(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "The gardens of England in the southern & western counties"

THE GARDENS OF 
ENGLAND 



IN THE 
SOUTHERN 
& WESTERN 
COUNTIES 



EDITED BY CHARLES HOLME 



DBPT. OF AGRICULTURE 
DIV. OF AGrt'L EUVCATION 




MCMVII 

OFFICES OF U THE STUDIO" 
LONDON, PARIS & NEW YORK 



PREFATORY NOTE 

THE Editor desires to acknowledge his indebtedness to the owners, 
whose names appear under the illustrations, for the valuable assistance 
they have rendered him by allowing their gardens to be represented 
in this volume. Special facilities have been accorded Mr. W. J. Day, 
the photographer whose excellent work is familiar to readers of 
THE STUDIO whereby he has been enabled to obtain, exclusively 
for this work, the extensive and unique series of garden subjects 
here illustrated. The Editor also wishes to acknowledge the help 
given to Mr. Day by the head gardeners. 

To Her Grace The Duchess of Bedford, Miss E. H. Adie, Mr. 
George S. Elgood, R.I., Mr. E. Arthur Rowe, Mr. H. G. Seaman 
and Miss Lilian Stannard the Editor tenders his cordial thanks for 
the loan of the drawings reproduced in colour. 



tit 



DEPT. OF AQRlCULTt 
DIV. OF AGrt'L EUVCATIGN 



ARTICLES 



The History of Garden-making 
The Principles of Garden-making 
Notes on the Illustrations 



page 



i 

xxii 
xxxi 




SUBJECT 

i. The Forecourt, Great Tangley 

Manor, Surrey 

xx. Yew Arch at Brickwall, Sussex 
xxxv. " Early Autumn Tints " . 

LIV. Grass Walk at Hampton Court 
LXIX. " A Summer Evening " . 
LXXXVI. The Long Water, Hampton 

Court 

cv. Penshurst, Kent 
cxx. " An Old Garden " 



ARTIST 

after George S. Elgood, 
R.I. 

55 55 55 

Lilian Stannard 

E. H. Adie 
Lilian Stannard 

E. H. Adie 

E. Arthur Rowe 
Lilian Stannard 



LIST OF PHOTOGRAPHS 



PLATE 

n. 
in. 

IV. 

v. 

VI. 

VII. 

VIII. 

IX. 

X. 

XI. 

XII. 

XIII. 

XIV. 

XV. 

XVI. 

XVII. 

XVIII. 

XIX. 

XXI. 

XXII. 

XXIII. 

XXIV. 

XXV. 

XXVI. 

XXVII. 

XXVIII. 

XXIX. 

XXX. 

XXXI. 

XXXII. 

XXXIII. 

XXXIV. 

XXXVI. 

XXXVII. 

XXXVIII. 

XXXIX. 

XL. 

XLI. 

XLII. 

vi 



SUBJECT 
The Water Garden at Abbotsbury Castle, Dorset 



Garden Grates at Ammerdown Park, Somerset 
Ammerdown Park, Somerset 
Sheltered Seat at Ammerdown Park, Somerset 
Ammerdown Park, Somerset 

i) > 

The Water Garden at Ashridge Park, Herts 
The Rockery Walk at Ashridge Park, Herts 
Gardener's Cottage at Ashridge Park, Herts 
The Monk's Walk, Ashridge Park, Herts 
Italian Garden and Orangery at Ashridge Park, 

Herts 
The Garden Entrance at Beaulieu Palace, Hants 

Blenheim Palace, Oxon 

The Rose Garden at Blenheim Palace, Oxow 
Bronze Fountain at Blenheim Palace, Oxon 
The Lion Fountain at Blenheim Palace, Oxon 
The " Rose of Sharon " Bank at Blenheim 

Palace, Oxon 
Cascade at Bowood Park, Wilts 

The Terrace Steps at Bowood Park, Wilts 
The Hall, Bradford-on-Avon, Wilts 
Pergola at The Hall, Bradford-on-Avon, Wilts 
Portugal Laurel at Broadlands, Hants 
Entrance to the Orangery at Broadlands, Hants 
The Wall Garden at Brockenhurst Park, Hants 
The Dutch Garden at Brockenhurst Park, Hants 
Brockenhurst Park, Hants 



Brympton House, Somerset 
Terrace Steps at Brympton House, Somerset 
Canford Manor, Dorset 

>? > 

Swiss Cottage at Chaddlewood, Devon 
Ivy-clad Summer-house at Chaddlewood, Devon 
Summer-house at Clevedon Court, Somerset 
The Terrace at Clevedon Court, Somerset 
Below the Terrace at Clevedon Court, Somerset 
The Park Entrance at Corsham Court, Wilts 
The Rose Garden at Corsham Court, Wilts 



OWNER 

Mary,Countess of Ilchester 

11 

Lord Hylton 



11 
The Earl Brownlow 



Lord Montagu of Beau- 
lieu 

The Duke of Marlborough 
i> 11 11 

11 11 11 

11 11 11 



The Marquis of Lans- 
downe 

11 11 11 

J. Moulton, Esq. 

11 11 11 
Rt. Hon. Evelyn Ashley 

11 11 11 

E. J. Morant, Esq. 

11 11 11 
11 11 11 

Sir S. C. B. Ponsonby-Fane 
Lord Wimborne 
G. Soltau-Symons, Esq. 
Sir Edmund Elton, Bart. 



General Lord Methuen 



LIST OF PHOTOGRAPHS 



PLATE SUBJECT 

XLIII. Corsham Court, Wilts 

XLIV. Garden Entrance at Daw's Hill Lodge, Bucks 
XLV. The Garden Front at Daw's Hill Lodge, Bucks 
XLVI. Loggia at Dropmore, Bucks 
XLVII. Alcove Seat at Dropmore, Bucks 
XLVIII. Lily Pool at Dropmore, Bucks 
XLIX. Garden Pensioner's Cottage at Eggesford House, 

Devon 

L. Ancient Cross at Eggesford House, Devon 
LI. Cromwell's Seat at Embley Park, Hants 
LII. The Cedar Walk at Embley Park, Hants 

LIU. Embley Park, Hants 

LV. Garden Gateway at Eridge Castle, Sussex 

LVI. Eridge Castle, Sussex 

LVII. The Cedars of Lebanon at Farnham Castle, Surrey 

LVIII. Great Tangley Manor, Surrey 

LIX. The Sundial Garden at Great Tangley Manor, 

Surrey 

LX. Gardener's Cottage at Greenway House, Devon 

LXI. Greenway House, Devon 

LXII. Groombridge House, Sussex 

LXIII. The Lower Garden at Groombridge House, Sussex 

LXI v. The Upper Garden at Groombridge House, Sussex 

LXV. The Garden Front at Ham House, Surrey 

LXVI. The Old Orangery at Ham House, Surrey 

LXVII. The New Water Garden at Hartham Park, Wilts 

LXVIII. The Water Garden at Hartham Park, Wilts 

LXX. Entrance Gate at Hatfield House, Herts 

LXXI. A Corner of the Forecourt at Hatfield House, Herts 

LXXII. The Maze at Hatfield House, Herts 

LXXIII. Old Garden Wall at Hatfield House, Herts. 

LXXIV. Seat on the Terrace at Hinton Admiral, Hants 

LXXV. Rock Garden at Hinton Admiral, Hants 

LXXVI. Pampas Walk at Hinton Admiral, Hants 

LXXVII. The Fountain Garden at Holland House, Ken- 
sington 

LXXVIII. Entrance to the Flower Garden at Holland House, 

Kensington 

LXXIX. The Terrace Garden at Holland House, Ken- 
sington 

LXXX. The Orangery at Holland House, Kensington 

LXXXI. Terra Cotta Group at Holland House, Kensington 



OWNER 

General Lord Methuen 
The Earl Carrington 

J. B. Fortescue, Esq. 

> 



The Earl of Portsmouth 



Major Chichester 

The Marquis of Aber- 
gavenny 

The Bishop of Winchester 
Colonel E. H. Kennard 

T. B. Bolitho, Esq. 
The Misses Saint 

The Earl of Dysart 

Sir John Dickson-Poyn- 
der, Bart. 

n 

The Marquis of Salisbury 



Sir George Meyrick, Bart. 



Mary, Countess of Ilches- 
ter 



vti 



LIST OF PHOTOGRAPHS 



PLATE 

LXXXII. 

LXXXIII. 

LXXXIV. 

LXXXV. 

LXXXVII. 

LXXXVIII 

LXXXIX. 

xc. 

XCI. 

XCII. 

XCIII. 

XCIV. 

xcv. 

XCVI. 
XCVII. 
XCVIII. 

XCIX. 

c. 

CI. 
CII. 

cm. 

CIV. 

CVI. 

CVII. 

CVIII. 

CIX. 

ex. 

CXI. 
CXII. 
CXIII. 
CXIV. 

cxv. 

CXVI. 

CX VII. 

CXVIII. 

CXIX. 

CXXI. 
CXXII. 



SUBJECT 

Sundial at Inwood House, Dorset 
Killerton, Devon 

The Rock Garden at Killerton, Devon 
Great Spanish Chestnut at Killerton, Devon 
Sundial at Kingston Lacy, Dorset 
The Formal Garden at Longford Castle, Wilts 

5> 5) 

The President's Garden at Magdalen College, 
Oxford 

Montacute House, Somerset 

The Upper Garden at Moor Park, Herts 

The Formal Garden at Moor Park, Herts 

Old Place, Lindfield, Sussex 

The Garden House from the Lime Avenue at 
Old Place, Lindfield, Sussex 

Grass Path at Old Place, Lindfield, Sussex 

The Topiary Walk at Old Place, Lindfield, Sussex 

View from the Terrace at Orchardleigh Park, 
Somerset 

The Garden Front at Orchardleigh Park, Somerset 

Herbaceous Flower Border at Orchardleigh Park, 
Somerset 

The Terrace at Orchardleigh Park, Somerset 
The River Garden at Paulton's Park, Romsey, 
Hants 

Old Venetian Well-head at Paulton's Park, Rom- 
sey, Hants 

Penshurst Place, Kent 

The Garden Entrance at Penshurst Place, Kent 
Diana's Pool at Penshurst Place, Kent 
The "Old Dial" Garden at Penshurst Place, Kent 
The Formal Garden at Penshurst Place, Kent 
Garden Entrance at Pentillie Castle, Cornwall 
Pentillie Castle, Cornwall 
Window at St. John's College, Oxford 
The Palace, Salisbury, Wilts 
The Water Garden at Sedgwick Park, Sussex 



Stratton Park, Hants 



The Upper Pond at Swaylands House, Kent 
The Formal Garden at Taplow Court, Bucks 
Taplow Court, Bucks 



OWNER 

Lady Theodora Guest 
Sir Charles Acland, Bart. 



Mrs. Ralph Bankes 
The Earl of Radnor 


The President 

W. Phelips, Esq. 
Lord Ebury 

j> 
W. E. Tower, Esq. 



Rev. W. A. Duckworth 



Capt. R. C. H. Sloane- 
Stanley 



Lord de L'Isle and Dudley 



William Coryton, Esq. 

J5 

The Warden 

The Bishop of Salisbury 

Mrs. Henderson 



The Earl of North brook 



G. J. Drummond, Esq. 
Lord Desborough 



Vttt 



LIST OF PHOTOGRAPHS 

PLATE SUBJECT 

cxxiu. Group of Topiary Work at Tring Park, Herts 

cxxiv. TrTe Lily Pond at Tring Park, Herts 

cxxv. The Lily Pond and Grass Steps at Tring Park, 

Herts 

cxxvi. Entrance to Garden Subway at Tring Park, Herts 

cxxvu. The Lady Rothschild's Almshouses at Tring, 

Herts 

cxxvin. Steps to the Park at Ven Hall, Somerset 

cxxix. Ven Hall, Somerset 

cxxx. Rose Garden at Ven Hall, Somerset 

cxxxi. Wad ham College, Oxford 

cxxxn. Ilex Trees at Walhampton Park, Hants 

cxxxiu. The Holbein Walk at Wilton House, Wilts 

cxxxiv. The Italian Garden at Wilton House, Wilts 

cxxxv. The River Path at Wilton House, Wilts 

cxxxvi. Wilton House, Wilts 



OWNER 
Lord Rothschild 



Hon. Mrs. A. Ker 



The Warden 

J. P. Heseltine, Esq. 

The Earl of Pembroke 



IX 




Ul CC 

cc 

cc. d 
=> O 

CO O 

-C3 

CC _1 

O w 

z . 

< CO 



2 CD 
< >- 



O ^ 

s^i 

CC < 

O $ 
"- < 

LU Z. 
T O 




THE HISTORY OF GARDEN-MAKING 




N attempting any detailed history of gardening 
and garden-making, the chief difficulty would 
be to decide where to begin. It is practically 
impossible to say where and at what date the 
idea first sprang up in the human mind that 
pleasure was to be derived from an ordered 
and deliberately planned surrounding of trees 
and flowers, or how the progression was made 
from cultivation of the ground for strictly 
utilitarian purposes to the planting of spaces in which leisure 
moments could be spent in frank enjoyment of nature. Probably, 
if material were available, such a history could be started at that 
remote period when man ceased to be merely a nomad, wandering 
here and there with his flocks and herds, and when, instead, he 
adopted some sort of permanent habitation. His first thought 
would be, when he had settled in the country he had chosen, to 
provide for his wants by growing those plants which were necessary 
for food, and by a natural process he would change from the purely 
pastoral life to that of the agriculturist. Next, he would seek to 
supply himself with those herbs and trees which, if not exactly 
necessities of existence, can be counted as more or less indispensable 
for human enjoyment ; and to satisfy this desire he would add to 
his possessions the vineyard, the orchard, and the herb garden. Out 
of the wish to increase his material luxuries would grow, by an 
obvious sequence of ideas, the further wish to develop what aesthetic 
instincts he might possess, and to use these instincts for self- 
gratification. 

The garden, then, in its earliest form can be regarded as the result 
of an attempt to make a piece of cultivated ground pleasant to look 
at and agreeable to rest in. It was the shady place where the man 
who had laboured came for relaxation, where he turned for bodily 
comfort and the pleasure of the eye. In the East, the cradle of 
ancient civilisations, climatic conditions had to be considered, and 
the cool shadow beneath the fig-tree or the vine was a necessity to 
the jaded worker. So he planted his trees and trained his vines to 
give him shelter from the heat of the sun, he planned quiet nooks 
to which he could retire ; and bit by bit he built up a garden which 
was frankly intended to be a place apart, set aside for repose and 
recreation. When he had once accepted the principle that this 
corner of the land he tilled should be recognised as a refuge in which 



THE HISTORY OF GARDEN-MAKING 

he could forget the cares of his daily existence he sought to give it 
a charm of its own, to beautify it by flowers, to embellish it by 
cunning devices, and to make it by all the means at his disposal a 
kind of little shrine where he could offer incense to the goddess, 
Nature. 

The first records of gardens systematically arranged and laid out on 
fixed principles are to be found in the works of Eastern writers. In 
Assyria, Persia and Egypt, the science of gardening was closely 
studied, and the principles on which the pleasure ground should be 
designed to fulfil its particular purpose were well understood. In 
India, too, the value of a garden setting to enhance the dignity of 
the palace or the temple was fully appreciated ; the Indian rulers 
even in remote ages were garden lovers, and turned to full account 
the opportunities they enjoyed of shaping the luxuriance of tropical 
nature into ordered forms, and of adding to nature's beauties by 
bringing her into relation with architecture. 

But the ancient history of gardening is by no means confined to the 
East ; in the West the Greeks and the Romans did much to develop 
the art, and the Romans especially carried it to a very high degree 
of completeness. The account written by Pliny the younger of his 
winter garden on the Bay of Ostia, and of his other garden at his 
Tusculan villa in the Apennines, gives an admirable suggestion of 
the way in which the wealthy and cultured Roman citizen 
surrounded himself with fantastic contrivances, and used all the 
resources of the gardener's craft to increase the attractiveness of 
the place in which he lived. The winter villa with its hedges of 
rosemary and box, its terraces, its vines, fig-trees, and mulberries, 
and its porticos and seats from which charming views could be 
obtained over land and sea, must have been a delightful retreat, and 
it is easy to understand the joy of ownership which is so apparent in 
Pliny's descriptions of his house by the sea. But it was the 
Tusculan villa upon which he lavished his attention, and to the 
adornment of which he devoted so much care and ingenuity. 
The garden of this villa must indeed have been a marvel, so full 
was it of quaint and curious features, and so inventively were all 
its details devised. From the terrace before the house stretched a 
lawn ornamented with box-trees clipped into the shapes of various 
animals, and round this lawn ran a walk shut in by evergreens. 
Next came a circular enclosure with a group of clipped box-trees 
in the centre ; and near by was another enclosure in the form of a 
hippodrome with sides of alternate box and plane trees connected 
by ivy, and curved ends of cypress backed by bay-trees. The paths 
ii 



THE HISTORY OF GARDEN-MAKING 

were bordered with roses and edged with box, and in the spaces 
between were all sorts of devices cut in box, and here and there 
obelisks or fruit-trees. Besides the trees and plants the garden 
abounded in architectural features here an alcove of white marble 
draped with vines, there a summer-house with fountains and marble 
seats, and all about basins and streams of water, partly for ornament 
and partly for purposes of irrigation. Nothing was forgotten which 
could add to its beauty or increase its interest to the lover of nature. 
Yet it may be questioned whether Pliny's gardens were not 
equalled, or perhaps surpassed, by those of other Romans who 
shared his tastes. The representations which have been preserved 
of gardens of this date, and the descriptions which have been left by 
post-Augustan writers, prove that the formal planning of pleasure 
grounds, adorned with fountains, vases, statues, and other architec- 
tural additions, was extensively carried out wherever space permitted, 
and that in addition to formal planning a very definite formality was 
observed in the treatment of accessory details. The topiarius^ who 
clipped trees into fantastic shapes, was much in request, and his 
work found ready acceptance among the Romans who had a mind 
to possess gardens which would be in the fashion of the period. A 
set and deliberate ordering of all the parts of the garden plan and 
a careful observance of accepted principles of design were recognised 
as essential, while within the limits which fashion imposed there was 
ample scope for the exercise of very pleasant fancy and very varied 
contrivance. 

These Roman gardens are of particular interest because to them can 
be partly traced the origin of garden-making on formal lines in **" 
England. The gardeners of the Italian Renaissance modelled 
themselves upon their Roman predecessors, and re-introduced the 
clipped trees and the other architectural and semi-architectural 
features which had been so much in vogue centuries before. They 
sought to revive the dignity and classic grace of the earlier work, 
and to link up, by a certain continuity of methods, their practice 
with that of the past. The atmosphere they desired to create was 
that of studied elegance, severely perfect, and at the same time 
sumptuous and restrained, the atmosphere which makes itself felt in 
Hawthorne's description of the Medici Gardens : " They are laid 
out in the old fashion of straight paths, with borders of box, which 
form hedges of great height and density, and are shorn and trimmed 
to the evenness of a wall of stone at the top and sides. There 
are green alleys with long vistas, overshadowed by ilex trees ; and 
at each intersection of the paths the visitor finds seats of lichen- 

iii 




THE HISTORY OF GARDEN-MAKING 

covered stone to repose on, and marble statues that look forlornly 
at him. In the more open portions of the gardens, before the 
sculptured front of the villa, you see fountains and flower beds ; 
and in their season a profusion of roses, from which the genial 
sun of Italy distils a fragrance to be scattered abroad by the no 
less genial breeze." 

The Renaissance influence began to be active in England during the 
earlier years of the sixteenth century, and though it was modified 
to some extent by the traditions already existing here it brought 
about some marked changes in English garden-making. What was 
the character of the work done by the earlier gardeners in this 
country cannot now be very exactly stated, in the absence of detailed 
records ; but from some of the mediaeval manuscripts in which 
illuminations of garden scenes are inserted it would appear that 
pleasure grounds laid out with a good deal of consideration for 
effect, and possessing many interesting features, were by no means 
uncommon. Hedges and shaded walks, fountains and little runnels 
of water, flower-beds planted in intricate patterns, arbours and seats, 
trellises covered with flowers, all set out within a space surrounded 
by a high wall, were the various parts which were welded together 
by the designers of the mediaeval garden, and the result of this 
combination was apparently quite persuasive. 

As a word-picture of a garden of this character the lines written by 
James I. of Scotland, when he was a captive at Windsor, in the 
early years of the fifteenth century, are worth quoting : 

" Now was there made, fast by the Tower's wall, 
A garden fair, and in corneris set 
Ane herbere green with wandes long and small, 
Railit about, and so with treeis set, 
Was all the place, and hawthorn hedges knet, 
Thet lyf was non, walking there forbye, 
That might therein scarce any wight espye 
So thick the boughis and the leaves green 
Beshaded all the alleys that there were 
And myddis every herbere might be scene 
The sharp, green, sweete junipere." 

In this description there is implied a quite complete system of 
planning and the use of a regular pattern in the laying out of the 
ground occupied by the garden. Formality was evidently recognised 
as essential, alleys " beshaded " with closely grown foliage were 
contrasted with open spaces, and the different parts of the garden 
were defined and marked out one from the other by hedges and 
fences. Clearly there was nothing haphazard in the mediaeval 
iv 



THE HISTORY OF GARDEN-MAKING 

methods, and no idea of leaving Nature to work her will unassisted 
by human ingenuity. 

It can be imagined that the introduction of Italian devices into a 
country which possessed already a sufficiently definite conviction 
about the principles of garden-making did not cause a mere destruc- 
tion of a system which had been followed probably for some 
centuries. What resulted was rather in the nature of a compromise : 
new ideas were acquired from Italy, but in working out these ideas 
much that had served well the designers in the past was retained. 
At first the novelty of the Italian style gave it an amount of popu- 
larity which promised to make it all-pervading, and even its more 
extravagant peculiarities were generally adopted ; as time went on, 
however, many of these extravagances were corrected, and by the 
welding together of the new methods and the old, a better way was 
found of satisfying the English taste. The Italian sumptuousness 
was accepted, but the quaintness of the mediaeval work and its 
homeliness of manner were allowed to modify this sumptuousness 
into something not unduly artificial, and not excessively unnatural. 
The full effects of this alliance were not seen until the seventeenth 
century. During the sixteenth the Renaissance garden, the Roman 
type revived, was made fashionable by the preference shown for it 
by Henry VIII., who not only employed Italians to lay out the 
grounds of his palace of Nonsuch, in Surrey, commenced in 1539, 
but also, in 1530, brought many Italian features into the gardens at 
Hampton Court, which had been treated by Wolsey in the mediaeval 
English manner. One of the most notable gardens of this period 
was that at Theobald's, for Lord Burleigh. It was begun in 1560, 
and from the description of it, written by the German traveller, 
Hentzner, who published in 1 598 an account of his visit to England, 
it seems to have been designed quite closely on the Italian lines. 
" Close to the palace," he writes, " is a garden surrounded on all 
sides by water, so that anyone in a boat may wander to and fro 
among the fruit-groves with great pleasure to himself. There you 
will find various trees and herbs, labyrinths made with great pains, 
a fountain of springing water, of white marble ; columns, too, and 
pyramids placed about the garden some of wood, some of stone. 
We were afterwards taken to the garden-house by the gardener, and 
saw in the ground floor, which is circular in shape, twelve figures of 
Roman Emperors in white marble, and a table of Lydian stone." 
And further on he mentions a banqueting-room adjoining this 
garden-house and connected with it by a little bridge. 
There is proof enough in such records that sixteenth-century 



THE HISTORY OF GARDEN-MAKING 

gardening was made the subject of serious study, and that it was 
carried out on elaborate lines. How great was the attention it 
received can be judged from the number of books on garden-making 
written at this period. There was Dr. Andrew Horde's " Boke for 
to lerne a man to be wyse in buyldyng of his house for the 
health of his body, e to hold quyetnes for the helth of his 
soule and body " ; there was Thomas Hill's " A most briefe and 
pleasaunt treatyse teachynge how to dress, sowe, and set a garden, 
gathered out of the principallest authors in this art " ; there was 
Bacon's " Essay on Gardens " ; and there was " The Gardener's 
Labyrinth," by Didymus Mountaine, which last seems to have 
been chiefly derived from one of the many editions of Hill's book. 
Borde and Hill were little more than compilers who drew their 
material from earlier works by Italian writers, and Bacon's " Essay " 
was merely a gathering of theories set forth with all the charm of a 
scholarly style. But all these books are interesting, because they 
provide evidence that the subject with which they deal was one 
which made an appeal to many readers. 

Bacon's theoretical garden inclines decidedly towards what may be 
called the extreme development of the Renaissance manner. He 
accepts, certainly, much of the mediaeval tradition, but he prescribes 
all sorts of additions which are clearly suggested by his sympathy 
with the importations from Italy the fountains and statues, the 
clipped trees, the arcades, and the fantastic ornaments of coloured 
glass " gilt for the sunne to play upon." In Hill's book, and in 
" The Gardener's Labyrinth," the bulk of the information offered is 
openly taken from Roman authorities, whose works are either 
quoted directly or freely referred to ; but, besides, there are some 
hints given about garden-making, as it was understood at that time, 
which are not without value to the student of garden history, because 
they refer to a somewhat less ambitious type of design than Bacon 
had in mind. Hill and Bacon were both theorists, but the former 
addressed himself to average people who wanted but a modest 
pleasure ground, the latter offered advice to the few men who could 
afford to do things on a large scale. 

One famous garden is supposed to have been laid out in accordance 
with the prescriptions in Bacon's essay that at Moor Park for the 
Countess of Bedford. Of this place an account exists written by 
Sir William Temple, who evidently admired it unreservedly : " The 
perfectest figure of a garden I ever saw, either at home or abroad, 
was that of Moor Park in Hertfordshire. I will describe it for a 
model to those that meet with such a situation, and are above the 
vi 



THE HISTORY OF GARDEN-MAKING 

regards of common expense. It lies at the side of a hill, upon which 
the house stands, but not very steep. The length of the house, 
where the best rooms and of most use and pleasure are, lies upon 
the breadth of the garden; the great parlour opens into the midst of 
a terrace gravel-walk that lies even with it, and which may be about 
three hundred paces long and broad in proportion ; the border set 
with standard laurels, which have the beauty of orange-trees out of 
flower and fruit. From this walk are three descents by many stone 
steps, in the middle and at each end, with a very large parterre. 
This is divided into quarters by gravel-walks, and adorned with two 
fountains and eight statues at the several quarters. At the end of 
the terrace walks are two summer-houses, and the sides of the 
parterre are ranged with two large cloisters open to the garden. 
Over these two cloisters are two terraces covered with lead and 
fenced with balusters ; and the passage into these airy walks is out 
of the two summer-houses at the end of the first terrace walk. The 
cloister facing the south is covered with vines. From the middle of 
the parterre is a descent by many steps into the lower garden, which 
is all fruit-trees, ranged about the several quarters of a wilderness, 
which is very shady ; the walks here are all green, and there is a 
grotto embellished with figures of shell, rockwork, fountains, and 
waterworks." 

As Sir William Temple can be counted among the advocates of the 
formal style, his praise of the Moor Park garden as it was when he 
wrote the character of the place has since been radically altered 
is certainly significant. The arrangement he describes must have 
been admirably effective, and excellent both in its stateliness of 
planning and its richness of detail ; and the garden must have pro- 
vided a quite satisfactory illustration of the Italian manner. How 
far its beauties can be referred to Bacon's suggestions cannot now be 
said, but it is quite possible that the real designer was inspired by 
the theories so pleasantly set forth in the " Essay on Gardens," and 
that he found in the fancies of a cultivated and intelligent literary 
man much which was capable of being put into actual practice. 
The first books of English writers in which the art of garden de- 
signing was treated from the standpoint of personal knowledge 
appeared early in the seventeenth century. They were by Gervase 
Markham and William Lawson, both of whom had tested by many 
years of practical experience the principles which they advocated, 
Markham, though he wrote for the man of ordinary means rather 
than for the few wealthy personages, was a strong believer in the 
need for orderly formality in even the least ambitious garden; and 
b vii 



THE HISTORY OF GARDEN-MAKING 

the rules he laid down for the planning of both pleasure grounds 
and herb gardens show how much importance he attached to careful 
consideration of even the smaller details of the design. He divided 
his space into squares, each of which was to be surrounded by a path 
and subdivided into four quarters by other paths, and at the intersec- 
tion of these paths there was to be placed a sundial, a pyramid, a 
fountain, or some other architectural feature. If the squares could 
be arranged on different levels, flights of steps, " staires of state/' were 
to be built connecting them. He retained the high wall, or quickset 
hedge, as a surrounding to the entire garden, in this adhering to the 
mediaeval fashion ; and he also retained that other mediaeval feature, 
the knot or border planted with flowers in an elaborately formal 
pattern. These knots were to occupy each of the subdivisions of 
the square. 

Lawson, in the same way, advocated regularity, and his books, 
"The Countrie Housewife's Garden " and "A New Orchard and 
Garden," recognise formality as a matter of course. He, too, 
directs that the garden should be a square enclosed within a wall, 
and that it should be ornamented with knots ; and, like Markham, 
he expects the same care to be bestowed upon the planning of the 
part intended for use as upon that intended for show and enjoyment. 
His idea of an orchard is a place with walks and seats, beds of 
flowers, clipped trees, mazes, and other ornamentations ; and the 
kitchen garden is to be made gay with flowers nature's charm is 
not to be sacrificed for the sake of mere utilitarianism. 
Indeed, the love of nature is very apparent in Lawson's way of 
treating his subject ; he was an idealist, although the purpose of his 
books was deliberately practical, and the garden he imagined was a 
place where all the senses could be gratified. He expresses this 
idea admirably in such words as these : " What can your eye 
desire to see, your eare to heare, your mouth to taste, or your 
nose to smell, that is not to be had in an orchard with abundance 
and beauty ? What more delightsome than an infinite varietie 
of sweet-smelling flowers ? decking with sundrye colours the 
greene mantle of the earth, the universal mother of us all, so by 
them bespotted, so dyed, that all the world cannot sample them, 
and wherein it is more fit to admire the Dyer than imitate his 
workmanship, colouring not only the earth but decking the ayre, 
and sweetening every breath and spirit. 

" The rose red, damaske, velvet, and double, double province rose, 
the sweet muske rose double and single, the double and single white 
rose, the faire and sweet-scenting woodbind double and single ; 
viii 



THE HISTORY OF GARDEN-MAKING 

purple cowslips and double cowslips, primrose double and single, the 
violet nothing behind the best for smelling sweetly, and a thousand 
more will provoke your contente, and all these by the skill of your 
Gardener so comely and orderly placed in your borders and 
squares." 

All this illustrates the spirit in which the art of gardening was 
carried on by the men who were to a large extent free from the 
Italian influence, or who had the acuteness to perceive how the 
earlier traditions could be used as a kind of stock upon which the 
Italian methods could be grafted ; and such books as Lawson's are 
the more interesting because they were written by a gardener who, 
as he says in the Preface to his " New Garden and Orchard," was 
able to draw upon the knowledge he had acquired by " the labours 
of forty-eight years." In working out the sequence of events in the 
history of garden-making, the writings of Markham and Lawson are 
of special value, for they not only throw light upon the way in 
which the surroundings of most country houses of any pretension 
were treated at the end of the sixteenth century, and for a large part 
of the seventeenth, but they also provide many hints of what must 
have been the ordinary practice at an earlier period before the novel 
artificialities of the Renaissance manner began to unsettle the beliefs 
based upon the mediaeval tradition. It would certainly appear that 
even at the beginning of the seventeenth century such gardens as 
those at the Palaces of Nonsuch and Hampton Court, or the 
" perfectest figure of a garden " at Moor Park, were as exceptional 
in style as they were in extent, and represented little enough the 
general practice. 

Of seventeenth-century gardening in the traditional manner, but on 
a large scale, probably no better example could be quoted than that 
at Melton. For the laying out of this garden the Earl of Pembroke 
secured the services of the German architect, Isaac de Caux, of 
whose work an ample record exists, for he issued a series of 
engravings of the place, with a detailed explanation of its particular 
characteristics : " This Garden, within the enclosure of the new 
wall, is a thowsand foote long and about foure hundred in breadthe, 
divided in its length into three long squares or parallelograms, the 
first of which divisions next the building heth foure Platts, embroy- 
dered ; in the midst of which are foure fountaynes with statues of 
marble in their midle, and on the sides of those Platts are the Platts 
of flowers, and beyond them is the little Terrass rased for the more 
advantage of beholding those Platts, this for the first division. In 
the second are two Groves or woods all with divers walkes, and 

ix 



THE HISTORY OF GARDEN-MAKING 

through those Groves passeth the river Nader having of breadth in 
this place 44 foote, upon which is built the bridge of the breadth 
of the greate walke. In the midst of the aforesayd Groves are two 
great statues of white marble, of eight foote high, the one of Bacchus 
and the other of Flora, and on the sides ranging with the Platts of 
flowers are two covered Arbors of 300 foote long and diverse 
allies. Att the beginning of the third and last division are, on 
either side of the great walke, two Ponds with Fountaynes and 
two Collumnes in the midle, casting water all their height which 
causeth the moveing and turning of two crownes att the top of 
the same, and beyond is a Compartment of greene with diverse 
walkes planted with cherrie trees and in the midle is the Great 
Oval with the Gladiator of brass ; the most famous Statue of all 
, that antiquity hath left. On the sydes of this compartiment and 
answering the Platts of flowers and long arbours are three arbours 
of either side with twining Galleryes communicating themselves one 
into another. Att the end of the greate walke is a Portico of stone 
cutt and adorned with Pilasters and Nyches, within which are 4 
figures of white marble of 5 foote high. Of either side of the sayd 
portico is an assent leading up to the terrasse, upon the steps 
whereof instead of Ballasters are sea monsters casting water from 
one and the other from the top to the bottome, and above the sayd 
portico is a great reserve of water for the grotto." 
But within a very few years an extensive revision of the work done 
t/ by de Caux was carried out at Wilton. A new designer appeared, 
Inigo Jones, who had studied the neo-classic style in Italy, and had 
given special attention to the productions of Palladio. The know- 
ledge he had acquired abroad of the Renaissance methods he turned 
to such excellent account when he came home that he was able to 
set a fashion which, if not actually new, was at all events sufficiently 
novel to become widely popular. He gave a great impetus to the 
Italian revival, which had made a beginning in England a century 
before, and he exercised a very real influence upon house and garden 
architecture. The modifications and additions for which he was 
responsible at Wilton among them the beautifully proportioned 
Palladian bridge over the river were typical of the changes which 
he and his followers made in many other gardens, and had no 
little significance as evidences of the alterations which were being 
brought about in the public taste by the introduction of a new 
architectural sentiment. The Italian villa surrounded by appro- 
priate gardens became quite common in this country, and many of 
the examples of the earlier garden-making which had been preserved 



THE HISTORY OF GARDEN-MAKING 

through the sixteenth century were now destroyed or drastically 
remodelled. 

However, the Inigo Jones fashion was not destined to be long-lived, 
for the disturbances of the Civil War put a stop for a while to the 
cultivation of the arts, and the dealings of the Puritans with the 
pleasure grounds of the great houses were directed rather to the 
effacement of existing beauties than to the development of new and 
attractive features. What John Evelyn wrote about the condition 
of the gardens of Nonsuch Palace in the reign of Charles II. 
" There stand in the garden two handsome stone pyramids, and the 
avenue planted with rowes of faire elmes ; but the rest of these 
goodly trees, both of this and Worcester Park adjoyning, were felled 
by those destructive and avaricious rebels in the late war, which 
defaced one of the stateliest seats his Majesty had" could have been 
written about many other places which had previously been worthy 
to rank as notable illustrations of the gardener's craft. It is no 
doubt true that the Puritans have been blamed unjustly for many 
sins against good taste which were committed by other people, but 
they certainly diminished rather than increased the number of 
gardens which deserve to be included in the list of historical 
examples. 

The accession of Charles II. gave the garden designers once more 
opportunities of distinguishing themselves, but it did not quite put 
things back to where they were before the Civil War. Instead, it 
brought into this country another fashion derived not from Italy, 
like that for which Inigo Jones was responsible, but from France, 
where very remarkable advances had been made in the art of garden 
planning. The chief of the French exponents of the art was Le 
Notre, a man of brilliant ability and judicious originality, and a 
designer who was able to build on what had gone before a style 
definitely personal. His conceptions were on the largest possible 
scale, and there was a sumptuous vastness in his work which no 
one else had ever attempted. The gardens he planned did not cover 
merely a few acres, they occupied enormous spaces of ground, and, 
when possible, were combined with avenues which extended often 
for miles beyond the boundaries of the garden proper. 
Whether Le Notre actually executed any work in England is dis- 
puted, but he is reputed to have laid out gardens at Hampton Court 
and Greenwich, as well as that which at one time surrounded St. 
James's Palace. If, however, there is some doubt whether or not he 
visited this country, there can be no question about the extent of the 
influence he exercised over some English gardeners who had to do 

xi 



THE HISTORY OF GARDEN-MAKING 

with places that called for treatment on a large scale. His system 
of arranging avenues radiating from a centre, his use of broad and 
dignified terraces and formal lakes, were frankly adopted in England, 
and in what remains of the garden work done at this period the 
signs of his inspiration are not to be mistaken. 

As an example of the results arrived at by following Le Notre's 
methods, the laying-out of the park and gardens at Badminton can 
be particularly noted. A description of this place, as it was about 
the end of the seventeenth century, is given in the admirable book 
on " The Formal Garden in England," by Mr. Reginald Blomfield 
and Mr. F. Inigo Thomas : " The approach to the house was 
formed by a triple avenue, the centre avenue 200 feet wide, the two 
side avenues 80 feet wide. The entrance gates to this avenue were 
placed in the centre of a great semicircular wall. The distance from 
this gateway to the house was 2^ miles. After passing through two 
more gateways, the avenue opened on to a great oblong open space 
forming part of the deer park, with avenues on either side, and the 
entrance gate to the forecourt of the house opposite the end of the 
main avenue. A broad gravelled path, with grass plots and 
fountains on either side, led from the entrance gate of the forecourt 
to a flight of four steps leading to the pavement in front of the 
house. To the right hand was the base court, with stables and 
outhouses ; at the back of the house the kitchen and fruit gardens 
and the pigeon-house. To the left of the house and forecourt were 
the bowling green and pleasure gardens, with the grove beyond. 
The latter was divided into four plots, with four-way paths and a 
circular space and fountain in the centre. Each of the plots was 
planted with close-growing trees laid out as mazes, and trimmed 
close and square for a height apparently of some 15 to 20 feet from 
the ground. Opposite the centre alley was a semicircular bay 
divided into quadrants, each quadrant with a basin and fountain, 
and great square hedges trimmed to the same height as the rest of 
the grove. The whole of these immense gardens were walled in, 
with the exception of a fence round the grove. Wide gates were 
set at the ends of all the main paths, and from these, as points of 
departure, avenues were laid out in straight lines, radiating and 
intersecting each other in all directions." 

Some of these avenues at Badminton are said to have been as much 
as six or seven miles long, so that it can be clearly seen that in 
laying out such a place as this the designer responsible must have 
been capable of imagining large effects, and must have understood 
how to plan vast arrangements in which the actual walled garden 
xii 



THE HISTORY OF GARDEN-MAKING 

was but the centre and starting-point of a great decorative scheme. 
Le N6tre undoubtedly induced English gardeners to enlarge their 
ideas of garden-making, and taught them some things which they 
did not know before ; though naturally they had not many oppor- 
tunities such as were offered at Badminton of showing how ready 
they were to accept his principles of design. 

As a matter of fact the great gardens in the French fashion were 
not numerous, and the ordinary country gentleman continued during 
the seventeenth century, and part of the eighteenth, to use most of 
the earlier devices and most of the traditional formalities. He did 
his laying-out, perhaps, on a somewhat more generous scale and 
with a view to more sumptuous effects ; he adopted, not always 
discreetly, some of the novelties of the French method ; but if 
occasionally he inclined rather too readily towards fountains and 
statues and pretentious avenues, he more often remained faithful to 
the knots and wildernesses, the rectangular divisions, the evenly- 
spaced paths, and the architectural embellishments which had 
pleased his ancestors. The ideas imported from abroad had not 
destroyed the influence of such writers as Gervase Markham, and 
even in such a book as the " Systema Horticulture, or Art of 
Gardening," written by John Worlidge, and published in 1677, 
when the Le Notre fashion was in the ascendant, the formal manner 
sanctioned by long custom is advocated with scarcely any alteration. 
In the reigns of William and Mary and Anne some modifications 
were introduced into the art of gardening, but they changed details 
rather than main principles. From Holland there came with 
William and Mary that variation of the Renaissance manner which 
is known as Dutch gardening, a very evident descent from the 
expansiveness of Le Notre, and in many respects a parody of the 
Italian work. The Dutch love of quaintness had brought about an 
exaggeration of the ancient device of clipping trees into purely 
artificial forms, and as a result of this exaggeration a practice which 
had been sanctified by centuries of use in England and abroad was 
reduced to an absurdity. The topiary work which was executed in 
English gardens in the earlier years of the eighteenth century was 
too often without dignity or taste merely extravagant and ridiculous. 
It showed the degeneration of the gardener's art, and marked a 
definite decay in the feeling for restful simplicity which had 
governed the laying-out of so many of the older places. 
But this degenerate art did not lack appreciation : there was a wide 
demand for fantastic additions to the garden, and this demand was 
supplied by many firms, like that of London and Wise at Chelsea, 

xiii 



THE HISTORY OF GARDEN-MAKING 

which did their utmost to satisfy the new taste. The clipped trees, 
which had been previously not without a certain architectural appro- 
priateness, became utterly unnatural and unmeaning incongruities, 
which did not fit in well with any properly considered scheme of 
design. They introduced a touch of comicality into formal garden- 
ing, and brought upon it a measure of discredit. 

There was, indeed, a change coming over the spirit of the gardener's 
art, and the misuse of topiary work was at the same time one of the 
effects and one of the causes of this change. The influence of 
Le Notre had done something to unsettle English gardeners, inas- 
much as it had induced many of them to extend their boundaries 
and to consider the possibility of going outside the four walls within 
which the older gardens had been confined. They began to have 
ambitions to direct and discipline nature, and out of these ambitions 
soon grew the idea that what their predecessors had done was too 
much according to rule, and therefore too narrowly conventional to 
be accepted by reformers who aspired to solve nature's secrets. As 
a protest, conscious or unconscious, against these new notions, the 
followers of the earlier school were led into topiary extravagances, 
and thereby gave themselves over to the enemy. The advocates of 
what was called progress were provided with many a text for attacks 
upon the principles of design which they were trying to destroy by 
the men who were theoretically most anxious to see these principles 
strictly upheld. 

Many able writers, Pope and Addison at their head, threw themselves 
into the struggle between the opposing schools of gardening, and for 
the most part advocated the ideas of the new school. An article 
which appeared in "The Guardian" in 1712 is worth quoting as an 
example of the support given to the believers in change : " How 
contrary to simplicity is the modern practice of gardening ! We seem 
to make it our study to recede from nature, not only in the various 
tonsure of greens into the most regular and formal shapes, but even 
in monstrous attempts beyond the reach of art itself; we run into 
sculpture, and are yet better pleased to have our trees in the most 
awkward figures of men and animals than in the most regular of 
their own. A citizen is no sooner proprietor of a couple of yews 
but he entertains thoughts of erecting them into giants like those at 
Guildhall. I know an eminent cook who beautified his country seat 
with a coronation dinner in greens, where you see the champion 
flourishing on horseback at one end of the table, and the queen in 
perpetual youth at the other. 

" For the benefit of all my loving countrymen of this curious taste, 
xiv 



THE HISTORY OF GARDEN-MAKING 

I shall here publish a catalogue of greens to be disposed of by an 
eminent town gardener, who has lately applied to me on this head. 
My correspondent is arrived at such perfection that he cuts family 
pieces of men, women, or children. Any ladies that please may 
have their own effigies in myrtle, or their husbands in hornbeam. 
I shall proceed to his catalogue as he sent it for my recom- 
mendation. 

" Adam and Eve in yew ; Adam a little shattered by the fall of the 
tree of knowledge in the great storm ; Eve and the Serpent very 
flourishing ; the Tower of Babel not yet finished ; St. George in 
box, his arm scarce long enough, but will be in condition to strike 
the dragon by next April ; a Queen Elizabeth in phylyrcea^ a little 
inclining to the green-sickness, but of full growth ; an old maid-of- 
honour in wormwood ; divers eminent poets in bays, somewhat 
blighted, to be disposed of a pennyworth ; a quickset hog shot up 
into a porcupine by its being forgot a week in rainy weather." 
Against attacks such as this the old formality was unable to make 
any effective resistance, and gradually, but none the less surely, it 
had to give way to the new fashion. It died hard, and throughout 
the eighteenth century it continued to find adherents, but in steadily 
diminishing numbers. Meanwhile the men of the landscape gar- 
dening school were busy in all directions obliterating the work 
which had survived from past generations and creating gardens 
which, with all their professed naturalism, were in a different way 
just as formal as anything that had existed before ; only the formality 
was less honest and less logical, and hardly more in sympathy with 
nature's real spirit. 

What were the methods employed can be judged from the account 
given by Horace Walpole : " No succeeding generation in an 
opulent and luxurious country contents itself with the perfection 
established by its ancestors ; more perfect perfection was still sought, 
and improvements had gone on till London and Wise had stocked 
all our gardens with giants, animals, monsters, coats-of-arms, and 
mottoes in yew, box and holly. Bridgman, the next fashionable 
designer of gardens, was far more chaste ; he banished verdant 
sculpture, and did not even revert to the square precision of the 
foregoing age. He enlarged his plans, disdaining to make every 
division tally to its opposite ; and though he still adhered much to 
straight walks with high clipped hedges, they were only his great 
lines ; the rest he diversified with wilderness, and with loose groves 
of oak, though still within surrounding hedges. As his reformation 
gained footing, he ventured to introduce cultivated fields and even 

xv 



THE HISTORY OF GARDEN-MAKING 

morsels of forest appearance by the sides of those endless and 
tiresome walks. 

" But the capital stroke, the leading step to all that followed, was 
the destruction of walls for boundaries and the invention of fosses : 
an attempt then deemed so astonishing that the common people 
called them * Ha ! ha's ! ' to express their surprise at finding a sudden 
and unperceived check to their walk. No sooner was this simple 
enchantment made than levelling, mowing, and rolling followed. 
The contiguous ground of the park without the sunk fence was 
to be harmonised with the lawn within ; and the garden in its 
turn was to be set free from its prim regularity, that it might 
assort with the wilder country without. At that moment 
appeared Kent, painter enough to taste the charms of landscape, 
bold and opinionative enough to dare and to dictate, and born 
with a genius to strike out a great system from the twilight of 
imperfect essays." 

The men referred to in this extract, Bridgman and Kent, played a 
considerable part in the development of the new fashion. Bridgman 
was gardener to George I., and was entrusted with the laying-out of 
several important places, among them Stowe, in Buckinghamshire. 
His methods were not excessively advanced, for he had some respect 
for the old style and did not try to break away too abruptly from 
everything which had been accepted in the past. He abandoned, 
however, the more extravagant form of tree-clipping, and therefore 
must be counted among the reformers who desired to make a practi- 
cal protest against the abuse of a time-honoured practice ; and by 
his disinclination to " revert to the square precision of the foregoing 
age," at least prepared the way for the great changes which were 
imminent. 

William Kent was much more ambitious and broke far more definitely 
with the past. He was in many ways a remarkable man, following 
several professions, though in none of them did he rise to real 
eminence. In his youth he was apprenticed to a coach-builder, but 
soon after the beginning of the eighteenth century he came from 
Yorkshire, where he was born, to London to follow the profession of 
a portrait and historical painter. There he found many patrons and 
achieved so large a measure of success, that in 1710 he was able to 
go to Italy to study. In 1719 he returned to England with Lord 
Burlington, in whose house he resided till his death, in 1748, and by 
whose influence he obtained several court appointments, and a con- 
siderable amount of private work. As an architect he was not 
unsuccessful, for in this branch of art he showed more real capacity 
xvi 



THE HISTORY OF GARDEN-MAKING 

than appears in his productions as a painter and sculptor, and some 
of the buildings he designed are by no means unworthy of com- 
mendation. 

But in his garden work his point of view was that of the painter 
rather than the architect. He tried to produce pictorial effects, and 
to re-arrange nature on the lines of the pictures by the painters of 
classical landscape, whose canvases he had presumably learned to 
admire while he was abroad. The principles he affected are summed 
up by Horace Walpole : " Selecting favourite objects, and veiling 
deformities by screens of plantations, he realised the composition of 
the greatest masters in painting. The living landscape was chastened 
and polished, not transformed." Walpole was of the naturalistic 
faction, so his praise was not without bias, and his estimate of Kent's 
capacities deserves to be to some extent discounted. Present-day 
opinion would hardly endorse so readily this chastening and polishing 
process, or count it as the evident invention of a brilliant genius. 
For what Kent really did was to substitute one kind of formality for 
another. He threw over topiary work entirely, he avoided regu- 
larity of line, and, like Bridgman, would have nothing to do with 
" square precision " ; but, nevertheless, he chastened Nature with 
undue severity, and dressed her in a kind of penitential sheet which 
cloaked most of her true beauties. His " great system " was a piece 
of artificiality, and was, perhaps, best described by Scott, who said of 
him, that " his style is not simplicity, but affectation labouring to 
seem simple." His planted pictures lacked breadth and distinction, 
and instead of the dignified quaintness of the old arrangements, had 
a quite unnecessary restlessness and want of harmony. He com- 
mitted many absurdities too, sticking up dead trees deliberately to 
give a touch of realism to the little patches of sham forest which he 
designed a trick which was adopted by the landscape painters of 
the conventional school and building ruins of Gothic churches or 
Grecian temples to increase what he conceived to be the picturesque- 
ness of his gardens. 

It must be admitted, however, that his labours were much approved 
by his contemporaries. Walpole was not the only writer who hailed 
him as a genius ; there was a chorus of praise headed by Mason, the 
poet, who exhausted the resources of the English language in eulogy 
of Kent and his methods. During the first half of the eighteenth 
century a spurious nature-worship had become fashionable spurious 
because it was based not upon true sympathy with nature's inherent 
charm, but upon a fancy for those scenic landscape compositions in 
which such painters as Claude or Poussin travestied reality. How 

xvii 



THE HISTORY OF GARDEN-MAKING 

little sense there was in the adulation of landscape gardening, as it 
was then understood, can be judged from a sentence of Walpole's, that 
" Kent leapt the fence and saw that all nature was a garden." 
Yet Kent, despite his destruction of many interesting examples of 
the work of his predecessors, and despite, also, the unsoundness ot 
his artistic principle, must be ranked as a most conservative person 
and as a most enlightened designer beside the designers who suc- 
ceeded him. The art of gardening fell into the hands of such men 
as Martin Brown nicknamed " Capability " Brown Humphrey 
Repton, Wright, and Thomas Wheatly, who was responsible for the 
up-rooting of what was left of the formal gardens at Nonsuch Palace ; 
and all of these had even less sympathy than Kent with the old ideas 
and less capacity to conceive new ones. All they could do was to 
go on obliterating the relics of the past and wrecking everything 
which could claim consideration on the score of respectable antiquity 
until they had provided ample justification for the plaintive lament 
of Sir William Chambers, that " Our virtuosi have scarcely left an 
acre of shade, or three trees growing in a line, from the Land's End 
to the Tweed." 

The most notable of this group of gardeners was " Capability " 
Brown. He was not, like Kent, a trained artist who worked 
mistakenly under the impression that he was following strict aesthetic 
rules, he was not even a man of culture or educated conviction. 
Ignorant and untrained, he was by interest advanced from the charge 
of Lord Cobham's kitchen garden to be gardener at Hampton 
Court and Windsor, and on the strength of this appointment he 
was able to pose as an authority on garden designing in the new 
style. His services were widely in request ; everyone who was 
bitten with the craze for improvement came to him for advice and 
assistance, and he had endless opportunities of putting into practice 
his crude theories of naturalistic design. As a consequence he did 
an incalculable amount of harm, destroying right and left what 
remained of the old pleasure grounds, and replacing them by 
arrangements of his own devising. 

As he knew practically nothing of his subject, and as, moreover, he 
prided himself on knowing nothing, he adopted a set formula which 
expressed his conception of nature, and to this formula he almost 
always adhered. His stock materials were a belt of plantation round 
the space he had to lay out, a few clumps of trees " playfully," as he 
called it, dotted about the ground, and a lake or stretch of river 
brought in, as often as not, with hardly any reference to its sur- 
roundings. That such narrow conventionality should ever have 
xviii 



THE HISTORY OF GARDEN-MAKING 

been accepted as in accordance with the spirit of nature seems to us 
now almost incredible, and it is difficult to understand how anyone 
of intelligence could have believed that this sort of empty formality 
was worthy to be described as landscape gardening. But though 
Brown's methods were ridiculed by some people and but faintly 
praised by others Daines Barrington, for instance, said of him that 
" he had undoubtedly great merit in laying out pleasure grounds ; 
but I conceive that in some of his plans I see more traces of the 
kitchen gardener of old Stowe than of Poussin or Claude Lorraine " 
the fact remains that the royal gardener was for many years a 
kind of dictator in matters of taste, and at his death, in 1783, left a 
large fortune, the accumulation of the fees paid to him by grateful 
clients. 

The other members of the group were not more scrupulous and 
hardly more intelligent ; they rivalled " Capability " Brown in 
destructiveness, and they had no better understanding of the 
subtleties of the art which they misused. But so strong was the 
influence of the fashion which dominated gardening during the 
latter half of the eighteenth century that these men were able to do 
anything they pleased, and were given an absolutely free hand by 
the people who employed them. Wheatly wrote a book, " Observa- 
tions on Modern Gardening," which, with Walpole's " Essay on 
Modern Gardening," published a few years later, became the 
accepted authority on the new type of design not only in England, 
but on the Continent as well. The rage for destruction spread 
widely, indeed, and the English influence was powerful enough 
abroad to produce effects which seem now scarcely defensible. We 
have at the present time a truer appreciation of the value of relics 
from the past than was common among the people of the eighteenth 
century, and we can sincerely regret the zeal of the reformers who 
were so needlessly anxious to be modern at all costs. 
But the movement in the direction of landscape gardening, as 
opposed to the trim formality of the earlier school, was too strong to 
be stemmed by the protests of the few thinkers who realised what 
was being lost. The formal garden had become discredited, partly 
because its decorative characteristics had been allowed to get 
beyond reasonable bounds into sheer extravagance, and partly be- 
cause its particular features had grown too familiar to the public^ 
and had in consequence lost the charm of freshness. Its associations 
were forgotten, and its claims to consideration were overlooked. 
Hardly anyone paused to think whether, after all, the price that was 
being paid for novelty was not too high. Yet in the wilderness of 

xix 



THE HISTORY OF GARDEN-MAKING 

landscape gardening a voice was to be heard here and there lamenting 
the excesses of the new school, and begging for less haste and less 
reckless concessions to fashion. Sir Uvedale Price wrote a treatise 
on " The Decorations near the House," in which he tells the story 
of his dealings with his own old garden, and grieves over the changes 
he had brought about by re-arranging it on the new lines. Sir 
Walter Scott in 1827 championed the cause of the formal garden 
against the inventions of the landscape gardener, and pointed his 
argument by reference to a place in Scotland which, once delightful 
in its antique quaintness, had become, when remodelled, " as 
common and vulgar as may be"; and other writers followed from 
time to time on the same lines. 

It was not, however, till the latter half of the nineteenth century 
that any consistent effort was made to revive the old type of garden 
design. Within the last fifty years there has sprung up a quite 
considerable school of garden-makers, including many architects of 
distinction, who treat the earlier traditions with intelligence and 
discretion, and in applying them show a large measure of originality. 
The work of these men is something more than a mere reconstruction 
of what was customary two or three hundred years ago, and is free 
from those fantastic excesses which brought the formal garden into 
disrepute. It is frankly architectural in the sense that it is planned 
with due regard for precision of line and balance of masses ; and the 
effects at which it aims depend not upon happy accidents more or 
less shrewdly led up to, but upon well-judged construction which 
prepares exactly for what is to come. The main purpose of it all is 
to reintroduce into modern gardens the quiet dignity and the sober 
richness of the seventeenth century design, without closing the way 
to those ingenious designers who can give a new meaning and an 
increased significance to their combinations of the materials used by 
their predecessors. 

At the same time this revival of formal planning is not by any 
means affecting the popularity of landscape gardening. The two 
types of work flourish now side by side, and as the modern formality 
is freer and less restricted than the old, so the modern landscape 
design is less conventional and narrow in application than that of 
" Capability " Brown and his followers. The landscape gardeners 
of to-day are not afflicted with the delusion that they can or should 
model themselves upon popular painters, and plant compositions 
which will reproduce pictures shown at the National Gallery or the 
Academy. They do not merely refuse to draw inspiration from the 
canvases of Claude or Poussin, they seek suggestions from nature 
xx 



THE HISTORY OF GARDEN-MAKING 

direct, and try to keep in their work something of her spontaneity 
and charming irregularity. In both types of garden-making there is 
evidence that the lessons of the past have been thoughtfully studied, 
and that the need for reticence, for avoidance of any extravagance of 
manner, is generally appreciated. 

As a proof of the increase of the popular interest in gardening to- 
day, it is sufficient to point to the great growth which has taken 
place in the literature on the subject. In the many periodicals 
devoted to the horticultural side of garden work, artistic questions 
receive much attention, and articles discussing these questions are 
plentiful enough in the magazines which deal with topics attractive 
to the general reader. But in recent years there have also appeared 
several important books like "The Formal Garden in England," by 
Mr. Reginald Blomfield and Mr. F. Inigo Thomas, which has been 
already referred to, and " The Art and Craft of Garden Making," by 
Mr. Thomas H. Mawson, books from which the student of the art can 
obtain much useful information about what he should do and many 
valuable hints as to what he should avoid. Indeed, a quite consider- 
able library on gardening is now at the disposal of everyone whose 
love of nature is great enough to make him anxious to use in the 
right way the treasures she puts within his reach. The reign of the 
faddists may fairly be said to be over at last, and the different 
schools of gardeners are now wisely tolerant of one another. There 
is ample room for individual effort, so we may fairly hope to see in 
the near future a strong and healthy development of the many 
possibilities of an art which has the greatest imaginable claims to 
serious encouragement. 



xxi 



THE PRINCIPLES OF GARDEN- 
MAKING. 




T may fairly be laid down as the first essential 
in the planning of a garden that there 
should be some sort of direct connection 
between the kind of surrounding which is 
given to a house and the architectural 
character of the house itself. To treat the 
garden as an entirely separate affair, unre- 
lated in any way to the building to which 
it is intended to serve as a setting, is neither 

judicious nor artistically expedient. Such a separation would 
inevitably produce an unpleasant effect, and would suggest a lack 
of intelligence on the part of the garden designer. In a rightly 
conceived plan it is not only the outlook on to the garden from 
the house that is taken into account ; at least as much considera- 
tion is given to the views which are to be obtained in different 
directions from the garden itself, and obviously the house must 
be reckoned as a vitally important feature in any scheme which 
is devised to make these views fully effective. A thatched cottage 
surrounded by an elaborate Italian garden with terraces, statues, 
and fountains, would look absurdly out of place, and there would 
be no less incongruity in putting a palace in the middle of a wild 
and uncultivated field ; either arrangement would be opposed to 
both good taste and common sense. But if the garden is made, 
as it should be, an appropriate adjunct to the house, and is designed 
in a style that is consistent with the architectural characteristics 
of the building, the result is agreeably harmonious, and has that 
air of completeness which makes convincing all-round artistic 
achievement. 

If the importance of this connection is recognised by the garden 
designer he can reasonably be allowed a free hand in the carrying 
out of the work entrusted to him, for he will have a sufficiently 
sound knowledge of his subject to prevent him from lapsing into 
any fanatical preference for one particular type of garden-making. 
Much of the harm done in the past by the men who destroyed 
the work of the earlier gardeners, and replaced it with what they 
imagined to be modern and up-to-date, was due to the fact that 
these iconoclasts did not realise that there was any necessity to 
bring the house and garden into strict relation. They adopted a 
fashion merely, a fashion which was supposed to be capable of 
xxii 



THE PRINCIPLES OF GARDEN-MAKING 

general application, and they could not see that there were many 
occasions when adherence to a set formula was not only inexpe- 
dient but actually at variance with sound artistic principles. To 
understand when the old work was perfectly fulfilling its decorative 
function, and was worthy of preservation because it filled its place 
admirably, was quite beyond them ; they had chosen a new conven- 
tion, and everything which did not come within the limits of this 
convention they condemned as unfit to exist. 

Few people to-day would be disposed to question the absurdity of 
narrowing down the practice of an adaptable and expressive art in 
a manner so utterly unreasonable. We can see now that there is 
a place for both the formal garden and for the efforts of the 
landscape gardener, and that each, under the proper conditions, is 
worthy of attention. Conformity to a dominating convention is 
neither expected nor tolerated ; indeed, the more frankly personal 
the designer's methods the more likely is he to gain appreciation, 
and the more plainly he shows that he has profited by the lessons 
and the warnings of the past the better are his chances of success 
in his profession. 

Concerning the modern treatment of the formal garden it can be 
safely said that much good has resulted from the entry of the 
architect into the ranks of the garden designers. To secure the 
right kind of formality in the laying out of the surroundings of 
any house the whole thing must be planned with due regard for 
architectural effect. In the stricter type of formal garden, enclosed 
frankly and definitely within boundary walls, there can be nothing 
left to happy accidents and there must be no mistakes for nature 
to correct. Every line, every mass, must be rightly placed and 
properly accounted for, every detail must be in obvious relation to 
the general scheme of which it forms an essential part. And the 
balancing and relating of lines, masses, and accessory details must 
be carried out with just the same care and in just the same spirit 
that are required in the construction of a judiciously elaborated 
piece of architecture. 

It must also be remembered that the garden laid out on such 
precisely architectural lines is intended to be, as it were, a frame 
to the house, to cut it off from the country beyond and to enhance 
its charm by a particular setting. Therefore to allow the garden 
to gradually merge in the more distant landscape is inexpedient, 
for by such a device much of the meaning and strength of a formal 
design must necessarily be lost. In the framing of a picture what 
is aimed at is to provide a surrounding which will be in keeping 
c xxiii 



THE PRINCIPLES OF GARDEN-MAKING 

with the character of the picture itself, but will serve especially as 
a neutral zone to separate the painting sharply from the wall on 
which it hangs ; any idea of gradually connecting the picture with 
the wall-paper by means of the frame would be voted absurd, and 
would be treated as a fad unworthy to be taken seriously. The 
real purpose of the formal garden is to create this kind of neutral 
zone round the house, and therefore its boundaries must be as 
distinct as those of the picture frame. 

Yet many of the earlier designers seem to have been unable to 
appreciate the artistic significance of this limitation. After the 
movement began in the direction of landscape gardening the men 
who still professed to support the formal tradition made a sort of 
compromise, and while they kept the formality immediately round 
the house they slid by gradations into wild nature as they got 
further away. Sir Uvedale Price, for instance, recommended a 
division into compartments. A formal garden first, a landscape 
garden next, and a park beyond allowed to grow as it pleased ; and 
much the same arrangement was advocated by Repton, the suc- 
cessor and follower of " Capability" Brown. Like all compromises, 
these attempts to combine divergent styles of gardening in a 
limited space could hardly fail to be anything but unsatisfactory ; 
such a collection of examples of different schools of garden design 
could be successfully made only in some large place where there 
would be room to treat each section as an entirely separate specimen 
of technical practice. 

Certainly it is better, in the ordinary way, to make the formal 
garden as absolutely as possible a distinct creation, and to relate it 
clearly to the house rather than to attempt futilely to bring it even 
remotely into touch with untutored nature. There is, of course, 
no need to carry formality into excess or extravagance, or to re-intro- 
duce any of those topiary absurdities which in the past brought 
discredit upon this form of garden-making ; and on the whole 
there is little danger of any such departures from good taste 
while the designing of the formal garden remains in the hands 
of men who are properly conscious of the value of architectural 
refinement. In our modern efforts to revive an art which, partly 
by its own fault and partly by misuse, has fallen into a bad con- 
dition we can base our practice upon what is best in the ancient 
tradition, and can refer to well-established records for guidance 
as to what we should avoid. We have a clearer view of what is 
desirable than the men who, a couple of centuries ago, mistook a 
mere departure from custom for judicious and progressive originality ; 
xxiv 



THE PRINCIPLES OF GARDEN-MAKING 

and by the aid of this clearer view we ought to make the English 
formal garden once again a really living thing. 

At the same time it would be very undesirable to have in existence 
again a formal convention ; fashion has done so much harm to the 
gardener's art that the avoidance of stereotyped methods of practice, 
which are followed simply because they chance to be popular, is 
urgently necessary. The formal garden has its place in domestic 
decoration, and a place that is important and definite enough ; but, 
as has been already said, there is ample room for the landscape 
garden also. But the modern landscape garden must not be a 
studied and narrow preconception like Kent's planted pictures or 
Brown's belt, clump, and lake combinations. The landscape gar- 
dener must be a student of nature at first hand, and must be fitted by 
the thoroughness of his study to adapt realities to the purposes of 
his design. For him, too, there are many warnings in the mistakes 
of his predecessors; he can see plainly enough, if he chooses, how 
ignorantly and arrogantly men of Brown's type set about the re- 
arrangement of nature to suit themselves, and how deficient they 
were in that refinement of taste which alone would have justified 
their pretensions. 

But he can obtain also many hints as to the direction in which his 
own development should tend from the precepts of some of the 
designers who were in the thick of the conflict which resulted in the 
destruction of the formal garden. Repton, though he committed 
himself in his work on "Landscape Gardening" to such an absurd 
statement as this : " The motley appearance of red bricks with 
white stone, by breaking the unity of effect, will often destroy the 
magnificence of the most splendid compositions," and advocated 
unity of effect produced by the use of stucco or paint, was a garden 
designer of more intelligence than most of his immediate contem- 
poraries. Some of his suggestions are quite worth remembering 
for instance, " There is no error more prevalent in modern gardening, 
or more frequently carried to excess, than taking away hedges to 
unite many small fields into one extensive and naked lawn before 
plantations are made to give it the appearance of a park ; and where 
ground is subdivided by sunk fences imaginary freedom is purchased 
at the expense of actual confinement," or, " the boldness and naked- 
ness round the house is part of the same mistaken system of 
concealing fences to gain extent. A palace, or even an elegant villa, 
in a grass field, appears to me incongruous." 

In other comments on the fashion of his time he shows a useful 
degree of independence : " The plantation surrounding a place, 

xxv 



THE PRINCIPLES OF GARDEN-MAKING 

called a belt, I have never advised; nor have I ever willingly marked 
a drive, or walk, completely round the verge of a park, except in 
small villas, where a dry path round a person's own field is always 
more interesting than any other walk." " Small plantations of trees, 
surrounded by a fence, are the best expedients to form groups, 
because trees planted singly seldom grow well. Neglect of thinning 
and removing the fence has produced that ugly deformity called a 
clump." " Water on an eminence or on the side of a hill is among 
the most common errors of Mr. Brown's followers. In numerous 
instances I have been allowed to remove such pieces of water from 
the hills to the valleys, but in many my advice has not prevailed." 
These remarks have an interest not only because they mark his 
disapproval of the foolish practices which were in vogue when he 
lived, but also because they point the absurdity of certain crude 
methods of landscape gardening which are even now not wholly 
extinct. There is one more of his precepts which deserves to be 
quoted, on account of the warning it gives against shallow artifi- 
ciality : " Deception may be allowable in imitating the works of 
nature. Thus, artificial rivers, lakes, and rock scenery can only be 
great by deception, and the mind acquiesces in the fraud after it is 
detected, but in the works of art every trick ought to be avoided. 
Sham churches, sham ruins, sham bridges, and everything which 
appears what it is not, disgusts when the trick is discovered." This 
is frankly a plea for honesty of design, a plea in which there is both 
common sense and a good measure of artistic discretion. It is set 
down with something of the same spirit that actuated William 
Morris when he wrote, " Large or small, the garden should look 
orderly and rich. It should be well fenced from the outer world. 
It should by no means imitate the wilfulness or the wildness of 
nature, but should look like a thing never seen except near the 
house," though clearly Repton was prepared to go to far greater 
lengths in the direction of deceptive imitation of nature than Morris 
would have considered allowable. 

The landscape gardening of the present day is certainly managed 
by the better class of designers with more taste and with more 
understanding of its wide possibilities than was shown by most 
of the eighteenth-century gardeners. We recognise that an artificial 
piece of landscape can be made to look " orderly and rich," and 
that even if it is not quite like " a thing never seen except near 
the house," it can be carried out with something of the studious 
exactness which the formal garden demands. Much care is taken 
now to retain the characteristic features of the piece of ground 
xxvi 



THE PRINCIPLES OF GARDEN-MAKING 

that has to be dealt with, and to make these features the foundation 
upon which the general planning of the whole garden depends. 
The principle which governs the best modern work is that laid 
down by J. D. Sedding : " The gardener's first duty in laying 
out the grounds is to study the site, and not only that part of it 
upon which the house stands, but the whole site, its aspect, 
character, soil, contour, sectional lines, trees, etc. Common sense, 
economy, nature, art, alike dictate this. There is an individual 
character to every plot of land as to every human face, and that man 
is unwise who, to suit preferences for any given style of garden, or 
with a view of copying a design from another place, will ignore 
the characteristics of the site at his disposal." 

When this sound principle is observed in garden-making the 
gardener's practice comes much closer to that of the landscape 
painter than did the pedantic imitation of pictures which was 
affected by men like Kent. The preliminary study of the site is 
like the consideration which the painter gives to the subject which 
he has chosen and proposes to realise pictorially. Before he sets 
upon his canvas the piece of nature which is before him he 
examines it in every part to see which lines he will have to modify, 
which details to omit or accentuate, and which of the salient masses 
he must make the main fact in his composition, so as to give the 
fullest possible suggestion of the particular character and interest 
which the subject possesses. The sincere garden designer, in the 
same way, takes pains to see where and how the ground he has to 
lay out must be treated so as to make the most of what beauties it 
has by nature, and decides what must be added ai d what removed, 
what features must be given more prominence and what must be 
rendered less conspicuous to perfect the landscape which already 
exists. His function is a delicate one to fulfil, for he must 
neither be too literal nor, on the other hand, too much disposed 
to apply to nature that chastening process in which the early 
gardeners believed. In a word, he must be an artist, and his artistic 
sense must be thoroughly trained and absolutely under control. 
If landscape gardening is practised in this spirit and by men of this 
type, it is indisputably worthy to rank beside the best productions 
of the designer of formal gardens. The primary principle, that the 
garden must be in exact relation to the house which it surrounds, 
must, however, not be forgotten, and on many occasions the attempt 
to imitate nature's freedom and careless charm must be abandoned 
for frank formality and architectural severity. The artist in garden- 
making should certainly cultivate his selective sense, and should in 

xxvii 



THE PRINCIPLES OF GARDEN-MAKING 

the work he carries out be quite prepared to be guided by circum- 
stances. The house is his one immutable fact, from which all that 
he proposes to do must start ; his study of the site is next in 
importance, and in this study it is well that he should not forget 
that the character of the site can be equally well preserved whether 
it is a formal or a landscape garden that he lays out upon it. The 
one thing that is at all costs to be avoided is that shameless torturing 
of nature to fit her to a mere pedantic and unintelligent convention 
which was practised by the men who made landscape gardening a 
century or so ago as formal as the worst examples of degenerate 
precision in garden design. 

It must also be remembered that success in landscape gardening 
comes from consideration of many small details as well as from 
correct observance of large principles. Not many designers are 
fortunate enough to have at their disposal a site which needs nothing 
more than simple regulating and bringing into shape, one which 
has most of its beauties ready-made. Even when the general 
features of the ground lend themselves well to effective development 
there is almost always much to be done in the way of filling up and 
improvement before the right artistic result is obtained. Unsightly 
objects outside the boundaries of the garden have, perhaps, to be 
hidden by judicious planting, or the outlook from the house has to 
be improved by the removal of trees which block the view ; the 
existing vegetation has to be thinned to give the house more light 
and air, or has to be made more dense to afford protection from cold 
winds. Practical questions, like the provision of a tennis lawn, or 
a kitchen garden, have to be taken into account, and such neces- 
sary adjuncts to the house have to be dealt with discreetly so that 
they may fulfil their purpose adequately and yet not seem obtrusive 
or out of place in a well-imagined scheme. It is in the planning 
of a garden which is picturesque and yet of practical utility as a 
pleasure ground that the designer can best prove his capabilities ; 
by his distribution of the details, which are of definite importance 
to the owners of the place, he shows to what extent he has mastered 
the essentials of his craft, and by his manner of harmonising these 
details with what may be called the pictorial intention of his plan 
he gives the measure of his artistic perception. 

There is another matter which must receive from the landscape 
gardener a considerable degree of attention, a matter which is more 
important than it might appear to be at first sight. If, as seems 
reasonable, naturalistic gardening is regarded as being more or less 
akin to picture painting, it follows that it is subject to some of the 
xxviii 



THE PRINCIPLES OF GARDEN-MAKING 

same laws by which the artist is guided in dealing with his canvases. 
Form and colour have certainly to be taken into account by the 
garden designer, and he must have a thorough understanding of the 
manner in which composition lines should be adjusted so as to pro- 
duce their proper decorative effect. In arranging the forms of his 
garden he must choose those trees and shrubs which by their variety 
of shape and growth will give what is required in the way of con- 
trast of outline, and he must decide where masses of vegetation are 
necessary, and where single trees or groups of trees should be placed 
to diversify open spaces which would look bare and empty without 
some details to break their regularity. In devising colour effects he 
must consider not only what can be done by the use of flowering 
plants, but also how he can play upon that scale of tints which is 
provided in the foliage of the trees with which the large masses of 
his design are composed. He has a wide range within which to 
work, and he has only to refer to nature to see what scope there 
is for the exercise of his faculties as an artist. 
In the adjustment of his composition lines he is obviously limited to 
a great extent by the necessity for making the best of what beauties 
the site on which his garden is to be laid out possesses naturally. 
But his sensitiveness to refinements of form will enable him to judge 
how these beauties can be emphasised and how the additions he 
proposes can be kept in character with what already exists. Restless 
lines, or lines that are irregular merely for irregularity's sake, imply 
insufficient consideration, and are the mark of inefficiency in design : 
there must be, not only in the ground plan of the garden, but in 
its elevation and sky-line too, a real suavity and elegance, a true 
grace of proportion, and a studied ease of arrangement which con- 
ceals the artifices by which the naturalistic result has been attained. 
There is clearly no place for narrow conventions in the right kind of 
landscape gardening ; what is needed is rather largeness of view 
and that ready adaptability which comes from study of nature 
and from the cultivation of aesthetic instincts ; the man who works 
by rule and depends upon a preconception only is inevitably doomed 
to fail. 

This is in some measure true of the formal gardener as well, though, 
perhaps, in this branch of the art there is less possibility of breaking 
away from ancient tradition. But in formal gardening there is 
ample scope for the exercise of a just perception of form and a real 
love of colour, and there is the fullest opportunity for displaying 
ingenuity of design. Only it is the architect's mind that is needed 
here rather than that of the landscape painter the architect's instinct 

xxix 



THE PRINCIPLES OF GARDEN-MAKING 

for firmness and precision of line, for exact balance, and accurately 
regulated proportion. His forms and his colour masses must be 
more strictly studied and more distinctly spaced than those of the 
landscape gardener, because pre-arranged accident does not enter into 
his calculations. He guides nature along lines he has laid down 
beforehand ; he does not follow her and adapt himself to her moods. 
Of the two types of designers he is in many ways the one who has 
the larger problems to solve, who has to overcome the greater 
difficulties before he can hope to succeed. But for him, too, there 
is an evident necessity for openness of mind. If he thinks only 
in the past, and is content merely to imitate the works of his 
predecessors, if he believes that in their theories and practice all 
the possible principles of gardening have been defined, he will do 
little to help garden-making to take once again its right place 
among the arts. 



xxx 



NOTES ON THE ILLUSTRATIONS 




P N the pictorial treatment of garden subjects it 
is important that the particular charm and 
character which they possess should be sym- 
pathetically suggested. To make a garden 
picture a mere piece of obvious realism, a 
simple representation of pretty details, is by 
no means enough ; each place has an individ- 
uality of its own and a distinctive atmosphere 
which needs to be studied and expressed. 
The ordinary topographical record, which states facts without sensi- 
tiveness and gives a sort of diagram of the general laying-out of the 
garden, is far from satisfactory, for it conveys no real impression of 
those subtleties of effect which were the intention of the original 
designer. It misses the true sentiment of garden-making, and makes 
commonplace what should be fascinating in its quaint variety and 
daintiness of feeling. 

The principle which has been followed in the illustrations of this 
number has been, as can plainly be perceived, to avoid as far as 
possible simple topography, and both in the selection from the 
material available, and in the treatment of the motives illustrated, to 
secure the right atmosphere and sentiment of the well-designed 
garden. In the execution of the large series of photographs from 
which those reproduced have been chosen, Mr. W. J. Day has 
entered sincerely into the spirit of the work, and has realised fully 
what are the pictorial possibilities of the places with which he has had 
to deal. Consequently it may fairly be claimed that what is presented 
here illustrates adequately the best type of gardening, and in 
accordance with the traditions of THE STUDIO puts in the first 
place the artistic aspects of a subject which has been far too often 
treated with an excessive amount of matter-of-fact actuality. It can 
be seen, too, that all phases of garden-making have been recognised 
and considered, and that old and modern work alike has been repre- 
sented ; so that the series of illustrations sums up sufficiently the results 
which have been attained by many generations of designers. 
Care has especially been taken to present the salient features of the 
various places, those features which make them notable as examples 
of a pleasant and interesting art, and which deserve the attention of 
all students of gardening at its best. These features have a definite 
significance, for they illustrate the manner in which art can be asso- 
ciated with nature and used to enhance her charm. Their value can 



xxxi 



NOTES ON THE ILLUSTRATIONS 

be all the better appreciated because the reproductions show them as 
they are, in the setting devised for them by the designer and among 
surroundings which nature has perfected and made appropriate 
because they have their right positions in a completed picture, and 
are not detached from the accessory details with which they are 
necessarily required to be in proper relation. The garden seat, the 
sundial, the fountain, or the group of statuary must be judiciously 
placed or it may become an annoying incongruity even when it is in 
itself a beautiful object ; and the test of the judgment used in placing 
it is the manner in which it lends itself to treatment as the central 
fact of a reasoned composition. 

The garden designer, it should be remembered, must work with an 
eye to the future, and in his plan he must take account of what is to 
be in years to come. The design which looks well on paper may 
easily prove impossible to realise, and- is quite likely to be thrown 
out of all proportion by processes of nature, the consequences of 
which have not been foreseen. But when these processes have been 
deliberately prepared for and the inevitable effect of the growth and 
thickening of vegetation has been allowed for in the carrying out of 
the plan, the lapse of years only helps to develop an intention which 
was from the first sound and discreet. The illustrations given show, 
in the majority of instances, the evolution of a design made many 
years ago, and so they are to be taken as records of what can be 
accomplished by controlling nature intelligently, and by inducing 
her to do her work along the lines laid down by men with shrewd 
foresight and ingenious minds. These men made her help them, as 
they understood that without her assistance much of their labour 
would be unprofitable, and what came of this alliance we can well 
judge to-day, because the results are available for our inspection. 
The almost endless possibilities of garden-making when it is carried 
on in accordance with the dictates of common sense and without 
slavish adherence to fashion, are clearly indicated in the series of 
illustrations. Many effective comparisons can be made between 
the various places represented, comparisons that are as instructive 
as they are interesting, and that prove how little a preference for a 
particular style makes necessary any adherence to stereotyped 
methods of design or any repetition of a stock formula. In both 
formal and landscape gardening there is obviously the fullest scope 
for invention, and the only restriction that need be observed is the 
salutary one which forbids to the designer any lapse into those 
extravagances of manner which are to be condemned as foolish 
travesties of nature, 
xxxii 



NOTES ON THE ILLUSTRATIONS 

For instance, what better contrast could be desired than that which 
can be made between the stately pleasure grounds at Wilton House 
(PLATES CXXXIII to CXXXVI) and the quaint, precise, and 
studied garden at Old Place, Lindfield (PLATES XCIV to XCVII). 
Both are formal in the sense that they owe their beauties to delibe- 
rate contrivance ; but while Wilton is a typical example of classic 
design, and has many of the finer characteristics of the Renaissance 
manner, Old Place is essentially illustrative of the methods of the 
English designer who had learned to combine into a harmonious 
whole the best features of English and Dutch gardening. Again, it 
is interesting to compare the sumptuous and careful elaboration of the 
formal gardens of Blenheim Palace (PLATES XV to XIX) with the not 
less careful but more quietly effective completeness of Brockenhurst 
Park (PLATES XXVII to XXX) ; or the somewhat exaggerated 
primness of Longford Castle (PLATES LXXXVIII and LXXXIX) or 
Canford Manor (PLATES XXXIII and XXXIV), with the old-world 
charm of Penshurst Place (PLATES CIV to CIX). At Longford, and 
in a less degree at Canford Manor, the Italian spirit is very perceptible, 
but at Penshurst the garden laid out, since the middle of the last 
century, under the direction of George Devey, the architect, revives 
most happily the particular qualities of the English work of the best 
period, before the eccentricities practised in the earlier years of the 
eighteenth century brought formal gardening into disrepute. 
The same atmosphere which makes Penshurst delightful is very 
apparent in such places as Groombridge House (PLATES LXII to 
LXIV) and Clevedon Court (PLATES XXXVIII to XL), both of 
which, with their terraces and clipped hedges, their rich masses of 
foliage and their gay flower borders, are typical instances of garden- 
making on essentially English lines. They respect tradition, but 
in the treatment of details they show the degree of freedom 
necessary to prevent them from becoming merely illustrations of 
the use of a set convention. Similar qualities distinguish houses 
like Hatfield (PLATES LXX to LXXIII) and Holland House 
(PLATES LXXVII to LXXXI), where the gardener's craft is used 
to enhance the architectural effect of noble buildings and where the 
alliance between nature and art is given the fullest opportunity of 
making its meaning felt. Montacute House (PLATE XCI) is another 
place of the same kind ; like Hatfield, it derives a most persuasive 
dignity from the happy combination of architecture with the 
regulated wildness of nature, and from the use of formal details to 
give cohesion and consistency to a well-planned design ; and at 
Ham House (PLATES LXV and LXVI), though the combination is 

xxxiii 



NOTES ON THE ILLUSTRATIONS 

less deliberate, the relating of the garden to the building it surrounds 
is exceedingly judicious and quite agreeable in its result. 
As further examples of this association The Hall, Bradford-on-Avon 
(PLATES XXIII and XXIV), Brympton House (PLATES XXXI and 
XXXII), and Orchardleigh Park (PLATES XCVIII to CI), are espe- 
cially notable. The first two illustrate admirably the value of the 
stately and well-proportioned terrace with fine flights of steps as a 
connecting link between the house and the grounds, and prove very 
decisively how mistaken were the earlier landscape gardeners when 
they neglected the opportunity of securing such a feature as a 
starting-point for their garden design. Orchardleigh Park shows a 
different treatment of the terrace, but one which lacks neither pic- 
turesqueness nor beauty of effect, and one, moreover, which must be 
commended for its elegant arrangement of lines. At Ammerdown 
Park (PLATES IV to VIII) the architectural effect of the immediate 
surrounding of the house is more than ordinarily persuasive ; a very 
correct judgment in the spacing of the different parts of the approach 
can be recognised, and the formality of the design, carefully con- 
trived as it is, does not in any way exceed legitimate bounds. This , 
formality does not, however, extend to the garden, in which nature 
has been allowed to riot pleasantly and to hide by a free growth of 
foliage many of the terrace walls. A similar profusion can be seen 
at Stratton Park (PLATES CXVI to CXVIII), where the dis- 
tinguishing note is a kind of intentional wildness, a prearranged 
confusion which is quite happily unconventional. 
A touch of the same deliberate carelessness can be seen in the garden 
at Hartham Park (PLATES LXVII and LXVIII) where the severe 
lines of the architectural laying-out an excellent piece of modern 
work have been softened by what seems at first sight to be the 
accidental growth of vegetation in unexpected places. Whether this 
device is entirely legitimate is a question for discussion by experts ; 
it gives, perhaps, a hint of neglect which has produced effects not 
really allowable in formal gardening. It would certainly be out of 
place in such gardens as those at Ashridge Park (PLATES IX to 
XIII), where the dominant note is strict precision ; and it would 
spoil the trimness of such places as Moor Park (PLATES XCII and 
XCIII) or Taplow Court (PLATES CXXI and CXXII), both of which 
are interesting examples of laying-out in the strictly correct manner. 
It seems more appropriate at Corsham Court (PLATES XLI to XLIII) 
and at Paulton's Park (PLATES CII and CIII), where variations from 
the exact design have apparently been contemplated and prepared for 
in the original plan ; and it does not clash with the domestic charm 
xxxiv 



NOTES ON THE ILLUSTRATIONS 

of Daw's Hill Lodge (PLATES XLIV and XLV), a house that is 
delightful by its very absence of pretentiousness. 

Among the other places which are illustrated some, like Dropmore 
(PLATES XLVI to XLVIII), Bridge Castle (PLATES LV and LVI), 
and Embley Park (PLATES LI to LIII) combine formality and freedom 
in about equal proportions, and present a well-planned commingling 
of features which belong to both formal and landscape gardening. 
Others, like Bowood (PLATES XXI and XXII) and Tring Park (PLATES 
CXXIII to CXXVI), exemplify well the way in which the gardener 
can draw upon the recognised authorities for the various parts of his 
design, and can bring together within a more or less limited area 
the results of his study of several schools of garden-making. And 
another, like Sedgwick Park (PLATES CXIV and CXV) shows how 
formality can be made fantastic and how a strict formula can be 
modified to satisfy a desire for a fanciful effect. To compare the 
arrangement of clipped hedges and an artificial sheet of water at 
Sedgwick with the management of similar features at Brockenhurst 
Park, for example, is decidedly instructive, for by this comparison 
it can be realised how little justified the opponents of formal 
gardening are in their contention that acceptance of certain principles 
of design must necessarily lead to unnatural regularity and repetition 
of conventional forms. 

To a class of gardens that is particularly English in its main 
characteristics belong such places as Ven Hall (PLATES CXXVIII to 
CXXX), Great Tangley Manor (PLATES I, LVIII, and LIX), 
Broadands, (PLATES XXV and XXVI), Beaulieu Palace (PLATE XIV), 
the college gardens at Oxford (PLATES XC, CXII and CXXXI), and 
those at Farnham Castle (PLATE LVII), and the Bishop's Palac.e, 
Salisbury (PLATE CXIII). They have a certain savour of antiquity, 
a solid dignity which comes partly from their associations and partly 
from the glamour which age has given them. Their charm is 
scarcely dependent upon subtleties of design ; it results rather from 
an element of unexpectedness, from more or less surprising departures 
from rule which have come about accidentally during the lapse of 
years. There is none of this unexpectedness in a garden like that at 
Hinton Admiral (PLATES LXXIV to LXXVI), where the hand of 
the skilled designer well acquainted with modern devices can be 
plainly traced ; but it is pleasantly evident in the shady walks at 
Ven or in the quaint corner of the Bishop's Palace at Salisbury. 
It is felt, too, very definitely in the Devonshire gardens, Chaddle- 
wood (PLATES XXXVI and XXXVII), Eggesford House (PLATES 
XLIX and L), Greenway House (PLATES LX and LXI), and Killerton 

xxxv 



NOTES ON THE ILLUSTRATIONS 

(PLATES LXXXIII to LXXXV), and in the Cornish place, Pen- 
tillie Castle (PLATES CX and CXI), all of which derive much of 
their specific character from the help which nature has given to the 
designer. These are in the best sense of the term landscape gardens 
in which the ordering of details has been made to bear a direct 
relation to the natural character of each place. The configuration of 
the site has determined the plan, and the laying-out has been more in 
the direction of a development of what was already there, an adapta- 
tion of existing features, than in the direction of preconceived and 
calculated formality. Nature has not been unduly chastened ; to a 
large extent, indeed, she has had her own way and the gardener has 
worked at her dictation and under her guidance. 
As examples of the reversal of this process, of the use of nature to 
complete an entirely definite plan, the gardens at Abbotsbury Castle 
(PLATES II and III) and Swaylands House (PLATE CXIX) are 
noteworthy. The effects here have been prearranged, and what 
seems to be accidental wildness has been led up to by human 
ingenuity. The Abbotsbury garden is as much a composition as 
the most precise of the formal designs, and that at Swaylands one 
of the most elaborate rock gardens in England has been built up 
laboriously with a purely pictorial intention. Both show well what 
an illusion can be obtained by clever artifice, and how the 
naturalistic suggestion is possible in what is in principle formal 
gardening. In work of this character precise methods are employed 
to produce an informal result, but it is only by the preliminary 
precision that the subsequent informality can be made credible. 
There remain to mention the illustrations of bits in the gardens at 
Kingston Lacy (PLATE LXXXVII), Inwood House (PLATE LXXXII), 
and Walhampton Park (PLATE CXXXII). The Kingston Lacy 
and Inwood subjects show ways of treating that favourite garden 
accessory, the sundial ; and the Inwood example in particular is 
memorable because it is an unusually ingenious piece of work, an 
instance of the clever use of the gardener's craft. The bit from 
Walhampton Park illustrates the application of statuary, when 
divorced from architectural surroundings, to the ornamentation of 
open pleasure grounds. The figure has a certain pictorial effective- 
ness in its relief against the dark foliage of the ilex-trees, and serves 
as the high light in a tone arrangement which without some 
such contrast might seem a little too ponderous. 
The coloured plates in this number have a specific value as instances 
of the adaptability of garden subjects to the painter's purposes, and 
of the variety which is possible in the treatment of this class of 
xxxvi 



NOTES ON THE ILLUSTRATIONS 

material. Miss Stannard's three drawings suggest frankly the charm 
of those unambitious gardens which are chiefly fascinating by 
their brilliancy of colour and profusion of flower growth ; and 
Miss Adie, by her two studies at Hampton Court, shows what kind 
of pictures can be made in those more elaborate pleasure grounds 
which have been laid out by a designer who worked originally with 
a view to stately developments. Mr. Elgood and Mr. Rowe set 
forth the beauties of places which are types of what the garden 
should be when it is intended to satisfy that love of the picturesque 
which has called into existence in this country so much that is 
worthy of careful preservation. At Great Tangley Manor, Penshurst, 
and Brickwall the formal gardener has done his work with the rarest 
judgment, and what exists now in proof of his skill is legitimately 
the delight of the artist who can appreciate how intimately nature 
and art can be associated. 

A. L. BALDRY. 




xxxvn 





CO 



Q 
UJ 

t 
CO 



UJ 




* *- *'- 

: : %-JT 



.- 

\ < 

<!-.. . -. 



GARDEN GATES AT AMMERDOWN PARK, SOMERSET 



(By oermission of The Rt. Hon. Lord Hylton.) 



(f) 

(- 

QC 
LU 

X 




(. 
< 

Q. 

aj 
O 

Q 

GC 
I 
CO 



05 

(. 
uJ 

I 




2 

QC 

LU 

X 




< 

K 



C/J 

z 
I 

ui 

o 







PLATE xvi. 




(By permission of His Grace The Duke of Marlborough.) 



THE ROSE GARDEN AT BLENHEIM PALACE, OXON. 



Q 
O 




CO 

LU 
O 

tz 
O 

LU 
O 



OF THE 

UNIVERSITY 

OF, 
CMLIFQBS^ 



\i-rt r - 
<. rt , * - 




co 

<x 
u 

1 





fc 

CO 

(X 

o 



of 
o 

z 




Q 
O 
O 

LJ 

_l 

o 
o 
< 

I 
o 



CO 



CO 

en 

LJ 




co 



t 

w 

ce. 
ni 
5 
O 

CO 




o 
o 

z 
o 

Q 
LJ 

LJ 

_l 
O 

H 

LJ 

O 

a: 

cc 

LJ 

H 

LU 

X 
t- 



In 

(0 

CC 
UJ 

5 

o 




CC. 

o 
O 
O 

Z 

o 
o 

UJ 
UJ 

o 

I- 

LU 

O 

cr 

CC 
UJ 

\- 

u 

I 
1- 

O 

UJ 

CO 



PLATE XLII. 




THE ROSE GARDEN AT CORSHAM COURT. WILTS. 



(By permission of General The Rt Hon. Lord Methuen.) 



tii 

* 
o 





O 

cc 
u. 

2 
UJ 
Q 

cc. 
< 

O 

LJ 

I 
I- 



o 




ui 

or 
o 

s 

Q. 
O 

tr 

Q 




1 

o 

uf 

CO 

3 

O 

x 

Q 

DC 

O 
Li- 
CO 
LJ 
O 

O 

LJ 







m 

IF ** 



C/3 

I 





..*-'- 




2 

CO 

<f) 

=> 

CO 

U" 

_1 
h 
CO 




D 
CO 

uf 

_J 

CO 

< 
o 

u 

o 
9 

QC 

u 



PLATE LVII. 




THE CEDARS OF LEBANON AT FARNHAM CASTLE, SURREY. 
(By permission of The fit. Rev. The Lord Bishop of Winchester.) 




ul 

oc 

IT 

:a 

CO 

of 
o 

z 



o 



PLATE LX. 




GARDENER'S COTTAGE AT GREENWAY HOUSE, DEVON. 



(By permission of T. B. Bolitho, Esq.) 




X 

LJ 
CO 
tO 

=) 
CO 

lif 
to 

ID 
o 

X 
UJ 

o 

Q 

cc 

CO 

2 

O 
O 

DC 

O 




X 

u 
co 

CO 

!3 

CO 

Ul 
CO 

D 

o 

I 

LJ 

o 
o 

tr 
m 
2 
O 

o 

DC 

O 



co 




PLATE LXIX. 




(Copyright reserved.) 



"A SUMMER EVENING." FROM A WATER-COLOUR DRAWING BY LILIAN STANNARD. 



CO 

or 





cc 
ui 

X 

UJ 
CO 

D 

o 

I 



_J 

UJ 

u. 

h- 
< 

X 

I- 
< 

f- 
cr 

15 

O 

o 

Ld 

D: 
O 
u. 

U 

X 

I- 
u. 
O 

cc. 

UJ 

z 

DC 

o 
o 



. 




LJ 
CO 



O 

I 



PLATE LXXIII. 












* ,* 

\ 



'X &S&L 

, r.. 

? *.~ 












I- ' > J 

- > ,;' 



8^^^ f*^^ - , * n 
^ "% ^ v 






. 
- 



' 



OLD GARDEN WALL AT HATFIELD HOUSE, HERTS. 



(By permission of The Most Hon. The Marquis of Salisbury.) 



co 

z 




CO 

z 

X 

< 




z 
o 

o 







uf 

C/J 

O 

X 

Q 

Z 
< 

_I 
O 

X 



lit 

Q 

QC 



z 
u 
O 
u. 

Ul 

X 




z 
u 

Q 

QC 
< 
O 

ui 
O 

< 

cc 

DC 
UJ 

h- 

LU 

X 

I- 



o 


CO 





o 

o 

z 

CO 

Ul 



O 

X 

o 

z 
< 

_I 
o 

X 



o 




z 
o 

cc 

LU 




o 

CC 
U 



PLATE LXXXV. 




GREAT SPANISH CHESTNUT AT KILLERTON, DEVON. 



(By permission of Sir Charles Acland, Bart.) 



PLATE LXXXVII. 




permission of Mrs. Ralph Bankes.) 



SUNDIAL AT KINGSTON LACY, DORSET. 



- .': r 






cr 
O 

O 

z 
o 

I- 
< 

z 

LU 
Q 

a: 
< 
o 

_i 
< 
^ 
ac 
O 
u. 

UJ 

X 

I- 



i:: 




Uj 

V) 

< 
o 

a 

cc 
O 
u. 



z 
o 



z 

LJ 

Q 

CC 
< 
O 








Q 
QC 

o 

u. 
X 

o 

UJ 

o 
III 



f- 
z 
UJ 

Q 

CO 
UJ 

cc 

Q. 
UJ 



PLATE XCI. 




(By permission of W. Phelips, Esq.) 



MONTACUTE HOUSE, SOMERSET. 



PLATE XCII. 




THE UPPER GARDEN AT MOOR PARK, HERTS. 



(By permission of The Rt. Hon. Lord Ebury.) 



CO 

I- 

DC 

LU 
I 





I 



X 

LJ 
CO 
CO 

CO 

Q 




D. 

Q 

_1 
O 

< 

I 

< 
Q. 

co 

CO 

< 

or 
O 



X 

UJ 

c/) 
tt> 

z> 

C/) 




UJ 



(0 

QC 

LJ 

1 




Z 
O 

QC 

u. 

Z 
UJ 
Q 
DC 

< 
O 

UJ 

X 
H 



h 

UJ 
CO 

cr 

UJ 




CO 

13 
O 

LJ 

O 

< 

,03 

o: 
LJ 

I 



co 

h 




co 
T: 

o 

h 



I 




CO 

H 

z 
< 

I 

LJ 
CO 



DC 
0. 
CO 

z 
o 

Q. 

I- 

Q 
^ 






uf 
O 




z 
Id 
* 

lif 
o 




OF THE 

UNIVERSITY 

of 





I- 
z 

UJ 

bf 
q 






.'**.-*' 




PLATE CX. 




(By permission of William Coryton, Esq.) 



GARDEN ENTRANCE AT PENTILLIE CASTLE, CORNWALL 



"~ 




tr 

O 

.0 

uT 

h- 
co 

O 

u 



PLATE CXII. 







(By permission of The Warden.) 



WINDOW AT ST. JOHN'S COLLEGE, OXFORD 



PLATE CXIM. 




THE PALACE, SALISBURY, WILTS. 



(By permission of The Rt. Rev. The Lord Bishop of Salisbury.) 



to 
*: 
o 

Z3 

m 




cc 

HI 

I . 




cc 

0. 

: o 

-Z 

cr 
-J- 

P 



W 






CO 

tr 

-u 

I 




LJ 
CO 

cr 
u 
2 
O 
co 




co 

0. 
UJ 

(- 

CO 



Q 

QC 

O 
u. 

X 

O 




'V'* 



CO 






cc 




PLATE CXXXIII. 




(By permission of The Rt. Hon. The Earl of Pembroke.) 



THE HOLBEIN WALK AT WILTON HOUSE, WILTS. 



C/5 





LU 

<f> 

O 

r 
z. 

O 



QC 
LU 
> 

DC 
LU 

I 

H 



OP THE 

UNIVERSITY 



PLVfe 




WILTON HOUSE, WILTS. 



(By permission of The Rt. Hon. The Earl of Pembroke.) 



GENERAL LIBRARY 
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA-BERKELEY 

RETURN TO DESK FROM WHICH BORROWE 

This book is due on the last date stamped below, or on the 

date to which renewed. 
Renewed books are subject to immediate recall. 





SEP3 1954 



,, 



REC'D I-D 

JUN2b'64-2PM 

21-100m-l,'54(1887sl6)476 



YE 00 




THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY