(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Gardens for small country houses"

GARDENS FOR SMALL 
COUNTRY HOUSES 



HUDSON & KEARNS 
LIMITED, PRINTERS, 
. LONDON, S.E. 



GARDENS FOR SMALL 
COUNTRY HOUSES 

BY 

GERTRUDE JEKYLL & LAWRENCE WEAVER 



THIRD EDITION. 




LONDON: 

PUBLISHED AT THE OFFICES OF COUNTRY LIFE 
20, TAVISTOCK STREET, COVENT GARDEN, AND BY 
GEORGE NEWNES, LTD., 8-n, SOUTHAMPTON STREET 
STRAND, W.C. NEW YORK: CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS 

MCMXIV. 



Main Lib; 
Agric. Dept. 




LIFE 



First Edition, October, 1912. 

Second Edition, Revised and Enlarged, January, 1913. 
Third Edition, Revised, May, 1914. 



PREFACE 



TO THE 



THIRD EDITION. 



WITHIN eighteen months of its first issue, the need has arisen to print a third edition 
of " Gardens for Small Country Houses." This seems proof enough that the volume, 
concerned chiefly as it is with problems of garden design, has filled a place, hitherto 
empty, on the bookshelves of the garden-loving public. 

The opportunity afforded by the second edition was taken to expand the 
introductory chapter by including in it some further examples of gardens, notable 
either for the apt use which has been made of a hillside site, as at Markyate Cell 
and Owlpen Manor, or for the possibilities of a walled enclosure, as at Edzell, or 
of topiary work in a limited space, as at Bridge End, Saffron Walden. The 
measured drawings of these gardens which are now reproduced w r ere not completed 
in time for the first edition, but their inclusion (especially in the case of the 
hillside examples) has added much to the practical value of the book. 

For this edition fewer alterations have been made, but some further notes 
on plants for rock gardens have been added to Chapter XXI. 

G. J. 
L. W. 



340592 



CONTENTS 



INTRODUCTION. 

Relation of garden to house. Importance of 
preserving or creating character. Hillside 
Gardens. Owlpen {Manor and ^Markyate 
Cell. Misuse of conifers. 'Beauty of native 
evergreens. Various sites. Tew and other 
hedges. Topiary work in small gardens. 
Walls. Treillage. Quiet entrances. 
Tlanting at house-foot . . XVII 

CHAPTER I. MILLMEAD, BRAMLEY, SURREY. 
Site of ancient buildings. Shapeless ground. 
Terraced in successive levels. Steps and dry- 
walling. Summer-houses . . i 

CHAPTER II. Two GARDENS IN FOREST 
CLEARINGS. 

Woodgate^ Four Oaks. Virgin woodland, 
gmerson and Reginald Blomfield on design. 
High Cox /ease, Lyndhurst. Rock and water 

10 

CHAPTER III. A GARDEN IN BERKSHIRE. 
Roses grown as "Fountains." 'Brick dry- 
walling. Stone-edged water garden. Refined 
detail and ornaments . . : 7 

CHAPTER. IV. WESTBROOK, GODALMING. 
Situation. Special compartments. Careful 
planting scheme. Winter garden. Covered 
seats. Flower border facing north . 27 

CHAPTER V. A GARDEN IN WEST SURREY. 
Poor soil. 3{o definite plan. TaVed court 
with tank and steps. Colour in flower 
borders. Woodland paths. Thunder- 
house ..... 3^ 

CHAPTER VI. HIGHMOUNT, GUILDFORD. 
Site and Views. Excavation of chalk. 'Rose 
garden. Planted Walls. Garden-houses. 
Colour schemes. Framing the Views 46 

CHAPTER VII. THE TREATMENT OF SMALL 

SITES. 

Some gardens by Mr. Inigo Triggs. The 
value of historical examples. 'Paved 
parterres. The use of treillage. A town 
garden by Mr. Lutyens. A seaside garden 
by Mr. Mallows. Planting scheme by Mr. 
H. Avray Tipping. Various' typical 
examples . . . ' '55 



CHAPTER VIII. ON HILLSIDE GARDENS. 

Lady Mary Wortley Montagu on terraces. 
Stairways. Terraced gardens. Inexpensive 
materials. Various examples . 74 

CHAPTER IX. STEPS AND STAIRWAYS. 

Approach steps from road. Stairways in 
children s dramas. Stepped treatment for 
gentle slopes. Straight and curved stairs. 
Terrace steps. Unformal stairs . 85 

CHAPTER X.- BALUSTRADES AND WALLS. 

The design of balusters. The imitation of 
historical examples. Walls and parapets 
of open brickwork. Walls surmounted by 
beams. A coronal garden. Serpentine 
walls. Building in concrete . 100 

CHAPTER XI. CLIMBING AND OTHER PLANTS 
ON WALLS AND HOUSES. 

Misuse of ivy. Of ampelopsis. Of 
wistaria. Various climbers. Shrubs trained 
to walls . . . .ill 

CHAPTER XII. RETAINING WALLS AND 
THEIR PLANTING. 

Hillside sites. Turf banks. Dry walling. 
Grouping in planted dry walls in sun and 
shade. Construction. Importance of ram- 
ming. Steps . . . .119 

CHAPTER XIII. YEW AND OTHER HEDGES. 

Tew hedges in ancient gardens. In modern 
use. Other trees for hedges. Box. Holly. 
Privet. Laurel. Beech. Hornbeam. 
Thorough planting. Topiary work . 129 

CHAPTER XIV. WATER IN THE FORMAL 

GARDEN. 

" The soul of gardens?' Reflections. Pools 
and their water-levels. Varied shapes*. 
Lily ponds and their depth. Separate poof 
gardens. Water parterres. Fountains and 
their sculpture. Leadwork. Well-heads. 
Pumps . . . . .141 



X. 



CONTENTS continued. 



CHAPTER XV. METHODS OF PAVING. 

Rectangular jointing. 'Random jointing. 
Local methods. Pitched paving. Paving 
of shingle. Of bricf^ and tile . 171 

CHAPTER XVI. THE PERGOLA. 

Italian pergolas. Sng/is/i, of oa^ and of 
larch poles. With stone ^ bricJ^ and tile piers. 
Troportions. Garlands on chains. Suitable 
plants. Cohered alleys. Treillage . 179 

CHAPTER XVII. GATES AND GATEWAYS. 
Entrance stairways. Gates to forecourts. 
Carriage gates. Notes on eighteenth century 
smiths. Gateways and vistas. In walled 
gardens. Wooden gates . . 194 

CHAPTER XV11I. GARDEN-HOUSES. 

The place of summer-houses in general scheme. 
"Building in vernacular manners. Thatched 
roofs. Cob. Use of old materials. In 
walled gardens. Shelters and tool-houses 

207 



CHAPTER XIX. STATUES AND VASES. 

Their especial ^alue in small gardens. 
Scarcity of good models. Professor Lethaby 
on leaden figures. On gate - piers. 
Cupids. Pan. The right placing oj 
ornaments . . .219 

CHAPTER XX. SUNDIALS AND SEATS. 

The placing of sundials. Various simple 
types. The game of " clocks.'* Stone seats 
and their setting. Wooden chairs and 
tables . . . . .227 

CHAPTER XXI. ROCK GARDENS (con- 
tributed by Raymond E. Negus). 

Modern rock gardening. Principles of design. 
Stratification. Formation of the roc^ garden. 
I(inds of roc J^. Likes and dislikes ofalpines. 
Planting. Shrubs. Situation of the rock 
garden. Uses of rockwork. Pools. Bog 
gardens. Paths. Steps. Moraines . 240 



INDEX 



257 




LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 

COLOURED FRONTISPIECE : JUNE BORDERS OF LUPIN AND IRIS IN THE GARDEN AT MUNSTEAD WOOD. 



i. Lily Pool and Colonnaded Screen of 

Treillage. 
ii. Drawing Showing Close Connection ol 

House and Garden, 
iii. Plan of a Garden by C. E. Mallows. 

THE GARDEN OF OWLPEN MANOR : 

iv. Hillside Garden, View from South- 

west. 

v. Plan, 

vi. Sections, 

vii. View from North-west. 

viii. Bird's-eye View. 

THE GARDEN OF MARKYATE CELL : 

ix. The Pergola. 

x. View Across Forecourt, 

xi. Chief Stairway Looking Eastwards, 

xii. Access to the Rose Garden, 

xiii. Plan. 

xiv. Section. 

xv. ,, 

xvi. Looking Across Rose Garden to 

Yew Hedge, 
xvii. Curved Stair at Corner of Rose 

Garden. 

xviii. Plan of Mr. Horace Hutchinson's Garden, 
xix. Yews at Shepherd's Gate, 
xx. Walled Garden at The Murrel, Aberdour. 
xxi. Plan of a Garden by E. White, 
xxii. Plan of Garden of Hardy Flowers on 
One and a-half Acre. 

BRIDGE END GARDEN, SAFFRON WALDEN: 

xxiii. Lead Fountain, 

xxiv. View from Platform at East End. 

xxv. Plan and Cross Section, 

xxvi. Topiary Work. 

GARDEN AT DORMY HOUSE, WALTON 
HEATH : 

xxvii. Plan, 

xxviii. Approach from Golf Club. 

xxix. Pergola. 

xxx. A Planted Pavement. 

xxxi. Walled Garden at Edzell Castle, 

xxxii. An Idea for Wall Gardening, 

xxxiii. Flower Border Against Wall. 



xxxiv. Treillage at Ravensbury Manor, 
xxxv. A Broad Treillage Arch, 
xxxvi. A Treillage Colonnade, 
xxx vii. Trellis at Orchards. 
xxxviii. Plan of Rock Garden Near but Screened 

from House, 
xxxix. Effect of Simple Flagged Path Across 

Lawn. 
xl. Treatment for the Forecourt of a Small 

Cottage. 

xli. Another Forecourt Treatment, 
xlii. Suggested Plan to Provide Turning 
Space for Motor-car. 

MILLMEAD : 

The First Summer-house. 

Planting Plan. 

Planting of Retaining Wall and Border. 

General Plan. 

Planting Plan. 

Border by Lower Steps. 

The House from Bottom of Garden. 

Steps and Sundial. 

The Dipping Well. 

Woo DG ATE : 

Steps and Garden-house. 
Garden Plan. 
Pool in Water Garden. 
A Lily Pond. 

HIGH COXLEASE : 

Entrance Front. 

The South Front. 

In the Rock and Water Garden. 

Lilies and Gables. 



A GARDEN IN BERKSHIRE : 
The Garland Rose. 
General Plan. 
The Tank Garden. 
Planting Plan. 

Planting Plan of Tank Garden. 
West End of Flower Border. 
The Garland Rose, Hanging Over a 

Dry Wall. 

Steps and Dry Walling. 
Planted Dry Wall. 



i. 

2. 

3- 
4- 

5- 
6. 

7- 



TO. 



II. 

12. 

13- 
14. 



16. 

17- 

18. 



19. 

20. 
21. 

22. 

23- 
24. 

25- 

26. 

27. 



Xll. 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



28. Rambling Rose in Old Apple Tree. 

29. Planting Plan. 

30. Flower Border Near Back Gate. 

31. Planting Plan. 

WESTBROOK, GODALMING : 

32. The Pleached Lime Walk, from the 

Study Window. 

33. General Plan of Garden. 

34. A Roofed Seat. 

35. The Loggia. 

36. The Circular Sunk Garden : Planting 

Plan. 

37. The Sunk Garden from the South. 

38. The Sunk Garden from the West. 

39. Planting Plan of the Winter Garden. 

40. The Winter Garden. 

41. A Sheltered Seat. 

A GARDEN IN WEST SURREY: 

42. The Tank and Steps. 

43. The Paved Court and Steps. 

44. General Plan. 

45. The Paved Court. 

46. The East End of the Main Flower 

Border. 

47. Yuccas in the Flower Border. 

48. A Special Border of Grey, White, 

Pink and Purple. 

49. Ditto : Planting Plan. 

50. The Green Wood-walk. 

51. One of the Ways from Wood to Lawn. 

52. Planting Plan of a Group at the Wood 

Edge for Winter and Early Spring. 

53. Autumn-blooming Shrubs. 

54. The Thunder-house. 

HlGHMOUNT, GUILDFORD I 

55. Circular Tank and Steps at West End 

of Rose Garden. 

56. General Plan. 

57. Steps and Pavement at the East End 

of Rose Garden. 

58. Planting Plan of Top of Circular Dry 

Wall. 

59. From the Middle of the Rose Garden. 

60. Sketch of Wall Planting. 

61. Angle of Dry Wall. 

62. Campanula isophylla alba, in the Dry 

Wall. 

63. Planting Plan of Borders of West Walk. 

64. The Garden-houses. 

65. The West End of the Pergola. 

66. LITTLE BOARHUNT, LIPHOOK: 

67. The Sunk Garden. 

68. Steps, Gate and Wall. 

69. A Simple Brick-built Dovecote. 

70. Plan of Garden. 

71 Rose Garden at Island, Steep. 



72. Paved Forecourt at Seal Hollow, Sevenoaks. 

73. Paved Garden at Combelands. Pulborough. 

74. at The Platts, Petersfield. 

75. Sunk Garden at Cray before Planting. 

PLEWLAND, HASLEMERE : 

76. Plan of Garden. 

77. View of Sunk Garden. 

78. Plan of a Garden enclosed by treillage. 

79. Sketch 

100, CHEYNE WALK, CHELSEA : 

80. Plan of a Town Garden. 

81. Pool and Statues. 

82. The Screen 

83. A Sheltered Seaside Garden on the East 

Coast : Drawing by C. E. Mallows. 

84. A Sheltered Seaside Garden : Plan. 

85. Pool and Paving. 

86. A Little Garden at Walberswick : Plan. 

87. ,, ,, Masonry Seat. 

88. ,, Stepped Path. 

GOODRICH HOUSE : 

Plan of Garden. 

Fountain. 

View. 

View. 

Plan of a Garden at Dorchester. 
A Scheme tor Treatment of a Narrow Plot : 

Perspective Sketch. 

Ditto : Plan. 



89. 
90. 
91. 
92. 

93- 

94. 

95- 



HURTWOOD, SURREY : 

96. Treatment of Sloping Ground Without 

Stairway. 

97. A Steep Ascent. 

98. Plan of Gardens, near House. 

99. Design by C. E. Mallows for Stairway on 

Gentle Slope. 

LlTTLEHOLME, GUILDFORD '. 

zoo. Plan and Section Showing Treatment 

of Sloping Site. 
101. View from Loggia, Across First and 

Second Terraces. 

Terraces and Stairs from South-west. 
Showing Outline of Upper Terrace. 
The Terrace Stairs. 



102. 
103. 
104. 



HURTWOOD EDGE : 

105. Perspective View of Scheme for Garden. 

106. Terrace from Below. 

107. The Terrace. 

lo-S. Plan of Garden Scheme. 

109. Treatment of Hillside at The Barn, Witley. 

no. A Hillside Garden at Petersfield. 

in. >, 

112. Widening Stairway at Ardkinglas. 

1 13. Curved Entrance Stairway at Owlpen Manor. 

114. An Unrailed Stair. 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



Xlll. 



115. An Angled Stairway with Low Coping. 

116. Terrace Stairway Divided by Small Pool. 

117. Terrace Staircase of Flags and Flint. 

118. At Home Place, Norfolk. 

119. Alteration of Round and Square Steps. 

120. Stepped Approach to Pergola. 

121. Detached Porch and Stair. 

122. Round Stair on Terrace. 

123. Steep Flight of Steps at Mathern. 

124. Roughly-built Stair from Terrace to Lawn. 

125. Terrace Steps by E. L. Lutyens. 

126. Broad Stairway from Terrace to Lawn. 

127. Double Stairway with Pool : Perspective 

Sketch. 

128. Plan. 

Simple Stairway for a Woodland Walk. 
A Jacobean Balustrade. 
Balustrade at Newton Ferrers, Cornwall. 
Terrace Balustrade at Rotherfield. 
Details of Terrace Walls. 
Wall in Moulded Brick. 
Open Parapet of Curved Tiles. 
Wall of Hollow Hexagonal Tiles. 
Wall with Openwork Panels. 
Stone Wall with Timbered Piers. 
The Same in Brick with Flower Boxes. 
The Coronal : Round Walled Garden at 
Athelhampton. 

141. Serpentine Wall at Heveningham Hall. 

142. Flower-bed Against Serpentine Wall : Plan. 

143. ,, Alternative Plan. 

144. Wall with Square Breaks. 

145. Concrete Walls at Lambay. 

146. Wall Masking Kitchen Quarters. 
I46A. Wall at Wroxall Abbey. 

147. Overgrowth of Ivy on Sculptured Gateway. 

148. ,, ,, Gate-pier and Garden- 

house. 

149. ,, ,, Gate-pier and Wall. 

150. Stone Gateway Moderately Clothed. 

151. Wistaria Misplaced. 

152. Rambling Roses, Vine and Ivy on Rough 

Buildings. 

153. Clematis Montana. 

154. Ampelopsis Veitchii Restricted in Growth. 

155. Thin Slate Stones Laid Level. 

156. Brick Dry-walling : Planted with Pansies, 

Snapdragons, London Pride and Other 
Saxifrages, with Tufted Pansies at Foot. 

157. A Ten-foot Wall Planted with Gypsophila, 

Valerian, Santolina, Rock Pinks and 
Cerastium, Lupines and Rosemary at Top. 

158. Brick Dry-walling Planted with Rambling 

Roses Above and Tea Roses Below. 

159. Colour Scheme in Dry Wall of Purplish-grey 

Brick : Cerastium, White and Lilac Tufted 
Pansy at Foot ; China Roses Above. 

160. Pale Pink Rose, Valerian, Cerastium and 

Rock Pink in a Rough Stone Wall. 



161. 

162. 
163- 

164. 
165- 

166. 
167. 

168. 
169. 
170. 
171. 
172. 

173- 
174. 

175. 
176. 
177. 
178. 

179. 
180. 
181. 

182. 

183- 
184. 
185. 

186. 

187. 
188. 
189. 
190. 

191. 
192. 

193- 
194. 

195- 
196. 
197. 
198. 
199. 
200. 

2OI. 
2O2. 
203. 

204. 
205. 
2O6. 
207. 



White Foxglove in Dry-walling of Large 

Stones. 

Brick Wall with Spaces Left for Plants. 
Steps with Front Edges Only of Stone 

(Plan). 

Section of Dry-walling. 
Steps with Front Edges Only of Stone 

(Section). 
Section of Dry Wall Showing Planting of 

Top and Face. 
Elevation of Planted Wall, Showing 

Grouping of Plants. 

Lawn Enclosed by Ancient Trimmed Yews. 
Cleeve Prior : The Twelve Apostles. 
An Ancient Bowling Green. 
A Quiet Bowling Green. 
Yew Hedge as a Background to Flowers. 
Yew Hedges in a Design by C. E. Mallows. 
Yew-hedged Garden by H. Inigo Triggs : 

Perspective. 
Ditto: Plan. 
Yews at Bulwick. 

Yew Hedge Screening Offices from Garden. 
Hedge of Portugal Laurel Backing a Pool 

Garden. 

Hedge Cut into Little Gables. 
Pollarded Limes Used to Heighten a Wall. 
Topiary Work at Mathern : Ten Years' 

Growth. 

A Garden Avenue of Lombardy Poplars. 
Hurtwood : Fan-shaped Lily Pool. 

,, Relation of Steps and Pool. 

,, Fountain with Basin and 

Oblong Lily Pools. 
At Great Baddow : Reflections. 
Hurtwood : Looking Down on Fountain. 
Parapeted Pool at Blythburgh. 
Pool in Paved Court. 

,, at Morton House, 

Hatfield. 
Shaped Pool at. Athelhampton. 

,, at Wootton Lodge, Stafford- 
shire. 

Small Pool and Niche at Athelhampton. 
Pool in a Petersfield Garden. 

,, at Island, Steep. 

Sketch for Pools, Grouped Round Sundial. 
,, Pool Shaped for Tubs. 

,, a Simple Shape. 

,, with Raised Inlet. 

with Jet and Cascade. 
Plan of Shaped Pool. 

Pool and Fountain Design by H. Inigo 

Triggs. 

Plan and Section of Brick Fountain. 
Lily Pond at Millfield, Brentwood : Sections. 
,, ,, Photograph. 

Small Pools Interspersed in Paving. 



XIV. 



ILLUSTRATIONS continued. 



241. 

242. 

243- 

244. 
245. 

246. 

247. 
248. 



249. 
250. 

251. 
252. 
253- 
254- 
255- 
256. 



Marsh Court : Sunk Pool Garden. 

,, Pool, Steps and Balustrade. 

Pool at Papillon Hall. 
Water Parterre : Plan for. 

Sketch of. 

Walled Pool with Angle Fountains. 
Extended Pool at Chehvood Vetchery. 
Tile-built Fountain by E. L. Lutyens. 
Lion Mask for Fountain. 
Section of Basin with Lead Tortoises on 

Rim. 

Lead Tortoise by Lady Chance. 
Lead Dolphin. 
Gargoyle for Garden Wall. 
Hippocampus in Lead by Lady Chance. 
Garden Fountain by Alfred Gilbert. 
Wall Fountain at Hampton Court. 
Lead Tank and Fountain by George 

Bankart. 
Lead Cistern by George Bankart. 

Chalice Bird Bath. 

Shallow Bird Bath of Lead. 

A Good Eighteenth Century Tank. 

Kelsale Manor : A Little W'ooden Bridge. 
,, ,, A Stone Bridge. 

Bathing Pool at Stoneywell Cottage. 

Well-head of Istrian Stone. 
,, Modern. 

Italian, with " Overthrow." 

A Wooden Pump Casing. 

Lead Pump-head. 

Well-head at Sutton Courtenay. 

Pump-house at Pitsford. 

Paving of Ironstone and Bargate Stone for 
a Summer-house. 

Paving Simply Treated with Stones of 
Natural Shape. 

Paving of Rough-edged Slabs. 

Pavement of Rectangular Flags of Port- 
land Stone. 

Stone Paving with " Random " Joints. 

A Circular and Concentric Brick Paving. 

Paving Jointed to Follow the Terrace 
Plan. 

Plan Showing Suitable Planting for the Side- 
joints of a Paved Path. 

Pavement of Rectangular Flags in a Rose 
Garden by Gilbert Fraser and T. H. 
Mawson. 

An Old Sussex Church Paving of Brick. 

Plan of a Pavement Rather Over-planted 
in the Middle. 

Brick and Tile Paving, Scale Plan. 



A Pergola of Poles in Venice. 

Piers of Rubble, Plastered, at Amain. 



257- 



2:50. 

259- 
260. 



261. 
262. 

263. 
264. 

265. 
266. 
267. 
268. 
269. 
270. 
271. 
272. 

273- 

274. 

275- 
276. 
277. 
278. 
279. 
280. 
281. 
282. 
283. 
284. 
285. 
286. 
287. 
288. 
289. 
290. 
291. 

292. 

293- 
294. 

295- 
296. 
297. 
298. 

299. 
300. 
301. 
302. 
303- 
304- 
305- 

306. 
307. 



Pergola of Larch of too Slight a Construc- 
tion. 

,, ,, with Well-shaped Braces. 

Gourds on Larch Pergola Framework. 
A Well-built Pergola Adjoining Racquet 

Court at St. Clere. 

Pergola with Piers of Brick and Stone. 
,, with Piers, some Round, Some 

Square. 

with Piers of Tiles, Well-jointed, 
with Alternate Round and Square 

Piers. 

A Meeting-place of Radiating Paths. 
A Pergola Surrounding a Fruit-room. 
Pergola at Sandhouse. 

,, at Ewelme Down. 
A Pergola Sheltering a Garden Door. 

,, of Cordon Fruit Trees. 

Outer View of the Cordon Fruit Pergola. 
Stepped Pergola at Acremead : Plan and 

Section. 
Ditto: View. 
A Garden of Treillage. 
A Green Tunnel of Laburnum. 
Gate and Mounting Block at Cleeve Prior. 
Entrance to Biddestone Manor. 
Gateway to a Courtyard. 
Entrance from Road to Small Garden. 
Treatment of Wall and Gates. 
Carriage Gates. 
A Grille in Screen Wall. 
A Foot-gate. 

Vista Between Two Gates in W r ailed Garden. 
Garden Gate Made by the Brothers Roberts. 
Gate at Wych Cross Place. 

at Wotton House. 

,, at Packwood House, Birmingham. 
,, at Norton Conyers. 
,, at Wittersham House. 
At Great Maytham : Main Gate to Walled 

Garden. 

In the W T alled Garden at Great Maytham. 
Gate on Terrace at Chelwood Vetchery. 
Wooden Door with Postern. 
A Trellis Door. 

Garden-house Designed by H. Inigo Triggs. 
at Athelhampton. 
at Hurt wood : Above Lily 

Pool. 

Gazebo at Corner of Terraced Forecourt. 
Garden-house at the End of a Long Walk. 
An Angle Summer-house near Liphook 
and Another of Unusual Plan. 
Garden-house at The Grove, Mill Hill. 

Thatched, in Norfolk. 
,, Thatched, in Angle of Cob 

Walls. 

at Little Boarhunt, Liphook. 

Built of Old Materials. 



ILLUSTRATIONS- continued. 



XV. 



308. 

309- 
310. 
311. 
312. 
313- 
314- 
315- 



Garden-house of Two Storeys. 

at Little Ridge. 

in Corner of Walled Garden. 

at St. Clere. 

at Wittersham House. 

at Staplefield Grange. 
A Trellis Garden Shelter. 
Thatched Garden Shelter. 



316 and 3i6A. Two Typical Scottish Garden 

Pavilions. 

317. A Seemly Toolhouse. 
318- Statue on Gate-pier. 
319. Boy Figure in Niche at End of Grass 

Walk. 
320 and 321. Statues on Gate-piers at Papillon 

Hall. 

322. Boy and Dolphin in Pool. 
323 A Piping Boy. 

324. Boys Modelled by Jan Van Nost. 

325. Quarrelling Cupids at Melbourne, Derby- 

shire. 
326. 

327- 
328. 

329- 
330. 

331- 
332. 
333- 



345- 
346. 
347- 
348. 
349- 
350. 



A Terminal Pan 

Cupid and Swan Rising from Pool. 

Fountain Figure by Puech at Wych Cross 

Place. 
Flower-pot on Millstone and Statue of 

Mercury in Background. 
Statues Guarding Stairway. 
Vase at Hampton Court. 

,, with Tinned Ornament by George 
Bankart. 



Simple Sundial on Adequate Base. 
A Good Sundial Badly Placed. 
Sundial at Ditton Place, Balcombe. 
The " Blackamoor " Sundial. 
Modern Sundial at Marsh Court. 
An Eighteenth Century Sundial. 
Sundial of Two Rough-dressed Stones. 
A Lead Sundial. 

An Old Garden Roller in a New Employ- 
ment. 

A Sundial : The Game of " Clocks." 
Statue Holding Dial in Rose Garden. 
Sundial Placed at Intersecting Paths. 

,, at Sedgwick Hall, Horsham. 

,, at Danby Hall, Yorkshire. 
Stone Seat Designed by H. Peto. 



352- 
353- 

354- 
355- 
356. 

357- 
358. 
358A. 

359- 
360. 

361. 
362. 

363- 
364- 

365- 

366. 

367- 
368. 

369- 

37- 



372- 
373- 

374- 

375- 
376. 

377- 
378- 
379- 

380. 
381- 
382. 

383- 
384- 

385- 
386. 

387- 



An Isolated Seat. 

Seats and Table in Appropriate Setting. 
Garden Seat Designed by E. L. Lutyens. 
by J. P. White. 

Table and Chairs Designed by Maurice 

Webb. 
Garden Seat. 

Small Stone Seat at Markyate Cell with Lead 

Figures at Ends. 

Outcrop of Stratified Rock at Corners. 
Rocks Properly Stratified and Skilfully Laid. 
Bold Stratified Rockwork and Mass-planting. 
Rocks Ill-placed Without Uniformity or 

Enough Space for Plants. 
Treatment of an Odd Corner with Rockwork. 
Alpine Primulas Growing in Vertical 

Fissure. 

,, ,, ,, in Horizontal 

Fissure. 

A Rough Retaining Wall. 
Rock Formations. 
Simplicity : The Keynote of Success in 

Planting. 

Planting in Bold Masses. 
Large Clumps of Plants Giving an Appear- 
ance of Solidity. 

Bold Treatment of Rock and Plants. 
A Judicious Use of Compact Shrubs. 
Retaining or Boundary Wall of Rough, 

Unhewn Blocks. 
Boundary Wall with Its Top Planted with 

Shrubs. 

Boundary Walls. 
Bog and Water Garden. 
A Good Rock Pool. 
Stepping Stones. 
Bold Stratified Rockwork and Small 

Cascade. 

Pond for Small Garden. 
A Rocky Path. 
A Rough Paved Path. 
Cypripediums Thoroughly at Home on the 

Upper Margin of a Rock Garden. 
Rock Steps Leading from Terrace Through 

Rock Wall to Rock Garden. 
Constructions of Small Moraine. 
Construction of Moraine on Slope. 

Level Ground. 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 



xvii. 



INTRODUCTION. 

Relation of Garden to House -Importance of Preserving or Creating Character 

Hillside Gardens Owlpen Manor and Markyate Cell Misuse of Conifers Beauty of 

Native Evergreens Various Sites Yew and Other Hedges Topiary Work in Small 

Gardens Walls Treillage Quiet Entrances Planting at House- foot. 

IT is upon the right relation of the garden to the house that its value and the 
enjoyment that is to be derived from it will largely depend. The connection 
must be intimate, and the access not only convenient but inviting. The house, 
in the greater number of cases, will stand upon a slight platform, not only because it 
is better that it should be raised above the ground-level, but also because the making 




FIG. II. CLOSE CONNECTION OF HOUSE AND GARDEN 



XV111. 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 



of such a platform is an obvious and convenient way of disposing of the earth or 
sand excavated for foundations and cellars. It is also desirable to have one wide, easy 
terrace on the sunny side. The plan and sketch (Figs. ii. and iii.) show a clever treatment 
by Mr. C. E. Mallows of a rectangular space of about an acre. The house is near the 
middle an advantage on a small plot ; it is well bounded laterally by a pergola, 




FIG. III. PLAN OF A GARDEN BY MR. C. E. MALLOWS. 

walled on its outer side to the east, and by an evergreen hedge, thick and high, to the 
west. A small loggia is notched into the house itself we are in the house and yet in 
the garden a step down leads to a comfortable space of terrace ; four more steps 
go directly into the garden. There is a fairly large lawn, a winding walk through a 
home spinney, and the rest is kitchen garden. 



Introduction. 



xix. 



In the arrangement of any site the natural conditions of the place should first 
be studied. If tney are emphatic, or in any way distinct, they should be carefully 
maintained and fostered. It is grievous to see, in a place that has some well-defined 
natural character, that character destroyed or stultified, for it is just that quality 
that is the most precious. Many a hillside site has been vulgarised by a conven- 
tionally commonplace treatment, when it presented infinite possibilities to both the 
formal and natural schools of design. Among the notable examples of little hillside 
gardens treated in formal fashion, none is more delightful than that of Owlpen 
Manor, Gloucestershire. Its plan and sections appear in Figs. v. and vi. A 
bird's-eye view (Fig. viii.) has been prepared to supplement the photographs, 
which in the nature of things cannot give a fair idea of the wealth of incident 
crowded into an area of little more than half an acre. Fig. vii. shows indeed with 
what modesty the house nestles against the hillside and seeks to hide itself amidst 
regiments of yews. Great skill has been shown in their planting, for they emphasise 
the drops between the succeeding levels of the terrace, even though they partly veil 
them. The great square yew parlour is an unusual feature, the outcome of very 
many years of growth and of patient tending. 




-HILLSIDE GARDEN AT OWLPEN MANOR! VIEW FROM SOUTH-WEST FROM POINT C 

(SEE PLAN FIG. V.) 



XX. 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 



Its green walls vary in thickness from six to ten feet and are no less than 
twenty-five feet in height. The garden slopes downwards from north-east to south- 
west and faces the road on the south and east boundaries. It steps upwards from 
the road in five terraces, and the whole rise is about twenty-five feet. The front of 
the house is on the second terrace and the back on the third. The main entrance to 



SCALE I nl 



* J t 5 e 7 

I I ' -I t 1 1 



BUILDINGS 

HEDGES 

BEDS 






VIEW POIMT 

A (BIRD'S EY 

ISO FEET AWA 




FIG. V. PLAN OF GARDEN AT OVVLPEN MANOR. 



the garden is on the south, where there is a gateway (illustrated among Steps and 
Stairways on page 86) with a broad path leading to the house. On the north boundary 
there is a wall, which forms an embankment to the churchyard rising above it. 

Not unlike Owlpen in some of its characteristics is the garden of Markyate Cell, 
near Dunstable. While Owlpen has known no change save that of maturing growth 



Introduction. 



xxi, 



J 



& 



FJG. vi. OWLPEN: SECTIONS OF GARDEN 

.SHOWING TERRACES. 




FIG. VII. OWLPEN : VIEW FROM NORTH-WEST FROM POINT B (SEE PLAN.) 



XX11. 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 




Introduction. 



xxin . 




FIG. IX MARKYATE CELL : THE PERGOLA. 




FIG. X. HILLSIDE GARDEN AT MARKYATE CELL! VIEW ACROSS FORECOURT. 



XXIV. 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 




Introduction. 



xxv. 



tor a great number of years, Markyate Cell is an example of what can be done to 
improve an old garden by judicious changes. The house, as its name reveals, contains 
part of an old monastic building which served as cell to the Abbey of St. Albans. 
To this considerable extensions in the Tudor manner were added in the second quarter 
of the nineteenth century. Although the period was an unfortunate one for domestic 
architecture, Markyate Cell is one of the shining exceptions. Its detail reveals its 
date, but the general grouping is very picturesque, and demanded an appropriate 
garden setting, which, until two years ago, it lacked. There were, however, some good 
materials, notably a fine yew hedge, and some terra-cotta balustrading of simple but 







FIG. XII. MARKYATE CELL ; THE ACCESS TO THE ROSE GARDEN. 

very effective design. The house is approached from the south, and stands on a hill 
which slopes downwards to the west and upwards to the east. The terrace on the west 
side of the house was already enclosed by the old terra-cotta balustrading, but the 
eastward slope had been planted without thought or conscious design, except for a 
great stepped yew hedge, which destroyed the vista that was possible, and stood in 
no definite relation to the house or anything else. When the owners of Markyate Cell, 
Mr. and Mrs. MacLeod, called in Mr. Dillistone of Messrs. R. Wallace and Co. to advise 
them in re-modelling the garden, one of the principal difficulties was the lack of 
communication between its different parts. The governing feature of the changes 



XXVI. 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 



made was the cutting of a way through the middle of the old stepped hedge, so that 
a vista might be secured from the forecourt up a new stairway through the hedge 
and across the rose garden that was then formed on the upper level, which was once a 
bowling green. This vista is picturesquely closed by a great purple beech, which 
stands out from the woodland at the east boundary. Thus was established a scheme 



.' ^ 
/,li- 





m^fftm 


"K^y^l 






'>' " W- --.t^i^Jj-AUi vV Vi-vkW^ifeV-:^ SI 




' ,.,. 

M 

,^^',^..,....^,::.K^,i-^;^^nMn:r.^ 


- --- -r - - - - - - - - - . ; -.< y - - r - - 
1 'u- - , 

' ~ . . : -' 
VffiU^^^A....^. .''.r..,. -.'. -"- .TTT- -' 

ft*. : ^^"- ' 



I 



KHJRKffiOT, CELL KEAK DUNATADLlfr 




FIG. XIII. MARKYATE CELL: PLAN OF GARDEN. 



the chief feature of which is a marked axial line at right angles to the longer axis of 
the house. The effect of the vista was emphasised by a fine old stone vase on a roughly 
paved round base in the middle of the rose garden. A central feature of this kind is 
very valuable in increasing the impression of distance, and is attractive in its own 
right as an ornament of simple and pleasing character. The upper piers of the 
flight of steps which lead through the break in the stepped hedge are made the more 



Introduction. 



xxvn . 





FIG. XIV. MARKYATE CELL: SECTION OF GARDEN AT M M (SEE PLAN). 

interesting by a pair of leaden peacocks. 

Above the rose garden is a final terrace, 

from which delightful views are secured over 

the whole estate. The obvious method of 

giving access to it would have been by FIG XV ._ SECTION AT N _ N . 

providing another night 01 steps on the 

main axial line, but the obvious in garden design is often dreary. Considerable variety 

has been achieved by providing a series of steps, curved on plan, which wind from 

the south-east corner of the rose garden round to the upper terrace (shown in Figs. xvi. 

and xvii.). 

These notes, taken in conjunction with the plan and photographs, explain how 
the garden was treated from west to east, but it was felt that a sense of breadth was 
also needed, and its provision has brought with it that valuable quality in garden 




FIG. XVI. MARKYATE CELL : LOOKING ACROSS ROSE GARDEN TO STEPPED YEW HEDGE. 



XXV111 . 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 



designing, viz., surprise. Running east and west, and dividing the area already 
described from the kitchen garden, is an old wall. An opening was made in it at the 
end of the paved walk, which runs below the big stepped hedge and parallel with it. 
This opening was filled with a charming old iron gate, slenderly wrought, through which 
access is given to a long pergola with brick piers, leading to the far wall with an opening 
filled by a similar gate. This pergola is very well placed. A too frequent defect in 
the use of such a feature is its obtrusiveness, and the failure to relate it to other features 
of the garden design. Here, however, it forms a natural shelter for the path leading 
across the kitchen garden to the open parkland beyond. It must be explained that 
all these alterations have only just been made, and that the photographs now reproduced 
were taken in December. They, therefore, reveal only the bones of the design, and 




FIG. XVII. MARKYATE CELL! CURVED STAIR AT SOUTH-EAST CORNER OF ROSE GARDEN. 

do not give any idea of the added richness which will come when the rose garden is 
blazing with colour and the borders are gay with lavender, pinks and hollyhocks. 

Markyate Cell is altogether a very good example of what can be done in the 
treatment of a hillside site by a just use of architectural features and formal growths. 

Owlpen and Markyate Cell are both jewels in rich and gracious settings, but, 
beautiful as they are, a like treatment would accord ill with a wild moorland 
hillside. Such a place has possibilities that are delightful, and all the easier to 
accommodate because the poor soil imposes certain conditions and restricts the 
choice of plants. There are natural gardens in these places, and especially natural 
groves, that cannot be bettered in the way of consistent and harmonious planting 
by any choice from a nursery catalogue. "Such a region is a hillside clothed with 



Introduction. 



xxix, 



SLOPES 5HOWN 
FLOWER BEDS 
HEDGES 
BRICK PATHS 



FIG. XVIII. PLAN AND SECTION OF 
MR. HORACE HUTCHINSON'S GARDEN. 




XXX. 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 



juniper, holly, birch, mountain 
ash, scrub oak and Scotch fir, 
in delightfully spontaneous 
grouping, with undergrowth of 
bracken and whortleberry, and 
heaths in the more open places, 
and other delights of honey- 
suckle, wild thyme, wood sage 
and dwarf scabious. It is 
grievous to see this natural and 
well-adjusted beauty ruthlessly 
destroyed, and common nursery 
stuff, such as laurels and a 
heterogeneous collection of 
exotic conifers, put in its place, 
whereas it may be so well 
planted with the native trees 
that are absolutely sympathetic 
to its own character, with the 
addition of the hardier of the 
cistus, brooms and their kindred 
species, with rosemary, lavender, 
phlomis and many another good 
plant of Southern Europe. So 
it is with any other place that 
has a distinct natural character, 
whether of granite, limestone or 
slate-rock. All these have their 
own flora, indicating to the 




FIG. XIX. YEWS AT SHEPHERD S GATE. 




FIG. XX. WALLED GARDEN AT THE MURREL, ABERDOUR, FIFE. 



Introduction. 



xxxi. 



careful observer the classes of trees and plants that will best nourish and best 
adorn . 

Happily, our newer gardens are no longer peppered over with specimen 
conifers. Much as we honour those heads of our great nursery firms and others, 
whose enterprise and practical encouragement of botanical explorers has so greatly 
increased the number of coniferous trees that we may now choose from, the earlier 



HEDGES 

STONE FLAGGING 
FLOWED BED5 



SCALE 



FIG. XXI. PLAN OF GARDEN AT THURSLEY DESIGNED BY MR. E. WHITE. 




mistakes in planting have in many cases been disastrous to gardens. About fifty 
years ago, when they were being raised and distributed, and horticultural taste 
was at a low ebb, a kind of fashion arose for planting conifers. It mattered not 
that they took no place in garden design, and that those who planted had no idea 
what they would be like when full grown ; the object was merely to have one each 
of as many kinds as possible. If the intention had been simply to make a collection 
from the botanical point of view there would be nothing to criticise ; but they were 



XXX11. 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 



COB . N U T 



KITCHEN 



K ITCHEN 
GARDEN 



GARDEN 

/ s 



BUILDINGS V////////W/-/ 6 

HEDGES 

BEDS i 

CCASS 



"STONE PAVING E55S2SS5 



TERRACE PAVED OR GRAVEL 



FORE COURT 



TENNIS LAWN 

12Q'x 60 ' 



LOMBARDY 

POPLAR L : 7, 




FIG. XXII. A GARDEN OF HARDY FLOWERS ON AN ACRE AND A-HAI.F. 



Introduction. 



xxxin . 



crowded into nearly every garden as exponents of the horticultural taste of the 
day. Now, when they are approaching maturity of growth, they have either been 
cut away wholesale, or their owners, of the later generation that has learnt better 
gardening, look ruefully at the large trees so unwisely planted. In fact, unless space 
is so great that experimental planting may be done on a large scale, or the foreign 
trees are so well 
known in all stages 
of growth that 
they can be used 
with a sure hand, 
it is safer to trust 
to our native ever- 
greens and the few 
European kinds 
that we have long 
known. In their 
way nothing is 
better than the 
native juniper, 
Scotch fir and yew 
for our sandy up- 
lands ; yew also 
for chalky soils, 
and spruce and 
silver fir for cool 
hollows. Our 
noble English yew 
is nearly always 
beneficial in the 
garden landscape. 
Whether as a 
trimmed hedge or 
as a free-growing 
tree, its splendid 
richness of deep- 
est green, and, 
indeed, its whole 
aspect, is of the 
utmost value. 
No tree is more 
s a t i s f actory for 
emphasising i m - 
port ant points. 
Fig. xix. shows 
two vigorous 
yews of upright 
habit in Mr . 
Horace Hutchin- 
son's garden at 
Shepherd's Gate, FIG. xxm. LEAD FOUNTAIN IN BRIDGE END GARDEN, SAFFRON VVALDEN. 




XXXIV. 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 




Introduction. 



xxxv. 



in the old forest region of Sussex. They stand just within the rose garden, 
above and flanking a flight of steps that leads to lower ground. Standing in 
the rose garden, and looking between the yews to the half-distant view of wooded 
hill and down, so typical of the beautiful Ashdown Forest district, they form the 
frame of the picture, and the tender colouring of the distance is much more fully 
appreciated than it would be if they were not present. It is a good lesson, and 
suggestive of what might with great advantage be oftener done in gardens, namely, to 
frame a distant view in near greenery, either by an occasional arch or by a whole 
arcade. Roses are well used at Shepherd's Gate ; they rejoice in the rich loam of 
the district, not only growing strongly but also flowering profusely. The whole 
country is richly wooded, and gives a feeling of protective shelter that is all the 



1 " - - -"."/ * > " " : , 




BUILDINGS % WALLS 

HEDGES 

BEDS 

STONE R\V1NG 



FIG. XXV. -PLAN OF TOPIARY WORK IN BRIDGE END GARDEN. 

more favourable to the well-being of the roses and of the many other good garden 
plants that flourish in this pleasant place. (For plan see Fig. xviii.) 

Very different as a site is that of The Murrel in Fife, the work of 
Mr. F. W. Deas, in a country of wide spaces and low, wind-swept hills (Fig. xx.). 
The house and all the outbuildings are closely grouped together, and one feels, with 
this accomplished architect, how much the whole needed the protection of the great 
stone wall, whose height, varying from twelve to eighteen feet, rises to one level 
as the ground falls. It is heavily buttressed, and, like the house, roofed v/ith 
pantiles. 

A site of about two acres at Thursley in Surrey has been cleverly treated 
by Mr. Edward White (Fig. xxi.). House and pleasure garden occupy about half 



XXXVI . 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 






frh lit n_i. 

viiinr(i|T 

' JU 




FIG. XXVI. BRIDGE END GARDEN : TOPIARY WORK. 



Introduction. 



xxxvii, 



^LADY CAY 
UNA 



BUILDINGS 
HEDCES(YEW 
FLOWER BEDS 
STONE PAVIN 




3O 4O SO 6O 7O 



FT. 




FIG. XXVII. DORMY HOUSE I PLAN OF GARDEN. 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 



XXXV111. 

the ground. The entrance path is square with the road, and the house door cuts 
across an angle formed by the meeting of the main block and the office wing. The 
house, standing diagonally to the road, allows of a longer extension of the flower- 
borders and the circular garden at the end than could otherwise have been put 
upon the site. Kitchen garden and orchard are conveniently placed, and the 
remaining space becomes a useful paddock. 

When the site is a bare field, or any place without individuality, the designer 
has a free hand, but will be wise in choosing something that is definite, so as 
to give that precious quality of character. It can only be created by simplicity of 
aim ; by doing one thing at a time as well and distinctly as possible, and so avoiding 
complexity and confusion. For instance, if it is desired to treat the ground of a small 
site of about an acre and a-half as a garden of hardy flowers it may be conveniently 
laid out as in Fig. xxii. The lawn next the terrace has a shady retreat at each end, 

and the wide turf 
path leading to 
the further cross 
path gives the im- 
pression of the 
whole space being 
given to pleasure 
garden, while there 
are still two good 
plots for kitchen 
garden, completely 
screened, on each 
side, and space for 
a play 1 a w n 
between the house 
and the road. 
Tennis players 
prefer a ground 
whose longer axis 
runs north and 
south, but in this 
case the exigencies 
of the site oblige 

the lawn to run east and west. Such a garden can be worked by a single-handed 
gardener, with possibly occasional help at pressing times. The green parlours on 
the front lawn are made with weeping elm, a tree not so much used as it deserves. 
A slight framework of something like split chestnut is wanted at first to guide 
the branches laterally to form the roof. As they grow, and then hang down the 
sides, a complete shelter is formed in a few years. 

Yew and holly hedges, such as are shown in this garden, are necessarily costly. 
The best size to plant, in the case of yew, is from two and a-half feet to three feet, 
at a cost of five pounds a hundred, putting them eighteen inches apart. Holly of the 
same height would cost a little more, but the price would be about the same for 
bushy plants a little under two feet high a good size to begin with. To make a 
thick hedge, well furnished to the bottom, yew should have its yearly growth tipped 
at the ends by at least one-third of the length. Hollies will not want any trimming 
for the first few years. Such hedges, in favourable conditions, would take from 




FIG. XXVIII. THE BORMY HOUSE, WALTON HEATH! APPROACH FROM GOLF CLUB. 



Introduction. 



xxxix. 



twelve to fourteen years to come to a full growth of six feet to seven feet. Box and 
holly would be rather slower than yew ; privet, thorn and hornbeam faster, but 
as these would have to be cut down nearly to the ground after their first twelvemonth's 
growth, they would make very little show for the first two years. These are fairly 
average indications of growth, but on some sites the rate of increase would be 
considerably more. 

It must be confessed that the gardener who is drawn towards topiary work needs 
to be equipped with ample patience and the prophetic eye. Without these qualities 
he will not be prepared to de- 
vise a scheme which must take 
many years to mature. Given 
foresight and patience, however, 
there is nothing unreasonable 
in attempting, even on a very 
small site, a conscious scheme 
of shaped hedges on lines quite 
elaborate. Bridge End Garden 
at Saffron Walden is especially 
interesting in this connection, 
because its treatment, as shown 
by plan in Fig. xxv. and by 
photographs in Figs, xxiii., xxiv. 
and xxvi., covers an area of no 
more than one hundred and 
twenty-one feet by one hundred 
and seventy-three feet, which 
amounts to a little less than half 
an acre. This garden was laid 
out some seventy years ago by 
the late Mr. Francis Gibson, a 
cultivated amateur, who had 
the courage to break through 
the dreary traditions of land- 
scape gardening which obsessed 
people in the eighteen-forties. 
At the east end of the garden 
an iron platform has been built, 
with a stair of access from 
which the visitor may survey 
the whole scheme, and that 
is the view-point taken by the 
camera in Fig. xxiv. From this and from the plan it is clear how cleverly the yews 
have been spaced and the beds shaped. In the middle of the round grass plat is a 
lily pool, and kneeling on a column is a lead Triton, whose horn serves as fountain. 
The figure is almost an exact replica of one in the Rijks Museum at Amsterdam. 
The Bridge End Garden should stimulate anyone who has patience and half an acre 
unplanted to emulate its charms. It has the further merit of being visible at all 
times, for its present owner, the Right Hon. Lewis Fry, allows access to it 
throughout the year, a privilege which the folk of Saffron Walden very fully 
appreciate. 




FIG. XXIX. AT THE DORMY HOUSE I THE PERGOLA. 






xl. 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 



In the case of the very successful garden of the Dormy House at Walton 
Heath Golf Club the yews and hollies lately planted have made surprising 
growth. In this garden the object was to obtain the greatest effect that could 
be secured while involving the least labour. This has been effected by having 
several well-arranged flower-borders, and by the use of a quantity of rambling 
roses on posts and chains. One large double flower-border gives a charming look-out 
from the club sitting-rooms ; another border is at the entrance to the Dormy House 
(Fig. xxviii.), whose walls already have a luxuriant growth of vines, the most beautiful 

of wall ornaments. On its 
southern side there is a fine 
piece of stone paving, widening 
at the two ends into large 
square platforms (Fig. xxx.). 
The joints are planted with 
Alpines perhaps just a little 
too freely. Many small plants 
take so kindly to this treatment 
that the temptation to plant 
them mav easily result in too 
much invasion of the walking 
space. A warning as to this 
over-planting will be found at 
page 128. A plan showing a 
suitable amount of planting is 
given on page 175 (Fig. 247). 

The excellent growth of the 
yew and holly hedges in the 
Dormy House garden will, in 
a few years, give such good 
protection and sense of en- 
closing comfort that the 
absence of built walls will 
not be felt ; but where the 
cost is not prohibitive, walls of 
brick or stone are the best of 
garden boundaries. An ancient 
wall is in itself a thing of beauty. 
In the course of long years 
Nature paints the stone or 
brick with a number of tender 
tints, mellowing the whole 
surface colour ; even the passing 

of twenty years will often show the beginning of this precious patina. Then the 
walls enable us to enjoy many beautiful things, such as myrtle and pomegranate, 
that are not generally hardy in our climate. 

Chapter XII. is devoted to Retaining Walls and Their Planting, but all the 
examples there shown illustrate what may be called informal planting. There is, 
however, at Edzell Castle in Forfar a walled enclosure which shows a formal treat- 
ment of wall planting full of suggestion (Figs. xxxi. and xxxii.). This pleasure 
garden was made at the beginning of the seventeenth century, and it is remarkable 




FIG. XXX. THE DORMY HOUSE : A PLANTED PAVEMENT. 



Introduction. 



xli. 



that the idea thus admi- 
rably set on foot should 
not have been imitated 
or developed since. The 
pleasure garden is ob- 
long, and has an area of 
rather more than half 
an acre. Three of the 
walls were divided by 
stone shafts into com- 
partments, which are 
alternately filled with 
two types of device 
which made possible 
charming effects in wall 
gardening. Of these, the 
more important consists 
in a series of twelve 
small recesses arranged 
checker - wise in three 
rows of four each. The 
garden wall was built 
by a Lindsay of Edzell. 
and the recesses repre- 
sent the checkered fesse 
of his coat-of-arms. The 
Lindsay checkers are 
blue and silver, and no 
doubt the recesses were 
filled with some blue 
flowering plant of dwarf 
habit and inconspicuous 
leaf. Parkinson's Para- 
disi in Sole, published in 
1629, gives many flowers 
that Lord Edzell might 
have employed. Dwarf 
campanulas, bell-flowers, 
double blue daisies, 
globe - flowers or even 
cornflowers might have 
been used to give a com- 
pact mass of blue. Per- 
haps the best flower for 
the purpose to-day would 
be the lobelia ; but it was 
not available in 1604. If 
he chose to use the silver 
of his coat, in the re- 
cesses of an adjoining 




FIG. XXXI. TREATMENT OF WALL AT EDZELL CASTLE. 





FIG. XXXII. A SEVENTEENTH CENTURY IDEA FOR WALL GARDENING. 



xlii. 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 




Introduction. 



xliii. 



bay, some silvery foliage would have served, such as stachys, woundwort, gnaphalium, 
catsfoot or cerastium. The idea is well worthy of adoption in modern walled 
gardens, where the recesses could be arranged to suggest some device appropriate to 
the owner of the garden, whether heraldic in character or marking some hobby or 
special interest. 

Fig. xxxiii. reminds us of the advantage of a wall backing a flower-border, but 
care needs to be taken lest the roots of the hedge should appropriate to them- 
selves all the virtue of the manure provided for the flowers. This can be done by 
cutting back the hedge roots, so that they do not trespass on the border, or by 
building a rough underground wall to separate the two territories. In the 
example illustrated in Fig. xxxiii. the border might, with advantage, have been 
wider ; it was, no doubt, made narrow in order that the path should go straight 
to the doorway at the end. It is one of the many cases in garden arrange- 
ment where the 
course that is 
easiest is chosen 
rather than one 
that is more 
thoughtful and 
less obvious. 
Where neither 
wall nor hedge is 
suitable, there is 
the device of treil- 
lage, which takes 
the least room in 
point of width of 
any kind of 
planted fence. 
This may be either 
of the carefully 
designed and con- 
structed kind as 
at Rave n s b u r y 
(Fig. xxxiv.), 
where it fitly 
a c c o m p a nies a 

house of eighteenth century character, or it may be of simple oak posts and laths, 
as at Orchards (Fig. xxxvii.). Here it is in the walled kitchen garden. Espalier 
fruit trees are trained against it, and it forms the back on each side of a double 
flower-border that runs right through the middle of the garden. The posts, standing 
five feet out of the ground, are set seven and a-half feet apart, and are connected 
by a top rail, two by one and a-quarter inches, mortised into the posts. The end 
posts are four inches square ; the intermediate ones three inches. The laths, one 
and a-half inches wide by half an inch thick, are set square at a distance apart of 
eleven inches from centre to centre. 

Not the least merit of treillage is that it gives opportunity for the inexpensive 
construction of all sorts of architectural fancies. The garden shown in Figs, i., xxxv. 
and xxxvi. is an admirable example of its possibilities in this direction. Fig. xxxv. 
shows a broad, elliptical treillage arch, which forms a most attractive entrance to the 




FIG. XXXIV. TREILLAGE AT RAVENSBURY MANOR. 



xliv. 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 




Introduction. 



xlv. 



garden and frames its distant view. Seen through this arch, on which creepers 
have made an almost impenetrable roof, appears a lily pool surrounded by a treillage 
colonnade which follows its outlines. Although this screen brings to the place a 
hint of the grand manner of French garden design, and with it a sense "of size 
and dignity, the actual area of the garden which it adorns is little more than 
half an acre. This is mentioned in order that it may not be supposed that 
the quality of dignity to be secured by the use of treillage is appropriate only to 
large gardens. 

Where a rock garden forms part of a scheme it is best placed quite away 
from the house ; but in many a small garden the only suitable place may 




FIG. XXXVI. A TREILLAGE COLONNADE. 

be not far from it. When this is the case it can be effectively secluded by 
banks planted with shrubs, as shown by the plan in Fig. xxxviii. 

The owner of a small place often has the desire of making a good show of flowers 
as an amiable form of cheerful welcome immediately within the entrance. It is 
a kind thought, but not the most effective way of arranging the garden. It may 
be taken as a safe rule that the entrance should be kept quiet and, above all, 
unostentatious. A certain modest reserve is the best preparation for some good 
gardening on the sunny side of the house, for in most cases the way in will be on 
the north or east. Labour and horticultural effort are often wasted on flower- 
borders or summer bedding all along a short carriage-way, which would be^ much 
better with a wide grass verge and shrubs alone. 



xlvi. 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 




FIG. XXXVII. TRELLIS AT ORCHARDS. 



PART OF 
LAWN 



^v. a rxesjezi 




WATEKI 



PATH fvx . 



FIG. XXXVIII. ROCK GARDEN NEAR BUT SCREENED FROM HOUSE. 



Introduction. 



xlvii. 



In cases where a carriage-way is not an absolute necessity, the substitution of 
a flagged pathway is a great gain to the restfulness and beauty of the garden. A 
beautiful treatment of this kind is shown by Fig. xl., the entrance to Mr. Leonard 
Berwick's charming home in Sussex, where a flagged path passes through the quiet, 
unbroken green of well-kept grass. But there are many places where a means of 
driving to the door is required. Here the difficulty arises, in the case of quite a 
small house, of the disproportion between the space required for turning a motor 
or a pair-horsed carriage and the size of the house-front. A simple square fore- 
court always looks well as in Fig. xxxix., a design by Mr. Leopold S. Cole. The same 
kind of treatment, but with the angles rounded, is shown at Fig. xli., by Mr. Alick 



m 




FIG. XXXIX. TREATMENT FOR THE FORECOURT OF A SMALL COTTAGE. 

Horsnell. But in both these examples the expanse of gravel is rather large, nearly 
double the area of the block-plan of the house itself. Where the coach-house or 
garage stands beyond the house, and more or less parallel with the line of the main 
ridge, this difficulty may be overcome by some such arrangement as that shown on 
the plan Fig. xlii., which leaves only the width of a road at the front door. It is 
done by making a third piece of road, branching symmetrically with that to the 
carriage-house, and stopping short, as to its full width, when length enough has been 
given, and ending either in a narrower garden path or some small special garden. 
The carriage or motor would go forward, as shown by the single dotted line, would 
then back for a short distance as shown by the double dotted line, and then again 
go forward. 



xlviii . 




Introduction. 



xlix. 




FIG. XLI. ANOTHER FORECOURT TREATMENT. 



A frequent example of 
waste of effort is where a 
narrow border at the foot 
of a house is filled with 
small plants annuals or 
other summer flowers. The 
border itself is often poorly 
devised, fussing and 
dodging in and out among 
bays and slight projections. 
It is much better to carry 
the border straight across, 
and to fill the spaces next 
the house with something 
of solid and. shrubby 
character, such as laurus- 
tinus, choisya and escal- 
lonia, with a planting, in 
the narrower spaces and 
towards the path, of smaller 
shrubs, such as lavender, 
rosemary, phlomis, the 
dwarf rhodode ndrons, 
olearias and hardy fuchsias ; 
then, if front spaces still 
need filling there is nothing 
better than the 
leaved megaseas 
stately acanthus in com- 
bination with the dark- 
leaved shrubs, and of 
southernwood and santolina 
with the grey. 

The title of this volume, 
" Gardens for Small Country 
Houses," needs, perhaps, 
some explanation, because a few of the pictures reproduced belong obviously to large 
gardens. Although some of the gardens described in the earlier " monograph " 
chapters (I. to VI.) are of fairly large extent, they mark the increasing tendency to be 
generous in the provision of garden space round country houses which may fairly be 
called small. We have not attempted to deal with the little plots which belong to little 
cottages, as they give scarcely any scope for invention or conscious design. Several 
scores of photographs have been taken specially for the purposes of the book, but it 
has not been found possible to rely solely on existing small gardens, known to us, 
for pictures thit would elucidate the points we wished to make. It is fair to claim, 
however, that no feature has been illustrated which would not be fitting in a small 
garden when reduced in scale, or which it would be wrong sj to reduce. In order 
that the range of illustration should be as wide as possible, we have been glad to 
avail ourselves of several sketches for pools, walls and the like, which Mr. Inigo Triggs 
has kindly placed at our disposal. To Mr. J. Maxwell Scott and Mr. Charles Yates, 



large- 
and the 




FIG. XLII. SUGGESTED PLAN TO PROVIDE 
TURNING SPACE FOR MOTOR-CAR. 



1. Gardens for Small Country Houses. 

among others whose names are given in the text, are due our thanks for the care 
with which they have made drawings of gardens and their features. The 
pleasant but not inconsiderable labours of visiting dozens of attractive gardens 
have been more than repaid by the courtesy and kindness shown by their makers 
and owners. We may hope that they will have a second harvest in an increased 
care to secure a right quality in garden design. It is impossible to compress within 
the limits of such a book more than a fraction of what may be told by pen and picture, 
but the endeavour has been made to ignore nothing that is essential. 

GERTRUDE JEKYLL. 

LAWRENCE WEAVER. 






Gardens for Small Country Houses. 



CHAPTER I. MILLMEAD, BRAMLEY, SURREY. 

Site of Ancient Buildings Shapeless Ground Terraced in Successive Levels Steps 

and Dry-walling Summer-houses. 

SOME old timbered cottages, dating from Jacobean times, standing on a piece of 
ground in a lane leading westward out of Bramley, were condemned and 
demolished at the end of the nineteenth century. The ground remained 
unused for some years, and the part next to the lane, overgrown with docks and nettles, 
had become a place where neighbouring cottagers found it convenient to throw their 
household debris. . In 1904 an old former inhabitant went over it, and found that 
from halfway down it looked over the wooded grounds of the old home and the half- 
distant hilly woodland that had been the scene of childish primrose-picking rambles, 
while the foot of the plot adjoined the green mill meadow, in view of some fine, near 
trees and the rushing millstream, and was within the soothing sound of the working 
water-mill. It was soon resolved that the land should be bought, and a house built 
upon it that should not only be worthy of the pretty site but that should also be the 
best small house in the whole neighbourhood, both for architectural merit and for 




FIG. I. THE FIRST SUMMER-HOUSE. POINT OF VIEW "A" ON GENERAL PLAN (FIG. 4) AND 

PLANTING PLAN (FIG. 5). 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 




convenience and comfort. 
The ground is a little more 
than half an acre, seventy- 
seven feet wide and some- 
thing over four hundred feet 
deep, on a rather steep slope 
facing south - south - east. 
Except for the first hundred 
feet, which was fairly level, 
it lay with an awkward 
diagonal tilt, but it was 
evident that this could easily 
be rectified by terracing in a 
series of levels. The area 
was not enough to allow of 
any space for kitchen garden ; 
the whole is therefore given 
to flowers and shrubs, with 
one or two small grass plots. 
The house, designed by 
Mr. Lutyens, is reminiscent of 
some of the small houses of 
good type built in England 
under Dutch influence in the 
early years of the eighteenth 
century. It is approached 
from the road by a door in a 
wall leading into a forecourt. 
A paved path of Portland 
stone leads through turf to a 
wide, flagged platform of the 
same and to the stone- 
wrought doorway. The plant- 
ing of the forecourt is kept 
rather quiet, with plenty of 
good green foliage. On the 
left the wall of the office wing 
is nearly clothed by a vine, 
and on the right a rather 
high wall is covered with the 
wilder kinds of clematis, 
montana and vitalba, with 
a r b u t u s , laurustinus and 
spiraea lindleyana treated as 
wall plants, and the borders 
at the foot have acanthus, 
m e g a s e a , Lent hellebore, 
Solomon's Seal and hardy 
ferns. The flowers are of the 
modest type, such as colum- 
bines and campanulas, the 
whole intention being to be 



Millmead, Bramley. 



green and quiet in anticipation of a riot of bright blossom in the main garden 
on the sunny side of the house. A narrow way, only five feet wide, leads 
between the house and the western wall to the southern garden. It has been made 
interesting by the use of some old turned wooden columns that originally formed part 
of the decorative structure of the wooden ships of the late eighteenth and early 
nineteenth centuries. Heavy oak beams connect them in pairs across the path, which 
is paved, partly with the local Bargate stone and partly with a "pitching" of the 
black ironstones found in the district. A vine planted at the end will in time roof 
the whole. The garden front of the house, facing south a little east, has a wistaria 
growing strongly, with good prospect of covering as much of the front as can be allowed, 




FIG. 3. PLANTING OF RETAINING WALL AND BORDER. POINT OF VIEW " B " ON GENERAL 
PLAN (FIG. 4) AND PLANTING PLAN (FIG. 2). 

while for the further furnishing of the narrow border at the house foot there are 
-escallonia, choisya, rosemary, lavender and iris stylosa. 

The garden ground, being in the form of a long strip, the task of the designer 
was the judicious management of each succeeding level, so that each should have some 
individuality and distinctive interest, and yet that there should be a cdmfortable sense 
of general cohesion. From the wide path in front of the house the ground begins 
to fall only a little at first ; three steps down are enough. A dwarf dry wall of 
Bargate stone retains the upper path with its border next the house, and another at 
the top of the wall ; the latter is planted as a rosemary hedge, sweet to the touch 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 






SS=gii^fe^^^! 



FIG. 5. PLANTING PLAN AT VIEW POINT "A." FOE 
PHOTOGRAPH SEE FIG. I. 




Millmead, Bramley. 



















FIG. 4. MILLMEAD : GENERAL PLAN. 




Gardens for Small Country Houses. 




FIG. 6. PLANTING PLAN 



AT VIEW POINTS "c" (SEE FIG. 7), 
AND " E " (SEE FIG. 8). 



from the path above 
and the grass below. 
The lower space is 
roughly a square, laid 
out as a little rose 
garden, with grass paths 
and a central sundial. 
Here also is the first 
summer-house, illustrated 
in Fig. i, the arrow and 
letter A on the general 
plan (Fig. 4) showing the 
point of view. It 
centres the sundial and 
the grass paths between 
the rose-beds, and has 
a pretty view of the 
church and distant hills, 
cut as an oval upright 
picture through the 
shrubs and further hedge. 
Outside the grass plot a 
path runs round three 
sides, with further 
borders of shrubs and 
flowers. A plan is given 
of the planting of the 
one on the shady side that 
contains the summer- 
house (Fig. 5). 

To the next division 
there is a drop of some 
feet a flight of steps 
leading down to another 
level, also roughly 
square, with a central 
path dividing two large 
clumps of flower and 
shrub. The chinks of 
the steps and the returns 
of the dry-walling at 
their sides are bright 
with aubrietia in May, 
and the walls to right 
and left are planted with 
stonecrops, snapdragons, 
catmint (Nepeta) and 
other pretty things. At 
the foot of the steps, 
squares with flat stone 
" D " (SEE FIG. 9), 



Millmead, Bramley. 




FIG. 7. BORDER BY LOWER STEPS. POINT OF VIEW " C " ON GENERAL PLAN (FIG. 4) AND 

PLANTING PLAN (FIG. 6). 




FIG. 8. THE HOUSE FROM BOTTOM OF GARDEN. POINT OF VIEW " E 
PLAN (FIG. 4) AND PLANTING PLAN (FIG. 6). 



ON GENERAL 



8 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 



edgings hold a pair of hydrangeas. At the western angle a half-round dipping 
tank is notched into the dry-walling ; it is fed by an underground pipe from 
the pump in the forecourt against the wall to the road, where there is a 
well that formerly supplied the old cottages. Another retaining wall and 
flight of steps again lead downwards to a longer piece, the lower part sloping 
downhill, but levelled right and left. The level of the upper portion was fixed by the 
presence of a very fine old pear tree. It was given its own little grass plot, and a seat 
and laurel hedge to surround it on all sides but that of the flower-beds, where the hedge 
is of lavender. On the western side of the upper part is a little building grouping 
with, and shaded by, an old plum tree. It was originally intended for a tool-shed, 




FIG. 9. STEPS AND SUNDIAL. 



POINT OF VIEW " D " ON GENERAL PLAN (FIG.- 4) AND 
PLANTING PLAN (FIG. 6). 



but the tenant converted it into a charming little summer sitting-room, and it is now 
the second summer-house. It is built of oak timber and brick, with a tiled roof, and 
has the appearance of a miniature old Surrey cottage. On each side of the middle 
path is the main flower border, forming a continuation of the borders on the level 
next above. The planting of the retaining wall and border above is shown in the 
picture (Fig. 3) and plan (Fig. 2), the point of view being from the arrow and letter B on 
the general plan (Fig. 4). A small path, parallel to the middle one, passes down from 
the second summer-house between flowering shrubs. At the end of the flower border is 
another descent of four steps, with a low retaining wall and cross path. The wall is 



Millmead, Bramley. 



nearly filled with rock pinks ; just at the top is an irregular row of dwarf lavender, the 
short-stemmed, dark-flowered kind that blooms in July nearly a month sooner than the 
larger ordinary lavender and at the back of this is a hedge of hardy fuchsia. Further 
flights of steps, on the same middle line, lead down to the lowest level, which is some 
five feet above that of the meadow. In the narrow border next the meadow are only low 
shrubs, the better to see the 
pleasant prospect of mead and 
millstream, though there are 
one or two posts for roses, and 
a wild clematis that forms 
garlands from post to post. 

At the southern corner, 
where there is an odd angle, 
the third summer-house was 
built, a wooden structure on a 
brick foundation, weather- 
boarded outside and also elm- 
boarded within. A wide 
window with casements and 
lead lights looks out on to the 
meadow. The little place is 
of a queer shape, and yet 
seems roomy. It is thickly 
roofed with straw thatch. In 
winter it is curiously comfort- 
able always feeling dry and 
warm. Near it outside is the 
dipping well, which was built 
to take advantage of a natural 
spring, one of the many that 
feed the stream. It is built 
up with a Bargate wall about 
three feet out of the ground. 
On this a pair of the old ship 
pillars supports a beam with 
a pulley for the rope that 
dips and pulls up the bucket. 
A little tiled roof is built 
over, now nearly hidden by 
the growth of a climbing rose 
and the wild clematis. Next to the bank and holly hedge which form the eastern 
boundary, a sloping path on a lower level runs the whole way down, forming a 
convenient barrow-way with access to each level. 




FIG. IO. THE DIPPING WELL. POINT OF VIEW 
GENERAL PLAN (FIG. 4). 



ON 



IO 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 



CHAPTER II. TWO GARDENS IN FOREST CLEARINGS. 

Woodgate, Four Oaks Virgin Woodland Emerson and Reginald Blomfield on Design 
High Coxlease, Lyndhurst Rock and Water. 

THE building of houses and making of gardens on woodland sites raises problems 
of treatment and design that need careful thought. Where shall the axe 
play and when shall the wielding of it be stayed ? Once the trees are down 
the outlines of the scheme cannot be altered. As example is more valuable than 
precept, we may in this chapter examine two fine gardens that have been stolen from 
the wild Woodgate, Four Oaks, and High Coxlease, Lyndhurst. To few people is 
it given to build their homes in such an ideal setting as six acres of virgin woodland, 
as it was to Mr. W. H. Bidlake at Four Oaks. Woodgate stands in a triangle between 
two roads and once formed part of the great park which the statesmanlike Bishop 
Vesey caused Henry VIII. to grant to the Warden and Society of Sutton Coldfield. 

About eighty 
years ago Sir E. 
H a r t o p p ex- 
changed some 
land near the 
park gates for 
that part of the 
Corporation's 
forest land 
which was 
known as Lady- 
wood, and the 
latter is now 
being built over, 
but the ameni- 
ties are well pre- 
served. It thus 
came about 
that Mr. Bidlake 
found himself 
the owner of a 
site that had 
never known 
the hand of 
man, a happy 
circumstance 
which, joined 

with his skill both in planting and design, has brought into existence a 
veritable little garden paradise. The woodland had the unusual charm that 
most of its growth was indigenous oak and ' holly and silver birch. These 
are varied by mountain ash, firs and Spanish chestnut. Beneath the trees 
the ground is carpeted in the spring with hyacinths, which are followed by 
bracken. When Mr. Bidlake went to Woodgate the soil had never been 




FIG. II. WOODGATE : STEPS AND GARDEN-HOUSE. 



Woodgate, Four Oaks. 



ii 



disturbed. It consisted of red sand and gravel with scarcely any admixture either 
of clay or lime, and over it, separated by a sharp line of demarcation, was a top layer 
of black vegetable leaf-mould six inches 
thick, the spoil of unnumbered autumns. 
In the mixture of this mould with the 
sand rhododendrons grow with extreme 
freedom owing to the absence of lime, as 
a noble bank of flowers at the north-east 
corner of the garden testifies. For many 
garden denizens this mixture proved too 
vigorously acid, WOOD 

and for about 
two years it 
killed almost 
everything that 
was planted, 
but time and 
lime have made 
it amenable. 
Even now very 
deep planting is 
necessary, as the 
top soil dries oft 
very rapidly in 
hot weather. 
Lilies of various kinds, es- 
pecially Lilium auratum, 
speciosum, monadelphum and 
the Canadian varieties, 
do very well, while every sort 
of campanula flourishes exceed- 
ingly. Those charming bulbs 
that we owe to South Africa, 
ixias and sparaxis, with the 
hardy calochorti from North 
America, stand the winter well 
by being covered with a little 
bracken, which preserves them sufficiently from 
frosts. The Calif ornian poppy wort, delicate 
alike in the texture of its flowers and its 
fragrance, adds its stately beauty and spreads 
freely underground, but Asclepias tuberosa 
(better called Butterfly Silkweed) point blank 
refuses to grow despite the sandy soil which 
text-books preach for it. Needless to say, 
before roses could be induced to make their 
home here, no little clay was imported, but, 

that done, they grow well, and delphiniums, in common with most herbaceous 
things, add the charms of their serried spikes in blues from lavender to indigo. 
Though Mr. Bidlake is skilful more than common with his planting, the garden owes 



WOODLAND 
OAK, HOLLY. CHESTNUT 
BIRCH, FIR, BRACKEN X 
HYACINTHS. 




YEW 

HEDGE 



JAPANESE 
IRIS 



SEAT 



FIG. 12. WOODGATE : GARDEN PLAN. 






12 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 





FIG. 13. POOL IN WATER GARDEN. 



no less to design, 
and the more so 
because it seems 
to have come 
about so naturally. 
In this connection 
one cannot agree 
with Emerson, 
whose pronounce- 
ments on matters 
aesthetic must 
always be ap- 
proached with 
some suspicion. 
' Our arts," he 
says, " are happy 
hits. We are like 
the musician on 
the lake, whose 
melody is sweeter 
than he knows." 
This would serve 

well as a polite apologia for the effect of accidental charm which can bear no close 
examination, but is misleading nonsense when considered. Whatever may be the 

merits of impres- 
sionism in paint- 
ing, post or other- 
wise, it is a snare 
in architecture and 
in the daughter 
art of garden 
design. The truth 
is to be sought 
rather in the 
cogent phrases of 
Mr. Reginald 
Blomfield, when 
he said " There is 
no such thing as 
impressionism i n 
architecture. Our 
art does not allow 
us to leave our 
concept i on 
sketched out. The 
idea must be 
thought out to the 
uttermost. The 
incomplete phrase, 
FIG. 14. WOODGATE: A LILY POND. in our case, is no 




Woodgate, Four Oaks. 13 



phrase at all, and as far as it goes, our expression must be at least equal to our 
thought." The feeling that Woodgate inspires in its garden setting is that 
the thought has been careful and sustained, and the expression adequate. 
If the plan be examined, and it is worth careful study, it is clear that 
the clearing for the house was made in just the right spot. It affords a drive 
from the western road just long enough to give a pleasurable sense of anticipation, 
while it gives a short access for tradesmen from the eastern road. South of the house 
enough woodland was cleared to give an adequate lawn, surrounded by a belt of oaks 
through which there is a vista towards the small formal garden, occupying the southern 
angle of the site. Here is placed a large lily pond with Japanese iris at its corners, 
surrounded by a yew hedge. A small lawn has also been made on the west side of the 
house to prevent the undue darkening by overshadowing trees of the drawing-room 
bay window. East of the house is another little garden on geometrical lines, and in 
general the terrace and steps on the south front do homage to that element of 
formality which is the essence of good gardening near a house. As we leave from 
the building that quality dies away and the design is determined by the position of 
the big oaks and other trees which it was so desirable to retain. Northwards the 
garden has been subtly incorporated with the woodland that shelters the house from 
the cold winds, and the four acres covered by trees are threaded by many winding 
walks which lead us through a carpet of hyacinth and fern at their several seasons. 
It may be suggested that it would have been better to have laid down these paths 
on straighter and more formal lines. The intention was to create the feeling of those 
woodland paths that take their random windings from the feet of children, who follow 
the line of least resistance and walk where Nature has been less prodigal of growth. 
From the house porch there is a long avenue, straight save for one break, which hides 
the far garden until it bursts into view. After the shadow of the wood the sunlit 
lawn comes with that quality of surprise which is so valuable in garden design. The 
avenue leads past a well-equipped kitchen garden on the right to the spacious tennis 
lawns and bowling green fringed at the north corner by a bank of purple heather, and 
free of the shade of the trees. From this upper garden a long flight of brick steps 
takes us down to another, six feet below. A retaining wall with pillars flanking the 
stairway divides the two, and at its north end is a tall two-storeyed summer-house 
which serves both levels, as a retiring-place for tea above, and as a house for garden 
tools below. 

In this lower garden is a maze of formal walks separated by clipped beech hedges, 
crossed by rose arches luxuriantly clad and bordered by beds of herbaceous flowers. 
South of the rosery are a rock garden and a little lily pond, where the great white 
blooms of gladstoniana stand free above the water boldly until the autumn frosts, 
and red masses of gloriosa float fragrantly. Near by is a little place consecrated to 
spring bulbs. A good feature of the garden is the judicious use of seats, which are 
placed at all points of vantage, such as the upper lawn, the rose and rock gardens, 
the end of the herbaceous walk, etc. 

The grounds at High Coxlease, Lyndhurst, are laid out with less wealth of detail, 
but are none the less a highly interesting example of a garden stolen from the wild. 
It would be difficult to find a more enticing site for a house than this little clearing 
in the heart of the New Forest. One used as a child to picture just such a setting for 
the cottage of Jacob Armitage, the pious old verderer in " The Children of the New 
Forest." Though High Coxlease is so near the town of Lyndhurst, it has the 
atmosphere of remoteness. It would not be surprising to meet there young Edward 
Beverly, the excellent prig of Marryat's story, answering that question which always 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 




FIG. 15. HIGH COXLEASE : ENTRANCE FRONT. 




FIG. l6. THE SOUTH SIDE. 



High Coxlease, Lyndhurst. 



enchanted at least one eager boy, " Can you tell the slot of a brocket from a stag ? 
Obviously it is the place for brockets. If, however, we must stand upon the letter 
of the law, High Coxlease, though in the world of the New Forest, is not of it. It is 
the freehold of the Crown, and leased to the owner of the house which the illustrations 
show embowered in its trees, but it has nothing to do with the true forest land. The 
planting of High Coxlease is also modern, as the forest goes, for it was done with the 
rest of the property somewhere about 1830. The plantation was made to some 
purpose, for it has a finely mature aspect, and no more clearing was allowed than 
seemed absolutely needful for 
house and garden. The picture 
of the entrance front shows 
the drive fringed with bracken 
and the roof framed in foliage, 
and, indeed, it is impossible 
to make anything like a 
general survey of the house 
save through a foreground 
broken by trees. This setting 
of the wild has been respected 
in a wise spirit. As the 
ground slopes southward the 
lawn is bounded by a retaining 
wall, beyond which a delightful 
rock and water garden has 
been made. The water itself 
makes a home for many of 
the beautiful hybrid water- 
lilies evolved by the genius 
of M. Latour Marliac. The 
introduction of these dainty 
flowers, embracing as they 
do a wide range of colours, 
has completely revolutionised 
the art of water-gardening 
in this country, and has 
given it fresh scope and 
purpose. The accompanying 
picture shows how well they 
thrive at Lyndhurst. In the 
rather flat rock garden which 
frames the pool, choice ex- 
amples of interesting saxifrages 
with encrusted leaves find a congenial place, and their silvery foliage makes 
an attractive feature during those winter months when other plants, are at 
their worst. Many another pilgrim from the Upper Alps flourishes in this 
rockery, while elsewhere in the garden some rare sorts of daphne are 
obviously favourites. Such surroundings demand a house which has simplicity for 
its dominant note, and no less can be said of the building which Professor Lethaby 
set there in 1901. Plain white walls and chimneys, red roofs, a lead-covered porch 
of curiously interesting shape, and gables of moderate pitch these are elements always 




FIG. 17. IN THE ROCK AND WATER GARDEN. 



i6 



High Coxlease, Lyndhurst. 



satisfying if rightly disposed. We leave High Coxlease with a glance at the 
garden flowers growing out of a sea of fern, the latter always beautiful, whether 
in its tender green of spring, its duller hue at midsummer, or its rich and rusty brown 
in winter, but most of all when the coming of the frost touches the green to 
brilliant yellow and Nature carpets the forest with an undergrowth of gold. 

The especial charm of making a flower garden in a forest clearing is that the 
wilful tribes of Nature can be absorbed into the new population, where they will still 
flaunt their wild and brilliant graces. In such gardens the outlying parts are likely 
never to be more brilliant than in autumn, when the gold of the furze is glittering 
everywhere among the darker hues of heather and the fading greens of bracken. 
Furze is a great ally to the garden colourist, for the large and early varieties are followed 
by others that are small and late. As the old and pleasant saying runs, gorse is out 
of bloom only when kissing 's out of fashion. 




FIG. l8. LILIES AND GABLES AT HIGH COXLEASE. 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 



CHAPTER III. A GARDEN IN BERKSHIRE. 

Roses Grown as " Fountains " Brick Dry-walling Stone-edged Water Garden Refined 

Detail and Ornaments. 

ON the outskirts of the village, a high old wall, with massive buttresses and 
well-wrought coping, encloses a beautiful new house of moderate size, 
designed by Mr. Lutyens, and a piece of ground of something under three 
acres. The land, when taken in hand, was old garden and orchard, with a strong 
westerly slope ; the soil a rich loam of calcareous character. The -lower part had 
been the apple orchard, but the greater number of the trees were dead, and many 
of the remainder so much crippled that but little compunction stood in the way of 
the removal of a certain number to make way for the new garden design. 

The house is approached directly by a door in the wall to the road ; an arched 
passage and a paved court with a fountain leading to the main entrance. Another 
doorway, close to the eastern angle, leads straight into the garden by way of a paved, 
rose-covered pergola. Between this and the house is a small rose garden. The 
path is now intersected by the wider terrace running parallel with the south face 
of the house ;. but proceeding in the original direction the paved path leads to a further 




FIG. 19. THE GARLAND ROSE. POINT OF VIEW "fi" ON GENERAL PLAN (FIG. 2O). 



i8 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 




A Garden in Berkshire. 




20 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 



display of roses ; for, where 
it descends by a flight of 
seven steps to the orchard- 
level, there are masses of 
the beautiful garland rose 
planted in the border above 
the retaining wall. They 
grow untrained in their 
own way, like natural 




FIG. 22. PLANTING PLAN. SEE 

"A" ON GENERAL PLAN (FIG. 2O) 

AND PHOTOGRAPH (FIG. 25). 

fountains. After rising for 
six or seven feet they arch 
over, and the masses of 
warm white blossoms hang 
down over the wall face 
to within a foot or so of 
the orchard-level. Some of 
the old apple trees, either 




A Garden in Berkshire. 



21 



dead stumps or with only a little life in them, serve as supports for rambling roses, 
showing one of the several ways in which they grow willingly and display their 
beauty. 

The locality having no stone suited for, dry walling, the retaining walls of the 
different levels are built in brick with earth- joints for planting. In these, pinks 
and saxifrages, stonecrops, sandworts, rock-cresses and other small plants of mountain 
origin luxuriate, and, having been planted by a master hand, fall into groups of 
pleasant form that give enough at a time of one kind of interest/ The old boundary 
wall, which was found covered with grass and weeds, was cleared of all undesirable 
growths and planted with wallflowers, Cheddar pinks, stonecrops and a few other 
such plants. 

From a garden door in the middle of the house front a wide paved walk, joining 
with and crossing the terrace parallel with the house, leads straight forward to the 




FIG. 24. WEST END OF FLOWER BORDER. SEE "p" ON PLANTING PLAN (FIG. 23). 

>rchard, to which it descends by a bold flight of semi-circular steps- on to a grassy 

)latform following the same form. From this, three broad grass paths diverge into 

the orchard ; the paths proceeding to certain points from which others again radiate. 

liese grass paths, ten feet wide, are kept mown. In the spaces between, where the 

:ass is let grow as it will, hosts of daffodils appear in spring, followed by fritillaries 

md meadow saffron in their seasons. 

The water garden on the lower level of the house-front, reached by two angular 
lights of steps, is a long parallelogram. At each end is a circular tank, with a 
square one in the middle. They are finished with a flat stone kerb and connected in 
straight line by a narrow sill having the same kerbing. It is a happy home for 



22 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 




o 

- 2 

< H 



W J 
> Pu 



O o 



A Garden in Berkshire. 




FIG. 26. STEPS AND DRY WALLING. VIEW POINT "D" ON GENERAL PLAN (FIG. 20). 




FIG. 27. PLANTED DRY WALL. VIEW POINT "G" ON GENERAL PLAN (FIG. 20) AND ON 

PLANTING PLAN (FIG. 31). 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 




A Garden in Berkshire. 



some good water-plants, 
the greater number of 
them being natives. On 
river banks and in the 
shallow waters of marshy 
places we often pass these 
good plants by with but 
scant notice because they 
are so closely pressed by 
masses of other less in- 
teresting vegetation ; but, 
brought into the garden, 
one is better able to appre- 
ciate their rare beauty. 
The water forget-me-not 
we all know, but the fine 
leaves and spreading 
lace-like flowers of the 
water plantain (Alisma 
pi ant ago) and the 
almost tropical quality 
of the bloom of the 
flowering rush 




FIG. 29. PLANTING PLAN AT VIEW POINT " H." SEE GENERAL 
PLAN (FIG. 2O) AND PHOTOGRAPH (FIG. 30). 




FIG. 30. FLOWER BORDER NEAR BACK GATE. VIEW POINT " H " ON GENERAL PLAN (FIG. 20) AND 

PLANTING PLAN (FIG. 29). 



26 



A Garden in Berkshire. 




FIG. 31. PLANTING PLAN. VIEW POINT "G" ON GENERAL PLAN (FIG. 2Oj. 
FOR PHOTOGRAPH SEE FIG. 27. 

(Butomus umbellatus) require the comparative isolation of some such garden culture 
to show their value. The water garden is bounded on its two long sides by wide 
flower borders filled with a restricted choice of plants that is varied in some degree 
from year to year but retains certain general features. 

The garden is rich in delightful detail, notably some remarkably refined figures 
in bronze and stone ; one in the entrance court fountain, another on a pedestal in 
the square tank of the water garden, and a bronze Mercury at the southern end of 
the detached octagonal pergola. The paved paths, with their several flights of 
steps of varied and always pure design, add greatly to refinement and also to a 
comfortable impression of permanence in this remarkably beautiful and charming 
garden. 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 



27 



CHAPTER IV. WESTBROOK, GODALMING. 

Situation Special Compartments Careful Planting Scheme Winter Garden Covered 

Seats Flower Border Facing North. 

WHEN an architect of ripe experience and keen sensibility plans a house and 
garden for his own home, one may look for something more than usually 
interesting, and in Westbrook one is not disappointed. The house, built 
by Mr. Thackeray Turner of the hard local sandstone, stands on a plateau of high 
ground to the west of Godalming ; the deep 
valley of the river Wey is to the north and 
the valley of a tributary stream a little way 
to the south. The upper trees of a steep 
hanger on the northern side rise protectingly, 
and on all the outskirts there are also trees, 
with here and there a distant view between 
their masses. 

The garden fronts are nearly south and 
west. On the south side a low wall encloses 
a paved space with beds and border of 
flowers, an eastward flight of steps leading 
down to further flower-borders. Straight 
in front is a wide, quiet lawn, bounded 
on the right by a long paved path shaded 
by pleached limes. 

The garden to the west of the house 
abounds in charming surprises. Its various 
subdivisions are linked together in a simple 
general design. Each section shows some 
distinct w r ay of making a garden picture, 
and each entices onwards to the next by 
the charm of mystery and the stimulus of 
pleasant anticipation of something still better 
to follow. The main design has a walling 
of yew hedges, now, after a growth of 
thirteen years, approaching maturity. Within 
their several compartments are a small sunk 
garden of summer flowers, a rose garden 
and one for late autumn. Between these, 
crossing and forming in both directions the 
axis of the design, are twelve-foot-wide grass 
paths with flower-borders on either hand ; 
the bright blossom showing finely against 
the background of dark yew. Turning 
southward at the intersection of the two 
grassy ways, a double arch of yew comes in 




FIG. 32. THE PLEACHED LIME WALK, FROM 

THE STUDY WINDOW. VIEW POINT "fi" ON 

GENERAL PLAN (FIG. 33). 



28 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 



o 



S 




CO 

CO 



Westbrook, Godalming. 



29 



sight. Through and beyond this is the 
principal feature of the design, a large 
circular sunk garden for flowers of the 
middle and later year an amphitheatre 
of summer glory (Figs. 36 to 38). Four 
ways, twelve feet wide, with groups of 
steps and partly sloping, lead to the 
lower grassy level, where a large octa- 
gonal tank with a wide stone kerb has 
groups of many coloured water-lilies. The 
four ways are punctuated, just within 




FIG. 34. A ROOFED SEAT. 

the borders, by evergreens of upright 
habit, Chinese junipers, golden junipers 
and Irish yews. Looking from the western 
side, the garden takes its place as an 
adjunct to the house, with which it is 
connected by a pergola. Looking north 
and south there is the double yew arch 
with the further green paths and 
borderings of flower and shrub. The 
scheme of planting of the circular garden 
is interesting and effective. The sections 




FIG. 35. THE LOGGIA. VIEW POINT " A " ON 
L PLAN (FIG. 33). 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 




Westbrook, Godalming. 



that are in full blaze of the noonday and early 
warm colouring, for the most part orange and scarlet ; 
both ways to the cool and tender tints that are more 
The plan, reproduced in Fig. 36, gives an idea of 
details being omitted. 

Going southward from this garden there is again 
sand, which binds well ; here there is an orchard of 
right, and a thick shrubbery to the left. Concealed 



afternoon sun are of strong, 

the colour-scheme working round 

acceptable on the shadier sides. 

the general arrangement, lesser 

the broad path, but of the local 
apples, pears and plums on the 
in the middle of the shrubbery 




FIG. 37. THE SUNK GARDEN FROM THE SOUTH. VIEW POINT "c" ON GENERAL PLAN (FIG. 33) 

AND PLANTING PLAN (FIG. 36). 

is a fifty-foot circle of grass with a bed of heaths in the centre a pleasantly secluded 
retreat. Five winding j>aths lead out of it through the shrubs and trees in different 
directions, giving access to various points, and also serving as unobtrusive means of 
escape when a tired worker desiring rest and solitude becomes aware of approaching 
intrusion. 

From the western upper side of the circular garden a narrow path leads out, and, 
turning to the right, goes whither ? Another slight turn, between dry- walling to 
right and left, reveals a solid double arch of stone leading into an enclosed space about 
thirty-five feet each way (Fig. 40). It is the winter garden a delightful invention ! 



3 2 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 




Westbrook, Godalming. 



33 




34 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 



Walled on all sides, the walling not high enough to exclude the low winter sun, it is 
absolutely sheltered. Four beds are filled with heaths, daphne, Rhododendron praecox 
and a few other plants. These beds, in company with the surrounding borders 
and the well-planted wall joints, show a full clothing of plants and a fair proportion 
of bloom from November to April (for planting plan, see Fig. 39) . The brick-paved 




FIG. 40. THE WINTER GARDEN. VIEW POINT " E " ON GENERAL PLAN (FIG. 33). 



Westbrook, Godalming. 



35 




FIG. zjl. A SHELTERED SEAT. 

paths are always dry, and a seat in a hooded recess is a veritable sun-trap. 
The garden is rich in such sheltered seats, built and roofed, for, besides this one in 
the winter garden, and the loggia adjoining the house, there are two others at 
distinctive points (Figs. 34 and 41). They are important in the garden design 
in addition to their practical purpose ; moreover, even if in passing by they are not 
actually used, it is a comfort to the eye and mind both to see the well-designed 
structure bounding some garden picture and to know of the comfortable and refreshing 
refuge. There is an important summer-house on the eastern side of the lawn, with 
solid stone walls and a tiled roof. It is cool all day, for a slight air passes through, 
and the doorways, facing east and west, only admit the earliest and latest sun. 

The experiment of placing one of the most important flower-borders on the north 
side of a high wall has answered admirably. The light soil of the garden soon dries 
up, and in all but the wettest summers the plants have evidently been benefited by 
the protection from hot sunshine at the root. 

The pleached lime walk (Fig. 32) leads straight to a pretty place in the further 
garden, a long, straight walk of turf bordered by masses of China roses and grey 
foliage. The further end abuts upon a field gate to a lane which is a public foot- 
path. It was a kindly thought of Mr. Turner to leave this in full view of passers-by, 
who thankfully lean their arms upon the gate and enjoy the feast of roses. 



36 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 






CHAPTER V.A GARDEN IN WEST SURREY. 

Poor SoilNo Definite Plan Paved Court with Tank and Steps Colour in Flower- 
borders Woodland Paths Thunder-house. 

FIFTEEN acres of the poorest possible soil, sloping a little down towards the 
north, in the Surrey hills. A thin skin of peaty earth on the upper part, 
with a natural growth of heath, whortleberry and bracken, where a wood 
of Scotch fir had been cut some twelve years before ; the middle part a chestnut 
plantation, the lower, a poor, sandy field with a hard plough-bed about eight inches 
down. These were the conditions that had to be considered and adapted as well 
as might be to the making of a garden. In the upper, heathy part, seedlings of 
many kinds of trees were springing up, now fair-sized examples of twenty-five years' 
growth. As time went on they had to be severely thinned and at the same time 

thrown into carefully-con- 
sidered groups, one kind of 
tree at a time being given 
pre-eminence. A clearing in 
the chestnut copse gave 
space for the future lawn, 
house and near garden. The 
lower ground was deeply 
trenched and heavily 
manured for many years, 
and is now a productive 
kitchen garden. Much of the 
ground had to be laid out, in 
some kind of way, before it 
was known where the house 
was to stand, with the result 
that there are portions that 
meet at awkward angles. In 
fact, there was no definite 
planning at the beginning. 
Various parts were taken in 
hand at different times and 
treated on their individual 
merits, and the whole after- 
wards reconciled as might 
most suitably be contrived. 
The only portion with a 
definite plan is a small paved 
court between two wings of 
the house and a double 

FIG. 42. THE TANK AND STEPS. VIEW POINT "B" ON flight of Steps enclosing 3 

GENERAL PLAN (FIG. 44). tank, all forming one 




A Garden in West Surrey. 



37 




38 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 



HEDGES 
BEDS 



% WALLS J 
ROCK GARDENS I 
STONE FLAGGING], 
# /( ^PEBBLE PAVING! 1 



FIG. 44 A GARDEN 

IN WEST SURREY : 

GENERAL PLAN. 



SCALE. I ....I 




A Garden in West Surrey. 



39 




FIG. 45. THE PAVED COURT. VIEW POINT " A" ON GENERAL PLAN (FIG. 44). 




FIG. 46. THE EAST END OF THE MAIN FLOWER-BORDER. VIEW POINT "c" ON GENERAL 

PLAN (FIG. 44). 



4 o 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 




FIG. 47. YUCCAS IN THE FLOWER- BORDER. VIEW POINT " E " ON GENERAL PLAN 

(FIG. 44). 




FIG. 48. A SPECIAL BORDER OF GREY, WHITE, PINK AND PURPLE. 
(SEE FIG. 49 FOR PLANTING PLAN.) 



A Garden in West Surrey. 





FIG. 49. A SPECIAL BORDER OF GREY, WHITE, PINK AND PURPLE. 
(FOR PHOTOGRAPH SEE FIG. 48.) 

design (Figs. 43 and 45). The court has a circular pavement, partly between 
two box-edged beds and partly bounded by a raised step next the house. 
On the sides of the raised pavement stand pots of fern and funkia, forming a good 
green setting for potted plants in flower lilies, bellflowers, hydrangeas, etc., according 




FIG. 5O. THE GREEN WOOD-WALK. VIEW POINT "p" ON GENERAL PLAN (FIG. 44). 



Gardens /or Small Country Houses. 



to their season. Clematis montana drapes one side wall and hangs as a garland 
from the lower moulded beam of the timber-framed overhang. The opposite wall 
is clothed with a vine. The stairways on each side of the tank are punctuated by 
eight balls of clipped box. The tank itself has a wealth of ferns growing out of its 
cool, north-facing wall, the water being let in by a finely-designed lion mask, the 
work of Mr. G. D. Leslie, R.A. (Fig. 42). 

From the lawn a wide turfway leads to another at right angles, beyond which 
is the main border of hardy flowers, eighteen feet wide and about one hundred and 

eighty feet long (Fig. 46). It 
is backed by a narrow alley, 
not seen from the front, but 
serving conveniently to get at 
the plants in the back of the 
border, and those on the other 
side against a high wall of the 
local hard sandstone. The 
border has a definite colour 
scheme ; at the two ends blue, 
white and palest yellow, with 
grey foliage ; and purple, white 
and pink, also with grey foli- 
age, respectively ; the colour 
then advancing from both ends 
by yellow and orange, to the 
middle glory of strongest reds. 
Bold groups of yucca are at 
the ends, and flank a cross- 
path that passes by a doorway 
through the wall (Fig. 47). 
A plan of the actual planting, 
and details of some uncommon 
ways of utilising some of 
the plants to gain unusual 
advantages, are given in 
Miss Jekyll's book, " Colour 
Schemes in the Flower Gar- 
den." A special border in the 
further part of the garden is 
given entirely to a colour 
scheme of purple, white and 
pink, with grey foliage (Figs. 
48 and 49). It follows, from 
there having been no exact design for the whole, that the garden falls into separate 
spaces an accident that has been used to some advantage by devoting each space 
to a season. 

The woodland closely adjoins the lawn and garden ground, and much care has 
been given to the regions where the one melts into the other. From a narrow lawn 
that is next to the south front of the house a wide grassy way runs straight up into 
the wood, to a point where, at some distance away, a fine old Scotch fir, double-stemmed 
and therefore spared when the rest of the wood was cut, ends the view, which is still 




FIG. 51. ONE OF THE WAYS FROM WOOD TO LAWN. 
VIEW POINT "G" ON GENERAL PLAN (FIG. 44). 



A Garden in West Surrey. 



43 



4-rfaC' 



FIG. 52. P L A N T I N G 
PLAN OF A GROUP AT THE 
WOOD-EDGE FOR WINTER 
AND EARLY SPRING. 
VIEW POINT "H"ON 
GENERAL PLAN (FIG. 44). 




backed by more distant wood. This wide green walk (Fig. 50) is the most precious 
possession of the place, the bluish distance giving a sense of some extent and the 
bounding woodland one of repose and security, while in slightly misty weather the 
illusions of distance and mystery are endless and full of charm. Nearest the lawn 
are groups of rhododendron, very carefully chosen for colour, with hardy ferns and 
one of the smaller andromedas filling up nearest the grass on the shady side, and 
tufts of the natural wild heaths, intergrown with the blue-flowered Lithospermum 
prostratum, on the side where the sun shines for some hours of the day. 

Of the lesser grassy ways into the wooded ground, one that passes under the 
shade of oaks and birches has groups of some of the beautiful wild ferns male fern, lady 
fern and dilated shield fern, in the natural setting of mossy ground and whortle-berry, 



44 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 



and a complete backing of bracken, with here and there a flowery incident a 
patch of trillium, and further a little bank of the lovely little trientalis and a bold 
back grouping of Solomon's seal and white foxglove (Fig. 51). Another passes from 
the lawn between banks of Gaultheria, alpenrose and the larger shrubby andromedas ; 
it is shown from above at Fig. 53. Another passes up through a region of azalea 
and cistus. The intention of all the paths from garden to wood is to lead by an 
imperceptible gradation from one to the other by the simplest means that may be 
devised, showing on the way the beauty ol some one or two good kinds of plant and 
placing them so that they look happy and at home. 

One place where two of the paths join that lead up to the wood has been arranged 
with a larger number of kinds of plants as a bit of garden for winter and earliest 
spring, but here the restful feeling is preserved by keeping the colouring within a 




FIG. 53. AUTUMN-BLOOMING SHRUBS. VIEW POINT " J " ON GENERAL PLAN (FIG. 44). 

restricted range of low-toned pinks and purples, with a fair amount of quiet, deep- 
coloured leafage. The planting plan (Fig. 52) shows the arrangement. 

There are but comparatively few shrubs that bloom in autumn ; two of them, 
viz., ^Esculus macrostachya and Olearia Haastii, have been grouped together by one 
of the paths between the shrub-clumps. 

At the far end of the kitchen garden, where the north and west walls join at an 
uneven angle, stands a little building a raised gazebo. From inside the garden 
its floor-level is gained by a flight of steps that wind up with one or two turns. Its 
purpose is partly to give a fitting finish to a bare-looking piece of wall and partly to 



A Garden in West Surrey. 



45 



provide a look-out place over the fields and the distant range of chalk hill to the north ; 
for the region of the house and garden is so much encompassed by woodland that there 
is no view to the open country. The little place is most often used when there is 
thunder about, for watching the progress of the storm, and an incised stone on the 
garden side bears its name of " Thunder-house." Fig. 54 shows it as seen from the 
road outside. One of its four openings is blocked by weather-boarding because if 
left open it would have overlooked a neighbour's house and garden. 




FIG. 54- THE THUNDER-HOUSE. 



46 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 



CHAPTER VI.--HIGHMOUNT, GUILDFORD. 

Site and Views Excavation of Chalk Rose Garden Planted Walls Garden-houses- 
Colour Schemes Framing the Views. 

HIGH MOUNT is one of the new houses standing on the chalk ridge that rises 
immediately to the south-east of the town of Guildford. The ridge seems 
to stand clear up into the sky, open to all the winds of heaven. The views, 
embracing some of the finest points in West Surrey, are extremely extensive, and, 
with the exception of one short section, are panoramic for more than three-fifths 
of the horizon's circle. Eastward is St. Martha's Hill, church-crowned ; the horizon 
is then cut by the bold promontory of the Chantry Woods on a spur of sandy hill. 
The view then opens to its full extent, passing over the southern portion of Surrey, 
then over the whole width of the wooded Weald of Sussex, to the dim, far line of the 
South Downs. A little way to the west are the fine outlines of Blackdown and Hindhead, 




FIG. 55. CIRCULAR TANK AND STEPS AT WEST END OF ROSE GARDEN. 

GENERAL PLAN (FIG. 56). 



POINT OF VIEW "A" ON 



Highmount, Guildford. 



47 




4 8 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 



about fourteen miles away. Still more to the right Wolmer Forest appears as a bluish 
haze ; nearer in the same direction are the woods in the region of Waverley Abbey, 
and, close at hand, the valley of the Wey, backed by the ruined Chapel of St. Catherine 
on its steep hill of sand and rock. 

The garden ground, all on the southern face of the hill, but so near the top 
that it is greatly exposed, had already been laid out to a certain degree when 
the garden designer took it in hand. Tennis lawn, croquet lawn and bowling 
green had been levelled and made ; but the steepness of the remainder, 
composed of grassy slopes between clumps of shrubs and flowers of no 
particular design, was found to be incommodious, and great need was felt for 




FIG. 57. STEPS AND PAVEMENT AT THE EAST END OF ROSE GARDEN. 

GENERAL PLAN (FIG. 56). 



VIEW POINT '' B " ON 



something more restful 
could be done without 



and systematic. It was evident that nothing satisfactory 
a serious amount of moving of earth. The ground lay in 
humps and hollows too blunt and shapeless in form to be utilised as they were, and yet 
with sides so steep that foothold was precarious and all progression uncomfortable. 
Happily, the owners were willing to face the necessary outlay, by no means a slight 
one ; for digging in pure chalk is almost as serious a matter as quarrying in stone, 
and in places it was necessary to go eight feet into the solid, and also to find means 
of disposal of the waste stuff excavated. This was tipped all along the lowest of the 
ground to form a firm embankment for the rose garden. It was found just possible 
to get a width of fifty-five feet and a length of two hundred and eighty feet, so that 



Highmount, Guildjord. 




FIG. 58. PLANTING PLAN OF TOP OF CIRCULAR DRY WALL. VIEW POINT "H" ON GENERAL 

PLAN (FIG. 56). 




FIG. 59. FROM THE MIDDLE OF THE ROSE GARDEN. VIEW POINT "C" ON GENERAL PLAN 

(FIG 56). 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 



there should be the 
comfort of a space 
fairly large and 
quite level, where 
there had formerly 
been a kind of night- 
mare of confused 
and treacherous de- 
clivities. Therefore, 
with ground rising 
on all sides but the 
south, the whole rose 
garden appears to 
be sunk, the addi- 
tional comfort being 
acquired of absolute 
shelter from the 
north and of lying 
open to the sun. 
At the western end 
a bold segmental 




FIG. 60. SKETCH OF PLANTING AS SEEN FROM VIEW POINT " D " ON 
GENERAL PLAN (FIG. 56). 




FIG. 6l. ANGLE OF DRY WALL FROM VIEW POINT " D " ON GENERAL PLAN (FIG. 56). 



Plighmount, Guildjord. 



curve of high retaining wall also gives shelter from any wind coming from a 
westerly direction. As will be seen in the general plan (Fig. 56), this encloses a lily 
tank and encircling rose-beds (Fig. 55) ; the rose-beds are continued as straight 
borders on either side along the whole length ; the quiet middle green space is 
broken only by the square tank midway of the whole (Fig. 59). The eastern end 

has a flight of circular steps 
with a bold half-round paving 
at the foot (Fig. 57). This, 
with the pergola, garden-houses 
and their accompanying flights 
of steps on some of the upper 
levels, is the work of Mr. 
Douglas Round. Thus the 
rose garden is a long, level 
green parallelogram, quiet and 
restful, where before was 
only tumbled and disordered 
futility. 

At the western end, back- 
ing the lily tank and rose- 
beds, the circular retaining 
wall is from six to seven feet 
high. The top is rather 
boldly planted with yuccas, 
the great Euphorbia Wulfenii, 
cistus, tamarisk and tree lupine, 
and, further back, with tree 
box, white broom and red cedar 
(Fig. 58). Barely two years 
planted, the whole is as yet 
too immature to show any- 
thing like the ultimate inten- 
tion. Facing uphill across the 
tank one looks up a series of 
steps, rising flight after flight 
(Fig. 55). The two lowest, with 
a landing between, rise to a 
broad turf path between flower 
borders, running eastward to 
the tennis lawn and giving a 
long green vista of over three 
hundred feet, with again the 
feeling of reposeful space and 
security that had formerly been 
wanting. The whole length of 
the rose garden has its six-foot-high retaining wall planted ; not planted all over, 
but enough to display a number of beautiful things in suitable groups, the 
same plants being carried up on the top of the wall, where there is a space of four feet 
between the wall top and the hedge of tree box that surrounds the tennis lawn at the 
eastern end. The same space is also between the top of the wall and the shrubs 




FIG. 62. CAMPANULA ISOPIIYLLA ALBA, IN THE DRY WALL, 
FROM VIEW POINT "E" ON GENERAL PLAN (FIG. 56). 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 


















"'^^^r^^-^V ) 




FIG. 63. PLANTING PLAN OF BORDERS OF WEST WALK. SEE GENERAL PLAN (FIG. 56). 

and bush roses that approach it further to the west. The wall is in full sun, and the 
good plants and sub-shrubs that we have from the Mediterranean region lavender, 
rosemary, santolina, othonna and so on, with pinks, stonecrops and several of the 
rock-loving campanulas of the Alps (to name only a few of the plants utilised) rejoice 
in the full southern exposure and the brilliant, unveiled light of the high elevation. 



- ill III! Ill 

- 




FIG. 64. THE GARDEN-HOUSES, FROM VIEW POINT "F" ON GENERAL PLAN (FIG. 56). 



Highmount, Guildford. 



53 



The strong calcareous loam is also favourable, and the position in the joints between 
the stones, giving shelter and protection from wet to the crown of the plant, made 
it possible to use plants that would otherwise not be hardy. Conspicuously beautiful 
at Highmount, though so lately planted, is the tender South Italian Campanula 
isophylla, usually grown in greenhouses and not hardy in the open, though here in 
rampant growth and fullest health and development. Looking up the double flight 
of steps from the rose garden across the square tank from C (Fig. 59), a patch of this 
fine campanula shows on the right ; the same group comes to the left of the picture 
in the angle view from D (Fig. 61 ). A further view from E shows another patch on the 




FIG. 65. THE WEST END OF THE PERGOLA, FROM VIEW POINT "G" ON GENERAL PLAN (FIG. 56). 

face of the wall, with a group of nepeta (the pretty purple catmint) above and the 
Algerian Iris stylosa at the wall foot (Fig. 62). 

The garden-houses, standing on the north side of the tennis lawn, will, in time, 
be pleasantly framed by the vines planted on the pergolas which bound and roof the two 
flights of steps giving access to the tennis lawn from the end of the main pergola and 
the garden above (Fig. 64). The building on the right has a nearly flat roof of corrugated 
iron, whose unsightliness has been veiled by a coating of earth and a planting of stone- 
crops. Above the buildings is the garden of spring flowers, where, besides all the other 
good things, it is a yearly joy to see the wonderful vigour and bloom of the wall- 
flowers. All the crucijevcB rejoice in a limy soil stocks, wallflowers, iberis, alyssum, 
sethionema, with others of the same large botanical family, on such a soil are seen 



54 Highmount, Guildford. 



at their best. The flower borders are carefully considered for colour arrangement ; the 
long green walk has a massing of strong reds and yellows in the middle of the length, 
with the ends cooler coloured, in the way that seems to make the most satisfactory colour 
picture. A shorter upper double border, called the west walk, is mostly of yellows, 
with tender and brilliant blue (Fig. 63). These colour-schemes are not only highly satis- 
factory in themselves, but they serve to give individuality and a quality of dignity and 
distinction to various portions of a garden. Offering to the eye one clear picture at a 
time, they rescue the beholder from the distracting impression of general muddle and 
want of distinct intention that is so frequent in gardens and so wasteful wasteful 
because a place may be full of fine plants, grandly grown, but if they are mixed up 
without thought or definite scheme they only produce an unsatisfactory effect, instead 
of composing together into a harmonious picture. 

Although the view at Highmount is very extensive, it is from the pictorial point 
of view not as beautiful as it might be, and as it is confidently hoped it will be in a 
few years' time. The material is there for at least half-a-dozen beautiful scenes, 
but, just as a painted picture is comparatively of little effect without its frame, so in 
a much greater degree is the outdoor picture. Everyone has noticed how, coming 
suddenly on some perhaps quite tame garden scene through a doorway, it seems to 
be invested with a strange kind of beauty. So, in the case of a view that is over- 
panoramic, we plant so as to cut it up and frame it in different directions. A glance 
at the general plan (Fig. 56) will show how this is provided for, the more deeply- 
shaded masses of shrubs and trees comprising such as will rise high enough to come 
well above the horizon line and make of each opening a definite picture. In the 
plan the chief points of view so separated are shown by the feathered arrows. 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 



55 



CHAPTER VII. THE TREATMENT OF SMALL SITES. 

Some Gardens by Mr. Inigo Triggs The Value of Historical Examples Paved Parterres 

The Use of Treillage A Town Garden by Mr. Lutyens A Seaside Garden by Mr. 

Mallows Planting Scheme by Mr. H. Avray Tipping V arious Typical Examples. 

THERE is no problem before the architect and garden designer more difficult, 
and at the same time more attractive, than is presented by small sites, and 
particularly by the long, narrow spaces that go with houses of small frontage. 
So important are the limitations of the latter that a separate chapter has been 
devoted to the treatment of a typical case, i.e., Millmead, Bramley (pages i to 9). 
In this chapter will be described various examples of successful small gardens that 
owe their charm mainly to skilful design, however well that has been expressed and 
emphasised by right choice in planting. Where the area to be dealt with is a small 
rectangle and flat, there are few better ways of treating it than by laying out a paved 
garden with or without grass, but preferably with it. If grass be omitted altogether, 
winter, with its empty flower-beds, brings a grim and bare look. It is fitting to begin 
the series with one devised by 
Mr. H. Inigo Triggs. 

The revival of the right 
principles of garden design in 
England during the last twenty 
years is due to a compara- 
tively small band of people, 
who by word and deed have 
shown the right way. The first 
thing necessary was to go back 
to such old examples as had 
survived the onslaughts of the 
' landscape " school, to publish 
measured drawings and photo- 
graphs of them, and to analyse 
the qualities that make their 
beauty. In this necessary work 
Mr. Inigo Triggs has taken a 
leading part. His great folio 
volumes, Formal Gardens in 
England and Scotland and The 
Art of Garden Craft in Italy, 
were pioneer works that did 
great service. The especial 
need of such historical research 
becomes obvious when it is 
realised how swiftly and some- 
times irrevocably the aspects 
of gardens change. Mr. Triggs 
has emphasised the fact that FIG. 66. LITTLE BOARHUNT, LIPHOOK. 




Gardens for Small Country Houses. 




The Treatment of Small Sites. 



57 



no examples are extant of the garden as it appeared in the Middle Ages. If it is 
desired to reconstruct its features, recourse must be made to illuminated MSS. and 
paintings of the period. From such sources we learn about such enchanting features 
as the Ladies' gardens, which usually consisted of a little square enclosure surrounded 
by high walls. Even when we turn to much later periods we cannot be certain that 
the formal gardens adjoining old houses at all faithfully represent their original form. 
Succeeding owners and gardeners have impressed their own ideas on the gardens under 
their control. It is indeed doubtful whether any garden of even so recent a period 
as the beginning of the eighteenth 
century appears to-day as it did 
when first made. A gazebo here 
or a fountain there may occupy its 
original place, but such elements 
as parterres, paths and hedges are 
likely to have been altered beyond 
recognition. The student is often 
impressed by the divergence between 
the existing condition of historic 
gardens and their presentment in 
early prints. The outlines and 
main divisions may be the same, 
but with details such as the 
widths of borders and paths and 
the placing of statues so altered 
as to destroy the original pro- 
portions and quality of the com- 
plete scheme. The value of Mr. 
Triggs' work has been enhanced by 
the creative ability which he brought 
to his labours. It follows that the 
gardens which he has himself de- 
vised are based on a wide know- 
ledge of what gave to the old 
gardens of England their peculiar 
attraction. In the many houses 
which are the fruit of his part- 
nership with Mr. Unsworth we do 
not look in vain, therefore, for 
scholarship and original fancy. Of 
these, Little Boarhunt, which is 
his own home, is a good example. 
It shows how the qualities that 
make the beauty of the historic formal gardens may be reproduced in little for 
houses of moderate size. 

Whether or not it be true that King John ran a boar from Liphook to Southsea 
before killing, Boarhunt has been the name of a Liphook manor since the Middle 
Ages. The site of the house now illustrated has been called in turn Deadman's and 
Fry's Farm, but Mr. Inigo Triggs did wisely in reviving so pleasant a name as Little 
Boarhunt. Other monarchs than John have been identified with the place, which is 
easy to be explained, for the old road from London to Portsmouth once passed through 




FIG. 68. LITTLE BOARHUNT: STEPS, GATE AND WALL. 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 



the garden. It is an odd commentary on the levels of roads before Macadam's day 
that the surface of this old highway is quite twenty feet below the surrounding ground, 
and now forms the bottom of a woodland dell in Mr. Triggs' garden. Common lands 
interspersed with patches of woodland all that now remain of the great forest of 
Woolmer stretch away from the house for many miles. It is not too fanciful to 
guess that the garden of Little Boarhunt was the scene of a charming incident 
recorded by Gilbert White in the History of Selborne. " As Queen Anne was journey- 
ing on the Portsmouth road, she did not think the forest of Wolmer beneath her royal 
regard. For she came out of the great road at Lippock, which is just by, and reposing 
herself on a bank smoothed for that purpose, saw with great complacency and 
satisfaction the whole herd of red deer brought by the keepers along the vale before 

her, consisting then of about five hundred 
head." Mr. Inigo Triggs has smoothed 
many banks in the making of his garden, but 
the red deer have given place to pigeons. As 
lately as June, 1910, Little Boarhunt was a 
small farmhouse of no especial merit, with 
a barn and yard, but no garden. All the 
building and the remodelling of the farm- 
yard was done in six months ; by the spring 
of 1911 the garden had grown up, and it 
now looks old-established. 

The note of gaiety is struck at the en- 
trance. Mr. Triggs has chosen to border the 
drive with broad beds full of herbaceous 
plants, instead of with the dull shrubs that 
too often find a place there. The farmyard 
to the south of the house was excavated to 
make a sunk rose garden. Its retaining walls 
of rough stone are brilliant with saxifrages, 
pinks and veronica. Herbaceous borders sepa- 
rate the surrounding paths from the low en- 
closing walls, which are carried up with square 
stone piers supporting timbers clothed with 
climbing roses. Particular attention is 
drawn to this wall treatment, which is as 
delightful as it is uncommon. Further 
reference is made to it in Chapter X. 
The wall is broken at its south corner by 
a garden-house, inexpensively built a single brick thick, with its faces cemented. In 
the neighbouring wall is a small old wooden hand-gate of satisfactory construction 
(Fig. 68). The sunk garden itself is an admirable example of the wealth of interesting 
detail that can be employed in a small space without creating any feeling of overcrowding. 
It is divided by a little brick canal, served by rain-water collected from the roof. This 
rill widens at its middle into a dipping pool, of practical use in watering the garden, 
and from it rises a slender brick column surmounted by a little Italian figure of a boy 
with a fish. The four beds for standard roses are divided by narrow brick paths, set 
out to differing designs. Altogether the garden is as pretty as can be, and has a further 
pleasant feature in the brick dovecote, which comes at the end of the north enclosing 
wall. It must be explained that the plan of Little Boarhunt shows to the south-west 




FIG. 69. A SIMPLE BRICK- BUILT DOVECOTE. 



The Treatment of Small Sites. 



59 



a green court and pool which have not yet been made, but on pages 150 and 151 are 
given plan and sketch of the interesting fountain treatment which Mr. Triggs has 
devised for it. The area covered by the sunk and walled garden now illustrated (by 
a comprehensive view in Fig. 67) is only ninety feet by sixty feet, and is justly 
described as small. 

The paved garden at Island, Steep (Fig. 71), illustrates a practical point of impor- 
tance. The beds are arranged in such a way that all work on the flowers can be 
done from the paved paths. This is useful in the many cases where ladies do not 
leave pruning, etc., to the gardener, and like to do the work dryshod. In this garden 
the parterre is sunk about eighteen inches telow the general level, and there are 
bands of turf above and below the retaining wall, but not among the flower-beds. 

Another example of a paved parterre without grass is illustrated in Fig. 72, 
which shows the 
treatment by Mr. 
Baillie Scott . of a 
forecourt at the en- 
trance front of a 
house at Sevenoaks. 
An attractive feature 
of it is the raised 
basin in the middle, 
which is built 



is Dunt in 
coloured tiles. Other 
examples of like treat- 
ment are at The 
Platts, Petersfield, 
by Mr. Inigo Triggs 
(Fig. 74) ; Combe- 
lands, Pulborough, 
by Professor E. S. 
Prior (Fig. 73) ; and 
Cray, by Mr. Maber- 
ley Smith (Fig. 75). 
The photograph of 
the last of these 
was taken before 
planting was begun, 
and shows the gar- 
den in all the naked- 
ness of its unclothed masonry, but it shows the levels all the better for that. It 
should be explained that great tubs with clipped trees are intended to be placed 
at the ends of the tongues of paving, which otherwise would be purposeless. More 
detailed reference to the laying of paved work and to suitable materials are given 
elsewhere (Chapter XV.), but it may be noted in connection with the sunk garden 
at Plewland, Haslemere, designed by Messrs. Read and Macdonald (Fig. 77), that 
the dry-built retaining walls make, with their rough stone, a strong-looking base 
to the house itself. In districts where the local stone is costly for house-building 
or unsuitable by reason of being porous or possessing other defects, it is good to use it 
for garden walls. It yields a contrast with the red brick of the house and gives an 
impression both of roughness and stability that is helpful. 




FIG. 70. LITTLE BOARHUNT I PLAN OF 



GARDEN. 



6o 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 




FIG. 71. ROSE GARDEN AT ISLAND, STEEP. 



In the case 
of small garden 
spaces which are 
overlooked there 
is nothing more 
helpful to the de- 
signer than a treil- 
lage screen. In 
Figs. 78 and 79 is 
shown a scheme, 
devised by Mr. 
Inigo Triggs, for 
the treatment of 
a square plot, 
which measures 
seventy-four feet 
each way. There 
is a stepped pool 
in the middle, and 
the shaped beds 
of a parterre are 
geometrically dis- 
posed with reference to four Irish yews. In the corners there would be wooden 
seats, which have been omitted in the perspective sketch for the purpose of clearness. 
For the same reason no roses are shown clothing the trellis and no flowers in the beds. 
The treillage itself is intended to be made of split oak laths interwoven basket- 
fashion, and the framing would also be of oak with little balls on the tops of the 
posts. The general effect of a scheme like this, when in being, is well shown by the 

photograph of a 
trellis garden, 
which is included 
among the illustra- 
tions of the Pergola 
Chapter. 

Although this 
volume is devoted in 
the main to the gar- 
dens of small country 
houses, the designing 
of a town garden does 
not demand the 
application of very 
different principles 
except in so far as 
more conscious archi- 
tectural motifs may 
find a just place. The 
garden at 100, Cheyne 
Walk, Chelsea, the 

FIG. 72. PAVED FORECOURT AT SEAL HOLLOW, SEVENOAKS. residence of Sir Hugh 




The Treatment of Small Sites. 



61 




FIG. 73. AT COMBELANDS, PULBOROUGH. 




FIG. 74. PAVED GARDEN AT THE PLATTS, PETERSFIELD. 




FIG 75. SUNK GARDEN AT CRAY BEFORE PLANTING. 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 




FIG. 76. PLAN OF PLEWLAND GARDEN. 



Lane, is a good 
example of what 
may be done in 
a limited space 
(Figs. 81 and 82). 
The garden is 
divided from the 
space at the back 
of the house by 
a simple colon- 
nade of stone. 
Fortunately, 
there existed 
two fine trees, 
one a mulberry 
of noble growth, 
and these make 
brave features, 
paths, the middle 
old, uninteresting 



A sense of length is given to the garden by the wide parallel stone 

one of which is interrupted by a round pool. At the far end the 

wall has been transformed by the building of two niches, which shelter statues in the 

classical manner. Reference to the plan (Fig. 80) shows a practical point in the provision 

of a narrow flagged path up the east side, which gives access to the flower-beds 

on either side. The whole scheme is simple and unlaboured. Too often the makers of 




FIG. 77. THE SUNK GARDEN AT PLEWLAND, IIASLEMERE. 



The Treatment of Small Sites. 



town gardens try to make up 
for the absence of a fine show 
'of plants by an excess of sculp- 
ture, which raises visions of a 
monument mason's yard. Mr. 
Lutyens has shown a wise re- 
straint, and the garden has a 
refined classical flavour without 
being stiff. When the borders 
are furnished at their proper 
seasons with such things as 
arabis, spreading its bloom 
and leafage over the paving, 
and later with carnations that 
will bring their brilliant array 
of colour, the garden will be 
complete. Carnations in par- 
ticular are kindly to the town 
gardener, and in nowise turn 
against a soil that builders of 
many generations have salted 
with brick rubbish. Indeed, 
the lime of old mortar is 
often a beneficent aid. 




FEET 

FIG. 78. PLAN OF TRELLISED 
GARDEN. 




FIG. 79. A GARDEN ENCLOSED 
BY TREILLAGE. 



6 4 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 



From Chelsea to a windswept Norfolk shore is a far cry, but the conjunction is 
instructive, as it emphasises the great influence of wind on the design and planting 
of gardens. There is shown in Figs. 83 to 85 a scheme for remodelling a dilapidated 
little homestead at Happisburgh, designed and drawn by Mr. C. E. Mallows. The essence 
of the planning is the protection of the garden from the fierce and frequent winds 
that blow from north and east. This would be contrived by repairing an old barn on 
the east side to serve as a playroom or studio, and some cow hovels on the north to 
make a covered way, useful for summer meals or for a skittle alley. The house is on 
the west, and the garden is open only to the south or landward side, where additional 

shelter would be provided by planting trees, 

___ s*^ as described later. On the house side, a 

hedged recess with some sort of seat or 
shelter is planned so as to continue the lines 
of the house and form a feature and a bul- 
wark between the flower garden and the 
more open lawn. The flower garden is essen- 
tially the old farmyard converted. It would 
be cleared out, the central part sunk and 
fresh soil introduced, and laid out in flagged 
paths and steps surrounding the flower-beds 
and edging the borders which lie against the 
buildings. The planting of such a garden 
would depend upon two considerations. The 
first is whether it is to be merely a place of 
summer resort, or whether it is intended for 
inhabitance at other seasons of the year also. 
The second consideration takes in the ques- 
tions of soil and climate, for on some know- 
ledge of these will largely depend the choice 
of plants. There are enough and to spare 
that will flourish here, and care should be 
taken in making a selection not to stray 
beyond this quite adequate store. The fol- 
lowing scheme of planting has been devised 
by Mr. H. Avray Tipping, and will give 
many helpful suggestions to the owners of 
seaside gardens. The soil resembles that of 
Holland, and the Dutch have now bulb- 
growing competitors in East Anglia. Spring 
bulbs should therefore be freely used, for 
the sheltering buildings will save even the 
brittle-stalked tulip from destruction by wind. 

Short-stemmed species may be reserved to less protected areas. The formation of 
wind-breaks is the preliminary operation. A bank would be raised, behind which 
young trees can obtain early shelter. Sycamores, poplars and Austrian firs will prove 




FIG. 



-PLAN OF A TOWN GARDEN. 



the most successful. Near to the bank they should be set in serried ranks, affording 
mutual support, and be allowed to grow into a tangle. Further in, the planting should 
be more sparse, and thinning should be yearly attended to, so that the trees that are 
left may attain fine shape and good grouping. Where high trees are not desired, sea 
buckthorn will brave the gales and make a thicket. Close planting in this case also 



The Treatment of Small Sites. 




FIG. 8l. AT 100, CHEYNE WALK, CHELSEA : POOL AND STATUES. 




FIG. 82. THE SCREEN. 



66 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 




ro 

oo 



The Treatment of Small Sites. 



should be the rule, but for a further reason. Unlike our own species, that of 
Hippophae rhamnoides seems to produce a majority of the male sex, and nine-tenths 
of them must be cut out, so that the yellow-berried Amazons of the tribe may have 
full scope to display their charms. Within these shelters, and even without them, 
the Japanese euonymus, both green and golden, will flourish, while Griselinia littoralis, 
Escallonia macrantha and Olearia Haastii are only a few of the other evergreens 
that have a friendly feeling towards the sea. But the subjects must be educated to 
rough usages. Let them be pot grown or yearly transplanted stuff. Plant late in 
spring. Use the local reed-screens against wind and sun. Be liberal with the 
water-pot and the syringe when the air is hot and dry. Thus treated, tamarisks, 
gorses and brooms will be thoroughly at home. None of these will mind a slight 



-fp GotW focus far Furrmerjrfeab a- 




FIG. 84. PLAN FOR A SHELTERED SEASIDE GARDEN. 

sprinkle of salt or a moderate buffeting of wind, and, if rightly arranged, they will 
frame an enclosure as thoroughly protected as the sunk garden itself. That, with 
its artificial bulwarks all ready, will offer an immediate harbourage. The tree- 
surrounded oasis will be a future outlet for gardening energy. The early bulbs 
already spoken of not tulips merely, but daffodils and hyacinths, chionodoxas and 
squills, anemones and crocuses should have an accompaniment of double arabis 
and varied aubrietias ; of wallflowers, Alpine species as well as garden hybrids ; of 
Blue-eyed Mary and rose-coloured Himalayan primrose. The last two will share 
the dampest spot with some of the mossy saxifrages, while the low dry wall, which 
sustains the wide walks that stretch out on a level from the loggia, will be the home 
of the encrusted section and of sedums and houseleeks. Of the last named there are 



68 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 



new varieties which are of a rich deep red when grown in seaside sun, and the poorest 
soil and driest place will suit them side by side with Zauschneria californica, which 
will bear its tubular scarlet blooms from July to frost. The great majority of alpmes 
will do well here. The charm of many of them depends on their close and orderly 
growth and the delicate poise of their blooms. In the rich soil of enclosed and leafy 

valleys they are apt to take 
on a coarseness which ren- 
ders them almost valueless. 
Their original deportment 
will, however, be well pre- 
served in the light soil, the 
brisk air and the open 
character of the East Coast. 
The dry walling of the sunk 
garden should therefore be 
reserved for them, while a 
section of the suggested ex- 
tension can be prepared for 
their additional location. 
No rockwork should be 
attempted. Rocks adequate 
in size and number to create 
an effect would be costly to 
import, and w r ould look quite 
alien to the environment. 
But miniature hills and 
dales, such as we often find 
among sand-dunes, can be 
created and covered with 
the largest sizes of the sea- 
shore pebbles. Such an 
arrangement will exactly 
suit the rooting and growing 
habits of the plants, which 
will soon lay their leaves 
and stems over the stones. 
The slight acclivities may 
be rendered more pro- 
nounced by setting tall 
things on them. All the 
sea hollies (eryngium) would 
look admirable so placed. 
Their tough stalks with- 
stand the wind, and that 
should be a consideration 
in making the selection. 
Very likely the wandflower 
(Sparaxis pulcherrima) 
might succeed here, for it 
will bear hard frost when 











FIG. 85. POOL AND PAVING. 



The Treatment of Small Sites. 



other conditions are favourable. Its tall wing stems, headed by the pink cascades 
of bloom, sway easily in wind and never break. Sea lavenders and horn poppies 
would be thoroughly apt, and when we seek to accentuate the depressions by planting 
them with lowly growths, we should not forget such seaside subjects of sessile habit as 
the thrifts and Silene maritima. 

While there is no reason for limiting the selection to shore plants, these should 
be well represented, and give the note to the whole arrangement. Subjects that 
look awkward and unfriendly in such association should be excluded, for in the tree- 
girt extension which we are now considering a somewhat natural lay-out should prevail, 
and the formal garden alone should contain florist flowers. Of these, carnations do 
well, and assume their most brilliant colouring by the sea. Roses flourish if adequate 
shelter, such as this garden possesses, is provided. The petals of many varieties, 
however, become spotted and decayed by the slightest tincture of salt borne in the 
rain driven by a sea wind. Such should be avoided, and stout-petalled kinds chosen, 
such as Caroline Testout, Marie d' Orleans, Frau Karl Druschki, Belle Siebrecht and 
George Nabonnand. Such is a meagre outline, with only very occasional filling in, 
of how this bare and derelict homestead could be converted into a charming home, 
surrounded by flourishing gardens. In preparing a list for planting the latter, it must 
not be forgotten that this Cromer country has been called poppyland, and that the 
great tribe of poppyworts, including romneya and argemone, must be duly honoured 
and housed. Of shrubby growths the hardy fuchsias will flourish, while to the ever- 
greens already mentioned Choisya ternata, lavender and rosemary must certainly 
be added. Probably the delightful creeping form of rosemary will here survive the 
winters, for it is not frost but damp which is its enemy. 

We may now leave this East Coast garden of a dream, for another that is in being. 
In nothing is there opportunity for greater skill than in the treatment of small 
sites of irregular shape, such as that shown in Fig. 86. Eastwood Cottage, Walbers- 
wick, stands on a narrow tongue formed by two converging roads, arid Mr. A. Winter 
Rose has made the most of an awkwardly-shaped plot by breaking it up into several 
features of interest. Two are illustrated in Figs. 87 and 88. The east corner is 
laid out as a rock garden, to which access is given from the sunk wall that runs along 




FIG. 86. PLAN OF LITTLE GARDEN AT WALBERSWICK. 



7 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 




FIG. 87. WALBERSWICK : MASONRY SEAT- 



FIG. 



5. AND STEPPED PATH. 



the north boundary. It is entered between a pair of masonry piers (Fig. 88), and 
the flagged path, broadly stepped, is in good accord with the rockwork. Its southern 
end is approached along a path, flanked by broad herbaceous borders, which skirts 
the angled seat shown in Fig. 87. Other good points about this garden are a little 
bird bath in the form of a circular canal and a pigeon-cote adapted fiom an old 
tool-shed. 

It is not often that the laying-out of a garden suffers such interference as at 
Goodrich House, Hatfield, where Mr. Winter Rose had to deal with a very unusual 
situation. Across the length of the garden there was a right-of-way, which had to 
be respected, though it is rarely used. It was necessary, therefore, to divide the 
garden scheme into two parts. The little paved court at the back of the house is 




FIG. 89. PLAN OF GARDEN AT GOODRICH HOUSE. 



The Treatment of Small Sites. 



enclosed by two 
buildings, which pro- 
ject on each side. 
This section, with 
its charming little 
pool, is illustrated in 
Fig. 92, and the 
letter A on the plan 
(Fig. 89) shows the 
point of view. The 
right-of-way has been 
masked to a large 
extent by carrying it 
through a little poly- 
gonal walled space 
with four gateways, 
two on the axial line 
between the house 
and the main garden, 
and two on the line 
of the right-of-way. 
When this " no man's 




FIG. 90. FOUNTAIN AT GOODRICH HOUSE. 





FIG. 91. GOODRICH HOUSE : FROM VIEW 
POINT " B " ON PLAN. 



FIG. 92. FROM VIEW POINT "A 
(FIG. 89). 



ON PLAN 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 



GREENHOUSES 



STABLE YARD 



O O O O O O 



O g 
<0 D O 



TENNIS LAWN 



a o 

O RCHARD 

> O Q e 



o o a o 
o O a 7 Q 
o o o a o 



FIG. 93. PLAN OF A GARDEN AT DORCHESTER 




-SKETCH FROM iOuT. 



FIG. 94. -SKETCH SHOWING SCHEME FOR NARROW PLOT. 
(FOR PLAN SEE FIG. 95 ) 



The Treatment cf Small Sites. 



.'and " has been passed we reach the garden 
proper, and notice on the left a pretty 
masonry fountain, illustrated in Fig. 90. 
The setting-out of the rest of the garden is 
sufficiently indicated by the general plan 
(Fig. 89). 

A site almost square and flat without 
natural features offers a blank cheque in the 
matter of design. In Fig. 93 is illustrated 
such a garden laid out at Dorchester, Dorset, 
by Mr. Morley Horder, the architect of the 
house. It shows a useful division of the 
space into flower and kitchen gardens. As 
Horman wrote in his Vulgaria, " the knotte 
garden serve.th for pleasure, the potte 
garden for profit te." Importance is given 
to the scheme by the wall in alternate 
bays, which divides the two main divisions 
and ties them both to the house. A photo- 
graph of a similar wall in another garden 
is reproduced in Chapter X. The two long 
pergolas which reach out from the house 
southwards serve a like purpose. A word 
must also be written about the very useful 
plan of a narrow suburban garden site 
shown in Fig. 95, and by sketch in Fig. 94. 
The ground treated measures only fifty by 
two hundred and ten feet. The garden on 
the entrance side is happily managed. It 
is divided by a tall yew hedge running east 
and west, so that a pretty little square 
garden, walled on the north and west sides, 
is provided for the sole pleasure of the 
servants. The entrance court adjoining it 
is left perfectly simple with grass margins 
to the paved walk. Flowers are con- 
centrated on the low terrace, which is reached 
from the loggia. A hedge divides it from 
the tennis lawn, which is surrounded by 
lime trees, presently to be pleached. The 
success of the scheme is the result in no 
small measure of not attempting too much, 
which is the usual fault in very limited 
gardens. . 




SCALE 



40_ 



FIG. 95. GOOD ARRANGEMENT OF NARROW PLOT. 



74 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 



CHAPTER VIII. ON HILLSIDE GARDENS. 

Lady Mary Worthy Montagu on Terraces Stairways- Terraced Gardens Inexpensive 

Materials Various Examples . 

NO site gives such great opportunity to the designer as one that slopes sharply. 
Whether from the point of view of house or garden, it is a moot point whether 
it is better that the slope shall be downwards from north to south, or with 
an upward slope southwards. Assuming that the house is to face south, the former 
disposition means an open and the latter an enclosed view. Most people prefer an open 
outlook, but there is a feeling of comfort about seeing one's own boundaries that needs 
to be taken into account. Generally, however, an alternative is not available, and our 
site has to be accepted as Nature fashioned it. When a hillside is considered purely 
from the point of view of garden design, it is obvious that its chief merit is that it calls 
for the free use of terracing and steps, and no other two features of garden architecture 
give so great an opportunity for varied and striking treatment. Bacon said that a bay 
window was the place for conference, and one may pay equal heed to a more lightsome 
author in her definition of a 
terrace. Writing from Hinchin- 
brook to her husband a few 
months after her marriage, 
Lady Mary Wortley Montagu 
tells him, "I walked yesterday 
two hours on the terrace," and 
again a few days later, "The 
terrace is my place conse- 
crated to meditation, which I 
observe to be gay or grave, 
as the sun shows or hides his 
face." Solvitur ambulando is 
always a good rule, and a 
terrace walk, with its un- 
changing prospect and the 
sense of security given by its 
balustraded walls, is always 
friendly to quiet thought. It 
keeps the mind free from that 
hint of surprise which tickles 
the fancy of the true country 
lover in the turns even of the 
most quiet lane. 

That the creation of arti- 
ficial levels is not, however, the 
only way to deal with a hilly 
site is clear from the first 
illustration of this chapter. It 
shows the admirable effect of FIG. 96. TREATMENT OF SLOPING GROUND WITHOUT STAIRWAY 




On Hillside Gardens. 



75 




FIG. 97. AT HURTWOOD, SURREY : A STEEP ASCENT. 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 



a broad sloping grass path between two yew hedges at Hurtwood, Surrey. It 
will be noted that the size of this part of the garden is considerable, and it is pre- 
cisely this element which makes its success. A like treatment on a small scale would 
tend to dulness, and we may turn therefore to the stepped treatment of another part 
of the same garden. The ground covered by the stairway shown in Fig. 97 is quite 
small in extent, and therefore serves as a guide for the treatment of other steep sites. 
No little of its charm is in the contrast between the formal masonry of the steps and 
landings and the luxuriant growths which border them. In Fig. 99, which shows a 
design by Mr. C. E. Mallows, a similar treatment is indicated, but for a site with a far 
gentler slope. This enables very broad steps to be used without " risers," and does 
away with the need for landings, which are essential in the case of steeper stairways. 
It should be borne in mind that it is rather troublesome to walk up and down easy 
stairways with broad treads of this type unless each tread is broad enough to make 
it comfortable to take two steps to each. This suitable width is indicated in Mr. 
Mallows' drawing, but no definite dimensions are given here, as everyone can easily 
experiment for himself and fix on a width 
which he thinks most comfortable. 

We may now consider the use that has 
been made of terracing by Mr. Thomas 
Young, who laid out the garden at Mr. G. 
Muntzer's house, Littleholme, Guildford, 
Surrey, in conjunction with Mr. Voysey, 
who was the architect for the house. The 
plan and section (Fig. 100) show clearly to 
what good account the hillside has been put. 
When the construction of the approach from 
the road was in hand, the hill showed the 
defects of its qualities, for the slope on the 
north side was very awkward. On the south 
side of the house a wide paved terrace has 
been provided with a pleasant double stair- 
case leading down to a small grass garden 
surrounded by yew hedges, and provided with 
a pond and sundial. The little plateau so 
formed is held up on its south side by a 
curved brick bastion, which appears in Fig. 102. 

Westward of this, the garden is laid out in gradual terracing with flights of steps of easy 
gradient, which lead to what is now being planted as an orchard. The setting of the 
house on its precipitous site is perhaps best appreciated by the view shown in Fig. 101, 
which was taken from the loggia looking out across the terrace to the magnificent view 
that reaches to Bramley and Ewhurst. The garden walls are of purple brick coped with 
Bargate stone, and some of the terrace retaining walls are of flints which were dug 
from the site. On the front of the big lower bastion is an interesting gargoyle 
in wrought lead, which is illustrated in Chapter XIV. The making of such a 
garden naturally involved considerable excavation, and its owner has wisely pro- 
ceeded with the work slowly. Our photographs hardly do the designer justice, because 
the garden as yet lacks the luxuriant growth which will soften the outlines of wall 
and terrace. It is useful to add that work of this kind, involving very con- 
siderable excavation, is a costly matter. The mere work of digging and 
wall-building, the construction, in fact, of the carcass of the garden, cost over five 




FIG. 98.- 



HURTWOOD : PLAN 
NEAR HOUSE. 



OF GARDENS 



On Hillside Gardens. 



77 




FIG. 99. DESIGN BY MR. C E. MALLOWS FOR STAIRWAY ON GENTLE SLOPE. 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 



hundred pounds, and this takes no account of planting, but the money has been 
worthily spent. 

Sometimes, as at Hurtwood Edge (Fig. 105), the obviously right placing of the 
house with reference to aspect and view brings it about that the slope is at an angle 
with the chief front. It is a dangerous enterprise to plan a terraced garden on 
irregular lines in order to follow an erratic contour, and a geometrical, or at least 
symmetrical, shape will almost always be the best. The perspective view repro- 
duced in Fig. 105 represents the original design of the garden (not yet carried out 
entirely). It shows how delightful a feature may be made of the tall buttress with 
its pier at one corner of the terrace. The natural fall of the site gave an 
architectural opportunity which Mr. Arthur T. Bolton, who designed the house, 




\ 



FIG 100. LITTLEHOLME, GUILDFORD : PLAN AND SECTION SHOWING TREATMENT OF SLOPING SITE 

BY MR. THOMAS YOUNG. 



On Hillside Gardens. 



79 




8o 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 




FIG. 102. LITTLEHOLME, GUILDFORD : TERRACES AND STAIRS FROM SOUTH-WEST. 

was not slow to grasp. The plan, shown in Fig. 108, elucidates the scheme, and the 
neighbouring views mark the happy effect of the upper terrace of the house and the 
balustrading built up of curved tiles. The stair in the foreground of Fig. 106 is part 
of a simpler scheme of treatment than that originally planned. An unpretentious 






FIG. 103. LITTLEHOLME ! SHOWING OUTLINE 
OF UPPER TERRACE, 



FIG. 104. AND THE TERRACE STAIRS. 



On Hillside Gardens. 



81 




82 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 





FIG. I06 HURTWOOD EDGE! TERRACE FROM BELOW. 

but satisfactory way of dealing with a sloping site 
in a small garden is shown in Fig. 109, which 
illustrates the garden at The Barn, Witley, 
Reading. Mr. Frank Chesterton has done no 




FIG. 107. THE TERRACE. 



FIG. I08. HURTWOOD EDGE! PLAN OF GARDEN SCHEME. 

more than provide a short flight of steps, 
between dwarf walls, which leads to a little 
terrace. The materials deserve a word. In order 
to save cost the steps were built of rough purple 



On Hillside Gardens. 




FIG. ICQ. AT THE BARN, WITLEY, READING. 

lumps of old burnt firebrick, which can sometimes be got from gasworks for a nominal 
sum, if not free. This must not be confounded with black gas clinker, which some 
misguided folk have used for rockeries. Clinker is as dismal and unpleasant a material 
as the old firebrick is attractive. The latter should not be used when the cost of good 
brick or tile or stone can be encompassed, but as a cheap alternative it is quite 
satisfactory. The view from the garden door at The Barn is a happy commentary 
on the pleasant air which a suburban garden can take on when some thought and 
very little money have gone to its making. 



. . ... :tf?;gl:^:.._ ...._:...:.. 




SECTION 



FIG. 1 10. A HILLSIDE GARDEN AT STEEP. 



On Hillside Gardens. 



Another interesting treatment of a hillside site is shown in the photograph and 
plan (Figs, no and in) of a garden at Steep, designed by Mr. Inigo Triggs. In 
the front of the house is a terrace twenty-five feet wide, wdth steps leading down to 
a semi-circular grass terrace bordered by yew hedges. The next lower level is occupied 
by two flower borders divided by a grass path. From the end of the latter another 
flight of steps leads down to a green walk, which is enclosed on each side by yew hedges. 
This slopes down to a round rose garden. The section which is printed below the plan 
(Fig. no) shows clearly how admirably the slope has been employed to give a 
succession of interesting garden incidents. 




FIG. III. A HILLSIDE GARDEN AT STEEP. 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 



CHAPTER IX. STEPS AND STAIRWAYS. 

Approach Steps from Road Stairways in Children's Dramas Stepped Treatment for 
Gentle Slopes Straight and Curved Stairs Terrace Steps -Unformal Stairs. 

THE notes on the treatment of hillside gardens given in the last chapter necessarily 
included some references to stairways associated directly with terracing, but 
the question of steps and their design arises in every kind of site, and in many 
parts of it. It is usual for a long stairway to be built of the same width throughout 
its flight, but a very pleasant variety can be got by widening it as it descends. The 
example shown in Fig. 112 is at Ardkinglas. It was devised in this manner by Sir 
Robert Lorimer, and very attractive it looks. Where the site of a house stands well 
above the roadway an interesting and dignified approach is secured by broad steps, 




FIG. 112. WIDENING STAIRWAY AT ARDKINGLAS. 



86 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 








FIG. 113. CURVED ENTRANCE STAIRWAY AT OWLPEN MANOR. 



Steps and Stairways. 




FIG. II/|. AN UNRAILED STAIR. 



88 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 




FIG. 115. AN ANGLED STAIRWAY WITH LOW COPING. 



Steps and Stairways. 



semi-circular on plan, such as is seen at 
Owlpen Manor (Fig. 113). When a 
considerable difference in level between 
two parts of a garden is masked by 
a wall pierced with a communicating 
door, an interesting feature can be 
made of the necessary steps. In 
gardens frequented by children and 
it is a sad place that never knows their 
hurrying footsteps unrailed stairs are 
not without danger. It is not difficult 
to see that, for young folk, the doorway 
illustrated in Fig. 114 demands to be 
made the scene for those swift comings 
and goings that belong to the search 
lor treasure and the rescue of distressed 
maidens. The top step is obviously 
the place for the last stand of a 
devoted retainer, sworn to defend the 
brave lady of his absent lord. The 
shadow of the wall is no less clearly 
the place where conspirators will gather 
with hood and lantern, until the door 
flies open and the heroic knight leaps 
on them sword in hand. All this is 
right and proper, and it is one of the 
justifications of garden architecture 
that it provides a stage. But an un- 
guarded stair in conjunction with a 
doorway that conceals its dangers is a 
trap that may break young heads, and 
this aspect of the matter needs to be 
remembered. There is more of safety 
in the provision even of a low coping 
that follows the line of the steps, as 
.in the angled stairway shown in 
Fig. 115. In the case of broad stepping 
that leads down to terrace walks it is 
often pleasant to break its line by a 
little pool or other projection from the 
upper level, such as is indicated by 
the treatment which Mr. Walter Cave 
employed at Ewelme Down (Fig. 116). 
Small gardens of gentle slope must 
usually be formed as a series of shallow 
terraces for reasons of economy, and 
the stepped scheme at Home Place, 
Holt, designed by Professor E. S. 
Prior, will be a counsel of perfection to 
most people. Still, it is illustrated in 







FIG. Il6. TERRACE STAIRWAY DIVIDED BY SMALL POOL. 



9 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 




Steps and Stairways. 91 

Figs. 117 and 118, because it is full of ideas that are capable of being interpreted on 
a smaller scale. The characteristic and beautiful house is built of flint and tile, and 
its south side is planned " sun- trap " fashion. A curved flight of steps leads down from 
the main terrace to a long stairway of gentle descent with wide, shallow treads. This 




FIG. Il8. AT HOME PLACE, NORFOLK. 

is divided down the middle by a long stepped pool, which is richly hospitable to free- 
growing water plants (Fig. 117). 

Returning, however, to strictly small gardens, it may be said that many of them 
lose in attractiveness by the careless treatment of the short stairways which lead from 
one level to another. It is not always realised how much additional charm is given 
by the well-conceived design of such details, or how great a variety lies open to the 
straying choice. Steps need to be considered in relation to the retaining walls, in which 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 




FIG. 



. ALTERNATION OF ROUND AND SQUARE STEPS. 



they often make a 
break. They should 
have wide treads and 
low ' risers " so that 
they -are easy-going. 
Too great a regularity 
in their building is 
generally to be 
avoided. Rough 
rubble masonry is to 
be preferred to ashlar, 
where stone and not 
brick is the material, 
but the rustic character 
should not be over- 
done. Great variety 
is to be attained by a 
happy conjunction of 
straight with curved 
steps, as is seen in 
Fig. 119, which shows 
also the value of rough 




FIG. 1 2O. STEPPED APPROACH TO PERGOLA. 



Steps and Stairways. 



93 



piers to mark the break in the retaining wall. This 
example is chosen from Island, Steep, designed by 
Messrs. Unsworth and Triggs. A similar treatment 
is illustrated in Fig. 120, which shows the entrance 
to a walled garden at Ewelme Down. A terrace 
stair at the same house, half-round on plan, is also 
shown in Fig. 122. The plea for the wide treads 
that make an easy-going stairway only holds good 
when practical considerations of site and convenience 
make it possible. Where there is a great break in 
levels a steep flight may be inevitable, and Fig. 123 
shows how very pleasant it may look. It is rare 
that an approach road is very greatly higher in level 
than the ground floor level of the house, but this 





FIG. 122. ROUND STAIR ON TERRACE. 



FIG. 121. DETACHED PORCH AND STAIR- 

sometimes happens on a 
steep hillside. At Sulling- 
stead, near Hascombe, Mr. 
Lutyens has contrived an 
interesting way out of the 
difficulty. At the upper 
road level has been built a 
detached porch with a tiled 
roof carried on pillars. From 
this a brick stair winds down 
to a narrow forecourt, which 
divides the entrance door 
from the foot of the porch 
stairway by no more than a 
few feet. 

In the contriving of the 
stairs from house terrace to 
lawn it is desirable to avoid 
the common mistake of 
making them too narrow. 



94 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 




FIG. 123. STEEP FLIGHT OF STEPS AT MATHERN. 



Steps and Stairways, 



95 



Several examples are 
given which show 
stairs adequately de- 
signed in this respect. 
That illustrated in 
Fig. 124 is in the 
garden of a house in 
North - East Lanca- 
shire, designed by 
that able artist and 
attractive person- 
ality, the late Dan 
Gibson, who did so 
much to revive the 
type of architecture 
proper to the Lake 
District. The rough 
stone steps accord 
well with the dry- 
walling. Attention 
may also be drawn 

to the pool set in an embrasure of the wall. Another example is in a more regular 
and finished manner (Fig. 125). It is at a house designed by Mr. Lutyens, and the 
variety in the steps descending two ways is in charming contrast to the massive 
bulk of the retaining walls of the terrace. Very often it produces an excellent 




FIG. 124. ROUGHLY BUILT STAIR FROM TERRACE TO LAWN. 




FIG. 125. TERRACE STEPS BY MR. LUTYENS. 



9 6 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 




m ' ; 



"k- ii 



" 



' ' 

1 ' __ 



FIG. 126. BROAD STAIRWAY FROM TERRACE TO LAWN 



Steps and Stairways. 



97 



effect to provide a very broad flight of steps from the middle of the terrace 
to the lawn below, such as is suggested by the drawing by Mr. C. E. Mallows 
(Fig. 126). 

In the chapter on " Water in the Formal Garden " many of the diverse schemes 
shown by photograph or drawing depend for their success on the steps with which 
the pools compose. The design by Mr. Inigo Triggs, now illustrated in Figs. 127 and 128, 
gives a hint for the treatment of a double stairway connecting two levels, and has a 
shaped pool for its central feature. This scheme could be applied very appropriately 












FIG. 127. DOUBLE STAIRWAY WITH POOL. 




-SCALE OF 



i 134 56/8 

I I I L I I I I 



9 1O 
I I 



PLAN 



30 



FEET 



FIG. 128. PLAN OF ABOVE. 



98 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 




Steps and Stairways. 99 



to the descent from house terrace to sunk garden, or as the ascent from such sunk 
garden to a lawn beyond. 

Although stairways are among the most useful elements in garden design, and 
give just opportunity for conscious architectural treatment, it is not always desirable 
to force the note of formality. In situations where Nature has been lavish with her 
wild charms the signs of the hand of man should be suppressed, so that nothing may 
appear to compete with effects of a kind that no designer can bring. Even in small 
gardens that are made on woodland sites there is often a green alley over-arched with 
trees which fleck the path with sunlit tracery. Of such a kind is the example 
illustrated in Fig. 129. The stone steps there are of the simplest, and show themselves 
to be perfectly right for their situation. The adding of flanking piers crowned by 
vase or statue would strike a note of artifice which would accord ill with the natural 
beautv of the scene. 



100 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 



CHAPTER X. BALUSTRADES AND WALLS. 

The Design of Balusters The Imitation of Historical Examples Walls and Parapets 
of Open Brickwork Walls Surmounted by Beams A Coronal Garden Serpentine 

Walls Building in Concrete. 

TERRACE balustrading in stone of the sort shown in the picture below is a 
costly feature of garden architecture, and belongs rather to large schemes 
than to those which develop round a small house. Beyond illustrating as 
models this Jacobean example, and a modern application of the same treatment by 
Mr. Inigo Thomas at Rotherfield, in Figs. 132 and 133, it will, therefore, be enough to 
put in a claim for refinement in baluster design. In the terraces of great houses where 




FIG. 130. A JACOBEAN BALUSTRADE 



Balustrades and Walls. 



101 




102 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 



the scale is big throughout, a certain 
heaviness of treatment is not 
only allowable but even necessary, 
but small schemes demand delicate 
handling. It is unsafe to rely upon 
historical examples for imitation 
merely because they look admirable 
in their own setting. We have to 
reckon with the glamour which age 
brings with weathering and lichen, 
and to beware. There are many 
features of old work which will not 
bear reproduction without looking 
garish to the point of vulgarity. 
It is difficult, moreover, in the case 
of an old house or church, to draw 
a line between the emotional appeal 
of history and the strictly archi- 
tectural merits, the more so a? 
Time's way with buildings, as with 
men, is to soften them. The student 
of such things may amuse himself 
by wondering what would be the 
verdict of the sightseer concerning 
Roslyn Chapel if he were to see it 
in all its luxuriance, but fresh from 







FIG. 132. TERRACE BALUSTRADE AT ROTHERFIELD. 




FIG. 133.- ROTHERFIELD : DETAILS OF TERRACE WALLS. 



Balustrades and Walls. 



103 




FIG. 134. IN MOULDED BRICK. 



the chisel, and without the mist 
of sentiment which rises from 
the legend of the Prentice 
Pillar. In considering the value 
of old work as a model for 
imitation it is necessary to 
study the material to which 
has been given various forms. 
The balusters at Newton Ferrers 
(Fig. 131) have a coarseness of 
outline which amounts almost 
to brutality, and makes them 
very unsuitable as models. 
Yet in their own place, and 
against the austere background 




FIG 135. OPEN PARAPET OF CURVED TILES. 



104 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 




ELEVATION 



FIG. 136. OF HOLLOW HEXAGONAL TILES. 



SECTION 



of an eighteenth century house, 

they are seen to be altogether 

admirable, because they are of 

Cornish granite. The form was 

determined by the intractable 

material and exactly suits it. 

From these notes it will be 

clear that it is impossible to lay 

down any rules for the design 

of terrace balustrades of stone ; 

they form an integral part of 

the house, and are governed by 

the factors which determine its 

architectural treatment. Terrace walls of open brickwork make a simpler problem. 

Much can be done with tiles and bricks of ordinary forms in achieving interesting 

varieties of treatment. The wall illustrated in Fig. 134 shows bricks moulded after 

a Portuguese pattern, which give a light and lace-like effect. The short stretch 

of parapet which appears in Fig. 135 is of very pleasant appearance, but it is built 

up of ordinary elements. The rusticated piers are of thin red bricks, and the 

openwork of curved tiles, each made to a quarter of a circle. Fig. 136 shows a North 

Italian example of hollow hexagonal tiles with top rail and plinth. The expense 

of preparing moulds for a special size or shape of hand-made brick is trivial when 

it is spread over the making of a few thousands. Fig. 137 shows a design by Mr. Inigo 

Triggs for an attractive and unusual wall with tile capping and recurring panels rilled 

with pierced and shaped bricks. 

The walls of fruit gardens are best built in a straightforward way, but fancy 
may be let loose in designing the walls of a flower garden, especially if the treatment 



/TILE CAPPING 



, ,, ... , .... ... . ,, ... , ,, 




I 6 O 

SCALE OFI , I . I 



FEET 



DETAIL OF BRICKS 



FIG. 137. WALL WITH OPENWORK PANELS. 



Balustrades and Walls. 



I0 5 



contemplated lends changefulness to variety of growth. Very often the designer 
of a small garden is faced by the difficulty of giving it privacy, and shrinks from the 
uninteresting solution of building a plain high wall. In such a case the two schemes 
indicated in Figs. 138 and 139 suggest happy alternatives, the former of which appears 
in a modified form in the picture (Fig. 68) of Mr. Inigo Triggs' own garden at Liphook. 
It shows a stone wall eighteen inches thick, and it is'desirable, where choice is possible, 
to build it of sandstone in order that it may weather to a pleasant colour. This type 
of garden masonry looks best when the j oints are well raked out, so that each individual 
stone may show distinctly. The piers are spaced ten feet apart, and are connected 
by curves. Rough beams about four inches square, with cross-pieces about two inches 
square, are supported on the piers, and roses and other creeping plants are trained to 
intertwine amid the woodwork. In Fig. 139 a similar arrangement is shown for brick 




1 




'"* 




- 



FIG. 138. STONE WALL WITH TIMBERED PIERS. FIG. 139. THE SAME IN BRICK WITH FLOWER BOXES. 

walls, with this interesting difference : the piers for a distance of two feet from the 
top and the boxes at their sides are of four and a-half inch brickwork filled with earth. 
In the illustration these receptacles are shown in broken section rather than with 
appropriate plants growing, in order that the method of construction may be clear. 
Each should be drained with a small pipe about one inch in diameter, which will throw 
the drainage-water clear of the wall on its far side. The spacing of the piers in this 
case, as in the last, should be about ten feet, and a good height for either type is eight 
feet, the walls thus being about five feet. Where bricks are used, red is the best 
colour. If only inferior bricks are available, the walls should be rough-cast or 
cemented (a finishing coat being laid very roughly), and should show the marks of the 
wooden float. Much more ambitious and very successful is the design of the wall 
that encircles a little round garden (called the Coronal) at Athelhampton, designed 
by Mr. Inigo Thomas. Its parapet dips in a series of half rounds, and the rising 



io6 




Balustrades and Walls. 



107 




io8 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 




FIG. 142. -FLOWER-BED AGAINST SERPENTINE WALL 



parts between are crowned with stone obelisks, round which climbing roses have 
wound their tender way. It is an admirable device for the treatment of a 
small space, and could be carried out in a simpler fashion in brick without undue 
expenditure (Fig. 140). 

Among the less usual forms of brick walls a high place must be given to those on 
a serpentine plan, and for several reasons. If built only about five feet high, they can 
be constructed a single brick thick. This is not safe with a straight wall of the same 
height, which should be two bricks thick. The extra length of single brickwork 
occasioned by the wavy plan only means an addition of about one-quarter to the 
cubic measurement. This means that a ribbon wall stretching a hundred feet would 
involve only five-eighths to three-quarters the cost of a straight wall covering the 
same distance. There are, moreover, cultural advantages. The concave faces on the 
south side of a serpentine wall serve in some sort as sun-traps, and are therefore kindly 
to wall fruit. 
The example at 
Heveningham Hall 
(Fig. 141) is nearly 
ten feet high, and 
is therefore more 
than a single brick 
thick, but even tall 
walls can be built 
more cheaply ser- 
pentine fashion 
than straight. In 
laying out a flower 
border under such a 
wall it would be 
well to emphasise 
the unusual line by 
waving the outline 
of the border. The 
obvious method is 
a simple reversal F1G T ^ AND A BETTE R OUTLINE. 

of the wavy line, 

as shown in Fig. 142, but that gives a rather weak effect, and it is better to rely on a 
more geometrical setting-out, as indicated in Fig. 143. As such a flower border would 
work out very wide at the points where the convex curve is opposed to the concave 
recessing of the wall, the wise method with all wide borders under walls viz., of 
providing a narrow path between wall and bed is all the more valuable. This 
treatment is indicated in both plans. Eighteen inches is a sufficient width for such 
a path. 

It is difficult to establish the date when serpentine walls first came into vogue, 
but it is unlikely that it was before the middle of the eighteenth century. Miss 
Phillimore, in her Life of Wren, when writing of Wroxall Abbey, Warwickshire, which 
was bought by the great architect in his old age, says, " Sir Christopher is said 
to have designed the kitchen garden wall, which is built in semi-circles." This wall 
(Fig. I46A) is not serpentine, but set out in half-circles with straight stretches connecting 
them : the idea is, however, the same. A device of this kind is just one of the things 
with which the inventiveness of Wren is likely to have played. As, however,. 



f^FEET 




Balustrades and Walls. 



109 




FIG. 144. WALL WITH SQUARE BREAKS. 




FIG. 145. CONCRETE WALLS AT LAMBAY. 




FIG. 146. WALL MASKING KITCHEN QUARTERS. 



1789 is on a stone 
of the wall, his 
authorship must be 
doubted. The writer 
of this has seen a 
serpentine wall at a 
Suffolk house o f 
late in the eighteenth 
oe n t u r y. A good 
modern example, a 
single brick 
thick, designed by 
Mr. F. W. Troup, 
is illustrated in 
Small Country 
Houses of To-day. 
Built with the 
same purpose as 
a serpentine wall, 
i.e., to give somewhat 
sheltered bays for 
fruit, is the straight 
wall with square 
breaks at a Buck- 
inghamshire house 
designed by Mr. P. 
Morley Horder. It is 
the better, both prac- 
tically and in appear- 
ance, for its tiled 
ridge. In districts 
where both stone 
and brick are more 
costly than concrete, 
the latter material is 
useful for garden 
walls. In Fig. 145 is 
illustrated a concrete 
wall of very good 
appearance, designed 
by Mr. Lutyens for 
the gardens of 
Lambay Castle. The 
terminal posts are 
given almost a Doric 
character by the 
marks left by the 
wood boxing set up 
temporarily, into 
which the half-liquid 



no 



Balustrades and Walls. 



concrete was poured. An admirable crown is given to the wall by dark grey 
Dutch pantiles. The building of garden walls to mask kitchen courts and 
other spaces, which are necessarily untidy at times, belongs rather to the design 
of the house than of the garden, but one example is illustrated in Fig. 146 because 
of its intrinsically garden treatment. A stout trellis is set penthouse-fashion from 
the ridged screen wall (in the foreground of the picture) to the wall of the house, 
and offers hospitality to such creepers as are light enough not to interfere too 
much with the usefulness of the windows beneath. 




FIG. I46A. WALL AT WROXALL ABBEY WITH SEMI-CIRCULAR BAYS. 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 



in 



CHAPTER XT. CLIMBING AND OTHER PLANTS ON WALLS 

AND HOUSES. 

Misuse of Ivy Of Ampelopsis Of Wistaria Various Climbers Shrubs Trained 

to Walls. 

THE appearance of many a house is made or marred by the wise or injudicious 
use of climbing plants. A house of no special character may become a thing 
of beauty ; one of architectural value may have that whole value obliterated 
and the structure greatly damaged. In the latter case the danger is so great and 
negligence so frequent that it will be well to offer some words of warning. Many a 
fine old gateway of carefully- 
designed brickwork or of 
wrought stone has been allowed 
to become smothered with ivy. 
Ivy is of the nature of a true 
hard-wooded tree. When the 
mortar has fallen out of the 
joints of old masonry, these 
open joints are just the places 
seized upon by the fast-growing 
ivy shoots. The shoot, at first 
a bare eighth of an inch thick, 
quickly swells, hardening as it 
grows. Soon it fills the joint, 
and, ever increasing, acts as a 
wedge with irresistible power, 
and eventually forces the stones 
apart. Ancient buifdings and 
ruins that are of historical and 
archaeological interest are the 
easiest and most usual prey of 
the devastating ivy, but many 
fine old houses throughout the 
land are even now suffering 
from its dangerous overgrowth. 
In some cases, from the pic- 
torial point of view, the need 
for abolishing the ivy is some- 
thing of a misfortune, especially 
in the case of old ruins ; but 
its removal is a necessity if the 
evil is not to be aggravated. 
In the case of a new bare wall 
where the joints are sound, 
and level with the face of the FIG. 147. OVERGROWTH OF IVY ON SCULPTURED GATEWAY. 




112 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 




FIG. 148. OVERGROWTH OF IVY ON GATE-PIER AND GARDEN-HOUSE. 



Climbing Plants. 




< 



Q 
55 

<5 


w 

? 
w 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 




FIG. 150. STONE GATEWAY MODERATELY CLOTHED. 



Climbing Plants. 



brickwork, there is no danger, and the ivy is even protective, the leaves throwing off 
the wet. But the plant is quick to detect and occupy any opening, when danger 
and damage may quickly follow. 

The fine and boldly-treated brick piers to wrought-iron gates shewn in Figs. 
148 and 149 have been smothered with ivy, and not the piers only, but also the rather 
important point where the pier rises from the wall. This is specially deplorable in 
the picture from the outside of one of the entrances to the walled garden, with the 
flight of uncommon circular 
brick steps (Fig. 149). It may 
be noted incidentally that 
this illustration shows another 
defect very common in gardens 
where there is no critical eye 
ever on the watch for such 
blemishes. The level of the 
path has shrunk away several 
inches, leaving the under-course 
of brickwork exposed, and 
making the whole step incon- 
veniently high as well as entirely 
out of proportion. In the case 
of the inner view, where one of 
the brick piers is, happily, free, 
the summer-house with arched 
doorway is also over-smothered 
with ivy (Fig. 148) . We believe 
that the overgrowth of ivy on 
this fine example of gateway 
treatment has been removed, 
but are glad that the piers 
were photographed in their 
overdone state as a useful warn- 
ing. The beautiful eighteenth 
century gateway shewn in 
Fig. 147, photographed in 1903, 
but now, we hope, cleared, 
shows ivy obliterating the 
architrave and entablature 
of an ornate design. There 
is no harm in the slight en- 
croachment of a leaf or two of 
the flanking magnolias ; nobility 
of form in foliage is a desirable accompaniment to good architecture, but it should 
only be allowed to accompany, not to oppress still less to overwhelm. 

It is not the fault of the ivy, a precious and beautiful climbing plant it is the 
misuse of ivy and the neglect of due control that we desire to emphasise. Ivy was 
largely used in decorative schemes by the French in the eighteenth century and later, 
and to this day is cleverly employed as screening walls of greenery on railings and 
treillage. It deserves to be much more used as a screen plant, and if a large unbroken 
surface should appear monotonous, the want of variety can be remedied by training 




FIG. 151. WISTARIA MISPLACED. 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 



116 

over it a tracery ot some other climber, such as Clematis Flammula or Virginia creeper. 

Another stone gateway (Fig. 150) is reasonably clothed with rose and vine foliage ; 

but their growth is already quite enough a little more and it would be overdone. 

The popular and, in its place, valuable Ampelopsis Veitchii has much to answer 

for. It has per- 
ceptibly harmed 
the fine brickwork 
of some of the old 
Tudor buildings at 
Hampton Court- 
not only smother- 
ing the architecture 
but actually 
damaging the 
surface. The plant 
clings by little 
roundish suckers ; 
in time these 
become dry and 
as hard as wire. 
When the harmful 
growth was at last 
recognised on some 
of the portions of 
the palace built by 
Cardinal Wolsey, 
and it was cleared 
away, the dry 
suckers held so 
tightly that they 
could not be dis- 
lodged without 
bringing away 
some of the face 
of the brick. 

In the case of 
the wistaria form- 
ing an outer 
curtain to a 
pointed-arched 
window one may 
easily guess how 
such an odd misuse 




FIG. 152. RAMBLING ROSES, VINE AND IVY ON ROUGH BUILDINGS. 



of a fine plant may 
have occurred 

(Fig. 151). It is evident that it was forbidden to drive supporting nails or staples 
into the joints of the stonework, and that the only apparent alternative was to fasten 
the plant to the iron bars of the window itself. The still simpler alternative was 
overlooked, namely, that of refraining from the use of a plant requiring nailing on a 
wall where it could not be nailed. The same picture shows an error only too common 



Climbing Plants. 



117 



in gardens that of having a bed of small plants in immediate connection with impor- 
tant masonry. The wistaria, with its probable ultimate fate, is the more to be regretted 
because the plant itself is in fine, young vigour, having got over the earlier stage of 
standing still for the first few years, as is the way of its kind. This fine plant may 
be used in many 

ways on garden HHHHfe ^x ^ 

and house walls, 
on pergolas and 
arbours. The 
newer Japanese 
kind (W. multijuga) 
is as easily grown 
as the older W. 
Chine n sis , but 
although the 
racemes of flower 
are much longer, 
it is hardly a more 
attractive plant 
than the better- 
known kind. 

Besides the 
walls where climb- 
ing plants are 
grown for their 
own beauty there 
are places in nearly 
every garden where 
it is desirable to 
clothe some rough 
building or to 
cover or screen 
something un- 
sightly (Fig. 152). 
For this the 
rougher of the 
rambling roses arid 
the wilder of the 
clematises are in- 
valuable. The 
native C. Vitalba 
covers very large 
spaces, and grows 
fast. Clematis 
montana is eager 

to rush up to a considerable height and then to tumble over with sheets of graceful 
foliage and cataracts of pure white bloom (Fig. 153). Clematis Flammula rambles 
widely among other growths, flowering in September ; it is followed closely by 
C. paniculata in October. Space only allows of the barest mention of other good 
climbing plants clematis species such as the yellow-bloomed C. graveolens ; in 




FIG. 153. CLEMATIS MONTANA. 



n8 Climbing Plants. 

choicest gardening the splendid varieties of the Japanese C. patens and the 
Chinese C. lanuginosa, and the many pretty hybrids of C. viticella. Then we 
have Bignonia radicans with its ash-like leaves and trumpet flowers of orange 
and scarlet ; Solatium crispum and 5. jasminoides. Grape vines of the Chasselas 
class form perhaps the most beautiful of all wall covering, especially for 
sheltered, quiet places where bright flowers are not absolutely needed ; but among 
vines, where colour is wanted, there is the crimson-foliaged claret vine and Vitis 
Coignetice, brilliant-hued in autumn. Roses one can but barely touch upon except 
to say that warm walls are only suitable for teas and noisettes. 

Then there are the numbers of shrubs, which, though not of a climbing habit, are 
thoroughly satisfactory when trained to walls. Figs for important foliage ; Pyrus 
japonica and the winter-sweet (Chimonanthus] for winter bloom; Abutilon vitifolium, 
of extreme beauty and strangely little planted ; ceanothus of several kinds ; Buddleia 
variabilis Veitchii, choisya, the brittle Robinia hispida, with flower-clusters something 
like wistaria, but of a charming pink colour. Then for cold exposures the common 
guelder rose makes a capital wall plant, and is well accompanied by Clematis montana 
running through it, flowering at the same time, and adding to the pretty picture of 
copious white bloom. Another happy mixture for a cool wall is the handsome shrubby 
spiraea, S. lindleyana, with its cream-coloured bloom and fine pinnate leaves. Clematis 
Flammula trained through this forms another desirable combination. Laurustinus, 
not only the common but also the black, and the later-blooming L. lucidus are all 
excellent for training to cool walls. 




FIG. 154. AMPELOPSIS VEITCHII RESTRICTED IN GROWTH 
SO THAT THE WHOLE WALL FACE IS NOT COVERED. 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 



119 



CHAPTER XII. RETAINING WALLS AND THEIR PLANTING. 

Hillside Sites Turf Banks Dry Walling Grouping in Planted Dry Walls in Sun 
and Shade Construction Importance of Ramming Steps. 

MANY gardens that are on hillsides are of necessity arranged in a succession 
of terraces needing retaining walls to support each succeeding level. In 
the case of gardens made fifty years ago, before better influences prevailed, 
the difficulty was got over by making turf banks. But it is very rarely that a turf 
bank is a desirable feature in a garden ; more often it is distinctly ugly, or, at the best, 
quite uninteresting, while it is always difficult to mow and burns badly if on a 
southern slope. Where such a turf bank remains, it would, in nearly every case, 
be better to convert it into a wall ; the line of the wall being taken at halfway down 
the slope and carried to the lower level, the earth excavated at the bottom filling up 
above. When this is done space is gained both above and below, while the wall itself 
becomes precious gardening ground ; for if built as a " dry wall," that is to say, with 
earth joints instead of mortar, the joints, and the chinks in the case of uneven stones, 
are the happiest possible places for the growing of nearly all alpines, or if the wall 




FIG. 155. THIN SLATE STONES LAID LEVEL. 



I2O 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 




f 



Retaining Walls and Their Planting. 121 

is of some size and height, for a number of our best garden plants. Then the fact of 
the plants being raised some feet above the ground brings them into the most convenient 
range of sight. Some lovely little alpines at easy eye-level can be much more 
comfortably and leisurely examined than in the ordinary rock garden ; all their little 
beauties of form, colour and scent can be enjoyed and appreciated to the full. 
Many of them grow naturally in rocky clefts, hanging down in sheets of loveliness, 
so that the wall shows, in a better way than any other kind of gardening, the real 
habit and character of the plant -its own method of growing, enjoying life and 
displaying beauty. 

In the case of such planted walls it is best to have no flower-border at the foot, 
but to have a border above, occupying, in the case of a converted grass bank, what 
would represent the upper half of the bank. It is well to fill it with a good proportion 
of things of bushy habit, such as bush roses, Scotch briars, lavender, rosemary, olearias, 
phlomis and so on. In this way the border forms a protecting parapet, while the whole 
wall-face is free for use. It also allows of combining the upper planting with that 
of the wall in a way that always proves satisfactory ; some of the plants of the top 
being also placed in the upper joints. But in a garden where there are many planted 
walls monotony of treatment is avoided by having in some part rambling roses at the 
top to tumble over, with a thinner growth of tea roses at the foot, and but little 
planted in the wall- joints. 

As in arranging flower-borders, it is well to place the plants in groups of a fair 
quantity of one thing at a time ; and, in the case of small plants, such as thrift or 
London Pride, to put them fairly close together. If they are spaced apart at even 
distances they look like buttons ; but even when this has been done, either 
inadvertently or by an unpractised hand, it is easily remedied by adding a few plants 
to make the group hang together. Though it is advised that there should be no 
border at the foot of a planted dry wall, yet it looks well to have its junction with 
the grass or gravel broken here and there by some plant that enjoys such a place, 
as, for example, Iris stylosa or Plumbago larpentce in a sunny aspect, or hardy ferns 
and Welsh poppy and small pansies in a shady one. It is well also to make careful 
combinations of colour, for they not only give the prettiest pictures, but also that 
restful feeling of some one idea completely presented that is so desirable, so easy to 
accomplish, and yet so rarely seen in gardens. As an example, on a sunny wall there 
may be a colour-scheme of grey with purple of various shades, white and pale pink, 
composed of dwarf lavender, nepeta, aubrietia, cerastium, Helianthemums of the kinds 
that have grey leaves and white and pale pink bloom, rock pinks, stachys, the dwarf 
artemisias and Achillea umbellata, and in the border above, yuccas, lavender, 
rosemary, the larger euphorbias, China roses, phlomis and santolina with white and 
pink snapdragons. Phlomis and santolina both have yellow flowers, but a slight 
break of yellow would harm the effect but little during their time of bloom, while 
both are of year-long value for their good grey foliage ; moreover, it is easy to remove 
the santolina bloom, which comes on shoots that are quite separate from the foliage. 
If it were quite a high wall, larger plants could be used, especially in the upper half. 
Yuccas are grand coming out of rocky chinks high up, and gypsophila in great clouds, 
and centranthus (the red valerian) in big bushy masses. 

On a shady wall there would be a preponderance of good greenery of hardy 
ferns, male fern and hart's- tongue, with the smaller ferns, woodsia, cheilanthes, 
adiantum and allosorus, with Welsh poppies, corydalis, mimulus and the smaller 
alpine bell-flowers, such as the lovely little Campanula pusilla, both blue and white, 
and the rather larger carpatica and eriocarpa. Then if the shady wall was of good 



122 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 



size there would be columbines in quantity, white foxgloves and mulleins growing 
with splendid vigour and enjoying the cool root-run among the stones. 

The way the walls are put up is of the utmost importance, for on the way it is 
done depends not only the appearance but the stability. Dry walling made rightly 
may be carried up twelve feet or more, even in recently disturbed soil, while if wrongly 
or negligently done a wall only three feet high will come down with the first heavy 
storm of rain. The following description will help those who wish to build their own 
walls, and to an intelligent amateur there is hardly a department of garden work 
that is more interesting and even delightful, especially where there is good local 
stone. Where there is no stone a dry wall can be built of brick, but this is duller work 
and is best done by a trained bricklayer. In some cases, in brick retaining walls 
a brick or half-brick is left out to give more space for inserting plants, or the whole is 
built in mortar, leaving such spaces only for planting ; but the earth joint throughout 
is rather more satisfactory, giving more freedom for the shaping of the groups. 

The wall should lie back a little- ' batter back " is the technical word, derived, 
no doubt, as are so many of our words for tools and building, from the French. It 




FIG. 157. A TEN-FOOT WALL PLANTED WITH GYPSOPHILA, VALERIAN, SANTOLINA, ROCK PINKS AND 

CERASTIUM, LUPINES AND ROSEMARY AT TOP. 

suggests a near relationship to abattre, to beat down or beat back. As a good general 
rule it may batter back in the proportion of one foot in six of height. Every stone, 
lying on its natural bed at right angles to the sloped-back face, has the back a little 
lower than the front. It follows that every drop of rain that falls on the face of the 
wall runs into the next joint, to the benefit of the plants. If a dry wall is built on 
solid ground it needs but little foundation. Two thin courses under ground will be 
enough. The tilting back of the stones is begun under ground, then the upper 
courses follow naturally. A bed of earth is laid between each course and the ends of 
the stones, as if it was mortar. As the work comes out of the ground, and, indeed, 
from the very beginning, the loose soil is rammed in behind and between all the stones 
that project backward. It is upon firm and quite conscientious ramming that the 
stability of the wall depends. Labourers are apt to scamp it ; even experienced 
builders and foremen, unless they have had special experience in dry walling, do not 
give it the unremitting attention that it requires. This tight ramming cannot be too 
strongly insisted on or the absolute need of it too often repeated. Ram as tightly 



Retaining Walls and Their Planting. 



123 




co 
in 



124 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 



m 




in 

< 

OS 

w w 

o > 

o 



en 

PS W 



Q 

o 



Retaining Walls and Their Planting. 



., 

; 




FIG. 160. PALE PINK ROSE, VALERIAN, CERASTIUM AND ROCK PINK IN A ROUGH STONE WALL. 



126 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 



as possible and on every part of 
the back of the walling. If the 
whole thing is in " made ground " 
it must all be rammed, but the 
part just behind the stones is the 
vulnerable point. If the ram- 
ming is neglected or is insufficient 
the wall will either come down 
in heavy rain or will bulge at 
various points in a manner that 
is very unsightly. 

It is always best to lay the 
stones level as to right and left 
and on their natural bed, that 
is, the same way up as they lay 
in the quarry ; they both look 
better and stand better. They 
can be either sorted into those 
of approximately the same 
thickness for separate courses, 
or the thinner stones laid to 
come level with the thicker. All 
" random " walling is ugly and 
unrestful, giving the impression 
of a wilful violation of simple 
laws of structure. When there 
are pieces of small broken stone 
to be disposed of, they can be 
rammed in with the earth at the 
back of the wall, making quite 
sure that no cavities are left. 
The. roots of the wall plants 
like nothing better than to cling to the cool and always moist stone surfaces. 

A dry wall cannot be built against a scarp of hard sand or chalk. Enough must 
be taken out at the back to allow for fresh filling and ramming. Builders often think 
they can build against a solid scarp, but the experiment always results in disaster. 




FIG. l6l. WHITE FOXGLOVE IN DRY WALLING OF 
LARGE STONES. 




FIG. l62. BRICK WALL WITH SPACES LEFT FOR PLANTS. 



Retaining Walls and Their Planting. 



127 




PLAN 



FIG. 163. STEPS WITH FRONT 
EDGES ONLY OF STONE. 



SECTION 





FIG. 164. DRY WALLING (SECTION). 

TIGHTLY RAMMED EARTH SHOWN BY 

VERTICAL HATCHING. 



FIG. 165. STEP WITH FRONT EDGES ONLY OF STONE. 

If the scarp is of actual rock there is no need forlthe 
wall except in cases where the strata tip down forward, 
when plants could not be comfortably grown. But in 
such a case it would be better to have some of the 
wilder clematis or roses planted at the top to wreathe 
and trail over the rocky 
surface. 

The steps that 
accompany dry walling 

can be made 

in a very sim- 
ple way, if it is 

desired to save 

the expense, 

both of stone 

and labour, 

of paving the 

whole surface. 

The front edge 

only need be 

of stone, as 

shown in Figs. 

163 and 165 ; 




FIG. l66. DRY WALL (SECTION), 

SHOWING PLANTING OF TOP AND 

FACE. 




ELEVATION! 

FIG. 167. ELEVATION OF PLANTED WALL, SHOWING GROUPING. 



128 Retaining Walls and Their Planting. 

the stones chosen or trimmed so that they have fairly good front edges and so 
that they come together at the joints for at least a part of their depth. To 
give better cohesion at the back a triangular piece can easily be fitted, as shown in 
Fig. 163. The joints are then cemented, the cement joint being kept down 
low and as much out of sight as possible. Then the whole thing will hold 
together and little mosses will grow in the upper parts of the joints. On the 
sides and even towards the earthy back of the step tiny things like the smaller 
stonecrops and the smallest bell-flowers can be grown. Other near plants will 
also seed over the space, and in a few years the problem will be how to repress 
rather than encourage the quantity of plants that are only too willing to invade the 
steps. The wider and shallower the steps the pleasanter they are to go up and 
down the extreme of comfort being a step from four to five inches high and twenty- 
two to twenty-four inches from front to back ; such steps as one may run up and down. 
The planting of the joints of pavements gives scope for much judicious work, 
but needs great care and restraint. There should be no inconvenient invasion of 
plants. The idea of such planting has so greatly attracted garden enthusiasts that 
in many cases it has been carried too far. It should be remembered that the first 
purpose of a paved space is to provide a dry, level place for easy progression. If 
nearly every joint is filled with plants, those who pass along will either be obliged 
to keep their eyes on the ground or they will frequently feel, with a pang of regret, 
that some pretty thing has either been trodden under foot or inadvertently kicked 
against and dislodged. It is better to keep all the middle space free, or to attempt 
to do so, for small plants like these joints so well that they are apt both to run and seed 
freely within their welcome shelter. 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 



129 



CHAPTER XIII. YEW AND OTHER HEDGES. 

Yew Hedges in Ancient Gardens In Modern Use Other Trees for Hedges Box- 
Holly Privet Laurel Beech Hornbeam Thorough Planting Topiary Work . 

WHEN the great English houses were built that no longer needed to be fortresses ; 
when their windows might safely look abroad into the open country instead 
of giving on to an inner court ; then also the pleasure garden, which had 
hitherto been necessarily restricted, was greatly enlarged and its many possibilities 
were developed. Whether it was that the tradition of the old need of walled pro- 
tection was still in every man's mind, or whether the wonderful sense of fitness that 
characterised the work of our Tudor and Jacobean ancestors was the impelling agency 
we know not, but it is clear that they at once adopted the system of surrounding and 
subdividing their gardens with hedges of living greenery. They rightly chose the 




FIG. l68. LAWN ENCLOSED BY ANCIENT TRIMMED YEWS. 



130 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 




FIG. 169. CLEEVE PRIOR : THE TWELVE APOSTLES. 



Yew and Other Hedges. 



English yew as the tree that should conform to their will as green walls and ornaments 
in their gardens of formal design. Some actual examples remain, while traces of the 
use of green yew, clipped and regulated, as important portions of the garden plan, 
are so frequent as to point to its general use. In some cases of remaining 
examples the original design is distorted or entirely lost, and yet a mysterious 
and strangely attractive charm remains ; while in others some kind of symmetry 
has been maintained (Fig. 168). There are examples of noble use from old times in 
gardens of quite moderate size. The ancient yews at Cleeve Prior (Fig. 169), known 
as the Twelve Apostles, stand in six stately pairs flanking the paved walk to a modest 
manor house. At a little more than halfway of their height each pair stretches out 
branches to the next, forming a connecting arch, so that a framed garden scene, five 
times repeated, is visible from right and left. Hedges of yew with turf alone have an 




FIG. 170. AN ANCIENT BOWLING GREEN. 

extraordinary quality of repose of inspiring a sentiment of refreshing contentment. 
One thinks, with abounding satisfaction of many an ancient bowling green, with its 
bright, short turf underfoot, its deep green sides of yew, or yew and quiet wall, and 
nothing more but the sky above and perhaps some masses of encompassing trees 
(Figs. 170 and 171). Compared with the yew no tree is so patient of coercion, so 
protective in its close growth, or so effective as a background to the bright 
bloom of parterre or flower-border (Fig. 172). Its docility to shaping into wall, 
niche, arch and column is so complete and convenient that it comes first among 
growing things as a means of expression in .that domain of design that lies between 
architecture and gardening. Our architects and garden designers are well aware of 
its value. A drawing by Mr. Mallows (Fig. 173) shows, next below a raised terrace, 
two square garden courts, the terrace steps between them descending to a long green 



132 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 



walk, with flower-borders backed by yew hedges, leading to a circular fountain 
court paved and brick-walled. The perspective and plan of a garden by Mr. 
Inigo Triggs (Figs. 174 and 175) show the same need and good use of yew hedges for 
enclosing and protecting rectangular gardens. At Bui wick (Fig. 176) some old yews 
are clipped only where their lateral advance threatens the closing of a green path. 
Yew hedges have much use besides for securing privacy. Fig. 177 shows a young 
hedge that will be allowed to grow some feet higher to screen the offices and their 
possibly unsightly adjuncts from the pleasure garden. Such hedges are usually 
carried up to a height of from six to seven feet. For finishing the top the best-looking 
and most practical form is that of a very low-pitched roof ; this also presents 
the most easily accessible shape for clipping. 




FIG. 171. A QUIET BOWLING GREEN. 

Though yew is undoubtedly the best tree for garden hedges, it is by no means 
the only one. Where the soil contains lime, or, in fact, in any good loam, the green 
tree box makes a fine hedge and clips well. But it is slow to grow slower than 
yew and both are costly. Ilex can be trained and clipped into tall hedges ; there 
are fine examples at the remarkably beautiful and successful Italian gardens at 
Brockenhurst. Green holly is also a fine hedge plant, but wants more width if it is 
to be carried up any height. For a quicker hedge at less cost there is the Lawson 
cypress, growing fast and clipping well. The humbler privet we all know ; it is 
quite cheap and soon grows into a neat hedge. We are so well used to seeing it bearing 
green leaves all the year that we forget that it is really deciduous. When it grows 
wild as a small twiggy tree it is leafless in winter. It is the trimming that induces 



Yew and Other Hedges. 




FIG. 172. YEW HEDGE AS A BACKGROUND TO FLOWERS. 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 




FIG. 173. YEW HEDGES IN A DESIGN BY MR. MALLOWS. 



Yew and Other Hedges. 




FIG. 174. YEW-HEDGED GARDEN BY MR. INIGO TRIGGS : PERSPECTIVE. 



the fresh growth and 
leafing at an unusual 
season. Quite a pictorial 
effect is often seen of well- 
trimmed privet forming a 
sheltering entrance arch 
over a cottage door. 
Hedges of common laurel 
are so easily grown and 
so often misused that 
unthinkingly one has come 
to hold them cheap in 
estimation and to under- 
value their real merit ; but 
a laurel hedge twelve feet 
high is a splendid thing ; 
the size of leaf telling well 
in proportion to the 
height. It must be cut by 
hand ; never mutilated 
with shears, which would 
cut across the leaves. A 
tall hedge of bay is also a 
most satisfying sight, for 
the leaf itself and the 
whole growth are of a 
beauty and dignity that are 




'p. . . f . . . ? 



50 



FEET 
FIG. 175. PLAN OF ABOVE. 



136 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 




FIG. 176. YEWS AT BULWICK 




FIG. 177. YEW HEDGE SCREENING OFFICES FROM GARDEN. 



Yew and Other Hedges. 




FIG. 178. HEDGE OF PORTUGAL LAUREL BACKING A POOL GARDEN. 




FIG. 179. HEDGE CUT INTO LITTLE GABLES. 



138 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 



quite unequalled. This also must be cut by hand and the surface allowed a little 
freedom. Fig. 178 shows a hedge of Portugal laurel backing a lily pool in a good 
piece of rectangular gardening, and Fig. 180 a clever way of using pollarded and 
clipped limes for greatly heightening a garden wall abutting on a road. 

For commoner purposes, such as a hedge to a kitchen garden, beech and horn- 
beam are both excellent. They serve also, especially hornbeam, for training over 

arbours and covered 
ways ; growing close 
and twiggy when 
regularly clipped. 

All such green 
hedges must be well 
planted, the ground 
deeply dug and 
liberally enriched 
and, if possible, 
further encouraged 
during the next few 
years by additions 
of manure just 
under the surface. 
T h e y cannot be 
hurried. Nothing is 
more frequent or 
more fatal than 
compliance with the 
wish of the im- 
patient client who 
desires to have an 
effect at once. It 
can only be success- 
fully done by special 
and unusual means 
and at great cost. 
For yew and holly, 
three feet is the limit 
of height for prudent 
planting. Beech can 
be planted four feet 
to five feet high at 
once; hornbeam, 
privet and white- 
thorn should be cut 
down to within a few 
inches of the ground 

the year after they are established, when they soon throw up a number of strong shoots. 
Besides the green things used as actual hedges, fine effects are gained by the use 
of upright trees bounding grassy walks. Fig. 182 shows Lombardy poplars so 
used by Mr. Reginald Blomfield. Irish yews, the upright cypresses and their 
near relations, the junipers, can be so employed. Of the junipers, the neat 




FIG. l8o. POLLARDED LIMES USED TO HEIGHTEN A WALL. 



Hedges. 




(U "O 

CH & 

'** H 

2 ^ 

~: c 



O '42 c 

c 5 

w & 



^ T3 
3 C 
60 rt 



140 



Yew and Other Hedges. 



Chinese and the much larger Virginian commonly called red cedar are the best. 
Topiary work, to which the yew is so submissive, is receiving attention in modern 
gardens. As in the case of other toy-like tricks in gardening, it may in some cases 
be satisfactorily employed, but if followed merely as a fashion, and not because the 
design of the garden would be bettered by a certain form, it may easily give an 
impression of silliness or wanton frivolity. But fine effects are sometimes gained, 
where there is need for distinct punctuation, by carrying up a square plinth some 
six inches or eight inches above the level of the top of the hedge and growing a well- 
formed ball upon that. Fig. 181 shows yew hedges at Mathern with the trees, at 
important points, trained up in the form of swollen cones surmounted by bird 
forms. In unpractised hands such treatment might be dangerous, but in that of 
Mathern's owner we know that his skill and fine taste will bring them into right 
and fitting garden ornaments. 




FIG. 182. A GARDEN AVENUE OF LOMBARDY POPLARS. 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 



141 



CHAPTER XIV. WATER IN THE FORMAL GARDEN. 

: ' The Soul of Gardens " Reflections Pools and their Water-levels Varied Shapes- 
Lily Ponds and their Depth Separate Pool Gardens Water Parterres Fountains 
and their Sculpture Leadwork Well-heads Pumps. 



F 



'OUNTAINS and waters are the soul of gardens ; they make their chief 
ornament and enliven and revive them. How often it is that a garden, 
beautiful though it be, will seem sad and dreary and lacking in one of its most 
gracious features, if it has no water." So wrote Pierre Husson in La Theorie et la 
Pratique du Jardinage in 1711, and set down a truth that is coming into its own again. 
This chapter is .called " Water in the Formal Garden " because it is concerned with 
water as a factor in design, rather than as the element which makes possible all 
the enchanting growths proper to the water garden in its technical meaning. Husson, 
who published his book in Holland, had all the French devotion to rather theatrical 
uses of water. He extols " eaux jaillissantes, celles qui s'elevent en Tair au milieu 
des bassins, forment des jets, des gerbes, des bouillons d'eaux." Appropriate as such 
features are in great gardens, water needs to be employed very simply in small ones. 
Little pools and rills and fountains, with their waters not too vigorously " jaillissantes," 
need to be disposed with a sparing hand. 

Although the gardens at Hurtwood, Surrey, are of large extent when taken 
together, the great variation in levels necessitated their division into several gardens, 
some quite small, which are complete in themselves, and therefore useful to illustrate 
our argument. Even in the great fan garden, the features at the radial point from 




FIG. 183. FAN-SHAPED LILY POOL AT HURTWOOD. 



142 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 





10 

oo 



Water in the Formal Garden. 



H3 



which it starts, i.e., the fan- 
shaped pool and paved work, 
give suggestions for the treat- 
ment of quite small gardens. 
The result of the delightful 
design made by Mr. Christopher 
Turnor for Major - General 
Sartorius, V.C., appears in 
Figs. 183 and 184. The chief 
pool is fan-shaped, and thus 
leaves between the water and 




FIG. 187. HURTWOOD : LOOKING DOWN 
ON FOUNTAIN. 

the open parapet a half-round 
space which gives hospitality 
to flowers. The paving is well 
managed. The stones which 
edge the water are of regular 
shape, while the rest of the 
space has random flagging. 
Near by is another pool, 
which, by throwing out a 
curved edge to meet the 
chief flight of steps, marks a 




FIG. 186. AT GREAT BADDOW : REFLECTIONS. 




FIG. l88. PARAPETTED POOL AT BLYTHBURGH. 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 






ll 




FIG. 189. POOL IN PAVED COURT. 




FIG. IQO. AT MORTON HOUSE, HATFIELD. 



Water in the Formal Garden. 



happy relationship in design between itself and the stairways from the higher ground. 
No less ingenious is the treatment of the garden on the west side of the house 
(Figs. 185 and 187, and for plan see Fig. 98). Water here also takes a prominent 
place. A round basin is set on a square base built of tiles with a stone coping. 
From the basin rises a fountain with its figure spouting freshness. On each side of 
this central feature is an oblong lily pool, and the whole design is bound together by 
a broad frame of paving. 

Simple pools, with the water brought up nearly to the ground-level, give a pleasant 
variety to a paved court when it is enclosed by the wings of a house built on 




FIG. 191. SHAPED POOL AT ATHELHAMPTON. 

an H plan. This is well shown in a design by Mr. C. E. Mallows (Fig. 189). 
His drawing suggests what is one of the chief charms of pools, however small. 
Since Narcissus first espied his face in a fountain, wise designers of gardens 
have been mindful of the beauty of reflections. Whether it be a window, as 
in Mr. Mallows' drawing, or vase, yew and dovecote, as in the parapetted pool 
at Blythburgh in the garden of Mr. Seymour Lucas, R.A., or the little boy's 
figure and the garden-house at The Vineyards, Great Baddow (see Figs. 186 and 188), 



146 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 




ON 



Water in the Formal Garden. 




FIG. 193. SMALL POOL AND NICHE AT ATHELHAMPTON. 

there is a changeful beauty in the dim outlines and fleeting colours of 
reflected things that no other element in garden design can give. In order to 
ensure these effects it is important that the water should be kept at its proper 
level, which is as high as is possible. The nearer it is to the kerb of the pool, the 
wider and more beautiful will be the reflections. Nothing looks more dreary 




FIG. 194. IN A PETERSFIELD GARDEN. 



148 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 




FIG. 195. AT ISLAND, STEEP. 




/' ' 

3EE3PECTTVE SKETCH 




PLANT IN TUBS 




SCALE 



FIG. 196. POOLS GROUPED ROUND SUN DIAL. 



SCALE 



PIwA.NT IN TUBS 
fr PLAN * 

r f t f f f f f T 

FIG. 197. POOL SHAPED FOR TUBS. 



Water in the Formal Garden. 



149 



than a tank of 
three or four feet 
in depth with 
only a few inches 
of water in the 
bottom, the more 
so as its walls 
are apt to be 
slimy. When 
water is scarce 
in rainless 
seasons this may 
be unavoidable, 
but there is little 
excuse for a per- 
m a n e n 1 1 y low 
level, which is 




PLAN 



SCALE 0?LI 



L 



f 



FIG. 198. A SIMPLE SHAPE. 



FEET 





PLAN 
t f ? 

FIG. 200. WITH JET AND CASCADE. 



laso I 23-*-56789io 

rffiru ' 1 'I'' I I I || I 



WATgE. 




WATER, 



A POND FOE. THE 
END OF A 




PLAN 

f- 7 8 'O n 

I I I I I J FEET 

FIG. 199. WITH RAISED INLET. 

usually the result of placing 
the inlet and outlet too low 
in the wall of the pool. At 
Morton House, Hatfield, Mr. 
A. Winter Rose has set in 
a paved court a round pool 
which groups pleasantly with 
the loggia and a statue in 
its niche (Fig. 190). The 
shapes which garden pools 
can take are almost endless 
in their possible variety, but 
it is usually well to be 
satisfied with simple forms. 
The illustrations of this 
chapter show rectangles in 
various proportions, which 
are generally dictated by 
the paved court or grass 
plat in which they are set. 
Two types of oblongs with 
curved ends are illustrated, 
from the gardens of Wootton 
Lodge, Staffordshire, and 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 




PLAN- 

.- f M r f r r T 



i 




JEEET. 



FIG. 201. 



PLAN 

SCALE OF u.T \ ( t f f f f ' i' T I' FEET 
FIG. 202. 



,- K J[- , 







- ,r m K 

' : * 






i mk 








FIG. 203. POOL AND FOUNTAIN DESIGN BY MR. H. INIGO TRIGGS. 



Water in the Formal Garden. 



Athelhampton Hall, Dorset. Of the two the former (Fig. 192) has a slightly 
more broken outline, and is given an increased architectural emphasis by the 
moulding of the raised kerb. The latter (Fig. 191) is as simply made as can be, 
save that a rounded moulding overhangs the side of the pool a little. It should be 
noted that the axial line of this feature cuts through the middle of the gate to the 
walled garden in which it is, and the full effect of water treatment in helping an 
interesting vista is thus secured. 

Another little pool, fan-shaped, in the same garden is illustrated in Fig. 193 to 
show how well it groups with the niche in the wall above it. The possible 



wnr 



CRASS 




PLAN 



SCALE OF I 



9 

I FEET 



FIG. 204. PLAN AND SECTION OF BRICK FOUNTAIN. (SEE FIG. 2.) 

combinations of pools with other features are well-nigh endless, and it is not possible 
to show more than a few typical examples. A very attractive treatment is shown 
in Fig. 194, where the drop in level from one terrace to another is made the occasion 
for an amusing little stepped bridge of masonry. This was designed by Mr. W. F. 
Unsworth and Mr. Inigo Triggs for a garden at Petersfield, and very successful it is. 
To the same architects is due the manipulation of simple elements in a garden at 
Island, Steep (Fig. 195). A double flight of steps leads down from a long upper terrace 
to a lower one, which juts out over the hillside with a semi-circular bastion-like front. 
The curve of the stairs determined the outline of one end of the pool, and the similar 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 




FIG.205- CROSS AND LONGITUDINAL SECTIONS THROUGH LILY POND, MILLFIELD. 




FIG. 206. LILY POND AT MILLFIELD, BRENTWOOD. 



Water in the Formal Garden. 



153 




FIG. 207. SMALL POOLS INTERSPERSED IN PAVING. 



'54 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 



shape of the other end marches with the plan of the lower terrace. The chief purpose 
of this pool, as of most of its kind, was to find a home for water-lilies. Surrounding 
the basin, and less than a foot below the normal water-level, is a shelf about fifteen 
inches wide, on which may be set pans or baskets containing lily plants. There are 
varieties which, on account of their intrinsic value, or for the purpose of ensuring 
better growth, it is desirable to place in this way. It may be added that some of the 
more robust water-lilies will grow in from six to ten feet of water, but such a shelf 
as is now described need never be more than two feet below the ordinary level-, 




FIG. 2O8. SUNK POOL GARDEN AT MARSH COURT. 

and is more convenient if only about six inches below. A practical point worth 
remembering in the construction of such pools is the risk they bring to those gardens 
that are made the more gracious by the presence of little children. If they are built 
with broad, shallow steps which drop by gentle degrees towards the middle of the 
pool, an over-venturesome child is not likely to come to very serious harm. The 
gradually receding levels of the stone or brick, moreover, add to the appearance of 
the pool, when the water is clear enough to reveal its floor. In Figs. 196 to 202 are 
shown seven pool shapes drawn by Mr. J. Maxwell Scott from sketch designs by 



Water in the Formal Garden. 




'56 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 




Water in the Formal Garden. 



Mr. Inigo Triggs. Four are simple 
outlines, and one of them is devised 
to leave suitable spaces for the placing 
of pots of shrubs. Fig. 196 provides a 
quartette of connected pools grouped 
round a baluster sundial. Another 
is furnished with a jet and a little 
stepped cascade. The example shown 
in Fig. 199 is designed to come at the 
end of a path, and has a little raised 
basin from which the water spouts into 
the pool. 

Although very simple forms are 
the safest for pools, there is room for 
an occasional burst of gaiety in outline, 
especially when the rest of the garden 
plan is of necessity treated in a severe 
fashion. The brick-edged pool shown 
by plan and perspective in Figs. 203 and 
204 was designed by Mr. Inigo Triggs, 
and is reminiscent of the wealth of 
fancy that enlivens the gardens of the 
East. The jets are very happily 
placed ; they would make a garden so 




SECTION A- A 



TEET 
FIG. 211. PLAN OF WATER PARTERRE. 





Gardens for Small Country Houses. 



SECTION 




PLAN 



adorned a little Paradise of freshness, and musical 
with the tinkle of falling spray. In Figs. 205 
and 206 are illustrated by sectional drawings and 
photograph an attractive stepped lily pond at 
Millfield, Brentwood, designed by Mr. A. Winter 
Rose. The parapetted walls add considerably to its 
effect. The interspersing of many little pools 
tied together by a coherent geometrical design in 
JFEET a long stretch of paving is another treatment of 
water which is of large interest, as is shown by 
Fig. 207. There is a suggestion of patches of 
enamel set in ivory. 

Water takes its highest place in garden archi- 
tecture when it determines the complete design of 
an enclosed space, such as the pool garden at 
Marsh Court, devised by Mr. Lutyens, and illus- 
trated in Figs. 208 and 209. No scheme contrived 
within so small a compass could exceed in richness 
of effect this combination of steps, paving, pool 
and balustrade. A note of gaiety is added by 
the lead hippocampi, to the modelling of which 
reference is made later (see Fig. 221). In the 
same manner, but on a smaller scale, is the 
delightful pool at Papillon Hall (Fig. 210), where 















j 



FIG. 213. WALLED POOL WITH ANGLE FOUNTAINS, SHEWING MOORISH INFLUENCE. 



Water in the Formal Garden. 



the contrast between the curves of the descending steps and the lines of the margin 
of the pool is altogether successful. 

Another scheme of design, eminently suited to gardens of limited area, is 
the water parterre, such as is shown by plan and perspective by Mr. Inigo Triggs 
(Figs. 211 and 212). The design, made by the same hand, for a walled pool 
and fountains, reproduced in Fig. 213, is unusual and interesting. The 
water is carried to shaped basins on the top of brick piers at the four corners, 
whence it falls into tanks built in the corners of the dwarf walls. From here 
it circulates round a tiny canal and ultimately finds its way to the lowest pool. 
This treatment is intended for a flat site, so that the level of the topmost kerb 




FIG. 214. EXTENDED POOL AT CHELWOOD VETCHERY. 

would be the same as the surrounding garden. The plan and section explain 
the design in detail, the total space occupied being only a square seventeen 
feet six inches each way. It should be added that tall fountains of this type 
can only be worked in connection with a supply cistern placed at a higher 
level than the basins. The whole idea is based on some of the delightful little 
patio gardens in Southern Spain, and nowhere can better lessons be learnt of the 
use of water in small gardens. 



i6o 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 



The shaped pool at Chelwood Vetchery, designed by Mr. Rome Guthrie (Fig. 214), 
is part of a large and imposing scheme of garden design ; but it is instructive as showing 
an idea equally applicable on a smaller scale. The pool is placed below the retaining 




FIG. 215. TILE-BUILT FOUNTAIN BY MR. LUTYENS. 



wall of the terrace (the curved projections of which are also worthy of attention), 
and the sense of length is emphasised by the extension of the pool as a narrow canal. 
This is an interesting variation of the canal or rill treatment, which is also shown 



Water in the Formal Garden. 



161 



in the Berkshire garden (Fig. 21) and at 
Little Boarhunt (Fig. 67). 

The design of standing fountains is 
generally the outcome of combining two 
elements a basin and some sculptured 
fancy that discharges the water. The 
various types of pools illustrated in this 
chapter are capable of being supplemented 
by little spouting figures, such as are illus- 
trated in Chapter XIX., which is concerned 
with statues. The Boy and Dolphin shown 
there would look well, for example, in a pool 
like that of Fig. 191. Smaller conceits, how- 
ever, take an attractive place on tanks of 
limited size. In Fig. 217 is shown the section 
of a simple round basin, for which Lady Chance 
modelled a very attractive tortoise, cast in 
lead (Fig. 218), and some toads. Other ex- 
amples of fountain sculpture by the same 
skilful hand are the hippocampus of Fig. 221 and the lion mask of Fig. 216. The 
latter is for a wall fountain discharging into a bowl built up in tilework 







FIG 2l6. LION MASK FOR FOUNTAIN. 




FIG. 217. SECTION OF BASIN WITH LEAD TORTOISES ON RIM. 

(Fig. 215), designed by Mr. Lutyens. The hippocampus is a delightful beast, spouting 
from his muzzle, and was used in a group of four disposed symmetrically on the 

outer margin of the 
rectangular tank at 
Marsh Court (Figs. 208 
and 209). In all 
these examples the 
sculptor has shown 
her felicitous sense 
of the right treat- 
ment of animal 
forms. She has 
shown, for example, 
not an exact repre- 
sentation of a tor- 
toise, but an inter- 

FIG. 2l8. LEAD TORTOISE BY LADY CHANCE. pretatlOn of One, 




162 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 





FIG. 219. LEAD DOLPHIN. FIG. 22O. GARGOYLE FOR GARDEN WALL. 

bringing to her work that just quality of convention which makes it art instead 
of naturalistic imitation. Another pleasant lead spout for a garden fountain is the 

dolphin modelled by Mr. Cashmore, and 
illustrated in Fig. 219. The gargoyle 
designed by Mr. Voysey, and built up in 
sheet lead, serves a rather different purpose 
(Fig. 220). It is fixed to the front of a big 
brick retaining wall at Littleholme, Guild- 
ford (see also Fig. 102), and has a delightfully 
grotesque quality that is suggestive of the 
mediaeval craftsman. Its purpose is to 
throw clear of the wall the surface water 
drained from the terrace above. 

A combination of pool with wall foun- 
tain which is singularly attractive is to be 
seen at Hampton Court (Fig. 223). The 
entwined dolphins spouting freshness into 
a big shell owe no little to their intrinsic 
charm as sculpture, and modern replicas 
would, no doubt, be of greater cost than 
the owners of most small gardens could 
encompass, but their placing with reference 
to the twin pools below is very happy and 
suggestive. Though the atmosphere of 
gardens does not demand that their orna- 
ments shall be great sculpture, it occasion- 
ally happens that a master hand models a 
figure that finds its way into a garden 
setting. The slender fountain at Wych 
Cross Place, illustrated in Fig. 222, is a case 
in point, for it is the work of that great 
but erratic sculptor, Alfred Gilbert. The 
bronze stem was modelled for some alto- 
FIG. 221. HIPPOCAMPUS IN LEAD. gether different purpose. Upon it has been 




Water in the Formal Garden. 



163 



set a simple old Dutch bowl of stone, and to crown 
the composition, the exquisite statuette by Gilbert 
of a Dancing Boy, stung by a fly and holding a 
tragic mask in his hand. It is very successful, 
and the figure has that enchanting vitality which 
makes it reasonable to call Gilbert the English 
Carpeaux. It is characteristic of the casual, frag- 
mentary career of this great artist that the bronze 
stem should have lain unheeded in a dealer's 
shop until the owner of Wych Cross Place found 
for it a use so admirable. 

Among modern fountains made wholly of lead 
a high place must be given to the composition 
shown in Fig. 224. It consists of an octagonal 
tank, decorated in flat relief with grapes and vine 
leaves, combined with a tall fountain, in which its 
designer and maker, Mr. George P. Bankart, has 
gone for inspiration to a late mediaeval example 
in the South Kensington Museum. The treatment 
of the metal is exactly right ; the modelling is 
softly done, and the corona at the top of the 
fountain is in openwork of lace-like effect to which 
lead lends itself so well. Simpler and smaller 
tanks than this are very helpful in the water 
equipment of any garden. Eighteenth century 
tanks, such as that illustrated in Fig. 229, are 




FIG. 222. BY ALFRED GILBERT. 




FIG. 223. WALL FOUNTAIN AT HAMPTON COURT. 



164 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 




FIG. 224. LEAD TANK AND FOUNTAIN. 

not difficult to acquire. The areas of old London houses continually 'disgorge 
examples with panelled fronts that bear dates and initials and little classical devices of 
all kinds. The modern craftsman, however, should not be forgotten in the ruling 
passion for " antiques." Two examples by Mr. Bankart are illustrated in Figs. 225 
and 226. One of them, with its stout swag of fruit and flowers, has a definite 
garden character, and the other has delicate ornament in slight relief which suits 
well the nature of the material. When cisterns like these for convenience in 
watering the garden are remembered, 
the needs of the birds must not be 




FIG. 225 LEAD CISTERN. 




FIG. 226 



MR. GEORGE BANKART. 



Water in the Formal Garden. 



165 




forgotten. Fig. 228 shows a shallow bird bath made 
of lead, and Fig. 227 a chalice-shaped vessel of terra- 
cotta, both admirable in their different fashions. 

There are few small gardens that can boast a 
stream or an old moat, but either is a welcome 
feature, for it gives opportunity for a bridge. Illus- 
trations elsewhere in this book (e.g., Figs. 21 and 194), 




FIG. 227. CHALICE BIRD BATH. 



FIG. 228. SHALLOW BIRD BATH OF LEAD. 



show how effectively bridges can be contrived in connection with pools, and the 
problem of a little stream is not greatly different in kind. In the little garden at 
Kelsale Manor, Saxmundham, there is an old and narrow moat, over which Mr. A. 
Winter Rose has thrown a little oak bridge, which is shown in Fig. 230. Over a 
continuation of this moat is a small stone bridge by a curved stairway (Fig. 231). 
It forms a connecting link between the lawn and the parkland beyond. 

Most of the pools illustrated in this chapter are designed on definitely formal 
lines, and it is only rarely that naturalistic treatment produces satisfactory results. 
When, however, a 
cottage has been 
set on a rough 
hillside and the 
heather reaches to 
the door, a 
conscious garden 
scheme may be 
u n d e s i r able or 
even impossible. 
Such is the case 
at Stoneywell 
Cottage in Charn- 
wood Forest 
(Fig. 232), where 
the margin of the 
bathing - pool has 
been made to 
follow the natural 
contour of the 
ground. Mr. 
Ernest G i m s o n 
has shown a just FIG. 229. A GOOD XVIIL CENTURY TANK. 




1 66 



Gardens /or Small Country Houses. 




FIG. 230. A LITTLE WOODEN BRIDGE. 

appreciation of the character of the site by making 
the pool accord in its rough simplicity with the 
attractive, roughly-built cottage which it serves, 
and with the pump-house, which also appears in 
the picture. 

On the subject of well-heads a note of warning 
may be sounded. Where an actual well exists it is 
very desirable that its head should be made an 





FIG. 232. BATHING POOL AT STONEYWELL COTTAGE. 



FIG. 231. AT KELSALE MANOR. 



attractive thing. 
The modern example 
illustrated in Fig. 234 
has a simple stone 
wall and coping with 
a wr ought-iron 
" overthrow " of neat 
design. Most people, 
however, who are set 
on possessing a well- 
head look for an old 
one. There seems no 
end to the stream of 
them, old or 
" antique," which 
does not necessarily 
mean the same thing 
in these days of skilful 
reproduction . They 
come, or are said to 
come, from Italian 
courtyards and 
gardens, some com- 
plete with the old 
iron arching that 



Water in the Formal Garden. 



167 



holds the pail-hook and supports a pulley. 
Heads which are carved of grey and other 
dark-hued stones are more suitable for 
English gardens than those of white marble, 
which are apt to look harsh and staring. 
Many of them are adorned with the arms 
of families represented now in Italy by 
nothing but the memory of their names 




FIG. 234. A MODERN WELL-HEAD. 

and the bravely-carved heraldic achieve- 
ments on a well-head. One of the two old 
examples in Istrian stone illustrated in 
Figs. 233 and 235 once belonged to the Mar- 
cello family, now extinct. The other is 
ornamented with simple and appropriate 
representations of a water vessel. Such 




FIG. 233. OF ISTRIAN STONE. 




FIG. 235. ITALIAN WELL-HEAD WITH 
"OVERTHROW." 



1 68 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 





memorials of a grandiose world which has not survived 

the clash of modern life may be well enough in a great 

English garden. For the smaller schemes of design, for 

which we are now considering the appropriate type of 

ornament, they are less fitted than a well-head built of 

brick or stone. It is, however, in their placing that 

most care is needed. The example at Sutton Courtenay 

(Fig. 238) stands well on its broad spread of paving, 

but very often one is seen set down on a grass plat 

without any suitable base, and looking lonely and 

useless. There is no reason why a well-head should not 

be used as a dipping- well or fitted with a jet and used for 

a fountain in a pool. Such a use renews its connection 

with water, but to employ it as a flower-pot is an 

indiscretion. Not to employ it at all, but to regard it 

merely as an ornament, seems justified only when it has 

marked merits as a piece of sculpture. The fact remains 

that Italian well-heads are appropriate in Italy and 

sometimes look awkward in an English garden, especially 

when they are not used in connection with a well, which 

rarely exists in a place where decorative emphasis is 

possible or desirable. 

Figures 236, 237 and 
239 are concerned with 
the more typical English 
water engine, the pump. 
In the eighteenth century 
pump - heads were com- 
monly made of lead and 

decorated with little lion masks, rosettes and dates. 
Fig. 237 shows a good example, but placed as it is it 
lacks meaning and looks uncomfortable. It is rather 
difficult but possible to adjust such a pump-head to 
the mechanism of a modern pump, and that method 
seems the only reasonable one to adopt. An interesting 
alternative is suggested by the foreign pump casing of 
wood (Fig. 236), panelled and carved, now preserved in 
the South Kensington Museum. The iron handle is 
delightfully wrought, and the general effect suggests 
that here is a field for decorative effort. There are 
many gardens which rely for their watering on roof 
water, bath wastes, etc., carefully gathered and 
conducted to an underground cistern which needs 
to be pumped for garden use. In such a case it is 
good to have an attractive rather than a merely 
utilitarian pump. This wood-cased example may 
therefore be helpful in suggesting a covering treat- 
ment for the modern pump of commerce. 

It sometimes happens that the well is close to 
FIG. 237. LEAD PUMP-HEAD. the house, and occupies a prominent place in the 



FIG. 236. A WOODEN PUMP 
CASING. 



Water in the Formal Garden. 



169 



garden. In such a case it is good to make a virtue of a necessity and use the 
well as an opportunity for an interesting architectural feature. In Fig. 239 is 
shown a well and pump-house at Pitsford, which Mr. Morley Horder has treated 
attractively. The roof space serves as a pigeon-cote. 

It is hoped that this chapter may give a stimulus to the use of water in the formal 
garden. Its employment as a decorative element fell into great neglect during the 
Victorian period, and is even now imperfectly understood. It is true that it took an 
important place in some of the big gardens which owed their design to such men 




FIG. 238. AT SUTTON COURTENAY. 



iyo 



Water in the Formal Garden. 



as Sir Joseph Paxton, but it was not very wisely employed. As early as 1821 Paxton 
made a large lake at Battlesden Park, where he was employed as gardener, and he 
was responsible for the great fountains at Chatsworth. The work of his school, how- 
ever, showed no sound appreciation of the possibilities of water. The lessons of 
Versailles and Hampton Court had been w r asted as far as the nineteenth century was 
concerned. Especially was this the case in the use of water as an element in the design 
of small gardens. The qualities that make for successful treatment of limited spaces 
are the same in principle as in the case of big areas ; the differences are only 
in detail. 

We need not be so dogmatic as Bernard Palissy, the great French potter of the 
sixteenth century, who wrote : ' It is impossible to have a spot proper for a garden 
unless there be some fountain or stream passing through it." Nevertheless, our 
illustrations show how great an aid water brings to the designer of gardens, and 
with water companies spreading their mains far into country districts, much can be 
done without the ideal means of a natural stream. 






FIG. 239. PUMP-HOUSE AT PITSFORD. 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 



CHAPTER XV. METHODS OF PAVING. 

Rectangular Jointing Random Jointing Local Methods Pitched Paving Paving 

of Shingle of Brick and Tile. 

IN some portions of the garden, and especially near the house, some kind of paving 
is sure to be wanted. Where a suitable local stone exists, it is, of course, the best 
thing that can be used, although the style of the house may be a determining 
influence in the choice of the material. Thus, a house of eighteenth century character 
or a garden of formal design seems to demand a pavement of squared flags of York 
or Portland stone (Fig. 243), while a house of the cottage class may be content with 
random-jointed stone, or even with a few rough-edged flat slabs laid like stepping- 
stones through grass and flowers, to give a dry footway to a modest entrance (Fig. 242). 
Stones of the Yorkshire class, and also those related to slate, present smooth surfaces 
by natural cleavage, and are 
the most suitable for using 
as rectangular flags- -there is 
something distasteful about 
laying them with " random " 
joints. It is sometimes done, 
but always has a displeasing 
appearance, whereas such 
treatment is unobjectionable 
in the rougher-surfaced sand- 
stones. 

Some of the most inter- 
esting methods of paving are 
those that are peculiar to a 
district that grow directly 
out of the employment of 
some local product that has 
stimulated inventive use 
from past ages. There are 
a few square miles in West 
Surrey where the hard sand- 
stone called Bargate stone is 
quarried. A quite different 
kind of stone, largely com- 
posed of iron, also occurs 
in small pieces close to the 
ground-level. Many of these, 
weather- washed for ages, are 
of a form that presents one 
or two sides or ends with a 
flat surface. A typical stone 
would be three to four inches 






~^*T*^r^^r^^^^*T^Tjr 




to 

-1 



FIG. 240. A SUMMER-HOUSE PAVING OF IRONSTONE AND 
BARGATE STONE. 



172 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 




T<IG. 241. PAVING SIMPLY TREATED WITH STONES OF NATURAL SHAPE. 



Methods of Paving. 




FIG. 242. ROUGH-EDGED 
SLABS. 



in length, an inch 
wide and three 
inches deep. For 
hundreds of years 
they have been 
used by the 
country people, set 
on edge, as a 
" pitched " paving, 
often with a deeper 
kerb of the hard 
sandstone. Whole 
inn-yards may be 
found of such 
pavement. Some- 
times they were 
set in patterns and 
are so used now, 
with guiding lines 
of the yellowish 
sandstone and a 
filling of the pur- 
plish black iron- 
stone. Fig. 240 
shows such a 




FIG. 243. PAVEMENT OF RECTANGULAR FLAGS 
OF PORTLAND STONE. 




FIG. 244. STONE PAVING WITH " RANDOM " JOINTS. 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 




Methods of Paving. 




FIG. 246. PAVING JOINTED TO FOLLOW THE TERRACE PLAN. 




PLAN 



FIG. 247. PLAN SHOWING SUITABLE 

PLANTING FOR THE SIDE-JOINTS OF 

A PAVED PATH. 




FIG. 248. PAVEMENT OF RECTANGULAR FLAGS IN A ROSE GARDEN BY MR. GILBERT FRASER AND 

MR. T. H. MAWSON. 



176 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 




FIG. 249. AN OLD SUSSEX CHURCH PAVING OF BRICK. 





FIG. 25O. PAVEMENT RATHER OVER-PLANTED IN THE MIDDLE. 



pavement as the floor of a 
summer-house. 

In the case of places near 
the sea, pretty pavings can be 
made by collecting stones of 
different colours from among 
banks of shingle. There is 
hardly a shingle beach that 
does not contain stones that 
are nearly black and nearly 
white, and others with several 
shades of buff and brown, only 
waiting for the invention and 
ingenuity that will work them 
into patterned pavements. 

When it is not convenient 
or desirable to use stone there 
is the alternative of brick and 
tile, materials which also offer 
a wide field for thoughtful and 
clever treatment. The circular 
paving round the sundial (Fig, 
245) shows how ordinary paving 
bricks may be laid, with- 
out any shaping of the bricks, 
in a way that is extremely 
simple and yet full of dignity. 
A radiating pavement of tile 
and brick can also be made of 
roofing tile on edge forming the 
rays with a herring-bone filling, 
of brick. A pavement under 



Methods of Paving. 



177 



(^=^e^^>=^^^^^== : ^c^ 
9 THIN TILES BROK 




2 *4"*4" PURPLE HEADEJR5 

U 




i\ 9"-9|iOCTACpNAL 

x/BRICKS V 






U 



nnnnr nnnnnf 

I"*.a>9" THIN TILES ; 
OR 2"* 4* * 4* PURPLE HEADERS 



>" BORDER BRICKS 



1 

FEET 



FIG. 251. BRICK AND TILE PAVING. 




2"9*9 SQUARES 



II 6 O 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



FEET 



FIG. 252. BRICK AND TILE PAVING. 



the pergola at Marsh Court (Fig. 263) of large stone flags, with filling of brick, 
is simple and stately. In more than one old church in Sussex there is a paving of 
red brick set in a pattern that suggests interwoven ribbons (Fig. 249). The 
small dark squares were specially prepared by bricks of the usual size, having 
the surface deeply channelled in the mould so as to form eight divisions. These bricks 
were then " flare-burnt," the surface acquiring a purple colour and half vitrified quality, 
while the deep scoring made them easy to cut into the small squares. Paving bricks 
are also moulded to special patterns, as with one end diamond-pointed for the fitting 
of four ends together, as in Fig. 254, the square inter-spaces being filled with nine-inch 
tiles. Fig. 253 shows an example of a tracery of sections of half-round tile connected 
with small pieces of roofing tile, with filling of another material, and Figs. 251 and 252 
illustrate various ways of using pieces of roofing tile and brick on edge with paving 
tiles of square and octagonal form. 



Methods of Paving. 



1 

111 




FEET 

FIG. 253. BRICK AND TILE PAVING. 




'? 



FEET 

FIG. 254. BRICK AND TILE PAVING. 



Any person of inventive capacity and some skill in handicraft can make 
delightful pavements with tesserae of pieces of broken roofing tiles. The tesserae 
are prepared by cutting the pieces of tile into small cubes of approximately the 
same size with a cold chisel and hammer ; they are then set to the pattern 
desired in mortar or cement on a concrete bed prepared beforehand, and brought 
up to a suitable level. 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 



179 



CHAPTER XVI. THE PERGOLA. 

Italian Pergolas English, of Oak Of Larch Poles With Stone, Brick and Tile Piers- 
Proportions Garlands on Chains Suitable Plants Covered Alleys Treillage. 

WHEN one considers how commonly some kind of pergola is used in Italy, it 
would seem a matter for wonder that it has taken so long to reach us in 
England, for twenty years ago it had hardly been thought of. But now 
it is a familiar garden feature, and, translating its original use as a convenient means 
of growing vines and ripening grapes into our English way of having it for the 
display of beautiful climbing plants, as well as for its comfort as a shady way in 
summer, its development for our needs has of late years been surprisingly rapid. 
In fact, so popular has it become that there is scarcely an example of modern garden 
design in which it does not 
find a place. It is true that 
it is often injudiciously placed. 
There are many gardens that 
have not had the benefit of 
experienced advice, where a 
poorly - constructed pergola 
stands in some open place where 
it has no obvious beginning or 
end ; whereas it should always 
lead from one definite point 
to another ; one at least being 
some kind of full-stop, either 
of summer-house or arbour, 
or, at any rate, something of 
definite value in the garden 
design. 

As to construction, we 
follow in the main the Italian 
prototypes. In many cases 
the pergola is a mere frame- 
work of poles (as shown in 
Fig. 255), replaced from year 
to year, either wholly or in 
part as the need arises, or it 
has posts of solid masonry. 
These are commonly built of 
rubble, thickly covered with 
that lime plaster of coarse 
texture that is so well used 
by Italian masons. These 
columns are sometimes square, 
but more often round in FIG. 255. A PERGOLA OF POLES IN VENICE. 




i8o 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 




FIG. 256. PIERS OF RUBBLE, PLASTERED, AT AMALFJ. 



The Pergola. 



181 



section (Fig. 256). In some cases even, marble pillars from some ruined ancient 
building are brought into use always with a satisfying effect of solidity and 
permanence. 

When in our British gardens there can be no question of such solid treatment 
and only rough wood is available, the posts of the pergola are best made of oak trunks 
of anything from eight inches to ten inches diameter. Their lifetime can be 
lengthened by stripping the bark off the butts for a length of three feet and coating 
the stripped part with gas-tar. Charring in the fire is even better, but is less con- 
venient to do in the case of heavy posts. It is important that the tarring or charring 
should be carried to a height of quite a foot clear of the ground, the danger-spot 
being at the ground-line and just above it. The oak posts being set up, a rather 
slighter log, adzed at the ends on what is to be the under side (so as to lie flat and 
steady), is spiked to each pair of posts across the path, any slight curvature of the 




FIG. 257. LARCH PERGOLA OF TOO SLIGHT A CONSTRUCTION. 

log being taken advantage of to show some degree of upward camber. Nothing 
looks weaker or less satisfactory than a cross-beam that swags downwards, as it does 
naturally when of weak stuff, or if not adzed at the ends to give a firm seat. This 
weak effect shows in the larch pergola illustrated in Fig. 257, which is altogether too 
slight in construction. Pergolas of this class often show such cross-beams of weak, 
drooping form, and stiff, straight braces cut out of the larch tops. The braces are 
better when shaped as in the picture of the pergola with a paved path and fir trees at 
the end (Fig. 258), where they are cut out of branches that have a little upward curve. 
The example built of larch poles supporting gourds is cleverly done, the braces 
of alternate posts taking a wide angle, and, after passing and being spiked to the 
beam, joining at a ridge point ; the wider angle helps to give more rigidity to a 



l82 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 



UHB 



flimsy structure and the prolongation affords more spacious support to the shoots 
of the gourds (Fig. 259). Often a house and garden are occupied on a short 
tenancy, such as three years ; in this case such a pergola of short lifetime would 
form a delightful feature. 

When it is possible to build with solid piers, we see how thoroughly our architects 

and garden designers 
have assimilated the 
pergola idea, and the 
many and various 
ways in which they 
are working it out 
and adapting it for 
combination with 
other structures. 
In the example at St. 
Clere, Kemsing (Fig. 
260), designed by Mr. 
Godfrey Pinkerton, 
it covers a wide 
flagged terrace 
adjoining one side of 
the racquet court. 
The piers are built 
of large, flat paving 
tiles resting on a 
stone step, and have 
stone caps and bases. 
They carry a heavy, 
continuous beam: 
lesser beams, with 
one end resting on 
this, have their other 
ends treated putlog 
fashion and built 
into the house wall. 
A singularly satis- 
factory pergola by 
Mr. Inigo Triggs 
(Fig. 261) is built of 
ordinary brick with 
wide mortar joint, 
on short plinths of 
rough local stone, 

FIG. 258. OF LARCH POLES WITH WELL-SHAPED BRACES. with Steps of the 

same. Oak timbers 

from an old building form the roof. Chains hang from post to post for the future 
training of roses as garlands. In a very beautiful open pergola at Marsh Court, 
designed by Mr. Lutyens (Fig. 263), the piers are built of tiles with wide joints ; 
they have stone plinths and moulded stone caps, the section being square and 
concave square alternately. This fine example also shows the value of the solid, 




The Pergola. 



183 



slightly cambered beam. 
In some cases a good 
effect is gained by build- 
ing the piers round and 
square alternately (Fig. 
264) . It is not difficult 
to have bricks specially 
moulded for building in 
the circular form. At 
Home Place, Norfolk 
(Fig. 265), a clever use is 
made of cobble stones 
by Mr. E. S. Prior, where 
four round cobble piers 
are set four-square on a 
circular platform raised 
on two steps, which 
forms the centre of wide, 
flagged, radiating paths. 
A good effect is gained, 
and might be more 
often obtained in build- 
ing generally, by not filling up the putlog holes. A fruit-room at Chelwood 
Vetchery, five sides of an octagon in plan, is happily treated by Mr. Rome 




FIG. 259. GOURDS ON LARCH FRAMEWORK. 




FIG. 260. A WELL-BUILT PERGOLA ADJOINING RACQUET COURT AT ST. CLERE. 



184 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 




FIG. 26l. PIERS OF BRICK AND STONE 




FIG. 262. A PERGOLA WITH PIERS, SOME ROUND, SOME SQUARE. 



The Pergola. 



185 



Guthrie, with a surrounding pergola following the same plan (Fig. 266). The piers 
are circular in section, of a light-coloured brick, and stand upon a flagged platlorm. 
The whole is planted with vines, the most beautiful of all pergola plants. 

Brick piers at the ends, with wooden ones between, and a roofing of trellis over 
a brick pavement, form a pergola at Sandhouse, Sandhills, Witley (Fig. 267), from 
the design of Mr. F. W. Troup. This pergola is unusually high in proportion to 
its width. It is in general more agreeable to let the width across the path be greater 
than the height, as in the example by Mr. Walter Cave at Ewelme Down, where 
some specimens of topiary work in tubs are placed at the ends of paths (Fig. 268). 



"N 




FIG. 263. PIERS OF TILES, WIDE-JOINTED. 

A pergola of open structure by Mr. J. P. White at Garston Park gives partial 
shelter to a garden door. Under it is a wide, flagged terrace, slightly sloping away 
from the house to throw off rain, the joints near the planted piers being left open 
for the benefit of the climbers. Against the house is an interesting reproduction 
of the old-fashioned perspective treillage (Fig. 269). 

For a general guide as to dimensions, it may be taken that the piers may be 
anything from seven feet two inches to eight feet out of the ground, eight feet to 
nine feet apart across the paths, and nine feet to twelve feet apart in the length of 



i86 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 




ID 

c* 



The Pergola. 




FIG. 265. A MEETING-PLACE OF RADIATING PATHS. 




FIG. 266. A PERGOLA SURROUNDING A FRUIT-ROOM. 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 







the path. It is often a convenience, especially in the case of wooden posts, to have 
the roofing of flat iron arches ; but in this case it is well to fasten some kind of wooden 
rods or slight trellis to the iron, the contact with cold iron in winter tending to check 
and damage some plants. When chains hang from post to post to form garlands, 
it is also well to wind a tarred cord rather closely round the chain, so that the shoots 
rest on the cord and not on the chain. But a better way is to have two chains 
spread apart about six inches with rigid iron ties, for the training to this is more 

under control. All gardeners 
who have had to do with rose 
garlands know the trouble of the 
whole thing swinging round to 
the under side, like a saddle 
turning on a horse. 

In some large gardens iron 
pergolas have been adapted for 
the growing of pears and apples 
trained as cordons (Figs. 270 
and 271). They are formed of 
successive arches, all in one 
piece, of thick iron rod, with 
wires fastened longitudinally. 
They form a pleasant as well as 
interesting shady path, and, as 
the trees are necessarily pruned 
to short spurs, the quantity of 
bloom is a wonderful sight in 
proportion to the space. 

As a general rule, the per- 
gola is most satisfactory when 
on level ground, and when it 
is straight from end to end ; 
but it is sometimes convenient 
for it to follow nights of steps 
and landings leading from one 
level to another. Such a case 
has been cleverly treated at 
Acremead in Kent (Figs. 272 
and 273), to the design of Mr. 
Dunbar Smith and Mr. Cecil 
Brewer, where it goes straight 
downhill, with solid square piers 




FIG. 267. AT SANDHOUSE. 



of local stone. Easy flights of 
steps and landings give access 
to paths at right angles. As to the best plants for pergolas, there is nothing more 
delightful than grape vines, or for other good foliage aristolochia and Virginia 
creeper. Where flowering plants are desired, there are wistaria, clematis, and 
preferably the kinds near the species such as montana, Flammula and Vitalba, 
white jasmine, Japan honeysuckle, Dutch honeysuckle (both of the early and late 
kinds), Bignonia radicans and climbing roses. But roses on pergolas need great care 
in regulating by pruning and training, their inclination being to run up to the top, 



The Pergola. 




FIG. 268. AT EWELME DOWN. 




FIG. 26q. A PERGOLA SHELTERING A GARDEN DOOR. 




FIG. 270. A PERGOLA OF CORDON FRUIT TREES. 




FIG. 271. OUTER VIEW OF THE FRUIT PERGOLA. 



The Pergola. 



191 




so that unless the pergola is on a lower terrace and is seen from above, the beauty 
of the mass of bloom is lost. There are also a number of shrubs and small trees 
that can be adapted for pergola use, one of the best being laburnum. At West 
Dean in Sussex there is a complete tunnel of laburnum with an ivy arch at the 
two ends (Fig. 275). Among other shrubs that can be trained to the same use are 
guelder roses, 
Pyrus Mains flori- 
bunda, snowy 
mespilus, laurus- 
t i n u s, common 
laurel, Solanum 
crispum and Robi- 
nia hispida. 

The pleached 
alleys of our 
Tudor ancestors 
have much in 
common with 
the pergola. 
Columns, arches 
and whole gal- 
leries of shady 
verdure, trained 
on a founda- 
tion of wooden 
treillage, are de- 
scribed by Bacon. 
They were com- 
monly planted 
with hornbeam 
or wych elm. 
Treillage was also 
used to a large 
extent in French 
gardens in the 
eighteenth c e n- 
tury, but it is only 
now that it is 
being revived in 
England. In Fig. 
274 is shown an ex- 
ample by Mr. J. P. 
White with walls, 
arbours and rose 
temples. 

There is still 
earlier record of 
something of the 
pergola kind in 
England, for in 



FIG. 272. AT ACREMEAD I PLAN AND SECTION. 




FIG. 273. STEPPED PERGOLA AT ACREMEAD. 



192 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 




The Pergola. 



193 



William Horman's " Vulgaria," published in 1519, nearly a century earlier than the 
works of Bacon, these passages occur : " Aleys in gardens covered with Vynes and 
railed up with wythe stakis vaute wyse do great pleasure with the shadowe in 
parchynge heat." And further : "A vyne clevynge to his railes with his twyndynge 
stringis and lette hangynge down his clusters of grapis maketh a plesaunt walkynge 
aley." 




FIG. 275. A GREEN TUNNEL OF LABURNUM. 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 



CHAPTER XVII. GATES AND GATEWAYS. 

Entrance Stairways Gates to Forecourts Carriage Gates Notes on Eighteenth 
Century Smiths Gateways and Vistas In Walled Gardens Wooden Gates. 

BOTH before and since Robinson Crusoe '" made up the Entrance, which till 
now I had left open," the treatment of the way into house and garden has 
been fruitful of varied opportunity. Crusoe was concerned for the safety 
of his house and gear, and had an eye to those same needs of defence that find such 
delightful architectural expression in moat and bridge, gatehouse and portcullis. The 
small house and garden, however, raise no such military problems, and the 
possibilities are limited to the treatment of archways in high walls, gates that break 
the line of low walls and sometimes the provision of steps. In Fig. 276 is shown an 




FIG. 276. GATE AND MOUNTING BLOCK AT CLEEVE PRIOR. 



Gates and Gateways. 



1 95 




FIG. 277. AT BIDDESTONE MANOR. 



196 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 



attractive pair of wooden gates approached 
by two curved steps. Beyond them a 
mounting block witnesses to the days before 
petrol had all but supplanted horseman- 
ship. The entrance to Biddestone Manor 
(Fig. 277) shows the good effect of a simple 
and well-designed pair of stone piers and 
a longer flight of steps. The battery of 
Time and lichen have left their tender 
marks on this typical Cotswold ashlar- 
work. When the house is close to a 
frequented road it ensures a larger privacy 
if the wall is carried high and the doorway 
made in an arched opening, as in the 
example designed by Mr. Walter Brierley, 
and shown in Fig. 279. A sense of security 
s given by filling the tympanum of the 





FIG. 279. ENTRANCE FROM ROAD TO SMALL GARDEN. 



FIG. 278. GATEWAY TO A COURTYARD. 

arch with wrought-iron work, and the 
gate is the easier to open from not being 
the full width of the opening. A similar 
treatment is shown in Fig. 278, where an 
iron gate gives entrance to a paved 
courtyard. 

The steady increase in the use of 
motor-cars by people of moderate means 
tends to make a carriage entrance 
necessary for houses of quite modest 
size. Many are content with the pro- 
vision of a simple field gate ; but when 
something more ambitious is contemplated, 
the design of the gates themselves and of 



Gates and Gateways. 



197 




FIG. 280. TREATMENT OF WALL AND GATES. 



the adjoining walls is a serious factor in 
the artistic success of the house and its 
approach. The disposition of the entrance 
to a Berkshire house designed by Mr. W. 
J. Parker is somewhat ambitious in scale, 
but its plan shows a treatment appropriate 
to small houses if carried out on smaller 
lines. From the brick piers at the ends of 
the boundary walls the line of the wall 
curves inwards to the piers of the carriage 
gates (Fig. 280) . In these curved wings on 
either side of the main carriage gates (Fig. 281) are set two foot-gates and two round 
grilles (Figs. 282 and 283), all of which gave pleasant opportunity for the art of the 
modern smith. The wise choice of iron gates of good design has considerable bearing 
on the successful appearance of an entrance. So many eighteenth century houses 
in towns are now being demolished that old gates can often be acquired at reason- 
able prices, and the chance of finding one is worth enquiry and some little trouble ; 
but caution is necessary. Old gates are not worth buying unless they are in a 
satisfactory condition, because repairs to them are apt to cost almost as much as new 
gates. Moreover, it is a mistake to be led into buying a gate, however pleasant its 

design, if it is not of the right 
size and proportion for the 
opening that needs to be filled. 
The \vriter of this bears in 
mind an unhappy friend. Ten 
years ago he bought a gate and 
stretch of railing of admirable 
design and in good repair, in 
the hope that it would "fit in 
somewhere," but he has never 
contrived a place for it. The 
methods of the " bargain sale " 
do not apply conveniently to 
architecture. It may be 
helpful, however, to set down 
notes on some typical work of 
the old smiths, in order to 
show the sort of work which is 
good and pleasant, whether it 
be old or new. Fig. 285 shows 
a delightful gate of the size 
suitable for the entrance of a 
small country house. It is 
fixed in a wall between two 
gardens, and never served as 
a carriage gate, for there is in- 
sufficient head-room under the 
" overthrow," but in character 
of treatment it is very instruc- 
FIG. 281. THE CARRIAGE GATES. tive. It was made in 1720, 




Gardens for Small Country Houses. 



and is traditionally believed to be the work of the Brothers Roberts. The 
character of the work supports the tradition. The year 1719 is the earliest that 

^^^ can be associated with the independent 
activities of the Roberts, for they then did 
the very elaborate gates at Chirk Castle. 

- - They do not seem to have worked much 

outside Shropshire, Cheshire and Wales. 



FIG. 202. GRILLE IN SCREENWALL. 




FIG. 283. FOOT-GATE. 



FIG. 284. VISTA BETWEEN TWO GATES IN WALLED 
GARDEN. 

Leeswood, near Mold, Emral, Eaton Hall 
and Shrewsbury were among the places 
that boasted notable examples from their 
smithy. The design of the gate illustrated 
in Fig. 285 is the best guide to its attribution. 
No one could have made it in 1720 who had 



Gates and Gateways. 



199 



not fallen under the spell of Tijou or at least of his book of designs. The 
horizontal lines are heavily emphasised and the embossed shells at the top of 
the side panels are unusually prominent. The "overthrow" of the gate is 
very marked by the range of embossed acanthus leaves (derived apparently 
from Tijou's gadroon and acanthus border) which connect the two stout 
horizontals supporting the pyramid of scrollwork, etc. A rather unusual feature 
is the trio of oval rings at the base of each side panel. The embossed leaves are well 
executed, though without the natural swirl that characterises them in Tijou's work 
and connects them organically with the iron tendrils to which they are fixed. For 
all that, their placing in the design is very happily managed, and could not have been 
done by a smith who 
knew nothing of 
Tijou's pioneer work. 
The execution is very 
good, and the repairs 
which Mr. C. G. Hare 
has lately superin- 
tended fortunately 
did not need to be 
extensive. No doubt 
the succeeding 
owners of the gate 
have been careful to 
keep the ironwork 
painted. Without 
such attention the 
slight substance of 
the embossed work 
would long since 
have rusted away. 
Modern craftsmen 
doing similar leaf- 
work commonly use 
sheet copper or sheet 
bronze, which defies 
the weather and can 
be blacked as easily 
as sheet iron. 

The history of 
English wrought-iron 
gates can hardly be 
said to have begun 
until the advent of 
Jean Tijou in 1689. 
Further particulars 
of the career of this 
great artist are given 
in a chapter, (by Mr. 
J. Starkie Gardner) 
in The House and FIG. 285. GARDEN GATE MADE BY THE BROTHERS ROBERTS. 




2OO 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 



its Equipment. Tijou's influence was not, how- 
ever, universal. Without him English smiths 
would probably have continued to make strong 
gates and railings of straightforward design, with 
little fancy ; but it is unlikely that they would 
have adopted the repousse work which is so 
characteristic of Tijou. His influence is clearly 
shown in the delightful gate at Wotton House 
(Fig. 287). Despite the obvious attractions of the 
new methods, the national liking for a large restraint 
in craftsmanship persisted even under the very eye 
of Tijou. While he was working at St. Paul's some 
less important commissions in the Cathedral were 
entrusted to Thomas Robinson, who was evidently 
an individualist, for he did not follow at all closely 





FIG. 287 AT WOTTON HOUSE. 



FIG. 286. AT WYCH CROSS PLACE. 

in Tijou's steps. Where he 
used embossing it was with 
imperfect understanding of its 
possibilities. When he was free 
from the master's influence 
and began working at New 
College, Oxford, about 1711, 
he discarded the Tijou style 
and developed a simpler manner 
of his own which is markedly 
English. Warren and (despite 
his Dutch - sounding name) 
Buncker did work of a similar 
kind during the first quarter 
of the eighteenth century. The 
gates at Packwood House, 
Birmingham (Fig. 288), and at 
Norton Cony ers (Fig. 289), show 
this more restrained note in 
design, the latter in a marked 
degree. 

The majority of the gates 
of the first half of the eighteenth 



Gates and Gateways. 



201 




CO 

oo 



202 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 



century the golden age of the English smith are of this simple type. Embossed 
work is used sparingly, and the basis of their designs is scrolled work taking the 
form of lyres and G's, variously combined and enriched by water-leaves. 
Occasionally there is a diversion into naturalesque forms, when terminals spread 

out as bunches of 
laurel leaves. What 
may be called the 
London type was 
essentially sober, 
though rich in treat- 
ment, and it is this 
type which should 
be followed in the 
entrance and garden 
gates of the small 
modern house. They 
should be built of 
stout bars. Satisfac- 
tory results cannot 
be got from flimsy 
sections, and the 
temptation to use 
light material to save 
cost is to be resisted. 
Far better a simple 
gate of adequate 
sections than one 
bedecked with 
acanthus but lacking 
strength. 

Where there is 
a garden-house 
approached by a 
long walk with an 
opening in the wall 
at the end of it, as 
at Norton Conyers 
(Fig. 289), it is per- 
missible that the 
gate should be of less 
sturdy build, so that 
the full value of the 
distant picture be 
not lesse n e d . 
Another example of 
this is seen in the 

very light gate in a wall that divides two long paths at Wych Cross Place (Fig. 286). 
Considerable space has been given to historical notes on the design of iron gates 
because so many garden pictures are spoiled by ugly examples, but the placing of 




FIG. 289. AT NORTON CONYERS. 



the gates is an even more important question. 



Gates and Gateways. 



203 




FIG. 290. AT WITTERSHAM HOUSE. 



was my happy chance 
to have entrance into a 
goodly gardene plotte," 
he unfortunately did not 
say what manner of gate 
let him in, but we may 
imagine it was at the 
end of a long alley such 
as the Elizabethans loved. 
In the planning of 
gardens the gates of 
walled enclosures can 
often be placed on axial 
lines, so that the full 
value of a vista may be 
secured. The gateways 
illustrated in Fig. 284 
show this well. 

Walled gardens are 
especially favourable to 




FIG. 291. AT GREAT MAYTHAM : MAIN GATE TO WALLED GARDEN. 



204 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 



interesting gate treatment, as may be 
seen in Figs. 291 and 292, which show 
examples at Great Maytham designed by 
Mr. Lutyens. The larger gate is the chief, 
and the smaller a subsidiary entrance to 
the same garden. By the same hand, 
but on a much smaller scale, is a little 
gateway in the garden of Wittersham 
House (Fig. 290). The outlines of the 
ironwork are of the simplest, but the 
gate has the quiet distinction which 
follows good design even on the smallest 
scale and in the humblest materials. 

Although the chief place of gates will 
always be at the entrance to carriage-ways 
and in walled gardens, a long terrace some- 
times gives opportunity, as at Chelwood 
Vetchery, the seat of Sir Stuart Samuel, 
Bart., M.P. Mr. Rome Guthrie has here 
marked a drop in terrace level by an iron 
gate between brick piers at the head of a 
flight of steps curved on plan. 

In Fig. 284 is shown a good pattern 
of wooden garden gate, made of stout 




FIG. 292. IN THE WALLED GARDEN AT GREAT 
MAYTHAM. 




FIG. 293. AT CHELWOOD VETCHERY. 



Gates and Gateways. 



205 




FIG. 294. WOODEN DOOR WITH POSTERN. 



206 



Gates and Gateways. 



oak bars. Though itself modern, it is of earlier type than those of wrought iron 
which have been described. Sometimes for the sake of greater privacy a solid 
wooden door is desirable, as in the attractive old Tudor example with a postern 
which is illustrated in Fig. 294. Always satisfactory and with the added merit of 
being very inexpensive are doors of simple wood trellis, such as Mr. Lutyens has 
employed at Great Maytham (Fig. 295). 

Not less important than the gates themselves are their posts. The Packwood 
House example (Fig. 288) is built in rusticated brickwork with a simple stepped top, 
but the eighteenth century was much addicted to ball finials, as at Norton Conyers 
(Fig. 289), and no better finish can be devised. For smaller gates the treatment shown 
in Fig. 287 is admirable ; the steps in the wall make the upper part of the opening 
wide, and give opportunity for an overthrow of more imposing design than the width 
of the gate itself would allow. It is a happy compromise between a simple narrow 
gate and one with a pair of side panels running the full height, as at Norton Conyers 
(Fig. 289). 

A word on the undue growth of creepers is never out of season. The wanton 
growth of ivy on the left gatepost in Fig. 288 shows how this noxious weed veils cornice 
mouldings and destroys architectural proportion and balance. In addition, there 
is to be remembered the deadly injury done by ivy shoots in penetrating and 
loosening the joints, until in an evil day it pulls down the fabric which has endured 
its baleful embrace. 

Stairways of all kinds are considered in their proper chapter, but reference 
may be made here to the curved steps, built of brick on edge, which add so 
greatly to the charm of the gate at Packwood House (Fig. 288). 




FIG. 295. A TRELLIS DOOR. 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 



207 



CHAPTER XVIII. -GARDEN-HOUSES. 

The Place of Summer-houses in General Scheme Building in Vernacular Manners- 
Thatched Roofs Cob Use of Old Materials In Walled Gardens Shelters 
and Tool-houses. 

THE success of summer-houses and pavilions, considered as elements of garden 
design, depends as much upon their skilful placing as upon their form and 
materials. It may be laid down that, in cases where the pavilion is near 
the main house and related to it by path or pergola, it should have the same 
architectural treatment. By way of example we may refer to Fig. 296, which 
shows a design by Mr. H. Inigo Triggs. In this case the pavilion serves as a 
focus for the other elements of the design. It is connected with the house by a 
pergola, and its four windows overlook the lawn, the sunk garden, etc. It is proper, 
therefore, that it should be of the same half-timber construction as the house, to 
which it stands in a definite relation. It is an outpost where the amenities of the 
house and its more gentle employments can be enjoyed in a garden atmosphere. From 
the architectural point of view it is an added value in such a pavilion that 
it gives dignity and scale to the main building. This is notably the case at 



A'3^~^g 

v%m1^ 

-^JPfe 




*npt??$$K* ''tV-* ;1. 

FIG. 296. A GARDEN-HOUSE DESIGNED BY MR. INIGO TRIGGS 



208 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 




Hurtwood (Fig. 298), where the 
simple gazebo at the corner of the 
terrace emphasises the height of 
the house behind, and serves as 
a pleasant resting-place whence 
the beauties of the outlook may 
be enjoyed. Its situation above 
the lily pool helps to mark the 
charms arising from the wise 
treatment of a site that slopes 




FIG. 298. AT HURTWOOD I GARDEN-HOUSE ABOVE LILY POOL. 



FIG. 297. GARDEN-HOUSE AT ATHEL- 
HAMPTON. 



sharply. Similar advantage has 
been taken of a difference in 
level between two important 
sections of a garden at Atriel- 
hampton (Fig. 297), where the 
windows of the pavilion command 
both an upper lawn and a long 
vista of path and border on the 
low side of a clipped hedge. 
Where a forecourt or terrace 



Garden-houses. 



209 



has been built up on a hillside, a 
corner gazebo, like that shown in 
Fig. 299, designed by Mr. Walter 
Cave, seems to buttress the terrace, 
while it serves as a delightful 
vantage-point whence the country 
round may be espied. The quality 
to be aimed at in all garden archi- 
tecture is coherence in the relation- 
ship of parts. A pavilion should 
not stand alone, but be tied to the 
rest of the scheme by orderly design. 
Where the house is of definitely 
classic form, it is permissible that the 
summer-houses shall take on the 
aspect of a little temple. In Mr. 
Arnold Mitchell's garden at Great 
Baddow, illustrated in Fig. 300, the 
vista made by path and borders is 





FIG. 300. -AT THE END OF A LONG WALK. 



FIG. 299. GAZEBO AT CORNER OF TERRACED FORECOURT- 

closed by a pleasant little classical conceit in 
stone. In the case of houses of no marked 
style, it is better for the design of pavilions to 
follow the vernacular traditions of simple 
building proper to various districts. 

A garden at Liphook shows the pleasant 
results of rough masonry and tiles employed 
in two summer-houses designed by Mr. 
W. T. A. T. Carter (Figs. 301 and 302). One 
has a hexagonal roof in the corner of the wall ; 
the other is of L plan, which marks the end of 



210 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 




FIG. 301. AN ANGLE SUMMER-HOUSE NEAR LIPHOOK- 




Fir. 302. AND ANOTHER OF UNUSUAL PLAN. 



Garden-houses. 



211 



the wall, and has a delightful little conical 
roof rising at the angle. This unusual and 
interesting plan has the practical advan- 
tage that the occupants of the pavilion 
have two views, one down the path to the 
first summer-house, the other across the 
lawn. Reference must also be made to 
the treatment of the wall. The stepping 
in its parapet is emphasised by the crown- 
ing of the piers by simple ornaments of 
obelisk type which have quite a Jacobean 
flavour. But they are no more than old 
rick-stones, and their mushroom-shaped 
tops have been placed under the stalks to 
serve as bases. It was an ingenious 
thought to give these old features of the 
farmyard a new lease of life as garden 
decorations. At The Grove, Mill Hill, 
Mr. Stanley Hamp has designed a pleasant 
garden - house (Fig. 303) in brick and 
timber, which is the more interesting for 





FIG. 304. THATCHED HOUSE IN NORFOLK. 



FIG. 303. AT THE GROVE, MILL HILL. 

being set on the side of a sharp slope. 
Rising as it does from a well-grown 
herbaceous border, it dominates its 
surroundings in very agreeable fashion, 
and looks across a wide stretch of 
garden to the house, with which it 
accords well. 

The thatched pavilion at Happis- 
burgh, Norfolk, designed by Mr. 
Detmar Blow, is in a vernacular 
manner (Fig. 304). The house which 
it adjoins is also thatched. In general 
this roof treatment needs to be em- 
ployed with discretion. Sometimes a 
rustic pavilion, log-built and thatched, 
will be placed in relation to a. house 



212 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 




Garden-houses. 



213 



of some definite architectural period, 
such as Georgian, and only succeeds in 
creating the idea that its builder is 
playing at rusticity. When, however, a 
summer-house is placed in a remote 
corner of a garden and bears no definite 
relation to the main house, some latitude 
is permissible. Nothing could be more 
attractive than the Devonshire example 
illustrated in Fig. 305, where a thatched 
summer-house shelters in the corner of 
a walled garden. In this case the walls 
are built of " cob," i.e., of earth rammed 





FIG. 307. BUILT OF OLD MATERIALS. 



FIG. 306. AT LITTLE BOARHUNT, LIPHOOK. 

in the local fashion, which has prevailed 
for centuries. A cob wall (or pise, as 
it used to be called early in the nine- 
teenth century) will last almost for 
ever, if it is built on a stout foundation of 
stone or brick or concrete, and if it is 
soundly roofed with thatch, so that the 
wet is kept from its sole and its head. 
Where the natural treatment of the 
adjoining wall is thatching, it is wholly 
fitting that the summer-house should be 
roofed in the same fashion. The solecism 
to be avoided is the importation into 
a part of the country, where thatch is 
unknown, of a ready-made thatched 
pavilion framed in barked logs, which 
are too often made garish and ridiculous 
by yellow varnish. 



214 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 



The use of old materials of the disjecta 
membra of demolished buildings -- is a 
piece of amateur antiquarianism which 
needs to be approached with some 
reserve. There are cases, however, where 
an old set of columns will take their 
places faithfully and naturally as the 
supports of a new-built garden-house. 
Such a use , is illustrated in Fig. 307. 
It is the more appropriate because this 





FIG. 309. ROUND GARDEN-HOUSE AT LITTLE RIDGE. 



FIG. 308. OF TWO STOREYS. 

delightful curved pavilion, with the 
tiles well " swept " in the making of 
its conical roof, adorns the garden of 
an old house in Broadway, where a 
ripe age gives the prevailing atmo- 
sphere. A pavilion built up of ill- 
assorted Elizabethan fragments may, 
however, look very uncomfortable 
in a garden which owes its design 
wholly to the eighteenth century. 
In the gardens of small new houses 
it is far safer to accept modernity as 
the governing factor, and to build a 
garden-house" that frankly expresses 
the age to which it belongs. That is 
not to say that the teachings of 
historical design should be neglected. 
The garden-house at Little Boar- 
hunt (Fig. 306) shows how satis- 
factory can be a pavilion which is 
not a copy of any particular old 
example, though it owes its pleasant 
aspect to a knowledge of what was 



Garden-houses. 



215 



done by the old builders. 
The round pavilion, 
shown in Fig. 309, 
stands at the corner of 
the formal garden at 
Little Ridge, laid out by 
Mr. Detmar Blow and 
Mr. Fernand Billerey, 
and is of characteristic 
and interesting design. 
Elliptical arches rest on 
its stout piers, and above 
the cornice the roof, 
ogee in section, rises to 
a pretty ball . finial. A 
simple and attractive 
round summer-house at 
the end of a grass walk 
at Wittersham is shown 
in Fig. 312. 

A good treatment of 
a garden-house in the 
corner of a walled garden is seen at Great Maytham, designed by Mr. Lutyens 
(Fig. 310). Though the scale is small, the little pavilion is given an air of comely 
dignity by the few steps which lead up to its door 
and there is a practical thought in this provision. 
It gives a view over the outer garden from the 
windows on the far side. Yet another idea for a 
pavilion in the corner of a walled garden is afforded 




FIG. 310. IN CORNER OF WALLED GARDEN. 





FIG. 311. AT ST. CLERE. 



FIG. 312. AT WITTERSHAM HOUSE. 



2l6 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 



by the example designed by Mr. W. F. Unsworth and illustrated in Fig. 308. The 
house is of two storeys, and the upper floor is carried on stout oak posts. The 
undercroft serves as a store for garden implements, and the room above is reached by 
an outside staircase on the other side of the wall. Such a little apartment makes a 

quiet retreat for a writer, or 
an admirable room for a 
bachelor when the normal 
sleeping accommodation of the 
house has reached its elastic 
limit. A very important detail 
in the design of any garden- 
house, which is to serve as an 
outdoor room for reading and 
writing, is the window. It is 
not enough to rely on the light 
that comes through the opening 
of access. One window at least 
should be provided, and so 
placed that the light comes 
over the left shoulder of the 
writer. If such a window 
chances to face south-west or 
south, a light curtain over it 
will prevent the sunlight falling 
directly on book or manuscript. 
Attractive open summer-houses 
can often be contrived with 
little cost of building by 
taking advantage of an exist- 
ing corner formed by a garden 
wall. The example at St. Clere 
(Fig. 311), designed by Mr. 
Godfrey Pinkerton, gives a hint 
as to how such a little resting- 
place may be contrived. A 
dwarf wall with two columns, 
side wall and pent-house roof 
make up an attractive place. 
The low front wall has an 
advantage over columns run- 
ning to the ground-level ; or 
it helps to temper the cold airs 
of spring and autumn to the 
occupant. An architect has his 
greatest opportunity when the 
garden-house is an integral part of the design of a broad terrace adjoining the 
house, but this does not often arise in the case of small garden schemes. 

In Fig. 316 is illustrated a modern terrace pavilion with a roof of ogee outline 
which is typically Scottish. It was designed by Sir Rowand Anderson, and groups 
delightfully with a house designed by William Adam, father of the famous brothers. 




FIG. 313. AT STAPLEFIELD GRANGE. 



Garden-houses . 



217 




FIG. 314. A TRELLIS GARDEN SHELTER. 



Fig. 3i6A shows 
an old example at 
Kinross House, 
designed by Sir 
William Bruce. 

Another 
attractive little 
garden house 
is at Staplefield 
Grange, Sussex, 
the home of Mr. 
Percy Macquoid 

(Fig. 3i3)- It 
dates from the 
time of Robert 
Adam, and was 
built as an ad- 
junct to a late 
eighteenth cen- 
tury villa at 
Twickenham. 
When the house 
suffered great 
damage by fire 

not long ago, the remaining materials were sold, and Mr. Macquoid has made 
very apt use of the prize he secured. Although its design suggests masonry, 
it is, in fact, built of wood. Seen across a lily pool at the top of a steep flight 
of steps it gives a charming architectural flavour to a beautiful garden. 

Though this chapter 
deals chiefly with 
garden-houses of solid 
construction, one picture 
is given of a garden 
shelter designed by Mr. 
Basil Oliver on lines 
which slightly recall 
Chippendale's trellis 
manner (Fig. 314), and 
another of two thatched 
shelters at Mr. F. E. 
Smith's cottage, de- 
signed by Mr. Alan 
James (Fig. 315). It is 
as well to bear in mind 
that the outlying parts 
of the garden devoted 
to its purely working 
hours should not be 
made unseemly by tool- 

FIG. 315. THATCHED GARDEN SHELTERS AT CHARLTON, OXON. hoUSCS TOOfed with 




2l8 



Garden-houses. 






FIGS. 316 AND 3l6A. TWO TYPICAL SCOTTISH GARDEN PAVILIONS. 

corrugated iron. In Fig. 317 is illustrated a good building for this purpose with 
weather-boarded walls and tiled roof, designed by Mr. A. Winter Rose. 




FIG. 317. A SEEMLY TOOL-HOUSE, 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 



219 



CHAPTER XIX. STATUES AND VASES. 

Their Especial Value in Small Gardens Scarcity of Good Models Professor Lethaby 
on Leaden Figures On Gate-piers Cupids Pan The Right Placing of Ornaments. 

IT seems to be thought rather generally that ornaments, such as statues and 
fountains, find their just place only in great formal gardens like those of Wilton, 
Dray ton, Melbourne or Wrest Park. Probably this feeling is a survival from 
the day when the formal garden itself was held in small esteem, or tolerated only 
when it helped to frame some great historic house. It may be admitted that ornaments 
need to be employed sparingly in small gardens, and that an undue liberality in their 
use calls up visions of the mason's yard, but therein is 
no reason for their neglect. Another cause that has made 
designers of gardens, whether amateur or professional, 
rather chary of resorting to them is the scarcity of good 
models small enough to be in scale with a little garden. 
It is the fact that small figures which are genuinely old 
are rarely met with in salerooms. Many of the avail- 
able examples that pose, not very plausibly, as 
" antiques " are copies of very poor models, and are 
rejected as soon as seen. Present taste has accepted 
the principle of formality in garden design. So far from 
formal treatment being suitable for great gardens only, it 

seems to be pecu- 
liarly applicable to 

little spaces. 

Where a garden 

scheme extends 

over several acres 

a designer can 

afford to be 

severely simple in 

the details of his 

concept ion. A 

broad grass walk 

which runs a 

hundred yards 

between her- 
baceous borders 

of, say, fifteen feet 

delightful in itself 





FIG. 318. ON GATE-PIER. 



FIG. 319. BOY FIGURE IN NICHE AT END OF 
GRASS WALK. 



in width is a thing so 
that its charm is self- 
contained. The absence of a statue framed 
in clipped yews to close the vista is forgotten 
in the beauty of the wide sweeps of turf 
and blossom. Variety of growth and 
changeful schemes of colour provide the 
necessary incident. A little garden, however, 



220 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 



if too simply treated, soon 
exhausts our curiosity. The 
more the designer lacks space, 
the apter should he be in 
making us forget his garden's 
limitations. Ingenious plea- 
santries of treatment here and 
there arrest the interest. By 
concentrating it the} 7 make 
the visitor oblivious of the 
smallness of the theatre which 
yields so much diversion . This 
is not a plea for many orna- 
ments, still less for any one 
that stands out markedly from 
its surroundings ; no more is 
claimed than that ornament 
of the right kind is even more 
welcome in small gardens than 
in big. It is admittedly diffi- 
cult to get anything small 
enough in scale that is at the 
same time pleasant as sculp- 
ture in its own right. There 
are always available little re- 
productions in bronze of the 
exquisite Narcissus at Naples. 





FIG. 322. BOY AND DOLPHIN IN POOL. 



FIGS. 32O AND 321. ON GATE-PIERS AT PAPILLON HALL. 



It figures in a score of gardens, 
and always looks well. It is, 
however, unreasonable always 
to demand of a garden figure 
that it should be fine as 
sculpture 

Professor Lethaby wrote 

j 

years ago of garden figures : 
" Lead is homely and ordinary 
and not too good to receive 
the graffiti of lovers' knots, 
red letter dates and initials." 
This theory must be withheld 
from such younger sons of 
the house as own pen-knives, 
but it shows a right attitude 
to such pleasant unheroic sub- 
jects as may properly find 
their being enshrined in lead. 
It is an insult to submit a 
finely - modelled bronze or 
marble figure to the changing 



Statues and Vases. 



221 



assaults of the English climate and to the slow invasion of 
lichen. In a little garden the motif of the sporting child 
is always fresh. Fortunately, there are many skilful artists 
who have turned their hands to modelling boys, winged 
and wingless, busy with every sort of merry employment. 
A few are illustrated here, some old, some new. The 
youngster at Temple Dinsley (Fig. 318) who surveys us, 
shield in hand and rather soberly, raises a question as to 
the placing of statues. Nowhere do they look better or 
more reasonable than on the top of gate-piers. Their size 
seems less than when they are nearer to the eye-level, and 
from a practical point of view they are better than large 
open vases, which it may be difficult to keep supplied 





FIG. 324. MODELLED BY JAN VAN NOST. 



FIG. 323. A PIPING BOY. 

with growing flowers. 
Best of all, they give a 
human welcoming 
quality to the forecourt 
over which they seem 
to preside. A very at- 
tractive pair is the leaden 
Youth and Maiden 
dressed in eighteenth 
century costume that 
nod and beckon to each 
other from neighbouring 
gate - piers at Papillon 
Hall (Figs. 320-1). They 
are only about four feet 



222 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 





FIG. 325. QUARKELLING CUPIDS. 



FIG. 326. AT MELBOURNE, DERBYSHIRE. 



high, and of a type suitable for comparatively small, though not for very small, 
gardens. They will be recognised as little cousins to the well-known Watteau-like 
Shepherd and Shepherdess who simper at each other in the solemn atmosphere of the 
South Kensington Museum. 

Very serious students of art are urgent to tell us that sculpture has no right to 
represent violent action ; but even austere critics are inclined to relax these rules 
in the case of amorini. There is just the right degree of movement in the chubby boy 
who rides a dolphin (Fig. 322) and spreads a sail to the favouring breeze. Very 
pretty and thoughtful is the little piper (Fig. 323) who surveys his garden world from 
the low pier at the end of a dwarf wall. Both these are of to-day, modelled by the 
craftsmen of the Bromsgrove Guild, very much in the spirit of the figures at Wilton 
(Fig. 324) and Melbourne, Derbyshire (Figs. 325-6). These were made in lead at the 
beginning of the eighteenth century by Jan Van Nost, a Dutchman who came 
to England after William III. became King, and helped to establish here the Dutch 
manner of formal gardening. The Melbourne amorini form a dramatic sequence. 
The chubby pair fight for the possession of a garland, mishandle each other severely, 
but in the fourth group (not illustrated) seal their reconciliation with a kiss. Sir 
George Sitwell has written that " a pleasure-ground, however small, should have its 
presiding genius, its Nymph of flower-garden or grove or woodland or Naiad of the 
well ... to give a personal interpretation to the forces of Nature . . . and 
for this reason sculpture in a garden is to be regarded not as an ornament,, but almost 



Statues and Vases. 



223 



as a necessity, as like that last touch of colour in a picture 

which sets the whole canvas in a flame." Figures look 

well in wall niches, as in the garden, designed by Mr. 

A. Winter Rose, which appears in Fig. 319. The kneeling 

Boy with Dolphin, which serves as a fountain in the pool 

at Wych Cross Place (Fig. 329) has beauty in its own right, 

for it was modelled by Puech, an artist who has added no 

little to the beauty of Paris by his monuments. None the 

less, it is in the reflections it casts on the still water, and 

in its judicious placing by Mr. Thomas Mawson in relation 

to the terrace steps, that no little of its charm resides. 

A like fancy is the Cupid and Swan of Fig. 328, which 

makes an ideal ornament for a pool. 

Among the many subjects with which the old 

designers chose, to people their gardens there is none 

which is so steadily successful as Pan. The Romans used 

his bust chiefly as a Term set on a diminishing pedestal, 

and it is in this form and from a modern model that 

Fig. 327 shows him. Lead holds indisputably first place as 

the material for garden ornaments in England ; but it 

is apt to be expensive, and cement, if rightly used and 

coloured, makes a satisfactory substitute. There remains 

terra-cotta, which can be admirable if of quiet colouring 

and attractive texture ; but the shiny red of some clays 

is hard and unpleasant. Some delightful garden pottery 

of subdued reds 
and greys is made 
by the Potter's 
A r t s Guild at 
Compton, Surrey, 
the enterprise of 

Mrs. G. F. Watts. The bird bath, illustrated 
in another chapter, is a good example of the 
service ceramics can do to the garden, and 
there are many satisfactory bowls to be had 
in the same material, modelled on simple 
lines and sparingly decorated with swags of 
fruit and the like simple devices. 

The right placing of statues and vases is 
of as much importance as their intrinsic 
merit. What, for example, could be 
pleasanter than the flower-pot on an old 
millstone which ends a stone-flagged path 
(Fig. 330). In the background is seen the 
always welcome figure of Gian di Bologna's 
Flying Mercury, who seems here to have 
alighted on a sea of bloom. Both vases and 
statues are very well employed in adorning 
balustrades and stairways, as in the example 

FIG. 328. CUPID AND SWAN RISING FROM POOL, illustrated in Fig. 331. at Sandhouse Witley, 





FIG. 327. A TERMINAL PAN. 



224 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 




Statues and Vases. 



225 



designed by Mr. F. 
W. Troup, where two 
leaden gods make 
music from vantage 
points afforded by the 
staircase piers. 

Of the many 
types of vases that 
are available, it is 
impossible within the 
limits of this book to 
illustrate a series ; 
but we can at least 
show some differing 
examples, each good 
in its own way and 
appropriate to various 
surroundings. The 
stately pot that is 
seen in Fig. 332 is one 
of the brilliant works 
ascribed to Jan Van 
Nost. It stands on 
a terrace at Hamp- 
ton Court Palace, but 
is of moderate dimen- 
sions. It is suitable, 
therefore, to serve as 




FIG. 330. FLOWER-POT ON MILLSTONE AND 
MERCURY IN BACKGROUND. 



the chief feature of a 
small garden of 
formal design, that 
frames a house of 
early eighteenth cen- 
tury character. For- 
tunately, it has been 
well reproduced and 
can be obtained. As 
Mr. Lethaby has 
written of it : ' The 
little sitting figures 
(which form the 
handles) , slight as 
they are, are charm- 
ing in their pose ; the 
folded arms and 
prettily-arranged hair 
give us a suggestion 
of life, which most 
of these things sup- 
posed to be in the 
classic taste lack." 
In quite another 
manner is the lead 
pot (Fig. 333) with a 
band of open orna- 
ment traced in bright 




FIG. 331. STATUES GUARDING STAIRWAY. 



226 



Statues and Vases. 



tinning, made by Mr. George P. Bankart. 
Two other lead tubs by the same hand 
are illustrated in Figs. 334 and 335. In one a 
hen and her chicken stand against a back- 
ground of corn, and in the other the little 



fr- 





FIG. 332. AT HAMPTON COURT. 

panels made by a network of rope moulding 
are filled by the inhabitants of a Noah's 
Ark. All three have the character of 
simple and straightforward craftsmanship, 
which marks them as fitting for the garden 
of a cottage. 




FIG. 333. WITH TINNED ORNAMENT. 




FIG. 334- BY GEORGE BANKART. 





FIG. 335- FROM NOAH'S ARK. 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 



227 



CHAPTER XX. SUNDIALS AND SEATS. 

The Placing of Sundials Various Simple Types The Game of 
Seats and Their Setting Wooden Chairs and Tables. 



Clocks " Stone 







SUNDIALS, like other ornaments, depend more for their decorative success on 
their right placing than on their intrinsic merit as garden sculpture. A 
common fault is the lack of a suitable base. In Mr. W. Robinson's garden at 
Gravetye Manor there is a sundial of twisted baluster pattern designed by Sir Ernest 
George. It is set on a moulded square base, which rises from an octagonal platform 
(Fig. 336). Simple and slender as it is, it has an air of dignity by reason of being 
properly set. By way of contrast there is illustrated in Fig. 337 a sundial of pleasant 
and sturdy design, which looks lonely and neglected on a lawn, and bears no relation 
to the rest of the garden. It 
needs a stepped base of some j 
sort to detach it from its 
surroundings. No little of the 
value of a sundial is the 
opportunity it affords to em- 
phasise the central point at 
the junction of converging 
paths, as at Ditton Place, 
Balcombe (Fig. 338). The octa- 
gonal base makes a pleasant 
break between the round of 
the baluster and the shallow 
circular step which lifts it 
above the paving. It was 
designed by Mr. Horatio Porter. 
The more imposing the sun- 
dial itself, the more need is 
there for a dignified base. Of 
the many examples of the 
lead Blackamoor that English 
gardens can show, none is 
better supported than the ex- 
ample illustrated in Fig. 339. 
The four steps are adequate 
for the importance of this 
very interesting figure, which 
was sold freely in the begin- 
ning of the eighteenth century 
by Jan Van Nost. Anyone 

who is interested in the history [ ',.. . . ... 

of this famous garden orna- 
ment may be referred for a full FIG. 336. SIMPLE SUNDIAL ON ADEQUATE BASE. 





228 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 



account of it to English Leadwork : Its Art and History. The next illustration 
(Fig. 341) shows an eighteenth century variation of the simple baluster treatment, 
with women's masks connected by festoons of drapery. This, again, is an 
example of an interesting pillar, which loses much of its possible effect by its lack 
of a proper base or platform and a margin of paving. At Marsh Court there is an 
example of to-day, designed by Mr. Lutyens, which is admirable for many reasons. 

The octagonal stone seat from 
which it rises provides a digni- 
fied base, and the stone pillar, 
which carries the most 
modern and scientific form of 
dial, has a charming entasis. 
Recourse was made for its 
decoration to a byway of the 
leadworker's craft, viz., inlay. 
It was popular enough in the 
Middle Ages, but has since 
been neglected, save for the 
dreary purpose of making im- 
perishable the lettering on 
tombstones. Bands of simple 
conventional ornament wind 
spirally up the column between 
diamonds, all of lead inlaid in 
matrices cut in the stone. The 
whole composition is inter- 
esting and unusual. Wholly 
of lead, except for the iron 
gnomon, is the sundial illus- 
trated in Fig. 343. Made by 
Mr. George Bankart, it is a 
good example of what can be 
done with the most typically 
English metal (in the Middle 
Ages and later the Continent 
got much of its lead from 
us). Good use has been made 
of a simple device which has 
pleased many generations of 
plumbers since the Roman 
occupation of Britain the 
rope-moulding and the leaf- 
work round the base is 
pleasantly modelled. Round 
the top is cast one of those 
many legends about the flight of time which have exercised the ingenuity of rhyme- 
sters since sundials were first made. Another, and more delicately adjusted, kind 
of outdoor timepiece is illustrated in Fig. 344. Its combination of slender hoops is 
pretty in itself, and the column which carries it did more active garden service 
It is a stone roller retired from work in favour of the more manageable 




FIG - 337- A GOOD SUNDIAL BADLY PLACED. 



once. 



Sundials and Seats. 



229 




FIG. 338. AT DITTON PLACE, BALCOMBE. 



230 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 




Sundials and Seats. 



231 



sort that the ironfoundry supplies. Of 
markedly rustic type, yet successful, is 
the mushroom-like example at Plew- 
land, Haslemere. It is made of two 
rough-dressed stones, that formed one 
of the posts of an old farm " rick-settle," 





FIG. 341. AN EIGHTEENTH CENTURY TYPE. 



FIG. 340. MODERN SUNDIAL AT MARSH COURT. 

set on an old millstone, which rises a 
little above the surrounding paving 
(Fig. 342). Of the dials themselves in 
their manifold forms, and of the gentle 
art of dialling, which used to be a need- 
ful part of a gentleman's education, 
this is no place to write. Nor need we 
fill a page with any of the hundreds 
of sundial mottoes, which have been 
printed often enough in scores of gossip- 
ing books about gardens. It may be 
added, however, that some garden-lovers 
think it wise to be content with a plain 
brick pillar and concentrate the interest 
on the dial and gnomon. In Fig. 345 is 
illustrated an example of bronze, in 
which a girl with daintily-modelled 
figure leans over and plays " clocks " 
with a dandelion. It is a pretty fancy 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 




FIG. 342. TWO ROUGH-DRESSED STONES. 




to set upon a sundial, and none 
the less fitting to be used because 
the game seems to have come 
with the modern child. It is at 
least much less than a century 
since the first reference to the 
game of " clocks " appears in 
literature. There is no better 








FIG. 344. AN OLD GARDEN ROLLER IN A NEW EMPLOYMENT. 



FIG. 343. A LEAD SUNDIAL. 

place for a sundial than in a rose 
garden, as at Marrowells, Walton- 
on-Thames (Fig. 346), designed 
by Mr. A. Winter Rose. In the 
middle stands the stone figure 
of a man. His head is bent over 
the sundial, which he holds to 



Sundials and Seats. 



233 



catch the rays of the westering sun. The 
hour of sunset is the time which chiefly 
brings out the beauties of a rose garden, 
and very admirable this statue looks as the 
late glow emphasises the strong modelling 
of the face, and an almost archaic sim- 
plicity in the heavy folds of the robe. The 
garden at The Vineyards, Great Baddow, 
shows a good example of a sundial placed 
on a circle paved with mingled brick and 
stone, radially set, which breaks a long 
gravel walk (Fig. 347). Another sundial 
which owes much of its charm to its setting 
on a broad expanse of circular brick paving 
is at Saighton Grange (See Chapter XV). 

There is a certain reasonableness in 
grouping in one chapter ' Sundials and 
Seats." In days of universal watches the 
function of the sundial is to be decorative 
and to stimulate gentle moralising. For the latter employment the best authorities 
are agreed that it is well to be comfortable in body, not always an easy thing to be 
contrived in a garden. For sheer comfort there is no doubt that something of flimsy 
appearance, made of canvas and a few sticks or of basket-work, is best ; but both 




FIG. 345. THE GAME OF "CLOCKS.' 




FIG. 346. STATUE HOLDING DIAL IN ROSE GARDEN. FIG. 347. PLACED AT INTERSECTING PATHS. 



234 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 




FIG. 348. AT SEDGWICK HALL, HORSHAM. 




Sundials and Seats. 



235 




O 

vn 

CO 



236 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 




CO 

d 



Sundials and Seats. 



237 




FIG. 352. SEATS AND TABLE IN APPROPRIATE SETTING. 

kinds have the disadvantage of suffering in the weather. The seat that will defy the 
rain is therefore a necessity, but it is more it is a decorative aid. In Fig. 350 is 
illustrated a carved stone seat designed by Mr. Peto. It comes at the end of a 
terrace, and with its gay little flanking figures closes the vista in delightful fashion. 
A stone seat never looks better than against a background of yew. This may be 
seen in a simple example at Sedgwick Hall (Fig. 348), and in another, of imposing 
classical aspect, at 
Danby Hall (Fig. 
349.) It is always 
desirable for the 
builder of a stone 
seat to provide an 
adequate stretch of 
paving in front of it, 
which is the better, 
both practically and 
in appearance, for 
being raised step- 
height above the 
adjoining grass or 
gravel. It is not a 
good thing to place 
a seat in an isolated 
position, as in the 
example, well 
designed in itself, 
which appears in 
Fig. 351- A bench FIG. 353. DESIGNED BY MR. LUTYENS. 




2 3 8 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 



should give the impression of being 
there to be sat on, and that is not 
likely to be very convincing if 
there is no path to give access 
to it. In the majority of small 
gardens, however, it will be found 
more practicable to rely on mov- 
able wooden seats of stout build. 
Teak or oak are the best materials, 
but well-seasoned deals, of a sort 
that does not tend to split on 
exposure to rain and sun, are good enough if carefully and regularly painted. Green is a 
doubtful colour for a seat, as it is likely to quarrel with the varied natural greens which 
are near it. White is safe, but looks rather staring during the seasons when there is 
no brilliant colour in the flower garden to relieve it. Oak untreated and allowed to 
take on the silvery hues which weather will bring to it is, on the whole, the best 




FIG. 354. BY MR. J. P. WHITE. 



IK! IMI IHI 





FIG - 355- BY MR. J. P. WHITE. 

material for the garden seat ; teak, though good, because almost everlasting, is not 

of so pleasant a colour. 

It is well to provide a paved space for such heavy wooden furniture as is not likely 

to be moved about. Gravel is not comfortable for the feet, and the disadvantages 

of grass are obvious. An admirable arrangement at Wittersham House is shown in 

Fig. 352. Three 
long seats, two 
chairs and a table 
are arranged on a 
paved floor, and 
the wall behind is 
treated with niches 
holding basket- 
bearing lead boys 
between pilasters 
crowned by tro- 
phies of fruit. 
F 1 o w e r vases 
standing at the 
corners of the 
paving complete 
a very pretty 



FIG. 356. DESIGNED BY MR. MAURICE WEBB. 



Sundials and Seats. 



239 





FIG. 357. 



FIG. 358. 



scheme of an open-air room that must be a pleasant place for the discussion of 
tea. In Fig. 356 are shown a well-devised table curved on plan, and a pair of 
armchairs, designed by Mr. Maurice Webb, for the tea pavilion at Chislehurst, 
illustrated in the last chapter (Figs. 313 and 314). The remaining pictures in this 
chapter illustrate good and simple pieces of furniture in various manners for 
differing types of garden design. 




FIG. 35A. SMALL STONE SEAT AT MARKYATE CELL, 
WITH LEAD FIGURES AT ENDS. 



240 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 



CHAPTER XXL ROCK GARDENS. 

(CONTRIBUTED BY RAYMOND E. NEGUS.) 

Modern Rock Gardening Principles of Design Stratification Formation of the Rock 
Garden Kinds of Rock Likes and Dislikes of Alpines Planting Shrubs Situation 
of the Rock Garden Uses of Rockwork Pools Bog Gardens Paths Steps Moraines. 

THE charms of rock gardening are so many and so varied that no owner of a 
garden should fail to devote some small portion of the space at his disposal 
to the culture of alpines and rock plants if the site lends itself to such treatment. 

In spite of the mass of literature upon the topic the true principles upon which practice 

should be based are little appreciated 
to-day. The rock garden, unlike many 
other forms of horticulture, is a deliberate 
imitation of Nature ; nine-tenths of our 
rock gardens, if they imitate Nature at all, 
imitate her in her least pleasing moods, for 
they represent formless heaps of rubble. 
Every stone in the garden should bear 
the semblance of having been in its place 
from time immemorial. The first principle 
of rock gardening is, " Adopt a definite 
scheme of stratification and carry it out 
uniformly throughout your garden." In 
Nature, it is true, a few kinds of rock, 
such as granite, are unstratified ; but 
they are rarely suitable for rock garden- 
ing. The stones used should be of 
the largest possible size compatible with 

convenience of handling. It is of the utmost importance that a stone once placed 

in position should never be moved ; moreover, large, well-placed rocks are a joy 

in and for themselves (see 

Fig. 361), whereas small 

ones almost invariably look 

scrappy. Large rocks afford 

a firm foothold by which 

you may hop nimbly from 

ledge to ledge and use deft 

fingers to advantage with- 
out leaving a footmark, and 

without inflicting injury on 

tender growths. 

Fig. 362 affords an 

example of the errors into 

which neglect of right 

principles leads the maker 

of a rock garden. In the 

foreground are several FIG. 360. ROCKS PROPERLY STRATIFIED AND SKILFULLY LAID. 




FIG. 359. OUTCROP OF STRATIFIED ROCK AT CORNERS. 




Rock Gardens. 



241 




FIG. 361. BOLD STRATIFIED ROCKVVORK AND MASS-PLANTING. 



242 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 




o 



Rock Gardens. 



243 




FIG. 363. TREATMENT OF AN ODD CORNER. 



simple rules be obeyed, the 
rock garden will appear to be 
something inherent in the soil, 
and not a mere fortuitous 
medley of stones. It is desir- 
able that all the rocks should 
dip the same way. It used 
to be thought that it was 
necessary to have all stones 
dipping backward into the 
soil, but experience has shown 
that this is not so. The reverse 
slope shown in Fig. 367 at A 
will conserve moisture quite as 
effectually as the slopes indi- 
cated at C and E. The forma- 
tion shown also in Fig. 367 by 
B and D has been found 
successful from every point of 
view. The actual appearance 
of rocks laid as shown by 
C and E is seen in Figs. 359 
and 360 respectively. The 
whole of the soil underlying 
the rock garden must be 
thoroughly trenched and 
worked to a depth of at least 
two and a half feet, and 
deeper still if possible. Plenty 
of leaf mould, or thoroughly 
rotten manure, should be in- 
corporated in the soil. 



dozen clumps of choice silvery and mossy 
saxifrages, but the rocks, though large and 
good, are so placed that not only do they 
fail to please, but they do not readily 
permit of proper planting. Stones properly 
stratified, on the other hand, are admirably 
adapted to the needs of the plants. The 
best all-round kind of rock to employ is 
weather-worn limestone, which is beautiful 
in itself. Natural stone should be used 
wherever it occurs in the district. Sand- 
stone crumbles somewhat rapidly, but the 
grit thus produced is a valuable rooting 
medium. Avoid, as you would the plague, 
all manner of brickbats, clinkers, concrete 
and tree trunks. Always lay the stones with 
their broadest face downwards. If these 




FIG. 36.J. ALPINE PRIMULAS GROWING IN VERTICAL FISSURE. 



244 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 




FIG. 365. ALPINE PRIMULAS GROWING IN HORIZONTAL FISSURE. 



Alpines, almost without ex- 
ception, revel in a deep, rich, 
cool soil. No trouble should 
be spared to ensure thorough 
preparation. The great enemies 
of the dainty mountain plants 
are damp and drought. A deep, 
well-worked, porous soil will do 
more towards preventing 
fatalities than any amount of 
artificial drainage and superficial 
watering. Practically the whole 
of the alpine flora has an intense 
dislike of a stiff or retentive 
soil. All soil used for planting 
should contain a goodly admix- 
ture of sharp sand or grit. For 
the lime - lovers, such as the 
encrusted saxifrages, lime, if 
possible in the form of old 
mortar rubble, should be in- 
corporated in the compost. All 
alpines dislike wet about the 
collar. A top-dressing one inch 
in thickness of small granite 
chips will do much to save 
them from this danger, and will 




FIG. 366. A ROUGH RETAINING WALL. 



Rock Gardens. 



245 



SECTIONAL VIEW 



also prevent undue evaporation in hot weather. The 

greatest care must be taken in planting. Some alpines 

are extremely fastidious during the early days of their 

career, and trouble taken at this stage is well bestowed. 

Many disappointments are due to the unsatisfactory 

condition in which plants are received. It is worth 

while to pay a slightly higher price and make sure of 

getting plants in good condition and well packed. 

Other failures are due to planting too late in the 

autumn. Experience shows that the best of all times 

for planting is the late spring, unless it can be done 

early in a wet September, due regard being had to 

peculiar conditions. What is best in one county may 

be disastrous in another. Void spaces left behind 

rocks are fatal . to the well-being of any plants whose 

roots penetrate into them. For this reason light, 

friable, porous soil should be used, since it can be 

well rammed between and behind the stones without fear "of its caking. If the stock 

of plants is ready to hand, so that planting and building can be done at the same 

time, so much the better. The smaller and younger the plants the more likely they 

are to take kindly to their new surroundings. Old, well-established clumps are a snare, 

while the rapidity with which even notoriously difficult subjects increase if once they 




FIG. 367. ROCK FORMATIONS. 




BIG. 368. THE KEYNOTE OF SUCCESS IN PLANTING IS SIMPLICITY. 



246 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 




FIG. 369. "PLANT IN BOLD MASSES." 




FIG. 370. LARGE CLUMPS GIVE AN APPEARANCE OF SOLIDITY. 



Rock Gardens. 



247 




FIG. 371.: BOLD MASSES OF ROCK AND PLANTS. 



be persuaded to settle down 
when quite young is amazing. 
Not a chink in the rock\vork 
but should be filled with 
vegetation. Alpine primulas 
make splendid crevice plants 
for the cool side of the garden. 
In all rock gardens, 
whether great or small, the 
keynote of success in planting, 
as in building, is simplicity. 
The majority of rock gardens 
are mere botanical collections, 
interesting but not beautiful. 
If means are limited, fewer 
kinds of plants may be acquired, 
but many examples of those 
kinds, or, better still, seedlings 
may be raised and then planted 
in bold masses. In a small 
rock garden ambitious schemes, 
unless they be faultless in every 
detail, are doomed to failure. 
An intelligent reproduction of 
some corner which has struck 




FIG. 372. A JUDICIOUS USE OF COMPACT SHRUBS. 



248 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 




FIG. 373. RETAINING OR BOUNDARY WALL OF ROUGH UNHEWN BLOCKS. 




FIG. 374. BOUNDARY WALL WITH ITS TOP PLANTED WITH SHRUBS. 



the eye with pleasure 
may well result in the 
creation of a delightful 
effect. A judicious use 
of compact shrubs will 
add greatly to that 
appearance of solidity 
which every rock garden 
should present. In a 
well-planned rockery the 
eye should not see too 
much at a time, but 
should be gently led from 
one prospect to another. 
Suitable shrubs further 
this purpose. The larger 
heaths are useful, and 
Japanese maples are in- 
dispensable, providing 
rich colour in autumn. 
The cistuses and their 
lesser brethren, the 
helianthemums, are good 
but rampant, the cistuses 
requiring plenty of head- 
room. The prostrate 
cotoneasters and dwarf 
kinds of cytisus are 
among the best, as are 
Gaultheria procumbens 
and Pernettya mucron- 
ata. One of the most 
charming of all small 
shrubs i s Daphne 
C n e o r u m , with its 
innumerable fragrant 
pink blossoms. The 
lesser genistas and 
veronicas, especially V 
Hectori, are useful . 
S k i m m i a . j aponica is 
decorative in winter 
with its red berries, and 
at all seasons valuable 
for its excellent foliage. 
The shrubby spiraeas, 
such as arguta multiflora 
and prunifolia, are 
splendid in every way. 
The list of suitable 



Rock Gardens. 



249 




WHERE ONE SIDE ONLY 
IS TO BE UTILISED. 



WHERE BOTH SIDES ARE 
USED FOR PLANTING. 



FIG. 375. BOUNDARY WALLS. 



shrubs is a long one, but there should in every 
case be a goodly number of dwarf conifers of the 
Savin class, such as Juniperus compressus nanus and 
the ordinary J. Sabina. Very choice, delicate plants 
should be grown in a portion of the garden specially 
allotted to them, in order to avoid risk of their 
becoming overwhelmed and lost. Very many of the 
choicest species succeed best in the moraine. It is 
a common but misguided practice to plant yuccas in 
the rock gardens. No plants are more hopelessly out 
of keeping with the general character. These and 
any plant or shrub which has anything of a tropical 
aspect must be rigidly excluded. 

No difficulty should be experienced in respect of the situation of the rock garden, 
for there are numberless species to suit every aspect. The shade, and even the 
proximity, of trees must 
be carefully avoided. 
Generally speaking, the 
more open and exposed the 
situation the better, pro- 
vided some sort of shelter 
can be furnished against 
cutting or excessively bois- 
terous winds. In every 
case the rock garden should 
be as far as possible from 
the dwelling-house, and the 
transition to it should be 
gradual. It is a great 
mistake to cramp the rock 
garden unless the space 
available is very circum- 
scribed, for the greater the 
freedom the greater will be 
the illusion of reality. Fur- 
thermore, nearly all alpines 
love light and air. 

There are various 
forms of rock garden, such 
as the dell, the ravine, the 
miniature cliff, the knoll. 
Many different types will be 
found in the illustrations. 
Even in the smallest back- 
yard there is scope for a 
square yard or two of such 
construction as is seen in 
Figs- 359> 36o and 363. 
The mere fact of its being 
an odd corner should not FIG 376. BOG AND WATER GARDEN 




Gardens for Small Country Houses. 




FIG. 377. A GOOD ROCK POOL. 



be an excuse for hasty workmanship. 
There is a use to which rockwork is 
seldom put, namely, as a boundary wall. 
It is true considerable trouble and ex- 
pense are entailed, because such a wall 
must ordinarily be double, with at least 
two feet of good soil between the faces. 
The second face should be of rock or 
brick or concrete, according as it is or is 
not visible from the garden. The method 
of construction is illustrated in Fig. 375, 
and examples are to be seen in Figs. 366, 
373 and 374. A perforated pipe led 
along the top of the wall will make it 
a suitable home for the choicest subjects. 
Failing that expedient, the soil should 
consist largely of peat, sand and leaf- 
mould, with but a small proportion of 
loam. Water properly employed forms 
a charming feature in any rock garden. 
Few things are more delightful than the 
reflection in still water of overhanging 
rocks clothed with masses of blossom. A 
good example may be seen in Fig. 377. 




FIG. 378. STEPPING-STONES. 



Rock Gardens, 



25 1 



PEAT, LEAF -MOULD, 
SAND AND LOAM 
IN EQUAL PARTS 



A little cascade, such as appears in 
Fig. 379, can sometimes be arranged. 
Where space permits, a path may be 
led down to the edge of a pool, and 
carried across by means of stepping- 
stones, as in Fig. 378. 

No rock garden is complete with- 
out a space of boggy ground, for many 
gems, such as primulas farinosa and 
rosea, are never completely happy 
under other conditions than those 
afforded by moist ground. The type 
of pond illustrated in Fig. 380 has 
been found admirably adapted to the 
needs of the small garden. Upon the 
margins contained within the actual 

boundaries of the 
SECTIONAL VIEW pond Japanese 




FIG. 379. 




CONCRETE OF 
CEMENT ONE PART 
$SAND THREE 
PARTS. 



FIG. 380. POND FOR SMALL GARDEN. 



BOLD STRATIFIED ROCKWORK AND 
SMALL CASCADE. 

irises, primulas, dodecatheons 
and other moisture - loving 
plants will flourish. Primula 
rosea grown in this way is a 
prodigy of vigour and abun- 
dant bloom. A typical bog 




FIG. 381. A ROCKY PATH. 



252 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 



and water garden is seen in Fig. 376, but such a conception can only be carried 
out where there is a good stream. With a little forethought in planning and 
construction, however, a wonderful illusion of spaciousness may be produced in a 
small area. 

As to paths in the rock garden, the best form is that seen in Fig. 381, but it 
is somewhat expensive to make. It is, however, one with the garden, and is beautiful 
in itself, not a hideous and anomalous intrusion, as is the common gravel path. 
A paved path, as in Fig. 382, is another good type. Fig. 369 shows what may 
be called ' land stepping-stones." The slabs of stone which form the path, 
instead of being let in flush with the surface of the soil, are left projecting some eight 




FIG. 382. A ROUGH PAVED PATH. 

or nine inches. The interspaces are filled with dwarf flowers, and thus one may walk 
over a veritable sea of blossom without so much as damaging a petal. Failing the 
rocky or stone path, the best kind is of grass. In many respects it is more natural 
than any other kind, and serves as a setting to the rocks and their vegetation. The 
amount of labour entailed is somewhat heavy, and care should be taken that no rock 
is placed within six inches of the verge of the grass, otherwise the edges will need to 
be trimmed by hand. 

Where the garden lies on a slope it may be terraced, the terraces being supported 
by retaining walls of rock, preferably constructed of large unhewn blocks after the 
manner described in Chapter XII. The secret of success is to have a thick layer 



253 




FIG. 383. CYPRIPEDIUMS THOROUGHLY AT HOME ON THE UPPER MARGIN OF A ROCK GARDEN. 



254 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 



of rich compost behind 
the rock face. Fig. 384 
shows the charming effect 
of roughly - hewn rocky 
steps leading down through 
such a wall from the 
terrace to the rock garden. 
Such, steps should not be 
allowed to become over- 
grown with herbage, 
though small fry, like 
Erinus alpinus, lonopsi- 
dium acaule and Linaria 
alpina, may be suffered 
to grow in the interstices. 
In the small bog garden 
one must carefully avoid 
such vigorous growers as 
Gunnera, Rodgersia, 
Saxifraga peltata and all 
those plants which appear 
in catalogues under the 
heading " Bog and Water- 
side Plants." The bog 
should be devoted to 
Primulas rosea, cock- 
burniana, farinosa, 
frondosa, japonica, 
pulverulenta, c a p i t a t a , 
denticulata, Sieboldii ; to 
shortias, terrestrial orchids, 
the choicer t r o 1 1 i u s e s , 
dodecatheons and 
mertensias. 
The soil must be spongy and constantly moist, but at the same time well drained, 

for nothing worth growing will endure stagnant moisture. A few large, flat slabs 

of stone on the surface will be of great value in 

bog without injury to the 

plants. Fig. 383 shows INLET PIPE 

cypripediums thoroughly 

at home upon the upper 

margin of a bog garden. 

A moraine garden is 

troublesome to construct, 

but repays the trouble. 

The essentials are very 

sharp drainage and abund- 
ance of moisture in dry 

weather. Unless the supply 

of water is very limited, 




FIG. 384. ROCK STEPS LEADING FROM TERRACE THROUGH ROCK 
WALL TO ROCK GARDEN. 



affording 



A few large, 
access to all parts of the 



GRANITE CHIP5 SAN 
'AND LEAF MOULD 




FIG. 385. CONSTRUCTION OF SMALL MORAINE. 



Rock Gardens. 



255 



it is not necessary to have the concrete foundation shown in Fig. 385, although 
the latter is the best form for the small moraine, affording the most complete control 
over the water supply. In wet weather the inlet pipe is shut and the outlet opened ; 
in dry weather the converse. Where a slope is available, Fig. 386 shows a 
simple but efficient type of moraine. A half-inch pipe perforated at every six inches 
is led along the top six inches below the surface. Flat rocks are useful, as in the bog 
garden, for access to the plants. Fig. 387 shows the construction of a moraine 
which has been found to work well in practice. 



'PEBFOKATED PIPE 



SMALL- GRANITE 
CHIPS SPRINKJJA/C 

OF LEAF MOULD 
^A LITTLE OLD 
MORTAR RUBBLE 




.. STONES SUCH 

SECTIONAL AS PEBBLES OR 

VIEW. C08ES 



FIG. 386. CONSTRUCTION OF MORAINE ON SLOPE 



TITY OF SAND, . 

THE WHOLE LATER. 
9 INCHES TO 
ONE. FOOT THICK 



PERFORATED 
PIPE 



QRANITE CHIPS ETC 
AS IN FIG. 386. 





EARTH 'OR RUBBLE- ' 
" " " 



FIG. 387. CONSTRUCTION OF MORAINE ON LEVEL GROUND. 



In this moraine (Fig. 387) the following, among other Alpines, flourish and bear 
flowers in profusion : Androsace brigantiaca, carnea, lanuginosa, primuloides, villosa ; 
Asperula suberosa ; Antirrhinum asarinum ; Arenaria purpurascens ; Campanula 
collina, pulla, pulloides, Steveni nana, waldsteiniana ; Cyananthus lobatus ; 
Dianthus Freynii, microlepis, neglectus ; Edraianthus Pumilio, pumiliorum ; 



256 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 



Gentiana verna ; Linaria alpina ; Primula nivalis ; Saxifrages apiculata, aretioides, 
Boryi, Boydi, Boydi alba, burseriana and its varieties crenata, major, minor, Gloria, 
etc., cochlearis, cochlearis minor, dalmatica, Faldonside, Ferdinandi-Coburgi, 
Frederici-Augusti, Grisebachi, media, porophylla, Petraschi, rocheliana. 

In the present edition it has been considered advisable to suggest a certain 
number of plants and shrubs for the rock garden. The lists are not in any way 
exclusive, and the alternatives are very numerous. But every one of the plants 
suggested will give satisfaction if treated with reasonable care. 

For the rocky " corners " illustrated in Figs. 359, 360 and 363. 



PLANTS (For shrubs see list below). 
Achillea argentea. 
Anemones blanda and apennina. 
Arenaria montana. 
Artemisia Baumgarteni. 
Aubrietia Dr. Mules. 

Campanulas muralis and pusilla Miss Willmott. 
Chionodoxa sardensis. 
Dianthus ca^sius and neglectus. 
Edraianthus serpyllifolius. 
Erica carnea. 
Hyacinthus azureus. 



Iberis sempervirens Little Gem. 
Iris reticulata. 

Lithospermum prostratum Heavenly Blue. 
Muscari Heavenly Blue. 
Saxifraga (silvery) longifolia. 
lingulata. 

(Kabschia) burseriana. 
(mossy) bathoniensis. 

Wallacei. 
Sedum pulchellum. 

,, spathulatum. 
Viola gracilis 



For the type of rockery illustrated in Fig. 361. 



ON THE WALL. 

Achillea umbellata. 
Androsace lanuginosa. 
,, sarmentosa. 

Antirrhinum asarinum. 

,, glutinosum. 

Campanula garganica hirsuta. 
Cotoneaster adpressa. 

,, horizontalis. 

Cytisus decumbens. 
Dianthus caesius. 
Euonymus radicans kewensis. 
Gypsophila prostrata rosea. 
Juniperus Sabina prostrata. 
Lychnis Lagascae. 
Phlox subulata G. F. Wilson. 
Santolina incana. 
Saponaria ocymoides. 
Saxifraga nepalensis. 

sarmentosa. 

Silene Schafta. 

AT THE FOOT OF THE WALL. 

Campanula persicifolia. 
Cheiranthus Allioni. 
Crocus biflorus. 
,, pulchellus. 



Crocus speciosus. 
Cyclamen Coum. 

,, europaeum. 

Dianthus deltoides roseus. 
Epimedium colchicum. 
Erodium macradenum. 
Gentiana acaulis. 
Geranium argenteum. 
Geum montanum. 
Helianthemum Mrs. Croft. 
Hypericum reptans. 
Iris pumila caerulea. 

,, stylosa. 

Lavender, dwarf Munstead. 
Narcissus odorus rugulosus. 
Nierembergia rivularis. 
Omphalodes verna. 
Onosma stellulatum. 
Polygonum vaccinifolium. 
Potentilla Miss Willmott. 
Primrose, common yellow. 
Saxifraga umbrosa. 
Wallacei. 

Tulipa kauffmanniana. 
Tunica Saxifraga. flore pleno. 
Veronica Hulkeana. 



Plants suitable for a rough retaining wall in a sunny position, such as that 
illustrated in Fig. 366. A simple colour scheme in grey and pink. 



Achillea umbellata. 
Androsace sarmentosa. 
Armeria maritima laucheana. 
Artemisia Abrotanum. 
Cerastium tomentosum. 
Convolvulus althaeoides. 
Dianthus deltoides. 



Geranium cinereum. 
Helianthemum Mrs. Croft. 
Saponaria ocymoides. 
Saxifraga (silvery in variety). 
Sempervivum arachnoideum. 
Stachys lanata. 
Tunica Saxifraga. 



If the space is at all confined, omit the Cerastium, the Convolvulus and the Stachys. 



Rock Gardens. 



257 



A list of shrubs, in addition to those already mentioned, suitable for the rock 
garden in positions similar to those seen in Fig. 372. 



Berberis Wilsoni. 
Cistus corbariensis. 
Daboecia polifolia. 
Daphne Cneorum. 
Erica vagans. 
Gaultheria procumbens. 
Genista hispanica. 
Helianthemums in variety. 
Lavender, dwarf Munstead. 
Ledum palustre (peat). 
Nepeta Mussini. 



Spirasa prunifolia flore pleno. 
Veronica cupressoides. 

DWARF CONIFERS. A good selection is : 

Cupressus nootkatensis var. nana compacta. 
Juniperus recurva squamata. 
Picea excelsa nana. 
Pinus Bandaisho. 
Retinospora obtusa nana. 
Thuja dolabrata nana. 
,, Rheingold. 



A simple scheme of planting for a bog and water garden such as is illustrated 
in Figs. 376 and 378. 



Eomecon chionantha. 
Imila glandulosa. 
Iris Kaempferi. 

sibirica. 

,, ,, Snow Queen. 

Kniphofias in variety. 
Menyanthes trifoliata. 



Primula japonica. 

,, rosea. 
Rodgersia podophylla. 
Saxifraga peltata. 
Senecio Clivorum. 
Spiraea palmata. 
Trollius europaeus Orange Globe. 



For a shady rock garden such as that illustrated in Figs. 379 and 384. 



Aquilegia caerulea. 

,, glandulosa. 
Cyclamen neapolitanum, etc. 
Erythronium Dens-canis. 
Haberlea rhodopensis. 
Hepatica triloba in variety. 
Hutchinsia alpina. 
Linnaea borealis americana. 
Mertensia virginica. 
Myosotis alpestris rupicola. 
Phlox subulata in variety. 



Primula frondosa. 

,, nivalis. 
Ramondia pyrenaica. 
Saxifrages bathoniensis. 

Guildford Seedling. 

,, Stormonth's Seedling. 

,, Wallace! . 

Tiarella cordifolia. 
Trillium grandiflorum. 
Uvularia grandiflora. 



Minute prostrate plants suitable for carpeting as in Fig. 381. 



Muehlenbeckia complexa. 
Saxifraga muscoides atropurpurea. 
Thymus lanuginosus. 

,, Serpyllum coccineus. 
Veronica canescens. 



Acaena Buchanani. 
Arenaria balearica. 
Dianthus deltoides. 
Helxine Solieroli. 
Hutchinsia alpina. 
Mentha Requieni. 

AUTUMN AND WINTER EFFECT. 

To avoid dulness in the rock garden in the autumn and winter months plant 
clumps of such autumn-flowering bulbs as the autumn crocuses, colchicums, Scilla 
autumnalis and Galanthus cilicicus. Late-sown nemesias will flower right up to the 
severe frosts, as will other dwarf annuals, such as leptosiphon and brachycome. 
Anemone japonica is indispensable. Japanese maples and azaleas in the background 
will give superbly rich colour effects in late autumn. A mass of the dwarf Thuja 
Rheingold will harmonise with the colour of the maples and azaleas and with the tints 
of deciduous trees at that season. Spiraea Thunbergi and Berberis Wilsoni should 
not be omitted. Jasminum nudiflorum and the witch hazels will link late autumn 
with the first arrivals of the New Year, namely, snowdrops, winter aconites and 
Crocuses Imperati, tomassinianus, etc. Ceratostigma plumbaginoides (syn. Plumbago 
Larpentae) should be planted freely on rock walls, and Corydalis Wilsoni at their base. 
A liberal planting of dwarf conifers will afford a sight of beauty even in mid- winter. 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 



259 



INDEX. 

Note. The LARGE numerals indicate ILLUSTRATIONS of the subject indexed, and refer not to the Figure numbers, but 
to the PAGES on which illustrations will be found. The SMALL numerals indicate REFERENCES IN THE TEXT. 



Acid in soil, n. 

Acremead, Kent, garden at, 188, 191. 

Alpines, 52, 68, 119, 244. 

Amain, pergola at, 179, 180. 

Amorini, Chapter XIX. passim. 

" Antiques," 219. 

Arches, iron, for pergolas, 188. 190 ; of treillage, xliv. 

Ardkinglas, garden stair at, 85, 85. 

Athelhampton, garden at, 145, 14-7, 105, 106, 208, 208. 

Autumn-blooming shrubs, 43, 44, 44. 

Balusters, 100 -104. 

Balustrades, xxiii., xxiv., 155, Chapter X. 

Bankart, George P.., designs by, 163, 164, 164, 226 

226, 228, 232. 
Bargate stone, 3, 171, 171. 
Barrow-way at side of long garden, 9. 
Bases for sundials, 227. 
Basin, tile-built, 160, 161. 
Basin, tiled, 59, 60. 
Bathing pool, 165, 166. 
" Battering " of retaining walls, 122. 
Berkshire, a garden in, Chapter III. 
Biddestone Manor, gate at, 195, 196. 
Bidlake, W. H., garden designed by, 10. 
Billerey, Fernand, design by, 214, 215. 
Bird-baths, 165, 165, 223. 
Blackamoor in lead, 227, 230. 
Blomfield, Reginald, A.R.A., designs by, 138, 140 : 

quoted, 12. 

Blow, Detmar. designs by, 211, 211, 214, 215. 
Blythburgh, garden at, 143, 145. 
Bog garden, 249, 251, 254, 254. 
Bologna, Gian di, 223. 
Bolton, Arthur T., designs by, 78. 
Borders, backed by hedge, 131, 133 ; by well, xlii., xliii. 
Borders by serpentine walls, 108, 108. 
Borders, flower, xl., xlix, 3, 7, 8, 21, 25, 35, 39, 40, 

42, 52, 121. 

Berwick, Leonard, his garden, xlvii., xlviii. 
Boundary walls of rock, 248, 249, 250. 
Bowling greens, 131, 131, 132. 
Box hedges, 36, 37, 42, 132. 
Boy and Dolphin, 220, 222, 223, 223. 
Boy statues, Chapter XIX. passim. 
Bracken, n, 16. 
Bramley, Milltnead, Chapter I. 
Brick dry walls, 120, 122, 123, 126. 
Brick fountain, 150, 151, 157 ; do. paths, 56, 58 ; 

do. paving, 176-8, 176-8; do. steps, 201, 206. 
Brickwork, open, 104. 
Bridge End garden, Saffron Walderi, xxxiii. xxxvi., 

xxxix. 

Bridge over pool, 147, 151. 
Bridges over moats, 165, 166. 
Brierley, Walter, design by, 196, 196 
Broadway, a garden at, 213, 214. 
Brockenhurst, hedges at, 132. 
Bromsgrove Guild, ornaments by, 222, 
Bronze dials, 231, 233. 



Building of retaining walls, 122, 126, 127. 

Bulwick, yews at, 132, 136. 

Buncker, a smith, 200. 

Calcareous soil, 53. 

Canal treatment, 56, 58, 159, 160. 

Carriage gates, 197, 197. 

Carriage ways, xlvii., xlix. 

Carter, W. T. A. T., designs by, 209, 210. 

Cascades, 149, 251, 251. 

Cashmore, H. W., modelling by, 162, 162. 

Cave, Walter, designs by, 89/89, 92, 93, 93, 185, 

189, 209, 209. 
Cementing of walls, 105. 
Chains for pergolas, 188. 

Chance, Lady, garden sculpture by, 161, 161, 162. 
Chelwood Vetchery, garden at, 159, 160, 183, 187, 

204, 204. 

Chesterton, Frank, design by, 82, 83. 
Cheyne Walk, 100, garden at, 60, 62, 64, 65. 
Children and gardens, 89. 
Circular garden, 29 32, 30 32. 
Circular paving, 174, 176; do. pool, 46. 
Cisterns, lead, 164, 164, 165, 165. 
Cleeve Prior, gate at, 194, 195 ; do., yews at, 130, 131. 
Climbing plants, 37, Chapter XI. 
Clipped box, 36, 37, 42. 
Clipping of yew hedges, 132. 
" Clocks," game of, 231, 233. 
" Cob " walls, 212, 213. 
Cole, Leopold E., design by, xlvii. 
Colonnade of treillage, x!v. 

Colour schemes, 31, 40, 41, 42, 44, 54, 124, 125. 
Colour schemes in the flower garden, reference to, 42. 
Colours for garden furniture, 238. 
Combelands, Pulborough, garden at, 59, 61. 
Compartments, u garden in, 27. 
Concrete walls, 109, 109. 
Cordon fruit pergolas, 188, 190. 
Coronal garden, 105, 106. 
Cottages, motor approaches for, xlvii. xlix. 
Courtyard gates, 196, 196. 
Cray, garden at, 59, 61. 
Creepers see climbing plants. 
Cupid and Swan, 223, 223. 
Cupids, Chapter XIX. passim. 
Cypress hedges, 132. 

Danby Hall, Yorkshire, seat at, 234, 237. 
Dancing Boy fountain, 163, 163. 
Deas, F. W., design by, xxx., xxxv. 
Deep planting, n. 
Dialling, 231. 

Dillistone, George, garden laid out by, xxv. 
Dipping-wells, 8, 9, 9, 56, 58. 
Ditton Place, sundial at, 227, 229. 
Dolphin, lead, 162, 162. 
Dorchester, a garden at, 72. 
Dormy House, Walton Heath, garden at, xxvii xxx, 

xl., xl. 
Dovecotes, 58, 58. 



260 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 



Dry walling, 23 ; diagrams, 127. 

Dry wall planting, 49, 50, 51. 

Dry walls, see retaining walls. Chapter XII. 

East Coast, scheme for a garden on the, 64, 66 68. 

Eastwood Cottage, Walberswick, garden at, 69, 69, 70. 

Edzell Castle, walled garden at, xli. 

Emerson, quoted, 12. 

English Leadworh : Its Art and History, reference 

to, 228. 

Ewelme Down, garden at, 89, 89, 92, 93, 93, 185, 189. 
Excavation, cost of, 76. 
Fan gardens, 141, 141. 
Firebrick, burnt, for steps, 83. 
Flag paving, 175. 
Fleming, quoted, 202. 
Flower-boxes in walls, 105, 105. 
Flying Mercury, 223, 225. 
Forecourts, xlvii., xlvii. xlix. 
Fountains, Chapter XIV., xvi., xxxiii., 59, 71, 135, 

137, 158, 159, 160, 161-2, 163, 164. 
Four Oaks, Woodgate, Chapter II. 
Fraser, Gilbert, design by, 175. 
Fruit garden walls, 104. 
Fruit pergolas, 188, 190. 

Fruit room combined with pergola, 183, 187. 
Garden houses, 1, 6, 8, 9, 10, 10, 13, 35, 44, 45, 52, 

53, 56, 58, 202 and Chapter XVIII. 
Garden in West Surrey, a, Chapter V. 
Garden plans, see Plans, garden. 
Gardner, J. Starkie, quoted, 199. 
Gargoyle of lead, 76. 
Garland rose, 17, 22. 
Garston Park, pergola at, 185, 189. 
Gate-piers, statues on, 219, 220, 221. 
Gates and gateways, Chapter XVII., 57, 58, 71. 
Gateway, creeper-clad, 111, 112, 114. 
Gazebos, Chapter XVIII., 44, 45 ; also see Garden 

houses. 

Gibson, Dan, the late, designs by, 95, 95. 
Gilbert, Alfred, fountain by, 162, 163. 
Gimson, Ernest, design by, 165, 166. 
Godalming, Westbrook, Chapter IV. 
Goodrich House, Hatfield, garden at, 70, 70, 71. 
Gourd pergola, 181, 183. 
Granite chips for Alpines, 244. 
Granite unsuitable for rock gardens, 240. 
Great Maytham, garden at, 203, 204, 204, 206, 206, 

215, 215. 

Grove, The, Mill Hill, garden at, 211, 211. 
Guildford, garden at (Littleholme), 76, 78 80. 
Guildford, garden at (Highmount), Chapter VI. 
Guthrie, Rome, designs by, 159, 160, 183, 187, 

204, 204. 

Hamp, Stanley, design by, 211, 211. 
Hampton Court, garden at, 162, 163, 225, 226; misuse 

of ampelopsis at, 116. 

Happisburgh, design for garden at, 64, 66 68. 
Happisburgh, garden at, 211, 211. 
Hare, C. G., restoration by, 199. 
Hatfield, a garden at, 70, 70, 71. 
Heath garden, 31. 

Hedges, Introduction passim, Chapter XIII. 
Heveningham Hall, wall at, 107, 108. 
High Coxlease, Lyndhurst, Chapter II. 
Highmount, Guildford, Chapter VI. 
Hillside gardens, xix. xxx., Chapter VIII. and 119. 
Hippocampus of lead, 158, 161, 162. 



Historical examples, value of, 55, 102. 

Home Place, Norfolk, garden at, 89, 90, 91, 183, 187. 

Horder, P. Morley, designs by, 72, 73, 73, 109, 109, 

169, 170. 

Herman's Vulgaria, quoted, 73. 
Horsnell, Alick, design by, xlvii. , xlix. 
Hurtwood Edge, garden at, 78, 81, 82. 
Hurtwood, garden at, 75, 76, 141, 141, 142, 143, 208, 

208. 

Husson, Pierre, quoted, 141. 

Hutchinson, Horace, his garden, xxix., xxx., xxxiii. 
Ilex hedges, 132. 
Iron gates, Chapter XVII. 
Ironstone paving, 171, 171, 173. 
Island, Steep, garden at, 59, 60, 92, 93, 148, 151. 
Italian pergolas, 179, 179, 180. 
Italian well-heads, 166 168, 167, 169. 
Ivy, misuse of, in, 113, 201, 206; well-used, 115. 
James, Alan, design by, 217, 218. 
Jet for pool, 149. 

Kelsale Manor, Saxmundham, garden at, 165, 166. 
Laburnum pergola, 191, 193. 
Lake District architecture, 95. 
Lambay, wall at, 109, 109. 
Lane, Sir Hugh, his garden, 60, 62, 64, 65. 
Larch pergolas, 181, 181, 182, 183. 
Laurel hedges, 135. 
Lead gargoyle, 76 ; figures on stone seat, 239 ; 

fountain figure, xxxiii. ; garden ornaments, 220; 

inlay, 228, 231; peacocks, xxv. ; pump -heads, 

168, 168; sundial, 232. 

Leslie, G. D., R.A., mask designed by, 36, 42. 
Lethaby, Professor, house designed by, 14, 15 ; quoted, 

220, 225. 

Lilies, good soil for, n. 

Lily ponds, xvi., xxxiii., 12, 13, 46, 49, 145, 154, 208. 
Limes, pleached, 27, 35 ; pollarded, 138, 138. 
Limy soil, n, 53, 63, 132, 244. 
Lion mask for fountain, 161, 161. 
Liphook, gardens at, 83, 84. 
Little Boarhunt, Liphook, garden at, 55, 56, 57, 

213, 214. 

Littleholme, Guildford, garden at, 76, 78 80, 162, 162. 
Little Ridge, garden at, 214, 215. 
Loggias, 29, 35. 

Lorimer, Sir Robert, designs by, 85, 85. 
Lucas, Seymour, R.A., his garden, 145. 
Lutyens, E. L., designs by, 1, 2, 17, 62, 64, 65, 93, 

93, 95, 95, 109, 109, 154, 155, 158, 160, 161, 

182, 185, 186, 203, 204, 206, 206, 215, 215, 

228, 231, 237. 

Lyndhurst, High Coxlease, Chapter II. 
MacLeod, W. M., his garden, xxv., xxv. 
Macquoid, Percy, pavilion in his garden, 216, 218. 
Mallows, C. E., designs by, i., ii., ii., 64, 66 68, 

76, 77, 96, 97, 131, 134, 144, 145. 
Markyate Cell, garden at, xx., xxiii. xxviii. 
Marliac lilies, 15. 
Marrowells, garden at, 232, 233. 
Marsh Court, garden at, 154, 155, 158, 161, 1.77, 182, 

185, 228, 231. 

Mathern, garden at, 94, 139, 140. 
Mawson, Thomas, designs by, 175, 223, 224. 
Melbourne, garden at, 222, 222. 
Methods of paving, Chapter XV. 
Millfield, Brentwood, pool at, 152, 158. 
Millmead, Bramley, Chapter I. 



Index. 



261 



Millstones, 231, 232. 

Mitchell, Arnold, designs by, 209, 209, 233, 233. 

Moats, bridges over, 165, 166. 

Montagu, Lady Mary Wortley, quoted, 74. 

Moraine garden, 254-5, 254-5. 

Morton House, Hatfield, garden at, 144, 149. 

Mottoes on sundials, 228. 

Mounting block at Cleeve Prior, 194, 195. 

Muntzer, G., his garden, 76, 78 80. 

Murrel, The, Aberdour, garden at, xxx., xxxv. 

Narcissus statue, 220. 

Narrow gardens, designing of, i 9, and Chapter VII. 

Nature imitated in rock gardens, 240. 

Negus, Raymond E., on rock gardens, Chapter XX. 

Newton Ferrers, balustrade at, 101, 103. 

Noah's Ark ornament on tub, 226. 

North aspect for flower border, 35. 

Norton Conyers, garden at, 200, 202, 202, 206. 

Oak for seats, 238 ; for pergolas, 181. 

Old iron gates, use of, 197. 

Old materials, use of, 214. 

Oliver, Basil, design by, 217, 218. 

Openwork walls, 104, 104. 

Ornaments, garden, xxvi., Chapter XIX. 

" Overthrow " of gates, 197; of well-heads, 166, 167. 

Owlpen Manor, garden at, xix., xix. xxii. ; gate and 

steps at, 86. 

Packwood House, garden at, 200, 201, 206. 
Palissy, Bernard, quoted, 170. 
Pan, 223, 223. 

Papillon Hall, garden at, 156, 158, 220, 221. 
Paradisi in Sole, reference to, xli. 
Parker, W. J., designs by, 197, 197 198. 
Parterres, 56, 59, 60, 63, 132, 135, 157. 
Paths, xlvii., xlviii., 21, 70; behind flower-beds, 62, 64, 

108, 108; of escape, 31; in rock gardens, 251, 

252, 252; meeting under pergola, 183, 187. 
Paved court, 36, 37, 39, 41. 
Pavilions, Chapter XVIII. 
Paving, xl., xl., 3, 25, 48, 56, 58, 59, 60, 61, 68; broken 

by pools, 153; methods of, Chapter XV.; 

planting of, 175, 176. 
Paxton, Sir Joseph, 170. 
Peaty earth, 36. 
Pergola, the, Chapter XVI. 
Pergolas, xxiii., xxxix., 53, 53, 73, 173, 176, 177; good 

dimensions for, 185 186; stepped, 188, 191. 
Petersfield, garden at, 147, 151. 
Peto, H., design by, 234, 237. 

Pinkerton, Godfrey, designs by, 182, 183, 215, 217. 
Piping Boy statue, 221, 222. 
Pise or " cob " walls, 212, 213. 
Pitsford, pump-house at, 169, 170. 
Plan of stepped pergola, 188, 191. 
Plans, garden, xvii., xx., xxvi., xxix., xxxi., xxxii., xxxv., 

xxxvii., xlvi., xlix., 5, n, 18, 28, 38, 59, 62, 63, 

64, 67, 69, 70, 72, 73, 76, 78. 83, 135, 157. 
Planting for pergolas, 188; of pavement joints, xl., 

128; of retaining walls, Chapter XII.; scheme 

for seaside garden, 64. 
Planting plans, 2, 5, 6, 20, 25, 26, 30, 33, 41, 43, 49, 

58, 136, 175. 

Plastered pergola posts, 179, 180. 
Platts, The, Petersfield, garden at, 59, 61. 
Pleached alleys, 27, 35, 191. 

Plewland, Haslemere, garden at, 59, 62, 231. 232. 
Pollarded limes, 138, 138. 



Pools, xxxiii., 12, 19, 29, 31, 32, 36, 42, 46, 49, 51, 56. 
60, 61, 63, 65, 68, 71, 80, 89, 90, 97, 137. 

Pools generally, Chapter XIX. 

Pools, various shapes for, 148 -151, 149 151. 

Porch, detached, 93, 93. 

Porter, Horatio, design by, 227, 229. 

Portland stone paving, 171, 173. 

Portugal laurel hedge, 137. 

Portuguese bricks, 104. 

Postern in wooden gate, 205, 206. 

Potters' Arts Guild, 223. 

Primulas in rock gardens, 243, 244, 247. 

Principles of garden design, 12 et passim. 

Prior, E. S., designs by, 59, 61, 89^ 90, 91, 183, 187. 

Privet hedges, 132. 

Puech, a sculptor, 223, 224. 

Pump-casing, 168, 168; heads, 168, 168; house, 169, 

170. 

" Random " paving, 171, 173; walling, 126. 
Ravensbury Manor, treillage at, xliii. 
Read and Macdonald, designs by, 59, 62. 
Reed-screens, to protect against wind, 67. 
Retaining walls, 21, 59, 61, 62, 244, 248, 249, 250. 
Retaining walls and their planting, 2, 3, 6, 23, 68, 

Chapter XII. 
Ribbon wall, 107, 108. 
Rick-stones, use of, 210, 211, 231, 233. 
Rills, 56, 58, 159, 160. 
Roberts, the Brothers, smiths, 198. 
Robinson, Thomas, smith, 200. 
Robinson, W., his garden at Gravetye, 227, 227. 
Robinson Crusoe, quoted, 194. 
Rock gardens, xlv., xlvi., 15, 69, Chapter XXI. 
Rock pools, 250, 250. 
Roller as sundial base, 228, 232. 
Roofed seats, 29, 35, 35. 
Rose, A. Winter, designs by, 69, 69, 70, 70, 71, 

144, 149, 152, 158, 165, 166, 218, 218, 219, 223, 

232, 233. 
Rose gardens, xxvii., 47, 50, 51, 56, 58, 59, 60, 175, 

232, 233. 

Rotherfield, garden at, 100, 102. 
Round, Douglas, designs by, 51. 
" Rustic " building, 213. 
Saffron Walden, topiary gaiden at, xxxiii. xxxvi., 

xxxix. 

Saighton Grange, sundial at, 233. 
St. Clere, Kemsing, garden at, 182, 183, 211, 215 
Samuel, Sir Stuart, Bart., M.P., his garden, 159, 187, 

204, 204. 

Sandhouse, Witley, garden at, 185, 188, 223, 225. 
Sand paths, 31. 
Sandy soil, n, 36. 

Sartorius, Major-General, his garden, 141-2-3, 143. 
Scott, Baillie, designs by, 59, 60. 
Scottish garden houses, typical, 217, 218. 
Screen, open, for garden, 65. 
Sculpture, garden, Chapter XIX. 
Seal Hollow, Sevenoaks, paved court at, 59, 60. 
Seaside gardens, 64, 66 68. 
Seats, Chapter XX., 13, 29, 35, 35, 70. 
Sedgwick Hall, Horsham, seat at, 234, 237. 
Serpentine walls, 107, 108, 110. 
Servants' garden, 73. 
Shady walls, planting of, 121. 
Sheltered garden, a, 64, 66 68. 
Shelters, garden, 217, 218. 



262 



Gardens for Small Country Houses. 



Shepherd's Gate, garden at, xxix., xxx., xxxiii. 

Shrubs in rock garden, 247, 248; for walls, 118. 

Sitwell, Sir George, quoted, 222. 

Slate stones in retaining walls, 119. 

Sloping ground, treatment of, xix. xxxv., 74. 

Small Country Houses of To-day, reference to, 109. 

Small sites, the treatment of, Chapter VII. 

Smith and Brewer, design by, 188, 191. 

Smith, F. E., his house at Charlton, thatched shelters 

at, 217, 218. 

Smith, Maberley, design by, 59, 61. 
South Kensington Museum, fountain at, 163. 
Stairways, xxiii. xxviii., Chapter IX., 225, 225 and 

see Steps. 

Staplefield Grange, garden house at, 216, 218. 
Statues, 19, 26, 56, 58, 62, 63, 65, 232, 233, 234, 237, 

237, 238, Chapter XIX. 
Statues in pools, xxxiii., 161. 
Stepped water gardens. 155, 156. 
Steps, xxiii. xxvi., 6, 7, 8, 10, 10, 19, 21, 23, 37, 46, 

48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 57, 75, 76, 77, 80, 127, 127, 

128, 195, 206; in rock gardens, 254, 254; over 

pool, 147, 151. 

Stoneywell Cottage, pool at, 165, 166. 
Stratification in rock gardens, 240, 241. 
Suburban garden, plan for, 73, 73. 
Sullingstead, Hascombe, porch at, 93, 93. 
Summer houses, Chapter XVIII., and see garden 

houses. 

Sundial, pools grouped round, 148 
Sundials, 6, 8, 174, 176, Chapter XX. 
Sunk gardens, 29 32, 30 32, 56, 58, 61, 155, 156. 
Sun- trap walls, 108 110, 108 109. 
Sutton Courtenay, well-head at, 168, 169. 
Tables, garden, 237, 238, 238. 
Tank garden, 19, 20, 21. 
Teak for seats, 238. 
Temple Dinsley, gaiden at, 219, 221. 
Term figures, 223, 223. 
Terraces, xx. xxviii., 74, 76, 79, 80, 93, 95 ; pavilions 

for, 218, 218; gates on, 204, 204; in rock 

garden, 254, 254; cost of, 48. 
Terra-cotta garden ornaments, 223. 
Thatched roof for garden houses, 9, 211, 211, 212,217. 
The House and its Equipment, quoted, 199. 
Thomas, Inigo, designs by, 100, 102, 105, 106. 
" Thunder-House/' 44, 45. 
Thursley, garden at, xxxi., xxxv. 
Tijou, Jean, smith, 199. 
Tile-built basin, 145 ; fountain, 160, 161 ; parapets, 

103, 104, 104; pergolas, 182, 183, 185. 
Tile-paving, 177 178, 176 178. 
Tinned ornament on leadwork, 226, 226. 
Tipping, H. Avray, planting scheme by, 64. 
Toads of lead, 161. 
Tool-houses, 13, 218, 218. 
Topiary work, xix. xxii., xxiv,, xxvii., xxxiii. xxxvi., 

139, 140, 185, 189. 
Tortoise of lead, 161, 161. 
Town Gardens, 60, 62. 
Trees as rose supports, 20, 24. 
Treillage, xvi., xliii. xlvi., xliii. iv., 60, 63, 191, 192; 

perspective, 185, 189; shelter, 217, 218; door, 

206, 206; roofing to pergola, 185, 188. 
Troup, F. W., designs by, 109, 185, 188, 225, 225. 



Triggs, H. Inigo, designs by, 55, 59, 63, 97, 97, 104 

105, 104105, 132, 135, 157, 157, 158, 159, 177, 

178, 182, 184, 207, 207, 213. 
Tubs, placed by pool, 148. 

Turner, Thackeray, garden designed by, Chapter IV. 
Turnor, Christopher, ,, ,, 143, 141-2-3. 

" The Twelve Apostles " yew hedge, 130, 131. 
Unsworth, W. F., designs by, 57, 214, 216. 
Uns worth and Triggs, designs by, 60, 61, 83, 84, 92, 93, 

147, 148, 151, 214. 
Van Nost, Jan, 225, 226, 227, 230; figures modelled 

by, 221, 222, 222. 
Vases, xxiii., Chapter XIX. 
Vernacular, building, 209. 

View, framing of, by garden features, xxxv., 54. 
Vineyards, Great Baddow, garden at, 143, 145, 209, 

209, 233, 233. 

Vistas made by gates, 198, 203 ; treatment of, xxvi. 
Voysey, C. F. A., designs by, 76, 162, 162. 
Vulgaria, Herman's, quoted, 193. 
Walberswick, garden at, 69, 69, 70. 
Walks, see Wood-walks. 

Wallace, R. and Co., garden laid out by, xxv. 
Wall-fountains, 160, 161, 162, 163. 
Walled gardens, xxx.,xli.,34, 198,203, 203, 214, 215, 215. 
Walls, xl., xlii., Chapter X., 56, 57, 58 ; climbing plants 

for, 2 ; retaining, and their planting, Chapter XII. 
Warren, a smith, 200. 
Water gardens, 15, 16, 19, 20, 21. 
Water, in rock gardens, 249, 250, 250. 
Water in the formal garden, Chapter XIV. 
Water level in pools, 147. 
Watts, Mrs. G. F., 223. 
Well-heads, 166168, 167, 169. 
Westbrook, Godalming, Chapter IV. 
West Dean, pergola at, 191, 193. 
White, E., design by, xxxi., xxxv. 
White, Gilbert, Natural History of Selborne, quoted, 58. 
White, J. P., designs by, 185, 189, 191, 192, 238. 
Wind, garden protected against, 64. 
Windows in garden houses, 216. 
Winter garden, 33, 34, 34. 
Wistaria, misplaced, 115, 116. 
Witley, Reading, garden at, 82, 83. 
Wittersham House, garden at, 203, 204, 215, 215, 

237, 238. 

Wood-walks, 41, 42, 42, 43, 44. 
Wooden gates, 194, 196, 204, 205. 
Woodgate, Four Oaks, Chapter II. 
Woodland gardens, Chapter II. 
Woodland walk, steps for, 98, 99. 
Wootton Lodge, Staffs, pool at, 146, 149. 
Wotton House, gate at, 200, 200. 
Wroxall Abbey, wall at, 108. 110. 
Wren, Sir Christopher, 108. 
Wrought-iron gates, Chapter XVII. 
Wych Cross Place, garden at, 162, 163, 200, 202, 223, 

224. 
Yew and other hedges, xix. xxii., xxiv., xxvii., xxxiii. 

xxxvi., xix., xxxiii., xxxix., Chapter XIII., 27, 73. 
Yews, Irish, 60, 63. 
York stone paving, 171. 
Young, Thomas, designs by, 76, 7880. 
Youth and Maiden figures, 220, 221. 
Yuccas, 40, 42. 



Note. The LAKGE numerals indicate ILLUSTRATIONS of the subject indexed, and refer not to the Figure numbets, but 
to the PAGES on which illustrations will be found. The SMALL numerals indicate REFERENCES IN THE TEXT. 



COUNTRY LIFE 

THE Journal for all interested in Domestic 
Architecture and in Country Life & Pursuits 



UNTIL the advent of COUNTRY LIFE, the premier illustrated 
paper, few people had realised the treasures possessed by Great 
Britain in the way of country houses and gardens. In some cases 
even the very owners did not fully know the artistic, architectural 
and antiquarian value of their own possessions ; and in spite of the exercise of 
the most fastidious and scrupulous care in selection, the number of old houses 
possessing instructive and interesting features seems unending. One of the aims 
of COUNTRY LIFE is to enlarge public taste, and the surest way of doing this is 
to illustrate the best examples of all styles of building and garden-making. The 
houses themselves are often equalled in interest by the wealth of furniture and 
pictures which they enshrine. The historic mansion is, however, for the few, while 
there is a great and increasing public which is deeply interested in the " Lesser 
Country Houses of To-day." Articles on these, and on small houses of yesterday 
which have been repaired and enlarged to make them suit modern needs, appear 
every week in COUNTRY LIFE. Under the heading of "In the Garden," the latest 
developments of planting and garden design are illustrated, with notes by 
acknowledged experts. 

By this means the public at large becomes acquainted with the best work of 
the architects and garden designers of the day, who have revived and are 
carrying to their logical development those traditions, so diverse and full of 
vitality, which give to each county its distinctive buildings and gardens. A study 
of the articles in COUNTRY LIFE in the two series of " Country Homes and Gardens 
Old and New" and "Lesser Country Houses of To-day" will equip the reader 
with a knowledge of all that is best in historic and modern homes, great and small. 

The above notes on COUNTRY LIFE, appearing as they do at the end of a 
book dealing with the surroundings of the house, naturally emphasize that side of 
its activities. It is hardly needful to remind readers that the paper, week by 
week, presents country life in all its aspects, and illustrates agriculture, sport, and 
natural history with a fulness attempted by no other journal. 

Published Weekly Price SIXPENCE. 

Subscription Prices Per annum, post free, and including Double Numbers 

INLAND - 29s. 2d. CANADA - 35s. lOd. 
Other Colonies and Foreign Countries, 48s. Od. 

Published at the Offices of COUNTRY LIFE, LTD., 20, Tavistock Street, Covent Garden, W.C. 



Everyone interested in gardens and gardening should subscribe to 

THE GARDEN 

The Best, and one of the oldest, of the Horticultural Journals 

ONE PENNY WEEKLY 

ITS articles, by recognized authorities, are practical and exhaustive, and deal 
with every subject connected with horticulture. The illustrations include new 
and uncommon plants, photographs of various gardens in the making, the 
grouping of flowers, and sketches depicting actual work in the garden. A 
charming illustration in colour of some new garden subject is presented with each 
copy, on alternate weeks. 




A TYPICAL PICTURE FROM "THE GARDEN," ILLUSTRATING AN ARTICLE ON ROCK GARDENS. 

An important feature of THE GARDEN is, that subscribers can have the 
benefit of the advice of the Editor and his staff of experts on the naming, diseases, 
or cultivation of any plant. 

THE GARDEN is published every Thursday Price One Penny and can be 
obtained of all newsagents, bookstalls, etc., or by subscription, direct from the office, 
20, Tavistock Street, Covent Garden, London, W.C. 

Annual Subscription, including postage, Inland, 6/6 ; Foreign, 8/8 

The Publisher will be glad to send a specimen copy containing a coloured plate on 
receipt of post card giving name and address. 



A 




OF BOOKS 



PUBLISHED AT 
THE OFFICES OF 



"COUNTRY LIFE," LTD 

20, TAVISTOCK STREET 

COVENT GARDEN 

LONDON, W.C. 



COUNTRY 




i*jfii^s_ac 

LIFE 



SMALL COUNTRY 
HOUSES OF TO-DAY 

Edited by LAWRENCE WEAVER. 

Second Edition now ready. Large quarto, gilt. 

Price 157- net - 

By post (inland) 15/6. (Foreign and Colonial) 16/6. 
224 pages and 300 illustrations. 



T 



HIS volume fills a distinctive place, because not only is 
the picked work of more than forty of the best architects 

of the dayshown 
by plan and 
photograph, but 
it is discussed 
in detail, frankly 
yet sympatheti- 
cally. As the 
houses illustra- 
ted, nearly fifty 
in all, vary from 
large cottages 
costing 600 to 

dignified country homes costing 5,000, all sorts of internal 
arrangement and architectural and garden treatment are brought 
under review. To all of moderate means who contemplate 
building a country house, this book will be of the utmost 
value. 




A FINE BRICK HOUSE. 
(Reduced specimen illustration.) 



Small Country Houses: 

Their Repair and Enlargement 

FORTY EXAMPLES CHOSEN FROM FIVE CENTURIES. 



By LAWRENCE WEAVER. 
Large quarto, gilt. 

Price 15/- net. 

By post (inland), 15/6. (Foreign and Colonial) 16/6. 
Nearly 250 pages and 300 illustrations. 



THE growing tendency to rescue old buildings from neglect 
and the important problems which are raised by such work 
prompted the issue of this book. Detailed descriptions re- 

veal how 
houses of 
bygone 
days have 
been re- 
equipped 
as modern 
needs de- 
m a n d , 
without 
de stroy- 
i n g the 
witness 
they bear 
to the old 
traditions 








A Fit Subject for Repair. 

ing. Incidentally, the author has shown in how many cases the 
records of modest little houses have been preserved, and how 
intimately their local history is woven into the larger fabric of 
national history. The book is an invaluable guide to all who 
are desirous of repairing an old house, and who wish to achieve 
it in the right spirit. 



THE HOUSE AND 
ITS EQUIPMENT 

Edited by LAWRENCE WEAVER 

Large quarto, gilt. 

PRICE 157- NET. 

By post (inland) 15/6. Foreign and Colonial post, 16/6. 
212 pages and 240 illustrations. 

IT is impossible that any one writer can deal with the many problems that 
arise out ot the artistic and practical equipment of a house, at least with 
equal knowledge and sympathy. The scheme ot this volume, with its 
forty-three chapters contributed by twenty-three experts of acknowledged ability, 
ensures the throwing of fresh light on scores of questions that concern the 
comfort and pleasure of everyone. To all who own a home, and are not wholly 
satisfied with it, and to all who contemplate improving an existing house, or 
building anew, this volume will be of the utmost value. 



THE "COUNTRY LIFE" 
BOOK OF COTTAGES 

(Costing from 150 to 600) 
By LAWRENCE WEAVER 

Large octavo ; Cloth, gilt. 

PRICE 57- NET. 

By post (inland), 5/5. Foreign and Colonial Post, 6/-. 

Nearly 250 pages and 300 Illustrations and Plans. 

THE word "cottage" has been grossly misused, especially in the titles ot 
books where it is often employed to describe country houses which cost 
thousands. Save for a few gate lodges the buildings illustrated in this 
volume are truly cottages and none of a greater cost than 600 is included. 
Full consideration has been given to cottages of all types for the rural labourer, 
the estate servant, the smallholder, the clerk who lives outside the town, the 
" week-ender " and those of limited means who want a permanent home of refined 
character in the country at the smallest possible cost. This book is indispensable 
to all estate owners, to everyone who contemplates building a cottage of any sort, 
and to all who are interested in Housing questions. 



The finest Architectural Monograph ever published in this country. 

WINDSOR CASTLE 

AN ARCHITECTURAL HISTORY 

Collected and written by command of Their {Majesties 

QUEEN VICTORIA 
KING EDWARD VII. and 
KING GEORGE V. 

By W. H. ST. JOHN HOPE, Litt.D., D.C.L. 

Imperial Quarto, in two sumptuous Volumes, and a Portfolio. 

Bound in Half Sheepskin - 66 net 
Whole Sheepskin - 880,, 

Full Morocco 10 10 

WINDSOR CASTLE stands alone among the buildings of Great 
Britain. It is the greatest among our early fortresses and the most 
splendid of Royal Palaces. It includes within its walls a rich 
example of the most typically English phase of Gothic Architecture 
St. George's Chapel, the home of the Knights of the oldest existing order 
of Chivalry in Christendom, the most noble Order of the Garter. The 
story of English building during eight centuries is very fully written in the 
stones of Windsor, but not so that everyone may read. The slow accre- 
tions of centuries are not easy to disentangle, and it needed the skill and 
wide archaeological experience of Mr. W. H. St. John Hope to set out in 
its true proportions the fascinating story of the growth of this great 
architectural organism. 

The edition is strictly limited to 1,050 numbered copies, of which 
nearly 400 were subscribed before publication. In no circumstances will 
the book be reprinted. It is illustrated by exquisite reproductions in 
colour of drawings by Paul Sandby ; by a large number of collotype 
plates reproducing a unique collection of original drawings, engravings 
and photographs which show the Castle at every stage of its development ; 
as well as by beautiful woodcuts, prepared expressly by the great engraver 
Orlando Jewitt for this History, when it was first projected. The 
Portfolio contains a notable reproduction of Norden's View of Windsor 
and a complete series of plans, specially printed in fourteen colours, which 
show the dates of all the buildings in the Castle and their successive 
changes. Many of the illustrations are reproduced for the first time, by 
special permission of His Majesty the King, from originals in the Royal 
Library at Windsor. 

The text is printed from new type on pure rag paper, specially made 
for this edition, and the volumes are produced in a way which does the 
fullest justice to a work of national importance. 



A New Series of Architectural Books. 

THE PROPRIETORS OF " COUNTRY 
LIFE " have pleasure in announcing a new 
and important series of Architectural Monographs 
under the general editorship of Lawrence Weaver, 
F.S.A., Hon. A.R.I.B.A., of which " Houses and 
Gardens by E. L. Lutyens " is the first volume. 

The series will include books by authors of acknowledged 
authority on the work of great architects of the past, such as the 
Brothers Adam, and great craftsmen like Grinling Gibbons ; on 
the architectural development of the minor arts of Plasterwork, 
Ironwork, and the like ; and on individual features of buildings, 
such as Fireplaces and Chimneypieces, Staircases and Panelled 
Rooms. The volumes will be uniform in size, type and style of 
binding. Two are now in the press, and six more are in active 
preparation. The prices at which they are published will vary 
with the number of pages in each volume, but in all cases will be 
much lower than ever before attempted for baoks so fully and 
finely illustrated. 

It is hoped that the following Monographs will be published 
in 1914-15. Fully illustrated Prospectuses will be forwarded, 
as issued, to anyone making application. 

GRINLING GIBBONS AND THE WOODWORK OF HIS AGE [1648- 
1720), BY H. AVRAY TIPPING, M.A., F.S.A. [In the Press. 

THE WORK OF THE BROTHERS ADAM, BY ARTHUR T. 
BOLTON, F.S.A., F.R.I.B.A. [In the Press. 

DECORATIVE PLASTERWORK, BY LAURENCE TURNER. 

[In the Press. 

WROUGHT IRONWORK: GATES, RAILINGS AND SCREENS, 
BY MAXWELL AYRTON. 

ENGLISH PANELLED ROOMS, BY W. H. WARD, M.A.Cantab., 
A.R.I.B.A. 

ENGLISH FIREPLACES AND CHIMNEYPIECES, BY WALTER 
H. GODFREY. 

STAIRCASES: THEIR DESIGN AND DECORATION. 



HOUSES AND GARDENS 
BY E. L. LUTYENS 

Described and criticised by 
LAWRENCE WEAVER 

Large crown folio (16 by 1 1), bound in quarter buckram, gilt. 
Nearly 400 pages and 600 superb illustrations. 

PRICE 25 - NET. 

Inland Postage lod. extra, Foreign and Colonial Post z/ extra. 




T 



1HIS book is lavishly 
illustrated with 
photographs of about 
eighty of Mr. Lutyens' 
most typical houses and 
gardens, many of which 
have never previously 
been published. Inter- 
spersed in the text is a 
large number of plans, 
and there is an appendix 
of 22 pages giving a 
valuable series of scale 
drawings of typical build- 
ings. The subjects are 
accompanied by descrip- 
tions and critical appre- 
ciations which incidentally 

throw considerable light 

o 

on the general develop- 
ment of the domestic 
building of to-day. In all respects the book is the most im- 
portant and interesting monograph on the work of an architect 
yet published. 

The Morning Post says : "The publication of Mr. Weaver's work on the buildings and 
career of Mr. Lutyens is ... an event in the world of architecture." 

The Manchester Guardian says : "It is only when we see a publication such as this 
that we realise what quality characterises some of the building of to-day. Abundantly and 
splendidly illustrated this book shows the work of a great master, whose influence is even greater 
than his most enthusiastic admirers can appreciate." 



In English Homes 

Illustrating the architectural character^ decorations and 
furniture of some of the most notable Houses of England 

Volumes /., //. and III. 

AND THE RECENTLY PUBLISHED FOURTH VOLUME 

ENGLISH HOMES of the EARLY 
RENAISSANCE 

(ELIZABETHAN AND JACOBEAN HOUSES AND GARDENS) 
Edited by H. Al/RAY TIPPING, M.A., F.S.A. 

Price 2 2s. net each. 

By post 2 35. 



THESE four notable volumes form together an 
unequalled pictorial survey of the domestic architec- 
ture of England of every style and period. They are, 
moreover, a treasury, not only of the life stories of the 
notable men and women who have lived in our historic 
homes, but of those county and village traditions which 
throw so much light on the larger issues that have made 
the history of the nation. 



" A veritable revelation of the wealth of internal adornments, architectural and other, 
contained in the great country mansions of England. To turn over the pages is to 
obtain keen pleasure, as well as enlightenment, concerning a treasury of domestic art 
and archaeology, which to a large extent is kept closed from the common eye." Scotsman. 



IN ENGLISH HOMES 




A RECESS AT SPEKE HALL, LANCASHIRE. 
(Reduced specimen illustration.) 



" IN ENGLISH HOMES comes as something of a revelation. One may have a general 
idea, or even some particular knowledge of the splendours of architecture, decoration, 
furniture, and works of art appertaining to our country mansions, and yet be 
astonished at all the taste and magnificence represented in the profusion of excellent 
photographs." Morning Post. 



GARDENS 

OLD AND NEW 

(The Country House and its Garden Environment) 

Edited by H. AVRAY TIPPING, M.A., F.S.A. 

Handsomely bound in cloth, gilt edges 

"Volumes 7., //., and III. 

Price 2 2s. net each 

By post /,2 35. 



I ~HESE three volumes illustrate the relationship between 
house and garden, and the beauties of every type of 
garden, both formal and natural, in a- way never before attempted. 
They afford a complete survey of the whole history of garden 
design and garden architecture, considered from every point 
of view, historical, artistic and horticultural. 



" The title given to this handsome book hardly does justice to the contents. The 
gardens that it so lavishly portrays, charming as they are, would be without life 
and meaning, except as settings to the priceless old English halls, manor-houses, 
and castles that are centred in each well-chosen view. There must be almost a 
thousand of these fascinating pictures in this one volume, and all, with one exception, 
have been chosen from sixty-four famous places, so that one does not merely have 
a passing glimpse of a multitude of widely-scattered scenes, but, on an average, 
fifteen careful outdoor studies of each beautiful house and its surroundings." 

Morning Post. 



Gardens Old and New 




REDUCED SPECIMEN ILLUSTRATION. 



" To those who are unacquainted with the wealth of English gardens, these books 
will be in a way a revelation. Other countries may be justly proud of their gardens, 
but none can show such a variety or such wealth as England, and never before has 
this wealth been so liberally or so'artistically displayed." Scotsman. 



Our Common Sea-Birds 

CORMORANTS, TERNS, GULLS, SKUAS, PETRELS, AND AUKS. 
By PERCY R. LOWE, B.A., M.B., B.C. 

With Chapters by BENTLEY BEETHAM, FRANCIS HEATHERLEY, 

W. R. OGILVIE-GRANT, OLIVER G. PIKE, W. R. PYCRAFT, 

A. J. ROBERTS, etc. 

Large quarto, cloth, gilt, with over 300 pages and nearly 250 illustrations. 

PRICE 15/- NET. 
Inland postage 7d. extra. 

UNLIKE the majority 
of books dealing with 
birds, this volume is of 
interest to the general 
reader and to the student 
of ornithology alike. It 
is a book that enables the 
reader to identify our 
sea-birds by name, to 
understand their move- 
ments, their habits, their 
nests, and their eggs. 

Dr. Lowe, during 
many yachting trips 
round the British Islands, 
in the Mediterranean, 
and across the Atlantic, 
has had exceptional op- 
portunities of studying 
the habits and life- 
histories of our sea-birds, 
and this book, in addition 
to embodying much 
valuable information from the latest records, contains a large 
number of new facts and original theories of intense interest to 
all. The Introductory pages and the chapters on the Flight of 
Birds deserve the closest attention. 

The Illustrations are of extraordinary merit and beauty. 
They exhibit in a marked degree the result not only of the 
skill, knowledge, and ingenuity of the photographers, but of their 
high enthusiasm and unwearying patience. 




(Reduced specimen illustration.) 




Pictured by G. D. ARMOUR. 
With an Introduction by HORACE G. HUTCHINSON. 

Royal quarto, tastefully bound, containing over fifty choice plates. 

PRICE 15/- NET. 
Inland Postage 6d. extra. 

THIS volume is sure of a warm welcome from every Sports- 
man and Sportswoman of to-day. In the beautiful picture 
gallery disclosed through its pages, Mr. Armour presents a 
wonderfully representative collection of his art. Whether it is 
the field in " full cry," the grouse coming over the heather, the 
polo player dashing towards the goal, or the otto hound surging 
through the rapids ; all are portrayed with individuality and 
fidelity, by means which have the appealing merit of simplicity 
and directness. The plates are perfect specimens of pictorial 
art. Each one deserves, and, indeed, demands a frame. 



A Book that should appeal to all Nature Lovers 

THE PEREGRINE FALCON 
AT THE EYRIE 

By FRANCIS HEATHERLEY, F.R.C.S. 

Illustrated throughout with photographs by the Author and C. J . KING. 

Quarto, cloth, gill. 

PRICE 5/- NET. By Inland Post 5/6 

THIS fascinating book on the Peregrine Falcon the grandest bird of prey left 
in England combines the salient facts of almost innumerable field notes, 
written at the eyrie itself. It is a book that should appeal with irresistible 
force to all true nature lovers. Many striking and unexpected facts were revealed to 
the author as a result of unwearying patience in a diminutive hut slung from the 
precipice of a lonely islet. These records are here set forth in a wonderful narrative 
which discloses the life history of the Peregrine Falcon from the moment of its 
hatching to the day it finally leaves the eyrie. 



THE 

"Country Life' Library of Sport 

Edited by HORACE G. HUTCHINSON. 

Price 12/6 net each volume. By post 6d. extra. 

A Series devoted to Sport and Pastime ; each branch being dealt with by the 
most qualified experts on the subjects which they have made peculiarly their own 

CRICKET With over 80 Illustrations taken from the most interesting of the 
old cricketing prints. One Volume. 

FISHING With Coloured Plates of Salmon and Trout Flies. Over 250 full- 
page Illustrations and numerous diagrams. In Two Volumes. 

Tne breeding, rearing and shooting of pheasants, partridges, and 
wild duck. In Two Volumes. 

mUOOTI TVO With over 200 Illustrations from photo- 
*VJ^ lirHJ graphs, showing animals in their actual 
habitat and natural environment. In Two Volumes. 



POLO, PAST AND PRESENT 

turies back, up to the present time. Profusely Illustrated. In One Volume. 

"Mr. Hutchinson and his colleagues have done their work thoroughly." The Globe. 




GOLF GREENS AND GREEN KEEPING 

By HORACE G. HUTCHINSON. 

Cheap Edition 5s. net. By post 5s. 4d. 

"The practical worth of the volume is nearly equal to the combined worth of all 
the books that have been written on the theory and practice of golf." Yorkshire Post. 






15 

THE CENTURY BOOK OF GARDENING. 

Edited by E. T. COOK. A comprehensive work for every lover of the 
garden. 624 pages, with about 600 Illustrations, many of them full- 
page 4to (12 in. by 8| in:). 21s. Net, by post 21s. lOd. 

GARDENING FOR BEGINNERS. 

(A Handbook to the Garden}. By E. T. COOK. With Coloured 
Plates, and over 200 Illustrations, plans, and diagrams from photo- 
graphs of selected specimens of Plants, Flowers, Trees, Shrubs, Fruits, 
etc. Sixth Edition. 12s. Qd. Net, by post 12s. lid. 

WALL AND WATER GARDENS. 

By GERTRUDE JEKYLL. Containing instructions and hints on the 
cultivation of suitable plants on dry walls, rock walls, in streams, 
marsh pools, lakes, ponds, tanks, and water margins. With nearly 
200 Illustrations, Plans, Diagrams, etc. Fifth Edition. Large 8vo. 
over 200 pages. 12s. 6d. Net, by post 12s. lid. 

COLOUR SCHEMES FOR THE FLOWER 

GARDEN. By GERTRUDE JEKYLL. With over 100 Illustrations 
and Planting Plans. Third Edition. 12s. Qd. Net, by post 12s. lOd. 

TREES & SHRUBS FOR ENGLISH GARDENS. 

By E. T. COOK. 12s. 6d. Net, by post 12s. lid. 

MY GARDEN. By EDEN PHILLPOTTS. 

60 full-page Illustrations. Cheap Edition, 6s. Net, by Post 6s. 4d. 

THE FRUIT GARDEN. 

By GEORGE BUNYARD and OWEN THOMAS. 507 pages. 

Size, 10| in. by 7J in. 12s. 6d. Net, by post 12s. lid. 

A GARDEN IN VENICE. 

By F. EDEN. An account of the author's beautiful garden on the 
Island of the Guidecca at Venice. With 21 Collotype and 50 other 
Illustrations. Parchment, limp.* 10s. Qd. Net, by post 10s. lOd. 

THE DISEASES OF TREES. 

By PROFESSOR R. HARTIG. Royal 8vo. 10s. Qd. Net, by post 10s. 1 Id. 

THE UNHEATED GREENHOUSE. 

By~_M.RS. K. L. DAVIDSON. Cheap Edition, 5s. Net, by post 5s. 4d. 

LILIES FOR ENGLISH GARDENS. [8s. Wd. 

Written and compiled bv GERTRUDE JEKYLL. 8s. 6^. Net, by post. 

CHILDREN AND GARDENS 

By GERTRUDE JEKYLL. A garden book for children. Thoroughly 
practical and full of pictures. 6s. Net, by post 6s. 5d. 

ROCK AND WATER GARDENS 

THEIR MAKING AND PLANTING. 

With Chapters on Wall and Heath Gardens. By F. H. MEYER. 
Edited by E. T. COOK. 6s. Net, by post 6s. 4d. 

SEASIDE PLANTING OF TREES & SHRUBS. 

By ALFRED GAUT, F.R.H.S. An interesting and instructive book 
dealing with a phase of arboriculture hitherto not touched upon. It 
is profusely illustrated, and diagrams are given explaining certain 
details. 5s. Net, by post 5s. 6d. 

THE BOOK OF BRITISH FERNS. 

By CHAS. T. DRUERY, F.L.S., V.M.H., President of the British 
Pteridological Society. 3s. Qd. Net, by post 3s. 9d. 



16 

THE HARDY FLOWER BOOK. 

By E. H. JENKINS. 50 Illustrations and coloured frontispiece. 

2s. Qd. Net, by post 2s. IQd. 

THE SMALL ROCK GARDEN. 

By E. H. JENKINS. Over 50 Illustrations and coloured frontispiece. 

2s. Qd. Net, by post 2s. Wd. 

GARDENING MADE EASY. 

By E. T. COOK. 200 pages and 23 Illustrations. The A. B.C. of 
gardening. Is. Net. Cloth, Is. Qd. Net, by post 3d. extra. 

ROSE GROWING MADE EASY. 

By E. T. COOK. A simple Rose Guide for amateurs, freely illus- 
trated with diagrams showing ways of increasing, pruning and pro- 
tecting roses. Is. Net. Cloth, Is. Qd. Net, by post 3d. extra. 

VEGETABLE GROWING MADE EASY. 

A simple and concise handbook on the cultivation of Vegetables. By 
OWEN THOMAS, F.R.H.S., V.M.H., and GEORGE WYTHES, F.R.H.S., 
V.M.H., and THE COOKING OF VEGETABLES by MRS. FRANCES 
KEYZER. Is. Net. Cloth, Is. Qd. Net. Postage 3d. extra. 

THE ENGLISH VEGETABLE GARDEN. 

By various Experts. Cheap Edition, 5s. Net, by post 5s. Qd. 

FRUIT-GROWING FOR BEGINNERS. 

A simple and concise handbook on the cultivation of Fruit. By 
F. W. HARVEY. Is. Net. Cloth, Is. Qd. Net. Postage 3d. extra. 



POEMS. By DOROTHY FRANCES GURNEY. 5s. Net, by post 5s. 4d. 

ENGLISH LEADWORK; ITS ART & HISTORY. 

By LAWRENCE WEAVER. 25s. Net, by post 25s. Id. 

THE FIRST AND CHIEF GROUNDES OF 
ARCHITECTURE. 

By JOHN SHUTE, 1563, a fac-simile edition of the first book on Archi- 
tecture published in England, with a historical and critical inlroduc- 
duction by LAWRENCE WEAVER. 15s. Net, by post 15s. 6^. 

CAUSERIES ON ENGLISH PEWTER. 

By ANTONIO DE NAVARRO A book for all lovers of the Pewterer's Art. 

10s. Qd. Net, by post 11s. 

ANIMAL LIFE BY THE SEA-SHORE. 

By G. A. BOULENGER, LL.D., D.Sc., PH.D., F.R.S., F.Z.S., and 
C. L. BOULENGER, M.A., D.Sc., F.Z.S. Nearly 100 Illustrations. 

5s. Net, by post 5s. 4d. 

TOYS OF OTHER DAYS. 

By MRS. NEVILL JACKSON. Cheap Edition, 5s. Net. Edition de 
Luxe, 21s. Net, by post Qd. extra. 

ECONOMIES IN DAIRY FARMING. 

An important Work on Dairying by ERNEST MATHEWS (the well- 
known Judge and Expert) 7s. Qd. Net, by post 7s. IQd. 

PHOTOGRAPHY FOR BEGINNERS. 

This is an instructive and practical book, worded clearly but non- 
scientifically , for the tyro camera user. 

Is. Net. Cloth, Is. Qd. Net, by post 3d. extra. 

FRENCH HOUSEHOLD COOKING. 

By MRS. FRANCES KEYZER. Shows how simple and inexpensive is 
(he art of cooking as the French understand it. 

Is. Net. Cloth, Is. Qd. Net, bv post 3d. extra.