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Full text of "The Garden : an illustrated weekly journal of gardening in all its branches"

UMASS/AMHERST 



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MASSACHUSETTS 

AGRICULTURAL 

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supplejiekt to "the garden," jantjabt 25, 1873. 




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ILLUSTRATED WEEKLY JOURNAL 



GAKDENIKG IN ALL ITS BBANCHES. 



THIS IS AN ABT 
WHICH DOES MEND NATURE : CHANGE IT RATHER : BUT 
THE ART ITSELF IS NATURE.— Shakespeare. 



BY 

WILLIAM ROBINSON, 

AUTHOR OP "ALPINE FLOWERS FOR ENGLISH GARDENS," "THE WILD GARDEN," ETC. 

VOL. II. 



LONDON: 
OFFICE: 37, SOUTHAMPTON STREET, COYENT GAEDEN, W.C. 

1873. 




1S72 



TO THE 



REYEREND SAMUEL REY:N'0LDS HOLE, M.A., 



OF CAUIfTON MA^OK, NOTTS, 



AUTHOR OP 



"A BOOK ABOUT EOSES," "THE SIX OF SPADES," ETC.; 

FOE WHOSE ■WKITINGS AND GENIAL FELLOWSHIP ALL TEUB GARDENERS ARE GRATEFUL, THIS VOLUME OF "THE GAKDEN " 

' IS RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED BY 

"WILLIAM ROBINSON. 



IN^DEX TO VOLU]y:_E II 



A. 

Abies canadensis, 500 

Abutilon vitifolium, 146 

Acacia dealbata, 93; decurrens, 257; 
lopliautha, 240; hedges, 2U; old, in 
the Jardiii dos Plantes, 77; round- 
headed, S3; the Rose, 351 

Acfena niicrophylla, IStJ 

Acantholimou venustnm, 65 

Acan^s Tilite, 425 

Accouut-book, form of .carden, 296 

Acer barbatum, S'lO ; eriocarpum, 320 ; 
hyrcaniun, 379 ; Loudoni, 3:iO ; hetero- 
phyllum, 283 ; macrophylluin, 237 ; 
monspessulanum, 423; neapolitanum, 
337 J Negnndo vaviegatum, in the 

- flower garden, 295; obtusatum, 257; 
Opalus, 413 ; opulif olium, 433 ; plata- 
noides, 320 ; platanoides dissectum, 
465 ; platanoides laciniatum, 455 ; rn- 
hrum, 323; tataricum, 405 

Achimencs, culture of, 142 

Acrostic, garden, 550 

Act, Royal Parks. 2 

Adiautoni escisum, 390, 401 ; pedatum, 
526 

Adulteration of manures, 66 

jEchmea Maria reginte, 433 

Agapanthus umbellatus, 9 

After the show, 114 
' Agaric, brown wai'ty, 306; the maned, 
251. 

Agave geminifiora, 203, 335 

Ailantus silkworm, the, 515 

Ailantus, variation of sex in, 379 

Air and Rain, rev., 123 

Ajuga reptans, 421; reptans purpurea, 
273 

Alexandra Pai'k, 88, 497; purchase of, 

AUamandas, 141 ; Schotti, nobilis, and 
grandiflora, 92 

Allotment, gardens at Coventry, 7S 

Almonds, new dwarf, 239 

Alnus glutinosa laciniata, 197, 2S3 

Alocasia metallica, 516 

Aloe, American, 272 ; at Kensington, S3 

Alonsoa Warscewiczii, 195 

Alpine garden, 7, 71 ; rocky steps in, 
7 ; upland valley in, 3 ; water-fence 
in, S 

Alpines, rare, at Benthall Hall, 9 

Alstroemeria aui'ea, 05 

Alton Towers, 15, 56 

Amarantus salicifoUus, 87, 92, 194, 478 

Amateurs, hints for, 90 

America, fruit crop in, 519 ; fruit voting 
in, 253 ; Peach crop in, 137 ; English 
gardeners in, 43, 69 ; evergreens killed 
in, 39 ; trees in, 300; vegetable dishes 
in, 192 

A-nerican Aloes at South Kensington, 
88 ; bhght, the, 229 ; remedy for ditto, 
35S : orchards, 507 ; Pitcher-plant, 224; 
Rose Potato and the disease, 193 

Ampelopsis tricuspidata, 93 

Amygdalus communis pyramidata, 339 

AnEectocMlus Dominii, 390 

Anagallis tenella, 167 

Angling, book on, 123 
. AngrECcum sesquipedale, 5 ; 8Uperbum,5 

Annuals, striking, in flower in Septem- 
ber, 295 ; trial of, 249 

Anomatheca cruenta, 144 

Anthonomus Pomorum, 535 

Anthuriums at Kew, 520 

Antirrhinum siculum, 136 

Ants, modes of destroying, 165, 314; 
versus caterpUlai's, 74 

Aphelandra aurantiaca RoezUi, 398 

Aponogeton distachyon, 310, 523 

Apple grub, remedy for, 353 

Apple trees, cordon, 330 ; for ornament, 
339,371,332; old espalier, 507 ; bloom 
and fruit on the same tree at the s^fiae 
time, 300 ; on the French Paradise, 451 

Apples, 137 ; American, 500 ; Newtown 
Pippin, 478 ; and Holly beiTies, scar- 
city of , 436; as food, 254; from Brit- 



tany, 310 ; from France, 353 ; in 
Australia, 473 ; keeping, 137 ; ditto in 
gypsum, 524 ; ditto in plaster of Paris, 
373 ; Michigan, 310 ; Siberian crab, 
310. 

Aquarium at Brighton, 245 ; at Yarmouth, 
335 

Aqiiilegia califomica, 20 

Ai-alia japonica, 8, 433,473; hardiness 
of, 410 

Araucarias, variegated, 465; at Pilt- 
down, 311 

Arboretum for "Walsall, 493; the Arnold, 
335 ; the Derby, 416 

Architecture, rustic, 555 

Aristolochia Duchai-trei, 433 

Ar-nut, 100 

Artemisia anethifoUa, 115 

Arthropodium pauiculatum, 462 

Artichauts farcis a I'ltalienne, 215 

Aitichokes, exterminating Jerusalem, 
434 

Ai't V. Katui'e, 148 

Arum corsicum, 250 

Arnndo conspicua, 138 ; versicolor, 295 

Asa Gray on geograptdcal distribution 
of plants, 337, 530 

Asclepias princeps, 93; tuberosa, 115, 
250 

Asparagus-growing company, an, 210 

Asparagus, salting, 241; strong-grow- 
ing. 512 

Asplenium flagelliforme, 203 

Aster turbinellus, 318 

Asters, culture of, 205 

Aubrietia as a wall plant, 195 

Australian products, 543 

Autumn sowing. Stocks for, 72 

Autumn sown Sweet Peas, 73 

Avocado Peai', 55 

Ayrton, Mr., and Dr. Hooker, 43, 48, 
62, 91. 113, 137, 168, 176, 188, 218, 246, 
307, 385 

B. 

Bamboos, 461; hardy, 316,428; rapid 
growth of, 233; rates of growth of, 
335 

Banana, culture of, 186 ; eating, 306 

Banyan tree, 330 

Barbarea vulgaris variegata, 452 

Baskets, Strawberries for hanging, 34 

Baths, park, 123 

Battersea Park in 1872, 179; carpet bed- 
ding at, 273 

Beach Plum, 450, 500 

Beaucai-nea, the genus, 480 

Bedding out, 3d4, 503 ; a defence and a 
reply, 265, 237, 333, 406 ; ugly ex- 
amples of, 163 

Bedding plants, annual distribution of, 
335 ; hardy Heaths as, 527 

Bee, death from sting of a, 88, 314 

Beech trees and lightning, 322, 339 

Bees and Salvias, 369 

Begonias, 4flO; for winter flowering, 
411 ; Weltoniensis, 92 

Belfast Botanic Garden, 413 

Belgium, gardening in, 99 

Belladonna Lily, the, 506 

Bellows sprinkler, the, 232 

Berberis fascicularis, 172 

Bindweed, the great, 241 

Birch, a purple-leaved, 233 ; weeping, 
197 : Young's ditto, 465 

Bird, The, rev., 189 

Birds, a plea for the, 199 ; friends of the 
gardener and farmer, 432 ; to protect 
buds and seeds from, 543 

Birmingham, exhibition grounds, 309 

Birmingham Horticultural Congress, 
Professor Dyer's address at, 86 

Blackberry. Western Triumph, 164 

Blackberry wine, 160 

Black Hambm-gh, companion Grapes 
fur the, 451 

Bogs, artificial, how to make, 397 

Boilers and their management, 537 
trials of, at Birmingham, 67 



Boletus, the French mode of preserving, 
455 

Bombyx (Lasiocampa) pini, 139 ; neus- 
tria, 342 

Book on Angling, rev., 123 

Bore, a botanical, 136 

Botanists and gardeners, 499 

Botanic garden, Belfast, 413 ; the Mel- 
bourne, 413 ; arrangement in, 497 

BougainvlUea bracts, 439 ; glabra, 462 

Boussingaultia baselloides, 433 

Bouvardia, new, 357 ; Vreelanoii, 413 

Box Elder, the Ash-leaved, 197 

Bramble, the Parsley-leaved, 275 

Brassey, Mi-., Life and Labours of, rev., 
434 

Brassica oleracea pabnifolia, 453 

Briar or Maneiti Roses, 97 

British Association, 500 

Broccoli in winter, 512 

Brodisa grandiflora, 20 ; multiflora, 314 

Brook, the value of a, 419 

Brooklyn, transplanting large trees at, 75 

Budding, Rose, 72 

Bud variation, 421 ; in Hollies, 464 

Bugle, the purple , as an indoor orna- 
ment, 421 

Bulb culture in Holland, 73 

Bulbs, flowering, and theii* allies, 528 ; 
for pot cultm-e, 461 ; long rest of, 464 

Bur Reed for grafting, 471 

Bushes, a good pair of dissimilar, 233 

Butterfly, large tortoiseshell, 643 

c. 

Cabbage butterfly, the, 74 
Cabbage seeds, advertising, 26, 60 
Cabbages, caterpillars on. 165 ; club in, 

412 ; large, 512 ; Palm, 453 ; to winter, 

350 
Cactus, a three-legged, 521 
Caladiums, 556 
Calanthe Veitchii, 462, 478 
Calceolaria violacea, 136; amplexicaulis, 

273 
Calceolarias, culture of herbaceous, 93 
Calif oi-nia, Austrahan trees in, 301 ; soap 

plant of, 136 
Calla palusti-is, 551 
Callistemon rigidnm, 24 
Calophaca Wolgarica, 39 
Calycanthus occidentalis, 197 
CamelUas planted out, 480 ; training, 

503 
Campanula pyramidalis, 115; laciniata, 

295; cai-patica, 461; Van Houttii, 273 
Campanulas, dwarf rock, 9 
Camphor wood, 405 
Canada, fruit growing in. 335 
Cantharellus cibarius, 130 
Capsicum,, yellow-berried variety, 418 
Carex divulsa, 332 
Carica Papaya, 288 
Carlndovicas, 461 

Carnations and Picotees, summer treat- 
ment of , 97 
Carnation blooms, 28; tree, 502; "La 

BeUe," 167, 621 ; Miss JolUfi'e, 290 
Carpenter caterpillars, 83 
Carrots, Queensland. 512 
Carya olivseformis, 360 
Castanea pumila, 423 
Castle Preke, county Cork, 267 
Castor-oil and Rice-paper i)lants, 357 
Catalpa bignonioides, 135 
Catchcart's, earl, prize for essay on 

Potato disease (see Potatoes) 
Caterpillars, carpenter, 88;. coal-tar a 

remedy for, 32; on Cabbages, 165 
Cattleyas, 272 
Cattleya Chocoensis, 620 
Ceanothus Glotre de Versailles, 273 
Cedar of Lebanon, 345 ; the silvery, 339 
Celery, earthing up, 40 ; protection, 531 
Celosia pyramidalis, 458 
Cels's large-fruited Thorn, 127 
Cemeteries and floods, 43 ; Leyton Park, 

311 



Centaurea Cyanus, 9; babylomca, SSj 

ragusina, 240 
Cephalotus folhcularis, 134, 340 
Cerasus Lannesiana, lOS 
Cereus grandiflorus, 24 
Cerinthe minor, 141 
Oestrum aurantiacum, 295 
Challoner, Col., de^ith of, 112 
Chama3rops Fortune!, 266 ; at Heckfietd^. 

20 
Chanterelle, the, 130 
Chatsworth, the fruit houses at, 256 
Chelone obliqua, 158 
Chillingham Castle, 462 
China creeper, the, 317 
Chinese Thorn, the edible-frailed, 197 
Chinquapin, the, 423 
Christmas Rose, 433 
Chi-ysanthemum carinatnm, 206 
Chi-ysanthemums in the Temple Gar- 
dens, 393 ; in Victoria Park, 418; sum- 
mer -flowering, 131 
Cintra, vegetation of, 324 
Cistuses, 24 

Cistus cyprius, 171; lusitanicus, 43fct 
Citnis japonica, 120 
Clematises, 166, 524 ; on roctworfc, 

463 ; Jackmanni at Slough, 65 i tubu- 

losa, 245 
Clematis, The, as aGardenFlower, rev.,, 

416 
Cleome speeiosissima, 453 
Clerodeuaron Icetidum, 144 
Clethi'a MichauxU, 159 
Clianthus Dampieri, 65, 225 
Climbers, hardy, 318; and Eeeds hi 

South America, 254 
Cliveden, 234 

Cockroaches, poisoning, 231 
Cocoa-nut tree at Syou house, 92 
Cocos Weddelliana, 401 
Colchicums, 295, 310 ; at Tooting, 24&'^ 

near London, 181, 335 
Conifers, aged, 513; pruning, 423;' 

surface dressing for, 301 ; at ElvastffiD. 

Castle, 77; at Dropmore, 237 
Conservative, a vegetable, 167 
Conservatory, aspect for a, 412 
Convolvulus Scammonia, 159 
Cookery, cottage, 215; the "why" i^ 

306 
Cool Orchid growing, 439, 459 
Coprosma Baueriana, 203 
Cordon Apple trees, 330 
Coriaria thymifoha, 24 
Corypha ( Livistona) australis, 36S 
Cossus ligniperda, 229 
Cottages, the clothing of, 81 
Cottage gardens in Ireland, 141 
Coventry, allotment gardens at, 7S;- 

trees in, 76 
Cragside, 315 
Crataegus Celsiana, 127 ; Layi, 197 ; 

odoratissima, 77 
Creeping Jenny, 208 
Cress, violet, 526 
Criminal carelessness, 164 
Crinum capense albiflorum, 30^cKeni3j, 

158 
Crocoses, autumn, 310, 378 ; Indian, 335, 

401 ; uudiflorus, 283 ; rare, 410 
Crops for poor land, 40 
Cross-breeding, relative influence of 

parentage in, 15, 51 
Crotons at Mi'. Bull's nursery, 92 
Crown lauds, 356 
Crystal Palace Rose show, 68 
Cucumbers and Cocoa-fibre refuse, 279 ; 

gigantic, 393 ; in frames, 260 ; winter, 

391 
Cupressus fxmebris, 17, 39 ; Lawsoniana 

alba pendula, 214 
Cuscuta Eplthymum, 181 
Cuttings, easy way of striking, 165; pro- 
pagation by, 341 ; sending by parcel 

post, 23 ; striking in Wardian cases,. 

176 ; treatment of, 319 
Cyananthe, Himalayan, 295 
Cyauanthus lobatus, 65 
Cycas circinalis, 183 



"VI 



INDEX. 



Cyclamens, hardy, 453; hederEEfolium 

var, grreecum, 357 
Cynips Rosse, 311 
Cypress groves of America, 466 ; tree of 

** the Sad Night" at ilexico, 335 j 

funeral, 17, 39 
Cystopteris alpina, 24 
Cytisus capitatus, 267 ; incamatus, 283 ; 

nubigensifl, 146 : porpureus, variety of, 

146 



Dacrydium Franklini, 172 

Dahlia as a decorative plant, 23 ; coc- 

cinea, 163, 273 ; pompone, 208 ; imperi- 

alis, 413 ; roots, how to winter, 344 ; 

at Slough, 246 
Daisies, 463 ; on lawns, 464 
Daisy Snowball, 273 
Danzig, sewage works at, 600 
Daphne '" Dauphine," 418 
Dai'lingtonia californica, 340 
Datura Wrightii, 135 
Dean, the forest of, 130 
Deards' patent heating apparatus, 415 
Decorations, table, 84, 174 
Delphinium bicolor grandiflorum, 194 ; 

nudicaule, 51 
Dendrobium chrysotis," 204 ; Falconeri, 

290, 317, 390 ; heterocarpum (aureum), 

622 
Deodar, 39 ; silvery, 380 
Derby Arboretum, 39 
Desfontainea spinosa, 146 
Dessert, leaves for garnishing, 54 
DianeUas, 462 
Dianthus ramosus, 87 
Diascia macrophylla, 241 
Dicentra chrysantha, 24, 241 
Diefienbachia, propagating the, 176 
Dionasa muscipula, 503 
Diplopappus linariffifoHus, 318 
Disa grandifiora, 92, 115, 546 
Douglas Fir, variegated, 443 
Dracaena angx^ttfolia, 172 ; Fraseri, 

142; helicomfolia, 196 J indivisa, 629 j 

terminalis, 441 
Dracaenas in rooms, 258 ; in the north 

of England, 384 ; revision of the 

genus, 33, 64 
Drainage of pots, 204 
Drain pipes, wooden, 333 
Dropmore, conifers at, 237 
Drying wild flowers, 196 
*' Duck-ponds," danger of our, 158 
Ducks in the garden, 212 
Dyer's, Professor, address at Birming- 
ham Horticultural Congress, 86 



E. 

Bchinocactns Pottsii, 92, 521 

Edgings, Lithospennum prostratum as, 

51 
Edinburgh Botanic Garden, 10 
Elsegnuses, variegated, 453 
Elder, golden, 180 ; scai'let berried, 39 
Elder tree, curiously-shaped, 146 
Elvaston Castle, Coniferous trees at, 77 
Embothrium coccineum, 620 
England, a garden island, 43 
English V. American Potatoes, 193 
Entomology, economic, 165, 248 
Epergnes, plants for, 318 
Bpilobium obcordatum, 20 
BpiphyUum truncatum, 418 
Epping Forest, 173 
Branthemum, silver veined, 319 
Erianthus Ravennse, 241 
Eriogonum umbellatum, 9, 295 
Erythrina Crista-galli, 288 
Erythronium Dens-canis, 250 
Esculents, forced, 531 
Eucharis amazonica, 117, 184, 462 
Eucalyptus barkasabstituteforquiniue, 

310 
Eucalyptus cordata, 310 ; calophylla, 310 
Eucnide bartonioides, 453 
Euonymus radicans variegatus, 405 
Evergreen Oaks, transplanting, 173, 339 
Evergreens killed in America, 39 
Exhibition ground at Birmingham, 309 
Exhibition, horticultural, at Manchester 

620 
Exotics, angry with, 9 



Fairfield, Orchid cultivation at, 361, 389 

Fennels, giant, 478 

Ferns, additions to hardy, 33 ; dried, for 

vases, 276; filmy, 204; for baskets, 

131 ; tree, 166; rapid growth of ditto, 

34; Smith on, rev., 9 
Fibrous material, new, 405 
Ficua Roxburghii, 401 ; repens, 223, 257 
Figs, 401 ; new, 34 
Fig trees, barren, 300; how to improve 

barren^ 430 



Figuier's Vegetable "World, 345 

Flax, variegated New Zealand, 144 

Flora Antiqua, 403, 491 

Florence, public gardens in, 445 

Flower garden, autumn in the, 363 

Flower garden for July, IS; for August, 
109; for September, 220; for October, 
303 ; for November, 394 ; for December, 
495 

Flower garden model at Glasgow, 273 

Flower gardens round London: Kew, 150 

Flower stakes, glass, 230 

Flowers, hardy, in 1873, 193 ; vases of, 
208 ; and gardens of the ancients, 403 ; 
autumn, 445 ; emission of light from, 
358; of loveliness, 34; insects shaped 
to the needs of, 334 ; on graves, 452 ; 
rain-proof, 194; for church decoration, 
276 ; for the sick, 547 

Foliage v. flowering plants, 144 

Forest features, 359 

Forest of Dean, the, 130 

Forests, influence of, on rainfall, 75, 301 ; 
importance of, 464 ; the turpentine, 483 

Forget-me-not, the, 208; the Azorean, 
521 

Fontatnebleau, forest of, 359 

Fountain, a, not in a desert, 505 

Fountains, drinking, in Kew Gardens, 
96 

Foxgloves, 28 

France, weather in, 520 

Fremontia califoi-nica, 24 

Frost, effect of, on seeds, 258; testi- 
monial to Mr., 478, 520 

Fruits, American; 187, 519 ; amount of 
water and sugar in, 507 ; in Germany, 
300; in houses, 118; in table decora- 
tion, 387 ; in the Port of London, 330 ; 
keeping, 152; rules for keeping, 37; 
packing, 6; do. for market, 485; car- 
riage of, by railway, 424 

Fruit crop in Switzerland, 353; at Aber- 
deen, 181; of 1872, 102, 119, 153, 164; 
our future, 58; flavour of , 507 ; for the 
roadside, 120 ; French mode of keep- 
ing, 353 

Fruit garden for July, 19 ; for August, 
110 ; for September, 221 ; for October, 
304; for November, 394; for Decem- 
ber, 496 

Fruit growing in Michigan, 371 

Fruit, preserving and gathering, 274; 
ditto, in America, 500 

Fruit Trees, Culture of, rev., 270 ; for a 
small orchard, 330 ; in pleasure 
grounds, 83 ; iron a cm-e for blight on, 
353 ; low V. high, 430 ; manui-ing, 154 ; 
moveable truck for, 403 ; nails in, 83 ; 
Nathaniel Hawthorne on, 58 ; new- 
material for tying up, 300 ; orientation 
of, 120; pinching the shoots of, 154; 
planting "policy" walls with, 330; 
saving barked, 83; wash for, 103; 
fruit voting in America, 253 

Fuchsia Avalanche, 64; Riccartoni as 
a hedge plant in Ireland, 72 

Fuchsias, large, 464 

Funeral Cypress, 17, 39 

Fungus, Pear-leaf, 353 

Funkia grandifiora, 245 



G. 

Gaillardia Telemache, 135 

Gale, effects of the December, 518 

Galega officinalis alba, 273 

Garden account-book, form of, 296 

Garden acrostic, 550 

Garden, Alpine, the, 71 

Garden, a modem French, 40 ; a Paris 
market, 336 ; charm of a, 315 : citv, a 
270 ^ j» » 

Garden clerk at Eew, 498 

Garden Destroyers— the Lackey moth, 
342 

Garden flora, the, 294 

Garden furniture at Birmingham, 36 

Garden hedge, a good, 123 

Garden, Lady Corisande's, 80 ; of accli- 
matisation, Paris, 335 ; Mr. Murray's, 
486; my, 515; in front of St. Paul's, 
386; soil for a winter, 142; the wall, 
293; wild, what is a, 247 

Garden recipes, 358, 543 ; fruit buds and 
seeds, how to protect from birds, 543 

Garden structures, architectural forms 
of, 414 

Garden vegetation in South Devon, 87 

Garden walks, cleaning, 14, 60, 176, 452 

Garden walls, wiring, 154 

Gardens, allotment, 176 ; burials in, 230 ; 
by moonlight, 371 ; formal and pictu- 
resque, 551 ; geometrical, ungeometri- 
cally planted, 406; housetop, 333; 
large and small, 346; London window, 
342 ; monastic, 553 ; of the ancient 
Romans, the, 550; Prussian, 147 ; su- 
burban, Roses in, 651 ; London, 95 ; 
public, in Paris, 96 



Gardener and farmer, bird friends of 
the, 433 

Gardener, distance walked by a, 548 
English, iu America, 48, 69 

Gardeners, United Order of Free, 209 

Gardeners and Botanists, 499 

Gardening as a profession, 392 ; Eliza- 
bethan, 443, 471 ; housemaid, 234 ; in 
Belgium, 99 ; in the south of Ireland, 
209 ; in winter, 363 ; middle-class, 
346 ; old-fashioned flower, 143 ; re- 
marks on, 363 ; recreation for lunatics, 
423 ; round London, 66, 88, 131, 155, 
177, 199, 225, 263, 285, 375, 415, 435, 
475, 517, 637 ; school, 277 ; special ad- 
vantages of, 347 ; wild, 477 

Gardeners' Royal Benevolent Institu- 
tion, 21 

Garnishing, leaves for, 64 

Gasteria Peacockii, 431 

Genetyllis fuchsioides, 483 

Genista astnensis, 136 

Gentian, Bavarian, 283 

Gentiana excisa, 203 

Geographical distribution, Asa Gray on, 
530 

Geometra (Fidonia) piniaria, 63 

Geometrical Gardens ungeometrically 
planted, 406 

Geraniums, Mr. Pearson's, 161 

Gesnera refulgens, 421 

Gipsy moth, the, 365 

Gishurst compound, 212 

Gladioli, 163 

Gladiolus purpureo auratus, 158 

Glasnevin Botanic Garden, 10 

Glass copings, Parham's, 239 

Gleanings from "L'lllustration Hor- 
ticole," 508 

Gleditschia in Professor's Owen's gar- 
den, 147 

Goat moth, the, 399 

Godwinia gigas, 418, 500 

Golden-veined curled Dock, 121 

Gomphia decorans, 390 

Gompholobium'polymorphum, 94 

Good out of evil, 538 

Gooseberries and Currants, standard, 
524 

Gooseberry as a pyramid, 68 ; cater- 
pillar, 53 ; protection, 7 ; training the, 7 

Grafting, the art of, 26, 105, 154, 175, 
242, 263, 284, 291, 337, 373, 410, 431, 
471 ; cleft-grafting, 26, 105 ; oblique 
cleft-grafting, 154 ; terminal cleft- 
grafting, 175 ; cleft-grafting in fork- 
ings, 343 ; English grafting, 363 ; 
mixed grafting, 334, 291 ; bud graft- 
ing, 410 ; shield-budding in nurseries, 
431 ; Vines, 432; CameUias, 432; Bur 
Reed for, 471 

Grafting wax, 26 

Grammatophyllum Ellisii, 92 

Grape, Gros Guillaume, 403 ; Madresfield 
Court, 180, 203; companion to the 
Black Hamburgh, 451 

Grapes, colour of, 38 ; diseased, 430 ; in 
bottles of water, 53, 120, 466, 520; 
outdoor, 187, 254, 486; rust on, 38 

Grasses, ornamental, 206 

Greenhouses, Rendle's span-roofed, 389 

Greenwich Park, 333 

Grevniea Manglesi, 167 ; rosmarinifolia, 

418 
Grouping, errors in, 465 
Grundy's, Mr., song, 424 
Guano, Peruvian, agents for, 418 
Guava, the, 216 
Guernsey Lily, 288 
Gum Cistus, the Cyprus, 171 
Gnnnera manicata, 318 ; scabra, 27, 273 ; 

fruit of, 283 



H. 

Halesia diptera, 39 ; tetraptera, 39 
Handlights, Gilbert's registered, 379 
Hardy plants in flower round London, 

2, 25, 65, 70, 114, 13S, 160, 182, 204, 246, 

308, 378 
Hardy trees and shrubs, 77, 107, 127, 171, 

197, 237, 257, 383, 301, 379, 404, 433, 443, 

465, 4-S3, 531 
Harebell, Van Houtte's, 273 
Haricot, white Spanish, 324 
Hartsfield, near Betchworth, Surrey. 85 
Haverfordwest, Jubilee gardens at,*335 
Hawthorn sawfly, 13 
Heaths, Cape, and their culture, 63 ; 

hardy, 405, 425 ; as bedding plants, 527 
Heating apparatus, Deards's patent 

centrifugal, 299, 415; ill effects of 

over, 655 
Hedge, a good gnrden, 132 
Heliauthus orgyalis, 318 
Heliotrope, the winter, 295 
Helleborusargutifolius, 144; nigermaxi- 

mus, 438 
Hemlock Spruce, 500 
Hemp, 25J 
Hepaticas, 97 



Herbaceous plants, flowers of, inCovent 

Garden Market, 388 
Herbarium, the national, 428, 513 
Herniaria glabra, 318 
Howitt's, Messi*s., prize house, 100 
Hibiscus Moscheutos, 245 
Himalayan seed, 77 
History and Culture of Orange Trees, 

rev., 534 
Holland, bulb culture in, 73 
Holhes, bud variation in, 464 ; collection 

of, 520 ; invigorating old, 172 ; propa- 
gating, 242 
Holly, the dwarf Rock, 405 
Honeysuckles, 50 ; for forcing, 633 ; the 

golden-veined Japanese, 238 
Hooker, Dr., and Mr. Ayrton (see the 

Kew Question) 
Hop garden, a, 399 ; vegetables in, 296 
Horse Chestnut, Mistletoe on the, 405 
Horse Mushroom Ketchup, 215 
Horticulture, a profession. 111, 208; 

proposed school of, 311 
Horticultural Congress at Birmingham, 

Professor Dyer's address at, 86 
Horticultural Exhibition, International, 

373 
Horticultural vaporizer, the, 84, 117 
Hotel, a tree, 108 
Hyacinths, anew way of growing, 417 ; 

indoor, 289 ; in water, 312 
Hybridization, relative influence of 

parentage in, 15, 61 
Hydnum repandum, 64 
Hydrangea paniculata grandifiora, 214 
Hydrangeas, blue, 295 
Hygrophorus virgineus, 454 
Hylobius abietis, 281 
Hylurgus pioiperda, 31 
Hypericums, ornamental, 173 



I. 



Ice plant, the variegated, 273 

Impatiens Hookeri, 546 

India-rubber, 473 

Indigofera floribunda, 197 

Indoor garden for July, 18 ; for August 
108; tor September, 220 ; for October, 
303 ; for November, 393 ; for December, 
494 

Ink plant, 24 

Insects, birds, &c., French exhibition 
of, 228 ; shaped to the needs of flowers, 
334; stinging, 33; the Bedeguar, 311 

lonopsidium acaule, 626 

Ipecacuanha plant, 266, 475 

Ireland, cottage gardens in, 141 ; gar- 
dening in the south of, 209 ; woodland 
scenery in, 360 

Iron a cure for blight on fruit trees, 
353 

Islands, lake, 313 

Ivery, Mr. James, death of, 135 

Ivy as a window plant, 196; value of 
variegated, 339 

J. 

Jacquemontia violacea, 167 

Jardin des Plantes, old Acacia in, 77 

Juba3a spectabilis, 135 

Juniper,; Young's new golden Chinese, 

404 



Kensington, South, fruit shows at, 398 

Kentia Porsteriana, 314 

Kew question, the, 42, 43, 62, 91, 113, 
137, 168, 176, 188, 218. 246, 307, 385, 
44-5 ; gardens, 96, 219 ; garden clerk at, 
498 ; flower gardens at, 150 ; gai-dens 
and the Ipecacuanha plant, 475 ; the 
Welwitschia at, 390; Professor Owen 
on, 307, 325 

Keynes and Frost, Messrs., dinner to, 
398 

Kitchen gai-den for July, 20 ; for August, 
111; for September, 222 ; forOctober, 
305 ; for November, 395 ; for December, 
497 

Kitchen gai-den pests, 366 ; the late 
Imperial, 197 

Kumquat, the, 120 



*' La Belle " Tree Carnation, 167 
Labels for preserve bottles, 435 ; new 

Shaksperean Imperishable, 507 ; tree, 

423 
Labourer's strike, market garden, 6 
Laburnum, unseasonnble flowering of 

the. 339 
Lackey moth, 342 
Lady Corisande's garden, 80 
LfcUa prajstans, 520 
Lagerstroemia indica, 261, 290 
Lake in St. James' Park, 310 ; an 

African, 439 ; islands, 313 



INDEX. 



Vll 



Lamium maculatiim aui-eum, 143 

Land, poor, crops for, 40 

Landscape Gardening, errors of 

parallelism in, -iSl 
Lapagcria alba. 8S, 134 ; grandiflora, 

203 ; rosea, 203 ; hardiness of, 273 
Larch plantations, 380 
Larix Ka?mpferi, 339 
Lasiaudi'a macrantha, 357 
Lastheiiia glabrata, 9 
Lathyrus latifolius var. Chateri, 15S 
Laurel, common, varieties of the, 127 
Lawn pond In Sliddlesex, 121 ; roller, 

25S 
Lawn- sprinkler, a Californian, 335 
Law Notes : — 

Carriage of fruit by railway, 424; In- 
juring flowers and shrubs, 208; a 
right of common case, 200 
Laston's new Peas, 34, 211, 433 
Leaves for garnishing, 54 ; to preserve, 

456 
Leeds, new park at, 2 
Lemon peel, 160 
Leopard moth, the, 510 
Leptosiphon roseus, 33 
Leptopteris superba, 516 
Leschenaultia, the blue, 81 
Lettuce, boiled, 30 
Lettuces, select, 40 
Leucojum, 194 
Libocedrus decurrens, 540 
Lib EAST : — 

Smith's Ferns, 9 

Flore des Serres et des Jardin de 
TEurope, 123 

Air and Rain, 123 

Book on Angling, 123 

The Bird, 189 

Essays on Natural History, 227 

Trees and Shrubs for English Planta- 
tions, 269 

Nature, 270 

Round the Table, 374 

The Clematis as a Garden Flower, 44.G 

The Plantation, Leighton Buzzard, 
470 

Life and Labours of Mr. Brassey, 434 

"Idstone" Papers, the, 434 

Nature Pictui-es, 503 

The History and Culture of Orange 
Trees, 534 
Lightning and Beech trees, 322,339 
Lilacs, 76 
Lilac, a city, 423 
Lilies, from seed, 176 ; increasing, 410 ; 

sale of, 520 ; water, curious way of 

growing exotic, 290 
Lilium auratum, 24; var. Purity, 232; 

gigantum, 28; longiflorum, 92; pul- 

chellum, 92 ; epeciosum, 24, 135, 224 ; 

speciosum splendidum, 116; super- 
bum, 92 ; Washingtonianum, 458 
Lily, Belladonna, 250, 266 ; the Scar- 
borough, 261 
Lime, garden, uses of, 163 
Limnocharis Humboldtii, 135 ; out of 

doors, 310 
Linaria viUosa, 115 
Linum salsoloides, 24; viscosum, 24 
Liparis dispar, 365 ; salicis, 165 
Lisianthus Russelhanus, 5-^ 
Lithospermum prostratuna as an edging, 

51 
Littsea geminiflora, 203, 335 
Lloyd's ground vinery, 209 
Lobelias among bedding succulents, 250 
LobeUa Tupa, 136 
Lomaria chilensis, 295 
London gardens, 95, 528 
London to the fore, 140 
London square, proposal to open a, 83 ; 

our, 128 
Lonicera supervivom minor, 261 
Loudon, recollections of, 1, 47, 532, 433, 

532 
Lucuha gratissima, 134, 473 
Lychnis Haageana hybrida, 51 
Lycium barbarum, 322 
Lycopodiuni dendroideum, 196 
Lythrum flexuosum, 24, 241 



M. 

ilacadamia temifolia, 333 

Madagascar, Orchids in, 5 

Magnolia Campbellii, 146 ; microphylla, 
238 ; the large-flowered, at home, 205; 
the swamp, 380 

Maidenhair Fern, new, 390 

Malva family, 43 

Malva crispa, 283, 315 ; use for leaves 
of, 468 ; mauritanica, 144 ; sylvestris 
var., 295 

Manchester international exhibition, 311 

" Man-keeper," habits of the, 247 

Manure, liquid, for house plants, 84 ; 
adulteration of, 56 

Maple, French, or Guelder Rose-leaved, 
483 ; the blunt-lobed-leaved Hun- 
garian, 257; the Columbia, or large- 



leaved, 237; the cut-leaved Norway, 
465 ; the eagle's claw, 465 ; the Hjt- 
canian, 379 ; the ItaUan, 443 ; the 
Montpelier, 423 ; the Neapolitan, 337 ; 
the Tartarian, 405 ; the various -leaved, 
2S3 

Marantas, 544 ; as vase plants, 3 

Marigold seeds, saving, 344 

Market gardens round London, 14, 130, 
172, 241 ; the plough in, 416 

Market gardening, Paris, 323, 336, 372, 
490, 511, 554 

Market gardening in beds, '14 

Market garden labourers' strike, 6 

Market garden land tithe, 65 

Meadow SaSrons in Kensington Gar- 
dens, 385 

Melbourne Botanic Garden, 413 

Melocacti, culture of, 204 

Melons, large, 300 

Melon growing in the open air, 392 

Menziesia politolia, 418 

Mesembiyanthemum cordifolium varie- 
gatum,'206; tricolor, 273 

Mesospinidiumvulcanicum, 184, 357 

Meteor at Banbury, 518 

Mice, field, 378 

Michauxiacampanuloides, 115 

Michigan, the timber resources of, 423 

Miltonia Candida grandiflora, 204 

Mimulus, 240 ; Tilling's, 250 

Mistletoe, the, 536; on the Horse Chest- 
nut, 405 

Mole crickets, 32 

Monkey flower, 240, 250 

Monkshood, poisoning by, 43 

Morasa iridioides, 144 

Morel, culture of the, 390 

Moss, and insects on fruit trees, 216 ; as 
an evaporating surface, 134 

Mulching and watering, 40 

Mulgedium Plumierii, 333 

Musa Cavendishii in Hyde Park, 136 ; 
Ensete, 92, 202 

Musas, wintering, 344 

Mushi-oom beds in the open air, 418 ; 
culture, economical, 213 ; hedgehog, 
64 ; the horse, 215 ; viscid white, 454 

Mushrooms, modes of cooking common, 
159 ; Soyer's breakfast, 193 

Myosotis azorica, 521 ; palustris, rooting 
of, in a plate of water, 34 



N. 

Names, English, 291 

Natural History, Essays on, rev., 227 

NaturaUsation, 241 

Nature, rev., 270 

Nature Pictures, rev., 503 

Nectarine, the Murrey, 332 ; Rivers 

new, 13 L 
Nectarine trees, disabled, 7 ; under 

glass. 353 
Nepenthes, pitcher of, 339 ; Rafflesiana, 

159 
Nertera depressa, 432 
New Forest, the, 214 
Newstead, Wimbledon, 436 
Newtown Pippin, 500 
New York Central Park, 60 
New Zealand, vegetation in, 543 
Nierembergia gi-andiflora, 87 
Noctua (trachea) piniperda, 129 
Nubian vegetation, 325 
Nymphgeas, tender, out of doors, 310 



Oak, old, 77; Parhament, 127; the 

Poison, 76 
Oak palings, 330 

Oaks, transplanting evergreen, 172, 339 
Obituary, Mr. Wyness, 46 ; Rev. Edwin 

Sidney, 49; Col. ChaUoner, 112; Mr. 

Augustus Smith, 112 ; Mr. James 

Ivery, 135 
CEnothera, giant, 250 
Oleander, the, 272 

Olive tree, culture of, in California, 393 
Omphalodes Lucilia3, 20 
Oncidixma obryzatum, 167 
Onion fair, the Bu-mingham, 376 
Onions, 324 ; importation of, 393 
Ononis fruticosa, 33, 127; viscosa, 267 
Onopordons, the, 295 
Opuntia Rafinesquii, 233 
Origanum Dictamnus, 250 
Orange growing by Mrs. Beeeher Stowe, 

466 : trees, history and culture of, 534 
Orange mince, 30 
Orchard houses, 83; rustic, 474; fruits 

for small, 330 
Orchid flowers for table decoration, 207 
Orchid roots, protecting, 233 
Orchids in flower in December, 500, 546 ; 

growing, 439, 459; collecting, 479; 

ditto in Surrey, 295 
Orchids, collection of, at the Royal Ex. 

otic Nursery, 357 ; Fairfield system of 



growing, 361, 3S9 ; prices realised for, 
357,418; in bloom atMeadowbank,412; 
packing, for importation, 546; potting 
and watering, 521; resting, 544; a 
bouquet of winter flowering, 519 

Orchis fohosa, 33 

Osmunda regalis from seed, 335 

Ourisia coccinea, 163 

Owen's (Professor) garden at Rich- 
mond Park, 147 

Oxalis comiculata rubra, 410 ; rosea as 
a pot plant, 204 



Packing fruit, 6, 435 

Palm, the Date, 253 ; hardy. 9, 20, 51, 343 

Palm seed, a sculptured, 503 

Palm tree, a fossil, in Colorado, 232 

Pampas Grass, 245, 464 

Pancratium carib^um, 310, 245 

Paper-reed, disappearance of the, 340 

Papyrus antiquorum, 245 

Paradise stock, the French, 450 

Parcel post, sending plants or cuttings 
l3.V, 23 

Paris, gardens of, 13 ; market vege- 
tables, 490, 511 ; parks, 183 ; plant 
nursery of, 124 ; public gardens in, 96 

Park, gigantic, 513; Alexandra, 88; 
new, at Dundee, 224 ; New York Cen- 
tral, 60; Wolverhampton, 311 ; baths, 
128 ; Greenwich, 333 

Parks Act, 3 

Parks, alplea for people's, 336; meetings 
in the, SO ; paths in the, 493 ; pubhc, 
and recreation grounds, 223; public, 
Warrington, 310; Ruskin on public, 
310 ; of Stockholm, 413 

Parochetus communis, 506 

Pashiuba Palm, the, 163 

Passtflora macrocarpa, 393 

Passionflower, the 366 

Peaches, keeping in sized tissue paper, 
353; new, 34; under glass, 353; the 
Sal way, 225 

Peach crop in America, 137 

Peach trees, disabled, 7 

Pear blossoms, effect of spring frosts 
on, 185 

Pear espaliers, 402 

Pear grafted on the Quince, 103 ; new 
late Belgian, 353 ; the Avocado, 55 

Pear-leaf fungus, 353 ; saw-flies, 229 

Pear trees, gi-ound cordon, 371 ; fine 
specimens of, 382 

Pears, colouring, 120 ; Duchess d'An- 
gnulcme, 393 ; early ripening of, 524 ; 
for the west of England, 33 ; gathering 
late, 120; influence of the stock on, 
83; keeping in sized tissue pnper, 353 ; 
keeping Marie Louise, 130 ; qxiality of, 
552 ; want of flavour in, 486 

Peas, Laxton's new, 34, 211, 433 ; pods 
of, 306 ; autumn sown sweet, 73 

Peat, Scottish, 34 

Pecan nut tree, 360 

Pelargoniums, gumming blooms of, 34 ; 
in the flower garden, 73 ; double white- 
flowered zonal, 239, 272, 357 

Pelargonium, variegated Ivy-leaved, 
429 

Pentstemons, 51 

Perfumes, the influence of vegetable, 
276 

Perilla nankinensis laciniata, 295 

Pernettyamucronata, 380 

Peronospora infestans, 343 

Philesia buxifoha, 136 

Phlomis fruticosa, 17 

Phlox Drummondi var. Cardinal, 51 

Photographs, leaf, 357 

Phylloxera vastatrix, 73, 129, 217, 223, 
243, 366, 520 

Pickle, Martynia, 30 

Pictui'esque, Price on the, 420 

Pitaf , a Turkish dish, 215 

Pine-apple, 371 ; Cayenne, 473 

Pines, fruiting, 524; and Vines together, 
329 

Pinery for July, 20; for August, 110; 
for September, 222 ; for October, 304 ; 
for November, 395 ; for December, 496 

Pine, Stone, 347 

Pine, the bronze, of the Vatican Gar- 
dens, 417 

Pine trees as medicinal agents, 108 

Pines, screw, 501 

Pipes, jointing hot-water, 537 

Pitcher plants, 339; New Holland, in 
rooms, 196 

Plant baskets in the house, 124 

Plant carpeting, 322 

Plant cleanser, water a, 204 

Plant houses, walks in, 261 
Plant markers. Maw's terra cotta, 259 
Plant screens in rooms, 203 
Plant-stage, water panelled, 323 
Plants as weather guides, 498; room 
culture of, 3, 54, 207. 319, 341 ; pruning 
and cutting back, 83 ; propagation by 



means of seed, 84; jjoneral .Enles for 
sowing seed, 1S3 ;' preparatiou*TJf^*^ 
seed for soi^ing,\ 1,49;.. .saving-' and""" 
treatment of/ seedsil74; treatment df.t'''-, -x. 
the young raan&,,'i9|l- propagation of'- / ^/^^ 
room plauK, '32!^; ^/p-^rensing^ from •^. O 
rootstocks, \j(257 ; prOpagQ-tion b-y. ^ 
layers, &c.,\ 276 ; j)ropagatian^' by /? 'i >- 
grafting, 333 ;'fBfci(ig^ flowers, 429; * -^i /, 
treatment of shr^s, 46^; feeing of 
shrubs, 516; shrulis^Qi" loamy so^l, 
556 

Plants, distribution of bedding, 311"; 
drying, 213; formation of ozone by. 
275 ; hardiness of, 194 ; in flower round 
London, 2, 25, 65, 70, 114, 133, 160, 133, 
204, 246, 308, 378; herbaceous, 163; 
house, liquid manure for, 34 ; in pots, 
watering, 482 ; neglected, 231 ; recent 
additions to our, 33 ; sending by parcel 
post, 23 ; subtropical, 310 ; tempera- 
ture at the roots of, 233 ; the silicium 
of. 270 ; the wax of, 108 ; variegated, 
477 : at Birmingham, 50 ; window, 
69 ; for epergnes, 318 

Plantation, the, Leighton Buzzard, 470 

Platyceriums, 231 

Platycodon (Campanula) grandiflorum, 
141 

Pleasure grounds, fruit trees in, 83 

Pleiones, 335, 401 

Plumbago capensis, 134 

Plum produce, great, 335 

Plum, the Beech or Sand, 450, 500 ; Mag- 
num Bonum, 478 

Poa fertihs, 97 

Podophyllum Emodi, 9 

Poinsettia pulcherrima major, 418 

Poisoning, by Monkshood, 43 

" Policy " walls, planting with fruit 
trees, 330 

Polyanthus, the, 27 

Polygonum Brunonis, 250; cuspidatum, 
2U3 ; orientale, for summer ornamenta- 
tion, 241 ; sachahnense, 241 ; vaccini- 
folium, 373 

Pompone Dahlias, 208 

Pontederia cordata, 115 

Poplar trees, extraordinary, 257 

Poppy culture in France, 24 

Portugal, Flora of, 311 

Portulacas, double, 306 

Potato bosh, 296 

Potato disease, 159, 193, 212, 233, 2G0, 
279, 295, 324; diagrams illustrating 
the, 343 

Potato growing, the Belvoir system of, 
259, 296 

Potato market, 413 ; new early, 213 ; 
prize essay on the, 25, 59, 106, 531 ; 
prohfic, 260; starch, 198, 372; substi- 
tute for the, 212, 306 

Potatoes , advantage of cutting the haulm 
ofl", 296 ; early, without glass, 433 ; 
foreign, 373 ; imports of, 311 ; in Hol- 
land, 324 ; large crop of, 350 ; least 
affected by disease, 500 ; early or very 
late u. the disease, 412 ; English v. 
American, 193 

Poteutillas, shrubby, 197 

Potting and watering Orchids, 521 

Primi-oses, 249 ; the evening, 98, 143 

Primula' denticulata, 117 ; japonica, seed 
of, 142; 

Pi-inos glaber, 17 

Protection, Gooseberry, 7 

Pruning, root, 216; of shrubberies, 513; 
summer, 37 

Prunus maritima, 500 ; tomentosa, 108 

Psophocarpus (DoUchos) tetragono- 
lobus, 303 

Pteris cretica albo-liueata, 401 

Punica gi'anatum, 301 

Pyi-ethrum serotinum, 283, 344 



Q. 

QuamocUt vulgaris, 401 

Queen of the Meadow, variegated, 385 

Quercus glabra, 146 

Quince, autumn blooniing of the Japan, 

339 ; the Chinese, 203 
Quinine, 303 



Radishes, a grub decoy, 32; how to 
grow, 212 

Raidisseur, a new, 329 

Railings, 96 

Railway station gardens, 5; embellish- 
ment of, 181, 224 

Rains, heavy effect of, 519 

Ramboullet, a garden at, 40 

Raspberry culture, 137 

Raspberries, stakes not needed for, 451 

Rats and Mice, 511 

Reeds and Climbers in South America, 
254 

Rest-harrow, the shrubby, 127 

Retinia Buoliana, injury inflicted by, 399 



VIU 



INDEX. 



Restio subverticillata, 432 

Retinosporas, Mr. Bohn's, 310 

Rhexia virginica, 92 

Rhodanthe Manglesii, 65 

Rhododendron mania, the, 377, 4-05 

Rhus glabra laciniataj 330 ; tosicoden- 
dron, 76 

Rice. 215 

Bichardia maculaba, 14A 

Robinia hispida, 531 

Rochester Castle gardens, 2i 

Roller, lawn, 259 

Rooms, culture of plants in, 3, 54,, 83, 
123, 149, 174, 195, 207, 229, 257, 276, 
3S3, 429, 468, 516, 556 

Root fibres, 120 

Root-grafting, 327 

Rosemary, large, 423 

Rose Amateur's Guide, the, 91 

Rose, beautifal single white, 24; Bank- 
sian, 239; Bessie Johnson, 93; pink 
" Gloire de Dijon," 464; new. 
Souvenir de la Chateur, 143 

Rose budding. 72 

Rose garden, a wall, 93 

Rose-leaf saw-flj, yellow, 13 

Rose show. Crystal Palace, 63 ; Birming- 
ham, 21 ; at South Kensington, 22 

Rose tree, large Ceylon, 315 

Roses, 206 ; Briar or Manetti, 97 ; in 
pots, 462; in suburban gardens, 551; 
manure for, 195 ; on their own roots, 
317, 369 ; origin of Moss, 53 ; saving 
seed of, 28 ; standard, for pot culture, 
522; the best twenty, 551; whence 
come the finest, 122, 14i, 179, 368 

Roundhay Park, cost of, 24 

Round the Table, rev., 374 

Royal Fern from seed, 3S5 

Royal Horticultui-al Society, 134, 173 ; 
show at Bii'mingham, money realised 
at the, 20 ; congress at, 23 ; provincial 
show for 1373, 373 

Rudbeckia caUfornica, 141 

Ruskin, Mr., on flowering bulbs, 523 

Rustic architecture, 555 



S. 

Sage, Jerusalem, 17 

St. Paul's, a proposed garden in front 
of, 336 

St. Swithin's day, 90 

Salad, new material for a, 24; Cauli- 
flower, 30 

Salads, Potato, 434 ; a chat respecting, 29 

Salvia- pratensis rubra, 273 ; splendens 
alba compacta, 453; taraxacifoUa, 115, 
314 ' ' 

Sambucus racemosa, 39 

Sand Plum, 450, 500 

Sand, Scottish silver, 34 

Sarracenia flava, 340, 363; purpurea, 136 

Satin moth, the, 165 

Sawfly, Whitethorn, 12: yellow Rose- 
leaf, 13 

Saxif raga ciliata, 114 ; mutata, 115 ; 
pelta:;a, 180 

Scabiosa parnassige, 88 

Scabious, double, 141 

Schizostylis coccinea, 506, 551 

Sciadopitys verticillata, 301 

" Scientific men," 135, 201, 281 

Screw Pines, 501 

Scutellaria Moriciniana, 314 

Sedum cyaneum, 136 

Seeding, proUfic, 442 

Seeds, effect of frost on, 258; Hima- 
layan, 77 

Sefton Park, Liverpool, 121 ; rockwork 
in, 24 

Selaginella denticulata, 273 

Senecio pulcher, 33 

Sequoias, Asa Gray on, 337, 530 

Sewage works at Danzig, 500 

Sex, variation of, in the Ailantus, 379 

Shade, 76 ; water in the, 469, 477 

Shelter, 433 

Show, after the, 114 

Shrubbery carpeting plant, 322 

Shrubberies, the pruning of, 512 

Shrubs, flowering, 322 ; in the south of 
Ireland, 295 ; handsome-leaved, 322 ; 
in pots, 362 



Sibthorpia europeea, Scotch variegated 
form of, 65 

Silkworm, the Ailantus, 515 

Silver bell trees, 39 

Six of Spades, 116, 157,201,213, 355, 424, 
437, 457, 478 

Slugs, 260 

Smith, Mr. Augustus, death of, 113 

Snowdrop trees, 39 

Snow Flakes, the, 193 

Soap plant of California. 136 

Society, Royal Botanic, 45 ; evening 
fete in gardens of, 49, 53 ; Royal Hor- 
ticultural, 63 ; United Provident, 335 

Soils, 453 

Solanum capsicastrum, 273 ; jasmi- 
noides, 9. 272, 369, 410, 44,2 ; Warsce- 
wiczh, 195 

Sophora, weeping Japanese, 513 

Sorghum halepense, 135 

South America, reeds and climbers in, 
254 

South Devon, garden vegetation in, 87 

South Kensington, American Aloes at, 
83 

Speedwell, toad flax-leaved, 110 

Spinach, culture of, 40, 60 

Spireea ari^Eolia, 24; as a wall plant, 
172; Aruncas, 161; decumbens, 257; 
Ulmaria aureo-variegata, 335 

Spiraeas, herbaceous, 161 

Spraguea umbellata, 524 

Squash, the Ohio, 350 

Squares, London, 88, 138 

Stapeliaa, 335 ; their culture and peculi- 
arities, 83 

Steam, how to utilise waste, 135, 310 

Sternbergia lutea, 310 

Stockholm, the parks of, 413 

Stocks for autumn sowing, 73 

Stokesia cyanea, 344 

Stonecrop. Siebold's, in vases, 295 

Strawberries for hanging baskets, 34; 
fresh, at Christmas, 130; ofMoniepos, 
the, 103 

Strawberry forcing at Mr, Dew's, 37 

Strawberry seed, how to save, 83 

Stream, the wood, 277 

Stump-puller, a simple, £61 

Succulent plants, Mr. Peacock's, 418 

Sulphozone, a substitute for sulphur, 31, 
53 

Sulphur ator, the, 403 

Sumach, the Fern-leaved, 330 

Sunflower, many-flowered, 250 

Swainsona Osborni, 195 

Sweet flag, a variegated, 363 

Sweet Peas, autumn sown, 73 

Sweet-scented Eastern Thorn, the, 77 

Switzerland and North Italy, a holiday 
in, 233 . 



T. 

Table decorations, 84, 174, 230, 341 ; 

colour in, 468 ; fruit in, 337 ; Orchid 

flowers for, 207; in DubUn, 253; at 

the Royal Botanic gardens, 53 
Tacsonia esoniensis, 266, 453 ; Yan 

Volxemii, 300 ; fruit of, 533 
Tea, adulteration of, 373 ; culture in 

India, 324 ; drinking, the danger of, 

435 ; lU efi'ects of abuse of, 30 ; in the 

Caucasus, 490 
Tea tree, Duke of Argyle's, 322, 380 
Telegraph wires and road-side trees, 542 
Temple Gardens, Chrysanthemums in 

the, 398 
Temperature at the roots of plants, 233 ; 

mean, of every day in the year 1371, 

146 
Tenthredo adumbrafa, 193 
Terra cotta basket and flowers, 433 
Testudinaria elephantipes, 203 
Thames embankment, 43 ; trees on the, 

76 ; seats for, 158 
Thistle, the, abroad, 446 
Thrips and Red Spider, 199, 329 
Thunderstorm, destructive, 87 
Thyme, golden, 250 
Tigridia conchiflora, 250 
Tillandsia, white, 313 
Timber resources of Michigan, 423 
Tinea Gossyi^incola, 281 



Tobacco juice v. insects, 511 

Tomatoes, 507 ; medical properties of, 
435 ; presei-ring, 351 

Tomato catsup, 130 

Tomato, Cui-rant, 37 

Tomato sauce, 351 

Tortrix (Retinia) Buoliana, 399;(Stigmo- 
nota) dorsana, 451 

Towns, vegetation in, 96 

Transplanting evergreen Oaks, 339 ; 
handy mode of, 145; large trees at 
Brooklyn, 75 ; Old trees. 451 

Tree, a monster, 127; Pecan nut, 360; 
the Banyan, 330; stumps, extracting, 
77; hotel, 103 

Tree Carnations, 502 

Trees and bedding out, 172 ; and Shrubs 
for Kuglish Plantations, rev, 269; and 
rahi, 379 ; large, 214, 465 ; Fig, 466 ; 
for a high wall, 451 ; inBritish Colum- 
bia, 423 ; in Coventry, 76 ; in America, 
300 ; marks on, 145 ; misuse of varie- 
gated, 465 ; nurses for, 531 ; of Liberty, 
182 ; on the Thames Embankment, 76 ; 
pruning dwarf, 466 ; summer pruning 
wall, 37 ; roadside, and telegraph 
wii-es, 542; singular enclosure in a, 77; 
suitable for London or Paris, 181; 
tapering, 145 ; weeping, 513 ; why 
lightning strikes, 465 ; and shrubs, 
77, 107, 127, 171, 193, 237, 257, 283, 301, 
379, 404, 423, 413, 465, 433, 531 ; and 
telegraph wii'es, 542 

Trenching, 531 

Trichinium Manglesii, 143, 133 

Triteleia laxa, 20 ; Murrayana, 20 

Tritonia aurea, 166 

Tropceoluni chrysanthum, 314 ; Minnie 
Warren, variegated, 249; Mrs. Bow- 
man, 295 ; polyphyllum, 8 ; tubero- 
sum, as a vegetable, 350, 335 

Tropics, vegetation in the, 517 

Truffles, 453 

Tulips, early-flowering bedding, 333 



u. 



Uhdea bipinnatifida, 131 
Umbrella Pine, the, 301 
Upas tree, 224 
Urceolina aui'ea, 393 



V. 



Taccinium erythrinum, 453 

Vallota purpurea, 153 

Vanessa polychloros, 543 

Vapoiizer, the horticultui-al, 84, 117 

Variegated plants, 477 

Vases at Birmingham, 35 ; form of, 3 ; 
form a-id furnishing of, 34 

Vegetable dishes in America, 193 

Vegetable Marrows, how to preserve, 
30 ; stufl"ed, 215 

Vegetable, TropEeolum tuberosum as a, 
350 

Vegetable World, the, rev., 345 

Vegetables and fruits, coppery, 455 

Vegetarianism, Professor Newman on, 
236. 251 

Vegetation, Cintra, 334; colour, influ- 
ence on, 290; effect of acid gases on, 
273 ; in Honolulu, 515 ; iji Nubia, 325 ; 
in Queensland, 515 ; in 'towns, 96 ; in 
the tropics, 547 ; in South Devon, 87 ; 
in Switzerland and North Italy, 233 ; 
the triumph of, 213, 234 

Venus's fly-trap, 93, 135, 533 

Ver min asphyxiator, the, 74 

Veronica Chamasrops, variegated, 122; 
imperiaUs, 418; Andersonii, 377, 433; 
liniterifolia, 410 

Vibm-num macrocephalum, 116 ; plica- 
turn tomentosum, 127 

Victoria Park, ornamental water in, 373 

Victoria regia, 115 

Vienna exhibition palace, 361 

Villa Albaui, Rome, 35; d'Este, the, 
and its gardens, 297 ; a Loudon, 523 ; 
Pamphili Doria, Rome, the, 79 

Vine as an ornamental climber, 153 

Vine borders, 4fJ'3 ; lime as a dressing 
for, 371 



Vine budding in August and September, 
154 

Vine, manuring the, 402 ; planting, 330 ; 
450 ; propagating the, 352 ; summer 
pruning of the, 120, 37u; excrescences, 
511 ; Finchley, 8s, 153 ; Mustang, 253; 
in the open air, the, 274, 299, 352, 370, 
331, 4J1, 430, 506, 523, 553; the new 
enemy to the, 73, 129, 217, 223, 243 , 366 ; 
in France, 530 

Vineries, cheap, 383; unheated, 333;. 
Lloyd's grc-und, 209 

Vines and Pines together, 339 

Vines in shrubbery borders, 283 ; recent 
additions to, 33 ; North American, 
163 ; plaster of Paris, as a manure for, 
275 

Vineyards, French, 519; Itahaji, 311 

Vintage, French, 310, 357, 607 

Violets, autumn treatment of, 341 ; 
Dog's-tooth, 250 ; Neapolitan, Jrl3 ; 
spring bedding, 334, 452 

Virginian creeper, 144, 339 



W. 

Wahlenbergia hederacea, 167 
Wall trees, sxxmmer pruning of, 37 
Walls, indoor evergreen, 34 ; or glass 

houses for Pears, Plums, and Cherries, 

83; hardy plants for, 313; wiring, 

154, 
Walks, cleaning with acids, 14, 60, 176,. 

351, 452 
Walnut wood, value of, 339 
Walsall, arboretum for, 493 
Wardian cases, scriking cuttings in,. 

176 
AVarrington Park, 310 
Watercress growing in France, 13 
Watering and mulching, 40, 93 
Water a plant cleanser, 204 ; as a fore- 
ground, 547 ; in the shade, 469, 477 
Water-dock, the great, 306 
Water Lilies, exotic, in the open air, 369,, 

410 
Weather, the, in May last, 224 
Weed killer. Temple's, 11, 60, 176, 351, 

452 
Weeds, instrument for rooting up, 293 
Weeds on walks, cure for, 11, 60, 107, 

176,351,452 
Weeping trees, 513 
Welwitschia, the, at Kew, 390 
Whirlwind in Yorkshire, and its effects,. 

122 
Whitebait, vegetable, 306 
Wigaudia caracassana, 335; Vigieri, 

195 
Wigwams, verdant, 28 
Wild flowers, drying, 198 
Willows, galls of, overhanging water^ 

425 ; shi-ubby, 4i3 ; weeping, 127 
Window gardens, 69, 342, 364 
Window-boxes, 208 
Window plants, 93 ; show of, at Hull, 

55 
Windsor Castle, 506 
wine, colouring of, 164 
winter Cucumbers, 391 
winter flowering Orchids, a bouquet of, 

519 
Wirework at Birmingham, 36 
Wistaria, new double flowered, 51 
Wood, preservation of, by Kyanising, 

379 ; spontaneous com'justion of, 405 ; 

V. iron, 333, 322 
Woodwardias, the, 289 
Woolly aphis, the, 229 



Y, 



Yucca stricta, 141 
Yaccas, hardy, 426 
Yews, large, 17 



Z. 

Zephyranthes Candida, 310 ; Spofforthi- 

ana, 93 
Zeuzera cesculi, 610 



ILLXISTIl^TIOI^rS, 



Haranta fasciata 3 

„ roseo-picta 3 

Angrrecum sesquipedale, as seen in 

Madagascar 5 

Alpine Kock-garden, Steps in ... 7 
Alpine Flowers (a Garden Sketch) . 7 
Upland Valley in a Rock Garden ... 8 
Water Fence in an Alpine Gai'den... 8 

Aralia japonica 8 

Fronds, barren and fertile 9 

Hoyal Botanic Gai'dens at Glasnevin, 

Dublin, plan of the 11 

Havrthorn Sawlly, the 12 

Rose-leaf Sawfly, the Yellow ... 13 

Alton Towers 15 

Funeral Cypress 17 

Cleft-graft, preparation of the ... 26 

Crunnera scabra 27 

Pine-boring Beetle (HyliLrgTis pini- 

perda) and its galleries 31 

Villa Albani, Rome, the Gardens of 

the 35 

Cnrrant Tomato, the 37 

Chinese Tomb 39 

French Garden, a modern 41 

Wistaria, new double- flowered ... 51 
Geometra (Fidonia) Piuiaria ... 63 

Alton Towers, view in the Gardens 

at 46 

Alton Towers, Water Scenery in the 

Gardens at 57 

Oenteal Paee, New Xoek : 

Plan of 61 

Lake and Ramble 61 

Aiched Roadway under 61 

lawn, with Groups of Natural 

Rock 61 

One of the Entrances to the ... 63 
Spine-bearing Mushroom (Hydnum 

repandum) 64 

Alpine GiaDEN, the : 
Waterfall fringed with Yuccas, 

Dwarf Pines, &.c. 71 

Young plants of Clematis 71 

Stepping-stone Bridge, with Water 

Lihes, &c 71 

Plan of preceding figure 71 

Natural Stepping-stone Bridge ... 71 
Margin of Island in Lake Mag- 

giore 71 

Islands in Lake (Westmoreland) 71 

Centaurea babylonica 73 

Transplanting Machine, American 75 
Crataegus odoratissima, Leaves of... 77 
Villa Pamphili Doria, Rome, View 

in Gardens of the 79 

Somerleyton, Gate Lodge at 81 

Vaporizer in operation 85 

Venus's Fly-trap, trap-like Appen- 
dages of 93 

Poafertilis 97 

Taylor's Vaporizing and VentUating 

Pipes 100 

Hothouse, the Prize, at Birmingham 101 

Grafting (5 illustration?) 105 

Crataegus aronia, Leaves of 107 

Euchai-is amazonica 117 

Uhdea bipinnatlfida 121 

Sefton Park, Liverpool, Plan of ... 125 
CratEegus Celsiana, Leaf of 127 



PAGE. 

Noctua piniperda 129 

Chantarelle (Cantharellus cibarius) 132 
Bombyx (Lasiocampa) Pine ... 139 

Pupte of Microgaster lobatus on 

Caterpillar of Bombys Pini ... 140 
New Rose — Souvenir de la Chaleur. 143 
Machine, Small, for Lifting Speci- 
men Shrubs and Conifers 145 

Screw used in preparing Specimens 

for Removal 145 

Gleditschia in Professor Owen's 

Garden 147 

Example of lew-clipping 149 

Flower Gardens round the Palm 

House at Kew 151 

Grafting (2 illustrations) 154 

Spiraea Aruncus 161 

Satin Moth, the (Liparis Sahcis) ... 165 

Dicksouia antarctica 167 

Pashiuba Palm, the 169 

Cistus Cyprius 171 

Grafting (3 illustrations) 175 

Cycas circinalis 133 

Banana, the 187 

Bird, the (4 illustrations) 190 

Snowflakes, the (2 illustrations) ... 193 

Solanum Warscewiczii 195 

Crataegus Layi 195 

Slug Worms destroying Pear-leaf... 193 

MagnoHa Islands in Texas 205 

Water Dock, the Great 206 

Lloyd's Ground Vinery 209 

Triumph of Vegetation, the ... 213 

Agaricus arvensis 215 

Vine Pest, the new 217 

Phylloxera 217 

Nut tree uphfting a Millstone ... 227 

Woolly Aphis, the 229 

Platycerium grande 231 

Bellows Sprinkler, the 232 

Thermometer for Roots of P'ants... 233 

Cliveden— Garden Front 235 

Valley in the Gardens at Cliveden... 235 
Columbia Maple Leaf and "Keys" 237 

Parham'a Glass Coping 239 

Mimulus, Garden 240 

Eranthus Ravenna3 241 

Grafting (2 illustrations) 242 

Wild Garden, a GUmpse at the ... 347 

Primrose, common 249 

Violet, the Dog's-tooth 250 

Caprinus comatus 251 

Date Orchard, a 253 

Giant Reeds and Climbers in South 

America 255 

Acer obtusatum, Leaf and Fruit of 257 
Maw's Terra Cotta Labels, examples 

of 259 

Plant Houses, arrangement of 

Walks in 261 

Grafting (6 illustrations) 263 

Araucaria, the Great, in the Gardens 

at Dropmore 269 

Silver Fir, the, at hone 271 

Gunnera scabra... 273 

Jar for receiving Chloride of 
Calcium in the Fruit Room ... 275 

Stream in the Wood, the 277 

Gilbert's Registered Handlights ... 279 
Hylobius Abietis ... .1. ... 231 



PAGE. 

Acer heterophyllum, leaves of ... 2S3 

Grafting (4 illustrations) 234 

Woodwardia radicans 2S9 

Grafting (2 illustratiors) 291 

Terrace Walls at Cliveden, View of 

the 293 

Onopordum Acanthium 295 

Villa d'Este and its Gardens at 

Tivoli 257 

Deards's Heating Apparatus ... 299 

Umbrella Pine 301 

Agaricus rubescens 306 

Birmingham Boilers, a Souvenir of 

the 309 

Bedeguar, the 311 

River Island Scenery 313 

Islets 314 

Malva crispa 315 

Eranthenium, the Silver-veined ... 319 

Maple, fine species of 321 

Aloe nichotoma and other examples 

of Nubian vegetation 325 

Grafting (3 illustrations) 328 

Water-panelled Plant Stage 328 

Raidisseur, a New 329 

Acer Neapolitanum, Leaf and Fruit 

of 337 

Pitcher of Nepenthes 339 

Cephalotus follicularis 340 

Sarracenia flava 340 

Darlingtonia californica 343 

Lackey Moth (Bombyx neustria)... 343 

Cedars of Lebanon 345 

Stone Pines 347 

Peronospora infesl'ans (1 illustra- 
tions) 349 

Ai'totrogus hydnospoms 350 

Peronospora alsinearum (2 illustra- 
tions) i. 350 

Vine layer, raised and planted in a 

basket ^ 3i2 

Vine grafting at Thothery 352 

Charlemagne Oak, the 359 

Stump puller, a simple and effective 361 
Corypha (Livistona) australis ... 363 

Gipsy Moth, the 365 

Passionflowers at Home 367 

Spray of Passionflower 369 

Terrace Garden Scene by Moonlight 371 

Grafting (4 illustrations') 373 

Ilyrcanian Maple, Leaf and Fruit 

of 379 

Wall of Chasselas at Thomery ... 331 

Vines trained vertically 381 

M. Chameux's System of Vertical 

Training 381 

Mulgedium Plumierii 333 

Californian Lawn Sprinkler 335 

Garden of the Vatican 337 

Span-roofed Pit, with, sunk path- 
way 3S9 

Morchella esculenta 391 

Retinia Buoliana 399 

Fir tree, young, injured by Retinia 

Buoliana 399 

Pteris cretica albo-lineata 401 

Sulphui-ator ... 403 

Tai-tarian Maple, Leaf and Key of... 405 
Geometrical Garden, a, Ungeometri- 
cally planted 407 



page. 

Grafting (4 illustrations) 411 

Architectural Conservatory 414 

Brook Cascade, the 419 

Gesnerarefulgens 421 

Montpelier Maple, Leaf and Fruit of 423 

Lime Tree Acarus 425 

Group of Yuccas in Mr. Ellacombe's 

Garden 427 

Variegated Ivy-leaved Pelargonium 

for hanging baskets 429 

Grafting (3 illustrations) 431 

Laxton's New Peas 433 

African Lake shore Vegetation . . , 439 

DracEena terminaha 441 

Italian Maple, Leaf and Fruit of ... 443 

Clematis lanuginosa ... 447 

Beach or Sand Plum 419 

Tortris (Stigmonota) dorsana ... 451 

Palm Cabbage, the 453 

HygTophorus virgineus 454 

Hygrophorus pratensis 451 

Bouquet of Cool Orchids, a 459 

Carludovica palraata 460 

Clematises on root-work 463 

Norway Maple, Leaf and Fruit of ... 465 
Grove of Deciduous Cypresses in 
Southern States of America ... 467 

Water in the Shade 469 

Grafting (3 illustrations) 471 

Bur Reed, the 471 

Rustic Orchard House, a 474 

Orchid Collector, the 479 

Beaucarnea recurvata 431 

French Maple, Leaves and Fruit of 433 

Unbroken Water Xargin 485 

Nature's Water iJorgin 485 

Plan of Mr. Murray's Garden ... 487 
Araucaria in Mf. Murray's Garden 489 

Picea nobdis at Wimbledon 491 

Draccena Guilfo.vlei ... 493 

Picea Pinsapo rnd Thuja pendula in 

ilr. Murray's Garden 491 

Pandanus Veitchii 501 

Palm Seed. Sculptured 503 

Fountain of the March^e des Inno- 
cents at Paris 505 

Imperishable Labels 507 

Stream, the ... 509 

Leopard Moth, the .." 510 

Weeping Japanese Sophora ... 513 
Alocasia metalUca as an indoor orna- 
ment 516 

Cactus, a three-legged 521 

Orchid Pot 523 

Water Tank, a moveable 523 

Spraguea umbellata 525 

Adiantum pedatum 526 

Villa garden. Plan of a London ... 529 

Rose Acacia, the 531 

London Villa Garden, Views in a... 533 

jAnthonomns Pomorum 535 

Mistletoe, the 535 

Libocedrus decurrens g4i 

Large Tortoiseshell Butterfly 543 

Maranta Veitchii 545 

Water Scene at Alton Towers ... 547 

New Zealand Vegetation 549 

Calla palustris ... 551 

A Monastic Garden 553 

Caladium Chantini 556 



THE 

HEV. S^M:UEL REYi^OLDS HOLE, Ml.J^. 



The First Volume of The Gauden was dedicated to the memory of one long passed away, but to whom 
gardening will be for ever indebted— J. C. Loudon. The subject of our present notice is among us, in the prime 
of life ; cheers with his presence most of our important horticultural meetings, and charms with his pen all 
interested in horticultural literature. Mr. Hole is, it need not be said, well known as a florist, but he is a thousand 
times more endeared to the horticultural community by his genial character than ever he can be through any florist's 
triumphs. He is the high priest o£ good fellowship among gardeners of every degree. Those who have not had the 
pleasure of hearing any of his capital speeches, always sparkling with wit, such, for esample, as those delivered at 
the Gardeners' Benevolent Institution, last year, may see evidence of this in many passages iu the " Six of Spades," 
as well as in the " Book about Eoses," and the " Little Toar in Ireland." 

But Mr. Hole is more especially distinguished as a florist, and it is chiefly as a florist we must speak of him 
in The Gakden, and his devotion to Eose culture has been most unremittingly followed up with an amount of si;ccess 
which has resulted in ample enjoyment and reward; for among Eosarians he is ungrudgingly acknowledged a head 
and chief. He is the founder of Eose Shows, and on such occasions is well known as a distinguished and unerring 
judge of that exquisite flower. Each year, as fresh varieties are brought forward by various cultivators, the never 
failing sagacity of his practised eye, and accomplished taste, pronounces the fiats of the " Eose King," which 
go forth undisputed, the condemned pretenders sinking back to the limbo of obscurity and neglect, while the 
favoured among the blooming throng at once take the places assigned to them in the Court of Beauty 
and Sweetness, without let or hindrance, and become the ruling fashion of their season, as other beauties do, 
attracting ever increasing crowds of willing worshippers, till new bevies, in due course, replace them in the 
afliectious of inconstant votaries. But here and there a flower of matchless beauty and perfection assumes the 
place of a perennial queen, to add to the permanent stock of our magnificent modern Eoses, of the exquisite 
beauty of which the ignorant growjrs and admirers of the Queen of fiowers in former times could have con- 
ceived no idea, even in their brightest flights of fancy, or their wildest Eosarian dreams. But these are matters 
too closely connected with the pride of place, and privilege, and precedency, in the Eosy Court of Sweetness and 
Beauty to be discussed beyond its immediate precincts ; they must be left exclusively to the despotic ruling of its 
accomplished Lord Chamberlain, who, in his ofi&ce, possesses the courtly gift of uttering even utter condemnation 
in such pleasant, witty words, as are more charming than another's praise; and many a fair Eose, defeated and 
condemned, might exclaim with Pliojhe, in " As you like it " — 

Sweet 3'outli I pray you chide a year together ; 
I'd rather hear you chide, than that man woo. 

But let us hear the benignant despot speak for himself ; for that he has a right to do so, is sufiioiently proved 
by what he advances in the preface to his charming "Book about Eoses." "I write about Eoses," he says, "because, 
having grown them for twenty years, having won more than thirty cups, 'open to all England,' having originated 
the first Eose Show, that is the first show of Eoses only, and having attended most of the subsequent meetings, 
either as a judge or an exhibitor, I ought to have something to say worth hearing to those who love the Eose ; 
and will try to say it, as Bassuet preached, sans etude, familicrement de Vahondance du cceur." 

In the abundance of useful hints which he then proceeds to pour forth to us in this brilliant little volume, we are 
first informed how recent and how rapid have been the great advances in Eose culture ; but while telling us that 
twenty years ago Eoses were grown by the dozen, and then by the thousand, and now by the acre, he feels com- 
pelled to state, emphatically, that the number of beautiful Eoses in proportion to the vast multiplication is not what 
it should be ; he is, indeed, so fully prepared with a negative to the question, " Has beauty been produced in fair proportion 
to quantity ?" that he facetiously calls upon his printer to furnish him with two of his biggest and blackest capitals, in order 
that he may sufiicieutly emphasize his answer, "NO." This call for the big capitals is so amusing that it fairly takes the 



XI 

sting out o£ the condemnation, and tliere is consequently a hearty laugh instead of a dismal groan in the condemned 
cell of rejected flowers. Phcnho was right, one would rather be chid by a judge so witty and so genial than patted 
on the back by a stupid one. How pleasant he is, too, when conducted with an air of triumph by a self-satisfied amateur 
to one of those " dismal slaughter-houses which are called a Rosary ;" our smiling judge condemns with such 
honhommie, and illustrates his condemnation so delightf iilly from his inexhaustible stores of anecdote and racy 
narrative, that the discomfited amateur positively goes on his way rejoicing, primed with half-a-dozen capital 
stories which he no doubt means to retail on the very first opportunity. He has been told, apropos to his 
unsuccessful Roses, of a volume of sermons reviewed in the first volume of the Edinhui-gh Eevievj by Sidxey 
Smith, of which sermons the witty divine remarked, as critic, that their characteristic was " decent debility " • 
and theu, as a young Rose grower, the amateur was smilingly informed that his progress had been 
somewhat aualogous to that of Geouge III. when learning the fiddle, who, when he asked his master, the celebrated 
ViOTTi, what he thought of his pupil, received, with a profound bow and courtly smile, the following reply : — " Sire 
there are three classes of violinists — those who cannot play at all, those who play badly, and those who play well. 
Tour Majesty is now commencing to enter upon the second of these classes." What a capital story for the defeated 
Rosarian to take home to dinner, and retail, over the claret, to his neighbour, who may, perhaps, fancy himself a 
musician. This Rosist malefactor was let lightly and pleasantly off ; but there is occasionally sterner rebuke in pickle 
for more obstinate offenders. 

"With what delightful enthusiasm our great Rosarian tells of the complete devotion that is absolutely necessary 

to the successful culture of the Rose. Something more than the ordinary devotion of a man seems to be requisite — 

a degree of devotion more akin to that of the more constant sex, for, as Byrox tells us, " Man's love is of his life a 

thing apart, 'tis woman's whole existence," as must be that of the Rosarian to the Queen of flowers, if he wishes to 

be triumphantly successful ; for, says Mr. Hole, " he must have, not only the glowing admiration, the enthusiasm, 

and the passion, but the tenderness, the thoughtfuhiess, the reverence, the watchfulness of love, — with no ephemeral 

caprices like those of the gay ' young knight who loves and rides away' " ; on the contrary, the cavalier of the Rose 

must have scm'per ficlelis upon both crest and shield. The Rose will not submit to be treated simply as one amonc 

the many fair flowers of the garden. Her " Standard" must not be made to form the central object of a neat little 

circlet filled with a few " bedding plants," which, like a band of leeches, suck away the life-blood of the Rose, and 

though — 

Around the red Kose the Convolyulus elimlDing, 

As Mrs. HeiiajvS says, sounds sweetly pretty, we are told " that such would be the loveliest arrangement possible, 
only that unfortunately it is death to the Rose. It is in fact these pretty little floral contrivances that defeat the 
object of the would-be Rose grower, as our author teaches us in sober earnest, while he amuses us, and makes us 
laugh. " Why does Charles Lefebvre behave so disgracefully in my garden .'' " asked a disappointed lover of Roses of 
the Seer, "Because," replies the man of Rose lore, "your ' Charles Lefebvre ' is placed, like Tit jtius, ' stih tegmine fagi,^ 
under the drip and shade of a noble Beech tree, whose boughs above and roots below keep all nourishment from him." 
The august Rose will not submit to be placed as an ornamental dummy in front of a belt of shrubbery ; he must have 
his own special conditions ungrudgingly complied with in every iota — and then — well, one need not tell experienced 
Rosarians what the result will then be, in the case of Charles Lefebvre. 

What charming chapters there are in this compact little volume on a variety of matters connected with Rose 
growing and general gardening, and how well, truthfully, and honestly they are considered and calculated, so as to brine 
into activity the highest and best characteristics of the true gardener. To the genuine lover of flowers not onlv for 
their beauty, but for the pure pleasures that accompany their culture, was ever such a variety of hints and counsels 
conveyed in pleasanter or wittier words, on such a wide range of subjects connected with horticulture, from the inculcation 
of a love of flowers to parish children, to pleasant vauntings over new discoveries anent the summum honum of "manures," 
and even to the humours, how racily told, of Rose shows ? 

Readers of The Garden are familiar with the sparkling pages of the " Six of Spades," nor need it be pointed 
out that every communication from Caunton Manor, of which Mr. Hole is the happy vicar, on whatever subject, grave 
or gay, is sure to contain some happily-conceived phrase, some cleverly picked out word, that never fails to brighten 
and light up horticultural pages that might otherwise, in the hands of routine writers, become just a trifle wearying, 
however conscientiously done, necessary, and useful. Such a writer as Mr. Hole is a real benefactor to horticultural 
literature, for he not only revels in floral beauty, with the pleasantness of a true laughing philosopher ; but where so 
many would be dull, he cannot be so — he makes the very desert smile. Of the good effect of gardening on a rightly 
balanced mind, Mr. Hole says, " I have proved from my own experience that of all outdoor exercises, horticulture 
is the happiest and best, and reahsed the truth of Lord Bacon's words, ' Gardening is the purest of human plea- 



Xll 

sures, and the greatest refreshment to the spirit of man.' " Allowing that, as a gardener, a man may not find as 
much excitement as may be found in a run with the Quorn hounds, or in a day among the Heather, -svith plenty 
of grouse, he yet maintains that as a constant, life-long source of cheerful behef and innocent dirersion from 
the work and from the inevitable sorrows of life, the recreation of horticulture surpasses all. Mr. Hole does not 
affirm that gardeners are free from great failures and reverses. He is not oblivious of the mealy-bug, the red 
spider, the wireworm, the cockroach, the earwig, and endless tribes of beetles, caterpillars, snails, and slugs after 
their kinds. He admits the drawbacks of mildew, canker, and blight. He knows very well, as he pleasantly tells 
us, that the mellow ouzel fluting it so cheeril}^ up in the Elm, has wet his whistle with the ripe Cherries, and 
proposes to wet it again. He freely admits not only being aware of, but also having experienced most of the ills 
that gardening is heir to, from a thunderstorm to the nibbling mouse plague ; but still avers that these solici- 
tudes only enhance its joys ; and that there is no month in the year, no day in the week, supposing the existence 
of a " bit of glass " (" who loves a garden, loves a greenhouse too," says Cowper), when there is not something new, 
something beaiitiful to interest and please. 

He tells us, with the glee of a true-hearted enthusiast, how, in the dreary month of November, he cut fine 
flowers of the last Eoses of autumn, Gloire de Dijon, Marechal Vaillant, and Souvenir do Milmaison ; which, 
mixed with a few fronds of hardy Ferns and a few feathers from the plamss of the Pampas Grass, mad e 
up a by no means contemptible bouquet ; and next we are told of his healthy afternoon's dig in his 
kitchen garden, which made him feel muscular enough to " swarm up the very greasiest pole, and eat the 
leg of mutton at the top of it afterwards." He has, too, his tiny " stove " in that happy vicarage garden, from the 
Stephanotis on the roof of which many a fair maid of the parish and neighbourhood of Caunton has had her 
bridal bouquet, and in which he is able to force a few early Strawberries — which do not merely give the grower 
intense pleasure by their fragrant beauty, but serve still better purposes. A doctor ouce sent a dozen miles for 
the same number of berries, and afterwards told the happy grower that they were well worth a pound apiece to 
his patient. 

It is not only in the literature of the garden that Mr. Hole shines so conspicuously. Everj'thing that his 
pen touches is embellished by it ; and, indeed, it may be fairly said, as Johnsoji inscribed upon the tomb of Olivee 
Goldsmith, " Nullum tetigit quod non omavit." In evidence of this, let us refer to the charming " Little Tour 
in Ireland," which is brimful of the most genial humour, and apt and characteristic description. Tet, after all, it 
is the literature of the garden that we wish to see most often sparkling with the ready wit and pungent 
pleasantries of the author of the "Six of Spades," brightening up for us every department of hortioulbure, with 
all of which he is so pleasantly and enthusiastically conversant. 



July 6, 1872.] 



THE GARDEN. 



i^.,. 




"This is an art 
Which does mend nature : change it rather : 
The Am itself is Nature." — Shakespem-e. 



but 



IsrOTICE. 
The FIRST VOLUME of THE GARDEN wiU be PuhUshed early this 
month, and will contain an Original Portrait of the late Mr. Loudon. 
Tne Index to the Volume will be ready for Publication next Saturday. 



RECOLLECTIONS OF JOHN CLAUDIUS LOUDON. 

BY NOEL HUMPHREYS. 
{Continued from Vol. I., p. 698.) 

Loudon, wlien he first arrived in London, was mucli struck with 
the opportunity afforded by our spacious squares for enlivening, 
with the aspect of fresh green leaves, the dingy expanse of 
London houses, then nearly all built of brick, and blackened 
by the perpetual action of the coal smoke emitted by hundreds 
of thousands of chimneys. He perceived, however, that our 
squares were not made to enliven the murky aspect of the 
great wilderness of bricks and mortar, as they might have 
done ; but almost the contrary, in consecj[uence of a mistaken 
notion of their planters, that evergreens would be just the 
thing for the London squares, in order to insure a continuation 
of '■ verdure " through the winter. But the evergreens, as 
our young Scotch horticulturist found to his extreme disgust, 
had become permanently " nevergreens." The dingy-looking 
trees which he found struggling through a black and miserable 
half-existence, consisted chiefly of Scotch pines, yews, and 
spruce firs ; all of which being exceedingly well calculated to 
receive and preserve the daily and nightly deposits of soot, 
without the power of renewing their fohage every spring, 
like deciduous trees, were evidently the very worst kind of 
plants that could possibly have been selected for the London 
atmosphere. This ignorant abuse of a fine opportunity woke 
up the young landscape gardener's indignation, and he dashed 
into print. Before the close of the first year of his residence in 
London (1803) he published an article in a periodical called 
the Literanj Joiinial, which he entitled, " Observations on 
Laying out the Public Squares of London." The mam gist 
of the article consisted in an uncompromising denunciation 
of the prevailing system, and in strongly recommending the 
plentiful introduction of deciduous trees, the foliage of which, 
renewed with the coming of each successive spring, would, 
as he remarked, secure a cheerful aspect to the squares for 
some seven months or so of each year. He particularly 
named the Oriental and Occidental planes, the sycamore, and 
the almond, as ornamental trees that would bear the smoke 
of the great city with comparatively small injury ; and it is 
interesting to find how quickly his suggestions were adopted, 
and to note that there is scarcely a square in London in which 
planes are not found whose growth evidently dates from 
about that period or shortly after; and the same may be 
said of other trees which he named; while the yews, the 
Scotch pines, and the spruce firs have entirely disappeared. 

It was about this time that he became a member of the 
LinnEean Society, and it was also in the summer of 1803, 
according to a note in his journal, that he first conceived the 
idea of trying the effects of charcoal on vegetation; the 
thought having occurred to him in consequence of noticing 
the beautiful verdure of the young grass that sprung up all 
over a small space where charcoal had been burned. 

In 1804, having been commissioned by Lord Mansfield to make 
some plans for altering the palace gardens at Scone, Perth- 
shire, he returned to Scotland, and remained there for several 



months, during which period he laid out grounds for several 
gentlemen in different parts of the country. The instructions 
he found it necessary to communicate to gardeners, foresters, 
and others, on the planting and management of woods, during 
the carrying out of the various works he was then engaged upon, 
and also during many extensive arrangements for draining, 
and otherwise improving several of the estates in question, 
led him to make a series of detailed and important notes, which 
he soon afterwards embodied in a book, which was published in 
Edinburgh by Constable & Co., and in London by Longmans 
& Co. This was the first work which Mr. Loudon presented 
to the public through the great firm of Longmans & Co., with 
whom he continued to transact business for nearly forty years. 
Thebookalludedto was entitled, " Observations on the Forma- 
tion and Management of Useful and Ornamental Plantations ; 
on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening ; and on 
Gaining and Embanking Land from Rivers or the Sea." 

This was his first important work, and contained so many 
new ideas, explained in such a practical fashion, and at the 
same time combining with those practical views the power of 
expressing such noble sympathies with the beauties of nature, 
that the work met with considerable encouragement, and 
attracted the attention of many great landowners to the young 
horticulturist, who had not only the boldness thus to rush 
into print, but the evident capability of imparting a mass of 
useful and, up to that time, little known information on the 
subjects of which he treated. Of the poetical feelings which 
he mingled with the practical, the following extracts from the 
introduction will afford a fair idea. They are scarcely equal 
to similar passages in his later books ; but as occujring in his 
first serious work, they may be advantageously introduced in 
this place, as samples of his earlier style : — 

" Various are the vegetable productions which this earth afEords. 
Blades of grass spring up everywhere, and clothe the surface with 
pasture ; groups of shrubs arise in some places, and diversify this 
uniform covering ; but trees are the most striking objects that adorn 
the face of inanimate [natui'e. If we imagine for a moment that 
the surface of Europe were totally divested of wood, what would be 
our sensations on viewing its appearance P Without this accompani. 
ment, hills and valleys, rivers and lakes, rocks and cataracts — all of 
themselves the most perfect that could be imagined — would present 
an aspect bleak, savage, and uninteresting. But, let the moimtaina 
be covered with wood, and the water shaded by trees, and the scene 
is instantly changed : what was before cold and ban-en, is now rich, 
noble, and full of variety. In travelling through a naked country, a 
whole unvaried horizon is comprehended by the eye with a single 
glance ; its surface is totally destitute of intricacy to excite curiosity 
and fix attention ; and both the eye and the mind are kept in a state 
of perpetual weariness and fatigue. But, in a wooded country, the 
scene is continually changing ; the trees form a varied boundary to 
everything around, and enter into numberless and pleasing combina- 
tions with all other objects ; the eye is relieved without distraction, 
and the mind fully engaged without fatigue. If we examine even a 
tree by itself, the intricate formation and disposition of its boughs, 
sprays, and leaves, its varied form, beautiful tints, and diversity of 
light and shade, make it far surpass every other object ; and, not- 
withstanding this multiplicity of separate parts, its general effect ia 
simple and grand." 

The book contains, among other valuable matter, a numbef 
of acute observations on the distinctive characteristics of trees 
and shrubs, plainly showing how carefully and completely he 
had studied his subject even at that early penod of his life, 
and how fully capable he was even at the age of one-and- 
twenty of undertaking and carrying out horticultural works 
of the most important kind. Before leaving Edinburgh in 
180.5, he published another work, entitled, " A Short Treatise 
on some Improvements lately made in Hothouses." 

On his second visit to London, he was compelled by 
stress of weather to land at Lowestoft, on the coast of 
Norfolk, and he had suffered so much during the voyage, 
that he then determined never again to travel by sea where 
there was a possibility of going by land. On his return to 
England he at once resumed his lal^ours as a landscape 
gardener, and his journal of that period is filled with in- 
numerable notes founded on the ideas which suggested them- 
selves to his ever-active mind duiing the progress of the 
various works upon which he became immediately employed. 
Among the most remarkable are his theories on the best 



THE GARDEN. 



[July 6, 18?2» 



system of harmouizmg the effects o£ colour in flower gardens. 
He arrived at the following general conclusions, which, though 
founded only on observations and an instiuctive fine taste for 
colour, accord perfectly well with the more recent scientific 
discoveries on the affinities of colours, and of those which are 
necessarily complementary in regard to others. For iustance, 
he asserts in these interesting notes, that he invariably found, 
while studying the best effects in gardens, that when flowers 
were so arranged as to have a plant bearing flowers of a 
compound colour placed next to a plant bearing flowers of a 
simple colour, which contained neither of the colours forming 
the compound one, that the best effects were produced. Thus, 
as there are only three simple colours — blue, red, and yellow — 
he advised that purple flowers, which are composed of blue 
and red, should have yellow next to them ; and that orange 
flowers, which are composed of red and yellow, should be con- 
trasted with blue ; and that greenish flowers, which are com- 
posed of blue and yellow, should be relieved by red. Many 
years afterwards {1839) he was much delighted to find that 
M. Chevreul, the director of the famous manufacture of Gobelin 
tapestry, in his celebrated work, entitled '* De la Loi du Con- 
traste Simultane des Oouleurs," took precisely the same basis 
for the erection oE his vast superstructure, which is the most 
exhaustive treatise on the nature of the contrasts and com- 
plements of colours that has hitherto appeared. 

About the same time, that is in 1805, young Loudon formed 
the ambitious project, in part founded on his theory of 
colours, of publishing a pictorial dictionary, which was to 
embrace every kind of subject in which the treatment of 
colours, formed a part ; but the scheme was never realised. 
In the following year (1806), though constantly employed in 
planning and laying out grounds, he yet found time to write 
his "Treatise on Forming, Improving, and Managing Country 
Residences ; and on the Choice of Situations Appropriate to 
every Class of Purchasers : with au Appendix, containing an 
Inquiry into the Utility and Merits of Mr. Reptou's Mode of 
showing Effects by Slides aud Sketches ; and Strictures on his 
Opinions and Practice in Landscape Gardening; illustrated 
by Descriptions of Scenery and Buildings, by Reference to 
Country Seats and Passages of Country in most parts of Great 
Britain; aud by thirty-two Engravings." The work was the 
most bulky and important, as it was the most costly, he had as 
yet published. The illustrative engravings were careful repro- 
ductions of really excellent drawings executed by himself, 
which were afterwards republished, with short descriptions, 
as a sepai'ate work. At the time I knew Mr. Loudon, many 
years afterwards, he still preserved a set of proof impressions 
of this series of engravings, which he was fond of exhibiting 
to intimate friends as reproductions of drawings which he had 
niade before his right hand became so crippled as to prevent 
his indulgence in the manual use of peu or pencil for the 
whole remainder of his life ; a deprivation which he felt most 
keenly and unceasingly, and yet with that placid resigna- 
tion which was one of the most distinctive traits of his 
character. 

{To he continued.) 



Royal Parks' Act.— On Saturday the Act for the regulation 
of the Royal parks and garclena was printed. Tho object of the 
statute is to protect from injury the places under the management 
of the Commissioners of Works and Public Buildings, and to secure 
the public from molestation and annoyance while enjoying the same, 
A schedule contains the regulations to be observed, aud the powers 
conferred are not in derogation of any other statute. Among the 
twenty regulations is the following : — " No person shall deliver, or 
invite any person to deliver, any public address in a park, except in 
accordance with the rules of the park." In a secend schedule the 
following parks are referred to : — Hyde Park, St. James's Park, the 
Green Park, Kensington Gardens, Parliament Square Gardens, 
Regent's Park, Keunington Park, Primrose Park, Victoria Park, 
Battersea Park, Greenwich Park, Kew Gardens, Hampton Court 
Park, Richmond Park aud Green, Bushey Park, Holyrood Park, 
and Linlithgow Park. By one of the provisions for assaulting a 
park-keeper, a person may be fined a sum not exceeding twenty 
pounds, or be imprisoned for a term not exceeding six months, with 
or without hard labour. 



HARDY PLANTS IN FLOWER ROUND LONDON. 

(Feom June 27th to July Sxid, inclusive.) 

by our own reporters. 



Achillea 

bis errata 

fiUpeudula 

incisa 

Millefolmm 
rosea 

mollis 
Actiea 

racemosa 

spicata 
Alstrcemeria 

Errembaultii 
Alyssum 

maritimum 
Anagallis 

CEerulea 
Anisodus 

lurid us 
Anthem is 

nobilis plena 

tiuctovia 
Anthericum 

rainosum 
Aquilegia 

glandules a 
Asclepias 

Cornuti 
Asphodelus 

creticus 
Atragene 

sibirica alba 
Betonica 

hirsuta 

officinalis 

serotina 

stricta 
Brodieea 

grandiflora 
Buphthalmum 

salicifolium 
Callimeris 

incisa 
Calycanthus 

floridus and 
vars. 
Campanula 

csespitosa 
,, alba 

gramiueus 

guuimifera 

petiolata 

Tenorii 

turbinata 
Centaurea 

Clementei 

ragusina 
Cholorogalum 

pomei'idianum 
Cichorium 

Intybus 
Cineraria 

maritima 
Cirsium 

muni turn 

pulchrum. 
Clark la 

elegans 

pulcliella 
Convolvulus 

tricolor 
Coreopsis 

lanceolata 
Cynara 

Scoljmus 
Cytisus 

capitatus 

nigricans 
Delphinium 

Ajacis and vars, 
Deutzia 

coryrabosa 

gracilis 

scabra 

staminea 



Dianthus 

serotinus 
Digitalis 

eriostachys 

fulva 

lanata 

sibirica 
Dimorphotheca 

pluvialis 
Dracocephalum 

peregrinum 
Dry as 

Drarauiondii 
Ecbium 

salmanticum 
Epilobiura 

obcordatum 
Erica 

ramulosa 
Eryngium, 

giganteum 

planum 
Eutoca 

grandiflora 

viscida 
Ferula 

glauca 

thyrsiflora 
Funkia 

lanceolata 

ovata 

Sieboldli 
Gatega 

officinalis alba 
Galium 

verum 
Gaura 

Lindheimeri 
Gentiana 

cruciata 

gelida 

Saponaria 

septemfida 
Geranium, 

aconitifolium 
GiUa 

tricolor 
Gladiolus 

Colvillei var. 
Godetia 

bifrons 

Lindtej'ana 

viminea 
Gymnadenia 

conopsea 
Helianthus 

multiflorus pi. 
Hemcrocallis 

disticha 
Hypericum 

elegans 

Gebleri 

perforatum 
Iberis 

coronaria 
Inula 

Helenium 
Jasminum 

Reevesii 
Laserpitimn 

crithmi folium 
Lathyrus 

demersus 

latifolius ensi- 
folius 

veuosus 
Lavatera 

thui'ingiaca 
Leptosiphon 

densitlorus 
Leycesteria 

I'ormosa 
Ligularia 

Ktempferi 



liilium 

Brownii 

excelsum, 

fulgens and 
vars. 

giganteum 

longitlorum 

philadelphicum 

Thuubergiauum 
and vars. 
I.inaria 

heterophylla 

saxatilis 
Linum, 

grandiflorum 

usitatissimuQi 

viscosuni 
Liriodendron 

Tulipifera 
Lophanthus 

urtiCEefolius 
Lotus 

Gebelia 
Lupinus 

mutabilis and 
vars. 

nanus 
Lysimachia 

tomentosa 

vulgaris 
Magnoba 



Malva 

Alcea 
Matthiola 

bicomis 
Medicago 

carstieusis 

elegans 
Modiola 

geranioides 
Morina 

longifolia 
Nierembergia 

frufcescens 
Nigella 

damascena 

Mspanica 
Nolana 

prostrata 
Nuphar 

lutea 

pumila 
CEnothera 

biennis 

bistorta 

Fraserii 

fruticosa 

glauca 

grandiflora 

speciosa 

tarasaci folia 
Ouobrychis 

baicaUa 
Ononis 

hii'ciua 
Ouopordum 

Acantbium 
Oruithogalum 

arabicum 
Pap aver 

hyoscyamifo- 
limu 
Parnassia 

palustris 
Phacelia 

congesta 
Phlox 

glaberrima 
Putentilla 

fruticosa 
Ptelea 

trifoliata 
Punic a 

Granatiun 



PjTe thrum 

achillea3Eoliu'2i 

alpinum 

Balsamita 
Robinia 

viscosa 
Rudbeckia 

califomica 

triloba 
Salvia 

JEthiopis 

sylvestris 
Sauguisorba 

dodecandra 
Santolina 

rosmar in i folia 
Scutellaria 

oriental is 
Scyphanthus 

elegans 
Sedum 

anopeialum 

Gmelini 
Senecio 

Doronicum 
Scmpervivuiu 

acuminatum 

heterotriclium 

Mettenianum, 
Serratula 

polyclouis 
Seseli 

elatum 
Sida 

malvseflora 
Silene 

fruticosa 
Solidago 

canadensis 

rigida 
Spartium 

junceum 
SpiraBa 

callosa 

corymbosa 

Douglasii 

lanceolata 

nutans 

venusta 
Stenactis 

annua 
Tanacetum 

vulgare 
crispum 
Tetragonolobus 

biflorus 

purpureus 
Teucriuni 

pyrenaicum 
Thymus 

vulgaris varie- 
gatus 
Trifolium 

pannonicum 
Troptcolum 

majus 
Urospermum 

Araopogon 
Veratrum 

nigrum 
Verbascum 

Blattaria 

Chaixii 

longifolium 

pulverulentum 
Veronica 

Andersonii 

neglecta 
Vicia 

Cracca 

dumetorum 

sylvatica 
Yucca 

recur va 



Plants in this list are almost without exception such as have come into 
bloom during the past week. 



New Park for Leeds.— Round hay Park is at last secured 
fur the iuhabitauts of Leeds. Much must bo done to it, how. 
ever, to render it fit to receive the vast crowds who will flock 
to it. Plans have, we believe, already been prepared for the 
layiug out of new walks and drives, and we trust that care will 
be taken, in carrying them out, to preserve unimpaired the natural 
beauty of the park. If the people of Leeds are to have a really 
beautiful suburb at Roundhay, good taste must be shown in the 
character of the houses to be built on the fringe of laud on its 
outskirts. 



July 6, 1872.] 



THE GARDEN. 



THE GARDEN IN THE HOUSE. 

MARANTAS. 
The following engraving of Maranta fasciata illustrates one of 
the very handsomest fine-foliaged plants in our collections. Its 
green leaves, banded Tvith ivhite from the midi-ib to each 
margin, characterise it as peculiarly suitable for the decoration 
of vases. Maranta roseo-picta is of more recent introduction, 
and is noticeable for its rosy midrib and for the similarly- 
coloured Ixands upon the leaf a little way from the margin. 




ilarauta fasciata. 



We have often been struck with the absurdity of the forms 
of vases into which some people delight to thrust the flower- 
pots in which their favourite plants have been grown. And 
as our illustrations of the right path and the wrong path in 
the matter of building up rockwork have, as we are informed 




Maranta roseo-picta. 

helped materially to a clear comprehension of what should 
be done and what avoided, so we venture to hope that the 
annexed engi'aviugs will direct attention to what is good taste, 
and what is not good taste, in the matter of plant vases. In 
the vase which holds Maranta roseo-picta, there is a chasteness 
and a beauty of outline which cannot fail to please, combmed 
with a solidity which harmonises well with the style of the 



plant. The vase which contains the plant of Maranta fasciata, 
on the contrary, consists of a clumsy heavy saucer, partly 
supported Ijy a thick piece of stick, and partly by the tail of 
a pig-headed, or pug-headed fish, which is gracefully reclining 
his snout and two out of his four ears upon a raised cushion. 
Such a zoological monstrosity may be amusing to some people, 
who may also find something to laugh at in the anatomical 
impossibility of any fish or fish-shaped creatm-e standing upon 
its head and supportiug a heavy weight on its tail ; not to 
mention its double allowance of aural appendages ; but we 
doubt if it would be possible to suggest any form of vase 
more out of character with the beautiful plant which it 
contains than this particular vase must appear to the eye of 
good taste. 



CULTURE OF PLANTS IN ROOMS. 

(^Coyitinuecl from p. 710, Vnl. I.) 

TRANSPLAJITING. 

The best season for transplantmg is when the plants are 
about to pa.ss from a state of rest into a condition of fresh 
growth, that is, early in spring. Another favourable time is 
at the end of the first growth in spring, and before the plants 
(as is the case with many evergi-eens, such as Camellias, 
Azaleas, &c.) commence to form the buds for the following 
year. Transplanting at the time when the plant is in full 
growth should be avoided, as it disturbs the growth of the 
plant, and the young shoots are frequently injured, and some- 
times quite destroyed. It is only to be recommended when 
individual specimens of speedy growth are grown for exhibi- 
tion, and for this purpose are transplanted several times in the 
course of the summer TransiDlanting in autumn is especially 
to be avoided in the case of room plants, as the new soil does not 
become filled with roots during the winter, and, in consequence, 
becomes sour and spoiled ; and, if not watered with great care 
the plants will become sickly, or perish completely. There are 
a few exceptions to this ; as, for instance, bulbous plants, which 
are kept dry late in summer, and are intended for winter 
blooming, and some other plants which are are to be forced in 
winter. We would specially remark that the results of forcing 
will be so much the more certain, the earlier this transplanting 
takes place, in autumn or late summer. 

In the common practice of transplanting, fine healthy 
specimens are sought to be raised in pots which are propor- 
tionately not too large. Plants which have their ball only so 
far filled with roots that a few small ones reach the side of the 
pot, should not be transplanted so long as these roots are 
healthy, and the soil of the ball is fresh, and does not give out 
a sour smell ; which, as we have seen before, is the result of an 
unhealthy and injurious condition. 

Where the soil is spoiled, or the young roots are unhealthy, 
or, as is frequently the case in good culture, the entire ball 
becomes so full of roots that it seems to be thickly covered 
with threads, the plants should be transplanted. Therefore, 
before proceeding to transplant, the condition of the ball 
should be examined. This should be done very carefully, 
so that, in case no change is necessary, the ball may be 
replaced in the pot without injury. With small plants this 
examination is best effected in the followiug manner :■ — The 
left hand is spread over the top of the pot, allowing the stem 
of the plant to come between the fingers. The pot is then 
taken iu the right hand and reversed. The edge is then 
carefully struck against the comer of a table or board, so as 
to loosen the pot from the ball ; the pot is then lifted off and 
the ball examined. In the case of larger plants, the soil is 
first of all allowed to become somewhat dry, then the plant 
is seized by the lower part of the stem and lifted along with 
the pot. The pot is gently struck on the rim with the hand 
or a piece of wood, and so carefully separated from the plant. 
When a ball filled with roots will not readily separate from 
the pot, a knife should be passed round the edge as deep as 
it will go; this will greatly facilitate the operation. 

Lastly, plants in large wooden tubs or boxes should only be 
transplanted when an examination ot the ball from above 
shows that transplanting is absolutely necessary. The vessels 



THE GAEDEN. 



[July 6, 1872. 



are removed either by taking off the hoops of the tubs, or by 
taking the boxes to pieces, or else by first passing a long knife 
round the ball to loosen it, and then turning the vessel on its 
side and carefully drawmg out the plant. After the ball has 
been carefully removed it should be reduced in size, by 
removing the spoiled and exhausted soil, in order to give the 
plant as much fresh good soil as possible, without hayiug 
to place it in too large a pot or other vessel, which, especially 
in room-culture, would be very inconvenient. For this purpose 
the earth round the ball is loosened by means of a sharp- 
pointed stick, and is shaken out from the roots, so that the 
ball may be rounded above and below, and its diameter reduced 
to three-fourths or two-thirds of its former size. If there is an 
underlayer of potsherds, &c., it must be entirely removed. 
The roots should then be trimmed round with a sharp knife. 
In sickly plants the roots will be more or less decayed in 
parts. These parts must be cut back until sound wood is 
reached. The roots of healthy'plants should not be cut when the 
plant is in a state of active growth; in which condition, or when 
it is known that the plant will be injured by a severe root- 
pruning, it will be sufficient to take away some of the upper 
soil, to remove the layer of potsherds, to loosen the surface of 
the ball, and to trim a few of the longest roots a little. 

In planting, a pot should be selected so large that, according 
to the strong or feeble root-forming powers of the plant, there 
may be around the ball a layer of fresh earth from one-third of 
an inch to one inch thick. A piece of potsherd, arched in shape, 
should then be placed over the drainage-hole, so as to cover it 
well above, but leaving space at the sides for the flow of water. 
Then should follow a layer of broken potshei'ds from half an inch 
to one inch thick, and over this a thin layer of moss to prevent 
the soil being carried among the sherds. Instead of the layer 
of potsherds, a layer of moss or of coarse sand may be used, or 
some of the coarse fibrous tufts which remain in the sieve when 
soil is sifted. Attention in providing good drainage will be 
always repaid by the healthy condition of the plants which it 
secures, especially if they are sometimes carelessly and immo- 
derately watered. After the drainage layer has been put in, 
just so much soil should be placed upon it that when the ball 
is laid in, the uppermost roots will be from about one-third of 
an inch to half an inch below the top of the rim of the pot, so 
that when the soil is filled in, there may be sufficient space 
left to retain the water in watering. The ball being so placed 
that the plant may stand exactly in the centre of the pot, the 
soil should then be filled in. This should be dry, so that when 
closely pressed it will not become cloddy. During the gradual 
fiUing-in of the soil, the pot should be repeatedly shaken, so that 
the soil may be evenly settled all round. In small pots it will 
be sufficient after the soil is filled in to press it down close with 
the thumb. In pots more than five inches high, especially 
when the space between the pot and the ball is only limited, 
the soil should be pressed in during the process of filling in, 
with a flat blunt piece of wood, so that it may lie evenly in all 
parts. When the soil is moist and stiff it should not be 
pressed so closely. The common rule is that a well-potted 
plant, if the pot is not disproportionately large, may be lifted 
up by the stem along with the pot without the pot falling off. 
This experiment should not be tried with weak plants, as they 
could not sustain the weight of the pot, and would break off, 
especially if the soil was stiff and moist and the pot rather 
heavy. 

After filling in with just so much soil that the upper roots 
will be covered, it is to be j^ressed round the rim of the pot, 
so that the flow of the water may be directed towards the 
, ball, and not pass through without wetting it thoroughly. 
When it is desired to raise fine strong specimens quickly, the 
roots of the plants should not be trimmed more in traus- 
plantmg, than will allow them to draw sufficient nutriment 
from the soil in the pot for a strong growth. Two modes of 
treatment are in use, viz., a single transplanting, and trans- 
planting several times. Single transplanting in pot culture 
is similar to that practised in open-air culture. It is 
generally employed in the case of youug healthy plants of 
quick growth, which have not been long raised from seeds 
or cuttings. When they are transplanted in spring, they are 
put into pots from twice to four times the diameter of those 
in which they have previously grown. The old ball is not 



disturbed, only the roots which come through it are loosened 
and spread out in the fresh soil, which should not be pressd 
down so closely as in ordinary transplanting, as it will be 
quite sufficient to shake the pot frequently and then press the 
soil down gently with the thvimb. A deep layer of potsherds 
and moss for drainage, is, in this case (where at the same 
time a great deal of nutriment is given, and the soil changed 
only once in the year), very conducive to successful results. 

Frequent transplanting effects the same purpose in a dif- 
ferent manner. Here also the ball is not disturbed at the 
time of transplanting, but the pot should be only two or three 
inches larger in diameter than the pot from which the plant is 
removed. The soil also, when filled in, should not be pressed 
down so much as in ordinary transplanting, and the means of 
good drainage must not be neglected. If a strong growth sets 
in, the ball must be examined from time to time by carefully 
inverting the pot. As soon as the ball is quite filled and sur- 
rounded by the new roots, the plant must be transferred to a 
larger pot. A strong and fast-growing plant may, in this 
manner, be transplanted from two to four times between spring 
and the beginning of August ; after which time fui'ther trans- 
planting must be avoided, as such plants endure the winter 
with greater difficulty and suffer more in proportion as the ball 
is scantily filled and penetrated with roots. 

Of these two methods of raising strong specimens we would, 
for room-culture, recommend the latter, for the following 
reasons: — 

1. lu a room only a few plants can be devoted to this 
purpose, as they require a good, open position near the 
window, where, of course, there will not be room for many 
large specimens. The trouble of frequently transjilanting 
these few will not, therefore, be great. 

2. All plants do not bear the change into comparatively 
very large pots well, but there are some which, when so 
planted, in spite of all care in watering and drainage, become 
sickly instead of strong. As an example, we may name the 
Coff'ee-tree (one of our most durable room plants), the seed- 
lings of which will bear a tolerably large pot ; while plants of 
the same, raised from cuttings, when transplanted into too 
large a pot, soon become very much deteriorated in appearance. 
DracaBua Jacquini and D. marginata do not succeed well in 
large pots, while the other species of Dracasna thrive very 
well in them. Therefore, as the amateur is liable to make 
mistakes in his selection of plants for this purpose, frequent 
transplanting affords a means of remedying his errors in this 
respect,as by often examining the balls he can ascertain to 
what extent new roots have been formed, and so whether the 
plants require removal into larger pots or not. 

3. By frequent transplanting, the treatment of the plants 
with regard to watering is much simplified. 

4. Small plants in large pots do not look well, and there- 
fore are not suited for room-decoration. The system of single 
transplanting affords no remedy for this. 

Special modes of transplanting are not employed in ordinary 
room-culture. But in glazed cases and double windows a 
different method is used, especially in the case of Epiphytes. 
With these, whether grown in pots, vases, or baskets, the soil 
must not be closely pressed down, but should be left very 
loose. All the interstices should be stopped with sphagnum, 
laid on inside the pots, and the soil should be a mixture of 
chopped moss, pieces of decayed wood, and coarse fibrous 
heath soil or peat. Where these plants are only grown on 
wood, a layer of moss should be fastened on with thread or 
wire ; or if they are plants which, like many of the Bromelia 
family, have been previously grown in pots, the ball should first 
be wrapped round with moss, and then fastened on to the wood. 
In this way, in glazed cases, a dead branch here and there is 
furnished in a picturesque manner with such plants. 

Lastly, we have to mention top dressing, which sometimes 
(especially in the case of plants grown in tubs and boxes, and 
which, therefore, ai'e more difficult to transplant) takes the place 
of transplanting. In this operation the soil on the upper part 
of the ball is loosened by means of a pouited stick ; and, after 
the soil so loosened is removed, the soil at the sides of the 
vessel is loosened in the same manner to as great a depth as 
possible, and also removed. The longest of the roots which 
are thus laid bare are then trimmed, and suitable fresh soil is 



July 6, 1872.] 



THE GARDEN. 



filled iuto the place of that Tvhicli was taken out. Care should 
be taken not to fill hi the fresh soil any higher than just to 
cover the uppermost roots of the ball, as, when the upper part 
of the ball is not well filled with roots, an immoderate degree 
of di'yuess is apt to be produced there, which may induce the 
amateur to give water at a time when it would be very hurtful 
to the plant. — Dr. Hogel. 

{To he contimi,ed.) 



ASPECTS OF VEGETATION. 

MADAGASCAR. 

SoJiE of the aspects of vegetation in Madagascar are of so 
peculiar a character that it may be worth while to allude to 
them again. Of the growth of Angrascum superbum on 
Strichnos trees we have ali'eady given an account (seep. 609). 
Another species of the same genus, viz., A. sesquipedale, is 
also parasitical on trees in Madagascar. The Rev. Mr. Ellis 
says: — "On more than 
one occasion I found 
this singular Orchid 
growing splendidly 
on the trunks of de- 
caying or fallen trees, 
as shown in the ac- 
companying engrav- 
ing, and sending its 
tough roots down 
the trunk to the 
moist parts of the 
vegetation on the 
ground. I found one 
decaying tree of large 
size lying on the 
ground almost over- 
gi'own with grass 
and ferns, on the 
rotten trunk of which 
A. sesquipedale was 
growing most luxuri- 
antly. The roots, 
which had penetrated 
the soft trunk of this 
dead tree, were white 
and fleshy, while the 
leaves were of un- 
usual length, and 
comparatively soft 
and green. There 
were, however," he 
adds, "neither 
flowers nor flower- 
stalks on any of the 
plants growing in the rich vegetable mould furnished by this 
old dead tree." 

As regards AngrEecitms found on the ground, Mr. Ellis 
says the finest were to be seen growing near the roots of 
leafless bushes, and having their own roots surrounded by 
long green grass. The bushes themselves were growing in 
loose sand. The very healthy state of these plants tended to 
induce a beHef that a moderate amount of shade and moisture 
siiits them better than the dry exposed branches or trunks 
of dead trees, on which they are so often found growing. 

The yellow-flowered AngrEecum crassum and A. citratum 
were also found by Mr. Ellis in Madagascar, as well as many 
other interesting Orchids and other plants. " Amongst the 
latter, " he says, " my attention was arrested by a new species 
of Pandanus, with dwarf stalks and broad pointed leaves. 
Amongst the varieties of indigo, a plant with a pink or red 
flower was unusually attractive ; while a little modest blue 
Tradescantia, somewhat resembling the wild forget-me-not, 
enhvened the borders of the path. But the greatest rarity 
was a kind of large-growing heath, with pink or lilac-coloured 
flowers. In some places I also saw large masses of creeping 
ferns entirely encircling the trees. The greater part of the 



road, however, had been over sandy plains, traversed by 
ridges or high banks of sand, which had at one time been 
the boundary of the sea. We also passed through regions 
of dead, blanched, barkless forest trees, still staudmg ; the 
only signs of life amongst them being a few orchids or ferns 
growing in the forks of their trunks and branches. Some- 
times we passed through a tract of thick verdant forest of 
large timber ; but in general there were ponds or stagnant 
marshes, on both sides of the path, sometimes overgrown 
with long grass or rushes. Along the borders of the i-unning 
streams, I saw numbers of the tropical lettuce, Pistia Stratiotes, 
growing very freely." 




An^Tecum sesquipetlale, as seen in Madagascar, 



GARDENS AT RAILWAY STATIONS. 

BY JAMES M'NAB. 
Of late years a great improvement has been effected in reference to 
these, and I am glad to observe that the taste for station embellish- 
ment is greatly on the increase, as we now see one railway vieing 

with another for this 

_ landable end. Almost 

all the extra decora- 
tion is due to the horti- 
cultural taste of the 
station-master or those 
under him. I do not 
quite agree with all the 
freaks exhibited on 
rcadside stations ; still, 
such freaks in the 
meantime ought not to 
be objected to, as they 
often lead to other and 
better suggestions. 
When we consider the 
great diversity in the 
tastes and ideas of 
those for whose gratifi- 
cation they are chiefly 
intended, allowance 
must be made by the 
public forthepi'imitive 
notions which are dis- 
played in some of them. 
The great diversity in 
localities and soils 
where intermediate sta- 
tions have to be placed, 
must in many instances 
call forth a great 
amount of ingenuity 
from those in charge, 
so as to turn them to 
the best account. It 
is to be hoped that 
railway directors will 
encourage station gardens as much as possible. In all new-formed 
stations the employes would do well to examine as many as they 
can, and select the good points of each. Some are, perhaps, 
too much hampered for room, and in some we find a wall of rock 
rising almost perpendicularly on each side. Such stations have 
charms unseen, and, in the hands of a skilful garden architect, could 
be made to assume foi-ms at once interesting and characteristic of the 
district. Such schemes would take years to accomplish, but as stones 
are always in demand, no matter of what kind, their gradual removal 
would always be facilitating the end in view. Many of these stations, 
where the rocks are not excessively high, could have the materials 
removed down to the surface level for 70, 80, or 100 feet m breadth, 
till the time arrived for their final arrangement. Instead of upright 
rocky walls, having a narrow platform and the rails between, where 
the sun rarely penetrates, we ought to see sloping rocky banks, made 
as irregular as it is possible to work them. The hollow places formed 
could be filled with soil, to be planted with coniferas or shrubs and 
flowers suitable for rocky places. It is greatly to be desired that 
civil engineers will consider all these hints when designing new 
station buildings. 

In the station building department a great improvement has of late 
been eflected, but much still remains to be done. Any one travel- 
ling over the kingdom cannot fail to observe the comf ortable.looking 



THE GARDEN. 



[July 6, 1872. 



stations on many of the English lines, where brick and white stone 
are employed, and surrounded by well-kept grass and shrubs. If a 
little more ground could be allowed round some of the Scottish 
stations, they would soon be able to vie with the Enghah in every 
respect. When the train comes to a standstill, it is certainly pleasant 
to cast the eyes on these delightful spots, particularly after a weary 
run of many miles, and then rest contented till arriving at another 
station. By a continued improvement of the kind suggested, delicate 
eyes may be kept at rest, knowing that something more pleasing is 
in store for them at the next stopping-plaoe, instead of straining them 
pn tree stems and telegraph posts. 



THE FRUIT GARDEN. 

PAOKING FRUIT. 
In these days, when a large portion of the produce of the garden has 
to be sent by rail, the question of packing is one of no little import- 
ance. Having had some experience in packing fruits, flowers, and 
vegetables for travelling long distances, I propose to say a few 
words on the subject. 

The fruit which is generally wanted in greatest quantity, and which 
bears carriage worse than almost any other, is the strawberry; some 
varieties, however, stand carriage better than others, and among 
these I may mention British Queen, the Pines, Prince of Wales, Sir 
Harry, and others. Still, I have packed all sorts for many years ; 
and, as a rule, they arrive in London in very good condition. The 
tin boxes we use for this purpose are one foot square, and from one 
and a half inch to two inches deep. When about to be filled, a thin 
sheet of cotton wadding is laid on the bottom of the box, and on this 
a layer of soft vine leaves. The berries are then laid hold of by the 
footstalks, and laid in one by one, as nearly on their base as the 
footstalks will permit ; a soft strawberry leaf is laid between each 
berry, and they are wedged together as tightly as can be done with- 
out actual crushing. When all have been laid in they are covered 
evenly over with strawberry leaves, and another sheet of cotton 
wadding (sufficient with the leaves to hold all firmly in their places) 
is laid on the top, and the lid shut down and secured. The condition 
of the leaves for putting between the berries is of some importance. 
No leaves of any kind are fit for this purpose when just pulled ; they 
are then too hard, and do much injury. For this reason we have the 
strawberry leaves pulled the night before and strewed over the fruit- 
room table ; by morning they are limp and flaccid, and can be used 
with safety. It is a common practice to wrap each berry in a leaf ; 
but it is not a good plan, for the less the fruit is handled the better ; 
and the plan of laying a soft leaf between each fruit, as I have 
described, does away with the necessity of handling the berries at all 
except by the footstalks. 

As regards peaches they require as much care in gathering as in 
packing, for the slightest bruise will appear an ugly blemish a few 
hours afterwards. Have a tray lined with a thick layer of wadding 
beside you when going over the trees ; try only those that look ripe, 
and, taking the peach gently in the palm of your hand, bring the 
fincers and thumb under its base, and if it does not come away with 
a slight effort leave it. What are ready, set on the tray, and do not 
handle them again till they are packed. Some have their peach boxes 
divided into compartments about four inches square ; but it is not an 
economical plan, for only one peach, be it large or small, can be put into 
a division, and they are too often bruised in getting them out again. 
The boxes should be of tin, aud from twelve to eighteen inches square, 
and four and a half inches deep. In packing lay a thick piece of 
wadding on the bottom, aud line also the sides ; then take a square 
piece of wadding of the requisite size, lay upon it a piece of the 
softest tissue paper, and on this set the peach ; fold the wadding up 
over it, and set it on its base in the box at one corner. Fold up the 
others in the same manner, pack them closely together, lay a sheet of 
thick wadding on the top, shut aud fasten the lid securely, and they 
are safe from any ordinary danger. 

Few fruits bear carriage better than grapes, aud yet, strange to 
say, they are often much damaged in their transit, for the simple 
reason that they are seldom packed as firmly as they ought to be, 
through fear of crushing them, though the grape will stand a -wonder- 
ful amount of pressure before breaking, and the bunches have a 
certain elasticity about them which protects them. Boxes eighteen 
inches by one foot, and six inches deep, are a convenient size. We 
use soft paper shavings or wadding for packing them, first wrapping 
the bunches in soft drapery or tissue paper, and twisting it at each 
end ; they are then wedged in together with a few shavings between 
the bunches, and a layer below and above all, iu sufficient quantity 
to hold them securely iu their places, when the lid is put on. All 



our packing materials are returned in due course, and it is seldom 
that there is the slightest stain from a broken berry on the grape 
papers. Nor does the bloom suffer to any serious extent by this 
mode of packing, if done with'ordinary'.care. It is friction which rubs 
the bloom ofi most, but firm packing prevents this to a great extent. 

Figs are precarious things to handle in packing if perfectly ripe, 
as all figs ought to be before they are sent to table. Their skin rubs 
off with the slightest touch. They should be detached from the tree 
with great care, and they should be packed like peaches ; but, instead 
of using tissue paper inside the wadding, use a soft vine leaf in a 
flaccid state and fold the fruit carefully in it, and pack tightly, using 
plenty of wadding. 

Raspberries when sent for dessert are packed like strawberries. 
Other small fruits, such as currants, gooseberries, and cherries, will 
travel well without packing further than a layer of leaves top and 
bottom. Plums will travel well in a bed of soft, clean leaves, and 
covered with the same, but the bloom of the fruit is easily rubbed 
off. It is a common plan, and a good one, to pack the different boxes 
of fruit in one hamper when sent off. Sometimes they can be sent 
in the vegetable hamper. Either way, do not let the hampers be 
unwieldy aud inconvenient to handle, and the chances are that the 
damage, if any, will be less than it otherwise would be. J. S. 



THE MARKET-GARDEN STRAWBERRY STRIKE. 

A geeengkocek's life just now, says the Telegrapli, must be rather 
too exciting to be pleasant. Vegetables are daily advancing in price, 
and the indignant remonstrances of Materfamilias intensify with 
every new rise. The meek purveyor of vegetables would never finish 
his daily course had he to explain at every house door the roundabout 
circumstances which have occasioned so unseasonable a dearth of 
garden produce. Were purchasers to be dropped down for half an 
hour in the rural lanes of Fulham, the mystery would be explained to 
them in a trice. Any of these corduroy -trousered men ^vith their 
hands deep in their pockets, and a sad kind of scowl on their faces, 
would prove voluble on the subject. They are market gardeners on 
strike, and very melancholy they do look, prowling about on the 
wrong side of the hedge. They have been executing that penitential 
promenade for fully a fortnight, and as yet they don't see how or 
when it is to end. 

Fulham has suffered from similar insubordination once before ; on 
that occasion it succeeded, and the matters in dispute were comfort- 
ably settled. And so they have gone on till about three weeks ago, 
when the word was passed that on the following Thursday the men 
in each garden should wait upon the masters, and intimate that after 
Saturday night ahalf penny an hour more wouldbe wanted. The scheme 
was carried out with entire unanimity, and on the Monday morning every 
garden in the district was deserted. The masters had peremptorily 
refused any rise, or any entertainment of the question. Some of the 
men crossed the river to Barnes, and sought employment there ; but 
a hint had preceded them from Fulham, and Barnes would receive 
no firebrands. This " blackballing " was viewed with bitter resent, 
ment. A few single men packed up their goods and crossed the 
Channel to Ireland; but the majority, being married, chose to remain 
at home, lounging about among the lanes. That has been their daily 
occupation for a fortnight ; and all I could observe of them implied 
that they were doing it very decorously indeed. AmasterwithwhomI 
spoke afterwards admitted the fact of their good behaviour, but trans- 
ferred the credit from the men themselves to the police — of whom, 
during the afternoon, I saw two. 

Covent Garden had to be supplied from these deserted lettuce- 
grounds and strawberry-beds. Cauliflowers and radishes were at 
their best. All garden produce was at a premium, and the masters 
had to get it taken off the ground somehow. In some cases they 
buckled to the work themselves. After a day or two they managed 
to beat up a small troop of boys and girls in the village. All the 
while agents were scouring the adjacent districts for men. Last 
Sunday morning the fine warm weather had brought things to a 
crisis. Fruit must be picked, and vegetables cut, else they wonld 
spoil. Vans and carts were sent into the odorous purlieus of Seven 
Dials aud Drury Lane for the halt, the lame, and the blind. The 
satis culottes — enticed from their reeking courtyards by the promises 
of a free ride to-and-fro, a wai-m dinner, as much fruit as they could 
eat, aud a trifle in Queen's coin — turned out in shoals, and made a 
prosperous journey to Fulham. It was reported on Sunday night 
that the strike hands assailed their successors with yells and hootings 
which threatened to end in more violent proceedings. There was 
even a rumour of incendiarism in connection with a fire which 
happened at a gardener's house. I questioned my authorities on these 
reports, and they were profoundly disgusted. The eldest acknow- 
ledged that when the vans arrived at Parson's Green there had been 



July 6, 1872.] 



THE GAEDBN. 



some " hollerin' andhootin' j" but the ill-used man interposed that it 
was only " a bit of amusement loike." The Seven Diahtes went 
peaceably to work, and some of them have been carted out and in 
daily since. They have taken the place of the women rather than 
of the men. In one or two gardens male substitutes had been found 
within the first day or two — farm labourers brought up from the 
country. 

They did not give up hope when they threw down their spades. 
There were no " agitators " in the district to mount the stump on 
their behalf; but a more judicious champion came forward in the 
Vicar of Fulham. Either of his own accord, or at the instance of the 
Rev. Father Bond, to whose congregation many of the men belonged, 
he went round among the masters to ascertain their real disposition 
on the subject. It was unrelenting, however ; and the kindly vicar 
carried back to the priest a discouraging answer. Anticipating 
another issue, the men had clubbed together a few pence, and got a 
hand-bill printed, calling a public meeting in the schoolroom at St. 
Thomas's Church. The bill stated for them " that they most respect- 
fully invite the master-gardeners to attend, pledging themselves to 
pay them every respect, and assiu'ing them that their only object in 
calling the meeting is to bring about a peaceful settlement of the 
differences now existing between them." One master accepted the 
invitation, and he represented only himself. There were excuses 
offered afterwards by others, that the men should have known Friday 
was a very busy night — that they should have given longer notice — and 
so on. The intended conference was a failure ; and Pat is scratching 
his head about what to do next. Falham is little else than a market 
garden, and, except in the brick-fields, he has very little chance of 
other employment. He is attached to the village, albeit the rent of 
a couple of rooms for his family costs him more than a fourth of his 
wages, and bke many another householder, he wishes to have the 
increased price of coals and bread taken into account on his 
behalf. 

In order to test the men's statements, and to be placed on the 
masters' standpoint, I called on the owner of one of the largest 
gardens. His tone in speaking of the strike was strikingly akin to 
that of the "Warwickshire farmers in March. They could not pay 
more wages, he said ; and they wouldn't. Some of them would rather 
give up their gardens first, or turn the plough into them. " Why," 
he asked, " did they not come forward in a manly way and give us a 
week's notice ? I have heard several people say they will not take 
back their old hands on any terms. One is selling off his stock and 
crop now, and means to let his place. In Fnlhani, where digging 
has been all done by spade liitherto, we shall have to use the plough, 
and the men will see what good they have done themselves next 
winter, when they are told to take fourteen shillings a week, or stay 
at home." I was surprised, however, at the answer to an inquiry 
about the quality of Irishmen as labourers. He would not deny 
that they were first-rate labourers — or at least had been till this 
summer. They learnt the business very quickly, and they were 
clever at turning from one kind of work to another. They were 
particularly suited for a market garden, where they might have to be at 
half .a-dozen different jobs in the course of a day. Their gravest fault 
in the eyes of their ex-employer was that they were not vigilant in 
driving away juvenile trespassers from the lettuces. These labourers 
— whose occupation impUes that they must be more than merely 
muscular machines, and whose lodging costs them more than a foui'th 
of what they earn — have thrown themselves idle because they want 
a pound a week to live upon, instead of seventeen shillings and six- 
pence. 



NOTES AND QUESTIONS ON THE FRUIT GARDEN. 



Sisabled Peacli and Nectarine Trees.— 1 liave some Peach trees wticli 
last year made very excellent growth, and which promised to produce a good 
crop. The bloom was most profuse, but Jack Frost put a stop to my getting 
any fruit. Then came swarms of aphides, which threatened to take trees and 
all. Having a hberal supply of Pooley's Tobacco Dust and a distributor at 
hand, I thoroughly dusted the trees, "with a detenuination to either win or 
lose. I wns successful ; now they are thriving grandly, and no other intruders 
have ventured to attack them. I believe, however, that I should have lost my 
trees had it not been for this antidote. — TsoitAs J. Capabw, Neicark-on-Trent. 

Gooseherry Training and Protection.— I lose nearly all my gooseberries 
when ripe, from want of some efficient means of protecting them from the 
birds. Will you kindly tell me how to protect them in the most efficient way ? 
A neighbour of m.uie trains his in a concise way, and covers each bush with 

some galvanized wire-netting. — S., Hiqhgate. [A very excellent way of 

growing the gooseberry, and at the same time protecting it from frost, is to train 
the shoots on a low trellis, made, say, of three lines of thin galvanized wire, 
rising three or four feet high. These should be fixed in lines at thi-ee feet 
apart, and the plants placed rather closely, so that the trellis may be covered 
quickly and well. By this an-angement a net may be stretched over a number 
of Hues with less trouble than would be required to " net " half-a-dozen bushes 
on the old plan ; while the benies may be gathered as readily a^ if the bushes 
were not netted at all — the gatherer entering at one end and passing readily 
between the lines.l 



THE FLO WER GARDEN. 

THE ALPINE GAEDEjST. 
(Continued from page 606, Yohtme I.) 
In the constructiou and planting of every kind of rockwork it 
should be distinctly remembered that every surface may and 
should be embellished with beautiful plants. Not alone on 
rooks or slopes, or favourable ledges, or chinks, or miniature 
valleys, should we see this kind of exquisite p'.ant-life. Num- 
bers of rare mountain species will thrive on the less trodden 
parts of footways ; others, like the two-flowered Violet, seem to 




steps in Alpine Rock-garden. 

thrive best of all in the fissures between the rude steps of the 
rockwork ; other dwai-f succulents delight in gravel and the 
hardest soil ; others will run wild in any wood or among low 
shrubs near the rock-garden. 

The accompanying figure is from a photograph of the lower 
part of rude steps ascending abruptly from a deep and moist 
recess in a rock-garden. lb shows veiy imperfectly — no 
engraving could show it otherwise — the crowds of lovely 
plants that gather over it, except where worn bare by feet, 
thriving year by year as freely as they do on the most favoured 
spots in the Alps, 

It can scarcely be necessary to add that we cannot too care- 
fully avoid any cemented work which would in the least 

degree interfere with this 
happy tendency. In cases 
where the simplest type of 
rockwork only is attempted, 
and where there are no 
steps or rude walks in 
the rock-garden, the very 
fringes of the gravel walks 
may be gracefully enlivened 
by allowing such plants as 
the dwarfer Sedums to 
become established in them. 
The alpine Linaria is never 
more beautiful than when 
self-sown in a gravel walk. 

Another very important 
principle to bear in mind in 
forming the rock-garden is, 
that, as a inile, much more 
vegetation than rooks should 
be seen. Where vast regions 
are inhabited by alpine 
plants, acres of crags with 
a stain of flower or fern here and there, are very attractive and 
imposing parts of the picture ; but in gardens, where our 
creations in this way can only be Lilhputian, an entirely 
different method must be pursued; except in jjlaces where 
great cliffs are naturally exposed and even in this case an 
abundant drapery of vegetation is desirable. A rockwork is 
rarely seen in which plants predominate as much as they 
ought. Frequently masses of stone are met with under this 




Alpine Flowers (a Garden Sketch) . 



THE GAEDEN. 



[July 6, 1872. 



name witli an occasional tuft of vegetation, every chink 
and joint between the stones being thus exposed. This 
should not be so ; every minute chink should have its little line 
of verdure ; and in this fray we should not only have more 
plants, but hide the artificial nature of the structure. Where 
the ground is low and banlv-like, there really is not the 
slightest necessity for placing stones all over the surface ; an 
occasional one cropping up here and there from the mass of 
vegetation will produce the best effect. Alpine flowers are 
often seen in multitudes and in their loveliest aspect in some 
little elevated level spot, frequently without a rock being 
visible through it, and, if so, merely peeping up here and 
there. They are lovely too in the desolate wastes of broken 
rook, where they cower down between the great stones in 
isolated, lonely -looking tufts ; but it is only when Gentians 
and sUvery Cudweeds, and minute white Buttercups, and 
strange large Violets, and Harebells that waste all their 
strength in flowers, and fairy Daffodils that droop their heads 
as gracefully as Snowdrops, are seen, forming a dense turf of 
living enamelled work, that alpine flowers are .seen in their 
fairest aspects. Fortunately the flowery turf and stony mou7id 




A little 



Uplancl Valley in a Rock-garden. (From a photograph.) 



are much more possible to us than the bare moraine blocks or 
arid cliffs. The accompanying illustration is a view of a little 
elevated stony valley m an artificial rock-garden. Its surface 
is composed of comparatively large stones, but between them 
there are chinks leading to deep masses of earth, broken 
stones, and grit, and from thence issue vigorously tufts 
of the Moss Campion and other plants, which lap over 
the hard edges of the stones, and become at all seasons 
cushions of glistening verdure— in spring and summer of 
innumerable starry flowers. Stone and plants are seen in 
about equal proportions, and the effect is of the most nleasino- 
kind. ^ ° 

In cultivating the very rarest and most minute alpiue 
plants, the stony, or partially stony, surface is to be preferred. 
In their case we cannot allow the struggle for life to have its 
own relentless way, or we .should often have to grieve at 
finding the Eritrichium from the high Alps of Europe overrun 
and exterminated by a dwarf Anierica-n Phlox, and similar 
cases. Perfect exposure is also necessary to complete success 
with very minute plants, and the stones are very useful in 
preventing excessive evaporation from their riaots. Pew 
people have any conception of the groat number of alpine 
plants that may be grown on the fully exposed level ground 
as readily as the common Chamomile ; but there are, on the 
other hand, not a few that require some care to establish 
them, and there are usually new kinds to be added to the 
collection, which, even if vigorous ones, should be kept apart 
and under favourable conditions. Therefore, in every place 
where the culture of alpine plants is entered into with zest, 
there ought to bo a select spot on which to grow the most 
delicate, most rare, and most diminutive kinds. It should be 
tully exposed, and while sufficiently elevated to secure perfect 
drainage and all the effect desirable, should not be riven into 
miniature peaks or crags or cliff's. 

The greatest watchfulness should be exercised over the 
plants on all such structures as this. They will not perish 



from cold or heat or wet, if properly planted, but many of 
them are so mmutc that they are not capable of affording a 
tull meal to a browsing slug, and accordingly often disnp- 




Water-fence in an Alpine Garden. 



pear during a moist night. Now as our gardens abound with 
slimy creatures that play havoc with many subjects colossal 
compared with our alpine friends, it is clear that one of the main 
points is to guard against slugs, and as far as possible against 

worms. Mr. Backhouse has 
veiy cleverly fenced off the 
choicest parts of his rock- 
work from them by a very 
irregular little canal, as 
shown in our illustration. 
It may be so arranged and 
cemented that, while not 
an eyesore, and perfectly 
water-tight, no slug will 
cross it. It thus becomes 
a much easier task to guard the plants from injury than when 
they crawl in from all points of the compass. But even with 
this precaution, it is necessary to search continually for snails 
and slugs ; and in wet weather the choicest parts should be 
searched over in the evening, or very early in the morning; 
with a lantern, if at night. Sir Charles Isham, who is an 
enthusiastic cultivator of rock-plants, says that he not only 
protects toads, but does not forget to lay stones so as to 
form little retreats for them underneath. They prefer a stone 
just sufficiently raised to crawl under, and must do a deal of 
good by destroying slugs, &c. He also protects frogs and all 
carnivorous insects. Ceaseless hand-picking is the best remedy 
for slugs, and where not done, there is little hope of succeeding 
with many subjects, at least in regions where slugs are as 
abundant as we usually find them in gardens. 
(To 6e continued.) 



ARALIA JAPONICA. 



A VALUABLE kind, quite distinct, with undivided, fleshy, davk-greeu 
leaves. It is usually treated as a greenhouse plant, but is hardy, 
and makes a very ornamental and distinct-looking shrub on soils 
Avith a dry porous bottom. It grows remarkably well in the dwelling- 
house ; in fact, it is one of the very few plants of like character that 
will develop their leaves therein in winter. Not difiBcnlt to obtain. 




Aralia japouica. (After Vilmoriu, 



it may be used with advantage in the flower garden or ijloasure 
ground among medinm-sized plants — say those not more than a yard 
high. It would form striking isolated specimens on the turf, and is 
also veiy suitable for grouping. It is commonly known in our 
gardens as A. Sieboldi. About London it may be noticed thriving 
in various districts, as for example, in the Eegent's Park, and in 
the Duke of Buccleugli's garden at Montague House. 



^ Tropgeolum polyphyllum. — A hardy species belonging to the 
tuberous-rooted Tropa3olums, viz., T. polyphyllum, is now an attrac. 
tivc object in some of the London nurseries, notably the Exotic 
Nursery, Tooting, and the Wellington Nurseries, St. John's Wood. 
At the first-named establishment it is used as a low wall-pl.ant, where 



July 6, 1872.] 



THE GAEDBN. 



its showy, pale orauge-yellow blooms are so freely produced as to 
nearly hide tho foliage ; while at the latter place it is allowed to trail 
over the ground, a position in which it flowers equally well. It is a 
capital subject for low trellises, rockwork, low walls, or warm banks, 
and succeeds best in rich sandy loam. — T. S. 

Angry with Exotics. — Since wo possess in our owu laud such a wealth of 
delicate liowers in liaruiony with our dispositions, and so subtly interpreting 
cor EurDpeau nature, why do we roam over the whole earth in quest of decora- 
tions tor our gardens ? Within the last half-century the face of Europe has 
been changed by the sudden, reckless, and uncontrolled invasion of exotics. 
The acacia wo had before I was born. During my childhood, I witnessed the 
introduction of the Hydrangea : in my youth, of the dahUa ; in my manhood, of 
the fuchsia, and simultaneously, of a' hundred thousand plants. Our parterres, 
loaded and overloaded, remind one of the heavy, gaily-colom'ed shawls which 
have destroyed the genuine Cashmere. The seasons fail in their due effect— 
their deep aud native poetry — because troubled by the unexpected apparitions 
of strange flowers, which often come at inopportune times, are ignorant of the 
periods of our year, and, for example, beam gaily and smilingly in the melan- 
choly moods of autumn. The time is wan and pathetic ; but the Antipodean 
flora thinks it is spring, and vexes our souls with its bravery of colour. The 
eye, nevertheless, accustoms itself to their fantastic conceit, as the ear becomes 
habituated to brazen instruments ; and thus our ruder senses embruitify the 
soul, for a certain kind of pleasiue which is without taste and without memories. 
Sorely, a more artistic age will come, when these intruders shall no longer force 
themselves upon us, as they now do, with eager and abrupt impertinence. "We 
shall no longer admit a plant without knowing something of its relationships, 
aud even, as far as possible, of all the great local hai-monies by which it is 
encircled.— Jif^ps MicheUt. 



NOTES AND QUESTIONS ON THE FLOWER GARDEN. 



Podophyllunl Emodi.— 1 shall be glad of any hints as to the culture of this 

pecuhai- plant. Also as to when it flowers and fruits. — G-. P. [This plant 

succeeds perfectly in peaty soil, if planted in warm sheltered spots. In such 
positions it is a capital subject for the margins of beds of American plants. It 
may be increased by seed or division. 

Dwarf Rock Harebells.— I am plantmg an old chalk pit -with these pretty 
plants, and shall be glad if you or any of youi' readers will give me the names of 

all the distinct dwarf kinds that are worthy of a place. — Wm. E&linton. 

[Campanula CPespitosa and its vars., carpaticaand vars., Elatines, fi'agilis and 
its vars., hirsuta, garganica, isophylla,niui"ahs,pulla, rotundifolia audits vars,, 
aud turbinata are all excellent kinds, well adapted for the purpose you require. J 

The Corn-Flower (Ceutaurea cyanus),— Few persons seem to have any 
n'ust iaea of the value of this as an early summer plant when sown in antumn. 
The variety in the coloui's of the pretty flowers is quite charming. The blooms 
are among the best for cutting. Self-sown plants, or those sown in the autiunn, 
make a lovely display on strong soils. No garden in which flowers are valued 
in the early summer, should be without a mass or a few tufts of it. — W. R. 

Eriogonum umhellatum. — I noticed a fine plant of Eriogonum umbellatum 
the other day flowering more profusely than I had hitherto seen it. The plant 
I allude to was about fifteen inches across, throwing up numerous flower stems 
sis to eight inches high, on which were produced its golden yellow blooms in 
iimbels four inches or more across, forniing a neat and conspicuous tuft. This 
plant I have usually observed flowering very spai-sely ; but when seen in the 
fine condition above named, it is worthy of a place on any i-ockwork or border. 
— S. W. K. 

Solanum jasminoides, — As a wall-climber this is a plant that is not at all 
sutficiently appreciated ; when seen as I have recently seen a specimen on a 
wall at Kew it >j a grand object. There it thrives perfectly, and has lived out 
and flowered for many years, and has this year produced its prettj' white 
flowers so profusely as to form a very conspicuous object, whether seen at hand 
or at a distance. It is a native of Ciiili, and is worthy the attention of anyone 
who is in need of wall plants ; it would also be useful for training up pillars, 
verandahs, trellises, &c. It Ukes good sandy loam. — U. 

Lasthenia glahrata. — This hardy annual composite has been flowering 
freely in the Botanic Gardens, Kew for these past two mouths, and is now a 
perfect mass of rich orange yellow blossoms. It gi'ows about fiiteen inches in 
height. The plants at Kew are evidently from seeds self-sown last autumn ; 
and where an early summer display is wanted this would form a capital 
subject if sown in autumn. Patches of it in mixed borders would come tu 
along with early Phloxes, Alyssum, Il:)eris, Wallflowers, &c. ; it certainly far 
surpasses any of the Doronicums, which often find a place in such borders. — T. 

Agapanthus umhellatus.— I lately saw at Raveusbom-ne Park plants of this 
lovely old-fashioned Lily, that had stood out in the open ground all the winter, 
and which are now pushing up strongly. The soil is stiff clay ; aspect east. I 
have somewhere read that this plant ought to be allowed to have plenty of light 
during the winter, but here I saw a fine lot that had been wintered in an ash- 
pit, and I was informed that thus treated they flower profusely every season. 
This Lily may be wintered successfully under the stage of a greenhouse, or 
even in a cold pit, and never fails to bloom freely during the summer-time. — 
J, C. 

Rare Alpines at Benthall Hall.— Cortusa Matthioli, a rare and valued 
alpine, sometimes considered difficult to grow, and uncommon, grows perfectly 
here in a border of sandy peat. The fiinge of a bed of American plants suits it 
admirably. The Lion's-foot cudweed (GnaphaUum Leontopodium) also grows 
well out of doors here in ordinary moist soil. The fine yellow Anemone palmata , 
a superb spring flower, shows itself to be an excellent border plant, its hand- 
some leathery leaves forming large tufts which have flowered freely. The 
SikMm primrose (Primula sikkimensis) also grows well in beds of peat in this 
part of Salop.— W. R. 

Hardy Palms. — Tour illustration (p. 479) of Chamserops escelsa leads me to 
inquire whether there are more hardy Palms than one ? I have always under- 
stood the plant just alluded to, to be Chamserops Fortunei, which in some cata- 
logues is bracketed excelsa. In others, and in your descriptive list of Palms, 
they are distinct. I have also been shown the two in nurseries, and their 
appearances were very diffei'ent. As I propose planting some out it is of 
importance to myself, or anyone similarly inclined, to get the right one, I 
should therefore lie obliged if you would decide this matter for me.— Heney F. 

[ilr. Croucher and others think that Chamterops Fortunei and excelsa are 

distinct ; il. Camere that they are one ; and we have never seen any evidence 
that they are distinct.l 



THE LIBRARY. 



GAEDEN FERNS* 
The book whicli we are about to notice is not a very recent work, 
six years having elapsed since its publication. It is, however, part 
of the programme which we have laid down for onr gnidance, to 
bring before our readers such works as are likely to be of the greatest 
amount of practical use to them ; and, in the present instance, we 
know of no more recent volume which is superior to Mr. Smith's 
" Terns, British and Foreign," as a handbook for cultivators, whethe. 
as regards the pi-actical or the scientific knowledge which it containsr 
That it is not so well-known as it ought to be is evidenced by the 
requests to recommend a book on ferns which we so frequently 
receive ; and we believe that we shall be doing a service to many in 
directing their attention to this little volume. 

Few authors can lay greater claim to be considered as an authority 
upon any subject than can be brought forward by Mr. Smith to 
support the position which he has taken as a writer on ferns. From 
the year 1823 up to 1864, a lifetime of many men, he has watched 
and superintended the formation of the now wonderful fern collection 
at Kew. At the former date he tells us that the entire Kew col- 
lection of exotic fei-ns did not exceed forty species, while, in 1857, 
in his catalogue of cultivated fems, five hundred and sixty are 
enumerated as known in British gardens, most of which were at Kew. 
" Since the last mentioned year, the constantly increasing demand for 
ferns, consequent upon their wider cultivation, has greatly stimu. 
lated the introdnction of new ones, and our collections have increased 
at the rate of about fifty species a year." The Kew collection dates 
from 1773, when Francis Masson, " one of the earliest, if not the 
earUest, collector sent out from Kew, sent home several ferns from 
the Cape of Good Hope and Madeira." The first introduction of 
Australian ferns was about 1808, when George Caley (erroneously 




Portion of haiTen and Fertile Fronds (Natural size). 

named Alexander in the work before us) was sent by Sir Joshua 
Banks to New South Wales ; " to him we owe Platycerium alcicome, 
Doodia aspera, and Davallia pyxidata." The first colonial garden 
from which ferns were received at Kew was that of Ceylon, from 
which Mr. Alexander Moon, the then director, sent home a collection 
of plants, among which was Niphobolus costatus. Singularly few 
Cape fems are in our collections, although the fern flora of Southern 
Africa is extremely rich. Jamaica has supplied more fems to Kew than 
any other part of the western hemisphere, a fact mainly due to the 
energy and perseverance of Mr. Nathaniel Wilson, the island botanist 
and director of the botanic garden. The West Indian Islands have, 
indeed, contributed a very large proportion of the tropical fems now 
in cultivation, as comparatively few have been received from the 
continent of America. 

Turning to those who have been most prominent in introducing 
fems, Messrs. Loddiges, of Hackney, were the earliest to form a collec- 
tion, although the old-established firm of Lee & Kennedy, of 
Hammersmirh, is recorded in the second edition of the " Hortus 
Kevvensis," as having introduced Polypodium asplenifolium and 
Asplenium monanthemum in 1790. But to Messrs. Veitch & Sons, 
of Exeter and Chelsea, must be assigned the credit of having intro- 
duced the greatest number of these plants ; the collectors employed 
by them in Chili and other parts of the American continent, in India, 
the Malayan continent and islands, and in Japan, having sent home 
numerous fine species ; while through other sources they have 
obtained many additions from Australia, New Zealand, and other 
counti'ies. 

It would occupy too much of our space did we attempt to enter 
more fully into the chapter on the introduction of exotic ferns from 
which the preceding facts are, for the most pai-t, taken. The chapters 

* " Fems, British and Foreign : their History, Organogi'aphy, Classification, 
and Enumeration." By John Smith, A.L.S., Ex-Curator of tho Koyal Botanic 
Gardens, Kew. London : Robert Hardwicke. 



10 



THE GARDEN. 



[July 6, 1872. 



on organography, and the genera, and classification of ferns, will 
well repay careful perusal. A word, however, must be said as to the 
ligures, by one or more of which each genus is illustrated, and of 
which we are enabled to give examples ; they are in most 
cases, although small, and of portions only of fronds, sufficiently 
characteristic, and form an important adjunct to the book. The 
genera only are described, the species being arranged in groups 
marked by one or more distinctive features, with details ot geo- 
graphical distribution, and copious references to figures and de- 
scriptions. The chapter on cultivation is simply invaluable to every 
cultivator whether on a small or large scale. 

The book, in short, is the work of a man thoroughly conversant 
with, and enamoured of his subject ; and, as a natural consequence of 
these conditions, it is one which will be of practical use to all who 
may purchase it. 



PUBLIC GARDENS. 



THE BOTANIO GARDENS, EDINBURGH. 

NOTES BY A VISITOR. 
EdinbUrou is, or will soon be, at the height of its tourist 
season. Already the " one side of the one street " in the 
town is thronged by strangely-clad and roarvellonsly-hatted 
pleasure-seekers of every civilized nation ; and if among the 
crowds of nomads who annually sojourn in the caravanserais 
of Princess Street there are any who are — scientifically or 
unscientifically — fond of trees and flowers, let them not leave 
the town without visiting the Botanic Gardens in Inverleith 
Row, for they are worthy of the noble city of which they are 
a feature. No sooner is the modest gateway entered than the 
visitor may believe himself to be a hundred miles from the 
busy city, for he may wander for hours in sunny glades, and 
find at each turn new objects of beauty and interest, new 
vistas of bright coloitr and fresh verdure. 

On the upper or northern terrace are situated the palm 
house and the principal plant houses, which at present are 
being largely added to, and which contain a splendid col- 
lection. These were closed at the time of my visit the 
other day ; but this I hardly regretted, as it left more 
time for the outdoor part of the gardens. At the back 
of the range of houses is a long walk, with a wide 
border ttpon each side filled with beds of herbaceous 
plants. Just now the most conspicuous masses of colour 
there are f mined by Delphiniums, Gladiolus byzantinns, 
Pyrethrums in great variety and of singular beauty, Agro- 
stemma coronaria, whose bright rosy flowers show so well 
against the glaucous, or hoary foliage, Lilinm monadelphum, 
and Heniorocallis. The brick wall which forms the northern 
boundary of the garden is at the back of one of these beds, and 
supports an interesting collection of climbing plants and trained 
shrubs. Along the front of the plant houses is a mixed border 
with some nice plants in it, notably one labelled Cosmea diver- 
sifolia, with striking flowers. The bank on the south side of 
the terrace contains beds of American and other flowering 
plants ; below which again is an extensive and well-arranged 
collection of British plants. The remainder of the northern 
half, down to where used to be the wall dividing the Botanic 
from the Experimental garden (which wall is now removed 
with hapijy results), is occupied with beds of roses, and 
beds containing plants arranged in Natural Orders. The 
most showy of these at present are the Liliacese, the 
IridaoeaB, from the stately Iris pallida to the delicate sibirica 
and the curious atroriibens, and the Saxif ragaceas. The whole 
space here is agreeably ornamented with pines and deciduous 
trees singly and in groups. We now pass the rather shabby 
little piece of ornamental water, into the old Experimental 
garden, where there is a large collection of American shrubs 
and bedding-out plants. Another large plant house, at the 
back of which, on the south side, is one of the newest and best 
features of these grounds, namely, the rock-garden. Com- 
parisons are to be avoided as a rule, yet one involuntarily calls 
to mind the unfortunate constructions which go by the same 
names in some other botanic gardens. This one is very 
extensive, and contains an interesting collection of alpine and 
other hardy plants. It is, perhaps, nay, certainly is, more formal 
in design than would be desirable in a private garden, as each 



species occupies a rectangular compartment and has a label of 
its own, which necessarily destroys any illusion ; but that is 
probably found necessary in a scientific institution ; and for 
the most part the plants are growing so luxuriantly as to 
hide the margins of their cages and the labels. The general 
outline and design of the rockery leave little to be desired. 

The most attractive objects on it at present are certainly the 
magnificent Saxifrages in full bloom. There are numerous 
fine specimens of S. nepalensis, S. Cotyledon, S. intacta, and 
S. pyramidalis ; and every flower-lover who is without them, 
would doubtless on seeing them, determine to be without them 
no longer. The too-seldom-seen Delphmium Belladonna (pale 
blue larkspur) is also a great ornament to the higher points of 
rock. Among many gems in full bloom may be noted as rare and 
desirable Calochortus luteus, with beautiful waxy yellow 
flowers; Dianthus alpinus, of which there were several seedling 
plants ; Bpilobium Dodonaai, a most brilliant dwarf, large- 
flowering Willow herb, about six or eight inches high ; Myoso- 
tis Imperatrice Elizabeth, a hybrid, apparently of M. azorica, of 
erect habit, and coloured like Gentiana vei-na ; Cheiranthus 
longiflorus, a dwarf wallflower, covered with shaded purple and 
reddish flowers ; the lovely Aquilegia c<Brulea, which should 
he more sought after ; Chrysobactron Hookeri, with clear, 
rich yellow spikes ; and some very pretty Babianas. Many 
Sedums and Sempervivums are in, or coming into, flower (note 
the strangely disproportionate blossoms of the quaint cobweb 
houseleek, S. arachnoideum), and the lovely Indian poppy, 
Meconopsis aculeata, has just passed over. 

These notes are sent not as an account of these gardens — 
may we hope for that some day from a pen that can do them 
justice, graphically and scientifically — but as a sort of rough- 
and-ready guide to some of the many visitors who are now in 
Edinburgh, and who might otherwise feel adrift on entering 
the grounds, as there appears to be no catalogue or guide 
obtainable at the lodge. Saljioniceps. 



THE BOTANIC GARDEN, GLASNEVIN. 

TuE Glasnevin Botanic Garden is situated on the north side 
of Dublin ; but in the immediate suburbs, being only two miles 
from the centre of the city, on the road leading to the Naul, 
Drogheda, and the northern counties. We learn from the 
director's " Handbook to the Garden," that it was originally 
founded, about the year 1790, for promoting scientific know- 
ledge in the various branches of agriculture and planting, as 
well as for fostering a taste for practical and scientific botany. 
The first grant for formmg the garden was made by the Irish 
Parliament in that year, and ever since annual sums have 
been voted for its maintenance by the Irish and Imperial 
Parliaments. Although so near Dublin, the immediate sur- 
roundings of the garden are quite rural, the extension 
of the city during the last half century having been to 
the south and ojjposite direction from that of Glasnevin. 
The ground occupied comprises thirty-one acres, and is 
naturally beautifully undulated ; the central portion being 
sixty-five feet above sea level, though only one and a half mile 
distant from it. This elevation commands an extensive view 
of the Dublin and Wicklow mountains on the south, and of 
the agrarian county on the north, east, and west. It is 
further beautified by the river Tolka forming the boundary 
on the north, which enables a stream of water to be conveyed 
through the aquarium, which, consequently, only gets stag- 
nant dui'ing dry seasons, when the river is very low. It was 
formerly the domain of the poet Tickel, Addison's friend,, 
by whom many of the trees still standing were planted 
The locality has consequently a sort of classical interest 
attached to it. The collections of plants in the several 
departments of stove, greenhouse, herbaceous, alpine, &c., 
are all extensive ; the more recently introduced kinds being 
well kept up according as they appear in commerce. 

The conservatories ai'e also on an extensive scale, two of the 
ranges being upwards of three hundred lineal feet each, 
varying in height from fifteen to sixty feet at their centres and 
wings, besides other ranges of detached pits and small houses. 
As in other metropolitan botanic gardens, plants which are 
useful in medicine and the arts receive special attention here, but 



Jtot 6, 1872.] 



THE GARDEN. 



11 












f ^ ^#- 




12 



THE GARDEN. 



[July 6, 1872. 



the moi'e showy kinds are not held altogether subordinate to 
the former, convenience being afforded for both to be well 
attended to. The principal conservatories are therefore kept 
well furnished with flowering plants at all periods of the, 
season. Palms, ferns, pitcher plants, and cacti are specialities 
of which there are good collections, and also a fair collection 
of orchids. The herbaceous department is one of the most 
extensive and best arranged to be met with in any botanic 
garden in Europe at the present time. 

This establishment is open to the public daily, from twelve 
to four o'clock iu winter, and from one to five in summer. 
Being at a considerable distance from the most fashionable 
side of Dublin, those who have time to visit botanic gar- 
dens on week days are small in number compared with the 
Sunday visitors, who resort in large numbers to the garden. 
The director. Dr. Moore, in his report for 1871, states, that 
54,068 persons visited on week-days, and on Sundays, 169,760. 
He further states that no material damage was done by them. 
When we last had the pleasure of seeing these gardens we were 
much pleased to observe that the comfort of the assistants had 
not been neglected among the many recent improvements 
which have taken place. A good two-storied house has been 
built for them with reading-room and other conveniences. 



Paris Grardens, — Iu the great nursery gardeus of Paris we learn 
there is now an abundant and well-cultivated supply of plants for 
embellishing the promenades and public squares. The squares are 
again well ke2Dt, and Paris will soon be as beautiful, from a gardening 
point of view, as it was during the brightest days of the Empire. 
The same cannot be said of the tree plantations, which, although 
nearly completed, leave much to be desired. 



GARDEN DESTROYERS. 



THE WHITETHORN SAWELT. 

In what is called the merry month of May, the whitethorn sawfly 
nay frequoutly be seen buzzing about the hedges like a great hairy 
bee that has lost its way ; its flight is so eccentric as to seem alto- 
gether purjioseless, and it is far more likely to strike you iu the 
face, and then fall plump down in the road or pathway as though 
desirous of being trodden under foot, than to make any attempt to 
escape so dangerous an eremy as either man or boy. It is totally igno- 
I'ant of fear, and has no idea whatever of self-preservation. Yet this 
strange and seemingly uncouth creature possesses the instinct needful 
for the continuation of its kind. Its apparently blundering and 
meaningless flight is often arrested by its legs catching in the twigs 
of the hawthorn; when this happens its claws serve as grappliug- 
irous, and suddenly bring it to a standstill amongst the newly ex. 
pauded or just expanding leaves. A " happy thought" now seems to 
strike the creature, for no sooner is its blundering career interrupted 
by a hawthorn twig, then in a state of tender youth and sircculence, 
than it commences the apparently agreeable task of sawing a httle 
slit in the rind, and depositing therein a single semi-transparent egg ; 
and, this feat being performed, it proceeds to find another twig, 
apparently in the same blundering manner, and then another, until 
it disposes of all its eggs, laying one, and generally only one, on each 
twig. I am not aware that any precise observations have been made 
as to the number of days passed in the egg state ; my first acquaint- 
ance with the caterpillar is when about half-grown ; it is then of a 
pale sickly green colour, but covered with small white flakes, which 
come off on the hand when touched ; this clothing is very singular, 
and its object, whether for adornment, warmth, or protection, has 
not been ascertained ; the head is white, excepting only the crown 
and a spot on each cheek, which are black ; in the cheek-spot is 
situated the eye ; the body is wrinkled transversely as though divided 
into a great number of little rings ; down the veiy middle of the 
back is a darker stripe ; the legs and claspers are pale gr jen. 

Unlike the majority of sawfly caterpillars, those of the whitethorn 
seem to feed only by night. On a hawthorn hedge in my neigh- 
bourhood, I saw such a multitude of these caterpillars one evening, 
that it looked as though loaded with white fruit ; some were 
suspended by their tails, and sprawling their legs about in the air ; 
others were feeding vigorously ; others again were rolled in a 
compact ring round a twig of the hawthorn ; one and all seemed 
fully engaged. The following day I went to the same spot in the 
forenoon, expecting to witness a morning performance ; in this I 



was doomed to disappointment — not a caterpillar was to be seen, 
nor could I find one by searching the twigs and leaves with the 
utmost care. At last I made out to my entire satisfaction that they 
descended towards the roots every morning, but reascended the 
stems after sunset and made a night of it. At night X collected a 
number, with a view to watching their movements and making a 
more precise description. 

On each side of the body is a row of apertures, through which the 
creature discharges a watery fluid on being annoyed. On these 
occasions it evinces a strong disposition to throw itself on the ground, 
always first arranging its body in the ring form ; but the attempt to 
drop is often frustrated by a leaf or twig being included in the ring, 
and the twig thus decorated with its living burthen is a very curious 
object. Just below each of the above-mentioned apertures is an 
oblong spiracle. The head, when the caterpillar is full-grown, is 
yellow, with a raw-sienna-coloured blotch on the crown. 

In July or August the caterpillar ceases his peregrinations np and 
down the stem, and, having found a place exactly to his mind, con- 
structs of glue a very hard oblong cocoon; this is most firmly 
attached to a tmg, and is of a very dark brown colour — in fact, it so 
closely resembles a lump of gutta-percha in colour, substance, and 
texture that imitation cocoons might be made of that substance which 
would deceive the most experienced entomologist. Having carefully 
ensconced himself in his new dwelhng, the caterpillar rests from his 
labours, and takes hfe very easily for the next eight months. AU the 
change that I can observe is a gradual shrinking — a growing smaller 
by degrees, and beautifully less. In October it is evidently smaller 
than in August ; smaller still, and more shrivelled, in December ; 
and again smaller still in March. Its colour also undergoes some 
little change ; it becomes yellower, and has a very indistinct 




Tile Hawthoru Sawliy. A A, caterpillars of the uatm'al size ; B, a cocoon 
C, the same after the perfect insect has escaped by cutting off the top, D. 

transparent appearance. The head is yellow, except the crown, 
which is brown ; the legs are huddled up close to the mouth, and the 
claspers look as though drawn into the body ; little is to be seen of 
them, but there are small cavities iu the places they formerly 
occupied. These changes indicate the greater change — that to a 
chrysalis — which invariably takes place iu March or April, after the 
creature has spent about forty weeks in the caterpillar state, during 
thirty-four or thirty -five of which it has been a total abstainer, eating 
and drinking nothing, and gradually diminishing in bulk. 

The chrysalis is of a dingy green colour, bat shining, and having 
brown cases to the wings and body. Every limb, every part of the 
body, is plainly distinguishable, although it is enveloped in a separate 
skin or covering ; the antennte, eyes, mouth, legs, wings, even the 
saw of the female, are almost as distinct as in the perfect insect ; 
but all is still as death — there does not appear to be the slightest 
power of motion. The chrysalis state does not last long — rarely 
more than twenty or twenty -five days, sometimes not so much as 
either ; and then the colour gradually deepens, until it assumes 
almost the black-brown tint of the perfect insect which is now about 
to appear. The final change is a rapid one, and the mode in which 
the prisoner obtains his release is very singular. The fly is furnished 
with enormous sickle-shaped, sharp-pointed jaws; and, instead of 
applying any solvent to the interior walls of the cocoon, as some of 
the moths certainly do, it uses these formidable weapons to cut off 
the upper portion of the cocoon, just a little shallow cup-shaped lid, 
which hangs for a few moments, and then falls and is lost. The 
cutting of this circular lid is a work of the gi'eatest nicety, and the 
precision with wliich it is executed is truly wonderful. The point of 
one mandible is first seen punctuinng the cocoon and protruding 
beyond it ; it is then withdrawn by a semicircular movement, its 



July 6, 1872.] 



THE GARDEN. 



13 



sharp edge meeting that of the opposing mandible, which is seldom 
visible on the outside ; the two mandibles continue to open and close 
with a scissors-like certainty, the outer one being frequently visible, 
the inner one rarely so, until the circle is completed, and the incision 
returns, as it were, into itself. The released sawfly then slowly 
emerges, the antenniae being first projected, and the legs immediately 
afterwards. The creature comes out with great deliberation, and, 
crawling up the hawthorn twig, allows its wings to hang down and 
harden ; it should, however, be observed that the wings of this insect 
are never observed, even on their first emergence, in that soft and 
crumpled state so noticeable in lepidoptera. The stigmoidal spot on 
the costal margin of the forewings is, in reality, an articulation or 
hinge, and at this point the wings are folded so long as the insect 
remains in the cocoon. 

These cocoons, both before and after the emergence of the perfect 
insect, are very conspicuous objects in our iiawthorn hedges, and 
schoolboys are familiar with their use as whistles; the lid is sepa- 
rated from the cup exactly in the place which leaves the whistle of 
the most perfect form. The scientific name of the whitethorn sawfly 
is Tenthredo cratasgi. — Edward Neicinan, in "Field." 



THE YELLOW ROSE-LEAP SAW-FLY. 

(athalia kos.i;.) 

The insect represented in the accompanying woodcut is a saw-fly, 
which in the larval state feeds on the leaves of the rose tree, and at 
times, besides disfigm-ing it, injures it by abstracting the nourish- 
ment which it would otherwise have derived from the healthy action 
of the leaves. The perfect insect is a yellow saw-fly, with the whole 
back of the body (the thorax) and of the head of a deep black colour. 
The larva has twenty-two feet, is dark green npon the back, lighter 
on the sides and breast, and has a reddish yellow head. 

It appears in May, and is most numerous in Juno and July ; and a 
second brood appears at the end of September and October. The 
rosariau will recognise the presence of this insect by finding his 
rose leaves assuming the aspect of thin ghosts or skeletons of leaves, 




The Yellow Rose-leaf Saw-fly. 

with the upper surface eaten away, and nothing but the under skin 
left, transparent as gauze ; whenever he finds this he "may be pretty 
sure that the Athalia rosos has been at work. 

The female lays her eggs on the mid-rib of the rose leaf, and the 
larvEe browse on its upper skin and the chlorophyll, without pene- 
trating the skin of the underside. When it is matui-ed, it allows 
itself to drop from the leaf, makes its way a little into the ground, 
and there spins a cocoon, out of which the saw-fl}' escapes in August. 
The winter generation remains in the shape of shrivelled up larvae 
until May in the following year before it is developed. The larvee 
are said also to feed on the leaves of Sedum album. Hand-pickino- 
is the means adopted for getting rid of this insect. A. M. 



WATERCRESS GROWING m PRANCE. 
The systematic cultivation of watercress was unknown in France 
until 1811, when M. Garden, an officer of the Grande Armee, estab- 
lished at St. Leonard, near Senlis, cresseries similar to those he had 
seen at Erfurt, forming a bright green oasis amidst the snows of the 
winter of 1808-9. In 1835 a report of il. Hericart do Flury called 
attention to the success which had crowned M. Cardon's efforts, and 
the Central Society of Horticulture gave encouragement to the 
further cultivation of this plant by awarding him for his fine cressery 
of forty beds (covering fifteen acres) their grand medal. Prom that 
time watercress-growing made rapid strides, and cresseries were 
shortly to be seen in all the valleys in the neighbourhood of Paris. 
In some instances, it is true, the results obtained were unsatisfactory, 
and much time and trouble were wasted in the attempt to produce 
cress in situations in which, owing to the insuificient water supply, 
it could not possibly thrive. In spite, however, of ill-success in 
certain cases, the cultivation of watercress had, in 1855, assumed 
such proportions that the number of beds then supplying Paris with 
their produce had increased to 710 ; and at the present time there 
exist, we are told, no fewer than 950, nearly half of which have been 
laid down, and are worked by M. Billet, at Duvy (Oise), and at 
Gonesse (Seine et Oise). 

The cressery of Duvy, formerly a swampy meadow is situated in 
the lowest portion of the valley crossed by the road from Paris to 
Crepy, and advantage has been taken of the river St. Marie and a 
canal, as well as of several fine springs in the neighbourhood, to 
secure for the nnmerous beds into Avhich the " culture " is divided a 
constant flow of fresh water. The springs alone are said to furnish 
no less than 12,000 to 13,000 gallons a minute. M. Billet, however, 
does not rely entirely upon water as a fertilizing agent, but turns iiO 
account as manure the droppings of a lord of thirty cows. He 
finds that in spite of a certain portion of this application being 
washed away by the current, a sufficient quantity remains to have a 
marked influence on the crop. The cress, instead of being thin and 
stalky, developes a luxuriant growth of close-set leaves, and its 
flavour becomes at the same time less bitter and more piquant. To 
distribute the naanure the workman makes nse of a large wooden 
rake without teeth (so-called schiuHe), forcing it in between the 
leaves of the green herbage, and bj' the same movement pressing 
down the stems which the labourer engaged in the preceding opera- 
tion, that of cutting, had left erect. To facilitate the cutting, a 
plank is placed across each bed, and the workman, kneeling on the 
same, draws a bunch of cress towards him with one hand, and cuts it 
with the other. Great care is taken not to "crop" the luxuriant 
head to be operated upon, but simply to " thin" it; and so well is 
this point attended t^, that an unpractised eye fails to distinguish 
cut from uncut beds. 

As fast as the cress is cut and tied — and a skilful labourer will do 
this work at the rate of 100 bunches an hour — it is thrown into water 
on the shady side of the bed, and then removed to a reservoir under 
the kiosk. It is afterwards packed and forwarded to Paris in baskets 
which hold 100 bunches, and are made in the shape of a cylinder, so 
as to allow of a free passage of air doA^-n the centre. The operations 
of cutting and manuring succeed that of rolling, and the roller in 
use is one which, on account of its peculiar construction, M. Billet 
considers specially adapted for the purpose. When it is desired to 
lay down fresh beds or renew old ones, the necessary supply of plants 
is procured by thinning those spots in the cressery where an over- 
luxuriant growth is observable ; and as to weeds, which no amoimt 
of vigilance can prevent from occasionally making their appearance, 
all that is needful to succeed in eradicating them is the exercise of 
a little patience and attention. 

The second cressery of which he is the proprietor — that of Gonesse 
(Oise et Seine) — presents, as regards character of the soil on wliich 
it is established, a remarkable contrast to the one we have just de. 
scribed ; for whereas that at Duvy is situated in what was formerly 
a swampy peat bog, the beds at Gonesse are laid on a firm sandy clay 
of considerable agricultural value. Although, however, the soil in 
one of these two localities is greatly inferior to that of the other, the 
produce per acre is about the same, and it is therefore evident that 
the successful cultivation of watercress depends far more npon the 
quality, quantity, and method of distribution of the irrigating water 
^-in the above cases almost identical — than upon the character of 
the land. Ko herd is kept at Gonesse, but manure is purchased from 
cowkeepers in the suburbs of Paris, and appHed in the same manner 
as at Duvy. As to the result of the two undertakings, we are in- 
formed that each of them supplies Paris vritb. about 200,000 dozen 
bunches of watercress per annum — which is equal to an average of 
1,000 dozen per bed — and that M. Billet, who is constantly adding to 
the extent of his watery domain, can command a higher price for 
his produce by some centimes than is obtainable by any of his com- 
petitors in the market. 



u 



THE GARDEN. 



[July 6, 1872. 



MARKET GARDENING. 

BY H. EVERSHBD. 

(^Continued from Vol. I,, p. 632.) 

The courtesy of Messrs. T. & J. Mathews, of East Ham, Essex, 
and Wandsworth, Surrey, enables me to describe the management of 
an extensive garden-farm, lying within seven miles of the General 
Post Office, and occupying a site remarkable for historical memorials, 
and still more so for certain modem works. The Danes crossed it 
when they rowed up the Boding to Ilford ; the Romans had a burial- 
place on it ; and a few years ago the main sewer of North London 
was carried through it. These and other intrusions have cut up the 
farm to some extent, and perhaps it may some day be overwhelmed 
by works of trade and commerce. Acreage : 620 acres in the 
parishes of East Ham, Barking, and Little Ilford. There are about 
420 acres of gravel loam and 200 acres of alluvial land drained by 
" sewers," that is, open ditches which are under management and 
capable of being drained into the Thames at low tide. Situated in 
the valley of the Thames, within one mile of the river and imme- 
diately opposite Woolwich, this farm, like the rest of the garden 
district, lies on a flat. The nearest rising ground is at Epping, to 
the north, and Shooter's Hill across the river. Technically, however, 
the farm is divided into the light land called " upland," which is 
from 10 to 20 feet above the water level, and rests on a bed of gravel, 
and the marsh land in Plaistow, and East Ham Levels, which is 
below the water-level at high tide. Eighteen inches of dry mud 
forms here a desirable locus statio for many kinds of vegetables, 
though not for com. Magnificent crops of common and red cabbage, 
parsnips, and long red mangold, are growing on a sm-face that is 
only just out of the water at any period of the year. Water oozes 
into the f urrowS; where deep ones are drawn here and there ; it fills 
the intersecting ditches and the main sewers. Water, almost stagnant, 
and covered at this warm season with a thick green scum of vege- 
tation, bounds and protects the fields ; and during the whole period 
of the growth of the crops it fills the subsoil at less than 24 inches 
from the surface. But the upper layer of this mud-bed is almost 
always dry, crumbling after a few hours of sun or wind into a soft, 
black earth, which may be lifted in handf uls that leave no stain of dirt. 

The marsh land was converted from pasture by ploughing 15 years 
ago, and, after a succession of such crops as I have named, with 
onions and potatoes, it is still so strong as to require but little 
manm-e, which in the case of parsnips might induce canker at the 
crown, and in the case of onions might possibly bring on an affection 
called " booting," a term expressing the situation of young onions 
when they slink away, or, so to speak, " sink down into their boots." 
Onions are liable to be overcome in this way when sown too frequently 
in the same field, or on a cold, stiif, unsuitable soil, or in an ungenial 
situation. The more artificial the treatment the nearer the disease, 
and the cultivation of onions is certainly artificial when they receive 
50 tons of manure per acre ; young onions, however, in the condition 
described, seem to suiler from want of vitality rather than from any 
specific disease. The size of the fields on the farm, generally large, 
varies from 60 acres to 4 acres. The elm is the native tree. The 
situation of the farm is anything but rural ; and its surroundings, 
especially on the river side, are incongruous with agTicultural opera- 
tions, if not forbidding in their aspect. There are iu the immediate 
neighbourhood enormous gasworks, jute factories, docks, an arsenal, 
a forest of ships' masts, and acres covered with tall chimneys, and, 
besides the noise of great industries and a large population all around, 
there is the roar of constant artillery practice at Plumstead Marsh. 
The average of rent, tithe rent-charge, rates, and taxes is, together, 
£5. 15s. an acre, rates being about 18s. to 21s. an acre in the several 
parishes, and tithes 14s. an acre. The number of farm horses 
averages about 50, varying from 47 to 52. The yearly expenditure 
in manual labour is nearly £5,000, or about £9 an acre. 

The quantity of manure purchased yearly is about 10,000 tons, 
besides bones to the value of £300. The live stock at the present 
consists of 25 bullocks, and 220 sheep to eat the aftermath. A large 
portion of the manure is brought from London by the waggons 
returning after carrying goods to market. The farm is divided into 
540 acres of arable, and 80 acres of grass land. About 160 acres 
produce two marketable crops yearly, or, if it can be so exjiressed, 
VOO acres of crops are grown in each year on the 540 acres. The 
principal crops, and the customary breadths of each, are the follow- 
ing : — potatoes, 200 ; onions, carrots, and parsnips, 130 ; cabbages, 
90 ; corn, principally wheat, and turnip, cabbage, and other seeds, 
50 ; rhubarb, 20 ; mangold, 20 ; a variety of small crops and seed- 
beds, 30. The second crops are coUards, following potatoes, cabbages, 
or onions ; potatoes following spring cabbages ; mangold transplanted 
after cabbages up to about 10th July ; and savoys and cabbages after 
any other crop removed iu spring. 

The rules observed in cropping are to apply heavy dressings to th 



gross-feeding crops ; to place some others, such as onions, at wide 
intervals in the rotation ; to select the best land for crops Uke 
cabbages and savoys, which require strong land; to keep the breadth 
of potatoes within 200 acres ; to use com, which is not a paying crop, 
as a rest or change for the land, and mangold as a cleansing crop, 
i.e., one which induces a healthy growth in the next crop. No 
regular rotation is adhered to, but the following examples may be 
taken as an approximation of the system of cropping : — 1, potatoes 
and greens ; 2, parsnips or carrots ; 3, mangold ; 4, onions and 
cabbages. Or, 1, cabbage and savoys ; 2, parsnips or carrots ; 3, 
onions ; 4, potatoes. In order to give the reader a general idea of the 
distribution of the £9 . per acre per annum expended on labour, I 
shall notice the main items connected with each crop. 

(1.) Potatoes and Geeens. — The land is left unploughed till 
March ; it is, however, cultivated deeply in spring for this crop and 
for most others. As the next year's crop ought not to be manured, 
the potatoes get an unusually heavy dressing, such as 30 tons of 
short manure per acre, ploughed in with three horses and a 10-inch 
furrow in March. The sets are planted in every other furrow, at 18 
inches by 15 inches iu the row. They are hoed and moulded in the 
usual way, and marketed in June, July, and August. The potato- 
gang were lifting a large crop of early potatoes, exceeding 4 tons 
per acre, on July 7th, at 6s. 8d. per ton, weighed in the field, and the 
haulm raked neatly into wide rows. In a few days the price would 
be reduced, and the cost of lifting a heavy crop of 10 tons of lato 
pototoes would be about 4s. per ton. The ground is harrowed at the 
time of lifting the potatoes, and is immediately ploughed deeply, 
with three horses, for the collards, which are dnnged heavily if they 
are to be followed by carrots, and are not manured if parsnips are to 
be the next crop. The plants are set one foot apart, at a cost of 20s. 
per acre for labour, and 40s. an acre for the plants, supposing one 
acre of seed-bed to plant 14 acres of collards. Tliis crop is hoed 
several times. Bunching for market costs 43. 6d. per 20 dozen 
bunches. The coUards having been removed during the winter, the 
laud is cultivated deeply early in spring and ploughed 14 inches deep 
with four horses for 

(2.) Carrots or Parsnips. — As the cultivation of the latter is 
described elsewhere and that of the former does not require minute 
description, it will be sufllcient to add that the Early Horn or James's 
carrot for bunching is sowed broadcast immediately after the plough. 
The hoeing and cleaning of this crop costs Messrs. Mathews £1. an 
acre. Taking up and bunching, which was in full progress last 
season in the third week in June, costs 8s. per 20 dozen bunches, 
which is thus divided : the men taking up the roots, 2s. 6d. ; the 
women washing them, Is. 8d. ; men bunching, 3s. 4d. ; cost of rods, 6d. 

(3.) Onions. — The land having been heavily manured for the 
previous crop, is ploughed deeply with three horses, sown with 
5 cwts. per acre of bone-dust mixed with guano, and scarified : 
10 or 14 lbs. of seed per acre is sown broadcast at the end of 
February, or early iu March. The cost of hoeing and cleaning the 
crop is £5 per acre, and bunching a great crop costs 40s. 

The spring crop of cabbages, sent to market in April, May, and 
June, is sown in the last week in July or first week in August, and 
planted at the end of September or early in October. The summer 
crop of cabbages is sown iu succession, commencing in open weather 
in spring. The seed must not be sown too early, as the young 
plants become blind when frost-bitten. 

(To he continued.) 



"Weeds on Walks. — I have a weed-killer which perfectly 
answers that purpose, at least as far as walks are concerned. 
It has various names, but that by which it is best known is 
muriatic acid. It can be supplied from the makers at about five 
shillings or six shillings per cwt. It completely destroys all vegetable 
life (insect and animal as well) mixed at the rate of half a pint to 
the gallon of water. One application of this will keep walks free 
from weeds, moss, or worm casts for two years. As regards its 
application, it is only needful to wet the walk with it; in two 
seconds the weeds and all insects will be killed, and in a few hours 
after they can be swept off ; or if left, it does not matter much, for 
in a day or so they become shrivelled up, leaving the walks greatly 
improved in appearance, owing to the nice gloss it leaves on them. 
On broad walks, I put it on with a large watering-pot and ordinary 
sized rose. It is not necessary on hill walks to put it on so heavily 
that it will run ; for of course wherever it touches grass edgings or 
box it at once kills them. Even in the case of narrow walks, how- 
ever, if carefully used and run through a smaller rose no harm need 
be apprehended. As respects conditions, dry weather is better than 
wet for applying it, as it soaks in before it can be washed to the 
sides. Propei'ly applied, I can only repeat that it is the finest 
remedy for weeds on walks I have ever met with. — J. G. Temple. 



July 6, 1872.] 



THE GARDEN. 



15 



THE GARDENS OF ENGLAND. 



ALTON TOWEES. 

The cliief features of this beautiful place are the liouse, " The 
Enchanted Valley," and the drive of rare length and beauty 
that leads to them. The last introduces one to scenery more 
akin to that found in the highlands of Scotland than anywhere 
else. It pierces, winds, and insinuates ui bends of more than 
Grecian elegance through miles of hanging woods, approaching 
sometimes to the boldness and precipitancy of mountain 
scenery. The carriage-drive is mostly cut out of the side of a 
hill, and commands every feature of interest along the route. 
The wood is rich and varied, and abounds in oiit-cropping 
masses of rocks, natural ferneries of rare breadth and magni- 
ficence, that make our artificial imitations little and poor 
indeed. Almost every feature of woodland scenery is unfolded 
as one drives along the carriage-road. Of course, the pre- 
dominating character is that of a hanging wood of almost 
interminable extent. But now it widens out or closes in ; at 
times it is comparatively smooth, and again rooks and under- 
shrubs and ferns 

jostle each other ^_ __. _ _ ,__ 

for the mastery. -_,---. __- -^^'6^^ ;^ 

Anon, we sweep "^^jiyr-grS ^^S ..'.. 

round a cuiwe, f --^ - - 

and come in sight '""Si 

of a broad lake. '_ '_ 

Through such 
scenery, affording 
the most charm- 
ing bird's-eye 
views of the oppo- 
site valley, we 
drive ou and on, 
until at last "The 
T o wers" them- 
selves are seen 
and reached. It 
speaks much for 
the dignity of the 
mansion to be 
able to add that 
it bears the strain 
of the noble inter- 
Inde — the grand 
approach — well. 
It is a worth}^ 
terminus to such 
a drive. This is a 
point that is often 
badlj' managed — 
the correlation, 
if we may so put 
it, between the 



tecture and artistic gardening — of gilded temples, Swiss 
cottages, panelled walls decorated at the basement with floral 
mosaics, light and shadow — a rich commingling of nature and 
art, with the former everywhere predominating. 

To appreciate the scene as it is, it is needful to look back, 
and gi-asp the idea of what it was meant to be. The past 
history of this valley, as of most things, pours a flood of light 
on its present condition. Time was when art, high and dry, 
reigned supreme here. Everything was faultily faultless, 
splendidly regular, evenly trim. The rod, the line, the shears, 
the knife, bore rule for years after the valley was planted and 
furnished, and the effect, we are told, was at that time 
admirable. ^y^ j,^ continued) ^- 




length, width, and general importance of the carriage-drive 
and the house. 

Alton Towers, as is well known, is a magnificent example of 
Gothic architecture, and bears the impress of the master- 
mind of Pugin. More need not be said, but that the chapel, 
mansion, and all its surroundings constitute a grand whole 
of rare purity, massiveness, and grandeur. A fine con- 
servatory is attached to the house ; and there are flowers and 
gardens in the different courts and on the terraced platform. 
Most of the plant houses are also placed near the house, and 
contain an extensive collection of stove and greenhouse 
plants and orchids. But the style of gardening around the 
house, immediately we leave the courts, is hardly in keeping 
with its grandeur, and is capable of great improvement. 
The site of the strawberry grounds, for instance, and the 
entire space between these and the mansion, should be con- 
verted into a geometrical or Gothic flower garden to harmonise 
with " The Towers." Let us now hasten from the glories of 
Gothic architecture to the lighter and more fascinating charms 
of " The Enchanted Valley." 

This is a splendid medley of waving wood and rolling surface 
— of falling waters of dark cedars and green glades — of archi- 



THE RELATIVE HSrELUENCE OP PARENTAGE IN 
FLOWERING PLANTS. 

Read by Dr. Denny, at the BmiirsGnAM Congress. 

Fr03[ early youth I have taken mucli interest in artificial fertilization, 
but kept no registered accoant of my crosses, or their results, nntU the 

controversy arose re- 
specting the ti'i- 
_i;i,.!„ ,-^-_ colored Pelargoni- 

ums, as to whether 
their leaf markings 
could be re-produced 
by fertilization and 
seed, or whether 
they were sports 
only, and owing to a 
diseased condition 
of the plant. To 
ascertain for my own 
satisfaction the cor- 
rect theory upon 
these points, as well 
as •n'ith the object of 
obtaining, if possible, 
some information re - 
garding the relative 
powers the respec- 
tive parents exert 
over their progeny, 
I commenced a 
series of experiments 
upon the scarlet 
section of the Pelar- 
gonium, employing 
varieties of the most 
opposite and varied 
character, and cross- 
ing them in every 
conceivable way. I 
conducted these ex- 
periments too with 
the utmost possible 
care and minuteness 
of detail, both as re- 
Altou Towers. gards the methods I 

adopted for prevent- 
ing self or insect 
fertilization, for insuring the fertilization being effected by the desired 
pollen only, and as regards the keeping an exact register of every 
cross, as well as record of their results. By this means I soon arrived at 
a satisfactory conclusion as regards the points at issue respecting the 
transmission of variegation of the foliage by fertilization, from the fact 
of its being manifested, to a greater or less degree, in as large a propoi-tion 
as from fifty to sixty per cent, of the offspring, where the green zonal 
had been fertilized by the pollen of the variegated ; I also obtained some 
valuable information indicative of the powers the respective parents exert 
upon various other points in connection with the ti-ansmission and modi- 
fication of the foUage and habit of the plant, as well as of the colour and 
form of the flower. 

From the information thus derived, I am of opinion that, by careful and 
persistent fertiUzation, under the guidance of the observation of results, it 
is possible to produce almost any modification in the character and habit 
of our plants, and variety of colour and form in our flowers, we may 
desire ; for I am satisfied that by these means we possess a niueh greater 
power of moulding oui" flowers in accordance with preconceived design 
than is generally supposed ; and, moreover, I think it possible that 
ultimately some insight might be obtained into the working of the laws 
that govern procreation in the vegetable kingdom, and that produce 
variation in our fruits and flowers. The result of my experience, derived 
from these experiments, as regards the relative influence of the parents, 
certainly tends in the reverse direction to my previous ideas, which were 
derived from books, from which I gleaned that the form of the flower, 
and constitution and habit of the plant, were inherited fi'om its mother ; 




16 



THE GARDEN. 



[July 6, 1872. 



whilst tlie colour o£ tlie flower only was supposed to be conveyed by tlie 
father. The recorded results of ray crossings indicate an immense pre- 
ponderance of influence over the progeny on the part of the father in all 
respects — in colour and in form, iu the cxuality,. in size and substance of the 
flower, as well as in the production of variegation of the foliage, and in 
the habit and constitution of the plant also, prorided the plants employed 
are of equal strength. 

I wish to be distinct upon this point of relative strength of the parents, 
because it seems to me that upon the equality, or the preponderance, of 
strength on either side, very much hinges, as regards the results we 
obtain from our crossings ; for power of constitution exerts most unmis- 
takable influence, and where it preponderates on the part of the seed 
parent, it will modify the otherwise prepotent influence of the pollen 
parent; this modifying influence manifests itself most as regards the 
habit and foliage of the plant, and next as regards the form and substance 
of the flower ; and, lastly, as regards the production of a blend iu the 
colour of the flower. To instance what 1 mean (I am alluding to the 
Pelargoruum), if the pollen of a flower of brilliant and decided colour, 
but of bad form and substance, belonging to a plant of weakly constitu- 
tion, be applied to the stigma of a finely formed, thick-petalled flower, 
of a plant possessing a vigorous constitution, some few of the progeny 
will be influenced towards improvement in the form and substance of the 
flowei's and habit of the plant, with perhaps some blend in the colour ; 
showing that the preponderance of vigour in the seed parent had exerted 
a certain amount of influence ; but even under these circumstances much 
the greater proportion of the progeny would resemble the father in all 
respects, or show reversion, either towards former progenitors, or towards 
an original type. 

I will quote a case or two in point from my note-book. During the 
summer of 1809 I raised about one hundred and forty seedlings from 
crossings between Lord Derby and Leonidas ; in about half of these 
Lord Derby was the pollen and Leonidas the seed parent, and half 
resulted from crosses effected the reverse way. The flower of Lord 
Derby possessed fine qualities, both as regards form of petal and 
smoothness of texture, but was wanting iu depth and brilliancy of colour, 
and in substance also, and the plant was deficient in vigour of constitution 
as compared with Leonidas. The flower of Leonidas was much inferior as 
regards form and quality, but of greater substance and brilliancy of 
colour, as well as larger, than Lord Derby, and the plant possessed a 
vigorous constitution. 

These seedlings flowered during the spring and summer of 1870. Of 
that portion in which Lord Derby was used as pollen and Leonidas as 
seed parent (the seed parent, observe, being the most vigorous), about 
one-third resembled in all respects their father ; a few produced flowers 
very considerably in advance of Lord Derby, in size, in substance, and in 
colour of the flower, and with a superior constitution and habit of plant, 
showing the mother's influence in combination with that of the father. 
(I would instance Sir Charles Napier as an example and which resulted 
from this cross.) Of the remaining two-thirds, a few very nearly re- 
sembled in flower Leonidas, excexrt being paler in colour, and having a 
somewhat increased breadth of petal, resulting from the father's influence 
(for instance lago), but a large proportion were inferior, showing rever- 
sion towards an ancestral type. Of that portion iu which Leonidas was 
used as pollen and Lord Derby as seed parent, nearly half resembled in 
all respects their father, and the rest were much inferior ; not one showed 
that any appreciable amount of influence had been exerted by the mother 
towards improvement. It will be observed that in this cross the pollen 
parent possessed both the inferior flower, and the most powerful constitu- 
tion also. As regards the habit of these seedlings, they were all more 
robust than their mother. The same season I raised about sixty seed- 
lings from a cross between Celestial and Lord Derby. Celesfel, 
which was used as pollen parent, possessed a bidlliant magenta-coloured 
flower, but of very bad form and substance, and possessed a weakly con- 
stitution ; from this batch of seedlings a few produced flowers of a colour 
very similar to their father (but somewhat less brilliant), and with a 
great improvement as regards the form, quality, size, aud substance of 
the flower, accompanied too mth a fair habit and constitution of plant, 
shoiving a mai'ked influence on the part of the mother, which in this cross, 
was decidedly the stronger of the two parents. (lanthe resulted from 
this cross.) The remainder of this batch were mostly of very bad form 
and quality of flower, and weakly constitutions, but there were some very 
brilliant and novel colours, interesting examples of colour blending ; 
amongst them were carmine, rose crimson, pinks, and vivid scarlets j 
some in all respects resembled Celestial. 

My large seedling nosegay Wellington was the result of a cross between 
Le Grand nosegay and Leonidas ; Le Grand being used as pollen parent. 
Hero the'plants were about equally vigorous. Wellington resembles in the 
character of its flower its father, but has a,n increased breadth of petal 
derived from its mother ; the colour of the flower is nearly that of the 
father's also, but it is somewhat a blend, the purple hue of Le Grand 
and the deep scarlet of Leonidas, having produced a very dark crimson 
scarlet, almost maroon. The foliage, too, of Wellington is most distinctly 
of the nosegay type ; the habit being still more vigorous than that of 
either parent. 

In breeding for " variegates," and using the variegates (which as a rule 
are wanting in vigour) as pollen parents and the robust green zonals as 
seed parents, about half the number of their progeny showed variegation and 
possessed weakly constitutions, the remainder being green zonals ; upon the 
order of procedure being reversed, by which the pollen parent became the 
parent of very much the gi'cater vigour, the mother's influence was almost 
tiil. Ibelieve that in plants with long-established properties it is owing to 
the existence of a difference in the vigour of the parents that the produc- 



tion of novelties and varieties in our flowers (and probably in oui' fruit too) 
mainly depends, and that were it not for a preponderance of power on 
the mother's side, the progeny would almost invariably resemble the 
father ; aud hence the immutability of our flowers and vegetables, which 
are annually re-produced from seed, the result of self-fertUization. But 
I consider that another source of the production of novelties and variation 
exists in the tendency in all flowers (and fruits) that have been artificially 
bred up to a state far in advance of their original condition, to revert 
towards former progenitors (especially under the influence of self- 
fertilization), by which means new combinations of ancestral properties 
are formed, and hence new varieties. 

Even under artificial fertilization I find in the Pelargonium this tendency 
to reversion to exert very considei-able modifying influences ; especially 
have I observed it as regards the colom' of the flower ; for instance, the 
magenta shades that have been produced upon the scarlet Pelargonium, 
have resulted from the crossing of pinks upon scarlets ; and very many of 
my seedlings, the offspring resulting from the crossing of two magenta- 
coloured flowers, have produced pink ones as well as scarlets, showing 
reversion to both the colours of their immediate ancestors. It is a point 
worthy of observation, whether the colour of a flower, or a change in the 
character of a plant that has been recently obtained, is conveyed to 
the offspring in the same proportion as to numbers, and with the same 
certainty as those of long standing ? I think not. I must also mention 
a remarkable instance of reversion as regards fohage that has oceured in 
two of a number of seedlings raised this spring from Violet HOI nose- 
gay as seed parent, crossed by lanthe, with the object of obtaining 
variety in the flower ; two of this batch of seedlings have come variegates ; 
now Violet Hill was bred for variegation, and was planted out at Messrs. 
Hendersons' establishment at St. John's Wood in the spring of 18G4, 
with a view to its breaking into variegation, but which it did not ds, but 
was selected and subsequently sent out for its flower, and on account of 
its dwarf habit of growth. 

A close analogy seems to me to exist between the vegetable and animal 
kingdoms as regards the iU efiects produced by breeding in aud in, and 
the good resulting from crossing opposites ; for I find it to be necessary 
for the maintenance of improvement in the flower and the constitution 
of my seedlings, to introduce fresh varieties to breed from annually ; and 
I find that crossing two flowers of the finest qualities does not produce 
such satisfactory results as where one of much inferior quality is employed ; 
of course, it wdl be inferred from my previous observations that I use 
the superior quality flower as pollen parent. 

As regards the condition of the atmosphere that favours the effecting 
of difficult crosses, my experience indicates that bright, clear weather, and 
the hours of sunshine are conducive to fecundation. 

I have alluded to the antipathies and affinities we find to exist without 
any explicable cause ; for instance, I have found it impossible to fertiHse 
three or four varieties of the scarlet Pelargonium (viz., the^ Duke of 
Cornwall, Dr. Muret, Beauty de Surrennes, and all that section of the 
doubles which sprang from Beauty .de Surrennes), which to all appear- 
ance are mere varieties of the zonal section, save with one another ; and 
showing the existence of atiinity between what are supposed to be distinct 
species. I have fertilised without much difficulty a variety (Peltatum 
elegans) of the ivy-leaved section by the poUen of the zonal. 

I have also alluded to the possible difference in the respective influence 
of the parents in true hybridization. Upon this point I have iiot sufficient 
evidence to form a fau' opinion ; but certainly in the seedlings I have 
raised between the ivy-leaved and zonal sections, their foliage (with the 
exception of some distinctive evidence of their being hybrids) resembles 
almost entirely that of theirmother, which, you \viU observe, is the reverse 
of my experience of the results produced between varieties. 

Much has been written and said upon the difference in the quality and 
powers of the pollen of the short stamens ; and If the supposed difference 
really does exist, it is a matter of considerable practical importance, and 
one worthy of further scientific investigation; but niy experiments have 
hitherto failed to satisfy me of their possessing any difference. 

In an admirable article on hybridization by 5lr. Isaac Anderson-Henry 
(see Vol. I., p. 480), he says, " That owing to the granules of the short 
stamens being smaller than those of the long ones, they can the more 
easily descend the tubules leading from the stigma to the ovaries, and 
consequently facilitate the crossing of a large-flowered variety or species 
upon a smaller one." I have not been able to detect this difference in 
size, although I have many times placed the granules of the long^ and 
short stamens side by side under a powerful microscope ; nor, I believe, 
is it the opinion of physiologists of the present day, that they do descend 
these tubules at all ; in fact, it has been shown that they send down 
filaments through them to the ovules. The arrangement of the anthers 
upon filaments of different lengths looks to me like a provision to Insure 
all parts of the body and legs of insects coming into contact with the 
pollen as they pass down the flower to obtain the nectar, thereby 
rendering the fertilization of the next flower they visit the more 
certain. 

Lastly, I would remark, that to enable reliable conclusions to be drawn 
upon any of these points, we require an accumulation of data derived from 
the careful obsei-vation of very many unbiased workers, whose residts 
have been obtained from experiments conducted with scientific precision, 
upon all our flowers and fruits. Such an accumulation of recorded facts 
(If they could be obtained), would prove a soui'ce of the greatest interest 
to the philosopher, by their tendency to throw some light upon the work- 
ing of nature's laws, and could not but afford most valuable Information 
for the guidance of the practical horticulturist ; and moreover by freeing 
horticulture from all empu-icism would place it in its true and legitimate 
position among the modem sciences. 



July 6, 1872.] 



THE GARDEN. 



17 



THE ARBORETUM 



THE FUNERAL CYPBBSS. 

(cnrEEssus i'unebhis.) 

TirERE are tliree Asiatic Cypresses, namely, f uuebris, corneyana, 
and torulosa, all of which have a pendulous habit when old, 
and bear CDnsiderable resemblance to each other. In the 
countries where they grow they are known by the name of 
weeping cypress. The Funeral Cypress is a native of the 
north of China, and, when 
full-grown, forms a tree 
sixty feet high, with 
foi'ked branches and a 
spreading head, thickly 
furnished with a slender, 
pendulous spray ; while 
young it is rather com- 
pact, and somewhat erect, 
but in proportion as it 
increases in size and age, 
it becomes graceful and 
drooping. The leaves on 
young plants are distant, 
linear, and glaucous, and 
very different from the 
old trees, which are oval, 
and closely imbricated in 
four rows. This cypress 
is Cfuite tardy ; it was 
first introduced into this 
country in 18-49, by Mr. 
Fortune, to whom we are 
indebted for so many fine 
plants, both from China 
and Japan. 

Like all cypresses, it 
is well worthy of a place 
in every collection of 
graceful evergreen trees. 
As yet, few examples of 
it in this country are 
above twenty feet high, 
but these sufficiently 
prove that the older it 
gets the more graceful 
it looks. It somewhat 
resembles, except in 
colour, old trees of Cu- 
pressus torulosa. With 
the Chinese it is a great 
favourite for planting 
about tombs in burial 
grounds. 



clothed densely beneath with white down ; they are also either 
entire, or more or less crenated on the edges, and measure 
fi'om two to three inches in length. The branches are some- 
what spreading, and densely coated with little tufts of yellowish 
tomentum. The flowers, which are of a dusky yellow colour, 
are produced at the top of the branches in solitary or twin 
whorls, each containing from twenty to thirty flowers, which 
are bilabiate or two lipped, the upper one being helmet- 
shaped, and the lower one spreading and trifid. The bracts, 
or floral envelopes, are broad, ovate or ovate-lanceolate, acute, 
villose, greenish in colour, and fringed on the edges with 

longish hairs. The calyx 
is large, tubular, and 
villose, with five blunt 
teeth, which end in a 
spreading, awl - shaped, 
stiff point. 




HARDY TREES AND 
SHRUBS. 

BY GEORGE GORDOU, A.L.S. 

THE JERUSALEM SAGE 

(PHLOMIS PRUTICOSA). 

This forms a dense ever- 
green bush, from two to 
four feet high, with a 
greyish aspect. It grows 
naturally on mountains 

and other dry exposed places in Spain, Sicily, Greece, and the 
Levant. It was first introduced into England in 1596. It is a 
plant which thrives well in any common garden soil, and is 
easily increased either by means of layers or cuttings of the 
half -ripened wood. When planted on the upper part of rock- 
work, and fully exposed to the sun, it makes a fine display in 
June and July, when furnished, as it usually is at that season, 
with numerous whorls of yellow flowers. 

Its leaves are opposite, ovate, or oblong, roundly wedge- 
shaped at the base, wrinkled, villose, and green above, but 



Funeral C.ypress. (After Fortune.) 



colour, are called ink berries, 
for the holly. 



AMERIOAlf lUK OK WINTER 
BERRY (PRINOS GLABER). 

This forms a pretty ovate- 
shaped evergreen shrub, 
three or four feet high, 
densely clothed with dark 
glossy leaves ; and in the 
autumn, when covered 
with its black berries, it 
makes a fine display. It 
thrives best in a mixture 
of sandy peat and loam ; 
but many who have grown 
it find it to succeed very 
well with them in any 
good garden soil that is 
not stiff or heavy ; it 
can be readily increased 
either by means of seeds 
or cuttings. 

The winter berry is a 
native of North America, 
from Canada to Florida, 
where it grows in shady 
woods. It was first intro- 
duced in 17S9. The leaves 
are an inch and a half 
long and half an inch 
broad, alternate, leather}' 
in texture, lanceolate, 
tapering much towards 
the footstalk, dark glossy 
green above,pale beneath, 
and smooth on both sur- 
faces, with two or three 
visible serratures laear 
the apex. The shoots 
when young are rather 
downy, but quite smooth 
when fully matured. The 
flowers are small, white, 
and mostly produced in 
threes, on solitary axil- 
lary footstalks, in July 
and August. The ber- 
ries are jet black and 
ripe in September, and 
in consequence of their 
' Prinos " is the Greek name 



Yew Trees. — The following particulars of a yew tree, in the churchyard at 
Doveridge, Derbysliii-e, may prove of interest to your correspondent at Long- 
leat. Height, 36 feet ; circumference of branches, 313 feet ; spread of branches 
from north to south, 63 feet 4 inches ; from east to west, 73 feet ; girth of stem 
at the ground, 23 feet 6 inches ; girth of stem at seven feet from gi-ound, 24 
feet ; smallest girth of stem, 20 feet ; length of stem 7 feet. This yew tree 
is quite hollow all the way up, and about one-third of the stem completely 
gone, which will account for the girth of the stem appearing small. It is per- 
f ectly healthy, and has grown in the circumference of its branches in the last 
thirty years from 167 feet to 212 feet. — T. Fovey, JDoveridge, in " JField." 



18 



THE GARDEN. 



[July 6, 1872. 



GARDENING FOR JULY. 



THE INDOOR GARDEN". 

BY T, BAINES, SOUTHGATB. 

Conservatory. — Every means should now be employed to prolong 
the bloominf> of such plants as are at present in flower, as well as to 
encourage such as are progressing, for conservatory decoration. 
Owing to the greater number of these structures being usually much 
loftier than ordinary houses for plant growing, a much greater 
surface is exposed to the action of the sun ; consequently the atmo- 
sphere is much drier, so much so, indeed, during the long summer 
clays, as to make short work of the greater number of blooming 
plants available at this season. The borders that usually exist for 
climbers should be kept as moist as is consistent with the well-being 
of the plants growing in them ; the moisture given off from them will, 
in some measure, counteract the dryness of the atmosphere, and on 
.all available occasions, especially early in the mornings and in the 
evenings, water should be applied under the stages, where such exist, 
and on the tables, yet not so plentifully as to occasion the unsightly 
inconvenience of wet paths to walk upon. Moisture applied in 
this way has not only the effect of benefiting the blooming plants, 
but tends to keep down red-spider, which generally has a particularly 
genial feeding ground on conservatory climbers. The latter should 
have forcible applications of water from the syringe, or, still better, 
from the garden-engine, occasionally. Thin shading material (in all 
eases movable) should be used not only for the roof, but for the sides 
of the house next the sun, if the house is lofty. Assist by all 
necessary attention Fuchsias, Liliums, Amarantus, Balsams, Pelar- 
goniums, Vallotas, Cassia corymbosa (yellow), Witsenia corymbosa 
(blue), two plants of easy culture , but not nearly so often met 
with as they deserve. Achimenes, Gesnera Cooperi and Donck- 
laari, Tydoeas, and Gloxinias should be properly and carefully 
hardened by giving them plenty of light, and placing them near 
where air is admitted in the stove before their introduction to 
the conservatory, where they should be placed in such a position as 
to be as far removed from draughts as possible ; by such means 
such plants may be made to do duty there for a considerable 
time ; and it is necessary to employ plants of this description 
during the next two months, when there is a greater scarcity of 
blooming plants for conservatory decoration than at any other time 
during the jeav. Attend well to all autumn and winter blooming 
plants. The fii'st batch of Cinerarias should, by the middle of the 
month, be ready to be placed in their blooming pots ; six-inch ones 
will be large enough, if the plants have beenjwell managed all through 
the several stages of their growth. The first batch of Hydrangeas 
should now be potted, using pure peat and sand for a portion, and loam 
and sand for the rest of the stock ; by this means, in all probability, 
both the blue and pink colours will be secured. 

Stoves. — Old stocks of Poinsettias should now be shaken out, 
repotted, and encouraged to make strong sturdy growth. Another 
iiseful winter blooming plant is Begonia dipetala. If small plants of 
this are now at hand, and grown on freely, they will furnish 
quantities of bloom in the winter. AUamandas, Clerodendron 
splendens, and Dipladenias, showing flower freely, should now be 
trained round their trellises, but not too closely, as that gives 
them too stiff an appearance, and also has a tendency to cause 
premature decay in the leaves, which, if allowed to overlap each 
other, turn yellow and decay ; this has also a tendency to weaken 
the plants and reduce their blooming capabilities. Expose them 
to all the light possible, using just sufficient shading material 
to break the direct rays of the sun ; by this means the flowers 
will be produced much stouter, and will stand in a cut state, 
it required, much longer than when treated more tenderly. Autumn- 
struck cuttiugs of hardwooded stove plants, such as Ixoras, AUa- 
mandas, Gardenias, Ac, which have been potted during the winter, 
will by this time require a further shift. The aim of the cultivator 
ought to be to get the plants up to the required size as quickly as 
possible ; if such things are allowed to become stunted through 
being pot-bound, it takes a long time afterwards to get them to 
move ; in fact, it is better to commence with a cutting than to grow 
a plant on that has been allowed to get into such a condition. It 
would seem that the increased demand for cut flowers at the present 
day is illimitable ; it therefore behoves gardeners to make provision to 
meet it. In most establishments, large or small, there will be some 
things held in greater esteem than others. Therefore it is impossible 
to name any plants in particular that would be held in general esti- 
mation. Yet during this and the next two months flowers from stove 
plants vrill be largely used for mixing with Roses and other outdoor 
productions. There is a gi-eat charm in variety ; yet the old system 
of growing collections of plants where the object was to include the 
greatest number possible, both of species and varieties, is anything 



but calculated to meet the requirements of the present day ; it is 
much better to confine to a reasonable extent the number of varieties 
of plants grown to such as are the most attractive, last the longest, 
and are held in the greatest estimation. If there is one plant more 
than another that is more generally useful as a decorative stove or 
intermediate house plant, and capable of producing quantities of cut 
flowers for eight or ten months in the year, it is Ixora coccinea. 
Now is a good time to either strike cuttings or procure plants of it ; 
and if kept clean from insects, and grown under the same conditions 
as to temperature and atmospheric moisture, summer and winter, 
that will suit Cucumbers, it will amply repay for the trouble bestowed 
upon it. Its flowers will stand in water for a week, and it can be 
cut with impunity without injuring the plants. 

Fern House. — Attend well to the general stock in the way of 
water, especially such as have filled their pots with roots ; any 
inattention to this matter results in the destruction of that healthy 
green appearance of the foliage which is the first characteristic of 
well-grown plants. Do not maintain a higher temperature than is 
necessary for healthy development ; such being inimical to per. 
sistency of foliage, or to its endurance if required for cutting. Keep 
down insects by repeated light fumigations, in preference to per- 
fomiing that operation seldom and severely. 

Azaleas. — These should be making active growth, which should be 
encouraged by syringings overhead every afternoon, shutting up early, 
and keeping the plants thoroughly free from their two great enemies, 
thrips and red-spider. Plants that require repotting if their roots 
are active, should be shifted at once, using nothing but good peat, 
and sufficient sand to keep the soil sweet. Hardwooded plants that 
have been potted some time, and that are growing freely, should now 
be no longer shaded in brightweather.but, on the contrary, should be 
fully exi^osed to the sun, throwing water liberally about under the 
stages amongst the pots, so as to counteract drying influences. 
Young stock that was potted early, and that is growing vigorously, 
may be benefited by a further shift. 

Orchids, — Encourage these by all means to mature their growth 
whilst there is length of days. Use discrimination in the application 
of water. The thick-rooted East Indian sectiou, and more esijecially 
such varieties as inhabit the hill regions of India, require an amount 
of moisture at the root that would soon be fatal to Cattleyas, Lcelias, 
and plants of similar description that are especially impatient of too 
much water at the root. See well to the varieties that are most 
suitable for f m^iishing winter flowers. Cypripedium insigne, Cselo- 
gyne cristata, Zygopetalums, Calanthe vestita and Veitchii, these 
if well managed will afford a succession of flowers for four months, 
and the length of time they will endure in wet sand or water would 
surprise those who have not tried them in that way. Odontoglossum 
Alexandrse is coming into general request as one of the most elegant 
of flowers ; in some places it is now being grown by the hundred, and 
may be had in flower nearly all the year round. It and its congeners 
require only a comparatively low temperature, with plenty of moisture 
in the atmosphere and at the roots, with carefnl shading. 

Heaths. — Some growers repot such as require it about this time, 
when the plants have done flowering; but it is much better to defer 
the operation until the autumn, when the weather gets cooler. Pick 
off all seed-pods, if seed is not wanted, as soon as the flowers are 
decayed, as the production of seed greatly exhausts the energies of 
plants. 

THE FLOWER GARDEN FOR JXTLY. 

BY GEOEGE WESTLAND, WITLEY COUKT. 
Now that " bedding out " has been brought to a close, in order to 
render the flower garden thoroughly enjoyable, the greatest possible 
care must be exercised to insure perfect order and neatness. Owing 
to the terrific hailstorms which we experienced on the 7th and 8th 
ultimo, and the long continuation of wet, frequent stirrings of the 
soil, so as to thoroughly loosen the surface, will be necessary ; this 
will greatly expedite the growth of the plants, and save much useless 
labour in watering. Mulching is a safe practice ; more particularly 
in the case of heavy soils that are liable to crack ; for this purpose 
use some light material such as cocoa-nut fibre, spent tan, or leaf- 
mould. When watering is absolutely necessary let it be done 
thoroughly ; the best time for performing the operation is in the 
evening, as then the plants have a chance of getting thoroughly 
refreshed by it. In bright sunny weather, with dry, hot nights, 
foliage plants will be benefited by being sprinkled overhead late in 
the evenings. The surface soil in flower baskets and vases should 
also be mulched with moss, kept in its place by means of small pegs ; 
this will have a tendency to prevent evaporation, and will save labour 
in watering. 

Unremitting attention must now be directed to the keeping of 



July 6, 1S72.] 



THE GAKDEN. 



19 



climbers within proper limits. Proceed with the pegging down and 
training of growing plants in beds ; also with the stakingof herbaceous 
plants in mixed borders. These should not be huddled together, but 
should be carefully tied out so as to have perfect freedom in the way 
of natural development, Dahlias and Hollyhooks should have their 
fastenings frequently examined, and the shoots tied up, thinning out 
such as are superfluous. Where Calceolarias are much exposed to 
wind, a few short twiggy branches placed neatly among them before 
they are fully grown, so as to become covered by the foliage, will 
fortify them against very severe blasts; for the support of annuals 
these branches are also excellent, if used snSiciently early. The 
thinning of these should have attention as soon as they are fit to 
handle. Annuals, biennials, and perennials may still be sown, and 
such as were sown early transplanted into nursery beds. Remove 
decaying blossoms and seed-vessels from Hhododendrons and plants 
in general ; for upon attention to this will greatly depend the vigour 
of the plants. 

Bulbs should be taken up as soon as they are well ripened, which is 
easily determined by the decay of the foliage ; do not, however, 
remove the leaves at the time of lifting, except, perhaps, such as 
part freely from the bulb ; allow them to dry gradually off in an 
airy shady sitaation, protected from rain. Anemones and Ranun- 
culuses be careful to take up as soon as their leaves wither, for they 
are apt to emit fresh roots when left in the ground. After they are 
ripe, be particular that the bulbs are thoroughly dry before they 
are stored away. A great many roots are annually destroyed by 
being stored away in close drawers, &c., when in a half-ripened 
state. 

Propagate Carnations and Picotees fi'om layers as soon as the 
shoots are in a sufficiently advanced state. Clip all kinds of hedges, 
and prune back evergreens so as to keep them within proper limits. 
Continue to sweep and roll lawns, keep the grass neatly mown, and 
the edges of the walks trim and precise. 

A great majority of evergreen shrubs may now be propagated 
either bj' layering, or by means of cuttings made of half- 
ripened shoots. Amongst these may be mentioned Hollies, which 
will now root freely from half-ripe cuttings of this season's growth. 
Choose a situation shaded from the sun, under a north wall, or under 
the shade of trees, and insert the cuttings in fine sandy soil, under a 
frame; water freely, and slightly tilt the lights ; and beyond frequent 
sprinklings they will give no further trouble. 

Fits and Frames. — Many things may now be propagated in 
these. Pinks, Mule Pinks, Pansies, and all kinds of herbaceous 
plants, if inserted in frames or under hand-lights in a shady place, 
will root freely. Sow seed of Cinerarias, prick off seedlings, and 
propagate choice sorts from cuttings. Sow Calceolaria seed ; cover 
it lightly with sand, and place a square of glass over the pans, on 
which lay some wet moss until the seeds vegetate, when they must 
be gradually inured to light. To Chrysanthemums afford liberal 
treatment ; laj'er young shoots of them in small pots, where they 
are wanted in a dwarf state. Increase Pelargoniums by means of 
cuttings. Cut down such as are well ripened, keeping them dry 
until they cease bleediug, and then sprinkle them frequently over- 
head to assist them in breaking. Sow Primulas for late floweriug, 
and pot on such as were raised early. 



THE FRUIT GAEDEIT FOB JULY. 

BY WILLIAil TILLERT, WELBECK. 

Outdoor Fruits. — The frost in May now shows its effects in 
this locality by a total failure of some of our hardy fruits, snch as 
Apples, Pears, aud Plums. Small bush fruits, such as Gooseberries, 
Currants, and Raspberries show but partial crops ; but Strawberries, 
although their earliest opened blossoms were injured, are a very 
good crop. Cherries, such as Morellos and Kentish, on the north walls, 
and Eltons, Waterloo, and some of the American varieties on east 
and west aspects, are also well cropped. To keep up the charter of 
the extraordinary season we are now experiencing, a terrific thunder- 
storm passed over us on June lSth,with a heavy hail-shower and rain. 
The storm seems to have been general in the midland counties and 
north of Eoglaud ; and the damage done to vegetation and the 
breakage of glass in hothouses by the heavy hailstones is very great 
in some districts. Wall fruit trees will require careful attention in 
trying to keep the legions of aphis and grubs in check, for I have 
never before seen these pests so numerous as they are at present. It 
is not only the loss of the crops of fruit we have to deplore this year, 
bnt likewise the foliage of the trees is now so much inj ured by 
insects, that it will affect the crops of fruit next year. On the care 
and attention, therefore, now paid to keeping insects down and the 
thinning and regulating the young wood so as to get it well ripened 



will depend the success of the crop next year. In addition to hand- 
picking the grubs, the engine must be used freely on wall trees to try to 
clear them from filth. The shoots of Peaches aud Nectarines should 
be kept nailed in as they advance, for high winds will do great damage 
to the young gross-growing trees. If the American blight puts in 
an appearance on Apple trees, a little soft soap or oil must be rubbed 
on the parts affected, and if this is done in time, it will effectually 
stop it from spreading. Thin out the canes of Raspberries where 
too numerous, and secure them against wind breaking them down. 
As early in the month as possible, and when runners can be got, the 
first lot of Strawberries should be laid in pots for early forcing. 
Perhaps Keens' seedling, if from selected plants, is as good a variety 
for the earliest as can be grown. President, Sir J. Paxton, and 
Ingram's Prince of Wales are likewise excellent varieties for suc- 
cession ; and Empress Eugenie, Sir C. Napier, Lucas, Dr. Hogg, and 
British Queen for the latest crops. 

Vineries. — When the grapes are all cut in the earUcst houses 
every attention should be paid to getting the wood ripened 
thoroughly, and trying to get the vines into a state of rest by taking 
the lights off when it can be done, or exposing them to the air as much 
as possible. Give abundance of air night and day, and gentle fire-heat 
in dull weather to grapes in late vineries. All Gx'apes intended to be 
kept late in bottles of water should be well thinned, and, if possible, 
got thoroughly coloured and ripened by the end of September. 
This system of keeping Grapes in bottles is now a great fact ; foi- 
many gardeners tried it last year, and have given in their adhesion 
to its utility. Some gardeners now say that they have tried the 
system nearly twenty years ; but it is singular they should have 
let their light be hidden under a bushel so long, to the great loss of 
the gardening commnnitj'. We have all tried to stick bunches of 
late Grapes in Turnips, Potatoes, and even Mangold-wurtzel to keep 
them for a few days or weeks, but it was not until Mr. Robinson's 
account appeared as to how thej' did these things on a large scale 
in Prance that we got on the right track. The cause of rust on 
Grapes has lately been discussed in The Gakde>', and the ventilation 
of the subject may lead to something tangible in showing how to 
prevent this great disfigurement to Grapes. Sulphur has been said 
by some to be the great cause of the rust on Grapes ; but I have 
never found this to be the case. To get rid of the mildew last year 
in a late vinery, I sulphured a portion of the vines where the mildew 
commenced, and the young berries were just in the stage when 
rusting was to be expected ; but when the sulphur was syringed off, 
no ill effect on the berries was seen. If the sulphur was vapourized 
by the hot sun in summer, or by too much heat on the flues or pipes, 
it would doubtless affect the skin of the j-ouug Grapes if they hung 
near its influence. I believe the great cause of rust to be draughts of 
cold air sweeping over the bunches when the berries are young, 
rough handling in thinning the bunches, and rubbing the hair of 
the head on them — all of which ought to be avoided. 

Peach Houses. — Where the fruit is all cleared in the early 
houses, give the trees a good sj-ringiug to clear the filth off the 
leaves collected when the fruit was ripening. In houses where the 
lights can be taken off, it is a good practice to expose the trees to the 
air, as they will make firmer wood and buds under its influence for 
next year's forcing. In the late houses syringing the trees and 
sprinkling the paths once or twice a day will all help to keep up 
a moist atmosphere and to keep down red spider and aphis. 

Figs. — The stopping and thinning of the shoots on the trees 
bearing the second crop must now be attended to. Keep a moist 
atmosphere bj' frequent sj'ringings of the trees and sprinkling the 
paths with water to keep down red spider. 

Melons.— Still maintain a steady bottom heat by linings to dung 
frames, or by hot-water pipes in houses or pits. Mulch the surface 
of the beds with well-fermented horse droppings, the same as for a 
mushroom bed, and keep this well watered till the fruit begins to 
ripen. Melons when swelling their fruit require plenty of water at 
their roots, not dribblets on the surface, but a good soaking to reach 
the bottom roots. Sow seed now for the autumn supply of fruit, 
and if the plants are to be grown in pits heated with hot-water 
pipes, the supply of late fruit will be more certain than when grown 
in frames. 

Cucumbers. — This will now be a good time for setting and 
marking the fruit of any good sort that it is desirable to keep for seed. 
I generally grow my plants in large pots to seed from, and after 
carefully impregnating the fruit leave only from three to four on a 
plant. By this mode I find success is more certain in getting plenty 
of seed true to the sort, than by trusting to fruit from plants 
exhausted by cropping. An excellent sort of new cucumber has been 
sent to me by Mr. Harrison, of Leicester, to prove for him ; I have 
found it to be a first-class variety in size and shape, and vei-y good 
in its other properties. 



20 



THE GARDEN. 



[July 6, 1872. 



THE PINEEY FOB JULY. 

BY JAMBS BARNES. 
FoK the next four months no difficulty need be experienced in pro- 
ducing excellent pine-apples. The fruits will show quickly and 
strongly from fine healthy plants ; their swelling will be greatly 
assisted by applications of tepid clear manure water to the roots and 
occasional syringings with clear soot water, together with a kindly 
atmospheric humidity well chai'ged with ammonia, and a free but 
judicious circulation of air on all favourable occasions. Succession 
plants, in order to form strong healthy shoots, should be shifted on 
in due time, and placed farther apart in the bed ; maintain a strong 
hnmid atmospheric heat, and a steady kindly bottom temperature. 
Syringe freely, and supply air abundantly night and day. 



THE KITCHEIf GARDEN TOR JULY. 

BY JAMES BARNES. 
Asparagus iseds keep thoroughly clear of weeds ; dredge with salt 
moderately and often in dark and rainy weather. Of French Beans 
aud Scai'let Runners make another sowing or two this month. Broc- 
coli, Borecole, and Kales in variety continue to plant out as ground 
becomes vacant. Sow Coleworts for succession the first and third 
weeks of this month ; as other crops are removed plant them out 
thickly on well-manured ground till November, in order to have abund- 
ance of sweet, crisp little heads till spring-crops come in. It is an 
essential matter in garden culture to have no empty space at any 
time through want of perseverance and forethought. Make two 
more good sowings of Cauliflower this month ; and of this useful vege- 
table plant out in abundance, in order to obtain a supply of good- 
sized heads through the autumn and winter months. Of Celery 
plant out a full crop on well-prepared ground ; attend well to surface- 
stirring, clearing away suckers, applying good soakings of manure- 
water to growing crops, and to methodically earthing them up as 
they advance in growth. During the month make two somngs of 
Endive and Lettuces, and plant out such as are big enough to handle. 
Of Radishes, Cress, Mustard, and Onions, make little but frequent 
sowings in light, rich soil, and on northern aspects. Where a daily 
supply of young crisp Turnips is required, full crops of the little 
quick-growing kinds may be made as Potato ground becomes empty. 
Onions, Parsnips, Carrots, and other root crops keep thoroughly 
clean, and maintain a loose open surface about them. Make a good 
sowing of the early Horn and Dutch Carrots twice this month on a 
rich light border, in order to have abundance of nice young roots 
throughout the ivinter and early spring. Continue to make planta- 
tions of Leeks, by transplanting from the seed-bed as the ground 
gets cleared of other crops. 

Plants of Seakale that have been timely thinned will now have 
formed strong crowns ; the flower spikes as they appear should be re- 
moved, leaving only a few of the strongest for seed. Of Peas make 
the two last sowings this month, choosing an early variety, and Veitch's 
Perfection, which is a splendid Pea, for the last crop. Prepare the 
ground for them by making trenches, into which dig some good 
rotten manure. By sowing them in these trenches their roots are 
more easily supplied with water, which should be given liberally 
should dry weather set in, for nothing is more productive of mildew 
than drought. Keep the whole surface of the ground between and 
about all growing crops well hoed and scarified, never allowing a 
weed a chance to appear, nor a slug peace anywhere. 



NOTES OF THE WEEK. 



A FINE clump of Brodisea grandiflora, a beautiful and un- 
common bulbous plant, is now in flower at the Fulham Nurseries. It 
is a jjlant without which no collection can be considered complete. 

The rare Aquilegia calif ornica, perhaps the finest of all the 

scarlet-flowered Columbines, is now in flower at Kew. It grows 
there about two and a half feet high, and is very attractive. Visitors 
to these gardens who wish to see this fine herbaceous perennial, will 
find it in a bed devoted to Columbines, in the herbaceous depart- 
ment. 

Two of the finest hardy bulbs we have seen for a long time 

are now in flower in Mr. Parker's nurser}' at Tooting, viz., Triteleia 
laxa and T. Murryana. The flowers of these are much superior to 
those of the spring flowering T. uniflora, which conveys no idea of 
the beauty of the sorts just named Both arc nearly equal in point 
of effectiveness to the African lily (Agapauthus umbellatus). The 
flowers of T. laxa are of a fino deep purplish blue, while those of 
T. Murrayana are of a iiale purplish blue, but are produced in 
larger umbels. We likewise noticed T. laxa at Kew, and also in 
the nursery of Messrs. E. G. Henderson & Son. 



Prince Akthuk has taken Bagshot Park, Surrey, aud prepa- 
rations have been commenced to render the mansion and grounds 
suitable as a residence for him. 

Isolated heads of the white Lily may now be seen peeping 

from among the masses of Rhododendrons in SjAe Park. This is a 
step in the right direction ; both Lilies and Rhododendrons are greatly 
the better of the association. All Lilies thrive well and look well 
treated thus. 

In the gardens at Heckfield Place, Winchfield, there is a 

beautiful specimen of Chama3rop3 Fortunei, about eight feet high, 
now splendidly in flower. This fine plant was transferred to the open 
ground in the autumn of 1867, where it has remained ever since 
quite unprotected, and is flourishing admirably. 

We are happy to announce that Mr. Badger, the courteous 

aud able honorary secretary of the Birmingham local committee, 
who worked so strenuously and so successfully to make the late great 
show a success, has been elected a Forty-Guinea Life Member of the 
Royal Horticultural Society. It is a small tribute greatly merited. 

A VERY charming new species of Navel Wort (Omphalodc.j 

Lucilise) is flowering freely in the Exotic Nursery, Tooting. The 
plant stood out in the ojaen ground during the past winter, commenced 
to flower early in May, and has continued blooming more or less 
thi'oughout the past two months. The flowers are sky-blue, with a 
whitish eye, changing to pink when fading. 

The little mud-wall edgings now look exceedingly ugly in 

the parks. We presume they are made with a view to presenting 
the small succulent and other plants more effectually to the eye than 
they would be if placed on a level or gently-rounded bed. But this 
they do not do, and, being in themselves hateful and ridiculous at all 
times, it is to be hoped they may soon disappear. 

EriLOBiUM oiicoKDATUM, a beautiful new free-flowering dwarf 

species of Willow-herb from the Rocky Mountains, is now in blooui 
on a border at the Wellington Road Nurseries, St. John's Wood. It 
grows about three inches high, and has flowers of a fine deej") 
magenta or rosy crimson colour. It is one of the very finest of 
alpine plants. 

We are glad to learn that the Earl of Stamford and Warring- 
ton has, with his usual liberality, thrown open his magnificent 
gardens and grounds to the public on Mondays, as well as Tuesdays 
and Fridays. Omnibuses run between Stourbridge aud Euville on 
these days at very reasonable fares, thus affording greater facilities 
to the public of visiting Bnville. 

The hardy white flowered Crinimi (Crinum capensealbiflorum) 

is blooming freely this year in the Botanic Gardens, Regent's Park. 
This fine bulbous plant, once thought tender, is worthy of a place 
in all collections of hardy bulbs, the plants in Regent's Park having 
withstood the test of many severe winters in one of the worst clay 
soils with which we are acquainted. 

Mr. Alexander Irvine is preparing a new work on tho 

British plants, which he calls the " Pocket Flora of the British 
Islands." It is to be a condensed summary of the characters of the 
orders, genera, and species of our national Flora, mth some illustra- 
tions, and a copious account of the localities of the rare species, and 
a glossarial index. 

The Temple Gardens are now open to the public, and that 

the boon thus granted by the Benchers is appreciated, is manifest 
from the numbers that fiock thither every evening. The temporary 
closing last year consequent on the alterations necessitated in 
connection with the Thames Embankment, has resulted in the enlarge- 
ment and other improvements of the gardens. 

MiVNY beds in Hyde Park are as yet (July 4th) empty and 

brown. We may, perhaps, expect the beds to be filled within a week 
or two, but the plants can scarcely make a foot of growth before they 
will be in danger of a visit from the earliest frosts, and if, as some- 
times happens, in Angiist, a frost should hurt our tender plants, we 
may at last begin to see the necessity of paying greater attention 
to the subjects suited to our own climate, and which do not necessitate 
a wintry aspect in our gardens during the bloom of summer. 

The Royal Horticultural Society's Show at Birmingham, 

was brought to a conclusion on Saturday last. The day was fine, and 
the attendance of visitors very large. The admissions by cash payments 
alone were, 23,440. The amount taken at the gates during the five 
days was £2,476. 17s. lOd., and it is estimated that about £2,500 
was realised by tho sale of tickets, including the amount of £1,038 
subscribed for special prizes. Something like £6,000 has been 
raised in Birmingham and its neighbom-hood in connection with tho 
visit of the Society. The profit is to be equally divided between the 
Society and Mr. Quilter, the proprietor of the Lower Grounds, Aston. 
Mr. Quilter has generously offered to give half his share to the 
charities of Birmingham. 



July 6, 1872.] 



THE GARDEN. 



21 



GARDENERS' ROYAL BENEVOLENT INSTITUTION. 

THE ANNIVERSARY DINNER. 
On Tuesday eveuiug last took place tho most successful and pleasant 
anniversary which this institution has ever experienced. After the 
usual speeches had been made and responded to, the chairman, the 
Rev. S. Reynolds Hole, spoke as follows : — 

Thus far, he said, we have resembled the lovers in that poem, 
which charms all hearts, and specially those which love a garden — the 
lovers in our Laureate's " Gardener's Daughter," when, — 
" They spoke of other tUiugs, they coursed about 

The subject moat at heave, more near and near. 

Like doves about a dovucot wheeling round 

The central wish, until they settled there." 

We come now to the main object of our meeting, and to the toast of 
tho night. Gentlemen, there is a story told that a distinguished 
foroigaor was brought upon a certain ocoasioa to the anniversary 
dinner of the Gardeners' lloyal Benevolent Institution, and that when 
it was dcUcatoly intimated to hitu by his friend that if he \^'erc dis- 
posed to increase the funds of the society a propitious opportunity 
had come, he did not seem to appreciate the privilege. If, he replied, as 
he looked around him, these are your gardeners, so healthful, so 
cheerful — if this is their mode of living, if thus they fare with sweet 
music in their ears, and their beautiful wives and sisters smiling in 
the distance — pardon me, inoii amie, if I reserve my gold for objects 
which appear to me more afflicted and helpless than these. It was 
explained to him, I need hardly say, that the gentlemen present were 
not aged nor infirm gardeners, and that the ladies were not widows 
and orphans ; aad those true claims which this institution has upou 
the sympathies and support of benevolent men, were, I have no doubt, 
laid before him, as now, earnestly and urgently, I would ask leave 
to press them upon you. Ladies and gentlemen, there is no class of 
men which conduces so much to the happiness and enjoyment of 
their employers as tho gardeners. 

" The stately homo-? of Eujjland, 

How beautiful they stand ! 

Araid their tall ancestral trees, 

Through all this pleasant land." 

To whom, humanly speaking, do they owe so much of that beauty ? 
To the landscape gardener ! And what is now their chief grace and 
glory ? — their gardens. What would they be — Chatsworth, Belvoir, 
Trentham, Hardwicke — without them .' And our great merchant 
princes, where, when they leave the " dusky lane and wrangling 
mart " of oommoroo — where is the rest and refreshment of their 
lives, but in a garden ? Again, is there a fete, a rejoicing, 
a procession, a ceremony — religious or secular — a christening, a 
wedding, a church to be adorned for a festival — go to the 
gardener for flowers. Just regard the daily gratifications which a 
rich man has from his garden. What is at this season, as he comes 
to his breakfast-table in his London house, hardly rested from last 
night's debate or last night's ball — what is most refreshing at his 
morning meal, to eye and palate too —the peach, the grape, the straw- 
berry, sent np from his country home ! It is the same at his luncheon — 
the succulent vegetable, the crisp salad ; and at his banquet how far 
more beautiful than his massive plate, the pictures on his walls, the 
silks and satins of his guests, are the glowing fragrant flowers, the 
graceful ferns ! and, again, the luscious fruits, which have been sent 
to him by his gardener. And yet again, when the dinner is over 
and the dance begins, more flowers for my lady's haii-, for my 
lord's coat, for mademoiselle's bouquet ; for staircase and supper, 
table too. I suppose that answer will be made, the man is paid 
for it. I speak from a long and large acquaintance with facts 
when I say that, with some exceptions, the gardener is not 
adequately paid ; for these causes : 1, his vocation requires 
superior mental ability, as well as manual skill ; 2, it involves an 
expenditure in the jDurohase of plants, and in the hospitable reception 
of visitors, which he cannot avoid, if he is a true gardener ; and, 3, 
it is an occupation perilous to health. This last plea sounds the 
strangest, but it is by far the strongest, and the proof is but too plainly 
painfully manifest. At first sight you would be inclined to suppose 
that of all employments horticulture must be most healthful. But 
it is not so. In the first place, the gardener is up early and late, out 
in all vicissitudes of weather, and therefore pecuUaiiy liable to that 
scourge of our climate, rheumatism, which cripples so many of our 
agricultural and outdoor workers. In the second place, a far greater 
risk is incurred by him again and again in the cultivation of flowers 
and fruits in high artificial heat. Those strawberries and grapes 
required the warmth of summer when snow was lying on the 
ground ; those orchids and stove plants must have their thermometer 
at seventy degrees when outside there are ten degrees — twenty degrees 
of frost, and the gardener has to pass from one to the other, with 
the perspiration standing on his brow. I need hardly say that in the 
obituaries of our gardening publications many names are recorded, as 
in the case of her Majesty's gardener at Windsor, of men who perish in 



the prime of life. Nevertheless, you say, though the gardener, asarule, 
may be underpaid, he might reserve something to provide against theso 
great contingencies. And this must be our opinion generally, or we 
should not be here to night in support of an institution of which the 
very aim and object is to induce gardeners to anticipate the time of 
need. We must all feel a surprise that — if by paying five pence a 
week, or one shilling and eightpeuoe for each of the twelve months 
in the year, a gardener can receive sixteen pounds when he is incapa- 
citated from work — so few comparatively subscribe to the funds. 
The questions are — Why do they not subscribe ? How can we induce 
them to do so ? A principal reason, I believe, which prevents gar- 
deners from joining tho institution is found in the fact that its 
resources do not at present insure tho immediate relief of all 
claimants ; and you would hardly expect a soldier to subscribe 
to a fund fur the succour of the wounded, unless he knew that an 
ambulance and a doctor would bj rcalyto help him when he fell. 
The remedy is patent : to augment the funds of our institution, so 
as to admit more candidates at once, and to induce moro gardeners to 
join the institution. Masters should inform gardeners of tho benefits 
to be derived, and do something more than tell them to save. Save, how 
easy to say ; how hard to do ! I think of my firsthand last money-box ; 
how I tried to shake out the pennies not long after insertion, how I 
extracted them eventually with the blade of my penknife and sold 
my bos to a friend. The way for masters really to help gardeners 
would be, either to pay the subscription of one guinea as partly their 
remuneration, or to offer to deduct it from their wages. Ladies and 
gentlemen, I have but few more words to say on behalf of an 
institution which has already relieved nearly 200 infirm and needy 
gardeners, and which is at this moment supporting 60 pensioners, at 
an expense of dESoO per annum. Tliere lives, hardly a stone's cast 
from my garden gate, a good, old, faithful gardener, who did his 
duty for forty years to my father and to me ; when his strength 
failed, and he left my service, he had saved nothing; for his charac- 
teristic love of plants had always absorbed the little cash he had to 
spare. It was not in my power to support him, his wife, and 
daughter, or to do more than find him a home, a garden, and some 
small further help. What was he to do ? Why to ask me to write 
to Mr. Cutler, of 11, Tavistock Row, to remind him that he, Evan 
Hirst, had subscribed for more than twenty years to the Gardeners' 
Royal Benevolent Institution, and to claim the pension of £16 per 
annum, which he has ever since enjoyed. Every day of my life I 
see a proof of the good done by this institution, more gratifying 
than words can tell. Just this more, and I cease. I said something 
about saving. There is only one way to save. No money which you 
ever spent is safe, but the deodand which you gave in charity. 
Be generous, as in your own time of need you would have comfort. 
" Give, and it shall be given," for the promise cannot fail, " Blessed 
is he that considereth the i^oor and needy ; the Lord shall deliver him 
in the time of trouble." 

We have only room left to say that upwards of five hundred guineas 
were subscribed, and that the meeting was well attended. 



SOCIETIES, EXHIBITIONS, &.C. 

THE BIRMINGHAM ROSE SHOW. 

BY THE REV. S. EETNOLDS HOLE. 

" Ouii old frieud Horace," as many a mau designates the poet' 
whom he cordially hated in his youth, and knows only now in 
those fine old crusted quotations, of which the world in general, 
and the House of Commons in particular, seems to be never 
weary — Horace tells us that the man who first entrusted him- 
self in a frail bark upon the ocean must have had a heart of oak 
and a bosom of brass ; and most of us, remembering the time, 
when, with a mighty effort of self-command, we left the banks of 
our family duck-pond in tremor of spirit and in a wobbling tub, 
can verify all that he says. And all who embark upon a new 
enterprise must possess this bravery, if ever they hope to 
make a prosperous voyage, and to reach the shore in safety — he, 
especially, the young and ambitious amateur, who is about to 
launch upon the Red Sea of Roses, and to seek the haven of 
success and honour. He must be prepared, like the mariner, 
for storm and sickness. Like the boy in the brewing-tub, he 
must never lose courage, or he will assuredly upset his vessel, 
and find himself sticking in the mud. 

He, who proposes to grow and show the rose in its beauty 
must prepare himself for many difficulties and many disappoint- 
ments, and must never flatter himself that because he has a 
good soil, a good situation, heajthful rose trees, and plenty of 



22 



thS garden. 



[July 6, 1872. 



manure (all indispensable elements of rose culture), that he 
has entered upon safe and tranquil seas. Frosts in the winter, 
and, far more fatal, frosts in the spring, caterpillar, aphis, 
mildew, fungus, rain-storms, hail-storms, wind-storms, and 
thunder-storms, must be in his prevision always, and, so far as 
watchful care can aid, in his prevention too. Thus, and only 
thus, doing his best, and not daunted because, doing his best, 
at first he fails, he shall advance, I promise him, from an 
" extra prize" to a fourth, from a fourth to a third, from a 
third to a second, and from secondary to primal honours. 

Consider the adversities which have so recently met the 
rosarian in the cruel frosts of May and in the drenching 
deluges of June, and then regard the glorious display of roses 
at Birmingham in proof of what I have said ; and let nursery- 
men remember that it is not because Messrs. Cant, and Turner, 
and Paul, and Veitch, have better soil, but because they have 
the spirit of perseverance, vigilance, and love, that they have 
triumphed ; and let amateurs be assured that Messrs. Evans, 
Laxtou, and Perry have no mysterious secrets — only a more 
patient and a more earnest devotion to the rose. Again and 
again these heroes, victorious now, have endured disappoint- 
ment and defeat ; but, like true knights and wise generals, they 
have only learned from the failure of to-day how they may 
best insure to-morrow's victory. 

The best roses in the exhibition were shown by Mr. Cant, of St. 
John's Street, Colchester, and by iVIr. Turner, of the Royal Nursery, 
Slough, the former winning the first prize for seventy-two varieties, 
and the latter the first for forty-eight, and also the first for twenty- 
four. Very grand roses they were, both as to brilliancy of colour 
and as to fulness and symmetry of form ; and the amateur will do 
well to read carefully the names of the successful flowers, and to 
order those which he does not possess. Mr. Cant also achieved the 
first prize for twelve blooms of the same rose, with a wonderful 
collection of " Dupuy Jamain," the most striking flower in the show 
as to colour, which so glowed with a violet and carmine .splendour, 
that it almost seemed to be surrounded with a halo. His rivals 
gleamed with all their rich crimson tints, but he eclipsed them all 
save one, the Duke of Edinburgh, which, grown by the same exhi- 
bitor, took the premier prize as the best single rose in the show. 
Mr. Cant was also victorious with his beautiful blooms of Countess 
of Oxford, in " the best new rose sent out by English nm-serymen in 
the spring of 1870 or 1871." 

In addition to the high honours previously referred to, Mr. Turner, 
of Slough, also won the fiirst prize for " twelve trusses of white or 
blush roses, all of one variety," with a dozen lovely specimens of the 
Baroness Rothschild. 

Mr. George Paul, of the fiirm of Paul & Sons, the Old Nurseries, 
Cheshunt, was not in his usual " form" ; but after winning some 
seventy prizes in 1871, and the principal premiums for pot roses in 
the spring of 1872, his temporary halt on the road to victory need 
cause him small discomfort, and indeed ho is one of the few success- 
ful heroes of horticulture who bear defeat with perfect complacence. 
Not that he won no glory in this great war of the roses. To be second 
in the great race of all, first for new roses, and first for roses in pots 
(the latter one of the most charming features of the show), was 
enough to transport the ordinary rosarian into a wild delirium of 
joy ; but great marshals may not be satisfied with the brilliant charge 
of a regiment, nor even ivith the success of a brigade ; and that which 
is a banquet for the dolphin is but a breakfast for the whale. 

I was glad to see that Messrs. Veitoh & Sons, who gave me brotherly 
help in establishing the first national rose show, had made great 
progress in the quality of their cut roses. They evidently aspire to 
that pre-eminence in roses which they hold in the introduction of 
new and beautiful plants ; and if they make as much improvement in 
the next two years as they have made in the two which are past, the 
high-mettled racers who run for Queen Rosa's Plates must keep 
themselves in condition, for they will certainly want all their speed. 

Two of our chief rosarians were not competing. Mr. Cranston, of 
Hereford, brought some boxes of cut blooms for the ornamentation 
of the show, the bulk of his plants not being in flower, and Mr. 
Keynes, of Salisbury, has still his triiunphs in prospect. 

The amatem-s were not quite in their usual force; but Mr. Laxtou, 
of Stamford, Mr. Perry, of Castle Bromwich, and chiefly Mr. Evans, 
of Arbmy, e.xhibited some excellent roses. I was pleased to notice 
that, though my dear old companion, the Rev. Patrick Smytho, of 
Solihull, is " lost a- while " to ns, his successor is doing ample justice 
to the rose trees, which he loved so well. 

Some of my friends who did not attend the show, may desire the 
names of those roses which seemed to be the best. There were among 
the older varieties :— Alfred Colomb, Baroness Rothschild, Beauty of 



Waltham, Centifolia Rosea, Charles Lefebvre, Devoniensis, Duke of 
Edinburgh, Francois Lonvat, General Jacqueminot, Heml Ledechaux, 
John Hopper, Madame Boll , Madame Caillat, Madame C. Joigneaux,Mar- 
guerite de St. Amand, Marie Beauman, Maurice Bernardin, Madame 
Villermoz, Marechal Niel, Monsieur Neman, Monsieur Boneennes, 
Madame Therese Levet, Marechal Vaillant, Madame Bravy, Nardy 
Freres, Pierre Netting, Senateur Vaisse, Yictor Verdier, and 
Xavier Olibo ; and among these of more recent introduction. 
Countess of Oxford, Dupuy Jamain, La Prance, Louis Van Houtte, 
BIdlle. Eugenie Verdier, Marquise de Castellane, and Paul Neron. 

Of the roses sent out in May last, the following appear to me to be 
the most promising : — Baronne Louise Uxkull, Etienne Levet, Joanne 
Gros, Lyonnais, Madame George Schwartz, President Thiers, and 
Richard Wallace. I also admire Mr. George Paul's " Annie Laxtou," 
which was raised by that clever and enthusiastic florist, Mr. Laxton, 
of Stamford, and which has received a first-class certificate. In vain I 
endeavoured, as one of the judges and as a member of the floral com- 
mittee, to obtain a similar distinction for a beautiful new English 
rose, raised by Mr. Curtis, of the Devon Nursery, Torquay, from a 
" sporting shoot " of Abel Grand, and called by him "Bessie Johnson," 
but I was opposed and frusti-ated by a member of the council of the 
Roj'al Horticultural Society, who, having first informed me that he 
had the power of recommending the rose for a certificate, refused, on 
seeing it, to do so, for reasons which he did not assign. Mr. Curtis 
may console himself with the conviction that the public will endorse 
my estimate of his rose (I heard a nurseryman, Mr. Standish, of Ascot, 
order a dozen of plants as soon as he saw it ; and I know that many 
other rosarians admire it greatly) ; but it is a great injustice to grant 
certificates, as the Royal Horticultural Society has frequently done, 
to roses raised in Prance, and not belonging exclusively to the pur- 
chaser, who has sent them for inspection, and then to refuse encourage- 
ment to a hon&fide English flower, of symmetrical form, of excellent 
habit, of a colour which we most desiderate, namely, a pale blush, 
and of a fragrance hardly sui-passed by any rose in cultivation. 



EOYAL HOETICULTURAL SOCIETY'S ROSE SHOW. 

(July 3kd.) 
Seldoji have we seen the Queen of Flowers showu bettor than on this 
occasion. Nui-serymen and amateurs keenly contested, and both ex- 
hibited blooms of sterhug merit. The freshness of the flowers was quite 
captivating, and when shown in threes, accompanied by a few leaves, 
they were highly effective. There was only one collection in pots, and 
that was furnished by Messrs. Paul &, Sou, the excellence of whose 
flowers, notwithstanding the lateness of the season, was something 
remarkable. In the nurserymen's class of seventy-two cut blooms distinct 
kinds, equal first prizes were awarded to Messrs. Paul & Sou, and to 
Mr. Cant, of Colchester. Other classes were equally well represented. 
In the amateurs' collection, some showed their hlooms to better advantage 
than others by raising them a little above the moss ; thus situated they 
look much better than when laid flat on the surface. Amongst the best 
roses brought forward at this show may be mentioned Alfred Colomb, 
Senateur Vaise, Queen Victoria, Xavier Olibo, a fine dark velvety red, 
Dulce of Edinbm-gh, Louis Van Houtte, a tine darl; kind, Marechal Vaillant, 
Baroness de Rothschild, Baron Rothschild, a beautiful flower. Prince Camillo 
de Rohan, and Alfred de Rougement, an exceedingly fine dark colom-ed 
velvety sort. In single trusses in hud, Messrs. Veitch & Sons came off 
first with some ijretty examples of Homer, which, from its peculiarly 
debcate colour, appeared quite strikiug amongst its associates, Madame 
Falcot, Mous. Purtado, Souvenir de Ehse, Devoniensis, and Niphetos. 
Prizes were ofiered for good sweet-scented Roses (exclusive of Teas and 
Noisettes), but they did not bring forward the competition one might 
have expected. Firrt in this class was Mr. Keynes with a stand of six 
blooms of La France. The same exhibitor also took another first prize 
for the best sweet-scented Tea or Noisette Rose with Devoniensis. 

Now Roses were not plentiful. Messrs. Paul & Sou furnished Annie 
Laxton, a beautiful pink ; W. Wilson Saunders, a fine double dark coloured 
kind; Princess Christina, a good closely bloomed pink variety; and 
Reynolds Hole, a dark, velvety, double flower, certainly one of the finest, 
if not the very finest Rose in the show. 

First-class certificates were awarded to Lilium Humholdtii, a beautiful 
deep orange-coloured kind witli very distinct small spots regularly distri- 
buted over the petals, which are a good deal reflcxed ; to L. Martagon 
dalmaticum, a small flowered dark brown or rather bluish-purple kind, 
quite distinct from anything which we have hitherto had ; both of these 
came from G. F. Wilson, Esq. Similar awards were also made to 
Macrozamia corallipcs, and to Echcvcria scapaphylla, a hybrid between 
agavoides and linguaifolia, from Mr. W. Bull ; to Rose Annie Laxton, 
from Messrs. Paul & Sou ; to Verbena Lady of Lornc, white shaded with 
pui-ple, and producing fine large trusses, from Messrs. W. H. Staeey & 
Son ; to pyramidal Stock Mauve Beauty, from Mr. R. Dean, of Ealing, 
a iiue double kind ; and to the following Pelargoniums, viz., Empress 
and Gem of Tricolors, both tricolor kinds from Mr. C. Kimberley, Stoke, 
near Coventry ; Argus, an ivy-leaved kind, from Mr. G. Smith, Hornsey 
Road ; and to a beautiful tricolor, named Mrs. Lning. Several miscel- 
laneous subjects were also showu. 



July 13, 1872.] 



THE GARDEN. 



23 




" This is an art 
^V^^icll does mend nature : change it rather ; but 
The Akt itself is Natuke." — Shalcespea/re. 



THE HORTICULTURAL "CONGRESS' 
BIRMINGHAM. 



AT 



Circumstances have till this year prevented me from attending 
any of the provincial congresses of the Royal Horticultural 
Society, and I regret to say I have been anything but edified 
by the one that has just taken place. A roomy tent is occupied 
at one end by a few dozen persons of the gardening fraternity, 
the rest of the space being filled more or less by visitors to 
the show driven in by passing showers. At hand there is a 
great noise, which to those not very acute of hearing seems 
to be the distant sound of the cheers of inebriated men ; but it 
is explained by the immediate proximity of the poultry show. 
The chairman, Lord Bradford, is absent ; and, after some delay, 
Mr. Moore begins his paper on " Recent Progress in Practical 
Horticulture." This, curiously enough, had nothing to do with 
what deserves the name of " progress " in horticulture, but 
was a mere list of our latest plant introductions and most 
meritorious seedlings. The list, like all Mr. Moore's work, 
showed his wide and exact knowledge of the various types of 
garden vegetation ; but was, after all, simply the sort of thing 
published towards the end of the year by our gardening 
contemporaries. To this we have, perhaps, no right to object ; 
but on an occasion of this kind, when there is so much to SEE, 
and when most of us have to go home before we have half 
completed our survey, it is scarcely considerate to induce us, by 
" taking titles," to listen to such a well-known resuiue. 
Several reporters attended the "congress," and awaited the 
beginning of operations with the usual attentive attitude which 
these gentlemen assume; but after a few minutes they laid 
down their pencils, soon to disappear altogether. Mr. 
Wm. Paul read a sensible paper on tree form, and several 
other papers were read, for the discussion of which there was 
no time to spare. 

On the first day Professor Dyer read a paper on some points 
in connection with the scientific side of horticulture, and on 
the second Mr. Moore read his paper above alluded to. 

The accuracy of the division of the subjects into " scientific " 
and " practical " may be judged from the lists of papers, which 
, were as follows : — 

The First, ok " Scientific," Day. 

The Botany of the Neighbour- 
hood of BiiToingham. 

On the Relative Influence of 
Parentage in Flowering Plants. 

On some Thermometers for 
Horticultural use. 

On DracEena and CordyHne. 

On Sulphozone. 

On the use of Glass and other 
Protective Materials in Horti- 
culture. 

On Canker in Fruit Trees. 

There is, of course, no more distinction in the nature of 
these subjects than among apples from the same orchard. No 
notice whatever was given of what papers were to be read, and 
no one was prepared to discuss them. As we presume those 
who read the papers did not intend them for the special 
information of the few dozen persons who attended the 
meeting, it would be very desirahle to make provision to place 
such papers at once at the disposal of all who care to print 
them. As it is, one of our contemporaries only is aware of 
what papers are to be read. It is to be hoped that this one- 
sidedness merely requires to be pointed out to be remedied. 

At the end of Mr. Peach's paper on bedding out, the Rev. 



The Second, ok "Pkactical" Day. 

On Form in the Tree Scenery of 
om- Gardens, Parks, and Pleasure 
Grovxnds. 

Hints on the Formation and 
Arrangement of Shrubberies. 

On the Bedding-out System. 

On Stapelias, their Culture and 
Peculiarities. 

The Future of our Fjniit Crops. 

On Alpine Plants. 

The Cottage Garden. 



Reynolds Hole asked permission to say a few words, and was 
informed that he might do so " for three miniites." Mr. Hole 
began by remarking that however agreeable the mixture of 
poultry and gardening information might be in a journal with 
which most of his hearers were well acquainted, he did not 
think the immediate neighbourhood of such a vast collection 
of cocks and hens exactly the right place for a horticultural con- 
gress. He then indignantly protested against the erroneous 
division of the subjects of the " congress " into " scientific 
and practical " so called, and very justly stated that if any 
such arbitrary divisions were necessary, the gardeners — those 
who produced the display — those who worked heart and soul 
in the art, for the encouragement of which the Royal Horti- 
cultural Society was founded, and by which it lives — were 
entitled to the precedence. 

Remedies for the state of things above pointed out at once 
suggest themselves. A sixbject of great importance should 
be selected for sole discussion at each annual meeting, and 
one or two able papers should be read upon it by com- 
petent persons. These papers should not be mere inco- 
herent scraps, nor need they be long to weariness. A free 
discussion might follow. The subject should, of course, be 
inade known long beforehand. Then all iuterested would be 
prepared, and if the theme were well selected, and had a 
prospect of being discussed in a proper manner, it is probable 
that numbers would be attracted to the exhibition, mainly by 
the congress. The whole might of the horticultural mmd 
would be brought to bear on the subject for months before- 
hand, and we might look for some really fresh and stimulating 
views or facts ; at least we should be certain of a very pleasant 
meeting. 

Then, again, the congress should be held in the evening, and 
in some suitable buildiug in the town near where the exhibition 
takes place. These shows are so large, that for those who can 
spare one day or those who can spare six, all our time is 
required for seeing the many beautiful and novel objects 
brought forward. Therefore many can ill spare a few hours 
in the day time, who could easily attend an evening reunion. 
Lastly, the subject should not only be purely horticultural, 
but of the highest horticultui'al importance. The aim and 
object of the Society should never be forgotten. 

We do not hear of builders, or engineers, or architects, or 
artists, assembling to Usten to essays qu.ite foreign to their 
respective arts or sciences. Perhaps the intrusion of such 
subjects at our gardening meetings accounts for the absence 
of the class the meetings were intended to enlighten. 

It would certainly be better to give up these congresses 
altogether, or make a bold effort to put life in them. These 
z-emarks are not intended merely as appUcable to the present 
congress, or to the management of it by the learned gentleman, 
the professor of botany of the Society. He, there is reason to 
believe, greatly desh-es the improvement of the congress, 
which, as everybody knows, has been a, fiasco from the begin- 
ning, before his connection with it To go on as at present, 
will not merely be a loss to horticulture, but a disgrace to it. 

H. N. 



The Parcel Post and the Transit of Plants and Cuttings- 

— The advantages and economy of the facilities now offered by 
the post-office for sending parcels safely and cheaply by post can 
hardly be over-estimated by amateur gardeners and others fond of 
flowers, but hitherto prevented from indulging their tastes except 
in the most meagre way, because of the expense and trouble of pro- 
curing flowering plants. To those who reside at a distance from 
florists and nurserymen, and in the country generally, and who are 
therefore prevented from making personal visits of inspection and 
carrying off their purchases with them, the parcel post is the greater 
boon. They are now saved the anxiety and vexation caused by 
delays and their consequences, and receive their parcels with all the 
certainty and despatch which reflect so mnch credit on our postal 
system and its administration. Many nursei'ymen and florists in 
different partsaregivingtheir customers and the publicthe full benefit 
of this facility, by preparing and packing plants and cuttings to be 
sent by parcel post. This fact is not yet so widely known as it 
should be, especially in rural parts, and wo are only doing our duty in 
drawing the attention of our readers to it. We can assure them that 
the method is both safe and economical, a saving being effected not 
alone on the carriage, but also on the prices of the plants. 



THE GAEDEN. 



[July 13, 1872. 



NOTES OF THE WEEK. 



the inde- 
discoverecT 



TfE learn that Mr. Jameg Backhouse, of York, 

fatigable observer of our British alpine plants, has 
Cystopteris alpina in the north of England. 

The flowers which the orange trees in the gardens of the 

Tnileries and Luxembourg will bear this year, are now being sold in 
Paris by public auction. 

That fine shrub Fremontia calif omica, is now forming seed- 
pods in the Coombe Wood Kursery; it has been flowering abundantly 
for the past eight weeks, 

A COLLECTION of Italian cottons, in the raw condition, has 

been formed by the Chevalier Jervis, Curator of the Industrial 
Museum, Turin, and sent to the cotton department of the Inter, 
national Exhibition, with a maji showing the districts in Italy where 
the cotton is under cultivation. 

DiCE.VTBA CHKTSANTH.A is One of the finest herbaceous plants 

we have had for a long time. It is now covered with its golden 
yellow flowers, which contrast beautifully with the glaucous green 
foliage. The plant is about four feet high, and as much through, 
and is a mass of bloom from bottom to top. 

Ax attempt is being made to acclimatise in Europe the Xew 

Grenada Coriaria thymifolia, or ink plant. The sap which flows 
from this plant is called chauchi ; it is reddish at first, but after- 
wards becomes intensely black. This ink can be used without any 
preparation, and does not injure steel pens as much as ordinary ink, 
while, at the same time, it is more enduring. 

The night-blooming Cereiis (C. grandiSoms) has been 

lately flowering in great perfection in Mr. Ceely's conservatory, at 
St. Mary's, where on some nights it opened as many as twenty 
flowers. As most of our readers doubtless know, the flowers of this 
and some other neai'Iy-allied species of Cactus only come forth at 
night, and their existence is limited to one night ; on the following 
morning they close up, and are seen no more. 

Two handsome species of Flax, introduced by Messrs. 

Backhouse, of Tork, about two years ago, are now flowering in the 
neighbourhood of London. They are Linum salsoloides and L. vis- 
cosnm. The first has narrow heath-like leaves and white flowers 
with a purplish eye and is growing on the rockwork at Kew ; L. vis- 
cosum may be seen at the Hale Farm ISTurseries, Tottenham ; it has 
downy leaves and pale purplish rose-coloured flowers, which are pro- 
duced in great abundance. 

We have just received from the Rev. Harper Crewe one 

of the most beautiful flowers we have ever seen. It is a large pure 
white single rose, supposed to be of Russian origin. At first sight it 
seemed like a very large flower of the Gum Cistns. It has a delicious 
and somewhat peculiar scent. We hope that the presence of so 
many fine doable roses in our garden will not be considered a reason 
for not growing this and some others of the fine single kinds. The 
plant flowered in Mr. Crewe's garden at Drayton-Beauchamp, and is 
of course quite hardy. 

Several gentlemen of New York city have projected the 

establishment of a botanical garden in Madison Avenue, where 
there is to be erected a substantial and ornate glass and iron 
structure for the reception and exhibition of plants from all parts of 
the world. It is proposed to make this not only a perpetual plant 
exposition, and hence a place of pubhc resort, but to establish in 
connection therewith a school of botany. 

Lilies are now in all their glory of bloom in our gardens. 

The much-admired Lilium auratum is flowering as freely in the open 
air, in beds of peaty or other light soil, as the common orange Lily of 
our cottage gardens, though the severe season we have had has 
been unusually hard upon them. In Mr. Wilson's garden, at 
Weybridge Heath, where there is such a fine collection of 
Lilies thoroughly well-grown, long and -vigorous shoots of Lilium 
speciosum and its varieties, arc now shooting forth here and there 
from a bank of Rhododendrons, and by and bye will be very beautiful 
seen in that position. 

The Livei-pool Improvement Committee have recommended 

that the rockwork required at the road crossing the valley at Sef ton 
Park should be executed at 25s. per cubic yard, the amount not to 
exceed £75. Confirmation of this recommendation having been 
moved, Lieut.-Colonel Steble said that although the amount was small, 
he should like to know that this was the last of the recommendations 
as to the ornamentation of the park. Alderman Weightman said the 
first estimate of Messrs. Andre and Homblower for the work was 
£'1,500 ; this was reduced by the sub-committee to £800, and if the 
present recommendation was agreed to, the amount would be reduced 
to something like £200. The committee were desirong of reducing 
the expenditure on the park as much as possible. 



The pretty Callistemon rigidnm, a shrubby plant from 

Australia, is now flowering freely, trained against a wall in the Royal 
Gardens, Kew, a position in which it has stood for several years. 

We understand that her Majesty, the ex-Empress of tho 

French, visited Messrs. Jackman's nursery at Woking the other day 
to see their fine collection of Clematises, which are now coming into 
full bloom. 

The march of improvement will, we hope, never cease, and 

it has at last reached Golden Square, Soho. We were glad to see 
some fine masses of lilies warming up the old square with bright 
colour the other day. 

A Frenxh writer says that Centranthus macrosiphon makes 

an excellent salad. Salad-famine during the war led to its discover)', 
or rather to its use. The plant is an annual, well known to growers 
of annual flowers. 

A PEErrY species of Loose-strife (Lythram flexuosuni) is 

flowering at Mr. Ware's nursery, Tottenham. It is a rare species, 
growing from six to nine inches high, and produces a profusion of 
rosy-purple flowers. 

Mr. Pe.acock's magnificent coUeotion of succulents is gaining 

for itself a world-wide notoriety. It formed a remai-kable feature of 
the Royal Horticultural Society's show at Birmingham ; and this 
week it has been visited by the distinguished foreigners from Burmah 
now amongst us. 

The cultivation of the poppy iu France is steadily increasing ; 

it now occupies about 50,000 acres, of the value of 4,500,000 francs, 
yielding opium to the value of 2,000,000 francs per year. Difierent 
samples of opium raised in various parts in Europe yield from eight 
to thirteen per cent, of morphine. 

Pkinxe Arthur, on the invitation of the Corporation of 

Leeds, has, we understand, consented to visit that town on September 
19th, when he T\-ill open Roundhay Park, which has been purchased 
by the Town Council for a people's park. It is 600 acres in extent, 
>ind has been purchased at a cost of £139,000. It contains a magni- 
ficent lake, covering thirty-sis acres. 

■ Rochester Castle Garden's were opened to the public the 

other day by the mayor, in the presence of a large company. The 
gardens have been taken on lease by the Corporation from Lord 
Jersey. A public subscription has been raised for the purpose of 
laying them out and for other work, which has ' already cost more 
than £2,000. We gave a view of the design, which is wretched in 
the extreme, some time ago. 

Lovers of alpine plants will be glad to leara that our esteemed 

correspondent, Mr. J. C. Kiven, of the Hull Botanic Gardens, is to 
edit another volume of " Alpine Plants," the work begun by Mr. 
Wooster. This is fortunate, both for the book and the cultivator of 
these charming flowers, as Mr. Niven has devoted many years of 
loving attention to them, and it would be difficult to find anybody 
so well qualified to write on them. 

• How beautiful are the rock roses now ! And well-named 

" rock roses," for no single rose exceeds them in bright beauty of 
colour and profuse flowering qualities. They are happiest ou poor, 
light, and dry soils, but thrive in any well-drained soil. They are 
among the finest of our neglected shrubs. We hope somebody with 
a garden on a warm soil will study the family thoroughly, and find 
out for us how many kinds will really survive on ordinary soils. 

The most beautiful hardy shrub now in flower in our gardens 

is the white Spirasa arieefolia. Its elegant flowers, seen among oui 
common shrubs, seem like tossed spray on a sunny sea. At present 
such noble shrubs are usually thrust into a shrubbex'v, and there 
allowed to take their chance. Obviously such fine subjects would 
look much better isolated on the turf, or associated in small irre- 
gular groups, so that each might show its character, and the whole 
have a picturesque effect. When we pay as much attention to taste- 
fully arranging such noble and long-lived shrubs as we do to those 
which last only a few months in beauty, we shall find a rich 
reward. 



The Nine Hours' Movement. — The world has sympathised 
mth this movement. Now let the world read the following advertise- 
ment, which appeared the other day in a London paper : — " Covent 
Garden Market, Central Avenue. — '\V'anted, immediately, four or five 
strong, active, healthy, hard-working girls for bouquet-making, &c. 
Early risers indispensable. Usual hours of business from five o'clock 
a.m. until eleven o'clock p.m. Applications to be made to the Florist's." 
From five a.m. to eleven p.m. is not nine but eighteen hours, leaving 
six hours a day for exercise, sleep, toilet, improvement of the mind, 
home life, and recreation. How long would a " strong, active, 
healthy, and hard-working girl " hold out at such work, and what 
kind of human creature would she bo after about five years of it ? 



July 13, 1872.] 



THE GARDEN. 



25 



HAEDY PLANTS IN FLOWER ROUND LONDON. 
(From July 4th to July IOtu, lnclusive.) 



BY OUR OWK REPORTERS. 



Achillea 

decolorans 
Aconitiim 

Napellus al- 
bum. 
Actinomeris 

altemifoiia 

heliautlioides 

oppos it i folia 
Alfrcclia 

ccmua 
Alisma 

lanceolata 

Plantago 
Allium 

acuminatum 

aiig'ulosxim 

nutans 

sphrerocepha- 
lum. 
AltbEea 

ocbroleuca 

officinalis 

rosea vars. 
Amaryllis 

longif olia rosea 
Anchusa 

officinalis in- 
camata 
Antennaria 

margaritacea 
Anthemis 

Kitaibelii 
Anthericum 

Dorsetii 
Asclepias 

Douglasii 

princeps 
Aster 

albescens 

glaucus 

pyrenaeus 
Astragalus 

alpinus 
Bocconia 

cordata 
Brachycome 

iberidifolia 
Butomus 

umbellatus 
CalamagTostis 

Epigejos 
Calamintlia 

alpina 
Callichroa 

platyglossa 
Callistemon 

rigidum 
Calystegia 

daburica 

grandiflora 

infiata 

pubescens plena 
Campanula 

Grossekii 

sarmatica 
Ceanothus 

Amoldii 
Centaurea 

depressa rosea 
,, uniflora 
Cbamsepeuce 

Cassabonie 



Plants in thia list are almost without exception such as have come into 
bloom, during the past week. 



Cineraria 


Jasione 


Phyteuma 


acanthi folia 


pumila 


limonifolium 


Cii-sium 


Jasminum 


spicatum 


acaule 


pubigerum 


Platycodon 


Douglasii 


Lathyrus 


gi-andiflorum 


Clematis 


alatus 


vars. 


cylindrica 


incur vus 


Polemonium 


hybrida 


Lavatera 


ca^ruleum 


Vioma 


unguiculata 


variegatum 


CoUomia 


Ligularia 


Prunella 


gi-andiflora 


speciosa 


vulgaris laci- 


Convol\-ulus 


Liati-is 


niata 


Scammonia 


elegans 


Rhodotypos 


Coreopsis 


squan-osa 


kerrioides 


gi-andiflora 


Lilixun 


Rhus 


tenuifolia 


am-atum 


glabra 


Cyananthus 


Martagon 


Rumes: 


lobatus 


Catanii 


Hytb-olapathum 


Datura 


superbuin 


Salvia 


ceratocaulon 


testaceum 


bracteata 


Stramonium 


Linaria 


Sapouaria 


Dianthus 


origanifolia 


calabricaalba 


pruinosus 


pilosa 


Scolymus 


sinensis vars. 


sasatilis 


gi-andiflorus 


Echinops 


Linum 


Sedum 


ruthenicus 


salsoloides 


angulatum 


Epilobium 


Loasa 


atratum 


palustre 


tricolor 


cau-uleum 


rosmarini- 


Lonicera 


Hillebrandtii 


folium 


bracbypoda 


ibericum 


Erica 


anreo -reticu- 


Masimowiczii 


vagans 


lata 


sempervirens 


„ camea 


Lopezia 


spm-ium vars. 


Eryngium 


coronata 


Tinilustrianum 


marittmum 


Lythrum 


Sempervivum 


Escallonia 


americanum 


alpinum 


illinita 


diffusum 


assimile 


Escbscholtzia 


tomentosum 


Delassianum 


tenuifolia 


ilalva 


fimbriatum 


Francoa 


moschata 


Spbenogyne 


sonchifolia 


„ alba 


speciosa 


Frankenia 


llenziesia 


Spii'sea 


Ifevis 


erecta 


alpina 


Fremontia 


Micromeria 


pennsylvanica 


calif omica 


Piperella 


saUcifoha pani- 


Gaultheria 


Monarda 


culata 


procumbens 


didyma 


venusta 


Genista 


Monolopia 


Stachys 


ansantica 


major 


arenaria 


radiata 


Myosotis 


Statice 


triquetra 


palustris 


latifolia 


Gentiaua 


CEnothera 


nana 


asclepiadea 


Lamarckiaiia 


occiden talis 


C'atesbfei 


Youngii 


tatarica 


Gilia 


Ononis 


Stipa 


achillesfolia 


arvensis 


gigantea 


capitata 


spinosa 


Tanacetum 


„ alba 


Onopordon 


boreale 


Navarettia 


gTfficum 


Teucrium 


Glaucium 


iUyricum 


chama?tb-ys 


fulvum 


tauricum 


Ti-ifoUum 


Grindelia 


Osytropis 


repens penta- 


liii-sutula 


glabra 


phyllum 


Hypericum 


Palava 


Tritoma 


calycinum 


flesuosa 


Uvaria 


ciliatum 


Peganum 


,, gi-andis 


dalmaticum 


Hai-mala 


Tunica 


dentatum 


Pentstemon 


Sasifraga 


lineari folium 


barbatus Tov- 


Yucca 


Iberis 


reyi 


flaccida 


jucunda 


Phlox 


glaucescens 


umbellata 


decnssata vai-s. 


Zapania 


Inula 


Pisum 


nodiflora 


saUcifolia 


umbellatum 





PRIZE ESSAY ON THE POTATO CROP * 

BY GEORGE MAW, E.S.A., G.S,, L.S. 
The strikiiig evidence obtained from a few experiments made during 
the year ISB-t with the object of ascertaining the sized potato-set 
most profitable to plant, induced me during the past year to cany 
out a more extensive series on a systematic scheme. 129 trial 
plots were arranged with special reference to the following questions, 
which I propose to consider under separate heads : — 

1. As to the influence of the size of the set on the economic 
results of the crop ; i. e., whether any increase, and to what extent, 
is obtained over and above the extra weight of the set, in the 
planting of large in lien of small sets. 

2. As to the influence on the crop of the distance at which the 

* ** Results of Esperiments on the Potato Crop, with reference to the most 
Profitable Size of the Sets, the Influence of Thicli and Thin Plantinjir, tfcc." 
Prize Essay. By George Maw, F.S.A., G.S., L.S. Extracted fi-om the Jounwl 
of the Jiotfal Agncultitval Societi/. 



sets are planted ; or the results of close and wide planting of 
various sized potatoes. 

3. As to the comparative results from planting similar weights of 
large and of small potatoes per acre. 

4. As to the relative advantages of cut and whole sets. 

5. As to the influence of thick and thin planting, and of the size 
of the set, on the proportion borne between the weights of the sets 
and the weight of the crop, and the rate of increase under various 
conditions. 

6. As to the relative productiveness of different varieties of 
potato. 

Much diversity of opinion seems to prevail on these points, which 
are of economical importance in relation to both the farm and 
garden cultivation of the crop. The selection of the potato-sets 
appears commonly to be more a matter of present expediency than 
prospective profit. The general com-se is to appropriate the largest 
for use, the very smallest for pig.feeding, the tubers of intermediate 
size being preserved for replanting; this methed of assortment 
results in the use of sets of from two to three ounces in weight, 
and a set of less than two ounces is as often planted as one exceeding 
three or four ounces. Our primary question is whether an increase 
in the size of the set will produce an excess above the extra weight 
of the sets planted; such extra weight going to increase the 
strength of the individual sets -nnthout increasing their number ? 

Eveiy precaution was taken to insure the most perfect uniformity 
in the conditions under which the various experiments were made. 
The manure was separately weighed out, and distributed on each 
twenty superficial feet of ground. The distance — two feet — 
between the rows was the same throughout the trial ground ; and 
to counteract the influence of any slight variations in the character 
of the soil, the particular experiments that would be brought into 
immediate comparison were placed as nearly as possible in juxta- 
position. External rows were rejected for the experiments, and 
planted with part of the ordinary crop ; and every individual set 
was separately weighed and selected to the specified size, and 
planted to measure, at precise distances. 

Notwithstanding these precautions, there was a want of cor. 
respondence iu many of the individual results, which I would notice 
as a warning against depending on the evidence of single experiments : 
for instance, in plots planted under precisely the same conditions, 
and with no apparent difference in the appearance of the crops, the 
produce varied to the extent of several tons per acre. Similar 
inequalities, apparently unaccountable, will be found in all agri. 
cultural crops, and in the conduct of experiments every care should 
be taken that they are fully recognized in the calculation of results. 
Under the head of "Accidental Variations of Result" at the end 
of the report, I shall consider this subject more in detail, and 
endeavour to show the extent to which these adventitious irregulari- 
ties affect the general tenor of the experiments. It remains now 
to consider separately the various points to which the experiments 
relate. 

It will be found that I have in no case relied on isolated results, 
but drawn the conclusions from the general bearing of the series. 
Throughout the report the term "gross crop" will apply to the 
whole weight of potatoes produced per acre, and "net crop" to 
the balance of produce after deducting the weight of the sets from 
which it was grown. 

1. The influence of the size of the set on the economic results of 
the crop ; or whether any increase, and to what extent, is obtained 
over and above the increased weight of the set in the planting of 
large in the Ueu of small sets : — Several separate series of experi- 
ments may be cited in evidence of the influence of the weight of the 
set on the produce of the crop. An average of from ten to thirteen 
experiments 'with different varieties, planted one foot apart in the 
rows, gave the following results ; — 

Gross Eetura per Acre. 

Average of 13 varieties, 1 oz, sets 
„ 13 ,, 2 oz. sets 

,, 12 „ 4 oz. sets 

,, 9 „ 6 oz. sets 

,, 6 ,, 8 oz. sets 

After deducting the weight of the sets, the net balances of pro- 
duce per acre wiU stand as foUows : — 

tons. cwts. qrs. lbs. o?s. 

or 1666 per set. 

7i or 19-03 „ 

24 or 21-39 „ 

16i or 27-« „ 

16 or 30-67 „ 

The following are the amounts of nei profit per acre for each oii 
in the increase in the weight of the sets, from 1 oz. up to 8 ozs. (each 



ons 


cwts 


qrs 


lbs. 




ozs. 


10 


19 


3 


17 


or 


17-60 per 


12 


15 


2 


14 


or 


21-03 , 


13 


17 


2 


IfiiS- 


or 


23-39 


20 


16 


1 


9 


or 


33-44. , 


23 


B 


1 


11 


or 


38-67 



rage of 13 varieties, 1 oz. sets . 


. 9 


17 


3 


„ 13 „ 2 oz. sets . 


. 11 


11 


1 


„ 12 „ 4 oz. sets . 


. 13 


9 





„ 9 „ 6 oz. sets . 


. 16 


13 


1 


„ 6 „ 8 oz. sets . 


. 18 


11 






26 



THE GARDEN. 



[July IS, 1872. 



oz. in the weigM of the set occupying 2 square feet, being equiva- 
lent to 12 cwts. 17i lbs. per acre) of seed : — 

tons. cwts. qrs. lbs. 

From 1 to 2 ozs 1 13 2 7i 

,, 2 to 4 ozs., for each extra oz 18 3 14 

„ 4 to 6 ozs. ., 1 12 21 

„ 6 to 8 ozs. „ 18 3 14 

The average of a number of experiments with different varieties 
planted 9 inches apart in the rows, gave very similar results as 
follows : — 

Gross Returns per Acre. 

tons. cwts. qrs. lbs. ozs. 

Average of 11 varieties, 1 oz. sets ... 10 12 23 or 11-21 per set. 
„ 12 „ 2oz. sets ... 15 2 2 11 or IS'IS „ 

„ 6 „ 4oz. sets ... 17 17 3 12 or 21-99 ,, 

After deducting the weight of the sets, the net balances of jiro- 
duce per acre stand thus : — 

tons. cwts. qrs. lbs. ozs. 

Average of 11 varieties, 1 oz. sets ... 16 or 13-21 per set. 
„ 12 ,, 2oz. sets ... 13 10 21 or 16-43 „ 

„ 6 ,, 4oz. sets ... 11 13 4 or 17-90 ,, 

The average produce of a number of varieties planted at intervals 
of 6 inches in the row, also exhibited similar advantages in favour of 
the larger sets, viz. : — 

Gross Returns per Acre. 

tons. cwts. qrs. lbs. ozs. 

Average of H varieties, 1 oz. sets ... 13 4 1 20 or 10-85 per set. 
„ 10 ,, 2oz. sets ... 15 19 12 or 13-15 „ 

„ 3 ,, 4oz. sets ... 22 2 3 or 18-11 „ 

After deducting the weight of the sets the net balances of produce 
per acre stand thus : — 

tons. cwts. qrs. lbs. ozs. 

Average of 11 varieties, 1 oz. sets ... 12 13i or 9-86 per set. 






, 2 oz. sets . 


. 13 


10 


1 


27 


or 


11-15 


3 


, 4 oz. sets . 


. 17 


3 


1 


6 


or 


14-11 



Every step in each of these three series of experiments gives, 
without an exception, unequivocal evidence that each increase in the 
weight of the set produces more than a corresponding increase in 
the weight of the crop. The following statement will, however, show 
that the adva-utage in the employment of large sets is much less 
striking in the early than in the late varieties ; out of the examples 
before given the produce of the early varieties, planted one foot 
apart in the row, exhibit the following result : — 

Gross Crop. Net. 

tons. cwts. qrs. lbs. tons, cwts, qrs. lbs. 

Average of 7 early varieties, 1 oz. sets 9 3 3 26 8 11 3 8j 

„ 7 „ 2 oz. sets 10 14 2 17 9 10 1 lOS 

„ 6 ,, 4oz. sets 13 19 7J 11 10 1 22-1 

„ 6 „ 6 oz. sets 15 6 22 11 13 1 2i 

„ 2 „ Soz. sets 7 17 21 2 19 3 23" 

Although there is throughout an increase over and above the extra 

weight of the sets, the advance between the larger sizes is not very 

marked, and is much below that wherein the early and late sets are 

averaged together. There is even a falling off in the produce of the 

8 oz. sets, in comparison with those weighing 6 ozs. ; but this is 

partl.Y from accidental circumstances ; the 8 oz. sets being much 

sprouted before planting, indeed all the larger sets of the early 

varieties were much more advanced than those of smaller size. 

After separating the early sorts from the geuei-al averge results of 

early and late, the average produce of the late varieties, taken sejia- 

rately, will stand as follows : — 

Gross Crop. Net. 

tons. cwts. qrs. lbs, tons. cwts. qrs. lbs. 
Average of 6 late varieties, 1 oz. sets 13 15 11 7 3 26 
„ 6 „ 2 oz. sets 15 3 1 19 13 19 13 

„ 6 „ 4 oz. sets 17 16 24 15 7 2 11 

„ 3 ,, Boz. sets 30 6 2 11 26 13 2 19 

,1 4 ,, 8oz. sets 31 3 3 24 26 6 2 26 

(To be contimied.) 



Advertising Cabbage Seeds.— MiUaud, the banker and news- 
paper speculator, who died a little whUe back in Paris, and who founded 
the Paris Petit Jo«)-Ha?, which at one time had a daily circulation of 
nearly half a million copies, was an enthusiastic believer in the advantages 
of liberal advertising. One day he had at his table nearly all the 
proprietors of the leading Paris dailies. They conversed about advertising. 
MUlaud asserted that the most worthless articles could be sold in vast 
quantities, if liberally advertised. Emile de Girardin, of La Prrsse, who 
was present, look issue with him on the subject. " What will you bet," 
exclaimed MUlaud, " that I cannot sell in one week one hundred 
thousand francs' worth of the most common cabbage seed under the pretext 
that it will produce mammoth cabbage heads ^ All I have to do is to 
advertise^it at once in a whole-page insertion of the daily papers of 
this city." Girardin replied that ho would give him a page in his paper 
for nothing if ho should win his wager. The other newspaper publishers 
agi-eed to do the same thing. At the expiration of the week they inquu-ed 
of Millaud how the cabbage seed had flourished. He showed them his 
books triumphantly, and satisfied them that he had sold nearly t-n-ice 
asmuch as he had promised, while orders were still pouring in ; "but ho 
said the jolce must stop there, and no further orders would be fulfilled. 



THE PROPAGATOR. 

THE ART OF GRAFTING-. 
{Continued from Vol. I., p. 713.) 
Group 4. — Cleft- GKAj'Tra&. 

General Directions. — This method is employed for pro- 
pagating the greater part of woody deciduous trees and 
Ijlants. The sciou is a portion of a bi'anoh furnished with 
one eye or several. For a young stock a short scion is to be 
preferred. If the stock is a large tree, in a cold but rich soil, 
and in a damp climate, scions with four or five eyes are pre- 
ferable to shorter ones ; while, ou the other hand, iu poor soil, 
and in a -warm dry climate, short ones are best. 

Let us take a medium-sized one, with two or three buds, 
and three or four inches in length. Iu preparing it, we cut 
the lower part on two sides, so as almost to resemble two 
sides of a triangle. We say almost, as the two sides do not 
meet in a sharp edge until near the point ; a strip of bark 
being often left, which gradually widens from the point to 
the top of the cutting. Opposite this edge is the back of the 
cutting (which is not touched with the knife), commencing 
immediately uuder an eye, and ending iu a point at the lower 
extremity of the sciou. In some cases we shall see that we 
can continue to have a bud on the back of the cutting ; and in 
some modes of cleft -grafting the scion is cut with an even 
face on both sides, instead of being wedge-shaped or 




Preparation of the Cleft-Graft. 

triangular in form. "When it is desired to set the scion 
evenly on the stock, a small horizontal or oblicjue notch 
is cut on each side at the top of the sloping- cut. The pre- 
paration of the scion is eiiected more easily by holding it 
extended along the forefinger of the left hand. With the 
grafting-knife iu the right hand, it is cut and smoothed down 
on both sides ; the least inequality or roughness would be an 
obstacle to its perfect coincidence with the stock ; the point 
should be slightly blunted in order to facilitate its slipping in 
smoothly. "VVe may remark, as a useful hint to beginners, that 
the operaAiOv has more power and command of his implement 
if he keeps his elbows close to his sides. "Whether the stock 
be entire or provisionally headed down, it is finally cut at the 
moment of the operation at the place destined to receive the 
graft, in order that the grafting may be pei'formed on a freshly- 
cut surface. "When the saw or the secateur is used for this 
purpose, the cut is smoothed down with the pruning-kuife, so 
as to remove all inequalities from the surface. If the stem is 
of medium thickness, not more than one graft is made on it, 
and the cut is made in a slightly oblique direction ; but if the 
strength of the stock requires several grafts, then the cut is 
made horizontally (for crown or cleft-grafting). Clef t-graf ting 
is effected with one or several scions ; the various processes 
consist in employing them either when woody or herbaceous ; 
in spring, summer, or autumn on the body of the tree, on the 
top, or at the angle of the branches. — G. Ballet. 
(To he coiitinued.) 



Grafting-Wax. — This is an article that everybody should keep 
on hand, ready for use whenever needed, for it is valuable for 
various other purposes besides that of grafting. Wounds made in 
j)runing largo trees will heal over much sooner if coated with this 
wax ; and if a piece of bark is accidentally stripped from a tree, the 
place should be covered over with it, and the wood will remain sound 
and healthy underneath. There are several receipts for preparing 
this wax, and I have found the following better than any one tried : — 
Molt in a basin one pound of tallow, two pounds of bees-wax and four 
pounds of resin ; stir well together, and keep in a cool place in the 
dish in which it was melted. If bees-wax is a very costlj' item, 
one-third less quantity can be used. 



July 13, 1872.] 



THE GAEDEN. 



27 



THE FLOWER GARDEN. 



GUNNEEA SCABRA. 
Tins vigorous and noble plant Mr. Dar-vrin met ivith in a 
region where the vegetation is so luxuriant that the branches 
of the trees extend over the sea, somewhat like those of a 
shrubbery of evergreens over a gravel walk. 

" I one day noticed," he says, " growing on the sandstone 
cliffs some vei-y fine plants of the Panke (Gunnera scabra), 
which somewhat resembles rhubarb on a gigantic scale. The 
inhabitants eat the stalks, which are sub-acid, tan leather 
with the roots, and prepare a black dye from them. The 
leaf is nearly circular, but deeply indented on its margin. I 
measured one which was nearly eight feet in diameter, and 
therefore no less than twenty -four feet in circumference ! 
The stalk is rather more than a yard high, and each plant 
sends out four or five of these enormous leaves, presenting 
altogether a very noble appearance." Of a spot in the same 
neigbourhood he says : — " The forest was so impenetrable that 
one who has not beheld it cannot imagine so entangled a mass of 
dying and dead trunks. I am sure that often for more than 
ten minutes together our feet never touched the ground, and 
we were frequently ten or fifteen feet above it ; so that the 
seamen, as a joke, called out the soundings ! " Mr. Darwin 
does not speak of the infiorescence, which is more remarkable 
than the leaves. The little flowers and seeds are seated densely 
on conical fleshy masses a few inches long, and these in their 
turn being seated as densely as they can be packed on a thick 




Giumera scabra, (Pi'om a sketcli in Battersea Park, September 1870.) 

stem, the whole has the appearance of a compound cone several 
feet long (on strong plants), very heavy, and perhaps the 
oddest-looking thing ever seen in the way of fructification. 
This great spike springs from the root itself, the leaves also 
springing from the root, as in the case of the rhubarbs. Two 
plants in an artificial wet peat bog near London — one in deep 
rich soil, with the crown well raised above the level, and the 
whole protected tinder a couple of barrowloads of leaf mould; 
the other left exposed, and not allowed any particularly good 
soil, grew very well. Both plants survived the severest 
winters, but the protected and well-fed one grew much the 
larger. The leaves of the larger plant used sometimes to 
grow four feet in diameter, the texture being of extraordinary 
thickness and rugosity. lu the fioyal Gardens at Kew it grows 
to a larger size than that. The bottom there is the reverse of 
bog, while the situation is warm and sheltered. The Kew 
people met its wants by building a little bank of turf around 
it, so as to admit of its getting a thorough dose of water now 
and then, while in winter it was protected with dry leaves and 
a piece of tarpaulin. Similar protection, plenty of water in 
summer, and a warm and sheltered position, ai'e all that are 
necessary for success with this very striking subject. It is 
not difficult to obtain, and may be easily raised from seed, 
though that is a slow way. It should be planted in some 
isolated spot, and not, as a rule, in the " flower-garden proper," 
as it must not be disturbed after being well planted, and would 
associate badly with the ordinary occupants of the parterre. 



In places with any diversity of surface it will be easy to'select 
a spot well open to the sun and yet sheltered by sniTOunding 
objects. 

The plant, of which our woodcut is an illustration, was 
growing in a damp, somewhat hollow bed along with several 
moisture-loving plants, and hero it had stood several winters 
uncovered and without injury. 



THE POLYANTHUS. 

BY JOHN WIGGINS, ISLEWOETH. 

Cultivators of this charming spring flower are now of 
opinion that it is essentially better to have their Polyanthuses 
strong in habit and constitution, and bearing large trusses 
well laden with showy flowers, of large size and distinct in 
colour, than to insist on that perfection of form, without 
which florists used to consider them worthless. In a true 
florist's flower the pips should be large, cjuite flat, and cu-cular, 
with the exception of the small indentures between each 
division of the limb ; the eye should be perfectly round, and 
of a bright yellow, r(uite distinct from that of the ground 
colour', and the tube well filled with the thrum or anthers ; for 
needle-eyes are considered a great defect. The ground colour 
should be of a dai-k rich brown, or crimson, resembling velvet, 
or it may vary from black to a bright scarlet, but in every case it 
must be pure, distmct, and constant. The edging should re- 
semble bright golden lace, clear, distinct, and unmixed with the 
groand colour along the inner margin ; and so closely ought it 
to resemble the colour of the eye as scarcely to be distiuguish- 
able from it. The trusses should also be large, compact, and 
well furnished with bloom. Although all these qualities are 
thought to be necessary in a really good florist's flower, it is 
found that such flowers not only often produce inferior flower 
spikes as regards quantity of individual blooms, but that the 
blooms themselves are frequently much smaller than some of 
the pin-eyed kinds. For spring garden purposes, therefore, I 
select kinds having a good habit and plenty of flowers, and, above 
all, bright, large, and showy blooms. As regards habit, size, 
and cjuantity of bloom. — we have obtained all that can be 
desired ; but in the way of new and improved colours little has 
of late been effected. This season I had plants with trusses 
carrying from sixteen to twenty-four blooms, each of which 
was larger than a two-shilling piece. 

PEOPAGATIOX. 

Common garden varieties are usually raised from seed, 
which germinates more freely than that of most plants. It may 
be sown at any time after it is ripe ; some sow in the autumn, 
some in spring, and others immediately after the seed is 
gathered. For my part I prefer sowing late in April or early 
in May, in shallow pans or wooden boxes, which are placed in 
cold frames, and kept a little shaded and close for a time. The 
seeds quickly germinate, and as soon as the yoiuig plants make 
two rough leaves, I prick them off smgly into thumb pots, or six 
or eight into a four-inch pot, which will be sufficient for them 
until midsummer. I then prepare beds for them by deeply 
working the soil, and adding to it some weU-decayed manure. 
Into these beds the seedlings, when large enough, are planted 
in lines a foot or fifteen inches apart. The finer, or named 
varieties are increased by division of the crowns after they have 
done blooming, and are either inserted at once in beds or 
borders, or, as is more generally the case with named varieties, 
they are repotted. 

SOIL. 

Polyanthuses grow vigorously in almost any garden soil, 
more particularly if it is rich and a little moist. Where trouble 
is taken to form a compost especially for them, I should recom- 
mend a strong fresh loam, enriched with well decomposed leaf 
mould, and rendered porous by means of a liberal admixture 
of sharp sand. Thoroughly decomposed cow or stable manure 
may also be advantageously employed ; but to such manures, 
unless really necessary, I have a great aversion ; for not only 
do they harbour grtibs and other insects, but they also 
encourage a luxuriance that proves detrimental to the quality 
and quantity of the flowers. I have frequently produced beds 
of polyanthuses of great excellence without the assistance of 



28 



THE GARDEN. 



[July 13, 1872, 



any manure, relying simply for success on deeply worked 
thoroughly pulverised soil. 

SITUATION. 

As the Polyanthus is somewhat impatient of heat and 
drought, a cool, partially shaded and sheltered situation suits 
it best. If, however, the plants are copiously supplied with 
water throughout the dry season, they will stand a good deal 
of exposure to the sun. Where their requii'ements can be 
fully attended to, perhaps the best aspect for them would be a 
north-west one. The finer kinds mix well with alpines ; the 
others look well in front of shrubberies, where they should be 
arranged iu clumps. Such as are still interested in the true 
florist's kinds should grow them in pots. When in bloom 
remove them to some shady nook, such as between two rows of 
hedges — in fact, anywhere where they can be kept cool, shaded, 
and protected from bright sun, wind, and heavy rains. 



THE DAHLIA AS A DECORATIVE GARDEN PLANT. 
The Dahlia is so constantly before the public at exhibitions in a 
cut state, that its usefubiess for the decoration of the flower garden 
is in some danger of being vauderrated. For planting in shrubbery 
borders, however, or for filling large beds in grass plats, there is 
nothing more attractive when massed with a due regard to harmony 
of colours and heights. Take a shrubbery border, for example, with 
ample width for planting, and imagine the eilect that would be pro- 
duced by a background of hollyhocks, then a line of Dahlias, 
another of Salvia patens, and then a line of Pentstemons, edged with 
Tom Thumb Antirrhinums. A large circular bed, with a few holly- 
hocks in the centre, then a broad band of Dahlias, with Antirrhinums, 
Pentstemons, and Phloxes in the front, would also have a charming- 
effect. Where lines cannot be arranged in shrnbberry borders, Dahlias 
might be planted singly ; and there are many other ways in which, 
with a little taste and judgment, they might be employed. I look 
back with regret on the beds of Dahlias I used to see twenty years 
ago, now displaced by many plants much less ornamental. The 
DahUa, I need scarcely say, possesses rich, striking and effective 
hues of colour. From pm-e white to nearly black, from the delicate 
tinge of soft primrose to rich golden yellow, there are included mani- 
fold hues and combinations of colours, allowing of an almost unlimited 
choice. The four groups into which Dahlias are divided — viz., show, 
fancy, bedding, and pompoue — all yield excellent varieties. A selec- 
tion from the two former groups is absolutely necessary, in order to 
get those that produce flowers somewhat erect and strildng, and not, 
as is common with some, hanging downwards, leaving only the backs of 
the flowers exposed to view. Among show flowers, such a habit of 
growth as Fellowes's Queen of Beauties, and among fancies such as 
Legge's Glory, are just the types to obtain. There is no uniformity 
as to the height to which the Dahlia will grow, so there is plenty of 
choice when forming a mass ; the average height may be set at from 
3J feet to 5 feet. The proper average height for bedding Dahlias 
should be from 2 feet to 2^ feet ; they should have a rigid, compact 
growth, and be very free-flowering. Some should bloom early, others 
later — all points to be remembered. If they lack the fine form and 
fulness of the show varieties, the deficiency is more than compensated 
for by the masses of flowers they produce at the height of the blooming 
season. The following varieties can be confidently recommended : 
Alba floribunda nana, pure white ; Aurora, yellow tipped with lake ; 
Bob Ridley, red ; Cloth of Gold, bright yellow ; Crimson Gem, rich 
crimson ; Prince Ai'thur, crimson ; Rising Sun, intense scarlet ; 
Royal Purple, purple ; and White Bedder. There are a few edged 
flowers, but as a rule they are not so free-blooming nor so continuous 
in bloom as the self-coloured flowers. The Pompone, Bouquet, or 
Lilliput Dahlias have small, compact, and interesting flowers, and 
are extremely useful for cutting for bouquets. Many of the flowers 
are models' of form, and are likewise very pretty. Their usefulness 
for decorative purposes in the flower garden is somewhat marred by the 
fact that generally the pompone Dahlias are tall iu growth, and have a 
loose habit. Some few of them have, however, dwarf, close habits, 
and are beginning to be much used for bedding purposes. In 
planting Dahlias in ribbon lines or small beds, or as an edging to 
larger beds, it is often essential to keep them dwarf, and that with 
as little trouble as possible. Stakes are apt to show themselves, and 
have an unseemly appearance, and it is well to avoid their use as 
much as possible. They are indispensable to the taller-growing 
kinds ; but in the case of the dwarfer varieties it is the pi-actice of 
some growers, as soon as the plants are large enough to requix-e 
security from breakage by wind, to carefully remove the earth from 
one side of the plaut, and gradually press downi the main shoot, 
without breaking it, towards the earth. It is then secured by means 
of two small stout sticks placed crosswise, and as soon as the side 



branches are large enough to be in danger from wind, they are 
pinched near the main stalk sufficiently sharp to make them fall 
towards the earth. This injury, however, is only temporary, as they 
soon recover themselves and begin to grow upwards, and bloom most 
effectively. This operation is performed more than once if necessary, 
until the plants fill out and meet, and so help to sustain each other 
against the action of the wind ; at the same time the soil is quite 
covered, and only green leaves and masses of striking flowers are 
seen. — Quo. 



Foxgloves. — Among the many hardy flowers in bloom during 
the present month, none exceed in gracefulness and beauty of colour 
the common foxglove — " a third part bud, a third part blossom, a 
third part past, a type of the life of this world," as the author of 
"The Stones of Venice" has it. The white and common kinds are 
not flowers that suggest the desirability of improvement, but 
even these have been improved from the florist's point of view, and 
there is now in some gardens a strain with the flowers variously and 
prettily marked and spotted. These particularly are well worthy of 
culture, and in no way more attractive than with their great spikes 
standing amidst low shrubs and covert in wild places or in woods, 
copses, or rough shrubberies. All that is necessary to establish 
them in such places is to take a little of the seed in the pocket, and 
when walking about scatter it here and there in spots where it 
has a chance of vegetating. This should be done as soon as the 
seed is ripe, and not deferred till spring, as thereby nearly a year 
would be lost. 

Saving Seed of Koses. — The rose shears will soon be in con. 
stant operation, cutting off every faded flower. May I ask that the 
hand may be stayed when about to snip off those which are likely to 
l^roduoe seed ? The endless variations of coloirr and shape of the 
flowers, the manner which those seedlings reproduce the traits of the 
parent, at one time the leaf, at another time the flower, will induce 
an interest in the work which wiE amply repay the annoyance of 
seeing a few seed-pods scattered about among the flowers throughout 
the summer. The seedlings will not, I promise, produce all double 
flowers — but even a briar, with blossoms as lai'ge again as those of 
the dog-rose, and having a colour equal to that of Count Cavour, would 
not, I imagine, be despised ; then there would be yellow briars and 
briars of every shade of colour. But they do not all come briars, 
even if the seeds are taken from roses worked on that stock ; a good 
proportion come roses, passable roses, with an increased vigour, 
although deficient of the quality to bring them up to the standard of 
the pai'ent as to form. The colour will be found somewhat after that 
of the parent,'although yellow kinds often produce seedlings that bear 
pink blooms, with leaves like those of the parent ; but the blooms are 
larger and of a deeper colour than those of the common briai-. Those 
who do this find they have plenty of stocks to work favourite varie- 
ties upon ; besides the pleasure of having one's own seedlings, and a 
chance of raising, now and then, something good. — Henry Mills, 
Enys, Cornioall. 



NOTES AND QUESTIONS ON THE FLOWER GARDEN. 



Lilium gigaiiteum. — In a warm nook between two liedpjes in Mr. Ware's 
uiu'sery, at Tottenlaam, this noble lily is now beautifully in bloom. It has 
stood in the same position quite unprotected for these last two years. 

Carnation Blooms. — In order to preserve the blooms of pinks, picotees, and 
carnations for exhibition purposes, a fine plump bud just on the point of open- 
ing is selected, and drawn ttu'ough an inverted six-inch pot so as to leave the 
bud resting above the hole. In order to ward off heavy rains and strong sun- 
shine, another smaller pot is inverted over the bud so as to keep all secure. In 
this way the blooming period is considerably lengthened, and the quality of the 
blooms preserved. — W. F. 

Verdant Wigwams, &c. — In the Royal Botanic Gardens at Dublin, there is a 
singular wigwam made by placing a number of dead branches so as to form a 
framework, and then plantmg Aristolochia Sipho all round these. It runs over 
them, and the large leaves make a perfect summer roof. I write to suggest that 
this be done in various other cases with some of our fine-flowering climbers. 
These would often look better on such structures than if tortured on walls or 
trellises. Wo should have beautiful masses of bloom outside, and grateful 
shade within. The autumn-blooming Clematis Flammula is also capitally suited 
for this pui'pose. — Boweh. 

Bare Beds in Hyde Park. — I see that in No. 32, you very properly direct 
attention to the state of the beds near Albert Gate, Hyde Park:. It must be 
confessed that it is a complete waste of time and money to phmt tender planla 
out of doors for such a short time as now remains of what may be termed " the 
season " for tender outdoor-plant display. May I be allowed to ask why the 
beds are kept thus long without theii' summer occupants ? Several so-called 
sab-tropical plants, notably some of the Cannas, stood out last winter in the 
plantation near the Serpentine Bridge in Kensington Gardens, and are now 
growing strongly. Indeed, Cannas generally would have been much the 
better for being planted out earher. I remember when Mr. Bnlleu had the 
management of the bedding-out in Hyde Park, that he commenced to '*bed 
out " early in May, and nearly all the " tropicals " were out by the first week 
in June. Thus treated, by this time they would make attractive ornaments, 
whereas if put out now, by the time they get well established it will bo time to 
take them in again.— T. SPAwawicK, Summersmith. 



July 13, 1872.] 



THE GARDEN. 



29 



THE H OUS E HOLD. 

A CHAT RESPECTING SALADS. 

(ftom Blackwood's Magazine.) 

" I WONDEK," said MaoTavisli, as the materials for the salad were 
placed upon the table, " whether anyone has ever written a book 
upon salads?" 

" Not to my loiowledge. Even Brillat Savarin, the only man who 
has written tolerably well upon the philosophy of dining, has not 
thought proper to devote a chapter to the subject, though it might 
well have tempted him. I think if any enterprising publisher would 
give you and me, say a thousand guineas for the job, we could get up 
a nice little volume, in which we would discuss it historically, gas- 
tronomically, philosophically, poetically, medicinally, and anecdoti- 
cally — make it, in fact, the text-book of the subject, now and for 
evermore." 

"I never wrote a book in my life, and don't intend," replied Mac- 
Tavish ; "bat I would read such a book if it were published, and 
if it were the work of a gentleman, a scholar, and a man of the 
world." 

" Rare combination ! Supposing Inow — excuse the modesty — were 
to write the book, how shoiild I begin ? Firstly, I should look into 
the etymology of salad, and should find that the word was derived 
from sal, salt, and that therefore it means something salted, or salada, 
as they say in Spanish and ItaHan. This would afford an opportunity, 
in limine, for diverging into an historical chapter or two upon salt, 
beginning with the creation of the world and the salt sea, and why 
the sea is salt, and could not be fresh with safety to the denizens of 
the dry land. If I did not go into the geology of the subject, and 
descend into the salt-mines, or explore the salt-licks of which the 
buffaloes are so fond, I could at all events begin with Lot's wife, and 
end with the revenue of £5,300,000 per annum, which Lord Cran- 
boume informed the House of Commons and the country was paid 
by the poor people of India as a tax upon the sea-salt, almost the only 
condiment which they use with their wretched dinners of boiled 

rice Too much salt in the book, or the salad, would be equally 

misplaced ; and I should be compelled to reserve a little space for 
vinegar, its history, traditions, and uses ; for olive oil, that choice 
blessing of all. bounteous heaven, with which kings were formerly 
anointed, and without which a true and wholesome salad would be 
impossible ; for pepper, for mustard, for sugar, and for hard-boiled 
eggs." 

" For sugar ?" inquired MacTavish, dubiously. 

" Tes sir, for sugar," I replied, emphatically, with a look that 
would have suited Johnson when snubbing Boswell. " Without a 
judicious, a slight, but a palpable flavour of sugar', a salad, however 
scientifically prepared in other respects, must be deposed from the 
first to the second rank, and belong to the insipid mediocrity which, 
in salads as in poetry, is detestable to gods and men. The sugar 
is necessary to harmonise all the other ingredients, so that the 
complete work should be without a flaw, a defect, or a note of dis- 
cord ; and as perfect in its way as a poem, a picture, a statue, a 
tune, a cathedral, a stained-glass window, or any other work of art." 

"Does Shakespeare, who does not mention tobacco — the more's 
the pity ! — make any mention of salad ? " 

"He does, five or six times. In ' Hem-y VI.,' Jack Cade, in his 
extremity of peril when hiding from his pursuers in Iden's garden, 
says that he has climbed over the wall to see if he could eat grass 
or pick a salad, ' which is not amiss,' he adds, ' to cool a man's 
stomach in the hot weather.' In 'Anthony and Cleopatra,' the 
passionate Queen speaks of her ' salad days, when she was green 
in judgment, cool in blood.' Here the word means raw and unripe, 
but a proper salad well-prepared is neither. Hamlet uses the word 
with the more ancient orthography of ' sallet,' and says in his 
speech to the players, ' I remember, one said, there were no sallets 
in the lines to make them savoury.' By this he meant that there 
was nothing piquant in them — no Attic salt. Now, the salad which 
we are about to mix shall be fresh and cool as in Cleopatra's alhision, 
and piquant as in Hamlet's. A salad is no salad if it do not partake 
of both qualities." 

"I wonder," said Mr. MacTavish, " what the cookery-books say 
upon the subject ; though, to the best of my knowledge and belief, 
there has never been written or published a good cookery-book fit 
for the reading of any one better than the habitual denizens, male 
or female, of the kitchen. Waiter! fetch Mrs. Eundell's cookery, 
book from the library." 

The book was brought, and MacTavish read aloud, " ' How to 
make a French salad. — Chop three anchovies, a shalot, and some 
parsley small ; put them into a bowl with two tablespoonfuls of 
vinegar, one of oil, a little mustard and salt. When well mixed add 
by degrees some cold roast or boiled meat in very thin slices ; put in 



a few at a time, not exceeding two or three inches long. Shake 
them in the seasoning and then put more ; but cover the bowl close, 
and let the salad be prepared three hours before it is to be eaten. 
Garnish with parsley and a few slices of the fat.' " 

" Make your salad three hours before you consume it ! " said I. 
" Three minutes, or one minute, will suffice. Mrs. Rundell was a 
fool — her recipe for what she calls a French salad is execrable. 
How does she make what I should call an English salad ? " 

" She has not a word to say on the subject — nothing but the fol- 
lowing, which she calls a lobster salad : — 

" ' Make a salad, and put some of the red part of the lobster to it, 
cut. This forms a pretty contrast to the white and green of the 
vegetables. Do not put much oil, as shell-fish absorb the sharpness 
of the vinegar. Serve in a dish, not a bowl.' " 

" Mrs. Ruudel] knew nothing of the subject. Anchovy and slices 
of meat and ' fat ' are no fit ingredients of a salad, either French or 
English. And then the crass stupidity of her recommendation of 
two spoonfuls of vinegar to one of oil ! The woman was ignorant of 
the merest A B C of her art, and loiew as much about a salad as 
Nebuchadnezzar when he cropped the herbage, or as any donkey 
who browses upon thistles with no other condiment than his hunger. 
Let us hear what Frauoatelli says." 

Francatelli's book was sent for, but afforded no information except 
about a Russian salad with lobsters, a German salad with herrings, 
and an Italian salad with potatoes — none of them the true, fresh, 
seasonable summer salad which Frenchmen make so well, and 
which Englishmen can equal, if not surpass, if they will take the 
trouble. 

" Never mind the stupid cookery-books," said MacTavish ; " let us 
talk." 

" Of all the vegetables of which a salad can be made, a lettuce is 
unquestionably the best. Have the kindness, Mr. MacTavish, to 
assure yourself that these lettuce-leaves are quite dry. There must 
be no drops of water left upon the leaves to mingle with and weaken 
the vinegar or object to coalesce with the oil. ' The lettuce, when it 
is panaclide,' says the ' Almanach des Gourmands ' — that is, when it 
has streaked or variegated leaves, and is not all green like a cabbage 
— ' is truly a salad of distinction' — ttme salade de distinction. None 
but a Frenchman could pay such a compliment. The milky juices 
of the lettuce are similar in their soporific effects, though in a minor 
degree, to those of the poppy, and like opium predispose the mind 
of him who partakes wisely but not too well, to repose of temper 
and philosophic thought. There should always be a flavour of onion 
— spring onions are best — in a salad, if as the Frenchman says, it is 
to be one ' of distinction.' " 

" Here they are," said MacTavish, " young, fresh, and tender, and 
about the eighth of an inch in diameter." 

" The right size. Chop them up fine. Next to the lettuce comes 
the cucumber as the best material for a salad. Dr. Johnson, or some 
other burly big-wig of criticism, declared that the best thing you 
could do with a cucumber, after you had prepared it with much 
care and thought, and with all the proper ingredients, was to throw 
it out of the window. But the great lexicographer was a man 
of strong prejudices, or he would not have gone out of his way 
to libel Scotland — a great country, sir — and the Scotch a noble 
people, who have made their mark in the world, sir. Neither did 
he know everything, or he would not have traced the etymology 
of ' curmudgeon ' — he was one himself — to cceur mediant, for his 
heart, notwithstanding his infirmities of temper, was essentially 
kind. He was a gross eater, a glutton — a gourmand, not a gourmet ; 
and there is as wide a distinction between the two as between a wolf 
and a lap-dog. It is my conviction, in spite of Dr. Johnson — even 
had he been a Doctor of Medicine or of Divinity, and not a mere 
Doctor of Laws, a title which signifies nothing, but that the man who 
bears it is an honorary magnate of the republic of letters — that a 
cucumber, cut in the thinnest possible slices, and with the proper 
seasoning of vinegar, oil, salt, pepper (and no sugar) , and either with or 
without an accompaniment of spring onions, or the French cihoule, is a 
diet as wholesome as it is savoury and refreshing. The moot point 
as regards cucumber is, whether it should be sliced with or without 
the rind. My excellent friend and physician from the Shetland 
Isles, the author of the ' Cyclopeedia of Medicine,' a better authority 
than Dr. Johnson, maintains that the rind of the cucumber is the 
best part of it, as that of the lemon is, for flavour and aroma, and 
that, moreover, it very materially aids the digestibility of this 
particular form of salad. For my part, I am content to sit at his 
feet a disciple, and accept his dictum as a dogma. Third in my list 
of salads is endive, that comes to us in the winter, when we have no 
other such green and pleasant visitor. And after endive, recommend 
me to celery, without admixture of any other vegetable, as the basis 
of what the ' Almanach des Gourmands ' calls a salade ires dis- 
tingu4e. The only peouHarity about it is, that you should double 



30 



THE GARDEN. 



[July 13, 1872. 



or treble the quantity of mustard which you would use for lettuce 
or endive. Though not strictly a salad, there ia a mixture, very 
common in early summer in Italy, which deserves honourable 
mention — boiled asparagus, allowed to grow cold. With the usual 
dressing it is far preferable in this way to the hot asparagus and 
melted butter which is the usual dish in this benighted country, 
where, as Voltaire says, there used to be ' cinquante religions et «iie 
seule sauce !"' 

"All these salads are good," interposed MaoTavish, " but I think, 
lettuce excepted, there is one other that trancends them all. Were 
you ever in America ? " 

" Yes, for my sins." 

" And I," said MacTavish, " for my merits and the increase of my 
experience. Having been there, either for your sins or your virtues, 
you must have, dined at the New York Hotel or at Delmonico's ; and 
if it were in the summer-time, with the heat at 104° in the shade, 
as it has been during this fiery July, as I learn by a letter I have 
just received, you must have partaken of a tomato salad." 

" I was coming to the tomato," I replied. " It ia a noble fruit, 
as sweet in smell as the odours of Araby, and makes an excellent, 
and, were I a Frenchman, I would say, an illuatrioua salad. Its 
medicinal virtue is as great as its gastronomical goodness. It is 
the friend of the hale to keep them hale, and the friend of the sick 
to bring them back into the lost sheepfolds of Hygeia. The 
Englishman's travelling companion, the blue pill, would never be 
needed if he would pay proper court to the tomato — not as we 
consume it in England, as a sauce, but as a cooked vegetable, stewed, 
or, better than all, as a salad. Would that, in our cold climate, it 
could be grown to perfection ! " 

" Amen to that sweet prayer ! " 

" I have now mentioned, I think, all the main ingredients of the 
true, fresh, summer salads. The minor ingredients are water-cress, 
which is not to be highly recommended ; the common mustard and 
cress, which are good if used sparingly; and the beetroot. The 
latter, after being boiled and allowed too cool, may be cut into thin 
slices and advantageously compounded with the lettuce and the 
endive, but should never be used with the cucumber or the tomato. 
It spoils the colour of the one, and is an unnecessaiy surplusage 
to the colour of the other. The true lover of salad need not be 
deprived of his favourite food at any period of the year ; for when 
the fresh green vegetables fail, there are always potatoes, onions, 
and beetroot to fall back upon. The Eussans and the Germans make 
a very excellent salad of cold potatoes, cut into slices about an 
eighth of an inch thick, with thinner slices of fresh onions and beet- 
root, and a sprinkling of parsley chopped very fine. 

"In addition to these, which may be called the legitimate salads 
or salads pure and simple, compounded solely of vegetables, are 
lobster salads, ham salads, chicken salads, and mixtures, such as the 
Dutch and Germans make with sausages, herrings, anchovies, and 
sardines. All such messes ought to be called mayonnaises, and not 
salads. They are only fit for goiirmands and not for gourmets ; and 
those, more especially, which are mixed with fish of any kind are 
an abomination. 

" And having discoursed so far, let us proceed to the business 
immediately before us — our own dinner and salad. You will do 
the work, Mr. MacTavish, while I do the talking. Place the egg 
in the bowl and carefully remove the white. It must have been 
boiled ten minutes at least, or it will not answer its purpose, which 
is simply to add a little consistency to the mixture which we are 
about to make. Half-a-dozen broad Windsor beans, well boiled, with 
the skins removed, would answer the purpose still better if beaten 
into ajJiWi/e; but for to-day, as there arc no beans, the egg must 
suffice. The next time we make a salad tho broad beans shall be 
provided, and uo animal ingredient of any kind shall interfere with 
the purely vegetable character of the dainty. Now add a teaspoon- 
ful of salt and three teaspoonfuls of mustard. I hope the mustard 
is genuine, and not adulterated trash — ten per cent, of mustard and 
ninety per cent, of flour coloured with turmeric, which is sold by 
the rascal grocers of this swindling metropolis, for whose special 
behoof it wore to be wished the pillory and tho whipping-post coxild 
bo revived. To bo quite sure of the requisite pungency, add a little 
cayenne popper, and pound the mixture well together at the bottom 
of the bowl with a silver spoon. Next add a spoonful of vinegar, 
and discard the silver for an ivory or hardwood spoon. Here it is to 
your hand. Common vinegar, if pure, will answer the purpose ; but 
for the perfect salad, tarragon vinegar, odoriferous as a garden of 
herbs, is a sine quii non. Stir all these gently together for one 
minute ; next add two spoonfuls, not stinted, but brimming over, of tho 
best olive oil of Lncca. [It is worthy of note that the capital cook 
who writes in tho Queen, uudov tho signature of "Tho G. C," strongly 
advises tliat tho oil should bo applied before tho vinegar. — Eo. 
Oakden.] ' Niggard of your vinegar, prodigal of oil,' is an'old maxim 



that every salad. maker should act upon. Stir again for a minute or 
two, tiU the ingredients are well mingled ; and then, as the finishing 
touch, add half a teaspoonful of brown sugar ; once again ply the 
spoon for a minute, when the mixture will be ready to receive half.a- 
dozen little spring onions cut fine, three or four slices of beetroot, 
the white of the egg not cut too small, and the lettuce itself — to the 
beauty of which all the rest are but the adornments. The lettuce, 
crisp and dry, is the king, of whom the other ingredients are but the 
ministers and the courtiers. Have a care to remove the hard stock, 
and use only the tender leaves, with the brittle spinal columns that 
support them. Do not shake the mixture too violently or too long. 
It used to be said, Fatigues la salade, but this is error. It is sufii. 
cient that every portion of the vegetable should come in contact 
with the mixture ; and a very gentle stirring, so as not to break or 
bruise the lettuce, is all that is required." 

Mr. MacTavish was as docile as a disciple should be, and the salad 
thus comijounded was pronounced to be a success, not merely of that 
modified kind which in dramatic criticism is delicately called a 
succes d'estime, but such a decided success as at the theatre brings 
down the bouquets at the feet of a prima donna. 

Orange Minee. — Peel sweet Havana oranges ; remove seeds ; slice, 
and then cut slices into small pieces with very sharp knife. Add finely 
chopped lemon without peel in the proportion of half a lemon to six 
oranges ; also a finely grated cocoa-nut if desired: Make a thick syrup by 
dissolving and boiling for ten minutes a pound of sugar in a pint of 
water ; pour this hot syi'up upon the fruit. Set it aside to cool. Serve 
in a glass dish. 

Boiled Lettuce. — This, to our taste, is a delicious vegetable, 
and the gout is something indescribable, resembling asparagus 
or seakale, and yet not quite like either. Lettuces may be simply 
boiled and eaten as other greens, but they can be boiled and served 
as entre-mcts in a variety of ways. Have ready some neatly-cut 
pieces of toast, a pale brown colour; lay them on a dish, a hot 
one ; let each piece be of a size to hold the lettuce and one poached 
egg ; ijour over the toast a little of the water and some good gravy ; 
if the latter be not handy, a little fresh butter should be spread on 
the toast previous to pouring the water from the lettuce ; place on 
each piece of toast enough of the boiled lettuce to form a flat layer ; 
neatly trim the edges of the vegetable, and place a poached egg on 
the top ; or, prepare some toast as above, and spread over each piece 
a thin layer of anchovy or bloater paste, on which lay the lettuce ; 
then season to taste. To prepare the lettuces for boiling they should 
be well cleansed, and the top of the leaves, if they have the shghtest 
appearance of fading, cut off ; leave as much of the stalk as possible, 
cutting oif the strong outer skin. The stalk is, when boiled, the 
most delicious part. The large cos lettuce makes the handsomest 
dish, but we prefer the flavour of the drumhead. — Knife and Fork. 
■ — ■ — [The fine Batavian endive, so well-grown about Paris, is not 
uncommonly used as a boiled vegetable, and in a much more simple 
way than that above described. It makes a very palatable dish.] 



NOTES AND QUESTIONS ON THE HOUSEHOLD. 

M arty ni as -—These make one of the finest pickles we have, ami !if once tried 
will always be grown. Sow when the ground is warm; and when large enough, 
transplant into rows, two feet apart, allowing eighteen inches between the 
plants. — AgrU-itllurist. 

Green Shelled Peas for "Winter Use.— Will any of your readers kindly 
inform me as to the best way of preserving green shelled peas for winter 
use ? Can they be preserved in the same way as French Beans ? — i. e., by a layer 
of salt and a layer of beans ?— W. F. 

Cauliflower Salad.— Boil a cauliflower in salted water till tender, but not 
overiloiiu ; \vliun cold, cut it up neatly iu sm,all sprigs. Beat up together three 
tablc^;puuii)'ulH (jf oil and one tablespoonful of tarragon vinegar, ^\■ith pepper 
and salt tu taste : — rub the dish very slightly with garlic, arrange the pieces of 
cauliflower on it, strew over them some capers, a little tarragon, chervil, and 
Ijarsley, all finely mmcod, and the least l)ifc of dried thyme and marjoram, 
XJOwdcred. Four the oil and vinegar over, and servo. 

How to Preserve Vegetable Marrows.— Peel the man-ows, take away the 
seeds, cut the vegetable iutu small pieces. To every pound of marrow ad(i half 
a pound of sifted loaf sugar, the rind and juice of a lemon, half an ounce of 
grated ginger. l*ut these into a basin and let them stand all night. The next 
day pour the juice into a pan and let it boil up, then add the vegetable. Boil all 
together an hour and a half, or until it becomes thick and transparent. If put 
into a mould which will not aifcct the acid, the preserve will look very nice 
when turned out for use. Most vegetables may be prepared iu tho same way. 

Tea. — Tea, in anything beyond moderate quantities, is as distinctly a narcotic 
poison as is opium or alcohol. It is capable of ruining the digestion, of enfeebl- 
ing and disordering the heart's action, and of generally shattering tho nerves. 
And it must bo rememl^ercd that not merely is it a question of narcotic excess, 
but tho enormous quantity of hot water which tea-bibbers necessarily take is 
exceedingly jjrejudicial both to digestion and nutrition. In short, without 
pretending tu place this kind of evil on a level, as to general effect, with those 
caused by alcoholic drinks, one may well insist that our teetotal reformers have 
overlooked, and even to no small extent encouraged, a form of animal indulgence 
\vluch is as tlistiuctly sensual, extravagant, and poruicious as any beer-swflling 
or gin-driuking in tho world. — Luncet. 



j-ULY 13, 1872.] 



THE GARDEN. 



31 



GARDEN DESTROYERS. 



BARK-BORING INSECTS. 

(nVLUKGUS PINirERDA.) 

(Continued from Vol. I., p. G29.) 

In our pi'evious paper on bark-boripg insects, we drew attention to 
tlie different arraug-ements of the borings made by different species as 
one of the means of recognising the insect that made them, but we 
gave no figure of these. Wo now, however, give one, which will at 
the same time illustrate that class of borings where the mother 
gallery is longitudal in the same direction as the growth of the tree, 
and will also show the borings of the female parent of the Pine- 
borer (Hylnrgus piuiperda), of which we gave an account at p. 548. 
The enlarged figure of the insect in the corner is a very good and 
characteristic portrait of Hylurgus piniperda; and the borings show 



country and on the Continent, for the destruction of the mildew and 
blight attacking vines, hops, roses, fruit, and other trees; and it is 
now, I believe, almost the sole remedy employed for that purpose, 
as no other has been found so generally effectual or so convenient of 
application. 

From often-repeated experiments, I have arrived at the conclusion 
that the beneficial action of sulphur is to be attributed to the pre- 
senoe of a small but variable quantity of free sulphurous acid (occa- 
sionally hyposulphurous acid), which exists as a constant impurity in 
the sulphur of commerce. Sublimed sulphur contains more acid than 
powdered crude sulphur, and is more certain in its action, while pre- 
cipitated sulphur, being almost, or altogether, free from acid, is quite 
useless. I liud that when substances arc carefully purified from all 
traces of sulphurous acid by repeated washing with spirit and water, 
they are eciually ineffectual in destroying mildew and other vegetable 
and animal organisms; that seeds germiuate as quickly and vigorously 
when sown in pure sulphur as in fine sand, and that moulds grow on 




The Piue-boring Beetle (Hylurgus piuiperda) and its Galleries 



the large central gallery made by the mother insect, and the smaller 
borings, made by the larvffi, branching off from it at the point where 
each egg had been laid and increasing in size as the grub grows 
bigger. A. M. 



SULPHOZONB, A SUBSTITUTE FOR SULPHUR. 

Read by Charles Roberts, P.R.C.S., at the Birmingiiaji 
Horticultural Oongre.ss. 

Sulphur in the sublimed, precipitated, or powdered form, is cxten. 
sively employed by horticultuiists, for destroying mildew. The sub- 
stance to which X have given the name of sulphozono (from its strong 
smell and powerful chemical action) , in order to distinguish it from 
the sulphur of commerce, is a preparation containing free sulphurous 
acid as its active and essential principle. For many years past large 
quantities of sublimed and powdered sulphur have been used in this 



the surface when a little organic matter, as flour, has been mixed 
with the sulphur. I find also that cheese mites are not destroyed by 
pure sulphur, but live and multiply indefinitely in cheese covered 
with sulphur ; though they are immediately destroyed by commercial 
sublimed sulphur. On the other hand, when pure sulphur is impreg- 
nated with sulphurous acid, it destroys mildew and other minute 
organisms with an energy proportioned to the quantity of acid it 
contains ; and it does not appear that one form of sulphur possesses 
any advantages over the others, provided the quantity of acid is 
uniform. Many other substances which contain no sulphur, when 
impregnated with sulphurous acid in a similar manner, and to the 
same extent, are equally effectual in destroying mildew. 

In addition to its destructive action on organized bodies, sulphurous 
acid possesses a powerful chemical action on the organic and inorganic 
products of decomposing animal and vegetable substances, and the 
emanations from persons and animals suffering from infectious 
diseases ; hence it is one of the most potent and valuable disinfectants 



32 



THE GARDEN. 



[July 13, 1872. 



we possess. It attacks and destroys sulplmretted hydrogen, and neu- 
tralises the strong smell o£ ammonia and other alkaline bases, but 
without losing its antiseptic properties, or destroying their manurial 
value. Prom my experiments and observations, and from well-known 
properties of sulphurous acid, I may repeat that it is the acid, acci- 
dentally present in the sulphur, which is the active agent in the 
destruction of mildews and blights, and that the sulphur is only the 
medium for its application. This is a fact, not only of scientific 
interest, but of great practical and commercial importance ; for under 
the mistaken impression that the sulphur itself is the active agent, 
great care and expense have been incurred to secure its freedom 
from acidity, which is by no means necessary. For horticultural 
purposes, however, it is necessary to limit the quantity of suliDhurous 
acid, or it would prove destructive to the plant as well as to the parasite. 
This limit I have established practically by experiments made on 
rose trees infested with mildew ; and as the rose mildew is with 
diflBculty destroyed by common sulphur, except by repeated appli- 
cations, this preparation (to which I have given the name of sul- 
phozone, for reasons already given) may be considered to be of the 
maximum strength, and four or five times stronger and more potent 
than sublimed sulphur. In substituting it therefore for sulphur, a 
great saving will be effected in the cost of sulphur, its carriage, and 
the time and labour of applying it. There will, moreover, be the 
additional advantage of not loading the foliage with a large quantity 
of sulphur powder, which must in some measure impair health by its 
mere mechanical presence. Sulphozone, being a fine dry powder 
like sulphur, may be applied in a similar manner, and with the same 
apparatus, care being taken to use a much smaller quantity (i.e., 
about a quarter of that of sulphur) . 

For sanitary purposes a very strong sulphozone has been prepared. 
This is exceedingly destructive to organic life, and is not adapted for 
horticultural pui'poses, excej^t for dressing the stems and branches of 
deciduous trees in winter, and for destroying iusects where it can 
exert no deleterious influence on sm-rounding vegetation, or for 
deodorising manru-e-heaps, &c., for which purpose it is better adapted 
than any other disinfecting powder, as the sulphurous acid fixes the 
ammonia — the most valuable constituent of manure — and makes it 
available for gardening and farming purposes, while chlorine and 
other disinfectants destroy it, and reduce the value of the manure in 
proportion to the extent of their action in deodorising it. 



THE INDOOR GARDEN. 



Radishes a Decoy for the American Brown Grub. — 

In some parts of the United States the brown grub has this 
season proved very injurious to melons and cucumbers, cutting them 
down by dozens. The ordinary remedies, such as charcoal, coal 
ashes, &c., have entirely failed ; but the introduction of radishes 
about the plants has been of great service, as the insects congregate 
around them ; the radishes are frequently examined, and the grubs 
are destroyed. 



NOTES AND QUESTIONS ON GARDEN DESTROYERS. 



Hole Crickets. — I scud herewith au insect which is a great peat in gardeus 
in this locality, especially low-lying wet laud ; our gardeners call it an earth 
cricket. It commits great ravages amongst early potatoes. "Will you kindly 

advise us how best to destroy it? — 0. R. Robinsom", Tei</iimoitih. [Youi' pest 

is the Mole Cricket, figured and fully descrihed at p. 97, vol. 1., of The Gajliuls. 
We should he glad of a few fresh specimens.] 

Coal-tar a Remedy for Caterpillars. — A terriljle insect is the wood-gna^ving 
caterpillar (Cossus). It gets under the bark aud into the wood of Elms, 
Willows, and Poplars, and destroys them rapidly. In some valleys where 
Poplar trees are cultivated to a great extent, it is a positive scom-ge. There is, 
however, a simple way of preventing the mischief ; it consists in daubing the 
base of the young trees every two years with coal-tar. A ring of this liquid 
painted on each tree, will have the desired effect, as the caterpillai's dread it Uke 
the plague. — P. Erceau, in " V lUmiration Horiicole." 

Stinging Insects. — The following observations iu a letter we have received 
from a correspondent in Oporto may interest our readers: — "There is one 
peculiarly offensive insect here, which makes a thick web round the tops of the 
Pine shoots, and then eats them away inside. It is a caterpillar, and is poison- 
ous. If it falls on one's skin (it is always tumbling off the trees) it stings. It 
occured to me once that it might be utiUzed, hkc Spanish flies, for blistering, 
and that a tincture of caterpillar might be prepared from it, and I even made 
some, which seemed to act xjerfectly. It was tried, and for aught 1 know is still 
being used, in St. Thomas's Hospital." — W, C. 

The Fly-catcher and the Leaders of Young Couiferse.— We have " 
young Picea 2i feet high hei'e, and during last summer one of those bird^ 
callecf " fly-catchers," took up its quarters on the leading shoots ; but it also 
occasionally nestled on the first tier of side shoots of the current year's growth. Of 
this I took no particular notice, except perhaps to admire its sometimes long 
and trying patience in watching for its prey. This spring, however, owing to 
the leader and some of the other branches not starting into growth with the 
other parts, I was led to examine them, aud I found to my dismay that thoy 
were dead, and covered with the bii-d's excretion. Now, I would like to know if 
I am right in conjecturing that the latter has been the cause of their death. Bo 
that as it may, when nest I observe this bird t.aking up its residence on a young 
conifer, I shall stick up a twig for its accommodation. — J. Taylor, 3£aet!(/wi/iine, 
WJUtland, 



A REVISION OF THE GENUS DEAO^NA. 

BY DH. REGEL. 
(Continued from Vol. I., 2>. 657). 

DRACiENA THWAITESI (RGL.) 

Stem simple, shrubby, covered with leaves at the top. Leaves 
lanceolate, lengthened-acuminate, narrowed at the base into 
a channeled clasping stalk, which is sometimes 2^ inches long, 
with a tolerably stout midrib, striated with veins, 6 or 7 
inches long exclusive of the stalk (6 to 12 inches according 
to Thwaites), and from 1^ to If inch broad. Scales at the 
lower joints apparently soon deciduous. Raceme terminal, 
loose, simple, scarcely 2 inches long, on an erect stalk about 
1 inch long, with a fascicle of bracts at the base and a few 
other scattered bracts. Flowers solitary or in pairs, with 
small scarious bracts shorter than the pedicels. Corolla 4 or 
5 inches long; tube very short ; divisions ei'eot, oblong-wedge- 
shaped, longer than the tube. Ceylon, in shady mountainous 
districts. I have seen a dried specimen. 

Synonym — Dractena elliptica, var. floribus minoribus 
(Thwaites). 

DllACJENA OVATA (siMS). 

Leaves elliptical acute, undulated, of a lively green, folded 
into five prommeut rib-like nerves, and striated with veins. 
Lower joints of the stem covered with an herbaceous scale 
which appears to be persistent for a long time. Raceme 
nest-shaped, sub-corymbose. Divisions of the corolla oblong- 
wedge-shaped, of a pale red colour. In other respects like 
D. nigra, A very "doubtfiTl species. Native country unknown. 
It is cultivated in the gardens at Berlin (according to C. 
Koch) under the name of D. spathulata. 

Synonym — Cordyline ovata (PI. des Serres). 

Analytical Key to the Species, 
section i. — leaves sessile. 
A. — Leaves with a stout midrib, which is tolerably conspicuous 
on both sides of the leaf. 

a. — Leaves with the margin of the same colour as the rest of the 
leaf. 

1. D. umbracalifera, Jacq. — Leaves from 1 inch to 1} inch 
broad, aud from 2 feet to 3 feet long. 

2. D. arborea, Lk. — Leaves from 3i inches to 3 inches broad, and 
from 2 feet to 3 feet long, -with slight longitudinal folds. 

3. D. angustifolia, Eoxbrg. — j^Leaves 1 inch broad, aud from 
Ij foot to li foot. long. 

4. D. fruticosa, Blume. — Leaves 2 inches broad, and from 17 
inches to 20 inches long. , 

5. D. fragrans, Gawl. — Leaves from 23- inches to 31- inches broad, 
aud from Ij foot to 2 feet long, undulated. 

b. — Leaves with a red margin. 

6. D. Kochiana, Egl. — Leaves flattish, with a very 'narrow red 
margin, from 1 inch .to Ij inch broad, and sometimes as much as 
IJ foot long. 

7. D. concinna, H. Berol. ^ — Leaves folded longitudinally, from 
2 inches to 3 inches broad, and from 2 feet to 2f feet long, with a 
well defined red margin. 

8. D. marginata, Lam. — Leaves from \ inch to ^ inch broad, and 
from 1 foot to 1^ foot long, with a well defined red margin. 

B. — Leaves with a midrib, which is scared}' visible on the ujiper 
surface of the leaf, but prominently convex on tho underside. 

a. — Leaves concealing the internodes of the stem with their 
clasping bases, and having the margin of the same colour as tho 
rest of the leaf. 

9. D. ensifolia. Wall. — Leaves of a uniform colour, 1 to l.i inch 
broad, and from f to IJ foot long. Panicle simple. 

10. D. Saposchnikowi, Rgl. — Leaves of a uniform colour, 1:1 to 2 
inches broad, and sometimes as much as 2 feet long. Panicle very 
branching. 

11. D. stenophylla, C. Koch. — Leaves green aud marked ^vith 
yellowish longitudinal lines, from one-half to three-fifths inch broad, 
and from 1 to It foot long. 

b. — Leaves not concealing the internodes of tho stem «'ith their 
half-clasping bases. 

12. D. roflexa. Lam. — Leaves of a uniform colour. 

13. D. cemua. Lacy. — Leaves witli a red margin. 

c. — Leaves concealing the internodes of the stem with their clasping 
bases, aud having a transparent margin. 



July 13, 1872.] 



THE GARDEN. 



83 



II. — D. Rumphii, Hook. Leaves from 1 to l:f inch broad, and 
from 1^ to If feet long. 

15. D. latifolia, Egl. — Loaves 21 to 3^- inches broad, and from 
l:'i to Iff foot long. 

C. — Leaves without a midrib. 

16. D. Draco, L. — Stem thick, tree-like. Leaves from 1 to 1\ 
iuch broad, and from IJ to 2J- feet long. 

17. D. salicifoUa, Gopp. — Stem slender, branching, half-shrubby. 
Leaves two-iifths inch broad, and from 3} to Sj inches long. 

SECTION II. — LEAVES STALKED. 

A. Leaves narrowed into a short channeled stalk, from i inch to 
3 inches long. 

a. Flowers in a simple raceme. Khizome throwing np several 
stems. 

18. D. surculosa, Lindl. 

* * — Stem single, simple or slightly branching, 
a. — Bracts scarious, shorter than the pedicels, or, less frequently, 
longer. 

19. D. nigra, H. Berol. — Racemes closely crowded together, nearly 
sessile. Leaves with a conspicuous midrib. 

20. D. spicata, Eoxbrg. — Racemes loosely disposed on a stalk from 
3 inches to 5 inches long; tube of the corolla, thread-like. 

21. D. Thwaitesi, Rgl. — Racemes loosely disposed on a stalk about 
an inch long ; tube of the corolla, funnel-shaped, and very short. 

22. D. ovata, Sims. — Racemes closely crowded together into a 
somewhat nest-shaped cluster. Leaves ribbed longitudinally, with 
from five to seven prominent nerves. 

b. Bracts coloured and as long as the tube of the corolla. 

23. D. bicolor. Hook. 

c. Flowers in a simple panicle. 

21. D. javanica, Knth. Leaves acute. Panicle nearly sessile, and 
with patent branches. 

25. D. temiflora, Roxbrg. — Leaves lengthened-acuminate. Panicle 
with ascending branches. 

26. D. Griffithi, Rgl. — Leavesacuminate, in partial whorls. Panicle 
with reflexed branches. 

B. Leaves with a channeled stalk from 4 inches to 9 inches long. 

27. D. Aubryana, Brougn. 

C. Leaves with a smooth stalk, channeled on the upper side. 

28. D. phrynioides. Hook. 

The Drac^nas have a three-celled ovai'y with one-seeded cells, and 
roots of an orange colom-. The genus is distinguished from the genus 
Cordyline by the absence of stolons. 

(To ie continued.) 



RECENT ADDITIONS TO OUR GARDENS. 

Re.vd by Mk. T. Moobe, at the Birmingham Congeess. 

Let us take, said Mr. Moore, indoor plants first, and endeavour to ascer- 
tain what has been our progress in regard to them. The more general 
diffusion of the majestic family of the palms — those princes of the vege- 
table world, is fully deserving of precedence on this occasion. I do not 
refer so much to the introduction of novelties amongst palms, as to the 
fact that palms are much more generally grown, and that the taste for 
them is becoming widely extended. They have hitherto been costly, and 
this has restricted their use, but as demand produces supply, and an 
abundant supply brings down prices, we may hope to see them come more 
and more within the reach of all classes. Novelty is not, however, 
wanting amongst them, for there have been introduced during the last 
few months some palms of the Lord Howe Islands — notably the Umbrella 
Palm, Kentia Canterburyana — which are of a highly ornamental character, 
and which have been freely exhibited by some of our chief new plant 
gi'owers. These we may expect to become popular pahns, coming as they 
do from a group of islands lying nearly five hundred miles outside the 
tropics, .and being, therefore, species not likely to need a high temperature. 
New stove palms also abound. The plants commonly called Crotons — 
more correctly Codigeum — have lately received some wonderful accessions, 
such as the G. Hookeiii, Veitohii, multicolor, undulatum, Johannis, and 
others, imported by Messrs. Veitch ; and the C. majesticum and spirale, 
imported by Mr. Bull. Dracffiuas, too, have been marvellously improved, 
witness D. regince, majestica, metallica, splendens, Weismannii, amahihs, 
and others, which have issuedfrom the two noted Chelsea establishments. 
In Mr. Bull's Bertolonia superbissima, exhibited this year for the first 
time, we have a real gem amongst beautiful-leaved plants, the habit being 
dwarf, while the broad, ribbed, deep green leaves are decorated with 
numerous large and innumerable small, dots of the clearest and most 
briihant rose-pink. From amongst the legion of novelties among fine- 
foUaged plants I select one other for special mention — the PaulHnia 
thaKctroides, introduced by the Messrs. Veitch, a slender woody hot- 
house climber, whose stems are draped with leaves resembling the most 
exquisite of Maidenhair fronds. Amongst recent flowering indoor plants 
one of the most lovely, for its purity, is the Malayan Cypripedium 
niveum, with its charming waxy-white sKpper-formed flowers ; and the 



Mexican C. irapeanum, with beautiful yellow flowers, exhibited by 
Messrs. Backhouse & Sons. Too much cannot be said in praise of 
such plants as Masdevallia Lindenii, M. Harryana, of which Messrs. 
Veitch and RolUsson show examples, M, ignea and a new one recently 
shown from Lord Londesborough's collection — plants which prove to bo 
amongst the most neat-habited and manageable of the cool Orchid race ; 
and whose^ flowers add to quaintness of form a surprising and almost 
dazzling brilliaucy of colour. Anthurium Soherzerianum, the Flamingo 
plant as it has been called, has won for itself a place in all collections of 
any pretensions ; and in fine contrast with it we now have the more recent 
A. ornatum, which is somewhat larger in growth, has white spathes 
surrounding spadices of delicate purple-tinted flowers, and is scarcely, if 
at all, inferior to it in beauty. Then we have the Bromeliaceous -^chmea 
Marioj-reginfe, of M. Wendland, distributed by Mr. Williams — a noble 
plant of its class, the showy inflorescence of which is set ofi" by the grand 
rosy-pinl; bracts which surround it; and M. Linden's Bncholirion coraUi- 
num, another handsome species of the same order, with yelloiv flowers 
subtended by coral-red bracts, arranged so as to form a close distichous 
or flattened spike. Among hardier indoor flowers who would, without 
seeing it, have beHeved in a Hyacinth with a flower-stem upwards of a 
yard high, and decorated with a score of massive pendent, pure white 
bells ? Such, however, is the Hyacinthus candicans, lately introdticed by 
Mr. Wilson Saunders from South Africa. In this connection, too — that 
is, amongst the ornamental indoor flowering plants, I must specially 
mention, as resulting from the skill of the hybridist, Dipladenia insignis, 
the finest of all the forms we yet know of this beautiful genus of hothouse 
chmbers, the colour being of the deepest rosy-carmine, and the size, form, 
and texture of the flower, irreproachable. Ixora Colei, another gardener's 
triumph, is by far the finest of the white-flowered Ixoras, and a splendid 
exhibition plant, and recently won a substantial prize as the finest object 
in the Manchester show. Such Begonias as Messrs. Veitch's B. Sedeni, 
and Messrs. E. G. Henderson's B. rubra superba, fine hybrids of the 
bohviensis strain, may be instanced as remarkable for their bold and 
fi-eelj -produced crimson flowers, and as afibrding evidence how soon the 
distinctive features of introduced novelties are made the stepping-stones 
to fresh acquisitions. Prom this point of view should be noted the 
splendid varieties of Eucodonia and Plectopoma, plants allied to Achi- 
menes, raised and distributed by M. Van Houtte, but which, with all 
their beauty, are yet very little known. 

Hardy Ferns have been enriched by the many fine varieties of Scolo- 
pendrium, and latterly of Adiantum and Asplenium raised by Mr. 
E. J. Lowe; and of Athyrium and Pteris by Mr. J. B. Mapplebeck ; while 
amongst tender ferns the grand Adiantums peruvianum and speciosum, 
and the equally grand Davallia Mooriana — all introduced by Messrs. 
Veitch — are plants of the highest order of merit from the decorative 
point of view, and such as will always maintain a position in even the 
choicest collections of these charming plants. 

I must pass on to o\itdoor plants and flowers, and here the greatest 
novelty that occurs to me is to be found in Mr. Jackman's race of sweet- 
scented spring-ilowering Clematises, the well-marked fragrance of which 
may be compared to the combined odours of the_ Violet and Primrose. 
As "an additional feature of merit in a flower which within the last few 
years has attained great popularity, the acquisition of fragrance in these 
varieties of the Clematis deserves prominent mention. I ought here 
to mention as the best of all hardy evergreens, and only recently brought 
into prominent notice, Mr. A. Waterer's Cupressus Lawsoniana erecta 
viridis, the most elegant, effective, and refined of all its race, and which 
has not only stood defiantly and unharmed the severest winter frosts, but 
passed scatheless through the terribly searching frost of last 'WMt- 
Sunday. _ . . ., 

For conservatory and terrace decoration, and also, it is said, as a 
summer bedding plant, few subjects can compare for elegance with the so- 
called Amarantus salicifoKus, sent out by Messrs. Veitch, and which, in 
its brilliant colours and fountain-like aspect, stands unique amongst 
decorative plants. 

One of the finest of hardy perennials of recent introduction, the 
Primula japoniea, for the acquisition of which we have to thank Mr. 
Fortune, is undoubtedly a grand plant, but it seems to have been a little 
overgrown this season, through being too kindly treated. Like Messrs. 
Veitch's Primula cortusoides amcena, however, it bears the stamp of a 
sterhng plant. I gladly refer to the hhes as a family fast regaining the 
popularity they shoidd never have lost, since they are amongst the very 
finest of our old garden flowers. They are too numerous to partioulanse, 
but I cannot refrain from mentioning L. tigrmum flore pleno as one of the 
finest, while L. Washiagtonianum is one of the most novel. It is scarcely 
possible to find a Hly which is not worth cultivating, although by 
comparison some are undoubtedly much finer than others. 

Amongst annuals a crimson groundsel, Senecio pulcher, with flower 
heads three inches across, introduced from Uruguay by Mr. Tyerman, is 
highly promising. I must further mentiou, as a recent plant, a little 
annual which, as it has been flowering at Chiswick, has been highly 
meritorious. I allude to Mr. Thompson's Leptosiphon roseus, which 
for some time past has been a glowing mass of rosy-tinted stars of varied 
shades. 

In the department of fruits, we have to thank Messrs. W. Thomson, 
Cox, Pearson, Paul, Standish, and others, for varieties of gi-apes of niore or 
less excellence or promise, the merits of which, however, not being so 
readily tested as those of flowers, are not so quickly or unanimously 
decided on. All honour to the efforts made in this direction ; and when 
the raisers of new grapes do succeed in beating a black Hamburgh or 
a white Muscat, there will be no lack of praise, or of more substantial 
rewards, in store for them . In the meantime, gardeners have to find out for 



34 



THE GARDEN. 



[July 13, 1872. 



what purposes tli3 several varieties already obtained are best adapted, and 
the peculiarities of treatment each requires. I may briefly state that, so 
far as my observation goes, the general verdict has been in favour of the 
Madresfield Com-t Muscat, as likely to prove the best amongst the newer 
sorts. 

Figs are receiving more attention than formerly — perhaps owing to the 
excellent examples of pot culture produced at Chiswick, some examples of 
which Mr. Barron has shown us at the Society's provincial shows of 
former years. Amongst novelties of real excellence in this direction I 
may note the Royal Vineyard of Messrs. Lee, and the Negro Largo, which 
Mr. Fleming, who imported it, tells me is the finest black fig in culti- 
vation. 

Thanks to the Messrs. Rivers, we have gained many new peaches and 
nectarines of ascertained merit, but, as in the case of gi'apes, time is 
required to bring out their qualities more fully. It would appear that 
Early Beatrice, Early Rivers, and Early Louise peaches are specially 
valuable for their earliness ; whilst of the new nectarines, the Victoria 
and the Pine-apple are proved to be valuable acquisitions on the score of 
quality. A still more recent batch of both peaches and nectarines awaits 
the judgment of those upon whom it devolves, in our great garden esta- 
blishments, to keep up a constant supply of good dessert fruit. 

I must pass over the other fi-uits, just to say a word respecting new 
vegetables, of which the name is legion. It may be well to state that the 
Royal Horticultural Society has now in hand, at Chiswick, an experi- 
mental trial of peas, at which, so far as the earlier sorts are concerned, the 
following results have already been arrived at, after due examination by 
the fruit and vegetable committee : — Harbinger has been certificated as 
being the earliest variety ; superlative for its enormous pods, the largest 
of all the early sorts ; and Dr. Hogg, as a fine early wrinkled green 
marrow. All these have been raised by Mr. Laxton. 



Rapid growth of Tree rerns.— These plants, so precious for 
the embellishment of large stoves and winter gardens, are generally 
supposed to be many years old before they produce a good effect, and 
for the same reason to be only within the reach of the richest 
amateurs. In the Birmingham Botanic Garden are fine specimens of 
sach giaut ferns as Cibotinm regale and Alsophila contaminans, which 
teach a lesson. Some of these Mexican ferns measure from twelve 
to twenty feet thi'ough, and have fronds more than twelve feet long. 
Yet, four years ago, they were all small plants in six-inch pots. This 
is good news for those who have large conservatories, and think it 
difficnlt to grace them with such noble ornaments. With good 
treatment, as is shown by Mr. Latham, they may be grown almost as 
quickly as a specimen Pelargonium. 

Indoor Evergreen Walls of Houses. — To turn everything 
to account and to make every inch, even the back walls of houses 
under our charge, enjoyable and profitable is one of the duties of 
every gardener. That this may be done more easily and effectively 
than by the usual system of brackets I am confident, from the 
luxuriant appearance of the back wall of a plant stove in these 
gardens. The wall in question is covered with strong wire about 
four inches apart and the same distance from the wall; the space 
next the latter is filled with turfy peat, &c., and in this are large 
masses of fine foliaged Begonias ; the Stag's-horn fern, and other plants, 
also luxuriate in this situation, and the groundwork is densely 
covered with Adiantums, Pteris, Lycopods, Panicums, &c. Fern 
fronds, always in rec|nest, may here be gathered in any quantity ; and 
beyond frequent syringing these walls are scarcely any trouble ; in 
fact, by pegging in the Lycojiods and filling up any cracks in the soil 
with a little fresh material, they will last for a number of years. — 
JiUiES Gkoom Henham, Suffolk. 

Silver Sand and Peat in Scotland. — A short time ago I 
observed an inquiry as to where these could be procured in Scotland. 
I feel great pleasui'e in stating that a silver sand, said to be the best 
in the three kingdoms, may be had in Scotland, at a place called Gart- 
verrie, near Coatbridge. The proprietor of the quarries is Mr. 
William Lang. Gardeners and others requiring the best, should 
state " the sand to be burned as for glass-works " in their order. 
After burning a slight tap knocks it to pieces, and the result is a 
sand with not a par'ticle of dirt or refuse in it, consisting of the 
purest silica. A second quality sand is also sold, not burned, but as 
it comes from the rock. This is largely used by nurserymen for 
azaleas, camellias, and the finest New Holland plants. It is cheaper 
than the first, and very serviceable. A gardener hero, who was at 
one time foreman in the New Holland House at Kew, uses the fii'st 
quality regularly, and says it is much superior to anything he could 
get about London. There is also a thin bed of peat on the top of 
this silver-sand rock, finely permeated with the sand, and makes a 
most excellent staple for azaleas and such like plants, for which it is 
also largely used by nurserymen. To insure a good sample, however, 
it would be preferable to take a run over and pick it. I cannot, 
however, say anything as to its suitability for orchids, never having 
tried it in that way. — William Wkight, Coatbridge. 



GARDEN IN THE HOUSE. 



THE FOEM AND FUENISHINa OF VASES. 
Permit me to thank " W." and " W. T." for their admirable 
answers (see p. 578, vol. i.). "W.'s" three general principles of 
above, below, and on a level with the eye are admirable ; and if 
generally noted and applied would save a world of disappointment. 
Fall half of cut flowers are so placed in regard to the line of vision 
that their form and character are wholly lost to sight, though still 
to memory dear. The latter makes such mistakes the more pro- 
voking. We remember how nature exhibits their distinctive 
charms ; we see how art hides them by placing the flowers too high 
or too low, or crowding others over them. I like " W. T.'s" vases, 
so much as to ask for more. Perhaps hardly a greater service could 
be rendered to practical gardeners at the present day than giving 
in these pages descriptions of various styles of vase-dressing. It 
would add to their value were the height of the vases, the diameter of 
the mouths, and their general forms indicated. Criticism might also 
be invited upon the examples given, and every one be considered at 
liberty to suggest improvements by way of additions or subtractions — 
in one word, to do it better. As an illustration, I would take the 
Gloxinia and the Ivy out of " W. T.'s " vases, and put in a spray of 
scarlet Salvia and a twining branchlet of Passiflora kermesina in 
their stead. Doubtless contrasts of form are allowable as well as of 
colour ; but such contrasts have been carried to great excess ; and 
more variety would result from the giving of each vase a specific 
character, than from the filling of all with the wholesale mixtures 
now so common. Perhaps the greatest pleasure would be derived 
from arranging each vase on the principle of harmony of form and 
contrast of colour. Then each vase as seen in succession would call 
up new sensations of pleasure, instead of too often, as now, suggesting 
another of the same, but worse or better, as the case may be. — 
D. T. F. 



Strawberries for Hanging Baskets. — Little bushes of 
alpines are really pretty plants for house culture, and in a moderately 
low temperatm'e will produce fruit continuously. I have taken up 
and potted a good number of plants of both the red and white alpine, 
and expect that their fruit and flowers will, during the winter, 
amply repay the little care required in their culture. I should think 
that those who take so much delight in window plants would try the 
alpine strawberries. The varieties that produce runners are very 
pretty when grown in hanging baskets, for the long pendent stems 
produce a bunch of leaves, flowers, and fruit at every joint, and I am 
sure the whole appearance of the plants is equal, if not superior to 
Aaron's beard (Saxifraga sarmentosa), Tradescentia, and scores of 
similar plants that are generally cultivated for such purposes. — W. 

A Floral Ornament for tlie Drawing-Eoom. — Last August 
a lady friend of mine gathered a handful of the world-renowned 
flowers of forget-me-not, Myosotis palustris, and to preserve them 
for as long a period as possible they were put in a large soup-plate 
filled with rain-water. The flowers were placed near the window, so 
as to enjoy the advantages resulting from an abundance of light and 
air, and the water was replenished when needful. In a surprisingly 
shoi't apace of time — three weeks, I believe — white thread-like roots 
were emitted from the portion of the flower-stalks in the water, and 
they ultimately formed a thick network over the plate. The flowers 
remained quite fresh, excepting a few of the most advanced when 
gathered, and, as soon as the roots began to run in the water, the 
buds began to expand, to take the place of those which faded, and up 
to the middle of November the bouquet — if it may be so called — was 
a dense mass of flowers, and a more beautiful or chaste ornament for 
the indoor apartment cannot be imagined. — Thornas W. Trussler, in 
" Gardeners' Magazine." 

Gumming Zonal Pelargonium Blooms.— This is often done in Covent 
Garden Market. Gum is daubed into the central parts of the blooms of cut 
flowers with a small brush. By this means the petals are certainly prevented 
from falling off so soon as they otherwise would do; but tlie pr.actice is never- 
theless a barbarous one. After being daubed they are spread out on a piece of 
paper for a few minutes to dry. — W. F. 



FLOWERS OF LOVELINESS. 

O THOU sweet Rose in virgin bloom 

Thou art a thing to see. 
Like Bella gi'aced in choice costume. 

But far the fairer she! 

How fair thou art thou canst not tell. 

Thou silent senseless Rose ; 
But she Icnows how she looks full well : 

And that is all she knows. — Punch. 



JuM 13,:: 1872.] 



THE GARDEN. 



35 



THE GARDENS OF THE VILLA ALBANI, ROME. 

BY NOEL HUMPHREYS. 

Amosg the remarkable private gardens at Rome, that known 
as the Villa Altaani ranks among the most interesting. One_ of 
its chief attractions is the fine group of palms, which English 
tonrists, unacquainted with tropical sceuery, always look upon 
with strongly awakened curiosity. We, of the frigid north, as 
we travel southward, generally make Italy our pleasant path- 
way in that direction; but it is not till we reach the soft 
climate of Rome that we witness the feathery foliage of the 
palm growing in the open air as freely as in the oases of the 
great African desert, or among the jungles of India, or, as 
when it forms the chief and most salient point of interest, in 
the coral islands of intertropical seas. 

The aspect of the palm is one of our earliest associations 
with the graceful glories of tropical vegetation. We first 



branch-like leaves. One spot, if my memory serves me aright, 
is just within the ancient doorway of the convent of St. 
Onofrio ; and another is the Villa Albani ; both anxionsly 
sought by the young northern traveller, sketch-book in 
hand, when the graceful trees have often to submit to 
many an awkward travesty from clumsy or unpractised 
pencils. 

The Villa Albani is also celebrated for its interesting relics 
of antique statuary, among which are several well-known 
masterpieces of antiquity of world-wide celebrity. It was laid 
out as now seen, and decorated with its treasures of statuary, 
during the last century, by Cardinal Alessandro Albani, whose 
well-known dilettaitfeisni found a congenial outlet in the 
decoration of the gardens of his noble suburban residence with 
the rarest objects of antique art, collected from all parts of 
Italy. The accomplished Cardinal also distinguished himself 
diplomatically during his embassy to the Emperor of Germany, 




The Gardens of the Villa Albani, Rome. 



become intimate with its solitary, towering stem, and the 
majestic drooping of its singularly beautiful foliage, in the 
Bible-pictures of our childhood ; and afterwards in those 
books of travels which form the fascination of early youth, 
from the voyages of Captain Cook to the later adventures of 
modem explorers in India, in the Holy Land, and in Egypt. 
But, except in the confined space of hothouses, and under 
the artificial protection of glass, few have ever seen the 
palm in a living and growing state. When, therefore, in 
Rome, during our first Continental tour, before adventuring to 
Palestine, Egypt, or India, we find the palm growing freely 
in the open air in some of the gardens of that city, it seems like 
the realisation of a dream — like the transformation of some 
Pygmalion statue to the breathing reality of actual life. 

It is only, however, in certain favoured spots in Rome that the 
palm deigns to display the sweeping gloi'y of its long, feathery, 



and as an accomplished bibliographer during his curatorship 
of the noble library of the Vatican. But it is, after all, by the 
classical embellishment of his elegant gardens and palace that 
he is best remembered. He sought to realise a kind of 
Ciceronian elegance in his abode and its surroundings, seeking 
to emulate, as he added feature after feature of classic elegance 
to his gardens and his house, what he conceived to be an 
embodied reproduction of the Villa of Hadrian, of Cicero's 
retreat at Tusculum, and Pliny's charming country abode, of 
which, in his garrulous way, the Roman naturalist has left ns 
so many charming particularities. 

But, after all, the charming Villa Albani does not perhaps 
approach more closely the ancient models of which it was 
supposed to be a revival than do many other modern Roman 
villas, though it is undoubtedly one of the most beautiful and 
interesting. The above engraving will convey a good idea 



36 



THE GARDEN. 



[July 13, 1872. 



of the general aspect — of its ancient sarcophagi, -wrought about 
"svith intricate alto-relievi, flanked and half concealed by great 
clumps of agaves, growing with tropical luxuriance — of its 
antique statues of matchless beauty, telling out their snowy 
outlines against masses of dark evergreen foliage — of its 
cypresses shooting their tapering spires of foliage into the 
deep blue Italian skj', and contrasting pictiu'esquely with the 
tufted heads of the flat-topped stone pines, and most of all, by 
the artistic treatment of the celebrated group of palms. 



THE BIRMINGHAM HORTICULTUEAL SHOW. 



GAEDEN FURNITURE. 

VASES, PEDESTALS, rEIlX-STAi;DS, FLOAVER-BOXES, ETC., IN lEBRA, 
.SIONEWAKE, IRON, ETC. 

Mr. John Matthews, of Weston-snper-Mare, exhibited a vcrj' fine 
collection of teiTa-cotta work, made from tho clay near Weston, 
which he (Mr. Matthews) considers the best in England for plastic 
purposes. Among the most remarkable of the products of Mr. 
Matthew's works arc the gigantic flower-pots (of the usual shape), 
thirty inches in diameter, and perfectly unadorned by any kind of 
ornament ; but so finely turned, and baked without the sligliest 
warping, that they are perfect models of the art of simple pottery. 
These pots only cost £1 each, and in graduated smaller sizes are 
proportionately lower in i^rice. They are warranted not to become 
gTeen while in use, and are certainly very fine specimens of the 
simplest form of ceramic art. The pedestals, at 10s. each, are very 
decorative, as are the ornamental vases at equally low prices. Fern- 
stands, mth bold basket-pattern sides, and handsome handles (iihich 
have a good effect) for lifting them about lawns, are remarkably 
cheap, only 33. for a stand thirteen inches in diameter, Six shillings 
is tlie price of much larger ones. Little baskets of flowers, of terra- 
cotta, are made by Mr, Matthews, which though mere playthings, are 
very curious and beautiful, and serve to show the wonderful plasticity 
of the Somersetshire clay. Tery pretty bed-edgings are to be had at 
the rate of three farthings, and five farthings, per foot run. 

Mr. William Hudspeth, of the South Tyne Works, exhibited a great 
variety of stoneware, especially his simulated tree stumps, with 
truncated hollow branches, out of which growing ferns make a 
picturesque appearance. The tints of this stoneware are very artistic ; 
the rough sui-face is beautifully modelled, and the hard semi-glaze 
makes the work perfectly im])erislmble. The patterns which Mr. 
Hudspeth calls the " Merlin Oak " and the " Balmoral " are very 
picturesque and attractive ,■ as are some garden chairs of the same 
material and analogous design, namely gnarled trank forms. Fern- 
stands and rustic vases are also produced, some of them very 
excellent in design. But there are other devices produced at the 
South Tyne Works which I am not able to praise. I mean those 
masses of branchwork upon which an eagle or an owl is perched, 
having a great apertiu'e in the middle of the back, out of which ferns 
or other plants are intended to sprout. This sort of thing seems to 
me the result of very depraved taste ; yet it is but Justice to Mr. 
Hudspeth to admit that many of his customers entirely differed from 
me, and that all his flower-pot eagles and fiower.pot owls were marked 
"sold," and I have reason to know that they had actually found ready 
purchasers. There was a remarkable piece of rustic fountain-work 
parts of which were very striking in design, especially in the lower 
jDortion, the base of which was formed of gnarled and twisted roots 
iincommonly well designed. That which struck me most in this 
handsome rustic fountain, from six to seven feet high, was that the 
price was only five guineas. 

Mr. William Hunt, of Leicester, exhibited a number of very good 
designs of his remarkably handsome vases, stands, tazzas, <Src., 
formed of massive east-iron ribs, of vci'y ornamental character. The 
interstices between the ribs are filled with wirework, through which 
moss and other small creeping plants show themselves. The advan- 
tages of this system of garden. vase structure does not merely 
consist in its elegance, lightness, and novelty, but in the superior 
drainage afforded to the plants grown in them. 

Messrs. Sankey, of Bulwell Pottery, Notts, exhibited common 
flower pots, of excellent quality, which can be delivered all over 
England at the local prices. 

Messrs. Donlton & Co. were, as a matter of com-se, among the 
most prominent exhibitors. They showed an excellent collection of 
garden furniture in terra-cotta in all its branches ; but what ren- 
dered the exhibition less pleasing and instructive was the absence 
of marked prices on the different articles, so that a visitor was unable 
to judge, without the irksome trouble of inquiring, one after another, 
whether the handsome objects were within the limits of his means 
or not. I took the trouble of inquiring the price of a handsome 



mignonette box, three feet long, for which fourteen shillings was 
the price demanded — a very moderate charge, considering the 
excellence and elaboration of the design. The Messrs. Donlton's 
priced catalogue, which there was not time to refer to on the ground, 
contains good illustrations of most of their leading products. 

Mr. Fielding Moore, of Spenne}' Hill Works, Leicester, exhibited a 
number of vases, tazzas, pedestals, &c., which I considered very 
remarkable for the chasteness of their forms, and the delicate 
character of their small geometrical ornaments, running round the 
objects, above, under, and between the well-designed mouldings. 
These chaste and sparingly. introduced borderings are in the style of 
those found in ancient British and Romano-British potter}'. Not 
the least attractive feature of this class of work is its cheapness. 
One grand central vase, with an appropriate pedestal, together some 
five feet high, was marked £1 18s. ; and I was pleased to see it sold 
to an admiring purchaser as I stood by, along with two others of 
somewhat smaller dimensions, the whole group, as fine a one as could 
be procm-ed for garden purposes, for only £5. Mr. Moore also manu- 
factures chastely decorated flower.pots of all the ordinaiy sizes for a 
trifle less than double the price of the common, unsightly flower-pots 
used in the wholesale plant trade. 

Among the handsomest solid cast-iron vases coloured white in 
imitation of marble or stone, were those of the Messrs. Handyside 
& Co. These gentlemen profess to issue a splendidly iUustrated 
catalogue of their productions, which, however, does them no sort of 
justice. They produce a noble vase, of tall and slender pro- 
portions, excessively graceful in its main outline, which is enriched 
with finely modelled copies of Thorwalsden's famous groups, 
"Morning" and "Night." This is a very grand work; but the 
woodcut in the catalogue, to my mind, conveys no adequate idea of 
its grandeur. Some of the fountains exhibited by this firm are of 
large proportions and excellent design. The largest and most 
important of these was sold on the ground ; and I hope many other 
objects in the collection. 

Among the most interesting of the garden furniture in terra-cotta 
was Mr. Looker's ground vinery, which is not only imperishable 
from the nature of its material, but excellently planned in regard to 
ventilation. It is said by its inventor, and not without tolerably 
good reason, to be by far the cheapest and most perfect combination 
of earthenware and glass for protecting and forcing purposes ever 
brought before the public. It secures complete ventilation at the 
ridge, and is easily regulated, without touching or disturbing the 
glass. I believe that this complete and regulated method of ventilation 
wiU greatly facilitate the cultm'c of vines near the ground, which 
has hitherto been far less successful than it might have been, in 
consequence of defective ventilation to expel the accumulation of 
damp vapour. 

Messrs. Hebeck & Sons, of Birmingham, exhibited some very hand- 
some stone-coloured vases, with the bas-reliefs in white, which pro- 
duce a cameo-like effect. Some of them are very effectively bronzed. 
0ENA3IENTAL GABDEX WIREWOKK. 

Messrs. Baker & Co., of Chester Street, Aston Road, Birmingham, 
exhibited by far the largest, and in some respects the best collection 
of works of this class, and the prices marked on the articles were 
extremely moderate ; every article was priced in conspicuous figures, 
a principle which led to many sales on the ground, as many of the 
suspended baskets, one especially with sockets for four hghts (24s.), 
were remarkably cheap. The great rose temple, a structure of vei'y 
good outline and pretty detail would, as the supporting framework 
for an elegant bower formed of choice kinds of climbing roses, form 
a very attractive central object in a rosary ; but I should %vish to have 
the wirework, pretty as it is, as nmch covered as possible with the 
more natural tracery of rose branches. In concluding my remarks 
upon tliis remarkable exhibition of garden wirework, I would recom- 
mend Mr. Baker to abstain from such profuse bespattering with 
paint and gilding. Though it may attract a certain class of pnr. 
chasers, I am quite sui'e that it tends to lower and vitiate taste 
where it should be the aim of important manufacturers hke Mr. Baker 
to elevate and purify it. 

Mr. Walter Fox, of 12, High Holborn, had a small but pretty 
collection of garden wirework, which was well worthy of examina- 
tion ; as had also Messrs. Ewart & Sons, of Euston Road, remarkable 
for their moderate piice. But the only collection that could for a 
moment vie with that of Mr. Baker, was exhibited by Mr. 
Thomas, of Edgwai-e Road, who made a grand display. His 
" Alexandra Rose Temple " is a very pretty structure ; not quite 
on BO large a scale as the similar work exhibited by Mr. Baker, but 
in some respects of preferable design. The " Temple " is, however, 
much disfigured and vulgarised by the introduction, at the top ?f the 
main supports, and at the apex, of miiTored globes, which look like 
great quicksilver pills, these pills being surmounted by gold spikes 
of equally objectionable and inappropriate character. Tawdry 



July 13, 1872.] 



THE aARDBN. 



37 



appendages of this sort should be entirely confined to rose temples 
intended for tea or beer gardens, and not be allowed to flaunt their 
meretricious gaudiness in a public exhibition intended to elevate the 
public taste. I was happy to observe that Mr. Thomas had many 
garden elegancies to show us which were entirely free from the 
blemishes just alluded to, and which were in every way worthy of one 
of the leading manufacturers in this branch of garden furniture. 

H. N. H. 



THE FRUIT GARDEN. 



THE CUERANT TOMATO. 

Lovers of Tomatoes, and of garden curiosities generally! will be 
likely to appreciate this distinct kind. It may, like other varieties, 
be eaten or used in cookery, and it may also be used among cut 
flowers iu vases, &c. It is, too, au agreeable object as a pot plant. 




The CiuTant TomaLo. 

It is, of course, as easily cultivated as the connnou kinds. It is 
much used at Floors Castle, and is highly praised by Mr. Harry 
Knight, the able gardener there. It is much admired in America, 
and is figured in the AgriciiUurist. 



KEEPING FRUITS. 

The following rules for keeping fruit are from the proceedings of the 
Royal Horticultural Society : — 1. As the flavour of fruit is so easily 
affected by heterogeneous odours, it is highly desirable that apple 
and pear rooms should be distinct. 2. The walls and the floor 
should be annually washed with a solution of quicklime. 3. The 
room should be perfectly dry, kept at as uniform a temperature as 
practicable, and be well ventilated, but there should not be a through 
draught, i. The utmost care should be taken in gathering the fruit, 
which should be handled as little as possible. 5. For present use, 
the fruit should be well ripened ; but if for long keeping, it is better, 
especially with pears, that it should not have arrived at complete 
maturity. This point, however, requires considerable judgment. 

6. No imperfect fruit should be stored with that which is sound, and 
every more or less decayed specimen should be immediately removed. 

7. If placed on shelves, the fruit should not lie more than two deep, 
and no straw should be used. 8. AVhere especially clear and beauti. 
ful specimens are wanted, they may be packed carefully in dry bran, 
or in layers of perfectly dry cotton wool, either in closed boxes or in 
jarge garden pots. Scentless sawdust will answer the same purpose, 
but pine sawdust is apt to communicate an unpleasant taste. 9. 
With care, early apples may be kept till Christmas ; while many 
kinds may be preserved in perfection to a second year. 



SUMMER PRUNING OF WALL TREES. 

One of the most important processes of summer fruit gardening is 
that relating to the management of " breast wood," as it is called — ■ 
that is, the young shoots made on the wood of last year, or from 
spurs. To prevent confusion, it is better not to include in this term 
leading shoots — those made on the extremities of the growing wood — • 
that are needed to enlarge the size of the tree or to fill up vacant 
spaces on the waUs. These, when of the usual strength, are merely 
to be tied or nailed in as they grow, to prevent their being injured 
or broken by winds or rains. When unusually strong, and several 
branches are needed to occujiy the space quickly, it is a good plan 
to stop these leaders as soon as they have formed from four to six 
leaves. By pinching out the top several moderate-sized, well-ripened 
shoots may be obtained, in lieu of one rank branch, that neither 
ripens nor grows to any useful purpose. Breast wood that is needed 
for filling up space may be treated in the same way as leaders, 
moderate shoots being simply carefully attached to the wall or 
espalier, and strong ones pinched back to force a multiplication 
of medium growths. Peaches, nectarines, plums, Morello, and 
it may be other cherries, will have some of their best breast 
wood laid in thus, and treated in all respects as leaders. The 
great point in the summer management of all these trees is to provide 
a succession of bearing wood for next year's crop. So far, and with 
a view to the formation and furnishing of the tree with fruit - 
bearing wood in the future, the treatment of breast wood is a far- 
seeing, selective pi'ocess, bearing close relation to winter pruning. 
But much breast wood lies outside of these structural lines. Mji'iads 
of shoots burst into branchlets all over the surface of trees. What 
shall we do with them ? A good many answers have been given to 
this question. It is said that among a multitude of counsellors there 
is wisdom ; but it is equally true that amid a variety of counsel 
there is uncertainty and confusion. Some say, stop bi-east wood not 
at all ; others, stop many times, and many, never stop but once. A 
good deal depends upon the variety, the character of the trees, strong 
or weak, &c., and the style of training adopted. Peaches and necta- 
rines, for instance, are treated differently from plums and apricots ; 
Morello cherries, from Maydukes or White Hearts ; and apples and 
pears, again, somewhat differently from other fruits. In general the 
treatment of breast wood on peaches, nectarines, and Morello cherries 
consists in laying in as much good young wood as room can fairly be 
found for it, the excess being cut off as useless. Spurs are neither useful 
nor desirable on such trees. Apricots, plums, and cherries, again, 
are treated on a sort of hybrid or half-way plan between these and 
apples and pears. 

Breast wood is laid in to fill up blanks, and to provide a succession 
of fruit-bearmg wood. But, in addition to this, the breast wood 
removed should be cut back to form fi'uit-bearing spurs at the base. 
If the shortening back of the breast wood has been done at the right 
time and in the proper manner, the buds in the axils of these leaves 
■will be all developed into fruit buds before the season of growth is 
ended, aud next year each of these spurs will be developed into a 
clustering nest full of young fruits. With apples and pears all the 
breast wood is thus spm-red in. The object of this interference with 
the breast wood of fruit trees is twofold — the admission of more 
light and warmth to the fruit and leaves left, and the transformation 
of the wood buds at the base of the breast wood into fruit buds. 
The practical question, then, is narrowed to this : Which of the modes 
of stopping is the likeliest to secure these objects ? Or should wo 
stop at all ? Against not stopping, the shade of the branches is a 
strong objection ; and if the top is bent or broken down, the shadow 
becomes more dense alike over fruit and leaves. On this ground the 
plan of bending or breaking down the shoots is objectionable, though 
the check thus given is mostly suSicient to promote the change of 
wood into fruit buds at the base of the broken shoot. Trees, also, 
that have once acquired a thoroughly fruitful habit, or that have 
been weakened by excessive fruit-beaiing, will need no stopping of 
breast wood to induce greater fertility, and will be strengthened by 
leaving all growths made -alone. But these are the exceptions, and 
as a rule those who do not stop breast wood, bend or break it down, for 
the reasons given. The untidiness of the plan is another objection 
against it, and it is one that I cannot recommend to your readers, as 
few things look more slovenly than half-broken branches dangling 
against the wall. D. T. Fish. 



STRAWBERRY FORCING IN SURREY. 
Ajioxg representative industries is that of forcing strawberries ; aud 
we have just paid a visit to Mr. Dew's establishment at Ham, where 
he has successfully carried on this industry for these last forty years. 
The long glass-houses filled with rows of pots, each of the latter 
containing a single plant loaded with luscious ripe fruit, hanging in 
rich clusters beneath the dark green leaves, is a beautiful sight ; the 



38 



THE GARDEN. 



[July 13, 1872. 



aroma is simply delicious, indeed, at times, almost overpowering. 
Here we have this queen of fruits without the only drawback that it 
is ever possible to attribute to it — the growing so close to the earth, 
which often gives, in rainy weather, an unmistakable grittiness to 
the berries. The forced strawberry is perfection ; it loses none of its 
natural good qualities by being grown under glass, and invites you 
irresistibly to eat it by its tempting appearance. This season has 
proved an excellent one in every way for this particular industry ; the 
fruit is large and well flavoured, and the demand so great that three 
times the quantity sent to market would have met a ready sale ; this, 
considering the high price at which forced strawberries are neces- 
sarily sold to repay the great expenses of cultivation and leave a 
profit, sjieaks well for the wealth of the nation. Even a very short 
time ago Sir Charles Napier was fetching eight shillings a pound, 
wholesale. The 10th of last March was the day on which the 
gathering of ripe fruit commenced, and it is still being daily picked 
and sent to market. To supplj' the tables of the rich with this deli- 
cacy, the work to ensure next year's crop has already commenced, 
and men and horses are busily engaged carting the fuel which is to 
protect the plants from next winter's frosts. To take a delight in 
eating strawberries, which, when they first arrive in the market, 
average a shilling each, may appear like eating money ; but directly 
we look below the surface, we find how very beneficial to the com- 
munity at large are the luxuries indulged in by the more wealthy. 
At this present season the number of persons employed in preparing 
for the cultivation of next year's fruit, makes plenty in many homes ; 
indeed. Ham Street, as the road is called leading from Ham Common 
to Mr. Dew's, seems to be a village of gardeners, for the greater 
number of inhabitants find at one season or the other employment in 
his gi'onnds. Those who are fortunate enough to be able to afford 
forced strawbei-ries should this year make much of them, for we fear 
the outdoor crop will prove but scanty ; indeed, Mr. Dew told us it 
has been a bad season with almost all open-air crops : asparagus has 
not yielded one-quarter of the usual quantity ; gooseberries and 
curi'ants, which at the beginning of April promised a heavy return, 
are much injui'ed by the severe frosts we had in the spring ; apples 
are almost all affected with maggot, and pears alone, out of all the 
outdoor fruits, promise anything like a remunerative crop. Market 
gardening in seasons like the present must indeed be an uncertain 
business. 

Only the very strongest and finest plants are selected for of being 
forced, and, as the season advances, Mr. Dew's gardens begin to 
resemble the ancient garden of Marechal de Biron, who flanked his 
walks with nine thousand pots of asters, only the former flanks his 
garden walks with never less than twenty thousand pots of straw- 
berry plants, and during the summer their dark shining foliage affords 
a pleasing contrast to the mass of brilliant flowers and bright varie- 
gated leaves of the bedding-out plants in the borders. No sooner do 
shortening days and cold weather begin than all the strawberry 
plants are placed in frames, and covered carefully at night ; from 
these quarters they are shifted to the forcing-houses at the beginning 
of December; fires are lighted, frosts jealously excluded, and the 
onerous work of forcing begins. We wonder if those who eat these 
forced fruits ever think of the months of care and unremitting labour 
involved in producing them. While they are enjoying Christmas 
festivities, or reclining on their downy couch, the gardener is hard 
at work. The plants having been safely housed, and the fires lit, 
unceasing cai-e is required to keep the temperature even, and during 
the long wet or cold frosty nights of winter the flues requires con- 
tinual care. About every two hours the man in charge must go his 
rounds and see that all is well ; the slightest carelessness may involve 
a great loss, and fifty pounds' worth of strawberries has been lost in 
one night through negligence. When the truss, or head of flowers 
appears, and during the whole time of growth, until the fruit begins to 
colour, the plants are copiously watered overhead with clear water. 
The fruit for market is begun to be gathered at four o'clock in the 
morning, and before the end of the season many tons have been dis- 
posed of. — Enife and Fork. 



THE COLOUE OF GRAPES. 

Colour is sure to be found in conjunction with high flavom' and other 
good qualities, if the grapes are ripe; for it must be borne in mind 
that black gi'apes get black before they are fully ripe. There seems 
to be no doubt, either, that high finish is a sure sign of vigour in the 
vine ; for that deep black colour and purple bloom is never, as far as 
my experience goes, found on weakly vines, or in conjunction with a 
too heavy crop of fruit. I have seen Hamburgh grapes ripe, yet 
nearly fjreen, simply through allowing the vines to carry an excessive 
crop. Two or three years ago I saw a house of grapes, Hamburghs, 
belonging to an amateur, in which thei'e was not one bunch that had 
even got as red as a grizzly Frontignan, and many of the bunches 



had scarcely a tinge of colour about them at all, but remained green 
almost to the last. The berries tasted sweet, but that was the 
highest praise that could be given them — globules of sugar and water, 
for they could not be called fleshy. Considering the strength of 
the vines, the crop was, however, the heaviest I ever saw. Every 
bunch had been allowed to remain, two and three on a shoot, and 
every grape-grower knows what that means. The berries had been 
thinned to some extent, but that was all. Great stress is laid by 
many upon light and air as colouring agents, and I certainly do not 
undervalue their importance in this respect ; but the most thorough 
ventilation and exposure just when the grapes begin to colour, as 
commonly practised, is of little avail if other matters have been 
neglected. Plenty of light and air, acting upon the foliage, without 
doubt promote a vigorous constitution in the plant, and indirectly 
materially assist the colouring process, but the mere action of either 
upon the fruit itself seems to be very unimportant indeed ; otherwise, 
in fine and bright seasons we might exjject the best-finished crops, 
but such is not by any means the case. Black grapes ripened in 
January are often quite as highly colom-ed as those ripened 
in summer and autumn. In spite of the exceptionally dull weather 
we have had this season so far, our early grapes, on both pot and 
permanent vines, have coloured exceedingly well, and better than 
they have done on more favourable occasions. Light has certainly 
been deficient during the past spring, and ventilation necessarily 
restricted. Again, varieties differ greatly in regard to their colouring 
power, so to speak. The black Hamburgh is susceptible of the 
deepest black and the densest bloom under favourable conditions ; 
but it is oftener seen only red, which has encouraged a belief 
that there is a red Hamburgh, though in all probability no such 
variety exists. We have at least often seen " red " Hamburghs turn 
black under altered circumstances. The Muscat Hamburgh is another 
grape which, among other bad qualities, has that of colouring 
indifferently. Mrs. Pince, too, frequently gets only red. I have this 
grape here on its own roots, and grafted upon the Alicante and on 
the Lady Downe's. On the first it is simply bad as a setter and in 
colour. On the Alicante the bunches are invariably magnificent, 
except in colour, though better in this respect than on its own roots ; 
but often reddish when the grapes on the Alicante limb of the same 
vine are quite black. On the Lady Downe's stock the bunches are 
smaller, and more cylindrical ; but they always finish best and keep 
longest. On its own roots it has a high and delicious Muscat flavour, 
but it is less piquant on the other stocks. Mrs. Pince is, however, 
most erratic in this respect, for we have tested it at other places and 
on other stocks, and failed to detect the slightest Muscat flavour 
about it. West's St. Peter is one of the best to colour, and takes on 
a singularly beautiful metallic lustre when well finished that no 
other grape does. The Royal Ascot would appear to be a favourite 
in this respect also. Barbarossa, in some soils and situations, is a 
grape which finishes exceedingly well, taking on the most extra- 
ordinary bloom we ever saw. Among white grapes perfect finish is 
even more uncommon than among the blacks. Taking the Muscat of 
Alexandria as the type of this section, how seldom do wo see it of 
that deep yet transparent amber colomr, which indicates perfection 
and high flavour P Buckland's Sweetwater grape is one that, as a 
rule, finishes well, and has a very taking colour when quite ripe. 
That magnificent grape, the Golden Champion, is certainly worth j' of 
its name, but for the constitutional speck which affects the berries 
when just about ripe. I have had it, however, and seen it on several 
occasions, without blemish. My experience is that it is a grape 
which requii-es time and a somewhat dry atmosphere to finish it 
properly. It is at least a month later than the black Hamburgh, and 
it will not bear hurrying. By far the best stock for it is the Muscat 
of Alexandria. Upon the whole, we are as yet in the dark to a gi'eat 
extent concerning the colour of both fruits and flowers. The directly 
operating agents in its production are a mystery, but it is a well, 
ascertained fact that the general health of the subject has much to 
do with the intensity or brilliancy of the hue, whatever it may be ; 
and this should be constantly kept in mind by the grape-grower 
who would wish to secure a good sample ; while he must not forget 
that his prospects, however fair at the commencement, may be 
blighted at the last by having too heavy a crop on the vines, or 
by subjecting them to a high and hurrying temperature, which alone 
is sure to impair both weight or colour, and, I should add, flavour. 

J. S. 



Rust on Grapes.— No one should thin Grapes witliout the heart being 
securely wiiippcrt with a clean handkerchief, to keep the haw from conimg m 
coutiict with the berries. As for angering or handUng, by all means avoid it ; 
a tapering piece of wood about the thickness of a penholder will siifBce to hold 
or turn the bmich about in any required dh-ection. I admit that excessive 
treatment in any particular way may produce rust, but it may, as a iiilo,ibe 
attributed to the causes put forward by Mr. Edward Jackson (see p. 682). In 
tliiuiiiug Grapes it is astonishing the difference produced on them by different 
operators.— Thomas J. CArAitN, Neimrk-oti-Ti-ent. 



July 13, 1872.] 



THE GARDEN. 



39 



THE ARBORETUM 



EFFECT OP THE PAST WINTEE ON EVEEGEBBNS 

IN AMEEICA. 
The unusutil loss of evergreens noticed by Mr. Sargent in The Gakden 
of June 8th, has been quite general throughout the Northern, Middle, 
and Western States ; particularly where little or no snow fell during 
the winter. In this respect the season was a somewhat remarkable 
one. The frosts, in consequence, were particularly severe, very few 
of the varieties of our native and hai'dy foreign evergreens escaping, 
except the Austrian pine, which seems to have suilered but little, 
owing perhaps to its less fibrous and more penetrating roots. The 
Central Park, New York, and Prospect Park, Brooklyn, have both 
suffered severely, taking into account the numbers planted ; of 
course, the more tender varieties suffered most. Recent inquiries 
into the condition of the stock in many of our largest nurseries in 
different parts of the country, correspond with the general ex. 
perience in the two parks just named. In the latter part of Peb- 
ruaiy, an agreeable change of weather for a few days gave a very 
encouraging appearance to vegetation, but as late as the first week 
in March we experienced the severest frost of the season, which, 
added to the want of moistm-e at the time, due to the absence of 
snow and the drying winds peculiar to that month, seems to have 
exhausted all remaining vitality, and to have completely destroyed 
the recuperative powers of those plants, which the advent of fine 
weather seemed to encourage. — John Y. Cdlyeb, Chief Engineer, 
Brooklyn Park. 



THE FUNEEAL CYPEESS AT A CHINESE TOMB. 

The accompanying little sketch (after Fortune) of the Pune.al 
Cypress, as employed by the Chinese gives a better idea of the habit 
of the tree than the woodcut we gave last week. It is to beregetted 
that so graceful a tree is not hardy everywhere with us. Varieties 




Cidnese Tomb (after Fortune). 

of some of our hardiest pines with a weeping habit are greatly to be 
desired, and we trust that in time many such may be detected and 
increased by our nurserymen. The few we have already are far 
too little known and employed. 



HAEDY TEEES AND SHEUBS. 

BY GEORGE GOEDON, A.L.S. 
THE WOLGA CALOPHACA (CAIOPHACA TVOLGAMCa). 

This forms a pretty, sleader, spreading, deciduous shrub, from 
two to three feet high when on its own roots, but when grafted 
standard high on the laburnum, it forms a very singular and 
beautiful object, either when covered with its yellow blossoms 
in June, or with its fine reddish pods in A.iigust. It is a 
native of Siberia, where it grows on dry gravelly hills near 
the rivers Wolga and Don. It was first introduced in 1780. 
It grows well in any good garden soil, and is increased either 
by grafting it on the labui'uum, or by means of seeds, which 
are produced freely in most seasons. The leaves are alternate, 
pinnate, and terminated by a small acute spine-like point, and 
a pair of lanceolate stipules at the base ; the leaflets are small, 
orbicular, and entire, with a small acute spine-like point ; they 
are smooth on the upper surface, velvety beneath, and mostly 



in seven opposite pairs. The flowers are pea-shaped, bright 
yellow, and produced in axillary pedunculate racemes, con- 
taining from seven to ten flowers. The legumes or pods are 
oblong, somewhat cylindrical, with a sharp bristle-like point, 
and stalkless _; when young they are beset with soft hairs 
mixed with stiff glandular bristles, and are of a bright reddish 
colour; the seeds are ripe by the end of August. Its syno- 
nyms are Cytisus wolgaricus and pinnatus. The name 
" Calophaca " is derived from "kalos," beautiful, and "phake," 
a lentil, in allusion to the beauty of the plant when covered 
with its pea-like blossoms and reddish pods. 

THE SCARLET BERKIED ELDER (sAMBUCUS KACEMOSA). 

This forms a low tree, or large bush from ten to fifteen feet 
high, which grows as freely as the common Elder in any 
ordinary garden soil, and is as easily increased,. When 
trained to a single stem, and covered with panicles of fine large 
berries, which resemble miniature bunches of grapes of the 
most brilliant scarlet, it has a splendid appearance. It is a 
native of mountains in the middle and south of Europe, and 
was first introduced in 1.596. The leaves are opposite, rather 
large, pinnate, tolei-ably smooth and pale green, with five 
oblong, acuminated deeply serrated leaflets, unequal at the 
base. The flowers are borne in terminal ovate panicles, whitish- 
green in colour, and they are produced in May. The berries 
are globular, succulent, comparatively large, bright scarlet, 
and are ripe in August. 



Silver-Bell Trees. — Tlie Two-winged Halesia. — The 

common Silver-bell Tree (Halesia tetraptera), sometimes impro- 
perly called " Snowdrop," is not by any means rare. In May its 
branches are completely loaded with white, pendulous,bell-like flowers, 
which are succeeded by a four- winged capsule. This species is found 
from "Virginia southward, especially along the banks of rivers, where 
it forms a small tree from ten to thirty feet high. Farther south, in 
Georgia and some other States, is found the Two-winged Silver-bell 
(Halesia diptera), which has larger leaves and much larger flowers, 
which are an inch or more in length, and which is distinguished 
by its strongly two-winged fruit. There are other characters which 
distinguish the two species, but it is unnecessary to mention any but 
the most obvious ones. The last-named species is seldom to be 
obtained in nurseries, which is to be regretted, as, on account of its 
larger flowers, it is a much flner ornamental shrub than the other. 
The genus Halesia was named in honour of Stephen Hales, whose 
e.xperiments upon the evaporation of water by foliage are so often 
referred to. The specific names refer to the number of wings upon 
the fruit. — Hearth and Home. [Halesia tetraptera has been de- 
scribed by Mr. Gordon, in The Garden (see p. 392). It is universally 
called Snowdrop tree in England and Silver-bell in America. The 
Halesia diptera is more or less tender in the climate of London, and 
only flowers when trained to a wall with a favourable aspect. There 
was at one time a fine plant of it trained against a wall in the 
nm'sery of the late Messrs. Loddiges, of Hackney. Several years ago 
it was generally known under the name of Styrax graudifolium, 
which is, however, a very diilerent plant.] 

The Derby Arboretum Anniversary. — This was celebrated 
the other day under a downpour of rain accompanied by thunder and 
lightning, a circumstance which, however, does not seem to have 
greatly affected the funds. The following are the actual sums which 
have been paid into the bank during the last ten years : — • 



Number Money taken. 




Number Money taken. 


admitted. £ s. d. 




admitted. £ a. d. 


1863 ... 25,000 ... 660 19 6 


1868 


... 23,000 ... 542 17 3 


1864 ... 31,000 ... 6i3 


1869 


... 33,900 ... 673 9 


1865 ... 30,4,^0 ... 683 6 6 


1870 


... 31,800 ... 660 6 


1868 ... 23,572 ... 623 1 9 


1871 


18,000 ... 400 


1867 ... 21,975 ... 650 12 7 


1873 


... 30,000 ... 640 17 3 


Here and there were presented 


unmistakable evidences of the 


storm, and also of the presence of 


British 


excursionists, who are not 


over scrupulous in their treatment 


of shrubberies and flower-beds. 



The Deodar.— In answer to your correspondent "Cedrus" (vol. i., p. 588), 
I should advise him to have seedling Deodars, as they grow faster and make 
much more handsome trees than those produced either from grafts or cuttings. 
Of course, he can get them by either of these ways, but they seldom make good 
well-branched trees, and only assume the character of a branch. Most of the 
fir tribe can be propagated in this way, but the plants are generally disfigured ; 
aud to give them a tree-Uke appearance, they require great attention in prun- 
ing and t3Tng their branches, and often then without effect. Therefore, if good, 
fast-gi'owing, well-branched trees are the object, by all means have seedlings. 
— J. Tayloe, Maesgywnne^ Whitland. 



40 



THE GARDEN. 



[July 13, 1872. 



THE KITCHEN GARDEN. 



CULTURE OF SPmACH. 

In order to keep up an everyday supply of Spinach all the year 
round, sow the last summer crop on a well-prepared border or 
quarter about the middle of this month, in drills about eighteen 
inches apart ; this will yield a good supply of fine large leaves till 
October is out. For the late or winter crop prepare about the end 
of the month a border or sheltered quarter ; apply a good coating of 
thoroughly decayed manure, trench the ground well and cast it up 
into ridges, so as to expose as great a surface as possible to the 
influence of the atmosphere. Every dry day till August 10th or 12th 
cast down the ridges and pulverise with a steel fork, so as to sweeten 
and incorporate all together. Then draw lines a foot apart and sow 
the hardy Prickly variety. As the plants advance thin them out 
from six to nine inches apart, and maintain a healthy and vigorous 
growth by constant surface stirrings in suitable weather ; this, if 
attended to, prevents canker, and encourages the production of 
abundance of fine leaves for use every day throughout the winter. 
Timely forethought should be taken to shelter a portion with a row 
of short stakes about eighteen inches high, interwoven with fern, 
straw, evergreen branches, furze, heath, or other material, which 
should be neatly applied, aod also made wind-proof. Thatched 
hurdles or frames, cheaply made, of battens backed together and 
thatched, might also be used for the purpose of protecting from frost. 
Make another good sowing of the same hardy Spinach on ground as 
well prepared as the last, about August 20th or 22nd, in lines a foot 
apart, and thin out to four or six inches between the plants. This 
will fm-nish a supply for use next spring, for although there is only 
the short period of eight or ten days between this sowing and the 
last, this one will yield but very little before spring. To keep up a 
regular supply in summer, sow the rovmd Spinach on a warm 
sheltered border and between lines of Early Peas, Ac, once a fortnight 
from February to May, and for the next six weeks after that on the 
coldest and dampest part of the garden ; and if a north aspect can be 
provided, so much the better. 

In March sow New Zealand Spinach in heat ; pot off, and encourage 
the gi-owth of a few plants till about the middle of April ; a very few 
plants will produce an enormous quantity of leav(!s if turned out on a 
slight hot-bed, as is done with ridge Cucumbers, and let hand-glasses 
be placed over them until strongly started and well established. The 
hotter and drier the weather, the stronger will this Spinach grow, a 
circumstance quite at variance with the winter and summer varieties, 
which " bolt " or start to seed at an early stage in hot weather and 
in warm situations, particularly on light or poor soils, or when under 
shallow ciilture. 

Another famous substitute for Spinach in summer is the foliage of 
the Silesian White Beet, a row or two of which will pi'oduce a 
quantity of fine clean healthy leaves in the heat of summer. In 
autumn the silvery clean white stalks of this famous Beet make a 
very good substitute for Seakale ; they are served at table in the 
same way, and make a capital wholesome dish. Ja^ies Baknes. 



Watering and Mulching'. — Waterings, effectual but not 
frequent, and stirring the surface or mulching immediately after- 
wards, form the secret of success in droughty seasons. Mulching in 
itself has a wonderful effect on nearly all kinds of vegetable crops, 
and notably on peas, all the Brassica tribe, celery, and potatoes. The 
handiest material for such purposes is short grass, which is always 
plentiful. A good mulching of this between the potato rows, instead 
of earthing them up, increases the weight of the crop largely, but it 
is a disadvantage in wet seasons. Raspberries luxuriate under a 
thick mulching of grass, which is worth a heavy dressing of manure 
to such moisture-loving plants. Strawberries are equally benefited 
by the same treatment, and the mulching should be done early in 
spring in their case. On apples, pears, gooseberries, and currants, 
in shallow warm soils, a top dressing of any loose material seems to 
work little less than a miracle. Indeed, such a practice is commen. 
dable under almost any circumstances, and at all times saves an 
immense amount of labour in watering. — J. S. W. 

Earthing up Celery. — Will you be good enough to answer the 
following questions : Is it, or is it not, necessary to earth up celery 
while it is growing ? or should the operation be delayed until the 
plant is nearly ready for pulling ? If not absolutely necessary, is it 
better to earth gradually from time to time, or all at once two or 
three weeks before using ? I a,m aware that these questions are 
answered by anticipation in several good treatises on gardening — Sir 
J. Paxton's among the rest ; but, strange to say, the practice of 
delaying the earthing, which they all recommend, is contrary to that 
of every practical gardener I have spoken to on the subject. All my 



neighbours earth their celery, and by degrees ; and an old professional 
gardener of some fifty years' experience advises me to do the same. 

What am I to do ? — E. G. [It is certainly not necessary to earth 

up celery when it is growing rapidly ; more than that, it is bad 
practice. A little sprinkling of earth, pushed down after a heavy 
watering to prevent evaporation, is all we should give during the 
growing season, and we know it to be a fact that some of those who 
grow the finest celery in the country, do not earth till full growth is 
attained. Indeed, some of them do not earth at all, but effect the 
blanching by other means. That some old professionals of fifty 
years' experience, and many other persons, pursue quite a different 
course, we are well aware, yet one would think that a single hint 
would suffice to point out that it is difficult to give abundant waterings 
to celery, and impossible for it to benefit by the natural rains, if we 
pile a sharply-sloping bank of firm earth close along each line long 
before the plants have attained maturity or vigour. And no plant is 
more benefited by profuse waterings than this, naturally an in- 
habitant of very wet places. The repeated earthings which celery 
receives in the majority of gardens are not only harmful to the 
celery, but the cause of a great waste of time and labour.] 

Crops for Poor Iiand. — Will you or any of your market- 
gardening readers tell me what is the best crop for poor land ? — L. H. 

[An ordinary crop of onions is worth about £40 or £50 per acre. 

On poor land onions pay better than any other vegetable. 1. On an 
acre of ground during the summer, onions will produce £40 ; dming 
winter, lettuce and spinach, £20 ; total, £60 ; 2. On the same amount 
of groimd, cabbages in summer will fetch £30 ; the same in winter, 
£10 ; total, £40. 3. On the same, potatoes in summer will realise 
£20 ; lettucesin winter, £20 ; total, £40. The labour of the second 
and third is much greater, and requires better land than the first.] 

liBttuces. — Careful ti-ials of many sorts of cos and cabbage 
lettuces, spread over several years, and continued during the present 
summer, have shown that most of the so-called new kinds of white 
cos are, after all, but mere selections from the old Paris white cos. 
The two best strains are Waite's Alexandra and Dimmick's Victoria, 
the first being exceedingly even, true, and slow to run to seed. The 
latter also inherits most of these qualities, but it is specially to be 
commended for its great size and usefulness for exhibition. Of 
winter cos lettuces the largest and best are Acme, white cos, a 
very fine hardy variety, and Sugarloaf, brown cos, a strain of the 
black-seeded Bath cos. Neither of these require tying, and they are 
without exception, first-rate. Among cabbage lettuces, the best 
in my opinion is Leyden White Dutch for the very earliest. If 
sown with the summer white cos kinds, it will be ready for cutting a 
fortnight before them. And with it also sow Victoria cabbage let- 
tuce, a fine solid kind, but several days later, and one which stands 
well. For winter work sow in the end of July and beginning of 
August Stanstead Park brovm cabbage lettuce, the finest grown, and 
with it. Fearnought cabbage lettuce, which is much like the last, but 
stands longer. Than these no better selection can be made. — A. D. 



Hadishes. — Kindly give me some information as to the best mode of grow- 
ing Radishes. I have never yet been able to get a good crop, although I have 
tried in good and in bad soil, in all situations and in all sea:ons. I can gi-ow as 
fine a crop of tops as anyone, and as much seed as would sow any market 
garden near London ; but as to the needful there is nothing but small wiry roots. 
— R. F., Moertov. 



GARDE N D ESIGN. 

A GARDEN AT RAMBOUILLET, NEAR PARIS. 

OuE, plan this week is that of a garden near Paris, which 
may be considered as a fair example of the modern French 
garden. It will be seen that it has many good features, and 
that indeed it conld not be easily found fault with, if it were not 
that the centre is too much broken tip by the intersections of 
the walks. By way of justifying the existence of so many walks, 
our French friends tell us that it is necessary to have many 
more walks in France than iu England, in consequence of 
the absence of as good a turf as we possess, and that in the 
absence of turf on which to walk it is necessary to have more 
walks. We see little force in these explanations, as we have 
seen very charming lawns near Paris, even in the parks and 
on the race-courses. "We have, we are glad to say, seen some 
French gardens in which this obviously objectionable system 
did not exist, as, for example, in the Little Trianon, and also 
in Rothschild's garden in the Bois de Boulogne. The most 
redeeming feature about the plan in question is the good 
attempts made at concealing their intersections. We may 
pomt out the graceful way of grouping and isolating trees 



July 13, 1872.] 



THE GARDEN. 




Q, li c9 



^ © !3 ■» S S 



Y 1^ ^Y ^^f ^^ /f .^ y ^ <y y /|» ;f »^d /fil!!'lf^^ai>^i<>Sia%!>lpe%ilip^ t^~' 



ci O © •© a 



A MODEBN FDJINOH RABDEN, 



42 



THE GARDEN. 



[July 13, 1872. 



shown in this plan. The water, too, is well treated in all 
parts. The absence, moreover, of any geometrical patterns 
of beds about the ground is noteworthy, and a real advance 
in ornamental gardening. We must, of course, have beds 
for flowers in snch places, but it is better to rest content with 
a simple form like the ovals here shown, and to depend for 
effect on the jjlants we pvit into the beds than in any degree 
to depend on the mere contour of the beds themselves. 

The followmg are the references to the plan, which is the 
work of our talented friend, M. Edouard Andre, ceaseless 
worker, horticulturist, botanist, and landscape gardener. 



1. Entrance. 22. 

G. Island. 23. 

9. Khododenclrons. 24. 

10. Flower beds. 

13. Forest trees. 25. 

14. Conifers. 26. 

15. Ctioice mixed planta- 27. 

tion. 28. 

16. Douglas fir on monnd. 29. 

17. Forest trees. 30. 
1 3. Rock Shrubs, &o. 31. 

19. Poplars in variety. 32. 

20. Alders in variety. 33. 

21. Island planted with 34. 

Tamarisks. 35. 



Willow Island. 36. 

Collection of Willows. 37. 
Group of Deciduous 



Cypress. 
Mass of Trees. 
Group of Limes. 
Group of Cornus. 
Abies nobilis. 
Magnolia acuminata. 
Thujopsis borealis. 
Magnolia grandiflora. 
Magnolia conspicua. 
Flower beds. 
Abies alba. 
Tulip Tree. 



Western Plane. 
Group of Silvery 

Limes. 
Wellingtonia. 
Group of Deodars. 
Abies Nordman- 

niana. 
Group of the Bothan 

Pine. 
Alnus cordata. 
Araucaria. 

French garden. 
Gardener's house, &c. 
Kiosque. 



We do not include in this list herbaceous plants, those by 
the side of the ornamental water, small isolated shrubs, &c. 



THE BOTAL GARDENS, KBW. 

KB,. HOOKEK AND MR. AYRTON. 

The public, says the Times, will hear with regret that, since 
Mr. Ayrton's appointment to the post of First Commissioner of Works, 
such difficulties have arisen with respect to the management of Kew 
Gardens as to occasion imminent danger of Dr. Hooker's resignation. 
"We state the facts as they are at present known, subject to correction 
by future explanations ; but the correspondence which has passed 
with the Treasury leaves little doubt of their substantial accuracy. 
One of Mr. Ayrton's first acts after taking office was to send a 
reprimand to Dr. Hooker. It is said the occasion was supplied 
entirely by the First Commissioner's owu misconception ; but, at all 
events, it was the first experience of the kind during Dr, Hooker's 
thirty years of service. But more material acts of interference 
followed. A previous First Commissioner had intrusted Dr. Hooker 
with the task of remodelling the heating apparatus throughout the 
establishment; and, in accordance with the director's plans and esti- 
mates, a range of hothouse was constructed which is the completest in 
existence for scientific i^urposes. In 1871, without any notice being 
given him or any reason assigtied, he was superseded in the control of 
this apparatus, and he was left to discover his supersession accidentally, 
through one of his own subordinates. On addressing an inquiry to 
the First Commissioner, he was simply informed that he had been 
superseded, and would have to govern himself accordingly. Dr. 
Hooker seems to have reason in arguing that to trust a cultivator 
with the care and treatment of valuable collections, and to make him 
amenable to the opinions of others in respect of the apparatus he 
requires, is as wi'ong in principle as to refuse a surgeon his choice of 
instruments and hospital appliances. But, at all events, courtesy 
and justice alike required that Dr. Hooker should have been 
consulted before the change was made. It would seem, in 
fact, that in 1870 a director of works was appointed under the 
Board of Works, and that measures were taken to re-organize the 
management of the gardens. It is alleged that since then the 
curator has been removed from his duties under Dr. Hooker without 
any previous communication, and has been empowered in various 
respects to act independently. Plans and estimates were submitted 
to the Treasury for extensive alterations in the Museum at Kew, 
without Dr. Hooker being so much as informed of the intention. 
These works, it is said, would have greatly embarrassed him as 
director of the museum, and they were eventually abandoned on 
reference to Mr. Stansfeld. It is even alleged that Mr. Ayrton 
invited the curator to accept a position which would have involved 
authority over the works at Kew, requesting him, at the same time, 
to keep the invitation from the knowledge of Dr. Hooker. In short, 
Dr. Hooker charges Mr. Ayrton with " evasion, misrepresentation, and 
mis-statements ' ' in his communications on the subj ect to Mr. Gladstone, 
with ungracious and offensive conduct towards himself, and with 
acts injurious to the public service and tending to the subversion 
of discipline. Mr. Gladstone, having been appealed to, referred the 
matter at last to a committee of the Cabinet. After their inquiry 
Mr. Ayrton was told that Dr. Hooker should in all respects be 



treated as the head of the local establishment at Kew, of course 
in subordination to the First Commissioner of Works. But Dr. 
Hooker, not unnaturally, wishes to be more definitely informed 
respecting his future duties and relations to Mr. Ayrton ; and he 
has addressed distinct inquiries to the Treasury whether he is to 
have restored to him the control of the heating apparatus, whether 
he is to bo consulted respecting estimates, whether he is still to be 
intrusted with the custody and distribution of scientific works, 
whether he is to be consulted in case of proposed changes in the 
position and duties of his subordinates and in case of proposed 
works which would affect his duties and responsibilities, and 
whether he or the director of works is to have control in matters 
for which they are jointly responsible. 

We shall not follow the Times, says the Echo, in giving a premature 
judgment upon the difficulty that has arisen between Mr. Ayrton 
and Dr. Hooker, of Kew Gardens. There is probably no department 
of the public service in which there is not, in the public interest, 
a demand for unpleasant work; for pruning the unwholesome 
growth of years of unchecked extravagance. It is not likely that 
we shall get this unpleasant work well done if we are hasty to find 
fault with the reforming Minister. Let us hear what Mr. Ayi'ton 
has to say for himself. We may depend upon it that we shall never 
get an economical Minister, whose nwdus operandi will be pleasant 
to the permanent officers of the Civil Service. 



Ths Thames Embankment. — The Metropolitan Board of 
Works has been recently considering the question of the supply of 
trees and plants for the ornamentation of the Victoria and Albert 
Embankments. A statement having been made that the charges for 
the trees and plants supplied were excessive, and the supply itself 
deficient, the matter was referred to a committee for investigation. 
This committee finds, in the first place, that the charges, although 
high, are not imreasonable ; and that their amount is due to the fact 
that the plants, in order to be transplanted properly, had to l^ con- 
veyed in their own earth, which involved considerable additional ex- 
penditure. The deficiency in the number of the plants is attributed 
by the committee to three causes — first, to the haste with which they 
were planted, in consequence of which many of the plants were put 
into land not always thoroughly adapted to their characters ; secondly, 
to the inclemency of the weather, which killed a large number of 
the remainder ; aud thirdly, to the hostility of the roughs, who stole 
or destroyed the rest. The prospect, we fear, is not a very hopeful 
one. A recurrence of the first of these causes may perhaps be 
avoided for the future by the exercise of greater deliberation and 
judgment on the part of the board ; but the severity of English 
summers has now grown proverbial ; and at present, unfortunately, 
our roughs seem almost as Kttle under our control as our weather. 
Perhaps the only course to be pursued is for the board to keep a con- 
stant supply of plants on hand to replace those which it may please 
our masters from time to time to destroy or carry off, and to await 
with patience the time when the plants shall have grown too big to 
be removed, and when perhaiJS the tempting facilities which they 
will then offer to the roughs for hacking their names upon and other- 
wise defacing them mil enlist the sympathies of the latter in the 
cause of their maintenance. — Pall Mall Gazette. 

Our Gardens. — A nation which loves gardens as we English do is 
blessed with a taste of which the influence may be said to be wholly 
beneficial, and to the development of which there need be no limits. 
We have a climate and soil which permit of our exercising our propensity 
to an extent almost impracticable elsewhere. A little fui-ther south it is 
too hot and dry; a httle further north too cold and stormy. Even in 
Canada and the States the alteroations of heat and cold are too great for 
most of our flowers, and after a fortnight of spring, comes the burning 
summer, to scorch up every delicate plant. Nowhere in the world, save 
in the Low Countries, and some parts of Germany, is their grass like ours. 
The queen of a southern country spent hundreds of pounds in vain to 
deck her palace garden with a rood of such sward as covers half the vales 
of England. The grandest trees of the world, from the Himalayan pine to 
the giant Sequoia (Wellingtonia) of California, will flourish on our soil as 
freely as our own glorious oaks and elms and beeches and limes, n.nd every 
year adds to our treasiues, insomuch that if old Evelyn were to awake he 
would have have a new science of arboricultm'e to learn, and Bacon 
might write another essay on the Gai'den, with a new world of sweet and 
lovely flowers to describe. Like the paradise spot in which grew SheUey's 
" Sensitive Plant," England may boast that 

" All sweet flowers, from every clime. 
Grow in that garden in perfect prime." 

We have, in truth, a garden-island, "girded by the inviolate sea''— a 
land which is to the rest of the world much what thelslc of Wight is to 
England ; aud heartily may we be thanl<ful that so it is. Ag.ainst our 
gloomy skies, our smokc-hegrimcd cities, our over-busied aud toilsome 
lives, we can set the gardens of England— and the balance is not wholly 
against us even in the matter of beauty and enjoyment. 



July 13, 1872.] 



THE GARDEN. 



43 



GARDEirilfG ROUND LONDON. 

(during the present week.) 
by our special reporter. 
PRIVATE GARDENS. 
Indoor Plant Department. — Conservatories now exhibit 
more green leaves than showy flowers ; every attention is therefore 
paid to keeping the foliage clear of insects of all sorts, and to the 
encouragement of its healthy development. The Clianthus puniceus 
is a plant very liable to attacks of red spider, and must, therefore, 
be closely watched and often syringed. Plants in pots are more 
likely to suffer from drought at this season than those in borders, 
and must, therefore, be frequently examined. Tree Ferns, some 
Palms, and a few quick-growing large plants in borders, should have 
basins of earth formed round their bases, so that a thorough soaking 
of water can be given to them at one time without running over 
the border. Fuchsias, both in the form of climbers and pyramids, 
are now about their best. Pinch their side-shoots in freely until 
a few weeks prior to allowing them to bloom, and give a little liquid 
manure about twice a week. In growing the double-flowering 
kinds of Pelargoniums, endeavour to induce a stubby growth ; and, 
after their flowers are fairly set, assist a freer development by 
means of manure water. Show Pelargoniums that have done 
blooming are set outside, so as to enable them to ripen their 
wood, and are allowed to dry off gradually. Lilies be- 
longing to the Japanese section are now coming beautifully 
into bloom, and are liberally supplied with stimulants. When 
repotted the pots are only filled to within two inches or so of the top, 
so as to leave room for top-dressings of good rich compost. Before 
cutting the blooms of these Lilies, the anthers are carefully removed, 
so as not to spoil the petals by the diffusion of the pollen. Erythrinas 
coming into bloom are assisted by means of manure water. Statices 
are repotted as they require that attention, but in the case of old 
plants, top-dressings and manure-waterings are resorted to instead of 
giving them a shift. Foliage plants now constitute the best feature 
in stoves, Alocasias, Caladiums, Gymuostachyums, &c., being 
among the most striking. All these enjoy partial shade and a 
sweet, humid, warm atmosphere. AUamandas, Dipladenias, Clero- 
deudrons, and Bougainvilleas, occupy the chief positions among 
flowering plants, not only when trained on trellises in pots, but also 
on the roof, where they contrast admirably with the lovely Cissus 
discolor, a climber that thrives best when its roots have a regular 
and steady hottom heat. The finest plant of it perhaps ever seen 
was grown in a Pine stove, where it got a little bottfci heat summer 
and winter; there it remained evergreen all the winter, and in 
spring pushed forth with such vigour as to require constant attention 
to keep it within bounds. Ornamental baskets are now being filled ; 
Caladium argyrites, Dracfenas, Colons, &c., occupy the centre, 
while round the sides are placed variegated Panicum, long trailing 
mosses, and other plants. Amongst Orchids, the Disa grandiflora is, 
perhaps, the finest at present, and one admirably adapted for conser- 
vatories. 

Flower Garden and Shrubbery. — Privet, Hawthorn, Holly, 
Yew, and other hedges may now be pruned with the knife, bnt where 
they are not in conspicuous positions that operation may be done 
with the shears. Evergreen shrubs, and even choice Conifers, are 
now being pruned into shape with the knife. From Rhododendrons, 
Magnolias, Azaleas, and other similar things, the beauty of which is 
over, the old flowers are being removed, and, where time can be 
spared, the seed-pods also are picked off. Flower beds are now 
making satisfactory progress. In some cases even annuals have to 
be kept within bounds, so rapidly are they growing, and where the 
bedding plants cover the ground, the aimuals are removed to make 
room for them. Alternantheras are growing as freely this season as 
we ever remember to have seen them, considering that it was almost 
the end of June before they were planted out. In order to guard 
against failure, a reserve stock of all bedding plants is kept to fill up 
blanks. Should they not be required for that purpose they will make 
good plants for yielding cuttings next spring. Herbaceous plants 
that have done blooming are partially cut back, but not so much as 
to render them unsightly. All the finer kinds of herbaceous and 
alpine plants have the soil around them mulched. Around the base 
of Rose trees are formed little basins, which, in some cases, are filled 
with well-decomposed litter ; their real purpose, however, is to 
retain water, and occasionally liquid manure. 

Indoor Fruit Department. — Succession Pine plants which 
have iilled their pots with roots are being shifted. Suckers and 
crowns where required are potted and plunged in front of growing 
plants. To winter-fraiting kinds, such as the Jamaica, brisk bottom- 
heat is kept up, and they are syringed two or three times a week. 
Vines that have yielded their crops, now and then receive a good 
syringing. To ripe grapes a free circulation of air is kept up, and 



to those colouring, in addition to a little air night and day, a little fire- 
heat is given. To pot vines for next year's crop, light, air, and water 
are freely administered. Fig trees, in many cases, are now bearing 
their second crop. In Melon pits, in which the fruit is nearly ripe,- a 
thorough watering is given, so as not to necessitate another until the 
fruit has been cut. Pinching, thinning fruit, syringing, &c., are 
alike applicable to Melons and Cucumbers. Beds for Mushrooms are 
being formed for autumn and winter bearing. They are covered 
with straw, and a moist atmosphere is maintained by means of 
sprinkling floors and similar surfaces. 

Hardy Fruit and Kitchen Garden. — Last Saturday's storm 
has done good in the way of keeping down insect posts; nevertheless, 
wall trees are still gone over, and well washed by means of the 
garden engine. Now that the proper amount of wood can be selected 
for next year's crop, superfluous growths are removed, and such 
young shoots as are retained are laid in in such a manner as not to 
shade the fruit. Young shoots of Figs are loosened from the wall, 
and Cherries and bush fruits are netted to keep them from birds. 
Weeds are now growing marvellously, and not only is the hoe useful 
in their destruction, but in keeping the soil open ; and those crops 
that have been well attended to in this resiaect have made consider- 
able progress in advance of those that have had no such attention. 
Of Peas, another late sowing may be made of the tall kinds, such as 
Veitch's Perfection. Of Cabbages, some are being planted out for cole- 
worts, and they also furnish good heads throughout the winter. Broc- 
coli is planted out in good firm ground, but not too rich, as that would 
tend to make them so luxuriant that they would not stand the winter 
well. An intermediate crop of Celery is planted out. The main 
crop of Endive is sown on a cool situation ; a few of the earlier 
sowings are planted out. Lettuces are sown in a cool shady place, 
as are also Radishes, Turnips, &c. Small Salads are sown often and 
in small quantities. A few eai-ly Carrots are sown for drawing 
young. Celery for succession is being planted. Gourds and 
Vegetable Marrows have the ground about them mulched with 
litter ; the shoots are pegged down, in order to encourage them to 
root at the joints. 

NURSERIES. 
Indoor Department. — Hard- wooded plants from autumn-struck 
cuttings, are now being potted off; also grafted Conifers, &c., 
which are placed for a time, until they get established, in gentle 
heat, and well shaded. In cool houses, Japanese Maples are being 
layered by plunging the pot containing the stock in tan or cocoa-nut 
fibre and pegging down all the branches, which are cut a little at 
such joints as are inserted in the material prepared for their 
reception ; they are likewise increased by means of inarching. 
Clematises are also being layered under glass, and the finer kinds, 
or those that require to be increased quickly, are propagated by 
means of cuttings ; such cuttings as are rooted are potted on, and 
placed under hand-lights in the propagating pit and well shaded 
for a time. They soon start into growth, and as they advance are 
staked. Primulas from seed are pricked off into pans, and those 
from cuttings are being repotted. Begonias, such as intermedia, 
Chelsonii, and Boliviensis, are being rapidly increased by means of 
cuttings struck in heat ; the large-leaved kinds that were struck earlier 
in the season, and which have now formed little crowns from several 
centres in the leaves, are potted off singly into thumb pots. Torenias 
are being increased from cuttings, and rooted ones potted off. 
Young AUamandas, Bougainvilleas, &c., are also shifted as is necessary. 
Young plants of Aristolochias and Dipladenias, if likely to become 
pot-bound, get another shift, and great care is taken to prevent 
their shoots from getting entangled or broken. Hsemadictylon 
nutans, a handsome-leaved stove climber, is equally well cared for. 
They enjoy a warm humid atmosphere. Young plants of Pentas 
carnea are shifted frequently in order to get them to form nice 
specimens ; the flower spikes are frequently removed for the purpose 
of throwing increased vigour into the plants, and also in order to 
keep them free from mealy-bug, which too frequently gets estabUshed 
amongst the flowers. Young Humeas for next year's decoration are 
repotted into four-inch pots, and kept near the glass in gentle heat 
or in cool houses ; the last sowing is still in the seed-pan, or are 
being pricked off. Yuccas are being increased by taking off young 
shoots, and inserting them singly in pots placed in a cold frame, 
well shaded for a time. Young Azaleas, that were not repotted this 
season, are now being gone over, and top-dressed with good peat and 
sand. Specimen Heaths, and other Cape and New Holland plants 
not done floAvering, are kept in cool houses and well aired. Young 
plants, and also large specimens, the flowering period of which is 
past, are set on beds of ashes out of doors, and diligently attended to 
with water. Besides watering the plants, the whole of the beds on 
which they are placed are well saturated every diy day. 

Out-door Department. — Chrysanthemums are being repotted 
and placed outside. Passion-flowers in six-inch pots are securely 



44 



THE GARDEN. 



[JULY 13, 1872. 



fastened to their stakes, and plunged outside in a well-sheltered 
border. SoUyaa, Desmodiums, Hardenbergias, Eccremocarpus, 
Lophospermums, and many other grenhouse climbers are also 
plunged outside. Besides the climbing plants that are turned out 
to mature their wood, such subjects as Cytisus, Boronias, Erioste- 
mons, Banksias, Daphnes, Primuses and many others, are also set 
out of doors. Pot Roses that thronghont the spring and early 
summer produced flowers are now being transferred from the houses 
they were grown in, and plunged in beds in the open air ; the surface 
of the pots, however, is not covered, but left exposed, so that water 
may be conveniently applied. In addition to such Clematises as are 
layered indoors, those that are growing in outdoor beds are also 
being layered in pots plunged a foot or so from the stock. The 
layers are slit np a little at the joints, pegged into the pots, and 
covered over with a little mould. Pinks are being increased from 
cuttings inserted under hand-lights at the foot of shady walls, in 
prepared borders which are covered on the surface with a thin layer 
of silver sand. Any hard-wooded greenhouse plants from autumn- 
struck cuttings, or Conifers not yet potted off, are kept freely 
e-xposed in cold frames. Rhododendrons, in this year's seed-pans, 
are placed outside, at the back of frames, so that they may receive a 
little protection from the sashes that are drawn down over them when 
the frames are open, and at the same time get a free circulation of 
air. The budding of Roses has begun in several places, and the 
stocks are everywhere being prepared for operating on. In the 
fruit department training is now the most important feature. 
Toung Pig trees planted along the foot of walls, are not yet tied 
in to the walls ; the young wood is permitted to reach a sixth joint, 
but not more than that. Sweet Peas for seed have been well 
staked, and those having a tendency to fall are tied up with string 
or matting. Onions and Leeks for the same purpose are just coming 
into bloom, and along the drills stakes are placed at intervals of from 
twelve to sixteen feet ; to these stakes are attached cords, which 
run along both sides of the plants, and assist in keeping them 
upright. 

MARKET GARDENS. 
Ckops now ready for market consist chiefly of Cucumbers, "Vegetable 
Marrows, Peas, Potatoes, Lettuces, Globe Artichokes, Cabbages, 
Cauliflowers, Carrots, and Beet, &c. The Asparagus season being 
now over, the plants are allowed to mature their shoots, which they 
do not produce in too great abundance, nor are the plants so near one 
another as to be injurious to other crops grown on the same ridges. 
Besides Lettuces and French Beans, there are also grown on these 
ridges. Beet and Nasturtiums, the latter of which produce an 
abundance of cut flowers for market. Cucumbers in frames are duly 
attended to in the way of pinching and removing any decaying 
leaves that may be on them and regulating the fruit. Some of the 
growers complain of a rather inferior yield of this fruit this season. 
Yegetable Marrows are growing rapidly, and bearing abundantly ; 
another plantation of them has just been made. When practicable 
the surface of the ground is mulched with litter ; especially is this 
the case with Custard Marrows, which are planted in beds eight 
feet apart, with a line of Lettuces or French Beans between 
the beds. To Tomatoes, planted in lines three feet apart, a little 
earth is drawn, so as to form as it were the ground into broad 
shallow beds, a plan which economises the watering. Beds are being 
formed for celery by thoroughly working the soil and making them 
four feet wide with a fifteen-inch alley between them sunk a few 
inches. The Celery will be planted in the alleys, and Lettuces or 
Coleworts on the beds. "Walls not covered by fruit trees have stakes 
stuck up against them, on which Scarlet Runners are trained. 
Onion crops are being gone over a third time and cleaned ; their 
growth is strong, and they do not seem to have suffered in the least 
from the tramplings received in former cleanings. Beet and other 
root crops from early sowings exhibit a tendency to run to seed. 
"WTieu fruit trees are thickly planted, and the under crops removed, 
a mulching of litter is spread over the ground, which not only 
prevents the soil from becoming too dry, but also preserves the fruit 
from injury should it happen to fall. 



MAEKET GARDBNINa. 

BT H. EVEESHED. 
{Continued from p- 14'.) 

THE BEDPORDSIIIRE DISTRICT. 

The Bedfordshire district lies in Biggleswade, Sandy, and adjoining 
parishes. The soil is a sandy or gravelly loam, of excellent quality 
when not too light or thin, resting on sharp gravel, sand, or sand- 
stone rock. The river Ivel, formerly navigable, runs tlu-ough the 
district, joining the Ouse at Tcmpsford. Water is generally found at 



a depth of 16 feet. In order to shelter a level tract, rows of lofty 
elms, trimmed into excessive ugliness, are allowed to disfigure the 
country in every direction. The same object might perhaps be 
attained, with agreement among proprietors, by the planting of fast, 
growing timber at salient points, to break the currents of wind, and 
the neighbourhood might be ornamented, as well as protected, by 
such means, without injury to the crops. The district is not now 
particularly weE situated for market-gardening ; certain industries, 
however, cling to particular localities. Bedfordshire has long been 
famous, and a favourable soil, the railway, artificial manures, and 
skill together, have preserved its prestige, so that the labourers who 
come into the metropolitan district from all quarters in the hoeing 
season prefer to be called Bedfordshire hoers, and to enjoy the credit 
of having come from a noted district. There are many garden- 
farmers occupying less than 10 acres, others occupy from 10 to 50 
acres, and a few even more, and some are owners as well as occupiers. 
Spade labour is not resorted to, and the small farmers are accustomed 
to hire teams of horses when they require them. The crops are 
kept remarkably clean, and every kind of work is well done ; for the 
employer, instead of sending his men to their labour, is in the habit 
of taking them to it and keeping them at it, his occupation being so 
small. Garden-farming is entirely dependent, here as elsewhere, on 
a supply of manure from outside the farm, consequently, at a 
distance of more than two miles from the railway station, gardening 
merges rapidly into farming ; and it may be added, that when 
farmers have been tempted by the large gross returns to combine 
the cultivation of vegetables with their ordinary business, they 
have not usually been successful. The business of market-gardening 
is one in which both the master and his man should have served an 
apprenticeship. 

The crops grown include a considerable breadth of corn, turnip, 
kohl-rabi, and onion-seeds, and a few carrots and parsnips. Scarcely 
any peas are grown, and none of the "fancy crops," such as flowers 
and culinary herbs. The main crops are potatoes and onions, both 
for pickling and for " lofting," i.e. storing in airy lofts constructed 
for the purpose, with louvre boards for ventilation. A large portion 
of the produce is sent to the manufacturing districts. It is common 
to sell largely to the dealers or agents who visit Bedfordshire after 
the middle of June, for the purpose of buying the growing crops of 
potatoes, which are lifted and marketed under their direction, during 
the following three months, before the Scotch supply has commenced. 
Tliis intervention of middle-men seems to be practically necessary, 
in order to regufate and distribute the daily supply of vegetables at 
the various distant markets. The succession of crops is not regular. 
It is observed that turnip-seed is a good, and potatoes a bad pre- 
paration for wheat, and that onions ought not to be taken from the 
same ground oftener than once in five years. A common rotation is : 
1, onions; 2, turnip-seed, or potatoes; 3, wheat; followed by such 
crops as onion-seed (after potatoes), cucumbers, carrots, or parsnips. 
The most important crop is onions, which receive enormous dressings 
of manure, and sometimes yield a handsome return. The method of 
cultivation is the same as at Barking — one ploughing, six inches in 
depth, and the manure harrowed in vrith the seed — 50 tons of dung 
per acre are sometimes applied, costing 8s. per ton at the railway, 
and 10s. when spread in the field. Small dressings of guano are 
occasionally used, but in the case of onions intended for " lofting," 
forcing manures must be applied cautiously, as they induce a 
luxm-iant growth ; and as bulbs which have been grown too rapidly 
do not keep satisfactorily, the grower loses the chance of selling 
his crop at £11 per ton in March ! The cost of hoeing is £5 for the 
season. 

Tumip-seed or potatoes follow onions, with a dressing of guano for 
the former and of soot for the latter. Turuip-seed is grown for 
seedsmen who supply the farmer mth stock seed, which is drilled at 
24 inches apart, or the plants are transplanted from a seed-bed in 
November. One ploughing suffices for this crop. The land is 
ploughed in autumn for potatoes and again in spring, and the sets 
are planted with a dibble at the second ploughing. In the case of 
early potatoes a wide furrow of 9 inches or 10 inches is given, and the 
sets are placed in alternate furrows. Late potatoes are planted in 
every third furrow of 8 inches or 9 inches. A few other particulars 
may be briefly noticed. Early potatoes (which are not earthed), and 
scarlet runners are planted in alternate rows, the latter occupying 
the whole space between the rows (3 feet or 3i feet) after the removal 
of the potatoes. A large breadth of cucumbers is grown. They are 
manured with perhaps 40 tons of dung per acre, planted thickly in 
rows, sheltered at 6 feet intervals by rows of rye or onion seed. 
Some growers sow many acres with this crop. Onion seed is also 
grown at 2.feet intervals, and is sometimes supported by stakes and 
string, but more generally by earthing up. The lowest day-wages of 
the district are 12s. a week; gardeners, however, require skilled 
labour, and pay lugher rates. A great deal of work is done by task. 



July 13, 1572.] 



THE GARDEN. 



45 



GENERjU, uemabks. 

The preparation of the land for onions indicates that they prefer a 
solid surface. In the Essex district a ploughing is given before 
Christmas, a large quantity of short dung is spread on the land 
during frost, and is well knocked with a fork ; it is afterwards har. 
rowed in with the seed. If dnng be ploughed in, and especially if it 
be covered deeply, it is observed that the plant does not get hold of 
it until late in the season, and a rampant habit is induced at the end 
of Jnne, when the onion ought to be bulbing. The consequences of 
ploughing in dung would perhaps be less injurious on old garden 
grouud, which is full of manure. Lisbon onions for salads are sown 
in August or early in September. Pickling-onions require the same 
cultivation and excessive manuring, They are sown very thickly, 
and are bleached by casting mould over them a short time before the 
crop is secured. The process of brining and skinning the crop for 
one large grower, employs about 400 women working in sheds. 
Dung, which is usually placed in large heaps five feet high and fre- 
quently ten yards wide, is twice turned for onions. 

Peas are not profitable in the field-garden district. An occasional 
piece of early pens is so'.vn in November, to bo followed by some such 
crop as broccoli, which may bo planted as soon as the peas are off. 
After hoeing, the peas are moulded up and the haulm is laid to check 
over-luxuriance. 

Broccoli and cauliflowers are lai-gely grown on the strong, deep- 
fruit-bearing soil of Knfield, a spot which is famous for the tribe, and 
has given a name to one of the varieties of cabbage. The cultivation 
of cauliflowers and of Walcheren broccoli has been noticed in connec- 
tion with a garden in Bermondsey. The latter are usually planted 
after potatoes or cabbages at the end of June or early in .July, and 
are cut from September to December. Market gardeners also 
provide a crop of broccoli to cue early in spring, sowing the sprouted 
and winter-white and other kinds to plant early in September after 
potatoes, &c. A heavy coat of dung is turned in with a deep furrow, 
on deep soil, by three horses, or dug in when the occupation is small. 
The earliest are sold in time to sow carrots or onions. Other 
varieties follow during the spring and summer. 

Without plenty of manure and garden cultivation lettuces run to 
seed quickly. Hammersmith has given a name to one variety, and 
they are confined in great measure to neighbourhoods where the 
gardens are small. The Brown Cos is sown in November for early 
use ; this and the white and better, but less hardy varieties, are 
sown in succession from February tiU June. The chief demand in 
London is at the end of May, and dmring June and July. Early 
sowings are made in seed-beds, later somngs may be made in drills 
without transplanting. 

With respect to the weight of crops, which is the chief point of 
agricirltural interest, garden crops are generally removed before 
they are mature, and they are planted thickly with that object. It 
is not the weight, but the number of bunches, that yields a large 
return. Prices vary so much that no precise estimates on the 
subject can be given, although one of my informants lent me his 
books containing exact accounts of monthly sales for several years . 
I can report a sale of early potatoes (3 tons per acre) at £11 per 
ton, on a Saturday in the third week in June ; on the Monday the 
price was £9 per ton, and it soon fell one half. Cabbages when 
very plentiful are sometimes sold at 4d. a dozen, they ought to fetch 
9d. ; and it is very satisfactory to the grower when they sell at Is. a 
dozen. Three hundred dozen bunches of carrots pej: acre, including 
" chumps " or rough carrots, sold to stable keepers, are a very large 
crop ; 2s. 6d. per dozen is a satisfactory price. This year carrots are 
considered to sell well at 3s. A bunch contains from 50 carrots, 
early in the season, to 25 when they are larger, 20 tons of Belgian 
carrots, is considered a good crop ; 403. a ton is a common price at 
the stables in London. A crop of parsnips generally weighs con. 
siderably more ; the price of the finest roots varies from Is. to Is. 6d. 
per score of 22. A good crop of collards is 200 dozen bunches. It 
varies between 50 and 350 dozen, and the smaller crop may pay best, 
reducing the land but little, and selhng perhaps at a high price, with 
comparatively small deductions for the cost of labour and marketing. 
One hundred and fifty bushels of peas is a large crop, and £15 on 
the ground is a very great price, which is sometimes paid by dealers 
for a crop that would yield 8 quarters of threshed peas ; 2a. 6d. or 3s. 
per bushel are common prices in Covent Garden, up to 8s. for the 
first early peas, or for "blues" when they come first to market, 
" whites " being then worth but little. A crop of onions, I behove, 
weighs about half as much as a crop of swedes in the Eastern 
Counties, where 20 tons of swedes are a great crop, and from 10 to 
15 tons are common crops ; price from 5s. to 9s. per hundredweight. 
Prices are aifected by a variety of circumstances which cannot be 
foreseen. A blight in the early potatoes would raise the price of 
carrots and other competitive vegetables. Cabbages were selling 
this year at Is. a dozen on June 14th, because there were few peas or 



potatoes at market. Each gardening district has its innings, which 
terminates suddenly ; for example, any district which is earlier than 
another has possession of the market so long as the advantage lasts . 
During a fortnight last spring immense quantities of cabbages were 
sent from Essex to the great manufacturing towns in the north. 

Lisbon sends the earliest potatoes to London, the French coast and 
the Scilly Islands follow, then Jersey, Guernsey, Cornwall, and 
Holland; and by the middle of June, these distant but early districts 
are driven out of the market, by the arrival of supplies from Essex, 
&c. Bed cabbages have been sold at 160$. per ton early in the 
season, and at 25s. per ton a fortnight afterwards ; or at from Is. to 
43. per dozen. Lesser movements in the trade are governed by the 
supply of labour and other circumstances. In a parish where a 
great many French beans were grown, the erection of a factory 
absorbed the pickers, and beans were given up, as well as broccoli, 
which had previously been planted between the rows of beans ou the 
solid ground, which suits them. The garden farmers send their own 
men with the waggons to seU their goods in open market, instead of 
consigniug them to salesmen. The cost of carrying goods to market, 
of baskets, packing, and market dues is estimated at 50s . an acre ou 
large garden farms. 

The customary prices of Task Work in the Essex district (day 
wages 15s. a week) are : — Hoeing per acre — cabbages at 2 feet by 15 
inches, 1st and 2nd time, 5s. each ; 3rd, 4s. 6d. ; potatoes 3s, or 4s., and 
afterwards chopped over by the day previous to earthing ; carrots , 
broadcast, £3 ; onions, £4. Lifting early potatoes by fork, sorted 
into firsts, seconds, an"! chats, placed in sieves of 56 pounds, or 
baskets of 1 hundredweight, covered with haulm and weighed in the 
field, 8s. per ton for a crop of 3 tons. Picking peas, from 4d. to 6d. 
per bushel. Pulling, bunching, washing, and loading early carrots, 
7s. per 20 dozen bunches. A sieve is a basket holding 56 pounds of 
potatoes, or 5 pecks of peas when heaped, wholesale measures being 
liberal. A small sieve such as is used for French beans and fruit, 
holds about half a sieve. A prickle is a conical basket, equal to a 
half sieve. A punnet is a round open basket holding 10 or 12 
apricots, made of the same light material as the conical strawberry, 
pottle. 



SOCIETIES. EXHIBITIONS, &C. 

EOYAL BOTAinO GAEDBNS, EEGENT'S PAEK. 
(June 10th and 11th). 

This, the last exhibition of the season, was well supported in the way of 
stove and greenhouse plants, conspicuous among which were AUamandas, 
Ixoras, Heaths, among the latter being a fijae specimen of Erica Parmenteri 
rosea, densely grown and finely bloomed ; Pheenocoma prolif era Barnesu, 
Statice profusa, Dipladenias, Vincas, Authuriuni Scherzerianum, aud a 
lovely specimen of Kalosauthes Phoenix (from Mr. Ward), which was 
fully two feet in diameter, dwarf, compact, and a complete mass of 
brilliant flowers. Fine foUaged plants consisted of large specimens of 
Crotons, Dracaenas, Palms, variegated Yuccas, and some good plants of 
New Zealand Flax. Among Caladiums were some large, well-grown 
plants, so neatly staked that nothing but the fohage was visible. 
Prominent amongst them was a fine specimen of C. argyrites, which, 
for a dwarf-growing kind, was in an unusually flourishing condition. 
Of Ferns there was a grand display ; among them were some fine plants 
of Pteris scaberula, Adiantum Farleyense, A. formosum, Davallia bullata, 
aud some of the taller growing kinds, such as Cyatheas, Dicksonias, 
Angiopteris, &a. Hardy Ferns, however, constituted the most interesting 
and numerous group ; besides those put up for competition, a large group, 
staged for exhibition only, by Messrs. Ivery, of Dorking, consisted of 
some of the finest and most graceful of Ferns. Conspicuous among them 
were Adiantum Capillus -veneris, crested and fringed Scolopendnums, a 
fine plant of Cystopteris fragilis, large pans of Polypodium Dryopteris, 
and many fine forms of Lady Fern, especially one called Athyrium Pilix 
f 03mina puloherrima, a most graceful plant. Orchids were sparingly shown, 
but such as were produced were in every way excellent. From Mr. B. S. 
Williams came some fine plants of Aijrides Lai-pentse, A. odoratum majus, 
Miltonia spectabihs, a very fine specimen of Thunia alba, a well 
flowered plant of Barkeria spectabihs, and an excellent example of Cypri- 
pedium Stonei. In the amateurs' class were also finely flowered plants, 
particularly Phatenopsis grandiflora, Odontoglossum Bluntii, and a fine 
specimen of 0. Uro-Skinueri. The most atti-active Orchid in the show 
was, however, perhaps the lovely MasdevaUia Harryana, in Messrs. 
Veiteh's collection. Of Fuchsias several groups of six were contributed, 
but, although faiily grown, among them there was nothing remarkable, 
the kinds being confined to such sorts as all of us have often seen before. 
Pelargoniums included zonal, tricolor, and golden bronze kinds. The 
zonals grown as specimens on the flat system were very fine, some of them 
being fully three feet through. The finest specimens were Virgo Marie, 
a pure white ; Rose Rendatler, a pink ; and among scarlets. Pioneer, Dr. 
Lindley, Cham, and Lord Derby. Tricolors comprised the commoner 
lands, but in this class we seldom get large specimens. The golden 
bronzes of Messrs. Downie, Laird, & Laing were most luxuriant ; they 



46 



THE GAEDBN. 



[July 13, 1872. 



consisted whoUy of fine new Knds. Four Clematises in small tubs, well 
fm'nished both with leaves and flowers, were contributed by Messrs. 
Jaclanan. They were named Alexandra, rubella, Thomas Moore, and 
Mrs. James Bateman, all purplish blue sorts. Balsams were shown by 
Mr. Puttick, Park Road, Acton ; they were dwarf, bushy, and well 
flowered, the blossoms being as double as those of a Camellia. Ha,rdy 
herbaceous plants in pots were well represented by Mr. Parker, of Tooting, 
and by Mr. Ware, of Tottenham. Mr. Parker] s collection consisted of 
large well-bloomed specimens of Coreopsis tenuifolia, and C. lanceolata ; 
Delphinium Hendersomi, a lovely deep blue ; Santolina lavendulaefoha, 
OEnothera Fraseri, a fine yellow ; Betonica hirsuta, and B. stricta, the 
double pink flowered Calystegia pubescens, one or two Campanulas, and 
others. 

Among cut blooms of herbaceous plants from Mr. Ware were some fine 
flowers of the showy GaiUardia grandiflora, spikes of the double-flowered 
Spirioa Ulmaria, a decided improvement on the single sort ; the beautiful 
Alstrojmeria lutea, the large-flowered Crinum-like Amaryllis longiflora 
alba, some spikes of the double-flowered blue Delphinium Mooreanum, a 
pretty and useful border plant. Besides cut blooms, Mr. Ware also 
fm'nished a group of alpine plants in pots, and an admirable display of 
Pentstemons with large and showy flowers ; also a collection of Phloxes. 
A good collection of the last was also furnished by Messrs. Dowuie, 
Lau'd, & Laing. The alpine collection included white and blue varieties of 
the Campanula turbinata, a large open-flowered kind, and very dwarf ; 
Primula auriculata, Selleria radicans, and the rosy-flowered Lythrnm 
flexuosum, a valuable acquisition to our stock of alpines, being of a some- 
what prostrate habit, and a very free flowerer. 

Miscellaneous collections of plants comprised some fine groups. Messrs. 
Veitch's exhibition itself was worth going a long journey to see. It 
contained among other things, Lomaria zaraicefolia, a strong-growing 
beautiful fern, Adiantum permaanum, a kind with large pinnae of graceful 
foiTtt ; A. amabile, a small pinnate kind, each leaflet being nicely fringed, 
also a very beautiful kind, Platycerum alcicorne majus, an improvement 
on the old Elk's-horn ; some good crested silver and golden Gynmo- 
grammas, and a pretty SelagineUa called S. japonica. There were, 
moreover, Araha Veitchii, one of the finest of AraHas ; the beautiful 
yellow-flowered coral-like TiUandsia Zahnii, several fine Dieffenbachias, 
such as D. Bausii, and D. braziliensis, the latter a finely spotted kind ; 
and some beautiful Dracaenas. Of Crotons we noticed a handsome kind 
called Youngii, the old leaves of which, like those of C. undulatum, assume 
a red and green colour, and the young ones, the first season, a yellow and 
green hue. Among flowering plants in this collection, the most striking 
was Lasiandra macrantha floribunda, the blooms of which are very large, 
and of a deep violet colom-. In Mr. B. S. Williams's colection were some 
fine varieties of Lilinm anratum ; a good plant of Phormium Colensoi, one 
of the finest of the New Zealand Flaxes ; some good plants of Pandanus 
Veitchii, and a good pan of Sarraceida purpurea. Messrs. E. G. Hender- 
son & Sons had a nicely arranged group of bedding plants, for which they 
received a prize. Messrs. Lee, Hammersmith, Mr. Morse, of Epsom, and 
also Mr. Bester, Pine-Apple Nursery, exhibited good collections of stove 
and greenhouse plants arranged for efl'ect. 

Amongst cut-flowers the greatest favourites were the Eoses, the blooms 
of which were exceedingly fresh and beautiful. Two new Eoses furnished 
by Messrs. Paul & Son were very fine ; viz., a Tea called Chestnut Hybrid, 
and a Hybrid Perpetual named S. Reynolds Hole, which is one of the 
finest dark red velvety Eoses in cultivation. A stand of Tuberoses fur- 
nished by Mr. E. Webb, of Caleot, were so very fine as to make \is regret 
that this sweet-scented flower is not more frequently seen at our exhibi- 
tions. Picotees and Carnations, in the form of out blooms were exhibited 
in fine condition by Mr. C. Turner and others. 

Fruit was aU that could be desired. Pine-Apples were numerous 
and excellent. They consisted chiefly of Queens and Providences, but 
' there were also examples of Black Prince, and a fine fruit of Charlotte 
EothschUd, which weighed seven pounds eight ounces. One of the 
Providences also weighed ten pounds three ounces. There were some 
pot Vines beaiing heavy crops of fruit, each having as many as ten 
bunches ; those from Mr. Cole being wonderfully good, plump, and well 
coloured. The most wonderful examples of Grape culture in the 
exhibition were, however, two pots produced by Messrs. Lane, of 
Berkhampstead. On each of these there were no fewer than twenty 
clusters, all in excellent condition, the berries, as well as the bunches, 
being large and fine. Of cut Grapes, both white and black, there was 
no scarcity, and their quality, in most cases, was of a high order. White 
kinds consisted of Buckland Sweetwater and Muscat of Alexandria; 
the black sorts of Black Hamburgh and Black Alicante. Several Melons 
were exhibited, but they comprised nothing very remarkable either in 
point of quality or kind. Only two Cucumbers were staged, called 
Wonder of the World, and said to be a hybrid between Highgate Rival 
and Telegraph. Peaches and Nectarines were pretty good, especially 
those which obtained prizes. The first prize Peaches consisted of 
Noblesse and Padley's Early ; other dishes comprised Royal George, 
Bellegarde, Teton de Venus, Violet Hative, Admu'able, and Incom- 
parable. Among Nectarines were Hunt's Tawny, Elruge, Eoman, 
Pitmaston Orange, and Newington. Cherries were not well represented, 
only a few dishes being exhibited, but these were nice fresh-looldng fruit ; 
the kinds were BigaiTeau, May Duke, Elton, and Downton. Of Figs 
only a dish or two amongst collections of fruit could be seen. Norfolk 
Bearer Apples from E. Clark, Hohnbush House, Horsham, Sussex, were 
much admired, on account of the admirable manner in which they had 
been preserved. Strawberries, upon the whole, were as good as we have 
seen them ; the Idnds were Elton Pine, Princess Helena, Comte de Paris, 
British Queen, President, Lucas, Vicomtesse Hcricai't de Thury, and 



Sir C. Napier. Of bush fruits, such as Currants, Goosebemes, and Easp- 
beiTies, there were only a few, the Raspberries being rather inferior 
in quality. Perhaps the most attractive fruit on the tables was a dish of 
what are called Water Lemons, or fruit of Passiflora laurif olia ; they were 
of a deep amber colour, and about the size of common Nectarines. They 
were accompanied by some of their leaves, which are thick and glossy, 
not unlike those of the common Laurel. 

■The dinner-table decorations were very interesting. It is evident that 
great improvements have been effected in this direction by the many 
exhibitions that have been held during the past few years. The exhibitors, 
almost without exception, manifested good taste in their arrangements; 
so much so, that one regretted more prizes than the usual three were not 
given. The contrast between the groups shown on this occasion, and the 
wonderful ones that were so often seen eight or nine years ago was 
marked indeed. The best gi-oup in the exhibition, that shown by Mr. 
Bester, was composed almost wholly of hardy plants, grasses. Spiraea 
ariaetolia, Roses, Forget-me-Nots, &c., all plants within everybody's reach. 
Some of the groups shown were greatly disfigured by the use of branched 
glasses. In no case in which these were employed was a really good 
eflfect presented. They are quite wrong in design, and even such accom- 
plished artistes as Miss Hassard and Miss Blair failed to make them 
effective. The mixed arrangements of fruit and flowers were quite 
puerile, with one exception, to which a second prize was awarded. 
Bouquets of all kinds were very poor indeed. 

First-class certificates were awarded to Picotee Prince of Wales, P. 
Mrs. AUcroft, and a seK-coloirred Carnation, Prince Arthur, from Mr. C. 
Turner, Slough ; to seedling Picotees Miss Norman and Charles WiUiams, 
from Mr. Norman, 98, Crescent Eoad, Plumstead ; also to Hybrid Per- 
petual Eose S. Eeynolds Hole, and Tea Eose Cheshunt Hybrid, from 
Messrs. Paul & Son. First-class certificates were also awarded to 
AnEeotochUus Ortgiesii, from Messrs. Carter & Co. ; to Lythrnm flexu- 
osum, and to a species of Artemisia, from Mr. T. S. Ware ; to Curcuma 
petiolata, from Mr. E. Parker ; to a Hymenophyllum, from Colonel C. J. 
Cox, Fordwick, Kent ; to Dipladeuia amcena, and Gymnogi'amma gran- 
diceps, from Mr. B. S. WiUiams; to Erica opulenta and splendens coro- 
nata, from Messrs. W. EoUisson & Son ; to SelagineUa japonica, Croton 
Youngii, Adiantum peruvianum, Platycerium alcicorne majus, Dieffen- 
bachia brazihensis, Echeveria scaphylla, TiUandsia Zahnii, Leptopteris 
WUkensiana, MasdevaUia Harryana, and Lasiandra macrantha floribunda, 
all from Messrs. Veitch and Son ; and certificates of merit to a specimen 
Fuchsia, from Mr. G. Wheeler ; and to an Early ProUfic Marrow Pea, 
from Mr. Evershed, of Godahning. 



OBITUAEY. 

We have to announce with regret the death of Mr. Wyness, who has 
been for very many years gardener to her Majesty at Buckingham 
Palace. He was a quiet, kindly-disposed man, who had many friends, and 
therefore his loss will be widely felt. He was an enthusiastic florist, and 
raised in his time several new kinds of Verbenas and DahUas. Some of 
his seedling Dahhas, indeed, stiU rank among our best show flowers of 
that kind. 



COVENT GARDEN MARKET— July 12tli. 

Plo'vsrers. — Japan Lilies, grown in six or eight inch pots, arc now 
plentiful. There are also several smaU specimens of .the beautiful 
Amarantus salicifolijjis, and of the sweet-scented double Gai'denias. Cut 
flowers consist of many fine spikes of Orchids, blooms of Stephanotis, 
Pinks, Dianthuses, Centam-eas, Irises, Sweet Peas, Ixias, Roses, and 
others. 

PEICES OP FRUIT, 
a. s. d. 



Apples half sieve 2 to 3 

Apricots per doz . 

Cherries per lb. 

Chestnuts bushel 

Figs per doz. 

Filberts lb. 

Cobs lb. 

Grapes, hothouse ...lb. 3 to G 
Lemons 100 7 10 



2 

1 

8 

■1 

6 



s. d. 6. d. 

Melons each 3 to 8 

Nectarines per doz. 8 20 

Oranges 100 6 12 

Peaches per doz. 12 24 

PinoAiiples lb. 6 10 

Plums per box 3 4 

Strawberries oz. 8 13 

Walnuts bushel 10 25 

ditto per 100 1 2 



PEICES OP VEGETABLES. 



Ai'tichokes per doz. 4 to 

Asparagus per 100 4 

Beans, Broad 

Beans, Kidney ...per 100 1 

Beet, Red doz. 1 

Broccoli bundle 9 

Cabbage doz. 1 

Carrots bunch G 

Cauliflower doz. 4 

Celery bundle 1 6 

OhiUes per 100 1 G 

Colcworts doz. bunches 3 G 

Cucumbers each 6 

Endive doz. 2 

Fcimol bunch 3 

GarUc lb. 8 

Herbs bunch 3 

Horseradish bundle 3 








G 



2 
2 
4 
1 






Leeks bunch 

Lettuces score 



Mushrooms pottle 2 to 

Mustards Cress, punnet 2 

Onions bushel 3 

pickliug quart G 

Parsley, ...doz. bunches 3 

Parsnips doz. 

Peas, Continental, quart 

Do. English do. 2 

Potatoes bushel 4 

Kidney do. 4 

Potatoes, New, per cwt. 16 

Radishes doz. bunches 6 

Rhubarb .bundle G 

Salsafy do. 1 

Savoys doz. 9 

Scorzonera bundle 9 

Shallots lb. t 



3 



6 

9 



1 

1 

5 

i 

li 

li 

1 



Spinach . 

Tomatoes doz. 

Turnips bunch 



..bushel 
2 
G 



July 20, 1S72.] 



O^HB GARDEN. 



47 




" This 13 an art 
Which does mend nature : change it rather : 
The Art ptself is Natuee." — Shakespeare. 



but 



RECOLLECTIONS OF JOHN CLAUDIUS LOUDON. 

BY NOEL HUMPHREYS. 
(^Continued from page 2.) 

Ix tbe year 1806 Mr. Loudon -was still actively engaged in 
his faTOurite occupation of landscape gardening, in various 
parts of the country, and earning a Trell-deserred golden 
harvest as the reward of his persevering labours. lu that 
year he was also employed in a very extensive land reclamation 
scheme ; that portion of his first work which he devoted to 
" Gaining and Embanking Land from Rivers and the Sea," 
having attracted the attention of a great "Welsh landowner, Mr. 
W. A. Madox, who had conceived the idea of reclaimiog a large 
tract of land on the coast of Carnarvonshire. Toung Loudon 
was invited to Tremadoc by the spnited pi'ojector ; and dui'ing 
the progress of the works, which created genei'al interest, the 
seat of Mr. Madox became the rendezvous of many of our 
celebi'ities in science and art ; and the wild but somewhat 
dreary scenery among the "Welsh mountains was often enlivened 
by night, as ilr. Loudon used to tell, by the dazzling ghtter of 
thousands of hghts in and around the residence of the great 
land reclaimer at Tremadoc ; while the ravishing notes of the 
famous Mrs. Billington, whose noble portrait as St. Cecilia, by 
Eeynolds, is one of the great portrait painter's master-pieces, 
supplied the place of the absent nightingale amidst the solitude 
of those Welsh valleys. On moonlight nights, as he used to 
relate, the peak of Snowdon might be seen terminating 
the vista of the Vale of Tremadoc, and looking gaunt, dim, 
and grey, as one of the mysterious mormtains that Ossian made 
the spirit home of his shadowy warriors of the mist. The young 
horticulturist was much dazzled by this visit, and wonder- 
struck at the lavish profusion of the choicest wines, that flowed 
like water at the evening entertaimnents ; and he was amazed, 
too, at the perfect roar of boisterous wit, of the highest class, 
that generally accompanied the costly eating and drinking. 
That was the era of clever talkers and great wits, whose 
places have never yet been effectually refilled. 

This phase of the young Scotchman's career was destined 
to a somewhat melancholy conclusion. Returning fi'om 
Tremadoc outside the night mail, he became drenched to the 
skin with soaking and continuous rain, and, omittiag to take 
prudent precautions after the journey, he was seized with 
rheumatic fever in its severest form, the remains of which 
finally settled in his left knee, and the medical man he sub- 
mitted his case to being injudicious in his treatment, the joiat 
became permanently stiffened, which was naturally a source 
of great annoyance to him, not only at the time, but 
during the whole course of his life, as it greatly impeded his 
exertions in the active pursuit of his profession, and also 
caused a limp in walking, which at the age at which the 
accident occiured to him severely wounded that personal 
vanity which is a very general characteristic of youth, and 
Loudon was then in his prime, and blessed not only with a 
good constitution but a fair share of good looks. There was 
also another regret that pursued him through life, which was, 
that although a large tract of valuable land was eventually 
reclaimed from the sea, and although fertile meadows were 
made to appear where the barren wash of the shallow, far- 
spreading salt tide had so long held its useless, brawling reign, 
yet, so great had been the cost of the reclamation that, 
next to ruin, instead of the realization of a vast fortune, was 
the sorry reward of the spirited projector, and a sore dis-- 
appointment to his conscientious advisers. 

The stiffened knee became, incidentally, the cause of events 



which materially altered the after part of his career. "WhUe 
suffering from the severe pain conseciuent on the diseased 
joint, he determined to seek for rest and retii'ement for a 
while in some c(uiet country place, and with this view he took 
lodgings at a farmhouse at Pinner — the Piuner-cum-Harrow of 
ecclesiastical arrangements, the Vicar of Harrow having the 
gift of the perpetual curacy of Pinner, which is only four 
miles distant from the historical Harrow-ou-the-Hill. 

"V\Tiile at Pinner, he soon became convinced that he could not 
remain entirely idle, and he seized that opportunity of inquiring 
into the actual state of English farming, which he found much in 
arrear of the systems pursued in Scotland. He therefore set 
himself to work, to investigate the best methods of obtaining 
better and more profitable crops in England. He was, in fact, 
the true pioneer of improvements in English agriculture, long 
before the Mechi's and other great improvers eventually 
followed in his track. He also devoted himself with great 
energy at that time to landscape painting in oil ; and, con- 
sidering the short period during which he applied himself to 
that art, his progress was very satisfactory, several of his 
works of that class, produced at Pinner, being exhibited by 
him at the Royal Academy, when the annual shows of the 
English school of art were held at Somerset House. Dui'ing 
the same period, too, regretting his former neglect of the 
acquisition of languages, he engaged a professor of German, 
with whom he worked perseveringly dui-ing the whole of his 
stay at Pinner. Having been very successful, by dint of 
untn-ing assiduity, he succeeded in paying his expenses, as he 
had formerly done those of his French master, by the sale of a 
pamphlet, which he translated from the German as an exercise, 
the work being sold to Mr. Cadell for £15. "We also learn from 
his journal that he took lessons in Greek and Hebrew at this 
time, with a view to the tracing out the origin of the names of 
all the plants described by ancient classical writers. But not- 
withstanding all this mental activity, he still believed that he 
was not doing enough, and we find him, in his journal, bitterly 
reproaching himself for his idleness, in such passages as the 
following : — " How have I neglected the important task of 
improving myself ! How much I have seen ! What new ideas 
have developed themselves before me, and what different views 
of life have I acquii-ed since I came to London, three years 
ago ! Tet I am now twenty -three years of age — perhaps one 
whole third of my Ufe having passed away, and what have I 
done to benefit my fellow-men ? " 

So convinced had he become of the radical defects of the 
English system of farming during his investigations at Pinner, 
and so anxious was he that the faults he observed should be cor- 
rected, that he wrote to his father, who thoroughly understood 
the practice of the Scottish system, begging of him to come to 
England, and take up the farm where he had been staying so 
long, which was then to let. The farm in question was Wood 
Hall, belonging to a family of the name of Leterrier, whose 
tenant it was soon arranged that Mr. Loudon, senior, should 
become, and to which, on the recommendation of his son, he 
removed in the year 1807. 

Toung Loudon continued to reside there with his father, and 
in the following year, 1808, he wrote a pamphlet, entitled " An 
Immediate and Effective Mode of Raising the Rental of the 
Landed Property of England, and Rendering Great Britain 
Independent of other Nations for a Supply of Bread Corn. 
By a Scotch Farmer, now Farming in Middlesex." This pam- 
phlet created a great sensation in the agricultirral world, and 
probably led to some of the great Enclosure Acts which were 
passed soon after that period. Hundreds of acres round 
Pinner were at that time open common, entirely unproductive, 
thoiigh within thirteen miles of London. I have heard an old 
inhabitant declare that in his youth, so great was the extent of 
waste common in that part of Middlesex, and extending into 
Herts and Berkshire,, that a horseman might gallop without let 
or hindrance, from the foot of Harrow Hill to Berkhampstead, 
over wild heathland, entii'ely uncultivated, nearly the whole of 
which has since been brought into cultivation by the great 
Enclosure Act of the period alluded to. 

Loudon was, in fact, as I have said, one of the great modem 
pioneers of our recent progress in agriculture as well as in 
horticulture, and his Pinner pamphlet made his advanced 
opinions on agricultural subjects very widely known. Among 



48 



THE GARDEN. 



[July 20, 1872. 



mauy gentlemeu who were attracted by tlie strikingly new 
and yet practical views of the young Scottish agriculturist, 
was Genei'al Stratton, the owner of a large lauded estate 
called Tew Park, in Oxfordshire. In order to secure his 
Kervices on the Oxfordshire estate, General Stratton pro- 
posed that the young author should take a portion of his 
landed property there at an almost nominal rent, in order to 
induce him to undertake the advantageous management of the 
rest for the proprietor, by the introduction of the Scotch 
system, of farming, which the General felt convinced, 
after a careful study of young Loudon's work, would be 
of the greatest benefit, not only to Oxfordshire, but to every 
agricultural county in England. 

(To 6e continued.) 



GAEDENEES IN AMEEICA. 

Mk. Peter Henderson, of Jersey city, the well-known 
American horticulturist, who is now on a tour of observation 
in this country, has requested us to warn young gardeners 
who contemplate emigrating to America, against gomg there 
at any season but in spring. They should, to secure employ- 
ment soon, arrive there during the months of February, 
March, or April. Mr. Henderson informs us that he has often 
seen great hardships resulting from men arriving in America 
at seasons when it is almost impossible to obtain work there. 
We hope shortly to have the pleasure of publishing some 
remarks on this, and kindred subjects, from the pen of Mr. 
Henderson, who is so well qualified to speak on such matters, 
and in whose remarkably interesting and well-managed estab- 
lishment in Jersey city, so many yoiang British gardeners 
have found temporary employment. 



POISONING BY MONKSHOOD. 

The Bailij Tdeyraph informs us that " hardly a year comes 
round in which a whole family is not poisoned by the blunder 
of some crass gardener, who has dug up a root of the deadly 
monkshood, and given it to the cook as horseradish. To dis- 
tinguish between the two roots would have puzzled Gerarde 
himself." The Dalhj Telegrapli is wrong ; no gardener would 
do anything of the kind. Poisoning people with roots of monks- 
hood may be one of the atti'ibutes of the much-sought-for 
individuals who look after pigs, cows, poultry, horses, &c., and 
whose main virtue is supposed to be their horticultural skill ; 
but we never met with a trained gardener " crass" enough to 
make such a mistake. Nor is it difficult to distinguish between 
the two roots. The monkshood root invariably tapers some- 
what like a slender carrot, only in a still more marked degree ; 
while, as everybody knows, the horseradish never does so, but 
is like a smooth-running stick in outline. Nevertheless the 
monkshood is a most dangerous plant in a garden, and should 
never by any chance have a place in or near a kitchen garden, 
as, unfortunately, too many cases have happened in which 
persons, not gardeners, and totally ignorant of plants, have 
gathered it and iised it as horseradish. 



FLOODS AND CEMBTEEIES. 

The papers are full of the details of the great floods at Man- 
chester and in the adjacent districts. A large portion of the 
surface of the country passed in travelling by the Great 
Northern Eailway and its branches through Yorkshire is 
covered with sheets of water. Great damage to crops has 
resulted in many districts, besides those in which the floods 
have been so terribly disastrous. Gardens, both public and 
private, in the northern districts have suffered much. A 
most painful feature of the late floods was the uprootLug of a 
cemetery at Manchester, which has been so fully reported in 
the daily papers. The cemetery question is essentially one 
for the landscape gardener, and this event should direct his 
attention to the necessity of so placmg and so disposing 
cemeteries that danger from floods or any similar cause is 
rendered practically impossible. Cases of negligence or short- 
sightedness in this way are far too common ; and it is only such 



appalling cases as that at Manchester gets much talked about. 
Visitors to the late great Birmingham flower show might 
have noticed an instance in the Aston Cemetery, close to the 
ground where the flower show was held. There a wall and 
much of the earth inside it had fallen away, exposing the 
coffins alongjnearly the whole of one side of the ground. If the 
designers and managers of our cemeteries do not protect us 
from such scenes, let us hope the question may not be thought 
beneath the attention of the Government. To lovers of 
gardening the question is one of peculiar importance, inasmuch 
as cemeteries properly laid out and planted are, in addition to 
their other and higher claims to our attention, among the 
most beautiful of public gardens. We need only instance the 
Coventry Cemetery, the Dean Cemetery at Edinbui'gh, and 
the grand cemeteries in all the great cities of the eastern 
States of America, which are parks in extent, and flower 
gardens in keeping and in the beauty and abundance of their 
shrubs and flowers. W. E. 



ME. AYETON AND DE. HOOKEE. 

A MEETING took place on Tuesday last, in Wellington Street, 
Covent Garden, - under the presidency of Mr. Bateman, for the 
purpose of taking into consideration the present state of affairs at 
Kew. Resolutions wero proposed expressing sympathy with Dr. 
Hooker, and a committee was formed for the purpose of placing the 
matter, if possible, upon such a footing that the public interests may 
not suffer, and that Dr. Hooker may be protected from all unnecessary 
interference in the performance of his duties. By direction of the 
committee just alluded to the following memorial was sent to 
Mr. Gladstone :— 

To the Right Hon. W. E. Gl.idstone, M.P., Fii-st Lord of the 
Treasury. 

" We the undersigned, heing personally interested in botany and horti- 
culture, and conscious how intimately the progress of those branches of 
knowledge and industry is connected with the proper administration of 
the Royal Gardens, Kew, and of the museums and herbaria thereto 
belonging, venture to call yom' attention to the present unsatisfactory 
condition of affau's as regards the management of that establishment. 

" We respectfully submit that the system of making one otficial respon- 
sible for the conduct of what repairs may be requisite in the apparatus 
used for heating the houses that contain them, is likely to be in the 
highest degree detrimental te the pubhc interest, while the harmonious 
co-opei-ation of the officials engaged, and which is so essential in such a 
case, can hardly be looked for under such a system. 

*' We beg leave respectfully to state our opinion that the full control 
over all details of management, of whatever kind, should be loft to the 
du'ector. 

"We venture to suggest that the Board of Works is not the most 
appropriate body to exercise supervision over such an establishment as 
Kew, where great scientiiic interests are at stake, as well as the instruc- 
tion and recreation of the people. 

" We would, therefore, respectfully urge upon you the expediency of 
placing the directorate of Kew du-ectly under some other department of 
the Government. And, lastly, we would express our hope that you will 
be pleased to take such measm'es as shall in future secure that the director 
of a large pubHc estabUshment shall, if for no other reason than the 
respect due to his office, he treated with fitting consideration. — Signed, on 
behalf of the meeting, 

"James Bateman, F.R.S., Chairman. 
"Maxwell T. Masters, M.D., F.R.S., Hon. Sec." 

The following memorial to the Premier has also been forwarded by 
the Council of the Royal Hortioultirral Society : — 

" The Council of this Society, being convinced of the admirable manner 
in which the Royal Gardens at Kew have been conducted for so many 
years by Dr. Hooker, and of the great benefits to hortieultm'c and botany 
which have resulted from his highly cultivated scientific attainments, 
venture to hope that Mr. Gladstone may be able to take such steps as will 
confirm and uphold Dr. Hooker in his present appointment, and enable 
him to continue his labours with satisfaction to himself and advantage to 
the country. " W. W. Saundeus. F.R.S., Chairman." 



The Malva Family. — The great beauty of this family is now 
apparent in some of the collections of herbaceous and alpine plants 
around London. We allude to such plants as Sida malvaiflora and 
inoamata, Malva Alcea, Morenii, and the British M. iiioschata with its 
white variety , and the Lavatcras thuringiaca and unguiculata, the latter 
one of the finest herbaceous plants in flower at the present time, a 
good specimen of which may be seen at Kew. It grows about six 
feet high, and has large bright rose-coloured flowers. The flowers 
of these are generally of a light clear rose colour, and are produced 
in dense masses, and the plants are hardy and vigorous. They are 
highly suited for the embellishment of borders and for what is now 
beginning to bo termed the "wild garden." 



July 20, 1872.; 



THE GARDEN. 



49 



THE EVENING FETE AT THE BOTANIC GAKDENS, 
REGENT'S PARK. 

BY NOEL HTJMrHREYS. 

The cveuiug of July 11, 1872, is destiued to mark au interesting 
epoch in the annals of one of the most attractive of our horti- 
cultural institutions. Ever since the foundation of the Royal 
Botanic Society, its beautiful grounds in the Regent's Park have 
formedone of the favourite resorts of pleasure-lovers during each 
successive London season. The general flower shows, the 
Wednesday promenades, and the great annual Rhododendron 
displays, have for years furnished forth never-failing attrac- 
tions ; but the evening /tVe so successfully carried through last 
week, has left all other of the occasionial festivals of that 
favourite resort far behind. 

Just as the fete was about to commence, however, at a few 
minutes before nine, its success seemed destiued to utter annihi- 
lation, by the drenching effects of a thunderstorm, for big, 
heavy drops of warning were rapidly succeeded by a close and 
continuous fall of soaking rain, during which the earlier 
arrivals continued without intermission, undismayed by the 
threatening state of the weather. As the great exhibition tent 
became filled with visitors, the clattering of the persistent rain 
was heard beating violently and unceasingly upon the canvas 
roof, and yet so hopeful was the pleasure-seeking zest of the 
guests that every one predicted a speedy cessation of the 
storm, although the flashes of white and vivid lightning above 
made the lime-lights below seem dull and yellow, and although 
the threatening notes of heavy thunder drowned those of the 
military bands. The rain continuing, confined the visitors for 
a time within the great exhibition tent and conservatory, all the 
external walks being soaked and sloppy, and the turf reduced to 
a thick carpet of water-saturated sponge; while the pretty shrub- 
bery walks were in still worse plight, with more than half the 
coloured lamps extinguished, and the gravel under the 
refreshment tent had become a mere slosh. But such was 
the warmth of the air, that after the cessation of the rain, 
the walks became fit for promenaders, if not over scrupu- 
lous, in au incredibly short space of time. Meanwhile, there 
was much to see in the great exhibition tent, which it was a 
a iiovelty to see by gaslight. The general efileot of the 
exhibition of flowers and shrubs, as arranged for competition, 
was from several points of view exceedmgly beautiful. The 
grou.ps of various kinds of ferns, from the most minute and 
delicate to the most gigantic and robust, produced a very 
fascinating effect as seen by a bright artificial light ; and 
varied as they were by the majestic foliage of palms, or here 
and there by a fine specimen of the delicate Araucaria Ruleii, 
or Cocos Weddelliana ; the whole of the graceful expanse of 
foliage being enlivened at certain points by noble flowers of 
Lilium auratum rearing themselves in its midst, and at 
others by a cerulean mass of AgapanthiTs. The scene 
appeared, in short, absolutely one of enchantrment. 

One was glad to see, also, the finely -flowered masses of hardy 
herbaceous perennials, such as the Pentstemonsaud the Phloxes, 
and to learn from them what treasures of beauty are at our 
command for the embellishment of our open gardens, of which, 
comparatively speaking, we take such small advantage. The col- 
lection of Phloxes exhibited by Messrs. Downie, Laird, & Laing, 
and which took the first prize in its class, was truly magnifi- 
cent in the gaslight, exhibiting every conceivable tint, from 
white and pale rose to the deepest tones of crimson, and 
even an approach to absolute scarlet ; all the varieties being 
as hardy as a daisy or a dandelion. The same advan- 
tages in the way of hardihood cannot be claimed for the 
Caladiums, which require the protection of a conservatory, or the 
fostering heat of a stove ; but, as exhibiting the most magnificent 
display of gorgeous foliage of any class of plants in the whole 
range of the vegetable kingdom, they never fail to arrest the 
attention ; and when such a collection is brought together 
beneath the lights of an evening entertainment as that ex- 
hibited by Mr. R. Ritchie, who secured a first prize, the 
admiration of a plant-lover is raised to the highest pitch. 
Another featiire that added materially to the picturesque 
and beautiful efl:ect of the great tent, was the handsome rustic 
stand exhibited by Mr. Kepper. It was filled with exquisitely- 
grown Ferns, Yuccas, Tradescantia zebrina, and other suitable 



plants, so exquisitely grouped and grown that a "Van Huy sum or 
a Miss Mutrie might have painted a masterpiece of composi- 
tion from it without altering the position of a leaf or a line. 
There was also a special series of objects which commanded 
very general attention, as being seen to far greater advantage 
and more legitimately by artificial-light than daylight. I allude 
to the dinner-table decorations, which I found time to examine 
with some care, and which will be found described in another 
place. 

Rambling from the great exhibition tent to the conservatory, 
I found a most charming effect produced by the vivid flame 
of the lime-light, which, coming from the outside, produced 
a kind of supernatural, fairy daylight, in which the palms and 
tree ferns and climbing plants, showing their dark outlines 
against the vivid external light, defined their endless variety 
of graceful form with a sharp distinctness that produced 
a very singular and at the same time beautiful effect. 
Leaving the conservatory, and going out upon the liroad 
walk, a still more striking effect disclosed itself. The rain had 
ceased, the gravel was nearly dry, and a crowd of promenaders 
in evening dress of brilliant colours was moving in different 
directions, bathed in a luminous flood that was poured forth 
from the great lime-light above the chief entrance gate and from 
two others to the right and left, producing a dazzling effect 
that was at the first glance almost blinding, so much so that 
many ladies walked with spread fans before their eyes. The 
colours of the dresses shone out like the gleam of gems, 
and the gold and silver tissues of the robes of several Indian 
and Japanese princes added to the splendour of the general 
effect, which here and there was still further heightened by 
the unmistakable flash of diamonds, in the shape of tiaras, 
bracelets, necklaces, and other costly ornaments. No such 
evening fete upon a moderate scale has ever before been given 
in London with such brilliant success. 

The music of many bands, performing simultaneously in 
various parts of the grounds, produced effects almost as magical 
as those of the lights. The ear was at one moment filled with 
one of the fullest and richest of the luscious melodies of Rossini, 
which, while still falling sweetly on the ear, seemed gradually 
but rapidly transfused into a crisp German march, which in its 
turn, after a few steps in advance, blended into a low, swinging 
waltz, to the metre of which clouds of great moths and other 
insects were seen whirling and whizzing in mad aerial dances, 
attracted by the unusual glare of light. The lighting of the 
magnesium torches at the lake was also a striking feature of 
the entei'tainment ; now green, now red, now blue. Doubled 
by their reflections in the water, they formed an extremely 
picturesque feature, which the balmy softness of the evening 
enabled the lightest clad of the fair promenaders and sight- 
seers to enjoy, without the slightest fear of taking cold — though 
colds were doubtless caught, nevertheless, not singly, or in 
pairs, but by the score, by those whose feet were shod rather 
for the ball-room than the garden. As an evening garden 
party, the whole entertainment was so entirely successful, 
and so highly satisfactory to all concerned in it, that it 
will doubtless, we need hardly say, become an anniial affair, 
as the climax of the great horticultural festivities of the 



Development in Nature and in Man. — I should like to see a 
man's biography with corrections and emendations by his ghost. We 
don't kaow each other's secrets quite so well as we flatter ourselves we 
do. We don't always know our own secrets as well as we might. Ton 
have seen a tree with different grafts upon it, an apple or a pear tree we 
will say. In the late summer months the fruit on one bough will ripen j 
I remember iust such a tree, and the early ripening fruit was the 
Jargonelle. By-and-by the fruit of another bough win begin to come 
into condition ; the lovely St. Michael, as I remember, grew on the same 
stock as the Jargonelle in the tree I am thinking of ; and then, when 
these have aU fallen or been gathered, another, we wiU say the Winter 
Nelis, has its turn, and so, out of the same juices have come in succession 
fruits of the most varied aspects and flavours. It is the same thing with 
ourselves, but it takes us a long while to find it out. The varioiis in- 
herited instincts ripen in succession. You may be nine-tenths paternal 
at one period of your life, and nine-tenths maternal at another. _AU at 
once the traits of some immediate ancestor may come to maturity un- 
expectedly on one of the branches of your character, just as your features 
at different periods of your life betray different resemblances to your 
nearer or more remote relatives. — OUver Wendell Holmes. 



50 



THE GARDEN. 



[July 20, 1872. 



THE FLOWER GARDEN. 



HONEYSUCKLES. 

It is generally supposed that lioneysuckles can only be enjoyed by 
those who have walls. This impression is erroneons, for these 
universal favourites may be enjoyed by everybody who has any 
extent of gai-den at all, though not a foot of wall be near it. Every- 
body loves honeysuckles ; every poet has written of the woodbine ; 
every posy we receive from the country is sure to contain trusses of 
its flowei's ; everybody remembers " that lovely cottage " with the 
woodbine half -choking the doorway, or half -smothering the window. 
The honeysuckle is not at all an aristocratic plant. The day labourer 
may have one rambling over his little arbour, and the countess 
allows another on the summer-house, provided it does not interfere 
with the " magnolia ; " but, on the whole, it is banished from all 
" fine " gardens. To nail every shoot of it to the wall, with a multi- 
tude of nails and red shreds, is like putting a plant in a straight 
waistcoat. It must have liberty. There are three modes of growing 
hont^ysuokles apart from anything like masonry ; for as a hedge or 
bush and a pole or pillar plant it is exceedingly well adapted. 
Wherever it may be desired to have a hedge of honeysuckle, 
either for its own sake or as a screen or a division, construct 
a slight kind of r.ailing or paling, plant the honeysuckles 
about a yard apart, or less, if you think proper. Planted in good 
soil, they will grow vigorously, and as they progress they will 
require training. That is, do not allow half a dozen young shoots to 
coil themselves into a cable, but guide them, either by tacking or 
tying, so that the whole of the woodwork may be soon covered. 
When this is done it mil require no further care than to reduce 
extravagant growths to something like order. Never mind sym- 
metry, and there must be no clipping with shears ; let it grow in 
its own natural way. • A hedge of honeysuckle is one of the most 
beautiful sights in the world. Perhaps the Dutch honeysuckle, 
with its various tints of blossom (owing to the mutation of 
colour each blossom undergoes), is the best for this purpose. 
Bush honeysuckles are charming objects for the fronts of 
shrubberies, however choice. To form bushes, place three stovit 
stakes triangle-wise at about two feet apart, and from two 
feet to a yard high. Put out a good plant in the centre, or 
one at each corner, and as they grow coil the shoots or " bine " rormd 
the stakes. They will soon make fine globular bushes, and will, 
with very little pruning, maintain their shape when the supports are 
gone. Pillar honeysuckles are very telling objects in the back- 
grounds of shrubberies and such places. Strong rough poles, from 
eight to twelve feet high, are placed as supports here and thei-e in 
the background among shrubs. To these the plants are put ; they 
soon run up to the top, and then fall over in wild bold masses — very 
beautiful. The trumpet honeysuckles are more delicate in habit, 
and do best in the most select spots, in the front of choice shrubs, 
supported with neat stakes from four to five feet high. The Lonicera 
flexuosa or L. japonica is evergreen, and has a habit unlike that of 
any other kind; the delightfully-scented blooms are axillary, in pairs, 
not terminal, hke most others. This is the quickest-growing shi-ub 
I am familiar with, running from twelve to twenty feet high in a 
single season. It will grow (but not flower) in any situation, and is 
charming for covering unsightly gables and bmldings. It will soon 
cover almost any amount of wall, on which, when covered, the branches 
should be left to grow naturally. A dead tree, especially one with 
horizontal branches, produces a fine effect when covered with this 
kind. Let it be tacked or tied when growing to most of the main 
branches, and then let it alone ; the long flexible shoots will hang to 
the ground in every direction. — T.WiUiams, in "Gardeners' Magazine." 

[In addition to the above desirable positions for these charming 

plants, they are also seen to great advantage when planted in a semi- 
wild state, on rough banks and slopes in the larger class of gardens. ] 



VA.RIBGATED-LEAVED PLANTS AT BIRMINGHAM. 
The collection of herbaceous plants with finely variegated leaves that 
interested me most, was that sent by Mr. Ware, of Tottenham. I 
went again and again to the side of the gi-eat tent where these 
were displayed, wondering each time, more and more, at the igno- 
rance or supineness which prevents us from enriching our gardens 
with a number of these exquisitely beautiful plants, by means of 
which such endless variety might be secured to our borders, and 
the front of our shrubberries ; by means of which, with foliage alone, 
and without the aid of flowers, most charming effects of chaste 
colour, both light and dark, maybe produced. Such, however, is the 
ingrained conservatism of Englishmen, whether gardeners or poli- 
ticians, that it will, I fear, be many years before wo take the fullest 



advantage of the variety and beauty which modern botanical dis- 
covery, and modern skill in culture, have placed at our disposal. 

Many of the plants exhibited by Mr. Ware, too, were perfectly 
hardy, an advantage which cannot be too pointedly alluded too. In this 
collection, for instance, was a variety of the common sage, which, 
with its mass of gold-edged leaves, would form a very ornamental 
object, if placed in a situation to contrast strongly with shrubs of 
deeper toned foliage. The common sage itself, indeed, with its sombre 
foliage of semi-glaucous green, which is at present banished to 
the kitchen garden, might often be brought from its exile with 
advantage, to contrast with the darker or brighter greens of other 
low-growing plants. Mr. Ware's fine varieties of variegated Punkia 
form fine tufts of peculiarly handsome leaves ; P. undulata, with 
its cream-toned leaves just flecked with streaky penciUings of green, 
being especially remarkable. 

As a ground.covering foliage, where a low growth is alone desir. 
able, what can be finer than the variegated Coltsfoot (Tussilago 
Farfara) , so finely edged and brightly splashed vrith white as are 
some of the best variegated varieties ? For spreading over rock- 
work, in favourable positions, what can be more desirable than Sedunr 
Sieboldii, each leaf of delicate pale green blotched with a circlet of 
soft cream colour in the centre ? And, then, the common old-fashioned 
border flower, Polemonium caeruleum (Jacob's Ladder, variegated 
variety), is as pretty and bright an object as can be conceived. 
Each of its elegant pinnate leaves is edged with a clear sparkling 
border of white, making the foliage even more attractive than its 
pretty crown of soft blue flowers. 

For fine semi-tropical effect, the noble leaf -blades of the variegated 
New Zealand flax (Phormium tenax variegatum) form a grand 
addition to Yuccas and other stiff-leaved Aloe-like plants. With 
this, the variegated Yucca filamentosa would group admirably. 
Scrophularia nodosa, with its white-bordered leaves and young sprays 
of golden yellow, is also very pretty ; while the leaves of the 
variegated Hemerocallis, an old garden favourite, are so beautifully 
marked that a plant of it would form a fine object anywhere. 
There is also the smaller double-flowered variety, the leaves of 
which are conspicuously streaked with clear white, which would be 
very attractive wherever there is room for it. 

All these, and many other plants with finely variegated foliage, 
were exhibited by Mr. Ware at Birmingham, each plant being a 
finely grown specimen ; but in consequence of the intricate working of 
horticultural technicalities, which, as Lord Dundreary once remarked, 
" No fellow can understand," Mr. Ware was disqualified for com. 
peting for the first prize in this class, which he would otherwise 
most certainly have secured. Other exhibitors also sent fine col- 
lections of hardy and half-hardy variegated plants, containing 
specimens not in Mr. Ware's collection, especially that of Messrs. 
Bell & Sharp, among whose fine variegated plants I noticed the 
beautiful Yucca Stokesii, with lance-like leaves of the deepest green 
marked with a rich golden stripe along the centre ; and also Yucca 
aloifolia, strikingly streaked with pure white, forming an exceedingly 
noble and picturesque object ; there was also an exquisitely pretty 
striped grass — the prettiest of all the ribbon grasses — Dactylis 
glomerata variegata, which might be used in small patches with 
excellent effect in many places requiring sparkling touches of light ; 
in short, Messrs. Bell & Co.'s collection was a very interesting one, 
but, on the whole, I was most attracted by Mr. Ware's plants. 

In the class of shrubs with variegated foliage, I was much pleased 
with the selection shown by Mr. Standish, of Bagshot. There were 
several other collections which were probably as complete ; but it so 
happened that the one sent by Mr. Standish fell in my way, and I 
was much struck by the beautiful character of many of the specimens. 
Time did not permit me to make any classification, and I find that in 
my memorandum-book I took the specimens as they came, in the 
follomug order, or rather disorder : The fii'st thing that attracted 
my attention happened to be Acanthopanax variegata,|forming a very 
charming little bush of mingled creamy white and pea green. Then 
came Coprosma Baueriana, an elegant shrub with golden-hued leaves 
of clean and regular form, marked by a spot of bright green in the 
centre. Euon3Tnus latifolia and E. radicans are both of them attrac- 
five shrubs, and most useful in producing a special kind of effect ; 
the former has leaves of pale cream colour marked very distinctly 
with two shades of green ; some of the leaves remaining entirely 
cream coloured. The leaves of E. radicans are more regularly 
marked with cream-colour. There were also soveral other Euonymus, 
all more or less beautiful, as variegated shrubs. The -variegated 
hollies were in endless variety, and no shrub or tree with variegated 
leaves can surpass this noble family. Golden yews, also, are very 
valuable, and of these, Mr. Standish showed some remarkably fine 
siJecimens. 

Tliere were two examples of Cupressus Lawsoniana variegata, with 
parts of the foliage entirely goldon, producing at some little distance 



July 20, 1872.] 



THE GARDEISr. 



51 



off the effect of being covered -with masses of rich yellow flowers. 
The variegated Eurya latif qlia, with its long pointed leaves of mingled 
cream, grey, and green, is a very magnificent plant, inviting the atten- 
tion of all such as wish to make a really grand addition to their shrub- 
beries. Ivies grown as slu-ubs or standards, especially the variegated 
Japanese ivy (Hedera japonica), were not so line in Mr. Standish's 
collection as they were in many others, nor were the variegated 
hollies ; but on the whole his selection was a very noble one. 

We have not as yet taken half the advantage which will be 
eventually derived from the large numbers of fine variegated shrubs 
which are now at command, both deciduous and evergreen ; but the 
knowledge of them, and with it the taste for their culture, and 
the true feeling of the various ways in which they may become so 
immensely valuable in vax'ying the effects, and imparting gradations 
of light and dark to our shrubberies, is being rapidly developed by 
such horticultural displays as that which has just taken place at 
Birmingham. H. N. H. 



A DOUBLE-FLOWERED WISTAEIA. 
AiroJfr, the beautiful and rare tilings sent to America from 
Japan by Mr. Thomas Hogg, is a double "Wistaria, which this 
year liloomed finely in the grounds of his brother, Mr. James 




New double-flowered Wistaria. 

Hogg. Flowers having the form of those of the pea (Papi- 
lionaceous, as botanists call them) are so peculiar in their 
structure that they are beautiful in their normal state, and 
ordinarily no advantage is gained by doubling them. In 
double flowers the number of parts is increased in various 
ways, and in many cases such are more, attractive than when 



single ; but in Papilionaceous flowers the quaint irregularity 
of the arrangement is broken up, and we have in its place a 
confused mass of petals without any symmetry. The Wistarias 
are among our most common and valued climbers, and as they 
are used moi-e for the general effect produced by their bloom 
than for the beauty of their individual flowers, the doubling in 
this plant is a manifest advantage. That which in the ordinary 
varieties is a simjjle pea-like flower, in the double one becomes 
a rosette of dark-coloured petals, and a raceme of these is 
very showy. To avoid answering cpiestions about this Wistaria, 
we may state that the plant will be offered by one of the 
florists near New York when he shall have propagated a stock 
of it. — Hearth and Home. 



NOTES AND QUESTIONS ON THE FLOWER aARDEN. 



lithospermum prostratum as an edging plant.— One of the most pleas- 
ing edcrings I have ever seen, is in Mr. Harrison's garden, Bartrops, Wey- 
bridge Heath. It was more than a yard wide, neatly-spreading, and dotted 
with flowers. It is Errowing on a very sandy soil. — W. 

The Hardy Palm.— About four miles from here is perhaps one of the finest 
of specimens of the hardy Chinese Palm, growing in the open gi-ound in the 
gardens of the Hon. and Rev. — Boscawen, atRuan Lanihorn. I did not measure 
it, but should th in k it cajmot be less than fifteen or sixteen feet high. This was 
a female plant, and close by is a specimen of the male, a few feet shorter. Both 
are now in flower. — J. Tterjtan, Tregomj, ConiwaU. 

lychnis Haageana hybrida. — This is a novel and effective variety of this 
favourite perennial. Plants of it, six inches in height, are now flowering with 
me raised from seed sown in a greenhouse on March 22nd, thus making it 
almost an early amiual. The flowers resemble in form those of the Dianthus 
chinensis Heddewe.gii, and in colour are scarlet, pink, creamy white, and other 
shades. It is a perfectly hardy plant, and makes a grand border flower the 
second year. — A. D. 

Delphinium nudicaule. — This is undoubtedly an excellent addition to hardy 
border plants. In Delphiniums we have, nearly evei-y shade of blue, but the 
deep rich colour of the old f ormosnm has made* that variety fii'st f avom-ite in all 
gardens. It is indeed a superb blue, and as a Jime flowering border plant for 
bick rows, cannot be excelled. I have now plants of D. nudicaule finely in 
flower from seed, sown in a cool house in February, and a charming thing it is ; 
although, to do it justice, strong plants are required . The flowers are not so 
large as those of formosum, but the colom-, a bright orange red, is undeniably 
good. — A. 

Phlox Drummondii var. Cardinal.— This is the deepest and richest coloiu-ed 
of all this class of Phloxes, constituting, when in a mass, a rich glow of deep 
crimson such as one seldom sees equalled. It occasionally produces flowers of 
diflferent hues, some of which ai-e heavily shaded with purple. General Grant 
approaches it somewhat closely in colom-, but that variety has more purple in it, 
and is not so showy. Varieties of Phlox Driunmondii, to be done well, should be 
sowa in a cool house, and, when the plants are large enough, they should bo 
potted up singly into small sixties. Thus treated they get well rooted, and 
when planted out soon gi-ow into strong free blooming plants. — D. 

Pentstemons.— These make superb border plants, and deserve a greatly in- 
creased popularity. The improvement that has taken place in the quality of 
Pentstemons can scarcely be imagined by those who have lost sight of them for 
the past ten or twelve years. I have now in full flower a large bed containing 
some two hundred plants of Pentstemons raised fi-om seed early in the sprint- 
of 1871. They all flowered strongly last autumn, and with scarcely the loss of 
a plant during the winter. They have now thi-own up qiiantities of young 
growths that have been all through June, and will probably be all the summer, 
a mass of flowers. Their colours vary greatly ; among them are scarlet, 
pirrple, pink, white, and intermediate shades of all kinds ; their blooms too, are 
largo in size, and the spikes long. — BEnrOMT. 



INPLUENOB OF PARENTAGE ON FLOWERING 
PLANTS. 

Dr. Denny, in his paper read at Birmingham on this subject, took 

the popular idea that the male pollen had much more influence than 

the female parent over the offspring, and spoke as if the raiser of 

seedling flowers could, with the knowledge now at command, raise 

his colours and prodnce new forms with almost the greatest possible 

certainty. My own experience, which has been pretty extensive, 

leads me to a very different conclusion. I believe no snch rule 

exists, or if it does, the exceptions are nearly as numerous as cases 

which follow the rule. Having raised from three to six thousand 

seedling bedding geraniums per year for the last six or seven years, 

I was very anxious to see if any rules could be made out, but never 

could satisfy myself except in the case of variegated, or as they 

are called tricolor varieties. In raising these, I soon found it was 

necessary to save seed from green plants, and to use the pollen of the 

variegated, because seedlings from variegated plants were wantino- 

in constitution ; in fact, many of them could not be kept alive. 

But even in this case there were many exceptions, for I had o'reen 

l^lants of great vigour as the result of this cross. Williams's Under. 

wood was thus raised from Mrs. Pollock crossed by Woodwardianum . 

The seedling plants of this variety grew three feet high the first 

year, and though much pleased with the flowers, I thought it would 

be only fit for the back wall of a conservatory, but it proved a good 

bedder, and after being sold by thousands received a first-clasa 

certificate at Chiswiek five or six years after it was raised from seed. 



52 



THE GAEDBN. 



[July 20, 1872. 



Those who think with Dr. Denny may say this is quite according to 
the rule, but many of the seedlings were almost white, and would 
not grow at all. 

My practice has been to take the various colours, say scarlets, and 
cross the best habited plants with the best formed flowers, and vice 
versA, and to pick out the best of the seedlings the following year. 
That this has been very successful all who have seen my seedlings 
will admit. But last year, hoping to get some new colours, I tried 
crossing with opposite colours ; pink on crimson or scarlet, and again 
scarlet on crimson or pink. Thinking to prove if there was any 
truth in the theories propounded, I had every seedling marked with 
the name of its female parent, and though many have bloomed and 
been thrown away, there are still perhaps a couple of thousand 
planted out, each with its name stuck against it. Dr. Irving, of 
Newark, was with me the other day looking them over, and we very 
closely examined them to see if any rule could be deduced from them. 
The peculiar foliage of the pink is well known. Here we have pink 
foliage with scarlet or crimson flowers, and zonal foliage with pink 
flowers ; some take after the male, some after the female ; some 
after both, and some after neither. The only good I have derived 
from all the trouble taken is the proof afforded that some kinds are 
good breeders and some bad ones. So much for Geraniums ; now 
for Vines. I once raised about a hundred seedling vines between 
the American strawberry grape and several of our hot-house 
varieties. To those who do not know the strawberry grape, I may 
say its foliage is quite unlike any oriental variety, being small, 
seldom larger than a man's hand, very woolly, and almost entire, 
being nearly heart-shaped. Now all these seedlings had as their 
female parent the strawberry ; the males were, as far as I remember, 
the Black Hamburgh, Eoyal Muscadine, and Muscat of Alexandria. 
The foliage of the seedlings varied in a degree that was quite astonish, 
ing ; some resembled their female parents some were much more 
like fig leaves than any vine leaf I ever saw before, and they 
varied in size and colour, as well as in shaj^e. There were some 
amongst them with wonderfully large leaves, and yet all in some 
respects showed, in their colour or woolly texture, their hybrid 
origin. The fruit varied as much as the foliage in every respect, 
except size, for there was not a large grape among them, and 
generally, the largest foliage was accompanied by the smallest 
fruit. The fruit was of every colour known amongst grapes, 
but with a few exceptions (only two) they were all poor-, but 
not all poor alike. Some were almost as astringent as sloes, some 
tasted like dirty water, and some were highly perfumed. Now I 
want to ask, can anyone deduce a rule for breeding from such a case 
as this ? In conclusion, I would say, I think there are a few things 
we cannot know — the sex of a chicken before it is hatched, the sex of 
a calf before it is bom, or which parents a seedling geranium will 
take after, though I know there are plenty of people who profess 
to understand these things. J. W. Peakson, Chilwell. 



THE COMPETITIVE TABLE DECORATIONS AT THE 
ROYAL BOTANIC GARDENS, BY GASLIGHT. 

At the recent horticultural show at Birmingham a darkened tent was 
prepared expi'essly for the exhibition of dinner-table decorations, as 
described in The Garden of the 30th ult. ; but at the Botanic 
Gardens, on the evening of July 11th, the table show was a genuine 
and legitimate night display. The decorations that obtained the 
first prize (as already known) were those exhibited by Mr. Buster ; 
and, on the whole, they deserved that distinction. The central object 
was, as is so frequently the case, the very general tall vase of the 
trumpet form, at the mouth of which was a very elegant display of 
grasses, the feathery character of which is daily becoming more fully 
appreciated for decorative purposes. These were varied by maiden- 
hair ferns of two or more kinds, as well as by some other slender, 
growing species, sparingly and lightly used, and relieved only by 
three or four sprays of a delicate small. flowered white Campanula ; 
while a careless additional grace was added by a trailing spray or 
two of, I think, Maurandia. The base of the tall vase was sur- 
rounded by a series of semi-circular glass troughs, which formed a 
scalloped enclosure. These low ti'oughs were filled with forget-me- 
nots, mingled with water Ranunculus and a few small ferns, very 
delicately and neatly used. The two secondary objects consisted 
of similar vases, of lower proportions, rising from their own 
low saucers or plateaus, the vases being furnished in a somewhat 
similar manner to the central one, but yet ingeniously varied ; the 
saucers having sprays of white Campanula rising from ferns, richly 
but sparingly mingled with roses. The small vases with button, 
hole bouquets were of the usual character, but very neat and elegant. 
Oq the whole, the general refinement of the arrangement of Mr. 
Buster's decorations was of a m.arked and very pleasing character. 



The table which occupied the next place in excellence, in my 
estimation, was one decorated by the elegant taste and light artistic 
hand of Miss E. Harris, to which only a third prize was awarded. I 
was delighted with Miss Harris's composition ; first, because it was 
not overdone; secondly, because it left broad spaces of the "best 
damask cloth," which is the greatest and simplest glory of the 
dinner-table, undisturbed in snowy whiteness by extraneous ob- 
jects; and, lastly, because the decorations, as thus kept within the 
strictest bounds of tasteful propriety, were in themselves light and 
elegant. The grasses and ferns of her principal vases were deli- 
cately assorted and displayed, and were simply varied by a few 
sprays of dwarf white harebell, and one or two other objects 
as chaste and simple ; while in saucers beneath were roses — only a 
few — nestling among fresh, mossy .looking ferns, and partially con- 
cealed by a feathery veil of lacey grass-blooms. The general effect 
was full of elegant repose, which should always be aimed at, rather 
than that fussy, overdone profusion of decoration which is now so 
often seen. 

A table decoration furnished by Miss E. Hassard, which obtained 
a second prize, was composed of six tall glass vases, from which rose 
graceful plumes of grasses, almost entirely unaided by the colour of 
flowers, being only just flecked here and there with a little starry 
blossom. At the bases were roses, white lilies, and geraniums, 
within a fringe of ferns. Altogether it was very pretty, and chiefly 
remarkable for the important part which common field grasses were 
made to play, with very elegant effect. 

The adjoining table had a handsome silver epergne as a central 
object, well filled with the usual display of ferns, &c., the chief 
characteristic feature being the surrounding of the central epergne, 
and also the four corner ones, by favourite glass troughs, of pretty 
forms ; these being filled with the best kinds of variegated geranium 
leaves, alternating with strongly.marked flowers, such as Pansies, 
blotched Pelargoniums, and Mimulus, with other kinds of flowers 
displaying two or more colours. The effect was original and striking, 
but perhaps wanting in repose. Mr. J. Mortlock's table, the vases 
and other ornaments of which were entirely of his white Dresden 
chinaware, must be considered (though well enough embellished with 
flowers) to be chiefly an exhibition of his elegant ceramic manu- 
factures, which are remarkably well adapted for the successful 
display of floral decorations on the dinner.table. His gigantic 
dinner.table vase, furnished with palm leaves and a few large 
and striking flowers, looked remarkably handsome in the brilliantly 
lighted tent. Messrs. Daniels' table had a large mirror-plateau 
for a centre-piece, on which some small china swans looked very 
pretty with their forms reflected in the simulated lake, round 
which a border of water lilies did very successful duty. Messrs. 
Daniels can evidently exhibit very attractive table furniture. 
Messrs. Gardener's table, with a similar plateau, made much greater 
pretensions to importance. The swans, of real Dresden, were much 
larger, and of really artistic character, and instead of being placed 
on the mirror-lake, appeared as though forcing their way through 
the sedges and other foliage and flowers with which it was bordered. 
The vase of flowers rising from the mirror was of the usual Idnd. 
In two smaller plateaus of similar character, pretty Carrara groups 
of Venus and Cupid seemed floating in a graceful cockleshell on the 
mirror, surrounded by water lilies and suitable foliage. Small 
corner vases had Japan lilies, ferns, and drooping grasses of 
the great oat-grass kind, and in their saucers there were white 
sweet peas and delicate ferns. Altogether it was a very hand- 
some table, but somewhat too profusely covered with decorations, 
which is a defect easily remedied on a future occasion. Mr. 
Charles Wood (floral artist) added a special feature to his floral 
decorations ; richly plumaged birds being made to flutter round his 
table lamps, among the flowers with which they were wreathed ; while 
he had for a centre-piece what he termed a " paradise fountain," the 
crowning feature of which was a bird of paradise, with spread wings 
drooping round, like a shower of pale amber, towards the flowers 
below. Messrs. Ward, also, exhibited " ornithological table decorations," 
as they style them, in which lovely birds nestled among the flowers in 
very picturesque fashion. But such novelties are, after all, of veiy 
questionable taste, and though pretty, and likely to be fashionable 
for a time, will scarcely retain a permanent place as legitimate 
dinner-table decorations. Miss Hassard obtained a prize for a 
table-decoration in which two large pots of growing ferns were the 
chief features, though the clay pots were entirely undecorated ; 
for a dinner display such articles of the commonest kind of clay .ware 
ought surely to be clad in some kind of evening dress. The arrange- 
ment of table fruits by Miss Harris looked pretty and tempting in 
the glare of bright light, and the composition deserved the prize 
which it obtained. I have thought it worth while to notice these 
table decorations at some length, because they had previously been 
criticised by daylight, while their carefully prepared effects are 
intended to be seen, as a rule, by artificial light only. H. 



July 20, 1872.] 



THE GAEDBN. 



63 



GARDEN DESTROYERS. 



GEOMETEA (FIDONIA) PINIAKIA. 

"We this Treek figure the different stages of a moth -which has 
great capabilities of mischief to our young fir plantations. It 
has not indeed yet been found to be so serious an enemy to 
them in this country as it is on the Continent ; but still it is 
desirable to point it out to onr gardeners and arboriculturists 
as a species -n-hich is to be looked on -n-ith a certain amount 
of suspicion ; for, as it is not rare throughout Scotland and 
England, there seems no reason Trhy, ou the occurrence of 
favouring conditions, it should not develop itself to the same 
extent as across the channel. We believe it has not yet been 
recorded as found in Ireland ; but this is probably rather due 
to Tvant of observation than to its actual absence. It occurs 
all over Europe, and is especially abundant in GeiTuany, where 
its ravages have been greater than anywhere else. The 
numbers in which it appears are sometimes very great. 
Batzeburg notes of one winter that as many as seventeen 
thousand pupaB had been gathered on a single acre. As 




Geometra (Fidonia) Piniaxia. 

might be expected, when it occurs in such numbers it entirely 
strips the trees of their leaves, and of course weakens, injures, 
and sometimes destroys them. 

It is the caterpillar that does the actual mischief. It feeds 
specially on the leaves of the different species of pine, although 
it has also been found attacking the spruce fir. It prefers 
the young trees to the older. The caterpillar is of a 
glaucous green colour, with a whitish stripe up the back, and 
another less distinct, and shghtly bluish-white, along the sides, 
and a yellowish strip next the abdomen, which is streaked 
with different shades of green. Although not in itself bearing 
any resemblance to a pine leaf, its colours harmonize so 
perfectly with the leaves that it cannot readily be distinguished 
when feeding upon them. 

The chrysalis is dark-brown. The moth is differently 
coloured in the two sexes, besides the usual distinction of 
plumose antenna in the male and filiform antennse in the 
female. The male is dark-brown, with yellowish-white patches. 



The female is entirely of different shades of brown, and is 
darker than the male, but the dark shade of brown is not so 
deep, and the brown redder. In the male the brown is burnt 
umber ; in the female it is umber qualified by burnt sienna. 
The hghter portions in the female are merely paler than the 
rest of its colour, but of the same tint. The eggs are oblong, 
and laid in rows on the leaves of the pine. 

The moth appears in April and May, is most frequent in 
June and rare in July, in which month the caterpillars begin 
to show themselves. They grow very slowly, and do not go 
into pupa until October or November. Hence we infer tha,t 
they have only one brood in the year. 

Hand picking, after shaking and beating the caterpillars off 
the trees, is the remedy that has been recommended; but, as is 
too often the case with uisect ravages, our own efforts at 
abatement are very feeble, and we are more dependent on the 
influence of the seasons and the interested labours of their own 
special enemies than on anything else for any immunity we 
may enjoy. , A. M. 



Sulphozone, a Substitute for Sulphur (see p. 31). — 

May I be permitted to inquire by what process sulphurous dioxide 
impregnates pure sulphur ? One might as well talk of sand being 
" impregnated" with a gas. I am astounded at the statement that 
the insecticide and other properties of powdered sulphur are due to 
the presence of sulphui-ous dioxide. Every chemist knows that this 
powerful acid gas first reddens and then bleaches all vegetable 
tissues. If any gardener doubts this fact, let him bmm a jiiece of 
brimstone in a dry atmosphere ; the product, which is supposed to be 
the active agent in powdered sulphur, will bleach any plant intro- 
duced into the apartment. I should very much like to know how it 
is possible that this gas gets into sublimed sulphur. Sulphur must 
of necessity be sublimed in vessels absolutely free from air, other- 
wise it would not sublime at all, hut be converted into the gas which 
Mr. Boberts imagines it contains. I need scarcely point out that if 
any small portion of air were accidentally pi'esent it would at once 
be destroyed by the sulphur, and so prevented acting on any further 
portion of the subliming body. It is most reasonable to suppose 
that sulphm' acts mechanically and chemically, first, by smothering or 
irritating animalcute, for which purpose, of course, subUmed sulphur 
would be preferable to the same substance in a powdered state; 
secondly, by the almost imperceptible action of hydric chloride upon 
it. This acid is always present in rain and moist vapours, and its 
slow decomposition in jsresence of the fine particles of sulphur would 
effectually destroy any animal organism. In Professor Balfoiu-'s 
" Botany " it is stated (p. 14-7) that " Sulphm-oas acid gas (SO2) is 
highly injurious to plants. It produces greyish-yellow, dry-looking 
spots on the leaves, which gradually extend until the leaves are 
destroyed and fall The proportion of this gas in some experi- 
ments was only one in 9,000 or 10,000 parts of the air, and the 
quantity one-fifth of a cubic inch. And yet the whole unfolded 
leaves of a mignonette plant were destroyed in forty-eight hours. 
This proportion of gas is hardly, or not at all, discoverable by the 
smell." So much for " sulphozone," whatever that may mean. 

W. E. 

Gooseberry Caterpillar.— There is no occasion for experiencing a single 
(lay's annoyance on account of this caterpillar. Water the branches affected, 
and, while wet, sprinkle some freshly-powdered hellebore over them. In a few 
minutes the gnibs will have made themselves scai'ce, and will not retui-n. — 
Beoadley Hahbison, Kynaston, near Soss. 



THE ORIGIN OP THE MOSS EOSE. 

(from the GERMAN.) 

The angel of the flowers one day. 

Beneath a Eose tree sleeping lay,^ 

That spirit to whose charge 'tis given 

To hathe young buds in dews from heaven. 

Awaldug from his light repose. 

The angel whispered to the Eose, 

" For the sweet shade thou'st given to me, 

Ask what thou mlt, 'tis granted thee." 

The Eose rephed, with heightniug glow, 

" On me another gi-ace liostow." 

The angel paused, in silent thought, 

" What grace was there that flower had not." 

'Twas but a moment, o'er the Eose 

A veil of moss he hghtly throws ; 

And, robed in Nature's simplest weed. 

What other flower can this exceed ? 



64 



THE aARDEN. 



[July 20, 1872. 



THE GARDEN IN THE HOUSE. 



CULTURE OF PLATTTS IN ROOMS. 

{Continued from p. 5.) 



The manuring of pot jjlants is efiected either by mixing solid 
raanm-e with the soil, or by placing it on the surface, or, 
lastly, by watering with liquid manure. Solid manures, for 
mixing, comprise the various composts of stable manure or 
cow manure in a thoroughly decomposed state, and which 
may be obtained at the nui'series. Of these, cow manure 
compost is, for general purposes, to be preferred. It should 
not be mixed, however, in a greater proportion than from one- 
tenth to one-fifth of cow-dung in the entire mass. Other 
stronger materials are horn-shavings, bone-dust, malt-grains, 
powdered fowl's-dung, &c. Small quantities of these are 
mixed with the soil for those plants which are known to love 
strong manure^ such as Petunias, Fuchsias, &c. As powerful 
manure, when mixed with the soil, often produces a very bad 
result, it will be sufiicient, iu general, to place it on the 
surface of the soil in the pot, so that in the course of watering 
it may be gradually dissolved. Of this class of manures are 
guano, fowl's-dung, bone-dust, malt-grains, &c. It is much 
better, in room culture, to use liquid manure, which has this 
great advantage that it can be given to the plants exactly at 
the time when they require more nutriment — during the seasons 
of growth, of bud-forming, and of blooming. On the other 
hand, during the period of rest, solid rich manure mixed with 
the soil is less likely to prove injurious, or to render the 
plants sickly in the winter season. A mild kind of liquid 
manure, which every house will supply, is the water in which 
plates, &c., have been washed, and the water in which meat 
has been washed before cooking. Both of these may be given 
to the greater number of plants during the whole time of 
their growth and blooming, if the plants are in a healthy 
condition. 

IIQTJID MANTIRB. 

To prepare a strong liquid manure, a tub is filled with 
watei-, into which is thrown fresh cow-dung, pigeon's or fowl's 
dung, blood, scraps of flesh offal, guano, bone-dust, &c., either 
one or more of these matters being used. To hasten the 
decomposition of these, some muriatic acid may be added. 
The vessel should not be covered, but the air should be allowed to 
have free access to the liquid. It should also be stirred up from 
time to time. As soon as fermentation sets in, it is ready for 
iise. It should be poured through a sieve into the watering- 
can, and applied to the plants in the moi'ning and evening. 
It is advisable to dilute this with more water if it should be 
too concentrated, as then it is injurious. Experience and 
observation of its effects will soon teach whether it is too 
strong or not. Lic^uid manure such as we have described, if 
used at the proper time, is one of the best means for securing 
a luxuriant growth and bloom. 

KEEPING THE PLANTS CLEAN. 

One of the most unfavourable things to the culture of 
plants in rooms, and especially in living-rooms, is the dust, 
which in a short time covers the leaves aud, indeed, all parts 
of the plant above ground. By it the pores of the leaves 
become choked, aud the process of transpiration is either totally 
stopped or else seriously impeded. The leaves then begin to 
turn yellow, and, unless the evil is arrested in time, the plant 
becomes sickly, and at last dies. In order to avoid this, the 
plants should be cleaned as often as possible with a dry soft 
cloth or with a wet sponge. The latter, however, should be 
free from any particles of lime or sand, which would injure 
the tender skin of the leaves. It is best to give the plants a 
double cleaning, first with the dry cloth, and then with the 
moist sponge. A cleaning of this sort is the most complete, 
and- at the same time refreshes the leaves, which so easily 
suffer from the dry air of the room. If they are merelj- 
wiped with the wet sponge, the dust will not be so completely 
removed and the leaves will not pi'eserve their soft shining 
green colour, as they would if the dust was first removed by 
the dry cloth. A trial will prove the truth of this statement. 
The more frequently the plants arc thus cleaned the more 



healthy and luxuriant will be their growth. In plants with 
soft, velvety leaves, and also in such as have leaves and stems 
covered with a woolly pubescence, it is recommended to remove 
the dust by means of a fine soft paint-brush. The cleaning of 
the plants consists not merely in wiping or washing the 
healthy leaves, but it is also of the highest importance to 
remove as speedily as possible all dead or decaying foliage. 
Deciduous plants, and also evergreens with articulated leaves, 
will either of themselves shed their dead leaves, or when they 
turn yellow they may be easily plucked off without injury to 
the branches. In the case of evergreen plants, the leaves of 
which are firmly attached to the branches, such as Aroids, 
Scitaminese, Fei-ns, Palms, &c., the yellow leaves must be cut 
off, as by careless plucking them off' the stem may be injured. 
In the case of many evergreens of which entire shoots die off, 
these must be so cut away with a sharp knife that no stump 
may remain, and so that the wounds may soon cicatrize. 

POTS. 

The pots in which plants are grown in rooms should also 
be kept clean. Even with careful watering, the surplus water 
will sometimes be allowed to stand in the saucer, and in 
consequence the outside surface of the pot will become 
covered with a layer of whitish or greenish matter arising 
from the growth of mould-fungus or germinating moss. A 
properly baked pot is very porous, and allows the air to 
penetrate through it to the roots of the plant, which is abso- 
lutely necessary to its proper nourishment and healthy growth. 
As the dust impedes the transpiration of the leaves, so does the 
deposition of this whitish or greenish matter on the outside 
of the pot prevent the air from passing through it into the ball 
inside. Wherever it occurs, therefore, it should be carefully 
washed off. Frequent loosening of the surface soil, especially 
when the plants are watered with liquid manure, and the 
removal of every weed ai-e, for the same reason, to be recom- 
mended. — Dr. Begel. 

{To he continued.) 



LEAVES FOE GAENISHING THE DESSEET. 

A liAKE old leaf is the ivy, green or golden, for garnishing fruit. Aud 
yet ita smell is anything but sweet, its taste is rank and poisonous, 
aud it leaves somewhat of both on the fruit it adorns. Therefore, 
beantifnl as the ivy is, it ought not to be brought into contact with 
fruit. The Portugal or common laurels are much better. Unless 
braised, they give out little odour, and no taste. Their size is suitable, 
and their bright glossy surface cleanly. The colour, especially of the 
Portugal variety, is a rich dark green, and the forms of both are well 
adapted for association with dished-np fruit. Hollies, especially the 
plaiuer-leaved varieties, form beautiful. garniture for desserts, and 
give out neither smell nor taste. Even the pricklier varieties, both 
green and variegated, may be turned to useful piu-poso by using 
terminal tufts instead of single leaves. These can be handled better, 
and the little rosettes, set off with prickles as defensive armoui', 
guard the fruit from danger, and force us to haudle it with care' 
Aucuba leaves are very handsome, but they smell rather strong, and 
many of them are too large, even were we jjrepared to pluck the 
leaves of the finer sorts. The common A. japonica is the best for 
this purpose, and, setting aside its smell, is very pretty. The Berberis 
Aquifolium aud other species afford the most useful of all leaves for 
garnisliing the dessert. They yield so many leaves of different sizes 
and colours as to furnish a rich variety ; they are also clean and 
scentless, and fit in well with most fruits. Khododendron leaves are 
bright and glossy, and look well either singly or in terminal branchlets. 
Laurustinus is clear, bright, shapely, and has a good effect. The 
Arbutus is also clean and pretty, in terminal bxmches or single file ; 
and Sweet Bay leaves are light, glossy, and sweet, without, however, 
flavouring the fruits that rest upon them. 

Notwithstanding all this matter of choice, many, however, elect to 
cushion their fruit on variegated or green kale. It is pretty enough, 
but both the sight and smell are suggestive (often highly so) of 
cabbage, which is a somewhat incongruous association with a luscious 
dessert. All leaves from the outside should be washed and well di-ied 
before being used. Frozen leaves will lower the quality of most 
fruits that touch them, and nothing can be more displeasing than 
the adorning of choice fruits with imperfect or unclean leaves. 
Therefore, gather the leaves for the garniture of your dessert early 
in the morning, sponge them perfectly clean, if not already so, and 
lay them aside in a temperature 10° or more above freezing, but not 



JrLY 20, 1872.] 



THE G-ARDEN. 



65 



in sunstine; they -mil then be in a proper state for use when 
wanted. 

Those who grow stove or greenhouse plants in quantity — and 
especially climbers — or force early fruit and flowers, will hardly 
ever be scarce of choice leaves for the garnishiug of their desserts. 
And yet it is by no means every pretty or fine leaf that is suitable 
for this purpose. For instance, the whole family of pelargoniums 
must be set aside, from their excess of perfume. There are other 
beautiful leaves, again, that are too thin to go creditably through 
a dinner without shrivelling up into useless incumbrances of the 
dessert. Such is to a great extent the case with Abutilons of all 
varieties — very fresh and beautiful, but fragile. The leaves of 
the variegated and the common fonn of Cobsea scandens have 
the same failing. Again, there are some of the passion-flowers 
that give out a disagreeable odour, and some of them, like 
P. quadrangularis, are too large ; and kermesina, in a young 
state, is almost too tender. Still, this noble family is rich 
in leaves for garnishing. P. alata, edulis, and racemosa being 
among the very best species, are also rich in beautiful leaves ; but 
some are fragile, and those that are suitable have more or less 
scent. Camellia leaves are models of smooth, glossy beauty, but no 
one cares to gather them for fruit garnishing ; while those of oranges, 
lemons, &c., are too highly perfumed. Stephanotises are too 
leathery, were one inclined to pick them off. The early forcer of 
fi'uit and flowers can seldom, however, be at a loss for choice foliage 
for garnishing desserts. Even common leaves out of season acquire 
an uncommon beauty. Of course those who have vine leaves need 
no other ; nothing can supersede nor equal them. They are the 
best of all, from the time the tender picking will barely pass 
through the dinner till the winter leaves of many colours crumple 
into a handful of dust in our fingers. Early fig leaves are also 
admirable. Later in the season they seem too rough and common 
for choice fruit ; but the early leaves have a soft freshness that is 
most pleasing. Even early peach, plum, pear, apple, and cherry 
leaves are admirable ; while the leaves of forced roses have a cleanly 
beauty that is seldom seen on those out of doors. The lily of the 
valley leaf, with a flower or two here and there, gives one of the 
choicest, sweetest finishes to a dessert, without flavoui'ing the fruit. 
A fine Czar violet and leaves of the common primrose are by no 
means to be despised. That most useful of all plants for cutting, 
the Astilbe japonica, yields a harvest of exquisite leaves for the 
adorning of the dessert. Again, forced lilacs, especially all the 
varieties of the Persian, are invaltiable. Doubtless a considerable 
proportion of the charm arises from the fact of the leaves being out 
of season ; but they arc likewise more beautiful, that is, more fresh 
and green, when produced under the shelter of glass. It is 
astonishing how much variety of garniture adds to the interest and 
beauty of the dessert. And this reminds me of another set of 
leaves which I have not named, that are amongst the most useful 
and beautiful of all — those of the strawberry. This fruit never 
looks so well as when nestling upon its o^vn leaves ; and doubtless 
desserts generally would be far more interesting and beautiful than 
they are if, as far as practicable, early fruit were adorned with 
leaves or branchlets of its kind. Beta. 



SHOW OF WINDOW PLANTS AT HULL. 

(JULT 6th.) 

Kg one will, I think, dispute the value of those floral touraaments that 
were at one time confined to the great metropoHs, but which in recent 
years have been distributed more generally through our great industrial 
centres. Wide, however, as the basis may be upon which those pyramids 
of Flora's beauties — so often recorded in your pages — are built up, there 
is still a wider, and if, in extending that basis, we lose in altitude as 
representing quality, I trust the interest of the "thousands " as compared 
with the " tens " will amply justify me in asking for space in your well- 
filled columns, for a brief report of a somewhat modest, though none 
the less interesting, exhibition held in the Public Park, HuU. 

Some sis years ago, the Hull Window-Gardening Society was estab- 
lished, its primary object being to encourage a love of flowers among the 
working population of that town, and with this object in view, its atten- 
tion and its means (somewhat slender) were first devoted to a distribution 
of such plants as the possessors of flower gardens in the neighbourhood 
could contribute, in the autumn ; and, secondly, to the awarding of prizes 
at an exhibition of those plants held during the following summer. This 
limit as regards the exhibitions was, however, enlarged, for two reasons : 
the one to extend their interest, the other to increase their popularity ; and 
by this means to include, not only the recipients of plants so dishibuted, 
but aU those that previously cultivated plants in their windows. Sovaried 
are the circumstances under which window plants may be cultivated, bear- 
ing in mind aspect, density of buildings externally, or density of population 
internally, and innumerable other modifying influences, that it was 
deemed advisable to divide all exhibitors into three groups, classified as 



A, B, and C, according as those influences were good, moderately good, or 
bad. With a view to facihtate those who undertook the *' registration " of 
the plants, a code of instructions was prepared, showing the conditions 
under which the several letters wotdd he applicable, thus placing each 
competitor fahly in the field — white against white, green against green, 
and brown against brown. I have alluded to '' registration," and possibly, 
at the onset, had better explain what is meant by this title. 

The value of such an exhibition depends very much on its hona Jide 
character, that is, that the plants so e:diibited shall have been cultivated 
in a window during at least a moderate length of time, say six weeks or 
two months ; and to secui'e this most important point beyond dispute, the 
services of those persons, who either by position or by inclination were 
readily erJisted in the furtherance of so good an object, were secured ; 
and these, visiting the proposed competitors, not only inspected the plants, 
and determined the classes in which they should be exhibited, but, 
further, by means of small cards, eyelets, and red tape, and the assistance 
of a pair of nippers, each plant became registered, bearing on the card 
the number of the exhibitor, and on the sheet in the hands of each 
registrar was entered the name, residence, and occupation of the owner, 
as well as any further matters that might be of interest. To quote one 
return will show the interest and value of such data,viz.," Cultivated by the 
same person for thirty-five years." A schedule of prizes, about ninety iu 
number, varying from one shilling to six shillings each in value, was 
prepared, and these were apportioned not only to the A, B, and C groups 
of registered plants, but also to bouquets of wild flowers, designs in wild 
flowers, designs in grasses, and collections of wild herbs gathered in the 
neighbourhood. I omitted to mention that, besides these registered 
window plants, others who possessed plants, were invited to compete 
in a class by themselves, and special prizes were awarded to the most 
meritorious. From this description it may be seen that the prospect of a 
varied and interesting exhibition was secm-ed, the monotony of the plants 
being reHeved by the beauty and elegance of the designs in grasses. 

The show was held in a marquee one hundred and fifty feet long by 
fifty feet wide, and when I say that the centre stage, consisting of three 
tiers, was well filled from end to end, two projecting semicircular tables 
in the centre accommodating the grasses and wild flowers, the reader will 
readily understand that the competitors must have been numerous. If 
there was a lack in brilliancy of colour, this deficiency was more than 
compensated by the variety of objects exhibited ; and what a history — ■ 
what a halo of old associations surrouuced many of those plants iu the 
eyes 'of the exhibitors ! It was amusing to see how tenderly they set 
them down, and how carefully they arranged every leaf. Did time permit 
me I could give many little episodes that came to my ears on the morning 
of the exhibition. 

The exhibitors on this occasion numbered upwards of 340, of these 
about one half belonged to the registered classes ; and I may here remark 
that a glance at the three classes as separately staged, gave practical proof 
of the value of this system of classification. About eighty competitors 
entered the hsts for ^\'ild flowers and gi-asses : these were chiefly children, 
varying iu age fi-om six years old aud upwards, and equally various were 
the designs they produced — from simple, unpretendiDg little bunches, 
culled from the roadside, to elegant designs of the most elaborate type. 
Kon-registcred plants, numbering about two hundred, were exhibited by 
about fifty competitors, and, thanlcs to the hberality of some of the 
tradesmen, many useful and elegant prizes were available ; nor were these 
prizes one whit less miscellaneous than the articles exhibited. At one 
end of the centre stage a "ndndow was fitted up, with a box for the window- 
ledge outside made to extend beyond the window-jambs one foot on each 
side. In the extended portion. Ivy was planted aud trained up the margin of 
the window, presenting a very pretty effect. Plants were also arranged 
in the interior, and a famous plant of the old "Mother of Thousands " 
(Linaria cymbalaria) formed a beautiful object suspended in the 
centre. This window was fitted up by the Society to show practically 
what might be done with simple means in the way of decoration. Of 
course, there was the usual accessory of music ; and when I say that as 
much as £18 was taken at the entrance to the marquee in pennies and 
twopences, we may roughly estimate the visitors at about two thousand 
or more, besides the esliibitors, each of whom had a special ticket. 

The prizes were distributed from a platform, at the close of the after- 
noon, and to each prize-winner was also given a copy of instructions on 
the management of window plants, prepared especially for the purpose, 
in the form of a small pamphlet. I may add that it is further intended 
to make a distribution of small plants concomitant with the exhibition 
another year, so that each exhibitor will receive a plant or two, properly 
selected and prepared for window cultm-e. This wiU be substituted for 
an autumn distribution, which has proved itself, practically speaking, of 
Httle value. 

I have gone thus far into the details of the above exhibition so as to 
place before your readers, who may be interested in the window-gardening 
movement, an outline of the working of our Society. Should any such 
be wishful to possess the various " fonns " that we have adopted, and 
which have been, of course, considerably modified by experience, we 
shall have great pleasure in supplying the same. 

Hull Botanic Gardens. James C. Niven. 



The Avocado Pear. — The correspondent who has recently inquired about 
the way to raise the seed of this exotic, may be interested to learn that its 
large seed will grow freely if placed on a hyacinth glass, just as we place a 
hyacinth bulb, and it may be raised thus in a sitting-room. I had the pleasure 
of seeing a very healthy plant of it raised thus in Mr, "Wilson's dining-room, at 
Heatherbank, Weybridge Heath. It is yet growing freely in its hyacinth 
glass, and is about fifteen inches high, and has been in the same position for 
months past. — W. 



66 



THE GARDEN. 



[July 20, 1872. 



SOILS, M ANU RES, &c. 

ARTIFICIAL MANURES AND THEIR ADULTERA- 
TION. 
Professor Voelcker says : Tou cannot by any inspection recognise 
whether guano is adulterated or not. I defy, he adds, even an 
adept in guano to tell me whether this specimen is genuine or 
otherwise — it is so like the genuine article. Chemical skill is 
required to effect a detection, but chemical skill can do it. There 
are, however, one or two things which it may be useful to remember, 
inasmuch as they will enable people to detect pure Peruvian guano 
from the adulterated kiuds. The best Peruvian gnano always has 
a lighter specific gravity than adulterated kinds. If you weigh a 
bushel of the genuine stuff, you will find its weight per bushel does 
exceed sixty-nine pounds. It is usually from sixty-eight pounds to 
sixty-nine pounds per bushel ; that is to say, a bushel measure filled 
and struck off. Adulterated guano always weighs more. This 
surely is a simple way of testing the value of guano. Another 
equally simple way is to bum a small quantity. If you have the 
appliances to do it by care- 
ful weight, take one hun. 
dred grains. Should the 
guano be genuine, it will 
leave one-third of its weight 
in ash, which is perfectly 
white ; in other words, sixty- 
six grains will burn away, 
and thirty-four will remain 
in the form I have stated. 
If the guano be adulterated, 
it will leave perhaps more 
than one-half of its weight 
in ash, and the ash will 
invariably be coloured, since 
the earthy matters which 
are usually employed con. 
tain oxide of iron, and that 
compound causes the ash to 
be of a brownish or yellow- 
brown colour. Genuine 
Peruvian guano yields from 
sixteen to nineteen per cent, 
of ammonia. The materials 
that are mixed with guano 
are gypsum , chalk, and cer- 
tain yellowish loams. 

Analyses, I am sorry to 
say, are frequently made 
for mere gain ; they enable 
unprincipled dealers to sell 
spurious articles. It fre- 
quently happens that when 
guanos are offered for sale 
an analysis is shown with 
them of a highly recommen- 
datory character ; whereas 
the bulk which is sold to 
the unwary pm-chaser is 
totally different from the 
sample which was submitted 
to the analyst's hands. A 
sample was sent to me, and 

analysed according to request, and I know positively it was after- 
wards mixed with a large quantity of yellow sandy loam, and sold 
by auction as genuine material on the strength of my analysis. It 
was sold at prices varying from £7 to £9 per ton, and yet it was 
not worth more than £2 to £3. 

Nitrate of soda is frequently mixed with common salt. Sulphate 
of ammonia is another valuable manure which is occasionally adul- 
terated, the chief adulterating principles being sulphate of magnesia 
or Epsom salts, sulphate of soda or Glauber salt. Bone-dust is not 
often adulterated, unless you buy it in a very fine powder, and then 
yon run the risk of getting gypsum mixed with it, or you may 
possibly get with it vegetable ivory, which resembles fine bone-dust 
very closely. From a manurial point of view this is not worth any- 
thing ; but it is good as an adulterating principle, and the button 
manufacturers of Birmingham will not take less than £2. 10s. or £3 
a ton for it. Dissolved bones and superphosphates are sold at high 
prices, and the prices which you ought to give for this description of 
artificial manures should be regulated entirely by their quality. You 
cannot fix one uniform price for superphosphates ; everything depends 
iipon the composition. There is only one way of determining their 



View in the Gardens at Alton Towers. 



value, and that is by analysis. The constituents which chiefiy 
regulate the value of this description of f ertiUzing agent are soluble 
phosphate, insoluble phosphate, and nitrogen, or ammonia. The 
more you have of soluble phosphate and bone phosphate and of 
nitrogen, the better the artificial manure, and, of course, the more 
you will have to pay for it. 

There are some mixed artificial manures the names of which do 
not exactly indicate their true character. For instance, a good many 
kinds of manure are sold under the name of blood manures. As a 
fact, there is very little blood used in the manufacture of manures. 
Where is all the blood to come from that would make all the manures 
sold under the name ? Some of the manures, nevertheless, are very 
good — not on account of the blood, but other good things of which 
they are made. Whilst some refuse materials, as blood, or even 
woollen refuse, are useful in furnishing nitrogen to the growing 
plant with sufficient readiness, there are others which do not decom. 
pose, and which are only added with the view of deceiving the 
consumer. Leather, for example, is out of place in manure, even 
after it is steamed and subjected to the action of sulpuric acid. 

To sum up, in buying 
gnano it suffices to have 
the guarantee of the dealer 
that the article is Peruvian 
guano of the best quality. 
You require no analysis — 
the guarantee is generally 
sufficient. In buying nitrate 
of soda, buy according to 
the percentage of pure ni- 
trate : in good samples you 
should get from 91 to 95 
per cent. Sulphate of am- 
monia buy according to the 
percentage of ammonia : in 
good commercial samples 
you ought to get from 22 
to 21 per cent. A guarantee 
that bone-dust is genuine 
will be quite sufficient. In 
buying superphosphates the 
first thing you have to do is 
to make up your mind as to 
what you want. Do you 
require mineral superphos- 
phate or bone manure ? 
According to your require- 
ments let the guarantee be 
shaped. Mineral superphos- 
phates are useful when the 
ground is in first-rate order ; 
when it is not too light, or 
has been manured previ- 
ously in the autumn, they 
are very useful, and in buy- 
ing them all j'ou reqiiire is 
to have the percentage of 
soluble phosphate guaran- 
teed. If, on the other hand, 
you buy bone manures, you 
not only require the per- 
centage of soluble phos- 
phates guaranteed, but also 
that of the insoluoie phosphates, and, moreover, a distinct under- 
standing that the insoluble phosphates are present really as bone, 
and not in the shape of coprolite powder, Estramadura phosphate, or 
any other description of mineral phosphate. 




/i^'.c^ 



THE GARDE NS O F ENGLAND. 

ALTON TOWERS. 
After the j^eriod of classic order and exactitude alluded to 
at p. 1.5, when every tree aud brauchlet corresponded with 
its neighbour as much as if it had grown by rule, came the 
reign of nature, pure and simple. Circumstances, to which 
it is not needful to advert, gave liberty to the captive trees, 
loosened them, and let them grow into freer and larger 
forms. The tree and shrub wealth of the " Enchanted 
Valley " became too great for its limited area. Classic monu- 
ments, pagodas, fountains, Gothic temples, Swiss cottages, 
Arcaded walls, douied conservatories, all became partially en- 
tangled and hidden in a maze-like thicket of choice vegetation. 



July 20, 1872.] 



THE GARDEN. 



57 



Eicli views -were choked up ; distant prospects blocked out 
by impenetrable foregrounds. The gardens were still beauti- 
ful, but they could oiily be seen in detail ; and as the trees 
o'rew laro-er, less and less of the narrow valley could be seen 
from any one spot. In many gardens this is an advantage ; 
the o-radual unfolding of beauty makes it last longer and tell 
better. There are gardens which affect oae exactly as a 
sky-i-ocket ; yon enter, and the whole bursts on the eye at 
once, and then all is over. Such gardens are not satisfying ; 
a reaction sets in. But Alton Towers is an exceptional place. 
The valley, on each side of which the gardens are laid out, 
is narrow and delightfully varied. The nature of the ground 
and style of furnishing, afford a succession of varied scenes, 
each beautiful and distinct. Architecture, sculpture, classical 
associations, water, all, to a certain extent, pervade this vale 
of beauty, and each stamps some particular scene with its own 
distinctive features. The 
eye has no time to weary j— 
till it is arrested by a 1 
fresh object, and there 
are depths oE meaning 
and of beauty in these 
gardens which the visitor 
cannot readily reach. 

The woodcuts we now 
give, and scores more 
might be given, illustrate 
and confirm these re- 
marks. Even the same 
scenes, viewed from dif- 
ferent stand-points, seem 
•wholly distinct and dif- 
ferent. Almost every 
part of interest thus 
serves several distinct 
purposes. It is beautiful 
in itself, a unique distinct 
complete scene, and it 
likewise forms part of a 
complete whole. Of late 
years, the efforts of the 
present Countess of Tal- 
bot and Shrewsbury, 
and her able gardener, 
Mr. Eabone, have been 
specially directed to the 
creation of wider views 
of this charming valley. 
Nature had, in the course 
of time, overgrown art 
too much. The difficult 
problem was to cut out 
art in due proportion 
without marring the face 
of nature. And difficult 
work it was. Sculpture 
and architecture need the 
furnishing and balancing 
of trees and shrubs, to 
clothe, as it were, their 
baldness, and the eye of 
refined taste soon determines when they have had enough 
toning down. But to cut out works of art or the beauties 
of a landscape is a high effort of taste and genius ; never- 
theless as far as it has proceeded, it seems to have been 
remarkably well done at Alton. 

Several parts of the grounds would bear more cutting. 
Here and there fine specimens are injuring each other; it is 
impossible to save all, and some ought to be sacrificed. Again, 
other features, such as the Swiss cottage, would bear a little 
more opening up. It would be more effective from the other 
side of the valley were another tree or two removed; and 
similar remarks are applicable to other parts of the grounds. 
The trees must either be kept small or some of them removed, 
or a tangled thicket, rather than a garden, will be the ultimate 
result. 

Our views give a good representation of the general 




Water Scenery in the Gardens at Alton Towers. 



character of the garden. The most notable points, apart from 
their well-furnished base, covering each side, the bottom, and 
upper end of a narrow valley, are the architectural ornaments, 
spiral trees, and water. There is a noble lake near the house, and 
cascade? and fountains all over the grounds. The more per- 
manent among the latter are the Screw, the Pagoda, the Bath, 
the Dolphin, and the War fountains, the latter so called from 
the jets of water being sent forth in direct antagonism to each 
other. Stonehenge, Jacob's Ladder, or Flagstep walks, three 
hundred yards in length, the domed conservatory, panelled 
walls, golden, Gothic, and other temples. La Eefuge, alcoves, 
Swiss cottage, statuary, &c., furnish a wealth and variety of 
architectural adornment rare in gardens of much greater 
extent. Ani the style of gardening is most comprehensive, 
and may be said to include all styles. There are ribbon borders, 
mixed borders, and beds; sub-tropical, Italian, Dutch, and 

common flower gardens 
in succession; each, as 
it should be, distinct in 
itself, and not a medley 
of all styles iu one, 
which seems the rage 
in certain quarters, but 
which is the most mo- 
notonous of all modes 
of furnishing, landing us 
in a dead sea of medi- 
ocrity without a wave 
of beauty or mterest to 
stu- its dull leaden sur- 
face. On the contrary, 
at , Alton Towers one 
bounds along from one 
distinct scene of in- 
terest and beauty to 
another, without weari- 
ness and fatigue, and 
each fresh garden affects 
one's spirits like the 
opening of a new book 
by a favourite author. 
The marvel is that so 
much beauty and interest 
can bepacked into so little 
space ; for, after all, the 
valley is narrow, and not 
unlike a huge nut laid 
open, the inner edges, 
being packed full of rich 
vegetation, watered copi- 
ously from flowing foun- 
tains, and adorned with 
temples of art, in which 
the visitor may rest and 
be thankful. 

Mr. Eabone has the 
difficulties of a public 
garden to contend with, 
and the wants of a large 
private place to supply. 
He fulfils both duties to 
the satisfaction of all. Cut flowers are in great demand at 
the Towers, and roses, violets, lilies of the valley, orchids, 
mignonette, &c., are had in quantities throughout the year. 
A large collection of orchids and stove plants is cultivated, 
and there is also a splendid display of fine azaleas, camellias, 
&c. 

Fruits of all sorts are also well and extensively grown ; and 
the grapes are so large and fine as to have taken high honours 
at the show of the Eoyal Horticultural Society at Bir- 
mingham, the other week. A new rosary, consisting of about 
two thousand plants, has recently been added to the gardens, 
and altogether, culture and taste and energy are doing their 
best, not only to maintain, but to extend the fame and the 
beauty of this charming place. Of Alton Towers, it may be 
emphatically said, it must be seen to be understood and 
appreciated. D- 



58 



THE GARDEN. 



[July 20, 1872. 



THE FRUIT GARDEN. 



THE FUTURE OP OUR ERUIT CROPS. 

EEAD BY GEO. WESTLAND, AT THE BIRMINGHAM CONGRESS. 

With a rapidly increasing population, the question of om- fruit supply 
becomes important. Fruit, among the working classes, has too long been 
looked upon as a luxury. A hale and hearty sexagenarian, who for his 
evening meal was eating a slice of bread and a good-sized apple, 
remarked — " This, or fritit of some kind, has been my supper from a 
child, and no man has seen less of the doctor or his medicines than 1 
have." Certainly no one of the age could look better. Some eat daily, 
as long as they can be had, not less than a pound of strawberries, besides 
other fruit— and I am glad to know that the habit of eating fruit is 
rapidly increasing among the higher orders ; while oui* American cousins 
certainly exceed us as fruit consumers, for there almost anything that 
has eatable juice in it is pressed into the service. They gloat over a 
succulent ripe tomato ; we most likely should require time to acquire an 
appreciation of that dehcacy. Be that as it may, there can be no question 
that properly selected fruit is not a luxury, but a necessary of life; and 
further, the more regularly we use it, the better will it be for us. Well, 
then, regardiug fruit, in its place, to be as much a necessary as bread, the 
question naturally presents itself, how is the necessary supply to be 
produced ? Already all temperate countries are shorn of their supplies, 
and still we cry " more, more." 

My object is to inquire how more is to be obtained; and looking back 
to the orchards of the midland and eider counties, and taking into con- 
sideration the sackf uls, or even cartloads, of fruit which hundreds of trees 
individually produce, I ask, is not the dwarfing system, which we have 
been pursuing for the last quarter of a century, though pretty, so far as 
it goes, a blunder, as regards the supply of our markets ? Fortunately 
market and commercial growers have not been misled by the pretty decep- 
tion; they have stuck to the old standard form — guiding, but not 
restricting, the trees, and they gather fruit accordingly. No scheme has 
ever led to more disappointment than the pinching and root-pruning 
systems of cultivation. Such trees make pretty objects in a garden ; they 
are especially pretty when full of fruit, but that is such a rare occurrence 
as only to be regarded as the exception, not the rule. Such being the 
fact, it appears that the only sure way to increase our market supplies is 
to go back to the good old plan of planting orchards, not by scores or 
hundreds of trees, but by scores or hundreds of acres. 

Of the propriety of planting hardy fruits to a large extent there can be 
no question, so long as the varieties have the qualities of abundant bearing, 
flavour, and, if necessary, suitability for kitchen use. Take, for example, 
the Blenheim Orange, Ribston Pippin, Cox's Orange Pippin, and many 
other apples ; thoy are not only fine dessert fruits, but, once used for a 
tart, the question soon presents itself from the chef de cwisine, Can't we 
have more ? By the same rule, Marie Louise, Beurre Diel,'and all the 
finer dessert pears, are grand for stewing — far superior to the stewing 
kinds. 

I therefore say, plant no inferior fruits, nor any that are not known to 
be suitable to the locality, unless it be a few odd ones for the sake of 
trial. Then, even in unfavourable localities for fruit-growing there are 
certain spots which might be planted with a fair chance of success. 
Shelter is, of coiu'se, a great poiut; but the shelter of walls is not so good 
as the shelter of a belt of evergreen trees. On the moors of Yorkshire, 
for example, or in exposed situations of any kind, where there are no trees 
to break the force of the wind, a wall is of little more use than no screen 
at all, for the wind will pass up one side and down the other almost 
perpendicularly, and tear the plants up at the foot. But with a screen of 
trees the force is broken, the wind sifted and shorn of its force, and the 
plants remain comparatively uninjm'cd. Natural shelter should always 
be taken advantage of when it can be done consistently mth other 
arrangements, and that which protects from the north, north-east, and 
north-west, is the most desirable. And whatever shelter is provided 
artificially should be at sufficient distance, so as not to obscure Hght and 
sun. Spring frosts are our greatest di'awbacks in fruit gi'owing, and 
therefore the plants when frozen should not be exposed to the morning 
sun. 

These remarks apply more immediately to orchard planting ; but still 
the same rules will obtain in the garden, and the garden will be none the 
worse for the protection afforded by trees on the exposed sides — and this 
brings me to that very knotty subject, garden walls. ^ As things of the 
past, mere protection from the predatory attacks of bipeds, they are well 
enough. A good wall of peaches, i>ears, plums, or cherries is a grand 
sight, but their management is a game of chance, so entirely against the 
gardener that the question will crop up, is the profit worth the cost ? A 
crop in five years is about the full average from our wall trees, and 
considering the enormous amount of attention they require, can that be 
satisfactory or profitable ? I think not, at least X confess I am not 
satisfied, for I think I ought to have more for my trouble. 

This, then, brings me to the subject of orchard-houses, and what they 
are to be. In the formation of a new garden, estininte the cost 
of walls and of the glass placed against them, and that of building 
proper houses for the reception of fruit trees of all kinds. Which will 
be the most profitable investment P While, however, orchard-houses are 
infinitely superior to walls for fruit culture, let me add that I have no 
sympathy whatever with the pot culture of hardy fruits. Although I 
have seen some of the finest crops in the country, I could never see that 
they could be profitable, the small quantity and inferior quality putting 



that out of the question. At the same time, if we look at our old- 
fashioned peach and other fruit houses, we see plainly enough the result 
of planting out, and growing what Americans would call true trees. No 
plant was ever yet dwarfed into what might be called profitable cultiva- 
tion. The crop may be pleasing enough, very nice from an amateur's 
point of view, but test it by the gardener's call upon his supplies, or the 
market grower's retura for his produce, and these pot crops sink into 
insignificance. Proper houses, planted and trained in a proper manner, 
like our peach-houses or old orchard-houses, must become the most reli- 
able tender fruit-houses of the future. The days for experimenting have 
passed ; the realities of fruit cultivation are perhaps as well known as 
they ever will be, and certainly they do not favour the pot-growth system. 
We want, and must have, a positive return for our outlay, and that we 
shall never get until we allow our indoor fruit trees to develop their full 
strength, and to take such crops as that strength will carry. If we want 
to check luxuriance, take the natural remedy of a heavy crop. If we want 
to augment the strength, reduce the crop below the usual standard. This, 
I take to be, is the common sense of fruit culture, both present and 
future. 



The Gooseberry as a Pyramid. — Although the natnrally 
lovs'-apreading and spine-guarded gooseberry is rarely seen as a taper- 
ing pyramid, it may be grown in that way so as to look much more 
attractive than in its ordinary state, and its fruit may be gathered, 
mthout stooping, as conveniently as that of an espalier pear or 
apple tree. 'This, to a lover of the fruit, is some little consideration. 
We have recently seen a garden with several of its walks bordered 
by very pretty specimens of erect gooseberries and standard red cur. 
rant trees alternated, the gooseberries simply tied to a slender iron 
stake rising about seven feet above the surface of the ground, and 
pruned so as to gradually diminish from base to top to a mere point. 
The base of each cone was about fifteen inches in diameter, and the 
whole perfectly furnished with fruiting spurs. Summer pinching of the 
shoots is practised to prevent the plants getting out of shape, and also 
to induce fruitfulness, and they are neatly pruned in winter. The kind 
best suited to this work is the rough red ; it sedms to make the hand, 
somest pyramids, and is also a very desirable kind for eating or pre- 
serving. 

Preserving Grapes in Bottles of "Water. — I first tried this 
Ijlan of keeping grapes on a small scale, in the winter of 1868-69, 
and succeeded beyond my expectations. During the ensuing 
summer I therefore had a room specially fitted up for this kind of 
work ; it is twelve feet long and nine feet wide, with three tiers of 
shelves along two sides and one end, and will hold 130 bottles in 
all. These bottles have been annually filled since then about the 
beginning of November with Hamburghs, and all are used by or soon 
after Christmas. The room is then cleaned, the water changed, and 
Lady Downe's is then made to occupy the bottles. My experience of . 
four seasons of this mode of treating grapes is, that with half the 
attention which they require when hanging on the vines, they may 
be kept perfectly sound ; nor does the flavour deteriorate in the least. 
I exhibited at South Kensington, on March 15th last year, three 
bunches of Lady Downe's, that had been cut for several weeks; 
their appearance was all that could be desired, and their flavour 
excellent. Indeed, my employer, who is no bad judge in such 
matters, declares that in the matter of flavour there is no deteriora- 
tion whatever. This year I out on January 4th more than eighty 
bunches of Lady Downe's ; of these, the last was used on May 23rd, 
the vines from which they had been cut being then again in full 
flower. In short, I am so satisfied with the system, especially as 
regards late grapes, that I last year planted a house, fifty feet long, 
entirely with Lady Downe's, intending to cut and bottle them about 
the beginning of each year. This will obviate very early forcing, 
and secure the possession of grapes all the year round. To those 
who object to Lady Downe's, I would say ripen thoroughly, and ever 
afterwards there will be no cause for complaint. The great advant- 
age secured by the bottling system, is, that the vines are at rest, and 
the house at liberty for plants, which, with the bedding-out mania still 
in full force, is what we want. — W. Wildsmith, Heckfield, Winch, 
field, Hants. 

Hathaniel Hawthorne on Fruit Trees.— Apple trees and all 
fruit trees have a domestic character which brings them into relationship 
with man. They have lost in a great measure the wild nature of tho 
forest tree, and have grown humanised by receiving the care of man, and 
by contributing to his wants. They have become a part of the family, 
and their individual characters are as wcU understood and appreciated 
as those of the human members. One tree is harsh andciubbed, another 
mild ; one is churlish and illiberal, another exhausts itself with its free- 
hearted bounties. Even the shapes of apple trees have great individuaUty, 
into such strange postures do they put themselves, and thrust their con- 
torted branches so grotesquely in all directions. And when they have 
stood around a house for many years, and held converse with successive 
dynasties of occupants, and gladdened their hearts so often in the fruitful 
autumn, then it would seem almost sacrilege to cut them down. 



July 20, 1872.] 



THE GARDEN. 



59 



THE KITCHEN GARDEN. 

PKIZE ESSAY ON THE POTATO. 

BY GEORGE MAW, T.S.A.. G.S., L.S. 
(^Continued from p. 26.) 

EXPERIMENTS ON THE POTATO-CROP. 

2. As to the influence on the crop of the distance at which the 
sets are planted; or the results of close and wide planting of various 
sized sets. 

To establish this point, I shall compare, separately, each series of 
experiments on potatoes of the same weight, planted at different 
distances : — 

Averages of 1 oz. Sets. 

Gross. Net 

tons. cwts. qrs. lbs. tons. cwts. qrs. lbs. 
13 varieties, planted 1 foot apart ... 10 9 3 17 9 17 3 

U „ 9 inches apart ... 10 13 23 9 16 

11 „ 6 inches apart ... 13 4 1 20 12 13 

Averages of 2 oz. Sets. 

Gross. Net. 

tons. cwts. qrs. lbs. tons. cwts. qrs. lbs. 
13 varieties, planted 1 foot apart ... 12 15 3 4 11 11 1 7 

13 „ 9 inches apart ... 15 16 2 11 13 10 21 

10 „ 6 inches apart ... 15 19 13 13 10 1 27 

Averages of 4 oz. Sets. 

Gross. Net. 

tons. cwts. qrs. lbs. tons. cwts. qrs. lbs. 

12 varieties, planted 1 foot apart ... 15 17 2 15-5 13 9 2| 
10 „ 9 inches apart ... 17 17 3 13 11 13 i 

3 „ 6 inches apart ... 23 3 3 17 3 16 

Averages of 4 oz. Sets (similar varieties). 



Gross, 
tons. cwts. qrs. lbs. 
,.. 16 S 8 24 
.. 16 19 2 14 
..22 2 3 



Net. 

tons. cwts. qrs. lbs. 

13 1 11 

12 14 3 6 

17 3 16 



3 varieties, planted 1 foot apart 
3 ,, 9 inches apart 

3 ,, 6 inches apart 

These comparisons all show an advantage in planting the smaller 
sets at intervals closer than twelve inches in the rows; but the 
results are not very decided, and in one or two cases the gain in the 
gross crop does not make up for the extra weight of the sets planted. 

The following comparisons refer to the eiiect of planting the sets 
more than a foot apart in the rows. 

Three experiments averaged together, viz. : — 

8 oz. " Flukes," 6 oz. " Flukes," and 4 oz. " Late Eed," gave a 
gross crop of 23 tons 16 cwts. 1 qr. 8 lbs., and a net average of 20 
tons 3 cwts. 1 qr. 17 lbs. The same sizes and varieties, planted at 
intervals in the rows of 1 foot 3 inches, produced a gross crop of 18 
tons 13 cwts. 1 qr. 2 lbs., and a net crop of 15 tons 14 cwts. 3 qrs. 
20 lbs. — a falling off of 4 tons 8 cwts. 1 qr. 25 lbs. per acre. Indeed 
the produce of each set was, as nearly as possible, the same, whether 
planted a foot apart or 15 inches, so that the additional distance was 
so much loss to the crop. The average produce of 6 oz. and 8 oz. 
Flukes shows a similar faUing off when planted more than a foot 
apart in the rows : — 

tons. cwts. qrs. lbs. 
Flu"Kes, at 1 foot, the net average produce was ... 17 10 1 26 per acre. 
Flukes, at 1 foot 3 inches „ „ ... 15 8 2 6 „ 

Flukes, at 1 foot 6 inches „ „ ... 12 16 5 „ 

This diminution of the crop, through reducing the number of the 
sets per acre, is remarkably uniform, and as nearly as possible pro- 
portionate to the distance at which the sets are planted. 

The general tenor of these experiments points to an interval of ten 
or twelve inches in the rows, as being the most profitable distance at 
which to plant large full-sized potatoes, of from four to eight ounces 
in weight. A moderate increase in the net-crop may be expected 
from still further diminishing the distance when the sets are below 
four ounces in weight ; but this point will be again referred to in 
considering 

3. The comparative results obtained from planting equal weights 
of large and small potatoes respectively. 

In the previous series of comparisons (1) the advantage of large 
over small sets, placed at similar distances, was very striking, large 
sets producing a much greater crop than an equal number of small 
sets on the same area, and the crop bearing a very regular pro- 
portion to the weight of the individual sets. We have now to 
ascertain whether by diminishing the distance and increasing the 
number of small sets an equivalent can be obtained for the increased 
individual productiveness of larger sets. 

1 ton 4 cwts. 1 qr. 6 lbs. of sets per acre, planted as — 

Per Acre, 
tons. cwts. qrs. lbs. 



2 oz. sets, 1 foot apart, gave, on a number of experi- 
ments, a net average produce of 

And as 1 oz. sets, 6 inches apart 

Balance in favour of small sets at close intervals of 



!;} " " 



1 7 
13 



2 tons 8 cwts. 2 qrs. 13 lbs. weight of sets per acre, averaging a 
number of experiments, planted — • 

Per Acre, 
tons. cwts. qrs. lbs. 
As 4 oz. sets, 1 foot apart, produced a net return of ... 13 9 2i 
As 3 oz. sets, 6 inches apart 13 10 1 27 



Balance in favour of small seta at close intervals of 
4 tons 17 cwts. 26 lbs. planted — 



As 8 oz. sets, 1 foot apart, produced a neb return of 
As 4 oz. sets, 6 inches apart 



11 2ii 

Per Acre. 

tons. cwts. qrs. lbs. 

18 11 10 

17 3 16 

Balance in favom* of large sets at wide intervals of 1 7 3 11 

3 tons 4 cwts. 3 qrs. 8 lbs. weight of Fluke sets per acre, 
planted — 

Per Acre, 
tons. cwts. qrs. lbs. 
As 8 oz. sets, 1 foot G inches apart, produced a net retm-n of 13 3 9 
As 4 oz. sets, 9 inches apart 13 4 2 6 

Balance in favour of small sets at close intervals of ... 1 1 1 25 
These balances are so small, that they can scarcely be relied on as 
indicating any decided advantage in either direction ; but the nearly 
equal results of the experiments point conclusively to the fact of the 
very regular ratio borne between the weights of the crop and the 
weights per acre of the sets, a ton of sets, whether planted as large 
or small potatoes, producing the same weight of crop per acre. It 
muse, however, be observed that, -practicallij , the principle is only of 
limited application. Taking 1 foot as the maximum, and 6 inches as 
the minimum distance between the sets in the rows, it will be easily 
understood that a weight of small sets, say of 1 or 2 ozs., equiva- 
lent to large sets of 6 or 8 ozs., could not be got into the ground, 
therefore the general principle, that the crop varies as the weight of 
the sets, weight for weight, is not practically applicable where the 
sets differ in weight beyond the proportion of 1 to 2. Small sets, 
therefore, of 1 to 3 ozs., can, under no arrangement, produce as much 
per acre as sets of from 4 to 8 ozs. 

4. As to the relative advantages of cut and whole sets. 
A comparison may be instituted between the average results 
of five experiments with sets formed by dividing large potatoes, 
and five experiments with old potatoes weighing the same as the 
out half sets. 

Cut Potatoes. 

Net Balances, 
tons, cwts. qrs. lbs. 
Flukes 4 ozs., cut out of 8 oz. potatoes, 1 foot apart, I jj 2 23 

produced S 

Flukes 4 ozs., cut out of 8 oz. potatoes, 9 inches apart, \ \± \q ^ 4 

produced S 

Flukes 3 ozs., cut out of 4 oz. potatoes, 1 foot apart, \ -^o 4 21 

produced i 

Flukes 2 ozs., cut out of 4 oz. potatoes, 9 inches apai't, 1 n 13 i 12 

produced S 

Flukes 2 ozs., cut out of 4 oz. potatoes, 6 inches apart, ^ 8 6 2 1 

produced ! S 

Late Red, 2 ozs., cirt out of 4 oz. potatoes, 1 foot apart, ) 93 71 
produced S 

Aggi-egate on six acres of 

Average per aci'e 

Wliole Potatoes. 



Flukes, 4 oz. sets, 1 foot apart, produced 

Flukes, 4 oz. sets, 9 inches apart, produced 

Flukes, 3 oz. sets, 1 foot apart, produced 

Flukes, 3 oz. sets, 9 inches apart, produced 
Flukes, 2 oz. sets, 6 inches apart, produced 
Late Red, 3 oz. sets, 1 foot apart, produced 

Aggregate on six acres of 

Average per acre 13 18 3 11 

Showing an average balance in favour of the out sets over an equal 
weight per acre of whole sets of about 8} cwts. per acre. 
In another instance — 

tons. cwts. qrs. lbs. 
Flukes, 3 oz. sets, cut out of 6 oz. sets, 9 inches apart. 



SO 


4 





5 


13 


7 


1 


10 


Net Balances 




tons 


cwts 


qrs. 


lbs. 


13 


3 


3 


23 


13 


4 


2 


6 


7 


B 





27 


5 


13 


3 


17 


7 


10 


2 


23 


30 


15 


2 


364 


77 


13 





lOi 



14 
13 



8 



And Flutes, 6 oz., uncut, planted 1 foot 6 inches apart 

Showing a net balance in favour of the cut sets of ... 19 1 23 
Both these comparative series indicate a slight advantage in 
favour of the cut sets ; but since the individual experiments do not 
all point in the same direction, the result of the series cannot be 
looked upon as at all decisive; but it rather tends to the con- 
clusion previously indicated, that the iveirjht per acre of the sets 
planted has more to do with the produce of the crop than any other 
circumstance. 

5. As to the influence of thick and thin planting, and of the size 
of the set on the proportion borne between the weight of the 



60 



THE GARDEN. 



[July 20, 1872. 



in 


3 


8 


13 


3 


17 





3 


12 


8 


1 


25 


<i 





7 


2 


1 


23 


fi 


3 


19 





1 


19 


la 


1 


23 


u 


1 


18 



tons. 


cwts 


qrs. 


llK. 


27 


9 


1 


20^ 


24 


4 


2 


24 


15 


13 


() 





U 


IS 


3 


20 


U 


15 


3 


ll.i 


li 


fl 


3 


3 


11 


4 


3 


5 


7 


14 


2 


17 


7 


(> 





3 


7 


4 


1 


20 


fi 


13 


2 


18 


anted 1 foot apar 


J, stand in 


tons. 


cwts 


C|rs. 


lbs. 


37 


18 


3 





30 


19 


3 


12 


26 


8 


2 


23 


25 


10 


2 


5 


22 


1 





21 


13 


l(i 


2 





13 


8 


1 


8 


11 


19 





3 


7 


9 


3 


17 


Flour.ball," 


tUcr 


3 were no 



Bets and their individual produce, and the rate of increase imder 
various conditions. 

This subject presents itself under yet another aspect, which 
interests the physiologist rather than the farmer, viz., the propor- 
tion borne between the weight of the sets and the weight of the 
crop, or, in other words, the rate of increase. This rate, as was 
to be expected, is larger as the sets are smaller and as the 
distance is greater, up to one foot apart, beyond which space no 
l^erceptible change takes place. 

Ou the general average of these experiments — 

The 1 oz. sets increased 14*34 fold 

The2oz. ,, 8-77 ,, 

The4oz. ,, 5-87 „ 

The6oz. ,, 5-81 „ 

ThoSoz. ,, 4-83 „ 

At 1 foot interval, the 1 oz., 2 oz., and 4 oz. sets increased... ir50 ,, 
At 9 inches „ „ „ 964 ,, 

At 6 inches „ ,, „ 7'73 ,, 

The rate of progression was found to be very regular, both in 
individual experiments, and in average results. 

6. As to the relative productiveness of different varieties of the 
Potato. 

To avoid undue complication, tne varieties employed in these 
experiments have been rather limited, and the question of their 
relative productiveness has only been a matter of secondary import- 
ance. As, however, several of the varieties are very generally 
cultivated, it may be well briefly to state the results. 

The average produce of 1 oz., 2oz., and 4 oz. sets planted 1 foot 
apart in the rows was as follows on the gross crop per acre : — 

tons. cwts. qrs. lbs. 

LateEed 27 ' ^ 

Spencer's King of Flukes 19 

Second's Kidne.y 16 

Daintree's Seedling 15 

Queen of Flukes 15 

Floiu--baU 14 

" Vite-lots " (French Kidney) 13 

Flukes 10 

Early Hands-worth 6 

Early Prolific Kidney 4 

The average produce of four scries of experiments, viz., 1 oz. and 
2 oz. planted at 9-inch intervals, and 1 oz. and 2 oz. at 6 inch inter- 
vals, stand in the following order : — 

Late Red 

Spencer's King of Flukes 

Daintree's Seedling 

Flour-ball 

Queen of Flukes 

Second's Kidney 

Lapstnnes 

Early Handsworth 

Flukes 

Lemon Kidney 

Early Prolific Kidney 

The crops produced from 6 oz. sets 
the following order of productiveness : 

Late Red 

Spencer's King of Flukes 

Second's Kidney 

Daintree's Seedling 

Flukes 

Ea,rly Handsworth 

"Vite-lots" (French Kidney) 

Lapstones 

Early Prolific Kidney 

or " The Queen of Flukes " and 
experiments with G oz. sets. 

The relative productiveness of the several varieties grown from 
8 oz. sets, planted at intervals of 12 inches, stand thus ; — 

tons. cwts. qrs. lbs. 

Late Red ... 

!^pencer's King of Flukes 

Queen of Flukes 

Flukes 

Lapstones 

Early Prolific Kidney 

Tlio above four series of comparisons are tolerably uniform, as 
expressing the relative productiveness of the varieties they include. 
The actual order of precedence of some of the individual varieties, 
that do not differ much in their produce, varies a little ; but the 
relative positions are in general uniform; the late red in each set 
of experiments produced the heaviest crop ; and the Early Prolific 
Kidney appears in every case at the bottom of the list. 

Of the three varieties of Fluke, the greater productiveness of 
both Spencer's King and the Queen of Flukes, than that of the 
ordinary variety, is very noticeable ; Spencer's King especially, 
throughout the series, producing from half as much more to twice 
as much as the Common Fluke, not only in the general averages, 
but in all the individual experiments. 

{To he continued.') 



38 


19 


2 


25 


34 





2 


14 


30 


6 


2 


9 


21 


9 


3 


11) 


4 


17 





26 


3 


15 


1 


11 



The Culture of Spinach.- — To Mr. Barnes's admirable article 
on this subject I should like to append a caution about New Zealand 
spinach. (Certainly it is not to be compared for tendei-ness and 
sweetness with the common round spinach, and in some establish, 
ments the New Zealand will not be eaten at all. Where it is liked 
it is, however, a great boon to the gardener, as the warmer and di'ier 
the weather the faster it grows, affording any number of pickings 
without fear of exhaustion or bolting. The spinach Beet is likewise 
an acquired taste, somewhat different from that of common spinach, 
but often preferred, when the taste gets accustomed to it. No one, 
however, need be without spinach all the year round who are careful 
to carry out the full and practical instructions set forth by Mr. Barnes 
at page 40, vol ii. Perhaps no vegetable suffers or gains more in the 
cooking and dressing than spinach, and the reason why it is not 
more popular in small gardens, is doubtless that it is mostly badly 
cooked and served. Perhaps some of the chefs of the kitchen will 
kindly report on a few of the best methods of preparing spinach for 
table. -D. T. F. 

Advertising Cabbage Seeds. — The description which you 
have given in The GJakden (p. 26, vol. ii.) of a French banker betting 
to raise a large sum by liberally advertising cabbage seed of a mam- 
moth-headed variety, has been rivalled in this country. Some thirty- 
six or thirty-seven years ago, a Cesarean cow cabbage was advertised 
to be sent out from a shop in London, at the -modest price of one 
shilling per seed. This cabbage was described as growing to the 
size of a little tree ; and the sale of the seeds, from being advertised 
in all the newspapers of the day, must have brought in a large sum 
to the fortunate vendor. When 1 first came to Welbeck I was sur- 
prised to see thin so-called monstrous cabbage growing in quantities 
in pots in the greenhouse, and my predecessor had likewise struck a 
quantity of cuttings from the plants, on purpose to have as many as 
possible to plant out in the spring, as they were expected to keep a 
large dairy of milk cows in green food in the winter. The result 
was, after all the expense of the seed, and trouble in cultivating the 
plants, that this mammoth cabbage turned out to be the Jersey cow 
cabbage, the sort of the branches of which they make -walking-sticks 
in that island. The demand for this cabbage seed -v\'as so great -«'hen 
it was first advertised that the stock soon got exhausted, and to send 
a few seeds of it in a letter to friends at a distance was considered 
a real service. — Whliam Tillbey. 



Killing Weeds on Walks (see p. 598).— At this place we have about a 
mile of gravel walks which had beeu " hand-picked " for several years; the 
consequence was, the gi-avel never set into a bard even surface, a-nd of course 
was never pleasant to walk upcn. Weeds, too, never grow upon a solid walk 
so plentifully as upon a loose one ; we therefore gave up baud-picking, and 
applied clean agri ultm-al salt for two seasons. The result is, not a weed in a 
hundred yards ; the walks are hard and smooth, and never looked so well 
l)efore. I admit that sometimes the grass at the edges suffers, but this is owing 
to heavy rains dashing the salt on to the grass. This may be remedied by 
taking a fine rosed watering pot and just dissolving the salt with water near the 
edges of the walks. The cost of salt is not near so much as that of hand- 
picking. — David Walkek, Ditiioyhni, Tutjlji-klge Wells. 



PU BLIC G A R D E NS. 

THE CBNTEAL PAEK, NEW YOEK. 
We this week terminate our notices of this noble park, by- 
giving its plan on a very "much reduced scale, in consequence 
of the peculiar shape of the pai'k ; a view of one of the 
transverse roads which pass under the park from one side to 
the other; a plan of one of therocky lawns, which we thought 
such attractive features ; and also one of the chief pieces of 
artificial water, and of the boldly-designed main entrance. 
The transverse roads are particularly worthy of notice as a 
good contrivance to prevent the quiet of the park being 
destroyed by traffic. The many tortuous walks near the lake 
are those of the "Ramble," a densely-wooded and wild 
plantation, full of wild flowers in spring and early summer. 
The want of openness shown in it is the result of design, 
and good design. The fine broad character of one of the 
main entrances and its surroundings will be seen from our 
engraving in another page. 

It is necessary to point out that the formal outlines of 
the great reservoirs vphich snp]ily the city were one of the 
many difficulties which had to be overcome by the designer. 
They as yet disfigure the plan, but the park and its drives 
and walks are so disposed that the reservoirs are not an 
eyesore to the visitor. We trust and believe that this noble 
park is but an example of what e-\'cry great city in America 
will one day possess. 



July 20, 1872.] 



THE GARDEN. 



61 




62 



THE GARDEN. 



[July 20, 1872. 



KEW GAEDENS. 



MR. AYRTON AND DR. HOOKER. 



A LBAENED judge once likened a brother on the bench who was 
remarkable for the rude energy with which he tore through his work, 
to a rhinoceros in a sugar plantation. There would appear to be a 
good deal of the rhinoceros in Mr. Ayrton's style of doing business. 
From the glimpses we get of him in the course of the official contro- 
versies in which he is perpetually embroiled, he would seem to be 
always mshing about madly, tearing up the ground with his horn, 
dashing himself against trees and palisades, and occasionally, by way 
of personal diversion, ripping up some unfortunate man of art or 
science who has got in his way. In the last year or two we have had 
more than one opportunity of seeing the "Noble Savage" on the 
rampage, but the spectacle, though enlivening perhaps for those who 
like these exhibitions of wild fury, is not exactly a pleasant one. It 
is an unequal contest to begin with. The victims chosen for attack 
have clearly no chance in an encounter with their hard-horned, pachy. 
dermatous assailant. They have feelings, and he has none. They are 
poor sensitive creatures who wince under any disparagement of their 
profession as much as under personal insult ; and they are doubly out- 
raged when their art and themselves are simultaneously degraded. It 
may be a nice question why architects, artists, and people of that 
sort should consider themselves gentlemen, and expect to be treated 
as such ; but they have at least been accustomed to this treatment ; 
and the first shock of being addressed in the fashion in which a 
navvy " ganger " usually communicates with his subordinates is apt 
to be too much for them. The Chief Commissioner is protected by 
the consciousness of his own moral superiority against whatever 
remonstrance or reprobation may be excited by his conduct. It is 
true his victims might meet him with his own weapons. They 
might address him in the same style as that in which he 
addresses others ; but even if he were sensitive to this kind of 
retaliation, he is preserved from it by the self-respect of his an- 
tagonists. It would appear that Mr. Ayrton has made it his mission 
to put down artistic and scientific pretensions. He loses no oppor- 
tunity of screwing, brow-beating, and bullying architects, painters, 
sculptors, and gardeners, and making them knowtheir proper places. 
Last year he was running a-muck among the architects. Now it is 
the turn of the gardeners. A curious story is told in a memorial 
which has just been addressed to the First Lord of the Treasury 
complaining of the usage to which Dr. Hooker', the Director of Kew 
Gardens, has been subjected by Mr. Ayrton. It is possible that 
there may be some misapprehension as to the facts of the case, and 
official explanations, when we get them, may throw new light upon 
it. But the statements in the memorial appear to be based on 
official correspondence, and the names which are attached to it, in- 
cluding those of Sir Charles Lyell, Mr. Charles Darwin, Sir James 
Paget, Professors Huxley and Tyndall, and the Presidents of the Royal 
Institution, the College of Physicians, the College of Surgeons, and 
the Geographical and LinuEean Societies, invest it with authority. 
It can scarcely be necessary to remark that one story is good 
until another is told, and that the memorial gives us only one side 
of the controversy between the First Commissioner and Dr. Hooker. 
We have yet to learn what Mr. Ayrton has to say for himself, and 
it is possible that on some of the points which have been raised there 
is room for argument. But the argument must not be allowed to 
take too wide a range. Whether it is or is not desirable that Dr. 
Hooker should exercise supreme and undivided authority over the 
establishments at Kew is a question which may be conveniently post- 
poned. The most Serious part of the accusation against Mr. Ayrton 
is, as it seems to us, not that he superseded Dr. Hooker in some of 
the duties he had previously discharged as director, but that he 
superseded him in a grossly oiiensive and insulting manner, without 
complaint and without notice, so that Dr. Hooker had not only no 
opportunity of justifying himself, but was left to discover his 
supersession casually from one of his own subordinates. We have 
here a simple question of fact, as to which there should be no 
beating about the bush. Either Dr. Hooker was superseded in the 
way he alleges, or he was not. If he was not, he must be the victim 
of an extraordinary hallucination ; if he was, there can only be one 
opinion as to the First Commissioner's conduct. It is intolerable 
that the head of a great public department should be exposed to this 
kind of petty spitefulness and boorish insolence. We hope that 
Mr. Ayrton will be able to refute the charge, but it is impossible not 
to have a painful recollection of other incidents of a too similar kind 
which have distinguished his not very glorious career at the Board of 
Works. We have no desire to re-open the Barry controversy, but it 
will be remembered as a conspicuous example of our Edile's unhappy 
manners, or rather want of manners. There is a kind of surly 
gruffness which in the vulgar mind is apt to be associated with 
honesty, if not deemed an indispensable ingredient of it. Mr. Ayrton 



perhaps aspires to be knovm in history as " Honest Ayrton," and if 
rudeness and honesty are synonymous he may be acknowledged to 
have fairly earned the coveted appellation. It is obvious that a man 
must be of a very superior moral constitution to his fellows 
when he disdains the weak dissimulation of calling a vault a 
crypt, and exercises his ingenuity in inventing impertinent 
answers to the simplest questions which are addressed to him 
on matters of business in the House of Commons. Should the 
statements in the memorial prove to be correct — and, as we 
we have said, nothing can be easier than to ascertain this — it wOl 
be the duty of the House of Commons, if the Government declines 
to take the initiative, to make Mr. Aj'rton understand in some very 
sharp and decisive manner that it is not part of the duty of a 
Parliamentary official to treat the permanent advisers of his depart- 
ment with " personal contumely " and studied insult, and to 
neutralise their efforts by intriguing against them behind their 
backs, and inciting their subordinates to disregard their authority. 
Every one must admire the indomitable austerity and persistent 
insolence of Mr. Ayrton's demeanour, on which the softening 
influences of official life have produced no effect whatever ; but 
perhaps this kind of heroism would be more admirable elsewhere 
than on the Treasury bench. — Saturday- Review. — • — [Lord Derby 
has, we see, given notice that he will bring this matter before the 
House of Lords next Monday.] ' . 



THE INDOOR GARDEN. 



CAPE HEATHS AND THEIR CULTURE. 

A COLLECTION of heaths is always about the last addition that is made 
to any establishment, when they are favoured with a place at all ; 
but it is seldom they are, either in the form of a collection or as an 
addition to the decorative portion of conservatory plants. And yet it 
is not denied that the beauty and loveliness of some of the varieties, 
not to speak of their great usefulness as pot plants and for cutting, 
more than surpasses many of the most popular greenhouse plants 
now in cultivation. An impression exists in the minds of many that 
they aie difficult to manage, and no doubt this is one reason why the 
heath does not enter more largely into the ordinary conservatory 
stock. Where large collections are kept as a matter of convenience, 
they generally receive the special attention they require ; but there is 
nothing at all difficult or particular about their culture to deter anyone 
from growing a few of the best spring and autumn flowering varieties, 
according to their requirements, more than the cineraria, the fuchsia, 
or the chrysanthemum, and many other things that are considered 
indispensable for the conservatory. I shall name a few of the most 
useful kinds ; but those who contemplate adding a collection of 
heaths to their stock would do well to visit some good nursery in 
their neighbourhood at diiierent seasons of the year, but particularly 
in the autumn, winter, and spring months, and select for themselves, 
when the plants are in flower, the varieties likely to suit their 
purpose. Small, useful plants, furnished with flowers, are now to be 
had cheap — cheaper, indeed, than many of the common bedding 
plants and other things that glut the market nowadays. What are 
called soft-wooded heaths are the easiest cultivated, and amongst 
them are to be found the gayest and most useful kinds. Erica 
hyemalis is one of the best knovm and most popular kinds ; it throws 
up its graceful pyramidiil flower spikes in abundance, never fails to 
flower, and with a little management may be had in bloom from 
January to June. Something hke hyemalis, but of a more slender 
habit, and with flowers of a more delicate tint, is E. Willmoreana, 
which should be in every collection. Then there are E. gracilis, 
Cavendishii, colorans, florida, and all the ventricosa class, which are 
not surpassed by any variety for freedom of habit and showiness. 
These are all soft-wooded kinds, and amongst the best of that class, 
and will in themselves afford a display for six months. Of hard, 
wooded varieties, E. aristata, aristata major, Marnockiauii, Aitoniana, 
Aitoniana Tumbullii, ampullacea major, Bowieana, vestita alba, v. 
coccinea, v. rosea, v. elegans, are good and well-known kinds, 
blooming mostly after midsummer and in autumn : but all the hard, 
wooded varieties require more attention than the others, and they 
are more foi'mal in habit, and less accommodating for cutting and 
furnishing, than the others. Therefore, except where a collection is 
the object, we do not counsel anyone to invest largely in them. 

It is, I think, unnecessary to say anything about tho propagation 
of the heath. Amateurs seldom raise their own stock, for it is 
cheaper to buy established plants. Supposing, therefore, that we 
have got a lot of plants in four and five inch pots to begin with, that 
are generally getting out of bloom about the beginning of summer, 
or later, they should, in tho case of such kinds as hyemalis, gracilis. 



July 20, 1872.] 



THE GARDEN. 



63 



Willmoreana, ventrieosa, and all such free-growing kinds, be shorn 
clean over with a pair of shears, clearing away entirely all 
straggling growths, and reducing the plants to something like 
symmetry. If the plants appear pot-bound, they will also require a 
shift at this stage. The best soil for the heath is good pure peat ; 
if it does not naturally contain sand, it should be mixed with about 
one-quarter of its bulk of good silver sand. A pot that will allow 
about half an inch of fresh soil round the ball of the plant will be 
large enough in the case of moderate-sized plants, at least ; and the 
pots must be well drained with an inch or two of clean crocks, 
which must be covered with a layer of moss, to prevent the soil 
working down among them and choking them. In potting, turn 
the plants carefully out of the pot, remove the old crooks, 
clean the surface of the ball, and loosen the matted roots 



The space will serve as a kind of measure, and save repeated 
and frequent waterings, and prevent uncertainty in the matter. 
After the plants have been potted they should be plunged in 
ashes in a cold frame ; there is no place better for them than 
this, and the frame should be set facing the north, and the 
plants must be shaded from the hot sun with a thin shading. 
Care in watering will also be necessary at all times, so that the 
roots are never allowed to get too dry, nor get wet, and liberal 
dewings in the afternoons, during hot weather, will be highly 
beneiicial ; but nothing like shutting up or forcing must be practised 
with them. Shading may be gradually discontinued, and more air 
given, till at the end of two or three weeks the lights may be taken 
off the frame altogether for the season. All soft-wooded heaths 
succeed best in every way when grown out of doors in summer. 




One of the Entrances to the Central Park, New York. 



around the sides carefully with the point of a label. This is an 
operation that must be performed fearlessly if the roots are much 
matted, so as to liberate them entirely. It is of little or no use potting 
a plant in a pot-bound condition, as it will be long before it takes to 
the fresh soil, which will part from the ball years after if taken out 
of the pot, leaving it much in the same condition it was when first 
potted. When the plant is ready for the pot, put as much soil into 
the latter as (when beaten pretty hard) will raise the surface of the 
ball to within from i inch to 2 inches from the rim of pot ; then fill 
in round the sides with the compost, and ram firmly with the broad end 
of a label, as the work proceeds, until the pot is filled up level with 
the surface of the ball. The advantage of keeping the surface of 
the soil an inch or more below the rim of the pot will be discovered 
when the plants have to be watered frequently in dry weather. 



This is a well-established fact, and the frame treatment is only 
recommended for a short while with newly potted plants. The 
plants should be housed some time in September, or before frost 
catches them. They should have the lightest, airiest, and driest 
place in the conservatory, and during winter and spiing they will 
more than repay the attention bestowed upon them. The hard, 
wooded kinds require exactly the same treatment as the soft, 
wooded ones, only that they must not be cut back ; and they succeed 
better when grown indoors all the year round. Mildew is the only 
evil to be feared in the way of parasites, and is very destructive to 
the foliage when it gets the mastery ; but timely dustings with 
flowers of sulphur will always arrest its progress. It is not to be 
feared, however, except in a close and muggy atmosphere. In con. 
elusion, I would state that the clipping over after flowering of the 



64 



THE GARDEN. 



[July 20, 1872. 



soft-wooded heaths, as I have recommended, is not absolutely 
necessary, nor always practised ; but it is the way to secure a well- 
f uniished plant, plenty of bloom, and it saves staking, which should 
never be tolerated except in the case of some of the straggling hard- 
wooded varieties. — J. S. W., in " Field." 



A EBVISION OP THE GENUS DEAOiENA. 

BY DR. REGBL. 
(Concluded from p. 33.) 
Doubtful Species. 
Draetena acuminata (Thbg.) i Dracaena hemichrysa (Thbg.) 

aurantiaea (Wall.) 1 Heyniana (Wall.) 

elliptioa (Thbg.) Jaekiaua (Wall.) 

ensata (Thbg.) juncea (Thbg.) 

gracilis (Wall.) obliqua (Thbg.) 

graminifolia (L.) I 

Species Excluded, and Placed in the Annexed Genera. 
DracEena albicans Veitch Cat. = Cordyline terminalis Knth. var. 

angusta Bull Cat. . . . = ditto 

atropurpurea Roxb. . . = ditto 

australis Forst = Cordyline australis Endl. 

borealis Ait. . . . . = Dianella ensifolia Redoute 

Boscii H. Cels = Agave geminiflora Gawl. 

brasiUensis Hort. . . . = Cordyline Eschscholtziana Itfart. 

Baulvsi Hort = CordyUne Banksi Rgl. 

cahfornica Hort. . . . = Yucca conspieua Haw. 

cannasfolia Hort. . . . = Cordyline cannnaBfolia R. Br. 

Chelsoni Veitch Cat. . . = Cordyline terminalis Knth. var. 

concinna Bull. Cat. . . = ditto 

congesta Sweet . . . . = Cordyline congesta Endl. 

Cooperi Hort = Cordyline terminalis Knth. var. 

Ehrenbergii Hort. . . . = Yucca conspieua Haw. 

ensifolia L = Dianella ensifoha Redoute 

erythrorachis Hort. . . . = Cordyline Banksi Rgl. 

erecta L = Myrsiphyllum erectum Schlech. 

esculenta Hort = Cordyline Eschscholtziana Mart. 

excelsa Bull Cat. . . . = Cordyline terminahs Knth. var. 

ferrea L = ditto 

fiUformis Thbg = Ophiopogon spicatus Gawl. 

filiformis Bory = Cohnia parviflora Knth. 

Frutelmanni Hort. . . . = Yucca conspieua Haw. 

grandis Hort = Cordyline terminahs Knth. var. 

Guilfoylei Veitch Cat. . . = ditto 

hirsuta Thbg — Dianella triandra Afz. 

Hoibrenldana Hort. . . = Cordyline congesta Endl. 

indirisa Hort = Cordyline calocoma Wendl. 

indivisa Porst. . . . . = Cordyline iudivisa Knth. 

indivisa vera Hort. . . . = ditto 

Lenneana = Yucca conspieua Hort. 

limbata Hort = Cordyline terminalis Knth. var. 

longifolia Hort = Cordyline speetabilis Knth. 

Macleayi Veitch Cat. . . = Cordyline terminalis Knth. var. 

mauritiaua WUld. . . . = Cohnia macrophylla Knth. 

mauritiana Lam. . . . = Dianella raauritiana Blume 

medeoloides L = Myrsiphyllum asparagoides Willd. 

Mooreana Veitch Cat. and 

Illustr. Hort. t. 532. . = Cordyline terminalis Knth. var. 

nigro-rubra Veitch Cat. . = ditto 

nigrescens Hort. . . . = ditto 

nobilis Hort = Cordyline nobilis C. Koch. 

obtecta Grab = Cordyline australis Endl. 

paniculata h. Berol. . . = Cordyline congesta Endl. 

parviflora Willd. . . . = Dasylu'ion Humboldtii Knth. 

pendula Hort = CordyUne termiuaUs Knth. var. 

pulchella Bull Cat. . . . = ditto 

Regina Veitch . . . . = Cordyline Regina Veitch 

sealandica Hoibr. . . . = Cordyline congesta Endl. 

siamensis Hort = Cordyline terminaUs Knth . var. 

speetabilis Bull Cat. . . = ditto 

speetabilis Hort. . . . = Cordyline congesta Endl. 

striata h = Myi'siphyllum striatum Schlech. 

stricta Sims = Cordyline stricta Endl. 

stricta H. Van Houttei . = Cordyline terminalis Knth. var. 

stricta H. Berol. . . . = CordyUne spectabUis Knth. 

terminalis L = CordyUne terminaUs Knth. 

termmalis Lindl. . . . = Cordyline Eschscholtziana Mart. 

imdulata, L = MyrsiphyUum undulatum Schlech. 

Veitehii Hort = Cordyline calocoma Wendl. 

volubilis L = Myrsiphyllum angustifolium Willd. 

Fuchsia Avalanche.— Two doublo-flowering Fuchsias bear this name— 
the one having a carmine tube and sepiils and a dark pUim-vioIet corolla ; the 
other having a bright scarlet tube and sepals and a white corolla. Of the first 
of these some capital Bpeciracns may l)e seen at the gardens of the Royal Horti- 
cnlt>ural Society, at Chiswick ; the foliage has quite a yellow tint, and the habit 
of the plant is very elegant, the branches droopintr gracofnlly — this characteristic, 
in all proljability suggested the name " avalanche." The flowers are very large 
and of fine form, and, whether used as an exhibition plant or for the purposes 
of house decoration, it cannot fail to be much regarded. It appears, also, to be a 
good free-blooming vriety.— R. D. 



THE HOUSEHOLD. 



THE HEDGEHOG (OR SPINE-BEAEING) MUSHEOOM. 
(hydnum kepandum.) 

There is no possibility of mistaking this mushroom : when 
once seen it is always to be remembered. Its awl-shaped 
spines are crowded beneath the pilaus ; its size and colour 
are most marked ; it resembles closely a lightly-baked 
cracknel biscuit in colour. " This fungus," says Badham, "oc- 
curs principally in woods, and especially in those of pine and 
oak ; sometimes solitary, but more frecjuontly in company and 
in rings." 

Pileus smooth, irregular in shape, depressed in centre, more 
or less lobed, and generally placed irregularly on the stem 




QQ 

Spine-bearing Mushroom (Hydnum repandum). Woods, autumn; 
colour, pale buff ; diameter, 2 to 5 inches. 

(eccentric) ; of a pale buff or cinnamon colour ; from two to 
five inches in diameter. Flesh firm and white ; when bruised 
it turns slightly brown. Spines crowded, awl-shaped, slanting, 
soft, and brittle, varying in size and length, and of a faint 
cinnamon tint. Stem white, short, solid, crooked, and often 
lateral. 

Opinions on the Merits of Hydnum repandum as an 
Edible Fungus. 

" When well stewed it is an excellent dish, with a slight 
flavour of oysters. It makes also a very good puree." — Br. 
Badham. 

" A most excellent fungus, but it rec[uires a little caution in 
preparation for the table. It should be previously steeped in 
hot water and well drained in a cloth ; in which case there is 
certainly not a more excellent fungus." — Berhelcy. 

" A wholesome fungris and not to be despised ; but not in 
the first class as to flavoirr, requiring the help of condiments. 
It has the advantage, however, of growing later than most 
funguses, and may be found up to the middle of November." 
— Edwin Lees. 

" One of the most excellent fungi that grows ; its flavour 
very strongly resembles oysters." — Bev. W. Houghton. 
Modes of Coohing Hydnum repandum. 

The hedgehog mushroom is dense in structure, and in 
whatever way it may be cooked, all authorities agree that it 
must be done slowly at a low temperature until it is tender, 
and with plenty of stock or white sauce to supply its deficiency 
in moisture. 

Hfi'wed Hydiiuvi: — "Cut the mushroom in pieces and steep 
for twenty minutes in warm water; then place in a pan with 
butter, popper, salt, and parsley ; add beef or other gi'avy, 
and simmer for an hour." — Trans, from M. Boques. 

" Stew in a brown or white sauce." — Jl/rs. Hussey. 

" Cut up in bits about the size of a bean, and stew in white 
sauce, when it will almost pass off as oyster sauce." — Bev. W. 
Houghton, F.L.8. 



July 20, 1872.] 



THE GARDEN. 



65 



HARDY PLANTS IN FLOWER BOUND LONDON. 

(From July 11th to July 17th, inclusive.) 

by our own reporters. 



micropbylla 
AcautlioUmon 

veniistum 
Alstra?racria 

Pelegriua 

tricolor 
Alyssum 

dentatum 
Ajnberboa 

muricata 
Aiuellus 

auuuus 
Andi'osace 

lauuginosa 
Aster 

blaudus 

corymb OS us 

pateus 

prtocox 

rigidxis 
Barkbausia 

rubra 
Calluna 

%'ulgaris 
CampanirUx 

Loreyi 

primuUttEolia 
Cannabis 

sativa 
Cii'siuni 

canum 
Clematis 

aogastifoUa 
CoUomia 

cocciuea 

linearis 
Convolvalus 

Soldanella 
Commelina 

CEelestis 
Coreopsis 

corouata 

diversifoUa 
Cynoglossxim 

Heynii 

officinale 
Cytisns 

heteropbi-llus 
Datisca 

cannabina 
Delphiniiim 

Stapbysagria 



Dianlbus 

superb us 
Diascia 

macr opbylla 
Donia 

serrulata 
Ecbinops 

sphcorocepba- 
lus 
Ecbium 

vulgare 
Epilobium 

hirsutum 
Epipactis 

l)alustris 
Eryngium 

Bourgati 

campcstre 

plauuni 
Erysimum. 

arkausanum 

PerofFskiauum 
Gilia 

dianthoides 
Gladiolus 

Saundersii 
Griudclia 

hii'suta 
Helicbrysiim 

rhytidolepis 
Hemerocallis 

Thunbergii 

undulatipetala 
Hypericum 

nummuHxrium. 

tom.entosura. 
Kaulfussia 

amelloides 
Latbyi'us 

tulierosus 
Lavatera 

trimestris 
Leptosipbon 

roseus 
LiUum 

canadense 

testaceum 
Linaria 

bipai-tita 

dalmatica 

italica 

repens 

sasatilis 



Linaria 

villosa 
Lysiniacbia 

Epbemerum 
Lytbi'um 

alatum. 

virgatum 
Magnolia 

grandi flora 
Malope 

trifida 
Malva 

Tournefortiana 
Matthiola 

tricuspidata 
ilicbauxia 

campanuloides 
Micromeria 

Juliana 
Monarda 

purpurea 
CEuotbera 

niissourieusis 

stricta 
nonis 

aracbnoidea 
Papaver 

nudicaule 
Pas c alia 

glauca 
Pblomis 

pungens 
Physostegia 

imbricata 
Prenantbes 

equitans 

vimineus 
Primula 

auric ulata 

minuna 
Prunella 

penasylvanica 
Rudbeckia 

digitata 
Sambucus 

canadensis 
Saponaria 

officinalis 
Scabiosa 

parnassiaj 

Wcbbiana 
Scutellaria 

altaica 



Scutellaria 

serrata 
Securigera 

securidaca 
Seduni 

Anacampseros 

hybridum 

kamtscbaticum 

sexfidnm 
Sempervivum 

glaucum 

Pittonii 
Senecio 

adonidifolia 

Doria 
Seseli 

elatum 
SUaus 

tenuifolius 
Solidago 

arguta 

patula 
Spii'tca 

canescens 
Statice 

auricula; folia 

caspica 

in can a 

Limonium, 

reticulata 

speciosa 
Tbynius 

angustifolius 

tburiferus 

zygis 
Tradescantia 

stricta 

subaspera 

undata 
Verbascum 

nigrum 
Yei'onica 
_incisa 
" virginica 
Villarsia 

nyniphosoides 
Vincetoxicum. 

japonicuni 

officinale 
Xerantbemum 

annuum 
Yucca 

fllamentosa 



Plants in tbis list are almost vritbout exception such as bave come into 
bloom during tbe past week. 



NOTES OP THE WEEK. 



• A BEAUTIFULLY variegated form of Sibthorpia enropsea has been 

found in Scotland, and will shortly be sent out from a London 
nursery. It is quite a gem in its way. 

• Conspicuous among herbaceous plants in flower round 

London at the present time, may be noticed dense masses of the fine 
Alstrcemeria aurea, which is flowering very freely this season. It is 
a plant that should be in aU collections of hardy border plants. 

. The fruit of ten orchards in Clydesdale was sold in Glasgow 

a few days ago, and brought £611, as compared with £326 realised 
for the same orchards last year. So that in that district at least we 
may presume there has not been such marked destruction from late 
frosts as in the southern parts of the country. 

O.VE of the most beautiful of the outlying portions of 

Wimbledon Common is doomed. " CaDsar's Camp" has been sold 
for building purposes ; a fence has been already erected halfway 
across it, and there is every prospect of " eligible villa residences " 
being seen there in a few months, unless some action be taken 
with a view to securing it to the public. 

Much excitement prevails in Penzance, and the districts of 

West Cornwall which supply the metropolitan and midland markets 
with early vegetables, in consequence of a demand by the Vicar of 
Gulvul for a re-valuation of the tithe rent-charge in his parish, on the 
ground that agricultural land has been converted into market 
gardens since the tithe commutation. The legality of his application 
for a new assessment is disputed, and will probably have to be settled 
at law ; but it is strongly urged that if it should be established. 
Parliament should be invoked to prevent — subject to the vested 
interests of existing incumbents — the interference with the develop- 
ment of the use of land which would arise from the possible repetition 
of similar claims. 



Gkeen apkicots, about'the size of glass marbles, sell, it is 

reported, in the market at the African diamond fields for eight 
shillings per hundred. 

The beautiful sheet of water and waterfall at Astle Park, 

Chelford, Cheshire, last week, were entirely swept away by a flood, 
the foundations having been previously injured by a storm of the 
19 th Jun?. 

AcANTHOLijtoN VENUSTU.M, a rare plant of the Thrift family, 

is at present in flower in the Royal Gardens at Kew. It produces a 
longer spike of bloom than the well-known A. glumaceum, and has 
flowers of a deeper shade of rose. 

Ox Saturday afternoon last the Marquis and Marchioness of 

Westminster entertained about 800 guests at a garden fete in the 
beautiful grounds at Cliveden, near Maidenhead, upon the occasion 
of the twentieth anniversary of their wedding-day. 

The beautiful Himalayan Cyananthus lobatus is now in 

flower at the Exotic ^furseries, Tooting ; where also may be seen 
blooming the rare Hypericum nummularium, a dwarf species about 
three inches high, which produces a profusion of yellow flowers. 

The cotton plants in the hothouse near the entrance to the 

International Exhibition from Prince Albert Road, are ripening 
their seeds, and disclose the fleecy pods of cotton, which are the suc- 
cessors to the yellow flowers of the plant ; and the growth of some 
twenty Egyptian, American, and Indian varieties may be examined. 

NoiiTHUsrEEiiLAND HOUSE is about to come down, and a new 

street from Charing Cross to the Thames Embankment is to take its 
place. This certainly will be an improvement, and one long needed. 
In pur\3hasing the privilege of removing this structure, the Metro- 
politan Board of Works will have to hand over to the Duke of 
Northumberland the sum of £489,500.; 

At Messrs. Veitch's nursery at Chelsea, the beautiful Clian. 

thus Dampieri, planted out on a piece of rookwork in the open air, 
is in a most flourishing condition, and producing flower-spikes freely. 
This plant treated as a tender annual, and planted out in the end of 
June, is one of the finest objects imaginable, though seldom seen 
growing out of doors in England. 

AitONG the most beautiful plants in Covent Garden now are 

neat specimens of Rhodanthe Manglesii, which, we are glad to see, has 
become very popular as a market plant this season. The plants in 
Covent Garden are from spring-sown seeds ; but the best way to 
raise fine specimens is to sow in August or September, and to grow 
the plants on through the winter in a cool airy house. 

The Epping Forest Commissioners met the other day 

and immediately afterwards proceeded to perambulate the bounda- 
ries of such portions of the unenclosed waste lands and inclosures 
as are within, or in the vicinity of, the manors of Epping, Nazing, 
and Theydon Bois. This perambulation was made for the purposes 
of the Epping Forest Act of 1871. 

The orchards in Surrey and adjoining counties present an 

unfavourable appearance this summer. Many apple trees are quite 
without fruit, and others will produce a short crop. Pears make a 
better show, although the crops are partial. Currants are scarce, 
especially red and white. Damson trees at present look promising 
for a yield of fruit, and there is a good show of nuts and filberts. 

On Monday last the Society for Promoting the Culture of 

Flowers among the Poor of Lambeth, of which the Archbishop of 
Canterbury is president, held its second annual flower show in the 
grounds of Lambeth Palace. The show was a great advance uijon 
its predecessor, and the various districts of St. Philip, St. Mary, St. 
Mary-the-Less, St. Anne, and St. Peter's, Vauxhall, were well re- 
presented. The Archbishop visited the show during the day, and 
expressed his approbation. In the evening the prizes were dis- 
tributed by Mrs. Tate. The gardens adjoining the Palace were also 
thrown open, and enlivened by means of a band of music. 

There is now in flower at Slough, round about and over the 

top of a little cottage-door, a mass of a large, bright purple-flowered 
Clematis (C. Jackmanni), which forms a display as gorgeous as any 
that the gardens, or even the hothouses, of the wealthy can show. 
The flowers, many of them four inches across, are so profuse, and 
form such a mass of dazzling purple, that the plant is distinguishable 
two or three hundred yards off. Going by the down train, the cottage 
is in the first road to the left on leaving the station. It is worth a 
flower-lover's express pilgrimage to Slough, to have the privilege of 
looking at it for five minutes, and then returning ; just as the enthu- 
siastic Spaniard, in the reign of Augustus, travelled to Rome only to 
look upon the great historian Livy, and having seen him went 
straight back to Spain, without giving a passing thought to other 
matters, not even to the splendours of the splendid capital of the 
world. 



66 



THE GARDEN. 



[July 20, 1872. 



GARDENING BOUND LONDON. 

(dtiring the present week.) 

by oue. special- reporter. 

PEIVATE GARDENS. 

Indoor Plant Department. — Conservatories are now gay 
with Balsams, which are liberally supplied with manure-water ; in 
order to secure a succession of blooming plants, some have all their 
jBower-buds removed until about four to sis weeks before they are 
required for use. Tonng Fuchsias now play an important part in 
these structures, as do also older plants of them trained to rafters in 
the form of climbers, which, if well attended to, as regards thinning 
and watering, their blooming season will be considerably prolonged. 
It is considered a bad practice to thin out too much of the wood at 
any one time ; on the contrary, they should be gone over frequently, 
and as they always emit flower-buds at the joints as they advance in 
growth, .shoots that attain too great a length are removed, giving 
such as remain a better chance to furnish fine flowers. Pelargoniums 
■ are now mostly done flowering, with the exception of zonal kinds, 
which are encouraged. Several annuals, from April and May 
sowings, are now in full bloom ; others are coming on, and a 
few are being sown for later use. Coleuses are at present very 
effective ; these are always best when produced from early spring 
cuttings ; a few old plants only are retained through the vrinter, 
in order to furnish cuttings late in February and March. Cole- 
uses, when bushy and well-gro^^^l, make charming vase plants, 
edged with Tropjeolums, ivy-leaved Geraniums, .3<)schynanthuses, 
Hoyas, Convolvulus mam'itanicns, variegated Panicum, &c. 
Amongst the best kinds of Coleus are Queen Victoria, Duke of 
Edinburgh, Princess Royal, Marshallii, Bausii, Prince Arthur, Beauty 
of St. John's Wood, Golden Gem, Hector, Wilsonii, Reevesii, and 
Telfordii aureus. Plumbago capensis is at present one of our finest 
greenhouse plants, both in the form of a specimen, and as a climber. 
Camellias planted in borders are daily syringed in warm weather. In 
order to give a little floral relief, pots of Japan Lilies, such as 
speciosum, roseum, and punctatum, are placed here and there 
among the Acacias, Camellias, &o., with excellent effect. These 
Lilies are top-dressed with rough lumpy loam and manure. 
Lilies in pots that have done blooming are laid on their sides against 
a wall or fence, in such a manner as to prevent rain from reaching 
them. Specimen Azaleas should, if possible, have a house to themselves, 
in which they can be placed near the glass. Hard-wooded greenhouse 
plants, such as Heaths, Epacrises, and many others, are now set out 
of doors on beds of ashes, and are carefully watered; the ground 
about them is also well saturated at least twice a day in bright weather. 
In stoves, AUamandas, Bougainvilleas, Clerodendrons, and Stephanotis 
are blooming freely, and when allowed to ramble over a trelhs on 
the roof they have a much finer appearance than when trained on 
pot trellises, as seen at exhibitions. Stoves at this season are not 
generally very gay, the principal flowering plants in them being 
Ixoras, Gloxinias, Gloriosas, Gesneras, Strelitzias, and a few others. 
Marantas growing freely, if likely to become pot-bound, should be 
again^ repotted ; plants of Cyanophyllum magnificum when growing 
freely, are likewise shifted a second time, using for the purpose good 
yellow loam, a little peat, decayed hot-bed manure, and white sand. 
Caladiums are being tied and trained rather openly, so as to permit 
of the free development of the young leaves. Sonerilas, Bertolonias, 
and similar fine-leaved plants are much more highly coloured when 
grown under bell-glasses perforated at the top, and otherwise treated 
like Aneectochiluses, than when grown in pots unprotected. As 
regards Orchids, Cypripediums, Odontoglossums, Oncidiums, and 
Stanhopeas, continue to afford occasional spikes of bloom. Lselias, 
Cattleyas, &c., are not allowed to get too damp. Air is freely 
admitted to the cool houses, and any plants growing freely, if neces- 
sary are top-dressed or repotted. 

Flo-wev Garden and Shrubbery. — Pruning of hedges, and 
also the shortening in of straggling branches of evergreens, are still 
being proceeded with. In the case of contending leaders, one is 
removed. The principal work in the flower garden now consists in 
hoeing, raking, and mowing and rolling. Verbenas and Petunias 
are being pegged down in such a way as to cover the ground. At 
the base of Calceolarias, little basins are formed for the retention 
of water, which is liberally given in the evenings. In what is 
commonly known as " cai-pet bedding," i.e., bods composed of golden 
Feverfew, Altemantheras, Antennarias, and similar dwarf -growing 
plants, the pattern or designs are accurately preseiwed by removing 
any branchlets or leaves likely to obliterate or otherwise impair 
their shape. Hollyhocks from spring seedlings are again trans- 
planted into deeply-worked, well-manured borders, such'as those now 
empty by the removal of early Cauliflowers, Potatoes, or other 
vegetables. Cuttings of Tea and China Roses are inserted in wall 



borders, and are covered with hand-lights. Budding of Roses is 
likewise being carried on. Wallflowers, such as Marshallii and some 
of the double sorts, are being increased by means of cuttings 
inserted in wall borders, prepared with a good dressing of leaf- 
monld and sand. 

Indoor Fruit Department. — In early pineries, in which the 
fruit has been cut, the plunging or fermenting material is being 
tmned out, and the pits thoroughly cleansed and lime-washed. 
Suckers are being firmly potted into six-inch pots, using for them 
fibry loam and a little charcoal ; after being potted they are either 
plunged in front of late succession plants or in separate beds, and 
shaded for a short time during bright sunshine. Vines swelling fruit 
are allowed abundance of moisture, both at the root and in the 
atmosphere. Late vine borders receive good soakings of manirre 
water, either from the farmyard or the cesspool, occasionally ; im- 
mediately after the manure water has been applied, another soaking 
of pure water is given, in order to dilute the first application, and to 
wash it down. Figs are now producing a second crop, and in every 
instance this crop seems unexceptionally fine. They are allowed 
abundance of moisture at the root, overhead, and in the atmosphere. 
Stimulants are not often applied to Figs in the way of manure 
water, but a mulching of good fibry loam and rotten manure they 
thoroughly enjoy. Peach and Nectarine trees done fruiting are well 
syringed and supplied with water ; they are also freely exposed to 
the air. Melons done fruiting are either thrown away and replaced 
by young ones, or cut back and encouraged to start anew; but 
young plants are best. 

Hardy Fruit and Kitchen Garden.— Fruit trees on walls 
have their shoots gradually reduced, and those that are left tied in. 
In the case of Pears, Apples, Plums, and Cherries, where several 
shoots spring from one spur, they are all removed, except one or two, 
which are shortened back to within six inches or so of the base. 
This is not the case, however, with Morello Cherries, which always 
bear their fruit on the young wood, which is therefore preserved as 
much as possible, removing only weak and worthless shoots. Tonng 
Peach and Nectarine trees in pots, and also Figs, are now plunged out- 
doors in warm sunny positions ; their pots are not covered over, but 
they are kept so that they can receive abundance of water. Plums 
in pots are treated in a similar way, and besides those not bearing 
fruit, those that are yielding a crop, are also turned out, with a view 
to improve the fruit. Strawberry runners for forcing are being 
pegged into three-inch pots sunk in the soil ; they are stopped at 
the joint beyond that to be taken off. Runners for new plantations 
are also stopped when two or three of the joints have struck root. 
Rows of Peas are being staked and earthed up. The main winter 
crop of Turnips is thinned, and a successional crop of Radishes is 
being sown. A few early Kidney Potatoes are being planted, in order 
to have some young ones in early winter. Potato Onions are taken 
up and dried. A few Early Horn Carrots are being sown for draw- 
ing young. Of Purslane, a late crop is being sown. Salsafy and 
Scorzonera are being thinned, and their flower spikes removed. Of 
early Cabbages, a few are being sown for autumn planting, and in late 
localities the main crop is being sown. Savoys, Brussels Sprouts, 
and white and Sprouting Broccoli, are being earthed up, and all 
spaces that are empty, are being planted, giving them at the same 
time a good watering. Lettuces are being transplanted as required, 
and small salads are sown frequently. Vegetable Marrows are 
abundantly watered, and the shoots as they advance in growth are . 
pegged dovro, so as to cause them to root at the joints. 



NURSERIES. 
Indoor Department. — Stove and greenhouse plants are now 
making good growth, and such as are forward enough, are encouraged 
to ripen their young wood by placing them in cooler and more airy 
quarters. Toung plants of AUamandas, Dipladenias, Bougainvilleas, 
Jasminums, Thunbergias, Ipomceas, Passifloras, and others are being 
repotted, using for the purpose, good rough loam, leaf mould, and a 
little white sand ; to the AUamandas and Jasminums some add a 
little peat. After being potted they are tied to stakes, placed rather 
closely together in a house or pit, and kept a little close for a time. 
Young Rhododendrons and Azaleas are being top-dressed, removing 
Jialf an inch of the surface mould, then dusting on a little of Stand- 
ing's manure, afterwards filling up with good peat and white sand ; 
some firms mix a little of the manure with the mould, whilst others 
just sprinkle a dusting between the old and new soils. Young plants 
of Lapagei'ia rosea are also similarly treated. Callioarpa purpurea 
is being repotted, using two parts peat, one loam, and a good 
admixture of sand. Young plants of Vitis antarctica are also beiag 
repotted ; this is one of the best vines for town conservatories. 
Begonias are set very thickly on shelves, and such sorts as Wel- 
touiensis, spathulata, hybrida floribunda, and Sanndereii are gently 



July 20, 1872.] 



THE GAEDEN. 



67 



syringed twice every warm day. Some are being forwarded for 
blooming, whilst others are j uat cut over so as to induce them to come 
in in succession. The herbaceous kinds, such as B.Boliviensis, inter- 
media, Sedenii, &c., are placed on inverted pots near the glass, and 
are liberally encouraged to make growth ; they are also being 
increased by means of cuttings. Bouvardias are well pinched, and kept 
iu an intermediate house, where they are starting freely. Cyclamens 
ai-e arranged together quite closely on shelved near the glass in cool 
houses ; thesy are not kept quite dry, but receive regularly alittle water, 
so as to preserve the bulbs from shrivelling. Dracajuas are being cut 
down, and the stems cut into pieces , from two to eight or nine inches iu 
length, which are inserted in the cocoa-nut fibre, and, as young shoots 
spring from the individual eyes, they are taken oS singly with a 
heel, and treated as cuttings. Pandauuses are increased by means 
of the shoots that issue from the base of the large plants ; these are 
taken off with a heel, and are inserted in the plunging material until 
they begin to push out rootlets, when they are taken out and potted 
singly. From incisions formed on stems of P. Veitchii, that had 
been thus sti'ipped about two months ago, another progeny even more 
numerous than that previously taken off, is being produced. Ficuses 
are being increased by cuttings ; the stronger-growing kinds are 
allowed to remain exposed for some time prior to being inserted, 
so as to dry up the milky matter which they contain. The small- 
leaved climbing kinds are being propagated from shoots cut up into 
pieces about six or eight inches long ; they are inserted iu peat and 
sand under hand-lights or frames in pits. 



MAHKET GARDENS. 

The principal work in these now consists in stin-ing the surface of 
the soil about growing crops, and in gathering fruit. The principal 
crops at present ready for market are Cauliflowers, Cabbages, Peas, 
Broad and French Beans, Potatoes, Onions, Carrots, Vegetable 
Marrows, Cucumbers, Globe Artichokes, &c. Cucumbers are pro- 
ducing good crops now, and are assisted by applications of manure 
water. In many cases guano-water is given them in preference to 
any other, as it is not only highly manurial, but is also believed to 
be a preventive of red spider. As much as two shillings a dozen is 
often paid for toads to place in Cucumber frames, in order to keep 
down wood-lice. Vegetable Marrows are producing abundantly; 
intervening crops are removed, and the ground mulched. Custard 
Marrows, which are slower growers than the common sorts, are now 
also bearing freely. Tomatoes ai-e now receiving close attention iu 
the way of watering, for the retention of which drills are drawn to 
each side of the plants; they are also mulched with short dung. 
This crop is being deprived of all suckers and lateral shoots, pre- 
serving only the main stem, or at most only such wood as is bearing 
good clustei'S of flowex's or fruit. They are gone over every few 
days, thinned, and tied, the latter operation being performed so 
as to place them on the sunny side of the stakes. French Beans 
have begun to bear a fair crop. They are commonly grown in 
single lines from two and a half to three feet apart ; between every 
alternate line is a row of Lettuces. The last sowing has just come 
up, and the ground about them is being loosened. Among Onions 
there is as yet little appearance of canker. Indeed, root crops 
in general look well. Cauliflower ground that has become vacant 
is now hoed, and afterwards loosened with a fork,. but not turned 
over ; by simply loosening the soil a little, what is under the 
surface is not so apt to become dry. The ground, after being 
loosened, is planted with Coleworts, about fourteen or fifteen 
inches apart each way. Good-sized plants are used for this 
purpose, as they do not yield so soon to the influence of 
drought. The first planted-out Celery is growing apace, and being 
in drills about sis feet asunder, the sides of the ridges are broken 
with the hoe, so that a little of the soil may fall round the crowns. 
On the ridges, or rather curved spaces elevated to about six or eight 
inches in the middle, are planted Lettuces or Coleworts for winter 
use. The Celery receives a good deluge of water now and then, and 
if convenient a little manure water is likewise given to it. To Snow's 
Winter White Broccoli a little earth is being drawn ; this is the kind 
that furnishes the early winter supply. Brussels Sprouts that were 
planted between lines of Potatoes, are now growing rapidly, and even 
where the Potatoes have not been lifted, the haulm has sufficiently 
drooped to be no obstacle to their growth. Ground that has been 
occupied by the second and third crops of Lettuces, is again planted 
with a line of Savoys, and one of Lettuces alternately, the rows 
being about fourteen or fifteen inches apart. Gherkins are progressing 
favourably. Superfluous young wood on fruit trees on walls is being 
removed. Useless and unproductive old fruit bushes are uprooted 
and burned as soon as the fruit they have borne has been cleared off. 
Frames, hand-Ughts, &c., for next season's work are being painted, 
and otherwise repaired. 



PROMENADE AT THE HOETICULTURAL GARDENS. 

Ghostliness, says the Morning Advertise); was the prevailing 
characteristic of the entertainment at the Horticultural Gardens on 
Friday evening. Seldom has anything been witnessed more original 
or more weird. Invitations had been issued for a "promenade," 
and when about nine o'clock we presented ourselves the promenade 
was in full swing, if the term may be used as applying to that in 
which there was not the slightest movement or animation. At that 
hour the gardens were as " gardens in a dream," full of shadows and 
dim, unreal forms, the whole revealed by the light of a crescent moou, 
and of a western sky in which long streaks of clouds were changing 
from purple to black, intersected by a fringe of poplars, as in some one 
of the gloomiest of Pre-Eaphaelite pictures. Here and there, dotted over 
the grounds, were spectral forms — lovers chiefly, it is devoutedly to be 
hoped — some in morning, some in evening costume, all silent, 
lugubrious, and reflective. It was a scene and a time for pro- 
fouudest melancholy — a time for the writing of odes to the moon 
and stanzas to Chloe. Unfortunately, people had assembled with 
a view to its being a time for enjoyment. Of that we, for ourselves, 
failed to discover the faintest traces. There was no attempt at 
illumination. Even the conservatory was like a tomb, wherein one's 
footsteps echoed as the footsteps of a ghoul. Only one faintly, 
glimmering spot relieved the pervading gloom. In a dim corner, 
under a faint cluster of lights, the band of the Horse Guards Blue, 
huddling together in a faint attempt to decipher their notes, worried 
through the overture to " Semiramide " — a charming production, but 
not altogether of the newest or most exhilarating, and scarcely 
repaying us, as one of an assembled hundred or so, for our wasted 
evening. 

It was understood that this " promenade " was an experiment. 
Let us rejoice, then, in the reflection that, as an experiment, its 
failure was utter and complete. It was not attended with even a 
gleam of redeeming success. Except to those " full fathoms five," 
and a trifle lower, in love, to whom it offered an opportunity for 
unlimited "spooning," it was dreai'y and depressing to the last degree. 
Only one thing was wanting to complete our misery. It should have 
taken place on the preceding evening, when the thunderstorm was 
raging, so that the guests might have huddled together in the dark 
conservatory, gazing terror-stricken into each other's faces as they 
were revealed by the lurid flashes of lightning. That would have 
been a trifle more depressing ; or perhaps not, for there would have 
been the danger and consequent excitement, and these emotions 
would have saved us from the utter depression and inanity of the 
actual experimental promenade. 



BOILER TRIALS AT BIRMINGHAM. 

AWAHDS OP THE JUDGES. 

These trials did not terminate until Saturday week, and it is con- 
sequently only within the last few days that the judges — Mr. H. T. 
Hassall, Mr. Walter May, and Mr. Edward Bennett — have given 
their decisions, delay having been occasioned by the tedious nature 
of the investigations they were called upon to make. The modus 
operandi adopted by them may be thus stated : — One thousand feet 
of four-inch piping were ranged in four sections, at an elevation of 
several feet from the ground, and connected at one end by transverse 
piping, to which branches were attached. Parallel with this trans- 
verse piping were the various boilers, each of which in its turn was 
connected by a branch with the transverse piping; but in those 
cases where the capacity of a boiler was set down in the certificate 
of entry as being only five hundred feet, one half the entire quantity 
of piping was shut off by means of a valve. Access to the heated 
water was gained by the insertion, at the outer end of each range 
of piping, of vertical wrought-irou tubes, down which highly 
sensitive "standard" thermometers, supplied by Messrs. Joseph 
Davis & Co., Polytechnic Institution, Regent Stx-eet, were passed. 
The following are the awards : — The gold medal to Messrs. Hartley 
& Sugden, of the Atlas Works, Halifax, for their welded wrought- 
irou chambered saddle boiler, with extended water way. A silver 
medal to Mr. Benjamin Harlow, Macclesfield, Cheshire, for the best 
tubular boiler and connections in competition. A silver medal to 
Mr. Benjamin Harlow, for his improvement in joining hot-water 
pipes. A silver medal to Messrs. Jones & Rowe, Worcester, for 
" The Witley Court Boiler," as the best on exhibition without trial. 
A bronze medal to Mr. Frederick John Mee, Liverpool, for com. 
bination of hollow wrought-iron bars, dead plate, and back, for 
attachment to existing saddle boilers. A bronze medal to Mr. S. 
Deard, Harlow, Essex, for his small "Amateur's Heating Apparatus." 
In the communication setting forth these decisions, the judges 
observe that the trials of the boilers were conducted under great 



68 



THE GAEDEN. 



[JutY 20, 18?2. 



disadvantages as regards weather — a circumstance wMoh has 
rendered it very difficult to arrive at satisfactory conclusions ; but 
as some of the boilers were tried more than once, all have been 
dealt justly by. They consider that in any future trials it will be 
necessary to house the pipes in some manner to obviate the 
difBculties caused by variations of temperature and wet weather. 
They also recommend that the conditions to be complied with by 
exhibitors should be more precisely and fully laid down. 



SOCIETIES, EXHIBITIONS, &C. 

CEYSTAL PALACE ROSE SHOW. 

(July 13th.) 

Tnis was a good show, and, as usual, very attractive. Beside Koses there 
were Mr. Peacock's gi'oup of Succulents ; a miscellaneous collection of stove 
and greenhouse plants, from Mr. J. H. Ley of Croydon ; a few stands 
of Carnations, Pieotees, Verbenas, and double Pelargoniuiu blooms, and 
some table-decorations. Roses in the nm'serymen's collections were 
excellent, and those from amateurs were also good. The principal 
exhibitors were Messrs. Paul & Son, Mr. C. Turner, Messrs. Veitch, Mr. 
B. R. Cant, and Mr. Keynes. Amongst the dark-red Roses, the best 
were Louis Van Houtto, Camillo de Rohan, Alfred Colomb, Duke of 
Wellington, Pierre Notting, Chaiios Lefebvre, Triomphe de Paris, and 
some others. To S. Reynolds Hole, a most beautiful hybrid perpetual, 
exhibited by Messrs. Paul & Son, a first-class certificate was awarded. 
Amongst blush or pink-coloured ones, the following held conspicuous 
places, viz., Louise Peyronny, Paul Verdier, Comtesse de Chabrillant, 
Mademoiselle Eugene Verdier, Baroness de Rothschild, &e._ For prizes 
offered for collections of yellow roses, Celine Porestier, Gloire de Dijon, 
Triomphe de Renues, Mareehal Niel, Madame Falcot, La Boule d'Or, 
Isabella Gray, Madame Margottin, and others competed. In the class of 
twelve trusses of any single vai'iety, the first prize was won by Messrs. 
Paul & Son with a stand of splendid blooms of Alfred Colomb ; the 
second by Messrs Veitch & Son, with Baroness Rothschild; the same 
rose from other contributors also received two third prizes. Mareehal 
Niel, from Mr. Tm-uer, hkewise came in for a third prize ; and a fourth 
was awarded to a stand of Mademoiselle Marie Eady, from Mr. Coppin, 
of Croydon. 

-The table decorations were highly satisfactory. Branched epergnes 
have, we are glad to see, almost disappeared. The flowers used, we 
observed, were mostly hardy ; but in one of the epergnes, mingled with 
wild flowers and grasses, were a few sprays of white Orchid blooms, 
which added a charming richness to the design. Young Palms seem to 
be a leading feature for centre-pieces, and, where the stems are long and 
naked, a slender piece of Lygodium scaudeus, hung carelessly around them, 
adds to then grace and beauty. 

Mr. Peacock's Succulents comprised several very curious Opuntias, such 
as 0. robusta, a large, broad kind, surmounted by two smaller growths, 
giving the plant the appearance of a flat, shallow plate standing on its 
side, with two smaller ones attached to its top ; Cereus peruviauus 
monstrosus, a very curious plant ; also many very remarkable-looking 
specimens of Gasterias, Mammillarias, Agaves, Echinocaoti, Semper- 
vivums, &c. ; the singular Echinocactus Pottsii, one of the most odd of 
all grafted Cacti ; and B. bicolor, a small plant supported on a slender stem, 
and crowned with a beautiful flower. To these have subsequently been 
added no fewer than eight van loads of Succulents, all from Mr. Peacock's 
collection, and which have been on exhibition at the Palace during the 
past week. 



ROYAL HOETIGULTURAL SOCIETY. 
(July 17Tn.) 

Peojiinent among subjects exhibited on this occasion were half-a-dozen 
small tubs of Clematis from Messrs. Jackman & Son, of Woking.^ They 
consisted of rubella, Mrs. James Bateman, Thomas Moore, rubra violacca., 
Alexandra, and one of caerulea odorata, all in beautiful condition ; and in 
addition to the specimens in tubs, the same exhibitor also staged some 
stands of cut blooms, magnificent examples of this lovely class of hardy 
decorative plants. Of LiUums in pots only two gi'oups were furnished, 
one from G. F. Wilson, Esq., Weybridge Heath, and one from Mr. Bull, 
of Chelsea. Mr. Wilson fm'nished examples of the true L. tigrinum, one 
of which was crowned by no fewer than twenty-eight flower-buds. There 
was also a very fine specimen of L. lougiflormn Wilsonii, strong in growth, 
and producing pure white flowers, much larger than we generally see ; also 
another Lily named L. japonicimi Talcesiraa, with flowers not unlike longi- 
florum, except that they were scarcely so large, but apparently produced in 
greater profusion. Amongst varieties in this section may also lie men- 
tioned L. Leichtlini majus, a tall-growing sulphur-yellow coloured kind, 
distinctly marked with small brown spots ; also the slender-growing, deep 
crimson coloured dwarf L. concolor var. sinicum. Messrs. Barr & Sugdeu 
exhibited several cut blooms of this interesting family. A few bidhous 
plants, in the form of Gladioli and Tuberoses, were exhibited by Mr. 
StancUsh, of Ascot. A very interesting plant of the giant Hyacinth, 
H. princeps, was sent by Messrs. Rollisson & Son. Phloxes were well 
shown in pots by Messrs. Downie, Laird, & Laing, and Ukcwisc by Mr. 



T. S. Ware ; amongst the best were Queen of Whites, a pure white ; 
Dr. Masters, a deep crimson ; John Laing, a deep crimson shaded with 
violet; Venus, a Ught colom'ed one, with a deeply-marked crimson eye; 
and others. Three fine specimen Yuccas in flower were furnished by 
Mr. T. S. Ware, who also contributed some very fine Pentstemons, and a 
small miscellaneous collection, comprising a new and pretty Arteniisia, a 
pretty white, deeply-lacerated Cineraria, called acanthasfolia var. laciniata, 
and a lovely clove carnation, called Chief Justice. 

Of hardy perennials, a good collection wassupphed by Mr. Parker, who 
also contributed a group of tender plants, amongst which was Gloriosa 
superba, many CalacUums, and some Marantas. Mr. Turner had some 
excellent Carnations and Pieotees, also Roses, and some good Pelargoniums, 
both single and double. Perhaps the most interesting featui-eatthis meeting 
was the collection of Orchids from Mr. Denning, of Grimston Park, every 
plant amongst which was of the greatest possible interest. In this group was 
a plant of Masdevallia Harryana with five expanded flowers, several weU- 
flowered Stanhopeas, and several fine Aiirides, Saccokibiums, and gi-and 
plants of Anguloa Clowesii and Ruckcrii ; also a. few plants of Epiden- 
druni viteUinum majus, one of which, producing large branched^ flower 
spikes, was perhaps the finest specimen in flower ever exhibited in 
England. There was also a good group of Balsams, from Messrs. Lee, 
of Hammersmith ; and a basket of Bouvardia Vreelandii, a good white 
faintly shaded with pink, from Mr. Standish. 

Fruit and vegetables were spaiingly exhibited ; they consisted of a few 
dishes of Nectaiines and Peaches, a few Melons, and a good Providence 
Pine-Apple. A few very large onions were exhibited by Mr. G. Mills, 
Wycombe Abbey; nine of the Giant IVhite Tripoli weighed fourteen 
pounds, and another nine of Early White Naples weighed ten and three- 
quarter poimds. Among Cucumbers the winning ones were Blue Gown 
and Fulmer Hero. 

First-class certificates were awarded to LUium japonicum Takesima, to 
L. tigrinum splendens, to L. LeichtUni majus, aU from G. F. Wilson, Esq., 
Weybridge Heath. Similar awards were also conferred upon Picotee 
Princess of Wales, Juhana, Edith Dombrain, Norfolk Beauty, Ethel, and 
B. C. Bryant; also to Carnations Superb, Isaac Wilkinson, and Mrs. 
Frederick Burnaby, from Mr. C. Tm-ner, of Slough. First-class certifi- 
cates were likewise awarded to Pelargonium Mrs. Quilter, from Mr. C. 
Turner; and to Pelargonium Pink Pearl, from Mr. J. King, Allanray Park, 
Bingfield. 

Cultural commendations were awarded to a collection of Orchids from 
Mr. W. Denning, Grimston Park ; and also to Masdevalha Harryana, and 
Epidendrum vitellinum majus, from the same exhibitor. Like awards 
were given to a stand of cut blooms of Clematises from Mr. Jackman, 
and to a group of Balsams from Messrs. J. & S. Lee, of Hammersmith ; 
to a Providence Pine from Mr. W. MiUer, Worksop Manor, Notts ; and 
to a dish of Violet Hative Nectarines from Mr. Tidery, of Welbeck. 



COVENT GARDEN MARKET.— July 19th. 

Flowers, both in pots and as cut blooms, are plentiful. Those in 
pots consist mostly of Fuchsias, Balsams, and Japan Lilies j also some 
nice plants of Heliotropes, dwarf Cockscombs, Calceolarias, and great 
quantities of Rhodanthe Manglesii, which is found of great'uso in bouquet- 
making. Carnations, mostly self-coloured, may also now be obtained, 
likewise Pelargoniums, both single and double. Begonias, Marantas, 
Coleuses, India-rubber trees, little Palms, Screw Pines, and Ferns, may 
also be seen, together with hanging baskets, both for windows and con- 
servatories. These are filled with Achimenes, tmiied out of small pots, 
Isolepis gracilis, small Ferns, variegated Panicuni, Petunias, Ivy-leaved 
Geraniums, Torenia asiatica, &c. _ For a centre piece, a Draea^na, an erect 
growing Pern, a Gloxinia, or similar plants are used. 



PBICES OH PEUIT. 



s. d. s. d. 

3 

i 

2 

15 

10 

1 



Apples half sieve 

Apricots perdoz. 2 i 

Cherries per lb. 10 2 

Cliestnuts bushel 8 15 

Figs perdoz. 4 10 

Filberts lb. 6 1 

Cobs lb. 

Grapes, hothouse ...lb. 3 to 

Lemons 100 7 10 

Artichokes per doz. i t 

Asparagus per lOO 4 

Beans, Broad 

Beans, Kidney ...per 100 6 

Beet, Red doz. 1 

Broccoli bundle 9 

Cabbage doz. 1 

Carrots bunch 6 

Cauliflower doz. 2 

Celery bundle 1 G 

Chilios per 100 1 6 

Colcworts doz. bunches 2 6 

Cucumbers each 6 

Eudive doz. 2 

Feunel bunch 3 

Garlic lb. 8 

Herbs bmich 3 

Horseradish ....';. bundle 3 

Leeks bunch 2 



s. d. s. d. 

Melons each 3 to 8 

Nectarines perdoz. 4 

Oranges 100 6 

reaches ...perdoz. 12 

Piue Apples lb. 3 

Plums .....per bos 3 

Strawberries lb. 

Walnuts bushel 10 

ditto per 100 1 



16 
12 
24 







8 
4 
2 
26 
2 



PRICES OP VEGETABLES. 



8 












1 





3 





1 


(i 


2 





1 





(1 





2 





2 





4 





1 





























4 








« 



Lettuces score 

Mushrooms pottle 



Mustard&Cress, punnet 



Onions .bushel 3 

pickling quart 6 

Parsley, ...doz. bunches 3 

Parsnips doz. 

Peas, Continental, quart 

Do. English do. 

Potatoes, Kidney... cwt. 10 



G 16 
to 3 
2 



Potatoes do. 8 

Radishes doz. bunches 

Rhubarb bundle 

Salsafy do. 1 

Scorzonera bundle 

Shallots lb. 

Spinach bushel 



Tomatoes.. 
Turnips 



. doz. 
...buncii 



11 

12 
1 
1 
1 
1 




July 27, 1872.] 



THE GAEDBN. 



69 



THE GARDEN. 

" This is an art 
Whicli does mend nature : change it rather : but 
The Akt itself is Natuke." — S/ia/cesj^eare. 



the leading nurserymen, seedsmen, and florists of the United 
States to day are " old country" men, who came out as private 
gardeners twenty, thirty, or forty years ago, very few of them 
having £5 in their pockets when tbey landed. There are few 
who began by their own savings who have not succeeded, in 
twenty years or less, in obtaining a comfortable independency, 
a thing they would not probably have ever obtained in the 
mother country. 



ENGLISH GAEDENEES IN AMEEICA. 

BY PETER HENDERSON, JERSEY CITY. 

You have alluded at p. -18 to the great mistake made by many 
English gardeners in coming to the United States at seasons 
of the year when it is next to impossible to get employment. 
It must be remembered that the climate of the United States 
is widely different from that of England, and that its horticul- 
ture is yet crude, compared with that of Britain ; both these 
reasons have much to do with those who should emigrate 
and when they should do so. The regular hiring season for 
gardeners is in March, and the best time for the emigrant to 
arrive in New York is during February or March, so that he 
may have the best chance to select. A great many engage- 
ments are made in April and even May, but these are either 
situations for uuder-gardeners or for second-i'ate places. 

But for men to arrive during the months of June, July, or 
August, the chances are more than equal that they may be 
months without being able to get a stroke to do. The nursery 
system and even our florists' establishments are carried on 
entirely diSereut from those of England; so that a gardener 
cannot so readily drop iuto them temporarily, as with you, 
for few skilled men are employed unless regular hands, 
the bulk of the employes being Irish or German labourers. 
When the Southern States were in their prosperity, engage- 
ments were made in the autumn, but since the war, gardening is 
as yet little thought of in that devastated portion of America ; 
hence, then, although the autumn is not quite so bad a season to 
come as during the summer or mid-winter months (December 
and January), yet the safest time is, as I have before said, 
February or March. Now about the men who should emigrate. 
I would premise that any gardener having a family should 
never leave England for America, unless he can make an 
engagement with a gentleman of whom he knows something, or 
who can be vouched for by some prominent nurseryman here. 
Scores of poor fellows are every year deluded in this way, 
leaving cornfortable homes to be set down in some wilderness 
of a place, and when they have laid it out and beautified it, 
it is suddenly foirnd that their services are no longer required. 
But for young men — from twenty to thirty — I think the 
chances are better than in England. A single man can sooner 
accumulate money; and business, such as that of seedsman, 
florist, or market gardener, can be begun with less capital in 
America than in England ; not that money will go as far, for it 
hardly goes half as far, but there is less monopoly ; and, in our 
quickly-rising towns and cities, business can be begun on a 
scale so low that you have little conception of in England. 
I say, then, any young man having an ambition to forward 
himself in that way has, I think, far better chances to do so in 
America than in Britain ; but if his ambition rises no higher 
than to be simply a private gardener, there is not much to 
gain by the change. 

Wages are as variable as are the gradations of gardening. 
A few of the first-class private situations around the larger 
cities are worth £200 per annum, house, &c. ; biit these are 
very few indeed; the majority will hardly average the half of 
that, and a large number probably not more than one fom-th ; 
this even may seem much higher than your rates, but re- 
member that to a man with a family the expenses of living are 
so much more, that a sovereign in America is not worth 
more than ten shillings are in England to purchase the neces- 
saries of life at the present time ; for example, I pay my 
common labourers nine dollars per week ; if single men, five of 
these must be paid for board ; if married, their house takes 
■ two from their nine dollars each week. 

Single men as gardeners are paid from £60 to £100 per year 
and board, and, if they are ordinarily saving, may soon accu- 
mulate enough to begin business with. The greater number of 



WINDOW PLANTS. 

BY J. C. NIVEN, BOTANIC GARDENS, HULL. 
The object of the following instructions is to point out the various 
operations necessary in tlie ordinary management of window plants, 
and the most ready mode in which these operations may be per- 
formed, as well as to give the names of such plants as are best 
adapted for window growth. 

SOIL. 

There is perhaps no greater diflBoulty that the occupant of a densely 
populated town has to contend with than that of getting good soil, 
or " mould," as it ia more popularly called, and I need not say that 
the sweet and genial character of the soil is a most important 
element towards success. Only contemplate the sour black material 
so often used, possibly the result of a small mining operation under, 
neath the cobble stones of a back yard, where it has lain for years 
deluged with impure water and unsweetened by the corrective 
influence of the atmosphere ; a worse material for laying the founda- 
tion of success could not be found. Or possibly a handkerchief -ful 
of road-scrapings has been secured for the purpose, which, when 
used alone, possess a somewhat close affinity to cement, and when 
first applied to the plant have a tendency to burn the young roots, 
so that it is more than probable that by the time its fiery nature 
becomes exhausted the vitality of the plant is also extinguished. 
Where and how then is this desideratum (a good compost) to be 
obtained ? My answer is, that if any one thing more than another in 
connection with window gardening belongs to such societies as that 
at Hull (see p. 55), it is to devote a small portion of their funds 
to the preparation of such compost, distributing the same at depots 
where it can readily be obtained by those who possess plants. 
This would be a boon as highly appreciated as the distribution of 
plants in the autumn, because such plants are new acquaintances ; 
whereas those that are pining for lack of proper soil have each their 
history, aye, histories that not unfrequently reflect some of the 
brightest beams of the best part of human nature. 
POTS AND POTTIKG. 

Garden pots are not expensive, and as they are sold everj'where, 
I assume that no one who cherishes a plant will begrudge the outlay 
of a few pence for that purpose ; but failing the means, let them fall 
back on their own ingenuity as to what they will use as a substitute. 
There is a wide field for them, nor will I attempt to limit it by 
offering any suggestion beyond this, that whatever the substitute 
may be, remember every flower-pot is provided with an opening at 
the bottom for the important purpose of drainage. Further it is 
important to remember that unglazed ware is better than glazed 
ware. Assuming, then, that soil has been obtained, and that pots or 
some substitute has been found, when, it will be asked, are we to 
repot ? A very proper inquiry. As a rule don't re-pot plants when 
they are showing their flower-buds, else possibly they will all fall 
off, and don't re-pot them in the winter, when nature is at rest. As 
a general rule the spring-time is best, when Nature's energies may be 
said to be roused into activity, and when she is best prepared to repair 
all damages which occur in the operation. In the spring-time — say in 
the month of April — if the pot in which a plant is growing is small 
in proportion to the size of the plant, and it evidently requires a 
larger pot, carefully turn the plant upside down, and tap the pot 
edge gently on the table, and the ball of earth and roots will come 
out on the palm of your hand, a perfect representative in shape of 
the pot it was grown in. It may appear to be nearly all roots, but 
as the greater part of these will be dead, although here and there 
will be young active roots just forming, use care. Remove the pot- 
sherds at the bottom, and in doing so make a note of what you see, 
namely, that these open fragments wiU be full of roots — old roots it 
is true, and possibly dead by this time — but they have had their use, 
and learn therefrom that this open material has an important value ; 
and further, that roots, however much they dislike the light, and 
consequently always grow earthward, Uke a little air, and the moist 
air that fills up the space between this material is just what they 
revel in. After having carefully dislodged the open material from 
the roots, and loosened the earth by working gently with the fingers 
at the lower part of the ball, the plant will be ready for its new 
quarters. I presume, of course, that before you have proceeded 



70 



THE GARDEN. 



[July 2?, 18?2. 



thus far you have a pot somewhat larger ready for its reception ; and, 
if not a new one, it should be well washed, quite as much for the 
benefit of the plant as for appearance sake. Don't forget the lesson 
you learned about drainage : put some hard open material in the 
bottom, lay over it a bit of moss, or, failing this, a few of the dead or 
decaying leaves of the plant, these will prevent the soil filling up the 
crevices, and thus destroying the value of this material. Next place 
the ball of roots in the centre of the new pot, having previously 
put sufficient soil in the bottom to raise the surface of the old ball 
to within a quarter of an inch of the top of the pot, then fill in the 
soil well roimd, shake it down, and when full press it firmly with the 
thumbs, turning the pot round with the fingers during the operation. 
Don't be frightened that you will hurt the roots by pressure, but 
do it vigorously, for if the soil be left loose the water will escape as 
through a sieve. When this operation is completed, the surface of 
the soil will be level, rather less than half an inch below the top of 
the pot, thus leaving room for a water supply. Don't pile up the soil 
round the neck of plant — a fault too often committed — such an 
arrangement naturally sends the water down the sides of the pot, 
when perhaps the interior of the mass of soil is thoroughly dry. 
Though I have said that spring is generally the best time for potting 
plants, I do not say it is always so. Take, for instance, a Geranium, 
that flowers early in sunxmer. When its flowering season is over it 
ought to be cut down, say to half its height, or even less. It ought 
then to be set out of doors in a shady place until it begins to form 
nice buds and small green leaves along its old branches; this it will 
do within a few weeks. After exhausted nature has begun thus to 
show her returning energies, the process of repotting should be 
attended to ; but in this case it is best to shake all the soil away from 
the roots, trimming the long, straggling ones with a sharp knife, re- 
potting in a smaller pot than that in which the plant previously grew. 
This small pot will get well filled with roots before winter, and in 
spring the plant should be transferrred to a larger pot in which to 
bloom, the same process being repeated each succeeding autumn and 
spring. After potting, imless the fresh soil be in a wet condition — 
which it should not be — place your pots out of doors on a level place, 
and give them a good watering, so as to fairly penetrate the mass. 
TOP DRESSING. 
Supposing the accommodation for a plant in a window is limited 
as to size of pot, and you cannot arrange for a larger one, then, in 
lieu of repotting as before described, you may fall back on the expe- 
dient of top dressing. In doing this a moderately sharp piece of 
wood should be used — say a piece of old lath (don't use a knife), and 
having carefully loosened the surface soil for an inch or more, avoiding 
any injury to the roots, remove it all and replace with fresh soil. As 
this operation will be performed only on those plants that have been 
grown for several years in the same pot, and which will necessarily 
have impoverished the original soil, it will be advisable to add some 
stimulant. Possibly you will ask what stimulant yon are to use. I 
will mention two or three which are most easily attainable. One 
may be picked up in the street or on any roadway frequented by 
horses, if you get an early start of the street-sweeper. This, mixed 
with the compost which the Window Garden Society ought to 
supply, will be a useful stimulant. Another, and one more lasting 
in character, may be obtained by getting a bone or two, drying them 
well before the fire, over it, or in it— it matters not which— and with 
a hammer, or even a flat iron, breaking the bone up into small pieces, 
as small as you can make them. Use a dessert or tablespoonful of 
these, according to the size of the pot, to mix with your soil, and 
you have a storehouse of food that will last the plant for a year or 
two. ^ A little charcoal broken small is also a good thing, not that it 
contains much nourishment in itself, but, like a sponge, it absorbs 
any moisture near it. The charcoal also sucks and stores up all the 
bad gases in tho atmosphere, and gives them out to tho plant as the 
roots require them. 

"WATERING. 
Next in importance to the soil comes the process of watering. How 
often the death of a plant is to be attributed to injudicious watering. 
I believe the idea is almost irresistible with many people, that if a 
plant looks sickly, water is the great curative agent, and that more 
water can alone restore it. They drown the vital principle in the 
plant with mistaken kindness. As soon as ever you see the leaf 
inclined to turn yellow and sickly, be careful with the water ; very 
probably the withholding it for a few days will act as a restorative. 
The first principle of watering is, never water unless the ball of the 
plant is dry, and when you water, do it thoroughly, not in frequent 
dribbles, but give the plant a good drink when it is really thirsty. 
But you may possibly say, Yes, it's all very well for you to say 
*' when it's dry," but how am I to know when it is dry ? By a very 
simple process. Now, .don't try to push your finger down the side 
of the pot, for yon will do more harm than good if you do. Jnst, for 
example, tap with your knuckle the pots at this moment on your 



window-sill, and if you have an ear for any more refined music than 
Scotch bagpipes you will detect a difference in the sound produced. 
One pot will ring with a bit of bell-like music, that's dry ; another, 
knock as you like, returns nothing but a dead leaden sound, that's 
wet. Having thus told you when and how to water, it only remains to 
say that in all cases use rain water if you can possibly get it, and 
in cold weather, take care that the water is about the same tem- 
perature as that of the room in which the plants are growing before 
you use it. Saucers below the pots are useful, but never allow the 
water to stand in them, but shortly after you have watered your 
i:)lants empty all that has run into the saucers, so that air may 
circulate through the drainage material, and act on the soil from below 
as well as from above. This circulation of air from below is entirely 
checked by water standing in the saucers. You will remember that I 
told you after repotting your plant to give it a good soaking, but 
for some days, possibly weeks afterwards, it may not require any 
more. During this time evaporation will only take place from the 
surface of the soil; and the roots, having been damaged, will have 
to repair the damage done to them, a somewhat slow process, before 
they can absorb water freely ; and therefore, these repairs are more 
rapidly and efficiently accomplished where the soil is in a moderately 
dry state. 

PROST. 
As a matter of course, plants grown in a window are liable to get 
frozen. To guard against this possibility, it will be advisable to 
remove the plants from the window-sill during the night, in very 
severe weather at least. As soon as you see those beautiful vagaries 
of crystal put in an appearance round the edges o£ your window-pane, 
be sure a dangerous enemy is near at hand. If there has been no 
fire in the room during the day, remove the plants to the fui'ther side 
of the room, and don't replace them till you are assured that the 
danger is past. Should the plants get frozen by any mischance, what 
is to be done ? Place them in a dark part of the room and sprinkle 
them with water — cold water, mind ; hot water would be death to 
them. Let the process of thawing be gradual, Nature is never in a 
hurry. 



HAUDY PLANTS IN FLOWER ROUND LONDON. 
(From July 18th to July 24ti[, inclusive.) 



BY OUR OWN REPORTERS. 



Acanthus 

latitoliiis 

spinosus 
Achillea 

Ageratam 

biscn-ata 

Ptarmica 

serrata pi. 

tanacctifolia 
Allium 

striatum, 
Althfca 

Heldreichii 
Aiiomatheca 

crueuta 
Antirrhinum 

Orontium 
Aralia 

edulis 
Asclepias 

speciosa 

tuberosa 
Aster 

Tradescauti 
Astillie 

rivalaria 
ALhanasia 

annua 
Bonaveria 

Coronilla 
Bravoa 

gemiuiflora 
Calceolaria 

plunaba 
Campanula 

eximia 

isophylla 

Riiinerii 

ranunculi flora 

soklanolUeflora 
Carlina 

iicanthifolia 
Centaurea 
yymnocarpa 

Plants in this 
bloom during the 



ChamEcpeuce 

diacantha 
Chelone 

grandiflora 
Chrysocoma 

Comaurea 
Chrysanthemum 

tricolor 
Cirsium 

ciliatum 
Clematis 

hybrida 

revoluta 

Viticella 
Colutea 

media 
Corethrogyne 

spathulata 
Cyi^ella 

Herbertii 
Diauthus 

i-amosus 
Dior villa 

canadensis 
Dipsacus 

laciniatus 
Falkia 

repens 
Fuclisia 

gracilis 
Genista 

aitnensis 
Gentiana 

Pneumonanthe 

septeniQda 
Gypsophila 

acuta 
Hell an thus 

Isctiflorus 

riffidus 
Helipterum 

Sandfordii 
Hibiscus 
syi'iacua | 

list are almost without exception such 
past week. 



Hydrangea 

nivea 
Hyssopus 

officinal ia 
Indigofera 

Dosua 
Kitaibelia 

vitifoUa 
Lilium 

chalceduuicum 

Hnmboldti- 
anum 

tigrinum 

venustum 
Lupinus 

pilosus 
Madaria 

corymb oa a 
Melissa 

olficinalis 
Monarda 

Russelliaua 
Ononis 

fruticosa 
Origanum 

Marjoraua 

pulchellum 

vulgarc 
Papaver 

Burseri 
Pavia 

parvifolia 
Petrocallis 

pyrenaica 
Pimpinella 

magna 
Polygonum 

japonicum 
Psoralea 
acauUs 
macrostachya 
Salvia 
chionautha 



SaLuveja 

montana 
Saxifraga 

Chammisoi 
Scabiosa 

Fischerii 

suaveolens 
Scutellaria 

s cord i folia 
Scdum 

Middcndorfia- 
num 
Scmperviviim 

heterotrichum 
ScseU 

gumniiferum 
Silcue 

chloncfolia 

Schafta 
Spartiuni 

jvijhylluui 
Slalice 

Ijcllidifolia 

cordifolia 

Cimelini 

minuta 

ol etc foil a 
Teucrium 

multiflorum 

Polium 
Thymus 

sctubal (?) 
Vcnirtium 

speciosum 
Veronica 

crispa 
Zcphyranthcb 

mesoleuca 
Zietenia 

lavandulKtulia 
Zygadenus 
chloranthuii 
glaberrimus 

as have come into 



A LAD who had lately gone to service, having had salad served up for 
dinner every day for a week, ran away ; and when asked why ho had left 
his place, replied " they made me yeat grass in the sura-mer, and I were 
afraid they'd make me yeat hay in the winter ; and I could not stund that , 
so I wur off." 



July 27, 1872.] 



THE GARDEN. 



71 



THE FLO WER GARDEN. 

THE ALPINE GAEDEN. 
{Continued from p. 8.) 

CASCADES, ROCKY BRIDGES, ROCKY MARGINS, ISLETS. 

As Tvater is often iutroduced in connection with rockworki 
and high cascades may be frequently attempted, and as the 
snjiplj- often flows from a woody knoll, it is well to take 




WaterfiiU fringed with Yuccas, Dwarf Pines, climbing and trailing plants. 

advantage of this position for the arrangement of Yuccas, large 
grasses, herbaceous plants of noble jjort, and the like, that 
cannot well be arranged among the dwarf inhabitants of the 




Young Plants of Clematis falling over the face of artificial rock. 

rock-garden proper. Among the many plants suited for this 
position, the new Clematises raised by Jackman and others are 
the most magnificent. Planted high up ou the rocks in a deep 




Steppin, 



witli Water Lilies and other aquatic plants. 



bed or vem of rich light soil, they will fall over the faces of 
tljc sunny crags, robing them as with imperial purple. 

"Where water occurs near the rock-garden, one or more little 
bridges are not unfreqnently seen ; but some such arrangement 
as that suggested in the accompanying woodcut would be more 



satisfactory and tasteful. It is, however, introduced here 
chiefly for the purpose of showing how well it enables one to 
enjoy various beautiful aquatic plants, from the fringed and 
crimson-tipped Bog-bean and graceful Carex peudula at the 
sides to the golden Villarsia. and Water Lilies sailing among 
the stones. Arranged thus, a number of interesting plants 




Plan of preceding figui'e. 

not usually met with seem to crowd around foracquaintanceship. 
This mode of garden bridge-making, while infinitely more 
beautiful than the ordinary one, is less expensive. Care is, 
however, required to so arrange it that it may satisfy taste, 
offer free passage to the water, and an easy means of crossing 
it at all times. 

Rockworks made on the margin of artificial water are veiy 
often objectionable — rigid, abrupt, unworn, and absurdly un- 
natural. In no position is an awkwardness more likely to be 
detected; in none should more care be taken not to offend good 




Natui'al stepping-stone bridge. 

taste. Charming effects may be produced on properly made rock- 
work near water, by planting it with a combination of choice 
moisture-loving rock-plants — Yuccas, Pampas Grass, and like 
subjects ; but even the grace and beauty of the finest of these 
will not relieve the hideousness of the masses of brick-rubbish 
and stone that are frequently placed by the margins of water. 
The next figure, showing the fringe of a little island in one 




A glimpse at margin of island in Lake Maggiore. 

of the lakes of Northern Italy, may servo to show how irre- 
gularly and prettily the little waves carve the rocky shore. 
Frequently in such places diminutive islands from a few feet 




Islands in Lake (Westmoreland). 

to a few yards across are seen, and, when tufted with Globe- 
flowers, Ivy, Brambles, &c., are very charming. A few 
artificial islets may be introduced with good effect near a 

rockv margin. , „ , , . , , 

° (To be cont limed.) 



72 



THE GAKDBN. 



[July 27, 1872. 



STOCKS FOE AUTUMN SOWING. 

The summer-blooming stocks being now in the prime of tlioir 
beauty, seem to remind one that the time for sowing the 
Brompton, Queen, and intermediate stocks is at hand. There 
is always a risk about the two former, as a wet and cold 
winter or severe frost invariably decimates them, but those 
plants that stand and flower are very beautiful in the early 
summer. A large-flowering type of the scarlet Brompton can 
be seen growing in many a cottage garden in the south and 
south-west districts of London, and it is not unusual to see 
spikes from one and a half to two feet in length. The Queen 
and Brompton stocks are closely allied, and are probably only 
varieties of the same species ; but it is curious to note that the 
seed of the white Brompton is pale in colour, that of the 
white Queen quite dark. Old growers of the stock distinguish 
the foliage of the Queen and Brompton stocks in this manner. 
They assert that the under portion of the leaf of the Queen stock 
is rough and woolly; that of the Brompton stock is as smooth 
on the under part as on the upper. Of the Queen stock there 
are three colours — purple, scarlet, and white ; and of the 
Brompton stock the same number, with the addition of a 
selected crimson variety of great beauty, but somewhat 
difficult to perpetuate. Both of these types (if distinct 
enough to be regarded so) are really biennials, and the seed 
should be sown at the end of July in beds, and the plants, 
I need scarcely remark, should be transplanted to the open 
ground in the autumn. 

The difficulty of wintering the Brompton stocks operates to 
deter many from attempting their cultivation. Even in the 
case of an unusually mild winter many will die. A well- 
drained subsoil and a porous surface soil will suit them best. 
Shelter from biting frosts and nipping winds is of great 
service. A second transplantation has been tried with con- 
siderable success, the last one made about December. The 
intermediate stocks are much used for cultivation in pots, to 
bloom in the spring and early summer, and are very useful 
for decorative purposes. The seed should be sown in August, 
and the plants, when large enough, placed in thirty-two pots, 
three plants in a pot, rich soil being used. They should then 
be placed out of doors in the shade, kept well watered in dry 
weather, and finally wintered in a cold frame, and drafted 
into the conservatory or greenhouse as they come into 
flower. 

There is a very pretty variety of the intermediate stock, 
somewhat taller in growth than the scarlet one, and foi-ming 
capital pyramids of white flowers. Some of the dwarf 
German bouquet stocks imported from Germany by our seeds- 
men make very good intermediate stocks, being dwarf and 
compact in growth, and well adapted for pot culture. One, of 
a bright crimson hue, has a very dwarf and yet vigorous 
habit, and flowers in great profusion. The East Lothian 
intermediate stocks, as they are termed, are in reality mainly 
used for late summer blooming, when they are very effective. 
They are sown in the usual way about the end of March, 
planted out at the end of May when some three inches or four 
inches in height, and bloom finely through August and Sep- 
tember, and even later, as they throw out numbers of side 
shoots that produce spikes of flowers. Thus, by usmg the 
autumn-sown intermediate stocks for early blooming, the 
ordinary largo-flowering German ten-week stock for summer 
flowering, and the later East Lothian intermediate stocks for 
late summer work, stocks can be had in flower eight or nine 
months of the year without intermission. Q. 



EOSE BUDDING. 



What is the proper time for budding with a dormant bud ? As late 
as possible, i.e., before the sap ceases to flow. In general the last 
two weeks of August, or even the beginning of September, is a 
better time than the end of July. Should there be a deficiency of 
sap, it may be stimulated into I'enewed action by watering. Late 
budding has the two following advantages : 1. The buds take without 
sprouting before winter, and consequently suffer less from the frost, 
and push more vigorously in spring. 2. We are enabled to take 
buds from those shoots that flower continuously or several times, 
and these are the only ones that will reproduce shoots of a similar 
character. 



Should buds be taken indiscriminately from all parts of a shoot 
which flowers continuously ? No ; and the three following rules 
will serve as a guide in this matter. 

Rule I. Buds taken from the lever part of a shoot produce shoots 
which are at the same time not vigorous and bear few flowers — facts 
which at first sight appear irreconcilable ; but we will give reasons 
for the statement. 1. The buds on the lower part of a shoot — a part 
which is in a condition of imperfect development — are themselves 
weakly, and cannot produce any hut feeble shoots. 2. They bear 
few flowers. We shall give the reason for this presently ; but wiU 
first state the second rule. 

Rule II. The buds at the top of a shoot produce shoots which are 
moderately vigorous, but which flower very abundantly. That the 
vigour of shoots produced from such buds is moderate sufliciently 
explains why the buds themselves are only moderately vigorous ; but 
that they should bear flowers most abundantly is undoubtedly a 
verification of the observation made by M. Vibert that buds will 
produce shoots which have a greater tendency to bear flowers in 
proportion as the buds from which t hey spring grew nearer to the 
flower on the parent stem. Thus the shoots on the lower part of a 
branch hardly ever flower, and the buds at the base of a shoot 
produce shoots which are almost always sterile. 

Rule III. To understand this, it will be suificient merely to state 
it. Buds taken from the middle of a shoot produce shoots which 
are sound and vigorous, but only moderately free-flowering. 

These principles, which were laid down thirty years ago, have just 
been verified in a very intelligent manner by an excellent gardener — 
M. Bourdon, of Clairoix. In the rich soil of his grounds, buds taken 
from the lower part of shoots of the most free-flowering varieties 
have remained almost sterile, six grafts of Marechal Niel having 
pi'oduced only one flower. The buds taken from this single flower- 
bearing shoot, close to the flower, produced shoots each of which bore 
a tolerably large number of flowers — flf teen to twenty. 

The very free-flowering varieties, Madame Domage and Auguste 
Mie, have afforded subjects for interesting remarks. The buds of 
these taken from the lower part of the shoots produced rather feeble 
shoots, each bearing one or two flowers at the most; while buds 
taken from the upper part of the shoots near the flower produced, 
according to my experience, shoots which were covered with a 
rich profusion of blooms. — Professor liaquet, in " Belgiqiie Morti. 
cole." 



FUCHSIA EICAETONI AS A HEDGE PLANT IN 
lEELAND. 

I BEG to corroborate all that your correspondent " Z." says in your 
paper of the 15th ultimo, in favour of the Fuchsia Ricartoni. Here 
with us it is valued even more for its substantial uses than for its 
beauty. I live in a stormy climate on the edge of the ocean fwhich, 
however, I do not admit to be "melancholy"), and although my 
kitchen garden is surrounded with a semicircular wall of some 
eleven feet high, I need interior shelter, and this is altogether provided 
by hedges of the Fuchsia Ricartoni, which are made by branches 
cut or broken into bits of any size you please, and stuck into the 
ground close together in a line. This affords very fair shelter the 
second year, and from that time forward the only difficulty is to 
keep your hedge within bounds. The beauty of these hedges at 
this time of year is extraordinary, and they are so self-sheltering, 
and our climate is so mild in winter, that they hold the leaf for a 
very great portion of the year. As to size, we quite sm'pass any. 
thing mentioned by your correspondent. I have one tree of F. 
Ricartoni, planted in my flower garden in the autumn of 1854, on 
which no care has been bestowed. It would have been much larger 
than it is now if it had not been for some years cut back at one 
side from a gravel walk. For the last five years I have let it have 
its own way, and allowed it to overrun gravel walks and ribbon 
borders, and each year I have had its measure carefully taken, .and 
recorded by witnesses. In 1870 its circumference, measured with 
a line round the extreme tips of the branches, was 107 feet 7 
inches ; last year it reached 115 feet ; and I will venture to say that 
this year it will considerably exceed 120 feet. I do not think it is 
more than 13 feet or 14 feet high. Wo have many much taller, 
growing among trees iu sheltered situations. In a year or two it 
will reach the main walk of my gaixlen, which cannot be allowed 
to be closed ; so I propose to arch over the walk with a trellis, over 
which I expect the fuchsia will gradually grow, leaving a passage 
clear underneath. After that it will meet nothing to check it till 
some few yards farther on it will reach a low cliff, which forms the 
shore of the harbour, and then I must leave it to settle its "Alabama 
question" with the ocean aforesaid. — P. FitsOerald, Kilt, of Kerrxj, 
Qlanliam, Valencia. 



July 27, 1872.] 



THE GARDEN. 



73 



CENTAUEEA BABTLONICA. 

Among the Centaiireas by far the most distinct and remarkable 
is the very silTery-leaved C. babylonica. It is quite hardy, 
and when planted in good ground, sends up strong shoots, 
clad Tvith yellow flowers, to a height of ten or twelve feet. 
The bloom, which continues from July to September, is not by 
any means so attractive as the leaves ; but the plant is at all 




Centatirea babylonica. 

times pictm-esque. In groups, or, still better, isolated, on 
rough or undulating parts of pleasure-grounds, it has a very 
fine effect. When the leaves alone are seen, it is worthy of a 
place among the finest hardy variegated subjects, but when it 
sends up its strong stems, it is a fit associate for hollyhocks, 
and the very tallest herbaceous plants. 



NOTES AND QPESTION S ON THE FLOWER GARDEN. 

Pelargoniums in tlie Flower Garden.— lb is not well enough known to 
amateurs that many bare spots in theii- beds may be soon furnished by insert- 
ing in them cuttings of Tariegated or green-leaved Pelargoniums. If closely set 
they are effective at once. ' Some kinds will root and flower well in a fortnight. 
The leaves at fii-st look prettier than those of tall plants, as they sit bo close to 
the gi'ouncl and are so fresh-looking. — W. F. 

Antxunn-Sown Sweet Peas. — InAu^st last I sowed some sweet peas as an 
experiment, that I might by chance obtain a late autumn bloom, in which I was 
deceived ; but the peas gi-owing well, my gardener banked them up in the win- 
ter with ashes. I have now hedges of sweet peas at least eight feet high, with 
haulm as strong as that of the everlasting pea, which have been in full bloom 
since May 30th. The flowers are magnificent, and I shall certainly try the autumn 
sowing again, should I be spared to do so. I send this as a hint to amateur gar- 
deners. — R. M.L., Hampion Wick, Kingston-o)i -Thames. [We are not sm-pmsed 

to hear your autumn-sown peas are so much finer than those sown in spring. 
There is often a very remarkable difference between annual plants sown in 
autumn and in spring, and there can be no doubt that all such plants as bear 
our winters should be sown in autumn.] 

Bull) Culture in Holland.— The far-famed Dutch bulbs are chiefly culti- 
vated near Haarlem andLisse. and owe their superiority as much to thesuitable 
texture and position of the soil— a calcareous sand resting on peat — as to the 
lavish use of manure. An area of 125 acres, devoted to hyacinth-gi-owing near 
Haarlem, is estimated to bring in a revenue of nearly £30,000. In 1859, bulbs 
were exported to the value of £12,700; and in 1862 the village of Bloemendal, 
"the Valley of Flowers," sent forth no less than £200,000 worth. Where bulb 
culture is the main object of attention, the routine is frequently as follows :— 
First year. — The soil is broken up and dug to a depth of five or six inches, a 
heavy dressing of cowdung is auphed, and a crop of potatoes taken. In the 
autumn the bulbs are planted, and the beds remain covered with reeds until 
the month of Ifay. Second year. — About midsummer, the bulbs having been 
colected, grass is sown on the paths between the beds, and in the autumn tulips, 
crocuses, and occasionally clifferent kinds of narcissus and ranunculus, are 
planted on the green sward. 



GARDEN DESTROYERS. 

THE NEW ENEMY TO THE VINE. 

(PHYLLOXEBA VASTATEDC.) 

Upon reading in The Garden of the 28tli June last (p. 700), that 
^' a new blight of a fatal character — the Phylloxera — had made 
its appearance in Bas Languedoc, and was causing very great alarm 
amongst the cultivators and proprietors of vineyards, and that in the 
district of Comtat the vine had already disappeared," it occm-red to 
me that the following account of the new enemy to the vine, trans, 
lated from a periodical published at Ghent {The Flore, vol. 17), 
might be acceptable to your readers : — 

In some localities of the south of Prance, the vines are suffering 
from the ravages of a destructive insect, which has lately been noticed 
for the first time. M. E. A. Can-iere has published in the Revue 
Hmiicole an extract from an article which M. J. E..Planchon contributed 
some time ago to the Corivptes Sendiis de VInstitut (1868, p. 588). Here 
is the passage from the Eevue : — I will here give a brief resume of all 
I learnt about the habits of the Phyllosei-a vastatris from a series of 
observations made on the spot, in three short visits to the south of 
Pi-ance; also all I noticed with reference to the specimens which I 
kept in glass bottles during forty consecutive days. Its best known 
form is that in which no trace of wings can be discovered. When the 
insect is about to lay its eggs (that is, in its adult female state), it forms 
a small ovoid mass, having its inferior surface flattened, its dorsal 
surface convex; being sm-rounded by a land of fiUet, which is very 
naiTOw when it touches the thoracic part of its body, which (formed by 
five rather indistinct rings) is hardly separated from its abdominal part 
of seven rings. Six rows of small blunt tubercles form a slight pro- 
tuberance on the thoracic segments, and are found very faintly marked 
on the abdominal segments. The head is always concealed by the 
anterior protuberance of the buckler ; the lantennaj are almost always 
inactive. The abdomen, often short and contracted, becomes elongated 
towards laying time, and there can be easily seen one, two, or sometimes 
three, eggs in a more or less mature state. The egg sometimes retains 
its yellow colour for one, two, or three days after it has been bid ; more 
often, however, it changes to a dull grey hue. From five to eight days 
generally elapse before it is hatched. The duration of this period 
depends a good deal on the temperature. The quantity of eggs, and the 
rapidity with which they are produced, ai-e probably detenuined by a 
variety of circumstances— the health of .the insect, the quantity of 
nom-ishment it is able to obtain, the weather, and perhaps other causes. 
A female which had produced six eggs at eight o'clock a.m. on the 20th 
August, had fifteen on the 21st at fom- p.m., that is, she laid nine in thirty. 
two hours. Other females lay one, two, or three eggs in twenty-four 
hom-s. The maxi mu m quantity is thirty in five days. The eggs are 
generally piled up near the mother, without any apparent order, but she 
sometimes changes her position so as to scatter them all around her. 
They have a smooth suiface, and adhere lightly to each other by means 
of a slimy matter which attaches to them. 

Hatching takes place thi-ough an irregular and often lateral rent in 
the egg, the empty and crumpled membrane being found among the 
other eggs in dittereut stages of hatching. Dming the first period of 
their active hfe — two, three, four, or five days, as the case may be — the 
insects are in an eiTatic state. They creep about as if they were seek- 
ing for a favourable situation. Their movements are more rapid than 
those of adults. They appear to inspect, as it were, with their antennse 
the sm-face they travel over. The movements of the antennffi are 
generally alternative, and, if the comparison may be pardoned, are not 
unlike the two sticks of a blind man, which he uses to explore the ground he 
is about to tread. After a few days of this ei-rant life, the young insect 
seems to fix upon a spot to settle in. Most frequently there is a fissure 
in the bark of a ^ine, where their suckers can be easily plunged into the 
cellular tissue, ivll of sacchai-ine matter. If you make a fresh wound on 
the root by cutting oft' a Uttle piece of bark, you may see the "Pucerons " 
range themselves in rows around the wound, and once fixed, they apply 
to the root their antennaj, which appear like two divergent horns. At 
this period of their hfe, about the thirteenth or fourteenth day after their 
birth, they are more or less sedentary ; but they change then- places if a 
new wound is made on the root, which promises a fresh supply of food. 
What sense is this which dii'eet these subterraneous "Pucerons" towards 
the place which is most suitable for them ? It cannot be sight, as their 
eyes are merely coloui'ed spots, and they creep as if they were blind. It 
cannot he hearing, because they seek no prey but a vegetable tissue. It 
is probably the sense of smeUuig ; and we may well ask if the nuclei, 
which appear enshrined in the last articulations of the antenuEe are not 
the organs of this function, the seat of which has been so much disputed ? 
Among these non-adult insects, attached by their suckers to the vine 
roots, are seen, here and there, some of middle size. Then- colour is a 
deeper orange, the abdomen shorter and more squarely formed. These 
individuals are more sedentary than the others. I have sometimes 
imagined they might be ivingless (apterous) males of the species ; but as 
nothing has happened to confirm this very problematical hypothesis, and 
as I have seen undoubted females resembling these examples in colour 
and form, I incline to the beUef that there are no sexual differences 
among them. A kind of double moult precedes the adult state. The first 
takes place shortly after birth, the second after laying time. Some 
uncertainty, however, hangs over the number of then- changes, as the 



74 



THE GARDEN. 



[July 27, 1872. 



cast-off skins are often found mixed up with groups of Pueerons of 
different ages, and it is diffloidt to distinguish them. On the morbid 
tuberosities of the fibrous Yine-roots, or on the offshoots of the roots, the 
Pueerons (perhaps better nourished) seem to pass more quickly through 
the diiierent phases I have described ; but excepting that their colour is 
paler, they present no marked difference. 

The winged form of the Phylloxera might easily be taken for a 
separate species. The rare specimens which I have seen have all come 
from the Pueerons nourished on the newly-attached vine radicles. In 
their infant (or it might be called theii' larva) state they resemble those 
which I have suggested may be males ; but the buckler soon becomes more 
strongly marked than in these last, and a kind of band seems distinctly to 
define the separation between this and the abdomen. The sheaths of 
the wings, triangular-shaped and of a greyish coloui', appear on both 
sides of the buckler. It is easy to predict the advent of a iringed insect 
from this chrysalis. When one of these nymphjE is seen to cxuit its place, 
and to crawl over the root or up the side of the bottle whore it may have 
been put,lits transformation is near. Soon, instead of a sort of pupa, 
a beautiful little fly appears, whose two pairs of wings, crossed horizon- 
tally, are much larger than its body. It is impossible to doubt the identity 
of this insect with the Pueerons which formed one of the swarm on the 
vine-root. The details of the structure of certain organs — the antenna?, 
claws, varsi, and suckers — establish their identity. The horizontal 
position of the wings completely distinguishes the Phylloxera from the 
type Aphis, whose wings are always more or less inclined upwards. The 
too larger wings, obliquely oboval and cuneiform, have a lineal areole on 
the larger basilary half of their outer edge ; and this is enclosed in an 
interior " nervure," which answers, I suppose, to the radial muscle. One 
single oblique nervure (or corneous division) is detatched from the last, 
and reaches to the inner edge. Two other linos start from the end of the 
■wing, and, becoming narrower as they proceed, advance towards the 
oblique nervure, but end before reaching it. These are not, perhaps, 
nervures, but rather folds, for I have observed them absent. The inferior 
wings, both narrower and much shorter, have a marginal nervure running 
from the base to the middle, but it loses itself in a gentle protuberance, 
which the wing shows in this place ; a radial nerve mns parallel to the 
first, and disappears before it reaches the same spot. The eyes, black 
and (relatively) very large, are irregularly globular, with marked conical 
nipples. Their surface is gi'anular, but a pointed depression is observed 
in the centre of each glandule. A round eye-shaped spot occupies the 
centre of the forehead. 

Among fifteen specimens of the Phylloxera which have come under 
my notice, not one has presented any sexual difference. Almost all of 
them laid two or three eggs, and their deaths (which happened soon 
after) may have been caused by their imprisonment in the bottles. 
Their eggs resembled those of the wingless Phylloxera, and though they 
were only two or three in number they completely filled the abdomen 
of the mother. They were easily seen by placing the insect under the 
microscope. I do not know how long the eggs remain before they are 
hatched, or if they always produce the winged form of the insect. It 
is probable that these winged individuals serve for the transportation of this 
insect plague to a distance, and that these wings would serve them for 
a rapid flight — they are too inactive, they move them very little, and in 
rising from the ground their horizontal position is preserved. My 
observations, were, however, made under very unfavourable conditions — 
the insect being in a state of capti^dty ; but I suppose that even in a 
natural state the ^vind is the principal agent for the dispersion of the 
Phylloxera, as it is for many of the insect tribe. In any case, the 
discovery ef this form of Phylloxera provided with wings, and evidently 
fitted for an aerial life, is sufficient to explain the hitherto embaiTassing 
fact of the rapid spread of the vine-plague. As to the spread of the 
disease from one vine to another, the wingless Pueerons may suffice for 
this, as, grouped in great numbers about the lower part of unhealthy 
\'ine-stems, they might easily attack the vines nearest them, even if they 
be healthy. It may be asked. In what manner do these insects manage to 
travel from one vine-stock to another, and how do they contrive to reach 
the fibrous roots of the newly-attacked stocks ? Do they burrow under 
the soil, or do they not rather travel along the surface of the earth under 
cover of the darlmesa and coolness of night, and then, traversing the 
fissures in the bark, an-ive in this manner at the extremities of the roots ? 
This coniecture is a probable one, and the following experiment supports 
it :— 

In a case one yard long I placed some garden soil from Montpellier, 
a place entirely free from Phylloxera. In tliis earth I carefully laid some 
pieces of vine cane infested with wingless Pueerons. I placed a h.and-glass 
over each cane, and slightly raised the glass on one side, in order to allow 
the insect to creep out. At three centimetres distance from the pieces 
of cane I put some fragments of root from a healthy vine, in which I had 
made fresh wounds. Intwelve hours the following results were obtained ; 
three Pueerons had found their way from one of the vine canes to the 
nearest piece of vine-root. Some days after, twenty young Pueerons occa- 
]jied the same fragment. A few insects were to be f'ouud in the other 
fragments. One piece of root had attracted none, but the vine cane 
nearest to it had very few insects upon it which were capable of changiug 
their places. A similar expei'iment has been made by Mr. Frederic 
Ijeydier, at the farm of Lancieux, near Sigondas, a part of the country 
already infested by the Phylloxera, and by another person near Sorgues. 
The results of these experiments have not been satisfactory; but this 
does not prove that under other conditions, or with a greater amount of 
perseverance, they might not have been successful. It is fortunate that 
the new enemy to the vine attacks it, in the first instance, at the base of 
the stem, and not underground at the fibres. As it is, a thorough 



dressing of the bottom of the stem with coal-tar will probably prove an 
insurmountable obstacle to the progi'ess of this destructive insect; but 
were the case otherwise, it would be very difficult to get down deep 
enough to reach an enemy so well protected by the depth of the soil. 

From all we hear there cannot be a doubt but that this pest has 
already made its ravages on some of the vines in this country. A 
short time ago a gentleman in the south of England informed me 
that his vines would not grow more than two or three inches ; he 
determined to take them up, and examine the roots ; he did so, and 
found them swarming with the Phylloxera. They could be seen 
with the naked eye, looking like grains of yellow sulphur, in the 
crevices of the roots, and with a glass of good power they were 
distinctly visible. The roots were barked by the insects, and the 
vitality of the vines was destroyed. 

It must be borne in mind that from the high state in which the 
vine is now cultivated, it is much more susceptible of attacks from 
insect plagues, and requires more watchfulness and skill on the part 
of the cultivator to guard against them. The best remedy which I 
can suggest for the disease is, that, immediately the Phylloxera is 
discovered, whether in a private garden or a nursery, it should be 
" stamped out." Delta. 



"THE VERMIN ASPHYXIATOR." 

Sucn is the title of a machine of ingenious but simple construction 
recently invented by Mr. Samuel Bateson, and commending itself 
at once by its name to the notice of gardeners and others who suffer 
from the depredations of vermin. It consists of a small iron 
furnace or crucible, connected by a pipe with a circular chamber 
in which a fan revolves. The lower part of this chamber is shaped 
into an aperture or nozzle, to which india-rubber tubing of any 
required length can be fixed, and the machine is put in action by 
turning a handle ; this sets the fan in motion, and expels through 
the tubing with great velocity and regularity, and in a condensed 
volume, the vapour, be it sweet or foul, health-giving or life- 
destroying, of the compound burning in the crucible. The expulsion 
of vapour by means of a fan is of course an old and well-known 
method, already employed in a great variety of processes, and the 
novelty of the asphyxiator consists, firstly, in several contrivances 
rendering its action and construction simple and durable and the 
whole machine handy and portable ; and, secondly, in the idea of 
utilizing for so many purposes from one machine a forcibly-propelled 
stream of vapour, which may bs poisonous or sweet-scented, sul- 
phurous or merely smoky, according as required. In the waste 
ground behind the west wing of the International E.xhibition, Mr. 
Frank Buckland explained, the other day, the action of the asphyxi- 
ator, which he said was valuable as a fumigatorfor sanitary purposes, 
and infinitely more handy than the old system of fumigating by 
means of burning sulphur pots, since it can be used from without, 
the nozzle of the tube being inserted through a hole in the door or 
hatchway. Mr. Buckland's first experiment was upon two plants 
covered with aphides. These were placed in a glass case, to which 
was fixed the nozzle of the tube leading from the fan chamber of the 
asphyxiator, the furnace being filled with a specially prepared " insect 
destroying paper." The glass case was soon clouded with impenetrable 
fumes, and when, after a few minutes, the reeking plants were 
removed, it was shown that the aphides were no more, while the plants 
were no worse for their vapour loath. Other experiments were tried 
on snakes and weevils, and with equally satisfactory results ; indeed 
it was clear that the asphyxiator would prove most invaluable for the 
destruction of vermin, and for every purpose of disinfection and fumi- 
gation. If it can be made generally effective in the open air, 
what a blessing it will be to gardeners and hop-growers ! 



NOTES AND QUESTIONS ON GARDEN DESTEOTERS. 

The Cabbage Butterfly.— Accnnling to Dr. Uhler, of Baltimore, the Euro- 
pean cabbage butterfly, tlie pest of the English cultivator, has at last 
reached Baltimcre in it-s invasion of the United States. It has been known for 
some years more to tlie enstwnrd, and has been slowly but surely creeping 
along, until it bids fair to involve the whole country in its ravages. 

Ants versus Caterpillars- — .\nts appear to be the most invetornte and bitter 
foe.s of field catcr]iillar.'i. Tlic farm inspector Sterneborg, of Lippstadt, 
gives ,a report of a tiial thus made to get rid of caterpillars : — In the year 1871 
iho garden of the postmaster Ludwig, at Ruthan, was devastated by caterpillars. 
Cabbage pla,nts o! all kinds were tliroatoned with destruction. In this extre- 
mity a labourer brought n- sackful of large ants from the foi-ost, and strewed 
tliom over the cabbages. The caterpillars took to instant flight, and, as fast as 
their means of locomotion allowed, they hurried over wall and hedge with alj 
possible spceil, and by the following day not a single one was left in the garden 



We have heard of the " flowora of rhetoric," — its fruits are the 
Queen's peach. 



July 27, 1872.] 



THE GARDEN. 



75 



THE ARBORETUM. 



TRANSPLANTING LARGE TREES AT BROOKLYN. 

The moving of tho trees in tko fine park at Brooklyn (of which we 
gave a plan in our number for Juno 22ud), was an important and very 
successful operation. At the time the lands of the park were taken, 
there was a large number of fine young trees of natural growth, from 
twenty to forty feet high, and from five to fifteen inches in diameter 
of trunk, in situations where, in the construction of the projected 
improvements, they would have to be removed or destroyed. On the 
lino of some of the former roads and streets within the present park 
area, and more especially on some improved private grounds outside, 
there were also many fine youug trees of varying sizes, chiefly maples, 
elms, lindens, oaks, &c., which had been planted from ten to twenty 
years ago, but which were in positions where it was not desirable 
for them to remain. For the removal of these a large truck was 
specially designed by Mr. Culyer, tho chief engineer, and constructed 
for this purpose, and the following season — November 1867 to 
April 1868 — over one hundred trees were moved with it to desirable 
positions in the park. It was found quite practicable with this 




American Transplanting Machine. 

truck to carry balls of earth surrounding the roots twelve to fourteen 
feet across and more than four feet in depth, with a weight, includ- 
ing tree top, estimated in some cases as exceeding fourteen tons. 
From the accompanying illustration of the truck, the method of 
carrying the tree can readily be understood. The following season 
another truck was built, on the same general principles, but of a 
somewhat smaller size, and more especially designed to carry shrubs 
or trees branching near the ground. With these two trucks over 
nine hundred trees of similar size have since been transplanted. 

The result has so far been quite satisfactory. Many even of the 
larger trees have already well recovered, and are now floui'ishing finely. 
A considerable number have as yet a stunted, stationary character, 
w^ile with some a renewal of permanent vigoux seems doubtful ; but 
the actual loss, so far, has only been about one in a hundred. 
The kinds which have been thus moved by the trucks in greatest 



numbers are maples, elms, lindens, birches, hornbeams, and dog. 
woods. Some ashes, oaks, cherries, tulip trees, sweet gums, 
walnuts, chestnuts, and beeches of similar size havS also been suc- 
cessfully moved from locations where there was sufficient clay in the 
soil to make the ball firm and cohesive ; but, except in stiff soil, the 
risk of moving these is too great to justify extensive operations. 
No hickories of any large size have been attempted, as, from their 
peculiarly large and deep tap roots, they are very sensitive to any inj ury . 
About twenty spruces and pines, from fifteen to thirty -five feet high, 
have likewise been moved by the trucks. The method of raising and 
lowering the tree, and working the truck, is briefly as follows : — A 
trench is dug around four to seven feet from the stem according to 
the size of the tree, and as deep as the roots descend, and the soil is 
taken away from beneath the latter until only a small central prop is 
left, jusb sufiicient to support the tree. Strong chains and timbers 
are then placed under the ball ; the truck is detached at the place 
indicated by the clamp fastenings ; each part is wheeled into position 
from opposite sides, enclosing the trunk, and then fastened together 
again. The chains are attached to the tackles, and, by levers, are 
easily wound on to the windlass until the ball is high enough to clear 
the ground in conveying the tree to the place where it is to be 
planted. 

The excavation to receive the tree is made rather deeper and 
much wider than the ball, and is filled in to the proper level with 
good soil ; the truck is then drawn over the hole, the wheels being 
supported on strong planks if the hole is wider than the truck, and 
the tree is lowered easily to the prepared bed. The trench around 
the ball is then filled up with good soil, any exposed or bruised roots 
being first cut off smoothly. Unless the soil around the roots be 
very gravelly or sandy, very little of it drops or is jarred off during 
the operation. J. Y. C, BrooUyn Park. 



INFLUENCE OF FORESTS ON RAINFALL. 

Tn.iT forests do not induce and control storms is no doubt true, 
but to infer that they have no influence on the rainfall would be 
little less erroneous than to suppose that the amount of woodland 
would be a measure of the rain that might be expected. Extensive 
countries were in former ages highly productive, and hence it is 
supposed were watered with abundant rains, but are now nearly barren 
and seldom have rains, and hence it is inferred that denuding the 
soil and exposing it for centuries to the hot sun and drying winds 
is the reason there are no rains or storms. This is, no doubt, au 
error ; although the amount or want of forests may have no incon- 
siderable influence and effect ou the rainfall during the warm part 
of the year, other causes and influences, as shown by meteorology, 
are mainly instrumental in inducing and controlling storms. Many 
are rather Uable to jump at conclusions, and sometimes go from 
one extreme to the other. Finding that forests do not entirely 
control the rainfall, they are liable to go to the other extreme, and 
say they have no influence at all. It is, nevertheless, a fact that, 
while other agencies may have a controlling influence in inducing 
storms, still the presence of considerable woodland may make a 
material difference in the amount of rain during the gi'owing season 
of the year. How the forests may thus affect the rainfall I will now 
try to show. 

Water is evaporated by heat and diffused through the air until 
condensed by cold, when it usually falls in the form of rain. Con- 
densation is first seen in the form of a cloud, very light and high 
perhaps at first, but lower and heavier as the moisture in the air 
becomes more condensed. A familiar idea of a cloud may be found 
in Professor Henry's statement that a "fog has been aptly called a 
cloud resting on the eai'th, and a cloud a fog suspended in the 
atmosphere." A cloud is of the same weight as the stratum of air in 
which it floats ; and as, in all sections except on mountains, clouds 
are at some height, it follows that they are lighter than the air at 
the surface of the ground ; consequently clouds are as easily moved 
through the atmosishere as the winds, and hence are extremely 
sensitive to the slightest attraction or influence. As water has an 
attraction for water, it is easily seen why clouds and I'ains are 
natui-ally drawn towards large bodies and streams of water, as 
well as towards cool, moist woodlands. Another cause of more 
rain in such places is that the cool, moist ah' over water and wood- 
land favours condensation, when it is fairly started, and thus 
increases the amount of rain ; but a dry, hot surface air has 
the opposite effect. This last influence is so great in some 
places as entirely to prevent rain falling at any time of the 
year. Of this good authorities furnish many examples. Thus it is 
seen how the clouds and moist winds result in rain, when condensed 
by the colder mountairs, in the one case, and are dispersed and 
d iffiised through the atmosphere by the hot, dry air of the desert on 



76 



THE GAEDBN. 



[July 27, 1872. 



the other. California furnishes another good example. In a large 
portion of the State the westerly winds blow from the Pacific Ocean 
nearly all the year, and in summer, when, of course, evaporation is 
the greatest and the winds contain the most moisture, there is no 
rain, as the surface of the ground and the surface air are warmer 
than the winds ; in the winter, when the winds naturally contain the 
least moisture, but the ground and the surface air are cooler than 
these ocean winds, they get their supply of rain for the year. 

The same agencies and influences in nature are always at work in 
all sections, the cooler and more moist air in and over woodland 
favouring rain, while the hotter, drier air over wide, ojien countries, 
has the reverse efi:ect. Then no slight cause of droughts, or of the 
greater severity of droughts during hot weather, in such open 
countries, is the wide and strong sweep of the winds, which often 
carry off the evaporation and moistm'e, to be finally condensed in 
some more favourable section for that purpose, perhaps, over the 
Atlantic Ocean. With plenty of woodland to break up these winds 
and thus favour condensation, this carrying off the moisture that is 
needed in the country may be much less general and severe. 
Scientific men explain that the amount of rain in a shower or storm 
may be influenced by the amount of moistiire in the air at the place. 
Thus, in the vicinity of lakes and large rivers, or of lai'ge bodies of 
woodland, where the air is cool and moist, there may be a heavy 
rain ; while over hot, dry plains, where the air is very dry, the same 
storm may be very light, perhaps, it may not rain at all. This will 
explain the failure of some storms that afford plenty of rain in most 
places, while in others there is very little. In the latter places these 
storms, or more properly appearances, seem to get all ready to rain, 
and look as though they would rain in a very short time; and yet 
the clouds hang over the country and finally work off without giving 
any rain to amount to anything. In such cases, as in the deserts and 
other places above referred to, no doubt the hot di'y air and the dry 
winds prevail and carr'y the moisture, so nearly condensed in the 
clouds, to other regions. 

Although these remarks apply to summer storms generally, they 
are especially true in regai'd to showers. Showers are peculiarly 
sensitive to local influences and attractions, and especially to those 
described above ; and as they are the main dependence during 
summer droughts, every influence that aiSects their number and the 
amount of rain at any one place at once becomes important. A 
slight difference, to the casual observer, in the condition of the air 
and in the condition and amount of tho mnds may make all the 
difference between plentiful showers and none to do any good. — 
Cultivator. 



LILACS. 
It is a matter of regret that we appear to be satisfied with the 
common varieties of the lilac, and that such excellent kinds as Dr. 
Lindley and Charles X. are not planted in preference to, or at least 
to an equal extent with, the commoner kinds. These are limited to 
three : Syringa vulgaris, S. dubia (or rothomagensis), and S. persica, 
with a few of their varieties ; and it is one or other of these kinds we 
are sure to see in our gardens or pleasure-grounds. On the Con- 
tinent, however, there is no such poverty of selection. We take np at 
random a Continental catalogue, and there we find a very extensive 
list of good varieties, at such low prices that there is very little 
excuse for us if our ornamental plantations are not speedily the 
better of it. This list we reproduce for the benefit of oiu- readers ; it 
will serve to show to what a remarkable degree these fine shrubs 
vary, and we can assure our readers that many of them are more 
beautiful than those we grow to such a great extent. 
Alba Geanb des Bataillcs PrL'sidcnt Massart 

Laciniata Grdneral Scliniidb Prince Irapurialc 

Hubra Gloire de la Rochelle Princessc Camille de 

Alme Mocqueris Gloire de MouUns Rohau 

Ambroise VersohaiTelt Goliath PrincesseMarie 

Amoena James Booth Professor Stceckhard 

Bt^Tanger Justii purpurea. 

Charleraajpie Karlsruhensis rubra iusignis 

Croix de Braliy Konig Johann Charles X. 

Delepine Langius Spoctabilia 

Doctor Lindley Lovaniensis Triomphe d'Orldaus 

Docteur Nobbe Madame Kreuler Vallettiana 

Ekenholm Moritz Eichler Ville de Troyes. 

Flore pleno PhiWmon 



THE POISON OAK. 

(RHUS TOXICODENDEOU.) 
This trails aloug the ground, rooting at intervals, and should it 
come in contact with an oak tree, it fastens itself to it and runs 
np it ; yet the oak is not the only tree it so tenaciously adheres to, 
for to other trees or walls coming within its reacli it attaches itself like 



ivy. The leaves consist of three leaflets, the stem attains a thick- 
ness of from two to four inches, and climbs to a height of forty 
feet. The poisonous effects of this plant are very great, and to 
some people more so than to others. To some persons the touch of 
the leaf is ijoisouous, causing an irritating eruption of the skin. 
Simply touching or carrying a bunch of these plants sometimes causes 
the hands, arms, and oven the whole body, to become greatly swollen, 
the swelling being accompanied by intolerable pain and inflam- 
mation, and ending in ulceration. Its poisonous effects are also some- 
times felt even by passing to the leeward of a bush on a windy day, 
or going through the smoke of a fire in which it is burning. These 
effects are not felt by every one, some people being able to handle 
this plant with impunity. 



TREES IN COVENTRY. 

We fire glad to record tliat for some time past a committee 
lias been formed for the planting of the roads near the 
ancient city of Coventry, and that when we last visited it 
considerable progress had been made in planting. The oom- 
luittee is composed of some of the most influential gentlemen 
of the town, and the planting is carried out by Mr. Dawson, 
the manager of the Coventry cemetery. The planting is paid 
for by snbsoription, and not more of it carried out each year 
than the funds in hand will admit of, so that no debts are 
incurred. We recommend the excellent example thus set by 
Coventry to many others of our towns, in which the hideous- 
ness of acres of brick is not relieved by a single tree. 



SHADE. 

When bright sunshine prevails how delicious it is to retire to the 
cool and welcome shade of leafy, ovei-hanging trees. At such a time 
the grandest of Deodars, or the finest of Wellingtonias, has not half 
the charms of the humblest oak or the most uncouth chestnut. To 
get beneath leafy branches, if but for a few minutes, seems to give 
immense relief. What inhumanity it is to turn even dumb animals 
into an enclosure where there are no trees to break the rays of the 
summer sun. Trees planted here and there, though but ever so few, 
would in a few years cast on the ground shadows that would 
be welcome both to man and beast, while the beauty of the landscape 
would be increased. When planting, do we think enough of the 
probable wants of posterity P Londoners have much to be thankful 
for as regards the rich umbrageous foliage that overhangs the great 
pai'ks of the West End. Our forests, our woods, and groves, planted 
in times gone by, that they might grow into money's worth, are to 
us, during the heat of summer, of incalculable value. The noble oak 
standing just in front of my cottage, was probably planted there some 
one hundred years or more ago ; perchance then the thought of a 
dwelling beiug near it was the last thought that entered the minds of 
the planters. Perhaps the land then was common, and the big tree 
of to-day was, after all, but a chance seedling from some grand old 
progenitor that has now passed the way of all that is earthly. In 
any case, there it is ; and now when tho sun pours down its rays 'with 
intense force, how grateful am I for its shade ! how delightfully my 
little ones sport beneath its branches ! how pleasant to carry out a 
few chairs and a table, and there enjoy in coolness and comfort the 
evening meal, and the " cup that cheers but not inebriates ! " I am 
grateful for its shade. Our magnificent forest trees are the glory of 
our land. May our fondness for the denizens of other lands not 
make us forget the debt of gratitude which we owe to om- forefathers 
for the trees and plantations which they have left us, nor neglect to keep 
for posterity a supply of those noble trees that are so richly endowed 
■vvith the power of shade. A. D. 



Trees on the Thames Embankment. — We are glad to say tho 
Plane trees on the Thames Embankment ai'c now looking fresh and 
vigorous, and evidently beginning to grow well. Near tho Houses 
of Parliament they seem weakest, but all the way thence to 
Waterloo Bridge many nice healthy young trees may be seen. It 
was supposed by some that the Planes would not thrive on the 
Embankment ; but tins has proved erroneous. We must confess, 
however, that, with Mr. Noel Humphreys, we share tlie opinion that 
in all cases of extensive street and road planting no effort should 
be spared to iutrodnoe as much variety as possible among the trees. 
There are a good many trees that thrive as well in towns as the 
Plane, aud fur many reasons, needless to enumerate here, it is 
desirable wo should see as much tree beauty as possible in our 
to\vus. 



July 27, 1872.] 



THE GARDEN. 



11 



HARDY TREES AND SHRUBS. 

BY GEORaE GORDON, A.L.S. 
THE SWEET-SCENTED EASTERN THOKN (CKATyEGUS ODOUATISSIMA). 

Tins forms a low spreading, round-lieaded treo, from ten to 
fifteen feet liigli, with numerous branches, more or less curving 
downwards, and thickly furnished with declining, downy, 
spineless shoots. It is a native of the Levant ; it is quite 
hardy, grows freely in any garden soil, is never injured by the 
larva) of insects, and is the latest of all the thorns in leafing 
and flowering. It was first introduced in 1810. 

The leaves, which have a hoary appearance, are more or 
less pinnatified, but they vary very much in shape and size ; 
those on the older parts and fruiting spurs are very deeply cut, 
with the divisions naxrow, sharp pointed, and much smaller 
than the leaves on the young shoots ; the latter are broad, less 
deeply divided, and more rounded, but all of them taper much 
to the footstalks ; they are downy on both surfaces, and more 
or less serrated at the apex of the divisions. The stipules 




Leaves, If incli broad and \\ uicli long, iiicludiui; the footstalk. 



are rather broad and crescent-shaped, with acute sei'ratures on 
the outer edge. 

The flowers are rather large, white, very fragrant, and- pro- 
duced in compact corymbs in Jujie. The fruit is large, globular, 
of a yellowish-red or coral colour, and the sweetest of all the 
eastern thorns ; indeed, when ripe, in the end of August and 
September, it is very agreeable to eat. It is produced in close 
clusters in great abundance, in consequence of which, and its 
brilliant colour, it becomes very ornamental during the autumn, 
as it remains on until destroyed by frost. 



NOTES AND QUESTIONS ON TREES AND SHRUBS. 



Old Acacia in. the Jardln des Plantes- — The oldest tree in this garden, 
the patriarch of the Acacias, called the Old Robinier, whose death was expected 
twenty years ago, has again resisted the cold of last winter, and a shoot has 
sprung out from its trunk (on which there is no bai'k, and which is encased in 
zinc), and is thriving well. This ti'ee was brought from America, by Vespasian 
Robin, arborist to Lonis XIII., 237 years ago. 

Extracting Tree Stumps. — A Guiklford correspondent of the Mount Alex- 
amler Mad has practised successfully the following method of removing the 
stumps of trees from the ground : — He sprinkles on the tops of the stumps 
from 6d. to Is. worth of kerosene, and, as the stumps are seamed, weather 
cracked, or decayed, it soon disappears. On the top of the stumps he piles the 
refuse wood, and after two or three days sets fire to them, and they burn com- 
pletely up, roots and all. A lad can do the work, and have scores on fire at 
once. 

Old Oak. — There is a magnificent old oak on the Montravail estate, near 
Saintes. The old tree is quite hollow, but still verdant and glandiferous. On 
the south side there is a kind of door, and the Drnidical hall inside is large 
enough to receive a dozen visitors to be seated on stone benches arranged around 
a kind of round table. M. Dorbigny, according to the approved method, boiled 
a sectional portion of the timber in oil, and by calculations, based on analogy, 
and the virtual diameter of the trunk, concluded that there were more than 
2,000 rings, /.c, that the forest monarch, had passed his two thousandth anniver- 
sary. 

Singular Enclosure in a Tree. — A Minnesota wood-chopper hewed down a 
tall tree the other day, and, upon sphtting up the trunk with an ase and wedge, 
found imbedded in the wood at a point where the trunk diverged into branches, 
a leather bridle of antique pattern, with bit and buckles attached, and all in a 
remarkable state of in'eservation. It has been fnUy thirty feet from the gi-oimd, 
and its presence there can only be accounted for by the supposition that some 
passing horseman had used the crutch of a sapling as a rest for his bridle, and, 
led from the place in pm-suit of his straying horse, had been unable to find it 
again, and abandoned the bridle to be carried up and entombed by the slow 
growth of the tree. It is believed that the tree must have been fifty years in 
hiding its treasure. 

Himalayan Seeds. — Having received the following seeds from the Hima- 
layas, will yon tell me how to deal with, them? especially No. 6 : — 1, Cedcus 
Deodara; 2, Abies Smithiana ; 3, Finns escelsa; -i, Finns Pindrow ; 5, Cupressns 

tortuosa j 6, Rottlera tinctoria. — Chilhaii. [The coniferous seeds should be 

sown at once in a light sandy, rather di-y loam, and placed in a cool situation, 
such as in a garden frame with its back turned to the sun, shaded by a mat, and 
m.erely kept moist until they begin to grow. The Rottlera tinctoria is a stove 
i*' shrub, the seeds of which require to be sown in heat.] 



THE GARDENS OF ENGLAND. 



CONIFEROUS TREES AT ELVASTON CASTLE. 

Elvaston originally possessed few natural advantages. Mr. 
Barron, in his " British "Winter Garden," however, says, " in- 
August 1830 I found it to possess one feature which I had 
neither the power nor the wish to alter." This consisted of two 
avenues, planted, I believe, at the suggestion of the celebrated 
Capability Browne, who, on meeting, by aijpointment at Elvas- 
ton,the grandfather of the present Earl of Harrington, somewhat 
startled his lordship by telling him " that it was well, and he 
would let well alone ;" upon an explanation being demanded, 
he said that the place was so flat, and that there was such a 
want of capability in it, that he would not meddle with it, at 
the same time presenting to his lordship six Cedars of Lebanon, 
and proposing that they should be planted on the east side of 
the mansion. They have now grown to be large, handsome, 
well-proportioned trees, and form, I need scarcely say, a fine 
feature near the castle. 

It is now upwards of a 'quarter of a century since I first 
visited the gardens and grounds of Elvaston, where I spent an 
agreeable day with Mi'. Barron, admiring choice bits of land- 
scape, and discussing the merits and demerits of the numerous 
rare conifers then planted there. At that period there were 
few, if any, places in Great Britain, which presented so many 
attractions, not only to arboriculturists and horticulturists, 
but also to men of taste and refinement in all ranks of life, as 
Elvaston. The place had then been but recently formed. Lord 
Harrington wanted to have a garden " second to none," and in 
Mr. Barron he had an accomplished and able assistant, of 
whom it might truly be said, " he was the right man in the 
right place." Large trees had been brought from all parts of 
England, and Mr. Barron's now well-known tree-lifting 
machines had lieen increased in size and power to suit the 
demands made upon them. An extensive artificial lake and a 
series of rockworks had been formed, of which the late Duke of 
"Wellington said, " they were the only good imitations he had 
ever seen." In laying out the grounds, according to well con- 
ceived designs, an immense quantity of evergreen trees and 
shrubs had been planted, particularly conifers, all of which 
had been used with much taste and judgment ; indeed, no 
labour nor expense had been spared to make Elvaston what it 
then was — the wonder and admiration of all who saw it. 

On a recent visit to Mr. Barron, at Borrowash, he kindly 
offered to drive me to Elvaston, an offer which was gladly 
accepted. Twenty-five years have rolled away, and again the 
gates of Elvaston are passed. The scene is changed : 
perhaps there are more shadows on the landscape, now the 
small trees have become large and the large ones larger ; but 
the high keeping everywhere then apparent is not now so 
conspicuous ; the fairyland is exchanged for ordinary pleasure 
ground ; yet, not ordinary, for at every step, here, there, and 
everywhere, noble specimens of conifers, and other exotics 
from many lauds, ever and anon present themselves, dressed 
in adult habit, telling us far more forcibly than words can do, 
that they are at home, and mean to become permanent denizens 
of these islands. Soon after our arrival we were fortunate 
enough to meet with Mr. McKellar, the enthusiastic and 
intelligent young gardener who presides over the garden 
establishment there, and who kindly showed it to us. During 
a somewhat hurried visit, I noted the following conifers as 
being likely to prove useful, either as ornamental or timber 
trees : — 

The Douglas Fir (Abies Douglasii) : In great numbers, 
from 60 to 70 feet in height ; coning abundantly, which few of 
the newer conifers are doing this season ; in perfect health, 
except where much exposed, or where the tops rise above the 
surrounding trees. 

Menzies' Spruce (AbiiSs Menziesii) : Prom 40 to 50 feet high; in 
fine health, although not growing with the vigour, and wantmg 
that rich silveiy appearance which it has in more elevated and 
mountainous situations, particularly when the soil is rich and 
deep. 

The Eastern Spruce (Abies orientalis) : About 25 feet high ; 
this is likely to prove of more importance as an ornamental 
than a timber tree. In a deep, damp soil, it is very beautiful, 



78 



THE GARDEN. 



[July 27, 1872. 



and forms a fine lawn or avenue tree ; ia thiu, poor soils, it 
soon becomes scraggy and miliealtliy. 

Chili Pine (Ai-aucaria imbricata) : From 30 to 40 feet in 
heiglit. This unique tree has long been associated with 
Elvaston, where, except the fine specimen at Dropmore, 
perhaps the finest in England used to grow. The severe 
winter of 1861-62 injured some of the best specimens, but 
many remain in perfect health, some of which are bearing a 
few cones this season. 

The Deodar (Cedi-us Deodara) : From 40 to 60 feet in 
heio-ht. Likely in good localities to prove a timber tree, and, 
wherever it thrives, a really ornamental one. It is seldom 
seen fine in exposed situations, or in very poor soil. At 
Elvaston it is generally healthy, and still retains a habit dis- 
tinct from that of the Cedar of Lebanon, which, in its adult 
state, it is said to very much resemble, if it does not prove to 
be altogether synonymous. 

Japan Cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) : From 30 to 40 feet 
high. This species is somewhat more spreading than many 
other conifers, the diameter of its branches being equal to 
about half its height. The tree has a very distinct and pleasing 
appearance, and forms wood freely. 

The Cephalonian Silver Fir (Pioea cephalouica) : From 30 
to 40 feet in height. This fine species is to be seen here in fine 
health, although slightly spring -tender when young; con- 
sequently, it should be grown in a shaded situation till it reaches 
above the frost line, four or five feet in height ; afterwards 
it is quite hardy ; even here, in this inland county, no indica- 
tions are to be seen of its suffering fi-om late spring frosts. 
As a timber, as well as an ornamental, tree, this fine fir is likely 
to prove really important. 

The Noble Silver Fir (Picea nobilis) : From 40 to 50 feet in 
height. At Elvaston, as almost everywhere else, this grand 
tree stands out conspicuously ; its massive pyramidal form, 
and rich blue-green and glaucous hues, at once arrest the 
attention of even the untutored, as well as the cultivated eye; 
and, when seen in full health, loaded with large cones, it 
leaves an impi'ession such as few other trees do. For an 
avenue it is one of the most beaiitiful conifers in cultivation. 
This species should be used by all who are engaged in planting, 
whether for ornamental purposes, nurses, or timber trees ; 
the grandeur of its appeai'auce, the rapidity of its growth, and 
its adaptability to oiu" sod and climate will always justify such 
a procedure. 

The Spanish Silver Fir (Picea Pinsapo) : FromSOfeet to 3-5 feet 
in height. This beautiful and well-known species is growing 
here with unusual vigour, and although it forms wood some- 
what slower than its congener the P. cephalouica, it is a 
still more valuable ornamental tree, which should be planted 
wherever such is an object. 

Nordmaun's Silver Fir (Picea Nordmanuiana) : Mr. Barron 
specially directed my attention to the original specimen of this 
first introduced to this country, and which was sent to him 
about thirty 3-ears ago, with a plant of Pinus Strobus nivea, 
by Mr. Frederick, then amanuensis to the late Mr. Loudon. 
It was three years at Elvaston before the late Dr. Luidley 
would admit that it was in the country. wing to the plant 
having encovintered a series of accidents it is not now much 
more than twelve feet in height, but it is in perfect health. 

Black Austrian Pine (Pinus austriaca) : A dark-looking, 
strong-growing, extremely hardy tree, likely to prove in- 
valuable for planting as a nurse or for forming a background 
in exposed situations. As a timber tree it is not hkely to prove 
of much value, owing to its forming so many large braTiohes. 

Cembrian or Swiss Pine (Pinus Cembra) : This grows here 
from 3-5 feet to 4-5 feet in height, is very healthy, and appears 
to luxui'iate in the deep loamy soil of the district. 

The Bhotan Pine (Pinus excelsa) : From 30 feet to 40 feet 
high. This pine, in general appearance, somewhat resembles 
the Weymouth Pine, but is larger in all its parts, and less 
formal and regular in its habit. It is vei-y fastidious as to 
soil and situation ; here it forms a fine tree. 

Lambert's Pine (Pinus Lambertiana) : From 30 feet to 40 
feet high. This species, like the P. excelsa, is somewhat 
fastidious as to soil and situation ; where it succeeds well, it 
is a noble tree. At Elvaston it thrives tolerably well, and 
is likely to form a grand tree. 



Corsican Pine (Pinus Laricio) : From 50 feet to 60 feet in 
height. There are iserhaps none of our recently-introduced 
coniferous trees which are found to thrive in such a variety 
of soils and situations as the Corsican Pine; as a nurse or 
timber tree its importance can hardly be overrated. 

Pinus macrocarpa : From 40 to 50 feet high. Because this 
fine tree does not thrive — indeed, wUl scarcely live — in some 
parts, an opinion, held by many, that it is not hardy prevails 
to some extent. A visit to Elvaston will at once remove this 
impression ; there it is to be seen in fine health, and generally 
this is the case when grown on a rich, deep, rather damp, 
than dry soil, particrdarly where the situation is moderately 
sheltered. 

Tartarian Pine (Pinus PaUasiana) : Prom 30 feet to 40 
feet in height. A fine hardy strong-growing tree, with dark 
shining leaves, growing in a great variety of soils, but 
thriving best in a warm deep loam. It does well at Elvaston, 
and promises to be a useful timber tree. 

Heavy-Wooded Pme (Pinus ponderosa) : From 40 feet to 
50 feet high. This noble tree, like the P. macrocarpa, 
prefers a deep strong soQ, and where it succeeds is an object of 
great interest. At Elvaston it is in fine health. 

Pyrenean Pine (Pinus pyi-enaica) : From 30 feet to 40 feet 
in height. This is a hardy free-growing species, with dark 
green glossy foliage, and reddish-yellow bark on the young 
growths when matured; altogether a useful tree, whether 
planted for ornamental, nursing, or for timber purposes. It 
thrives in all moderately good soils; at Elvaston it is in 
perfect health. 

Variegated Pinaster (Pinus Pinaster variegata) : There are 
two or three of the finest specimens of variegated Pinasters 
here I have ever seen ; in most cases the variegation is irregu- 
lar and limited in amount, and, as the tree extends its growth, 
is often thrown off altogether ; here it predominates, and is said 
when in full leaf to have a fine appearance. The trees grow 
within a short distance of the mansion and should be observed 
by visitors, being conspicuous among the many rarities which 
enhance this interesting domain. 

Taxus baocata aui'ea : Those who have any doubt about the 
wonderful effects on landscape produced by variegated plants 
should see what is done by means of the variegated yew at 
Elvaston, where it is extensively and most successfully used to 
light up and relieve the darker evergreen masses with which 
it is associated. At this season of the year it is remarkably 
fine, and probably the wet season has had something to do with 
its unusually rich appearance. 

I would have liked to have said something about the 
numerous old yews, which have been brought here from great 
distances, some of them many centuries old, and each having 
an interesting history of its own, linking the present with the 
past, and giving an interest to the place which it could not 
otherwise possess ; but I prefer that some one else should 
undertake the task. 

I have now only to express a wish that others may meet as 
hearty a welcome, and enjoy the rich arboreal treat which 
Elvaston presents, as much as I did, when they visit this still 
fine place. Archibald Fowler. 

Castle Kennedy, Wigfonslitrc, 



Allotment Gardens at Coventry. — There are from eight 
hundi-ed to one thousand gardens around Coventry, from about one eighth 
of an acre and upwards to an acre each, some few being larger. They are 
sought after and much prized by their occupiers, as they afford them 
much healthful relaxation and pleasure, besides adding in no small degree 
to the healthy condition of the inhabitants generally, a fact borne out 
by the low death-rate of Coventry, as compared with many other large 
cities, Coventry being generally third in the Registrar-General's quarterly 
report. The walks between the gardens are much frequented. — D. 

" A FEW days ago," says the New York Daihj BnUelin, " some of the 
most sentimental brokers doing business upon the Stock Exchange made 
up a pool of a small amount, by subscribing 25 cents each, for the 
purchase of a terra cotta vase, which was placed upon the large table in 
the Exchange, to be filled with fresh-cut flowers every morning by Mr. 
Alexander Stewart." The entire an*angement, in fact, was made at the 
instigation of Mr. Stewart, who has adopted this method of humanizing 
the board. It is stated that the brokers readily handed in their contribu- 
tions, particularly the young ones, many of whom remarked that the 
flowers would remind them of the gx'een fields of their youth, and of the 
days when they were young and innocent. 



Jtot 27, 1872.] 



T^HE GARDEN. 



79 



PUBLIC GARDENS. 



THE VILLA PAMPHILI DOEIA, EOMB. 

BY NOEL HUilPHRETS. 

The Villa Pampbili Doria is oue of the most important of 
the many yillas -srhich embellish the suburbs of Rome. Its 
attractions are perhaps superior to those of the famous Villa 
Borghesi, though its greater distance from the central parts 
of the city, and the reputed unhealthiness of its situation, 
causes it to be much less frequented as a popular promenade. 
Most of the vUlas of the Roman nobles are open to the public, 
the customs of ancient Rome being followed by the rich 
denizens of the modern city in that respect. The gardens of 
the stern Sylla were free to the citizens of Rome, as were 
the more luxurious and splendid ones of Lucullus ; and 



highly-decorated gardens which they created having been 
thrown open, with very few restrictions, to the public. 

The Villa Pamphili Doria was created by the wealth of 
Pope Innocent X. (a Pamphili), whose extraordinary devotion 
to Olimpia Maldachiui forms one of the leadius; traits in his 
career. It is difficult to account for the great influence of this 
lady, except on the supposition that her intellectual powers 
were of a very high order, for her mere personal charms were 
certainly not remarkable, if we may trust the portrait which 
forms one of the chief objects of attraction in the small but 
select picture gallery of the elegant palazzo. 

The entrance to the ornamental grounds, highly decorated 
with architectural dressings and enriched with statuary, com- 
mands a view of the palazzo, or rather palazzetto, which is a 
very elegant structure, though on a restricted scale. Its 
exterior is almost entirely encrusted with antique relievos of 




View in Gardens of the Villa Pamphili Doria, Rome. 



Shakespeare has made Mark Anthony tell us how those of 
Csesar were bequeathed to the public : — " Here is the will : 
and under Cassar's seal," says the speaker, addressing the 
citizens, over the body of Caesar, — 

" He hath left you all his walks, 
His private arbours, and new-planted orchards. 
On this side Tiber : he hath left them to you. 
And to your heirs for ever ; common pleasures,* 
To walk abroad, and recreate yourselves." 

The Popes, who were the modern Cassars, were, as a rule, the 
creators of the most beautiful casinos and villas that embellish 
the suburbs of Rome, and they have been scarcely less 
generous than the great Dictator himself, nearly all of the 

* Pleasures, or Plaieaunces; that is to say, pleasure-gai'dens, as distinct 
from orchards and vegetable gardens. 



exquisite workmanship. So exquisite are many of them that 
one cannot but regret that such unique and remarkable 
specimens of ancient art, of the very highest class, should be 
thus exposed to the gradual but certain destruction which 
exposure to the action of weather and seasons, even in the soft 
cUmate of Rome, will eventually insure. 

The extensive grounds of this elegant deli::ia are extremely 
beautiful, and from one part there is a distant view of 
St. Peter's, with a foreground of green slopes studded with 
stone pines, aloes, and evergreen oaks, which few of the land- 
scape painters who visit Rome omit to transfer to panel or 
canvas, ilany of the alleys and shrubberies remind the visitor 
of the famous Bosquet of Versailles, as do the finely designed 
fountains, though on an infinitely smaller scale. The casino or 
palazzetto itself also recalls Versailles, and one cannot help 
feeling that the chief architect of the enormous palace of the 



80 



THE GAKDBN. 



[July 27, 1872. 



great Frencli king must have very closely studied its archi- 
tecture during his stay in Rome, and have taken away with 
him careful sketches of the palace summer-house of the Villa 
Pamphili Doria. 

The groups and groves of stone pines, those picturesque 
firs of the south, are among the most distinctive features of 
these elegant park-gardens ; and in late autumn pleasant pic- 
nics are often formed beneath them, when many (almost too 
many) fiasehetti of Orvieto wine are emptied, to which the 
nibbling of the delicious inneUi, (the kernels of the fallen cones) 
forms a pleasant accompaniment. I remember sucb a party, I 
will not say how many years ago ; but it was when Gregory X V^I. 
was Pope, and we were all very merry, very witty, and a very 
enthusiastic party, the hours then passed were very sweet 
ones, but their recollection is bitter, for few now remain of 
those who made them so pleasant. 



LADY CORISANDB'S GARDEN. 

" How I hate modern gardens ! " said St. Aldegonde. " What a 
horrid thing this is ! One might as well have a mosaic pavement 
there. Give me cabbage roses, sweet peas, and wallflowers. This is 
my idea of a garden. Corisande's garden is the only sensible thing 
of the sort." 

" One hkes a mosaic pavement to look like a garden," said 
Euphrosyne, " but not a garden like a mosaic pavement." 

" The worst of these mosaic beds," said Madame Phcebus, " is, 
you can never get a nosegay, and if it were not for the kitchen 
garden wo should be destitute of the gayest and sweetest of crea- 
tions." 

" Corisande's garden is since your first visit to Brentham," said 
the Duchess to Lothair. " No flowers are admitted that have not 
perfume. It is very old-fashioned. You must get her to show it 
yon." 

It was agreed that after breakfast they should go and see 
Corisande's garden ; and a party did go — all the Phoebus family, and 
Lord and Lady St. Aldegonde, and Lady Corisande, and Bertram, 
and Lothair. 

In the pleasure ground of Brentham were the remains of an ancient 
garden of the ancient htjuse that had long ago been pulled down, 
when the moderu pleasure grounds were planned and created. Not- 
withstanding the protests of the artists in landscape, the father of 
the present duke would not allow this ancient garden to be entirely 
destroyed, and one came upon its quaint appearance in the dissimilar 
world in which it was placed as you might, in some festival of 
romantic costume, upon a person habited in the courtly dress of the 
last centmy. The duke had given this garden to Lady Corisande, in 
order that she might practice her theory, that flower gardens should 
be sweet and luxuriant, and not hard and scentless imitations of 
works of art. Here, in their season, flourished abundantly all those 
productions of nature which are now banished from our once 
delighted senses ; huge bushes of honeysuckle, and bowers of sweet 
peas, and sweet briar, and jessamine clustering over the walls, and 
gilliflowers scenting with their sweet breath the ancient bricks from 
which they seemed to spring ; there were banks of violets which the 
southern breeze always stirred, and mignonette filled every vacant 
nook. As they entered now, it seemed a blaze of roses and carna- 
tions, though one recognised in a moment the jiresence of the lily, 
the heliotrope, and the stock. Some white peacocks were basking 
on the southern wall, and one of them, as the visitors entered, moved 
and displayed its plumage -with scornful pride. The bees were busy 
in the air, but their homes were near, and you might watch them in 
their glassy hives. 

" Now, is not Corisande quite right ? " said Lord St. Aldegonde, 
as he presented Madame Phoebus with a garland of woodbine, with 
which she said she would dress her hair at dinner. All agreed with 
him, and Bertram and Euphi'osyne adorned each other with carnations, 
and Mr. Phcebus placecl a flower on the uncovered head of Lady 
St. Aldegonde, according to the principles of high art ; and they 
sauntered and rambled in the sweet and sunny air, amid a blaze of 
butterflies and the ceaseless hum of bees. — " Lothair," 



Meetings in the Parks. — Henceforth, in all parks imder the 
management of the Commissioners of Works, including Holyrood and 
Linlithgow, no one will have the semblance of right *' to deliver, or 
invite any pdrson to deliver, a.ny public address, except in accordance 
with the rules of the park, which rules are to be first laid before Par- 
hament.'' It is understood that, in accordance with this provision, 
certain spots wiU be set apart for iJxibHc meetings, and anyone a.ddressiug 

public meeting h eld in any other part of a park wiU be hable to a 
penalty of five pounds. 



VEGETATION IN TOWNS. 

BY WILLIAM HINDS, M.D., &c.. 
Professor of Botany, Queen's College, Eu-mingliam. 

One of the first facts we have to meet is that we supply plants and 
trees with a positively enormous quantity of food — that class of food 
from which nearly all the solid parts of plants and trees are derived. 
I do not refer, of course, to the water or to the ammonia, but to the 
carbonic acid, which must be furnished in the water. Professor 
Herepath estimated that about 12.7 oz. of carbon are daily converted 
by an adult into carbonic acid. Professor Helmholtz estimated the 
amount as on an average about 16 oz. Now 12.7 oz. produce, when 
oxidised into carbonic acid, about twenty-five cubic feet, and 16 oz. 
would give more than thirty cubic feet. The human beings in 
Birmingham alone number about four hundred thousand, if not more. 
This, without counting animals, would give us twelve million cubic 
feet per diem of carbonic gas for Birmingham. But this is far from 
the full aggregate, for we have to add to this sum that which is 
produced by every gaslight, every fire, and every other full o.xidation 
of carbon. From fifteen milHon to twenty million cubic feet of 
carbonic acid must then be produced daily in this large community. 
A second fact is that this gas, which feeds the plants and trees, is a 
deadly gas so far as animal hfe is concerned, and must be got rid of 
effectually if we are to live and breathe, and retain and enjoy health. 
Nay, even when diluted with 80 per cent, of common air it is fatal 
to animal life. A dilution to the extent of 90 per cent, with common 
air gives a mixture injurious to animal life, and camiot be breathed 
without injury. What, then, becomes of this enormous sum of 
fifteen milhon or twenty million cubic feet of carbonic acid produced 
every day P No doubt it becomes gradually diffused ; and well it is 
so, or we could not live a single hour in our ordinary ck'cnmscribed 
atmosphere. It must be thus partially removed from the sphere of 
animal respiration, but it is not eifectually done, or even half done, 
under the present arrangements of society ; and decadence of health 
too often from this unsuspected cause results! But, even when 
difllused, it is not destroyed. It still exists in the atmosphere, 
especially in the neighbourhood of and in crowded communities, 
and it can only be effectually got rid of by vegetation, and vegetation 
on a large scale in and in close proximity to towns. A third 
fact now meets us, namely, that we in towns are doing all we 
can to kill the very agents on which we depend for our lives and our 
health. Animals die without a constant supply of cxygen ; vegetables 
die without a full and free supply of carbonic acid. Every city and 
every town in this kingdom is, however, engaged in the process of 
suffocating plants with their smoky and intolerable atmospheres. 
The moment any plant is introduced, a gradual process of suffocation 
commences, and this is followed in some cases by rapid death, or, if 
not, by a sickly decadence. This is as effectually done as if animals 
were prevented from exhaling the carbonic acid from their lungs, 
either altogether, or else partially prevented, as human beings are 
when they breathe an atmosphere previously contaminated with five, 
ten, or twenty per cent, of this deadly excrementitious substance ; or 
when the larynx or bronchial tubes are physically obstructed. But 
for this one condition, we might have plants and flowers and trees 
growing in every locahty, or in eveiy corner of this crowded to\vn, 
and these would reUeve the inhabitants of the refuse and deadly 
acid which is often so unsuspectingly hurtful or fatal to health. The 
breathing or respiratory mouths of the leaf, on the average, number, 
we may calculate, about sixty thousand on every square inch of the 
under surface, or sixty times as many as the sudoriparous poi'es of 
vai-ious portions of the human skin. A fairly lai-ge leaf of the rhodo- 
dendron would give about ten square inches of surface below. We 
should thus get in one leaf on its imder side alone about six hundred 
thousand pores, and which excrete oxygen, and act as ordinary exha- 
lents. These breathing and exhalent orifices are very small, and therefore 
much more easily obstructed by those minute particles which con- 
stitute the subsequent pelhcle of smoke — soot. Smoke is, of course, 
sooty carbon in a very minute state of division, and the more impalp- 
able and fine the particles the more effectually does it cover the 
breathing pores with an obstructive if not impenetrable layer. The 
rain, oven when free from soot, which indeed it seldom or never is, 
in towns, does not clear these pores, because the upper side of the 
leaf is much less abundantly furnished with pores than the 
lower. No doubt Nature arranged that in this way dust and 
dirt should not act so much as obstructions. Bat even dust 
and dirt merely would not very materially injure a plant exposed to 
light and rain freely, with the other known requirements. They are 
not like the thin penetrating fatal film deposited by smoke. To a 
certain extent the trees in all our very immediate suburbs, which are 
evergreen, or retain their leaves through the winter, may be shoivn 
to have a slight deposit of smoke, not so much, however, in the 
suburbs as to very severely injure the plant. Leaves in the botanic 



July 27, 1872.] 



THE GAKDEN. 



81 



gardeu at Edgbaston, just a mile from the centre, will be found 
somewhat contaminated, and the smoke may be wiped ofi or washed 
off. Some plants are like delicate children, and the first decadence 
is perhaps one of rapid death. Other plants are hardy or less tender, 
and seem resolved apparently to die hard. It is a question of degree 
and variations in the several conditions ; and none of the facts at all 
subvert those relentless conditions and laws by which the AUwise 
Creator has accomplished His wonderful designs and will. What 
can be done ? What remedies have we in oar power ? These are 
multitudinous ; but we have many questions to deal with as to 
sanitary laws. The dense accumulation of people in a very large 
town produces much poverty, disease, death, squalor, filth, and other 
evils. Surely it could never be intended by nature that human 
beings should collect themselves and their habitations so closely 
together as to shut out life often, and especially the means of 
breathing an atmosphere consistent with life, and even seeing some- 
thing of the other works of nature besides themselves. The dense 
accumulations of large towns is a fatal mistake, and a fatal evil. 
Gradually this dire evil must practically force itself upon the notice 
of civilised nations, and in spite of the overbearing tendencies to 
concentration, the future policy of every wise people will perhaps 
inevitably be, and certainly should be, dispersion, and thus further 
the aim of the Creator 
when He made the 

world of life strictly . - , 

relational in its de- u^ ^^^-^ ^^:' 

partments, and left 
the intelligence of 
His cx-eatm'es to find 
out and carry out His 
all. wise, beneficent, 
and sovereign will. 



timbered park and polished pleasure-grounds o£ the country 
mansion. It would be well for the health, comfort, and happi- 
ness of many gardeners, as well as for the further adornment 
of many charming landscapes, were gardeners' houses removed 
from the back sheds, where so many of them are placed, and 
erected, as features of interest and beauty, on some of the best 
spots of the pleasure-grounds. D- Buky. 




Gate Lodge at S.j 



THE CLOTHING 
OF COTTAGES. 

Few things are 
more incongruous 
in landscape 
scenery than the 
garish glare of a 
new cottage, or the 
bald walls or l^are 
tiles of an old one. 
Cottages are fre- 
quently uidispens- 
able as lodges, gar- 
deners' residences, 
and even for orna- 
ment. But it is 
comparatively sel- 
dom that they are 
well managed, and 
made to fit in to 
and evencontribute 

to the richness and beauty of a landscape. In most cases 
they are planted, or rather smothered out. A thick blind of 
trees and shrubs is got up to shut out the cottage and shut 
iu the inmates. This renders a dwelling unwholesome, and 
also deprives a landscape of a very enjoyable featu.re, that of 
habitability, if I may so call it. The rising smoke from the 
chimneys, the light and sound of living beings, all add new 
features and charms to a landscape. Hence, where cottages 
exist, within or near the grounds belonging to an estate, 
they should be made worthy of the position, and made to 
harmonise with it. Sometimes a slight or considerable change 
in the buildings themselves will be needed ; a new front or 
end, or chimney, a tower, rustic or otherwise ; a flagstaff, a 
castellated roof, or a gable end, &o. In others, nothing is needed 
but the judicious clothing of the walls with ivy, clematis, 
roses, jasmines, &c., as in our woodcut. A few trees planted, 
and a rustic fence, as here shown, are very effective. This 
mode of partially revealing the house is very pleasing. The 
walls, roofs, and chimneys even cau be wreathed or embowered 
in green, contrasting charmingly with the windows and then* 
white blinds. Lodges seldom look so well as when treated in 
this manner. They thus form a green link, alike refreshing 
and pleasing, between the dusty public road and the finely 



THE INDO OR GARDEN. 

THE BLUE LESCHENAULTIA. 
Although this is one of the finest and most generally admired of 
greenhouse j)lauts, and one which, when well managed, remains in 
beauty longer than most of our greenhouse favourites, yet it rarely 
happens that we see it iu auj'thing like perfection. It is a first-class 
plant for decorative purposes, as well as one of the most effective for 
exhibition ; and no plant with which I am acquainted better repays 
the trouble necessary to manage it properly. There are two varieties 
of it in cultivation, the best of which is known in the trade as biloba 

major ; and I would 
advise persons com. 

mencing its culture 

to procure that kind 
in preference to the 
other, for its blooms 
are larger and pro- 
duced more freely 
under similar treat- 
ment ; both, however, 
are beautiful plants, 
well deserving a place 
iu every collection. 

In commeucing the 
culture of this plant, 
procure nice young 
specimens from some 
nursery, and in select- 
ing them, choose such 
as have a clean 
healthy appearance, 
and are strong and 
stocky and not over- 
potted. As soon as 
the plants can be 
procured, they should 
be repotted and 
placed in an inter, 
mediate house where 
a temperature of from 
50" to 60° is main, 
tained, placing them 
near the glass and 
encouraging growth; 
give air on the shel. 
tared sideofthe house 
on every favourable opportunity, but avoid rentilating so as to cause 
dry cold currents. As they progress, attend to stopping the stronger 
shoots and tying out the branches as may bo necessary to secure a 
compact regular growth. Plants obtained in March, and which have 
done well, will be ready for a second shift by this time, and if all 
goes well, the plants will have taken to their second shift by the 
middle of August, and ^vill then be nice half specimens. 

To prepare these to stand a damp and sunless winter must now be 
attended to. They should be gradually exposed to a free circulation 
of air, removing them to a cool dry house for a week, and then placmg 
them out of doors for a fortnight or three weeks, which will ripen 
and harden the wood and render them much less liable to suffer 
from damp during the winter ; while out of doors they must be laid 
on their sides if heavy rains occur, and be carefully watched, so as 
to guard against the soil getting saturated, and, if wet weather 
should set iu, the plants had better be placed under glass, allowing 
them all the air possible. Daring winter they should be placed in a 
cool house where the teraperatm-e will not exceed 40°, keeping them 
near the glass and giving air whenever the weather will permit ; but 
this should not be done so as to to cause currents of cold air to rush 
through the plants. Except on very mild days air should be given 
on the sheltered side of the house only ; drip, too, must not be allowed 
to faU on the plants. If, dming damp weather, the foUage shows 
any tendency to fog off, a little fire.heat should be applied, giving au- 
at the same time to dry the leaves. 



■icvto)!, ovn;.meuted will Climhcrs. 



82 



THE GARDEN. 



[July 27, 1872. 



Treat the plants the second season exactly as has just been recom- 
mended, taking care to stop any over luxuriant shoots, and to put 
them nicely into form before starting into growth in March. By the 
end of the second season they will be fair-sized specimens, and should 
be placed out of doors early in August ; for, unless the young wood 
is ripened, there will be little chance of their blooming. In my 
opinion it is better to have a moderate-sized plant covered with 
bloom than one twice as large 'with only a few straggling flowers on 
it. 

The soil in which I have found this plant to do best is good fibrous 
peat, nicely broken up, mixed liberally with silver sand. Care should 
be taken to have the ball in a properly moist state, and also the fresh 
soil in as nearly as possible the same condition as to moisture ; the 
new soil should be regularly and rather (but not over) firmly pressed 
about the ball. Care should also be exercised to secure perfect 
drainage, and this should be done by nicely arranging a moderate 
quantity of thin crocks and covering them, so as to effectually prevent 
the fine soil from stopping up the drainage. 

I have said nothing about watering, but the proper application of 
this is a very important point with respect to securing success in the 
culture of this plant. When in an active growing state, a liberal 
supply is required, but the soil must never be saturated ; and, when 
the season's growth is completed, the plant should be very sparingly 
supplied with water ; and, in winter, I find it good practice when the 
plants are dry to place them for an hour in a pan filled with water, 
so that the crocks may be covered. This feeds the active roots and 
moistens the bottom soil without saturating the mould towards the 
surface where the thick fleshy roots are, and which are liable to suffer 
from excess of moisture at any season, particularly in winter. I have 
also said nothing about shading during summer, but I suppose that 
nowadays I need not say that it would be hopeless to expect 
vigorous growth from a plant exposed to the full influence of the 
sun's rays in a dry atmosphere deprived of the health-giving influ- 
ence of night dews. I need hardly state, likewise, that if free rapid 
growth is expected shading must loe applied as early in the season 
as the weather, &c., may render advisable, and constant care 
must be exercised to maintain a moist atmosphere during dry 
weather. This should be done by sprinkling the passages and not 
by syringing the plants overhead, which ought only to be done 
during the summer months, and then only in the evening and when 
the weather is very bright and dry ; and neither shading nor 
moisture should be used in excess unless large plants without bloom 
should be desirable. W. M. 



STAPELIAS, THEIR OULTUEE AND THEIE 
PECULIARITIES. 

READ BY J. CROUCHER, AT THE BIRMINGHAM CONGRESS. 
To attempt to interest and insti-uct with a few notes on these old garden 
favourites may appear to some like a retrograde movement in these days 
of Cattlcyas, Odontoglossums, and Masdevallias ; yet thei-e are those in 
the horticultural world who, like myself, are pleased to hear of old plant 
friends ; I, therefore, venture to say a few words about Stapelias. 

Natives of the Cape of Good Hope, Stapehas are greenhouse subjects. 
Though easily gi-own many faU with them, saying they grow well for a 
time, and then decay. This I attribute to the climate they come from 
not being understood, and the common practice of taking it for granted 
that as they get a dry season, it must be during our winter ; so they 
are allowed to shiivel, the result of which is, that when they should grow 
in spring, the bottom often decays, and the plants get over it just in time 
to be sei-ved in the same way again. Now every observer of Cape plants 
knows well that they have a tendency to grow freely during our winter, 
and though this growth may be retarded it must not bo aiTested ; there- 
fore Ixias, Pelargoniums, and Heaths are exposed to all the light we can 
get, while the Stapehas are put on some out-of-the-way shelf. At the 
time we are getting oui- dullest and coldest days the Stapehas at the 
Cape are getting their brightest and hottest ; therefore we ought to give 
them all the light possible, and as much heat as is compatible with it. 
Like other Cape plants, they don't hke fire-heat, therefore they should be 
kept as far from the pipes as convenient ; they stand the winter and 
flower bettor, if exposed to the open air from June until September. It 
is best to strike fresh stock every season, taking the branches off at a 
joint to prevent danger of decay and escape of sap. April and May are 
the best seasons ; put them in close to the edge of the pot, and keep them 
dry for a week, when water may be given ; after which, give it when quite 
dry. If they are well exposed to the sun they will strike in three weeks. 
Seed should be sown as soon as collected, or its vitality will soon be 
gone. Sow in shallow pans in light soil, and put them on gentle bottom- 
heat ; as soon as well up, put them on a shelf close to the_ glass, not 
potting off until well grown, as they often stand still for some time or die. 
Almost every one who has written on these plants recommend sandy soil 
for them, hut 1 find they gi-ow best in a soUd soil. Three parts loam, and 
one broken lirick, is the best, excluding sand or manure ; in this soil, 
with small pots, they grow freely, and though we have one species called 
S. europaia, or italica, yet I have seen it luxuriating above its natural 
growth in a tcrapeiuture of 100° Fahv. Seeds for transmission should 



be put into sealed bottles, or oiled paper. The plants are very diflicult 
to import ; the best plan is by means of a small wooden box, using dry 
sand for packing material. I have seen many ways employed, the last of 
which was sugar; but when opened, I must say they looked anything but 
sweet. Many of the section Urhea do very well on rockeries in summer, 
but they won't stand frost. 

For diversity of structure, and development of the fio"\ver, I think the 
different species of Stapelia are very interesting, and though modern 
botanists persist in quashing Haworth's divisions, I like them. If we 
allow Cattleyas and La3lias, or Oncidiums and Odontoglossmns, to stand 
distinct, I think the Stapelias shotdd also be separated. If we would 
study any set of plants minutely, we must have subdivisions. In a genus 
containing seventy — eighty species, the first thing asked concerning any 
one of them is, to what gi'Oup does it belong? And to me it appears 
easier to say Huernia or Orbea, than subgenus Orbea, &c. In Stapelia 
grandiflora and S. hii'suta we have pubescent stems and hairy flowers, a 
five-partite reflexed corolla, the centre plain, and the corona which 
protects the stigma parted into ten lobes, five spreading outwards, the 
other five, which include the anthers, incurved. In the section Orbea, 
to which S. variegata and S. hufonia belong, the whole plant is glabrous, 
the corolla is reflexed, and round the centre is a raised part, resembling 
the top of a leaf, the corona is raised in elegant tiers, like that of a 
crown, distinct from the fonner. In Huernia we have a campanulate 
coroUa, cut into ten segments at top, the inside clothed with glandular 
hairs, and the corona spreading like teeth ; the arrangement of the ligides 
give interest to each section. 

It is a well-known fact that these plants evolve a strong carrion-bke 
scent, and the common blowfly, being deceived thereby, deposits, its eggs 
amongst the hairs of the flowers of S. hirsuta and the alhed species, in 
which section the scent is strongest ; but I have not noticed them in the 
smooth lands. As soon as they are hatched they begin to search for food, 
and, as a mattei' of gi'avitation, go down hill. The pollen masses being 
clammy, and the aperture leading to the stigma being so small, the pollen 
couldn't possibly get to the stigma unless by artificial aid ; here the 
maggot becomes of use : the source of the scent being the stigma, the 
maggot, in its endeavour to get down the aperture, forces the pollen into 
the stigma, and thus fertdises it. This I have watched often -with much 
interest; here also we see the use of the hau-s — were it not for them the 
young maggots would get blown away by the winds. It may be asked, 
how do those get on that have no hair P On examining them, it will be 
found that the apertures are larger. It has been said that Stapehas are 
not f ertihsed by the pollen of the same flower, but I have seen seed on 
a plant that had but one flower, and the seedhngs camo true. 

The species called S. europtca is said to be a native of Europe, but I 
have often received it from South Africa, and I know of no plant, 
excepting our own thistle, more likely to cross the sea dm-ing a storm of 
wind. 



THE FR UIT G ARDEN. 

FRUIT TREES IN PLEASURE GROUNDS. 

BY PETER GRIEVE. 
Ir may be said with truth that there are few objects more beautiful 
and interesting during the spring or early summer months than our 
common cultivated fruit trees : and there really does not appear to 
be any good reason why the fruit garden should not constitute a 
necessary portion of the policy or pleasm-e grounds of every coimtry 
mansion. What can be more beautiful than the apple, the pear, the 
plum, and the cherry tree in full flower ? And they are, in fact, 
exceedingly interesting objects at all seasons. But it rarely happens 
that they are placed in positions where their beauty can be appre- 
ciated and enjoyed. They are too frequently to be found in the 
vegetable garden, where they are entirely out of place (unless it be 
in the form of espaliers or cordons) , or they may possibly be found iu 
a somewhat neglected and out-of-the-way locality known as the 
orchard. But as an advance or an improvement upon this state of 
things, might not these useful and ornamental trees be cultivated 
with more pleasure, aud at least equal profit, in a tastefully-designed 
garden or compartment by themselves, and forming at the same time 
an essential part of the pleasirre grounds ? Clumps or groups of 
varied forms and dimensions could be formed of pjTamidal or other, 
wise trained apple, pear, plum, and cherry trees, &c., which might be 
mai'gined by low single cordons of their respective kinds, while single 
standard trees of various sorts might in suitable situations be allowed 
to assume their natural habit aud dimensions — the whole area to be 
traversed by winding and comfortable walks, to afford every facility 
for the examination and enjoyment of the beauty of the various fruits 
in all stages of their development. Altogether I am inclined to think 
that by adopting some system of gTonping such as I have endeavom-ed 
to describe, and by adhering to an arrangement which would associate 
the fruit garden with the pleasure ground iu such a manner as to 
constitute, as it were, a necessary and impoi'tant portion of the 
same, and to some extent effect a combination of the utile with the 
duU-e, we could hardly fail to give additional interest to the sm-. 
rouudings of a country mansion or residence at all seasons of the 
year. 



July -27, 1872.] 



THE GAEDBN. 



83 



Orcliard Houses. — I have been often asked why I insist so 
much on solid soil for fmit ti'ees. There is a good deal that is not 
included in our philosophy, but perhaps the reason is not difficult to 
find in this case. Loose rich soil is traversed easily by roots, and 
trees grovring in it make strong vigorous shoots. Such shoots are 
not what we desire in fruit trees. Short-jointed, hard, well- 
ripened wood is what is requisite for fruit-bearing trees. Then, 
again, roots near the surface, within the reach of air and sun, are 
always considered necessary for the production of fruit buds and 
well flavoured fruit ; whilst tap roots, striking deeply into the subsoil, 
are productive of strong and vigorous branches. Does it not follow 
that if the surface roots are injm'edby digging, the iminjured tap- 
roots will be encoui-aged ? In most gardens I think much labour 
is worse than thi'own away in digging, where the hoe and rake are 
the only tools which ought to be used. If fruit trees were planted 
in quarters by themselves, in place of being dotted about all over the 
kitchen garden, it would be a great improvement. My standard 
peaches, which are growing in soil as hard as a pathway, which has 
never been disturbed since they were first planted, now nearly twenty 
years since, are now full of fine fruit. These trees bore about 
fourteen dozen of frnit each tree last season, and are quite as full 
now, and have only missed fruiting once since they were planted. — 
J. R. PE.VRS0N, ChilweU. 

Wails in Fruit Trees.— We give the following from a Canadian 
paper, for what it is worth : — A singular fact, and one worthy to be re- 
corded was mentioned to us a few days since by Mr. Alexander Di-ake, of 
Albemarle. He stated that whilst on a visit to a neighbour, his attention 
was called to a large peach orchard ; every tree was totally destroyed by 
the ravages of the worm, with the exception of three, and these were 
raost thrifty and flourishing peach trees. The only cause of their 
superiority known to his host was an experiment made in consequence of 
obsen'ing that those parts of worm-eaten timber into which nails had 
been driven were generally sound. When his trees were about a year 
old, he had selected three of them, and driven a tenpenny nail through 
the body, as near the ground as possible. Whilst the balance of his 
orchard had gradually failed, and finally yielded to the ravages of the 
worms, these three trees, selected at random, treated precisely in the 
same manner with the exception of the nading, had always been vigorous 
and healthy, furnishing him at that very period with the greatest 
profusion of the most luscious fruit. It is supposed that the salt of iron 
furnished by the nail is offensive to the worm, whdst it is harmless, or 
perhaps beneficial, to the tree. A chemical wi-iter on this subject says : 
" The oxidation or rusting of iron by the sap, evolves ammonia, which, 
as the sap rises, will of course impregnate every part of the foliage and 
prove too severe a dose for the delicate palate of inti-uding insects." This 
Aviiter recommends driring halt-a-dozeu nails into the trunk. Several 
experiments of the kind have resulted successfully. 



NOTES AND QUESTIONS ON THE FRUIT GARDEN. 



The Fincllley Vine-— The old vine in Kay's nursery, at Finchley, is now in 
fine condition, and many interested in gi-ape-growing would be much gratified 
in seeing it. Considering the usual size of the bunches, as well as the size of the 
vine, it is the most remartable vine near London. 

How to Save Strawljerry Seed. — Procure some good blotting paper, on 
which mash your berries ; the juice will be absorbed, and the pulp and seeds 
will remain on the surface of the paper. Place the latter in a di'y sunny place, 
and in ten or twelve days your seeds will be perfectly dry and ripe. Then sow 
them, very shallow in a nicely prepared bed, which must be kept moist. In 
from two to foui- weeks your plants will be up, when, as soon as large enough, 
they can be transplanted. 

Influence of the Stock on Pears.— Some tune ago, Mr. Tillery, of Welbeck, 
sent us some fine fruit of the Grosse Calebasse pear, as a sample of the change 
produced by the stock on the gi*aft. " They were gathered," said Mr. Tillery, 
" fx'om some grafts of the Calebasse put on a Beurr^ SupenBn two or three years 
ago. It is well known that the BeuiT^ Superfin is one of om* best flavoured of 
pears ; and in this instance it has communicated a better flavour to the 
Calabasse. I have sent likewise some specimens of the Calabasse grown in the 
same soil and aspect as the gi-afted ones, to show the long shape and the gi-eenish 
russet that the Calebasse usually' presents." 

Savings Barked Fruit Trees.— The method is to graft five or six scions as 
large round as a goose quill, and long enough to reach over the girdled place 
into the tree. The live bark is first notched above and below the gu-dled portion, 
the sprouts sprung into place, and the ends fastened with wax. These scions 
grow rapidly, and in time spread over the whole gii-dled surface. Apple trees 
completely girdled, and having the bark taken off over a foot in width on one 
side, have been saved in the above manner. Mr. Lemuel Town, of Nashua, 
New Hampshire, we believe, was the first to act upon and suggest to others the 
idea. — Canada Farmer. 

"Walls or Glasshouses for Pears, Plums, and Cherries ?— I am building a 
house in the country, and propose to make a fruit and vegetable garden of about 
1 to 1-^- acre in extent, in form a parallelogram. Would it be advisable to 
enclose it with walls for my fruit trees ? or would it he more profitable to expend 
the money I propose to lay out on glass houses ? The fruits I am most anxious 
to have are pears and plums of various kinds, and cherries. Peaches and 
nectarines are too uncertain. — Devonian". 

Pears for the West of England.— Will you or any of yom- readers kindly 
advise me what kinds of pears are the best for planting in this part of England"? 

— S. K., Somersetshire. [Doyenn^ d'Et^, Jargonelle, Williams's Eon Chi-i^tiea, 

Louise Bonne of Jersey, Comte de Lamy, Conseiller a la Cour, Doyenne du 
Comice, Passe Colmar, Winter Nelis, Josephine de Malines, Easter BeuiTe, 
Bergamotte d'Esperen, Beture GiSai-d, Beun-^ Superfiji, Thompson's, Glou 
Morceau, Knight's Monarch, and Ne Plus Meui-is.] 



THE GARDEN IN THE HOUSE. 

CULTURE OF PLANTS IN" ROOMS. 

{Continued from p. 54.) 
PEUXING jVND CTJTTKG-BACK. 

In order to secure for plants grown in a room a symmetrical 
shape, it is necessary not only to place them near the light, 
but also to turn them from time to time, that the growth 
may not be all one-sided. With plants which have few or no 
branches, and are of slow growth, such as Dracsenas, Palms, 
Picus, Yuccas, &c., repeated turnings will be sufficient to 
produce a symmetrical shape. Bushy plants, the leaves of 
which fall off in consequence of too warm a position, or from 
want of light during the short dark days of winter, produce a 
quantity of rank shoots, some of which are long and others 
weak. These sometimes disfigure the shape of the specimen, 
and sometimes form no strong buds, so that at the commence- 
ment of the new growth in spring, they partially die off, and 
partially form a fresh feeble growth. In this case, in spring, 
before the new growth commences, the longest shoots must be 
cut back to a few buds, and all the small and weakly shoots 
should be removed entirely. But even when the growth is 
regular, pruning must be employed to secure a handsome 
shape, and all shoots which are too long must be cut back to a 
few buds. To what extent this is to be done will dejjend 
altogether on the shape which is to be given to the specimen. 
As a general rule it may be stated that, where long and strong 
shoots are required to complete the shape of the plant, the 
shoots should be cut back to two or three buds, and then only 
one or a few shoots allowed to develop themselves. The fewer 
the shoots which are allowed to grow on a branch the stronger 
they will be, while, on the contrary, the more there are, the 
feebler will their growth be ; the same quantity of nutriment 
is in the one case conveyed to a greater number, and in the 
other case to a smaller number of shoots. Therefore, when a 
comparatively feeble or short growth is required, the shoots 
should be only slightly cut back. For the greater number of 
plants the best time for this operation is in the spring, befoi'e 
the new growth has commenced, and it may then be done at 
the same time when the plants are transplanted. There are 
some exceptions which are specially mentioned in the enumera- 
tion of plants for room-culture. When new shoots are 
formed on unsuitable parts of the plant, they should be 
broken off before they have grown too strong, as they will 
only obstruct the development of the other plants. 

In addition to pruning for shape, is that which has for its 
object the production of more abundant bloom. This is 
regulated by the peculiarities of the various kinds of plants, 
such as producing their flowers on ripened wood or on young 
shoots, their season of blooming, the parts of the plant on 
which the flowers appear, and various other matters which 
will be detailed at length in the enumeration of the plants. 
For summer-blooming plants this pruning is usually per- 
formed in spring, at the same time as the pruning for shape. 
The pruning of plants intended to bloom in autumn and 
winter will be fully noticed in the chapter on forcing. Some 
kinds of plants, and especially the continuously-blooming 
roses, should, after the first blooming in spring, be subjected 
to a second pruning in summer. This is done by cutting back 
the shoots which have flowered (usually to three buds), in 
consequence of which the plants make a second growth, and 
in the course of the summer flower again, and often better 
than the first time. The common monthly rose and the 
pretty dwarf Eosa Lawrenciana bloom almost uninterruptedly 
if the shoots are cut back constantly after blooming. The 
winter gilliflower also continues to produce fresh blooms for 
a long time if the shoots which have flowered are removed. 
The samie is the case with many annuals. 

Pinching the plants for the purpose of regiilating the shape is 
a very different operation from pruning. This consists in pinch- 
ing off the tops of the young shoots during the time of growth, 
in order to produce a thick bushy habit in the specimens. By 
preventing the development of the tops of the shoots, the buds 
in the axils of the leaves are forced into growth and form new 
shoots which may be treated in the same manner as soon as 
they have grown sufficiently long. The oftener this pinching 



84 



THE GARDEN. 



[July 27, 1872. 



is repeated the greater number of shoots will be produced, 
and, ill consequence, the plant will acquire a handsome full 
habit, a thing which every amateur knows how to value. 
Pinching is to be especially practised with plants of rapid 
growth, and with many shrubs from New Holland and the 
Cape of Good Hope, which, however, are seldom cultivated 
in rooms. Among the plants which are particularly benefited 
by it are Indian Azaleas, which, if carefully pinched when 
young, flower much more abundantly. The same may be 
said of Fuchsias, Heliotropes, Pelargoniums, Veronicas, 
Myrtles, &c. However advantageous this pinching may be 
in producing fine bushy specimens, it should not be continued 
longer than until the plants have acquired the desired form, 
as, so long as it is employed, the plants bloom but sparingly, 
or not at all. 

PROPAGATION BY MEANS OP SEED. — THE KEEPING OF SEED. 

With regard to the duration of vitality in seeds, a great 
difference exists in different kinds, according to their organi- 
sation. Some, even under careful keeping, soon lose their 
germinating powers, as the oak, the willow, and many seeds 
which are rich in volatile oil, as the nutmeg and most palms 
and conifers. These should be sown immediately when they 
are ripe, if it is expected they will germinate. Seeds which 
contain less oily matter preserve their vitality for a much longer 
time under otherwise favourable circumstances. Of this kind 
are the seeds of the various kinds of corn, the Cticurbitaceous 
and Leguminous plants. In the keeping of seeds so as to 
preserve their vitality, and, at the same time, not hasten their 
germination, the following conditions are necessary: — (1) A 
low temperature ; for seeds of temperate and cold climates 
from 25° to 40° Fahr. ; for those of warmer climates from 
40° to 65° Pahr. (2) An atmosphere only very moderately 
moist. (3) Absence of sunlight, as under its influence the 
decomposition of the matter iiiside the seed is much hastened. 
(4) Free access of the air ; therefore where seeds are kept in 
looxes or in heaps, they should be turned over from time to 
time. (5) Seeds that soon spoil should be kept in their seed- 
vessels until they are sown, or preserved in layers of dry 
earth or sand. (6) Avoidance of all influences which tend to 
excite germination, as a high temperature ; or for seeds of 
tropical plants, the continuance of a very low one. (7) Seeds 
of water and bog plants, which naturally fall into water, 
should be kept in water. — Dr. Begel. 

{To ie continued.) 



THE HOETIOTJLTUEAL VAPORIZER. 
We have much pleasure in calling attention to this simple and 
efficient little contrivance. It is called by the inventors, Messrs. 
Parr & Atherton, of Nottingham, " the horticultural vaporizer." It is 
used for the application of Fiettingham's Liquid Compound, or any 
liquid preparation used for the destruction of insect life. By means 
of it, liquids may be diffused over plants in a state of minute 




Section. 



Vaporizer in operatiou. 



division, or fine spray, in sufficient quantity to thoroughly moisten 
them, without wasting any of the liquid, the minuteness of the spray 
preventing a single particle of the liquid falling to the ground. The 
vaporizer may be used either by blowing, or by the use of a pair of 
b ellows, fastened by means of a small piece of india-rubber tube to 
the mouth-piece of the vaporizer. 



Table Decorations. — In a letter to the editor of tho Telegraph, 
Mr. Wilham Thompson says : — " In your report of the rose show at 
the Crystal Palace my name is mentioned as a defender ol:' the practice 



of ' cutting holes in the dinner-table ' for the purpose of introducing 
plants without showing the pots in which they grovr. Having so 
frequently acted as a judge of table-decorations during the last seven 
years, I hope you will allow me to state that I have neither proposed 
or approved of such a plan. What I do advocate is the use of pro- 
perly-shaped plants as a part of the decorations of a dinner-table ; 
and because the usual boxes, jars, covers, and other contrivances for 
hiding a flower-pot placed upon the table, so far as I have seen 
them, all fail to please my taste, I strongly support the plan advo- 
cated by Mr. Fleming, of Cliveden, of placing the pots under the 
table. This plan can be adopted without injury to any dining-table, 
either by allowing the plant to come up between the leaves of the 
table, which can readily be kept at the necessary distances apart by 
wood or iron straps fastened underneath, or by using extra leaves 
made specially for the purpose out of common wood. Foui- semi, 
circular glass or zinc troughs, arranged in two circles, one vrithin the 
other, filled with moss, and tastefully decorated, fonn a base for the 
plant above the table-cloths, which is far more pleasing to my eye 
than any metal, earthenware, glass, or other art-product that I have 
yet laet with. No stronger proof of the effectiveness of such arrange- 
ments need be instanced than the fact that, out of the ten prizes for 
table decorations which my brother judge concurred in awarding, 
five were given to tables which had young palms coming up through 
them. This, I repeat, can easOy be done in any private house with, 
out cutting holes either in the table or in the table-cloths." 



Liquid Manure for House Plants.— As liquid mamu'e cannot always be 
had, especially in winter, dirty suds in which clothing has been washed will, I 
find, answer as well. I have used it all the winter, and my plants never grew 
so fast nor looked so well. I had this spring, a double Primrose in a three-inch 
pot, on which I could count over one hundred blossoms ; also some bicolor and 
white Gerauiitms, started for spring planting, only thi-ee inches high, the leaves 
measuring four inches in diameter. My largest Calla stands thi-ee feet two 
inches high, leaves fifteen inches ; also many other things, all of which I 
attribute to the use of my dh-ty suds once .a week dming winter. Last summer 
I watered all my roses with it, and the pillar Roses with dish water. The slugs 
scarcely troubled them, and the blossoms were really wonderful, both in quality 
and quantity. I never have any slops wasted. Bedj-oom slops are just tho kind 
to throw around the roots of young trees; I think that is what saved oiu" 
Mountain Ash last year from the borers ; at any rate, it never does any harm to 
save all the slops for grape vines and hardy trees. — S. J. S., in *' Coititti-y 
Qenfleman." 



GARDE N D ESIGN. 

HARTSPIELD, NEAR BETCHWORTH, SURREY. 

Hahtsfield, of which we this week, furnish a plan, was, three 
years ago, merely fields cut off from one another by the 
ordinary hedges of the district, and containing here and there 
an occasional tree or two. By the removal, however, of old 
boundaries, and the working in of the existing trees, together 
with some new planting, a very charming little place has been 
formed. The mansion is placed on the summit of a knoll, 
commanding in every direction views of the most charming 
description ; the beauty of the grounds is, therefore, to some 
extent lost, owing to the impossibility of representing on a flat 
plan the pretty undulations which they contain ; a difference 
of nearly seventy feet exists between the lowest point on the 
carriage road and the site of the dwelling-house. 

Advantage has been taken of a small tributary of the river 
Mole to foi-m a piece of ornamental water, over a narrow neck 
of which the carriage road passes. Near this point is a 
pumping apparatus, worked by a water-wheel, which throws 
up a supply of water from a well to the house and offices, as 
well as to a fountain and several hydrants near the house. 

The new planting that has been done consists of a mixture 
of the best evergreen and deciduous trees and shrubs, but we 
are sorry to see that the pretty terrace near the house has 
been disfigured by the introduction of incongruous trees, &c., 
which formed no part of the original design, and which des- 
troy that free aud open effect which it is so important should 
be maintained. Hartsfield is the residence of Captain and 
Mrs. Moir. 



A LADY once consulted Dr. Johnson ou tho degree of turpitude to be 
attached to her son's robbing an orchard. "Madame," said Johnson, 
" it all depends upon the weight of tho boy. I remember my school- 
fellow, Davie Gixrriclc — who was always a little follow — robbing a dozen 
of orchards with impunity ; but the very first time I climbed up an 
apple-tree — for I was always a heavy boy — the bough broke with me, 
and it was called a judgment. I suppose that is why Justice is represented 
with a pair of scales." 



Jtjly 27, 1872.] 



THE GARDEN. 



85 




86 



THE GARDEN. 



[July 27, 1872. 



BIRMINGHAM HORTICULTUEAL CONGRESS. 

PROFESSOR DYER'S ADDRESS. 
VARIATION. 
How important it would be to thoroughly comprehend the principles 
of Variation. Yet of the numerous persons who raise new varieties 
of plants, there are few who record anything of their experiences. 
Some, no doubt, have acquired a kind of intuitive tact in working 
with plants. Still, anything like systematised knowledge in the 
matter is still to a great extent a want to be supplied. Mr. Darwin 
has grouped together in a most admirable way the facts, in many 
cases vei-y scanty, which he had been able to collect before wi-iting his 
book. On many of these subjects it would be very desirable to obtain 
the fruits of more ample experience. A more extended study of bud 
variation is also a matter which I would commend to your notice. 
Mr. Darwin arrived at the conclusion that bud variations, when they 
occuri-ed at all, usually assumed at once a decided and permanent 
character. At the same time he thought that this might possibly be 
a delusion from slight varieties being overlooked. The attention 
which is now paid to variegated pelargoniums seems to offer an oppor. 
tunity of seeing whether this conclusion is really true. Again, 
from time to time various curious facts have been recorded with 
respect to the direct influence of the pollen, not on the seed alone, 
but also on the female parent. Mr. Anderson-Henry has stated that 
the flowers of a pale Calceolaria became stained after the application 
to the flowers of the pollen of a coloured kind. Maximowicz has 
described a change in the shape of the capsule of a lily in the direc- 
tion of that belonging to the pollen parent. Again, the flavour of 
melons has, I believe, been stated to be deteriorated if the pollen of 
some other kind has got access to the flowers producing them. None 
of these cases are completely free from ambiguity, and the whole 
matter might easily be tested by those who occupy themselves much 
with artificial fertilisation. The instances would certainly be rare, 
but if they could be established free from all reasonable doubt it 
would be a matter of very great interest. The difficulty lies in the 
possibility of the supposed influence of the pollen being really due to 
a bud-variation. If, however, the same kind of variation were to 
follow in the same plant the application of foreign poUen more than 
once it would be almost certain that this was the cause. For example 
if it could be established that the flavour of a melon was perceptibly 
influenced by setting it with pollen of a different Icind, the thing 
would be established beyond a doubt. We know that a pi-iori it is 
not improbable, since analogous cases occur amongst animals. 
PLANT NOMENCLATURE. 
The nomenclature of plants is a subject upon which it is becoming 
more and more necessary to have some common understanding 
between botanists and horticulturists. At the last meeting of the 
Floral Committee a plant was submitted to it with the name of Lilium 
bulbiferum Thunbergiannm aureum nigro-maculatum. As lilies are 
now favourite objects of culture, this name is quite likely to receive 
further distinctive additions. Now it seems to me that for trade 
purposes such a name must be almost a deterrent to purchasers. 
People grumble often at a plant having two Latin names ; they will 
grumble still more at its possessing half-a-dozen. The remedy, I 
think, lies in adopting De Candolle's suggestion — that we should 
restrict Latin names to species and varieties occurring spontaneously 
in nature, and should give to forms which develop under our eyes 
in gardens names in a modern language. This expedient would tell 
ns in a moment whether any particular plant was or was not [of 
garden origin, and from the language the name would also inform us 
whether it was raised by English, French, or German horticulturists. 
Still, certain modifications of botanical nomenclature must, I think, 
be tolerated in horticulture. In the first place, reliance has often to 
be placed upon distinctions which, in a botanist's eyes, seem of little 
importance. It cannot be objected very much, therefore, if very 
well marked varieties or sub-species are treated as if they were 
species for purposes of garden nomenclature. If there is some 
tangible character by which they can be distinguished from their 
allies, it is easy to ascertain by reference to books the rank that 
botanists give them. If is often necessary, as more is known about 
the plants which grow upon the earth's surface, to change generic 
and specific names. There is usually a good reason to be assigned 
for doing this, but it is undoubtedly a grave source of inconvenience. 
Botanists will not therefore blame horticulturists if they keep to 
many of the old names of which it is generally easy to determine 
the most recently recognised equivalent. Odontoglossum crispmn is 
the original and lawful name of O. Alexandres, but it is not now 
likely to supplant the no.me most in use. When plants havo been 
placed, however, from the first in genera which are obviously wrong, 
I think an effort should be made to give them their proper position. 
Having made the concessions above mentioned, I feel that it is an 
absolute duty to protest against plants avowedly of garden origin. 



having, under any circumstances, names given to them which are of 
the same form as those which are given to species spontaneously 
occurring in nature. The case of hybrids is an exception, but the 
name given to these ought always, I think, to be of such a kind that 
both the hybrid origin and the parentage is indicated by it. 

METEOROLOGY. 
There is one branch of science intimately connected with horti. 
culture in which we are far from reaping at present the practical 
benefit of knowledge. This is meteorology. It is too much, I am 
afraid, to hope that we shall ever possess the slightest control over 
the asperities of weather, but it is scarcely too much to look forward 
to improved methods of foretelling what is in store for us, as well 
as improved methods of obviating its effects. The study of careful 
records of daily observations will, no doubt, eventually reveal not 
only some of the causes that influence weather itself, but will also 
throw light upon changes in public health with which it cannot be 
doubted that weather is closely bound up. Such records the Eoyal 
Horticultural Society kept at its Chiswiok Garden for forty-four 
years, and the results of the observations have been lately printed by 
Mr. Glaisher at the Society's expense. The practical infoi-mation 
which can be deduced from this volume is not, perhaps, considerable ; 
it is, however, a contribution to the accumulated stock of records 
which will one day find their utilization. The mean temperatures at 
Chiswick, as deduced from the whole observations of forty-four 
years, starts from its lowest point of 35°.8 on January 6th, and rises 
more or less gradually to its highest, 64°. 4, on July 17th. If climate 
would only pursue this even course with some approach to constancy, 
vegetation would follow it with clockwork regularity. We know, 
however, to our cost, that it does not do so, and very considerable 
deviations take place to one side or the other of the mean tempera- 
ture. Both are injurious. A premature development of vegetation 
lays it open to subsequent injury, and comes to much the same thing, 
as regards its effects, as a late frost. What the horticulturist really 
has to fight, then, are the effects of cold. The precise mode in which 
plants are effected by it are hardly completely known. In many 
cases, no doubt, the vital properties of the protoplasm contained 
within the cells receive an injury from the direct effect of low tem- 
perature from which there is no recovery. In other instances death 
is not the inevitable result even from freezing; but, as is well known, 
if thawing be gradually effected, no great harm will be done. Some 
curious experiments published by Becquerel appear to show that 
cold below the freezing point, like the temperature of boiling water 
or the electric discharge, produces an alteration in the cell walls, 
which render them more pervious to fluids, and therefore no longer 
capable of retaining their cell contents. 

PROTECTION AND RAHIATION. 
It appears to me that the pyramid fruit trees and espaliers, which 
are now so much grown, are peculiarly exposed to the effects of 
frost, as they are pruned so that each branch overhangs, and con. 
sequently protects any below it to the least possible extent. There 
ought, nevertheless, to be some cheap and effective way of protecting 
temporarily trees of this small size from frost. Any means of 
anticipating it would, in view of any expedients of this kind, be of 
the greatest value. It may be well, therefore, to mention that in 
spring a dry state of air, indicated by any vei-y considerable 
difference in the readings of the diy and wet bulb thermometers, 
is likely to be followed by frost. The reason is simple; the night 
frosts, which injure vegetation, arise in the main from the loss of 
heat from the earth's surface by radiation. If there is much 
moisture present in the air this loss of heat is impeded. The 
luminous heat radiated from the sun passes through atmospheric 
moisture with little impediment, but the obscure or nou-luminons 
form in which the earth radiates it back again is caught by it, as it 
were, in a trap. On May 17th, at Blackheath, near London, the air 
was nearly saturated vrith moisture, the degree of humidity being 
represented by 94" (as deduced from Glaisher's " Hygrometrical 
Tables;" Saturation 100°), and the lowest temperature of the air 
by 44°- Both temperature and humidity fell, 'pari passu, till 
May 20th, when the first stood at 32.6, and the otlier at 69. It 
would be of the more importance to have warnings of the in'obablo 
occurrence of low temperature, because Mr. Glaisher has shown 
from the Chiswick observations that periods of deficiency of tem- 
perature below the mean are often prolonged to as much as a 
fortnight. In the forty-four years there were eighty such. I feel 
strong hopes that the telegraphic communication about the weather, 
which the Meteorological Office now collects from stations in the 
British Isles and Western Europe, will eventually lead to warnings 
of probable falls of temperature being obtained. The apparently 
paradoxical fact that the temperature often falls lower, and plants 
correspondingly suffer more, in low grounds than in those which are 
adjacent and liiglier, has often been observed, and is well worth 



July 27, 1872.] 



T'HE GAKDBN. 



87 



bearing in mind as a practical point in laying-ont grounds. I am 
informed that the explanation is to be found in the downward 
gravitation of colder air, and its consequent collection in low-lying 
places and hollows. 

BLUE LIGHT. 
In every department of scientific work it from time to time 
happens that announcements are made which take completely by 
surprise those who know what has really been made out by legitimate 
investigation in the subjects they bear upon. Nevertheless, the 
outside world always takes them up with more or less of un-critical 
faith. A paper published during last year by General Pleasonton, 
" On the Influence of the Blue Colour of the Sky in Developing 
Animal and Vegetable Life," appears to me to have received a 
great deal more attention than its utter absence of any genuine 
scientific character deserves. Subsequently presented to the French 
Academy, it has been the subject of an article by Duchartre in the 
Ball, de ?rt Soc. Cent, d'Hort. de France. This writer points out 
some of the mistaken scientific views held by General Pleasonton, 
but though apparently inclined to reject the whole narrative as a 
hoax, thinks that it is vouched for by testimony too respectable not 
to require some explanation. For my own part, having carefully 
read the original paper, I do not believe, for reasons I have elsewhere 
stated, that blue or violet light had anything to do with the extra- 
ordinary growth of the vines, supposing that really to have taken 
place as described. I am slow indeed to comprehend how such a 
physical condition as exposure to blue light can be equally beneficial 
to the growth of vines, the rearing of poultry, and the invigoration 
of the constitution of invalids. The erroneousness of the facts argued 
from the absence of all knowledge of modern publications in vegetable 
physiology, and the wildly crochetty theories, such as electricity 
having produced the giant trees of California, disincline me, I must 
confess, to attach any serious weight to either General Pleasonton's 
views or his result. 



GARDEN VEaETATION IN" SOUTH DEVON. 
Wk have just received from Mr. Luscombe, of Combe Koyal, South 
Devon, a collection of fresh specimens of plants and fruits from his 
garden, which look as if they had been culled in some favourite nook in 
the tropics. They were, however, grown in the open air at Combe 
Royal, and instead of looking any the worse for it or for this inclement 
season, they are in several instances more robust than we have ever seen 
the same plants in glasshouses. This is particularly true of the fruit 
of some Citrous and Shaddocks, as well as of their foliage. These, 
together with the more remarkable specimens in the following list, 
may now be seen in our Oifice window. They well illustrate the 
great advantages of adapting our system of gardening to the 
peculiarities of local climate, and elicit the important fact that 
some spots in the south of England are as favourable for vegetation 
as Italy or California. It is almost needless to add that the Citrus 
tribe receives protection, but only that of reed or wooden frames, no 
artificial heat or glass being used. The screens are generally removed 
by day in the winter, and on or about the Ist of May, are taken away 
entirely until November. The summer shoots of the Shaddock and 
Citron are magnificent. 

Among other things sent, are: — Eucalyptus montana, a large 
Tasmanian tree, only once slightly injured by an unusually severe 
frost ; Embothrium coccineum, a small tree which flowers annually ; 
Philippodendron regium, a tree from New Zealand ; Cantua dependens, 
this is sometimes injured; in another garden, about a mile off, 
this once flowered magnificently, and was awarded a certiScate 
of merit for the blossoms ; Olea illicLfoUa ; Myrtus (Eugenia) 
apiculata ; AbutUon vitifolium ; Berberis Fortunei ; Berberis nepanl. 
ensis ; Ilex latifolia ; Benthamia fragif era ; Desfontainea spinosa ; 
Aruudinaria falcata, nearly thirty feet high ; Aralia japonica ; 
Dimorphanthus mandschuiicus ; Acacia dealbata, the parent plant, 
destroyed by the weight of snow about twelve years ago, was about 
fifty feet high ; Camellias ; Gunnera scabra, leaf and fruit, the 
former is a small specimen, as the first leaves were destroyed by an 
April frost; Bambusa Metake (Japan) ; leaf and flower stems of Chusau 
Palm ; Rhododendron Fortunei (China) ; R. Thomsoui, a splendid 
Sikkim species, which flowers annually; R. blandfordiseflorum, 
a wonderful yellow and orange Sikkim species, very free-flowering ; 
R. arboreum, the true species, raised from Indian seeds by the late 
Mr. James Veitch ; many plants were destroyed by frost two or 
three years since, two stems being quite three feet in circumference ; 
R. cinnamomeum (India) ; R. nobUe (Ceylon) ; Azalea indica 
Fortunei ; Seville oranges from a tree known to be nearly, if not 
quite, two hundred and fifty years old ; summer shoots of Citron ; 
summer shoots of Shaddock; Lime (Citrus) and shoots ; fruit of Lemon, 
Seville orange. Citron, and Shaddock ; Amaryllis blooms and leaves, 
raised from seed, and bloomed in the open air unprotected, in a 
garden a mile distant from Combe Royal. 



NOTES OF THE WEEK. 



The potato disease is said to be making its appearance not 

only in the west of England, but in other parts of the country. 

In Portugal the weather is reported to be .excessively hot, 

and we hear that the vine disease is spreading. 

We are glad to report that, notwithstanding the peculiar 

severity of the early summer, the distinct and graceful Amarantus 
salicifolius is thriving well in the gardens round London. 

IN' the pretty town of Brookline, State of Massachusetts, a 

gentleman has been arrested and fined for nailing np a vine on his 
house on Sunday. There is quite a row in hitherto peaceful Brookline, 
in consequence. 

DiAXTHUS K.VMOSus, a pretty and distinct species of pink, ij 

now in flower at the Royal Gardens, Kew. It forms a dense, much- 
branching tuft, about eight inches high, and produces an abundance 
of purplish rose-coloured flowers. 

A iiEMAEK.-i.ELY beautiful Nierembergia (grandiflora) is now 

in flower in Messrs. Veitch's nursery at Chelsea. In habit it 
resembles N. frutescens, but has much larger flowers ; and as these 
are produced in great abundance, the effect is all that could be 
desired. 

The great injury done to vegetation during the recent 

eruption of Mount Vesuvius has been attributed not so much to 
the heat of the ashes scorching it, or to the dust closing the pores 
of the leaves, as to the destructive action of the large quantity of 
chloride of sodium (common salt) which fell with the ashes. 

Mk. J. A. Fulton, of Delaware, writing to an American 

paper, says that there are now in that State about 5,000,000 peach 
trees, planted on 40,000 acres of land. Last year the shipments 
by rail and water amounted to about 3,000,000 baskets. The annual 
net value of the products of the present orchards in future is placed 
at 1,830,000 dollars. No increase of production is recommended. 

The strike among the London market-garden labourers still 

continues. The old market-garden hands have found employment 
at haymaking, harvesting, and similar work ; and their places are 
filled by strange hands and also by boys, who, under the super- 
intendence of foremen, do the fruit-picking and the roughest of 
the weeding. 

Manv of our readers would probably be interested in seeing 

the extraordinary specimens of shaddocks, citrons, oranges, &c., 
grown at Combe Royal, in Devon, and now exposed to view in the 
window of The Gauden Oflice. We have never witnessed such 
vigour of shoot and foliage on plants grown in the open air in 
countries much warmer than ours. 

— ■ — A PAUTY of invalids, in nuoiber about seventy, residing at the 
Royal Hospital for Incurables, Putney Heath, were entertained a day 
or two since at a garden party in the beautiful grounds at Roe- 
hampton belonging to Baron and Baroness Hambro. The baroness 
and several willing ladies did everything in their power to promote 
the comfort of their invalid friends. The conveyance of them from 
and to the hospital was admirably managed. 

A VEKY good suggestion was made the other evening with 

regard to the Serpentine. Sir John Trelawny proposed that bathing 
places of an ornamental character should be erected in the centre of 
the lake. From the banks they would present T,he appearance of 
islands, while they might be of such a size as to secure a large space 
inside for swimming. A great opportunity for diversifying and 
otherwise beautifying the Serpentine was lost when it was cleaned 
out a short time ago. The banks we re left even uglier and more 
formal than they were before. 

The latest particulars received regarding the thunderstorm 

on Tuesday night show that it was unusually severe and destructive. 
All the market-gardeners and fruit-growers who attended Farringdon 
Market on Wednesday morning, gave a deplorable account of the damage 
done to their property. In many cases acres of ground, covered with 
strawberry plants and raspberry canes, were, at the time the o^vners 
left, at least eighteen inches under water ; and the ripe fruit, which 
would have been gathered during the next six hours, has of course 
been spoiled, and numerous female pickers have in consequence been 
thrown out of their usual summer employment. The crops of French 
beans and scarlets have been buried iu the soft ground by the 
force of the rain; and trees have been stripped of plums, cherries, 
and other stone fruit, by the strength of the lightning and heavy down- 
fall of rain. A man named ElUson, in the employ of a market gardener 
and potato merchant iu Covent Garden Market, whUe passing along 
James Street, Long Acre, was struck by the Ughtning across his face 
and was instantly deprived of sight. At Edmonton and Enfield, all 
pedestrian traflic was stopped owing to the vast accumulation of water, 
which covered whole fields of ripe corn, and also laid down and spoiled 
large tracts of vegetable and fruit ground. 



88 



THE GARDEN. 



[JuLT 27, 1872. 



We hear that a Bill has been presented to the National 

Assembly by M. Joigneanx, the purport of which is to convert 
the kitchen gardens of Versailles into a practical school of horti- 
culture, and this project has every chance of success. 

There is now to be seen in the conservatory of the Royal 

Horticultural Society, at South Kensington, a pair of American 
aloes in bloom, and probably such a match as is seldom seen. They 
are in every way alike, and have thrown up their noble candelabra- 
like flower stems to a great height 

A PLANT bearing the name of Scabiosa pamassiEC is now in 

bloom in the herbaceous ground at Kew. It forms a neat spreading 
tuft not more than four inches high, and produces pretty flesh- 
coloured flowers, which are about an inch and a half in diameter, in 
great abundance. This is the best species of the genus we have 
seen, and will doubtless soon find a place in all good collections. 

The head constable of Liverpool desires to remind gentlemen 

living in the suburbs of that town, that about this time last year 
several robberies of grapes took place. He hopes, therefore, that 
gentlemen having vineries will see the necessity of taking more 
than ordinary precautions to prevent, as far as possible, a repetition 
of those occurrences. 

The fine weeping willows in the gardens of the Holme, 

Regent's Park, are perishing from the attacks of cai'penter cater- 
pillars which bore through them in all directions, soon killing 
the trees. Their attacks are so vigorous, that there is quite a heap 
of sawdust at the base of each specimen. We hope soon to illus- 
trate these creatures and their ravages in our department of The 
Garden devoted to " Garden Destroyers." 

■ A CORRESPONDENT informs us that he saw the other day in the 

Botanic Gardens, Belfast, a magniiicent specimen of Orchis foliosa, 
a terrestrial Madeira species, well deserving of more attention than 
it usually i-eceives. It quite filled an eighteen-inch pan, from which 
it threw up between thirty and forty fine spikes of charming rosy 
purple flowers. It grows about a foot and a half high, and is a plant 
which, when in bloom, is sure to elicit general admiration. 

NOTwrrHST'ANDiNu the very fickle season which we have 

experienced, many of the sub-tropical plants at Battersea Park are 
making good growth, and the sub-tropical garden generally is looking 
well. Lovers of gardening visiting London, and having a few houi'S 
to spare, cannot spend them better than in paying a visit to this 
park, where they will find much to interest them, both in the sub- 
tropical garden, and in the bedding arrangements generally. 

The handsome and neatly -habited Ononis fruticosa is now in 

flower. It is seldom seen about London, though no doubt it was 
often planted in days gone bye ; but being a dwarf mountain shrub, 
it probably often perished from being associated with coarse subjects 
in plantations. It is suitable for grouping with the dwarfer 
American plants, for banlis, for rockerieS; or for planting alone on 
turf. 

The most beautiful objects in the suburban gardens of 

London now are the round-headed Acacias (Robinia pseud-acacia 
inermis). Their deep fresh verdure is delightful to look upon in the 
heat of summer ; but, unhappily, those who have the good taste to 
plant them are few. The early -withering lime is planted in nearly 
every garden, and annually mutilated in the vain hope of compelling 
it to assume the compact proportions which this Acacia assumes of 
its own nature. 

The white Lapageria is now a beautiful ornament in the 

conservatory at the Holme, Regent's Park. It is trained first on a 
trellis against the wall, and then across the house on a strong cord, 
about four feet from the roof and ten feet from the ground, the 
shoots being allowed to hang gracefully down. On the opposite side 
is a plant of the old, or crimson kind, which meets and mingles with 
the shoots of the white one. The effect of the mixture of the variously- 
coloured flowers is, as may readily be supposed, very charming. Their 
beauty is not fully seen when the plants are trained stifily against 
walls or trellises. The shoots should be allowed to hang freely 
down. 

Stung to Death by a Bee. — An inquest was held the other 
day at Twickenham on the body of Miss EUnabeth Hough, an aged 
maiden lady. It appears that on Friday morning, the 19th instant, 
the deceased was in her garden, inspecting the beehives, when she 
suddenly called out, " Oh, gardener, I've been stung ; come and 
help me ! " The gardener found only one bee in her hair, which he 
removed. Deceased soon afterwards became unconscious, and a 
medical man was sent for ; but when he arrived the ladj' had been 
dead a quarter of an hour. He made a post-mortem examination of 
the body, and found a great deal of discoloration behind the ear, 
caused by the sting of a bee. Major Lewis Hough said the deceased, 



who was his sister, was of a delicate and nervous constitution. In 
the autumn of 1870 she was stung by a bee, and on that occasion it 
produced very peculiar consequences. She lost consciousness, and 
remained in that state for two hours. The coroner remarked that 
some persons were peculiarly susceptible, and in such cases, when 
syncope set in, the best remedy was a little brandy or ammonia. 

Alexandra Park. — At a public meeting held at the Mansion 
House the other evening, imder the presidency of the Lord Mayor, 
the following resolution in reference to this park was proposed : — 
" That this meeting having had placed before it a prospectus for the 
utilization of Alexandra Park and Palace in the true interests, 
moral as well as physical, of the people, pledges itself to every legiti- 
mate effort to secure and complete the success of the enterprise." 
Lord Lyttelton seconded the motion, and expressed his hearty 
approval of the great object which the meeting was assembled to 
promote, namely, to establish a Crystal Palace for the North of 
London. The resolution was unanimously carried, as was also another 
to the effect that the plan suggested in the prospectus, of enabling 
the people to become themselves the purchasers of the park and the 
palace, deserved the greatest encouragement. 

Proposal to Open a liOndon Square to the Public. — 

The experiment of an open garden for the public, says the Pall Mall 
Gazette, is about to be tried by Lord Westminster, who proposes to 
lay out and plant the space now enclosed in Ebury Square, and to 
remove the railings. If the arrangement proves a success other 
squares will, no doubt, in due time, be also thrown open, and a new 
feature of a pleasant description be introduced into the aspect of 
London. Ebury Square is in all respects a fit subject for an experi- 
ment of this nature. It has for some time shown a tendency to 
follow the downward path of Leicester Square, and has been allowed 
to fall into such a state as to become an eyesore to the neighbourhood. 
There are also numbers of poor children in the district to whom 
an unenclosed square will be an inestimable blessing. Ebury Square 
was originally lammas land. It formed part of EyberyParm, leased 
by Queen Elizabeth to a certain Mr. Whaske for £20 per annum, 
who, according to Strype, sublet it to " divers persons, who, for their 
private commodity, did enclose the same, and had made pastures of 
arable land, thereby not only annoying her Majesty in her walks and 
passages, but to the hindrance of her game, and great injury to the 
common, which at Lammas was wont to be laid open." Ebury 
Square is therefore not without some experience of the " many, 
headed " public, and will perhaps not be sorry to renew its 
acquaintance with its old friends. It is, however, to be hoped 
that the square will not be appropriated by agitators for political 
purposes. Whatever may be the flowers selected to adorn Ebury 
Square, the flowers of eloquence should be rigidly excluded, and 
under no circumstances should the " discussion of grievances" form 
part of the programme of its amusement. 



QARDBITXNG flOUlTD LOITDON". 

(DUEINa THE PRESENT WEEK.) 

BY OUR SPECIAL REPORTER. 

PRIVATE GARDENS. 

Indoor Plant Department — Now, when large plants put out 
in beds and borders are making free growth, and require a good deal 
of water, basins are formed round their base by removing the soil to 
the depth of thi'ee inches or so, and of a diameter corresponding 
with the size of the plant. These basins are loosened in the bottom 
with a steel fork, taking care not to disturb any roots that may be 
near the surface. This loosening of the soil enables the water to 
penetrate to the bottom of the beds. Zonal Pelai-goniums for con. 
servatory decoration are being repotted, and occasionally well 
watered with manure-water, the flowers, too, are all picked off as they 
appear, and the plants are shaded for a time, and are allowed plenty 
of air. Cockscombs, to succeed those already in bloom, are shifted 
into their flowering pots, and any likely to become " leggy" are out 
over and re-inserted in the pot, using a little sand to induce the 
formation of roots. Fuchsias are pinched in, and well syringed and 
watered, imtil a short time prior to their being required for use. 
Japan Lilies done blooming are placed out of doors in sheltered posi. 
tions, and are gradually dried off, after which they are laid on their 
sides, to protect them from the heavy rains. Heaths in pots are set 
out of doors, also many other hard-wooded plants and succnlents. 
Chinese Primulas are introduced into gentle heat in order to invigorate 
them a little before cutting off all their shoots, which will then be 
treated as cuttings to form plants for next season's blooming. Cal. 
ceolarias for next year's work are being pricked off into boxes, using as 
soil good yellow loam, a little leaf mould, some well-decayed manure, 
and a little silver sand, all finely sifted for the surface of the box, 



JiTLY 27, 1872.] 



THE GARDEN. 



89 



the rougher material being placed iu the bottom. A late sowing is 
also being made. In sowing, the seeds are scattered equally and 
rather thinly on the surface of a pan of light soil, and barely covered. 
The pan is then placed in an almost spent hot-bed, usually one nsed 
for spring propagating, and on the surface of the pan a pane of glass 
is placed, which is covered mth some damp moss, or instead of 
placing the moss on the glass, some litter, or other similar shading 
material, is placed on the glass of the frame. No sun is allowed to 
reach them before they germinate, for it is necessary to prevent the 
soil from becoming di'y, and, even after the young plants do come up, 
the shading is retained on the fi'ames. A Uttle air is always kept 
on, except for a night or two after they have been potted or pricked 
off. Begonias intended for winter blooming are being cut back, with 
the exception of such kinds as manicata, Roi Leopold, &c. ; B. nitida 
is one of the best among flowering kinds, but it never produces such 
fine blooms when confined in a small pot, and kept cut down, as it 
does when allowed to ramble at freedom in a stove or Orchid-house. 
If the roots find access to a bed of good soil, mixed with chips of 
sandstone, brickbats, &c., and the stem is trained up to the roof, it 
produces magnificent trusses of bloom. 

Flower Garden and Shrubbery. — In shrubberies, unsightly 
branches and those intruding on walks, are removed. Conifers, in 
some cases, are alsp being shortened in a little. Rose-budding is 
being proceeded with ; from the stocks the roughest of the shoots are 
removed, but those to be operated on are preserved untouched, unless 
they are long and much branched. Pelargonium cuttings are now 
being taken off, and inserted in wall borders ; but Verbenas are 
commonly struck in frames. Dahlias, as they advance, are fastened 
to stakes, taking cai-e not to tie them up too closely or stiiSy. Holly- 
hocks have their tops pinched oif when they get about six feet high, 
and are encouraged to produce good flowers by applications of 
manure water. To tufts of Pampas Grass thorough waterings are 
given, as even heavy rains sometimes fail to reach the roots. 

Indoor Fruit Department. — Pines are now producing, as a 
rule, suckers freely ; but where they refuse to do so, as soon as the 
fruit is removed, they receive jjlenty of water, additional heat, and 
atmospheric moisture — conditions which soon cause them to produce 
good and strong suckers. Young pot Vines are now allowed a little 
more air and a drier atmosphere, but no decrease of water at the 
root is yet permitted, as the aim is to preserve the foliage in as good 
and healthy a state as possible. Melon beds, iu which the plants 
have borne fruit, are being partly renewed, the sashes and glass 
washed, and young healthy Melons planted, the growth of which is 
encouraged by a good bottom heat, and a high moist temperature. 
From Cucumbers iu frames all decaying leaves are removed, also 
male flowers and superfluous wood. Guano and other kinds of 
manure water are freely administered to old plants. In orchard- 
houses, where the fruit is ripening, a steady warm temperature is 
maintained ; and, in order to impart increased flavour, a little air 
is kept on night and day. Pot plants, having yielded their crop, are 
placed outside, so as to get their wood better ripened. 

Hardy Fruit Garden. — The shoots of fruit trees on walls 
continue to be thinned and laid in. Peach and Nectarine trees have 
the fruit-bearing wood shortened-in a few inches. Laterals are 
removed , but not quite close to the main shoot. Newly planted trees 
require little pruning, it being considered better practice to remove 
the shoots in a young state with the finger and thumb. Stone fruits 
are being budded, some of them, on stocks, cut as low as the sui-face 
of the ground, and others considerably higher. The syringe is used 
freely amongst wall trees, and choice young standard Pears, to 
remove insects. Moss, if any, on valuable fruit trees or bushes, is 
scrubbed off with a rough brush, and the parts on which it has been 
growing are washed with brine, not too strong. 

Kitclien Garden. — As Potato ground becomes empty it is filled 
with Broccoli, Scotch Kale, or other greens. For Broccoli a western 
aspect is prefen-ed ; but Scotch Kale and Brussels Sprouts, it need 
scarcely be stated,- wiU succeed in the most exposed situations. In 
cases in which stubby Cabbage stumps have been left they are pro- 
ducing a second crop. To encourage this the soU is dressed with 
well-decayed manure, and loosened with a steel fork; only two, 
or at most three, offsets are allowed to spring from each crown. 
A small sowing of some dwarf early kind is made, so that a few 
nice little heads may be produced to succeed the Coleworts. All 
Potato Onions are being lifted and dried ; spring-sown ones are 
making good progress. A few radishes are still sown in cool places, 
and a few more Lettuces are planted out. Some Onions are also 
Sown for salading ; some out of doors, and some in frames, where 
they can be protected from heavy rains. Scarlet Runners are 
pinched to induce them to throw out laterals, and thus continue in 
bearing ; the removal of all pods just as they are fit for use, whether 
required or not, considerably prolongs the bearing season. Tall Peas 



are being pinched, and where time can be spared, a good soaking of 
manure water now and then is given them. 

NURSERIES. 

Indoor Department. — Camellias that have made good growth 
have their young shoots hardened by gradually exposing them to 
more air. Young Azaleas are being stopped for the last time ; some, 
of them are being tied down very near to the surface of the pots, 
so as to induce a stubby habit. Young plants of Clerodendrons, of 
the Balfourianum or villosum section, are being potted on, using for 
the purpose a good rich compost. Cuttings of climbing Ficuses, 
such as F. barbata and repens, besides being planted in sandy soil 
in frames in the propagating pit to root, are cut into pieces from 
six to eight inches long, and potted at once into a compost of two 
parts of peat and one of sand. Philodendron Lindenii is cut up into 
pieces about a foot or more in length, and potted into a compost of 
rough peat, crocks, and sphagnum, finishing with a layer on the 
top of pure sphagnum. The shoots are then pegged down to the 
sui-face, and after a short time, by the assistance of a little boat and 
the moist moss, they emit roots from every joint. Gloxinias are 
being increased by means of well-ripened, sound leaves placed 
iu pots of sandy peat sm-faced with silver sand. The pots are then 
l^lunged in a gentle bottom heat under a bell-glass or hand-light iu 
the propagating pit. Young Palms are being potted off from seed- 
pans into sixty -sized pots, using a compost of rotten dung, loam, 
peat, and sand. Cissus discolor and amazonica are being increased 
by means of cuttings consisting of two joints, one being under the 
soil and one just above the surface. Well-ripened wood is required 
for this purpose, otherwise they will be sure to damp off. Some kinds 
of succulents are being repotted in a compost consisting of good yellow 
loam, well-decayed manure, some broken crocks, and a little sand. 
Some of the finer kinds of Selaginellas are being increased by means 
of good healthy pieces having roots attached to them being taken off 
and potted into small pots, the soil used being peat, leaf -mould, 
broken crocks, and silver sand. Ferns from spores have the surface 
soil of the pots or pans in which they are grown cut into small 
pieces, which are carefully bfted out and placed on the surface 
of freshly filled pots. A few of the younger Fems are being repotted, 
using for the purpose sandy peat and a little sand; sometimes a 
little loam or leaf-mould is added. Young plants of Platycerium 
aleicome are also being potted; for these the compost is of a 
rougher character than that for most other ferns, being rough turfy 
peat, loam, broken crocks, and sphagnum. Some Orchids are being 
top-dressed, 'an operation -which should, however, have been performed 
much earlier in the season. 

Outdoor Department. — Cultivators are at present engaged in 
lifting ripe bulbs, such as those of Crocuses, Narcissi, Ixias, 
.Sparaxis, Ornithogalums, &c. Pausies are being lifted and divided 
into as many parts as there are shoots springing from the base. 
They are set out in beds about four feet wide, the lines being six 
inches apart, and the cuttings an inch or so asunder. Temporary 
frames or hoops are placed over them covered with mats, which are 
removed as soon as they begin to root. More care is taken with the 
finer kinds of Pansies, but some that have just been treated 
the same way as the bedding ones are looking quite as well. 
Carnations are being prepared for layering by removing all 
lateral shoots and flower-spikes. Some herbaceous and alpine plants 
are top-dressed ; those making vigorous gro^vth are shifted at once 
into larger pots, in order that they may fill them with roots before the 
days turn cold ; others are being shifted from trhumb pots to sixty- 
sized ones. If the plants are valuable, a little bottom heat is also 
applied. In potting, the rarer kinds are divided into as many pieces 
as \^^ll make nice little plants, and they are potted individually into 
thumb pots. For most of the kinds, a suitable compost is two-parts 
good loam, one of leaf mould, and a good admixtirre of sharp sand. 
Young shoots of sweet Rockets, and other herbaceous plants that 
have been pegged down throughout the suummer, are also used as 
cuttings. Eose-budding is being proceeded with. Points of Conifer 
shoots, bearing signs of the presence of the pine-beetle, are removed 
and burned ; care, however, is taken to cut these shoots off as far 
as the beetle has bored, otherwise the amputation will have been 
made in vain. The wood of young fruit trees is being thinned and 
trained into form. 

MARKET GARDENS. 
In dry weather. Celery, Vegetable Marrows, and other crops are 
liberally supplied with water. In districts where the supply of 
water is deficient, French Beans, Cauliflower, Broccoli, Lettuces, &c., 
are grown as summer crops, in preference to Vegetable Marrows 
and Celery, which require too much water to repay the trouble 
of supplying it. Cucumbers are allowed to occupy frames in 
summer ; the frames will, however, be cleared of them by.and-bye, 
the beds will be renewed, and Cauliflowers and Lettuces will be sown 
therein for the earliest planting next spring. At present a few 



90 



THE GARDEN. 



[July 25-, 1872; 



Lettuces are being planted in open spaces formed by the removal 
of the present crops. Celery ridges for the main late crops are 
foi-med, some with four feet spaces between them, and others with 
eight feet spaces ; the narrow beds are planted with two lines of 
Coleworts or Cos Lettuces, and the broad ones with four lines of 
Endive. Fmit gathering forms the greatest part of the current 
work ; as soon as gathered, it is placed in little round vegetable 
baskets, covered over with a few Rhubarb or other leaves, made 
pliable by having been cut a day or two previously, and fastened down 
by crossing pieces of stout willows. Potatoes are brought to market 
in the same way ; some separate the larger from the smaller ones, 
either with the hand, or through large-sized wire sieves. Tomatoes 
sufliciently advanced, and whose fruit is fast swelling, have the points 
of the main shoots cut oft, so as to thi-ow additional vigour into the 
fruit ; laterals are carefully removed from all advancing crops 
showing flower, retaining only such as are producing good clusters, 
at the same time avoiding too much wood. They are well watered 
at the root, and a little manure water is found to be very beneficial. 
Asparagus is allowed to grow freely, removing only the small sprays 
about the base ; the beds are kept clean by hand-weeding, which, in 
many cases is performed by boys. These youths are employed for 
this and similar purposes in place of the regular hands that are out 
on strike. Seeding crops now receive great attention in the way of 
tying up the plants, watering, &c., most of them, such as Onions, 
Leeks, Lettuces, Cauliflowers, &c., being in full bloom, and beginning 
to form their seed. Cabbage seeding plants are being cut over as 
the seed becomes ripe ; stalks, seed-pods, and all, arc laid out on 
canvas to dry, or hung up in bundles in dry sheds. Pot herbs are 
being cut over when ready, and tied into little bundles for drying for 
winter use. A young stock, however, is always preserved by 
late sowings, and second growths, from early cut plants. 



HINTS FOE AMATEUES. 
Flower Garden. — See that Roses are clean, and kept in a healthy 
growing condition. To insure good autumnal bloom, cut back the 
shoots to three or four eyes as soon as the first blooms are over, and 
soak the roots with manure-water. Finish budding Roses by simply 
making a slit as near the base of the shoot as possible, insert the 
bud, and tie with cotton, or woollen thread is best for this purpose ; 
voiy little tying is needed when the cross cut is dispensed with, as it 
ought to be. Help weak or late plants, such as Dahlias, Hollyhocks, 
&c., with manui-e water to fill their allotted spaces. 

Fruit Garden. — Let Vines have plenty of air, night and day, as 
soon as the fruit begins to colour. In the case of Peach and Orchard 
houses, a moderate crop, perfect health, spotlessly clean houses, 
and airy open treatment, lay on colour and flavour. Keep Melons 
ripening rather dry, and cut the fruit as soon as any flavour is 
perceptible, or it begins to crack around the stalk, otherwise it is 
apt to spHt, and its appearance becomes ruined. Cut all fruit on 
Cucumbers that are fit thrice a week ; stop every shoot, and 
remove any superannuated leaves, at least once a week. In the 
case of hardy fruits, mass the small ones together, so that 
they may be netted over to keep them from birds. For instance, 
plant the walls with Cherries, Gooseberries, Currants, and Raspberries, 
and plant the ground between with bush fruit, such as Gooseberries 
and Strawberries, then net from wall to wall. The nets will last 
much longer thus highly elevated above the ground, and the fruit- 
gatherer can go in at any point and gather the fruit in comfort ; the 
birds also give up trying to reach the fruit through the nets, and 
thus one gi-eat source of wear and tear of nets is avoided. There 
is considerable art in the gathering of fruit. It should not bo 
handled at all, or as little as possible, and no crushing or over, 
crowding should bo indulged in. Very much of the difference 
between good and bad fruit at dessert results from the gathering. 
Vine leaves, or those of the Plane and the Sycamore, are the best for 
laying fruit upon. Cabbage or Cauliflower leaves are about the 
worst. In wet weather especially, these taint such fruits as Rasp- 
berries and Strawberries with a Cabbage flavour. Such fruits, again, 
as Gooseberries, Currants, and Cherries should be gathered in clean 
baskets, without leaves. If laid thin, their skins will protect them 
from injury, as they will appear in better condition than if they had 
been previously bedded on Cabbage or any other fine or succulent 
foliage. As to the time of gathering fruits the early morning is the 
best. Better and pleasanter far to gather dessert then, and store in 
the pantry or cellars till our early or late dinner, than rush out in the 
mid-day or afternoon sun to gather fresh fruit for dessert ; that 
gathered in the early morning will eat by far the fresher and sweeter 
of the two. 

Greenhouses, &C. — Shade late Pelargoniums and Fuchsias 
from the sun, and thus prolong their bloom. Allow climbers to 
grow and flower freely, and to assume for a time a free habit. 



Better an empty house at this season, than one filled with faded, 
worn-out flowers. 

Kitch.en Garden. — The secret of a well-furnished garden is 
incessant attention to trifles. The main crops are jjretty sure to be 
got in all right and in time, but it is the successional sowings and 
plantings that keep the garden full. Hake some last sowings of 
Peas — a good marrow and a good early sort — such as First Crop ; 
sow also Walcheren Broccoli, Lettuces, Endive, Cabbages, Horn 
Carrots, Turnips, and Radishes. Plant out Broccolies, Greens, Savoys, 
Cauliflower, Lettuces, Cabbages, and Celery, on all vacant ground. 
Water growing crops in dry weather, destroy weeds, and scarify all 
ground between such crops. D. T. Fisn. 



OBITUARY. 
We have to record the death of Mr. Ramsay, late fruit-tree foreman to 
Messrs. James Veitch & Sons, at the age of seventy-one. For the last 
few years Mr. Ramsay had resided at Leicester, where he died only a 
week after being elected a pensioner of the Gardeners' Royal Benevolent 
Institution. 



COVENT GAKDEN MARKET.— July 26tli. 

Flo'wei's consist of Cockscombs, in four and six inch pots; 
Balsams, in six-inch pots ; Japan LUies, finely bloomed, in four and six 
inch pots, including L. speciosum, roseum, a few of punctatum, and 
some nice plants of L. auratum. The hardier kinds of Lilies, such 
as L. longiflorum, tigrinum, &c., are also brought in in the form of cut 
Howlers. Fuchsias are very abundant, and although they consist chiefly 
of the free-blooming old kinds, yet amongst them may be found several 
of the newer sorts, both single and double. Hydrangeas, both pink and 
blue, from spring-struck cuttings may be obtained. Sensitive plants 
(Mimosa pudica), for such as have small warm conser\'atories, may also be 
had ; likewise nice plants of Achimenes and Gloxinias, both of which are 
great favourites. China Roses are still furnished in pots, also many 
handsome-leaved plants, such as Begonias, Maitintas, l)raca3nas, Cala- 
diums, httle Palms, Ferns, and Mosses. Cut flowers principally 
consist of Rose blooms ; Carnations, more particularly dark clove- 
scented ones ; wild grasses, which, mingled with ordinary flowers, add 
considerably to their gracefulness ; and blooms of the double-white 
Feverfew, the rose-coloured Achillea, Lupin blooms of different colours, 
and flowers of many hardy annuals and perennials. Strikingly beautiful 
are blossoms of the blue Corn-flower. DahHa blooms are also now 
coming in ; and Ulcewise those of the white Water Lily (Nymphrea alba) 
which are sold at a penny a piece. 

PRICES or PBUII. 



s. a. s. a 

Apples half sieve 2 to 3 

Apricots perdoz. 2 

Ctierries per lb. 1 

Chestnuts bushei 

Figs per doz. 4 

Pilterts lb. 



Cobs 
Grapes, hothouse 
Lemons 



..lb. 
..lb. 
.100 







•i 

2 



10 





6 

10 



s. d. s. d. 

Melons each a to 8 

Nectarines perdoz. -i 

Oranges lOO 8 

Peaches per doz. 12 

Pine Apples lb. a 

Plums per box 3 

Strawberries lb. 6 

Walnuts bushel 10 

ditto per 100 1 



15 

15 

2-1 

8 



25 
2 



PMCES OP VEGETABLES. 



Artichokes per doz. 4 

Asparagus per 100 

Beans, Broad i^er bush. 3 

Beans, Kidney ...^ sieve 3 

Beet, Eed doz. 1 

Broccoli bundle 

Cabbage doz. 1 

Carrots bunch 

CauUflower doz. 2 

Celery bundle 1 

Ohilies per 100 1 

Coleworts doz. bunches 2 

Cucumbers each 

Endive doz. 2 

Fennel bunch 

Garlic lb. 

Herbs bmich 

Horseradish bundle 3 



to 6 






Leeks. ■ bunch 

Lettuces score 

Mushrooms pottle 2 



B 
(i 








Mustard & Cress, punnet 2 to 
Nasturtium seed for 

pickling per pijit 4 4 

Ouions per bunch 4 

Onions bushel 3 

pickling quai't 6 

Parsley, ...doz, bunches 3 

Parsnips doz. 9 

Peas per quart 9 

Potatoes, Kidney... cwt. 7 

Potatoes, Bound do. b 

Batlishes doz. bunches 

pods for pickling pint 4 

Rhubarb bimdlo H 

Salsafy do. 1 

Scorzonera bundle 9 

Shallots lb. 4 

Spinach bushel 

Tomatoes doz. 

Turnips buncij 

Vegetable Marrows doz 2 



(} 
1 



2 
4 



1 6 

1 3 
6 

2 e 

4 

9 

3 



St. Swithin's Day.— The result of observations taken at Green- 
wich for the twenty years preceding ISGl proves that no confidence 
whatever is to be placed in St. Sivithin's Day. Indeed, the more it rains 
on the loth of July the greater the probability of fine weather. In 1841, 
when St. Swithin's Day was wet, there were 23 rainy days between the 
loth of July and the 24th of August ; in 1845, 20 rainy days ; in 1851, 
13 rainy days ; in 1S53, 18 rainy days ; in 1854, 10 rainy days ; and in 
1850, 14 rainy days. On the other hand, when St. Swithin's Day was 
fiue, as in the following years, the results were painful in the extreme. 
In 1842, 12 rainy days ; in 1843, 22 rainy days;^ in 1844, 20 rainy days ; in 
184G, 21 rainy days ; in 1847, 17 rainy days ; in 18-18, 31 rainy days ; in 
1849, 20 rainy days ; in 1850, 17 lainy days ; in 1852, 19 rainy days ; in 
1855, 18 rainy days; in 1857, 14 rainy days; in 1858, 14 rainy days ; in 
1859, 13 i-ainy days ; and in 1800, 29 rainy days. St. Sivithin, therefore, 
is no more to he depended on for a constant supply of water than the 
MetropoUtan Water Companies. — PaU Mall Gazette. 



Aug. 



1872.] 



THE GARDEN. 



91 



THE GARDEN. 

" This is an art 
Which docs mend nature : change it rather : bat 
The Akt itself is Nature." — Shakespeare. 



THE ROSE-AMATEUE'S GUIDE.* 
WiTU varied feelings, kludly and pleasant all of them, Tve 
welcome another issue of this well-known and well-loved 
manual. First, with happy and grateful memories of the 
time when, nigh upon thirty years ago, we first fell in love 
with the Eose (and with everything else that was beautiful), 
and were introduced by Mr. Elvers to the Garden Queen. 
Ah, what sweet summers of happiness this little book — so 
freshly, so truthfully written from the fulness of an earnest 
heart — brings home to memory ! How many hundi'eds have 
sat with it, beneath umbrageous branches or in some cool grot, 
and have learned from its genial tone and lucid teaching to 
appreciate more highly, and to realize more fully, the beauties 
of the royal rose ! It has brought new brightness to many 
a bright English home, to castle and hall, to parsonage and 
cottage too, not only for the eyes, but for the hearts of those 
who first learned from its pages that " gardening is the 
pui-est of human pleasui-es," and that the chief grace of a 
garden is the rose. 

And then we think of " that grand old gardener," the author, 
and how much thankfulness is due to him from us all, not 
only for what he has written, but for what he has done for the 
garden — net only for this " guide " to the culture of roses, 
and for other guides equally reliable, which he has published on 
the culture of fniit, but for yet more valuable v:oi'lis, as, for 
example, the introduction of the Manetti stock for roses, which 
has multipUed the enjoyment of their loveliness a thousandfold, 
and also the invention of orchard houses, and consequently of 
the profitable and enjoyable cultivation under glass of fruits, 
which were previously grown (and very frequently destroyed) 
alfresco. 

It would, of course^ be most undignified in a State or 
Government to recognise any merit in such a man as this ; 
but we gardeners, nevertheless, take leave to think that Thomas 
Elvers has done more for the happiness of his countiymen than 
a great number of personages, whose names are inclosed, like 
sandwiches, with titles to left of them and letters to right of 
them ; we almost dare to believe that this little red book has 
difiEused as much pleasure and profit also as some of those huge 
volumes which are bound in blue ; and we are cjuite sure that 
it will be remembered and read, when the scientific dissertations 
of haughty theorists, who never budded a rose nor pruned a 
fruit tree, shall have passed, easily and gi'easily, from the 
butterman's hands into oblivion. 



KBW GAEDENS. 



DE. HOOKER AJJD MR. ATRTOJT. 

The debate in the House o£ Lords the other night on this question 
proved a failure. Whatever might have been the reason, the subject 
seemed to create no interest, and the House was in that condition 
which might be roughly described as empty when Lord Derby rose 
to open the debate. Lord Derby, doubtless, did his best, and we 
readily admit that he deserves great credit for the firm and earnest 
way in which he vindicated the case of Dr. Hooker. After stating 
what has been already made familiar to the public, he spoke of the 
case of the recently discharged Curator's clerk, who won his appoint- 
ment at the competitive e.vamination last spring : — 

" Unwilling," he said, " to go more than I can help into details — hut, as 
a sample of the way in which matters have been carried on at Kew, I must 
refer to a matter which occupies the first twenty-five pages of the Blne- 
book, a signal instance of how departments contrive to make unnecessary 
work for themselves. It appears that an assistant was wanted for the 
Curator to perform certain special duties. Those duties involved the 
keeping of accounts, the custody of stores, the conducting of a large 
con'espondence, and the direction of the foremen employed in the gardens. 
The appointment is competed for, not hy an open, hut a special examina- 
tion, showing that special qualifications were required, and is given, 

* " The Eose-Amatenr's Guide." By Thomas Rivers. Longman & Co. 1872. 



without any reference to Dr. Hooker, to a man who had been employed 
in the gardens, well known to the Director, and of whom both the 
Director and the Curator had formed a very unfavom-ahle opinion. Dr. 
Hooker's report upon him is — 'Writes indifferently, spells badly, 
incompetent to direct foremen in regard to stores ; no prehminary 
education or ti"aining to fit him for the situation. He has never kept 
accounts, he has never been in charge of stores, and cannot conduct 
a con'espondence creditably.' (A laugh.) Dr. Hooker entreats that 
he may be removed. The Treasury concur" ; in a letter dated May 2nd of 
this year the First Commissioner objects ; and on June 26th the 'Treasury 
repeat their expression of opinion in a letter which is too long to quote, 
but which I am bound to say, to the credit of the writer, the Lords of 
the Treasury, and, I suppose, principally of the Chancellor of the Ex- 
chequer, does very clearly show that they thought, in this instance, the 
position of the First Commissioner to be indefensible. The man was 
discharged at last, and then follows a controversy between the various 
departments concerned — Treasury, Board of Vforks, and Civil Service 
Commission — which certainly points to a very curious state of confusion 
and uncertainty as to the status of persons holding appointments in the 
Civil Service. Justice compels me to admit that in this case the Treasui'y 
rather tardily set themselves right. But the fact remains that every- 
thing in the power of the First Commissioner was done to force on 
Dr. Hooker a man whom he disapproved of, whom he knew to be unfit, and 
for whom he could find no suitable employment.' ' 

May we ask, in the face of the man winning at the examination, if 
the above statements respecting his qualifications be true ? Lord 
Derby then diverged from the contents of the Blue-book, and made 
a statement which seemed to us, to say the least of it, very singular, 
and very unjust to the person referred to. 

"But, my lords,' ' said Lord Derby, "I fear that the list of these complaints 
is not fully exhausted by what appears in these papers. I hold in my 
hand a statement coming from what ought to be the best authority, to 
the following eifect : — That within the last ten- days the First Com- 
missioner has sent to Dr. Hooker ' two letters containing vague charges 
of jobbery and mismanagement ; one from a late foreman of Kew, who 
is subject to hallucinations, and who, after engaging himself to another 
place, without informing the Director, suddenly left, wholly of his own 
accord, bringing purely imaginative charges against the Curator. For 
these the man abjectly apologised, and wrote to the Director expressing 
his regi'et, and begging that he might be taken into favour again. This 
man is known to have been for some time in communication with Mr. 
Ayrion, who, at the last hour, brings him forward.' " 

This person was, however, not brought forward by Mr. Ayrtou in 
the Blue-book, and had no means of defending himself from a false 
and ridiculous charge. 

The Duke of St. Albans followed in defence of Mr. Ayrton, and 
showed, by the follo^ving letter from Sir Benjamin Hall to Sir W. 
Hooker, that at least one other Chief Commissioner had felt it his duty 
to interfere at Kew : — 

*' I think it necessary again to call your attention to the present state 
of the gardens at Kew, which I do not consider at all satisfactory. Soon 
after I became First Commissioner I visited the gardens and pointed out 
to you the very bad condition of the walks, the coai'se appearance of the 
grass, and the very insufiicient supply of flowers for the beds. Hardly 
any preparation had been made for H llin g the beds this year by providing 
cuttings ; and when I desired to have a few more flower beds, in order 
that the gardens might look more gay in the vicinity of the Palm-house, I 
was told there were not cuttings enough to plant out, upon which I directed 
that the new beds should be filled with annuals. In short, there was 
Uttle, scarcely any, preparation made ; and when I was at the gardens a 
few days ago I was informed that very Utile had been done in the way of 
making provision for next summer. I also saw that the walks were in a 
very bad state ; the day was wet, and I was thus better able to judge of 
their condition than if it had been fine, for I could see the hollows in 
which the water stood most clearly. You agreed with me in the observa- 
tions I made, and you quite acquiesced in the opinion I expressed, that the 

condition of the gardens was not at aU what it ought to be 'The funds 

prorided by Parliament are enormous, and ample for the purpose ; and 
when I compare the state and general appearance of the Botanic Gardens 
at Edinburgh with those at Kew, and look at the miserable sum of £1,000 
which is expended on the Edinburgh Gardens, which sum covers all 
salaries and expenses of every kind, I am sorry to say that the deductions 
to be drawn are by no means in favour of Kew. Instead of your having 
a very insufiicient supply of flowers to plant out in the gardens of Kew, 
those gardens should afford ample supply for other places ; and it is very 
probable that I shall require geraniums and other half-hardy plants to 
put out in some of the clumps in St. James's Park and Kensington 
Gardens next year; I must therefore request that you -nail have ample 
provision. I wish also that the walks may he put in better order, and the 
grass kept in a better state, and that you should plant a large number of 
laburnums, lilacs, and other flowering shrubs in those parts of the gardens 
and pleasure grounds where they can be placed with advantage." 

Lord Stanley of Alderley ventured to think that the noble earl 
would not meet with much gratitude from the country for having 
added this Blue-book to the already too large number which existed, 
nor from their lordships individually, for having imposed on them 
the burden of such tedious reading. He disagreed entirely from 
those who accused Mr. Ayrton of making himself unpopular. From 



92 



THE GAEDBN. 



[Aug. 3, 1872. 



tho nature of things, it was not the man but the office that was 
unpopular. The Board of Works had to supervise and curtail the 
expenditure of public money, and if such supervision was carried out 
with fidelity to the public interests, it must be unpopular among 
those who are supervised. The necessity for the noble earl's motion 
had been created by the memorial signed by eleven men of science 
and addressed to the Prime Minister. He did not attach any 
weight whitever to some of the signatures of that memorial, 
among other reasons because it had been called forth, not by 
sympathy for Dr. Hooker, nor by ill-will to Mr. Ayrton, but 
by the fact that Pi'ofessor Owen, of the British Museum, 
had expressed the views contained in Appendix No. 3 of the 
Blue-book, that he had severely criticised Dr. Hooker and the 
Kew Herbarium, and had expressed the desire for its removal to a 
central botanical museum in London. Besides the scientific hostility 
to Professor Owen, there existed among some of the partisans of Dr. 
Hooker hostility to Professor Owen on other grounds, for the discus- 
sion of which their lordships' House was not a very fitting place. 
Dr. Hooker applied to Lord Clarendon to be sent to a Botanical Con- 
gress at St. Petersburg as Royal Commissioner. Dr. Hooker was in. 
formed that Lord Clarendon, after communicating with the Treasury, 
had declined to send him to St. Petersburg. He would ask leave to 
read his reply to Mr. Layard, then First Commissioner of the Board 
of Works, in which Dr. Hooker took her Majesty's Government to task 
with an amenity of language which showed that he was a good judge 
of style, — " I much regret this action of the Treasury .... mere 
disregard of international courtesy in scientific matters." 



NOTES OF THE WEEK. 



On Thursday evening, July 25th, and as Big Ben at West- 
minster was striking seven, a violent rain storm, accompanied by 
wind, took place in London and seriously damaged some of the fine 
young Plane trees on the Thames Embankment. These plane trees 
are strong and firmly planted, and supported by a cradle formed of 
three vei-y strong stakes. A species of whirlwind of unusual force 
swept along the Embankment and twisted off the Planes as easily as 
if they were feeble reeds. In some cases the tree and its three 
great stakes were broken clean off within six inches of the ground; 
in one or two the head of the tree was broken clean off just above 
the line of the stakes, but in most instances the stakes were broken 
off, and the tree blown down, but not broken right off. In these 
cases the trees have been staked up again, and the wounds covered 
over with adhesive composition ; specimens treated thus, show, as 
yet, no sign of suffering. 

An interesting garden entertainment was given on Wednesday 

week to about 300 foreigners of the refugee and artisan class, by 
Mr. AVilliani Leaf, of Park Hill, Streatham. 

We notice an improvement in connection with the seats in 

the London parks. A gently rounded granite slab is sunk in the 
ground by way of a foot rest, while the seats themselves rest on 
three smaller slabs placed at right angles to the foot rest. 

The rare and fine Grammatophyllum EUisii is now in 

flower in one of the orchid houses in the Royal Exotic Nurseries, 
King's Road, Chelsea. The flower shoot is nearly two feet long, and 
the racemes bear about forty flowers each. 

Some beautiful hardy Begonias are now in flower in the 

Royal Exotic Nurseries, King's Road, Chelsea. They are unnamed 
seedlings, except one kind — B. intermedia. All are distinct and 
beautiful ornaments to the rock-garden. 

One of the prettiest and most graceful window plants which 

we have seen for a long time was a specimen of Begonia Weltoniensis 
shown by a cottager at the Willesden flower show last week. Though 
it had evidently been a long time under window culture, it was a 
sheet of bloom. 

Ami'elopsis TRicuspiDATA is rapidly proving its claim to be 

planted as extensively as the well-known Virginian Creeper. Mr. 
Dominy's house, in the Royal E.xotic Nurseries, King's Road, Chelsea, 
is now a glistening sheet of it, from top to bottom, all nailed up too 
by its own tiny fingers. What a boon will this new creeper prove 
to all who have high walls to cover ! 

Two new Crotons about to be sent out by Mr. William Bull are 

wonderfully fine in their way ; one named C. spiralis, with foliage of 
a dark or bronze green, finely marked with yellow S])ots, has about 
as true a si^iral leaf as is to be found in any class of plants iu culti- 
vation ; the other, not yet named, has long, linear foliage more 
beautifully marked than anything of the kind we have yet seen. 
Mr. Bull has also a finely variegated form of Erythrina, the pure 
yellow markings of ivhich instantly bring to mind the charming 
Croton Hookerii. 



The cocoa-nut tree at Sion House, that fruited some years 

ago, is now throwing up a strong flower-spike, and will, we trust, 
under Mr. Woodbridge's care, produce and perfect another fruit. 

We are glad to record that the noble Musa Ensete is holding 

its own out of doors this inclement season. Young plants of it are 
now fine ornaments to the London parks. 

It may be interesting to know that Mr. Herbst, of Richmond, 

has j ust finished cutting flowers of Lily of the Valley from some 
hundred pots of it that came into flower during the first week in July. 

A graceful and touching thought has occurred to tho 

promoters of the City flower show. Next year, according to an 
announcement made the other day, a prize is to be given for the best 
kept churchyard. 

There is now in flower iu Mr. Bull's nursery, Chelsea, a 

number of plants of the beautiful and brilliant little Lilium pul- 
chellum. This is no larger than L. tenuifolium, and deserves to be 
associated with that gem in every choice collection of hardy bulbs. 

The finest plants of Disa grandiflora we have ever seen are 

now in flower iu Mr. Salt's garden, at Femiehurst, near Saltaire. 
They are grown in shallow pans, and, if we mistake not, enjoy rich 
manure as much as cabbages do. 

Those not familiar with the fine North American Lilium 

superbum, may be interested to learn that there is now a bed of it, 
and some closely allied forms, in Mr. Barr's experimental grounds at 
Tooting. 

One of the most beautiful bulbous plants in flower at the pre- 
sent time is Zephyranthes Spofforthiana, a good bed of which may be 
seen at Messrs. Henderson's nursery, Wellington Road, St. John's 
Wood. The plants are about six inches high, and produce large 
rose-coloured flowers in sufficient abundance to be very effective. 

In one of the glass houses in the Royal Exotic Nurseries, 

King's Road, Chelsea, three AUamaudas — Schotti, nobilis, and 
grandiflora — may now be seen in superb condition. They are planted 
out and trained loosely under the roof, and thus treated they present 
a more natural and attractive aspect than when grown in pots and 
trained on trellises. 

On Monday last we saw specimens of Amarantus sallcifolius 

two feet high, fine branching bushy plants beginning to assume a 
very high colour towards the top. These specimens were iu a 
London garden, and have withstood all the recent severities of the 
weather ; this is a sufficient proof that the constitution of the plant 
is all that could be desired for flower-gardening purposes. 

The Lime tree has, notwithstanding the wet and cold season, 

already assumed a spotty half-withered appearance iu many parts 
of London. The Lime should never be planted as a city tree in this 
country, for the simple reason that in cities it invariably assumes a 
scraggy, rusty, most disagreeable aspect three months before a 
town tree should do so. This does not apply in the open country, 
where it usually retains its good looks till late in the year. 

■ We were glad to see, the other day, the beautiful white 

trumpet-shaped blooms of Lilium longiflorum peeping forth here and 
there from the Rhododendron beds near the Albert Memorial, iu 
Kensington Gardens. This is certainly a step in the right direction ; 
but we hope such features will not be overdone. If we have a bed, or 
several beds, embellished with a charming feature of this kind, the 
effect is weakened, in fact, it is entirely neutralised, by furnishing 
every bed in the place with the same subject. 

. The bright-flowered and pretty Rhexia virginica, one of the 

most beautiful of the bog plants of North America, is now in good 
flower in Messrs. Osborn's nui'sery at Fulham. It is very rarely 
seen in good condition in gardens. Although a member of the 
Melastoma order (which is composed, for the most part, of gorgeously 
coloured tender plants that abound iu the warmer parts of America) , 
this charming little plant, which inhabits the cold Northern States, 
is perfectly hardy in this country. It is called Meadow Beauty in 
America, and is one of the most valuable plants for the artificial bog, 
or for moist peaty spots iu or near the rock-garden. 

There is now in flower in Mr. Peacock's fine collection of 

Cacti, at Sudbury House, Hammersmith, Echinocactus Pottsii, the 
extraordinary three-legged plant so much remarked at our principal 
shows this year. It is a gigantic globular kind about a foot in 
diameter, grafted on and supported by three stems of Cereus tortuosus, 
each about an inch through. One of the legs died not long ago, and 
Mr. Croucher added another in its place. It is the most curions 
result of the art of grafting we have seen. 

In consequence of our extensive reports of the state of the 

fruit crops throughout the country appearing in the same issue with 
the monthly calendars of gardening operations, some of our illustra- 
tions are crowded out this week. 



Aug. 3, 1872.] 



THE GARDEN. 



93 



THE IND OOR GARDEN. 

VBNUS'S FLY-TRAP. 

(dIOU-EA muscipula.) 
BY THOIIAS BAINES, SOUTHGATE. 

^E^v plants are more generally interesting than this, either 
to people conversant Trith cm'iosities in the vegetable kingdom 
or to ordinary observers. It is referred to in most works on 
physiological botany, as affording a striking instance of vege- 
table irritability. The trap-like extremities of its leaves are 
so sensitive indeed, that the least touch causes them to close 
instantly on the luckless fly, Tvood-louse, or even larger insect 
that happens to get within their grasp. In the growing 
season, when the plant is strong, I have seen even a slug, four 
inches long, held fast by the tail until it was dead; and beetles 
so large as to protude on all sides from the trap also meet 
with a slow but certain death. This plant has, indeed, some- 
what puzzled vegetable physiologists, some maintaining that 
its legitimate use in the vegetable world is that of an insect 
destroyer ; others that it is carnivorous, and that it is benefited 



little leaf mould, and sand. Pot tolerably firm, using thumb 
pots well drained ; plunge these closely in sphagnum in a pot 
or pan sufiiciently large to accommodate them, giving the 
whole a liberal watering. If strong, the plants will throw up 
flower stems ; but these should be removed as soon as they 
are long enough to pinch out. During the season of growth 
water copiously every day. Towards November the plants 
will show signs of going to rest, by making a few short 
leaves ; these will be retained during the winter, the larger 
summer leaves dying off. The soil must never be allowed to 
become dry, not even iu winter, at which time the plants 
should be placed in a temperature of 50° by night, allowing a 
rise of some 10° during the daytime. During its season of 
grovrth it enjoys a night temperature of 60°, with 75° or 80° by 
day. Provided the atmosphere of the house (which should be 
moist) suits the plant, all the crowns that throw up flower- 
stems will be found to increase naturally by throwing off 
ofiisets. Many grow this plant under a bell-glass, but its 
growth is stronger without than with one. It likes a moderate 
amount of light, but no sun ; therefore, if the house is thinly 
shaded, the plant should have in addition a piece of thin 




Trap-like Appendages of Veuus's Fly-Trap. 



by the decomposed insects which it entombs. One thing we 
do know, which is that when a trap has enclosed an insect it 
retains its hold of it for weeks, or until the insect has become 
thorottghly decomposed ; after that it ro-opens. This natural 
insect destroyer is a humble marsh plant, bearing from the 
root, on a smooth leafless stalk a few inches high, a corymb of 
white flowers. Prom the bulb-like root proceeds, in a radiating 
manner, a number of leaves on longish stalks. The lamina 
of the leaf is divided by the mid-rib into two nearly semi- 
circular valves, each of which is fi-iuged with stifl! hairs, 
and furnished near the middle with three minute bristles 
arranged in a triangle, which bristles are extremely irritable, 
and when touched by a fly or other insect cause the two sides 
of the leaf to collapse with a sudden spring, imprisoning the 
intruder until it is either dead or ceases to move. It is a 
native of swamps in North Carolina, and is often to be met 
with in our stoves. 

February or March is a good time to commence its culture. 
I have found it to grow well in the following materials : 
Three parts rotten sphagnum chopped fine, two parts fibrous 
peat broken small, one part broken crocks, the size of peas, a 



tissue paper over it in bright weather. This is indispensable. 
About five years ago I had a large mass of this plant filling a 
twelve-inch pan. I gave it more light than is usually allowed 
it, and the traps assumed a beautiful bronzy colour, so much 
so, as to be remarked by all who saw it. The following year I 
thought to still improve it by placing it still nearer the light ; 
but one week's bright weather so injured it that it never 
recovered. I should not advise anyone to commence the culti- 
vation of this or similar subjects, such as Cephalotus foUi- 
cularis or Anasctochilus, unless time can be spared to attend 
every day to their wants, or the result will be almost certain 
failure. 



CULTURE OP HERBACEOUS CALCEOLARIAS. 

BT GEO. BERRY, THE GARDENS, DALVET, MORAYSHIRE. 

These are best treated as biennials. The seed should be sown about 
the middle of June, and although I am aware that some make 
several sowings during the summer and early autumn, I. would not 
recommend sucli a practice, for I have always been able to obtain a 



94 



THE GARDEN. 



[Aug. 3, 1872. 



good succession from the one sowing. After the summer bedding- 
plants have been put out, I prepare a corner in one of my spent 
dung frames, which were put up in the beginning of March for the 
purpose of striking cuttings in, and which a little later were used for 
starting Gloxinias, Achimenes, Caladiums, &c. In one of these 
frames, near the glass, I place my pan of Calceolaria seed, which 
is sown in a finely sifted compost of yellow loam, leaf mould, and 
silver sand. The seeds, which are scattered regularly over the 
surface, are barely covered with soil. A pane of glass is then placed 
over them, on the top of which a little damp moss is placed, but this 
is removed as soon as the seed begins to germinate. Shading, 
however, is always requisite while the plants are in a young state, to 
protect them from bright sunshine. As soon as they can be handled, 
I prepare a few pans or shallow boxes, which I half fill with open, 
rough material, such as refuse siftings ; on these I put a sifted 
compost a little rougher than that used for the seed.pans, and also 
enriched a little by the addition of some decomposed hot-bed 
manure. Into these pans or boxes I prick off the seedlings an inch 
apart each way, and return them to their former quarters. To 
one particular point I attach much importance, and that is 
giving them plenty of air from their earliest stages of growth 
onwards. If this is not done, they are very likely to damp off. 
For this reason, then, I always place the seed-pan towards the front 
of the frame, and tilt up the latter a little both night and day. 
Should the weather be at all cold I protect the frames at night with 
a mat or two, according to circumstances. At each shift which the 
plants receive, however, the air is not left on at night for a day or 
two, but the first thing done early every morning is to remove the 
mats from the frames, and to give a little air ; then, when the young 
pricked-ofE plants begin to meet, preparation must be made for 
another shift. For this, I use small thumb-pots, quite clean and well- 
drained ; into these I put the young plants singly, preserving the roots 
and balls as much as possible ; some require small pots and some 
larger ones, according to their respective sizes, and any too small to 
pot off are shifted to another pan, all being replaced in the frame. 
The compost used for this potting differs very little from that employed 
for the last shift. The plants now, however, require considerably 
more frame-room, and they should be set on a layer of clean saud. 
When this stage of growth is arrived at they do not require any 
covering at night beyond that of the sashes, but after they begin to 
take to the new soil, I tilt up the frames an inch or two both at back 
and front, in order to keep up a free circulation of air, and thus 
induce a nice stubby growth. After this no definite rules can be laid 
down for repotting. . It is, however, a bad practice to over.pot, and 
still worse to pot such as do not require it. 

After the second potting they should be gradually so inured to 
light and air as to do without protection of any kind. I always, 
however, preserve them from heavy showers and sudden changes of 
weather, by placing sashes over them, but they do not like too much 
heat ; indeed, they grow far stronger during long cool nights than 
they do throughout the warmer and shorter ones. 

There is no plant easier to winter safely than the Calceolaria, for 
if provided with a temperature of 34° it does very well. I grow 
annually about three hundred of these plants in the way just 
described, and nothing repays me better for my trouble. In October 
or November I transfer them from my frame ground to a span-roofed 
pit, which, being sunk into the ground four feet or so, is rather 
damp. The only means which I have of heating it is by means of 
a very small stove in the centre. This stove is, however, only used 
as a protection from very severe frost, I cover with wooden frames 
lined with straw. These will keep out frost of 7° or 8°, and even 
more. But if very severe weather sets it, I light a little fire in the 
stove just referred to every evening, never allowing the temperature, 
however, by this means to exceed 38°, nor to fall below 34°. This 
pit looks north-west and south-east, and has a shelved stage in the 
centre. On the sunny side I arrange Calceolarias, and on the other 
Cinerarias, wide enough apart to keep the leaves from coming in 
contact. Here both remain throughout the winter and until they 
begin to bloom. The winters are often so severe in this part of 
Scotland that the covers are not wholly removed from the sashes for 
three weeks together at a time ; at such times every alternate one 
is lifted off at mid-day for three hours or so. If there is a heavy 
fall of snow, I prefer allowing the covers to remain untouched for 
several days, the snow being an additional protection. The moment 
a thaw comes, we remove the snow with broad wooden scrapers, and 
take off the covers ; for if the snow was permitted to melt on the 
covers, it would so saturate them that the slightest frost would 
penetrate them in a short time. Under such conditions the plants 
continue to thrive, and by the middle of February many of them 
require another shift, which is generally the last they get, unless 
they are very vigorous, when I repot them again before they come 
into flower. During spring, unless the sun is very hot, no shading 



is afforded them, and a free current of fresh air is allowed to pervade 
the pit night and day. 

Calceolarias cannot withstand droughts, and over watering is 
equally injurious to them. Even throughout the most severe part of 
winter the roots must not suffer from want of water, but be kept 
always moderately moist. Calceolarias become dry sooner than 
most other plants, for even throughout the dull season they continue 
in growth, and the open, rough material used in potting when they 
are in an advanced state does not retain moisture long. Water 
should, however, never be allowed to touch the foliage, but should 
be given carefully, lifting up the lowermost leaves with one hand, 
and pouring in water gently with the other. Unless carefully 
handled the healthy leaves, which'are so thick and brittle, break very 
easily. Should bright sunshine come in contact with a damp leaf, 
it becomes spotted, unsightly, and is very likely to damp off. For 
the last two or three shifts, I find two parts good yellow loam, one 
part thoroughly decayed hot-bed manure, and a little sharp river 
sand a good compost. These are all chopped up, well mixed, and 
used in a rough unsifted state. I usually pot all requiring a shift 
before taking them into the pit ; but the size of the pots must be 
regulated according to the size and vigour of the plant ; therefore, 
at the blooming season some may be in six-inch pots, and 
others in twelve-inch ones. We commonly go over them about the 
1st of May, stake all that require that attention, and bring 
them up to our blooming house. They get another staking 
about the end of May. In order to prolong their flowering i^eriod, 
and to bring the blooms to perfection, I give them occasional 
applications of guano-water. This invigorates them, and brings out 
that fine deep green in the foliage which is so desirable. Pot-bound 
plants in particular are exceedingly grateful for liquid manure ; but 
to such as are over potted, it must bo very sparingly supplied. When 
the blooms begin to fade, I turn the plants out, clear them of their 
stakes, pots, and crocks, break up the ball, and throw it on the vege- 
table heap. If I want to preserve a remarkably fine sort for next 
year, as soon as its beautj' is over I cut off all the flower spikes, and 
transfer the jjlant for a time to a frame with a north aspect, or place 
it on a board behind a wall; after a time I shake it out of its present 
pot, shift it into a smaller one, place it in an open cold frame, and 
afterwards treat it as any of the others ; it is never under glass until 
housed for the winter. Green fly is the greatest enemy which the 
Calceolaria has in the way of insect pests, but well-grown plants are 
seldom troubled with it, and should they be attacked, tobacco fumi. 
gation soon clears them. 



GOMPHOLOBIUM POLTMORPHUM. 

Although this is one of the most beautiful of greenhouse climbers, 
and a plant which, when properly managed, remains in beauty longer 
than most things, and is equally valuable for exhibition or decorative 
purposes, yet it is rarely seen in anything like perfection. The first 
time I saw a well-grown plant of it was at the Horticultural Society's 
exhibition at Chiswick in May 1847 ; this was exhibited by the late 
Mr. Hunt, then gardener to Miss Traill, and was trained upon a half- 
round wire trellis, four feet in diameter, which was clothed from top 
to bottom with delicate foliage and bright red pea-shaped flowers, 
together with multitudes of buds in all stages of forwardness ; it was 
awarded (and justly) an extra first prize or gold medal. I, as well as 
other plant growers who saw it, admired it greatly, and considered it 
well deserving the high award it received ; but I thought that if it 
could be trained upon slender stakes in the bush form, it would look 
more natural, have a more graceful appearance, and correspond 
better with other plants when staged among them in a collection ; 
for much as I admired the plant shown by Mr. Hunt, I could not help 
thinking that, trained as it was, it had an appearance of stiffness and 
formality which greatly detracted from its beauty. I soon found an 
opportunity of trying what could be done in growing a specimen of 
this without the assistance of a wire trellis, and succeeded to my own 
satisfaction, as well as that of all who saw it. 

Persons intending to commence the culture of this Gompholobiuni 
should procure young plants as soon as possible, choosing those that 
are clean, strong, and healthy-looking, and which appear to be well 
rooted and firm about the collar. In choosing young plants to be 
grown into specimens, it will be found to repay the trouble to see 
that they have their stems or collar strong in proportion to the size 
and str.mgth of the rest of the plant, which is often delicate ; and if 
plants which are not perfectly sound in the stem ai'e selected, their 
progress will never be satisfactory, and the chances are they will not 
live to attain any useful size. Directly the young plants are received, 
they should be repotted and placed in an intermediate house, where a 
nice moist temperature of about 55° is maintained. In potting young 
stock for starting, I prefer giving a liberal shift, say from a three-inch 



Aug. 3, 1872.] 



THE GARDEN. 



95 



pot to an eight.inch one, lyhicli allows more space for placing the stakes 
for training shoots upon. A few slender green stakes, according to 
the size of the plant, should be placed in the soil at once, and the 
shoots trained round them, taking care to cover the bottom with the 
likeliest shoots for breaking strongly. In potting now, and on all 
future occasions, care must be exercised to have the ball of the plant 
in a healthy state as to moisture and also the new soil ; great care 
must also be used in watering, especially until the roots can strike 
into the fresh soil ; and the atmosphere should be kept rather closer 
and moister at this time, so as to avoid as much as possible the 
necessity of frequent waterings, and to encourage active growth. 
Keep the plants near the glass, and as soon as the sun becomes 
powerful, a thin shade must be used, for this variety is impatient of 
exposui'e to bright sunshine, and anything approaching free vigorous 
growth need not be expected, unless it is shaded ; and although air 
should be admitted whenever this can be done without cooling 
the temperature below 55° or 60°, yet this should be done very 
cautiously at all seasons, and especially dm'ing the prevalence of 
drying winds, so as to avoid di'aughts — for a current of cold drying 
air playing upon a plant for a few hours when it is in free 
growth would sadly check its progress or probably ruin it. Hence, 
while air should be admitted freely on every favourable opportunity, 
this must be done so as to avoid draughts or cause cold currents 
to pass through the plants ; during bright warm weather, however, 
sufficient ventilation must be given to prevent weakly growth, and 
the plants should be moistened overhead two or three times a day, and 
the atmosphere kept damp by frequently sprinkling the passages, &c. 
If the plants do well the first season, they will form nice little 
bushes, and will fill their pots with roots ; but they must have 
frequent attention in the way of training their shoots, for if these 
are allowed to twine upon each other, neither the wood nor the 
foliage will be properly developed ; and although training may prove 
a rather tedious part of the attention required to grow this plant 
properly, it must be attended to, and this is a formidable job enough ; 
but when the young growths are not allowed to become entangled, 
it will not occupy much time if done, as it should be, at short 
intervals, adding extra stakes as may be required. I generally 
remove my young plants to the hardening greenhouse in August, 
placing them where they will not be exposed to through draughts 
of dry air, and by gradually reducing the moisture in the atmo- 
sphere, Ac, the wood willfget sufficiently ripened to stand the winter, 
and the plants will continue growing slowly until November, when 
they may be safely wintered in an ordinary greenhouse, but they 
must not be exposed to cold frosty winds, and drip should not be 
allowed to fall upon them ; and as the plants, too, during the winter, 
will be in a comparatively inactive state, they must be carefully 
watered at the root, keeping them rather on the side of dryness than 
otherwise, but when water is applied enough should be given to 
moisten the whole of the ball. The treatment during the second 
season should be similar to what has been recommended for the 
first, repotting early in March, giving a rather liberal shift, re-staking 
and training, placing them in an intermediate house, and attending 
to them throughout the season as recommended above ; if very large 
specimens are desired, a third season's growth will probably be 
necessary to produce them. When the plants have reached the 
desired size, if they are wanted for purposes of exhibition, it will be 
necessary to use means to secure having them in the greatest 
possible beauty at the proper time ; to be successful, you must not 
only be able to grow handsome specimens, but also to have them in 
full beauty on a given day. As a rule, I leave specimens of those which 
I intend for exhibition in the greenhouse until April, and then remove 
them to the intermediate house, earlier or later in the month, according 
to the state of the plants and the time when they may be required. 
But as to the time at which a plant can be brought into beauty, this 
can be easily learned by caieful observation for a season or two — 
and by that means only — for a healthy plant, with its pot well filled 
mth active roots, will be in full bloom before another with imper- 
fectly ripened wood, and not over healthy or active roots, will show 
any symptoms of having felt the excitement, which, if it had been 
in perfect health, would have been sufficient to have induced it to 
put on its best appearance. For plants in a sound healthy state, 
vrith well ripened wood, from a fortnight to a month in the inter- 
mediate house will be sufficient to bring them into full beauty ; but 
others, with imperfectly matured roots, may require longer. I can, 
however, only say that there can be no mistake in having the plants 
early enough, for a vigorous plant of this Gompholobium will be in 
full beauty for a month at a time at least. 

The soil which I find to be most suitable is the light fibrous kind 
of peat found in Kent ; this, broken, up moderately fine, and cleared 
from excess of fibre and strong decayed roots, and mixed with about 
one-fourth its bulk of Eeigate sand is the compost I use. In potting, 
care should be taken to have the soil in a proper state as to 



dampness. I use soil just moist enough to bear compressing in the 
hand without sticking together or readily falling to pieces ; and, in 
potting, the fresh soil should be pressed about the ball, so as to 
make it as nearly as possible in the same state as to water as the 
ball of the plant. There are two other twining varieties of Gompho- 
lobium well deserving a place in every collection, viz., G. splendens, 
which, when grown in the form of a bush, and clothed with its clear 
bright yellow blossoms, is one of the most charming plants I know 
of, and G. versicolor, the blossoms of which are large, and remark, 
ably striking. — W. M. 



LONDON GARDENS. 

Those prim Roman horticulturists who gave birth, through later 
Italians, Spaniai'ds, and Flemish, to the Dutch ideal of Nassau William, 
have much to answer for to modem citizens of Cockaigne — much in 
the way of sanitary loss, and more in that of artistic culture and 
mental recreation. We have to thank Virgil, the irrdconciliable 
uprooter, for many miles of bare brown moidd, and rood after rood 
of naked grey -brick walls, bordering habitations that are assuredly 
in some need of relief and ornament, in thoroughfares of the city 
that might have been made gay and gracious. There is not in 
London the excuse that could be alleged for such a state of things 
in Paris, Berlin, or nearly every capital of Europe, with the exception 
of Vienna. London possesses more open spaces than any of these 
cities ; and it does not grow inwards, compress its streets, raise its 
houses, curtail its gardens ; but spreads outwards into suburb after 
suburb. What could not be made of these facilities for brightening 
the aspect and purifying the atmosphere of the legendary ville 
laporeuse ? Long lines of Corisande's gardens, small wildernesses, 
after neglected Bacon's plan, could be made to yield not a little 
corporeal and aesthetic enjoyment. But the great aim of the Cockney 
gardener is neatness, not health or beauty ^»?'e et siiisjjZe. So that 
his small estate is free from broken bottles and rubbish, he is content 
that it shall be free fi'om flowers also during the greater part of the 
year. He enjoys the blank surface of black mould, the trim bare 
shrubbery, where not one dead leaf remains half a day, the clean 
gravel walks and regular box borders, all arranged with the painful 
nicety of a Flemish kitchen garden. But Flemish kitchen gardens 
produce very acceptable viands at times, and the city horticulturist's 
domain contains nothing. It is dingy, dull, and wet and naked in 
winter, spring, and early summer. When the bedding-out period 
arrives, the professional nurseryman is communicated with, and 
sends in a cartload of petunias, verbenas, geraniums, and the like, 
to clothe the desert gorgeously for about six weeks or two months 
in the year. The result is a meagre, formal prettiness of the old 
Keepsake, or Souvenir fashion — a prim, pruned, and, as it were, 
starched and whaleboned beauty of the class that looks well 
in the family portrait gallery, bat with which one scarcely 
cares to form an intimate connection. The same system of 
planting is followed in nearly all parks and squares. In the 
vast majority of great seigneurial pleasaunces the same facts 
are observable. They are bare the greater part of the year, until 
the owners desire to make a display before their guests at the 
shooting season. Their aspects are imitated by all the ignorant 
amateurs who have charge of what should be oases of beauty and 
ornament in numberless urban thoroughfares. Women with a 
chastened taste for the pastoral have charge of all ; and they are 
swindled and brow-beaten by the professional gardener, and inocu- 
lated with the severe notions of the small local Le Notres. They 
hold box sacred as Dniid's ivy, a brick wall a necessary hoi-izon, a 
spick-and-span lawn and weedless beds the highest possible attain- 
ment of art, and the brief blaze of geraniums once a year the very 
apotheosis of all horticultural success. Hideous as such culture 
makes them, it is no matter for wonder that scarcely any proprietors 
of urban gardens ever make the slightest use of their domains for 
purposes of rest, exercise, or recreation. There is no school in 
Great Britain at which the elements of garden culture are taught, 
yet a change would be easy and inexpensive. No deep education is 
needed, for instance, to devise an improvement on the blank walls, 
which suggest the next-door neighbour as a creature to be more 
guarded against than the chance acquaintance of a foreign taXle 
d'hote, or a stranger in a railway carriage who proposes cards. 
Against the smoky, gloomy, grey bricks a bank of mould can be 
raised, and bushes, flowers, creepers, planted thereon, so as to almost 
give the idea that a Clapham back garden is bounded by the primeval 
forest. An immense variety might be achieved in the smallest villa 
back gardens. Since it is seemingly ineradicably British to have a 
weakness for wall-paper patterns in beds, they can be retained, they 
and the masses of colour ; but other nooks can be devoted to infer, 
mality, change, and indefinite variety. — G 



96 



THE GARDEN. 



[Aug. 3, 1872. 



PUBLIC GARDENS. 



PARIS PUBLIC GAKDENS IN 1872. 
The base uses to which ornamental grounds may come at last were 
strikingly illustrated by the fate of the Paris parks and squares in 
the evil days which visited the city after Sedan. None of these 
familiar and cherished oases were absolutely destroyed, but all were 
more or less battered, and made to serve purposes which the 
Emperor Napoleon's Pi-efect of the Seine never contemplated. The 
garden of the Tuileries was turned into a military camp and a point 
of departure for the balloon-post; the Luxembourg Garden was made 
a cattle-yard ; ambulances and oxen shared the space enclosed by 
the Jardin des Plantes ; parks of artillery were massed in the square 
of Notre Dame and the Place Royale ; the parks of the Bnttes 
Chaumont and Monceaux, and the squares at Batignolles and 
Montholon were utilised as depots for petroleum, while other of the 
larger squares, such as those of Belleville and the Arts-et-Metiers, 
became drill-grounds for the National Guards. Under the Commune 
the parks, gardens, and squares suffered more even than during the 
■investment of Paris by the Germans, and when, after the defeat of 
the Commune, M. Alphand was enabled to resume the direction of 
tlie public parks, he found them in a condition calculated to induce 
despair in the mind of any but the most resolute landscape gardener. 
The work of resuscitation was, however, boldly commenced, and in 
the gardens of the Tuileries and the Luxembourg young trees were 
planted in the numerous empty places which the fortunes of war had 
created. The same thing has been done in the Cours la Reine, 
the avenue of the Champs Elysee and along the old exterior 
boulevards, the work of replanting meanwhile rapidly going on 
in all the smaller green places of the city. Some of them have 
already assumed their normal aspect, and look as fresh and bright 
as if there had been no siege of Paris and no barning of the public 
buildings. 

The park of the Buttes Chaumont was a remarkably warm place 
during the assault by the Versailles troops. The insurgents held it 
with three batteries, commanded by the Count Raoul du Bisson, 
the cannon of the Versaillais firing upon them without intermission, 
it being estimated that 30,000 shells fell upon the park during the 
struggle. This hail did not do so much damage to the park itself as 
might have been expected, the greater number of the shells burying 
themselves in the ground. Bnt the pavilions of the Guards and the 
Cafe de Puebla were demolished, and the basin of the lake was 
shattered in various places. To day nothing remains to bear witness 
to the fierceness of the fight. The pavilions have been rebuilt, the 
cafe patched up and painted, and the lake which, in September 
1870, served as a magazine for petroleum, and on the 27th of May 
in the following year formed a grave for a hundred insiirgents taken 
red-handed in the park, has been repaired. The only souvenir of 
the insurrection which the parks afford is to be found near the Cafe 
Puebla, where rises a little column of exploded shells. The Monc- 
eaux park has been repaired with equal promptitude and complete- 
ness. The big trench dug for the storage of petroleum barrels has 
been filled np and turfed, the garden beds have been dug up and 
raked over, the trees trimmed, and the spot where, on the 21st of 
May 1871, the three Italians and the three deserters from the 
regular army were shot and buried, has already become a tradition, 
involving a difference of opinion as to the precise locality of the 
temporary grave. 

The squares of the Tour Saint Jaques, de Montrouge, des Inva- 
lides, de la Place Louvois, de la Place Royale, de la Place Laborde, 
de la Place Vintimille, de Sainte Clotilde, de la Rue Monge, and du 
Temple are amongst those which have suffered least by the incidents 
of the two sieges. The grass-plots and the flower-beds were trampled 
on, and in some cases the trees slightly iuj ured ; but a few days' 
work served to put them right again. The squares of the Batign- 
olles, the Innocents, and Montholon have been repaired, and in the 
last-named the large trees have been pruned and trimmed. The 
fountain of the nymphs, which adorns the centre of the Square des 
Innocents, was struck by a shell and some of the sculptured work 
broken off. This has been remodelled, and the square swept and 
garnished. In the Square des Batignolles the breaches made in the 
basin of the fountain have been prepared, and the parterres re-sown 
with flowers. The deep trench for petroleum which ran across the 
main sward has been filled up, a slight depression of the ground alone 
marking its former course. On the side which borders the Place 
des Batignolles isshovvn the spot where were "provisionally" interred 
fourteen insurgents taken with arms in their hands behind a bai'ri- 
cade. The squares which suffered most severely were those of 
Belleville, the Arts-et-Metiers, and Notre Dame. The Square des 
Arts-et-Metiers has been rendered passable. In more peaceful days 
this square was notable for an immense border of rhododendrons, 



but for some inscrutable reason these have been transplanted to the 
Bois de Boulogne, and have been replaced upon three sides of the 
square by a fringe of ivy. As to the old square of Belleville nothing 
remains of it, the Administration having found it necessary to 
remake it entirely. It was here that the insurgents, elsewhere 
utterly beaten, made their last stand. The fight commenced at two 
o'clock in the afternoon of the Saturday, and lasted throughout the 
night, the firing not ceasing till nearly ten on Sunday morning. 
When all was finished they found dead in the square seven insur- 
gents, eleven soldiers, and three horses — not a heavy return for a 
fusillade of twenty hours' duration. But if the combatants escaped 
with small loss, the trees suffered seriously, there not being one in 
the square that has not its wounds to show. These form the most 
striking evidence which the Paris parks and squares afford of all the 
city has gone through since September 4, 1870, and it must be 
confessed that they are not much. A bullet-hole in a big tree is not 
easily found by an anxious tourist, and, when found, seems hardly 
worth while making a note of in a city where bullet.marks must by 
this time be as common as chimney-pots amongst less emotional 
communities. — Graphic . 



DRINKING FOUNTAINS IN KEW GARDENS. 

A CORKESPONDENT of the Times calls attention to the very small 
supply of drinking water there is in the much crowded gardens at 
Kew. " To make the circuit of the gardens, visiting in order the several 
houses and museums, and giving fair time to each, occupies from two 
to three hours of almost continuous motion ; and in hot summer 
weather, especially with children, much thirst, which practically 
there is no means of quenching, is the inevitable consequence. There 
are, it is true, three drinking fountains, but of these one is outside 
the gates, one at the end of a wall at the side of the gardens, and the 
third in the arboretum, which also is practically outside, and not 
one, I believe, near the houses ; so that, while surrounded by water- 
pipes, not a drop of water can be obtained for drinking, except by 
leaving the gardens or traversing almost their entire width for that 
purpose. Even when the fountains are reached, the supply they 
afford is totally inadequate to the demand, and the mere process of 
drawing and drinking the water occupies so much time as to tire 
the patience of even the least importunate, when numbers are in 
want." [We have often witnessed this difficulty at Kew, and hope it 
may soon bo remedied. The few absurd little drinking fountains 
at present there are mere apologies for those that are really 
wanted.] 



Railings. — No one who walks along the Strand can fail to see how 
vastly the church of St. Mary-le-Strand is improved in appearance by 
the removal of the railings which surrounded it. And assuredly, in the 
present scarcity of iron, we could well spare the railings which now sadly 
mar the architectural effect of St. Raid's Cathedral. What, indeed, is the 
use of half the railings of London ? The noble owner of Ebury Square 
is going to set a great example by turning the square into a public garden, 
and it is impossible to over-estimate the boon which might be conferred 
upon the people of London if the example were generally followed. We 
do not believe that it would be generally abused. There are some obvious 
considerations which might prevent the abolition of park raiUugs, but we 
are confident that the men who shall combine together to wage war 
against every needless luiling, would be among the benefactors of their 
race. For, considered artistically, the raihng is an eyesore ; considered 
economically it represents a waste of iron and labour ; considered as a 
protection against the burglar it is inoperative ; considered with regard to 
the public freedom it is a nuisance. Let reformers arise to beat these 
spears into pruning-hooks, or any other useful articles for which there is 
a demand. 

Vegetation in Towns.— Of Chinese and Japanese plants for 
town ornamentation I have the greatest hope (Conifers alone excepted) ; 
and this mention of Conifers reminds me that I shall be glad to discuss 
how far the classiticatiou into natural orders is a safe guide for satis- 
factory suburban planting. Take two extremes: nearly all Conifera; 
fail, while nearly all Saxifragaceas tlirire. On the other hand, the vitality 
and smoke-enduring powers of that varied but most ornamental order 
Rosaecoj vary very much. Cistus laurifolius does pretty well, and is now 
in full bloom. Lithospermum x^rostratum was not cut off or materially 
injured by the late spring frost of this year, in the midland counties. 
Dimorphanthus raandschuricus (which I take to be Aralia spinosa) looks 
as "well as anything in the garden, and looks hke a noble relative of the 
various plauts of Rhus typhina, Kapbiolepis, or the Skunmias. Ligust- 
rura japouicum and coriaceum are perfectly hardy, and, like Rhododendrons, 
accept resignedly a thick winter coating of soot, and cheerfully push out 
new growth, strangely contrasting in colour with the old leaves. Daphne 
Fioniaua (or Neapolitana) is a pei-fcct gem, and bears ten times as many 
flowers when planted out as it did before its escape from the green- 
house.— W. T. 



Aug S, 1872.] 



THE GARDEN. 



97 



THE FLO WER GARDEN. 

POA PERTILIS. 

Just Tvitliiu the main entrance of the Eoyal Gardens at Kew, 
a Teiy graceful-looking grass might have been seen isolated on 
the tvirf during the past few years. It is a comparatively 
dwarf subject, and not at all striking in bloom like the Pampas, 
but withal a very distinct and desirable plant. It is one of the 
most elegant of grasses, foi-ming dense tufts of long, soft, 
smooth, slender leaves, which arch outwards and downwards in 
the most graceful manner on every side, and, in the flowering 
season, are surmounted by airy, diffuse purplish or violet- 
tinged panicles, rising to a height of from twenty inches to 
three feet, the grassy tufts being usually about half that 
height. This plant is widely distributed over Southern 
Europe, Northern Asia, and North America, in wet meadows 
and on low banks of streams. Of all the dwarf perennial 




Poa fertilis. 



grasses it is perhaps the best for isolation on grass, where 
its fine dense and graceful tufts of long hair-like leaves and 
elega7it panicles form quite a distinct-looking and ornamental 
object. 



SUMMEE TREATMENT OF CARNATIONS AND 
PICOTEES. 

To insure good bloom both Carnations and Picoteea now demand 
particular attention. Disbudding, if not already done, should be 
at once effected, leaving on two, three, or four buds, as may be 
required. If they are grown for exhibition purposes, two blooms 
will be sufficient ; but if not, a larger number may be left. Green- 
fly is sometimes at this season very troublesome. It should either 
be brushed off with a soft brush, or the affected parts should be 
dusted over with Pooley's tobacco powder, which should be used 
early in the morning while the dew is on the " grass." If the insects 
are very numerous, and means for fumigating are available, let this 
be done, an it is the most effectual remedy. During the time the 
buds are swelHng, a little weak manure water may be given about 
twice a week. As soon as the buds become sufficiently full, they 
will require tying. The plants should be looked over every day, and 
those buds that are quite full should have a narrow strip of bast tied 
tightly round the middle of each pod, at the same time opening each 
division of the calyx ; this latter is a very great assistance to them, 
and will often save a pod from spUtting, even if is not tied at all. 
By thus keeping the pods from splitting, the blooms keep much 
more compact and circular in form. As soon as any of the blooms 
begin to open, they should be protected from rain. This may be 
accompUshed by setting the plants in a greenhouse, provided plenty 
of air can be given, which is very essential. Constant attention to 
watering is also absolutely necessary during the time they are in 
bloom, so as not to allow them to get too dry. They should be 
shaded from the sun, but should have as much light and air as 
possible at all times. Should the weather be hot and dry, the 
foliage should be sprinkled one or twice a day, avoiding to wet the 
blooms. This will be a great assistance, and will help to prolong the 
bloom. When the plants have done flowering, they should be returned 
to the open air, so as to get the shoots in good condition for layering, 
which operation should be performed early in August. The process, 
which is a very simple one, is this : — Prepare some light, rich, sandy 
soil ; stir the soil out of the pots to a depth of about two inches, and 
fill up with the prepared soil ; the layers should then have the leaves 
cut off to within the third or fourth joint from the top ; then take 
the layer in the left hand, and with a very sharp knife make an 
incision in the under side, beginning about half an inch below the 



bird joint, and extending it upwards through the centre of the stem, 
about half an inch past the third joint, cutting off the lower end or 
heel of this " tongue " just below the joint. The layer will then 
require to be pegged down. A most suitable peg for this purpose 
can be made from the common brake fern used in a green state. 
Take care not to press the layers more than half an inch deep in the 
soil, as they root much better when shallow, and keep them as 
upright as possible. In dry weather they should be frequently 
sprinkled with a fine rose water-pot, so as to keep the soil in a-moist 
state. In about a month or six weeks they will be sufficiently 
rooted to be taken off and potted into small pots. — John Ball, Slowjh, 
in " Florist." 



BRIAR OR MANETTI ROSES. 
May I ask my brother rosarians two questions P 1. Is the maiden 
bloom of the briar superior to that of the Manetti ? 2. Does not 
a two or three year old rose on the Manetti often produce blooms 
equal to the maiden blooms of either briar or Manetti ? Mr. 
Reynolds Hole, in his most interesting and amusing book on roses, 
lays down two laws, first, that the maiden bloom on the briar is 
superior to that of the Manetti, and that this fact is generally 
granted ; and, second, " If you propose to grow roses for exhibition,' 
i.e., to grow them in their full perfection, you must grow them on 
your own stocks from buds." Now, I have the very highest opinion 
of Mr. Hole's judgment ; his book I know by heart, and it certainly 
has made me a rosarian ; but yet, with all deference and humility, I 
must say I doubt both of the above statements. My experience 
proves the contrary to both his premises, but more especially to the 
latter. If I had not proved that roses bought from nurserymen last 
year won first prizes this summer at Hereford and the Crystal 
Palace, I should be very reluctant to doubt for one moment Mr. 
Hole's statement, but in all my stands this year I never showed one 
maiden bloom. Indeed, I could not, for I had none to show ; my 
trees were so backward that they are only blooming now, the third 
week of July. Last year, Mr. Baker, of Heavitree, won nearly 
every first prize at the Crystal Palace and Hereford, and he did not 
show one maiden bloom, for the good reason that he does not bud 
either briar or Manetti. He beat all the nurserymen at the Exeter 
rose show last year, and they, of course, were showing nothing but 
maiden blooms. But with regard to the question as to which is the 
best, the maiden bloom on the briar or Manetti, I desire information 
very much, for I cannot myself see that the question is foregone in 
favour of the briar. John B. M. Cajim. 

Monldon Wijhl, Charmouth. 



HEPATICAS. 



My collection of these comprises the fine and showy H. angulosa ; a 
fine purplish mauve-coloured variety, which I received under the 
name of " single mauve," and which I have also met with under the 
name of H. Barlowii ; the single blue, red, and white varieties ; and 
the double forms of the first two, namely, the blue and red. The 
single varieties are very pretty indeed ; but whether for pot or 
border culture, the double flowers are to be preferred, as they con- 
tinue much longer in bloom. It has always stnick me that the 
double varieties are more floriferous than the single ones. An east 
aspect, and a deep, strong, loamy soil, suit the Hepaticas best. In 
old gardens I have frequently met with splendid clumps of them, 
gromng on the edges of shrubbery borders, sheltered considerably 
by means of overhanging branches, and yearly fed by the decaying 
leaves that fall so plentifully about them in the autumn. Such con- 
ditions as these appear to minister to their welfare in the highest 
degree. During last spring I met with some long-established clumps 
in the garden of a farmhouse in Kent, on a somewhat open and sunny 
spot, but in a soil that produced fine hops — a deep, holding, yellow 
loam, resting in a cool bottom. I attempted to dig up one of these 
clumps, and found the roots had struck down deeply into the soil — 
quite a foot in depth ; and therein, no doubt, lies one secret at least 
of their well-doing. It is in the very nature of the Hepatica to strike 
its roots down deeply ; consequently plants of it seldom succeed in a 
shallow soil, and never in a dry, hot one. The hardest frost or the 
most searching cold does the plants no injury ; if they die, it is in- 
variably from some cause over which the cultivator has control. I 
am not aware that any systematic attempt has ever been made to 
improve the varieties of Hepatica by means of seed. As self-sown 
seedlings appear to be not uncommon, it may be that some intelligent 
fertilisation might accomplish more than is generally supposed. As, 
however, particular varieties cannot be depended on to come true 
from seed, it is necessary to resort to root division. In this manner 
the Hepatica is readily propagated, and immediately after blooming. 



98 



THE GARDEN. 



[Atjs. 3, 1872. 



ust when the plants are actively engaged in the production of leaves, 
is the best time for the operation. If vs'ell rooted, single eyes will 
make good plants by the following season, and they should be 
planted in a bed of deep and rather Ught loam, which should be in a 
position accessible only to the morning sun. Cultivators of the 
Hepatica recommend that the plants should be parted not oftener 
than once in three or four years, as frequent divisions are apt to 
weaken them, and cause some to die. In cases where Hepaticas are 
largely used for the spring garden, and where they have to be removed 
to make way for the summer bedding plants, it is well to have a 
reserve border in a suitable place, and there should be plants 
enough to allow of only one-third being used each season. This 
reserve garden need not occupy a large space, and, if managed in the 
way indicated, would always yield a supply of strong three-year-old 
plants for the embellishment of the spring garden. A few should be 
grown in pots and wintered in cold frames, both for the sake of their 
charming flowers and for their usefulness for house decoration. It 
would suffice to repot these about once in two or three years, according 
to the size of the plants ; and this also should regulate the times of 
their occasional division. When repotted, and when out of flower, 
they should occupy a position in an east border well shaded by trees, 
and should be set on some coal ashes. Watering must not be neglected 
during dry weather, especially when the plants are maturing their 
growth. A few blooms of Hepaticas make a charming button-hole, 
and the double flowers last a long time. Q. 



A Wall Rose Garden. — I have lately seen, as I did last year 
at the same season, two walls completely covered over with Banksian 
roses, which have flowered abundantly in their season, and which are 
now well furnished with flowers of different varieties of Tea Koses, 
Bourbons, and Hybrids, in various colours. These, I need hardly 
say, produce the most beautiful effect. This result has been 
obtained by grafting on the Banksian, varieties such as General 
Jacqueminot, Souvenir de la Malmaison, &c., giving the preference 
to the more vigorous kinds. The grafts and buds having taken, 
the branches of the Banksian were bent down, and the shoot soon 
developed itself with great vigour. [We take the above from the 
Revue liorticole, A wall embellished thus must be very beautiful, 
and we recommend the practice to those possessing well-covered 
walls of Banksian Eoses.] 

Acacia dealbata. — What a lovely wall plant this is ! Talk 
about the grace of a fern — there are very few ferns that equal it, 
e.xcept we go to such as Leptopteris superba. The great beauty of 
its foliage is most apparent when the plant is growing freely in the 
open air, as I saw it the other day in Mr. Harrison's garden at Wey- 
bridge Heath. It is one of the iinest of all subjects to plant against 
a sunny wall, wherever the soil is warm and well drained. To train 
it rigidly is of course to rob it of all grace. The main stems should 
be affixed to the wall, and the others allowed to grow forth in their 
own way. The plant will sometimes be cut down by frost, but it 
will spring up again. This occasional and partial destruction is really 
a gain instead of a hindrance to the enjoyment of the plant. When 
destroyed to the surface of the ground, it sends up more vigorous 
shoots and more beautiful leaves than are produced by old plants in a 
favoured clime. — W. 



NOTES AND QUESTIONS ON THE FLOWER aARDEN. 

Rose Bessie .Tohnson.— Messrs. Curtis, Torquay, exhibited a bos of twelve 
blooms of this beautiful new blush rose at the late Crystal Palace rose show, 
where it received, as it deserved, a flrst-class certificate. Its fine form and 
sweet perfume attracted general attention, and it is said to be as hardy and free 
lioweriDg as Abel Grand, which is one of its parents. 

Asclepias princess.— I noticed a good species of Asclepias flowering in one 
of the London nurseries the other day, a sort that seems to me to be one of the 
best in cultivation. It was named A. princops, but it seemed to agree best with 
the species described as A. incarnata. It grows abnut three and a half feet high, 
and produces purplish red flowers freely on the top of the stem, and for this 
reason appears the most useful kind for garden pm-poses, as the flowers of A. Cor- 
nuti, Douglasi, and speciosa are almost hidden by theii' fohage.— T. S. 

The Large Evening Primroses.— How beautiful are the tall and large- 
flowered OSnothoras that now so conspicuously adorn many of our gardens. It 
should be generally known that these plants will grow in any wSd or rou"h 
place associated with the foxglove and the willow-herb. Seed maybe sown 
now to secure plants to bloom next year. We lately enjoyed a moonlight ramble 
among quite a forest of these noble night bloomers at aien Audved, that have 
been very lovely tor many weeks past. 

Watering and Mulching.— A good deal towards securing continuity of 
blossom and vigour of plane maybe done now by keeping the earth cooland 
moist. Copious waterings and mulchings or surface coverings will help to do 
this. Tor the latter purpose cocoa-nut fibre or moss is the niost suitable in the 
flower garden. Any rough, slow-conducting material will check the penetra- 
tive powers of the hot, thirsty sunbeams, and thus prevent the earth from beiu"- 
unduly heated or too much baked, audits moisture from being stolen and "ivcu 
to the air. ° " 



THE GARDEN IN THE HOUSE. 



WINDOW PLANTS. 

BY J. 0. NIVEN, BOTANIC GARDENS, HULL, 

(^Concluded from p. 70.) 

GENERAL KEMABKS AND SUGGESTION.S. 

The usual position occupied by window plants in general is on the 
ledge, outside in the summer time, inside in the winter. In both 
cases it will be advisable to have some protection, so as to prevent 
the ijlauts from toppling into the streets on the one hand, or, on the 
other hand, ou to the floor of the room. Any neat little fancy guard 
will do inside, but I would suggest for the outside a box made 
sufficiently wide to overhang the window-sill by two or three inches, 
and to be six inches deep. In this the pots might be set, and sur- 
rounded with sand or ashes, or, better still, with soil ; and if the 
latter, then at each end a few seeds of climbing Kasturtinm, or Cou- 
volvulus major, or both mixed together, may be set, and by adjusting 
a few strings, may be trained up the sides of the window and 
festooned across the top. Not only ia this desirable result and addi- 
tional attraction to the room window attained by adopting the box 
arrangement outside, but the pots, plunged in the cool material, will 
not require nearly so much water and attention as when exposed over 
their whole surface to the action of a blazing summer's sun, which 
must be the case on an unprotected window ledge. Ventilation is a 
necessity as well in winter as in summer, and though in newly con. 
structecl houses the windows are usually made to open above as well 
as below, still in many of older date the lower sash only is movable, 
hence, when opened, the plants are placed in a draught. This is alike 
prejudicial to the health of plants and human beings, especially in 
winter. So if the temperature outside is very cold, set your plants 
either on one side or on the floor, replacing them after you close the 
window ; but if the air be mild you can close the door, throw the 
window well up, the higher the opening the less the draught, 
and leave the plants to enjoy the fresh breeze. Never put youi- 
plants on a high shelf, so as to be " out of the way," during night, 
as the higher their position the hotter is the atmosphere in which 
they have to exist; consequently the. plant is robbed of its fluids by 
an unnatural evaporation. These remarks are esisecially applicable 
to rooms in which gas is used. Rather place your plants on the floor. 
During summer, if you cannot arrange for your plants outside on 
the window-ledge as previously suggested, it will not be much 
trouble to turn them out of doors every night, even if it is only into 
a backyard. The cool refreshing dew of heaven is, in the absence of 
of rain, nature's great restorer of exhausted energies. Leaves, as I 
before stated, exercise during the day their power of evaporating 
moisture, but they have likewise the power of absorbing moistuie 
during the night. With the coolness then prevailing the moisture 
becomes condensed on their surface and forms dew. 

Plants in a room are sure to have their leaves coated over with a 
deposit of dust. Where the leaves are smooth, or, I ought to say 
shiny, this may be readily removed by washing ; but where the 
leaves are soft and covered mth hairs, some injury is sure to be done, 
be the hand ever so gentle that applies the sponge. However, the 
injury will do less harm than the dirt incrusting the leaves ; and as 
it is much easier to keep one's own face throroughly clean by washing 
it every day, so vrith your plants, in a room especially where fires are 
in constant use, wash them often, say at least once a week, and 
before the leaves are dry, sprinkle them well with clean water. 
When you syringe your plant always lay it on its side ; the water 
used in this process will not then run into the flower-jjot. If it does 
you may get your plant what is called " water-logged." In the 
summer-time a day's rain, gentle and continuous — ^nature's shower 
bath — will be more effectual than sponging and syringing, even by 
the most loving hands. So in summer never let your plants miss a 
genial shower. 

A WOKD NOW ABOUT INSECTS. 

All plant are subject to these pests, some more, some less ; but 
take this as a truism that the healthier and more vigorous the 
plant the less liable it is to the attacks of insects. Of these 
perhaps, the greatest pest is the green fly, to the development of 
which the usually dry air of a dwelling-room is highly conducive ; 
and when I say that they live on the juices of the plant, it will 
be obvious that they must be detrimental to plant life. They are 
robbers of your plant stores, and war must be waged against them. 
Now what is the best mode of annihilation ? If you can only catch 
the first one that appears, and a sharp eye can do this, give him a 
"pressing" invitation to depart. If ever you notice a curled leaf 
or part of a leaf, examine it carefully below, and mind, "notice to 
quit at once" must be given, because a day's delay may give you a 
small colony. Supposing you miss insect No. 1, and find a colony 



Aug. 3. 1872.] 



THE GARDEN. 



99 



established, nay, perhaps several colonies, before yon have noticed 
them, what is to be done ? Take it as a broad principle that they 
hata tobacco, whether in smoke, water, or snufl. The most eiiectual 
form of applying tobacco is in smoke, as it then finds its way into 
every crevice and corner. But it will not avail to get the master to 
merely pnfE at the depredators as he is enjoying his pipe of an 
evening ; they would laugh in their sleeves at that, if they had any. 
They must have something more concentrated. Then what's to be 
done ? Tou have a washing tub — of course you have — laj' your 
plants carefully on their sides in it, over it stretch a towel previously 
wet, and wrung out ; mind there are no holes in it. A bit of glazed 
calico lining would be better. iMake, however, a tiny openina in one 
corner just big enough for the stalk of a pipe, then enlist the 
services of your husband, let him fill a good long pipe — a Church, 
warden will be best — then light it in the usual way, cover the bowl 
of the pipe with three or four folds of an old duster or pocket hand- 
kerchief, and then let him blow through the same. I know he'll tell 
you he has got at the wrong end of the pipe, but tell him to blow 
away, and the green flies lying dead at the bottom of the tub after 
the operation is over, will be pretty good pi'oof that for once in a 
way he was at the right end of it, however much he may have 
thought to the contrary. Two things I must mention as important 
ingredients in insuring success — first, the plants should be thoroughly 
dry as regards their leaves — wet repels smoke ; and secondly, the 
pipe stalk should reach the bottom of the tub — smoke prefers to 
ascend rather than descend. The difficulty which usually attends 
fumigating, as it s called, is the reason why I have felt obliged to 
give this detailed description of a process which I have adopted 
myself with success. The tendency of all plants grown in a window 
is to get what we call " leggy." This can only be prevented by 
cutting down, which I alluded to in speaking of repotting geraniums 
after their bloom is over, but it may further be materially prevented 
by pinching out the points of the shoots when they are making their 
young growth jireparatory to flowering. Of course some discretion 
must be used in this operation, else you may get a very bushy plant 
without any bloom ; and as a guide I would say pinch out the 
growing points of the shoots that have been made after the cutting 
back process has been performed ; once will be sufficient Staking 
and supporting the shoots I must leave to the ingenuity of each 
cultivator. 

HANGING PLANTS. 
I have hitherto alluded only to plants grown on the window ledge; 
but what looks more lovely than a plant suspended from a small 
rustic basket in the centre of the upper part of the window ? It 
interferes with nothing and nothing interferes with it ; there's an 
element of beauty in that simple fact. Plants, which have slender 
branches, which naturally hang doivn, are at home in this situation. 
The " Mother of Thousands " — the " Wandering Jew " with its 
pretty marked leaves — the " Lobelias," and some of the trailing 
" Campanulas or Bell Flowers" — the well-named "Rat-tailed Cactus," 
and the so-called "Ice Plants," are all more at home when suspended 
than when grown in any other position, unless it may be when 
placed on brackets at each side of the window, where they have a 
very charming appearance. I would suggest that the suspended 
basket or flower-pot should be supported by a piece of cord passed 
through a small pulley, by which means it will be easily lowered 
down for the purpose of watering, and also during nights, for 
reasons which I before gave, and which are specially applicable to 
such plants as these. 

OTHER PLANTS POR WINDOW CULTURE.. 

It remains only for me to say a few words as to what other plants 
are adapted for window culture. In doing this I would address my 
remarks not only to the artisan or cottager, but to all possessors 
of a garden with its conservatory and greenhouses. As the latter 
stroll leisurely throiigh their more or less extensive establishments, 
and derive that pure enjoyment which the contemplation of nature's 
handiwork is capable of giving, is it asking too much if they are 
entreated to assist, by something more than a subscription or a 
donation of money, in furthering the objects of the window gar. 
deningjmovement p — a movement the aim of which is to foster and 
encoui-age a taste that cannot fail to elevate the moral character 
of those in whom it is once engrafted. No one who has been 
brought into contact with the persons who cultivate plants in their 
windows, and who has had the opportunity which those interested 
in this movement have had, of appreciating the intense affection 
with which plants are cherished by their owners, but must feel it 
a pleasure and a privilege to aid in the development and culture 
of that pure and healthy enjoyment which springs from the love 
of flowers. 

Let me now briefly point out more directly how those who possess 
the means have the power to assist. A few years ago, and for three 
successive seasons, an important part of the funds of the Hull Window 



Garden Society was devoted to the distribution of those plants which 
had done duty, during the summer and autumn, in the flower gardens 
in and adjacent to Hull. These plants were carefully potted and 
distributed, but as a general rule they were not given until after the 
frost had not only tarnished their beauty but seriously affected their 
vitality. Can the result be considered satisfactory, when out of 
every four plants so obtained and distributed, perhaps but one lived 
to present its thank offering of flowers, in return for the care and 
attention bestowed on the whole four through a long winter ? In 
many instances not even one survived. The suggestion that I 
would venture to offer then is this : that those who have facilities 
would ask their gardeners to prepare a few plants specially for dis. 
tribution (I will name the most desirable plants presently) , and grow 
them in what are known as four-inch pots. Plants thus grown, and 
well matured in the autumn with free exposure to the sun, would be 
so valuable for window culture that, judging by my own experience, 
I would rather have one plant thus prepared than half-a-dozen of the 
plants taken up out of the flower garden. Does.yonr gardener object 
to aid in this good work, on the plea that it involves for him extra 
labour ! I trust not ; for were it so, I should blush for the honour 
of the profession to which I belong. No ! the lover of plants, if he 
be a true lover, will rise superior to a narrow-minded objection such 
as this, and will be only too ready to assist, by all possible means, all 
those who have a love for flowers within them, and not only that, 
but to call that love into active existence where, from want of oppor- 
tunity, it has hitherto lain torpid and undeveloped. There is yet 
ample time before the autumn, and I feel sure the appeal made will 
not be made in vain. 

A word now to the recipients. While rejoicing in the success 
which will attend the distribution of plants such as I describe, let 
them remember the feeling with which I have asked the donors to 
contribute, and let them reciprocate that feeling. Be not unthankful 
to those who have placed yon in a position to appreciate and admire 
more fully than you have hitherto done the glorious works of the 
Almighty ; and rely on it plants given and received in this kindly 
communion of feeling will furnish many a useful and pleasant page 
in your life's history. 

It remains but to enumerate such plants as are best adapted for 
window culture. I have already named those which, by their mode 
of growth, are suitable for suspended baskets ; to these I would only 
add Isolepis gracilis, Gazania, and Ivy -leaved Geraniums, and Ivy 
itself. The others are as follows : — Pelargoniums, scarlet and other 
varieties, variegated, golden, and silver; Petunias, Fuchsias, Cupheas, 
Eeheverias, Aloes, Cacti, Vallota purpurea (Scarboro' Lily),Pteri3 
serrulata, Hydrangeas, Plectranthus (nettle.leaved Geranium), 
Chinese Primrose, Calceolarias, and Cinerarias. 



GARDENING IN BELGIUM. 



On my first visit to Belgium in the spring, I was m\ich struck with 
the universal love of flowers and window gardens which is noticeable 
there. The flowers in the markets are cheap and abundant. The railway 
journey through orchards in full blossom, bright green fields and patches 
of yellow colza, was refreshing; and the quiet, peaceful look of the 
Bruges streets was rendered still pleasanter by groups of gay flowers in 
most of the low narrow windows. A window of a quaint shape had a light 
blue-green frame and embroidered musUn curtains, a blind half-drawn 
down of thin embroidered muslin, with another blind to draw over it just 
appearing, and made of green and white striped stuff with a fringe, of 
striped hoUand, all as clean as possible, and on the window seat two or 
three azaleas, a small palm, and two glass pots with bright green i-ye grass 
grown in cotton wool. The grass looked very fresh and spring-Uke, and 
relieved the bright colours of the azaleas. The best houses had splendid 
banks of flowers raised within their windows ; arums and azaleas were 
the favourites, and there were small shrubs of laurustinus trained into 
standards and covered with blossom. These had a very good effect. In 
the street leading to our hotel was an entrance to a brewery, but it looked 
more like an entrance to something between a conservatory and a 
museum. Great pots of flowers and ferns stood all round, rich masses 
of colour ; numbers of stuffed birds, mostly white ones, were perched 
about above them ; a small aquarium and two or three cages of live 
canaries and waxbills stood amongst the flowers. _ The chemists at 
Bruges appeared to amuse themselves with growing rye grass. I 
saw one or two chemist's shops with little else in the windows 
besides this, and some pots of flowers. Yellow wallflowers (double) 
were favourites, and beautiful spirsas and mignonette— a considerably 
prettier sight, if not so professional, than the red and blue jars in our 
shops at home. We wandered all about the smaller streets ; and in the 
windows of the poorest-looking houses, and smallest, most miscellaneous 
shops, we noticed flowers. Forget-me-nots were sometimes to be seen 
grown in what looked like deep dishes in the window. The canals at 
Bruges are some of its pleasantest characteristics, the quaint mediseval 
houses coming straight down into the water, or having little gardens 
with high walls, and poplars just coming into that rich gold colour which 
the early leaves show. The trees come in just at all the right picturesque 



loo 



THE GARDEN. 



[Aug. D, 1872. 



corners, among red-tiled roofs, and lie reflected in the smooth canal. 
Lilacs were just in blossom, and every little corner by the low arched 
bridges that had collected a little mould had a group of iris leaves crop- 
ping up into a brilliant bit of green to enliven the old grey walls. I went 
in to only one garden. From the top of the belfry at Bruges, my eye fell 
upon a little enclosed and cultivated strip in the midst of the city, and in 
the course of the day, whUe visiting I'Hopital de St. Jean, I recognised 
the trim little garden as belonging to it, as having an array of beauti- 
ful standard bay trees in tubs. We afterwards saw carts full of similar 
bay trees going through Bruges, and on our way to Ghent passed our 
friends waiting iu their railway truck. Evidently Bruges is expert at 
their manufacture ; they looked very much like orange trees, and were 
very effective. At Ghent we found the same love of flowers, but not so 
much among the shops and small houses. The best houses had beautiful 
boucjuets laid out on the cushions of the window seats, and sometimes 
real flower shows piled up inside the windows. 

IHE TLOWER MARKET. 

Sunday morning brought its treat of flowers to all in Ghent. The first 
thing I heard when I woke was our maid telling me " the flower market 
is begun ; we should get up aud see it." L' Hotel Eoyale looks out on the 
Place d'Armes, a fine open square, suiTounded entirely with Ume trees. 
I came into our sitting-room ; the tall windows into our balcony were 
open. Summer seemed suddenly to have come upon us; outside the 
lime;trees rustled, the sun shone, and a hum aud tramp of people sounded 
happily beneath us. There seemed to be very little real business, so as to 
make one think the Sunday disregarded, but a general innocent enjoyment 
of the little hand trucks full of roots, pots of flowers, and trays of seeds. 
The trucks kept iu a line under the trees aU round the square. The buyers 
or admirers loitered on each side of them in a holiday sort of Avay.^ In the 
middle of the square children in blue pinafores played, and their elders 
strolled up and down. We descended into the midst of this pretty flower 
market to try and get a bouquet. On the staircase I found two or throe 
chambermaids with a great bunch of forget-me-nots from the market. 
They stopped me to see them, aud insisted on my accepting half the 
bunch, teUing me the name in Flemish. In the market were the nice 
clean market women in Sunday caps, and men in blue blouses. The lan- 
guage was a difficulty. I saw a nice little collection of alpine plants, sedums, 
and echeverias. I purchased a pretty dark-red plant I had not seen before, 
that grew up on its stalk like a miniature palm. My Flemish flower boy 
called it an "eoheveria," and a variegated sedum he called "sempervivum." 
Sempervivum califoruicum was there, and a good variety of little alpines. 
One very favoui'ite plant is an ox-eye daisy, grown in nice little round 
patches, with long stems, and blossoms standing out all over it. There 
were numbers of these plants on the Ghent window seats. There were 
not many bouquets in the market, but the prettiest things were the 
hanging baskets. There were no flowers iu them, but beautiful luxuriant 
grasses, and the healthiest young creepers I ever saw. Some were 
an'anged with great taste in large shallow cups of red pottery, and the 
trailing leaves and tendrils of various kinds and shades of bright green 
made a charming piece of colouring. These latter only cost a franc aud 
a half, and looked well established and healthy. We longed to carry one 
off with us, but they would have been difticult to manage during our 
journey; they seemed immensely popular, and were sold oil" in no time. 
Great pots of basil were very much the fashion, small palms, white 
heaths, and numbers of little rose bushes. The hard working dogs lay 
under the little carts which the poor creatures pull so valiantly, but look 
out of breath, and make one feel very much for their poor soft feet on 
these roughly-paved streets. Wallflowers are cultivated very much in 
pots, particularly yellow ones and the purple kinds, which are grown to 
a considerable height. 

I saw a pretty specimen of gardening at the old Abbey of St. Baron. 
We drove to see the famous ruins, which are all in a small space, inclosing 
with arches and ruined walls a little plot of gi'ound. An old man took 
us in and explained the antiquities, but after a little survey we began to 
notice the care with which everything was kept. A great plant of 
acanthus grew in a picturesque corner against half-decayed mouldings 
and crumbling stones, and a fine bush of rhubarb (grown here for orna- 
ment). The little plot of ground had been a dismal wilderness when 
our friend came to take charge of the ruins, but in the intervals of 
showing them he had made a charming flower and kitchen garden out 
of the space they inclosed. His fruit trees were in blossom, and added 
very much to the appearance of the Abbey, and his neat borders of pink 
daisies did not take from its picturesqueness. The old walls themselves 
were gilded up to the highest stones with yellow wallflowers. — M. A. D. 



Ar-Nut. — This is the Bunium bulbocastanum, a root which has a 
great variety of names. Hawk-nut, Kipper-nut, Pig-nut, Eaij;h-nut, and 
Ground-nut, besides the Scotch name, properly ■mritteu, I believe, Arnot. 
It is called in Burgundy Ai'notta, whence probably the Scotch name. 
It has also the Latin names of Agriocastanum, Nuoula terrestris, aud 
Bulbocastanum. The Germans call it Erdnuss. It is found almost 
everywhere, in woods and gi'assy places; and is knoivn by its slender stem, 
leaves like those of wild parsley, with white flowers at the top. It is not 
easy, however, to secure the root, as that part of the stem in the ground 
is very slender, and Uable to break off, leaving the digger but a poor 
chance of finding the root, which is pretty deep iu the earth, and the 
clue to which is lost when the stem breaks. The nut is nearly as large 
as a nutmeg, and has a brown coating, which easily peels off and encloses 
a yellowish nut, the flavour of which is rather sweet, but at the same 
time pungent, and not very pleasant. — Notes and QnerU-s. 



GARDEN STRUCTURES. 



MESSRS. HOWITT'S PEIZB HOUSE. 

We purpose from time to time illustrating garden structures 
that present any novel features, not necessarily to recommend 
tliem as the best of their kind, but simply because, iu the 
interest of knowledge, it is desirable that the horticultural 
public should know something of the aspect and peculiarities 
of such structures. 

Our illustrations this week show the elevation aud details of 
Messrs. Hewitt's house, drawn by our special artist at the 
Birmingham show. 

The house shown at Birmingham was thirty feet long by 
seventeen feet wide, heated with Taylor's patent combined 
warming, ventilating, and vapouriziug pipes. The house is 
constructed on a patent system. The rib, or roof truss, is 




TU 



lIjlID 




^ 



P 



Taylor's Yaporising aud Ventilating Pipes. 



formed of twelve (more or less according to the size of the house) 
lengths of straight wrought-iron pipe, li inch iu diameter 
(according to span of roof), jointed together by means of very 
strong wrought-iron sockets, bored at an angle requisite to 
give the necessary curve to the roof. This rib or truss 
being free from outward thrust requii-es no cross tie-rods, so 
that an uninterrupted headway is preserved. The inventors 
claim in their notes handed to the judges, " that the extreme 
lightness and great strength of this rib specially adapt it for 
vise in the construction of horticultural buildings, where 
.symmetry of form and beauty of design, combined with a 
minimum amount of sunshade, are of paramount importance. 
They have constructed this house with part iron and part wood 
sashes, so that the public may individually choose which they 
would prefer. The sections of tubular, rib, or roof truss are 
socketed, not screwed together, and are made so that any pipe 
will fit any socket, and all the other parts of the house are 
screwed and bolted together, so that it is claimed as a great 
advantage that the house may be taken to pieces and re-erected 
at pleasure. The glazing is so arranged that any condensed 
water in the inner side of the uppermost series of panes 
percolates on to the outer side of the next series of panes, and 
so on to the bottom, thvis avoiding all ' drip ' into the house. 
Another advantage is that the expense of glazing a house of 
this kind is no greater than that of a rectilinear stnicture, 
straight glass alone being used. They propose to use in their 
houses Taylor's patent combined, warming, ventilating, and 
vaporizing pipes. 

•' The special feature of this patent is the introduction of the 
outer air through a partially closed chamber or trough, on the 
top of the hot-water pipes ; when this chamber is half filled with 
water, a pure, genial, and warm climate is produced. A constant 
change of air is obtained without opening the sashes. The 
exit of the air takes place at the top, where a shaft or aperture 
is made for the purpose." 



Prize Conservatory. 

Conservatory and Aviary com- 
bined, erected at Chiltern 
House, Gravesend. 

Patent Tubular Rib, showing 
method of opening side sashes. 

Footstep of Rib iu Cast Iron. 

Longitudinal Section ol: Rib, 
with Pai'liue attached, show- 
ing method of glazing. 



No. 6. Section thi'ough gljizing bar. 

,, 7. Patent Rib, tiiissed and tied for 
spans over thirty feet. 

,, 8, Longitudinal section of Pipe 
aud Joint of Tube for opening 
cutire length of sashes. 

,, 9. Transverse Section through Rib 
at Socket-joint, showing mc- 
tliod of fixing Purlines, 



Aug. 3, 1872.] 



THE GARDEN. 



101 




102 



THE GARDEN. 



[Aug. 3, 1872. 



OUR FRU IT CROPS. 



SOUTH EASTEEN DIVISION. 

Cliveden, near Maidenliead, Berkshire. — A.11 outdoor crops 
in this neighbourhood are a failure through late spring frosts. 
To this statement there is, as far as I knon-, no exception. — 
J. Flejiixg. 

Chevening Place, Sevenoaks, Kent.— Apples are a failure, as 
are also Apricots. Peaches half a CTop ; Pears good ; Currants half 
a crop; Gooseberries good; Strawberries and Raspberries half a crop ; 
Plums good ; Cherries half a crop ; Walnuts a failure ; Filberts half 
a crop. — D. CoE. 

Bridge Castle, Tunbridge "Wells, Kent.— Of Apricots we 
have none. Peaches half a crop ; best where sheltered. Pears on 
walls, a fine crop. Plums, a few on walls ; standards, none. Apples, 
very scarce ; King of the Pippins, Winter Queening, and Keswick 
Codlin, pretty good. Cherries, not quite a full crop. Strawberries, 
fine. Easpberries, excellent. Gooseberries, not a full crop. Currants, 
half a crop. Nuts, scarce. Figs, a full crop. There was a capital 
show of blossom, but late spring frosts did the mischief. — J. Rust. 

Portnal Park, Staines, Surrey.- Outdoor fruits have 
suffered severely from spring frosts. Peach and Nectarine trees in 
some places are very much injured. Late Pears are a failure, but of 
early sorts I have a good crop. Apples on standards vei'y thin, and 
on espaliers I have none. Plums very thin, much under average. 
Of Figs I have a fair sprinkling. Cherries, excellent ; and Straw- 
berries, Gooseberries, and Easpberries I have in abundance. Eed 
and white CuiTauts thin, black a heavy crop. Orchards in this 
neighbourhood, with few exceptions, have failed. — Thos. May. 

Broadlands, Eomsey, Hampshire. — I have a very unsatis- 
factory return to make for myself and neighbourhood. Strawberries, 
however, have been good ; Pears an average crop ; Apricots none ; 
Peaches, none in most places ; a fair crop of late ones here ; no early 
ones ; Gooseberries and Black Currants, below average ; Red and 
White Currants scarcely any ; Easpberries an average crop ; Apples, 
a few Hawthorndens and " Profits " in some places ; in others none at 
all; wild Blackberries are a good crop, and of these we intend to 
make up our quantum of preserved fruits for winter use. — T. Dawson. 

Albury Park, Guildford, Surrey. — With us Apricots are a 
complete failure ; Apples very few, very much blighted ; Pears half 
a crop, very much deformed and small ; Plums very few on walls, 
none on standards ; Cherries very few, trees much blighted ; Figs 
half a crop, trees much improved since hot weather set in ; Peaches 
and Nectarines very few, trees badly infested with aphides ; Grapes 
good, but late ; Gooseberries little more than half a crop, but very 
good; Currants of all sorts very few, scarcely any in this neighbour- 
hood ; Raspberries, a very good crop ; best we have had for years ; Straw- 
bei-ries half a crop, bloom very much cut by late frosts ; Filberts and 
Walnuts both a total failure. — William Kemp. 

Royal Gardens, Progmore, Windsor, Berks.— The follow- 
ing is the state of outdoor fruit crops in these gardens, viz. : — 
Apricots very thin, many trees quite failed. Apples, generally a 
light crop, with the exception of a few free-bearing varieties, such 
as Scarlet Eusset, Pomona, Frogmore Prolific, Downton Nonpareil, 
and Small's Admirable. Cherries, generally thin, even including 
Morellos. Pears, a moderate crop, but they promise to be of good 
quality. Strawberries, an average crop, but soon over. Peaches, a 
good crop and looking well. Nectarines also a good crop. Of small 
fruit, Easpberries are a good crop. Currants, both black and red, 
are very light ; fruit small and thin in the bunch. Filberts, a light 
crop. Walnuts nearly a total failure. The foregoing will also apply 
to the neighbourhood of Windsor generally, with the exception of 
small fruits ; of these in spots there are good crops, especially of 
Currants and Gooseberries, and in a few places the Peach and 
Nectarine crop is very thin. Altogether the outdoor fruit crop is 
very light, and much below the average. — J. Powell. 

Coleshill, Highworth, Berks. — Apples, almost a total failure; 
trees much blighted, many of them past recovery. Apricots also a 
total failure ; while carrying an unusually heavy crop last autumn 
the trees were attacked by mildew, which injured them so seriously 
that we had no bloom at all this spriug ; the trees still look sickly, 
but are improving since the hot weather set in. Cherries promised 
to be an immense crop, but frost, dm-ing the time the trees were in 
flower, injured them seriously, and again, at the beginning of June, 
the frost pinched them hard ; a large portion dropped off, and half of 
those that remained were not fit for table, owing to frost-bite ; the 
result is a very thin crop of inferior fruit. This also applies to early 
kinds, such as May Duke, &e. ; Morellos fine, and a fair crop. 
Currants of all kinds, red, white, and black, good. Mulberries 
promising. Gooseberries, not quite so plentiful as usual ; fruit very 



flue. Peaches, a thin crop, but they promise to be of fine size ; trees 
which have looked sickly are improving under the influence of late 
hot sunshine. The same remarks apply also to Nectarines, which 
are, perhaps, a little thinner than the Peaches. Pears, consisting of 
Jargonelle, Bon Chretien, and other early kinds, are a good crop, but 
fine autumn and winter sorts are very thin, and many of them are so 
much injured by late frosts that they will, I fear, fall oif before they 
ripen. Trees, too, look sickly ; they are evidently suffering from the 
peculiar weather which we had last summer. Of Plums, with the 
exception of Greengages, we have literally none, and the trees are 
blighted and half dead. Two years ago fine plums were sold in our 
neighbourhood at 2s. per bushel. Easpberries were much damaged 
by frost when in fiower; therefore thin and poor. Strawberries, 
with the exception of Keen's seedling, which suffered from frost more 
than other kinds, have been good and fine. Walnuts, none ; other 
Nuts, partial. — H. Eckfokd. 

SOUTH MIDLAND DIVISION. 

Ramsay Abbey, Huntingdonshire. — Generally speaking, 
stone fruits, such as Peaches, Nectarines, Plums, Apricots, and 
Cherries are very thin. Several young trees, three or four years 
planted, that have never been exhausted by over-cropping are, how. 
ever, carrying a fair crop. Apricot trees are clean and in splendid 
health, but Peaches and Nectarines have been very much infested 
with black fly, and have required unceasing attention to keep them 
clean. Looking at the diiierence between the crop in the orchard 
house and the open wall, one is apt to sigh for the time when a 
supply of all our choice stone fruits may be grown under glass. In 
regard to Apples, both on dwarfs, in the kitchen gai-den, and 
standards in the orchards, many trees are carrying a fall crop. 
Some few have, however, scarcely recovered from the exhausting 
effects of the heavy crops which they bore two years aigo, and are 
consequently nearly bare. Pears, on the whole, are a fair average 
crop on walls. Bush fruits and Strawberries have been plentiful 
and good in spite of the spring frosts. Alpine Strawberries are 
very full of fruit, and will continue beai"ing till frost cuts them 
off. Walnuts and Filberts are vety thin. Outdoor Grapes are 
plentiful, and generally free from mildew, but will in all probability 
be late in ripening. — E. Hobday. 

Moorpark, Rickmansworth, Hertfordshire.— Outdoor fruit 
in this neighbourhood is very much under average, but in some 
localities may be found a fair sprinkling of certain varieties of Apples ; 
with us the Keswick Codlin and Norfolk Beefing — two good old 
and useful sorts — are a fair crop ; others very thin. Ribstou Pippin, 
Margil, and some of our approved dessert sores, although having 
set well, dropped off at a certain stage of their development, caused, 
I have no doubt, by the cold rains and sharp frosts which we 
experienced when the trees were in flower ; also, after the Apple 
and Pear crop was set, Pears dropped their fruit, and, with the 
exception of a few sorts on south walls, such as Marie Louise, 
Citron des Carmes, &c., it may be said Pears are a failure. Plums 
and Cherries, which at one time promised to be a heavy crop, 
ultimately dropped an immense quantity of their fruit in an early 
stage of its development, so that Plums are not an average crop, 
and Morrello Cherries, usually heavily laden with fruit in former 
seasons, are this year a lighter crop than I ever remember to have 
seen them. A new enemy set on our May Duke and other dessert 
sorts this year, but left untouched some Morellos I had on a south 
wall. I mean snails, which cleared heavily-laden trees of good 
flavoured Cheixies in a night or two. Apricots, Peaches, and 
Nectarines, out of doors, are a complete failure here. Out of door 
Strawberries with us have been a " sight." We are still gathering 
daily, which, with forced fruit, makes our Strawberry season a long 
one. Crops of red and black Currants are heavy and good. Goose- 
berries a fair crop. Walnuts, Cobnuts, and Filberts poor. — D. 
Cunningham. 

WEST MIDLAND DIVISION. 

Alton Towers, Cheadle, Staffordshire. — Strawberries, 
abundant, but they have suffered much from storms ; Gooseberries, 
half a crop ; Currants, thin, destroyed by frost ; Pears, very thin ; 
Apples, half a crop, ; Peaches, outside, excellent in some places ; 
Apricots, none ; Cherries, plentiful. — T. Rabone. 

Compton Verney, Stratford-on-Avon, Warwickshire. 
— Apples, a failure ; Pears, an average crop ; Peaches and Nectarine, 
the same ; Apricots, half a crop ; Plums, under average ; Morello 
Cherries, half a crop ; Figs, a crop ; Walnuts, a few ; Strawberries, 
under average ; Raspberries, a good crop ; Gooseberries, under 
average ; Curriints, poor. The above is the state of the crops in the 
garden here, and may be taken as a fair representation of the 
1 neighbourhood. — G. Craddock. 



Aug. 3, 1872.] 



THE GAEDEN. 



103 



Keele Hall, Newcastle, Staflfordshire. — In this district there 
is no fruit on Peaches and Nectarines on open waUs, and the same 
may be said of Apricots ; Cherries, fair crop ; Easpberries, very 
good ; Strawberries, good, bnt injured by frost in many places ; 
Gooseberries, good ; Currants of all sorts, fair. Both these fruits 
have also been injui-edby frost in many places. Pears on' walls, good ; 
Apples, the greatest failure I ever remember ; the trees, too, have 
sufEered so much from caterpillars, that the fohage is very bad. — 
^Y. Hill. 

Do-wTiton Castle, Ludlow, Shropshire. — With us Apples 
are very scarce ; in fact, I shall not hare more than a bushel ofi a 
very large quantity of trees, and they are much about the same all 
over Herefordshire. Peaches and Nectarines not so good as usual 
with me, but still I have a fair crop ; in some places, however, about 
here they have no fruit, and the trees are nearly HUed by mildew, 
gum, and canker. Plums, Apricots, and Cherries not half a crop. 
Of Pears I have a good crop, both on walls and standards ; bush fruit 
all good, and fine in quality. — Wir. Laxdox. 

Shobden Court, Leominster, Herefordshire.— Of Apricots 
•we have scarcely any, and of Peaches and Nectarines very few; 
Plums on walls are not an average crop, while on standards there 
are scarcely any. Of Pears there are very few, and Apples are very 
scarce in this neighbourhood. The trees bloomed most profusely, 
but all dropped owing to the long continued cold. Strawberries have 
been abundant; also Gooseberries and Currants, but late in ripening, 
as we have had so much i-ain, with scarcely any sunshine. The last 
few days have greatly improved the appearance of all kinds of crops. 
— J. Matthews. 

Madresfiield CoiU't, Great Malvern, Worcestershire 
Fruit crops this season are extremely partial, the cold weather of 
May, and especially the severe frost of the 19th of that month, did 
much injury to strawberries and bush crops. With me Peaches and 
Nectarines are very good and clean ; Apricots half a crop ; Pears 
and Plums on walls good, on espaliers and pyramids a failure. The 
earlier kinds of orchard fruit are good ; later sorts scarce. Cur- 
rants and Gooseberries a fair crop here, but by no means generally 
so. Strawberries, where not injured by frost, have been generally 
good, but soon over; President and Sir J. Paxton have cropped well, 
but the most valuable Strawberry I grow is one named Oxonian. 
This is only just coming into use (July 26th), and will last three to 
four weeks ; a north border suits it better than any other aspect. 
Nuts, Filberts, and Walnuts quite a failure here. — WiLLiA3t Cox. 

Tortw^orth Court, "Wotton-under-Edge, Gloucestershire. 

— Crops in general have not been so light for manj' years past as 
they are this season. Peaches, Apricots, and Plums are almost a 
complete failure ; on Plums, in some few instances where trained 
against walls, there is a sprinkling. Apples are so scarce, that we 
shall not, in a three-acre orchard, be able to harvest above two 
bushels, the varieties being confined principally to the Codlin'section ; 
not only did the late frosts destroy the blossom, but the foliage as 
well, which is just beginning to recover; but I fear the young wood 
will not ripen properly. The Pear crop is not quite a failure, but it 
is nearly so. Standard Cherries are a failure. On walls we have 
one-third of a crop, with the exception of the Morello, which is abun- 
dant. Of Raspberries we have half a crop, but the fruit is small. 
Of black and red Currants there is about half a crop. Figs are 
a failure ; Gooseberries, abundant ; Strawberries, one-fourth of a 
crop ; Nuts, abundant. Many in this neighbourhood have lost both 
Apricot and Peach trees. Farm orchards are barren, therefore Cider 
will be scarce. — Alen_axder Ckamb. 

Packington Hall, Coventry. — Our Apricots are about half 
a crop, which is by no means general, as in most gardens round here 
there are none. Peaches and Nectarines, with me, a quarter of a 
crop ; in most gardens, however, there are none. With the exception 
of Eoyal George and Grosse Mignoime Peaches, my other Peach and 
Nectarine trees are in fine health , but these two sorts are much 
infested with mildew, which shows that they are of a more tender 
constitution than most other varieties used for outdoor work ; this, 
too, is not the first time that I have watched their tendency to 
become diseased when the season has happened to be ungenial. 
Plums on west aspect walls, a fine crop ; on east aspect or north, 
none ; which may be accounted for by the fact that east and north 
aspects do not receive the same amount of sun as a west wall. In 
very few gardens, however, round here are there any Plums. Pears, 
on all aspects on walls and standards, with me are a fine crop ; bnt 
in many other gai-dens they are very thin. Apples, with rare 
exceptions, are a total failure, both in orchards and gardens. 
Cherries, Quinces, Medlars, Filberts, and Walnuts, are all bad ; even 
Morellos are mostly a failure. Here all bush fruits, such as Currants, 
black, white, and red, are very thin, as well as Gooseberries and 
Easpberries ; Currants on a north wall are, however, fine. Straw- 



berries are a failure, and such is the rule in this district, caused 
undoubtedly by the frosts which we had on the nights 26th, 27th, 
and 28th of May, when the Apples were in full flower ; the Pears, 
being more forward and covered vrith leaves, especially on walls, 
escaped. Blight is everywhere abundant, caused doubtless by cold 
and wet in May. — J. G. Temple. 



NORTH MIDLAND DIVISION. 

Berry Hill, Mansfield, Notts. — Apricots, a failure, plenty 
of bloom, but it was entirely cut off by spring frosts ; Peaches, a 
very poor crop ; Plums, a good crop, especially on walls ; Figs, none 
grown outside ; Cherries, a good crop ; Apples, a fair crop ; Pears, a 
moderate crop (there was abundance of bloom, but it got entirely 
destroyed by frost) ; Gooseberries, a good crop ; Currants, abundant ; 
Strawberries, very good, but flavour poor owing to the heavy rains ; 
Raspberries, very good ; Damsons, quite a f aUure ; Walnuts, very few ; 
FUberts, a poor crop. — S. A. Woods. 

Sudbrooke Holme, Lincolnshire.— Apples, a thin crop, 
Pears, half a crop. Plums, a fair crop, Apricots and Peaches, very 
thin. All bush fruit and Strawberries, a good crop, bnt the Straw- 
berries have been much spoiled by heavy rains. Trees very healthy 
and free from blight. In this neighbourhood Apple orchards are 
producing a fair crop, where sheltered from north-east winds. Plums 
and other fruits partial. Cherries are a fair crop, bnt spoiled by the 
rains. The loss of our fruit crops must be attributed to the wood 
being badly ripened last autumn, and to the low temperature this 
spring. — Geokge McBev. 

Bxton Park, Oakham, Rutland.— Apple and Pear trees never 
looked more promising than they did this spring ; but a cold May, 
with much rain and frosty nights succeeded by a few hours, very hot 
sunshine, seemed to bum them all black. The failure, I think, is 
general in this neighbourhood. Apples and Pears are very scarce ; 
Peaches and Apricots are a failure ; of Nectarines we have a few ; 
Figs a small crop ; Filberts and Quinces, none ; Walnuts, thin crop ; 
Small fruits, good ; Strawberries, very fine and large ; President, Lucas, 
Sir C. Napier, and Elton Pine have been the best here. Cherries, a 
gi'and crop. Morellos are now nearly as large as good-sized Goose- 
berries. — J. S3IITH. 

Coleorton Hall, Ashby-de-la-Zouch, Leicestershire.— 

In spring, I never saw such a prospect of a great crop of fruit. But 
the severe frosts in April cut off even the Apple buds long 
before they could expand. At present our crops stand as follows : — 
Apricots none ; Apples scarcely any ; Morello Cherries on walls, 
plentiful ; aU other sorts a failure ; Plums on walls half a crop ; ou 
standards a complete failure; Peaches and Nectarines very few, next 
to none ; Pears on walls half a crop ; on standards scarcely any ; Figs 
very few ; Currants of all kinds a fair crop ; Gooseberries half a 
crop; Easpberries, a good crop and fine; Strawberries, President 
and Wonderful pretty good ; very few of other kinds ; Walnuts and 
Filberts a failure. The failure of fruit crops iu our immediate 
neighbourhood is general. — M. Hexdeksox, 

Osmaston Manor, Derby. — The following remarks concerning 
pears apply to trees trained on walls with east, west, and south 
aspects : Althorp Crassane and Beurre d'Aremberg, fine crops; 
Williams's Bon Chretien, Doyenne d'Ete, Easter Beurre and Beurre 
Diel, good crops ; Ne Plus Meuris, Louise Bonne of Jersey, Delices 
d'Hardenpont, and Summer Franc Eeal, moderate crops ; Marie 
Louise and Jargonelle, thin ; Chaumontelle, poor, and the same may 
be said of Passe Colmar, Beurre Ranee, Thompson's, Glou Mor^eau, 
and Knight's Monarch. Beun-e Eauce has never missed before 
during ten years. Pears altogether are very irregular, some trees 
being loaded, whilst others close at hand have little or no fruit on 
them. CJooseberries abundant, only slightly hurt by spring frosts ; 
Eed Cun-ants, moderate ; Black Currants, scarcely any ; Easpberries, 
a good crop ; Strawberries, also a good crop, but much damaged by 
rain ; Plums and Apricots, very scarce ; Cherries, a fair crop, but 
a good deal cracked owing to the long-continued wet ; Apples, a poor 
crop (none on tall standards). Peaches and Nectarines are not 
grown out of doors here. — F. Hakkisox. 

Bloxholm HaU, Sleaford, Lincolnshire. — Apples in this 
neighbourhood are a very deficient crop ; trees much blighted by late 
spring frosts ; Pears on walls a fair crop, but on standards, iu ex- 
posed parts, very deficient ; Plums on standards a complete failure, 
a fair sprinkling on walls ; Apricots on walls a fair crop, where pro- 
tected, but where unprotected, on the same wall and situation, they 
have been destroyed by late spring frosts ; Strawberries, an excellent 
crop, and very fine in quality, but their season was of short dura- 
ration ; owing to constant drenching rains when in full bearing, they 
rotted by wholesale on the ground ; Cherries on walls a fair crop, on 
standards a failure ; many of the Cherries have cracked, owing t o 
the excessive rainfall in July ; Peaches and Nectarines poor, trees , 



104 



THE GARDEN. 



[Aug. 3, 1872. 



much blighted in many parts ; Figs a fair crop ; Raspberries abun- 
dant, and of excellent quality ; Goosebei-ries very good ; Bed Cur. 
rants under average, bushes much blighted ; Black Currants also 
under average, but good in quality ; White Currants a fair crop of 
fine fruit ; Walnuts promised to be good early in the season, but 
they have fallen off during the summer, and now only a very poor 
crop will be gathered ; Filberts also very poor. Altogether outdoor 
fruits are not encouraging, although we had an abundance of strong 
and healthy bloom. Fruit trees generally were early in flower, owing 
to the mildness of the winter, but they suffered greatly from severe 
spring frosts. — David Lvmsden. 

SOUTH-WESTEEN DIVISION. 

Sherborne Castle, Dorset. — Fruit crops in this garden and the 
neighbourhood run nearly as follows ; — Apples almost a failure ; 
Apricots quite a failure ; Cherries a very middling crop ; Red and 
White Currants very scarce ; Blackcurrants plentiful ; Figs a mode- 
rate crop ; Gooseberries, in most parts, very plentiful ; Medlars very 
few ; Mulberries good ; Nuts of all sorts very scarce ; Peaches and 
Nectarines also very scarce ; Pears, a sprinkling on walls, very few 
on pyramids ; Plums almost a complete failure ; Quinces a few ; 
Raspberries a very fair crop; Strawberries plentiful. — W. G. 
Pkagneli. 

Ennys, Penryn, Corn-wall. — Apple orchards gave early pi-omise 
of a good crop. The blossom was not so thick as it sometimes has 
been, but it was strong and perfect ; yet the crop was doomed. 
Several degrees of frost destroyed all hope. There is, however, a 
sprinkling in some few sheltered places, but no crop anywhere, as 
far as I can learn. Of Pears there is a better report, especially of 
early and autumn kinds. Peaches and Nectarines are far below the 
average ; some places not half a crop, others much less than that. 
Plums a poor crop. Raspberries plentiful. Bush fruit the poorest 
crop known for years past. Strawberries, good crops. Cherries 
below the average. — Henky Mills. 

Uettlecorabe, Taunton, Somersetshire. — Tlie following is 
the state of the fruit crop at Nettlecombe, and, I believe, it is much 
the same in this neighbourhood generally : — Of Apricots we have 
scarcely any ; Peaches and Nectarines none, trees much injured by 
frost in May, accompanied by cold winds, rain, hail, and snow. 
Cherries about half a crop. Pears about two-thirds of an average. 
Apples, scarcely any ; trees much injured. Plums none. Medlars 
none ; trees much injured. White and Red Currants, scarcely any. 
Black Currants, average crop. Gooseberries, very plentiful. Rasp- 
berries, two-thirds of a crop. Strawberries, about half of an average 
crop, but small. Quinces, none. Walnuts, very few, the male 
catkins having been killed by frost before the pollen was formed. 
Filberts, none, owing to the same cause. Kent Cob Nuts, very few. 
Figs, about half a crop. The destruction of our fruit crops is 
doubtless owing to the trees having been excited by the mildness of 
the weather throughout January, February, and the beginning of 
March ; then from about the twentieth of March we liad almost 
continually cold rains and high winds, with heavy hail and snow- 
storms, and but very little sunshine up to the second week of June. 
I am, therefore, rather surprised that we have any fruit at all. — 
Charles Elwokthy. 



NORTH-WESTERN DIVISION. 

Doddington Park, Ifantwich, Cheshire.— The frost on the 
19th and 20th of May destroyed most of our bush fruits ; Apples and 
Plums are a complete failure; wall fruits thin; Apricots, none 
Pears ou walls, very good ; Raspberries and Strawberries, good. — 
D. P. Selway. 

"Worsley Hall, Manchester.— Owing to the garden here being 
situated on the borders of Chat Moss, spring frosts have almost ruined 
our outdoor fruit crops. So lately as June Vth we had a sharp frost, 
leaving the eaves of the hothouses covered with ice and the grass 
quite white with hoar frost. Standard Plum trees have suffered most, 
being in some cases quite denuded of foliage. We have no Plums at 
all. Apples bloomed gloriously ; but they, too, had to succumb to 
the relentless frost-laden north vrind. Small fruits, with the ex- 
ception of Black Currants, which are all but a failure, about half a 
crop. A few young Peach trees, all we have out of doors, have been 
almost killed, all their first growth being cut off. Pears, a very thin 
crop, though not so bad as Apples. Jargonelles on the whole are 
carrying fair crops. Strawberries were a good crop, but more than 
half of them have rotted on the plants, owing to the excessive wet 
weather which we have had. Morello Cherries very good ; of other 
sorts few are grown. Altogether the fruit crops are as unsatisfactory 
as I have ever known them to be. — W. B. TJp.r0HN. 



EASTERN DIVISION. 
Audley End, SafFron "Walden, Essex.— Fruit crops in this 
neighbourhood are very short indeed. Apples very scarce, in fact, 
not a quarter of a crop ; Pears a few ; Plums almost none ; Apricots 
a very few ; Peaches and Nectarines very scarce ; Cherries a few ; 
Morellos, Gooseberries, and Currants not a quarter of a crop ; Figs 
a middling crop ; Strawberries and Raspberries are the only kinds of 
fruits of which I had a crop. Indeed, this is one of the worst seasons 
I have ever known for fruit. — Geo. Toung. 

Cossey Park, Norwich — Wall fruits, a failure— not one dozen 
Peaches or Apricots on the trees. The warm weather in February 
caused the blossoms to open, and they got blighted by the severe 
frost and snow of March, which also injured Gooseberries and Cur. 
tants. In Norwich Market these used to fetch about a penny a 
pint, but this season they have brought 2Jd. and even 3d., while 
good Raspberries realise 4d. a pint. Such high prices were never heard 
of in Norwich before. Plums on walls are scarce, and there are 
none on standards. Cherries were a bad crop. I have a sprinkling 
of Apples and Pears, but many of my neighbours have none ; in 
fact their trees were so blighted by the cold weather in May that 
it will be long before they recover. — J. WiGHTOf. 

Hardwicke House, Bury St. Edmunds.— This, on the 

whole, is a sorry season for fruits. Spi'ing frosts and hailstorms in 
May wrecked thousands of fair prospects. Now and then, however, 
good crops of Peaches, Nectarines, Apricots, and Plums, delight our 
eyes. Crops of Apples and Pears are less rare. For months these 
seemed to have escaped the weather ; the fruit clung to the trees though 
a good deal bruised, and looked much better than the leaves, so 
ragged and torn ; but presently the fruit stood still, anon it seemed 
to look sick, faint, and down it dropped. I have seldom seen so 
many Apples fall prematurely. Still upon the whole we shall pro- 
bably average one-third of a crop of Apples and half a crop of 
Pears. The latter are, however, very spotty on pyramids, and even 
on walls. In many gardens a clean sweep has been made of Currants 
and Gooseberries. I, however, have had an extraordinary crop 
of the latter and a fair share of the former. Raspberries and Cherries 
have likewise been plentiful, the former especially so, the latter 
more exceptional. Strawberries plentiful and good, though overdone 
with water. — D. T. Fish. 

NORTHERN DIVISION. 

Thorpe Perrow, Bedale, Yorkshire.— Apples almost a failure ; 
Apricots, a very partial crop ; bush fruits, good generally ; Peaches, 
a moderate crop ; summer Pears good, winter sorts partial ; Straw- 
berries, good, but mostly spoilt by rain ; Nuts, bad. — William 
Culverwell. 

Aln-nrick Castle, Northumberland. — Fruit trees here bloomed 
abundantly, but owing to bad weather while they were in flower, 
some sorts are all but a failure. Apples are only about half a crop. 
Pears an average crojj, and the trees are clean and healthy. Plums a 
fair crop, with the exception of Greengages, of which we have few. 
Strawberries and all other small fruits abundant. Clierries, with the 
exception of a few May Dukes on an east wall, almost a failure. 
Peaches and Nectarines very scarce, trees clean and healthy. Apri- 
cots an average crop, and trees in good condition. Figs medium 
crop. — A. Ingram. 

Bretton Park, Wakefield. — All kinds of small fruit are very 
plentiful here ; but all the gardens situated in low, wet, and exposed 
places have suffered much from the frost on the 19th and 20th of 
May, and have but a thin crop. Strawberries have been unusually 
large this season ; but a great part of them was spoiled by the heavy 
rains which we had last week, rotting them before they began to 
colour. Apples and Pears are rather scarce all round this district ; 
the only kinds of Apples of which there is a full crop are Keswick 
Codlin, Hawthornden, aud Emperor Alexander ; trees of the late- 
keeping sorts have scarcely a fruit on them. Peaches and Apricots 
are quite a failure ; all other stone fruits scarce. Figs look promising. 
Fruit trees of all kinds have been much infested with insects and 
mildew. — G. Clifton. 

Southend, Darlington. — Strawberries have been good, and 
large quantities gathered, notwithstanding the heavy thunderstorms 
and rains to which the crop has been exposed. Gooseberries and 
Currants are a fair crop, and free from fly and honey-dew, from 
which in some years we suffer to a great extent. Apricots not a full 
crop ; indeed in many gardens they are a failure, and only upon a 
few trees in some favoured locality have I seen fruit. Plums better, 
but still a partial crop. In the gardens here some trees are good 
beyond the average ; but many — very many — of our best trees have 
no fruit on them. What I have just said respecting Plums, may 



Aug. 3, 1872.] 



THE GARDEN. 



105 



also be said of Pears and Apples ; and close-pruned trees, such as 
espaliers, bushes, and pyramids, are much worse than standards or 
orchard trees. Bloom at the proper season there was in abundance, 
but it did not set well. With us Peaches and Nectarines are not to 
be depended upon, except under a glass cover, and there the crop is 
excellent ; indeed it never fails. — John Eichakdson. 

Stourton Park, Knaresborough, Yorkshire. — The demand 
for fruit in the market, and the prices obtained for it there, are very 
good criterions of the state of the crops. In 1870 crops of all kinds 
were abundant, and prices were low. Last year the crops of some 
kinds, such as Peaches, Nectarines, Plums, Cherries, and Apples, 
were light in this neighbourhood, and prices were in consequence 
high. This year crops of all kinds of fruit are, in general, vei'y light, 
though there are some places where some kinds are good. Apricots 
are very thin in most places ; the crops in 1870 were very heavy, so 
that people did not expect a heavy crop this season. The trees 
had not much blossom on them this spring, and the little there was, 
being weak, dropped off without setting. Peaches and Nectarines 
are in general thin ; on trees that made strong wood which did not 
get well ripened there is very little fruit, but on trees that made 
weaker growth, which got well matured, there is plenty. On some 
trees here there is a heavy crop ; whilst others have few or none. 
Some kinds of Plums on walls are good, but on standards and dwarfs 
the crops are very light. Victoria and Golden Drop are good crops ; 
and Greengage, Jefferson, Goliath, and others are moderate crops in 
some gardens on walls, but on standards in general the crops are 
very light ; the trees have also suffered much from aphides. Pears 
are in general a moderate crop. Jargonelles on walls in some places 
are good, and in others rather light ; on standards the crops are in 
general light ; altogether the Pears will be much below an average 
crop. Apples are everywhere very thin. There was a fine show of 
blossom, and there was every appearance oE a heavy crop until the 19th 
and 20tli of May, when the frosts on these mornings dealt out sad 
destruction to the Apple crop. The Cockpit, a sort grown much in this 
neighbourhood, appears to have withstood the^frost tolerably well. A 
large old tree of Early Juneating has also a fine crop. Hawthornden, 
King of the Pippins, White Astrachan, and some others have a fair 
sprinkling of fruit, but many others have very few ; altogether I 
consider the Apple crop this season as bad as any we have had for 
some years. Strawberries have been a fair crop in some places ; 
but in others they appear to have suffered from the weather. Here 
the crop, with the exception of British Queen, which promised well, 
but did not set well, was a good one. Bush fruits of all kinds here 
are a fair crop, but Red Currants and Raspberries are not so good as 
we have had them. I believe bush fruit in general is rather below 
the average in this neighbourhood. The prices in the markets are 
nearly double what they were in 1870, and the quality of the fruit 
much inferior. Altogether the fruit crops in this neighbourhood ar e 
very deficient, and vrill be a sad loss to the populations of our large 
towns, whose consumption of fruit is something wonderful, the loss 
of Apples especially will be much felt. The quantity of foreign 
fruit that comes into our markets is very great, and helps to keep 
down the prices, and when our own crops are good, this brings 
fruit within the reach of working men, but when our own crops are 
failures, the prices in general rise too high to be within their reach. — 
M. Saul. 



NOTES AND -QUESTIONS ON THE FRUIT GARDEN. 



The Pear Grafted on tlie Quince.— All cultivators kuow how difficult it is 
to make some varieties of the Pear succeed on the Quince. M. Carriere has 
lately pointed out an easy road to success in this matter, namely : always to 
operate by cleft- grafting, instead of by budding. By tliis means, in the case of 
those varieties which exhibit a reluctance to unite with the stock, the disastrous 
effects of high winds are avoided, and the union of the scion with the stock is 
secured sooner and more permanently. 

"Wash for Fruit Trees.— Last year an experienced fruit-grower, the owner 
of a fine orchard near Niagara river, western New York, wi'ote us that, in the 
care of his trees he had practised one simple method with eminent success. He 
takes lye from leached ashes, mixes a little grease with it, heats quite warm, 
and, with a syringe, throws it up into all parts of the trees, branches, and 
trunk. It will effectually kill all kinds of caterpillars, and all kinds of worms 
that are either infesting the trees in nests or running over the bark. Trees 
treated in this manner were exceedingly healthy, beautiful, and vigorous in 
appearance, possessing a smooth glossy barb, and bore the best apples in the 
country. The remedy is easy and cheap. — MoHicultiti'kt. 

The Strawberries of Monrepos.— It may not be without interest to straw- 
berry-growers to state that this year, in the celebrated gardens of Monrepos, 
near Geisenheim, large quantities of strawberries, each li oz. in weight (and 
some of 4 oz. to 4^- oz.), have been gathered. These giants occui" cliiefly 
amongst the following kinds : Ambrosia, la Constante, Due de Malakoff, Sir 
Charles Napier, and Wonderful. In all the gardens of Monrepos the straw- 
berry-beds are covered in autumn with short stable-dung, and in spring, after 
the ground has been stirred up, with a layer of tan. Tan is also employed as a 
mulching over the roots of fruit trees, in order to prevent the rapid drying up of 
the soil in the months of June, July, and August, to secure an equable tempera- 
ture, and to drive away vermin. It appears that the smell of tan is peculiarly 
offensive to insects. 



THE P ROPA GATOR. 

THE AET OF GRAFTING. 

(Continued from p. 26.) 
OaDiNAKY Glept-Geapting. 
With a Single Scion. — "We have at our disposal a stock (a) 
of medium size. We out it obliquely at B, the top (o) of the 
cut being smoothed horizontally; then 
inserting the point of the pruning-kuife, 
or the blade of the grafting-knife, we 
move it gently backwards and forwards, 
pressing on it moderately, until a vertical 
cleft (d) is made about the depth of the 
slanting cut of the scion. The skill of 
the grafter is displayed in not splitting 
the stock right across. Care should be 
taken that the bark and the first albur- 
num layers of the stock be divided in 
the same line as the cleft, and with a 
clean cut ; if they should be divided ir- 
regularly, no attempt should be made to 
smooth down or remove the irregularities of the fracture. 
When the cleft is about two-thirds completed, we take the 
scion (e) in our other hand and insert it in the upper part of 
the orifice, pushing it downwards as the incision opens. The 
implement is withdrawn when the incision has proceeded so 
far that the scion can be finally lodged in its position by a 
push of the hand. The sloping cu.t (f) of the scion is so 
placed at g that its bark may coincide with that of the stock 




Ordinary Cleft-Grafting 
with a single Rciou. 




Insertion of the Scion in Oleft-grafting. 

without projecting or leaving much of a cavity on the inside 
if possible. If the stock has a thick bark, we should slightly 
incline the scion inwards in the cleft, so that the layers 
of bark and alburnum of both stock and scion may inevit- 
ably fiud some point of contact ; for the union is effected by 
the contact of the generative layers of both parts, and not 
by the external layers of the bark. Mastic is necessary : 
bandaging not so much so. 

With Two Scions. — The stock (a), being larger, will take 
two scions. The cut (b) is horizontal, and we 
split the stock right across at c. In order 
to do this we place the blade of the pruning- 
knife or the grafting-chisel perpendicularly 
on the top of the stock, and press upon it with 
both hands. If the wood is tough, we must 
make use of a mallet. The scions are placed 
one by one in the mouth, or in a vessel con- 
taining damp moss. When the cleft is two- 
thirds completed, we withdraw the implement 
to one side, so as to keep the incision always 
half-open. We place one scion at the other 
side, and using the implement or the handle 
of the mallet as a lever, open the incision so 
as to let in the scion completely. The inser- 
tion of the other scion is not more difficult ; perhaps it will 




Cleft-grafting 
witli two scions. 



106 



THE GARDEN. 



[Aug. 3, 1872. 



be necessary to introduce the blade o£ the implement into 
the cleft (c) at the centre of the cut and open it a little to 
facilitate the admission of the second scion. If the pressure 
of the implement should be disagreeable, a little wedge of 
box-wood might be temporarily introduced into the middle 
of the cleft (c). This would permit us to insert both scions 
easily without enlarging the cleft. Bandaging and mastic are 
necessary. 

Cleft-Gba.fting with an Inserted Bud. — When' more than 
two scions are to be employed, two parallel clefts are to be 
made, so as to leave the pith in the centre untouched. A scion 
may then be inserted in each of the clefts. This might be 
termed double cleft-grafting, but the method of oblique cleft- 
grafting is to be preferred. This mode of grafting is based on 




Cleft-grafting with an Inserted Bud. 

the preparation of the scion. In cutting the scion (a) in the 
manner of the section («'), we contrive to have on the back of 
the cut part (a) a biid (h), which will be inserted in the cleft 
(c) of the stock (b), as represented at c. From this will spring 
a vigorous scion, on which the wind will have no effect. It 
may be tied up against the upper part of the graft. Bandage 
and apply mastic. Our next illustration shows a scion (a), 




Cleft-grafting with a Single Bud. 
furnished with a single bud (n), which will be inserted in the 
cleft of the stock. At h is seen a section of the cut part of the 
scion ; at B the cleft in the stock ; and at c the scion finally 
inserted. Nothing further remains to be done except to apply 
the mastic, taking care not to rub oft' or injure the bud (•»). 



According to the manner in which the end of the scion is cut, 
the bud (ft) may be placed level with the top of the stock, as 
shown at c, or lower down as at c in the preceding illustration. 
The incision (b) in the stock shows that this process is 
equally applicable to grafting by inlaying. By this method 
valuable scions may be multiplied, since as many grafts may 
be formed as there are buds. — G. Balfef. 
(To he continued.) 



THE KITC HEN GARDEN. 

PEIZE ESSAY ON THE POTATO. 

BY GEORGE MAW, P.S.A.. G.S., L.S. 
(Concluded from p. 26.) 
7. Accidental Variations of Results. 
It has been necessary, in drawing our conclusions, to altogether 
avoid relying on the results of isolated experiments. "Whatever 
precautions may be taken to insure uniformity in the conditions 
under which agricultural experiments are conducted, unaccountable 
anomalies in the result will be found to occur ; variations which 
affect all agricultural crops, and which should be fully recognised 
and guarded against when inferences are drawn from experiments. 

The only way to remove such sources of error is to throw 
together the average results of a number of independent experi- 
ments, so that the irregularities tending in either direction may 
neutralise each other. I would cite, by way of illustration, the 
individual trials making up the average results given under the first 
head. I have already stated that the average balance on 13 ex- 
periments, in favour of 2 oz. over 1 oz. sets, was 1 ton 13 cwt. 
2 qrs. 71 lbs. per acre ; but if we come to details, it appears that, 
out of these 13 experiments, 5 show a result in favour of the 
1 oz. sets, and 8 in favour of the 2 oz. This proportion, 8 to 5, 
taken by itself, is not very striking, and might be accidental ; 
but when the sum of the weights of the gains in favour of the 
larger sets is placed against that in favour of the smaller sets, the 
proportion is increased to 25 to 5. 

Net Balances, 
tons. cwts. qrs. lbs. 
The gains per acre on 8 experiments, in favour o£ 2 oz. i o? 8 •! 2'"- 

sets over 1 oz. sets, is S ■' 

Whilst the gain on 5 experiments, in favour of 1 oz. > 519 o rx 



sets, is hub 



Leaving a balance in favour of 3 oz. over 1 oz. of 21 16 1 16^ 
or 1 ton 13 cwt. 2 qrs. 7^ lbs. per acre. 

Even this result taken singly might be merely accidental; but 
when the other steps in the same series show precisely similar 
tendencies, the general tenor must be accepted as confirming the 
indications given by the majority of the individual experiments. 

In comparing the produce of 2 oz. and 4 oz. sets, out of 12 
e.-cperiments, the net results of 8 are in favour of the 4 oz. sets, 
and 4 in favour of the 2 oz. 

Net Balances, 
tons. cwts. qrs. lbs. 
The gains per acre on the 8 experiments, in favour of) 90 10 q 01 

the 4 oz, sets, amount to } '^^ ^" ^ ''* 

And those on the -1 experiments, in favour of the 2 oz. sets 9 15 2 11^ 



19 4 



19 



Leaving a balance in favour of the 4 oz, over the 1 

2 oz. sets of j 

or 1 ton 12 cwts, qrs, li lbs, per acre. 

In comparing the produce of 4 oz. and 6 oz. sets, out of 9 
experiments, 7 are in favour of the larger sets, and 2 of the 
smaller. 

Net Balances, 
tons, cwts. qrs. lbs. 
The gains per acre on the 7 experiments, in favour of "^ 30 ■* IS*- 

the (J oz, sets, amounted to J " " 

Those on the 2 experiments, in favour of the 4 oz,) ., ,., « ,,,1 
sets, to J '^ '- "* '"* 



17 8 



Leaving a balance in favour of the 6 oz, over the "^ 

4 oz, sets of J 

averaging 1 ton 18 cwts, 2 qr, 19 lbs, per acre not. 

Advancing from 6 to 8 oz, sets, out of 5 experiments 2 are in 
favour of 8 oz,, and 3 in favour of 6 oz, sets. 

Not Balances, 
tons. cwts. qrs. lbs. 
The sum of the gains per acre on 2 experiments, in^ m 13 3 22 

favour of 8 oz. sets, amounted to .J 

And those on 3 experiments, in favour' of C oz, sets, X 



amounted to 



17 2 27 



10 23 



Leaving a net balance in f.avour of 8 oz, over G oz, \ 

sets, of S 

on 5 experiments, averaging 3 cwts, qrs, 27 lbs, jicr acre. 

Of the whole series of 39 experiments, 25 were in favour of 
large sets, and 14 showed an opposite tendency; but the pro- 
jiortion borne between these numbers does not fully represent 



Aug. 3, 1872.] 



THE GARDEN. 



107 



the actual result, which is more fairly stated by the weights of 
the balances on either side ; for whilst the gains on the 25 (acres) 
experiments calculated per acre amotiuted to 9J. tons 3 cwt. 1 qr. 
6| lbs. in favour of large sets, the gain (14 acres) on the l-i experi- 
ments favourable to the smaller sets amounted to only 3i tons 
17 cwt. 1 qr. 27i- lbs., leaving (after setting the gains against the 
losses) an average net balance, on the 39 comparisons, of more than 
1 ton 10 cwt. in favour of the larger sets on each advance, namely, 
from 1 to 2 ozs., from 2 to 4 ozs., from 4 to 6 ozs., and from 6 to 
8 ozs. I have been particular in noticing these exceptional irregu- 
larities, and their general bearing on the tenor of the experiments, 
as an element inseparable from agricultural experiments, and as 
requiring the fullest recognition in the estimation of results. 

It now remains briefly to recapitulate the general bearing of the 
experiments, the results of which have been described in detail. 

Firstly. Every increase in the size of the set, from 1 oz. up to 
8 ozs. in weight, produces an increase in the crop much greater 
than the additional weight of the set planted. The net profit 
over and above the extra weight of the sets in planting 4 oz. sets 
in lieu of 1 oz. sets, amounted on the whole series of experiments 
to between 3 and 4 tons per acre ; and the further profit on the 
increase of the size of the set from 4 ozs. to 8 ozs., averaged 
about 5 tons an acre ; all the intermediate pteps partaking pro- 
portionately of the increase. 

Secondly. The advantages in favour of the large sets is more 
marked in the late than in the early varieties. 

Thirdly. In the use of small sets of from 1 oz. to 3 ozs. in 
weight, a larger balance over and above the weight of the sets 
was obtained by planting from 6 to 9 inches apart in the rows 
than at wider intervals. 

Fourthly. Increasing the intervals at which the sets are planted, 
even of the largest size, in the rows to more than 12 inches, 
diminishes the crop, and the wider intervals induce no increase 
in the weight of the jiroduce of the individual sets. 

Fifthly. It may be broadly stated that the weight of the crop 
is proportionate to the weight per acre of the sets, and that small 
sets will produce the same crop as an equal weight per acre of 
large sets. The fact is, however, of limited application, as a 
weight of very small sets equal to a weight of full. sized potatoes 
could not be got into the ground, except by planting them so 
close as to be prejudicial to the crop. The advantage, therefore, 
of large sets remains practically unimpaired. 

Sixthly. Weight for weight cut sets produce, as nearly as possible, 
the same weight per acre as whole potatoes ; but for the reasons 
given above, the weight of the sets should not be reduced by sub. 
division. 

Seventhly. Smaller sets give a larger produce in proportion to 
their weight than the larger sets. 

Eighthly. When the intervals between the sets in the rows are 
diminished to less than a foot, the produce of each individiial set is 
proportionately diminished. Though this is not necessarily accom. 
panied by a diminution of the weight of the crop, no increase in the 
produce of each individual set is caused by placing the sets at 
intervals wider than a foot. 

Ninthly. With reference to the relative produce of different 
varieties, a Late Bed sort takes the precedence throughout the 
experiments ; and of the several varieties of Fluke, " Spencer's King 
of Flukes " and " The Queen of Flukes " are much more prolific 
than the ordinary variety. 



How to Kill Weeds. — By attending to the following directions, 
weeds may be completely extirpated : — 1. Study their habits. 
Without this you are working in the dark. You are shooting with- 
out taking aim, and are more likely to miss than to hit. 2. Have 
faith that weeds can be killed. 3. Should you, for the first year 
or two, see little benefit from your labour, do not relax your efforts. 
Ton will certainly triumph in the end. This is the experience of 
all gardeners ; and a firm conviction of this truth is one of the 
strongest incentives to perseverance. 4. Be forehanded with your 
work. This is exceedingly important. It is so not merely because 
weed-plants can be killed easily just as they commence to grow, but 
it often happens that many weeds actually go to seed before they 
get large enough to attract attention. Many think it impossible to 
free the laud of Couch or Quick Grass (Triticum repens). But it 
will be found that they are not forehanded with their work. They 
apply labour enough, but it is too late. They let the plants grow 
until the ground is covered wilh the leaves of the Couch, and then 
they hoe and rake and cultivate, and maybe fork out as many roots 
as possible. But they cannot get out the whole. The roots are 
broken into small pieces, and each piece produces a new plant, 
which soon pushes out its roots in all directions in the loose and 
mellow soil. Had the work been commenced before the Couch plants 



jDushed out their leaves, and been kept up so vigorously and con. 
tinuonsly that the young shoots could not get above the surface, and 
the soil constantly cultivated during the hot dry summer months, 
every Couch plant would be destroyed. We have tried the plan, and 
know that Couch can be effectually got rid of in this way. But no 
half-way measures will succeed with it. 5. Burn all the thistle- 
heads and other weeds that are cleaned out of the garden. 6. Look 
to the manure. This is a fruitful source of weeds. 



THE ARBORETUM. 



HAEDT TREES AND SHRUBS. 

BY GEOBGE GOKDON, A.L.S. 
THE MEDLAll THOBN (CRATAEGUS AUONIA). 

This is a hardy, robust, rapid-growiug thorn, and on6 of the 
finest of the fine ,n;enus to which it belongs. It forms a tree 
from fifteen to twenty -five feet high, with a straight stem and 
upright rigid spindling branches, thickly furnished with short 
spray. It is a native of mountainous parts of Greece and 




Leaves, 2^ inches broad and 2f inches in length, including the footstalk. 

the Levant. It grows well in any good garden soil, and is 
easily increased by means of grafting on the common thorn. 
It was first introduced in 1810. It forms a fine object, both 
when in flower or in fruit, and is admirably adapted for 
planting in small gardens or places of limited extent. It is 
never attacked by the larva of the thorn moth, which so 
infests and destroys the foliage of the common hawthorn and 
some other kinds. 

The leaves are rather large, deeply divided into five open 
bluntish lobes, wedge-shaped or tapering to the base, and 
when fully grown smooth and glossy green above, and downy 
beneath. The lobes are in equal pairs, with the terminal one 
frequently trifid, and, except three or four unequal coarse 
teeth at the apex, all of them are quite entire on the edges. 
The stipules at the base of the leaves are rather large, one- 
sided, cockscomb- shaped, and irregularly and deeply cut on 
the outer edge. The flowers are rather large, pure white, 
very fragrant, and produced in great profusion in compact 
corymbs in June, long after the common hawthorn and most 
of the other kinds have done flowering. 

The fruit lis globular, very large, bright yellow, and mostly 
contains two bony seeds ; when ripe, in the end of August, it 
has au agreeable taste, and hangs on the tree till the leaves 
drop off in November or even later. It is sometimes called 
Cratasgus fissa. 



108 



THE GARDEN. 



[Aug. 3, 1872. 



PINE TEEES AS MEDICINAL AGENTS. 

Although some forests are regarded as sources of malaria, and oak 
trees and hazel bushes haye been counted insalubrious in Europe, 
like the tamarind tree in the East, yet the air of pine forests 
appears always grateful to the lungs, and has been considered 
wholesome, although of its absolute curative influence there is little 
evidence, and, indeed, it must be difficult to procuro such. The 
idea of pine forests exercising a balmy influence on the lungs is a 
very ancient one. Pliny considered that the air of pine forests was 
more useful in phthisis and in convalescence from acute diseases 
than the voyage to Egypt recommended in such cases in those days. 
Both Bournemouth and Arcachon at the present day owe a good 
deal of their reputation to their pine woods. The air of the latter 
is said to be distinctly sedative. On the whole, then, the air of the 
pine woods of the Black Forest may be regarded as an element 
entering into the consideration of the value of its baths. But 
besides -merely inhaling the air of its forests, people have of late 
years made much use of the products of pine in baths, vapour 
baths, and inhalations. Even this is not entirely modern ; for the 
ancients recommended chiefly the internal use of decoctions of 
strobili and of pine tops, and thought pine nuts very useful in 
diseases of the chest; and at a more modern time, besides the 
internal use of drinks made from the spruce and the tar-water so 
long in vogue, we had inhalations of tar and of various resins. The 
ancients did, indeed, recommend in gout baths of water in which 
cedar wood had been boiled, but the use of the pine-extract bath 
is quite modern. It has spread rapidly, and is in use at Gleisweiler, 
Eehburg, Liebenstein, Ruhla, and Eisenach. These aromatic extracts 
are procured from various pines — as from the Abies excelsa or 
Norway spruce, silver fir, Finns sylvestris or Scotch fir, Pinus 
maritima or Bordeaux pine, the Weymouth pine, also from the 
common larch, and the most fragrant of all, from P. pumilio, the 
mountain pine. The baths vary considerably in strength and in 
odour, according to the way in which they are prepared. The 
commonest way of making the bath is by adding to common water 
a certain quantity of the decoction got by passing steam through 
the young pine-tops. — Lancet. 



A Tree Hotel.— Of all the hotels in the world, the very oddest is a 
lonely one in CaUfornia, on the road between San Jose and Santa Cruz. 
Imagine ten immense trees standing a few feet apart and hollo"47 inside ; 
these are the hotel, neat, breezy, and romantic. The largest tree is 
sixty-five feet round, and contains a sitting-room. All about this tree is 
a garden of flowers and evergreens. The drawing-room is a bower made 
of redwood, evergreens, and madrona branches. For bed-chambers there 
are nine great hollow trees, whitewashed or papered, and having doors cut 
to fit the shape of the holes. Literature finds a place in a leaning stump, 
dubbed "the library." 



NOTES AND QUESTIONS ON TREES AND SHRUBS. 



Prunus tomentosa. — This is one of the handsoinest of spring- flowering 
hardy Japanese shrubs. It is also one of the earliest to bloom, commencing to 
do so in the beginning of March, and producing a succession of flowers up to 
some time in April. The flowers are large and white, with a very slight tinge 
of flesh-colour at the base, and are so numerous that they completely cover the 
fibrub, which is little more than three feet high, and forms a very branching, 
compact, and roundish bush. It is propagated by cuttings and seed, which it 
yields freely, and wiU.no doubt, prove a valuable acquisition to those who 
Bnpply our flower markets. 

Cerasus Launesiana.- — This species, wliich was sent from Japan to the 
Jardin d'Acclimatation, in the Bois de Boulogne, in 1870, by M. Lannes, of 
Montebello, forms a valuable addition to our hardy ornamental flowering shrubs. 
In its general aspect it resembles the common wild cherry of our woods, and 
flowers in the beginning of April, when the tree is almost entirely hidden beneath 
a dense mass of rose-coloured flowers, producing a very striking eSect, As the 
plants flower when very small, they may be grown in pots for the market. The 
tree is very hardy, and will grow in any soil that suits the wild cherry. 



The "Wax of Plants. — Professor de Bary publishes a paper on this 
subject in the Botanisclie Z&itung, thence abstracted into Nature. The 
wax does not appear to be a simple coating on the surface, and to form 
a continuous layer, as though laid on with a brush. It is found to be a 
dense forest of minute hairg of wax, each having one end on the 
epidermis, the other either rising straight up or rolled or curled amongst 
its neighbours. This matting of the waxen hairs is often sufficiently 
dense tt> give the surface, when viewed by the microscope, the appearance 
of a continuous layer, though a good section of the leaf or skin of the 
fruit indicates its structure. The question as to what part of the epidermis 
or subepidermal tissue forms the source of the wax is most beautifully 
and clearly answered. Professor de Bary states that it is impossible to 
discover the slightest trace of wax in the cell contents, or to entertain 
the theory that chlorophyll is partly made of was. The locality in which 
the wax can first be detected is the cuticle and the cuticularised elements 
of tlic epidermis cells. 



GARDENING FOR AUGUST. 



THE INDOOR GARDEN. 

BY T. BAINES, SOTJTHGATE. 
Conservatory. — The deficiency of blooming plants in conserva- 
tories at present may be compensated by a liberal admixture of such 
things as Dracfcnas and Colons. Of the former take such kinds as 
Cooperii, ferrea, and terminalis ; the bright markings of their leaves 
will supply the place of flowers, and the plants will not receive 
injury for the next two months by being placed in a house without 
fire heat ; neither will they suffer so much as flowering plants would 
by standing somewhat closely, the greater amount of air and 
lower temperature of the house, compared with the stove where they 
have grown, having the effect of stopping them from making much 
growth whilst in the conservatory. The different varieties of Colons 
should be placed so as to get as much light as possible, otherwise they 
become drawn and have an unsightly appearance. The old Plum- 
bago capensis is another useful plant for this time of the year, 
which is not grown nearly so much as it deserves to be. The present 
is a good time to propagate it. The small half -ripe side shoots will 
strike freely insertecl in small pots under bell-glasses in a little 
heat. These, when struck, should be encouraged to make growth 
before the autumn gets too far advanced. They should be wintered 
in a temperature of 45° or 50°. In the spring they should be headed 
down and potted in six-inch or eight-inch pots, using good fibrous 
loam. If desired, some may be grown on in larger pots, but for 
general decoration they are more useful in a comparatively small 
state. The plants will last for years by cutting them back in the 
spring just before they commence growth and when they have 
broken, removing a portion of the old soil, which replace by new 
material, returning them to the same or a size larger pot. Fuchsias 
should have their seed pods picked off regularly, or they soon cease 
to flower freely ; they ought to be supplied twice a week with 
weak manure water. Double Petunias are very useful at this season, 
either as decorative plants or for furnishing cut flowers. These 
should receive regular attention in the way of stopping and tying, 
to induce them to break back, or, from their quick somewhat 
straggling habit of growth, they become unsightly. Lilium auratum 
is a most useful subject for conservatory decoration at this season, 
but should not be introduced in too great numbers at a time, as its 
perfume, being so powerful, is oppressive. Attend well to the 
different varieties of Lilium laucifolium, by keeping them neatly 
tied out, and supplying them regularly two or three times a week 
with manure water, otherwise the soil becomes exhausted, and 
they lose their bottom leaves, which destroys half the beauty 
of the plants. They must on no account be allowed, at this season 
especially, to suffer from want of water, even for ever so short a 
time, or the same mishap will follow. Chrysanthemums should at 
once receive their flnal shift, using from eight to ten, or twelve inch 
pots, according to the size the plants are required to grow ; ten-inch I 
find the most useful size. No plants are more useful, or more easily 
grown than Chrysanthemums, and that are oftener seen below 
mediocrity than otherwise, and this generally through an insuffi- 
ciency of water in any stage of their growth. After the roots 
have got fairly hold of the soil in their blooming pots, they should 
receive strong manure water every other time they are watered. 
They will bear it as strong as any plant in cultivation. The mush- 
room-shaped style of training is the most in favour with those who 
grow them for exhibition, but it is unnatural and useless for general 
decorative purposes. Plants of the larger varieties, confiined to from 
two to five shoots each, neatly tied to a stick, the head of the plant 
brought out to about twice or thrice the diameter of the pots they 
occupy, will be found the most useful, and this will give them ample 
room for the development of their foliage, which, if they are well 
grown, will be of the darkest green. As the shoots of the large kinds 
branch out in growth, they should be thinned to the number of 
flowers the plants are intended to carry, leaving one flower to each 
shoot. The plants will carry from six to eighteen, according to their 
strength. To those who have not tried this thinning process, it may 
appear a great sacrifice in quantity ; but either for cutting or for 
decoration on the plant, one good flower is worth three inferior ones. 
And flowers so treated will last fresh on the plant fully a third 
longer than others that have been insuflicicntly thinned. The Pom. 
pones also require thinning, but not so much as the large variet es, 
neither in the reduction of the number of shoots nor to the number of 
flowers each shoot will carry ; these may be left from three to half a 
dozen to each terminal shoot. The fii'st batch of Cinerarias should 
now be in their flowering pots, six-inch ones, and should be en- 
couraged by watering once or twice a week with manure water ; 
shade slightly in the sunny part of the day, and keep them quite 
clean from aphides. Primulas should be similarly treated, with the 



Aug. 3, 1872.] 



THE GARDEN. 



109 



exception of keeping them a little drier at the root. Strike more 
cuttings of Hydrangeas, for succession. Attend well to Euphorbias, 
Poinsettias, Salvias, Bouvardias, and things in general for winter 
blooming. Press of other work frequently causes these things to be 
somewhat neglected, but in the case of quick-growing plants of this 
description, neglect is fatal to their flowering satisfactorily when the 
time comes that they are required. 

Stove. — -Attend to the training of climbing plants, or they soon 
get a confused mass. Keep a diligent look-out for insects of all kinds, 
for they increase \vith the high temperature of the season, and if 
left even for a time entail much more labour and do a great amount 
of injury. Give now a little more air, less shade, and less water at 
the root, as well as in the atmosphere. This will assist the season's 
growth to ripen ; but do not reduce the temperature of the stove, as 
we see frequently done, until the ripening process is complete, that 
is, the wood well matured and hard. Plants that are prematurely 
put to rest by the unnatural method of reducing the temperature 
before the growth is ripened, are almost certain to start into growth 
when not wanted, during the application of the extra heat required 
during severe winter weather ; in which case it is useless to expect a 
satisfactory amount of bloom. AUamandas, grown in pots with the 
intention of training them on wire or wooden trellises, should have 
their branches allowed to grow loosely upright, until they are either 
opening their first flower buds, or nearly so ; as, if trained down as 
they make their growth, they never bloom satisfactorily, as when the 
point of the shoot is brought down lower than the head of the plant, 
the first effort the plant makes is to adjust the balance of the sap, so 
rudely disturbed, by pushing the eyes of the shoots that are bent 
over the top of the trellis, and so starves the points of the shoots 
from which the bloom ought to proceed ; and this holds good of all 
plants of a similar character. 

Pern Houses. — Numbers of seedUngs wiU make their appearance 
of some varieties, such as Adiantums, Lomarias, Davallias, Dick- 
som"as, and these, if carefully taken up without materially injuring 
their roots, and potted in small pots, after which kep