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Full text of "Garden and forest; a journal of horticulture, landscape art and forestry"

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GARDEN AND FOREST 



A JOURNAL OF 



HORTICULTURE, LANDSCAPE ART AND FORESTRY 



Conducted by 

CHARLES S. SARGENT 

Director of the Arnold Arboretum, Professor of Arboriculture in Harvard College, etc. 



ILLUSTRATED 



VOLUME I. FEBRUARY TO DECEMBER, 1888 




New York 

THE GARDEN AND FOREST PUBLISHING CO. 

1888 



Copyright, iSSS, by The Garden and Forest Publishing Co. 



All riMs reserved. 



INDEX TO VOLUME I, 



The asterisk {='■') denotes that the sub- 
ject is illustrated. 



Allies amabilis 

ApoUinis 

Cephalonica 

Cilicica 

Nordmanniana . 

pectinata 

Pinsapo 

subalpina 

Webbiana 



Abutilon Sinense 
Acacia constricta 

decurrens 

pubescens 

Acaivpha triumphans 

Acaritnopanax spinosuiu 

Acer dasycarpuni 

Ginnaia - 213, 

Japonicum 

pictum 

Itetum - 

Colchicum rubrum 

polymorph urn 312, 

Tartaricum 212, 

Achras Bahanienais 

Sapota 

Acidanthera bicolor"*' 

Actiuidia polygama 

volubilis . - . 

Acfiniopteris radiata 

Adansonia Gregorii 

Adelaide, botanical garden in 

Adelges abieticolens 

abietis 

Adiantum cuneatuni 404, 522, 

decorum 

Farleyense g, 404, 474, 

Edgeworthi 

gracilis 

gracilUmum. . 

Pecottii 

pedatum 200, 

Reginffi 

Victorite 

Weigandii 404, 

Williamsi 

Adinotinus Sinensis 

Adirondack forests, the 49, 73 

Adolphia ini'esta 

/Erides quinquevulnerum 

Rohannianum 

Williamsi 

jEscuIus rubicunda 

turbinata 

yEthionema coridifolium 

Atghanistan, new plants from 

Agave Elemeetiana 

Agricultural literature 

Ailanthus 179, 239, 3S5, 

Akebia quinata 42, 

Alder, Black 1S2, 261, 

Alfalfa 

Algte on animals 

Aliiambra, Gardens of the ' 

Allium cceruleum 

Moly 

Neapolitanum 

Pedemontanum 

Suworowi 

Alnus rubra 

serrulata 

Alue Hilderbrandtii 

Alonzoa Warscewiczii 

Alpenia ofticinarum 

Alysauin gemonense 

Amarvllis aulica 

^"Contessa Marianna Cambray 

Digny 

reticulata 

Amaryllises 

Amasonia calycma 

Amelanchieralnifolia* 185, 

Asiatica 

oligocarpa* 

vulgaris 

American fruits in France 

Amorpha canescens 

Amorphophallus virosus 



120 

120 
120 
120 
120 
494 
5S 

120 
120 
524 
35 



466 



453 
527 
527 
484 
273 
174 

9 
204 
480 
100 
100 
523 
523 
523 
474 
474 
522 
404 
341 

4 
404 
522 
404 
1 20 
,87 
524 
428 
49S 
208 
220 
491 
237 

6 
491 
157 
500 
441 
453 
407 

99 
255 
225 
225 

41 
304 

227 

59 
494 
60 

473 
227 
261 



204 
436 
520 
436 



20 r 
245 
201 
482 



Andromeda floribunda 115, 

Japonica 

ligustrina 1S2, 

IViariana 182,237, 

polifolia 

speciosa 

Androsfemum hircinum 

Anemone Japonica ... .462, 

nemorosa 

Pulsatilla 

ranunculoides 

Anglomania in park-making 

Angr^cum, new -s'anety of 

caudatum 

densum 

distich um 

eburneum .... 

falcatum 

Leoni 

Sanderianum . 

Scottianum . . , 

Anguloa Clowesii... 

ebarnea 

intermedia 

Ruckeri 

uniflora. 



154 
129 
261 
454 
179 
24S 
333 
464 

"53 
153 
177 
64 
16 



.209, 



Anisacanthus insignis 

Annuals for cut iiowers 

'• tor a succession of rtowers.. . 

Anthurium Andreammi 

Chamberlaini 

Desmetianam 

Scherzerianum 

Antirrhinum Nuttallianum 

Ants, destruction of 

Appeal for pretty plants, an 

Apples, autumn 377, 

early 

Japanese* ... 

summer 

winter 

Apricots, varieties of 

Aquilegia Canadensis 114, 150, 

chrysantha 

ccerulea 

f ormosa 

glandulosa 

iongissima* 31 1 9°) 

vulgaris 

Aquilegias, hybrid 

Aralia Cashimerica 

hispida 

Maximowiczii 

spinosa 

Araucaria imbricata 

Cunningham! glauca 

Arauja graveolens. 

Arbor day 

Arbutus petiolaris 

, transplanting th e 

trailing 

Xalapensis 

Arctostaphylos tomentosa 

Aristolochia elegans 

Wesllandi 

Armeria vulgaris 

Arnebia cornuta 

echinoides 

Arnold Arboretum, entrance to* 

notes from the. 117, 129, 

165, 178, 189, 200, 212, 225, 236, 239, 
260, 272, 285, 296, 309. 332, 344, 356, 



475 
248 
379 
■ 503 
. 475 
209 
209 
209 
31S 
30S 
524 
45 
180 
245 
168 

245 

245 

347 
443 
524 
521 
331 
152 
485 

400 
165 
199 
114 
114 
114 
199 
141 
114 
114 



256 
415 

lOI 

276 

407 

73 
441 
105 
154 
441 
375 
329 
371 
271 
6 



453. 464 

Arrow-head 

Arrow-arum 

Ai'senical poisons in the orchard... 
on Elm trees 



Artemisia filifolia 

Articholie, Globe 127 

Artificial water'*' 

Artistic aspect of trees. 218, 230, 242, 

493- 

Asarum Canadense 

macranthum 

Asclepias atrosanguinea 

Ash, tile 106, 142, 466; 

Ash, the Green 

Asimina triloba 

Asparagus 

plumosus 



17 
'53. 
248, 

440. 

243 

243 

9 

151 

524 

- 513 

S 

373, 

177 
407 

35S 

. 500 
215 
514 



Aspen 

Asphodelus acaulis 

Aspidium acrostichoides. . 
aculeatum 

Boottii 

cristatum 

Filix-mas 

f ragrans 

Goldianum 

Lonchitis 

marginale 

munitum - . 

Nevadense 

Noveboracense 

spinulosum 

tnelypteris 

Asplenium angustifolium . 

ebeneum 

Fihx-fcemina 

Ruta-muraria 

thelypteroides 

Trichomanes - 

■ viride. 



Aster alpinus .. 

Amellus 

concolor ... 

Ibericus 

Novte Anglire . . 

spectabilis 

Townshendit ... 

Asters, China 356, 

native, as garden plants 

Atlanta, park at 

forestry congress at 

Attar of roses 

Aubretia deltoides. 

Auricula, the 

Autumn effect, planting for. 

flowers 

work among trees 

Axe, do no't spare the 

Azalea altaclerensis 

Indica 

occidentalis 

viscosa 

Azaleas, forcing. 

Ghent ..\ 



.36, 89. 



. 58 
. 299 

■ 353 

■ 353 

■ 353 

■ 342 
• 352 

■ 352 

■ 352 

■ 353 

■ 352 

■ 353 

■ 342 
. 342 

353 

■ 342 

■ 341 

■ 34^ 
342 

■ 341 

■ 34r 
. 341 

■ 341 

■ 34S 

■ 499 

■ 435 
, 499 
. 462 

■ 435 

■ 425 
380 
428 

36 
515 
504 
1S9 
504 
410 

499 
421 

433 
479 
107 
291 
290 
56 
3S 



Baccharis angustifolia 

glutinosa 

- Kalimifolia. 



Baden-Baden, novellies at. . . - 

Bahia confertiflora 

Balcony flower-boxes 

Balsanij the 

Banana, a hardy 

Banded hickory borer, the* 

Banks and slopes, treatment of*.. . . 

Barbarea . . - 

Bary, Anton de 

Bartonia tenella 

Basket culture, ferns for 

Bauhinia uniflora. 

Beans, string 

Beech, a weeping * 

Beetles 

Bef aria glauca 

Begonia geranioides 

Lubbersii 

octopetala 

semperflorens gigantea 

Socotrana 

Begonias, half-hardy 7 

, hardy . . 

, new race of hybrid 

, new tuberous 

Benthamia Japonica 

Benzine for destroying grubs 

Berberis Canadensis 

Chinensis 440, 

concinna 236, 237, 

Cretica 

emarginata 236, 440, 

Fendleri* 

Fremonti* 



■ 524 
524 
495 
233 

■ 347 
15S 
130 

363 
14S 

326 

■ 513 
15 

494 
307 
524 
484 
32 
172 
, 496 

371 
108 

509 
492 
4S5 
, 92 



- Sinensis 

- Thunbergii. 

- Irifoliolata . . 



41 
256 
234 
516 
236 
464 
440 
236 

, 464 
460 

, 496 
202 
236 

, 464 
524 



14S 
36 
59 
76 

"9 
43 
45. 141 



Berberis umbellata 23G 

vulgaris iSg, 236, 416, 440 

Bertolonia marmorata 68 

Betula papyrifera 59 

Bidens chrvsanthemoides 435 

Bigelovia pulchella -. 524 

Bignonia Tweedieana 

Biota Sieboldi 

Birch, the 

Birds and strawbeiTies 

Blackberries 105, 494, 

Bladderwort 

Blood-root, the 

Blueberry, the iS 

Blue-flag, the. 182, 495 

Blunders concerning plants 215 

Bollea Wendlandiana 315 

Borer, work of a. 172 

Eoronia heterophylla 89 

megastigma 5*5, 70 

Bossier 494 

Boston public garden 345 

harbor, tree planting on 24 

Botanic garden for N. Y. City 517 

Botany, study of, by horticulturists. 62 

Botrychium Virgini'anum 354 

Bowman's root 225 

Brasenia peltata 243 

Brickellia laciniata 524 

Bridge at Leathertor, England =*". ... 52 

in the Thiergarten, Berlin*.. 327 

Brodieea Bridgesii* 125 

Howellii 120 

uniflora 21 

Broom 213 

Brussels sprouts 513 

Buck-eye, the red 224 

Buddleia 297, 524 

Buffalo, project fur public park in*. 457 
Buitenzorg, water lilies in the gar- 
den at* 241 

Bull)s, Dutch 115, 354 

hints about ' 9, 33 

spring-flowering*. 302 

Burr Oak... \ ". 3S2 

Button-bush 290, 310 

Buzzard's Bay, plants of 327 

C 

Cabbage-leaf, malformation of*. . . 



Cadrania triloba 

Csesalpina Japonica 267, 

Calandnnia oppositi folia 

Calauthes 4, 68, 

Calceolarias 

California, Christmas fioi^a ot 

forestry, 361, 369, 380, 392, 404, 

garden, a 

Southern, useful plants of . . . 

State Board of HordculUire. . 

trees of 22, 

woods in autumn - . . 

Californian sand-ridge, a. 

Callicarpa Americana 

purpurea 333, 

Cailuna vulgaris 296, 

Calochortus flavus 

Caltha palustris 

Calcyantlius floridus 

glaucus 

Ifevigatus 

Cal)'pso borealis 

Camassia Cusickii * 

Camellia Sasanqua 

Campanula Carpathica. ... 

medium 

pelviformis 

persicifolia 

rotundifolia 

turbinata 

Camptosorus rhizophyllus 
Canadian forest preserves. 

Canker-worms 

Canna Indica 

Cannas, notes on 

Canterbury Bells 

Caragana pygmasa . . 

spinosa 

Cainations 



392 
527 
505 
503 
49: 
126 
28 
420 

395 
414 

262 

19S 

. 422 

■ 374 

■ 333 
, 429 
. 442 
, 20 
. 150 
. 2S5 
. 2S5 
,285 
. 209 
. 172 
. 526 

234 
151 



. 219 
51 



■ 37S. 300 



234 
237 
237 



IV 



Index. 



Carpeiiteria Calif ornica 292 

Carya porcina . . 190 

tomenlosa 190, 500 

Caryopteris mas tncan thus 20 

Caryota sobolifera 108 

Cassandra calyculata 154 

Cassia Coquimbensis 275 

Wislizeni 5:^4 

Castilloa elastica 526 

Catalpa bi,^nonioides 466, 500 

Ksempfen 500 

speciosa 372, 500 

Catasetuin Bungerolhii 275, 316 

Cat-tails 495 

Cattleya Amesiana 315 

Bowringiana 308, 428, 484 

chrysotoxa 495 

Dowiana 475 

Exoniensis 413 

• Gasltelliana 271, 520 

Gigas* 281, 43'^ 475 

granulosa asperata 340 

Harrisii 472 

hyl^rida picta 367 

labiata 407 

Lamberhurst 472 

lutea 120 

Massaiana 495 

Mendelii 20S, 255 

. MossiL© 255 

Percival's 16 

porpliyrites 436 

Rothschildiana 208 

Sanderiana — 211 

Schofieldiana 316 

Schroederiana 340 

Skinneri 1S8, 4S4 

speciosissima 271 

Wageneri 188, 244, 24S 

Wallteriana 347 

Ceanothus 7, 24S, 374 

Cedar, the Red 314 

the Yellow 33 

Celastrus scandens 444 

Celery 224, 294, 484, 513 

Celtis occidentalis 465 

var. reticulata 106 

Cemeteries 76, log, 147, 182 

Centauridiums 473 

Centennial of the Fuchsia 423 

Central Park, Minneapolis.* 

N. Y. , meadows in "* 

historic trees a; 



shrubs for. 



- proposed speed-road in 

■■ trees in 

view in * 

work in 

Cephffilis tomentosa 

Cephalanthus occidentalis 290, 

Cerasus Capronia 

pseudo-cerasus 

Sieboldi 

Watererii 

Ceratothica triloba 

Cercis Canadensis 

Chinensis 

siliquastrum 

Cercocarpus parvifolius 

Cereus grandifiorus 

Clisenactis tenuifolia 

Chamascyparis obtusa 

Chamserops excelsa 

robusta 

Charlecote Hall, court-yard of *. . . . 

Charles River at Wellesley* 

Cherokee Rose 234, 

Cherry plum 

Chestnut, Spanisli 131, 

Chestnuts 

Chimaphila maculata 

umbellata 

China Asters 356, 

Chinese horticulture in N. Y 

Chiogenes hispidula 

Chionanthus Virginica 

Chion cinctus* 

Chion odoxa Luciliw 

Chionophila Jamesii*... 

Chironia peduncularis 

Choisva ternata 219, 

Chokeberry 

Choro-Gi 

Christmas green 

in the Pines 

Chrysanthemum Exhibition, Boston, 

Germantown 

New York 455, 

Philadelphia 

Chrysanthemum, Baron d'Avene 

C.Jules Barigny 

Lilian M. Bird* 

Mrs. Alpheus Hardy* 

Chrysanthemums, new variety of*. 5, 

notes on, 33, 81, 264, 37S, 402, 

467, 472, 473, 484, 492, 511, 516, 

a garden of * 

Chrysosjilenium macrophyllum . . . . 

Chysis Chelsonii '. 

Cinchona Calisaya 

Cinerarias, new varieties 

Cinnamon-fern 243, 

Cinque-foil 

Cissus Japonica 

Citrons 

City Hall Park, N. Y.. attack on. . . . 

Claytonia Caroliniana 

Virginiana 177, 



374 

144 

37 

230 

30 

120 

527 
310 
17S 
178 
■78 
■78 
48 



1=7. 



5=4 
163 
347 
33 
= 31 
231 
171 
422 
370 
178 
191 
500 
519 
51Q 
3S0 

483 

57 

291 

148 
494 

79 
407 
34S 



505 
518 
467 
456 
478 
467 
22S 
22S 
512 
5 
168 
44S 
523 
522 
120 
211 
503 

354 
2S5 
357 
4S4 

134 
177 
2:1 



Clematis coccinea 297, 371, 441 

Clematis crispa 344 

— — Davidiana 309 

Flammula. ... 357 

graveolens 297 

integrifolia 297 

orientalis 297 

Pieroti 357 

. Pitcheri 344 

verticil laris i8g 

Virginiana 344 

Cleome pungens 435 

Clerodendron Thompsonce 487 

Ck'thra acuminata 333 

alnifolia 290, 291 

Climate of Minnesota 203 

on the Prairies 159 

Clintonia borealis 200 

Club-moss 519 

Cobcea scandens 473 

Cocoanius in Florida 422 

Ccelogyne corrugata 344 

cristata 68, 124 

Dayana 271 

gramminigolia 300 

Massangeana 60 

pandurata 284 

Sanderiana 340 

speciosa 344 

Coffee, Liberian 526 

Colchicum autumnale 499 

speciosum 499 

Cold climates, fruits for 498 

C'.'Iubrina Texensis 524 

Columbines 114 

Cone-eating insects* 100 

Coniferous tree seeds, longevity of. 250 

Conifers, propagation of 47, 

cultivation of 

Conoclinium coi'lestinum 

Conservatories, heating of 

Convolvulus tenuissimus 

Corchonis, the 

Cordyline indivisa 14S, 

Corema Conradi 



Coreopsis coronata. 
lanceolata. . . . 



rosea 

tinctoria 

Cornus asperifolia 

florida 

mascula 

~ officinalis 

paniculata 

sanguinea 

sericea 

stnnolifera 

Corydalis solida 

Corvlopsis pauciflora 

Corypha umbraculifera 

Corythuca arcuata 

Cosmos bipinnatus 

hybridus 

Cotoneaster denticulata 

Cottonwoods, the* 57, 105, 

Court-yard, Charlecote Hall* 

Cowania Mexicana 

Cowslip, Virginia 

Crab-apple, the American 

Cranberries 1S5, 

Crassula lactea 

Cratsegus coccinea 201. 

■ cordata 249, 

• Douglasii 

Lelandi 

nigra 

pinnatifida 

purpurea 

sanguinea 

subvillosa 

tomentosa 

Cress, upland 

Crinum giganfeum 

Zevlanicum 

Crocosma aurea 

Crocus Haussknechtii 

Crocuses 

Crvptogramme acrostichoides 

Cucumber, white 

Curculio, the 

Currant, Blaclc , . 

cultivation of 

Fay's prolific 

Missouri 105, 178, 239, 

Red Fruited 165, 

Cuscuta glomerata 

tenulflora 

Cut flowers and growing plants, no, 

, annuals for 

— , green-house climbers 



64 
362 
407 
407 

I go 
204 
129 
473 
. 362 
, 362 
473 

■ =73 

■ 440 

■ 1=9 
129 

■ 249 

■ 464 
. 260 



for 

Cut-wonns 

Cycas revoluta 

Cydonia Japonica 

Cymbidium Hookeriaiuim 

Masters! album 

Cyperorchis eiegans 

Cypress, Bald 

sliingles 

Southern 

Cypripedium acaule 151, 1S8, 

bellatulum, 19S, 208, 244, 256, 

Calif ornicum* 

caudatuiii 246, 

Davanuni 

Elliottianum 

fasciculatum* 



459 
473 
474 
524 
254 
171 
524 
177 



249 
465 
201 
496 
201 

237 
20T 



249 
513 
329 
452 
503 
408 
496 
341 
4S4 
187 
190 
282 
356 

416 

i6g 
495 

495 
25S 
278 
45 

4S7 
177 



475 
514 



28 1 

247 

4 84 
90 



Cypripedium Godefroyse 208, 211 

insigne 467. 479. 5" 

Lawrenceanum 211 

Leeanum inaculatum 4 

Mars hall iiinuni 485 

niontannm 138 

Morgania^ 340 

Mossiie 211 

niveuin 211 

Parish ii 248 

pai'viflorum 13S, 200, 235 

pubesccns 138, 151, 188, 235 

Rotiischildianum 484 

Sanderianum 4S4 

Schroderie 247 

spectabile 151, 225, 235 

Spicerianum 479. 513 

Stonei 294 

Cyrtanthus lutescens 519 

Mackenii 5J9 

Cyrtopodium Saintlegerianum. . .89, 371 

Cystopteris bulbifera 353 

fragilis 353 

Cytisus aibus 213 

biflorus 213 

Canariensis 56 

capitafus 273 

nigricans 273 

]3urpureus 56 

scoparius 213 

n 

Dabcecia poHfolia 2S5 

Daffodils 49*J. 510 

Dahlia, northern limit of 7 

imperial is 496 

Dahlias, notes on 376 

Daisies, JMichEelmas 499 

Daphne alpina 23b 

Cneorum 441 

Genkwa 190 

Mezereum 129 

Daphniphyllurn glaucescens 267 

Daremma catalpse 500 

Date tree ■ 231 

Davallia tenuifolia 404, 523 

Davillia aculeata 503 

Deciduous forest trees from seed. . 23 

Decuniaria Sinensis 120 

Delphinmni viride* 149 

Zalil 6 

Dendi'obium Bensonia? 2G8 

chrysotoxum 248 

clavatum 227 

crassinode superbum 125 

Dalhovisieanum 209 

Dearei 236 

Huttonii 209 

macrophyllum 479 

. Wardianum 475 

Deutzia parviflora * 363 

Dicentra Cucullaria 153, 177 

exiniia 177 

Dichorisandra pubescens 204 

Dicksonia pilosiuscula 354 

Dicraurus leplocladus 524 

Diervilla sessilifolia 273 

• trifida 273 

Diospyros Virginiana 491, 514 

Dipladenia Boliviensis 329 

Diplothemium campestre 231 

Disa graminifolia 388 

grandiflora 208, 520 

racemosa 208, 407, 520 

Disease of certain Japanese shrubs, a 40 

of nursery stock 194 

Do not spare the axe 433 

Dodder 495 

Dodge City, forestry station at 1 38 

Dogtooth Violets 177, 316 

Dogwood 63, 243, 249 

Domain, forests of national 97 

Domestication of wild fruits 195 

Doorways of villas 133 

Doronicum Caucasicum 150 

Douglasia laevigata 204, 228 

Dracaena australis 432 

Drives and walks 193 

Drosera longifolia 243 

DrvocEetes affaber loi 

Dunes, planting the 337 

Dyeing flowers 14 

K 

Easter flowers in New York 86 

Eburia quadrigeminata 172 

Echinocactus Haselbergii 371 

Eichornia tricolor 328 

EUpagnus tongipes* 202, 499 

Eider, box 254 

common 249 

Mexican 106 

scarlet-berrieil 256 

Elm, Japanese 231, 312 

Elms 516 

Elm trees, arsenical poisons on . — 151 

Empusse 159 

English flower gardens 399 

Enkianthus Himalaicus 503 

Ephedra pedunculata 524 

trifurca 524 

Epidendrum atropurpureum 267 

evectum 209 

macrochilum 267 

meduscr 67 

O'Brienianuni 209 



Epidendrum radicans 209 

Epigoea repens 154 

Eremurus 01g£e 388 

Erica cornea 129 

tetralix 260 

Eiigeron speciosum 473 

Eriobotrya Japonica 514 

Eriostemon intermedium 56 

Eryngiums, varieties of 206 

Erylhronium grandiflorum 177, 228 

Henderson!* 264. 316, 365 

Esclischoltzia Californica 375 

Eucalyptus calophylla 407 

^'globulus S3 

uinigera 168 

Viminalis 503 

Eucharis Amazonica 511 

Eulaha Japonica 267 

Euonymus alatus 212, 453 

atropurpureus 273, 453 

Europa-us 453 

European forests 274, 430, 454 

Euryale ferox 312 

Evergreens, effect of winter on 115 

Exhibitions. .4, 60, 96, J13, 156, 215, 228, 

252. 264, 278, 288, 300, 336, 372, 383, 395. 

431. 455. 456- 467. 478, 479» 484. 495, 50i. 
504 

Experiment stations, work for 289 

horticulture in 181 

Eysenhardtia spinosa 524 



Fagus sylvatica 468 

Farmers and forestry 229, 310 

Felling ti-ees 325, 397.433 

Fendlera rupicola 236 

Fertilized flowers, protection for 

artificially* 339 

Ferns, cultivation of. . 317, 330, 340, 352. 

394. 425 

for basket culture 307 

for cutting 522 

for tlie window garden 474 

new varieties 4, 9 

notes on 9. 404 

Ficusaurea* 128,214 

elastica 214, 223 

Ti-Koua 504 

Vogehi 526 

Fir, the Balsam 58 

the Douglas 441, 500, 501 

the Silver 120 

the Spanish 494 

Fishkill, Washington oak at* 511 

Flora of the Florida Kevs 279 

Floral novelties 270, 283 

P'loriculture in the United States. ... 2 

Florida, central, palms in 231 

fruit growing in 77 

horticulture in 39 

oranges 519 

Florida Keys, flora of 279 

lime-tree in 422 

Florists, Societv of American, 301, 313. 

321 
and nurserymen, responsibili- 
ties of .' 337, 430 

Florists' arrangements, taste in 409 

Flourensia cornua ^ . . 524 

Flowers and fruit pictures at the 

Academv of Design 107 

Flower beds, formal 169 

border, a well-an-anged*. . . . 136 

boxes, balcony 15S 

garden, the 224, 390, 402 

gardens, English 399 

missiun, the New York 220 

show at Philadelphia 96 

at Boston 156 

atOrange, NewJersey, 456 

Flowers, annuals for a succession of, 186 

autumn 499 

dyeing 14 

Easter, in New Yorli 86 

— in Japan* 338, 350 

in winter 98 

protection for artificially fer- 
tilized* 339 

sermon of tlie 205 

Foliage with cut flowers 6g 

Fontainebleau, forest of 95 

Foreign plants and American 

scenery 266, 41S 

Forest lands, leasing of 123, 146 

law in Russia 357, 492 

for Italy, a new 417 

laws 26, 357, 417 

management, European 454 

of Fontainebleau .... 95 

planting in New England .. 393 

in Virginia 500 

pieserves in Canada 219 

bill concerning 73 

school at Nancy 60 

tree plantation of the Univer- 
sity of Illinois 465 

tree planting on tlie prairies. 202 

trees for California 190 

trees of the Far North-west. . 58 

vegetation of nonhern Mexi- 
co. 70. 105, 117, 141, 226, 238, 429, 441, 524 

Forestiera phillvreoides 524 

Forestrv, an American school of.... 86 

Association. Pennsylvania... 154 

and farmers 229, 310 



Index. 



V 



Foreslrv com missions 3S5 

Congress at Atlanta 515 

European state 345 

in California. ..361, 369, 380,392 

405, 422 

station at Dodt^e City 158 

Forests, Adirondack, in danger.4g. 73, 87 

and civilization 505 

and rainfall 489 

care of 122 

future of ArnericaTi 25 

hardwood, of the South 34 

in Pennsylvania 525 

of Europe 430 

of EuT-Qpe as seen by an 

American lumberman ' 274 

ofNeu'Jersey 59 

of the United States 297 

of the White Mountains.. 2, 70, 493 

of Tunis 71 

of Vancouver's Island 46 

on the national domain 97 

Forget-me-nots 176 

Forsythias 151 

Fothert^illa alnifolia i8g 

' • SS'f 

,482 

■ 5S 
. 465 
. 142 
. 106 
. 466 
. 68 
, 291 
. 163 
.258 
258 



Fouquieria splendens. 
France, American fruits 

Fraxinella 

Fraxinus Americana . . . 

cuspidata 

pistaciasfolia 

- viridis 



Freesias. 

Fringe tree 

Fritillaria imperialis.. 

meleagris 

Mo!^g;ridgei. 



.16: 



pallidiflora 163 

pudica 153 

Pyrenaica 258 

Fruit and flower pictures 107 

and vegetables under glass.. 518 

Fruit garden, the 257, 292 

favorites 104 

Fruit growing in Florida 77 

In the West Indies 421 

irrigation for 492 

trees, hardy 205, 251, 274 

on highways 528 

Fruits, domestication of wild 195 

American in France 482 

for market and home use..gi, 127 

for cold climates. 49S 

improvement of North 

American 514 

thinning of 197 

Fuchsia, centennial of the 423 

Fungus diseases of insects 159 



G 



Gaillardias 

Galax aphylla 

Garden, a California 

a French 

a tropical* .• 

the Boston Public 

in Shanghai, a 

notes from an amateur's, 

of chrysanthemums, a* 

plants, Latinized names of... 

Gardenia Fortune! 

Gai'dener's art and Alexander Pope. 
Gardeners' Monthly, discontinu- 
ance of . , 

Gardening, future of American 

Gardens of the Alhambra 

Garrya Wrightii 

Gauliheria 57, 

Genista tinctoria 272, 

Gentiana Saponai^ia 

Gentians 307, 

Geraniums, notes on 

Germantown, exhibition at 

Gethsemane, Garden of. olive tree in 

Geum coccineum plenum 

Gillenia trifoliata 

Gincrer, wild 

Ginkgo biloba*. 102, 173, 174, 

Gladioli, notes on, 139, 336, 348, 363, 

444. 450. 
Gladiolus, Oberprosident \on Sey- 

derretz 

winter 

Gleichenias 379, 

Gloxinia gesnerioides 

Golden club 

rod - 

GoosebeiTies 

Gordonia ]3ubescens 

Grammatophylluin speciosum 

Grape, the wild 

Grape-vines, American, in Europe.. 

how to prune^'' 

Grapes for home use 34, 5b 

under glass 21 

Gi^ay, Asa i 

bibliography of 4S2 

Hooker's opinion of .. . 26 

Greenbrier 249, 465, 519 

Green-house in summer, the 175 

stages 319 

climbers for cutflowers. 487 

Grevillea Thelemanniana 41 

Grewia parviflora 297 

Groundsel-tree 495 

Guinea-hen flower, the 163, 258 

Gymnogranima Pearcei robusta 303 

schizophylla 404 



■ 473 
507 

. 3Q8 

, 289 

222 

■ 345 
, 160 

■ 450 
. 522 
, 490 

485 
207 



255 
524 
M3 
442 

494 
362 
404 

284 

150 
225 

177 
227 

375 
474 



496 
523 
348 
310 
435 
514 
429 
468 

524 
III 

461 



Habenaria blephariglottis 290 

ciliaris 290, 324 

• ■ cristnla 290 

Hackberry, tlie 106 

Hfemaiithus Katharinai; 328 

Halvea laurina 347 

Halesia tetraptera 220 

Hamainelis mollis 120 

Hapiocarpa Leichtlini 523 

Hardwood forests ot the south, the. 34 

Harpalium I'igidum 425 

Hawk weed 252 

Hawthorn 201 

Hay, salt 155 

Hazel, Constantinople 101 

Heating of conservatories 407 

Hedges, notes on 203 

Heliaiithus angustifolius 362 

Maximiliani.. .. 440 

Heliconia Choconiana"^-. . . 161 

Hellcborus niger 473 

Heloniopsis Japonica 60 

HemlocKs 58, 65 

Hemp-weed 362 

Hepatica, the 45, 107 

Herbaceous plants in frames 427 

in parks, etc 361 

Herbs, £iagr;int, for edging 176 

for seasoning 26S 

Heterosporum ornithogalli 264 

Heuchera sanguinea... .115, 152, 291, 371 

Hibbertia dentata 496 

Hibiscus lasiocarpiis * 425 

Syriacus 399 

Hickttry 190, 300 

Hickory borer, the banded * 148 

Hieracium aurantiacum 252, 336 

Hippeastrum aulicum 520 

Hippophte rliamnoides 496 

Holly 1S2, 52S 

Holothrix Lindleana 120 

Honeysuckle. .154. 165, 201, 237, 273, 5J4 

Honniokii, house in* 314 

Horse chestnut in Scotland 528 

Horticultural exhibitions (see Exhi- 
bitiuns). 

fasliions 49 

Hortii ulture and the experiment 

stations iSi 

Chinese, in N. Y 483 

handliook of, wanted 65 

in Florida 39 

Howea Beliuoreana 407 

Huckleberries, cultivation of 183 

Hudsonia 212, 237, 495 

Huerniaas' era 275 

Hyacinths for forcing 332 

Hyacinth us corymbosus 108 

Hybridization, device for aiding. . . . 339 

Hydrangea arborcscens 296 

hortensis 226, 336 

paniculata 296, 408, 419 

quercifolia 296 

radiata 296 . 

rosea 68 

Hymenocallis hnmilis* 114 

Palmeri* 13S 

Hymenoclea monogyra 524 

Hypericum calycmum 333 

patulum 333 

I 

Ilex glabra 1S2, 261 

Isevigata 261, 453 

macrocarpa 527 

opaca 182 

verticillata 1S2, 261, 453 

Illicium verum 299 

Illinnis, forest-lr'^e plantation of the 

University ot 465 

Impatiens Hookeri 329 

Incarvillea Olgse 450 

Indigo. 527 

Injuries to shade-trees 469 

Ink-berry 1S2, 261 

Insects, cone-eating* 100 

fungus diseases of 159 

Ipecacuanha 527 

Ipomea Hardingei 3^9 

Briggsii 4S5 

Horsfallia? 485 

ternata 485 

paniculata 329 

Iris Alberti 407 

bracteata* 43 

cristata 18S 

Germanica 150 

Ka?mpferi 259, 264 

Korolkowi 127, 209, 348, 491 

Krelargii . . , 127 

la^^vigaca* 259, 402, 431 

pabuiaria 326 

pumila iSS 

reticulata 127 

stylosa 148 

tenuis* 6 

Virginica 1S2, 495 

Irises, notes on iS 

Iron-wood 102 

Irrigation in the West 253, 277, 494 

for fruit 492 

Italy, new forest law of 417 

Itea Virginica 261 

Ivy, poison 143 

Ixiolirion Tartaricum 200 

Ixora Duffii (oo 



Jack-pine plains 

Jamesia Americana 

Japan, flowers in* 

house at Honmoku in* 

pictures of 

temples in* 

Japanese Iri^'' , 

Jasmine, white Bornean 

Jeffersonia diphylla 

Jub^a spectauilis 

Judas tree 

Juglans Jamaicensis 

M anch u rica 

■ rupestris 



■ 39^ 
, 237 

. 350 

■ 3'4 
. 156 
. 434 

■ 259 

■ 4" 
. 165 



243, 



.396, 



Juniper, dwarf. 
Juniperus occidentalis. 

pachyphlcea 

teh'agona 

Virginiana 



503 
443 

to6 

1C.7 

....141, 441 

44 r 

441 

59i t^5. 470 



Ka^mpferia secunda 

Jvalmia iatifolia. 

Kansas forest trees identified ... . . . 

Kennedya Marryatta? 16, 

Kew Arboretum, tlie 4*^. 53- ^01, 

Kingston, R. I., street in * 

Kitchen garden, the gi, 103, 

Kniphopina 380, 

Kcelreuteria bipinnata 

paniculata 



Labels 146, 

Lacharme, proposed monument to. 

La-ha albida 

anceps 4, 316, 511, 

autumnalis 

Batemanniana 

caliistoglossa 284, 

crispa 

elegans 

Eyermanni 312, 

^ — flammea 

Guuldiana 

mouophylla 

Patini 

Perrini 

purpiuata 

Victoria. 

Lalte-flower 243, 

Landolphia owariensis . . 

Landscape-gardening, 2, 14, 27, 38, 51 

63.75.76, 87.04,112,130, 142, 335, 480, 

bibliography of 

Lantanas 

Lapageria alba 

Larch. European, in Massachusells. 

Eurojiean 

the common . . . . 

Lai'ch forest with undergrowth 

Larix leptolepsis 

Larkspur 

Larrea Mexicana 

Lastre.i montana 

Latania Borbonica 

Latinized names ot garden (plants.. 
Lnurel :82, 

mountain 

Lawn, how to make a 

notes on 22, 299, 

suggestions fi)r making a 

Tennis , 

Lead -plant 

Leather-leaf 

Leathertor, England, bridge at*.... 

Leatherwood 

Leaves of last year 

Lechea minor 

Ledum latifolium 

Leiophyllum buxifolium 236, 

Leland' Stanford, Jr., University, 

plan of* 506, 

Leptosv'ie inaritima 

Lespecleza bicolor 

Leucoium c-e^tivum , 

Leucophvllum imiuis 

Leucothoe racemosa 237 

Ligustrum amurense 

Califormcum , 

Ibota 

ovalifolium 

vulgare 

l,ilacs, notes on 

Lilies, cultivation of 55 

iK^tes on 93, 

Lilium auratum 103, 363, 

Brownii 

candlclum 103, 

elegans 

excelsum 

(iravi * 19, 56, 

Hansoni 

Henryi 

longillnrum 103, 

Nepalense 3S7 

Parkmani 

Parry i 30 

l)unct.Ttum 

purpuratum 

speciosum 

S/.ovitzianum 

tenuifolium 

tigrinum Here pleiio 

Wallichianum 

Lily, Guernsey 

Japan 



495 
136 

208 

342 
464 

376 
376 



516 

75 
16 
520 
511 
34^ 
339 
2,66 
414 
315 
212 
4 
3SS 
475 
495 
479 
495 

2Q5 

526 
.58, 
481 

94 

ig8 

456 

1 1 

500 

59 

94 

454 

2S3 

524 

3' 5 

324 

4Q3 

iSg 

442 

3 

47 5 

357 
285 
154 

5- 
129 

99 
495 



2S5 
163 
524 
454 
260 
260 
260 
260 
260 
220 
. 81 
103 



52S 
115 
443 



291 
103 



Lime tree, Crimean 

in Florida 

Limnanthemum lacunosum 

nymplupoides 

Linden, the silver 231, 

-- ; American and European. 230, 

Lind(-ra Benzoin 

fragrans , 

Lippia Ivcioides 

Wrightii. 



.20S. 
,.136, 



Licjuidambar wood, 

Lisbon, park in 

Lissochilus giganieus... 

Live Oak *.;... 

Livistonia horrida 

Ldcust. the common 83, 500, 

the Honey 

Litmaria Spicant 

Li.)nchncarpus cyanescens 

Lonicera Alberti , 

aibi flora 

cileata 

coarulea 

fragrantissima 

Japonica 

Maximo wiczii 

oblongifolia 

Periclynienum 

Ruprechtiana 

Standishi 

Luft'a acutangula 

Lychnis 

Lycium Chinense 286, 

pallidum* 

Lycopodium 

complanatum 

denctroideum 

Ly 'J odium palrnatum 

scandens 



17 
422 
295 
29s 
312 

254 
154 
527 
524 
524 
no 

36 

263 

476 

479 
5M 
254 
34t 
527 
226 

524 

165 
■65 
154 
243 
226 

237 

273 
201 

154 
483 
294 

453 
340 
519 
505 
505 
354 
474 



Macaranga Porteana. . 

Machaouia Pringlet 

Mackya bella 

Macrotomia Benthami. 
Magnolia consptcua. . . 

cordata 

glauca 

grandiflora 

hvpoleuca* .... 

Norbertiana .... 

Soiilangeana ... 

slellata , 

Thompsoniana * 

Magnolias, notes on . . . 
- propagation of. . 



Mahernia verticillata 

Maiden-hair fern 200, 

Malacothrix obtusa 

Manet tia bicolor 

Mangrove, notes on 

Manure 

iMapIe, the Ash-leaved 

the Japanese 312, 

the Norway , 

the Sugar 174, 

the Svcamore 262, 

the White 

iMarigolds 

Masdevaltia Chestertoni 

gibberosa 

Harry ana 

ii^nea 



. 299 
. 232 

■ 507 

, 362 
. 516 
. 31^ 
. 516 
. 516 
516 
. 26S 
' 33 
• 45 
70 
341 
375 



macrura 

Mooreana 

pulvinaris 

tovarensis 

Massachusetts Hoiiicuhural So- 
ciety 60, 228, 300, 336, 

European Larch in 

Maurandia Barclay ana 

M.axillaria fuscata 

Meadow beauty 

Meadows, the, in Central Park, New 

York* 

Meconopsis Wallichii 

Merendera Caucasica 

Mesembryantliemum Brownii 

Mesospinidium vulcanicum 

Mexican orange flower 

Mexico, notes fi'om a naturalist in. . 

forest vegetation of northern, 

70, 105, 117, 141, 226, 238,429. 441, 

Microlepsis hirta cristata 

I\Hkania scandens 

Mildew on roses 

Milla biHora 20, 56, 

Milton ia Phalpenopsis 

Mimosa dvsocarpa 

Priiiglei 

- prohfica 



4.6 
254 
453 
=.M 

254 
348 
2S4 
473 

48 
120 
46S 

16 
520 
520 



473 
503 
519 

124 

201 
138 
60 
414 
219 



Mimusops Sieberi 

Minneapolis, Minn., park in*... 

Minnehaha, Falls of 

Minnes<}(a. climate of 

Mist-flower 

Mite, the red, on veibenas* 

on trees 



5=4 
523 
362 
429 
329 
236 
524 
524 
524 
527 
374 



Mitella diphvlla 

Mitre-wort 

Mobile, Spring and Winter plant: 



of. 



16 



Momordica Charantia 

Monohainmus confiisor 

I\rontbrctias 399, 

Mornini;; Glory, new variety of 

Moi-tonia scatrella 

Moras inicrophylla 



459 
165 
.65 

. SS 
483 
172 
450 



524 
524 



VI 



Index. 



Mulclung sliiubbery beds 33 

Musa proboscidea 527 

Mushrooms, cultivation of 318, 497 

Mustard, ^reen 484 

Myosotis dissitiflora splendens..ii5, 2-^5 

Myiica cerifera 280, 494 

Gale 154 

Myrtle, the Sand 182 

the Wax 280, 494 

Names of plants 323, 490 

Nancy, forest school at 60 

Nantucket, a glimpse of 447 

Narcissus monopliyllus 510 

Broussoneti 395 

polyanthus* 44, 141 

Pseudo-Narcissus 177, 371 

Natural beauty and the landscape 

gardener 481 

Nepenthes Dicksoniana 436 

Nephrodium rufescens tripinnali- 

fida 404 

— Rodigasianum 404 

TuercUlieniiii 371 

Nephi'olepsis davallioides furcans.. 523 

exaltata 523 

Nerine FotheriTilli 451 

Mansellii 4 

N erium Oleandei" 399 

Neviusia Aiabamensis 212, 219 

New England, forest planting in 393 

New Jersey, forests of 59 

Newport 470. 482 

New York City, a botanic garden for, 517 

NikkOf Temple in* 434 

Nine-Bark 225 

Nogal tree 503 

Nomenclature, botanical 323. 490 

North American fruits, improvement 

of 514 

North-west, forest trees of 58 

Nuvelties at Baden-Baden 233 

Floi^al 270, 2S3 

Nurser\-men, Association of Ameri- 
can 193 

and fiorists, responsibilities 

of 337. 430 

Nursery stock, disease of 194 

NympliEea* 241 

alba 241 

ampla 242 

castalia 1S6 

dentata 242 

Devoniensis 242 

Kewensis 1 20 

Liebergi iS6 

Lotus 242, 495 

Luteum 242 

odorala 241, 263 

pygmEea )86, 241 

rubra 242 

scutifolia 242 

speciosa 242 

tuberosa*... 241,263, 368 

Zarizibarensis 242 

Nyssa sylvatica 144 

O 

Oalc, tlie Chestnut 511 

the Pin 136, 254 

the Red 136, 254 

the Scarlet 136, 254 

the Shingle 136, 254 

the Wasliinglon*. 511 

the White 500 

the Willow 136, 254 

OaUs in the KewArboretum 136 

European 191 

for California ... 190 

in Kent 52S 

Odontogtossum crispum v. 108, 159 

giande. . . , 464 

Halli 244 

Harrvanum.i63, 316. 344, 514, 520 

fnsleavi. . 108 

Karu'inslvi 376 

nebul'-isum 244, 248 

Rossi :5g, 479, 514 

Roezli 379 

Schrcederlanum 520 

Uro Skinneri 168 

Wahsii 248 

Oil of Sassafras 458 

Oil-tree of China and Japan 135 

Olea Euro]3£ea* 2S4 

Olearia Haastii 363 

Olive tree=^' 284 

Oncidium Janceriense 316 

Jonesianum 60 

Lanceanuni 316 

Leitzei 395 

Mantieri 472 

macranthuni 308 

ornithorhynchum 387 

Papilio majus 294 

pub'inatuni 224 

Onoclea sensibilis 353 

struthiopteris 353 

Onosma pyiamidalis 60 

stelluiatum 176 

Onteora Club, the 266 

Onychuim Japonicum 523 

Opnioglossuiii vulgntum ... 354 

Opuntia Rafinesquii 4S5 

Orange-flower, Mexican 219, 34S 

trees 231 



Oranges, Florida 

Orchard, arsenical poisons in 

Orch id hou ses 

Orchids in New York 

Orchis, fringed 

Oreodoxa oieracea 

regia 

Ornithogalum Arabicum 

nutans 

Orobus vernus 

Orontium aquaticum 36, 

Oamunda cinnamomea 243, 

Claytoniana 

regalis 

Ostrowskia magnifica 303, 348, 

Ostryopsis Davidiana. 

Oxafis Acetosella 

violacea 

Oxtrra pulchella 16, 

Oxybaphus Calif ornica 

Oxydendrum arboreum 332 



519 
9 
319 
475 
290 
5'-J3 



153 
310 

354 
354 
354 
406 
165 
303 
494 
36 
36 
440 



Ptuonia albifiora 224, 270, 

anomala 

aretina 

Broteri 

Brownii 

Byzantina 

decora 

Emodi 

humilis 

mollis 

officinalis 224, 

peregrina 

Russi 

tenuifolia 1S9. 

triternata 

Wittmanniana 

P.ilicotirea nicotiansefolia 

Palm, the Manacle 

the Taliijot 

Palms, cultivation of 322, 

for house, decoration 

in Central Florida 

Panax scssilifloruni 

Pancic, Dr., death of 

Pancratium speciosum 452, 

Pansies 

Pajtaver bracteatum 

nudicaule 

orientale 

Rhceas 

Papaw, the wild 

Paper ]julp from pine and spruce. . 

red cedar 

Pajiliinia cristata 

P.iris, sc|uares of 

horticultural exhibition 

Park, Central 30, 37, 124, 144, 

in Atlanta 

in Lisbon 

■■ in Minneapolis''- 

in Wilmington, Del 

City Hall. 'attack on 

commission at Rochester. . . . 

novel project for a public*. . . 

Prospect, Brooklyn. .217, 262, 

Yellowstone, enlargement of . 

■ forests of 



270 
270 
271 
271 
270 
270 
270 
271 
270 
270 
270 
270 
270 
270 
271 
275 
503 
223 

373 
29 



340 
210 
5f4 
29 1 
470 

343 

267 

215 
230 
36 



Park-making. Anglomania in 

Parks and squares of U. S. cities. . . 

for Philadelphia 

herbaceous plants in. . . . . 

use and abuse of 

Parnassia Faberi 

Parrotia Persica 

Parslty 

Parthenium incanum 

Passiflora Kewensis 

Miersii 

racf mosa 

Roddiana 

violacea 

Paulownia Imperialis 400, 

Pea, the sugar 

Pear, Belle Picarde 

Pierre Tourasse 

balsam- 

Peach yellows, the 

the Le Ctjnte 

Peach blio-hf 

Peat muck 

Pecan nuts 

Pella^a atropurpurea 

grncilis 

Peltandra Virginica 

Pennsylvania Forestry Association, 

forests 

Horticultural Society, exhibi- 
tion of. , .' 

Pentapera sicula 

Pentstemon b:irbatus 

rotundifolius* 407, 472, 

Pepper-root, the 

Pepper-tree, the 

Perennials, hardy 54, 176 

l-^rrijjloca Grteca 

Periwinkle, the. 

Persimmon, the 

Petalostemon decumbens. 

Phaiiis callosus 

tuberculosus 31, 89, 

Wallichii 

PhaUenopses, cultivation of 

Phakono|>sis Esmeralda 



134 
482 
457 
335 

75 
129 

64 
412 
144 
361 

121 

527 
464 
484 

524 
292 
407 
488 
4S8 
228 

479 
4S4 
168 
108 
4S3 
368 
392 
466 
J05 
528 
341 
341 
=43 
154. 
491 
525 

395 
407 
210 
496 



.491. 



462 
297 
107 
514 
105 
485 
4S5 
491 
403 
367 



231 
48 



Phakenopsis F. L. Ames 4,36 

glori'jsa 244 

Harriettis 68 

intermedia Portei 164 

John Sedeii 108, 125 

Kimballiana 255 

Lowi 414, 485 

Marian 328, 366 

Miltonia 236 

■ Parishi 236 

Sanderiana 68 

Schilleriana 204, 479 

speciosa Imperatrice 236, 255 

Sumatrana 255 

Phegopteris calcarea 342 

dryopteris 342 

hexagonoptera 342 

polypodioides 342 

Philadelphia flower show g6 

parks for 144 

Philadelphus Coulteri* 232 

coronarius 249 

var. Satsuma 241 

microphyllus 248 

Schrenkii 249 

speciosus 249 

Phlox acisurgens'-' 66 

amo2na 150 

divaricata 83 

Drummondii 2S3 

nana* 413 

reptans 164 

Stellaria''- 256, 259 

subulata 164, 259 

Plicenix , 231 

Phcenix Canariensis 168, 231 

rupicnla 

sytvestris 

Phormium Hookeri 

Photinia villosa"^* 67 

Physocarpus Amurensis 225 

Piazzas 133, 446 

Picea Ajanensis 140 

Pictures, flower and fruit, at Acad- 

emv of Design 107 

Pine, tlie Black 59, 129 

the Chili loi 

fibre matting- 469 

forest, a New Jersey"'' 160 

the Norway 106 

the Scotch 502 

Pines, among the, in April 124 

in June 243 

in July 290 

in August 362 

in October 435 

in No\'ember 494 

Christmas in the 518 

Pink-root, Demerara 527 

Pinus albicaulis 130 

Arizonica 430 

Banksiana 106, 398 

Canariensis 276 

cembroides 430 

Chihuahuana 238, 429, 4^0 

contorta 59 

Cubensis 476 

Hex [lis 1, :o, 65, 103 

Halepensis 263 

i nops 65 

insignis 65 

Laricio 102 

macrophylla 238, 429 

maritima 504 

Murravana 59, 129 

occidentahs 503 

palustris 261, 469 

pinea 503 

ponderosa 130 

the weeping'' 392 

Pyrenaica 407 

resinosa 65 

rigida 59, 65, 154 

Sabiniana 348 

strobiformis 430 

- Strobus 2S6, 33S 

502 

. ... 444 

495 

195 

:o9 



- Svlvestris. . 
-Torreyana. 



Pin weed. 
Pitcairnia Jaliscana 

Pahiieri * 

Tuerckheimei 503 

Pitcher plant [,05 

Pithecoctenium Buccinatorium 479 

Pitliecolobium Saman 213 

Pixie, The 507 

PlagianthusLyalli 395 

Plains, rainfall on the 62, 169, 411 

Plan for a small homestead* 11 1 

Planchon, Professor J. E., death of. qq 

Plans for small places no 

Plantation for winter, a qS 

Planting for autumn effect 410 

notes 451 

the dunes 357 

Plants, bedding, for spring 10 

dispersion of 213 

and cut flowui's no, 258. 27S 

hardy, for forcing 150 

staking of ' iSS 

useful, of Southern California 414 

why we do not buy growing. 121 

Platycaria strobiacea 36 

Platycodon gianditiorum 264 

Pluiii and the curciUio, the 1S7 

Plum, the Beach 200, 514 

the Sierra 514 



Plums for the west 343 

our native 498 

Satsuma 471 

Plumus fra grans 491 

Poa tenuifolia 375 

Poisonous plants iiS, 143 

Poke, the 347 

Polomintlia incana 524 

Polyanthuses i6r 

Polygala lutea 362, 494 

Polygonatum multiflorum 200 

Polvpodium Calif ornicum 341 

vulgare 341 

Pomology, needs of American 37 

Pope, Alexander, and the garden- 
er's art 207 

Poplar, the Lombardy 174, 302 

white 254 

Poppies, notes on 210 

Populus Fremontii, var. Wislizeni* 105 

Steiniana 139 

trem uloides 58 

Postage on seeds, plants, etc 254 

Potato disease 495 

Pofentiila fruticosa 285 

tridentata 285 

Prairies, forest tree planting on 202 

climate of the 159 

Pretty plants, an appeal for 524 

pj-imula capitata 519 

cortusoides 141 

double Chinese 41, 68 

Faberi 527 

geranifoha 60 

bbconica 21 

officinalis 210 

rosea 141 

Rusbyi 320 

Sinensis 204 

vulgaris 153, 519 

Prince's pine. 519 

Privet 260 

Pr(»pagation of Conifers 47, 436 

Prosopis iulitlora* 1x7 

Prospect Park", Brooklyn... 217, 262, 335 

Prune, the German 228 

Pruning shrubs 80, 498 

Grape vines* 461 

trees 488 

Pruiuis Americana 178 

— avium 201 

capuli loS 

cerasifera 17S 

Cerasus 201, 320 

Chanuecerasiis 201 

Davidiana 153 

divaricata..'. 17S 

domestica 17S 

^ humilis 200 

ilici folia.-. . .. 414 

insititia 17S 

Jaci:|uemontii 48, 200 

Japonica 200 

Maackii 295 

Maritima 200, 514 

Miqueliana* 196 

PaJus* 295 

pendula* ig6, 263 

Pissardi._ 170, 178 

Pseudo-cerasus 178, 453 

pumila 200 

ranunculiflora 201 

serotina loS 

siibcordata 514 

tomentosa 134 

Pseudophcenix Sargenti*.... 279, 352. 443 

Pseudotsuga Douglasii 441, 500, 501 

Psychotria jasminiflora 140 

Pteris aquilina 341 

argycea 523 

('laphamensis 4 

Cretica 523 

serrulata 523 

tremiila 427, 523 

Pterocarya fraxinifolia 443 

P\'rus arbutifoUa 212 

— Aria 212 

coronaria 212, 219 

fennica 212 

floribunda 232 

Maulei 232 

prunifolia 453 

sambucifolia 236 

Sinensis 453 

spectabilis * 232, 272 

Q 

Quercus acuta 137 

Buerger! 137 

cerris 102, 137 

coccinea 136 

conferta 136 

Daimyo 137 

dentata 137, 454 

Emoryi 142, 238 

fulva 441 

Georgiana 465 

glandulifera 137 

grisea 142. 23S. 441 

hypoleuca 441 

Ilex. ... 136 

■ imbricaria 136 

lobata 275, 300 

oblongifolia* 142 

palustris 136 

Pannonica 136 

pedunculata 102, 136, 137 



Index. 



Vll 



Quercus Phellos 136 

pinus 511 

porcina 190 

reticulata 137, 441 

Robur 136 

rubra 136 

sessiliflora. 136 

tinctoria 136, 190 

undulata 142 

virens''- iSt^, 476 

Quesnelia WKtmackiana 407 

Quinces, how to j^row 247 

on Apple stocks 36S 

Qiiisqualis Indlca 309 



Rainfall on the Great Plains. 62, 169, 

do forests influence ? 

Randia Prino^Iei 

Ranunculus, the 

Raspberry canes, removing 

Renanthera Storei 

Resin 

Retinisporas, the 57, 

Rhamnus alnifoiius 

Californicus 

- Frangula 



Rhapis flabelliformis 

Rhexia Virginica 

Rhodochiton volubile 

Rhododendron arborescens* 

argenteum 

brachycarpum* 

calendulaceum 

Catawbiense 

Collethianum 

Dauricum sempervirens 

feiTugineiim 

multicolor Curtisii 

Primrose 

punctatum 

Rhodora 

— . Teysmanni 

Vaseyi* 119, 376, 440, 

viscosum 

Rhododendrons, hardy.. 25, 82, 116, 

Malayan 

notes on 

seedling 

Rhus aromatica 

copallina 309, 

cotinoides 

glabra 

=- microphylla 

semialata 

typhina 

venenata 143, 309, 

virens 

Ribes alpinum 165, 

aureuni 165, 178, 

Cynosbati 

floridum 

Gordonianum 

Lobbii 

malvaceum 

JMissouriensis 

multiflorum 

prostratum 

rotundifolium 

rubrum 

sanguineuni 165, 

saxatile 

speciosum 

triflorus 

- Uva-crispa 



411 

4S9 
524 



405 

316 



2S6 



519 
329 
400 
22S 
292 
237 
237 
407 
141 
237 



17 
237 
iSg 
26S 
466 

=^73 
142 

495 

472 



114 
3C9 
524 
344 
309 
362 
524 
239 

239 
178 
190 



514 

165 
416 



165 
190 

17S 
165 

2ig 



234 



Ripen the wood. 

Roadside beauty 

Rochester park commission 

Rock-garden in spring, the, 127, 153, 

^77. 

notes from the 199, 

Rockets 

Rocky mountain bramble 

Romneya Coulteri 291, 388, 

Rondeletia gratissima 

Rosa alba suaveolens 

Beggeriana 

canina 

Galiica 

gigantea 

grandiflora 

Kamtschatica 

lEevigata*. . 

lucida 

minutifolia* 

nitida 261, 

Nutkana* 

repens 

ruoiginosa 

rugosa 264, 441, 454, 489, 

setigera 

spinossissima 

Rose, American Beauty 

Bardon Job ' 

Comte Henri Rignon 

Conitesse de Frigneuse 

Gloire de Polyaritha 

Herm osa 

La France 

Mme. Hoste 

Niphetos 

of Sharon 107, 

Papa Gontier 271, 

Perle des Jardins 

Princess Beatrice 

the Bride 

the Cherokee* 234 



294 
147 

482 
163, 
188 
271 

235 

225 
414 
68 
504 
333 
26S 
504 
321 
148 
492 
370 
454 
102 
454 
449 
34S 
268 
492 
2S6 
454 
462 

347 
479 
513 
125 
516 
513 
523 
513 
160 
462 
462 

163 

462 

. 370 



Rose, the Japanese 204, 441, 454 

Vicomtesse de Wautier 204 

Rose beetle, whitewash for 307 

cuttings 390 

Roses, a list of ifii, 368 

Christmas 293 

from the grower's standpoint 321 

how to prepare a bed for 149 

Lenten 320 

mildew on 429 . 

new varieties of 8, 315, 429 

notes on. .8. 342, 417, 439, 462, 513 

out-door 452, 489 

soil for 451 

summer 293 

Tea loS, 204, 470, 513, 523 

Ro)'al Botanic Society, exhibition of. 113 



Ruapellia grata 

Rubber-plant 214, 223, 

Rubus 105, 

deliciosus 219, 

fruticosus 

hispidus 494, 

nutkanus 225, 

odoratus 225, 

strigosus 

trifidus 

Rudbeckia bicolor 

laciniata 

Rural improvement societies 

Russian forest laws 357, 



407 

526 
127 
225 
273 
5^9 
261 
261 



M5 
492 



Sabal dealbata 231 

longipedunculata 231 

I\Io"cini 231 

Palmetto 276, 514 

serrulata 280 

umbraculifera 231 

Sabbat la chloroides 324, 362 

Saccolabium cceleste 315 

Heatiii 330 

Sagittaria 243 

Salix balsamifera 228, 246 

Candida 246 

chlorophylla 154 

irrorata 106 

nigi-a 106 

phylicoides 371 

taxi folia 106 

Salpiglossis sinuata 312 

Salvia coccinea 270 

Pitch en 363 

prunelloides 270 

scapaformis 60 

Sambucus Canadensis 249 

Mexicana 106 

. racemosa 256 

Sand Mvrtle 236 

'"'cige in California, a 374 

Sarcochilus Berlieleyi 68 

Hartmanni 371 

Sarrocenia Williamsi 245 

Sassafi-as, oil of 458 

Satin-flower 41 

Satsuma Plum [yi 

Satyrium piinceps 120 

Saxifrage, new varieties of 89 

Saxifi-aga, peltata 177 

Scenery, American, and foreign 

plants 266, 41S 

Scliizandra Chinensis 213 

Schizocodon uniflorus 307 

Schiz^a pusilla 243 

Schizophragma bydrangeoides. . . . 233 

Schizost}lis coccinea 440,496 

Schomburgkia tibicinis 395 

School grounds, improvement of... 133 

of forestry, an American. ... 86 

Scilla Hispanica 1S9 

Scolopendrium vulgare 315, 342 

Scuticaria Kevseriana 208 

Steeli .;..., 208 

Sea-buckthorn 496 

Seeds, dispersion of 213 

longevity of coniferous tree. . 250 

growing deciduous trees from 23 

Selaginella cuspidata crispa 148 

Pringlei 185 

Sempervivum, varieties of 115 

Senecio cruenta 264 

elceagnifolia 256 

- Ghiesbreghtii 496 

- salignus 524 



Sequoia 

Serpent Mound Park, th 

Service-berry 201 

Shad-bush 1S2 

Shade-ti'ees, injuries to 

Shanghai, a garden in 

Shepnerdia argentea 320, 

Short Hills Orchid and Chrysanthe 

mum Show 

Shortia galacifolia- 



uS 



, 409 



479 
506 



Smilax rotundifolia 240. 465, 

Walferi '. 

Snowlnerry ieliy 57, 

Snow-drop tree 

Snowdrops 

Snouflake, Summer 

Snowstorm, effect of 

Soajjs, vegetable 

Soap wort Gentian 

Sobralia leucoxantha 

Soils 

Solidago elliptica 

sempervirens 

Sonora hillside, a''' 

Sophora Japonica 102, 

Sorbus domestica 

Sour- wood 332, 

Spafhoglottis aurea 

Kimballiana . 

- Vieillardi . 



519 
5'9 
143 



52 
'53 

494 
32S 
488 



24, 224, 



4J5 

186 

344 
5M 
440 

371 
3,6 



Sperinopliilus fossor 

Spheralcea Emoryi 

Spice-bush 

Spigelia anthelmia 

Spinach, Chinese 

common 

Spindle- trees 212, 

S]"->ir^a alpina 

cana 

Cantoniensis 225, 

cliemcedry folia 

corymbosa ... 

Douglasii 

grandiflora 

hypericifolia 

Japonica ... .260, 

Lindleyana 

media 

prunifolia 178, 225, 

pubescens* 

salicifolia 

— ■ Sauranica 

sorbifolia 

Thunbergii 178, 225, 

Tobolskia. . ., 

tomentosa 

trilobata* 

Spools, wood used for 

Sprelcelia formossissima 

Spring beauty 177 

Sprouts, Brussels 

Spruce, the Black 

the Douglas 

the Norway, 64, 106, 143, 166, 

215, 227, 230, 
-the White 



527 
484 
513 
453 



464 

I go 
237 
273 
232 
190 
310 
260 
190 
453 
330 
273 



453 

2S6 



500 
309 



513 
58 



Squash bug, the. . . . . 
Stachys tuberifera.. 

Stagger-bush 

Staphvlea Bumalda., 
Emodi 



. 237. 



406 
495 
454 
201 



- pmnata.. 

- trifolia.. 



Star-fIo\^ 

Statice superba 

Stenocorus putator 

Stephanandra flexuosa 

Stephanotis floribunda 

Sternbergia lutea 

Stocks, double. . 

Strawberries 104, 

and birds 

Strawberry, proliferous 

Street of Kingston, R. L*. . . 
- trees . 



. 1S2 
.283 
. 264 

■ 237 
. 4SS 

■ 49*5 

■ 45S 
, 2S2 

176 
• 371 



Streiitzia augusta 

Streptosolon Jamesonii 33, 

Stropholirion Californicum 

Stuartia pentagyna 296, 

Pseudo-camellia 315, 324, 

Styrax Americana 

Japonica 

Obassla 24.], 

Suburbs in March, the 

Sumach 143, 154, 309, 

Italian 

Sundew 

Swanlev horticultural college 

Sweet Briar 

Peas 43. S3, 

Pepper bush 

Swiss forest laws 

Symplocos paniculata 213, 2S7, 

Svringa Amurensis 222, 

Chinensis 221, 

Emodi 222, 479, 

Japonica 222, 

Josiksea 

oblata''' 221, 

Pckinensis 222, 

Persica 

pubescens* 222, 

rotundifolia 



141 

291 
4>5 
371 

237 
245 

371 

27 

362 

500 

243 
506 
26S 
30S 
290 
477 
408 

453 
453 
520 
453 
222 
453 
453 



- uniflora 507 



- sempervirens. 

- villosa"'"' 

- vulgaris . 



■ 222,453, 
25, 196, 



Shrub propagation "18 Suburban lots, plan for iii 

Shrubs, hardy 50 

hardy, for forcing 6, 92, 113 ^ 

Japanese, diseases of 40, 77 

pruning of 80, 489 

Silenes 390 

Simmondsia Calif ornica 414 

Slopes and banks, treatment of*. . . . 326 

Smilacinia bifolia 200 

stellata 150 

Smilax glauca 465 

Pseudo-China 249, 465 



Tabebuia longipes 120 

Tagetes lucida 473 

Ta'sconia Parritte 204 

Taste in florists' arrangements 409 

Taxodium distichum 314, 432, 480 

Tecoma stans 524 

Temple in Japan, a* 88 

Nikko* 4^4 



Tennessee flowers 525 

Tennis-lawn, making a 357 

Terrace and veranda 170, 275 

Tetranychus telarius 459 

tiliarum 459 

Texas State Horticultural Sncietv .. Z2ii 

Therniupsis fabacea 200 

Thiergarten, Berlin, bridge in'-' 327 

Thoniumys umbrlnus 190 

Thoi'nsj American 14, ig 

Thunbergia affinis j8 

I'luniia alba 235 

Veitchii , 24S 

Thuya gigantea 314 

Thuyop'sis liorealis 257 

Tiarella cordifolia 200 

Tigridia Pnnglei* 38S 

Tilia dasystyla 332 

argentea 231, 312 

petiolaris 231, 312 

Tillage, surface 294 

limber, influence of undcigrowth on. 93 

preservation of 504 

Timber-borer, work of a 172 

Todea barbara 288 

Tomatoes 352, 492 

'i'op-dressing for trees 48S 

Torenia Fournieri 270 

Toxicophltea spectabilis 503 

Transplanting 92 

Tree-guards, wire netting for 7 

Tree notes 179 

planted letters 182 

planting 85,203 

on Boston Harbor 24 

in California 82 

what is a 409 

Trees and shrubs for a trying cli- 
mate 206,265 

artistic aspect of .218, 230, 242, 373 

493 

autumn work among 421 

tor planting in America 61 

hardy 406 

in Central Park 312 

in Washington 254, 347 

injuries to shade 469 

newly transplanted 199 

pruning 4S8 

street ' 74 

reiuvenescence of old* 349 

sentimental objections to fell- 

i'lg 325. 397 

top-dressing for 48S 

Trevcsia palmata 371 

Trial beds 6g 

Trichopilia grata 344 

Lehnianni 348 

Tricho.'=ima suavis 499 

Ti-ientalis Americana 182 

Trillium grandiflorum 150, 153, 165 

Tritonia aurea 3S8, 450 

Tropaeolum Lobbianum 473 

Tropical garden, a* 222 

Trutfles, cultivation of 194 

Tubercles on leguminous roots .... 135 

Tulipa acuminata 177, iSS 

Biebersteiniana 200 

Clusiana :88 

elegans 177 

erythrocarpum 177 

grandiflorum 177 

Greigi 163 

Kalpakowskvana 177 

Kaufnianniana — . . 163 

Kesselringii 141 

ocuhs-solis 163 

reflexa 18S 

suaveolens 177 

sylvestris 177 

u'ndulatifolia 177 

Tulip trees 254 

Tunis, forests of 71 

Turnip, white 4S4 

Tussock-molh 314 

Twin-leaf 165 

Typha angustifolia 495 

latitolia 495 

r 

Ulex Europseus 442 

Ulmuscampestris 3S1, 516 

effusa 3S1 

montana 516 

parvil'olia 231, 312 

Undergrowth, influence of, on tim- 
ber 93 

Ungnadia speciosa 524 

United States, forests of the 297 

Urena tenax 108 

Ursinia pulchra 407 

Utricularia mflata 243 

longlfolia 120 

montana 204 

rhyterophylla 88 

Uvularia" grandiflora 153 

A' 

Vaccinium corymbosum 440 

macrocarpum 519 

Vallota purpurea 3-9 

Vancouver Island, forests of 4*^ 

Vancouvcria hcxandra 225 

Vandas 60. 24S. 452. 464. 475, 499, 520 

Vanilla flower and its fertilization... loS 
Mcxicana 5-4 



Vlll 



Ind 



ex. 



Vanquelinia curynilxjsa 524 

Vegetable garden, the, 246, 258, 283, 305, 
319. 355. 366. 377, 389, 438, 4''c. 513 

growth on animals, a curiuii^. 99 

Veg;etables, new 4, 31 

in frames 450 

under glass . . 5"S 

Verb(-'nas, red mite on 20 

Viburnum acerifoHum. 249,440 

cassinuides 249, 384, 453 

cottnifoiiuin 404 

dentafum 249, 384, 453 

dilatatum 225 

Lantaiia 201, 226, 464 

Lentago 236,453 

macrocephahini 226 

nudum 453 

opuKis 232, 453 

plicatum 232 

prunifolium 220, 453 

piibescens 225, 440 

Victoria Re^^ia* 309. 3'^ 

Villas and their doorways 133 

Vincitiixicum acuminatum 225 

Vines, hardiness of 199 

Vineyard, notes troni a Ncwjersey, -56 
Viola Canadensis 165 



Viola cucullata 150, 163, 494 

pedata 150, 210 

jiubescens i83 

Virgilia 93, 39^- 454 

Vitex incisa 33^^ 

Vi tis A rizo nica s~4 

indivisa 297 

pterophora 228 

vinitera 37- 

Vochysia Guatenialeiisis 503 

Vriesea VVitlniacldana 479 

•w 

Waldsteiniafragoides iSS 

Walks and drives 193 

Walnut, the Black iq6, 394, 500 

Washington, trees in 254, 347 

Washington Oak at Fishkill, the*... 511 

Washington Square, New York 335 

Washlni:ftonia lilifera 231 

robusla 231 

Water, artificial* 8 

Water lilies 241, 263, 36S 

sliield 243 

Wavside bcautv * [2 

Weeds .' 271 



Welleslev, the Charles Ri\er at 422 

West Indian fruit-growing 421 

Wliite Mountains, forests of the, 2, 70, 493 
Why we do not buy growing |)l;inis. 121 

Wild-flowers, exhibition of 27S 

some hnrdv 3r 

Willow, the Black ... 106 

AVillows, two interesting 246 

Wilmington, Del., park in 12 

Wind-breaks, rules for planting 46 

Window gardeiniig 243, 383, 410, 474 

Winter, plantation tor 9S 

tiowers in 98 

Wintergreen 519 

Wistaria Sinensis 213, 232, 492 

Woltfia microscopica 492 

Woad-wax 272, 442 

Wood picture, a 303 

sorrel 3'^3) 494 

in autumn, a Calitornia 422 

Woodland tragedy, a 351 

Woodlands, care of 333 

Wuodsia glabella 355 

hyperborea .. 355 

Ilvensis 355 

ohlusa 355 

Woodwaidia angustifolia 341 



Woodwardia Virginica 341 

Wurk of a timber- borer 172 

X 

Xeiophyllum asphodcloides 1S2 

Y 

Yellow-root 154, 464 

——-wood, die* 93, 398, 454 

\ elluwstonc Park 75, 129 

Yucca filifcra* ,78, 276 

Trcculiana* 54 



Zanthorhiza apiifolia 154, 464 

Zephyranthes Candida 450, 519 

carinafa 519 

Zinc labels 516 

Zinnia liniaris 270 

Zizvphus lycioides 524 

Zvgupetalum citriniim 271 

bracliy petal um 34S 

Sedcni 2S1 



I L LUST RATIONS. 



A 

Acidanthera bicolor 486, 4S7 

Alameda of Chihuahua, the 104 

Amelanchier alnifolia 185 

oligocarpa 247 

Aquilegia longissima 31 

Arizona Gaiden, Monterey, view in. 403 

Arnold Arboretum, entrance to 17 

Artificial water 8 

ArfiJically fertilized fluwers, pro- 
tection of 339 

SS 

Beech, a weeping 32 

Berberis Fendleri ^ 462 

Fremonti (.97 

Berlin, bridge in the Tluergarten. . . 329 

Bridge at Leatherlor, England 53 

in the Thiergarten, Berlin. . . . 329 

Broditea Brldgesii 126 

Batfalo Park, views in proposed 457 

design map of 463 

Bulbs, hard}', blooming in the 

grass 306 

C 

Cabbage-leaf, maltormed 296,392 

Camassia Cusickii 174 

Cattleya Gigas, white flowered 437 

Central Park, New York, view in . . . 30 

meadows in 125 

Minneapolis, view in. . 379 

Charlecote Hall, court-yard of 173 

Charles River at Wellesley, the 427 

Cherokee Rose, the 235 

Chihuahua, the Alameda of 104 

Chinese crab-apple, double flow- 
ered 265 

Narcissus, in water 44 

Chionophila Jamesii So 

Chrysanthemum, lalian B, Bird.... 512 

■ Mrs. Alpheus Hardy 5 

hair of '. 6 

Chrysanthemums, a garden of 523 

-Cone-worms 101 

Country I'oad, a 12 

Court-yard of Charlecote Hall 173 

Crab-apple, Chinese, double flow- 
ered 265 

Cypripedium Californicum 2S1 

fasciculatum 90 



Delphinium viride 15° 

Deutzia parvillora 305 

Elasagnus longipes 499 

Entrance to the Arnold Arborulum. . 17 
Erythronium Henderson! 317 

Fig tree, the wild, of i''lorid,i 12S 

Flower-border, a well arranged 137 

G 

Garden, a tropical 223 

of chrysanthemums, a 523 

Ginkgo tree, the 175 

Grapevines, methods of pruning — 461 
Gray. Asa (supplement to No. 2). 

Hardy bulbs blooming in the grass. 306 

Heliconia Choconiana 1(52 

Hibiscus lasiocarpus 426 

Hicliory borer, the 149 

Homestead, plan for a small. . . .111, 113 

Hou.se at Honmoku, Japan 319 

Hymenocallis humilis 114 

Palmeri 139 

I 

Iris bracteata 43 

Japanese, a bed of 259 

1^'vigata, flower of 402 

tcimis 7 

J 
Japanese a]iple, double flowered... 152 

no\ver vender's basket, a. . . . 343 

Iris, a bed of 259 

temples 89, 439 

Kingston, R. I., main street of 209 

Leland Stanford, Jr., University, 

plan of the 50S 

Liiium Gravi 19 

Live Oak, the 470 

Lycium pallidum 341 



M 
Magnolia hypoleuca 305 

Thompsoniana 269 

Main street, Kingston, R. 1 209 

Malformed cabbage-leaf 296, 392 

Meadows in Central Park, N. Y., the. 125 

Mesquit forest in Arizona, a 116 

Monterey, view in a garden rif 403 

Narcissus, Chinese, in water 44 

New Jersey pine-forest, a 164 

Nikko, Japan, entrance to temples 

at 439 

Nympha?a tuberosa 367 

— j-oot stock of 366 

O 

Oak, the Live 476 

the Washington, at P'ishkill. . . 510 

Olive tree in the Garden of Geth- 
semane 284 

Paris S("|uare, plan of a 265 

Park, meadows in Central 125 

Minneapolis 374 

Pentstemon rotundifolius 473 

Philadetphus Coulteri 233 

Phlox adsurgens 66 

nana 413 

Stellaria 257 

Photinia villosa 67 

Pine-forest, a New Jersey 164 

Pinus ponderosa pendula 391 

Pitcairnia Jaliscana 197 

Palmeri 211 

Plan for a small homestead iii, 113 

of a Paris Square 265 

Protection of artificially fertilized 

flowers 339 

Pruning grape vines, metliods of . . . 461 

methods of 349 

Prunus Miqueiiana 199 

Padus 295 

■ pendula 198 

Pseudophcenix Sargenti 353 

fruit of 355 



Q 

Qucrcus oblongifolia 140 

R 

Red mite, the 20 

Rhododendron arborescens 401 

Vaseyi 377 

brachycarpum .*.... 293 

Rosa minutifolia 102 

■ — ■- Nutkana 449 

S 

Sack for ]>rotecting artificially fer- 
tilized flowers. 339 

"Sandy side," .Yarmouth, Victoria 

tank at 308 

Santa Rita Foothills, the 140 

Shortia galacifolia 509 

Slopes, good and bad 326 

Sonora hillside, a 187 

Spircea pubescens 331 

trilobata 452 

Syringa oblata. 221 

pubescens 415 

vilh.isa 521 

X 

Temples, Japanese 89, 439 

Thiergarten, Berlin, bridge in the... 329 

Tigridia Pringlei 3S9 

Tropical garden, a 223 

V 

Victoria tank at " Sandyside," Yar- 
muutli 30S 

Washington Oak at Fishkill, the 510 

Water lilies at Buitenzorg 245 

Wild flowers for exhibition 279 

Wodenethe, Pinus ponderosa at. .. . 391 

Y 

Yellow wood, the 92 

Yucca filifei-a 7S, 79 

Treculiana 55 



■^" 



\^ 



February 29, 18S8. 



Garden and Forest. 



GARDEN AND FOREST. 

PUBLISHED WEEKLY BY 

THE GARDEN AND FOREST PUBLISHING CO. 

[LIMITED.] 

Office ; Tribune Building, New York. 



Conducted by . 




. . Professor C. 


S. Sargent. 


ENTERED AS SECOND-CLASS MATTER AT THE 


POST OFFICE AT NEW YORK, N. Y. 


NEW YORK, 


WEDNESDAY, 


FEBRUARY 


29, 


1888. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Editorial Articles: — Asa Gray. Tiie Gardener's Monthly. T!ie White 
Pine in Europe ' ." 

The Forests of the White Mountains Francis Parkman. 

Landscape Gardening.— A Definition Mrs. Schuyler Vein Rensselaer. 

Floriculture in the United States Peter Henderson. 

How to Make a Lawn Professor W. J. Heal 

Letter from London ;;.-. Coldrtng. 

A New Departure in Clirysanthemums A. H. Few/ces. 

New Plants fj-om Afghanistan Max Lclchtlnt 

Iris Tenuis with fisjure ".'.'.'.'.Serena Watson. 

Hardy Shrubs tor Forcing ;.;--,„. Falconer. 

Plant Notes. . . . C.G. Pringle : Professor IK Trelcase. 

Wire Netting for 1 ree (_Tuards A. A. Cr-ozier 

Artificial Water, with Illusti-ation 

Some New Roses... ^ ' S^.'.'.'.'.'Edwin'Unsiale. 

1 wo Ferns and Their Treatment p, Coldrlng. 

Timely Hints about Bulbs y„/,„ Thorpe. 

Entomology ; 

Arsenical Poisons in the Orchard Professor A. S. Packard. 

The Forest ; 

The White Pine in Europe Professor H. .Mayr. 

European Larch in Massachusetts 

Thinning Pine Plantations ".'. .'.'b 'e 'F-rn'o'ty 

Book Reviews : 

Gray's Elements of Botany Professor G. L. Coodale. 

Kansas Forest Trees Professor G. L. Goojale. 

Public Works :— The Fallsof Minnehaha— A Pari; for Wilmington 

Flower Markets ;— New York— Philadelphia— Boston 



Asa Gray. 

THE whole civilizeti world is mourning the death of 
Asa Gray with a depth of feeling and appreciation 
perhaps never accorded before to a scholar and man of 
science. 

To the editors of this Journal the loss at the very out- 
set of their labors is serious indeed. They lose a wise and 
sympathetic adviser of great experience and mature judg- 
ment to whom they could always have turned with entire 
freedom and in perfect confidence ; and they lose a contribu- 
tor whose vast stores of knowledge and graceful pen mio-ht, 
it was reasonable to hope, have long enriched their col- 
umns. 

The career of Asa Gray is interesting from many points 
of view. It is the story of the life of a man born in humble 
circumstances, without the advantages of early education 
without inherited genius— for there is no trace in his yeo- 
man ancestry of any germ of intellectual greatness— who 
succeeded m gaining through native intelligence, industry 
and force of character, a position in the NQry front rank of the 
scientific men of his age. Among the naturalists who since 
Linnaeus, have devoted their lives to the description and 
classification of plants, four or five stand out prominently 
in the character and importance of their work. In this 
Jittle group Asa Gray has fairly won for himself a lastino- 
position. But he was something more than a mere syste"^ 
matist. He showed himself capable of drawing broad 
philosophical conclusions from the dry facts he collected 
and elaborated with such untiring industry and zeal This 
power of comprehensive generalization he showed in his 
paper upon the "Characters of Certain New Species of Plants 
Collected m Japan" by Charles Wright, published nearly 
thirty years ago. Here he f^rst pointed out the extraordinary 
similarity between the Floras of Eastern North America 
and Japan, and then explained the peculiar distribution of 
plants through the northern hemisphere by tracino- their 



direct descent through geological eras from ancestors 
which flourished in the arctic regions down to the latest 
tertiary period. This paper was Professor Gray's most 
remarkable and interesting contribution to science. It 
at once raised him to high rank among philosophical 
naturalists and drew the attention of the whole scientific 
world to the Cambridge botanist. 

Asa Gray did not devote himself to abstract science 
alone ; he wrote as successfully for the student as for 
the professional naturalist. His long list of educational 
works have no equals in accuracy and in beauty and 
compactness of expression. They have had a remarkable 
influence upon the study of botany in this country during 
the half century which has elapsed since the first of the 
series appeared. 

Botany, moreover, did not satisfy that wonderful intellect, 
which hard work only stimulated but did not weary, and 
one of Asa Gray's chief claims to distinction is the promi- 
nent and commanding position he took in the great intel- 
lectual and scientific struggle of modern times, in which, 
almost alone and single handed he bore in America the 
brunt of the disbelief in the Darwinian theory shared by 
most of the leading naturalists of the time. 

But the crowning labor of Asa Gray's life was the 
preparation of a descriptive work upon the plants of North 
America. This great undertaking occupied his attention 
and much of his time during the last forty years of his life. 
Less fortunate than his greatest botanical contemporary, 
George Bentham, who turned from the last page of 
corrected proof of his work upon the genera of plants to 
the bed from which he was never to rise again, Asa Gray's 
great work is left unfinished. The two volumes of the 
"Synoptical Flora of North America" will keep his 
memory green, however, as long as the human race is 
interested in the study of plants. 

But his botanical writings and his scientific fame are not 
the most valuable legacy which Asa Gray has left to the 
American people. More precious to us is the example of 
his life in this age of grasping materialism. It is a life that 
teaches how industry and unselfish devotion to learning 
can attain to the highest distinction and the most enduring 
fame. Great as were his intellectual gifts, Asa Gray was 
greatest in the simplicity of his character and in the beauty 
of his pure and stainless life. 



It is with genuine regret that we read the announcement 
of the discontinuance of the Gardefier s Monthly. It is like 
reading of the death of an old friend. Ever since we have 
been interested in the cultivation of flowers we have 
looked to the Monthly for inspiration and advice, and its 
pages have rarely been turned without finding the assist- 
ance we stood in need of But, fortunately, the Gardener's 
Monthly, and its modest and accomplished editor, Mr. 
Thomas Meehan, were one and the same thing. It is Mr. 
Meehan's long editorial experience, high character, great 
learning and varied practical knowledge, which made the 
Gardeners Monthly what it was. These, we are happy to 
know, are not to be lost to us, as Mr. Meehan will, in a some- 
what different field and with new associates, continue to 
delight and instruct the horticultural public. 



Americans who visit Europe cannot fail to remark that 
in the parks and pleasure grounds of the Continent no 
coniferous tree is more graceful when young or more dig- 
nified at maturity than our White Pine. The notes of Dr. 
Mayr, of the Bavarian Forest Academy, in another column. ■ 
testify that it holds a position of equal importance as a forest 
tree for economic planting. It thrives from Northern Ger- 
many to Lombardy, corresponding with a range of climate 
in this country from New England to Northern Georgia. It 
needs bright sunshine, however, and perhaps it is for lack of 
this that so few good specimens are seen in England. It was 
among the first of our trees to be introduced there, but it 
has been universally pronounced an indifferent grower. 



Garden and Forest. 



[February 29, iSiSS. 



The Forests of tlie White Mountains. 

NEW HAMPSHIRE is not a peculiarly wealthy State, 
but it has some resources scarcely equaled by 
those of any of its sisters. The White Mountains, though 
worth little to the farmer, are a piece of real estate which 
yields a sure and abundant income by attracting tourists 
and their money ; and this revenue is certain to increase, 
unless blind mismanagement interposes. The White 
Mountains are at present unique objects of attraction ; 
but they may easily be spoiled, and the yearly tide of 
tourists will thus be turned towards other points of inter- 
est whose owners have had more sense and foresight. 

These mountains owe three-fourths of their charms 
to the primeval forest that still covers them. Speculators 
have their eyes on it, and if they are permitted to work 
their will the State will find a most productive piece of 
property sadly fallen in value. If the mountains are robbed 
of their forests they will become like some parts of the 
Pyrenees, which, though much higher, are without interest, 
because they have been stripped bare. 

The forests of the White Mountains have a considerable 
commercial value, and this value need not be sacrificed. 
When lumber speculators get possession of forests they 
generally cut down all the trees and strip the land at 
once, with an eye to immediate profit. The more con- 
servative, and, in the end, the more profitable manage- 
ment, consists in selecting and cutting out the valuable 
timber when it has matured, leaving the younger growth 
for future use. This process is not very harmful to the 
landscape. It is practiced extensively in Maine, where the 
art of managing forests with a view to profit is better un- 
derstood than elsewhere in this country. A fair amount 
of good timber may thus be drawn from the White Moun- 
tains, without impairing their value as the permanent 
source of a vastly greater income from the attraction they 
will offer to an increasing influx of tourists. At the same 
time the streams flowing from them, and especially the 
Pemigewasset, a maiii source of the Merrimac, will be 
saved from the alternate droughts and freshets to which 
all streams are exposed that take their rise in mountains 
denuded of forests. The subject is one of the last im- 
portance to the mill owners along these rivers. 

F. Parkman. 



Landscape Gardening. — A Definition. 

SOME of the Fine Arts appeal to the ear, others to the 
eye. The latter are the Arts of Design, and they are 
usually named as three — Architecture, Sculpture and Paint- 
ing. A man who practices one of these in any of its 
branches is an artist ; other men who work with forms and 
colors are atthe best but artisans. This is the popular belief. 
But in fact there is a fourth art which has a right to be 
rated with the others, which is as fine as the finest, and 
which demands as much of its professors in the way of 
creative power and executive skill as the most difficult. 
This is the art whose purpose it is to create beautiful com- 
positions upon the surface of the ground. 

The mere statement of its purpose is sufficient to estab- 
lish its rank. It is the effort to produce organic beauty — 
to compose a beautiful whole with a number of related 
parts — which makes a man an artist ; neither the produc- 
tion of a merely useful organism nor of a single beauti- 
ful detail suffices. A clearly told story or a single beau- 
tiful word is not a work of art — only a story told in beauti- 
fully connected words. A solidly and conveniently built 
house, if it is nothing more, is not a work of architecture, 
nor is an isolated stone, however lovely in shape and sur- 
face. A delightful tnit, a graceful line, does not make a 
picture ; and though the painter may reproduce ugly 
models he must put some kind of beauty into the reproduc- 
tion if it is to be esteemed above any other manufactured 
article — if not beauty of form, then beauty of color or of 
meaning or at least of execution. Similarly, when a man 



disposes the surface of the soil with an eye to crops alone 
he is an agriculturist ; when he grows plants for their 
beauty as isolated objects he is a horticulturist; but when 
he disposes ground and plants together to produce 
organic beauty of effect, he is an artist with the best. 

Yet though all the fine arts are thus akin in general pur- 
pose they differ each from each in many ways. And in 
the radical differences which exist between the landscape- 
gardener's and all the others we find some reasons why 
its affinity with them is so commonly ignored. One dif- 
ference is that it uses the same materials as nature herself 
In what is called " natural" gardening it uses them to pro- 
duce effects which under fortunate conditions nature mieht 

, o 

produce without man s aid. Then, the better the result, 
the less likely it is to be recognized as an artificial — artis- 
tic — result. The more perfectly the artist attains his aim, - 
the more likely we are to forget that he has been at work. 
In " formal " gardening, on the other hand, nature's materi- 
als are disposed and treated in frankly unnatural ways ; 
and then — as a more or less intelligent love for natural 
beauty is very common to-day, and an intelligent eye for 
art is rare — the artist's work is apt to be resented as an im- 
pertinence, denied its right to its name, called a mere 
contorting and disfiguring of his materials. 

Again, the landscape-gardener's art differs from all others 
in the unstable character of its productions. When sur- 
faces are modeled and plants arranged, nature and the 
artist must work a long time together before the true result 
appears; and when once it has revealed itself, day to day 
attention will be forever needed to preserve it from the de- 
forming effects of time. It is easy to see how often ne- 
glect or interference must work havoc with the best inten- 
tions, how often the passage of years must travesty or 
destroy the best results, how rare must be the cases in 
which a work of landscape art really does justice to its 
creator. 

Still another thing which affects popular recognition of 
the art as such is our lack of clearly understood terms by 
which to speak of it and of those who practice it. "Gar- 
dens " once meant pleasure-grounds of every kind and 
" gardener" then had an adequately artistic sound. But as 
the significance of the one term has been gradually spe- 
cialized, so the other has gradually come to denote a mere 
grower of plants. " Landscape gardener " was a title first 
used by the artists of the eighteenth century to mark the 
new tendency which they represented — the search for 
"natural " as opposed to "formal " beauty ; and it seemed 
to them to need an apology as savoring, perhaps, of 
grandiloquence or conceit. But as taste declined in Eng- 
land it was assumed by men who had not the slightest 
right, judged either by their aims or by their results, to be 
considered artists ; and to-day it is fallen into such dises- 
teem that it is often replaced by " landscape architect. " 
This title has French usage to support it and is in many 
respects a good one. But its correlative — "landscape 
architecture " — is unsatisfactory ; and so, on the other 
hand, is " landscape artist, " though "landscape art " is an 
excellent generic term. Perhaps the best we can do is to 
keep to "landscape gardener,'' and try to remember that it 
ought always to mean an artist and an artist only. 

M. G. van Rensselaer. 



Floriculture in the United States. 

T the beginning of the present century, it is not prob- 
_ _ able that there were 100 florists in the United 
States, and their combined green-house structures could 
not have exceeded 50,000 square feet of glass. There 
are now more than 10,000 florists distributed through every 
State and Territory in the Union and estimating 5,000 
square feet of glass to each, the total area would be 
50.000,000 feet, or about 1,000 acres of green-houses. The 
value of the bare structures, with heating apparatus, at 
60 cents per square foot would be $30,000,000, while the 
stock of plants grown in them would not be less than 



February 29, 18S8.] 



Garden and Forest. 



twice that sum, The present rate of growth in the business 
is about 25% per annum, which proves that it is Iceeping 
well abreast of our most tlourishing industries. 

The business, too, is conducted by a better class of men. 
No longer than thirty years ago it was rare to find any other 
than a foreigner engaged in commercial floriculture. These 
men had usually been private gardeners, who were mostly 
uneducated, and without business habits. But to-day, the 
men of this calling compare favorably in intelligence and 
business capacity with any mercantile class. 

Floriculture has attained such importance that it has 
taken its place as a regular branch of study in some of our 
agricultural colleges. Of late years, too, scores of young 
men in all parts of the county have been apprenticing 
themselves to the large establishments near the cities, and 
already some of these have achieved a high standing ; for 
the training so received by a lad from si.xteen to twenty, 
better fits him for the business here than ten years of 
European experience, because much of what is learned 
there would prove worse than useless here. The English 
or German florist has here to contend with unfamiliar con- 
ditions of climate and a manner of doing business that is 
novel to him. Again he has been trained to more delib- 
erate methods of working, and when I told the story a few 
years ago of a workman who had potted 10,000 cuttings in 
two inch pots in ten consecutive hours, it was stigmatized 
in nearly every horticultural magazine in Europe as a 
piece of American bragging. As a matter of fact this same 
workman two years later, potted 1 1, 500 plants in ten hours, 
and since then several other workmen have potted plants 
at the rate of a thousand per hour all day long. 

Old world conservatism is slow to adopt improvements. 
The practice of heating by low pressure steam will save in 
labor, coal and construction one-fifth of the expense by old 
methods, and nearly all the large green-house establish- 
ments in this country, whether private or commercial, have 
been for some years furnished with the best apparatus. 
But when visiting London, Edinburgh and Paris in 1885, 
I neither saw nor heard of a single case where steam had 
been used for green-house heating. The stress of compe- 
tition here has developed enterprise, encouraged invention 
and driven us to rapid and prudent practice, so that while 
labor costs at least twice as much as it does in Europe, our 
prices both at wholesale and retail, are lower. And yet I 
am not aware that American florists complain that their 
profits compare unfavorably with those of their brethren 
over the sea. 

Commercial floriculture includes two distinct branches, 
one for the production of flowers and the other for the pro- 
duction of plants. During the past twenty years the growth 
in the flower department of the business has outstripped 
the growth of the plant department. The increase in the 
sale of Rosebuds in winter is especially noteworthy. At the 
present time it is safe to say that one-third of the entire 
glass structures in the United States are used for this pur- 
pose ; inany large growers having from two to three 
acres in houses devoted to Roses alone, such erections cost- 
ing from $50,000 to $100,000 each, according to the style 
in which they are built. 

More cut flowers are used for decoration in the United 
.States than in any other country, and it is probable that 
there are more flowers sold in New York than in London 
w^th a population four times as great. In London and 
Paris, however, nearly every door-yard and window of 
city and suburb show the householder's love for plants, 
while with us, particularly in the vicinity of New York 
(Philadelphia and Boston are better), the use of living 
plants for home decoration is far less general. 

There are fashions in flowers, and they continually 
change. Thirty years ago thousands of Camellia flowers 
were retailed in the holiday season for$i each, while Rose- 
buds would not bring a dime. Now, many of the fancy 
Roses sell at $1 each, while Camellia flowers go begging 
at ten cents. The Chrysanthemum is now rivaling the 
Rose, as well it may, and no doubt every decade will see 



the rise and fall of some floral favorite. But beneath these 
flitting fancies is the substantial and unchanging love of 
flowers that seems to be an original instinct in man, and 
one that grows in strength with growing refinement. 
Fashion may now and again condemn one flower or 
another, but the fashion of neglecting flowers altogether 
will never prevail, and we may safely look forward in the 
expectation of an ever increasing interest and demand, 
steady improvement in methods of cultivation, and to new 
and attractive developments in form, color and fragrance. 
Peter Henderson. 



How to Make a Lawn. 



U 



A .SMOOTH, closely shaven surface of grass is by far 
the most essential element of beauty on thegrounds 
of a suburban home." This is the language of Mr. F. J. Scott, 
and it is equally true of other than suburban grounds. A 
good lawn then is worthworkingfor, andif it havea substantial 
foundation, it will endure for generations, and improve with 
age. 

We take it for granted that the drainage is thorough, for no 
one would build a dwelling on water soaked land. No labor 
should be spared in making the soil deep, rich and 
fine in the full import of the words, as this is the stock from 
which future dividends of joy and satisfaction are to be drawn. 
Before grading, one should read that chapter of Downing's 
on " The Beauty in Ground." This will warn against terrac- 
ing or leveling the whole surface, and insure a contour with 
"gentle curves and undulations," which is essential to the best 
effects. 

If the novice has read much of the conflicting advice in 
books and catalogues, he is probably in a state of bewilderment 
as to the kind of seed to sow. And when that point is 
settled it is really a difficult task to secure pure and living seeds 
of just such species as one orders. Rarely does either seller 
or buyer icnow the grasses called for, especially the finer and 
rarer sorts ; and more rarely still does either know their seeds. 
The only safe way is to have the seeds tested by an expert. 
Mr. J. B. Olcott, in a racy article in the " Report of the 
Connecticut Board of Agriculture for 1886," says, "Fifteen 
years ago nice people were often sowing timothy, red top and 
clover for door-yards, and failing wretchedly with lawn-mak- 
ing, while seedsmen and gardeners even disputed the identity 
of our June grass and Kentucky blue-grass." 

We have passed beyond that stage of ignorance, however ; 
and to the question what shall we sow, Mr. Olcott replies : 
" Rhode Island bent and Kentucky blue-grass are their foolish 
trade names, for they belong no more to Kentucky or Rhode 
Island than to other Northern States. Two sorts of tine 
Agrostis are honestly sold under the trade name of Rhode 
Island bent, and, as trade goes, we may consider ourselves 
lucky if we get even the coarser one. The finest — a little the 
finest — Agrostis canina — is a rather rare, valuable, and elegant 
grass, which should Ije much better known by grass farmers, 
as well as gardeirers, than it is. These are both good lawn as 
well as pasture grasses." The grass usually sold as Rhode 
Island bent is Agrostis vulgaris, the smaller red top of the 
East and of Europe. This makes an excellent lawn. Agrostis 
canina has a short, slender, projecting awn from one of the 
glumes ; Agrostis vulgaris lacks this projecting awn. In 
neither case have we in mind what Michigan and New York 
people call red top. This is a tall, coarse nafive grass often 
quite abundant on low lands, botanically Agrostis alba. 

Sow small red top or Rhode Island bent, and June grass 
(Kentucky bhie grass, if you prefer that name), Poa pratensis. 
If in the chaff, sow in any proportion you fancy, and m any 
quantity up to four bushels per acre. If evenly sown, less will 
answer, but the thicker it is sown the sooner the ground will 
be covered with fine green grass. We can add nothing else 
that will improve this mixture, and either alone is about as 
good as both. A little white clover or sweet vernal grass or 
sheep's fescue may be added, if you fancy them, but they will 
not improve the appearance of the lawn. Roll the ground 
after seeding. Sow the seeds in September or in March or 
April, and under no circumstance yield to the advice to sow a 
little oats or rye to " protect the young grass." Instead of 
protecting, they will rob the slender grasses of what they most 
need. 

Now wait a little. Do not be discouraged if some ugly weeds 
get the start of the numerous green hairs which slowly follow. 
As soon as there is any thing to be cut, of weeds or grass, mow 
closely, and mow often, so that nothing need be raked from the 
ground. As Olcott puts it, " Leave one crop where it belongs 



Garden and Forest. 



[February 29, 18 



for home consumption. The rains will wash the soluble 
substance of the wilted grass into the earth to feed the growing 
roots." During succeedingsummers as the years roll on, the 
lawn should be perpetually enriched by the leaching of the 
short leaves as they are often mown. Neither leave a 
very short growth nor a very heavy growth for winter. 
Experience alone must guide the owner. If cut too closely, 
some of it may be killed or start too late in spring; if 
left too high during winter, the dead long grass will be hard 
to cut in spring and leave the stubble unsightly. After passing 
through one winter the annual weeds will have perished and 
leave the grass to take the lead. Perennial weeds should 
be faithfully dug out or destroyed in some way. 

Every year, add a top dressing of some commercial 
fertilizer or a little finely pulverized compost whch may be 
brushed in. No one will disfigure his front yard with coarse 
manure spread on the lawn for five months of the year. 

If well made, a lawn will be a perpetual delight as long as 
the proprietor lives, but if the soil is thin and poor, or if the 
coarser grasses and clovers are sown instead of those named, 
he will be much perplexed, and will very likely try some expen- 
sive experiments, and at last plow up. properly fit the land and 
begin over again. Tliis will make the cost and annoyance 
much greater than at first, because the trees and shrubs have 
already filled many portions of the soil. A small piece, well 
made and well kept, will give more safisfaction than a larger 
plot of inferior turf. /jt; y_ Seal. 

Horticultural Exhibitions in London. 

At a late meeting of the floral committee of the Royal Horti- 
cultural Society at South Kensington among many novelties 
was a group of seedling bulbous Calanthes from the garden of 
Sir Trevor Lawrence, who has devoted much attention to 
these plants and has raised some interesting hybrids. About 
twenty kinds were shown, ranging in color froin pure white to 
deep crimson. The only one selected for a first-class certi- 
ficate was C. sanguinaria, with flowers similar in size and shape 
to those of C. Veitchii, but of an intensely deep crimson. It is 
the finest yet raised, surpassing C. Sedeni, hitherto unequaled 
for richness of color. The pick of all these seedlings would 
be C. sanguinaria, C. Veitchii splendens, C. lactea, C. nivca, 
and C. porphyrea. The adjectives well describe the difterent 
tints of each, and they will be universally popular when once 
they find their way into commerce. 

Cypripedium Leeanum maculatum, also shown by Sir Trevor 
Lawrence, is a novelty of sterling merit. The original C. Lee- 
aniun, ^^'hich is a cross between C. Spicerianuni and C. insigne 
Manlei, is very handsome, but this variety eclipses it, the dorsal 
sepal of the flower being quite two and one-half inches broad, 
almost entirely white, heavily and copiously spotted with pur- 
ple. It surpasses also C. Leeanum sitperbum, which commands 
such high prices. I saw a small plant sold at auction lately for 
fifteen guineas and the nursery price is much higher. 

Laelia anceps SchrcederK is the latest addition to the now 
very numerous list of varieties of the popular L. anceps. This 
new form, to which the committee with one accord gave a first 
class certificate, surpasses in my opinion all the colored 
varieties, with the possible exception of the true old Barkeri. 
The flowers are of the average size and ordinary form. The 
sepals are rose pink, the broad sepals very light, almost white 
in fact, while the labellum is of the deepest and richest velvety 
crimson imaginable. The golden tipped crest is a veritable 
beauty spot, and the pale petals act like a foil to show off the 
splentior of the lip. 

Two new Ferns of much promise received first class certi- 
ficates. One named Pteris Claphamensis is a chance seedling 
and was found growing among a lot of other sporelings in 
the garden of a London amateur. As it partakes of the charac- 
ters of both P. tronitla and P. scrrttlata, old and well known 
ferns, it is supposed to be a natural cross between these. The 
new plant is of tufted growth, with a dense mass of fronds about 
six inches long, eleganfly cut and gracefully recurved on all 
sides of the pot. It is looked upon by specialists as just the 
sort of plant that will take in the market. The other certi- 
ficated fern, Adiantitm RegincE, is a good deal like A. Victoria; 
and is supposed to be a sport from it. But A. Regincs, while it 
has broad pinnas of a rich emerald green like A. Victoria;, has 
fronds from nine to twelve inches long, giving it a lighter and 
more elegant appearance. I don't know that the Victoria 
Maidenhair is grown in America yet, but I am sure those who 
do floral decorating will welcome it as well as the newer A. Regi- 
nce. A third Maidenhair of a similar character is A. r/io'do- 
phyllum and these form a trio that will become the standard 



kinds for decorating. The young fronds of all three are of a 
beautiful coppery red tint, the contrastof which with the emer- 
ald green of the mature fronds is quite charnnng. They are 
warm g-reen-house ferns and of easy culture, and are supposed 
to be hybrid forms of the old A. scutmu. 

Nerine Mansellii, a new variety of the Guernsey Lily, was one 
of the loveliest flowers at the show. From the common 
Guernsey Lily it differs only in color of the flowers. These 
have crimpled-edged petals of clear rose tints ; and the umbel 
of flowers is fully six inches across, borne on a stalk eighteen 
inches high. These Guernsey Lilies have of recent years come 
into prominence in English gardens since so many beautiful 
varieties have been raised, and as they flower from September 
onward to Christmas they are found to be indispensable for 
the green-house, and indoor decoration. The old A''. Fother- 
gillii jnajor, with vivid scarlet-crimson flowers and crystall- 
me cells in the petals which sparkle in the sunlight like myriads 
of tiny rubies, remains a favorite among amateurs. Baron 
Schroeder, who has the finest collection in Europe, grows this 
one only in quantity. An entire house is filled with them, and 
when hundreds of spikes are in bloom at once, the display is 
singularly brilliant. 

A New Vegetable, a Japanese plant called Choro-Gi, be- 
longing to the Sage family, was exhibited. Its botanical name 
is Stachys tiiberifera and it was introduced first to Europe by 
the Vilmorins of Paris under the name of Cros7ies du Ja- 
pan. The edible part of the plant is the tubers, which are pro- 
duced in abundance on the tips of the wiry fibrous roots. 
These are one and a half inches long, pointed at both ends, 
and have prominent raised rings. When washed they are as 
wliite as celery and when eaten raw taste somewhat like Jeru- 
salem artichokes, but when cooked are quite soft and possess 
the distinct flavor of boiled chestnuts. A dish of these tubers 
when cooked look like a mass of large caterpillars, but the Com- 
mittee pronounced them excellent, and no doubt this vegetable 
will now receive attention from some of our enterprising seeds- 
men and may become a fashionable vegetable because new 
and unlike any common kind. The tubers were shown now 
for the first time in this country by Sir Henry Thompson, the 
eminent surgeon. The plant is herbaceous, dying down an- 
nually leaving the tubers, which multiply very rapidly. They 
can be dug at any time of the year, which is an advantage. 
The plant is perfectly hardy here and would no doubt be so in 
the United States, as it remains underground in winter. [A 
figure of this plant with the tubers appeared in the Gardener's 
Chronicle, January 7th, 1888. — Ed.] 

Phalaenopsis F. L. Ames, a hybrid moth orchid, the result of 
intercrossing P. grandiflora of Lindley with P. intermedia Por- 
tei (itself a natural hybrid between the little P. rosea and P. ama- 
bilis), was shown at a later exhibition. The new hybrid is very 
beautiful. It has the same purplish green leaves as P. amabilis, 
but much narrower. The flower spikes are produced in the 
same way as those of P. grandiflora, and the flowers in form 
and size resemble those of that species, but the coloring of the 
labellum is more like that of its other parent. The sepals 
and petals are pure white, the latter being broadest at the lips. 
The labellum resembles that of P. intermedia, being three- 
lobed, the lateral lobes are erect, magenta purple in color and 
freckled. The middle or triangular lobe is of the same color 
as the lateral lobes, but pencilled with longitudinal lines of 
crimson, flushed with orange, and with the terminal cirrhi of 
a clear magenta. The column is pink, and the crest is adorned 
with rosy speckles. The Floral Committee imanimously 
awarded a first-class certificate of merit to the plant. 

A New Laelia named L. Gouldiana has had an eventful his- 
tory. The representative of Messrs. Sander, of St. Albans, 
the great orchid importers, while traveling in America saw it 
bloonfingin New York, in thecoUection of Messrs. Siebrecht & 
Wadley, and noting its distinctness and beauty bought the stock 
of it. The same week another new Lffilia flowered in England 
and was sent up to one of the London auction rooms for sale. 
As it so answered the description of the American novelty 
which Messrs. Sander had just secured it was bought for the 
St. Albans collection, and now it turns out that the English 
novelty and the American novelty are one and the same thing, 
and a comparison of dates shows that they flowered on the 
same ckiv, although in different hemispheres. As, however, it 
was first discovered in the United States, it is intended to call it 
an American orchid, and that iswhyMr. JayGould has his name 
attached to it. In bulband leaf the novelty closely resembles Z. 
albida, and in flower both L. anceps and L. autiimnalis. The 
flowers are as large as those of an average form of L. anceps, 
the sepals are rather narrow, the petals as broad as those ofZ, 



February 29, 1S88.] 



Garden and Forest. 




Fig. I. — Chrysanthemum — Mrs. Alpheus Hardy. 



anccps Daivsoni, and both petals and sepals are of a deep rose 
pink, intensified at the tips as if the color had collected there 
and was dripping out. The tip is in form between that of L. 
anceps and L. autumnalis and has the prominent ridges of 
the latter, while the color is a rich purple crimson. The black 
viscid pubescence, always seen on the ovary of L. autuiiuialis, 
is present on that of L. Goulduina. The plants I saw in the or- 
chid nursery at St. Albans latelv, bore several spikes, some 
having three or four flowers. Those who have seen it are 
puzzled about its origin, some considering it a hybrid be- 
tween L. anceps and L. autumnalis, others consider it a distinct 
species and to the latter opinion I am inclined. Whatever its 
origin may be, it is certain we have a charming addition to 
midwintei' tlowering orchids. 

IV, Go/drino: 

London, Febiiuiiv ist. 



A New Departure in Chrysanthemums. 

THE Chrysanthemum of which the figure gives a good rep- 
resentation is one of a collection of some thirty varieties 
lately sent from Japan to the lady for whom it has been named, 
Mrs. Alpheus Hardy of Boston, by a young Japanese once a 
protege of hers, but now returned as a teacher to his native 
country. As may be seen, it is quite distinct from any variety 
known in this countrv or Europe, and the Japanese botanist 
Miyabe, who saw it at'Cambridge, pronounces it a radical de- 
parture from anv with which he is acquainted. 

The photograph from which the engraving was made was 
taken just as the petals had l>egun to fall back from the cen- 
ti-e, showing to good advantage the peculiarities of the variety. 

The flower is of pure white, with the firm, long and broad 
petals strongly incurved at the extremities. Upon the back or 



Garden and Forest. 



[February 29, 1S8S. 



outer surface of this incurved ixirfion will be found, in tlie 
form of quite prominent liairs, the peculiarity which makes 
this variety unique. 

These hairs upon close examination 
are found to be a glandular outgrowth 
of the epidermis of the petals, multi- 
cellular in structure and with a minute 
drop of a yellow resinous substance at 
the tip. The cells at first conform to 
the wavy character of those of tlie epi- 
dermis, but gradually become pris- 
matic with straight walls, as shown in 
the engraving of one of the hairs, 
which was made from a drawing fur- 
nished by Miss Grace Cooley, of the 
Department of Botany at Wellesley 
College, who made a microscopic in- 
vestigation of them. 

This is one of those surprises that 
occasionally make their appearance 
from Japan. Possibly it is a chance 
seedling ; but since one or two other specimens in the collec- 
tion are striking in form, and others are distinguished for depth 
and purity of color, it is more probable that the best of them 
have been developed by careful selection. 

This Chrysanthemum was e.xhibited at tlie Boston Chrysan- 
themum Show last December by Edwin Fewkes & Son of 
Newton Highlands, Mass. .4. H. Fewkes. 




Fig. 2.— Hair from Petdl of 

Chrysanthemum, 

miicli enlarged. 

<?— resin drop, h — epidcrniis 

of petal with wavy cells. 



New Plants from Afghanistan. 

Arnebia cornuta.— This is a charming noveltv, an annual, 
native of Afghanistan. Tlie little seedling with lancet-like hairy, 
dark green leaves, becomes presently a widely branching 
plant two feet in diameter and one and one-half feet higli. 
Each branch and braiichlet is terminated by a lengthening 
raceme of flowers. These are in form somewhat like those 
of an autumnal Phlox, of a beautiful deep golden yellow color, 
adorned and brightened up by five velvety black blotches. 
These blotches soon become coffee brown and lose more and 
more their color, until after three days they have entirely dis- 
appeared. During several months the plant is very showy, 
the fading flowers being constantly replaced by fresh expand- 
ing ones. Sown in April in the open border, it needs no care 
but to be thinned out and kept free from weeds. It must, 
however, have some soil which does not contain fresh 
manure. 

Delphinium Zalil. — This, also, is a native of Afghanistan, but 
its character, whether a bieiinial or perennial, is not yet ascer- 
tained. The Afglians call it Zalil and the plant or root is used 
for dyeing purposes. Some years ago we only knew blue, 
white and purple larkspurs, and then California added two 
species with scarlet flowers. The above is of a beautiful sul- 
phur yellow, and, all in all, it is a plant of remarkable beauty. 
From a rosette of much and deeply divided leaves, rises a 
branched flower stem to about two feet ; each branch and 
branchlet ending in a beautiful spike of flowers each of about 
an inch across and the whole spike showing all its flowers open 
at once. It is likely to become a first rate standard plant of 
our gardens. To have it in flower the very first year it must 
be sown very early, say in January, in seed pans, and trans- 
planted later, when it will flower from the end of May until 
the end of July. Moreover, it can be sown during spring 
and summer in the open air to flower the following year, ft 
is quite hardy here. Max Leichtliu. 

Baden-Baden. 

Iris tennis.* 

'TPHISprettydelicate species of Iris, Fig. 3, is a native of the Cas- 
-•• cade Mountains of Northern Oregon. Its long branching 
rootstocks are scarcely more than a line in thickness, sending 
up sterile leafy shoots and slender stems abotit a foot high. 
The leaves are thin and pale green, rather taller than the stems, 
sword-shaped and half an inch broad or more. The leaves ot 
the stem are bract-like and distant, the upper one or two sub- 
tending slender peduncles. The spathes are short, very thin 

*I. TENUIS, Watson, Pror. Aincr. Acad., xvii. 380. Rootstoclc elon3;ated, ver^' 
slender (a line thick); leaves thin, ensiform, about enualing; the stems, lour to 
eight lines broad; stems scarcely a foot high, 2=3-flo*wcred, with two or three 
bract-like leaves two or three inches long; lateral peduncles very slender, as long 
as the bracts : spathes scarious, an inch long ; pedicels solitary^ very short; flow- 
ers small, wkite marked with yellow and purple: tube two or three lines long; 
segments oblong-spatulate, the sepals spreading, one and one-half inches lotig. 
the petals sliorter and emargiriale ; anthers as long as the filaments; styles with 
pnrrow entire crests; capsule otilong-ovate, obtuse, nine lines long 



and scarious, and enclose the bases of their rather small soli- 
tary flowers, which are "white, lightly striped and blotched 
with yellow and purple." The sepals and petals are oblong- 
spatulate, from a short tube, the sepals spreading, the shorter 
petals erect and notched. 

The peculiar habitat of this species doubtless accounts in 
.good measure for its slender habit and mode of growth. Mr. 
L. F. Henderson, of Portland, Oregon, who discovered it in 
i88i,neara branch of the Clackamas River called Eagle Creek, 
about thirty miles from Portland, reports it as growing in the 
fir forests in broad mats, its very long rootstocks running 
along near the surface of the ground, just covered by moss or 
l-iartly decayed fir-needles, wifli a light addition of soil. This 
also would indicate the need of special care and treatment in 
its cultivation. In May, 1884, Mr. Henderson took great pains 
to procure roots for the Botanic Garden at Camljridge, which 
were received in good order, but which did not survive the 
next winter. If taken up, however, later in the season or very 
early in the spring, it is probable that with due attention to 
soil and shade there would be little trouble in cultivating it 
successfully. The accompanying figure is from a drawing by 
Mr. C. E. Faxon. Sereno Watson. 



Hardy Shrubs for Forcing. 

OHRUBS for forcing should consist of early blooming kinds 
■^ only. The plants should be stocky, young and healthy, 
well-budded and well-ripened, and in order to have first-class 
stock they should be grown expressly for forcing. For cut 
flower purposes only, we can lift large plants of Lilacs, Snow- 
balls, Deutzias, Mock oranges and the like with all the ball of 
roots we can get to them and plant at once in forcing-houses. 
But this should not be done before New Year's. We should 
prepare for smaller plants some months ahead of forcing time, 
say in the preceding April or August, by lifting them and plant- 
ing in small pots, tubs or boxes as can conveniently contain 
their roots, and we should encourage them to root well before 
winter sets in. Keep them out of doors and plunged till after 
the leaves drop off; then either mulch them where they are or 
bring them into a pit, shed or cool cellar, where there shall be 
no fear of their getting dry, or of having the roots fastened in 
by frost. Introduce them into the green-house in succession ; 
into a cool green-house at first for a few weeks, then as they 
begin to start, into a warmer one. From the time they are 
brought into the green-house till the flowers begin to open 
give a sprinkling overhead twice a day with tepid water. When 
they have done blooming, if worth keepmg over for another 
time, remove them to a cool house and thus gradually harden 
them off, then plant them out in the garden in May, anel give 
them two years' rest. 

Shrubs to be forced for their cut flowers only should con- 
sist of such kinds as have flowers that look well and keep 
well after being cut. Among these are Deutzia gracilis, com- 
mon Lilacs of various colors, Stapliylha Colchica, Spiraa Canfon- 
cnsis {Reevcsii) single and double, the Guelder Rose, the Japanese 
Snowball and Azalea mollis. To these may be added some of 
the lovely double-flowering and Chinese apples, whose snowy 
or crimson-tinted buds and leafy twigs are very pretty. The 
several double-flowered forms of Primus triloba are also desir- 
able, but a healthy stock is hard to get. ■Andromeda florihunda 
and A. yaponica set their flower buds the previous summer 
for the next year's flowers, and are, therefore, like the Laures- 
tinus, easily forced into bloom after New Year's. Hardy and 
half-hardy Rhododendrons with very little forcing may be had 
in bloom from March. 

In addition to the above, for conservatory decoration we 
may introduce all manner of hardy shrubs. Double flowering 
peach and cherry trees are easily forced and showy while they 
last. Clumps of Pyriis arbtitifolia can easily be had in bloom 
in March, when their abundance of deep green leaves is an 
additional charm to their profusion of hawthorn-like flowers. 
The Chinese Xanthoceras is extremely copious and showy, 
l)ut of brief duration and ill-fitted tor cutting. Bushes of 3^61- 
low Broom and double-flowering goklen Furze can easily be 
had after January. Jasiiiinuiii nudiflorum may be had in 
bloom from November till April, and Forsythia from January. 
They look well when trained up to pillars. The early-flower- 
ing Clematises may be used to capital advantage in the same 
wav, from February onward, .\lthough the Mahonias flower 
well, their foliage at blooming time is not always comely. 
Out-of-doors the American Red-bud makes a handsomer tree 
than does the Japanese one ; but the latter is preferable for 
green-house work, as the flowers are bright and the smallest 
plants bloom. The Chinese Wistaria blooms as well in the 



February 29, 18SS.] 



Garden and Forest. 



screen-house as it does outside; 
indeed, if we introduce some 
branches of an out-door plant 
into tlie green-house, we can 
have it in bloom two montlis 
ahead of the balance of the vine 
still left out-of-doors. Here- 
about we g'row Wistarias as 
standards, and they bloom mag- 
nificently. What a sight a big' 
standard wistaria in the green- 
house in February would be ! 
.^mong other shrubs may be 
mentioned Shadbush, African 
Tamarix, Daplme of sorts and 
Exochorda. We have also a 
good many barely hardy plants 
that may be wintered well in a 
cellar or cold pit, and forced 
into bloom in early spring. 
Among tliese are Japanese 
Privet, Pittosporum, Raphio- 
lepis, Hydrangeas and the like. 
And for conservatory decora- 
tion we can also use with excel- 
lent advantage some of our fine- 
leaved shrubs, for instance our 
lovely Japanese Maples and 
variegated Box Elder. 
Glen Cove, N. Y. IV//1. Falconer. 



Phmt Notes. 

A Half-hardy Begonia When 

botanizing last Se|.itember upon 
the Cordilleras of North Mexico 
some two hinidred miles soutli 
of the United States Boundary, 
I found growing in Ijlack mould 
of shaded ledges — even in the 
thin humus of mossy rocks — at 
an elevation of 7,000 to 8,000 
feet, a plant of striking beauty, 
which Mr. Sereno Watson iden- 
tifies as Begonia gracilis, HBK., 
var. Martiana, A. DC. From 
a small tul)erous root it sends 
up to a height of one to two 
feet a single crimson - tinted 
stem, which terminates in a 
long raceme of scarlet flowers, 
large for the genus and long 
enduring. The plant is still 
further embellished by clusters 
of scarlet gemmae in tlie axils of 
its leaves. Mr. Watson writes : 
" It was in cultivatioafifty years 
and more ago, but has probably 
been long ago lost. It appears 
to be the most northern species 
of the genus, and should be the 
most hardy." Certainly the 
earth freezes and snows fall in 
tlie high region, where it is at 
home. 

Northern Limit of the Dahlia— 
In the same district, and at the 
same elevation, I met with a 
purple flowered variety of 
Dahlia coccinea, Cav. It was 
growing in patches under oaks 
and pines in thin dry soil of 
summits of hills. In such ex- 
posed situations the roots must 
lie subjected to some frost, as 
much certainly as under a light 
covering of leaves in a northern 
garden. The Dahlia has not 
before been reported, as I be- 
lieve, from a latitude nearly so 
high. C. G. Pringle. 

Ceanothus is a North Ameri- 
can genus, represented in the Eastern 
Tea, and Red Root (C A>nericanus and 




West and South-west by some 
thirty additional species. Sev- 
eral of these Pacific Coast 
species are quite handsome 
and well worthy of cultivation 
where they will thrive. Some 
of the more interesting of them 
are figured in different volumes 
of the Botanical Magazi7ie, from 
plants grown at Kew, and I 
believe that the genus is held 
in considerable repute by 
French gardeners. 

In a collection of plants 
made in Southern Oregon, last 
spring, by Mr. Thomas^Howell, 
several specimensof Ceanothus 
occur which are pretty clearly 
hybrids between C. cuncatus 
and C. firostratiis, two com- 
mon species of the region. 
Some have the spreading habit 
of the latter, their flowers 
are of the bright blue color 
characteristic of that species, 
and borne on slender blue 
pedicels, in an umbel-like clus- 
ter. But while many of their 
leaves have the abrupt three- 
toothed apex of C. prostratus, 
all gradations can be found 
from this form to thespatulate, 
toothless leaves of C. cuneattis. 
Otherspecimenshave the more 
rigid habit oi the latter species, 
and their flowers are white or 
nearly so, on shorter pale pedi- 
cels, in usually smaller and 
denser clusters. On tliese 
plants the leaves are common- 
ly those of C. cuncatus, but they 
pass into the truncated and 
toothed form proper to C". pros- 
tratus. 

According to Focke {Pflan:j- 
cnmischlinge, 1881, p. 99), the 
French cross one or more of 
the blue-flowered Pacific Coast 
species on the hardier New- 
Jersey Tea, a practice that may 
perhaps be worthy of trial by 
American gardeners. Have any 
of the readers of C.arden and 
Forest ever met with spon- 
taneous hybrids .^ 

W. Trclcasc. 



-States by New Jersey 
C. oinxtus), and in the 



the trunks, wiiich has been 
the old ouards were remc)\e( 



Wire Netting for Tree Guards. 
— On some of the street trees 
of Washington hea\'y galvan- 
ized wire netting is used to pro- 
tect the bark from injury by 
horses. It is the same material 
that is used for enclosing poul- 
try yards. It comes in strips 
five or six feet wide, and may 
be cut to any length requiretl 
by the size of the tree. The 
edges are held in place by 
bending together the cut ends 
of the wires, and the whole is 
sustained by staples over the 
heavy wires at tlie top and 
bottom. This guard appears 
to be an effective protection 
and is less unsightly than any 
other of which I know, in tact 
it can hardlv lie ilistinguished 
at the tlistance of a few rods. 
It is certainly an improvement 
on the pl.'Ui of white-washing 
extensively prac-tici'd liere since 
./. .-/. Cro:i,-r. 



8 



Garden and Forest. 



[February 29, 1S88. 



Artificial Water. 

ONE of the most difficult parts of a landscape gardener's 
work is the treatment of what our grandfathers called 
"pieces of water" in scenes where a purely natural effect 
is desired. The task is especially hard when the stream, pond 
or lake has been artificially formed ; for then Nature's pro- 
cesses must be simulated not only in the planting but in the 
shaping of the shores. Our illustration partially reveals a suc- 
cessful effort of this sort — a pond on a country-seat near Boston. 
It was formed by excavating a piece of swamp and damming 
a small stream which flowed through it. In the distance 
towards tlie right the land lies low by the water and gradually 
rises as it recedes. Opposite us it forms little wooded promon- 
tories with grassy stretches between. Where we stand it is 
higher, and beyond the limits of the picture to the left it forms 



suited to their place and in harmony with each otlier ; and all 
the contours of the shore are gently modulated and softly con- 
nected with the water by luxuriant growths of water plants. 
The witness of the eye alone would persuade us that Nature 
unassisted had achieved the whole result. But beauty of so 
suave and perfect a sort as this is never a natural product. 
Nature's beauty is wilder if only because it includes traces 
of mutation and decay which here are carefully effaced. Na- 
ture suggests the ideal beauty, and the artist realizes it by faith- 
fully working out her suggestions. • 

Some New Roses. 

THE following list comprises most of the newer Roses that 
have been on trial to any extent in and about Philadelphia 
during the present winter: 




A Piece u£ 

a high, steep bank rising to the lawn, on the furthei side of 
which stands the house." The base of these elevated banks 
and the promontories opposite are planted with thick masses 
of rhododendrons, which flourish superbly in the moist, peaty 
soil, protected, as they are, from drying winds by the trees and 
high ground. Near the low meadow a long stretch of shore is 
occupied by thickets of hardy azaleas. Beautiful at all seasons, 
the pond is most beautiful in June, when the rliododendrons are 
ablaze with crimson and ]iurple and white, and when the yel- 
low of tlie azalea-beds — discreetly separated from the rho- 
dodendrons by a great clump of low-growing willows — finds 
delicate continuation in the buttercups which fringe the 
daisied meadov\'. The lifted banks then afford particularly 
fortunate points of view ; for as we look down upon the rho- 
dodendrons, we see the opposite shore and the water with its 
rich rertected colors as over the edge ol a splendid frame. No 
accent of artificialitv disturbs the eye despite the luuvonteil 
piofu.^iiin of bloom and variety ol coloi'. .Ml llie plants are 



ArtiHcial Water. 

Puritan (H. T.) is one of Mr. Henry Bennett's seedlings, and 
perhaps excites more interest than any other. It is a 
cross between Mabel Morrison and Devoniensis, creamy 
white in color and a perpetual bloomer. Its flowers have not 
opened satisfactorily this winter. The general opinion seems 
to be that it requires more heat than is needed for other forc- 
ing varieties. Further trial will be required to establish its merit. 

' Meteor (H. T., Bennett.)— Some cultivators will not agree 
witli me in classing this among hybrid Teas. In its manner of 
growth it resembles some Tea Roses, but its coloring and 
scantv production of buds in winter are indications that there is 
Hybrid Remontant blood in it. It retains its crimson color 
after being cut longer than any Rose we have, and rarely shows 
a tendency to become pvn-ple with age, as other varieties of 
this color are apt to tlo. For summer blooming under glass 
it will i)rove satisfactory. In winter its coloring is a rich 
velvety crimson, but as die sun gets stronger it .-rssunies a 
more li\ elv shade. 



February 29, 1888.] 



Garden and Forest. 



Mrs. John Laing {H. R., Bennett,) is a seedling from Fran- 
cois Michelon, which it somewhat resembles in habit of growth 
and color of flower. It is a free bloomer out-of-doors in sum- 
mer and forces readily in winter. Blooms of it have been 
offered for sale in the stores here since the first week in De- 
cember. It is a soft shade of pink in color, with a delicate lilac 
tint. It promises to become a general favorite, as in addition 
to the qualities referred to, it is a free autumnal bloomer 
outside. For forcing it will be tried extensively next winter. 
Princess Beatrice (T., Bennett,) was distributed for the first 
time in this country last autumn, but has so far been a disap- 
pointment in this city. But some lots arrived from Europe 
too late and misfortunes befell others, so that the trial can 
hardly be counted decisive, and we should not hastily condemn 
it. Some have admired it for its resemblance, in form of 
flower, to a Madame Cuisin, but its color is not just what we 
need. In shade it somewhat resembles Sunset, but is not so 
effective. It may, however, improve imder cultivation, as 
some other Roses have done; so far as I know it has not been 
tried out-of-doors. 

Papa Gontier (H. B.,Nabonnaud.)— This, though not properly 
a new rose, is on trial for the first time in this city. It has 
become a great favorite with growers, retailers and purchasers. 
In habit it is robust and free blooming, and in coloring, though 
similar to Bon Silene, is much deeper or darker. There seems 
to be a doubt in some quarters as to whether it blooms as 
freely as Bon Silene ; personally, I think there is not much 
difference between the two. Gontier is a good Rose for out- 
door planting. Edwin Lotisdale. 

Two Ferns and their Treatment. 

Adiantum Farleyense.- — This beautiful Maidenhair is supposed 
to be a subfertile, plumose form of A. tencrutit, which much 
resembles it, especially in a young state. For decorative pur- 
poses it is almost unrivaled, whether used in pots or for trim- 
mmg baskets of flowers or bouquets. It prefers a warm, 
moist house and delights in abundant water. We find it does best 
when potted firmly in a compost of two parts loam to one of 
peat, and with a good sprinkling of sifted coal ashes. In this com- 
post it grows very strong, the fronds attaining a deeper green 
and lasting longer than when grown in peat. When the pots 
are filled with roots give weak liquid manure occasionally. 
This fern is propagated by dividing the roots and potting in 
small pots, which should be placed in the warmest house, 
where they soon make fine plants. Where it is grown 
expressly for cut fronds the best plan is to plant it out on a 
bench in about six inches of soil, taking care to give it plenty of 
water and heat, and it will grow like a weed. 

Actiniopteris radiata. — A charming little fern standing in a 
genus by itself. In form it resembles a miniature fan palm, 
growing about six inches in height. It is generally distributed 
throughout the East Indies. In cultivation it is generally 
looked upon as poor grower, but with us it grows as freely as 
any fern we have. We grow a lot to mix in with Orchids, as 
they do not crowd at all. We pot in a compost of equal parts 
loam and peat with a few ashes to keep it open, and grow in 
the warmest house, giving at all times abundance of water 
both at root and overhead. It grows very freely from spores, 
and will make good specimens in less than a year. It is an 
excellent Fern for small baskets. F. Goldrins:. 



Timely Hints About Bulbs. 

CPRING flowering bulbs in-doors, such as the Dutch Hya- 
•^ cinths. Tulips and the many varieties of Narcissus, should 
now be coming rapidly into bloom. Some care is required to 
get well developed specimens. When first brought in from 
cold frames or wherever they have been stored to make roots, 
do not expose them either to direct sunlight or excessive heat. 

A temperature of not more than fifty-five degrees at night 
is warm enough for the first ten days, and afterwards, if they 
show signs of vigorous growth and are required for any par- 
ticular occasion, they may be kept ten degrees warmer. It is 
more important that they be not exposed to too much light 
than to too much heat. 

Half the short stemmed Tulips, dumpy Hyacinths and blind 
Narcissus we see in the green-houses and windows of amateurs 
are the result of excessive light when first brought into warm 
quarters. Where it is not possible to shade bulbs without in- 
terfering with other plants a simple and effective plan is to 
make funnels of paper large enough to stand inside each pot 
and six inches high. These may be left on the pots night and 
day from the time the plants are brought in until the flower 
spike has grown above the foliage ; indeed, some of the very 
finest Hyacinths cannot be had in perfection without some 



such treatment. Bulbous plants should never suffer for water 
when growing rapidly, yet on the other hand, they are easily 
ruined if allowed to become sodden. 

When in flower a rather dry and cool temperature will 
preserve them the longest. 

Of bulbs which flower in thesummerand fall. Gloxinias and 
tuberous rooted Begonias are great favorites and easilv man- 
aged. For early summer a few of each should be started at 
once — using sandy, friable soil. Six-inch pots, well drained, are 
large enough for the very largest bulbs, while for smaller 
even three-inch pots will answer. In a green-house there is 
no difficulty in finding just the place to start them. It must be 
snug, rather shady and not too warm. They can be well cared 
for, however, in a hot-bed or even a window, but some 
experience is necessary to make a success. 

Lilies, in pots, whether L. candidum or L. longifloruin that 
are desired to be in flower liy Easter, should now receive every 
attention — their condition should be that the flower buds can 
be easily felt in the leaf heads. A temperature of fifty-five to 
sixty-five at night should be maintained, giving abundance of 
air on bright sunny days to keep them stocky. Green fly is 
very troublesome at this stage, and nothing is more certain to 
destroy this pest than to dip the plants in tobacco water which, 
to be effective, should be the color of strong tea. Occasional 
waterings of weak liquid manure will be of considerable help 
if the pots are full of roots. J. Thorpe. 



Entomology. 

• Arsenical Poisons in the Orchard. 

AS is well known, about fifty per cent, of the possible apple 
crop in the Western States is sacrificed each year to the 
codling moth, except in sections where orchardists combine 
to apply bands of straw around the trunks. But as is equally 
well known this is rather a troublesome remedy. At all events, 
in Illinois, Professor Forbes, in a buUedn lately issued 
from the office of the State Entomologist of Illinois, claims 
that the farmers of that State suffer an annual loss from the 
attacks of this single kind of insect of some two and three- 
quarters millions of dollars. 

As the results of two years' experiments in spraying the 
trees with a solution of Paris green, only once or twice in 
early spring, before the young apples had drooped upon their 
stems, there was a saving of about seventy-five per cent, of 
the apples. 

The Paris green mixture consisted of three-fourths of an 
ounce of the powder by weight, of a strength to contain 15.4 
per cent, of metallic arsenic, simply stirred up in two and a 
half gallons of water. The tree was thoroughly sprayed with 
a hand force-pump, and with the deflector spray and solid jet- 
hose nozzle, manufactured in Lowell, Mass. The fluid was 
thrown in a fine mist-like spray, applied until the leaves began 
to drip. 

The trees were spraved in May and early in June while the 
apples were still very small. It seems to be of little use to 
employ this remedy later in the season, when later broods of 
the moth appear, since the poison takes effect only in case it 
reaches the surface of the apple between the lobes of the 
calyx, and it can-only reach this place when the apple is very 
small and stands upright on its stem. It should be added that 
spraying "after the apples have begun to hang downward is 
unquestionably dangerous," since even heavy winds and 
violent rains are not sufficient to remove the poison from the 
fruit at this season. 

At the New York Experimental Station last year a certain 
number of trees were sprayed three times with Paris green 
with the result that sixty-nine per cent, of the apples were 
saved. 

It also seems that last year about half the damage that might 
have been done by the Plum weevil or curculio was prevented 
by the use of Paris green, which should be sprayed on the 
trees both eariy in the season, while the fruit is small, as well 
as later. 

The cost of this Paris green application, when made on a 
large scale, with suitable apparatus, only once or twice a year, 
must, says Mr. Forbes, fall below an average of ten cents a tree. 

The use of solutions of Paris green or of London purple in 
water, applied by spraying machines such as were invented 
and described in the reports of the national Department of 
Agriculture by the U. S. Entomologist and his assistants, have 
effected a revolution in remedies against orchard and forest 
insects. We expect to see them, in careful hands, tried with 
equal success in shrubberies, lawns and flower gardens. 
^ - ,•/. 5. Packard. 



lO 



Garden and Forest. 



[February 2g, 1888. 



The Forest. 

The White Pine in Europe. 

THE White Pine was among- the very first American 
trees which came to Europe, being planted in the 
year 1 705 by Lord We)''mouth on his grounds in Chelsea. 
From that date, the tree has been cultivated in Europe 
under the name of Weymoutli Pine ; in some mountain 
districts of northern Bavaria, where it has become a real 
forest tree, it is called Strobe, after the Latin name Piiiits 
slrobus. After general cultivation as an ornamental tree 
in parks this Pine began to be used in the forests on account 
of its hardiness and rapid growth, and it is now not only 
scattered through most of the forests of Europe, but covers 
in Germany alone an area of some 300 acres in a dense, 
pure forest. Some of these are groves 120 years old, and 
they yield a large proportion of the seed demanded by the 
increasing cultivation of the tree in Europe 

The White Pine has proved so valuable as a forest tree 
thatithaspartly overcome the prejudices which every foreign 
tree has to fight against. The tree is perfectly hardy, is 
not injured by long and severe freezing in winter, nor by 
untimely frosts in spring or autumn, which sometimes do 
great harm to native trees .in Europe. On account of the 
softness of the leaves and the bark, it is much damaged by 
the nibbling of deer, but it heals quickly and throws up a 
new leader. 

The young plant can endure being partly shaded by 
other trees far better than any other Pine tree, and even 
seems to enjoy being closely surrounded, a quality that 
makes it valuable for filling up in young forests where 
the native trees, on account of their slow growth, could 
not be brought up at all. 

The White Pine is not so easily broken by heavy snow- 
fall as the Scotch Pine, on account of the greater elasticity 
of its wood. The great abundance of soft needles falling 
from it every year better fits it for improving a worn-out 
soil than any European Pine, therefore the tree has been 
tried with success as a nurse for the ground in forest plan- 
tations of Oak, when the latter begin to be thinned out by 
nature, and grass is growing underneath them. 

And finally, all observations agree that the White Pine is a 
faster growing tree than any native Conifer in Euroi^e, 
except, perhaps, the Larch. The exact facts about that 
point, taken from investigations on good soil in various 
parts of Germany, are as follows : 

Years. Height. 



Annual Growdi Dur- 
ing La3t Decade. 



The White Pine at 



20 reaches 


7-5 


meters. 37 


30 " 
40 


12.5 
18.5 


■• 50 
'■ 60 


50 " 
60 " 


22.5 
26.5 


" 40 
" 40 


70 " 


28.5 


" 20 


80 


30.0 


" 15 


90 " 


32.0 


20 



For comparison I add here the average growth on good 
soil, of the Scotch Pine, one of the most valuable and 
widely distributed timber trees of Europe. 



The Scotch Pint 



Years, Heiglit. 

at 20 reaches "j.t, meters. 



30 
40 
so 
60 
70 
80 
90 
100 
120 



II. 6 

15-7 
19.4 
22. 1 
24.0 
26.0 
27.5 
28.5 
30.0 



Annual G 
Last 


irowtli During 
Decade. 


;. 36.5 


centimeters 


43.0 
41.0 


i( 


37-0 
27,0 


" 


22.0 


' ' 


17.0 


" 


15.0 


' ' 


lO.O 


' ' 


7.5 


'^ 



That is, the White Pine is ahead of its relative durin 
entire life and attains at 80 
Scotch Pine only reaches in 



■ its 
years a height which the 
20 years. It appears then 



that the whole volume of wood formed within a certain 
period by an acre of White Pine forest is greater than that 
yielded by a forest of Scotch Pine within the same period. 

As far as reliable researches show, a forest of White Pine 
when seventy years old gives an annual increment of 3 
cords of wood per acre. On the same area a forest of 
Scotch Pine increases every year by 2.4 cords on the best 
soil, 2 cords on medium soil, and 1.5 cords on poor soil. 

But notwithstanding the splendid qualities which distin- 
guish the White Pine as a forest tree its wood has never been 
looked upon with favor in Europe. Many of those who are 
cultivating the White Pine for business seem to e.xpect that 
they will raise a heavy and durable wood. These are the 
qualities prized in their own timber trees, and they seem to 
think that the White Pine must be so highly prized at home for 
the same qualities, when in fact it is the lightness and soft- 
ness of the wood which are considered in America. It would 
seem also that some European planters believe that a Pine 
tree exists which will yield more and at the same time 
heavier wood than any other tree on the same area. It is 
a general rule that the amount of woody substance annually 
formed on the same soil does not vary in any great degree 
with the different kinds of trees. For instance, if we have 
good soil we may raise 2,200 lbs. per acre of woody sub- 
stance every year, from almost any kind of timber tree. If 
we plant a tree forming a wood of low specific gravity, we 
get a large volume of wood, and this is the case with the 
White Pine. If we plant on the same ground an Oak tree, 
we will get small volume of wood, but the weight of the 
woody substance will be the same, that is, 2,200 pounds 
of absolutely dried wood per acre. 

It is remarkable that there is hardly any dilTerence in the 
specific gravity of the wood of the White Pine grown in 
Europe and in its native country. I collected in Central Wis- 
consin wood-sections of a tall tree and compared the 
specific gravity with the wood of a full-grown tree of 
White Pine from a Bavarian forest. The average specific 
gravity of the Bavarian tree was 38. 3. The average 
specific gravity of the American tree was 38.9. In 
both trees the specific gravity slightly increased from the 
base to the top. Professor Sargent gives 38 as the result 
of his numerous and careful investigations. 

I was much surprised that the thickness of the sap-wood 
varied mucli in favor of the Bavarian tree. 

The sap-wood measured in thickness 

01 the Bavarian tree. 

At the base 2. 7 centimeters 

In the middle .4 " 

Within the crown .3 •' 

I am inclined to believe that on account of the generally 
drier climate of America a greater amount of water, and, 
therefore, of water-conducting sap-wood, is necessary to 
keep the balance between the evaporation and transporta- 
tion of the water. The wood of the White Pine is certainly 
better fitted for many purposes than any tree with which 
nature has provided Europe, and yet one can hardly 
expect it to easily overcome fixed habits and prejudices. 
It will devolve upon the more intelligent proprietors of 
wood-land in Europe to begin with the plantation of the 
White Pine on a large scale. No Conifer in Europe can be 
cultivated with so little care and risk as the White Pine ; 
the frost does not injure the young plant, and the numerous 
insects invading the European trees during their whole 
life-time inflict but little harm. Subterranean parasites are 
thinning out the plantations to some extent, but in no 
dangerous way. H. Mayr. 

ToUio, Japan. 

Abies amabilis.— Professor John Macoun detected this species 
during the past summer upon many of the mountains of Van- 
couver's Island where witli Tsiiga Pattoiiiaiia it is common 
above 3,000 feet over the sea level. The northern distribution 
of this species as well as some other British Columbia trees 
is still a matter of conjecture. It has not been noticed north 
of the Eraser River, but it is not improbable that Abies 
amabilis will be found to e.xtend far to the north along some 
of tlie mountain raii^s of the north-west coast. 



1 



Of the .\iiieiican tree. 

9 centimeters. 

6 

4 



February 2g, 



!•] 



Garden and Forest. 



II 



European Larch in Massachusetts. 

IN 1876 the Trustees of the Massachusetts Society for the 
Promotion of Agriculture offered a premium for the 
best plantations of not less than five acres of European 
Larch. The conditions of the competition were that not less 
than 2,700 trees should be planted to the acre, and that 
only poor, worn-out land, or that unfit for agricultural pur- 
poses, be used in these plantations. 

The prize was to be awarded at the end of ten years. 
The committee appointed to award the prize were C. 
S. Sargent and John Lowell. The ten years having ex- 
pired, this Committee lately made the following report : 

Mr. James Lawrence, of Groton, and Mr. J. D. W. French, 
of North Andover, made plantations during the spring of 1877 
in competition for this prize. Mr. Lawrence, however, at the 
end of one year withdrew from the contest, and Mr. French is 
the only competitor. YourConnnittee have visited his planta- 
tion at different times during the past ten years, and have now 
made their final inspection. The plantation occupies a steep 
slope facing the south and covered with a thin coating of grav- 
elly loam largely mixed towards the bottom of the hill with 
light sand. This field in 1877 was a fair sample of much of 
the hillside pasture land of the eastern part of the State. It had 
been early cleared, no doubt, of trees, and tlie light surface soil 
practically exhausted by cultivation. It was then used as a 
pasture, producing nothing but the scantiest growth of native 
Grasses and Sedges with a few stunted Pitch Pines. Land of 
this character has no value for tillage, and has practically little 
value for pasturage. Upon five acres of this land Mr. French 
planted fifteen thousand European Larch. The trees were 
one foot high, and were set in the sod four feet apart each 
way, except along the boundary of the field, where the planta- 
tion was made somewhat thicl^er. The cost of the plantation, 
as furnished by Mr. French, has been as follows : 

15,000 Larch (imported) $108 50 

Fencing, . 20 81 

Surveying, ....... 6 00 

Labor, 104 69 

Total $240 00 

This, with compound interest at five per cent, for ten years, 
makes the entire cost to date of the plantation of five acres, 
$390.90. 

The Trees for several years grew slowly and not very satis- 
factorily. Several lost their leaders, and in various parts of 
the plantation small blocks failed entirely. The trees, how- 
ever, have greatly improved during the last four years, and 
the entire surface of the ground is now, with one or two insig- 
nificant exceptions, sufficiently covered. There appear to be 
from 10,000 to 12,000 larch trees now growing on the five 
acres. The largest tree measured is 25 feet high, with a 
trunk 26 inches in circumference at the ground. There are 
several specimens of this size at least, and it is believed that 
all the trees, including inany which have not yet commenced 
to grow rapidly or which have been overcrowded and stunted 
by their more vigorous neighbors, will average 12 feet in 
height, with trunks 10 to 12 inches in circumference at the 
ground. Many individuals have increased over four feet in 
height during the present year. It is interesting to note as an 
indication of what Massachusetts soil of poor quality is capa- 
ble of producing, that various native trees have appeared 
spontaneously in the plantation since animals were excluded 
from this field. Among these are White Pines 6 to 8 feet high. 
Pitch Pines 14 feet high, a White Oak 15 feet high and a Gray 
Birch 17 feet high. The Trustees offered this prize in the be- 
lief that it would cause a plantation to be made capable of de- 
monstrating that unproductive lands in this State could be 
cheaply covered with trees, and the result of Mr. French's 
experiment seems to be conclusive in this respect. It has 
shown that the European Larch .can be grown rapidly and 
cheaply in this climate upon very poor soil, but it seems to us 
to have failed to show that this tree has advantages for gen- 
eral economic planting ir. this State which are not possessed 
in an equal degree by some of our native trees. Land which 
will produce a crop of Larch will produce in the same time at 
least a crop of white pine. There can be no comparison in 
the value of these two trees in Massachusetts. The White 
Pine is more easily transplanted than the Larch, it grows with 
equal and perhaps greater rapidity, and it produces material 
for which there is an assured and increasing demand. The 
White Pine, moreover, has so far escaped serious attacks of 
insects and dangerous fungoid diseases which now threaten to 



exterminate in different parts of Europe extensive plantations 
of Larch. 

Your Committee find that Mr. French has complied wifii all 
the requirements of the compefifion ; they recommend that 
the premium of one thousand dollars be paid to him. 



Answers to Correspondents. 

When the woods are cut clean in Southern New Hampshire 
White Pine comes in very, very thickly. Is it best to thin out 
the growth or allow die trees to crowd and shade the feebler 
ones slowly to death ? J. D. L. 

It is better to thin such over-crowded seedlings early, if 
serviceable timber is wanted in the shortest time. The state- 
ment that close growth is needed to produce long, clean tim- 
ber, needs some limitation. No plant can develop satisfac- 
torily without sufficient light, air and feeding room. When 
trees are too thickly crowded the vigor of every one is impaired, 
and the process of establishing supremacy of individuals is 
prolonged, to the detriment even of those which are ultimately 
victorious. The length is drawn out disproportionately to 
the diameter, and all the trees remain weak. 

Experience has proved that plantations where space is given 
for proper growth in their earlier years, yield more and better 
wood than do Nature's dense sowings. Two records are 
added in confirmation of this statement, and many others 
could be given : 

1. A pine plantation of twelve acres was made, one half by 
sowing, the other half by planting at proper distances. In 
twenty-four years the first section had yielded, including the 
material obtained in thinnings, 1,998 cubic feet, and the latter, 
3,495 culjic feet of wood. The thinnings had been made, 
when appearing necessary, at ten, fifteen and eighteen years 
in the planted section, yielding altogether ten and three-quar- 
ter cords of round firewood and seven cords of brush ; and at 
eight, ten and twenty years in the sowed section, with a yield 
of only three and one-fifth cords of round firewood at the 
last thinning and seven and four-fifths cords of brush wood. 

2. A spruce growth seeded after thirty-three years was still 
so dense as to be impenetrable, with scarcely any increase, 
and the trees were covered with lichens. It was then thinned 
out when thirty-five, and again when forty-two years old. The 
appearance greatly improved, and the accretion in seven j'ears 
after thinning showed 160 per cent, increase, or more than 
26 per cent, every year. 

The density of growth which will give the best results in all 
directions depends upon the kind of timber and soil condi- 
tions. — B. E. Fernow. 
Washington, D. C. 

Book Reviews. 

Gray's Elements of Botany. 

"PIFTY-ONE years ago, Asa Gray, then only twenty-six 
-'■ years of age, published a treatise on botany adapted to 
the use of schools and colleges. It was entitled " The Ele- 
ments of Botany." Its method of arrangement was so ad- 
mirably adapted to its purpose, and the treatment of all the 
subjects so mature and thorough, that the work served as a 
model for a large work which soon followed, ^the well-known 
Botanical Text-book, and the same general plan has been fol- 
lowed in all the editions of the latter treatise. About twenty- 
five years after the appearance of the Elements, Dr. Gray pre- 
pared a more elementary work for the use of schools, since 
the Text-book had become rather too advanced and exhaus- 
tive for convenient use. This work was the " Lessons in Bot- 
any," a book which has been a great aid throughout the coun- 
try, in introducing students to a knowledge of the principles of 
the science. Without referring to other educational works 
prepared by Dr. Gray, such as " How Plants Grow," etc., it suf- 
fices now to say that for two or three years, he had been con- 
vinced that there was need of a hand-book, different in essen- 
tial particulars from any of its predecessors. When we re- 
member that all of these had been very successful from an 
educational point of view, as well as from the more exacting 
one of the publishers, we can understand how strong must 
have been the motive which impelled the venerable but still 
active botanist to give a portion of his fast-flying time to the 
preparation of another elementary work. In answer to re- 
monstrances from those who believed that the remnant of his 
days should be wholly given to the completion of the " Synop- 
tical Flora," he was wont to say pleasantly, " Oh, I give only my 
nienings to the ' Elements.' " And, so, after a day's work, in 
which "he had utilized every available moment of sunlight, he 



12 



Garden and Forest. 



[February 29, .18 



would turn with the fresh alertness which has ever character- 
ized every motion and every thought, to the preparation of 
what he called fondly, his " legacy" to young botanists. That 
precious legacy we have now liefore us. 

In form it is much like the Lessons, but more compact and 
yet much more comprehensive. Its conciseness of expression 
is a study in itself. To give it the highest praise, it may be 
said to be French in its clearness and terseness. Not a word 
is wasted : hence, the author has been able to touch lightly 
and still with firmness every important line in this sketch of 
the principles of botany. This work, in the words of its au- 
thor, " is intended to ground beginners in Structural Botany 
"and the principles of vegetable life, mainly as concerns Flow- 
"ering or Phanerogamous plants, with which botanical in- 
" struction should always begin ; also to be a companion and 
" interpreter to the Manuals and Floras by which the student 
" threads his flowery way to a clear knowledge of the sur- 
" rounding vegetable creation. Such a book, like a grammar, 
" must needs abound in technical words, which thus arrayed 
" may seem formidable ; nevertheless, if rightly apprehended, 
" this treatise should teach that the study of botany is not the 
" learning of names and terms, but the acquisition of knowl- 
" edge and ideas. No effort should be made to commit tech- 
" nical terms to memory. Any term used in describing a 
" plant or explaining its structure can be looked up when it is 
" wanted, and that should suffice. On the other hand, plans 
" of structure, types, adaptations, and modifications, once un- 
" derstood, are not readily forgotten ; and they give meaning 
"and interest to the technical terms used in explaining them." 

The specific directions given for collecting plants, for pre- 
paring herbarium specimens, and for investigating the struc- 
ture of plants make this treatise of great use to those who are 
obliged to study without a teacher. The very extensive glos- 
sary makes the work of value not only to this class of students, 
but to those, as well, whose pursuits are directed in our 
schools. The work fills, in short, the very place which Dr. 
Gray designed it should. G. L. Goodale. 

The Kansas Forest Trees Identified by Leaves and Fruit, liy W. 
A. Kellerman, Ph.D., and Mrs. W. A. Kellerman (Manhattan, 
Kansas). This octavo pamphlet of only a dozen pages con- 
tains a convenient artificial key for the rapid determination of 
seventy-five species of trees. By the use of obvious char- 
acters the authors have made the work of identification com- 
paratively easy in nearly every instance, and even in the few 
doubtful cases, the student will not be allowed to go far astray. 
The little hand-book ought to be found of use even beyond the 
limits of the State for which it was designed. G. L. Goodale. 



Public Works. 

The Falls of Minnehaha. — A tract of fifty acres, beautifully 
located on the Mississippi, opposite the mouth of the Minne- 
haha, has l.ieen acquired by the City of St. Paul, and land will 
most probably be secured for a drive of several miles along 
the river. The bank here is more than 100 feet high, often 
precipitous, clothed with a rich growth of primeval forest, 
shrubbery and vines. It is hoped that Minneapolis may secure 
the land immediately opposite, including the Falls of Minne- 
haha and the valley of the stream to the great river. In this 
event a great park could be made between the two cities, easily 
reached from the best part of both, with the Mississippi flow- 
ing through it and the Falls as one of its features. This, in 
connection with the park so beautifully situated on Lake 
Como, three miles from St. Paul, and the neat parks of Minne- 
apolis and its superbly kept system of lake shore drives, 
would soon be an object worthy of the civic pride of these en- 
terprising and friendly rivals. 

A Park for Wilmington, Del. — After many delays and defeats 
the people of this city have secured a tract of more than 100 
acres, mostly of fine rocky woodland, with the classic Brandy- 
wine flowing through it, and all within the city limits, together 
with two smaller tracts, one a high wooded slope, the other lying 
on tide water, and both convenient to those parts of the city 
inhabited by workingmen and their families. A topographi- 
cal survey of these park lands is now in progress as prepara- 
tion for a general plan of improvement. Of the " Brandvwine 
Glen " Mr. Frederick Law Olmsted once wrote : " It is a pas- 
sage of natural scenery which, to a larger city, would be of 
rare value — so rare and desirable that m a number of cities 
several million dollars have been willingly spent to obtain re- 
sults of which the best that can be said is, that they somewhat 
distantly approach, in character and expression, such scenery 
as the people of Wilmington have provided for them without 
expense." 



Flower Market. 

Retail Prices in the Flower Market. 
New York, February sjd. 

There is a glut of flowers, particularly of lea roses of an indifferent 
quality. Bon Silene buds cost from 75 cts. to $1 a dozen, Perle des 
Jardins, Niphetos, Souvenir d'un Ami, and Papa Gontiers bring $1.50 
a dozen. C. Mermets are very fine and from 30 to 35 cts. each. Not 
more than one in three La France roses is perfect ; they bring from 
25 cts. to 50 cts. eacli. Mde. Cuisin and Duke of Connaught are 
25 cts. each, Bennets 20 cts. each and Brides 25 cts. each. American 
Beauties are $1 to $1.50 each, according to the location where they are 
sold. Puritans cost 75 cts. each, and Jacqueminots 50 cts. Magna 
Chartas are the most popular of the hybrid roses at present. They, 
.A.nna de Diesbach and Mad. Gabriel Luizet bring from Si to Si. 50 
each. 

Mignonette is very plentiful, well grown and of the spiral variety; it 
brings 75 cts. a dozen spikes retail, very large spikes bring as high as 
15 cts. each. Hyacinths, Lilies-of-the-Va!ley and Tulips bring Si a 
dozen. Lilacs cost 25 cts. for a spray of one or two tassels. Violets are 
abundant, mostly of the Marie Louise variety, and bring $2 a hundred. 
Fancy long stem red Carnations cost 75 cts. a dozen; short stem Car- 
nations are 50 cts. a dozen ; the dyed Carnations, named "Emerald," 
are in brisk demand and sell for 15 cts. each. Daffodils are Si a 
dozen; those dyed bring 20 cts. each. Finely grown Forget-me-not 
brought in small quantity to retail dealers sells for 10 cts. a spray. 
Calla Lilies bring $2 and $3 a dozen, and Longiflorum Lilies $4 a 
dozen. 



Philadelphia, February 2jd. 

Heavy demands for flowers dropped off short on Ash Wednesday, 
and decreased each day until Saturday, when the regular orders for 
loose flowers caused the trade to pick up again. The demand for 
Orchids issteadily growing ; a fairquantity is used at balls and parties, 
but nothing in comparison to Roses, Violets and Lily-of-the-Valley. 
Violets have been in greater demand, so far, than for several years. 
Large quantities of Tulips have been used recently for table 
decorations, especially the pink varieties, the favorite color for dinners 
and limches. The American lieauty Rose, when cut with long stems, 
and really first class in every other respect, has been in great demand, 
at the best prices. Md. GatSrielle Luizet is scarce, the local growers 
not having commenced to cut in quantity ; it is frequently asked for. 
Carnation plateaus in solid colors have been used freely. Lilacs are 
considered choice and have been in good demand. Retail prices 
rule as follows : Orchids, from 25 cts. to Si each ; La France, Mermet, 
Bride and Bennet Roses, $3 per dozen ; Jacques, $4 to S5 ; American 
Beauty, $4 to S9 ; Puritan, $4 ; Anna de Diesbach, S5 to 87.50 ; Papa 
Gontier, Sunset, Perle des Jardins arid Mad. Cuisin, $1.50 ; Bon Silene, 
Si. 00; Niphetos,Si toSi.50. Lily-of-the-Valley, and Roman Hyacinths, 
bring $1 per dozen ; Mignonette, 50 cts., and-Freesia the same per 
dozen ; Heliotrope, Pansies, Carnations, and Forget-me-nots, 35 cts. 
per dozen. Violets bring from $1 to Si. 50 per hundred; Lilium 
Harrisii, $3.00 per dozen; Callas S2 per dozen, and Lilacs S2 per bunch 
of about eight sprays. Daffodils sell briskly at from Si to Si. 50 per 
dozen. 



Boston, February 23d. 

The season of Lent is always looked forward to by the florists with 
anxiety, for the rest from receptions, assemblies and balls cuts off one 
of the chief outlets for the choicest flowers : a few warm days are 
sufficient to overstock the market, and prices take a fall. Buyers are 
learning, however, that at no period of the year can cut flowers be had 
in such perfection and variety as during February and March, and 
although not much required for party occasions they are bought forother 
purposes in increasing quantities every year, so that the advent of Lent 
does not now produce utter stagnation in the flower trade. In Roses 
there is at present a large assortment offered. From the modest Bon 
Silene, and its new competitor. Papa Gontier, up to the magnificent 
American Beauty and Hybrid Perpetuals, may be found every gradation 
of color, size and fragrance. Retail prices vary from 75 cts. per 
dozen for Bon Silenes and $1.50 to S2 for Perles, Niphetos, etc., up to 
S3 and $4 for the best Mermets, Niels and La France ; Hybrids and 
Tacques of best quality bring from $6 to S9 per dozen. In bulbous 
flowers a large variety is shown. Lily-of-the-Valley sells for Si. 50 
per dozen sprays ; Narcissus of various kinds. Hyacinths and Tulips 
for $1 per dozen ; Violets, 50 cts. per bunch ; Pansies, Mignonette, 
Heliotrope, Forget-me-not and Calendulas, 50 cts. per doz. Long 
stemmed Carnations are to be had in great variety at 75 cts. per dozen; 
Callas 25 cts. each, and Smilax 50 cts. a string. At this season Smilax 
is at its best, being its time of flowering, and the flowers are 
deliciously fragrant. 



Publishers' Note. 



A photogravure of Mr. A. St. Gaudens's bronze medallion of 
the late Professor Asa Gray will be published as a supplement 
to the second number of Garden and Forest. 



March 7, iS 



Garden and Forest. 



13 



GARDEN AND FOREST. 

PUBLISHED WEEKLY EY 

THE GARDEN AND FOREST PUBLISHING CO. 

l limited.] 
Office : Tribune Building, New York 

Conducted bv Professor C. S. Sargent. 



ENTERED AS SECOND-CLASS MATTER AT THE POST OFFICE AT NEW VOEK, N. Y. 



NEW YORK, WEDNESDAY, MARCH 7, if 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



PAGE. 

EuiTORiAi. Articles :— Tlie Future of American Gardening. Tlie American 

Thorn. "Painting the Lilv." 13 

Landscape Gardening, II Mrs. Schuyler Van Rensselaer. 14 

Professor Anton de Kary Professor IV. G. Farlom. 15 

Winter in Mobile '. Dr. Karl Mohr. 16 

London Letter •, "< Goldring. 16 

Entrance to the Arnold Arbijretum (witli illustration) 17 

Shrub Propagation J- Hoopes. 18 

Note on our Native Irises Serena IFatson. iS 

Lilium Gravi (with illustration) Sereno ll'atsm 19 

American Thorns as Ornamental Plants Professor L. H. Bailey. 19 

Plant Notes C. G. Priu^le : Max LcichtUn 20 

The Red Miteon Verbenas (with illustration) Professor A. S. Packa7-d. 20 

Cultural Notes 21 

Grapes under Glass .David Allan. =i 

The Lawn ll'illtam Falconer. 22 

The Forest : 

Forest Trees for Cal Ifornia R. IF. Hil.^ard. 23 

Growing Deciduous Forest Trees from Seeds Robert Douglas. 23 

Answers to CorrespondetUs Professor B. E. Fernoio. 23 

Recent PtmLiCATioNS : — Gleanings in Old Garden Literature — Flora Peoriana — 
Shade and Ornamental Trees Suitable lor Cultivation in Queens Cotmty, 

N. Y. — Trees of Reading, Mass 23 

Public Works : — Tree Planting on Boston Harbor 24 

Flower IMarket: — New York — Philadelphia — Boston 24 

Illustrations ; 

Asa Giay, Photogravure Supplement. 

Kntranceto the Arnold Arboretum 17 

Lilium Gra)'i Dragon by C.E.Faxon. 19 

The I-led Mite 20 



The Future of American Gardening. 

T is not surprising that few examples of the gardener's art 
_ in its highest development should be met wiih in Amer- 
ica, especially in the more recently settled portions of the 
country. Even where the designing and planting of a 
garden are good, the element of time is needed to pi-oduce 
that ripeness and repose which are so satisfying to the 
contemplative mind. This mellow maturity which yet 
gives no hint of deterioration and decay only comes 
with years of care. A new country, or one of shifting 
population not only lacks the interest which accompanies 
long continued human association, but nature itself is not 
subdued into that tranquil and home-like aspect which is 
worn only where generation has succeeded generation, 
each impelled by a strong local attachment to its birth- 
place to conserve and develop its native beauties with 
affection and intelligence. 

And )^et the American people are inferior to none in 
general and genuine appreciation of natural beauty, and 
no country in the world is endowed with nobler lainjscape 
features, a more hospitable climate, or a greater richness 
and variety of vegetation than our o\\n\. Nowhere are 
flowers more universally cultivated or grown with greater 
skill. In no other country has the business of the florist 
been so developed and improved. Nowhere else have 
the various forms of so-called "decorative gardening" 
been so profusely practiced. Much of this migdit perhaps 
fall under the condemnation of severe taste, but some e.x- 
cuse for it is found in the fact that we have been con- 
stantly struggling against wild nature, and something 
trim and prim, ornate and artificial, is demanded, as a sign 
that nature has been subjugated. It is noteworthy that 
those who have been brought up on the pioneer line of 
civilization admire, when they come to the older States, a 
formal flower bed more than they do the best examples of 
planting in the natural style, and this is jierhaps because the 
latter is more suggestive of the untamed forces with which 



they always have been forced to fight. But whatever 
may be the cause of this devotion to formal flower 
gardening, the fact remains that the plants themselves are 
cultivated with singular knowledge and success. 

On the other hand, in love of trees and skill in their cul- 
tivation, we are far behind the English and Italians. In 
street planting, especially in our larger town.s, we have 
much to learn from the French, the Germans and other 
continental nations, while in the skillful use of hardy 
shrubs and herbaceous plants we are far excelled by other 
nations. Great progress, however, has been made in this 
country of late years in the cultivation of orchids and 
various classes of green-house plants, and of these Amer- 
ica now possesses collections hardly surpassed anywhere. 
And finally, in the highest branch of gardening, the crea- 
tion of landscape pictures, for which the growing of trees 
and shrubs and flowers and vines is but mixing the colors 
on the palette, we have still much to learn from older 
countries. And yet, that American ability for work of 
this kind is not excelled, is shown by some of the fine old 
places on the Hudson, planted early in the century, 
largely with native trees, which would kindle admira- 
tion anywhere. Our older parks, too, like those of New 
Yoi'k and Brooklyn, are consistent and impressive works 
of art, and in spite of much neglect and mismanage- 
ment, are noble monuments of their designers' taste and 
skill, 

And there are signs of awakening here in artistic garden- 
ing. This is seen in the many instances where men of 
wealth are preparing spacious pleasure grounds about 
their houses, and in the growing desire among those of 
more modest means to beautify their home surroundings. 
Above all is this tendency manifested in the more frequent 
inquiry for aid from landscape gardeners and in the 
number of young men who are turning toward this pro- 
fession as one which has in it the hope of emolument and 
distinction. 

The future of gardening in America, then, is bright with 
promise. Our country offers to the landscape gardener 
wonderful advantages in its endless variety of scenery, 
the unrivaled richness of its Flora, and such diversity of 
soil and climate that somewhere within its borders every 
extra-tropical plant will grow. The imagination can con- 
ceive of nothing more lovely and refreshing than a spring 
garden in New England when vegetation bursts suddenly 
forth from the restraints of the long winter; nothing more 
glorious than the color that flames through New England 
woodlands when trees and shrubs and humbler plants are 
preparing for their season of rest. And what a field for the 
artist is offered in the warm rich valleys of the southern 
Alleghcnies, the home of the most beautifiil deciduous 
forest of the world ! And as trees and shrubs which 
have developed under the same sky, blend in softer and 
more perfect harmonies of form and color than do those 
brought together from different climates and continents, 
here where the American forest culminates in its greatest 
beauty and richness of composition, the artist capable of 
using all this wealth of vegetation will find his greatest 
opportunity. And here, too, he can collect, if Nature has 
not supplied him with sufficient material for his pictures, 
the plants of all the temperate zones — the evergreens of 
China and japan, the Rhododendrons of the Himalayas, 
the trees of "Europe and the Conifers from the highlands of 
Mexico. Another ideal garden could be made on our 
north-west coast, where plants which luxuriate in the moist 
regions of the temperate zone would be at home ; while in 
southern California could be gathered the trees of the 
IMexican plateau, of the Mediterranean basin, of Australia, 
and of all the dry countries of the world, and here gardens_ 
might be made surpassing in richness and variety of 
interest even those of the Riviera. 

With such advantages we may reasonably look forward 
to a time when this country will be a land of gardens. 
^^'hat is now needed is that the gathering interest in plant- 
ing should be properly directed and developed. The basis of 



H 



Garden and Forest. 



[Marci! 7, iS8S. 



good gardening is the love of nature. To nature the 
gardener who would be something more than a mere cul- 
tivator of plants must turn for inspiration. From the study 
of nature alone can be learned composition, harmony and 
fitness in arrangement, and without these the gardener 
can never hope for success in the creation of a landscape. 



To the notes on some American Thorns in another 
column; it may be well to add that Michigan Thorns 
give but a faint idea of the value of the different American 
species of this genus as ornamental plants. The real home 
of the American Thorn is in the region south of the Red 
River — that is, in western Louisiana and eastern Te.xas. 
Here can be found growing a larger number of species 
of this genus than in any other part of the world ; and 
here many of our species reach their greatest individual 
development. Here only can be found the blue fruited 
C. bracliyacanfha, bordering the low, wet prairies of 
western Louisiana — one of the largest of the genus, and 
beautiful in habit, foliage, flowers and fruit. Here, too, 
the white-barked C. arhorescens, the largest of the genus, 
the graceful and delicate C. apiifoiia and C. cEstivalis, all 
reach a development unknown in other parts of the coun- 
try. The last is one of the most ornamental of the Ameri- 
can Thorns. Its large flowers appear in February,-and 
these are succeeded three months later by large, very fra- 
grant, scarlet fruit, which is gathered and sold in great 
quantities in some of the markets of the South, where it. 
is used for making a conserve. This species probably 
produces the most valuable fruit of any of the genus ; 
although it must not be forgotten that one of the Thorns 
of the South Atlantic States (C. flava, var. pubescens) yields 
a fruit highly esteemed in the preparation of jellies, which 
when well made can hardly be distinguished from the true 
Guava jelly. In the Eastern States, C. Cnis-gaHi, all things 
considered, is the most valuable of our Thorns as an or- 
namental tree. Its habit, profuse bloom, bright, shining 
foliage, brilliant autumnal coloring and large, red fruit, 
untouched by any animal, and hanging upon the trees 
until February, make this one of the most desirable of all 
small ornamental trees for American lawns. This, too, is 
one of the few American trees which seems to thrive in all 
European climates. A beautiful species of the very largest 
size, too, is C. Douglasii of our north-west coast and 
northern California, with foliage resembling that of C. 
Crus-ga/li, but with black fruit, ripening in August. This 
tree flourishes at the East, flowering and ripening its fruit 
freely in Massachusetts. We shall have occasion to return 
to the American Thorns in future numbers. 



"To gild refined gold and paint the Lily, to throw a per- 
fume on the Violet" — these are ancient synonyms for lack 
of judgment and lack of taste, for " wasteful and ridiculous 
excess." Yet even their century-long citation has not pro- 
tected us from a sight of the actual follies they hold up to 
scorn. So far as we know, an effort has not recently been 
made to improve the Violet's odor, but we almost e.xpect 
to hear of such an effort, for the Lily is being painted with 
much ingenuity and perseverance. Carnations with bright 
green borders, Daffodils likewise edged with green, Lilies- 
of-the-Valley dyed a pale red and Callas tipped with pink — 
these are some of the " novelties " which greet us in many 
florists' windows. If they were shown merely as curios- 
ities, merely as examples of what can be done in defiance 
of nature's intentions, the case would be bad enough. But 
as our readers may have seen in the flower-market report 
in our last issue, dyed Carnations are in "brisk" com- 
mercial demand at fifteen cents each and dyed Daffodils at 
twenty cents ! 

We have no wish to fall back upon theoretic preach- 
ments in protesting against the lack of taste which this fact 
implies. There is no reason why we should not attempt 
to modify the original color of flowers, and this is con- 
stantly done by skillful hybridizing, cross-breeding and 



culture. But in such cases we work in accord with natural 
laws, and the result may be beautiful, and certainly it is 1 
not monstrous. But a single glance at a dyed blossom '" 
will suffice to prove the artistic brutality of the new pro- 
cess. The "Emerald" is the trade name for the dyed 
Carnation, it might better have been the "Arsenic"; the 
combination of the same arsenical tint with the yellow 
of the Daffodil is excruciating to the eye ; the pink-edged 
Calla is almost loathsome in effect ; and all explain them- 
selves at once as having undergone artificial manipula- 
tion. We believe the process by which some of them are 
produced is analogous to that by means of which the hu- 
man skin may be tattooed, and the result appeals to the 
same grade of taste. We might as soon have expected 
to see a lady with a blue anchor on her wrist as with an j 
" Emerald " Carnation in her buttonhole. 1 



Landscape Gardening. — II. 

TO produce beautiful compositions is the aim of every 
artist, and the special aim of the landscape gardener 
is to produce them by arranging the surface of the ground 
and the plants it bears. It is interesting and instructive to 
note the points of concord and of contrast which mark his 
task v/hen it is compared with that of other artists. 

He stands with the sculptor and the painter, in contrast 
to the architect and musician, in that he takes his inspira- 
tions directly from nature — works after the schemes and 
from the models which she supplies. But in some respects 
he stands quite alone. The painter works with actual 
colors but merely with illusions of form. The sculptor 
creates forms but uses colors, if at all, in unnaturalistic 
and subordinate ways. The landscape gardener depends 
upon color and form in equal measure and can never dis- 
pense with the one or the other. 

Moreover, he takes from nature not only his models 
but his materials and his methods. His colors are those 
of her own palette, his clays and marbles are her rocks 
and soils, and his technical processes are the same which 
she employs. He does not shovif her possibilities of 
beauty as in a mirror of his own inventing. He helps her 
in her actual efibrts to realize them — works in and for and 
with her. 

This fact limits and hampers him in certain wa)^s ; but 
under fortunate conditions it helps him to achieve what 
no other artist can — perfection. "The sculptor or the 
painter," writes a recent critic, " observes defects in the 
single model ; he notices in many models scattered excel- 
lences To correct those defects, to reunite 

those excellences, becomes his aim. He cannot rival 
nature by producing anything exactly like her work but he 
can create something which shall show what nature strives 

after The mind of man comprehends her effort 

and though the skill of man cannot compete with her in 
the production of particulars, man is able by art to antici- 
pate her desires and to exhibit an image of what she was 
intending." But the landscape gardener is nature's rival, 
does create things exactly like her own, can compete 
with her in perfect workmanship — for does not she herself 
work with him while he is reuniting her scattered excel- 
lences of idea and obliterating her defects 1 What he can- 
not do she does for him, from the building of mountains 
and the spreading of seas to the perfecting of those "par- 
ticulars " which turn the keenest chisel and blunt the sub- 
tlest brush — to the curling of a fern-frond and the veining 
of a rose. Of course she will not everywhere do every- 
thing. If part of her work is in completing man's, part is in 
preparing for it, and he must respect the frame which she 
furnishes for his picture, the general scheme which she 
prescribes. He cannot ask her to build him mountains in a 
plain, to change a hill-side rivulet to a river, or to make 
tropical trees grow under a northern sky. But he can 
always persuade her to produce beaut)'" of some sort if 
he is wise enough to know for what sort he should ask. 

This, of course, is theoretic speaking. Theoretically, 



March 7, 1888.] 



Garden and Forest. 



15 



there is no spot on earth an artist could not make beau- 
tiful. But some problems would need a life of antedi- 
luvian length and dollars as plentiful as the sands of the 
sea. Practically the landscape gardener — like all other 
men, and more perhaps than most other artists — is lim- 
ited by questions of time and money. And he is also 
limited by his partnership with nature as regards not 
only the sort but the degree of beauty to which he can 
atfain. Nature may suggest the same sort in two places, 
but if she prepares lavishly for it in the one case and 
parsimoniously in the other, the best skill in the world 
may not be able to make good all her denials and equal- 
ize its successes. Yet the landscape gardener can always 
have what no other artist ever gets — perfection in details ; 
and his general effects, as well as his details, have the 
great advantage of being concrete and alive. A great 
advantage indeed— for it means many beautiful results 
in every piece of work instead of merely one, and per- 
petual variation in each of the many. His aim is in 
general the same as that of the landscape painter, who 
knows that the most potent factors in landscape beauty 
are light and atmosphere, and who is himself most po- 
tent as he simulates them best. But no things in the 
world — not even the color and texture of the human skin 
— are so difficult to simulate, so impossible really to repro- 
duce in paint. To the landscape gardener's pictures na- 
ture freely supplies them, everywhere and alwa}'S, and not 
merely in the one phase for which the painter strives, 
but in a thousand — changing them with each day of the 
year and with each hour of the day. And with the pass- 
ing days and seasons she changes also his terrestrial 
effects, so that no part of his work is ever twice the 
same although, if rightl)'' wrought, it is always beautiful. 
Thus it gives chance and promise for perpetual renewal of 
the highest kind, of pleasure. Our judgments are per- 
sistent but our moods continually vary, and we may 
expect more days of perfect satisfaction from the variable 
than from the changeless work of art. If we admire a pic- 
ture we admire it always, but while it may suit us to-day 
to the inmost fibre of the soul, to-morrow it may leave 
us cold. Of course there are drawbacks as well as bene- 
fits in variability — possibilities of perfect satisfaction are 
richer in the living landscape, but when realized we can- 
not keep them for an hour while we are sure of our 
painting within its narrow range. It will depend upon 
our temperament which excellence we prefer: limited cer- 
tainty or uncertain infinitude. But the question does not 
involve beauty itself — it only involves that finest effect 
of beauty which means perfect momentary accord be- 
tween the spirit of the observer and the spirit of the work 
of art. As regards intrinsic perfection, the best results of 
the landscape gardener surpass the best painted land- 
scapes by as wide an interval and for the same great 
reasons as Pygmalion's Galatea surpassed all the other 
statues which he may have made. 

21. G. Van JicHSselaer. 



Professor Anton de Bary. 

T T EINRICH Anton de Bary, who was born at Frankfort-on-the- 
•*^ Main, Jan. 26th, 1831, and died at Strasburg, Jan. 19th, 
1888, was a striking e.xample of a scientific man who, while 
pursuing science for its own sake, proved also a benefactor to 
those engaged in the practical work of horticulture and agri- 
culture in consequence of his brilliant discoveries in vegetable 
pathology. His botanical career began immediately after he 
left the university where he had devoted himself to the study 
of medicine, and, although at the time of his death he had not 
passed tlie period of middle age, few have e.xerted so 
marked an influence in shaping tlie course of the botany of the 
present day. For a short time he was the assistant of Professor 
Hugo von Mohl at Tubingen and an instructor in botany. In 1855 
he was called to Freiburg in Brisgau as Assistant Professor of 
Botany and Director of the Botanical Garden, where he remained 
until 1867, when he accepted a professorship at Halle. Shortly 
after the close of the Franco-German war, in 1872, he was ap- 
pointed professor in the reorganized University of Strasburg, a 



position which he held until his death, although he had tempt- 
ing calls to Vienna, Berlin and Leipsic. In the summer of 
18S7 he was attacked by what proved afterwards to be a tumor 
of the jaw, and, although he suljmitted to an operation in the 
hope of relief, he succumlied to the disease after several 
months of suffering. 

The botanical works of Professor De Bary relate principally to 
the structure and development of cryptogams, but he was also 
the author of a number of papers on histological subjects, and 
his "Comparative Anatomy of the Vegetative Organs of 
Phanerogams and Ferns," published in 1877 and since trans- 
lated into English, is the best general work on the subject in 
existence. A"t one time he was interested in the study of algaj 
and published important papers on Conjugated', on Oedogoniuin 
and Bolbocha:tt\ and on the marine species, Acetabularia Medi- 
tsrranea. We should also mention his important work on 
Apogamy in Ferns, in which he gave a detailed account of the 
manner in which the sexual repfoduction in ferns may be re- 
placed by a non-sexual growth, with remarks on apogamy in 
other groups. 

But his most important work and that which is of most in- 
terest to our readers was on the development of Fungi, espe- 
cially those which produce disease in plants. One of liis earliest 
publications, in 1853, was " Investigations on the Rust-fungi," 
especially those which cause diseases of grain and other 
useful plants. This work was a careful study of a number of 
species then supposed to belong to Uredinca;, rusts, and Usti- 
laginea, smuts. At that date De Bary adhered to the views of 
older writers, and considered that the rust stage, or Uredo, was 
not connected with the final, or teleutosporic forms, like Puc- 
cinia. It was not until the publication of Tulasne's paper in 
1854 that botanists recognized that the red rust, the Uredo, 
was only a stage of the black rust. In a remarkable paper pub- 
lished in 1S63, " Researches on the Developmentof some Para- 
sitic Fungi," De Bary showed by an examination of Uromyces 
appendiculalits, the Bean-rust, that not only were there two 
stages, the Uredo or red rust, and the teleutosporic, or black 
rust, but that a third stage, the yEcidium, or cluster-cup, is 
found in Fungi of the ruslfamily. In 1865 in his " New Obser- 
vations on Uredinea:" and in a supplement published the fol- 
lowing year he gave an account of his experiments in which 
he showed that the cluster-cup growing on the Barberry is a 
stage of the Pucciiiia, or blight, found on different grains and 
grasses. These conclusions, warmly supported by some and 
opposed by others, may be considered thestarting point of one 
of the most fascinating, and, from a practical point of view, 
most important fields of botanical study, tlie metamorphoses 
of Uredinece. Scarcely less important than the paper last men- 
tioned is that on yEcidiiim Abictimiiii, in 1879, where a very 
minute account is given of the different stages of tlie rust on 
Abies excelsa and Rhododendron fcrriigiiieitm. 

The researches of De Bary on the Potato rot are well known. 
The Fungus which causes the rot was Ih-st described in 1845 by 
Madame Libert, a Belgian botanist. De Bary, in i860, de- 
scribed the method of the germination of the conidial spores 
and the production of zoospores — an important discovery, 
practically as well as theoretically. In his " Researches," pub- 
lished in 1863, to which we have already referred, he included 
an account of the rots, Pe7-onflsporea:, which is a model of thor- 
oughness and clearness. Besides these, he published in 1861 
a paper on the "Present Epidemic Disease of Potatoes," a 
popular, well written sketch, and in 1S76, " Researches into the 
Nature of the Potato Fungus," in which he embodied the 
results of investigations made at the request of the Royal 
Agricultural Society of Great Britain, in which there is not 
much added to our knowledge of the subject. 

We can only refer briefly to De Bary's other mycological 
writings, which appeal rather to the specialist than the general 
reader. He contributed much to our knowledge of the I^Iyxo- 
niycetes, a group whose position is still doubtful, some regard- 
ing them as animals and others as plants, and he published 
numerous valuable papers on Saprolegniea:, Ascomycetes, and 
other orders of Fungi. We owe to him the best summary of 
what is at present known about Fungi. His "Comparative 
Morphology and Biology of Fungi, Mycetozoa and Bacteria," 
issued in 1884, and recently translated into English, is an ad- 
mirable treatise on a subject which attracts more and more 
students every year. Nor should we forget his " Lectures on 
Bacteria," of which a second edition has been issued, although 
the first only appeared in 1885. These lectures present, in 
a most attractive and readable form, the present state of bac- 
teriological science. 

De Bary was an excellent teacher, as well as an original 
investigator. In the lecture room ho was not seen to such 
advantage as when in his laboratory among a small number 



i6 



Garden and Forest. 



[March 7, 1888. 



of earnest students. His delivery was not marked liy any 
rlietorieal elegance, but his lectures were crammed with facts, 
and his remarks were always to the point and full of sugges- 
tions. His laboratory was a resort of special students from 
both sides of the Atlantic, and the list of younger professors 
who now point with pride to the fact that they were once liis 
pupils, is a very l^^rge one. Earnestness and thoroughness 
characterized his work both as a teacher and an investigator, 
and his geniality and sprightliness made him a great favorite 
with all who knew him. JV. G. Farhrm. 



Winter in Mobile. 

IN ordinary years the waves of low temperature from the 
north are felt to some extent through the coast regions of 
the Gulf States. Heralded by a northern blast which clears the 
sky, come a few clear frosty days, or occasionally a slight fall 
of evanescent snow; then plant life takes a brief rest, and the 
landscape, for a space, assumes a wintry look. Usually the 
departure of the last Rose of summer, which lingers till mid- 
December in our gardens, is followed by a rest in vegetation, 
which awakes again under the breath of spring in late Janu- 
ary. This year, however, the mean daily temperature of De- 
cember was 50° and we had but two slight frosts. The an- 
nual garden weeds, like (Enothera hiu!iifiisa,Ch\c\^\^eei\, Pep- 
pergrass,and intruders like Vcroiiica peregyiiiaM\(xLaininin aiii- 
plexicaule, kept up lu.xunous growth all winter long, and the 
low Speargrass (Poa annua) covered waste places with its 
sward of lively green, without any interruption. Several of 
our late autumnal plants, like some species of Chrysopsis and 
Aster, under cover of the woods, were found blooming long 
after New Year's. The Japanese plum, Eriobotrya Japonica, 
began to bloom in early November, and continued to unfold 
its panicles of fragrant white flowers until the close of the 
year, mingling their perfume with that of the flowers of the 
Sweet Olive {Olea fragrans). Violets, Candytuft, Sweet 
Alyssum and Daisies bloomed abundantly, as did the Sweet 
Olive and all varieties of the Camellia. Among the forest 
trees, the White Cedar was in full bloom on the first day of 
December, and the leaves of deciduous trees were still vivid 
with their autumnal tints. Festoons of different species of 
Smilax, loaded with berry clusters of gleaming scarlet or purple 
black, were clambering over the broad leaved evergreens, 
giving to the midwinter woodlands a tropical beauty, in the 
presence of wliich it was hard to realize that our northern States 
were swept by blizzards. In fact, it seemed that autumn joined 
hands with spring, the year passing almost imperceptibly 
from one to the other. 

The January weather was still more remarkable, showing 
the mean temperature to be only 54°. Before the end of its 
second week, \'iburnuni proten.stiin, one of our hardiest exotic 
shrubs, taking the lead among the harbingers of spring, was 
followed promptly by an early Honeysuckle, with its fragrant 
pale rose flowers, while Narcissus and Hyacinths were 
adorning our flower be(is. Later in the month the thermometer 
fell to 20°, and the mean temperature for five days was 
46°. But the slight injury caused to vegetation quickly 
vanished with the sunny days that followed and plant life 
proceeded without a check until the present time. 

In January, too, the Japan Quince blazed with scarlet bloom 
and the Forsythia lumg out its golden bells, and in the last 
week of the month our southern Bluets, Hotistonia patens, 
were smiling in the pastures and pine barrens. In the forests, 
the Cypress, tlie Red Cedar and the Swamp Maple were in full 
bloom, as was the Alder along the banks of the streams, while 
climbing over the bushes the loveliest of our wild vines, 
the Yellow Jessamine, had begun to unfold its flowers. 

Mobile, February 15th. Karl JMollr. 

Foreign Correspondence. 

London Letter. 

Lselia albida, a lovely little Mexican Orchid, with its ivory 
white and fragrant flowers, is one of the best of all winter 
flowering Orchids, and especially valuable because it can 
always be relied on for Christmas bloom. A single spike is 
beautiful, but imagine a mass of it three feet across, carrying 
no fewer than 400 flowers ! Such is the sight I enjoyed the 
other day in Sander's Orchid nursery. There were two masses 
of almost equal size growing on flat rafts, and suspended o^'er 
a water tank, surrounded by great blocks of artificial rock, in 
a large intermediate Orchid-house. The two plants have to- 
gether over 800 flowers, a charming mass of delicate white and 
pink, for the lips of all the flowers are rose-tinted. The fra- 



grance, too, of such a cjuantity of bloom was delicious, and 
pervaded the whole house. Both masses were in the same 
state as when imported, and are supposed to be the largest 
ever Ijrought to England alive. This Lslia is not only one of 
the prettiest of winter Orchids, but is one of the easiest to 
grow, merely requiring to be placed on wood blocks or in bas- 
kets, in what we call here a cool house, one in which the sum- 
mer temperature ranges from 60- to 70'^, and not falling belov/ 
45° on winter nights. , 

A nev/ Angrsccum, which proves to be one of the prettiest 
ever introduced, was lately exhibited here for the first time by 
the Messrs. Sander, under the name of A. Sanderianum, and 
won the highest certificate of merit. It is small in growth, 
having a few lolig, thick leaves of deep green, and about two 
inches wide. The flower spike is about a foot long of a soft 
fawn color and thickly beset with flowers. These are about 
an inch across, with snow-white sepals and petals, and slen- 
der white spurs some three inches in length. The flowers be- 
ing so numerous, and of such purity, and the spikes so grace- 
ful, the eftect of the flowering plants is charming. I saw the 
same plant in the St. Albans Orchid nursery by the hundred, 
every one being in bloom, with two and three spikes on each. 
It is therefore very floriferous, and is considered one of the 
easiest to manage. The thicket of white flower spikes, all 
gracefully drooping from suspended plants, was one of the 
most pleasing sights I have seen among Orchids. 

Percival's Cattleya, one of the newer varieties ol the poly- 
morphous C. labiata, heralded the flower season of this genus 
Those who confine their collection of Orchids to the most 
select must include this one, as it is not only the earliest 
flowering of all, but one of the most beautiful. When 
introduced a few years ago it was said to be autumn 
flowering, but it has not pi-oved to be so here, although 
I am told tiuit in America it flowers some weeks before 
it opens here. At Sander's nursery about holidays this 
Cattleya was the chief feature, hundreds of plants be- 
ing in bloom, exhibiting a great variation of color, some being 
many sliades darker than others. It is what one would call a 
medium-sized Cattleya. The sepals and petals are a deep rose 
pink, and the lip is invariably adorned with an intensely deep 
blotch of maroon crimson, which looks like velvet. It is a very 
free flowering kind, and with us is not at all difficult to grow 
well. 

The Snowy Masdevallia tovarensis and the fiery-looking JM. 
ignea are two invalualjle winter Orchids, both being in bloom 
now. I have recently seen a plant of the white carrying sixty 
flowers in twos and threes on each spike,- and another of /)/. 
ignea whose flowers are orange scarlet, lined with crimson, 
with forty flowers, evidence of how these gems of the South 
American Andes flourish in England. I suspect that Ameri- 
can Orchid-growers have some difficulty in growing tliesecool 
mountain Orchids on account of your hot and dry summers, 
but in any place where they succeed the two I have named 
here should be grown in gardens as larg-ely as their owner's 
accommodation and pocket can alTord. 

A beiutiful green-house climber named Oxera pulehella, from 
New Caledonia, and entirely new to European gardens, was 
shown here recently for the first time by Sir George Macleay. 
The plant is nearly allied to Clerodendron and in habit of 
growth resembles the climbing species of that genus. It has 
long, slender branches, ^\ith deep green shining leaves, like 
those of Stephanotis. The flowers are large, tubular and 
wide-mouthed, pure white and \vidi two protruding stamens. 
They are borne in large, dense clusters, a score or more to- 
gether from the leaf axils. It is extremely floriferous, as a 
ilower cluster is borne from almost every leaf point. It is 
looked upon as a most vahudile addition to green-house 
plants, more particularly as it flowers habitually in the depth 
of winter, when most appreciated. It will become a popular 
climber, and the gardener who grew the specimen 
exhibited, assures me that it is easily cultivated. He 
grows it in an airy green-house trained to a rafter of the 
roof. It was brought from a garden in Algiers. The genus 
Oxera has been hitherto unknown to English gardens, and 
till recently botanists knew but one species, but now they 
number ten. This climber is, unquestionably, one of the 
most remarkal^le plants exhibited of late years. 

Kennedya Marryattse (A'. p>rosfrafa, var. major, D. C), an 
Australian climbing plant of the Pea family, has been for some 
time the glory of one of the green-houses in Kew Gardens, 
and yet it is to be found in few private gardens, though it is 
such an old plant and so beautiful. I should be glad to hear that 
it was more generally appreciated in America. No other green- 



March 7, iSSS.] 



Garden and Forest. 



17 



house climber can compare with it in midwinter, and tlie fact 
that it requires little or no cultural attention, if once well 
planted in an ordinary green-house, enhances its value. At 
Kew it is planted out in free soil beneatli the side stage; the 
main stein is trained up the rafter on one side of tlie span 
roofed house and down the one on the opposite side. The 
shoots, varying from two to six feet long, are thickly wreathed 
with bright scarlet flowers, like miniature lobster claws in 
shape, among the pale green trifoliate leaves, and the wliole 
forms an exquisite floral curtain across the house. It should 
not be planted out until it gets a good size, as it wants all the 
light possible when small in order to get strong. When well 
rooted and about five or six feet high plant it out in a green- 
house that is well ventilated and has a minimum Winter temp- 
erature of aliout 40° F. I imaginethat your hotsummers would 
suit the plant well and so ripen the wood that its winter bloom 
would be abundant. Besides flowering for several weeks in 
succession in midwinter, it flowers in spring and summer ; in 
fact, it might be almost called a perpetual bloomer. 

The Crimean Lime [Tilia pctiolaris) promises to become one 
of our most ornamental deciduous trees. Though not new 



quite distinct from the Hungarian linden, as Sir Joseph 
Hooker pointed out several years ago {Bolanical Magazine, 
'f- ^737-) It is one of the most promising ornamental 
deciduous trees ever introduced into this country. Fine 
specimens may l)e seen in the Central Park in this city. — 

F.D. ) 

Rhododendron primrose is the finest yellow flowered variety 
tliat has yet been obtained among the Javanese or Green- 
house Rhododendrons which the Slessrs. Veitch, of Chelsea, 
have for years been occupied in improving by hybridizing. 
This variety, Primrose, is the result of intercrossing a small, 
pale yellow flowered species named R. icysmanjiia with a 
hybrid variety with large well formed flowers of a yellowish 
pink tint, called Maiden's Blush, raised several years ago. 
The new hybrid had flowers over one and one-half inches 
across, with broad, overlapping petals, making a handsome 
symmetrical flower. The color is a clear yellow, with not a 
trace of the pink tinge of its male parent. It is considered a 
great stride in advance in the production of a vellow flowered 
race of green-house Rhododendrons. Jf'r Goldrimr. 




Entrp.ncn to the Arnold Arboretum. 



here, in a nurseryman's sense, it is but little known and rarely 
planted, though the other silver-leaved Lime, the Hungarian 
lime (7^ argcntea), is a common stock plant. For man v years 
the Crimean Lime has been known in English nurseries under 
the erroneous name of 71 Americana pciidiila, Ijut its true 
name is now being adopted. It is an extremely fine tree and 
different from the other Limes. Its leaves are large, heart 
shaped, of a deep green above and silvery white beneath. 
The slender twigs are pendulous, and as the leaf stalks are 
long and slender, the whole tree is of a gracefully weeping 
habit, of rounded outline and moderately dense. Perhaps the 
finest specimen in the country exists in Mr. Maurice Young's 
nursery at Milford in Surn^y. This tree is aljout sixty feet in 
height, has a huge head fifty or sixty feet through, and has a 
diameter of stem of about two feet, and yet it exhibits all the 
elegance of growth of a young tree. It must be a fast growing 
Lime, as this large tree has certainly been planted since 
1838, when Loudon compiled his Arljoretum. At that time it 
was considered to be a variety only cif T. argcntea and though 
cultivated at Odessa, was not yet introducetl into England. 

(The Crimean lime is also generally known in the 
United States as Tilia ai-geniea pendula,ii\i\\o\\g\\ specifically 



Entrance to the Arnold Arb(3retiim. 

"\ T O coniferous tree excels the Hemlock -Siiruce when young 
-'■ ' in grace of outline, softness of spray or brightness of 
color. As it grows older it becomes a tree of stately propor- 
tions, with drooping branches thickly furnished with dark 
leaves. When massed in northern woods or in the high 
mountains further south it invests the forest with the charm 
of a mystery peculiarly its own. North of the drift line, 
M'herever a stream of water has furrowed out a deep gorge, 
the Hemlock often takes possession of the slopes, making 
dark glens that are always attractive features in the landscape. 
By a fortunate chance one of these banks with its original 
growth unimpared still remains within the limits of the city of 
Boston and is included in the Arnold Arboretum. This steep 
liillside is shown in tlie illustration above. From the road- 
way which swings around to the right it is separated by a 
ravine through which flows a small stream and its dark mass 
of foliage and noble sky-line give a dignity to the entrance 
which is hardly excelled by that of any park in the world. 
Besides its effectiveness from an artistic point of view, this 
representative example of one of our most interesting forms 
of forest scenery is well placed at the vestibule of the sys- 



i8 



Garden and Forest. 



[March 7, 18S8. 



tematic plantations in whicli are to be grouped specimens of 
every species, and well-marlied variety of tlie trees that can be 
made to flourisli here from all the cooler reg-ions of the globe. 

Shrub Propagation. 

THE old adage, " What is one man's meat is another man's 
poison," seems especially applicable to the reproduction 
of hardy shrubbery. Not only'each genus, but often each spe- 
cies, and in a few cases each variety, requires a separate 
method of propagation. For instance, the ordinary Snowball, 
Viburnum opulus sterilis, is of the very easiest manipulation, 
and strikes like a weed, and yet its Japanese relative, \'. plica- 
turn, is ciuite difficult to handle. Most Spirasas are easily 
propagated by cuttings, and yet the nearly allied Exochorda is 
exactly the reverse. All tlie Hydrangeas root readily excepting 
H. quercj/olia, which is stubborn in this respect. The ordi- 
nary Ouince emits roots with almost any degree of moisture, 
but cuttings of tlie Japan Ouince refuse to do so under the 
most advantageous circumstances. 

Most common shrubs, as Weigelas, Spiraeas, Hydrangeas, 
Lilacs, Deutzias, Tamarisks, Viljurnums, etc., are best 
propagated by soft-wood cuttings in midsummer, care being 
taken to secure the wood as soon as it begins to liarden. This 
is the critical period, and on its observance depends success 
or failure. Cuttings 3 to 4 inches long, with two or tln^ee cur- 
tailed leaves at the summit and without any regard to a bud 
at the base, should be placed in shallow boxes filled with 
firmly pounded sand. A perfectly close, warm atmosphere, 
with an abundance of moisture and shade, will cause roots to 
form in a short time, when they may be gradually inured to the 
outside air. They will keep in the boxes until the succeeding 
spring if protecteil in cold frames. 

The Japanese Snowball, ]'iburnuiii pUcatuin. from the pecu- 
liar nature of its wood, requires a long time to root, and 
sliould never be hurried nor deluged with water. The newly 
rooted plants must be potted singly as soon as possible, and 
permitted to remain in the house until autumn, when they, too, 
may be wintered in cold frames. Soft-wood cuttings taken 
from forced plants in winter root more quickly than those 
grown in the open air, but the young plants must remain in 
pots for a year. The weaker short-jointed side shoots always 
make the best cuttings, and will grow just as rapidly after root- 
ing as those struck from vigorous leading branches. 

Any shrub having underground stoloniferous branches, 
which are, of course, supjilied with buds, should be increased 
by root cuttings, especially where other cuttings are ditticult to 
strike. The Japan Ouince, Oak-leaved Hydrangea, Spirtca 
opulifolia, Philadclpiius, Kubiis and Rlius m\: examples ot 
this class. 

Our stock of most hardv shrubs is most cheaply increased 
by hardwood cuttings, where an abundance of wood is obtain- 
able, when the weather is not too dry. These may be cut 
into lengths of eight or nine inches from last year's growth, 
tied into bundles, and either Ijuried at once in the open groiuid, 
or preserved in boxes of sand or moss during freezing weather. 
At the earliest possible moment in spring, they should be i)ut 
into rows, in a well prepared piece of ground, and be well 
tramped aljout the base. Exochorda grandi flora, Caly- 
cantliiis floridus, ^Esculus parinflora (Dwarf Horse-chestnut , 
Euonyinus Europcus, Spircca callosa, Berberis, Mahonia, 
Hypericum, and some others, seed freely, and thus afford an 
easy and rapid mode r)f propagation. Seeds sown thinly in 
the spring in shallow triimes, and covered lightly with Inrush, 
will as a rule germinate quickly, and form nice little plants in 
two or three years. 

Divisions of large clumps is mainly practiced on plants 
difficult to propagate by cutfings, as Clethra, Itea, etc., or 
where an old specimen has to be removed, and two or three 
smaller plants are deemed preferable. Nothing is gaineil by 
planting so-called extra-sized shrubs. In tlie time usually re- 
quired for such to recover from the removal, young thrittv 
plants equal them in size, and surpass them in vigor. The 
long tough stems of most old plants are averse to forming 
new branches, even when cut severely back, which is not the 
case with robust young stock. 

Layering is generally a tedious process, and mav not always 
be recommended when a large supply of shrubs is needed. 
Time is money to the nurseryman, and a few young plants 
gained by bending down the branches of some old specimen, 
are really of little moment. .Still there are exceptions to tlie 
rule. By setting out several old clumps of Magnolia, obovata, 
Purple-leaved Berberry, or Purple-leaved Hazel, the number 
of shoots increase with the age of the parent, and readily form 
roots after being nicked and covered firmly with suitable 
earth at the base. 



Grafting shrulis is restricted to the skilled gardener, and is 
worse than useless in the hands of a novice. Although easily 
performed in Europe, owing to certain climatic influences, 
with us it requires great care and attention. Rliododendrons 
and Azaleas are necessarily increased in this wav. To obtain 
a supply of the newer and attractive varieties of Altha'a, some 
of our cultivators resort to ordinary whip-grafting. In two 
years' time, if not injured by the winter, the plants will be of 
fine size, and suitalile for the market. 

Foreign gardeners ol.)tain a supply of the newer and rarer 
varieties of Lilacs, and some other shrubs, bv grafting o\\ 
small seedlings and covering them with a bell-glass, but in 
this country it is seldom practiced, owing to the amount of 
care necessary to malce it a success. J. Iloopes. 



Note on our Native Irises. 

TV/r ANY old world Irises have long been andstill are favorites 
^^^ in cultivation, but our own native species have received 
little attention from horticulturists, and most of them are im- 
perfectly known even to professed liotanists. As they are 
among the handsomest of our wild Howers they deserve the 
attention and study of cultivators and botanists alike. Of the 
genus Iris there are over a hundred known species, of which 
we have at least eighteen. These are equallv dix'ided between 
the region east of the great plains and that west of the Rocky 
Moiuitains. They may be groiqjed as follows : — 
A. — Eastern and arctic species. 

(7. Dwarf ; the only American species, excepting /. hcxagona, 
which have either crest or beartl. 

I. L.ACUSTRIS ; shores of Lakes Huron ami Michigan. 

I. CRisi'ATA ; of the Alleghany Mountains. 

I. VERN.\ ; wooded hills and pine liarreiis, from Kenti.icky 
and \'irginia to Alabama and North Carolina. 

/'. The 1. tripctala group, having the inner petals very 
short. 

I. 'IRII^ET.^I.A ; piiU'-liarreii swamps of the southern Atlantic 
coast. 

I. HooKERI ; on the lower Saint Lawrence River. 

I. SETOSA ; a Siberian species found in Alaska. 
c. The /. versicolor grouji. 

I. PRISMATICA (I. VirginicaJ: the slender narrow-leaved 
species found maiiiK- near the Atlantic coast. 

I. HEXAGuNA ; a tall crested species of the swamps along 
tlie southern Atlantic coast. 

I. CUPREA ; with dull yellow or lirownish flowers, in swamps 
of the inner districts from Southern Illinois southward. 

1. VERSICOLOR ; the common broader-leaved northern spe- 
cies, from Minnesota to the Atlantic and southward. This 
species is at present made to include all the forms that cannot 
be placed in the preceding. Among those forms (often tall 
and large-fiowered) which occur in the Southern States, from 
\'irginia westward and southward, there are some which are 
ct.'rtainly distinct from the common Northern form, and per- 
lia|is from each other. A comparison cif li\ing specimens is 
necessary, however, to a determination of their ilistinctive dif- 
te'rences. 

B. Western species (not readily grouped l)y characters). 

I. MlssouRlE.\Sls ; the onlv species of the interior, rang'ing' 
from tfie Rocky Mountains to the Sierra Newada, and from 
the British boundary to Arizona and Colorado. 

I. TENAX and I. TENL'lS; a sleiuler species of Oregon and 
Washington Territorv. 

1. JIACROSU'HOX, I.' DOUGLASIAKA, and I. r;RACTE.A.TA ; of the 
Coast Ranges ot Northern California and Southern Oregon; 
often low and slender, the tlowers in the first twc) having ;i 
long narrow tube. 

1. Hartweci; a Iciw narro\\-leaved species of the Northern 
Sierra Nevada. 

I. LoxGlPF.rAl.A; a stout several-flowered species of the coast 
from San Francisco to Monterey. 

Few of these Western species have been studied from the 
li\-ing'plants and they cannot yet be said to be well known, for 
in drieil and pressed' specimens not only the delicate colors 
but many of the other characteristics of the flowers are lost 
beyond recovery. But Irises are generally of easy cultivation, 
adapting themselves readily to a diversity of treatment, and it 
is much to be hoped tliat our enter|>rising florists and lovers 
of Howers will try their skill vqion these our native beauties. 
They can thus have the satisfaction not only of working a new 
field which promises rich floral rewards, but also of giving- 
essential aid to the botanist in determining more accurately 
the characters and limits of the different species. It may be 
added that Prof. Michel Foster, c)f Oxford, England, is making 



March 7, 18S8.J 



Garden and Forest 



19 




such it was preserved in his herbar- 
ium at Camijridfje. During- the last 
ten years the same form has again 
been fomid upon the same niountain, 
thougli not abundantly, and it lias also 
been cultivated in the Cambridsfe 
Botanic Garden. Though evidently 
related not distantly to L. Canadens'e, 
yet it differs from it so decidedly that 
it has been deemed deserving of 
specific rank and has been honored 
with the name of its discoverer. Its 
more striking characteristics appear 
plainly in the accompanying figure. 
As contrasted with L. Canadense, the 
fiowers are smaller, less pendulous, 
and broader at base ; the petals are 
broader in proportion, less tapering 
at the top, and not at all recurved; 
and the leaves are perfectly smooth, 
and usually broader and less narrowly 
piointetl. In L. Cajiadense they are 
rough upon the edge and usually also 
upon the veins beneath, and some- 
times over the whole lower surface. 
In this respect that species differs also 
from L. superbum. The fiowers are 
dark colored, of a deep reddish 
orange, uniformly dotted within with 
rather small purple spots. In its 
native locality it blooms in June. The 
bulbs are like those of L. Canadense 
and L. superbum, renewed from year 
to year upon a perennial rootstock, 
and respond as kindly to a similar 
culture. The species has been found 
upon the Peaks of Otter in Virginia 
and proliably occurs in many other 
places in the southern Alleghanies. 

*L. Gravi, Watson, Proc. Ajii. Acad., xiv. 256. 
Leaves in whorls of 4 to 8, lanceolate, acute or 
slightly acuminate, not at all scabrous; flowers 
often solitar)', ascending or somewhat nodding, 
broadly funnelform, two inches long or less, the 
petals oblanceolate, abrupt! \' acute, not recurved, 
deep reddish orange, spotted williin. 



American Thorns as Orna- 
mental Plants. 



T^ 



LUium Grayi 



a special study of the genus, and for that purpose is endeavor- 
ing to obtain roots or seeds of all our forms from which to 
grow the plants in his own garden. Roots from any part of 
the country, and especially from the South and West, will be 
very acceptable and thankfully acknowledged, whether sent 
to him, or to the Botanic Garden, at Cambridge, Mass. 

Serena IVaison. 



U' 



Lilium Grayi. 



■ PON the trip which Dr. Asa Gray made to the Alleghany 
Mountains in 1840 he collected upon Roan Mt., in North 
Carolina, a single specimen of a lily which was considered by 
him to be a form of the common Lilium Canadense, and as 



HERE is a general impression 
that the nati^'e Thorns are valu- 
able as ornamental plants, and yet 
they are rarely seen in private 
grounds unless they grow there 
naturally. There are two reasons for 
this neg'lect : the difficidty of trans- 
planting and growing them, and the 
perplexing variations of the wild 
plants. 

There is little difficulty in growing' 
the Thorns from seeds if the seeds 
are stratified in sand as soon as ripe, 
and if the operator is willing to wait 
a couple of years for the appearing of 
the seedlings. When yoimg, the plants 
are removed readily, but success is 
rare in removing- large speciniens 
which have never been transplanted. 
The perplexing variations in the 
Thorns are among their most attract- 
ive features and render their cultivation all the more 
desirable. These variations have reference to size, color, 
shape, and season of fruits, to haliit of growth and occasion- 
ally to leaf character. In certain species which occur ia 
Michigan, notably in Cratcegus punctata, the fruit is so incon- 
stant that it cannot be relied upon for specific characters. 
Even yellow-fruited fornis occur. In some individuals the 
fruit is nearly as large as a sniall Siberian crab, and is borne 
near the centre of the top, hanging- in attractive maroon lialls 
from the horizontal spray. In other specimens it is scarcely 
larger than a pea, and is borne much nearer the ends of the 
branches, which, in this case, are usually more upright than in 
the former variation. In short, so inconstant are the Thorn 
fruits, that the observing traveler in these parts is constantly 



20 



Garden and Forest. 



[March 



iS<SS. 



attracted and bewildered l)v them. Many, if ni>t most of these 
variations, are not reproduced by seeds. In order to perpetu- 
ate tliem the grower should graft from them. 

Good ornamental-fruited plants are not abundant. We find 
that the large-fruited Thorns drop their fruits early. This is 
due in part to the weight of the fruit and in part to the ravages 
of the codling moth and the plum curculio. The fruits of the 
liest forms of the scarlet Thorn fC. coccincaj are especially 
lialile to drop. We shall spray our plants with Paris-green 
water next spring. Of the Michigan kinds, the pear-fruited 
Thorn (C. toinentosa,) holds its fruits best. Up to Christmas 
all these rul.)y colored fruits I'emained erect, long after every 
other sort had fallen. Tlie fruits are small, resemliling a 
small rose-hip, and contain so little Hesh that the worms do 
not trouble them. They iire borne in clusters. Hereal>outs 
the branches of this Thorn are nearly liare of leaves where the 
clustered fruit is borne, so that the autumn aspect of the plant 
'is singularly attractive. 

Thorns are attractive in fruit, in habit, in foliage and in 
flowers. Upon this classification I should place our .Michigan 
Thorns, five sorts, as follows, in order of preference : — 

For Fruit : C. toiiwutosa vai\ pyriffllia, C. punctata ( C. 
tflm-cntosa var. punctata), C. cocciiwa. C. Crus-galli, C. su/>- 
villosa ( C. tomeniosa var. mollis ). 

For Habit ; C. punctata, C. coccincn, C. suh-'illosa, C. O-us- 
galli, C. toinentosa vaw pyr/folia. 

For Foliage: C. Crus-galli, C. coccinca. C. subi'illosa, C. 
tomeniosa var. pvrifolia, C. punctata. 

For Flowers ; C. coccinca, C. Crus-galli, C punctata, C 
touicntflsa, \'ar. pvrifolia, C. subi'illosa. 

Mi.:lui;ai) AKiiculUiml College. L. II. Bailcy. 



Plant Notes. 

Milla biflora, Cav., in its Home. — By an occasional glance at 
horticidtiu'al journals, whenever returned to civilization, I have 
been gratified to learn that this plant, which I have admired in 
the wilds of North Mexico, is being brought into general culti- 
vation. I had for two years seen it scattered over the grassy 
|)l;iins and foothills and even on the broader mountain sum- 
mits about Chihuahua — the plant on the richer plains growing 
to a height of two feet and be'dring half a dozen flowers, in the 
thinner, dryer soil of the mountain top less than a foot high 
with but a single flower — but, not until I reached the high 
plains about the continental divide and near the Cordilleras, 
did I find it in abundance. Here on broad swells were miles 
of prairie bespangled with its silver stars crowding upon a 
yellow-flowered Phlox and a purple Pentstemon. From a bulb 
one-half to three-fourths inch in diameter, planted two to four 
inches deep, it sends up a stem one to two feet high, bearing 
one to five flowers. Under good culture the size oi^ the bulbs 
must rival those of some classes of Gladiolus, and a much 
taller stem must bear an umbel of a dozen flowers, whose size 
is proportionately increased. The fact that its flowers possess 
much endurance, and succeed one another in the umbel dur- 
ing many days, in the way of Agapanthus, must add merit to 
the pliant. It should prove hardy, with a light covering of 
leaves, in American gardens, and would doubtless thrive 
best if thus wintered in tlie soil. The pl.int propagates itself 
Ijy seed onlv. 

Calochortus flavus, Shult. f. — Associated wifli Milla hijiora 
in the drier situations we find this, another liliaceous plant of 
much beauty, as yet little known in gardens. On a branching 
stem a foot high it bears tvvo to four, or more, nodding flowers, 
one to two inches broad, of rich crimson and gold and furred 
within. In a Northern garden the plant has shown even in 
one year nmch increase in its size and in the numl>er of its 
flowers. C. G. Pringle. 

Caryopteris Mastacanthus, Schauer. — Among the novelties of 
late years this beautiful shrub, introduced into Europe by 
V'eitch & Sons, deserves special notice. A native of China, 
its hardiness was doubted at first, but it has done very well 
in a dry, sunny position ; as well at Baden-Baden as in Eng- 
land. It is a much-branched shrub of a sturdy appearance 
much like a Ceanothus. Along the branches and branchlets, 
wherever there is a leaf, a little bunch of small starry flowers 
is produced, assuming an umbellate form and decorating the 
v\'hole shrub with deep blue. It flowers here about the mid- 
dle of October, when flowering shrubs are quite as rare as l)lue 
flowers. Planted against a low wall and left to grow at will, 
all passers-by are struck witli its beauty. 

Baden-Baden. Ma.x Lcichtlin. 



(This plant was discovered by Fortune in .Southern 
(_'hina, and is well described in De Candolle s Prodroinus, 
xi. 625. It is a native also of Japan, where it is said to 
grow on the borders of old fields and on the summits of 
mountains. It is from Japan that the Messrs. Veitch intro- 
duced it into cultivation, and there is a prospect, therefore, 
that it will prove hardy in the United .States. A good figure 
of Caryopteris inastacantlius appeared in the Gardener's 
Clironicle, xxi. n. ser., 149. It belongs to the Verbena fami- 
ly.— Ed.) 



The Red Mite on \^erbcnas. 

THE two packages of Verbena sent by Mr. Peter Henderson 
to the office of Garden and Forest, one containing 
voung, healthy plants, and the other those which have been 
dwarfed and crumpled by the attacks of the mite, illustrate 
well the work of this pest. We could not find any full-grown 
specimens, but only the very small young, which were of a 
pale yellowish color. 

The red mite, erroneously by some called the red spider, is 
one of the few mites which spin a web. When we examine 
the mouth parts it will be seen how well adapted it is for cut- 
ting into and sticking close to leaves ; its jaws, like those of 
seed-ticks, form a spiny beak, with the points directed back- 
wards ; with this l;>eak it can anchor itself in the soft parts of 
the under side of leaves, while with the forceps-like feelers it 
can eat its way into the leaf, or grasp surrounding hairs or pro- 
jecting parts of the leaf and steady itself while sucking- the sap 
of the plant. Its presence may be detected liy the slight web, 
the l.)lighted, pale patches on the leaf, and sometimes, as in 
the examples before us, by the striking alteration in the leaves 
and tlie dwarfed appearance of the Plant. 

A general pest of Plants, both 
in the hot-house and in the garden, 
when it varies much in color, most 
of them when fully grown being 
greenish to rust-red, sometimes 
quite dark, the creature propagates 
rapidly, and aboimds most in hot, 
dry seasons, moisture being un- 
favorable to its growth. 

As to remedies, it should l)e 
borne in mind tbat all mites are 
very susceptiljle to sulpihur, hence 
as a preventive measure laving 
Hour of sulijhur upon th^ pipes 
ill the hot-house has been recom- 
mended. It' would also be well to 
undersprav the li'aves of infected 
plants with such a solution of 
sulphur as would cause the pow- 
der to remain on the leaves. Spray- 
ing machines are the most efficient 
means of rapidly and evenly diftus- 
ing insecficides of all sorts, though 
we have not heard of their use in 
the hot-house. Finely powdered tobaccci, or even Paris green 
or London purple in solution, the latter carefully applied with 
the sprayer to plants not in flower, would be \\orth trial. 

Nearly all mites, like all insects, breathe through minute 
openings in the sides of the body, hence any oily or greasy 
substance which, spreading over the body, will form a film 
over the air-holes, will kill the creature ; it is soon asphyxiated 
or drowned. For this reason greasy or oily substances are the 
most powerful and sure insecticicles. Oily emulsions, even 
cotton-seed, or any other vegetalile oils, could easily be used 
in hot-houses ; kerosene emulsions should be used with care, 
and only after experiments, so as not to injure the plant itself, 
since mineral oils are most destructive to plant-life. Perhaps 
underspraving with whale-oil soap or sulphur in solution is 
the readiest and most available remedy, liut it would be worth 
\v'hile to experiment with the Paris green or London purple so- 
lutions, also kerosene emulsions, which have proved so suc- 
cessful out-of-doors ; always bearing in mind that frequent 
showerings with soap-suds or water alone, by which the leaves 
are kept wet, tends to prevent undue increase of the pest. Mr. 
Henderson tfunks he has discovered a complete remedy for 
this pest in the use of manure water. The increased vigor of 
the plant under this treatment seems to enable it tooutgrow 
the ravages made by the mite. 

A. S. Packard. 




Red Mite f Te/raiiyc/iin! ti-tarl 
Fiuin Saunders' "Insects 
Injurious to Fruits." 



March 7, 18S8.] 



Garden and Forest. 



21 



Cultural Notes. 

Primula Obconica. — This is a comparatively new Primrose, 
a native of China, and one of the sweetest and loveliest, and 
so far as I know, the most free and continuous blooming 
of the genus. 

It was discovered in the neighborhood of Ichuny, Central 
China, l)y Maries, collector for Veitch, of London, and first 
bloomed in cultivation in the Veitch luu'series in September, 
1880. In the Botanical Magazine (tab. 8582), 1881, it is figured 
and described under the name of Primula poculiformis. In 
The Garden, September 6th, 1884, there is an excellent colored 
plate of it prepared from an English garden-grown plant. 

Soon after its debut into English gardens it found its way to 
America, and so well has it behaved that it has become a fixed 
favorite wherever grown. Indeed, so favorable an impression 
has it made that one florist near Boston has made a specialty 
of it for cut flowers, and the Boston seedsmen this year offer 
it as their most important novelty. 

We have it here and are exceptionally well pleased with it. 
We treat it as a cool green-house piot jilant, and find that it is 
of the easiest possible culture, free growing and continuous 
blooming, and may be treated as an annual or perennial. 
Veitch speaks of it as " flowering continuously and profusely 
from spring to autumn," and recommends it " during the 
summer months for the open border." Some plants procured 
two years ago have been in bloom continuously ever since 
then and have more flowers now than they have had at 
any time previous. I sowed some seed last spring, it germin- 
ated in about two weeks, and the seedlings have grown and 
flourished. They beg-an blooming in August and have been 
in full bloom ever since. 

The foliage much resembles that of P. cortnsoides, a Siberian 
species grown in our gardens as a hardy perennial, but is not 
deciduous. The flowers are white to pale mauve-purple, 
showy and sweetly fragrant, and are borne in loose umbels on 
tall scapes that rise well up above the foliage ; and in thrifty 
plants the umbels have an inclination to break off into whorls 
after the fashion of the infloresence of P. yaponica. The 
blossoms last well as cut flowers, and the plants make excel- 
lent house or window plants. During the summer months 
our plants set seeds freely and without any artificial assistance, 
but since winter began no seeds have set e.xcapt where 
artificial assistance has been given. \V. F. 

Leptosyne Maritima. — A perennial composite with succulent 
stems and much divided flesliy leaves, and large showy bright 
yellow flowers produced singly at the ends of long slender 
stalks. The plant is indigenous to " Sea beach at San Diego, 
and on the islands." 

1 have grown this plant for a good many years, out-of-doors 
in summer and in the green-house in winter. Although it is 
a perennial it is treated as an annual, it begins to bloom 
when about four months old, and so long as it continues in 
good healthy condition, so long it will continue in bloom. 

Planted out-of-doors in summer it grows and blooms 
prettily, but here it does not bear as fine flowers as it does in 
the green-house in winter. Our plants are in six-inch pots, in 
a sunny green-house, with a night temperature of about fifty de- 
grees, and they now have been in full bloom for more than three 
months. This Leptosyne loves sunshine and will not thrive in 
the shade ; and it very much dislikes a close, moist atmosphere 
or an over-wetted soil. 

The blossoms are well adapted for cut flowers and last in 
' good condition for several days after they have been cut ; but 
as they are apt to f)artially close up at night this weighs 
heavily against them. 

L. Stillinani and L. Douglasii are both Californian annuals, 
pretty enough in their way, but small and short-lived, and 
without anything of the bold, showy character of L. Maritima. 

F. 

Carnations. — James Y. Murkland is the brightest scarlet we 
have, but the flowers are not full and solid enough or the 
plants sufficiently abundant or enduring to justify its use as a 
main crop. Portia is our stand-by for scarlet. It is early, con- 
tinuous, a great cropper and the flowers do not burst. Aniong 
scarlets, E. S. Hill gives superb promise. The plants are 
vigorous and the flowers unusually large. Marshal P. Wilder 
has very large flowers, but they are short-stemmed and tlie 
calyx bursts. My best white is Hinzy's. Started early and not 
pinched after June it begins to bloom in September and lasts 
in good condition till February. Peerless, Snowdon and De- 
graw do not do well here. Neither do Buttercup nor Astoria 
among yellows. Lydia, yellow striped with pink, is the best of 
its class. Columbia, after the same fashion, but with narrower 



stripes, is an abundant bloomer, but the flowers are not very 
firm. La Purite, carmine, is a capital grower, and it blooms 
freely too, but the flowers burst a good deal. Charles Hender- 
son, tall and very copious, has carmine fringed flowers, rather 
small, but of capital form. Kaiser William has violet purple 
flowers of good form and striking in color, but many ladies 
object to the shade. Petunia is a slender grower, but it bears 
a good crop of rose purple and white fidl double, though often 
ragged, flcnvers, which are much esteemed by ladies. Crimson 
King used to be our mainstay in its class, but it is beginning to 
fail. Black Knight still hoids good. It is of slender growth. 
It blooms sparingly in fall and early winter, but as January ad- 
vances it waxes in strength. Gibbonsii is the largest and finest 
of all our crimsons, but it is a late-blooming one-cup variety. 
May Queen, bright rose, is a lovely, perfect flower, and unlike 
most varieties of its class, the color of whose flowers soon 
fades, its flowers retain their bright color for several davs after 
they have been cut. While Grace Wilder is a very pretty car- 
nation and of a desirable shade of blush, the color soon fades. 
This variety is often rather refractory. \\\ F. 

Brodicea (Triteleia) Uniflora — This charming Liliaceous plant 
we grow in pots for decoration of the conservatory, for this 
[lurpose it is very valuable, especially at this dull season of the 
year, besides being very pretty. It flowers in great abund- 
ance (as many as fifty flowers may often be had in five-inch 
pots) and will last a long time in perfection. We give them 
the usual treatment of this class of Bullis, viz. : good rich soil 
in well drained pots, liberal watering while growing, gradually 
drying off for the summer months and repotting in tlie fall. 
There are two or three varieties of this species, one a pure 
white. It was introduced from Buenos Ayres in 1836. 

F. G. 

Grapes Under Glass. 

OL'R early vinery contains, mostly. Black Hamburgh ; our 
medium, Muscat of Alexandria ; and our late. Lady 
Downes, which I think is the Vjest of all late grapes. Ladv 
Downes, Black Alicante, Gros Colman and other late sorts will 
succeed pretty well when grown in the Muscat house, but I 
much prefer growing them in a house by themselves. I have 
Alnwick Seedling growing in the same house, and alongside 
of. Lady Downes. It sets as freely as does a Black Hamburgh 
and produces large blue-black berries and bimches of three 
to seven lbs. each in weight, but the grapes do not keep long 
after they are ripe. Indeetl, I have, every year, to begin cutting 
them before I have cut half of our Muscats. Except for exhibition 
purposes I do not regard it favorably, but it will make a good 
enough stock on which to inarch more serviceable sorts. 
Black Alicante lilce Lady Downes always hangs on the vines 
phnnp and fresh till New Year's. Pearson's Golden Queen is 
a good-looking grape, but of little merit except for exhibition. 
After having given it a fair trial, both as an early and a late 
grape, I have concluded to discard it. 

After the fruit is ripe in the Muscat house I bring- Dcndrobi- 
v/n IVardiamiin and odiers of its class into it to ripen their 
flowering pseudo-bulbs. I also use the earliest vineries for 
Chrysanthemums in the fall, but I never bring these in before 
all the grapes are cut, and I remove them before we begin to 
give om' vines their anruial cleaning. On no account do I ever 
allow any plants to be kept in or brought into the Lady Downes 
house, as the extra moisture they would induce would be det- 
rimental to the keeping qualities of the grapes, which we wish 
to have in plump and good condition as late as possible — usu- 
ally till January. I never permit any bedding or miscellaneous 
green-house plants, apart from those mentioned above, to be 
kept in any of the graperies under any circumstances, so as to 
avoid all possible chance of the introduction of mealy bugs 
or other insect vermin. 

Of recent years we have discontinued the use of the syringe 
in our vineries except in the case of our earliest house, and in 
that we discontinue syringing as soon as the grapes begin to 
color. After the fruit is cut from it, however, we give the 
vines a few heavy drenchings of a solution of whale oil soap 
and tepid water — about two ounces of the soap to the common 
wooden pailful of water, and applied about sunset. 

On account of the small amount of fire heat we use to help 
ripen the fruit and wood, we are not troubled with red spider. 

We use tobacco stems as a preventive against thrips, plac- 
ing them on the border between the bottom ventilators and 
the front row of pipes, and in this way use at one time a bar- 
rel of stems to every sixty feet in length of house. We renew 
the tobacco stems three times during the summer, and each 
time have them fresh froni the cigar factories. 

David Allan. 



22 



Garden and Forest. 



[March 7, 



The Lawn. 

"\JOW is the time to attend to tlie lawns. If tliey have been 
-'■^ top-dressed with manure or compost over winter, on 
some fine dry day when it is not frozen, go over the lawn with 
wooden-toothed rakes and spread the dressing equally over 
the groimd. Then repeat the operation and rake off all sticks, 
stones and other rough things that may have been in the 
dressing, but do not rake off any of the manure except where 
it may be so heavy as to threaten interference with the mower 
in summer. If this is done now, there will be no fear of the 
grass bleaching under the manure where it has fallen in 
lumps, but if delayed till the grass begins to get green it will 
bleach, then sun-scald and look patchy. 

Lawns that have not been top-dressed should also be raked 
over with close-toothed wooden or iron rakes, so as to clear off 
the loose dead grass and other debris that would interfere witli 
the mower. In raking the lawns be very particular along the 
borders of roads and pathways, where small stones may have 
been thrown up on the turf. 

If the dead grass is long or shaggy burn it off. This may be 
heresy in the eyes of theorists, but experience has proved it to 
.be good practice. The burning does not injure the crowns of 
the grass in the least degree nor destroy a particle of the nu- 
triment on the surface of the ground, but it effectually gets rid 
of the dried grass, which, if not removed, would clog the mow- 
ers and weaken the young shoots in coming up. 

If the surface of tlie lawn has any depressions fill them up 
with loam. These may be the foot-prints of men or animals 
made when the ground was soft. And some morning when 
the lawn is wet and soft go over it with a heavy roller to 
make the sod smooth and even ; but never use horses in the 
roller when the lawn is in this condition, as their feet would 
leave deep impressions in the ground. With two men and a 
hand iron roller all the grass in the narrow places, as between 
the trees and shruljs, can lie reached, and in the open spaces 
eight men to a large iron roller do capital work. 

Many sp)Ots in the lawns will need patching. Where trees 
or rocks, in former years, have been dug out, the earth may 
have sunk so as to form a hollow; fill up such places with 
loam, and resod. And where little liillocks occur on the lawns, 
shave them down and replace the sod. 

Sometimes weeds kill out the grass. The most destructive 
of these pests are Yarrow, Mouse-ear Chickweed and Sorrel. 
They kill out broad patches, and can only be overcome by 
being dug under or cut out, and again resowing or sodding 
the ground to grass. Crabgrass is almost invulnerable. So 
long as we keep our lawns smoothly shaven we cannot sub- 
due it, for in September and October it spreads its wiry stems 
along flat on the ground and perfects and scatters its seed for 
tlie ne.\t season's work. The only way to get rid of it is to 
pasture the land or so encourage the lawn grasses to grow 
that they shall choke it out. 

Where the lawn is mossy, as in the neighborhood of trees, 
or rather bare of grass caused by impoverished land or drought, 
remove the moss with a sharp long-toothed iron rake and 
loosen the surface of tlie ground ; then topdress thinly with 
rich earth, and sow some red topseed on it, rake it in and roll 
firmly. 

Where it is needful to do repairing, as for example, to mend 
the borders along the roadsides, to cover places caused by re- 
cent tree removals, to turf over beds, mend banks about the 
house, and the like, always use sod in preference to grass seed. 
Where much sod-laying has to be done a sod-cutting machine 
should be used, but in small places where the soils are cut 
with a spade never let two or more men work for the same 
piece of ground, as no two men cut sods alike. With the 
ground properly prepared and leveled, and the sods all equal 
in thickness, length and width, in laying them it is an easy 
matter to make a neat piece of work. All sodding and seed- 
ing should be done as early in spring as possible, in order 
that the grass may be well up and have a good hold upon the 
ground before the warm dry weather sets in. 

William Falconer. 



Do NOT HURRY to uucover the Roses, Strawberries and 
other plants that you have protected over winter. A few 
bright, warm days in March is no indication that the winter has 
completely retired; the frosty, searing winds of March are more 
injurious to plants than is the zero weather of Januarv. 

Garden Labels.— The frost will have thrown many small 
labels out of the earth and we will now find them Iving on tlie 
surface of the ground. If this is neglected the wind will lilow 
them about. Stick them into the ground where vou find them 
lying. 



The Forest. 

Forest Trees for California. 

A GLANCE at the forest map of California, given in 
Vol. 9 of the Report of the Tenth Census, shows 
that there are in the State but two compact bodies of tim- 
ber ; that of Pines and Firs covering the higher western 
slopes ofthe Sierra Nevada, and the Redwood beltstretching 
along the western portion of the Coast Range, from the bay 
of Monterey to the Oregon line. The lower foothills of the 
Sierra, and the plateaus and northern slopes and canons of 
the Coast Ranges, bear a scattered growth of timber ; but 
neither the quantity nor the ciuality entitles it to be counted 
on for more than a scanty supply of firewood, after the 
needs of the first settlers have been met. The great valley, 
and the adjacent slopes on either side, are practically tree- 
less, except along the courses of the streams, and on the 
exceptional area formed by the delta of the Kaweah River, 
in Tulare County, which is covered with quite a compact 
growth of the White Oak {Quercus lobala). A scattered 
growth ofthe same Oak prevails in most of the Coast Range 
valleys, outside of the Redwood belt ; on the rolling lands 
nearthe coast, it is intermingled with the California Live Oak 
((?■ ogri/oha) and the Black or Sonoma Oak {Q. Kelloggii). 
Along the Sierra foothills it mingles with the Blue Oak 
{Q. Donglasii); higher up it disappears and the Blue Oak 
with the two mountain Live Oaks (^. Wisliceiii 3.x\d Chiy- 
so/epis) and the Foothill or Digger Pine {P. Sabiniaiia) pre- 
vail. These, with occasional groups or individuals of the 
beautiful Madrone (properly Madrono — Arhuius Men- 
sicsii), a few Firs on the higher levels, and in the cations 
the large-leaved Maple {Acer macrophylluni), the Box Elder, 
the large Alder {Aliuis oblongi/o/ia], and last but not least 
the Laurel {UinbeliuLiria Cali/ornica), constitute the com- 
mon tree growth of Central California that, outside of the 
timber belts first mentioned, might be expected to serve the 
common uses of the deciduous forest trees of the Atlantic 
slope. To these are added, in the northern portion of the 
State, a part of the Conifers of Western Oregon ; whiie in 
Southern California, a number of trees*mentioned above 
are wanting, or but feebly represented, and the mountains 
as well as the valleys are as a rule scantil)' timbered, and 
largely quite bare of trees. 

Even -were these trees mentioned as w-ell adapted to the 
uses of every day life as those of Eastern deciduous forests, 
their relatively scanty occurrence within that portion of the 
State best adapted to dense settlement would render the 
maintenance of the timber supply a question of the most 
pressing importance. But as a matter of fact the wood of 
most of the native non-Coniferous trees, and especially 
that of the lowland Oaks, subserves but indilTerently any 
purpose save that of fuel. Not only have the trees as a 
rule a very low trunk, beginning to branch from seven to 
fifteen feet above ground, and often losing the leader ; 
but even the "clear" wood is mostly so brittle and its 
grain so uncertain that to split it into rails, clapboards or 
staves is out of the question. When a tree is broken off by 
the wind, instead of the long, elastic splinters projecting 
from both ends, we find rough, jagged breaks almost square 
across. Of the California Live Oak, the wood-choppers 
sometimes state with mild exaggeration that it splits cross- 
wise about as readily as length \\ise. The White Oak is 
a little better, and like the Blue Oak is sometimes used for 
fence posts; but even in this dry climate they show little 
durability as such. Only the mountain Oaks can to a cer- 
tain degree subserve the ortlinary purposes of hardwoods ; 
and no Californian tree, save perhaps these, could be suc- 
cessfully worked into axe helves, hoe handles, or other 
agricultural implements of any durability. The IMaple, 
Ash and Laurel are to some extent used for furniture and 
inside finish, but not where strength of material is required. 
Practically all the hard woods used in California must be 
imported, and at present come from the Eastern States ; a 
small part, for cabinet and decorative work, from Mexico. 



March 7, 1SS8.] 



Garden and Forest. 



It is thus natural that when trees have to be planted, the 
preference should be given to such as are likely to supply 
this great need, and it is equally natural that the first 
thought should turn toward the familiar Eastern forest trees 
that serve these purposes so well. Thus the seeds of the 
Hickories, and of the White and other Eastern Oaks, soon 
found their way into private grounds and nurseries for 
trial. It may be broadly said that the outcome of these 
experiments (repeated since on the experimental grounds 
of the University of California) has been eminently unsatis- 
factory. The young trees not only refuse utterly to avail 
themselves of the longer growing season for more rapid 
development, but show a perverse disposition to branch 
out low and form bushes without a definite trunk; and when 
pruned up with a view to forming a single strong trunk, 
will sometimes return to first principles by sending up 
shoots from below. I doubt whether there exists at this 
time in the State, a specimen of an Eastern Oak or Hickory 
that would not have been better developed almost any- 
where east of the Mississippi River, at the same age. 

Not all the deciduous forest trees of the Atlantic States, 
however, behave in this wa)^ Thus the Cork Elm, the 
Linden, several Maples, the White-wood (Liriodendron) 
and some others, develop normally, and some of them 
somewhat more rapidly than in their native clime. But 
none of these can properly fill the gap left by the Oaks and 
Hickories ; and hence, substitutes for these have been 
sought in other climateC- notably in Australia, whose 
rapid-growing Eucalypts :ind Acacias have already acquired 
a wide distribution h) California. Oddly enough, some 
trees from diametrically opposite climates seem also to 
adapt themselves to that of California, and most promising 
among these, at the present time, is the European or 
"English" Oak {Q. Rnbur, var. pedunculala). 

E. W. Hih-ard 



"Growing Deciduous Forest Trees from Seeds. 

WE sow all of our tree seeds in Spring, and as the following 
rules are based on our own e.xperience, they all apply to 
spring sowing. 

White Ash seeds ripen in early October, and fall after the 
tirst severe frost. They should be mixed with moist sand, 
and not allowed to become dry before sowing. This same 
treatment should be followed with all the native Ash family 
with one e.xception, viz., the Green Ash, which hangs on 
longer and will germinate if sown dry; all others will remain 
dormant until the next season, if sown dry. 

Hard Maple seed ripen early in October, and require the 
same treatment as the White Ash. 

Soft Maple seeds ripen in spring immediately before, or 
about the time, that Apple trees begin to blossom. They 
should be sown within a few days after gathering. 

Elm seeds ripen in spring, and they require the same treat- 
ment as those of the Soft Maple. 

Black Walnuts, and all nuts with a pulpy covering, may be 
spread in thin layers, say six inches deep, and covered with 
sods and litter to prevent dying during the winter, in which 
case the pulpy covering will be easily disposed of in sprinsj. 

Other I\'2its and Acorns, together with seeds of the Tulip 
tree and Bassiuood, are safer treated as recommended for Ash 
and Hard Maple seeds. 

Catalpa and Ailanthus seeds are Icept dry during winter 
and sown rather late in spring. 

Birch and Alder seeds are kept dry, and sown dry early in 
spring. 

Locust seeds and those of all that family are kept drj' 
through winter and soaked in hot water immediately before 
sowing. 

All seeds with a fleshy covering, such as Apple, Cherry, 
Mountain Ash, Cucumber tree, Buffalo Berry, Red Cedar and 
Holly, are washed free from the pulp, mixed with sand and 
sown in spring. We make an exception generally with the Red 
Cedar and the Holly, as they never germinate evenly in the 
spring, therefore we bury them in a rot-heap during two 
winters and one summer, and sow the following spring. 

Poplar and Willow seeds are very tine and delicate, and re 
quire skill, close attention, and continual moisture during the 
early part of the season. Therefore it is cheaper and surer to 
raise them from cuttings than from seeds. 



All seeds mixed with sand must be placed so that water will 
not stand around them. Frost will not injure them, unless in 
a position where they will freeze dry. A cool shed where 
they are protected from sun and wind, will be a proper place. 

Robert JDouglas. 

Answers to Correspondents. 

Cutting down Chestnut seedling trees from sixteen to twenty 
inches in diameter, I find them rotten at the heart. What is 
the cause, and how may I know when the decay Ijcgins ? 

Sharon, Conn. j- -L' D- 

The disease known as heart-rot, and under other names, 
which produces a decay in the centre or heart of trees, mostly 
older trees, is caused by various fungi, which attack the tree 
either from the root or above ground. While the precise 
progress of the disease is not yet fully understood, there seems 
no doubt, that other cau.;es predispose the tree for the attack 
of the fungus ; a dying or dead root, or the stump of a broken 
branch give usually entrance to the mycelium of the fungus. 
Unfortunately, neither the beginning nor the progress of the 
deterioration, which is the consequence of the fungus growth, 
is readily observed, since the tree, attacked only in the old, 
inactive wood, shows no outward sign of interior disease in its 
general appearance, and the fungus may do its destructive 
work for years without fruiting, by which alone it makes its 
existence apparent externally. Whenever a fungus (fruiting) 
appears on the stem, especially on the scar or stump of a 
broken branch, or near the foot of the tree, it is usually the 
sign of a heart-rotten tree. This disease is often the conse- 
cpience of injudicious pruning of older trees, and should induce 
a more careful use of the pruning knife ; shallow soil with 
hard-pan subsoil, especially it subject to overflow, is also con- 
ducive to this disease and necessitates earlier utilization of the 
timber to avoid loss. B. E. F. 

Recent Publications. 

Gleanings in Old Garden Literature, by W. Carew Hazlitt. 
New York : George J. Coombes, 1887. Reprinted from the 
English Edition. 

This book on Old English Gardens is a charming new 
volume — one of that charming series called The Book Lover s 
Library, which is issued in England, but also in New York, by 
Mr. George J. Coombes. 

It is a small volume, written in a bright and unpedantic style, 
yet the amount of curious information it contains is immense. 
Early herbals and physic gardens, kitchen, window and cot- 
tage gardens, and orchards are described, together with meth- 
ods of bee-keeping and wine-keeping. The herbs and vege- 
tables, the flowers'and trees which the Englishman of former 
generations loved, are named. Bacon as a gardener has a 
chapter to himself. The way in which Bacon and Shakespeare 
spoke of the Strawberry forms the text for a delightful little es- 
say. Elizabethan gardening, the French and Dutch schools, 
Evelyn and his " Sylva," Walpole and the gardeners of the 
eighteenth century — all these are successively discussed by the 
aid of numberless citations from rare and cpiaint publications; 
and, in short, nothing which relates to the craft of gardening 
or the love of flower's and plants in the olden time has been 
overlooked by this industrious yet lively author. The wide ex- 
tent of his acquaintance with the by-paths of literature is 
proved on every page, and a valluable bibliography of English 
works on gardening published between 1603 and 1800 brings 
his volume to a close. As an appendix he adds, moreover, 
a reprint of Gibson's "Account of the Gardens in and round 
London," which was written in 1691. 

It should be explained that Mr. Hazlitt's book contains small 
reference to gardening as an art in the wider sense— to what 
we call to-day Landscape Gardening. Individual plants and 
the methods of cultivating them are his concern, and the old 
books which would be most useful to the landscape gardener 
have no place in his lists. But within its own field his book 
seems complete, and it should find a place on the shelves of 
every horticulturist who has a soul for the history and litera- 
ture of his favorite recreation and an eye for a pretty volume. 

Flora Peoriana. The Vegetation in the Climate of Middle 
////^ow, by Frederick Brendel ; pp. 1-89; Peoria, 1887. 

We cannot do more than call attention to this interesting 
paper, the result of thirty-five years' study of the vegetation of 
a small area of about thirty-five square liiiles, by an excellent 
botanist and observer of n.iture, who explains in his preface 
that " it is intended to show how local floras should he treated 
to be useful to phvtoseography ; how notice should he taken 
of soil and climate to understand the vegetation of a certain 



24 



Garden and Forest. 



[March 7, 18S8, 



floral district." The hope that the author expresses that tliis 
publication will lead to similar studies in other parts of the 
country will be shared l)v all students of geographical botany. 

Shade and Ornamental Trees Suitable far Cultivation in 
Queens Co., N. Y., by William Falconer. Reprinted from the 
Annual Report of the Queens County Agricultural Society, 
1887 ; pp. 21. 

This is not, as ijiiglit have been expected from the title, a 
mere list of trees hardy on Long Island, liut a carefully pre- 
pared essay on ornamental and street planting, with suggestions 
of the best trees to be used in different situations and for 
different ]iurposes and with many sensible cultural direc- 
tions which planters will find useful. It is pleasant to note 
that Mr, Falconer is a firm believer in the ornamental value of 
our native trees. 

Trees of I^cadin^', Jl/ass. Part I. ; bv F. H. Gilson ; Read- 
ing, 1 888.' 

Mr. Gilson has had the happy idea of photographing and 
collecting historical information and valuable statistics in 
regard to the most remarkable trees growing near his home, 
and the still happier idea of allowing the pul:)!ic to share in the 
results of these studies. Part I. of this work now published 
contains beautiful heliotype portraits of five trees with 
accompanying letter-press. The Sassafras No. 2, with a trunk 
girth at the ground of loft. 3in., will probably prove to be the 
finestspecimen in the NorthernStates, and No. 4, the "Nehemiah 
Bancroft Elm," is as noble a specimen of the American 
Elm as is often seen. Very fine, too, are a second Elm and 
a wide-branching White Oak. The cultivated cut leaved weep- 
ing European Birch, which completes this first series, seems 
out of place in this company, and such a work might more 
wisely be devoted to native trees. Of these there are still many 
noble specimens left in different parts of New England, and 
Mr. Gilson will confer a real benefit upon all tree lovers if he 
will extend the field of his studies to other parts of the 
country. 

Public Works. 

Tree Planting on Boston Harbor. — An interesting report has 
lately been made by Mr. Frederick Law Olmsted to tlie Com- 
missioners of the Boston Department of Parks on the subject 
of planting the islands and headlands of the Harbor. The 
shores and islands are characterized by great variety of form, 
and they are picturescjuely disposed, making intricate straits 
and vistas opening towards the ocean. One drawback to 
the attractions of the Harbor is the bleak aspect of the bluffs 
and islands, and it is plain that if tliey were wooded or clothed 
with foliage or verdure of any kind the scenery would be 
much more agreeable. On even the most exposed and rocky 
of these islands stumps remain to prove that they were once 
tree-clad, but since they have been cleared, a second growth 
has been prevented by pasturing animals. Deprived of forest 
protection the land has been losing fertility, as it has been 
exposed to the winds and salt spray, and the Harlior is 
every year being despoiled more and more of its original 
beauty. It is thought that if trees of the species which for- 
merly flourished here were planted with suital>le undergrowth 
they might help each other to endure the hardships of the 
place. In a very few years these young plantations would 
give a pleasing softness to the elements of the scenery which 
do not contribute to its picturesque ruggedness. When the 
plantations have attained a full-grown forest character the 
broad masses of foliage will lift the skylines of shores and 
islands, add to their variety of tint, antl deepen their shadows. 
Of course such trees as are usually planted in lawns, parks and 
cemeteries could not be used successfully, Ijut Mr. Robert 
Douglas, who has had a wide experience in planting trees 
under trying conditions, and who has studied tlie Massachu- 
setts coast plantations made by Mr. Joseph S. Fay and others, 
has faith in the project and offers to take a contract to carry it 
out. Mr. Douglas will engage to plant the entire area, 
some 400 acres in extent; to care for the trees until they are 
well established, in thrifty condition and shading the ground 
completely, so that they will need no further cultivation. Pay- 
mentis to be made in installments, the lastone, sixteen percent, 
of the whole amount, due only when 800,000 trees are certified 
by qualified agents appointed liy the Park Department to have 
been found on the ground well rooted and thrifty. By the 
terms of such a contract the young trees would have the care 
of one of the most successful ]ilanters in the country during 
the most critical period of their history, and the risk to the city 
would be reduced to its lowest terms. It is diought that $5,000 



a year, for six years, to be used at the discretion of the Park 
Department, wciuld be sufficient to insure a substantial success. 



Flower Market. 

New Yokk, /Uai-Ji 2d, iSSS. 

There is a decline in the price of flowers, excepting in a few sorts 
which appear unusually well grown. Weigela is the novelty of the 
week, it having been forced by a New Jersey plantsnian. It sells for 
25 cts. alongs])ike, and is highly esteemed by decorators. IIyl>rid 
Roses are plentiful, but their average quality is not satisfactory. The 
choicest are soldfor$l each. Baroness Rothschild and Maijelilorrison 
have appeared. Selected American Beauties are also $1. The favorite 
Gloire de Dijon Rose arrives in limited quantity and sells for i;o cts. a 
flower. Puritan Roses sell for 50 and 75 cts., and La France from 25 
to 50 cts., according to quality. Perle des Jardins, Niphetos and Sou- 
venir d'un Ami are down (o 81.25 a dozen, and Brides bring 20 and 
25 cts. a flower. Marechal Niel Roses are to be had for from 25 to 
50 cts., the latter priced ones including a bud. Acacia has never been 
so plentiful and low-priced. It brings one-third less than it did last 
season. A good-sized branch may be had for Si, and 25 cts. will buy 
what is termed "a spray." Carnations are selling for 50 cts. a dozen, 
excepting such varieties as Grace Wilder, Buttercup, Dawn and Harri- 
son, which, when long-stemmed, sell for 75 cts. a dozen. Spikes of 
Mignonette, very large and beautiful, bring 35 cts. each, and smaller 
spikes cost from 10 to 25 ct.s. Callas are 30 cts. each, and Longiflorum 
Lilies from 40 to 50 cts. Liliiini Candidiim has just appeared, and sells 
for $2. 50 and S3. 50 a dozen. A single stalk with two flowers and a bud 
sells for 50 cts. Vf )lets cost from 75 cts. to $2 a hundred. The latter 
is the fancy price for tliose fresh-picked and brought in at certain 
hours daily. French Marguerites are of two qualities, those small, 
with fragile stems, which cost 25 cts. a dt)zen, and those of twice the 
size, on Arm long stems, which bring 50 cts. a dozen. Double Tulips 
are in more active demand than other varieties. Tulips remain as 
last quoted, as do other flowers not mentioned above. Asparagus 
plitinosits is used more freely than e\'er bi^fore because in greater sup- 
ply. A. teniiissinins has somewhat given way to the former variety 
in popularity. For yard lengths A. pluinosus costs $1, and A. tcmnssi- 
tniis from 60 to 70 cts. Smilax brings 40 cts. a string. The cut flower 
trade has been active since the second wc^k in Lent, Jev/ish weddings, 
dinners and luncheons having kept busi,iess stirring. Orchids are in 
steady request for table decoration. They do not fluctuate in price. 
They are to be ordered from all the first-class florists, but a variety is 
only kept on hand by those who have growing collections. Prices 
range from 50 cts. to %\ a flower, and for sprays from §2 to $5, 

Pitii.ADELrHiA, Mlarch 2d. 

The demand for flowers the past week has been fair, for the 
Lenten seas(jn. Jacqueminot Roses are more plentiful, prices ranging 
from $3 to $5 per doz. Mrs. John Laing is becoming more abundant, 
selling at the same price as Jacqueminots. Anna de Diesbach and 
Magna Charta may be had in limited quantities at from $4 to $6 per 
doz., but these darker shades of pink are not so popular in this city as 
the more delicate tints, like those of Madame Gabriel Luizet or Sirs. 
John Laing. American Beauty is preferred, when the darker colored 
sorts are reqm'red. Asparagus taiuissiutus is not jjopular here. This 
is difficult to understand, because it is so delicate and lasts so long for 
room decoration. For festooning about mirrors few plants are more 
effective. Gardenias may be had in limited quantities at 25c. each. 
Marguerites and English Daisies are in fair demand at 25c. per doz. 
Perles have been overdone this season. Sunsets are more popular. 



Boston, Manli 2d. 

The weather has been wintry during the week and while it continues 
cold there will be little change in the prices of cut flowers. Some 
varieties of Roses, especially La France and Catheiine Mermef, have 
been really scarce, an unusual feature of the market at this season. 
Vi<jlets are abundant and consequently cheap. Pansies are also be- 
coming more plenty and the ipiality was never better. Long stem- 
med Carnations have seldom been seen here in such perfection and 
variety as at the present time. They are gaining rapidly in popularity, 
for buyers are beginning to appreciate them and are learning that there 
are few varieties of flowers which will keep so long in a warm room. 
Its own foliage is of course the best setting for the Carnation. Daf- 
fodils, Tulips and Lilies-of-the-Valley arc still offered in large quan- 
tities. Great vases of Callas and Li'lium Harrisii make a grand dis- 
play in all the florists' windows and are a reminder that Easter will 
soon be upon us. Spiraea and Deutzia, which are always grown largely 
for Easter, are also beginning to come in in moderate quantities. The 
best Jacqueminots and Hybrids can be had now at from $4 to $6 per 
doz. La France, Catherine Mcrniets and Marechal Niels at Sj. Perles 
des Jardins and Niphetos at $1.50 and the small Teas at 75c. per doz. 
Hyacinths and Tulips cost75e-, and Lily-of-the-Valley and Trumpet 
Narcissus $1 per doz. For tuiest long-stemmed Carnations 75c. per 
doz. is asked, while Pansies, Mignonette, Calendulas, etc., can be had 
at 50c. per doz. Callas bring 15c. to 2e;c. and Harris's Lilies 35c. each. 
A flue l)OX of choice Orchids with a slight sprinkling of Maiden-hair 
Ferns, Asparagus and a few dainty sprays of Heath, makes a superb 
gift and costs from $25.00 to $50.00. 



March 14, i888.] 



Garden and Forest. 



25 



GARDEN AND FOREST. 

PUBLISHED WEEKLY IIV 

THE GARDEN AND FOREST PUBLISHING CO. 

[ LIMITED.] 

Ofpice : Tribune Building, New York. 
Conducted l)v Professor C. S. Sargent. 



ENTERED AS SECOND-CLASS MATTER AT THE POST OFFICE AT NEW YORK, N. Y. 



NEW YORK, WEDNESDAY, MARCH 14, 18 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Editorial Articles : — The Future of our Forests. Hai-dy Rliododcndrons. Sir 
Joseph Hooker Tribute to Asa Gray 

Laws alone Cannot Save our Forests J . B. Harrison. 

Landscape Gardcnine, III lilvs. Scliitylcr I 'ait Rensselaer. 

The Suburbs in Marcli Charles Eliot, 

California Christmas Flor^ C. L. Anderson^ M.D. 

Foreign Correspondence :— London Letter U'llliaiii Goltiring. 

Palms for House Decoration Robert Craig. 

A View in Central Park (vyith illustration) ''. . 

Plant Notes : — Lilium Parryi. A New Mornine Glorv. Some Hardy Wild 
Flowers. ■ Phajus fuberculosus. New Vegeta&les 

Aquilegia longissima (with tigure) Serena IFaison. 

A Weeping Beech (with illustration) 

Cultural Notes : — Chrysanthemums. Asparagus plumosus. Chamaecyperis- 
sus obtusa. Magnolias. Covering Bulbs 

Streptosolen Jamesonii. Mulching Shrubbery Beds ll'm. Falconer. 

Grapes for Home Use E. IVilliavts. 

The Forest:— The Hardwood Forests of the South Karl Mohr. 

Acacia decurrens 

Rf.cent Publications : — Manuel de rAccliinateur. A Manual of Orchidaceous 

Plants- Handbiich der Coniferen 

Recent Plant Portraits 

Public Works : — A Park for I^isboii 

Flower Market : — New York — Philadelphia — Boston 

Illustrations : — .\ View in Central Park 

Aquilegia longissima, drawn by C. F.. Faxon 

A Weeping Beech 



The Future of Our Forests. 

THE forests of the United States play an important part 
in the economy of the nation. Their annual pro- 
duct far exceeds in value any of our great staple crops of 
the field. The gold and silver mined in the country is 
insignificant in value compared vv^ith the money value of 
the forest crop. It is difficult to picture the commercial 
and agricultural ruin which would follow any general dis- 
turbance of the productive capacity of our forests. No other 
country could supply us with the material we should thus 
lose, and we should lose, too, something more important 
even than the material they yield. Forests are often much 
more than storelrouses of growing timber They are essen- 
tial in some parts of the country to insure the integrity of 
mountain slopes and the preservation of important rivers : 
and the destruction of mountain forests is invariably fol- 
lowed sooner or- later by serious physical calamities. 

The forests of this country are rich, varied and extensive. 
They still contain vast stores of many valuable timbers. 
In some of the most important forests serious inroads, to be 
sure, have already been made, and the practical extermina- 
tion, from a commercial point of view, of some of our most 
valuable timber trees, now seems inevitable. Much of our 
country nevertheless is perfectly suited in soil and climate 
to rapid and ^'igorous tree-growth. The forests which once 
extended in an unbrnlien sweep from the Atlantic to be- 
yond the Mississippi and which still cover the great 
mountain ranges facing the Pacific, clearly show the ca- 
pacity of this country to produce forests unequaled in value 
by those of other parts of the world. It is only in the in- 
terior portions of the continent, insufficiently supplied with 
moisture, where the forests are scanty or altogether 
wanting, that their reproduction and extension offer any seri- 
ous difficulties. Everywhere outside the dry belt, forests 



can be grown and extended with ease and rapidity if the 
simplest laws of nature are observed. And there is land 
enough in the United States suitable in every respect for 
forest growth, but utterly unfit for agricultural use, to sup- 
ply with forest products any possible population this coun- 
try can contain. 

But in spite of these natural advantages, in spite of the 
variety and value of our forests, all thoughtful persons 
familiar with their present condition and the dangers 
which threaten them under existing social conditions, must 
be filled with apprehension at the almost inevitable de- 
struction of their productive capacity. 

Americans are still surprisingly ignorant in regard to 
their forests and the simplest laws which should govern their 
management. This indifference is astonishing. We cut 
recklessly and often needlessly ; and often fail to cut 
when cutting is essential. Fires are allowed to run un- 
checked year after year through the forest or to sweep over 
land upon which new forests would naturally appear. 
Cattle and other domestic animals range at will through 
the woods, injuring trees and exterminating seedlings. Our 
civilization and our foresight as shown in the care of our 
forests, is the civilization and the thrift of France two cen- 
turies ago. In no other civilized nation of the world are 
forests so recklessly managed. 

Americans are impatient of any restraint or interfer- 
ence in the management of their property. And yetunles.s 
American land-owners, like the land-owners of nearly every 
other civilized people — Great Britain now being the only 
important exception — are wiUing to submit to laws, regu- 
lating under proper official control the cutting of their 
forests and the use of their land for agriculture or forest, 
according to its quality, we must not expect to keep up our 
forest supplies. These supplies are still enormous, but no 
forests, whatever their extent or richness, are inexhaustible. 
As one of the wisest observers of all social problems and 
one familiar, too, with the requirements of the forest has 
pointed out in another column of this issue, the condition of 
public sentiment required to make a proper management 
of our forests possible, will develop slowly. Americans as a 
nation need instruction in the laws which govern forest 
growth and forest management. This lesson they will not 
learn readily or quickly, and it is probable that they will 
not learn it thoroughly until compelled to by dire necessity. 



Hardy Rhododendrons. 

THE cultivation of hardy Rhododendrons, especially 
varieties of the race which English gardeners have 
produced by crossing the American Rhododendroti Cafaw- 
biense with different Himalayan species with highly colored 
flowers, like R. arhoreum, has greatly increased in this 
country of late years. Many Americans, probably, first 
learned the beauty and value of these plants for orna- 
mental gardening at the Centennial Exhibition in Phila- 
delphia, "where an P^lnglish nurseryman displayed under 
canvas a large and well arranged collection of the best 
varieties. That we know so much about these plants here, 
and have learned which can and which cannot be success- 
fully grown in the United States, is very largely due, how- 
ever, to the experiments in Rhododendron culture long 
carried on by Mr. Hunniwell in his beautiful gardens at 
Wellesle)^ in Massachusetts. 

The cultivation of these Rhododendrons is very simple. 
They thrive best in deep peaty soil, and when placed so 
as to escape the stimulating influence of the warm sun ot 
eady spring. Impatient of drought. Rhododendrons in this 
country give the best results wdien planted in situations 
which never become thoroughly dry in summer, like the 
borders of ponds or swamps, or in which they can be 
freely and frequently watered ; and in order that they 
may bloom well they should not be placed under the 
immediate shade of overhanging trees. No plants are 



26 



Garden and Forest. 



[March 14, iSSS, 



more easily transplanted. The cultivation of Rhododen- 
drons, however, must always be restricted in the United 
States to a comparatively small area. A limestone soil is 
fatal to them. All attempts to introduce them west of the 
Hudson River have failed, therefore, and even along its 
eastern bank they have never grown satisfactorily. Morthof 
Massachusetts the ^^• inters are too cold, \\'hile south of 
Pennsylvania they cannot support the hot, dry summers of 
the seaboard region. They will probably succeed any- 
where in Pennsylvania east of the mountains; liut some day 
it will be found that lliey can be more successfully grown 
in the mountains of Virginia and the Carolinas, where 
summer droughts and excessive cold are unknown, than 
in other parts of the country. Here is the true home in 
America of broad leaved evergreens, and here sooner nr 
later will be seen a garden of these hybrid Rhododendrons, 
only surpassed in splendor by that natural garden where 
the native Rhododendrons spread in countless thousands 
over the upper slopes of the noble Roan Mountain. 

The question is often asked. Which varieties of these 
hybrids are hardy ? The following list embraces the 
best of those which have for man}' years proved perfectly 
hardy in the climate of eastern New England ; Everestia- 
num — with rosy lilac flowers — one of the oldest and 
freest blooming of the whole race, unequaled in habit 
and beauty of foliage ; Lady Armstrong, pale rose ; 
Charles Dickens, dark scarlet ; Album elegans and Album 
grandiflorum, pale blush ; Charles Bagley, bright red ; 
Delicatissimum, later in flowering than many of the others 
— the flowers blush, tinged with pink towards the margin of 
the petals ; King of the Purples, a free blooming variety 01 
good habit, with rather dark purple flowers ; H. W. Sargent, 
a very late bloomer with large trusses of crimson flowers, 
but rather defective in habit ; Roseum elegans, an old and 
long tried variety of excellent habit ; Purpureum grandi- 
florum ; Mrs. Milner, crimson ; Alexander Dancer, the 
flowers fine and large, rose, with a light centre, but the 
habit of the plant not good ; Hannibal, a late blooming 
variety with rose-colored flowers. 

There are other varieties no doubt which are hardy 
in Pennsylvania, or on Long Island where a great deal 
of attention has been given to the cultivation of these 
plants. 

Sir Joseph Hooker, of all his contemporaries, can speak 
with the greatest authority of the position of Asa Gray, in 
the hierarchy of botanists. The friendship of these two 
men, the one English the other American, extended over 
a period of fifty years. The sympathy which existed 
between them was ne^■er broken, and to no one else did 
the American botanist write so constantly or so freely. 
The following extract, therefore, from a sketch of our 
associate's life, by his English friend, printed in a recent 
number of Nature, is of peculiar interest : 

"When the history of the progress of botany during the 
nineteenth century shall be written, two names will hold high 
positions— those of Prufessor Augustin Pyrame De Candolle 
and of Professor Asa Gray. In niany respects the careers of 
these men were very similar, though they were neither fellow- 
countrymen nor were they conteiiipora'ries, for the one sank 
to his rest in the Old World as the other rose to eminence in 
the New. They were great teachers in great schools, prolific 
writers, and authors of the best elementary works on botany 
of their day. Each devoted half a century of unremitting la- 
liors to the investigation and description of the plants of conti- 
nental areas, and they founded herbaria and libraries, each in 
his own country, which have become permanent and quasi- 
national institutions. Nor were they unlike in personal quali- 
ties, for they were social and genial men, as active in aiding 
others as they were indefatigable in their own researches ; and 
both were admirable correspondents. Lastly, there is much 
in their lives and works that recalls the career of Linnaeus, of 
whom they were worthy disciples, in the comprehensiveness 
of their labors, the excellence of their methods, their judicious 
conception of the limits of genera and species, the terseness 
and accuracy of their descriptions, and the clearness of their 
scientific language." 



Laws Alone Cannot Save Our Forests. 

THE greatest obstacle in the way of a rational and 
practical treatment of the subjects and interests con- 
nected with Forestry in this country is the lack of thought 
among our people. There are reasons for this want of 
thought, and it is well to understand the facts of Ihe exist- 
ing condition of things. ]\Iost Americans are busy in 
making a living, and their energies are entirely applied 
and absorbed in business pursuits, so that they have no 
force or energy which remains unemployed, or which can 
be spared from the occupations which already engage their 
powers. There are many other persons who ha^ e not 
been taught or trained to think on any subject. They 
have no ability to represent to themselves, by the picture- 
making power of the imagination, any subject which has 
the least comjjlexity, or any scheme of facts and of their 
relations to each other. They cannot consider such a sub- 
ject, cannot compare or classify tacts, or draw inferences 
from them. This want of the ]iower of thought is one of 
the chief hindrances to o\\\ advancement in civilization. 

The only constituency to which we can at first directly 
appeal in the effort for an intelligent treatment qf Forestry 
subjects, is the class of men and women who have some 
power of thought, and whose personal force is not already 
wholly employed in affairs. They have some ability to 
direct their faculties to new topics, and have enough pub- 
lic spirit, or regard for the general welfare, to incline them 
to give attention to whatever can be show n to have vital 
relations to the interests of the community or of the nation. 
In order to reach this class of persons there must be a 
clear, vital, coherent, systematic and cf)ntinuous presenta- 
tion of the facts and essential relations of the subject in 
hand, with such variety of illustration, application and re- 
currence to the original central object and purpose as shall, 
produce in the minds of readers a \W\A and abiding im- 
pression and conviction of the true nature and importance 
of the doctrines which arc to be inculcated, and of the 
practical objects which such teaching is intended to pro- 
mote or secure. A vital, intelligent, comprehensive and 
iterant treatment of the subject of Forestry, and of the in- 
terests connected with it, is greatly need-ed. 

Such treatment as this topic has hitherto received in this 
country has been mostly fragmentary, incoherent and 
vague. As it is usually handled the whole matter is too 
much "in the air." There is a good deal of hammering 
upon the importance of the general subject, without suf- 
ficient observation and comparison of concrete facts and 
conditions here in America. The study of European 
methods and results in Forestry by competent men is, of 
course, highly valuable, but it is not enough. It is not 
even the most important thing for us. Nothing can be 
\^ery useful to us which is not based u])on careful study of 
the facts and conditions which are peculiar to this country. 
We should have in time a system of American Forestry — 
we must have it, indeed, if we are to a\-oid serious disas- 
ters to our national interests and civilization. We cannot 
import and adopt ready-made European systems or meth- 
ods. The Forestry of this country must be the product of 
growth which has, as yet, scarcely begun. It will be de- 
\-eloped by continued and widespread observation, and by 
constant comparison of the results of practice. It is neces- 
sary to remind ourselves that no useful system of Forest 
management can be originated or created b)' legislative 
enactment. There must be considerable special knowl- 
edge, and considerable national good sense regarding the 
needs of this country, behind Forestry laws, or they will 
be not only useless but mischievous. 

The work required to effect any considerable actual ad- 
vance in Forestry in this country must be long and ditifi- 
cult. Such objects can be attained only by the development 
of such intelligence, thought and sentiment, in a considera- 
ble proportion of our population, as shall secure a sensible 
and practical treatment, in individual and collective action, 
of the whole matter of the relations of Forests and Trees to 



March 14, tSS8.] 



Garden and Forest. 



27 



human life and welfare. Whatever tends to a better un- 
derstanding- or appreciation of the value of Trees in their 
economic, sanitary or sesthetic uses and influences, will 
help toward the attainment of these objects. 

y. B. Harrison. 

Landscape Gardening. — III. 

THE landscape gardener, we have seen, has a great 
advantage over other artists in that Nature is his 
helper as well as his teacher. His work is the same in 
substance as her own, which means that it includes in 
equal measure the charms of color and of form, of atmo- 
sphere and of light. It is alive, and so there lie within it 
possibilities of infinite variation with their sequence of 
ever new delights for eye and mind. And it may be as 
perfect in execution as in general effect, for Nature will 
give all those finishing touches which are impossible to 
the hand of man. 

But does not this partnership with Nature liepri^'e the 
artist of that most essential of all opportunities — the 
chance for self-expression } Art, after all, is not imitation 
but creation ; and creation implies the exercise of the indi- 
vidual will, the revelation of the personal thought. Some- 
times the artist begins within himself, sets his own ideal 
and finds his own conception, taking from Nature only his 
brute materials. The architect takes stones from her and 
the musician takes sounds ; but she suggests no houses or 
cathedrals, no symphonies r)r chorals — scarcely so much 
as a shelter for the human bod)^, scarcely more than hints 
of melodies and harmonies. At other times nature furnishes 
ideals and patterns but not the methods by which they 
must be transmuted into different materials. She shows 
us what the beauty of woman ought to be, but we must 
find out for ourselves how to paint it on flat canvas, 
how to reproduce its vitality and charm in colorless marble. 
Not in the one case more than in the other — not in the arts 
of representation more than in those of construction — can 
the artist copy. He must always interpret. To interpret 
means that he must invent ; to invent means that he must 
use his mind ; and, in truth, it is simply in using his mind 
that he gets the chance to be an artist. The less the 
beauty of his work depends upon mere imitative efforts, the 
more it depends upon qualities for which he is himself re- 
sponsible — upon expression— the higher may be its rank as 
a work of art; and the more personal is the quality of its ex- 
pression — the more unlike it is to the expression which other 
men have put into their works — the higher is his rank as 
an artist. Now it will be the expression of emotion, told 
through human forms and faces in moods of supreme in- 
tensity, moral, intellectual or physical. Now it will be the 
expression of a feeling for certain peculiar moods and 
effects of inanimate nature, or of a delight in some par- 
ticular combination of colors or some especial kind of form; 
and again, the expression of a craftsman's pleasure in the 
mere problem : How can this richness of brocade, this 
sheen of marble, this softness of hair or cheek, be most per- 
fectly translated into paint It matters not what a man 
shows us as having been present in his heart while his brush 
was at work ; — so long as he shows us something that 
was there, he is an artist. If he could make a literal, im- 
personal copy from nature it would not be worth the form 
it imitates. The only value it could have would be his- 
torical, not artistic — would be a permanent record of the 
perishable model. To make his work worth while as art, 
the artist must even the balance b)' putting himself into 
the scale. 

If the landscape gardener were indeed denied the chance 
to do this he would merely lie a more or less skillful 
artisan. But he is not denied it. In fact he cannot escape 
if he would from the necessity to use or abuse his oppor- 
tunities for self-expression. It is no truer to say of him 
than of the painter or the sculptor that he copies nature. 
Though they simply work after her and he works in and 
with her, his aim is the same as theirs — to re-unite her 



scattered excellences. Theoretically he could copy her in 
a very wide sense of the word ; but practically he can 
copy little more than her minor details and her exquisite 
ihiish of execution. Composition of one sort or another is 
the chief thing in art. and the landscape gardener's compo- 
sitions are and must be his own. Through them he may 
express his own ideals, and through them he may reveal him- 
self either as having or as not having clear ideals, either as 
knowing or as not knowing how they may be realized. If he 
is Nature's pupil he is also her master. "Nature," writes 
Aristotle, ''has the will but not the power to realize per- 
fection." Turn the phrase the other way and it is just as 
true : '• She has the power but not the will." In either 
reading it means that the man can aid and supplement 
Nature's work. He can bend her will in many ways to 
his though he must have learned from her how to do it. 
He cannot achieve anything to which her power is un- 
equal, but he can liberate, assist and direct that power. He 
could even remo\'e her mountains if the result were worth 
the effort ; and he can blot them out of his landscape b}' 
the simplest of devices — by a cluni]) of trees and shrubs 
which she will grow for him as cheerfully as though the)' 
were to hide some deformity of his own creation. He 
cannot make great rivers ; but he can make lakes from 
rivulets and cause water to dominate in a view where she 
had meant green grass to rule. And he can even teach her 
tn ])erfect details of decoration for whose beauty scarcely 
a liint is found in her unassisted Avork. All "florist's 
roses, " for example, are not productions to be proud of; 
but there are some in which, sterile though they be, Nature 
herself may grudge man's skill its part. 

M. G. van Rensselaer. 



The Suburbs in March. 

T N the suliurljtm districts of our Northern cities this is the 
-'• most dreary season of the year. The snow is gone oi' re- 
mams onl}' in patches, the grass is dead and colorless, the 
houses in their forsaken inclosures seem to shiver — all is 
dishevelment and nakedness for a whole month at least. In 
tlie close-lmilt city there is no such unhappy state of filings. 
In the open country even March has its lieauty. Wiiat is the 
cause of the repulsiveness of the lialf-way region at this sea- 
son and wliat is the remedy ? 

f^lainlv we cannot tlirow the blame u])on the severity orfickle- 
ness of ou r Northern cli mate, for how then could the country-side 
have any beauty about it at this time ? The cause lies rather witli 
oiu^selves, who ha\'e built streets and houses througii the fields 
and woodlands, have in this way destroyed the original lieautv 
of the land, and have as yet done little or nothing to win back 
what we mav of it. In these fields and pastures grew a great 
\-ariety of trees, slirulis and herbs, many of which attained 
their perfection i>n]\' in summer, while others were especially 
sticking in winter. OI the former our pufilic and private 
grounds hold far too few — our sins of omission are surpris- 
ing^ — l)iit of the latter almost none. Where can be seen plant- 
ed about homes the richlv-colored Red Cedar, or prostrate 
Juniper, or Mountain Laurel, or Bayberry with its clustered 
gray fruits, or red-twigged Wild Roses, or yet redder Cornels, 
or golden-barked Willows ? How seldom appear White 
Birches or anv of the American Firs and Spruces ! Where do 
any of the trailing evergreens cover the ground at the edges of 
shrubberies ? 'Where are the houses which have bushes 
crowded about their bays and corners, as the wild bushes 
crowd the field walls, till they seem to be fairly grown to the 
ground ? Where is any sug-g"estion of those thickets of 
mingled twigs and evergreen which so adorn the pastures even 
in March? Speaking generally, we have reduced our hits of 
t;round to mere planes of shaven grass, from whicli the house 
walls rise stiff and unclothed. We expiMid thousands of dol- 
lars upon the shell of our abode, and indefinite sums upon its 
interior appointments and decorations; but outside we gvii- 
erallv leave it all bare and unbeautiful, and spend only tor the 
gaudy lirightness of Geraniums in summer. No wonder 
March is ug1v in the suburbs ! 

The reniedy, then, is the planting of appropriate and nu- 
merous shrubs and small trees. Beware of the " choice sjieci- 
meiis," manv of which will need to be protected by boai'ds or 
straw during five months of the year, and avoitl the common 
mistake of clothing the ground with single plants. This, at 



28 



Garden and Forest. 



[March 14, 1S8S. 



any rate, is not the way to make March door-yards less bleak. 
Rather may we spend the same money in planting mixed and 
somewhat crowded thickets, here of high and there of dwarf 
bushes, along the fences and close about the house. To clothe 
the nakedness of the ground and of the fences and buildings 
should be our aim. Large trees, such as our suburbs are 
sometimes full of, cannot do this, neither can scattered speci- 
niens of smaller sorts, neither can sparse, stalky shrubberies ; 
we must set our bushes thickly, so as to hide the dirt beneath 
them, and we must either carry the grass under them as far 
as possible or else cover the bare earth with trailing plants. 
This done, our yards and grounds will appear well furnished 
and sheltered, and no coming March will ever chill us as this 
present month has done. iVIoreover, when summer comes, 
we shall find we have e.xchanged our Geraniums for banks of 
foliage set with a succession of flowers which are much more 
interesting and will bloom season after season. Where house- 
lots are small and it is desired to spend a comparatively small 
amount on each, the neighbors could form clubs and secure 
plants at wholesale rates; but under any circumstances the 
cost of such planting is liy no means so great as to excuse us 
from attempting it. 

Boston, March, 1888. C/ldr/i'S tJlot. 



California Christmas Flora. 



A FTER twenty successive winters on the northern shore of 
-'^ Monterey Bay, Cal., 1 may claim the privilege of saying 
something about our Christmas flora. 

The winter season of this region is not so clearly defined as 
in more northern latitudes. The leaves of our deciduous trees 
forget to loosen and fall, and almost imagine themselves 
evergreen. And indeed some of them have carried their 
imaginings so far as to retain, ofttimes, the old leaves until the 
new ones are fully grown. 

At Christmas time, however. Nature has called a halt. Some 
of the spring buds that were caught in the dry season, which 
begins about the middle of June, have expanded with om- fall 
showers and have bloomed regardless of the season, so that 
at the close of the year there is often a profusion of many kinds 
of flowers — wild as well as cultivated. They are the arrear- 
ages of the past season, and not the beginning of the coming- 
year. 

Some years ago the editor of a horticultural journal request- 
ed me to make a list of wild flowers in bloom on January ist. 
I found about forty species. Since that time I have noticed 
that a majority of our native plants are liable to bloom at that 
season ; first, from delayed buds on account of the dry sea- 
son, and second, from premature spring buds forced out by 
thewarm early rains and the mildness of the season. This is fre- 
quently noticed in Pear and Apple trees — they being strang-ers 
to our climate, seem to lose their reckoning and send forth 
flowers out of the proper season — although such a phenome- 
non occurs at times in more northern regions and away from 
the sea coast. 

.So many, then, of our plants, both native and introduced, 
may be found blooming at Christmas-time, that a list would be 
very long. In fact, there are but few which niiglit not be found 
in bloom in favorable years and localities. 

Consequently we have at Christmas, and later. Strawberries, 
Raspberries and sometimes other small berries. Grapes grow 
and ripen until that time ; Tomatoes likewise. Most of the table- 
vegetaliles are young and tender even throughout the entire 
winter. Some tropical trees, and those brought from south of 
the equator, take on an active growth. And even early in 
January some of our indigenous plants send forth their flow- 
ers, especially those in warm, sheltered places, such as the 
Willows, Alders and Hazel. One Willow {Sa/ix flavescens) is 
quite a surprise in' January, when the trees, bearing staminate 
flowers, are usually out in full glow, like beautiful yellowish- 
white clouds, on the brushy mountain sides. A Lily (Scoliopus 
Bigelovii) to be found in bloom must be sought in January ; 
and many times have 1 wondered where and when the flower 
might be found, until I discovered it thus eariy in the season 
and before its beautifully spotted leaves were fairly expanded. 
The growth of our marine flora is similar to that of our land 
plants at Christmas-time. If storms have not raged severely 
we flnd many nice specimens of young plants in vigorous life 
and maturing fruit. And the "moss-gatherer" is "often well 
repaid by the collections made at this season. The tempera- 
ture of the sea is not much below that of sinnmer ; and but 
for the storms, vegetable lite in ourliay would continue almost 
uninterruptedly all the year. 

A little further along and the accounts for the past year 



are all balanced, and new leaves are opened for the new 
year. This change takes place at February ist. That is our 
true beginning of spring. As the days grow longer the heat of 
the sun is stored in the flelds and mountain sides, to be ra- 
diated during the clear nights, and the growth of vegetation 
advances slowly but surely to its culmination in May and June. 
The opening of spring flrjwers, however, is not as rapid as in 
the Northern States. With our cool nights and not very warm 
days, they come forth coyly, until quite sure that the earth has 
passed the tossings of Taurus and the stings of Scorpio. Then 
in May the lingering, bashful, yet beautiful flowers that slept 
over the Christmas-time, gladden the hearts of all lovers of 
these, the most lovely of Nature's gifts. 
Santa Cruz, Cal. C. L. Audersoii, M.D. 



Foreign Correspondence. 



.^oiKlon 



Letter. 



Our flower markets make just now a beautiful display with 
forced flowering bulbs especially. Every market-garden around 
London is a flower show in itself. I went through one of the 
largest yesterday. I was astonished at the brilliant scene. 
One house a hundred yards long was filled with nothing but 
Tulips, mostly single sorts, the favorites being scarlet, yellow- 
edged, Due Van Thol, also the white, rose and yellow Van Thol. 
These make up the bulk, and of double sorts which are not 
popular in the market, the leading varieties in this nursery 
were the Tournesols, scarlet and yellow. To give some idea 
of the Tulip trade alone I may mention that one grower 
forces nearly 200,000 bulbs. They are packed in shallow 
boxes as closely as they can be laid and covered with light soil. 
When the buds are ready to burst the bulbs are either potted 
four or five together, with ferns, or the flowers are cut and sent 
to market. Another house was filled with Lilies-of-the-Valley 
also in flat boxes, the finest German crowns be'ng preferred to 
English, as they throw longer spikes. The best strain of the 
flower in the market is the Victoria, which is controlled by a 
grower in the Thames Valley, where this particular sort grows to 
a great size. The spike is longer, the bells larger and the foliage 
more robust than in the common kind. Throughout the 
winter till Lilies-of-the-Valley flower outside, a lucrative trade 
is done in London with these flowers, which are/ar excellence 
the favorite for button-hole bouquets. In this same nursery I 
remarked the great abundance of the old white Azalea, repre- 
sented by old plants that had done duty for-yearsand had been 
liacked every year to the bare stem. Of course the plants 
were unsightly, but they were part of the working capital of 
the concern and yielded abundant and profitable blooms. 

Yourianious Lillu//i I/arrisii, or, as it is commonly called here, 
the Bermuda Lily or Easter Lily, is becoming very popular 
among the market people. They cannot, however, get 
enougli of it at their price. A ship load of bulbs could easily 
find sale about our London market-gardens. I saw a grower 
the other day who makes a specialty of L. longiflorum, of 
which L. Harrisii is, of course, only a more floriferous and 
dwarier variety, and of Calla -Ethiopica (Nile Lily we call it), 
expressly forCovent Garden market on Eastereve, April ist. He 
grows thousands of each and this represents much capital. His 
aim is to get them in flower on March 31st to the day. He does 
not want to be made an April-fool, so he has to watch the ba- 
rometer. Last week was Italian weather — sunny and warm — 
and he had to put the temperature down ; this week is Labra- 
dor weather, with frost and snow ; he must put it up again or 
his blooms will not open when wanted. His struggles with 
our climate are rather comical to the looker-on, but the matter 
is a serious one to him from a business point of view. 

The Orcfiid men are just now sharply watching their flowers, 
especially those on imported plants that have not yet bloomed 
in this country. They anxiously await the opening of every 
spike, for often a plant bought for a crown at auction, by a 
.peculiar arrangement of its flower spots or a deepening of its 
color bevond the ordinary, will bring ^50. Some time ago 
it was said that Orchids were declining in popular favor, but 
the contrary is the case. New buyers may be seen at the auc- 
tions, men who never grew any plant in their green-houses 
rarer than a Scarlet Pelargonium, and they are turning out 
everything to give place to the popular favorites. This ex- 
plains how such enormous Orchid establishments as those of 
\'eitch, Sander, Bull, and Williams are kept going. But not only 
are the growers paving increased attention to Orchids, but 
botanists are influenced by the fashion (I was going to say 
craze). At Kew one of the assistants at the Royal Herbarium 
has been detailed specially tor the work, which, however, is 




From A Bronze Medallion BvA St Gaud ens, 

Garden and Forest Supflewent, March, Z"^"" !88£ 



March 14, iSSS.] 



Garden and Forest. 



29 



cliieHy that of correcting and checking the nonieuclature, and 
tripping up the veteran German prolessor, Dr. Reiclienljacli, 
who for a generation past has held tlie monopoly of naming 
Orcliids. One of our Orchid specialists attached to tlie St. Al- 
bans establishment has been taking notes in the Orchid collec- 
tions about New York and has printed them in the Gari/f/u'r's 
Cliroiiicle, the result being that our growers here do not now 
think that Americans are sucli infants in Orchid culture as 
was fancied. Some of yoiu" collections there described 
would, I imagine, take equal rank with tlie best in England. 

The Royal Horticultural Society held its periodical iiieetiiig 
of committees on the 14th inst. This will be nearly the last it 
will hold in the aristocratic quarter of South Kensington. The 
annual meeting held on that day decided that the society 
should vacate South Kensington as too costly to maintain, and 
a more modest home has been found for its offices, library, 
etc., further eastward. A stranger who could have seen the last 
meeting would liardly have thought the society in a mori- 
bund condition. The crowds of horticulturists constituting 
the committees, the profusion of flowers, choice and ordinary, 
and the plentiful collection of late apples, all tended to show 
how active horticulture is in this great centre, and that it is not 
for lack of interest or sympatliy that the national society 
is not the largest and most intfuential in Europe. 

The advent of spring was indicated on tfiis occasion by the 
large gathering of spring tiowers — Chinese Primulas, Cinerarias, 
Cyclamens, Camellias, forced Narcissus, and, of course, Orchitis. 
The Orchids new and rare, choiceand common, were plentiful. 
One of the niost remarkable was a new hybrid Dendrol>ium 
ip. Chrysodiscus),a. cross between another hvbrid, D.Ains-cUortlii 
and D. Findleyanum. The distinct features of each parent are 
plainly seen in the progeny, especially in the large jointed 
stems, and the shape of the Hower, which is as large as thtise of 
D. Findleyanum, with sepals and petals white, tipped with rose, 
and the shallow lip adorned with a broad blotch of yellow and 
ruddy crimson. Another Dendrobium certificated is consid- 
ered among the most remarkable of new orchids. It is called 
D. nobile Cooksoni, being a variety of that old species. The 
llowers are like those of the type in size and form, except that 
the two lateral or side petals are shaped and colored like the 
lip, each having a heavy blotch of the richest maroon-crimson 
bordered with white. It represents what botanists call an in- 
stance of " trilabellia," or thrice-lipped flowers. In other re- 
spects it does not differ from our old favorite. 

A certificate was well bestowed upon an e.xtraordinarily fine 
Lycaste Skinne?'i, named Lnpe?-ator,ivom Sander of St. Albans. 
The flower is very large, the sepals broad and thick, faintly 
tinted with pink, the petals of a glowing crimson, and the lip of 
an intensely deep ruby-crimson, variegated with pure white. 
In contrast with this, the same e.xhibitor showed an exception- 
ally fine form of the white Lycaste Skinneri. 

London, Feb. 25th. IVin. Gold>'ing. 



Palms for House Decoration. 

'X'HE species belonging to the natural order Palmer consti- 
■•■ tute a truly royal class of plants, justly entitled to Linnajus' 
designation, " Princes of the Vegetable Kingdom." They com- 
prise various types of beauty ; some of the stronger growing 
kinds (as Latania Borbonica) being of bold and striking outlines, 
the embodiment of sturdy grace; others having the lightness and 
elegance of the finer varieties of Ferns, as Cocos IVeddelliana, 
Geoiioma gracilis, and the like. The latter varieties are of 
miniature growth, and from their graceful and delicate forms 
are specially useful for table decoration, and form objects of 
the greatest beauty when standing alone on pedestals or small 
tables. The stronger growing a"nd taller kinds may be used 
to advantage standing on the floors of rooms and in the hall- 
ways, or grouped in front of mirrors or windows. The in- 
creasing use of Palms and other pot plants for decorative 
purposes in this country is an evidence of the growing taste 
of our people. Beauty of form is of a higher type than beauty 
of color, and the graceful outlines of a tastefully arranged 
group of Palms give a higher safisfaction than tlie immense 
lianks of cut flowers we sometimes see. Cut flowers, used with 
judgment, are always welcome, but they should not be 
crushed together, so that the individual forms are lost, and 
the only effect is a mass of color. There are now over eleven 
hundred recorded species of Palms. I shall name only a 
few of those best adapted for house decorafion. 

Latania Borbonica, a Fan Palm, is more largely used than 
any other, as it grows easily andis a plant of dignified expression. 
Areca lutescens is one of the most gi-aceful, tall growing species, 



with bright, glossy green foliage and rich golden yellow stems; 
it is now grown in very large quantities. ' Areca Vcrscha-ffeltii 
is not so often seen as the last named, Ijut it is very distinct 
and showy, with dark, shining green foliage with a dark band 
through the centre of each leaf. 

Kentia Canterburyana, the Umbrella Palm, in its native 
country attains a height of thirty-five teet, but is slow of growth 
under cultivation in green-houses, requiring seven or eight 
years to reach a height of five feet. It is valuable as a house 
plant on account of its tough and enduring (jualities. There 
are several varieties, of which A', aiistralis and K. Foster- 
iana are the best known. All are handsome, and capable of 
sustaining, without injury, as much neglect as any Palm in 
cultivation. Phoenix ritpicola is a plant of exquisite grace, the 
finest of its genus. Pha'nix sylvestris, the Wild Date, is of 
coarser growth than P. rupicola, but valuable for its distinct 
character and enduring qualities. Raphis fiabclliformis is a 
plant of erect gro\\'th, having the stems covered with coarse 
fibre ; a grand Palm for house cuiture, enduring either heat 
or cold and much neglect without injury. It is very distinct 
and handsome. Rapliis hitmilis resembles the last, but is 
more delicately graceful; one of the very finest Palms in 
cultivation. 

Ptycosperma Alexandrcr, flie Australian Feather Palm, is a 
quick, robust grower, inexpensive and useful. Although a 
native of the tropics, it will grow well in a temperature as low 
as 50°. Seafortliia elegans somewhat resembles this species; it 
is tall and graceful. Plants ten feet high and upwards are most 
effective, as they do not show to the best advantage when 
smaller. Cocos Weddelliana is the most elegant of the smaller 
Palms, with finely divided foliage, recurved with excjuisite 
grace. Small plants are unexcelled for dinner table decoration. 
Geonoina gracilis is very similar to C. Weddelliana, with 
somewhat coarser foliage, but of the same graceful habit. It 
should not be grown in the house for more than a few days, 
as it requires an atmosphere more moist than can be given it 
outside of the hot-house. Prichardia grandis is dwarf and of 
slow growth, a native of the South Sea Islands, with leaves 
about two feet long and three feet broad. It is rare and beautiful. 
Maximilliana regia is not very plentiful yet, but is destined 
to gi"Ow in favor, being quite distinct and striking in appear- 
ance. It is of easy culture and one of tlie hardiest and thrifti- 
est Palms under neglect. Oreodoxia regia, the Royal Palm, is a 
native of the West Indies and tropical America and a prime 
favorite. Tall, slender and stately, it is most effective when 
used in a group of lower growing species. 

All the above, except Phcenix ritpicola, Seafortliia elegans, 
Cocos Weddelliana, Geonoina gracilis, Pri'chardia grandis and 
Oreodoxia regia may be successfully grown in the house all 
winter if the following rules are observed : Pot them firmly in 
soil composed of equal parts of loam, sand and fibrous peat, 
with a small proportion (say, one-twentieth part of the whole 
mass) of charcoal. Use pots as small as possible; nothing in- 
jures Palms more than over-potting. Drain well and water 
freely as often as the soil gets dry. Palms are often injured 
by insufficient watering. The surface may be kept wet while 
tlie lower roots suffer from drought. The leaves should be 
thoroughly sponged with water of the temperature of 60° or 
70° twice a week, and to keep away insects the water, every 
two or three weeks, should contain Fir tree oil in the propor- 
tion of half a gill to two quarts of water. This is, without 
doubt, the best insecticide at present known for keeping Palms 
clean and healthy. Robt. Craig. 

Philadelphia. 

" In the park 1 make it a point to use only native or thoroughly 
acclimated trees and shrubs, and avoid entirely all foreign de- 
corative plants. For nature beautified must still preser\-e the 
character of the country and climate in which the park is sit- 
uated, so that its beauty may seem to have grown spontane- 
ously, and without betraying the pains which have been spent 
upon it. We have growing wild in Germany an abundance 
of lilooming shrubs, which can be used in a variety of ways, 
but if we find a Damask Rose or a Chinese Lilac, or a group 
of such things, planted in the midst of wildness, the result is a 
painful feeling of incongruity ; unless, indeed, they be set 
apart and fenced off, as for instance in a hedged garden near 
a cottage." — Piikler-Muskau, 1834. 



" The simple and uncombined landscape — if wrought out 
with due attention to the ideal beauty of the features it in- 
cludes — will always be most beautiful in its appeal to the heart." 

John Riiskin. 



30 



Garden and Forest. 



[March 14, iSS3. 



A View in Central Park. 

THE view on this ]:>a,t;e is talien from a point in the Ramble 
in tlie Central Parle of tliis city, looking southward, and in- 
cluding- a ijortion of the Terrace. Of course, it is much more 
than a picture of the Terrace, but it clearly shows how much 
tlu's l)it of architecture adds to the composition. The distant 
horizon line of trees has an attractiveness of its own. Nearer 
by are the upper Terrace lines contrasting with tlie masses 
of foliage above them. Below tliese are the open arches with 
deeper'sliadows, then the lower lines of the Terrace, the lake 
shore and the passage of water separating more distinctly the 
extreme distance from the middle distance. All these, with the 
lines of the shrubljery about the little lawn, mark the succes- 
sive planes of the composition and help to bringout the grada- 
tions of light and shadow. In the Park the observer would 
enjoy in addition the ever varymg tints of the sky which 
would also be reflected in the water, while he could look up 
to and into the leafv . framework in the toregroand forever 
without exhausting its interest. The illustiation is a good ex- 



Plant Notes. 

Lilium Parryi, and its Habitat. — This line Lily appears to 
have won its way in tlie ten years of its gardeii career to 
a high rank among cultivated species. The pure lemon 
yellow of its flowers, an unusual shade among Lilies, and 
their peculiar form, as well as their fragrance, combine to 
make it a uniciue species. Its range is from the springy banlcs 
and swampy canons of the San Bernardino Mountains of 
southern California, where Dr. Parry discovered it in 1876 
southward towards Lower California, eastward to the higher 
mountains of southern Arizona and thence southward, I am 
confident, along the western slopes of the Sierra Madre of So- 
nora. In these arid regions it is only by mountain brooks and 
springs that it can find the water its roots reciuire, and shelter 
from scalding sunshine. So its habitat is the narrow sandy or 
peaty alluviums of these brooks, or their mossy margins, or 
even the ledges, over which they glide, where its bulbs are 
scarcely hidden from view amidst tufts of moss. Seeing 
It always in such wet situations I gained the impression 



fs*-^ -"l^f'-i^ 






^^^'r-ti <,J^J2^ 
















A Virw i.i Cfiitiiil Tark. 



ample of wluit can be accomplished by framing in a dist.uit 
object witli foliage, so as to make a complete and consistent 
picture, and there is no reason why such planting as it shows 
should he confined to public parks. Many a lawn could be 
made the foreground of a picture quite as attractive, and it 
could be graded and planted so as to emphasize the interest 
and increase the pictorial effect of some important object, 
natural or artificial, and trees could be disposed about it so 
as to concentrate the attention which would otherwise be 
distracted Ijy surrounding objects. 



"One beautiful way in which flowers can be used, espe- 
cially those distinguished for the brightness and clearness of 
tlieir coloring or for their tall stalks, is to plant them in moss and 
among wild vegetation along the edge of a brook or some 
other piece of water. The reflections in the water and the 
play of their movements thus doubled clothes with a new 
charm this scene which is altogether natural." — IlirscJiffld' s 
" TJieorie der Gartenkuiist" Leipzig, lYTj. 



that it would need wet soil. But northern brooks woultl lie 
too cold, and with our frequent rains oixlinary soil suffices for 
it, since I have flowered it from Dr. Parry's seed in my garden. 
In its native haunts, crowded upon by other plants, especially 
beset by grasses and shrubs, its stature is from one to three 
feet and the number of its flowers one to si.x. In cultivation I 
have seen these figures nearly douljled. 

A New Morning Glory, Ipomca PriiigUi, Gray, collected in 
1886 on cool, grassv hillsides near Chihuahua, and distribute^l 
among my Plantce Mcxicance of that year, was admired by Dr. 
Asa Grav even in dried specimens, and by him recommended 
for cultivation. The species is perennial from a thick root, 
with an annual stem, erect, diffusely branched, two or three 
feet high and broad, with inconspicuous leaves and flowers of 
the largest for the genus, three inches broad, purplish blue, 
with a metallic lustre, and in their throat lighter blue or nearly 
white. The plant is common over the hills and high plains 
between Chihuahua and the Sierra Madre. As seen by the 
traveler in those lone regions, profuselv covered with bloom 
throughout the morning, it is a bright and pleasing object. 

C. G. Pi-in^U. 



March 14, 1888.] 



Garden and Forest. 



31 



Some Hardy Wild Flowers One cold day in February I went 

to see how my plants ot that tough little Orchid, Goodyera 
pubescens, were standing the weather, and found the leaves 
protruding from a crust of snow and ice, as fresh as in June. 
One can hardly understand how such a velvety, delicate look- 
ing plant can be so hardy. Although it grows in thick shade, 
this Rattlesnake Plantain will thrive in a sunny window of a 
warm winter room. Such a one I knew, and when the fire 
went out one bitter night it was smiling freshly in the morning, 
although every other plant in the collection had perished. Why 
has such a pretty thing as Erigeron bellidiJoHum been neg- 
lected bv cultivators? I accidentally discovered that it im- 
proves under domestication. A bunch of it was left by chance 
in a field, where it was hoed and fertilized in the same way as 




perhaps, where Michaux makes record of it in his journal of 
that trying December visit to these mountains. I can hardly 
hope much from the pretty little Galax aphylla, known here 
as Colts-foot, and carpeting tlie woods in everv direction. It 
seems to resent all artificial nurture and a|.)|.iarendy dies of 
homesickness when tran^idanted from its wild surroundings. 
Macon Co., N. c. F. K. Boynion. 

Phajus tuberculosus.— This exquisite and rare Orcliid is now in 
flower at Kenwood, probaljly for the first time in America. It 
is undoubtedly the most beautiful of the whole genus. It was 
introduced from Madagascar in 1881, and a few plants flowered 
in England, but for a long time I have heard nothing of it. Our 
plants were bought in 1882, and were gradually dwindling away 

until a year ago, when we tliought 
of trying them in the hottest cor- 
ner of the Phalaenopsis house 
near the expansion tank, where 
the temperature in winter is 
never l:)elow 70". We kept them 
very wet, and syringed over- 
head at least twice a day. Under 
this treatment the plants have 
done wonders, making larger 
bulbs than those imported, and 
the strong healthy folitige sliows 
no speck of ravages from insects, 
hitherto the greatest enemy of 
tliis plant. The choice of potting 
material seems to be a minor 
consideration, as one of the plants 
in blooni is potted in peat, while 
another is on a block of wood 
covered with sphagnum and 
stands upright in a pot surfaced 
with moss ; in both cases the 
rooting is all that can lie desired. 
The habit of the plant is some- 
what climbing, producing a slen- 
der rhizome, much thickened 
at the end to form a bulb, from 
the tip and sides of which pro- 
ceed plicate leaves about a foot 
long. The flower spikes are up- 
right, 6 to 8 inches long, bearing 
3 to 6 snow-white flowers, the 
greatest attraction of which lies 
in the indescribably beautiful lip. 
Kenwood, N. V. F. GoldTin^. 



the farm crop. It grew luxuriantly and blossomed profusely. 
I think it quite as beautiful as any of our Asters, whicli it some- 
what resembles. It has the advantage, too, of blossoming 
in early spring, while most of the Asters are late bloomers. 
Another wild plant which is not afraid of cultivation is Hoiis- 
tonia purpurea. While not as attractive as its little sister, H. 
serpyllifolia, or, perhaps, as your more northern Bluets {H. 
coeruled) it is a striknig plant, erect, branching and often 
more than a foot high, blossoming freely, and found naturally 
in high and dry soil. Our Mountain Harebell, too (^Campanula 
divaricata) makes a neat addition to our list of hartly peren- 
nials. I think I may add Shortia to the list, although it has not 
been thoroughly tested in cultivation. I have little doubt, 
however, that it will succeed, and it can now be had in abim- 
dance, after hiding away so successfully for a hundred years, 
for it has been found growing by the acre on the very spot. 



New Vegetables. — The roots of 
the Cassava are shown by a large 
number of exhiliitors at the .Sub- 
tropical Exposition at Jackson- 
ville, Fla. This would indicate 
a rather general, if not a large 
cultivation. Those who had used 
it pronounced it a grateful vege- 
table, the rootsimply pleasantand 
cooked as a custard. The variety 
seemed to be Manihot Aipi. 
Sechium edtile, the "Chocho," 
cultivated in tropical America 
and the West Indies for the sake 
of its fruit, was also on exhibition 
and for sale. The seed germi- 
nates within the fruit, and the 
sprouting fruits have therefore 
a curious appearance. The unripe fruit is eaten boiled 
as a vegetable. This plant has given rise to many varieties, 



differing quite largely. 



E. Lewis Sttirtevant. 



Aquilegia longissima.* 

OF the long-spurred Columbines which are peculiar to the 
central mountain ranges of this continent the species 
here figured, fig. 6, page 31, is the most remarkable. The 
Ac/uUegia cmru/ea, withblue and white flowers, and the yellow- 
flowered A. chrysantliaol the Rocky Mountains anil other in- 
terior ranges, are now well-known in gardens, both in their 

*A. LONGISSIMA, Gray in herb.; Watson, Proc. Am. Acad. xvii. 317. Tall, sonic-- 
what pubescent with sill<v hairs ; leaves green aliove, i;laucons beneath ; sepals 
hincoolate, broadly spreading, an inch long or more, the si>atul3te petals a little 
shorter ; spur with a narrow" orifice, four inches long oi' more. 



32 



Garden and Forest. 



[March 14, 1888. 




FiK. 7.— A Wcf|,ii^< Betcli. 



native forms and in tlie hylirids wliich are readilv obtained 
from them. A. /oiigissima is a still more soutliern species, 
found in the mountains bordering the Rio Grande in western 
Texas and those of the north-eastern provinces of Mexico. It 
is, indeed, probably the most southern species of the srenus, 
inasmuch as the Guatemala habitat ascril^ed to A. Sh'iuuri 
is very doubtful. A. Skinneri was cultivated m European 
gardens to some extent about forty years ago and Avas believed 
to have originated from seeds collected in Guatemala by Mr. 
G. U. Skinner. It has, however, been recently discovered at 
home in the mountains of Chihuahua, both bv Dr. Edward 
Palmer and by Mr. C. G. Pringle, and the probabilities are that 
the seeds were sent from there, instead of from Guatemala, bv 
Mr. John Potts who had charge of the Mint at Cliiliuahua in 
1842. It is known that he and his lirotlier made collections in 
that region and sent plants to England at about that time. 

A. longissiina is distinguished from the allied species not onlv 
by the greater length of the spur, but by its more contracted 
orifice and by the narrower petals. The flower opens upward, 
spreading widely, and is pale yellow or straw color, or some- 
tinies nearly white or tinged 'with red. The plant has been 
raised from seed in the Cambridge Botanic Garden. It proves 
to be more tender than our common species, as was to be ex- 
pected, but tliere should be no difficulty in cultivating it 
throughout the Southern States. 

In view of the recognized adaptation of flowers and insects to 
each other for mutual benefit, it is an interesting question what 
long-tongued moths have developed side l.iy side with this 
long-spurred flower, and how far the plant is really dependent 
upon such insects for fertilization. ' .?. W. 



A Weeping Beech. 

The so-called weeping trees, or trees with distinctly pendu- 
lous branches, are not of the first importance in general land- 
scape work. Their peculiarities of form are so striking that 
when planted with otlier trees they invite attention to them- 
selves, instead of helping to increase the effecti%'eness of the 
group. A Weeping Willow on a wood border is the first thing 
to arrest the eye, and it seems to break the masses of foliage 
.and belittle their effect instead of gi\'ing continuity arid 
strength to their outlines. As individual specimens, however, 
these trees may become objects of great beauty and attractive- 
ness. The Weeping Beech, a variety of the European Beech, 
is disting\iished among them by an eccentric vigor which is 
seen in the sturdy upward and outward growth of some of 
the larg-er branches, a vigor which is in marked contrast 
with the pensile haViit of the smaller branches. These trees 
vary greatly in form ; some being tall and slender, others low 
and broad, and others still, assuming the most ]>icturesque 
shapes. The tree in the illustration stands in the grounds of 
Mr. Samuel C. Jackson, in Flushing, Long Island, and in what 
was originally a part of the old Parsons nursery. It is forty-four 
years old, and its vigor is proved by its healthfid appearance as 
well as by the dimensions it has already attained. It is about 
sixty feet high and the circumference of the circle where the 
hanging branches meet the ground is 180 feet. The trunk is 6 
feet in circumference three feet from the ground, and a man 
standing by it is perfectly concealed from those without the 
circle l:)y the thick curtain of foliage that hangs about him on 
everv side. 



March 14, iSSS.l 



Garden and Forest. 



33 



Cultural Notes. 

Chrysanthemums. — Those who would have good Chrvsan- 
themunis next fall must now pay attention to tlieir stock.' No 
puny plants will ever give good tiowers, neither will plants 
which have been excessively projiagated. Strong- cuttings put 
in now and grown along without becoming pot-bound or 
starved, will make nearly as line plants and flowers as those 
propagated earlier. Plants now in small pots should be re- 
moved into pots two sizes larger and subjected to fire-heat 
only suificient to keep out the t'rost. Use at all times soil that 
will permit water to pass freely through it. All newly-pottetl 
plants, from the cutting benches, should be carefully shaded 
from the sun for a few days, until new root action is estab- 
lished. If it is the intention to grow very large flowers the 
plants should be topped as soon as they reach the height of 
from 6 to S inches, selecting the three strongest shoots to form 
the base of supply. If specimen plants are required, four 
shoots at least should be allowed to grow and each one 
should be tied down to a position nearly horizontal. These 
same shoots will require stopping again as soon as thev ha\'e 
6 to S leaves formed. If the soil is rich no additional fertilizer 
will be required until the summer is advanced. Purchasers 
would do well to obtain plants that have been grown cold and 
are not pot-bound. Plants should be sliipped by express. 

John Thorpe. 

Asparagus plumosus. — Propagated by division, this plant is of 
less value to florists than Smilax. But propagated from cut- 
tings, it makes bushy plants from six to twelve inches high, 
which are hardly equaled in beauty or usefulness for deco- 
ration. A. plumosus grown in this way is superior to A. 
tenuissiinus, which resemljles it very much, but is too thick. 
A. plumosus nanus must be propagated by seed, which is not 
easily obtainable. While every side shoot of A. tenuissiinus, 
cut with a bit of the main shoot, will root easily, A. plumosus 
refuses to do so. It makes roots only when a bud starts into 
growth in soil or sand, and this is the whole secret. A young- 
shoot firstgrows nearly to its full length before the side-shoots 
are developed, and those on the top develop first. There- 
fore, cut the whole shoot as soon as the upper side shoots and 
all those which have started about the same time with them 
have reached their full development — which is indicated by 
the darker green color — and lay the whole shoots about half 
an inch deep in sand in the propagating house, taking care 
not to bury any side shoots. After six or'eight weeks most of 
the dormant eyes will grow and forn-i one plant each. Let 
them stand undisturbed until three or four little shoots have 
made their appearance, when they should be potted in very 
sandy soil. When these plants are about six inches high they 
are excellent material for fvu-ther propagation, and a large 
stock can easily be obtained in a short time, each shoot \-ieid- 
ing from one to five young plants. A. plumosus and A. plu- 
mosus nanus are prettiest when young and before they change 
into their climbing habit. But the dwarf species seems to pro- 
duce all its side shoots at the same time, the lower part of the 
stem remaining bare even with quite old plants. I succeeded 
once by cutting the end of a shoot away and laying the whole 
shoot in sand without separating- it from the old plant, but the 
result was not entirely successful. C. Jiriner. 

Chamascyparissus obtusa is one of the most beautiful and 
graceful of the Japanese Conifers. We have some old plants 
that had fallen into a dilapidated condition, and some years 
ago we cut them in hard and planted them by the side of a 
well enriched border in dry sandy land. They have recovered 
splendidly and now are vigorous, bushy specimens. Others in 
a similar condition were also cut in and removed to a 
well-sheltered spot in a thinly-planted piece of woodland, and 
where the ground is moist and good. The result has Iteen 
fully as satisfactory as in the previous case. 

Magnolias. — We had a group of choice Magnolias, including 
M. Thurberi and M. stellata, in dry sandy land, and where the 
subsoil was deep sand, but they appeared to be very luihappy. 
The surface soil in the bed was good enough ; indeed, it was 
good hazel loam introduced for their benefit. A few years ago 
we ren-ioved the Magnolias, some to our nursery ground, 
where the land is deep, dark and moderately i-i-ioist, and some 
to a sheltered place on tlie lawn, and in which the soil is ex- 
cellent. In both cases their recovery is very marked. We 
also have large isolated specin-iens of the Yulan Magnolia, 
some in poor, some in good soil, and in vigor of plant and pro- 
fusion of bloon-i the balance is greatly in favor of those grow- 
ing in the good soil. ' IV. F. 



Covering Bulbs — If Crocuses, Snowdrops, Winter Aconites, 
Siberian Squills and other early flowering bulbs planted last 
fall were covered over with a mulching of tree leaves or rank 
litter in order to protect them from frost, they are now trying 
to thrust their whitened leaves and flowers up through' the 
covering. If we remove the niulching we expose the 
weakened shoots to the piercing winds and in this way 
render worse what before was bad enough. These bulb's 
need no winter mulching, neither do Tulips, Hyacinths, 
Crown Imperials nor the host of other early flowering' bulbous 
plants we set out in our gardens, except it niay be a'mulching 
of rotted leaves or rotted manure, vyhich is meant to remain on 
the ground permanently, and is applied more with the view of 
preventing the bulbs from being heaved out of the earth by 
frost than as a protection against frost. It is when these plant's 
are appearing above ground that they need protection n-iost, 
but the ordinary way of treating theni, is to striji them just at 
this time. 



Strcptnsolen Jamesonii. 

nPHIS is one of the best and most easily cultiyated winter- 
-'- bloon-iing- green-house plants we have. It is a native of 
South An-ierica, and was introduced to cultivation sonie forty 
years ago but soon disappeared fron-i our gardens and was 
not seen again till a few years ago, when it -was reintroduced. 
It is now quite generally distributed. 

It is a si-nall-leaved, evergreen, slender shrub, or rather 
shrubby vine, of vigorous growth. Its flowers are orange or 
flame-colored, and disposed in drooping-, terminal, cvmose 
panicles ; every branch is tipped with a bvmch of flowers. Its 
flowering- period is from January to April, according to condi- 
tions under which it is grown, but usually it is in its finest con- 
dition in February. A few scattering flowers n-iay be produced 
all summer long, but never a full crop nor handsome panicles. 

It ripens' seed freely, but the best way of propagating it is 
from cuttings of the young wood; these cuttings strike as 
readily as do those of Heliotropes or other soft-wooded plants, 
and if struck in spring and grown on in sumn-ier n-iake fine 
blooming plants 4 to 6 feet high by the next winter. I raise a 
fresh lot of plants in this way every year, and keep over some 
of the old plants till they are two or three years old, but not 
more, as they grow too big for our green-houses. 

I grow then-i in pots during the summer n-ionths, and 
plunge them out-of-doors. Were they planted out the plants 
would grow so rank and root so much that they could not 
be lifted safely in autun-m. They are gross feeders. In potting 
them I use good loam, with about one-fourth part in bulk of 
rotted manure, and after the plants are brought in-doors 1 
mulch them with rich farn-i-yard manure. 

We winter our plants in the Carnation-house, where they are 
grouped together in a mass. The right ten-iperature is about 
50°. They get and enjoy full sunlight. 

Although gorgeous plants for conservatory decoration, the 
cut flowers must be used in masses to be effective. In wan-u 
roon-)s they do not last very well. iV. F. 

[This fine plant, a native of New Grenada, was figured in 
the Botanical Magazine, t. 4605, many years ago as Bruiv- 
allia, a genus from wliich it chiefly differs in habit of growth. 
It is also figured by Miers, the fomuler of the genus Strrp- 
losolen {Illuslralious, I. 55). — Ed.] 



Mulching- Shrubbery Beds. 

AS soon as the snow is all gone and the weather is not 
frosty we go into the woods, rake up and cart lionie a 
large quantity of tree leaves for n-iulching shrubbery, and more 
especiallv our Azalea bed. The leaves are then beginning to 
soften and decay, and if at all moist, we can pack .at least twice 
as many into a load as we could in fall. Why was this not done 
last fall ? For two reasons : Hardy trees and shrubs have no 
need whatever of any niulching over winter, and it niay be so 
much work lost, but this is not all ; for in the second place, it 
may be the cause of much mischief by affording a lodgment 
for field mice, which are the most destructive rodents we have 
to contend with. They are especially destructive to coniferous 
and rosaceous trees and shrubs by gnawing away the bark 
around the stem at the ground level ; in this way they have 
killed many of our Pines and Spruces. But 1 have never 
known them to attack evergreen Rhododendrons, even where 
these shrubs have been heavily mulched with dry leaves over 
winter. 
The earlier we mulch our Azaleas now, the better. It de- 



34 



Garden and Forest. 



[March 14, iSJSS. 



layed much longer the flower buds will become so prominent 
that the least rub against them will break them off. Put on 
the leaves six or eight inches deep all over the bed, and scat- 
ter a little fern, sea thatch, sedge or salt hay over the leaves 
to keep them from being blown about. Although this may 
seem to be a heavy mulcliing, it is none too much, ami by 
next October it will rot down and not be an inch deep. 

Summer mulching is far more important than winter mulch- 
ing. By it we are enabled to grow with fair success shallow- 
rooting plants and many evergreens that without it could 
hardly survive our hot, dry weather. Mulch lieavily if at all, 
for this is the only way to accomplish the desired result. 

We use leaves only on large beds, and where we can sprin- 
kle a little thatch over them ; for small beds and individual 
specimens we use rough manure or thatch or salt hay alone. 
But in mulching trees and shrubs judgment must be used. 
There is no use in describing a circle 6 or 10 feet wide around 
the trunk of a big tree, removing the sod therefrom and mulch- 
ing the ground, because the feeding' roots have gone beyond 
that circle, and hence are not under the inflvience of the 
mulching. The way to reach them is to top-dress the grountl 
in fall with manure and rake it off level in spring. Some 
writers argue that if we keep the surface of the ground well 
stirred by means of the hoe or cidti\-ator in summer this 
answers everv purpose and is lietter than middling. That is 
well enough so far as nursery stock is concerned, but in per- 
manent plantings, for instance in the case of isolated trees and 
shrubs, and shrubbery Ijeds, loosening the surface of the 
ground should be avoided and mulching adopted. 

I have no patience with the people who call out about tlie 
unsightliness of mulching. Mulching is repugnant only to 
the uneducated eye. The person who understa)ids and ap- 
preciates the benefit to the plants to lie derived from this care 
regards its presence with special fa\or. But. of course, it 
must be neatly applied and kept. 

The mulching of trees and shruljs in summer is more ex- 
tensively practiced in this garden, tlian, so far as I know, in 
any other in the country, and we are, year after year, becom- 
ing more alive to its beneficial effects. ]l'i/liaiii Falconer. 

Clfii Cwp. N. Y. 



Grapes for Home U.se. 

IN response to the inquiry of yoiu' correspondent in North- 
ern New Jersev as to the liest lialf-dozen varieties of grapes 
to plant for familv use to the extent of about twenty vines, I 
name the following and add some reasons why I rt-C(immend 
them. 

Moore's Earlv — two \'ines — the earliest good l)lack Grape we 
have. The berries are large ; vines hardy, he:dthy, and pro- 
ductive. The Cottage would pro\'e its best substitute. 

Ladv — two x'ines — the earliest good white Grape ; very sweet 
and generally liked. The vine is hardy and healthy, but not as 
vigorous as manv others. Tlie lierries are of good size ; 
clusters small, and its season short because of its liabilit\- to 
crack on approaching maturity ; liut 1 name it liecause an early 
grape of this color is desirable. 

Worden — four vines — the fiest early Idack Grajie ; tlie clus- 
ters and berries are large, and the vine is vigorous, healthv, 
hardy and productive. The above are all of Concord parent- 
age, and like it tender-skinned, cracking easily when ripe. 

Brighton — four vines — the best early red grape we have, all 
things considered. The clusters are large and handsome, 
berries medium, vine vigorous and |)roductive. 

Dela\vare — two vines — among Grapes what the SecKel and 
Dana's Hovey are among pears. The small clusters of small 
red berries ripen early. "The vine though healthy and hardy is 
not a strong grower and does not always lind a congenial soil. 
It is worthy of special care till it gets established and its c^ualit\' 
atones for its lack of size. 

Wilder — four vines — a large, late black Grape of excellent 
C|uality. The clusters arc large and handsume ; vine vigorous 
and productive. 

Niag'ara — two vines — the largest and finest white Grape yet 
tested. Berries and clusters are large and handsome ; quality 
fully as good as that of the Concord — Mr. 13owning said lietter 
— and the vine is very vigorous and productive. 

Empire State — two vines — a white grape of excellent ciuality, 
better in this respect than the Niagara, but not so large or 
attractive in cluster or berry. The vine is fairly vigorous and 
productive. 

This list is of course for a special locality, luit most of 
the vines named flourish over a wide area. Brighton, 
Wilder and Niagara have a little foreign blood in their 
veins, and are therefore more liable to mildew and rot 



than the others which are pure natives, but in seasons 
favorable to the development of the rot fungus all are suscep- 
tible to its attack unless it be Delaware. From the abo\'e list 
your inc|uirer should be al>le to choose six kinds, if he wishes 
to confine himself to that number, but he can plant them all 
with little risk of failure. They all thrive with me on lower 
ground and nearer the sealioard, and therefore in a less favora- 
ble locality. I do not name the Concord liecause the season is 
covered effectually without it. Moore's Early is equally good 
and two to three weeks earlier, and this is followed by Worden, 
which is better than either. The season of the Concord is 
with Wilder and Niagara. E. ]ViIlia)ns. 

M.mlrlair, N.J. 

The Forest. 

The Hardwood Forests of the South. 

'"PHE time seems rapidly approaching when the lower 
-'- Southern Stales will furnish the greater part of the lum- 
lier shipped from the Atlantic forest region to foreign and 
home markets, and will take the lead in the various industries 
which depend for their material upon the products of the 
forests. From sixty to seventy-five per cent of the area of the 
several States of the lower South are covered with forests 
which have been liut little encroached upon by the axe. Well 
timliered countries without the Tropics have at all times been 
foremost in progressive and varied agriculture and industries. 
The history of the Old and New World gives am])le support to 
this statement. 

With the exhaustion of tlie forests of White Pine and the de- 
nudation of the country north of the Ohio, from the Atlantic 
border to tlie Mississip]")i, where stood a wealth of timber 
once deemed inexfiaustible bv men still living, the lumber 
interests of the country east of the Mississippi are steadily 
gravitating southwards, and manufacturing enterprises con- 
nected with them are seeking the same field. In some in- 
vestigations made for the Census office in 1880 the writer 
founcl the lumbering operations of the great coast Pine belt 
confined almost solely to the larger streams and to a strip two 
or three miles on either side of a few railroad lines traversing 
the forests. A few tram-roads and canals were liringing lum- 
ber from remoter parts. But now tram-roads equipped with 
steam power are penetrating the depths of this forest belt in 
every direction with astonishing rapidity and are stripping hun- 
dreds of square miles of their merchantable timber, and thou- 
sands of acres of primeval timber lands are made available In- 
new railroad lines intersecting the forests and' helping the trans- 
port of their products to the seaboards and the inland markets ot 
tlie Middle States. The stroke of the axe is now heaixl from 
the basin of one river to that of the other where but a short 
while ago the forest solitude remained unbroken. The ship- 
ment of timber and naval stores from the Pine forests of the 
lower South have douliled in the last seven years, and industrial 
enterprises based on timlier resources have increased many 
fold in almost every one of the Southern States. Factories ot car- 
riages and wagons, agricultural implenients, furniture, cooper- 
age antl hollow ware, and large establishments for building rail- 
road cars have sprung up with the increase of towns and cities 
in the mineral districts. 'The development of the mines of coal 
and iron has occasioned a great increase of the consuniption 
of timlier and fuel. The causes which within a life-time have 
deplete<l the timber wealth of many of the Northern States 
are, at this moment, at work in the Soutli with an activity out- 
stripping that of any former period. 

South-western Kentucky, western Tennessee, western 
North and South Carolina, Arkansas, and the northern half of 
tlie Gulf States to the Brazos River, must at present be con- 
sidered as the great depositories of the timber wealth of the 
hardwood forest. It is from these Southern forests that the con- 
stantly increasing needs of die country are to be met. Ex- 
i:ierience has proved that timber of southern g'rowth is not 
surpassed in its essential qualities by that of higher latitudes. 
In their fullest dimensions and their greatest variety, the most 
valuafile hardwood trees are found in the alluvial bottomlands 
of the larger rivers toward their lower courses, in thevalle\s of 
a higher level, beyond the light silicious soils of the tertiary 
formation, in the woods covering the lower flanks of bordering 
ele\-ations and in the narrower defiles of the mountains. The 
most extensix-e liodv of hardwood forests exists in the delta of 
the Mississi]ipi and Yazoo Rivers in the State of Mississippi, 
covering four millions of acres, of which one-fifth are in culti\'a- 
tion, and in the alluvial land of the Mississippi and St. Francis 
Rivers in Arkansas, extending over two millions of acres with 
scarcely ten per cent, of cleared land. The individual trees 



March 14, 1888.] 



Garden and Forest. 



35 



here attain dimensions rarely reached Ijy the same species 
elsewhere, and in wealth of valuable timber trees these forests 
are not excelled. 

Amonjjst tlie trees of the hiijhest value and greatest al)und- 
ance tlie Swamp Chestnut or JBaskct Oak {Qucrcus Micliauxii) 
takes the first place. Often a dozen trees measuring- two and 
one half feet in diameter and funu'shing clear cuts from forty 
to fifty feet in length have been counted on a single acre. In 
quality the wood tif this tree is in no wav inferior to white oak, 
and ises|jccially tit forall purposes to which the latter is applied, 
affording immense resources to the industries depending u])on 
this Oak for their chief material. The Sweet Gum [Liquidainbcr 
styracifolia) is as frequent here and at its greatest perfection. It 
is only under these lower latitudes that tlie timlier of this tree 
attains the qualities whicli give it economic importance. The 
wood, of a pleasing reddish lirown tint, easily worked, of a fine 
grain and capalile of a high polish, has lately begun to attract 
the attention of manufacturers of furnitui-e and of the joiner for 
the interior hnish of the l.iest dwellings. Millions upon millions 
of feet of these valuable timljers are found in tliese forests, 
enough to supjily the largest demand for many years. Of some- 
what less value, the Spanish Oak {Quc7-liis falcata), the Willow- 
Oak {Q. phellos), the Sw.amp White Oak (Q. lyrata), are to be 
named, the latter hardlv inferior in cp-ialitv to white oak. To 
these the Swamp Maple, Water Elm {Ulmus data). Honey 
Locust, Cottonwood, Pecan, Sassafras and Persiivnnon, are to 
be added, the two last reaching dimensions that entitle them 
to rank among useful timber frees. Most of tlie hardwood 
trees peculiar to the lower Soiitli, such as Magnolia, Red Bav 
[Persea. Carolinieitsis), White Bay (iMagno/ia g/aiica), Soin"wood 
( Oxydendron arhoreuiii). and others of lower rank in size, (fnding 
at present but little appreciation, will, with better k'nowledge of 
their quality, add a variety of useful material for miners' pur- 
poses, for the mechanical arts and for decorative joinery. 

Difficult of access and remote from active industries, these 
hardwciod forests, still but slightly encroached upon, maybe re- 
garded as the chief source of supply for the country's needs ftir 
many years to come. Their disappearance is, hc)\vever, a mat- 
ter of comparatively short time. Covering lands of greatest 
fertility, adapted to the cultivation of the chief staple products 
of this region, their reclamation for agricultural purposes, when 
protected against the overflowing waters of the Mississippi, is 
inevitable. The negro jjopulation, resisting the malarious in- 
fluences of lowland clearings, and tempted by good wages 
and an abundance of food, will be drawn to tliem to furnish 
the labor. The movement has already set in during the last 
few years, and must increase as the colored man comes in 
competition with the Ial)or of the increasing white pojiulation 
which is taking possession of the healthy upland districts. 

With the growing demand for agricultural land following the 
slow but swelling influence of immigration, the hardwood 
forests of the valleys of the higher water-level and their ter- 
races and the flanks of the bordering region are equallv 
doomed. Though of less extent as resources of our hard- 
woods, these forests are of great importance, harl)oring a still 
greater variety than the alluvial forests. Preferring the warm 
and light soil in these districts, the Tuli|) tree, the White Oak, 
the White Ash, the Black Cherry, the ]51ack Walnut, are found, 
in addition to the trees growing in the damp bottom lands, and 
to these could be added many others of smaller size and less 
value, as the Beech, Basswood, Butternut, Mulberry, Red l--lm, 
Ironwood, Dogwood and Cucumfier tree. The impending- 
denudation of tliese valleys and of the elevations aljout them in- 
volves the greatest danger consequent upon the destruction of 
the forests by altering climatic conditions and aflecting injuri- 
ously the stages of the rivers throughout the different seasons 
of the year. 

The hardwood forests of the more or less broken uijlands in 
connection with farms have in great measure lost the cliaracter 
of the high forest. Deprived of fheirlargertimber, opened to the 
tran-iping and browsing of cattle and the visitations of fire, the 
reniainder of the tree-growth presents an unpromising appear- 
ance, and in many localities, the second growth is supijlanted 
by Coniferous trees. Immense damage has been done by 
clearing the steeper and n-iore broken lands and the ranges of 
hills. Deprived of its productive crust, the bare sul.)Soil of 
these hill lands, torn into deep ravines, presents a repulsive 
sight suggestive of barrenness and neglect. Raging torrents 
after every rain rush unchecked do^^■n the declivities, eating 
deeply into them, carrying the soil down the valleys, iibstruct- 
ingthe beds of the rivers and their estuaries. 

The timber growth of these upland forests consists of manv 
species of Oaks, as the Black Oak [Queycus iinctorid), Post Oak 
{Q. obtiisiloba), Spanish Oak, Red Oak, flourishing in a dry, 
light soil, the Tanbark Oak (2- prinos), Chinquapin Oak {Q. 



prinoidcs), and Scarlet Oak {Q. caccinca), found principally on 
the rocky regions of the n-iountains. The Mockernut, Pignutand 
Bitternut Hickories, with the Chestnut and Tulip trees of in- 
ferior size, make up a large part of the tree growth. On the 
table-lands of the coal measures in Alabama, forests of this 
nature almost in their prin-ie\-al condition extended over seven 
thousand square miles. These forests, fifteen vears ago 
scarcely invaded b\- the small clearings, have, since 'the begm- 
ning of the new industrial era, Ijecome of great iniportance 
owing to the wealth of coal and iron Ijuried beneath them, fur- 
nishing the re(|uired supplies of timber and fuel. These forest 
lands are now much in demand Ijyini migrants, who, l)y persever- 
ance and industry, make the soi'l, once'considered loo poor for 
cultivation, bring forth profitalile field and orchard crops 
which find a ready market in the growing centres of mining in- 
dustry which have lately sprung up as by magic in this region. 
If they are not protected against the dcstructi\-e influe1-ices 
bearing upon them witli increasing intensity as the settlement 
and development of the country progress, 'and if the needed 
care is not extended to the younger growth, the deterioration 
of these, immense forests is deslined to proceed surely and 
steadily to the same destruction to whicli the forests of the 
more densely populated districts are doomed. Karl Mohr. 



Acaci.i decurrens. — Considerable attention is now being given 
in France to this Australian tree as a possible source of a'sup- 
l^ly of tanning material. It thrives everywhere on the shores 
of the Mediterranean Basin and flourishes in the most arid 
soils. Mons. Levallois, in a report recently presented to the 
National Agricultural Society of France, states that a sample of 
the bark grown at Antibes yielded 31 per cent, of tannin, wliile 
recent experiments show that a given amount of the bark was 
sufficient to cure two-thirds of lis weight of leather, while a 
given quantity of Oak bark would cure but one-fifth of its 
weight of leather. If further experiments, made on a large 
scale, confirm the \-aIue of the bark, Aracia decurrens will 
prove a valuable tree for southern California and our dry 
south-western region, where good tanning material is scarce. 
Indeed the only tree of our Pacific forests which produces 
really good tan baric is Ouercus dcnsiflora, of northern Cali- 
fornia, now becoming rare from excessive cutting. 



Recent Publications. 

Manuel de I' Aecliinateur ou Clioix de Plaiilcs Recominandecs 
pour I'Agrieulture. I' Industrie cl la Mcdecine, par Charles 
Naudin. "Paris, 1887 ; pp. 565. 

This is a French translation, much enlarged and improved, 
of Baron Von Muller's well known "Select Extra-Tropical 
Plants," and is |5ublished under the auspices of the National 
Acclimatization Society of France. By far the larger portion 
of the work is devoted to a descriptive catalogue of extra- 
tropical, warm-country plants, valuable to man either from an 
economic or ornamental point of \-iew, and, therefore, worthy 
of his attention. This is prefaced liy a 1-1-iost interesting study of 
the general subject of the naturalization and the acclimatization 
of plants. This last the author describes as " the introduction 
and successful cultivation of plants valuable to man ;" natural- 
ization lieing the spontaneous spread of foreign plants in a 
country. As a general rule it is only weeds which become 
naturalized, but two exceptions aregiven; the Orange which has 
reverted to the wild types in Florida, and tlie Mango which now 
forn-is a considerable part of the forest growth iii the Island of 
Jan-iaica. With these might have been'included the so-calletl 
Japanese Clover {Lespedeza striata, Hook. & Arn.), a valualile 
forage plant now widely naturalized in some parts of the South, 
and the common Barberry, now as n-iuch at home in eastern 
New England as in any part of Europe. 

A few errors and a few on-iissions will be detected in the 
catalogue of plants, but these could hardly have been avoided, 
although in a second edition it is to be hoped that more of the 
interesting plants of our south-westeri-i boundary p-iay find a 
place, such as the lovely CliilopsisMuX Cordla Boissi'cri. one of the 
n-iost showy floweringof North An-ierican trees, and coiisidcrcxl 
by the Mexicans cif great medicinal value. .\y\<.\ in such .a work, 
too, the different species of Acacia and Parkinsonia, the 
Olncya and the Fouquicra of Texas and Arizon;i, cannot be- pro- 
perly omitted. 

The Manuel de l' Aeclintateur is one of tin: most important 
contributions to recent horticultural literature, and its value is 
all the greater from thefactthat the authorhas cultivated niany 
of the plants he describes, especially the Eucalyptus (a 
genus to which he has devoted many years of study), in the 



36 



Garden and Forest. 



[March 14, iS 



gardens of the Villa Thuret in southern France, where he has 
brought together the richest collection of dry-country plants 
which now exists. It will be specially serviceable to horti- 
culturists in our Gulf States and in California, where there is still 
so much to be done in the way of introtlucing valuable plants. 

A Mantial of Orchidaceous Plants Ctillivated under Glass 
in Great Britain, ]irepared and pul.ilished by James Veitch 
& Sons of the Royal Exotic Niu-series, London. 

Two parts of this work, copiously illustrated, liavc now 
appeared. They give good promise of an important and valu- 
able contril;>ution to the already voknriinous literature of 
Orchids, especially in their "cultural notes", which no one can 
so well supply as can the Veitches out of the long experience 
of three generations of successful Orchid growers. Part I. is 
devoted to Odonioglossuin ; Part 11. to Cattlcya and Lo'lia, 
Avith Lceliopsis, Teframicra, Schoiuburgkia and Sophronitis. 
Capital colored maps show the geographical distribution of 
these genera. The fact that the two parts are paged separately 
and that the figures arc not numbered, will make it difficult to 
refer to this book in other publications. 

Ilandbiich der Coniferen Bcnenining, by L. Beissner,' Inspec- 
tor of the Botanic Garden of Bonn. Ludwig MoUer, Erfurt. 

This is a list of all Conifers, hardy or halt-hardy, in Germany, 
and is the result of the conference of a Congress of German 
liorticulturists which met at Dresden last summer under tlie 
Presidency of the Baron St. Paul, for the purpose of settling 
the proper nomenclature of cultivated Conifers. This could 
not have been a very easy task, but the Congress and its 
Secretary have prepared a catalogue which, with its full 
synonyms, its very complete lists of named cultivated forms 
audits full index, will be found aserviccablc aid to the students 
and cultivators of Conifers. It may be noted that Thuiopsis and 
Chanicecyparis are retained as genera and not merged with 
Thuya, and that with less reason Biola is also separated from 
that genus. Wellingtonia is retained as a genus tor Sequoia 
gigantca. We should hardly have expected to have found 
Wellingtonia turning up again at this late day outside of Great 
Britain, where horticultural patriotism, or whatever it may be, 
insists on ignoring the older Sequoia for our "Big tree" in 
spite of all the efforts of botanists. Taxus Floridana, yuni- 
perits Califprnica (except as a synonym of another sjtecies), 
Finns Cubensis, P. glabra, P. clausa and P. Chihuahttana, (.if 
the United States Flora, do not appear in the catalogue. 



Recent Plant Portraits. 

Azalea Indica, Leon Pynaert, RcTue ile F Hoi liiulturc Belize, 
February. 

Oxybaphus Californica {Mirahilis Galifornica, Gray), Garten 
Flora, t. 1266. 

Orontiutn aquaticuni , Rci'uc Horlicole., February i6tli. 

Platycaria slrobiacea. Revue Horlicole., February i6th. 

Phala:nopsis, F. L. Ames, Gardener's Chronicle, Februaiv 
i8th. 

Oxcra pulchclla. Gardener' x Chronicle, February i8tli; a 
semi-scandent shrub from New Caledonia, producing im- 
mense clusters of pure white flowers. It is closely allied to 
Clerodcndron. 

Biota. {Thuja) Sieboldi, Gardener' s Chronicle, February 18II1. 
" A form of tiie common Cliinese Arlior-vit;e, in which the 
young form of leaf is preserved to adult age, the ordinaiy 
form of leaf not lieing jjroduced, anil the wliole plant forming 
a compact barrel or llamed-shaped bush of great synurietry 
and beauty. 



Public Works. 

Enlargement of the Park of Atlanta, Georgia. — From the Report 
of the Park Connnission of Atlanta it appears that an elfort is 
being made to enlarge the principal Park of that city by secur- 
ing some fifty acres of land north of its present boundarv. 
The Park now contains but one hundred acres and is mani- 
festly too small for the growing city. An interesting feature 
of the report is a classified list of the indigenous plants of the 
Park, prepared by Mr. A. Sidney Rauscheiiberg. 

A Park for Lisbon. — The first prize of 12,000 francs, offered 
liy the City Council of Lisbon for the best plan for a City Park, 
has just been awarded to Mons. P. Lasseau of Paris. A 
second and a third prize of 7,500 and 5,000 francs respectively 
have been given in the same competition to Mons. G. Du- 
chesne and Mons. Eugene Deny, also of Paris. 



Flower Market. 

New Yokk, Alardi qIIi, 1888. 

TIk' supply of cat flowers is heavy, but the general stuck is poor. 
I^ricos continue to decline with all tlowers excepting Orchids. Cy- 
])ripediunis arc in more request than other Orchids, because they 
combine handsomely with green arrangements, Mignonette being 
much used for this purpose. Cypripcdiiiiii Lawrenciamtm costs from 
75 cts. to $1.00 a flower; Catlteya spcciosissima and C. snperha bring 
from 50 to 75 cts. a flower. C. Cilrina and C. Percrcaliana cost the 
same. C. Triana sells for 75 cts. and Ji 1. 00 a flower, andLvcns/i' Skinneri 
brings 40. 50 and 75 cts. a flower. Vandas range from 25 to 35 cts. a 
flower, with from 4 to 10 blossoms on a spray. Odontoglossum cris- 
puiii costs from 20 to 35 cts. a flower, and there are from 5 to 20 on 
aspray. Asparagus pltiniosus brings from Si. 00 to Si. 50 a string, and 
A. teuuissiinus 75 cts. to $1.00 a string of 3 and 4 feet in length. Ferns 
cost from 10 to 50 cts. a b\>nd, Attiau/ui// F<7rlL-veuse heing the most ex- 
j)cnsi\'e. Short stemmed liyl:)rid Roses arc selling for $2.00 a dozen. 
Unlyselected baroness Rothschild and Mabel Morrisons are field at Si. 00 
cacli. Other excellent hybrids bring 75 cts. The best Jacqueminot roses 
are sold for S3.oo a dozen and La France for S2.00 and S3. 00 a dozen. 
Puritans cost 50 cts. and American Beauties 75 cts. each. Papa Gon- 
tiers run very jioor ; those selected are sold for Si'.oo and $1.50 a 
ilozcn, and the ordinaiy ones arc thrown in with Bon Silcnes and dis- 
posed of for 75 cts. a dozen. I'erles, Niphctos and Sou^•enirs d'un Ami 
Ijring Si. 50 a dozen, and Catherine Mermets S2.C10. Bennetts cost the 
same. Dutch Hyacinths sell for 15 and 25 cts. a truss; Roman Hya- 
cinths, Lily-of-the-\'alley, Tulips and Narcissus for 75 cts. a dozen. 
Specially hne specimens of Tulips and Narcissus Trumpet Major 
bring $1.00 a dozen. Lilac costs from 25 to 50 cts. a spray. Helio- 
trope is 50 cts. a dozen sprays. Pansies are 25 cts. a dozen, and Vio- 
lets Si. 50 a hiuidred. Acacia costs from 50 cts. to Si. 00 a spray. 
Mignonotte from 50 cts. to Si.oo a dozen spikes, and Carnations 50 cts. 
a dozen for all A-arieties. Liliuni Harrisii brings 35 cts. a bloom 
or S4.00 a dozen. Callas costS3.oo a dozen. Plants of Spirtea Japon- 
ica appear, but no cut bloom is sold as yet. 



I'nn.ADErrHi.^, iMumli gtli. 

Indicate tinted and sweet scented flowers are most in demand just 
nuw. There have been some elaborate dinner table decorations, 
where the very choicest flowers have been used during the past week. 
Orchids and the rarest Roses only are used on these occasions. Boxes 
of fragrant flowers are frequently sent to friends at this season— more 
so llian at any other. A few morning weddings have taken place dur- 
ing Lent, —a somewhat unusual occurrence for this city. White flowers 
were used almost exclusi\'ely. On one occasion tile corsage bouquets 
were made of Puritan Roses, as was the centre piece, which was a pla- 
teau four feet long. Freesias, Roman Hyacinths, and Lilies-of-the- 
Valley were also abundantly used. .Some lai'ge and choice Amaiyl- 
lises are sold atjl each. Single and double Daffodils are called for in 
about equal quantities. The double Von Sion makes the most show, 
but the single \'arieties are selected by connoisseurs. Lilium Harrisii, 
or as it is called generally the Bermuda Lily, has been in good demand 
at 50 cts. eacli. The chaste and delicate Cyclamens, both as plants and 
flowers, are popular, and seem destined in the near future to take a 
prominent place in the floial world. Pink Tulips are more used than 
any other shade. More Lilacs would be used if they could be had, but 
they are scarce. Plants in bloom, such as Azaleas, andwhatare known 
as Spring flowers, sell readily. A limited quantity of white Moss Roses 
are obtainable at $1 per spray cariwing one half-developed bud and 
several others which have not yet shown color. A few Gloxinias are 
offered for sale, but they are not in very great demand because they 
are so easily tin:iken or soiled. 

BosroN, RIarch glh. 

The windows of the fltiwer stores are mar\'els (jt beauty just now. 
The display of Roses is especially fine, for at no time of the year are 
they offered in greater \'ariety or perfection. The various popular 
hytirid Roses are seen in large quantities. Jacqueminots of course 
leading, with the beautiful satiny pink Madame Gabriel Luizets close- 
ly following, fully as effective in color and almost as popular. Gloire 
cle Paris and Magna Charta are also abundant, but the chief value of 
these two varieties lies in their easy-forcing qualities, which make it 
possible to obtain them much earlier in the season than other hybrids. 
The later kinds are more desirable when they do come. The new 
Puritan is offered in limited quantities, and when the blooms come 
perfect, this white Rose is a valuable addition to the list of large flower- 
ing varieties. An occasional specimen of that shy beauty. Her Ma- 
jesty, is to be seen. The color is exquisite, and the flower is of enorm- 
ous size, but alas ! it is odorless. Marechal Niels are becoming scarce 
again and the only yellow Rose to be had in any quantity is Perle des 
Jardins. This and Catherine Mermet hold tlieir price quite steadily, 
\\'hiie La F)"ance and .\mericau l^canty ha\'e a downward tendency. 
Catherine Mermets and jacqueminots sell at $2. 50 to $3.00 per doz. 
Hybrids bring from S3-00 to S5.00 per doz., according to \'ariety and 
quality. Other Roses are worth from Si. 00 to $2.00 per dozen. iLilies- 
of-the-Valley and Tulips sell for Si.oo per doz. Daffodils are held at 
the same price, but they are getting scarce a?id cannot always be ob- 
tained. Violets and Pansies are worth ^o cts. per bunch. Long 
Stemmed Carnations, Mignonette, Forget-me-not and Heliotrope bring 
50 cts. per dozen. Callas are not as plentiful as they were a week 
ago and are in demand at S3. 00 per dozen. 



March 21, 18S8.] 



Garden and Forest. 



o 



7 



GARDEN AND FOREST. 

PUBLISHED WEEKLY BY 

THE GARDEN AND FOREST PUBLISHING CO. 

[ LIMITED.] 

Office : Tribune Building, New York. 





Conducted by Professor C. S. Sargent. 




ENTERED AS SECOND-CLASS MATTER AT THE POST OFFICE AT NEW YORK, N. Y. 


NEW YORK, WEDNESDAY, MARCH 21, 1888. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



EuiToRiAL Articles ; — Needs of American Poinolot^y — The Proposed Speed- 
road ia Central Park. — Ghent Azaleas 37 

Landscape Gardening;, IV Mrs. Schuyler Van Rensselaer. 38 

Horticniture in Florida A. H. Cnrtiss. 39 

A Disease of Certain Japanese Shrubs Professor Wolcott Gibbs. 40 

Foreign Cokrekpondence : — The Kew Arboretum Geo, Nicholson. 40 

Floral Notes from London Williavi Goldriiig. 41 

Plant Notes : — Hardy Eej2;onias. — Grevillea Thelemanniana. — Allium Nea- 
politan um. — Ornithogalum Arabicum. — Ahebia quinata. — Strelitzia 

anj^usta 41 

Wayside Beauty (with illustration) 42 

Iris'bracteata {with illustration) Sercno Watson 43 

Sweet Peas A. H. Fcwkes. 43 

Polyanthus Narcissus 44 

Annuals for Cut Flowers Win. Falconer 45 

Hepatica and Blood-root. Professor W. W. Bailey. 45 

The Propagation of I\laa;nolias Jackson Dawson. 45 

Rules for Plantins; Wind-breaks Professor L. H. Bailey. 46 

The Forest : 

The Forests of Vancouver Island Professor John Macoun. 46 

Propagation of Conifers from Seeds in the Open Air Robert Douglas. 47 

Recent Publications; — Review of Forest Administration in British India for 

the year 1S85-6 48 

Recent Plant Portraits 48 

Periodical Literature : — Art Amateur. — Cassell's Family Magazine, — Long- 
man's Magazine. — McMillan's Magazine 48 

Flower Market 48 

Illustrations :— A Country Road 42 

Iris bracteata 43 

Chinese Narcissus Grown in Water 44 



Needs of American Pomology. 

1. Statistics should be gathered to determine tlie relative 
profitableness of fruit-growing in different localities. It is 
now demonstrated that most parts of the country are 
adapted to fruit-growing of some kind. For home use and 
local markets, the cultivation of fruits of all kinds should be 
encouraged over as wide an area as possible. But there 
are some fruits whose productiveness varies greatly in 
different sections, and nothing is gained to the country or 
the individual by encouraging their cultivation on a large 
scale in vmfavorable situations. 

To obtain more definite information than we now have 
regarding the best situations for the various fruits, statistics 
of the yield in different parts of the country for a series of 
years are needed. These statistics might be thrown in 
graphic form upon a map, showing at a glance the areas 
over which a given fruit, say the peach, yields a fair crop 
every year, other areas in which there has been a good crop 
on an average once in three or five years, and still others in 
which the trees rarely reach a bearing age. Something 
of this kind could be done by horticultural societies. Let 
statistics be taken at a few typical points, such as at 
South Haven, in IMichigan, representing the "fruit belt," 
and Jackson or Ann Arbor, representing the interior of the 
State. Similar points for comparison might be chosen in 
Pennsylvania, Delaware and other States. Information so 
collected would help to show to what extent the fruits are 
grown in the locations to which they are best adapted. 

2. It is time for an advance in the matter of classifying 
varieties. The labors of Warder and the Downings need to 
be enlarged and e-\'tended. A reliable manual for the 
identification of fruits is greatly needed. Some promising 
systeinatic work on the cultural varieties of fruits and vege- 
tables has been done, but before satisfactory progress can 
be made in this direction there must be good herbarium 
collections of such plants. Cultural varieties are almost 
unknovi^n in the herbanums of botanists, but collections of 



such varieties are a necessity for their proper study. The 
distinctions between cultural varieties are so much less than 
those between the natural species and varieties, that for their 
proper study, it will more often be necessary to refer to the 
living plants ; but the varieties which require to be studied 
together cannot always be obtained at one time in the 
living state, nor can they be maintained in the growing 
condition at the proper stage long enough for that purpose. 

3. The systematic improvement of fruits needs more 
attention. The more promising methods of obtaining 
better varieties are : 

(rt. ) Selecting the best from among the varieties acci- 
dentally produced. In this way nearly all our varieties in 
cultivation have been obtained. A sharp eye, quick judg- 
ment and a taste for trying new sorts are what is needed 
for this purpose. 

(Z). ) Planting seeds of the best known varieties. Most 
of these are of short standing ; many are of the nature of 
sports ; but the tendency of like to produce like exists to 
some degree in all of them and renders it probable that the 
best varieties of the future will come from the best of those 
we have. 

(c. ) Better cultivation and changes of soil and climate. 
Favorable conditions are an important factor in the pro- 
duction of improved varieties. The finest fruits, as a rule, 
have arisen in the localities best adapted to their growth. 
Unfavorable conditions may, however, be useful for testing 
varieties before they are brought into general cultivation, 
and a long continued breeding up in a given locality 
may be necessary in order to produce varieties able to 
withstand extreme conditions, as of cold or drought. 

(d.') The improvement of our wild fruits. These, by 
reason of the long period of their development in the 
country, are likely to be best adapted to its climate. Our 
cultivated raspberries and blackberries indicate what may 
be done in a short time with native species. 

(e. ) The importation of promising foreign fruits. Most 
of our cultivated plants are importations. This is not 
because our native resources of this kind are meagre, 
but mainly Iiecause there has been a longer time abroad 
in which to develop imjiroved varieties. Further importa- 
tion of foreign fruits is especially needed, of kinds not 
native to this country, and from regions having similar 
climatic conditions. 



The Proposed Speed-road in Central Park. 

CP'.RTAIN gentlemen of this city who own fast horses 
have been aiming for years to get possession of a 
jiortion of Central Park and convert it into a road, broad, 
straight and level, whereon their trotters may be speeded, 
without any annoyance from vulgar animals or their 
drivers. Some attempts at public meetings have been 
made in order to invest the project with the dignity of a 
popular movement ; but these have all proved melancholy 
failures. Nevertheless a bill has been prepared, and is now 
before the proper legislative committee in Albany, to au- 
thorize the construction of such a road, one hundred feet 
wide, and to compel the people to pay for the work of de- 
solating their pleasure ground. The gentlemen who have 
tried to organize these meetings for the spoliation of the 
Park and who are throwing the weight of their influence in 
favor of this bill are described as " opulent citizens." It 
does not follow that a citizen is public-spirited because he 
is opulent, but, as a matter of fact, some of the abettors of 
this scheme have a certain civic pride andean generally be 
counted on for the unselfish support of any measure look- 
ing towards the city's welfare. It would not be surprising 
that a man whose loftiest ambition is to be known as the 
owner and driver of the fleetest trotting horse in the world 
should be willing to turn the grassy stretches of the Park 
into a bladeless desert to furiiish a track for the exercise 
and display of this noble animal. The pity of it is that 
one intelligent and fair-minded man can be found who 
does not understand that the condemnation of any portion 



38 



Garden and Forest. 



[March 21, iS 



possible 
scenery, 
scanty. 



of the Park to such a use would mean its utter ruin ; or 
who, if he does comprehend this, entertains the belief that 
the plain people who would be permitted to sit on a bench 
by the road-side and see him drive by, would, in this way, 
drink in a delight which would more than counterbalance 
any loss or pain, caused by a destruction of the pastoral 
beauty of the Park. 

Now, the only reason which justifies the setting apart of 
so large an area for a park in the heart of a city like New 
York is, that on ground less spacious, it would be im- 
to secure any broad, reposeful examples of rural 
As it is, the limits of Central Park are all too 
The triumph of its designers' skill lies in the fact 
that a narrow strip of land, broken and folded into ridges 
of rock, has been turned into a series of tree-bordered 
meadows, each one giving glimpses of what promise to 
be still fairer and more quiet fields beyond. It is this 
pastoral scener}^, and its restful, healing influence upon 
the minds of those who are worn and wearied with the 
strained and artificial conditions of city life, which gives 
the Park its value. This is the fundamental purpose of the 
Park ; and the roads and paths and bridges are only of 
value as they help the visitor to obtain the refreshment 
offered b)'' its quiet prospects. 

The gentlemen who are able to possess fast horses, do 
not stand in need of this refreshment as much as some of 
their less favored fellows. Their winters are passed in the 
sunshine of the South and their summers in villas at Lenox 
or cottages by the sea. But to the poor and the children 
of the poor the Park offers the only glimpse of greensward 
that greets their eyes from one year's end to the other. It 
seems a cruelty to destroy these pictures of peace that a 
wise forethought has prepared for them simply to enable a 
few "opulent citizens" to enjoy their chosen pastime for a 
few weeks in the Spring and Autumn. And this is espe- 
cially true, because the Park and its scenery add nothing to 
the enjoyment of these horsemen, who find in the driving 
itself its own exceeding great reward. Some of these gen- 
tlemen have famous picture galleries, and all right-minded 
persons would sympathize with their horror and distress 
if some vandal hand should cut out a strip from the border 
of one of their favorite landscapes. But the living picture 
is just as truly a work of art as the painted one, and the 
cutting away of this broad stretch of verdure and substitut- 
ing for it something entirely incongruous with its motive 
and purpose would be an outrage quite as brutal. 

It is discouraging that elementary principles like these 
need to be stated now after the Park itself has been for 
thirty years pleading its own excuse for being. But there 
are men who do not hesitate, when their minds are filled 
with the clamors of a controlling passion, to argue in favor 
of some encroachment upon the Park that "it was made 
to use and not to look at." The notion at the bottom of 
this is, that the only legitimate use to which land in a city 
can be put is to be built upon or trampled over, or in some 
way " improved" or occupied. Even a Park Commissioner 
who had a scheme to fill up one of the fairest vales of Cen- 
tral Park with cheap carpentry once justified his purpose 
by calling the spot " a piece of unimproved land." So long- 
as it is not recognized as a principle of action that beauty 
may be in itself of the highest use ; so long as it is not un- 
derstood, that from the most practical, common sense 
view, the primary "use" of a pleasure ground like Central 
Park is "to be looked at," just so long every urban park 
in the country is threatened with destruction. 

There is no need therefore to state here the special ob- 
jections to this speed-road. There are difficulties in law 
to be urged by those who have the right to enter the Park 
and cross this track. There are enormous difficulties 
in the way of its construction. There are difficulties which 
would destroy its value as a track for fast driving even if 
it could be built. But these special objections might not 
hold against the next threat of invasion ; and one encroach- 
ment will certainly be followed by another, for there are a 
hundred classes of people — each with a claim upon the 



city's pleasure ground as valid as that of the fast drivers — 
and every one will feel encouraged to pre-empt a quarter 
section here or there for the special business or pleasure in 
which its members are chiefly interested. 

What is needed most is intelligent opinion as to the pri- 
mary uses and purposes of well-planned and planted parks. 
Their value as breathing spaces, as aids to purify the air, 
as places for exercise, is constantly and properly urged ; 
but it is only when their higher function, their healthful 
influence upon the mind, is universally appreciated, that 
the foundation is laid for the strongest resistance against 
attacks upon their integrity. 



Ghent Azaleas. 



GHENT Azaleas, as they are gen"erally known in hor- 
ticultural literature, are a race of garden hybrids 
produced in the first place by crossing Azalea Ponlica with 
different American species, especially A. calemiidacea, A. 
viscosa and A. nudiflora, and then impro^'ed b}^ selecting 
the best varieties raised from the seed of these hybrids. 
They are, perhaps, when in flower, the most beautiful of 
all our hardy shrubs. They are equally beautiful when 
massed in great beds or when grown singly. Their bril- 
liant, deliciously fragrant flowers range in color from crim- 
son and pink, through orange and yellow to almost white. 
No plants bloom more freely and few last longer in 
bloom. These Azaleas flourish in good garden soil, but 
like the evergreen Rhododendrons, they cannot bear lime, 
and the region where they can be grown in the United 
States therefore is not very large. Although the plants 
are all perfectly hardy, the blossom buds of some varie- 
ties are killed in severe winters and some grow less vig- 
orously than others. 

The following varieties, selected for a large collection, 
are hardy, vigorous and free blooming, their flower buds 
never suffering in the most severe winters : Henry Waterer, 
Belle Merville, Heureuse Surprise, Madame Baumann, 
Fama, Gloria Mundi, Astreans, Grand Monarque, Pallas, 
Beaute Celeste, Prince Plenri de Pays Bas. 

Plardly inferior in beauty to any of the varieties of 
this garden race is our native Azalea calendulacea, and 
one of the great sights of this continent for the lover of 
flowers is the slopes of the Southern Allegheny Moun- 
tains when they are blazing in June with the great flame- 
colored masses of this splendid plant. 

But these hybrid Azaleas can, perhaps, be still further 
miproved, or their blooming period, at least,, greatly ex- 
tended, by mingling with them the blood of Azalea arbo- 
rescens, a very late-blooming, hardy species, with white, fra- 
grant flowers, from the Carolina Mountains, and of the 
Californian A. occidcntalis, another late blooming species. 
Their further improvement offers an inviting field of ex- 
perimen't. 

These plants are spoken of here as Azaleas : in reality 
they are all Rhododendrons, for Azalea only differs from 
Rhododendron in its deciduous leaves, a view now accept- 
ed by botanists, but, in speaking of them from a cultural 
point of view, much confusion will be saved by retaining 
.Azalea, the name by which they are universally known in 
gardens. 

Landscape Gardening. — IV. 

IT has been said that though the landscape gardener 
works with Nature's own materials and processes, he 
does not lack those opportunities for self-expression, which 
alone make art a possibility. His task is to produce beau- 
tiful compositions — beautiful pictures. Nature supplies him 
with his factors — always gives him vitality, light, atmos- 
phere, beautiful colors and charming details, and often 
lovely or imposing forms in the configuration of the soil ; 
and she will see to the perfect finishing of his design. But 
his design is the main thing and must be of his OA\-n con- 
ceiving. 



March 21, 1888.] 



Garden and Forest. 



39 



It is easy to see that this is true wlien it is a question of 
formal, "architectural" design in gardening. But it is 
just as true when it is a question of the most "natural" 
landscape work. Nature seldom shows the artist a large 
composition which he can wish to reproduce ; and if by 
chance she does, it is impossible for hinn to reproduce it. 
Practical difficulties hedge him narrowly in, and appropri- 
ateness — which in every art is a prime consideration — 
controls his efforts more imperiously than those of most 
other artists. 

If the painter finds a natural scene which, without al- 
teration, would please him upon canvas, he can paint it as 
he finds it and take his picture where he will. If Nature 
will not help, she will not hinder him, nor will appropriate- 
ness forbid his savage, or his arctic, or his tropical land- 
scape to hang upon a' wall in Paris or New York. But the 
gardener cannot reproduce such a landscape if he would, 
and appropriateness would forbid him if he could. He 
cannot even reproduce a scene nearer horde, the appropri- 
ateness of which, in general effect and in details of vege- 
tation, might be entire. His aim is never purely ideal ; 
he can never think simply of beauty or even of appropri- 
ateness in the abstract. He may practice with abstract 
problems on paper, but with each piece of his actual work 
Nature says to him : Here in this spot I have drawn a 
rough outline, which it is for you to make into a picture. 
In many other spots I have shown you scattered beauties 
of a thousand kinds. It is for you to decide which of them 
you can bring into that picture, and for you to discover 
how they may be fused into a whole " which shall look as 
beautiful, as right, as though I had created it myself." 

Thus we see that appropriateness must be the touch- 
stone as regards not only general effects, but particular 
features. The memory may be stored with endless beau- 
ties that Nature has revealed — with innumerable "bits" of 
composition, with pregnant ideas for foregrounds, back- 
grounds, middle distances and "effects" of every sort, and 
with exhaustless materials in the way of trees and shrubs 
and flowers. But not one can be used without bringing 
the mind to bear upon the questions : Will it, theoretically, 
be appropriate in this part of the world.? Can I, theoreti- 
cally, introduce it into a creation of this special sort.? And 
will practical, local consideratio.ns permit me to introduce 
it, if I find it theoretically appropriate ? Indeed, the true 
process of landscape creation is more synthetical, more 
imaginative than this. The true artist will not go about 
with a store of ready-made features and effects in his mind 
and strive to fit them into the composition of the moment 
as best he ma}'. He will conceive his general idea in 
deference to the local prescriptions of Nature ; develop his 
general scheme as artistic fitness may seem to counsel ; 
discover the special features and details which are needed 
to perfect it (considering which Nature will permit among 
those that he might desire); and then, half unconsciously 
perhaps, search for memories of natural results which may 
teach him how to achieve his own. In educating himself 
he will have tried less to remember in a definite way those 
particular results of Nature which he may have seen than 
to understand how Nature goes to work to produce beauti- 
ful results — to permeate himself with her spirit, to compre- 
hend her aims, to learn what she means by variety in 
unity, by harmonious contrasts, by appropriateness of 
feature and detail, by beauty of lineand color, by distinct- 
ness of expression — in a word, by composition. Pie will 
have tried to train his memory of general rather than his 
memory of particular truths, and chiefl)' to purify his taste 
and to stimulate his imagination ; — for he will have known 
that, while in soine ways he is Nature's favorite pupil, in 
other ways she treats him more parsimoniously than the 
rest. She gives him a superabundance of models by the 
study of which he may make himself an artist ; but when 
as an artist he is actually at work she will never give him 
one which, part by part, can guide him in his effort. When 
we read of painters we marvel most not at -the modern 
" realist" working inch by inch from the living form, but at 



Michael Angelo on his lonely scaffold, filling his Sistine 
ceiling with forms as true as Nature's, and far more power- 
ful and superb- — no guides at hand but his memory of the 
very different forms he had studied from the life and his 
own creative thought. Yet something very like this is 
what the landscape gardener must do every time he takes 
a piece of work in hand. Certainly not each of his tasks is 
as dilficult as a Sistine ceiling, but each, vi'hether small or 
large, whether hard or easy, must be approached in the 
same way that this ceiling- was approached. Is his work 
not, therefore, pre-eminently artistic work ? Does it not 
give him full chance to express himself since it calls so im- 
peratively at every step for the exercise of the imagination, 
and since the best memory in the world can only give him 
general, and not special, counsels.? 

Af. G. Va7i Rensselaer. 



Horticulture in Florida. 

T^HE cold wave which swept over Florida in January, 1886, 
■'■ marked the beginning of a new epoch in her develop- 
ment. Before that time orange culture had been made to 
advertise the State so extensively that it had come to be re- 
garded as the all-important industry, and thousands even of 
her inhabitants looked upon it as the only one that could be 
carried on with profit here. Therefore this killing frost was 
regarded as an unmitigated disaster. True, the groves within 
the orange belt proper were not seriously damaged, but a 
cloud was cast on the title of the orange to public confi- 
dence, and the result has been that for the past two years 
Florida has suffered partial eclipse. But there are strong in- 
dications that the obscuration will not last much longer. 

The orange fever will hardly be revived and it is far from 
desirable that it should be. While it conrinued we suffered 
all the evils of a one-crop system. Besides, it diverted im- 
migration from that large portion of the State where oranges 
cannot be grown with profit, but where people can more read- 
ily make a living by mixed agriculture. The great freeze, 
therefore, did some good in checking rash investment and 
reckless planting and turning people's attention to more sub- 
stantial branches of rural industry. 

Besides the orange no fruits had obtained much favor in 
Florida before 1886, except afewof a still less hardy nature. For 
a few years the Lemon had been planted largely in southern 
Florida and the fruit was shipped in considerable quantity. 
Being less perishable, it promised soon to rival the orange in 
public favor. The Lime succeeded finely in the same region, 
as did the Grape fruit. Citron and Shaddock, but they were 
but little grown except for ornament and home use. 

In the orange belt the Guava [Psidium pomiferwn in varieties, 
and to a less extent P. Caitleianujii) had come to be regarded 
as a standard fruit, and deservedly so, for there is scarcely 
another that can be put to a greater variety of uses, or 
used more months in the year. In 1885 it was plentiful in the 
Jacksonville market, but it could hardly be shipped fresh out 
of the State. These with Bananas (planted mainly for orna- 
ment). Figs, improved native Plums {Prunus angustifoUd), the 
Scuppernong Grape, and more rarely some inferior Peaches 
and Pears, the Japan Persimmon, the Loquat {Eriobotrya) the 
Mulberry,' Pomegranate, and a few varieties of improved 
Grapes, comprised the minor fruits of the Citrus belt. 

The Cocoanut and Pineapple, formerly confined to the 
southern keys, were coming into notice as fruits adapted to 
the latitude of Lake Okeechobee, and the latter fruit had suc- 
ceeded well on the eastern coast as far north as Cape Canaveral. 
The Mango {Mangifcra Indica) and Avocado Pear (Persea 
gratissima) had fruited bountifully as far north as Tampa. 
These and other sub-tropical fruits were planted still further 
north, and there was a growing disposition to put them to the 
severest test in a climate subject to a lower range of temper- 
ature than they could by nature endure. 

Such was the situation when the memorable cold wa-s-e 
swept over us, driving the mercury down to a lower mark by 
four degrees than had been known since 1835. To make 
matters worse this cold wave was of twice the usual duration, 
which is two days. All Citrus fruits that had not been 
gathered, except in the southernmost counties and on the 
Indian River, were frozen. The Orange groves which had 
been the pride of Florida, were stripped of their foliage and 
remained bear and drearv during the remainder of the winter. 
Weak trees were seriously damaged, as were Lemon and Lime 
trees, while Guavas and 'the whole list of sub-tropical fruits 
were killed to the ground. 



40 



Garden and Forest. 



[March 21, 1888. 



Native trees of sub-tropical species, sucli as the Black Man- 
grove {ATtceiinia nitida) and the Rubl:>er Tree {Ficiis aiirea), 
some of tliem fifty years old, were killed, proving the excep- 
tional severity of the weather. North of latitude 30' on the At- 
lantic side of the peninsula, and 29° on the Gulf side, neglected 
and unprotected Orange groves were badly damaged, while 
some even on the northern border of the State were scarcely 
injured, except by loss of foliage, which began to put out again 
in IVIarch. 

This event, occurring at the beginning of the tourist season, 
and when southern California had just become accessible to 
tourists, proved disastrous to Florida in its immediate effects ; 
yet looking toward the ultimate welfare of the State, it must 
result beneficially. The Orange has shown itself to be much 
hardier than was supposed. Attention has been turned from 
sub-tropical fruits, and in seeking for substitutes many hardy 
fruits have been brought into notice, which will add greatly to 
the people's comforts and sources of income. Faith in the 
one-crop system has given place to desire for greater variety. 
The people have been led to inquii-e and experiment, and by 
this means have come to know that the orange belt, as well as 
the cotton belt of the State, is adapted to a great variety of 
profitable and attractive industries. That some progress has 
been made in the way of fruit-growing will be shown in an- 
other letter. 

Jacksonville, Fla. A. H. LurtlSS. 

A Disease of Certain Japanese Shrubs. 

JAPANESE shrubs form, as every horticulturalist knows, 
conspicuous ornaments of modern gardens, and are in 
many cases to be regarded as indispensable. All that concerns 
them is, therefore, of interest, and details of the experience 
even of a single amateur may not be without interest. In my 
own garden at Newport, R. I., the exposure is to^vards the east, 
and tlie distance from the sea-beach about one-eighth of a 
mile. The soil is light, but fairly good, with underlying clay. 
The prevailing wind during the greater part of the year is from 
the south-west. The average winter temperature is higher 
than 20" F. Lower temperatures are not very frequent, but 
temperatures as low as 0°, or even lower, do occur, though 
not for more than one or two days at a time, and not more 
frequently than once or twice in the course of a winter. The 
spring is always very cold and late — a fact which was noted by 
Bishop Berkeley during his residence on the island in 1728-34. 
For a number of years I have observed that spring arrives at 
Cambridge, Mass., nearly a fortnig-ht earlier than at this place. 
Warni days in April are very C)ften followed by very cold 
nights. The cool and delightful summer is followed by a long, 
very cool autuinn, not favorable to the perfect ripening of 
bulbs. 

I have for some years cultivated Japanese and Chinese 
shrubs with an especial predilection, and have noted the 
following curious fact in regard to a number belonging to dif- 
ferent natural orders : Some time in July or August the tips 
of the new shoots begin to look sickly, then wither, turn brown 
and finally die down to the root, leaving a number of other 
branches in a healthy condition. This I have observed in 
Rosa rugosa,CercisJaponica, Acer polyjnorpliiim and varieties, 
Exocliorda grandiflora and Staphyha Buinahia. I have not 
been able to detect the presence of any insect, and have found 
no remedy, except the heroic one of cutting out all affected 
branches. As a rule the root remains sound and sends up new 
shoots during' the ensuing spring. Exocliorda grandiflora has 
suffered most and for several successive seasons. The disease 
showed itself for the first time in the summer of 1886 in an old 
and very large group of Rosa rugosa, and again during the 
past summer in some mvich younger plants. Cercis Japonica 
is not liardy here, but is killed to the ground every spring. The 
new shoots invariably begin to die clown in July. Viburtiuin 
plication is not affected, and 1 have not observed the disease 
in Ainpelopsis Veifcliii or in Cercidiphylluin Japoniciun, 
Rhodotypiis Kcrrioides, Hydrangea paniculata grandiflora, 
Actinidia polygama, Akebia quinata or in Eleagniis longipes, 
which last summer bore a prodigious crop of an agreeable 
acid fruit. I have already stated that on this island very warm 
days in April are often followed by very cold nights. Two 
years since beautiful hedges of Lonicera HalUana were killed, 
root and branch, by alternate heat and cold in April, while 
Lonicera Japonica and Lonicera brachypoda aureo-reticitlata 
also suffered severely, although in a less degree. It may prove 
that the disease which I have observed is also due to alter- 
nations of heat and cold, and perhaps that it is analogous to the 
frozen sap-blight which aflects the pear. 

Newpoi-i. R. 1. Wolcott Gibbs. 



Foreign Correspondence. 

The Kew Arboretum. 

THE living collection of trees and shrubs in the open 
air at Kew is by far the most extensive of any in 
Europe. It is intended in these notes to give an account 
of the most remarkable specimens of this famous arbore- 
tum, but it seems first of all desirable to give a sketch of 
its history, so that some idea can be formed of the way in 
which, from a small beginning, Kew has attained its 
present importance. About the middle of the seventeenth 
century Kew — and tliis short, familiar name I shall use to 
designate the Botanic Gardens and Y\.rboretum — belonged 
to a gentleman named R. Bennett, whose daughter and 
heiress married Lord Capel, who died Lord Deputy of Ire- 
land in 1696. Lord Capel in reality was the first to begin 
the formation of a botanical collection by importing rare 
trees and shrubs from France. It was not, however, until 
a long lease of Kew had been obtained from the Capel 
family by the Prince of Wales that much was done in alter- 
ing and laying out the grounds. The mother of George 
III., Augusta, the Princess Dowager of Wales, some years 
after the deaihof her husband, resided at Kew, and decided 
to make a botanic garden. In this work, which she took 
great pleasure in personally superintending, she received 
much assistance from the Earl of Bute, a liberal patron of 
men of genius, both in literature and in the arts, but proba- 
bly the most unpopular English minister of modern times. 
It may be worth mentioning here that Lord Bute's favorite 
study was botany, and that he published a quarto work in 
nine volumes, entitled "Botanical Tables," a whim which 
it is said cost him ;^io,ooo ; only twelve copies were 
printed. 

In 1759 William Alton, a pupil of the celebrated Philip 
Miller, the friend and contemporary of Linnseus, was 
placed in charge' of the gardens. Alton laid out and 
planted as an Arboretnfn, according to the LiniiEEan sys- 
tem, a piece of ground about five acres in extent. Many 
of the finest foreign trees were contributed in 1763 from 
his garden at Whitton by Archibald, Duke of Argyle, sur- 
named by Horace Walpole, the Tree-mon-ger. The follow- 
ing testimonial to the ability and character of this nobleman 
is given by Peter Collinson (the friend and contemporary 
of Linnaeus), a famous old gardener, who was the first to 
introduce to cultivation in Britain, through his friends Bar- 
tram, Catesby, and others, a host of North American trees, 
shrubs and plants : "The Duke of Argyle, on the 15th of 
"April, 1 76 1, died as he sat in his chair, my honored friend 
" and great patron of all planters, aged 79, a very hearty 
"man of that age. In the year 1723-4 he took in a part of 
" Hounslow Heath, to add to a little farm, and began plant- 
' ' ing by raising all sorts of trees and shrubs from seeds from 
"our northern colonies and all other parts of the world ; he 
" had the largest collection in England, and happily lived to 
' ' see to what a surprising maturity they had arrived in thirty- 
" seven or thirty-eight years. Great was his benevolence, 
" for he gave to every one to encourage planting, and raised 
' ' plants on purpose to oblige the curious at this seat of his, 
" called Whitton. He had a fine collection of rare birds and 
"beasts ; he was a great chemist, natural philosopher, me- 
" chanic, astronomer and mathematician. He was a won- 
" derfully amiable man, plain in his dress, without pride or 
" vain ostentation ; his library was scarcely to be equaled. 
" He was 41 years old when he began to sow seeds for his 
' ' plantations. " Several of the trees presented to Kew by the 
Duke of Argyle are still flourishing in their original posi- 
tions, and a detailed account of some of them will be given 
by and by. 

It would be a waste of time to give minute details re- 
specting Kew and its fortunes between the periods men- 
tioned above and 1841, although there is not the slightest 
intention to underrate the services of the second Aiton, nor 
of his able colleague, Mr. John Smith, A.L.S., who is still 
hale and hearty, and takes a lively interest in all matters 



March 21, 1888.] 



Garden and Forest. 



41 



horticultural.* The next step of most importance was the 
appointment of Sir W. J. Hooker in 1841. The greater por- 
tion of what is now the Aboretum was then called the 
Pleasure Grounds, and was simply nothing more or less 
than a game preserve. The new Director lost no time in 
calling the attention of the government to the cramped ac- 
commodation for the hardy ligneous collections, and urged 
the formation of a National Arboretum. A plan was drawn 
out by Nesfield, one of the foremost landscape gardeners 
of his time, and the lines laid down by him have in a 
broad sense been followed. When Her Majesty relin- 
quished the grounds in 1840 the "Board of Green Cloth " 
ceased to control the destinies of Kew, and it was placed un- 
der H. M. Commissioners of Woods and Forebts. In 1843 PS""" 
mission was granted to utilize a piece of ground measur- 
ing forty-eight acres as a pinetum ; of this plot the noble 
palm house may now be said to form the centre. A con- 
siderable number of fine Conifers still exist of those planted 
at that time. Not until 1850 were the Pleasure Grounds — 
more than 178 acres in extent — diverted from their use as 
a game preserve and devoted to their present purpose. 
For some time before the appointment of Sir W. J. Hooker, 
Kew had languished for want of efficient support, but ever 
since that event the establishment has progressed by leaps 
and bounds. After the death of Sir W. J. Hooker, his son. 
Sir J. D. Hooker, reigned in his stead, and no one in the 
scientific world is unaware of the services rendered to hor- 
ticulture and botany by the late director. The appoint- 
ment of Mr. ^^'. T. Thistleton Dyer to his present post is a 
comparativel)^ recent occurrence, but the works carried out 
by him sufficiently prove that the establishment will de- 
velop still further and will maintain its position at the head 
of the botanic gardens of the world. 

Kew, February, iSS8. George Niclioisoil. 

Floral Notes from London. 

A new race of hybrid Begonias has been originated by the 
Messrs. Veitch, of Chelsea, which promises to become of con- 
siderable value for winter flowering. The foundation of this 
race is the new Begonia Socotrana, which was discovered and 
introduced a few years ago by Professor Balfour when e.xplor- 
ing the little known island of Socotra in the Gulf of Aden. 
This species is distinct from other cultivated Begonias, having 
shield shaped or round leaves, and flowers of symmetrical out- 
line about one and one-half inches across and of a bright rose- 
pink. It flowers naturally in winter, and so it occurred to the 
iVIessrs. Veitch that a good result could be obtained by inter- 
crossing the Socotra Begonia with some high colored varieties 
of the South American species, especially with those having 
distinctly tuberous roots and which bloom in summer. The first 
attempt resulted in the production of a pretty variety showing 
intermediate characters between the parents. It had more 
rounded leaves than its parent, B. insignis, while its flowers, 
though smaller than those of B. Socotrana, were more highly 
colored. It was named Autumn Rose Ijecause it began to 
flower in autumn and continued nearly throughout the winter. 
The next cross of B. Socotrana was with a tuberous variety, 
and the pretty hybrid named John Heal resulted. It is a dwarf 
compact plant, producing flowers very freely, and continuing 
in bloom through the winter. The flowers are of a bright 
cherry-crimson. A third variety is named Adonis, which has 
much larger flowers than the preceding two, more regular in 
form and of a pleasing rose-pink. The most recent hybrid is 
called Winter Gem, a cross between B. Socotrana and a highly 
colored tuberous variety. It has large, bold leaves, almost as 
round as those of the Socotra Begonia, and large flowers of good 
shape of a bright rosy-crimson borne well above the foliage. 
Messrs. Veitch have a large number of seedlings yet to flower, 
and judging by the rate of advancement in the few hitherto 
produced, some good things may be e.xpected. 

The White Bornean Jasmine is one of the loveliest and 
most fragrant plants one can grow for a continuous supply 
of cut bloom during winter. At least, it is so here, and, no 
doubt, the plant would behave as well in America. It is rather 
a new plant, introduced by Messrs. Veitch a few years ago 

* Since the above letter was written the veteran ex-curator of the 
Royal Botanic Gardens has passed away at the age of ninety years. 
—Ed. 



from Borneo. It has a tendency to climb, its shoots being 
slender and rambling. It flowers abundantly; every twig bears 
a cluster of blossoms. It delights in a warm and moist house, 
and if in a light position will produce a continuous crop of 
bloom for several weeks. 

The Double Chinese Primula, Eva Fish, is not a new variety, 
having been put in commerce years ago by Messrs. Hender- 
son, but rarely, if ever, has it been seen in such perfection as 
at an exhibition of the Royal Horticultural Societv at a late win- 
ter meeting, when it was honored with a certificate. It is dis- 
tinct from all the others in point of color, which is a sort of 
plum-purple. The flowers are very large, perfectly double, 
being, in fact, like compact rosettes, and are borne in great 
trusses, rising well above the luxuriant foliage. There is no 
other double Primula of a similar color to compare with this 
one, and it will probably become even more popular than 
heretofore. Each flower of the double Primida makes a neat 
buttonhole bouquet and they are much used for this purpose. 

Will. Goldring. 

Plant Notes. 

Hardy Begonias.- -Mr. Pringle's note concerning the re-dis- 
covery of Begonia gracilis in Northern Mexico, reminds me to 
ask \\\\y the old hardy Begonia Evansiana {discolor) is so 
much neglected. I once had a bed of these plants in northern 
Maryland, which occupied the same spot for eight or ten 
years. The bulbs were occasionally lifted and reset, as they 
became too thick in the bed, but had little other attention, 
being treated as a little group in the shade of trees in an out- 
of-the-way place. The plants came through a temperature of 
18° below zero in 18S0, without any covering. My practice was 
to plant early Tulips among them, in the fall, to make a bit of earlv 
color, and by the time the Begonia leaves appeared above ground 
the Tulips were ready to be lifted. In autumn the bed was a 
mass of rosy bloom, until frost cut the flowers down. I have 
never seen it planted elsewhere, and it is now hardly known 
except in old green-houses, where it sometimes becomes 
almost a weed from the dropping of the bulblets from the axils 
of the leaves. It is far more reliable as a bedder than any 
Begonia I ever used. 

Crozet, Va. W. F. Massey. 

Grevillea Thelemanniana. — This elegant little Proteaceous 
plant is one of the prettiest of the genus, and a native of 
Australia. It attains a height of diree to five feet, and has 
slender, drooping Isranches, terminated bv pendulous racemes 
of bright red flowers tipped with yellow, their beauty being- en- 
hanced by the delicate pinnate leaves. Although a scarce 
plant it is a comparatively easy one to grow, and will do well in 
company with Azaleas. It should be potted in a compost of 
equal parts of peat and loam with a good sprinkling of sand ; 
care should be taken not to give it too much pot-room. During 
the winter months — which is the time the flowers generally ap- 
pear — the plants should be kept comparatively moist at tlie root, 
but the atmosphere of the house should be dry, and a tempera- 
ture from 45° to 55° maintained. The Protcacece are not so 
popular as they should be, probably on account of the extra 
attention the plants require during the hot days of summer, 
when neglect of watering may result in their death. A good 
plan in summer is to plunge the pots to their level, out of 
doors where water is handy. This species is easily increased 
by cuttings of half-matured shoots inserted in sand in a cool 
house. F. Goldring. 



Allium Neapolitanum is the prettiest wliite flowering species 
of the genus, a native of southern Europe, barely hardy here, 
but well fitted for pot culture. We had it in capital bloom in 
February in a cool green-house. The bulbs are roundish, very 
small and silvery gray, the foliage is flat and moderately broad", 
and the flowers quite pretty, white and loosely arranged in full 
umbels terminating a scape some fifteen inches long. The 
plants set and ripen seed freely and by sowing this seed a fresh 
stock of the plants can be readily secured. 

Ornithogalum Arabicum.— Dry bulbs of this plant potted last 
October and then grown along in a cool green-house are now in 
bloom. The flowers are large, white with black centres, showy 
and in flat-headed racemes 'terminating scapes, some eighteen 
to twenty-four inches long. The foliage is long, flat and slender, 
but I cut it into about half its length antl in this way secure a 
tidy form. This species and O. /^'i^/^ww, from South Africa, arc 
the best for pot culture, and both are easily grown. f K F. 



42 



Garden and Forest. 



[March 21, 1888. 



Akebia quinata. — In Philadelphia we can c;'"ow, with a little 
protection, many of the southern vines, such as the Carolina 
]asm\ne,Berchi:7niavol!ibi!is,Bigiw?i!acap?'eolafaixn(lDecui/iaria 
barbara, a privilege denied to many but a few degrees north of 
us. But after all we could hardly spare the useful and pretty 
Akebia qttinata. Its trifoliate leaves, though apparently so 
tender, when young, are sturdy enough for any weather, and 
the plant itself defies our most severe winters. Its rapid 
growth, and its early plum-colored flowers with their delicious 
fragrance make it altogether desirable. When planted where 
thick, yet not dense, shade is required, no vine is more effec- 
tive. It rarely produces fruit here, yet on several occasions 
specimens of the fruit have been exhibited at our Horticultural 
Society. One of the best ways to propagate the Akebia is to 
take half-ripened wood in midsummer, cut into lengths of 
from one to two eyes each, and insert them in pans of 
sand and ■\vatcr. . Joseph Meehan. 



bright purple. The flowers are so placed as to resemble a fly- 
ing Ijird, and justify the popular name of "Bird of Paradise 
Plant." W. A. Manda. 



Wayside Beaut}'. 

T N these days there is no lack of advice to plant trees by every 
•'■ roadside, and Village Improvement Societies are furnish- 
ing good examples of neatly kept highways. But many of our 
country roads are already bordered with trees and shrubs and 
climbing vines of Nature's own planting, and it is quite as im- 
portant to preserve the wild beauty of this spontaneous growth 
as it is to provide for the inore formal and stately rows of Elms 
and Maples which are planted on Arbor days. The illustration 
below gives a glimpse of a New England by-road which, 
fortunately, has escaped the axe and brush-hook of the enter- 
prising path-master. Many ofiicials in charge of our highways 




A Countiy Road. 



Strelitzia augusta. — Most gardeners are familiar with the 
Strelitzia Rcgina. generally cultivated and flowered in our 
green-houses, but the plant named above is rarely seen and 
still more rarely in flower. It does not bloom until it is from 
fifteen to twenty-five years of age, but afterwards it keeps push- 
ing up its curious spathes of flowers which last long in per- 
fection. Aside from the showy flowers which are produced 
nearly the whole year round, its stately form and large leaves 
make it conspicuous. Those only can enjoy its possession, 
however, who have large green-houses, for the plant grows 
from 15 to 20 or more feet in height. Its culture is simple. It 
flourishes best if planted out in the green-house in a good, rich 
compost of loam, sand and leaf-mould, and in this way it will 
take an unlimited amount of water. It can be grown from 
seed as well as from offshoots which are produced from the 
base of the plant. It is related to the Banana which it resem- 
bles in appearance and structure. The stem is marked with 
irregular rings where the leaves have separated. The leaves 
are large, oblong-lanceolate and slightly arching. The stout 
scape branches" out into three or four spathes resembling- 
small canoes, from which the flowers are produced in succes- 
sion. The three nearly equal sepals are eight inches long and 
pure white, while the two halbert-shaped petals are smaller and 



appreciate the value of trees when planted in straight rows 
and at equal distances, but a group of Cockspur Thorn, or 
Sassafras, or Black Haw, or a thicket of Sumach, or Hazel-nut, 
is too often looked upon as a disfigurement and a proof that 
the overseer is neglecting his duty to keep the roadside neat 
and clean. Miles on miles of wayside lieauty are sacrificed 
every year to this mania for " trimming up," but the trees and 
shrubs spring up again to clothe the desert made by man. In 
smooth and level regions a strip of greensward bordering the 
wheel-way and running under the open fences into adjoining 
fields is always pleasing, and it cannot be too neatly kept. But 
in all hilly and stony regions east of the AUeghanies, no love- 
lier road-border can be conceived of than the native trees and 
shrubs which flourish wherever they are left to themselves. 
Every one recalls some narrow lane or by-way, with fern-em- 
broidered thiclvets on either hand, where the June Berry and 
Wild Plum and Witch-Hazcl blossom above the Roses and 
Honeysuckles and Red-root ; where the Wild Grape covers 
the nakedness of the stone walls and the Bitter-sweet swings 
from the branches of the trees overhead ; where wild flowers 
can be found in bloom any day between April and November; 
where the brown thrush sings and the rabbit makes her home. 
Indeed, it woifld be difficult to name a spot where there is 



March 21, 1888.] 



Garden and Forest. 



43 



more of natural beauty and melody and fragrance than a coun- 
try roadside against which the hand of improvement has not 
been lifted. 




Iris bracteata. 



A MONG the peculiar species of the genus Iris which are 
-^~*- found upon the Pacific slope of North America, the one 
here figured is one of the more notable and interesting. From 
near the extremity of its slender rootstock it sends up a flower- 
ing stem which is covered by loose sheathing and overlapping 
bracts, purplish, and scarcely differing from the bracts which 
subtend the flowers. The flowers are usually large, either 
nearly pure yellow or the recurved sepals (or "'falls'," as they 
are sometimes called), veined with bluish purple. The tube 
of the flower is very short and funnel-shaped, and the sepals, 
as in all Western species, are without beard or crest. The 
petals are narrow and erect, and the narrow styles are much 
prolonged beyond the antliers. The leaves that arise from the 
rootstock are solitary, at first sheathed at base by several thin, 
equitant bracts which appear to soon dry and wither. The 
leaf itself is linear and taller than the stem, thick and leathery, 
and persistent to the second or third year. When dry, the 
margins become revolute as a consequence of a dissimi'laritv 
in the two surfaces. The ordinary equitant leaf of Iris is as if 
it were folded longitudinally upon itself, so that the two sur- 
faces are identical in character. Here, while one side is 
smooth, close and bright green, as usual, the other is lighter 
colored, with a very thin cuticle crowded with stomata, mak- 
ing it, of course, much more hygrometric. 

This species was found by Mr. Thomas Howell, of Arthur, 
Oregon, in 1884, in the mountains of Josephine County, very 
near the southern boundary of that State, flowering in the lat- 
ter part of April and in iVIay. In 1887 he again visited the 
locality and secured roots, from which it is hoped that the 
plant may be introduced into cultivation. In its characters it 
is most nearly allied to /. Douglasiana, which is common in 
the Coast Ranges of California from Del Norte to Alameda 
County. That species is much more leafy, and the usually 
pale lilac flowers have a much longer and narrower perianth- 
tube. The accompanying figure is from a drawing by Mr. C. 
E. Fa.xon. 5. IV. 



Fig. 8. — Iris bracteata. 



Sweet Peas. 

OUT of thirty-one named varieties of Sweet Peas, planted 
for trial last year, I found but nineteen really distinct 
kinds. Cardinal was practically identical with Invincible Scar- 
let ; so was Princess Louise, with The Queen ; Queen of the 
Isles, with Invincible Red Striped ; Violet Queen and Grand 
Blue, with Light Blue and Purple ; Purple Striped, with Black 
and White ; Captain Clark and Lotty Eckford, with Blue Edged. 

Princess Beatrice is one of the most beautififl, with large, 
clear rose-pink flowers. Miss Ethel and Isa Eckford are nearly 
identical with it, but somewhat inferior. Adonis is similar, 
but darker, a deep carmine-pink. The Queen has a standard 
of deep rose, tinged with purple, and darker wings — a finelv- 
formed flower, a trifle dull in color. Vesuvius is quite distinct, 
with standard of rosy-crimson, lighter at the edges, spotted antl 
veined toward the centre with darker color, and wings of rosy 
purple, spotted like the standard. 

Of scarlets. Invincible Carmine is the best, being an improve 
ment on Invincible Scarlet, with broad standards, the rich color 
deepened in the wings and heavily shading the keel. Duchess 
of Edinburgh is similar, but with standard of lighter color and 
a white keel. Scarlet Striped has a white ground shaded and 
striped with scarlet, while Invincible Red Striped has scarlet 
ground, striped and blotched with white. 

No pink and white variety is as good as Painted Lady, though 
Crown Princess of Prussia is beautiful, but of lighter color. 
Captain Clark has a white standard shaded with rose and 
veined with dark lines, and white Avings tinged with rose and 
edged with purple. Fairy Queen is nearly pure white, with a 
few delicate, crimson veins in the centre of the standard. But- 
terfly is white, faintly edged and shaded with blue. 

Among the blues. Bronze Prince is an improvement on In- 
digo King, having better formed standards, the purplish crim- 
son distinctly tinged with bronze. Violet Queen shows a 

*I. BRACTEATA, Watsoii, Pioc. A}iur. Acad., .x-f. 37s. Roolstocli slender; le.ive3 
solitarv. rit»:id, mucli exceeding the stem (one or two feet long by half an inch 
broad or less), striate, one side green and the other glancous, revolute on drying ; 
stem angled, covered with imbricated sheathing bracts two to four inches long; 
bracts of the spathe approximate, thin-foliaceous, two or three inches long, two- 
flowered ; perianth-tube short, funr-.el-form ; sepals oblong-oblanceolate, two or 
three inches long, recurved, yellow, usually veined with bUiish nurple ; petals 
erect, oblanceolate, somewhat shorter; anthers longer than the filaments; styles 
long-crested ; capsules exscrted, ovate-oblong, an inch long. 



44- 



Garden and Forest. 



[March 21, 1888. 




Fio;. 9. — Chinese Narcissus grown in water. 



reddish violet tinge in tlie wings, and Imperial Blue shows 
more blue than others of this class. Princess of Wales and 
Purple Striped are the best of the dark-striped varieties, the 
one blue and white and the other purplish crimson and 
white. 

The most useful of all for cut flowers is the old Pure White. 
Unfortunately it is a rather poor grower, and therefore the an- 
nouncement last year that an improved variety of Pure White 
had been shown at an English exhibition was gratifying to all 
who take a special interest in these beautiful and fragrant flow- 
ers. Other new varieties at English exhibitions, spoken of as 
distinct and promising, are Primrose, Mauve Queen, Splentlor 
and Apple Blossom, whose names give some indication of their 
color. A. H. Ffwkcs. 



" It cannot be too often repeated that care should be taken 
not to willfully destroy the native features of the scene. Many 
gardeners assume that before beginning their plantings thev 
must dig up everything that Nature has made to grow; whereas 
experience proves that they would accomplisli their end much 
sooner and better if they should try to second Nature by mak- 
ing slight changes here and careful additions there." 

From C. C. L. Hirschfeld's Theorie dcr Gartenkunst, Leipzig, 
1777- 



Polyanthus Narcissus. 

THE ancient Chinese custom of growing the Polyanthus Nar- 
cissus in water to bloom at the advent of their New Year 
was brought to San Francisco Ijv emigrants from the Celestial 
Empire more than a quarter of a century ago. The fashion has 
now reached the east, and it is not very uncommon to see this 
plant growing in this way in the houses of Boston and its sub- 
urbs. The cultivation of the Narcissus in water is very simple. 
The bulli is placed in a shallow bowl or deep plate, about six 
weeks before it is ^x-anted in flower, and, according to the 
Chinese habit, is surrounded with small bright-colored stones 
probably to prevent it from tipping in tlie plate ; this is filled 
with water and should be placed in the dark until root-growth 
is made. When the roots appear the plant should be placed 
in a sunnv window and will require no further care beyond a 
daily addition of fresh water. 

The variety of Narcissus brouglit Iiy the Chinese to this' 
country and from here introduced into England, is known as 
the Grand Emperor. The Chinese liulbs are exceedingly vigor- 
ous. They are nearly double the size of those of other varie- 
ties of this species of Narcissus, and when grown in water some- 
times throw up leaves and flower-stems tln-ee feet in height. 
The Chinese Narcissus is an interesting and attractive house 
plant. Our illustration above is from a photograph of a plant 
tjrown near Boston. 



March 21 



1888.] 



Garden and Forest. 



45 



Annuals for Cut Flowers. 

ANNUALS suitable for cut tiovvers are also the most suitable 
for garden decoration. They should be ready growers 
and free bloomers, and have bright, showy or fragrant flow- 
ers, with stiff stems, and they should last well when cut. And 
we should grow enough to enable us to have large clusters of 
a kind ratlier than a few blooms only of each. While Gaillar- 
dias and French Marigolds bloom all summer long, Asters and 
j\'Iignonette last but a few weeks, and Poppies not many days. 
To have annuals, therefore, in good condition all sumnaer long, 
we must make two or more sowings of many kinds. I make 
repeated sowings of Asters, Mignonette, Phlox, Candytuft and 
the like, not only to succeed themselves, but also to succeed 
Hollyhocks, Canterbury Bells, Veronicas and other plants that 
bloom before midsummer, and are then cut over. And as 
many of the spring-sown annuals, ZiVmias and African Mari- 
golds, for instance, become disheveled before they have cjuite 
finished blooming, I never hesitate to clear them away and re- 
place with fresh plants. This necessitates keeping up a re- 
serve stock, which I always do, and in this way have as fine 
Zinnias, Eldorado Marigolds, Scabious, Salvias and some 
other annuals, until frost overtakes them, in October, as in July. 
In order to have good flowers we must grow them in good 
ground. 

We have a great variety of uses for cut flowers. Cannas, 
African Marigolds, miniature Sunflowers, large Poppies and 
Zinnias appear to good advantage in large bunches in roomy 
halls, and if cut with long leafy stems so much the better. For 
parlor and dining-room tables and brackets we should use the 
most beautiful flowers, and such as are pleasantly, but not 
strongly, fragrant. A mixture of many kinds of flowers to- 
gether in one vase should be avoided. 

hi addition to the annuals that are most desirable for cut 
flowers we have a large assortment well fitted for garden 
decoration, and from which, too, we may cull many a bouc[uet; 
for instance. Sweet Alyssum, Schizantlius, Clarkia, Browallia, 
Mimulus, Godetia, Cornflowers and the like. 

The following are all' worth sowing for cut flowers : 

China Asters. — Truffaut's Improved Pcconia Perfection, Vic- 
toria, Crown and Reid's Quilled are capital. By sowing in 
March, the end of April and the first of June we can have 
Asters from July till October. Crimson, rose and white are the 
most desirable. 

Candytuft. — Rose and white are the most desirable colors. 
Sweet-scented, Spiral and Dwarf Hybrid White are the best 
summer varieties ; and Gibraltarica is preferred for wintering 
over in frames. 

Cannas. — If sown in March in the green-house, and planted 
out in May, these should bloom in September. 

Single Dahlias. — These grow readily from seed and seed- 
lings four to five months old bloom freely. 

Druminond Phlo.-c. — The grandiflora section is best. Sow 
now or in April and again early in June. 

Gaillardias. — The annuals, as G.picta, and its double variety, 
Loretisia and G. amblyodon, bloonr abundantly from June till 
October, but with age the plants get sprawly, hence the ne- 
cessity of a successional sowing in May. The perennial G. 
aristata and its grandiflora and ina.xima forms also bloom 
well as annuals. 

Larkspur. — Although showy, the annuals are not good 
enough for cut flowers, but some of the perennial species, 
notably Delphinium gratidiflorunt, bright and beautiful, are 
very free flowering when treated as annuals. 

Marigolds. — Of the English, Meteor is good in early sum- 
mer and fall ; and of African, the Eldorado strain is unsur- 
passed. Among French Marigolds the double striped are 
best, still many prefer the brown or mahogany color. 

Mignonette. — Miles' Spiral is one of the best. Sow early and 
in good ground. 

Nasturtiums. — These are desirable on account of their 
brightness and lasting qualities. Lobb's varieties are better 
than either the common tall or dwarf annuals. 

Pansies. — The Trimardeau gives us the largest flowers. Sow 
in June for fall flowers, and in August for spring use. 

Petunias. — Bunches of double Petunias are quite pretty, and 
last well. They grow freely from seed, and bloom when 
about three nionths old, but we cannot reasonably expect 
more than twenty-five per cent, to come double. 

Poppies, especially the double sorts, last in good condition 
for two or three days when cut before they are fully open. 
Sow broadcast about the end of March or first of April. 

Scarlet Salvia. — This can be treated as an annual sown in 
February in-doors and in May out-doors. The flowers last 
only for a day or two. 



Scabious. — The large-flowered section and the very dark 
plum-purple and white varieties are liest, and they bloom all 
summer long. 

Stocks. — The large-flowered ten-week Stocks, scarlet and 
white, are the best, and it is better to make repeated sowings 
than to depend upon the Intermediate Stocks for a supply in 
fall. 

Sweet Peas. — Sow in rich soil just as soon as the frost is out 
of the ground. The first sowings are always good ; sometimes 
the successional sowings will not bloom at all. 

Sunflowers. — The "New Miniature" (which is Helianthus 
cucumerifolivs pure and simple) is best. The flowers are 
small, bright golden yellow, with dark centres, and have none 
of the coarse appearance peculiar to the ordmary .Sunflowers 
seen in gardens. 

Verbenas. — The Mammoth strain is best. Sow early, say in 
February or March, and plant out in May in rich, moist 
ground. Verbenas will not thrive in hot, dry, poor land. 

Vincas. — The pure white variety, and the white, with red eye, 
are best. Sow early and plant out in late May in a warm, 
sunny exposure. 

Zinnias. — The new one, grandiflora plenissima, gives the 
largest flowers, but the dwarf, double wliite, yellow and scarlet 
give the most satisfactory results. Never buy mixed seed, as 
it not only contains much poor stuft', but many " washy " colors. 

Wm. Falconer. 



Hepatica and Blood-root. 

AMONG the flowers which vie with each other in being the 
first to welcome April, the Trailing Arbutus is, at the 
East, as early as any. Even now, however, in early March, 
the blue-eyed Hepatica is opening in our garden, to which we 
transplanted it from the woods. It always succeeds in cultiva- 
tion ; but to see it in its beauty one must go to the forest. No 
flower has a more decided personality — whether its face is 
seen peeping from among the dead leaves, from the base of 
some rock, or tlie brow of some mossy boulder. There are 
those who maintain that it has no odor. But really it exhales 
a faint, but exquisite, fragrance. 

The Hepatica is a near relative of the Wood Anemone. In- 
deed Ijotanists now call it Anonone Hepatica. Like its delicate 
cousin, it is apetalous. Below the calyx, at a greater or less 
distance in particular individuals, is a whorl of three ovate and 
soft, silky bracts. Beginners in botany mistake these, and 
naturally, for the calyx. The sepals are quite indefinite in 
number, as are the stamens and pistils. Its three-lobed, glossy 
green leaves add much to its charm, and theirshape suggested 
the name of Liverwort. 

Another early April flower, equally easy to transplant and to 
cultivate, is the pretty Blood-root [Sangtdnaria Canadensis). It 
belongs to the Poppy family, and its pure white and very de- 
ciduous flowers come up enfolded by a leaf. Later on, this leaf 
expands to a great size, and is itself highly ornamental. One 
has to lie up with the lark to catch its two fugacious sepals. 

The Hepatica loves rocky, wooded hillsides, while the Blood- 
root seeks the banks of streams. Yet both will thrive under 
wholly different surroundings in a city garden. This leads 
me to say that many of our wild plants can be cultivated, and 
with proper care they will increase in size and beauty. Among 
the spring flowers we have tried are Bluets {Houstonia ca;rulea), 
the yellow Violet [Viola pubescens), the wild Columbine {Aqui- 
legia Canadensis), the Indian Turnip {Ariscema trypkillum), 
and the Dutchman's Breeches {Dicentra Cucullaria). All these, 
and many more, deserve a place in the flower garden. 

Providence, R. I. ">'''■ Whitman Baihy . 



w 



The Propagation of Magnolias. 

''HEN the Magnolias are to be propagated by seed it 
should be separated from the pod as soon as ripe, 
macerated in water for a week or more, and then, after a 
thorough washing in clean water, it should be sown, while still 
moist, in pots or boxes filled with light, sandy and well-drained 
soil. These should be kept in a cool house until January, when 
they may have a temperature of 50= at night and 10^ or 15- 
higher during the day. If the soil is kept moist, but not wet, the 
seed will usually germinate in five or six weeks, when the young 
plants can be removed to small pots or boxes. If shifted on 
from small pots to larger ones during the summer, and grown 
in a close, moist atmosphere, many of them will be established 
and fit to graft by autumn. If not sown in the green-house, 
the seed, after being cleaned, should be put in boxes with 
sand in alternate layers and placed in a frame or cellar where 



46 



Garden and Forest. 



[March 21, 1888. 



it will not freeze, until about the lirst of May in this latitude, 
when, as soon as the ground becomes warm, it may be 
sown out-of-doors. If the seed is not washed clean as soon as 
possible after gathering, it quickly becomes rancid, and will 
not germinate readily; but when thoroughly cleaned and mi.xed 
with damp sand it will keep for a long time. I have sown the 
seed without washing, and the pulp in rotting soured the soil 
and a fungus appeared in it, so that tlie plants had to be moved 
into fresh soil to save them. 

When the Magnolias are propagated by grafting, the stocks 
should be well established in pots the year before and plunged 
in a frame or other sheltered place and cared for during the 
summer. When cold weather approaches, the pots should be 
removed, before they freeze, to a pit or frame where they can 
be protected until used. They can be grafted successfully 
from the middle of January to the middle of March either by 
side or cleft-grafting under double frames — that is, under a 
box frame in the green-house. They prefer a slight bottom 
heat to start the roots into working- condition. The frame 
should be kept close for a few days, or weeks, during bright 
weather, but air may be given when the house is closed and 
on cloudy days. A slight syringing- once or twice a day in 
bright weather will be beneficial. It is usually from three to 
five weeks before grafts can be considered established, although 
in from seven to ten days an estimate can be niade of what 
percentage has " taken." Magnolias can also be grafted from 
half ripened wood from July to Septeniber, and they can be 
budded during August or September. They are usuallv 
grafted on stock of M. acuminata and JM. Uinbrellaj some pre- 
ferring the latter because of its abundant fibrous roots and the 
ease with which it can be transplanted. I prefer, however, M. 
acuminata, because the other species suckers, and unless 
great care is taken these shoots will kill out the graft in the 
young- stock. 

Magnolias can also be increased by layering ; in fact, luitil 
within a few years this vi-as the favorite method of propagation, 
and few gardeners knew how to graft them. Laj^ering is a 
simple operation, and can be performed in spring or summer. 
A small trench is dug a little way from the plant, and into this 
branches are bent down and held lirnily with hooked pegs. 
The ends are then turned up, the young branches are tongued 
under an eye and the trench is filled up with good loam. 
In hot, dry weather, water should be given occasionally. If 
layered early some of them will root the first season, although 
rnany of the Magnolias will not root until the second year. As 
soon as rooting takes place, the branch should be separated 
from the old plant, pruned into shape and transplanted into 
good soil in the nurserv. 

"Jamaica Plain. Mass. ' JacksOn DaU'SOU. 



Rules for 



Planting Wind-breaks. 



''I^HE influence of the wind-break is local and almost entirely 
•'• mechanical. It prevents the fierce sweep of winds over 
the surface of the ground, and therefore tends to diminish 
evaporation frorn the soil and from plants, especially in cold 
weather, and to lessen the mechanical injury to trees and 
bush-fruits. It is apparent to all good observers, however, 
that wind-breaks are sometimes injurious. Therefore there 
must be certain rules to govern their planting. The most im- 
portant of these rules, for Michigan especially, may be briefly 
stated : 

1. The wind-brcalc slionid not obstruct atniosplwric drainage. 
Cold air is heavier than warm air, and it therefore settles into 
the lower areas. Elevated areas are consequently warmer 
than low ones in still -weather. Inasmuch as these high 
lands are more wind-swept than others, it has become a com- 
mon impression that the wind itself is in some manner a pro- 
tection to fruit plantations, whereas the protection really comes 
from atiiiospheric drainage. The w-ind-break upon most of 
the elevated areas, therefore, should be open enough to allow 
of the free drainage of air. In such localities a tight wall of 
evergreens is apt to be positively injurious. Deciduous trees, 
with perhaps a sparse admi.xture of evergreens, niake the 
better wind-breaks for such places. If should be borne in 
mind that the object is riot to stop the wind, but rather to break 
its force, to check it. Breakwaters are often niade of a netwoi-k 
of naked spiles rather than a solid wall. 

In many interior localities a dense wind-break on the north 
and west e.xcites an early growth in tender fruits, thereby 
increasing danger from late spring frosts. Hence : 

2. The wind-break should never be dense enottgli to force the 
buds on fruit trees, in those localities wluch are subject 
to late spring frosts. It is evident, therefore, that Spruces 



and other evergreens should be planted sparingly in such 
places, and that deciduous trees, which do not come early into 
leaf, should be chosen. 

One of the most disastrous elTects of winds in the orchard, 
and especially in small fruit plantations, is the sweeping of the 
surface of the ground, causing excessive evaporation, carrying 
oft' the snow and thereby exposing the roots and crowns of the 
plants to danger. Therefore : 

3. As a rule, in localities where atmospheric drainage will 
not be seriously checked, the wind-break should have a compar- 
atively dense bottom, formed by ttndergrowth or low-branching 
trees. 

All crops closely adjoining the wind-break suffer from lack 
of moisture and food supply, and many small plants, as bush- 
fruits and nursery stock, are broken by the accumulating 
snow. Hence : 

4. So far as practicable, the wind-break should be planted at a 
distance of six rods or more from the fruit platitation. 

In our severe climate only the most hardy and vigorous 
trees should be planted ; or, in other words : 

5. Native trees and shrubs are preferable for wind-breaks. 
Of exotic trees, only the Norway Spruce and Apple are desir- 
blefor wind-breaks in Michigan. L. H. Bailey. 



The Forest. 

The Forests of Vancouver Island. 

VANCOUVER ISLAND is situated between the parallels 
0148'^ and 51*^ N. lat. and between 123° and 128° W. 
long-. It is about 240 miles in length and from 40 to 
70 in breadth and contains about 14,000 square mile.s. 
With the exception of the southern part and a few settle- 
ments at Nanaimo and Comox, the -whole island is still 
covered by heav)' forest. 

Through the centre of the island runs a ridge of i-noun- 
tainous country of varying width, wdiich, commencing 
with Donald Peak at Metchosin, runs north-westerly, and, 
constantly increasing in altitude, culminates in Mount 
Arrowsmith, about 100 rniles from Victoria. This moun- 
tain is 5,976 feet high, but to the north numerous peaks 
rise much higli£r, ranging frorn 6,000 to 8,000 feet in 
height. Lying between the mountain .chains, or at the 
base of the single mountains, are numerous lakes of clear 
water, which are frequently united by connectmg streams 
and discharged into the sea by rivers of no great size. 

It will thus be seen that but a small portion of the sur- 
face of the island is level; indeed, it is for the most part so 
elevated that it must be called mountainous rather than 
hill}'. Owing- to the position of the island, in regard to the 
Pacific, the low grounds seem to have just as damp an 
atmosphere as the more elevated parts, and a -wet, cloudy 
winter is succeeded by a cloudless, though not atmos- 
pherically dry, summer. These conditions will account 
for the rei-i-iarkable growth of timber on the island and the 
appearance of certain trees north of their expected range. 
The forest ought, therefore, to be composed chiefly of 
mountain species, and this is the fact, as the hardwood 
trees of the low or coast districts are of little account in 
the general distribution. 

The Oak {Quercus Garryana) occupies more superficial 
area than all the other deciduous trees together. It is 
abundant in all the district around Victoria, seldom grow- 
ing tall and straight like the eastern Oaks, but appearing 
more like the 'trees in English parks. Usually the lai-ge 
trees gro^v singly amongst the rocks, and their gnarled 
trunks and wide spreading limbs appear out of place in 
America. ■ North of Victoria it becomes scarce and at last 
ceases to grow at Comox, 140 miles to the north. 

Two other trees claim particular notice. These are the 
Madrona {Arbutus 3/ensiesii) and the Flowering Dogwood 
{Corniis Nntta/lii.) The former, w-ith its large laurel-like 
evergreen leaves and reddish bark, -would claim attention 
anywhere, but to find it a stately forest tree north of the 
49th parallel is a remarkable fact. On all the islands in 
the Gulf of Georgia, and on all the exposed points of 



March 21, 1888.] 



Garden and Forest. 



47 



the east coast, it is quite common: but on the gravel which 
occurs between the coast and the base of the mountains, 
it is frequent, and even on the west coast as far north as 
Alberni. Nowhere on the island does tlie Dog Wood 
come to greater perfection than around Nanaimo, and 
here, in the middle of May, the borders of the woods 
are white with the broad involucres of the cymes of 
inconspicuous flowers. Trees forty feet high are not 
uncommon, with trunks from six to twelve inches in 
diameter. 

By far the finest deciduous leaved tree on the island is 
the Broad Leaved IMaple {Acer macro phylhmi). In the 
early spring, before the leaves are fully developed, it pro- 
duces racemes of light yellow flowers over six inches 
long, v/hich are pendant and add much to the beauty of 
the tree, as they hang between the young leaves and 
give the whole tree a superb appearance. Later in the 
season the broad leaves cover up the fruit and one is 
almost tempted to believe that he looks upon a denizen 
of the tropics. Bordering ponds and lakelets, and form- 
ing thickets so dense that the)' are almost impenetrable, 
are three small trees. These are the Wild Crab {Pirus 
rivularis), Wild Cherry (Pninus mollis) and "Barberr)'" 
{Rlianmus Purshiana). The latter, named "Barberry" 
by the settlers, is used medicinally and is widely distrib- 
uted, being found far to the north. 

Poplars, Alders and Willows are of frequent occurrence, 
but in no place do they become so abundant as to mon- 
opolize much surface. Small groves of Balsam Poplar 
{Popubis tricliocarpd) are found in low spots by the mouths 
of rivers, and the trees attain a large size and are tall and 
straight, but none of the other species, except one species 
of Alder {Alnus rubra), can be considered of value. 

The various species of Conifers constitute the true for- 
ests of Vancouver Island, and to these we will now turn 
our attention. They divide themselves almost insensi- 
bly into two groups — one of the coast or lower levels 
and the other of the mountains — but some species pass 
from the plain to the mountain, while others are re- 
stricted to the coast or to the mountain summit. 

The coast species, which are never found on the 
mountains, are Abies grandis and Picea Menziesii, to- 
gether with the Yew {Taxus brevi/blia) and the Red Cedar 
( funiperiis Virgiiiiana). Owing to the peculiar distribution 
of the last species, it has been mistaken for the more 
southern Juiiiperus occidentalis, but all doubt regarding 
it has been removed the past summer. On the shores of 
Cameron and Home lakes, near the centre of the island, 
fine trees line the shore and overhang the water, but 
they are never seen in the forest. The Yew is not un- 
common in many places near Victoria, but it is sparingl)' 
distributed and seldom a marked feature of the forest 
growths. 

The Fir (Abies graiidis) is a noble tree and is a most 
striking object in the river valleys near the coast on both 
sides of the island. In company with the Sitka Spruce it 
forms many beautiful groves in the low country between 
Nanaimo and Comox. Beyond the latter point the Spruce 
becomes a more characteristic feature and even rivals the 
stately Douglas Fir itself. Around Alberni and in the 
valleys of the Somas River and the lakes connected with 
it these trees attain very great dimensions and often tower 
up 200 feet, with a beautiful pyramidal head of short, 
light green branches. 

Pinus contorta is either represented by tree forms or has 
a most peculiar habit. At one time it is found clinging 
to the rocks close to the sea, at another growing in a bog 
in company with Kabnia and Ledum, and at Qualicum 
it forms a strip of forest nearly five miles wide that inter- 
venes between the sea and the base of the mountains. 
Here the soil is chief!)'' gravel, and the tree looks very 
much like its cousin of the Rocky Mountains, Piuiis Miir- 
rayana, and certainly grows under the same conditions, 
except that of altitude. 

Ottawa, Canada. ' JohiL RlacOUIL. 



Propagation of Conifers from Seeds in the 
Open Air. 

T T NTIL about thirty-tive years ago no one had succeeded 
*-^ in growing Conifers from seed in America, except under 
glass. Consequently our American nurseries were stocked with 
imported seedlings of the foreign kinds and with native seed- 
ling's collected in tire forests, 

I had seen large quantities grown in the full sunlight in the 
Xorth of England as easily as Carrots and with no shelter, and 
therefore began by investing $70 in seeds of the common Eu- 
ropean kinds and in several hundredweight of seeds of the na- 
tive kinds collected for me in the Green Mountains. I sowed 
them on four acres ; they germinated finely, and were a beau- 
tiful sight. I had about a week of unalloyed pleasiu'e, except 
for an hour now and then consumed in wondering where 
a market could be found for such a large amount of stock. 
This problem, however, was soon solved. A bright dav, 
a gathering thunder-shower, a heavy rain and tlie sudden 
reappearance of tire scorching sun at about 2 P. M.! I went to 
examine my seedlings, and found them all down flat, damped 
off or scorched off, except a part of those latest in starting 
that were just breaking ground. I immediately sent for 4,000 
feet of lumber, and this, with the help of an adjoining rail fence, 
was soon worked up into a shelter ; but at the end of the sea- 
son not one seedling 'vvas left. 

I should gladly have given up and made no furtlier experi- 
ments, but I had announced that success was coming, and it 
was too late to retreat. So I took to the woods and studied 
the surroundings of the seedlings in the forests. It was plain 
that Nature had a decided adx'antage ox'er nie, as it cost her 
nothing for seeds, and she apparently did not raise more than 
one or two trees froi'n a million of them. Finally, after the 
next xvinter was nearly over, and I had seciu'ed a large stoclv of 
seed for spring so'wing, I bethought me of several hundred 
gimny bags tliat had lain for years unclaimed in a steamboat 
warehouse. Securing them, we sowed our seed in four-feet 
beds, stretched the guniiy bags tightly on the frames one foot 
from the ground, and succeeded in raising a fair crop, as the 
bags let the rain through evenly. 

if was soon evident that the more open the sacking was, the 
less the plants damped off, showing that they required more sun- 
light. We then built frames of lath, leaving spaces between, 
lixperiments were made to ascertain tlte degree of sunlight 
most favorable to the seedlings, and it was found that we suc- 
ceeded best wlien one-inch spaces were left between the 
laths, with the frames they rested on six inches high. We fol- 
lo'wed this lath-shading for several years, until we found it 
almost impossifile to get the quantity of lath we needed, as at 
the lumber mills they were only prepared to sell a certain pro- 
portion of lath with a cargo of lumber. 

Finally, ox'cr twenty years ago, we adopted oin- present 
mode oi shading with posts, poles and brush. Not that we 
considered it cheaper or better than the lath screens, but the 
material can be more readily obtained. Rows of posts seven 
feet liigh are set ten feet apart and eight feet distant in the 
rows. "Fence-boards six or eight inches wide and sixteen feet 
long are nailed upon these at the top. Slender poles are laid 
across, and on these are placed branches of trees with the 
leaves on them. The beds are four feet wide and are laid out so 
that the row of posts runs up the middle of each ;ilternate bed. 
If the soil is tenacious we throw it up in ridges the previous 
fall. The beds are raked very fine, the seeds sown dry in 
sprinsr, broadcast, and r.-iked in — the fine seeds lightly, the larger 
seeds more deeply. We cannot protect the seeds from birds 
with the brush shade as conveniently as with lath screens, but 
niust cover theni with brush or straw, or they will be scratched 
out. 

The seeds are sown thickly, the European Larch more 
thicklv than the others, as the imperfect seeds cannot be sepa- 
rated,' for thev are merchantable when one-third to one-half 
are " blind" seeds. Froni the time tlic seedlings appear above 
"'round until thev begin their second growth, they are liable to 
"damp off" during murkv weather, in xvhich case the screens 
must be taken off; but great care must be taken to have them 
replaced without loss of tinie when the sun appears. We 
formerly used dry sand, sprinkled over the beds, to check the 
damping off, but could perceive little or no benetit from it. ■ 
"Rich soil encoiu-ages dampins' olT." Tlie l.ieds must he 
thoroughly hand-wee"ded during the sunnner. Late in auttmni 
the beds should be covered with forest leaves, with a light 
covering of straw or brush to pi'event their being lilown off. 
Larches are usually thinned out of the beds at one .vear old ; 
other Conifers at two years old. Robert Douglas. 



48 



Garden and Forest. 



[March 21 



Recent Publications. 

Review of Forest Administration in British India for the 
year i88s-S6, by B. Ribbentrop.Actinglnspector-General, Indian 
Forest Department. Simla, 1887. Report of the Forest Depart- 
ment, Madras Presidency, for the year i8Sj-86, by Lt.-Col. I. 
Cambeld Walker. Madras, 1887. 

These two Reports have only just reached us. They con- 
tain the record of the work done in the Indian forests, with its 
iinancial results, for the period which they cover. The Indian 
Forest Department is less than a quarter of a century old. 
Its organization by Dr. Brandis in the face of sei-ious native 
opposition, great natural difficulties, and without, at the start, 
a properly trained staff of assistants, is one of the greatest ad- 
ministrative triumphs of recent times. 

The Indian forests, previous to the establishment of the 
Forest Department, yielded nothing to the Government. In the 
years covered by these Reports the net profit derived from 
working them systematically was over three and one-half 
million dollars, the operating expenses amounting to sixty- 
three per cent, of the gross revenue. The net receipts of the 
Department have increased steachly for a number of years ; 
and they will, it seems pretty safe to predict, continue to 
increase as long as it is administered in the same able 
manner. 

The history of forest administration in India might be 
studied with advantage by the Secretary of the Interior and 
members of Congress of the United States. The forests which 
grow upon our national domain produce no income. The 
land upon which they stand is sold sometimes at a mere nom- 
inal price, and while the Government is waitingfor customers 
the forests themselves are robbed of their best timber, burned, 
pastured, devastated and destroyed. 



Recent Plant Portraits. 

Botanical Magazine, January, Phoriniiiin Hool;eri, t. 6973 ; a 
third species of the New Zealand Flax ; discovered several 
years ago on the Waitangi River "growing pendulous from 
almost perpendicular rocks, in great abundance " ; and now 
cultivated in southern England, where it flowers and ripens its 
seed very freely. 

Ceratothica triloba, t. 6974 ; a tall pubescent herlj with the 
habit of a Foxglove, native of Natal and closely allied to the 
common cultivated Indian Sesanntm Indiciim, L. 

Thunbergia affinis, t. 6975 ; a tall shrub, a native of Zanzibar, 
with handsome dark blue flowers, similar, although far more 
beautiful, than those of the old T. erecta. 

Prunus Jacqueinoniii, t. 6gy6 ; a dwarf, compact, hardy 
shrub, with delicate pink flowers ; common in the north- 
western Himalayas and extending into Thibet and Afghanistan. 

Masdevallia Chcsterioni, /. 6977; a rather small flowered, and, 
horticulturally, not very attractive species of this immense 
genus ; a native of New Grenada. 



Periodical Literature. 

nPHE Art Amateur for January, 1888, contains a pleasant and 
-'- suggestive paper on Japanese modes of arranging cut 
flowers, leaves and branches. The matter is one wliich the 
Japanese only Iiave considered from an artistic point of view, 
but whicli certainly ought to be so considered by all who pro- 
fess to care for flowers or for beauty in the abstract. There- 
fore this article is welcome, although it gives but a hint of the 
great stress which the educational systems of Japan lay upon 
the art of floral arrangement, and explains, with the aid of il- 
lustrations, only one or two of the effects they consider de- 
sirable, and one or two of the skillful and ingenious devices in 
which tlie student is instructed. 

Cassell's Family Magasine -will print during the year a series 
of popular articles treating of the garden and the work to be 
done in it during each successive month. "The Garden in 
January" and "The Garden in February" have already ap- 
peared ; and while they naturally have a greater practical value 
for the English than for the American reader, they are by no 
means devoid of interest even for the latter. 

Longman s Magazine iot Feliruary, 1888, contains a brightly 
written chapter on "Orchids," by Frederick Boyle, a man of 
letters by profession, but an enthusiastic, and, from his own 
account, a successful horticulturist in his leisure hours. It is 
accompanied by none of the charming illustrations which 
have been given with articles on the same subject in more 



tlian one of our own popular magazines, and its'purpose is not, 
like theirs, descriptive. Its purpose is simply to prove to those 
wlio are already well aware of the beauty of Orchids, that it is 
by no means so difflcuult a task as amateurs generally sup- 
pose, to grow many species to perfection by the aid of the sim- 
plest arrangements and with the expenditure of very little time 
or pains. 

In McMillan's Magazine for January, 1888, Forestry is dis- 
cussed by Mr. George Cadell, formerly connected with the In- 
dian Forestry Department. Some time ago the House of 
Commons for the third time appointed a Commission to in- 
quire "Whether by the establishment of a forest school, or 
otherwise, our waste lands could be made more remunera- 
tive." At the time when Mr. Cadell wrote, this Commission 
had reported to Parliament, but no action had yet been taken 
on its report. Meanwhile he discusses the condition of the 
Crown forests in England, briefly explains the management of 
those in India, refers to the great benefits which France and 
Switzerland have received from a judicious system of control, 
and points out as a subject for national mortification that both 
at the Cape and in Cyprus, England has been obliged to depend 
upon the services of foreign experts in Forestry. 



Flower Market. 

New York, March i6th, 1888. 

The quality of cut flowers is much better this week than last, not- 
withstanding a large quantity has been held on snow-bound trains. 
Hybrid Roses are very handsome, but have declined somewhat, those 
selected of favorite sorts bringing only 60 to 75 cts. each. There was 
no demand for flowers during the storm of the early week, but trade 
has been picking up since and is brisk to-day. There is an over sup- 
ply of La France Roses, the very choicest bringing but $2.50 a dozen. 
The finest Puritans sell for 50 cts. Ulrich Brunner sells rapidly at 75 
cts. a flower. Popular varieties of Tea Roses, such as Papa Gontier, 
bring $1.00 a dozen. Selected buds of Bride or Cornelia Cook cost 
83.00 a dozen. Tulips, Lilies-of-the-Valley and Roman Hyacinths are 
75 cts. a dozen. Dutch Hyacinths are in large variety and in lively 
demand at 15 cts. a spike; Mignonette from 50 cts. to $1.50 a dozen 
spikes ; Carnations from 35 cts. to 50 cts. a dozen, the latter price 
being for favorite kinds, such as Buttercup and Grace Wilder. Violets 
continue firm at $1.00 a hundred for the average quality and Si. 50 
for those of extra beauty and fragrance. Smilax costs 30 cts. a yard. 



Philadelphia, March ibth- 

The severe snow storm prevented growers from 'shipping flowers to 
the city in the early part of the week. It also interfered with the 
demand and prices have varied little since last quotations. The most 
notable Rose now in market is Madame Gabriel Luizet. Finer flowers of 
this variety were never before seen here ; they are selling from 75 cts. 
to $1.50 each. Mrs. John Laing is also cut in quantity ; the latter is 
the newer, but it can never displace Madame Luizet, excepting, per- 
haps, for very early work. Puritans are improving in quality, and 
are in fair demand ; it is not a first-class Rose to ship long distances; 
some of the growers bring it to the city in deep boxes of moss, into 
which the stems are thrust; this holds them steady and upright and in- 
sures safe arrival. Heath is in fair demand at 15 cts. per spray. The 
kind offered is a variety of Erica caffra alha, and is grown near Boston. 
It is rarely used alone, but is added to boxes of choice flowers, or is 
arranged with Orchids. 



Boston, March ibth. 

There is little change in the cut-flower market. Hybrid Roses and 
Jacqueminots are if anything more abundant and of still better quality. 
IBoth yellow and white Roses are scarce and they are eagerly taken as 
fast as brought to the city by the growers. Tulips, Lilies-of-the- 
Valley, and other bulbous flowers are still plentiful. Roman Hyacinths 
are scarce, but in their stead there is an abundance of the Italian 
variety, which, although slightly pinkish in color, has the advantage of 
bearing a larger and stronger flowerspike than does the Roman. The 
supply of Carnations is diminishing, and prices will undoubtedly 
advance considerably before Easter. A few White Lilies are seen, but 
they are mostly short stemmed and are of little use excepting for 
funeral designs. Harris's Lilies and Callas are worth S3. 00 per dozen. 
Most people in buying Callas now require a few of the leaves with the 
flowers, which add much to their appearance. Hybrid Roses of extra 
quality bring from $6 to S9 per dozen. Jacqueminots, Mermets and a fair 
quality of hybrids are S3-00 ; Pedes, Niphetos and Bon Silene, %\ per 
dozen; Lilies-of-the-Valley, Tulips and Narcissus of various kinds aver- 
age aboutji.oo per dozen. French Marguerites, Mignonette, Forget-me- 
nots, Carnations and Heliotrope sell for about 50 cts. per dozen sprays; 
Pansies and Violets 50 cts. per bunch. Among Orchids the most attrac- 
tive now in season are the Odontoglossums. Nothing more beautiful 
for a bridal wreath or coronet than a spray of O. Alexandree. 
Perfect sprays are worth from $2.00 to $3.00 each. 



March 28, 18SS.] 



Garden and Forest. 



49 



GARDEN AND FOREST. 

PUBLISHED WEEKLY BY 

THE GARDEN AND FOREST PUBLISHING CO. 

[LIMITED.] 

Office : Tribune Building, New York. 



Conducted by Professor C. S. Sargent. 



ENTERED AS SECOND-CLASS MATTER AT THE POST OFFICE AT NEW YORK, N. Y. 



NEW YORK, WEDNESDAY, MARCH 28, iS 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



PAGE, 

Editorial Articles ; — The Adirondack Forests in Danger. — Horticultural 

Fashions. — Hardy Shrubs. — Notes 49 

Landscape Gardening, V Jlrs. ScJtuyter Van Rensselaer. 51 

Bridge at Leathertor, England (with Illustration) 52 

After the Great Snow Storm Dr. C. C. Abbott. 52 

Foreign Correspondence : — The Kew Arboretum, II . - Geo. NicJwhon, A. L. S. 53 

Yucca Treculiana{ with illustration) C. S. S. 54 

Cultural Notes : — Hardy Herbaceous Perennials from Seed.. William Falconer . 54 

The Cultivation of Lilies C. L. Allen. ^5 

Eriostemon intermedium. — Boronia megastigma. — Milla biflura in 
our Gardens. — Lilium Grayi- — Forcing Azaleas. — Cytisus Canari- 

ensis. — Grapes for Home Use ! 56 

The Retinisporas Josiah Hoopes. 57 

Snowberry Jelly Professor D. P. Penkallo^v. 57 

Correspondence : — Landscape Gardening, a Definition. . Professor L. H. Bailey. 58 

Fra.\inella 58 

The Forest : — Forest Trees of the Far North-west .... Professor Geo. I\I. Dawson. 58 

The Forests ot New Jersey 59 

The Forest School of Nancy 60 

Recent Plant Portraits 60 

Massachusetts Horticultural Society 60 

Flower Market : — New York, Philadelphia, Boston 60 

Illustration? : — Bridge at Leathertor, England 53 

Yucca Treculiana. Fig. 10 55 



The Adii'ondack Foi-ests in Danger. 

THE preservation of the Adii-ondack forests is a mat- 
ter of national importance. Tlieir destruction will 
work injury far beyond the limits of the State of New York. 
One of the principal commercial ri\'ers of the world de- 
pends upoir these forests for its existence ; their value as 
a health resort for people from all parts of the United States 
is incalculable. Their preservation, therefore, is a matter 
which concerns the whole country. 

Never have these forests been threatened with such dan- 
gers as now menace them from every side. Railroads 
are being built or are about to be built into the wilderness 
in every direction. The promoters of the Schenectady and 
Ogdensburg Railroad Company propose to build a line this 
summer directly through the heart of the Adirondacks, to 
serve as a feeder for the Canadian Pacific and bring that 
road into direct connection with New York and Boston. 
The Chateaugay Railroad Company is extending its line 
into the forest. Last year it had reached the shores of 
Loon Lake ; now it has been carried to Saranac Lake. Its 
last station is only eight miles froin Lake Placid and with- 
in six miles of Paul Smith's, upon St. Regis Lake. Adi- 
rondack Lodge, one of the wildest and most picturesque 
spots in the whole region, is now but fifteen miles distant 
from the railroad. The Northern Adii'ondack Railroad has 
penetrated through the forest almost as far south as Paul 
Smith's. Another road runs from Carthage, in Jefferson 
County, into the forest region. It has recently been carried 
to Jayville, in St. Lawrence County, and a further exten- 
sion is proposed. 

The building of railroads through a forest in this country 
means its extermination. This is particularly true of the Adi- 
rondack forest. Its escape from extermination in the past 
is due to the single fact that the hard woods of which it is 
principally composed could not be got to market from lack 
of transportation. If transportation is furnished it is mere- 



ly a question of time when every tree will be consumed in 
the saw-mill, the paper factory and the charcoal furnace. 
Railroads will increase, too, the number of fires in the for- 
est and thus hasten its extermination. 

There is but one way to save what now remains of the 
Adirondack forests. The enactment of a law which shall 
prohibit the location of any railroad under any circum- 
stances upon the State lands which are widely scattered 
through the entire region will prevent its ruin. No other 
measure less sweeping in its restrictions can accomplish 
this. There is a Board of Forest Commissioners in this 
State. It is the duty of these Commissioners to devise 
measures for the protection of the State forests and to see 
that these laws are put into execution. It is their duty to 
enlighten the people of the State upon the condition of the 
State forests and the dangers which threaten them. It 
is their duty under the law to provide instruction for the 
people of New York in all matters relating to forests and 
forestry, and to arouse them to the importance of a full 
comprehension of these subjects. 

Have these Commissioners performed these duties ? 

Have they introduced any bill looking to resti'aining the 
building of railroads through the forests .? 

Have they even tried to rouse the attention of the public 
to this matter 1 

Do the reports which they publish from time to time, at 
no small expense to the people of this State, contain any 
valuable or accurate information in regard to the forests or 
to methods of forest preservation .? 

The only activity displayed by the Commission, so far 
as the public is informed, is manifested in their attempt to 
secure from the present Legislature the passage of a bill 
authorizing thein to lease to " individuals or clubs for 
pleasure resorts or camping purposes," portions of the 
public domain for periods not exceeding five years' 
duration. This authority should not be given to the Com- 
inission. It would open the door to corruption and would 
threaten the forests with new dangers. Thousands of 
acres of Adirondack forests have already perished at the 
hands of hunters and camping parties. Their carelessness 
in setting fires and their recklessness in barking and de- 
stroying trees, are only too well known. It will be im- 
possible to protect the State forests if the Commissioners 
are allowed this privilege. 

The actual condition of the Adirondack forests and the 
doings of the Forest Commissioners during the three years 
they have held office need investigation. The public can- 
not afford indifference in this matter. Too much is at 
stake. The commercial and sanatory interests involved in 
the protection of these forests are too great to allow them 
to remain the pre)^ of designing politicians and speculators. 

A few years ago the concertecl action of the press of this 
State roused public attention to the importance of preserv- 
ing the Adirondack forests and the rivers which flow from 
them, and made the passage of forest laws and the appoint- 
ment of a Forest Commission possible. The laws were 
rendered inadequate, and the people were cheated by 
politicians and speculators, who secured the appointment 
of an improper Commission. The result has been disas- 
trous, and never in the history of the State has the danger 
to the forests been so real and imminent as it is to-day. 
The public must be enlightened and aroused to active iii- 
terest in the matter ; and the concerted and energetic 
action of the press of the whole countr" can alone accom- 
plish this. 

Horticultural Fashions. 

IN the last fifty years there have been a number of horti- 
cultural fashions of longer or shorter duration. Just 
now the cultivation of Orchids chiefly occupies the horti- 
cultural world. Such fashions, while they have, perhaps, 
an unfoi-tunate influence upon the gardening profession, 
are often otherwise beneficial. This was the case with the 
craze for Conifers which prevailed in England forty or fifty 



50 



Garden and Forest. 



[March 28, 1888. 



years ago. It had the effect of driving out of cultivation a 
host of deciduous trees and shrubs of wliich gardeners who 
were learning their profession at that period never acquired 
any knowledge ; but, on the other hand, it stimulated 
botanical exploration and vastly increased our knowledge 
of one of the most important and valuable families of 
plants. Had it not been the fashion to plant Conifers in 
England, it is probable that the Floras of the Californian 
Sierras, of the Andes, of the mountains of Mexico and 
Japan, of India and the Caucasus, would not be as well 
known as they are to-day. Other horticultural fashions have 
not been as productive of good. The fashion, for example, of 
massing together largenumbersof a few varieties of tropical 
or semi-tropical flowering or bright-foliaged plants, known as 
the " bedding-out system," has little to recommend it from 
the point of view of the increase of human knowledge. 
And certainly no horticultural invention has done so much 
to limit the intelligence and practical skill of gardeners. 
Not much better has been the extravagant fashion of filling 
green-houses with what are known as fine-foliaged plants — 
inhabitants of tropical swamps. These plants rarely have 
conspicuous flowers, and their ordy interest is found in the 
curious shapes and markings of their leaves. They 
have not the graceful habit of many Palms ; they cannot 
bear the temperature of ordinary conservatories and living- 
rooms, and can only be enjoyed in the reeking atmosphere 
of close, damp stoves. But no plants are more easily cul- 
tivated, and it is not surprising that they are favorites with 
gardeners trained in the "bedding-out" school — of which the 
taste for them is the natural outcome — and that they have 
driven out a multitude of beautiful flowering plants which 
it taxed the best gardening skill to bring to perfection. 

The fashion for cultivating Orchids is not new. A few 
species were introduced into English gardens in the second 
half of the last century, and Orchids have been cultivated 
in the United States during the past seventy years. The 
taste for them shows no sign of flagging, but, on the con- 
trary, has steadily increased, both in this country and in 
Europe, during the last half-century, and has never been 
so strong or so general as it is to-day. In the United States 
especially great progress has been made in the cultivation 
of these plants in recent years. They now form the prin- 
cipal attraction at many of our flower-shows, and two or 
three American collections rank with the finest in the 
world ; and while as a nation we are 'not yet quite as crazy 
about Orchids as the English, the crowds which surrounded 
the tables at an exhibition of Orchids recently held in this 
city, and the high prices which these flowers bring in our 
markets, pretty clearly indicate the effect of fashion in 
horticulture. 

The Orchid fashion has certainly much more to recom- 
mend it than many fashions of a similar kind. The love 
for cultivating these plants has done as much as any one 
single agency to make known the vegetation of the tropical 
parts of the world ; their flowers, as Darwin taught us, are 
among the most wonderful of all the creations of Nature in 
their adaptation of means to ends ; and many of them pos- 
sess wonderful beauty of color and form. It is a question 
whether the most beautiful Orchid flower ever produced 
can equal the beauty and grace of the Poet's Narcissus, 
which was a favorite garden flower centuries before the first 
Orchid was cultivated and which will be a favorite centuries 
after three-quarters of the Orchids which collectors now 
hold so dear will be found only in their native haunts or 
in ancient volumes of the Bnlanical Magazine. Yet among 
the mass of Oichids now cultivated because they are new, 
or rare, or expensive, or odd, are many of very great 
oeauty, and these will continue to be cultivated as long as 
the taste for horticulture lives. And the cultivation of such 
Orchids will increase in this country as they become better 
known and as people appreciate how easily they may be 
grown. The belief is still general here that Orchids are 
difficult to cultivate and can be made to flourish only in 
great heat. On the contrary, few plants are more easily grown 
if attention is given to a few of their simple requirements, and 



many of the finest varieties will thrive only in the low 
temperature of a cool green-house. Indeed, many Orchids 
will grow, as an English writer recently said oi PhalcFnopsis, 
"with the calm complacency of the cabbage." There is, 
too, a fascination in cultivating these plants which increases 
with experience. But it must not be forgotten that any 
fashion, however solid the merits upon which it is founded, 
may easily be carried too far, and that there is great danger 
that this growing love of Orchids may lead to the neglect 
of other and equally interesting and beautiful plants. A one- 
sided development is as dangerous in horticulture as in 
other human pursuits. 



Hardy Shrubs. 

THE true value of hardy deciduous shrubs is not yet 
appreciated in this country. The climate of the 
Eastern and Northern States is peculiarly suited to develop, 
in the highest degree, the beauty of many flowering shrubs 
and trees. Our intensely hot summers, long, dry autumns, 
and cold winters ripen the flowering-wood and give re- 
sults which are quite unknown in countries where the 
changes of temperature are less marked. 

The development of American gardening has suffered 
greatly during the last fifty years from attempts to imitate 
English gardens in their composition. In our efforts to 
cultivate the Conifers and broad-leaved evergreens which 
thrive in England, we have overlooked the fact that our 
climate is not suited, save in exceptional instances, to 
bring out their beauty, and that it is a climate particularly 
adapted to deciduous plants. Thoughtful students of the 
relations between cultivated plants and climate now begin 
to realize that if we are ever to have in America a dis- 
tinctive school of gardening, it must be based upon a com- 
prehensive use of hardy deciduous shrubs. 

These have other qualifications, in addition to their 
abundant fiowers, to commend them to more general use. 
They are easily and cheaply raised. They are long-lived 
and increase in beauty from year to year. Their size 
adapts them to the small gardens which must always be 
more common than large ones in this. country. Many de- 
ciduous shrubs and small trees also have the charm of 
brilliant autumnal foliage and conspicuous persistent 
fruits. The variety of such plants which can be made to 
flourish in our Eastern and Northern gardens is enor- 
mous. Few persons yet realize what a shrub garden in 
Eastern America might be made. In such a garden could 
be gathered the shrubs of Europe and their innumerable 
varieties, the result of centuries of careful selection and 
cultivation — for European shrubs flourish here although 
European trees do not ; and those of northern China and 
Japan, countries rich in plants of this description, which 
have already given us some of the most beautiful orna- 
ments of our gardens — the Forsythias, Deutzias and Wei- 
gelas, the Flowering Quince, the Crabs and the finest of 
the Spira-'as. 

Such foreign shrubs — when shrubs are used at all — now 
beautify our gardens, and American species, although not 
less beautiful and better suited to our climate, are almost 
entirely neglected. The Flora of North America is rich in 
shrubs and shrub-like trees the more general cultivation of 
which cannot be too strongly urged. So numerous are 
they and so varied in character and beauty, that gardens 
planted with them alone — without any admixture of ex- 
otic material — might be made interesting and charming at 
every season of the year. \Mrat small trees excel the little 
known or appreciated American Thorns, beautiful alike in 
their spring flowers and their autumnal foliage and fruit, or 
the Shadbush and the Judas Tree V;'hen they enliven in 
early spring the borders of the leafless forest — the one 
with white bloom, the other with glowing pink ? No 
tree is more striking than the Flowering Dogwood when 
its broad white bracts e.xpand, or more splendid in its au- 
tumn color. And these would be followed by the Fringe 
Tree, by the Rattlebox with its branches covered in early 



March 28, 1888.] 



Garden and Forest. 



51 



summer with myriads of drooping white bells, and by the 
Sour-wood with pendulous racemes of Lily-of-the-Valley- 
like flowers and with scarlet leaves in autumn. 

And with these and many other native flowering trees, 
might be grouped an almost endless variety of shrubs 
blooming in succession from earliest spring to late summer, 
and brilliant with autumn tints or conspicuous fruit ; — the 
delicate Rhodora which tinges our northern swamps with 
pink in early spring ; the gorgeous orange-colored Azalea 
which flames on the slopes of many southern mountains ; 
the deliciously fragrant Calycanthus and Clethra ; a host 
of Dogwoods and Viburnums, beautiful in flower and 
fruit ; Blueberries of many varieties, modest in flower but 
hardly equalled in grace of habit and richness of October 
hues ; the Sumachs and the Black Alder which in winter en- 
livens northern swamps with its scarlet fruit. And in such 
a garden a collection of native Roses would not be the least 
attractive feature. We have here merely indicated some 
of the rich material within reach of American gardeners. 
But the subject will be elaborated in future issues of this 
Journal, and some of the most valuable and some of the 
least known American shrubs will be figured and de- 
scribed. 



We are glad to publish the letter on landscape gardening 
which will be found upon another page, for the subject is 
one about which it is desirable to create discussion. The 
statement in the first paragraph, that landscape gardening 
as a fine art means something very different from the mere 
cultivation of ornamental plants and the designing of iso- 
lated minor decorative features, is undeniable. But we can- 
not agree with our correspondent when bethinks it needful 
to give the name of " landscape horticulture, " or any narrow- 
ly distinctive name, to "the industrial art which shapes the 
ground, plants the trees, makes the walks and drives." 
The actual manual work of doing such things is, of course, 
artisans' work — work similar to that which masons and 
carpenters do for the architect. But to know how such 
things should be done seems to us an integral part of the 
equipment of the landscape gardener as an artist. Knowl- 
edge of this kind will not make him an artist. But he 
cannot be a good artist without it any more than an archi 
tect can be a good artist without a knowledge of building 
construction ; and, on the other hand, it cannot itself be 
put to good service unless guided and inspired by artistic 
impulses, any more than a knowledge of building con- 
struction can. These two arts — landscape gardening and 
architecture — are like one another and unlike the other 
arts by reason of the fact that they can never be mani- 
festations of the a:>sthetic instinct in a pure form. Practical 
considerations must always mingle with and largely limit 
and control aesthetic considerations when their works are 
in question. In the prehminary stages of education the 
acquirement of practical knowledge and the development 
of aesthetic feeling may seem distinct and different aims. 
But they should always be fostered together as far as possi- 
ble ; and to divorce them in theoretical expositions of the 
art of landscape gardening, in its practice, or even in its 
nomenclature, would be a g-rave mistake. 



Nothing indicates so clearly the rapidly increasing 
scarcity of the more valuable woods produced by our for- 
ests as the gradual substitution for them in the markets of 
the country of woods which up to a short time ago were 
considered useless. 

The wood of the Cottonwood (Po/>ti/iis nioiii/i/era) a few 
years ago had no commercial value whatever in the United 
States, and was used for fuel only on the plains, where 
nothing better could be obtained. Improved and stronger 
machinery, however, has made it possible to saw this 
wood into lumber in spite of its tough, difficult grain, and 
there is now a large demand for Cottonwood lumber 
throughout the West as a substitute for white pine and 
yellow poplar {Liriodendron) for light packing-cases of all 



kinds, immense quantities being manufactured at St. Louis 
and other places. The wood is found to possess the merits 
of cheapness and of greater lightness than white pine, and 
it is absolutely free from all odor or taste, valuable quali- 
ties in a case where articles of food are to be packed. It is 
also used for lining refrigerator-cars, and to some extent in 
the manufacture of cheap furniture. 

The Cottonwoods, of which there are several species in 
the West and South-west, all produce wood very similar in 
quality, and are among the largest, most common and 
widely distributed trees along all the rivers west of the Al- 
leghany Mountains. They grow with great rapidity, propa- 
gate themselves freely by their light seeds, and are more 
easily raised from cuttings than almost any other trees. 
The Cottonwood thrives also in the dry climate of the 
western plains and prairies better than almost any other 
tree. There is every prospect, therefore, that our sup]3lies 
of Cottonwood lumber will not soon become exhausted. 



A recent issue of the Bosto7i yoiinial contains the state- 
ment that City Forester Doogue of that town had been ex- 
perimenting with a preparation invented by him for the de- 
struction of Canker-worms, with such success as to deter- 
mine him to put it to general use on the city Elms. His meth- 
od is to bore a hole, about three inches deep and an inch and 
one-half in diameter, in the trunk of the tree, and to insert 
a mysterious powder, the composition of which is known 
only to himself. The hole is then plugged up and made 
perfectly tight \-i'ith wax. Boring and plugging trees with 
nostrums is an old and futile remedy ; and it seems almost 
mcomprehensible that a man occupying so responsible a 
position could be guilty of such quackery. The old way 
of using oil-troughs to stop the ascent of Canker-worms, 
if systematically carried out, is effectual in destroying them; 
and they might easily be exterminated if communities would 
combine in the use of such appliances. 



Landscape Gardening'. — V. 

'MERE is still one point which must be noticed as 
affecting the question how much the landscape 
artist owes to nature, how much to himself and his fellow- 
men. When we speak of " natural scenes" we are apt to 
mean, illogically, all those which have not been modified 
by the conscious action of art as art. We recognize a park 
landscape as non-natural ; but those rural landscapes in 
cultivated countries from which the designer of a park gets 
his best inspirations — these, too, are non-natural. "If in 
the idea of a natural state," sa)'s an old English writer, 
" we include ground and wood and water, no spot in this 
island can be said to be in a state of nature. . . Wher- 
ever cultivation has set its foot — wherever the plow and 
spade have laid fallow the soil — nature is become extinct." 
Extinct, of course, is too strong a word if we take it in its 
full significance. But it is not too strong if we understand 
it as referring to those things which are most important to 
the landscape gardener: — the compositions, the broad gen- 
eral jjictures, of nature, have become extinct in all thickly 
settled countries. The effects we see may not be artistic 
effects — may not have resulted from a conscious effort after 
beauty ; but they are none the less artificial effects. They 
do not show us what nature wants to do or can do — only 
what man and nature have chanced to do together. When 
English artists became dissatisfied with the formal, archi- 
tectural gardening of the seventeenth century, they fondly 
imagined that they were learning from nature how to pro- 
duce those effects of rural freedom, of id}'llic repose, of 
seemingly unstudied beauty, grace and charm, which were 
their new desire. But, in reality, they were learning from 
the face of a country which for centuries had been care- 
fully moulded, tended and put to use by man. In some of 
its parts, of course, the effects of man's presence were 
comparatively inconspicuous. But of most parts it could 
be said that for ages not a stream or tree or blade of grass 
had existed except in answer to his efforts, or, at least, in 



52 



Garden and Forest. 



[March 28, 18 



consequence of his permission ; and it was these parts and 
not the wilder ones which gave most assistance to the artist. 
An instinctive love for beauty had doubtless often tried to 
express itself in the neighborhood of dwellings, absent 
though the idea of art had been from the mind of their in- 
habitants ; nature herself is so good an artist that even in 
her bondage she had worked admirably and with more 
suavity and gentleness than in her free estate ; and the 
mere utilitarian treatment of the land had also accidentally 
given rise to happily suggestive features. Take, for exam- 
ple, the lawn, which is so essential a feature of almost every 
artistic design in landscape. It is not true to say, as often 
has been said, that nature never suggests a lawn. But it is 
true to say that she did not suggest it to those English 
gardeners who developed it so beautifully. They must 
have been inspired by the artificiall)^ formecl meadow-lands 
and glades of the England of their time. 

But all the semi-natural, semi-artificial beauty of England 
would not have taught them how to make beautiful parks 
and gardens had they not been taught as well by their own 
imagination. What they vi^anted to create were landscapes 
which should charm from all points of view and should 
bear close as well as distant examination ; and, moreover, 
landscapes which might titly surround the habitations of 
man and accommodate his very various needs and pleas- 
ures. Such landscapes we can no more expect to find in 
nature — even in cultivated, semi-artificial nature — than 
landscapes painted upon canvas. That is, while we can 
imagine a natural spot v\'hich would be an appropriate set- 
ting for a hunter's lodge or a hermit's cell, we can imagine 
none which woidd appropriately encircle a palace, a man- 
sion, or even a modest home for a man with civilized 
habits and tastes. Every step in civilization is a step away 
from that wild estate which alone is really nature ; and the 
further away we get from it, the more imagination is 
needed to brmg the elements of existence which nature 
still supplies into harmony with those which man has 
developed. The simplest house in the most rustic situation 
needs, at least, that a path shall be cut to its door ; and 
to do so much as cut a path in the most pleasing possible 
Vi'ay needs a certain amount of imagination, of art. How 
much more, then, is imagination needed in such a task as 
the laying-out of a great estate where subordinate Iniildiiigs 
are to be grouped around the chief one, and all are to be 
accommodated to the main unalterable natural features of 
the scene, where a hundred minor natural features are to 
be harmoniously disposed, where convenient courses for 
feet and wheels are to be provided in every direction, 
where gardens and orchards are to be supplied, where 
water is to be made at once useful and ornamental, and 
where every plant, whether great or small, must be beauti- 
ful at least in the sense of helping the beauty of the general 
effect.'' The stronger the desire to make so artificial an 
aggregate of features look as though nature might have 
designed it, the more intimate must be the artist's sympathy 
with the aims and processes of nature and the keener his 
eye for the special opportunities of the site ; but also the 
stronger must be his imaginative power, the firmer his 
grasp of the principles and processes of his art. 

M. G. Vi7?i Rensselaer. 



Bridge at Leathertor, England. 



T^ 



■"HIS very ancient bridge spans one of the small streams on 
Dartmoor, in the south-west of England. Its construc- 
tion is sufficiently explained by the picture — two land-piers and 
one stream-pier are connected by long spanning-stones wliich 
carry parapets made up of large irregular blocks. It is hardly 
necessary to point out the degree to which this bridge com- 
bines picturesque beauty with durability, or to explain the fit- 
ness of such bridges for rural situations in our own country. 
In the immediate vicinity of a very dignified house so rude 
and unarchitectural a bridge would perhaps be out of place ; 
and the same is true of those portions of an urban park where 
formality rules or where architectural works of importance are 
in view. But in the sequestered, naturally treated portions of 



parks, a bridge of this sort would be entirely appropriate; and 
carrying a road or footway near a country home of modest 
character or in a village suburb it would be a most charming 
feature. Naturally we have no wish to suggest that this bridge 
need be copied either in its special form or in the size and dis- 
position of its stones, although in both these respects it would 
be an excellent model. It is illustrated merely to show how 
very simply a stone bridge may be built, and how incompara- 
bly lietter in effect it is than the ugly constructions of iron or 
the rough assemblages of planks with which in this country 
we are so familiar. Weather-beaten boulders as old as those 
in this bridge at Leathertor, and as appropriate for bridge- 
building, lie by every New England stream, and it would need 
no high degree of skill to put them to service. But we seem 
to have thought the bare, straight lines of iron more beautiful 
than the infinite variety of form and surface and color of our 
moss-grown stones. It is full time we changed our minds. 



After the Great Snow Storm. 

T GATHERED pink and white blossoms of the Spring Beauty 
■*■ on the loth of the present month, and on the 12th thev 
were under the drifting snow of what will pass into history 
as the great storm of March, 1888. 

The wild weather of that day gave me no little concern with 
regard to the old trees near my house. As a consequence, I 
twice faced the storm at its height and took brief notes as to 
the action of the wind upon them. I was curious, too, to 
know which species was suffering most from loss of branches 
ar ^ general mutilation. The snapping and crashing heard 
above the wind's roaring suggested universal destruction. 
Judging from past wind-storms, I looked for the leveling of the 
fourteen Pines near the house, or at least that the trunks alone 
would remain standing ; liut these unaccountably escaped all 
serious injury and are still the same sorry-looking irregularities 
they have been for the last twenty years. 

It is not a litde strange that the long rows of White Pines 
planted by Joseph Bonaparte in his park near Bordentown, N.J., 
more than sixty years ago, have escaped serious breakage 
from wind, encrusting snow and ice-encased twigs — the three 
causes that have, separately and combinedly, effected the un- 
crowning and disfiguring of the Pines at home, which are no 
more exposed and scarcely three miles away. Do not 
these trees generally require planting in clusters, so as to 
be self-protecting, or to tie intimately associated with other 
trees? A lone Pine is very pretty and poetical, but hereabouts 
it is as uncertain as the average white man. 

But to return to the forest in the storm. Of a hundred or more 
large trees, Oaks, Chestnuts, Birclies, Gums, Liquidambars, 
Persimmons, Catalpas, Beeches and Sassafras, occupyingsome 
three acres of southward sloping hillside, but one, a large 
Chestnut, was uprooted, and this was lifted bodily from the 
g;rouud and carried several feet from where it had stood. 
"The others were twisted; liranches were interlocked, and 
several so shaken and wormed about that the closely wrapping 
Poison Ivy was detached, an occurrence I should never have 
dreamed could liave taken place. Where branches were broken, 
they were, as a rule, detached from the trunk of the tree as 
though seized at their extremities and twisted off Although 
the wind remained in one direction, it evidently became a 
whirlwind among the tree-tops, as shown by the direction of 
the fall of several large limbs. One large branch of an enor- 
mous Beech was broken off, but still holds by long cables of 
twisted strips of bark, as though the storm had repented and 
tried to repair the damage by tying it on again. 

Of the several species of trees I have mentioned, no two are 
of like toughness in the texture of their wood, and in this 
storm the weaker and more brittle kinds did not suffer as 
much as the tough old Oaks. Nor were the detached branches 
worm-eaten and so abnormally weak. I was confronted with 
contradictions whichever way I turned. Associate these with 
wind having a velocity of fifty-four miles an hour and air 
full of sand-iike snow, and realize how easily one could become 
liewildered. 

In the more exposed upland fields not a tree suffered, the 
l)ig Sassafras, sixty-two feet in height, not losing even a twig. 
Stranger still, the scattered Beeches and White Oaks that have 
retained their withered leaves all winter, hold them still. In 
short, the home woods suffered very little, and what damage 
there is occurred where I least expected to find it. Where the 
exposure was greatest, there ever)' tree successfully weathered 
one of the severest storms on record. The shrubbery, seed- 
ling Oaks and Beeches, puny Cedars and trim little Junipers 
were bent to the ground and remained prostrate for three or 
four days. The snow has now melted and all are again erect; 



March 28, iSSS.] 



Garden and Forest. 



53 



but when I bent some of them to-day, as flatly as did the snow 
and whid, they cracked and were destroyed. Was it tliat the 
gradual pressure of the snow prevented the disaster tliat my 
more sudden bending caused ? 

Wliile I rejoiced at having my woodland still intact, there 
was one aggravating feature about it all. I anticipated a har- 
vest of dead limbs for my andirons; but they too withstood tlic 
tempest. To-day they looked down at me with a tantalizing 
"no 3'ou don't" expression that robbed me of half the pleasure 
of seeing Black Alder laden with its crimson berries resting 
upon a dazzling drift of unstained snow. 
Near Trenton, New Jersey. Ckas. C. Abbot f. 

Foreign Correspondence. 

The Kew Arboretum — IT. 

BEFORE giving details of some of the most important col- 
lections and of tlie most remarkable specimens here, it 
may be as well to say a few words regarding the general aspect 
and position of the Kew establishment. 



stands the Kew Observatory — we pass through the collections 
of Cypresses, Yews and tlieir allies, until we reach the Pines and 
Firs, which are arranged at the head and along the southern 
side of a noble expanse of ornamental water wlience the sup- 
plies for garden purposes are pumped liy engines at some dis- 
tance away in the wood. Just across tlie Thames at this point 
is Syon House, a place rich in historical associations. A little 
to the left is the Isleworth entrance, and on tlie left banlc of tlie 
river a short distance up the stream, is the pretty village of Isle- 
worth. Following the course of the Thames we go through a 
very rich collection of Oalvs; behind this strip and between it 
and the wood is a dell in which Rhododendrons lu.xuriate. 
After the Oaks come tlie Elms, and the extremely numerous 
and very varied forms of our native species are particularly 
puzzling. The Oal« and Elms practically occupy a consider- 
able tract of ground, the whole length of the river frontage of 
the Arboretum ; here and there, however, are groups of Coni- 
fers to block out the sight of the Brentford docks on the oppo- 
site bank of the stream. Not far from here Edmund Ironsides 
defeated the Danes in 1016, and more than six centuries later 
Prince Rupert gained a victory over the P.irliamentarv troops. 




Bridge at Leathertor, England, page 52. 



The village of Kew is situated on the right bank of the Thames 
about six miles from Hvde Park Corner, and was a roval resi- 
dence as far back as the reign of Henry YIII. The chief entrance 
to the Gardens (there are five puljlic entrances altogether) is 
upon Kew Green, one of the most delightful of the tree-sha- 
dowed stretches of sward which form such a pleasant feature 
of many of the villages in the neighliorhood of London. About 
three hundred yards in a westerly direction from the large and 
handsome wrought-iron gates stands the Dutch House, or, as 
it is now always called, Kew Palace, a homely structure of red 
brick, said to have been erected in the time of James I. by Sir 
Hugh Portman, a Dutch merchant knighted by Queen Eliza- 
beth. Here it was that Queen Charlotte died. The palace is just 
outside tlie garden boundaries and is the property of Her Ma- 
jesty Queen Victoria. Turning to the left, at a right angle, the 
main walk — one of the most frequented of the Kew prome- 
nades — leads towards the ornamental water in front of the great 
Palm House. From the Palm House there is a magnificent 
avenue of Deodars, terminated — at the Richmond limit of the 
Arboretum — by the Pagoda, one of the remaining fantastic 
creations of the first Queen Caroline. Leaving the Richmond 
entrance to the left and skirting tlie Old Deer Park — in wliich 



A good proportion of the Arboretum (which covers an area 
of over 178 acres) is occupied by noble stretches of Oak and 
Beech woods, with here and there fine specimens of Spanish 
Chestnut, Horsechestnut and other large trees. Lender these 
grow countless thousands of Wild Hyacinths, or, as they are 
commonly called in many parts of this country, Blue-bells 
{ScUIa nutans). When in flower in May and June the mag- 
nificent masses of color attract large numliers of artists. 
Visitors, too, from central and eastern Europe, whether 
botanically inclined or not, are struck with the sight. 

The Botanic Garden proper is about 70 acres in extentand is 
famous for its beautifully kept lawns, flower-beds, and single 
specimens and groups of miscellaneous deciduous and ever- 
green trees and shrubs arranged for landscape effects — not 
planted in botanical sequence. 

The Arl.ioretum is frequently called the Wilderness, and 
under this name it is mentioned in " Shandon Bells" by 
William Black, who makes the hero, Fitzgerald, and his artist 
friend, John Ross, " go splashing through the mud to Kew, to 
see wliat the wilderness part of the Gardens (a favorite haunt 
of theirs and but little known to the public) was like in driving 
rain, or in feathery snow, or in clear hard frost, when the red 



54 



Garden and Forest. 



[March 28, 1S88. 



berries shone among the green." The red berries mentioned 
by the novehst are those of the English Holly {Ilex Aqtiifoliiiiu), 
of whieh there are many very fine trees. This Holly, which is 
made to play so impo'rtant'a part in some of Dickens' tales 
and in English 'Christmas' literature generally, has brighter 
red berries^and dark green very glossy leaves, and altogether, 
as an ornamental shrub or tree, is much more attractive than 
the American Holly {Hex opaca.) 
Roval G.irdens, Kew. Geor'ge Nicliolson, A. L. S., Ci/rir/ar. 



Yucca Treculiana. 

THE illustration of this fine tree (Fig. 10 on opposite page), 
the " Spanish Bayonet " or " Spanish Dagger," of western 
■ Texas, is from a photograph of a plant grown m the city of 
Austin, where, as in other towns of western Te.\as, it is quite 
commonly cultivated and forms the most conspicuous garden 
ornament. Dr. Engelman's very complete description of this 
species renders it unnecessary to say anything of its botanical 
characters. The Spanish Bayonet becomes, under favorable 
conditions, a tree sometimes thirty feet in heiglit, with a 
slender trunk and wide-spreading branches.* It is common 
through south-eastern Te.xas, and extends south across the 
plains' of northern Mexico, where it is associated with Yucca 
filifcra, as far south as Saltillo and Parras. It forms on the 
Texas coast near the mouth of the Rio Grande, just back 
of the sand dunes, straggling, stunted forests ; and further 
inland low, impenetrable thickets. 

Yticca Treculiana was introduced into Europe by the French 
traveler Trgcul, whose name it commemorates. According to 
Naudin it is verv hardv in the south of France, where it flowers 
freely. ' " C S. S. 

Cultural Notes. 

Hardy Herbaceous Perenuials from Seed. 

FROM the time the winter Aconites, Snowdrops and Cro- 
cuses appear in earliest spring till tlie Ijold Tritomas are 
cut down by hard frost in November, we have among hardy 
lierbaceous perennials an uninterrupted display of flowers. 
But in oi'der to have them so that we can best enjoy them we 
must have masses of the finer sorts rather than a single plant 
of each. Individuals are lost in a landscape ; there we want 
broad colonies of a kind. In the decoration of our gardens 
one Phlox or one Tulip is of no avail ; we want a clump or 
mass of each. For cut flowers one Iris or one Coreopsis 
would not help us much ; we must have several. 

How best to increase our stock of plants and variety of kinds 
must therefore concern us. Heliantlius, Plumbago Larpentce, 
I'eronica, Plilox and many others may be readily increased by 
division, but Aquilegia, Delphhiium and Pentsteiiwn should be 
multiplied by seed. True species usually come true from 
seed, but garden varieties should, in order to keep them true, 
be perpetuated by division or cuttings. The seeds of some 
perennials, Fraxinella, for instance, are slow and uncertain to 
germinate ; those of others, the Virginian Spiderwort, for ex- 
ample, come up with the persistence of weeds. 

In growing herbaceous plants from seed, the amateur 
should begin with such sorts as are easily grown, for most 
perennials are more difficult to raise than are annuals, and 
need not only care before the seeds germinate, but consider- 
_.able attention after the seedlings appear. He should also 
limit his list to suit his garden needs. If his desire is to fur- 
nish a small rockery, then choose Erinus alpinus, Ej'ysiinuin 
rupestre, Dianthus alpinus and the like ; if for edgings in his 
garden, then grow Arineria, Globularia, Chrysantheinuin 
Tchi/iatchewii and evergreen Candytuft ; if for showy flowers, 
try Oriental Poppies, perennial Larkspurs and Kcempfer's Irises. 

In raising perennials from seed we can begin at any time: as 
soon as theseed is ripe and before winter sets in; in the green- 
house in winter or hot-bed in earlyspring; orinacold-frameor 
out-of-doors in late spring. What perennials I raise from seed 
and do not sow in fall I try to sow and get off my hands before 
I begin to sow annuals in spring. Be careful not to sow slow- 
germinating seeds in xvarm quarters, as a hot-house or hot- 
bed, else the chances are that the seeds will rot ; but seeds 
that were sown in boxes in fall and wintered in a cold frame, 

^Viicca Treculiana, Carf'ihre, Kt'^. Nttr^. iS^S,/. J So ; iS6i, />. joj : iS6q,/. ^06, 
f. 82. 

Y. canaliculata, Hook, Bot. Mag. t. S201 (i860) — Ealcer, Card. Chronicle, 1870,/. 
SsS : your. Linn. Soc. xvjii., /. 2 2t>. — Etii^elin., Trans St. Louis Acad. Hi., 41. — 
London Garden, xii.,p. 3 28, t. Q4. — Saigent, Forest Trees N. America, I'ol. i.e., i otJt 
Census U. S., p. 21S. — Hemsley, Bot. Ant. Cent, iir, sjl. 

I', loiigifoha, Engilin. in SV;("(/.— Buckley, Proc. P/iit. Acad. xiv.,j>. S { i Sb2 . 



may Ije introduced to the green-house in spring witli quicken- 
ing effect. 

For convenience sake I treat many perennials as annuals ; 
they germinate and grow readily, and bear a full cup of flow- 
ers and seeds the first year. Among these are Ahronia, Age- 
ratuin. Dahlia (single-flowered). Delphinium grandijlorum, 
Eschscholt::ia Californica, Gaura Lindheimeri, Leptosyne ma- 
ritima, Lopliospermum scandcns, Mirabilis Jalapa, Salvia 
splendens and S. farinosa. Of course some of these, as 
Dahlia and Lophosperiiium, are not hardy, but, treated as an- 
nuals, it matters not whether they are hardy or tender. 

If sown early many perennials will bloom freely the first 
year. These include Anemone coronaria, Anehusa, Cedronella 
eana, Conoeliniuiii, Delphinium, Echinacea, Gaillardia, Incar- 
villea OlgcF, Lychnis, Alalva, Platycodon, Pyrethrum, Salvia 
pratensis, Sidalcea, and Slachys coccinea. Now, while Coreop- 
sis lanceolata if sown early in spring will bloom here towards 
fall, I am informed that in Vermont it will not bloom at all the 
first year from seed. Antl tlie same is true of many other 
pereiniials. 

There are many kinds of perennials that I have never known 
to bloom the first vear from seed. These include Aquilegia, 
Aiitheyicum, Arabis alpina, Asclepias luberosa, Astrantia, 
Baptisia, Betonica, Bocconia, Buthalmum, Callirhoe, Chieranihus 
alpinus. Erysimum rupestre, Globularia, LatJiyrus latifolius. 
Iris, Lilium, (Enothera Missouriensis, Orobus vcrnus, Slatice 
latifolia, Triloina and Veronica longifolia. 

Perennials that Ijloom in spring, for instance Crocus, Scilla 
Sibirica, Trillium and Sangitinaria (all of these self-sow them- 
selves abundantlv), seldom bloom the first year from seed ; but 
we have an exception in the case of Anemone coronaria. On 
the other hand, perennials that bUiom in fall, if sown early 
often bloom the same year — for instance. Hollyhocks, Hyacin- 
thus candicaiis, and Montbrietia erocosiniajlora (not quite 
hardy). 

Many perennials, when once estalilished, self-sow themselves 
aljundantlv. Among these are Delphinium, Coreopsis, Gaura 
Lindheimeri, Salvia farinacea, Dianthus and Digitalis. Of 
these, Foxgloves make good perennials with me in sandy 
land, but in clay soil I have never found them to be satisfactory 
other than as biennials. Sweet Williams often live over as 
perennial, but in all cases I have had the best success with them 
as biennials. And the same is true of Lychnis grandiflora, L. 
fulgens, L. Senno, and the many varieties of L. Haageana. 
While many of the commoner Pentstemons, as P. ovatus, P. 
diffusus and P. pulchelhts, self-sow themselves M-ith great free- 
dom, the finer species, as P. Eatoni, P. Palmeri and P. Cobcza, 
have never, under my care, produced any self-sown plants. 
But at Woolson's, at Passaic, I have seen numbers of self-sown 
plants of P. grandijlorus. While P. diffusus, P. ovatus. and P. 
Icevigatus make pretty good perennials, I always have had 
most success with the other species when they were treated as 
biennials. The seed should be sown as soon as ripe. 

Many perennials germinate as readily as do annuals. Among 
these are Antheinis, Aquilegia, Arabis, Armeria, Chrysanthe- 
mum, Conoclinium, Delphinium, Dianthus, Digitalis, Eupator- 
ium, Gypsophila, Iberis, Iris, Lobelia, Lychnis, Malva, Pentste- 
mon. Primula, Sedum, Sempei'vivum, Thalictrum, Thymus, Tri- 
toina, Viola and many others. But all the species of these 
genera do notgerminate with equal facility — forinstance, while 
Pentstemon ovatus comes up thickly and in about nine days, 
P. cobcva never comes up a full crop nor regularly. And the 
freshness of the seed has a great deal to do with its germina- 
tion. 1 have never succeeded in raising plants of Dictamnus, 
Primula Japonica or P. rosea honi seed a year old. Seeds of 
legiuninous plants, especially of Thermopsis and Baptisia, 
even if the seed is fresh, germinate very irregularly. I have 
had a fair crop come up within a month after sowing, and the 
balance of the seed lie in the ground for a year and then grow. 
While Lilium tenuifolium and L. pulcliellum will come up a 
full crop witliin a fortnight from sowing time, I have found 
that L. auratum and L. superbum take several months before 
they germinate. Seeds of Clematis graveolens and C. tubulosa 
germinate readily in a few weeks, but the hybrids so common 
in our gardens take months. 

All hardy perennials, except such as we treat as annuals, had 
better be sown in late summer or fall ; in fact, as soon as the 
seed is ripe. By this means, in the case of seeds that ripen 
early and germinate readily, as Aquilegia, Aubrietia, Alyssum 
saxatile, and the like, A\-e can have fine strong- stock before 
winter sets in, and which will bloom nicelv next vear. In fact, 
in the case of mostall, except some Lilies, Clematises, Peeonies, 
H ellel lores. Globe Flowers, and Siberian Corydalis, which if sown 
as soon as ripe do not germinate till the next spring, and Gen- 
tians and Composites that bloom late, we may reasonably 



March 2S, iSSS.l 



Garden and Forest. 



55 










*"""- -'Kit^'-^^'m III 









•"lS.««lBM,«f>' 



M^Of P 



hxC 









.,#l"^«^|i 












*t» 



Fig. lo.^Yucca Treculiana. 



expect to Ejet strong- stock to keep over in beds orcokl-frames. 
I malce two sowing's, one as soon as tlie seeds are ripe as 
stated aliove and anotlier in November. This last sowinsj in- 
cludes Asfer, Adonis, Aconifuiu, Aspcrula, Asfraoahis, Baptisia, 
Clematis, Diccnfra, Epimedium, Euphorbia corotlata, Gentiana, 
Gilleiiia, Hehborus, Hepafica, Lilium, Iris, Merteiisia, Monarda, 
Orobus, Phlox, Polygonum, Pcronia, Trollitis, Uviilaria and 
Viola. Tliese are sown in flats (shallow bo.xes) tilled with 
sandy soil, and a thin layer of moss is laid over the surface to 
prevent undue drying. The bo.xes are then placed in a cold 
frame, there to remain over winter. Very few of the kinds 
will germinate before spring, but most all will come up the 
following April or May, when the moss should be removed 
from about the seedlings, and they attended to in the way of 
light, ventilation, water and transplanting. \V. Falconer. 



The Cultivation of Lilies. 

A COLLECTION of rare Lilies is seldom seen in our g-ardens, 
and yet no other class of plants is more greatly desired 
or as often tried. 

Experience with Lilies has convinced me that nearly every 
variety can be successfully grown with as little trouble as any 
other plant of equal merit, and that failure is in the main 
due to overestimating their hardiness. It is the g-encral 
opinion of those having- authority to speak for the Lily, that, 
with but few exceptions, the species are perfectly hardy. 
This opinion finds encouragement in the "Cultural Instruc- 
tions " of nearly everv catalogue, and the trustfid planter who 
does not take the proper precaution loses his bulbs. Nearly 
all the species are natives either of cold or temperate climalcs. 



56 



Garden and Forest. 



[March 28, 1888. 



and therefore it is assumed that all can endure the riyor of 
our winters. But the fact is that few of the species are truly 
hardy in this climate except tlmse indigenous to the soil. 
While it is true that some of the species are found in the 
coldest part of the habitable globe, growing most lu,xuriantly, 
it is equally true that the same species cannot endure our 
winters without protection. Few climates are so trying as our 
own to those buUious-rooted plants, which are usually con- 
sidered hardy and left in the open border during the winter. 
This is particularly true of the coast climate, from Massa- 
chusetts to Virginia, where there is frequently forty degrees of 
frost, and not a particle of snow on the ground for protection. 
Here the earth is frozen to a great depth one week, and thaws 
out the next. These frecjuent changes from water to ice and 
back again cause the earth to contract and expand to such a 
degree as to tear the bulbs in pieces. I have seen large plant- 
ings destroyed in this nranner. 

But to be more specific. The beautifid Liliuin tcnuifolium 
is a native of Siberia, where it is largely cultivated as an article 
of food. Of course it can endure a Siberian winter, but a Long 
Island winter kills it. Why ? Because in its original home the 
first indication of winter is a snow-storm which covers the 
ground so thickly that frost rarelv, if ever, penetrates it ; while 
here the unprotected earth is frozen far below the Lily bulbs 
over and over again between November and April. The 
same is true of the Lilium Martagon, the bulbs of which are 
much valued by the Cossacks as a vegetable. With them it 
is perfectly hardy ; in our warmer clime it will rarely survive 
more than a single winter without protection, but with that pre- 
caution it grows with more vigor here than in its native 
home. 

The White Turk's Cap Lilv (L. Martagon alba), in the northern 
parts of New York, in the Eastern States and in Lower Canada 
thrives with all the vigor of a native plant. So common is 
it in one locality in St. Lawrence Comity, N.Y., that a friend 
sent the writer some flowers for name, saying it was a 
common wild Lily, but she could not find it described in 
Gray's "Botany." Here we can only grow it in a cold-frame ; 
because it misses tlie blanket of snow that covers it in 
Germany, its native home, and in oiu" own more northern 
latitudes. 

In Vermont, where the ground is nearly always covered 
with snow during winter, all kinds of Lilies grow to the 
greatest perfection. We have seen finer bulbs of the L. aura- 
tum, L. Brownii, L. chalcedonicuin, L. Martagon, and other 
species, grown in that State without the slightest artificial pro- 
tection, than we have ever known produced in any other 
country. 

There are nianv other plants protected by snow in a similar 
manner. We notice on the Alps, at an elevation that permits 
of but four months of spring, summer and autumn, that the 
wild Primrose grows in the greatest profusion and luxuriance. 
It is there constantly covered with snow during their long 
periods of freezing' weather. In the valleys below, where there 
is no snow and but little frost, the same plant will not live 
through the winter unless carefully protected. 

All that Lilies require for their perfect development and 
rapid increase is protection against frost, and this is a simple 
and inexpensive operation. 'The best and most natural cover- 
ing is about six inches in depth of newly fallen leaves, kept in 
place by a few boughs or pieces of board. Salt or marsh 
hay will afford excellent protection; corn-stalks answer a good 
purpose; in short, whatever material is the most convenient 
is the best to use, if it will only prrjtect the bulbs against a tem- 
perature tliat changes repeatedly from one side of the frost 
line to the other. C L. Allen. 



Eriostemon intermedium. — This is a South Australian shrub 
with rigid branches, small, shining, dark, pungent, evergreen 
leaves, and white flowers tinged with pink. These are axillary 
and borne in profusion along the primary and secondary 
branches. Eriostemon belongs to the same family as the 
(jrange, which it resembles in the size and shape of its flowers. 
This is one of those beautiful, old-fashioned hard-wood plants 
which should be more often seen in our collections. It is very 
easily cultivated and should be potted in turfy peat mixed with 
sand. It requires careful drainage and the protection in 
winter of a cool green-house. In this climate it should, in 
summer, be plunged out of doors, in partial shade. It flowers 
in March. A figure of Eriostemon intermedium, which is con- 
sidered by Bentham in his Flora of Australia as simply a for)ii 
of E. myoporoides, was published in the Botanical Magazine, t. 
4439- 



Boronia megastigma is another Australian shrub of the Rue 
family, which is too rarely seen in our collections. It is chiefly 
valuable for its deliciously fragrant flowers, a small spray of 
which w:ill scent a whole room. B. megastigma is a slender, 
delicate shrub, sometimes two feet high, with erect branches 
and spreading opposite branchlets. The flowers are verv freely 
produced from the axils of the sparse, linear leaves towards 
the ends of the liranches. They are solitary, drooping, about 
lialf an inch in diameter and sub-globose ; dark red-brown on 
the outside and clear yellow within. This plant, which is now 
ciuite commonly cultivated in some London nurseries on ac- 
count of the fragrance of its flowers, requires cool green-house 
treatment and should be potted and grown like a Cape Heath. 
It flowers in March anil April. A figure of B. megastigma was 
])ublislied in the Botanieal Magazine, t. 6046. C. S. S. 

Mil'.a biflora incur Gardens. — Mr. Pringle's interesting note, p. 
20, remincJs me tliat four years ago a large consignment of 
Milla biflora, Bessera elegans, and some other bulbs, from 
Mexico, were disposed of at auction in New York at ridiculously 
low prices. Most of these bulbs were purchased by Long 
Island growers, and have, since then, been grown by some of 
our florists for cut-flowers in summer, for the New York 
market. The bulbs are planted out in rows in spring, and cul- 
tivated by horse power as we do Tuberoses and Gladioli ; 
in the fall they are lifted and treated like Gladioli or Ti- 
gn-idias. While out-of-doors in summer they grow well -and 
Ijloom beautifully, seldom bearing fewer than two, oftener 
seven or nine flowers on a scape. The flowers are white and 
showy, and were picked every day for market. When left un- 
picked, they set and ripen seed freely. Seeds germinate easily. 

Lilium Grayi. — I found this rare Lily, figured p. 19, perfectly 
hardy at Cambridge, Massachusetts, and as amendable to cul- 
tivation as were L. Canadense or L. superbum. Referring 
to my note books I find : " 1882, July 2d — L. Grayi in full 
bloom ; L. Canadense not yet in bloom, but its flowers are 
ready to open." "1883, July 2d — L. Grayi in full Ijloom ; Z. 
Canadense also in fi-dl Ijloom." The two species were growing 
near each other in the garden. Their general contour, to a 
casual oliserver, is very much alike. The most striking differ- 
ence is in the flowers ; while those of L. Canadense ave always 
nodding and the petals reHexed, those of L. Grayi are never 
quite pendulous nor widely open, nor are the petals at all 
reflexed. The flowers of L. Grayi are of a darker red color 
than are those of the ordinary red L. Canadense, and the inner 
surface of the petals is more thickly spotted with dark purple 
spots. 

Forcing Azaleas. — In order to have Azaleas to bloom early get 
them to make their growth early. It is not well to take plants 
that are in bud and bring them into brisk heat in order to 
bring them into bloom ; better bring them into heat after they 
have finished blooming and get them to make their growth 
early, and in this way advance their time to bloom. 

Cytisus Canariensis.— As soon as it has done blooming cut it 
back enough to give the plants a shapely, stocky form ; then 
give them a thorough washing in warm water (at a temperature 
of 125° Fah.) to rid them of red spider, to which they are very 
subject, and a fortnight after repeat the washing. Do not 
repot them till they have started into fresh growth. It does not 
pay to keep over old plants ; raise a few fresh ones from cut- 
tings every year. Cuttings of the young wood strike freely. 
The plants are in their prettiest condition when they are two to 
three years old. IV. E. 

Grapes for Home Use. — I cordially agree with Mr. Williams' 
notes on a choice of varieties. The kinds he has named have 
thrived well on my grounds and have yielded good fruit. The 
shores of the Hudson are better adapted to the growth of the 
vine than the gTeater part of New Jersey, and we can cultivate 
successfully some of the more delicate and fastidious sorts. 
The lona appears to me to be the most delicious of all the 
Grapes and is well worth a trial. The Agawam and the Lind- 
ley have proved with me good growers and abundant bearers. 
The fruit is superior in ciuality, but the clusters are rarely com- 
pact and handsome. This defect is of minor consequence in 
the home garden, where flavor is of the first consideration. 
On warm, well-drained slopes I can ripen the Isabella and 
Catawba, and I should be sorry to be without these old and 
superb varieties. We need late as well as early Grapes. The 
Bacchus is known almost exclusively as a wine Grape, but 
about the middle of October it becomes a fine table sort. I 
have about 112 varieties growing on trial, and hope to be able 
hereafter to ofter some more definite and practical notes. 

E. P. Roe. 



March 28, 1888.] 



Garden and Forest. 



57 



The Retinisporas. 

THE generic title of Retinispora for a peculiar group of 
Japanese Conifers, is quite expressive, as it relates to 
its main distinctive feature, i. e., " retine," resine, and " spore," 
seed, in allusion to the numerous little resinous vescicles 
found dotted over the siuiace of the seed-covering. 

Since this genus was established by Siebold and Zuccarini, 
these resin-dots have been detected in other members of the 
Cupressinea:, notably in Cupressus Lawsoniaiia, and as the otlier 
characters were unimportant, Retinispora, consequently, can 
not longer stand. Dr. Ma.wvell T. Masters, in his admirable 
paper on the "Conifers of Japan,"* read before the Linnasan 
Society of London, has very justly reduced the former genera 
Retinispora, Biota, Chaincecyparis and Thiiiopsis, to sections 
of the old genus Thuya, and after a careful examination I ain 
ready to concur in his classification. 

The object of this paper is to review briefly the most valu- 
able Conifers which have been popularly culti\'ated under the 
heading of Retinispora, but in the interest of correct nomen- 
clature it has been deemed advisable to adopt Dr. Masters' ar- 
rangement. 

Perhaps the most satisfactory species for all purposes, is 
Thuya pisifera (R. pisifcra), a medivmi-sized tree found in 
various localities throughout Japan, especially in the mountain 
districts. This Conifer has proved entirely hardy in the Middle 
States, growing rapidly when fully established, and forming 
graceful and attractive specimens with little care. The follow- 
ing have been reduced to varieties of the aliove species, and 
although differing widely in general appearance, the organs 
of fructification in every instance point conclusively to their 
origin. 

Var. pluniosa {R. pluinosa) is one of the most valualile 
forms of this group. The young branchlets have been com- 
pared to ostrich plumes, on account of their graceful habit 
and feathery growth. It forms a compact, small specimen, 
with numerous small, pointed, briglit-green leaves, and in 
rich, light soil soon forms a conspicuous object on the lawn. 
The variegated sport from this variety is one of the most dis- 
tinct and bestConifersof its class for planting in the mixed Coni- 
fer border, and its rich, golden tints, especially in early summer, 
brighten up a mass of dark foliage ^vith remarkalsle effect. 

There is another attractive sport from this variety that has 
been inti^oduced into our collections under the name of R. 
pluinosa argcntca. It differs from the above in having numer- 
ous little pure white dots scattered over the foliage in an in- 
teresting manner. It has the merit of not scorching as so 
many variegated plants do, and although not remarkably dis- 
tinct, it is nevertheless entitled to notice. 

Var. squarrosa ( R. squarrosa ) of Veitch, for there are two 
distinct forms of this variety under the same name, is perhaps 
next in importance as a small evergeen tree. Although it is 
claimed by some writers to be a form of T. obtusa, the fruit is 
identical with T. pisifera. An accidental sport from a speci- 
men growing in the Lawsons' nurseries, at Edinburgh, 
afforded adtlifional evidence of its pisiferoid character. It is a 
remarkably elegant, dense-growing Conifer, with pecidiar 
silvery foliage, and is rarely injured by the severity of our 
winters after reaching the age of eight or ten years. To pre- 
serve a fine conical outline, specimens should be sheared 
annually for a few years after planting. The other form, 
which is known in some collections as R. squarrosa of Siebold, 
is not so hardy as the above, and is undoubtedly nothing more 
than T. pisifera or T. obticsa in an iibnormal state. It is rarely 
satisfactory excepting \\'hen very young. 

V3.T.fi!ifera ( R.filifera) is a peculiar form with the same 
whip-like firanches and liranchlets that characterize the pendu- 
lous variety of the Chinese Arbor vitje ; indeed it has been 
surmised that this variety may be another form of Thuya 
orientalis. It is, however, much more elegant than the latter, 
being entirely devoid of stiffness, and in time develops into a 
large evergreen shrub with the outer surface completely 
covered with a mass of slender, drooping, bright-green shoots. 
It is quite hardy, and desirable even in the smallest collection. 

Var. aurea ( R. pisifera aiirea) is a distinct and showy form 
that originated in an English nursery a few years since. The 
foliage, both old and new, is plentifully marked with a bright 
golden-yellow tint, which, in partial shade, is retained through- 
out the summer months. In some localities it becomes dis- 
colored when exposed to the full rays of the sun. It is very 
distinct when placed among other forms. 

T. obtusa (R. obtusa) is a hardy, valuable tree for this 
country, although inferior as an ornamental specimen to the 
preceding species. On the Island of Nipon, in Japan, it 

*Journal Linn. Soc, .wiii. 473. 



attains a very large size, and forms extensive forests, the 
timber being in great demand. Its general aspect is open, and 
on this account it will not prove so popular as many of our 
own Conifers. This defect, however, may be remedied in a 
great measure by a systematic annual pruning in the tree's 
younger years, to increase the numlier of its branches. It is 
readily distinguished from T. pisifera, but more especially in 
the size of its strobiles, which are from seven-eighths of an 
inch to one inch in diameter, while those of the latter are only 
three-eighths of an inch in diameter. The varieties of the 
two species are also very distinct. As is the case with most 
Conifers of long cultivation T. obtusa lias many curious mor- 
phological forms. Some of these are very attractive and 
deserving of general cultivation, but others are unworthy of 
dissemination. 

Var. lycopodioides ( R. lycopodioides ) is the most distinct of 
all of these recognized varieties, and with generous culture in 
[iroper soil it is exceedingly pleasing. Tlie foliage is of the 
darkest shade of green, and is remarkalile in its arrangement, 
frequently imparting to the numerous sliort branchlets an 
appearance of dark-green coral. The habit of the plant is 
rather dwarf, dense, and irregular in outline, at least for 
several years after planting, and its constitution is hardy and 
reliable. In fact, it may be classed as one of the best of this 
group for general cultivation. 

Var. filicoides (R. filicoides), the elegant fern-like variety of 
this group, is entirely satisfactory wlien in its young state, but 
we have no knowledge of its behavior' at maturity, or even 
at eight or ten years of age. Its cones although smaller than 
thoseof its parent show the specific relationship. Manj' of the 
small branchlets are flattened out in a peculiar manner «hich 
has been likened to the fronds of a fern. The color is 
especially pleasing, being of a bright-green tint, with the usual 
glaucous lines on the under side. It appears to withstand 
tlie severity of our variable winters as well as its congeners, 
and in congenial soil quickly develops into a charming ever- 
green shrub. Judging by its manner of growth, however, 
it may not become so dense as some, but its other pleasing 
i:haracters mav recompense the owner for the loss of this. 

Var. nana (R. obtusa nana), and Var. pygmaa (R. obtusa 
pygntara), are choice little dwarfs, best suited for the outer 
edge of clumps and mixed liorders. Of the twci, tin- latter is 
much the smaller plant, with spreading hal;>it and attaining 
only the height of one foot. They are both liardy and well 
adapted to our climate. 

The variegated forms of this group of Conifers arc very 
numerous, but as they are not especially interesting to the 
American planter they are omitted from this list. Others again 
differ from the species in being more slender in growth or 
dense in habit, etc. There is here a broad field for experiment 
and research, and Japanese gardeners have not been idle 
in hunting them up. Their collection of these pretty little 
oddities is almost beyond number. Many of them, however, 
are of no possible use for gardening effect, and their culture 
here would be a mere waste of time and money. 

Westchester, Pa. JosiaJl Hoopcs. 

Snowberry Jelly, 

MY attention was recently called to an interesting use of the 
Creeping Snowberry [Chiogeftes hispiduta, Torr. and Gr.) 
which may prove of sufficient novelty to warrant calling atten- 
tion to it. A friend forwarded a small pot of jelly, with the re- 
quest that information be given as to the material of which it 
was composed. 

A superficial examination showed tlie jelly to be of the color 
of amber, and about the consistency of Guava jelly. This I suli- 
sequently learned to be due to an. accident, owing to which 
very considerable consolidation had followed. The normal 
consistence is that of ordinary Currant jelly. The upper por- 
tion of the mass was quite clear, while at the bottom were 
numerous small seeds and much pulpy matter, giving a very 
peculiar character to the preparation, without, however, destroy- 
ing its value. Upon sulimitting it to the taste, the flavor was 
found to be distinctly that of Gau/theria,'At\\oug\\ I have since 
been somewhat surprised to learn that so distinctive a flavor 
had not been recognized by several persons. Upon boiling 
out the pulpy deposit, it was found to consist of the berries 
constituting the material employed. Many of these were quite 
whole, so that their true nature was determined without much 
difficulty, and as we later learned that the berries in the fresh 
state were perfectly white, it was easy to refer them to the 
common Creeping Snowberry. 

It appears that in Newfoundland, whence the jelly was ob- 
tained, it is a common practice with many families to prepare 
this exceedingly delicate preserve, but the scarcity of the berries, 



58 



Garden and Forest. 



[March 28, 



to collect one quart of which an entire day is required, renders 
it a luxury, and to obtain more than a small quantity is difficult. 

The comestible qualities of these berries are well known, 
and are referred to by Purvancher, " Baies d'un l.)lanc pur k la 
maturity, trfes sucrees, comestibles," 

The same author further remarks that " Les feuilles et les 
fruits ont une savein- analogue k la Gaultheria ou a Tecorce 
du Bouleau-Merissier. On en fait des infusions d'un goiit 
fort agrealjle, dont on use en guise de th^ dans certains endroits 
de nosCampagnes."* It is also of interest to note that the local 
name of this plant, i. e., in Newfoundland, is Capillaire. 

The use of the berries of Chiogenes as a source of jelly, 
suggests that the fruit of its near relative, Gaultheria, Avhich is 
certainly more aliundant, might be utilized in a similar manner 
with equally good results. 

McGill University, Monti-i-al, March 17(11, 1888. /). P_ PeilhixlloW. 



Correspondence. 



" Landscape Gardening — A Definition." 
To the Editor of Garden and Forest; 

Sir. — The thoughtful article under the above caption in the 
lirst nuniber of Garden and Forest is needed to correct a 
current misconception concerning the sphere of the landscape 
gardener. Mere ingenious design, skillful arrangements of bed- 
ding plants and conspicuous eccentricities, are frequently mis- 
taken for landscapie g.-irdening. JVIany self-styled landscape 
gardeners are responsilile for this absurd error. They hide and 
destroy the very art which they profess to cultivate. Flower 
beds, fountains, and other objects which should be mere 
accessories, are made the leading features in many parks. To 
these objects the people point as examples of landscape gar- 
dening ! With the same reason one might call a handsome 
dormer-window a complete example of architecture ! 

As Fine Art is a conception of the mind, it follows that, in 
order to render it material, tangible, we must employ some me- 
chanical or industrial art. The architect depends upon the car- 
penter and mason for the labor of construction. So landscape 
gardening, the Fine Art, depends upon the industrial art which 
shapes the ground, plants the trees, makes the walks and 
drives. This industrial art is no doubt a legitimate branch of 
horticulture. It is the sphere of the artisan. To call this 
artisan an artist, a landscape garde'ner, is like calling the amanu- 
ensis who writes the conceptions of Longfellow a poet. In 
my own teaching I have given this industrial art the name 
Landscape Horticidture,. for such it is. Nearly all our pro- 
fessed treatises upon landscape gardening do little more than 
designate the most important rules and operations of land- 
scape horticulture. This is the case larg'ely of necessitv, for it 
is a difficult matter to give adequate instruction in a Fine Art. 
It does not deal in formulas. But horticulture allows of closer 
rules, and for convenience of treatment I divide it into four 
broad divisions : Pomology, Olericulture or Vegetable Gar- 
dening, Floriculture, Landscape Horticulture. 

Michigan Agricultural College. i-. li. Btxtlcy , 

Fraxinella. 

To the Editor of Garden and Forest : 

Now when garden-lovers are beginning to think about plants 
for the coming season, and when so many new ones are being 
brought to their notice through your columns, may I say a 
word in behalf of an old flower which ought to be more often 
seen ? 

Fraxinella {Diciamnus Fraxinella), a native of Southern 
Europe and some parts of Asia, has been cultivated for fully 
three centuries in England and was esteemed by our grand- 
mothers with the best of those flowers which we call "old- 
fashioned." To-day it seems almost forgotten. I have chanced 
to see it only once — in a garden near Boston — and although I 
have spoken of it to many persons, I have met none, except 
the owners of this garden, to whom it was familiar. 

It Ijelongs to the Rue FaiTiiiy, and is a perennial herb with an 
al most woody base and very graceful foliage — the pinnate leaves 
with many serrate leaflets, like those of the Ash on a smaller 
scale, having given rise to its common name. The flowers are 
rather large and borne in a long terminal raceme in summer. In 
one — the prettiest — variety, they are white; in the other, Gray, in 
the "School and Field Book of Botany," describes them as "jiale 
purple with reddish veins," but I should call them dull pink 
with reddish veins. Their irregular shape — unique in tlie Rue 
Family — their size and arrangement, suggest in some degree 
the Lark-spur, but Fraxinella is more delicate and graceful. Its 
chief distinction lies, however, in its odor. Gray calls this odor 
* Flore Canadienne, 363. 



" strong and aromatic," and it is this and more — very strong, 
very aromatic, very sweet, and quite unlike the scent of any 
of our common garden-blossoms. There is a hint of vanilla 
aliout it, and a certain richness and penetrating quality which 
betray its southern origin. Yet, although rich, it is not heavy, 
but as fresh as the smell of lavender. Fraxinella is also an ob- 
ject of interest from the fact that the volatile oil generated by 
its flowers is so strong that on warm, still, summer evenings a 
lighted match held a foot above them will cause a flame to 
Ijurst forth. 

Philip Miller, in his " Gardener's Dictionary," published in 
1724, says of Fraxinella: "These plants continuing a long 
time in Beauty, are very great Ornaments to a Garden ; and 
their being very hardy, requiring but little Culture, renders 
them worthy of a Place in every good Garden." Pequot. 

New London, Conn. 

\Dictamnus Fra.xinellao\\'^\\VLO\.\ohe. uncommon in Amer- 
ican gardens. It deserves a place in every collection, however 
select, of hardy herliaceous plants. It is easily propagated by 
seed or division, and will flourish in any garden soil! — Ed.] 



The Forest. 

Forest Trees of the Far North-west. 
"T^HESE notes refer to an area which includes the extreme 
-'• western part of British Columbia, with adjacent portions 
of the North-west Territory, as well as part of the "Coast strip" 
or southern part of Alaska. The area is embraced inageneral 
way by 56° 30' and 63^ north latitude, the i2Sth and 138th de- 
grees of west longitude. Through this almost unknown por- 
tion of the continent a geographical and geological reconnois- 
sance was carried last summer by the writer, on behalf of the 
Geological Survey of Canada. 

The region in question is drained by the Stikive and other 
rivers which flow through the coast ranges to the Pacific, by 
the Liard, a main tributary of the Mackenzie, and by several 
branches of the Yukon. These large rivers form routes of tra- 
vel through the country, hut the several drainage basins do 
not constitute regions of diverse Floras. The great division 
from this point of view, is found between the lumiid climate 
of the coast and the relatively dry and extreme climate of the 
interior ; the lirst constituting the continuation of the botanical 
region of the British Columbian coast, the second that of the 
interior of the same province. The considerable altitude of 
the interior also has its influence on the vegetation. The 
average "base level" or valley level of the interior is about 
2,500 feet. DilTerence of latitude shows a comparatively small 
effect, in conseriuence of the fact that the country as a whole 
liccomes lower northward. The region may, generally speak- 
ing, be described as mountainous, though there are as well 
large tracts of low 'lands and the river valleys are generally 
quite wide. 

The chief facts to be recorded with respect to the distribu- 
tion of trees are those bearing on the northern limits of the 
well known western forms, the number of species represented 
so far north being quite restricted. In the interior region, 
which may be treated as a whole, the Douglas Fir, Engelmann's 
Spruce, the Hemlock (7>?/^'-<? Mertensiana) and the red Cedar 
{Thuya gigantea),-i\\ comvViQW and chai'acteristic trees a few 
degrees to the south, are nowhere found. The White and the 
Black Spruce (Picea alba and P. nigra). Balsam Fir [Abies sub- 
alpina), Aspen {Populus treinuloidcs)w\(\Q.oX\a\'\wooii. iPopulus 
trichocarpa probably with P. balsainifera) occur in suitable lo- 
calities over the whole region east of the Coast Mountains, the 
two first-mentioned trees constituting probably half the entire 
forest-covering of the country. 

The White Spruce, along the rivers and in low ground, forms 
fine well grown groves in which many trees attain a diameter 
of two feet, to the most northern point reached, and affords 
timber of fair quality. It is found with Abies subalpina at the 
upward limit of forest growth on the inland mountains, about 
4,200 feet. The Black .Spruce has scarcely received mention 
in previous notes on the distribution of trees in British Colum- 
bia, but is now known to be abundant locally on high plateaus 
about the region of the upper Fraser, and in the country here 
described is common in swampy places and along shaded 
river-banks with a northern exposure. It attains a considera- 
ble height, but is never large enough to afford good lumber. 
Abies subalpina was found wherever the upper limit of trees 
on the mountains was approached, but was not observed near 
the rivers, except on Bennett Lake, near the head of the Lewes, 
in latitude 60', where it is \'ery abundant. The Aspen is es- 
pecially characteristic of second-growth woods and dry open 
grassy hillsides, of which there are many along the Pelly 
and Lewes branches of the Yukon. The Cottonwood here 



March 28, 18 



■] 



Garden and Forest. 



59 



represented is, in so far as the specimens brought back can be 
determined, PopuliLs trichocarpa, but there is little doubt that 
the Balsam Poplar also occurs. Trees six feet in diameter 
were seen on the Stikive River, but further inland they were 
very rarely found to reach a diameter of three feet. 

Greater interest, from a botanical point of view, attaches to 
the trees of which the ranges are more restricted. The Black 
V\'aii{Pinus Murrayana), so common in the interior to the south, 
is also pretty widely distributed in this northern country. It is 
found in abundance on the Stikive immediately to the east of 
the coast mountains and thence inland. It was observed on 
the Dease and Upper Liard, and from the mouth of the Dease 
(according to specimens sent back by Mr. R. G. McConnell), 
down the Liard to Devil's Portage, some miles east of the 
range which appears to represent the northern continuation of 
the Rocky Mountains proper. Further east, the Banksian Pine 
becomes characteristic of the great valley of the Mackenzie, 
which is here entered ; but this tree does not extend to the 
west of the Rocky Mountains, on the head-waters of the Liard. 
Pinus Murrayana reaches nearly to Finlayson Lake, its most 
northern source, but does not occur on the Upper Pelly, in 
descending which it was first met with in longitude 133' 30'. 
From this point, down the Pelly and up the whole length of 
the Lewes, it is moderately abundant. On the authority of Mr. 
W. H. Dalls the northern limit of this tree has been given as 
at the confluence of the Pelly and Lewes (lat. 62° 49'), but as it 
there shows no sign of having reached its extreme point, it 
may probably be found some distance further northward in 
the Yukon Valley, though not as far as the mouth of the Por- 
cupine, in latitude 66' 2}3'. 

The known range of the common Larch {Larix Americana) 
has by the observations of the past summer been definitely 
carried to the west of the Rocky Mountains. It extends west- 
ward on the Dease River to a point twenty-two miles above 
the mouth of that stream, and along the upper Liard and 
Frances Rivers spreads northward nearly to Finlayson Lake, 
reaching latitude 61° 35'. Between these limits it is abundant 
andcharacteristicof cold, swampy ground. It was looked for all 
along the Pelly, but not found either on this or the Lewes 
branch of the Yukon. It appears probable, however, that this 
tree will eventually be proved to characterize the sub-arctic 
country, further to the north, from the Mackenzie Valley 
nearly to the shores of Behring Sea, as Dall, in his well known 
work on Alaska, mentions the occurrence of a Larch on the 
lower Yukon (as L. microcarpa ? and L. Daviirica?), v{h\c\\ 
can scarcely be any other than this species. Larix Lyallii, 
which about the 49th and 51st parallels in the Rocky Mountains 
is the most characteristic tree at the timber-line, was not found 
in the region now in question and would therefore appear to 
be a relatively southern mountain species. 

The Birch \Betula papyrifcra) was first seen to the east of 
the coast mountains in the Stikive Valley and occurs sporadi- 
cally along the river-valleys throughout the interior. It is 
quite abundant on Frances Lake, near the head of the Liard, 
but was not observed on the upper Pelly east of the 131st 
meridian. 

Jiiniperus Virginiana was observed as a small tree, with 
trunks six inches in diameter, at Telegraph Creek on the Sti- 
kive in the dry country in the lee of the coast mountains, but 
was not elsewhere found in an arboreal form. The Alder (pro- 
bably Alniis rubra) and one or more species of Willow become 
small trees along some of the rivers of the interior, the Alder 
being noted as specially abundant and large on the Pelly above 
the mouth of the Lewes. 

As already noted, the timber-line was found to be at about 
4,200 feet on the mountains of the interior near the watershed 
between the Liard and Pelly (lat. 61° 30'). At a similar dis- 
tance from the Pacific coast, in the corresponding range of 
the Cordillera in latitude 51°, this line is at an altitude of about 
7,000 feet, showing a descent to the north of 2,800 feet in ten and 
a half degrees of latitude, or about 280 feet for each degree. 

It is generally stated that the influence of the warm waters 
of the Pacific "Gulf stream," reaching the northern part of the 
west coastand flowing southward along it, is such as to produce 
a nearly identical climate and Flora from the Strait of Fuca far to 
the north. While this is true in a general way, it is a mistake to 
suppose that no effect is produced by increasing latitude. The_ 
most marked change of climate, as indicated by the arboreal' 
vegetation, nearly coincides with Dixon Entrance and the 54th 
parallel. North of this the forest is usually inferior in growth 
and the quantity of marketable timber is much smaller? The 
^<id.Q&A^x {Thuya gioa7ifea) is not found in any abundance, 
north of the latitude of the mouth of the Stikive, and though 
closely looked for along the coast in the vicinity of Lynn Canal, 
no single specimen of it was detected there. 



The YellowCedar(C/;a;«a'g/^«rzVA«/?'/a(?«jzj) scarcely reaches 
Sitka, and is not anywhere found among the inner islands near 
the entrance of Lynn Canal. The Alder {Alnus ?-ubra) forms 
groves along the shores at least as far north as latitude 59°. 
Tlie western Crab-apple (Pyrvs riinilaris) occurs here and there 
as far north as Lynn Canal. The Broad-leaved Maple {Acer 
inacrophylluin) may reach latitude S5° as stated by Prof. Sar- 
gent in his Census report, but was not observed by me, and 
must be rare. North of the Prince of Wales Archipelago, 
eight- tenths of the entire forest of the coast region appears t(i 
consist of the single tree Menzie's Spruce [Picca Sitchciisis). 

Pinus contorta was noted at the head of Lynn Canal and 
elsewhere along the coast. Here also, in the valley of tin.' 
stream on the west side of the Chilkoot or Perrier Pass, by 
which the coast mountains are crossed, Tsuga Pattonian'a 
grows to a fair size and forms entire groves. It ^vas foimd as 
well within a few hundred feet of the'summit of the pass ataji 
altitude exceeding 3,000 feet, in a prostrate form, but still fre- 
quently bearing cones. Abies amabilis (?) was also noted in 
the valley of the west slope of the pass and occurs along Lvnn 
Canal and other parts of the coast. Unfortunately no cones of 
this tree were found. 

I am indebted to Prof. J. Macoun and Prof. C. S. Sargent for 
the determination of most of the specimens of trees collected. 

George M. Dawson. 

The Forests of New Jerse}-. 

pROFESSOR Geo. H. Cooke, Director of the State Geologi- 
-'- cal Survey of New Jersey, states in a recent report that 
the total area of woodland in that State amounts to 2,069,805 
acres, or 41.5 per cent, of the total area of the State. The 
growing of Chestnut timber for railroad ties on the untillable 
lands of northern New Jersey is recommended, as there is 
always a demand for them by the numerous railroads crossing 
the State in every direction. Chestnut stump-land sells for 
from $1.00 to $5.00 per acre, a growth of thirty years at from 
$10.00 to $30.00 an acre ; of fifty years from $25,00 to $50.00 
an acre. But in many cases good growths, accessible to mar- 
kets, have sold at figures three to four-fold greater. The value 
of the timber depends much on the soil and the location. The 
time required to grow ties and telegraph poles will average 
about thirty years. In the northern part of the State the 
Chestnut grows naturally, and brings the quickest and best 
returns, although Oak is more valuable when grown. It has 
been demonstrated that Locust timber can be grown with 
profit on the 250,000 acres of waste land on the cretaceous 
formation. It is possible to raise on good land a crop worth 
$3,000 per acre in thirty years, and returns at the rate of $2,000 
are not uncommon. The growing of White Cedar timber is 
generally recognized as profitable. The value of stump-land 
is from $5.00 to $10.00; of twenty years' growth of timber from 
$5.00 to $50.00 ; of thirty-five years from $15.00 to $200.00 ; and 
of fifty years growth from $75.00 to $400.00. Of course, loca- 
tion and size have much to do with the price. A swamp of 
seventy years' growth recently sold for $800.00 per acre. 

The Pitch Pine {Pinus rigitfa) in the southern and central 
parts of the State attains a size suitable for firewood in about 
fifteen or twenty years. It is commonly estimated that it will 
produce as many cords per acre as it has been years in grow- 
ing. The present value of Pine wood per acre standing aver- 
ages about $1.00. When the timber becomes larger, its value 
per cord increases, and it finds a market for lumber and lath, 
for piling and other purposes. The following figures are from 
estimates of men familiar with the Pine forests, and the wide 
range is due to difference in accessibilit)' and the producing 
power of the land. Pine stump-land ranges from $0. 10 to $5.00 
per acre. Of course, this does not include the figures from 
localities where the land has a value of from $10.00 to $25.00 
per acre for cultivation. The value of thirty years' growth of 
timber is from $5.00 to $25.00 ; of fifty ve.ars' from $ro.oo to 
$100.00. Taking figures pertaining to the average of the bet- 
ter two-thirds of Pine land as a guide, the present conditions 
would give about the following results : 

Cost of stump land, per too acres $250.00 

Taxes on averag-e value, 30 years, . . . 448.00 

Policing and protection, 30 years 120.00 

Interest, at 6 per cent., 450.00 

Total expenditure $1,268.00 

Value of 30 years' growth, for 100 acres, . . 2,500.00 
\'alue of stump land, 250.00 

Total value $2,750.00 

Profit 1,482.00 



6o 



Garden and Forest. 



[March 28, 1888. 



The interest on annually paid expenses is supposed to be 
offset by increase in value of stump land. 

It is not to be supposed that proper protection and attention 
will not greatly increase the above profit. These figures rep- 
resent the present vahies, depreciated by the results of neg- 
lect, and the uncertainty and loss caused by fires. 



Monsieur Viette, the French Minister of Agriculture, by a 
recent decree has reduced the Forest School at Nancy to a 
subordinate branch of the National Agricultural Institute, an 
arrangement which not only destroys all independence in the 
management of the school, but compels its pupils to pass an 
examination in the theory and practice of agriculture — an un- 
necessary waste of time, it is claimed. 

This radical and apparently unwise measure calls forth a 
loud protest from all the friends of the forest administration in 
France, who see in it a serious blow to the efficiency both of 
the school and the management of the forests. This famous 
school was established by the French Government in 1827. In 
it have been trained the officers who have made French for- 
ests and French forestry what they are, and here have been 
educated a large part of the Englishmen who have so ably 
seconded Dr. Brandis and his successors in their Indian forest 
administration. Any official interference that will impair the 
value of the Nancy school is a misfortune whicli must be felt 
far beyond the limits of France. 



Recent Plant Portraits. 

Botanical Magasine, February. 

Amorphophalhis virostts, t. 6978 ; a native of Siam. 

Ccelogyne Massangcana, t. 6979 ; a native of Assam and 
closely allied to the Bornean C. aspirata, which it resembles 
in its large showy flowers borne in drooping racemes a foot 
long. 

Salvia scapaformis, t. 6980 ; a native of Formosa, with rather 
small, clear blue flowers. 

Aloe Hildeyhrandtii, t. 6981 ; a native of east tropical Africa. 

Oncidiiiin Jonesianum, t. 6982 ; a native of Paraguay and 
Considered by Sir Joseph Hooker " by far the handsomest 
species of the small group to which it belongs and of which the 
type may be considered to be the long-known O. Cebolleta of 
the Spanish Main." 

March. 

I'anda Sandcriana, t. 6983 ; a free flowering, showv species 
from the Philippine Islands. 

Primula geranifolia, t. 6984 ; a neat si^ecies with small 
pur].ile flowers, perfectly hardy at Kew. 

JSlcsembryanthemuin Bro-wjiii, t. 6985. 

Heloniopsis Japonica, t. 6986 ; a dwarf, hardv, liliaceous 
plant, a native of Japan and Corea, with the habit of a large- 
flowered Scilla, and drooping, racemose, deep pink- flowers. 

Onosma pyramidalis, t. 6987 ; a native of the western Him- 
alayas, " a very handsome plant, conspicuous for the bright 
scariet of the flowers, which turn of a mauve-purple as they 
wither ; " not hardy at Kew. 



Massachusetts Horticultural Societ)-. 

'T'HE Spring Exhibition of this Society was held at Boston last 
week and was most successful in the abundance and qual- 
ity of the bulbous plants and flowei's displayed, owing to the 
medals and special prizes offered to promote the cultivation of 
this class of plants. In form and color these flowers distinctly 
excelled the exhibits of former years. Cut blooms of Roses of 
all classes made another strikingfeature, and with them were a 
few well grown plants in bloom of the beautiful but scentless 
" Her Majesty." Orchids were not so numerously shown as at 
some former exhibitions, although there were some notable 
specimens in the collection. A fine Dendrobiuin nobile, exhib- 
ited by Norton Brothers, showed more than 800 flowers An 
Appleton medal was awarded to this vigorous plant C M 
Atkinson, gardener of Mr. J. M. Gardner, contributed a Cat- 
tleya intermedia with forty flowers, and W. A. Manda sent a 
Dendrochiluiii glumaceuni with as many spilces. A few exam- 
ples of the late and rare Odontoglossum Pescatoria came from 
the collection of Mr. H. H. Hunniwell, as did a strikino- plant of 
Gloneriajasminijiora. The Heaths and Azaleas were especially 
good. Complaint was made of insufficient room for the proper 
display of contributions, but the plants and flowers were 
tastefully arranged, so far as the accommodations would 
permit. 



Flower Market. 

New York, Marth sjd. 

The dullness in trade, and glut of cut fluwers early this week, is 
almost unprecedented in the experience of Metropolitan florists. 
American Beauty Roses have been sold at 6 cts. each wholesale, and 
retailed for 25 cts. Jacqueminots were sold for 2 cts. wholesale. This, 
of course, was not "for selected stock. Syringa, Mountain Laurel and 
Heath, growing in pots, are brought in for Easter novelties. Rhodo- 
dendrons, Azaleas and Genesta of great beauty also appear. Plants of 
Mountain Laurel cost $3; Heath, from S2.50 to $c;; Genesta, $2.50, and 
Rhododendrons, noticeably Cunningham's White, are 64. Beauty of 
Waltham Roses have been added to the galaxy of hybrids ; they are 
S5 a dozen. Fine La France Roses sell for that price, but this Rose 
daily declines in favor. Puritans have impro\'ed, and are very large 
and perfect. They cost 50 and 75 cts. each. Jacqueminots, selected, 
bring from $1 to $3 a dozen. Hybrids sell from S3 to S5 a dozen, ac- 
cording to quality. Gardenias are in good demand at 25 cts. each. 
Narcissus fofticus is $2 a dozen. Dutch Hyacinths cost from $1.25 to 
Si.50adozen. Lilacs are $1.25 and Si. 50 a bunch of the best stock. 
Neapolitan Violets are plentiful, and cost from 75 cts. to Si a hundred. 
Marie Louise and White Violets sell for from $1 to $1.50 a hundred. 
Mignonette costs from $1.20 to $1.50 a dozen spikes. Smilax is 40 and 
50 cts. a string. Asparagus plumosus is Si a string, and A. tenuissi- 
niits 75 cts. a string. There are few or no orders for flesigns for Easter 
offerings or memorial tokens for the altar. Boxes of cut bloom are 
preferred for gifts, and expressive arrangements of plants and flowers 
on the altar in ?neiitoriam will be the rule. 

Philadelphia, March 2jd. 

From one part of the city comes the report that the past two weeks 
has been the dullest known for many years. Happily this does not 
represent the state of the trade in general. The demand for flowers, 
thougli not excessi\'e, has been satisfactory. Some \'ery large, fine 
and highly-colored Magna Charta Roses are to be seen in the florists' 
windows ; also a few exquisitely formed and tinted Captain Christys. 
It is surprising there are not more of the latter grown, for it certainly 
is one of the most beautiful varieties. A seedling Rose of European 
origin is on trial in this city, wiiich promises to be widely known if it 
can be grown generally as well as a specimen flower which was ex- 
hibited here a few days ago. It is said to be a true Tea ; but if the 
flower itself ^vere seen without foliage no one would suspect a drop of 
Tea blood in it except perhaps from its color. It is rather a ditificult 
tint to describe, reminding one — without an opportunity for close 
comparison — of Bourbon Queen. In form it is almost perfect, being 
cup-shaped, similar to Baroness Rothschild, opening regularly and 
full to the centre. It is very large, and altogether a remarkable Tea 
Rose. Tulips are in demand at$i per dozen, as also are Lilies-of-the- 
Valley, and Daffodils at same price. Extra fine Mignonette sells at $3 
per dozen. This comes from Summit, N. J. Primula obconica is of- 
fered in limited quantities at 75 cts. per dozen. This is quite new 
here as a cut flower. Smilax has become scarce. A supply from 
other cities will have to be obtained for Easter. Orchids are grown in 
very limited quantities in this city. The stock carried by the leading 
florists is obtained from New York and Boston. Of Roses, Md. 
Gabriel Luizet sells from $6 to $9 per dozen ; Captain Christy and 
Magna Charta, $4 to $6 per dozen ; Mrs. John Laing, S4 per dozen. 
Heath, per dozen sprays, $3. Jacqueminots are good, and sell from 
$3 to $5 per dozen. American Beauties are impro\'ing in quality, and 
are not dispilaced by the hybrid Remontants, as was predicted would 
be the case at this season of the year. They sell at from $3 to $6 per 
dozen. Longer stems are being cut of the Beautyfhan can be cut 
with the Remontants. Fine Puritans are better than the best Mer- 
veiUe de Lyons just now. Spring flowers generally are very popular. 
A few bunches of Trailing Arbutus were noticed in some stores. It is 
a great favorite in this city. 

Boston, March 2jd. 

The severe storm had a demoralizing effect on the cut flower trade 
here and the florists here have found it a rather dull time ever since. 
Prices ha\e not changed much since last report, some \-arieties being 
quoted at a slight reduction. By the time this reportappears it is pro- 
bable that Easter prices will be more acceptable than those of the pre- 
sent moment. Lilies of various kinds will be fairly abundant and 
quality will be of the best. Harris's Lilies and " Longiilorums" will cost 
from $5.00 to $6.00 per dozen on long stems. Ascension Lilies (L. candi- 
diim), from $2.00 to $3.00 per dozen. The price of Lilies-of-the-Val- 
ley. Tulips, Narcissus and similar flowers will increase but little, from 
Si. 00 to ,^i.50per dozen being the price now asked in ad\'ance. Cal- 
las have been blooming very heavily and the prospect is not encour- 
aging for a large supply. Florists are now asking $6. 00 per doz. for 
Easter delivery. In roses there will be a magnificent supply. Some 
of the best growers of Jacqueminots and other hybrids have timed their 
houses to bring the height of the crop in at Easter, and there will be 
no lack of good material for Rose fanciers to select from. Those who 
are regardless of expense will find fancy varieties as high as $10.00 to 
§12. 00 per dozen while more modest customers can get Bon Silene, 
Safrano, Niphetos and other fragrant and pretty kinds for $1.00 to 
Si. 50 per dozen. Large Ferns, Massive Palm foliage, Laurel, Smilax 
and other greens will be used largely for decorative purposes. The 
usual supply of Marguerites, Mignonette, Carnations, Forget-me-nots, 
Pansies, Violets, etc., for mixing with assortments of cut flowers, will 
be oft'ered in abundance. 



April 4, iSSS,] 



Garden and Forest. 



61 



GARDEN AND FOREST. 

PUBLISHED WEEKLY BY 

THE GARDEN AND FOREST PUBLISHING CO. 

[limited.] 
Office : Tribune Building, New York. 



Conducted bv Professor C. S. Sargent. 



ENTERED AS SECOND-CLASS MATTER AT THE POST OFFICE AT NEW YORK, N. Y. 



NEW YORK, WEDNESDAY, APRIL 4, li 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



PAGE. 

Editorial Articles :— Trees for Planting in America,— Rainfall on the Great 
Plains. — The Study of Botany by Horticulturists. — The Pink-flowered 
Dogwood 61 



Landscape Gardenint^, VI Mrs. Schuyler Van Rensselaer. 

Anglomania in Parit Making Charles Eliot, 

Conifers and their Cultivation Charles A. Dana. 

Wanted— A Hand-book of Horticulture Professor IVolcott Gibbs. 

Phlox adsurgens (with illustration) Sereno Watson. 

Photinia villusa (with illustjation) C .S. 5. 

Cultural Notes : — Epidendrum (Nanodes) Medusse — Ccelogyne cristata alba 
(hololeuca) — Sarcochilus(Thri.xspermum) Berkeleyii — Bei"tolonia mar- 
morata — Rondeletia{Rogieria)gratissima — Amaryllis Aulica — Phala?- 
nopsis Sanderiana — Calanthes — Phalsenopsis Harriettis — Freesias — 
Hydrangea rosea — Chinese Primroses 

Trial Beds The Rev. Edward P. Roe. 

Foliage With Cut Flowers Professor IV. IK Tracy. 

Correspondence : — Boronia megastigma — Wiiitc Pine in Massachusetts 70 

The Forest : — The Forest Vegetation of Northern Mexico, I C. G. Pringlc. 70 

The Forests of Tunis 71 

Answers to Correspondents 71 

Recent Publications : — A Catalogue of Niagara Plants 72 

The Flower Market : — New York, Philadelphia, Boston 72 

Illustrations : — Phlox adsurgens. Fig. n 66 

Photinia villosa, Fig. 12 67 



63 
64 
64 
65 
66 
67 



67 
69 



Trees for Planting in America. 

AT this season of the year many persons who desire to 
beautify the surroundings of their homes by plant- 
ing, seek instruction with regard to the trees best adapted 
for their purpose. Instruction upon this subject, especial- 
ly in a country like the United States, of such varied climatic 
and social conditions, is difficult to give ; sources of infor- 
mation are neither numerous nor very available. Planters 
are too often obliged to rely upon the advice of dealers and 
plant-peddlers in the selection of their trees. Such advice 
is often based upon imperfect knowledge, and nurserymen 
too frequently recommend the rarest and most high- 
priced trees or those most easily and therefore cheaply 
raised in nurseries, without regard to their fitness to the sit- 
uation for which they are intended. People who would 
gladly plant trees become discouraged by the difficulty of 
learning what varieties they can use to the best advantage, 
or by the failures and disappointments which invariably 
follow errors of selection. 

There is, however, one safe rule in the choice of trees 
which all persons who are unfamiliar with the subject can 
safely follow. This rule is to plant only such varieties 
as they see growing and thriving naturally in the 
neighborhood of their homes. No teacher in such matters 
is so wise and so unprejudiced as the forest The Elms 
and Maples taken from the adjacent swamps and hillsides, 
— many of them now more than a century and a half old — 
which grace the streets of some of the older towns or adorn 
the early homesteads of New England, and the Magnolias, 
Live Oaks and Water Oaks seen in the cities and plantations 
of the South, abundantly testify to the truth of this fact. 
These are the only really successful examples in America 
of tree-planting as tested by time. In England, too, it is 
the native Oaks and Elms and Beeches which give to the 
land its distinctive aspect, and to its homes their greatest 
dignity and beauty. 



Fortunately, we are abundantly supplied with American 
trees. In the South, the great evergreen Magnolia, unsur- 
passed in beauty, the Live Oak, the Water Oak — one of 
the best of American street trees — the Laurel Oak, the 
Pecan, the Bays, and many other beautiful native trees, are 
available to the planter And it is fortunate that he has 
been obliged to make use of this material by the fact that 
few foreign trees of large size will thrive in that climate. 
In the Pacific Coast States, on the other hand, the condi- 
tions which govern planting are different There are com- 
paratively few native trees and these are confined chiefly to 
the mountains and the uninhabited portions of the country. 
The few which grow in the valleys are not in all cases or- 
namental, and are often difficult to cultivate. There are, 
however, exceptions. Some of the noble California Oaks 
surpass in stately beauty any e.xotic trees which are likely 
to flourish in that peculiar climate, and serious attempts to 
cultivate them should be made. And two California Coni- 
fers — the Monterey Cypress and the iNIonterey Pine (Piniis 
insignis) — are already widely and successfully grown froin 
Vancouver's Island to San Diego. Fortunately they 
are both beautiful representatives of their class. Yet 
California will doubtless always be obliged to depend 
somewhat upon other parts of the world for her materials 
for ornamental planting. The trees of the Eastern States 
do not flourish there, and it is not probable that those of 
either Europe or Eastern Asia will ever gain much foothold 
on California soil. It is to Australia and other dry coun- 
tries that California planters must look in the future, as they 
have in the past with such apparent success in the case of 
the Eucalyptus and of various Acacias. 

The settlers of the dry interior region of the continent 
have not yet found any tree as valuable as the native Cot- 
tonwood which fringes the river-banks of all that territory, 
to protect their farms and orchards and to supply them vi'ith 
fuel. 

It is, however, in the Eastern and Middle States tliat the 
greatest interest in ornamental planting has been felt, and 
that the greatest mistakes, arising from ignorance with 
regard to the true beauty and value of our native trees, 
have been made. It is in this part of the country that for- 
eign trees have been most generally introduced and culti- 
vated, to the serious injury of parks and homesteads. It 
is not easy to estimate the amount of this injury, or of the 
widespread discouragement which must be felt as trees 
carefully nurtured for a generation show themselves in- 
capable of reaching maturity in our climate. We should 
have escaped much disappointment if, thirty years ago, 
our parks and gardens had been planted with native trees 
instead of the Spruces, Oaks, Ashes, Maples, Pines and 
other trees of Europe. These trees have been and still are 
largely planted in this country. They grow rapidly for a 
few years and are more easily raised in nurseries than 
many American trees, and are therefore favorites with 
dealers; but it is now evident»that their general introduc- 
tion was based upon very insufficient knowledge and that 
their cultivation here has proved a failure. 

There are, of course, exceptions. The English Elm has 
grown successfully in New England for a century ; the 
White Willow is now as much at home in Eastern America 
as in Europe, and the Norway Maple almost equals here in 
beauty and vigor some of its American congeners. But, 
in general, planters in the Eastern and Middle States can do 
better than depend upon the forests of Europe for their 
trees. There are not less than a hundred and thirty na- 
tive trees found in this region, or among the Alleghany 
Mountains where elevation produces a climate similar to 
that of more northern regions. 

The Silva of no other part of the world is more rich in trees 
of ornamental value. Its Magnolias, Oaks, Hickories. 
Walnuts, Maples, Elms and Ashes, its Tupelo, its stately 
Tulip Tree, its great Rhododendron and Mountain Laurel, 
its Birches and Lindens, its Coffee Tree, Sour-wood and 
Sassafras, its Beech — the loveliest of our deciduous trees 
in winter, and in early spring when its leaf-buds are bursting 



62 



Garden and Forest. 



[April 4, 18 



• — its Chestnut, Yellow-wood and Wild Cherry, its Catalpas, 
its Persimmon and Silver-bell Tree, its Flowering Dog- 
wood and Fringe Tree, its Liquidambar, Hackberry and 
Sumachs — among these is surely material enough to sat- 
isfy the planter of deciduous trees, however great may be 
his love of variety. And among coniferous trees there 
is none more picturesque in youth or more stately in 
maturity than our northern White Pine, none more grace- 
ful anddignitied than our Hemlock. 

Eastern Asia has given us the Ailanthus, the Pawlonia, 
the Flowering Apples, the Yulan Magnolias, the Gingko and 
the Mulberry, which are already perfectly at home here; and 
the similarity in climate and vegetation between that part of 
the world and our own, leads us to believe that many other 
Asiatic trees will permanently thrive with us. In addition to 
those mentioned, many young Japanese trees — especially 
Conifers — now help to beautify our gardens. But it must not 
be forgotten that we know no more about the behavior of 
these trees, as they approach maturity here, than we did of 
the Norway Spruce, the Scotch Pine and the English Oak 
when they were supposed to be the most valuable orna- 
mental trees for planting in this country. And this is true 
also of the Rocky Mountain Conifers, now so largely 
planted at the East, and of all the exotic trees which have 
been introduced into California. Therefore, planters who 
are wise will confine themselves to native trees until ar- 
boreta and other experimental stations can definitely 
teach us which foreign trees can be safely admitted into 
American plantations. 



Rainfall on the Great Plains. 

THE future of the Great Plains, as the vast elevated re- 
gion between the 98th parallel of latitude and the 
eastern base of the Rocky Mountains is generally called, 
is a matter of much importance to the American people. 
The question whether this region is to remain always a 
quasi-desert, the barren feeding-ground of a few half- 
starved cattle, or is to become the home of a large and 
prosperous agricultural population, involves serious politi- 
cal and commercial interests. 

The rainfall is light and very unequally distributed. 
Moisture is insufficient to insure the growth of trees except 
along ihe immediate banks of the infrequent streams. 
Agriculture is precarious. The scarcity of rain is due to 
the remoteness of the region from any great body of 
water. It is effectually cut off from the Pacific by numer- 
ous lofty moimtain ranges, and its only water supply comes 
from clouds charged with moisture from the Gulf of Mexico 
— moisture which they have pretty thoroughly lost before 
they reach the interior of the continent. Here are condi- 
tions which no action of man can influence. It is, how- 
ever, the apparent belief of many persons — especially 
those more or less directly interested in the develop- 
ment and prosperity of the States and Territories in 
question — that the rainfall has materially increased since 
the advent of white settlers, and that this change is 
due to the trees which they have planted and to the 
breaking of the soil. That is to say, it is believed that 
small and for the most part widely scattered groves 
and belts of young trees — for the largest single plantation 
of trees in all the West does not exceed 650 acres in 
extent — and the ploughing up of a little land here and 
there, have been sufficient in a quarter of a century to 
alter continental climatic conditions. 

The fact that several men of political and commercial 
position have recently undertaken to discuss the general 
question of the settlement of the Plains, has brought it 
again to public notice. It is an undoubted fact that in the 
past few years settlers have obtained a foothold consid- 
erably nearer to the eastern base of the Rocky Mountains 
than it was once supposed that crops could be raised with- 
out artificial irrigation. Mr. Henry Gannett of the United 
States Geological Survey in an authoritative article printed 



in a recent issue of Science, shows, however, pretty con- 
clusively that it is not an increase of rainfall that has modi- 
fied agricultural conditions on the Great Plains, even if any 
such modification has really taken place. He has ex- 
amined the rainfall records kept at twenty-six stations in 
Kansas, Nebraska, Colorado, Wyoming and Dakota, for 
periods ranging fromsix yearsto twenty-eight; the longest 
being that kept at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. The stations 
are widely scattered from east to west in both the settled 
and the unsettled portions of this region. Mr. Gannett di- 
vides the results of these observations into two equal terms 
of years and adds the )'early rainfalls of each term sepa- 
rately. If settlement has increased the rainfall, the record 
for the years embraced in his second term should show the 
fact. The aggregate rainfall at all the stations during the 
period when the records were kept was in the first term of 
years 4,408 inches, and in the second term 4,468 inches, 
showing that there had been an apparent increase of 60 
inches in the total rainfall, at all the stations, in a total of 
310 years; or that 0.4 of an inch more rain fell in each 
year of the second than in each year of the first term — an 
increase which could not have made any perceptible dif- 
ference in the agriculture of the region. 

There is, however, no doubt, as Mr. Gannett suggests, 
that cultivation adds to the value of the rainfall. The sur- 
face of the Plains is naturally bare, compact, and but 
slightly protected by a covering of grasses. Water flows 
freely fiom such a surface and a large portion of the rain- 
fall finds its way into the streams without permeating the 
soil. When the ground is broken up by the plough much 
more moisture is retained. The quantity thus retained in- 
creases from year to year, and the sub-soil becomes in time 
a reservoir from which the surface-soil draws moisture in 
times of drought. This is probably the true explanation of 
the fact that crops have matured on the Plains with a sum- 
mer rainfall of only ten inches. But it must not be forgot- 
ten that the settlement of the Plains has been attended with 
great expense and with terrible suffering and loss of life ; 
that in a region of such scanty and precarious rainfall 
any decrease in the amount during a single year must be 
attended with serious losses ; that three or four succeeding 
years of drought must mean utter ruin to the farmer ; and 
that the records long kept in other parts of the country 
show that such small variations are sure to occur with fre- 
quency. 



The Study of Botany by Hoi'ticiilturists. 

ON three occasions after tlie late Professor Gray had 
given up the duties of college instruction, he was 
induced by the nrembers of a Summer Course in Botany 
to deliver a few informal lectures. One of these, which 
can never be forgotten by the class in attendance, began 
in these words : 

" You know the old and homely adage that ' one-half of 
" the world does not know how the other half lives.' I 
"may say that far more than one-half, even of intelligent 
"people, do not know how they live themselves; they 
"have only the dimmest and most vague notion of those 
" arrangements in Nature, based on the vegetable creation, 
"upon which their very living depends. And even if 
"aware, in a general way, that plants nourish and support 
" all animals, they do not know how it is done, nor have 
"they the least idea of the beautiful harmonies that 
' ' run through all plants, connecting one with another 
"into a system, a symmetrical whole, a vegetable king- 
' ' dom. '" 

Happily this censure is becoming less deserved than 
when these words were uttered. In our community there 
is an increasing interest in plants and in the laws which 
govern their growth and development. Much of this in- 
terest is due to the attractive manner in which Dr. Gra3^'s 
educational works have placed before the American public 
the general principles of vegetable structure and life. And 
it is encouraging to observe that this interest appears to be 



April 4, 1888.] 



Garden and Forest. 



63 



gaining ground not only among those who have abundant 
leisure for the examination of plants, but also among that 
large class to whom plants and flowers mean a livelihood. 
These latter having the requisite skill to turn their floral 
treasures to good account may sometimes plead their lack 
of time as an excuse for neglecting the study of the prin- 
ciples which underlie their practice. And, furthermore, it 
seems a formidable task to turn over the dry leaves of a 
text-book, when one has been working with fresh flowers 
all day, or has been planning picturesque landscapes with 
shrubs and trees and water. 

In some countries a thorough study of the elements of 
botany is an essential part of the apprenticeship of an ac- 
complished gardener, and such knowledge saves its pos- 
sessor from many an error of judgment. Such acquisition 
is by no means so formidable a task as would at first 
appear, since a host of interesting and instructive elemen- 
tary works is now easily accessible. 

For one without a teacher, the task is not wholly free 
from difficulties, but none of these difticulties need be dis- 
heartening. A plain course designed to place any intel- 
ligent young person in possession of the more important 
facts, and essential principles of elementary botany, 
might well begin with a thorough study of some such 
work as that noticed in our first number (Gray's "Elements 
of Botany "), and with the ' 'Field and Forest Botany, " by the 
same author. Let each point be illustrated from the living 
plants at hand, and let the main design of the two books 
be carried out fully — namely, to understand the plan of 
eacn flower, and to learn its relations to others. The mere 
ascertaining of the name of a plant in a convenient hand- 
book is an easy matter, but if the easy work is well done, it 
brings out clearly many important features which might 
otherwise be overlooked. The study of the two books just 
mentioned ought to be supplemented by the collection and 
drying of such wild and cultivated plants as fall in one's 
way, making capital material for further study in the 
winter. In the " Elements," Professor Gray has given full 
directions for collecting and studying such specimens. 

In the second season, the work should be somewhat 
wider in its range. With the "Elements'" still as a guide, or 
sort of grammar, the student will begin to collect plants as 
before, but he will need some more comprehensive treatise, 
like the "Manual of Botany," for the determination of the 
wild plants collected ; and now may be undertaken also 
the perusal of some volume like Bessey's "Botany," which 
will give much information regarding other plants than 
those which bear flowers. And, if possible, the student 
should now attempt to examine the minute structure or 
microscopic anatomy of the plants with which he deals. 
Either the "Manual of Plant Dissection," by Arthur, Barnes 
andCoulter, or the " Practical Botany,'' by Bower and 'Vines, 
will serve this purpose fully. The former is rather better 
for most of our American students, whose time is limited. 
Within tne last year we have become acquainted with one 
young man who undertook a course similar in some 
respects to that here indicated, and the course had been 
successfully prosecuted under considerable difficulties. To 
that young man, the plants of his trade mean more than 
they have ever done before. Can it be thought that his 
skill in managing plants will be any the less for what he 
has learned regarding their life and peculiarities of struc- 
ture ? 

For collateral reading while one is pursuing such a 
practical course as is here indicated, the following works 
are recommended: Le Maout and Decaisne's "System of 
Botany," "The Treasury of Botany;" works of travel, like 
Wallace's "Tropical Nature," Hooker's "Himalaya," Ball's 
"Marocco," Bate's "Naturalist on the Amazon," and the like. 
And, also, the charming and ever instructive works of 
Darwin, such as "The Power of Movement in Plants," 
" The Fertilization of Orchids," etc. From the wealth of 
interesting botanical reading, now brought within the reach 
of most horticulturists by means of the public libraries, 
it is easy to select trustworthy teachings, from which 



those who get their living from plants may know in the 
fullest sense how the plants themselves live. 



In horticulture — as, we are told, was the case in all 
other departments of human activity even so early as the 
time of the wise king of Israel — the novelties of to-day are 
apt to be merely the forgotten novelties of the past. 
A flowering Dogwood with pink bracts is now much 
talked of by nurserymen as something entirely new. But 
old Mark Catesby, a century and a half ago, found " one of 
these Dogwood trees with flowers of a rose-color ; " and 
the tree having " luckily been blown down and many of 
its branches taking root," he was able "to transplant this 
variety into a garden." This garden was in "Virginia where 
Catesby lived for a time, and a colored plate showing the 
pink-flowered Dogwood appeared in his work on the 
natural history of "Virginia, Carolina and Florida, which 
was published in 1731 after his return to England. 



Landscape Gardening — "VI. 

N my preceding chapters I tried to explain the points of 
likeness and unlikeness that exist between landscape 
gardening and the pursuits to which we more usually give 
the name of Fine Arts. The explanation has been not only 
brief but fragmentary ; but it will have fulfilled my purpose 
if it has shown with any degree of clearness that landscape 
gardening too should be called a Fine Art. 

It remains now to ask. When and where do we need to 
exercise this art ? The answer must be, Whenever and 
wherever we touch the surface of the ground and the 
plants it bears with any wish to produce an organized re- 
sult that shall be agreeable to the eye. We must not be 
misled by the over-precision of our accustomed terms into 
thinking that art is needed only for the production of broad 
landscape effects. It is needed whenever we do more than 
merely grow plants for the sake of their beauty as isolated 
individuals. It matters not whether we wish to arrange a 
great park or a small city square, a large estate or a modest 
door-yard — we must go about the work in an artistic spirit 
if we want a good result. Two trees and si.x shrubs and 
a scrap of lawn and a dozen flowering plants may form 
either a beautiful little picture or a huddled little mass of 
greenery and colors. If it is the first, it will give us the 
truly a'sthetic satisfaction we get from a good landscape 
painting — indeed, it will give us more than this, for the 
painted picture never varies, while the living one will reveal 
new beauties day by day with the changing seasons, hour 
by hour with the shifting shadows. If it is the second, it 
will please us only by the beauty of certain scattered de- 
tails ; and even these details will be intrinsically less 
delightful than had they formed part of an agreeable 
general effect. A good composition has been defined by 
Ruskin as one in which every detail helps the general 
beauty of effect ; but it may also be defined, conversely, as 
one in which the general arrangement brings out the high- 
est beauty of each detail. 

The most cursory examination of any American town or 
summer colony of villas will show how deficient we are in 
artistic feeling when we deal with natural objects. The 
surroundings of our homes have improved by no means as 
rapidly as the homes themselves. Even in these we are 
far enough from having reached a general average of ex- 
cellence. But we are on the right road, I think, towards 
its attainment. We have learned certain architectural 
truths, and we respect them theoretically, even though we 
may often err in their application. We do not expect to 
build a good house without an architect to help us ; we do 
not expect him to begin without having a clear idea of the 
kind of house we want — of the special site it must occupy, 
the special needs it must fulfil, the special tastes it must 
meet ; we are not content if he designs it by throwing to- 
gether a number of pretty features without regard to har- 
mony of effect ; nor do we buy our furniture bit by bit as 



64 



Garden and Forest. 



[April 4, 18 



passing whims dictate, and pile it casually about in our 
various rooms. At least there are not so many of us who 
do these things to-day as there were ten years ago; and all 
of us are well aware that they ought not to be done. 

Yet they are just the things which almost every-one does 
outside his home. If he has " no taste for nature " him- 
self, he puts his grounds into the hands of a gardener with- 
out inquiring whether he has any qualifications beyond a 
knowledge of how to make plants flourish. And if he has 
such a taste himself, it means, in a vast majority of cases, 
a mere love for being out-of-doors, for planting things, and 
for watching them grow. At the most, it is apt to mean 
no more than a taste for nature's individual productions — 
a love for trees, an interest in shrubs, a passion for flowers, 
or all these three together. The cases are very rare in which 
it means a taste at all analogous to what we understand 
by a taste for art ; that is, an appreciation of organized 
beauty — of the beauty of contrasting yet harmonious lines 
and colors and masses of light and shade, of intelligent de- 
sign, of details subordinated to a coherent general effect. 
Yet it is only such an appreciation as this which means a 
real taste for nature's beauty and which can make the sur- 
roundings of our homes really beautiful. 

Of course, in this, as in every art, the "collector" has 
not only a right to exist, but an important role to play ; but 
his is not the proper role to play when the adornment of 
one's home is the chief desire. 'When this is our desire, it 
is of far less importance what we have than how we have 
it. The quality of our plants is far more important than 
their quantity — and by quality is implied not rarity, nor 
even perfection of development, so much as fitness to the 
special places they hold in whatever general scheme may 
have been adopted. Composition, grouping, is the first 
great essential, even in a yard so small that shrvibs must 
take the place of trees. M G. van Rensselaer. 



Anglomania in Park Making. 

'XV/'ITHIN the area of the United States we have many types 
' ' of scenery and many climates, but in designing the sur- 
roundings of dwellings, in working upon the landscape, we 
too often take no account of these facts. On the rocky coast 
of Maine each summer sees money worse than wasted in en- 
deavoring to make Newport lawns on ground which naturally 
bears countless lichen-covered rocks, dwarf Pines and Spruces, 
and thickets of Sweet-fern, Bayberry and Wild Rose. The 
owners of this particular type of country spend thousands 
in destroying its natural beauty, with the intention of attaining 
to a foreign beauty, which, in point of fact, is unattainable in 
anything like perfection by reason of the shallow soil and 
frequent droughts. 

I know too many of these unhappy "lawns." Ledges too 
large to be buried or blasted protrude here and there. They 
are bare and bleached now, though they were once half smoth- 
ered in all manner of mixed shrubbery ; the grass is brown 
and poor wherever the underlying rock is near the surface, — 
all is ugliness where once was only beauty. 

Moreover, if the lawn were perfect and " truly English," how 
would it harmonize with the Pitch-Pines and Scrub-Birches and 
dwarf Junipers which clothe the lands around ? No. The 
English park, with its great trees and velvet turf, is supremely 
beautiful in England, where it is simply the natural scenery 
perfected ; but save in those favored parts of North America 
where the natural conditions are approximately those of the 
Old Country, the beauty of it cannot be had and should not be 
attempted. 

To be sure, the countries of the continent of Europe all have 
their so-called English parks, but the best of these possess 
little or none of the real English character and charm. The 
really beautiful parks of Europe are those which have a cliar- 
acter of their own, derived from their own conditions of cli- 
mate and scene. The parks of Paulovsk, near St. Petersburg, 
of Muskau, in Silesia, of the 'Villa Thuret, on the Cape of 
Antibes in the Mediterranean, are none of them English, ex- 
cept as England was the mother of the natural as distinguished 
from the architectural in gardening. The Thuret park, if I 
may cite an illustration of my meaning, is a wonderland of 
crowded vegetation, of ways deep, shaded by rich and count- 
less evergreens, of steep open slopes aglow with bright Ane- 
mones. Between high masses of Eucalyptus and Acacia are 



had glimpses of the sea and of the purple foothills and the 
gleaming snowpeaks of the Maritime Alps. In the thickets 
are Laurels, Pittosporums, Gardenias, etc., from the ends of 
the earth ; but Ilex, Phillyrea and Oleander are natives of the 
country, and Myrtle and Pistacia are the common shrubs of 
the sea-shore, so that the foreigners are only additions to an 
original wealth of evergreens. The garden also has its Palms 
of many species, with Cycads, Yuccas, Aloes and the like; but 
the Agaves are common hedge plants of the country, and 
strange Euphorbias grow everywhere about ; moreover, the 
more monstrous of these creatures are given a space apart 
from the main garden, so that they may not disturb the quiet 
of the scene. M. Thuret saved the Olives and the Ilexes of 
the original hillside. He did not try to imitate the gardening 
of another and different country or climate, but simply worked 
to enhance the beauty natural to the region of his choice. 

At the other end of Europe all this is equally true of Pau- 
lovsk. Here, at the edge of the wet and dismal plain on 
which St. Petersburg is built, is a stretch of upland naturally 
almost featureless, but which, thanks to a careful helping of 
nature, is now the most interesting and beautiful bit of scenery 
the neighborhood of the Tsar's capital can show. A consid- 
erable brook, in falling from the plateau to the plain, has worn 
in the gravel of the country a crooked and steep-sided valley, 
and this, the only natural advantage of the park-site, with its 
banks darkly wooded and the stream shining out now and 
then in the bottom, is the chief beauty of the completed park. 
The dead level of the plateau itself is broken up into irregu- 
lar strips and spaces given to water, meadow, shrubland or 
woodland, — a pleasing intricacy. The grass is only roughly 
cut, the edges of the waterways are unkempt, the woods are 
often carelessly l>eset with Cornus, Caragana or Siberian Spiraea. 
In the woods are only hardy and appropriate trees — Oaks, Al- 
ders, Poplars, Pines and the like, — few trees are handsome 
enough to stand alone, but there are Spruces, pushing up 
through Scarlet Oaks, and White Birches set off against dark 
Firs and Prostrate Junipers spreading about Birch-clumps, and 
no end to the variety of similar thoroughly native and appro- 
priate beauties. Here is no futile striving after the loveliness 
of England or any other foreign land ; no attempting the 
beauty of a mountain country or a rocky country or a warm 
country or any other country than just this country which lies 
about St. Petersburg ; here also is no planting of incon- 
gruous specimens and no out-of-place flower-bedding. 

The park of Muskau teaches the same lesson, and under 
conditions closely resembling those of our Middle States. In- 
deed, American trees, shrubs and herbaceous plants are very 
numerous in this noble park ; the Tulip-tree, Magnolia, Wild 
Cherry, Witch Hazel, Withe-rod, Bush Honeysuckle, Golden 
Rods and Asters are harmonized with native plants on every 
hand. It would be next to impossible to find an American 
park in which these things have been planted as freely. 

Our country has her Russias, her Silesias, her Rivieras ; and 
many types of scenery which are all her own besides. Are 
we to attempt to bring all to the English smoothness? Rather 
let us try to perfect each type in its own place. 
Boston. Charles Eliot. 



Conifers and their Cultivation. 

"T T is a point of theory that it is not safe to manure the land 
■'■ in winch Conifers are planted, so that there will be any 
danger of bringing the fertilizer into direct contact with the 
roots ; at the same time, I can affirm from the experience of 
many years, that every variety of this great and beautiful class 
of trees will prosper in a rich soil better than in a poor one, 
and in a soil that is moderately moist better than in one that is 
naturally arid. Yet it is true that when both coniferous and 
deciduous trees are planted in a very poor and dry soil the 
Conifers will be likely to do rather better than the others. 

Most gardeners and cultivators of Conifers cherish the old 
English superstition that the great thing about a coniferous 
tree is its leader, the top shoot, which points directly upward 
and leads in the growth of the tree. If by any accident this 
shoot is broken oft', they regard the plant as ruined ; and if by 
accident, instead of one leader, there come to be two, the 
situation, in the opinion of these cultivators, is monstrous and 
without remedy. But, after many years' constant study and 
cultivation of Conifers of every kind — American, European, 
Asiatic — I am prepared to maintain that this superstition 
is even more absurd than the general run of such cranky 
creations of the human mind. There is no description of 
tree which stands the use of the pruning-knife better than 
the Conifer ; and there is no part of a Conifer which 



April 4, 18S8.] 



Garden and Forest. 



65 



can more safely be cut off and thrown away than the leader. 
In fact, in the production of a perfectly symmetrical coni- 
ferous tree the first principle is the repeated extirpation of 
the leader. By removing it you throw the strength of the tree 
into the lower branches, and cause them to grow full, vigor- 
ous and beautiful. You need have no fear about the upward 
development of the plant. Nature will always provide a leader 
for it ; and if you cut it off to-day, a new shoot will be there to 
take its place to-morrow. Some of the most beautiful Coni- 
fers that I have seen in the famous collections of England have 
been those whose leaders, notwithstanding all the care of the 
gardeners, have been broken off by storms, and whose gen- 
eral symmetry and vigor have been promoted in conseciuence. 
My practice in the treatment of these plants is to apply the 
pruning-knife constantly, though, of course, with judgment, 
and especially to keep down the leader. 

Nothing is more necessary, however, than that the drainage 
of the spot where a Conifer is planted should be complete and 
unobstructed. A marshy spot, a stiff clay soil, or an impene- 
trable liard-pan near the surface, are all to be sedulously 
avoided. Every traveler who was in England thirty years ago 
will remember with delight the beautiful Douglas Firs near 
tlie nursery of Mr. James Veitch at Combe Wood. But a 
few years later they began to decline, and when I looked for 
them in 1886 they were gone. A dense hard-pan a few feet 
below the surface had done the business. 

If my advice were asked respecting the sorts of Conifers 
which, for purposes of beauty and decoration, it is most ad- 
vantageous to cultivate, the reply would be very much influ- 
enced by the facts of soil, climate, moisture and shelter from 
strong winds in the place designed for planting, No Conifers 
should be set out where they are subject to violent gales. They 
require shelter more than most kinds of deciduous trees. Our 
American White Pine especially illustrates the truth of this pro- 
position, and so do the Canadian Hemlock and the Hemlocks 
of the Western coast [Tsitga Mer/ensiana and T. Pationiana). 
The beautiful Japanese Hemlock [T. Sicboldianii) seems to 
stand the wind much better than either of its relatives. The 
Scotch Pine I am not able to praise in any respect except for 
its occasional transitory beauty, but the Austrian Pine, on the 
other hand, may be planted with conhdence in its future form, 
color and duration, and especially in its j^ower of resisting the 
wind; and on Long Island I have found it very useful as an 
outer shelter to protect more delicate kinds of plants against 
the gales. But this is a question of locality. At Castle Kennedy, 
in south-western Scotland — the most charming and enviable 
country-seat in the United Kingdom — they use for this purpose 
the exquisite and tender Piniis insignis of Southern California, 
which cannot be grown at all in our climate. 

Next to the White Pine, the Canadian Hemlock and our com- 
mon Juniper ( yimiperits Virginiana), I have found the Red Pine 
(P. resinosa), the White Spruce (Picea alba), the Rocky Moinitain 
tree formerly described as Menzies Spruce [P. pungens), and that 
beautiful Fir of the Rocky Mountains (^^zWrf^wt'o/cr), the most 
useful. With our Balsam Fir I have never been able to do 
much, because it needs more moisture than can be found any- 
where except in a mountain elevation. Pinus rigida and 
P. inops I cultivate as a matter of interest, but without looking 
to them for any remarkable effects of beauty. The admirable 
long-leaved Pines of California and of the South are alike 
unavailable. 

When we pass from the Conifers of our own hemisphere to 
those of Europe and Asia our resources are immensely en- 
larged. Among the most beautiful of these acquisitions the 
Retinosporas are to be classed as of the very first value. Simi- 
lar to the Thuyas, they are more varied, more graceful and 
more lasting. In a soil of moderate moisture and in a year of 
reasonable rainfall, their growth and their color are lovely be- 
yond description. Of the other Japanese Conifers Abies 
brachyphylla and the Picea polita seem to me the most valua- 
ble, while Abies firma should by all means be avoided on 
account of its irregular and shabby growth and its constant 
suffering from unfavorable weather both in winter and sum- 
mer. A. polita is of exceedingly slow growth, but it stands 
every sort of climate, and when it is in perfect condition its 
color is delightful. P. Orienlalis is also a treasure. 

The Japanese Yew (Taxus ciispidata) is beautiful and hardy 
even in a severe climate, but its slow growth removes it from 
the category of plants for general and popular planting. The 
Cryptomerias are graceful and beautiful trees, and they grow 
rapidly, but they are not tough enough for our climate. 
C. elegans does not last out the winter, "but C. Japonica will 
live with us, and I have seen it 70 feet tall on high land. Yet the 
frosts play the mischief with the lower branches, and it is no 
longer the fascinating plant whose charms bewilder every be- 



holder. The Glyptostrobus. Sinensis is much more available. 
Grafted on our ordinary southern Cypress (Taxodium dis- 
tichum) it gains a height of 40 feet, and its slender, conical 
head and long, droopmg foliage make it a most agreeable 
object. 

I have had very fair luck with Yews and Cedars. With a very 
slight protection in the winter the Deodar flourishes in all its 
graceful beauty ; but the Lebanon and the Atlantic are Ijoth of 
much slower growth and less graceful habit. The Atlantic, 
which comes from the mountains of Morocco, is much more 
hardy than the Cedar of Lebanon, tliough the latitude of the 
two regions is about equal. 

Finally I have one piece of advice for the young planter, 
whether his purpose be aesthetic beauty or material profit ; and 
that is, never to planta Norway Spruce. One of the great misfor- 
tunes that have happened to the gardens and pleasure-grounds 
of our Northern States, is the introduction of this ugly and use- 
less tree, which is never beautiful except in its old age ; and 
even this beauty is so rare an accident that it forms an excep- 
tion which no one can count upon beforehand. 

Dosoris. March istli. C. A. Dana. 



JI 



Wanted — A Hancl-bouk (jf Horticulture. 

'HE number of manuals of horticulture in the English 
language is certainly very large, and yet it is not saying 
too much to assert that a really satisfactory work has yet to be 
written. An amateur wishing for useful information upon any 
point has usually to consult two, three or even more works 
before he can find all that he desires to know. The want of 
thoroughness in English works is familiar to all who use them, 
andby English works we do not mean only those which are pub- 
lished in England. Fortunately there is an excellent French work 
— the well known ' 'Fleurs de Pleine Terre " of Vilmorin-Andrieux 
— which comes very near to the ideal treatise and is to be found 
in every good horticultural library. The third edition of this 
work was published without date upon the title page, but we 
believe about the year 1880. In 1884 a supplement appeared 
containing valuable additions, but still, as regards complete- 
ness, the work leaves something to be wished. What is in it is 
usually admirable and always to be depended upon, but the 
work is somewhat behind the times. The arrangement is 
alphabetical, the figures excellent, and the descriptions, as a 
rule, sufficient. In addition, however, to figures and descrip- 
tions, the work contains a rare amount of information upon 
horticultural topics generally most useful, and hard to find 
elsewhere. Thus, among other things very fully treated, we 
have a special list of seeds which may be planted in Septem- 
ber ; a selection of annuals and biennials ; a selection of 
hardy plants ; a selection of bulbous plants ; a selection of 
plants for borders ; a list of plants proper for carpet beds ; a 
selection of climbers ; a selection of fragrant plants, with a 
supplementary list of plants with fragrant stems and leaves ; a 
selection of plants with ornamental fruits ; a choice of plants 
with ornamental leaves in great variety and detail ; a selection 
of hardy Ferns ; a selection of aquatic plants, including several 
subdivisions, as, for instance, floating plants, submerged 
plants, half emergent plants, etc.; plants for rockeries; a list 
of plants growing in the shade ; a selection of picturesque 
plants for lawns, and another of green-house plants which can 
be used for the open ground in summer; a list of plants 
for bouquets ; a calendar of the seasons at which ditferent 
plants flower ; details of the arrangement of gardens, etc., etc. 

The recent edition of Robinson's " English Garden " contains 
much valuable matter, and is deservedly a favorite in this 
country, but it is often very deficient in details and is not 
brought down to the date of its publication. German works 
on horticulture are very numerous, and it is hard to say which 
is the best, but here also the want of minute and careful 
detail is often keenly felt. 

It seems worth while to consider what ought to be required 
in a good manual. In the first place, the alphabetical arrange- 
ment is certainly the most convenient. Now — given a particu- 
lar plant — what the amateur and the educated florist wishes to 
know is, 1st. — the natural family, genus and species to which 
it belongs; its English or common name if it has one ; the Latin 
name and its synonyms ; 2d. — the character of the plant, 
whether perennial, biennial or annual, whether hardy, half- 
hardy or tender ; 3d. — the exact description of the plant itself, 
with an estimate — not the salesman's estimate— of its precise 
horticultural value under appropriate conditions ; 4tii. — the 
country in which it, or the species of which it is a variety, is 
found growing naturally, and especially the natural conditions 
of its healthy growth as regards soil, climate, exposure, dryness 



66 



Garden and Forest. 



[April 4, 1888. 



or moisture, sunshine or sliade ; 5tli. — the details of its suc- 
cessful culture, with the experience of prominent horticul- 
turists, given with thoroughness and critical knowledge; 6th. — 
any peculiarities which the plant may exhibit, bearing upon 
its reproduction, upon the probability of obtaining varieties 
from it by seed or by hybridization, with suggestions for trial ; 
and 7th. — the advantages and disadvantages which the plant 
offers to the amateur of limited means and limited knowledge. 
All amateurs know that in the annual catalogues of tiorists 
the merits of a plant are always very strongly and not always 
very truthfully stated, while its demerits are passed over in 
silence. Yet these last may be and often are of much greater 
importance. Let us have the whole truth about every plant, 
and have it in detail. One bulb about which nothing is said 
but that it yields a brilliant flower, does yield such a flower, 
lasting for an hour or two only. Another much lauded plant 
requires such an amount of care and attention — such coddling 
and nursing — as to make its culture, to say the least, very un- 
desirable for most lovers of plants. A third blooms so late in 
the season, that in cool climates — upon the sea shore, for in- 
stance — it never yields a flower, or blooms only to be cut down 
by an untimely frost. Another requires a heavy covering of 
leaves in the autumn, to be removed at a certain time in the 
spring and with certain precautions. Now, what the amateur 
has to coniDlain of is that no one work gives all that he wishes 
to know before purchasing a particular shrub, bulb or package 
of seeds, so that he can at once tell whether it is advisable to 
attempt the culture of what seems in the salesman's descrip- 
tion so attractive. During the last twenty years a great deal of 
valuable experience has been gained in regard to the culture 
of plants in the open ground, and a large numfier of new plants 
has been introduced. The volumes of the Gardener' s Chron- 
icle, Garden, Gartenflora, Revue Hor/icole, and other periodi- 
cals, contain an ample supply of material at least for the purely 
practical part of a complete manual of horticulture. Some old 
books — Mrs. Loudin's quarto volume on bulbs, for instance — 
are not yet out of date, and contain some very valuable infor- 
mation not to be found in more recent works or not with the 
same amount of detail. Why should we not have a work on 
plants for the open ground, which should be made up of a 
series of brief Ijut complete and thorough monographs giving 
all that is known about each pilant } Plants which recjuire to be 
wintered in cold-frames or green-houses should of course be 
included, but green-liouse plants proper, vegetables and fruits, 
should lie omitted, because all these require special treatises. 
We should still have a large and probably somewhat expensive 
work, but one which would replace a library of other treatises 
— but the names of the best plants and best varieties need be 
given and only the best authorities cited. Ornamental shrubs 
could be admitted into such a work, but not trees, properly speak- 
ing. Fortliese there should be a special treatise written upon 
the same plan. Such a manual as is here proposed might be 
the work of a number of writers, each taking a particular class 
of plants — a committee, for instance, of some prominent hor- 
ticultural society. Properly divided among various co-laborers, 
the work could be flnished in a comparatively short time. 
Figures are not absolutely necessary, though often convenient 
and sometimes very desirable, but they would greatly increase 
the expense of the work if numerous. It is possible that a 
good translation of Vilmorin's work, with the permission of 
the author, might serve as the basis of a new and greatly en- 
larged treatise. We want the experience of all the leading 
amateurs as well as of the professional gardeners, and we want 
a work which shall be a complete manual written in the highest 
scientific spirit, to be improved, added to, corrected and con- 
densed as new editions may be demanded. 

Newport, R.I. IVoko/l Gibbs. 



Phlox adsiu'geiis.* 

IV/rOST of the eastern species of Phlox have long been favor- 
-'■'-'■ ites in the gardens both of this country and of Europe. 

-The ease witli which they are cultivated, the abundance and 
long continuance of their flowers, and the variety of their 
coloring will account sufficiently for this. The tall perennial 
species, with compact inflorescence, and in numerous varie- 
ties, the annual Drummond's Phlox, with its looser, profuse 

. bloom of manifold colors, and the evergreen Moss Pink, cov- 
ering the soil in early spring with a carpet of flowers, are all 
equally well known. On the other hand, the species of the 

*P. AD5URGENS. Torr. in herb.; Gray. Prac. Am. Acud., viii. 256. Glabrous, with 
the slender peduncles and calyx glaridular-pubescent ; stems about a span liis^h, 
ascending from a procumbent base; leaves ovate or ovate-lanceolate, acute ; co- 
rolla-fube mure than twice the length of the short caly.x, the segments of the rose- 
colored limb obovate and entire ; style elongated. 




western part of the continent are totally unknown as orna- 
ments of the garden. Most of them differ in habit from their 
eastern relatives, some being dwarf perennials, forming com- 
pact evergreen cushions, which in earliest spring are a massof 
color, and the rest loosely tufted plants, with an open, rather 
few-flowered inflorescence. On the whole they do not promise 
to prove so valuable to the florist as are the eastern species, 
liut skillful treatment may develop strains that will repay the 
trouble of trial. P. nana, which in the wild state varies greatly 
in color, P. adsurgens, and some of the cespitose species, are 
certainly not without merit. 

Nearly all have narrow, or linear, or small and awl-shaped 
leaves, the only one with broader leaves, like most of the east- 
ern species, being the one of whicfi a figure is here given. 
This, P. adsurgens, is a rare species of the Cascade Mountains 



April 4, 18S8.] 



Garden and Forest. 



of Oregon, where it was first collected by Professor Alphonso 
Wood in 1866. It has since been found by Mr. Cusick and Mr. 
Howell, and also by Mr. V. Rattan in the mountains of north- 
western California, in Humboldt County, growing on high 
ridges in the Fir forests. Its characteristics arc well shown in 
the figure, — , its slender, ascending stems, ovate leaves, open, 
graceful inflorescence and long-tubed corollas. The flowers 
are rose-colored, appearing in July and August. S. VV. 



67 



lateral branches of the year. Rarely more than a single fruit 
matures from each corymb of flowers ; it is oval or obovate 
hardly exceeding one-third of an inch in length, long pedun- 
culate, and bright scarlet in color. The autlunn cofor of the 
leaves is a brilliant scarlet. 

Photinia villosa is a valuable addition to the free flowering 
and perfectly hardy shrubs which can lie grown in the northern 
States. It was sent many years ago to the Arnold Arboretum 




Fig. 12 — Photinia villosa. 



Photinia villosa.* 

'T'HIS is a widely distributed and very variable Japanese 
-•■ deciduous shrub which, according to Maximowicz, some- 
times attains in its native country a height of 15 feet. Pho- 
tinia villosa (fig. 12), as it appears in cultivation in this 
country, is a vigorous shrub of neat habit, 4 to 6 feet in height, 
with broadly obovate rather coriaceous, sharply serrate, dark- 
green leaves i;^ to 2 inches long with prominent mid-ribs 
and primary veins, their under side, as well as the young 
shoots, petioles, peduncles and calyx, covered with a dense 
white pubescence. The corymbs of white flowers, which 
appear about the middle of June, are terminal on the short 

*Photinia villosa. DC. /"r^aTr. rV. 6 J /.— ilfty. /Vo/. 229.— Fran. & Savat. Eniim. PI. 
Jaj>. 7. 142 : ii. 351.— Maxim. Bull. Acad. St. Petersburg, ix, 176. 
P.lavis,-DZ.l.c. 

Cratxgus Icsvis ^nd C. villosa, Thbg., Fl. Jap. 204. 
Stranvaisia digyna, Sieb. & Zucc. Fl. Jap., Fam. Nat. /. I2Q. 
P.serrulata, Sieb. & Zucc. I. c. C not DC. J 
Pcitrtltia-a villosa, Decn. Nouv. Arch, du Mtts. x, T47. 



by the Messrs. Parsons, of Flushing 
" Ainelanchier s'p. from Japan." 



under the name of 
C. S. S. 



Cultural Notes. 

Epidendrum (Nanodes) Medusaa.— This is a somewhat rare 
and most singular looking Orchid, producing tufted, pendant 
stems about a foot long, with very fleshy grayish leaves ar- 
ranged in pairs on each side. The flowers (usually 2-3) 
spring from the axils of the last pair, are flat and lleshy, 
sepals and petals are purple with a green base. The lip is 
large and spreading, deep maroon, transparent, and deeply 
fringed. It is a native of the mountainous regions of South 
America, consequently requires to be kept very cool. We 
succeed here admirably in a uniform temperature of 55° to 60°, 
with aliundance of water, and if this is given overhcatl the 
thrips will not trouble it. Until quite recently this plant was 
very rare and large house grown plants are still the exception. 



68 



Garden and Forest. 



[April 4, li 



Coelogyne cristata alba (hololeuca). — This rare albino is now 
in Hovver witli us (a plant with seven spikes). It dift'ers from 
the type simply in the absence of the yellow of the lip, tlius 
rendering it the only instance, I believe, of an entirely pure 
white Orchid. Though very rare at present, it is like the type 
— such a free grower that it cannot fail to be plentiful before 
long. 

Sarcochilus (Thrixspermum) Berkeleyii. — This charming little 
rarity belongs to the caulescent section of Orchids and in 
general appearance is not unlil^e a miniature ALrides. The 
drooping spikes, which are about eight inches long, are thickly 
set with white flowers with but a dash of amethyst on the lip. 
The curious sac-like appendage, from which the genus takes 
its name, renders the flower very remarkable. This species 
grows well with us among the Pliala-nopsis, in a basket filled 
with crocks and sphagnum nioss. 

Bertolonia marmorata.' — This is a charming little ornamental 
leaved plant belonging to the Melastoma family and is valu- 
able for mixing with Ferns in the green-houses, the leaves are 
5 to 8 inches long and half as broad, of a bright green beauti- 
fully streaked with pure white, while the under surface is of a 
rich purple. It luxuriates in a warm, moist atmosphere in a 
shady corner. A compost of loam, peat and leaf motdd with 
a good sprinkling of sand in well drained pots suits it. When 
they lose their bottom leaves the plants should be taken out 
and repotted into small pots, sinking the stem as low as possi- 
ble, so that the new leaves will cover the pot. Keep the plants 
comparatively dry until they get nicely rooted, after which they 
should never Ije allowed to become dry. It was introduced 
from Brazil in 1858. 

Rondeletia (Rogieria) gratissima. — This Mexican shrub bears 
corymbose cymes of pinkish fragrant flowers. We find that it 
blooms during nine months of the year, and grows best in a 
cool green-house temperature, and in a mixture of two parts 
loam to one of peat. To encourage growth we plant it out in 
the open ground during the summer months. 

Amaryllis Aulica. — A few large plants of this good old species 
are in liloom with us now while others are being retarded in 
the cold house. Most of the bulbs are bearing two spikes 
each and some of the pots contain 15 to 20 bidbs. This 
species is evergreen, and need not be repotted more than 
once in 3 to 4 years, but may be fed with liquid manure during 
active growth. 

Phalaenopsis Sanderiana. — Some [ilants of tliis grand species 
now in liloom here show a great variation both in the flower and 
in the leaf, scarcely two of them being alike. The most attrac- 
tive kind has the flowers suffused with a delicate rose, which is 
much darker on the upper section of the flower. This kind is 
almost invariably found to have leaves marbled as in P. Schil- 
leriaiia, while the pale varieties possess the green leaves of P. 
amahilis. Among the best of the paler kinds is that called P. 
marjnorata, in which the lateral sepals are much spotted with 
purple. The lip also is beautifully stained and spotted with 
the same color. It has been suggested that this species is a 
natural hybrid between P. Schilleriana and P. amabilis, and 
the great inconstancy in the color of the flowers and leaves 
tends to strengthen this theory. Some of the plants when out 
of flower cannot 1 >e distmguishedfrom /". ScJiilleriana,B.\-\(\ otners 
from those of P. a?nabilis. P. Saiideriana was introduced m 
1883 from the East Indian Islands. It grows well with us in a 
warm, airy house, potted in cylinders or liaskets which are 
nearly filled up with broken crocks, and with a thin layer of 
sandy peat on the top. Abundance of water should be given 
at root and overhead during the growing season. When at 
rest water shoidd be given freely at root, Init the atmosphere 
should be moderately dry. During this period a minimimi 
temperature of 60°, with a rise of 10 to 20'^ according to the 
weather, will suit them. 

Calanthes which have finished flowering should be kept 
dry, in a temperature of about 60", luitil the new growths 
begin to emit roots, when they should be shaken out of the 
pots, the old roots nearly all trimmed off, and repotted in fresh 
soil, which may consist of two parts fibrous p)eat, one of 
loam and one of half-rotted leaves. Water should lie given 
very sparingly until the plants are nicely rooted, after which 
they need plenty of water and strong heat, with an occasional 
syringe overhead. After the plants are pot-bound, weak liquid 
manure may be given them nearly every day. 



Phalaenopsis Harriettis. — This is one of the latest additions 
to this lovely genus, and was produced by the intercrossing of 
]'. amabilis with P. violacca. It is the most handsome and 
striking of the whole genus. The habit of the plant, size and 
form of flowers form an intermediate character, but the spike 
is that of P. violacea, but more slender. The flowers are 
greenish-white, suffused and dotted with rich, rosy purple, 
which becomes more intense and is in bars near the base of 
sepals and petals. The lip is of a rich, velvety purple, with 
yellow at base. This is the second time only that this species 
has flowered, and with the increased strength of the plant, 
there has been a wonderful improvement in size and color of 
the flowers. This we have also found to be the case with the 
artificial hybrid P. intermedia, which is now far superior to any 
imported natural ones. 
Ktnwood, N. Y. /■'. Goldring. 

Freesias. — These are the best of all our wintcr-lilooming 
bulbs ; they are of the easiest possible cultivation, bloom 
abundantly, and the flowers are fragrant and beautiful and 
have a refined appearance, without any of the coarseness 
peculiar to the " Dutch " bulbs. The best of all is F. refracta 
alba ; F. Lciclitlini is also common in cultivation, together 
with hybrids between these species.. " Dutch " bulbs if forced 
this year are almost worthless for further use ; Freesias on the 
contrary improve and multiply year after year. Growers for 
market plant the bulbs thickly on benches, in about four 
inches deep of soil ; private growers raise them in pots. By 
having them in pots we can have them in bloom insuccessional 
groups for some three months in winter. Any good rich soil — 
turfy loam and rotted manure — suits them very well. A dozen 
bulbs in an eight-inch pot will give capital flowers. Pot in 
August or September, and keep them cool but away from frost, 
and let them come along slowly. We can force them into 
bloom by introducing the most advanced plants into warm 
quarters. After they have done lilooming keep them growing 
as long as the foliage keeps fresh and green; when it begins to 
fade dry oft' the plants and keep them dry till potting time next 
August. The finest Freesias I ever had were grown for two 
years in the same pots and without repotting. And this 
year in order to have as good next year, when the plants were 
coming into bloom I repotted them into larger pots, taking 
care not to break the ball of roots ; this did not interfere with 
their blooming at all. They are also easily raised from seed. 
A few of the plants raised from seed sown this spring may 
l.iloom next winter, but the majority ot them will not bloom 
till fhe following year. 



Hydrangea rosea. — This is a comparatively recent introduction 
from Japan, and in flower and foliage distinct from the older 
Hydrangeas of our gardens. It is equally available for outside 
and inside work, and with a miflchingin winter will live out-of- 
doors ; if the bushes are killed down to the snow line, the 
shoots from the bottom will grow up in quantity and bloom 
in summer. This is not always the case with the common 
Hydrangea, for north of New York, if it be killed to- the 
ground in winter, the young shoots from the bottom, although 
they grow larg-e and vigorous enough, seldom bloom well, 
often not at all. Hydrangea rosea blooms some two to three 
weeks earlier than does the variety known as Thomas Hogg, 
and this is more marked when it is forced than when grown 
out-of-doors. Cuttings of the young wood strike with the 
greatest freedom. Although the proper color of the flowers is 
a pretty rose, they often assume a bluish tinge. 



Chinese Primroses. — Sow at once if you wish for good plants 
for Christmas ; plants for Easter may be sown in summer. 
Mixed seed as a rule is unsatisfactory; far better pay a little 
more and get exactly such colors as you want ; the poor varieties 
require just as much room and care as do the fine varieties. 
Alba magnifica, white ; Meteor, bright red ; Chelsea Rose, pale 
rose ; and Chelsea Blue, are most excellent varieties. There 
is a good deal of emphasis laid on fern-leaved varieties, but 
their flowers are no better than those of the rounder-leaved 
sorts ; indeed there is not a pronounced difference between 
them. Cliinese Primroses should be kept in active growth, 
moderately moist and slightly shaded all the time, and as cool 
as possible during the summer months. As the single 
varieties can be grown so easily from seed it is not worth 
while to save over any of them for another year. But as the 
double flowered sorts are uncertain from seed we should keep 
them over and propagate them from cuttings in the same way 
as is commonlv done with the old Double White. IV. F. 



April 4, 1888.] 



Garden and Forest. 



69 



Trial Beds. 

'T'HIS is the season of catalogues. Every year they become 
-'■ more sumptuous and alluring- with their long lists of 
novelties. Some are already illustrated horticultural magazines, 
and if the evolution continues we shall eventually have moroc- 
co-bound annuals distributed through the mails. The catalogue 
of to-day is a tribute to the growing taste for horticulture. The 
shrewd, experienced money-maker from the soil knows how 
to discount these large and much-embroidered promises of a 
renewed Garden of Eden. He turns straightway to the old 
standard, established sorts, and invests in these alone. His 
calculating eye is fi.xed on a crop that will pay beyond the sha- 
dow of a doubt. He is right, and so may you and I be right if 
we take a different course. That crop pays best which yields 
what we value most. There is a solid satisfaction in a fair re- 
turn in dollars and cents from our land, and it is well to aim at 
this. The farming which makes milk cost as much as cham- 
pagne, the vegetable garden which suggests to the natives only 
the color of the bank-notes expended, tend to confirm in many 
minds the idea that the methods of their grandfathers were the 
safest and wisest. But lavish, ignorant expenditure is a very 
different thing from a continuous course of experiments which 
need cost but comparatively little. For our own sakes, and 
especially for the sake of our children, we would seek to banish 
the hum-drum element from rural life. In no other pursuit 
have we such opportunity to do this as in horticulture. Let 
me give at once practical illustrations of what I mean. Here 
is a plot of ground. You can put it all in a crop which an ignor- 
ant laborer can take care of. You can also put the soil in fine 
order this spring, select from a catalogue a dozen or more of 
the most promising varieties of peas, say; plant them all at the 
same time and under the same conditions, the dwarf kinds by 
themselves, close together, those requiring the support of brush 
farther and farther apart, until you come to the unrivaled old 
Champion of England. Now you have a play-ground as well 
as a pea-patch for yourself and all the family. You will soon 
need a little recording note-book with a page allotted to every 
carefully labeled kind. The children will be glad to go with 
you often to see which sort first pushes through the soil and 
then to watch the race on through blossoming to maturity and 
the table. The entire family will discuss the comparative if avor 
and merits of the varieties, all kept on the q7ii vive over that 
pea-patch for several weeks. Bright-eyed boys will I>e almost 
as willing to work in it as to go fishing. The carefu record kept 
from first to last will reveal which kinds are earliest, which the 
most productive and profitable to raise, and which the best 
flavored. May not such a crop be worth far more than one 
stolidly raised and stolidly solder eaten ? The outlay need be 
small indeed, but the return is tliat which makes life — zest and 
enjoyment. 

Take another inexpensive yet more extended method of 
amusement and experiment. Select a strip of ground as long 
as you please and about fourteen feet wide. Enrich it well with 
manure from the cow-stable, if possible, but any fertilizer will 
answer, so that it be not too fresh and liable to ferment. Mix 
the fertilizer evenly to the depth of eighteen inches, and then 
set out as many varieties of strawberry plants as you can afford 
space for. Let the rows be two feet apart across the bed, and 
the plants one foot apart in the rows. By this course you will 
have a dozen plants of a kind in every short row. Label care- 
fully, and begin your written record. Now you have a trial bed 
that will last three years at least. In May, the April-set plants 
will begin to blossom. Pick off the blows as fast as they ap- 
pear. The small amount of fruit produced the first season is 
of no value, but a great injury to the young plants. Letting 
them bear is like working a colt. In June the young plants 
will begin to throw out runners and the tendency will increase 
till fall. Nature's law of propagation is working; but it is fruit, 
not plants, that yovi wish. Therefore cut off every runner as it 
appears — an easy task for children. Force every plant you set 
out to grow as large as it will on its original root. If plants die, 
merely permit sufficient runners to grow to fill their places. 
Since the plants are allowed neither to blossom, bear nor pro- 
duce runners, there is only one thing they can do, and that is, 
to grow into great bushy stools and develop fruit buds for the 
ensuing year. By fall you inay find that a peck measure will 
scarcely cover a plant. Of course the hoe should be kept busy 
throughout the season. But little hand-weeding will be i-e- 
quired, because the plants have not been allowed to run and 
mat together. Clean, frequent culture is absolutely essential to 
the best results. As soon as the ground begins to freeze in the 
autumn cover the plants well, but not deeply, with light stable 
manure, leaves, litter of any kind not full of noxious seeds. 
Uncover after the alternate freezing and thawing of spring is 



over, rake off the litter as soon as the ground is dry enough to 
work, then fork tlie soil lightly between the plants and return 
the litter asa mulch, adding enough more to cover the ground 
evenly. When I say, fork the ground lightly as soon as it 
is dry enough to work in early spring, I mean just what 
I say. I do not say, let a stupid or careless workman half dig 
the plants out when loosening the soil, nor do I suggest that 
this work can be done just as well late in spring after the plants 
begin to blossom. Many authorities declare the ground about 
bearing plants should not be disturbed in spring till after the 
crop has been produced. I have always found cultivation ad- 
vantageous if performed when and in the way I have indicated, 
but not otherwise. If space permitted, I think I could support 
my opinion with good reasons. After this very early cultiva- 
tion the plants are ready to bear. The mulcli around them 
should be sufficient to keep the ground moist and the fruit 
clean. 

Soon comes the exciting period, when the berries change from 
green to white and then begin to blush in the June sunshine. 
Careful notes should have been made all along as to the com- 
parative vigor of varieties, hardiness, time of blossoming, 
character of blossoms, etc. Now the record should Ijc full 
indeed as to size, productiveness, firmness of the berries, and, 
above all, as to flavor. 

The dilTerences in fully matured and ripened strawlierries 
would astonish those who have always purchased their supplies 
m the market. 

A strawberry bed, treated as I have described, is "a tiling of 
beauty" and would be "a joy forever," if it could last. It 
does last three times as Ion"- as the ordinary matted bed of two 
or three varieties, and the fruit averages three times the size. 
We have had Crystal City strawberries in May, and Memphis 
Late and Triomphe de Gand berries after the 4th of July. 

What a deliglit to visit the trial bed every day — see each va- 
riety developing after its own organic law ! The entire family 
becomes a tasting committee, and the children learn from deli- 
cious experience the infinite opportunities afforded by horticul- 
ture to gratify higher tastes than those of the palate. The 
beautiful fruit, large and perfectly developed by high culture, 
pleases the eye as well ; the variety in form and flavor, the dif- 
ferent aspects of plants and foliage, suggest that similar tests 
may be applied to other fruits, to the whole range of flowers, 
vegetables and ornamental shrulibery. In brief, the reason 
becomes apparent why man was first put in a garden, for 
therein are found the varie<l interests which continue to our 
latest age as fresh and undying as Nature herself. In our large 
cities are multitudes of pallid, dissipated youth who might 
have been kept in breezy country homes if the stolid, plodding 
element had been eliminated. Those crops often pay best 
which nourish mind as well as body. 

Cornwall-uii-Hudsun. Ed%vard P. Roe. 

Foliage With Cut Flowers. 

A careful study of the place and manner of growth and 
-^^ of the tone and character of the foliage of any plant will 
suggest the most effective arrangement for the cut flowers of 
that plant. To illustrate, the Gladiolus is always an aggressive 
and striking flower no matter how delicate it may be in shade. 
Its function seems to be to enliven by its bold display of color. 
Its foliage is a dull but strong green and is linear in form. Fol- 
lowing this suggestion, we fincl it appears to best advantage 
when its spikes are arranged in a tall vase with a liberal use of 
the long leaves and stems of the various giant Grasses or Sor- 
ghums or even of Indian Corn. The forage plant called 
" Tiosinte" is particularly good for this purpose. 

The common white garden Lily throws its cluster of dazzling 
white flowers well into the air, supported by an almost leafless 
stem, and we never have been able to arrange effectively any 
foliage with this flower. The white is so intense and yet so 
delicate that it needs no aid and is injured rather than helped 
by any other color. The only flower we have ever seen ef- 
■ fectively arrayed with this is the Agapanthus. Its flowers are in 
their way as delicately beautiful as those of the Lily and blend 
well with them. 

Nothing will bring out the beauty of blue Larkspurs like 
well m:itured Carrot leaves, and acomparison will show that in 
color and expression they are much like the natiu'al foliage of 
the plant. In the same way clusters of wild or seedling Pear 
leaves form the most effective setting for the brighter colored 
Roses. 

To extend these illustrations a little further, arrange a basket 
of Concord Grapes with Delaware foliage and one of Delaware 
with Concord foliage, and then another plate of each with its 
own leaves, and observe the more pleasing effect of the latter. 



70 



Garden and Forest. 



[April 4, 18 



I have found a vase made as follows admirably adapted for 
the natural arrangement of such flowers as Gladiolus, and, in 
fact, for all strong; growing kinds. Take a smooth and perfect 
length of common 6 or 8 in. stoneware sewer-pipe, paint it a 
pleasant neutral tint ; have fitted into the smaller end a tin can 
some 8 inches deep and supported by a flange projecting over 
the top. Have a tinsmith make two circles of wire fittmg 
easily into the can and have these circles filled with cross wires 
so as to make a net work of about an inch mesh. Solder to 
these circles— and in such a way that one of the circles is held 
about two inches from the bottom of the can and the otlier 
just below the top— two stout wires bent like the bail of a pail, 
and of such length that when the circles are m place the arch 
of the wires will be some 6 inches above the can and cross 
each other at right angles. The two circles and the upper 
wires will enable~one to place a spike of Gladiolus or a spear 
of grass or any long stemmed plant so that it will retain just 
the place in the arrangement that may be desired, while by 
means of the wire handles the whole arrangement can be lifted 
out of the can to remove the water when necessary. 

Detroit, Mich. ''''''''• '^'- ^racy. 

Correspondence. 

To the Editor of Garden and Forest ; 

Sir.— I was glad to see, in a recent number of your paper, that 
you had called attention to Boronia inegastigma. The delicious 
fragrance of its flowers certainly entitles it to more general culti- 
vation in our green-houses. But there is another plant, equally 
fragrant, which one seldom meets with nowadays— not nearly 
so often as thirty years ago. This is Mahernia iierticillata, a 
half-shrubby or woody perennial, introduced from the Cape of 
Good Hope about 1820. In habit it is not so attractive as Boro- 
nia, growing in a rather straggling way. But its flowers are 
prettier— small, bright yellow bells, profusely produced and 
as sweet as Lilies-of-the- Valley ; and it is also a much freer 
and more rapid grower and one of the easiest of all plants to 
propagate. In a cool green-house it will bloom throughout 
the winter and spring, and it is one of the very best of house- 
plants. I should think it would be an excellent plant for florists 
to grow for winter sale in pots — in flower for room-decoration — 
as It remains so long in blossom and its delicious odor will per- 
meate a whole apartment. Mahcrnia may also be had to flower 
out-doors in summer, and when I was young it was comnionly 
grown in vases and hanging-baskets, a purpose for which its 
habit renders it peculiarly suitable. 

Elizabctl., N.J. W. J. K. 

[Our correspondent does not say too much in favor of this 
plant. It is not rare in old green-house collections in this coun- 
try, and a writer in a recent issue of the Gardener' s Chronicle, 
of London, lamenting that it has "long been lost to English 
gardens," states that good plants can be purchased in this city 
tor 30 cents a piece. — Ed.] 



this is once demonstrated, there will no doubt be plenty of 
imitators, and the tide of population now ebbing so sadly will 
flow back toward these noble hills. 
Otis, Mass. .S". IV. Powell. 



To the Editor of Garden and Forest : 

Sir.— What Mr. Parkman said in No. i of Garden and Forest 
of the White Mountain forests as capable— with proper treatment 
—of furnishing a steady supply of timber, and of the serious 
injury to the business of summer resorts and to manufac- 
turers if speculators should cut oiT these forests, is applicable 
to many other parts of New England. In Berkshire County, 
Mass., White Pine comes up readily and makes a strong growth, 
but is not cared for so as to make straight, first-class timber. 
In this town about a million feet of lumber are cut every 
year, and at least half of this is white pine. It is, however, 
only fit for box-boards and on the stump is worth some $4.00 
per' 1,000. Meantime the population is steadily decreasing, 
deserted farm houses staring one in the face on every road. 
There is not enough profitable occupation for even the few who 
are left, and the most enterprising young men seek business 
elsewhere. Here and there, however, one sees a grove of thick- 
standing, tall and straight pine trees, proving that good and 
high-priced lumber (and much more of it per acre) can be 
grown whenever it is protected and a litfle pains taken to se- 
cure a thick stand. It would prove an instructive object- 
lesson if some one would take and sow Pine on one of these 
farms in with whatever hoop-pole stuff will thrive best. The 
first crop of poles should be cut close to the ground so as to 
promote sprouting {recepage, as the French call it), and continu- 
ous harvests of them should be taken oft' the ground until the 
Pine begins to shade and crowd the hard wood. After that 
thinning will be all that is required, and the material yielded by it 
will pay for labor, interest and ta.xes. When the feasibility of 



The Forest. 

The Forest Vegetation of Northern Mexico. — I. 

nPHE tourist, who, fresh from a ride through the densely 
-'- wooded swamps of Arkansas or Louisiana, or from the 
Pine-covered heights of New Mexico, enters Old Mexico at 
Paso del Norte, and mounts by night from the valley of the 
Rio Grande to the central tablelands, where in a journey of a 
thousand miles towards the capital he sees apparently but 
naked plains and bare and serrated mountains (notice in Span- 
ish the same word, sierra, for a mountain range as for a saw), 
would doubtless be surprised at my choice of a theme for 
these articles. Nevertheless I have something to say of for- 
ests and forest trees in that same region, but more concerning 
the forests covering the Cordilleras, which lie from one hun- 
dred to two hundred miles west of the central railroad. 

The tablelands of central Mexico, mostly covered by the 
.States of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Durango, Zacatecas and San 
Luis Potosi, are plains, lying at an elevation of 4,000 to 7,000 
feet, interrupted at intervals of ten to twenty miles by broken 
ranges of mountains, whose summits are 2,000 to 3,000 feet 
above the surrounding plains, or 6,000 to 9,000 feet above sea 
level, and whose trend is south-east and north-west. In the 
State of Chihuahua these mountain-bearing plains ascend from 
the Valley of the Rio Grande on the north-east, less than 4,000 
feet elevation, — in the State of Durango from the Laguna 
country on the east, a region of lakes which are river sinks, 
and less than 4,000 feet altitude — and culminate in the conti- 
nental divide lying within but near the western bounds of 
these two States. Where the divide is a gently swelling plain, 
as immediately north of Cusihuiriachic, its altitude is about 
7,000 feet ; whenever it rises to a mountain crest it attains an 
elevation of 8,000 to 10,000 feet. It is doubtful whether along 
all the mountain line that stretches southward from the United 
States boundary a greater elevation than 10,000 feet is to be 
found, until we come to the snow peaks which look down 
upon the valley and city of Mexico. 

To the west of this divide, parallel with it, but not always 
contiguous to it — for in some places the Pacific Slope begins 
with a broad, gently falling plain — lies the Cordilleras region 
of north Mexico, a belt seventy-five to one hundred and fifty 
miles wide, closely packed, forest-covered mountains ; cut 
through everywhere by torrents in swift descent to the low- 
lands of Sonora and Sinaloa — torrents which have formed a 
labyrinth of gulches, cafions and barrancas, the terror of the 
traveler — rising higher towards the west only in the seeming, 
because there the valleys are deeper ; in the upper or eastern 
portion of the belt narrow, habitable valleys at rare intervals 
only, but more frequent and broader valleys, as we descend 
towards the Tierra Caliente, showing villages, grain fields and 
Orange orchards. On the cool, evergreen heights of this west- 
ern verge of the plateau is condensed the moisture borne in- 
land by the winds of the Pacific. So a good measure of rain 
and snow usually falls here during winter; while from July 
till August thunderstorms are of daily occurrence. The 
storms of winter being almost wholly lost among these moun- 
tains, the interior, however, is left comparatively rainless from 
October to August ; for, so slow is the eastward progress of 
the summer rains, preparing their course step by step over suc- 
cessive mountain chains and heated plains, that it may be as 
late as August ere they descend to the valley of the Conchos, 
and meet in its vicinity the rains from the Gulf of Mexico, also 
retarded in their inland march by the similar barrier presented 
by the Sierra Madreof eastern Coahuila and San Luis Potosi. 

But it is not due to dearth of water alone that the interior 
plateau remains comparatively bare of forest growths. The 
explorer everywhere observes in that region a paucity of soil, 
because, chiefly, it has never had the benefit of glacial action 
to grind down the rugged mountains and strew the resulting 
earth over the land in deep and fertile drift formations. More- 
over, the action of frost to disintegrate rocks, and bring down 
the toppling crags, is there exceedingly slow, since water to 
aid in its operations is generally withheld in winter. So the 
mountains do not possess sufficient depth of soil to carry 
through eight to ten months of drought the water supply neces- 
sary to the life of a forest. Bv Mav, in fact, whoever travels 
them incurs risk of perishing by thirst from inability to find a 
living brook or spring. Therefore the trees of all the interior 
ranges are thinly scattered and of stunted growth. In the 



April 4, 1S88.] 



Garden and Forest. 



71 



extreme drought of last April I saw them putting- forth new 
leaves but feebly and shedding their flowers without ability to 
set fruit. Only in the canons, where they may be somewhat 
protected from the fierce heats by overhanging cliffs, and 
where deposits of soil may lie, can they attain ?uli size, or can 
the species with broad, tliin leaves exist. 

Not less are the plains unfavorable to tree growth. In a 
former age of the world they were covered with inland seas. 
Some of these broke through their mountain dykes and emp- 
tied themselves into the Gulfs of Mexico and California ; the 
others have nearly dried up under the sub-tropic sun. Except 
in their lower basins, there was deposited on their gravelly 
bottoms but a comparatively thin layer of fine earth ; and as a 
peculiar feature of common occurrence, l:>efore this thin de- 
posit was laid, (he gravel was cemented together by an aqueous 
deposit of lime washed down from neighboring hills. The dry 
slopes and mesas resulting from this now bear of ligneous 
vegetation only a few peculiar shrubs, which maybe described 
hereafter. C C. Pringle. 

The Forests of Tunis. 

THE following interesting account of the forests of Tunis, 
recently issued from the British Foreign Office as a Consular 
Report, is reprinted from the Gardener s Chronicle of London. 

" The forests of Tunis, which cover an appreciable part of 
the surface of the country, were, undl the French occupafion, 
subject to no supervision, and suffered from the want of that 
supervision. In 1883 the French, alive to the importance of 
preserving what remained of these forests, which are the prop- 
erty of the State, placed them under the management of a 
separate department, which has explored their extent and 
demonstrated that they are an important element of national 
wealth. 

" The explorations have resulted in the division of the forests 
into two main groups; one consisting of the Cork tree and 
deciduous Oak, locally known as ' Zen,' covering the north- 
western angle of Tunis, where it abuts on the Algerian frontier 
and the sea, and separated from the rest of Tunis by the river 
Mejerdah. These trees grow in a stratum of sandstone, which 
again reposes on the upper chalk, and they completely disap- 
pear where the latter stratum crops to the surface. They cover 
an area of about 360,000 acres, on 330,000 of which flourishes the 
Cork tree, and on 30,000 the ' Zen.' Itis found that the former 
invariably grows on the southern slopes of this moimtainous 
region; antl, on the northern slopes and in the hollows of val- 
leys, the latter. 

" South of the River Mejerdah both these trees disappear, and 
give place to the Pine and a species of evergreen Oak. 
They are scattered in groups over various mountainous regions 
of no great elevation, all comprised in the northern half of the 
Regency, where alone the rainfall is sufficient to sustain their 
growth. It is calculated that these several forest groups cover 
a surface about equal to that covered by the Cork trees and 
'Zen,' viz., 360,000 acres. 

" These latter groups are in a more neglected state than the 
former. For the most part they are nearer to important towns 
than the Cork forests, and from time immemorial have sup- 
plied those towns with fuel. The bark of the Pine is also used 
for tanning and coloring hides and skins; and as no control is 
exercised over the cutting down of the trees, or stripping them 
of their bark, and goats are allowed to roam everywhere, the 
forests are rapidly deteriorating. No legislation has as yet 
been adopted for putting a stop to this waste, and though the 
Department of Woods and Forests proposes that the chiefs of 
the contiguous villages and tribes should be held responsible 
for the depredations, the Government has not yet ventured on 
this high-handed measure. 

" It is to the Cork forests that the attention of the new admin- 
istration has been mainly directed. They are situated in a 
country with a very sparse population, dwelling in huts formed 
of the branches of trees. Their numljer is estimated at 18,000 
souls, or only one individual to 30 acres. It was open to the 
French administration to adopt one of the three following 
systems in dealing with the woods and forests, viz., their sale, 
their concession for fixed periods, or their management by the 
State. The last was chosen as the system best adapted for 
their preservation and extension, particularly as it was held to 
be of paramount importance to favor the increase of rainfall 
in the country, the quantity of which is supposed to be inti- 
mately connected with the extent of the forests. That they 
were more extensive in the time of the Romans, and that 
they conduced to augment the annual rainfall, may be inferred 
from the discovery of numerous aqueducts among hills which 
are now absolutely denuded of trees and destitute of springs. 



" Much has been done during recent years in improving the 
condition of these Cork forests. Roads have been cut through 
them, and at stated intervals spacious alleys have been frayed 
to serve as a means for arresting the march of the fires which 
frequently ravage them. Above all, much progress has been 
made in barking the Cork trees, an operation which consists in 
stripping the rough bark off the trunks of the trees to the 
height of 5 or 6 feet from the ground. . This virgin bark is 
without value, and only ten years after the trees have been 
robbed of it; is the inner bark available for commercial pur- 
poses, the trees giving a crop of Cork every ten years. To 
meet the expenses incurred in these operations there were 
available the sums accruing from the sale of the trees already 
felled, and of the bark of the 'Zen' for tanning. Little has 
been done towards working the less valuable forests to the 
south of that river. An experiment has been made in planting 
with trees a small tract of mountain land near Hammam-el- 
Enf,' some ten miles to the east of the town of Tunis. The 
operation consists in digging holes at short distances, and in 
dropping in each a few seeds of the Pine tree. Several hun- 
dred acres have thus been planted with tolerable success, at an 
expense of £\ los. an acre. 

"The worst enemies of the forests are goats. Some French 
colonists have taken steps to exclude these animaiS from their 
estates, and the result has been tliat shrubs, which never 
attained the height of more than two or three feet, have in 
founorfive years assumed the dimensions of trees. This is 
particularly apparent in the large domain of Enfida, where a 
Thuya, which covers much of that region, from a dwarf shrub 
has now, within the space of six years, attained a height of 
twenty to twenty-five feet. The French railway company, 
which owns the line running from Tunis to the Algerian fron- 
tier, has succeeded in planting a considerable number of the 
Eucalyptus resinifcra (the Red Gum tree), and Acacia cyaii- 
ophylla. It is estimated that 300,000 trees have been planted 
along the line of railway. 

"The cost of planting an acre with the Eucalyptus amounts to 
/20, about 1,600 trees going to the acre of nursery ground. 
After planting out, it is probable that at the end of twenty 
years 600 trees will have survived, worth 8s. apiece. 

"The bark of the Acacia cyanopJiylla is rich in tannin, and 
valuable for the tanner. In the whole of southern Tunis tiiere 
exists but a single forest, formed of a species of Acacia. It is 
situated about twenty-five miles inland from Ifax, and covers 
an area five miles long by a little over a mile in width. This 
forest, which was formerly much more extensive, is protected 
from the northerly winds by high land, and the trees grow in 
clumps in depressions of alluvial soil. Though they only 
attain a height of ten feet, the trunks furnish planks eight or 
ten inches wide, of an exceedingly hard grain, and capable of 
taking a fine polish." 



Answers to Correspondents. 

"Why is it not the best forest policy to cut out the mature 
wood from a primeval forest and let the rest grow ? " 

A. J. K. 

If the questioner had asked : Is it proper forest policy to 
utilize the timber for which there is a market and to provide at 
the same time for a new growth .' he would have exactly stated 
the very end and aim of forestry, and we would have assented 
without qualification. But whether the best method to attain 
this end, especially the latter part, is presented in the prescrip- 
tion contained in the above question, must depend on a spe- 
cial diagnosis. The method of taking only what is called " the 
mature or ripe wood " (who knows what that is ?) or, as it may be 
called, the " method of selection," is at least an attempt at for- 
est management, and the beginning of order and system, and 
where, as with us, forestry is as yet undeveloped, this method is 
decidedly betterfor the future of the forest, than indiscriminate 
slashing and clearing. It is, however, not the best, and in 
many cases a bad method of forest management, unless prac- 
ticed with great circumspection. Its advantages lie in the 
preservation of a protective forest cover, and in the continuance 
of a natural forest in an advanced stage of development, the 
value of which must increase with the necessarily decreasing 
supplies of mature timber. But this depends somewhat on what 
" the rest " is. We can conceive of a natural growth, in which 
"the rest "is composed largely of inferior or undesirable 
growth, when it would be better policy to cut out the inferior 
growth first, work for a reseeding from the old growth, and 
then remove the old timber gradually, to have resulting a 
desirable young growth. When "the rest " consists of well- 
grown shade-enduring timber, like the Spruce in the forests of 



72 



Garden and Forest. 



Afril 4, 



Maine, where, after the removal of the old timber, the remain- 
ing growtli has sufficient vitality to be benefited by the increased 
light influence, this method may be even recommended, at 
least for some time to come. 

But, looking further info the future, this policy will ultimately 
not prove the best, as it is bound, by and during the frequent 
removals of older growtli, to damage the young growth, which 
at the same time gets but little chance for development under 
the continued shade of the older growth, and gradually the 
valuable forest " runs out." 

It is, however, possible to conceive of this method of selec- 
tion under given circumstances and when skilfully manipulated 
with regard to the needs of an aftergrowth as good forest 
policy, and on the mountain slopes, where the preservation of 
a forest cover rather than the production of the most valuable 
timber is the object, it is decidedly the best policy. 

B. E. Fcriiow. 

Recent Publications. 

A Catalogue erf Niagara Plants, by David F. Day. 

To the Report of the Commissioners of the State Reserva- 
tion at Niagara, recently presented to the Legislature of this 
State, Mr. David F. Day, of Buffalo, has joined a catalogue of 
the plants found growing spontaneously upon the Reservation 
and in its immediate vicinity. In a very interesting introduction 
to this carefully prepared work it appears that it is based upon 
observations made in the neighborhood of the Falls during a 
period of twenty years. Probably, therefore, the catalogue is 
nearly complete, althougli Mr. Day modestly, states that he 
may have overlooked a few species of Grasses, Sedges and 
other difficult plants. In the prosecution of his task the author 
has consulted, as far as possible, the observations made in this 
neighborhood by other botanists. The references to the 
botany of Niagara Falls, especially by the earlier explorers, are 
few. It is possible that Peter Kalm, the pupil and correspond- 
ent of Linnaeus, may have left some record of his observations 
made at Niagara in 1750, although no mention can be found of 
their publication, either in the Swedish original or in transla- 
tions. If Kalm's journal still e.xists its publication would be a 
welcome addition to the literature of American botany. It is 
probable that he discovered the Hypericum and the Lobelia 
which bear his name near Table Rock. There is no evidence 
that either Michaux or his son ever visited Niagara, and it is 
certain that Pursh came no nearer to it than the site of F.lmira. 
Nuttall, who botanized near the Falls before 1818, mentionstiut 
one plant found by him there — Utricularia cornuta. Torrey 
was probably familiar with this region, although in his " Flora 
of the State of New York," published in 1843, he mentions as 
peculiar to Niagara, but wholly upon other authority, only 15 
out of the 1,511 plants which he describes. The labors of later 
botanists, however, have been more useful to Mr. Day in the 
preparation of his catalogue. The journals of Judge Clinton, 
prepared while he was engaged in studying the botany of Buf- 
falo and its vicinity, proved of the greatest value, as did the 
"Flore Canadienne " of the Abbt5 Purvancher and Macoun's 
"Catalogue of Canadian Plants." 

The Flora of Goat Island shows few plants that are uncom- 
mon in western New York. Still, the island is rich in the 
number of its species. Perhaps no tract of its size in that vici- 
nity can exhiliit so large a number. Its vernal beauty is attrib- 
utable not merely to this variety of plants, but also to the great 
abundance in which they are produced. It is probable, more- 
over, that the island formerly contained other species which 
are now extinct, such as several Orchids and Lilies. The Hare- 
bell has disappeared within a comparatively short time, and 
the Grass-of-Parnassus is iast going — the result of reckless 
llower-picking. The same fate awaits the Blood-root, the 
Dutchman's Breeches, the Wake-Robin and other charming 
wild flowers, unless the Commissioners succeed in putting a 
stop to this wholesale spoliation. They should endeavor, too, 
to restore those plants which have been exterminated from the 
island — an undertaking neither difficult nor expensive. 

The value of this catalogue is increased by the references it 
contains to many rare and interesting plants found near the 
Reservation, although not within its borders. Of the 908 
species of plants named in the catalogue 757 are native and 151 
are foreign. 

The Revue -'es Detix Mondes — March ist, 1888 — contains 
an article on 'The Composition of Forests" — by the dis- 
tinguished palaeontologist the Marquis of Saporta, which sets 
forth how the present constitution of the forests of various parts 
of Europe is explained by the ch.mges of climate which have 
taken place in successive geologic periods, and is illustrated 
by tlie fossil record. 



Flower Market. 

New York, March 30th. 

Trade has been fairly good this week to supply numerous Church 
orders for Holy Thursday and considerable elaborate funeral work. 
The long period of dark weather will interfere with Easter bloom to a 
certain e.xtent. As is usual at this time, white flowers are being held 
back for use on Sunday. As far as possible florists are resolved not 
to alter prices for Easter. There is a gorgeous display in the floral 
shops of plants, but it will not be as large as that of last year. Prom- 
inent dealers make grand exhibitions of Orchids, arranged in banks, 
where choice varieties of Vandas, Epidendrums, Cattleyas, Oncidiums 
and Cypripediums are offered for sale by the plant or spray. 

Selected Hybrid Roses have risen to $1 each. A limited number of 
Her Majesty Rose are brought in, and bring $1.50 each. Tea and 
Hybrid Tea Roses remain as quoted last week. Plants of Lilium Har- 
risii cost from $1 to $2, and single flowers from 35 1050 cts. each, ac- 
cording to the location. Plants of Calla with one flower and bud bring 
il. Cut Callas cost 25 and 30 cts.. White Ascension Lilies are 15 cts. 
each. A few Gladiolus (Shakespear) are offered and sell from 50 to 75 
cts. a spike. Lily-of- the- Valley of the best growth costs $1 a dozen; in- 
ferior flowers bring 75 cts. a dozen. Sfinva Japonica costs 81 a dozen 
spikes. Plants of the same of medium size cost $1. French Mar- 
guerites are 35 cts. a dozen flowers, or $3 for 100. Large plants well 
flecked with bloom sell for $2.50. Boxes of cut flowers for gifts are 
more in demand than designs. Novelties for these boxes are Stephan- 
otis and Orange Flowers. These sell for 50 cts. a spray. Spikes of 
Vanda Suavis tricolor Si^Mox imm $3 to 85. There are from six to 
eight flowers on them. An Azalea (Artevelde) six feet high brought 
£10 ; a plant of Genesfa seven feet high S20. Hydrangeas are exqui- 
sitely tinted and sell for from %2 to $5 a plant. French Marguerite 
Flowers are of an unusually large size. 



Philadelphia, March ^oth. 

Owing to the approach of Easter, flowers are plentiful. Carnations 
amongst staple articles being the most scarce. Grace Wilder, a deli- 
cate pink, is still the favorite, and with more sunlight and heat is im- 
proving in quality. Buttercup, yellow, with red stripes, comes next in 
favor. Whites will be most in demand at Easter. Swayne and Lam- 
born are amongst the best new sorts. Hinzie's White is also good ; 
it brings from 35 to 50 cts. per dozen. Tulips are frequenfly delivered 
at the stores growing in shallow bo.xes ; they make a gorgeous display. 
Cottage Maid, rosy pink, shaded with white Duchess de Parma, 
bronze-red, edged with yellow. Kaiser's Kroon, similar in color, but 
lighter, and the red and yellow more clearly defined, are all favorites, 
as are also the yellows, Chrysolora and Yellow Prince. Whites and 
solid reds are in demand too. They sell at from 75 cts. to $1.25 per 
dozen. Yiolefs are not so good in quality as they were ; some of the 
single ones are poor, and sell at from $1 to Si. 50 per 100, according to 
the quality and variety. Single varieties, when good in quality, are 
favorites here. Asparagus tenuissiinus will be more used for Easter 
decorations than formerly. This is brought about through the scarcity 
of Smilax ; it sells at from 50 to 75 cts. per string. A. plumosus is not 
at all plentiful. It is preferred to A. lenuhsimus when obtainable at the 
higher price. Roses— Magna Charta, Captain Christy, Madame Lui- 
zet. Baroness Rothschild, Mrs. John Laing and Jacqueminots, amongst 
Hybrid Remontants— are plentiful, and sell at from $3 to »8 per dozen, 
according to locahon, variety and qualify. Puritans, with the advanc- 
ing season, continue to improve. Catherine Mermets are not a good 
color. Bennetts are fine when fresh, but their disagreeable tendency 
to become blue with age renders them less \'aluable than they were 
early in the season, especially since Jacqueminots have become so 
abundant. 



Boston, March joth. 

The flower stores are gorgeous with Easter plants and flowers. The 
use of plants in churches has become almost as general as the use of 
cut flowers. For this purpose are offered a variety of showy, flower- 
ing plants, among which the Harrisii and " Longiflorum " Lilies must 
be given first place. Fine pots of these bring from $2. 00 to $5.00 each, 
according to the number of blooms. Quite as showy as the Lilies, 
and more durable, are the Hydrangeas. The variety most generally 
seen is that known as //. Olaksa. Plants are offered in all sizes, from 
fti.50 to S5.00 each. Spiraeas and Cinerarias are also to be had in 
profusion, and are worth from $1.00 to 8i-50 per pot- Cut Lilies and 
Callas bring $6.00 per dozen. The old-fashioned White Lilies bring 
from 82.00 to 83.00 per dozen flowers on stalks. Cool weather has 
been fa^•orable for the Rose crop. The qualify of Roses to be had for 
Easter in this market has never been better. Magnificent Hybrids 
are offered at 812.00 per dozen. The best Mermets, La France and 
Tacinieminots bring from 84.00I0S6.00 per dozen. Lilies-of-fhe-Valley, 
Tulips and Daffodils continue at 81.00 per dozen. Carnations have 
advanced in price, and good, long-stemmed fancy varieties bring Si-OO 
per dozen readily. Immense quantities of Yiolets and Pansies are 
always used for Easter; 81.50 per hundred is the price quoted. Smi- 
lax is very scarce at 50 cts. per yard. The new climbing Asparagus, 
which is more beautiful and lasts longer than Smilax, is largely used 
as a substitute. 



Aprii, II, i8S8.] 



Garden and Forest. 



73 



GARDEN AND FOREST. 



PUBLISHED WEEKLY liV 



THE GARDEN AND FOREST PUBLISHING CO. 

[ LIMITED.] 



Conducted by 



Officr : Tribune Building, Nlw York. 
Professor C- S. Sargent. 



ENTERED AS SECOND-CLASS MATTER AT THE POST OFFICE AT NEW YORK, N. Y. 



NEW YORK, WEDNESDAY, APRIL ii, 1888. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Editorial Articles : — Arljor Day.— A Daii^ci-ous Measure. — Street Trees. 

— Notes 73 

Landscape Gardening, VII Jili-s. Schuyler J'tiii Rensselaer. 75 

Which is the Belter Way V B. S. Olmstead. 76 

Cemeteries J. C. Olmsted. 76 

A Disease of Certain Japanese Slirubs \Vm. Falconer. 77 

Fruit Growing in Florida A. H, Ctirtiss. 77 

New or Little Known Plants: Yucca filifera {willi two illustrations). ..C .S". S. 78 

Chionophilajainesii (with illustration) Serena li'atson. 79 

Cultural Department : — Pruning Shrubs S. A. 80 

The Cultivation ol Lilies C. L. Allen. Si 

Seedling Rhododendrons II'. Falconer. 81 

Chrysanthemum Notes — Acacia pubescens — Hardy Rhododendrons 8r 

The Forest: — Tree Planting in California Robert Douglas. S2 

Correspondence S3 

Recent Publications S4 

Retail Flower Markets : — New York, Boston, Pliiladelj^hia 84 

Illustrations: — Yucca filifera. Fig. 13 78 

Yuca tilifera, Fig. 14 79 

Chionophilajainesii, Fig. 15 80 



Arbor Day. 

THIS festival, which originated about a dozen years 
ago in Nebraska, seems already to have won an 
established place among American holidays, and some 
thirty of the States will observe the custom this spring. 
The very existence of such a celebration is proof of an 
awakened interest in tree planting ; and that it has been 
made to a certain degree a public-school holiday is en- 
couraging, because this indicates the direction in which 
such exercises may be made to have a genuine value. 

Roadside tree planting is not forestry, nor can it in any 
way serve the purpose of forest planting or of forest pro- 
tection. It may be worth while, too, to suggest to some 
enthusiasts that planting rows of trees by every roadside is 
not commendable, and that planting the wrong kind of 
trees in any position, or planting suitable kinds badly, in- 
variably means disappointment and loss. The failure of 
many plantations along the railroads of some western 
States, owing to improper selection and worse care, has 
wrought injury far beyond the mere loss to the companies. 
It has discouraged others and engendered a belief that all 
attempts in this direction are hopeless. Nor will the at- 
tractive exercises of Arbor Day serve any effective purpose 
unless the trees are intelligently selected and planted. 
Distorted and sickly growth or early death of the trees will 
follow to the disheartenment of all who planted them so 
joyously and hopefully. 

As a people, Americans are not over sentimental. 
But this sudden awakening to the peril that threatens our 
forests, may lead to the error of esteeming it something 
like a crime to lift up an axe against any tree. Mr. Glad- 
stone has said that the greatest obstacle to a sound forest 
policy in Great Britain was the superstition that invested 
trees with a certain sacredness, so that felling one was 
looked upon as sacrilege. We occasionally observe the same 
feeling manifested here by worthy people who, in their 
new-born zeal, are led to speak of all lumbermen as ene- 
mies of the human race. Of course there can be no sys- 
tem of forestry without tree-cutting, and the protest, to 



have any value, should be made against wasteful cutting 
or the stripping of mountains, where the trees serve a higher 
purpose as a protection to the water courses than they can 
when made into lumber. It often happens, too, that to 
secure the highest landscape beauty, trees that are im- 
properly placed need to be removed, and every one who 
has had charge of public parks has been rebuked for 
vandalism when it was necessary to sacrifice a tree or 
a group of trees. 

Now, the antidote to any extravagance of this sort is a 
knowledge of trees and their uses ; and the hopeful feature 
in this Arbor Da)' celebration is that which makes it 
essentially a school holiday and connects it with the 
educational system of the State. It will serve no worthy 
purpose when the Governor of a great State, as a ].iart of the 
solemnities, plants White Pines to struggle with the smoke 
and dust of a city square. But if it can be made an object 
lesson to the young, as the crowning ceremony of a course 
of instruction on trees and their needs and uses, it may 
become an educating influence of serious value. Beyond 
question, the children of our public schools are entitled 
to some elementary teaching in regard to the abundant 
tree growth all about them. It is a scandal that they 
should grow up in ignorance of the very names of the 
trees they see every day, and that they should know 
nothing of their uses or of the laws that control their 
development. Ability to give instruction in this direction 
should be required as part of the equipment of every 
teacher And if, in addition to the instruction received, 
the children are led to plant trees with some holida)' 
ceremony, they will be likely to watch their growth 
with a personal interest and note what helps or hinders 
it. The beautiful custom of planting memorial trees is one 
against which even the man who delights to stjde himself 
"practical,'' can offer no objection ; and if a child is in- 
duced to give closer observation to a tree because it is 
called by his name, the gain is substantial ; for the cultiva- 
tion of habits of observation and comparison is of itself an 
education. 

Arbor Day will exert a beneficent influence if it does any- 
thing to hasten the time when even the children can give 
an intelligent reason for choosing a particular tree for a 
given place or purpose, and when they kno\v how to plant 
it properly, and to give it the care it needs thereafter. 



A Dangerous Measure. 

A BILL authorizing the Forest Commissioners of this 
State to lease portions of the forest preserve, not ex- 
ceeding five acres in extent, and for periods not exceeding 
five years in length, has already passed the Assembly and 
awaits the action of the Senate. This bill emanates 
from the Commissioners, whose duty it is to protect 
and preserve the State forests, and they recommend and 
urge its passage. It is a measure fraught with danger 
to the Adirondack forests, and it ought to be defeated. 

The history of this bill, and the reasons which have in- 
duced the Commissioners to recommend this remarkable 
policy, are, as we understand them, briefly these : A large 
number of persons have, at different times, entered upon 
the State domain, within what is now the forest preserve, 
and, without legal authority, have built for themselves 
summer homes on the land thus occupied. Many of the 
most beautiful islands in Lake George, and some of the 
most desirable sites on. the Adirondack lakes, are now held 
in this way by squatters. Among them are men of wealth, 
and men of social and political influence. These facts make 
the position of the Commissioners a delicate and diflicult 
one. If they allow the squatters to remain, they lay them- 
selves open to serious charges of malfeasance in the exe- 
cution of a public trust; if they take steps to have them 
removed from the State lands they create personal hostility 
against themselves. They hope, however, by obtaining 
authority to lease portions of the forest, to legalize this 
unlawful occupation of State lands, and at the same time 



74 



Garden and Forest. 



[April ii, 1888. 



to put themselves in a position to be able to supply eligible 
building lots for summer homes at low rates. 

This should not be allowed. The bill is too general and 
sweeping in its provisions. It gives too much power to the 
Commission, and throws too much temptation in their 
path. The policy of forest management, which its 
passage would inaugurate, is, we are convinced, a danger- 
ous one. The only reason that justifies the State of New 
York in holding lands in the Adirondack region, is that the 
forests which grow upon them may be properly protected 
and preserved. These forests have an important and con- 
trolling influence upon the prosperity of the whole State. If 
they are to be parceled off into five-acre building lots 
it will be impossible to carry out any scheme of 
forest management. Settlers, even when they are rich, 
and possess social and political influence, are a constant 
menace to the forest. They increase the danger of fire; 
they stamp out or clear up the undergrowth, even when 
they do not destroy or injure the trees, and they are, when 
they become numerous, a powerful incentive to railroad 
building. 

I-f a wealthy citizen of this town should ask the pri\ilege 
of building a summer-home for himself in the Central Park, 
the proposition would be considered monstrous. The 
proposition to use the Adirondack forest-park in a 
similar manner only differs in degree; it is equally mon- 
strous, and might become far more dangerous. There are 
now comparatively few settlers in the Adirondack forests, 
but the number is increasing every year, and if the author- 
ity to lease land is given to the Commissioners, sooner or 
later every lake will be lined with settlements and every 
available site in the forest will have a cottage on it. All 
the wild and rural charm of the woods will be destroyed, 
their usefulness as a great popular sanitarium will come 
to an end, and it will be merely a question of time, 
when the State forests must be destroyed, or lose their 
essential value. 

There is still territory enough in the Adirondack woods, 
outside of the State preserve, for a large population, and 
no hardship will be inflicted in shutting up the public 
lands from settlement, except in the case of persons who 
have made expensive improvements on land to which they 
never had a title, and which now the)^ should be compelled 
to vacate. 

The Commission has doubtless been led to advocate 
this measure through ignorance of the dangers which its 
adoption would entail in the end upon the forests. It is 
not to be believed that they have done so in full knowledge 
of what a forest really is, and of the requirements of even the 
crudest system of forest preservation. They have now, how- 
ever, an opportunity to show their zeal and public spirit. The 
Adirondack forests are about to be cut up and seriously 
injured by the building of numerous railroads. The forests, 
or at least those portions of them which belong to the 
State, can still be saved from this new danger by a vigor- 
ous effort to secure restraining legislation. It is the duty 
of the Commission to make this effort; its members will 
find themselves supported in it by public applause and the 
assistance of the ]jeople of this State. 



Street Trees. 



IN no branch of rural economy, perhaps, are Americans 
so far behind the people of almost every country of 
Europe, as in the selection, planting and care of street and 
road-side trees ; and this is particularly true in the case of 
the plantations made in most of our larger cities and their 
suburbs. 

Two mistakes are almost invariably made in undertak- 
ings of this character in the United States ; the work is 
done too cheaply, and the trees are badly selected with 
reference to future effect. Saplings dug from the 
woods with mutilated roots and branches, are planted in 
shallow soil, and are then left to struggle unaided against 
the enemies which beset urban and suburban trees — 



drought and dust and starvation, gnawing horses and 
ravaging insects. In the case, for example, of a great pub- 
lic improvement now in progress near one of the principal 
cities of the United States — an improvement which is de- 
pendent entirely upon a growth of stately shade-trees for 
its value and to which its promoters are fond of alluding 
as " an American Champs Elysces" — it has been seriously 
proposed to plant trees dragged from a neighboring swamp 
in strips of earth four feet wide and only one foot deep, 
resting on a bed of porous gravel. It is needless to say 
that trees planted in this way could never do more than 
drag out a brief and miserable existence. 

There is no poorer economy than trying to plant street 
trees cheaply. Unless the work can be done well it had 
better not be done at all. The ground should be thoroughly 
prepared, and well-selected nursery-grovi-n trees, carefully 
pruned for the purpose, should alone be used. The Ameri- 
can habit of taking saplings from the woods, cutting off all 
their branches' and half their stem, and then using them as 
street-trees, cannot be too strongly condemned. The result 
of such treatment is this. A fork is formed by two or 
more horizontal branches pushing up from the top of the 
cut stem. Water gathers and stands in this fork, and grad- 
ually carries decay down into the trunk of the tree, de- 
stroying it long before it reaches maturity. 

Street trees not only should be carefully selected and 
thoroughly planted, but if anything like a satisfactory result 
is expected, should be protected from gnawing animals, 
and judiciously pruned as often as pruning is necessary to 
keep them in proper shape. The mistake of too close 
planting is almost invariably made in this country, and 
trees planted thickly for immediate effect are rarely thinned 
in time to prevent their injury by overcrowding. 

In the matter of selection we make as many mistakes, 
and almost as serious ones, as in our methods of planting. 
It is a well established rule, based upon common sense, 
that trees of one variety only should be planted on one 
continuous street or avenue. The reason is obvious. If 
trees of different varieties are used, that uniformity essen- 
tial in urban planting to the production of harmony of ef- 
fect will be lost. Trees of different varieties grow different- 
ly. Some grow more rapidly than others ; some come 
into leaf and some lose their foliage earlier than others ; 
some, as they approach maturity, assume a stately, and 
others a graceful aspect ; and variety which may make 
a country road-side beautiful, is entirely out of place 
in connection with the formal lines of city buildings. This 
rule is rarely observed in the United States. Trees of one 
variety are rarely planted here in continuous lines. The 
pendulous American Elm alternates with the rigid-branched 
Sugar Maple, or a heavy Horse-Chestnut is seen between 
two sprawling Silver Maples. 

Such combinations of trees are incongruous when planted 
and age only makes them worse. Roads here and there 
in New England planted exclusively with the Sugar 
Maple or with the Elm, or in some of the far Southern 
States with the Water Oak, serve to show how much more 
beautiful and effective a street plantation can be made b)' 
using one variety of tree, than by any possible combina- 
tion of different varieties. Or, to cross the Atlantic for e.\'- 
amples, the continuous avenues of Planes, of Lindens and 
of Horse-Chestnuts in Northern Europe, of Sophoras in 
Italy and of Ailanthus in Paris, clearly teach the same les- 
son. 



Now is the time when plant-orders from all quarters and 
from all sorts of people are pouring in upon nurserymen. 
Many of these lists display an ignorance of the first prin- 
ciples of good planting which distresses the expert nursery- 
man, and the lack of assurance that the plants of even the 
better lists will be arranged to advantage often troubles his 
mind still more. For he knows that trees and shrubs, how- 
ever well chosen, may yet be so unadvisedly planted as to 
produce no harmonious effect; that they may easily be 
placed so as never to really satisfy the hopes of their planter, 



April h, 



8.] 



Garden and Forest. 



75 



and never be an}^ credit to their g-rower, the nurseryman. 
The owner of a suburban lot or of a country-seat reads the 
descriptions in a catalogue and writes an order, perhaps for 
several hundred dollars' worth of plants. Some day the stock 
arrives, and the owner and his gardener, or perhaps a ' ' land- 
scape gardener" from the nursery, proceed forthwith to plant- 
ing. The result may be seen in the suburbs of every city and 
in many country estates. Everywhere are nursery novelties 
indiscriminately scattered among native wood and shrub- 
bery, or dotted as single specimens all over the lawns. 
Even as specimens the plants are seldom arranged with 
good effect. The whole method of procedure is wrong. 
The fault is not the gardeners, for the most accomplished 
artist could render small service, if he were called on only 
after the plants had been delivered on the ground. 

The designing of plantations, large or small, calls for the 
best skill of the real landscape gardener. They should be 
made to harmonize with the existing natural features of the 
ground ; they should not destroy, but should, if possible, 
emphasize its natural character. Even for suburban lots, 
their proper planning- requires much knowledge of the 
nature of plants, much imagination, and much careful 
preliminary study upon paper. It is safe to say that the 
nurseryman who secures many orders from professional 
landscape gardeners, or who persuades his customers to 
make or get planting-plans in advance, will possess a more 
comfortable mind and conscience, and will find himself 
far better advertised by his plants, than his rivals. 



Senator Vest's bill providing, among other things, for ine 
e.xtension of the boundaries of Yellowstone Park towards 
the south and east, is one which should be promptly 
passed. The enlargement will include the western slope of 
the Absaroka Range, with the timber land at the sources 
of the mountain streams flowing into the park, as well as 
those which flow eastward into the Big Horn. This pro- 
posed addition to the park is so rugged in surface that it 
can never be subdued to agricultural use, and from its geo- 
logical formation it is safe to pronounce it utterly barren of 
mineral wealth. But as a part of this great natural reservoir 
where waters are stored to find their way to both oceans, the 
forest here is of incalculable value. Not only will these 
coniferous woods restrain the melting snows of winter, but 
here, unlike most of the liocky Mountain region, aresummer 
rains to be husbanded as well. Many of the streams which 
receive part of their supply from this region can be used for 
purposes of irrigation, and upon this will depend the suc- 
cess or failure of agriculture for thousands of square miles. 
This is only one of many areas along the Rocky Mountains 
which should be set apart as forest-land forever, but from 
its connection with the Park it is a promising place to begin. 
There should be little difficulty in passing Senator Vest's 
bill. 

It does not seem as though taste in the arrangement of 
flowers was at a very high level in this country, when we 
read the following paragraph, descriptive of a construction 
that was exhibited in a Western city not long ago : " Upon 
an easel of Cat-tails a velvet plaque rested. The latter was 
decorated with a cluster of Roses, and at one side, resting 
upon a branch of Holly, was a little owl made of Violets 
and natural enough looking to fly away. Beneath was a 
nest full of eggs." But reading it quoted with approval 
unHer the heading, "Another Pretty Thing," in a late num- 
ber of a prominent English horticultural journal, we are 
somewhat consoled by the thought that if our taste is bad, 
it is no worse than that of the rest of the world. 



It is proposed by French horticulturalists to erect a mon- 
ument over the grave of Lacharme, the famous cultivator 
of Roses. The Viennese Illustririe Garten Zeiiung suggests 
that lovers of Roses in other countries should contribute 
towards the monument, and names M. Bernaix, 63 Cours 
Lafayette, at Villeurbanne-Lyon, in France, as the person 
to whom remittances may be made. 



Landscape Gardening. — VII. 

IF, as I have said, we look at any American town where 
homes of the better class are isolated in their own 
grounds, we must confess that thej'^ do not prove us as far 
advanced in the art of gardening as \ve are in certain other 
arts. Few villa-lots in any neighborhood show that the 
first requisite of a good effect has been considered — com- 
position. Little regard is usually paid to the harmonious 
arrangement of contrasting forms, and still less, I may now 
add, to the harmonious arrangement of contrasting colors. 

I do not propose to discuss the intrinsic excellence of 
that popular kind of gardening which is known as "bed- 
ding out," as "ribbon " or " pattern gardening. " There 
are many who would almost invariably prefer to it some 
more natural disposition of bright-flowered or bright-leaved 
plants — something more like nature's own floral arrange- 
ments or like those of our grandmothers' days. But, given 
the fact that solid, bright-hued pattern beds may be intrin- 
sically beautiful, how often do we see them used in a way 
which suggests the desiie to make them part and parcel of 
a beautiful general scheme, and how often is that nice feel- 
ing for color which we are so fond of exercising inside our 
homes displa3red in choosing and assorting the plants which 
compose them 1 The beds we most often see are ugly in 
shape, garish in their contrasts of tint, and disposed with- 
out due regard to anything around them. A man who 
would not for worlds hang a chromo on his carefully tinted 
parlor wall, contentedly puts chromos in Coleus and Gera- 
nium in the middle of a lawn the strong green tone of which 
throws their gaudiness into high relief. 

If, now, we look at our larger countrjr-seats and parks we 
find more palpable evidence of good taste. We have some 
admirable landscape gardeners in America, and, naturally, 
they are more often asked to manage large problems than 
small ones. But as yet they are not asked nearly often 
enough ; and even when asked their counsels are not al- 
ways respected. They may be allowed to lay out the 
grounds as they wish, but when once their backs^are turned, 
how quick is the owner to retouch — and spoil — their work! 
How seldom does he ask himself what it was that his land- 
scape gardener really wanted to do — what was the general 
effect he wanted to produce, — and then address himself to 
developing and preserving it ! How seldom do we see any 
]-)lace, great or small, of which we can say, There is every- 
thing here that the eye desires— there is nothing that it 
coufd wish away ! How surprised would almost any pro- 
prietor be, did we venture to criticise the view from his 
window upon the same principles that we should apply to 
a painting on his walls ; and yet, unless it will stand such 
criticism, it is not what he has wished to make it. 

Of course, only an experienced and capable artist can 
arrange any extensive gardening scheme with success. 
And even the smallest scheme is likely to be more success- 
fully planned and more rapidly perfected under an artist's 
eye. Yet even if his help is unattainable there is no reason 
why we should resignedly fall back upon haphazard ways 
of working. Any man can try to work in an artistic spirit, 
even if he cannot rival an artist's skill in execution. That 
is to say, no result made up of various elements — even if 
those elements be the very fewest in number — can be good 
which is not good as a whole ; to make it good as a whole 
^\■e must begin by having a clear idea of what sort of a 
whole we want ; and to begin with such an idea is to work 
in an artistic spirit, no matter how well or poorly we suc- 
ceed in giving it beautiful expression. The scheme is the 
main pouTt — the scheme and the will to stick to it and not 
be tempted by the beauty of individual things into frittering 
away or confusing its effect. 

Is'it needful to say that working in this spirit we should 
not only work to better eventual effect, but with greater 
pleasure at the moment.? To have some appropriate and 
charming little picture in our minds which we want to 
realize ; to dispose our ground, and to choose and ])lace 
our plants, with the requirements of this picture before us— 



76 



Garden and Forest. 



[April h, 1888. 



this is to get the highest degree of pleasure from our plant- 
ing. Nor can it be objected that when the picture is once 
arranged, then our work and pleasure are over, unless it 
can be perpetually tampered with and disarranged. To 
the artist the mutability of nature is often a heavy cross, 
since he knows that when his result is considered finished 
he must leave it to others who will permit it (even if they 
do not aid it) to transform itself into something very differ- 
ent. But to the proprietor or gardener who is trying on a 
modest scale to emulate the artist, this very mutability in- 
sures the permanence of his pleasure. Day by day and 
year by year he can watch the development of his picture, 
guard against Nature's disfiguring retouches, welcome her 
happy accidents, and carefully correct and retouch his re- 
sult himself while preserving its general integrity. And 
this work will surely be pleasant, for to the scientific satis- 
faction of the cultivator will be added that purest of all 
delights — the consciousness of being a creator in the field 
of art. I\l. G. van Rensselaer. 



Which is the Better Way .' 

ONE difference between landscape painting and land- 
scape gardening is that the trees and shrubs in the 
picture of the painter do not grow, while those in the gar- 
dener's picture do grow. Hence the former is free to show 
his group fully grown at once, while the latter must wait 
for years until his little specimens attain the desired size. 

Two methods of planting are practiced. One attempts 
to produce present effect ; the other aims at ultimate results. 

Planting material is usually small. This is especially the 
case where novelties are used. Hence a design of planting, 
no matter how carefully studied for future effect, may give 
meagre results at first — the grounds will appear not fully 
furnished, and the impatience of the owner will compel 
the landscape gardener to plant greater quantities than one 
educated to foresee future effects would deem advisable. 

On the other hand, if the design is made to produce im- 
mediate results, the growth of the planting will in time 
cause a surfeit, and finally the grounds will appear to be as 
much overplanted as they would at first seem to be unfin- 
ished on the other plan, and with this difference, the over- 
planted grounds will not improve, but the surfeit will in- 
crease. Individual specimens will encroach upon and 
destroy each other. Here the "survival of the fittest " — 
that is, the fittest for beauty and interest — will not always 
occur. The more delicate, and, oftentimes, the more beau- 
tiful, will be crowded out by the coarser growing kinds. As 
a reply to this objection, how many times have I heard it 
said, "Oh, well, we will ' thin out' as the specimens grow. " 
But the trouble is, the owners of overplanted ground do not 
" thin out," but everything is left to grow together " until 
the harvest, " and that harvest generally is a rooting out of 
all and a more judicious planting made to take the place of 
the old. Sometimes it happens that the harvest is deferred 
initil the harvester appears in the person of a new cs^'ner. 

I have in mind a case of overplanting which I was called 
upon to remedy some ten or twelve years ago. The former 
owner had died, and the property came into the hands of 
a new proprietor, who, soon after the purchase, sent for help. 
He said that he felt there was something the matter with the 
grounds, but he did not kno^v exactly what. I suggested 
suffocation. "That's it," he replied; " see if you can get 
rid of it. " And thereupon some four hundred trees and 
shrubs came out at once. In one or two instances it was 
absolutely necessary to remove more than would have been 
advisable had morejudicious methods of planting prevailed 
at first. Masses of evergreens entirely filled up spaces 
where glades and vistas ought to have appeared. These 
would have been secured if two or three trees only4iad 
been originally planted, and even now the removal of a 
part of these masses would leave the needed opening ; but 
the trees were so thickly grown together, that taking out a 
part would have exposed dead branches all up the sides 
of the trees left standing, and therefore the removal of 
every one was necessary. 



From what has been said it appears that both methods 
of planting have their faults. That by which present effects 
are secured eventually produces a surfeit, which will not 
improve as time goes on. The design made to secure future 
results, at first gives an appearance of bareness, which 
gradually disappears as the design comes in full develop- 
ment. 

In ni)' reference to overplanted grounds, I have stated 
facts as they ordinarily occur. There are exceptions. 
Grounds can be and are planted so as to give pleasing re- 
sults at first, and then are so carefully watched, and so 
promptly relieved of any undue crowding, that all continues 
satisfactory. Nevertheless, a long experience has con- 
vinced me that with a carefully studied design the most 
satisfactory results will follow when only those trees and 
shrubs are used which are intended to remain. The reason 
is obvious. In the first case the intention of the design be- 
comes indefinite and wavering, as individual members of 
the overcrowded planting are removed, one after another, 
to make room for those which are to remain ; in the second 
case, the result is definite, because the intention of the de- 
sign continues the same. There is no change or fluctuation 
of purpose. The trees and shrubs when planted were 
given room for full development, and so to take upon them- 
selves all the beauty and gracefulness of form with which 
nature has endowed them. 

There is one way of securing both present and future 
effects, and that is the planting of large trees; but this is 
costl)'', somewhat doubtful in its results, and it can be of 
but limited use. B. S. Olmstead. 

[There are cultural advantages in planting trees and 
shrubs so closely that the)^ will protect each other when 
small, and if the plants that are to remain were designated 
in the original plan and those used for supplementary 
purposes could be removed at the proper time, close plant- 
ing woidd be the best practice. But few men have the 
strength and persistence of purpose to root out thrifty trees 
and shrubs as they begin to crowd, especially those which 
they have planted themselves. Besides this, frequent 
changes«of owners help to defeat the best intentions in this 
matter. Therefore it is safer, as a, rule, to plant only such 
trees and shrubs as are meant to have a permanent place 
in a design. It should be added that " novelties " should 
never be used to produce effects which require time for 
their development. Who knows how strange plants will 
thrive in a soil and climate to "which they are not accus- 
tomed.? — Ed.] 

Cemeteries. 

A CEMETERY is a space set apart from all other uses for 
the particular purpose of burying the dead and 
of erecting memorials to them. Its purpose, being so dis- 
tinctive, should not be confused with that of any sort of 
public pleasure-ground. 

This may seem too ob-\'ious to need pointing out, but the 
fact appears to be that almost every important cemetery 
becomes noted in a way which shows clearly that its real 
purpose has become confused with that of displaying 
whateCan be accomplished by certain decorative arts. 
Such a display is out of place and in bad taste. Obviously 
the rule should be that nothing which is decorative, rare, 
curious, historical or amusing should be allowed in a 
cemetery for its own sake, but only as it may aid the true 
purposes of a burial-ground. Too often, the aim appears 
to be to afford gratification to those who come to the 
cemetery in the same frame of mind in which they might 
bfe expected to go to a fine public garden ; that is, on the 
alert to admire " Nature's bright productions," "triumphs 
of horticultural art," and things "rare and curious." They 
try to ignore the graves as unfortunate and inharmonious 
objects^ but gaze with pride, if they are natives, or with 
envy if they are from another town, at the largest and 
most costly monuments, just as they would at a new 
court-house or triumphal arch. They are attracted as 
by a show. The cast-iron fences and most of the other 



April ii, 1888.] 



Garden and Forest. 



// 



usual accessories, are sufficiently well adapted to aid in the 
pleasurable impression which the big, showy moiiLiments 
and the ribbon-gardening make upon this class of visitors. 

The custom of making a display of pretty tlower-beds is 
questionable. A cemetery should be built, plarmed and 
maintained with sole regard to its prime purpose, and 
every respect should be shown for the feelings and senti- 
ments of mourners and those who visit the place in a 
serious and contemplative frame of mind. Not that there 
should be a prevailing aspect of gloom and sadness, or 
anything approaching desolation and dreariness ; but cer- 
tainly any appearance of gaity and festivity, and all bright, 
lively, ephemeral decoration such as might be appropriate 
to certain kinds Of pleasure-gardens, should be carefuU)'' 
avoided. 

The best that planting can do for a cemetery is to give 
an appearance of unity to a necessarily more or less 
heterogeneous collection of individual monuments ; togi\'e 
as much sense of seclusion to all parts of the grounds as 
possible ; to isolate each monument from its neighbors ; 
and to form a background and frame to each important 
monument. A certain kind of decorative planting is ad- 
missible, on the same principle that picture frames may 
be decorated. That is, it should be in keeping with and 
subordinate to the greater work of art which calls it into 
existence, but it should be used very moderately and with 
careful discrimination, else it had far lietter be omitted. 
Simplicity is the safest rule to follow in most instances. 

Brookline, Mass. /. C. Olmsted. 

A Disease of Certain Japanese Shrubs. 

IN regard to Professor Giljlis' very interesting communica- 
tion, p. 40, I would say that I have noted this disease for a 
good many years. We call it the Japanese "die-back." The 
cause thereof I know not, but I have observed that it is 
aggravated when the plants are gniwn under unfavorable con- 
ditions. As a rule, Japanese trees antl shrubs dislike drought 
in summer or winter, hot sunshine at any time, and e.xposure 
to searing winds in winter. I have found that Japanese Maples 
grown in good loamy, moist ground, well shelteretl, and faintly 
shaded in summer, are very little affected by the " ilie-back," 
but when grown in exposed situations and dryish sandy land, 
they are very suliject to it. 

Cercis Japonica with us has the tips of its shoots killed back 
a little every winter, but otherwise it behaves very well. 
Exochorda grandiflora does not seem affected. Staphylca 
Colchica suti'ers in this way. Vibui'iiitm plicatum (Joes not 
show this disease in our garden, but I know of it in New Jer- 
sey, where it is not only aftected l>y this disease, but the ends 
of the shoots get killed fiack nearly every year as if it were not 
hardy enough. Ccrcidipliyllum is hardv and healthy with us ; 
so, too, is Elsagniis longipcs. Ampclopsis tricuspidata gets 
killed back a good deal m winter, but seems to enjoy immu- 
nity from the sunmier " die-liack." 

But we have other than Japanese shrubs that are affected 
with summer "die-back." Take, for instance, our native 
Hydrangea qiieycifolia ; it is as bad, or worse, in this respect, 
than a Japanese Maple. And what can lie worse in this way 
than Rhus Coiinusi Even of old antl apparently most 
healthy specimens, half the bush will sometimes die back to 
the ground in summer, and unaccountably. Deciduous Aza- 
leas likewise die back a deal in summer, but in their case 
especially I am certain the disease is greatly agg-ravated by un- 
favorable conditions of cultivation. /?/«. Fclconcr. 



Fruit Growing in Florida. 

'TEARING up the subject of fruit culture in Florida at the 
■"■ point marked by the "semi-centennial freeze" of 1886, it 
may be said that the Orange, Lemon and other Citrus fruits 
have held their own, and that the crop of fruit next winter is 
likely to be four times as large as that which was nipped 
by tlie memorable frost. 

Before the frost some little interest had been aroused in cer- 
tain other fruits that had recently been introduced, and during 
the following year their merits were discussed with eager 
interest, for public confidence in the Orange had, in fact, been 
seriously shaken, and the importance of diversification was 
generally conceded. 

The most noted of these new fruits were those odd Chinese 
Peaches, the Honey and Peen-to, the former with a beak-like 



point, and tlic latter drawn in at both ends like a certain style 
of pin-cushion, The Le Conte and Keifter Pears were also 
much talked of, and likewise the Japan Persimmon. On these 
the Florida nurserymen bestowed much attention in 1886, and 
still UKjre in the following year, the demand for such stock in- 
creasing enormously. There are nearly 100 nurseries named 
and advertised in Florida, yet the population of the State, 
including negroes, is only about 400,000, Large orders for 
young Orange trees were received from California last winter, 
and tens of thousands were shipped to that State. 

In 1886 one of the Japan Plums, which came fronr California 
nurseries vnider the name of Kelsey's Plum, was fruited in 
Florida from a bud of the previous year. It proved to be 
remarkably vigorous and precocious, bearing fruit of large 
size (over two inches in diameter), of line flavor, with small 
pits, not subject to curculio — in short, a marvelously fine Plum, 
in all respects. During the same year some seedlings — per- 
haps hybrids — of the Chinese Peaches were brought to notice, 
and mu'serymen have made a specialty of them. They are 
superior to the originals, and the tendency to variation indi- 
cates that, by selection, still better varieties may be obtainetl in 
the future. 

Of the Pears mentioned, the Le Conte has grown steadily in 
favor. In the country around Tallahassee it was a source of 
considerable revenue last year, and plans are on foot for estab- 
lishing" an exchange for handling thlb^ year's crop. As to the 
Japan Persimmon, the only question is in regard to its quali- 
ties as a marketable fruit. It is hardy, healthy, and precocious 
in bearing, but, like the Loquat, its status is not fully deter- 
mined. Both of these trees, as to foliage and fruit, are verv 
ornamental, and are great acquisitions to the orchard, if onlv 
for home use. The same may lie said of the Guava, which is 
scarcely less valuable to the people of the southern half of 
Florida than is the apple in more northern States. 

The Grape is another fruit that has accpiired prominence 
since the freeze of 1886. European grape-growers have estab- 
lished extensive vineyards in certain localities and have found 
some varieties to do remarkably well. Professor E. Didjois 
makes a specialty of wine-grapes. He is enthusiastic in 
praise of the Cynthiana and Norton's Virginia, two seedlings 
of Vitis cvstivalis. 

The Fig, Pomegranate, Mulberry and Olive have long Ijeeu 
cultivated in Florida, and deserve more attention than thev 
receive. The Fig grows almost spontaneously. The varietv 
so extensively imported succeeds finely, and, with proper 
appliances for drying', it ought to be grown prolitably for 
market. In the northern counties considerable attention has 
lieen bestowed on the Pecan and the English Walnut, and 
many plantations of them are growing. The Almonds and 
foreign Chestnuts may also be grown tor home use. 

To summarize, the present aspect of fruit-culture in Florida 
may be stated as follows : On the southern coast Pineapples 
are grown for market in large quantity, and large plantations 
of Cocoanuts have been started. Many other West Indian 
fruits are grown there for home use. Throughout the south- 
ern half of the peninsula the Pineapple and Banana fruit well, 
and the latter is grown for ornament throughout the State. 
The Mango, Avocado Pear, Sugar Apple, Sapodilla, and 
some other suli-tropical fruits, succeed well as far north as 
Tampa Bay, and Guavas nearly to the northern border, but a 
cold wave like that of 1886 will cut them down. All the fruits 
previously mentioned do well, except in the southernmost 
counties. 

The fruits sliipped out of the State rate in importance aliout 
as follows : Oranges, Pineapples, Strawberries, Pears, Peaches, 
Grapes and Persimmons, The Apricot, Quince and Apple are 
occasionally met with. The latter promises to succeed best 
grafted on the Pear. Of Plums, numerous varieties are in cul- 
tivation, the Wild Goose and Marianna lieing the best native 
varieties, and Kelsey's the best of the Japanese, with numerous 
others yet to be introduced. Of Peaches, tlie Peen-to and its 
seedlings succeed well in sandy lands, and some varieties of 
the Persian strain where there is clay sub soil. 

Taking a brief retrospect, it is evident that horticulture in 
Florida has made greater advances within the last two years 
than during anv four years in her previous history, Hundretls 
of thousands of deciduous fruit-trees and vines have been 
planted. New varieties have been tested. More attention has 
been given to the science of horticulture. .k reform in the 
system of selling and shipping Oranges and other fruits is in 
progress. Improved transportation and appliances for refrig- 
eration are being provided. Fruit-growing is steadily increas- 
ing in importance, and in most portions of the State it will long 
continue to be the favorite industry. A. H. Curtiss. 

J.nclcsnnville, Fla. 



78 



Garden and Forest. 



[April ii, 



New or Little Known Plants. 

Yucca tilifera. 

THIS, the "Pitlnia" (if the Mexicans of Nuevo Leon, 
and the larg-est of the known species of Yucca, is 
certainly one of the most remarkable and interesting trees 
of North America. It was first discovered about 1S40, near 
Saltillo in north-eastern Me.xico, by Dr. J. Gregg, author of 
the well known "Commerce of the Prairies." It was next 
seen in December, 1852, between Parras and Saltillo, by 
Dr. George Thurber and a party of the United States Boundary 
Commission, and is referred to, but w'ithout characters or 
description, in Dr. Torrey's "Botany of the Boundar}'. " A 
figure of the tree, however, appeared in Mr. Bartlett's "Per- 
sonal Narratives " of the Boundary Surveys, vol. ii., p. 491. 



by whom jslants were raised and distributed. One of these 
flowered in 1876, in the garden of the Baron Frailly, near 
Hyeres, and was figured and described by Chabaud in the 
Rei'iie Horlicole, under the not very fortunate name of 
I'ucca filifera*-, by which this tree must now^ be known. 

Yucca fi lifer a is a wide-branching_tree often 50 feet in 
height. The short trunk, 15-20 feet "high in fully grown 
specimens, and not rarely five feet in diameter above the 
somewhat swollen base, is covered with dark brown scaly 
bark. The leaves, persistent upon the stout branches for 
many years, are thin, smooth, narrowly oblanceolate, 
18-20 inches long, with fibrous edges, the threads white, 
or sometimes reddish-brown. The pendulous panicles 
appear in April and May ; they are 4-6 feet long and 18-20 
inches wide. The flowers are small, 2-3 inches wide, 
the ovate, or lance-ovate, narrow segments rarely exceed- 



r^ 



1> -^fij/f ~y ^ ,W( r^y%^/ ^ /tr^/t 




Fig. 



This figure very well shows its habit except that the great 
panicles of flowers are represented upright on the summit 
of the branches as in other species of Yucca, an error due, 
no doubt, to the fact that the trees, being at that season of 
the year out of flower, the artist was obliged to draw upon 
his imagination so far as the inflorescence was concerned. 
This mistake led Dr. Engelmann, with only the very in- 
sufficient material brought home by Gregg and Thurber at 
his command, and after him Mr. Baker in England, to con- 
sider the plant a southern variety of V.' bacaila, from 
which, however, it differs in its much thinner and 
smoother leaves, smaller flowers, shorter and less fleshy 
fruit, and pendulous inflorescence. Some time previous to 
i860, the collector Roezl rediscovered the tree, and sent 
seeds to the nurseries of Huber A Co., of Hveres, in France, 



ing- an inch in length. The baccate pendulous fruit, often 
constricted on the side towards the stem, is 2-21^ inches 
long, with seed often exceeding a line in thickness. 

Yucca filifera is a conspicuous object on the arid plains 
which rise from the Rio Grande to the foothills of the 
Sierra Madre. The great panicles of white flowers can be 
seen for miles in the clear atmosphere of that region, and 
look like gleaming waterfalls pouring out from the ends of 
the branches. It first appears about 50 miles south of the 
Rio Grande, where, with the beautiful white-flowered 
Cordia Boissieri m the depression of the plain, it forms an 
open picturesque forest which extends almost to the valley 

* J «iTrt Jili/ero, Cliabaud, RezK Hort., 1S76, p. 432. f. 971.- 



p. 262. 

J', baccata, vnr. australis, Eiiijelin. 
Jour, Lfnn. Sof. xz'iii, 22g. 



-Carriere, Rez' Hort., 1879, 
St, Louis Acad. Hi. 43. — Baker, 



April 



i8S8.] 



Garden and Forest. 



79 







14. — Yucca filifeia. 



of Monterey. The Pahna is common in the plains between 
Saltillo and Parras ; it was seen by Dr. Parry as far 
south as San Louis Potosi, and it will be found, no 
doubt, to extend widely over the high dry plains of 
north-eastern Mexico. 

This tree is often cultivated by the Mexicans at both 
Monterey and Saltillo, the young plants being used to 
form high impenetrable hedges about houses and stock- 
yards; and flowering plants, from Roezl's introduction, are 
not rare in the gardens of Southern France, Algeria and 
northern Italy. It is hardy, according to Naudin*, wher- 
ever the Orange will thrive. Our illustrations (fig. 13, 
P- 78, fig. 14, p. 79) are from photographs taken near 
Monterey by Mr. J. M. Codman. C. S. S. 

*Maimddel'Acclimatrur, p. 558. 



Chionopliila Janiesii.* 

IN 182 1 Dr. Edwin James accompanied as naturalist the 
government party which, under Capt. Long, ascended 
the South Platte, skirted the eastern base of the Rocky 
Mountains as far southward as Colorado Springs, and thence 
returned east by way of the Arkansas. F'rom Colorado 
Springs Dr. James made the first ascent of what is now 
known as Pike's Peak, and theregathered the first collection 
that had ever been made of the alpine plants of western 
America. Among them was a single specimen of the plant 



*C. Jamesh, Bentii. in DC. Prodr. x. 351. A dwarf alpine perennial, jjjiabrous or 
nearly so, with thickish entire oblont^-lanceolate radical leaves : stems scape-like, 
bearing one or two pairs of narrowly linear leaves and a close secund imbricatcly 
bracted spike ; calyx broadly funnelform, with five short blunf teeth ; corolla 
cream-color, tubular, half an inch long^ with short bilabiate limb and bearded in 
the throat ; sterile fiiatuent glabrous. 



8o 



Garden and Forest. 



[Apkii. II, iiS88, 



which is here figured. This, with otiiers, \\-as referred to 
Dr. Torrey for determination, but unfortunately it became 
mi.xed witli specimens of Penlstenion Jamesri and so was 
overlooked, and eventually found its way to the herbarium 
at Kew. Here, twenty-five years later, it was detected by 
Mr. Bentham while he was preparing the Scrophulariacei.e 
for DeCandolle's Prodromus, its peculiarities were recog- 
nized, and it was described as a new genus. Fifteen years 
later still, in 1861, Dr. C. C. Parry ascended the cluster of 
now well-known peaks which were named by him Torrey, 
Gray and Engelmann, and upon the summit of Gray's Peak 
he rediscovered James's plant. Since fhat time it has been 
found in the same region by several collectors, but it yet 
remains the sole representative of the genus. 

As shown by the figure, the leaves are mostly in a basal 
cluster, with one or two pairs of linear ones upon the low 
scape-like stems. The cream-colored flowers are in one-sided 
bracted spikes, the two-lipped corollas bearded in the throat 
and not greatly exceeding the caly.x. Thegenus is closely 
related io Penlstenion, from which it is distinguished chiefly 
by the tubular and short-toothed calyx and by the spicate 
arrangement of the flowers. This inhabitant of our highest 
snow-clad peaks cannot be said to be remarkable for its 
beaut)^ but as a rarit)' and as the only one of its kind it 
deserves a place in everv collection of Alpine plants. 

S. W. 



Cultural Department. 

Pruning Shi'ubs. 

TO the repeated inquiry as to the best time and method 
of pruning deciduous shrubs, it may be answered 
that no single rule can be laid down that will apply to all 
cases. Shrubs, like trees, are pruned for different purposes, 
and what is good practice in one case may be ruinous in 
another. A tree for the lawn requires different treatment 
from a street tree, and the rule for pruning an apple tree to 
induce an abundant yield of the best fruit would not apply 
to another tree where timber or fuel was desired. In 
the same way the pruning of a shrub may be good or bad 
according to the object chiefly desired. What is the best 
practice when the production of flowers is the main con- 
sideration may be far from good practice when the sym- 
metry or grace of the shrub itself is the leading purpose. 

There is little doubt as to what is the worst method of 
pruning, and that is, shearing off the shrubs of a border, 
at a uniform height, as squarely as a hedge is trimmed, and 
cutting back single specimens with absolute evenness all 
around till the plant assumes the shape of an o.'g'g or a per- 
fect sphere. The only parallel to atrocities of this kind is 
seen in the work of professional tree-butchers whf) go 
about the streets of towns and cities amputating all the 
branches of the street trees and leaving nothing but forked 
posts. And yet in many cemeteries and private grounds m 
city suburbs shrubs are mutilated in exactly this fashion by 
men pretending to be professional gardeners. Of course 
all the beauty and grace of the plants are destroyed. 

And how about the flowers .'' A large percentage of 
flowering shrubs bloom in the spring, and most of these 
form their blossom-buds on the small branches that were 
made the year before. In each bud is a flower safely pro- 
tected from the winter weather and ready to open with 
the warmth of the coming year. These are the branches 
lopped off by the shears in autumn or early spring, and 
with them are sacrificed the buds and promised flowers. 
If the pruning is delayed after the shrubs have bloomed 
they will make an effort to repair the loss by throwing out 
new shoots, which will ripen and bear abundant flowers 
the next year. In the case of shrubs like the Althtea, the 
Great Panicled Hydrangea, and some species of the Tam- 
arisk, which bloom in the fall on wood grown the same 
year, a hard cutting back between late autumn and early 
spring will destroy no flower buds, but will encourage a 
strong growth of flowering v^'ood for the next autumn. 




Fig. 15. — Cliii'iiophila Jamesii. 

But shrubs, as a rule, are in flower but a short time com- 
paralivel}', and it is rarely advisable to adopt a treatment 
which has in view this brief season only. Even in winter 
a mass of shrubbery has a beauty of its own. Ever}- thicket 
is enveloped with a nimbus of delicate tints, violet, rose, 
soft gray and faint olive, which comes from, the combined 
colors of the twigs. This is true not only of those shrubs 
which have bright colored bark like the crimson of some 
Dogwoods and the yellow of the Willows. Many others 
whose single shoots show no striking color on close inspec- 
tion are surrounded by this halo when they are massed so 
that the faint tints of each twig are all gathered and fused 
together. At all events, amass of this kind is more beauti- 
ful than a row of Althaeas cut back to bare poles. And in 
the season of foliage a severely pruned shrub is deprived 
of that flowing grace of outline which is one of its principal 
charms. 

For general purposes, therefore, shrubs should never be 
cut back so far as to impair their vigor ; nor should they 
be pruned so as to destro)^ their natural outlines. They 
•should rather have the weak shoots thinned out and be cut 
back cautiously so as to develop their best form. 

Shrubs like Thunberg's Spiraea, which bloom early on 
wood of the previous year, should not be pruned in autumn 
or early spring where it is desired to secure abundant flow- 
ers, but immediately after the blooming season. 

Shrubs that bloom late on wood of the current year 
should be pruned after the leaves fall in autumn or in early 
spring before they start. ^. A. 



April u, i8SS.] 



Garden and Forest. 



8i 



The Cultivation of Lilies. 

WHAT soils do Lilies require, or in what kind do tliey best 
succeed ? are questions often aslved; and a fitting answer 
is, tliat it mal'ces but little difference. The character of the soil 
is of less importance than its condition. I have planted Lilies 
in soils varying from the heaviest clay to the lightest .sand, 
and have had perfect success in all. My preference is a light 
loam, moderately moist and rich, and in partial shade. If that 
is not at command, I plant in such as I have, with full confi- 
dence that a soil which will yield a g'ood crop of garden vegeta- 
bles will produce Lilies. 

It is a mistake to suppose that each plant needs a soil ^\'ith 
certain specific characters for its perfect development. It is 
safe to say of Lilies, at least, that all the species ^^'ill thrive in 
the same soil. Make a heavy soil rich and provide good 
drainage, and you will get an abundance of Lilies. Make a 
light soil rich and keep it moist by a liberal mulch, and the 
result will be the same. 

A common cause of failure in Lily-culture is planting in wet 
situations. Too much water around the bulbs in winter is 
about as injurious as too many degrees of frost. While the 
Lily prefers a moist and cool situation, it will not thrive where 
the soil is covered with water during winter. 

There are many gardens noted for productiveness which 
cannot be planted until long after neighboring ones because 
of too much moisture ; such are not suited to the Lily. 
The remedy in such a case is a raised bed, which may be pre- 
pared by marking out a bed of a required size and digging' the 
earth deep. Then on the surface place stones, of about the 
size used for paving, some ten inclies apart each way. Fill 
the spaces between the stones with soil level with the tops. 
Upon this place the bulljs, and between them put smaller 
stones ; then cover the bulbs to the depth of six inches with 
good rich soil. The bulbs should not be placed nearer than 
one foot from the edge of the bed, which edge should be nicely 
sodded and kept neatly trimmed during summer. Upon the 
approach of frost, mulch a little more heavily than if the bulbs 
were planted in the ordinary border. 

With these precautions, nearly all Lilies can be grown in 
the greatest perfection. 

For the perfect development of the flower, a few other pre- 
cautions are necessary. The first is to cover the bed during- 
summer with some neat mulch, in order to keep the ground 
cool and moist; this is not only necessary for the full develop- 
ment of the flower, but for the growth of the bulb, and the 
flowers the coming season will be numerous and strong just 
in proportion to the size and strength of the bulb formed this 
year. For mulching, some low-growing annuals should be 
used, such as Verbenas, dwarf Petunias, or any other that 
fancy may suggest. This applies only to Lilies in a raised bed; 
when they are planted in the shrubbery-liorder, an excellent 
place for them, this precaution is not necessarv. 

The second precaution is, to have the Lily-bed partially 
shaded, to protect the plants from the mid-day sun. This may 
be done by a light lattice-cohering, say three or four feet above 
the plant; or by arranging a frame with a light canvas covering, 
to be used only in excessively hot weather. This will not only 
prolong the season of flowering, but the flowers will be larger, 
the colors and markings better defined, and the whole plant 
stronger and more healthy. Of course, good flowers can be 
produced without these precautions, liut better ones can be 
produced with them. 

When to plant is an imiiortant consideration. It is well 
known that the best time to remove plants, and particularly 
bulbs, is during their period of rest. The Lily has but a short 
season of rest ; it is constantly doing something in the way of 
development, but its energies are only employed in one direc- 
tion at one time. The growth of stem and flower consumes 
the bulb, which, in its turn, is built up by the action of leaf and 
stem. It is better to transplant as soon as possible after the 
bulb has perfected its growth. If taken up at this time the 
bulbs can be packed away in leaf-mold until spring, if neces- 
sary. It is far better to take up, separate the bulbs and plant out 
the same day. Bulbs should remain dry but for a very short 
period. In importing new varieties and for purposes of sale, 
it becomes necessary to keep them dry longer than they 
should be. Every day they are exposed to the air materially 
weakens them, and often beyond their power of recuperation. 
No wonder growers get discouraged in their efforts to exhibit 
a Lily-bed, when they buy Inilbs that have been in dry sawdust, 
or exposed to the dry atmosphere of the seed-room, from Octo- 
ber until May. Such bulbs will not recover their strength, if 
ever, until long after the hopes of the buyer have been blasted, 
and he has bestowed his blighted affections on some other plant. 



When Lilies have become established frequent removals are 
not desirable; they should remain undisturbed as long as they 
flower well. It is well to remove the small bulbs that form at 
the base of the stem in early spring, and transfer them to the 
reserve ground to complete their growth and be ready for 
future use. C. L. Allen. 

Seedling Rhododendrons. 

T THINK we ought to encourage the raising and planting of 
-'■ seedling Rhododendrons more than we do. By raising 
them from seeds saved from the hardiest varieties already in 
cultivation we may reasonably expect a majority of the seed- 
lings to prove hardy. And I have no doubt in point of vigor 
and health the seedlings have the advantage over the grafted 
plants. But in the production of flowers I am inclined to think 
that the grafted plants will bear more than will the seedlings, 
because, being less vigorous, they are more branchy in propor- 
tion to their size, and e\-ery little shoot among Rhododendrons 
should carry a bunch of flowers. 

Four years ago last fall we planted a hundred seedlings in 
one bed. They were then some 20 to 24 inches high, and well 
set with buds. In spring they bloomed as if nothing had hap- 
pened, and have ever since grown and flowered most satisfac- 
torily ; and all are still alive and in excellent health. Now, the 
most striking feature about these seedlings is their vigor. They 
have outgrown a lot of grafted plants that occupy the same 
bed with them and which are considerably older than the seed- 
lings, and there is more suppleness in their wood and fresh- 
ness in their foliage than the grafted specunens show. The 
flowers of all are beautiful — indeed, many of them arc as good 
as those of some of our named sorts. But while these seed- 
lings, so far, have proved hardy here, in less favored localities, 
no douljt, all of them would not prove hardy. Butsurely we can 
raise seedlings that will prove hardy generally from Ever- 
estianum, Album elegans, Abraham Lincoln, and other hardy 
kinds. 

We mulch this seedling bed with oak-tree leaves ; throw 
them in loosely among the bushes in fall, and about 12 to 18 
inches thick, and leave them there winter and summer. The 
frost never penetrates through this mulching ; nevertheless, al- 
though the soil about the roots never freezes, and the tops may 
shiver and droop in zero weather, I never have known the 
plants to be injuriously affected by these apparently inconsist- 
ent conditions. W. Falconer. 

[The disadvantages of planting seedh'ng rather than 
named, tried varieties of Rhododendrons, are that more or 
less of the seedlings prove too tender for our climate, and 
that many of them produce inferior flowers. For mc-^t 
people, especially for those who only need a few plants, 
the named varieties will be found the most satisfactory. 
Layered, and not grafted, plants should be used whenever 
they can be obtained. They grow better, and are not 
troubled with the suckers, which spring up fr(un the slock 
of. grafted plants. — Eu. ] 

Chrysanthemum Notes.— Chrysanthemumsfrom this time will 
be much better without any "fire-heat. There is no better 
place for them than a cold-frame sunk a foot below the ground 
level. Thev should not be set close together — a space of at 
least an inch between each pot should be allowed. It is not 
that the plants themselves would crowd each other when 
closely packed, but each pot will be found to have the roots 
strong and vigorous around the outside of each ball of earth. 
They'should be covered every night with something more 
than ordinary glass sash, for at least a month to conie, and I 
know of nothing better than the cloth made by the United 
States Waterproof Fibre Company. I have frames made to fit 
sashes six by tlu-ee feet, covered with the cloth and put on 
everv night, and it is astonishing how much frost they keep out. 
All plants as they become well rooted should be repo'tted before 
becoming pot-bound. The black aphis should be kept well in 
check. I use, first, wherever practicable, fumigation with 
tobacco, once every week ; then I dust the plants over head 
with pure tobacco dust. I have found plants injured when 
using tol)acco snuff. Finally I syringe with tobacco-water, 
made strong enough to have the appearance of black coffee. 
The white mildew must l>e fought with sulphur. I mix equal 
parts of sulphur and very fine flue-dust from hard coal. With 
this I thoroughly sprinkle the plant above and l>elow and leave 
the dust on tor a couple of days. If at any time it is not possible 
to repot plants when they become pot-bound, give an occa- 
sional watering of liquid manure to keep up the food supply. 
Do not neglect to keep plants st;iked as they gi-ow. 

Joint TJtorpe. 



82 



Garden and Forest. 



[Aprii, II, i8 



Acacia pubescens. — This plant was introduced into cultiva- 
tion a century ago by Sir Joseph Banks, but no one lias ever 
tired of the beauty of a fine specimen when in bloom. Com- 
ing from the extra-tropical regions of Southern Australia, it 
can be kept in a cool house where the temperature does not 
fall below 40°, and it requires the simplest treatment. It 
comes into bloom in February and continues to flower from 
four to six weeks. Although the flowers when cut wither in a 
few hours, a well grown specimen in bloom is singularly 
beautiful. I lately saw one that had grown up with a single 
stem and then spread out into the form of a tree some ten 
feet high, with broad top and drooping branches. Every twig 
was thickly hung with pendulous racemes of canary yellow 
flowers, which showed at their best against the delicate foliage, 
and made a sight to be remembered long. .S. A. 



Hardy Rhododendrons. — Let me add to the list of hardy Rho- 
dodendrons given in Garden and Forest of March 14th the 
names of the following, which come through the winters of 
this latitude in perfect safety : 

Chancellor, dark purplish crimson; Cyanum, bluish white; 
Gloriosum, creamy white ; Michael Waterer, crimson spotted; 
Minnie, bluish white ; Perspicuum, clear white ; Pictum, clear 
white, spotted ; Queen, cream, edged with pink, and Oculatum, 
light pink. Josepli Median. 

CJermaEitown, Pa. 

The Forest. 

Tree Planting in California. 

THE following is part of an address delivered before 
the American Horticultural Society at its late meet- 
ing, at Riverside, California, by Mr. Robert Douglas : 

The Legislature of the State of California has granted an 
appropriation for the establishment of experimental stations 
for testing fruit, ornamental and forest trees. And its citizens 
generally seem to be awake to the necessity of planting forest 
trees. 

This experimental work cannot be commenced too soon, for 
while individual enterprise has been employed in thoroughly 
experimenting with every kind of fruit to an extent which is 
simply wonderful, the nobiC indigenous trees of theStatehave 
been sadly neglected. In feed, with the exception of a few 
stately specimens in the Capitol grounds at Sacramento, we 
rarely find a specimen except the Monterey Cyprus {Cupressus 
macrocarpa) and Monterey i>\ne'Piiins insignis) planted every- 
where, while specimens' of Sequoia gigantea, S. scmpervi- 
rens, Cupressus Lawsoniana, C. Goveina?ia, Thuya gigantea, 
Libocedrus deciirrens, Pseudoisuga Dottglasii, Pieea Sitcliensis, 
Abies coneolor, and other noble Silver Firs and Pines are rarely 
met with. 

Forestry is a subject of great importance to this State, and 
the time will soon arrive when it cannot longer be neglected. 
The conditions here differ so materially from those of the 
Atlantic slope that our experience there will not avail us to 
any great extent here. Forestry here must be confined mainly 
to desert and hilly lands that cannot be irrigated. 

A transient visitor from the East, looking from the window 
of a sleeping-car, would see a very discouraging prospect. The 
desert is certainly not promising to him, and the hills look little 
better. The word, desert, is not well understood. Many agri- 
culturists and horticulturists in Kansas and Nebraska claim tliat 
they have brought their land from a desert to rich fertile land 
within two or three decades. They tell you that their States 
are a part of the " Great American Desert," and refer you to a 
school-geography to prove what they say, but the v do not seem 
to notice the fact that in this same school-book there are wood- 
cuts of Indians chasing immense herds of buffaloes, wading 
through very tall grass. 

When the emigration of 1849 went through the Territory of 
which Kansas and Nebraska is now a part — and that was before 
there was a white settler in the territorv— the land lying between 
the Missouri River and the Rocky Mountains was called the 
Plains. The desert of the " Forty-niners "lav between the sink 
of the Humboldt and the Sierra Nevada Mountains. And many 
years before that time the Santa F^ traders crossed the Plains 
from Leavenworth to Santa F^. 

The settlers in Kansas and Nebraska claim that they can 
grow cultivated crops where they could not be grown twenty- 
five years ago. This is undoubtedly true and can lie readily 
accounted for. 

Before the whites settled west of the Missouri River the land 



through central Kansas and Nebraska was covered with Buf- 
falo Grass, which kept the rains from penetrating the ground 
almost as eftectually as would a shingle roof. I have thrust 
my cane into the ground a few minutes after it has been flooded 
with rain, and found it as dry as dust two inches from the sur- 
face. The rain ran off in torrents into the ravines and "draws" 
without having a perceptible effect except on the surface. You 
might see the plains coveied with water, looking like a lake 
with many islands, and within two hours from that time scarcely 
a sign that there had been any rain at all. Since that time mil- 
lions of acres have been plowed in Kansas and Nebraska, and, 
aside from this, i47,oooacres have been planted with forest trees 
in Kansas, besides a large number planted last year ; and a great 
many more have been planted in Nebraska than in Kansas. 

Now, when we consider that an inch of rain is equal to one 
hundred tons of water per acre, and multiply the millions of 
acres of plowed land by the number of inches or hundreds of 
tons that have been absorbed in the plowing, which formerly 
ran off, we can see that the settlers have materially changed 
the condition of the plains. 

While your desert lands look very unpromising to the tourist, 
even when compared with the plains, the close observer will 
see many things, aside from climate, in your favor. 

Any one studying these deserts carefully will see that, lying 
neglected, they must be gradually growing drier and drier. 
This is plainly to be seen. We see that where deep lakes once 
overflowed no water stands now. Where monstrous trees once 
grew, as shown in the petrified forests, only pigmies in com- 
parison grow now. We see that the channels of die streams 
are gradually being cut deeper, which, oi course, drains the 
country more rapidly. 

Although I have not had the opportunities for studying tree- 
growth on this side of tlie continent that I have had on the 
other side, I have yet seen some very encouraging signs. I 
have seen chang"es recently in parts of the country I went 
overin 1849 "^3' <i''6 well worth notingand give great promise, 
even on what were then desert lands pure and simple. On the 
other hand, I have carefully observed, especially in one or two 
cases, that among millions of trees covering miles on the side 
of a desert, I could not lind a single tree less than fifty or 
seventy-five years old, although these trees are covered with 
seeds and there are no indications of a fire ever having visited 
them. This is proof, to my mind, that the climate is drier, as 
seeds cannot germinate now where they produced seedlings 
less than a century ago. 

Any one who has studied these desert lands, even when on 
a flying trip, will see enough to convince him that if irrigation 
could be secured there would be very little desert land in this 
State. I firmly believe that on any desert land where Sage 
Brush and other slirubs are growing' even sparsely, forest trees 
will grow if the land is cleared and well plowed, which is a 
very cheap aijd simple affair compared either with clearing 
gruti-Iand, timber-land, or breaking prairie in the Eastern 
States. 

The forest trees must be planted during the rainy season, 
and cultivated at least during the succeeding season. It is sur- 
prising to see how the land in this State endures drought when 
compared with similar land on the other side of the continent. 
I have seen our gravelly land in Illinois withoutapparent mois- 
ture at tliree feet in depth after a drought of only six weeks. I 
have noticed men digging only two feet deep for telephone 
poles in this State and the moisture was perceptible, although 
there had been no rain for nearly six months. 

This is not a solitary case, but it is usual, as I havefrequentlv 
noticed in new railroad-cuts. In the East a hard-pan lies at a 
certain depth from the surface, through which the moisture 
cannot be brought up by capillary attraction. In this State the 
soil generally is loose and porous down to the bed-rock, how- 
ever deep that may be, consequently all the deciduous fruits 
may be grown without irrigation, but they must be thoroughly 
cultivated to get the best results. 

All through the San Gabriel Valley, and in other parts of the 
State that I have visited, the indigenous trees thrive best on the 
north sides of the hills — indeed, the hills are generally destitute 
of tree-growth on their southern sides, bearing' only shrubs, 
perennial and annual plants, and a scanty growth at that. Yet 
I have seen Eucalyptus growing, when planted, on the very 
summits of some of these hills, and on their southern slopes. 
In very many of these hills the soil is rich enough for tree- 
growth, even to the very summit — indeed, I do not remember 
an exception, unless in cases where the rock protruded. 

Itbecomes me to touch the subject of irrigation with modesty, 
for I received a severe rebuke for the first opinion I ventured 
to express. A gentleman was irrigating a fine Araucaria ; he 
had the earth scraped away from the collar of the tree, forming 



April ii, 1888.] 



Garden and Forest. 



83 



a basin about three feet in diameter and six inclies deep ; lie 
was flooding this with cold water in the heat of the day, and 
threw the water with such force from the hose that the crown 
of the roots was laid bare. I told him I thought he ought not 
to disturb the surface so near the trunk of the tree, as the feed- 
ing roots lay at some distance. He replied that the Mexicans 
had irrigated for a hundred years, and he guessed they knew 
more about it than a new-comer. I pocketed the affront, and 
asked him how long he had lived in the State ; he said, over 
two years. Then I wondered he had not called me a " tender- 
foot." 

No doubt a great deal has been learned from the Mexicans, 
yet I think our people can soon make improvements on wliat 
they learn from them. The more I observe and study this 
desert question, the more I become convinced that progress will 
be made in this direction much more rapidly than the most 
sanguine can imagine. Scientific men may attempt to prove 
. to you that according to natural laws the thing is impossible. 
Less than fifty years ago they said, and wrote, that valu- 
able frees could not be grown on the Illinois prairies, until many 
generations of Willows and Poplars were grown to fit the land 
for the more valuable kinds ; and at that time it was the general 
belief of prairie farmers, that trees and the "tame grasses" 
would never succeed on prairie lands. Now we know, and 
have long known, that our prairies grow every kind of tree 
and grass that will bear the severity of our climate. 

You will make much more rapid advances than we made in 
the Mississippi valley. Our settlers came in covered wagons, 
yours come on exjiress-trains ; you have improved latior- 
saving machinery, which was not then in-\'ented ; and last, but 
not least, you have a stable currency, and are not left to the 
mercy of wild-cat fianks. 

Reservoirs will be built to husband the waters that are now 
running down the rivers into the ocean, artesian wells will be 
used in many places, thousands of acres of forests will be 
planted that will not grow as rapidly as if irrigated, but after 
they are planted and cultivated, the earth will absorb a great 
quantity of water that formerly ran off. The trees will 
shade the ground, which will gain in both moisture andfertilitv, 
as they will draw nutriment from an immense depth whiie 
our forests draw their nutriment from nearer the surface. 
The eastern farmer and horticulturist has at best only seven 
or eight months in the year, and from this must provide 
enough to support his family, and secure fuel and feed for his 
stock; aside from this his land is decreasing in fertility, or kept 
fertile at great expense and labor, wliile yours will, for a long 
time, be increasing in fertility, if kept well cultivated and 
worked deep. 

It will require more experience than any of us have had, to 
decide which will be tlie most suitable trees for forest planting. 
Many of the most profitable for Eastern planting would not 
succeed well here. The soft foliage of the White Pine and 
Larch would unfit them for this climate, and the tendencv to 
run their roots near the surface of the ground would be to their 
disadvantage. For desert planting, trees must be used that 
can be grown cheaply from seeds, so as to come within the 
means of the new settlers. This would seem to be a necessity. I 
would place the Eucalyptus globulus at the head, as I have 
seen it growing in what would seem almost impossible 
places. It would make fuel cheaper than any other tr^e that 
could be grown on like lands. 

The common locust, Robinia Pscudacacia, I have seen grow- 
ing well in western Kansas and Nebraska, New Mexico, Col- 
orado, Utah, Nevada, and at several places in this State, in every 
case making a good gz'owth without irrigation ; and in all these 
cases I have failed to find traces of the borer, so fatal to this 
tree in the Eastern States. Would space admit I might name 
other trees I should deem promising. These two, how- 
ever, would furnish fuel and durable posts for the new settler, 
are grown very cheaply from the seed, and transplant well. 
For general forest planting there are two valuable trees that 
stand out in bold relief. In this case there can be no mistake, 
for nature has succeeded in growing them almost everywhere 
between the eastern bases of the Rocky Mountains and the 
Pacific coast, and man has used them more generally than any 
othertreesoverthe whole western half of the continent. These 
are the Yellow Pine, Pinus ponderosn, and tlie Douglas Spruce, 
Pseudotsuga Douglasii. The former ranges all di rough the 
mountains from British Columbia down uUo Mexico, through 
Arizona and New Mexico to western Texas, growing on drv 
mountain-sides through Colorado and Montana. It forms 
over ninety percent, of all the timber in the Black Hills of 
Dakota, reaches further out on the plains than any other tree 
in Colorado, and is the only Pacific coast tree that runs 
east into Nebraska. 



Next to the Douglas Spruce it is the most generally dis- 
tributed and valuable tree of the Pacific forests. The Douglas 
Spruce ranges through British Columbia, Oregon, Washington 
Territory, all through the Sierra Nevada, the San Bernardino 
Mountains, Arizona, New Mexico and on high dry ridges in 
Colorado, through the Uinta and Wasatch Mountains and in 
Wyoming and Montana. It is called Yellow or Red Fir by 
lumbermen, is the most generally distributed, and said to be 
the most valuable timljcr tree on tlie Pacific coast. 

This tree grows on high dry ridges in Colorado, Arizona and 
Montana, which proves it to lie, like the Pine, a suitable tree 
for planting on dry lands. Like the Pine, it is a rapid grower 
and reaches the largest size. These two trees furnish nearlv 
all the merchantable lumber, except redwood, from the coast 
to the e.'istern base of the Rocky Mountains. 

The Sequoia scnipcrvirens, Redwood, is a valuable tree, but 
only adapted to certain localities. It has a very circumscribed 
range, only reaching from about the northern line of the State 
to the southern boundary of Monterey County, and in a nar- 
row belt along the coast. But experiments may prove that this 
valuable tree will succeed far from its present locality. I 
noticed a fine specimen in Pasadena, eight years planted and 
over twenty feet high. Pinus insignis, although its timlier is of 
no great value, may be named as having a very limited range — 
only found in a sandy spot at a single point on the coast ; yet 
we see it growing well wherever planted. We may hope from 
this fact that other trees of limited range and more value may 
have their limits extended under cultivation. 



Correspondence. 

To the Editor of Garden and Forest : 

Sir. — A few years since I met with, in its wild state, a white- 
Howering specimen (is it a variety ?) of Phlox divaricata, 
which was transferred to mv wild garden, where it now flour- 
ishes. I have been surprised at the remarkable beauty of the 
plant. As is well known, this species, at least in its wild state, 
is of a loosely spreading habit, and rather chary of its stems 
and leaves, whereas the plant referred to forms a luxuriant and 
well-rounded head, being generous in stems, leaves and 
branches. The foliage, too, it may be remarked, is of a dis- 
tinctly lighter shade of green, readily distinguishing it from the 
usual form. From the middle or latter part of April until after 
the middle of May it is covered with a snow-white bloom, 
making it altogether a plant of striking appearance. As neither 
Gray nor Wood, in their popular Botanies, make mention of 
a white variety, and having seen no reference anvwhere 
to white-flowering specimens, I am desirous of knowing 
v.-hether they are of rare occurrence ; and if not, why has so 
little attention been given by cultivators to so ornamental a 
plant ? 

FairvieM-, W. Va., Marcli>oth, 1888. W. E. Hill. 

[The white form of this flower is not unknown in culti- 
vation. It is contained in Woolson's Catalogue this year. 
Mr, Woolson writes that it has proved unsatisfactory with 
him on account of its stragglinggrowth. Mr. F.D.Hatfield, 
of Wellesley, Massachusetts, considers it a good plant for 
rock- work or the front of a border. Of course single plants 
make little show, and it should be grown in masses. From 
our correspondent's description it is not impossible that 
he has chanced upon a variety of this Phlo.x which has 
special merits. — Ed.] 

To the Editor of Garden and Forest : 

Sir. — I was glad to see the recent article in your paper about 
Sweet Peas. There are no flowers I love better and none 
which have given me more troulile ; and I venture to ask, 
therefore, whether you will not now kindly give a little advice 
with regard to the best methods of planting and treating them 
in this part of the world. 

Lecsburg, Va. Dllcttanlc. 

[Any fairly good garden soil will give an abundant yield 
of these flowers if the seed is only planted early enough. 
This means just as soon as the ground can be worked iii 
spring, a period which comes some weeks earlier in Vir- 
ginia than in New York. No injury will come from frosts 
or e\eii ice. Then plant deeply and plant thinly. Have the 
soil worked to the depth of eighteen inches or two I'eot. ami 
drop the Peas in a furrow five or si.x inches deep. Cover 
at first with about three inches of soil, and, as the plants 
grow, draw earth up to them until the bed is level. The 
roots of Peas like a cool place to grow in. Then, if 



84 



Garden and Forest. 



[Aprii, II, iS 



every flower is cut every da)', and no seed allowed to form, 
the, same plants, with good tall brush to run over, will pro- 
duce flowers until frost. There will be no need of another 
sowinLT for succession. — Ed.] 



Recent Publications. 

U'infa' : From the Journal of Henry D. Thorcau ; edited 
by H. G. O. Blake. Houghton, Mifflin & Co., Boston, 1888. 

^Thoreau left behind him at his death a very voluminous 
journal in which he had noted down from day to day the sights 
which had met his eyes in the woods and fields of Concord, and 
the thoughts wliich they excited in his mind. On one page of 
this journal he said that it might be well to write " a book of 
the seasons ;" but as he never accomplished this task it was 
wisely thought that another hand should compile such a volume 
Irom'the notes which he had jotted down, perhaps in half-con- 
scious preparation for it. Several years ago " Early Spring in 
Massachusetts: From the Journal of Henry D. Thoreau," was 
accordingly issued by Mr. Vl. G. O. Blake; " Summer " followed 
i'l 1884, and just now we have been given " Winter " ia a sim- 
ilar form. 

More delightful books than these it would be hard for the 
lover of nature to find. Thoreau was not merely one of the 
keenest and most patient, but one of the most poetic of observ- 
ers ; liis poetic instincts were of that philosophizing kind which 
bring the inmost soul and needs of man into perpetual relation 
with external things ; and his style is almost unsurpassed for 
clearness, simplicity, individuality and charm. Whatever he 
saw, he saw with the soul as well as with the eyes ; and he saw 
everything — from the liroadest or most fleeting landscape effects 
to the most tender beauties of the liumljlest insect, animal or 
flower. His feeling for beauty was as intense as his delight in 
the facts of animal and vegetable existence. If he never speaks 
like a scientific liotanist, he always speaks like an accurate ob- 
server, yet always, as has been said, like a poet, too. And when 
he paints for us what he sees, it is in words wliich sound like 
the thoughts of an artist translated from paint into language, 
with a skill of which he almostalone, among writers of English, 
has found the secret. There is no artifice, and not even any 
conscious art, in his manner of writing. What we have in 
these books are simply notes jotted down at the moment, often 
out-of-doors, and always for his own eye only. Yet take such 
a passage as this, for example, and try to match it from the 
pages of any other writer : " Each little blue curl caly.x "-^he is 
speaking of a little astersheathed in ice — "has aspherical but- 
ton, like those over a little boy's jacket, little sprigs of them ; 
and the pennyroyal has still smaller spheres more regularly 
arranged about its stem, chandelier-wise, and still smells 
through the ice. The finest grasses support the most wonder- 
ful burdens of ice and most bunched on their minute threads. 
These v^-eeds are spread and arched over into the snow again, 
countless little arches a few inches high, each cased in ice, 
which you break with a tinkling crash at each step. The 
scarlet fruit of the cockspur lichen, seen glowing through the 
more opaque wdiitish or snowy crust of the stump, is, on close 
inspection, the richest sight of all, for the scarlet is increased 
and multiplied by reflection through the bubbles and hemi- 
spherical surfaces of the crust, as if it covered some vermil- 
ion grain thickly strewn. The brown cup lichens stand in their 
midst. The whole rouch bark, too, is encased." This for a 
microscopic picture ; and this for a broad landscape effect : 
" A beautiful, clear, not very cold day. The shadows on the 
snow are indigo blue. The pines look very dark. The white- 
oak leaves area cinnamon color, the lilack and red oak leaves 
a reddish-brown or leather color. A partridge rises from the 
alders and skims across the river at its widest part, just before 
me ; a fine sight. How glorious tlie perfect stillness and peace 
of the winter landscape." To cjuote from the more human, 
more philosophical parts of this volume — parts which recall 
the writings of Emerson in a way which does but accent their 
own individuality — would be out of place just here. But inter- 
mingled as these are with his manifold, exquisite pictures of 
plant life and of landscape lieauty, they do much to make up 
the charm of Thoreau's most charming book. 



In the Popular Seien<e Monthly for April will be fountl a 
chapter on "The Earliest Plants," extracted from Sir William 
Dawson's recently published "Geological History of Plants," and 
further back in the thirty-second volume of the monthly — of 
which the April number forms the concluding pages — is a dis- 
cursive article by Grant Allen on " American Cinquefoils," and 
one on " Our Forestry Problem " by Mr, B. E, Fernow, Chief of 
the Forestry Division of the Department of Agriculture. 



Retail Flower Markets. 

New York, April bth. 

The trade in plants and cut Howers'was very large at Easter. Prices 
held at a reasonable figure, only selected Hybrid Roses and "Longiflor- 
um " Lilies being somewhat higher, and these only in certain localities. 
This week there is a glut o£ cut flowers, and prices are low. The 
choicest specimens of Hybrid Ruses with stems half a yard long, 
sell for 75 cts. each. Madame Gabriel Luizet Ro.5es are inferior in 
quality and cost $6 and $7 a dozen. Prime Puritans bring $g a 
dozen. Extra tine La France Roses sell for 40 cts. each, and those 
not so large for $2 and $4 a dozen. Ulrich Piriinner is exception 
ally handsome and costs $6 a dozen. Selected Jac<.|ueminots are 
86 a dozen, but the majority sell for half that price. The best Cath- 
erine Mermets bring $2 a dozen, and Brides can be had for the same 
money. Perles des Jardins of excellent quality cost Si a dozen, as 
do selected Niphetos. Mignonette is abundant, a bunch of a dozen 
spikes costing 50 cts. The Giant variety brings 15 cts. a spike. 
Lilac holds firm at 50 cts. a spray of two tassels. Violets are of 
good quality, the Marie Louise bringing $1,503 100 and the single 
Russian 75 cts. Gardenias cost 25 cts. each. A^arcissus Pocticus is 
Si a dozen. Daffodils, Lilies of-the-Valley and Tuli]js bring from 
75 cts. to jfi a dozen. Liliuin Ipngijloritiii is much preferred to L. 
I/aiyisit, and brings 40 and 50 cts. a flower where the latter arc sold 
for 30 and 55 cts, Callas bring 25 cts. each. Cyclamen plants a\'erag- 
ing twelve flowers are offered for 75 cts. A number of Easter wed- 
dings in prospect will keep up a demand for specimen blooming 
plants and choice cut flowers, Lilies-of-the-Valley in particular. This, 
with La France Roses, is ordered extensively for ornamental curtains. 
The steamer trade is just opening, and this will also help to make 
business brisk. 



Philadelphia, April bih. 

Flowers and flowering plants were in greater demand than usual at 
Easter. Lilium Harrisii and L. longifloruin were in fine condition, 
averaging more flowers to the plant than have been seen here be- 
fore, at prices ranging from 30 cts. 1050 cts. each. None of the leading 
florists had trouble in disposing of their stock at the highest figures. 
HydrangLa Olaksa and Thomas Hogg were very plentiful; the latter 
A'ariety, which is a white one, seemed to sell the most readily. Plants 
growing in 6 and 8-incli pots, with from four to eight well-developed 
heads, sold at from $1 to $5 each. Hybrid Remontant Roses in pots 
would have been more plentiful but for the dull weather in the early 
part of the preceding week. Most o'f them \\'ere growing in 6-inch 
pots and sold at from %\ to $1.50 each. Fine Azalea plants, half 
standards, sold at from $2 to 810 each, and very large ones were in 
demand at as high as$2of(jr special occasions. The customers at this 
great floral festival have very little choice, as the demand is so great 
that they must talcc what they can get. Six-inch pots full of Daffodil 
\'an Tliol were plentiful and in demand at from 50 cts. to Si each. 
Gnrdiiiia Jloridfi (Cape Jessamine) as a pot plant was a novelty here. 
That is to say, it was scarce and had not been seen on these occasions 
for some years past. The price x'aried from S5 to $7,50 each. Most of 
them were growing in eight-inch pots and were from three to four 
feet high. Hybrids were from S4 to $6 per dozen, excepting some 
special sorts like Madame Gabriel Luizet, which reached the highest 
figure at S7. 50 per dozen. Jacqueminots were in as great demand as 
usual at from S3 to $5 per dozen. There is a falling off in the demand 
for designs. Churches were profusely decorated, but without novel 
features. There is very little leisure for a study of novelties in deco- 
rations at this busy season. Some few Genistas in pots, both large 
and small, proved useful for decorating and sold readily. Tulips, 
Lilics-of-the-Valiey, Daftbdils, Freesias and all varieties of Roses, 
xvere abundant, and sold at very good, though not exorbitant, prices. 



Boston, April bth. 

Easter Sunday and the two preceding days were perfect spring- 
days, and in the bright weatlier the flower trade was unubually brisk. 
Never before were so many flowers sold in Boston for Easter. There 
was no scarcity, however, and prices were therefore reasonable. The 
White Lily was the single exception, being in short supply, and late 
comers were obliged to accept sutistitutes. After the Easter rush 
there has followed a lull, but many fashionable weddings and other 
social occasions are in prospect, and all signs point to a large con- 
sumption of flowers this Spring. Roses are still abundant and of 
superb quality. Jacqueminots and Hybritls of enormous size, and 
with stems two feet or more in length, are to be seen in all the 
fashionable florists' windows. These tiring from S4 to ,$8 per dozen. 
The longest stemmed flowers always bring the highest price. Mer- 
mets, Marechal Neils, Bcmietts and Perles are abundant, and are 
offered as low as S' to Si. 50 per dozen. There are a few Lillies at 
about one-half of the K.ister prices. Smilax is ^•ery scarce, and 
the little that is offered is poor in quality. Long-stemmed Carna- 
tions are 50 cts. to 75 cts. per dozen. Violets and Pansies, $1.50 per 
hundred. For mixed collections of cut flowers there is a great 
variety of bright and fragrant blooms, such as Lilies-of-the-Valley, 
Tulips, Daffodils, Mignonette, Forget-me-not, Heather, Heliotrope, 
Marguerites, etc., with fine Maiden Hair Ferns and Asparagus for 
green. A bunch of " Pussy Willow " laid on a box of selected flow- 
ers gives a pretty finish. 



ArRii, iS, iS88.] 



Garden and Forest. 



85 



GARDEN AND FOREST. 

PUBLISHED WEEKLY PY 

THE GARDEN AND FOREST PUBLISHING CO. 

[ LIMITED.] 

Office : Trihune Building, New York. 



Conducted bv Professor C. S. Sargent. 



ENTERED AS SECOND-CLASS MATTER AT THE POST OFFICE AT NEW YORK, N. V. 



NEW YORK, WEDNESDAY, APRIL 18, i? 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



PAGE. 

Editorial Articles : — Tree-planting. — An American School of Forestry. — 

Easter Flowers in New York. — Note 85 

Landscape Gardening as a Profession 87 

A Temple in Japan (with illustration) 88 

Spring in Mobile Dr. Karl Mohr. 88 

Foreign Correspondence : — London Letter W]iu Goldrhig. 88 

New or Little Known Plants : — Cypripedium fasciculatum (with illustia- 

tion) Servno iVatsoii. 90 

Aquilegia longissima Win. Falconer. 91 

Cultural Department : — Small Fruits for Home Use E. Williams. 91 

The Kitchen Garden gi 

Transplanting — Begonia gracilis, var. Martiana. — Hardy Shrubs for 

Forcing. — Consider the Lilies. — Peonies 92 

The Yellow-wood (with illustration) C. S. S. 93 

The Forest: — Influence of Undergrowth on the Increase of Timber. 5. E. Fernow. 93 

Underplanting a Larch Forest 94 

Correspondence : — A List of Books on Landscape Gardening Charles Eliot. 94 

Periodical Literature 95 

Notes g6 

The Philadelphia Flower Show 96 

Retail Flower Markets : — New York, Philadelphia, Boston g6 

Illustrations : — A Temole in Japan 89 

Cvpripedium fasciculatum. Fig. 16 90 

The Yellow-wood, Fig. 17 , 92 



Tree-planting. 

THE operation of planting trees requires deliberation 
and care. It slrould be done thoroughly or not done 
at all. Economy in tree planting means the proper prepara- 
tion of the ground to be planted, and the use of well selected 
and well grown trees. The insufficient preparation of the 
soil and the use of badly-grown and badly-rooted plants 
is extravagant and wasteful, because such a course must in- 
variably fail to produce satisfactory results. William Cobbet, 
who more than si.xty years ago wrote what still remains the 
best book on planting which e-xists in the English language, 
exclaims, in speaking of the necessity of a thorough pre- 
paration of the soil, " How many millions have heen/hroivn 
away in planting ! How many thousands of plantations 
have, at the end of twenty or fifty years, made a beggarly 
exhibition ; and how many of them have wholly failed ! 
Yet, no truth is more evident to my mind than this : that 
no plantation ever failed, except from the manifest error of 
the proprietor. It is worse than useless to plant, unless 
you do the whole thing well ; because, instead of creating a 
source of profit and of pleasure, you create a source of 
loss and mortification." 

Trees may be planted in this latitude in spring or in 
autumn ; in more northern parts of the country they can 
be safely planted only in spring. Whether they are planted 
in spring or in autumn the ground should be prepared in 
advance. This should be done for spring planting the year 
before. This will give time to the soil to settle and become 
pulverized, and it will enable the planter to consider care- 
fully what trees he will plant and just where he wants to 
set them. These are questions which should not be left 
unsettled until the short planting season arrives. The com- 
position of an ornamental plantation — that is, the proper 
grouping together of different varieties of trees in a har- 
monious arrangement — requires much consideration and 
study. Satisfactory results will never be obtained if the 
arrangement of a plantation is left until the trees arrive on 



the ground. The proper preparation of the soil is the 
foundation of good planting. The best results will be at- 
tained by trenching by hand the area to be planted to a 
depth of two feet. The ground in this way is thoroughly 
broken up and loosened and the roots of the trees 
can extend freely in all directions. Care must be taken in 
trenching to keep all the surface soil on top andnotto mix 
it with the subsoil. Hand trenching is a slow and expensive 
operation, and few people will undertake it on a large 
scale in this country. When the ground is not trenched a 
hole must be dug for each tree. The larger and deeper they 
are made, the better the trees will grow. Holes twenty feet 
across and three feet deep are not too large, if large, long- 
lived and healthy trees are expected. It is impossible to 
provide too much healthy nourishment for a tree. Small 
and shallow holes mean small, stunted and short-lived 
trees. All holes for spring planting should be dug during 
the previous autumn. As soon as dug the loam should be 
put back in the holes, and if the land is gravelly or rocky 
the poor soil should be replaced by loam or peat carefully 
mixed through it. Peat furnishes valuable food to trees, and 
almost all varieties enjoy a liberal supply of it. The soil 
will be thoroughly settled in the holes by spring and all 
ready for planting, and the small, shallow hole actually 
necessary to receive the roots can be made then easily 
and quickly in the prepared soil. 

It is always better to plant small trees than large ones. 
They are more easily and cheaply moved, recover sooner 
and grow more rapidly. A transplanted tree two or three 
feet high will soon overtake and surpass a much larger one, 
and will grow into a more vigorous and beautiful speci- 
men. A vast amount of money and a great deal of time is 
wasted every year in tr3nng to transplant large trees. 

It is not essential in digging up trees to preserve a 
large ball of earth about the roots. A very heavy mass of 
earth often breaks the tender roots, and is, therefore, a 
danger rather than an advantage to the tree. It is essen- 
tial, however, to preserve as many of the small feeding 
roots as possible, and care must be taken in digging a tree 
not to unnecessarily break or mutilate them. All broken 
roots should be carefully cut away with a sharp knife be- 
fore the tree is replanted. Care must be taken not to ex- 
pose the roots to the drying influence of the sun and wind. 
They should be covered as soon as the tree is dug with a 
piece of cloth or matting, or they may be dipped in wet 
mud until they become thoroughly coated. The secret of 
successful transplanting is to have the soil brought into 
close and immediate contact with the roots. It is better, 
therefore, to plant in dry, and not in wet, rainy weather. 
The coating of mud not only protects the roots from dry- 
ing, but helps the earth thrown about them to adhere more 
closely. Two men are required to plant a tree. The hole 
should be twice the width of the mass of roots, and the bot- 
tom should be worked fine with a spade. One man should 
then hold the tree erect, with its roots carefully spread out 
in all directions in the hole, while the second man should 
break the soil taken from the hole, so as to make it as fine 
as possible, and then let it fall from the spade down upon the 
roots, while the first man should lift the tree gently up and 
down that the fine earth may penetrate and fill all ca-\'ities 
about the roots. When the hole is nearly filled in this way 
the earth should be pressed down with the foot, beginning 
at the outside of the hole and working in towards the stem 
of the tree. The hole may then be filled and the soil 
rammed down solid. Tall trees should be carefully and 
securely staked as soon as planted. The operation is then 
finished. It is not uncommon to see water poured into the 
hole while it is being filled up. This practice does harm 
rather than good, as it washes the fine soil away from close 
contact with the roots. 

Some planters recommend transplanting coniferous trees 
during the month of August, but this plan has little to 
recommend it ; and it is certainly safer to move them in 
the spring, IVIany people believe, too, that they can only 
be safely moved late or after they have begun their annual 



86 



Garden and Forest. 



[Al'RIL l8. I? 



growth. This is a mistake. Conifers can be safely trans- 
planted just as soon as the soil is dry and friable. They 
can, however, be moved later than deciduous trees, as they 
begin to grow later. 

These are the general rules for successful tree-planting. 
Certain families or species sometimes require special treat- 
ment. IMagnolias should be moved late, and after their 
roots are in active operation, which is shown by the un- 
folding of the leaf buds. Walnuts and Hickories, as they 
have strong, deep tap-roots, should, if they are to grow 
into tine trees, be planted when very small. Seedlings 
two or three years old, when finally transplanted, make 
the best trees. All the Oaks make better trees when per- 
manently planted young. This is true of all the White 
Oaks. Some of the Black Oaks, however, especially the 
Red Oak and the Water Oak, can be safely transplanted, if 
they have been properly grown in nu;series, when they 
are ten or twelve feet high. Shallow rooting trees, like 
the Maples, Lindens and Elms, may be moved, with proper 
precautions, after they have reached a considerable size 
and age. Small specimens, even of these trees, move bet- 
ter, however, and in the end give better results and more 
satisfaction. 

The man who plants one good tree thoroughly well, and 
then takes care of it after it is planted, does more for him- 
self and the community in which he lives, than the man 
who sets a hundred, badly selected and badly planted, or 
who neglects his trees after he has planted them. 



An American School of Forestry. 

AN article on another page of this paper gives an e,x- 
ample of the close measurements and calculation 
that are made by expert foresters in countries where every 
bundle of faggots is taken into account in estimates of for- 
est production. Under such conditions the theory and 
practice of forestry are brought to a mathematical basis, 
and the business of the forester not only embraces the art 
of growing trees and forests, and of utilizing and disposing 
of wood products, but it necessitates accurate financial cal- 
culation, so that the largest possible production may be 
made with the smallest outlay. The accomplished ft>rester 
in Germany must be a financier as well as a mathema- 
tician, for, practically, he has the handling of large capital 
invested in wood production. And since the margins are 
narrow, the time over which the operations extend long 
and the factors which enter into the calculation variable 
and uncertain, there must be frequent measurement and 
constant adjustment and readjustment of the elements of 
the problem. 

It is plain that America offers no field for those refine- 
ments of forest practice. So long as there are vast areas 
where wood can be had for the chopping there will be no 
call for experts to estimate laboriously the exact amount of 
increase on a given area of woodland in a year or in a de- 
cade. This does not imply that no system of forestry is 
possible in the United States, but that for the present, at 
least, it must, be a different system. What is known as 
"intensive farming" would be folly on a western prairie, 
but agriculture is profitable there, nevertheless, when con- 
ductecl in a cruder way, or on the only system practicable 
under the circumstances. The time may come, as a closer 
husbanding of natural resources is demanded on what are 
now cheap lands, when e^'ery rood of farm land will be- 
come as producti\'e as a garden spot. In like manner the 
time may come when the same care will be given to the 
details of forest managenient here that is devoted to them 
in Germany to-day, and until some progress is made in 
that direction there is no encouragement here for a young 
man to study forestry. This is one calling for which no 
opportunity or opening presents itself in the United States. 
Nowhere in the whole country is there assured employ- 
ment for a single trained forester. 



r)f course no skilled foresters will appear until there is a 
demand for their services, and there is but one source from 
which that demand is likely to come for some time, at least. 
In spite of the unchecked spoliation of our public timber 
lands, the Government still owns ■i'ast forest tracts, 
situated largely at the sources of our most important rivers. 
It is true that our national forest polic)^ so far as any set- 
tled policy exists, seems to have been framed for the en- 
couragement of fraud and depredation. But it must be 
assumed that an awakened and instructed public sentiment 
will soon force Congress to make some honest effort for the 
preservation of the public forests. With the effort will 
come the need of guards and inspectors, whose duties at 
first will be to protect the timber from fire and thieves and 
devastating animals. Even an unskilled patrol, if free 
from political favoritism, and elficiently organized, would 
save for the country every )'ear many times its cost. But 
it would soon be evident that for a reasonably successful 
forest administration, the service, and especially its higher 
executive positions, would need olScers with a special 
training. 

For this purpose, if the highest eificiency were desired, an 
American school of forestry would alone suffice. There are 
laws of plant growth and principles of forest management 
which hold good the world over. But even from a cultural 
point of view the American forester would need to be 
learned in American forest-botany and familiar with the 
modifications of general practice vi^hich our climatic pecu- 
liarities necessitate. Besides this, he should be familiar 
with our business usages and our habits of thought in 
political matters. Years must elapse before a corps of 
teachers can be gathered and students graduated. And why 
should such a school attract students, so long as years of 
thorough training give no assurance of employment.? 

In a paper read before the Massachusetts State Board of 
Agriculture last winter it was suggested by Mr. John 
Robinson that a United States School of Forestry should be 
organized and conducted on precisely the same principles 
as the United States Military Academy. Students should 
receive an allowance from Government just as the Ca- 
dets at West Point do. The course should be thorough, 
extending over a period of from five to eight years, and a 
permanent appointment in the Forest Service, with oppor- 
tunity for promotion, should be given to each graduate. In 
no other way, so far as we know, can young men of intel- 
ligence and ambition be induced to devote themselves to 
the study of forestry as a profession. An assured and hon- 
orable position for life ought to prove an adequate attrac- 
tion. And in no way can the Government be as certain 
of a Forest Service of a guaranteed quality and with a 
proper cspn'l de corps as when it educates its own officials 
and has the power to prescribe examinations for a commis- 
sion as rieid as those at West Point. 



Easter Flowers in New York. 

A FEW years ago our churches were decorated at 
Easter with great numbers of "made pieces" — 
crosses chiefly — often of very large size ; and their display 
in the shops on Saturdays attracted crowds of gazers. Now 
such pieces are scarcely ever ordered. The churches are 
decorated with growing flowers set against a background 
of palms, and with quantities of Sm lax and other vines. 
The fact certainly shows an improvement in taste ; and it 
is also pleasant to note that Easter flowers are no longer 
sent to the churches only, but are x'ery common as gifts to 
friends. 

The sale was apparently large this year, but the flowers 
and plants themselves were by no means so good as in 
some former seasons. The florists explain this fact, how- 
ever, by reference to the earl)' date upon which the festival 
fell and the dark skies which have ruled for the past few 
weeks. The best things to be seen were, perhaps, the 
Lilies, which appeared in great quantities and in several 



April i8, 1888.] 



Garden and Forest. 



87 



varieties — tlie finest being the tall, white Japan Lily. The 
florists' habit of removing- the anthers from Lilies as soon as 
the buds open does indeed preserve the purity of the petals; 
but this gain is somewhat dearly purchased by the lack of 
their yellow accents when the flower unfolds. Ne.xt to the 
Lilies should be named the Canary Broom, which was 
grown — and very well grown — in much larger quantities 
than ever before. Acacias were also for sale, but not in 
large number. In two or three shops there was a com- 
parative novelty in the shape of great sprays of purple Bour- 
gainvillea. The European Bladder-Nut — a shrulj with white 
flowers — had also not been so often seen in previous years. 
Lilacs were poor — nor are they ever so good in this coun- 
try at this season as in Paris, where they are so admirably 
and profusely forced. Hydrangeas, on the other hand, were 
excellent and seemed to contest with Lilies the first place in 
popular favor. Azaleas were very poor — usually both small 
and badly grown. Spireeas and Deutziaswere fairly good. 
In one shop at least there were a number of ftlahernias, not 
very attractive to look at, but of delicious odor. Orchids, 
both cut and growing, were conspicuous, and m some cases 
very good. Daffodils could be had in quantities — not of the 
first quality — but no other variety of Narcissus. Lilies-of- 
the-Valley and iNIignonette were abundant and excellent, 
Carnations abundant but not fine, and Roses by no means 
up to the standard of former years. Smilax was every- 
where in quantities and excellent in quality. 



Dangers threaten the Adirondack forests from every di- 
rection. On the 20th of March Mr. Hadley introduced into 
the Assembly, and, by the unanimous consent of that body, 
passed to a third reading, a bill authorizing the Commis- 
sioners of the Land Office to release and convey to Charles 
W. Durant, Jr., a tract of land on Racquette Lake one hun- 
dred and sixty acres in extent. This piece of land contains 
some of the most beautiful building sites in all the North 
Woods, and has a large market value. Mr. Durant entered 
and took possession of the land, and, without right or title 
to it, erected permanent, and. probably, expensive im- 
provements, ''in contemplation of purchase," the bill ex- 
plains. Mr. Hadley's bill should be defeated, and Mr. 
Durant and every other person unlawfully occupying State 
forest-lands should be compelled to vacate them forthwith. 
The tract of land which Mr. Durant seeks to obtain by this 
piece of special legislation is situated within the forest-pre- 
serve. The forest-preserve was created and is maintained 
to protect the rivers and regulate the s mitary conditions of 
this State, and not to supply homes to-wealthy citizens who 
may take a fancy to pass a few weeks in the woods during 
the summer months. We have already pointed out in an 
earlier issue the dangers that menace the forests through 
the probable enactment of a law giving the Forest Com- 
mission authority to lease parts of the preserve for build- 
ing purposes. The fact that a bill authorizing the sale of 
a part of the forest to Mr. Durant can be hurried to a third 
reading in the Assembly without exciting public attention 
and alarm, shows how great the danger of giving such re- 
markable and unusual powers to the Commrssioners really 
is. Every one who takes a lease of a piece of land in the 
forest and makes improvements on it, and then becomes 
dissatisfied with the terms of his lease, or is unable to re- 
new it, or takes a fancy to own the land upon which he 
has built, will go to the Legislature to get authority to buy. 
And in nine cases out often the application, if it is backed 
with sufficient money, or political influence, or social 
standing, will succeed. 

The Forest Commissioners are opposed, it is reported, 
to the passage of the Durant bill, although it is not ap- 
parent that they have taken any very active steps to defeat 
it or to warn the public of this new danger to the forests. 
Indeed, the favorite measure of the Commissioners, author- 
izing the lease of State lands for a term of years and with 
privilege of renewal, practically empowers them to do for 
a thousand squatters what this bill does for one. 



Landscape Gardcnino- as a Profession. 

MUCH has been written of laic with regard to the 
opening for young men of ability and taste in 
landscape gardenmg. While it is true that the need exists 
for men of artistic taste and skill in this profession, it is 
not so clear that there is suflicient encouragement for such 
men to enter it. The greatest need is for the education of 
public taste in garden matters, so that the demand for men 
of trained hand and a correct knowledge of beautiful forms 
and comliinations of flower, shrub and tree may be created. 
So long as the public are satisfied with ])arks constructed 
by engineers, and with terraces and embankments like 
those of railways or fortifications, and are content to have 
their private grounds filled with meaningless " sarpentine " 
walks, by some Irish laborer ; so long as the denizens of 
our cities give annual emplo)'ment to a crowd of i)eripa- 
tetic tree-butchers in lopping off the heads of beautiful 
trees, just so long will men of taste avoid a profession in 
which they would starve, while the ignorant pretender and 
the mathematical park-maker waxed fat. In one of our 
large Atlantic cities, a recently founded public institution 
stands at the junction of two wide avenues with ample 
grounds and grand old trees. The grounds were beautiful 
and natural before the erection of the mstitution, but it was 
thought necessary to "improve" them. And the improver 
went to work with transit and level, spade, pick and 
shovel, and he terraced the place on all its public sides 
with banks one above the other in diminishing perspec- 
tive, building stone walls around trees from which he dug 
the earth, until now quite a respectable fort appears, and 
the passer-by involuntarily looks for the barbette guns 
on top. And yet the pubhc think it beautiful, and the news- 
paper men praise the ingenuity in sa\ing the trees. In all 
our wide and wealthy land the men of true skill in land- 
scape art who meet with encouragement in their profes- 
sion, can be almost counted on the fingers of one hand, while 
railroad engineers, architects and hod-carriers are the land- 
scape gardeners for the masses. Political favoritism also 
operates largely against true landscape art. No matter how 
correctly some public ground may be designed by its pro- 
jector, the mutations of politics surely bring in some 
pig-headed fellows, who either prevent the design being 
completed, or let some ignoramus spoil it. One has only 
to go to the public grounds in Washington to see plenty of 
such examples. The work of A. J. Downing is being 
allowed to grow into a jungle because no one has had 
backbone enough to cut away trees which Downing planted 
as "nurse" trees, while his design was grov^'ing. And in 
the grounds of the Agricultural Department, well laid out 
originally, and planted as an arboretum, a straight avenue 
of asphalt has been cut through the original design, and 
bordered by two lines of wretched Ginkgo trees, looking like 
foreign tramps in rags and tatters on dress-parade. So long 
as public taste demands that every little spot of greenery 
must have all the repose driven out of it by obtrusive beds 
of Coleus and Geraniums, and the construction of carpet- 
beds is considered the highest style of garden art, it will 
be hard to get young men of education and taste to enter 
into competition with the crowd which suffices for the 
public demand. Of course, there are exceptions to all 
this, for we have some good landscape gardeners, and 
some men who are employing them, but I fear that the 
few who do really good work can easily do all the good 
work called for. Horticol.\. 

[" Horticola " is certainly justified in feeling discontented 
and even indignant with the present condition in our 
country of public taste in regard to landscape gardening. 
It is only too true that natural beauty is often, desecrated 
and existent works of landscape art destroyed by ignorant 
remodeling, and that the engineer on the one hand or the 
laborer on the other, is often intrusted with work which 
demands an artist's eye and touch. We believe, how- 
ever, that there has recently been an awakening of 
intelligent public interest in the subject. The fact seems 



88 



Garden and Forest. 



[April i8, iS88. 



proved by many other signs as well as by those recently 
published articles in popular periodicals, referred to by 
" Horticola," which have stated our need for more profes- 
sors of the art. The laws of supply and demand are not 
always easily followed in their working. It is hard to be 
sure whether "Horticola" is right in believing that so 
much gardening work in America is bad because we do 
not appreciate good work, or whether we are right in be- 
lieving that it is bad largely because enough men cannot 
be found to do it well. Yet some evidence of the correct- 
ness of our belief would appear, we think, if the three or four 
most prominent landscape gardeners of the country were 
questioned with regard to their experience during the last 
ten years; we think they would unite in saying that they 
are much more busy to-day than they were ten years ago, 
and that their clients show a more intelligent interest in 
their labors. We think also that they would recommend 
their profession as a good one for young men to enter, 
who are willing to study it thoroughly and are possessed 
of the energy and enthusiasm necessary to win success in 
a career which demands practical common-sense united to 
artistic feeling ; for, even though the demand for the ser- 
vices of such men is not nearly so great at this moment as 
it ought to be, yet by the time a student now commencing 
his education is ready to begin independent practice, it 
certainly will be much greater. Of this we feel sure, not 
only from indices found in the most recent history of 
the art of landscape gardening itself, but from the records 
of the development, during the past two decades, of Ameri- 
can art in other directions and particularly in the direction 
of architecture. — Ed.] 



A Temple in Japan. 

'T'HE love of the Japanese for nature and their skill in horti- 
-'- culture are well known. But the high level of their attain- 
ments in the art of landscape gardening is, perhaps, less 
generally understood. From the witness of niany travelers 
it seems to be indisputable that no other people has ever 
approached this art in so artistic a spirit, has so well known 
how to improve without disturbing the beauties of nature, or 
has so persistently and universally put such knowledge to 
use. Formal gardening effects are never desired in Japan 
— a fact which might be anticipated by any one who has 
studied Japanese art in any of its branches, since its very 
essence is a dislike for formality and symmetry, a love for the 
utmost variety in detail which can consist with unity of general 
effect. Japanese art in landscape gardening is pre-eminently 
the art which conceals art. Every foot of the ground in the 
more closely populated districts has been carefully tended 
and treated for many generations, yet there are few spots iu 
which the traveler can decide how much is due to nature's 
work, how much to man's. Trees and shrubs and flowers, 
water, and even rocks are sedulously tended with an eye to 
the production of the highest possible degree of beauty, yet 
always in such a way that beauty shall seem to have come of 
itself. Even in the immediate neighborhood of Japanese 
buildings the same ideal is preserved, and as the architec- 
ture, compared with that of occidental countries, is of an un- 
ambitious kind, and as the material used for it is wood, the 
effect is always what we would call a rural, a picturesque 
effect. 

The illustration of a Japanese temple herewith given may 
serve to give an idea of Japanese architecture in combination 
with landscape. The temple is placed so that those who visit 
it have an unobstructed view of the sea and of the beautiful 
line which the shore makes towards the right, while the pre- 
cincts themselves are agreeably shaded by large trees, be- 
neath which grass and flowering plants grow in natural 
profusion. It is needless to point out how picturesque, yet 
harmonious and graceful, are the forms of the frees — forms 
not more beautiful in themselves than appropriate as making 
a delicate frame for the distant stretch of sea. As has been 
said, it is impossible in Japan to tell in how far anv beauty is 
due to nature, in how far to man. But we may safely con- 
clude that the forms of these trees are not altogether natural 
— that they have been watched and directed year by year until 
the most desirable effect was produced and then carefully pre- 
served in that effect. We may even feel sure that the round- 
headed tree in the far distance would not stand where it does 



had it not been felt that its presonce was fortimate as accent- 
ing the projection of the shore. Color always aids form in 
producing beauty in Japan. The temple here is painted red 
and has a roof of yellow thatch, and these tones, in contrast 
with the dark green of the surrounding trees and the brilliant 
blue of the sea, must give the spot extraordinary beauty. 

Such a picture as this is well worth careful study by those 
who are meaning to build on the pine-grown coasts of New 
England. Scenes, the natural beauty of which is closely akin 
to the beauty of this temple-site, are very frequent there, and 
the utmost effort should lie made by architects and owners, to 
preserve their charm, to build in such a way that the work of 
architecture will complete instead of hurting it. 



Spring in Mobile. 

T T was no later than the middle of February when the red 
-•■ and purple of Verbenas, Drummond's Phlox and Pansies 
brightened the beds where white Alyssiuns, Candytufts and 
Narcissus had already been blooming. Of woody plants the 
Chinese Cunningiiamia, tlie purple IVfagnolia, the Laurestinus 
and the Mahonias were lilooming early in the month, follow- 
ed soon by the Mock Orange and Red-bud from more north- 
ern woods, and the Chicasa Plum, whose true home is proba- 
bly two degrees further north and on the western bank of the 
Mississippi. 

Towards the last days of the month the Loblolly Pine, the 
Liquidambar, the Hornbean, and the Sweet-leaf (Symplocos 
tiiictoria), one of the prettiest amongst the small evergreen 
trees of the South, were in bloom. The flowering of the Witch- 
hazel at this season is worthy of note. Clusters of apetalous, 
staminate flowers make their appearance in the axils of the 
leaf buds while still in their winter sleep. Not a single perfect 
flower was observed, which cover the branches late in the fall 
with their strap-shaped petals. 

In the garden, the Banksian and Marechal Niel heralded the 
season of Roses by blooming in the first week of March. The 
dwarf Almond, and the interesting Texan Buckeye {Un^tiadia 
speciosa), were by the 12th covered with flowers, whfle the 
Hybrid Rhododendrons in many varieties displayed their 
resplendent shades of purple and red. Azaleas, Rhododen- 
drons and Kalmias were blooming in the forests by the middle 
of the month, and the swamps were brightened by the flowers 
of Wax Myrtle, of Andromeda and of the Parsley Haw. 

Not to name a score of beautiful herbaceous plants and 
small trees blooming in the Pine-openings, I cannot pass by the 
southern Sloe (Pruniis ^tinheUata). This is one of our most 
striking trees, and its value for the adornment of park and 
lawn is not appreciated. At its full growth the trunk is from 
8 to ID inches in diameter, and the tree attains a height of over 
twenty feet. The massive limbs spread horizontally at a 
distance varying from 3 to 6 feet above the ground, producing 
numerous erectly spreading branches, which divide into a mass 
of densely crowded spiny branchlets, forming a dome-shaped 
head often over twenty-five feet through. In its season this is 
covered with snow-white flowers, which are succeeded by 
dense green foliage. The fruit is of the size of a cherry, 
deep purplish-blue in color, and used for making an excellent 
conserve. 

Almost all of the anient bearing trees found in this section 
are now bloomina;-. The Beech, the Cottonwoods, the Black 
Willow, the Swamp Ash and all the Oaks of the upland and low- 
land, are unfolding their foliage, while on our porches the 
Wistaria and Trumpet Honeysuckle are loaded with flowers. 
March 26tli, 1888. Karl Molir. 



Foreign Correspondence. 

London Letter. 

ON March 53th the Royal Horticultural .society met for the 
last time in its old home, so long identified with the his- 
tory of English Horticiflture, and the occasion brought to- 
gether a large gathering and an interesting exhibition. 

Among the new things exhibited but few were officially ap- 
proved. The most important plant to receive a first-class 
certificate was a newly introduced Bladderwort {Utricularia 
rhyterophyUa), which will prove valuable for a stove or Orchid- 
house. In growth it resembles the white U. mojitana and the 
mauve-tinte'd U. Endresii, the leaves being long and narrow, 
but the flower spike is taller and more erect. The flowers, in 
shape so much like an Orchid as to deceive many persons, have 



April i8, iS88.] 



Garden and Forest. 



89 



two petals, the broad one resembling- a lip about an inch wide. 
The color is a bright purple, intensified by the ricli blotch of 
orange yellow on the lip. It is a plant of singular beauty, and 
those who love Orchids must admire this BJadderwort. For- 
tunately it requires the same treatment as many Orchids, being 
best grown in a suspended basket in an intermediate house. 
It is a native of tropical South America. Sir Trevor Lawrence 
showed the specimen. 

A new single white Violet, called The Bride, exhibited by 
James Veitch & Sons, also won a certificate. It flowers pro- 
fusely, small plants showing masses of pure white and fra- 
grant bloom. The large and alumdant foliage indicates a 
plant of strong growth and of good promise for market pur- 
poses. 

A modest little Rock-Sa.xifrage, with cushions of primrose 
yellow flowers, won the third certificate. It was named 5. 
Frederici-Augusti, but it may prove identical with or a form of 



Among a group of plants from Veitch's nursery were three 
iudispensaljle kinds for the green-house in March. One was the 
Rhododendron Early Gem, 'a hybrid from the early flowering 
R. Dauricuiii, but very much superior in every way. The plants 
shown were only aljout a foot high, but were sm'othered with 
bloom, each flower being two inches across and of a rich violet 
purple. It has been known here for some years and is popular 
among gardeners, as it requires but little or no forcing, and a 
group of a dozen plants makes a fine effect. 

Another early shrul) was Azalea altaclerensis, an old variety 
raised at Highclere, the Earl of Carnarvon's estate in Berkshire, 
famous for the Rhododendrons and other hylirids raised a 
generation ago. This Azalea is similar to the well-known A. 
Pontica. The flowers are large, of a bright clear yellow borne 
in large clusters, and rendered most effective, by the tender 
green of the new foliage. The third is the new Boronia hetero- 
phylla, a native of Australia, one of the so-called New Hol- 










i\if--_^ 






\ 



\ V 



<-^ . ^\ > 



A Temple in Japan, 



6'. liiteo-purpiirea. It is a charming little plant for an open 
rock garden, as it flowers profusely in defiance of frosts and 
snow, and so does S. Burseriana, which was shown beau- 
tifully by the same exhibitors, Paul & Son, of Cheshunt. 
Among other exhibits not cerfificated there was the new Rose, 
Lady Alice, a paler flowered sort than Lady Mary Fitzwilliam, 
one of Bennett's seedlings, from which it is a sport. The 
flowers are more globular, and the tint is a delicate blush, just 
a shade away from white. It is extremely floriferous ; so 
much so, indeed, that, like its relative, it does not make growth 
enough for the nurserymen. Mr. Paul tells me that the plants 
he showed, a dozen in number, all with several fine flowers, 
were from a lot taken into a slightly heated house in Decem- 
ber, where, for the past six weeks, they have been supplying 
cut blooms. A miniature Rose, called Red Pet, also new, 'was 
also exhibited from Cheshunt. The flowers are small, but 
abundant, and the color, a rosy crimson, is bright. Being very 
dwarf, it is well adapted for pots in the green-house in spring. 



land plants. The plant most nearly resembling it is B, elatior, 
but this novelty is finer in every respect. The growth is slen- 
der, yet bushy ; the flowers, like tiny bells, are of a brilliant 
carmine-crimson and hang on the erect branches so thickly as 
to obscure the narrow leaves. I consider it one of the finest 
green-house plants introduced for many years. If hard- wooded 
green-house plants find much favor in the United States, this 
should be remembered as one worth having. 

Among the Orchids the most remarkable were the following: 
P/iajus tuherculosus sttperbtis, a truly superb variety, having 
larger flowers than those of the species and with broader and 
whiter sepals and a more richly colored lip. The new Angrtrcum 
SanderianuDi was shown to perfection by Sir Trevor Lawrence, 
the plant having four spikes nearly a foot long of snow-white 
flowers, showing how wonderfully free it is in flowering. But 
the finest Orchid in the show was Cyrtopodiuni Sainilegerinnum, 
which much resembles the old plant named by Lindley C. 
punctatuin. It bears a huge branched panicle of flowers, each 



90 



Garden and Forest. 



[April i8, iS 



one and a half inches across, with yellow sepals and petals, 
heavily barred with brownish red and a lip of the same color 
but of a richer tint. It is extremely showy, and, I am told, is 
not a difficult plant to manage in an intermediate house. It 
was introduced from Brazil a few years ago byHorsman & Co. 
through a collector named St. Leger. There were numbers of 
other Orchids shown, including, of course, many new hybrid 
Cypripediums, for novelties in Lady'sSlipper Orchids come now- 
adays as frequently as new Pelargoniums former- 
ly did. Some of them might well be classed as 
Orchid rubbish, but quite worthy of notice was a 
specimen of Dendrobiu?n IVardiamim, fully four 
feet high by two and a half feet across, with each 
stout stem completely wreathed with bloom. 
Every Orchid grower knows that such a specimen 
requires a deal of skill to grow it, and a cultural 
commendation was justly accorded to the ex- 
hibitor. ]] 1)1. Goldring. 

New or Little Known Plants. 

Cypripediiim fascicu latum.* 

WE have had occasion already to refer to the 
difference which often exists between 
the eastern and western representatives of the 
same geniis. In Cypripediinii we have another 
instance of the same kind, and one which tends 
to illustrate also how in some measure the 
flora of northern Europe and Asia and that of 
eastern North America including Mexico are 
more nearly related to each other than either is 
to the flora of California and the Pacific coast. 
All are familiar with our common eastern Lady's 
Slippers, which have for the most part leafy 
stems bearing one or two or rarely three flowers 
with a conspicuous and usually large white or 
purplish or bright yellow lip. None of these 
range as far west as the Rocky Mountains, in 
which, as in the broad interior region beyond, 
within the limits of the United States no 
species of the genus is found. The several 
Mexican species are of the same general char- 
acter, with large flowers, as are also those (.)f 
the temperate region of Europe and Asia. 

On the Pacific coast there are four species, 
one of which is here figured. This, it will be 
noticed, is peculiar in its single pair of cauline 
leaves, and in its very small greenish flowers, 
which are usually several in number and some- 
what clustered at the top of the stem. In its 
foliage it resembles the subarctic C. gullatutn 
of Alaska and northeastern Siberia, which, how- 
ever, has but a single and a rather larger flower. 
C. fasciculatum is found in the Cascade Moun- 
tains of Washington Territory and southward 
in the mountains to Lassen's Peak in California. 
Its lip is less than half an inch long, and the 
sepals and petals are not greatly longer. C. 
Californicum, of which a figure will be given in 
a future number, has a leafy stem with small 
flowers solitary in the axils of several of the 
upper leaves, and the greenish yellow sepals 
shorter than the lip. The remaining species, 
C. montanum, comes nearer to its eastern rela- 
tives in its long brownish sepals and petals, but 
the lip is small and the flowers are peculiar in 
being very fragrant. 6". W. 

Aquilegia longissima. 

O EFERRING to the illustration and description of this Colum- 
-•-^ bine, p. 31, let me say a word about it as a garden plant ; 
It " was found first by Dr. Palmer in August, i88c3, in the Cara- 

* C. fasciciilat™, Kell.; Watson. Proc. Am. Acad. xvii. 380. Low (from 3 inches 
to a foot in heisht) the stem villous-pubescent and bearinsr a pair of ovate or 
broadly elhptical leaves : flowers one to four, approximate, shorter than the 
bracts; sepals and petals greenish, lanceolate, acuminate, six to ten lines 
long, the lower sepals united ; lip depressed-ovate, tour or Ave lines Ions?, green- 
ish-yellow with a brown-purple margin. 



col Mountains, 21 miles southeast of Monclova, in the State 
of Coahiula." 

Di'. Palmer secured herbarium specimens and seeds for the 
Botanic Garden, Harvard College. The seeds were given to 
me, and from them in the spring of 1881 I raised a few good 
plants ; some of these were distributed among our corre- 
spondents at home and in Europe. During the first year the 
plants were grown in a cold-frame. In the spring of 1882, 




Fig. 16. — Cypripedium fascieulatum. 

leaving two plants in the frame, I set out the others in the rock- 
ery. All of them bloomed thefollowing summer, coming into 
bloom about the end of July and continuing in flower till the 
end of September. A few were sent to correspondents, the 
others were wintered where they had been growing all sum- 
mer ; those in the rockei'y, having, in common with the other 
plants, a light mulching of tree leaves and sedge. In the fol- 
lowing spring (1883) they were all alive and as healthy and 
fresh as .1. clirysantJia or any other species, and gi-ew and 



April i8, iSSS,] 



Garden and Forest. 



91 



flowered the next summer in about the same style as they did 
the previous year. 

It is a desirable garden plant because it is the latest bloom- 
ing' of all the known species, coming in when A. chrysantha, 
the next latest, is still in good flower, and continuingin blossom 
long after that species has ceased to bloom. It is less robust 
and less profuse than A. chrysantha, and its flowers are of a 
paler yellow shade and less showy. But its long slender spurs 
have a weird appearance and hang about the flower branches 
like strings of yellow Dodder. The spurs on the cultivated 
plants were from 3 to 6 inches in length and averaged about 
4^ inches ; indeed, they gave the impression that it was on 
account of their weight that the flowers " looked up" so much. 
None of the cultivated plants were ever known to produce any 
seed. 

Since coming here I have been very anxious to obtain a 
plant of this strange Columbine, and with this end in view 
have sent to Cambridge, and also to all the correspondents 
to whom I had sent plants, and in all cases have been inform- 
ed that the plants have died. It is now entirely lost to cultiva- 
tion. But although in its native habitats " the knov\'n localities 
are not readily accessible." I hope we shall soon again have 
the pleasure of seeing it in our gardens. 

In June, 1886, Dr. Asa Gray told me he had, two years be- 
fore, given plants of it to Mrs. Pickering, of Har\'ard College 
Observatory, and that they had grown and flowered remarka- 
bly well with her. Mrs. Pickering is an enthusiastic and most 
successful grower of garden flowers and has a very select 
collection. I at once wrote to her, and she replied that her 
plants had died the previous winter. In a subsequent letter 
she gives me more particulars : " I tried one plant in the cold- 
frame, and transplanted the other in spring and fall. The one 
in the frame died first. The other was left out one winter and 
disappeared. The transplanted one did well for two summers, 
giving eight or ten flowers later than the other Columbines. 
The roots were so very long it was difficult to transplant it, but 
it did not seem to sutler materially in consequence. I liked 
the plant. The flowers were very showv in individual vases. 
But it was not as beautiful as A. chrysan/ha, the next in size, 
and which is to me tlie most beautifid of all the Columbines. 
I was sorry to fail with this Columbine, as I have never failed 
with Columbines before." 

I feel assured that the plant is not very hardy, and should 
we get it again, it must be wintered in a frame. But if a 
perennial supply of seed be not obtained I fear we cannot 
keep it long after we do get it, for Columbines are not long- 
lived perennials, and propagation by means_ of division will 
be uncertain. 

Glen Cove, Long Island. IV)II. FalcOmr. 

Cultural Department. 

Small Fruits for Home Use. 

"T^HE Strawberry that will prove equally good on all soils, and 
^ under all conditions, has not yet been produced, and 
probably never will be. The same is true of otherfruits, which 
accounts for the conflicting opinions as to the merits of the vari- 
ous kinds. If earliness, profuse bearing and acidity are desir- 
al:)le, the wants of the grower would be siqjplied by Crescent, 
May King and Manchester. If he requires quality with earli- 
ness, Cumberland would be better. If quality is more im- 
portant than earliness. Downing, Prince, Belmont or Bidwell 
would answer. If size and beauty are wanted, Jewell will 
furnish these, and a good quality as well, and so will Jersev 
Queen, with a higher degree of acidity and flavor. If extra 
size, and sweetness without high flavor, are more desirable 
than heavy cropping, they can be foimd in Sharpless or Davis; 
and so the list might be varied ad infinitum. Numbers of new 
varieties are constantly being produced and tested, but time 
is required to determine their relative merits for general 
planting. Those named are the leading kinds of established 
reputation, and from them all reasonable requirements for 
home use can be fully met. 

It is not advisable for the inexperienced to confine his plant- 
ing to one or two sorts, a half dozen would cover the season 
better, and if one or more should fail from want of congenial 
soil or other cause, the others would be more likely to supply 
the deficiency. 

As the Strawberry supply draws to a close the Black Cap 
Raspberry begins, the Souhegan being among the earliest and 
best. Possibly the new Carman may prove a formidable com- 
petitor — it certainly will if it maintains the promise it made in 
its original home. The Gregg is the largest of the Black Caps 
so far tried, as well as the latest. It is less juicy and more 



solid than the others named and the canes are not quite as 
hardy; otherwise Black Caps do not VLU'y materially, and all 
are so seedy that they are often refused by persons of delicate 
organization, or perhaps disorganization is a better name for 
this weakness of digestion. The Shaffer is a dull purplish-red 
berry, of the Cap variety, of immense size, of fair qualitv 
and especially valuable for canning. It is the strongest 
grower of all and very producfive. The Caroline, a salmon- 
yellow hybrid of the Cap and Antwerp, is a gem for family use. 
It is as early as Souhegan, and its delicate texture, fine flavoi', 
immense productiveness and thorough hardiness make it a 
great favorite. The new Golden Queen may prove its equal, 
but if is diflicult to imagine how it can be any better. 

Of the red varieties the Early Prolific has always given me 
satisfaction for good size, earliness and productiveness ; its 
quality is not of the best, but all earlier varieties are either too 
small, unproductive or inferior in equality. The Cuthbert is 
the most popular of the red varieties for home use; it is large, 
prolific and of good ciuality, of vigorous growth and suckers 
abundantly. The destruction of the superfluous plants in all 
of the red varieties is essential to the most satisfactory results. 
The Marlboro' and Montclair, though not so well known or 
widely disseminated, are quite as good for family use on soils 
adapted to their growth, being as large and sweeter in flavor. 
Here also adaptability to soil and freedom from disease must 
be considered. The various fungus-diseases attacking red 
Raspberries have not attracted the attention of mycologists to 
the extent they deserve, and we know little about them save 
their destructiveness. 

Plants on rich soil and mulcheel in a dry time, are, I think, 
less liable to attacks of these fungi than those under opposite 
conditions. No two persons would agree on the same list of 
Rasplierries, although the foregoing are the best of the most 
popiflar kinds for family use. The exacting amateur will 
demand the foreign sorts, which are not hardy in this climate 
without protection. E. Williams. 

Montclair, N.J. 

The Kitchen Garden. 

HERE, on Long Island, about the middle of April, we are 
sowing and planting all the hardy vegetables and pre- 
paring our ground for the tenderer crops. I endeavor to have 
all empty ground cleared, manured and dug in fall to lessen 
the spring work. Crops do better than in land freshly ma- 
nured in spring. It is not necessary to fork over light orsandy 
land, that lies high and dry, in spring. The surface should be 
raked smooth with a wooden rake, and then lined off for sow- 
ing seed or setting out plants. But heavy land, or even light 
land that has lain under water during winter, sliould be forked 
over. Never put a plow, spade or fork into heavy land till it 
is dry and mellow. I begin working our high, sandy land 
about the end of March, and our deep, level garden soil about 
the second week in April ; but we have a springy piece of 
ground, which, although thrown up in ridges over winter, is 
not fit for the spade till the end of May. 

The kitchen gardens on private grounds are generally laid 
out and cut up into squares in such a fashion as to render the 
use of the plow in them impracticable ; indeed, old-country 
gardeners, as a rule, have a prejudice against the plow in the 
kitchen garden. But no spade or fork can prepare and pul- 
verize soil for crops as well as can the plow and harrow. True, 
by hand power we can crop our gardens closer than by horse 
power, but the saving in labor and time is immense. While it 
would be well to have a garden where Chives, Parsley, 
Radishes, herlis for seasoning, and such miscellaneous little 
things of which we need only a small quantity at a time, could 
be grown, we should try to have our heavy crops, as Corn, Po- 
tatoes, Cauliflower, Tomatoes, Beans, Peas and the like, in an 
open area, where we could use horse power. 

And in preparing ground a common digging fork does far 
better work than the spade, and with less effort, and for level- 
ing and smoothing ground a wooden toothed rake is better 
than an iron one. 

It is only the vegetable garden, but try for an air of neatness 
about it. See that the beds are square and the drills straight. 
Do not use up open ground for Spinach, Lettuces, Radishes or 
other crops that can" be slipped in between larger ones. Do 
not have a lot of unused ground at any time ; put in some- 
thing, if only Lettuces, Cabbages or Beans, to feed to the ani- 
mals. After Spinach, Beans, Peas, Beets or anything else 
becomes too old for culinary purposes, clear them away at 
once. Do not put in more of a crop at a time than you will 
need ; it is useless labor and expense. And especially look to 
this in spring; it is not a large quantity of any one thing we 



92 



Garden and Forest. 



[ArRii. i8. i8S8. 



sliciiild put in, Ijut rather a small quantity repeated in sucees- 
sional sowings. This is true of Peas, Beans, Corn, Beets, Tur- 
nips, Spinach, Lettuces, Radishes and some others. But of 
Onions, Potatoes, Artichokes, Asparagus, Parsley and others 
that readily suggest themselves, we should now get in a full 
crop. 

Transplanting Contrary to advice usually given, transplant- 
ing garden plants should always be done in clear, pleasant 
weather. It is a great mistake to select a rainy day for this 
important work. ^Plants should not be taken up, either for 
transplanting into the garden or for potting for the window 
garden, when the ground is wet. It is better to do this 
work when the soiHs reasonably dry, so that it will drop en- 
tirely from the roots without injury to them. When the soil is 
wet and heavy much of it is sure to drop from the plant in 



rain are in too great haste to get through, to do their work 
well. " C. L. A. 



Begonia gracilis, var. Martiana — Mr. Pringle's note (page 7) 
upon the native hal)itat of this favorite old green-house plant is 
highly interesting, for the information he gives of its being 
found so far north quite accounts for the fact that it can be 
grown here, in England, in cool houses, where the artificial 
heat is just enough to keep frost out. Not long since I saw a 
raised brick bed in an orchard-house, with no heating pipes, 
quite over-run with the scaly tubers of this beautiful plant, 
which in bloom in a large mass had a charming effect. Mr. 
Sereno Watson may be interested in knowing that it has by no 
means gone out of cultivation here, but that it is one of the 
most cherished of green-house Begonias. In the Royal Hor- 
ticultural Society's garden at Chiswick, it was a few years ago 











Fif:^. 17. — The VcUmv wood. 



taking up, and with the soil will .go the delicate feeding roots, 
that will remain uninjured if the cliange is made when the soil 
is dry. Transplant in a clear, warm day, make a hole suffi- 
ciently large to hold the roots without crowding, fill with 
\\'ater, put in the plant, till the hole with earth, which will im- 
mediately become soft mud, press this firmly around the 
plant, and cover the surface with perfectly dry, fine earth, 
antl the plant will never flag or droop, no matter how sunny 
or warm the day may be. The writer has practiced this plan 
for years and has never lost a plant, not even the most deli- 
cate subject. 

It may be urged that this is not practicable in large fields 
where Cabbage or Tomato plants are to be set. Buf the best 
way is always the most practical, and it is much cheaper to 
devote a day to putting out plants and have them all live and 
thrive, than to put them out in half the time and have a large 
portion die and the remainder linger along only half alive. It 
should be considered, too, that men wlio work out in the 



grown to great perfection as a pot plant. Another variety of 
B. gracilis, named diversifolia, is also in cultivation at Kew 
and elsewhere. 

Hardy Shrubs for Forcing.- -To Mr. Falconer's list of shrubs 
(pa.ge 6), suitable for forcing into early flower, I should like to 
add a few, knowing that they are among the finest. The new 
Primus /"/j-jarr/zV, or purple-leaved Plum, is the loveliest shrub 
imaginable when forced into early bloom, indeed it is 
naturally so precocious that it requires little or no artificial 
heat to bring out the flowers. Some bushes of it, four or five 
feet high, in the green-house at Kew, are mantled with white 
blossoms so profuse that the newly unfolded foliage is 
obscured. The flowers are about an inch acrossand have pink 
centres, while the new foliage, which at maturity is of a rich 
ruddy purple, is onlv slightlv tinged with a vinous hue at flower 
time. This Plum may be lifted in autumn and potted for forc- 
ing, and taken into a slightlv warmed green-house in February. 
Another first rate plant to force is Maule's (Tuince [Pyrus 



April iS, iS88.] 



Garden and Forest. 



93 



MauUi), which lias flowers like the common Japan Quince, but 
moreorange in color — some call it orange red or orange scarlet. 
Small bushes of it, which are always very twiggy and spreading, 
have every shoot wreathed with bloom, which, in contrast to 
the pale green foliage, is admirable. This, too, requires very 
little forcing, but more than the purple-leaved Plum, because it 
naturally flowers later in the season. Waterer's Cherry (/V-z^/z/j 
Pseudo-Cerasus Watereri) is matchless in its way when forced 
into liloom in March. The flowers are double and white, with 
just a suggestion of pink. A good plant of this in a conserva- 
tory or room lasts in bloom a long time, and in my opinion is 
very difficult to excel. Forsythia siispensa, and F. Fortiinei, 
also force well, the plants hang like clouds of yellow bloom, if 
not unduly forced. The third week in March, onward, is not 
too early for them. W. G. 

Consider the Lilies. — As soon as the weather will permit, and 
the ground becomes dry, e.xamine Lilies planted in the fall, and 
where the frost has disturbed them make the soil firm by 
treading it down. All Lilies should be mulched in the fall, but 
if this was neglected it should be done at once. No better 
mulch can be used than equal parts of leaves and half-rotted 
chopped manure. It should be at least four inches deep. Such 
Lilies as L. auratuni, L. IVallacci, L. Lciclitlini, all forms of 
L. speciositm, and the species which flower after July, can be 
planted now with success, if it is done at once, and the bulbs 
are strong and plump. The top of the bulb should be three 
inches below the surface when the work is finished. Strong 
or green manure should not be used, rather plant with none ; 
but if a compound of well-rotted manure and leaves can be 
had, use a spadeful for each bull.) and mi.x it thoroughly with 
the soil. Plant firmly and mulch. 

Peonies will be greatly benefited by a few forkfuls of 
manure placed around each plant. These gorgeous and 
easily cultivated flowers are fast growing in favor. Blooming 
as they do immecUately after the first hint of summer weather, 
they should, in theii season, hold as high a place in popular 
estimation as does the Chrvsanthemum later in the vear. 

J ■ 7- T. 

The Yellow-wood. 

OUR illustration on page 92 represents a specimen of 
the Yellow-wood which grows in a garden near 
Boston. This tree is about forty years planted, and is 
thirty-five feet high, with a spread of branches of nearly 
sixty feet. Botanists know the Yellow-wood as Cladrastis 
Imctoria. The generic name Cladrastis is of rather obscure 
derivation, but the specific name relates to the wood, 
which yields a clear yellow dye. Originally this -tree was 
erroneously referred to the genus Virgilia as V. lutca, and 
by that name it is still best known, and more often spoken 
of by cultivators than as Cladrastis, the name Virgilia being 
now often used as an English word in speaking of this 
tree. The Yellow-wood is one of the rarest trees in the 
North American forests. It grows only in a few isolated 
localities from middle Kentucky and Tennessee to the ex- 
treme south-western portions of North Carolina ; and is 
found on rich hill-sides and on steep rocky river-bluffs. It 
was discovered by the elder Wichaux, the French botanist, 
during one of his last journeys into the territory west of 
the Alleghanies, and was introduced into Europe late in the 
last century. Few trees are more beautiful at all seasons 
of the year ; and few adapt themselves more rapidly to 
varied conditions of soil and climate, or are more thorough- 
ly satisfactory in cultivation. The trunk of the Yellow- 
wood often divides near the base, or throws out large low 
branches, and while this habit renders it particularly beau- 
tiful as a lawn or ornamental tree, as our illustration shows, 
it increases the danger of old specimens splitting in the 
fork or losing their branches. This often occurs owing to 
their brittleness ; and this is the only drawback to this tree 
in cultivation which has yet appeared. It is very hardy as 
far north as New England and grows rapidly in all soils 
and situations ; although, like other deciduous trees, it 
needs deep, rich soil to bring out its greatest beauties. No 
insects prey upon its dark green, graceful foliage; its beau- 
tiful, long, pendulous racemes of pure white fragrant flowers 
appear in June when most other trees have passed their 
blooming period ; and the clear yellow tints of the autumn 



foliage contrast pleasantly with the scarlets of Oaks and 
Maples. The Yellow-wood is a beautiful object in winter. 
The perfectly smooth, light-gray bark of its trunk and the 
delicacy of its branchlets recall the American Beech, which 
alone among our native trees excels it in these characters. 

The wood of this tree has considerable value in addition 
to its value as a dye-wood, and if it could be obtained in 
sufficient quantities would find many uses. It is heavy 
and very hard, strong, close grained and susceptible of a 
good polish. Its color when first cut is bright, clear yellow, 
changing with exposure to light brown. At one time it 
was prized in Kentucky and Tennessee for gunstocks. 

A second species of the genus Cladrastis is known (C 
Aniweiisis), a small tree from Manchuria, with smooth 
brown bark and short spikes of small inconspicuous flow- 
ers. This tree is perfectly hardy in New England, where it 
flowers and ripens its fruit very freely. It is, however, in- 
ferior in every way to our American species as an orna- 
mental tree, and is hardly worth cultivating except as a 
curiosity. C. S. S. 

The Forest. 

Influence of Undergrowth on the Increase of 
Timber. 

ATI /HILE we are talkino- of forestry as if it consisted simply 

' ' in the planting of trees, or in preventing the lumber- 
man from cutting wastefully, or in protecting the woods from 
fire, we are apt to overlook another much more positive and 
practicable oljjcct of forestry, which consists in making the 
most of our remaining natural growth, or in improving ttie 
young forest that nature provides after the virgin timber has 
been removed. In the Northwestern States especially there 
is a large area of second growth which is much inferior to 
what it might be, in kinds of timber, quality and fitness of 
crop. Here is where forestry should first be applied to fill out 
bare spots, to improve the crop, to make it grow more readily, 
to favor superior kinds, and so on. The whole theory of thin- 
ning should be carefully studied by holders of such forest 
property, for a dollar spent now in this direction may return 
manifold and earlier, than if nature is allowed to go on in her 
bungling ways. 

While, theoretically, a tree with the full enjoyment of light 
would produce more leaves and therefore more wood than 
the one that is narrowed in by neighbors, on the other lian'd, 
the densely shaded soil offers more favorable conditions of 
growth than the open, bare or sodded ground. To balance 
these two factors of growth so as to produce an optimum is 
one object of forest management. The beneficial infiuence 
which undergrowth e.xerts upon the physical conditions of the 
forest soil, especially in preventing undue drying out by sur- 
face evaporation, is so well recognized, that the establishment 
of such undergrowth forms often an important part of forest 
management, for the beneficial influence upon the soil is 
naturally reflected in the prosperity of the principal growth. 

The writer has seen a number of oaks some eighty years 
old which were left standing on a clearing to grow on for the 
next rotation, sickening and dying at the top. As soon as 
the young growth of hard wood underneath had covered up 
the foot of these oaks, they revived, recovered fully, and grew 
vigorously. Observance of these effects, of light on the crown 
and shade at the foot, has given rise to a management, by 
which, either a well grown forest is thinned out, leaving a cer- 
tain numlier of trees to produce more quickly heavy sizes 
under the increased light influence and underplanting these 
for the purpose of preserving good soil conditions ; or else, a 
naturally thin stand of trees may be so undergrown, in order to 
improve the production of the principal growth. 

Such stands are not unfrecjuently found in Germany, where 
the villagers have tried to combine pasturage with tree-growth, 
mostly oak, by which the latter usually got the worst of it ; the 
trees after a certain time showing no appreciable increase. 
The numerical result of this management may be seen from 
the following actual measurements. 

In 1856 a stand of oaks then 130 years old, under which pas- 
turage had been practiced, was thinned out and undergrown 
with beech, and last winter, thirty years after the operation, 
it was cut with the following results per acre : 

a. Principal growth : 45 oaks, of 68 feet average height, 
yielding 3,320 cubic feet of solid wood, of which 2,082 cubic 
feet or 64 per cent, were over 6 inches in liianietter, fit for 



94 



Garden and Forest. 



[April i8, 



lumber or ties ; the balance represents i3'/< cords of firewood, 
of which 45 per cent, was split wood. In addition 1 1 cords of 
inferior brush wood were utilized. 

b. The undergrowth of course yielded only firewood, alto- 
gether at the rate of 14 cords per acre, of whicli only 20 per 
cent, was a better class of wood. The total yield of wood per 
acre was, tlierefore, 4,765 cubic feet. 

Measurements of average trees were then made at the 
height of I meter, 3 meters, 5 meters and 6 meters with regard 
to accretion, and the average increase in the area of the trans- 
verse cut expressed in per cent, ws-s found as follows : 

Durini^ Diirino; 

2nd 1st 1st 2nd 3rd 

Decade Before Ujidert^^rowing. Decade Atler Under^rowing. 

1,02 I. II ' 1.82 1.78 1.58 

The mass accretion expressed in per cent, moved as fol- 
lows : 

0.98 1. 00 1.82 1.44 1.53 

Now as the total cross section area — that is, the sum of the 
cross section areas of tlie forty-five oaks upon an acre — was 
found to be in the average 380 square feet, the absolute in- 
crease of this area in square feet during each decade was as 
follows ; 

3.88 4.22 6.92 6.76 6.00 

Similarly of the 3,320 cubic feet of wood found at the time 
of cutting, the following masses in cubic feet are to be credited 
to each decade ; 

32.54 33.20 60.42 47.81 50.8 

That is to say, as a consequence of tiie undergrowing there 
was visible a decided increase of wood piroduction — 2. 70 square 
feet in cross section area and 27.22 cubic feet in mass ; but 
this increased production was kept up during thirty years, so 
that the third decade furnished still 1.78 square feet and 17.6 
cubic feet more than the decade before the undergrowing. 

B. E. Feriioisj. 



Professor H, M. Ward gives in Nature the following 
account of an experiment conducted by Professor Hartig : 

"There is a plantation of Larches at Freising, near Municli, 
with young Beeches growing under the shade of the Larches. 
The latter are seventy years old, and are excellent trees in 
every way. About twenty years ago these Larches were 
deteriorating seriously, and were subsequently under- 
planted with Beech as foresters say — /. e., Beech plants were 
introduced under the shade of the Larches. The recovery of 
the latter is remarkable, and dates from the period when the 
under-planting was made. 

" The explanation is based on the observation that the fallen 
beech-leaves keep the soil covered, and protect it from being 
warmed too early in the spring by the heat of the sun's rays. 
This delays the spring growth of the Larches : their cambium 
is not awakened into renewed activity until three weeks or a 
month later than was previously tlie case, and hence they are 
not severely tried by the spring frosts, and the cambium is 
vigorously and continuously active from the first. 

"But this is not all. Tlie timber is much improved: the 
annual rings contain a smaller proportion of soft, light spring 
wood, and more of the desirable summer and autumn wood 
consisting of closely-packed, thick-walled elements. The 
explanation of this is that the spring growth is delayed until 
the weather and soil are warmer, and the young leaves in full 
activity; whence the cambium is better nourished from the 
first, and forms better tracheides throughout its whole active 
period." 



Correspondence. 



To the Editor of Garden and Forest, 

Sir ; I send you a short list of books and papers which influ- 
enced, or recorded, the beginnings of the modern art of land- 
scape gardening. 

The list is headed by Bacon's familiar Essay, in which some 
directions for the making of a wild garden are given ; but long 
before Bacon there were plain signs of the coming of the dav 
of naturalistic gardening. The poetry of Dante (1321) is full of 
sympatlieticfeelingfor the beauty of the natural world — for mea- 
dows, woods, streams and flowers, even for the sea and the dis- 
tant mountains. Petrarch, Boccaccio, Ariosto and Tasso betray 
no such fresh teelingfor Nature as does their great predecessor. 
Yet in Tasso's " Jerusalem Delivered " (1595) is the following 
remarkable description of a garden scene : 

" Everytliing that could be desired in gardens was pre- 
sented to their eyes in one landscape, and yet without con- 
tradiction or confusion — flowers, fruits, water, sunnv hills, 



descending woods, retreats into corners and grottoes — and what 
put the last loveliness upon the scene was that the art which 
did it was nowhere discernible. You might have supposed 
(so exquisitely was the wild and the cultivated united) that all 
had somehow happened, not been contrived. It seemed to be 
the art of Nature herself, as though in a fit of playfulness she 
had imitated her imitator." — (Leigh Hunt's translation.) 

But it was in England that the love of Nature took firmest 
root. Chaucer (1400) and Spenser (1599) sang of the things of 
nature with a very fresh delight ; and JVIilton, in the fourth 
book of " Paradise Lost," imagined a garden which was an 
Eden indeed. 

England also raised up Shakespeare, whose love embraced 
the 

" daffodils 
That come before the swallow dares, and take 
The winds of Marcli with beauty;" 

and Cowley, whose delight was that characteristic one for an 
Englishman, " a small house and a large garden" ; and, later, 
Thomson, Cowper, Gray, and Wordsworth. 

Meanwhile the art of landscape painting had been growing 
up. Titian, its founder, composed the first landscapes upon 
canvas in the days when Tasso was imagining the garden of 
Armida ; Claude Lorraine, Salvator Rosa and Poussin were 
contemporaries of John Milton. 

Well might Wordsworth write (1805) to Sir George Beau- 
mont : " Painters and poets have had the credit of being reck- 
oned the fathers of English gardening" ; and he adds, " they 
will also have, hereafter, the better praise of being fathers of 
a better taste." 

" Bacon was the prophet, Milton the herald, of modern gar- 
dening ; and Addison, Pope and Kent the champions of true 
taste" — thus the Rev. William Mason in 1772, when the sort of 
landscape-beauty long imagined by the poets was beginning 
to be realized in the English parks. Addison and Pope, each, 
in his few acres, practiced what he preached — Addison at Bilton 
near Rugby, Pope at'Twickenham near London. Bridgeman, 
a professional gardener of the period, is said to have been 
converted by Pope's paper in the Guardian, and thenceforth 
to have abandoned the clipping of trees ; while Kent, a painter, 
gave up his art to become the first landscape gardener. 

The first complete treatise on the new art was Whateley's 
still indispensable "Observations," published in 1770, and im- 
mediately translated into French and German. A few years 
later appeared Girardin's excellent French work, and Hirsch- _ 
feld's six volumes printed in German and French. Later came 
Gilpin's delightful accounts of his English 'tours, which had 
great influence in waking the popular interest in natural scen- 
ery, and Knight's and Price's vigorous attacks on the smooth 
monotony which characterized tlie landscape work of Brown 
and his iuiitators. 

Shenstone, Whateley, Girardin, Walpole, Knight, Price and 
Lafiorde, all worked out their ideas on their own estates ; and 
it is interesting to know that Rousseau, the contemporary of 
Gray, who yet was the first modern Continental author to write 
feelingly of natural scenery, was a frequent guest of Girardin's 
at his Ermenonville. 

To close the list we have the writings of a few of the first 
landscape gardeners themselves — Repton and Loudon for En- 
gland, Viart and Thouin for France, Sckell and Puckler-Mus- 
kau for Germany. 

Mr. Editor, I hope to see printed in Garden and Forest 
numerous extracts chosen from these books. I am sure you 
can do us Americans no better service than thus to advance 
" the better praise" of the founders of the art and their prin- 
ciples. I am, sir, yours respectfully, 

Boston, 1st March, i8S8. Charles EHot. 



1625. 
1712. 

1713- 

1731- 
1764. 



A List of Books on Landscape Gardening. 

Fr.vnci.s B.\con, Lord Verulam. — "On G;irdens," one of his 
" Essayes or Counsels Civill and Morall." 

Joseph Addison, essayist, Secretary of State. — "On the Causes 
of the Pleasures of the Imagination arising from thewoi-ks of 
Nature, and their superiority over those of Art." In The 
Spctlalor, Nn. 414. — • .-V Descrijition of a Garden in the 
Natural Style." In The Spectator, No. 477. 

Alexander Pope, poet and essayist. — On Verdant Sculpture. 
In The Guardian, No. 173. 

An Epistle to the Right Honourable Richard, 



Earl of Burlington." London, fol 

William Shenstone, poe and essayist. — " Unconnected 
Thoughts on Gardening." In his collected works. Lon- 
don, S\'o. 



April i8, 1888.] 



Garden and Forest. 



95 



1768. 
1770. 
1772. 

1773- 

1774- 

1774- 
1776. 

1777- 
1777. 
1780. 
1783- 
1783-: 

1785. 

1791. 

1792. 

1794. 

1794. 

1794- 

1795- 
1803. 
1803. 

1804. 

1806. 

1808. 

1812. 

1818. 

1S19. 

1819. 

1S22. 

1832. 
1834- 



George Mason, "a classical scholar and critic." — " An Essay on 
Design in Gardening." London, 8vo. — An enlarged edition, 
1795. London, 8vo. 

Thomas Wh.ately, Secretary to the Earl of Suffolk. — " Obser- 
vations on Modern Gardening, illustrated by Descriptions. " 
London, 8vo. 

Rev. William Mason, poet. Canon of York. — -'The English 
Garden : A Poem in four books." London, 4to. — A new 
edition, 1785. London, 8vo. 

Ch. Cal L. Hirschfeld, "counselor to his Danish Majesty, 
Professor of the Fine Arts at Kiel." — " Ammerkungen iiber 
Landhailser und Gartenkunst." Leipsig, 121T10. 

Claude Henri Watelet, Receiver-General of Finance, Mem- 
ber of the Academy of Sciences. — " Essai sur lesjardins." 
Paris : 8vo. 

Sir William Chambers, F.R.S., architect. — " Dissertations cm 
Oriental Gardening." London, 4to. 

J. M. Morel, architecte. — "Thcorie des Jardins, ou I'Art des 
Jardins de la Nature." Paris. 

L. R. Girardin, Vicomte d'Ermenonville. — " La Composition 
des Paysages sur le terrain, etc." Geneva: 8\-o. 

Ch. Cai. L. Hirschfeld. — " Theorie der Gartenkunst. " Leip- 
sig : 6 vols., 4to. 

Horace Walpole, Earl of Orford. — " On Modern Gardening." 
In his " Anecdotes of Painting." 

Daniel M.althus. — An Introduction to a Translation of Gi- 
rardin's "Essay on Landscape." London, 8vo. 
;8o9. Rev. William Gilpin, M.A. — " Observations relative 
chiefly to Picturesque Beauty" in many parts of Great 
Britain. London, 8 vols., 8vo. 

William Marshall, estate agent. — "Planting and Rural Or- 
nament." London, 8vo. — A second edition in 2 vols., 1796. 
London, 8\'o. 

Rev. William Gilpin. — "Remarks on Forest Scenery, etc." 
London, 2 vols., 8vo. 

. — "Three Essays: On Picturesque Beauty, On 

Picturesque Travel, On Sketching Landscape, etc." Lon- 
don, 8vo. 

Richard Payne Knioht, "a gentleman of great classical 
attainments." — "The Landscape: A didactic poem." Lon- 
don, 4to. 

Sir Uved.-vle Price, "a gentleman and scholar of great taste, 
who has greatly improved and beaulihed his own estate." — 
"An Essay on the Picturesque, etc." London. 8vo. 

Humphrey Repton, landscape gardener. — "Letter to Uvedale 
Price, Esq., on Landscape Gardening," London, 4to. 

. — "Sketches and Hints on Landscape Garden- 
ing, etc," London, fol. 

-. — "Observations on the Theory and Practice of 

Landscape Gardening, etc." London, 4to. 

John Claudius Loudon, landscape gardener. — "Observations 
on laying out the Public Squares of London." In The Lite- 
rary Journal. 

. — " Observations on the Theory and Practice of 

Landscape Gardening, etc." Edinburgh: 8vo. 

. — "A Treatise on forming, improving and man- 
aging Country Residences." London, 2 vols., 4to. 

Alexandre Louis Joseph, Comte de Laborde. — " Descriptions 
des Nouveaux Jardins de la France." Paris: folio. 

John Claudius Loudon. — " Hints on the Formation of Gar- 
dens and Pleasure Grounds." London, 4to. 

F. L. VON ScKELL, landschafts-gartner. — " Beitrage sur bilden- 
den Gartenkunst. " Munich: 8vo. 

Gabriel Thouin, architecte-paysagiste. — " Plans raisonnes de 
toutes les Especes de Jardins." Paris : folio. 

ViART, architecte-paysagiste. — "Le Jardiniste Moderne, 

etc." Paris: i2mo. 

John Claudius Loudon. — " An Encyclopa?dia of Gardening, 
etc." London, 8vo. 

Wm. S. Gilpin. — "Practical hints on Landscape Gardening." 

FiJRST Hermann Ludwk; Heinrich von Puckler-Muskau. — 
"Andeutungen liber Landschafts-gartnerei." Stuttgart : folio. 



Periodical Literature. 

T^HE first Lime Tree on the great avenue called Untcr dcii 
^ Linden, in Berlin, was planted in 1680, the first house 
having been built three years before. The story of this first 
planting and of those which have since been made is told by 
Herr Rodenberg in the Deutsche Rimdschau for November, 
1S87 ; and in subsequent numbers of the magazine he has out- 
lined the history of the famous street which has witnessed so 
many striking political and social scenes. 



The title of an article by Lord Fortcscuc in the March num- 
ber of the Nineteenth Century will doubtless attract the eye of 
many who are interested in the development of a love for 
flowers among the poor. But upon e.xamination " Poor Men's 
Gardens" proves to be simply a treatise upon the question, 
much discussed of late in England, of the advisability of let- 
ting to members of the laboring classes "allotments" of 
ground at a distance from their homes, by the cultivation of 
which they may add to the food supply of their families. 

The great and ancient Forest of Fontainebleau has been 
made famous all over the world by the genius of the band of 
landscape painters who, in the last generation, devoted their 
lives to depicting its venerable Oaks, its heathy glades, its 
melancholy pools and its huge groups of moss-grown rocks. 
All who know and admire the pictures of Rousseau, and Diaz 
and Dupre, and of a host of later comers who have followed 
in their traces — and the number must be legion in America — 
will be interested to read an account of the Forest of Fon- 
tainebleau written by Mr. J. Penderel-Brodhurst and published 
in recent numbers of the Magazine of Art. And even to those 
whom no artistic magnet has attracted to this forest, these ar- 
ticles will be attractive ; for l.>y describing the scenes of hum- 
ble life which, winter and summer, are busily enacted beneath 
the Oaks of Fontainebleau, the difference between what is 
meant in Europe by a forest and what is meant by one in 
America, is vividly set forth. 

In Chambers' Journal ior February will be found a brightly 
written, yet instructive article called " Early Blossoms." The 
chief flowers of which the author speaks are Snowdrops and 
Crocuses, giving us at some length the history of their intro- 
duction into European gardens, speaking especially of the spe- 
cies of Crocus which furnishes the saftVon of commerce, and 
descriljing the singular vicissitudes of public favor and dis- 
favor which this substance has undergone. 

The Popular Scienee MontJily for April contains an attractive 
and instructive chapter on " Calitornian Dry Winter F'lowers," 
by Professor Byron D. Halsted. It gives an account of 
observations made in the vicinities of Los Angelos and Santa 
Barbara in the winter of i886-'87, when the rainy season was 
unusually late, and the plants which were in bloom had 
received no rain for nearly ten months. In view of this fact, 
it is surprising to read the long list of such plants — plants 
" which grow without irrigation, and blossom from the dust" — 
and to note how many of them belong to genera whose 
eastern representatives flourish only under very different con- 
ditions. Excluding the gartlen flowers of which, if he will but 
supply a little water, the Californian may have " the whole list 
in mid-winter," Professor Halsted pronounces the most attrac- 
tive flowers he found to be those of the phlox-like Cilia 
Californiea. " This shrub is two or three feet high, and grows 
upon dry hill-sides. The leaves are thickly set and viUous, 
while the stems are terminated by clusters of rose or lilac- 
colored flowers an inch or more across the limb. The fra- 
grance is indescribably rich when not too profuse." This plant 
is locally called the " Mountain Pink," and next to it in attrac- 
tiveness, the author ranks the Hosackia glabra, of the order 
Leguminosa;, a shrub with long decumbent stems and yellow 
and brown flowers. 

The most interesting article for lovers of nature in the 
recently completed eighty-third volume of the Revue des Deu.t 
Mondes is Monsieur Th. Bentzon's " Le Naturalisme aux 
Etats-LInis," the exact bearing of which is more clearly defined 
by the sub-title " La BibliotliSque du Plein Air." Monsieur 
Bentzon — who, by the way, is a lady, writing under an assumed 
name, with a special predilection for American literature — 
reviews in this article, at considerable length and with high 
praise, the volumes contained in Messrs. Houghton, Mifflin & 
Co.'s " Out-door Library" — the works of Thoreau and John 
Burroughs, Lowell's " My Garden Acquaintance," and Miss 
Jewett's " White Heron," and speaks incidentally of the 
Journals of Agassiz and his wife, and of poems and stories by 
many other hands. The genesis of this out-door literature is 
traced, no doubt with much reason, largely to the combined 
influence of A.gassiz's teachings and of Emerson's"Xature," and 
its development is looked upon as the effect, less of the wish 
for scientific knowledge than of the desire, on the one hand, 
to give literary outlet to the " animal spirits" of a young ajid 
vigorous race, and, on the other, of the Emersonian wish 
to trace the relationship between the soul of man and the soul 
of nature. We ourselves hardly realize, perhaps, how strongly 
the love for nature is expressing itself in our current literature. 
It is doubly pleasant, dierefore, to find the fact recognized 



96 



Garden and Forest. 



[April i8, i8 



abroad, where the American people is too often believed to be 
wholly given over to money-making industries, and as entirely 
devoid of the contemplative as of the poetic gift. There is one 
author, however^ whom one regrets to find missing from M. 
Bentzon's list — Miss Murfree (Charles Egbert Craddock), 
whose pictures of nature in the mountains of the south-west 
deserve to be ranked with our best out-door poems in prose. 

An article on " An Old-Fashioned Garden" by Mrs. A. M. 
Crompton in Harper's Young People io\' March 27th, is of just 
the sort which should frequently be written for youthful read- 
ers. Not often will any one be able to realize just "The gar- 
den of my dreams" as this author describes it — for it is de- 
scribed as one " which must be at least a hundred years old," 
and in which, though successive owners may have worked 
many alterations, at least " the trees and turf must have the 
beauty of age." But a garden where beauty means growing 
things in natural development and not an assemblage of statues 
and fountains and stift' showy pattern beds, where "old-fash- 
ioned" sweet-scented flowers bloom in abundance and birds 
delight to gather, where vines and creeping plants are trained 
with "an art that conceals art," where fruit-trees, shade-trees, 
shrubs and annuals all have their place and purpose, and 
where winter may seem almost as beautiful as summer — such 
a garden as this very many more people might have than is 
to-day the case. And it is difficult to believe that a strong de- 
sire for it will not be inspired by this charming little article. 



Notes. 

Plants bearing exclusively what purport to be four-leaved 
Clovers — or, as the Germans call them, " luck Clovers " — are 
sold just now in pots in the flower markets of Germany. They 
are said, however, not to be true Clovers {Trifoliuiii), but cer- 
tain species of Oxalis, which regularly produce leaves with 
four leaflets — O. occulenta, O. Deppei, or O. tetraphylla. 

Herr Max Leichtlin has commissioned Paul Tintenis 
to travel for him in Armenia in order to collect bulbs and 
seeds for cultivation in the famous Leichtlin gardens at Baden. 
An herbarium will also be collected, illustrative of the Flora of 
Armenia. 

A great Fruit Exhibition will be held in Vienna during the 
coming autumn, with the object not only of displaying the 
pomological products of Austria, but of increasing, among 
cultivators and the public, a knowledge of the newest meth- 
ods of cultivating, preserving and utilizing fruits. 

The Royal Society of Agriculture and Botany will hold its 
twelfth annual international exhibition during the latter part 
of this month. 

A Horticultural Congress will be held in Paris in May, in 
conjunction with the annual flower show of the National Hor- 
ticultural Society. 

The fiftieth anniversary of the founding of the Horticul- 
tural Society " Hortensia " will be celebrated in Munich in 
July. 

The Philadelphia Flower Show. 
T^HE Spring Exhibition at Philadelphia last week fully sus- 
tained, in the quality of the collection, the high reputation 
won by the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society during its long 
and successful career. The number of plants and flowers dis- 
played was smaller than usual, but this relieved the managers 
from any temptation to crowd them, and the arrangement 
throughout was admirable. The centre piece, with a cone of 
Asparagus tenuissimus rising from a bank of rich flowers and 
foliage to the high ceiling, was tastefully conceived, and no 
single feature of it was more pleasing than the immense 
Fuchsia, six feet high, with its wealth of bloom. It was a gen- 
eral remark that exhibitors could in no way do more to render 
flower shows attractive than by displaying finely-developed 
specimens of plants that are well known and "common," For 
some reason Orchids have not been cultivated as largely in 
the neighborhood of Philadelphia as they have been in other 
parts of the country. The fine display of these plants was 
therefore a surprise. The group of fifty plants from the col- 
lection of Mr. W. S. Kimball, of Rochester, New York, was 
especially noteworthy, every plant being well grown and in 
fine flower. Good collections were also shown by Siebrecht 
& Wadley, of New York, and Charles Dissel, of Philadel- 
phia. Of course the spring flowering bulbs were abundantly 
displayed, and the hall was bright with Rhododendrons and 
Azaleas. But Roses, next to the Orchids, attracted the most 
attention. The flowers of Mrs. John Laing were uousually fine, 
and this variety did not suffer by comparison with Madame 



Gabriel Luizet as they were seen together. No better Brides 
were ever exhibited, and Niphetos was almost as good. A 
cluster of General Jacqueminots from Boston were admired 
for their unusual size and the loxuriance of their foliage. Be- 
sides the old favorites, a prize was awarded to a Tea Rose 
called, provisionally. The Gem. No one was able to tell 
whether it was an old variety, revived by chance, or a sport. 
But its size, form and solidity give it great value. It is not a 
pure white, but has a pleasing suggestion of the faintest cream 
color, and the growers present agreed that it was a Rose of 
the greatest promise. 

Retail Flower Markets. 

New York, April i^tk. 

Tile stock of cut flowers is very heavy ; so heavy indeed that only 
the choicest blossoms bring anytliing like a satisfactory price. Trade 
is good on the chief thurouglifares, but is generally dull on East-side 
avenues. A few large weddings have brought orders for handsome 
designs for gifts, but the average demand is for flowers not selected. 
Paul Neyron and Baroness Rothschild Roses are particularly hand- 
some. They bring 75 cts. each. Other hybrids of good quality cost 
50cts. Some very large La France Roses bring 6octs. each. Catherine 
Meimets are poor, and Brides are showing considerable color on the 
outer petals. There is a glut of Callas and Harris's Lilies ; the former 
are offered for 15 and 20cts., and the latter for 25 and 30 cts. Lilac 
from New Jersey is very well grown and holds its price at 50 cts. a 
spray. Poet's Narcissus is scarce, and costs 50 cts. a dozen. Hya- 
cinths, Tulips and Lilies-of-the- Valley cost from 60 to 75 cts. a dozen, 
according to cjuality. Very choice Lilies-of-the-Valley selected for 
bridal bunches, are sold for %\ a dozen. Daffodils cost from 60 to 75 
cts. a dozen. White Carnations are scarce, but those of other colors 
are plentiful and 50 cts. a dozen. Short-stemmed Carnations are sold 
for 30 cts. a dozen. Small Mignonette costs 25 cts. a dozen spikes. 
The large Spiral brings 10 cts., and the Giant holds at 15 cts. a spike. 
Forget-me-not of excellent quality appears, and costs 50 cts. a dozen 
sprays. Some Heliotrope of great beauty is in market, bringing 25 
cts. a bunch. Other flowers, if of good quality, remain as last quoted. 
There is no price set upon the indifferent stock which gluts the market. 
It may be bought for any sum offered. 



Philadelphia, April i3tli. 

Roses are quite plentiful now, and the Hybrids are generally very 
fine. Magna Charta and Baroness Rothschilds are selling freely at 
from $4 to $6 per dozen. Mrs. John Laing is improving very much in 
quality, as also is Puritan and American Beauty. Amongst the Tea 
varieties, Madame Cuisin was in remarkable demand this week ; one of 
the leading florists had difficulty in getting sufficient stock to fill 
his orders. It is a beautiful Rose, and not the least of its good quali- 
ties is the length of time it keeps in good condition. With brighter 
sunshine it becomes higher in color. Lilacs are still scarce, and much 
called for ; very little is forced for cut blooms in the vicinity 
of this city. The beautiful single Daffodil is becoming more abun- 
dant, many coming from the warmer counties of New Jersey and 
Delaware. Some varieties of Carnations are improving in quality, 
notably Grace Wilder, a gi'eat favorite here. The delicate pink color- 
ing is more decided than it is in the dark days of winter. It sells 
readily at from 50 cts. to 75 cts. per dozen. Buttercup is also very 
good, and in demand, selling at from 35 cts. to 50 cts. per dozen. 
Wedding breakfasts are growing in favor. Flowers are used on such,, 
occasions in great abundance, 



Boston, April ijtli. 

On Monday last one of the leading dry goods firms created a sensa- 
tion in the flower market by buying up all the Violets that could be 
obtained for that day and presenting them to their customers. The stock 
of Violets lasted only till noon, however, and the merchants were then 
obliged to fall back on Roses as a substitute, and the market was 
completely cleaned for once. A general adoption of this plan 
would not be unacceptable to the flower growers and flower 
dealers at present, for there is an overstock of flowers in almost every 
variety. Roses are particularly abundant yet, in spite of the low 
prices. Specially fine specimens of any popular variety still com- 
mand customers at high figures. Some remarkable Jacqueminots 
bring $4 to $5 per dozen, and at the same time those of ordinary 
quality can be bought as low as $1.50 per dozen, and a still lower 
grade is eagerly bought from the street boys at " three for a quarter." 
Catherine Mermet3, Perles, Bennetts and Brides are all of first quality, 
and well worth the low price — about $1.50 per dozen — asked for them. 
There is an abundance of Lilies-of-the-Valley, Tulips and Poet's Nar- 
cissus at $1 per dozen. The yellow varieties of Narcissus are about 
gone for this season. Violets are 50 cts. per bunch and long-stemmed 
Carnations 50 cts. per dozen. White Lilies are still abundant in the 
market and they are used largely in the making up of funeral designs. 
Heath has disappeared completely, and but few Orchids are seen. 
Smilax continues very scarce and brings 50 cts. per yard readily. 
Some superb Hydrangea plants are to be seen in the florists' windows. 
These, with Canary Broom, "Longiflorum" Lilies and Cinerarias, are 
very popular as window plants this season. The Amaryllis is also 
growing in favor, and deservedly so, for it is easily grown and 
makes a striking display. 



April 25, 1888] 



Garden and Forest 



97 



GARDEN AND FOREST. 



rUELISHEIi WEEKLY KV 



THE GARDEN AND FOREST PUBLISHING CO. 

[ LIMITED.] 

Office: Tribune Building, New York. 



Conducted bv Professor C. S. Sargent. 



ENTERED AS SECOND-CLASS MATTER AT THE POST OFFICE AT NEW YORK, N. Y. 



NEW YORK, WEDNESDAY, APRIL 25, i£ 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

PAGF.. 

Editorial Articles : — The Forests on the National Domain. — Flowers in 

Winter. — A Plantation for Winter. — Note 97 

A Curious Vegetable Growth on Animals Professor W. G. Farloin. qg 

Last Year's Leaves - Dr. Chas. C. Abbott. 99 

How the Mangrove forms Island.^: A. H. Cicriiss. 100 

Certain Cone-eating Insects (with i\\\isiv^iifjn^)...Pro/essor A. S. Packard, 100 

Foreign Corre.spon'dence : — The Kew Arboretum, III Geo, Nteholsoit. loi 

New or Little Known Plants ; — Rosa minutifolia (with illustration), 

Sereno Watson. 102 

Cultural Department: — A Selection of Lilies C. L. Allen. 103 

Kitchen Garden Notes 103 

Fruit Garden Favorites Charles A. Green. 104 

Peat Mucif for Trees or Lawnc. — Transplanting the Arbutus. — Petalos- 

temon decumbens 105 

Tme Forest: — The Forest Vegetation of Northern Mexico, II. (with illustra- 
tion) C. G. Pringle. 105 

Notes on the Norway Pine H. B. Ayres. 106 

Correspondence: 106 

Flower and Fruit Pictures at the Academy of Design. 

Mrs, Schuyler Van Rensselaei-. 107 

Recent Plant Portraits : loS 

Retail Flower Markets ; — New York, Philadelphia, Boston loS 

Illustrations: — Single Pierced Cone, Fig. 18 101 

Mass of Infested Cones, Fig. 19 loi 

Spruce Cone Worm, Fig. 20 loi 

Moth of Spruce Cone Worm, Fig. 21 101 

Rosa minutifol'a. Fig. 22 102 

The Alameda of Chihuahua 104 



The Forests on the National Domain. 

THE forest-covered public domain of the United States 
is now, with some exceptions in the Gulf States, 
confined to those portions of the country west of the looth 
meridian. These forests, where tirey come within the di- 
rect and immediate influence of the Pacific Ocean, are un- 
surpassed in the quantity and value of the material which 
they contain ; in all other parts of Western America insuf- 
ficient moisture has made them thin and stunted. Such as 
they are, however, the forests of the interior regions of the 
continent play an important and controlling- part in the 
development of all that vast region, and influence tht; vi'el- 
fare of communities which now perhaps never give a 
thought to their existence. For, although often scattered, 
thin and stunted, they regulate the great rivers of the 
continent and so have an iinportant bearing on the 
material welfare of a very considerable part of the Ameri- 
can people. China within the last year has shown us 
only too plainly what a great river, deprived of the pro- 
tecting influence of the forest at its source, can accomplish 
in death and desolation ; and what has happened in China, 
will some day happen in America, if the forests which now 
guard the mountain slopes above the head-waters of the 
Columbia and the Missouri are sacrificed through the greed 
or the indifference of our people. 

A large population is directly dependent, too. upou these 
western forests, for the water they store for irrigation, with- 
out which no agriculture is possible in nearly all that region, 
and for the lumber and fire-wood they yield. 

They are forests, too, such is the want of moisture in all the 
interior of the continent, which have a hard struggle for exist- 
ence ; the resinous character of the trees and the dryness 
of the soil make fires exceptionally dangerous and destruc- 
tive ; and these conditions render the restoration of a forest 
once destroyed practically an impossibilit)^ We mention 
these familiar facts to show the necessity of applying 



to these forests the most careful methods of protection and 
administration which can be devised, both because they are 
in themselves of very great value, and because peculiar cli- 
matic and topographical conditions make it a much more 
difficult matter to protect and extend them than those in 
more favored parts of the country. They can never be 
secure in private hands ; they may be preserved and even 
extended if the general government can be made to realize, 
what all other civilized nations now realize, that forests are 
essential to the public welfare, and that they can be safely 
managed for the good of all only by government adminis- 
tration. Individuals are not, and never can be, safe guar- 
dians of a forest upon which a community depends ; and 
perhaps the most important question which at this time 
waits the action of Congress is such a settlement of the 
future of the public forests as will prevent individuals 
from securing title to any portion of them, or from un- 
lawfully entering or devastating them. Other public ques- 
tions can wait a few weeks or a few months without 
any very serious or at least fatal results, but when 
a forest of Fir or of Redwood on the Pacific Coast is swept 
away, there is destroyed what it will require five centuries 
to restore; and twice that time will not be enough to cover 
with trees again the slopes of Colorado or Nevada mouu- 
tains devastated by fire. And yet while Congress year 
after year refuses to consider seriously the question (if 
forest protection on the public domain, thousands of acres 
of these forests are destroyed every year by fires which 
might have been prevented, or by trespassers who might 
have been caught and punished. 

Two bills relating to the public forests now await the 
action of Congress. House bill No. 7901 has already 
been favorably reported upon by the Committee on Public 
Lands. The provisions of this bill contain many danger- 
ous elements, and cannot effect the protection of the 
forests. It provides that the fee of certain lands shall re- 
main vested in the Government, but that the timber may be 
sold from these lands without restriction, and it provides 
no administrative machinery for the protection of the 
forests from fire, always their greatest danger. The use of 
the military, except perhaps at the very outset, and before 
proper officers can be trained as forest guardians for 
such regions as it may be deemed expedient to retain in 
forest, is hardly a practicable measure, or one which is 
likely to result in any practical good. The public interest 
demands that this bill should be defeated. 

House bill No. 6045 was prepared under the auspices 
of the American Forestry Congress, and has the endorse- 
ment of many persons most actively and intelligently in- 
terested in preserving the forests of this country. It 
provides that permanent forest preserves shall be estab- 
lished under a forest officer and proper subordinates. 
They are to embrace lands better suited for forest growth 
than for any other purpose, especially lands situated at 
the head-waters of important streams ; and they are to be 
kept in permanent forest and to be carefully guarded from 
spoliation and destruction. Timber, however, may be sold 
when it is clearly advantageous to do so, but oidy under 
the direction of a government officer, and with a proper 
regard to the future development of the forest Unauthor- 
ized cutting, and other injury to the preserved forests are to 
be made criminally punishable. Forest guardians, and 
methods for their appointment, are provided for, and the 
notexccssiveappropriationof half a million dollars to carry 
out the provisions of the bill is asked for. This bill has 
much to commend it, and it would be fortunate for the 
American people if their feeling and intelligence were 
sufficiently aroused upon this subject to compel politicians 
to stop and consider a measure of such vital national im- 
portance in the year of a Presidential election. In this bill, 
however, no provision is made for the proper training 
and education of forest officers, and yet forest administra- 
tion, however wisely the laws upon which it rests may 
have been drawn, must depend for ultimate success upon 
the intelligence and enthusiasm of the officers who direct it. 



98 



Garden and Forest. 



[April 25, i888- 



Wr. John Robinson, as has already been explained in an 
earlier issue of this paper, has very wisely suggested that 
we must first have a forest school in this country modeled 
on the plan of the Military Academy, before we can hope 
to have forest officers thoroughly trained in all the difficult 
technicalities of forest management, or an efficient forest 
administration. The men will appear, no doubt, to man- 
age the forests, when the Government decides to protect 
them, and they will manage them badly at first, and then 
in time very well, but no general forest policy is complete or 
adequate to accomplish the ends in view without some pro- 
visions for training forest officers, any more than a law to 
establish a standing army could be complete without pro- 
visions for training its officers. 

It is true that many investigations are yet to be made upon 
the position, the extent and the character of our western 
forests before enough is known about them to locate properly 
forest reserves, or to organize an effective system of forest 
administration ; but some beginning must be made. If 
this measure fails it might be well if all friends of the forest 
would unite in an effort to secure from Congress the 
withdrawal of the whole forest-covered public domain 
from sale and entry, with adequate temporary measures for 
its strict protection, and the appointment of some com- 
petent body, selected for example from the National Acad- 
emy of Sciences, to study the whole question in all its com- 
plex bearings and to recommend some comprehensive 
scheme of forest administration. There could be no op- 
position to such a bill except on the part of those who 
prey on the public forests. Such a measure might 
diminish at once many of the dangers which now threaten 
to exterminate the western forests, and it would cause 
the subject to be studied and discussed in a manner which 
would compel Congress eventually to establish a perma- 
nent forest administration in this country. But whatever 
method is adopted one thing is clear, that unless Congress 
does something and does it quickly, there will be very 
little forest left in western North America, and the future 
of all that part of the Continent will be irretrievably ruined. 

Flowers in Winter. 

THE skill of American gardeners in growing flowers 
for winter cutting, and the lavishness of the Ameri- 
can public in buying them, strike every visitor to our 
large towns. In no other country are flowers — espe- 
cially Roses — forced in such perfection or profusion, and 
in none are they used in such quantities, not only on all 
social occasions, but for the daily adornment of the draw- 
ing-room and dining-room. 

It is hard to say whether our passion for cut flowers 
reveals a love for nature or simply a love for beauty in 
general. But it certainly is not, as some would have us 
believe, a mere fashionable craze, with no more respectable 
foimdation than extravagance and the desire for display. 
Fashion's freaks do not last for generations, and grow 
stronger and stronger in their influence year by j^ear. But 
our love for cut flowers in winter has thus lasted and grown. 
A few years ago fashion certainly played a large part in 
determining the uses to which we put such flowers. No 
lady was content to appear in a place of public amuse- 
ment without an immense bunch of flowers in her belt, and 
few were content to take their afternoon stroll unless simi- 
larly adorned. The request that no flowers may be sent 
which even now often follows a funeral announcement in 
the papers — though not so often now as a few years since 
— is an unmistakable sign that a custom which, when 
not carried to excess, is among the most beautiful and 
touching of modern times, had been carried to excess — 
had become a fashion that was felt as a tax upon the 
friendship of the giver and a burden upon the conscience 
of the recipient. And so" strong for a while was the feel- 
ing that a lady could not go to an opera or a ball without 
bearing costly tokens of the regard of her friends, that 



young men of moderate means were almost driven out of 
social life and the florist's bill came to rival the tailor's as a 
synonym for one of the worst terrors of city existence. 

But all these things have changed of late ; and in the 
change we may read signs of our growth in a real love for 
flowers, as well as in good taste and refinement of feeling. 
For the florist's trade has certainly not suffered in conse- 
quence of the fact that we use flowers less for the purposes 
of a display than in years gone by. If we do not buy so 
many flowers to give away in a semi-obligatory manner, 
we buy more for ourselves ; and if we do not carry them 
about so much in public, we care more to have them with 
us in our rooms. Many of us can remember when a lady 
often placed her baskets of flowers in her front window, 
between the curtains and the glass — sacrificmg her own 



enjoyment so that every one else might 



}{ her good 



fortune. Such vulgarities no longer offend the sight, but 
behind the curtains there are more flowers and lovelier 
ones than there ever were before. 

The increase in the variety of flowers which we now 
force for winter use, and the simple character of many of 
them, also prove our advance in the right direction. 
Thirty years ago the Camellia ruled almost alone in our 
drawing-rooms. Then Roses began to come into favor, 
but they were as inferior to those of to-da)' in quality as 
they were in variety. It is scarcely twenty years since 
the most beautiful and fragrant of the other flowers we 
now demand were introduced into the winter trade — the 
Hyacinths and Lilies-of-the-Valley, the Daffodils and Nar- 
cissus and Tulips, which may now be bought any day in 
the winter for a few pence at any street corner, bringing 
into humble homes the loveliness which in former years 
was a luxury for the rich alone. The first bouquet of 
Lilies-of-the-Valley which was seen in a New York ball- 
room — some twenty years ago — was the talk of the 
town for days, and the florist who had grown the few 
sprays which composed it, and the young man who had 
bespoken them long in advance of their blooming, were 
looked upon as marvels of inventiveness and enterprise. 
These blossoms and their fellows had before that time 
been considered " common garden flowers, " unworthy of 
a place in a florist's window or a lady's hand when winter 
made their acquisition difficult. But one experience of 
their charm among the time-honored favorites of the 
drawing-room, gained a place for them in popular affec- 
tion, which has enlarged itself year by year. More recently 
other "common garden flowers" ha^'e likewise come to 
rank as winter favorites — Lilacs, for example, and the 
Mignonette, Forget-me-nots and Chrysanthemums ; and 
we believe that even the growing fancy for Orchids — a 
fancy inspired as often by the fact that they are rare and 
singular, as by the fact that they are beautiful — will not 
drive into even temporary retreat the simpler, cheaper 
flowers, which prove that our love for natural beauty 
is a healthy and a steadily developing sentiment. 



A Plantation for Winter. 

THE value of some deciduous shrubs with regard to 
their winter beauty is hardly appreciated. V^'e 
think much of the flowers and foliage of our shrubs, little 
of the brightness and persistency of their fruit, or of the 
color which their twigs retain when their leaves have fall- 
en. Yet the number of such plants which are decorative 
throughout the whole or a part of the winter is considera- 
ble. The finest and most beautiful is the Cockspur Thorn, 
a small and graceful tree which can be used as the centre 
of a winter group. Its large dark-red fruit is borne m great 
profusion, and remains conspicuous in the whiter land- 
scape until the days of early spring. Among smaller plants 
the common Barberry is the most valuable for winter 
plantuig. Its habit is graceful and its drooping racemes 
of fruit are brilliant objects throughout the entire winter. 
Less pleasing in habit but with fruit equally persistent and 
even brighter in color is Thunberg's Japanese Barberry. 



AVRII. 25, 1888.] 



Garden and Forest. 



99 



The common Privet, one of the hardiest and most easily 
cuhivated of plants, carries in this climate its bright black 
fruit well into April. Several of our native Roses also re- 
tain their showy red haws until spring, especially the tall- 
growing Carolina Rose, and, among dwarfer species, T^osa 
Iminilis, R. blanda and R. iiilida. The conspicuous fruit of 
ovir native Bitter-sweet — orange-colored and red — remains 
upon the plant all through the winter season, and its free 
habit of growth will add a welcome touch of variety to the 
group of shrubs among which it may be planted. The 
Japanese Rhodotypus is another winter fruit-plant, although 
its greatest beauty consists in its pure white flovi'ers and 
neat foliage. And to this list of shrubs which do not lose 
their fruit until the days when fresh foliage is ready to re- 
place them, may be added many others which retain theirs 
for at least a portion of the winter. The different Spindle- 
trees are striking objects in late autumn and early winter; 
but although their brilliant crimson fruit is persistent 
through winter, it becomes dull and inconspicuous by the 
end of the year. Few plants are more beautiful in autumn 
than the Highbush Cranberry ( Vihtirniim Opuliis) with its 
load of orange-scarlet fruit, but the birds devour this so 
greedily that little is left at Christmas-time. Every one 
knows the beauty of the Black Alder as it blazes through 
our northern swamps during the autumn months, and al- 
though a native of swamps it grows freely in any garden 
soil. If planted for the sake of its fruit care should be 
taken to secure plants of both sexes. Its scarlet fruit gen- 
erally disappears by Christmas, but in his account, recent- 
ly printed in these columns, of the effects of the great 
spring storm in New Jersey, Dr. Abbott speaks of seeing the 
Black Alder loaded with its fruit resting upon the dazzling 
drifts of March snow. The Snowberries, white and red- 
fruited, are beautiful in autumn, but they also lose their 
beauty later in the year. 

And the winter shrubbery can be enriched by many 
plants conspicuous by reason of their bark. Scarlet-twigged 
Dogwoods, Golden-barked Willows, the Kerria \\\\\\ its 
shining yellow branchlets and many others may be group- 
ed with fruit-bearing plants to produce an effect of striking 
and of lasting charm. All these plants are beautiful in 
spring and summer as well as in winter, and some of them 
are among the most desirable shrubs for summer-planting 
that we have. Therefore it need not be thought that in 
planting for winter beauty we should detract from our 
pleasure at other seasons of the year. All we need to do 
is, while planting for summer, to think a little of winter 
too. A little thought will enable us without any sacrifice 
in other directions to produce delicate combinations of 
form and color upon which the eye will rest \vith satisfac- 
tion throughout the long weeks of snow and cold. It is 
ignorance or indifference rather than necessity that has led 
us to rely so entirely upon dusky evergreen foliage in our 
efforts after winter beauty. 



The death is announced of Jules Emile Planchon, the 
distinguished Professor of Botany at Montpellier, at the 
age of 65. Although a systematic botanist by training, 
Planchon's predilections were for horticultural and economic 
botany ; and of late years he has devoted himself specially 
to the study of the Grape-vine, and of its greatest enemy, 
the Phylloxera. He was sent to this country by the French 
Government in 1873, to prosecute these investigations; 
and on his return to Montpellier he made an interesting 
and valuable report upon the subject. His last important 
publication is a monograph of the Grape-vines and the 
other plants of the Ampelopsis Family, in which some 
new North American genera and several new North Ameri- 
can species are proposed. This, the latest contribution to 
the botanical literature of the Grape, occupies the second 
half of the fifth volume of DeCandolle's Continuation of his 
Prodromus, for which Planchon had written a monograph 
of the Elms, Hackberries and other genera of the Nettle 
Family. 



A Curious Vegetable Growth on Animals. 

IT is a well known fact that in certain diseases of the skin 
and hair which occur in man and mammals there are 
found fungi of rather a low grade of organization which by 
many of the medical profession are considered to be the 
cause of the diseases. In many of the lower animals, also, 
parasitic fungi are found, so that the discovery of a new 
fungus growing on animals would cause little surprise. 
But the case is different in respect to alga3, lower plants 
which, unlike fungi, have green coloring matter in their 
cells. In a few animals which are low down in the scale 
of existence green algoe are occasionally found, but, in such 
cases, the algce are not usually considered to be parasites 
in the ordinary sense. The algae and animals are assum- 
ed rather to be living together in what is called a state of 
commensalism — that is, the'algEe furnish in someway fiiod 
for the animals while the latter provide food for the alga?. 

A curious case in which algae seem to live as parasites 
on animals has recently been studied by Mme. A. Weber 
van Bosse. It is a fact known to zoologists for some years 
that the hairs of some of the species of sloths have a green- 
ish color. It had been suspected and partly demonstrated 
that the green color was due to some plant growth. Tlie 
researches of Mme. Weber van Bosse show conclusively 
that such is the case, and she descrilies minutely and figures 
the species found in the hairs of j^nztfy^/zs and Clioioepiis. 
The algas described belong to two genera — TricJtophihis, 
in which the cells are grass-green and give out zoospores 
like many small algae found in salt and fresh water and 
also on trunks and trees in wet places; and Cyanoderma, 
in which the cells are violet colored like some plants of the 
Nostoc family. The home of the sloths is the damp, shady 
forests of the tropics, and there M'e might expect such algse 
to grow on animals of a sluggish habit, especially if they 
live among the damp foliage of the branches, as is the case 
with the sloths. But we should hardly expect that those 
animals confined in the zoological gardens of Europe woukl 
have their hairs covered by the same alga?. Such, how- 
ever, appears to be the fact. 

W. G. Farlow. 



Last Year's Leaves. 

AS I walked yesterday along a wooded hillside, over 
tree-margined fields, and skirted a swamp too wet, 
as yet, to thread, I noticed many a tree with last year's 
leaves still on it. Except one I'upelo, which usually drops 
its foliage earlier than our other forest trees, these leaf- 
bearers were all Oaks or Beeches. Thoreau speaks of 
the White Oaks about Concord retaining their leave as 
a rule, and others deny that this is true, or more than 
an occasional occurrence. 

The conclusions derived from my own memoranda, cov- 
ering many ysars, and of my ramble of yesterday partic- 
ularly, are that not only the White Oak, but several other 
species, do retain their leaves, or a considerable percentage 
of them, until early in May of the next year. Take any 
Oak grove in this neighborhood, and I think it will be 
found, if the trees are not too crowded for healthy growth, 
that fully three-fourths of them retain from one-tenth 
to one-half of their leaves. But when we come to 
consider single trees, this habit of leaf retention will be 
found one of many curious features. For instance, I know 
of many single trees, both Oaks and Beeches, that have a 
single limb that will retain its foliage the winter through, 
while the other branches are bare from November to ;\lay. 
Again, a tree that stands upon the edge of a wood will hold 
its leaves on the open, light and airy side, and drop those 
that grew upon the shaded limbs. Does the greater vigor 
of the foliage upon the sunny side explain this } 

In one of my upland fields there stands a thrifty Scarlet 
Oak, that is noticeable for the beauty and density of its 
foliage. In October the deep green becomes a rich ma- 
roon, and later, a lighter and brighter red, and not until 



lOO 



Garden and Forest. 



[April 25, 18 



nearly New Year's has the ruddy tinting given way to 
brown. Even then the tree remains a prominent object, 
and is, indeed, even for an Oak, one among a thousand. 
For the past fourteen years this tree has never failed to 
retain nearly all its leaves, although in that time there has 
been every variety of summer and winter that even the 
powers in charge of our capricious climate could invent. 

On examination of the Oaks near by, it has seemed to 
me that they all have a tendency to retain their leaves, and 
the measure of success in each case is due principally to 
the exposure of the tree and its general vigor. Here I may 
be wholly at sea, and only too glad to be informed cor- 
rectly, if in error. 

What I have said of Oaks applies equally to the Beech. 
Given shelter from the north-west winds and average vigor, 
and many a leaf will cling to its parent stem, until the 
swelling leaf buds of the new year shall crowd it from its 
place. 

While yet the drifts of the late great snow storm still 
lingered, it was a pleasant feature of the landscape to see 
the sapling Beeches still bearing aloft their last year's 
leaves, dimly glittering like wrinkled fragments of old 
gold, and filling the air with a bell-like tinkle, soothing 
and soft as the twitter of a bird. 

I offer it as a hint to the landscape gardener, to bring 
about by selection, if it can be done, a fully established 
habit of leaf retention ; not makimj evere^reen Oaks, but 
winter-long, bright brown Oaks; for such now lessen, to a 
marked degree, the dreariness of many a winter outlook. 
Again, when leaf retaining Oaks are mingled with Ever- 
greens, there is an added charm to the scene. Think for a 
moment of such a cluster as this : A background of Cedar, 
scattered Oaks with dark brown leaves, a Beech with 
golden foliage, and. crimson-fruited Black Alder mingled 
through it all. This may be readily brought about, for 1 saw 
it yesterday, where Nature had, without man's .aid or inter- 
ference, made thus beautiful the corner of a long neglected 
field. Charles C. Ahholt. 

Near Trenton, New Jersey, April 5th, iSS3. 



How the Mangrove Forms Islands. 

AMONG the agencies that have helped to build up the 
peninsula of Florida may be numbered certain trees 
which are fitted by nature to grow on lands that are more 
or less under water and that are too unsubstantial to sup- 
port other forms of vegetation. Like the coral builders, 
they work so slowly that in a single century no great 
change is accomplished, but in thousands of centuries the 
changes wrought are very great. The most important of 
these tree-workers are the Mangrove and the Cypress. The 
former grows on shores and shoals that are overflowed 
generally by salt tide-water; the latter in localities that are 
overflowed at times by fresh water. Both have similar 
ol>stacles to overcome and they accomplish by this very 
different means. 

The Red Mangrove {Rhizophora Mangle) covers hun- 
dreds of square miles of the sovithern shores of Florida, the 
principal areas occupied by it being the shoals lying be- 
tween the keys and the mainland — which are composed of 
calcareous sediment — and the low southern and western 
borders of the Everglades. In these localities and on tide- 
washed islands as far north as latitude 29°, it forms a 
dense thicket of vivid green, rising uniformly from high- 
water-level, unchanged by seasons, unaffected by hurri- 
canes, insidiously encroaching on the domain of waters 
and helping build what in future ages will be dry land. 
Far in the interior, even on the northern border of the State, 
are found beds of calcareous sedimentary rock which may 
once have supported just such thickets of Mangrove. 

In places on the mainland shores the Mangrove attains 
to tree-like dimensions, forming a tall trunk sometimes two 
feet in diameter. Like the Cypress, the Mangrove is 
provided with strong buttresses at the base, but these differ 
from those of the Cypress in being of the style called by 



architects " flying" buttresses. Starting from the trunk a 
)'ard or two from its base, they descend in graceful curves, 
sending off branches, from which other branches proceed, 
all descending in similar curves to the muddy ground, over 
which the tides spread twice a day. These basal branches 
serve the double purpose of props and feeders. From the 
upper branches, aerial roots descend till they reach the 
water at high tide. Sometimes a tree maybe seen entirely 
dead except as to one branch, which is kept green by 
sucking up water through an aerial root perhaps twenty 
feet long. 

Another special provision for its environment is seen in 
the seed of the Mangrove. This, before falling from the 
branch, develops into a miniature trunk from six to twelve 
inches long. The basal end being the heaviest, it is most 
likely to strike the muddy surface first and to stick there in 
an erect position. The rootlets and seed-leaves being 
ready to push forth, the young plant makes a rapid growth 
and soon becomes well rooted and propped in its rather 
insecure position. 

As the Mangrove usually grows, rising scarcely ten feet 
from the water and spreading laterally, the main stem is 
of little importance. Innumerable roots descend from and 
support the leafy branches, repeatedly forking in their de- 
scent and forming a sort of basket work below high-water- 
level. Floating objects become lodged in these natural 
weirs, shell-fish and other marine creatures multiply in them, 
and the submerged stems give support to sea-weeds and 
hydroids. In some localities the roots become encased 
with oyster-shells, and this, probably, is the origin of many 
of the oyster-bars that obstruct some of the lagoons or 
so-called rivers of southern Florida. 

The Mangrove thickets in the course of time build up a 
foundation for other species. Of these none have a pecu- 
liar habit of growth, except the Black Mangrove (Avicennia 
niiidd). This tree is remarkable as to foliage, fruit, wood, 
bark and roots. The surface-roots send upward innumera- 
ble short feeders, black, lithe and rising about a span above 
the surface. This function, evidently, is to draw nutriment 
from the water at high tide, and, like the knees of the Cy- 
press, they add to the surface accumulations, which, from 
age to age, add to the elevation of the land. In this re- 
spect, however, neither of these trees equals the Red Man- 
grove. 

The wood of the Red Mangrove sinks in water and is not 
attacked by marine worms. Hence, fallen branches and 
trunks remain where they fall, while material that floats in 
with the tide is detained by the network of basal branches. 
It is altogether probable that the thousands of tree-covered 
"islands" in the Everglades and Big Cypress were once 
Mangrove thickets and that the present Mangrove islands 
will in time be added to the mainland. As soon as the)' 
are elevated above the overflow of the tides, the Mangroves 
will give place to species that require only brackish soil, 
which, in turn, will be replaced by fresh water or inland 
forms of vegetation. 

Jacksonville, Fla. -4. H. CurilSS. 



Certain Cone-Eatino; Insects. 



-T-I 



'HE cases here mentioned are the only ones known to 
J[_ us where the cones of Spruce and Pines have been 
attacked by insects. It is well known that the Spruce bud 
louse {Adelges ahieticokns) deforms the terminal shoots of 
the Spruce, producing large swellings, which would be 
readily mistaken for the cones of the same tree. Another 
species of bud louse {Adelges abietis Linn.), which appears 
to be the same as the European insect of that name, we 
observed several years since (August, iSSi), in considerable 
numbers, on the Norway Spruces on the grounds of the 
Peabody Academy of Sciences at Salem. A species of cat- 
erpillar {Pinipestis renictdella Grote), was observed August 
24th, in considerable numbers, on a young Spruce ten to 
twenty feet in height at Merepoint, on Casco Bay, Maine. 
The cones on the terminal shoot, as well as the lateral 



ArRiL 25, 1S8S.] 



Garden and Forest. 



lOI 




Fig. 18.— Single 
Pieiced C»»ne. 



upper branches, which, when heaUhy and unaffected, were 
purpHsh green and about one and one-quarter inches long, 
were, for the most part, mined by a rather large Phycid 
caterpillar. The worm was of the usual shape and color, 
especially resembling a Phycid caterpillar not uncommon 
in certain seasons on the twigs of the Pitch Pine, on which 
it produces large unsightly masses of castings within 
which the worms hide. 

The Spruce cone worm is usually con- 
fined to the young cones, into which it 
bores and mines in different directions, 
eating galleries passing partly around the 
interior, separating the scales from the 
a.xis of the cones (Fig. 18). After mining 
one cone the caterpillar passes into an 
adjoining one, spinning a rude silken 
passage coiniecting the two cones. Some- 
times a bunch of three or four cones are 
tied together with silken strands ; while 
the castings or excrement thrown out of 
the holes form a large, conspicuous light 
mass, sometimes half as large as one's fist, out of which 
the tips of the cones are seen to project (Fig. ly). Besides 
these unsightly masses of castings, the presence of the 

caterpillars causes an 
exudation of pitch, 
which clings in large 
drops or tears to the 
outside of the adjacent 
more or less healthy 
cones. Where much 
affected the young 
cones turn brown and 
sere. 

The same worms 
had also attacked the 
terminal branches and 
twigs of the same tree, 
eating oft" the leaves 
and leaving a mass of 
excrement on one side 
of the twig, w i t h i n 
which they had spun a 
silken gallery in which 
the worm lived. 

On removing the 
bunches of diseased 
cones to Providence, 
one caterpillar trans- 
formed in a warm 
chamber into a moth, 
which appeared the 
end of October; its 
metamorphosis was 
probably accelerated by the unusually M-arm aulunnial 
v/eather then prevailing. All the others had, by the Tst 
of November, spun within the mass of castings a loose, 
thin, but tirm, oval cocoon, about half an inch long and 
a quarter inch wide, hut the larvce had not 
yet begun to change to chrysalids. Whether 
in a state of nature they winter over in the 
larval state within their cocoons, or, as is 
niore likely, change to pupa; in the autumn, 
appearing as moths by the end of spring, 
remains to be seen. 

I only found one tree next to my house 
thus affected by this worm. In 1887 the 
tree was not so seriously affected, though 
its general appearance had not much im- 
proved. It is probable that in a dense Spruce 
growth the trees would be less exposed to 
the attacks of what may prove a serious 
enemy of shade Spruces. The Obvious remedy Fig. 20.— Spn, 

is, to burn the affected cones and mass of '~""° 

castings late in summer. 




f liitested Colics. 




The foregoing account has been taken from our fourth 
report on insects injurious to forest and shade trees, in 
Bulletin No. 13 of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, 
Division of F'ntomology, to which we are indebted for 
the accompanying illustrations, drawn by the artist of 
the Division, Miss L. Sullivan. 

Another cone-eating insect is a bark beetle, Diyoco:les 
affaber. We have found this beetle in great abundance 
mining the bark of the Spruce, near the timber line on 
Gray's Peak, Colorado ; it occurs, however, throughout 
the northern States. Mr. W. H. Harrington, of Ottawa, 
Canada, sent us, in December last, a specimen of this 
beetle (Fig. 21), which he doubtfully referred to this species, 
and which we iind is identical with our Colorado examples. 
He has given us the following account of its habits: " The 
cones of the Pitch Pine were found to be, during the past 
season (1887), frequently inhabited by this bark borer, 

both beetle and larva. 
Their attacks were readily 
noticed by the small ab<jrted 
cones. The terminal shoots 
of the branches seemed 
also sometimes infested by 
the same beetle. It seems 
larger than a beetle which 
I found a few years ago 
boring into the terminal 
shoots of the White Pine, and which you determined as 
D. affaber." A. S. Packard. 




-Motli "t Spruce Cone-worm 
(enlarged). 



Cone-wo 
(enlarj^ed). 



Foreign Correspondence. 

The Kew Arboretum. — III. 

BEFORE entering into a detailed account of the more 
important genera in the Kew Arboretum, it may be 
well to give a few particulars about some of the finer speci- 
mens, and a note or two concerning the history of others. 

A fine Persimmon {Diospyros Virginiana) near the Tem- 
ple of the Sun is one of the original denizens of the Old 
Arboretum, and was presented with many other rare and 
curious trees by the Duke of Argyle to George III ; it is a 
handsome plant — apparently as happy as in its native 
habitat — and measures upwards of 60 feet in height, the 
trunk ginhing 5 ft. 4 in. at a yard from the ground ; the 
head has a spread of about 30 feet. 

A conspicuous object at the present time (March) is a 
fine specimen of the Constantinople Hazel {Corylus Cohirna) 
laden with catkins ; it has a spreading head 44 feet across, 
is 35 feet in height, and the stem measures 4 ft. 3 in. in 
girth at three feet from the ground. According to Loudon 
this species was introduced to Britain in 1665 ; the follow- 
ing memorandum from " Hortus Collinsonianus'' is worth 
reproducing. " The Turkey Nut, in the Mill Hill Garden, 
is very remarkable from all others, for the husk rises high, 
and branches out every wa)'-, and covers the nut This is 
a remarkable acquisition, for the Captain that brought 
them from Turkey, eating them in a drinking room, one of 
them dropped into the crack of a rotten window board, 
where it took root ; my gardening friend Mr. Bennett, 
coming there and seeing it, transplanted it to his garden, 
from whence our tree was a layer, and lirought here anno 
1756." 

The history of the first introduced plants of the Chili 
Pine (Araucaria imbricata) is as follows. Towards the 
very close of the eighteenth century the ofificers of the Van- 
couver Expedition were at a dinner given in their honor 
by the Viceroy of Chili. Menzies, the surgeon and natur- 
alist attached to the Survey, noticing that part of the des- 
sert consisted of nuts which were new to him, obtained a 
few Avhich he planted in a box of earth on board his ship. 
Several germinated and five plants were safely deposited 
at Kew. These were grown imder glass for many years, 
and the old Kew plant — perhaps the only survivor — even 
after being planted in its present position, was protected 



102 



Garden and Forest. 



[April 25, 18S8. 



by a wooden stri.cture for many successive winters. Far 
more handsome specimens are to be met with than this — 
which dates from 1796 — but its historical associations 
make it worthy of mention. It measures 34 feet in heig^ht 
and has a spreading round head quite simihir in outline to 
those slcetched in their native forests b)^ Miss North ; the 
stem is 3 feet 10 in. in girth at three feet from the ground. 
The large SopJiora Japonka near the newlv constructed 
rockery for hardy Ferns is not only one of the original oc- 
cupants of Alton's Arboretum, but it is one of the three or 
four plants first introduced into Britain. It flowers pro- 
fusely every year, but never seeds ; although perfectl)^ 
hardy our summers are not hot enough for pods to be de- 
veloped. (In northern France do the same remarks appl)'. 
During a continental trip last August I saw no pods imtil I 
had got well into the southern districts beyond the Loire. ) 
The Kew plant is about 50 feet in height, with a stem 13 ft. 
6 in. in girth ; it divides into numerous massive branches 
at about the height of a man and some of these are bound 
together by strong iron chains — the head has a spread of 



when young. Possessing these advantages, it is not sur- 
prising to find that it is now being largely planted in many 
places. 

Ginkgo hiliiha, the tree formerly only known in gardens 
as Sdlisburia adiaiili/olia, or the Maidenhair tree, is perfectly 
hardy at Kew and grows freely. Our largest specimen is 
upwards of 56 feet in height, with a head 42 feet in diame- 
ter, and a trunk 9 feet in girth at a yard from the ground. 
Formerly this specimen was trained against a wall like a 
fruit tree, but the building being removed the tree was left, 
and the side branches cut away. This tree, too, like many 
others which flourish well at Kew, does not flower, al- 
though it is on record that when enjoying the shelter of the 
wall it did produce male catkins. 

The largest of the I'urkey Oaks (Quercus Cern's) in the 
Kew Arlioretum, is one growing near the Temple of the 
Sun. This was also presented by the Duke of Argyle. It is 
a noble specimen 85 feet in height, the spreading head 
being 96 feet through, and the trunk 15 feet 6 inches in circum- 
ference a yard above the ground. As a timber tree, in 




Fii^. 22. — Rusa minutitolia. 



about 75 feet. Some other specimens at Kew are almost 
equally fine, and one, planted in a wood, where it had 
been prevented from developing too much laterally, has a 
fine clear stem of thirty or forty feet. 

Not far from the Sophora just described is probably the 
finest Hop Hornbeam in the British Isles. This is not the 
Hop Hornbeam or Iron-wood of the north-eastern United 
States, but its European representati\'e {Osiiya carpinifolia), 
and, in my opinion, a more ornamental species than the 
American plant. It is 50 feet in height, with a trunk f)]'-. 
feet in girth and a spreading head of upwards of 70 feet 
wide. This, although it is annually laden with its curious 
hop-like catkins, does not ripen seed at Kew. 

The Corsican Pine {Piniis Lan'cio) near the Grand En- 
trance is a remarkably fine example of the species, and. 
moreover, has an interesting histiuy. After peace had been 
proclaimed in 1815. it was brought to England by the 
botanist Salisbury. It was then a small plant, about si.x 
inches high, in a pot; the measurements now are : height 90 
feet (several feet have been broken off the top by snow 
storms during the last dozen years) ; spread, 60 fee't ; girth 
of trunk at 4 feet from the ground, 9 feet. P. Lan'cio \s a 
valuable timber tree, a fast grower, and stands the rough 
sea breezes well, besides being almost proof against game 



Britain at an}' rate, this species is not of much value, but 
the South African forest authorities are planting it largely. 
The great importance of growing belts of Oak in the South 
African forests is that the)' are trees which by their dense 
shade keep down the grass, the burning of ^\•hich does so 
much damage to the forests every winter. The Turkev 
Oak being better adapted to the climate of South Africa 
than the common Oak {Quercus peduiiciila/a), its extended 
propagation is, according to the Conservator of Forests 
stationed at King Williamstown, of the first importance. 

Roval Gardens, Kew. GeO. Kichols07!. 



New or Little Known Plants. 

Rosa minutifolia.* 

OUR wild Roses have an ill reputation among bota- 
nists for the uncertainty which often attends the 
determination of their species. But there are some, fortu- 
nately, about which there can be no doubt, and we have 

*R. MINUTIFOLIA, Ene;elm. in Bull. Torr. Club, ix. 97. Of dense growth, 2 to 4 
feel liigli, pubescent, willi numerous scattered terete straight or slightly curved 
spines : leaves small, with nan-ow stipules, the leaflets 5, round to lanceolate, i to 5 
Imes long, incised-dentate : flowers an inch broad or less, pink or white, solitary 
on short tomentuse peduncles terminating very short branclilels ; receptacle glo- 
bose, densely setose-hispid, the calv.K-segmenls cleft, persistent; styles distinct. 



April 



i88S.] 



Garden and Forest. 



103 



here given the fig-ure of one which carries its distinctive 
characteristics obtrusively to the front, and cannot be mis- 
taken. Not only is there no other American Rose like it, 
but it stands alone in the genus, forming M. Crepin's sec- 
tion, Miuutifolue. Its compact habit, its very small and 
deeply toothed leaflets, and its small, solitary flowers al- 
most sessile upon the short branchlets, together make it a 
very distinct species. 

As might be expected, this Rose belongs to the flora of 
the Pacitic coast. It has been found only on the peninsula 
of Lower California, near All Saints (Todos Santos) Bay, 
about 40 miles south of San Diego, where it was discov- 
ered in 1882, forming low. dense thickets upon the dry 
hillsides bordering the shore. It is a much-branched, com- 
pact shrub, armed with numerous stout, straight spines, 
the small leaves often fascicled, and with numerous pink 
or white flowers along the branches. The globular base 
of the calyx is covered densely with short bristles. Evi- 
dently the flower in its wild state cannot be commended as 
well suited to the florist's needs, but from its habit of 
growth the plant may well prove a decided ornament to 
the lawn and garden in our more southern States, where it 
would doubtless be hardv. S. W. 



Cultural Department. 

A Selection of Lilies. 

T^HE selection of varieties is an individual work to lie settled 
-'- by the grower in accordance with his personal taste and 
the amount of space and money he has at command. 

For a garden of moderate size the twelve species and varie- 
ties named below would well represent the whole family and 
furnish continued bloom from June until September. 

Liliiiinauratinn, the golden-banded Lily of Japan, is one eager- 
ly sought, because of its large, showy Howers. As a garden flower 
it has few equals, if magnificent display is the object sought. 
As a cut flower for house decoration it is the least desirable of 
any of the family. It is too large to arrange with otliers, with a 
due regard for harmony of form and color, and the fragrance 
it e.xhales is truly sickening. Of this species there are many 
garden varieties, differing only in the niarkings. In some the 
golden band gives place to one of bright crimson, which for a 
day is showy, but the crimson soon fades into a dirty brown 
and the beauty of the flower vanishes. None of these varieties 
equal the original type. This is usually considered a difficult 
subject to manage. Choose the smallest bvdbs, those that are 
heavy and firm, plant deeplv, say eight inches, in the driest 
part of the border, in partial shade, and tlie bulbs will last a 
number of years. 

L. clegans is sold in many forms under the name of L. Uiiibel- 
latuni, and its varieties, ah'osangiiineuin, fulgens, etc. Orange 
is the predominating color, with various shades ; a few are deep 
crimson and quite showy; some are a clear citron in color; 
some are self-colored, others deeply spotted. Alice Wilson, a 
variety of recent introduction, is decidedly the best of its class. 
The flower is perfect in form, with petals broad, full and grace- 
fully curved. Its color is a clear, lemon-vellow, deepening 
towards the centre of the flower to a rich golden yellow. The 
class is valuable, because of earliness, hardiness, and profusion 
of bloom. A large clump makes a magnificent display. The 
flowers are generally too coarse for table or parlor decoration. 

L. Brownii, which is also known as L. japonicwji, a native 
of Cliina, is remarkable for its long trumpet-shaped flowers, 
ivory-white inside, and dark purple on the outside. This is 
usually regarded a tender Lily, and is not much grown because 
of its liability to perish. This opinion is quite erroneous. I 
know a clump of more than a hundred bulbs, all of which have 
come from six bulbs planted some ten years ago in a raised 
bed, which has not since been disturbed. Many of the bulbs 
furnish eight flowers each, and the display is such as onlv this 
stateliest of flowers can make. 

L. candidum, the old and well-known white Lily of our gar- 
dens, is the one we could least afford to lose. For graceful 
habit, stainless purity, and delightful fragrance it has no peer. 
It is fitted for any place, and for all occasions where cut flowers 
are desirable. It is about the only flower we do not like to cut, 
and that because it is too noble and pin-e to meddle with. 
This bulb should be removed in August, and not be suftered 
to remain longoutof ground ; it commences its autumn growth 
the last of August, and upon this growth its next year's^bloom 



depends. A lilight has visited tlie Lily in many |)arts of this 
country, the cause of which no one has been able to discover, 
neither has there been found for it a remedy. 

L. excclsiim, or tcstacciiiii of many catalogues, is another 
noble Lily closely allied to the L. candidjiin, and resembling it in 
habit of growth. Its flowei-s are drooping, with reflexed petals 
of a delicate nankeen color, with the minor petalscovered witli 
darker warty spots. Its fragrance is delicate and pleasing. 

L. speciosnin, or, as it is more commonly known, L. lanci- 
folittm, is the most useful of all the Lilies. In point of l:)eauty 
it ranks next to L. candidum, and is far more useful when 
cut. Of this species we should not be content with less than 
four varieties. Van pr'cecox is a strong grower, producing when 
well established twelve to fifteen very large, pure white flowers 
on a single stem, with regular and much reflexed petals often 
clasping the stem ; in the centre of the flower the petals are 
studded with delicate little projections, like crystal points. 
YslV. piirpuratitm has the same general habit, but is a taller and 
stronger plant, with dark rose-crimson flower whose petals, at 
the base, are seemingly rugged with rubies and garnets, while 
the edges are bordered with white. \-ay. pitiictatum differs in 
habit ofgrowth but little from those already noticed, its flowers 
being pure white, delicately studcled with light rose-colored 
spots. Var. rosettm, or rubrutn, is the most common and liest- 
known of all the varieties. Much confusion exists in regari.1 to 
its variety name. Some dealers call it roseum, others rubrum, 
many send it CRit under both names; the result is, if you buy one 
you have both, if you buy both you have but one, which one 
it matters but little. Its color is between that of L. punctatum 
and L. pnrpuratiini. There are nearly fifty varieties of this 
species catalogued ; the four described are fairly representative, 
and for a general display no more are required, while for a 
good collection' neither could well be omitted. 

L. loiigijlorum, the triunpet-shaped Lily, is conspicuous 
among Easter flowers, as it is well adapted for forcing. The 
jiopular Bermuda Lily belongs to this species. It thrives well in 
the open border, but it is folly to plant it unless thoroughly 
prdtected against frost. 

L. teniiifoliuin is the earliest of all Lilies to bloom in the open 
border and one of the most remarkable, because of its brilliant 
scarlet flowers, borne in terminal clusters on very slender 
stems, which are beautifully clothed with grass-like foliage. 

L. tigrinttm flo7-e plcno, although one of the much despised 
Tiger Lilies, is, when well grown, a noble and beautiful plant. 
I have had a single plant grow more than five feet high, with a 
diameter of more than three feet, bearing in a single season 
more than sixty flowers, and continuing in bloom fully six 
weeks. The flowers are orange-scarlet and very double. 

Finally, let me say, that in making a selection one cannot 
well go wrong, for there is not a species or variety that is 
unworthy of a place in the garden. You will succeed if you 
deserve success, and you will lie sure to increase the number 
of varieties annually. You will also observe that your inx'est- 
ment has been relatively small, as plants that are steadily and 
rapidly increasing in number, though they may cost one dollai' 
each when you begin, are, in the end, much cheaper than those 
that require to be removed every year, like all the popular bed- 
ding plants. C. L. Allen. 

Kitchen-garden Notes. 

Asparagus. — For private use, plant in rows 3 to 4 ft. apart, 
18 to 24 inches asunder in the row, and the top of the crowns 
5 inches below the surface of the ground, which we do not 
raise into ridges at all. Marketmen plant 2 to 4 inches deeper, 
and in spring plow the earth from between upon tlie top of 
the rows in order to get white shoots. By sowing some 
seed in spring, we can keep up a supply of plants tor new 
plantations or for filling up gaps in. old ones. 

Beans. — In light, sandy land sow snapbeans abotit tlie 17th 
or 20th of April, but it is not safe to sow them before the 24tli. 
\'alentiiie is the best of green-podded varieties; it does not 
rust orspot; Golden 'Wax is the bestof theyellow-fleshed kinds. 

Beets. — Sow Egvptian or Eclipse in rows a foot apart. 

Cabbage. — As soon as young plants of early \\'akefield 
are well hardened off, plant theni out in rows 3 ft. apart. 

Carrots. — Sow a little Early Horn, Scarlet Stump-rooted 
and Danvers — the first a foot apart, the others 15 or 18 inches. 

Cauliflower. — Treat like Cabbage, only be more careful in 
having the plants well hardened off and the ground warm 
and rich; indeed, if the plants can be well taken care of, and the 
out-door conditions are not quite favorable, delay planting 
till about the 2otli. Early Snowball is best. 

Celery. — Sow some Golden Heart and White Plume in a 
cold-frame. I do not sow the main crop till the last week in 
April, f)ut this will lie too late for less favored localities. 



I04 



Garden and Forest. 



[Ai'KiI. 25, 1888. 



Cucumbers. — Sow Tailby's or Nichol's on sods or in pots in 
a hot-bed and pJant out in May. 

Egg Plants and Peppers. — Keep tliem growing in pots in 
hot-beds, snug and warm and well covered up at night. They 
are very tender. There is nothing better than New York Im- 
proved Egg Plant or Ruby King Pepper. 

Lettuces. — Those sown last week in March in hot-beds are 
now fit for transplanting. Set them out among other crops, say 
between Cabbage and Cauliflower plants or between rows of 
Peas. Sow again, this time out-of-doors, for succession. 
Salamander and White Summer Cabbage are good forsummer 
use. Every kind of Lettuce will fail in hot weather. 

Onions.— For seed Onions select well-fnanured rich ground. 
After it has been well pulverized, tread or roll it to make it 
firm, then draw drills an inch deep and 15 to 18 inches apart ; 
sow, cover and tread or roll. I prefer Yellow Danvers, South- 
port White Glove and Wethersfield Red. Or for early use 
plant sets, and the larger they are, the earlier they will be fit 
to use. 

Parsnips. — Sow a little seed now and the main crop about 
three weeks later. Use deeply-worked rich soil, and have the 
rows 20 or 24 inches apart. Get the Student or Long Smooth. 



Turnips. — Make a small sowing once a fortnight. 1 much 
like the Strap-leaved sorts, also Purple-top White GloVje. Early 
sowings are much troubled by worms in the " bulb." 

Herbs. — Have some Mint, Thyme and Tarragon growing 
permanently ; and from seed every spring raise some Chervil, 
Savory and Sweet Basil. 



Fruit Garden Favorites. 

AMOXG the old Strawberries none please me so well as the 
Downing. There are more highly flavored varieties, and 
those more beautiful, but there is something in the quality of 
the Downing that leads me each season to the spot where it 
grows. Under good culture it is large and productive, but in 
some localities it is subject to leaf blight, so called, caused by 
a fungus growth. 

Next to the Downing for the amateur I would place Mt. Ver- 
non. It is attractive in flavor, productive and vigorous, but 
too soft for market. This, like many others, has been over- 
looked by many, in the crowd of new varieties that have been 
offered, yet it has friends everywhere, and will be planted more 




The .Ikimedj ot Cliihuaijua. Po/mlus Frcmoiitd, Var.— (See page lo;.) 



Parsley. — Sow a row of Doutile Moss Curled at once in good 
ground. Old roots are persistentlv running to seed. Raise a 
fresh supply every year. For wintering in frames sow again 
about midsummer ; this sowing will not " bolt" till next spring. 

Peas. — Sow nothing but wrinkled marrow Peas. Alpha 
sown now will give peas fit for use about tlie toth of June ; 
McLean's Advancer, about the 15th or 25th, and Stratagem 
about the 20th. Owing to season and conditions of cultivation 
these dates may vary. Sow all these varieties on the same 
day and with successions of Stratagem or Champion of Eng- 
land every ten days. Champion is the best Pea grown — but it 
is too tall. 

Radish. — Sow a small row once a week ; they are fit for use 
four weeks after sowing. French Breakfast as a Tin-nip Radish, 
and Wood's and Chartier's as long Radishes, are good. 

Rhubarb. — A barrel set over tlie stools will draw w\\ the 
leaf stalks long and tender. Cut out flower stems as soon as 
noticed. 

Spinach. — Llse Viroflay or Long Standing, make a small 
sowing once in ten days. Use Spinach as a catch crop between 
Cauliflower, Parsnip rows, or wherever else there is room. 

Tomatoes. — Keep them growing vigorously in pots in frames. 
Give them ];ilenty head and root room. 



and more each season by those who appreciate a good Straw- 
berry, Triomijhe de Gan'd and Jersey Queen are l>oth superior 
in quality to either Downing or Mt. Vernon, but usually will 
not yield half as much fruit, "and in many localities are exceed- 
ingly fickle. Indeed, the Durand strain of Strawberries, to 
which Jersey Queen belongs, has proved uncertain with me as 
a rule, and also with many others. Parry and Jewell, of the 
same strain, while among the best of the family, are variable, 
the Jewell far more so tfian Parry, the latter proving to be a 
valuable eariy variety in many localities. It varies greatly in 
quality, however, in 'the same' row the same day, a peculiarity 
which' I have not noticed in any other variety. Among the 
newer varieties Jessie excels in quality united with productive- 
ness, and Bubach in size, beauty and vigor. 

It is a disputed question whether Strawberry beds should be 
cultivated during the spring, or bearing season, but weeds 
must tie subdued, and shallow hoeing early in the season does 
no harm. Where the winter mulch is left between the rows 
it has a tendency to cause later ripening and increases 
the danger from 'frost, but otherwise the mulch is benefi- 
cial. Ifthe soil is not fertile enough commercial fertilizers 
may be applied by hand, if care be taken not to permit them 
to touch the foliage. They should be mixed with the soil at 



April 25, 1888.] 



Garden and Forest. 



105 



once with the hoe. The Strawberry is a good feeder, and 
wood ashes, nitrate of soda, common phosphates or almost 
any fertihzer will be acceptal)le. The proper time to apply, 
however, is before planting, and I would select yard manure 
if I could have my choice. The earliest berries will be found 
on the sunny side of dry knolls, or adjoining tight board fences, 
or timber belts that afford protection. A cold-frame with glass 
over a portion of the bed will cause those thus covered to 
ripen before their less favored sisters. 

It is not easy to explain why Raspberry and Blackberry 
plantations deteriorate when tlie dead canes are not removed, 
but such is the fact. Possibly the dead wood absorbs too much 
moisture from the roots. I often renew an old plantation by 
mowing off both dead and livingcanes close to the earth while 
the soil is frozen, hoeing and fertilizing afterward. As the 
plants attain age they throw up too many canes, thus causing 
the small berries found on old plantations. We often thin 
out the bearing canes on old plantations one-half. These fruits, 
and in fact most fruits, abhor an undrained soil. Wet land 
is the principal source of failure with the Raspberry and Black- 
berry. It is the cause of winter killing and feeble growth. 
LaSt season many Raspberries turned brown and withered be- 
fore ripening, lessening the crop one-third. The severe freez- 
ing of the previous winter enfeebled the plants. On high, drv 
lands less loss of this character was observed. 

Patrick Barry used to say that the quality of a Black Rasp- 
berry was hardly worth considering, but I think he would not 
say so now, for the varieties dilTer greatly in quality. Mam- 
moth Cluster is among the best, and Gregg is most deficient in 
quality. Red Raspberries differ in quality as much as apples. 
There are few who enjoy the better varieties, as they are not 
hardy, but they can be easily protected. Franconia possesses 
many of the good qualities of the better class of red, and 
Brinckles' Orange of the yellow. In Blackberries the old Law- 
ton and Kittatinny have not been excelled in size and ciuality, 
l)ut it must be remembered that they are seldom permitted to 
ripen fully. If eaten as soon as they color they suggest sips of 
vinegar or lemon juice, but a week later they soften and are 
sweet, as wild honey. 
Rochester, N. Y. Charles A. Green. 



ing over the Wissahickon hills and is closing in upon its hiding 
place. This means that the Trailing Arbutus, and manv 
another wild beauty, will soon be lost to us. JosephMeehan. 



Peat Muck for Trees or Lawns. — The cleanings of ponds, or 
peat-muck dug out of the swamps, if carted into a heap on dry 
ground and left there for one or two winters to freeze and pul- 
verize, is then in capital condition to mix with soil fortreesand 
shrubs. Indeed, it is the best thing we can add to the soil for 
this purpose. It has an excellent effect on nearly every kmd of 
loamy, gravelly or sandy soils. Its free use on clayey lands 
renders them more open and congenial to tree and other plant 
roots, and less liable to bake and crack in summer. On gravelly 
andsandy land it has an ameliorating and fertilizing influence ; 
besides, it enables the land to hold manure better than it did 
before the muck had been used. Jarvis Field — the base-ball 
grounds at Harvard College — was leveled, graded and laid 
down fresh to grass some years ago. The land is very sandy ; 
indeed, so sandy, that, unassisted by clay, loam or muck, a good 
stand of grass could not be jiroduced and retained on it. As 
any quantity of muck could be had conveniently, it was freely 
used, and a good sward secured. The idea is sometimes en- 
tertained that about as much muck as manure will be sufti- 
cient. But in preparing holes for trees, one-fourth the bulk of 
the soil of m uck will be little enough. On sandy land for grass, 
a layer three tosix inches deepallover, and this well plowe'dand 
harrowed into the ground, but still kept near the surface, will 
be none too much. But muck alone will not retain a vigorous 
sod ; surface-dressings of manure should also be used. Lawns, 
in making which muck has been freely used, should be well 
rolled early every spring, else the frost will leave their surface 
puckered and uneven. W. F. 



Transplanting the Arbutus. — The trailing Arbutus is so rarely 
seen in cultivation that there is some color for the prevalent 
opinion that it is difficult to transplant. If there is a serious dis- 
turbance of the root the plant nearly always dies, but I have 
transplanted it many dmes with perfect success. The work has 
always been done in early spring, just after the flowering is 
over. A trowel or spade is run down well around the jjlant, 
so that a good ball of earth comes with it. Sturdy, small, 
bushy plants are the best. Of course a shady place should be 
selected for it. I once set a ])lant among son'ie rocks in a hol- 
low, shaded by trees ; anotlier time at the foot of a small 
hillock facing north, in both of which situations it flourished 
and flowered. About Philadelphia tlie east bank of the Wis- 
sahickon is a. favorite spot for this plant, but the city is spread- 



Petalostemon decumbens is one of the good hardy herbaceous 
plants that bloom in May. Its flowers are borne in dense 
spikes of rose throughout the summer. It is one of the legumes, 
and very distinct, rare and beautiful. It is most suitable for 
the alpine garden. An established plant will cover nearly a 
square yard ; and as it dies back every fall to an unbranched 
woody rootstock, from which all decumbent flowering stems 
arise, it remains much of the same size and condition for 
years, and can never become a nuisance like some other 
pretty plants, by becoming too obtrusive. It reaches a height 
of six or eight inches. T. D. Hatfield. 



The Forest. 



The Forest Vegetation of Northern Mexico.- 



-II. 



WisUzeni, Walson Cottonwood.* — 
was purposely conveyed in the 



Populus Frenioniii, var. 
Though the impression 

preceding article that, the high plains of North Mexico are 
destitute of arborescent vegetation, a few unimportant ex- 
ceptions must be mentioned. Conspicuous among these 
is this Cottonwood, which rears high its rounded head of 
abundant bright green foliage, in striking contrast through- 
out most of the year with the gray and brown tints of the 
surrounding landscape. This tree is not abundant, be- 
cause water is not abundant ; for it is a sure index of the, 
presence of living water either on the surface of the soil or 
not far below it. It grows scatteringly along streams or 
clustered about springs. Its centre of distribution is on 
the Rio Grande, and it follows this river northward to its 
upper waters in south Colorado and the tributaries of this 
river from whatever direction into their narrower mountain 
canons. Westward it ranges along the boundary quite to 
the Pacific, and southward extensively through the valleys 
of Mexico, and there often carried by man considerably 
l)eyond its indigenous limits. 

Cheering to the traveler over heated and dusty hills and 
])lains is the sight of its shining leafage with promise of 
refreshing shade and water. The Mexicans seem to regard 
this tree with sentiments similar to those cherished by the 
Orientals for the Palm or the New Englander for the Maple. 
They plant it by the water, convenient to which they have 
built their dvi'ellings, and set it along their irrigating ditches. 
No visitor to JMexico but has noticed and admired that pe- 
culiar feature of Mexican cities, the avenue of grand old 
Poplars, double-lined on each side it may be, kept alive 
and flourishing, if on high ground, by streams of water 
conducted along the rows. The Spanish name for the Cot- 
tonwood — for any species of Poplar, in fact — is Alamo, 
that for this avenue Alameda, a noun having the form of 
the perfect participle — that is to say, the Poplared place. 

Perhaps it is owing to this sentiment as much as to his 
proverbial inertia, that the Mexican so generally withholds 
his axe from his Alamos. I have never seen the tree sys- 
tematically pollarded for firewood in Mexico, as is the 
practice of Americans in southern California. Seldom is it 
robbed of its branches, unless they are wanted for plant- 
ing. In this matter, as in so many others, the Mexican 
shows his lack of enterprise. His scanty supply of fuel is 
mostly gleaned amongst Scrub Oaks of mountain sides or 
the paltry shrubbery of mesas, and brought by pack trains 
of donkej's through ten or twenty weary miles, when much 
of it might be grown on stumps along the waste borders of 
the valley stream or in its torrent-swept gravel. 

Nevertheless, when necessity compels, the Alamo, yield- 
ing in many places almost the only procurable timber of 
much size, serves, as I have seen, for the few purposes be- 
sides fuel required by these simple people — for beams of 
inferior quality to support the earth covering of the poorer 
dwellings, mere mud hovels, for crotched posts of bough- 
covered porches and sheds attached to these, for the huge 
bars and bar posts and the stockade of corrals for cattle, 

* See illustration, paee 104. 



io6 



Garden and Forest. 



[April 25, 18 



and even in the construction of the wheels, frame and pole 
(each six or eight inches thick) of the cumbersome carts of 
the country. 

Associated with the Cottonwood, one sometimes meets 
with a few scattered specimens of Sd//'x nigra, the Black 
Willow, in size and aspect, as well as in species, 
identical with the common Willow of the United States. 
Its tough, strong and easily worked wood is used by the 
Mexicans for making saddle-trees. 

Salix irrorata, a Willow which, among the mountains 
of Colorado, grows but six or eight feet high, sometimes 
in Chihuahua follows the streams from mountain caiions 
down to the plains, and makes in alluvial soil a small 
tree. 

Salix taxifolia, here, as in Southern Arizona, at home 
along the gravelly alluviums of streams, makes a small 
tree with a single straight trunk. 

Fraxinus pistacice folia, the Mexican Ash, often comes 
out of the mountains in the same way, and in fer- 
tile, well-watered valleys makes a large and beautiful tree, 
two to three feet in diameter and fifty or sixty feet in height. 
Tlierefore it is often planted along with the Cottonwood in 
towns and about the haciendas of the rich. The (juality of 
its timber, however, is far inferior to that of the northern 
Wliite Ash. 

Sambuctis Mexicana, the Mexican Elder, sparsely scat- 
tered through bottom-lands, attains a diameter of 
nearly a foot and a height of fifteen to twenty. With its 
rotund head of dense, deep-green foliage, its white flowers 
and its edible fruit, it often gains a place about Mexican 
houses. 

Jughuis rupestris, the Black Walnut of the South- 
west, frequently leaves mountain cafions, even following 
down arrqyos dry throughout most of the year. Its average 
diameter in such situations is twelve to eighteen inches 
and height twenty to thirty feet. With its low, wide- 
spreading branches, covered with smooth, light-gray bark, 
it resembles, when not in leaf, the fig-tree. Its nuts, less 
than an inch in diameter, when freed from their rind, are 
too meagre to be much prized even in a country where 
there are no nut-bearing trees except Oaks and Pines. 

Cel/is occiden/alis, var. re/iculala, the Hackberry in 
similar situations, a small tree about a foot in diameter 
at best, is the only remaining arborescent species of the 
high northern plains worthy of mention. 

C. G. Pringie 



Correspondence. 



Notes on the Norway Pine. 

THIS pine is at home in Minnesota. The young frees have 
the sturdy appearance of the .Scotch and Austrian pines, 
and would they not with equal care prove more beautiful ? 
Cold does not warp the leaves, while the White Pine and the 
White Cedar have a pinched and frozen appearance with a tem- 
perature of 40° F. 

The groves of mature trees of Norway Pine form a green 
roof supported by bronze pillars ; light, open, and breezy ; in 
marked contrast with the dark and brushy White Pine woods. 
The Norway cannot rival the queenliness of the mature 
White Pine, however. Norway pine is the hardiest and most 
]iroductive timber produced on the sandy and gravelly ridges 
and knolls of nortliern Minnesota. Three measvn-ements of 
Red Pines are as follows : 



Age. 



* No I * 36 years 

"■ I lOI " 

( 36 " 

) lOI 



t No. 2. 



J No. 3.. 



'9 

140 



Diameter in inches 


Feet of kin 


three teet from 


ber, boaitl 


the ground. 


measure. 


12 




19 


360 


ny^ 




23 


640 


9 




20 


5S0 



• Injured by fire during fifteenth year. 

t Near foot of hill, fifty feet from other Norway trees. 

% Average tree. 

"Jack Pine" (Pinus Banksiana) is the natural nurse of Nor- 
way pine timber in this region. H. Jl. Ayii's. 



To the Editor of Garden and Forest : 

I am glad to see that an experienced and learned planter like 
Mr. Dana condemns in such unmistakable language the Norway 
.Spruce. No tree (for no other foreign tree has ever been so 
generally planted) has ever so injured the appearance of our 
[ilantations. But it is surprising that Mr. Dana, with all his 
observation and experience, should find any praise for the 
Austrian Pine. This is certainly one of the poorest trees ever 
introduced into this countiy. It is only necessary to see the 
specimens which were planted in the Central Park, in this city, 
twenty-five or thirty years ago, to be convinced of this. They 
vie with the Norway Spruces and Scotch Pines in their shabby 
and disreputalile appearance. These three are the most un- 
satisfactory trees which have ever been planted in America. 
The fact that they are very hardy, and grow very fast during a 
few years, only makes theirsubsequent want of vigor the more 
disappointing. The Austrian Pine pushes out vigorously 
when it is young, but even in its best days it appears lumpy and 
heavy. Asit gets older it grows thinner and thinner, borers attack 
the trunk, and fi ranches die and fall off. Even in the mountains of 
southern Austria, where the species flourishes, it is never a 
large or picturesque tree, and no wise man will ever plant it 
with the expectation of its lasting more than a few years. Our 
native Red or Norway Pine is the best substitute for either the 
Scotch or the Austrian Pine ; just as our native White .Spruce 
is the best sufistitute for the Norway Spruce. The Red Pine is 
a graceful tree of agreeable color and rapid growth; it is very 
hardy and will flourish on poor soil. 

Why does not Mr. Dana mention the Douglas Fir, which 
now promises to become one of the most valual:ile of all 
our ornamental Conifers ? It has proved itself to be an ex- 
ceedingly valuable and attractive tree in England, where there 
are specimens more than one hundred feet high. It has been 
cultivated in this part of the United States for a quarter of a 
century, or since its discovery in Colorado, and there is not one 
of tlie new Conifers which now promises so much. 

Among the foreign trees which Mr. Dana extols is Abies 
hi-achyphylla. The color of this plant is a beautiful dark green, 
and it grows upward with great vigor, but its strength is in the 
top. The lower branches are weak (and this is true of the 
nearly related A. Veitchii) and become overshadowed by 
those above. The result will be that plants of this species by 
the time they are twenty or twenty-five years old will be bare 
at the bottom as a specimen of Abies firma, the most un- 
sightly of Conifers in this climate. But there are other Jap- 
anese Conifers of the greatest merit and much promise wliich 
I should like to add to Mr. Dana's list. At the head of these I 
place Picea AJajieiisis, which in most collections is cultivated 
imder the erroneously applied name of P. Alcockiana, another 
and much less desirable species of northern Japan, closely 
related to, if not identical with, the Siberian P. obovata. Picea 
Ajancnsis is perhaps the handsomest Spruce which can be 
grown in this climate, for, unfortunately, we cannot have in 
perfection the lovely and graceful Himalayan Spruce, P. 
Siiiithiana. Another Japanese Conifer of great beauty and 
liromise is Thuya Japonica, improperly called in most gardens 
Thuvopsis Standishii. Pinus parviflora is a small and grace- 
ful Wliite Pine which should lind a place in every collection. It 
is perfectly hardy ; and so too is the Corean Pine, P. Koraiensis, 
one of the most desirable and attractive of the five-leaved Pines. 
It is neveralarge tree, liutisa very beautiful one, and is better in 
color even than our native White Pine, and much denser in ap- 
pearance, as it retains the leaves on the branches during three or 
four seasons instead of for a sinsj'le year. The other Japanese 
Pines, P. Thunheygii and P. densiflora, are very hardy, but they 
have no ornamental value. There are several other Conifers 
which should promise well in this climate, such as Pinus Mur- 
rayana and P. monticola, from the mountains of western 
America ; Piniis Peiiclie and Picea 0OT<ir/7vj from south-eastern 
Europe ; Abies Davidiana, from northern China, which will 
probably turn out to be a second species of Keeileria, and sev- 
eral others. I hope Mr. Dana will give your readers his expe- 
rience with these and other plants in his large and interesting 
collection. Strobiis. 

New Yorli City, .ipril Sth. 

[We are glad of an opportunity to publish the experi- 
ences of planters with new trees. They should all be 
planted here and carefully tested. The introduction of one 
first rate tree will repay a thousand failures. It must be 
borne in mind, however, that we really know very little 
)'et about Japanese and many other exotic Conifers, and still 



April 25, 1888.] 



Garden and Forest. 



107 



very little about those from Colorado — much less than we 
did about the Norway Spruce, when it was thought to be 
the best Conifer that could be planted in America. The 
time may come when we shall learn that they are all un- 
reliable. It takes a long time to test the adaptability of a 
tree to a peculiar climate, and such e.xperiments should be 
carried on in public establishments, where time and the 
chances of failure are not important elements, or by indi- 
viduals who are willing to devote their time and money to 
such experiments for the sake of the experiments them- 
selves. It is to such planters that we owe in this country 
most of our knowledge of foreign trees. Those persons 
who cannot afford to make experiments or run risks vidth 
their plantations should plant only such trees as have been 
thoroughly tested and are known to flourish in this 
country. — Ed.] 

To the Editor of Garden and Forest : -. 

Sir. — hi the inhospitable climate of New England, the first sight 
of the fragile flowers of the Hepatica with its delicate hues, 
opening m some sheltered spot, before the Winter has fairly 
gone, always brings a thrill of delight. 

Bigelow, in his " Florula Bostoniensis," thus gracefully speaks 
of the Hepatica : " Tliis tlelicate little plant is one of the ear- 
liest visitors in spring, flowering in sunny spots before the 
snow has left tlie ground. The flowers appear on hairy scapes 
before the leaves. I'etals olilong obtuse, purple, sometimes 
white." It is, however, more especially as an indication of the 
comparative earlincssof differentsprings that I wished to sijcak 
of this flower, having recorded its first appearance in the same 
locality and mostly on the same plants, for the past twenty-six 
springs. 

The following are the dates in the several years ; 

April 26th, 1863. 
" 24th, 1864. 
2d, 1865. 
" 15th, 1866. 
7th, 1867. 
" igdi, 1868. 
" nth, 1869. 
loth, 1870. 
Marcli igth, 1871. 
April i2th, 1872. 
8th, 1873. 
May 3d, 1874. 
April nth, 1875. 

Chestnut Hill, Mass. 



Marc 


h 30th 


1876. 


" 


ntli 


1877. 


" 


lodi 


, 1878. 


April 


Sth, I 


879. 


March 2d, 


8S0. 


Api-i 


3d, 1881. 


Marc 


h 5th, 


1882. 


Apri 


1st, I 


383. 


" 


13th, 


1884. 


" 


15th, 


1885. 


Marc 


h 1 8th 


, 1886. 


" 


2ISt 


1887. 


" 


23d, 


1888. 




L 


. D. Sladc 



To the Editor of Garden and Forest : 

Sir.— Will some reader of Garden and F(jrest tell me if a 
Savin would grow under the shade of a Horse-Chestnut whose 
lowest branches are ten feet from the ground. Tlie grass is 
poisoned by the drip. Blue Laurel or Periwinkle does well under 
similar circumstances. If Savin is unsuitable what can be 
planted ? Could Honeysuckle or Jackman Clematis ? 

Providence, March 2C)th. Jiiy _ 

[Undoubtedly the best plant to grow under the dense 
shade of a Horse-Chestnut tree is the Periwinkle, which 
thrives in such situations and makes an attractive appear- 
ance throughout the year. If this plant is used the space 
under the tree to be cox'ered should be carefully forked 
over and enriched with well rotted stable-manure, and if a 
dressing of fresh soil can be added it will greatly improve 
the bed. Strong, well rooted plants only should be set 
twelve to eighteen inches apart. They should be freely 
watered during the first season, as the roots of the Horse- 
Chestnut will absorb a great deal of moisture and so make 
the surface soil dry. Dwarf Junipers or "Savins" would 
suffer from drought and shade and give little satisfaction 
in such a situation, and so would Honeysuckle or Clematis. 
The Rose of Sharon, or Aaron's Beard {Hy pericum calyci- 
iitivi), a dwarf and very beautiful, almost evergreen shrub 
from south-eastern Europe, is very generally used in En- 
gland to clothe the ground under the shade of trees. It is 
admirably suited for this purpose, but in New England, 
except, perhaps, in the extreme southern part, it would 
require a slight protection in winter. We shall be glad to 



hear of the experience of our readers with this plant, which 
is not sufficiently known or appreciated in this country. — 
Ed.] 

To the Editor Garden and Forest : 

Sir. — It is well known that the old Azalea Indica alba is per- 
fectly hardy as far north as New York City, and also that Azalea 
aiiuvna and its relatives are hardy. But who knows that other 
varieties of the showy Indian Azaleas are not hardy ? These 
plants have always been high priced, and growers have not ex- 
perimented witli them much in the open air. There is here an 
opportunity for some of the new experiment stations to do a 
good turn for landscape gardeners l)y makinj,' tests of tlie hardi- 
ness of all these showy plants. I am inclined to think that there 
are many hard-wood green-house shrubs that can be grown in 
the open air further north than we now imagine. Trees of 
Citrus irifoliata, which I planted in northern Maryland eight 
years ago, bore fruit last year, as stated by a correspondent of 
the Americaji Farmer. These trees the flrst year they were 
planted went through a cold wave, in which the mercury fell to 
18° below zero, without the loss of a twig. The fruit of tliis 
Citrus is about the size of a green Walnut with the hull on, with 
thick skinandisbitterto the taste. It is good, however, for mar- 
malade. The trees, with their golden fruit, are highly orna- 
mental, and when leafless they are still attractive from the 
l>riglit green color of the bark. This Orange is a valuable plant 
for hedges on accoiuit of its dwarf and dense growth and ter- 
rible thorns. When the seed becomes more plentiful it will no 
doulit take the place of all other hedge plants where it is hardy. 
Here also is work for experiment stations in raising hybrids of 
a more or less hardy nature liy crossing this hardy Japanese 
species with the varieties that bear luscious fruit in Florida. It 
is not impossible that in this way the Orange belt might be 
moved much north of its present limit. 

Miikr School, Va. /'. F. Massey. 

[Experiments in testing the hardiness of trees and shrubs 
are made continuously in this country in both public and 
private establishments, and one of the duties of Garden 
AND Forest is to record and make known the results of such 
experiments as soon as they appear conclusive. The 
trouble with the Indian Azalea as an out-door plant, even 
very much further south than this latitude, is, that while it 
may be sufficiently hardy to withstand the cold of ordinary 
winters, it has not the reserve strength of constitution to 
enable it to survive the exceptionally cold waves which 
pass over this country every few years. South of Virginia 
the Indian Azalea is one of the most beautiful shrubs which 
can be grown, as March and April visitors to Wr. Drayton's 
charming gardens near Charleston can testify ; and it is 
surprising that this plant is not more often seen in our 
Southern cities. North of 'Virginia the Indian Azalea 
should only be planted as an experiment, and with the 
expectation that unusually cold weather will kill it outright, 
or at least cut it down to the ground. Citrus irifoliata is 
hardy here ; at least a plant has grown and flowered freely 
in a sheltered spot in the Central Park for many years. 
This little Orange, however, must be grown more exten- 
sively before its perfect hardiness at the North is demon- 
strated. — Ed.] 



Flower and Fruit Pictures at the Academy of 
Design. 

nPHE flower and fruit paintings which may now be seen at 
A the Academy of Design cannot, as a whole, be included 
among the pictures which give the exhibition its character as 
the best that has yet been held. They are not very numerous, 
and a diligent search reveals scarcely half-a-dozen which 
can be called even toleralily good. The best American 
painters of flowers are not represented — neither Mr. LaFarge 
nor Mr. Alden Weir, both of whom paint flowers beauti- 
ftdly in the most poetic way, and neither Miss Greatorex nor 
Mr. Carlsen, both of whom are singularly successful in treat- 
ing them from the decorative point of view. Several ambitious 
attempts at a decorative treatment of showy flowers may be 
found. But Mrs. Dillon is not up to her usual level in either 
her " Roses " or her " Chrysanthemums " — both being painted 
in a soft, cottony fashion. Mr. C. C. Coleman, too, is hardly up 
to his average in his picture of purple Magnolias in a purple 



io8 



Garden and Forest. 



[April 25, 1888. 



jar (ugly enough to have been Rosamond's in Miss Edge- 
worth's famous story), relieved against a purple velvet hang- 
ing — his flowers are painted with little tenderness or charm, 
and his color scheme is sombre and unattractive. And as for 
Mr. John F. Weir's large picture of Peonies, it quite deserves 
that an action for libel be brought against it. 

Little variety is shown in the choice of subjects. Roses and 
Clirysanthemums preponderate — the best being Mr. Ramsey's 
[link and yellow Roses on a pink cloth, and Mr. Binford Mc- 
Closkey's yellow and white Chrysanthemums against a dark 
red background. But neither of these pictures is remarkable, 
and not much can be said in praise of any of the Hollyhocks, 
Pansies or Geraniums, which include almost all the other 
flower paintings. The best of them are very prosaic in effect, 
and if prose in painting is ever to be condemned as such, it 
must surely be in the case of pictures of flowers — unless, of 
course, they are intended to have a merely documentary, 
scientific value, in which case the higher canons of art cannot 
be applied to them. The very essence of a flower that is worth 
painting at all is that it has poetic quality of some kind — either 
of the bold, brilliant and emphatic kind which touches senti- 
ment on its more sensuous side, or of the idyllic, subtile kind 
which touches it in its tenderest and most delicate fibres. 
Tliere is music in the blare of trumpets as well as in the tones 
of a violin; and so there is pictorial poetry in Chrysanthemums 
and Peonies as well as in the Wild Rose and the Narcissus. 
And whoever paints either the one or the other without trans- 
lating and accentuating this sentiment, fails in the essentials of 
his task, however correctly he may seem to have drawn and 
colored, however gracefully he may have grouped his flowers. 
From this point of view there seemed to me only one really 
good piece of flower painting in this exhibition — Miss Conkey's 
simple little picture of pink Chinese Primroses in a broken 
liasket has much more true sentiment in it, more truth to the 
charm of its subject, more tenderness and poetry than any of 
the others. 

The fruit pictures, among which I beg leav^e to include two 
or three excellent pictures of Onions, are much better as a rule 
than the flowers. Mr. W. J. McCloskey has done excellent 
technical work in his little painting of Tangerine Oranges 
wrapped in white papers; Mr. Conely's " Pan of Apples" is very 
good; and Mr. Harry Eaton's "Fruit" — Oranges and black 
Grapes on a white cloth — is admirable. There is very clever 
handling in it, and there is also the great desideratum — a touch 
of true pictorial sentiment. 

If it seems to be difficult to paint flowers well, and especially 
Roses, what must it be to carve them in marble ? Yet even 
this task is not beyond the power of a good artist. The Roses 
which the lady holds in her hand whom Mr. St. Gaudens has 
portrayed in a marble low-relief, are absolutely perfect in their 
truth to the grace, the delicacy and the poetry of the flower. 

Jlf. G. van Rensselaer. 



Vanilla Flower and its Fertilization, JSullctin, Royal 
Gardens, Kew ; March. 

Urena Tenax, Bulletin, Royal Gardens, Kew ; March. A 
valuable fibre plant from Natal. 



Recent Plant Portraits. 

Odontoglossum crispum Gouvilleanum, Revue Hortiiole, 
March i6th. 

Prunus Capuli, Revue Horticole, March i6th. The plant here 
figured appears to fie Prunus serotina, which is sometimes 
seen in Frencli nurseries under the name of P. Capuli, a 
Mexican and South American tree for which the oldest pub- 
lished name is P. salicifolia. 

CraSSULA LACTEA, Gardener's Chronicle, March loth. 

Begonia Lubbersii, Gardener's Chronicle, March loth. 

Phal/ENOP.SIS, JohnSeden, Gardener's Chronicle, March lytli. 
A hybrid raised in the establishment of the Messrs. Veitch from 
P. ainabilis oi Blume, crossed with the pollen of P. Laddenian- 
niana. The flower is described as " three inches in diamater, 
ivory white, densely and vniiformly spotted all over lioth 
sepals and petals with small dots of a beautiful light purple, 
the lip sulfused with light rc)Sy pm'ple." 

CARYcri'A .soBOLIFERA, Gardener's Chronicle, March I7tli. 

H YACINTHUS CORYMBO.SUS, Bullcliito dela R Socicta Toscana di 
Orticultura, Fel.iruary. A dwarf purple-flowered Cape species. 

Pear ; Pierre Tourasse, Bulletinodcla R. Socicta Toscana di 
Orticultura, Fefiruary. 

Tea R<j,se ; Mademoiselle Francisca KrIjger, Journal 
des Roses, March. 

Gladiolus Oberprosident von Seyderretz ; Gartenjlora, 
March. A semi-double and not very attractive variet}'. 

Begonia Lubbersii, Revue de V Horticulture Beige, March. A 
showy Brazilian species with pale flowers and beautifully 
marked foliage. 

Odontoglossum Insleayi, var. Leopardinum, Revue de 
V Horticulture Beige, March. 



Retail Flower Markets. 

New York, April zoth. 

Trade is generally good throughout the city. It is lirisk in Broad- 
way shops that catch the cream of it, as a rule. The supply of cut 
flowers is very full, yet really choice flowers are scarce. (July per- 
fectly grown Roses, thath.ive not been injured after having been cut, 
will satisfy the patrons o£ florists in first-class localities ; but selected 
hybrids bring 75 cts. The average run of them are sold for 50 cts. 
Puritan Roses cost 40 cts. Very large La France — and tliere are some 
grand specimens brought in from Hudson River localities — are offered 
for 50 cts. each. Tliere are quantities of indift'erently grown ones ar- 
riving, which bring $3 a dozen. Catherine Mermets have improved in 
quality ; tliey sell for %i and'$3 a dozen. Bride Roses are 20 cts. each, 
and Perlesdes Jardins, Souvenir d'un Ami, Papa Gmifier and Niphetos 
cost $1 a dozen. There are a limited number of Papa Gontiers arriv- 
ing, which are very large and handsomely colored, that bring $2 a 
dozen. Mde. Cusins costs $1.25 a dozen and William Francis Bennetts 
are $1.50. Tliere is a glut of Lilium longijlorum, the best of which are 
sold for $3 a dozen. These flowers were disposed of for $5 a hundred 
early in the week, at wholesale. Callas cost 25 cts. each. The aver- 
age Lilies-of-the- Valley of indifferent quality bring 75 cts. a dozen, and 
the best bring $1. Tulips, Daffodils, Roman Hyacinths and Poet's 
Narcissus cost 75 cts. a dozen. Cut spikes of Dutch Hyacinths sell for 
$1.50 a dozen. Daisies are 25 cts. a dozen, and Meteor Marigold is 
50 cts. a dozen. Mignonette is very handsome, and brings from 50 cts. 
to 81 a dozen. Both white and purple Lilacs are of excellent ciualily, 
(ind are in good demand at ^2 a bunch. Violets are opening their eyes, 
and becoming poor. They bring from 75 cts. to $1,503 dozen. Orchids 
are so scarce that the shops show none. Gardenias bring S3 a dozen. 
Smilax is 40 cts. a string, and Aspa)-agus temussiiiius is 50 cts. a yard. 



PHILADEI.rHIA, April sotli. 

There has been no serious break in the flower market, no glut, since 
the heavy Easter traffic, owing to the numerous dinners, receptions, wed- 
dings and other festal gatherings in society. Good flowers are plenti- 
ful, excepting Lilies-of-the- Valley. The price of these, however, re- 
mains at $1 per dozen. Tulips are steady at the same quotation. 
Owing to flie great numbers of the single Trumpet Daffodil which are 
now blooming freely in the open air, the price has dropped to 50 cts. 
per dozen ; Van Sion, the double variety, which can only be obtained 
in quantity from green-houses, holds to the price of $1 per dozen. 
Plants in full flower of varieties of Primula vulgaris are becoming 
more plentiful. The strain in cultivation here is now so mixed by 
cross fertilization, that it is difficult to distinguish the Polyanthus of our 
youth from the English Primrose, or, rather, we, have Polyanthuses 
with flowers of the English Primrose. They are \-ery showy and 
beautiful. One of the most effective uses to which they can be put is, 
when growing in two-and-one-half or three-inch pots, to arrange them 
as growing plants in plateaus for dinner-table or other decorations. 
Forget-me-not is used in the same way. Jaciiueminot Roses sell at 
$3 per dozen. American Beauty, Mrs. John Laing, Baroness Roths- 
child, and its white variety, Merveille de Lyons, sell at from $4 to $5 per 
dozen. French Marguerites sell at 25 cts. per dozen; Carnations 35 cts.; 
Astilile 50 cts. per dozen sprays. Smilax remains scarce. Asparagus 
teninssimus is plentiful and very fine. At a recent dinner an effective 
centre piece was a flat, circular basket, five feet in diameter, filled with 
Callas, from which yellow Tulips arose. 



Boston, April 20th. 

The cut flower market continues in an unsettled condition, the re- 
sult ]trincii>ally of o\'er production. The ]iast winter has been unfa- 
vorable to heavy cropping, this being especially true regarding Roses, 
and now the plants seem to be bent on making up for lost time. So 
flowers are too plenty and prices unusually low. I3ut this condition is 
not caused by a reduced demand, for it is xcxy e-\ddent from the num- 
ber of buyers, and the enormous quantities of flowers handled, that 
flowers are not in the least losing their hold on our people. Corsage 
bouquets of Roses and spring flowers are very generally worn on the 
street, and have become almost an essential part of a lady's theatre 
costume. Such varieties as the Poet's Narcissus, Mignonette, Forget- 
me-not and Violets are extremely popular for this purpose. There 
seems to be a very general dislike of strong-scented flowers. Dutch 
Hyacinths, which are now abundant, are almost unsalable, for no 
other reason, apparently, than their heavy odor. Though offered in 
almost every color of the rainbow, and dazzlingly brilliant in mixed 
collections, these good qualities seem to count for nothing. Violets 
are getting quite small, as they always do on the approach of warm 
weather, but they are not abundant, and sell readily for 75 cts. per 
bunch. Roses remain as at last report, with a downward tendency in 
prices. Carnations, like Violets, are seen reduced in size, and they 
are abundant and cheap. Lilies of all kinds are offered in large quan- 
tities at low figures. They make more show in large decorations than 
anything else that can be obtained at present for the same price. 
Bullions flowers of all kinds are plenty, fn general, the prices and 
quantities of flowers offered are such that, for the present, at least, no 
one need be without them. 



9 



May 



Garden and Forest. 



109 



GARDEN AND FOREST. 

PUBLISHED WEEKLY 1!Y 

THE GARDEN AND FOREST PUBLISHING CO. 

[ LIMITED.] 

Office : Tribune Building, New York. 



Conducted by Professor C. S. Sargent. 



ENTERED AS SECOND-CLASS MATTER AT THE POST OFFICE AT NEW YORK, N. Y. 



NEW YORK, WEDNESDAY, MAY 2, 1888. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



PAGF. 

Editorial Articles ; — American Cemeteries. — Plans for Small Places. — Cut 

Flowers and Growing Plants. — Notes 109 

Plan for^ Small Homestead (with two ilhistrations). .Fred'k Law Olitisied. 11 1 

Foreign Corresi'ON'DEN'CE :— London Letter William Goldring, 113 

New or Little Known Plants : — Hyinenocallis humilis [with illustration), 

Seriino Watson. 114 

Cultural Department : — Hybrid Aquilegias Josiah Hoopcs. 114 

Rhus cotinoides. — Heucliera santjuinea. — Myosotis dissitiilora splen- 
dens. — Scmpervi\ urns. — " Dutch " Bulbs. — Spring Flowers. — Cutting 
Asparagus. — Andromeda floribunda. — Pansies 114 

Effect of the Winter t>n Evergreens William Falconer . 115 

Notes from the Arnold Arboretum J. G. jfack. 117 

The Forest: — The Forest Vegetation of Northern Me,\ico, IlL . . . C G. Fringle. 117 

Resin in the American White Pine Dr. H. Ulayr. 117 

Correspondence 118 

Recent Publications 119 

Periodical Literature 119 

Recent Plant Portraits 120 

Public Works : — Central Park 120 

Retail Flower Markets: — New York, Philadelphia, Boston 120 

Illustrations ; — Plan for a Small Homestead, Figs, i and 2 1 11 and 113 

Hvmenocaliis humilis, Fig. 23 114 

A Mesquit Forest in Arizona 116 



American Cemeteries. 



THERE is nothing- in this country to which foreign 
writers give more praise than to our cemeteries. 
The student of social customs sees in them one of the 
cliief proofs we give of genuine sentiment on tlie one hand 
and wise sanitary foresight on the other ; and the student 
of art and nature sees in tliem our most characteristic 
and best achievements in the art of landscape gardening. 
Their size, their park-like arrangement, their remoteness 
from the local centres of population, and the care and 
neatness with which they are kept, are held up to foreign 
communities as points in which they would do vi'ell to 
imitate us. Certainly, as contrasted with the formal, 
walled-in, crowded, dreary, sun-baked or weed-grown 
cemeteries seen in most foreign lands, ours deserve 
much praise. But they are not what they ought to be. 
Excellent in intention, they are too often bad in e.xecution. 
No e.xpenditure of mone)'', pains or skill is wanting, but in 
directing this expenditure we too often make grievous 
errors. 

The cause of these errors, as one of our contributors has 
recently pointed out, is that we do not abide by the gen- 
eral idea with which the place was set aside for this special 
service. The characteristic feature of American cemeteries 
is that they are rural, no matter how large may be the 
communities for which they serve. But this characteristic 
we do our best to conceal or destroy. Nature is asked to 
take our dead in charge, and then we do a thousand things 
to ruin the repose, the sanctity and beauty which she is 
ready to provide. Too many and too prominent roads 
and walks are made, giving the cemetery the aspect of a 
place for pleasure promenades rather than for the retire- 
ment of those whose dead it holds. We take pains to 
make ample allowance of space to each purchaser of 
ground, partly that for his sake the graves shall not be too 
closely crowded and partly that they shall not destroy the 
unity and repose of the landscape. And then we often nul- 



lify our efforts by enclosing the lots with heavy railings 
and'by building huge and showy monuments. We think 
we want a natural landscape, and then we plant the ceme- 
tery — not the private lots alone, but the parts which have 
been preserved intact for the sake of landscape beauty — 
with tropical plants, formal beds of gaudy flowers, and rib- 
bon-patterns, borders, and endless puerile devices, wrought 
with bright-foliaged plants, which only support our cli- 
mate a few weeks or months and then disappear, leaving 
dreary nakedness behind. In short, we lose sight of the main 
purpose for which the cemetery was designed, fail to keep 
any general idea or scheme in mind, and instead of a rural 
burial-ground produce something which is a meaningless, 
unnatural and essentially vulgar compound of a cemetery, 
a park, a horticultural exhibition and a collection of works 
of architecture and sculpture. And this we do by means 
of a vast waste of pains and money. No one who has 
not inquired into such matters can imagine what it costs 
to plant out year by year the exotics which are supposed 
to adorn our cemeteries, and to winter them from one year 
to another. Few realize the degree to which cemetery 
companies now compete with one another in this direc- 
tion, bidding for public patronage by means of costly hor- 
ticultural establishments and verbose advertisements of 
their horticultural resources and achievements. All this is 
wrong — wrong from the point of view of good sense, from 
the point of view of true sentiment, and from the point of 
view of art. The true ideal for the making of an American 
cemeter)'-, whether large or small, is this : That spot should 
be selected of which the natural charms are greatest in 
direction of peacefulness and the harmony which means 
variety in unity. Its features should be as carefully pre- 
served as possible in laying out the walks and drives, 
which should not be more numerous than actually required 
for purposes of burial and of visiting the graves. Such 
planting as is needful should be done in a way to com- 
plete the existing beauty, and accentuate, not disturb, the 
natural character of the spot. Costly exotics should not 
be introduced, no showy tlower-beds allowed, no formal 
arrangements of planting of any kind permitted. They 
are out of keeping alike with the kind of beauty that is 
desired and with the spirit in which a cemetery is properly 
visited. Owners of lots should not be allowed to surround 
them with railings. They are palpably useless ; they arc 
glaringly injurious to unity and repose of effect ; they 
serve merely to display proprietorship, and nothing can 
be in worse taste than such a display in such a place. 
Owners should be encouraged, too, to make their monu- 
ments not only as artistic, but as simple and unobtrusive 
as possible. Only a great man, one to whose grave 
future generations are likely to make pilgrimages, is en- 
titled to have his resting place conspicuously inarked ; 
and even he does not need that it should be thus marked. 
Something which will indicate where a body lies and 
whose body it is, while disturbing as little as possible the 
unity and peacefulness of the scene — this is what a grave- 
stone should be. It is needless to say that color as well as 
form should be considered with this fact in mind. Granite 
is the best possible, our favorite white marble the worst 
possible, material for cemetery monuments ; and a flat 
slab is preferable to a vertical shaft or stone. If large 
boulders chance to be strewn over the ground nothing is 
more appropriate for monuments, a simple inscription 
being cut upon a space made smooth for the purpose, 
while the rest of the moss-grown or vine-covered surface re- 
mains in its natural condition. Owners should be restrained 
in their desire to plant showy flowers about the graves — 
should be taught that it is not justifiable for them to 
indulge their p'ersonal wishes in this way if they conflict 
with the greatest good of the greatest number as pro- 
vided for "in the peaceful unity of aspect that the ceme- 
tery as a whole should have. And finally, while the cem- 
etery should be carefully kept and tended, there must be 
no e\'ident straining after excessive finish as the most 
desirable of all quali"ties in all portions of the grounds. 



I lO 



Garden and Forest. 



[May 



Plans for Small Places. 

MORE than once the request has come to us to publish a 
plan for a small suburban building lot, and to this the 
natural reply has been: "What lot?" Such plans cannot be 
furnished like ready-made clothing, in assorted sizes and 
warranted to fit any piece of land. Even from a cultural 
point of view no list of plants for a given place can be re- 
commended unless its soil, aspect, drainage and other 
physical conditions are known and considered. And of 
course the territory lying about and beyond the lot, together 
with the relation of these surroundings to the lot itself, sug- 
gests problems of prime importance. What disagreeable or 
incongruous objects are to be planted out of sight? What 
outlook is to be preserved and made more pleasing by a 
proper treatment of the foreground ? What are the tastes 
and necessities of the family which is to occupy and use 
tlie house and grounds ? These and a hundred other 
questions must be met with specific answers in every given 
instance. 

It does not follow from this that all general plans, of 
which so many have been published, are useless. The 
best of them have been made with a view to solve some 
special difficulties. They contain helpful suggestions and 
illustrate principles vv^hich are of wide application. But 
after all, no plan, however perfectly it may be adapted to 
one location, can be repeated with the same success in 
another. The attempt to reproduce effects in landscape 
work that have been agreeable elsewhere is invarably dis- 
appointing. To follow a fashion in gardening is rather 
more displeasing than to copy second-hand ideas in any 
other art. And even if it were not desirable in every case 
to produce something original, characteristic and appro- 
priate, all efforts at imitation must prove but parodies, be- 
cause growing plants develop into infinite variety. No 
two trees or shrubs — still less two groups of trees or shrubs 
— can be exact duplicates. The same selection and ar- 
rangement of plants at opposite ends of a village street 
will make pictures totally unlike in spite of the most 
painstaking effort to nurse them into a uniform effect. 

When, therefore, we requested Mr. Olmsted to prepare a 
plan for an unpretentious homestead, we expected him to 
choose a lot with a character of its own and e.xplain how 
he would adjust it to the wants and tastes of a particular 
household. The value of this study is not alone that it 
shows how difficulty can be converted into opportunity, 
and a strong-featured piece of ground on an abrupt hillside 
with cramped and irregular boundaries can be turned into 
a desirable building lot. In a broader way it is useful as 
illustrating the class of problems that present themselves 
whenever thorough work of this kind is contemplated, and 
as illustrating, too, how these problems are solved by a 
trained and conscientious artist. 



Cut Flowers and Growing Plants. 

IN Mr. Peter Henderson's article on " Floriculture in 
America," ])ublished in the first number of this journal, 
he spoke of the great love of Americans for cut flowers, 
and contrasted it with the love of the residents of foreign 
cities for growing plants. The difference which he notes, 
and which he illustrates by instructive figures, must 
strike every keen observer of national habits and tastes. 
There is nothing in London or Paris to rival the display of 
cut flowers in our florists' shops in winter. But, on the 
other hand, we have nothing which even approaches in 
magnitude or beauty the spectacle afforded at every 
season of the year by the plant markets of Paris. The 
surroundings of the Church of the Madeleine, on certain 
days of the week in spring and summer, offer one of the 
traditional sights which every tourist feels bound to 
see when he first visits Paris ; and even stay-at-homes are 
familiar with the brilliancy of the scene, for there is none 
which has more often attracted the brush of the painter. 
French artists of the moment are especially fond of paint- 



ing the streets of Paris, and if their gift lies in the direction 
of brilliant color, where could they turn for a better subject 
than to these crowded pavements, where gaily dressed 
ladies and children and white-capped nurses thread the 
rows of gorgeous blossoming plants, to bear away, now 
a huge yellow Chrysanthemum, or a tall red Rose-tree, 
and now a tiny pot, bought for a couple of cents, of Forget- 
me-nots or Pansies ? And in every one of our home 
exhibitions of art, especially in those devoted to water- 
color painting, the individual plants of the French flower- 
market are brought beneath our eyes, each enveloped in 
one of those great cones of stift' white paper without which 
no self-respecting Parisian plant would be seen in public. 
But where shall one go in New York to find such scenes? 

In Germany, although such gorgeous out-door displays 
of plants as we find in Paris are less common, there are 
ahvaj^s plenty of market-booths in the public squares 
where blooming plants may be bought in great variety ; 
and in winter very beautiful specimens may be had from 
every florist. In the latter weeks of winter Azaleas are the 
favorites, and during all the preceding weeks Crocuses 
and Hyacinths, Lilies-of-the-Valley and Cyclamens, as 
well as Roses, are grown and sold in vast quantities. 
The custom of sending flowers as gifts to friends is very 
popular in Germany, although it has, of course, never 
been carried to such extravagant lengths as with us. But 
even more often than cut flowers, flowering plants are 
used for the purpose — either a single fine specimen, solitary 
in its pot, or a group of flowers of the same kind, or a 
pretty arrangement of contrasting kinds grown in round, 
wide, shallow, inexpensive baskets of bark. Such a basket 
filled, for example, with Hyacinths of different colors, or 
with a variety of Tulips, or with a pure white mass of 
Lilies-of-the-Valley, is more beautiful than any bunch 
of these flowers ; and it will last much longer even in 
the atmosphere of a hot, dry living-room. Not the most 
splendid bunch of Roses is nrore lovely than a fine Azalea 
in full flower ; and if the plant is purchased in bud and left 
to flower in its new owner's possession, she will be sure of 
several weeks' instead of several hours' enjoyment. 

We have no wish to find fault with the love of cut 
flowers, which is so distinctively an American character- 
istic. Yet we think our almost exclusive preference for 
them instead of for flowering plants is a misfortune, es- 
pecially to persons of modest means, who, by a different ex- 
penditure of their money, might buy more lasting pleasures. 



The wood of the Liquidambar has now become an article 
of considerable commercial importance in this country. As 
long as black walnut and cherry were abundant and cheap 
it was considered worthless by the manufacturers of furni- 
ture, but now more than three million feet are annually 
used by them in this city alone. Blocks of this wood have 
been employed for several years in paving the streets of 
some western cities, and in the South liquidambar shingles 
have long been common. This wood is nearly as heavy 
as black walnut, but not as strong ; it is tough and close- 
grained and can be made to take a beautiful satiny polish. 
Its color is bright brown tinged with red. This wood, 
however, shrinks and splits badly in seasoning and this is 
its great defect. But it has now been found that if the 
wood, as soon as it comes from the saw, can be steamed 
for fifteen or twenty hours, according to the thickness of 
the boards, and then carefully kiln-dried, it will not warp 
or twist. This is a discovery of great importance and is 
likely to have a considerable influence upon the lumber 
supply of the country. The Liquidambar is a large, and 
in some parts of the country a very common tree. It fre- 
(]uently reaches a height of a hundred feet with a trunk 
diameter of over six feet. It flourishes in the low and 
often inundated river-swamps of the South and West, 
where, mixed with the Cottonwood and the Big Tupelo, it 
covers vast areas which can never be brought under culti- 
vation from lack of sufficient drainasre and will alwavs remain 



May 



iSSS.] 



Garden and Forest. 



1 1 1 



in forest. These river-swamps, too, will always be pro- 
tected from fire by the moisture of the soil. Our store of 
liquidambar, therefore, will not be very soon extermi- 
nated probably, and, if cut judiciously, will supply the 
demand of furniture manufacturers for a long time to 
come. 

Few people, probably, realize the extent of the planta- 
tions of American Grape-vines which have been made in 
Europe since the discovery that they have sufficient 
vigor to survive the attacks of the Phylloxera, and there- 
fore make the best stocks upon which to work the different 
wine-grapes in regions affected by this pest. From a re- 
cent issue of the Revue Horticole it appears that in the year 
1881 about 22,000 acres were plantedin France with Ameri- 
can Grapes, while in 1SS7 not less than 416,000 acres were 
planted, the total acreage for these se\'en years amounting 
to 1,200,000 acres. These figures give an idea of the im- 
mense damage the Phylloxera has inflicted upon French 
agriculture. 

Plan for a Small Homestead. 

Conditions and Requirements. — The site is upon the south 
face of a bluff, the surface of which is so steep that the rectan- 
gular street system of the city, to tlie east and south, had not 
been extended over it. The diagonal streets, il/and N, have 
been lately introduced and building lots laid off on them, as 
shown in Figure i. The triangular space between L and At 
Streets is a public property containing the graves of some of 
the first settlers of the region. Its northern and western parts 
are rocky and partly covered by a growth of native Thorns 
and Junipers, east of which there are Willows and other planted 
trees. At A there is a meeting-house and parsonage. Arabic 
figures show elevations above city datum. 

The lot to be improved is that marked IX. The usual con- 
veniences of a suburban cottage home are required, and it is 
desired that it should be made more than usually easy and 
convenient for members of the household, one of whom is a 
chronic invalid, to sit much and be cheerfully occupied in out- 
of-door air and sunlight. A small fruit and vegetable garden 
is wanted and a stable for a single horse and a cow, with car- 
riage room and lodgings for a man. Water for the house, 
garden and stable is to be supplied by pipes. There is a sewer 
in J/ Street. 

The problem is to meet the requirements thus stated so snugly 
that the labor of one man will be sufficient, under ordinary 
circumstances, to keep the place in good order and provide 
such gratification of taste as with good gardening manage- 
ment the circumstances will allow. 

The north-west corner of the lot is 21 feet higher than the 
south-east corner, the slope being- steeper in the upper and 
lower parts than in the middle. There is a small outcrop of a 
ledge of limestone about 30 feet from the south end, and the 
ground near it is rugged and somewhat gullied. M Street, 
which has a rapid descent to the eastward, opposite the lot, was 
brought to its grade by an excavation on the north side and by 
banking out on its south side the bank being supported by a 




retaining wall. The excavation has left a raw bank two to five 
feet high on the street face of the lot. 

Looking from the middle part of the lot over the roof of the 
parsonage a glimpse is had of a river, beyond which, in low 
bottom land, there is a body of timber, chiefly Cottonwood, 
over which, miles away, low, pastured hills appear in pleasing 
undulations. 

The narrower frontage of lot IX, its irregular outlines, its 
steepness, its crumpled surface, the raw, caving bank of its 
street face and its apparent rockiness and barrenness, had made 
it slower of sale than any other on the hill streets, and it was, 
accordingly, bought at so low a price by its present owner that 
he is not unwilling to pay liberally for improvements that will 
give him such accommodations upon it as he calls for. From 
the adjoining lots and those higher up the hill to the north the 
view which has been referred to, over the roof of the parson- 
age, is liable to be curtained off by trees to grow, or houses to 
be built, on the south side of them. Either this liability has 
been overlooked or the view has been considered of little value 
by those who have bought them. " Most people," says the 
owner of lot IX, "find their love of Nature most gratified when 
they have a trim lawn and a display of flowers and delicacies 
of vegetation upon it in front of their houses. I find Nature 
touches me most when I see it in a large way ; in a way that 
gives me a sense of its infinitude. I like to see a natural 
horizon against the sky, and I think that the advantage we shall 
have here in that respect will fully compensate us for the want 
of a fine lawn-hke front, provided the place can be made rea- 
sonably convenient." Fortunately his wife is essentially like- 
niincied. "I am a Western woman," she says, "and would 
not like to live in a place that I could not see out of without 
looking into the windows of my neighbors." 

Controlling Landscape Considerations. — The only valuable 
landscape resource of tiie property lies in the distant view east- 
\\'ard from it. Looking at this fronr tlie house place, it can 
evidently be improved by placing in its foreground a bodv ot 
vigorous, dark foliage, in contrast with which the light gray and 
yellowish greens of the woods of the river bottom will appear 
of a more delicate and tender quality, and the grassy hills be- 
yond more mysteriously indistinct, far away, unsutistantial 
and dreamy. Such a foreground can be formed within the 
limits of lot IX, and, strictly speaking, the forming of it will be 
the only landscape improvement that can be made on the 
place. It is, however, to be considered, that when the middle 
of the lot is occupied by a house but small and detached spaces 
will remain to be furnished with verdure or foliage, and that any- 
thing to be put upon these spaces will come under direct and 
close scrutiny. Hence nothing should be planted in them that 
during a severe drought or an intense winter or in any other 
proljable contingency is likely to become more than momen- 
tarily shabby. Further, it is to be considered, that when the 
eye is withdrawn from a scene the charm of which lies in its 
extent and the softness and indefiniteness, through distance, of 
its detail, the natural beauty in which the most pleasure is 
likely to be taken will be of a somewhat complementary or 
antithetical character. But to secure such beauty it is not 
necessary to provide a series of objects the interest of which 
will lie in features and details to be seen separately, and which 
would be most enjoyed if each was placed on a separate pedes- 
tal, with others near it of contrasting qualities of detail, each on 
its own separate pedestal. It may be accomplished by so bring- 
ing together materials of varied graceful forms and pleasing- 
tints that they will intimately mingle, and this with such intricate 
play of light and shade, that, though the whole body of them 
is imder close observation, the eye is not drawn to dwell upon, 
nor the mind to Ije occupied, with details. In a small place much 
cut up, as this must be, a comparative subordination, even to 
obscurit)', of details, occurring as thus proposed, and not as an 
eftect of distance, is much more conducive to a C|uiescent and 
cheerfully musing state of mind than the presentation of ob- 
jects of specific admiration. 

Anatomical Plan. — The important common rooms of the 
family and the best chambers are to be on the southern side of 
the house, in order that the view over the river, the south- 
western breeze and the western twilight, may be enjoyed from 
their windows. (See figure 2.) It follows that the kitchen and 
the main entrance door to the house are to be on its north and 
east sides. Were it not for excessive steepness, the best ap- 
proach to the house would be on a nearly straight course be- 
tween its east side and the nearest point on yl/Street — i. e., the 
south-east corner of the lot ; this partly because it would be 
least costly and most convenient, and partly because it would 
make the smallest disturbance of the space immeiliatcly before 
the more important windows of the house. But to get an ap- 
proach of the least practicable steepness the place will be entered 



I 12 



Garden and I^'orest. 



[May 2, 1888. 



at the highest point on yl/Street — /'. e., tlie soutli-wcst corner; 
then a quick turn will be taken to the right, in order to avoid 
tlie ledge, then, after passing the ledge, another to the left. On 
this course a grade of one in twelve and a half can be had. 
(The grade on the shortest course would be one in seven.) 
Opposite the entrance to the house there is to be a nearly 
level space where carriages can I'est. 

The caving bank made by the cut for grade of HI Street re- 
quires a retaining wall four feet high along the front of the lot. 
This will allow a low ridge, nearly level along the top, to be 
formed between the wheelway and the street, making the 
wheelway safer and a less relatively important circumstance to 
the eye. 

Even in the part of the lot chosen, as being the least steep, 
for the house, a suitable plateau for it to stand upon can only 
be obtained by an embankment on the south and an excavation 
on the north. The embankment is to be kept from sliding 
down hill by a wall ten feet in front of the wall of the house. 
This retaining wall is to be built of stained and crannied, re- 
fuse blocks of limestone which have been formerly thrown 
out from the surface in opening quarries on the back of the 
bluff. They are to be laid without mortar and with a spread- 
ing base and irregular batter. Where the ledge can be exposed 
they will rest upon it, and the undressed rock will form a part 
of the face of the wall. A raiUng two and a half feet high is to be 
carried on the top of the retainmg wall, and the space {b) be- 
tween this and the wall of the house will be an open terrace 
upon which will open half-glazed French windows on the south 
of the library, parlor and dining-room. At c (figure 2) there is 
to be a little room for plants in winter, the sashes of which are 
to be removed in summer, when the space is to be shaded by a 
sliding awning. At d a. roof covers a space large enough for a 
tea table or work table, with a circle of chairs about it, out of the 
liouse proper, forming a garden room. This roof is to be sus- 
tained by slender columns and lattice-work, and lattice-work 
is to be carried over it and the whole to be overgrown with 
vines (Honeysuckle on one side. Wistaria on the other, the two 
mingling above). The space ee is reserved for a tiny pleasure 
garden, to be entered from the house and to be considered much 
as if, in summer, it were a part of it carpeted with turf and em- 
bellished with foliage and flowers. At/ there is to be a retired 
seat for reading and intimate conversation, and east of this an 
entrance to the service gardens, to be described later. The 
laundry yard, h, and the kitchen yard, i, are to be screened by 
liigh lattices covered by Virginia Creeper. The court yard, 77", is 
to be smoothly paved with asphalt blocks or fire brick, which 
it will be easy to thoroughly hose and swab every day. In 
one corner of it is a brick ash house, kj in another a gang- 
way to the cellar and a chute for coal, /y in another a dog 
house, jii. The stable and carriage house are entered from 
the court yard, but hay will be taken into the loft from a 
wagon standing in the passage to the back lane. At n is the 
stable yard. 

Landscape Gardc-iiing. — The soil to be stripped from the sites 
of the house, terrace, stable, road and walks, will be sufficient, 
«hen added to that on the ground elsewhere, to give full two 
feet of soil wherever needed for turf or planting. 

Trenches, nowhere less than two feet deep, are to be made 
on each side of the approach road south of the terrace and to be 
filled with highly enriched soil, the surface of which is to slope 
upward with a slight concavity as it recedes fronr the approach. 
The base of the wall is to merge irregularly into this slope. 
The space between the terrace and the street is so divided by 
the approach, and, in the main, is so steep and dry, that no 
part of it can be well kept in turf, nor can trees be planted in 
it, because they would soon grow to olsstruct the southward 
view from the house and terrace. The steep dry ground and 
the rock and rough wall of this space are to be "veiled with 
vines rooting in the trenches. The best vine for the purpose 
is the common old clear green Japan Honeysuckle {Lonicera 
Halliana). hi this sheltered situation it will lie verdant most, if 
not all, of the winter, and blooming, not too flauntingly, all of 
the summer. It can be trained not only over the rough slop- 
ing wall of the terrace, but also over the railing above it, and 
here be kept closely trimmed, so as to appear almost hedge- 
like. Also it may be trained up the columns of the shelter and 
along its roof ; the odor from its bloom will he pleasing on 
the terrace, and will be perceptible, not oppressively, at the 
windows of the second story. Other vegetation is to be intro- 
duced sparingly to mingle with it, the wfld Rose and Clematis 
tif the neighborhood ; the Akebia vine, double flowering- 
Brambles, and, in crevices of the wall, Rhus aromafica, dwarf 
Brambles, Cotoneastcr microphylla, Indian Fig, Aster, and 
Golden Rod, but none of these in conspicuous bodies, for the 
space is not too large to be occupied predominatingly by a 



mass of foliage of a nearly uniforin character. Near the south- 
west corner of the pleasure garden, Forsytliia suspensa is to 
fall over the wall, and, also, as a drapery in the extreme corner 
(because the odor to tliose near the bloom of it is not pleasant), 
Matrimony vine {Lycium vulgare). Upon the walls of the 
house east of the terrace, Japanese Ivy (^r/;///f/()/.fzV Veitchii) is 
to be grown, and before it a bush of the fiery Thorn (Cr(?/<r?^?« 
Pyracantlia). For the ground on the street side of the ap- 
proach, //, smooth-leaved shrub evergreens would be chosen 
were tliey likely to thrive. But both the limestone soil and 
the situation is unfavorable to them. Next, a dark compact 
mass of rovmd-headed Conifers would best serve the purpose 
of a foreground to the distant view, but there are none that 
can be depended on to thrive long in the situation that could 
be kept within the required bounds except by giving them a 
stubbed and clumsy form by the use of the knife. The best 
available material for a strong, low mass, with such deep sha- 
dows on the side toward the terrace as it is desirable to secure, 
and which is most sure to thrive permanently in the ratherdry 
and hot, situation, will be found in the more horizontally branch- 
ing of the Thorn trees {CratcTgiis), which grow naturally in sev- 
eral varieties on other parts of tlie hill. Their heads may be 
easily kept 'ow enough, especially in thecaseof theCockspur(C. 
Crus-galli), to leave the view open from the terrace without 
taking lumpy forms. But as a thicket of these spreading thorn 
bushes, fifty feet long, so near the eye, might be a little stiff 
and monotonous, a few shrubs are to be blended with them, 
some of which will send straggling sprays above the mass and 
others give delicacy, grace and liveliness, both of color and tex- 
ture, to its face. Common Privet, red-twigged Dogwood, com- 
mon and purple Barberry, Dcuizia scabra, Spice-bush and 
Snowberry may be used for the purpose. American Elms ha\-e 
already been planted on the lot adjoining on the east. Tlie 
Wahoo Elm [Uliiiiis alata) and the Nettle tree {Celtis occiden- 
talis) are to be planted in the space between the approach and 
the boundary. They will grow broodingly over the road, not 
too high, and mass homogeneously with the larger growing 
Elms beyond. Near the stable two Pecans {Gary a olivcefor- 
iiu's) are to be planted. The three trees last named all grow 
in the neighboring country and are particularly neat and free 
from insect pests. A loose hedge of common Privet having 
the effect of a natural thicket is to grow along the boundary. 
No other shrub grows as well here under trees. 

As the pleasure garden is to be very small, to be closely asso- 
ciated with the best rooms, and to be not only looked at but used, 
it must be so prepared that no excessive labor will be needed 
(as in watering, mowing, sweeping and rolling), to keep it in 
superlatively neat, fresh and inviting condition. No large trees 
are to be grown upon or near it by which it would be oversha- 
dowed and its moisture and fertility drawn upon to the injury 
of the finer plantings. It must be easy of use by ladies when 
they are shod and dressed for the house and not for the street. 
Its surface is to be studiously modeled with undulations such 
as might be formed where a strong stream is turned aside 
abruptly into a deep and narrow passage with considerable 
descent. It will be hollowing near the house and the walk, 
and will curl and swell, like heavy canvas slightly lifted by the 
wind, in the outer parts. Wherever it is to be lett in turf the 
undulations are to be so gentle that close mowing, rolling and 
sweeping will be easily practicable. The upper and outer parts 
are to be occupied by bushy foliage compassing about all the 
turf; high growing shrulis next the fences and walls; lower 
shrubs before them ; trailers and low herbaceous plants be- 
fore all. But there must be exceptions enough to this order 
to avoid formality, a few choice plants of each class standing- 
out singly. The bushes are to be planted thickly, not simply 
to obtain a good early effect, but because they will grow better 
and with a more suitable character in tolerably close compan- 
ionship. As the good sense of thelady -whois to be niistressof 
this garden ranges niore widely than is common beyond in- 
,door matters of taste, it may be hoped that due thinnings 
will be made from year to year and that the usual mutilation of 
bushes under the name of pruning will be prevented. 

The following little trees and bushes may be used for the 
higher range : The common, trustworthy sorts of Lilac, Bush- 
honeysuckle, Mock-orange, Forsythia, Weigelia, the Buffalo- 
berry (5//i?/(W77'/(r), common Barberry, the Cornelian Cherry and 
the red twigged Dogwood. In the second tier, iVIissouri Cur- 
rant, Clethra, Calycanthus, Jersey Tea, Japanese Quince, Japa- 
nese Mahonia, Spirjeas, and the Mezereon Daphne. 

In the third tier, Deutzia gracilis, Oregon Grape, flowering 
Almond (white and red), Spircca Thimbergii anA S. Japonica, 
Waxberry, Daphne Cncorum, small-leaved Cotoneaster, and 
the Goatsbeard Spirsea. The Virginia Creeper is to be planted 
against the w^alls of the house, Chinese Wistarias near the 



:may 



iSSS.] 



Garden and P'orest. 



I r 



garden room. Oleanders, Rhododendrons, Figs, Azaleas 
and Bamboos, grown in tubs, are to be set upon the terrace 
in summer. They are to be kept in a cold pit during the 
winter. 

The service garden (gff, Fig. 2) will have a slope of one to 
five inclining to the south. It is intended only for such suji- 
plies to the house as cannot always be obtained in the public 
market in the tresh condition desirable, and is divided as fol- 
lows : 

g' I . Roses and other plants to provide cut flowers and foliage 
for interior house decoration ; 

_§" 2. Small fruits ; 

j^-3. Radishes, salad plants. Asparagus, Peas, etc.; 

a- 4. Mint, Parsley, Sage, and other flavoring and garnishing 
plants for the kitchen , 

£ 5. Cold-frame, wintering-pit, hot-beds, compost-bin, ma- 
nure-tank, garden-shed and tool-closet. 

Bkookline, Mass., J4th April, 1888. Fred' k Law OhnslfJ. 



forces well even earlier than the present date, and I im- 
agine that it would be invaluable for market Iforists. It is 
one of the Rosa polyanSha hybrids of which Ma Parqueritte 
and Anna Maria Montravel are other beautiftd examples. 

Among other noteworthy flowers were the new Ciner- 
arias, shown by Mr. James, who for several years past 
has made the improvement of this flower the study of his 
life. He has changed starry flowers into perfectly circular 
flowers with overlapping florets, besides impressing into 
his "strain " new self-tints, and combinations of tints, in 
zones and stripes. Some critics hold that the improved 
Cineraria has lost the elegance and beauty of the old- 
fashioned Cineraria in the severely symmetrical flower. But 
the balance of opinion among florists is in their favor, and 
this strain of seeds ahva)^s commands the highest prices, 



which 



fair test of 




Foreign Correspondence. 

London Letter. 

With the equino.x: our spring flower shows begin, the most 
important being that of the aristocratic Royal BotanicSociety, 
Regents Park, on the 21st of March. This conservative 
body never dreams of innovation, never tolerates a change 
in the prize schedule, so that the masses of Hyacinths and 
Tulips, Azaleas and Cyclamens, repeat themselves at each 
spring exhibition. Nevertheles.s, hither throng crowds ot 
ShQ elite of London society. Forced Roses made an interest- 
ing feature, and none of the sorts shown seemed to win so 
many admirers as the new Lady Alice, which was even 
finer here than at South Kensington, and the judges awarded 
it a certificate of merit. The pretty little Mignonette Rose, 
with clusters of button-like rosettes of pale pink, was a 
much admired flower. It is extremely floriferous and 



popular favor. The very finest 
\'arieties are named, and, of 
course, are propagated from cut- 
tings, though in some cases the 
sorts are perpetuated true from 
seed. There was a large gather- 
ing of tliese flowers on exhibition, 
and of the three sorts certificated 
the finest was a pure white \\\\\\ 
p u r p 1 e centre, named Maria. 
Another, named Irene, had the 
colors purplish violet, carmine 
and white arranged in zones, and 
a third, named Favorite, rich car- 
mine and white. If one could 
]5lace one of these plants beside 
the original Cineraria cruenia of 
the Canary Islands, from which 
this garden race has descended, 
lie could better appreciate the 
enormous strides that have been 
made in the improvement of the 
flower. The pure C. crueiila, from 
seed gathered in the Canaries, is 
in bloom just now in Kew Gar- 
dens, and the contrast of the flor- 
ist's strain v\'ith it is remarkable. 

One would think that a special 
feature would be made of forced 
shrubs at these early spring shows, 
but with the exception of a fine 
mass of forced white Lilac from a 
market florist, the old Dentzia gra- 
cilis, andafew specimensof Labur- 
num, and other shrubs, there was 
nothing remarkable in this way. 
The forced Lilacs were the ad- 
miration of every one, the plants 
lieingso fine and thickly hung with 
large dense clusters of pure white 
bloom. They came from Mr. 
Dorst, of Richmond, one of the 
market florists whose success in 
forcing Lilac is now well kiKjwn. He is, in fact, one of the 
few florists who have proved that Lilacs can be forced profit- 
ably. Ever since October last he has sent almost daily 
supplies to Covent Garden. His flowers always look 
fresher than the imported bloom from France, and conse- 
quently fetch a higher ]3rice. The best variety he uses 
is Charles X., which in the ordinary flower season is pur- 
ple, but when forced in the dark is pure white. Enormous 
quantities of Lilac plants are grown by this florist, and all 
are subjected to preparatory treatment in pots a year or so 
before wanted for forcing, so as to get them well rooted and 
with strong, well ripened wood. The bushes are pruned 
severely, leaving only the strongest growths, and then are 
gradually introduced into heat "in batches, from October 
onwards. The forced supply lasts till past Easter, when 
it is in much demand. W. 



FIGUREE. 

SCALE 

10 20 30 



Goldring. 



Li>ndon, March 22d, 18 



114 



Garden and Forest. 



[May 



New or Little Known Plants. 

Hymenocallis humilis.* 

THE so-called Pancratiums of the United States are 
represented in our illustration for this number. The 
true Pancratiums, however, are all natives of the Old World, 
and are characterized by having the tube of the flower 
considerably dilated upward, and therefore funnelform. The 
crown which unites the filaments is also usually lobed, and 
the cells of the fruit are several-seeded. The American 
species all belong to the genus Hymeuocallis, which has the 
tube narrowly cylindiical and only two ovules in each cell 
of the ovary. They are found in marshes and on river 
banks in the southern Atlantic and Gulf States, mostly near 
the coast, though one species, which is supposed to be the 
same as the U. roiala of the coast, is fovnid in Tennessee 
and Kentucky. 

The figure here given shows one of two species which 
■weredisco\ered in Florida by Dr. Edward Palmer in 1874. 
H. huviiUs is a low and slender species, the smallest of the 
genus. The bulb appears to be attached to a rather thick 
rootstock, and sends up a few short narrow leaves and a 
short scape which bears a single flower. The linear seg- 
ments are greenish, as are also the anthers, while the 
broadly funnelform truncate crown is white. The plant 
was found on the banks of the Indian River in flower early 
in March, but it has not been again collected. Dr. Palmer 
speaks of it as common in the grassy meadows near the 
river, a free bloomer, and very showy, and the most at- 
tractive plant found by him in that region. S. IV. 

Cultural Department. 
Hybrid Aquilegias. 

POSSIBLY no genus of plants more readily admits of a 
perfect hybridization between the different species 
than the Aquilegia. For this reason it is almost impossible 
to preserve the seedlings pure should the parent plant have 
grown near any other species. Even when separated, 
the pollen will be distributed through insect agency, 
and the new generation in almost every case will possess 
marked characters, differing from the species. Taking ad- 
vantage of this peculiarity, hybridizers have produced 
some curious and beautiful strains, and the only dil^- 
culty in the way of its permanent usefulness is the trait 
alluded to, that of so easily departing from any fixed type. 

About twenty-five years ago Dr. C. C. Parry, then engaged 
in studying the Flora of Colorado, happened upon A. 
cccrulea. Torn, and with the herbarium specimen sent the 
writer was a small packet of seeds which were carefully 
grown, and the plants served as the female parents in a 
remarkable series of experiments in hybridization with 
several other species. One of the most instructive and 
valuable crosses was from the pollen of the white form of 
A. vulgaris; the result being flowers identical in form with 
A. ccerulea, but pure snow-white in color. 

In addition, as if to demonstrate the extent of its possi- 
bilities, two of the seedlings yielded perfectly double 
white blooms of the size and form of A. cccrulea, even 
retaining the peculiar long curved spurs of that species. 

In the collection of seedlings were flowers of almost 
every imaginable tint, but all showing, in a marked degree, 
the influence of the cccrulea type. Subsequent efforts in 
the same direction with other species gave some inter- 
esting results, but none were more valuable than the 
above, unless we except a little bed of seedlings where 
the male parent was also our eastern species, A. Canadensis. 
The progeny in this case almost universally exhibited 
blooms showing various shades of red, but retaining all 
the other characters of the mother plant. 

*H. HUMILIS, Watson, Proc. Am. Acad., xiv, 301. Bulb half an inch thick or more, 
upon a rootstoclt, covered by the broad sheathing bases of the leaves, which are 
four to six inches lonj* by about two lines broad ; scape scarcely equaling the 
leaves, one-flowered; segments of the spathe narrowly linear; flowers greenish, 
the tube fifteen lines long and shorter than the linear segments of the perianth; 
crown short, not n-irrowedat base, truncate between the erect filaments, wliicii are 
a third shorter than the perianth and style; anthers greenish; ovary oblong, be- 
coming an inch long in fruit. 




Hymenocallis humilis. 



A few showy hybrids were produced by crossing A. 
forniosa and A. chrysantha with A. cccrulea, but the result 
did not prove so satisfactory as the foregoing, the colors 
being undecided, and the form, as a rule, greatly inferior 
to the parents. The development and fixing of new 
forms in flowers, as practiced on the numerous seed- 
farms in Europe, fully demonstrate, that by a systematic 
course of selection for a series of years, almost any pe- 
culiarity of color or form may be perpetuated from seeds 
and made to retain its idiosyncrasies thereafter. Whether 
this has been attempted with Aquilegia hybrids I do 
not know, although the numerous and very distinct col- 
ors of A. vulgaris will come true to name almost invari- 
ably. Division of the root was attempted and for several 
years the finest of these forms were retained, but finally 
all passed out of existence. Josiah Hoopes. 



Rhus cotinoides. — Three years ago a small plant of this rare 
species was set in our nursery, where the ground is good and 
the situation well sheltered. It has grown vigorously, and 
made a single stemmed, well branched specimen, eight feet 
high. But it has been protected with barrels in winter. Last 
wmter we gathered and tied the branches together and to a 



May 2, iSSS.] 



Garden and Forest. 



115 



long stake, and over these set three barrels, bottomless and 
headless, one on top of the other, and kept in place by being 
lashed between three long stout stakes. When uncovered, 
about (he ist of April, the branches were living to the tips, 
and nowhere does the tree show the least sign of injury from 
the winter. It has now been trans]:>lanted to a permanent 
position, as an isolated specimen, on the lawn, and conse- 
quently was cut in severely. It has not yet blossomed with 
us. But its handsome foliage and the bright red tinge of its 
leaf stalks and venation render it a desirable plant, even with- 
out llowers. 

" It is in Alabama a small, wide branching tree, nine to ten 
metres in height, with a trunk sometimes 0.30 metre in diame- 
ter; on limestone benches from 700 to goo feet elevation, in 
dense forests of Oak, Ash, Maple, etc.; local and very rare; not 
rediscovered in Arkansas or the Indian territory, in Alabama 
nearly exterminated." 

Ourspecimen has been grown in an open sunnv exposure and 
has not shown the least injiu'y from full sunshine. //'. F. 

Hsuchera sanguinea. — This new and handsome introduction 
from Mexico is likely to liecome the most popular of the 
genus as at present known. All Heucheras have elegant 
foliage. H. pitbescens is generally grown for this reason alone. 
Last fall, with a view to increase our stock of H. sanguinea, 
which was limited to one small plant, all the crowns were cut 
off close to the rootstock. Placed in sand in a cool ]jit they 
rooted easily. We thus obtained a dozen plants which have 
bloomed persistently nearly all winter. We have also a 
number of seedlings, and, if we are fortunate enough to save 
them, in the course of time clumps in sufficient t^uantitv can 
be obtained for forcing, like Astible Japonica, for winter 
blooming. The plants are in 4-inch pots, and ha\-e been 
grown in a night temperature of 40° to 45°. The flower stems 
are wiry, and self-supporting, blooming from 3 to 5 inches of 
their length, in a one-sided racemose cvme of red, tuliular 
flowers of considerable substance, which have the excellent 
quality of being handsome in bud, and of lasting two or three 
weeks in a cool house. T. IX Hatfield. 

Myosotis dissitiflora splendens is a variety of a verv beautiful 
perennial Forget-me-not with flowers fully double the size of 
the common species (J/, palustris). They are pink or shaded 
with pink when first open, but soon change into a beautiful 
clear blue. This plant is not quite hardy, l>ut is well worth the 
protection of a cold-frame in winter. If seed is sown in June or 
July, the young plants will be strong enough by autumn to 
come through the winter safely, and can be transplanted into 
the open border, where they will bloom profusely during the 
month of May. Plants taken from the frame in February 
or March, and introduced into moderate heat, bloom freely in 
a few weeks, and a pan of this plant in flower is one of the 
most beautiful objects imaginable. This plant was sent to this 
country several years ago by Herr Leichtlin. 5. 

Sempervivums. — Tliese form pretty and appropriate patches 
and mats about the stones in the rockery. Thev like an open 
and comparatively sunless situation, as on the northern 
slopes, but very much dislike to be shaded overhead by trees, 
shrubs or other plants. Most of the species are quite hardy. 
Semperviviim globiferuni, S. niontanicm, S. tomentosnm, S. 
triste, S. calcareuin, S. sobolifericm, S. arenarium, and some of 
the varieties of S. tectoruin, are as good as any. The prettiest, 
perhaps, is the white cobweb 5. tonientoswn ; S. triste is dark 
crimson, and S. calcareuin — often, but erroneously, called 6'. 
Californicitm — :is a little tender. None of the Cape of Good 
Hope species are hardy. Now is a good time to transplant 
them; use the small or middle-sized heads onlv, as the large 
ones will bloom in a month or two, then die off and leave the 
place ragged. 

"Dutch" Bulbs, such as Hyacinths, Tulips and Narcissus, that 
have been forced, should lie stored close together in some 
lightly shaded place out-of-doors and kept watered so long as 
the leaves remain green. When the leaves die off stop water- 
irig altogether, shake out and gather the bulbs, keeping each 
kind by itself, and keep them in-doors till next August or -Sep- 
tember, when they may be planted thickly in rows in the gar- 
den.^ Next spring they may yield a few 'flowers, but of poor 
quality. The Tulips, after a few years, may recover their 
original strength, but the Hyacinths will only produce sec- 
ond-rate spikes at best. They are of no use vvhetever for 
forcing a second time. 

Liliitm candidum, if forced this year, should be planted out 
or thrown away, as to force the same bulb again next year would 



be labor lost. But L. longiflorum and its varieties mav be 
grown along and forced year after year and do well every'sea- 
son. Keep them well watered and in vigorous growth as long 
as the leaves stay green, then dry them off and keep them per- 
fectly dry, but still in the earth in the pots, till next fall, 
when re-pot them, keeping the large Ijulbs in pots by them- 
selves, and the small ones in pots by themselves, and care- 
fully preserve every little bulblet found along the joints 
of the underground stems. In the Harrisii form most all 
these little bulbs, even in three or four inch pots, will liloom 
next spring. 

Spring Flowers. — Many of our earliest flowering plants grow 
well in shady places. They start into growth early and bloom 
before the trees l.)egin to shade them. Their growth is rapid, 
and before midsummer they have completed their season's 
work and gone to rest. Among these are Anemones, Violets, 
Twin-leaf, Bloodroot, Winter Aconite, Trilliums, Rue .Ane- 
mones, Spring Orol)US, Pulmonaria, Liuigwort, and many 
bulbous plants. At the same time we must bear in mind that 
Moss Pink, Rock Cress, Aubretia, evergreen Candytuft, and 
a good many others, if grown in shady places, will' dwindle 
and die out after awhile. A safe rule to observe is, grow the 
short-lived deciduous kinds in shady places, and the ever- 
greens mostly in sunny exposures. 

Cutting Asparagus. — It is the practice of most gardeners 
to cut the large shoots of Asparagus only and leave the weaker 
ones to grow for the purpose of making strong roots and 
therefore strong shoots next year. A better custom is that 
adopted by Long Island gardeners, who cut everything clean 
every day. When the plants are all allowed to grow after the 
cutting season is over the strong plants assert themselves, 
overshadow the weaker ones and set the buds for next year's 
crop. This gives a larger percentage of strong buds every 
year. 5. 

Andromeda floribunda is now in good bloom. While it suc- 
ceeds well in moist ground and on the north side of a wooded 
belt, it seems to dislike any open, sunny exposure or dry 
groiuid. A. yaponica is far more accommodating, but as it 
liowers so earlv, it is of little use in the North as a flowering 
shrub. 

Pansies. — If these are to be kept in good bloom for a long- 
time, they should be watered copiously and kept moderately 
thin by pulling out the poorest plants. After the middle of 
May a lath shading placed over, but a few feet above the beds, 
will help them considerably. The Bugnot, Cassier "nd Im- 
proved Trimardeau strains are as fine as any. W. F. 



Effect of the Winter on Evergreens. 

T^HE past winter was not unusually severe. During the 
-'- summer we had abundant rain, and the ground was well 
soaked before frost set in ; trees and shrubs made capital 
growth and the wood ripened up well. There was fine open 
working weather till the middle of December, and about the 
end of the month some rough cold weather. January began 
with wind and rain, but after New Year's, -and till the 
middle of the month, tliere was fine, but somewhat cool weather; 
on the i6th there were 19'' of frost, and from that time till the 
end of March we have had the most trying weather — cold, wet, 
stormy, changeable, icy — that I have any record of or remem- 
ber. But while we had zero weather two or three nights, only 
once did the temperature fall as low as 3^ below zero. Atsome 
one time during each of the four preceding winters the tem- 
perature has fallen to 6° below zero, but never for more than 
one night at a time, and usually only once, never more than 
twice the same season. But our trees suffer a good deal from 
ice storms. There is often a drizzling rain, and 6° to 10° 
of frost at the same time ; this coats the trees completely with 
ice, and the branches break under the load. If a bright or 
warm day succeeds this icing, trees escape pretty well, but 
should it freeze harder, and a brisk north-west wind set in, a good 
deal of damage is done by the branches lashing against each 
other and breaking. Every succeeding- year it becomes n-iore 
and more apparent that in order to have the many beautiful 
trees and shrubs that will thrive in our clin-iate, in perfection, 
we must afford them shelter. Wherever the trees have been 
well sheltered, there all that we would expect to be hardy have 
wintered well, but wherever there is insufficient shelter, 
there even hardv trees have suffered. It is not the intensity 
of the cold so niuch as the biting winds that injure trees and 
shrubs 

Pinus niitis has a yellow, unhapjw look, but otherwise 



ii6 



Garden and Forest. 



[May 



iSSS. 



the Fines are all right so far as the effects of winter are con- 
cerned. 

Among Firs, Abies c^ranJis has, as usual, got scorclicd a 
little; in fact, too much to allow this to be regarded as a reliable 
species here. One of the Oregon Douglas Firs in a more ex- 
posed place than the others has its leaves browned a very 
little, but not enough to hurt its wood in the least. Others 
of the Oregon form are not injured in the least. And tlie 
Colorado Mountain form, planted in bleak exposures enough, 
bear no mark of injury whatever. Nordman's, Cilician, Ce- 
phalonian, Veitch's, Spanish, and otiier Firs are uninjured. 

No injury is observable among the Spruces. The more we 
know of the Colorado Blue Spruce the better it appears ; its 
hardihood and capacity to resist severe winter winds seem to 
be greater than those of our White Spruce. Among Hemlock 
Spruces, the Japanese Tsiiga Sicboldiaim, so far as we have 
tried it — and there are fine large specimens here — is a hardier 
and more manageable tree than the common American species. 



more shelter, it is unscathed. Two good sized plants of Osinan- 
thus illicifolius formerly grown in tubs, wintered in a shed, 
and plunged outside in summer, were left out to die last fall. 
Not only have they survived the winter, but they never looked 
better than they do now, although close to them the wind 
scorched a Lawson's Cypress. 

Scotch Broom is hurt a little. European Furze where 
covered with a lath shading and cedar branches is quite safe, 
but all the tips of the shoots thatprotruded beyond the protect- 
ing material, were killed. The hardy Orange tree {Liinoitia 
trifoliata), of which there is a small plant here, was wintered 
under a box filled with dry oak-leaves. It seems all right, but 
I think it would have been better to have omitted the leaves, 
as they gathered damp aliout it. Phillyrca MInioreana imdera 
box covering has wintered perfectly ; Dapliniphylliiin glait'ce- 
scetis, covered in the same way, has also kept well, but lost its 
upper leaves, and a large plant of I'eronica Traversii under a 
box has been killed. Bt'rbi;?-is Japonic a under a lath shading 




A Mesquit Forei.t in Anzona. 



All the Retinosporas have wintered well, but the Marcli 
blizzard spread them a good deal ; R. pisifera and its varieties 
suflered most. The Golden Arbor Vita" ( Thuya orieiitalls var.) 
suffered in the same way. TIniiopsis dolobrata, in a moist, 
sheltered and partially shaded place, is as bright and green 
and healthy as it can be. Lawson's Cypress, in sheltered 
ground, is as healthy as any Arbor Vitas but wherever its 
head rose high enough to catch the wind, it was burned. 
The Sitka Cypress {Chainacyparis Nutkaeiisis) has wintered 
well. This plant often behaves strangely here; sometimes 
one or several plants will die off unaccountably, while others 
growingalongsideof, or among them, will not Lietray any sign of 
weakness whatever. Sdjuoia giga^itca and Cryptotncria Ja- 
ponica have wintered well. All the Arbor Vit:es and Junipers 
are unscathed, so too are the Yews. Muslin is used to 
protect the Dovaston Yews, but in one instance where 
no protection whatever was used the plant is just as sound 
as those protected. A muslin protection is used around 
Deodars, Podocarpiis, Ccphalota.xus, Cunninghamia, and Plio- 
iinia serj'ulata, and they all have wintered perfectly — all 
except the Deodars, a few of the points of whose branches 
were hurt by rubbing against the cloth. On higli, dry ground, 
where the wind had a sweep at it, the American Holly was 
browned a little ; a few yards ofl, where a larger plant had 



has wintered well. B. Darwinii has been killed to the ground, B. 
stenophyl/a, where protected by a board covering has survived, 
and where unprotected it has died. Otearia Haastii, mulched 
with leaves and under a lath screen, has been killed to the 
ground. Spanish Laurel, covered over with barrels (one above 
die other), has wintered fairly well — that is, the wood is all living, 
but the plants will lose a good many of their leaves. 

Evergreen Rhododendrons never wintered better, and they are 
well set with flower buds, and promise a good crop of flowers. 
And besides the large-growing Rhododendrons, such dwarf 
evergreen ones as R. ferruginitiin, ovatuiii, myrtifoliiiin and 
IVi/soniaiuim have wintered well, although R. ferruginium has 
suflered somewhat. Rliododendron punciatuin lives very well 
with us. Azalea amcFna is as perfect as it can be. Andromeda 
Japonica is hardy enough, but as it blooms so early is not of 
much use as a flowering shrub in this climate. It is not the 
severitv of winter, but the warm sunshine, dry atmosphere 
and drought of summer, that make Andromeda floribunda, in 
perfection, so great a stranger in these gardens. W. F. 

Glen Cove. 

" The great secret of good landscape gardening consists in 
the accurate preservation of tlie character of every scene, 
whether the character be originally there or created in it." — 
Uvedale Price, ■' Essay on the Picturesgue," London, ijgd. 



May 2, 1888.] 



Garden and Forest. 



II 



/ 



Notes from the Arnold Arboretum. 

THE Arnold Arlioretum is a Museum of woody plants, — a 
great garden in whicli are being introduced, studied and 
arranged hardy trees and slirubs from all parts of the world ; 
and which is to be equipped with a dendrological inuseum, a 
herbarium and a library. 

The establishment is not old, but its nurseries already con- 
tain a very large collection of plants ; and its influence, gained 
through the publications of its officers, and by its distribution 
of new or little known plants, is already considerable; and there 
is hardly an important collection of plants, in the United States 
or in Europe, which has not been enriched by contributions 
from the Arnold Arboretum. Its local intiuence is very con- 
siderable, and the gardens and grounds in and about Boston 
give aijundant proof of the interest awakened in arboriculture 
and of the practical advantage which a community can derive 
from a public establishment of this character. 

The final planting of the tvpe-coUection of trees in the Arbo- 
retum has been considerably delayed by extensive and ela- 
borate road-making, although the typical species of the most 
important genera, like the Pines, Larches, Spruces, Firs, Chest- 
nuts, Oaks, Walnuts, Hickories, Beeches, Birches, Elms, Ashes, 
etc., are now permanently arranged and planted. The collec- 
tion of hardy shrubs is extensive and important, containing 
about twelve hundred species and well marked varieties, 
among which there are very few garden hybrids or varieties. 
This collection is arranged in thirty-seven parallel beds each 
ten feet wide and two hundred and twenty-five feet long. The 
genera are arranged in the order adopted by Bentham and 
Hooker in their " Genera Plantaruin" and the species are ar- 
ranged geographically so far as it is practicable to do so, first the 
North American, then the European, and then the Asiatic plants. 
The collection is particularly rich in North American shrubs, 
many of which have been here first introduced into cultivation, 
and it contains many Chinese and Japanese plants, which, if 
from northern latitudes, generally do well here. INIany genera 
are well represented ; of Rosa, for example, there are about 
sixty species and many natural varieties, of Berberis thirty spe- 
cies or more, with some varieties, and of many others a pro- 
portionally large number of species. 

The proper determination and labelling of the plants in the 
collection is a serious and difficult labor. Large numbers of 
plants are sent to the Arboretum every year from other 
botanical establishments or nurseries. iVIany of these plants 
are incorrectly named, and very often the same species or 
variety comes from half a dozen different places under as 
many names. AUadditionsas soon as they bloom are verified 
or determined, and specimens prepared for the herbarium. 
After their identity has been settled, duplicates are removed ; 
and the collection as it now stands is fairly well classified. 
Numerous additions, however, are still to be made. 

It is proposed to publish in Garden and Forest, front week 
to week during the coming season, notes concerningsuch new, 
little known, or specially desirable plants in the collections of 
the Arboretum as may appear worthy of record. 
Arnold Arboretum. J , G, yack. 



The Forest. 

The Forest Vegetation of Northern Mexico. — III. 

Prosopis julifiora, DC, Mesquit. — No tree carrying 
tiirough the entire summer so much foliage has greater 
power to endure arid conditions than the Mesquit. 
(See illustration, p. 116.) Its leaflets, though numerous, 
are small, and are w^rapped in a thick and close 
epidermis, which prevents rapid loss of their mois- 
ture. Hence it is to be found on the most arid tracts 
of sand and driest mesas of the plateau region. It is 
strictly a denizen of plains and valleys, never being seen 
amongst the growths of hills and mountains. Whilst in 
the rich and deep soil of the bottoms of valleys of less 
elevation, as those of Sonora notably, it grows to the 
stature of a large tree of great value, and forms the heaviest 
forests of such districts, in the drier situations mentioned, 
in order to adapt itself to the conditions of its environment, 
it takes the form of a shrub, vi^idely branching beneath the 
soil, and rising from two to ten feet only above it. If 
standing amongst drifting sands, these gather in hillocks 
amidst such broad clumps of bushes, and heap themselves 



higher year by year, as the branches push upward for light 
and air, until the amount of wood which forms under- 
ground in thickened branches and roots is surprisingh- 
large. A similar accumulation of wood in the roots take's 
place when the Mesquit stands in the more stable soil of 
mesas and grassy plains, and its branches are occasionally 
cut away for firewood. It is the gathering of these sub- 
terranean stores of fuel that has given rise to the saying 
that in these regions men have to dig for their wood. 

Within the State of Chihuahua it is in a few valleys only, 
and there growing scattered, that the Mesquit deserves 
the name of small tree. On the deeper bottom-lands of 
the Laguna country, through which runs the boundary be- 
tween the States of Coahuila and Durango, it attains a 
trunk diameter of eight or ten inches, forms dense growths, 
and is exclusively cut for railroad ties. In the fertile val- 
leys and more humid climate to the south and east of the 
State of Zacatetas it is a common tree, and is encouraged 
to grow in grain fields even, where its falling pods, in shape 
and size resembling those of the white field Bean, pulp)^, 
sweet and nutritious, are harvested with care as food for 
man and beast. On account of its fruit the Mesquit pos- 
sesses great value in the more desert districts. The pods 
begin to mature before the midsummer rains start the 
grass, and the half-famished herds are attracted to the 
bushes by the rich morsels they offer. 

Growing with the shrubby Mesquit of the plains and 
valleys, itself armed at the nodes of its twigs with straight, 
sharp thorns an inch or more in length, are several other 
ligneous species of low stature nearly all abundantly fur- 
nished with thorns or hooked spines, so that passage 
through such growths either on foot or in the saddle is dif- 
ficult and vexatious. Of most frequent occurrence, per- 
haps, certainly one of the most hateful, is Celtis pallida, Turr., 
which grows in broad clumps six to ten feet high, and 
forms, with its numerous and dense, often intricately tan- 
gled branches, impenetrable thickets. Hardly more dread- 
ful than this or less common is lilitnnsa biuncifera, Bcuth., 
standing three to six feet high in widely branching clumps, 
and laying hold of one passing it with a hundred sharp and 
strong hooks. Acacia Greggii, Gray, the Cat's-claw Mes- 
quit, here less common than the last, and but a shrub, is 
a similar annoyance. So, too, Acacia Rxmeriana, Schlecht, 
Microrhajnnus ericoides, Gray, one to six feet high, and 
Co?idalia spathulata. Gray, var. , six or eight feet, have ex- 
ceedingly small leaves, and bear a thorn at the end of 
every branchlet, while Kivberlinia spiuosa, Zucc, is entirely 
leafless, and its branches are nothing but an aggregation of 
large thorns. In dry and sa-ndy soil this plant grows but a 
foot or two high and spreads over broad patches ; in val- 
leys of the plateau it is commonly an erect bush ; and on 
the low plains of Sonora I have seen it reaching a stature 
of fifteen or twenty feet, with a trunk diameter of six to 
eight inches. A Cactus, Opunlia arhorcscens, Engebn., 
on the plains five to ten feet high, but seen by Wislizenus 
in the Laguna country thirty or forty, its surface covered 
\\ith myriads of needle-like spines and minute barbed 
points, presents, however, a climax of horrors to him who 
falls into its widespread arms. Amidst this chaparral the 
traveler acquires an instinctive dread of contact with any 
bush ; and, if in the saddle, finds that his horse disobeys 
the rein that would guide him near one. C. G. Pringlc. 



Wood from the American White Pine, taken from old trees, 
is held by some authorities to be very durable because it is filled 
with resin. But this theory seems Ijaseless. The heart-wood 
of a tree which I exanfined in Wisconsin contained 6.g6 
per cent, of solid resin in 100 parts, by weight, of absolutely 
dried wood substance. A Bavarian tree examined for com- 
parison contained 6.66 per cent. The hot weather of America 
during the summer season may account for the small dif- 
ference. 

It is a well known fact that the wood of trees with very little 
resin, like the different species of yuiiiperus, Seqtioia, Ciipressiis 
and Taxodium, is hardly surpassed in durability by that of any 
Pine-tree, which contains the highest amount of resin. 



ii8 



Garden and Forest. 



[May 2, 1888. 



Comparing the White Pine with other European and a few 
American Conifers, I lind the following results in regard to 
speciiic gravity and resinosity of the wood : 



Specific Per cent, of re- 
Gravity sin in 100 parts 
(by weight of 
dry wood.} 



(Water 

100.) 



78 

63 

55 
48 

47 

41 
41 
39 

39 
38 



II. I 

2.8 

4.8 

5- 

4-9 

6. 
1.6 

75 
6.7 



(i.) Long-leaved pine {Piiitis pahistris), 

sent to Europe as pitch-pine - 
(2.) Larch, grown in Tyrol and known 

as the best and most durable of all 

liuropean Conifers - - - - 
(3.) Wood of the same tree grown in the 

milder climate of the plains 
(4.) Common European pine (Pinus sylves- 

tn's), 113 years old - - . - 
(5.) Common European pine (/';>; //j sylves- 

/ri's), 235 years old - - - - 
(6.) Red pine {Pimts resinosa), grown in 

Minnesota ----- 

(7.) European spruce {Picca cxcclsa), 
(8.) " 'i\v [Abies pecti/tata), 

(9.) White pine (grown in America), 130 

years old ------ 

(10.) White pine (grown in Bavaria), 80 

years old ------ 

If we arrange the different trees according to the amount of 
resin found in their heart-wood we have the following order ; 
(I.) Pinits pa/iistris (as representing 

the section with 3 needles in one sheath). 
.(2.) " Strobus - - - - 5 " .... 

(3.) " sylves/ris and resinosa - 2 " " " 

(4.) The Larch (representing the genus Larix). 
(5.) " Spruce " " " Picea). 

(6.) " Fir " " " Abies). 

There cannot be the slightest doubt that the wood of the 
European Larch is far more durable than that of the European 
Pine and of the White Pine ; still the amount of resin is hardly 
half as great in a Larch as in a Pine ; even the wood of European 
Spruce is superior in durability to that of the White Pine. 
From this fact we are bound to say that the speciiic gravity or 
the substances that give to the heart-wood its color, are more 
important factors in determining the durability of a coniferous 
wood than the amount of resin. I think that the order of 
resinosity, viz,: Piniis, Larix, Picea, Abies, holds good not 
only for the European, but also for the American representa- 
tives of these genera. H. AJajr. 



Correspondence. 



To the Editor of Garden and Forest ; 

I have been consulted recently by one of our largest dealers 
in flowers for an inflammation of the skin of the hands and 
face. The appearances which these parts presented indicated 
a dermatitis venenata of an eczematous type, and the patient 
expressed the opinion also that the inflammation had been 
caused by contact with some "poisonous" plant in his shop. 
He stated, moreover, that some of his assistants were affected 
in a similar way. The trouble manifested itself in all of them 
for the first time within a few weeks, and in his own case there 
had been three distinct recurrences of it within that period. 
His impression was that it had begun about the time that he 
had been handling large quantities of Acacia pubescens and 
Primula obconica, and he suspected one of these plants to be 
the cause of the inflammation. 

I visited the shop, and found one of the salesmen presenting 
a similar disorder of the face and hands. The former was 
red, somewhat swollen, and irritable, and the latter exhibited 
a papular eruption. Anotlier salesman stated that his face had 
lieen irritated, but it presented slight visible clianges. There 
were several other empfoyees in the estalilishment, whose 
sivins were unalTected. I was told Ijy some of them that it 
was a well-known trick in g-reen-houses to shake a plant of 
.Icacia pubescens over a green workman to excite an itching of 
the skin. Primula obconica was the only plant sold for the first 
time this season, and large quantities of this had been han- 
dled. I made a list of the plants which were then, or had 
1 leen during the preceding month, for sale in the shop. Tliey 
were : 

Acacia pubescens. Calceolaria. 

Amaryllis, two varieties. Calendula. 

Anemone, Roman [A. ho?-- Calla. 

tensis). Camellia. 

Azaleas. Cinereria. 

Bouvardia. Coreopsis. 



Cyclamen. 
Cypripeihim insigne. 

Harrisii. 
Cytisus. 
Daisy {Bellis). 
Erica. 
Ferns. 

Foliage plants. 
Freesia. 
Galax (leaves). 
Hyacinths. 
Hydrangeas. 
Jonquils. 
Lilium longijiorum. 

" candiiium. 

" Harrisii. 



Lily-of- Valley. 
Marguerite [Chrysanthe- 
mum frutesceiis). 
Mignonette. 
Narcissus. 
Nasturtium. 
Pansy. 
Pink. 

Polyanthus. 
Primulas. 
Roses. 
Smilax. 

Spircea 'Japonica. 
Tulips. 
Violets. 
Wall Flowers. 



In my work on "Dermatitis Venenata," recently published, 
I give a list of eighty-six genera of plants, one or more spe- 
cies of which have been known, on good authority, to produce 
some degree of inflammation of the skin by contact, but in the 
collection above named there was but one species which finds 
a place in my list, viz., Tropaolum majus, or Garden Nastur- 
tium. This I have known, in a few instances, to give rise to a 
severe inflammation of the skin of persons handling it, al- 
though it is ordinarily innocuous. It had been always handled, 
however, by all the persons afl'ected in this instance with im- 
punity. The only other plants above named, which are closely 
allied to species known to be " poisonous," are the Anemone, 
Cypripedium and Marguerite. Several of the Anemones, 
especially .1. neinorosa, A. patens, and^. horiensis, possess irrita- 
tive properties, and are even capableof vesicating the skin, but I 
have no knowledge of such action on the part of that in ques- 
tion. I know, on the authority of the late Professor Babcock, 
a distinguished botanist of Chicago, that our native Cypripe- 
dium pubescens is capableof producing as severe inflammation 
of the skin as Rhus Toxicodendron. The French Daisy, or 
Marguerite, is also, so far as I know, innocent, but its relation- 
ship to Leucanthemum vutgare and Manila cotula, our White- 
weeds, makes it a possible object of suspicion. 

There can be no doubt, in my opinion, that the cutaneous 
affection in these cases was of an artificial character, and that 
the exciting cause is to be sought among the plants recenfly 
handled in this extensive establishment. If it be some one of 
these lately introduced into cultivation and the public market, 
it is important that it should be discovered. It was suggested 
as a possible explanation by the proprietor, my patient, that 
some of the fertilizers used about low-gtowing plants, as 
Violets, etc., might have accumulated upon the leaves, and 
thus be transferred to the hands in making up bunches for 
sale, or that some of the mildews upon the foliage might, 
perhaps, be irritating when handled. Ustilago hypodites, 
parasitic upon Ariindo donax, is a freciuent cause of cutaneous 
inflammation among the workers in this Reed in France, but I 
am acquainted with no other fungus with such properties. 

As it seems probable that the oft'ender in this case is some 
new plant, I wrote to Professor Goodale asking him if he had 
known the suspected Acacia or Primula to cause such irrita- 
tion. He replies : 

" Our gardeners say that they have not experienced any 
trouble from A. pubescens or P. obconica, but that there is a 
plant, as yet undetected, which has lately given them a good 
deal of irritation." 

It is with the hope that some cultivator of, or dealer in, 
flowers may be able to throw light upon the matter, that I send 
this communication to Garden .a.nd Forest. 

Harvard Medical School, Boston. JamcsC. Wllite. 



To the Editor of Garden and Forest : 

Sir. — You will, perhaps, be interested to hear that by far the 
most beautiful of the southern California shade trees is the 
Pepper tree. Its graceful form, delicate foliage, feathery sprays 
of white blossoms, and long pendant clusters of red berries, all 
present in profusion at every season of the year, nrake a most 
effective feature in nearly all the streets and parks of Los 
Angeles. Its growth is phenomenally rapid and attains 
great height and breadth. 

The shade, though not dense, is exceedingly pleasant, not 
only by reason of the lovely arabesque of tracery reflected 
upon the hot yellow soil, but also by the pungently resinous 
odor which it exhales, and which is at once refreshing, stimu- 
lating- and soothing to the lungs. Nature seems to have pro- 
vided in great abundance this "healing balm," as the antidote 
for the irritating effect of the finely powdered, almost impal- 
pable adobe dust that infests the air of California for the greater 



AlAY 



iS88.] 



Garden and Forest. 



119 



portion of the year. The Pepper tree makes no Htter of cast- 
off leaves, entertains no insects on trunk, branch or leaf, and 
its light foliage, being in constant motion, shakes off the least 
particle of dust; while all its neighbors are thickly coated with 
soil, its shining, sweeetly scented boughs are always glossy 
g-reen. 

It grows readily from the seed, and sliapes itself perfectly 
without the aid of the pruning hook. A'. A. 

[The so-called Pepper tree [Schhiiis Mol/e) is a beautiful 
small tree, a native of Chili and some parts of Brazil, and is 
related to our Sumachs. It is now very generally planted in 
Australia, southern Europe and other warm, dry regions of the 
world. — Ed.] 

To the Editor of Garden and Forest : 

Sir. — 1 learn from your journal that in the " Handbuch der 
Coniferen Benennung," JVelling/oiiia is retained as a genus 
for Sequoia. I once asked Professor Gray if, when he was in 
England, he called Sequoia IVeUingtonia? "No," he replied, 
very earnestly. " It is too bad that a name prompted by nar- 
row national feeling should be allowed to supersede an older 
botanical name." Is it too late to accomplish anything in this 
matter by remonstrance ? 

Cambridge, Mass. KatheJ-lllC ParSOnS. 

[European botanists, of course, speak of our Big- Tree as 
Sequoia, but the name Wellinglonia is now so universally 
adopted and is clung to with such tenacit)^ especially in 
Great Britain, by all nurserymen and other cultivators, that 
nothing short of a miracle will ever cause it to be discarded 
in favor of Sequoia. — Ed.] 



To the Editor of Garden and Fore.st : 

Sir. — Your pleasant note concerning the Dog-wood with 
rose-colored flowers which Mark Catesliy had growing in his 
Virginia garden a century and a half ago, reminds me of a tree 
in "Bear Camp," which has red flowers. Let me add that I 
have foundin what is known as BigGum Bottom, ii new station 
for Rhododendron Vascyi. Hundreds of thousands of plants are 
scattered over an area of at least a square mile. Tliey are of 
all si/.esand are loaded with flower buds. F. E. Boynton. 

Macon Co., N. C. April lotli. 

Recent Pul^lications. 

Versailles et les Trianniis, par Paid Bos(i. Illustre. Paris, 
Henri Laurens. {Bihliotlieque d' Histoire el d' Art.) 

French writers have a peculiar gift for picturesque and vivid 
description, as well as for recounting the facts of history witli a 
touch so light tliat the record reads like a romance. Versailles 
and the life which there was led during the most brilliant epoch 
in the annals of France, offered a congenial theme to a pen of 
the truly Gallic sort. Monsieur Bosq has proved himself the 
owner of such a pen, and, moreover, has gracefully interwoven 
with his own words copious e.xtracts from famous writers of 
earlier generations. The result is a book small in size and 
sparkling in tone, which, nevertheless, contains a large amoimt 
of information, and gives us a better idea of the former aspect 
of Versailles and of the scenes which have passed there than 
we could obtain by much laborious searching in a multitude 
of more serious-seeming volumes. 

The readers of this Journal, it may be supposed, will take an 
especial interest in the descriptions of the great park of Ver- 
sailles — the most famous park of modern times — and of the 
smaller ones which surround the Great and the Little Trianon. 
These descriptions are, of course, untechnical, but they are 
clearand mteresting, and take us liriefly through the history of 
the great works of which they speak. One fact which will sur- 
prise many readers is tliat the great parkin front of the palace 
of Versailles was not the creation of Le Notre, with whose name 
it is so inseparably connected, but was laid out by Lemercier 
and planted by Boyceau during the reign of Louis XIII., and 
merely enlarged and remodele'd by Le Is'otre when Louis XIV. 
made Versailles his principal residence. The first task which 
this monarch undertook was the remodeling of the park, and 
from 1664 to 1669 he occupied himself with little else. It is 
impossible here to repeat the account which M. Bosq gives of 
the work accomplished in these years ; but one or two facts 
may be cited to give an idea of its magnitude. Nothing was 
left of the original design of the park except a few of the prin- 
cipal lines. Its borders had lieen extended until an English 
visitor Gould speak of it as a " province in itself." Ninetv-five 
sculptors were employed to people it with statues. It had 



fourteen hundred jets of water distributed among many foun- 
tains of immense size and lavish sculptured decoration. Trees 
of the largest growth had been brought in incredible numVjers 
from various parts of Europe. Thousands of Orange trees 
stood in pots of costliest porcelain. The great Canal was 5,134 
feet in length and 380 in breadth, and ended in a piece of 
water 608 feet square. Groves, trellises, "green parlors," 
labyrinths, and wide, formally outlined stretches of turf suc- 
ceeded one another in bewildering variety and on the most 
colossal scale. And when the great fountains played " the 
whole world came to gaze." Nor when the park was finished 
was the work upon it done, for it was continually altered, part 
by part, until three almost entire reconstructions could be 
counted during the lifetime of Louis XIV. Under Louis XV. 
new and equally great changes were made, but during his 
later years this king abandoned the great palace and park for 
the Trianon ; under Louis XVI. it fell into deplorable neglect, 
and the Revolution ruined it. Napoleon did much to restore 
the park, however, and between the years 1S60 and 1881 it was 
replanted, part by part. 

The palace called the Great Trianon was built, to please 
Madame de Montespan, upon the site of a village of that name 
which was razed to make room for it. Louis XIV. pulled it 
flown and reconstructed it, and in his later years gave much 
attention to its magnificent gardens and took especial pleasure- 
in nocturnal promenades in gondolas on its canal. Louis XV., 
taken with a sudden passing fancy for gardening, made it the 
scene of many agricultural and horticultural experiments ; and 
his gardener, Claude Richard, did real service to the world bv 
lirst growing in the gardens of the Great Trianon many plants 
which are now common all over Europe. It was he, says M. 
Bosq, who first cultivated what the French call " plantes de la 
terre de bruyere" and the English " American plants " — Azaleas, 
Rhododendrons, Andromedas, and other peat-loving plants. 
In 1759 Louis XV. added 'o his horticultural establishment a 
botanical garden, and placed it under the charge of Bernard 
de Jussieu, who pleased his master by asking nothing of him, 
" not even re-imlmrsemeut for his outlays." 

With the Petit Trianon the name of Marie Antoinette is in- 
separably connected ; and it is a name which will be long re- 
membered by historians of the landscape gardener's art, for in 
her time the first " English garden " in France was laid out in 
this lovely spot. It is still one of the finest examples of this 
school of gardening in Europe, and — a fact which M. Bosfjdoes 
not note — it is of especial intei-est to American visitors. The 
elder Michaux, one of the earliest systematic explorers of the 
Flora of America, traveled under commission from Louis XVI., 
and the plants he sent home as valuable novelties were culti- 
vated in the " English garden" of the queen. Her gay existence 
in this garden was soon cut short in blood and fire by the Revo- 
lution, but many fine specimens of American trees sfill bear 
witness to Michaux's energy and to the fact that the most pleas- 
ure-loving monarchs may produce lasting beneficial results 
while striving merely to gratify their own passing tastes and 
fancies. 

Periodical Literature. 

THE Fcljruary number of Pclermann' s Mittlieilungeit con- 
tains an interesting article by Dr. von Lendenfeld upon 
"The Influence of Deforesting upon the Rainfall of Australia." 
The author confesses that his iuvestisjations have not been 
carried on long enough or over a wide enough area to warrant 
him in claiming scientific x'alue for his conclusions. Yet he 
seems to think himself justified in believing that opposite ef- 
fects follow in Europe and in Australia upon the cutting off of 
forests. In Europe the struggle for life between different 
kinds of vegetation means a struggle for light ; in Australia it 
means a struggle for moisture. The trees of Australia, having 
adapted themselves to the exigencies of a dry climate, send 
forth their roots very widely and deeply, and so wholly absorb 
all the moisture which exists that no grass will grow beneath 
them. Nor do they, like European trees, give back by evap- 
oration a large part of what they take — as is conspicuously 
shown in the case of the Eucalyptus, which perpetually turns 
the edges of its leaves towards the sun and closes its pores 
during the hottest part of the day. If, says Dr. von Lenden- 
feld, the forests of central Europe were all destroyed, the an- 
nual rainfall would be diminished by ono-cjuarter and vegeta- 
tion in general would suffer proportionately. From this opin- 
ion many scientific observers will dissent. But whether Dr. 
von Lendenfeld is right or wrong in holding it, does not affect 
his assertion with regard to Australia — the assertion that when 
forests are cut there, the immediate effect is a rapid increase in 
the minor forms of vegetation. The roots of the trees, re- 



I20 



Garden and Forest. 



[May 2, 18.SS. 



maining in the soil, form little canals through which water 
penetrates the hard ground, and grass springs up and flourishes 
so that certain tracts in New South Wales can now support ten 
times as many sheep as before their trees were cut. 

No less than 341 species, varieties and hybrids are included 
in the list of Cypripediums published in a recent issue of Le 
Moniteur d' Horticulture, and now issued as a separate publica- 
tion. The parentage of hybrids is given and species with 
annual leaves are distinguished. 



Recent Plant Portraits. 

Gardener's Ckroiiiele, March 24th. 

UTR1CUL.A.RIA LONGIFOLIA (showing a casc of prolifer- 
ation). 

HOLOTHRIX LiNDLEANA. 
Hooker's hones P/antaruin. 

Satyrium PRINCEP.S, /. 1729; a handsome species from 
Port Elizabeth, with showy carmine fiowers. 

Tabebuia longipes, /. 1738. 

Adinotinus Sinensis, t. 1740; the representative of a new 
genus of the Honeysuckle Family, witli digitate foliage of 
a Horse-Chestnut and the fiowers of a Guelder Rose. It is from 
central China and should be hardy and an interesting addition 
to garden shrubs. 

Decumaria Sinensis, /. 1741; is also a native of central 
China and should make a handsome hardy garden creeper, with 
its obovate leaves and heads of fragrant white flowers. Much 
interest is attached to the plant as a second representative of 
a genus known heretofore only in our Southern States. 

Hamamelis mollis, /. 1742 ; a new Witch-hazel from central 
China. 

CHRYSOSPLENIUM MACROPHYLLUlM, /. I744. 
AbUTILON Sinense, /. 1750; a native of south-west China ; a 
shrub or low tree, with beautiful yellow flowers. 

Botanical Magazine, April, 

NympH/EA Kewensis, t. 6988; a very handsome liybrid raised 
in the Royal Garden in 1885 by impregnating the white flow- 
ered N. Lotus with the pollen of N. Devonicnsis, itself a liybrid. 
The flowers are described as nine inches in diameter and as 
remaining openfor several hours afternoon. 

Brodi.-ea Howellii, t. 6989 ; a pretty white flowered species 
discovered a few years ago in Washington Territory by the 
collector whose name it bears. 

Masdevailia gibberosa, t. 6990; a ciu-ious little species 
from New Grenada; of no horticultural value. 

Cantleya lutea, /. 6991. 

Abies Nordmanniana, /. 6992 ; "A. Nordmanniana be- 
longs to a group of five closely allied European and wist 
Asiatic Silver Firs, the limits of which are not yet well 
defined. Of these tlie type is A. pectinata, the common 
Silver Fir, which extends from the centre of France 
eastward to middle Russia, and reappears in Macedonia and 
Greece, extending to Anatolia in the extreme east of Asia 
Minor, and according to Ledabour, also in the Caucasian 
districts of Imperetia and Ossatia. A. Apollinis, with its varie- 
ties Panachaica and Pegincp Anialicp, is confined to the moun- 
tains of Greece and Macedonia. A. Cephalonica is more 
restricted still, being found only in the small island whose 
name it bears. Both of these last are considered as forms of 
A. pectinata by Heldreich, the most competent authority, by 
far, on Greek liotany. A.Cilicica is the most Southern species, 
lieing confined to the Taurus and Anti-Taurus Mountains in 
ancient Cilicica, and to the Lebanon ; it is the only Levantine 
'species, and differs remarkably from the above, and from the 
following, in the retrorsely hooked angles of the scales. 
Lastly, there is A. Nordmanniana, to which the geographical 
limits assigned by Boissier are all the mountains towards the 
east and south-east shores of the Black Sea, including the 
south-western spin's of the Caucasus. . . . The nearest 
ally of all these species is the Afghan and Himalayan A. li'ei- 
biana, which approaches A. Nordmanniana more nearly than 
any of the more western species. 

"A. Nordmanniana is a noble forest tree, attaining 150 feet in 
height, with a trunk six feet in diameter; it inhabits elevations 
of 2,000 feet ;md upwards, growing with species of Coryhis, 
Carpinius, Cornus, Philadclplius and other European trees." 
J. D. Hooker. 

Public Works. 

Central Park, New York. — A section of the park along its 
Fiilli Avenue boundary, and between io2d and i loth streets, 
originally a part of Mount St. Vincent Convent grounds, has 
remained undeveloped because the city did not get possession 



of it at the outset. The whole district was set apart for office 
and nursery purposes, and the conservatory attached to the 
convent was allowed to stand until the buildings burned down. 
For twenty years the ground has been devoted, to the experi- 
mental growth of plants, and a number of comparatively rare 
and tender trees and shrubs have been collected here in a 
somewhat sheltered position. The Park Board has determined 
to begin the permanent improvement of this area, on the 
recommendation of Mr. Vaux, the Landscape Architect of the 
Department, and Superintendent Parsons. The collection of 
plants that have already succeeded will be extended, and other 
choice trees and shrubs which will thrive in this protected 
ampliitheatre will be added. It is fortunate for the city, and 
for all who appreciate thoroughly good landscape work, that 
Mr. Vaiix is again in a position of authorityin all matters which 
touch the design of the park. 



Retail Flower Markets. 

New York, Al'ril sjtli. 

The trade in flowers is very good, especially with Broadway florists. 
The supply is short and the average quality poor. Paul Neyron con- 
tinues to hold the lead among hybrid Roses. Baroness Rothschild 
follows next, and then comes American Beauty. The finest of these 
Roses bring 75 cts. each, and the second grade cost 40 and 50 cts. 
Puritans are in good demand, but aie scarce. They are steady at 50 
cts. each. La France, Catherine Mermet and The Bride sell for $2 a 
dozen. Catherine Mermets are poor in color and ^•ery ragged. There 
are not enough first-rate Jacqueminots to meet the request. They 
cost $2.50 and $3 a dozen. Tulips of first quality. Daffodils and 
Lilics-of-the- Valley bring $1 a dozen. Lilacs are $1 a bunch. The 
white variety is strong and full. Scarlet Carnations are abundant and 
well grown. They cost from 35 to 50 cts. a dozen. Grace Wilder and 
Buttercups are inferior, and may be bought for 25 cts. a dozen. Both 
Liliiim langijiorum andCallas bring $3 a dozen. Violets are small and 
unsatisfactory at prices unchanged. Sniilax is very scarce, and in de- 
mand at 50 cts. a yard. Asparagus teniiissimus costs 50 and 75 cts. a 
yard. The tilling of window boxes and jardinieres for court-yards 
makes busy days for gardeners. Pansies, Forget-me-nots, Daisies 
and Lobelias are favorite flowers for window-boxes. Vines are more 
used in their arrangement this spring. 



PlULADEl.rHlA, April 2^ 111. 

Unusually cold weather has kept up a steady demand for all kinds of 
flowe