by raisers. Now that so many more are engaged on raising 
seedlings a far greater number of good flowers are being introduced 
annually. In the past some men worked on quite haphazard lines; 
in many cases no records were kept and much self -fed seed was sown. 
At the present time very few would trouble to raise bulbs from self- 
fertilized seed. Careful crosses are made in the hope of obtaining 
specific characters, and elaborate records kept of the pedigree extend- 
ing over several generations. The grower of to-day, whether of seed- 
lings or named varieties, has wonderful material to work upon. In 
many cases it would appear to be impossible that any improvement 
on existing types could be effected, yet year after year some new 
ftower appears which is a distinct advance upon any seen before. 

The work accomplished by the Rev. G. H. Engleheart is reflected 
in the race of yellow Ajax, characterised by earliness, vigour, and 
freedom of flower. Magnificence, though not a show flower, may 
be cited as an example. His white trumpets possess the same 
qualities; Beersheba, a flower of the highest quality, is an outstand- 
ing one; while his Poeticus varieties are proverbial. I believe that 
White Lady, one of this raiser's early flowers which is now grown by 
the acre for market purposes, was his favourite; while the advent 
of Will Scarlet marked an epoch in the daffodil world. The coloured 
flowers raised by Mr. P. D. Williams are generally far in advance of 
other raisers'. They are characterised by purity and depth of 
colour, length of stem and vigour of constitution. The raising of 
Fortune has enabled The Brodie of Brodie to raise a magnificent 
race of red-capped Incomparabilis, while his white trumpets and 
Leedsii types are of outstanding excellence. The highly coloured 
flowers raised by the late Mrs. R. O. Backhouse (the work is now 
being carried on by Mr. R. O. Backhouse) appear on every show- 
stand throughout the country. Messrs Barr & Son, Mr. Guy Wilson, 
Mr. A. M. Wilson, the late Dr. Lower, the Donard Nursery Co., 
Mr. Richardson, Mr. Copeland (for double flowers), Messrs. Bath, 
Messrs. Pearson, Mr. H. Backhouse, and the writer have all raised 
notable flowers. 

The highest type of flower to-day should conform not only to 
the florist standard but be suitable for general cultivation. The 
colourings of many flowers seen on the show-bench are too delicate 
to stand the rough and tumble^of ordinary garden^cultivation, but 



if the flowers are cut before they are fully expanded, and opened 
under glass, their cleanliness and purity of colour is preserved. This 
course (or protection from sun, rain, and wind) should be followed 
with all blooms required for exhibition or table decoration. Some 
assert that the florists' standard is too formal and what is loosely 
termed the decorative type of flower only is suitable for the garden. 
Of these the number is legion. Many thousands are registered in 
the Royal Horticultural Society's classified list, and hundreds 
appear in Trade Catalogues. But, as every daffodil raiser knows 
from painful experience, only a very small percentage of those raised 
are an improvement on existing varieties, and when they occur are 
necessarily expensive. Second- and third-rate flowers are plentiful, 
and many are disposed of at cheap rates for mixed planting. Most are 
beautiful, but they will not bear comparison with the highest types. 

Large quantities of the older varieties such as Emperor (1890), 
Golden Spur (1889), ornatus (F.C.C. 1886), Barrii conspicuus, Sir 
Watkin (1884 F.C.C.) are still cultivated for the cut-flower trade, 
but they are gradually being superseded by far better types. The 
stocks of these have been acquired by enterprising market growers. 
A selection of the best and most frequently exhibited flowers seen 
during the past two or three years would embrace amongst others 
the following in the various sections. Many of these are very 
expensive. Of others, but small stocks exist which are not yet 
available for general distribution. Most are suitable either for 
exhibition or general cultivation, and many have received a First 
Class Certificate or Award of Merit at the R.H.S. or Midland Daffodil 

Division I. Trumpet Daffodils: (a) Yellow or lemon trumpet, 
perianth same or lighter shade, (not white). Advance-guard, Brim- 
stone, Bulwark, Cleopatra, Crocus, Dawson City, Florists' Delight, 
Godolphin, Grenadier, Harpist, Honey Boy, Magnificence, Rheingold, 
Royalist, Sulphur, Whiteley Gem. 

(b) White trumpet and perianth. Askelon, Beersheba, Eskimo, 
Kantara, Moray, Mrs. Lower, White Chevron, White Emperor, White 
Knight, Zionist. 

(c) Bi-color. Carmel, Countess of Antrim, Haifa, Helen O'Hara, 
Jack Homer, Lady Primrose, Moira O'Niell, Quartz, Rosemary, 
Rosemorran Giant, Vestal Virgin. 

Division II. Incomparabilis: (a) Yellow, with or without red 
on cup. Adventure, Alroi, Copper Bowl, Damson, Donax, Farthin- 
gale, Fortune, Fortune's Pride, Golden Ingot, Havelock, Jorrocks, 
Jubilant, Killigrew, Mephisto, Morea, Nimrod, Penquite, Pilgrimage, 

(6) Bi-color. Beauty of Radnor, Bernadino, Bodilly, Delhi, 
Eucharis, Folly, Fortune's Queen, Galopin, John Evelyn, Nissa, 
Princess Badoura, Rewa, Warlock. 

Division III. Barrii: (a) Yellow, with or without red on cup. 
Bridegroom, Hades, Kitier, Lady Sackville, Red Sea, Seraglio t Varna. 

See "New and .\otnwthy Plants"} [to fa* p. 88 


(b) Bi-color. Carminowe, Coronach, Dragoon, Firetail, Lady 
Lilford, Lady Moore, Morocco, Picador, Red Sun, St. Egwin, Sun- 
star, Therapia, Warspite. 

Division IV. Leedsii: (a) Long cup or crown. Bradwardine, 
Ciceley, Ettrick, Fanny Currey, Grayling, Helmet, Hymettus, Mar- 
mora, May Malony, Mitylene, Sea Shell, Suda, Tenedos. 

(b) Short (less than \ of perianth segment) cup or crown. Mach- 
ete, Mystic, Puck, Samaria, Silver Plane, Silver Salver. 

Division V. Triandrus Hybrids: (a) Long cup or crown. Harvest 

(b) Short (less than % of perianth segment) cup or crown. 
Acolyte, Maid Monica, Venetia, Waterfall, Wavelet, White Coral. 

Division VI. Cyclamineus Hybrids. Golden Cycle, minicycla, 
Orange Glory, Trewirgie. 

Division VII. Jonquilla Hybrids. Golden Goblet. Solleret, 
Yellow Jacket (palium luteum) . 

Division VIII . Tazetta and Tazetta Hybrids. Glorious, Medusa, 
Peter Lower, Red Guard, Xerxes. 

Division IX. Poeticus Varieties. Ace of Diamonds, Dinton 
Red, Hexameter, James Hogg, John Masefield, Kestrel, Narrabri, 
Opera, Raeburn, Recessional, Red Rim, Ringdove. 

Division X. Double Varieties. Engleheart's White Rose, Hol- 
land's Glory, Mary Copeland. 

Division XL Various. This section represents the smaller 
species. There are no very marked varieties. 




A BULB is a modified bud which usually lives underground. It 
consists of a comparatively small stem surrounded by a number 
of overlapping scale-leaves. The outer scale-leaves are usually 
thin and dry, and serve as a protective coat to the bulb, but the 
inner ones are thick and fleshy. The latter are packed with reserve 
food, mainly in the form of starch grains, which has been manu- 
factured by the green leaves in the presence of light. Roots are 
produced around the outer edge of the base of the stem or " plate " 
of the bulb, and new bulbs are formed by the growth of the lateral 
buds situated in the axils of the bulb scales. If satisfactory growth 
is to be obtained care must be taken to purchase and plant sound 
bulbs. It is wise to see that the basal plates of all bulbs are quite 
sound when purchasing, otherwise a good root system cannot be 

Storage Rots. Much damage can be caused to bulbs in store 
by forms of the common blue mould Penicillium. Insufficiently 
ripened bulbs and damaged or bruised parts are first attacked, 
and from them the fungus may penetrate into the sound tissues, 
and destroy the bulb. Lilium, Narcissus, Tulipa, Scilla, Gladiolus, 
Iris, and other bulbs and corms are susceptible to this form of 
decay, which can largely be avoided by careful handling and 
keeping the bulbs quite dry whilst out of the ground. A_ light 
dusting with flowers of sulphur may also be beneficial. 

Narcissus bulbs that have been scorched by exposure to the 
sun, and varieties that are particularly liable to " Basal rot/ 1 are 
not infrequently damaged by Fusarium sp. This fungus is some- 
times particularly severe on large soft imported bulbs which may 
have got damp in transit, and in which flat plates of white mycelium 
may be seen between the scales of the rotting bulb. 

The Bulb Mite is another trouble which is likely to cause loss 
when the bulbs are out of the ground. When a quantity of bulbs 
is stored they should be sorted over from time to time, and decaying 
material removed if present and destroyed. The hot- water treat- 
ment as applied for eelworm control will free bulbs from mite. 
Fumigation with para-dichlorbenzene has been shown to be effective : 
4 ozs. of the crystals per cubic foot of bulbs are used in an air-tight 
container, and the fumigation carried out for 72 hours. The same 
treatment will kill Aphides (green fly), a few species of which 



infest stored tulip and some other bulbs. For the destruction 
of the larvae of Narcissus flies a longer exposure is necessary, and 
120 hours has been stated to give a 100 per cent. kill. 

Fungus diseases. Sometimes black bodies varying in size from 
a pin's head to about J inch across are found on bulbs. These 
are " sclerotia," or the vegetative resting stage of certain fungi, 
and are capable of further development. When a diseased bulb 
is planted the new growth is promptly attacked by the fungus, 
and such a bulb may serve as a centre from which others in their 
turn become infected with disease. Sclerotium Tuliparum is one 
of these sclerotia-forming fungi, and it causes the tulip disease 
known as Grey Bulb Rot, and may also attack a few other kinds 
of bulbs. Unhealthy plants more or less rotted around the neck 
should be removed carefully and burnt, before the " sclerotia " 
become detached from the diseased plant. If the soil has become 
infected it is better to grow bulbs of susceptible kinds such as 
Tulip, Iris, Crocus, SciUa in another part of the garden. If 
desired the soil may be sterilised by steam, and treatment with 
formalin solution has also proved effective . Dressing the soil with 
flowers of sulphur has sometimes proved to be beneficial. Botrytis 
Tulipae is another sclerotia-forming fungus; it is responsible 
for " Fire " in tulips, and causes spots on the flowers and 
considerable damage to the leaves and bulbs. The disease is 
commonest and most severe where large numbers of tulips are 
grown together, owing to the readiness with which the spores of 
the summer stage of the fungus may be blown from plant to plant, 
causing widespread infection during warm, moist spells of weather. 
If good sound bulbs are planted a reasonable distance apart the 
average gardener is not likely to be much troubled. 

The Gladiolus is becoming more difficult to grow owing to the 
spread of disease, due largely to imported corms which are attacked 
by Hard Rot (Septoria Gladioli) and Dry Rot (Sclerotium Gladioli). 
There are also two bacterial diseases which attack the foliage and 
corm. It is advisable to plant only corms which appear sound, 
and all plants which are obviously unhealthy should be removed 
as soon as they are observed and burnt.* 

* A dying plant, sent to the Editor by an amateur grower, was forwarded 
to Mr. W. C. Moore, of the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries' Plant 
Pathological Laboratory, Harpenden, who reported that it was typical of 
many similarly affected Gladiolus plants received during the season. " The 
browning and death of the foliage in all these cases was due to failure of 
the root system of the young corm, probably as a result of drought. The 
young roots wilt and become flaccid from the tips backwards and, with 
the entry later of soil organisms, the inner tissues rot away until finally 
only the skin and the central ' stele ' remain. Although drought may be 
held mainly responsible for the trouble in 1929, it is probable that the action 
of any factor (e.g. waterlogging or poor soil aeration) which hinders or 
prevents the establishment of a vigorous root system by the young developing 
corm would have the same effect. Dying off of this nature must not be 
confused with the somewhat similar symptoms produced by one or other 
of the organisms mentioned above." 


Virus diseases. There are several virus diseases of bulbs which 
cause a mottled or striped appearance of the leaves, sometimes 
with a certain amount of dwarfing or even distortion. Some 
varieties of Narcissus are frequently affected with diseases of this 
type, which are sometimes known as " Yellow Stripe/ 1 " Grey 
Disease," etc. Various bulbous Iris, and several other kinds of 
bulbs may be similarly affected, and although some of these plants 
will flower they are obviously unhealthy. There is not much 
known about these particular bulb troubles, and how they spread 
from plant to plant, but they are believed to be due to plant 
virus. From information available in similar plant virus diseases 
in other hosts, it is unlikely that any cure will be found; and in 
the light of our present knowledge it is wise to remove and destroy 
badly mottled specimens, or other healthy plants may become 

Eelworm disease. Mention must be made of the disease of 
bulbs due to small unsegmented worms known as " nematodes " 
or eelworms. Eelworms are seldom observed in the field owing 
to their small size, which in the case of a fully developed plant 
parasitic species is about 2 V inch * n length. They are usually 
present in very large numbers in a badly diseased plant. The 
eelworm disease of Narcissus, which is one of the most widely 
spread troubles of the commercial grower of this plant, is usually 
brought into the garden by slightly infected bulbs. These bulbs 
may be quite sound so far as outward appearance goes, and it 
is only when the bulb is grown that any abnormality is likely 
to be detected. If a bulb has been infected for some time it may 
be sunken and soft at the " nose/' and if suspicions are aroused 
a few bulbs should be cut transversely, when the presence of dis- 
coloured concentric rings will tend to confirm the need for further 
enquiry. During growth pale-coloured and swollen lesions may 
be seen in the foliage, often accompanied by more or less dis- 
tortion of the whole plant. These are the usual symptoms, but 
different varieties react in different ways, and, in general, the 
poeticus varieties of Narcissus tend to dwindle away rather than 
distort. If distorted plants of this character are seen they should 
be burnt, for if allowed to remain, the eelworm will escape into 
the soil and attack neighbouring plants. Great vigilance should 
be exercised against these insidious pests, and at the earliest 
opportunity all adjacent bulbs should be lifted and, when dormant, 
subjected to the hot-water treatment. This consists in immersing 
the bulbs in a bath retained at 110 F. for 3 hours. The water 
is a means of conducting the heat through the bulb so that the 
eelworms and their eggs will be destroyed without causing damage 
to the bulb. The same treatment will kill Bulb Mite and destroy 
the larvae of the Narcissus flies. If these two insect pests only 
have to be considered, the duration of the treatment may be 
reduced to one hour. 


Other pests. The Large Narcissus Fly (Merodon equestris) and 
the Lesser Bulb Flies (Eumerus spp.) have long been known as 
pests of the Daffodil in this country. They belong to the same 
family as the Hover flies (Syrphidae), and the grubs feed greedily 
in the bulb. All the species prefer a warm sunny spot, so that 
when bulbs are lifted they should be ripened in shade, and not 
be left lying about in the sun, where the flies can lay their eggs 
upon them. Although Merodon was first recorded in this country 
as long ago as 1869, the flies seem to be increasing in number, 
particularly in the warmer parts of the country. Control measures 
have already been touched upon in these notes. 

There are other kinds of damage which cannot be termed dis- 
eases, but which, nevertheless, are very annoying to the gardener. 
It should be remembered that rats and mice will eat many kinds 
of bulbs, and are particularly fond of Tulips, which they will 
scratch up when food is scarce. Slugs and ground caterpillars 
will also cause damage which the good gardener will know how 
to keep in check. Only a brief outline of a few of the possible 
troubles of the bulb grower has been given, but it will be sufficient 
to emphasise the desirability of obtaining bulbs from a firm with 
a reputation to uphold, and of paying a fair price for them. The 
Empire Marketing Board has reminded the public that good 
supplies of British bulbs of several kinds may be had; and if 
low-priced imported bulbs are obtained, the only recommendation 
of which is an alluring catalogue printed abroad, the grower must 
not be surprised if his experience of some of the diseases of bulbs 
is increased. 


Isles of Stilly Experimental Station. 


History of the Parasite. In 1924 a minute Cahcid wasp was 
found parasitising the scales of the Greenhouse White-fly in Ohio, 
and was described and named Encarsia formosa by Dr. A. B. Gahan. 
The insect was first found in England, near Elstree, Herts, by 
Mr. L. Hawkins in 1926, and material of the parasite was obtained 
from him in July of that year. In breeding experiments at the 
Cheshunt Experimental Station, it was established at once that the 
parasite generations consisted exclusively of female insects, repro- 
duction being parthenogenetic. Later it was found that males 
made their appearance only at comparatively low temperatures. 
From the few females obtained at Elstree, two generations were 
bred, so that in September some 2,500 white-fly scales containing 
the parasite were available for testing in the Experimental Station 
tomato houses. Sufficient control was obtained from them to 
warrant the breeding of the parasite during the winter months in a 


specially heated glasshouse. In 1927 white-fly was completely 
stamped out in the Experimental Station cucumber houses during 
March and April, and during the year some 10,000 parasitised scales 
were distributed to a dozen growers of tomatoes with good results. 
Towards the end of the year a grant from the Empire Marketing 
Board provided means for building a special glasshouse in which the 
parasite could be bred on a larger scale, and distributed to growers. 
In 1928 some 280,000 parasitised scales were sent out to growers 
in the British Isles, including the Channel Isles, and a large consign- 
ment was forwarded to the Canadian Government through the 
Parasite Laboratory at Farnham Royal. Reports obtained from 
the recipients showed that the best period for distribution is from the 
beginning of April to the middle of June, but good results may be 
obtained in well-heated houses from distribution made as early as 
January. From January i to June 30, 1929, over 700,000 para- 
sitised scales were distributed directly to some 260 owners of glass- 
houses, and many others, through the Royal Tunbridge Wells 
Gardeners' Association and the Guernsey Growers' Association. 

Method of Breeding and Distribution. In order to breed the 
parasite in large numbers for distribution, it is necessary to keep a 
stock of unparasitised white-fly scales so that a continuous source 
of the white-fly is available. The stock is maintained upon tobacco 
plants grown in pots, the parasite being averse to the sticky foliage 
of this plant. When large numbers of white-fly have been obtained, 
the tobacco plants are placed with young tomato plants in " 60 " 
pots in a house where a small stock of the parasite is always present. 
As the white-fly lay their eggs first upon the lowest leaves of the 
tomato plant, parasitised scales of white-fly first appear on these, 
being recognisable at once from their black colour. The lowest 
shoots are cut off, packed in boxes and sent to owners of glasshouses 
infested with white-fly. A little later the next lot of shoots are 
similarly despatched when ready, the plants being repotted until 
they are established in 10- or 12-inch pots. A single tomato plant 
will give a continuous sequence of branches with parasites upon 
them for a period of 3 or 4 months from March onwards. Some 
50 branches of large size can be packed into a box 14* x 9" x 6", 
and upon these there may be over 20,000 parasitised scales. On 
receipt of the box, the grower makes the branches into bunches 
of 4 to 6 and hangs them up for a period of 3 weeks in his glasshouses 
to allow the adult parasites to emerge from the black scales. 

The period from April to June is most suitable for starting the 
parasite, and complete control of white-fly cannot be expected from 
distributions made at a later date, unless the glasshouses are well 
heated during winter, when the parasite is unable to survive in 
unheated glasshouses or outside. When an average temperature 
of 70 F. is maintained, black parasitised scales may be expected to 
appear upon the underside of the lower foliage or infested plants 
some 14 days after receipt of the parasite by the grower. The 


parasite will not destroy insects other than the white-fly. At low 
temperatures (50 F. to 60 F.) the breeding capacity of the parasites 
is much lowered, and unless kept at 70 F., or over, the parasite is 
often averse to laying its eggs in the white-fly scales upon the leaves 
of Tobacco, Datura, Eucalyptus, Bouvardia, Abutilon, and some 
varieties of Primula and Geranium. Upon the plants mentioned 
it is usually difficult to obtain a high percentage of parasitism. 

Immediate Control Measures. In cases of severe infestation of 
white-fly, when immediate control measures are called for, the houses 
may be fumigated with sodium cyanide and sulphuric acid, the 
amount of cyanide per 1,000 cubic feet space recommended being 
J oz., with \ oz. 33 per cent, sulphuric acid. Due precautions are 
necessary, as both the gas given off and the sodium cyanide itself 
are extremely poisonous, but with ordinary care there is no danger 
from the operation. The fumigation must be carried out at dusk, 
and the ventilators and doors opened from outside before dawn 
the next morning. The amount recommended will kill the majority 
of adult flies and will not materially harm the parasite, leaving the 
young stages of the fly alive for the parasite to breed in. Five 
ounces of Tetrachlorethane or fumigant containing this liquid per 
1,000 cubic foot space, poured upon the path of the house at dusk, 
will have the same effect, but should not be used where Chrysanthe- 
mums, Fuchsias, Pelargoniums, Azaleas, Hydrangeas, and Cinerarias 
are grown, as these plants may be severely damaged by the fumigant. 
Nicotine and probably Naphthalene fumigations as used for Aphids 
and Red Spider Mite respectively are also without effect upon the 
parasite, but Paraffin emulsion sprays sometimes kill it. 

Recognition of the Presence of the Parasite. Scales of white-fly 
containing the parasite are recognisable from normal scales by their 
jet-black colour. The eggs of the white-fly appear as the minutest 
black specks to the naked eye, while the parasitised scales are as 
large as a small pin's head. They should be looked for upon the 
underside of the lower foliage of plants upon which the white-fly is 
breeding. The parasite develops from the egg to maturity in about 
a month and escapes through a roundish hole cut in the roof of the 
black scale-case. The scale turns black from n days to 3 weeks 
after the parasite egg is deposited within it, according to temperature. 
The adult female parasite is a very minute insect with a pale-yellow 
body: it is usually found upon the underside of the upper foliage of 
plants on which white-fly is breeding, but on sunny days often sits 
upon the upper side. When touched, the insect jumps and then 
takes to flight in a hovering manner. The male parasite has a dark 
body and is slightly larger then the female; it is most likely to be 
met with in late autumn or early spring. 

Application for Parasites. In making application for the 
parasite, it is necessary only to write to the Entomologist, Experi- 
mental Station, Cheshunt, Herts, stating clearly the number of 
glasshouses for which the parasite is needed. When blocks of 


houses are concerned, the number of houses in each block should be 
given. There is no charge for the parasite. Application should 
be made as early as possible after February. There is little object 
in writing for the parasite after the middle of June unless the houses 
are well heated during the winter months. Full directions are en- 
closed in each box of parasite material distributed. 



SLUGS are small animals which are particularly destructive to 
agricultural and horticultural crops. They measure up to about 
6 inches in length, and may be a variety of sombre colours, dull 
browns and greys, black, yellow, and white, and are often obscurely 
marked to render them less conspicuous. When the slug is in 
motion the body appears elongate, blunt at the head, and tapering 
towards the tail. There are no legs, but the entire undersurface 
of the body is a muscular structure known as the foot, and move- 
ment is regulated by the expansion and contraction of this organ. 
The head is continuous with the body, and bears two pairs of 
tentacles which can be protruded and withdrawn at will. On the 
tips of the larger pair of tentacles are the eyes. Beneath the 
tentacles is the mouth, which contains a pair of mandibles or jaws, 
and a structure known as the radula. The radula is covered with 
rows of teeth, and is used for rasping off particles of plant tissue 
for food. By means of the radula the slug makes holes in foliage 
or tubers, and severs leaves from the plants. Behind the head 
the body is somewhat humped, the hump being formed by the 
mantle. This is irregularly oval, and is associated with the 
rudiments of a shell. Beneath it lie some of the most important 
organs of the body, the respiratory chamber and the generative 
organs. The respiratory chamber opens externally through a 
small orifice on the right side of the mantle. 

The bodies of slugs are covered with slime, which is exuded 
by slime glands in the skin. A large slime gland opens just below 
the mouth and secretes the slime over which the animal moves. 
In dry situations the exudation of large quantities of slime is 
essential to free movement, and the loss of slime so weakens the 
slugs that they may perish before reaching a moist situation where 
recuperation is possible. Moisture is one of the most important 
factors necessary for the continuance of slug life. During the 
day the slugs shelter in damp situations, under stones, boards, 
in the lower crevices of walls, among decaying vegetation, in the 
soil, in thick grass, or among the lower leaves of such plants as 
cabbage, lettuce, rhubarb, etc. At dusk, when the surface of 
the ground is moist, they come out to feed, though feeding may 
take place during the day in wet weather. 

Slugs are hermaphrodite. Multiplication is rapid since each 


individual is capable of laying eggs, and it has been estimated 
that in some species each individual lays up to 1,000 eggs during 
its lifetime. The eggs are laid in the soil, among moist vegetation 
or decaying plant remains. They are spherical or rather oval, 
and may be quite transparent or milky white. They vary in size 
up to about | of an inch in diameter, and may be laid singly or 
in batches of up to 60, held together by slime. Eggs are laid 
periodically during the spring, summer, and autumn. Hatching 
usually takes place in 3 to 4 weeks, but in the case of eggs laid 
late in the autumn, hatching may not occur until the following 
spring. Young slugs are small and transparent. They feed for 
a time on decaying plant remains, and later attack healthy unbroken 
plant tissue. 

A number of species of slugs occur as pests. The most common 
and widespread is Agriolimax agrestis L., the grey field slug. It 
is pale yellowish or whitish, sometimes spotted or blotched with 
darker pigment, and exudes a milky white slime. The species of 
slug most commonly found in allotments and gardens in towns is 
Milax sowerbii Per. This slug is dark grey to almost black, with 
a well-marked lighter keel along the middle of the back, and rather 
flattened ridges, with darker hollows along the body. When fully 
extended this slug is characteristically very long and narrow. 
Arion hortensis Fer., tne black garden slug, is common in most 
gardens. It is small and dark, with a yellow foot and yellowish 
slime, and has a very tough skin. Other slugs which are fairly 
generally prevalent are Arion subfuscus Drap., a rather large coffee- 
coloured slug, Anon ater L., the large black slug which is generally 
found in hedges and ditches, and Milax gagates Drap., closely allied 
to M. sowerbii, which it resembles. 

Nature of Injury. Though injuries by the various species of 
slugs are very similar, it is noticeable that whereas the grey field 
slug prefers stems and leaves for its food, the small black garden 
slug feeds largely at or below the ground-level, destroying young 
shoots in the hearts of plants of a tufted habit of growth, or eating 
into the food-storage roots and stems of carrots and parsnips, and 
into the stems of earthed- up celery. This black garden slug, Arion 
hortensis, is often a serious pest in gardens and nurseries where 
young herbaceous plants are being raised, and is also specially 
injurious to the young succulent shoots and stems of paeonies. 
Sowerby's slug is a persistent underground feeder, and is common 
in urban gardens and allotments, where it feeds on root crops, 
especially potatoes, often honey-combing them with its feeding 
tunnels. It is also very injurious to bulbous plants, and herbaceous 
plants with root stocks. The large black slug is mainly a slug 
of the countryside, preferring the damp obscurity of hedgerows 
and ditches. Where new gardens are made in the country this 
slug may cause some annoyance for a year or two, especially if 
rockeries are made, for it can shelter under the stones and in the 



denser rock plants like Arabis and Aubretia, and come out at night 
to feed on the young growth of any available plants. With a 
little careful observation slug injury is readily diagnosed, and some 
idea of the species causing the injury can be obtained. 

Control of Slugs. Modification of Conditions. The first step 
towards reducing the numbers of slugs is to make conditions less 
favourable for their development. Badly drained, heavy soil tends 
to encourage them. Adequate drainage, together with lightening 
the soil by means of applications of lime and the usual cultural 
methods, tends to reduce the amount of slug injury, as well as 
improving conditions for the plants. Plant remains and garden 
refuse provide food for slugs, therefore tidiness is a matter of 
importance. Proper compost heaps with inter-layers of lime are 
recommended where refuse is not immediately dried and burnt. 
Artificial manures should be substituted for farmyard manure on 
land abnormally rich in humus, since the latter adds to the decaying 
matter on which the slugs can feed, and should therefore be avoided. 

Trapping. Where the slug population is high, trapping may 
be of considerable value to reduce numbers. Cut potatoes, cabbage, 
and lettuce leaves should be placed at intervals along the edges 
of the garden, and covered with a sack folded lengthwise, and 
weighted with stones to keep it from being blown away. The 
traps should be examined each day. It is advisable to supplement 
trapping with hand-picking the slugs in the evenings when they 
come out to feed, or during the day in showery weather. 

Use of Repellents, etc. Substances such as lime, soot, powdered 
coke, or copper sulphate and lime in the form of dry Bordeaux 
mixture, dusted on the soil about the plants, and also lightly hoed 
in between the rows, give the plants temporary protection from 
the attacks of slugs. Since some of these substances may scorch 
the plants care is necessary when applying them. Copper sulphate 
may be used when the land is being prepared for cropping, since 
it kills the slugs in the soil and affords some protection for the 
subsequent crop. It should be applied in fine crystalline form, 
mixed with an equal quantity of ground lime. A dressing of 
} Ib. per 20 sq. yds. should be broadcast before digging, and 
another similar dressing worked in about a fortnight or ten days 
before seeding or planting. Some of this mixture should be kept 
on hand and sprinkled periodically along the edges of lawns or 
hedges to destroy slugs in their passage from such sites to the 
vegetable or flower garden. To reduce the injury by slugs control 
measures such as these must be employed continuously. Many 
gardens are naturally suited for slug development, and it requires 
constant vigilance to overcome the influence of such favourable 
factors as heavy soil, moist climate, and an abundance of food. 


Victoria University of Manchester. 



LITTER in a garden is a fruitful breeding ground for blight and other 

AMERICAN BLIGHT (Schizoneum lanigara). Spray forcibly in winter 
with caustic wash, in summer with paraffin emulsion, or paint parts 
affected with methylated spirits, paraffin, quassia wash, tobacco water, 
or carbolic wash. Use a stiff brush. ANT (Formica). Pour into nests 
boiling water, paraffin, dilute carbolic acid, or cyanide of potassium. 
Dig out nests and treat soil with naphthalene. Set traps. 

APHIDES. The rate of increase is abnormally high in Aphides 
and control methods to be successful must be applied as soon as 
possible after their presence on plants is noted. The factors which 
speed up fecundity are (i) abundance of food, i.e. the presence of 
the primary host plant and availability of secondary or alternate 
host plants; (ii) favourable weather conditions (high temperature 
and humidity) ; and (Hi) the physiological condition of the host 
plant. Parthenogenesis is a normal form of reproduction in Aphides 
during the spring and summer months. Both winged and wing- 
less forms are found in most species, the latter being provided 
with organs of flight to enable them to migrate to a fresh supply of 
food, and, if they are migratory species, to their alternate hosts. 
Many Aphides possess glands on the abdomen which excrete a mealy, 
waxy (Cabbage Aphis), and, in some species, a threadlike substance 
(Woolly Aphis or American Blight). This substance repels water 
so that an insecticide deficient in soap does not " wet " the bodies 
and therefore gives disappointing results. The food of Aphides con- 
sists of plant juices which they obtain by puncturing the tissues of 
the plant and abstracting the sap through the proboscis. All parts 
of the plant are liable to attack: leaves (cabbage aphis, Brevicoryne 
brassicae L.), soft stems (rose aphis, Macrosiphum rosae L.); bean 
aphis, (Aphis rumicis L.), woody stems (willow aphis, Pterochlorus 
viminalis Boyer de Fonsc.), flowers (chrysanthemum aphis, Mysus 
persicae Sulz.), fruit (peach aphis, Aphis persicae-niger Smith), and 
roots and tubers (subterranean form of woolly aphis, Eriosoma lanigerum 
Hausm., and frcnch bean aphis, Geoica phascoli Pass.), while some 
are gall formers (poplar aphis, Pemphigus bursarius L., and many 
species of Cher me s). The damage to plants by Aphides is both 
direct and indirect. Direct damage consists of abstracting the juice of 
plants which occasionally results in the discoloration of foliage and 
flowers. A general weakening effect is produced, wilting is common, 
and the vitality of the plant is lowered thereby causing it to become 
open to attack by pathogenic organisms. Indirect damage consists 
of (i) the presence of "honey-dew" a sweet fluid which is excreted 
from the anal aperture on the foliage. Its presence on leaves hinders 
respiration by blocking the stomata. Later, certain Moulds grow on 
the excretion so that light is cut off and photo-synthesis prevented; 
(ii) the transmission of pathogenic organisms directly or indirectly 
through the punctures made by the proboscis of the insects. Virus 
diseases, especially Mosaic and Leaf -Curl, are known to be directly 
transmitted by Aphides. The punctures made by various species 
provide a ready entrance for fungus spores (Woolly Aphis is often 
the precursor of Canker in Apples). SYMPTOMS OF ATTACK. 
i. Foliage discoloured, sometimes^accompanied by reddish pustules 


(rosy apple aphis, Anur aphis rosae Baker; currant blister aphis, 
Capitophorus ribis L.). 2. Foliage curled (plum aphis, Anuvaphis 
prunina Walk.). 3. Defoliation (spruce aphis, Aphis abietina Walk.). 

4. Stems bearing clusters of Aphides (bean aphis, A. rumicis L.j. 

5. White, waxen threads on foliage and stems (beech aphis, Phyllaphis 
fagi L. ; woolly aphis, E. lanigerum Hausm.). 6. Roots split (Anuraphis 
tulipae Boyer de Fonsc. on carrots). 7. Roots galled (subterranean 
form of woolly aphis). 8. Petioles, stems and shoots galled (poplar 
aphis, P. bursarius L. ; certain species of Chermes on Conifers). The 
most difficult forms to destroy are those included in No. 2, for within 
the curled leaves the insects are protected from wet sprays and efficient 
results will only follow the use of dusts so that penetration is complete. 
NATURAL ENEMIES. Among the more important predaceous insects 
that feed on Aphides are ladybirds and their larvae (Coccincllidac), 
Hover Fly larvae (Syrphidae), and Lace-wing larvae (Chrysopidae). 
Parasitic enemies belong to the Hymenopterous Families Braconidac 
and Chalcidae. There are numerous avian enemies, e.g. the House 
Sparrow, which collects large numbers of Aphides for its nestlings: 
Wren, Chaffinch, Blue Tit, Swallow, and House Martin. Certain 
species of entomophagous Fungi attack Aphides. There are certain 
climatic restraints, e.g. heavy rain, hail, and high winds all of which 
dislodge counties sn umbers of Aphides. Late frosts destroy large 
numbers of the freshly emerged insects, whilst alternate spells of cold 
and mild weather during the early spring are a decided check on these 
insects. PREVENTIVE AND REMEDIAL MEASURES.- A careful watch 
must be kept on all garden plants. Hard and soft fruits, vegetables, 
ornamental trees and shrubs, annuals, herbaceous plants and plants 
grown under glass are all open to attack by one or more species of plant 
lice. To ensure success, early application of an insecticide is essential. 
Remedial measures are based on the destruction of these insects by a 
contact wash which affects them through the breathing pores or 
spiracles. The wash must be applied with great force and the insects 
actually hit by the spray. As Aphides are liable to congregate on the 
under surface of leaves, the wash must be directed there by means of 
an angle bend or swivel nozzle, i. Clean Cultivation. This includes 
the destruction of weeds which are growing in the vicinity of cultivated 
plants. Such plants as sow-thistles, plantains, various crucifers (e.g. 
shepherd's purse and charlock), umbelliferous and graminaceous weeds 
harbour various species of Aphides, which migrate to these plants 
during the summer months. The stumps of infested Brassicas should 
be removed and placed in the hot ashes of a garden fire. Prunings 
of fruit and ornamental trees, which are often covered with the eggs 
of plant lice or hibernating Aphides, must be burnt and not allowed 
to remain on the ground surrounding the plants. Hedge plants and 
windbreaks must be watched and, if Aphides are present, sprayed at 
the same time as the fruit plantation. Woody-stemmed plants when 
obtained from Nurserymen should be examined for eggs. 2. Spraying. 
There are three reasons for the poor success which often follows 
the application of a contact insecticide: (i) inadequate pressure; 
(ii) carelessness in application so that the insects are not touched by 
the spray, and (iii) the absence of sufficient spreading material in the 
wash. Hard waters require more soap than soft waters, and if the 
percentage of soap is too low the wash will not spread and cover the 


body of the insect. Contact washes should be applied through a coarse 
nozzle at a pressure of 90-100 Ib. to the square inch. Infested plants 
should not be sprayed during bright sunny weather, for scorched 
foliage will often result if this practice is persisted in rather wait 
for a dull day, or spray in the evening when the sun has lost its power. 
Again, potatoes which are to be sprayed with Bordeaux or Burgundy 
Mixtures as a preventive against "Blight" (Phytophthora infestans) 
must be free from Aphides, otherwise serious scorching will ensue 
through the absorption of copper salts into the foliage through the 
punctures made by the insects. 

Nicotine forms the toxic principle of one of the best contact washes. 
It is made by dissolving i Ib. soft soap in about 2 gals, of water, which 
is then made up to 10 gallons with soft water, after which } oz. of 96-8 
per cent. Nicotine is added. This wash must be used with care and 
not applied to fruit and vegetables, especially Lettuce, for some time 
before they are to be used for table. D err is root is used in conjunction 
with soap powder and has proved an efficient and non-poisonous wash. 
It is a proprietary insecticide obtainable from suppliers of garden 
sundries. A decoction of Quassia chips is an old and well-tried remedy, 
the disadvantage being the trouble of boiling the chips for several 
hours. It can now be obtained in a form ready for immediate use. 
To prepare the home-made wash, i Ib. Quassia Chips are boiled in 
sufficient water to cover them for twelve hours, i Ib. of soft soap 
is then added and, when dissolved, water to make 25 gallons of wash. 
Tar Oil Washes are for use in the dormant season on deciduous fruit 
and ornamental trees. They are used at 6^-7 per cent, strength for 
the destruction of Aphis eggs. Provided that the spraying is carried 
out in a thorough manner, so that every part of the tree is wetted, the 
results will be found so satisfactory that spring applications of contact 
washes are eliminated. At this strength, all mossy, algal, and lichenous 
growths are removed and hibernating insects exposed to the attacks 
of birds. 3. Dusting with a Nicotine dust is found to be more satis- 
factory in the combating of leaf-curling Aphides than a contact wash. 
The dust penetrates into the curled leaves and destroys the insects 
within. Dusts should be applied during calm weather, preferably in 
the early morning when the foliage is covered with dew to allow for 
better adherence. 4. Fumigation of glass-houses should be a routine 
operation. Nicotine fumigant or Hydrocyanic acid gas are efficient 
fumigants for Aphides. The former material is safer for use in con- 
servatories and leaky houses. 5. Soil Fumigation is necessary for the 
root form of the woolly aphis and root aphides generally, such as those 
which are found on grasses (in lawns), Saxifragas, Carnations, etc. 
Carbon bisulphide used at the rate of i oz. to the square yard when 
the soil is dry, so that the gas permeates through the soil particles, 
will be found an efficient method of destroying these root pests. This 
material is highly inflammable and must not be used where there is 
a naked light. Naphthalene (2-3 oz. to the square yard) will be 
necessary for destroying root aphides such as are found on carrots 
and lettuces. The material is broadcast and forked in during digging 
operations in the autumn and winter. Better results will follow if 
the ground is watered, or if heavy rain follows application. 6. Grease 
Banding of fruit trees (especially those grown in pots) and standard 
roses is often necessary to prevent ants from climbing the plants and 


obtaining the "honey-dew." Ants are known to carry Aphides from 
one tree to another, and where this occurs a belt of adhesive material 
will correct the trouble. G. F. W. 

APPLE CAPSID BUD (Plesiocoris rugicollis). Spray with tar-dis- 
tillate 8 or 10 per cent. followed by oil spray or nicotine wash in 
spring. ASPARAGUS BEETLE (Crioceris asparagi). Spray with paraffin 
emulsion. Cut off and burn affected shoots. ASPARAGUS FLY (Platy- 
parea poeciloptera) . Hand-pick flies in early morning. Trap flies with 
sticky substance. Dust with powdered charcoal. Pick and burn 
infected shoots. BEAN BEETLE (Bruchus rufimanus). Treat as for 
Pea Beetle. BELL MOTH (Tortrix bergmanniana). Crush leaves of 
roses that are rolled up to kill grubs. Cut off and burn affected 
shoots. Spray with tobacco water or soap wash. BIG BUD (Black 
Currants). Pick off. Spray with paraffin emulsion every ten days 
April- June. BITTER PIT IN APPLES. The cause is unknown, and 
the problem of its control not yet solved. Hard pruning and a heavy 
water supply late in the season appear to predispose an apple to bitter 
pit. With some varieties it does not appear till after the fruit is picked, 
usually within a month. Cold storage does not prevent it, and fruit 
picked before fully ripe develops it in cold storage more rapidly than if 
ripened thoroughly on the tree. BLACK FLY (Aphis runnels). Broad 
Beans cut off and burn tops. Spray with tobacco water or soap wash. 
Dust with tobacco powder or Hellebore powder. Under glass fumigate 
with tobacco. BLACK SPOT (Actinonema rosae). Destroy all affected 
leaves. Spray directly any sign appears with i oz. sulphide of potassium 
in 3 gals, of water. BUD ROT Carnation (Sporotrichum anthrophilum) . 
Remove affected buds. BULB MITE (Rhizoglyphus echinopus). Burn 
badly infested bulbs, and do not replant bulbs on infected ground. 
Soak bulbs in quassia extract, or potassium sulphide (i oz. to i gal. 
water). CABBAGE MOTH (Mamestm brassica). When digging in winter 
destroy pupae. Handpick caterpillars. Spray with salt 2 oz. to 
i gal. water. CABBAGE ROOT FLY (Phorbia brassica). Protect plants 
with tarred paper or card discs fixed on stems by a slit to a cut in 
the centre of disc. Remove and burn plants badly affected. No 
cruciierous plant should be grown on same ground after a bad attack. 
CARNATION RUST (Uromyccs caryophyllinus). Cut off and burn 
affected leaves. Spray with Carnation fungicide. CARNATION SPOT 
(Septoria dianthi). Cut off and burn affected leaves. Dust with equal 
parts lime and sulphur. CELERY FLY (Tephritis onopordinis) . Pinch 
affected parts to crush young grubs. Cut off and burn badly affected 
leaves. Spray with soap wash in June and July. Do not replant on 
same ground in succeeding year. Burn all refuse when crop is cut. 
CHRYSANTHEMUM MIDGE. This pest is supposed to have been intro- 
duced from the United States on the Chrysanthemum Monument in 
1924, and has spread to other varieties. The midge is very small, with 
a dark orange body. It lays eggs on the foliage, and the larvae give 
rise to galls. February to June and September to November are the 
danger seasons. Treatment. Remove and burn all young shoots from 
infected plants in December. Burn all old plants after cuttings are 
taken. Spray cuttings in January with Nicotine Wash. CLUB ROOT. 
No plants of the Brassica family should be put in ground that has had 
a crop infected with the fungus, Plasmodiophora brassicae. Lime 
(fresh) should be dug in during the winter, at the rate of half a 


bushel per square rod. Water seed drills with solution of mercuric 
chloride (i oz. to 6 gals, water). Dip roots in solution before planting. 
Water seedlings 10 days after germination with dilute solution (i oz. 
in 10 gals.), again in a week, and a few days before planting. 
COCKCHAFER (Melolontha vulgaris). Grubs live underground and eat 
plant roots. Kill at sight. CODLIN MOTH (Carpocapsa pomonetta, syn. 
Tortrix pomonana). Burn affected fruit. Spray with caustic wash 
or paraffin emulsion. Trap in rag or paper bands on trees. CUCKOO- 
SPIT, FROGHOPPER (Aphrophora spumaria). Brush off and destroy 
insect. Wash oil spittle with stiff brush and soapy water. Spray 
forcibly with paraffin emulsion. CURRANT MOTH (Incurvaria capitella). 
Spray in winter with soda emulsion. Hand pick and burn infested 
shoots. DAHLIA DISEASE. Small round spots appear on the leaves, 
due to a smut fungus, Entyloma Dahliae. It spreads rapidly in 
damp and shade. All dead leaves should be burnt before storing 
for winter, and spotted leaves removed and burnt directly they 
are noticed. Do not replant on ground where diseased plants grew 
the previous year. Lime the soil. Spray with Bordeaux mixture of 
lime-sulphur. DART MOTH (A gratis segetum). Fork round plants 
attacked and destroy caterpillars in the soil. Water with warm solution 
of soft soap and collect caterpillars as they emerge from the ground. 
Destroy chrysalides when digging in winter. DUTCH ELM DISEASE 
(Graphium ulmi Schwarz) is caused by a small fungus, which forms 
its fructifications upon dead, diseased wood. Since each fructification 
produces many thousands of spores which are capable of attacking 
healthy trees, great care should be taken to destroy all dead wood. 
In acute cases, where defoliation is proceeding rapidly, the tree should 
be felled, twigs, branches, and any chips of wood burnt, and the trunk 
cut up for firewood or disposed of otherwise. If the wood is stored 
for any purpose it should be kept dry, as, if stacked outside, it would 
provide an ideal situation for development of fructifications of the 
fungus. The tree-stump should be carefully tarred or treated with 
creosote; this should be repeated later, particular care being taken 
to treat cracks, especially those formed between the bark and the 
wood. In those cases where the progress of the disease is slow 
or confined to isolated branches in the crown, no immediate 
treatment is recommended, but the trees should be kept under 
observation. If the symptoms become general and acute the pro- 
cedure outlined above should be carried out. EARWIG (Forficula 
auricularia). Trap in inverted flowerpots filled with hay, crumpled 
paper, or moss. Destroy grubs when digging. EEL WORM (Tylenchus 
devastatrix) . Remove and burn affected portions or plants. GALL 
MITES (Phytoptus ribis, P. avellanae, P. pyri). Cut off and burn 
affected shoots, and prune bushes hard back. Dress cuts, and spray 
trees in winter with diluted paraffin emulsion. GOOSEBERRY MILDEW 
(Sphaerotheca morsuvae). Cut off and burn infected shoots or fruit. 
Spray after all fruit is picked with J Ib. copper sulphate in 10 gals, 
water. GOOSEBERRY SAWFLY (Nematus ribesii). Shake bushes and 
destroy caterpillars. Spray with quassia or paraffin emulsion. Dust 
with lime or soot in damp weather. Remove top soil under 
bushes in winter and destroy grubs. LEATHER JACKETS, Daddy Long 
Legs grubs (Tripula oleracea). See treatment for Wireworms: 
fork powdered naphthalene into the soil. MAGPIE MOTH (Abraxas gros- 


sulariata). Dust with lime and soot in damp weather in spring. 
Remove and burn all dead leaves, etc., under bushes in winter. 
MILDEW. Dust with sulphur or spray with sulphur wash. MILLIPEDES 
(Julius terrestris, /. pulchellus, J. complanatus). Destroy whenever 
possible. Keep soil well worked. MINT RUST (Puccinia menthae). 
Dress bed with i oz. of sulphate of ammonia per square yard when 
dry, and water in. Make fresh bed when planting on clean ground 
with roots free from disease. ONION FLY (Anthomyia ceparum). 
Remove and burn infected plants. Never plant on the same ground 
in successive years. Spray in summer with weak paraffin wash. Use 
nitrate of soda, sulphate of ammonia, or Peruvian guano i oz. to the 
square yard. Sprinkle gas lime or powdered charcoal between the 
rows. PEA BEETLE (Bruchus pisi). Infested seed should not be sown 
(to a certain extent infected peas will float in water). Dip peas in 
boiling water for five seconds and then rinse in cold water. Dust 
leaves with soot or lime. PINE SAWFLY (Lophyrus pini). Crush the 
larvae or brush from trees. Spray with hellebore wash: or arsenate 
of lead. RABBIT DETERRENT. Preventive wash 20 Ib. lime, 2 Ib. 
salt, 4 Ib. size, and J pt. paraffin. Mix with water to a thin paste. 
Must be strained and further diluted for spraying. For list of Rabbit 
Proof Plants see Year Book, vols. I and II. RATS, MICE. AND 
VOLES. The damage done annually in this country by rats has 
been estimated at millions. Individual effort is not sufficient to rid 
the land of the pest. In some places it does not even reduce the 
number, for the rats merely concentrate where least disturbed, and 
from there forage over the neighbourhood. Further, they migrate 
from place to place, and are a menace even to the health of the com- 
munity by spreading infected fleas and animal diseases. Both the 
Black Rat, Rattus rattus, with its variant R. r. alexandrinus, and the 
Brown Rat, Rattus norvegicus, are prolific breeders. The females start 
breeding at a very early age and have several litters during the year. 
Apart from such preventive measures as making buildings so far as 
possible rat- proof; the proper construction, protection, and repair of 
drain pipes, ventilators, etc. ; the protection of all food supplies ; the use 
of concrete, broken glass, and tar to fill burrows under walls or floors; 
the careful disposal, and, so far as can be, immediate destruction of 
refuse; and the protection when possible of the rat's natural enemies. 
There are other remedial measures officially recommended. These 
include hunting with ferrets, trapping, gassing, and poisoning. The 
use of deterrents which tend to make the surroundings distasteful 
to rats is often desirable. A cheap and effective one is iron sulphate 
(green vitriol), a waste product of modern gas-works. Dissolve one 
handful of the sulphate crystals to a quart of hot water (or i cwt. to 
40 gallons). A teaspoonful of crude carbolic acid may be added, and 
the mixture made in large quantities and used very liberally. For 
systematic treatment of freshly deposited household and trade refuse 
these should be thoroughly moistened with the solution by means of 
a watering-can with a rose. For use indoors apply the solution through 
a funnel into the holes; paint woodwork and masonry in places fre- 
quented by rats with the solution. Several coatings may be necessary, 
but eventually the rats will avoid the premises. A liberal dusting of 
powdered iron sulphate will be found effective in keeping rats away. 
Other deterrents are silicate of soda (water glass), or a mixture of gas 


water and creosote on rags. Naphthalene, camphor, and wild mint 
tend to keep rats and mice at bay. Various rat poisons are on the 
market, and also rat viruses, cultures of microbes that cause intestinal 
diseases in rats. Some are infectious, but a slightly infected rat may 
recover and be thereafter possibly immune. There is also a risk of 
the infection affecting human beings. Dr. Hans Wreschner asserts 
that several cases of death and many cases of illness in human 
beings are on record, caused by using bacteriological preparations for 
killing rats and mice, and an outbreak of enteritis in a large London 
establishment was attributed to the same cause in 1900.* Red Squill 
is considered the safest poison to use. The liquid extract can be 
obtained from any chemist. A paste can be made with bread and 
an equal quantity of the liquid and boiled milk (cooled), and placed 
in saucers or tin lids where the rats are known to come. Dose: 
i teaspoonfui (small) per rat, half quantity per mouse. As rats are 
very suspicious, a variety of poison as well as bait will be found 
necessary. Poison should only be used by authorised and responsible 
persons. The Protection of Animals Act, 1911, provides that it 
shall be a defence that the poison was placed for the purpose 
of destroying rats, and that all reasonable precautions were taken 
to prevent access thereto of dogs, cats, fowls, or other domestic 
animals. Several machines for gassing rats in burrows, hedgerows, banks, 
and open sheds are on the market, and poison dust has been experi- 
mented with, blown into holes by a special machine. The Water Rat 
or Vole, Microtus amphibius, does much harm by the banks of streams 
or ponds, and Field Mice and Voles must be added to the category 
of the gardener's enemies. Their own natural foes are the Kestrel, 
the Short-eared Owl, the Sparrow Hawk, the Weasel, and the Stoat. 
Ravens, rooks, crows, and seagulls also war upon them. RED SPIDER 
(Tetranychus tellarius). Usually affects plants insufficiently watered. 
Spray with i oz. potassium sulphide in 3 gals, water. Dust ground 
with naphthalene, i Ib. to 25 ft. RHODODENDRON BUG (Leptobyrsa 
[Stephanitis] rhododendri). Spray at end of June and middle of 
July with i Ib. soft soap, 10 gals, of water, i tablespoonful paraffin; 
especially the under-surface of leaves. FLY. The R.H.S. has notified 
gardeners of a new Rhododendron pest of the " White Fly " type, 
which lays its eggs on the under-side of the leaf. The paraffin wash 
" Volck " is recommended as a spray. Growers in doubt of the 
presence of the pest are invited to post specimen leaves to the 
R.H.S. Laboratory, Wisley. ROSE MILDEW (Spaerotheca pannosa). 
Dust with sulphur or spray with solution of sulphide of potassium 
i oz. to 2 gals, of water, for summer wash, or J oz. sulphate 
of copper in winter, when buds are dormant. ROSE RUST (Phrag- 
midium subcorticatum) . Burn all diseased leaves, and fallen leaves, 
in autumn. Spray in spring with i oz. sulphide of potassium in 
3 gals, water. Sponge affected parts with methylated spirit 
diluted 50 per cent, with water. SAWFLY GRUBS (Leaf-rolling) 
(Blennocampa pusilla, Emphytus cinctus, Hylotoma rosae). Hand-pick. 
Wash with nicotine and soft soap. Black Sawfly or Slug worm 

* M. Danysz, of the Pasteur Institute in Paris, claims to have discovered 
a germ that will infect and kill all types of the rat species, but be innocuous 
to other rodents hares, rabbits, ferrets, and squirrels. It was successfully 
tried in Rouen. (EDITOR.) 


(Eriocampa rosae) . Nicotine and soft soap in spring. SCALE (Mytilaspis 
pomorum). Keep trees clean from moss, etc. Spray with paraffin 
emulsion. SILVER LEAF (Stereum purpureum). By the Silver Leaf 
Order all dead wood from plum and apple trees must be cut out and 
burnt before July i5th. SLUGS AND SNAILS (Limacidae). Among 
other remedies the Min. of Agric. recommends rings of slaked lime, 
or ash soaked in paraffin, round choice plants. The R.H.S. recommends 
traps of bran (J in. deep, covered with board or cabbage leaf), placed 
near plants overnight. Slugs to be collected and destroyed in the 
morning. Baits of Slug Poison. Hand-pick at night with a lantern. 
Good cultivation and effective drainage are the best preventatives, with 
occasional lime, salt, or soot dressings. As a slug deterrent, not as 
manure, lime may be mixed with soot, salt, or caustic soda; or plants 
may be powdered with alum; or the soil dressed with copper sulphate 
(5 Ib. to i cwt. of kainit). STRAWBERRY APHIS (Capitophorus fragariae). 
Dip runners in soft soap and nicotine wash before planting. Select 
runners from plants free from aphis. THRIPS (Thrips adonidum, etc.) 
Spray with quassia extract or paraffin emulsion. TORTRIX MOTHS (Tor- 
trix ribeana, Pardia tripunciata, etc.). Hand-pick and spray with oz. 
arsenate paste to a gallon of water. TURNIP MUD- BEETLE (HelophoYus 
rugosus) . Do not sow fresh seed near ground that has borne an affected 
crop. Dress with nitrate of soda, 28 Ib. to J acre. VAPOURER MOTH 
(Orgyia antiqua). Hand-pick eggs and cocoons in winter, and cater- 
pillars when they appear. Spray with Paris green (2 oz. to 25 gals, 
of water) or arsenate of lead. VIOLET GALL MIDGE (Dasyneura affinis) . 
Pick and burn affected leaves. Dust with pyrethrum or nicotine. 
WART DISEASE, caused by Synchytrium endobioticum. Any person 
whose crop is affected must by the Wart Disease of Potatoes Order 
immediately report the disease to the Min. of Agric. or an Inspector. 
WINTER MOTH (Cheimatobia bwmata, etc.). Grease-band fruit trees 
in autumn to prevent the wingless females ascending to lay eggs on 
the buds. Spray in spring with paraffin emulsion. WIREWORMS. 
Keep ground well worked. Trap with carrot and poison baits or 
potatoes. Fumigate with calcium cyanide. Dress with lime. Water 
soil with solution of 2 to 4 per cent, liquid ammonia. WOODLICE 
(Oniscus asellus, Porcellio scaber, Armadillo vulgaris). Keep walls clean. 
Trap under stones and tiles examined daily to destroy the lice under- 


ALUM SOLUTION. i Ib. lump alum, i gal. water. BURGUNDY 
MIXTURE. 4 Ib. copper sulphate, 5 Ib. washing soda, i J Ib. soft soap, 
40 gals, water. Dissolve the sulphate in 29 gals, water (in wooden or 
earthen vessel), and the soda in 18 gals, water in another vessel. Mix 
the two solutions and add soap dissolved in 2 gals, water. Must be 
used fresh. R.H.S.D. CARBOLIC WASH. -4 oz. carbolic soft soap, 

1 wineglassful of petroleum, i gal. water. CAUSTIC WASH. 2$ Ib. 
caustic soda (98 per cent.), 10 gals, water. CHESHUNT COMPOUND. 

2 parts (weight) copper sulphate powder to n parts ammonium 
carbonate, fresh and finely crushed. Mix and store in stoppered 
glass or stone jar for 24 hrs. Dissolve i oz. of mixture in hot 
water and add 2 gals, cold water. Use immediately. It corrodes 
iron, tin and s zinc. LAWN SAND. 24 Ib. sand, 4 Ib. sulphate 
of ammonia (commercial), if Ib. sulphate of iron (commercial). 


LIME WASH for Aphis. 2 Ib. fresh lime, i gal. water. LIME 
WATER. i Ib. lime, 2 gals, water. NICOTINE WASH. (See page 101.) 
PARAFFIN EMULSION. 2 gals, paraffin, 28 gals, water, 6 Ib. caustic 
soda, ij Ib. soft soap. Dissolve soap in a gallon of boiling water and 
churn in the paraffin. Dissolve soda in remaining 27 gals. Mix well 
immediately before use. PARAFFIN WASH. 2j pints paraffin, J Ib. 
soft soap, 10 gals, water. POISON BAITS. 7 Ib. bran, 4 oz. Paris 
green, broadcast in evening. PYRETHRUM WASH. if oz. Pyrethrum 
powder, J oz. white soap, if pints water. Soak for 72 hrs. Dilute 
with water to i in 9. Shake well before using. QUASSIA EXTRACT. 
(See page 101.) Dilute as required. ROSE INSECTICIDE SPRAY. 
J pint quassia extract, 2 oz. potassium, 3 gals, of water. SLUG POISON, 
i part Paris green, 20 parts bran, i Ib. of mixture to i square rod. 
SODA EMULSION. J Ib. sulphate of iron dissolved in 9 gals, water, 
J Ib. lime, slaked with a little water and then moistened to the con- 
sistency of milk. Add to first solution and strain. Stir in 5 pints 
paraffin. Add immediately before use 2 Ib. caustic soda powdered. 
SOFT SOAP WASH. i Ib. soft soap, 4 gals, soft water. SULPHUR WASH. 
(a) 3 Ib. flowers of sulphur, 6 Ib. quick-lime, 3 Ib. salt, i Ib. caustic 
soda, 10 gals, water; (b) 4 oz. soft soap, i gal. of water. Stir in as much 
sulphur as can be absorbed. R.H.S.D. TOBACCO WATER. 2 Ib. soft 
soap, 3 gals, soft water, i qt. tobacco liquid added when cold. 


WITH lead arsenate, lime sulphur, or Bordeaux mixture, or their 
compounds, use i oz. of Saponin to 50 gals, of the spray instead of soft 
soap. Arsenical sprays, if used on apples early in the season, have no 
ill-effect on the consumers of the ripe fruit. Tar distillate washes 
are injurious to root and vegetable crops, and do not destroy Black 
Currant Gall Mite, nor the eggs of the Lackey Moth and the Fruit Tree 
Red Spider. 

TAR DISTILLATE WATER WASH. Experiments in progress at Long 
Ashton with a view to discover what substance in the commercial tar 
distillate washes was most toxic proved that the acids were useless, 
but the neutral remainder boiled at a high temperature gave a tar 
distillate that killed all the eggs of the Winter Moth and the Permanent 
Apple Aphis which the crude wash only did partially. Emulsincation 
was secured with sulphonated oils supplied by the British Dyestuffs 
Corporation, Agral WB and Agral AX. This wash was about 100 per 
cent, more effective than the crude tar distillate, and did far less 
damage to the foliage. 

Prof. C. F. Doucette's experiments with cyanogen gas to destroy 
the eggs and larvae of the Narcissus flies have been carried out on 
a large scale in America, and bulb growers there consider the treatment 
far better than submersion in hot water. Only American-grown bulbs 
have been treated, the imported ones being dealt with on the old 
system. It is claimed that the pests are completely destroyed, and 
the bulbs suffer no ill-effect. Treated bulbs flower a week earlier than 
those untreated. 

The advent of air traffic opens up yet another possible source of 
plant pest distribution. On arrival of the Graf Zeppelin in the United 
States the American authorities found some roses in a cabin were 
infested with anthracnose disease. 


PEST PARASITES. One of the many activities of the Empire 
Marketing Board is the breeding of parasitic insects that will destroy 
plant pests. During 1928-9 300 larvae of a Wood Wasp parasite fly 
were collected in Devon and sent to New Zealand, where that pest is 
rampant. Upwards of 30,000 parasite-infected larvae of the Pine 
Tortrix were collected, largely in Suffolk, and sent to Ontario, with 
20,000 parasites of the greenhouse White Fly, which were sent in cold 
storage on tomato sprays. Another beneficent parasite, of a fruit tree 
scale insect, had yet more elaborate arrangements for transport, as 
they were packed in test tubes and fed on raisins. Many other tens 
of thousands, including 30,000 of the Pear slug infested with no less 
than three of its enemies, were sent from the breeding laboratory, 
under the Imperial Bureau of Entomology, to Australia, Canada, India, 
Kenya, South Africa, the Falkland Isles, New Zealand, and distributed 
in Great Britain. 

MECONOPSIS FUNGUS (Peronospora arborescens) . A downy mildew 
that attacks Meconopses, especially M . betonicifolia var. Baileyi. First 
symptom blackish spots on leaves, with grey mildew on reverse. Occurs 
also on the Corn Poppy, Papaver somniferum, P. dubium, P. Argemone, 
and the Welsh Poppy, Meconopsis cambrica. Control: keep all host 
plants away from Meconopses, and do not grow on ground previously 
planted with them. Remove and burn infected leaves, or badly 
infected plants. Do not handle healthy plants after touching diseased. 
Burn old plants and all dead leaves. 

RATS (the Danysz Virus). A leaflet has been issued in Paris 
describing the good results obtained in a campaign against the sewer 
rats of Paris. A larger pamphlet, Les Campagnoles, deals with field 
voles, bank voles, and allied species which had done much harm to 
agriculture in various French districts. The Danysz viius was not 
obtained, like some others, from a disease to which the human race is 
liable. Certain members of the staff of the Pasteur Institute offered 
themselves for experiment, and it was found that no ill results followed 
the strongest doses. Experiments tried with domestic animals, 
poultry and game birds, proved the virus equally harmless in their 
cases. The statistics proved by several hundred experiments in the 
destruction of rodents show the following results for the virus: in 
50 per cent, of cases a complete destruction of the pests. In 30 per 
cent, a partial destruction. In 20 per cent, no appreciable results, 
thought to be due to a reinvasion of the pests. A.W.S. 

progress at Oxford as to the best means of control of destructive 
rodents. Details as to the fluctuations and control of mice, rabbits, 
rats, squirrels, voles, etc., are required. Anyone willing to make and 
forward records of observations and experiments should write to Mr. 
A. D. Middleton, University Museum, Oxford. 


THE gardener, amateur or professional, is every whit as interested 
in weeds as the farmer. Just as mankind in general must earn 
his bread by the sweat of his brow, the gardener in his turn must 
obtain all that is worth having in gardening by labour and extreme 
care in everything he undertakes. A very fine appreciation of 
what is involved in the production of a beautiful garden is contained 
in Kipling's poem The Garden, which every gardening enthusiast 
should most undoubtedly read. 

In spite of the natural beauty of many wild plants which we 
call weeds, man's inherited antagonism to those which interfere 
with the due production of his crops whether in farm or garden, 
whether arable or grass has been touched upon by writer after 
writer through the centuries : Thomas Tusser, Thomas Hale, Jethro 
Tull, Shakespeare, John Fitzherbert, James Grahame, Sinclair, 
and a host of others. One might perhaps usefully quote the 
following extracts: 

Everything that grows without being sown or planted, among a 
Crop that has been sown or planted, is in that Place a Weed. The 
whole Benefit of the Tillage was intended for the Crop, and this robs 
it of a part. 

THOMAS HALE, The Compleat Body of Husbandry, 1756. 

Slack iieuer they weeding, for dearth nor for cheap, 

the corne shall reward it, yer euer ye reape. 
THOMAS TUSSER, Five Hundred Pointes of Husbandrie, 1557. 

It is needless to go about to compute the value of the damage 
weeds do, since all experienced husbandmen know it to be very great, 
and would unanimously agree to extirpate their whole race as entirely 
as in England they have done the wolves, though much more innocent 
and less rapacious than weeds. 

JETHRO TULL, The Horse Hoeing Husbandry, 1731. 

I will go root away 

The noisome weeds, that without profit suck 
The soil's fertility from wholesome flowers. 

SHAKESPEARE, Richard II, Act hi, sc. 4. 

When considering the question of how far weeds can be 
extirpated, it is desirable to recognise at the outset that flowering 
plants are of many types. The first and most simple position 



is to regard them as annuals, biennials, and perennials. Annuals 
in general flower, produce seed and die in the one season, but 
here again some species such as groundsel and annual meadow- 
grass may produce several generations in one season, and may 
even flower and seed during several of the colder months. 
Biennials grow from seed and produce strong plants which store 
food for over-wintering, and in the second season throw up a 
flowering stem, produce seed, and die. In general, perennials 
may grow from seed, and go on producing flowers and seed for 
a number of years, varying widely with the species concerned. 
The perennials are those which are on the whole regarded as 
giving the most trouble, although this can by no means be accepted 
as the rule, if only because such annuals as charlock, the wild 
oat, the corn marigold, and Yorkshire fog are among the worst 
weeds of the farm, whilst in gardens such annuals as groundsel, 
shepherd's purse, annual meadow-grass, and chickweed must 
similarly be included among the most troublesome weed pests. 

Perennials, however, are held to be particularly difficult because 
so many of them possess deep-seated roots or creeping root stocks, 
small portions of these when broken off serve to increase the plant. 
In dug ground the following species may be considered the most 
troublesome, according to the district: creeping thistle, great 
bindweed and field bindweed, ground elder or gout weed, nettles, 
docks, wild mint, horsetail, creeping buttercup, coltsfoot, couch 
grass and twitch (Agrostis sp.). As regards grass land the following 
perennials are troublesome: creeping thistle, creeping buttercup, 
docks, daisy, plantains, dandelion, sorrels, knapweed, nettles, 
twitch. Among the more common annual weeds which give 
trouble in dug ground in gardens may be mentioned charlock, 
chickweed, spurrey, fat hen, knot weed, annual meadow-grass, 
mayweeds, cleavers, and shepherd's purse. 

The important question from the point of view of the reader 
will be to determine means by which weeds may be eradicated. 
As regards annual and biennial weeds, whether of arable or grass 
land, the two principal means of reduction are to kill all the weeds 
before they can attain maturity and scatter their seed, and to 
prevent the introduction of fresh seed by way of impure seeds 
purchased for sowing, or contained in manure, introduced soil or 
fresh turf. Wherever annuals occur on dug ground, therefore, 
the free and repeated use of the hoe is likely to go far in reducing 
their numbers very considerably in two or three seasons, provided 
due care is taken not to introduce them afresh. In so far as 
perennials are concerned on dug ground, one may say that in 
garden cultivation as elsewhere there is no royal road to their 
destruction. Indeed, wherever it is possible removal by hand by 
means of the fork is perhaps the most successful, although every 
care must be taken to ensure that broken portions are not left 
behind to grow afresh. In some situations, of course, this plan 


can only be practised at intervals, which may conceivably be 
rather long ; in such cases frequent cutting down to the ground- 
level or just below it may succeed in killing some species, or at 
the least keeping them within bounds until the fork may be used. 
It has been said that the repeated cutting off of any plant will 
end in its death. It must not be forgotten also that thoroughly 
good gardening, corresponding to high farming, will also tend to 
a reduction in weeds because of the encouragement it gives to the 
sown crop to grow rapidly and strongly, and so suppress the 
undesired weeds. 

Lawns are frequently infested with certain of the grass-land 
weeds mentioned above, and on small areas drastic action in the 
form of labour may be the most speedy and least troublesome 
remedy in the long run. Two or three years ago the writer sowed 
two small patches of ground with grass seeds. The seeds came 
well, but the ground was undoubtedly full of the seeds of plantains, 
creeping buttercup, and mouse-ear chickweed, and of the first- 
named in particular there must have been thousands. In the 
determination to give the grass a chance a kneeling job with 
knives for two was undertaken. Weeds were lifted by the basketful, 
and when all looked clean the grass was well rolled. The grass 
then grew rapidly, and although the same task was undertaken 
once more the quantity of weeds to be removed was greatly 
reduced, and comparatively few have been found during the past 
year. Taking lawns as a whole, one might suggest that the most 
hopeful treatment against weeds consists in an occasional thorough 
hand- weeding ; repeated rolling and mowing; top-dressing with 
good rich mould which has preferably been sterilised; an occasional 
light dressing of sand ; and during the summer two or three dressings 
of sulphate of ammonia at the rate of i cwt. per acre. As regards 
other fertilisers, potash and phosphates may be given if considered 
desirable every two or three years. 

Perhaps one might suitably conclude these brief notes by 
quoting the following lines from Sir Edwin Arnold's The Light 
of Asia 

If he shall labour rightly, rooting these, 
And planting wholesome seedlings where they grew, 

Fruitful and fair and clean the ground shall be. 
And rich the harvest due. 

H. C. LONG, B.Sc. (Edin.) 


THE utility of Bird Life is a subject to which little thought is given 
by the average gardener, yet it is well worth the consideration of 
all garden lovers. I have recently come across some gardeners 
of no small repute who have installed nesting-boxes, not for the 
love of the birds, but primarily for the love of their garden. A 
few modern gardeners are just beginning to realise to what extent 
they are indebted to birds for their help throughout the year in 
ridding the garden of injurious insects. All of us know what it is to 
be troubled with the hosts of destructive insects which infest most 
gardens during the summer months. Let those who are fortunate 
enough to have Tits in their garden watch these birds at work 
busily engaged upon branch after branch, leaf after leaf, unceasingly 
eating up the minute harmful insects such as greenfly, caterpillars, 
and beetles. It has been ascertained by a well-known authority 
that the food of the Blue Tit consists of 78 per cent, injurious 
insects, and that of the Great Tit 66-5 per cent. I have observed 
even the despised House Sparrow occupied in clearing the rose 
trees of greenfly. Only last week I was interested in watching a 
new worker in our garden, a Great Spotted Woodpecker. For 
some 20 minutes at a time it was industriously pecking out the 
destructive grubs in our rose-pergola what a hopeless task it 
would be to set a gardener to clear a pergola of injurious grubs 
hidden beneath the bark! Yet the Woodpecker knows where the 
grubs exist, and he does the work without being asked. I would 
draw special attention to the fact that the birds are working all 
the year round, as this is an important point to remember. Let 
us protect our fruit as much as possible, but if in June the Thrush 
secures a few strawberries from under the nets, let us not be too 
hard on him. He deserves a change of diet after all the slugs 
and snails which he has destroyed during the other n months 
of the year. It is far easier to protect our fruit from birds than 
it would be to cope with slugs and snails were their numbers not 
kept in check by our feathered friends. 

People sometimes complain that the droppings of House Martins 
fall from the nest on window-sills. This may lead to the destruction 
of the nest. Destruction is, however, extremely undesirable. 
Such birds as the House Martin, Swallow, Swift, Flycatcher, Wag- 
tail, and others, are almost entirely insectivorous. We cannot 
justly complain of an increase of flies, gnats, mosquitoes, if we 
destroy their natural enemies. Owls and Kestrels are amongst 


man's best friends, and deserve every protection, as their food is 
composed chiefly of mice, rats, voles, and beetles. The Cuckoo, 
too, is highly beneficial to the gardener. It is particularly fond of 
caterpillars of the hairy type. 

The presence of the useful bird in the garden should therefore 
be greatly welcomed. Some can be quite easily attracted. The 
chief item in a bird's life is its food supply; where the food supply 
is plentiful, in that locality will the bird usually remain whilst 
unmolested. It is obvious, then, that we must consider our 
feathered friends when their food supply is scarce and put out 
both food and drink for them in the winter months. Tits, like 
Robins and Wrens, can be easily persuaded to nest in the garden 
if nesting-boxes are hung up at suitable points where they will not 
be visited by cats. These boxes can be easily made at home, 
though extremely good ones may be purchased quite cheaply. It 
must be borne in mind that the size of the entrance hole will have 
an effect on the species of bird likely to inhabit the box. These 
details can, however, be easily overcome if the box is selected from 
the catalogue of a well-known manufacturer who caters for the 
requirements of a number of species. 



THE atmosphere in a town is smoke-laden. From it a quantity 
of sulphurous acid washes into the soil, which becomes sour and 
infertile. Lime will neutralise this acid, and town gardeners should 
lime their soil each winter. 

The impure atmosphere and overshadowing buildings prevent 
most of the sunshine from reaching the plants in many gardens. 
Either shade-loving plants must be used exclusively, or the garden 
must be given extra light by whitewashing the walls. 

Town air is drier than that of outer districts. Syringing the 
foliage of plants with clean water in the summer evenings helps 
to maintain the moisture content of the air, and cleanses the soot- 
laden pores of the leaves, and assists growth. Shiny-leaved plants, 
which will wash clean, usually grow better in the town garden than 
do plants with hairy or downy foliage. 

Cats and dogs are sometimes a serious nuisance to the would-be 
town gardener. A light wire-netting fixed above the wall for 
about two feet will generally prove effective in keeping cats away. 
Spring shrubs that make a thicket of growth such as holly, or 
Berberis stenophylla will help to keep straying dogs from subur- 
ban front gardens. 



Acaulis=stemless, acer sharp, pungent, 
acuminatussharply pointed, adpressus= pressed on, aestivusin. 
summer, 0$mis=related to, agrestis rural, alatus winged, albes- 
cens, albicans becoming white, algiduscold, alpestris mountain, 
amabilislovahle, awarws=bitter, ambiguus doubtful, amoenus^ 
pleasant, atnplexicaulis sheathing the stem, anceps two-headed, 
a ngustus narrow, an nularius ringed, anomalus irregular, apertus 
=open, apiculatus pointed, apterus suitably fitted, aquatilis 
= living in water, a<7wi/b/iws= needle-leaved, arachnitis = cobwebby, 
arboreus= tree-like, arenosus sandy, argenteus, argurus silvery, 
argutus clear, pungent, aridus dry, aristatus bearded (like an ear 
of corn), armatus armed, arvensis= belonging to cornfields, asper= 
rough, aucupariiis enticing birds, a uguslus majestic, aureus= 
golden, australis southern, azureusblue, avellanustorn from. 

Bacc/Ms=berried, &ar&aws=bearded, bellus beautiful, blandus 
= pleasant, 50ns=good, borealis nor them, botry tides bearing 
bunches like grapes, bracteatus furnished with bracts, brevis 
short, brumalis wintry, bryoides moss-like, bullatuslike a bubble. 

Caeruleus heavenly blue, caesiu$--= bluish-grey, caespitustvriy, 
calyculatus, calycinus furnished with a calyx, campanuiatus 
bell-shaped flowers, candicans growing white, candidus white and 
shining, canescens= growing white, can ws= greyish- white, capillaris 
=hair-like, capitatus furnished with a head, cardinalisred, 
carneus flesh-coloured, crws=dear, castus=chaste, spotless, cau- 
Ja/ws=tailed, caulis stemmed, c^ywwws=with face down, ciliaris, 
ciliatus= furnished with hair like eye-lashes, cincreus ash-coloured, 
cirrhosus = curled, citrinus = yellow, clarus = brilliant, coccineus 
=scarlet, co^^ans=snail-shaped, co^5^s=heavenly, colossus 
gigantic, cc?wa/ws==hairy, communis common, comptus adorned, 
concinnus=neat, concoloroi the same colour, confertus= dense, 
cong6s2ws=crowded, contortus twisted, copiosus abundant, cor- 
datus= heart-shaped, coriaceusleaihery, cornutus horned, corus- 
cans flashing, corymbosusvtith clusters, crassus thick, crenatus 
=scolloped, crispus curled, cruentus bloody, cuneatus=\vedge- 
shaped, curtus^short, cuspidatus pointed, cyanus=dark blue. 

=with ten stamens, decoms 
becoming, dccumbenslymg down, dtcurrenspassing down 


and adhering to, decussatusintersecting, dentatustootbed, dicho- 
tomustwice forked, didymustwin, dtpendensbangmg down, 
^'$ r ttss=spread, dimorphusoi two forms, discolorof two colours, 
distichus=*m two rows, divaricatus stretched apart, dotabratus=* 
hatchet-shaped, dulcis^sweet, ^rs=hard. 

Edulisedible, elatior higher, esculentus edible, cximius=* 
uncommon, excellent, excelsusloity. 

jFtf/otfs===scythe-shaped, farinosus= mealy, fastigatussb&r- 
pened to a point, fastwsus, fibrosus=fibro\is, filiferus bearing 
threads, jftw&nWwsfringed, ^ssws=split, /aWto$=fan-shaped, 
flaccidusftdibby, flavus= yellow, /^woss=full of bends, floccosus 
= woolly, florabundus=iul\. of flowers, flore pleno= double-flowered, 
floridus= flowering, foetidus= stinking, foliosus leafy, formosus 
beautiful, frondosus leafy, frutuosus fruitful, fugax= transitory, 

Gelidus~icy, gemmatusbeaxing buds, glaber= smooth, glaucus 
=bluish-grey, glomeratusbeaped together, glutinosussticky, 
gracilisslender, grandis=largc t gratiosus favoured, gratus=plea- 

^Vmafc=winter, hirsutusvrith stiff hairs, 
with hairs, ^om^s==bristly, hortensis= belonging 
to the garden, humilis~low, hyperboreus==nortbern. 

Igneus = fiery, illustris = ren owned, imberbis = beardless, imbri- 
catus= overlapping, like tiles, immaculatus unspotted, incanus 
=grey, m^ma^ws=flesh-coloured, inctsus divided, inermis=\m- 
armed (without thorns), *'tt/Z0/s=swollen, insignis= remarkable, 
i^^r=entire, intumescens swelling, involucratusvritb a wrapper, 
or envelope, round flowers, mWSc0$= shining with various colours. 

Maximusgreatest, w^/^ws=honeyed, ^cans=glittering, mira- 
bilis wonderful, mto's=mild, ripe, mo/Ks=soft, mucronatus 
having a sharp point, mwftws=much, many, muralis=on the wall, 
wsoMW(?$== moss-like, w/afo7t's=changeable. 

Nanus= dwarf, neglectus despised, nemoralis, nemorosusoi 
the grove, mgir= black, nitens, nitidus= shining, nivalis snowy > 
white, nodosusknotty, w^s=naked, ww/ws=nodding. 

06con/cs=shape of an inverted cone, occidental western, 
ochroleucus=yettow white, oculatusbaving eyes, spotted, officinalis 
=used in a workshop, medicinal, useful in manufacture, o/ens= 
odorous, 0wws/$=laden, oppositifoliusb&ving opposite 
oraa/#$=adorned, oxycanthusvritb sharp flowers. 


Palliduspale, paluster marshy, paniculatus^ tufted, pannosus 
=ragged, shrivelled, papillosus bearing small nipples, parvus 
=small, patens, patulus=open, patent, paucus~ievt t pectoralis 
belonging to the breast, ^fltas=footlike, ^wc/a^s=stalked, 
/>0fta/ws=shield-like, pennatus winged, peregrinus=ioreign t strange, 
/tftfo/<m's=having leafy stalks, petraeus rocky, />ifeatfws=capped, 
/n70$tt$=hairy, plenus=i\ill, plicatus=folded t plumosus feathered, 
praecox = premature, precocious, early, praestans = outstanding, 
/>r#tests:=growing in a meadow, princeps=chiei, procerus=tal\ 
procumbenslymg down, />wfows=mature, luxuriant, pudicus 
modest, pulchella, pulcher beautiful, />w//ws=dark, pulverulentus 
=dusty, pumilus dwarf, />^ns=pricking, stinging, purpureus 
=purple, pusillusveiy small, ^y^wa^ws=dwarf. 

Quinatus = fivefold . 

Racemosusiub of clusters, farfic^ns=rooting, ramosus 
branched, r^c/ws=straight, upright, r^^ws=bent back, reptans 
creeping, r^ttsws=:thrust back or blunt, nw^ns=gaping, riparius 
=growing on river banks, rwfer=red, rw/s=ruddy, rugosa 
wrinkled, rw/>icw/s=growing on rocks, rutilans shining with 
ruddy gleam. 

S0ttgtwi0tt$==bloody, sar mentosa full of twigs, sativus~c\d- 
tivated, saxatilis= frequenting rocks, sca^r=rough, scandens 
climbing, scferws=hard, scw^/s=armed with a shield, secundus 
on one side, 5^rra/5=notched, sempervivus ever-living, sessilt- 
/fors=flowers without stalks, setaceus, setigems, setosus bristly, 
stnzcws=curved, swelling like a breast, sm0ss=wavy, sordidus 
dirty, paltry, speciosus beautiful, spectabilis=v?oTth seeing, notable, 
s/>*'ca/s=spiked, squamosusscaled, squarrosu$=with projecting 
scales, sfe#0tfws=starry, s/n'a/s=fluted, s^n'c^ws=drawn together, 
swaws=pleasant, sw6w/a^ws=awl-shaped, sylvaticus, sylvestris=per- 
taining to woods. 

r$c/tts=covered, tenebrosus gloomy, tener=tender, tenuis 
thin, weak, ^y^s=rounded, tomentosus densely haired, tortuosus, 
/ar/s=twisted, typhina=Hke a bulrush. 

f/%tosws=marshy, uw6e/tows=branched like an umbrella, 
>6rosMS==shady, r^s=burning, stinging, fdiKs=useful. 

, validusstiong, velatus 

=veiled, wtwnosf=spoisonous, t;wostts=veined, wnws/us=scharm- 
ing, v*rattiws==bashful, vernalis, wmw5==pertaining to the spring, 
wers==true, versicolor^of various colours, t;^r/tc7tows=arranged in 
whorls, ws^rttnaasbelonging to the evening, w7/0sns=shaggy, 
irirens, viridis green, w>ga/ws=twiggy, W5co$ws=sticky, vulgaris 


(The position of the hyphen indicates prefix or suffix.) 

NOTE. The last letters are omitted of terminations which are 
Latinised adjectives, as they vary with the gender of the 
genus : us, a, um; er t era, erum; is, e. 

a-=not, -acanth-=thoTn, a/6-=white, -anthes, -anthus=a. flower, 
att#-=like, argento- silvery, 0fr0-=black, aureo-=gclden, bi- 
=two, br 'achy- short, ca/o-= beautiful, -car=a fruit, -caulisa. 
stem, cephal-=a. head, cheir-a. hand, chrys-= golden, circum- 
=around, -cladon=a. shoot, crypt-= concealed, ^asjy-=hairy, 
erythro-=ied, -escews=becoming, ew-=well, beautiful, -/<?r=bearing, 
-fol=a leaf, -/orw=the shape, ^/^-=smooth, gymn- naked, 
-gyn-~ female, Aa^m-=blood, hetero-=oi different sorts, holo- 
== entirely, homo-= resembling, -immus, -issimus superlatively, 
m-=not, iso-==equal, /a^*-=brpad, lepto-=ihm, wac-=large, 
mega- large, melan- = black, wtcr-== small, mon- = single, multi- 
=much, many, myri-= innumerable, wdx'-=naked, -oiW^s=like, 
oligo-tew, -o^>szs=like, o^:y-=sharp, pachy-= thick, parvi-= small, 
penni- feather, pent-=five, phil- loving, -^/ry//-==leafed, platy- 
=flat, wide, pleur-=dit the side, ribbed, -pod-= footed, ^o/y-=many, 
^ro-=winged, rAw-=a root, rAo^-==rosy, scWz-== split, sc/^r-=hard, 
semper- always, s^w-=narrow, strept- twisted, sub-, sw/-= under, 
somewhat, telra- four, -thamnus branched, ^n'cA-==hairy, uni-= 
one, xanth-=ye]lo\v, xyl-= woody, zanth-=yellow t zyg- yoked 

Author of "Plant Names." 


SOIL for garden purposes should consist of (i) mineral properties, 
(2) organic properties, (3) air and water. The constituents neces- 
sary to plant life are (i) oxygen, hydrogen, and carbon ; (2) niti ogen, 
lime (except for calciphobe plants), sulphur, potassium, phosphorus, 
magnesium, iron, and calcium. Mineral properties in soil are sup- 
plied by the disintegration and decomposition of rocks, the organic 
by the decomposition of plant and animal refuse. Water and air 
supply the remainder of necessary factors. Clay soil comprises 
all that plants need, but requires extra cultivation and preparation 
as the soil particles are too fine and too closely compressed to allow 
the requisite free passage of air and the percolation of water to dis- 
solve the soluble salts for the roots of plants to absorb. Heavy 
soil should be trenched; stones, brickbats, and mortar rubble dug 
into the lowest spit to assist drainage; and road grit (clean of tar), 
sand, charcoal (burnt wood not wood-ashes), buint clay, and lime 
in the upper spits. Digging should be done at the end of the year 
to allow all possible action of snow and frost. If done before 
heavy rain the surface soil is washed and beaten into a light crust 
and the work of the elements on the lower soil minimised, unless 
broken over again. Good drainage on heavy soil is of the utmost 

SOIL STERILISATION, to destroy pests and diseases. There are 
many sterilising apparatus now in use. What is essential is that a 
uniform temperature of not less than 210 F. should be maintained 
for from 15-40 mins. Soil may be sterilised by baking or steaming. 
If baked care must be taken not to overheat. 

COMPOSTS. Soil should not be burnt for potting composts, but 
steamed for 30 mins. ROCK GARDENS. J sand and grit, J leaf- 
mould, J loan. Mortar rubble should only be used for plants that 
require lime. MORAINE. loan, sand, i leaf-mould, grit and 
small stones. RHODODENDRONS (seed). "Sand and humus, or 
sand and peat, well shredded, is best for the purpose about 3 parts 
sand to i of humus." (Kingdon Ward, Rhododendrons.) FRUIT 
TREES, ETC., IN POTS. 4 parts good turfy loam, J part well-rotted 
manure, \ part old mortar rubble, and a 5-inch potful of bone meal 
to each barrow load of the compost. STRAWBERRIES IN POTS. 4 
parts loam, i part rotted manure, a little mortar rubble and a 5-inch 
potful of bone meal to each barrow load of the compost. 

Primulas, Tuberous Begonias, Schizanthus. 2 parts loam, i part 
leaf-soil and sand. 

Gloxinias, Streptocarpus, Begonia "Gloire de Lorraine" and 



other fibrous-rooted ones, Lilium auratum, Gesneras, Achimenes. 
2 parts loam, i part peat, i part leaf-soil and sand. 

Fuchsias, Cinerarias, Herbaceous Calceolarias, Mignonette, 
Hippeastrums (Amaryllis), Geraniums or Pelargoniums, Deutzias, 
Lilacs, Celosias, Chrysanthemums, Cyclamen, Arums, Campanulas, 
Roses, Narcissus, Hyacinths, Hydrangeas, Tulips, Gladiolus Col- 
villei, Spiraeas, Prunus, Wistarias, Pyrus, Japanese Cherries, Fran- 
coa, Agapanthus. 3 parts loam, \ part rotted manure, J part leaf 
soil and sand. 

Cytisus, Camellias, Nerines, Lilium speciosum, L. tigrinum, L. 
candidum, L. longiflorum. 3 parts loam, T part leaf-soil and silver 

Carnations. First Potting. f loam, sand, leaf-mould. 
Second. | loam, J sand, manure (old), and ashes (equal parts). 
Third. f loam, J manure, T T B ashes, ^V lime rubble and sand. 

TOMATOES UNDER GLASS. The soil should be carefully pre- 
pared either by steam or heat sterilisation or by the use of 
Formaldehyde or Di-Chlor-Cresol. An ideal soil would seem to 
be a friable, well drained, but firm, sandy loam. Manuring. If 
the soil has been heat sterilised very little nitrogenous manure 
will be necessary, and attention should be paid to the addition of 
phosphates and potash, particularly the latter. Little manure 
should be given until the first bloom trusses open. 


THE need of manure may be classified under four headings : (i) To 
increase the supply of available plant food, either directly or in- 
directly, through its solvent action on the soil ; (2) to improve the 
mechanical condition of the soil ; (3) to hold up water in the soil 
and so ensure a constant supply to the plant ; (4) to favour the growth 
and work of micro-organisms on whose activity the productiveness of 
the soil to a certain extent depends. All these are supplied by organic 
manures (Dung, etc.), only the first by mineral manures (other than 
Basic Slag). (See Min. of Agric. Leaflet 175.) 

CHEMICAL MANURES should be used to supplement farmyard 
manure Basic Slag (Lime and Phosphoric Acid lime in excess) in 
autumn on heavy soils, Superphosphate of Lime (Lime and Phosphoric 
Acid acid in excess) in spring on light soils. 

The following ARTIFICIAL MANURES must not be mixed as they 
neutralise each other. Nitrate of Soda and Superphosphate, Basic 
Slag and Sulphate of Ammonia, Nitrate of Soda and farmyard manure, 
Lime and farmyard manure, Basic Slag and farmyard manure, Lime 
and Sulphate of Ammonia, Basic Slag and Sulphate of Ammonia, Lime 
and Calcium Cyananide (Nitrolim), Lime and Nitrate of Lime, Basic 
Slag and Calcium Cyananide (Nitrolim), Basic Slag and Nitrate of 


BONFIRE ASH. Store in a dry place, or apply before rain has 
fallen on it, as water dissolves the valuable potash contained in wood 
ashes. Thistles, docks, couch, bindweed, etc., should invariably be 
put on the bonfire to burn, not on the rubbish heap to rot. 

BURNT BRACKEN is useful if cut and burnt early, the valuable potash 
contents are lost when it gets too dry. 

GARDEN WASTE. Valuable manure can be prepared by stacking 
rough grass, straw, and all garden refuse, with a sprinkling of Sulphate 
of Ammonia between each 9-inch layer to assist rotting. Where 
farmyard manure cannot be obtained this is a good substitute. Other 
waste products that can be utilised for organic manure are (i) waste 
from animal carcases, (2) waste from manufacturers, (3) waste from 
towns. (For details see Ministry of Agriculture Leaflet 175.) 

GREEN MANURE. Green crops (mustard, rape, peas, lupins, etc.) 
dug in before flowering. 

LEGUMINOUS PLANTS peas, beans, clover, etc. increase the 
nitrogen content of the soil in which they are grown. 

LIME is not a substitute for manure. Lime is necessary: (i) to 
counteract acidity in soils ; (2) to break up heavy soils ; (3) to provide 
a proportion of the food necessary to plant life ; (4) to assist the chemical 
action in the soil by the liberation of potash and retention of phosphates, 
both necessary for plant life ; (5) to assist drainage in the soil ; (6) to 
prevent diseases (finger-and-toe) in cabbages, swedes, turnips; (7) to 
discourage slugs and wireworm. Though necessary for cabbages, it 
is disliked by potatoes and tomatoes. Lime should never be mixed 
with manures or soot (except as an insecticide, see p. 106), as it liberates 
the ammonia contained in them and so reduces the mamirial value. 
Lime may be applied on the surface later after farmyard manure has 
been previously dug in, or applied at least a month before manuring. 

LIQUID MANURES are particularly valuable, as their action is quicker 
and application is of the easiest. Cow dung, allow i gallon of water to 
every 2 \ Ib. of dung. Poultry manure, allow i peck of manure to a 
40-gallon cask. Sheep droppings, i peck to 40 gallons. 

LONG STRAW MANURE should be used on heavy soils. Long dung 
helps to dry out land, but if dug in during the winter tends to decompose 
and so renders the soil more liable to hold water in the spring. The 
value of farmyard manure applied in spring is greatly lessened if dry 
weather follows. 

POULTRY MANURE. Poultry droppings should be stored in a dry 
place with layers of dry soil, not lime. Turn occasionally. One or 
two ounces are sufficient for i square yard. 

SALT should not be applied to damp and heavy soils. 

SAWDUST is of little value as, or in, manure. 

SOOT provides nitrogen and helps to make good tilth. It should 
never be used fresh, and should be applied early in the year on heavy 
ground. Soot water is a useful liquid manure. 


Note. Many here given are obsolete but are included for purposes 
of reference. Weights (contents) are approximate only, and 
differ in various localities. 

ACRE. (Statute) = 4 sq. roods = 4,840 sq. yds. = 14,520 sq. ft. 

= 160 rods. (Cheshire) = 10,240 sq. yds. (Cornish) = 5,760 

sq. yds. (Cunningham) = 1*291,322 statute acres. (Derby) 

== 9,000 sq. yds. (Devon) = 4,000 sq. yds. (Dumbarton) 

= 6,084-441 sq. yds. (Herefordshire) = 3,226^ sq. yds. 

(Lancashire) = 7,840 sq. yds. (Inverness) = 6,150-4 sq. yds. 

(Irish) = 7,840 sq. yds. (Leicestershire) = 2,308$ sq. yds. 

(North Wale?) = 3,240 sq. yds. (Scottish) = 6,150-4 sq. yds. 

(Westmorland) = 6,760 sq. yds. (Welsh) = 9,680 sq. yds. 

= 2 English acres. (Wilts) = 3,630 sq. yds. 
ANKER = 10 gals. == 40 qts. = 80 pts. 
APPLES. Bushel = 40-4 Ib. Barrel = 120-144 Ib. Basket 

(wicker) = i imperial bushel. Case 40 Ib. Bonnet (chip) 

No. i = | bushel. Peck = 16 Ib. Sack = 3 heaped bushels. 

Box = 40 Ib., weight varies. Pot = 56 Ib. = 64 Ib. (Evesham). 

Sleek = 40 Ib. (Glasgow.) 

ARTICHOKES (Tubers). Pot 80 Ib. Sieve = 20 Ib. 
ASPARAGUS. Bundle = 25, 50, 100, 120, 125, or 150 heads. 
BAG == | to i cwt. See Beans, Beetroot, Brussels Sprouts, Carrots, 

Cobnuts, Greens, Parsnips, Peas, Potatoes, Turnip Tops, 

Turnips. See also Pea Bags, Potato Bags. 
BARREL = 36 gals. = 144 qts. = 288 pts. = about 3 bushels. See 

BASKET. (Wicker handle) = 675 cub. ins. capacity. (Chip) = 2 

Ib., 3 Ib., 4 Ib., 12 Ib., from 160-245 cub. ins. capacity. 

(Standard) 3 = 180-9 cu ^- * ns - * 4 = 240-52 cub. ins. 

capacity. See Apples, Cherries, Grapes, Plums, Strawberries. 
BATTEN. (Sawn deal) = 2" to 2f " x 6" to 8". 
BAULK. (Sawn deal) = 5" x 5" and upwards. 
BEANS. (Broad), Peck = 7-9 Ib. (French or Kidney), Peck 

= 10 Ib. Bag, weight varies. Load (Runners) = about 

3 bushels. Box = 7-8 Ib. Pot == 40 Ib. 

BEETROOT. Bag, Half-bag, Pot, weight varies according to size. 
BLACKBERRIES. Punnet (chip) = i Ib., 2 Ib., 4 Ib., (peck) = 12 Ib. 
BOARD. (Sawn deal) == y to ij* X 9" to n". 
BOAT as flat oval basket used for Strawberries and Red and White 



BONNET. (Chip) == 15" top, 12" bottom, 8%" average depth 
| sieve = 1,270 cub. ins. capacity. 

BOTTLE = 2 qts. = 2-qt. bottles == 4-pt. bottles. 

Box. See Apples, Potatoes, Tomatoes. Apple Box = 18" X 

X loj" = 2,227 cu b. ins. capacity. Beans = 7-8 Ib. Toma- 
toes = 15 Ib. Seakale = 8 Ib. Veneer Box, No. i = i bushel 
= i8f" X I2$" X 10" = 2,343-7 cu b- * ns - capacity. No. 2 
== | bushel = 14" X io$" X 8J" = 1,249-5 cub. ins. capacity. 
Wood Box (non-returnable), No. I Tray = 18" x n|" X 3j". 

BRAN. Bushel = 17 Ib. 

BRICKS. Load = 500. Rod of brickwork = i6' x 16^' x ij brick 
thickness = 306 cub. ft. = nj cub. yds. = 4,500 bricks and 
about 75 cub. ft. of mortar. Dutch clinker bricks measure 
4j* X 3* X i J*. Paving bricks, 9" X 4j" X if". Square tiles, 
6" x 6" x i", or 9! * X 9|" X i". Stock or kiln bricks, 8f " X 
41" X 2\". 

BROCCOLI. Bundle = 6-20. Sack = 60-70 Ib. Cape Broccoli, 
Bundle = 6-8. Crate (wicker basket) = 5-6 doz. ; (wooden) 
= 2-4 doz. 

BRUSSELS SPROUTS. Half-bag = 20 Ib. (Hull), 26-8 Ib. (London). 
Pot = 40 Ib. 

BUNCH. See Carrots, Greens, Herbs, Leeks, Turnips ; Carnations, 
Daffodils, Forget-me-nots, Gypsophila, Lily of the Valley, 
Paeonies, Pinks, Roses, Sweet Peas, Tulips. 

BUNDLE. Varies with season. See Asparagus, Broccoli, Carrots, 
Celery, Greens, Rhubarb, Tomatoes, Turnips. 

BUSHEL = 4 pecks = 8 gals. Bushel sieve measures vj\* top 
diameter, lof" depth at circumference, lo" at centre. (Covent 
Garden.) Standard = 17^ diameter, loj" depth at side, 9* 
depth at centre = 2,270" capacity. Half -sieve = 12 J* top 
diameter, 6" depth. Bushel basket = 14%" diameter top, 10" 
bottom, 17" depth. Bushel basket C.G. == ifY diameter top, 
10* bottom, 10* depth. Bushel flat = 21* long, 16* wide, 
10" deep. 

CABBAGE. Tally = 5 doz. Crate (wicker basket) =* 5-6 doz. 
= 42 Ib. net ; (wooden) = 2-4 doz. 

CABLE'S LENGTH = 120 fathoms = 720 ft. 

CANE. See Spinach. 

CANVAS. Roll = 28 ells. 

CARD. See Wood. 

CARNATIONS. Bunch = 12. 

CARROTS. Bunch = 8-12. Bundle = 36-40. Bag, weight varies 
according to size. Half-bag = 56 Ib. (British), 50 Ib. (imported). 

CASE = about J bushel. See Apples, Onions. 

CAULIFLOWERS. Tally = 60. Crate = 2 doz. (French), 15-18 

CELERY. Bundle = 6-20, usually 12 ; 4-6 (Bristol). Fan or Roll 
8 or 10 washed, 12 unwashed heads. 



CENTARE = 1,550 sq. ins. 

CENTIMETRE == -3937 ins. 

CHAIN = 100 links = 22 yds. = 4 poles. 

CHALDRON = 4 qrs. See Coal, Coke. 

CHALK. Ton = 18 cub. ft. (Lump) Ton = 29 cub. ft. 

CHERRIES. Chip = 2^-8 Ib. Peck = 18 Ib. Half-sieve = 24 Ib. 
net. Pot = 63 Ib. Quarter = 12 Ib. Sieve or bushel basket 
= 48 Ib. Strike = 12 Ib. Side = 63 Ib. (Wolverhampton). 

CHIPS. See Basket, Bonnet, Apples, Blackberries, Cherries, Cur- 
rants, Raspberries, Strawberries. 

CLAY. Ton = 17-19 cub. ft. 

COAL. Sack = 224 Ib. = 2 cwt. = 3 bushels. Bushel = 80 Ib. 
Ton == 10 sacks. Chaldron = 12 sacks. Keel = 8 chaldrons. 

COBNUTS. Bag = 100 Ib. 

COKE. Sack = 4 bushels. Chaldron = 12 sacks. 

COOMB = 4 bushels. 

CORD. See Wood. 

CRATE. See Cauliflowers, Lettuce, Spinach. 



A-A 28' 
A-B 35' 
A-C 7' 
A-D 14' 
C-D 7' 
D-D 7' 

A-A 28' 
A-C 7' 
A-D ioj' 
A-F 14' 

CUBIT = 18 ins. 

CUCUMBERS. Flat = 2j, 3, or 3} doz. Pad = 24-8. 

CURRANTS. Chips == 2J-8 Ib. Half-sieve == 24 Ib. net = 10 or 

ii qts. Peck = 12 Ib. Sieve = about 20 qts. Handle 

about 6 Ib. (Liverpool). 
DAFFODILS. Bunch = 12. 


DAMSONS. Peck == 18 Ib. Half-sieve = 24-8 Ib. 

DEAL. (Sawn), measures 3* X f to 9". 

DEEPS = Orange boxes. 

DOZEN = 12. See Long Dozen. 

EARTH. Load = i cub. yd. Ton = 18 cub. ft. 

ELL. English = 45" (differs in different countries). 

EXHIBITION BOXES. Carnations : Length 18 blooms (3 rows of 
6), 23^; 12 blooms (3 rows of 4), iSf"; 6 blooms (3 rows 
of 2), 8J". Width 12"; Depth 4$". Roses: Length 24 
blooms, 3' 6" ; 18 blooms, 2' 9" ; 12 blooms, 2' ; 9 blooms, 
i' 6"; 6 blooms, i'. Width i' 6" ; Height in front 4". 
Violas: 12 blooms, 14" x n"; 6 blooms, 7" X n". Height 
at back, 5". 

EXHIBITION DISH. Fmit : Apples = 6. Apricots = 9. Bananas 
= 12. Bullaces = 30. Cherries = 50. Currants : Black = i 
Ib. ; Red or White = 30 bunches. Damsons = 30. Figs = 9. 
Gooseberries = 30. Grapes = 2 or 3 bunches (according to 
Schedule). Melon = i. Nectarines = 6. Nuts = i Ib. Oranges 
= 6. Peaches = 6. Pears = 6. Pineapple = i. Plums = 9. 
Prunes = 30. Quinces = 6. Raspberries = 50. Strawberries 
= 20. Tomatoes (where admissible) = 9 dessert, or 6 bunches 
of small varieties. 

Vegetables : Artichokes, Globe = 6, Jerusalem = 12. As- 
paragus = 36. Beans : Broad = 18, French Climber or Dwarf 
= 36, Scarlet Runners = 24. Beet = 6. Brussels Sprouts 
= 50. Ditto, sterns = 3. Cabbages 3. Cauliflower or Broccoli 
= 3. Capsicums and Chillies = 24. Cardoons = 3. Carrots, 
long or stump-rooted = 6. Celeriac = 6. Celery, White or 
Red = 3. Couve Tronchuda = 3. Cucumbers = 2. Egg Plant 
fruits = 12. Endive 6. Kale = 3. Kohlrabi = 9. Leeks 
= 6. Lettuces = 6. Marrows = 3. Mushrooms = 12. Onions 
6, pickling = i Ib. Parsnips = 6. Peas = 50. Potatoes = 6. 
Pumpkin = i. Radishes, bundle = 24. Rhubarb Sticks = 3. 
Salsify =12. Savoys =12. Scorzonera =12. Seakale = 12. 
Shallots = 24. Stachys = 50. Tomatoes = 12, cluster (orna- 
mental) = 3. Turnips = 6. 

NOTE. In Collections the number differs for : Artichokes, 
Globe = 9. Beans, Broad 24. Cauliflower or Broccoli = 6. 
Carrots = 10. Celeriac = 9. Celery = 6. Kohlrabi =12. 
Leeks = 9. Onions =12. Potatoes = 12. Turnips = 10. 

FAGGOTS. Hundred = 120 Ib. Load = 50-60. 

FAN. See Celery. 

FATHOM = 6 ft. 

FEATHERS. Bale = about i cwt. Last = 17 cwt. 

FIRKIN = 9 gals. 

FLASKET = load (basket). 

FLATS. See Cucumbers, Grapes, 


FLOORING. Square == 100 sq. ft. 

FLOWER POTS. Thimbles = 2? diameter at top, 2" deep. Eighties 

(Thumbs) = 2j", 2\\ Sixties = 3", 3^- Forty-eights = 4^, 

5*. Thirty-twos = 6", 6". Twenty-fours == 8$", 8". Sixteens 

= 9J^ 9*- Twelves = nj^, 10". Eights = 12*, n". Sixes 

= 13", 12". Fours = is", 13". Twos = 18", 14*. 
FOOT = 12 ins. 

FORGET-ME-NOTS. Bunch = a handful. 
FURLONG = 40 rods = 220 yds. 
GALLON = 4 qts. = 8 pts. = 10 Ib. distilled water. Southampton 

gallon, see Strawberries. 
GILL = J pt. = 5 oz. of water. 
GLASS. Stone = 5 Ib. Seam = 24 stone = 120 Ib. Panes of 

English glass measure 20" or 24" x 18", 20" X 16", and 

20* x 15*. 
GOOSEBERRIES. Peck = 12-14 Ib. Half-sieve = 28 Ib. net. Pot 

= 63 Ib. 

GRAPES. Basket = 4-6 Ib. Shallow = 10-12 Ib. Flat varies. 
GRAVEL. Load = i cub. yd. Ton = 20 cub. ft. 
GREENGAGES. Round = about 7 Ib. 
GREENS. Bundle or Bunch = as many as can be tied together by 

the roots. Bushel (cut and packed) = 26-30 Ib. Bag = 56 Ib. 
GROSS = 12 doz. See Long Gross. 
GUANO. Bag = ij cwt. Bushel = 60-70 Ib. 
GYPSOPHILA. Bunch = a handful. 
HALF-BAG. See Brussels Sprouts, Carrots. 
HALF-BARREL. Usually 15^ diameter top and bottom, 17 * centre, 

i6Y deep. 
HALF-BOX = 14^'' x 9" X g" = 1,174-5 cub. in. capacity. See 

HALF-SIEVE = 3j imperial gals. = 12 \" diameter, 6" depth = 1 

bushel = 2 pecks = 4 gals. 
HAND. See Radishes. 
HANDLE. See Currants. 
HAY. Truss (old) = 56 Ib., (new) = 60 Ib. Load or ton = 36 

trusses. Bale = 2 cwt. 
HECTARE = 2-471 acres. 

HECTOLITRE = 2-75 bushels (dry), 26-417 gals, (liquid). 
HERBS. Bunch = handful of stems. 
HIDE = 120 acres. 
HOGSHEAD = 54 gals. 
HONEY. Gallon = 12 Ib. 
HOPS. Pocket = ij cwt. and odd Ib. 
HOSE. Lengths, 30' and 60'. 
HUNDRED. Common = 5 score. 
HUNDREDWEIGHT = 4 qrs. = 112 Ib. 
IMPERIAL BUSHEL = 2,219,360 cub. in. capacity. 
INCH an 12 lines 72 points. 



JUNK = | of a bushel. 

KAINIT. Bag =*= 2 cwt. Bushel = 75-80 Ib. 

KILDERKIN = 18 gals. See Rundlet. 

KILO. See Kilogramme. 

KILOGRAMME = 2-2046 Ib. 

KIPE = 18* diameter top, 12" bottom, 12* deep (Worcestershire). 

LAST = 10 qrs. == 2 cwt. = 12 barrels. See Feathers, Pitch, Tar. 

LAWN TENNIS COURT = 78' x 36'. 



A- A 78' 

A-C 36' 

A-C (diagonal) 86' 
R-D 1 8' 
D-E 21' 

LEAD. Sheet = from 6 Ib. to 10 Ib. per sq. ft. Pipe usually i* 

bore = 13 Ib. to 14 Ib. to the yard. 
LEEKS. Bunch = 6, 8, or 10. 
LETTUCES. Score = 22 heads. Box (Cabbage) = 24-30 (London). 

Crate (Cabbage) = 2 doz. (Leeds and London), = 5 doz, 


LILY OF THE VALLEY. Bunch = 12. 
LINK = 7-92 ft. 
LITRE = 908 qt. 
LOAD = 5 qrs. = ij cwt. Load (oblong 4-handled basket with 

loose lid) = 30" X 26" x 16". See Beans, Bricks, Earth, 

Faggots, Gravel, Hay, Parsnips, Planks, Straw, Tiles, Timber. 
LOGANBERRIES. Punnet of (chip) = 4 Ib. (Peck) =* 12 Ib. 
LONG GROSS = 156. 
MARL. Ton = 18 cub. ft. 
MEAL. Boll = 140 Ib. Sack = 2 bolls = 280 Ib. 
METRE = 39 -37 ins. 


MILE = 8 furlongs = 80 chains = 320 rods = 1,760 yds. = 5,280 
ft. 63,360 ins. 

MILLIMETRE = -0394^1. 

MOULD. Ton = 33 cub. ft. 

MUSHROOMS. Pottle = about i Ib. Half-sieve (wild) = 12 Ib. 
Basket = 4-6 Ib. 

NAIL. (Measure) = 2 J ins. 

NAILS. Bag == J cwt., f cwt., i cwt. Tacks, etc., 6 score = one 

NITRATE OF SODA. Bag = 2\ cwt. Bushel = 90 Ib. 

ONIONS. Peck = 16 Ib. Bag = 120 Ib. Poke = about \ bushel. 
Bushel = 56 Ib. 

PACE. (Military) = 2\ ft. (Geometrical) = 5 ft. 

PACKAGE. See Tomatoes. 

PADS (oval baskets). See Cucumbers, Potatoes. 

PAEONIES. Bunch = 6. 

PALM = 3 ins. 

PAINT. i Ib. paints 4 yds. 

PANTILE. Measures 13$* X q\" X \" = roughly 5 Ib. 

PAPER. Quire 24 sheets. Ream == 20 quires = 480 sheets. 

PARSLEY. Pot = 20 Ib. 

PARSNIPS. Bag, weight varies according to size. Load = about 
2 cwt. 

PEA BAG. See Beans, Onions, Peas, Potatoes. 

PEARS. Bushel = 50-6 Ib. Peck = 18 Ib. Pot = 72 Ib. (Eve- 
sham). Sleek = 50 Ib. (Glasgow). 

PEAS. Peck = 8 Ib. Bushel = loj imperial gals. = 64 Ib. Sieve 
= 30 Ib. Sieve (bushel) measures 17$" diameter top, n" 
deep = 5 pecks. Pot = 72 Ib. = 40 Ib. (Worcestershire). 
Bag weight varies. Case = 40-4 Ib. 

PECK = 2 gals. 

PIN = J barrel = 4! gals. 

PINKS. Bunch = 12-24. 

PINT = 4 gills. . 

PIP OR PUP = gallon basket with rim. See Strawberries. 

PITCH. i Ib. required for 12 yds. Last = 12 barrels. 

PLANKS. (Sawn deal) measure i" to 4^ x n" and upwards. 

i , . Load = 50 cub. ft. 

PLUMS. Bushel = 56 Ib. Carton = 9 Ib. Half-sieve = 28 Ib. 
net. Peck = 18 Ib. Pot = 72 Ib. (Evesham). Sleek = 60 Ib. 

POCKET. See Hops. 

POKE. See Onions. 

POLE. See Rod. 

POT. (Wicker oblong basket) 21* x 14" X 15". See Apples, 
Artichokes, Beans, Brussels Sprouts, Cherries, Greens, Goose- 
berries, Parsley, Pears, Peas, Plums, Potatoes, Spinach. 

POTATO BAGS = under i cwt. 


POTATOES. Peck = 20 Ib. Bushel = 56 Ib. Sack = 168 Ib. (Lon- 
don). Barrel = 200 Ib., 84 Ib. (Leeds), 168 Ib. (Glasgow). 
Cwt. (uncleaned) = 120 Ib. Bag = 120-6 Ib. (Yorkshire), 
140 Ib. (Devon), 160 Ib. (Somersetshire). Box = 64 Ib. Pad 
= |-i cwt. Pot 80 Ib. (Evesham). 

POTTLE = 2 qts. See Mushrooms, Strawberries. 

PUNCHEON = 72 gals. = 288 qts. = 576 pts. 

PUNNET = lb.-i Ib. weight of choice fruit. Chip = 4 Ib. Peck 
= 12 Ib. See Blackberries, Loganberries, Raspberries, Seakale, 

PUTTY. i Ib. to 20 yds. 

QUART = 2 pts. 

QUARTER = 8 bushels (measure) or 28 Ib. (weight). See Cherries. 

QUARTER-BOX = 12 J" x 7" X 7" = 612-5 cub. in. capacity. 

QUINTAL = 220-46 Ib. 

RADISHES. Hand = 12-30. 

RAPE SEED.- Bushel = 48 Ib. 

RASPBERRIES. Punnet = J-i Ib. (Chip) = 4 Ib., 6 Ib. (Peck) 
= 12 Ib. Chips = 2J-8 Ib. Tub = 28-56 Ib. net. 

RHUBARB. Bundle = 20 to 30 stems. 

ROCK SALT. Bushel = 65 Ib. 

ROD = Pole = Perch = 5j yds. = i6| ft. = 10 links. 

ROLL. See Fan. 

ROSES. Bunch = 12. 

ROUND. See Greengages. 

RUNDLET = kilderkin = | barrel = 18 gals. = 72 qts. = 144 pts. 

SALADS. Tally = 5 doz. 

SALT. Peck = 14 Ib. Bushel = 56 ib. 

SALTPETRE. Bag = i cwt. 

SAND. Ton = 24 cub. ft. Pit sand ton = 22 cub. ft. River 
sand = 19 cub. ft. 

SAVOYS. Tally = 60. 

SCANTLING. (Sawn deal) measures 2" x 4" x 4^. 

SCORE = 20, except Lettuce, q.v. 

SEAKALE. Box = 6, 8, or 12 Ib. net. Bundle = 13-18 heads. 
Punnet = 2-2J Ib. 

SHALLOW. See Grapes. 

SHINGLE (Clean). Ton = 24 cub. ft. 

SIDE. See Cherries. 

SIEVE. See Bushel. 

SLATE BATTEN. (Sawn deal) = I" x 2". 

SLATES. Great hundred = 120. Sizes : Doubles, 13" x 6" ; Ladies, 
16* x 8* ; Countesses, 20" x 10" ; Duchesses, 24" x 12". 

SLEEK. W. Scotland measure. See Apples, Pears, Plums. 

SOFT SOAP. Firkin = 64 Ib. Barrel or Pack = 256 Ib. 

SPAN = 9 ins. 

SPINACH. Bushel = 24-30 Ib. Cane = 14 Ib. Crate = 12 Ib. 
Half-sieve = 12 Ib. Pot = 20 Ib. 


SQUARE (floor or thatch) = 100 sq. ft. 

STACK. See Wood. 

STRAW. Truss = 36 Ib. Load = 36 trusses. 

STRAWBERRIES. Pottle = about 2 pts. Punnet of choice (hot- 
house), f-i Ib. (Chip) = 2$-4 Ib. (Peck) = 12 Ib. Chips 
= 2|-8 Ib. Southampton gallon = 4 Ib. Pip or Pup = 6 Ib. 

STRIKE = 2 bushels. See Cherries, Tomatoes. 

SWEDES. Peck = 18 Ib. Bushel = 45 Ib. 

SWEET PEAS. Bunch = 12. 

TALLY (Vegetables) = 50. See Cabbages, Salads, Savoys. 

TAR. Barrel = 256 Ib. = 26$ cwt. Last = 12 barrels, i gallon 
tars 12 yds. 

THATCH. 17 trusses of wheat straw thatches square of 100 ft. 

TIERCE == 42 gals. = 168 qts. = 336 pts. 

TILE measures loj" X 6" x |". Weighs roughly 2 \ Ib. 

TILES. Load = 1,000. 

TIMBER. Load of rough = 40 cub. ft., hewn = 50 cub. ft. Elm, 
ton = 64^ cub. ft. Beech, ton = 51^ cub. ft. Ash, ton = 47 
cub. ft. Oak (English), ton = 36^ cub. ft. Sawn timber, see 
Battens, Boards, Deals, Baulks, Planks, Scantlings, Slate 

TOMATOES. Box = 15 Ib. Bundle = four 12-lb. boxes. Package 
= 52 Ib. Strike = 12 Ib. or stated weight. 

TON. 2,240 Ib. = 20 cwt. = 42 bushels. 

TULIPS. Bunch = 12. 

TURNIP TOPS. Bushel = 36 Ib. 

TURNIPS. Bunch = 9-15. Peck = 16 Ib. Bushel = 45-56 Ib. 

VEGETABLES. Tally = 50 or 60. 

WALNUTS. Bag = i cwt. 

WATER (distilled). i pint = ij Ib. 

WIRE (Barbed). 5o| Ib. fences i acre single line, 6 T V Ib. fences 
100', i Ib. fences i rod = i6'. 

WIRE NETTING. Roll = 50 yds. Gauge of wire 19*6 to 18 accord- 
ing to mesh. Widths from 6" to 72" increasing by 6". Mesh 
from xf" to 4" (hexagonal). Sheep netting, 3" and 4* (square 
with 3-ply salvage). 

WOOD. Card or Cord = 128 cub. ft., or 4' X 4' X 8' = 128 cwt. 
Stack = 108 cub. ft., or 3' X 3' X 12' = 108 cwt. 

YARD = 3 f t. = 36 ins. 



PLANTING. Prepare trench thoroughly beforehand. Plant in 
autumn or early spring. CULTIVATION. All hedges require annual 
attention as regards pruning, trimming, training, and clearance of 
weeds. PRUNING depends on subjects utilised, position, and require- 
ments of hedge. 

EVERGREEN HEDGE PLANTS. Azara microphylla ; Berberis, several 
varieties ; Buxus sempervirens (Box) ; Cerasus Laurocerasus (Cherry 
Laurel), C. lusitanica (Portugal Laurel), and other varieties ; Cu- 
pressus lawsoniana, C. macrocarpa t C. obtusa (Retinospora obtusa) ; 
Escallonia macrantha ; Ilex (Holly), most varieties ; Laurus nobilis 
(Bay) ; Lonicera nitida ; Olearia Haastii ; Phillyrea ; Quercus Ilex 
(Evergreen Oak) ; Rhamnus Alaternus (Buckthorn) ; Tamarix anglica 
(Tamarisk) ; Taxus (Yew) ; Thuya occidental, T. plicata (T. Lobbi, 
Aborvitae ) ; Ulex (Gorse). 

DECIDUOUS HEDGE PLANTS. Acer (Maple) ; Alnus (Alder) ; 
Betulus (Birch) ; Carpinus Betulus (Hornbeam) ; Cornus stolonijera 
(Dogwood), and other varieties ; Corylus Avellana (Hazel); Crataegus 
Oxycantha (Hawthorn) ; Cydonia Maulei (Maule's Quince) ; C. vul- 
garis (Common Quince) ; Fagus sylvatica (Beech) ; Fraxinus (Ash) ; 
Kerria japonica ; Philadelphus (Syringa) ; Prunus cerasifera (P. 
myrobalana, Myrobalan) ; P. spinosa (Blackthorn) ; Pyrus Malus 
(Crab Apple) ; Quercus (Oak) ; Ribes grossularia (Gooseberry), R. 
sanguineum (Flowering Currant) ; Rubus (Brambles, most varieties) ; 
Sambucus niger (Elder) ; Symphoricarpus racemosum (Snowberry) ; 
Syringa (Lilac) ; Ulmus (Elm) ; Veronica (several hardy shrubby 
varieties); Viburnum Lantana, and other varieties. 





ALPINES Henri Correvon. 
AN ISLAND GARDEN Stella Callaghan. 
DAHLIA CULTURE W. J. Chittenden (Sec. Nat. Dahlia Soc.). 
GARDENING FOR WOMEN The Viscountess Wolseley. 
HERBACEOUS PLANTS Mrs. Philip Martineau. 
LILIES R. W. Wallace. 

MOUNTSTEWART The Marchioness of Londonderry. 


ECONOMIC BOTANY Jamieson B. Hurry, M.A., M.D. 


GLAMIS : THE AUTUMN GARDEN The Countess of Strathmore. 


HEATHER GARDEN D. Fyfe Maxwell. 

HEPATICAS A. W. Silver. 



OLD GARDEN ROSES Miss Gertrude Jekyll, V.M.H. 

RABBIT-PROOF PLANTS The Rt. Hon. Sir Herbert Maxwell, Bart. 
SWEET PEAS A. G. Bartlett, Sec. National Sweet Pea Society. 


A FRAME GARDEN A. C. Bartholomew. 






J. Lockton Bryan. 

PLANT NAMES History in Names The Hon. Lady Cecil. Latin 

derivations Archdeacon Lindsay. 

TOMATO GROWING W. E. Shewell-Cooper. 



1929 is likely to be remembered as a year of extremes. Exceptionally 
cold weather in the earlier months, followed by prolonged drought; a 
wonderful summer that lingered on through a mild autumn and a late 
but particularly richly coloured display of autumn foliage. Even in 
December, Roses, Chrysanthemums, and other flowers made splashes 
of colour in the garden. That more damage was not done by the severe 
winter was possibly due to the fact that it was continuous and dry, 
not intermittent and damp as in 1928. But the shortage of water 
consequent on the failure of spring rainfall and summer drought became 
a serious consideration before the long spell of dry weather broke in a 
series of gales and heavy rain at the end of the year. The rainfall in the 
Thames Valley for the first three months of the year 2 90" was the 
lowest on record, and before the end of June the Manchester Corpora- 
tion Waterworks Committee had to appeal to the public to restrict the 
use of corporation water in gardens. The Scottish strawberry crop 
suffered heavily from drought and heat. Growers of green vegetables 
in the home counties also suffered severely, especially with the Brussels 
sprouts crop. Savoys were brought from as far north as Lancashire 
and other places outside the usual area of supply to make good the 
deficiency in the London market. 

One of the most curious effects of the abnormal weather was the 
demoralisation of the honey bee. It is conjectured that the honey 
supply in flowers was curtailed, and there was a scarcity of wasps. 
Whatever the explanation, the bees in many places attacked the ripe 
fruit and did much damage. 

* * * * * 

In these days, when so much is being done to secure for the public 
admission to private grounds and privately owned and maintained 
beauty spots, it is much to be regretted that there is not a more general 
recognition of the standard of behaviour that visitors, who are in the 
position of guests, might reasonably be expected to maintain. Yet. 
to give a few instances, owing to the damage done in the park at Hard- 
wick, to which the public were admitted free, the Duke of Devonshire 
had to issue a notice that it would be closed if the privilege of visiting 
it continued to be abused. Policemen on special duty had to be 
stationed there for the holiday week-ends. The litter left after a 
holiday took six men with horses and carts a week to clear up. Fences 
were damaged, names and offensive words carved on newly painted 
gates, boats smashed on the pond, an oak tree burnt, and other 
destructive acts committed. In a letter to The Times Lord Bledisloe 
mentioned the destruction done in his gardens and Deer Park when 
thrown open to the public at Easter. Flowers were stolen and tools 



from the excavators' hut of the Society of Antiquaries by the Roman 
camp; large stones were rolled into the Plane Tree Valley from the 
Roman temple, and Roman tiles and mosaic tesserae were stolen. 
Numbers of visitors watched the thefts and destruction without any 
attempt at intervention. The agent for the Townley estates notified 
the Bowland Council that the land at Whitewell, near Clitheroe, a 
popular picnic resort, would be shut to the public owing to the destruc- 
tion and litter resulting from week-end visitors. Lord Fitzwilliam 
closed Edlington Woods to the public owing to the wanton destruction 
done. It was stated in a Police Court prosecution, when a fine was 
imposed for depositing litter in the Tower Gardens, that " this crime 
was greatly on the increase." Eighty trees on the new Kingston 
By -pass Road were wantonly destroyed and had to be replaced, and 
all the buds were stolen from the 3,000 bluebell and 3,000 daffodil 
bulbs planted. Other instances are given under dates. Nor are the 
public the only offenders. The Duke of Newcastle was to have handed 
over Glory Woods to Dorking on July 28, but decided to withhold his 
gift as a protest against the action of the Surrey County Council, who 
proposed to make a by-pass road that would spoil the gift. We can 
but refer to the controversy over the question of the erection of pylons 
on the Downs and in Lakeland; but another matter that should rouse 
the antagonism of every gardener is the destruction caused by smoke, 
fumes, and dust from power stations. In April the Secretary of the 
Lea Valley Association Growers Ltd., the Director of the Cheshunt 
Research Station, and Mr. Bernard Bolas, Plant Physiologist, in a letter 
to The Times, drew attention to the damage done by deposits of dust 
in the neighbourhood of a power station. It was proved that from 
26 to 42 % of light was lost in consequence. A letter from Lord Dawson 
of Penn was published in The Times in August, pointing out the danger 
to child-life from the fumes and smoke from two electricity generating 
stations in the Marylcbone District. A special article the following day 
referred to the large number of trees already " most seriously affected." 
Several had been cut down " because it had become apparent that the 
most skilful tending could not keep them alive in such an atmosphere." 
Some of the Crown tenants in Regent's Park are bound by stringent 
clauses to maintain the old trees, an obligation in present conditions 
impossible to carry out. 

Prof. Abercrombie points out in his article the necessity to decide 
on what we as a nation wish to keep. No better instance of the 
necessity for clear thinking can be advanced than one which concerns 
gardeners and gardens. The proposed expenditure on sunbaths in 
Regent's Park is made at a moment when attention has been drawn by 
Lord Dawson and others to the curtailment of light, in addition to dirt 
deposits, made by power stations in the Marylebone district, and else- 
where, and when London air and sunshine is further threatened by the 
proposed erection of a great power station at Battersea. The risk 
incurred to Chelsea Physic Garden alone should in itself be sufficient 
to rouse all garden lovers in opposition to the scheme. 


In the annual report of the National Trust for 1928-29 the most 
important fact was the completion of the purchase of Stonehenge. 

Hightown Common, near Ringwood, was secured through the Com- 
mons and Footpaths Preservation Society, and vested in the National 


Trust. The vendor, who purchased it from the Morant Trustees, had 
recently erected a villa and started brickworks. These are to be 
removed, and a small shelter erected as a memorial to Lord Eversley. 

Mr. T. B. Macauley, President of the Sun Life Assurance Co., Canada, 
promised funds to the sum of 10,000 to found a Macauley Research 
Institute in Scotland. 

Among other beauty spots secured for the nation, Prof. G. M. 
Trevelyan presented Moneybury Hill, Ashridge, with the Bridgwater 
Memorial and the hanging woods to the National Trust. He also 
purchased 400 acres at the head of the Langdale Valley and gave it to 
the National Trust. Mr. and Mrs. E. D. Simon presented the National 
Trust with Cockley Beck Farm at the foot of Hardknott Pass above 
Duddon Valley. Under the will of the late Mr. and Mrs. W. R. Reid, 
Lauriston Castle was made over to the Edinburgh Corporation for a 

public Park. 

* * * * * 

Mr. Leonard Sutton and Mr. William Cuthbertson appealed for 
seeds for distribution in the distressed mining areas. In response over 
76,000 packets were provided by seedsmen in the British Isles. 

The National Union of Allotment Holders obtained an assurance 
from the Ministry of Labour that work on allotments would not count 
against unemployment pay if unemployed holders lost no opportunity 
of obtaining employment. 

* * * * * 

The Empire Marketing Board granted Kew 1,200 for four years, 
with an increase of 180 in the fourth year. A complete botanical 
survey of the Empire is to be made. 

The Empire Marketing Board and the Board of Works again pur- 
chased British-grown bulbs, including Galdioli conns, for the London 

Moneys subscribed to the First Commissioner of W T orks for carrying 
out works in the Royal Parks, according to an official list, will be spent 
on Shelters: Greenwich Park, Kensington Gardens, Richmond Park, 
Bushey Park, Primrose Hill. Boating Ponds: Greenwich Park, Regent's 
Park, Richmond Park. Sandpits: Kensington Gardens, Richmond 
Park, Bushey Park. Swings, etc.: Various parks. Bathing facilities 
at the Serpentine. Hard Tennis Courts: Greenwich Park. Sun- 
bathing facilities : Regent's Park. Games Ground: Hyde Park. Pavilion: 
Regent's Park. 

The trees, shrubs, and plants in the London Parks are again being 
labelled. It is hoped that these labels will receive better appreciation 
from the public than has been the case in the past when labels were 
stolen, broken, and deliberately misplaced. 

The question of establishing a National Park, or parks, attention 
to which had been frequently drawn in the Press, led to the appoint- 
ment of a Government Committee to consider the report on the desira- 
bility and possibility of establishing one or more national parks in 
Great Britain for the preservation of natural characteristics, flora, 
fauna, etc., and to advise on suitable areas. 

The report of the Select Committee dealing with the Forestry Com- 
mission (White Paper, H.M.S.O. 97), estimated that the return on the 
capital invested " is speculative, and will mainly be deferred for a period 


of from 60 to 80 years." The experiment of acquiring deer forests in 
Scotland for afforestation has not so far proved successful, despite a 
substantial amount of money spent. 

To provide work for local unemployed in Poplar it was decided that 
hundreds of trees should be planted in the Borough. 

Over two million people visited the gardens at Hampden Court 

A new garden was made in Mitre Court, Inner Temple. 

* * * * * 

Horticultural Examinations. The Examiners again had to note that 
candidates did not come up to the standard required in the examinations 
for the National Diploma in Horticulture and the Teachers' Advanced 
Examination, especially in the practical work. Weakness in description 
and performance of practical operations were most noticeable. 

In connection with the appeal for 20,000 for Studley Horticultural 
College the Treasury promised a grant up to 5,000 on a pound for 
pound basis on money raised. The sum is required to complete the 
purchase of the freehold, extend the buildings, and enlarge the work 

carried on. 


Awards and Honours of interest to horticulturists during the year 
included (New Year Honours), Dr. Leonard Cockayne, Ph.D., F.R.S., 
(C.M.G.); Prof. Dame Helen Gwynne-Vaughan, D.B.E., LL.D., 
D.Sc. (D.G.C.); E. W. Davy (M.B.E.). (Birthday Honours): Sir 
Robert A. Sanders Minister of Agriculture 1922-4 (Baron) ; Peter 
Chalmers Mitchell Secretary of the Zoological Society (Knight); 
Francis J. Plyman, Director of Agriculture, C.P. India (C.I.E.); 
Ernest William Davy Assist. Director of Agriculture, Nyassaland 
Protectorate (M.B.E.) ; John C. F. Fryer Research work, Harpenden 
(O.B.E.). Civil List Pensions were granted to Mrs. Daydon Jackson, 
widow of the late Dr. B. Daydon Jackson (see Year Book, 1928, p. 24) 
and Miss Elinor Wallich, granddaughter of the late Dr. N. Wallich, 
Curator of the Calcutta Botanic Gardens, and daughter of the late 
Surg.-Maj. G. C. Wallich, both botanists and zoologists. 

The French Government bestowed the honour of Officier du Merit6 
Agricole upon Sir William Lawrence, Bart., for his services to Horti- 

Dr. R. A. Fisher, of Rothamsted Experimental Station, was awarded 
the Weldon Prize of Oxford University, and elected a Fellow of the 
Royal Society. Dr. A. D. Imms, also on the Rothamsted staff, was 
elected a Fellow of the Royal Society. The Linnean Medal was 
awarded to Prof. Hugo de Vries in appreciation of his valuable ser- 
vices to biology. Messrs. Easten and Robertson, FF.R.I.B.A., were 
awarded the R.I.B.A. Medal and Diploma for the R.H.S. new hall. 

No award was made of the Lord Derby Gold Medal by the National 
Inst. of Agric. Botany, but a C.M. was awarded to Mr. D. MacKelvie, 
whose late variety, No. 675, was tested against Golden Wonder at the 
Potato Testing Station, Ormskirk. No award was made of the Clay 
Cup or the Cory Cup for Roses, as the Council of the Nat. Rose Soc. did 
not consider that any novelties shown during the year were worthy of 
the awards. 

Under the organisation of the Cheshire County Horticultural 


Superintendent, Mr. W. E. Shewell-Cooper, the Agricultural Education 
Committee and the Cheshire Branch of the National Farmers' Union 
Fruit and Vegetable Committee, arranged a Cheshire County Orchard 
Competition, with a view to the improvement of neglected orchards 
and further planting of fruit trees. Miss M. Bostock, Merefield, 
Haslington, was first in the section for " Cultivated grassland orchard 
of half-an-acre or over, 11 and Mr. H. C. Groome, Guilden Sutton, in the 
section for cultivated arable orchard. 

The first prize in the Competition for five tubers of uniform size 
and shape, weighing approximately 10 oz. each, of Potato Arran Banner, 
arranged by Messrs. Dobbie, was won by Mr. Walter Underwood of 

The Hon. Katharine Plunkett, of Ballymascaulan House, Co. 
Louth, who celebrated the hundred and tenth anniversary of her birth- 
day in 1929, was awarded two cups and several prizes at the Dundalk 
Show for exhibits of fruit and flowers. Another Irish centenarian, 
Mr. Michael Coughlan, of Tullamore, King's County, aged 109, who 
still works in his garden every day, celebrated the 80th anniversary of 
his wedding. Mrs. Coughlan is 106. 

Mr. A. J. Sewell presented the R.H.S. with a new medal, the Sewell 
Medal for Alpine Plants. Six are offered for award annually, three for 
amateurs, three for professionals. 

Despite the abnormal weather conditions of the preceding months 
the Chelsea Flower Show provided a wonderful display. The sight 
of the great tents before the public were admitted was an unforgettable 
experience, a riot of colour and fragrance in stretching vistas of loveli- 
ness. A most original and interesting exhibit consisted of dioramic 
groups of Calif ornian subjects. Mrs. Sherman Hoyt brought not only 
trees, ferns, cacti, etc., but much of the actual stone and soils over from 
California. At the conclusion of the show the exhibit was given to 
Kew Gardens. 

Instead of hiring a large hall for the Great Autumn Show, the 
R.H.S. Council decided to hold a series of special Shows at their two 
halls. For the Londoner, or those within easy distance of Vincent 
Square, this made only the difference of four good shows in place of one 
big special show, but to people at a distance from town the arrangement 
was undoubtedly disappointing. To select the show of most personal 
interest instead of seeing all is by no means the same thing, and not 
every country member could afford to come up for the series. 

The National Rose Society extended its Rose Trial Grounds at 
Hay wards Heath. Growers who wish to participate in the trials 
should send not less than six plants (dwarf) or two (rambler or climber) 
to Mr. Courtney Page, National Rose Society, Haywards Heath 
(Southern Railway), Sussex. 

The Delphinium Society held its first show, and is to be congratu- 
lated on the artistic beauty and excellent grouping that made the R.H.S. 
new hall into a blue fairyland. The National Sweet Pea Society also 
arranged a most beautiful display. In both cases the clean line and 
fine proportions of the new hall made an ideal background. 

At the first general meeting of the new Alpine Garden Society it 
was decided that money prizes should not be given, but winners should 
receive in place orders on booksellers for horticultural books. 

The Empire Marketing Board appointed Mr. J. E. Grant White to 


organise a British horticultural section in the North-east Coast Exhibi- 
tion at Newcastle. 

The Norfolk and Norwich Hort. Society celebrated its centenary. 

The Guildford and District Rose Society prepared and planted as a 
public rose garden about three-quarters of an acre of the old garden in 
Stoke Park, purchased by the Corporation for a public Park. 

The Guildford Gardeners' Association distributed 1,558 plants 
(Fuchsias) to school children of the town to grow for the summer show. 

The Earl of Clarendon, President of the Watford and Home Counties' 
Horticultural Society, and the Mayor of Watford, issued an appeal for 
500 to clear the liabilities of the Society, incurred through losses on the 
Shows of 1928 and 1929, and stated that no show would be arranged 
for 1930 " until the financial position of the Society warrants it." 

The Spectator appealed for surplus plants for distribution where 
needed, with a view to help, by practical means, " to create that 
appreciation of beauty without which no scheme of social amelioration 
will ever achieve its whole object.' 1 

The Tree-planting Committee of the Cambridge Preservation Society, 
in order to improve the road between Trumpington and Shelford, with 
the aid of the Director of Forestry of the University and the Director 
of the Botanic Garden, prepared a plan for planting low-growing 
flowering trees and shrubs in grass on each side of the roadway. 

A Rose Garden was laid out at the south end of Preston Park, 
Brighton, greatly improving the entrance from the main London Road. 
It was designed by Capt. Maclaren, Superintendent of the Brighton 
Parks. Six thousand rose trees are being planted. 
* * * * # 

Agreements reached between three of the greatest producers of 
nitrogenous fertilisers resulted in a redaction on prices of los. per ton. 

Mr. James Pulleyn, a York stockbroker, bought property in the 
centre of that city and converted it into a covered market for the sale 
on commission of garden and small-holding produce, having first 
obtained counsel's opinion on the validity of such proceeding. The 
Market Committee of the York Corporation challenged the venture on 
the ground of infringement of their rights to market tolls. Producers 
appealed to the local branch of the N.F.U., and Mr. Pulleyn suggested 
that contracts should be made on the producers' premises instead of in 
the sale room. 

Some Essex market gardeners and farmers, finding that no profit 
could be made on the sale of produce through the established channels, 
started direct sales to the public from stalls on their own premises. In 
the neighbourhood of Becontree the experiment met with prompt 

At a period when new foreign potatoes fetched i 5-^17 a ton 
English growers could only get 125. 6d. a ton for old potatoes. A 
farmer in the south of England offered 50 tons of good old potatoes to 
an infirmary. The gift was refused as the officials preferred to buy 
new foreign potatoes at 18 a ton. 

Broccoli from Cornwall could be sold at a better profit in Brussels 
and Cologne than in London, and spring vegetables from East Kent 
found a better market in Glasgow. London had foreign supplies. 

For the first time for many years the market was over-supplied with 
black currants* 


Owing to the high rent, 525. per ten rods, over a third of the Manor 
Road Allotments, Richmond, Surrey, were unlet. 

In the Report of the Ministry of Agriculture on Crops the acreage 
under Beans (picked green) showed an increase of 400 acres, Brussels 
Sprouts showed a decreaseof 3,700, Broccoli and Cauliflowers an increase 
of 400, Cabbages an increase of 4,500, Carrots an increase of 300, 
Celery a decrease of 100, Onions an increase of 1,700, Peas an increase 
of 9,000. The acreage under small fruit changed little, Raspberries 
and Strawberries being rather less, Currants and Gooseberries slightly 

A statement issued by the Dept. of Agriculture for Scotland gave 
15,144 acres under first-early potatoes, 19,413 acres of second-early; 
91,270 main crop. The largest acreage for a variety: Epicure, 7,939; 
Great Scot, 13,777. 

The Forest Research Institute at Dehra Dun, India, reported that 
experiments had been made in the manufacture of paper from Bamboo 
stems, and that Bamboo pulp could be brought to this country from 
Burma at a price to compete successfully with Scandinavian wood- 
pulps of a similar quality. 

A hybrid plant of the Malvaceae order has, after years of experiment, 
been produced by Mr. Leonard Browning. Brotex, this new biennial, 
is of quick growth, reaching 6' by October if sown or transplanted 
in the spring. If grown for fibre it can be harvested the first year, and 
an average crop should give 60 tons to the acre. For wood or seed 
Brotex must have a second year's growth. Experts claim that the 
wood will make first-class paper and the seed makes good cattle cake. 
Though still in an experimental stage it is hoped that the plant will 
prove a valuable addition to arable farming. 

A cedar, 70' high and girth of over 14', in the grounds of Canford 
School, Wimborne, was transplanted to a distance of 35 yards, to allow 
for additional building, the Governors having decided to risk the move 
rather than cut down the tree. It recovered from the move but was 
blown down by a severe gale in December. 

A Tulip bulb, grown in the gardens of Lincoln's Inn, bore six blooms, 
four on one stem. 

Mr. R. Rogie, Easter Anguston, Culter, near Aberdeen, planted 
one tuber of Potato Arran Banner in 1928. The " seed" from this 
produced 3! cwt. in 1929. Mr. William Gardner, Roddinglaw, Gogar, 
Midlothian, obtained a crop of 19 tons 8 cwt. to the acre with the same 

It was accidentally discovered in the spring at Bournemouth, that 
if a rubber sheet were placed closely over flooded grass leather-jackets 
would collect in masses on the surface beneath it and could be easily 
swept up and destroyed. Twenty-eight Ibs. of grubs were swept up in 
12 days off a bowling green infected with the pest, a saving of ^500, the 
cost of relaying the green. See Venner (Obituary). 

In the garden of the Wallsend United Methodist Church a length of 
the foundations of Hadrian's Wall was discovered on excavation by 
the North of England Excavation Committee. 

Mrs. Locker-Lampson was sued by two tenants for damages, 286, 
for the loss of 13 heifers that got into her plantations and eat Yew 


leaves. Mr. Justice Hawke gave judgment in her favour, as she was 
under no obligation to keep the fence in repair. 

A copy of Historic* Naturalis, by Pliny Secundus, dated Venice, 1469, 
fetched 620 at a sale at Sotheby's. 


A syndicate was appointed at Cambridge to consider the organisation 
and finance of the Botanic Garden, and the relations between it and 
the Dept. of Botany and other scientific departments, in consequence 
of the need of the Botanic Garden for increased financial support. 

Mr. H. W. Abbiss, Hort. Superintendent of Cornwall, with a deputa- 
tion of Cornish growers visited the continent to examine possible 
openings for the sale of Cornish broccoli. Subsequently arrangements 
were made with the Ministry of Agriculture for the grading and marking 
of British broccoli, and consignments were marketed later in Brussels 
and Cologne. 

Dr. Rendle exhibited to the Fellows of the Linnean Society a speci- 
men of a subterranean Orchid from West Australia. The plant has an 
underground rootless rhizome " in symbiotic relationship with a fungus 
which closely invests the decayed roots of Melaleuca unicata." It 
grows 12" below the surf ace of the ground, and has an infloresence 3" 

Over 200 unemployed miners were brought to London in accordance 
with arrangements made by the then Government for the employment 
of 700 miners to work in the London Parks, a sum of 200,000 had been 
voted in December 1928 for that purpose. 

Mr. Samuel Wallrock undertook to lay out the new public Park at 
Stanmore Hill, purchased partly by subscription and partly by the 
Hendon Rural District Council. 

The County and City of Leicester secured Bradgate Park, the home 
of Lady Jane Grey, for the public, through the generosity of Mr. Charles 

The Royal English Arboricultural Society's essay competition for 
children was won by Doris Gough, Heddington School, Wilts. Charles 
S. Bottom, St. Stephen's Boys' School, Redditch, was second. 3,000 
essays were received. 

2nd. At the meeting of the Science Masters' Association at Cam- 
bridge the President, Dr. A. C. Seward, Master of Downing College, 
referred to the lack of trained botanists for well-paid posts in the 

Sth. A Kew expert having reported that the old elms on the Terrace 
Walk at Richmond were badly decayed and very dangerous, the Rich- 
mond Town Council decided they must be removed and proposed to 
plant in their place copper beech and silver birch. 

Hth. George Clifton, vegetable seller in Little Earl St., applied 
to the Holborn Borough Council for a licence to sell vegetables in the 
street on Sundays. The licence was refused. On a subsequent appeal 
to the High Court the decision of the Council was upheld. 

i^th. The Advisory Committee on Agricultural Science recom- 
mended grants to (among others) Mr. W. E. H. Hodson, Seale-Hayne 
Agric. College, to study methods of control of pests and diseases of 
Narcissus bulbs in Holland; Mr. Morley Davies, Harper Adams Agric. 
College, to attend the International Commission of Soil Science at 


Koningsberg; Dr. E. M. Crowther, Rothamsted, to attend Commissions 
of the International Society of Soil Science, and Budapest, also to visit 
the chief research laboratories on the Continent that deal with soils 
and fertilisers. 

ibth. Fifty-second annual general meeting of the National Rose 

igth. To commemorate the birth of the founder a conference on 
Polyploidy was held at the John Innes Horticultural Institution. 

The fiftieth annual general meeting of the National Carnation and 
Picotee Society was held. 

The first tree, a Turkey Oak, on the Barnet By-pass Road, was 
planted by Lord Ullswater, initialling the scheme of the Roads Beauti- 
fying Association. 

2$rd. A bronze statue of " A Sower," by the late Sir Hamo 
Thornycroft, R.A., was presented to Kew Gardens by the Royal 
Academy of Arts through the Leighton Fund. The pedestal was 
designed by Sir Edward Lutyens, R.A., and Mr. A. Drury, R.A. 

24/A. The eighty-ninth annual general meeting of the Gardeners' 
Royal Benevolent Institution. 


Lady Londonderry, President of Studley College, appealed to the 
public for 20,000 to purchase the estate and buildings, for constructional 
purposes, and to secure the Government grant of 5,000. 

Under the supervision of the Aberdeen College of Agriculture prizes 
to the value of 216 a year were offered by Mr. T. B. Macauley, of 
Canada, for the best crops of potatoes, the best managed small-holdings, 
and the best piece of reclamation in the Lewis. 

The Cornish export trade of broccoli, bearing the national mark, 
was inaugurated at the end of the month. 

Protests were lodged against the action of the local Council in select- 
ing a disused chalk-pit on the border of Maidenhead Thicket as a 
midden for Cookham. The place is a recognised beauty spot. 

A fine of i os. was imposed on the tenant of a Glasgow flat for keeping 
a flower-pot on the window-ledge without adequate fastening. 

Exhibition of Flower Paintings at Walker's Galleries by Mrs. H. 
Tangye Reynolds. 

Mr. Leonard Philpot exhibited Flower Paintings at the Claridge 

4/A. Annual General Meeting of the National Chrysanthemum 

jth. Mr. Alfred Duckworth Melson, of Hither Broome, Lapworth, 
Warwick, left a field by the Canal for a public open space to be called 
the Melson Memorial Park. 

i$th. Mr. Cecil Hooper lectured at the Royal Society of Arts on 
" The Pollination of Fruit Blossoms and their Insect Visitors/ 1 

2yd. It was decided in the First Division of the Court of Sessions, 
Edinburgh, on appeal, that the defendants were not liable for injuries 
received through the sudden fall of an elm tree on a char-&-banc. 

The Leeds and District Market Growers' Association held their 
sixteenth annual Rhubarb Show at the Griffin Hotel. The exhibits 
were subsequently given to the Military Hospital. 


2$th. The National Conference on Agriculture opened at the 
Mansion House. 

z6tk. The Lord Mayor opened the Ideal Home Exhibition at 
Olympia. Model gardens were laid out in the annexe. 


A portion of Albury Downs, adjoining Newlands Corner, was opened 
to the public by revocable deed by the Lord of the Manor, the Duke of 
Northumberland. Vehicles, including motors, may not be taken on the 

Mr. F. J. Hayes, of High Wray, near Hawkshead, presented the 
National Trust with Bee Holme, a wooded promontory on Lake Winder- 

Some six acres of ground at Clewer were presented to the town of 
Windsor by Capt. Lionel and Mr. Arthur Stovell for a perpetual open 

Mr. and Mrs. E. D. Simon presented Cockley Beck Farm, at the 
head of the Duddon Valley, to the National Trust for preservation in 
its unspoiled condition. 

Mr. Herbert Ward presented Egypt House and 26 acres of ground 
to the Cowes Urban Council for a public pleasure ground. 

The Forestry Commission secured about 12,000 acres in the Gram- 
pians, 4,000 to be afforested, the area unsuitable for trees to be trans- 
ferred to the National Trust. 

Packets of seeds for unemployed miners' allotments were given by 
Messrs. Carter, Dobbie, Ryder, Sutton, and West. 

The foreshore of Canvey Island was planted with Spartium Town- 
sendii to preserve it from erosion. 

Pictures of Old Homes and Gardens of England and Italy were 
exhibited by Mr. Herbert George at the Greatorex Galleries. 

$rd. At the Federated Home-grown Timber Merchants 1 Association 
Lunch Lord Clinton, Chairman of the Forestry Commission, referred to 
the future lack of soft wood and urged collaboration with the Com- 
mission in tracing and registrating private supplies to fill the gaps. 

7th. Despite the severe weather, which lessened the number of 
entries, the western bulb growers put up a wonderful display at the 
Western Commercial Show at Penzance. Speaking at the Show Mr. 
George Pilcher, M.P., said that from 400 to 500 millions of bulbs were 
annually imported from Holland. Mr. H. V. Taylor said that Cornwall 
had at least 500 acres of the best broccoli in the world. 

8th. A conference was held on technical subjects at the Penzance 
Show, with Mr. H. V. Taylor in the Chair. 

Miss Augusta Cicely Fane, of The Cottage, Fulbeck, Lines., died at 
the age of 100, leaving 100 to the rector and churchwardens for the 
upkeep of the churchyard, " in keeping it well mown, and as like a 
lawn as possible, and the rose trees carefully tended in the same manner, 
as far as possible, as I have endeavoured to keep it.' 1 

The Kingsbridge Habitation of the Young Helpers 1 League held a 
Floral Bazaar in aid of Dr. Barnardo's Homes. 

ig~2oth. At the sale of the Clay gate Lodge Orchids a plant of 
Cattleya Shimadzu var. Titanic was sold for 210 guineas. The total sum 
realised was 5,782 35. 


2ist. Mrs. Annie Isabel Jones left 100 to her trustees for the 
upkeep of her little Garden of Rest at Tanybryn, Llanfair Clydogan. 

22nd. H.R.H. the Prince of Wales visited Covent Garden Market 
at 7 a.m. and spent an hour and a half there inspecting the stalls and 
chatting to the sellers. 

Sir Ernest Benn gave a dinner at the Hotel Cecil to celebrate the 
jubilee of Gardening Illustrated. 

2yd. A gold watch was presented by his staff to the Superintendent 
of Parks for the Borough of Gateshead, Mr. Alexander Craig Davidson, 
and a gold wristlet watch to Mrs. Davidson, in recognition of his services 
for fifty years. 

27/7*. A heath fire at Wangford Warren resulted in damage to the 
amount of ^1,000 in Thetford Chase, planted by the Forestry Com- 
mission. 300 acres of five-year-old trees were destroyed. 

2&th. A fine Sycamore, near the southern entrance to Kensington 
Gardens Broad Walk, was cut down to permit of road-widening. The 
adjacent roadway was only occupied by a cabman's shelter and cab 

2gth. The famous gardens of Ashridge House were opened to the 
public on Saturdays, Sundays, and Bank holidays, at a small charge. 


Mr. Boies Penrose offered to subscribe a pound for every pound up to 
^10,000 subscribed within two months to the C.P.R.E., being " the 
more moved to do so when I see England now making many of the very 
mistakes in development that have gone far to spoil the amenity of 
much of America." 

The C.P.R.E. arranged four " Save the Countryside " Exhibitions 
to tour the country for instructional purposes, and to rouse public 
interest in the work of the Council and kindred bodies. 

At a conference at the Midland Agricultural and Dairy College, 
during a discussion on Celery Marketing, it was urged that the frequent 
gluts at certain markets could be avoided by organisation, and that 
much of the celery was too big and coarse. 

Rosa gigantea, which seldom flowers in this country, flowered in the 
Cambridge Botanic Garden. It was discovered by Sir George Watt 
in Manipur in 1882. 

Over ^2,000 of damage was done by fire among young plantations 
at Binn Hill, Huntly, Aberdeenshire. 

> Mrs. Sidney Fairbairn held an exhibition of flower paintings at the 
Brook St. Galleries. 

Miss Marion Broom held an exhibition of flower paintings at the 
Graham Gallery. 

i st. H.M. the Queen visited a jumble sale at Colebrook House, 
Aldwick, and put up to auction a bunch of primroses she had gathered 
in the grounds of Craigweil House. It fetched 6 los. 

The Reading Gardeners' Association held a " Hospital Night." A 
collection of cut flowers was sent to the Royal Berkshire Hospital with a 
donation of 3 xos. collected at the meeting. 

A garden wall, 12' high, built against a bank planted with trees 
and shrubs, collapsed during digging operations close to the foundations 


to lay an electric cable for the Plymouth Corporation. Five of the men 
at work were killed. 

i6-ijth. Daffodil Show. Despite adverse weather conditions a 
good display was secured. 

2 1 st. Daffodil Sunday at Kew. 

2ist-22nd. The hedge of a large nursery garden at Pirbright was 
burnt in a serious heath fire. Troops from Aldershot assisted to fight 
another serious heath fire near Minley Manor and Lord Revelstoke's 
house, Fairbank, Horley. 

24th. Sir Frederick Keeble lectured at a public meeting arranged 
by the British Science Guild at the Mansion House, on the application 
of fertilisers. 

25//J. A show and sale of Flowers was held at the new Horticultural 
Hall in connection with the appeal for 25,000 for Studley Horticultural 
College. The Show was opened by Princess Mary, Countess of Hare- 
wood, who sent a quantity of daffodils. 

Mr. James Lennox submitted a scheme to the National Farmers' 
Union of Scotland for the establishment of a Society for the disposal 
of Scottish Potato crops. 

$oth. Four gardens in Motspur Park, Surrey, were robbed of tulip 
and hyacinth bulbs in flower. 

Annual Meeting and Gathering at East Mailing Research Station. 


The rare shrub Zelkova from the mountains of Crete, was brought by 
the Indian Air Mail in three days from Suda Bay. The plants arrived 
in good condition and were taken by Mr. George P. Baker to Kew. 

When digging up ground for a tennis court at The Mount, Papcastle, 
Roman pottery, coins, and stone slabs were found. 

An exhibition of flower pictures was held at the Macrae Gallery, 
Fulham Road. 

2nd. Eight acres of young firs were destroyed by fire in Windsor 

Cider Inspection at Long Ashton. A tractor demonstration was 
arranged by the Ministry of Agriculture. 

qth. A Liverpool greengrocer displayed Spanish potatoes as new 
" English." The National Federation of Retail Fruiterers, Florists, 
and Fishmongers reported the matter to the Ministry of Agriculture. 
On prosecution the offender was fined 10 and 10 los. costs. 

1 5th. Miss D. M. Cayley, of the John Innes Horticultural Institute, 
showed specimens of transmission by bulb grafting of the virus that 
causes " breaking " in tulips at the Royal Society's Conversazione, 
and an exhibit of plants poisonous to animals and fish was displayed by 
the Rothamsted Experimental Station, with English-grown Pyrethrum 
and Pyrethrum products. 

At the Annual Festival Dinner of the Royal Gardeners 1 Orphan 
Fund at the Savoy Hotel a telegram was sent to H.M. the Queen 
expressing thankfulness for the King's recovery. 

iSth. The Northern Branch of the Royal Scottish Arboricultural 
Society held its first tree-felling competition at Dalcross. Messrs. J. 
Lyons and J. Davison were the winners of the first prize. 


i8-2oM. The British Mycological Society held the Spring Foray 
at Petersfield. 

2oth. Mr. William J. Bean, I.S.O., retired from the Curatorship of 
the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, after 46 years on the staff. 

2 is/. The annual throwing of dice for Bibles bought with the rent 
of Bible Orchard was held under the will of Dr. Robert Wilde of St. 
Ives, Hunts. 

Private View and Lunch at the Chelsea Flower Show. Princess 
Mary visited the exhibition. 

22nd-2^th. R.H.S. Chelsea Show. The Cain Cup for the best 
exhibit shown by an amateur was won by Lady Aberconway and the 
Hon. H. D. McLaren. Messrs. Sutton & Sons won the Sherwood Cup 
for the most meritorious exhibit in the show. 

22nd. Dr. F. W. Pember, Vice-Chancellor of Oxford University, 
unveiled a bronze portrait plaque of the late Sir William Schlich in the 
School of Forestry. As a further memorial to the late Professor of 
Forestry, an area of forest, to be named the Schlich Forest, in the 
vicinity of Oxford available for experimental work, is to have a group 
of oal^ trees planted and maintained in his memory. Sir W. Schlich 
was a great authority on silviculture, and instrumental in founding the 
Oxford School of Forestry and the Chair of Forestry at that University. 

At the Annual Meeting and Dinner of the Gardeners' Club a pre- 
sentation was made to Mr. F. C. Puddle, the Treasurer and Secretary, 
for his services. 

2 6th. Chestnut Sunday. 

2-jth. Beckenham Place Park was opened as a public Park. 

zgth. Three British firms competed at Barcelona in the competition 
for new roses for the gardens of the Royal Palace of Pedralbes. The 
Queen of Spain presided at the first meeting of the jury. 


The Queen's gift of roses from the Windsor Royal Gardens sold at 
Christie's for the Queen Alexandra Fund realised from 2 2s. to ^100 a 
flower, making a total of ^2,098. 

The Committee of Management of the Chelsea Physic Garden passed 
a resolution to the effect that they were " gravely apprehensive that 
the institution of a large electric power station at Battersea " would 
" exert a detrimental influence on vegetation and seriously prejudice 
the scientific research and instruction carried on in the garden." Copies 
of the resolution were sent to the chairman of the London Power 
Company, the Ministry of Agriculture, and the Office of Works. 

The Western Australian Government presented the Duchess of York 
with a gold-mounted casket containing a bottle of scent made from the 
Australian Boronia. 

The Duke of Norfolk presented the Sheffield Corporation with the 
Monument Grounds for a recreation ground, as a memorial of his 
coming of age. 

Lord Rothermere purchased the Foundling Hospital Site for a 
children's park, and a camping-ground for the British Boy Scouts' 
Association for a month annually. 

Paulowna Fargesii flowered at Kew for the first time after twenty- 
one years. It was first found by Abbe Farges in N.E. Szechuan, and 



seeds sent to M. Maurice de Vilmorin about 1896. It llowered in 
M. Boucher's nursery in Paris in 1905. 

is*. A delegation of members of the Garden Club of America 
arrived in England to visit English gardens. Arrangements were 
made by the Gardens Committee of the English Speaking Union. 

The seventieth birthday of Mr. F. Capp, the originator of the Pro- 
fessional Gardeners' Association, was celebrated by a meeting of the 
Association in the gardens of Nostell Priory, by permission of the Hon. 
Charles \Vinn. Mr. Capp was afterwards presented with a gold badge 
on election to honorary life membership. 

$rd. Lord Reading presided at the dinner at the Hyde Park Hotel 
to welcome the members of the Garden Club of America who were 
visiting this country. 

Members of the Garden Club of America visited Kew Gardens. 

4*/i. Sir Ian Colquhoun presided at a meeting in Glasgow organised 
by the Association for the Preservation of Rural Scot hind, to discuss 
the acquirement of a national reserve. A Committee was appointed 
to investigate and report. 

5/A. The Manchester City Council decided to buy 100 acres at 
Alexandra Park offered by Lord Egerlon at a nominal price for a public 

6th. The French Ambassador opened the Iris Society's Show in the 
new Horticultural Hall. A reception was held by the R.H.S., the Iris 
Society, and the En^libh Speaking Union to the members of the Garden 
Club of America. 

jth. Down House, the home of Charles Darwin, acquired for the 
nation by Mr. George Buckston Brown, F.R.C.S., and held in trust by 
the British Association, was formally opened to the public. 

8th. British Mycologicai Society's Annual Phytopathologicai 
Excursion at Wisley. 

nth. The Parish Council of Chalfont St. Giles decided to postpone 
the destruction of an ancient elm which it was feared might Lill and do 
damage to a butcher's shop, ab Gen. Sir Alexander Gordon oflered to 
guarantee the financial loss incurred should such accident occur. 

13^. Sir Alexander Stevenson, Lord Provost of Edinburgh, 
declared Lauriston Castle and grounds open to the public. 

The proposal of Col. Sutherland, Forestry Commissioner, to feu 
the lands belonging to the Glasgow Corporation at Loch Katrine, and 
afforest 7,000 acres reserved under the water powers of the Corporation, 
with payment of an annual feu duty, was refused by the Town Council 
and the Water Committee, as dual control was not to the interests of 
the City. 

2ist. Mr. J. Elliot Mark, chairman of the L.C.C. Parks and Open 
Spaces Committee, opened the Tabard Garden, provided in connexion 
with the clearance of the Tabard St. area and the formation of the 
Tabard St. Garden housing estate. The drinking fountain was the 
gift of Sir John Dewrance. 

2ist-22nd. The Annual Field Meeting of the Association of 
Economic Biologists was held at Cambridge. The University Farm, 
the Low Temperature Research Station, and Wicken Fen were visited. 

2$th. Mr. Percy Bunyard was presented with the British Carnation 
Society's Gold Medal as an appreciation of his work as Secretary. 

. The syndicate appointed to consider the financial situation 


of the Cambridge Botanic Garden issued a report with 13 recommen- 
dations. These included the creation of a new University Lectureship 
for the teaching of systematic botany, that further moneys should be 
provided, and that the Town of Cambridge be invited to contribute to 
the cost of the garden so long as the general public were admitted to it. 

Members of the Nat. Sweet Pea Society visited the trial grounds at 
Messrs. Bolton and Son's nurseries, Halstead, Essex. 

At the third annual Show of the Guildford and District Rose Society 
blooms were exhibited from the Municipal Rose Garden planted in the 
spring by the Society. 

A meeting was held in Friends' House, Huston Rd., by the London 
Council of Social Service and the St. Pancras Council of Social Service, 
to encourage Londoners to save their Squares. The meeting urged 
that effect be given to the recommendation of the Royal Commission 
on London Squares of Sept. n, 1928. 

Eighty-fourth Annual Festival Dinner of the Gardeners' Royal 
Benevolent Institution. 

2()th. Mr. W. R. Oldham, Chairman of the Wisley Gardens Com- 
mittee, opened the new sports ground given by the R.H.S. Committee. 
A cricket match was played between the London Staff and Gardens 
Staff and Students, which ended in a tie. 


Mr. and Mrs. Noton Barclay presented Ings and Stable Hills, on the 
south-west of Denventwater, to the National Trust, to keep the view of 
the lake open to the public. 

Mr. H. W. Walker gave the island of Rampsholme in Derwentwater 
to the National Trust. 

Nine acres of land, the site of an ancient earthwork known as Des- 
borough Castle, was presented to High Wycombe for an open space by 
Sir John Dashwood. 

The Interim Report of the Central Joint Committee of the Lord 
Mayor's Fund for the Relief of Digressed Mining Areas in England and 
Wales stated that the Committee were unable to deal with the question 
of allotments in those areas until late in the season, but assistance 
towards proper cultivation of allotments by the unemployed was 
approved and Divisional Committees were to co-operate with County 
Agricultural Committees, and also with the Society of Friends already 
at work on allotment schemes. In consequence many allotments that 
could not have been cultivated otherwise had been carried on, and 
upwards of 70,000 allotment holders had been assisted at a cost of 
15,000. It is hoped to carry on this work more extensively next year. 

The Sir Reginald Hanson Challenge Cup for the best kept lock, 
weir, or ferry garden on the Thames was won by A. E. Allen, lock- 
keeper, Teddington. The Thames Conservancy I3oard's First Prizes 
were won by D. E. Collins, Shifferd; A. Baldwin, Mapledurham; 
E. E. Light, Sonning; A. E. Allen, Teddington; J. R. C. Gvery, Keen 

The Champion Ash of Ashridge Park, the finest .specimen in existence, 
was destroyed by lightning. It measured 130' in height, with a breast- 
high girth of 12'. 


The Hon. Vicary Gibbs opened the gardens of Aldenham House to 
the public on the Saturdays of July, August, and September. 

A first edition of White's Natural History and Antiquities of Selborne 
was sold at Sotheby's for 80. 

yd-tfh. The Annual Conference of the F6dration Hortiqole 
Professionelle Internationale was held in the R.H.S. Lecture Hall. 
Among subjects discussed were the questions of Plant Registration to 
protect the raisers of novelties, the creation of an International Phy to- 
pathological Bureau, and Plant Nomenclature. 

4th. Prince George opened the grounds of Chiswick House with 
the fine Lime Avenue and beautiful cedars to the public. 

5-6/A. National Rose Soceity's Summer Show. 

6th. H.M. the Queen visited the Chelsea Rose Show. 

The Horticultural Club's annual outing included visits to Messrs. 
Cheal's nurseries at Crawley, and Lt.-Col. Messel's gardens at Nymans. 

6th. Three men were fined 2 2s. costs and 2, fine each at the 
Kingston County Police Court for wilfully damaging 15 silver birch, 
mountain ash, and fir trees on Esher Common, planted by the Esher 
and Dittons Urban District Council two years previously. They were 
caught in the act of uprooting the trees. 

8th. The Committee of the United Horticultural Benefit and Pro- 
vident Society gave a dinner to Mr. and Mrs. Arthur Bedford to signify 
their appreciation of his services for 21 years as a member of the Com- 
mittee, and latterly Treasurer. Mr. Bedford was presented with a gold 
watch and Mrs. Bedford with a gold wristlet watch. 

S-ioth. Parks Superintendents' Conference at Manchester. 

n-i2th. The Norfolk and Norwich Hort. Society held their cen- 
tenary Exhibition at Eaton Park, in conjunction with the National 
Sweet Pea Society's Provincial Show. The National Rose Society 
sent a deputation and the R.H.S. gave special awards. 

i$th. Charlton Park, Greenwich, was opened to the public by 
Lord Crewe, Lord -Lieut, of the County of London. 

i6th. A Cherry and Soft Fruit Show was held by the Kent Branch 
of the National Farmers' Union in conjunction with the R.H.S. at the 
new Horticultural Hall. 

It was reported at Covent Garden that the market was over-supplied 
with home-grown new potatoes. 

17 th. An exhibition and sale of produce at Studley Horticultural 
College was opened by the Duchess of York. 

igth. The Metropolitan Water Board resolved to suspend the use 
of water for gardens until further notice. The public were warned a 
fortnight previously that economy in the use of water was imperative. 
Little or no attention was paid to the official warning, and the quantity 
of water consumed had increased considerably. 

22nd. Annual inspection of District Railways station gardens. 

The Minister of Agriculture informed the House of Commons 
that the id. admission charge at Kew would cease on and after 
August Bank Holiday. About ^5,000 a year would be lost by this 

26th. Annual General Meeting of the National Institute of 
Agricultural Botany. 

315*. Annual Outing of the R.H.S. Gardens Club. The gardens 
of Ashford, Handcross, and Highdown, Goring-on-Sea, were visited. 



Owing to water shortage restrictions on the use of water for gardens 
were general in London and many other places. 

The First Prize Stations in the Metropolitan Gardens Railway 
Competition were Hammersmith, Northwich Park, and Chesham. 
Dollis Hill , Kilburn, and Stoke Mande ville took second prizes . Neasden , 
W. Hampstead, and Croxley Green third. Ruislip Manor, Wembley 
Park, and Waddesdon fourth. 

The Church lands at Brentwood, which had been cultivated as 
allotments for 17 years, were sold for building purposes. 

Weston Mill, near Plymouth, suffered from a plague of toads, 
attributed to the vicinity of a Corporation refuse tip. 

A gardener at Riverdale Grange was attacked by over 2,000 bees 
and so severely stung that he had to be removed to Sheffield Royal 

A copy of Philip Miller's Gardener's Dictionary,da,ted 1763, once the 
property of the poet Cowper, was sold at Sotheby's. 

2nd. The trial plots at East Craigs for the Scottish Potato Trials 
were visited by growers, farmers, merchants, and others interested, 
on the invitation of the Department of Agriculture for Scotland, for 
the annual demonstration of new seedlings. 

5/A. The charge of id. for admission to Kew Gardens introduced 
during the war came to an end. Payment of 6d. on Tuesdays and 
Fridays, students' days, continues. 

6th. The grounds of the Foundling Hospital were opened as a 
Play Centre for children for two months. 

jth. Mr. and Mrs. Frederick Bright celebrated their golden wedding. 
Mr. Bright was well known as a cultivator of specimen Fuchsias, and 
succeeded in crossing the Clivia with the Hippeastrum. 

8th. The National Institute of Agricultural Botany invited parties 
of farmers, potato growers and merchants, agricultural advisory and 
administrative officers, and others to visit the Potato Testing Station 
at Ormskirk. 

Mr. C. E. Foister, Plant Pathological Div. Dept. Agric., Scotland, 
at a Conference of Empire Meteorologists at Oxford, pointed out that 
certain plant diseases were due to weather conditions. A system of 
weather forecasting sufficiently accurate and detailed was needed to 
enable warnings to be given to growers that certain diseases would 
appear when weather favoured their onset. 

i$th. The first colour film used at a horticultural lecture was shown 
at the R.H.S. meeting, when Mr. Amos Perry lectured on Aquatic and 
Waterside Plants. 

14/7*. Mr. Luke Dann, for thirty years employed as gardener by 
the Harrogate Corporation, celebrated his golden wedding. 

1 5th. Much damage was done by fire to Wicken Fen; between 50 
and 100 acres were burnt. 

ijth. H.M. the Queen paid an informal visit to the Old English 
Garden in Battersea Park. 

2ist-22nd. The Shropshire Horticultural Society again held a very 
successful Show in the Quarry at Shrewsbury. The finest non-com- 
petitive exhibit in the Show was a grand display of vegetables sent by 
the Hon. Vicary Gibbs (gardener, Mr. Edwin Beckett). The standard 
of exhibits was high, and the Show arrangements notably well managed. 


24*;*. The Roads Beautifying Association held its first general 

26-30^. Summer Meeting of the Royal English Arboricultural 
Society at Sheffield. 

zjth. At the R.H.S. Show a fruit from a Peach Peregrine was 
exhibited which was half peach and half nectarine. 

28/A. Annual meeting of the Royal English Arboricultural Society 
at Sheffield. 

Southport Show opened. 

3otf*. The tenant of a basement flat in Tavistock Road, N. Kensing- 
ton, when digging in her garden found a human skull. 

The London Gardens Guild held a successful exhibition in the new 
Horticultural Hall. A special feature consisted of corporate displays 
from local gardening societies; Bermondsey and Rotherhithe Hort. 
Society took first prize. Unfortunately the costs of the show exceeded 
the receipts. 

The gold cup offered in the National Gardens Guild Brighter Petrol 
Station Competition was won by the Coombe Bridge Station, Kingston 

315*. Mr. C. H. Wright, A.L.S., Assistant at the Royal Botanic 
Gardens, retired at the age limit after 45 years at Kew. 


Less than half the average rainfall was recorded, the lowest in 
sixty years. 

Sir James Reynolds, M.P., offered Dove Park, Woolton, to the 
Liverpool Corporation for the use of the public. The house was 
destroyed by fire in 1921. 

Sir Howard Frank promised the First Commissioner of Works 
5,000 to defray the expense of laying out a playing field on the old 
exhibition site in Hyde Park. 

Sir Arthur du Cros and Mrs. Van den Bergh each offered gifts of 
500 towards the provision of shelters in the Royal Parks. An 
anonymous donor, in addition to a promise of 500, offered 5,000 to 
provide facilities for children, to permit of mixed bathing in the Ser- 
pentine, and sun-bathing, Government to contribute an equal sum for 
the purpose. 

The Berkhamsted authorities gave " casuals " the job of clearing 
caterpillars from the large acreage in the vicinity under cultivation. 

Mr. J. B. Jack, Vice- President of the Motherwell Parks Department, 
on his departure for America was presented with an inscribed gold 
watch in recognition of his work by the members of the Hamilton and 
District Gardening Association, and with a gold Masonic emblem by 
members of the Parks Department. 

The great Black Hamburgh vine at Hampton Court Palace bore 
over 500 bunches of grapes. These were sold to the public at 55. a 

12-13^. Sir William Lobjoit, O.B.E., presided at the 25th 
Annual General Meeting and Conference of the Horticultural Education 
Association at the Edinburgh and East of Scotland College of Agri- 


24-2 5/A. Annual General Meeting of the Horticultural Trades 
Association at Worcester. 

26th. The North of England Horticultural Society held a most 
successful three-day show at Harrogate, which was opened by Lady 
Barran. In the opinion of Mr. A. S. Gall, Hort. Organiser and Lecturer, 
Leeds University, the roses were the finest ever staged at any N.E.H.S. 
show. A silver plaque was presented to Mr. J. S. Brunton for his ser- 
vices to the Society. 

26th. The Holly Trees house and grounds, Colchester, were opened 
to the public as a museum and open spaces by the High Steward of the 
Borough, the Rt. Hon. Annie Viscountess Cowdray. 


H.M. the King sent a special donation to the Royal Gardeners' 
Orphan Fund of ^15, as the Sandringham Horticultural Society's Show 
was not held on account of his illness. 

The King of Siam, an old Etonian, gave an Italian Garden to Eton, 
which was constructed opposite College Field near the Provost's lodge. 

A lady, who desired to remain anonymous, presented Holme Lacy 
with its beautiful gardens and 340 acres of grounds to the county 
of Hereford, on condition that the house was not pulled down or sold 
without her consent. 

Studley Court, with 32 acres of ground, near the centre of Stour- 
bridge, was given to the town for a public park by Mr. Ernest Stevens 
in memory of his wife. 

As a memorial to the late Mr. Bernhard Baron, his son, Mr. Louis 
Baron, offered to pay for a pavilion in Regent's Park for the use of those 
playing games there. 

The Lord Mayor and the Lady Mayoress entertained the Fruiterers' 
Company to dinner at the Mansion House, when the annual presentation 
of home-grown fruit was made by the Company. This was afterwards 
given to various charities. The Lady Mayoress was presented with a 
case of silver spoons. 

At the twenty-third Annual Meeting of the Salisbury Gardeners' 
Society the Chairman, Mr. S. W. Tucker, the Hon. Tres., Mr. P. Baglin, 
and the Hon. Sees., Mr. F. Gullick and Mr. C. J. Phelps, were presented 
with gifts from the members in recognition of their twenty-one years' 
service in those offices. 

Mr. J. B. Philip, Hon. Sec. Deeside Field Club and Editor of the 
Deeside Field, was presented with an inscribed gold watch and chain 
from the members, as a recognition of his services since the foundation 
of the Club. 

Mr. Charles H. Wright, A.L.S., retired, under the age limit, from the 
Kew staff after forty-five years' service in the Herbarium. 

The National Gardens Guild reported that its branch, the Prisons 
Gardens Association, had up to date appointed lecturers to fifteen 
prisons. The aim of the Association is to attach an experienced 
horticulturist to every prison and Borstal Institution in the country. 

A local Committee was formed at Malvern to raise funds for the 
purchase of existing quarry rights on the Malvern Hills, and so prevent 
further disfigurement. 

The Roads Beautifying Association appealed for funds to purchase 


strips of land in Bucks., along the proposed North Orbital Road, in 
order to give " a visible example of the combination of beauty and 
convenience in places threatened with ugliness and waste. 1 ' 

Chrysanthemum Shows, in accordance with annual custom, were on 
view in Finsbury, South wark and Waterloo Parks. 

A pumpkin cut at Wigton, Cumberland, weighed 76 Ibs. 

An apple, M 6re de Manage, gathered by Mr. J. H. Gait at Stonehaven, 
Kincardineshire, weighed over 19 J oz. and measured 14 rV in circum- 

Several instances were reported of apple trees that flowered for a 
second time after the fruit was harvested. 

Another human skull (see Aug.) was dug up in a garden. Work- 
men building a wall at College Crescent, Hampstead, discovered it. 

Nearly loo flower paintings by British artists were exhibited at 
the Fine Art Society's Galleries, New Bond St. 

Mrs. Amy C. Reeve Fowkes exhibited " Beautiful Flower Pictures " 
at the Arlington Gallery, Old Bond St. 

Miss J. Knowles and Miss G. E. Carver exhibited water-colour 
pictures of flowers at the Graham Gallery, New Bond St. 

Mr. Van Hengelaar's ilower paintings were exhibited at the Blooms- 
bury Gallery. 

2nd. The Masters Memorial Lecture at the R.H.S. was postponed 
till Nov. 5, owing to the illness of Mr. Ronald G. Hatton, Director of 
East Mailing Research Station, the Lecturer for 1929. 

jth. It was decided by a unanimous verdict at the Demonstration 
and Conference at Messrs. McGill & Smith's Potato Trial Grounds, 
Ayr, that the intensive breeding and testing of new varieties had been 
of practical value. 

loth. The National Park Committee, apointed to enquire into the 
question of forming a National Park, held its first meeting. 

lo-nth. National Conference for the Preservation of the Country- 
side at Manchester. 

12th. As an extension of the Manchester conference on the Pre- 
servation of the Countryside a conference was held on the preservation 
of Lakeland at Amblesidc. Mr. Oliver Stanley, M.P., remarked that 
" Government Departments, with their peculiar views as to the feasi- 
bility of pylons, electric standards, telephone posts, and cables, showed 
an attitude of mind only to be described as an ostrich complex." But 
objectors " could not hope to obstruct; they could only divert." 

ibth. Mr. R. E. L. Vaughan Williams, K.C., accepted Sir Frederick 
Richmond's offer of the Severells Estate near Friday Street to the 
Friday Street Preservation Fund for 8,500. The estate is to be handed 
over to the National Trust. 

The National Sweet Pea Society held its Annual General Meeting 
in the offices of Messrs. James Carter & Co., Raynes Park, after the 
President, Mr. Harold Beale, had entertained the members to lunch 
there. On vacating the chair, at the end of his year's Presidency, 
Mr. Harold Beale was presented with the Society's Gold Medal and a 
framed autographed photograph of a group at Norwich Show. The 
Society's Gold Medal was awarded to Mr. Hugh Dickson. The winners 
of the Essay Competition were Mr. George de la Perelle, Mr. John A, 
Strickland, and Mr. Thomas Baines. 

ijth. 4,015 apples were gathered from a tree belonging to the 


Marquis of Huntley at Orton Hall, Peterborough. The tree was grown 
from a pip of an Australian apple sown in 1887. 

IQ//L Chrysanthemum Shows in Battersea and Victoria Park 

The Archbishop of Canterbury, speaking at the conference at 
Canterbury organised by the Kent Rural Community Council, said: 
" Their object was not to prevent people from coming into the country, 
but to preserve the country into which they wished to come." He 
referred to the " intolerable, hideous, and impudent kiosks," adding 
that " there was a danger of Kent, the Garden of England, becoming 
a succession of tea gardens." As for the petrol stations, " even the 
attempts which were made to make them less hateful than they were 
by surrounding them with flower-beds only made them more glaring." 

22nd. Under the presidency of Sir William Lawrence the Dorking 
and Leith Hill Preservation Society was started. A telegram was sent 
from the meeting to Mr. Roland Vaughan Williams to convey gratitude 
and appreciation of the efforts made by him and his wife to save Friday 
Street for the nation. 

2$rd. At the Annual Meeting of the British Gladiolus Society the 
proposal to award the Society's silver-gilt medal to Mr. T. E. Wolsten- 
holme, Secretary of the Southport Flower Show, was carried with 

The Roads of Remembrance Committee arranged for the planting 
and dedication of an oak tree in memory of Flight Lt. Philip Johnston, 
R.N.A.S., on the Kingston By-pass near Kingston Vale. 

The National Carnation and Picotee Society, and the British 
Gladiolus Society, provided the floral decorations for the Colchester 
Oyster Feast. The Mayor's Parlour was decorated by local growers 
with roses, and a display of the trophies and cups won by them during 
the season. 

24^/1. The ninth Holland County Potato Show was held. Thirteen 
cups were offered for competition, and the South Lincolnshire Wholesale 
Potato Merchants' Association presented a Trophy for the best trade 
exhibit of Potatoes. 

i$th. H.R.H. Prince George opened the Imperial Fruit Show in the 
Bingley Hall, Birmingham. There was a notable exhibit from the 
Empire Marketing Board of empire grown fruit. East Mailing exhibited 
specimen apple trees on different root stocks. 

26th. At the annual meeting of the New Forest Association it was 
decided that action be taken to counter the encroachment of self- 
sown firs on the open heath. 

30//&. Conference of retail fruiterers at the Imperial Fruit Show. 

3 ist. The new London Fruit Exchange was opened by the Lord 
Mayor. After the ceremony the Lord Mayor auctioned a basket of 
fruit, which realised 130 guineas for the Fruit Trades Benevolent Fund, 
and a second basket fetched 125 guineas. To commemorate the 
opening a dinner was given at the Guildhall. 

Immediately after speaking " with emphasis against band perfor- 
mances in the public gardens on Sundays," an Edinburgh Town 
Councillor died in his seat at the council. 

Luncheon and conference of fruit growers at the Imperial Fruit 

The Linnean Society's Annual Dinner and President's Reception. 



Prof. C. V. Boys presented Kew Gardens with a specially designed 
sundial, constructed by himself on a pillar that was one of the balusters 
of old Kew Bridge. The dial is correct for the Kew Latitude. A table 
of instructions explains how Greenwich mean time, or Summer Time, 
may be read to within a half -minute. 

The Rev. W. G. Clarke Maxwell gave the mansion of Monkeaton 
Park with its gardens, valued at 20,000, to Derby, the Derby Cor- 
poration having decided to buy 180 acres of the property for a public 

At the Livery Banquet of the Worshipful Company of Gardeners 
the President of the R.H.S., Mr. Gerald Locler, presented the Hon. 
Fellowship of the R.H.S. to Mr. E. A. Ebblewhite, in recognition of his 
long services as Clerk to the Company. 

The first prize in the Potato-cropping competition arranged by the 
Scottish Agricultural Industries, Ltd., was won by Mr. John Hamilton 
of East Kilbride, with a yield of 23 tons n Ibs. to the acre. Messrs. 
Bryd Bros, were second with 22 tons 3 cwt. 2 qrs., and Messrs. R. & 
J. Logan, third with 20 tons 10 cwt. 2 qrs. 24 Ibs. 

The fine avenue of elms and sycamores, } mile long, from Pluckley 
to Surrenden Dering, now a school, was felled and sold for timber. 
An appeal for funds to purchase it for the nation, though it met with 
an immediate response, was not initiated early enough to stop the 
destruction of the trees. 

In connection with road widening in Park Road, Regent's Park, the 
Marylebone Borough Council decided to remove the old trees and plant 
107 young plane trees on the sides of the widened road. 

A special exhibit was on view in House 14^ at Kew Gardens, illus- 
trating the history and development of the Chrysanthemum. 

Mrs. Harry Dewhurst exhibited flower paintings at the Graham 

2d. The King and Queen sent a birthday message to Mrs. Ann 
Leighton on her looth birthday. She worked with her late husband 
in making the Leighton Nurseries now the Johnson Nurseries. 

4th. The First Commissioner of Works and residents in Powis Road, 
ow, planted trees on both sides of the street. 

$th.- The Men of the Trees held a two-hour exhibition of tree pictures 
at the Rembrandt Hotel, Kensington. 

The beautiful paintings of fruits done by W. Hooker for the R.H.S. 
in 1815-16 were displayed at the R.H.S. show. 

j-Sth. National Chrysanthemum Show. The Holmes Memorial 
Challenge Cup was won by Sir John Ward. 

nth. Under the scheme of the Roads of Remembrance Committee, 
eight roads were planted with " trees of remembrance " by the boy and 
girl captains of Headston Council School, Pinner. 

The purchaser of a five-acre plot of building land at Bedfont was 
fined 403. and 2 is. costs for failing to destroy certain weeds upon it 
when notified in June that this should be done. The ground adjoined 
cultivated agricultural land. 

i&th. Excavations in the garden of Ben well Park, by members of 
the North of England Excavation Committee, on the site of a Roman 
Chapel of Standards, disclosed a vault made about A.D. 120-140. 
Coins and a sword-hilt were also found. 


. At the R.H.S. Show, Mr. C. Engelmann exhibited three 
varieties of roses cut at Murray Hill, New Jersey, U.S.A., eleven days 
previously. Two of the varieties won the A.M. 

A novel competition was held at the R.H.S. Show. The Society 
and the Ministry of Agriculture offered prizes for Walnuts, with a view 
to discover good strains growing in this country. Exhibitors were 
requested to supply twelve shoots from each prize-winning tree, from 
which scions could be made and grafted at East Mailing for propagation. 
Two of the trees obtained would be returned to the original grower. 
It is hoped in this way to discover the best varieties in the country 
and improve the stocks of home-grown walnuts. The East Mailing 
Research Station put up an informative exhibit, with specimens of 
nuts and young trees. Demonstrations were given of stratifying the 
nuts for spring sowing, of grafting methods, and other work. 

Lady Falmouth, Chairman of the Swanley Horticultural College, 
at the Annual General Meeting referred to the need for more scholarships 
for students anxious to obtain help for horticultural training. 

2oth. The L.C.C. advertised the intention of presenting a Bill to 
seek from Parliament power to prohibit building in the 450 garden 
squares of the London area; to authorise the local authority to take 
over such as may be neglected (with compensation to the owners) ; and 
to compel owners to keep squares in good order. 

Annual Meeting and Dinner of the Iris Society. 

The British Carnation Society held its Annual Meeting and Dinner. 

2oth-2ist. The British Carnation Society's Thirty-seventh Show. 

2J.st2$rd. The third of the Norfolk and Norwich Hort. Soc. 
Centenary Celebration Shows. 

22nd. At a meeting of S.W. Lancashire farmers in Liverpool it was 
agreed that for a period of a month none of those present would sell 
potatoes in Liverpool Market at under 2 per ton, in consequence of the 
glut and resultant low prices. The President of the Liverpool branch 
of the N.F.U, pointed out that the importation of foreign potatoes was 
forbidden in Ireland, and in Liverpool the glut was mainly due to heavy 
importations from France and Spain. He suggested that surplus 
potatoes should be sent to the sugar beet factories and dried for cattle 

26th. Mr. W. Stewart, N.D.H., Superintendent of the Royal 
Hospital Gardens, lectured at Prince Henry's Room, Fleet St., on " The 
Construction and Cultivation of Window-boxes," in connection with the 
London Gardens Guild Window-box campaign. 


Much damage was done by the severe gales to trees in various parts 
of the country, and some fatal accidents occurred through trees falling. 
Trees across the permanent way interfered with road and railway 
traffic in many places. 

The Gardens Committee of the Queen's Institute of District Nursing 
in the Report for 1929 stated that 690 gardens were opened and the 
sum of 7,765 was raised. The largest item was 834 155., sent from 
Sandringham gardens by H.M. the King. The next highest totals 
were 688 8s. lod, from Sussex gardens, 599 33. nd. from Surrey 
gardens, and 509 55. 4d. from gardens in Kent. 


Mr. W. J. Bean, on his retirement fromKew, was appointed Advisor 
and Consultant on the planting of Highways to the Ministry of 

Subsequent to the retirement of Mr. Walter P. Wright the Kent 
Teachers' Association held a reception and presented him with a 
handsome piece of plate in appreciation of his services, particularly 
in the development of school gardening. 

Mr. H. B. Witty, on his retirement from the post of Superintendent 
of Parks, Cemeteries, and Recreation Grounds at Hull, was presented 
with an illuminated address by the Hull Parks and Burial Committee 
in recognition of his services. 

Scottish potato growers complained that the prices offered for 
potatoes were nearly 50% less than the cost of production. 

It was estimated that some 9,000 rabbits had been killed during 
the year on the Burghead estate, Morayshire, that the Scottish Forestry 
Commission took over for afforestation. 

Mr. Olin Howard exhibited pictures under the title of " Flower 
Moods " at the Cooling Galleries. 

yd. A meeting was held at the Hotel Metropole by the invitation 
of Sir Harold Boulton and Sir James Calder, to discuss the formation of 
a Wood Preserving Association. 

jth. At the annual meeting of the Windsor and Eton Rose and 
Hort. Society at Windsor Guildhall, Lady Crichton, the wife of the 
retiring President, handed an inscribed silver tray to the Hon. Sec., Mr. 
J. H. Harding, in appreciation of his services. 

At the conference of the potato industry at Spalding, the chairman, 
Mr. J. Blindell, M.P., issued a statement to the effect that in view of 
the serious state of the potato trade a special emergency committee to 
form a British United Potato Marketing Board. Special measures 
were to be adopted by all growers with regard to the marketing of the 
year's crop. 

gth. The L.C.C. Education Committee's Special Services Com- 
mittee were urged by a deputation from the Guild of Blind Gardeners 
to give instruction in gardening in all schools for blind and myopic 
children, and employ as many myopic boys as possible in the parks 
and open spaces. 

At a lunch at the Liverpool Street Hotel the Assistant Manager 
of the London and North-Eastern Railway announced that efforts 
were in progress to assist the marketing of fruit, potatoes, sugar-beet, 
etc., and a joint committee had been set up with the National Farmers' 

loth. Inaugural meeting of the Alpine Garden Society at the R.H.S. 
new Hall. 

1 1 th. An urgency meeting of the Directors of the Scottish Chamber 
of Agriculture was held in Edinburgh to draw public attention to the 
very grave position of the potato trade. It was agreed to circularise 
every Member of Parliament in England and Scotland, and to try 
and arrange a conference with the leaders of the three political parties. 

1 3th. A potato dealer of Auchterforfar, Forfarshire, was fined 10 
and ^44 95. costs at Lincoln under the Wart Disease (Potatoes) Order, 
for selling potatoes with a false "clean land" certificate from an area 
infected with Wart Disease. 

A. Princess Mary, Countess of Hare wood, received gifts at the 


Windsor Guildhall for the Princess Christian Infant Nursery at Windsor. 
The gifts included flowers, fruit, and vegetables from the Royal gardens. 

The Fifty-first Annual General Meeting of the National Carnation 
and Pico tee Society was held at the new R.H.S. Hall. 

igth. " The Piper and His Dog, "a seventeenth-century stone group 
by Caius Gabriel Cibber, was sold with other garden ornaments from 
Welcombe House, Stratford-on-Avon, at Sotheby's for 115, and a 
marble figure of Diana with a hound for ijo. 


IT was reported at the Annual Meeting of the Society in January 
that 2,030 plants had already been received and planted. Varieties 
are identified by number only, as a means to secure to raisers the 
safety of their new productions, and with the same object in view 
certain rules have been laid down with regard to visitors. 
Admission, members only, is by permit for a fixed date, Saturdays 
and Wednesdays from the middle of June to the end of September. 
These permits are not transferable. Roses are frequently inspected 
by the special Committee, and First Class Certificates will be 
awarded seedling Roses after extended tests. 



AN expedition arrived on Low Island, 40 miles north of Cairns, 
N. Queensland, in July 1928 for a year's work and observation of 
the life in a tropical coral reef area. Mr. G. Tandy was the Botanist 
with the expedition. The Low Islands offer many interesting 
botanical problems, with mangrove swamp to windward. Rhizophora 
mucronata is the dominant tree. 


Dr. T. F. Chipp, of the Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, visited the 
Imatong Mountains in February. A hundred specimens were 
obtained and a new northern record for mountain flora of the East 
African equatorial mountains, and a further link with the vegetation 
of the Abyssinian plateau and high mountains of west equatorial 
Africa. The collection has been placed in the Herbarium at Kew. 


Mr. F. Kingdon Ward left England on February Qth, to join the 
Rooseveldt expedition in French Indo-China. (THE GARDENER'S 
YEAR BOOK, 1929, p. 39.) It was expected that the meeting would 
take place somewhere in Laos, near the frontiers of Burma, Yunnan, 
and Siam. 

Starting from Mandalay on March i/jth, Mr. Kingdon Ward 
proceeded by motor lorry 280 miles across the Shan plateau to the 
Salween river. Beyond the Salween there was only a mule road, 
but at grave risk the lorry was driven on to Kengtung, 400 miles 
from Mandalay. Here the baggage was transferred to mules and 
the journey continued eastwards to the Mekong river, where it 
forms the frontier between the Burmese Shan States and French 
territory. Before the Mekong was reached, however, the expedition 
diverged from the route in order to climb a mountain over 8,000 feet 
high. This mountain, the highest in the Southern Shan States, 
was found to be covered with forest to the summit. A fine white- 
flowered " Maddeni " Rhododendron was collected, and another 
species, not in bloom, discovered. Magnoliaceae were abundant 
here, and several fine Orchids. 

The Mekong was crossed on May ist, and three days later 
Mr. Kingdon Ward reached Muongsing, the first French outpost. 
From here the mules were sent back to Kengtung. Owing to a bad 
attack of fever, Mr. Kingdon Ward was held up in Muongsing for 



Photographed by F. Kingdon Ward] \Toface p. 158 


six weeks. Meanwhile news was received that the Roosevelt party 
could not get through; but touch was established with another 
detachment of the expedition under the leadership of Mr. Harold J. 
Coolidge, fifteen marches distant from Muongsing. Owing to sick- 
ness in this party, however, followed by the tragic death of one of 
the Americans, contact could not be made. 

In the second week of June Mr. Kingdon Ward left Muongsing 
and, marching two days' journey over the mountains, reached the 
Namtha river. The rainy season had now begun, and travel in 
Laos, except by boat or raft, became impossible. After an exciting 
canoe voyage lasting six days, in the course of which many dangerous 
rapids were run, Mr. Kingdon Ward reached the Mekong again. 
Here he transferred to a raft for the 170 miles voyage to Luang 

During the canoe journey many interesting trees were seen, and 
a number of plants collected, including a magnificent scarlet 
Bauhinia, an Oak, a big Millettia, species of Acacia, Engelhardtia, 
Ficus, etc. The jungle was very thick, and the river was often 
enclosed by sheer cliffs. Luang Prabang was reached on June 23rd, 
and a week later the raft voyage was resumed. From Luang 
Prabang to Vientiane, the capital of Laos, is 290 miles, and at this 
season when the Mekong is high it takes nine days. Only a limited 
amount of collecting was possible, when the raft was tied up for 
the night. The last 250 miles on the Mekong, from Vientiane to 
Savanakhet, was done by steam launch in 2\ days. 

There is a motor road from Savanakhet over the Annamite range 
to Hire on the coast of Annam, about 250 miles distant. This was 
travelled by lorry in two days, and was chiefly interesting because a 
totally different type of forest is passed through within 50 miles 
of the Mekong. Instead of the dense jungle which lines the banks 
of the river this forest was quite open, more like a park, with stunted 
trees. Many herbaceous flowering plants were noticed, and a small 
collection made. Hire was reached on July I3th. The climate of 
the coast strip is very different from that of Laos, most of the rain 
falling in the winter instead of the summer. A collection of plants 
was made on the sand dunes of the China Sea. 

Mr. Kingdon Ward left Hire* by sea on July igth, reaching Saigon 
on the 2ist. Here he met Col. Theodore Roosevelt and Mr. Harold 
Coolidge. Two days later the expedition broke up, the Americans 
sailing for the United States, while Mr. Kingdon Ward returned to 
Rangoon via Singapore and Penang. The trip across the south- 
eastern peninsula of Asia, from Mandalay to the China Sea, had 
taken four months. As a reconnaissance for future work at any 
rate the journey was a success. 


Mr. J. M. Cowan, of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, and Mr. 
C. D. Darlington, of the John Innes Horticultural Institution, 


visited Iraq and Persia between March and June. A collection of 
living bulbs and succulents and dried specimens was made, largely 
in North-west Persia. The route followed was: Bagdad, Kerman- 
shah, Hamadan, Danlatabad, Burujivd, Khurramabad, Sultanabad, 
Isphahan, Qum, Tehran, Kasvin, Zinjan, Tabriz, Urmya, Ushnu, 
Ardebil, and Astera. The expedition was financed by the Empire 
Marketing Board and the John Innes Horticultural Institution. 


On January 6, 1929, Mr. F. Kingdon Ward reached England on 
his return from a plant-hunting expedition in the Mishmi Hills.* 
He and his companion, M. H. M. Cluttcrbuck, left Sadiya on March i, 
1928, to proceed up the Lohit valley to the wild tangle of jungle, 
hills, and rivers beyond administrated territory, rising northward 
to the ranges that lie between Upper Burma, Tibet, Assam, and 
China. Their route lay first down the Tidding valley to the steep- 
sided narrow valley of the Lohit. The Delei river was reached on 
the I5th, where they camped for three weeks before starting over 
unexplored ground up the Delei valley. The valley flora was found 
to be very similar to that on the Sadiya plain. Woody Lcguminosae 
in a variety of forms, trees, climbers, and shrubs, including a new 
species of Aerocarpus, provided the prominent feature. The 
Araliacae were also conspicuous. There were some orchids, mostly 
epiphytic, and a species of Aeschynanthus made gorgeous display 
with flowers in balls of vivid scarlet. No temporate flora was found 
till the Delei-Dou divide was climbed, where at 6,000 feet the fringe 
of the temperate forest was reached, with Rhododendron, Pieris, 
Gaultheria, and Ilex. 

Throughout the expedition, owing to the animosity of the 
Mishmis, there were more than the usual difficulties over carriers, 
even from the outset, but by April 4th a start was made up the 
Delei valley. The Mishmi path was difficult from the first, through 
tropical jungle, over boulders in the river bed, and up and down 
steep cliffs. Chiboan, the second camp, was reached after a climb 
of some 1,500 feet, a fine Dendrobium being collected on the way 
and a promising Gaultheria that appeared robust, but, at only 
5,000 feet, may prove tender. From this camp trips were made 
into the temperate rain forest, where Magnolia roslrala was pro- 
minent, and Michelia Wardii discovered, together with Mahonia 
calamicaulis. The higher ground proved fairly open as compared 
with the impenetrable secondary growth between it and the land 
cultivated by the Mishmis. Among the Rhododendrons was an 
" Irroratum " with flowers of black berry-and-apple colour, unique in 
that section, and a " Thomsoni " with leaves nearly a foot long. The 
forest was unusually rich in species of Calanthe or Phaius. A bushy 
evergreen (like an Osmanthus) with prickly stems was notable among 
* See THE GARDENER'S YEAR BOOK, 1929, pp. 37-9. 


the undershrubs, with numerous fragrant white flowers among its 
scarlet berries of the previous winter. As a woodland plant it is 
possibly not hardy. 

Chibaon was left on April igth. The next halt showed no 
change in scenery or vegetation. Dark gullies, precipitous flanks, 
ravines, cliffs, and dense forest stretched indefinitely between the 
explorers and the snow-clad peaks. From this camp a ridge was 
reached at 9,000 feet which ran up to the main range. Several 
good Rhododendrons were found. A special feature of the vegeta- 
tion was the number of smaller Ericacae, though none of the new 
species found were out of the common. A small Rhododendron, 
R. mishmiensis, with flowers of crocus yellow, was occasionally found 
growing epiphytically; another habitually or alternatively epiphyte, 
found growing from 4,000 to 7,000 feet, was the white R. dendricola. 
An "Edgworthii" of similar habit bore white flowers banded with 
rose-purple on the reverse. Another yellow, K. ^.8163, was the 
deepest yellow known in the "Grande" section. Tree Rhododen- 
drons abounded in the Delei forest. R. megacalyx, R. aureum, and 
the new A*, delciensis were also collected here. 

The next move, to Tablekon, brought them within what had been 
supposed to be possible distance of the pass, but on investigation it 
was found that the Delei river simply rose on the southern face of 
a minor range and its gorge was a hopeless cul-de-sac. As further 
advance proved impossible it was decided to attempt to reach 
Kaso, a peak over 15,000 feet, far back on the Delei-Dou divide. 
A precipitous ridge led towards it. A camping ground was reached 
at 10,000 feet, and there the next six weeks were spent, failing the 
possibility of reaching better ground. 

No Primulas were met with until June 4th, when, after climbing 
the ridge and descending through an Abies forest, a new yellow 
"Nivalis" (P. mishmiensis) was found on a rocky cliff. Further on 
more alpines were seen, including a dwarf bearded Iris, probably the 
same as one collected in the Scinghku valley. A further ascent 
brought them to the snow. The narrow ridge was carpeted with 
dwarf and scrub Rhododendrons and "Yellow Peril/' previously 
collected, grew everywhere round. From this camp three alpine 
Primulas were found, growing with a few other plants on the rocky 
cliffs, and three forest Primulas in the woodland gullies with a good 
Lysimachia. One of the forest Primulas (P. Normaniana) should 
prove a notable addition to the "Geranioides" section. The flowers 
are bright purplish pink, with orange or crimson eye and frilled 
petals. A butter-yellow "Candelabra" (P. polonensis) grew with 
the "Geranioides." Another of the latter section, a poor thing with 
purple flowers, grew with the handsome red-flowered P. rubra, a 
most attractive plant quite unlike any other "Sikkimensis." In one 
spot only was found a dwarf "Sikkimensis" with large creamy 
flowers. The violet Omphalogramma Souliei was common all along 
the upper part of the ridge. Masses of Primula calf hi folia grew 



on the northern slope, and plants of the alpine meadow type were 

On July ist a start was made up the ridge to a camping site above 
the last firs, some 12,000 feet up. Hundreds of a maroon Nomo- 
charis with many other alpine flowers grew in a valley a few hundred 
feet below. Another Nomocharis, which proved to be N. aperta, 
grew on the gravel flank of the ridge. One Meconopisis, probably 
M. impedita, was seen, and flowering plants of M. paniculata, not 
hitherto known outside Sikkim and Nepal. There was no great 
variety of alpines, as the forests continue up almost to the snow line 
and the rock everywhere is dark granite and closely banded gneiss. 
The yellow Bryocarpum himalayense, previously only known from 
Sikkim, was common everywhere from 10,000 to 12,000 feet. 

After six weeks on the ridge they returned to the previous camp 
in the Mishmi village. A few seeds of the beautiful Butterfly Violet 
(F. serpens) were collected with some of three other species before 
returning to Meiliang to send to Sadiya for further supplies. Though 
still on short rations another start was made up the Delci-Dou 
divide on August I7th, through rain forest with herbaceous under- 
growth. On a ridge a path had to be cut through dense Rhodo- 
dendron scrub, but by September 2nd the main divide was reached 
and another attempt was made to reach Polon. Eventually Polon 
was conquered on October ist in a deluge of rain. On a second 
ascent, ten days later, the seeds of several Rhododendrons were 
collected, again in bad weather. By the I3th Polon, Kaso, and 
much of the ridge were under snow. Stress of weather, therefore, 
resulted in a return to the Meiliang camp, with some collection of 
seeds en route. On the I7th a start was made for a five-day trip to 
Kaso again. A few seeds of the beautiful creeping Rhododendron 
Rock Rose (R. patulum) were obtained, and all new Primulas. But 
the alps were then under deep snow. Polon, 2,000 feet lower, had 
less snow, so a return there was arranged. For once fortune 
favoured to some extent, and among other treasures secured were 
"bulbs' 1 of Primula Agleniana atro-crocea. Ten days later these 
were posted to England, so within a month they were planted again, 
the only chance of getting flowering specimens of this glorious 
species. On the summit a few capsules of the beautiful creeping 
Rhododendron crebreflorum, seen on the first ascent, were obtained 
with great difficulty by digging the plants out of the snow. The 
expedition returned to Sadiya on November 3rd after eight months 
in the Mishmi Hills. About a dozen new species of Rhododendron 
and six of Primula were discovered, and seed of all obtained. Other 
interesting plants of which seed was secured are several Accrs, 
including A. Wardii, Gaultheria spp. Ilex spp., including I. notho- 
fagacifolia, the " Golden Abelia," a fine Aristolochia, Podophyllum 
versipelle, Viburnum Wardii, an alpine Lonicera, Arisaema spp. 
Hedychium spp., a new almost herbaceous Buddleia, Dactylicapnos 
scandens, and Schizandra sp. Some living Orchids were also sent 


home. The botanical results of the expedition were at least as 
interesting as the horticultural. 


Major R. W. G. Kingston, with a party of scientists from Oxford 
and Cambridge, left England in July for British Guiana. A base 
camp was established north of the Essequibo, from which the rain 
forest was to be studied, especially the wild life of the tree-top zone. 
The expedition was financed by the Royal Society, the Percy Sladen 
Fund, and the West Indian Committee. The Royal Geographical 
Society undertook the expenses of a surveyor, and the Royal Botanic 
Gardens, Kew, financed and sent a botanist, Mr. N. Y. Sandwith, 
who had been working previously for some time on the British 
Guiana collections in the Kew Herbarium, with a view to preparing 
a Flora of the Colony. The Expedition is expected to end in 


Mr. C. L. Collenette, through the Ministry of Agriculture, the 
Empire Marketing Board, and the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, 
joined the British and Italian Boundary Commission for the demarca- 
tion of the boundary between British and Italian Somaliland, at the 
suggestion of the Secretary of State for the Colonies (Mr. Amery) that 
a qualified botanist should accompany the Expedition. The country 
is botanically unknown. The Commission is expected to be at work 
for about six months from September I, 1929. 


On July 28, 1928, Mr. J. Hutchinson, Assistant in the Kew Her- 
barium, left for a tour in South Africa. (THE GARDENER'S YEAR 
BOOK, 1929, p. 37.) The tour, which included an expedition in 
the Karoo, accompanied by officers of the Botanical Survey of the 
Union of South Africa, and up, via Natal and Grahamstown, to the 
Limpopo, was financed by the Empire Marketing Board, and lasted 
until the spring of 1929. The tour in the Zoutspanberg Division 
as far as the River Limpopo was made in company with General the 
Rt. Hon. J. C. Smuts. Many very interesting collections of South 
African succulent plants were sent home to Kew. 


At the request of the Commissioner of Agriculture for the West 
Indies, Mr. S. F. Ashby, Mycologist of the Imperial Bureau of 
Mycology, visited Dominica, the West Indies, Antigua, and St. 
Lucia, in January, February, and March, to study diseases of Limes 
and Sugar-canes in the West Indies. 



THIS Research Station, situated in the midst of an extensive fruit 
and vegetable growing area, is concerned with the various aspects 
of the preservation of fruit and vegetables. The work may be 
divided under three headings: 

(1) RESEARCH. During the past year the research work has 
been largely in connection with the rapidly developing canning 
industry. Some of the discoveries made at the Station have been 
of considerable help to the Industry. 

Variety Trials: Strawberries. The opening up of several new 
canning factories during the past few years has caused an increased 
demand for strawberries. Unfortunately, the strawberry crop has 
been falling off very noticeably over the same period, with the 
result that canners during 1928 were unable to obtain sufficient 
quantities to meet their requirements. This shortage has brought 
to light the necessity of planting a considerable acreage of the 
fruit to supply their growing requirements. It is, therefore, 
essential to know which of the varieties are most suitable for 
canning, and to obtain this information systematic tests have been 
carried out here during the past season. Thirty varieties of straw- 
berries have been canned. These were obtained from sixteen 
different districts spread over six counties. 

Lacquer Tests: Fruits. Fruits put down during 1927 in cans 
coated with various types of lacquers were exhibited at the Canners' 
Convention held at Worcester in May 1928. The improvement 
in the colour of soft fruits canned in double-lacquered cans was 
so striking that practically all the canners in this country during 
last season used double-lacquered cans for packing soft fruits. 

Other problems which are receiving attention include: (a) ex- 
periments on the causes of the corrosion of tinplate by fruit acids ; 
(b) the use of the vacuum-sealing process in fruit canning; (c) pre- 
paration of fruit syrups, fruit purees, and juices, concentrated under 
vacuum for use as natural fruit flavours in soda fountains, ice 
cream, etc. ; (d) extensive tests on the canning of green vegetables. 

(2) ADVISORY. This section answers enquiries relating to 
commercial and domestic methods of fruit and vegetable pre- 

(3) EDUCATIONAL. The educational side deals chiefly with the 
preservation of garden crops on a domestic scale. In addition to 
lectures and demonstrations to Women's Institutes, etc., five 



Courses of Instruction in the home preservation of fruit and 
vegetables were given during the summer months. 

F. HIRST, M.Sc., A.R.C.Sc. 


The Registration Station deals with comparative trials of new 
varieties of potatoes immune from Wart Disease, and with their 
ultimate official registration as improved varieties. It also tests 
varieties for immunity. The work includes the selection of virus- 
free units of varieties and the building up of healthy stocks from 
the selected units. Investigations into methods of estimating the 
tolerance of varieties are in progress ; also comparative testing of 
new varieties of cereals for registration as improved varieties. The 
number of seed samples examined in 1928-9 was 8,788. 


The experimental 3-acre orchard laid down in 1921 is now 
proving of great interest. The trees are all on type stocks, as 
classified by East Mailing. It is obvious that there is a marked 
difference in the growth of trees, and those on Type IX particularly 
have yielded heavy crops. Very little fruit has yet been gathered 
from those on Type I, Type XII or XVI. Growths may be 
gauged by quoting the average height in the James Greive variety. 
We have James Greive on Type IX, average height 2' 9", on 
Type II == 4' 9", on Type 1 5' 9", on Type XVI = 6' 6". 

Spraying. The tar-distillate spraying trials carried out for 
3 years in 3 counties have demonstrated that the best washes 
McDougall's, Mortegg, Carbo Craven, Carbo Krimp, Stentite, 
Abolene do control Aphis, Apple Sucker, Winter moth, and 
Tortrix moth.* It has not been proved that those washes have 
any effect on the control of Red Spider or Capsid Bud. Trials 
of Lime- Sulphur for the last 3 years have shown very efficient 
control of Apple Scab. 

Small Fruits. Manurial trials on Gooseberries have successfully 
shown the effect of Potash manuring as a control of Leaf Scorch, 
with a corresponding increase in crop. Investigations are still 
being carried out in (i) methods of pruning Black Currants; 
(2) varieties of Raspberries ; (3) varieties of Strawberries, and the 
selection of first plants from the runners of healthy plants sub- 
stations are being set up for this work in various parts of the 

Vegetables. Variety trials have been in progress for 3 years 
in Cucumbers, Celery, and Onions. The Onion Trial was established 
at the request of the Giant Onion Societies in order to enquire 
into the best varieties for Show purposes. Results have shown 
that Crossing's Selected Onion gives in every case the heaviest 
* Results were published in The Fruit Grower. 


bulb. Other good varieties have been Dickson and Robinson's 
Premier, Button's Selected Ailsa Craig, and Cranston's Excelsior. 
The Celery Trial has shown that the following varieties are useful 
for both show and market: Dickson and Robinson's Late Pink, 
Clucas' Prize Pink, Clucas' Market White, Watkins and Simpson's 
White Perfection, Daniel's Giant Red. Over 400 varieties were 
grown in the trial plots. The results of one year's Cucumber Trials 
appeared in a previous issue (Year Book, 1928, pp. 282-3). 

DISEASES. Investigations into the control of Club Root and 
Cabbage Root Maggot in Brassicas have been satisfactory. The use 
of Mercuric Chloride is recommended as the best control so far 
under experiment. The spraying of Bordeau Mixture as a control 
of Celery Rust has been satisfactory. 

MANURING. The use of Bacterised Peat as a manure has been 
the subject of trial on a small scale. 

FLOWERS. Annuals. Investigations have been carried out in 
the sowing of annuals in the autumn as a commercial proposition. 
Cornflower, Nigella, and Larkspur, sown in September, have all 
stood the northern rigorous winters and have been cut 3 weeks, 
in some cases a month, before the spring-sown ones. Further trials 
are in progress. 

CHRYSANTHEMUMS. All new outdoor flowering varieties are 
placed in the trial borders every year.* The costs and returns in 
connection with the disbudding of Chrysanthemums have received 
attention, and it has been shown that there is usually a difference 
in the returns from beds of plants disbudded and similar beds 
grown spray (undisbudded). The manuring of Chrysanthemums 
is now under investigation. 

GENERAL WORK. Soil sterilisation has been experimented with 
and a 12 brick-built baking apparatus has been found easier to 
use and just as efficient as a similar and dearer steam plant. 

A collection of some 13 Rhubarb varieties has been established. 
At present the only variety showing a reluctance to seed is The 

The manuring of Lawns, from the point of view of eradicating 
weeds and the general improvement of the grass, has shown that 
Sulphate of Ammonia is very satisfactory. Good results have been 
obtained by the application of 2 oz. to the square yard three times 
in the season, in June, July, and August. 

POTATOES. Experiments have been carried out on the question 
of earliness of maturity and costs returns. The market grower 
who markets his potatoes early for the sake of enhanced prices, 
does he lose owing to the crops being small? We have found 
that in a month a crop may double itself. In that case unless 
the price at the beginning of the month is double that at the end, 
the grower gains nothing by early marketing. 


* Reports are published in the Gardener's Chronicle. 







94 u 








Investigations are being carried out on: (i) Spraying of Fruit 
Trees to control Apple Scab; (2) Spraying of Fruit Trees to control 
Red Spider; (3) Manuring of Fruit Trees; (4) Control of Parsnip 


Investigations in progress may be outlined as follows: 

1. The Small Fruits (including currants, raspberries, gooseberries, 
and strawberries) grown upon their own root systems. Work in 
these cases consists first in building up a collection of varieties 
to be used for the initial establishment of systems of description, 
classification, and nomenclature. Then follows selection and 
propagation of desirable strains and experimental work upon the 
cultural conditions required by each, attention being given to the 
raising of new varieties. The incidence and control of fungus 
and insect diseases and pests are investigated in collaboration with 
the Pathological Staff. 

2. The Tree Fruits which are usually grown as composite trees, 
the desired variety being vegetatively united, by grafting or 
budding, with an extraneous root system previously established. 
The varieties under investigation include apples, pears, plums, and 
cherries. Special attention has been given to root-stocks in view 
of the control of the performance of the tree which can be obtained 
by root-stock selection in the nursery stage. Collection, descrip- 
tion, classification, and nomenclature have also been the first 
problems in the case of root-stocks. Following this, methods of 
vegetative propagation of selected varieties have been sought, and 
the Physiological Section has collaborated in this investigation. 
A detailed study of the reciprocal influence of stock and scion as 
indicated by vigour, cropping, disease resistance, root development, 
etc., has called for the co-ordination of the activities of all sections 
of the Staff. In the course of this work it has been found possible 
to effect a considerable measure of standardisation of horticultural 
material, and to obtain some knowledge of its potentialities. Such 
standardisation is absolutely necessary, not only for the effective 
planning and control of a commercial plantation, but also to reduce 
to reasonable limits the size of the plots necessary for experimental 

It has also been necessary to develop a technique in relation 
both to experimental plot planning and to measurement and 
observation, which, whilst adaptable to field conditions, will also 
afford results of known reliability. By these means it is possible 
to make a much more intensive study than hitherto of the reactions 
of the tree to external factors such as soil conditions, planting 
methods and pruning, spraying and manurial treatments, all of 
which subjects are under investigation. The control of apple scab 


and mildew, the brown rot fungi, and the bacterial canker of stone 
fruits are being dealt with by the Mycology Section. Similarly 
the Entomology Section is engaged in the testing of egg-killing 
washes, and in investigating the control of apple sawfly. 

The Range and Distribution of Apple Root Systems. The per- 
formance of a fruit plantation is frequently determined in some 
measure by the root growth of the trees. This fact has recently 
received much wider recognition than has hitherto been the case, 
probably due, to a large extent, to research work which has shown 
the very definite effects upon tree growth and fruiting obtained 
by the use of different root-stocks. The fact has remained, how- 
ever, that at present our knowledge concerning the actual form, 
spread, depth, growth, and general behaviour of fruit tree roots 
after the first year or so from planting is comparatively slight. 
This is scarcely to be wondered at, for while the branches of a 
tree are visible and accessible, the roots are securely hidden below 
ground, and are by no means easy to study, particularly as the 
tree becomes larger. 

The programme of intensive research on the roots of mature 
apple trees in operation at this station for two years, forming part 
of the general study of root-stocks, has already produced interesting 
and important results. The work involved the excavation in detail 
of the complete root systems of a number of comparable mature 
trees, whose whole life-history is known, grafted on various root- 
stocks, and growing in two different soils. The method used to 
isolate the root systems was to dig a trench beyond the area of 
the roots, and work it in definite steps across the whole area of 
soil into which the roots extended. The roots were carelally 
removed as the soil was loosened. Qualitative observations were 
made by mapping the roots individually. Finally it was possible 
to reconstruct the whole tree with each root in its original relative 
position. Quantitative results were obtained in other cases by 
removing the soil permeated by the roots in blocks of known size 
and position. The contained roots were then washed, graded, and 
weighed in the laboratory. A combination of the two methods 
has been used in later excavations. The trees excavated have 
all been of the variety Lane's Prince Albert, aged ten to eleven 
years, part of two of our Stock Trial Plots, on medium loam at 
Mailing (Lower Greensand) and light sand at Wisley (Bagshot 

The excavations show clearly that on both these soils the roots 
extend far beyond the branches. While the greatest weight of 
root is naturally in the area nearest the trunk, the fine fibrous 
roots are fairly evenly distributed over the whole area of the root 
system, a fact which indicates that for greatest efficiency manures 
should be spread over an area considerably greater than that 
covered by the branches of the tree. The old practice of placing 
manure in a small ring round the trunk, while doubtless, tending 


to encourage root development there, does not give the tree the 
fullest opportunity of using the nourishment provided. 

The trees at Mailing on vigorous and semi-dwarfing stocks, 
planted at 15' apart, showed considerable root interlacing at 
10 years old. The root systems were usually somewhat one-sided, 
but not consistently in any particular direction. The depth of the 
root systems was found to be much greater than was popularly 
believed. The deep roots did not spring directly from 
the trunk, but they descended, often quite vertically, from the 
more or less horizontal scaffolding of roots which occurs in about 
the top 15" of soil. Vertical roots often followed worm burrows, 
which appear to have a considerable influence upon the depth of 
rooting of the trees. At Mailing the depth limit was set by the 
rock (Kentish Rag) which occurs at a depth of 3 / -S / below the 
surface. The roots penetrated down to this, and in one case a 
tree on a very dwarfing stock Janne de Metz (No. IX) followed 
a depression to a depth of 9' 6". The great depth of root of these 
dwarf trees proves conclusively that their precocity and small size 
is not due in this case to shallow roots, as had previously been 
considered the case. At Wisley, although the sandy soil extends 
to a depth of several feet, the roots did not penetrate as deeply 
as in the loam at Mailing, and nowhere came in contact with rock. 
There are indications, however, that a fluctuating water table may 
have some influence on the root distribution in the sand. It is 
clear that there are considerable differences in range and dis- 
tribution of roots of different root-stocks in the same soil, and of 
similar stocks in different soils. 

The fundamental importance of this new work is becoming 
more and more apparent. Though the moving of many tons of 
earth to obtain about half as many pounds of roots is a long 
and laborious process, the information gained cannot fail to be of 
value, and interesting side-lights are appearing from the Entomo- 
logical, Biochemical, and Geological viewpoints. Progress in 
understanding all the many factors that affect fruit-tree root 
development is not likely to be very rapid, but it is encourag- 
ing to find such interesting results following our preliminary 

Vegetative Propagation. Early in the history of the Station it 
was realised, as the result of experiment and of observations in 
growing plantations, that if efficient control of tree performance was 
to be obtained by the use of suitable root-stocks, it was necessary 
to evolve methods of multiplying stock varieties possessing known 
potentialities in such a way as to maintain their characteristics. 
Until it shall be possible to discover and use races of stocks which 
will reproduce through seed without the variation which usually 
occurs in this process, the Station has concentrated its efforts on 
methods of vegetative propagation, whereby genetic uniformity of 
any given variety can be maintained absolutely, in the absence 


of sudden mutations which observations shows to be of rare 
occurrence in the deciduous fruits. Extensive trials have been 
carried out over a period of some 12 years using a gre at many 
varieties of stocks for apples, plums, pears, and cherries. In some 
cases satisfactory results were obtained from the outset, but in 
others it has been necessary to try several methods before success 
was obtained. 

Most apple stocks produce satisfactory numbers of rooted shoots 
from stools; while many plums, on the contrary, do not yield 
adequate crops of new plants when thus grown. Many of the 
varieties, when treated as layers, produce adequate numbers of 
new shoots annually, a large proportion of these, however, do not 
readily produce roots. Rooting is improved, though with some 
sacrifice as regards total shoot production, by covering the layers 
with soil immediately before bud-break, a process which results 
in etiolation of the bases of the shoots. The number of shoots 
obtained naturally increases, up to a point, with the age of the 
stool, and in both stools and layers it has been our common 
experience that better rooting occurs as the parent plants grow 
older, so that success has been obtained in later years with varieties 
which at first gave little promise. It is recognised, of course, that 
the procedure involved in propagation from stools and layers is 
somewhat troublesome, and it would be more satisfactory if equally 
good results were obtained from stem cuttings, but so far quinces 
and some varieties of plum are the only subjects which can be 
satisfactorily raised from hard wood cuttings. On the other hand, 
some Mahaleb cherries have as yet failed to respond to any pro- 
pagation method except that of soft wood cuttings. Mazzard 
cherries and pears have been multiplied by means of layers, while 
many varieties can also be raised from root cuttings when material 
is available. 

As a result of these extended trials it has been found possible 
to propagate vegetatively, by some method or other, every variety 
of fruit plant and root-stock which has been fully tested, although 
in order to obtain this success it has been necessary to study each 
variety individually, and to adapt the methods accordingly. 
Varieties even closely related do not necessarily react similarly 
to the same treatment, and generalised instructions are therefore 
impossible, but there is no reason to think that any variety will 
fail to respond to some modification of one of the many methods 
at the propagator's disposal. 

Intelligence. Even in the absence of any advisory staff at the 
Station, an effort is made to study the demand for the dis- 
semination of information which necessarily follows the publication 
of results or research. In addition to 31 lectures given to agricul- 
tural audiences, 153 personal visits have been paid to growers on 
their farms during the past year. Over 1,200 queries have been 
dealt with by post, and 1,700 enquirers have visited the Station 


to obtain information concerning the work in progress; whilst a 
large number of requests for advice have been dealt with by 
telephone. R. G. HATTON. 


Great educational progress has been made in the growing of 
the main crops of the area and in their marketing. Such progress 
can be attributed to the County Council educational propaganda 
work, to the demonstrations given, to the distribution of material, 
and to the object-lessons afforded by the Commercial Exhibitions. 
Among the direct achievements were: (i) the marketing of Roscoff 
broccoli on a commercial scale; (2) the exportation of experi- 
mental consignments of broccoli to Belgium and Germany. 

The Western Commercial Show continues to flourish; while the 
Bulb Sterilising Station run under County Supervision is proving 
a great boon to bulb growers of the district. 

Although a good deal of trial and experimental work goes on, 
our work is severely handicapped by the small size of the Station, 
which also functions on the lines of a demonstrative centre and 
enquiry bureau. Some additional experimental work has been 
undertaken with crops such as tobacco, pyrethrum, and the 
flowering periods of bulbs from various sources. The following 
figures and observations were compiled by the head gardener 
(A. E. Cunningham) and W. J. Moyse. 

Apples. There is a decided tendency with some varieties 
toward " biennial " cropping. This is most marked in the case 
of Col. Vaughan, American Mother, and to a certain extent in 
Newton Wonder, Allington Pippin, and Bismarck. The tendency 
is being kept in check by approved pruning, thinning, and manuring 
methods. Capsid Bug became a serious pest and is spreading, 
the variety Allington Pippin was the most seriously attacked. 
Some Cox's Orange Pippin trees had to be removed (through being 
badly attacked by canker) demonstrating that the variety is un- 
suitable for West Country planting. Various tar- oil washes were 
used for Winter spraying, and lime-sulphur against scab. 

Broccoli. The work of the Station in seeding, selecting, and 
distributing the Roscoff forms, irrespective of season, probably 
brought in an additional sum of some 10,000 to the district during 
the season 1928-9. The broccoli trials were continued with the 
object of grouping the different strains of Roscoff. This work 
aims at supplying a succession, or giving a continuity of supply, 
of this variety during the period November to April. Previous 
trials proved that the Roscoff varieties when seeded in the district 
give better crops than when seeded elsewhere. The cutting period 
of many Roscoff forms extends over a period of six weeks, and it 
is hoped by selection to get the cutting periods reduced, and at 
the same time get a succession of strains. Results of Trials: 

Early St. Laud (direct from France). December 20th.* Leaf 
* First Cuttings made. 


dropping bad. Late Angers (once grown in Essex) . February 25th.* 
Leaf dropping bad. Early St. Laud (once grown in Essex). 
December 22nd.* Leaf dropping bad. Early Angers (once grown 
in Essex). February 2oth.* Poor. Sultan's Early Roscoff. 
January 26th.* Very poor type. Second Early Roscoff. 
March I5th.* Very good indeed. Gulval i. Plant Selfed. 
March I5th.* Excellent late strain, regular. Gulval No. i. 
Selected. March I5th.* Showed some leaf variation, but good 
heads. Veitch Roscoff. December igth.* Very mixed, but some 
good heads. Gulval Early Roscoff. November 2jrd.* Very poor. 
Gulval Early St. Malo. November 22nd.* Very good strain; 
should be retained. Gulval Half Roscoff. Very poor. Gulval 
1925 Roscoff. Tregoning saving. January 15 th.* Produced good 
class heads. The seed of all varieties was sown about April 20, 
1928. The Roscoff strains were subjected to a very severe test 
during the very cold winter, and there is much satisfaction in 
learning that these strains are capable of withstanding extreme 



Cabbage variety trials were held, also Spinach variety trials. 
Experimental floriculture was concerned with varieties of Heli- 
chrysum, Calendula, and Statice. 


Tho area of land devoted to the commercial production of crops 
under glass in the Lea Valley (Herts, Essex, and Middlesex) is 
approximately 1,500 acres. More than half of this is in Hert- 
fordshire, where it is safe to estimate that capital amounting to 
2,000,000 is locked up in the industry, and employment is found 
for about 5,000 workers. 

The glass-house industry has a remarkable history of rapid 
progress and development since the first houses were built about 
1880, and has resulted in the establishment and concentration 
of an extremely intense form of Horticultural in the south-east 
of the county. One notable feature has been the enterprise of the 
growers. There is no better evidence of this than the fact that 
they, on their own initiative, and originally at their own expense, 
were responsible for starting research work to find solutions for the 
difficulties experienced in growing their crops. 

In such a complex and specialised business as that of growing 
tomatoes, cucumbers, and other crops under glass, it is of chief 
importance that growers and workers should have received some 
technical training. The large capital involved, and the lower 
margin of profit due to foreign competition, make the method of 
* First Cuttings made. 


learning by trial and error too hazardous for modern conditions. 
As in other industries, a groundwork of practical experience linked 
with technical instruction is the basis of commercial success. 
Similarly, high wages, unless combined with skill and a sense 
of responsibility, are an intolerable burden. A training centre, 
supported by an area of commercial glass-houses, was therefore 
started at this Institute. This plant is run as a demonstration, 
profit-earning department. It provides the indispensable practical 
and commercial basis for the instruction given in the class-room 
or among the plants. Skill in manual work is developed, and the 
reasons for each operation discussed or explained. Tillage, 
manuring, control of pests, diseases, etc., form subjects for study. 
Marketing, income, and expenditure are discussed and exemplified. 
The area of glass erected for educational purposes extends to 
1 1 acres, with packing sheds, frames, etc. Peaches, vines, bedding 
plants, tomatoes, cucumbers, and carnations are being grown. 
The aim is to grow the best possible crops at the minimum cost, 
and to market the produce to the best advantage. To the other 
activities of the Institute is now added the provision of a specialised 
training, practical and technical, for those who choose to take up 
this form of Horticulture. 


Experiments were carried out in the manuring of varieties of 
fruit trees, tomatoes, and other crops. 


The investigation and research work in progress in the Botanical 
and Entomological Departments has yielded some encouraging 
results. In the case of Hollyhock Rust and Fire Blight in Tulips, 
Mr. Holmes Smith has found it possible to control both diseases 
very effectively. Variety Trials of Onions for resistance to White 
Rot have shown the superiority of certain varieties over others, 
and one Autumn-sowing variety has, in addition, shown extreme 
resistance to frost. A simple method for the dual control of 
Clubroot and Root Maggot in Brassicae has been satisfactorily 
worked out as well as one for the control of Celery Rust ; while 
the employment of Lime-Sulphur for the control of Apple Scab 
in Northern orchards has proved the most effective and least 
damaging to the foliage and fruits. Investigations into the cause 
of " Potato sickness/' and the relation between the age or con- 
dition of a Potato plant and the incidence of Potato Blight, are 
in progress. 

Further trials of tar-distillate washes continue to demonstrate 
the value of these Winter washes in controlling some of the more 
important insect pests of fruit trees. Experiments are still in 
progress on the control of root flies, and Mr. H. W. Miles is obtaining 


interesting results with insecticides containing creosote and 
naphthalene. The study of the life-history of the Pith Moth of 
the Apple has now been completed, and a full account will be 
published shortly. Research work on Slugs has created a good 
deal of local interest, and treatment with copper sulphate continues 
to give satisfactory control of this ubiquitous pest. Studies on 
the insect pests of Ornamental Trees and Shrubs are being initiated, 
and it is hoped that the work will receive support. 


Experiments carried out during the year included investigations 
concerning: varieties of Onions; varieties of Beans; Carrot root 
fly; Onion root fly; Cabbage root fly; Parsnip canker. 

T. M. 


Carried out during the year were demonstrations on Cider 
Orchards, Potato Variety Trials, Manurial demonstrations on 
vegetable plots, Dry spraying of Potatoes, Brassica and Potato 
Trials, County demonstration allotments. 


Some of the Researches carried out during 1928-9. 

Physics Department. B. A. Keen, D.Sc., F.Inst.P. Investi- 
gation of the relations between soils and water is being conducted 
by Dr. Keen, (a) Field experiments on cultivation and their 
effects on the soil. In this section much use is made of a recording 
dynamometer, (b) Laboratory investigation of the physical and 
chemical factors responsible for the production of tilth in soils. 

Entomology Department. A. D. Imms, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S. 
Dr. Imms is making an extended study of the nature and extent 
of the control exercised by indigenous parasites and predators over 
the chief agricultural pests. 

Bee Research. D. M. T. Morland, M.A. The programme 
accords with recommendations of the Bee Research Committee, 
viz. : (a) Feeding experiments on the relative values of cane and 
beet sugar as winter food, (b) Experiments at Kimpton Hoo on 
the Warm and Cold Way problem, (c) The technique of controlled 
mating, particularly with the Watson method of Artificial Insemi- 
nation, with a view to attacking the problems of inheritance in 
the bee. 

Bacteriology Department. H. G. Thornton, B.A. Mr. Thorn- 
ton's inoculation investigations carried out for several years, and 
last year at 39 centres all over the country, have shown that after 
inoculation lucerne can be grown as well in the north and west 
of the country as in the south-east. The important practical 


question remains of comparing lucerne sown in Spring with a cover 
crop and lucerne sown in Summer without it. 

Insecticide and Fungicide Department. F. Tattersfield, D.Sc., 
F.I.C. The study is being carried out of the insecticidal action 
of plant extracts and synthetic organic compounds, special attention 
being given to Pyrethrum. 

Mycology Department. Wm. B. Brierley, D.Sc., F.L.S. Dr. 
Brierley is continuing his work on the physiological and genetic 
analysis of fungi and the study of virulent strains. Mr. R. H. 
Stoughton is studying the " Black Arm " disease of cotton, caused 
by Bacillus malvacearum. A special grant has been made by the 
Empire Marketing Board for the study of the nature of virus 
disease. The work is carried out largely on potatoes and tomatoes. 

Chemistry Department. E. M. Crowther, D.Sc., F.I.C., A.Inst.P. 
The form in which nitrogen is taken by the plant is being re- 
investigated by Dr. Crowther and Dr. Richardson. A further 
and fuller study is being made of the nitrification process in soils. 
The influence of the growing crop and of the ploughing in of green 
crops on nitrification is being studied on the green- manure plots 
at Woburn. The enormous extension in the production of 
nitrogenous fertilisers from the air has completely altered the 
situation so far as these are concerned, and much fuller experimental 
work is now being carried out to discover: (a) the detailed effects 
and relative agricultural values of the different substances now 
available; (b) the influence of quantity of nitrogen and time of 
application on character of growth, composition and quality of 
crop and yield. Investigations are also taking place with regard 
to phosphatic and Potassic fertilisers. 

B. A. KEEN. 


In addition to Trials of hybrid oats, over 1,500 seedling potatoes 
were grown for comparison and selection. Attention has been 
concentrated on the production of seedling potatoes of agricultural 
value which are free from virus disease. Several promising seed- 
lings apparently free from virus disease are undergoing initial trials. 

Pasture forms of perennial ryegrass, cocksfoot, and timothy 
have been collected and are being studied. Certain forms of these 
grasses are now being multiplied. Investigations are also being 
made to discover whether Plantago maritima will be of value as 
a constituent of pastures where there is excess of wild white clover. 

Many parent " roots " of swedes were selected on the basis of 
chemical analysis. An attempt is being made to trace the origin 
of the type known as a " Bulbless Bolter." The inheritance of 
flesh colour in one hybrid was found to be controlled by two 




The chief work and objects of the Horticultural Section of the 
Farm Institute are: (i) To give occular demonstrations on the 
various phases of commercial horticulture, more especially relating 
to fruit and vegetable growing. (2) By demonstration trials and 
experiments to translate the work of Research Stations along 
practical lines, and to adapt the findings of research to the par- 
ticular conditions of Somerset. (3) Comparative trials of varieties, 
methods, manuring, and other special treatments for the informa- 
tion of growers in the county. (4) To provide practical training 
and instruction to students by methods which should equip them 
with practical experience and information, and enable them to 
take up Horticulture as a career. 

The Horticultural Section occupies about 18 acres of land. 
(a) Gardens, attached to the Institute. Five walled in portions 
3 acres in area, dating back three centuries or more. Entirely 
replanted in 1920. (b) Fruit Plantation and Market Garden of 
about 15 acres planted in 1925 and 1929. 

Institute Gardens. When the Institute was opened in 1920 
these gardens were very derelict; they were thoroughly cleaned, 
and were replanted to adapt them for educational purposes. The 
chief items of interest are: (i) Cordon Pears on walls planted in 
a succession of years as trees raised by students were available. 
These trees are on various root-stocks for trial. The varieties are 
those chiefly grown for commercial sale. (2) Apple trees, to 
demonstrate the effect of several recognised methods of pruning 
upon growth and cropping. (3) Other trees show the effect of 
manurial treatments, specialised pruning, ringing, etc. (4) There 
is a collection of commercial varieties of Gooseberries and Currants 
and recently introduced Plums. 

Trials of commercial varieties of vegetables and methods of 
cultivation are carried out on various crops each season. A few 
selected kinds of flowers are grown for cut-flower sale. 

Fruit Plantation and Market Garden, (i) Taws Field. 3 acres 
planted in 1925 to demonstrate the planning of a small fruit 
plantation. Half-standard Apples with bush apples and pears 
as fillers. About i acre of Black Currants in five varieties for 
pruning and cropping trials. Gooseberries and Raspberries : Collec- 
tion of commercial varieties. (2) Skippers Down. About u acres 
planted in 1929, for demonstration experiments, (a) The effect 
of Dung, Nitrogen, Phosphates, and Potash for Apples, Black 
Currants, Gooseberries, and Strawberries. About 3 acres divided 
into 12 plots. (6) Demonstration of Black Currant Culture. Age 
of bush at planting. Promotion of Vigour. Manuring. Pruning. 
Comparisons of strains of Baldwin's Black variety, (c) Intensive 
planting of Apples and Pears, controlled by an adapted Lorette 
system of pruning and by manuring, (d) Vegetable Culture on 


Market Garden Systems to be arranged from the Autumn of 1929. 
(e) Demonstration of varieties and strains of Asparagus, and the 
effects of Nitrogen, Phosphates, and Potash on growth and cropping. 
The Nursery. Demonstration and practice in raising of fruit tree 
stocks. Propagation of fruit trees, bushes, and general nursery 
work. Tools and Appliances on View. Simar Rototiller Motor 
Cultivator. Planet wheeled tools. Various spraying machines. 
Powder-spraying guns, etc. 

W. D. HAY, B.Sc. (Agr.). 


An increasing interest in the work of this recently established 
Station is being shown by the growers of the district. Its position 
on the arterial road is a great asset, as it constantly reminds 
growers of its object service to the Tamar Valley intensive 
industry. It has already achieved something, if only as a demon- 
strative centre for manual processes, for labour-saving devices and 
machinery, such as motor cultivators, dry sprayers, etc. The 
Station now functions as a crop weather station under the Ministry 
of Agriculture, and continues its work as a fruit sub-station under 
the R.H.S. We have still to complete the layout, particularly in 
the matter of roads and paths. Perennial weeds are being reduced, 
and the Simar Rototiller and motor hoe should help in this matter. 
It would be of benefit to the Station if suitable students could 
be obtained. The Station has already taught the strawberry 
growers that by selection and early (July) planting they get 
increased vigour, and a gain in time and crop which must mean 
increased returns. The striking growth between July and October 
planted runners could be seen half a mile away. A certain amount 
of the seed-saving work on Roscoff broccoli was transferred from 
Gulval to Ellbridge on account of its isolation from a Brassica 
seeding standpoint. The excellent Roscoff heads produced during 
the Winter show that these varieties could be profitably grown 
in parts of the Tamar Valley. Two public bulb sterilisers have 
been erected (under the Cornwall County Council's supervision) 
in the district. The Station supplied a quantity of strawberry 
runners and bush fruits to school gardens, and to a number of 
commercial growers. 

Apples and Plums. The influence of the different stock types 
on apples is becoming more apparent. The characters of precocity 
were constant. 

Strawberries. Time of Planting Trial. The importance of time 
of planting is emphasised by the phenomenal difference between 
July, August, and October planted runners. A grower planting 
early should harvest over 10 cwt. of fruit more per acre in the 
first bearing year, and being high-grade fruit this would mean 
a gross return of at least 25 per acre more than that received 
from late Autumn or Spring planted runners. 



Broccoli. In order to test the Roscoff broccoli in the Tamar 
Valley, a trial of some 12 strains was planted. St. Malo, selected 
at Gulval. Failed to germinate. Roscoff No. i, selected at Gulval. 
March.* Good heads. Roscoff No. i, re-selected at Gulval. 
March.* Good heads. Roscoff No. i, seeded at Gulval. Late.* 
Half Roscoff, seeded once at Gulval. Late.* Damaged by frost. 
2nd Early Roscoff Giles. Late.* Early Roscoff Buttons. February.* 
Damaged by frost. Early Roscoff, from France. February.* 
Damaged by frost. Roscoff No. i, 1924, seeded at Gulval. March.* 
Damaged by frost. Poscoff No. i, 1925, seeded at Gulval. March.* 
Roscoff, seeded Gulval, 1927. March.* Roscoff, Gulval, 1925 
(source Tregonning). Late.* Good heads. In spite of the severe 
weather and windswept position of the Station, many excellent 
heads matured. Some of the early ones were damaged by frost. 
In view of the suitability of the district for broccoli seeding, it 
was decided after roguing and selection to seed the bulk of the 



The series of experiments with fertilisers on lawn grass carried 
out in 1928, which roused much popular interest, were again 
continued, with the difference that only half a plot was treated. 
The results proved to be similar to those obtained the previous 
year. (For details see Year Book, 1929, pp. 58-9.) 

* In season. 



Book of the Tree. Edited by Georgina Mase. Peter Davies. 6/- 

BACON, FRANCIS. Of Gardens. De la More Press, i/-, 2/- net. 

Bacon's well-known essay attractively produced as a small gift 

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BUN YARD, E. A. The Anatomy of Desert. Dulau. 10/6 net. 

Pomologist and student, out of the storehouse of his knowledge 
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Cox, E. H. M., F.L.S. Wild Gardening. Dulau. 5/- net. 

Mr. Cox has given a book that was much needed, not only on 
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EDWARDS, A. Rock Gardens: How to Plan and Plant Them, with 
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The increasing popularity of Rock Gardens makes a book on 
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GRIEVE, MRS. A Modern Herbal. Edited by Mrs. C. F. Leyel. 

HAMPDEN, MARY. Flower Culture Month by Month. Jenkins. 

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SHELTON, L. Beautiful Gardens in America. Cheap Ed. Scribner. 

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VAN DE PASS, CRISPAN. Hortus Floridus. Vol. II. Reprint. 

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WRIGHT, WALTER P. Garden Trees and Shrubs. Allen & Unwin. 

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The Editor of The London Naturalist has given a delightful 
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BLOSSFELDT, PROF. KARL. Art Forms in Nature. Zwemmer. 

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CAREY. M. C. Flower Legends. Pearson. 2/- net. 2nd Ed. re- 

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DAVIES, WILLIAM C. Photography as an Aid to the Study of Plants 
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MARTINEAU, MRS. PHILIP. Cantaloupe to Cabbage. Cobden San- 
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NICHOLSON, E. M. How Birds Live. 2nd Ed. Williams & Norgate. 

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PARKER, ERIC. English Wild Life. English Heritage Series. 

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PETTIGREW, W. W., V.M.H. Handbook of the Parks and Recreation 
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PORTER, JOHN. The Crop Grower's Companion. Gurney & Jack- 
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POUCHER, W. A., PH.C. Perfumes, Cosmetics and Soaps. Vol. II. 
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RAVEN, CHARLES E., D.D. Bird Haunts and Bird Behaviour. 

Martin Hopkinson. 10/6 net. 

Birds are so essentially a part of the garden that bird books 
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REDGROVE, H. STANLEY, B.Sc., A.I.C. Scent and All about It: 
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In addition to the synthetic perfumes which the work of the 
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Blonde or Brunette? A Complete Account of the Theory and 
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(Medical Books) Ltd. 7/6 net. 

Henna, Lawsonia alba, with other plants, including Chamomiles, 
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Report on the Development and Costs of the Oxford Process for the 
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Seed Trade Buyers' Guide. The Seed World. Chicago. $i. 
STEP, EDWARD. British Insect Life. A Popular Introduction to 

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SMETHAM, HENRY. C.R.S. and His Friends, being Personal Recollec- 
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THOMPSON, C. J. S. The Mystery and Art of the Apothecary. Lane. 

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TREVELYAN, G. M. Must England's Beauty Perish. Faber. i/- net. 
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TURNOR, CHRISTOPHER. The Land: Agricultural and National 

Economy. John Lane, i/- net. 

Three lectures given at Rugby on the history of English agricul- 
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by rats and other animal and vegetable pests is very great ; many 
million pounds sterling could be saved every year if existing legis- 
lation against these pests were enforced." All three lectures deserve 
attention and thought. 
WAUGH, FREDERICK V. Quality as a Determinant of Vegetable 

Prices. Columbia Univ. Press. King. io/-. 
WESTELL, W. PERCIVAL, F.L.S., F.S.A. Scot. Nature in Field and 


Nature in Wood and Forest. Sheldon Press. 2/6 net each. 
Where the Bee Sucks. Poems chosen by lolo A. Williams. Paintings 

by Katharine Cameron, R.S.W., A.R.E. The Medici Society. 

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An anthology of old flower poems, "a bouquet, rather than 
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"Mountain Fern" is a delicate gem. It is hard to believe it is by 
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WHITE, GILBERT. The Natural History of Selborne. Ed, by 

E. M. Nicholson. Thornton Butterworth. 42/- net. Ed. de 

Luxe. IQ5/- net. 
WOODWARD, MARCUS. How to Enjoy Birds. Hodder & Stoughton. 

2/6 net. 

A pleasantly written book that will tell young people something 
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WRANGHAM, S. D. Wasps and How to Destroy Them. Pilot Press. 

WRIGHT, F. J. The New Nature Study. Thornton Butterworth. 

5/- net. 

An introduction to the new science of phenology, the relation 
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but also of practical use. 
WRIGHT, RICHARDSON. The Gardener's Bed-Book. Short and long 

Pieces to be read in Bed by Those who love Husbandry and the 

green growing Things of Earth. Lippincott. $2.50. 
Between the "Pieces" short cultural directions or maxims are 
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there is much to recommend it to English readers. 


Agricultural Research in 1927. Murray, i/- net. 

Agricultural Statistics. H.M.S.O. 1/3. 

AKENHEAD, D. Viticultural Research. H.M.S.O. i/- net. 

ALLAN, H. H. New Zealand Trees and Shrubs. Whitcombe & 

Tombs. 6/6 net. 
ARTHUR, J. C., and others. The Plant Rusts (Uredinales). Wiley, 

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ASAMI, YOSHICHI. The Crab-Apples and Nectarines of Japan. 

Marquis Nabeshima. Tokyo. 
A Survey of the Soils and Fruit of the Wisbech Area. Research 

Monograph, No. 6. Min. of Agric. H.M.S.O. 3/6. 
AUCHER, E. O., and KNAPP, H. B. Orchard and Small Fruit 

Culture. Wiley, New York. Chapman & Hall. 25/- net. 
BEAR, F. E. Theory and Practice in the Use of Fertilisers. Wiley, 

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BEWS, J. W. The World's Grasses: Their differentiation, distribution, 

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of Manitoba. Longmans. 7/6 net. 
BOSE, SIR JAGADIS CHUNDER. Growth and Tropic Movements of 

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A record of devoted, careful and detailed research, beautifully 


BOWER, PROF. F. O., F.R.S. The Origin of a Land Flora. Huxley 

Memorial Lecture. 1929. Macmillan. i/- net. 
Prof. Bower inaugurated regular courses of botanical instruction 
at the Royal Ci 'lege of Science in 1882, when Huxley was its 
President. From these the Department of Botany in the Imperial 
College of Science was evolved. The lecture is a revision of The 
Origin of a Land Flora published in 1908. The origin of the existing 
land flora is still a matter of controversy. This paper sums up the 
present state of our knowledge, and gives the author's theories on 
the subject, with a re-statement of his Theory of Interpolation. 
British Hardwoods: Their Structure and Identification. Dept. of 

Scientific and Industrial Research. H.M.S.O. 5/- net. 
BROOKS, F. T. Plant Diseases. Ox. Univ. Press. 2i/-. 
BULLER, A. H. REGINALD. Practical Botany. Longmans. 6/- net. 
BURGESS, C., M.A. Sugar Beet in the Eastern Counties, 1928. 

Univ. of Camb. Dept. of Agric. Farm Economics Branch, 

Report No. 13. No. 2. Heffer. 2/6. 
BUSGEN, DR. M. The Structure and the Life of Forest Trees. 

3rd Ed. Revised and enlarged. Trans, by Thomas 

Thomson. Chapman & Hall. 3o/- net. 
CALVERT, ALBERT F., F.C.S. Daffodil Growing for Pleasure and 

Profit. Dulau. 2i/- net. 
CARSLAW, R. McG., M.A. Four Years' Farming in East Anglia, 

1923-27, Heffer. 3/- net. 

Report No. 12 of Cambridge University Farms Economics 
Branch is mainly concerned with purely agricultural matters, but 
notes on Fruit and Soils (with diagram) of the approximate district 
are of interest to horticulturists also. 
CLARK-KENNEDY, A. E. Stephen Hales, D.D., F.R.S. An 

Eighteenth Century Biography. Camb. Univ. Press. I5/- net. 
Stephen Hales, author of Vegetable Statics, will be remembered 
as a botanist for his work on the flow of sap. The genus Halesia 
(Snowdrop Tree) was named in his honour by John Ellis. His 
experiments and researches in plant physiology, root pressure, 
transpiration, and capillarity placed him above and beyond his 
botanical contemporaries. A chapter of this bibliography is 
devoted to this, but botanists will regret that there are no more 
than passing references to his "simpling" with his friend Stukeley 
round Cambridge, while his "botanical experiments in his garden 
at Teddington are only mentioned in a footnote, and but brief 
mention is made of his visits to Kew to give Princess Augusta 
"practical advice in the management of her gardens." The large 
hot-house pulled down in 1861 had special ventilation pipes designed 
by him. Botany was, however, only one of the varied interests 
that occupied his long and useful life. There is a good index and 
some finely reproduced illustrations. 
COCKAYNE, DR. L., Ph.D., F.R.S., F.N.Z.Inst. The Vegetation of 

New Zealand. 2nd Ed. Haberland, Leipzig. 42/-, cloth 45/-. 



The Trees of New Zealand. N.Z. State Forest Service, 

Wellington. 4/-. 
CRAIG, J. W. Commercial Tomato C allure. 3rd Ed. Benn. 2/6 


CROOKALL, R. Coal Measure Plants. Arnold. 12/6 net. 
CROWFOOT, GRACE M. Flowering Plants of the Northern and Central 

Sudan. Wheldon & Wesley. 7/6 net. 
DEARSON, H. H. W. Gentales. Camb. Botanical Handbooks. Cam. 

Univ. Press. i8/- net. 
DE ROTHSCHILD, LIONEL. Field Notes of Rhododendrons and Other 

Plants collected by Kingdon Ward in 1927-28. 
DYKES, W. R., M.A., L. es L., V.M.H. Notes on Tulip Species. 

Edited by E. Katherine Dykes. Jenkins. 6 6s. 
EARLE, F. S. Sugar Cane and Its Culture. Wiley, New York. 

Chapman & Hall. 22/6. 
ENDEAN, T. M. Cacti Culture. 
EYON, LEWIS, F.I.C., and LANE, J. HENRY, B.Sc., F.I.C. Starch: 

Its Chemistry, Technology and Uses. Heffer. 12/6 net. 
FISK, EMMA L., and ADDOMS, RUTH M. A Laboratory Manual of 

General Botany. Macmillan. 4/6 net. 
Flowering Plants of South Africa. Vol. IX. 
GAUMANN, DR., and DODGE, DR. Comparative Morphology of 

Plants. McGraw Hill, New York. 37/6. 
GODWIN, H., and TANSLEY, A. G. The Vegetation of Wicken Fen. 

Part V of The Natural History of Wicken Fen. Edited by 

Prof. J. Stanley Gardiner, F.R.S. Bowes, Cambridge. 5/- 


The first portion of the fifth part of the Wicken Fen series gives 
the vegetative history of the Fen. The need for funds to prevent 
it becoming worthless thicket is shown. Successive papers by 
other authors deal with its Diptera and Trichoptera. 
Grape Fruit Culture in B.W.I, and British Honduras. H.M.S.O. 

i/- net. 
HALL, SIR A. DANIEL, K.C.B., LL.D., Sc.D., F.R.S. Fertilisers 

and Manures. 3rd Ed. rev. and enl. Murray. 8/- 
The Book of the Tulip. Martin Hopkinson. 2i/- net. 
The outcome of thirty years' experience and wide reading, this 
is a book by an expert for experts, but also for the inexpert who 
desire to amend ignorance. After dealing with the Tulip's life 
cycle and the history of its introduction to gardens, the systematic 
relationships of tulip species is carefully examined so far as present 
knowledge of the genus permits. Descriptions are given of Tulips 
in cultivation, with valuable cultural notes. The Garden Tulip 
and the English Florists' Tulip have respective chapters, whilst 
others deal with "sports," cultivation, and propagation. A short 
bibliography and three indices (Species, Varieties, General) are 
included. No amateur who desires to have something more than 


casual knowledge can afford and no expert will wish to be without 

this notable addition to the horticultural library. 

HAMBLIN, STEPHEN F. American Rock Gardens. Orange Judd Pub. 

Co. New York. $1.25. Kegan Paul. 7/6 net. 
HARDENBURG. Bean Culture. New York. Macmillan. I2/- net. 
HART, J. N. Rose Growing. Ward, Lock, i/- net. 

With the knowledge of an experienced and successful rose 
grower, Mr. Hart has " edited" a useful handbook wherein he has 
collected a mass of practical information and advice. It is illus- 
trated with many informative diagrams. The list of insecticides 
and fungicides, and "The Rose Grower's Calendar" will be welcomed 
by many amateurs. 
HAWLEY, R. C. The Practice of Silviculture, with Particular 

Reference to its Application in the U.S.A. 2nd Ed. Wiley, 

New York. Chapman & Hall. London. 2o/- net. 
HENDERSON, I. F., and W. D. A Dictionary of Scientific Terms: 

pronunciation, derivation, and definition of terms in biology, 

botany, etc. 2nd Ed. revised. Oliver & Boyd. i6/- net. 
KINGSTON, MAJ. R. W. G., M.C. Problems of Instinct and Intelli- 
gence. Arnold. 10/6 net. 
Horticultural Enterprises. Edited by Kary C. Davis, Ph.D. 

4th Ed. Farm Enterprises Series. Lippincott. 10/6 net. 
This American school textbook purports to provide the most 
up-to-date information on the garden, the orchard, and small fruit. 
Some of the information and most cultural details are for America, 
not this country. In this connection it is well to remember, as 
a fellow countryman of the author's has confessed, that the 
American's ''heritage is mainly British" (see WRIGHT above), and 
additions to it are for local conditions. The comparison of English 
and American methods is interesting in itself. The book is well 
produced, strongly and flexibly bound, with the advantage that it 
opens easily and flatly. It is also well illustrated. 
HOAR, P., and HILL, J. G. An Introduction to the Chemistry of 

Plant Products. Vol. II. Metabolic Processes. 2nd Ed. 

Longmans. 10/6 net. 

HOTTES, ALFRED CARL. The Book of Shrubs. New York. 
HUDDLESON, I. FOREST. The Differentiation of the Species of the 

Genus Brucella. Tech. Bulletin. No. 100. Michigan State 

HUME, H. HAROLD. Gardening in the Lower South. Macmillan. 

2i/- net. 

An instructive and interesting account of gardening in S. Carolina, 
Georgia, Florida, and the south of Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, 
and Eastern Texas, with cultural details of plants grown there. 
Well produced and illustrated. There is a good index. 
Index Londinensis. Rev. and enl. ed. of Pritzel's Index. Ed. by 

O. Stapf (See. R.H.S.). Vol. i. Clarendon Press. IO5/- 



JONES, ARTHUR, B.Sc., and MAKINGS, S. M., N.D.A. Celery Pro- 
duction and Marketing in the Isle of Axholme. Survey 
Studies, No. I. Midland Agric. Col. Sutton Bonnington. i/-. 
LEVYNS, M. R. Lecturer in Botany, Univ. of Cape Town. Guide 
to the Flora of the Cape Peninsula. Juta. Cape Town. 
15/6 net. 
LINDSAY, ARTHUR WARD. Textbook of Evolution and Genetics. 

New York. Macmillan. 12/6 net. 

LONG, H. C., B.Sc.(Edin.). Weeds of Arable Land. Mis. Pub. Mini 
of Agric. No. 61. H.M.S.O. 2/6 paper covers, 3/- qrt. 
bound, 3/6 cloth, net, post free. 

The Editor of the Journal of the Ministry of Agriculture published 
in 1928 a book on poisonous plants. This comprehensive book on 
weeds is its companion volume, and could only have been produced 
at the price as a Government publication. Unlike many garden 
books its value is in inverse ratio to its price. Damage done by 
weeds, their indication of soil conditions, how they are distributed, 
form subjects for the first chapters, followed by practical advice 
on prevention and suppression. A short bibliography is given and 
an index. Not the least valuable part of a most useful book is 
the final section of 101 illustrations, the majority excellent line 
drawings that show seed, seedling growth, root, and flowering plant 
of typical weeds. A practical and interesting book for all gardeners. 
LOWSON, J. M., and Fox, L. C. A Textbook of Botany. 7th Ed. 
McCooL, M. M., and BOUYOUCOS, G. J. Causes and Effects of Soil 
Heaving. Tech. Bulletin No. 102. Michigan State College. 
MCKELVEY, SUSAN DELANO. The Lilac: A Monograph. Macmillan. 

3 155. net (American). 

Miss McKelvey has undertaken an immense amount of work in 
compiling this monograph. Not only is every known species of 
syringa carefully described, and most of them illustrated, but the 
colour chart at the end of the book enables the specialist (whether 
professional or amateur) to identify the unnamed varieties in his 
or her possession. P. A. 

MAIDEN, J. H., F.R.S., F.L.S. A Critical Revision of the Genus 

Eucalyptus. Part 10. Vol. VII. 

MARSHALL, W. E. Consider the Lilies. 2nd Ed. Marshall & Co., 
New York. W. F. Constable, Commercial Road, Paddock 
Wood. 5/6. 

After brief notes on Lilies in general, no varieties are described 
in alphabetical order, with culture hints (for America). The book 
is very fully illustrated with coloured pictures. The Flowering 
Time-Table is for New York. At such a popular price the book 
should be welcome to many as of interest and use, though the 
difference in climatic conditions must be remembered where ques- 
tions of cultivation are concerned. 

MATSUURA, HAJIME. A Bibliographical Monograph on Plant 
Genetics. Tokyo Impl. Univ. Dulau. io/- net. 


MAXIMOV, N. A. The Plant in Relation to Water. A Study of the 

Physiological Basis of Drought Resistance. Trans, and Ed. 

by R. H. Yapp. Allen & Unwin. 2i/-. 
MAYURANATHAN, P. V., B.A. The Flowering Plants of Madras City 

and its immediate Neighbourhood. Bulletin of Madras 

Government Museum. New Series. Government Press, 

Madras. Rs. 8. 
NICHOLLS, Sir H. A. A Text-book of Tropical Agriculture. 2nd Ed. 

Revised by J. A. Holland, F.I.S. Macmillan. I5/- net. 
NISSLEY, CHARLES H. Starting Early Vegetables and Flowering 

Plants under Glass. Orange Judd. New York. $3. 
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AMATEUR GARDENING for Town and Country. 

Founded 1884. Editor : A. J. Macself. Letters to : \V. H. and L. 
Collingridge, Ltd., 148-9 Aidersgate Street, E.C. i. Telegrams : Colling- 
ridges, Cent, London. Telephone : National 0802-3-4. Illustrated. 
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Editor: James Gray, King's College, Cambridge. Published by 
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CASTLE'S GUIDE to the Fruit, Flower, Vegetable, and Allied Trades. 
Founded 1912. 166 Fleet Street, E.C. 4. Telephone: Central 
1811. los. 6d. Postage 9d. 


Founded 1909. Allied Newspapers Ltd.. Withy Grove, Man- 
chester. 6d. 


Founded 1897. Horticultural Editor : G. C. Taylor, B.Sc., F.L.S.. 
20 Tavistock Street, Co vent Garden, W.C. 2. Telegrams : Country 
Life, London. Telephone : Temple Bar 7351. is. W. Fridays. 
Illustrated. Special gardening articles every week, and Gardening 
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Founded 1927. Editor : J. W. Robertson Scott, Idbury, Kingham, 
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miscellany of rural life and progress, edited and published in the country. 


See R.H.S. Publications. 


Founded 1853. Windsor House, Bream's Buildings, E.C. 4. 
Telegrams : Field Newspaper, London. Telephone: Holborn 3682. 
is. W. Saturdays. Every phase of gardening in the Open Air and 
Under Glass is dealt with, and a Gardening Supplement is published 
in the Spring and Autumn. 


Founded 1925. Published by The Retail Fruiterers' and Florists' 
Association, Ltd., 6 Russell Chambers, Covent Gardent, W.C. 2. 
Telephone : Temple Bar 4137 (2 lines). Monthly. 2d. Supplied to the 
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Published by the Lockwood Press, I Mitre Court, Fleet Street, 
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Published by Benn Brothers, Bouverie House, Fleet Street, E.C. 4. 
Telephone : City 0244 (10 lines). 3d. W. Thursdays. Trade and 
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Founded 1841. Editor : C. H. Curtis, F.L.S., 5 Tavistock Street, 
Covent Garden, W.C. 2. Telegrams : Gardchron, Rand, London. 
Telephone : Temple Bar 7819. 6d. W. Fridays. Illustrated. Won 
Silver Medal, Ghent, 1903. Gold Medal, Dusseldorf, 1904. Gold 
Medal, Paris, 1905. Gold Medal, Ghent, 1908. Silver Medal, Berlin, 
1909. Silver-gilt Medal, Paris, 1927. Grand Prix, Ghent, 1928. 
Special features, 1929-30: Accounts of the journeys in Asia of the 
celebrated botanical traveller, Capt. F. Kingdon Ward, F.R.G.S. 
Articles on legal questions connected with Horticulture. Descriptions 
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Founded 1879. Editor : Herbert Cowley, Bouverie House, Fleet 
Street, E.C. 4. Telephone : City 0244. 2d. W. Saturdays. Illus- 
trated. Special features 1929-30 : Articles on newer and finer varieties 
of plants and shrubs. Illustrated reports of R.H.S. shows. Corre- 
spondence on various phases of garden work and controversial matters 
in horticulture. The scheme for rendering assistance to gardeners 
(amateur and professional) in connection with horticultural problems 
has been greatly extended. 


Founded 1912. T. Want, 7-11 Theobald's Road, W.C. I. Tele- 
phone : Chancery 8551. W. id. Mondays. 


Founded 1929. Editor : A. W. Darnell, 5 Lansdowne Terrace, 
Hampton Wick, Middlesex. 2s. 6d. M. For amateur and profes- 
sional gardeners. Lithograph drawings of plants, with short cultural 
note and description. 


Founded 1928. Editor : W. Brett, 17 Henrietta St., Covent 
Garden, W.C. 2. Telephone : Temple Bar 3521. 2d. W. Fridays. 
Of particular interest to amateur gardeners who do all or much of the 
garden work themselves. Special features: How -to-do-it photographs, 
articles on garden planning and designing, instructions on topical 
routine work. 


HOMES AND GARDENS (With which is incorporated The Garden), 
Founded 1919. Editor : Randal Phillips, 20 Tavistock Street, 
Co vent Garden, W.C. 2. Telephone : Gerrard 2748. is. M. Illus- 
trated. Special articles on the lay-out and design of old and new 
gardens, gardening hints, and information for amateurs. 


The Editors, Lowdham, Notts. Telegrams : Pearson, Lowdham, 
Notts. Circulation confined to the Nursery and Seed trades. 


Founded 1913. Editor : Prof. A. G. Tansley, M.A., F.R.S. V. S. 
Summerhayes, Herbarium, Kew. Jan. and July. 305. p. a. With 
Supplement of abstracts on British Empire Vegetation. 


6d. H.M.S.O., Adastral House, Kingsway, W.C. 2. Telephone : 
Holborn 6696. In addition to articles covering all questions of 
official action, and the production and marketing of farm crops and 
stock, gives practical information on the growing of fruit, vegetables, 
and flowers for market. 


Publishers, W. Heffer & Sons, Ltd., Cambridge. Gives detailed 
results of the Institute's scientific work. 2s. 6d. Published irregu- 
larly (about every 9 months). 


Acting Editor : R. G. Hatton, M.A., Research Station, East Mailing, 
Kent. Publishers, Messrs. Headley Bros., 18 Devonshire Street, 
Bishopsgate, E.C. 2. A Journal for all horticulturists taking an interest 
in the Science, History, and Literature of their industry, and paying 
especial attention to Fruit Culture and kindred problems. The Horti- 
cultural Research Stations of Long Ashton, East Mailing, and Cambridge 
have used the Journal as the chief medium for publishing in full the 
results of their researches. Contributions from many other Institutions 
and individual contributors, at home and overseas, are included. 
Subjects range from systematic descriptions of varieties of fruit and 
vegetables to the underlying principles upon which the physiology of 
horticultural plants is based. The diseases of horticultural plants are 
frequently dealt with. 253. per volume (4 parts). 


See R.H.S. Publications. 


Founded 1887. Published irregularly (about 10 times a year). 
H.M.S.O., Adastral House, Kingsway, W.C. 2. Telephone : Victoria 
3820. Descriptions of new species and other miscellaneous botanical 
information issued by the authorities at Kew, 


T. Want, The Cable Press, 7-11 Theobald's Road, W.C.*i. 
Telephone : Chancery 8551. W. Wednesdays. 3d. 



Founded 1928. Editor : E. H. M. Cox, F.L.S. Messrs. Dulau, 
32 Old Bond Street., W. i. Q. 6s. i p.a. Illustrated. Devoted 
to the interests of more advanced gardeners. 


Founded 1902. Editor : Prof. A. G. Tansley, M.A., F.R.S. i 53. 


Published occasionally. H.M.S.O. Various prices. 


Editor : Gurney Wilson, F.L.S. , 70 Sheen Road, Richmond, Surrey. 
Monthly, is. Established 1893. 


Founded 1899. Editor : H. H. Thomas, Amalgamated Press, Ltd., 
Fleetway House, London, E.G. 4. Telephone : City 0202. 2d. W. 
Saturdays. Illustrated. 


Published by Laughton & Co. for the Royal English Arboricultural 
Society. 2s. 6d. to non-members. 


Published for the R.H.S. by Charles Letts & Co. Editor : The 
Secretary, R.H.S., Vincent Square, S.W. i. The most valuable annual 
publication of its kind for all garden owners and gardeners, amateur 
or professional. 


Founded 1910. Editor : W. Brett, 18 Henrietta Street, Co vent 
Garden, W.C. 2. Telegrams : Smallholder, Rand, London, Telephone 
Temple Bar 3521. 2d. W. Thursdays. Of special interest to prac- 
tical cultivators doing their own work. Has identified itself with the 
Allotment Movement and the Brighter Town Movement. 


Published by C. Arthur Pearson, Ltd., 18 Henrietta Street, Covent 
Garden, W.C. 2. 2s. net. A useful reference guide for the Gardener, 
Allotment-holder, Smallholder, Bee-keeper, Small Farmer, etc. 


Founded 1902. Ernest Benn, Ltd., 154 Fleet Street, E.C. 4. 
Telegrams : Benbrolish, Fleet, London. Telephone : City 0244 (10 
lines). Published December 13. 35. 9d. net. 45. post free. 


BAILLKY, L. H. Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture. 3 vols. Mac- 
millan. Description with cultural notes on plants grown in Canada 
and the United States. For names and descriptions has partly taken 
the place of Nicholson's classic work (out of print). Cultural directions 
are for America, not Great Britain. The Pruning Manual. Macmillan. 

BAINES, T. Greenhouse and Stove Plants, (Out of print). Flowering 
and Fine-leaved, Palms, Ferns, and Lycopodiums. Murray. 

BARDSWELL, Mrs. F. A. The Book of Town and Window Gardening. 
Lane. 1903. 

BEAN, W. J. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in the British Isles. 2 vols. 

BECKETT, E. Vegetables for Home and Exhibition. 

BENTHAM AND HOOKER. Genera Plantarum. 

BEVIS, J. F., B.A., B.Sc., AND JEFFERY, H. J., A.R.C.Sc., F.L.S. 
British Plants : their Biology and Ecology. 2nd Edit. Revised and 
enlarged. With bibliography. Methuen. 1920. 

BOURNE, Rev. S. E. The Book of the Daffodil. Lane. 1903. 

BOWLES, E. A., M.A., F.E.S., F.L.S. , F.R.H.A. Books on Rock- 
gardening and Alpine Plants. R.H.S.J. Vol. xli, 1916, p. 393 
et seq. Monograph for an Amateur Gardener's Library. Vol. xliii. 
1918-19, p. 401 et seq. A Handbook of Crocus and Colchicum for 
Gardeners. Hopkinson. 1924. 

BROOKS, F. T. Plant Diseases. Ox. Univ. Press. 1928. 

BUNYARD, EDWARD A. A Handbook of Hardy Fruits. 2 vols. 
Murray. Description, history, and cultural notes of hardy fruits more 
commonly grown in Great Britain. 

CHITTENDEN, F. J. The Garden Doctor. Plants in Health and 
Disease. Country Life Ltd. Brief and simple description of common 
garden troubles, with proved remedies where known. 

COOK, E. T. The Century Book of Gardening. Country Life Ltd. 
Gardening for Beginners. Sweet Violets and Pansies. Country Life 
Ltd. 1903. 

CURTIS, C. H., and GIBSON, W. The Book of Topiary. Lane. 1904. 

DALLIMORE, W. f AND JACKSON, J. BRUCE. A Handbook ofConiferae, 
including Ginkgoacae. Arnold. 1923. 

DAY, HARRY A. Spade Craft. 

DRUERY, C. T. British Ferns and their Varieties. Routledge. 1911. 

DYKES, W. R. A Handbook of Garden Irises. Martin Hopkinson. 
The Genus Iris. Cam. Univ. Press. 

Britain and Ireland. Printed privately. 

FARRER, REGINALD. The English Rock Garden. 2 vols. Jack. 
Alphabetical list of rock plants, with description and cultural details. 



FOSTER-MELLIAR, REV. A. The Book of the Rose. 4th ed. 1910. 
Mac mill an. 

FRYER, P. J. Insects, Pests, and Fungus Diseases. Cam. Univ. 

GIBSON, J. L. Carnations for Amateurs. Collingridge. 1926. 

GODFREY, W. H. Gardens in the Making. Batsford. 1914. 

HALL, A. D. The Book of the Tulip. Martin Hopkinson. 

The English Tulip. Spottiswoode. The Soil. Murray. Fertilisers 
and Manures. Murray. 

HORNER AND NEEDHAM. The English Tulip and its History. Barr. 

HORNIBROOK, MURRAY. Dwarf and Slow-growing Conifers. Country 
Life Ltd. 

Index Kewensis. 

or Rockfoils. The Rock Gardeners' Library. Headley Bros. 1914. 

JACKSON, B. DAYDON. A Glossary of Botanic Terms. Duckworth. 

JACOB, REV. JOSEPH. Hardy Bulbs for Amateurs. Country Life 
Ltd. 1924. Tulips. Barr. 

JEKYLL, GERTRUDE. Colour Schemes. Roses for English Gardens. 
Wall and Water Gardens. 7th ed. 1928. Country Life Ltd. 1902. 
Wood and Garden. Longmans. 

JOHNSON, A. T. The Hardy Heaths and some of their nearer Allies. 
Gardeners 1 Chronicle Ltd. 1928. 

Johnson's Gardeners' Dictionary and Cultural Instructor. Edited 
by J. Fraser and A. Hemsley. Routledge. 

Kew Hand-lists. 

LOWE, E. J. Fern Growing. John Nimmo. 

MACSELF, A. J. Gladioli. Thornton Butterworth. 1925. 

MACWATT, J. The Primulas of Europe. Country Life Ltd. 1923. 

MAINE, GEORGE. Diseases of Cultivated Plants and Trees. Duck- 

MAWSON, T. The Art and Craft of Garden Making. Batsford. 

NEWSHAM, J. C. The Horticultural Note- Book. Crosby Lockwood. 
A manual of practical information and cultural tables. 

NICHOLSON, GEORGE. The Illustrated Dictionary of Gardening. 
5 vols. (Out of print, but can be obtained second-hand.) 

and Orchard, Farm and Forest. Drane. Practical guide for estate 
owners, farmers, fruit growers, and gardeners, with remedies and 
preventive measures. 

PAUL, WILLIAM. The Rose Grower. Simpkin Marshall. 

PEMBERTON, REV. J. H. Roses : Their History, Development and 
Culture. 2nd ed. 1920. Longmans. 

ROBINSON, W. The English Flower Garden. The Wild Garden. 

ROBINSON, W. (Editor.) The Vegetable Garden. By Vilmorin- 
Andrieux. Murray. 

RUSSELL, EDWARD J., D.Sc., F.R.S., etc. Soil Conditions and 
Plant Growth. 5th Edition. With bibliography. Longmans. 1927. 

SANDERS, T. W. An Encyclopaedia of Gardening. Annual Flowers 
for Garden and Greenhouse, 1926. The Amateur's Greenhouse, 7th ed. 
1928. Popular Hardy Perennials t 1928. Collingridge. 


SCHIMPER, DR. A. F. W. Plant Geography. Translated by William 
R. Fisher, B.A. ; Revised and edited by Percy Groom, M.A., D.Sc., 
F.L.S., and Isaac Bayley Balfour, M.A., M.D., F.R.S. Clarendon 
Press. 1903. 

SEABROOK, W. P. Modern Fruit Growing. Seabrook & Son, 

TAYLOR, G. C., AND KNIGHT, F. P. The Propagation of Hardy Trees 
and Shrubs. Dulau. 1927. 

THEOBALD, F. V. Insect Pests of Fniit. Wye Court, Wye. Notes 
on prevention and treatment. 

THEOBALD, F. V., AND RAMSBOTTOM, J. Enemies of the Rose. 
Nat. Rose Soc. 1925. 

THOMPSON, HAROLD STUART, F.L.S. Alpine Plants of Europe. 
Routledge. 191 1. 

TINLEY, G. F., HUMPHREYS, T., AND IRVING, W. Colour Planning 
in the Garden. Jack. 1924. 

UNWIN, C. W. J. Sweet Peas : Their History, Development, and 
Culture. 2nd ed. 1929. Heffer. 

WARD, F. KINGDON. Rhododendrons for Everyone. Gardeners' 
Chronicle Ltd. 1926. 

WARMING, EUGENE, Ph.D. Oecology of Plants. Clarendon Press. 

WATSON, WILLIAM. The Gardener's Assistant. Gresham Publishing 
Co. Comprehensive collection of illustrated articles by specialists on 
each subject. Climbing Plants. With introduction by W. Robinson. 
Jack. 1915. Orchids : Their Culture and Management. Cactus Cul- 
ture for Amateurs. Link House. 

WEATHERS, JOHN. My Garden Book. Longmans. Descriptive, 
historical, and practical notes on cultivation of garden and greenhouse 
plants, trees, shrubs, fruit, and vegetables. The Bulb Book. Murray. 

WELLS, W. The Culture of the Chrysanthemum. Country Life Ltd. 

WILLMOTT, ELLEN, F.L.S. The Genus Rosa. Murray. 1914. 
(Out of print.) 

WILSON, E. H., AND REHDER, A. A Monograph of Azaleas. Univ. 
Press, Cambridge, Mass. 1921. 

WRIGHT, JOHN. The Fruit Grower's Guide. 3 vols. The Flower 
Grower's Guide. 3 vols. Virtue & Co. 

WRIGHT, JOHN AND HORACE. The Vegetable Grower's Guide. 
2 vols. Virtue & Co. 


Note. Where not otherwise stated, the award is made by the R.H.S. 

Abbreviations (other than those previously given). A. A. 
Award of Appreciation. A.G.M. = Award of Garden Merit. 
BOT.CERT. = Botanical Certificate. B.D.S. = British Delphinium 
Society. B.G.S. = British Gladiolus Society. C.A. Certificate of 
Appreciation. C.C. = Certificate of Commendation. CERT. = Cer- 
tificate. C.CuL.CoM. = Certificate of Cultural Commendation. 
C.M. = Certificate of Merit. CERT.PRE.COM. = Certificate of Pre- 
liminary Commendation. CERT.PRE.REC. = Certificate of Prelimin- 
ary Recognition. COM. = Commendation. CULT. CERT. = Cultural 
Certificate. D.DiST. Diploma of Distinction. D.M. = Diploma of 
Merit. F.C.C. == First Class Certificate. I.S. = Iris Society. 
L.V.P.S. London and S. of England Viola and Pansy Soc. 
MAN. = Manchester and North of England Orchid Society. 
N.A.P.S. = National Auricula and Primula Society. N.C.P. 
= National Carnation and Picotee Society. N.C.S. = National 
Chrysanthemum Society. N.E.H.S. = North of England Horti- 
cultural Society. N.S.P. = National Sweet Pea Society. N.S.P.T. 
= N.S.P.S. Trials. N.T.S. = National Tulip Society. O.C. = Orchid 
Club. P.D. = Premier Diploma. PRE.COM. = Preliminary Com- 
mendation. Rh. A. Rhododendron Association. R.C.H.S. = Royal 
Caledonian Horticultural Society. R.H.S. I. = Royal Horticultural 
Society of Ireland. R.W.T. = Recommended for Trial at Wisley. 
S.N.S.P. = Scottish National Sweet Pea and Rose Society. 
S.N.S.P.T. = S.N.S.P. Trials. S.P.V.S. = Scottish Pansy and Viola 
Society. W.R.A. = Wisley Rose Award (i and 2). W.T. = Wisley 

ALLIUM yfovww, A.M. Yellow. Italy, 1759. 

ANEMONE St. Brigid, Mary Seton, A.M., Lindley Medal, Truro. 

Cerise, white zone. 

ANTHEMIS tinctoria, Perry's var., A.M. Improved Yellow Camomile. 
ANTHURIUM rothschildianum var. Excelsior, A.M. Aroid. Spathe 

cream, spotted red, spadix red-orange. Scherzerianum var. 

Ne Plus Ultra, A.M. Scarlet. 
ANTIRRHINUM C. H. Herbert (W. H. Simpson), A.M., W.T. Sutton's 

Gem, R.W.T. Dwarf. Various colours. 

APONOGETON leptostachyum var. lilacina, A.M. Pond- weed. Lilac. 
ASTER (Annual) AH Saints Light Blue (Morris), H.C., W.T. 


American Branching Azure Blue (Atlee Burpee), H.C., W.T. 
American Branching Dark Blue (Atlee Burpee), H.C., W.T. 
American Branching Fairy (Atlee Burpee), H.C., W.T. Ameri- 
can Branching Mary Semple (Atlee Burpee), H.C., W.T. 
Astermum Lavender (Bodger), H.C., W.T.- Ball's White 
(Nutting: Bodger: Atlee Burpee), A.M., W.T. California 
Giants Light Blue (Dobbie), H.C., W.T. California Giants Light 
Purple (Dobbie: Bodger), H.C., \V.T. Calif ornian Giant Light 
Blue (Atlee Burpee), H.C., W.T. Crimson Beauty (Clucas), 
H.C., yf.T. Dwarf Chrysanthemum White (Benary), H.C., 
W.T. Dwarf Victoria Rose (Dobbie), H.C., W.T. Early Beauty 
Rose (Bodger), H.C., W.T. Giant Comet Cinnabar Red (A. Daw- 
kins), H.C., W.T. Giant Comet Light Blue (Dobbie), H.C., 
W.T. Giant Comet Mauve Queen (Dobbie), A.M., W.T. Giant 
Comet Peach Blossom (Dobbie), H.C., W.T. Giant Comet 
Rose (Dobbie), H.C., W.T. Giant Comet The Bride (Dobbie), 
H.C., W.T. Giants of California Deep Rose (Watkins & Simp- 
son), H.C., \V.T. Giant Victoria White (W. H. Simpson), H.C., 
W.T. Hercules Rosy Lilac (Heinemann), H.C., W.T. King 
Crimson (Atlee Burpee), H.C., W.T. King Lavender (Waller- 
Franklin Seed Co.), H.C., W.T. Late Beauty Azure Fairy 
(Bodger), H.C., W.T.; (Dobbie) H.C., \V.T.Late Beauty 
Lavender (Bodger), H.C., W.T. Late Branching Azure Fairy 
(Watkins & Simpson), H.C., W.T. Late Branching Deep Rose 
(Waller-Franklin Seed Co.), H.C., W.T. Late Branching 
Lavender (Waller-Franklin Seed Co.), H.C., W.T. Lavender 
Gem (Bodger), H.C., V^.T. Lilliput Dark Blue (Watkins & 
Simpson: Daehnfeldt & Jensen), H.C., W .T .Lilliput Dark 
Crimson (Watkins & Simpson), H.C., W.T. Lilliput Rose 
(Daehnfeldt & Jensen: W'atkins & Simpson: Benary), H.C., 
W.T. Lilliput White (Benary), H.C., W.T.Lilliput White 
with Red Centre (Benary), H.C., W.T. Madame Rivoire 
(Rivoire), A.M., W.T. Mammoth Cinnabar Carmine (Benary), 
A.M., W.T. Mammoth Ostrich Plume White (Clucas), H.C., 
W.T. Mammoth White (Benary), H.C., W.T.Mignon White 
(Benary: Veitch), H.C., W.T Mikado White (Bath), H.C., 
W.T. Ostrich Feather Light Blue (Dobbie), H.C., W.T. 
Ostrich Feather White (Daehnfeldt & Jensen), H.C., W.T. 
Ostrich Plume Rose-pink (Simpson), H.C., W.T. Ostrich Plume 
Show Queen (W. H. Simpson: Watkins & Simpson), H.C., 
W.T. Ostrich Plume Terra-cotta (Carter), H.C., W.T. Ostrich 
Plume White (Clucas: Middlehursts), H.C., W.T. Paeony- 
flowered Crimson (Dobbie), H.C., W.T. Paeony-flowered Per- 
fection Fiery Scarlet (Benary), H.C., W.T. Paeony-flowered 
Perfection Light Blue (Benary), H.C., W.T. Peerless Branching 
Deep Rose (Clucas), H.C., W.T. Peerless Pink (Atlee Burpee: 
Waller-Franklin Seed Co.), H.C., W.T. Peerless Yellow 
(Bodger), H.C., W.T. Pride of the West (Kelway), H.C., W.T. 


Queen of the Market Bright Rose (Bodger: Watkins & Simpson: 
Waller-Franklin Seed Co.), H.C., W.T. Queen of the Market 
Dark Blue (Daehnfeldt & Jensen: Bodger), H.C., W.T. 
Queen of the Market Purple (Waller- Franklin Seed Co. : Bodger), 
H.C., W.T. Queen of the Market White (Bodger), H.C., W.T. 
Royal Rose (Atlee Burpee), H.C., W.T. Royal Shell Pink 
(Nutting), H.C., W.T. Salmon Queen (Bodger), H.C., W.T. 
Sinensis Violet (Hurst), H.C., W.T. Single Pink (Barr), H.C., 
W.T. Single Violet (Barr), H.C., W.T. Sun-ball Flesh 
(Heinemann), H.C., W.T. Sunshine Light Blue (Blossfeld), 
H.C., W.T.Tall Branching Dark Blue (Debbie), H.C., W.T. 
Tall Branching Lavender Pink (Dobbie), H.C., W.T. Tall 
Branching Rose (Dobbie), H.C., V/.TTall Branching Shell 
Pink (Dobbie), H.C., W.T. Triumph Brilliant Rose (Barr), 
H.C., W.T. Victoria White (Benary), H.C., W.T. 
(Perennial) adfinis, A.M., H.H.A. Dwarf. Blue. Bessie 
Chaplin, R.W.T. Large fl. Amellus var. Blue. Gayborder 
Blue, R.W.T. Semi-double, Novi-belgii var. Blue. Mrs. 
Gladys Forbes, R.W.T. Large, single, Amellus var. Pale 
mauve. Pink Pearl, R.W.T. Semi-double Novi-belgii 
var. Pale pink. Thomsoni, A.G.M. Long flowering period. 
Hardy H. Violet. Himalayas. Needs no stakes. 2'. T. 
nanus t dwarfer form, 18". 

ASTILBE simplicifolia, A.G.M. Hardy H. 6-8*. White varying 
to rose. Japan, 1910. 

ASTRAGALUS utahensis, A.M. Silvery foliage. Rose-purple. 
America, 1854. 

AURICULA Robb's Fancy, Premier "Fancy" N.A.P.S. Wm. Brockle- 
bank t Premier "Show/' N.A.P.S. Green edged. 

AZALEA Shin Seikai, ist. R.A. Evergreen. Weyrichii, ist. Rh.A. 

BEGONIA Gloire de Lorraine, Silver Cup, Exeter. Mrs. J. Raeburn 
Mann, A.M. Double. Pink. 

CALCEOLARIA biflora, A.M. Doubtfully hardy. Yellow. Chili. 
Benthami, A.M. Herbaceous. Very free flowering. Yellow. 

CALLUNA vulgaris, var.fl. pl. t A.M. Double pink heath. Found in 

CAMPANULA carpatica var. Chewton Joy, A.M. Dwarf. Pale blue, 
white centre. 

CANTERBURY BELL Calycanthema Mauve (Hurst), A.M., W.T. 
Calycanthema Rose (Simpson: Webb), H.C., W.T. Calycanthema 
White (Webb), A.M., W.T. Double coerulea (Haage cS: Schmidt), 
H.C., W.T. Double Rose Carmine (Haage & Schmidt), A.M., 
W.T Single Mauve (Hurst), A.M., W.T.; (Daniels), H.C., 
W.T. Single Rose (Webb), H.C., W.T. Single White (Dobbie), 
A.M., W.T. 

CARNATION Ann Horton* Perp. fi. White marked carmine. 
Artie, 2nd (White), B.C.S. Beauty of Cambridge, A.M. Border. 
Scented. Primrose.B^ Besimck, A.M., N.C.P. Self. Sal- 


mon-rose. Betty Lou, ist B.C.S. Deep-pink. Bookham 
Scarlet, ist N.C.P. Chintz, ist (Fancy) B.C.S. Circe, ist 
B.C.S. Violet Fancy. Circe Improved, ist (Purple) B.C.S. 
Coral Glow, ist B.C.S. Apricot and yellow. Dora Spendlow, 
ist N.C.P. Pink. Edenside Clove, ist N.C.P. Exquisite, 
ist N.C.P. Picotee. Fairy, ist N.C.P. Picotee, yellow 
ground. Flambeau, A.M. Border var. Faint Red-orange. 
Florence Grisby, Special N.C.P. Fancy, white ground. 
Florence Wellstead, ist N.C.P. White marked red. Gladys* 
ist (PinK) B.C.S. Perp. fl. Salmon-rose. Glenfarg, A.M., 
N.C.P. Fancy. Buff marked salmon-pink. Glenskee, F.C.C., 
N.C.P. Fancy. White marked crimson. Guy Allwood, A.M. 
Good for greenhouse. Pink. Homer, ist N.C.P. Terra- 
cotta. - 1 sobel Hamilton* Perp. fl. Pink. Ivory, ist (White) 
B.C.S. Jean Seeker, Silver Med. and A.M., N.C.P. Fancy. 
Yellow marked scarlet and lavender. Joan.* Perp. fl. 
Yellow. Kathleen, A.M. Greenhouse. Scented. Good for 
market. Rose-pink. Kitro, ist N.C.P. Orange buff marked 
purple. Laddie, ist and W. E. Wallace Cup., B.C.S. Light 
Pink. Lassie, 2nd B.C.S. Linkman, Silver Cup and ist 
N.C.P. Fancy, yellow ground. Lushill Scarlet* Very fragrant. 
Perp. fl. Scarlet. Madge.* Perp. fl. Orange flaked pink. 
Magnum, ist B.C.S. Maine Sunshine, ist (Yellow) B.C.S. 
Fancy. Mary Murray, ist N.C.P. Yellow. Master M. Stoop, 
ist B.C.S. Deep pink. Maud Allwood, ist B.C.S. Apricot. 
Mavis, "Daily Mail" Challenge Cup for best scented, B.C.S. 
Very fragrant. Pale pink. Miss Horn, F.C.C., N.C.P. Clove- 
self. Rose pink. Misty Morning, ist N.C.P. Mrs. C. W. 
Ward, ist B.C.S. Pink. Mrs. D. Carlow, F.C.C., Glasgow. 
Mrs. G. Hill, F.C.C., N.C.P. Fancy, white marked red. 
Nada* Perp. fl. Salmon-pink. Nina.* Perp. fl. Helio- 
trope. Peter, ist N.C.P. Yellow self. R. A. Nicholson* 
Perp. fl. Scarlet. Rapture, 2nd (Pink) B.C.S. Red Laddie, 
Campbell Amateur Trophy and Silver-gilt Medal B.C.S., 
ist (Red) B.C.S., 2nd (Red) B.C.S Rhoderic Dhu, ist N.C.P. 
Crimson. Saffron, ist B.C.S. Yellow. Sam Griffiths, ist 
N.C.P. Fancy. Snowflake, ist N.C.P. White. Sonny Boy* 
Perp. fl. Cerise. Spectrum, ist (Red) B.C.S., 2nd B.C.S. 
Startler, A.M. Southport. Sweet scented. Scarlet. Steer- 
forth, ist N.C.P. White ground Fancy. Clove scented. 
Sunny, 2nd B.C.S. Perp. fl. Fancy. Thomas Ives, A.M. 
Greenhouse. Cerise. Topsy, ist B.C.S. Fragrant. Crimson. 
White Pearl, ist and 3rd (White) B.C.S. W. H. Wallace, 
F.C.C., B.C.S. Novelty. Greenhouse. No scent. Deep sal- 
mon. Wivelsfield Buttercup, ist and 2nd (Yellow) B.C.S. 
Fancy. Wivelsfield Claret Improved, ist B.C.S. Purple. 

* Registered with British Carnation Society. 


CEANOTHUS Autumn Blue (C. thyrsiflorus x C. Indigo), A.M. 

CHILIOTRICHUM rosmarinifolium, A.M. Sh. White. Chili, 1831. 

CHRYSANTHEMUM Afron, C.M. Glasgow. Algernon Davis, ist 
Corbridge. Jap. Pink. Almeda, F.C.C., N.C.S. Fawny 
bronze. Arabella, A.M. Jap. Pinkish mauve. Assurance, 
F.C.C., N.C.S. Decor. Chestnut and gold Balcombe Bronze, 
A.M.; F.C.C., N.C.S. Decor. Good for cutting or market. 
Bronze, gold tipped. Balcombe Sunray, A.M. Good for 
cutting or market. Shaded orange. Bebe Gerard, F.C.C., 
N.C.S. Decor. Lilac-pink. Birmingham, ist N.C.S.; ist 
(Crimson) N.C.S.; ist Birmingham; Best crimson, Ayr Jap. 
Bountiful, C., N.C.S. Deep rose pink. Brassy, A.M., 
N.C.S. Chestnut gold tipped. Bridesmaid, F.C.C., N.C.S. 
Salmon shaded fawn. Cactus, A.M., N.C.S. Jap. Chestnut 
bronze, gold reverse. Cavalier, A.M., A.M., N.C.S. Early. 
Terra-cotta tipped gold. C. G. Weston, F.C.C., N.C.S. 
Incurved Jap. Yellow. Cissie Brunton, ist Birmingham. 
Jap. White. Crimson Focerex, F.C.C., N.C.S. Jap. Crim- 
son, centre old gold. Dart, F.C.C., N.C.S. Chestnut and gold. 
Dazzle, A.M.; F.C.C., N.C.S. Pompon. Shaded old-rose 
tipped yellow. Desert Song, F.C.C., N.C.S. Single. Reddish 
bronze tipped gold. Dick Barnes, ist N.C.H. Florence 
Bigland, A.M. Jap. Yellow. General Petain, 2nd Birming- 
ham. Pink. Jap. Gladys Pierson, F.C.C., N.C.S. Jap. 
Buff. Golden Balcombe, F.C.C., N.C.S. Decor. Yellow. 
Golden Chestnut, A.M., N.C.S. Good for garden. Chestnut, 
gold reverse. Hebe, A.M. H. W. Thorpe, ist Ayr. Joan 
Higgs, F.C.C., N.C.S. Incur. Sport from Autocrat. White. 
Kenneth Hastie, A.M. ; F.C.C., N.C.S. Decor. Good for cutting 
and market. Crimson. Kingcup, A.M. ; F.C.C., N.C.S. Border 
var. Golden yellow. Lady Talbot, Best in Show, Ayr. 
Louisa Pockett, 2nd N.C.S. White. Lido, A.M. Jap. Market. 
Gold bronze. Lustre, F.C.C., N.C.S. Incurved. Decor. Pale 
mauve. Lyonesse F.C.C., N.C.S. Decor. Indian-red. . 
Madame Gabrielle Thiaux (Red Cavell), A.M.; F.C.C., N.C.S. 
Sport from Edith Cavell. Chestnut, gold reverse. Majestic, 
and N.C.S.; ist and N.C.S. Cert., Derby; ist Birmingham; 
ist Corbridge. Jap. Bronze. Mona, ist Dunfermline. 
Single. Mrs. A. H. Boaden, F.C.C. N.C.S. Incur. Yellow. 
Mrs. Algernon Davis, Best bloom, Llanishen. Mrs. A. 
Holden, N.C.S. Cert, and Special. Surbiton; 3rd N.C.S.; 
2nd Birmingham. Jap. Crimson. Mrs. B. Carpenter, N.C.S. 
Cert, and Special. Surbiton. Mrs. Gilbert Drabble, ist (White) 
N.C.S.; ist Derby; and Birmingham. Jap. White. Mrs. 
George Monro, and (Crimson) N.C.S.; ist Corbridge. Jap. 
Crimson. Mrs. Harold Wells, 3rd (White) N.C.S.; ist Cor- 
bridge. Jap. White. Mrs. James Philp, F.C.C. Glasgow. 
Mrs. J. W. Stone. F.C.C., N.C.S. Sport from Mrs. W. Smith. 


Primrose. Mrs. Sarah Knight, A.M. Jap. Flushed mauve. 
Mrs. Stuart Knight, F.C.C., N.C.S. Decor. Rose. Mrs. T. W. 
Pockett, ist Birmingham. Pink. Jap. Mrs. W. D. Cartright, 
A.M. Jap. Yellow. Mrs. W. Hall, F.C.C., N.C.S. Jap. 
Rosy mauve, silvery reverse. Melrose, A.M., N.C.S. Deep lilac 
pink. New Year, A.M. Single. Good for market. Orange, 
yellow zone. Pink Perfusion, R.W.T. Small pink. Princess 
Mary, ist N.C.S. Yellow. Queen Mary, ist Lancaster. 
R. C. Pulling. Best in Show, Lancaster; ist Corbridge. Jap. 
Yellow. Red Majestic, 3rd N.C.S.; 2nd Birmingham. Best 
Jap. Birmingham; ist Harrogate. Robert McAlpine, F.C.C., 
S.P.V.S.; F.C.C. Glasgow; A.M., Southport. Early. Shaded 
red. Rufflesque, ist Dunfermline. Decor. Shirley Golden, 
3rd N.C.S. Yellow. Snowflake, A.M.; A.M., N.C.S. White. 
Soliditv, F.C.C., N.C.S. Gold tinted bronze. Sundown, 
A.M.; F.C.C., N.C.S. Single. Crimson, yellow centre. 
Swardeston White. Best in show, Dunfermline. Thanksgiving 
Pink, A.M., F.C.C., N.C.S. Good for cutting and market. 
Mauve pink. Thomas W. Pockett, ist N.C.S. Trent, F.C.C., 
N.C.S. Jap. White. Viscountess Hambledon, F.C.C., N.C.S. 
Single. Crimson, yellow zone. Winnie Avery, A.M.; F.C.C., 
N.C.S. Useful for market. Gold-bronze. Yellow. Majestic, 
2nd N.C.S. Yellow. Yellow Monument, A.M. 

CIRSIUM occidentalis var. Coulteri, A.M. Calif ornian thistle , 
Silver-grey foliage, cerise flowers. 

CLIVIA Ursula A.M. Orange. 

CORNUS Ma's, A.M. Cornelian Cherry. Bright red fruits. Yellow. 
Europe, 1596. 

COTONEASTER multiflora var. callicarea, A.M. Large dark red 

CRASSULA sarcocaulis, A.M. Semi-hardy succulent. Pink. 
S. Africa. 

CRATAEGUS x Carrieri, A.G.M. C. mexicana seedling. Tree. 
White. Orange-red fruit. 

CYANANTHUS Farreri, A.M. Alpine house. Dwarf. Violet-blue. 

CYNOGLOSSUM nervosum, A.M. Blue. Himalayas. 

DAHLIA Albion, R.W.T. Paeony. Cream Apoldro (Ballego), 
A.M., W.T. Small paeony-fl. Scarlet. Aurora, R.W.T. Min. 
Paeony. Pale terra-cotta. A vis Cowdrey, R.W.T. Cactus. 
White. Baldre, A.M., W.T. Small-fl. Decor. Bhopal, 
R.W.T. Min. Paeony. Orange scarlet. Bognor Star, R.W.T. 
Old gold and rose. Cedric, R.W.T. Paeony. Crimson. 
Charles a., R.W.T. Decor. Scarlet and orange tipped 
white. Claret, R.W.T. Decor. Pink lined claret. Cora (C. 
Turner), A.M., W.T. Small-fl. Paeony. Crimson Gem, C.M., 
S.P.V.S. Mignon. Daily Mail, R.W.T. Decor. Yellow 
shaded orange. Darjeeling, R.W.T. Min. Paeony, Orange, 


yellow reverse. de Bengel (Topsvoort), H.C., W.T. Decor. 
Dora, R.W.T. Charm. Shaded maroon. Dorret (BurreU), 
A.M., W.T. Small-fl. Paeony. Dr. Helmet Spath, A.M. 
Southport. Early Yellow (Bruidegom), A.M., W.T. Cactus. 
Eda, R.W.T. Paeony. Shaded orange. Edeghem (Tops- 
voort), A.M., W.T. Cactus. Yellow. Edna, R.W.T. Rose 
tipped white. Epsom Star (Cheal), H.C., W.T. Star. Orange- 
scarlet. Erika (Treseder), A.M., W.T. CoUerette. Ethelwulf 
(Turner), A.M., W.T. Star. White. Fantasy (Stredwick), 
A.M., W.T. Decor. Faygate Star, R.W.T. Star. Orange- 
scarlet. Felbridge Star, R.W.T. Gold and orange. Florence 
M. Davies. Decor. R.W.T. Orange flushed rose. Frau 
O.Bracht, R.W.T. Cactus. Primrose. Glint, R.W.T. Charm. 
Orange scarlet. Hadley, R.W.T. Paeony. Shaded red 
maroon. Hookwood Star (Cheal), H.C., W.T. Star. Jamboree, 
R.W.T. Decor. Scarlet crimson. Jane (BurreU), H.C., W.T. 
Small-fl. Paeony. Katherine Valentine Smith, R.W.T. Cactus. 
Mauve, white centre. Laconia, R.W.T. Decor. Shaded lilac. 
Lady Snagge (Cheal), H.C., W.T. Decor. Little Marvel 
(Cheal), A.M., W.T. Pompon. Pink. Lowfield Maroon 
(Cheal), A.M. Small fl. Decor. Crimson-maroon. Ludwig 
Thoma (van der School), H.C., W.T. Decor. Lurid, R.W.T. 
Charm. Scarlet. Mabel Crossing, R.W.T. Min. Paeony. 
Scarlet. Magician, R.W.T. Decor. Shaded yellow tipped 
white. Marcehenschon (Carlee), H.C., W.T. Decor. Margate 
Star, R.W.T. Star. Yellow and rosy purple. Mermaid 
(Cheal), A.M., W.T. Paeony-fl. Yellow. Miss G. Kenkell 
(Majoor), A.M., W.T. Decor. Mrs. A. Brenls, R.W.T. 
Decor. Pink-mauve. Mrs. A. F. Dulton (A. J. Cobb), H.C., 
W.T. Small-fl. Paeony. Mrs. A. S. Gait (Cobb), A.M., 
W.T. Small paeony-fl. Scarlet. Mrs. Bealey (Cheal), H.C., 
W.T. Single. Mrs. F. D. Durham, R.W.T. Decor. Pink. 
Mrs. John Crowther (Stredwick), A.M., W.T. Decor. Mrs. 
Stuart Sandeman (Stredwick), H.C., W.T. Cactus. Pink. 
Mrs. W. E. Phillips, R.W.T. Decor. Yellow. Mrs. William 
Clarke (H. Woolman), A.M., W.T. Mignon Single. Mysore, 
R.W.T. Paeony. Rosy mauve. Nagpur, R.W.T. Decor. 
Scarlet. Onah (Burrell) , H.C., W.T., A.M. Small-fl. Decor. 
Pauline, R.W.T. Paeony. Orange terra-cotta. Phyllis 
Wheaton t R.W.T. Min. Paeony. Rose-pink and cream. 
Pink Gem, C.M., S.P.V.S. Mignon. Pink Perfection (Cheal), 
A.M., W.T. Small Paeony-fl. Pink. Premier (Stredwick), 
A.M., W.T. Decor. Pride of Crawley (Cheal), A.M., W.T. 
Decor. Rebel, R.W.T. Cactus. Rose-maroon. Redpole 
(Stredwick), A.M., W.T. Cactus. Scarlet. /te* Riding Hood 
(Van Tubergen), A.M., W.T. Single. Rev. S. Marrioti 
(Stredwick), H.C., W.T. Decor. R, Findlay (Stredwick), 
A.M., W.T. Decor./?. H. ffofton (Stredwick), A.M., W.T. 


Scarlet. Decor. Ringdove, R.W.T. Cactus. Salmon-pink. 
R. Treat (Gen. McRae), A.M., W.T. Decor. Rubin (Cheal), 
H.C., W.T. Star. Ruth (Burrell), A.M., W.T. Small paeony- 
fl. Pale rose. Schneider, R.W.T. Min. Paeony. Scarlet- 
crimson. Seafield (Dobbie), A.M., W.T. Small paeony-fl. 
Pink on yellow. Senley, R.W.T. Charm. Crimson. Stedfast 
(Stredwick), A.M., W.T. Cactus. Scarlet. Stella (Burrell), 
H.C., W.T. Small-fl. Decor. Sunny Clacton, R.W.T. Single. 
White banded scarlet. Tanglewood (Treseder), H.C., W.T. 
Small-fl. Paeony. The Ranee, R.W.T. Min. Paeony. Scarlet. 
Topaz (Cheal), A.M., W.T. Small paeony-fl. Scarlet. 
Tunis, R.W.T. Pom. Terra-cotta and crimson. W. F. 
Balding, R.W.T. Decor. Amber and apricot. White King 
(Ballego), H.C., W.T. Decor. White. White Wonder 
(Weyers), H.C., W.T. Cactus. Winnie, R.W.T. Cactus. 
Yellow flushed lilac. Yvonne Salmon (A. J. Cobb), H.C., W.T. 
Small-fl. Paeony. 

DAPHNE tangutica, A.M. Evergreen shrub. White, purple reverse. 

DELPHINIUM Ann Baker (Baker), A.M., Vf.T.Blue Gem, R.W.T. 
Blue. Blue Gown, F.C.C., B.D.S. Semi-double. Blue and 
mauve. Cambria (Spencer), A.M., W.T. Dawn (Spencer), 
A.M., W.T. Eileen May Robinson, R.W.T. Lavender and 
blue. Gladys Thrale, R.W.T. Blue and purple. Hewitt's 
Superb, R.W.T. Lavender and blue. Hunsdon Dell, F.C.C., 
B.D.S. Blue flecked mauve. Kelway's Lovely, R.W.T. 
Semi-double, Lavender and blue, white eye. Lady Bath, 
F.C.C., B.D.S. Double. Mauve edged blue. Lady Eleanor, 
F.C.C., B.D.S. Semi-Double. Blue and mauve.' Lady Eliza- 
beth, A.M., B.D.S. Mauve and blue, dark centre. Lady Emsley 
Carr, F.C.C., B.D.S. ^ Semi-double, light blue, black centre. 
Mrs. Hargreaves, F.C.C., B.D.S. Semi-double. Blue and 
mauve. Mrs. Newton Lees (Blackmore & Langdon), A.M., 
W.T Mrs. Paul Nclke, A.M., B.D.S. Semi-double. Blue, 
white edged. Pompadour, A.M., B.D.S. Blue and mauve. 
Sir Douglas Haig (Blackmore & Langdon), A.M., W.T. See 

DIANTHUS Allwoodii var. Prudence, A.M. Good for cutting. Pink. 
Royal Stuart, A.M., R.C.H.S. Sweet Wivelsfield, A.M. 
York. Hybrid. 

DODECATHEON splendidum var. Brilliant, A.M. Rose-purple. 

ERICA australis var. Mr. Robert, A.M. White form of type. Found 
in S. Spain by Mr. Robert Williams, 1912. 

ESCHSCHOLZIA Double Carmine Queen, R.W.T. Eastern Queen, 
R.W.T. Pale buff, cardinal reverseFlambeau, R.W.T. 
Semi-double. Orange-scarlet shot gold. 

EUONYMUS lanceifolia, A.M. Pale pink fruit, scarlet seeds. China. 

FREESIA Beauty, A.M. Mauve and yellow. Maryon, A.M. Lilac 
and white. Mrs. R. F. Felton, A.M. Shaded yellow. 


FRITILLARIA karadaghensis. Yellow-green, speckled red-brown' 
Discovered by Mr. George Egger, and sent to Kew from Tabriz 
N. Persia, by Mr. Gilliat-Smith, 1928. 

FUCHSIA americana * {Sir W. Lawrence), H.C., W.T. Andenken 
A. H. Henkel (Dobbie), A.M., VS.? Aurora Superba (H. J. 
Jones), H.C., W.T.Balkon (H. J. Jones), H.C., W.T. Ballet 
Girl (Forbes), A.M., W.T. Beauty (Forbes), H.C., W.T. 
Carmen (Sir W. Lawrence), H.C., W.T. Charming (Dobbie), 
A.M., W.T. Clipper (Forbes), H.C., W.T. Coralle (H. J. 
Jones: Cory), A.M., W.T. corymbiflora seedling, A.M. Finer 
than type. Cupid (W. Auton), A.M., W.T. Dainty Lady 
(Dobbie: Carter Page), A.M., W.T. Display (Carter Page), 
H.C., W.T. Display? (H. J. Jones), A.M., W.T.Earl of 
Beaconsfield (Dobbie), H.C., W.T. Fascination (G. Carpenter: 
Castle Nurseries: Ladds), H.C., W.T.Gartenmeister Bonstedt 
(Forbes), H.C., W.T. Golden Treasure (Forbes: Dobbie), H.C., 
W.T.gracilis* (Cheal: Forbes), H.C., W.T. Scarlet and 
purple. Chili, 1825. Grande Duchess Marie (H. J. Jones), 
A.M., W.T.Killiecrankie? (Forbes), H.C., W.T. La France 
(Dobbie), A.M., W.T.Late Perfection (R.H.S. Gardens), H.C., 
W.T. Leonardo da Vinci (H. J. Jones), A.M., W.T. Le Robuste 
(H. J. Jones), A.M., W.T. Marinka (H. J. Jones), H.C., W.T. 
Masterpiece (Forbes), A.M., W.T. Mauve Beauty (Castle 
Nurseries: Dobbie), A.M., W.T. Mrs. Marshall (R.H.S. 
Gardens), A.M., W.T. .V0. 2 (Cory), H.C., W.T. No. 3 (Cory), 
A.M., W.T. Princess Mary (H. J. Jones), H.C., W.T. 
Rose Ballet Girl (Carter Page), H.C., W.T. Rose of Castille 
(R.H.S. Gardens), H.C., W.T. Rose of Castille Improved 
(Forbes: Carter Page), H.C., W.T. Sunrad (Carter Page), 
A.M., W.T. Scarcity? (Forbes), H.C., W.T.Thompsonii* 
(Veitch), A.M., W.T. Unnamed (Bakers), H.C., W.T. White 
Phenomenal (Forbes), H.C., W.T. Zola (Forbes), A.M., W.T. 
* Hardy. 

GAILLARDIA (Perennial) Gloria (Laclhams), H.C., W.T. Rownham's 
Queen (Ladhams), H.C., W '.T .Tangerine (Barr: Daniels), 
H.C., W.T. H.P. Maximum var. triumphans (Ladhams), 
H.C., W.T. 

GENTIANA hascombensis (G. lagodechiana x G. septemfida var. 
cordifolia), A.M. Blue and white. hexaphylla, A.M. Dwarf. 
Blue. N. W. Yunnan, 1894. lagodechiana, Hascombe var., 
A.M., R.G. Dark blue marked white. prolata. Sky-blue, 
white tube. A.M. Dwarf. Bhutan and Sikkim, 1918. 

GLADIOLUS Adoration (Velthuys), A.M., W.T. Ajax, Silver-gilt 
Medal B.G.S. Prim, and A.M. Scarlet. A lice Amos, A.M., 
B.G.S. Large fl. Cream white. Anne Croke, Bronze med. 
B.G.S. Laciniatus seedling. Shaded pink. Annie Gregg 9 
Silver-gilt Medal B.G.S. Large fl. Cream marked pink. 
Blackwellii, A.M. Pink, lined carmine.~Ca^. Boynton (Vel- 



thuys), A.M., W.T.Carminea, A.M., B.G.S. Large fl. Ruby 
and white. Christine Prior, Bronze Medal and A.M., B.G.S. 
Large fl. Salmon marked blue. Dainty, A.M., B.G.S. Prim. 
Salmon, lemon, and scarlet. Dante, ist Prim. Lavender. 
B.G.S. Dark Lantern, A.M., B.G.S. Ruby and cream. 
David Prior, A.M., B.G.S. Large fl. Orange-scarlet. Dew 
Drop, ist B.G.S. Prim. White. Distinction, AM., B.G.S. 
Large fl. Orange. Edgar Ingham, Bronze Medal and A.M., 
B.G.S. Prim. Salmon, yellow, and white. Emma (Velthuys), 
A.M., Vf.T.Ethelyn, ist B.G.S. Prim. Yellow. Gelinotte, 
ist B.G.S. Prim. Pink. Geoffrey Henslow, Silver med. B.G.S. 
Prim. Coral marked white. Gertrude Amos, Silver Medal and 
A.M. B.G.S. Large fl. Salmon marked crimson. Gladness 
(Velthuys), A.M., W.T.Gloriana, A.M., B.G.S. Large fl. 
Salmon and yellow. Golden Eagle, ist B.G.S. Large fl. 
Yellow. Guy Mannering, ist B.G.S. Large fl. Harmony 
(Velthuys), A.M., Vf.T.Hinemowa, ist B.G.S. Large fl. 
Fancy. Irene, ist B.G.S. Large ft.Jack Izod, A.M., B.G.S. 
Large fl. Crimson. Jewel, ist B.G.S. Prim. Krelage's 
Favourite, ist B.G.S. Prim. Red. La Gaiete (Velthuys), 
H.C., Vf.l.Leen Wone, A.M., B.G.S. Prim. Orange. 
Lilac Queen, ist B.G.S. Prim. Lutetica, ist B.G.S. White. 
Marmora, ist B.G.S. Large fl. Mount Everest, ist B.G.S. 
Large fl. White. Mrs. G. C. Taylor, Silver Medal B.G.S. 
Prim. Salmon marked crimson. Mrs. M. Rumsey, Silver-gilt 
med. B.G.S. Shaded rose. Mrs. W. J. Unwin, A.M., B.G.S. 
Large fl. Shaded pink marked crimson. Mrs. Unwin (Vel- 
thuys), A.M., W.T. Ne Plus Ultra (Velthuys), H.C., W.T. 
Old Rose, A.M., B.G.S. Large fl. Salmon, shaded carmine and 
white. Orange Beauty, ist B.G.S. Prim. Yellow. Penelope, 
Bronze med. B.G.S. Magenta marked white. Pfitzer's Triumph, 
ist B.G.S. Large fl. Pink Gem, Silver-gilt med. B.G.S. 
Prim. Rose-pink, marked white. Pink Perfection, ist B.G.S. 
Large fl. Pink. Prince of Wales, ist B.G.S. Salmon. 
Large fl. Purple Glory, ist B.G.S. Large fl. Purple. Red 
Emperor, ist B.G.S. Large fl. Red. Rival, A.M., B.G.S. 
Large fl. White marked carmine. Rosella Amos, ist B.G.S. 
Large fl. Salmon Beauty, ist B.G.S. Prim. Salmon. 
Sappho, ist B.G.S. Prim. Smoky. Scarlet Flame, A.M., B.G.S. 
Prim, hybrid. Scarlet. Schwaben, ist B.G.S. Large fl. 
Yellow. Senorita, A.M., B.G.S. Orange marked carmine. 
Shell Pink, ist B.G.S. Prim. Pink. Souvenir, ist B.G.S. 
Prim. Yellow. Sunset, ist B.G.S. Large fl. Tapestry, 
AM. B.G.S. Large fl. Pink, shaded heliotrope. Taurus, ist 
B.G.S. Prim. Lavender. The Queen (Velthuys), H.C., W.T. 
Van, AM., B.G.S. Prim. Buff lined purple. What Joy, 
Silver med. B.G.S. Large fl. White marked canary and 
purple. White Butterfly, ist B.G.S. Prim. White. 


GODETIA Tall Double Cherry Red (Sutton), H.C., W.T. 

GORDONIA axillaris, A.M. Tender. White. Lasianthus, A.M t 
Loblolly Bay. Hardy Sh. Yellow. N. America, 1739. 

GRAMMATOCARPUS volubilis (Scyphanthus elegans), A.M. Twining. 
H.H.A. Yellow. Chili, 1824. 

HEDYCHIUM gardnerianum, A.M. Herbaceous Gingerwort. Stove. 
Yellow. Himalaya, 1819. 

HELENIUM autumnale var. Chipperfield Orange, R.W.T. Yellow 
shaded orange Wyndley (Carter Page), A.M., W.T. 

HELIOPHILA integrifolia. Cape stock. Cool greenhouse. A. Blue. 
S. Africa, 1823. linearifolia, A.M. Greenhouse evergreen. 
Blue. S. Africa, 1819. 

HEMEROCALLIS hybrida var. George Yeld. Yellow to brown. 

HIPPEASTRUM Lady Juliet Duff, A.M. Crimson. 

HYACINTH Grand Maitre, ist Paisley. Jacques, ist Paisley. 
White Friar, ist Kilmarnock. 

HYPERICUM reptans, A.G.M. Hardy in R.G. Prostrate mat. 
Flowers yellow, buds reddish. Sikkim. 

IRIS Abdera* (Perry), A.M., W.T. Aphrodite* (Orpington Nur- 
series), A.M., W.T. Benbow* (A. J. Bliss), A.M., W.T. 
Blue Chintz* (F. Burton), A.M., W.T. Bluet* (Orpington 
Nurseries), A.M., W.T. Bruno* (Wallace), A.M., W.T. 
Carfax, Silver-gilt Medal and C.M., I.S. New Seedling. Red- 
purple. Centurion * (Orpington Nurseries), A.M. W.T. Dog 
Rose, CM. I.S. New Seedling. Rosy mauve. Flaming 
Sword * (Orpington Nurseries), A.M., W.T .Flutter-by * (Miss 
Sturtevant), A.M., W.T.Greven, 2nd I.S. Gold Imperial* 
(Miss Sturtevant), A.M., W.T. Harmony * (Orpington Nur- 
series), A.M., W.T. Hemodus* (Perry), A.M., W.T. India* 
(G. L. Pilkington), A.M., W.T. 7m King * (Barr: Perry), A.M., 
W.T. Jacquiniana, 2nd I.S. Jane Austin, C.M., I.S. New 
seedling. White feathered purple. Joan Curtis, Silver Medal 
and C.M., I.S. New Seedling. Standards yellow, falls maroon. 
Joyance, Dykes Memorial Medal. Jurion t C.M., I.S. New 
seedling. Purple bicolour. Lent A. Williamson* (Orpington 
Nurseries), A.M., W.T. Lord Lambourne* (Perry), A.M., 
W.T. Marjory Tinley t ist I.S. Lavender. Mile. Yvonne 
Pelletier* (Cayeaux), A.M., W.T. Mrs. Hamilton Rowans 9 
seedling, C.M., I.S. Shaded purple. Mrs. H. F. Bowles* 
(Perry), A.M., W.T. Mrs. Marion Cran * (Perry), A.M., W.T. 
Nemoralia * (Perry), A.M., Vt.T.Norma * (Perry), A.M., W.T. 
pallida, Shotsham var* (Orpington Nurseries), A.M., W.T. 
pallida var. dalmatica * (R.H.S.: Forbes: Veitch), A.M., W.T. 
Pare de Neuilly* (Barr), A.M., Vf.T.Rhein Traube* 
(Waterer), A.M., "W.T. Rialgar * (Miss Sturtevant), A.M., 
W.T. Romola* (Orpington Nurseries), A.M., W.T. Sir 
Michael* (Orpington Nurseries), A.M., W.T. Souvenir de 


Madame Gaudichau * (G. P. Baker: Wallace), F.C.C., W.T. 
Trigo, Silver Medal and C.M., I.S. New seedling. Standards 
blue, falls shaded purple. T. W. Thornton* R.W.T. Blue. 
Whitelegg's Seedling, C.M. and Silver Medal I.S. Standards 
yellow, falls smoky purple. Yeoman * (Orpington Nurseries), 
A.M., W.T. Yukon, C.M., I.S. New seedling. Pale blue. 

* Bearded. 

IXORA lutea, A.M. Dwarf. Cream, 1912. 

KERRIA japonica, A.G.M. (Corchoris japonicus Thunberg). Orange- 
yellow. H.Sh. Introduced from Japan (double form) about 
1700. Single form first bloomed in Europe at the R.H.S. 
Chiswick Garden, 1835. 

KNIPHOFIA Excellence (Prichard), A.M., W.T. Fireflame (Ruys), 
A.M., W.T. Lemon Queen (Notcutt), H.C., W.T. Wisley 
Seedling, A.M., W.T. (R.H.S.). 

LACHENALIA Africa (Rev. J. Jacob), H.C., W.T. Yellow and red. 
Arabia (Rev. J. Jacob), A.M., W.T. Yellow. Boundii (Bound), 
A.M., W.T. Vermilion. Calcutta (Rev. J. Jacob), A.M., W.T. 
Yellow and red. Canada (Rev. J. Jacob), A.M., W.T. Yellow. 
Goldfinch (Mauger), H.C., W.T. Yellow and red . Leiden 
(Rev. J. Jacob), A.M., W.T. Yellow. Mandalay (Rev. J. 
Jacob), A.M., W.T. Yellow. Monaco (Rev. J. Jacob), A.M., 
W.T. Yellow and red. Monte Carlo (Mauger), H.C., W.T. 
Yellow and red. Siam (Mauger), A.M., W.T. Yellow. 
Tibet (Rev. J. Jacob), A.M., W.T. Yellow. Tipperary 
(Rev. J. Jacob), A.M., W.T. Yellow and red. 

LAPEYROUSIA grandiflora, A.M. Bulb. Cool greenhouse. Red 
marked crimson. Discovered by Sir John Kirk near the 
Zambesi. S.E. Trop. Africa, 1858. 

LARKSPUR (Annual) Exquisite Rose (Waller-Franklin Seed Co., 
California), A.M., W.T. Exquisite Pink Improved (Waller- 
Franklin Seed Co.), A.M., W.T. La France (Bodger), California 
A.M., W.T. 

LATHYRUS magellanicus, A.M. Everlasting Pea. Blue shaded rosy 
purple. Cape Horn, 1744. 

LEUCADENDRON plumosunt. Cult. Com. Silver Tree. Green- 
house evergreen Sh. S. Africa, 1774. 

LEUCOCORYNE ixiodes var. odorata t A.M. Bulb. H.H. Lilywort. 
Very fragrant. Blue and white. Chili, 1826. 

LEWISIA pygmaea, A.M. White veined and flushed purple, red 
calices. Rocky Mountains, 1907. 

LILIUM philippense var. formosum, Price's var., A.M. White 
marked red. 

LOASA acanthifolia, A.M. H.A. with stinging hairs. Orange. 
Chili, 1822. 

LOBELIA The Marvel, A.M. Bedding or pot. Double. Blue. 

LONICERA hemsleyana, A.M. Deciduous. Semi-transparent red 
berry. China. 


LUPIN (Annual) Hartwegi album (Daehnfeldt & Jensen), A.M., 
W.T. White. Hartwegi Dark Blue (Waller Franklin), H.C., 
W.T. Azure blue. Hartwegi superbus (Watkins & Simpson), 
H.C., W.T. White to magenta. Hartwegi White (Webb), 
A.M., W.T. White. Hybridus roseus (Barr), A.M., W.T. 
Pale rose to crimson. luteus Romulus (Benary: Heinemann), 
A.M., W.T. Yellow. mutabilis (Barr), H.C., W.T. White 
tinged lavender. nanus (Daehnfeldt & Jensen: Ban), H.C., 
W.T. Blue. nanus Blue (Benary), H.C., W.T. Blue. 
tricolor rosa (Sluis and Groot), A.M., W.T. Rose to magenta. 
(Perennial) Ada (Simpson: Harkness), H.C., W.T. Delight 
(Simpson), H.C., W.TEdna (Simpson), A.M., W.T. Elizabeth 
Arden (Simpson), H.C., W.T. Emperor (Downham), H.C., 
W.T. Exquisite (Simpson), A.M., W.T. Highlander (Simpson), 
A.M., W.T. Northern Beauty (Dickson & Robinson), H.C., 
W.T. Northern Fire (Dickson & Robinson), A.M., W.T. 
Northern Lass (Simpson: Dickson & Robinson), H.C., W.T. 
Northern King (Simpson: Dickson & Robinson), A.M., W.T. 
Northern Torchlight (Dickson & Robinson), H.C., W.T. 
polyphyllus var. Duke of Richmond, R.W.T. Rose. p. var. 
Grace Fan-well, R.W.T. Keel buff, standard terra-cotta. 
p. var Reason, R.W.T. Pink bicolour. Rosalind (Simpson), 
H.C., 'W.T. Saint George (Simpson), H.C., Vf.TTaplow 
Blue (Barr), H.C., W.T. Twilight (vanTubergen), H.C., W.T. 

MAGNOLIA Brozzonii, F.C.C. Soulangeana hybrid. White marked 

MARICA gracilis f A.M. White and blue Irid. Brazil, 1830. 

MERTENSIA moltkioides, A.M. Free flowering. Blue. Himalayas. 

NARCISSUS Ace of Diamonds, 2nd Mid. Daf. Soc. Poeticus Div. 
Advance Guard, R.W.T. Trumpet Daf. Yellow. Adventure, 
A.M., Incomp. Div. Yellow. Alchemist, ist Mid. Daf. Soc. 
Trumpet Daf. Yellow. Askelon, 2nd Mid. Daf. Soc. Trumpet 
Daf. White. Beersheba, A.M., ist Daf. Ex. Trumpet Daf. 
Good for cutting. Bridegroom, A.M. Barrii Div. Bicolor; 
cream, cup yellow edged orange. Brimstone, A.M. Trumpet 
Daf. Sulphur. Chandlers Ford, ist Daf. Ex. Incomp. Div. 
Commander Byrd, A.M. Haarlem. Trumpet Daf. Lemon 
trumpet, sulphur perianth. Coverach Gem, ist Daf. Ex. 
Barrii Div. Crimea, A.M. Mid. Daf. Soc. Barrii Div. 
Bicolor. Orange cup. Croesus, 2nd Mid. Daf. Soc. Incomp. 
Div. Yellow. Curlew, 2nd Mid. Daf. Soc. Bicolor Incomp. 
Div. Dactyl, ist Daf. Ex. Poeticus Div. Damson, ist Yellow 
Incomp. Daf. Ex. Daphne, F.C.C. Double. Good for market 
and garden. Edgar Thurston, R.W.T. Trumpet Daf. Yellow 
Estelle, A.M. Haarlem. Incomp. Div. Lemon, deep orange 
cup. Fanny Currey, A.M. Leedsii Div. Cream, cup flushed 
apricot. Farthingdale, ist Mid. Daf. Soc. Incomp. Div. 
Yellow. Festive, ist and A.M. Mid. Daf. Soc. Incomp, Div. 


Bicolor, white, orange-scarlet. finality, A.M. Poeticus Div. 
Yellow cup edged red. Firetail, ist Mid. Daf. Soc. Barrii 
Div. White. Folly, ist Bicolor Barrii Daf. Ex., A.M. Mid. 
Daf. Soc. White, red-orange. Friar, AM. Haarlem. Leedsii 
Div. Sulphur, yellow cup. Glorious, ist Mid. Daf. Soc. 
Tazetta Div. Golden Goblet, ist Daf. Ex., Jonquilla hybrid. 
Golden Ingot, A.M. Incomp. Div. Primrose, yellow cup. 
Goodwin, ist Daf. Ex. Cyclamineus hybrid. Gregalach, ist 
bicolor Trumpet Daf. Harpist, 2nd Mid. Daf. Soc. Trumpet 
Daf. White. Harvest Moon, ist Daf. Ex. Triandus hybrid. 
Henna, A.M. Haarlem. Incomp. Div. Market flower. 
Deep lemon, orange cup. Honey, 2nd Mid. Daf. Soc. Leedsii 
Div. Huon, A.M. Poeticus Div. White, yellow corona 
edged red-orange. Inglescombe, ist Daf. Ex. Double. Irene 
Copeland, F.C.C. Haarlem. Double. J. K. Ramsbottom, 
A.M. Haarlem. Barrii Div. White, yellow cup bordered 
orange. Jorrocks, A.M. Mid. Daf. Soc. Incomp. Div. 
Canary, orange crown. Kantara, A.M. Mid. Daf. Soc. 
Trumpet Daf. White. Khatmandu, A.M. Leedsii Div. 
White, crown shaded green. Kilter, ist Daf. Ex. Barrii Div. 
Lloyd, ist Mid. Daf. Soc. Double. Market Glory, A.M. Mid. 
Daf. Soc. Incomp. Div. Canary, orange-yellow crown. 
Marvellous, A.M. Haarlem. Trumpet Daf. Sulphur-white 
perianth, golden trumpet. Mary Copeland, 2nd Mid. Daf. 
Soc. Double. May Glory, A.M., Poeticus Div. Orange 
cup. May Molony, A.M. Mid. Daf. Soc. Leedsii hybrid. 
Cream, cup primrose. Medusa, 2nd. Mid. Daf. Soc. Tazetta 
Div. Minafon, 2nd Mid. Daf. Soc. Barrii Div. Yellow. 
Mitylene, ist Mid. Daf. Soc. Leedsii Div.Moira O'Niell, ist 
Mid. Daf. Soc. Bicolor Trumpet. Mr. Nijgh, A.M. Haarlem. 
Barrii Div. white, orange cup. Mrs. Watts. A.M. Mid. Daf. 
Soc. Incomp. Div. Cream, orange crown. Muriel Bibby, 2nd 
Mid. Daf. Soc. Barrii Div. White. Naomi, A.M. Haarlem. 
Barrii Div. Sulphur, yellow cup bordered deep orange. Opera, 
ist Mid. Daf. Soc. Poeticus Div. Orange Circlet, A.M. 
Haarlem. Incomp. Div. Lemon, cup yellow bordered orange- 
red. Orange Glory, ist Mid. Daf. Soc. Cyclamineus Hybrid. 
Peerless, A.M. Haarlem. Poetaz Div. Apricot, orange cup. 
Peter Lower, A.M. Mid. Daf. Soc. Tazetta Div. White, 
orange cup. Radium, A.M. Mid. Daf. Soc. Barrii Div. 
White suffused buff, orange cup. Recessional, A.M. Poeticus 
Div. White, primrose crown. Red Knight, A.M. Haarlem. 
Incomp. Div. Cream, yellow cup bordered orange. Red 
Rim, A.M. Haarlem. Poeticus Div. Market flower. Cup 
orange-red border. Royalist, ist Daf. Ex. Trumpet Daf. 
Yellow. St. Egwin, ist bicolor Barrii Daf .Ex. Seraglio, ist 
Mid. Daf. Soc. Barrii Div. Yellow. Silver Salver, ist Daf. 
Ex. Leedsii Div. Silver Plane, ist and A.M. Mid. Daf. Soc. 


Leedsii Div. White, canary cup. Solleret, A.M., ist Mid. Daf. 
Soc. Jonquilla hybrid. Yellow. Sumaria, A.M. Mid. Daf. 
Soc. White. Sunstar, A.M., A.M. Mid. Daf. Soc. Barrii 
Div. Bicolor. Cream, orange red. Taffy, 2nd Mid. Daf. Soc. 
Leedsii Div. Tenedos, ist giant Leedsii Daf. Ex; 2nd Mid. Daf. 
Soc. Triplex, A.M. Semi-double. White Twinkle, A.M. 
Haarlem. Barrii Div. Apricot, cup orange. Van Waver en's 
Giant, ist Kilmarnock. Venetia, ist Daf. Ex. Triandus 
Div. ist and 2nd Mid. Daf. Soc. Triandus Hybrid. Vixen, 
A.M. Haarlem. Incomp. Div. Sulphur-white, orange cup. 
Wide Wing, A.M. Haarlem. Poeticus Div. Cup yellowish- 
red border. Whiteley Gem, A.M. Incomp. Div. Yellow, 
apricot cup. Whitewell, ist Paisley. 

OENOTHERA trichocalyx, A.M. Grey leaves. White shaded prim- 
rose. N. America. 

OMPHALOGRAMMA sp. K.W., 6,821, A.M. Blue. 

OURISIA alpina, A.M. Lilac. Chili. 

PAEONIA Gilded Splendour, R.W.T. Rose, carmine and gold. 
Kelway's Remembrance, A.M. York. Lord Kitchener, A.M. 
York. Mlokosewitschii, A.M. Herbaceous. Yellow. Cau- 
casus, 1908. Una Howard, R.W.T. Semi-double. Carmine. 

PENTSTEMON antirrhinoides, A.M. H.H. Shrub. Yellow. Found 
by Dr. Coulter in California, 1824. Eatonii, A.M. Crimson- 
scarlet. California, 1883. -procerus (confertus caeruleo-pur- 
pureus), A.M. Hardy. Blue tinted mauve. N. America, 1827. 
strictus (p. comarrhenus), A.M. Glaucous grey leaves. Rosy- 
lavender. N.W. America. 

PERNETTYA leucocarpa, A.M. Dwarf creeping shrub. White fruit. 
Found by Comber. Chili, 1926. 

PHACELIA campanularia, A.G.M. Annual. California, 1882. 

PHASEOLUS Caracalla, A.M. Climbing Leguminosae. Greenhouse. 
White, cream and purplish-blue. India, 1690. 

PHILADELPHUS insignis, A.M. Very floriferous. 

PHLOX (Drummondii) grandiflora alba (Dobbie: Barr), A.M., W.T. 
White. grandiflora coccinea (Barr: Benary; Veitch), H.C., 
W.T. Scarlet. grandiflora oculata (Barr), A.M., W.T. Rosy- 
red. grandiflora Scarlet (Morris), H.C., W.T. grandiflora 
stellata splendens (Barr), H.C., W.T. Scarlet. Mixed (Spruijt), 
H.C., W.T. Various. nana compacta Fireball (Watkins & 
Simpson: W. H. Simpson), H.C., W.T. Scarlet. nana com- 
pacta Snowball (Barr), H.C., W.T. White. nana compacta 
White (Watkins & Simpson), H.C., W.T. Red Prince (Barr), 
H.C., W.T. Scarlet. Paragon Dwarf Mixed (Webb), H.C., 
W.T, Various. 

(Perennial) Magna Charta, R.W.T. Pink, carmine eye. Mrs. 
Symons-Jeunc, R.W.T. Large flowers. Blush pink, carmine 
(Alpine) atropurpurea (Bakers), H.C., W.T. Fairy (Bakeri: 


Hemsley), H.C., Vf.T.Lavinia (Miss M. C. Taylor), A.M., 
MV.T.Moerheimii (Bakers), A.M., W.T. Seraph (Barr), 
A.M., W.T. Sprite (Arends), A.M., W.T. 

PINGUICULA gypsicola, A.M. Insectivorous. Mauve. Mexico, 1911. 

POLYGONUM Aubertii, A.G.M. Climber. White tinged green and 
pink. Collected W. Szechwan, by Pre Aubert, 1899. bald- 
schuanicum, A.G.M. Climber. White tinged pink. Intro- 
duced by Dr. Albert Regel f 1883. 

POPPY (Annual) New Double Queen (Barr), A.M., W.T.Taplow 
Pink (Barr), A.M., W.T. 

PRIMULA hybrida var. Sir George Thursby (P. japonica x P. Lissadell 
hybrid) , A.M. Deep rose-pink, crimson zone. Peakland Beauty, 
R.W.T. Very floriferous Primrose. Blue. Polyanthus Bar- 
rowby Gem (Mrs. MacColl), A.M., W.T. 

PRUNUS davidiana alba, A.G.M. (P.D. albifiora). Hardy in the 
south. Introduced by M. Carriere. China, 1872. nana t A.M. 
Dwarf Russian Almond. 1683. 

PYRETHRUM Red Emperor, R.W.T. Single. Crimson. 

RAMONDIA Nathaliae, A.M. R.G. Blue. / 

RHODODENDRON adenopodium, ist Rh.A. Pink. Half hardy. 
Central China, 1909. amoena, ist Rh.A. arboreum, ist Rh.A. 
Scarlet. Himalayas, 1820. Aucklandii Pink Seedling, ist 
Rh.A. Baileyi, ist Rh.A. Lepidotum series. bullatum, ist 
Rh.A. campanulatum, ist Rh.A. Pink. Himalayas, 1825. 
campy locarpum, ist Rh.A. Yellow. Sikkim, 1851. chari- 
topes (?) Forrest 25,270, A.M. Evergreen. Dwarf. Pink. 
Dairy Maid. Best in Show, Rh.A. Davidsonianum, ist 
Rh.A. Szechuan, 1913. Delight (R. praecox x R. ciliatum), 
A.M. Flushed pink. dichoranthum % neriiflorum, ist Rh.A. 
euchaites, A.M. Forrest, 12,125. K.W. 3,040. Red. exium 
x Falconeri, ist Rh.A. Falconeri, ist Rh.A. White. Hima- 
layas, iS^o.fastigiatum x Augustinii, ist Rh.A. Alpine. 
fictolacteum, ist Rh.A. Fortune's Triumph, A.M. Pale pink. 
Gill's Triumph, ist Rh.A. Glory of Penjerrick, ist Rh.A. 
Griffithianum, ist Rh.A. Hinodigerii, ist Rh.A. Evergreen 
Azalea. irroratum, ist Rh.A. Keiskii, A.M. Rh.A. Trifolium 
series. Pale yellow. Japan, 1908. K.W. 6273, A.M. White. 
lacteum, ist Rh.A. White. China, 1909. Loderi, ist Rh.A. 
Loder's Pink Diamond, ist Rh.A. Hybrid. lutescens, ist 
Rh.A. Mom, ist Rh.A. Barbatum series. Muriel Messel, 
AM. (R. Loder's Whitex R. Loderi). Pink. neriiflorum, ist 
Rh.A.oresotrephes, ist Rh.A. Richard Gill, ist Rh.A. 
rubiginosum, ist Rh.A. Pink. Yunnan, 1898. russatum, 
ist Rh.A. Lapponicum series. semanteum, A.M. Rh.A. 
Lapponicum series. Rosy-mauve. Discovered by Forrest. 
S.W. Szechuan, 1921. Soulei, ist Rh.A. Rose-pink. China, 
igog.taliense, ist Rh.A.tephropeplum, A.M. Rh.A. Campy- 
logynum series. Pink. Discovered by Farrer. Upper Burma, 


1920. Thomsonii, ist Rh.A. Red. Nepal and Sikkim, 1851. 
Thoinsonti % neriiflorum, ist Rh.A. Hybrid. Vanessa (R. 
Souliei-Fortunei x R. Griersonianum), F.C.C. Dwarf. Salmon- 

RIBES sanguineum splendens, A.G.M. Hardy Sh. 6'. Flowers 
better colour and size than type. 

ROSA Admiration, ist Glasgow. H.T. Cream tinted pink. 
Anne, Best in Show Glasgow. H.T. Pink. Aroma, Clay Cup. 
Light crimson. Very fragrant. Aureate, Gold Med. N.R.S. 
H.T. Scented. Yellow. Autumn, A.M. H.T. Shaded rose 
and gold. Barbara Richards, A.M. H.T. Fragrant. Cream 
flushed yellow. Caledonia, C.M., N.R.S. Garden and exhibi- 
tion. H.T. White shaded lemon. Crette, ist Glasgow. 
White. Crimson Glow, C.M., N.R.S. H.Wich. Semi-double. 
Red. Dame Edith Helen, ist Southport. H.T. Pink. 
D. T. Poulson, C.M., N.R.S. Poly. Bedding. Semi-double. 
Crimson. Duchess of Athol, Nickerson Cup, N.R.S.; A.M. 
Shaded orange. Earl Haig, ist (Red) Glasgow; 2nd Southport. 
H.T. Deep crimson. Elizabeth Arden, Gold Med. N.R.S. 
H.T. White tinted pink. Frau Karl Druschki, ist. White. 
Glasgow. H.P. White. Gigantea, Cult. Com. Coppery 
red to white. Burma, 1888. Gladys Benskin, Gold Med. 
N.R.S. H.T. Sweet scented. Pink. Golden Dawn, C.M., 
N.R.S. H.T. Scented (Elegante x Ethel Somerset). All purposes. 
Vigorous. Pale yellow, reverse flushed old rose. James 
Gibson, CM., N.R.S. H.T. Crimson. James Rea, Gold Med. 
N.R.S. H.T. Deep rose.Julien Potin, C.M., N.R.S. Pern. 
Yellow. Katherine King. Scented. H.P. Pink. C.M., 
N.R.S. Lady Inchiquin, ist Glasgow. H.T. Shaded pink. 
Lt.-Col. A. Fairrie, C.M., N.R.S. Cream flushed apricot. 
Lucie Marie, C.M., N.R.S. Garden and bedding. H.T. 
Yellow to orange. Mabel Morse, ist (Yellow) Glasgow. H.T. 
Yellow. Miss Willmott, ist Glasgow. H.T. Cream white. 
Molly Darragh, C.M., N.R.S. Yellow shaded rose. Mrs. 
A. R. Barraclough, ist Dumbarton. H.T. Carmine shaded 
yellow Mrs. C. Aveling, C.M., N.R.S. H.T. Semi-double. 
Shaded orange-red. Mrs. Courtney Page, Best Bloom (Pro- 
fessional) Colchester. H.T. Shaded cerise. Mrs. Henry Bowles, 
ist and ist (Pink) Glasgow; ist Southport. H.T. Rose pink 
Mrs. Henry Morse, Best in Show, Falkirk. H.T. Rose. Mrs. 
H. G. Johnston, C.M., N.R.S. Exhibition H.T. Pink. Mrs.Lamp- 
lough, ist (Cream) Glasgow. Mrs. Sam McGredy, Gold Med. 
H.T. Orange-red. Nellie Parker, Best Bloom (Amateur), 
Colchester. H.T. Shaded cream. Peter Pan, C.M., N.R.S. 
Emma Wright sport. Garden. H.P. Salmon-coral. Porta- 
down, Gold Med. N.R.S. H.T. Red. President Hoover, A.M. 
H.T. Shaded pink. Senorita de Alvaraz, C.M., N.R.S. Single. 
H.T. Bright pink. Tom Ban, CM., N.R.S. Garden. HT. 


Apricot flushed rose.Trigo, C.M., N.R.S. H.T. All pur- 
poses. Shaded yellow. W. . Chaplin, C.M., N.R.S. H.T. 
Deep rose pink. Winnie Bell, F.C.C. Glasgow. 

SALVIA (Bedding) Early Dwarf Bedder (Sluis & Groot), A.M., W.T. 
Scarlet. Farinacea (Benary), H.C., W.T. Lavender-blue. 
Fireball (Morris), A.M., W.T. (Heinemann) H.C., W.T. Scar- 
let. Harbinger (Veitch), A.M., W.T. (Watkins & Simpson: 
Pearson), H.C., W.T. Scarlet. Harbinger Improved (Watkins 
& Simpson), H.C., W.T. Scarlet. patens (Veitch), A.M., W.T. 
Gentian-blue. patens var. Cambridge Blue, A.M. Sky-blue. 
H.H.P. splendens var. Simmonsii, R.W r .T. Dwarf, free 
flowering. Scarlet. 

SAXIFRAGE Beauty ofRonsdorf (Ruys), C., W.T. Bee's Pink (Ruys), 
A.M., W.T. Enchantress (Barr), C., W.T. Mrs. E. Piper 
(Roger), H.C., W.T. Triumph (Arends), A.M., \V .T .Tumbling 
Waters. Cult. Com. 

SCILLA siberica, A.G.M. Hardy bulb. Blue, white, and pink. 
Siberia, 1796. 

SEDUM spectabile, A.G.M. Hardy. Japan and China, 1868. 

SPIRAEA venusta, A.G.M. (Synonyms: S. palmata Lin, S. lobata, 
Filipendula rubra t F. lobata, Ulmaria rubra). Hardy H. 3-5'. 
Pink. N. America, 1765. 

STAPELIA nobilis, A.M. Succulent. Biscuit marked purple. S. 
Africa, 1901. 

STATICE profusa var. superba, A.M. Very floriferous. Purple. 

STREPTANTHERA cuprea, A.M. Bulb. Dwarf. Irid. Terra-cotta, 
purple zone. S. Africa, 1825. 

STREPTOCARPUS Improved Aldenham Strain, A.M. Various colours. 

SWEET PEA Admiration (F. C. Woodcock), C.M., S.N.S.P.T. Rosy 
lavender.^// Bright, Gold Med. S.N.S.P.T. Cerise-scarlet. 
Ascot, Best, Colchester. Bcatall (Bolton), C.M., S.N.S.P.T. 
Cerise-pink. Big Ben, 2nd N.S.P. Bluebell, ist N.S.P. Blue. 
Colorado, ist S.N.S.P. Orange. Craigwell (F. C. Woodcock), 
C.M., S.N.S.P.T. Salmon-pink. Excelsior (Dobbie), CM,. 
S.N.S.P.T. Blue. Fire Glow, ist (Novelty), Southport. 
Cerise. Flaming June, Gold Med. N.S.P.T.; ist N.S.P. ; 2nd 
N.S.P. Scarlet. Gleneagles, ist N.S.P. Rluz. Glorious, ist 
N.S.P.; ist S.N.S.P. Cerise. Gold Crest, ist Southport. 
Grenadier, ist S.N.S.P. Orange-scarlet. Honour, ist N.S.P.; 
ist S.N.S.P. Crimson. Ivory Picture, ist N.S.P. Cream. 
Leviathan (Stark), C.M., S.N.S.P.T. Maroon. Lilac Queen, 
ist N.S.P.; Best in show S.N.S.P., Aberdeen. Blush lilac. 
Loch Lomond (Bolton), F.C.C., S.N.S.P.T. Maroon. Lustre 
(J. Stevenson), C.M., S.N.S.P.T. Carmine. Magnet, ist 
N.S.P.; ist (Pink) Southport. Majestic (W. E. Sands), F.C.C., 
S.N.S.P.T. Purple. Michael, ist N.S.P.; 2nd N.S.P. Orange- 
salmon. Miss California, 2nd N.S.P. Cream-pink. Model, ist 
N.S.P.; ist S.N.S.P. White. Mrs. A. Scarles, Gold and 


enamel Medal and ist (Cerise) Southport. Mrs. Cinders 
(Ireland & Hitchcock), C.M., S.N.S.P.T. Orange-scarlet. 
Olympia, ist (Purple) Aberdeen. Picture, ist S.N.S.P. Cream. 
Pink Glow, ist N.S.P. Pinkie, ist N.S.P.; ist (Pink) 
Aberdeen. Powerscourt, Gold Med. and ist (Purple) Southport; 
ist S.N.S.P.; ist (Lavender) Aberdeen. Purity (J. Stevenson), 
C.M., S.N.S.P.T. White. Purple Flame (W. E. Sands), 
F.C.C., S.N.S.P.T. Purple Monarch, ist S.N.S.P. Purple. 
Royal Mauve, ist N.S.P.; ist S.N.S.P. Mauve. Royal Scot, 
ist N.S.P. Royal Sovereign, ist N.S.P. Orange. Scintillant 
(J. Stevenson), F.C.C., S.N.S.P.T. Rose. Sheila (W. E. Sands), 
Gold Med. S.N.S.P.T. Deep rose. Sunkist, 2nd N.S.P. 
Picotee edged. The Prince, ist (Crimson) Aberdeen. Tom 
Webster, 2nd N.S.P. Blue. Vectis, ist N.S.P. White. 
Victor, ist (White) Aberdeen. Warrior, ist N.S.P. Maroon. 
What Joy, ist (Cream) Southport; ist (Cream) Aberdeen. 
Youth, ist N.S.P.; ist (Picotee-edged) Southport. 

TAXUS baccata fructo-luteo, A.M. Large pale orange fruit. Ireland. 

TILLANDSIA splendens var. major, A.M. Stove. Leaves marked 
chocolate, scarlet bracts. 

TROLLIUS asialicus var. Salamander (Ruys), A.M., W.T. Etna 
(Ladhams: van Tubergen: Ruys), H.C., W.T. europaeus var. 
superbus (Perry), A.M., W.T.Fire Globe (Ruys), H.C., W.T. 
Golden Wonder (Ruys), H.C., Vf.f.Goldquelle (Ladhams: van 
Tubergen), A.M., W.T. His Majesty (Ruys), A.M., W.T 
Lightball (Ruys), A.M., W.T. Newry Giant (Ruys), A.M., 
W.T. Orange Globe (Ladhams: van Tubergen), H.C., W.T. 
Orange Princess (Bakers: van Tubergen), H.C., W.T. T. Smith 
(Ruys), H.C., W.T. 

TROPAEOLUM azureum (violaeflorum), A.M. Greenhouse climber. 
Blue. Chili. 

TULIP Clos de Vougeot, A.M. Darwin. Deep crimson. Dorothy 
Ann, A.M. Red and white. George Hayward, ist Feathered 
Chelsea. Lady Ernie, A.M. Orange-scarlet. Mars, Special 
ist Breeder Chelsea. Orange-scarlet, yellow base. Sam 
Barlow, ist Flamed Chelsea. Prince of Austria, ist Kil- 
marnock; ist Paisley. 

VENIDIUM fastuosum, A.M. Southport. A. Yellow. S. Africa. 

VERBENA corybosa (C.E. 354), A.M. Herbaceous. Deep lavender. 
Chili, 1928. 

VERONICA (Herbaceous) austriaca (Forbes), A.M., W.T. Blue. 
Austria, 1748. Blue Peter (W. A. Collier), H.C., W.T xalta 
(Forbes), A.M. Blue. Siberia, i8if>.gentianoides (Forbes), 
A.M., W.T. Violet. Levant, 1748. incana (Barr), H.C., 
W.T. Blue. Russia, 1759. longifolia (Barr), A.M., W.T. 
Blue. S. Europe, ij^i.prostrata (rtipestris) (Kelway), A.M., 
W.T. Blue. -prostrata var. alba (Arends), A.M., W.T. 
prostrate var. pallida (Arends), H.C., W.T. Royal Blue (Den 


Ouden: Forbes: Kelway: Barr), A.M., W.T.rupestris (Forbes), 
A.M., W.T. Shirty Blue (Den Ouden), A.M., W.T. 

VIBURNUM Burkwoodii "(V. Carlesii % V. utile), A.M. Sub-evergreen. 
Fragrant. White. 

VIOLA Andrew Jameson, ist L.V.P.S. Fancy. Ann Walker, C.M., 
S.P.V.S.; C.M. Glasgow. Cream edged lavender. A rchie 
Grant, ist N.V.P.S. cornuta var. Lavender Gem, R.W.T. 
Blue-lavender. cornuta var. White Gem, R.W.T. White, 
yellow tube. Dr. R. M. Craig, C.M., S.P.V.S. Isa Muir, 
C.M., S.V.P.S. Canary edged lavender. Isabel, C.M. Glasgow. 
James M. Whyte, C.M., S.P.V.S . Jersey Gem (? x ?), A.G.M. 
Very floriferous, tufted. Dark violet-blue. John Adamson, 
ist L.V.P.S. Yellow. John Gourlay, C.M., S.P.V.S. Fancy. 
Mrs. H. J. Milner, ist L.V.P.S. Cream edged lavender. 
Mrs. Marrison, ist N.V.P.S. Bicolor. Nessie Douglas, C.M., 
S.P.V.S.; C.M. Glasgow. William G. Whyte, C.M. Glasgow. 

XANTHOSOMA violaceum, A.M. Tender Aroid. Stems and fls. 
deep violet, spathe yellow. W. Indies, 1864. 

ZEPHYRANTHES Atamasco, A.M. Atamasco Lily. Bulb. R.G. or 
cold greenhouse. White with green base. Virginia, 1629. 


ADAGLOSSUM Pittsii (Ada. aurantiaca x Odontoglossum catorei), 
A.M. Man. 

AERIDES Fieldingii. Cult. Com. India, 1885. 

ANSELLIA congoensis, Whitley var., A.M. 

BRASSO-CATTLEYA Apollo var. majestica, A.M., Man. British 
Queen, Stonehurst var. (B.-C. Digbyano-Mendelii x C. Lord 
Rothschild), A.M. Doris, Langley var., A.M., Man. Orange 
Glory (L.-C. Elinor x B.-C. heatonense), F.C.C. Prince Olaf 
(C. Prince Shimadzu x B.-C. Nena), F.C.C. The Duchess 
(B.-C. Illustris x B.-L.-C. The Baroness), AM. The Globe var. 
Mrs. Simon Gay (B.-C. Cliftonii x C. Trianae), A.M. Sprigtide, 
Stonehurst var. (B.-C. Maroniae x C. Mossiae), F.C.C. Spring- 
tide var. The Node (C. Mossiae x B.-C. Maronaie), F.C.C. 

BRASSO-LAELIO-CATTLEYA Alfred Mollettvar. Vivid, Silver-gilt Med. 
and F.C.C., Man. Ambaurea (B.-L.-C. Amber x C. aurea), 
F.C.C. Golden Crown var. John Band (B.-L.-C. Joan x C. 
Venus), AM. Gordon Highlander var. Majestic (L.-C. Aphrodite 
x B.-C. Maronae), AM.Heliolata (C. Heliodor x B.-L.-C. 
maculata), A.M. Heliolata, Dell Park var. (C. Heliodor x 
B.-L.-C. maculata), F.C.C. Queen Elizabeth (B.-C. British 
Queen x L.-C. Ivanhoe), F.C.C. Vashti (L.-C. Beatrice x B.-C. 
Bianca), A.M. 

BULBOPHYLLUM grandifiorum, Bot. Cert. Man. Pale green. New 
Guinea, 1866. 


CATASETUM Bungerothii, Cult. Cert. Man. Creamy white. Tropical 

CATTLEYA Canberra var. Prince of Wales, F.C.C., Man. Etta var. 
The Pearl, F.C.C. Uan.Glorietle var. The Node (C. Tityus % C. 
Hardyana var. Warneri), A.M. Gladiator (C. Dowiana x C. 
Gladys), A.M. Hardyana var. alba exquisitum, A.M., Man. 
Her os (C. Heliodor x C. Sunbeam), F.C.C. Helioglow (C. Golden 
Glow x C. Heliodor), A.M. Linda var. Vestal, A.M., Man. 
Lorna var. gigantea, F.C.C. Man. Mantinii var. splendens, 
Cult. Cert. Man. Mimosa var. Primrose Queen (C. Venus x C. 
Triumphans), A.M. Monarch var. Salford, F.C.C. Man. 
Mrs. Medo var. Regina, A.M., Man. Prince Shimadzu var. King 
George (C. Tityus x C. Hardyana), F.C.C. Remy Chollet var. 
President (C. Monarch x C. Trianae), A.M. Susan var. alba 
(C. Suzanne Hye de Crom % C. Cowaniae var. alba), A.M. 
Susan var. Vestal (Susanne Hye de Crom % Cowaniae alba), 
F.C.C., Man. Valencia, Towneley Grove var., F.C.C., Man. 
Vesta var. Queen Mary, F.C.C., Man. Wavriniana (C. granu- 
losa x C. gigas), F.C.C., Man. 

CYCNOCHES Loddigesii, A.M. Surinam, 1830. 

CYMBIDIUM Albania (C. albanensis x C. Alexanderii), F.C.C. 
Alexanderii var. Evansiae, F.C.C., Man. atropurpureum, Bot. 
Cert. Eagle, A.M., Man. Giant Rose (C. Alexanderii x C. 
Schlegelii), F.C.C., Man. Gold Crest (? x ?), F.C.C. Letty, 
Wyld Court var. (C. Merlin x C. Gottianum), F.C.C. Marabou, 
Exbury var. (C. insigne x C. Vesta), A.M. Morvyth, Exbury var. 
(C. Redstart x C. Alexanderii), A.M. Pipit var. Mandarin 
(C. Gottianum x C. Miranda), A.M. Plover, Wyld Court var. 
C. Lowio-grandiflorum x C. Pauwelsii), A.M. Puffin var. 
Calypso (C. Dryad x C. Martin), AM. Ralph Sander, Old 
Quarry var. (C. Cooperi x C. lAnsoni), A.M. Rosanna (C. 
Kittiwake x C. Alexanderii), A.M. Vesta (C. Alexanderii x C. 
insigne Sander i), A.M. Vesta var. sanguinolentum (C. Alexanderii 
x C. insigne), A.M. 

CYPRIPEDIUM Amazon (C. Memoria F. M. Ogilvie var. Rex x C. 
Perseus), A.M. Man. Amazon var. Sultan (C. Memoria var. 
F. M. Ogilvie var. Rexx. C. Perseus), F.C.C., Man. Amun Ra 
(C. Gwen Hannen x C. Nirvana), A.M., Man. Ardaco (C. 
Grand Duke Nicholas x ?) F.C.C., Man. Aureades var. White- 
cap, A.M. Man. Baldoran, A.M. Baldovan (C. Chloris x 
C. Nellie Pitt), A.M. bellatulumvar. KingGeorge, AM. Buddha 
(C. Christopher Grand Duke Nicholas xC. Warrior), F.C.C., Man. 
Charlesworthii var. Bromilowiae Cult.Cert. Man. Elidia 
(C. Elise II x C. Idina Lecana), A.M. Man. Elaine (C. Mona x 
Leeanum), A.M. Man. Esther (C. Selene x C. concolor), A.M. 
Eurydore (C. Euryades splendens x C. Commodore), A.M. Man. 
Eurystopher var. Daleii (C. Eurybiades x C. Christopher 
Grand Duke Nicholas) F.C.C., Man. Fad (C. Chrysostum x (?), 


F.C.C., Man. Genitor (C.EarlofTankervittex. C. Vashti),AM. 
Man. Gerda (C. Swallow % C. Garibaldi) , A.M. Golden 
Dawn, D.M., O.C. Griselda (C. Dreadnought x C. Amandinae), 
A.M. Man. Gwen Hanmer var. album, F.C.C. Man. Helsa var. 
Ingrid (C. Helm II x C. Satyr), A.M. Man. Huglii (C. 
Pyramus x C Elise II Reeling's var.) t A.M. Man. Hurrellianum 
(C. Curtisii x C. Argus), A.M. Man. Juliet var. magnificum 
(C. Mulatto x C. Swallow), A.M. Jungfrau, Brockhurst var. t 
A.M. Kestrel (C. nitens Leeanum Bectontiae x C. Swallow), 
A.M. Man. King Arthur var. Tamworth, A.M. Man. Leeanum 
var. Clinkaberryanum, Cult.Com. Littlecot (C. J. M. Black x 
C. Perseus Alpha), A.M. Llancayo (C. Mrs. Richards x ?), 
AM. Maori (C. Thisbe-Beckton x C. Budhoni), D.M., O C. 
Makedam Stonehurst var. (C. Charles Dillon x C. Cardinal Mer- 
cier), A.M. Melody var. Vega, P.D., O.C. Mena (C. Thisbe- 
Beckton x C. Chrysostom), D.M., O.C. Mimosa var. Monarch 
(C. Moonbeam x C. Christopher), A.M. Miss Dorothy Sharpe 
(C. Cardinal Mercier x C. Nubia), A.M. Miss Queenie Dale 
C. Grand Duke Nicholas x C. Eurybiades), F.C.C. Man. Mist 
o' the Moon (C. nitens-Leeanum var. Becktoniae x C. Desdemona) t 
D.M., O.C. Mona var. Dolcis, A.M. Man. Mona var. Virginale, 
A.M. Man. Mowghlii (C. Pyramus x C. Becktoniae), A.M. Man. 
Mrs. A. E. Dale (C. Christopher var. Grand Duke Nicholas 
x C. Shogun), A.M. Man. Nepertiti (C. bingleyense x C. Alport 
Caesar), A. A. Man. New Year (C .Christopher x C. The Ghurka), 
A.M. Man. Rothschildianum, Northaw House var., Cult.Com, 
Strombole (C. Nubia x C. Gaston), F.C.C. Sumurun var. 
Snowball, A.M. Man. Trigo (C. Antinous x C. Odin), F.C.C. 
Man. Vesper var. Virginia (C. Vivid II % C. Alcibiades), A.M., 
F.C.C. Man. Volga (C. Zaria x C. Cardinal Mercier), A.M. 
Man. Waratah var. Chieftain (C. Euryades Carter Place var. 
x. C. Swallow), A.M. Man. Windrush var. Mentieth (C. Zena x 
C. Memoria F. M. Ogilvie var. The King), A.M. 

DENDROBIUM atroviolaceum, Cult. Com. New Guinea, 1890. 
Gatton Monarch, A.M. Man. infundibulum, Cult.Cert. Man. 
White, orange disc. Burma, 1863. nobile, Towneley Monarch, 
A.M., Man. Prince Arthur var. Colussus (D. Regium x D. 
Euryalus rubens, Gatton Park var.), A.M. Renown var. 
Carmen, P.D., O.C. Victoria Regina, Cult.Cert., Man. Dark 
blue and white. Philippines, 1897. wardianum, Cult.Cert. 
Man. White tipped rose. Assam and Burma, 1863. 

ERIA rhyncostyloides, Bot. Cert. Man. White tinted rose. Java, 

GONGORA maculata A.M. Yellow, dotted brown. Demerara, 1832. 

HABENARIA Lugardi, A.M. White and green. N'gamiland, 1900. 

LAELIO-CATTLEYA Astroite (L. aurea x L.-C. 1 stria), F.C.C. 

f*> Berenice (L.-C. Lustre x L.-C. Madame Brasseur Hye), A.M. 
Bungalow (C. Suzanne Hye x L.-C. Ernestii), A.M. Man. 
Canberra var. Golden Queen, A.M. Man. Canberra var. Sunset, 


F.C.C., Man. Cassandra, Mekhett var. (L.-C. Sargon x L.-C. 
Gladiator), A.M. Cavalese, Stonehurst var. (L.-C. Lustre x 
C. Fabia), AM. Cavalese var. Excelsa (L.-C. Lustre x C. 
Fabia), A.M. Chimera, F.C.C. Man. Hassallii var. alba, 
Arddorroch var. (L. Britannia var. alba x C. gigas), A.M. 
Hilary, F.C.C. Man. Jvanhoe var. Desdemona, Cult.Cert. Man. 
Modosa (L.-C. St. Gothard x C. HarJyana), A.M. Man. 
Molock var. Stromboli (L.-C. St. Gothard x L.-C. Sargon) , A.M. 
Profusion, Hye House var. t A.M. Man. Profusion, Stone- 
hurst var. (L.-C. Serbia x C. Hardy ana), A.M. Profusion, var. 
Cassie, A.M. Man. Profusion var. illuminata, Silver-gilt Med. 
and F.C.C., Man. Queen Mary var. Crimson Glory (L.-C. 
Lustre x C. Peetersii), F.C.C. Queen Mary, Stonehurst var. 
(L.-C. Lustre x C. Peetersii), F.C.C. Sargon var. Vesuvius 
(C. Hardy ana x L.-C. Lustre), F.C.C. Schroderae, Cult.Cert. 
Man. Schroderae var. Alpha, Cult. Com. Sunbelle, Brock- 
hurst var. (L.-C. Serbia x C. Thora), F.C.C. Titymona (C. Tityus 
x L.-C. Momus), F.C.C. Titymona Stonehurst var. (C. Tityus x 
L.-C. Momus), F.C.C. Titymona var. Rotunda (C. Tityus x 
L.-C. Momus), AM. Vega (L.-C. Soulange x L.-C. Rubens), 

LISSOCHILUS speciosus, A.M. Cape of Good Hope, 1818. 

LYCASTE Skinneri, Cult.Cert. Man. White, crimson. Guatemala, 
1842. Skinneri, Wivelsfield var., A.M. Man. 

MASDEVALLIA houtteana, Cult.Cert., Man. White, brown purple. 
Colombia, 1874. 

MAXILLARIA lepidota, Cult.Cert., Man. Light yellow. Colombia, 

MEGACLIMUM Bufo, Cult.Cert. Brown, purple. Tropical Africa, 

MILTONIA Armstrongii (M. Miss Louisa Fowler x M. William Pitt), 
Pre. Com. Bleuana var. Longley Ruby (M. Bleuana var. Reine 
Elizabeth self ed), AM.gattonensis, Exbury var. (M. Bleuana x 
M. Charlesworthii), F.C.C. Hyeana var. King William, F.C.C., 
Man. Kennie var. Princes Elizabeth, F.C.C., Man. Lucia var. 
Fidelia, Cult.Cert., Man. Lucia var. Molly Paterson (M.vexil- 
laria x M. Princess Margaret), A.M.; F.C.C. Lycaena, orchid- 
hurst var. (M. Princess Margaret x M. Lord Lambourne), F.C.C. 
Lydia var. Regina (M. Princess Mary x M. Beau Brummel), 
A.M. Lydia Stonehurst var. (M. Princess Mary x M. Beau 
Brummet), F.C.C. memoria H. T. Pitt var. Exquisita, Cert. 
Pre.Rec. Nadia var. Helen Paterson (M. Charlesworthii x M. 
Princess Margaret), A.M. Phalaenopsis, Cult.Cert.; Cult.Cert. 
Man. Columbia, i8$o.-~pulcra var. Enchantress (M. William 
Pitt x M. Lycaena), AM.pulchra var. Lyoth (M. William Pitt 
x. M. Lyceana), F.C.C. St. Andre var. Distinction, A.M. Man. 
schroederiana, Bot.Cert., Man. Brazil, 1889. T. B. Arm- 
strong (M. vexillaria var. Leopoldii x M. William Pity, F.C.C. 


vexillaria var. Duke of York, F.C.C., Man. Vida, Patterson's 
var. (M. Bleuana var. Reine Elizabeth x M. William Pitt), 
Pre.Com. William Pitt, Baron Schroder's var., F.C.C. 
ODONTIODA Acis (0. Ithone x 0. Clovis), A.M., Man. Acts var. 
Radiant (0. Royal Gem x O. Orion), A.M. Bradshawiae var. 
Perfecta, A.M., Man. Bluebell (? x ?), A.M. Cardinal Mercier 

$ ) x ?), A.M. Colinge var. Evansiae, A.M. Man. Elaine 
arvisbrook var., A.M. Man. Freda, F.C.C., Man. Gwentara 
(0. Alcantara x 0. Gwendoline), A.M. Louise, A.M., Man. 
Laura, Exbury var. (Oda. Brewii x Oda. Coronation), F.C.C. 
Leeanavar. Vivid (Cochlioda noetzlianaxOdm. crispo-Harryanum), 
A.M. Leonatus (cochlioda noetzliana x Odontoglossum Thomp- 
sonii), A.M. Man. Mildred (0. Aphrodite x 0. Naomi}, F.C.C. 
Man. Marie Antoinette var. excelsa (Oda. Colinge x Odm. 
President Poincare) , A.M. Matador (0. St. Andre x 0. Leander), 
AM. Prince Olaf (? x P), F.C.C. Velasquez (O. Coronation x 
0. ?), AM.Zarina var. Brilliant (Oda. Chanticler x Odm. 
crispo-Harryanum), A.M. 

ODONTOGLOSSUM amabile, Jarvisbrook var., A.M. Man. crispum 
var. Osiris, F.C.C. Man. crispum var. Trianae magnificum, 
A.M., Man. Doreen var. Perfection, F.C.C. Man. Goliath, 
Cult.Cert. Man. Harold var. Distinction (0. eximium x O. 
Jasper), A.M. Llewellyn var. Purple Gem, A.M. Man. 
Maharajah, Cult.Cert. Meredithiae (0. Rossi x 0. venustulum), 
A.M. Man. mirum aitreum (0. crispum x 0. Wilckeanum), 
A.M. Mirum var. Walden, A.M., Man. percultum, Jarvis- 
brook var., A.M. Man. Pescatorei var. Peachblossom, A.M. Man. 
Red Admiral var. Brilliant, A. A., Man. venustulum, Wivels- 
field var., A.M. Man. 

ODONTONIA Etna (Miltonia chelseaensis x Odm. Ithone), F.C.C., 
Man. Vesta (0. Dora x Miltonia William Pitt), A.M. 

ONCIDIUM cavendishianum, Cult.Com. Yellow. Guatemala. 
tigrinum, Towneley Grove var., A.M. Man. varicosum var. 
Rogersii, Cult.Cert. Man. Yellow and brown. 1869. 

PHAIUS Cooksonii var. magnificus, F.C.C., Man.; Cult.Cert., Man. 

PHALAENOPSIS amabilis var. Elizabethae (P. amabilis x P. rimesta- 
diana), A.M. Elizabethiae (P. amabilis x P. rimestadiana) , F.C.C. 
Man. Gilles Gratiot (P. Aphrodite x P. rimestadiana), F.C.C. 

PLATYCLINIS uncata, Cult.Cert. Man. Philippines. 

POTINARA Dorothy, Dell Park var. (Sophro-Laelio-Cattleya Prince 
Hirohito x Brasso-Laelio-Cattleya maculata), F.C.C. Rosita 
(Sophro-Laelio-Cattleya langleyensis x Brasso-Cattleya Rosita), 

SOPHRO-LAELIO-CATTLEYA Gertrude Geidels (S.-L.-C. Flamingo x 
S.-L.-C. His Majesty), A.M. Jean (Sophronitis grandiflora x 
L.-C. Orange Blossom), A.M. Margrandvar. Tangerine (S.-L.-C 
Marathon x S. grandiflora), F.C.C., Man. Yokohama (S.-L.-C. 
Prince Hirohito x C. Hesperus), F.C.C. 


SOPHRONTIS grandiflora, Cult.Cert. Man. Red. Organ Mountains, 


TRICHOPILIA Hennessii, F.C.C., Man. 
VANDA Batemannii (Stauropsis lissochiloides), Cult. Com. Climber. 

Crimson, yellow. Philippines, 1894. coerulea var. Salfordii, 

F.C.C. Man., and Cult.Cert. 
VUYLSTEKEARA Etna, Stamperland var. (Miltonioda Harwoodii % 

Odontioda Charlesworthii) , F.C.C. Rudra var. Atlas (V. Brewii % 

Odm. Prince Edward), F.C.C., Man. 
ZYGOPETALUM Wendlandii, Bot.Cert. Man. 


APPLE Bramley's Seedling. Heaviest dish in show, Guildford. 
Charles Ross, ist Derby. Cox's Orange Pippin, ist Exeter. 
Epicure (Cox's Orange Pippin x Wealthy), Bunyard Cup. 
Howgate Wonder, A.M., R.W.T. Culinary. Newton Wonder, 
ist Brighton. St. Edmund's Russet, ist Fruit Ex. Desert. 
Woolbrook Pippin, A.M. Seedling from Cox's Orange Pippin. 

BULLACE Langley Bullace, 2nd Fruit Ex. 

CHERRY Amber (Kentish Bigarreau), ist Cherry Ex. Napoleon, 
Champion basket Cherry Ex. White. Noble, ist Cherry Ex. 
Roundell, ist Cherry Ex. Waterloo, ist Cherry Ex. 

CURRANT (Black), Davidson's Eight, 3rd Cherry Ex. Edina, ist 
Cherry Ex. Seabrook's Black, 2nd Cherry Ex. (Red) Daniel's 
Perfection, 2nd Cherry Ex. Fay's Prolific, ist Cherry Ex. 

DAMSON King of the Damsons, ist Fruit Ex. 

GOOSEBERRY Lancashire Lad, ist Cherry Ex. 

GRAPE Alicante, ist Exeter; 2nd Fruit Ex.; ist Birmingham. 
Black. Appley Towers, ist Fruit Ex. Black. Black Alicante, 
ist Corbridge. Black Hamburgh, 2nd Fruit Ex. Canon HaU 
Muscat, 2nd Birmingham. White. Gros Colmar, ist Brighton. 
Purple. Muscat Hamburgh, ist Fruit Ex. Reddish. Muscat 
of Alexandria, ist and 2nd Fruit Ex.; ist Birmingham; ist 
Surbiton; ist Brighton. White. 

MELON Blenheim Orange, ist Fruit Ex. Countess, 2nd Fruit Ex. 
Hero of Lockinge, 3rd Fruit Ex. 

PEAR Charles Ernest, ist Fruit Ex. Late var. Doyenne du 
Cornice, ist Exeter. Marie Louise, ist Birmingham. Triomphe 
de Vienne, ist Fruit Ex. Early var. Best flavoured, Fruit Ex. 

PLUM Black Prince (Kentish Black Diamond x Bradley's King 
Damson), R.W.T. Bountiful (Red Magnum Bonum % Victoria). 
Delicious (Coe's Golden Drop x Pond's Seedling). Goldfinch 
(Early Transparent Gage x Jefferson). Jefferson, ist Fruit Ex. 
President, 2nd Fruit Ex. Utility (Jefferson x Peach Plum). 
Victoria Plum Seedling, R.W.T. 



RASPBERRY Lloyd George, ist Cherry Ex; ist Fruit Ex. Queen 
Alexandria, 2nd Fruit Ex. 


BEANS (Broad) Champion Longpod (Dobbie), A.M., W.T. Exhibi- 
tion (Bunyard's), (W. H. Simpson), H.C., W.T. Exhibition 
Giant (King), A.M., W.T. Exhibition Longpod (Clucas), H.C., 
W.T.; (Pennell), H.C., W.T. Four Seeded Green Windsor 
(Middlehursts), C., Vf.TFour Seeded Windsor, re-selected 
(Hurst), H.C., W.T. Green Leviathon (Carter), A.M., W.T. 
Hangdown (Sluis en Groot), H.C., W.T, Homestead Green 
Windsor (Carter), C., W.T.Kinver Mammoth (Webb), H.C., 
W.T. Longpod Selected (Webb), H.C., W.T. Mammoth Long- 
pod (Pennell), H.C., W.T. Mammoth Windsor (Carter), C., 
W. T. Mammoth New Green Longpod (Barr), H.C., W.T. 
Olympic Green-longpod (Hurst), A.M., W '.T .Prolific (Dickson & 
Robinson), H.C., W.T. Seville Longpod (Watkins & Simpson), 
H.C., W.T. Sussex Wonder Longpod (Watkins & Simpson), 
H.C., W.T. Unrivalled Green Windsor (Sutton), H.C., W.T. 
(Dwarf) African Wonder (Cooper Tabor), H.C., W T. Bounteous 
(Watkins & Simpson), A.M., W.T. Canadian Express (Carter), 
H.C., W.T. Canadian Wonder (Harrison), H.C., W.T. 
Earliest of All (Nutting), H.C., W.T. Early Prolific (Carter), 
A.M., W.T. Early Warwick (Early Prolific), (Harrison), H.C., 
W.T. Fifty Days (Carter), A.M., W.T. Harbinger (Webb), C., 
Vf.T.Helmingham Early Prolific (C. Orchard), H.C.. W.T. 
Holborn Wonder Stringless (Carter), C., W.T. Langport Wonder 
(Kelway), C., W.T. Kidney Wax (Burpee), H.C., W.T. Wax- 
pods. Lightening (Carter), H.C., W.T. Magpie (Carter: 
Harrison), H.C., W.T. Monster Negro (W. H. Simpson), H.C., 
Vf.T.NePlus Ultra Selected (Hurst), H.C., W.T.; (Kelway), 
C., W.T. Perfection Butter (Barr), A.M., W.T. Wax-pods. 
Perpetual (Carter), H.C., W.T. Saxa (Zwaan and Van der 
Molen), C., W.T. Saxa Stringless (Zwaan & van der Molen: 
Heinemann), C., W.T. Edible green pod. Schlossperle 
(Heinemann), H.C., W.T. Wax-pods. Superlative (Nutting), 
H.C., W.T . Supreme (Webb), C., Vf.T.The Wonder (Watkins 
& Simpson), F.C.C., W.T.; (Dobbie) A.M., W.T. The Prince, 
ist Veg. Ex. Unrivalled (Clucas), A.M., W.T. Wonder 
Improved (Flageolet Rouge), (W. H. Simpson), F.C.C., W.T. 
(Runner) Prizewinner, ist Veg. Ex. Tip Top (A. Mitchelson), 

A.M., W.T. 

BEET (Globe) Sutton's Globe, ist Veg. Ex. (Long) Amsterdam 
Market (Zwaan and van der Molen), H.C., W.T. Black (Sutton), 
H.C., W.T. Blood Red (Carter), H.C., W.T. Cheltenham 


(Watkins and Simpson: Nutting), A.M., W.T. Cheltenham 
Greenleaf (Harrison), H.C., W.T. Cheltenham Green-top (Morris: 
Finney: Clucas: Carter: Dobbie: Zwaan and van der Molen: 
Zwaan and van de Wiljes), H.C., W.T. Cheltenham Selected 
(Cooper Tabor), H.C., Vf.T.Covent Garden (Barr), H.C., W.T. 
Dark Red Salad (Daniels), H.C., W.T. Dell's Crimson 
(Barr: Nutting), A.M., Vf.T. Dobbie' s Purple (Dobbie: Moms), 
H.C., W.T. Exhibition Black (Stuart and Mein), H.C., W.T. 
Exhibition Brydon's (Hurst), A.M., W.T.Greentop (Sutton), 
H.C., W.T.Greentop (Webb), H.C., W.T. Green-top Selected 
(Dobbie), H.C., W.T. Non-Bleeding (Zwaan and van der 
Molen), A.M., W.T. (W. H. Simpson), H.C., W.T. Northum- 
berland Dwarf (Nutting), H.C., Vf.T.Pragnell's Exhibition 
(Hurst), H.C., W.T. Veitch's Exhibition (Veitch), H.C.,W.T. 
Victoria (Nutting), H.C., W.T. Volunteer (Webb), H.C., W.T. 

BRUSSELS SPROUTS Exhibition, ist Veg. Ex. 

CABBAGE Goliath, ist Veg. Ex. 

CARROT Amsterdam Forcing (Zaaizaadvereeniging: Zwaan & van 
der Molen: Atlee Burpee: Sluis & Groot: Spruijt: Harrison: 
Daehnfeldt & Jensen: Benary), C., W.T. Carenton (Nutting), 
A.M., W.T. Chantenay (Morse), H.C., W.T. Dutch Early 
Short Scarlet (Sluis & Groot), C., W.T. Early Gem (Simpson), 
H.C.. W.T. Early Guerande (Speed), A.M., W.T. Early Horn 
Improved (Carter), H.C., W.T. Early Scarlet Horn (Simpson: 
Morris), H.C., W.T.Oxheart (Morse), H.C., W.T. Intermediate 
Selected (Dobbie), A.M., W.T. James' Intermediate (Carter), 
A.M., W.T. Nantes Selected (Zwaan & van der Molen), A.M., 
W.T. Paris Market (Olsen), H.C., W.T. Perfection (Bath), 
A.M., W.T. Scarlet Horn (Morse:Webb), H.C., W.T. 

CAULIFLOWER All Seasons (Harrison: Cooper Tabor), A.M., W.T. 
All the Year Round (Hurst: Zwaan and van der Molen: Dobbie: 
Daniels: Kelway: Watkins and Simpson: Webb: Finney: 
W. H. Simpson: Clucas: Cullen: Nutting: Dickson and Robin- 
son: Bath: Barr: Harrison), A.M., W.T. All the Year Round, 
Driancourt's Stock (Carter), A.M., W.T. All the Year Round 
Selected (Carter), A.M., W.T. Autumn Giant, ist Veg. Ex. 
Danish Giant (Zwaan and van der Molen), A.M., W.T. ; (Hansen), 
H.C., W.T.Driancourt (Nutting: Veitch: Moms: Speed), 
A.M., W.T. Early Dwarf Best of All (Barr), C., W.T. Early 
Favourite (Barr), H.C., W.T. Early Six Weeks (Barr), A.M., 
W.T. Le Cerf (Zwaan and van der Molen), H.C., W.T. Mont 
Blanc (Clucas), C., W.T. Primo (Zwaan and van der Molen), 
H.C., W.T. Reliance (Dickson and Robinson: Bath), A.M., 
W.T. Snowball (Dobbie), C., W.T. White Queen (Speed), 
H.C, W.T. 

CUCUMBER Butcher's Improved, ist Cherry Ex. Butcher's Disease 
Resister, 2nd Cherry Ex. 

LETTUCE (Cabbage), All the Year Improved Round (Cooper), C., 


W.T. All the Year Round (Cooper: Finney: W. Simpson: 
Clucas: Middlehursts: Cullen: Veitch: Nutting: Barr: Dobbie), 
C., W.T. All the Year Round re-elected (Carter), C., W.T. 
Best of AU (Heinemann), H.C., W.T.Big Boston (Burpee), 
H.C., W.T. Bohemia (Heinemann), H.C., W.T. Calif ornian 
Cream Butter (Burpee), H.C., W.T. Criterion (Webb), C., 
Vf.T. Continuity (Daniels: Simpson: Barr: Dobbie), A.M., W.T. 
Defiance Long Stander (Clucas), H.C., W .T .Distinction 
(Dickson & Robinson), C., W.T. Hercules (Dobbie), H.C., 
W.T.Konfit (Daehnfeldt & Jensen), A.M., W.T. Market 
Favourite (Unrivalled) (Clucas), A.M., W.T. May King 
(Dickson & Robinson: Harrison: Heinemann: Clucas: Middle- 
hursts: Olsen: Zwaan & van der Molen), H.C., W.T. Neapolitan 
(Dobbie), H.C., W.T. New York (Cooper), H.C., W.T. New 
York Selected (Finney), H.C., W.T. Perfect Gem (Veitch: 
Dawkins: Nutting: Carter), H.C., W.T. Tom Thumb (Morris: 
W. Simpson: Speed: Olsen: Dobbie), H.C., W.T. Tom Thumb 
Selected (Webb: Barr), H.C., W.T. Trocadero (Nutting), H.C., 
W.T. Unrivalled (Middlehurst), A.M., W.T. Wayahead (Bur- 
pee: Barr: Carter), H.C., W.T. White Big Boston (Burpee), 
H.C., W.T. Winter Density (Nutting), C., W.T. Wonderful 
(Dobbie: Morris: Webb: Middlehursts: Harrison: Daehnfeldt & 
Jensen), H.C., W.T. Wonderful or New York (Clucas), H.C., 
W.T. Yellow Longstanding (Heinemann), A.M., W.T. 

ONION Ailsa Craig, ist Newport, LW. 

PEA Laxton's Progress, Voted best dwarf, Cardiff. 

POTATO Arran Banner, ist R.C.H. Arran Comrade, ist (Round, 
white) Aberdeen. Climax, ist (Round, coloured) Aberdeen. 
Duke of York, ist (Kidney, white) Aberdeen. Exhibition 
Kidney, ist (Kidney, coloured) Aberdeen. No. 675 (Mac- 
Kelvie), C.M. Ormskirk. Late. Heavy cropper. Kidney 
shaped. Free from virus disease. Red King, 2nd R.C.H. 

RHUBARB Appleton's Forcing (Appleton), H.C., W.T. Early. 
Buck's Early Red (R.H.S.), H.C., W.T. Collis's Seedling 
(R.H.S.), H.C., W.T. Late. Crimson Queen (Kelway), H.C., 
W.T. Early. Culbush's Seedling (Cutbush), H.C., W.T. 
Early. Hawke's Champagne (W. Poupart), A.M., W.T. 
Early. Laxton's No. i (Laxton), C., V/.T.The Streeter (Hon. 
Vicary Gibbs), H.C., W.T. Late. The Sutton (Sutton), A.M., 
W.T. Late. 

SAVOY Best of All, ist Veg. Ex. 

TOMATO Side's N.C.O. R.W.T. Red fruit. Heavy cropper. 
Edmund's No. 2, ist Cherry Ex. Essex Wonder (Dobbie), A.M., 
W.T. Primrose Bloom, R.W.T. Yellow fruit. Radio (Simp- 
son), A.M., W.T. Wright's A.I, 2nd Cherry Ex. 


RESULTS in recent years published in the R.H.S. Journal: 

Flowers: Annuals, 1926, vol. lii. p. 269. Antirrhinums under 
Glass, 1922, vol. xlviii. pt. i. p. 92. Aquilegias, 1927, vol. liii. pt. I. 
p. 161. Asters, Perennial, 1925, vol. li. pt. i, p. 101. Aubretias, 
1927, vol. liii. pt. i, p. 165. Calandrinias, 1926, vol. lii. p. 269. 
Carnations, Winter, 1921-3, vol. xlix. pt. i, p. 78. Chrysanthemums, 
Early, 1923, vol. xlix. pt. i, p. 100. Cosmos, 1926, vol. lii. pt, 2, 
p. 273. Dahlias, 1922, vol. xlviii. pt. i, p. 98; 1923, vol. xlix. pt. i, 
p. 62; 1924, vol. 1. pt. i, p. 106; 1925, vol. li. pt. i, p. 138; 

1926, vol. lii. pt. i, p. 88; 1927, vol. liii. pt. i, p. 167; 1928, vol. liv. 
pt. i, p. 226; Delphiniums, 1924-5, vol. li. pt. i, p. 124. Everlasting 
Flowers, 1926, vol. lii. pt. 2, p. 271. Freesias, 1926-7, vol. liii. pt. 2, 
p. 340. Gladioli, 1926, vol. lii. pt. i, p. 98; 1926-7, vol. liii. pt. 2, 
p. 345. Helianthemums, 1924-5, vol. li. pt. i, p. 114. Irises, 1925-7, 
vol. liii. pt. 2, p. 116. Lachenalias, 1926-7, vol. liv. pt. i, p. 223. 
Lavatera, 1926, vol. lii. pt. 2, p. 277. Linums, 1926, vol. Hi. pt. 2, 
p. 279. Lobelias, Perennial, 1921, vol. xlviii. pt. 2, p. 239. Lupins, 
Annual, 1928, vol. liv. pt. i, p. 230. Narcissus, 19247, vol. liii. 
pt. 2, p. 345. Nemesia, 1926, vol. lii. pt. 2, p. 274. Nemophila, 1926, 
vol. lii. pt. 2, p. 278. Phloxes, 1922, vol. xlviii. pt. 2, p. 241. P. 
Drummondii, 1928, vol. liv. pt. 2, p. 427. Poppies, Annual, 1927, vol. 
liii. pt. 2, p. 332. Portulacas, 1926, vol. lii. pt. 2, p. 270. Roses, 1924-5, 
vol. li. pt. i, p. 92 ; vol. lii. pt. i, p. 92. Salpiglossis, 1923, vol. xlix. pt. i, 
p. 67. Salvias, 1928, vol. liv. pt. i, p. 234. Scabious, Annual, 1924, 
vol. li. pt. i, p. 113. Stocks, Summer-flowering, 1922, vol. xlviii. 
pt. i, p. 113. Sweet Peas, 19215, vol. xlviii. pt. i, p. 106; vol. xlix. 
pt. i, p. 71; vol. 1. pt. i, p. 112; vol. li. pt. i, p. 109. Tropaeolums, 
Dwarf, 1923, vol. xlix. pt. i, p. 97. Violas, 1922, vol. xlviii. pt. i, 
p. I2i. Viscarias, 1926, vol. lii. pt. 2, p. 276. Wallflowers, 1923-4, 
vol. 1. pt. 2, p. 263. 

Vegetables: Beans, Broad, 1922, vol. xlviii. pt. i, p. 74; Climbing 
French, 1923, vol. xlix. pt. i, p. 117; Runner, 1923, vol. xlix. pt. i, 
p. 115. Beet, 1922, vol. xlviii. pt. i, p. 68; 1927, vol. liii. pt. 2, p. 392. 
Brussels Sprouts, 1923, vol. xlix. pt. 2, p. 246. Carrots in frames, 
1921-2, vol. xlix. pt. 2, p. 250. Celeriac, 1921-2, vol. xlviii. pt. i, 
p. 84; 1926, vol. lii. pt. 2, p. 287. Celery, 1921-2, vol. xlviii. pt. i f 
p. 79. Endives, 1924, vol. 1. pt. 2, p. 269. Kales, 19234, vol. xlix. 
pt. 2, p. 252. Kohlrabi, 1926, vol. lii. pt. i, p. 101. Leeks, 1922-3, 
vol. xlviii. pt. 2, p. 236. Lettuces, Cos, 1918-24, vol. li. pt. i, p. 144. 
Lettuces, Winter, 1922-3, vol. xlix. pt. 2, p. 255. Onions, 1923, 
vol. xlix. pt. 2, p. 262. Parsley, 1927, vol. liii. pt. i, p. 175. Peas, 
1925-6, vol. lii. pt. i, p. 103; Late, 1922, vol. xlviii. pt. i, p. 86; Late, 

1927, vol. liii. pt. 2, p. 395. Potatoes, 19246, vol. lii. pt. i, p. 117. 
Savoys, 1926-7, vol. lii. pt. 2, p. 280. Swedes, 1926, vol. lii. pt. 2, 
p. 284. Sweet Corn, 1927, vol. liii. pt. i, p. 178. Turnips, 1925, 
vol. li. pt. i, p. 163. Vegetable Marrows, 1923, vol. xlix. pt. i, p. 118. 

Fruit: Currants, 1920-1, vol. xlix. pt. 2, p. 242. Raspberries, 
1922-5, vol. li. pt. l, p. 158. 


BEES AND FRUIT-SPRAYING. Owing to the spraying of fruit trees 
with washes containing arsenate of lead when the blossoms were 
open large numbers of bees were destroyed. The Ministry of 
Agriculture requests that all such cases should be reported to the 

DESTRUCTION OF RATS AND MICE (Act of 1919). It is a 
statutory obligation upon occupiers of land or buildings to take 
steps from time to time for the destruction of rats and mice. Fine 
on conviction for default up to 5 ; or, after serving with notice 
to take such steps, 20. 

DESTRUCTION OF WILD FLOWERS. At a conference at the 
Home Office a provisional by-law was drawn up which county 
councils have been recommended to adopt. It was approved 

No person shall (unless authorised by the owner or occupier, 
if any, or by law, so to do) uproot any ferns or other plants 
growing in any road, lane, roadside waste, roadside bank, or 
hedge, common, or other place to which the public have access. 

Every person who shall offend against the foregoing shall 
be liable for every such offence to a fine not exceeding, for 
the first offence 405., and for a subsequent offence not 
exceeding 5. 

IMPORTATION OF PLANTS. In order to ensure that plants 
imported for propagation shall be of a reasonably satisfactory 
standard of health an Order was issued in 1922 requiring imported 
plants to be accompanied by an official certificate that they are 
generally healthy, and also free from certain specified diseases and 
insect pests. When ordering plants from abroad (except herbaceous 
plants, which are not subject to the Order), it is advisable to ask 
for the health certificate, since uncertified consignments are not 
allowed to be distributed until they have been examined by a 
Ministry's Inspector and passed as healthy, which involves the 
payment of a fee by the consignee. 

The importation of the following is forbidden : 
Potatoes from Canada and the United States, on account of the 
Colorado Beetle. 



Plants, potatoes, and tomatoes from specified districts in France 
for the same reason. 

Elm trees from any European country, on account of the Dutch 
Elm Disease. 

By an amendment of November 24, 1927, to the Destructive 
Insects and Pests Order of 1922, no unrooted cuttings or rooted 
plants of Chrysanthemums may be landed in England and Wales 
from any country other than Scotland, Ireland, and the Channel 
Islands without an official certificate from the country of origin 
stating that on inspection by that country's officials the plants or 
cuttings were free of Chrysanthemum Midge (Diarthronomyia 
hypogaea). This certificate must be posted to the Horticultural 
Division of the Ministry of Agriculture before the plants are 
despatched. If from a country with no recognised service of plant 
inspection the consignment must be subjected to examination by 
an Inspector of the Ministry. Costs will be charged to importer. 

EXPORTATION OF PLANTS. Information regarding the regula- 
tions affecting the importation of plants from England into the 
Dominions, Colonies, and foreign countries should be obtained from 
the Ministry of Agriculture. 

Consignments of Narcissus or Daffodil bulbs to the Scilly Isles 
must be accompanied by a licence or certificate issued by an 
Inspector of the Ministry. 

IMPORTED TOMATOES. The Standing Committee under the 
Merchandise Marks Act recommended an order for the marking 
of imported tomatoes with indication of origin on each container. 

BLACK CURRANT BUSHES. The Ministry arranges, on application, 
for the inspection of (a) Strawberry plants from which runners are 
intended to be taken for sale, (6) Black Currant bushes. Object: 
the certification of the stocks if found to be true to type, reasonably 
free from rogues, and, in the case of Black Currant bushes, free 
from reversion at the time of inspection. Registers are published 
giving names and addresses of growers whose stocks are certified; 
copies, and further particulars, can be obtained from the Ministry. 

The Black Currant Mite (Norfolk) Order 1928 came into 
operation on January i, 1929. 

The Board of Agriculture for Scotland inaugurated a scheme 
for the inspection of Black Currant bushes in Scotland. Certificates 
were issued only to pure healthy stocks apparently free from 
Reversion, and are valid till April 30, 1930. Lists may be obtained 
from the Board. 

taken to safeguard existing amenities and to provide new ones." 
Verges, slopes, and embankments " should be soiled and seeded, 


or ... turfed and planted with shrubs. 

Trees not to be felled " unless absolutely unavoidable." 

Tree-planting to be encouraged. 

NATIONAL MARK. During 1928 the Minister of Agriculture was 
empowered by Parliament to define grades by regulation, and to 
establish a National Mark for graded English and Welsh agricultural 
and horticultural produce which would constitute a guarantee to 
the buyer that his purchases were of the desired standard of 
quality. The Mark is at present applicable to apples, pears, and 
tomatoes; it will be extended, it is hoped, in course of time to 
other horticultural produce. Growers who wish to avail them- 
selves of the " National Mark " are required to undertake to grade 
their produce in accordance with standards laid down in regulations 
issued under the Agricultural Produce (Grading and Marking) Act, 
1928, and to pack it in the prescribed manner. 

The Department of Agriculture for Scotland, after consultation 
with tomato growers and traders, wholesale and retail, issued 
directions for the grading of Scottish grown tomatoes for sale under 
the National Mark. 

P.O. CASH ON DELIVERY. Packets must be registered if sent 
by Letter Post. Maximum value of packet accepted = 40. Name 
and address of sender must be on cover. C.O.D. Fee, in addition 
to postage: ios., 4d. ; i t 6d. ; 2, 8d. ; 5, lod. ; 2d. on each 
additional 5. Packets up to 10 are delivered. Over 10 
addressee is notified, and must call for it. Consignments by rail: 
sender must send document entitling addressee to take delivery 
by C.O.D. letter, registered. Soft fruit, cut flowers, and other 
highly perishable stuff will not be accepted for transmission by rail 
under the C.O.D. arrangement. 

FRUIT BY POST. The postal authorities drew attention to the 
inadequate packing of soft fruits sent through the post, to the 
damage not only of the fruit, but of other parcels. Senders of 
fruit are advised to pack in a metal box, with a tightly fitting 
lid tied with string in both directions. Postal officials are authorised 
to refuse acceptance of any parcel of soft fruit packed in a chip 
or wicker basket, a cardboard box, or a tin with inadequately fitting 
lid. All fruit parcels should be clearly marked FRUIT WITH CARE. 

POTATOES Wart Disease. Purchase of Seed Potatoes. The 
Wart Disease of Potatoes Order of 1923 prescribes that potatoes 
may not be sold for planting in England and Wales unless 
they are the subject of a certificate. Every purchaser of seed 
potatoes should be furnished by the seller with a written state- 
ment containing the number of the certificate, with the par- 
ticulars as to class, variety, size, and dressing required by the 
Seeds Act and Regulations. Certificates are of two kinds: True 


Stock certificate, issued only for approved immune varieties, 
and indicating that the crop was inspected while growing, and 
found to be true to type and reasonably free from rogues (the 
number of such certificates bears the prefix T.S. or A.T.S.) ; Clean 
Land certificate, issued for potatoes grown in clean districts, or 
from crops which have been inspected, and on which no wart 
disease has been found (prefix letter C.L. or A.C.L.). On no account 
must potatoes with certificates bearing the letter A in the prefix be 
planted in clean land not within an infected Area. The varieties 
in the following lists have been recognised by the Potato Synonym 
Committee of the National Institute of Agricultural Botany and 
by the Ministry of Agriculture as being distinct varieties. There 
is a number of other distinct varieties, both immune and susceptible, 
which have been omitted, as they are no longer of any practical 
importance. Many of the varieties in the lists have from time to 
time been sold under other names. Readers who are offered stocks 
of potatoes under names which do not occur in these lists can in 
most cases obtain reliable information about them by applying to 
the Secretary, N.I.A.B., Huntingdon Road, Cambridge. 


Early Varieties. America, Arran Crest, Arran Rose, Coronation, Di. 
Vernon, Early Field, Herald, Immune Ashleaf, Snowdrop. 

Second Early Varieties. Alannah, Argyll Favourite, Arran Comrade, 
Balcarres, Balvaird, Ben Lomond, Boston Kidney (Dargill Early), Catriona, 
Clovullin, Cluny, Edzell Blue, Katie Glover, Macbeth's Castle, Mr. Bresee, 
Norna, Scales' Pride, The Baron. 

Early Maincrop Varieties. Aberdeen Favourite, Abundance, Ally, Arran 
Banner, Best of the Bunch, Cardinal, Crusader, Doon Star, Early Market, 
Early Templar, Edinchip, Electron, Gigantic, Glenalmond, Glen Ericht, 
Great Scot, International Kidney, King George, K. of K., Lord Tennyson. 
Majestic, Marquis of Bute, Mauve Queen, Rath mo re, Response, Sefton 
Wonder (a russet " Great Scot "), Sunrise, Tinwaid Perfection, Wonderful. 

Late Maincrop Varieties. Arran Consul, Arran Victory, Ben Cruachan, 
Bishop, Bounty, Boxer, Buchan Beauty, Celurca, Champion, Claymore, 
Corona, Duke of Perth, Dunaverney, Dunbar Cavalier, Dundarave, Early 
Manistes, Flourball, Glasgow Favourite. Golden Marvel, Golden Wonder, 
Gregor Cups, Hopeful, Harcarse Red, Incomer, Inverness Favourite, Irish 
Chieftain, Irish Queen, Keay's Champion, Kerr's Pink, Langworthy, Lochar, 
Main's Surprise, Main's Triumph, Medland, Perth Favourite, Quality, 
Ranfurly Red, Rhoderick Dhu, Royal Stewart, Sharp's Pink Seedling. 
Southesk, The Cherry, The Craigie, Utility, White City. 


(These may not be planted on land infected with Wart Disease or to 
which the planting restrictions of the Wart Disease of Potatoes Order, 1923, 

Early Varieties. Beauty of Hebron. Duke of York, Eclipse, Epicure, 
May Queen, Ninetyfold, Sharpe's Express, Sharpe's Victor. 

Second Early Varieties. British Queen, Evergood, Royal Kidney. 

Early Maincrop Varieties. King Edward (Red), King Edward VII. 

Late Maincrop Varieties. Arran Chief, Field Marshal, General, Northern 
Star, President, Up-to-Date. 


FOREIGN POTATOES. It is illegal to plant any potatoes imported 
from abroad unless a licence has first been obtained from the 
Ministry of Agriculture. 

WARE POTATOE GRADING. Draft Regulations under the 
Agricultural Produce (Grading and Marking) Act, 1928. These 
provide for variations in size, with a common standard of dressing 
as regards damage, dirt, disease, etc. 

SALE OF DISEASED PLANTS. The sale is prohibited under an 
Order of 1927 of plants substantially attacked by (i) Fruit Tree 
Cankers caused by any parasitic fungi or (2) American Gooseberry 
Mildew (Sphaerotheca morsuvae); (3) Silver Leaf (Stereum pur- 
pureum) ; (4) Black Currant Mite (Eriophyes ribis) ; (5) Woolly Aphis 
(Eriosoma lanigerum) ; (6) All Scale Insects (Coccidae) ; (7) Brown Tail 
Moth (Nygmia Phaeonhaea) ; (8) Rhododendron Bug [Leptobyrsa 
(Stephanitis) rhododendri]; (9) Corky or Powdery Scab of Potatoes 
(Spongospora subterranea) ; (10) Apple Capsid (Plesiocoris rugicollis) ; 
and under other Orders (1921) Onion and Leek Smut (Urocystis 
ccpulae), and (1923) Wart Disease of Potatoes (Synchytnum 

SILVER LEAF. The Silver Leaf of Plums Order, 1923, requires 
that all dead wood on plum and apple trees shall be cut out and 
burnt before July 15th in each year. The earliness of this date 
is because during the early summer months the spores of the fungus 
are less readily distributed than is the case during the autumn 
and winter months; there is therefore less risk of re-infection if 
the dead wood is removed during May, June, and early July. 

SCOTLAND. Under the Department of Agriculture the following 
orders apply: Destructive Insects and Pests, Sale of Diseased 
Plants, Silver Leaf, Horticultural Produce (Sales on Commission), 
similar to those in force in England. Also: The American 
Gooseberry Mildew (Scotland) Order, 1920; requires notification 
of disease on bushes grown for sale, or for sale of fruit; prohibits 
movement of diseased bushes and sale of diseased fruit. No bushes 
may be imported, except from Great Britain and the Channel Isles, 
without licence. 

Wart Disease of Potatoes (Scotland) Order, 1923: restricts 
planting Potatoes not of an approved immune variety; requires 
notification of disease, prohibits sale of diseased tubers, schedules 
infected areas. 

NORTHERN IRELAND. The following applies: Horticultural 
Sales on Commission Act (Northern Ireland), 1927. Similar to 
that in force in England. 


IRISH FREE STATE. The following apply: Destructive Insects 
and Pests Order, Sale of Diseased Plants Order, Colorado Beetle, 
similar to those in force in England. Also : Black Scab in Potatoes 
Orders: require notification of disease; compel destruction of 
infected crops; planting of infected districts, prohibit planting 
varieties susceptible to wart disease in infected districts; prohibit 
movement of potatoes out of scheduled districts; prohibit movement 
of mangels, turnips, and cabbages out of scheduled districts. 

Potatoes Importation Order: prohibits importation without 

American Gooseberry Mildew and Black Currant Mite Order: 
requires notification of disease; prohibits importation without 

Importation of Elm Trees Order: prohibits importation from 
all countries, including England, Wales, and Scotland. 


ALLEN, ERNEST SATOW. Interested in botany and ornithology. 
BALLANTINE, HENRY, V.M.H. For twenty-five years a member of 

the R.H.S. Orchid Committee. One of the original members 

of the R.H.S. Committee in 1889. 
BANNATYNE, JOHN. Partner in Messrs. Bannatyne & Jackson, 

for many years Sec. and Tres. of the Hamilton and District 

Gardeners and Forestry Association. 
BENSTED, GEORGE, of Ulcombe. Fruit grower. 
BENZIE, A. EMSLIE, of Morkeu. Vice-Pres. of the R.H.S. of 

Aberdeen, and a financial supporter of that Society. 
CANCELLOR, HENRY LANNOY. Originator and Hon. Tres. of the 

Basingstoke Home for Boys on Probation started eleven years 

ago by a grower of fruit and vegetables. The boys receive 

training and have an interest in the sales of produce. (See 

Year Book 1928, p. 10.) 
CARLES, WILLIAM RICHARD, C.M.G., of Bankside, Pangbourne. 

When on furlough in Korea discovered Viburnum Carlesii. 
CHISHOLM, ARCHIBALD. Horticulturist in charge of the Government 

Provincial Gardens, Bloemfontein, S. Africa. 
CHIVERS, JOHN. Founder and Managing Director of Chivers Sons, 

Ltd. Vice-Pres. of the West Cambridgeshire Fruit Growers' 

CLARK, WALTER CHILD, of Michelgrove House, Boscombe. A keen 

rosarian. His fine gardens for many years were opened to 

the public at a small fee to assist the local Hospital. 
COCKBURN, SIR JOHN, K.C.M.G., M.D., of Dean's Hill, Harrietsham, 

Kent. Chairman of governing body of Swanley Horticultural 

College. Governor 1902-1919. 
COLDSTREAM, WILLIAM. Reported to Government on fruit culture 

in the Himalayas and on the forests of the Simla Hill States. 

Publication: Monograph on Grasses of the Southern Punjab. 
COLLETT, ANTHONY. Botanist and ornithologist. Publications: 

A Handbook of British Inland Birds; The Heart of a Bird. 

J.P. Salop and Herefordshire, of Stanage Park, Radnorshire, 

and Hagnaty Priory, Lines., Lord- Lieut, of Radnorshire. 

Interested in agriculture and forestry. Chairman of the 

Botanical, Zoological, and Forestry Committees of the R. Agric. 

Soc., 1909. Member of Council of the R. Abor. Soc. Publi- 
cation: Conifers and Their Characteristics. 
COOPER, REV. W. H. WINDLE, M.A., of Owthorpe, Bournemouth. 

Interested in orchids. 

OBITUARY, 1929 237 

COWAN, JOHN, of Liverpool. Orchid importer. 

DAVIDSON, EDWARD. For thirty years Sec. and Tres. of the 
R. English Arbor. Soc., and son of its founder. 

DIXON, CHARLES. For many years a member of the R.H.S. Floral 

EARDLEY-WILMOT, SIR SAINTHILL, K.C.I.E., of Tolegate Cottage, 
Henley-on-Thames. Insp. Gen. of Forests in India, 1903-9. 
Publication: Forest Life and Sport in India, etc. 

ELLMAN, REV. ERNEST. Botanist. Collected flowers in the 
Southern Counties, the Alps, Riviera, and Spain. 

EVERARD, SIR NUGENT, BART., of Randlestown, Navan. Keenly 
interested in Irish tobacco growing. Had plantations of 
tobacco at Randlestown, where tobacco was grown and prepared 
for market, and various experiments were carried out to 
discover the best species to grow in Ireland. 

GARNETT, GERALD, youngest son of the late H. Garnett, Esq., of 
Wyreside, Dolphinholme. A keen rosarian and successful 

Rudwick Grange, Sussex. At the Rudwick Fruit Farm had 
thirty years of up-to-date commercial fruit growing. 

GRATRIX, SAMUEL, of West Point, Whalley Range, Manchester. 
One of the founders and Vice-Pres. of the Manchester and 
North of England Orchid Society, and a leading orchid amateur 
in the North of England. 

Grange, Chester. Her "Saints" Garden, planted with flowers 
that are supposed to bloom on certain Saints' days, was 
described last year (pp. 69-71). 

HARRISON, JOHN, of Leicester. President of the Horticultural 
Trades Association. Member of the R.H.S. Fruit and Vegetable 
Committee for many years. 

F.R.S.E., D.L., J.P. Co. Palatine, of Lancaster. Emeritus 
Prof, of Botany Liverpool Univ. Lecturer on Botany; Prof, 
of Botany, 1894-1921 . Examiner in Botany, Universities of New 
Zealand, Bristol, Aberdeen, Ireland, and the Pharmaceutical 
Society of Great Britain. Publications : Outlines of the History of 
Botany; Primer of Biology; British Plant Names and Their 
Derivations; The World of Plants; Two Thousand Years of 
Science (posthumous, edited by Dr. A. W. Titherley), and 
papers in various journals. 

HENDERSON, LT.-COL. GEORGE, M.D., F.R.G.S., F.L.S. As Medical 
officer with Sir Douglas Forsyth's Mission to Yarkhand in 1870 
collected information about flora and fauna. Discovered many 
rare plants. Director of the Calcutta Royal Botanic Gardens 
and Professor of Botany at Calcutta University. Designed 
public gardens at Amritsar and Lahore. Imported Ipecacuanha 


plants to India, and discovered which species of Eucalyptus 

would grow there. 

HILL, F. President of the Great Yarmouth and Dist. Hort. Society. 
HOWARD, JOHN, Agent-General for Nova Scotia. Contributed to 

the horticultural press. 
HUFFEY, WILLIAM, of Tonbridge. Well known as an exhibitor of 

Sweet Peas. Won (outright) the Hawlmark Cup in 1928 and 

the Amateur Gardening Challenge Cup in 1929. 
HUGHES, GEORGE PRINGLF, J.P., of Middleton Hall, Wooler. 

Interested in forestry. Collected fine specimens of trees in 

many parts of the world. 
JEFFERIES, WILLIAM JOHN, of Messrs. John Jefferies & Son, Ltd., 

Cirencester. Past-President Hort. Trades Association. 
JONES, CONWAY, of Gloucester. Well known as a rose grower. 

Won the N.R.S. Amateur Champion Challenge Trophy and 

N.R.S. Gold Medal. 
KEMSHEAD, C. T. T., of Lisheen, Uplyme, Dorset. For twenty 

years lecturer in Modern Languages at Magdalen College, 

Oxford. An enthusiastic gardener. 
KIRCH, CARL, of Albemarle Rd., Beckenham. Had one of the 

largest stocks of rare alpines. 
LANKASTER, SIR RAY, K.C.B., M.A., LL.D , F.R.S., D.Sc., etc. 

Director of the British Museum National History Dept., 

LOWE, JOSEPH, V.M.H. Founded the firm of Lowe and Shawyer, 

Nurserymen, Uxbridge. Specialised in cut flowers for market. 
MEATH, REGINALD BRABAZON, i2th Earl of, P.C., G.C.V.O., G.B.E., 

K.P. Founder and Chairman of the Metropolitan Gardens 

Assoc. First Chairman of the Parks Committee, L.C.C. 
MELROSE, JAMES, J.P., in his icist year. Lord Mayor of York, 

1876-7. A well-known Yorkshire horticulturist. See pp. 19, 

123, last issue. 
MELVILL, DR. JAMES COSMO, D.Sc., of Meole Brace Hall, Shrewsbury, 

F.L.S. A well-known botanist and conchologist. 
MONTAGU, K.C.I.E., C.S.I., C.C., J.P., V.D., D.L., Verderer 

of the New Forest of Beaulieu Hants. Had expert knowledge 

of the Forest flora and fauna. 
MOSLEY, SETH LISTER, of Wasp Nest Rd., Huddersfield. 

Naturalist. Remodelled the Bethnal Green and other museums 

in this country, in Melbourne, and in Philadelphia. Taught 

botany for many years. Curator of the Technical College 

Museum for many years, and Secretary of the Huddersfield 

Naturalists' Soc. Founded the Christian Nature Study Mission. 
NUTTALL, MRS. GERTRUDE CLARKE, B.Sc. One of the first women 

to take a degree (Botany). Publications: Wild Flowers as 

They Grow; Beautiful Flowering Shrubs; Trees and How They 


OBITUARY, 1929 239 

PAUL, THE VERY REV. DAVID, M.A., D.D., LL.D., F.L.S. Presi- 
dent of the Botanical Society of Edinburgh, 1899-1901. 
President of the British Mycological Society, 1918. President 
of the Crypt ogamic Society of Scotland, 1922. President of 
the Scottish Alpine Botanical Club, 1923. Publications: 
Papers in the Botanical Society of Edinburgh Transactions, 
and the Berwickshire Naturalists' Club Transactions. 

PEARSON, CHARLES E., V.M.H., F.L.S., of Lowdham, Notts. Head 
of the firm Messrs. Pearson & Sons. Founded the Horticultural 
Trades Association. Hon. Secretary for many years. Founded 
and edited the Horticultural Advertiser. One of the oldest 
members of the R.H.S. Floral Committee. Chiefly interested 
in florists' flowers and hardy plants. 

RANDALL, SAMUEL GEORGE. Florist and market gardener. Twice 
Chairman of the Skegness Urban District Council. 

TODD, GEORGE. Secretary of the East Anglian Hort. Club. 

VEITCH, PETER C. M. f V.M.H., J.P. Head of the firm of 
Veitch & Sons, and great-grandson of the Mr. John Veitch 
who came to Devon at the end of the eighteenth century. 
Collected plants in Australia, Fiji, South Sea Islands, New 
Zealand, and Borneo, and introduced many new flowers and 
types of fruit. Member of R.H.S. Fruit and Vegetable Com- 
mittee. Past-president Horticultural Trades Association. 
Revived the Devon and Exeter Hort. Society. 

VENNER, E. An employee of the Bournemouth Corporation. Dis- 
covered by accident that if water was left running over a 
rubber mat on grass leather-jackets collected in masses under 
it could be easily destroyed. 

VERT, JAMES, of Vert & Sons, Ltd., Nurserymen, seedsmen, and 
florists of Saffron Walden. 

WAGER, DR. HAROLD, W. T., D.Sc., F.R.S., F.L.S. Formerly 
Lecturer in Botany, Yorkshire College and University of 
Leeds. Presided over the Section of Botany at the British 
Association Meeting, S. Africa, 1905. President of the British 
Mycological Society, 1910. President of the Yorkshire 
Naturalists' Club, 1913. Also President of the Leeds Naturalists' 
Club. Publications: Physiology of Plants; Teaching of Botany; 
Memoirs on the Cytology and Reproductions of the Lower Organisms. 

YAPP, RICHARD HENRY, M.A. Mason Professor of Botany at 
Birmingham University. Frank Smart Student of Botany 
at Gonville and Caius, Cambridge, 1899-1902. Curator 
Cambridge University Herbarium, 1900-3. Botanist to the 
Cambridge University Scientific Exploration Expedition to 
Siamese-Malay States, 1899-1900. Professor of Botany Uni- 
versity College, Aberystwyth, 1904-14. Professor of Botany 
Queen's University, Belfast, 1914-19. President of the British 
Ecological Society. Publications : Text-book of Botany. Various 
papers on botanical subjects. Secretary and subsequently 
Recorder of Botanical Section British Association, 1902-11, 



The Gardens were laid out in 1881 under the direction of Prof. 
A Leipner, Professor of Botany at the University. In 1905, under 
the direction of Mr. J. H. Priestley, a trained gardener from Kew 
reorganised the grounds. In 1911 Prof. Darbishire became Head 
of the Department, and a year later Mr. G. F. Gardiner was appointed 
Superintendent of the Gardens. Since that date many developments 
have taken place, including the formation of salt-marsh and sand 
gardens. The Gardens are maintained by the University to supply 
material for study. There are glass-houses for tender subjects, and 
one for plant breeding on Mendelian lines. There is also one for 
the study of Cryptomatic Botany, and a Laboratory for Plant 
Physiology. The public are admitted on the afternoons of Tuesdays 
and Fridays, or by appointment. 


Director : H. Gilbert Carter, M.A., M.B., Ch.B. Superintendent : 
F. G. Preston. Telephone: 101 Cambridge. 

This can take a place among the leading Botanic Gardens in the 
world, although the present Garden is apparently young in com- 
parison to many. As far back as 1696, plans were drawn up and 
measurements taken by Dr. Echard, with the assistance of 
"Loudon," who was gardener to William III, but little more was 
done at that time, and the scheme fell through. Some years 
later, in 1724, a Professor Bradley made hollow promises to start 
one, but, although he continually mentioned what he intended to 
do in that respect, nothing whatever came of his promises. Seven 
years later things looked more hopeful ; many conferences were 
held between the Vice-Chancellor, Professor John Martyn, and Mr. 
Philip Miller (Curator of the Chelsea Physic Garden), and particulars 
were gone into respecting the estate of Mr. Brownell, of Willingham, 
a small village a few miles from Cambridge, with the intention of 
devoting this establishment to a Botanic Garden, but the estate 
was diverted into another channel. 

Some time later, through the liberality of a Dr. Walker, who 
was at that time Vice-Master of Trinity College, a plan was put into 
effect, for in 1761 Dr. Walker purchased a piece of ground for 
1,600, the site of the Monastery of the Austin Friars in the parish 
of St. Edwards, and this, with some adjoining property, which 


belonged to Dr. Walker, over five acres in all, was made over to the 
University by an indenture dated August 24, 1762. Thus started 
the first Botanic Garden in Cambridge. The study of Botany had 
previously been carried on with great success by the celebrated 
naturalist, John Ray, and was continued at this time by Dr. John 
Martyn, who was appointed first Reader in Botany, the first Curator 
of the Garden being Charles Miller, son of the famous Philip Miller, 
of Chelsea. In consequence of the erection of buildings in the 
neighbourhood, the site had become ill-suited to the purpose of a 
garden, while the number of species introduced into the country 
at that time, and the requirements for Science, had so increased 
that the space was found to be far too limited. It was decided to 
remove the plants to another site. For this purpose Parliament in 
1831 sanctioned an exchange of lands between the University and 
Trinity Hall for the removal of the site of the Botanic Garden to 
the spot where the Botanic Garden now is, which was then cornfields. 
Laboratories now stand on the site of the Old Botanic Garden, 
and the only evidence of it remaining is a very magnificent specimen 
of Sophora japonica, recorded as one of the two largest specimens 
in the country. Although the site of the present Botanic Garden 
was taken over in 1831, it was not until 1846 that the Garden was 
officially opened by the Rev. R. Tatham, D.D., Master of St. John's 
College, when the lime tree standing by the main gates was planted 
to celebrate the event. These very fine gates were from the Old 
Botanic Garden, and were erected in their present position in 1909. 
The site of the Botanic Garden at Cambridge is about 40 acres 
in extent. A portion is let out in allotments, with the view of 
taking them for botanical work when extension is possible. As a 
collection of plants, it is second only to Kew in the country to use 
the expression of the late W. Watson, Curator of Kew, Cambridge 
was " Kew in a Nutshell." No other garden in the world plays 
such a big part in education, supplying as many as 100,000 specimens 
annually (one year over 137,000 were supplied) to the various labora 
tories during term, which is roughly half the year. Two men devote 
the whole of their time, and sometimes others help, to gather the 
specimens which are sent to the laboratories every day for lectures 
in Botany, Physiology, Forestry, Agriculture, Cytology, Bio- 
chemistry, Genetics, Plant Pathology, etc. Large classes visit the 
garden regularly, while various experimental work and investigation 
is carried on. Much work is done out of term in the preparation of 
material for future use, some having to be quite twelve months in 
advance, and only one who has seen this work, or helped to do it 
during the year, can realise the magnitude of it. Apart from 
material supplied for University Lectures, some of the schools in 
the town are supplied for a moderate fee, while Cambridge Locals, 
Oxford and Cambridge Examinations, and many others about the 
country, are supplied with botanical specimens which amount to 
several thousands a year. 



The Garden is opened to the public during the week, on Sundays 
to members of the University and other townsmen, who are key- 
holders. It contains a good collection of plants, both hardy and 
under glass, with well-planned range of glass-houses, whilst a pond 
originally a large gravel pit opened to provide gravel for building 
the original houses, and to make the paths is utilised for the 
growing of aquatics and bog plants. The water garden adjoining 
was one of the first in the country, as was the Bamboo Garden. 
Plants to note are : Clusia grandiflora, by far the largest specimen 
in the country probably the only one, until small plants struck 
from it were sent to Kew, Edinburgh, and other establishments. 
Welwitschia mirabilis, probably the only living specimen in the 
country. Pinus gerardiana, by far the largest in the country. 
Pinus monophylla, probably the largest specimen in the country. 
An exceptionally good specimen of Pinus montana uncinata. The 
finest Judas Tree (Cercis Siliquastrum) in the country. Asimina 
triloba, the American Papaw, recognised as the largest specimen in the 
country. The finest specimen of Xanthoceras sorbifolia. The largest 
and probably the only specimen of Prunus cantabrigiensis. 
While there are other fine specimens, in some cases not equalled 
elsewhere in the country, of Ailanthus glandulosa, Alnns nitida, 
Aegle sepiaria, Crataegus tanaceti folia, Garrya elliptica, Gymno- 
cladus dtoica, Hippophae salicifolia, Juglans nigra, Koelreuteria 
paniculata, Rosa macrophylla, Tilia petiolaris. A magnificent 
group of Pterocarya caucasica not equalled elsewhere in the country. 
While Opuntia and other succulents with many other tender plants, 
such as Hedychiums, Crinums, Erythrina, Bomarea, growing in the 
open all the year round, are one of the features of Cambridge. 

F. G. P. 


Curator : William Hales, A.L.S. Clerk to the Trustees : E. R. 
Warre, Esq., 3 Temple Gardens, Temple, E.G. 4. 

The site of the Garden was secured in 1673 by the Apothecaries' 
Society. Records show that the Garden was 'In being" in 1676. 
In 1712 the freehold of the Garden was purchased by Dr. afterwards 
Sir Hans Sloane who in 1722 conveyed the Garden to the Apothe- 
caries' Society, "that the Garden might be continued as a Physic 
Garden . . . that the apprentices of the Society and others might 
better distinguish good and useful plants from those that bear 
resemblance to them and yet are hurtful." 

Towards the end of the last century the Apothecaries' Society 
approached the Charity Commissioners with a view to the relinquish- 
ment of the trust. The Commissioners in 1899 established a scheme 
by which the Trustees of the London Parochial Charities were 
appointed Trustees of the Garden, with a Committee of Management 
for administration. The Trustees and Committee put the Garden 
into thoroughly good working order, and erected glass-houses, a 


Lecture Room, Curator's residence, and a Laboratory constructed 
to meet the special requirements of botanical biology. The Garden 
has since provided for the needs of a large number of students in the 
way of research and material for teaching purposes. Admission: 
By ticket, free on application to the Clerk of the Trustees. 

Publications: Memorandum on the Origin and History of the 
Garden. Annual Seed Exchange List. 


Hon. Keeper : Professor W. G. Craib, M.A., F.R.S.E., F.L.S. 
The Gardens were founded by Miss Cruickshank in memory of 
her brother, Dr. Cruickshank. 


Regius Keeper : William Wright Smith, M.A., F.L.S., F.R.S.E. 
Curator : Robert Lewis Harrow, V.M.H. 

Telephone: 21347 Central (Regius Keeper), 20838 Central 
(Accounts Office). 

Founded 1670 by Andrew Balfour and Robert Sibbald, eminent 
Edinburgh physicians, who made a Physic Garden of St. Ann's 
Yards, to the south of Holyrood House. James Sutherland was 
appointed to take "Care of the Garden." He became custodian 
of the Royal Garden on the north side of the Palace, and made it 
into a Physic Garden for instruction. The original plot was, 
apparently, given up. In 1676 Balfour and Sibbald leased the 
garden of Trinity Hospital in addition, with adjacent ground, and 
Sutherland became Intendant. About 1702 the College Garden 
was made in ground by the College buildings, with Sutherland as 
custodian. He was made Botanist to the King in Scotland by 
Royal Warrant, and empowered to "set up a Profession of Botany." 
The Town Council appointed him Professor in the Town's College 
(now Edinburgh University) to lecture on Botany. He published 
Hortus Medicus Edinburgensis, or a Catalogue of the Plants in the 
Physical Garden at Edinburgh, in 1683. By 1724 the College Garden 
had fallen into disorder and was turned to other uses. In 1729 the 
Town Council appointed Charles Alston, Regius Professor of Botany 
and King's Botanist in charge of the Royal Garden, as Professor of 
Botany in the University. In 1763 the Royal and Town's Gardens 
being unsatisfactory and too small, the plants were transferred to 
ground at Leith Walk. In 1820 the lease was sold, and by three 
years later all the plants had been moved to a new site in the Park 
of Inverleith. Further addition was made in 1858, and again in 
1865, when the Caledonian Horticultural Society resigned the lease 
of its experimental garden to the Crown. The present area was 
completed in 1876 by further purchases of the Inverleith property. 
Under Sir Isaac Bayley Balfour the Botanic Garden became & 
centre of botanical and horticultural research and instruction. 


The teaching of Botany has been the chief object since the 
foundation of the Garden. The buildings include, in addition to 
plant houses, Museum, Laboratories, Lecture Hall, Library, and 
Herbarium. Since 1892 a special Course of Instruction for young 
gardeners and foresters has been carried on. Specimens are supplied 
to visitors, teachers, and students for private study. 

Publications : Notes from the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, 
published occasionally. Sketch of the Garden. Seed List, published 
in December (seeds available for exchange). 


Curator : H. C. Loader. 

For many years past some rare Economic Plants have been grown 
in the Forbury Gardens. Most of these plants have been arranged 
in a series of beds, so as to illustrate some of the departments of 
Economic Botany, and more especially the services rendered by the 
vegetable world in supplying Food, Clothing, Dyes, and Medicines. 
In addition to these, a group of economic trees and other miscel- 
laneous plants have been exhibited from time to time. Each plant 
bears a descriptive label, giving the English and Latin name as 
well as the Natural Order and the economic product derived from 
it. During the winter the more delicate plants are removed from 
the beds and preserved from frost in adjacent conservatories. 

Not far from the Forbury Gardens is the Museum of Economic 
Botany. All the principal foods, fibres, dyes, and medicines are 
exhibited in show-cases. The proximity of Garden and Museum 
has the advantage of greatly facilitating the study of Economic 
Botany, since the plant and its economic products can be readily 


Director : William Besant. Assist. Director : James Atkinson. 
Curator : George H. Banks. 

Founded 1891 by the Corporation under the City of Glasgow 
Act. The wooded slopes on the north bank of the Kelvin were 
acquired between 1922-6, and on the south bank in 1900. 

The general collection of indoor plants in these gardens is very 
fine, embracing all the different sections and containing many 
splendid specimens. The Tree Ferns in the Kibble Palace (Winter 
Garden) are worthy of special notice, being probably the finest 
in the United Kingdom. The collection of filmy ferns and mosses 
is also unique in British Gardens. Of economic plants there is a 
large aiid varied representation. The collection of herbaceous 
plants is comprehensive and valuable, and the garden has been 
admirably laid out to be of exceptional value to the students of 
Botany, who are afforded every facility for practical observation. 


Glasgow University is supplied from these gardens with all necessary 
specimens for the use of the Professor of Botany. 

Publication : Seed List for distribution in January. 


Keeper: J. W. Besant, Botanic Gardens, Glasnevin, Dublin. 
Telephone : Drumcondra 97. 

Founded 1790. Indoor collections of note : Botanical Orchids, 
Cycads, Palms, etc. Outdoor collections of note : Rock Garden, 
Herbaceous Plants, Pinetum, Bog and Water Gardens. Lectures 
on Botany and Horticulture are given by the Keeper to the 
gardeners in training. The Gardens are used by Professors of 
Botany and Forestry for lectures and demonstrations. Large 
numbers of specimens are supplied to Schools, Colleges, etc., for 
Botany, Art, and Rural Science. The Gardens are open every day, 
including Sundays. 


The beautiful grounds near Wicklow, sometimes called the 
Walpole Gardens, are a part of the private gardens of Mount Usher, 
the residence of E. H. Walpole, Esq. The public are not admitted, 
but members of the R.H.S.I. are allowed to visit the place, and 
bring a certain number of friends. See Y.B. 1929, pp. 60-1. 


Owing to the effects of London smoke and fog, the satisfactory 
cultivation of a large number of Conifers, more especially Firs and 
Spruces, became impossible at Kew. H.M. Government consented 
to a new pinetum being established at Bedgebury in Kent under 
the joint auspices of Kew and the Forestry Commission. The 
area allotted for the purpose is fifty acres. A beginning with the 
planting was made in March 1925, when over 300 trees were put out. 
The bulk of the collection was planted in the early part of 1926, 
when about 1,200 more trees were given places. Bedgebury is 
situated about ten miles east of Tunbridge Wells and twelve miles 
south of Maidstone. Stations: Goudhurst and Cranbrook. 


Founded 1621. The oldest in England. Henry, Earl of Danby, 
bought out the existing tenant of five acres of land, and arranged 
that the University should lease the ground from Magdalen College 
and build a conservatory. Jacob Bobart was the first Keeper, 
appointed in 1632. His catalogue, 1648, contains the names of 
1,600 varieties of plants. 

A. G. T. 



Director: Arthur W. Hill, M.A., C.M.G., Sc.D., DSc. (Adelaide), 
F.R.S., F.L.S. Curator : T. W. Taylor. 

The 288 acres of the Gardens consist almost entirely of the 
grounds originally belonging to Kew House and Richmond Lodge. 
Queen Caroline employed Bridgman, the landscape-gardener, and 
Kent, architect and landscape artist, on her grounds at Richmond 
Lodge. Sir Henry Capel, who married the heiress of Kew House, 
was a keen horticulturist, and imported many new and rare plants. 
The property passed to a grand-niece, Lady Elizabeth Molyneux, 
and at her death was leased to Frederick, Prince of Wales. His 
widow, Princess Augusta, began the formation of the Botanic 
Gardens, assisted by the Earl of Bute, Sir William Chambers, and 
William Aiton, recommended for charge of the new garden by 
Philip Miller, of the Chelsea Physic Garden. George III had the 
present Rhododendron Dell made by "Capability" Brown, Sir 
Joseph Banks acting as unpaid Director of the Gardens till his 

In 1841 Kew became a National Institution, with Sir William 
Hooker as the first Director, and the Gardens were opened to the 
public. In 1853 the Herbarium and Library were founded. The 
former contains nearly four million specimens of plants, and the 
Library about 40,000 volumes. In 1875-6 the Jodrell Laboratory, 
for physiological and anatomical research, was built. In 1882 Miss 
Marianne North gave the North Gallery, with over 800 of her 
paintings of flowers and plants. In 1897 the Queen's Cottage and 
grounds were given by Queen Victoria. 

The national and imperial work done at Kew includes (i) the 
advancement of Botany and the study of plant life, (2) the introduc- 
tion of new and valuable plants to the Empire, (3) the upkeep of 
the Gardens as a public resort, (4) a school of Horticulture. 

Publications : Popular Official Guide to the Royal Botanic 
Gardens, Kew, with map, 1928, 6d. The Royal Botanic Gardens, 
Kew, Illustrated Guide, with map, 1928, is. Key Plan to 
the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, 3d. Official Guides to the 
Museums, L Dicotyledons (under revision) ; II. Monocotyledons 
and Cryptogams ; III. Timbers and Gymnosperms ; IV. 
British Forestry ; is. each. North Gallery (6d.), and Catalogue 
of Portraits of Botanists (Museums), 6d. Hand-lists of Plants 
Grown in the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (from sd. to 45. 6d.). 
Picture Postcards. The Kew Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information 
(issued as an occasional publication). Price varies. Vols. for 1887- 
92 and 1912 out of print. Additional Series: I. Economic 
Resources of the West Indies, is. 6d. II. Vegetable Fibres 
(Reprint) (Selected Papers from the Kew Bulletin), 33. 6d. III. 
Catalogue of the Library of the Royal Gardens, Kew, 73. 6d. III. 
2. Supplement, i. IV. List of published Names of Plants 
introduced to cultivation, 1876-1896, 43. V. Wild Fauna and 


Flora of the Royal Botanic Gardens, 2s. VII. Rubber (selected 
Papers from the Kew Bulletin), is. 6d. VIII. New Genera 
and Species of Cyperaceae, is. 6d. IX. The Useful Plants of 
Nigeria. Part I, 2s. ; Part II, 2s. 6d. ; Part III, 35. 6d. ; Part IV, 
2os. X. Flora of Kwantung and Hong-Kong, 45. 6d. XI. 
General Index to the Volumes of the Kew Bulletin for the years 
1887-1918, 73. 6d. 

See also Schools (p. 123). 


Superintendent : Daniel Bliss. Telephone : 8177. 

The Educational Garden was laid down in Singleton Park in 
1925-6 by the Swansea Parks Committee. It is a valuable site 
for the cultivation of collections of plants for the betterment of the 
knowledge of plant life and kindred subjects among school-children 
and the general public. It enables the University College Students 
to study from living specimens arranged in order. 

The collections are : (i) species of the British Flora ; (2) all 
the important plants of economic value ; (3) plants of botanical 
interest. Most of the British plants are planted in long narrow beds 
of various lengths, one natural order to each bed. There is a small 
lake for the cultivation of aquatics and a series of rockery beds for 
Alpines, wall plants, etc. Suitable beds and borders have been 
prepared for the reception of bog, seashore plants, etc. Roughly 
about 1,400 species of our native flora have been collected and about 
700 species having an economic value. The wide borders on the 
north and west sides of the Garden are devoted to collections of 
economic plants, arranged as far as possible in groups of foods, 
fibres, dyes, medicines, and herbs, and a new glass-house has been 
erected for tropical and semi-tropical species. The two other glass- 
houses have been filled with succulent plants, and plants of botanical 
interest, such as the Pitcher Plants (Nepenthes), Sundews (Drosera), 
and those which illustrate mutations, etc., of interest to students. 
In a small glass-house formerly used as a shelter, several glass cases 
have been installed in which is shown an ever-increasing number of 
economic plant products. Important new additions have been 
made to the collection of British plants. 

Seeds are collected each year, and a printed list is distributed 
to various botanical institutions in Europe and at home, for the 
purpose of exchange. 

Publications : Lists of Seeds. Index of the Economic Plants. 



Director : H. H. Dixon, Sc.D., F.R.S., School of Botany, Trinity 
College, Dublin. 

Founded 1806. Additions were made in 1832 and 1848. The 


Garden is near Ball's Bridge. The original Garden contains a 
collection of the principal Natural Orders of hardy plants for teaching 
purposes. Choice and tender exotics are grown in heated houses. 
Herbaceous, Alpine, and bulbous plants fill a considerable extent of 
borders of rock-edging ; aquatic and marsh plants are by a pond. 
A collection of Siamese plants, made and presented by Dr. A. F. G. 
Kerr, containing many new species and unique specimens, is worthy 
of special notice. 

Classes for students in Arts and Medicine are held in the Gardens 
as occasion arises. Keys giving admission are granted under speci- 
fied conditions to residents in Dublin. Other visitors are admitted 
by orders from the Provost or any of the Fellows or Professors of 
the College. 

The primary function is to provide material for research, and 
for practical instruction in the School of Botany. 


Director: F. J. Chittenden, F.L.S., V.M.H., R.H.S. Gardens, 
Wisley, Ripley, Surrey. 

The R.H.S. Gardens were originally started in March 1818, when 
a small piece of walled market-garden was taken nearly opposite 
Holland House. Further ground was rented at Ealing in 1820. A 
year later a tract of 33 acres was taken at Chiswick. The whole 
garden was designed for experiments upon plants, and as a nursery 
for imported and newly acquired plants. The grounds at Ken- 
sington and Ealing were given up. The Society in 1859 was offered 
22 i acres of the Gore House Garden at Kensington. A garden 
was laid out and offices built. In 1903 Sir T. Hanbury, K.C.V.O., 
presented the garden and land of the late Mr. G. F. Wilson, V.M.H., 
in trust for the use of the Society, and there at Wisley the 
Society now has its gardens, trial grounds, glass-houses, with a 
library and laboratory in a large building, which contains accom- 
modation for the work of the various members of the scientific 
staff and also for the instruction of the thirty students, who receive 
a thorough training both in the science and practice of gardening. 

The whole of the work at Wisley is under the control of the 
President and Council of the Society, whose object is to develop 
the garden in such a way that it will meet all the requirements of 
horticulture and serve not only for the enjoyment and instruction 
of Fellows, but also for the advancement of Horticultural Science. 
To this end the Council has appointed a Garden Committee to 
advise it upon all things connected with the work at Wisley. The 
Gardens are devoted to (i) testing new and improved varieties of 
Fruits, Flowers, and Vegetables to see if they bear the character 
given them by their introducers or raisers ; (2) investigating tne 
best means of combating the attacks of harmful insects and diseases 
of plants ; (3) investigating the relative values of plants, etc., from 



both their economic and food points of view ; (4) encouraging the 
practice of open-air gardening in all directions; and (5) contrasting 
the value of different varieties of flowers from a garden, as dis- 
tinguished from a show, point of view. Trials of plants, fruits, 
vegetables, and sundries are held annually with the object of 
discovering the best of their several kinds and varieties. The work 

necessarily involves the raising and propagation of plants of all 
kinds. The surplus is distributed annually to Fellows in March. 

The Gardens are open daily to Fellows and others showing 
Fellows 1 Transferable Tickets, except on Sundays from October to 
March, inclusive, Good Friday, and Christmas Day. The public 
is not admitted at any time. Students and gardeners may obtain 
orders on application to the Secretary, Vincent Square, which will 
secure them special facilities for observation and study. 



Minister of Agriculture: The Rt. Hon. Noel Buxton, M.P. 
Principal Assistant Secretary Education and Research (Agriculture and 
Horticulture) Division: H. E. Dale, C.B. Horticulture Commissioner: 
H. V. Taylor, O.B.E. Director, Plant Pathological Laboratory, Har- 
penden: J. C. F. Fryer, O.B.E. Assistant Director: Dr. G. H. 
Pethy bridge. Senior Staff Officer, Horticulture Branch: J. L. Bryan, 
M.B.E., Whitehall Place, S.W. i. 

The Ministry was constituted under an Act of 1919 (9 and 10 Geo. V. 
Ch. 91), amending the Acts of 1889-1909. "Agriculture" is denned to 
include Horticulture. The Education and Research (Agriculture and 
Horticulture) Division deals with Horticulture, plant diseases and pests, 
educational propaganda, and other advisory and technical work. The 
Commercial and Tithe Division deals with questions relating to Fertilisers 
and Seeds, and prepares the Journal. The Market Division deals with 
Marketing and Exhibitions. 

Kew Gardens are under the control of the Ministry. 

PUBLICATIONS (Horticultural) : Journal of the Ministry of Agriculture. 
Miscellaneous Publications: 35. Hedge and Stump Clearing Devices, 
2/6. 37. Beneficial Insects, 4<i. 44. Wasps, 4d. 51. Rats, and how 
to Exterminate them, 3d. 52. Fungus and Allied Diseases of Crops, 
1922-4, 4/ . 54. Edible and Poisonous Fungi, 2/6. 57. Poisonous 
Plants on the Farm, 2/-. 58. Modern Fruit Tree Spraying and what 
it Costs, 6d. 61. Weeds of Arable Land, 2/6. 62. Report on the 
Occurrence of Insect Pests on Crops, 1925-7, 2/-. Coloured Wall 
Diagrams of Plant Pests and Diseases: No. i. Apple Blossom Weevil. 
No. 2. Winter Moths. No. 3. Apple and Pear Scab. No. 4. Silver 
Leaf. Unmounted 3/~. Mounted 5/- each. Monograph No. 3. 
Sugar Beet, by A. Bridges and R. N. Dixey, i/- net. No. 6. Survey 
of the Soils and Fruit of the Wisbeck Area, 3/6. Volumes of Leaflets: 
No. I. Fungus Diseases of Fruit Trees, 8d. No. 2. Insect Pests of 
Fruit Trees, lod. No. 3. Cultivation and Diseases of Potatoes, 8d. 
No. 4. Fruit: Its Cultivation, Marketing, etc., 1/6. No. 8. Manures 
and Manuring, 9d. No. n. Insect Pests of Farm and Garden Crops, 
1/3. No. 12. Cultivation of Vegetables. Leaflets: 362. The Selection, 
Storage, and Treatment of Seed Potatoes. 17. Watercress and its 
Cultivation. 91. Peppermint: Its Cultivation and Distillation. 123. 
Cultivation (and Diseases and Pests) of Cucumbers. 124. Cultivation 
of the Vegetable Marrow. 181. Peas and Beans. 188. Fumigation 
with Hydrocyanic Acid Gas. 191. Asparagus Cultivation. 209. Prac- 
tical Soil Sterilisation by Heat for Glass-house Crops. 224. Narcissus 
Cultivation. 264. The Cultivation of Onions. 276. Commercial 



Mushroom Cultivation. 309. Suggestions to Allotment Holders for 
Autumn Treatment of Land. 313. Cultivation of Parsnips. 
315. Suggestions and Chart for the General Cropping, Manuring, 
and Cultivation of Allotments. 316. Lavender: Its Cultivation for 
Marketing and Distilling. 320. Manuring of Vegetable Crops. 
323. Cultivation and Marketing of Cabbages and Savoys. 332. Car- 
nations. 359. Brussels Sprouts. 393. Tomato Culture. 77. Finger 
and Toe in Turnips. 178. Downy Mildew ol the Onion. 200. Black 
Rot of Cabbages, Turnips, etc. 238. Leaf Spot of Celery. 242. Stripe 
Disease of Tomatoes. 262. Tomato Leaf -mould Disease. 343. Leaflet 
on Potato Wart Disease, specially prepared for Children . . . and for 
Amateurs. 345. The White Rot Disease of Onion Bulbs. 356. Onion 
Smut. 156. Hedgerow Timber. Economic Series: No. 9. Marketing 
of Potatoes.* No. 15. Fruit Marketing.* No. 21. Preparation of 
Fruit for Market. Pt. I. Apples, Pears, Plums, and Strawberries.* 

instructors, employed by the County Councils in connection with 
schemes of Horticultural Education recognised by the Ministry of 

Ad. = Advisor. Ins. *= Instructor. Lee. = Lecturer. 
Org. = Organiser. Prin. = Principal. Sup. = Superintendent. 

BEDFORD. No Hort. Ins.; Director of Education, Shire Hall, Bedford. 
BERKSHIRE. Hort. Ins.: A. E. Barnes, The University, Reading. 
BUCKINGHAMSHIRE. Hort. Ins.: A. E. B. Langman, C.D.H., Education 

Sub-Office, Kingsbury Square, Aylesbury. 
CAMBRIDGESHIRE. Hort. Ad: A. T. Paskett, F.R.H.S., County Hall, 

CHESHIRE. Hort. Sup.: W. E. Shewell-Cooper, C.D.H., Cheshire 

School of Agriculture, Reaseheath, Nantwich. Asst.Ins.: C. 

CORNWALL. Hort. Sup.: H. W. Abbiss, D.C.M., M.M., N.D.H., 

Education Department, County Hall, Truro. Asst. Lee. W. J. 

Moyse, N.D.A. 

Anderson, Newton Rigg Farm School, Penrith. 

DERBYSHIRE. Hort. Ins.: W. H. Tuck, N.D.H., Derbyshire Agri- 
cultural Institute Offices, St. Mary's Gate, Derby. 
DEVON. Hort. Sup.: D. Manning, i Richmond Road, Exeter. Sup. 

of School Gardening and Org. of Women's Hort. Work: Miss 

E. M. Gunnell, N.D.H. 
DORSETSHIRE. Hort. Ins.: T. P. P. McPhail, F.R.H.S., County Offices, 

DURHAM. Hort. Ins.: W. S. Sharp, F.R.H.S., Shire Hall, Durham. 

Asst. Ins.: L. Buss. 
ESSEX. Hort. Lee.: C. Wakely, F.R.H.S., East Anglian Institute ol 

Agriculture, Chelmsford. Ins. in Commercial Hort.: H. Fraser, 

GLOUCESTERSHIRE. Hort. Ins.: J. Coombes, County Education 

Office, Shire Hall, Gloucester. 

* Obtainable from H.M.S.O., Adastral House, W.C. 2, or any 
bookseller, gd. each, post free. 


HAMPSHIRE. -Hort. Ins.: C. J. Gleed, N.D.H., F.R.H.S., 92 High 

Street, Winchester. Asst. Ins.: A. P. King. 

HEREFORDSHIRE. Hort. Ins.: A. J. Manning, High Town, Hereford. 
HERTFORDSHIRE. Hort. Ins.: C. E. Hudson, N.D.H., F.R.H.S., 

Hertfordshire Institute of Agriculture, Oaklands, St. Albans. 

Asst. Ins.: E. R. Saltmarsh, N.D.H. 
HUNTINGDONSHIRE. Hort. Ad.: F. Tunnington, County Education 

Offices, Walden House, Huntingdon. 
ISLE OF ELY. Hort. Sup.: W. G. Kent, N.D.H., F.R.H.S., County 

Hall, March. 
ISLE OF WIGHT. Hort. Ins.: C. Martin, F.R.H.S., County Hall, 

Newport, Isle of Wight. 
ISLES OF SCILLY. Hort. Ad.: G. W. Gibson, F.L.S., Council Office, 

St. Mary's, Isles of Scilly. 
KENT. Asst. Hort.: H. C. Elsdon, N.D.H. Ins. in Commercial Hort.: 

R. Hart, N.D.A., N.D.D., Borden Farm Inst., nr. Sittingbourne. 
LANCASHIRE. Hort. Ins.: N. J. Macpherson, County Council Farm, 

Hutton, Preston. Hort. Ins.: W. L. Steer. 
LEICESTERSHIRE. Hort. Ins.: T. G. Bullock, F.R.H.S., 6 St. Martin's, 

LINCOLNSHIRE (HOLLAND). Prin. Agric. Org. and Hort. Sup.: J. C. 

Wallace, M.C., The Kirton (Holland) Agricultural Institute, Boston, 

LINCOLNSHIRE (KESTEVEN). Agric. Org., Kesteven Agric. Committee, 

Jermyn Street, Sleaford. 
LINCOLNSHIRE (LINDSEY). Hort. Org.: J. G. Murray, F.L.S., 286 

High Street, Lincoln. 

MIDDLESEX. Hort. Sup.: J. Lawson, 40 Eccleston Square, West- 
minster, London, S.W. i. Hort. Ins.: G. W. Pyman. Asst. Ins.: 

Miss M. Mason, B.Sc. 
NORFOLK. Hort. Ins.: H. Goude, N.D.H., The Shire House, Norwich. 

Asst. Ins.: E. G. Davison. 
NORTHAMPTONSHIRE. Hort. Ins.: C. F. Lawrance, F.R.H.S., County 

Farm Institute, Moulton, Northampton. Asst.: H. J. Wyles. 
NORTHUMBERLAND. Hort Ins.: C. W. Mayhew, 8 Westmorland 

Road, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
NOTTINGHAMSHIRE. Hort. Sup.: C. Taborn, F.R.H.S., F.L.S., Shire 

Hall, Nottingham. Asst. Hort. Ins.: H. J. Manser. Asst. Hort. 

Ins. : R. A. Drummond. 
OXFORDSHIRE. Hort. Ins.: S. Heaton, F.R.H.S., County Offices, 

New Road, Oxford. 
RUTLAND. Hort. Ins.: J. H. Woolley (part-time), 20 Catmose Street, 

SHROPSHIRE. Hort. Ad.: G. T. Malthouse, 5 Belmont, Shrewsbury. 

Hort. Lee. : Miss M. Heron, N.D.H. 
SOKE OF PETERBOROUGH. No Hort. Ins. Clerk to the Education 

Committee, Committee Clerk's Office, Peterborough. 
SOMERSETSHIRE. Hort. Sup.: A. D. Turner, N.D.H., Somerset Farm 

Institute, Cannington, Bridgwater. Hort. Ins.: J. Glavin, F.R.H.S. 

Asst. Ins.: J. E. Forshaw. Ins. in Gardening and Head Gar- 
dener: K. V. Cramp. 
STAFFORDSHIRE. Hort. Ad.: J. Stoney, F.R.H.S., County Farm 

Institute, Penkridge, Stafford. Hort. Ins.: C. D. Dempster. 

Ins. Gard.: J. Apse. 


SUFFOLK, East. Agric. Org., County Hall, Ipswich. Hort. Ins.: 

T. Payne; W. C. White, N.D.; A. B. Thorn. 
SUFFOLK, WEST. Hort. Ins.: E. G. Creek, Shire Hall, Bury St. 

SURREY. Hort. Ad.: A. E. Burgess, M.B.E., F.R.H.S., County 

Agricultural Offices, County Hall Annexe, Kingston-on-Thames. 

Hort.Ins.: C. H. Middleton, F.R.H.S.; C. H. Walkden. 
SUSSEX, EAST. Hort. Sup. : G. C. Johnson, County Hall, Lewes. 
SUSSEX, WEST. Hort. Sup.: F. W. Costin, N.D.H., F.R.H.S., South- 

gate House, Chichester. 
WARWICKSHIRE. Hort. Ad.: G. H. Nash, N.D.H., County Education 

Office, Warwick. Asst. Hort. Ad.: C. R. S. Gregory, N.D.H. 
WILTSHIRE. Hort. Sup.: W. C. Crisp, N.D.H., Polebarn House, 

WORCESTERSHIRE. Hort. Ins.: H. Patience, Dept. of Agric., Shire 

Hall, Worcester. 
YORKSHIRE. Hort. Org. and Lecturer: A. S. Gait, the University, 

Leeds. Hort. Ins. : J. W. Eves; W. Lodge; H. E. Brooks, N.D.H. ; 

F. Hawkins. 


ANGLESEY. Hort. Ins.: W. C. Williams, Shire Hall, Llangefni, 

F.R.H.S., Agricultural Offices, Builth Wells, Brecon. 

CAERNARVONSHIRE. Hort. Ins.: J. Roberts, Madryn Castle Farm 
School, Bodfean, Caernarvonshire. 

CARDIGANSHIRE. Hort. Ins.: W. Lewis, F.H.R.S., Agricultural 
Offices, Lampeter, Cardigan. 

CARMARTHENSHIRE. Hort. Ins.: W. Roadley, Hbwrlwyd Farm 
Institute, Carmarthen. 

DENBIGHSHIRE. Hort. Ins.: C. Roberts, Llysfasi Farm Institute, 
Ruthin, Denbighshire. 

FLINTSHIRE. Hort. Sup.: H. L. Jones, N.D.H., County Education 
Offices, Mold, Flintshire. 

GLAMORGANSHIRE. Hort. Sup. : E. W. Withers, 5 Pembroke Terrace, 
Cardiff. Hort. Ins.: A. D. Harrison. 

MERIONETHSHIRE. Hort. Ins.: C. H. Jones, F.H.R.S., N.D.H., 
County Offices, Dolgelly, Merioneth. 

MONMOUTHSHIRE. Hort. Ins.: W. H. C. Bevan, F.R.H.S., Mon- 
mouthshire Agricultural Institution, Usk, Mon. 

MONTGOMERYSHIRE. Hort. Ins.: O. Oakley, Agricultural Office, 
Welshpool, Mont. 

PEMBROKESHIRE. Hort. Ins.: H. W. Evans, County Offices, Haver- 
ford west, Pembs. 


Institutions in England and Wales recognised by the Ministry in respect 
of the provision of Horticultural education marked *. 


Director of Food Investigation : Sir William B. Hardy, D.Sc., LL.D., 
F.R.S., 16 Old Queen Street, Westminster, S.W. i. Telephone : 


Victoria 7940. Telegrams: Resciendus, Parl, London. Address 
inquiries to the Director. 

Investigations are undertaken on the advice of the Food Investi- 
gation Board (Chairman: Sir Joseph G. Broodbank), which supervises 
the work. Investigations on the storage of fruit and vegetables are 
carried out at the Low Temperature Research Station, Cambridge 
(in conjunction with the University). There is a small laboratory 
at Covent Garden Market where a survey is made of the various types 
of wastage in produce passing through the market. A new station, 
Ditton Laboratory, East Mailing, nr. Maidstone, is being erected where 
further research on the storage of fruit will be conducted. 

PUBLICATIONS: No. 12. Brown Heart A Functional Disease of 
Apples and Pears, 4/6. No. 16. Canned Fruit, 1/3. No. 20. The 
Problems of Apple Transport Overseas, gd. No. 21. The " Gas " Content 
and Ventilation of Refrigerated Holds carrying Apples, 1/3. No. 22. 
"Brown Heart" in Australian Apple Shipments, 1/3. No. 23. 
Functional Diseases of Apples in Cold Storage, Bitter Pit in Apples, 
is. No. 29. Temperature Conditions in Small Cold Storage Chambers 
containing Fruit, is. No. 30. Gas Storage of Fruit, is. 9d H.M.S.O. 
Adastral House, Kingsway. W.C. 2. 


Secretary: Sir Robert Greig, M.C., LL.D., M.Sc., F.R.S.E. Asst. 
Secretaries: C. Weatherill, J. Mather, F.S.I., H. M. Conacher, J. M. 
Caie, M.A., B.L., B.Sc.(Agr.), York Buildings, Queen Street, Edinburgh. 
Telegrams: Boas, Edinburgh. 

Horticultural Education in Scotland is mainly carried out by the 
three Agricultural Colleges: Edinburgh and East of Scotland College 
of Agriculture; North of Scotland College of Agriculture; West of Scot- 
land Agricultural College, 6 Blythswood Square, Glasgow. 


Telegrams : Resources, Dublin. Telephone : Dublin 61521. 

CARLOW. J. McKenzie, c/o Secretary, Main Street, Tullow. 
CAVAN. J. MacNamara, Courthouse, Cavan. CLARE. J. Grennan, 
Courthouse, Ennis. CORK. T. Behan, S. Cavanagh, F. T. Rose, 
Courthouse, Cork. DONEGAL. F. W. B. Hume, Courthouse, Liflord. 
DUBLIN. P. J. Gray, n Parnell St., Dublin. GALWAY. J. Lombard, 
P. J. McNicholas, Prospect Hill, Gal way. Kerry. W. F. Earls. 
Courthouse, Tralee. KILDARE. W. Tyndall, Co. Offices, Naas. 
KILKENNY. E. Purcell, Courthouse, Kilkenny. LAOIGHIS. J. J. 
O'Doberty, Courthouse, Portlaoighise. LEITRIM. Thomas Devine, 
Co. Hall, Carrick-on-Shannon. LIMERICK. J. Malone, J. J. Cleary. 
82 O'Connell St., Limerick. LOUTH . J . Harney , Courthouse, Dundalk. 
LONGFORD. P. J. Carroll, Richmond St., Longford. MAYO. Wm. 
McGarry, T. F. Reilly, Courthouse, Castlebar. MEATH. J. C. Clarke, 
Co. Hafl, Navan. MONAGHAN. J. G. Toner, Co. Offices, Main St., 
Ballybay, Monaghan. OFFALY. E. Clarke, Co. Buildings, Tullamore. 
ROSCOMMON. G. Vennard, Courthouse, Roscommon. SLIGO. J. J. 
Carley, Courthouse, Sligo, TIPPERARY (N, R.). J. Bracken, Court- 


house, Nenagh; (S. R.) J. Dunne, Co. Buildings, Clonmel. WATER- 
FORD. P. O'Shea, Courthouse, Dungarven. WESTMEATH. W. J. 
Young, Technical School, Mulingar. WEXFORD. W. Hillock, Fort- 
view, Wexford. WICKLOW. P. Cullen, Courthouse, Wicklow. 


Minister : The Rt. Hon. Sir E. M. Archdale, Bart., D.L., M.P. 
Permanent Secretary : James S. Gordon, Esq., D.Sc., C.B.E., Ministry 
of Agriculture, Wellington Place, Belfast. Horticultural Inspectors : 
E. Turner, Esq., A.R.C.Sc. (I); G. Doolan, Esq. Telegrams : Tillage, 
Belfast. Telephone : Belfast 5301-2. 

PUBLICATION: Journal, annually, 2S. 6d. net. 

Horticultural Instructors employed by the County Committees of 
Agriculture in Northern Ireland: 

COUNTY ANTRIM: R. H. Clarke, Esq., 21 Ridgeway Street, Stran- 
millis Road, Belfast; W. R. Saunderson, Esq., Eden Vale, Ballymoney 
Rd., Ballymena. COUNTY ARMAGH: J. Hagan, Esq., Roseneath, 
Armagh; J. Scrimgeour, Esq., Denybeg, Camlough Rd., Newry. 
COUNTY DOWN: D. W. Baillie, Esq., Ballydown, Banbridge; A. E. 
Johnston, Esq., A.R.C.Sc. (I), Moville, Donaghadee Rd., Newtownards. 
COUNTY FERMANAGH: J. C. Johnston, Esq., The Picotee, Enniskillen. 
COUNTY LONDONDERRY: A. McL. May, Esq., Nedeen, Coleraine. 
COUNTY TYRONE: D. McKenzie, Esq., c/o Mrs. McCausland, High 
St., Omagh. 

Director : Prof. S. P. Mercer, B.Sc., Queen's University, Belfast. 

Director : I. W. Seaton, B.Sc., Stormont, Belfast. 


Principal : Miss C. Wheeler, N.D.Hort. 

Fees: 90 and 100 guineas per annum. Publications: Prospectus 
(on application); College Gazette, annually. 


Principal: J. Dudley, M.Sc., Avoncroft College, Offenham, 
Evesham. Hort. Ins. : R. C. Wood, N.D.A. Telephone : Evesham 

The Horticultural Course includes Plant Biology, Soils, Fer- 
tilisers, Recognition and treatment of Pests, Bacteria. Fees: 75 per 
annum, inclusive of board and residence in the College. 

BINGLEY. See Leeds University. 


Instructor in Commercial Hort.: R. Hart, Borden Farm Institute, 
Nr. Sittingbourne, Kent. Telegrams and Telephone: Sittingbourne 239. 

Founded 1929, to provide technical education to sons of tenant 
farmers, etc., who wish to take up farming and/or Fruit growing as 


a livelihood. Pupils taken for six months and one year courses. 
Terms commence October, January, and April. Fees, including board 
and lodging, i per week for residents in Kent, 2 per week for extra- 

BOTLEY. See Hampshire C.C. Fruit Station. 
BRIDGWATER. See Nat. Inst. Agric. Botany. 

Director : Professor B. T. P. Barker, M.A. 

There is a special Department of Agriculture and Horticulture 
associated with the National Fruit and Cider Institute at Long Ashton 
and the Fruit and Vegetable Preserving Station at Chipping Campden, 
mainly for research and advice. 


Chairman : Professor A. G. Tansley, M.A., F.R.S. Secretary : 
Dr. T. F. Chipp, Royal Gardens, Kew. 

A temporary body appointed by the Imperial Botanical Conference 
held in London in 1924, to carry into effect certain resolutions of the 
Conference. The Committee secured the collaboration of a number 
of prominent investigators throughout the Empire, who contributed 
papers embodied in Aims and Methods in the Study of Vegetation , 
published by the Committee and the Crown Agents for the Colonies. 
The Committee has also undertaken the preparation of Abstracts 
of publications dealing with the vegetation of the Overseas Empire. 
These are published as a Supplement to the Journal of Ecology, but 
are also obtainable separately from the Secretary. 

Road, S.W.7 (Department of Botany). 

Keeper : J. Ramsbottom, M.A., O.B.E. Telegrams : Nathismus, 
Southkens, London. Telephone : Western 6323. 

THE DEPARTMENT OF BOTANY. The botanical collections date from 
the foundation of the Museum in 1753. In that year the nation acquired 
the extensive collections of Sir Hans Sloane, and the Museum was 
founded to house these and two important collections of prints and 
drawings, and manuscripts respectively. Sloane 's herbarium, consisting 
of more than 300 large folio volumes, contained dried plants from all 
parts of the world. It is still kept intact. It was transferred in 1827 
to a separate botanical department which was established to receive the 
great herbarium accumulated during his life-time by Sir Joseph Banks, 
and containing among many other collections the plants obtained by 
Banks during Capt. Cook's first voyage of discovery ( 1 768-1 771 ). Banks' 
herbarium was bequeathed to the British Museum. The first Keeper of 
the Department was the eminent botanist Robert Brown, who had been 
Banks' librarian and curator, and had himself made extensive plant- 
collections in New Holland, as Australia was then called, on Capt. 
Flinders' expedition, which he accompanied as surgeon and naturalist. 
Since its foundation the Department has grown continuously, and is 
now one of the most valuable botanical collections in the world. It 
is of special importance from the large number of historical collections 
which it contains. 


The removal from its cramped quarters at the mother building in 
Great Russell Street in 1881 to the Natural History Museum, South 
Kensington, gave opportunity for more convenient arrangement and 
for expansion of the collections. As at present arranged on the upper 
floor of the East Wing of the Museum, the Department consists of 
an exhibition gallery, open to the public, and the herbarium and 
library for the use of students. The main feature of the exhibition 
gallery is a systematically arranged illustration of the great groups 
of the plant-kingdom and their families. A complete series of British 
plants is exhibited. Features of interest in the life and manner of 
growth of plants are illustrated in separate exhibits. Three bays in 
the Central Hall are also devoted to botany. The herbarium consists 
of three sections: the great herbarium, containing the collections of 
flowering plants from the whole world outside Europe; the European 
and the British herbarium, also of flowering plants; and the Crypto- 
gamic herbarium, containing the remaining groups, namely Ferns, 
Mosses, Seaweeds, and Fungi. Attached to the latter is a well- 
equipped laboratory. The herbarium is consulted by workers from 
all parts of the world, as well as by students at home. The library 
has been formed especially with a view to taxonomic work, and is 
extremely rich in this aspect of botany. A series of publications 
prepared in the Department is issued by the Trustees. These include 
monographs of large groups of plants, as well as smaller handbooks 
helpful to amateurs. A large series of coloured postcards has been 
prepared, illustrating our native flora. 


PUBLICATION: Natural History Magazine, quarterly, is. id. post 


Established in 1924 in co-operation with the Ministry of Agriculture. 

St. Edmunds, Suffolk. 

Principal: W. R. Seward, N.D.A., Dip. Agr. (Wye). Telegrams 
and Telephone: Hartest 4. 

Pupils (45). Boys and girls. Fees: Boys free; Girls I5/- per week. 
Terms: Michaelmas to Lady Day, 2 winters course for boys. May- July, 
3 months course for girls. Publication: Annual Report, issued in 


Horticultural Superintendent : W. E. Shewell -Cooper, C.D.H.(Lond.), 
F.R.H.S. Assistant Lecturer: C. Savidge, C.D.H. (Reading). Head 
Gardener and Practical Inst.: P. Shaw, M.M., R.H.S. Cert. Address: 
Cheshire School of Agriculture, Reaseheath, Nantwich. Telephone: 
Nantwich 5385. Hort. Sup. Nantwich 5206. 

Courses provided for sons and daughters of fruit-growers, market 
gardeners, and others taking up (i) posts as instructors, (2) commercial 
and (3) private horticulture. Men students reside at Reaseheath 
Hall (Fees County, 1 per week; Extra County, i 155.)- Women 



students in the New Hostel (separate rooms) (Fees County, i$s. 
per week; Extra County, i ios.). Day students (Fee, 2s. 6d. per day). 
First and second year courses from October to June. Practical work 
in the summer (optional). All students must have a year's practical 
work before taking lectures. First and second year Certificates offered 
and students take the R.H.S. Certificate. Scholarships (Free, and Half 
Fees) offered annually by the County Education Committee and by the 
Ministry of Agriculture. The curriculum includes Commercial Fruit 
Culture and Vegetables, Cut Flowers for Market, Flowers and Shrubs 
(ornamental), Glass-houses, Nursery Work, Preserving Fruit and 
Vegetables, Bee-keeping, Chemistry, Entomology, Biology, Mycology, 
Surveying, and Book-keeping. There are over 21 acres divided into 
orchards, experimental land, market gardens (fruit and vegetables), 
shrubberies, lawns, herbaceous borders, etc., for experiments, growing 
for market, and for private gardening work. 


Director : W. F. Bewley, D.Sc. Telegrams : Research Station, 
Cheshunt. Telephone : Waltham Cross 150. Station : Cheshunt, 
L.N.E.R. All communications to the Secretary, Experimental and 
Research Station, Cheshunt, Herts. 

PUBLICATION: Annual Report, ios. 6d. 

The purpose of this Station is to investigate the many problems 
connected with the cultivation of plants under glass. The equipment 
consists of a Laboratory, Offices, and twenty Experimental Glass-houses. 
There is a staff of eight scientific investigators under the direction of 
Dr. W. F. Bewley. The Station welcomes inquiries from growers of 
glass-house produce who may wish to seek advice. 


Acting Resident Director : F. Hirst, M.Sc., A.R.C.Sc., University of 
Bristol Fruit and Vegetable Preservation Research Station, Campden, 
Glos. Telephone : Campden 9. Station : Campden, G.W.R. 

The Station investigates Research problems on the preservation of 
fruit and vegetables, and is the advisory centre for the canning industry. 
Ten-day courses of instruction are given in summer. Fees: 2 2s. 
(Tuition and materials) 3 ios. (Board for Students in residence.) 
Men and Women. 

PUBLICATIONS : Leaflets on the preservation of fruits and vegetables 
by means of jam, jelly, canning, bottling, etc., id. each, plus postage. 

CIRENCESTER. See Royal Agricultural College. 


Principals : Miss F. Collins; Miss C. Cracknel], N.D.H., School 
of Nature Study and Gardening, Clapham, nr. Worthing, Sussex. 
Station : Angmering. Telegrams : Patching. 

Certificate two years. Short courses arranged. Fees ^100 to 132 
per annum, inclusive. Practical and theoretical training in all general 
branches of Gardening, Glass-house work, Bees, Poultry, and Dairy. 
Preparation for R.H.S. examinations. 



Director : T. Anderson, East Craigs, Corstorphine, Midlothian. 
Telegrams and Telephone: Corstorphine 83. Fees: 5 53. a term 
June-September. Publication: Biennial Report. 

The Seed Testing Station deals with the control of the sale of seeds 
in terms of the provisions of the Seeds Act, 1920, and provides certificates 
of analysis of seeds to merchants and others to enable them to comply 
with the obligations imposed on them by the Act. 


Lady Superintendent: Mrs. H. Bisset. Secretary: A. A. Prosser, 
41 i Union Street. Aberdeen. 

Girls and young women are received for a Course of Training which 
includes Gardening and Beekeeping. Courses commence January and 
July. Fee, 35 for the course, inclusive of tuition, residence, board 
and laundry (payable in advance). Bursaries are granted to suitable 
applicants by the Education Authorities in the College Area. 


Acting-Principal: Alexander Hay, N.D.A., N.D.I. Lecturer and 
Hort. Sup.: C. Wakeley, F.R.H.S. Lecturer and Advisor in Commercial 
Hort.: H. Fraser, N.D.H., F.R.H.S., East Anglian Institute, Chelms- 
ford. Telegrams: Agricultural Institute, Chelmsford. Telephone: 124 

Pupils taken for instruction in Agriculture, Dairy, Poultry, and 
Horticulture. Certificates and Diploma, also Final B.Sc. (Lond.). 
Fees, 15 per annum. Essex residents half fees. Publication : Calendar 
issued at end of July. 


Director : Ronald G. Hatton, M.A., East Mailing, Kent. Telephone : 
Aylesford 29. Telegrams : Research, East Mailing. Stations : Ayles- 
ford and East Mailing Halt, S.R. 

The principal subjects under investigation at East Mailing may be 
classified under the headings: (a) Pomology, (b) Pathology, (c) Hop 

The main lines of work already under investigation and likely to 
be continued for some years are as follows : 

(a) Pomology. Activities include systematic, cultural, and breeding 
work. The confusion existing with regard to the naming of horticultural 
varieties necessitated preliminary work in identification, selection, des- 
cription, and the raising of pure lines. Such work has already been 
undertaken in the cases of the root-stocks upon which fruit trees are 
grafted, and also with Black Currants and Raspberries. Upon the 
cultural side East Mailing has set itself to study the effects of various 
operations upon the plant's individuality. In the case of root-stocks 
for apples the work has been shared with the Long Ashton Institute. 
All such work involves a special study of methods of vegetative 
propagation and subsequent selection and breeding of desirable types 
of root-stock. Different methods of planting and pruning are being 
studied in relation to the tree as a whole and to particular varieties. 
The effects of spray fluids upon the tree, apart from their fungicidal 


or insecticidal value, are being traced. The cultural programme has 
as its object the establishment of the best possible plant under the 
best growing conditions. In order to establish cultivation upon a 
sound foundation, an intensive study of the physiology of the plant 
is essential ; hence, in collaboration with the Imperial College of Science, 
the physiological aspects of root formation, root-stock influence, etc., 
are being considered. 

(b) Pathology. The investigations relate to both fungus diseases 
and insect pests. The true lines of plants established at East Mailing 
afford specially suitable material for study. Different varieties of 
root-stock and soft fruits show varying degrees of susceptibility 
to diseases and pests. The susceptibility of apple stocks to the 
permanent apple aphis, the woolly aphis, and crown gall is under especial 
study. In many cases resistant plants are being selected or bred (this 
latter in collaboration with the John Innes Horticultural Institution, 
Merton) and vegetatively propagated. The effect of different Plum 
Stocks upon the incidence on the trees of Silver Leaf, and possible 
preventive and control measures for that disease in the field, are being 
worked out in conjunction with the School of Botany, Cambridge. The 
possible reaction of different root- stocks upon the scions grafted thereon 
is also being carefully observed in the case of apple mildew, canker, and 
scab. Study is being made of the diseases of Raspberry varieties. 
Particular attention is also being paid to the bacterial diseases of fruit 
trees, the brown rot diseases, and the control of apple mildew and scab. 
The entomological branch is also specialising upon the gall mites, 
many of which, especially on Black Currants and Rubi, are of great 
importance to the fruit grower. So-called "Reversion" of currants 
and other soft fruits is being studied and a beginning has been made 
in the life-history and control of the apple saw-fly. Reliable methods 
for estimating the effectiveness of various insecticides in the field are 
being worked out, especially in connection with winter egg-killing washes. 



Director: R. H. B. Jesse, B.Sc., N.D.A. Hort. Sup.: G. C. Johnson, 
Agricultural Institute, Plumpton, Sussex. Telephone: Plumpton 54. 

Founded 1926, to meet the needs of Farmers 1 sons and others who 
intend to return to farm work on the completion of their course. A 
limited number of girl students reside in the Farm House; 18 male 
students reside in the Institute. Terms begin October, January, and 
April. Fees i per week for residents in the county; i los. for 
extra-territorial. \ 


Principal : Professor E. Shearer, M.A., B.Sc. Hort. Lecturer 
J. S. Chisholm. Asst. Lecturers: G. M. Stuart, N.D.H., D. G. Henry, 
N.D.H., J. W. Hull, N.D.H., 13 George Square, Edinburgh. Telegrams: 
Rural, Edinburgh. Telephone: Edinburgh 42017. 

Degrees in Agriculture and Forestry. Horticultural courses over 
two winter sessions. Instruction is given at the Demonstration 
Garden. Diploma and certificates in Horticulture. Fees: (Hort.) 
ji5 155. first year, 12 123. second year. 



A course of instruction in Horticulture and Forestry is held for 
young men who desire to become gardeners and foresters. Entrants are 
in the position of Probationers, as a special class in the service of the 
Garden. They must be unmarried, and not over twenty-five. They 
attend, free of charge, a course of instruction in the sciences underlying 
the practice and the principles of Horticulture and Forestry, and have 
the use of the Library and the Reading Room. They receive a grant 
in aid (subsistence allowance). The curriculum extends from two and 
a half to three years. 

Corstorphine, Midlothian. 

Principals : Misses Barker and Morrison. 

EDINBURGH UNIVERSITY, Botanical Department. 

Professor of Botany : William Wright Smith, M.A., F.L.S., F.R.S.E. 
Reader in Mycology and Bacteriology : Malcolm Wilson, D.Sc. f F.L.S., 
F.R.S.E. Lecturer on Forest Botany and Indian Forest Trees : James 
Lindsay Salmond Smith, M.A., B.Sc. Lecturer on Botany : James 
Robert Matthews, M.A., F.L.S., F.R.S.E. Lecturer on Plant Physiology 
and Agricultural Botany : Robert James Douglas Graham, M.A., 
D.Sc., F.R.S.E. 

Instruction in Botany is given to the students of the University 
in the Royal Botanic Garden. 

GOOD EASTER. See Nat. Inst. Agric. Botany. 

COLLEGE, Muckamore, Co. Antrim, Northern Ireland. 

Principal: R. J. Fannen, A.R.C.Sc.,N .D.A. Instructor in Horti- 
culture and Bee-keeping: W. J. Chambers. 

The Horticultural Course is intended for those who desire to 
specialise in vegetable and fruit cultivation. Certificates are awarded 
to those who add to a competent practical knowledge a thorough 
grasp of the scientific and technical principles involved. Applicants 
for admission to this course must be over seventeen on October ist, 
and must pass an entrance examination. Scholarships covering 
tuition, board residence, and ordinary medical attendance are provided 
by each County in Northern Ireland. Preference given to students 
who have attended a Winter Agricultural Class in the County. Scholar- 
ships awarded on result of examination held by Ministry of Agriculture, 
North Ireland. Fees for non-Scholarship holders, ^65 for the Course, 


Hort. Sup.: H. W. Abbiss, N.D.H., County Hall, Truro. Telegraph 
and Telephone: Truro 182. Station: Penzance, i mile. 

Opened 1903. It serves the intensive growers of the Penzance 
Peninsula as an experimental, advisory, and demonstrative centre. 
Chief crops: Fruit apples and soft fruits. Broccoli, spring cabbage, 
salads, early legumes, bulbs and other flowers, early potatoes and new 


crops of commercial value where frost is practically unknown. Students 
taken. No premium required but no wages given. Open to the 
public on week-days. 


Superintendent: C. J. Gleed, N.D.H., Hort. Sup. Agric. Education 
Office, 82 High Street, Winchester. Telegrams: Fruit Station, Botley. 

Founded 1923, mainly to carry out experiments to assist com- 
mercial growers in South Hants. Experiments on manuring and in 
testing the value of different strains and varieties of strawberries are 
carried on; also testing of commercial varieties and types of Black 
Currants, Red Currants, Gooseberries, and Raspberries. Visits by 
appointment with Superintendent. Publication: Yearly Progress 


Principal: Charles Crowther, M.A., Ph.D. Hort. Lecturer: G. T. 

Instruction in Horticulture is included in Agriculture and Poultry 
Courses. Fees: ^115 per annum. 

HAZELBROOK GARDENS, Terenure, Dublin. 

Manager : Miss Stella Frost, Gold Medalist, R.H.S. 

The Gardens were started to meet the demand for a supply of 
fresh fruit and vegetables direct to the consumer. Advice is given in 
various branches of garden work. A certain number of non-resident 
students are taken for a two years' course of practical and scientific 
gardening. Students are prepared for the R.H.S. examinations. 
A Certificate for a high standard of proficiency is given. Fees: 18 
guineas per annum. 


Principal : J. Hunter-Smith, B.Sc., N.D.A., N.D.D. Vice Princi- 
pal and Hort. Inst. : C. E. Hudson, N.D.H., F.R.H.S., Herts. Institute 
of Agriculture. Oaklands, St. Albans. Stations : Hill End (L. & N.E.), 
half a mile; St. Albans (City, L.M.S.), 2 miles. Telegrams : Oaklands, 
St. Albans. Telephone : 326. 

Founded 1920. Horticulture, Dairying and Poultry- keeping, and 
Commercial Cropping under Glass. Pupils, not under 16 (both sexes), 
40 residential. Fees: County residents 35/-, extra-territorial 507- 
per week for board, residence, and tuition. Scholarships offered. 
Three terms (10-14 weeks). Summer School for Women, 3 weeks 
Horticultural course, from April 28th. Special short courses for 
Teachers. Special courses in Commercial Cropping under Glass. 
Publications: Leaflets, No. 5, The Pruning of Fruit Trees, with Notes 
on Fruit Stocks; No. 6, Principles of Manuring; No. 9, The Control of 
the Commoner Pests and Diseases. 



Chairman of Governing Body : The Rt. Hon. Lord Buckmaster. 


Director of Institute : Prof. V. H. Blackman, Sc.D., F.R.S., Imperial 
College, South Kensington, S.W. 7. Telephone : Kensington 6444. 
Telegrams : Scientist, Southkens, London. 

The Research Institute in Plant Physiology of the Imperial College 
is one of the Research Institutes engaged in original investigation in 
sciences related to Agriculture and as such receives from the Ministry 
of Agriculture a grant from the Development Commission. The 
Institute investigates physiological problems in relation to agriculture 
and horticulture, and works in close association with the Rothamsted 
Experimental Station, the East Mailing Research Station, and the 
Cheshunt Experimental Station. At present the Institute is engaged 
on investigations relating, among others, to (i) the effect of minute 
electric currents on the growth of crops; (2) the effect on the growth 
of plants of the enrichments of the air with carbon dioxide; (3) the 
action of fertilisers on the growth of plants in pot-culture; (4) the 
effect of various conditions on the rooting of cuttings. A study is 
also being made of the effect of various fertilisers on the physiological 
behaviour of crop-plants in the field, the rate of growth of the whole 
plant, the rate of growth of the leaves, the increase in weight, the rate 
of assimilation of the leaves, etc., being followed throughout the 
growing season. 



Director: Gordon W. Gibson, F.L.S. Telegrams: Experimental 
Station, Scilly. 

Founded in 1923. The purpose of this Station is to undertake 
investigations into the problems affecting the flower and bulb industry 
and Agriculture of the Islands. The equipment consists of a small 
Laboratory and 10 acres of ground with glass-house and buildings, 
where experiments and trials are carried out. Advisory work in the 
County is undertaken, and responsibility is accepted for the large 
commercial bulb-treating plant run in connection with the Bulb Diseases 
(Isles of Scilly) Orders of 1923 and 1924. The Station welcomes 
inquiries from growers of bulbs who may wish to seek advice. 


Director : Sir Daniel Hall, K.C.B., F.R.S. Garden Superintendent : 
A. Hosking, Mostyn Road, Merton Park, Wimbledon, S.W. 19. 
Stations: Wimbledon (S.R. and District R.), i mile; S. Wimbledon 
(Underground), i mile. Telephone and Telegrams: Wimbledon 3645. 

The work of the Institution is primarily research in genetics and 
cytology, but a certain number of young gardeners are received for 
training. Grants are given for maintenance during the course of 
instruction (two years). Vacancies are advertised annually in late 


The nursery, situated 2 miles from Oxford, is three acres in extent. 
It is owned by the Imperial Forestry Institute and maintained by 
H.M. Forestry Commission. It is used for research, experiment, and 
for teaching purposes. The research work of the Forestry Commission 
into the raising of coniferous and broad-leaved trees is located at this 


nursery. A number of the investigations conducted have been pub- 
lished in the Forestry Commission Bulletin No. n. A part of the 
instruction into methods of nursery practice and silvicultural research 
is given here to students of the Imperial Forestry Institute and the 
School of Forestry. 


See East Mailing Research Station. 

Principal : J. C. Wallace, M.C., Kirton, nr. Boston, Lines. Tele- 
grams : Wallace, Kirton, Boston. Telephone : Kirton 36. Station : 
Kirton, L.N.E.R. 

Founded 1921. The buildings of the Kirton Grammar School 
were altered for the purpose. Lecture rooms, teaching laboratory, and 
private biological and chemical laboratories for the use of the staff, 
were arranged. There is no residential accommodation provided for 
staff or students. Students come by road each day, or live in approved 
apartments in Kirton. The Institute is also the centre for County 
advisory work. A farm of 100 acres of land is attached. The whole 
of this area is devoted to experimental purposes, and a considerable 
amount of experimental work has been done on the potato, wheat, 
cabbage, broccoli, and sugar-beet crops. 



Principal: J. J. Green, B.Sc. Hort. Inst.: N. J. Macpherson. 
Telephone: Preston 1020. Telegrams: Lanes. County Council Farm, 
Hutton, Preston. 

A limited number of pupils are taken. Terms March-May, May- 
July, July-Sept. Fees, for residence and tuition per term of nine 
weeks: County residents ^9; extra-territorial 16 103. Publications: 
Sundry Bulletins. 


Head of Department of Agriculture: Prof. R. S. Seton, B.Sc. Hort. 
Lecturer and Organiser: A. S. Gait. Communications to be addressed 
to the Professor of Agriculture, The University, Leeds. Telegrams: 
Seton, University, Leeds. Telephone: 28367. 

The University, acting on behalf of the Yorkshire Council for 
Agricultural Education, is the organising centre for Agricultural and 
Horticultural education in the administrative areas of the three Ridings 
of Yorkshire. A Demonstration Fruit Centre was established at 
Osgodby, near Selby, in 1921. This can be visited on the first Saturday 
in each month, or at other times by arrangement. 

In-University instruction is confined to a short course of lectures 
given as part of the Course for the University Diploma in Agriculture. 
Members of the University staff conduct courses in Horticulture at 
the Teachers' Training Colleges at Bingley and Leeds, and at Hud- 
dersfield Technical College. 



Principal : Miss D. G. Hewer, B.Sc., F.R.H.S., Little Wildernesse 
Herb Farm, Seal, Sevenoaks, Kent. Telephone : Sevenoaks 616. 

Instruction is given in plant structure and physiology (sufficient 
to understand the gardening operations involved) ; care and treatment 
of the soil ; cultivation, life-histories, harvesting, drying, preparation 
for market, and propagation of special herbs ; kitchen gardening ; 
etc. There is a Cottage Hostel for students. 

LLYSFASI FARM INSTITUTE,* Ruth in, Denbighshire. 

Spring Course, Horticulture, Dairying, Poultry, and Domestic 
Science, for Women; 8 weeks, April- June. 


Chancellor: The Rt. Hon. the Earl Beauchamp, K.G., K.C.M.G., 
P.C. Academic Registrar: Edwin Deller, LL.D., University of London, 
South Kensington, S.W. 7. Telegrams: University, Southkens, London. 
Telephone: Kensington 7000. 

The University offers Degrees in Agriculture and in Horticulture. 
The subjects for the Intermediate Examination in Horticulture are 
Chemistry, Botany, Zoology, Applied Physics, Geology, Surveying; 
for the Final in Horticulture, Practice of Horticulture, Book-keeping, 
Principles of Horticulture, and Entomology. Graduates in Horticul- 
ture may proceed to the higher Degrees of M.Sc., Ph.D., and D.Sc. 

The Course for the B.Sc. Degree in Horticulture extends over three 
years, and consists of training in Practical as well as Scientific 


Director : B. T. P. Barker, M.A., Prof, of Agric. Biology, Bristol 
University. Deputy Director : T. Wallace, M.Sc., M.C., A.I.C. Secre- 
tary : E. P. West, Long Ashton, Bristol. Telephone : Long Ashton 15. 
Station : Flax Bourton, G.W.R. 

The University of Bristol Agricultural and Horticultural Research 
Station (National Fruit and Cider Institute). 

LONG SUTTON. See Nat. Inst. Agric. Botany. 

MADRYN CASTLE FARM SCHOOL,* Bodfean, Caernarvon- 

Summer Course, Horticulture, Poultry, and Bees; 12 weeks, 
April- July. Fees: 10 ios.; f extra-territorial ^15. Special courses 
in Horticulture 255. per week. 


Prof, of Bot.: F. E. Weiss, D.Sc., F.R.S. Lect. Agric. Bot.: E. Holmes 
Smith, B.Sc. Prof, of Zoology: J. S. Dunkerley, D.Sc., Ph.D. Lect. 
Agric. Entomology: H. W. Miles, M.Sc., N.D.A. Inst. Gardening: 
Edith Middleton (Bangor Univ. Col.). Telephone: Ardwick 2681. 

No special horticultural course. Students taking B.Sc. Degree or 
Degree with Honours in Botany, Zoology, or General Science, can then 
specialise in Horticultural Mycology or Entomology for M.Sc. Degree. 
For terms, fees, and scholarships apply The Registrar/Victoria University, 


ton, Loughborough. 

Principal : Thos. Milburn, Ph.D., N.D.A., N.D.D. 

Founded 1915. Residential, with separate hostels for men and 
women, and separate central-heated study-bedrooms. Large laboratory 
and lecture rooms. Courses: One year Certificate Course (commences 
Sept. 24th), and a twelve weeks' Course in Horticulture (commences 
April 22nd). Preparation for R.H.S. Junior Certificate. Fees: about 
3 3S. 9d. per week, inclusive. 


Principal and County Agricultural Organiser : G. H. Purvis, 
F.C.S. Hort. Led.: W. H. C. Bevan, F.R.H.S. Telegrams: Purvis, 
Usk. Telephone: Usk 26. Station: Usk (G.W.R.). 

Course comprises : One year for Certificate ; two years for Diploma 
in General Agriculture, Horticulture, Dairying and Dairy Farming, 
and Poultry Keeping. Of the 337 acres of the farm twelve are devoted 
to intensive market gardening, including the cultivation of hard and 
soft fruits and vegetables, and some five acres to grass orcharding. 


Director : W. H. Parker. Secretary : F. C. Hawkes, Huntingdon 
Road, Cambridge. Telephone : Cambridge 1001. Telegrams : Niab, 
Phone, Cambridge. 

Founded 1919 to improve the yield and quality of farm crops 
by discovering the best varieties of each crop, by introducing improved 
varieties, and by testing the purity and viability of the seed sold to 
the farmer. 

The Crop Improvement Branch is engaged in building up an 
authoritative body of information about the suitability of different 
varieties for the varying environments of England and Wales. It 
tests the relative merits of old and new varieties of agricultural plants 
at six trial stations Cambridge, Sprowston (nr. Norwich). Good 
Easter (nr. Chelmsford), Long Sutton (nr. Basingstoke), Bridgwater 
(Somerset), and Newport (Salop). At each station there is a resident 
Crop Recorder. If a new variety included in the trials proves itself 
superior to the others of its class, the Institute is prepared by agree- 
ment with the breeder to grow a bulk of seed and to market it through 
the seed trade. 

The Official Seed Testing Station for England and Wales at Cam- 
bridge (Chief Officer : A. Eastham) tests some 30,000 samples of seed 
annually, and issues reports on purity and germination to sellers to 
enable them to comply with the provisions of the Seeds Act, 1920, 
and to purchasers for their own information (at reduced fees). The 
Station is also engaged on important investigations into such problems 
as seed-borne diseases, the longevity of seeds, and the value of "hard" 
seeds, and it is in a position to help farmers and merchants with advice 
on most questions concerning seeds. 

The Potato Testing Station (Superintendent: H. Bryan) is at 
Ormskirk, Lancashire, where trials of new varieties for immunity from 
Wart Disease are carried out annually for the Ministry of Agriculture. 


Varieties entered for them are examined by the Institute's Potato 
Synonym Committee, with a view to preventing the practice of giving 
new names to old varieties. There are also annual Susceptibility 
Trials designed to assist plant breeders by testing the reaction of their 
new seedlings to wart disease at a very early stage. Important field 
investigations into the resistance of varieties to virus diseases, and the 
possibility of growing healthy stocks of seed potatoes in England, were 
begun in 1927. Other potato work at Ormskirk includes the Lord 
Derby Gold Medal Trials, which test the yield and maturity of new 
immune varieties, and yield and maturity trials of established varieties. 
The latter trials are repeated at Kirton and Truro. The Institute is 
in a position to give growers reliable information about the principal 
varieties, and takes steps to include in yield and maturity trials all 
promising new variants at an early stage. 

PUBLICATIONS : Annual Report (free), which summarises the work 
in progress. Journal, 2/6. 

NEWPORT. (See above). 


Principal: J.H. Faulder, B.Sc., N.D.D., Newtown Rigg, Penrith. 
Hort. Ins. : D. S. Anderson. Telephone : 131 Penrith. 

Lectures and demonstrations, but no special Horticultural course. 


Summer Course, 14 weeks (April July), Dairy, Poultry, and Hor- 
ticulture. Resident pupils: County 23/- per week, extra-territorial 
31/6. Non-resident: County 5/~ per week, extra-territorial io/-. 


Lecturer in Horticulture : Geo. E. Greenhowe. Assist. Lecturer : 
J. Ames. Secretary : A. A. Prosser, 41 J Union Street, Aberdeen. 
Telegrams : Nosca, Aberdeen. Telephone : 1046. 

Horticultural experiments are carried out at the College Experi- 
mental Station at Craibstone. 


See National Institution of Agricultural Botany. 

Director: J. L. Lloyd, M.Sc. Hort. Inst.: W. Roadley. Telephone: 
Carmarthen 190. Telegrams: Farm Institute, Carmarthen. 

No experiments are carried out, only a few trials and demon- 
strations. Winter and Spring Terms of 22 weeks. Fees: i 2s. 6d. for 
board, residence, and tuition. 


fMiss Bradford, Eden Hall, Edenhall, Carlisle, 
f The Director, Lyewood Nurseries, Ropley, Hants. 
fMiss Swindale, Girton College, Cambridge. Garden. Premium, 
80 per annum, resident. 

f Private Farms and Gardens where pupils are taken, but which have not 
been personally inspected by the Women's Farm and Garden Association. 


J Misses Havergal and Sanders, Pusey Fruit and Flower Farm. Faring- 

don, Berks. 

{Mrs. Chew, Bettyfold Nurseries, Hawkshead, Ambleside. 
{Misses Bergne and Haley, Cottage Nurseries, Harpenden, Herts. 
fMiss Fairhead, Maycroft, Shanklin, Isle of Wight. Gardening 

training. Premium. 

fMrs. Walker, Wallingford French Garden, Berks. 
fMiss Clapp, Shenley Nurseries, Shenley, Barnet. 


Practical Instructor and Manager of Fruit Farm and Gardens : 
A. J. Cobb. Registrar : H. Knapman, The University, Reading. 

The University offers a B.Sc. (Horticulture) degree. The minimum 
period of the course of study is three years, divided into two parts : 
the first of one year being completed by an intermediate examination 
in Chemistry, Botany, and Zoology, and one other subject (Pure Mathe- 
matics, Applied Mathematics, Physics, or Geology) ; the second of two 
years, completed by a Final Examination in Horticulture, Chemistry, 
Botany, Entomology, Surveying, Engineering, and Book-keeping. 
By studying for a fourth year and passing an examination in Plant 
Breeding and Genetics, or Plant Diseases, a person may be awarded 
the pass degree "with distinction." The University offers also a 
two-years' Diploma Course. 


Director : Sir John Russell, D.Sc., F.R.S. Assist. Director : B. A. 
Keen, D.Sc., F.Inst.P. Sec.: W. Barnicot, Rothamsted Experimental 
Station, Harpenden. Telephone and Telegrams: Harpenden 21. 

Founded in 1842 by the late Sir John Lawes. For nearly sixty 
years he had the co-operation of Sir J. H. Gilbert. Their joint work 
constitutes one of the longest and most fruitful partnerships in the 
history of science. The work of the station arose from early experi- 
ments made by Lawes on phosphatic manures, and the successful 
marketing of his invention of "superphosphate" brought a consider- 
able sum of money, which enabled him to continue the research work, 
and in 1889 to arrange for its permanent endowment with an income 
of 2,400, derived from a Trust Fund of 100,000. The classical 
results of Lawes's and Gilbert's researches have long since found their 
way into the practice and teaching of agricultural science. The 
experimental plots that they laid down are still being carried on, and 
are constantly providing fresh and valuable sources of information on 
one of the fundamental inquiries of agricultural science the soil 
conditions and the growth of the plant both in health and disease. 
Under the scheme for agricultural research devised by the Ministry 
of Agriculture and the Development Commission, the work of the 
station is now concentrated entirely on this inquiry. The station is 
organised into a number of departments staffed by some fifty highly 

f Private Farms and Gardens where pupils are taken, but which have not 
been personally inspected by the Women's Farm and Garden Association. 
} Recommended by the Women's Farm and Garden Association. 


trained scientists and post-graduate workers. The investigations fall 
into four great groups biological, chemical, physical, and statistical 
and are carried out under controlled laboratory conditions. The con- 
clusions are tested under practical conditions in graduated stages 
firstly, in pots in greenhouses, then in small plots under close obser- 
vation, and, finally, under full field conditions. The field tests are made 
not only at Rothamsted, but at many carefully chosen centres through- 
out the country, so that a wide range of climatic and soil conditions 
is obtained. Although the main purpose of the station is to obtain 
knowledge in as reliable and accurate a form as the resources of modern 
science permit, every endeavour is made to keep in close touch with 
the practical problems in the industry itself. Visits of parties of 
farmers and horticulturists to the station are welcomed. In the winter 
months various members of the stafi give lectures to farmers 1 and 
horticultural associations on a variety of subjects connected with the 
industry. Particulars of arrangements for visits and subjects of 
lectures can be obtained from the Secretary. 


Principal: J. A. Hanley, A.R.C.S., Ph.D. Telephone: Cirencester 29. 
Telegrams: Hanley, Cirencester. Stations: Cirencester (G.W.R.), i mile; 
Cirencester (M. and S.W.R.), ij miles. 

One-year course in Agriculture and Horticulture. Two-year 
Diploma course in Agriculture and Estate Management. 


There is no public school for garden pupils connected with Kew, 
but Student Gardeners are taken for a limited period of training. 
Applicants must be unmarried, between twenty-one and twenty-five 
years of age, and have had not less than four years' employment in 
good gardens or nurseries. 


Principal : Miss M. McCammond Jack, Inner Circle, Regent's 
Park, N.W. i. 

Course of instruction extends over three years and provides sound 
training in the various branches of Horticulture, outdoor and under 
glass, and in elementary Meteorology. The Society's Diploma is 
granted to students who pass the final examination. Certificates are 
granted for shorter courses. Fees, 30 per annum. 



Director of Research : William Robb, N.D.A. Secretary : John 
Stirton, 3 George IV Bridge, Edinburgh. Telephone: Corstorphine 81. 
Telegrams: Society, Edinburgh. Station: Corstorphine (L.N.E.R.). 

The research work carried out by the Society has for objective the 
production of improved varieties of cultivated plants mainly those 
of agricultural importance in Scotland. The crop plants on which 



Hort. Superintendent : H. W. Abbiss, N.D.H., County Hall, Truro. 
Head Gardener : F. W. Staddon. Telegraph and telephone : Truro 182. 
Station : Saltash G.W.R., 5 miles. Bus: Saltash Callington. 

Opened in 1927. Serves the intensive fruit and flower growers of 
the Cornish side of the Tamar Valley as an experimental, advisory, 
and demonstrative centre. Chief crops: apples, plums, soft fruit, 
early vegetables, potatoes, sundry flower crops. Undertakes work in 
conjunction with the Nat. Inst. of Agricultural Botany, and is a 
R.H.S. Fruit Sub-station. Distributes stocks and strains of soft fruit 
to growers in the area served. Students taken. No premium required, 
but no wages given. 


Blythswood Square, Glasgow. 

Lecturer: D. V. Howeils, Agric. Dip. (U.C.W.), F.R.H.S. Asst. 
Lecturers: W. Good, F.R.H.S., B. P. Perry, N.D.H., F.R.H.S., A. E. 
Livingston, F.R.H.S. 


Director : F. J. Chittenden, F.L.S., V.M.H. 

In 1823 young men, preferably sons of gardeners, were taken into 
service at the Society's Chiswick Gardens as students and under- 
gardeners. In 1920 arrangements were made to give twenty war- 
disabled men a year's training in market gardening and fruit-growing 
in connection with the Government's land settlement scheme. Thirty 
students are now taken for training. Applicants for admission as 
students must be between sixteen and twenty-two years of age, health}'-, 
and free from physical defect. They must also be prepared to perform 
all kinds of gardening work, including the humblest. Certain scholar- 
ships are awarded to assist students. 


National Diploma in Horticulture. A final Examination in Horti- 
culture conducted by the Society. Established in 1912, with the 
sanction of the Board of Agriculture, and as a test of real professional 
ability. For the benefit of Florists, Fruit Growers, Gardeners, Horti- 
cultural Inspectors, Horticultural Instructors, Landscape Gardeners, 
Market Gardeners, Nurserymen, Public Park Gardeners, and Seedsmen. 

Teachers' Examinations in School and Cottage Gardening. Not 
exclusively confined to members of the Scholastic Profession, but open 
to all candidates who can furnish a satisfactory Certificate of having 
done practical work. This Examination has been revised by the 
Society's Board of Examiners and an Advanced Section has been 
introduced with practical work. 

General Examination for students at County Council Schools, 
Technical Institutes, Schools, Gardeners' Mutual Improvement Societies, 

f The Regulations and Syllabus for any of the Examinations can be 
obtained by writing to the Secretary and enclosing a stamped addressed 
foolscap envelope for reply. 


and other bodies to promote instruction in practical Horticulture. 
Seniors eighteen years of age and over, Juniors under eighteen. 

Scholarships. The Major Scholarship of the value of ^50 a year 
for two years awarded on the results of an examination designed to 
test the Candidate's ability to profit by a course of instruction in 
Horticulture. Questions will not be confined to Horticulture. Can- 
didates must be of the male sex and between the ages of eighteen 
and twenty- two years. Tenable for two years, the first year at least 
must be at the Society's School of Horticulture at Wisley. Intending 
candidates should apply for further particulars to the Secretary, 
Vincent Square. 

The Knott Scholarship of ^30 a year for two years, established by 
Sir James Knott, Bart., is also offered for award on the same conditions, 

Four Scholarships, carrying remission of fees and a weekly main- 
tenance allowance up to 358., are also available at Wisley for young 
gardeners with at least three years' experience in private gardens or 
nurseries, and appointments to these are made after due consideration 
of experience, attainments, and other circumstances. 

Entries, except for National Diploma, should be made on the form 
in the syllabus, obtainable from the Secretary, R.H.S., Vincent Square, 


Master: ]. Edward N. Sherwood, Esq., J.P. Clerk of the Company: 
E. A. Ebblewhite, Esq., LL.D., 5 Essex Court, Temple, E.C. 4. 

The Guild existed as a Fraternity in 1345, and was incorporated 
by Letters Patent, i8th September, 3 James I, 1605, as "The Master, 
Wardens, Assistants, and Commonalty of the Company of Gardeners 
of London." Its privileges have been further secured by Royal 
Charters gth November, 14 James I, 1616 ; 3rd December, 10 Charles I, 
1634 ; and gth June, 5 Edward VII, 1905. 

The Freedom of the Company may be obtained: (i) By servitude 
(having been bound to a Freeman, according to the custom of the 
City). (2) By patrimony (being the son or daughter of a Freeman, 
born after the admission of the father, and having attained the age 
of twenty-one years). (3) Gift or Honorary Freedom. (4) By 
redemption or purchase. 

Sons of Citizens and Gardeners are eligible for grant of 20 for 
apprenticeship from the Trustees of "John Land's Gifts." Loans are 
made to Freemen under certain conditions. Children of Freemen, or 
Freewomen, are eligible under certain conditions for education at the 
Freemen's Orphan School and Collyer's School. Freemen, their widows 
and daughters, in indigent circumstances, are eligible for relief from 
the Charity Fund. A Scholarship of 50 per annum for two years is 
offered biennially to the student who passes highest in the R.H.S. 
Examination. Scholars must study for a year at Wisley, but the 
second year may go to some other place, at home or abroad, approved 
by the Company and the R.H.S. The Company's Library (at the 
Guildhall Library) is available for reference to members, and also to 
the general public. Meetings and Dinners are held at the Bakers' Hall. 

t For dates, see Fixtures for Jan. 13, Feb. i, March 12, 22, 31, April 30. 
May 3, June 13, 17, 18, 19, 20. 



Hort. Superintendent : H. W. Abbiss, N.D.H.. County Hall, Truro. 
Head Gardener : F. W. Staddon. Telegraph and telephone : Truro 182. 
Station : Saltash G.W.R., 5 miles. Bus: Saltash Callington. 

Opened in 1927. Serves the intensive fruit and flower growers of 
the Cornish side of the Tamar Valley as an experimental, advisory, 
and demonstrative centre. Chief crops: apples, plums, soft fruit, 
early vegetables, potatoes, sundry flower crops. Undertakes work in 
conjunction with the Nat. Inst. of Agricultural Botany, and is a 
R.H.S. Fruit Sub-station. Distributes stocks and strains of soft fruit 
to growers in the area served. Students taken. No premium required, 
but no wages given. 

Blythswood Square, Glasgow. 

Lecturer: D. V. Howells, Agric. Dip. (U.C.W.), F.R.H.S. Asst. 
Lecturers: W. Good, F.R.H.S., B. P. Perry, N.D.H., F.R.H.S., A. E. 
Livingston, F.R.H.S. 


Director : F. J. Chittenden, F.L.S., V.M.H. 

In 1823 young men, preferably sons of gardeners, were taken into 
service at the Society's Chiswick Gardens as students and under- 
gardeners. In 1920 arrangements were made to give twenty war- 
disabled men a year's training in market gardening and fruit-growing 
in connection with the Government's land settlement scheme. Thirty 
students are now taken for training. Applicants for admission as 
students must be between sixteen and twenty-two years of age, healthy, 
and free from physical defect. They must also be prepared to perform 
all kinds of gardening work, including the humblest. Certain scholar- 
ships are awarded to assist students. 


National Diploma in Horticulture. A final Examination in Horti- 
culture conducted by the Society. Established in 1912, with the 
sanction of the Board of Agriculture, and as a test of real professional 
ability. For the benefit of Florists, Fruit Growers, Gardeners, Horti- 
cultural Inspectors, Horticultural Instructors, Landscape Gardeners, 
Market Gardeners, Nurserymen, Public Park Gardeners, and Seedsmen. 

Teachers' Examinations in School and Cottage Gardening. Not 
exclusively confined to members of the Scholastic Profession, but open 
to all candidates who can furnish a satisfactory Certificate of having 
done practical work. This Examination has been revised by the 
Society's Board of Examiners and an Advanced Section has been 
introduced with practical work. 

General Examination for students at County Council Schools, 
Technical Institutes, Schools, Gardeners' Mutual Improvement Societies, 

t The Regulations and Syllabus for any of the Examinations can be 
obtained by writing to the Secretary and enclosing a stamped addressed 
foolscap envelope for reply. 


and other bodies to promote instruction in practical Horticulture. 
Seniors eighteen years of age and over, Juniors under eighteen. 

Scholarships. The Major Scholarship of the value of ^50 a year 
for two years awarded on the results of an examination designed to 
test the Candidate's ability to profit by a course of instruction in 
Horticulture. Questions will not be confined to Horticulture. Can- 
didates must be of the male sex and between the ages of eighteen 
and twenty- two years. Tenable for two years, the first year at least 
must be at the Society's School of Horticulture at Wisley. Intending 
candidates should apply for further particulars to the Secretary, 
Vincent Square. 

The Knott Scholarship of ^30 a year for two years, established by 
Sir James Knott, Bart., is also offered for award on the same conditions. 

Four Scholarships, carrying remission of fees and a weekly main- 
tenance allowance up to 355., are also available at Wisley for young 
gardeners with at least three years' experience in private gardens or 
nurseries, and appointments to these are made after due consideration 
of experience, attainments, and other circumstances. 

Entries, except for National Diploma, should be made on the form 
in the syllabus, obtainable from the Secretary, R.H.S., Vincent Square, 


Master: J. Edward N. Sherwood, Esq., J.P. Clerk of the Company: 
E. A. Ebblewhite, Esq., LL.D., 5 Essex Court, Temple, E.G. 4. 

The Guild existed as a Fraternity in 1345, and was incorporated 
by Letters Patent, i8th September, 3 James I, 1605, as "The Master. 
Wardens, Assistants, and Commonalty of the Company of Gardeners 
of London. 1 ' Its privileges have been further secured by Royal 
Charters 9th November, 14 James I, 1616 ; 3rd December, 10 Charles I, 
1634 ; and 9th June, 5 Edward VII, 1905. 

The Freedom of the Company may be obtained: (i) By servitude 
(having been bound to a Freeman, according to the custom of the 
City). (2) By patrimony (being the son or daughter of a Freeman, 
born after the admission of the father, and having attained the age 
of twenty-one years). (3) Gift or Honorary Freedom. (4) By 
redemption or purchase. 

Sons of Citizens and Gardeners are eligible for grant of 20 for 
apprenticeship from the Trustees of "John Land's Gifts." Loans are 
made to Freemen under certain conditions. Children of Freemen, or 
Freewomen, are eligible under certain conditions for education at the 
Freemen's Orphan School and Collyer's School. Freemen, their widows 
and daughters, in indigent circumstances, are eligible for relief from 
the Charity Fund. A Scholarship of 50 per annum for two years is 
offered biennially to the student who passes highest in the R.H.S. 
Examination. Scholars must study for a year at Wisley, but the 
second year may go to some other place, at home or abroad, approved 
by the Company and the R.H.S. The Company's Library (at the 
Guildhall Library) is available for reference to members, and also to 
the general public. Meetings and Dinners are held at the Bakers' Hall. 

t For dates, see Fixtures for Jan. 13, Feb. i, March 12, 22, 31, April 30, 
May 3, June 13, 17, 18, 19, 20. 


The Editor will be grateful if Secretaries of Societies will send cor- 
rections and additions for 1931 as early as possible. 
For dates of Hort. Shows, see p. 313. 

* Affiliated to the R.H.S. ** R.H.S. Kindred Socs. f Affiliated to 
the National Sweet Pea Soc. % Affiliated to National Rose Soc. 

Note re Awards. See previous issues. Owing to pressure on space 
these are not included in this issue. 


Superintendent: R. Lisle, Abbey Park, Leicester. Founded 1889. 

Patron: Major-General The Lord Treowen, C.B., C.M.G. Sec.: 
H. J. Rice, Bro Dawel, Deri Rd., Abergavenny. Founded 1870. 

Sec.: A. A. Crabtree, Arden View, Hodder St., Accrington. 

President: Sir Oswyn A. R. Murray, K.C.B. Hon. Sec.: W. G. 
Cull, Esq., Medical Dept. of the Navy, Queen Anne's Chambers, Tothill 
St., S.W. i. Founded 1928. Monthly lectures. Garden materials 
purchased for members at discount rates. Library: books lent to 

President: Alick S. Agnew, Esq. Sec.: E. E. Loose, Orchard 
Green, Alderley Edge. Founded 1888. 

Sec.: G. W. Giles, 40 Broadway, Westminster, S.W. i. Telephone: 
Victoria 0716. Organising and propagandist. Co-operative. Non- 
sectarian and non-political. Gives advice and assistance to allotment 
and smallholding associations in England and Wales. Is a Central 
Bureau of Information, supplies literature, etc. 

Sec.: Mrs. G. D. Glass, Northumberland St., Alnwick. 

President: Sir William Lawrence, Bart. Hon. Sec.: Selwyn Duruz, 
ii Montagu Gardens, Wallington, Surrey. To encourage the cultiva- 
tion of Alpine Plants. Information will be furnished to members 
going abroad to see plants in their native habitats. PUBLICATIONS: 


President: Mr. W. Besant, Director of Parks, Glasgow. Sec. and 
Tres.: Mr. A. Blackburn, Supt. Parks, 480 Talbot Road, Blackpool. 
Telephone: Blackpool 75. 

Founded 1926, to secure the advancement and to facilitate the 



acquisition of that knowledge which constitutes the profession of a Park 
or Botanic Garden Superintendent. Diplomas granted to successful 
examination candidates. 

President: J. Durward. Sec.: John S. Smith, 42 Robsland Av. f 
Ayr. Founded 1901. 

President: A. V. Hammond, Esq., Milestones, Mayfield Drive, Bare 
Morecambe, Lanes. 

President: Capt. J. Fisher. Hon. Sec.: James Bull, 172 Park Av., 
Barrow-in-Furness . 

President: Maj. R. C. H. Sloane-Stanley. Hon. Sec.: Brig.-Gen. 
T. N. Howard, Woodhayes, Woodlands, Southampton. 

President: The Rt. Hon. The Lord Mildmay of Flete. Sec.: F. J. 
Cashnella, 7 Cambridge Place, Bath. 

President: Maj .-Gen. T. C. P. Calley, C.B., M.V.O. Sec.: F. H. 
Storr, O.B.E., 3 Pierrepont St., Bath. Telegrams: Agriculture, Bath* 
Telephone: Bath 3010. Established 1777. 

Hon. Sec.: W. C. Allwork, 72 High St., Battle, Sussex. 

President: Mr. W. B. Seldon. Sec.: H. Page, 18 Chanter's Lane, 
Bideford, Devon. Founded 1889. 


President: Dr. Jessie Bayliss Elliott. Sec.: Mr. P. G. Catt, The 
Lodge, Westbourne, Edgbaston. Founded 1880. Lectures and Meet- 
ings are held at No. 7 Chamber of Commerce, New St., Birmingham, 
every Monday evening till the end of March. Library. 

President: Rx>land A. Felton, Esq. Sec.: Alfred Noakes, 148 
Bristol St., Birmingham. Established 1864. 

President: Lady Fanny Leon. Sec.: Mr. Hedley J. Clarke, 43 
Bletchley Rd., Bletchley. Telephone: Bletchley 5. 

President: Sir Aubrey V. Symonds, K.C.B. Hon. Sec.: G. Sangster, 
Board of Education, Whitehall, S.W. i. Founded 1927. 

President: The Mayor of Bournemouth/ Hon. Sec.: E. Chamber* 
lain, Lansdowne, Bournemouth. Telephone 396. 

President: Sir Cooper Rawson, M.P. Sec.: H. J. Bingham, 128 
Queen's Park Rd., Brighton. Founded 1853. 

Patroness: . H.R.H. Princess|Mary, Countess*ofHarewood. Pre$i* 
dent: Lady Hudson. Sec.: F. W. Alesworth, 17 Avenue Road, 
Isleworth, Middlesex. PUBLICATION: The Carnation Year Booh, 



President: The Most Hon. The Marchioness of Londonderry. Hon. 
Sec.: S. Halford Roberts, 3 Warwick Rd., Thornton Heath, Surrey. 
Founded 1928. To encourage, extend, and improve the cultivation of 
the Delphinium. PUBLICATION: Handbook. 

President & Hon. Sec.: Prof. E. J. Salisbury, D.Sc., University 
College, London, W.C. i. Founded 1913 for the study of the ecological 
relations of plants and animals. PUBLICATION: Journal of Ecology. 

President: C. Engelmann. Sec.: C. H. Curtis, F.L.S., 5 Tavistock 
St., Covent Garden, W.C. 2. 

President: Maj. George Churcher, Hon. Sec.: A. E. Amos, 
F.I.C., F.R.H.S., 10 Bergholt Rd., Colchester. Founded 1926. 
Certificates new varieties. PUBLICATIONS: The Gladiolus Annual and 
Calendar. A lending library is being formed. 

President: Miss E. M. Wakefield, M.A., F.L.S. Gen. Sec.: J. 
Ramsbottom, O.B.E., M.A., Sec.L.S. British Museum (Nat. Hist.), 
Cromwell Rd., London, S.W. 7. Founded 1896, for the study of 
Mycology in all its branches. The Society now fully represents Imperial 
Mycology (including Lichenology, Bacteriology, and Mycetozoology) : 
there is a sub-committee for Plant Pathology. Mycologists visiting 
England are invited to attend any meetings. The contact with Hort- 
culture is made through disease caused by fungi. PUBLICATIONS: 
Programme for the Year (January), Transactions (Quarterly). 

President: W. B. Cranfield, Esq., F.L.S., F.R.H.S. Hon. Sec.: Dr. 
F. W. Stansfield, 120 Oxford Rd., Reading. Founded 1891. PUBLI- 
CATION: The British Fern Gazette. 

President: C. Swain, Esq. Sec.: A. Nevill, Thornwood Cottage, 
Carlisle Rd., Buxton. Founded 1905. 

President: The Rt. Hon. the Earl of Plymouth. Sees.: Messrs. 
Seel, Old Vestry Hall, 75 St. Mary's St., Cardiff. Telephone: 350 

President: Sir Stanley W. Tubbs, Bart. Sec.: S. Benson, F.R.H.S., 
The Nursery, Charfield, Glos. Telephone: 52 Wotton-under-Edge. 
Founded 1905. 

Hon. Sec.: Cyril Cassidy, 438 High St., Cheltenham. Telephone: 
Cheltenham 2100. Founded 1923. 

President: Lt.-Col. Sir Audley D. Neeld, Bart., D.L., C.B., M.V.O. 
Sec.: W. Small, Market Place, Chippenham. 

Sec.: J. Brimley, 103 Devonshire Rd., Chorley. 

President: Sir A. Elton, Bart. Sec.: E. G. Hole, 13 Old Church 
Rd., Clevedon, Som. Founded 1869. 



Patroness: H.M. The Queen. Hon. Sec.: Major Godfrey Williams, 
Tredrea, Perranwell, S.O. Asst. Hon. Sec.: Mr. A. P. Worth, Lemon 
St., Truro. 

President: The Earl of Crawford and Balcarres, K.T. Hon. Sec.: 
Prof. Patrick Abercrombie, M.A. Gen. Sec.: H. G. Griffin, 17 Great 
Marlborough St., Regent St., W. i. Telephone: Gerrard 4744. Founded 
1926, to co-ordinate the efforts of societies, etc., interested in preserving 
rural scenery (and wild flowers) and artistic and historic features in 
towns and villages. 

The "C.G.A.," Letchworth, Herts; London, and Glasgow. Tele- 
phone: 195, 196 Letchworth; London, Regent 3052. Telegrams: 
Ruralness, Letchworth. Founded 1902, as a practical business organ- 
isation to bring the principle of co-operation within the experience of 
all interested in the management of land. PUBLICATIONS: The Estate 
Magazine (monthly) ; The Estate Book and Diary; C.G.A . Price Books, 

President: W. Troy, Esq. Hon. Sec.: Mr. J. Baker, Killarney, St. 
John's, Crowborough. 

President: Francis Allen, Esq., J.P. Sec.: T. Aley, The Firs, 
29 Highbarrow Rd., Addiscombe. Founded 1881. 

President: The Mayor of Croydon. Sec.: W. E. Bream, 2 Courtney 
Rd., Croydon. Established 1869. 

Patron: The Duke of Devonshire, K.G. President: J. A. Aiton, 
Esq. Sec.: W. Wardman, 5 St. Augustine St., Derby. 

Sec.: H. R. Tuffin, Ranston Gardens, Blandford. 

President: W. H. Buist, Esq., O.B.E., J.P. Hon. Sec.: J. M. 
Martin, J.P., 53 West Port, Dundee. Telephone: Dundee 4738. 
Founded 1826. The Society has a Library, lodged in the Dundee 
Reference Library. Members may borrow books. 

President: The Mayor of Eastbourne, Lt.-Col. Roland Gwynne, 
D.S.O. Sec.: J. Ticehurst, 4 Bakewell Rd., Eastbourne. Founded 1878. 

President: Lord Provost Wittet. Sec.: Councillor T. L. Mann, 
12 South St., Elgin. Founded 1848. 

President: The Hon. Vicary Gibbs, Aldenham Park, Elstree. Sec.: 
W. J. Pritchard, High St., Elstree. 

President: Capt. C. W. Hastings Wheler, J.P. Sec.: Capt. R. A. 
Darney, F.R.H.S., i Alethea Villas, London Rd., Faversham. Founded 

President: C. J. Hammond. Hon. Sec.: J. S. Brunton, Russell 
Chambers, Covent Garden, W.C. 2. 



Managing Director: Mrs. G. Sutor. Sec.: Col. Ewen A. Cameron, 
The Garden Club, Ltd., 96 Chesterfield Gdns., W. i. Telephone: 
Grosvenor 2972. Telegrams: Delphinium, Audley, London. Formed 
for the benefit of those interested in gardening. Garden Dinners (with 
Guest of Honour) alternate Tuesdays. Dances. 

Patron: H.M. The King. Patroness: H.M. The Queen. President: 
H.R.H. The Prince of Wales, K.G. Sec.: George J. Ingram, 92 Victoria 
St., S.W. i. Telephone: Victoria 5142. Founded 1838. To relieve 
Gardeners, Market Gardeners, Market Growers, Nurserymen, Seedsmen, 
and other persons of like occupation, and their widows, in old age and 
distressed circumstances. 

President: Sir John Reid, K.B.E., D.L., J.P. Sec.: J. Carrick Kerr, 
115 St. Vincent St., Glasgow. Telephone: Central 55923. 

Sec.: A. F. Ferguson, Glenfield & Kennedy, Ltd., Kilmarnock. 

President: Sec.: D. W. S. Walpole, 

Anmer, Sandringham Av., Gt. Yarmouth. Founded 1924. Summer 
Show in July. 


President: Mrs. Adolphus Duncombe. Sec.: Maj. P. H. Short, 
D.S.O., 224 Gt. Portland St., W. i. Telephone: Museum 9701. 

President: Alderman W. T. Patrick, J.P. Hon. Show Sec.: Mr. P. 
Pettit. PUBLICATION : Monthly Journal. 

President: William Harvey. Hon. Sec.: J. McCraken, Ardwell, 
London Rd., Guildford. Telephone: 1224. Founded 1927. 

President: F. F. Smallpiece, Esq. Sec.: W. Miles, 44 North Place, 

President: Dr. T. S. Taylor, J.P. Hon. Sec.: J. Payne, F.R.H.S., 
3 Garfield Rd., Hailsham. Founded 1914. 

President: Herbert P. Merriman, Esq., F.R.H.S. Hon. Sec.: Mr 
Stanley Dudman, F.R.H.S., Twonine, Brookland Rise, N.W. n. Tel 
phone: Speedwell 2976. Founded 1909. 

Sec.: W. Poulson, Town Hall, Hanley. 

Patron: H.R.H. Princess Mary, Countess of Harewood. President: 
The Earl of Harewood, K.G., D.S.O. Sec.: George Morrell, i Com- 
mercial St., Harrogate. Telephone: 3347 Harrogate. 

President: Col. Stephenson R. Clarke, C.B. Sec.: Geo. Prevett, 
The Rosery, Haywards Heath. 

President: The Rev. Canon Reginald J. Lea, R.D. Sec.: J. M. 
Musson, Ivy Cottage, Henfield. Founded 1889. 



President: Sir Geoffrey Cornewall, Bart. Hon. Sec.: The Rev. 
C. H. Stoker, Brinsop Vicarage, Hereford. Founded 1867. 

President: Sir John Cotterell, Bart. Hon. Sec.: Mr. W. N. Earle, 
Lugg Vale, Hereford. 

President: R. M. Montgomery, Esq., K.C. Sec.: W. Kiy, 16 
Holmesdale Rd., Highgate, N. 6. Founded 1885. 

President: Sir Charles Nail-Cain, Bart. Sees.: W. G. P. Clark; 
J. S. Rusted, 4 York Rd., Hitchin, Herts. 

Sec.: J. C. Wallace, Esq., Agric. Inst., Kirton, nr. Boston, Lines. 

Hon. Sec.: G. F. Tinley, 855 London Rd., Westcliffe-on-Sea. In- 
stituted for the purpose of social intercourse among those who are 
interested in Horticulture. The Club holds monthly Dinners and 
Lectures during the Winter and Spring Sessions. Headquarters: St. 
Ermin's Hotel, St. James's Park, S.W. i. 

President: Sir William Lobjoit, O.B.E., J.P. Hon. Sec.: F. W. 
Costin, N.D.H., F.R.H.S., Southgate House, Chichester. 

President: Sir Arthur Atkinson, K.B.E. Sec.: E. Mennell, IOA 
Spring St., Hull. Founded 1900. 

President: Sir Arthur Atkinson, K.B.E. Sec.: Mr. W. F. Procter, 
38 Tavistock St., Hull. Telephone: Hull, Central 7450. 

Chairman: Sir William Lobjoit, O.B.E., J.P. Sec.: J. F. Tamblyn, 
5 Bloomsbury Sq., London, W.C. i. Telephone: Holborn 2205. Tele- 
grams: Impfrushow, Westcent, London. Established 1921. An annual 
Exhibition organised by the Imperial Fruit Show, Ltd. 

Sec.: Miss Hinchliff, Worlington House, Instow, N. Devon. Or- 
ganised and managed by the Sec. No judges and no prizes. 

President: W. Bradbury, Esq. Sec.: R. Ball, Chantry, Ipswich. 

President: Sir William Lawrence, Bart. Hon. Sec.: Geoffrey L. 
Pilkington, Esq. PUBLICATIONS: Year Book; Leaflets. 

President: F. G. Wigley, Esq. Sec.: W. H. Divers, V.M.H.. West- 
dean, Hook, Surbiton. Founded 1907. 

President: Maj. J. F. Harrison. Sees.: A. J, Hartless, The Gardens, 
King's Walden Bury, Hitchin; Edgar Field, Estate Office Buildings, 
Offley, Herts. 

President: J. I. McConnel, Esq., Hoddom Castle. Sees.: J. Hardie 
and T> Smith. 



President: C. E. Harriss, Esq. Hon. Sec.: \Vm. Dell, 138 Coulston 
Rd., Lancaster. Meetings of the Assoc. are held at the Lecture Theatre, 
Storey Institute, from Sept. to March, on Sats. (usually) at 7 p.m. 

President: C. E. Harriss, Esq. Hon. Sec.: George Thompson, 
I Milking Stile Lane, Lancaster. 

Hon. Sec.: F. W. R. Blank, Esq., Wooda, Launceston. 

President: T. R. Trigg, Esq., F.R.H.S. Sec.: F. Stabler, The 
Gardens, Cookridge Hall, Horsforth, Leeds. 

President: The Duke of Rutland. Sec.: P. L. Kirby, 16-18 Halford 
St., Leicester. Telegrams: Land, Leicester. Telephone: 1613 Leicester. 
Founded 1834. First Hort. Show, 1926. 

President: Col. Swan, C.M.G., J.P. Hon. Sec.: ]. C. Custance, 
Hal ton Rd., Spilsby, Lines. 

{President: C. H. Newsum, Esq., J.P., D.L. Sec.: H. F. Young, 
3 Outer Circle Green, St. Giles, Lincoln. Founded 1883. Monthly 

President: Sir Sidney F. Harmer, K.B.E., F.R.S. Librarian and 
Asst. Sec.: Spencer Savage. Zoological Sec.: Dr. G. P. Bidder. 
Botanical Sec.: J. Ramsbottom, O.B.E., M.A., Burlington House, W. i. 
Telephone: Gerrard 4940. Founded 1788 by Sir James Smith (then 
Dr. Smith), who purchased the collections of Linnaeus in 1784 from the 
widow of the Swedish botanist. Work is practically confined to meet- 
ings, library, and publications. PUBLICATIONS: Journal (i) Botany, 
(2) Zoology; Transactions: Zoology: Proceedings; List of the Society. 

President: The Rt. Hon. Henry M. Miller, Lord Mayor of Liverpool. 
Hon. Sec.: W. D. Skinner, Brooklands, Waterloo Pk., Waterloo. 

Sec.: S. E. Bowser, Highlands, Felinfoel, Llanelly. 

President: The Lady Forres. Hon. Sec: Lady Lyons, 3 Cam- 
bridge Square, W. 2. Founded 1911. To provide gardens in the 
poorest districts of London, where boys and girls are given a small 
plot in which to learn, under trained supervision, to grow vegetables 
and flowers. The child is sole owner of the plot and takes home the 
produce. The gardens are open after school hours, and are also used 
by neighbouring schools for Nature Study Classes in the mornings. 

President: Eric Holroyd, Esq. Sec.: John H. Little, Brent Tor, 
Brentwood Rd., Romford, Essex. Founded 1926. 

President: Lieut.-Col. Cecil B. Levita, C.B.E., M.V.O., L.D., J.P., 
Chairman L.C.C. Hon. Org. Sec.: R. Sudell. Offices: 9 Gower Street, 
W.C. i. Telephone: (Museum 9222. Founded 1916. The first Gardens 
Guild to be formed. Nowjjconsists of many branches and affiliated 
societies. PUBLICATION: The Guild Gardener. 



President: Sir A. Daniel Hall, K.C.B., M.A., F.R.S. Hon. Sec.: 
T. J. Child, 95 Arngask Rd., Catford, S.E. 6. Headquarters: 95 Bel- 
grave Rd., S.W. i. Founded 1920. Work is chiefly educational among 
teachers. Lectures and preparation for R.H.S. Teachers' Exam. 
School flower shows are organised and A.M. given. Co-operative bulb 
sale and distribution. Special public lectures occasionally. 

President: Alderman H. Astley-Bell. Sec.: H. Arthur, The Bunga- 
low, 44 Mere Rd., Blackpool. Headquarters: Houldsworth Hall, 90 
Deansgate, Manchester. 

President: W. W. Pettigrew. Hon. Sec.: J. Williams. PUBLICA- 
TION: Journal. 

President: C. Glidden Osborne, Esq. Hon. Sec.: H. A. Elkington. 

Chairman: Sir Francis Younghusband, K.C.S.I., K.C.I.E. Hon. 
Sec.: The Hon. Mrs. Grant Duff, 16 Mulberry Walk, Chelsea. Founded 
1924. First started among African Tribesmen in the Highlands of 
Kenya by R. St. Barbe Baker, Asst. Conservator of Forests, in 1922. 
Objects: To encourage the planting and care of trees, to educate public 
opinion on Forestry needs throughout the world, and to foster the love 
of trees in every section of the community without distinction of class, 
race, or creed especially in the rising generation. PUBLICATIONS: 
A Short Account of the Men of the Trees, by R. St. Barbe Baker, 6d.; 
The Tree Lovers' Calendar, 53., 483. per doz. 

Patrons: H.M. The King, H.M. The Queen. Sec.: Basil Holmes, 
Esq., J.P., C.C., Denison House, 296 Vauxhall Bridge Rd., S.W. i. 
Telephone: Victoria 5037. Founded by the late Earl of Meath, 1882. 
Meetings first Wednesday in the month (except August and September). 
Work includes laying out public gardens and recreation grounds; 
assisting to preserve open spaces, organising prize competitions for 
window-box gardens and vegetable gardens, etc. 

President: J. C. Trotter, Esq. Hon. Sec.: G. D. Ruffle, Midland 
Bank Ltd., Poultry and Princes St., E.G. 2. Founded 1924. 

President: The Rev. T. Buncombe. Hon. Sec.: Herbert Smith, 
19 Tenby St. North, Birmingham. 

President: Mrs. Tinker. Hon. Sec.: A. S. Clarke, Elmhurst, Elm 
Av., New Milton, Hants. 

President: E. S. Grant, Altyre, Forres. Sec.: Chas. G. Asher, 
Gordon Castle, Fochabors, Morayshire. 

President: K. Thompson, Esq. NORTHERN SECTION. Sec.: C. F. 
Faulkner, 45 Queen St., Manchester. SOUTHERN SECTION.** Presi- 
dent: Francis Whitbourne, Esq. Sec.: A. S. Hampton, Esq., 63 Tile- 
hurst Rd., Reading. Founded 1873. First Show at Crystal Palace, 
April 24, 1877. PUBLICATION: Report, is. 



Hon. Sec.: A. K. Lock, 9 Gower St., Bedford Sq., W.C. I. Tele- 
phone: Museum 9222. PUBLICATION: The Bulb Year Book. 

President: Edmund Charrington, Esq. Hon. Sec. (Southern Section): 
A. E. Amos, 10 Bergholt Rd., Colchester. (Northern Section): John A. 
Hewitt, Rock St., Tilsmoor, Sheffield. 

President: The Hon. Sir John Ward, Bart. Sec.: C. H. Curtis, 
F.L.S., 5 Tavistock St., Covent Garden, W.C. 2. 

President: Reginald Cory, Esq. Hon. Sec.: W. E. Chittenden, 
Merissa, Colborne Way, Worcester Park, Surrey. Founded to en- 
courage, improve, and develop the cultivation of the Dahlia, by holding 
exhibitions, issuing publications, conducting trials of new varieties, etc. 
Open to amateurs and professionals. Trials are held at Wisley in 
co-operation with the R.H.S. PUBLICATION: The Dahlia Year Book. 

President: John Garton, Esq. Gen. Sees.: Cleveland Fyfe; J. B. 
Guild, M.B.E., M.A., 45 Bedford Sq., W.C. i. Telegrams: Fatmesuni, 
Westcent, London. Telephone: Museum 7526 and 7527. The National 
Farmers' Union, since the amalgamation of the Federation of British 
Growers with that Organisation, is the national body to which the 
majority of commercial fruit and vegetable growers belong. The Union 
has 62 County Branches and 1,000 Local Branches in every administra- 
tive County in England and Wales. Sir William Lobjoit is Chairman 
of the Central Fruit and Vegetables Committee. The N.F.U. is con- 
stantly engaged in work of interest to fruit and vegetable growers. The 
Headquarters Fruit and Vegetables Committee consists of growers from 
all the important fruit-growing areas in Great Britain. Sub-committees 
deal with fruit, vegetables, glasshouse produce, and hops. PUBLICA- 
TIONS : The N.F. U. Year Book; The N.F. U. Record (monthly) ; Farmers' 
Accounts Diary, 2s. 3d.; Analysed Account Book, is. 6d. and 2s. 4d.; 
Memorandum of the Law relating to the Occupation of Farm Cottages , 6d. 
All post free. 

Patroness: H.M. The Queen. Hon. Sec.: Richard Sudell. Offices: 
9 Gower St., W.C. i. Formed to encourage and assist the growing of 
flowers in all parts of Great Britain, and to federate Gardens Guild 
branches. Gardens Guild centres have been formed in Birmingham, 
Cardiff, Manchester, Halifax, Dublin, Liverpool, and Sheffield, and are 
being formed in all parts of the country. PUBLICATIONS: The Guild 
Gardener, 6d. monthly; Town Gardening Handbook (new ed.), 2s. 6d. 
cloth, is. 6d. paper. 

President: H.R.H. The Duke of York, K.G. Gen. Sec.: L. W. 
Chubb, Esq., 71 Eccleston Sq., London, S.W. i. Telephone: Victoria 
9274-5. Founded 1925. AIMS AND OBJECTS: To secure adequate 
playing fields for all sections of the community; to save open spaces 
in and around cities and towns; to co-operate with Local Authorities 
and other Bodies in promoting schemes for recreation throughout 
the country. 

Patroness: H.M. The Queen. President: H. R. Darlington. Hon. 


Sec.: Courtney Page, 28 Victoria Street, London, S.W. i. Telegrams: 
Natiorose, Sowest, London. Telephone: Victoria 0959. Founded 
1876. To encourage, improve, and extend the cultivation of the Rose. 
SHOWS: Spring Show, Great Summer Show, Show of New Roses, 
Autumn Show, Provincial Shows. The Dean Hole Memorial Medal is 
awarded to those who, in the opinion of the Society, have done good 
work on behalf of the Flower. PUBLICATIONS: The Rose Annual, 
IDS. 6d.; Enemies of the Rose, 75. 6d.; Select List of Roses , with Instruc- 
tions for Pruning, 55. ; Hints on Planting Roses, is. All free to members. 

President: Samuel Walbruck, Esq. Sec.: A. C. Bartlett, 19 Bedford 
Chambers, Covent Garden, London W.C. 2. Founded 1897. To 
promote the cultivation, exhibition, and raising of new varieties of 
Sweet Peas. The principal members of the Society will give lectures 
on payment of out-of-pocket expenses. Trials of Novelty Sweet Peas 
are held yearly. PUBLICATION: The Sweet Pea Annual. THE HENRY 
ECKFORD MEMORIAL FUND awards an annual Medal to one who has 
rendered conspicuous service in the cause of the Sweet Pea. Medalists : 
1921, Mr. Robert Bolton; 1922, Mr. S. B. Dicks; 1923, Mr. Charles H. 
Curtis; 1924, Mr. Thomas Jones; 1925, Mr. Andrew Ireland; 1926, 
Mr. William Cuthbertson, V.M.H.; 1927, Mr. Alfred Watkins, V.M.H.; 
1928, Mr. E. W. King; 1929, Mr. J. Stevenson. 

AINSDALE HORT. Soc. : Mr. John Walmesley, 25 Station Road, Ainsdale, 


BANGOR HORT. Soc.J : Mr. John C. Moore, 4 College Avenue, Bangor, Co. Down. 
BEARSTED AND THURNAM HORT. Soc. : Mr. F. A . Simmonds, Bearsted, 

Maids tone. 

BILSTON HORT. Soc. : Mr. J. W. Pearson, 146 Wellington Road, Bilston. 
BRISLINGTON FLOWER SHOW : Mr. A . M. Smith, 42 Manworthy Road, 

Brislington, Bristol. 

Sole, 38 Wincheap Street, Canterbury. 
CLAY CROSS FLORAL AND HORT. Soc. : Mr. H. S. Stanley, East Street, Clay 

Cross, nr. Chesterfield. 
COALVILLE AND DIST. COTTAGERS' HORT. Soc.: Mr.D. Summers, 145 Belvoir 

Road, Coalville Road, Leicester. 
CRAWLEY AND DIST. GARDENERS' Soc. : Mr. Thomas Earl, Fairvicw, County 

Oak, Crawley, Sussex. 

DOVER HORT. Soc.J : Mr. Ernest H. Fox, 335 Folkestone Road, Dover. 
FAVBRSHAM SWEET PEA AND ROSE Soc. : Mr. H. Cox, 18 Kingswood Road, 


FORMBY HORT. Soc.J: Mr.J.M. Sykes, The White Cottage, Formby, Liverpool. 
FRODSHAM HORT. AND AGRIC. Soc. : Mr. Stanley Dennett, Kingsway, Frod- 

sham, Cheshire. 
GREENFIELD PARK SWEET PEA Assoc. : Mr. J. B. Ford, 40 Fairfield Avenue, 

Greenfield Park, Quebec, Canada. 
HALIFAX FLORAL Assoc. : Mr. M. H. Howell, P.O. Box 127, Dartmouth, 

Nova Scotia, Canada. 
HEXHAM GARDENERS' SWEET PEA Soc. : Mr. G. W. Byerley, Maryvale, 

Causey Hill. Hexham. 
HIGH LANE AND DIST. HORT. Soc. : Mr. Alan Hibbert, Wayside, Windlehurst 

Road, High Lane, nr. Stockport. 
ILMINSTER AND DIST. HORT. Soc. : Mr. C. W. Wyatt and Mr. G. E. Parrctt, 

JERSEY HORT. Soc.J : Mr. E. G. Merett, 3 Mulcaster Street, St. Hellers, Jersey. 


KNARBSBOROUGH AND DIST. HORT. Soc. : Mr. W. H. Wheeler, Oakfield, 

Knaresborough, Yorks. 
LLANDUDNO AND DIST. HORT. Soc. : Mr. A. L. Statham, The Rock Gardens, 

Queen's Road, Llandudno. 

MANSFIELD HORT. Soc. : Mr. Wm. Beazley, 82 Union Street, Mansfield, Notts. 
MENSTON HORT. Soc. : Mr. S. Baker, Deny Hill, Menston, nr. Leeds, Yorks. 
NORTH MARSTON FLORAL AND HORT. Soc. : Mr. Edward C. Lambourne, 

Gransborough Road, North Marston, Winslow, Bucks. 
PAUL HORT. Soc. : Mr. J. H. Murley, Churchtown, Paul, Penzance. 
PEEL SWEET PEA Soc. : Miss Mary Morrison, Athol Street, Peel, Isle of Man. 
PBNWORTHAM AND DIST. AGRIC. AND HORT. Soc. : Mr. Walter Atkinson, 

F.C.A., 25A Winckley Square, Preston. 

RINGWOOD SHOW : Mr. W. H. Hobson, 19 John Street, Brimington, Chester- 
field, Derbyshire. 
RISCA AND CROSS KEYS HORT. Soc. : Mr. S. J. Sullivan, 17 Exchange Road, 

Risca, Mon. 
SALTAIRE, SHIPLEY, AND DIST. ROSE Soc.} : Mr.L.P.Ratcliffe, 12 Piccadilly, 

SANDIACRE SWEET PEA Soc. : Mr. W. Hull, Stowe House, Derby Road, 

Sandiacre, Derbyshire. 
SHANGHAI HORT. Soc.J : Mr. D. McGregor, Administration Buildings, 15 

Hankow Road, Shanghai, China. 


Mr. E. L. Morgan, School House, Sissinghurst, Cranbrook, Kent. 
SKIPTON ALLOT. HOLDERS' Assoc. : Mr. J. Speight, 51 Clitheroe Street, 

Skipton, Yorks. 
SLOUGH HORT. AND ALLOT. HOLDERS' Soc. : Mr. G. Thomas, 5 La Place 

de Fort, Mill Street, Slough, Bucks. 

Blundell, 8 Chase Keys, Southport. 

Carter, Les Croisy, Saints Road, St. Martin's, Guernsey, C.I. 
STOUGHTON HORT. Soc. : Mr. A . Drane, 30 Shepherds Hill, Stoughton, 

STREATHAM ROSE AND SWEET PEA Soc.J : Mr. W. B. Strong, 6 Killieser 

Avenue, Streatham Hill, S.W. 2. 
SUDBURY, WEMBLEY, AND ALPERTON HORT. Soc. : Mr. Geo Fruin, 10, Chaplin 

Road, Wembley, Middlesex. 

Rudge, Church Walk, Tettenhall, Wolverhampton. 
THE DUNEDIN HORT. Soc. : Mr. A . D. Miller, 3 Vogel Street, Dunedin, 

New Zealand. 

Soc. : Miss A . Dorothy Call, Parliament Buildings, Regina, Sask. 
TIBSHELF FLORAL AND HORT. Soc.J : Mr. Wm. Thomas Harpham, Colliery 

Institute, Tibshelf, nr. Alfreton, Derbyshire. 
TYRLEY PARISH HORT. Soc. : Mr. Arthur Hunt, School House, Hales, Market 

Dray ton. 
VERDUN HORT. Soc. : Mr. W. J. Smith, 49 Third Avenue, Verdun, Montreal, 

WELLINGBOROUGH SWEET PEA AND ROSE Soc.J : Mr. Anthony Allen, Killick, 

Swanspool, Wellingborough. 
WIDCOMBE SWEET PEA Soc. : Mr. Geo. T. Short, 16 Poultenay Gardens, 

WINSCOMBE HORT. Soc. : Mr. Chas. Pulsford, Winterhead Hill, Winscombe, 

YATTON AND DIST. HORT. AND AGRIC. Soc. : Mr. Walter T. Co% t Claverham 

Road, Claverham, nr. Bristol. 
YORKTON (SASK.) HORT. Soc. : Mr. C. Holmes, Yorkton Hort. Soc., Yorkton, 

Sask., Canada. 



President: Sir Daniel Hall, K.C.B., Merton, Wimbledon. Hon. 
Sec. : W. Peters, Farcet House, Cambridge. Founded 1849, with the 
object of promoting the cultivation of the old Florists' Tulip, then a 
very popular "fancy." Sympathetic help in the formation of a 
collection extended to recruits who will grow and show. 


Gen. Sec.: George Wright, J.P., F.F.I., 8 High St., Sandbach, 
Cheshire. Telegrams: Gardeners, Sandbach, 37. Telephone: Sandbach 
37. Established 1820. An Approved Society under the National 
Insurance Acts. PUBLICATION: Journal, monthly 2 d. 

Patron: Sir William Waters Butler, Bart. President: Robert Fife, 
Esq. Hon. Sec.: W. W. Allison, 10 Elland Grove, Tibland Rd., Acocks 
Green, Warwickshire. Founded to encourage the cultivation of Violas 
and Pansies. AFFILIATED SOCIETIES: Birmingham Hort. Soc.; Hands- 
worth Allotment Soc.; Harborne Tenants' Soc.; Hugglescote Hort. 
Soc. ; Hurst Hill Viola and Pansy Soc. ; Leeds Hort. Soc. ; London and 
South of England Soc. ; Manchester and Dist. Soc. ; Salford Hort. Soc. ; 
South Vancouver B.C. Hort. Assoc.; Wadhurst Rose and Sweet Pea 
Show. PUBLICATION: Report. 

President: The Lord Mayor of Newcastle. Hon. Sec.: G. W. 
Patterson, Fawdon, Gosforth, Newcastle. Founded 1891. Shows are 
held monthly, and a Chrysanthemum Show in November. 

President: C. Basham, Esq. Hon. Sec.: F. W. Caddy, 95 Stow Hill, 
Newport, Mon. 

President: Sir Garrod Thomas, M.P., J.P., D.L. Sec.: H. G. 
Brooks, 1 8 Oxford St., Newport, Mon. 

President: C. Basham, Esq. Hon. Sec.: W. J. Sheppard, 10 Usk 
St., Newport, Mon. 

President: The Mayor of Northampton. Hon. Sec.: H. Curtis, 
Parks Superintendent, Abingdon Park, Northampton. OBJECTS: To 
promote horticulture, provide healthy recreation, and subscribe to 
funds for recreation of inhabitants of the Borough. 

President: Lord Brotherton of Wakefield, LL.D., The Hall, Rounday, 
Leeds, and Kirkham Abbey, York. Hon. Sec.: W. Arthur Taylor, 
Esq., Gresford, Harrogate. Telephone: Harrogate 4527. Founded 
1911, Reconstituted 1924. To promote the interests of all sections of 
horticulturists in the North of England. 

President: Sir William Thorn. Hon. Sec.: B. J. Beckton, Daisy 
Bank, Irlams-o'-the-Height, Manchester. Founded 1923. An asso- 
ciation of amateurs, whose common ground is interest in Orchids and 
their cultivation, with the object of promoting good fellowship and 
understanding among amateurs, and of adding to the knowledge of 
the natural history, cultivation, and hybridisation of Orchids by the 


exhibition of plants, and the periodical inspection of collections, and 
facilitating discussion thereon, and by stimulating interest in the 
investigation of the various problems involved. The exhibition of 
Orchids and the appraisement of their relative merits is accessory to 
this essential work of the Club. Headquarters : The Houldsworth Hall, 
Deansgate, Manchester. 

President: Mr. Alex. McGregor. Sec.: Thomas Couper, 2 Porter- 
field Rd., Renfrew. Founded 1782. 

President: The Rt. Hon. The Earl of Lonsdale. Sec.: J. Richardson, 
5 Duke St., Penrith. 

President: Lord St. Levan. Sec.: H. W. Abbiss, 2 Trelawney Rd., 
Truro. Founded 1923. To improve commercial growing and market- 
ing in the district. 

Chairman: W. Wood. Sec.: Mr. Fearnside. 

Sec.: Robert Bibby, Agricultural Offices, Cross St., Peterborough. 
Telephone: Peterborough 349. Founded 1797. 

President: S. A. Pollock, Esq. Sec.: A. E. Halliday, P.O.Research 
Station, Dollis Hill, N.W. 2. Founded 1928. 

President: J. T. McCormack. Gen. Sec.: G. Reid, Pollard Hall 
Gdns., Gomersal. Founded 1920. Headquarters: Guildford Hotel, 
Leeds. Monthly meetings. Branches: Harrogate, Newcastle, Brad- 
ford, Huddersfield. 

President: Frank E. Moring, Esq. Sec.: H. G. Cox, 80 Hamilton 
Rd., Reading. 

President: Sir Jeremiah Coleman, Bart., V.M.H. Hon. Sec.: P. 
Sherlock, n Norbury Rd., Reigate, Surrey. Founded 1902. Fort- 
nightly lectures at Ree's Rooms, Warwick Rd., Redhill, Sept.-April. 

President: L. de Rothschild, Esq. Sec.: Gurney Wilson, F.L.S., 
R.H.S. Hall, Vincent Sq., S.W. i. For particulars apply to the Sec. 

President: Col. The Rt. Hon. Wilfrid Ashley. Hon. Sec.: Dr. 
Wilfrid Fox, 34 Chandos House, Palmer St., Westminster, S.W. i. 
Telephone: Victoria 6543. Founded July 1928. Objects: Planting 
the roads of Great Britain with suitable trees, shrubs, and plants. To 
restore natural beauty. To retain existing trees and bits of woodland 
wherever possible when new roads are constructed. 

Hon. Sec.: H. M. Morrison, 47 Victoria St., S.W. i. Founded 1919. 
Temporary object to urge planting trees along highways in remem- 
brance of men killed in the War. Restarted 1927 for practical work: 
to induce gifts of trees for blossom and fruit ; shrubs and flowers ; seats 
for wayfarers; wayside strips of land for planting; trophy milestones; 
statuary (not only in remembrance of men killed in the War). 



President: Lt.-Col. W. J. Langford. Hon. Sec.: G. F. Frampton, 
3 Station Rd., Romsey. Founded 1924. Meetings monthly. 

Patron: H.M. The King. President: The Rt. Hon. the Earl of 
Harewood, K.G., D.S.O. Sec.: T. B. Turner, 16 Bedford Sq., W.C. i. 

Patrons: H.M. The King, H.M. The Queen, H.R.H. The Prince 
of Wales. President: The Rt. Hon. the Earl of Harewood, K.G., 
D.S.O. Sec.: Henry W. Woodford, Inner Circle, Regent's Park, 
N.W. i. Telephone: Welbeck 1187 (Office), Welbeck 1074 (Fellows' 
Rooms). Incorporated 1839 for the " Promotion of Botany in all its 
branches and its application to Medicine, Arts, and Manufactures, and 
also for the formation of extensive Botanical and Ornamental Gardens 
within the immediate vicinity of the Metropolis. 1 ' Fellows have ad- 
mission to the Gardens, Fellows' Rooms, Library, and Museum, can 
introduce visitors, attend Lectures, and can use the hard tennis-courts 
(extra annual subscription and playing fees). Members have the 
privilege of admission to the Gardens. Students are admitted on 
orders for three months, granted free to individuals or classes on the 
recommendation of the Fellows or recognised teachers or professors. 
Specimens of plants and flowers are supplied gratuitously to schools and 
colleges (London area) for study and examination purposes. There is 
an open-air school for Fellows' children. Among the varied activities 
of the Society is much educational work. In addition to the Practical 
Gardening School (see p. 269), parties are admitted free from Educational 
Societies, Natural History Clubs and Schools, and the Curator acts as 
Conductor. PUBLICATION: Quarterly Summary and Meteorological 

Patron: H.M. The King. President: The Earl of Derby, K.G. 
Chairman and Tres.: H. Broome, Esq., P.O. Box 35, 12 Sackville St., 

Hon. President: The Rt. Hon. Sir Herbert E. Maxwell, Bart. 
President: John T. Jeffrey, Esq. Sec.: Donald Mackenzie, Esq., 4A 
St. Andrew Sq., Edinburgh. Founded 1809. Received Charter of 
Incorporation from King George IV in 1824. Shows held from 1810 
with few interruptions: till 1827 in the Hall of the ]oyal College of 
Physicians ; till 1863 in the Experimental Garden leased 'from the Barons 
of Exchequer, and amalgamated with the Royal Botanic Garden in 1865. 
From 1866 to 1877 the Assembly Rooms, George Street, were used; in 
1877 the Shows were transferred to the Waverley Market, and finally to 
the Industrial Hall. In 1865, 1869, 1875, 1882, 1891, 1905, and in 1925 
the Society organised International Exhibitions. Monthly Meetings are 
held for the discussion of horticultural and allied subjects. In 1921 
the Society incorporated the Scottish Horticultural Association, and 
now carries on the work formerly done by it. PUBLICATION: Transac- 
tions (Papers read at Monthly Meetings). 

President: W. B. Havelock, Esq. Sec.: J. E. Davidson, Estate 
Office, Haydon Bridge, Northumberland. Founded 1882. PUBLICA- 
TION: Quarterly Journal of Forestry (free to members). 



Patron: H.M. The Queen. Sec.: A. C. Bartlett, 19 Bedford Cham- 
bers, Covent Garden, W.C. 2. Committee meets third Wednesday in 
the month. 

Patron: H.M. King George V. President: A. W. Bell, Esq. 
Hon. Sec: Ernest de Garis. Founded 1842. For mutual help and 
guidance, and for the public good. To further among other things 
Agriculture and Horticulture, and promote the highest standard of 
horticultural production. 

Patron: H.M. The King. President: The Most Noble the Marquis 
of Headfort. Hon. Sec.: Sir Frederick W. Moore, M.A. Sec.: Edward 
Knowldin, F.R.H.S., 5 Molesworth St., Dublin. Founded 1830, on 
what appears to have been the basis of an original society organised 
by the Huguenots in Dublin. Queen Victoria granted the privilege of 
the title " Royal," subsequently continued by King Edward and King 
George. Members are admitted to the Walpole Gardens (see p. 245) 
with five friends, on all days except Saturdays, Sundays, and Bank 
Holidays. PUBLICATIONS: Annual Report, with Schedules of Prizes for 
Spring and August Shows. 

Patrons: H.M. The King, H.M. The Queen, H.M. The Queen of 
Rumania, H.R.H. Princess Mary, Countess of Harewood, H.R.H. The 
Duke of Connaught. President: G. W. E. Loder, Esq., F.L.S. Prof, 
of Botany: Dr. A. B. Rendle, M.A., F.R.S., V.M.H. Sec.: F. R. Dur- 
ham, C.B.E., M.C., R.H.S. Hall, Vincent Sq., S.W. i. Telegrams: Hor- 
tensia Sowest London. Telephone: Victoria 5563. Founded 1804. 
Incorporated 1809. The Society was started on March 7, 1804, at 
a meeting summoned by Mr. John Wedgwood and held at Hatchards, 
in Piccadilly. Its objects were "to collect every information respecting 
the cultivation and treatment of all plants and trees, 11 and "to foster 
and encourage every branch of Horticulture." It received the Royal 
Charter on April 7, 1809, setting forth that it aimed at "the improve- 
ment of horticulture, ornamental as well as useful." In 1811 the first 
award a Silver Medal was made, and in May 1820 the Banksian 
Medal was instituted. Fetes for Fellows and friends were held in 
1827-9, 1830-1, at the Society's Chiswick Garden, and a Fruit Show 
was held therein 1833. In 1855 the Society from lack of funds was 
forced to sell its unique collection of orchids, palms, etc., and in 1859 
its most valuable drawings and books. On May 8, 1861, a new charter 
was granted and the premises at South Kensington were opened with 
an exhibition. In 1888 the Society's Shows were transferred to the 
Drill Hall of the London Scottish Volunteers in St. James's St., and 
held there till the Old Hall in Vincent Sq. was built in 1902 as a centenary 
memorial. The New Hall was opened in 1928. The first Show at the 
Temple was held in 1888. 

An important branch of the work done by the Society has always 
been the collection of seeds and plants from all parts of the world, 
by special collectors sent to places where a variety of new plants could 
be secured. Among the collectors are the names of such well-known 
botanical explorers as Fortune, Hartweg, Fairer, Forrest, and Kingdon 
Ward. It is essentially an Educational Society in both the Practice 


and Science of Horticulture. At its Halls it holds Meetings and Shows 
throughout the year; also lectures by experts on various horticultural 
topics are frequently given. In 1909 the Masters Lectures were in- 
stituted in memory of Dr. Maxwell T. Masters, F.R.S., F.L.S. An 
eminent scientist is invited to lecture on recent scientific discoveries as 
applied to horticulture. There are also held occasionally special meet- 
ings of allied Societies which are open to holders of Fellows' Tickets. 
At its gardens at Wisley the Society conducts trials of vegetables, fruits, 
and flowers, and maintains a School of Horticulture. The Society co- 
operates with the Ministry of Agriculture in holding the examinations 
for the National Diploma in Horticulture, and conducts examinations 
for testing the knowledge of young gardeners and of those who give 
instruction in horticultural matters in our primary and secondary- 
schools. Arrangements are made by which Fellows can have their 
gardens inspected and the soil analysed at Wisley. Fellows may obtain 
information and advice from the Society as to names of flowers and 
fruits, on points of practice, insect and fungoid attacks, by applying 
to the Secretary. 

The Society is trustee for the Library of the late Dr. Lindley, 
purchased out of the proceeds of the International Horticultural 
Exhibition of 1866. Additions are constantly made, both by gift and 
purchase, and there has thus been formed a large collection of books 
of horticultural interest, which may be readily consulted by Fellows. 

That the Society outgrew its home was a natural consequence of its 
continued prosperity. At the Annual General Meeting in 1924 the 
Council obtained authority to acquire a site and erect the New Hall 
in Greycoat St., Westminster, almost adjoining Vincent Sq. 

Established A.D. 1897, to confer conspicuous honour on those 
British Horticulturists resident in the United Kingdom, who might 
from time to time be considered deserving of special honour at the 
hands of the Society. 

1926 ALEXANDER, H. G., Westonbirt Gardens, Tetbury, Glos. 

1928 ATKINSON, WM., J.P., c/o Fisher, Son & Sibray, Ltd., Royal Nurseries 
Handsworth, Sheffield. 

1927 BALFOUR, F.R.S., M.A., D.L., 13 Collingham Gardens, S.W. i. 
1924 BARNES, N. F., Eaton Gardens, Chester. 

1923 BARTHOLOMEW, A. C., 75 Tilehurst Road, Reading. 

1917 BEAN, W. JACKSON, I.S.O., Royal Gardens, Kew. 

1906 BECKETT, EDWIN, Aldenham House Gardens, Elstree. 

1922 BILNEY, WILLIAM A., J.P., Monks View, Newbury, Berks. 

1922 BOSCAWEN, Rev. ARTHUR T., Ludgvan Rectory, Cornwall. 

1916 BOWLES, E. A., M.A., F.L.S., F.E.S., Waltham Cross. 
1914 CHEAL, JOSEPH, Lowfield Heath, Crawley. 

1917 CHITTENDEN, FREDERICK J., F.L.S., Wisley, Ripley, Surrey. 
1908 COLMAN, Sir JEREMIAH, Bart., Gatton Park, Reigate. 

1897 CRUMP, WILLIAM, Oakridge, Malvern Link. 

1914 CUTHBERTSON, WILLIAM, J.P., Maitland Lodge, Duddingston. 

1912 DIVERS, W. H., Westdean, Hook, Surbiton. 

1900 ENGLEHEART, Rev. G. H., M.A., F.S.A., Dinton, Salisbury. 

1911 FIELDER, CHARLES R., Bramshaw, Lyndhurst, Hants. 

1921 FORREST, GEORGE, 17 Inverleith Place, Edinburgh. 

1922 FRASER, JOHN, F.L.S., 355 Sandycombe Road, Kew. 
1916 GIBBS, HON. VICARY, Aldenham House, Elstree. 



1924 GROVE, A., F.L.S.. 2 Albion Street, W. 

1924 HANBURY, F. J., F.L.S., Brockhurst, East Grinstead. 

1926 HARROW, R. L., Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh. 

1924 HAY, THOMAS, New Lodge. Hyde Park, W. 

1906 HENRY, Prof. AUGUSTINE, M.A., F.L.S., 5 Sandford Terrace, Dublin. 

1897 HUDSON, JAMES, 64 Creffield Road, Acton, W. 

1897 JEKYLL, Miss GERTRUDE, Munstead Wood, Godalming. 

1909 MACKELLAR, A., Royal Gardens, Windsor. 

1928 MALCOLM, ALEXANDER, Blackadder Bank, Chirnside, Berwickshire. 

1917 MAXWELL, Rt. Hon. Sir HERBERT E.. Bart., F.R.S., Monreith, Wig- 

1911 MAY, HENRY B., Pteris House, Chingford. 

1927 MILLAIS, J. G., Compton Brow, Horsham, Sussex. 

1897 MOORE, Sir FREDERICK W., M.A., F.L.S., Rathfarnham, Dublin. 

1925 MOORE, G. F., Chardwar, Bourton-on-the- Water. 

1897 MORRIS, Sir DANIEL, K.C.M.G., J.P., D.Sc., D.C.L., F.S.L., Boscombe, 

1926 MUSGRAVE, CHARLES T., Hascombe Place, Godalming. 
1897 O'BRIEN, JAMES, Marian, Harrow-on-the-Hill. 

1911 PEARSON, ALFRED H., J.P., Lowdham, Notts. 

1926 PETTIGREW, W. W., Guildhall Chambers, 38 Lloyd Street, Manchester. 

1922 POUPART, WILLIAM, Marsh Farm, Twickenham. 

1912 PRAIN, Lt.-Col. Sir DAVID, C.M.G., C.I.E., M.A., M.B., LL.D., F.R.S., 

F.L.S., The Well Farm, Warlingham, Surrey. 

1917 RENDLE, A. B., F.R.S., M.A., D.Sc., F.L.S., Nat. Hist. Museum, S.W. 
1925 ROCHFORD, J., 21 Fitzjohn's Avenue, Hampstead, N.W. 2. 
1897 ROTHSCHILD, LORD, M.A., Ph.D., F.L.S., F.R.S., Tring Park, Herts. 

1925 SMITH, Prof. W. W., Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh. 

1927 STAFF, Dr. O., F.R.S., F.L.S., 80 Bushwood Road, Kew. 

1926 THEOBALD, Prof. F. V., M.A., Agric. College, Wye, Kent. 

1923 WALLACE, ROBERT W., The Old Gardens, Tunbridge Wells. 
1926 WALLACE, W. E., Eaton Bray, Dunstable. 

1926 WATKINS, ALFRED, Messrs. Watkins & Simpson, Ltd., 27 Drury Lane, 

W.C. 2. 

1916 WATSON, WILLIAM, A.L.S., Royal Gardens, Kew. 
1920 WHITE, EDWARD, 7 Victoria Street, S.W. 

1927 WHITE, HARRY, Sunningdaie Nurseries, Windlesham, Surrey. 
1927 WHITE, J. T., Belvedere, Spalding, Lines. 

1914 WHYTOCK, JAMES, Palace Gardens, Dalkeith. 

1927 WILLIAMS, P. D., Lanarth, St. Keverne. 

1897 WILLMOTT, Miss ELLEN, F.L.S., Warley Place, Gt. Warley, Essex. 

1912 WILSON, ERNEST H., Arnold Arboretum, Boston, U.S.A. 

1925 YELD, G., M.A., Orleton, Austen Wood Common, Gerrard's Cross. 


The Journal of the Society (post free on request to Fellows, Asso- 
ciates, and Affiliated Societies). 

Curtis's Botanical Magazine. Edited by O. Stapf, F.R.S. Started 
over a hundred years ago, it remains the most comprehensive and 
authoritative repertory extant of portraits of plants of interest. 
Quarterly, 3 35. per annum, or 173. 6d. for each quarterly part. Orders 
to Bernard Quaritch, Ltd., n Grafton St., W. i. 

Index Londoninensis. Revision of Pritzel's Iconum Botanicum 
Index, 6 vols. Vols. i and 2 published 1929. 5 55. a vol. when 

Lindley Library Catalogue (to 1926). Fellows 173. 6d., Non-Fellows 
i is. 


R.H.S. Lectures (with Lantern Slide Illustrations). Price id. For 
the use of Members of Horticultural and Allotment Societies. Seed 
Sowing and Transplanting; Successional Cropping and Intercropping; 
Hearting, Leaf, and Salad Vegetables; Tap and Bulbous Rooted Crops; 
Pod Bearing and Edible-fruited Crops; Stem Crop Vegetables, Herbs, 
etc.; Tuberous Rooted Crops, mainly Potatoes; Fruits for Small 
Growers ; Plants and Flowers for Small Gardens ; Birds in the Garden. 

The Report of the International Genetics Conferences. Held under 
the auspices of the Society in 1906. Price 2s. 6d. 

Rules for Judging at Horticultural Exhibitions, 2s. 6d. Cards for 
Judges at local Flower Shows, 10 for 2s. 6d. Rules for Judging Cottage 
and Allotment Gardens, 2d., or 50 for 8s. Rules and Regulations for the 
Organisation and Direction of Allotment Societies, 2d. Rules for Allot- 
ment and Vegetable Exhibitions, 2d. Points of Good Quality in Vegetables 
(Cards), 2s. 6d. set of 25. R.H.S. Practical Popular Pamphlets: (a) A 
Selected List of Hardy Fruits, with Notes on Planting, (b) The Training 
of Fruit Trees, (c) The Pruning of Fruit Trees, (d) Keeping Fruit 
Trees Clean, (j) Hardy and Half -Hardy Annuals in the Open Air. 
(n) Salads and Salad Making, (o) Economy in the Garden, (p) Medi- 
cinal Plants and their Cultivation, (r) The Cultivation of Potatoes in 
Gardens and Allotments, (s) The Economical Cultivation of Fruits under 
Glass, (t) The Pruning of Hardy Shrubs, (u) The Children's Garden, 
(v) Cropping the Allotment and Small Garden (with coloured plan). 
(w) Potato Growing Spring Work in Seed and Planting, (x) Potato 
Growing Autumn Work in Lifting and Storing, (y) Some Experiments 
in Potato Growing. 6d. each. 

LISTS: AWARDS granted on the recommendation of the various 
committees Orchids, 1859-1915, 55.; 1916-24, is. 6d.; 1925-26, is.; 
Flowers, Fruits, and Vegetables, 1911-24, 23. 6d.; 1925-26, is. Fellows, 
Associates, and Affiliated Societies, to May 31, 1929, 2s. 6d. to Fellows. 

The R.H.S. Gardeners 9 Pocket Diary and Notebook. Annually, 2s. 
A Selected List of Hardy Fruits. With Notes on Planting (1926 Edition), 
6d. Vegetable Bottling and Fruit Preserving with and without Sugar, by 
Mr. and Mrs. Banks, Revised 1928, is. 6d. The Economical Culti- 
vation of Fruits Under Glass, by Mr. James Hudson, V.M.H., 9d. 
Classified List of Daffodil Names, 1929, is. 2d. 

Field Notes of Trees, Shrvibs, and Plants (other than Rhododendrons) 
Collected in Western China by George Forrest, 1917-19. i is. 

Report of the International Garden Design Exhibition and Conference, 
1928. los. 6d. Report of the Primula Conference. 55. 

Tentative List of Tulip Names, 1929. is. 2d. 

Persons, whether Fellows or not, wishing to exhibit at the Society's 
shows should communicate with the Secretary not later than the first 
post on the Wednesday before each Show. Small exhibits may be 
staged by Fellows at any fortnightly show, without previous application 
for space. No charge is made for space. The Society's officers will, 
on an emergency, unpack and stage small parcels of Flowers or Fruit 
when notified beforehand of the owner's inability to be present, but 
in no case can the Society undertake to be responsible for the repacking 
and return of exhibits or packages. 

ABBEY ATHLETIC CLUB HORT. Soc. : H. H. Archer, c/o J J. Masters & Co., Ltd., 
Abbey Matchworks, Barking, Essex. 


ABINGER & DIST. GARDENERS' MUT. IMP. Assoc. : E. A. Maxwell, Barnet- 

holm, Abinger, Dorking. 

ADDISCOMBE AND WOODSIDE ALLOT. Soc. : C. Wood, Craigen Avenue, Croydon. 
AGRIC. & HORT. Soc. OF INDIA: P. Lancaster, i Alipur Rd., Alipur, Calcutta. 
AIR MINISTRY HORT. Soc.: R. F. Fountain, Adastral House, Kingsway, 

W.C. 2. 
ALDERMASTON COTTAGE GARDEN Soc. : /. F. Cambridge, Aldermaston, nr. 

ALDERSHOT & DIST. ALLOT. Assoc., LTD. : G. T. Hull, 75 Lower Farnham 

Rd., Aldershot. 

ALEXANDRIA HORT. Soc. : M. D. Nicolaidif. Alexandria Hort. Soc., Egypt. 
ALTON HORT. Soc.: W. Perry, 35 Ackender Rd., Alton. 
ALTRINCHAM & DIST. GARDENERS' IMP. Soc. : E. W. Thompson, 54 Navigation 

Rd., Broadheath, Altrincham. 
ALVESTON HORT. Soc. : S. P. Elliott, Hamilton Terrace, Teddington, 

Stratf ord-on- Avon . 

ANGMERING HORT. Soc. : A . G. E. Russell, School House, Angmering, 

ARMY SCHOOL OF PHYSICAL TRAINING: Lt.-Col. L. Henslow, Queen's Av., 


ASCOT HORT. Soc.: G. H. W. Barker, Steer Cottage, Ascot. 
ASHFORD COTTAGE GARDENERS' Soc.: C. P. Wemborn, 127 Beaver Rd., S. 

Ashford, Kent. 

ASHFORD HORT. Soc.: W. T. Kipling, Arborfield, Stanley Rd., Ashford, Kent. 
AUCKLAND HORT. Soc.f: R. /. Thornton, 2 and 3 (ist Floor), Nat. Mutual 

Life Buildings, Shortland St., Auckland, N.Z. 

BAKEWELL FLOWER SHOW: /. Hill, Bakewell Show Office, Bakewell, Derby. 
BANBURY ALLOT. Soc. : H. M. Gibbs, 45 Broad Street, Banbury. 
BARBADOS HORT. Soc. : H. W. Parkinson, P.O. Box 29, Bridgetown Club 

Barbados, B.W.I. 

BARCOMBE COTTAGERS' HORT. Soc. : W. Linter, Fernhill, Barcombe, Sussex. 
BARNSLEY CHRYSANTHEMUM Soc.: A. Hewitt, 46 Keir St., Barnsley. 
BARRAS GREEN HORT. Soc.: G. Cleaver, Coventry St., Stoke, Coventry. 
BARRY HORT. Soc.: A. W. Went, 6 Lewis St., Barry, Glam. 
BATH & DIST. ALLOT. HOLDERS' Assoc.: 5. Smith, 23 Second Av., Bath. 
BATH GARDENERS' Soc.: F. Morris, u Prior Park Buildings. Bath. 
BATH HORT. Soc. : /. Evans, 36 Crescent Gardens, Bath. 
BARCOMBE COTTAGERS' HORT. Soc. : L. Linter, Fernhill, Barcombe. 
BEACONSFIELD HORT. Soc.: R. Gordon, Furzefield Rd., Beaconsfield. 
BEAUFORT HUNT FARMERS' CLUB : Capt. J. Poore, Badminton. 
BECKENHAM HORT. Soc.: S. Sayer, 12 Stanley Av., Beckenham. 
BECONTREE HORT. Assoc.: /. /. Whelan, 47 Mayesbrook Rd., Chadwell 

Heath, Essex. 
BEDFORD PARK NAT. HIST. & GARDENING Soc. : .F. G. Carruthers 10 

Addison Rd., Bedford Park, W. 

BEER HORT. Soc. : W. R. David, Marine House, Beer, S. Devon. 
BELL (No. 2) CULTIVATION Soc.: /. Tiernan, 24 Fernlea Rd., Balham. 
BENEFIELD HORT. Soc. : E. J. Palmer, Benefield, Oundle. 
BERMONDSEY & ROTHERHITHE HORT. Soc.: L. D. Corder, 42 Upper Grange 

Rd., Bennondsey, S.E. 
BETCHWORTH & BUCKLAND HORT. Soc.: Mrs. Coulson, The Old Way, 

Buckland, Surrey. 

BEXHILL FRUIT & VEGETABLE Soc. : /. Bryant, 34 Silvister Rd.. Bexhill. 
BEXLEY HEATH & DIST. ALLOT. Assoc.: B. Gane, n Percy Rd., Bexley 

BEXLEY HEATH GALA : H. C. Denton, Howden, Red House Lane, Bexley 

Heath, Kent. 
BSXLEY HORT. Assoc. : G. May, 20 Hartford Lane, Bexley. 


BIDDENDEN HORT. Soc. : F. Harris, High Street, Biddenden. 

BILLERICAY HORT. Soc.: H. W. Cook, Iverdal, Tye Common Rd., Billericay. 

BILLINGSHURST HORT. & IND. Soc. i H. A. Marriner, Little Brampton, 


BIRKENHEAD ALLOT. Assoc. : /. Fearnley, Town Hall, Birkenhead. 
BIRKENHEAD HORT. Soc. : E. Coker, Jun., Cavendish Pk. Nurseries, Bebington 

Rd., Rock Ferry, Birkenhead. 

BIRMINGHAM HORT. Soc. ft : L. W. Webster. 130 Albert Rd., Stechford. 
BISHOP AUCKLAND CHRYSANTHEMUM Soc. : C. H. Cherrett, 46 Market Place, 

Bishop Auckland. 

BISHOP'S STORTFORD HORT. Soc. : A . J. Page, 27 North St., Bishop's Stortford. 
BLACKBURN HORT. Soc.: C. Dixon, 17 Richmond Terrace, Blackburn. 

Upper Bridge Road, Redhill. 
BLOEMFONTEIN & DIST. HORT. Soc. : L. van Selm, P.O. Box 330, Bloemfontein, 


BLOMSTERODLINGERS VANNER: B. M. Schalin, Joroas, Helsingfors, Finland. 
BOLTON HORT. & CHRYSANTHEMUM Soc.: /. A. Parker, Cromptons, Regent 

Rd., Lostock, Bolton. 
BOSHAM & DIST. HORT. Soc.: E. Layzell, 3 Adelaide Terrace, Bosham, 

BOURNEMOUTH GARDENERS' Assoc. : /. B. Stevenson, Sunnyside, Middleton 

Rd., Moordown, Bournemouth. 

BOVEY TRACEY HORT. Soc.: /. T. Norman, 5 Fore St., Bovey Tracey. 
BOVINGDON HORT. Soc.: Mrs. F. M. Banks, Lychgate Cottage, Bovingdon, 

Hemel Hempstead. 
BRACKLEY AGRIC. & HORT. Soc.: H. P. Stace, Land Agent, Brackley, 

BRACKLEY ALLOT. Assoc. : G. M. Newbury, i Addington Terrace, Brackley, 


Stimson, Lynstead, South End, Bradfield, Berks. 

BRADFORD MOOR HORT. Soc. : F. Williams, Bradford Moor Park, Bradford. 
BRADFORD PAXTON HORT. Soc. : T. Roberts, Overdale, Glen, Baldon, Bradford. 
BRADFORD TECHNICAL COLLEGE: T. J. Richardson, Great Horton Rd., 


BRAISHFIELD & DIST. HORT. Soc.: A. C. Dane, Braishfield, Romsey, Hants. 
BRAUNSTONE AVE. ALLOT. Soc.: /. H. Arnold, 6 Eastleigh Rd., Leicester. 
BRENTFORD ALLOT. Assoc.: 5. C. Bowden, Gwynn Villa, Somerset Rd.. 


BRENTHAM HORT. Soc. : F. A. Hubbard, 50 Fowlers Walk, Haling, W. 5. 
BRENTWOOD ALLOT. HOLDERS: H. C. Talbot, n Myrtle Rd., Brentwood. 
BREWOOD HORT. Soc. : V. E. Holt, Brewood, Staffs. 

BRIGHTLINGSEA HORT. Soc. : G. W. Lambert, Penryn, Regent Rd., Brightlingsea. 
BRISTOL GARDENERS' Assoc. : P. Thoday, Cook's Folly Gardens, Sneyd Park, 


BRISTOL HORT. & CHRYSANTHEMUM Soc.: 5. Brown, 31 Bridge St., Bristol. 

Hall, Aylesford, Kent. 
BRITON FERRY HORT. Soc.: T. Clarke, Sunnybank, Old Rd., Briton Ferry, 

BRENTFORD & CHISWICK HORT. Soc.: Edgar Elvin, 255 High Rd., Chiswick, 

W. 4. 
BROAD WATER FLOWER SHOW: W. L. Burt, 31 Southfield Rd., Broadwater, 

BRODSWORTH MAIN ALLOT. HOLDERS' Soc. : W. H. Tomlinson, 92 The Park, 

Woodlands, Doncaster. 

BROUGHTON HORT. Soc. : Rev. B. W. Bradford, Broughton Rectory, Banbury. 


BUBNOS AIRES GARDEN CLUB: Mrs. Oscar S. Bush, Calle Sarmiento 643, 

Buenos Aires. 

BUNTINGFORD HORT. Soc. i E. G. Thoay, Buntingford, Herts. 
BURNHAM & DIST. HORT. Soc. : R. Taylor, Huntercombe Rd., Burnham, Bucks. 
BURNHAM (SoM.) HORT. Soc.: A. E. Beavis, i Manor Rd., Burnham, Som. 
BURNLEY HORT. Soc.: A. Eastwood, 59 Ennismore St., Burnley. 
BURNOPFIELD FLORAL & HORT. Soc. : /. Marshall, 2 Wood St., Burnopfield, 


BURY & DIST. ALLOT. HOLDERS' Assoc.: /. W. Frost, 22 Home St., Bury. 
BURY & W. SUFFOLK HORT. Soc.: W. Norton, 71 Guildhall St., Bury St. 

BURY, WESTBURTON & HOUGHTON HORT. Soc.: R. Barrow, Coombe Lodge, 

Bury, Pulborough. 
BUSHEY & BUSHEY HEATH HORT. Soc. : JV. Robinson, Oaklands, Finch Lane, 

BUSH HILL PARK AMATEUR GARDENERS' Assoc.: R. Young, 14 Alberta Rd., 

Bush Hill Park, Middlesex. 
CALLENDER ATHLETIC CLUB : /. W. Firth, Callender's Cable Works, Belvedere, 


CAMBRIDGE (N.Z.) DAFFODIL Soc.: JR. Simpson, Cambridge, Auckland, N.Z. 
CANNINGTON & DIST. HORT. Soc.: A. C. Fling, Jun., East St., Carrington, 


CANNOCK & DIST. HORT. Soc.: /. Bird, Ribe, Stafford Rd., Cannock. 
CANTERBURY HORT. Soc. : H . L. Darton, 127 Worcester St., Christchurch,N.Z. 
CANVEY-ON-SEA HORT. Soc. : W. G. Smith, Kingsley, Lakeside, Canvey Island. 
CAPEL HORT. Soc. : C. Weedin, Woodville, Capel, Surrey. 
CARDIFF & DIST. GARDENERS' Assoc. : H Wilkins, Church Cottage, Llanishen. 
CARDIFF GARDENERS' Assoc. : H. Wikins, Church Cottage, Llanishen, Glam. 

Bright, Sandhill, Washford, Som. 

CARNEGIE HORT. Soc. : /. W. Ormiston, Carnegie Trust, Dunfermline. 
CARNFORTH GARDENERS' Assoc.: L. Davits, 2 Prince's Av., Carnforth. 
CARSH ALTON & DIST. HORT. SHOW: H. J. Cole, 23 Florian Av., Sutton, 


CATERHAM HORT. Soc.: A. G. Ryder, 39 Farningham Av., Caterham Valley. 

Telegraph Office, E.C. 

ton, Chaddesley Corbett, Kidderminster. 

CHADWELL HEATH HORT. Soc.: . G. Layton, 10 Bath Rd., Chadwell Heath. 

Chalfont St. Peter, Bucks. 
CHARLTON & DIST. AMATEUR HORT. Soc.: A. /. Pile, 21 The Village, Old 

Charlton, S.E. 

CHEDDAR VALLEY HORT. Soc.: W. Cusden, Church St., Cheddar. 
CHEDDLETON HORT. Soc. : D. Blakeman, Beechdene, The Avenue, Cheddleton, 

CHELMSFORD GARDENERS' Assoc.: A. /. Hawkes, The Gardens, Springfield 

Dukes, Chelmsford. 

CHERITON GARDENERS' Soc.: H. A. Smith, 14 Kent Rd., Cheriton. 
CHERTSEY SMALLHOLDERS' Assoc. : /. Lessware, Laburnum Cottage, Chertsey. 
CHESHAM ALLOT. HOLDERS' PROTECTION Assoc.: /. Davis, 5 Eskdale Av., 

Chesham, Bucks. 

CHESHAM Bois HORT. Soc.: R. /. L. King, Westcombe, Chesham Bois, Bucks. 

142 Crossbrook St., Waltham Cross. 

CHICHESTER HORT. Soc.: A. E. James, 5 Wyke Rd., Chichester. 
CHIGWELL HORT. Soc. : W. Lamb, Lamorna, Hainault Rd., Chigwell. 
CHINGFORD HORT. Soc.: A. W. Salmon, Cash f eld, Sewardstonebury, Ching- 

ford, E. 4. 


CHIPPING NORTON ALLOT. Assoc. : F. Burbridge, 7 Market St., Chipping Norton. 

The Lodge, Beechcroft, Chislehurst. 

CHISWICK ALLOT. HOLDERS' Assoc.: C. W. Ings, 18 Chertsey Rd., Chiswick. 
CHORLBYWOOD HORT. Soc. : R. E. Blake Smith, Blacketts Rd., Chorleywood. 
CHURCH ARMY SOCIAL COMMITTEE: Capt. E. Hanmore, 55 Bryanston St., 

London, W. x. 
CHURCH STRETTON & DIST. HORT. Soc. : A . Batchelor, Nethersprings Chelmick, 

Church Stretton, Salop. 

CINDERFORD AoRic. Soc.: P. Sargent, Victoria St., Cinderford. 
CIVIL SERVICE (ACTON) HORT. Soc. : L. Bird, Ministry of Health, Acton, W. 3. 
CLAYGATE HORT. Soc. : H. J. Douglas, School House, Claygate. 
CLENT HORT. Soc.: F. Wooldridge, School House, Clent, Stourbridge. 
COBHAM HORT. Soc.: W. Staddon, Fairleigh, Cobham. 
CODICOTE HORT. Soc. : G. T. Miller, Codicote Lodge, Welwyn. 
COGGESHALL BROTHERHOOD HORT. Soc. : S. /. Parish, Caxton House, Market 

End, Cogge shall. 

COLCHESTER GARDENERS' Assoc.: A. Worth, 29 South St., Colchester. 
COLCHESTER ROSE & HORT. Soc.f : H. Barton, 2 Museum St., Colchester. 
COLNE HORT. Soc.: A. Harrison, 33 Princess St., Colne. Lanes. 
COLWALL GARDEN CLUB : E. B attar d, The Court, Colwall Malvern. 
COLWYN BAY HORT. Soc.j: H. Sidlow, Lynmouth, Greenfield Rd., Colwyn 

COMPTON & SHAWFORD HORT. Soc.: Miss F. B. Stallard, Cliff House, 


COMPTON HORT. Soc. : C. W. Lenton, Limnerslease, Guildford. 
CORBRIDGE AND DIST. HORT. AND MUT. IMP. Soc. : W. Anderson, The Mount 

Gardens, Corbridge-on-Tyne. 
COSH AM HORT. Soc.f: E. G. Thornton, Wymeung Tea Gardens, Cosham, 


Cox GREEN & DIST. HORT. Soc. : T. Bedford, Cox Green, Maidenhead. 
CRANLEIGH HORT. Soc. : G. Boon, The Bungalow, Pondtail Rd., Fleet, Hants. 
CREIGIAU HORT. Soc.: D. M. Roberts, Creigiau, Cardiff. 
CREWKERNE & DIST. HORT. Soc.: /. John, Smolina, Gouldsbrook Terrace, 


CRICCIBTH & DIST. MUT. IMP. Soc. : T. Burnett, 4 Parcian Terrace, Criccieth. 
CRITTALL HORT. Soc.: C. G. Crozier, 18 Downing Rd., Dagenham, Essex. 
CROSSGATES & DIST. HORT. Soc.: W. Wood, Manston, Sandbed Lane, Cross- 
gates, Leeds. 

CROWNFIELD HORT. Soc.: C. Youell, 16 Moor Lane, E.G. 2. 
CROXLEY GREEN HORT. Soc.: /. Sharp, Balmedie, York Rd., Croxley Green. 
CROYDON HORT. MUT. IMP. Soc.: H. Boshier, 72 High St., Croydon. 
CURDRIDGE & BOTLEY HORT. Soc. : G. E. J. Titheridge, Shencroft, Botley, 


CWMAMAN HORT. Soc.: /. Williams, 8 Mountain Rd., Cwmaman, Aberdare. 
DAGSNHAM HORT. & ALLOT. Assoc. : E. F. Taylor, 1 8 Downing Rd., Dagenham, 

DARSNTH COTTAGE GARDEN Assoc.: W. A. Waller, 8 Lincoln Terrace, 

Lanesend, nr. Dartford, Kent. 

DARTFORD SOCIAL & ATHLETIC CLUB: Capt. G. Melville Bell, Dartford Iron- 
works, Dartford. 

DEAL & WALMER HORT. Soc.: . T. Dixon, 48 Downs Rd., Walmer. 
DERBY ALLOT. Soc.: F. Wilson, g, Violet St., Derby. 
DERBYSHIRE ALLOT. Assoc. : W. C. Flanders, 45 Powell St., Derby. 
DEVIZES HORT. Assoc.: F. W. Lewis, 44 Avon Rd., Devizes. 
DEVON DAFFODIL Soc. : C. Matthews, Woodside, Salcombe, S. Devon. 
Diss & DIST. HORT. Soc.: H. E. Jeffery, Roydon Rd., Diss, Norfolk. 
DUDDING HILL ESTATE Assoc.: 5. Barnes, 74 Ellesmere Rd., Dollis Hill, 

N.W. to. 
DULWICH HORT. Soc.: V. B. Horsley, 303 Upland Rd., E. Dulwich, S.E. 22. 



DURBAN HORT. Soc.: L. Bevis, 538 Bartle Rd., Durban, Natal. 

BALING & HANWELL ALLOT. Assoc.: W. H. Chapman, 79 Northcroft Rd., 

W. Baling, W. 13. 

EAST ANGLIAN HORT. Soc.: G. R. Todd t 12 Royal Arcade, Norwich. 
EASTBOURNE ALLOT. Soc.: G. H. Bainbird, 21 Bakewell Rd., Eastbourne. 
EASTERN POSTAL DIST. HORT. Soc.: H. W. Axten, Eastern Dist. P.O., E. i. 
EAST FINCHLEY ALLOT. HOLDERS' Assoc.: S. B. Budworth, 24 Chandos Rd., 

E. Finchley. 
EASTLEIGH RAILWAYMEN'S GARDEN Soc.: A. J. Lee, 51 Doncaster Rd., 

Eastleigh, Hants. 
EAST WARD (RAMSBOTTOM) ALLOT. Assoc.: P. H. Taylor, 114 Peel Brome, 

Ramsbottom, nr. Manchester. 

EDMONTON HORT. Soc.f : E. P. Williams, 506 Civic Block, Edmonton, Canada. 
EGHAM GARDENERS' Assoc.: /. Purt t 52 St. Jude's Rd., Englefield Green, 

EGHAM, HYTHE, & DIST. HORT. Soc.: A. R. Boyce, 7 Hythe Park Rd., Egham, 

EGYPTIAN HORT. Soc.: Hon. Sec., Ministry of Agriculture, P.O. Box 46, 


ELMSTEAD & GREAT BROMLEY Soc. : Miss Johnson, The Parsonage, Elmstead. 
ELY (CARDIFF) HORT Soc.: W. C. C. Morgan, 33 Windsor Terrace, Ely, 


ENFIELD ALLOT. Assoc.: C. P. Thomson, 51 London Rd., Enfield. 
ERDINGTON ALLOT. Assoc.: A. J. Beard, Tresaith, Grange Lane, Four Oaks, 


ERITH CO-OP. ALLOT. Soc.: A. Haughey, n Roberts Rd., Belvedere. 
EVENING WORLD FLOWER SHOWS: G. W. Patterson, Fawdon, Gosforth, 

Newcastle-on-Ty ne . 

EWELL HORT. Soc.: K. Griffiths, Sheen Cottage, West St., Ewell, Surrey. 
EXPERIMENTAL & RESEARCH STATION : G. Bell, Research Station, Cheshunt. 
FAKENHAM & DIST. HORT. Soc. : W. Norgate, Queen's Rd., Fakenham, Norfolk. 
FALKIRK IRON WORKS HORT. Soc. : W. Robertson, Falkirk Ironworks, Falkirk. 
FALKLAND ISLANDS HORT. Soc. : C. A . Parkinson, Government House Gardens, 

Port Stanley, Falkland Isles. 

FAREHAM HORT. Assoc. : G. A . Goodall, Uplands Cottage, Fareham, Hants. 
FARNCOMBE & DIST. WORKING MEN'S ALLOT. Assoc. : W. Mayers, Kingsley, 

Busb ridge Lane, Godalming. 

FARNHAM HORT. Soc. : H . E. Bide, Alma Nursery, Farnham. 
FARSLEY ALLOT. Assoc.: H. Grimshaw, 20 Gladstone St., Farsley St., Leeds. 
FELLING HORT. Soc. : T. Weatherburn, i Woodland Terrace, Felling-on-Tyne. 
FELIXSTOWE & DIST. GARD. Assoc.: W. K. Cossons, Ormiston, Croutel Rd., 

FELPHAM, MIDDLETON, & DIST. HORT. Soc.: G. B. West, 4 St. Catherine's, 

Canning Rd., Felpham, Bognor. 
FELTHAM, BEDFONT, HANWORTH ALLOT. Soc.: W. G. Cossum, 44 Tachbrook 

Rd., Feltham, Middlesex. 

FINCHLEY HORT. Soc.: F. A. Calkin, East Lynne, Squires Lane, Finchley, N. 
FOLKESTONE GARDENERS' Soc. : L. C. Philpott, i Watkin Rd., Folkestone. 
FOOTS CRAY & NORTH CRAY HORT. Soc.: H. Hall, 43 Oxford Rd., Sidcup. 
FORDINGBRIDGE HORT. Soc. : A. Sheldon Hunt, Holmwood, Whitsbury Rd., 

FRAMFIELD COTTAGE GARD. Soc.: Sir Francis Osborne, Bt., The Grange, 

Fram field, Sussex. 
FRIERN BARNST ALLOT. Assoc : A. L. Coombes, 3 St. John's Avenue, Friern 

Barnet, N. 11. 
FRIMLEY HORT. Soc.: A. C. Wheeler, Mytchett Nurseries, Frimley Green, 

FRINDSBURY GARDENERS' Soc.: A. E. Field, 8 The Walk, Wainscott, nr. 



FRINTON-ON-SBA & DIST. HORT. Soc. : B. C. Thomas, By-the-Way, Connaught 

Avenue, Frinton-on-Sea. 

FULHAM HORT. Soc.: Rev. W. L. Orpwood, 2 Clancarty Rd., Fulham, S.W. 
FUNTINGTON & WEST STOKE HORT. Soc. *. H. Padwick, The Red House, West 

Ashling, Chichester. 
GAS, LIGHT, & COKE Co. HORT. Soc. : E. V. Wright, Gas, Light, & Coke Co., 

Horseferry Rd., S.W. i. 

GILWERN HORT. Soc. : C. H. Winstone, Church Rd., Gilwern, Abergavenny. 
GIPSEYVILLE & DIST. HORT. Soc. : B. Corp, 23 Priory Grove, Gipseyville, Hull. 
GLEN INNES HORT. Soc.: C. H. Bate, P.O. Box 101, Glen Innes, N.S.W. 
GODSHILL & DIST. HORT. Soc. : S. F. Lunniss, Doffodil Valley Farm, Godshill, 

GOFFS OAK COMRADES & CUFFLEY HORT. Soc.: W. F. Ettridge, Oldhouse, 

Goffs Oak, Herts. 
GOLDSMITH'S GARDEN HOLDERS' Assoc.: G. F. Wiltshire, 106 Percy Rd., 

Shepherd's Bush. 

GORING & FERRING HORT. Soc. : T. A . Warren, Southover, Goring-by-Sea. 
GORRINGE PK. & DIST. ALLOT. Assoc.: E. J. Hedge, 76 Links Rd., Tooting, 

S.W. 17. 

GOUDHURST HORT. Soc. : A . R. Harden, Lime Tree Farm, Goudhurst, Kent. 
GRAFFHAM HORT. Soc. : E. W. Fuller, Lavington Park Gardens, Petworth. 
GRAVESEND ALLOT. Soc. : E. D. Smith, The Lodge, Gordon Grounds, 


ii Whitehall Rd., Gravesend. 

French, Dinwoodie, Gt. Bookham, Surrey. 

Avenue Rd., Great Baddow, Chelmsford. 

GREAT SHELFORD HORT. Soc., W. C. Ecclestone, Great Shelford, Cambs. 
GREATER VANCOUVER HORT. Soc.f: A. G. Dickson, 4142 Welwyn St., Van- 
couver, B.C. 
GREEN STREET GREEN & DIST. HORT. Soc. : F. H. Walter, Ardlui, Woodlands 

Rd., Green Street Green, Kent. 

GRESFORD ROSE Soc.f: E. Hewitt, Horsley Cottage, Gresford, Wrexham. 
GRIMSBY & DIST. AMATEUR HORT. Soc.: S. Plowes, 186 Legsby Avenue, 


GRIQUALAND WEST HORT. Soc. : A . E. Norris, Kimberley, S. Africa. 
G.W.R. CARDIFF VALLEYS HORT. Soc.: G. George, 37 Bryn-Gwyn, Caerphilly. 
HALE END HORT. Soc.: C. G. Nash, 372 Hale End Rd., 4. 
HAMBLEDON HORT. Soc.: G. H. Latt, West St., Hambledon, Cosham, Hants. 
HAMPTON DIST. ALLOT. HOLDERS, LTD.: E. H. Newman, 13 Seymour Rd., 

Hampton Hill. 
HAMSTEAD MARSHALL HORT. Soc.: Mrs. F. M. Lewis, Redhill Cottage, 

Hamstead Marshall, Newbury. 

HANWELL HORT. Soc.f: 5. Richardson, 66 Burford Avenue, Hanwell, W. 7. 
HARLESDEN (ALL SOULS) HORT. Soc.: H. W. Prothero, 126 Wrottesley Row, 

Harlesden, N.W. 

HARROW HORT. Soc.: P. G. Gibson, 34 Scarsdale Rd., Harrow. 
HASLEMERE & DIST. GARD. Assoc.f: S. G. Smith, St. Chrystopher's Rd., 

HASLINGDEN & DIST. ALLOT. Assoc.: /. K. Lonsdale, 18 Fields Rd., Hasling- 

den, Rossendale. 

HASTINGS HORT. ALLOT. Assoc. : T. G. Hilder, 10 White Rock, Hastings. 
HASTINGS (N.Z.) HORT. Soc.f: A. E. Palmer, P.O. Box 10, Hastings, New 


HATFIELD COTTAGE HORT. Soc.: T. Titniuss, Hatfieid Pk., Hatfield. 
HAWKBS BAY AGRIC. Soc.: A. M. Retemeyer, Tennyson St., Napier, N.Z. 
HAYES & HARLINGTON HORT. Soc.: /. W. Hope, 64 Central Avenue, Hayes, 



HAYNBS PK. & DIST. HORT. Soc.: F. C. Boughtwood, Eastwood Haynes Pk., 

Hornchurch, Essex. 
HAYLING ISLAND ALLOT. Soc.: F. Clark, 5 Pretoria Cottage, West Lane, 

Hayling Island. 
HAZLEMERE & TERRIERS HORT. Soc.: R. J. L. King, Westcombe, Chesham 

Bois, Bucks. 

HEADCORN GARDENERS' Soc. : W. Ruff, Oakdene, Headcorn, Kent. 
HEATHFIELD HORT. Soc. : E. Uffield, Stanstead, Heathfield. 
HEATHROW, HARMONDSWORTH & DIST. HORT. Soc.: T. Wild, Jun.,Inglenook, 

Sipson, Yiewsley, Middlesex. 

HEIGHINGTON HORT. Soc. : Rev. W. J. McLean, Heighington, Durham. 
HEMEL HEMPSTEAD & DIST. HORT. Soc.f: E. Edwards, Bargrove Gardens, 


HENDON HORT. Soc.: C. F. Windust, So Sunningfield Rd., Hendon, N.W. 4. 
HENLEY & DIST. HORT. & BOROUGH ALLOT. Soc.: /. W. C. Read, IA Reading 

Rd., Henley-on-Thames. 

HENLEY HORT. Assoc.: A. R. Lloyds, 6 St. Andrew's Rd., Henley-on-Thames. 
HERTFORD HORT. Soc.: W. Reynolds, 161 Ware Rd., Hertford. 
HEXHAM HORT. Soc. : W '. Plant, Hermitage Gardens, Hexham. 
HEYWOOD HORT. Soc.: G. E. Nuttall, 28 King's St., Heywood. 
HIGHFIELDS GARDENING Soc.: W. /f. Green, 10 Ashborne St., Leicester. 
HIGHGATE HORT. Soc.: A. J. Oakley, 24 Yeatman Rd., Highgate, N. 6. 
HIGH WYCOMBE HORT. Soc.: L. Barnes, Gayhurst, Little Totteridge, High 

HILDENBOROUGH GARDENERS' Soc. : Capt. W. Macd. Duncan, Crossways, 

Hildenborough, Kent. 
HILLFIELDS PARK ESTATE HORT. Soc.: F. W. Shapcott, n The Rosery, 

Thicket Avenue, Bristol. 
HILLINGDON COURT HORT. Soc.: E. R. Wood, Arden, Sweetcroft Lane, 


HINCKLEY HORT. Soc.: A. Eames, 97 Clarendon Rd., Hinckley. 
HINDLEY ALLOT. Assoc. : O. P. Abbott, Cinnamon House, Ince-in-Makerfield. 
HOBART AMATEUR HORT. Soc. : C. E. Webster, Webster & Sons, Ltd., Hobart, 


HOBY & DIST. HORT. Soc. : F. B. Crofts, Brooksby Station, nr. Leicester. 
HOLYPORT, BRAY & DIST. HORT. Soc.: W. S. Prior, The Hut, Windsor Rd., 


HOOK & DIST. HORT. Soc.: /. E. Roberts, Francis House, Hook Rd., Surbiton. 
HOOK WARSASH HORT. Soc.: W. Dimmick, Furze Cottage, Warsash, 


HOREHAM RD. HORT. Soc.: R. A. Crowley, Bernards, Horeham Rd., Sussex. 
HORFIELD & BISHOPSTON HORT. & POULTRY Soc. : /. Wall, 58 Bishop Rd., 

Bishopston, Bristol. 

HORSELL ALLOT. Assoc. : /. Holmes, Model Dairy, Horsell, Woking. 
HORSELL COTTAGE GARDENERS' Assoc.: /. D. Edes, 30 Arthur's Bridge, 

Horsell, Woking, Surrey. 
HORSLBY VILLAGE HALL HORT. Soc.: C. J. Briggs, Chantreys, E. Horsley, 

HORT. Assoc. OF NEW SOUTH WALES: F. G. Wheatley, n Coventry Rd., 

Homebush, Sydney, N.S.W. 

HOUNSLOW ALLOT. Assoc.: A. Heavens, 10 Frith Rd., Hounslow. 
HOVE HORT. Assoc.: W. W. Slatter, 4 Leighton Rd., Hove. 
HURST HORT. & COTTAGE GARDEN Soc.: W. J. Bevis, Ty-Gwyn, Hurst Rd., 

Twyford, nr. Reading. 

HUTT VALLEY HORT. Soc. : A. /. Nicholls, P.O. Box 19, Lower Hutt, Welling- 
ton, N.Z. 

Heath, Amersham, Bucks. 

IBIS HORT. Soc.: A. C. Burnett, 142 Holborn Bars, E.C. 
ILFORD HORT. Assoc. : F. G. Hasler, 196 Kingston Rd., Ilford. 


IPSWICH & EAST OF ENGLAND HORT. Soc.f: /. S. Jewhurst, 19 Museum St., 


ISLE OF WIGHT HORT. Assoc.: /. B. Doe, Alberta Villa, Yarmouth, I.O.W. 
IVER HEATH HORT. Soc. : S. M. Hargrave, Leslie Lodge, Iver Heath, Bucks. 
JERSEY GARDENERS' Soc.f: P. H. Rouget, 15 Chevalier Rd,, St. Heliers, 

JERUSALEM HORT. Soc. : M . Brown, c/o Director of Agric. Forests, American 

Colony, Jerusalem. 

KELSTON HORT. Soc. : Mrs. Poynton, Kelston Rectory, Bath. 
KENSINGTON & CHELSEA SCHOOL DIST.: C. /. Holliday, 241 King St., 

Hammersmith, W. 6. 

KENT BRANCH, C. & I. UNION: H. J. Davis, 35 Durham Rd., Plumstead, S.E. 
KENYA, HORT. Soc. OF: C. E. Bennett, P.O. Box 27, Nairobi, B. E. Af. 
KEYNSHAM & DIST. HORT. Soc. : R. Hake, Keynsham, Bristol. 
KIDMORE GARDENING Assoc. : G. Clark, The Gardens, Dysons Wood, Reading. 
KIDDERMINSTER HORT. Soc.: H. Cartright, 200 Stourport Rd., Kidderminster. 
KIMPTON HORT. Soc. : /. R. Ely, Kempton Hoek, Welwyn. 
KING EDWARD BUILDINGS (G.P.O.) HORT. Soc.: H. E. Rapley, n Hereford 

Gardens, Longhurst Rd., S.E. 13. 
KINGSBRIDGE & SALCOMBE HORT. Soc. : F. Trevenell, Lloyds Bk., Ltd., 

Salcombe, S. Devon. 

KINGSBURY HORT. Soc.: E. T. Ashman, 7 Stag Lane, Kingsbury, N.W. 9. 
KINGSWORTHY & DIST. HORT. Soc. : R. Jowitt, Chilland, nr. Winchester, 

KINVER & DIST. HORT. Soc.: T. G. Hughes, 5 James's St., Kinver, nr. Stour- 


KNAPHILL HORT. Soc. : F. E. Snowden, Laurel Hurst, Knaphill, Woking. 
KNAPTON & DIST. FLOWER SHOW: Miss A. M. Dunell, Craft Cottage, Paston, 

KNEBWORTH HORT. Soc. : C. A . Robinson, Hornbeam Corner, Rabley Heath, 


KNOWLE HORT. Soc.: W. J. Martin, 42 Belluton Rd., Knowle, Bristol. 
LANGTON & DIST. HORT. Soc.: F. Norwood, The Hollands Gdns., Langton, 

Tunbridge Wells. 

LEAVESDEN HORT. Soc.: W. Smith, School House, Leavesden Green, Watford. 
LEE, BLACKHEATH, & LEWISHAM HORT. Soc. : H . G. Fennell, 95 Mount Pleasant 

Rd., Lewisham. 

LEEBOTWOOD HORT. Soc. : W. J. Evans, Fairbank, Leebotwood, Shrewsbury. 
LEEDS & DIST. FED. ALLOT. Assoc.: A. Cavanagh, 6 Nowell Place, Harehills 

Lane, Leeds. 

LEEK AGRIC. & HORT. Soc.: C. S. Herd, 40 South Portland St., Leek. 
LEIGH COTTAGE GARDEN Soc.: G. A. Beadle, Leigh, Reigate. 
LEIGH-ON-SEA HORT. Soc.f: E. A. Turner, The Rosery, Oakleigh Park Drive, 


LE JARDIN D'AGRBMENT: Dr. de Keyser, 16 rue de la Sablonniere, Brussels. 
LENTON & DIST. HORT. Soc. : C. A . Burton, 197 Castle Boulevard, Nottingham. 
LEWES HORT. Soc.: W. H. Drumbell, i South Court, Lewes. 
LBWISHAM HORT. Soc. : /. B. Heathfield, 42 Levendale Rd., Forest Hill, S.E. 13. 
LBXDSN & STANWAY COTTAGERS' HORT. Soc.: H. Just, 70 Colne Rd., 


LEYTON ALLOT. Soc.: T. /. Judd, 38 William St., Leyton, E. 

Rd., Lichfield, Staffs. 
LICKEY & DIST. HORT. Soc. : 0. W. Rowlands, The Lodge. Barnt Green, nr. 


LIDLINGTON ALLOT. Assoc. : R. B. Hill, Lidlington, Ampthill. 
LIMPLBY STOKE & DIST. HORT. Soc. : Miss A . Hotchkiss, Claverton, Bath, 

LXMPSFIBLD GARDENERS' Soc.: A. J. French, Woodside Lodge, Limpsfield, 



LINCOLNSHIRE GARDEN Soc.: H. F. Young, 18 Burns Gdns., St. Giles, 

LITTLE HOUGHTON & DIST. HORT. Soc.: W. W. Dobson, Little Houghton, 

LITTLE THURROCK HORT. Soc. : /. B. Chawner, 59 High View Avenue, Grays, 


LLANDILO HORT. Soc. : F. M. Jones, Myrtle Hill, Llandilo. 
LLANDUDNO ALLOT. Assoc. : W. G. Robertson, Town Hall, Llandudno. 
LOCKERLBY & DIST. HORT. Soc. i S. Brierley, Lockerley Green, nr. Romsey. 
LIVERPOOL VICTORIA HORT. Soc. : P. Butterworth, Victoria House, Southamp- 
ton Row, London, W.C. i. 
LLANDYVNOG & LLANGWYFAR HORT. Soc.: W. Langford Jones, 4 Kinmel 

Terrace, Llandyvnog, Denbigh. 
LLANELLY & DIST. HORT. Soc. : S. E. Bowser, Bedford House, Derwent St., 

Llanelly, S. Wales. 

LONDON DIST. ALLOT. & GARDEN SHOW: /. M . Risden, 71 Maryland Rd., N. 22. 
LONDON E. Div. S.R. FRUIT & VEGETABLE SHOW: H. Matthews, Div. Op. Sup. 

Office, London Bridge Station. 
LONDON COLNEY & DIST. HORT. Soc.: /. Jackson, 4 Hollybush Cottages, 

London Colney, St. Albans. 

L.C.C. STAFF HORT. Soc.: H. Kingett, County Hall, S.W. i. 
LONDON DIST. ALLOT. & GARDENS SHOW: /. M. Riseden, 71 Maryland Rd., 

N. 22. 


7 Chancery Lane, W.C. 2. 

L.M.S. FED. OF HORT. SOCIETIES: IV. E. Cheeseman, Euston Station, N.W. 
L.M.S. (MIDLAND Div.) HORT. Soc. : Ivor Nixon, Chief Accountant's Divisional 

Office, L.M.S. Rly., Derby. 
LONGFIELD COTTAGE GARD. Assoc.: W. E. Tapsell, Kent Rd., Longfield, 


LOUGHTON HORT. Assoc.: /. Lloyd, Elm House, High Rd., Loughton. 
LOWER BURDEKIN HORT. Soc. : G. K. Wilson, Box 249, Ayr North, Queensland. 
LOWESTOFT ALLOT. Soc.: G. R. Bryant, QA Berresford Rd., Lowestoft. 
LOWESTOFT & NORTH SUFFOLK HORT. Soc. : E. C. S. Shaw, Upland, Carlton 

Colville, Lowestoft. 

LOWTON HORT. Soc.: G. H. Coe, 258 Newton Rd., Lowton, Newton-le- Willows. 
LYMINGE & DIST. GARD. Soc.: T. C. Clarke, Normandy, Lyminge. 
LYONS (GREENFORD) HORT. Soc.: L. Maloney, c/o Messrs. Lyons & Co., 


MAGDALEN PARK Soc.: F. W. Hirst, 61 Magdalen Rd., Wandsworth, S.W. 18. 
MALDON & HEYBRIDGE HORT. Soc.: E. C. Dines, Uplyme, Spital Rd., 

Maldon, Essex. 
MALTA HORT. Soc.t: /. Briffa, M.B.E., 83 Strada St. Antonio, Casal Attard, 

MANAWATU AGRIC. Soc.: W. T. Penny, Box 85, 106 Cuba St., Palmerston 

North, N.Z. 
MANCHESTER HORT. Soc. (JAMAICA): Mrs. Meikle, Mandeville, Jamaica, 

MANCHESTER P.O. HORT. Soc.: W. Thompson, 7 Legh Grove, Ardwick, 


MARLOW HORT. Soc.: H. . Simpson, The Library, High St., Marlow. 
MARLPIT HILL & DIST. GARD. Soc.: H. G. Hoey t Hazeldine, Marlpit Hill, 

MERCANTILE MARINE DEPT. HORT. Soc.: C. D. Jennery, 20 Gt. Smith St., 

Westminster, S.W. 

MERTHYR HORT. Soc. : F. S. Symons, Penybryn, Cef n Coed, Merthyr Tydvil. 
MERTON HORT. Soc.: W. Sutton, 88 Cannon Hill Lane, Merton, S.W. 20. 
MICKLBHAM FLOWER SHOW: Chas. J. Bravery, Mickleham, Dorking. 
MIDSOMER NORTON & DIST. HORT. Assoc.: C. A. Webb, North Rd., Midsomer 

Norton, Bath. 


MIDSOMER NORTON, RADSTOCK, & DIST. HORT. Soc.: /. C. Bright, Beacon 

View. Oakhill, Bath. 
MILL HILL HORT. & ALLOT. Soc. : A . Simmonds. The Lodge, Belmont, Mill Hill, 

MINEHEAD & DIST. FLOWER SHOW: E. P. Vince, Barbary, Ponsford Rd., 


MINISTRY OF AGRIC. HORT. Soc.: F. R. E. Timms, 10 Whitehall Place, S.W. i. 
MINISTRY OF LABOUR HORT. Soc. : C. L. Thomas, Ministry of Labour, Montagu 

House, Whitehall, S.W. i. 

MIRFIELD ALLOT. Assoc. : G. Taylor, Exchange Buildings, Easthorpe, Mirfield. 
MISKIN & DIST. HORT. Soc. : W. Gurnos Jones, Miskin, Pontyclun, Glam. 
MITCH AM, TOOTING, & DIST. HORT. Soc.|: 5. Taylor, 5 St. Mark's Rd., 

MONKS RISBOROUGH HORT. Soc. : R. Carwithen, Underbill, Monks Risborough, 


MOUNT PLEASANT HORT. Soc. : H. E. Dunsford, Inland Section, G.P.O., E.G. i. 
MUSWELL HILL HORT. Soc.: W. F. Romeril, 70 Windermere Rd., Muswell 

Hill, N. 10. 

NAILSEA FLOWER SHOW: C. C. Bowden, Fairfield, Nailsea. 
NAT. DAFFODIL Soc. OF NEW ZEALAND: H. J. Poole, Waterloo Rd., Lower 

Hutt, N.Z. 
NEEDHAM MARKET HORT. Soc.: E. W. Flatten, Beech Terrace, Needham 


NELSON (N.Z.) HORT. Soc.f: /. Wigzell, Kawai St., Nelson, N.Z. 
NEWBURY GARDENERS' Assoc. : Capt. S. Knight, Holland House, Newbury. 
NEWCASTLE HORT. Soc.: G. W. Patterson, Fawdon, Gosforth, Newcastle-on- 

NEW FOREST AGRIC. Soc.: C. W. Loveless, Monxton Villas, Ringwood Rd., 


NEWICK HORT. Soc. : N. H. Chisholm, Newick, Lewes. 
NEW SOUTHGATE ALLOT. Assoc. : A. M. Blann, 75 Carpenter Gdns., N. 21. 
NEWTYLE & DIST. HORT. Soc. : Rev. J. Mechie, Newtyle, Forfarshire. 

Sherwood St., Lower Hutt, N.Z. 
NOEL PARK GARD. Soc.: H. C. H. Hutchins, 40 Station Crescent, Rayleigh, 


NORBURY COTT. GARD. Soc. : H. Hamley, 114 Tylecroft Rd., Norbury, S.W. 16. 
NORFOLK & NORWICH HORT. Soc.ft: Capt. A. Sandys- Winsch, Tucks Court, 

St. Giles St., Norwich. 
NORK Assoc. GARDEN COMMITTEE: R. H. Boyd, Randescote, Nork Way, 


NORTHCHURCH COTTAGE GARDEN Assoc. : R. Hucklesbie, 3 Tring Rd., North- 
church, nr. Berkhamstead, Herts. 

NORTH WALSHAM HORT. Soc. : H. W. T. Empson, North Walsham. 
NORTH WEALD HORT. Soc.: 5. H. Rous, P.O., North Weald, Essex. 

Office, Eversholt St., N.W. 

NUTLEY HORT. Soc.: W. A. Sparks, Nutley, Uckfield, Sussex. 
OFFERTON BOYS' SCHOOL: A. Binks, Boys' School, Offerton, Stockport. 
OLD WOKING & DIST. HORT. Soc.: /. B. Bantoft, Rose Ferns, Lower Westfield, 


Orpington Hort. Soc. : E. G. Livermore, Bank House, Orpington. 
OSPRINGE COTT. GARD. Assoc.: R. P. Putter, Ospringe School, Faversham. 
OTAGO AGRIC. Soc.: E. /. Duthie, 83 Crawford St., Dunedin. N.Z. 
OTAKI BULB Soc.: /. B. Lee, Ramari, Mill Rd., Otaki, N.Z. 
OTTAWA HORT. Soc.: H. W. Cooper, City Hall, Ottawa, Canada. 
OUNDLE HORT. Soc.: /. Barton, 26 North St., Oundle, Peterborough. 
PADDINGTON DIST. POSTAL HORT. Soc.: A. S. King, P.O., London St., W. 2. 
PALMER'S GREEN CO-OP. ALLOT. Soc. : W. E. Hopkins, 78 Arcadian Gdns., N.22. 
PANGBOURNE GARDENERS' Assoc. f: E. W. Dix, Bowden Green, Pangbourne. 


PARKSTONE GARDENERS' Assoc.: A. May, Stratton, Hillman Rd., Parkstone. 

PENLLYN & DIST. HORT. Soc.: T. H. Jones, Nat. Prov. Bk., Bala, N. Wales. 

PENRITH HORT. Soc.: /. Richardson, 5 Duke St., Penrith. 

PEPPARD HORT. Soc. : Mrs. Stokes, Peppard Common, Oxon. 

PETERSFIELD HORT. Soc.: G. Bailey, Chapel St., Petersfield. 

PETERSHAM HORT. Soc.: Lieut.-Col. Cottingham, Craigmyle, River Lane, 


PILKINGTON ALLOT. Assoc. : W. A . Bate, Glass Works, St. Helens. 
PITMASTON ALLOT. Assoc. : A . Ralphs, 39 Longridge, Balsall Heath, Birming- 
PLUMSTEAD COMMON ALLOT. Soc.: R. E. Ham, 123 Tewson Rd., Plumstead, 

S.E. 18. 
PORT ALBERNI DIST. HORT. Soc.: Rev. A. McLean, Box 122, Port Alberni, 

Vancouver Island, B.C. 

PORTHCAWL HORT. Soc. : T. Harding, 23 Railway Terrace, Porthcawl. 
PORT OF LONDON AUTHORITY HORT. Soc. : G. E. Whyte, Head Office, Trinity 

Sq., E.C. 4. 

PORTSMOUTH HORT. Soc.: E. S. Meredith, 32 Osborne Rd., Southsea, Hants. 
POST OFFICE SAVINGS BANK HORT. Soc.: C. H. Taylor, P.O. Savings Bank, 

Blythe Rd., W. 14. 

POTATO CLUBS Soc.: A. H. R. Southam, M.B.E., 193 Regent St., W. i. 
POTTER'S BAR & NORTHAW HORT. Soc. : H. A . Thompson, Rosemead, Potter's 


5 Princes St., E.C. 

QUEENSLAND HORT. Soc.f: T. F. McColm, Box 616, Brisbane, Queensland. 
RADSTOCK & DIST. HORT. Soc. : D. Davies, Ville Vue, Radstock, Bath. 
RAILWAY HORT. Soc. (CAPE PROVINCE): V. S. Peers, Box 912, Cape Town. 
RAMSBOTTOM EAST WARD ALLOT. Assoc.: /. Wild, 73 Peel Brow, Rams- 
RAMSDEN, BELLHOUSE & DOWNHAM HORT. Soc.: L. J. Lawrence, The Pines, 

Ramsden Heath, Billericay. 
RAMSGATE & DIST. HORT. Soc. : E. Marsden, Park Cottages, West Dumpton, 


RAUNDS HORT. Soc.: /. W. Plant, 18 Coleman St., Raunds. 
REDHILL, REIGATE & DIST. CARD. MUT. IMP. Assoc.: P. Sherlock, n Norbury 

Rd., Reigate, Surrey. 

REDMARLEY HORT. Soc. : F. W. Parry, Redmarley, Newent, Glos. 
REMENHAM FLOWER SHOW Soc. : A . C. Butler, Angel Inn, Remenham, Berks. 
RIDING MILL FLORAL & HORT. Soc.: L. Sharp, Oaklands Lodge, Riding 

ROCHDALE CHRYSANTHEMUM Soc.: M. Greenwood, Fieldhead, Bamford, 

ROEHAMPTON ESTATE GARDEN Soc. : H. Baumgardt, Crestway, Roehampton, 

S.W. 15. 

ROEHAMPTON HORT. Soc.: A. J. Castle, 26 High St., Roehampton, S.W. 15. 
ROMFORD & HORNCHURCH ALLOT. Assoc. : /. Seaman, 155 Victoria Rd., 


ROMSEY & DIST. SHOW Soc. : Rev. D. F. Wright, Chirk Lodge, Romsey, Hants. 
ROUNDHAY HORT. Soc.f: W. Kitchingman, Room 12, 8 York Place, Leeds. 
ROWLATTS HILL ALLOT. Soc. : A . Martin, 39 Prospect Hill, Leicester. 
ROYAL ARSENAL CO-OP. HORT. Soc.: H. D. Parry, 251 McLeod Rd., Abbey- 
wood, S.E. 2. 
ROYAL HORT. Soc. OF VICTORIA: R. V. Mattingley, 8 Emily St., Middle 

Brighton, 85, Victoria, Australia. 

ROYAL OXFORDSHIRE HORT. Soc.: H. Parker, 12 Hurst St., Oxford. 

Lodge, Camden Park, Tunbridge Wells. 
RUDGWICK HORT. Soc.: Capt. J. C. Bruton, Wayhurst, Copse, Rudgwick, 



RUSKIN HORT. Soc.: /. H. Rush, Ministry of Labour, Ruskin Avenue, Kew, 


RUTHIN SHOW Soc.: /. /. Butler, Bryn Siriol, nr. Ruthin. 
RUTLAND HORT. Soc.: P. Norton, 13 Barleythorpe, Oakham. 
ST. ANTHOLIN'S HORT. Soc.: T. W. Kingsbury, 52 Choumert Rd., Peckham, 

S.E. 15. 
ST. MARTIN'S HORT. Soc.f: /. E. Suckling, Registry Branch G.P.O. North, 


ST. MILDRED'S HORT. Soc.: P. B. Shead, 8 Eversley Rd., Charlton, S.E. 
ST. PETER'S & BROADSTAIRS HORT. Soc. : D. Hewitt, 3 Norman Rd., Broadstairs. 
ST. STEPHEN'S HORT. Soc.: G. Roberts, School House, Park St., St. Albans, 

SALTWOOD COTTAGE GARDEN Soc.: A. W. Watson, 40 Tanners Hill Gdns., 

Hythe, Kent. 

SARRAT HORT. Soc.: Rev. G. N. Rigley, Sarratt Rectory, nr. Rickmansworth. 
SCARBOROUGH ALLOT. Assoc. t : /. W. Chapman, 14 West Square, Scarborough. 
SEAFORD LADIES' COLLEGE: Miss Af. Witherington, Ladies' College, Seaford, 

SEA MILLS FETE & FLOWER SHOW: A. E. Jones, 35 Woodleage, Sea Mills, 


SELHURST ALLOT. Soc.: W. Smith, 14 Tugela Rd., W. Croydon, S.E. 25. 
SELSEY HORT. Soc. : Miss Marshall, The Red House, Selsey. 
SEND HORT. Soc.: Lt.-Col. A. H. Thorpe. Eastleigh, Send, Woking. 
SEVEN KINGS HORT. Soc.: C. Farman, 60 Castleton Rd., Goodmayes, Essex. 

Lynch House Gardens, Sevenoaks. 
SHANKLIN HORT. & CHRYSANTHEMUM Soc. : G. Deeks, Scinde House, North Rd., 

Shanklin, I.O.W. 

SHEDFIELD HORT. Soc.: A. A. Corke, Church Rd., Shedfield, Hants. 
SHEFFIELD CHRYSANTHEMUM Soc.: F. B. Hyde, 42 City Rd., Sheffield. 
SHERBORNE GARDENERS' Soc. : A . Trevett, Cold Harbour, Sherborne. 
SHERINGHAM & DIST. ALLOT. Assoc. : G. Harding, The Cottage, Nat. Children's 

Home, Sheringham. 

Hillside, Shinfield, nr. Reading. 
SHOLING COTTAGE GARD. Assoc.: F. G. Mitchell, 40 Middle Rd., Sholing, 


Stanhope, Sidmouth. 
SILVER END HORT. Soc.: R. Tyler, 8 Boars Tye Rd., Silver End, nr. 


SLINFOLD HORT. Soc.: F. Piper, Springfield, Hayes Rd., Slinfold, Horsham. 

Pi y Margall, 18 Madrid. 

Cedar Rd./N.W. 2. 

SOMERDALE HORT. Soc. : A. W. Cleak, 29 Chandos Rd., Somerdale, Bristol. 
SOMERSTOWN & W. WARD ALLOT. Soc. : G. F. Brewer, 42 Kingsham Rd., 

SOUTH BENFLEET HORT. Soc.: H. J. Frost, Fairlop, Constitution Hill, S. 

Benfleet, Essex. 
SOUTH-EASTERN POSTAL DIST. HORT. Soc.: A. J. Hesk, S.E. Parcel Office, 

S.E. i. 

SOUTHALL HORT. Soc.: /. Stephens, 69 Abbots Rd., Southall, Middlesex. 
SOUTHAMPTON GARDENERS' Soc.: F, J. Rose, Townhill Park Gardens, 

Bitterne, Southampton. 
SOUTHAMPTON ROYAL HORT. Soc.: M. W. Beer, Eperquerie, Bassett, 

SOUTHBOURNE FLOWER SHOW: Miss G. Branson, Stanmore, Southbourne, 




Manager's Office, Waterloo. 
SOUTHFIKLDS AoRic. Assoc.: F. G. Jennings, 12 Elsenham St., Southfields, 

S.E. 1 8. 
SOUTHGATS CHASE ALLOT. Soc.: A. G. Smith, 15 Chelmsford Rd., Southgate, 

N. 14. 

House, South Merstham, Surrey. 
SOUTH NORWOOD ALLOT. Assoc.: /. Thurgood, 14 St. Mary's Rd., South 

Norwood, S.E. 25. 
SOUTH OCKENDEN HORT. Assoc.: C. A. Waight, Ivydene, North Rd., South 

Ockenden, Essex. 

SOUTH SHIELDS SMALLHOLDERS: H. Foster, 53 Oxford St., South Shields. 
SOUTH SUBURBAN CO-OP. HORT. Soc.: T. G. Farrant, 22A Tremaine Rd., 

Anerley, S.E. 20. 

SOUTH WALES GARDENS GUILD : /. P. Roberts, 1 7 Belle Vue, Tref orest, Glam. 
SOUTH-WEST POSTAL DIST. HORT. Soc.: W. Ashton, S.W.D.O., Howick 

Place, S.W. i. 
SOUTHWICK & DIST. HORT. & ALLOT. Soc.: /. Gasson, 65 Southview Rd., 

Southwick, Sussex. 

Cottage, Sparsholt, Winchester. 

STAINES LINO HORT. Soc.: H. W. Alexander, Linoleum Works, Staines. 
STAPLEFORD CO-OP. Soc.: A D. Wall, 31 Ash Grove, Stapleford. 
STATE COLLIERIES (N.Z.) FLORAL Soc.f: T. E. Ward, Runanga, N.Z. 
STEVEN AGE GARDENERS' MUT. IMP. Soc. : Miss M. S. Powers, Gable Cottage, 

Stevenage, Herts. 
STEYNING & DIST. GARDENERS' Assoc.: F. W. Tuck, High St., Steyning, 


STOCKPORT HORT. MUT. IMP. Soc. : 5. Pearson, 8 Belgrave Crescent, Stockport. 
STOCKPORT SMALL HOLDINGS Soc. : G. Carter, Town Hall, Stockport. 
STOCKSFIELD GARD. Assoc.: R. Reed, Hendley Gdns., Stocksfield-on-Tyne. 
STOGURSEY & DIST. HORT. Soc.: W. W. Stone, Stogursey, Bridgwater, 

STOKE-BY-CLARE FLOWER SHOW: Rev. F. Barnes, The Vicarage, Stoke-by- 


STORRINGTON HORT. Soc.: H. Chaloner, West St., Storrington, Pulborough. 
STOURPORT HORT. Soc. : F. Goode, 7 Gilgal, Stourport, Worcester. 
STRATFORD-ON-AVON ALLOT. Assoc.: R. H. Webb, 4 HoltomSt., Stratford-on- 


STRATHEARN HORT. Soc.: /. Kelly, St. Margaret's, Dollerie Tee., Crieff. 
STUART ROAD ALLOT. Soc.: W. Avery, 24 Bertrand Rd., Peckham Rye, 

S.E. 15. 
SUDBUYR & DIST. GARDENERS' & AMATEUR Assoc. : W. W infield, The Gardens, 

Auberies, Sudbury, Suffolk. 

SUNBURY ALLOT. Assoc.: G. Kirby, 12 Thames St., Sunbury, Middlesex. 
SUNDERLAND GARDENERS' Soc.: G. Attey, i? Norfolk St., Sunderland. 
SURBITON & TOLWORTH HORT. Soc. : W. Stephens, 13 Worthington Rd., 


SUSSEX COUNTY AGRIC. Soc. : W. Goaring, County Hall, Lewes, Sussex. 
SUTTON HORT. Soc.: F. Harris, 143 Collingwood Rd., Sutton, Surrey. 

Rd., Sutton Coldfield. 

SUTTON COLDFIELD GARD. Soc.: A. Burton, 71 Coles Lane, Sutton Coldfield. 
SUTTON-IN-ASHFIBLD HORT. Soc. : H. H. Bishop, 6 Martyn Avenue, Sutton-in- 


SWABY ROAD ALLOT. Soc.: G. Tutchell, 19 Coleford Road, Wandsworth. 
SWANAGE HORT. Soc.f: F. E. Barnes, Purley, Park Rd., Swanage. 
SWANSCOMBE LAND CLUB: S. G. Cleverley, 132 Milton Rd., Swanscombe, 



TAVISTOCK & DIST. COTTAGE GARDEN Soc.: H. H. Ker stake, 20 West St., 


TEDDINGTON HORT. Soc.: C. H. Bone, 24 St. Winifred's Rd., Teddington. 
TENDRING HORT. Soc. : W. Creasy, Romford House, Tendring, Essex. 
TETBURY HORT. Soc.: A. H. Lewis, Hort. Soc., Tetbury, Glos. 
THAXTED HORT. Soc. : /. O. Barbrook, Estate Office, Thaxted, Essex. 
THE CAPE HORT. Soc.fJ : F. E. Cartwright, Box 127, Cape Town. 
THE TOWERS HORT. Soc.: /. H. Chappel, P.O. Box 55, School St., Charters 

Tower, Queensland. 
THORNTON HEATH HORT. Soc.f : T. W. Marland, 7 Leander Rd. f Thornton 

THUNDERSLEY HORT. Soc.: /. /. Patter, Maxley House, Mount Rd., 

THURSLEY HORT. Soc.: Miss M. Gibson, The Cottage, Thursley, Godalming, 


TILLINGS CLUB HORT. Soc.: H. A. Dyer, 73 E. Dulwich Rd., E. Dulwich. 
TIPTON ST. JOHNS (DEVON) HORT. Soc.: C. Tamlin, Tipton St. Johns, Devon. 
TIPTREE HORT. Soc.: C. Leach, Brick Farm, Tiptree, Essex. 
TISBURY HORT. Soc.: A. Hibberd, Tisbury. Wilts. 
TONBRIDGE GARDENERS' & AMATEURS' Soc.f: B. C. Flemons, 3 Hadlow Rd., 


TOTTERIDGE HORT. Soc. : C. R. Dunch, Manor Lodge, Totteridge. 
TRANS NZOIA HORT. Soc. : Mrs. Jack, Kania Koia Kibale, Kenya Colony. 
TRANSVAAL HORT. Soc.: A. R. Carpenter, P.O. Box 7616, Johannesburg. 
TUFNELL PK. GARDENS' Soc.: W. F. Budd, 29 Tufnell Pk. Rd., Holloway, 

N. 7. 

TURNFORD HALL NURSERIES: 5. Faulkner, Workmen's Institute, Broxbourne. 
TWERTON-ON-AVON HORT. Soc. : F. Mitchell, 6 How Hill, Twerton, Bath. 
TWICKENHAM HORT. & ALLOT. GARDENERS' Assoc.: B. Ede, 19 Belmont Rd., 


TWYFORD & RUSCOMBE HORT. Soc. : T. Carlile, Twyford, Berks. 
TWYFORD HORT. Soc.: Miss L. M. Manners, Crofton, Twyford, Winchester. 
TYLORSTOWN HORT. Soc. : /. D. Thomas, 45 Hendrefadog, Tylorstown, Glam. 
UITENHAGE HORT. Soc. : C. Hamilton, 3 Scanlan St., Uitenhage, S.A. 
UTTOXETER AGRIC. Soc.: H. J. Ryder, Agric. Soc., Uttoxeter. 
VANCOUVER HORT. Soc.: G. P. Arnett, 277 Forty-ninth Avenue E., S. Van- 
couver, B.C. 
VANCOUVER ISLAND HORT. Assoc.: P. R. Leighton, 356 St. Charles St. 

Victoria, B.C. 
VAUGHAN WORKMEN'S COLLEGE: T. Kenney, 81 Coral St., Belgrave Rd. 


VICTORIA HORT. Soc.: F. E. Boulter, 1465 Woodlands Rd., Victoria, B.C. 
VICTORIA ROAD INSTITUTE: L. Bayley, 26 Connaught St., Leicester. 
VIRGINIA WATER HORT. Assoc. : C. O. Gridley, Meadowsweet, Virginia Water. 
WALLINGTON & DIST. HORT. Soc.: H. F. Wellington, Lyndhurst, Lavender 

Vale, Wallington. 

WALMER HORT. Soc. : E. T. Reynolds, c/o Town Hall, Walmer, S. Africa. 
WALSALL HORT. Soc.t: W. H. Kinson, 2 Arcade Balcony, Bradford St., 

WALTHAMSTOW & DIST. GAR. GUILD: A. C. Sarson, 33 Elphinstone Rd. 

WALTHAMSTOW SUPPLIES & THRIFT CLUB : B. Cole, 6 Belle Vue Rd., Waltham- 

stow, E. 
WALTON-ON-NAZB HORT. Soc.: T. W. Blake, 3 Thatched Cottage, Hall Lane, 


WARFISLD HORT. Soc. : C. Inglefield, The Grove Lodge, Warfield, Bracknell. 
WARLINGHAM & DIST. HORT. Soc. : . Isaacs, The Green, Warlingham, Surrey. 
WARSASH HORT. Soc. : W. Dimmock, Furze Cottage, Warsash, Hants. 
WARWICK (QUEENSLAND) HORT. Soc. : F. W. Stockwell, Pratten St., Warwick, 




WATERLOOVILLB FLORAL & HORT. Soc.: E. Francis, London Rd., Waterloo- 

ville, Cosham, Hants. 
WELL HALL & DIST. HORT. Soc.: G. T. Morton, I5A Katrine Terrace, Eltham, 

S,E. 9. 

WEMBLEY HILL HORT. Soc.: H. A. Steer, 21 Monks Pk., Wembley Hill. 
WEMBLEY PARK & DIST. HORT. Soc.: A. P. Bertwistle, Radiological Unit, 

Preston Rd., Harrow. 
WENDOVER AMATEUR FLORAL & HORT. Assoc.: H. G. Landon, 10 Victory Rd., 

Wendover, Bucks. 

WEST BROMWICH ALLOT. & HORT. Soc. : C. Myatt, 5 Legge St., West Bromwich. 
WEST CENTRAL P.O. HORT. Soc.: R. H. Cavill, W.C. Dist. P.O., W.C. i. 
WEST HAM HORT. Soc.: A. E. Cresswell, 70 Latimer Rd., Forest Gate, E. 7. 

Sloane St., Maidstone. 

WEST MERSEA HORT. Soc.: Capt. A. E. Toombs, West Mersea, Colchester. 
WEST NORWOOD ALLOT. Assoc.: H. A. Treganowan, 20 Broxholm Rd., West 

Norwood, S.E. 

WESTEND CARD. Soc. : Dr. E. Jeffery, Hope Lodge, Westend, Southampton. 
WESTERHAM GARDENERS' Assoc. : S. Vaus, London Rd., Westerham. 
WESTERN DIST. HORT. Soc.: C. W. Caswell, Post Office, Wimpole St., W. i. 
WESTERN PARCELS OFFICE HORT. Soc.: R. T. Hitchcock, W. Dist. P.O., 

Bird St., W. i. 

WESTMINSTER BANK HORT. Soc. : H . L. Flindt, Foreign Branch Office, 8 Corn- 
hill, E.C. 3. 

WEST SURREY HORT. Soc.: H. Baines, 21 St. Mary's Rd., Camberley. 
WEYBRIDGE HORT. Soc.: R. E. J. Bradshaw, Oakview, Ellesmere Rd., 

Wey bridge. 

WHARNCLIFFE HORT. Soc. : J. L. Wright, Tankersley, Barnsley. 
WHITEHALL HORT. Soc. : T. Crawford, The Limes, Johnsons Rd., Whitehall, 


4 Gordon Sq., Whitley Bay. 
WILLESDEN PROGRESSIVE HORT. Soc.: F. Hutchings, 53 Church Rd., 

Willesden, N.W. 10. 
WILLITON COTTAGE GARDENERS' Assoc.: T. L. Sparks, Wyndham Estate 

Office, Williton, Somerset. 

WIMBLEDON GARDENERS' Soc.: W. Gill, 12 Courthope Villas, Wimbledon. 
WINCHESTER HORT. Assoc.: F. Templar, 5 Grafton Rd., Winchester. 
WIVELISCOMBE HORT. Soc.: W. H. Broom, Golden Hill, Wiveliscombe, Som. 
WIVELSFIELD HORT. Soc. : Mrs. Enthoven, Great Ote Hall, Burgess Hill, 


E. H. H. Simmonds, Fairseat, Knaphill, Woking. 
WOLDINGHAM & DIST. HORT. Soc. : P. W. Phillips, Coltsfoot, Woldingham, 


WOODBRIDGE HORT. Soc.fJ: R. Bentham, Alma House, Melton, Woodbridge. 
WOODFORD HORT. Soc.f: R. S. Jones, Forest Glen, Fuller's Av., Woodford 

Green, E. 
WOODSTOCK AGRIC. & HORT. Assoc.: C. Hottey, Kensington Rd., Woodstock, 

WOOLWICH, PLUMSTEAD & DIST. HORT. Soc.: A. J. Corder, 95. Benares Rd., 

Plumstead, S.E. 

WOOTTON BASSETT HORT, Soc. :A.M. Clarke, Ballard's Ash, Wootton Bassett 
WORCESTER COUNTY HORT. Soc.: H. R. Kinney, 30 Elm St., Worcester, Mass, 
WORCESTER PARK HORT. Soc.: A. E. Mustow, 10 Brinkley Rd., Worcestei 

WORPLESDON HORT. Soc.: A. L. Kelly, Hocklend Lands, Worplesdon 


WORTH AMALGAMATED HORT. Soc.: F. C. Peaehty, South Hill Gdns., Worth 


WORTH HORT. Soc.: A. J. Tillman, Worth, Sandwich, Kent. 

WORTHING ALLOT. HOLDERS' Assoc. : T. C. Brown, 3 Cortis Av., Worthing. 

WYKE, NORMANDY & DIST. HORT. Soc.: H. L. Mutnford, Heatherslde, 

Normandy, Guildford. 

WYLAM HORT. Soc.: K. McKenzie, 16 Algernon Terrace, Wylam-on-Tyne. 
YIEWSLEY & DIST. HORT. Soc.: A. Pearce, 107 Whitehorn Avenue, Yiewsley. 

Patron: H.M. The King. Hon. Pres.: lord Provost of Aberdeen. 
Sec.: J. B. Rennett, 231 Union St., Aberdeen. Telephone 486. Founded 

Sec.: R. Chawner, Derby House, Preston. Telephone: Preston 366. 
Telegrams: Deorlancs Preston. Founded 1767. 

President: The Marchioness Townshend of Raynhaven. Sec.: W. 
Kerridge, East Harling, Norwich. Founded 1847. 

President: Sir Hugh Shaw-Stewart, Bart., of Ardgowan. Northern 
Branch President: The Earl of Leven and Melville. Aberdeen Branch 
President: Lord Forbes. Sec.: Robert Adam, Advocate, 6 Bonaccord 
Sq., Aberdeen. Founded 1854. PUBLICATION: Transactions. 

Patron: The Marquess Camden. President: Mr. Councillor E. 
Merritt, J.P. Hon. Sec.: A. Heathfield, 42 Tunnel Rd., Tunbridge 

Sec.: George Collin, 66 Debden Rd., Saffron Walden. Founded 1819. 

President: E. W. Hitchcock, Esq. Hon. Sec.: W. J. Jennings, 
Napsbury, St. Albans. 

President: The Mayor. Sec.: J. Richardson, Buile Hill Park, 
Salford. Telephone: Pendleton 749. Founded 1882. 

President: The Hon. Louis Greville. Hon. Sec.: W. F. Gullick, 120 
Fisherton St., Salisbury. Founded 1906. 

Sec.: F. W. Western, Sandy, Beds. Telephone: 21 Sandy. Founded 

President: James Kerr. Hon. Sec.: John Smellie, Westwood Cot, 
Helensburgh, Dumbartonshire. 

President: Major R. S. Milne. Hon. Sec.: William Dobbie, School- 
house, Renfrew. 

President: Sir George Holcroft, Bart. Sec.: W. G. Brazier, The 
Square, Shrewsbury. Telephone: 2237. Founded 1875. 

Chairman and Managing Director: Mrs. C. F. Leyel, Culpeper House, 
Baker St.. W. i. Telephone: Welbeck 6836. PUBLICATION: The Divine 
Origin of the Craft of the Herbalist. 

Hon. Sec: Cyril Harding, Esq., Sunnyside, Lenham 


Founded by Sir Maurice Abbott-Anderson, C.V.O., and Mr. Cyril 

Harding, 1929. 


President: S. Archer Phillips, Esq. Hon. Sec.: Mrs. Grattan, 
Tyrconnel Lodge, Spencer Rd., Canford Cliffs, Bournemouth. 

Patron: H.R.H. The Duchess of York. President: The Mayor of 
Southport. Sec.: T. E. Wolstenholme, Town Hall, Southport. Tele- 
grams: Information, Southport. Telephone: 5161 Southport. Founded 



President: G. Petersen, Esq. Gen. Sec.: T. Perkins, 23 Olive Rd., 
Plaistow, E. 13. Founded 1896. 

President: A. W. White, Esq. Sec.: R. E. Patterson, Kenwood, 
Pennygate, Spalding. 

Sec.: Mr. John Sherratt, yoB Station St., Burton-on-Trent. 

Sec.: O. Frost, Maycroft, Sundridge, Sevenoaks. Founded 1894. 

President: The Rt. Hon. Earl of Morley. Gen. Sec.: C. A. Hall, 
Education Office, Saltash. Telephone: Saltash 33. Organising Sees.: 
D. Manning, i Richmond Rd., Exeter; H. W. A. Abbiss, County Hall, 
Truro. Telephone: 182. Founded 1927. 

President: Sir Dennis Fortescue Boles, Bart. Sec.: W. H. Loose- 
more, Sundown, Kingston Rd., Taunton. 

Sec.: F. J. J. Stacey, 3 Hammet Street, Taunton. Telephone: 
Taunton 29. 

Hon. Sec.: A. Baker, Jun., The Gables, Tewkesbury. 

Hon. Sec.: R. W. Hodder, Oakley, Torquay. 

Patron: Sir William Lawrence, Bart. Sec.: A. C. Hill, 35 Alexandra 
Rd., West Kensington Park, W. 14. Founded 1865. To provide 
assistance in sickness, old age, and a sum of money at death, to members. 
Open to all private and market gardeners, nurserymen, seedsmen, and 
florists up to the age of 45 years. 

President: C. A. Binyon, Esq., M.P. Hon. Sec.: A. S. Boaler. 

President: Mrs. Causton. Hon. Sec.: Mr. G. A. Wilkins, Glengarry, 

Hon. Sec.: Mrs. Llewelyn K. Jones, Round Oak, Wadhurst. 

President: Mr. Watmough. Founded 1836. 

President: Lord Clarendon. Sec.: A. J. Copeland, 132 High St., 
Watford. Telephone: Watford 771. 



President: The Earl of Morley. Sec.: Mr. S. Collecott, 52 Coburg St., 
Plymouth. Founded 1889. Monthly meetings. 

Sec.: C. J. Bowers, 4 Wooperton Terrace, Weymouth. 

Patrons: H.M. The King, H.M. The Queen, H.R.H. The Prince of 
Wales, H.R.H. Princess Mary, Countess Harewood, H.R.H. Princess 
Alice, Countess of Athlone, Brig.-Gen. the Earl of Athlone, G.C.V.O. 
President: Col. The Hon. Sir George Crichton. Hon. Sec.: J. H. Harding 
i Sheet St., Windsor. Telephone: 212. Founded 1893. 

Sec.: ]. Haley, 22 Countess Av., Witley Bay. 

Sec.: Capt. W. J. Maxfield, Town Hall, Wolverhampton. Telephone: 
1430. Founded 1892. 

President: H.R.H. Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll. Sec.: Miss 
Vanderpant, 29 Park Rd., Upper Baker St., N.W. i. Telephone: 
Paddington 3856. Founded 1899. To unite all professional land 
workers, and those interested in outdoor work for women; to help and 
advise outdoor workers ; to influence public opinion in connection with 
women's land work. Information is given in regard to training at 
Horticultural and Agricultural Colleges. An Employment Register is 
kept for trained workers. The Association is in touch with the Overseas 
Settlement of British Women, and has up-to-date information with 
regard to openings for women landworkers in the Dominions. A Club for 
members was opened in 1918, and a year later moved to its present 
premises, 27-9 Park Rd. In 1920 an estate was purchased at Lingfield, 
Surrey, for the establishment of smallholdings for women. The Associa- 
tion has an Outfit Department for the sale of land kit. Women working 
on the land for a salary or running their own farms join as Working and 
Ordinary Members; others interested as Associate Members. PUBLICA- 
TIONS : Report and Journal in March. Leaflets in June, September, and 

President: The Rt. Hon. the Earl of Coventry. Sec.: Mr. R. C. Gaut, 
Shirehall, Worcester. Founded 1921. 

President: Col. Sir Edward Brotherton, Bart. Sec.: P. Mennim, 
The Assembly Rooms, York. 


THE Office of Works and the Empire Marketing Board have arranged 
for a third display of home-grown Tulips in the London parks. The 
chief display will be in St. James's Park. The Empire Marketing 
Board also arranged for a display in the Cardiff public parks. Bermuda 
Lilies, again the gift of the Bermuda Department of Agriculture, will 
be seen in Hyde Park. 

Lindley Library. Owing to reconstruction of the R.H.S. offices 
and the removal of the Lindley Library to new rooms, there will be 
no accommodation for readers between the months of February and 
April. So far as possible books will still be lent out to Fellows. 

The Royal English Arboricultural Society will again offer prizes for 
the best essay on Trees from children. 

The annual meeting and conference of the Hort. Education Associa- 
tion will be held at the Midland Agricultural College in September. 

The World Tractor Trials, to be held near Oxford, will give special 
attention to testing small mechanical equipment suitable for market- 
garden use. 

The National Sweet Pea Trials for 1930 will be grown on Mr. J. 
Stevenson's ground at New Milton, Dorset. A fee of as. 6d. will be 
charged by the Committee for providing shade for orange and salmon 
varieties, in addition to the entry fee of 75. 6d. per set. Not less than 
36 seeds of any variety are required for trial. Seed pockets may be 
obtained from the Secretary of the Society. 

As the R.A.S.E. Show is to be held at Manchester this year, the 
Royal Lancashire Show will not be held. 

On January i7th, Dr. A. B. Rendle retires from the post of Keeper 
of Botany, British Museum (Nat. Hist.). 


AT the Eighth International Horticultural Congress, held at 
Vienna, Austria, in 1927, an invitation from the R.H.S. to 
hold the next International Horticultural Congress in London 
was accepted. It was decided that the Ninth International 
Horticultural Congress should be held in London from August 

7 to August 15, 1930, immediately before the Fifth Inter- 



national Botanical Congress, which is to be held in Cambridge 
from August i6th to August 23rd. An Executive Committee 
was appointed by the Society to make the necessary arrange- 
ments for the Congress. The members are Professor B. T. 
Barker, M.A., Mr. E. A. Bowles, M.A., V.M.H., F.L.S., F.E.S., 
Mr. E. A. Bunyard, F.L.S., Mr. F. J. Chittenden, F.L.S., V.M.H., 
Sir Daniel Hall, K.C.B., M.A., F.R.S., Mr. R. G. Hatton, M.A., 
Sir William Lawrence, Bart., Mr. G. W. Leak, Mr. C. T. Mus- 
grave, V.M.H., Dr. A. B. Rendle, M.A., F.R.S., V.-P.L.S., 
V.M.H., Mr. H. V. Taylor, O.B.E., B.Sc., the Secretary of the 
R.H.S. acting as Secretary. 

The subscription for membership of the Congress will be 
r, which should be paid to the Secretary of the R.H.S. , Vincent 
Square, S.W.I. Early notification to the Secretary of intention 
to attend the Congress is particularly requested. 

The main subject for discussion at the Congress will be 
"Propagation, vegetative and seminal," for which papers and 
communications have been and are invited, and Dr. Van der 
Lek (Holland), Dr. R. J. Graham (Great Britain), Professor 
Priestley (Great Britain), Niels Esbjerg (Denmark), G. E. 
Yerkes (U.S.A.), Carl A. Dahl (Sweden), Dr. Webber (U.S.A.), 
Professor Faes (Switzerland), Franz Richter (France), Pro- 
fessor Denny (U.S.A.), Miss M. E. Reid (U.S.A.), Dr. Redcliffe 
Salaman (Great Brtiain), and Dr. Erwin Baur (Germany), 
etc., etc., have signified their intention of presenting papers. 
There will be other sections, and the Committee is prepared to 
receive suggestions for papers for consideration. The Com- 
mittees appointed at the Congress held in Vienna in 1927 will 
present their reports: Committee I. On Nomenclature; 
Committee II. On Awards; Committee III. On Colour; 
Committee IV. On Horticultural Institutions and Research; 
Committee V. On International Exchange of Young Gar- 
deners; Committee VI. On the Development of the Inter- 
national Committee. 

Communications made to the Congress by means of paper 
or participation in the general discussion will be permissible 
in English, French, and German. Further information will be 
sent in due course to all who signify their intention to attend 
the Congress, or will be issued to the Press from time to time. 

An extensive programme for visits to research stations and 


gardens of horticultural interest throughout the Kingdom is 
being arranged. 

All correspondence should be addressed to the Secretary of the 
R.H.S., London, S.W.I. 



The Congress will be held at Cambridge in August. A 
meeting of British botanists is arranged to take place on 
January loth at the Linnean Society's Rooms, Burlington 
House. All interested in the subject are invited to attend. 

Among the subjects for discussion at the Conference are: 
Nomenclature; Life cycles of bacteria; Selective fertilization; 
Action of sulphur as a fungicide; The oldest known terres- 
trial vegetation. Information from the Hon, Sees., E. T. 
Brooks, Esq., Botany School, Cambridge, and Dr. T. F. 
Chipp, R. Botanic Gardens, Kew. 


(Owing to the earlier date of going to Press many Societies were 
unable to supply dates of fixtures.) 

i W Bank Holiday in Scotland. 

Nat. Carnation Soc. (Northern Section). Meeting. 
Rotherham Hort. Soc. Meeting. 
Reigate Gard. Soc. Lecture. 7. 

3 F 

4 S Prof. Gard. Asn. Meeting. 7. 

Leeds Paxton Soc. Evening Ex. 

5 S 

6 M Romsey Gard. Asn. Meeting. 

Taunton Gard. Asn. Lecture. 
Derbyshire Hort. Asn. Annual Meeting. 

7 T Kingston and Surbiton Gard. Lecture. 8. 

R. Caledonian Hort. Soc. Meeting. 

8 W Salisbury Gard. Soc. Meeting. 

Wimbledon Gard. Soc. Meeting. 

9 Th Linnean Soc. Meeting. 

10 F Manchester and N. of Eng. Orchid Soc. Meeting. 

British botanists meet at Linnean Soc. Rooms. 
R.H.S. Ireland. Meeting. 
Dundee Hort. Soc. Meeting. 

11 S Leeds Paxton Soc. Annual Meeting. 

12 S 

13 M Plough Monday. 

Birmingham and Mid. Co. Asn. Annual Meeting. 7.30. 
R.H.S. General and Teachers' Exams. Entries close. 

14 T R.H.S. Ex. 1-5. 

15 W Reigate Gard. Soc. Lecture. 7. 

Glasgow Hort. Soc. Lecture. 
Eastbourne Hort. Soc. Meeting. 

16 Th Ipswich Gard. Asn. Meeting. 

Lincoln Gard. Asn. Annual Meeting. 

17 F Dundee Hort. Soc. Annual Meeting. 

18 S Leeds Paxton Soc. Evening Ex. 

19 S 

20 M Taunton Gard. Asn. Lecture. 

21 T Winchester Hort. Soc. Meeting. 




22 W Salisbury Card. Soc. Meeting. 

Newcastle Hort. Soc. Meeting. 
1 Wimbledon Card. Soc. Meeting. 
Sheffield Chrys. Soc. Annual Meeting. 

23 Th Linnean Soc. Meeting. 

Brit. Florists' Fed. Annual Meeting. 
Card. Royal Ben. Inst. Annual Meeting. 

24 F Manchester and N. of Eng. Orchid Soc. Meeting. 

Kingston Chrys. Soc. Annual Meeting. 

25 S Lancaster Hort. Asn. Lecture and Compet. 7. 

Leeds Paxton Soc. Annual Dinner. 

26 S 

27 M Birmingham and Mid. Co. Asn. Lecture. 7.30. 

28 T R.H.S. Ex. 1-5. 

29 W Reigate Card. Soc. Lecture. 7. 

30 Th 

31 F Dundee Hort. Soc. Meeting. 


1 S Prof. Card. Asn. Meeting, 7. 

R.H.S. Nat. Dip. Exam. Entries close. 
Lindley Library closes for alterations. 
Dunfermline Hort. Soc. Meeting. 

2 S 

3 M Romsey Gard. Asn. Meeting. 

Nat. Chrys. Soc. Annual Meeting. 
Taunton Gard. Asn. Lecture. 

4 T Kingston and Surbiton Gard. Lecture. 8. 

R. Caledonian Hort. Soc. Meeting. 

5 W Salisbury Gard. Soc. Meeting. 

Wimbledon Gard. Soc. Meeting. 
Rotherham Hort. Soc. Meeting. 

6 Th Linnean Soc. Meeting. 

Bideford Hort. Soc. Meeting. 

7 F Manchester and N. of Eng. Orchid Soc. Meeting. 

Dundee Hort. Soc. Meeting. 

8 S Leeds Paxton Soc. Evening Ex. 

9 S 

10 M Birmingham and Mid. Co. Asn. Lecture. 7.30. 
Derbyshire Hort. Asn. Meeting. 

xx T R.H.S. Ex. 1-5. 

Faversham Chrys. Asn. Annual Meeting. 

12 W Reigate Gard. Soc. Lecture. 7. 

Glasgow Hort. Soc. Lecture. 

R. Gard. Orphan Fund. Annual Meeting. 

Sheffield Chrys. Soc. Lecture. 

13 Th 



14 F R.H.S. Ireland. Meeting. 

Sundridge Hort. Soc. Meeting. 

15 S Leeds Paxton Soc. Evening Ex. 

16 S 

17 M Taunton Card. Asn. Lecture. 

18 T Winchester Hort. Soc. Meeting. 

19 W Salisbury Card. Soc. Meeting. 

Eastbourne Hort. Soc. Meeting. 
Wimbledon Card. Soc. Meeting. 

20 Th Linnean Soc. Meeting. 

Ipswich Gard. Asn. Meeting. 
Lincoln Gard. Asn. Meeting. 

21 F Manchester and N. of Eng. Orchid Soc. Meeting. 

22 S Lancaster Hort. Asn. Lantern Lecture and Compet. 7. 

Leeds Paxton Soc. Evening Ex. 

23 5 

24 M Birmingham and Mid. Co. Asn. Lecture. 7.30. 

25 T R.H.S. Ex. 1-5. Annual Meeting. 3. 

26 W Reigate Gard. Soc. Lecture. 7. 

Newcastle Hort. Soc. Meeting. 

27 Th 

28 F Sundridge Hort. Soc. Meeting. 


1 S Prof. Gard. Asn. Meeting. 7. 

2 S 

3 M Birmingham and Mid. Co. Asn. Social Evening. 

Romsey Gard. Asn. Meeting. 

Leeds Paxton Soc. Lecture. 

Taunton Gard. Asn. Vegetable Night and Social Evening. 

4 T Kingston and Surbiton Gard. Lecture. 

R. Caledonian Hort. Soc. Meeting. 
Nottingham Chrys. Soc. Meeting. 

5 W Salisbury Gard. Soc. Meeting. 

Nat. Carnation Soc. (N. Section) Meeting. 
Rotherham Hort. Soc. Meeting. 

6 Th Linnean Soc. Meeting. 

Bideford Hort. Soc. Meeting. 

Western Commercial Hort. Spring Show, ist day. 

7 F Dundee Hort. Soc. Meeting. 

Western Commercial Spring Show. 2nd day. 

8 S 

9 S 

10 M Birmingham and Mid. Co. Asn. Lecture. 7.30. 

United Hort. Ben. Soc. Annual Meeting. 
Derbyshire Hort Asn. Meeting. 

11 T R.H.S. Ex. ist day. 1-5. 



12 W R.H.S. 2nd day. 10-5. 

R.H.S. General Exam. 
Glasgow Hort. Soc. Lecture. 
Reigate Gard. Soc. Lecture. 7. 

13 Th 

14 F R.H.S. Ireland. Meeting. 

Sundridge Hort. Soc. Meeting. 

15 S Lancaster Hort. Asn. Lecture. 7. 

Leeds Paxton Soc. Evening Ex. 
Bolton Hort Soc. Bulb Show. 

16 5 

17 M St. Patrick's Day. 

Taunton Gard. Asn. Lecture. 

18 T Winchester Hort. Soc. Meeting. 

19 W Salisbury Gard. Soc. Meeting. 

Eastbourne Hort. Soc. Meeting. 
Wimbledon Gard. Soc. Meeting. 

20 Th Linnean Soc. Meeting. 

Ipswich Gard. Asn. Meeting. 
Lincoln Gard. Asn. Meeting. 

21 F Vernal Equinox. 

22 S R.H.S. Teachers' Exam. 

Kilmarnock Bulb Ex. 

Leeds Paxton Soc. Evening Ex. 

Bermondsey Spring Bulb Show. 

23 S 

24 M Ideal Home Ex. Opens. Gardens in Annexe. 

Birmingham and Mid. Co. Asn. Lecture. 7.30. 

25 T R.H.S. Ex. ist day. 1-5. 

26 W R.H.S. 2nd day. 10-5. 

Reigate Gard. Soc. Lecture. 7. 

Bournemouth Hort. Soc. Spring Show, ist day. 

Newcastle Hort. Soc. Meeting. 

27 Th Bournemouth. 2nd day. 

Taunton Bulb and Spring Flower Ex. 

28 F Sundridge Hort. Soc. Meeting. 

29 S Lancaster Hort. Asn. General Meeting and Compet. \ 

30 S 

31 M R.H.S. Scholarship Exam. Entries close. 


1 T Kingston and Surbiton Gard. Lecture. 8. 

R. Caledonian Hort. Soc. Meeting. 
Nottingham Hort. Soc. Meeting. 

2 W Tamar Valley Commercial Show, Plymouth, ist day. 

Nat. Carnation Soc. (N. Section) Meeting. 
Rotherham Hort. Soc. Meeting. 
Wimbledon Gard. Soc. Meeting. 



3 Th Linnean Soc. Meeting. 

Plymouth, 2nd day. 

4 F Manchester and N. of Eng. Orchid Soc. Meeting. 

Bideford Hort. Soc. Meeting. 
Dundee Hort. Soc. Meeting. 

5 S Prof. Card. Asn. Meeting. 7. 

6 S 

7 M Romsey Gard. Asn. Meeting. 

Taunton Gard. Asn. Lecture. 

8 T R.H.S. Ex. and Nat. Bulb Soc. Ex. ist day. 1-7. 

9 W Brighton Spring Ex. ist day. 

R.H.S. and Bulb Ex. 2nd day. 10-5. 
Glasgow Hort. Soc. Lecture. 
R.H.S. Ireland. Spring Ex. ist day. 
Herefordshire Spring Flower Ex. 
Instow Spring Show. 

10 Th Brighton. 2nd day. 

R.H.S. Ireland. Ex. 2nd day. 
Sundridge Hort. Soc. Meeting. 

11 F 

12 S 

13 S Summer time begins. 

14 M 

15 T R.H.S. Daffodil Ex. ist day. 1-7. 

16 W Daffodil Ex. 2nd day. 10-5. 

Eastbourne Hort. Soc. Meeting. 

17 Th Lincoln Gard. Asn. Meeting. 

Ideal Home Ex. Last day. 

1 8 F Good Friday. 

19 S Primrose Day. 

20 5 Easter Sunday. 

21 M Bank Holiday. 

22 T 

23 W R.H.S. and Nat. Auricula and Primula Soc. Ex. ist day. 1-7. 

Newcastle Hort. Soc. Meeting. 

24 Th R.H.S. and N.A.P.S. Ex. 2nd day. 10-5. 

Midland Daf. Soc. Ex., Birmingham, ist day. 
Harrogate Spring Ex. ist day. 

25 F Birmingham. 2nd day. 

Manchester and N. of Eng. Orchid Soc. Meeting. 
Nat. Rose Soc. Spring Ex. 
Harrogate. 2nd day. 

26 S 

27 S 

28 M Manchester Spring Ex. Entries close. 

29 T Rhododendron Asn. Ex., R.H.S. Hall, xst day. 1-7. 

30 W Rhododendron Ex. 2nd day. 10-5. 

R.H.S. Scholarship Exam. 



1 Th Linnean Soc. Meeting. 

Bideford Hort. Soc. Meeting. 

2 F 

3 S R.H.S. Nat. Dip. Exam. 

Prof. Card. Asn. Meeting. 7. 

4 5 

5 M Romsey Gard. Asn. Visit gardens. 

6 T R.H.S. Ex. ist day. 1-7. 

R. Bot. and Hort. Soc. Manchester Spring Ex., and Nat. 
Auricula and Primula Soc. 58th Ex., Town Hall, Man- 
chester, ist day. 

Cornwall Spring Flower Ex., Truro. ist day. 

Kingston and Surbiton Gard. Lantern Lecture. 8. 

R. Caledonian Hort. Soc. Meeting. 

Nottingham Hort. Soc. Meeting. 

7 W R.H.S. 2nd day. 

Manchester. 2nd day. 

Truro. 2nd day. 

Rotherham Hort. Soc. Meeting. 

Nat. Carnation Soc. (N. Section) Meeting. 

8 Th Alpine Gard. Soc. Ex., R.H.S. Hall, ist day. 

9 F R.H.S. Ireland. Meeting. 

Alpine Ex. 2nd day. 

Sundridge Hort. Soc. Meeting. 
10 S 
Ji S 

12 M 

13 T Nat. Tulip Soc. Ex. 

14 W Sheffield Chrys. Soc. Lecture. 

15 Th Linnean Soc. Meeting. 

Lincoln Gard. Asn. Meeting. 

16 F Manchester and N. of Eng. Orchid Soc. Meeting. 

17 S 

18 5 

19 M 

20 T 

21 W R.H.S. Chelsea Ex. ist day. 8-10 (Fellows), 10-8. 

Eastbourne Hort. Soc. Meeting. 

22 Th Chelsea. 2nd day. 8-10 (Fellows), 10-8. 

Hort. Ed. Asn. General Meeting at Chelsea. 

23 F Chelsea. 3rd day. 9-5. 

Sundridge Hort. Soc. Meeting. 

24 S Linnean Soc. Anniversary Meeting. 

25 S 

26 M 

27 T 

28 W Torquay Ex. ist day. 

Newcastle Hort. Soc. Meeting. 

29 Th Torquay. 2nd day. 



30 F Torquay. 3rd day. 

Manchester and N. of Eng. Orchid Soc. Meeting. 

31 S Torquay. 4th day. 

Prof. Card. Asn. Meeting. 7. 


1 S 

2 M Romsey Card. Asn. Visit gardens. 

3 T R.H.S. Ex. ist day. 1-7. 

R. Caledonian Hort. Soc. Meeting. 

4 W R.H.S. Ex. 2nd day. 10-5. 

Nat. Carnation Soc. (N. Section) Meeting. 

5 Th Bideford Hort. Soc. Meeting. 

6 F 

7 S Glasgow Hort. Soc. Afternoon outing. 

Dunfermline Hort. Soc. Excursion. 

8 S Whit Sunday. 

9 M Bank Holiday. 

10 T Three Counties' Show, Worcester, ist day. 

11 W Iris. Soc. Ex. R.H.S. Hall, ist day. 1-7. 

Worcester. 2nd day. 
Sheffield Chrys. Soc. Lecture. 

12 Th Iris Ex. 2nd day. 10-5. 

Worcester. 3rd day. 

13 F Leicester Agric. Soc. Hort. Ex. ist day. 

R.H.S. Teachers 1 Exam. Practical (Advanced). 
R.H.S. Ireland. Meeting. 
Sundridge Hort. Soc. Meeting. 

14 S Leicester. 2nd day. 

R. Caledonian Soc. Excursion. 

15 5 

16 M 

17 T R.H.S. Ex. ist day. 1-7. 

Yorkshire Flower Show, ist day. 

18 W R. Norfolk Asn. Ex. Diss. ist day. 

R.H.S. 2nd day. 10-5. 

R. Norfolk Agric. Asn. Summer Ex. ist day. 

Yorkshire Ex. 2nd day. 

Eastbourne Hort. Soc. Meeting. 

19 Th R. Norfolk. 2nd day. 

R. Norfolk Ex. 2nd day. 
Yorkshire Ex. 3rd day. 

20 F Manchester and N. of Eng. Orchid Soc. Annual Meeting. 

21 S 

22 S 

23 M 

24 T Midsummer Day. 

R.H.S. Amateur Ex. 1-7. 



25 W Guildford Rose Soc. Summer Ex. 

Cheltenham Floral F6te. ist day. 
Colchester Rose Ex. 
Newcastle Hort. Soc. Meeting. 

26 Th Delphinium Soc. Ex., R.H.S. Hall. 1-7. 

Cheltenham. 2nd day. 

27 F Sundridge Hort. Soc. Meeting. 

28 S Worcester Pk. Hort. Soc. Rose Ex. 

29 5 

30 M Romsey Card. Asn. Ex. 


1 T R.H.S. Ex., and Lon. and S. Eng. Pansy and Viola Soc. 

4th Ex. ist day. 1-7. 
Peterborough Summer Ex. ist day. 

2 W Brighton Summer Ex. ist day. 

Croydon Hort. Soc. Ex. 
Peterborough. 2nd day. 

3 Th Brighton. 2nd day. 

Peterborough. 3rd day. 
Bideford Hort. Soc. Meeting. 
Newport (Mon.) Rose Ex. 

4 F Nat. Rose Soc. Summer Ex. ist day. 

5 S Hampstead Card. Suburb. Early Ex. 

Prof. Card. Asn. Meeting. 7. 
Nat. Rose Soc. Ex. 2nd day. 

6 S 

7 M Romsey Gard. Asn. Visit gardens. 

8 T Nat. Sweet Pea Soc. Ex., R.H.S. Hall, ist day. i~8. 

P.O. Savings Bank Hort. Soc. Ex* 

9 W Hereford Rose Soc. Ex. 

Sweet Pea Ex. 2nd day. 10-6. 

Reigate Ex. 

Nat. Rose Soc. Provincial Ex. ist day. 

Guildford Gard. Asn. Ex. 

W. Surrey Hort. Soc. Ex. 

10 Th Nat. Rose Soc. Provincial Ex. 2nd day. 

11 F R.H.S. Ireland. Meeting. 

Sundridge Hort. Soc. Meeting. 

12 S Hull Rose Ex. 

Windsor Rose Ex. 
Leigh-on-Sea Hort. Soc. Ex. 
Norwood Gar. Soc. Ex. 

13 5 

14 M 

15 T Si. Swithin. 

R.H.S. Ex., and Brit. Carnation Soc. Summer Ex. ist day, 

Wolverhampton Floral FSte. ist day. 


16 W Carnation Ex. 2nd day. 10-6. 

Kent Co. Agric. Soc. Ex. ist day. 
Haywards Heath Hort. Soc. Ex. 
Sundridge Hort. Soc. Ex. 
Hereford Rose Ex. 
Wolverhampton. 2nd day. 

17 Th Kent Co. Ex. 2nd day. 

Wolverhampton. 3rd day. 

1 8 F Birmingham Hort. Soc. Ex. 

Kent Co. Ex. 3rd day. 

19 S Alderley Edge Hort. and Rose Soc. Ex. 

GuUdford Ex. 

Dumbartonshire Sweet Pea Ex. 
Sundridge Hort. Soc. Ex. 
Elstree Hort. Soc. Ex. 
Worcester Pk. Show. 

20 S 

21 M 

22 T Nat. Rose Soc. Ex. New Roses. 

23 W Portsmouth & Nat. Sweet Pea Soc. Ex. ist day. 

Bartley Show and Fete. 

24 Th Portsmouth. 2nd day. 

Newcastle Hort. Soc. Meeting. 

25 F Derby Hort. Ex. ist day. 

Portsmouth. 3rd. day. 

26 S Derby. 2nd day. 

Leeds Paxton Soc. Meeting. 

27 S 

28 M 

29 T R.H.S. Ex. 1-7. 

30 W 

31 Th 


1 F Lammas Day. 

2 S Prof. Gard. Ash. Meeting. 7. 

Leeds Paxton Soc. Meeting. 

4 M Bank Holiday. 

Chippenham Hort. Ex. 

Hampstead Gard. Suburb. Summer Ex. 

Bletchley Ex. 

Leicester Flower show, ist day. 

Creigiau Hort. Soc. Ex. 

King's Lynn Hort. Soc. Ex. 

Ticehurst Flower Show. 

5 T R. Caledonian Hort. Soc. Meeting. 

Leicester. 2nd day. 




6 W King's Walden Ex. 

R.H.S. Ireland. Ex. ist day. 
Leicester. 3rd day. 

7 Th International Hort. Congress, R.H.S. Hall, ist day. 

Newport Rose Ex. 

Bideford Hort. Soc. Meeting. 

R.H.S. Ireland. Ex. 2nd day. 

8 F Inter. Hort. Congress. 2nd day. Lectures in afternoon. 

Harrogate Ex. ist day. 
R.H.S. Ireland. Ex. 3rd. day 

9 S Inter. Hort. Congress. 3rd day. Excursions. 

Harrogate. 2nd day. 

Glasgow Hort. Soc. Outing. 

Nat. Carnation Soc. (N. Section.) Meeting. 

10 S Inter. Hort. Congress. 4th day. Excursions. 

11 M Inter. Hort. Congress. 5th day. Lectures. 

Romsey Card. Asn. Visit gardens. 

12 T Inter. Hort. Congress. 6th day. Lectures. 

Clay Cross Floral Ex. 

13 W Inter. Hort. Congress. 7th day. Excursions. 

Gladiolus Soc. International Ex., Taunton. ist day. 
Banffshire Hort. Asn. Ex. 

14 Th Inter. Hort. Congress. 8th day. Lectures in morning. Ex. 


Gladiolus Ex. 2nd day. 
Aberdeen R.H.S. Ex. ist day. 

15 F Inter. Hort. Congress. 9th day and Ex. 2nd day. Final 

Charfield Ex. 
Aberdeen. 2nd day. 

16 S Fifth International Botanic Congress, Cambridge, ist day. 

Aberdeen. 3rd day. 

17 S Inter. Bot. Conf. 2nd day. 

18 M Infer. Bot. Conf. 3rd day. 

19 T Inter. Bot. Conf. 4th day. 

20 W Shrewsbury Floral F6te. ist day. 

Perth Hort. Soc. Ex. ist day. 

Bangor Hort. Soc. Ex. ist day. 

Eastbourne Hort. Soc. Ex. 

Perth. 2nd day. 

Bangor. 2nd day. 

Inter. Bot. Conf. 5th day. 

21 Th Shrewsbury. 2nd day. 

Inter. Bot. Conf. 6th day. 
Bangor Ex. 2nd day. 

22 F Montrose Hort. Soc. Ex. 

Inter. Bot. Conf. 7th day. 



23 S Peebleshire Hort. Soc. Ex. 

Inter. Bot. Conf. 8th day. 

24 S 

25 M R. Eng. Arboric. Soc. Summer Meeting. 

26 T R.H.S. and Brit. Gladiolus Soc. Ex. 1-6. 

27 W Southport Show and Nat Sweet Pea Soc. Conf. ist day. 

28 Th Sandy Annual Ex. 

Southport. 2nd day. 
Stirling Hort. Soc. Ex. 

29 F London Allotments and Card. Soc. Ex., R.H.S. Hall, ist day, 


Southport. 3rd day. 
W. Cumberland Ex. 
Dunfermline Hort. Soc. Ex. ist day. 

30 S London Allotments. 2nd day. 

Falkirk Hort. Sec. Ex. 
Dunfermline. 2nd day. 

31 5 


1 M Brit. Pteridological Soc. Annual Meeting. 

Romsey Card. Asn. Meeting. 

Bedwelty Ex. 

Romsey Gard. Asn. Meeting. 

2 T Salford Ex. ist day. 

Glasgow Ex. Kelvin Hall, ist day. 
R. Caledonian Hort. Soc Meeting. 
Nottingham Hort. Soc. Meeting. 

3 W Salford. 2nd day. 

Glasgow. 2nd day. 

Rotherham Hort Soc. Meeting. 

Nat. Carnation Soc. (N. Section.) Meeting. 

4 Th Abergavenny Ex. 

Bideford Hort. Soc. Meeting. 
Salford. 3rd day. 
Glasgow. 3rd day. 
Newtownards Hort. Soc. Ex. 

5 F 

6 S Prof. Gard. Asn. Meeting. 7. 

Leeds Paxton Soc. Meeting. 

7 S Kilmarnock Autumn Ex. 

8 M 

9 T R.H.S. Ex. 1-6. 

10 W R. Caledonian Hort. Soc. Autumn Ex. ist day. 
Sheffield Chrys. Soc. Lecture. 



11 Th Nat. Dahlia Soc. Ex., R.H.S. Hall, ist day. 12-7. 

R. Caledonian. 2nd day. 

12 F. Dahlia Ex. 2nd day. 

R.H.S. Ireland. Meeting. 
Sundridge Hort. Soc. Meeting. 
Dundee Hort. Soc. Meeting. 

13 S Gainsborough Allot. Ex. 

Leeds Paxton Soc. Meeting. 

14 S 

15 M 

16 T Winchester Hort. Soc. Meeting. 

17 W R.H.S. Nat. Dip. Exam. (Prelim.), ist day. 

Altrincham Agric. Soc. Ex. 
Harrogate Autumn Ex. ist day. 
Eastbourne Hort. Soc. Meeting. 

18 Th R.H.S. Nat. Dip. Exam. (Prelim.). 2nd day. 

Ipswich Card. Asn. Meeting. 
Lincoln Gard. Asn. Meeting. 
Thame Flower Show. 
Harrogate. 2nd day. 

19 F R.H.S. Nat. Dip. Exam. (Final), ist day. 

Nat. Rose Soc. Autumn Ex. ist day. 
Harrogate. 3rd day. 

20 S R.H.S. Nat. Dip. Exam. (Final). 2nd day. 

Glasgow Hort. Soc. Afternoon outing. 
W. Norwood Allot. Ex. 
Worcester Pk. Hort. Soc. Autumn Ex. 
Nat. Rose Soc. Ex. 2nd day. 
Leeds Paxton Soc. Meeting. 

21 S 

22 M 

23 T Autumnal Equinox. 

P.O. Savings Bank Hort. Soc. Ex. 

24 W Glasgow Hort. Soc. Lecture. 

N. of Eng. Hort. Soc. Autumn Ex. ist day. 
Newcastle Hort. Soc. Meeting. 

25 Th R.H.S. Autumn Ex. Open-air Plants and Roses, ist day. 

N. of Eng. Hort. Ex. 2nd day. 

26 F R.H.S. Autumn Ex. 2nd day. 10-5. 

N. of Eng. Hort. Ex. 3rd day. 
Sundridge Hort. Soc. Meeting. 

27 S Hampstead Gard. Suburb. Autumn Ex. 

Leigh-on-Sea Hort. Soc. Autumn Ex. 
Leeds Paxton Soc. Meeting. 

28 S 

29 M 

30 T 


i W R.H.S, AutumnEx. Ornamental Trees and Shrubs, istday. 

Nat. Carnation Soc. (N. Section.) Meeting. 
Rotherham Hort. Soc. Meeting. 

2 Th R.H.S. Autumn Ex. 2nd day. 10-5. 

Bideford Hort. Soc. Meeting. 
Foot's Cray Hort. Soc. Ex. 

3 F Dundee Hort. Soc. Meeting. 

4 S Prof. Gard. Asn. Meeting. 7. 

High Wycombe Hort. Soc. Autumn Ex. 

5 5 

6 M Romsey Gard. Asn. Meeting. 

7 T R. Caledonian Hort. Soc. Meeting. 

Nottingham Hort. Soc. Meeting. 

8 W Sheffield Chrys. Soc. Lecture. 

9 Th 

10 F Salisbury Gard. Soc. Annual Meeting. 

R.H.S. Ireland. Meeting. 
Sundridge Hort. Soc. Meeting. 

11 S Leeds Paxton Soc. Meeting. 

12 S 

13 M 

14 T R.H.S. AutumnEx. Fruit and Vegetables Ex. istday. 1-7. 

15 W R.H.S. Autumn Ex. 2nd day. 10-4. 

Glasgow Hort. Soc. Lecture. 
Eastbourne Hort. Soc. Meeting. 

16 Th Ipswich Gard. Asn. Meeting. 

Lincoln Gard. Asn. Lecture. 

17 F 

1 8 S Leeds Paxton Soc. Meeting. 

19 S 

20 M 

21 T Winchester Hort. Soc. Meeting. 

22 W Newcastle Hort. Soc. Meeting. 

23 Th 

24 F Sundridge Hort. Soc. Meeting. 

25 S Leeds Paxton Soc. Meeting. 

26 S 

27 M 

28 T 

29 W 

30 Th Holland (Lines) Co. Potato Ex., Boston. 

31 F Hampstead Gard. Suburb. Gen. Meeting. 


1 S Leeds Paxton Soc. Meeting. 

2 S 

3 M Romsey Gard. Asn. Meeting. 



4 T R.H.S. Autumn Ex. Orchids, Stove and Greenhouse Rants. 

ist day. 1-7. 
Croydon Chrys. Ex. 
Brighton Autumn Ex. ist day. 
W. of Eng. Chrys. Soc. Ex. ist day. 

5 W Lincoln Card. Asn. Ex. ist day. 

Worcester Root, Fruit and Vegetable Ex. ist day. 

Bideford Chrys., Fruit anei Vegetable Ex. 

R.H.S. Autumn Ex. 2nd day. 10-4. 

Brighton. 2nd day. 

R. Ox. Hort. Soc. Chrys. Ex. ist day. 

Guildford Chrys. Ex. 

Faversham Chrys. Ex. 

Bridport Chrys. Ex. 

Kingston Chrys. Ex. 

W. of Eng. Chrys. Ex. 2nd day. 

6 Th Derby Chrys. Ex. ist day. 

Nat. Chrys. Ex., R.H.S. Hall, ist day. i~8. 

Bideford Hort. Soc. Meeting. 

Lincoln. 2nd day. 

Worcester. 2nd day. 

Brighton. 3rd day. 

Leicester Chrys. Ex. ist day. 

Bristol Chrys. Ex. ist day. 

Oxford Chrys. Ex. 2nd day. 

W. of Eng. Chrys. Ex. 3rd day. 

7 F Chrys. Ex. 2nd day. 10-5. 

Derby. 2nd day. 
Bletchley Chrys. Ex. 
Bristol Chrys. Ex. 2nd day. 
Leicester Chrys. Ex. 2nd day. 

8 S Barrow Chrys. Soc. Ex. 

Prof. Card. Asn. Meeting. 7. 
Derby. 3rd day. 
Burton-on-Trent Chrys. Ex. 
Leigh-on-Sea Chrys. Ex. 
Leicester Chrys. Ex. 3rd day. 

9 5 

10 M Gloucester Root, Fruit and Grain Ex. 

11 T Birmingham Chrys. Ex. ist day. 

12 W Birmingham. 2nd day. 

Glasgow Hort. Soc. An. Gen. Meeting. 
Gainsborough Chrys. Ex. ist day. 
Wimbledon Chrys. Ex. 
Aberystwyth Chrys. Ex. 

13 Th Birmingham. 3rd day. 

Dumbartonshire Sweet Pea Soc. Annual Meeting. 
Ipswich Gard. Asn. Ex. 
Rotherham Chrys. Ex. ist day. 
Sheffield Chrys. Ex. ist day. 



13 Th Nottingham Chrys. Ex. ist day. 

Gainsborough Chrys. Ex. 2nd day. 

14 F Rotherham Chrys. Ex. 2nd day. 

Sheffield Chrys. Ex. 2nd day. 
Nottingham Chrys. Ex. 2nd day. 
Dunfermline Chrys. Ex. 
R.H.S. Ireland Meeting. 
Sundridge Hort. Soc. Meeting. 

15 S Monmouth Hort. Inst. Old Students Reunion. 

Leeds Paxton Soc. Meeting. 
Rotherham Chrys. Ex. 3rd day. 
Sheffield Chrys. Ex. 3rd day. 
Nottingham Chrys. Ex. 3rd day. 

1 6 S Leeds Paxton Soc. Chrys. Ex. 

17 M 

1 8 T Winchester Hort. Soc. Meeting. 

19 W Ayr Chrys. Ex. 

20 Th Ipswich Gard. Asn. Meeting. 

Lincoln Gard . Asn . Meeting . 

21 F Bolton Chrys. Ex. ist day. 

Newcastle Chrys. Ex. ist day. 

22 S Leeds Paxton Soc. Meeting. 

Bolton Chrys. Ex. 2nd day. 
Newcastle Chrys. Ex. 2nd day. 

23 S 

24 M 

25 T R.H.S. Ex. 1-5. 

26 W Brit. Carnation Soc. Autumn Ex., R.H.S. Hall, ist day. 1-5. 

27 Th Carnation Ex. 2nd day. 

28 F Sundridge Hort. Soc. Meeting. 

29 S Hexham Chrys. Ex. 

30 S 


1 M Romsey Gard. Asn. Meeting. 

2 T R. Caledonian Hort. Soc. Meeting. 

Nottingham Hort. Soc. Meeting. 

3 W Rotherham Hort. Soc. Meeting. 

Nat. Carnation Soc. (N. Section.) Meeting. 

4 Th Bideford Hort. Soc. Meeting. 

5 F Dundee Hort. Soc. Meeting. 

6 S Prof. Gard. Asn. Meeting. 7. 

Leeds Paxton Soc. Meeting. 

7 S 

8 M 



10 W Glasgow Hort. Soc. Lecture. 

Sheffield Chrys. Soc. Lecture. 

11 Th Ipswich Card. Asn. Meeting. 

12 F R.H.S. Ireland. Meeting. 

Sundridge Hort. Soc* Meeting. 

13 S Leeds Paxton Soc. Meeting. 

14 S 

15 M 

16 T R.H.S. Ex. 1-5. 

Winchester Hort. Soc. Meeting. 

17 W Eastbourne Hort. Soc. Meeting. 

1 8 Th Lincoln Card. Asn. Lecture. 

19 F 

20 S Dunfermline Hort. Soc. Annual Meeting. 

Leeds Paxton Soc. Meeting. 

21 S 

22 M 

23 T 

24 W Christmas Eve. 

25 Th Christmas Day. 

26 F Boxing Day. 

27 S Leeds Paxton Soc. Meeting. 

28 5 

29 M 

30 T 

31 W New Year's Eve.