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\^L > 



Rector, Kithuh Aeadimy, 

• • - « 

Autk^r ef thi English TransUtiofU ofJh€ Rdmdysnam, ii^hi* 

Bhdratam, Srimadhhdguvaiam, MakdHirvdn€*TaHtrMm, 

a^rita^s'a, Agni Purdnam, Mdrkundiy^ 

PurdHMmt &c^ &e* 






' > . 

}'^Oj,Jf^^ o -- 'f^^f) ^'i^^'*^ 



n^L 3V08.2 


BOUND DEC 2 9 1909 

itsim sy H. C Das, iLTtnni niss^ 
3» rvBurvivt stssTi qocutta. 


t'i : ! i r '(9P7 



Chapter I. — Discourse between Suti md Shiuniki and other 
Rishis in the forest of Niimitha — Suta promises to narrate 
the Garuda Puranam 

Chapter II. — Sources of the Garuda Puranam — ^Vishnu charges 
Garuda to compose the Garuda Puranam 

Chapter III. — SuU describes the subjects dealt with in the 
Garuda Puranam 

Chapter IV. — Order of Universal creation described by 
Xarayana to Rudra 

Chapter V.— Creation of the Prajapatis. The progeny of 
Daksha described 

Chapter VI. — Re-incarnation of Daksha in the form of 
Prachetas — Origin of the diflferent races of men, the progeny 
of Kashyapa described ... 

Chapter VII. — Description of the sun-worship* etc. as per- 
formed by the Self-origined Manu ... 

Ch.\pter VIII. — Description of the mode of worshipping 

' ivunu .•* ... ... ••• ... 

Chapter IX« — 1 he mode of spiritual initiation ... 
Chapter X. — 1 he mode of worshipping the goddess Lakshmi 
Ch.\pter XI. — Description of the Nava-Vyuba form of 

^rorsmp •.« ... ... ... *•• 

Chapter XII. — Oescriptton of the order to be observed in 

the course of worship 
Chapter XI I I.^ I he prayer of Vishnu Panjaram ... 
Chapter XFV. — A brief discourse on Yoga 

Chapter XV. — Enumeration of one thouund epithets of 

' ISQuU a.. ... •.. ... .•• 

Chapter XVI. — Description of the mode of meditating on 
Vishnu as well as of the rite of sun-worship ... 

Chapter XVII. — Description of another form of sun-worship 

Chapter XVIII. — Mode of worshipping the death-conquering 
dtkj (Mrityunjaya) 


X— 4 

10 — 13 
X4— i^ 


x6— 2f 

21— J3 

33— a4 

24— 3« 



47— 4f 
49— 5« 


n contents; 

Subject. Pioi. 

Chapter XIX.— The Garudi Vidya which is the cure for all 

k inds ot snake-bite ... ... ... ... 53 — 5% 

Chapter. XX. — Mantra-cures (curative formulas) of snake- 
bite as narrated by S'iva ... ... ... 36 — 5S 

Chapteb* XXI. — Mode of worshipping the Panchavaktra (five- 
laced) manifestation of S'iva ... ... ... 58 — 59 

Chapter. XXII. — 1 he mode of worshipping S'iva ... 59^60 
Chapter XXIU. — Description' of another form of S*ivi 

worship ... ... ... ... ... 60 — 63 

Chapter XXIV.— I he worship of Ganapati ... ... 63—^4 

Chapter XXV. — Sandal-worship (Padu«a puja) described ... 64—65 
Chapter XXVI. — Ihe mode of performing) the rites of 
Karanyasa ^location of the energies of different divinities 
in the different limbs by a votary by dint of occult and 

psychic force) ... ... ... ... 65 — 66 

Chapter XXVII.— Rites for neutralising the effecu of snake 

venoms ... ... ... ... ... 66—67 

Chapter XXVIIL— The mode of worshipping the Gopala 

Manifesution of Vishnu ... ... ... d; — 68- 

Chapter XXIX.— Mantras to be [used in conneaion with the 

worship of SVidhara manifestation of Vishnu ... ... 68— ^9^ 

Chapter XXX. — Elaborate description of the mode of worship- 
ping the S'ridhara manifestation of Vishnu ... ... 69 — 7a. 

Chapter XXXL— Description of another form of Vishnu 

worship ... ••• ... ... ... 72*^75 

Chapter XXXIL— Adoration of the five fundamental prin- 
ciples of the universe ... ... ... ... 77— Ic 

Chapter XXXI I L— Worship of the divine discus (Sudar- 

s anam^ ... ... ... ... ,., 8x— >8s- 

Chapter XXXIV.— Hayagriva worship ... ... 82—86 

Chapter XXXV.— The mode of worshipping the Hayagriva 

manifestation of Vishnu... ... ... ... 87 

Chapter XXXVl — Mode of performing the rite of Gayatri 

^yasa ... ... ••« ••« ... 07*^^9 

Chapter XXXVIl— Description of the glories of Gayatri ... 89—90- 

Chapter XXXVIll — The mode of worshipping the deities, 

Durga, etc ... ... ... ... 90— 93- 

'vHAPrER XXXIX.— Description of another form of Sun- 

worship *•• •*• ••• #•• ... 9i'~9S 

coNTSNts. m 


CiTAPTiR XL. — Miheshvara worship ... .^ ... 95— 9^ 

Chapter XLI. — Enumeration of diverse incantations, Mantras 

(Nana Vidya) ... ... ... ... 93—99 

Chapter XLI I —Description of investing a phallic emblem 

with sacred threadl(S'iva-pavitrarohanam) ... ..• 99— lor 

Chapter XLIII —Description of the rite of investing an image 

of Vishnu with the holy thread (Vishnu-pavitrarohanam) 103— X05 

Chapter XLI V.— Contemplation of embodied and dis-em- 

bodied God ... ... ... ... 105 — Z07 

Chapter XLV— Characteristic marks of S'alagrama Stones ... 107 — xio 

Chapter XLV I. » Ado rat ion of the deity presiding over home- 
steads (Vastu) ... ... ... ... zxo— IIS 

Chapter XL VII.— Essential features of a divine temple or of a 

palace ... ... ... ... ... 1x3^117 

Chapter XLVIII. — Installations of divine images... ... 117—136 

Chapter XLIX.— Discourse on Yoga and acu of piety ... 126— 130' 

Chapter L. — Discourses on charities and gift-makings, «tc. ... 130 — 137 

Chapter LII. — Regulations of Prayaschittas (penitential rites) 137 — 143 

Chapter LIII — Traits of conduct of men marked by the 

several kinds of Nidhis ... ... ... 143 — 143. 

Chapter LIV. — Progeny of Priya Vrata and incidental des- 
cription of the Seven Islands of the Earth ... ... 144—145 

Chapter LV.— Description of the Geographical sitiutions of 
the different countries of the earth, as well as of India with 
its physical features ... ... ... ... 145-146 

Chapter LVI. — Enumeration of the names of princes of the 

continent of Plaksha, etc. ... ... ... 147—148 

Chaptir LVIL— Cosmogeny of Hell and the nether regions ... 148—149' 

Chapter LVIII. — Positions and' dimensions of the sun and 

other planets ... ... ... ... 149-151 

Chapter LIX. — Discourses on Astrology, presiding deities of 
the different planets and constellations of stars, situations 
of Yoginis on the different dajrs of the fortnight, etc. ... 153—155 

Chaptir LX— Discourses on the period of influences of the 

different planets with that of the sun ... ... i57«.i-s 

Chapter LXI.— Influences of the moon in her different 

mansions ... ... ... ... ,., i59-»x6o' 

Chapter LXFI.— Discourses on Langnamana and determina- 
tion of what one ought or ought not to do from the stable 
or mobile character of the Lagna .., .„ .,, 160—16*; 


Subject. Plot. 

Cbaptir LXIIL^A brief discourso on the auspicious and 

inauspicious marks on the persons of males ••• ..• 162*164 

CBArTBR LXIV.^A brief discourse on the auspicious or in- 
auspicious marks on the person of females ... ... 264— >i65 

Cbaptsr LXV. — ^Auspicious marks on men and women as dis- 
closed by the science of Samudrikam ... ... 165*17$ 

Cbaptbr LXVI.— Description of the specific marks of S'ala- 
grama, description of Tirthas, and of sixty countries such 
as Prabhasa ... ... ... ... 175*176 

Cbaptbr LXVII —The science of Parana Vija3ra (conquest 
of breath) and auguring bad or evil from the direction of 
the breath-wind ... ... ... .^ 177.180 

Cbaptbr LXVIII — (Agastya Samhita). Description of the 
origin of gems in the treatise on Ratna Pariksha (test of 
gems) by tbe holy Agastya ••• ... ... 1 80*1 S6 

Cbaptbr LXIX.~Tests of Peails ••. .,• ... 1S6 — 191 

Cbaptbr LXX— Tesu of Ruby .•. ... ... 191—195 

Cbaptbr LXXl.— Tests of Emerald ... ... „. 195—198 

Cbaptbr LXXIL— Tests of Sapphires ... ... 198 — 200 

Cbaptbr LXXIII.*Tests of Lapis Lizuli (Vaidurya) ... 300 

Cbaptbr LXXIV.— Tests of topas (Pushpa-raga)... ... 902 — 203 

Cbaptbr LXXV. — Tests of Karketana ... ••• 203—204 

Cbaptbr LXXVL— Tests of Bhishma-stone ... .,. 304—305 

Cbaptbr LXXVII — ^Tests of Pulaka stones ... ... 306 

Cbaptbr LXXVIII. — Tests of blood-stone ... ••• 307 

Cbaptbr LXXIX.— Tests of crysuls ... ... ... 307—30$ 

Cbaptbr LXXX.— Tests of Corals ... ... 308 

Cbaptbr LXXXI.— A brief description of holy pools and 

sanctuaries ... ... ... ... 209—2x2 

Cbaptbr LXXX II.— Description of the unctity of Gaya, and 

its early history ... ... ... ... 212—215 

Cbaptbr LXXXIIL— Description of diflferent rites to be per- 
formed at different places at Gaya and of their merits ... 2x5—224 
Cbaptbr LXXXI V.— Ablutions in tbe rirer Phalgu, merit of 
making offerings of funeral cakes at Rudra. History of king 
Vishala ... ... ... ... ... 225«*250 

Cbaptbr LXXXV.—>Merit of offering funeial cakes at Preta- 

s'ila in Gaya „ ... ... ... 230—233 

Cbaptbr LXXXVI.— Merit of performing S'raddhas at Preu- 

pbila .tt ••§ .•! vff ••« 333^837 


Subject. Page. 

Cn^PTiR LXXXVIT.—Enumeration of the names of fourteen 

Minus and of the Devas and SapUrshis who flourished in 

the times of their sons ... ... ... ••• 237 — 243 

Chapter LXXX\ III.— Annals of Ruchi incidentally narrated 

in the discourse between MarUandeya and KraushtiUa ... 143 — *4^ 
Chapter LXXXIX —Ruchi hymnises the Pitxis, who in their 

turn grant him a boon ... ... ••• '4^ — 255 

CiiArTBR XC— Marriage of Ruchi and birth of Rauchya 

Manu ..• ••• ••• ••• '5.^ 

Ci!APTER XCI. — Contemplation of Hari ... ... 256—257 

Chapter XCII. — Contemplation of Hari and its process ... 258^260 
Chaptpr XCIII.— Laws of virtue as promulgated by the holy 

Yajnavalkya ... ... ... ... 260—262 

Chapter XC IV.— Initiation with the holy thread and study 

of the Vedas ... ... ... ... 262 — 266 

Chapter XCV— Duties of house-holders ... ... 266— i7X 

Chapter XCVI.— Origin of mixed castes— the five great 

Yajnat, Sandh3ra-rites, duties of house-holders aud members 

of different castes ... ... ... ... 271 — 2S0 

Chapter XCVIL— Purifications of defiled articles ... 280—281 

Chapteh XCVIII.— Gift-making and Charity ... ... 281—284 

Chapter XCIX. — Mode of performing S'raddhas ... ... 284 — 289 

Chapter C. — Exorcism of Vinayakas ... ... ... 290— 29c 

Chapter CI. — Propitiation of malignant Planets ... ... 292 — 293 

C Hapter CII. — Duties of the order of forest-dwelling hermits 294 

Chapter cm.— Duties of Yatis ... ... ... 395 

Chapter CIV.— Signs of sinful souls ... ... ... 295—296 

Chapter CV — Rites of atonement ... ... ... 396—305 

Chapter CVI. — Impurities ... ... ... 305 — 309 

Chapter CVII —A synopsis of the Dharma-Shastra by 

Parashara ... ... ... ... 309—315 


CHAPTER CVIII,— Synopsis of rules of conduct ... ... 315—3x8 

CHAPTER CIX — Advice on thrift and economy in the Nitisara 318 — 324 
CHAPTER ex. — Advice as to the non-rejectment of a certain 

goodf etc. ... ... ,., ,,, ... 314— J28 

CHAPTER CXI.^Commendable traits in kings, etc, (in the 

Nittsara) ... ,., ,., ,„ ,,. jjj — ^330 



Subject. Page, 

CHAPTER CXII.— Commendable traits in servants (in the 

Nitisara) ... ... ... ... ... 331 — 333 

CHAPTBK CXIII. — Injunctions as to the appointments of the 

honest and the erudite in the King's service, etc. ... 333 — 339 

ciiAPTEK CXIV.— Injunctions as to the distinction of friends 

and enemies (in the Nitisara) ... ... ... 339—346 

CHAPTER CXV — Counsels on forswearing bad wives, etc., 

(End of the Vrihaspati Samhita) ... ... ... 346 — ^354 

CHAPTER CXVI —Enumeration of the names of Vratas (vows 

... 354—355 
... 355—357 
... 357—35^ 

... 35S— 359 
... 359—360 
... 361 — 362 
... 362 — 363 

... 363—365 
... 365—367 

... 367—3^8 
... 368—369 

... 370—372 

... 372—374 

375— 37« 

a. . 


and penances) commenced 
CHAPTER CXVII. — The Ananga Trayodashi Vratam 
CHAPTER CXVIII —The Abhandya Ovadashi Vratam 
CHAPTER CXIX. — Agastyargha Vratam ... 
CHAPTER CXX.— The Rambha Tritiya Vratam 
CHAPTER CXXI — 1 he Chaturmasyam Vratam 
CHAPTER CXXII. — ^The Mashopavasha Vratam 
CHAPTER CXXIII. — ^Kartifca Vratas 
CHAPTER CXXIV.— The Shiva Ratra Vratam 
CHAPTER CXXV.— The Ekadashi Vratam 
CHAPTER CXXVI. — VishvaksenaPuja 
CHAPTER CXX VII. — Bhaimi Ekadashi and Dvadashi 
CHAPTER CXX VIII.— Various Vratas described 
CHAPTER CXXIX.— The Pratipad Vratas 


CHAPTER CXXX. — ^The Shashti Vraus, Maricha Saptapi 

, ... 

... 37S— 380 
... 380—382 

... 383—385 
... 385—387 
... 387—388 
... 388—389 
... 389-390 

CHAPTER CXXXI. — Rohini Ashtami Vratas etc ... 
CHAPTER CXXXII.— The Sadgati Vratam, etc. ... 
CHAPTER CXXXIII. — Ashokasumi Vratas etc ... 
CHAPTFR CXXXIV.— Maha-Kausiua Mantra 
CUAPTSR CXXXV. — The Viranavami Vratas. etc. ... 
CHAPiER CXXXVI— The S'ravana Dvadashi Vratam 
CHAPTER CXXXVII. — The Damanaka Trayodashi, etc., 

Vratas ... ... ... ... ... 390—392 

CBAPi'ER CXXXVIII. — Gcneology of royal princes (solar race) 392 — 397 

CHAPTER CXXXIX — Gencology of the princes of , the lunar 

race ... ... ... ... ... 397 — 402 

CHAPTER CXL. — Description of the race of Puru ... 403—406 

CHAPTEK CXLI.— Descriptions of iiings who came after 

Janamejaya ... ... ... ... ... 406— 40S 


SUDJF.CT. Pagk. 

CH«PTKK C \ T.I I.~ Incarnations of Vishnu and the glory of 

nuptial fidelity described ... ... ... 40S — jii 

CHArrER ( XLIII. — The Ramayinam ... ... ... 411 — 4i#> 

CH^PTKR CXLIV.— Description of the Harivamsha ... 416 — 416 

aupfEK C.XLV.— .he Mahabharatam ... ... 418 — 421 


CHAPTER CXLVI.—Description of the Xidanam of all the 

diseases ... ... ... ... ... 422— •42s 

CHArriCN CXLVII — 1 he Xidanam of Fever ... ... 4<o — 4.57 

cHAPTKK CXLVIII.— The Xidanam of RakUpitUm 

(Hxmorrhage) ... ... ... ... 437 — 439 

CHAPTKR CXLIX. — The Xidanam of Cough ... ... 4;9— 441 

CHAPTER CL— The Xidanam dyspnoea ... ...4 4^ — 444 

CHAPTER CLL--The Xidanam of Hic-cough ... ... 444—445 

CHAPTER CLII. — I he Xidanam of pulmonary consumption ... 445—449 

cuAPiER CLIII — 1 he Xidanam of Aversion to food ... 449 — 450 

CHAPTER CLIV.—The Xidanam of heart-disease ... ... 451 — 454 

CHAPTER CLV. — I he Xidanam of diseases resulting from the 

excess or abuse of wine ... ... ... 454—45.^ 

CHAPTER CLVI.— i he Xidanam of Haemorrhoids ... 458 — 4O4 

CHAPTER CLVII. — The Xidanam of Dysentery ... ...464—467 

CHAriER CLVIII.— The Xidanam of Stangury, etc. ... 46S— 471 

CHAPrRR CLIX. — I he Xidanam of diseases of ^the Urinary 

organs (Prameh as • ... ... ... ... 472 — 477 

CHAprER CLX-— The Xidanam of abscesses, etc. ... ... 477 — 4SS 

CHAPTKR CLXI.— The Xidanam of Ascites, etc. ... ... ..ii5--4gi 

CHAprEK CL.MI — The Xidanam of Chlorosis ... ... 491 — 4,^5 

CHAKTEK CLXIII. — The Xidanim of Erysipelas ... ... 4v^o — 4v*> 

CH4PrB; CLXIV. — 1 he Xidanim of cutaneous affections 

(Kusthas* ... ... ... • ... ... 49g — 504 

CHAPrEK CLXV — The Xidanam of bodily parasites ... 504—500 
<:H«iprKR CLXVI.— The Xidanam of diseases of the nervous 

system ... ... ... ... ... 506—517 

CHAPr«M CI.XVII.— The Xidanam of Vata-Raktam ... 51/— 51^ 

CHAPrKR CLXV III. — The Xidanam of Mukho-ro^a ... 5.5 -^- 

cMAPrm CLXIX. — The Xidanam of diseases of the ears ... ,s^^- S-S 

OHAprvR CLXX. — The Nidanam of diseases of the nose ... 575 — ^^i^ 

CMAPrE« CL.XXI —I he Nidanam of disca:»cs of the cyfs ... 3.'9_5',% 


Subject. Pace. 

nrAPTRR CLXXII. — The Nidanam of diseases of the head ... 538—540 
CHAPTER CLXXIII — 1 he Nidanam of diseases of the female 

reproductive organs . ... ... ... ... 540—544 

ciuprER CLXXIV. — the Nidanam of difficult labour ... 541 — 546 

cHAprKR CLXXV. — I he Nidanam of diseases peculiar to par- 
turient women ... ... ... ... 546 — 5 47 

CHAPTKR CLX.KVI — 1 he Nidanam of diseases peculiar to 

infant-life ... ... ... ... ... 547— S.<iO 

CHAPTER CLXXVII.— ! he Nidanam of S}'philis ... ... 550—554 

CHAPTER CLXXVIII — I he .Nidanam of Variola ... ... 554 — 5S7 

c:hapter CI.XXIX — I he Nidanam of minor afTections ... 557 — 561 

( haptkr CLXXX. — l he Nidanam of Fistula in Ano, etc. .. 561 — 562 
CHAPTER CLXXXI — I he N idanam of poisons ... ... 563 — 572 

CHAPTER CLXXXII. — I he Nidanam of Goitre, scrofula and 

glandular swellings ... ... ... ... 572 — 575 

CHAPTER CLXXXIIL — the Nidanam of vomiting ••• 575 — 578 

CHAPTER CI, XXXI V. — The Nidanam of Urticaria ... 579—581 

CHAPTER CLXXX V. — Ihe Nidanam of S'ula, neuralgic 

pain. etc. ... ... ... ... ... 581 — 585 

CHAPTER CLXXXVI. — ^The Nidanam of aphonia ... 585 — 586 

CHAPTER CXXX VII.— I he Nidanam of Udavarta ... 586—588 

CHAPTER CLX.KXVIII. — the Nidanam of traumatic ulcers 

etc. ... ... ... ... ... 5^^'""59^ 

CHAPTER CLXXXIX. — 1 he Nidanam of S'arira Vranas (Idio- 
pathic ulcers) ... ... ... ... 592 — 59J 

CHAPTER CXC — Ihe Nidanam of fractures ... ... 594 — 595 

cKAPrsR CXCI —Medicinal recipes of inffalible efficacies ... 595—606 
CHAPTER CXCII. — Medical treatment of fever, etc. ... 606—613 

CHAPTER CXCIII — Medical treatment of Sinus, etc. ... 613—619 

CHAPTER CXCIV. — Medical treatment of female 

complaints ... .. , ... ... ... 619 — 623 

CHAPTER CXCV. — 1 herapeutic properties of drugs ... 623 — 627 

CHAPTER CXCVI — Preparations of medicinal oils and Ghritas 627 — 629 

CHAPTER CXCVII. — Various medicinal ^compounds disclosed 

bv Hari to Hara ... ... ... ... 629 — 630 

cHAriER CXCVIII. — Various other medicinal Recipes ... 630 — 6^2 

CHAPTER CXCIX. — Ihe same continued, ... ... 632—639 

CHAPTER CC— Ihe same continued ... ... ... 639^^42 


Subject. Page. 

CHAPm CCL^^T he same continued ... ... ...639—642 

CHAfTBR ecu — ^The same continued ... ... ... 643-.64i 

caimn CCIII^The same continued... ... ... 644— 64s 

CBAPTBA CCIV.— >The same continued ••• ••• 645 — 646 

cB^rrmft CCV. — Various other Recipes ... ... 646--64S 

CHATTBR CCVI. — 'I he same continued ... ... 648 — 651 

CIUFTBR CCVIL^The same continued ... ... 651—^54 

CBAFTSR CCVIIL— Aphrodisiacs, Love, charms^ etc. ... 651—658 

CBAPTBR CCIX. — Various other Recipes ... ... 658—659 

cBArrsR CCX.^-The same continued ••• ...659—660 
cuAmR CCXI.— Medical treatment of cuts, wounds, scalds, 

bumti etc ... ... ... ... 66z— -662 

CBAFTSR CCXII.->Other Medicinal Recipes ... ... 663-*663 

CBArriR CCXIII. — The same continued ... ... 664 — 666 

auTTXR CCXIV.— Medical treatment of snake-bite, etc. ... 666—668 

CBAFTSR CCXV.— Various Recipes ... ... ... 668—670 

CBAFTSR CCXV L— Medical treatment of the diseases of 

cows, etc* ... ... ... ... 67Z 

CBAFTBR CCXV II — Various Recipes for the cure of sterility, 

Tirile impotency, etc. ... ... ... ... 671—675 

CBAFTBR CCXV III.— Various Recipes of fumigation-corn* 

pounds, etc ... ... ... ... 675—676 

CBAFTBR CCXDCd— The prophylactic charm of Vaishnava 

KaTBcham ... ..• ... ... 677— 67V 

CBAFTBR CCXX.— The Sarrarthada Mantra ... ... 680 

CBAFTBR CCXXL— The Vishnu-Dharma Vidya ... ... 68i--68a 

CBAFTBR CCXXII.— The Garuda Vidya ... ... 682—687 

CBAFTBR CCXXIIL— The Tripura Vidya ... ...687—689 

CHAFTBR CCXXIV.— The Chudamani ... ... 689—692 

CBATTBB CCXXV.— The Parana Vijaya ... ... 692—693 

CHAFTBR CCXXVI.— Medical treatment of the diseases of 

horses ... ... ... ... ... 693—697 

CBAFTBR CCXXVII.— Diflferent names of the Ayurvedic 

Drugs ... ... ... ... ... 698 — 705 

CHAFTBR CCXXVIIL— Rules of Grammar ... ... 706—711 

caAPTSR CCXXIX. — Duties of Brahmanas, etc. ... ... 71a— 7S7 

CRAFTBR CCXXX. — A Synopsis of practical pieties ... 717-— 7'9 

cHAFiBB CCXXXI.-^Expiatory Penances ... ... 7*^0—738 

CHAFTBR CCXXXIL— Dissolution of the Unirerse ... 718— 74* 

CRArrBB CCXXXIIl.— Naifflittika Pralaya, etc ... ... 7«>^743 


Subject. Pags. 

CHAPTER CCXXXIV.— The Wheel ot Existence (Stmsan 

Chakra) ... ... ••• ••• ' ... 743'--746 

CHAPTER CCXXXV.— The mode of Practising the Great Toga 746—751 
CHAPTER CCXXXVI— Vishnu Bhakti ... ... 75t— 7SS 

CHAPriR CCXXXVII.— The same continued ... ... 755—756 

CHAPTER .CCXXXVni.— The contemplation of Vishnu ... 757 

CHAPTER CCXXXIX.— The excellence of Faith ... ... 758 — 761 

CHAPTER CCXL.— Traits of a true Vaishnava ... ... 761—763 

CHAPTKR CCXLI.— The hymn to Nri-Sinha ... ... 763—765 

CHAPTBR CCXLII.— The Jnanamritam Stotram ... •.• 765—769 

cHAprsR CCXLIII.^The hymn to Vishnu composed by the 

holy Markandeya ... ..• ... ... 769 — 770 

CHAPTER CCXLIV.— The hymn to Achjruta ... ... 770— 775 

CHAPTER CCXLV.— The knowledge of Brahma ... ... 775— 7«o 

CKAprsR CCXLVI.— The knowledge of Self ... ... 7S0— 7SJ 

CHAPTER CCXLVn.— Synopsis of the Gita ... ... 7*t— 7^3 

CHAPTER CCLVni.— The eight*essentials of Yoga, etc. the 
merit that may be acquired by hearing the narration of 
the Garuda Puranam etc. ... ... ... 783—784 




A few preliminary remarks on the history, scope and contents 
of the Garuda Puranam may be necessary. The Garuda 
Puranam may be safely described as a sister work to the 
Agni Puranam. Each of them treats of Pari Vidyi and Apar£ 
Vidyd, secular knowledge and metaphysical truths, and par« 
takes more of the nature of a catechism of the then'prevailing 
Brahmanism, or of what a Brahmana was required to know at 
the tune, ihan of the Puraum proper, at least if we may be 
admitted to look upon the Rdmiyana or the Mahibhiracam as 
the model of that class of literature. Superficially conforming 
to the Rules of Pancha Sandhis, etc., the Garuda Puranami 
like its sister work, reflects but the knowledge of the 
Brihmanical world at the time, and had its uses then as it 
has even now. 

Without doing violence to the antiquarian instinctj 
we must say that it is quite futile to attempt to lay 
down the precise date of the composition of the Garuda 
Puranam. Its name occurs in the Haldyudha's Brdhmanii 
Sarvasvam, Chakrpani Dntta has quoted many a recipe 
from it, and the Vishnu Dharmotiaram, according to 
several eminent authorities, orginally formed a portion oE 
the Garuda Puranam. All these [factors emphatically 
demonstrate the fact that, the Garuda Puranam was in 
exbtence even before the tenth century of the Christian Era« 
On the contrary, we have reasons to believe that, hosts of 
Puranas and Upapuranas were composed in the age of Brah- 
manic renascence, which immediately followed the overthrow 
of Buddhism in India. The Garuda Puranm, like the Agnf« 
Shiva, Padma, and the like Puranas, were the exponents of 
the victorious Brahmanism, which, being inevitably divided into 
Kbismsi tried to invent the tutelary deity of each sect with 


ihe attributes of supreme divinity or Brahma, and to equip ils 
members with a complete code of rituals, law and other neces- 
sary informations regarding the incidents of every day life, 
subservient to, and in conformity with, the Vedas and the 
Vedic literature. Thus each schism or faction, or more 
correctly, each Puranam, the scripture of each sect of special, 
tutelary divinities, became a new school of law, medicine and 
metaphysics, etc., re-instating the old errors of the Vedic 
literature*, as if to ignore the many advanced truths and 
principles of the later day Buddhistic science, and to confirm 
the victory of Brahmanism even in error and fallacy. 

The description of the incidents of the life of Buddha, 
however meagre and incidental it might be, and the 
occurrence of the name of Sushruta in the medical portion 
of the Garuda Puranam leaves not the slightest doubt that 
its' author was intimately acquainted with the Buddhistic 
literature of the age, both medical and metaphysical. It is 
a settled fact of history that the Sushruta Samhita, at least 
the recension of the Sashruta Samhita by the Buddhist 
Nagarjuna, was written in the second .century before the' birth 
of Christ. Now, the Sushruta Samhita says that, the number 
of bones in the human body is three hundred. The Vishnu 
Smriti (Institutes of Vishnu) following the orthodox (Vedic) 
non-medical opinion on the subject gives it as three hundred 
and sixty- six. 

We know that Nagarjiina, the Buddhist redacter of 
the Sushruta Samhita, mentioned in his recension of the 
work that there are " three hundred bones in the humaa 
organism, but the followers of the Vedas say that their 
number is three hundred and sixty'' which tallies with 
the number given in the Yajnavalkya Samhita. The Garuda 
Puranam gives the number as the three hundred and sixty two 
(Astkndm Dvyodhikam Proktam Sashihyadhika S^atattayam) 
—a sort of compromise between the Vedic and the Buddhistic 
osteology; or between the dictates of consgience^ imperatively 

pheface. iu 

urging the m^n to state the whole truth, and the pride of 
conquest impelling him to set up a schism against truth. The 
author of the Garuda Puranam, whoever he might be, must 
have been sufficiently familiar with the works of Nagarjuna and 
other Buddhistic Medical Acharyas so as to be fully convinced 
of the truth of their statement, and attempted to make the 
Vedic number of skeletal bones as near to the truth as possible. 
This fact serves to throw a new light upon the date of the 
composition of the Garuda Puranam. It unmistakably points 
to a period of history when the victorious Brahmanism once 
more attempted to restore the teachings of the Vedas in their 
pristine glory, and the truths of the Buddhistic science or 
metaphysics were still too potent a factor to be ignored or 
lightly dismissed — a fact which supports our contention and 
lends a plausible colour to the view we have adopted as 
regards the probible date of the composition of the Garuda^ 

The second question, that confronts us, is the purity of the 
text, i.e., whether the Garuda Puranam, as we now possess 
it, is what it was originally written by its author ; or whether 
its bulk has been considerably increased by subsequent 
additions ? In the first Chapter we learn that, the Puranam 
consists of eight thousand and eight hundred verses, and. the 
subjects dealt with therein are creation of the universe, Pujas, 
Holy pools and shrines, Cosmogony and Geography, Ages of 
Manus, Duties of different social orders. Gift-making, Duties 
of kings, etc., Laws, Vratas, Royal dynasties, Therapeutics 
with /Etiology, Vedangas, Pralaya, Laws of Virtue, desire) 
and money, and Knowledge (of Brahma and external things)^ 
These then were the main themes that were originally dealt 
with in the Garuda Puranam, and we may say that this was so 
• in the light of the principle of Adhydya SampravihhSg:i (classi". 
firation of chapters; which forms one of the cardinal rules in 
forming the plan of a Sanskrit work. Wt' regret to say that, 
many things, having no legitimate connection with the main 
themes of this Puranam, nor having a direct bearmg thrreon, 


have been added to it, and a large mass of original matter has ■• 
been expunged from it so as to bring it within the compass of ' 
the eight thousand and eight hundred Slokas, as laid down in 
the introductory chapter. Thus we see that the Pretakhanda 
or Vishnu-dharmottara was added to it by way of an appendix, 
and the reason of these successive accretions to the text 
can be easily understood if we consider that, the Garuda 
Puranam, like the Agni, etc., although originally a compen- 
dium of the available Brahminical knowledge, and rituals, pur* 
sued and followed by the Vaishnava section of the community, 
came to gather in many tributaries from the other branches 
of Brahmanic thought and reliaion, as the distinction between 
the sect of Vishnu and other sects of S'iva and Sakti etc., can>e 
to be less marked and pronounced, and the points of differ- 
ence or antagonism between them were more rounded off. 
Thus we see many Tantrik rites and Mantras such as, the 
TripurA Vidyd, Nityaklinnd Vidyd were introduced into the 
Garuda Puranam, one of the Scriptural Puranas of Vaishna**' 
vism ; and the Preta-khanda, which we find invariably appen- 
ded to the Puranam in many of the manuscripts, does but re- 
fleet the necessity of ^subsequently adding to it a treatise oii 
funeral rites, or on punishment and reward after death accord 
ding to one's deserts, 'only to enhance the utility of the work 
as *a book of reference in every day life, as the members of 
the sect began to be more bigoted and averse to reading reli- 
gious works, or Puranas dedicated to the tutelary gods of 
other sects. It requires nothing more than an average intellect 
to detect that the part under reference (Preta-Khanda) is 
manifestly an interpolation, inasmuch as the subject has been 
already dealt with in chapters on SWaddha-vidhi^ Papa* 
Chinha Lakshanam and Prayaschitii, etc., and the insertion 
of a more detailed and elaborate dissertation on the subject 
under the style of Preta-Khanda is an unnecessary repetition 
and re-opening of a finished discourse (!>amApta PunarAtta- 
/£) which is bad both in reason and rhetoric. We 'have 


Attempted to expunge all spurious portions, or passages of 
questionable authenticity from the text in the light of the 
reasons stated above, and tried to restore it to its original 
form as far as possible after the progress of so many centuries 
since it first saw the light. 

We may be asked the rationale of our conduct in under- 
taking the English translation of the Garuda Puranam. The 
question is natural enough, if the work is nothing but a com- 
pendium of Brahmanic rituals and mysteries, what is the 
profit of disinterring it from beneath the oblivion which it so 
unqualifiedly deserves. Our answer is that, in addition to the 
many mystic rites and practices, which legitimately fall withio 
the range of studies in spiritualism, the Garuda Purananv 
contains three Samhitas, v/>., the Agastya Samhita, the 
Brihaspati Samhita (Nitisara), and the Dhanvantari Samhita; 
any one of which would give it a permanent value, and accord 
to it an undying fame among the works of practical Ethics or 
applied medicine. The Agastya Samhita deals with the forma- 
tion, crystallisation and distinctive traits of the different preci- 
ous jems, and enumerates the names of the countries from which 
our forefathers used to collect those minerals. The cutting, 
polishing, setting, and appraising, etc., of the several kinds of 
jems and diamond, as they were practised in ancient India, 
can not but be interesting to artists and lay men alike, and the 
scientific truths, imbedded in the highly poetic accounts of 
their origin and formation, shall, we doubt not, be welcomed 
even by the present day mineralogists, if they only care to 
look through the veil and to see them in their pure and native 
nuditity. In these days of Oriental research, it is quite within 
the possibilities of every ardent enquirer to make himself 
acquainted with the terms and technicalities of the science 
of our Rishis, and we are confident that any labour he may 
bestow on the subject in connection with the Agastya Samhita 
will be remunerated a hundred-fold. 

The next Samhita in the Garuda Puranam is the Brihaspati 


Samhita, commonly known as the Nitisara, in which we find 
observations on practical conduct and a knowledge of human 
nature, which strongly remind one of Bacon's essays and ivt 
comparision with which the Samhita gains one or two points 
more, not to speak of its excellent poetry and harmony. To 
the iEtiological portion of the Dhanvantari Samhita, one is 
astonished to 6nd that in <' certain types of fever the blood 
undergoes a sort of chemical change which produces the 
morbific factors of the disease, that in haemoptisis the 
blood comes from the soleen, [liver or the blood-vessels 
(facts unknown to the Nidanist, Madhava), that there is a kind 
of parasites that produces leprosy, and cutaneous affections in 
general,'' facts which, it was but yesterday, that the science of 
the west have gained access to. The therapeutical portion of 
the Samhita contains many excellent remedies which can not 
but benefit man in the arc of living a long, healthy life. It is 
almost impossible for us to give within such a small compass 
even the faintest glimpse of the splendid truths that lie scatter- 
ed through the pages of this noble I^ranam ; enough if we 
conclude our remark with the saying that, it broadens the 
▼ision of a man into regions where systems and worlds 
are but bubbles and atoms, and enables him to consolidate his 
amity with those profound realities, which encompass " being 
and becoming " in every -.plane of existence, or at least helps 
him to 'lift up the veil of the Nature's workshop and to catch 
a view, however slight and momentary, of the nature and 
essence of things. 


June, /goS. J 


M. N. DUTT. 
Thi i2ih 



iQw I 


I SALUTE the One Supreme, without birth, decay or end, 
identical with knowledge, great, auspicious free from impuri* 
ties, without beginning, devoid of elemental body and actions, 
stationed in all creatures, Hari, freed from impurity and 
illusion and present everywhere. With mind, speech and 
actions I do always salute Hari, Rudra, Brahma, the lord of 
Ganas and the goddess Saraswati. Having adored and 
lauded the poet Suta, well-versed in Puranas, of a quiet 
nature, the master of all scriptures, devoted ' to Vishnu and 
high-souled when he came to the forest of Naimisha while 
making a pilgrimage to sacred shrines and seated on a holy 
seat was meditating on the sinless Vishnu, the great Rishisj 
Sounaka and others, dwelling in the forest of Naimishi, 
having asceticism for their wealth, of quiescent souls, efTuU 
gent like the sun aiTH^ver engaged in the celebration of 
sacrifices^ said. 

The Rishis said . O Suta, thou art informed of every 
thing and therefore we ask you :«— '^ Amongst the celestials 


who is Iswara and who is worthy of adorations ? Who should 
be meditated on ? Who is the creator of the universe ? Who 
protects it and who destroys it? From whom proceeds 
religion ? Who suppresses the wicked ? With what vowed 
observances is he pleased ? By what yoga can he be obtained ? .^ 

What are his incarnations and what is his family ? Who 
has instituted the various castes and orders and who pro- 
tects them ? O Suta, O thou of great intellect, do thou 
describe unto us, all this and every thing else, the most 
excellent themes about Narayana. 

SuTA said : — I will describe the Garuda Purana, the 
essence of all accounts relating to Vishnu. Formerly Garuda 
described it to Kashyapa and I myself had heard it 
from Vyasa. The Lord Narayana alone is the lord of 
all the lords of the deities, the great soul and the great 
Brahma ; from him proceeds birth &c. For the protection 
of the universe .VSsudeva, without birth and death, 
assumes various incarnations by his body, namely that of 
Koumara and others. Having undertaken the incarnation of 
Koumara and lived in the celestial region the first deity Hari, 
O Brahman, practised the most difficult vow of celebacy with- 
out any break. Secondly having assumed the Boar-form the 
lord of sacrifices, for the general well-being, released and 
held up the earth sunk deep under the nether region. Thirdly 
for the creation of the Rishis, he, assuming the form of a 
Brahma Rishi, performed Sattwik (pervaded by the'quality 
of goodness) actions from which alone proceed desireless 
actions. Then for protecting righteousness, Hari, assum- 
ing the form of Nara Narayana, practised hard penances. He 
was then adored by the celestials and Asuras. His fifth incar- 
nation was Kapila, the lord of Siddhas**^ who expounded unto 

* Inspired seers. A Siddha is a semi-divine being supposed to ba 
of great purity and holiness characterisod by Siddhis or eight super- 
■atural faeulties or ptrfoattons. 


the celestials the Sankhya,'*^ which ascertains the Tattwas or 
elementary particles which had been lost in time. In his 
sixth incarnation he was bom as the son of Atri and com- 
municated |to Alarka, Pralhada and others, the knowledge of 
Anwikshiki (metaphaysics) obtained by him from AnasuiL. 
His seventh incarnation, in the Sayambhuva Manwantara, was 
Yajna, the wili-begotten child of Akuti, who performed 
sacrifices in the company of the celestials. In his eighth 
incarnation he was bom as the powerful son of Nabhi from 
MemdevySl. Adored of all the orders he pointed out to men 
the real road. Solicited by Rishis he assumed the body of 
Prithu as his ninth incarnation and the Brahmanas and 
other creatures were revived by him with the milk of herbs. 
When the Earth was submerged under water in the end of 
the Ch&kshusa M anwantara he assumed the form of a Fish 
and saved the Manu Vaivaswata by placing him on a boat. 
In his eleventh incamation the Lord, in the shape of a tortoise, 
held on his back the mount Mandara with which the celestials 
and Asuras churned the ocean. In his twelfth incamation as 
well as in the thirteenth in the form of a woman he stupified 
the Asuras and pleased the celestials. Assuming the form of 
a man-lion in his fourteenth incarnation he subdued the 
Daitjra chief by cutting his entrails with his fierce claws. 
Assuming the form of a dwarf in his fifteenth incamation he 
went to the Sacrifice of Bali and praying for room for his 
three feet obtained it. Beholding the kings aggrandise the 
Brahmanas in his sixteenth incarnation, he, filled with anger, 
divested the earth of the Kshatriyas for twenty one times. 
In his seventeenth incamation he was begotton on Satyavati 
by Parasara (as Veda-Vyasa) ; and seeing the feeble intellect 
of the people he divided the Vedas. Then for accomplishing 

* It is a lystem of philosophy ascribed to Kjpila. It is called 
Sankhya because it enumerates twenty-five Tattwas or principles. Ac- 
cording to this s>stem final liberation is obtained by a true knowledge of 
these principles. 



the work of the celestials he was born as a king (Rama), 
built a bridge over the ocean and performed other feats, io 
his nineteenth and twentieth incarnations the Lord was bom 
as Rama and Krishna and relieved the earth of her burden. 
Then at the junction of the Kali yuga, for stupefying the 
enemies of the celestials he was bom as Buddha, the son of 
Jina. In the period of the eighth junction (change of cycles), 
when all the kings will be on the verge of destruction, he will 
be bom as Vishnujasa's son Kalki, the lord of the world. 
Innumerable are the incarnations of Hari/the mine of Sattwa, 
O twice-bom ones. The prime Manus, the knowers of the 
Vedasi are all said to have originated from Vishnu. From 
them proceeded the work of creation. And they should be 
adored with vowed observances and other rites. This Garuda 
Purana consisting of eight thousand and eight hundred 
verses Vyasa formerly narrated to me. 



The Rishis said :— Why did Vyasa describe to you the 
Garuda Purana ? Do thou describe thus the most excellent 
theme relating to Vishnu. 

The Suta said : — In the company of the ascetics I had 
gone to the hermitage of Vadarika. There I saw Vyasa 
meditating on the great Ishwara. Having bowed unto him 
I took my seat and accosted that foremost of ascetics 
saying : — 

" O Vyasa, relate unto me the form of Hari from which 
has emanated the creation of the universe. Methinks, while 
thou dost meditate on the Lord, thou must be knowing it." 


Hear, O Vipras,what he did relate on being thus accosted 
by me. 

VyasA said : — Hear, O Suta, I will recount the Parana 
Guruda which BrahmSL described to me in the company of 
Nirada, Daksha and others. 

The Suta said : — How did Brahm2 relate the sacred 
Parana Garuda, describing the true essence, unto, thee when 
united with Daksha, Nirada and others. 

Vyasa said : — Having saluted Brahmi who was residing 
in the Brahmaloka, myself, Daksha, NSLrada, Bhrigu and 
others said to him. " Describe unto us the quintessence (of 
the sacred lore)." 

Brahma said: — O Vyasa, I will recount to you, the 
Garuda Purada, the cream of sacred learning which Vishnu 
described to me and Rudra formerly while in the company 
of other celestials. 

Vyasa said: — O Brahman, describe to me the Garuda 
Purana, pregnant with great significance, the essence of all, 
which Hari formerly described to Rudra while in the com- 
pany of other celestials, 

Brahma said : — With Indra and other celestials I had 
gone to the mount Kailasha. There I saw Rudra engaged in 
the meditation of the great station. Having saluted him 
I addressed him, saying : — "O Sbankara, on what art thou 
meditating ? Save thee, I do not know of a greater deity. Do 
thou therefore describe unto me [the subject of thy medita- 
tion] the quintessence [of the sacred learning] who, along 
with the celestials, am anxious to listen to it." 

Rudra said : — I meditate on Vishnu, the great soul, the 
Demiurgrus, who gives all, who is present everywhere and 
who resides in the hearts of all creatures. O grand-father, 
my body is besmeared with ashes and my hairs have been 
clotted. All my vowed observances are intended for the 
adoration of \4ishnu. I will describe *him unto you, the 
essence of all, on whom I meditate. I meditate on the deity 


Hari, • Vishnu, Jishnu, who is latus-navelled and shorn of 
a body*; who is purity, the source of purity ; who is the im- 
personal self and the individual soul ; who is the great Ishwara 
and unites all souls with himself. In him exist nil the worlds 
and elements and into him they enter. All the gunas 
(qualities) and elements exist in that lord of elements as 
pearls are strung by a thread. He has a thousand eyes, a 
thousand heads, a thousand thighs and a most beautiful 
face. He is the minutest of the minute, the firmest 
of the firm, the heaviest of the heavy and the best of 
all that is good. In the words, letters, principal and minor 
sacred lores and in the true Saman he is lauded as truth and 
the author of true deeds. He is called the ancient Purusha 
and BrahmSL amongst the twice-born. He is called Sankar-^ 
shana in destruction. I therefore adore him in whom all these ^ 
worlds shine us the Shakula fishes in the water. He is the 
divine law, the word (Om), Brahma, the that, the existent and 
non-existent and the supreme. The celestials, the Yakshas^ 
the Rakshasas and the Pannagas adore him. Fire is his mouth, 
the heaven is his head, the sky is his navel and the earth is his 
feet and the sun and moon are his two eyes. I meditate on 
him. I meditate on that deity whose breaths are the wind, in 
whose belly the three worlds exist and whosfe arms are the 
divisions of the time. I meditate on that deity in whose 
hairs are the clouds, and in the joints of whose body are the 
four oceans. I meditate on that deity who is above time, 
who is above sacrifices, who is above the existent and non- 
existent and who is the beginning and end of the universe. 
I meditate on that deity from whose mind emanates the moon, 
from whose eyes the sun and from whose mouth the fire. I 
meditate on that deity from whose feet the earth is produced, 
from whose ears the directions and from whose head the Div 
(celestial region). I meditate on that deity from whom have 
proceeded the works of principal and minor creations, the 
various races, Manwantaras, and histories of the families. 


We will proceed to him, to witness the true essence, on whom 
I do medltate.i 

Brahma said :— I was thus formerly addressed by Rudra. 
Having lauded and saluted Vishnu, the dweller of the white 
island (Shweta-dwipa) we sat calmly desirous of listening to 
(the subject). From amongst us Rudra said to Vishnu, the 
great Iswara :—'' Describe to us the most essential of all 
essence ; we salute thee." What, O Vyasa, you have asked 
me the Lord Bhava asked Vishnu in the hearing of myself and 
other celestials. 

Rudra said: — O Hari, O king of gods, tell us who is the 
god of gods ; who is Iswara ; who should be meditated on ; 
who should be adored ; with what vowed observances, the 
great is propitiated ? With what religious observances, with 
what process of self-restraint, with what form of adoration 
and with what sort of conduct is He pleased ? What is his 
form ? From what deity the universe has emanated and who 
protects it ? What are his incarnations ? In whom the 
world is dissolved ? From what deity proceed the works of 
principal and minor creations, the various families and Man- 
wantaras? In whom do all these exist ? Do thou describe 
all this and every thing else, O Hari. ! 

Then Hari described to Rudra the glories of the great 
Iswara, the Yoga and eighteen sorts of learning. 

Hari said : — Hear, O Rudra, I will describe it, along with 
Brahmi and other celestials. 

I am the god of gods, the lord of all the worlds. I am the 
object of meditation and adoration and am lauded by the 
celestials with panegyric verses. When I am worshipped by 
men with self-restraint, vowed observances and good conduct 
O Rudra, I grant them the most excellent stage. 

I am the seed of the preservation of the world and I am 
also the destroyer of the universe, O Shiva. O Hara, I am 
also the suppressor of the wicked and the protector of 
rcUfioa. With fish and other bcarnations I do protect the 


earth. I am the import of the mystic formula and am en- 
gaged in adoration and meditation. I am the creator of 
heaven and. I am myself the heaven, &c. I am the knower, 
the hearer, the speaker and the object of speech. I am 
all and the deity identical with all. I am the source of 
worldly enjoyments and emancipation. I am the presents 
of meditation and adoration; I am the Mandalas^ the 
Itihasas, O Rudra. O Shiva, I am all the deities. O 
Shambhu, I am all the forms of knowledge. I am at one 
with Brahma, O Shiva. I am Brahma, all the regions, and 
identical with all the deities. I am the personification of 
righteous conduct and the religion of Vishnu. I am the 
Vamas (castes) and Ashramas (orders) and I am the ancient 
religion. I am the process of regulation, that of self-restraint 
and the various vowed observances, O Rudra. I am the sun, 
the moon, and all the auspicious things. Formerly with 
asceticism the bird Garuda had worshipped me on earth. 
Pleased [with him I asked him to pray for a boon ; and he too 
prayed for a boon. 

Garuda said : — O Hari, my mother Vinati had been madd 
a slave by the Nagas. Do thou so order, that I may bring 
ambrosia after vanquishing the celestials, that I may release 
her from slavery, and that I may be thy carrier. Do thou so 
order that I may be highly powerful, greatly strong, omni- 
sciefnt, the afflicter of the Nagas, and the author of Puranas 
and Samhitas. 

Vishnu said: — ^What you have said, O Garuda, will all 
be accomplished. You will release your mother Vinati fronr 
the Nagas. Having vanquished all the deities and others 
you will bring ambrosia. You will be the highly powerful 
carrier. By my favour you will be the author of the Purana^ 
describinrg my glories amd forms. By yotrr name it will be 
celebrated on earth as Garuda. O son of Vinati, as I am* 
the God of gods and Shree is celebrated so the Gamda^ 
Puraii* will be celebrated amongst all the Puranas*. As Uanr 


worthy of being lauded so thou shalt be. Meditating on me 
by your mind do you describe this Garuda Purana by your 
bird mouth." Thus accosted, O Rudra, Garuda described it 
to Kashyapa. Hearing the Garuda Purana Kashyapa revived 
the burnt tree. Hearing yourself with fixed attention do 
you revive others with your learning. " The bird, Om, Urn, 
Swaha" — ^This is the great learning of Garuda. Hear^ O 
Rudra, the great Garuda Purana narrated by Garuda. 



SUTA said :— Thus did Rudra hear it from Vishnu ; 
Brahm2 from Rudra ; from Brahmi the ascetic Vyasa ; and 
myself from Vyasa. And I relate it to you, O Shounaka. in 
the forest of Naimisha. In the assemblage oT the ascetics 
have been described by me, the creation and the adoration 
of the deities, the various sacred shrines, the wealth of the 
world and the Manwantaras ; the duties of the various 
Vamas (castes) and Ashramas (orders) ; the gifts, the regal 
duties, the laws, vowed observances, families and the medical 
science with a diagnosis of diseases ; the various auxilliary 
sciences, the universal dissolution ; religious profit, desire, 
worldly profit and the most excellent knowledge. The 
illusory deeds, and those beyond the range of illusion, of 
Vbhnu have all been narrated in Garuda Purana. This 
Garuda is Bhagavan* By the favour of Vasudeva Jie 
has been endued with great strength. Having become the 

* It is an epithet applied to a god or demi-^od or a great ascetic. 
Literally the word means one endued with six qualities, — prosperity, 
might, glory, splendour, wisdom and dispassioii. 



carrier of Hari he is the instrument of creation &c. Having 
vanquished the celestials Garuda brought ambrosia, by which 
the appetite of the universe, lying in the belly of Hari, was 
appeased. His very sight or recollection destroys thie 
serpents. Through Garuda Kashyapa revived all the burnt 
trees. Garuda is Hari. He related it unto Kashyapa. The 
auspicious Garuda Purana, when read, gives piety and all 
objects. Hear, O Shounraka, how Hari describe it unto 



RUDRA said : — O Janarddana, do thou described the 
primary and scondary creations, the families, Manwantaras 
as well as the histories of the families. 

Hari said : — Hear, O Rudra, I will describe the old sport 
of Vishnu, consisting of creation, preservation and destruc-* 
tion, which destroys all sins. 

The Lord V^sudeva, void of passion, Nara-NarSLyana, is 
the great Soul, Para Brahma, the creator and the destroyer 
of the universe. All this exists in Him as both manifest and 
unmanifest. He exists in the form of Purusha (male-being) 
and K^la (Time). Vishnu is both manifest and unmanifest* 
He is Purusha and K^la. Understand, his actions are like 
those of a sportive child. He is without beginning, the 
Creator; He is without end and Purusottama (the most 
exalted of male beings). From him originate the unmani- 
fest as well as the soul. From him emanate the intellect, 
mind, the Tattwas (principles) ether, air, fire, water and earth. 
O Rudra, He is the golden egg and is himself his own end. 


The Lord assumes a body for, the purposes of creation. 
Haviog assitmed the body of Brahm& with four mouths^ 
parvaded by the quality of Rajas (darkness) he creates the 
entire world, moveable and stationery. This entire universe 
consisting of the celestials, Asuras antl human beings lies 
inside the egg. As Creator he creates the universe ; as 
Vishnu he protects it ; and he destroys it in the end. Hari 
himself i» the destroyer. Having assumed the body of 
Brahmi Hari creates the universe and as Vfshnu he protects 
it. And assuming the form of Rudra the Lord des^^roysthe 
universe at the end of a Kalpa. When Brahm^ was engaged 
in the work of creation, He, assuming the form of a boar, 
held up with his tusks the earth sunk under water. Hear,. 
O Shankara, I will describe all in short begmmng with the 
first creation of the deity. 

The first creation is Afahaf or inteflectual prlncipFe ; it is 
simply a metamorphosis of Brahma. The second creation 
is that of Tanmairas or the subtle elententary particles. 
This is known as the creation of elements. The third is 
called Vaikdrika or the creation of organs. This is the 
(Prikrita) material or elen>entary creation originating from 
intellect. The fourth is the primary creation — and all the 
stationery bodies are known as primary cre9tions. The next 
is Tiryyaksrotas* who are otherwise called Tiryyakjonya i. ^. 
beasts ficc. The sixth is the Urdhasrotasa^ which is called 
the creation of the celestials. The seventh is the creation 
of ArvakasrotasX orhunKin beings. TTie eighth is the creation 
of Anugrahas\ pervaded by the qualities of Satiwa (good- 
ness) and Tamas (ignorance). 

* Lii the stream of beings livmg according to nature, 
f Lit the stream of beings tending upwards. 

X Cf. And as these eat by swallowing down they are called 

) A class of deities. 


These are the five orders of the Vaikarika (organic) 
creation. There are three orders of the elementary and 
organic creation. Koumara makes the ninth. O Rudra, there 
are four orders of creation beginning with the celestials and 
ending with the stationery creation. 

While engaged in the work of creation BrahmS. first 
procreated his mind-bom sons. Then desirous of creating 
the four classes of beings, viz the celestials, Asuras, Pitris 
and human beings, all, going under the name of Amva he 
adored his own self.* As the lord of beings, although 
himself of unfettered soul, concentrated his soul, being 
desirous of creating, passion • overspread him ancl first from 
forth his hips came out the Asuras. And then he renounced 
his person surcharged with Tama or darkness ; and his dark- 
ness, on being renounced by him, O Shankara, was converted 
into Night. Having assumed another body he became desi- 
rous of creating and felt delight. Then O Hara, came out 
from the mouth of Brahm§, the celestials surcharged with the 
quality of Sattwa (goodness). On being renounced by him 
his body, surcharged with the quality of Sattwa^ was 
converted into Day. Therefore it is that the Asuras are 
powerful in the night and the celestials during the day. He 
then assumed a person fraught with the quality of goodness 
, and then sprang from him the ancestors. And that body, on 
being renounced by him, became Twilight remaining between 
day and night. Then having assumed a body fraught with 
the quality of Rajas (darkness) he created human beings. 
And on being renouned by him that form became moon-light 
which is termed Praksandhya,^ Moonlight, Night, Day and 
Twilight are his bodies. And then he assumed another body 
fraught with the quality of darkness and thereat sprung hunger 

* The passage is not dear. Perhaps by the expression **adored his 
own self" the author means that Brahma was engaged in the process 
of mental retrospection. 

f Meaning going before ivjilight. 


from him and from hunger wrath. Brahmi then created 
Ralcshasas exercised with hunger. [Those that said ' Save 
him'] are called Rakshas and those [that said ' We shall eat 
him up] are called Yakshas from Yakshana eating. And 
from the movement {Sarpana) of his hairs sprang the 
serpents. Waxing wroth he generated some beings of 
wrathful temper. O sinless, then the Gandharvas came out 
singing. All these beings were created by him. 

He created gloats from his mouth, the kine from his belly 
and sides ; the horses, elephants, asses and camels from his 
feet, and medicinal herbs furnished with fruts and roots from 
the hairs of his body. Fair complexloned male sheep, horses, 
mules and asses are called grdmya or household animals. 
Hear, I will describe the wild ones. [They are] the beasts 
of prey, the cloven-hoofed, elephants, monkeys, and fifthly, 
birds and sixthly, acquatic animals and seventhly, reptiles. 
From his eastern and other mouths he created the Rik and 
other Vedas. The Brahmanas originated from his mouth, 
the Kshatryas from his arms, the Vaishyas from his thighs and 
the Shudras from his feet. The region of Brahma is for the 
Brahmahas, that of Shakra for the Kshatryas, that of Marut 
(wind-god) for the Vaishjras and that Gandharvas for the 
Shudras. Those practising the Brahmacharya injunctions 
attain the region of Brahma. The householders, performing 
duly their duties, repair to the region of the Creator. Those, 
living in the forest, acquire the region of the seven Rishis. 
The sphere of the Kd/w, going at will, is the eternal region. 



HARf said : — Haying- created the world and all orders of 
l^eings the Lord created his mind-begotten sons for multi- 
plying his creation ; namely Dharma, Rudra, Manu, Sanaka, 
SaniLtana, Bhrigu, Sanatkum&ra, Ruchi, Shuddha, Marichi, 
Atrii Angrira, Pulastya, Pulaha, Kratu, N&rada and the Patris 

The Lotus-sprung deity, from his right thumb, created 
Daksha endued with four forms and his wife from his left 
thigh. Daksha begat on her beautiful daughters. He gave 
them away unto the sons of Brahmi and conferred Sati on 
Rudra. Numberless, highly powerful sons were bom unto 
Rudra. He conferred the auspicious KhySti, matchless in 
beauty, on Bhrigu. Bhrigu begat on her Dh&ti and VidhStl. 
He also begat Shree who was N&r2iyana's wife. Hari begat 
on her himself Bala and Ukshmadi. Ayati and Niyati were 
the two daughters of the high-souled Manu. They were the 
wives of Dh&ti and VidhSti. They gave birth to two sons, 
PrSLna and Mrikandu. MiLrkandeya was the son Mrikandu. 
Marichi's wife Sambuti gave birth to PournamSsa. Viraja and 
Sarvaga were the two sons of that high-souled one. Angiras 
begat on Smriti sons and daughters namely Sinivalee, Kuhu, 
Rlki and Anumati. Atri begat on Anasuyft sinless sons. 
Soma, Durv&sSL and the yogin DattStreya. Pulastya begat 
on Priti Dottoli. Three sons, Karman, Arthavira and Sahishnu 
were begotten by the patriarch Pulaha on his wife Kshami. 
Krati begat on his wife Sumati the sixty thousand Rishis of 
controlled passions by name V^lakhilyas. They were all of 
the height of a thumb and effulgent like the burning sun. 
Vashistha begat on UrjjSL seven sons, viz, Rajo, Gatra, 
UrdhavShu, Sharana, Anagha, Sutapa, Sukra. These arc the 
seven Rishis. 


Daksha conferred SwihSL on the fire-goci Who had 
•assumed a body. O Rata, from him Sw2ih& obtained three 
*highly effulgent sons viz P^vaka, PavamSna and Shuchi, all 
*eaters of water. Swadhi gave birth to Meni and Vaitarani. 
They were both Brahmavadinh.* Mea& was married to 
Himachala (mount Himalaya). 

O Hara I the Lord appointed Mana Swayambha (self- 

-create) formerly sprung from Brahma's self and resembling 

limself to rule creatures. Svvayanbhuva Mano accepted 

as his wife ShatarupiLtf who had destroyed all her sins by 

•ascetic penances. And to that person Satarupi bore 

Pryavrata and Utt^Lnapada^ and daughters named Prasuti, 

Akuti and Devahuti; of them Manu conferred Akuti on 

Ruchi, Prasuti on Daksha and Devahuti on Kardama. To 

Ruchi were born Yajnc2 and Dakshin23. Again Yajna begat 

on D'«kshin2L twelve highly powerful sons by name Yamas. 

The most excellent Daksha begat twenty four daughters. 
They were Sraddha,4 Lakshmi,5 Dhriti,6 Toshtij Pushti,8 
Medh2i,9 Kriy2L,io Baddhi,ii La]j2i,i2 Vapu,i3 SSnti,i4 Kritii6. These thirteen daughters of Daksha were 
wedded by Dharma for procreating sons. Khy&tiyiy Siti,i8 
*Sambhuti,i9 Smriti,20 Priti,2i Ksham&y22 Saunati,23 Ana* 
^uya,24 UrjjSL,25 Sw&h^ and Swadh&26 [were the remaining 
t)nes]. The foremost of ascetics Bhrigu, Bhava, Marichi, 
Angira, Pulastya, Pulaha, Kratu, Atri, Vasistha and the Pitris 
duly married all these daughters beginning with KhySti. And 


* Female interpreters of the divine Science* 

I Having an hundred forms. 2 Sacrifice. 3 Gifts in sacrifice 4 
Veneration. 5 The goddess of wealth. 6 Patience. 7 Satisfaction.. 
8 Nourishment. 9 Intelligence. 10 Act. 11 Intellect. 12 Bashful- 
ness. 13 Body. ; 14 Suceess. 15 Fame. 16 Righteousness. 17 
Renown. 18 Chastity. 19 Birth, ao Memory. 21 Gratification. 
23 Forgiveness. 23 Reverence. 24 Good-natured. 25 Energy, 26 
This and the last words are uttered while offering oblations to fire. 


then Sraddha brought forth Klma,i Chala,2 Darpa.3 Niyaina4 
and Dhriti5 as her sons, and Tushti Santosha6 and Pushti 
Lobha.7 Medh&8 brought forth Shiutagand Kriy2L,io 
Dandamii, Layai2 and Vinayai3 and Buddhi,i4 Bodhi5 and 
Lajj^, Vinaya Vapui6 and Vyavasayai/ as her sons. And 
Shanti brought forth Kshem^ and Riddhi, SukhamiS and 
Kirti Yafas.ig These are the offspring of Dhaqna. 

Kama's wife was Rati whose son was Harsha.2 1 Daksha 
once undertook the celebration of a horse sacrifice at which 
all his sons-in-law were invited. They all went there accom- 
panied with their wives except Rudra and Sati. But Sati 
went there uninvited and was insulted by Daksha. Having 
renounced her body she was again begotten on Men2 by 
Himavan. Gouri became Shambhu's wife whose sons were 
VinSlyaka and KumSira. Rudra, the powerful master of 
Bhringi, was by nature wrathful. He destroyed Daksha's 
sacrifice and imprecated a curse on him, saying ** You will be 
born as a man, in the family of Dhruva." 



Hari said : — Uttan^pada begat a son on Suruchi by 
name Uttama and another on Suniti by name Dhruva who 
attained to the most exalted station, having adored 
JanSrddana, the god of gods, by the favour of the ascetic* 
Dhruva's son Shnisthi was greatly strong; and highly power- 
ful. And his son was* the greatly intelligent Prachinavarhi. 

I Sexual desire. 2 Lakshmi. 3 Pride. 4 RestrainL 5 Nourish- 
ment. 6 Contentment. 7 Avarice. 8 Intellect. 9 Knowledge or what 
is heard. 10 Action. 11 Punishment. 12 Justice. 13 Humilation. 
14 Intellect. 15 Apprehension. 16 Body, t; Exertion. 18 Felicity. 
19 Faroe. 


His son was Divanjaya whose son was Ripu. His son was 
known as the beautiful Manu ChSLkshusha. His son was 
Rum whose son was the beautiful Anga. Anga's son was 
Vena who was an atheist and an irreligious person. Vena, the 
perpetrator of iniquities, was killed by the Rishis with Kuga. 
They then churned his thigh for a son and thereat sprang a 
son, greatly dwarfish and black. They then said '' sit down, 
sit down" and he was called Nishada dwelling on the 
mount Vindhya. Then the twice-born ones suddenly 
churned his right thi^h. From there sprang a son assuming 
the mental form of Vishnu, by name Prithu. By that son 
Vena repaired to the celestial region. The king milched the 
earth, for giving life to his subjects. 

Prithu's son was Antarddhana whose son again was 
Havirdh&na. His son Prachinavarhi became the Lord 
Paramount of the world. He espoused the daughter of the 
ocean of salt water and begat on her ten Prachinavarhis 
who were called Pr^chetas and were masters of the science 
of archery. They all practised the same religious austerities 
and remained immersed in the bed of the deep for ten 
thousand years. They attained to the dignity of the 
Patriarchs ; and their wife was Marisha. Of her was born 
Daksha by the imprecation of Bhava. 

As before Daksha again created four classes of beings 
from his mind. Obstructed by Hara they did not multiply. 
The Patriarch then desired to carry on the work of creation 
by sexual intercourse. He then espoused Asikni, the 
daughter of the Patrirch Varuna. He begat on the daughter 
of Varuna a thousand sons. The end of the earth being 
described by Narada they went there to learn it and did not 
return. On their being lost Daksha created another thousand, 
named Savalakha, who also followed the foot steps of their 
brothers, O Hara. Worked up with anger Daksha cursed 
Nirada saying ** You will obtain a birth" and he was again 
bom as the son of the ascetic Kashyapa. On his sacrifice 



being destroyed Daksha imprecated the terrific Maheshwara, 
saying ** Having worshipped thee with necessary articles 
the twice born will leave them aside. Even in another birthi 
your hostilities will not terminate, O Shankara." 

Daksha begat on Asikni sixty beautiful daughters. He 
gave away two of them unto Angiras. He conferred two on 
KrishSishwa, ten on Dharma, thirteen on Kashyapa and 
twenty seven on Indu. He conferred SuprabhSL and 
Bh^mini on Vahuputra. And O Mahadeva, he gave unto 
Aristhanemi, his four daughters viz ManoramSL, Bhinumati, 
VishilSL and Vahudi. He conferred on Krishishwa Supraja 
and JaySL. 

Arundhati, Vasu, Y4mi, Lamvi, Bh3Lnu, Manitvati, 
Sangkalpa, Muhurta, Sadhy&, VishwSi, these ten are known 
as the wives of Dharma. I will now describe the names of 
the wives of Kashyapa. They were Aditi, Diti, Danu, K&U, 
* AnSLyu, Sinhik^, Muni, Kadru, Pr&dh&, Ira, KrodhS, VinSt&, 
Surabhi and Khag^. Vishwi gave birth to Vishwadevas 
and Sadhya to Sadhyas ; Murutvati to Marudyant and Vasu 
to Vasus. From Bhanu were born the Bh&nus and from 
Muhurtta the Muhurttas. Ghosa was born of Lamva and 
Nagavithi (milkway) was born of Yami (night). All the ob« 
jects of the world were born of Arundhati and Sankalpa 
(pious determination) was the son of Sankalpa. Apa, Dhruva, 
Soma, Dhava, Anita, Anala, Pratyusha and Prabhasa are the 
names of the Vasus. 

Apa's son were Vaitundya, Srama (weariness), Sranta 
(fatigued and Dhani. And the son of Dhruva was the great 
Kala (Time* the cherisher of the world. The son of Soma 
was Varchas (light) by whom was generated Varchaswi 
(radiance). Dhava begat on his wife Manohari Ruhina, 
Hutahavya, Shishita, Prana and Ramana. Anila's wife was 
Shiva. Her son was Pulomya and Avijnatagati (unknowable 
motion V These were the two sons of Anila. The son of 
Agni, Kumara, was born in a dump of Sara reeds whose 


sons were Sh&kha, Vish&kha, Naigameya and Prishtata. 
The son of Kirtikas was known as Kartikeya. Pratyusha's 
son was the ascetic Davala. Vishwakarm&, the celebrated 
architect of the celestials, was the son of Prabhisa. His 
sons wer^ Ajaikapada, Ahirvadhna, Twastri and Rudra, all 
very energetic. And the own begotten son of Twastri was 
the great ascetic Vishwarupa. There are eleven Rudras, the 
lords of the three worlds. They are Hara, Vahurupa, 
Tryamvaka, Aparajita, Vrish&kapi, Shambhu, Kapardi, 
Raivata, Mrigavyadha, Sarva, and Kapali, O great ascetic. 
Soma's wives were twenty seven in number known as stars. 
Kashyapa begat on Aditi twelve suns. Vishnu, Shakra, 
Aryama, Dh&ti, Twastha, Pushi, Vivashwan, Savita, Mitra, 
Varuna, Angshuman and Bhaga — these were the twelve 

Hiranyakashipu and Hiranyaksha were born of Diti. A 
daughter, by name Sinhika, was also born who was married 
to Viprachitti. Hiranyakashipu had four very powerful sons 
viz., Anuhlada, Hl&da, the powerful Pralhada and Sanghlada. 
Of them Pralhada was devoted to Vishnu. The sons of 
Sanghlida were Sivi, Ayushman and Vashkala. Pralhada's 
son was Virochana who begat Bali, who again had a hundred 
sons of whom V&na was the oldest, O bull-emblemed deity. 

All the sons of Hirany^kasha were also gifted with great 
prowess — Utkara, Shakoni, Bhutasantapana, MahclnSLbha, 
Mahivihu and K2Llan2Lbha. 

Danu's sons were DwimurdhI, Shankara, Ayomukha, 
Shankusira, Kapila, Samvara, Ekachakra, Mahiv&hu, the 
highly powerful Taraka, Swarbh^nu, Vrishaparva, the great 
Asura Puloma and the mighty Viprachitti. 

Swarbhinu had a daughter by name Suprabha and Sar- 
mistha was the daughter of Vrishaparvan who had two other 
celebrated daughters, namely UpadAnavi and Hayasira. 
Vaishw^nara had two daughters named Pulomi and Kilak^ 
who were both married to MSlricha. They gave birth to 


sixty thousand sons, the leading Danavas. Poulamas and 
Kala Kanjas are known as the sons of M«Lricha. 

Viprachitti begat on SinhikA Vyansha, Shalya the strong, 
Nabha the powerful, Vatapi, Namuchi, Itwala, KhasrimS, 
Anjaka, Naraka, and Kalanabha. # 

In the family of the Daitya Pralhida the Nivatakavacfaas 
were born. Six daughters, gifted with great energy, were 
born to Tamra, named Shuki, Syeni, Bh^si, Sugrivi, Suchi 
and Gridhrika. Shuki gave birth to parrots, owls and crows ; 
Syeni to hawks; Bhasi to kites ; Gridhrika to vultures ; Sucht 
to water-fowl ; Sugrivi to horses, camels and asses. These 
are known as the offspring of Tamra. 

Vinata gave birth to two sons celebrated as Garuda and 
Aruna. The offspring of Surasa were a thousand powerful 
serpents. Kadru had also a thousand sons — many-hooded 
serpents of unmitigated prowess. The most celebrated 
amongst them were Shesha, VSsuki, Takshaka, Shanka, 
Sweta, Mahapadma, Kumvala, Ashwatara, Elapatra, NSLga, 
Karkota, Dhananjaya and many other deadly and poisonous 

Krodh^ gave birth to highly powerful Pishachas. Surabhi 
gave birth to kine and buffaloes*. Ira gave birth to trees, 
creepers, grass &c. Khaga gave birth to Yakshas and Raka- 
has and Muni to Apsaras. Aristha gave birth to highly 
powerful Gandharvas. 

Then were born the deities Maruts, forty nine in number, 
viz., Ekajyoti, Duryyoti, Trijyoti, Chaturjyoti, Ekashukra, 
Dwishukra, the highly powerful Trishukra, Idrik, Anyadrik, 
Sadrik, Pratisadrik, Mita, Samiia, the highly powerful Sumita, 
Ritajit, Satyajit, Sushena, Senajit, Atimitra, Amitra, Dura- 
mitra, Ajila, Rita, Ritadharma, Viharta, Varuna, Dhruva, 
Vidharana, Grihamekagana, Idriksha, Sadriksha, Etadriksha, 
Mita, Shana, Etana, Prasadnksha, Sutra, the great ascetic 
Tadngiigra. Dhvanriibhasa, Vimukta, Vikshipa, Dyuti, Vasu, 
Yaiadrishva, Labha. Kama. Javi, Virat, Udveshana and Guna. 


They all ride the wind. These all are the forms of Hari, 
All the kings, D&navas and the celestials adore Hari with 
mystic formulas along with the sun and other members of 
the family. 



RUDRA SAID : — I will describe in brief the adoration of 
Suryya (the sun) as instituted by Shy warn bhuva, which is 
essential and gives enjoyment and emancipation. Listen 
to it, O Vydsa. 

RuDRA SAID : — I will describe the adoration of the sun 
yeilding religion, desire &c. 

Om, salutation unto the seat of the sun. Om salutation 
unto the form of the sun. Om, Hrdm, Hrim, salutation 
unto the sun. Om saluation unto the moon. Om salutation 
unto Mars. Om salutation unto Mercury. Om salutation 
unto Jupiter. Om salutation unto Venus. Om salutation 
unto Saturn. Om salutation unto Rihu. Om salutation unto 
Ketu. Om salutation unto the bundle of effulgence. 

O bull-emblemed deity, one should adore the sun and 
other planets by offering them seats, conveyances, water for 
washing feet, Arghya, water for rinsing mouth, water for 
bathing, raiments, sacrificial threads, scents, flowers, incense, 
lamps, and salutation, by circumambulating them and per- 
forming the ceremony of Visarjjana (the withdrawal of life). 

Om, Hdm, salutation unto the seat of Shiva. Om, HSm, 
salutation unto the form of Shiva. Om, Him salutation unto 
his heart. Om, Him, unto the head, Swihd. Om, hum, unto 
the tuft of hair, Vashat. Om, Haim, unto the amulet, Hum. 
Om hum unto the three eyes Voushat. Om, Ham, salutation 
unto the weapons. Om, Ham, salutation unto the immediate 


born. Onii Him, salutation unto Vimadeva. Om, Haim/ 
salutation, unto Tatpurusha. Om, Houm, salutation unto 
IshSLna. Om, H2lm, salutation unto Gouri. Om, Hum, salu- 
tation unto the preceptors. Om, Ham, salutation unto Indnu 
Om, Ham, salutation unto Adhora. 

Om, salutation unto the seat of Visudeva. Om, salutation 
unto the form of Visudeva. Om, Am, Om, salutation unto 
the Lord Vlisudeva, Namas. Om, Am, Om, salutation unto 
the Lord Sangkarshana, Namas. Om, Am, Om, salutation 
unto the Lord Pradyumna Namas. Om, Am, Om, saluta- 
tion unto the Lord Aniruddha Namas. Om salutation unto 
N^r^yana. Om salutation unto the Eternal, existent Brahma. 
Om, Hum, salutation unto Vishnu. Om, Kshoum, salutation 
unto the Lord Narasimha (man-lion). Om, Bhus, Om, salu- 
tation unto the Lord Bar^ha (Boar). .Om, Kan, Tan, Pan, 
Sham, salutation unto the son of Vinata. Om, Jam, Khan, 
Vam, salutation unto Sudarshana. Om, Khan, tan, Pham, 
Sham, salutation unto the club. Om, Van, Lan, Man, Koham 
salutation unto the conch-shell Panchajanya. Om, Ghami 
Dham, Bham, Ham salutation unto Shree. Om, Gan, Dan, 
Van, San, salutation unto Pushti (nourishment). Om, Dham, 
Sham, Vam, San salutation unto the garland of forest flowers. 
Om, Sam, Dam, Lam, salutation unto the mystic mark 
Srivatsa. Om, Tam, Cham, Bham, Yam, salutation unto 
the (jem) Koustava. Om salutation unto the preceptors. 
Om Salutation unto Indra and other deities. Om Salutation 
unto Vishwaksena. 

O bull-emblemed deity, with these mantrams, seats and 
other offerings should be dedicated to Hari. Hear now of 
the adoration of the female energy of Vishnu, Saraswati. 

Om, Hrim, salutation unto Saraswati. Om, Ham, saluta- 
tion unto her heart. Om, Hrim, salutation unto her head. 
Om, Hum. salutation unto her hairs. Om, Ham, salutation 
unto her amulet. Om, Hrum, salutation unto her three eyes. 
Om, Hus, salutation unto the weapons. 


Shradhi, Hriddhi, Kali, Medhi, Tushti, Prabhi, Mati, 
these energies of Saraswati, should be adored with mantracns 
beginning with Om and ending with Namas. 

Om salutation unto the Kshetrapalas. Om salutation unto 
the preceptors. Om salutation unto the great Guru. 

He should then dedicate seats and other offerings to 
Saraswati standing on a lotus. The sacred Arohana 
[installation of the image] of Suryya (sun) and other deities 
should be performed with their respective mantrams. 



Hari said : — Having bathed in the Mandapa (temple) 
built on earth one should adore Vishnu in Mandala (circular 

With powders of five colours, this circular figfure, Vajranabha, 
should be drawn. O Rudra, sixteen rooms should be drawn 
there. In the fourth and fifth corners strings should be placed. 
The strings in the comer should be extended to both the oth<^r 
comers. A man, well versed in all these rites, should thus 
place strings in all the corners. Similarly he should deal 
with interior comers. The first should be placed in the 
centre and then at the junction of the lines in the middle. 
In all the interior parts there are eight centres. The centres 
of the eastern and central figures should be connected with 
a string. O Hara, the foremost of the twice-born should 
draw the base in the interior parts. O Shiva, connected 
with it the pericarps of the central string should be drawn. 
Co two sides of the pericarps an expert should draw the 
filaments. A teamed man should draw petals on their heads. 
O thou of firm vows, a worshipper, conversant with the 


knowledge of the true object, should draw figures of lotuses 
in all the centres. 

With the division of the first string one should draw the 
doors. With the half he should make decorations for the 
same. The pericarp should be drawn with yellow colour, 
the filaments with dark blue, the inside with violet and the 
petals with crimson. The four parts should be filled up 
with black powder, the doors with white powder and the 
five lines of the Mandala in order with crimson, yellow and 
dark-blue. Having performed Nyasa (assignment of the 
limbs he should adore Hari in the five mandalas. He 
should assign his heart to Vishnu, the middle part to Sankar- 
shana, the head to Pradyumna and the tuft of hair on the 
head to Aniruddha. His entire body should be assigned to 
Brahma and the fingers to Shridhara. Meditating "I am 
Vishnu" he should perform the Nyasa of Hari in the pericarps. 
He should perform the Nyasa of Shangkarshana in the east, 
that of Pradyumna in the south, that of Aniruddha in the 
west, that of Brahma in the north that of Shridhara, Indra 
and other deities in Rudra and other corners. Having adored 
them with scents and other articles a worshipper attains to 
the great station."*^ 


Hari said : — Being initiated in proper time and having 
his eyes covered with a cloth a disciple should offer one 
hundred and eight oblations with the principal mantram. 

* In this chapter occurs the drawing of a figure with various colours. 
Such a figure is necessary for the celebration of a religious rite. Even 
in a Hindu marriage such figures are drawn for the solemnization of 
religious rites. 


O Rudra, twice the number should be offered in a Putraka 

Homa,* thrice the number in Sadhakaf and four times the 
number in Nirvinadeshika.t A destroyer of a preceptor, 
Vishnu's image, Brahmana and a woman deserves death at 
the hands of those who are not initiated. I \nll describe his 
Dikshd or initiation destructive of virtue and sin. 

Having caused his disciples to sit outside he should make 
them concentrate their minds. O Rudra, he should consider 
them purified by the wind, burnt by the fire and again 
sprinkled with water. Uniting the sentiency with fire he 
should consign it to fire. He should meditate on PranAva, 
the instrument of all, in the sky and in the body. He should 
next unite it with Kshetrajna^ for its being the cause of the 
body. Then imagining all the Saktis or female energies of 
of the deity in the various Mandalas he should adore Hari. 
There should be four doors in order of Brahma Tirtha 
(shrine) and others. The head is the lotus ; the fingers are 
the petals ; the palm is the pericarp and the nails are the 
filaments. Then meditating there on Hari, the sun and fire, 
he, with a controlled mind, should place it on the head of 
the disciple, for in the hand is stationed Vishnu, his own 
hand being that of Vishnu, and with its touch the entire 
collection of sins is dissipated. 

Having adored [the disciple, covered his eyes with a piece 
of cloth, and placed him in front of the deity the preceptor 
should throw flowers there. He should throw flowers where 
the head of the deity, the holder of ShrSnga bow, is. He 
should mention his name as well as those of his wives. In 
the case of a Shudra, an expert preceptor should mention 
the name of his master. 

* A Homa or offerings to fire for the acquisition of a ton. 

f One intended for becoming a worshipper. 

X One intended for attaining emancipation. 

§ The lord or the divine emanation residing in the body. 



Hari said : — I will describe the adoration of Shree and 
other deities in Sthandilas* for the attainment of Siddhis\ 

Om, Shrim, salutation unto the great Lakshmi. 

Shr2ni| Shrim, Shrum, Shroum, Shras. He should 
gradually worship the heart, head, the tuft of hair, amulet, 
the eyes, the seat and the image. One who wishes to attain 
his desired-for objects should offer oblations to the Mandala^ 
the sun, moon,* Lakshmi and her limbs in one comer, Durgi, 
Gana, preceptor and iKashtrSLpala (Vishnu) in the Mandal a 
having the figure of a lotus drawn inside it, four doors 
painted with dust and sixty four corners. 

With the mantram, "Om, Gham, tam, dham. Ham, saluta- 
tion unto the great Lakshmi" he should adore Lakshmi 
together with all the members of the family as narrated 


Om, Soum, salutation unto Saraswati. Om, Hrim, Soun, 
salutation unto Saraswati. Om, Hrim, say, say. O goddess of 
speech, SwSha. Om, Hrim, salutation unto Saraswati. 



I WILL now describe the mode of adorning the nine 
Vyuhas as narrated unto Kashyapa. Having drawn up the 

* A level square piece of ground prepared for a sacrifice. 

t Supernatural powers acquired by Yoga. The word Siddki may 
also mean *' che accomplishment of the object for which a religious rite 
is undertaken.'' 


vital breath through the head one should place it in the sky 
through the navel. Then with the mantram Ram he should 
consume the body identical with the up-going vital air. And 
he should destroy all with the mantram Yam. With the 
mantram Lam he should overflood the entire world mobile 
and immobile. Then with the mantram Vam he should 
meditate on ambrosia. Thereupon by dhyana (meditation) 
he should think of the four-armed deity, clad in a yellow 
raiment, in the middle of the bubble, as well as of his bathing. 
He should next perform the three-fold mantra-nyasa* 
ceremony of the fingers and body. 

After the recitation of this mantram, with one composed 
of twelve letters, he should make assignment of six limbs so 
that Hari himself might appear there. Beginning; with the 
thumb of the right hand he should assign the middle finger 
to the petal. Having assigned the two Vijas in the middle 
he should assign them to the other limbs viz, heart, head, the 
crown of the head where lies the tuft of hair, mouth, eyes, 
belly, back, arms, hands, thighs and feet. Having converted 
the hand into the shape of a lotus he should place the thumb 
in the middle. And there he should meditate on the Lord 
of all, the great undecaying Principle. Then in order he 
should assign all the other mantrams to fore and other 
fingers. He should then in order make assignment of the 
head, eyes, mouth, throat, heart, navel, buttock, thighs and 
feet. Having assigned the mantrams of six limbs or parts to 
the palms he should assign others to the body. He should 
assign the five mantrams to the five fingers beginning with 
the thumb and ending with the youngest. 

He should assign the mantram of the eye to the hand and 
then make assignment of other limbs. Having assigned 
heart to the heart he should assign head to the head, SikhSL 
(tuft of hair) to the Sikhi and amulet to the entire body. 

* The assignment of mystic syllables to various deities. 


Eyes should be assigned to the eyes and the weapon to the 
two hands. Having bound all the quarters with the weapon 
he should commence the rite of adoration. First of all with 
a controlled mind he should meditate on Yogapitha (the seat 
of yoga) in his heart, and in due order on religion, knowledge, 
disassociation from the world, and prosperity. He should 
assign iniquity &c. to the north-east and east. The body, free 
of all these sins, should be then converted into Pitha (seat). 
He should after\vards assign Ananta. Having meditated first, 
by means of the Vedas &c on learning, the eight quarters 
like unto eight petals of a lotus born in a tank, a white lotus 
of a hundred petals covered with filaments he should meditate 
on Mandalas ^identical with the sun, moon and fire and then 
think of the deity on one above the other. He should then 
perform the assignment of eight energies of Keshava 
stationed in the east and of the ninth in the pericarp. 

Having thus meditated on and adored the Yogapitha^ he 
should invoke the lord thereof, Hari, the holder of Shringa 
bow and assign him there. He should assign heart &c to the 
lotuses of the four quarters, east &c., the eye in the middle 
and the weapon in the corners. He should assign the 
mantrams of Sangkarshana &c. to the east and other 
quarters and Vinati's son to the eastern and western doors 
and the discus Sudarshana of a thousand rays to the southern 
gate. He should assign Shree to the south, Lakshmi to the 
north, the club to the northern gate and the conch-shell to 
the corners. 

An intelligent worshipper should place the ShrSnga bow 
cither on the right or on the left of the deity. Similarly 
conch-shell and discus should be placed on both the sides. 
According to the distinction of their respective quarters all 
the guardian deities thereof should be assigned. In the same 
way the various weapons, such as thunder-bolt &c., should 
be assigned. He should meditate on Brahma upwards and 


Ananta downwards. Having meditated on and adored them 
all he should display Afudra.* 

Anjali (the folding of palms) is the first Mudra which 
speedily secures the favour of the deity. Vandani is the 
next when it is placed on the breast with the right hand 
raised half-way up. Urdhangustha (thumb raised up) is 
formed by the clasping of the fist of the left hand with tlie 
thumb of the right hand. In this the thumb of the left hand 
should be raised up. These are the three ordinary forms 
arranged according to the difference of the forms of the idols. 

With the intertwining of the youngest finger eight 
Mudras are formed in order. These should be formed with 
the recitation of the first eight mantrams. With the thumb 
the three sucessive fingers ending with the youngest should 
be bent. Then the two hands should be bent. This is the 
Mudra of Narasimha (man-lion). Having raised up the 
left hand he should whirl it. This is the Mudra approved of 
VarAha (the boar-form). Having raised up the two fists he 
should straighten the fingers of tlie one and then bend all 
of them. This Mudra is called Anga, Having intertwined in 
order the two fists the Mudras for the ten guardian deities of 
the quarters should be formed. The first vowel, the second, 
the last but one and the last should be in order assigned to 
VAsudeva, Bala, Kima and Aniruddha. " Om, Tatsat, Hum, 
Kshroumi Bhus" are the mantrams for Narayana, Brahma, 
Vishnu, the man-lion and Boar forms. White, red, green, 
violet, blue, dark-blue, crimson, cloud-colour, fire-colour, 
honey-colour and twany colour are the nine names. 

Kan, tan, jam, pam, Sham, Garutman. 

Jam, Kham, ban, Sudarshana. Kham, chani, pham, Sham^ 
the club. 

Vam, lam, man, Ksham, conch-shell. Gham, dham Vam^ 
bham, Ham, Shree. Gam, jam, dam, vam, Sham, nourishment. 

* A mode of inurtwinin^ of the fingers during religious worship. 


Dham, Vam, the garland of the] forest flowers. Dam,' 
Sam, is for the mystic mark Srivatsa. 

Chham, dam» para, Yam is for the jewel Koustava. 

He should then say '' I am Ananta" These are the ten 
limbs of the Lord of gods. 

Ganida is smoke-coloured. The club is white. Pushti 
(nourishm'ent) is of the colour of a Sirish flower. Lakshmi is 
gold-hued. The conch-shell is effulgent like the full-moon. 
Srivatsa is of the colour of a Kunda flower. The garland is 
of five colours. Ananta is of the colour of a doud. All the 
weapons described before are of the hue of lightnings. 

According to the light of the science of the lotus-eyed 
deity one should offer Arghya, P&dhya (water for washing 
feet) &c. 



Hari said : — I will describe the order of adoration for 
achieving the success thereof. 

The recollection of the great soul should be made with 
the mantrams, " Om, Salutation, &c." 

With the mantram " Yam, Vam, Lam, Ram" the purifica- 
tion of the body should be performed. 

With the mantram "Om, salutation" the image of the 
four-armed deity should be made. 

Then the three sorts of the making of idols should be 
made. Then follows the adoration of Yoga-pitha stationed 
in the heart. 

Om, salutation unto Ananta. Om, salutation unto religion. 
Om, salutation unto disassociation. Om salutation unto know- 
ledge. Om salutation unto prosperity. Om salutation unto sin, 



Om salutation unto ignorance. Om salutation unto worldli- 
ness. Om salutation unto proverty. Om salutation unto the 
lotus. Om salutation unto the solar disc. Om salutation unto 
the lunar disc. Om salutation unto the disc of the fire. Om 
salutation unto Vimala. Om salutation unto Utkarshina. Om 
salutation unto knowledge. Om salutation unto action. Om 
salutation unto ignorance. Om salutation unto inaction. Om 
salutation unto yoga. Om salutation unto Prarhi. Om, saluta- 
tion unto Satya. Om salutation unto Ishana. Om salutation 
unto Sarvatomukji. Om salutation unto Hari's seat with all 
its accompaniments, principal and minor. Om salutation unto 
V^udeva. Om salutation unto the heart. Im, salutation unto 
the head. Um salutuation unto Shikha (tuft of hair on the 
head). Em, salutation unto the amulet. Oum salutation unto 
the three eyes. As, phat, salutation unto the weapon. Am, 
salutation unto Sangkarshana. Am salutation unto Pradyumna. 
As salutation unto Aniruddha. Om, As salutation unto Nara- 
yana. Om, Taisai salutation unto Brahma. Om, Hum, saluta- 
tion unto Vishnu. Kshroum, salutation unto his man-lion and 
boar forms. Kam, Tam, Jam, Sham, salutation unto Vinata's 
son. Jam Khem, Vam, salutation :unto Sudarshana. Kham, 
Cham, Pham, Sham, salutation unto ^the club. Vam, Lam, 
Mam, Ksham, salutation unto the conch-shell Panchajanya. 

Gham, Dham, Bham, Ham, salutation unto Shree. Gam, 
Dam, Vam, Sham, salutation unto^Pushti. Dham, Vam, saluta- 
tion unto the garland of white flowers. Dam, Sham, saluta- 
tion unto Shrivatsa. Chham, Dam, Yam, salutation unto 
Koustava. Sham salutation unto Shringa bow. Im, saluta- 
tion unto the arrows. Cham, salutation unto the leathern 
fence. Kham, salutation unto the sword, and the lord of 
the Suras. Dham, salutation unto the giver of riches and the 
lord thereof. Ham salutation unto Ishana, the lord of learning. 
Om, salutation unto the thunder-bolt. Om unto dart. Om unto 
rod. Om unto sword. Om unto noose, standard, club, and 


Lam, salutation unto Ananta the lord of the nether region. 
Kham salutation unto Brahma, the lord of all the worlds. 
Om salutation unto the Lord V&sudeva. 

Om, Om, Namas ; Om, Nam, Namas ; Om, Mom, llamas ; 
Om, Bham, Namas ; Om, Gam, Namas ; Om, Vam, Namas ; 
Om Tem, Namas ; Om Vam Namas ; Om Sum, Namas ; Om, 
Dem, Namas ; Om, Vam, Namas ; Om, Yam, Namas. 

Om, Om Namas ; Om, Nam, Namas ; Om, Mom, Namas ; 
Om, Nam, Namas ; Om, Ram, Namas ; Om, Yam, Namas ; 
Om, Nam, Namas ; Om, Yam, Namas ; Om salutation unto 
Narayana. Om, salutation unto Purusottama. 

Salutation unto thee, O thou having lotus eyes ; saluta- 
tion unto thee O creator of the universe, O Subramanya ; 
salutation unto thee, O great Purusha, O thou the first- 

In Homa rites this mantram ending with the word 
Swaha should be recited. Having duly recited this mantram 
one hundred and eight times the worshipper should offer 
Arghya and bow unto the Deity again and again. After- 
wards having worshipped the fire he should duly adore with 
his own mantram Achyuta the god of gods. 

Having first lighted fire, fed it and whirled it one, con- 
versant with mantrams, should adore it in the Kunda with 
auspicious results. Having first meditated on all he should 
assign his mind to the Mandala. Then with the Tattwa 
called VSsudeva he should offer one hundred and eight 
oblations. Then with Sangkarshana and other mantrams 
he should offer six adorations, three each time to his limbs 
as well as to the guardian deities of the quarters. Then in 
the end he should offer Purnahuti, Then he should immerse 
his own self in the great principle which is beyond the 
range of speech. Then taking his seat, making again 
Mudras he should again bow. This is the daily Homa rite ; 
the occasional one requires double the rituals. [He should 
then say] " Go, go to that great region where dwells the 


deity who is devoid o( passions. May all the deities repair 
to their respective quarters," 

Sudarshana, Shri, Hari, Achyuta, Trivikrama (three foot- 
steps), Chaturbhuja (four-arms), Visudeva, the sixth Pra- 
dyumma, Sangkarshana, Purusha are the nine Vyukas. Then 
comes Aniruddha and Ananta. With all these Chakras the 
gods are known and marked. And they are worshipped in 
a house along with the Rakshsas and Danavas. 

Om ChakrSya Swaha, Om Vichakr^ya Swaha, Om Sucha- 
kriya Swaha, Om Mahachakraya Swaha, Om, the remover of 
the Asuras, Hum, phat, Om, Him of thousand flames. Hum, 

This adoration of the discus at the door of the house is 
auspicious. It gives also protection. 



Hari said : — I will now describe the most auspicious 
mantram of Vishnu called Panjara,* 

Salutation unto thee, O Govinda. Take up thy discus, 
Sudarshana and protect me in the west, O Vishnu. I have 
taken refuge with thee. Take up thy club Koumodaki, O 
lotus-navelled deity, salutation unto thee. Protect me in the 
south, O Vishnu, I have taken refuge with thee. Salutation 
unto thee, O Purusottama. Taking up thy plough-share 
Sunanda, protect me in the east, O Vishnu, J have taken 
refuge with thee. Taking up thy mace Shatana, O thou 
having lotus eyes, protect me in the north, O lord of the 
universe, I have taken refuge with thee. O Hari, taking up 

* A mantram oC invoking the various weapons and embellishments of 
Vishnu to one's help, 



thy sword, Uathern fence, and other weapons, protect me, 
O destroyer of Rakshasas. I bow unto thee, I am under thy 
protection. Taking up thy great conch-shell Panchajanya 
and thy lotus Anudbodha, protect me, O Vishnu, O Boar, 
in the south-east. Taking up the sun, and moon as well as 
the sword Chandramasu do thou protect me in the south-west, 
O thou of a celestial form, O man-lion. Taking up Vaijayanti* 
and Srivatsa, the ornament of thy throat do thou protect me 
in the north-west, O god, O Hayagriva. I bow unto thee. 

O Jan&rddana, having ridden Vinata's son do thou protect 
me in the sky, O thou un vanquished by the Rakshas. I bow 
unto thee, O thou never defeated. Having ridden 
Vishilakshaf do thou protect me in the nether region, O 
tortoise,t salutation unto thee. Salutation unto thee, O great 
fish. O truth, making thy Vahupanjaram in the hand, 
and fingers, do thou protect me, O Vishnu. Salutation unto 
thee, O Purusottama. 

This great Vishnu Panjara was thus described unto 
Shankara, who again described it unto Katyayani. By this 
she killed the immortal Asura Mahisha, the D&nava Raktavija 
and other thorns of the celestials. By reciting it with 
reverantiaL^faith a man always destroys his enemies. 



Hari said : — I will now describe the great Yoga which 
gives emancipation and enjoyment. The Dhyayins (yogins) 

* Flag or banner of Indra that was given by him to Vishnu, 
t Garuda, Literally it means having large eyes. 
X These are the various forms assumed by Vishnu in his various 


hold that the Lord Hari is alone to be meditated on. There- 
fore, listen to it, O great Ish&na. 

Vishnu, the lord of all, is the destroyer of sins, without 
end and devoid of feet and body. He is V&sudeva, the lord 
of the universe and identical with Brahman. Although he 
daily assumes various bodies he is [in sooth] devoid of them 
all. He is shorn of the natural functions of the body and is 
devoid of death and decay. Stationed in the six fold objects 
he is the seer, hearer and smeller and is (at the same time) 
above the reach of organs. He is devoid of the functions of 
senses, the creator and has no name or family. The deity is 
in the mind but does not himself possess it. He is devoid of 
mental faculties, discriminative knowledge and knowledge. 
He perceives all by intellect, is stationed in it, the witness of 
all and omniscient ; (and at the same time) he is devoid of 
intellect. He is devoid of the functions of intellect, is all, 
present every where, and is in the mind of all. He is freed 
from vital airs and is devoid of their actions. But he is the 
vital principle of all creatures, of a quiescent soul and 
divorced from fear. He is shorti of Ahankara (egoism) and 
other principles and devoid of their natural actions. But he 
is their witness, the ordainer thereof and of the form of 
great felicity. He is the witness of the various states of 
of waking, dreamless sleep and dreaming sleep and himself is 
above them all. But he is Turiya^ the great ordainer, of 
the form of the quarter and devoid of gunas (qualities). He 
b emancipated, enlightened, undecaying, all-pervading, all- 
auspicious and always present in self. 

S Understanding this the men, who meditate on this great 

Isha (God), attain lo his form. There is no need of ascertain- 
ing actions in this matter. O Shankara, O thou of good vows, 

• The fourth sute of the soul in which it becomes one with Brahman 
•r the Supreme spirit. 


I have thus described the Dhy&na. He, who always reads it 
attains to the region of Vishnu. 



RUDRA said : — O Lord, O Janarddana, do thoa describe 
unto me the Great Being by reciting whose name a man may 
cross the dreadful ocean of Samsara.* 

Hari said : — Reciting the thousand names of Vishnu, the 
Demiurgus, the great Brahman, the Absolute, Undecaying 
Self, a man attains to emancipation. O bull-emblemed deity, 
hear with fixed attention, I will describe this sacred and 
great object of recitation (Japa) which destroys all sins. 

He is Vasudeva, the great Vishnu, Vimana (Dwarf),t 
Vasava, Vasu, effulgent like the newly risen sun, and the 
highly powerful Balabhadra. He fettered (the Asura) Bali,, 
is the all-knower, the worshipful knower of the Vedas and the 
poet. He is the creator of the Vedas, of the form of the 
Vedas, worthy of being 4cnown and filled with the Vedas. 
He is the knower of the Vedangas,t the lord of the Vedas, the 
mine of strength and the aggrandiser of the strong. He is 
without changes, the lord of boons, the giver of boons, and 

* Commonly worldliness — but really it is the tran9mrgaU)ry series. 

f An incarnation of Vishnu in which he put down the great Asura 
Bali, who had grown excessively powerful by his rigid austerities. 

X Certain classes of works regarded as auxilliary to the Vedas, and 
designated to aid in the correct pronouncialion and interpretation of 
the text and the right employment of the Mantras in ceremonials. They 
are six in number, vis.t (i) Siksha, the science of proper articulation 
and pronounciation ; (2) Chhandas, the science of prosody ; (3) Vya» 
karana grammar; (4) Nirukta, etymological explanation of difficult 
Vcdic words (5) Jyotish, Astronomy ; (6) Kalpa, ritual or ceremonial. 


the master of Vanina. He is the slayer of heroes, the great 
hero and the great Ishwara adored of all. He is the soul, 
the great soul, the inward self and above the sky. He is lotus* 
navelledi the Padmaniddhi,* the lotus-handed and the holder 
of club. He is the Great, above the elements, the foremost 
Purusha and the Demiurgus. He is lotus-waisted, Pundarika 
wears a garland of lotuses and is beloved of all. He is lotus- 
eyed, Padmagarbha,t Parjanya (rain-god) and seated on a 
lotus. He is beyond the range of all, the great object, the 
greatest of the great lord. He is most learned of all learned 
men, holy and destroyer of sins. He is pure, manifests all, 
holy and the protector. He is devoid of thirst, Padya,{ the 
Purusha and Prakriti (Nature). He is Pradh&na (intellectual 
principle), the lotus, the earth, the lotus-navelled and the giver 
of desirable objects. He b the lord of all, present every 
where, the All, Omniscient, the giver of all and the great. 
He is identical with all and the entire universe, the witness 
and up-holder of all. He is the Deity who shows favour unto 
all and is stationed in the hearts of all creatures. He is the 
protector of all, is adored oJf all and is saluted by all the 
deities. He is at the root of the entire universe, is the des- 
troyer of all and the fire. He is the protector of all, pervades 
all and the cause of all causes. He is meditated on by all, 
the friend of all and the holder of the various forms of the 
deities. He is the object of the study of all, the commander 
of the celestials and is adored of the gods and Asuras. He b 

* One of the nine treasures of Kuvera, vtM,, Padma, Mahapadma. 
Sankha, Makara, Kachhapa, Mukunda, Nanda, Nila and Kharva; 
their nature is not exactly defined though some of them appear to 
be precious jems ; according to the Tantrik system, they are personi- 
fied and worshipped as demi-gods attendant either upon Kuvera or 
Lakshmi. Here the term is an epithet of Vishnu. 

t Name of Brahma, meaning from born of a lotus. Here it is an 
epithet of Vishnu showing that he is identical with Brahma. 

X Water for cleaning feet. This shows that Vishnu permeates every 
object in the world. 


always the destroyer of the wicked and Asuras. He is the 
protector of truth, the centre of ^ood people, the lord of 
SiddhaSi is adored by them, is obtained by the Siddhas and 
the Sadhyas and the lord of their hearts. 

He is the refuge of the world, the auspiciousness,^ the 
doer of good, beautiful, humble, truthful and having truth for 
prowess. He is stationed in truth, of a true determination, 
the knower and giver of truth. He is religion, the observer 
of religious rites and a Karmin (one who practises religious 
rites) but he is devoid of all actions. He is the ordainer of 
actions, the action itself and the practice of religious ritesr 
He is the lord of Shree and of men, beautiful, the lord of all, 
but himself having no master. He is the lord of the celestials, 
the master of Vrishnis, of Hiranyagarbha and of the.des- 
troyer of Tripura. He is the lord of the beasts, Vasus, Indra, 
Varuna, trees, wind, fire, Yama, Kuvera, stars, medicinal herbs 
and trees. He is the master of the Nagas, of the sun, of 
Daksha, of friends and of kings. He is the master of the 
Gandharvas, the most excellent lord of the Asuras, of the 
mountains and rivers. He is the most powerful lord of the 
celestials, of Kapila, of creepers and of Veerudhas (spreading 
creepers). He is the master of the ascetics, the most excel- 
lent lord of the sun, moon, and of Shukra. He is the lord 
of planets, Rakshasas, the Kinnaras and the most excellent 
master of the twice-born ones. He is the lord of the rivers, 
oceans, lakes and goblins. He is the master of the Vetalas, 
Kushmandas, birds and beasts. 

He is the high-sould Mangala, Mandara, the lord of 
Mandara. He is creator of Meru and Madhava and devoid of 
mind. The great deity wears a garland and is adored by 
Mah&deva. He is of a quiescent soul, and is the illustrious 
slayer of Madhu. He is highly powerful, the great vital air and 
is lauded by MSLrkandeya. He is identical with M*tya (illusion), 
fettered by it and devoid of it. He is lauded by the ascetics 
and is their friend. He has a nose, big cheeks, big arms, big 


teeth and b treed from death. He has a huge mouth, a great 
soul, a great body, a great belly, big feet and a high neck. 
He is greatly respected, is high-minded, of great intellect, of 
great fame, of great form and the great Asura. He is Madhu, 
he is M2Ldhava, he is Mahlideva, and he is Maheshwara. He 
is adored in -sacrifices, of the form of a sacrifice and is the 
worshipped lord of the sacrifices. He is the great wind, the 
great luck and the superhuman Mahesha. He is man, Manu 
and does good unto men. He is deer, is adored by them and 
is their lord. He b the master of Mercury, Venus, Saturn, 
Rihu and Ketu. He is the good mark and is endued with it ; 
he has long lips and is handsome to look at. He is bedecked 
with various ornaments and besmeared with sandal of 
difiEerent kinds. His face is painted effulgent with various 
colours and adorned with diverse flowers. He is Rim^, the 
great Iswara with his consort. He gives jewels and takes 
them away. He is with and without any boon. He iis ef a 
great, terrific and calm appearance. He is like unto a blue 
cloud, is pure and resembles a cloud at the end of a cycle. He 
is smoky cloud, of yellow hue, of various forms and without 
any colour. He is of a distorted figure, the giver of forms 
and is white-hued. He is of all colours, the great yogin, the 
sacrifices He is gold-hued and is called gold. His body is 
inade of gold and he puts on a golden girdle. He is the giver 
of gold or parts of it. He is fond of gold and houses made 
of gold. He is beautiful and of huge wings and the creator 
of Supama. He is Vinat&'s son, the sun, the beginning, the 
the creator of beginning and auspiciousness. He is the 
cause of the intellectual principle, of the Puranas, of intellect 
and mind. He is the efficient cause of consciousness, 
egoism, elements of fire, ether, earth, egg and Prakriti 
(Nature). He is the cause of the body, eyes, ears, skin, tongue, 
vital breath, hand, foot, speech and the organ of generation. 
He is the efficient cause of Indra, Kuvera, Yama, Ishina and 
the most excellent creator of Yakshas and Rakshasas. He 


is the most excellent cause of ornamentSi virtue, creaturesi 
Vasus (gods of riches), of Manus and of birds. He is the 
foremost cause of the ascetics, the Yogins, the Siddhas, the 
Yakshas, the Kinnaras and Gandharvas. 

He is the cause of the river, male and female, the oceans 
and trees. He is the cause of Veerudhas, the worlds, the 
nether region and celestials. He is the cause of serpents, 
the auspiciousness, the beasts and of all. 

He is identical with the body, the organs of sense, the 
soul, the intellect, the mind, egoism, consciousness, the 
condition of waking, that of dreaming sleep, the intellectual 
principle and the great soul. 

He is identical with ether, .water, and the great soul of 
earth and air. He is the great soul of the smell, colour, 
sound, speech and touch. He permeates, as the great soul, 
the ears, skin, tongue, nostrils, hand, foot, organ of generation. 
He permeates Indra, BrahmS, Rudra, Manu, and the 
Patriarch Daksha. The great is identical with truth. He is 
identical with Isha, the great soul, the Rudra and the Yati 
conversant with the knowledge of emancipation.. He is 
energetic and is the very energy itself. He is the holder of 
the leathern fence and sword and the destroyer of the Asuras. 
He is modest by nature and engaged in the well-being of 
the ascetics. Hari is of the form of a Yatin, a Yogin and is 
meditated on by the Yogins. He is Shiti.*^ He is perfect 
knowledge, genius, time, summer, rainy season, determina- 
tion, year, the ordainer of emancipation and destroyer of 
Moha (stupifaction). He stupefies the wicked, is Mandavya 
and mare-mouthed. He is Sangvartaka (fire), the creator of 
time, Goutama, Bhrigu, Angira, Atri, Vashistha, Pulaha 
Pulastya, Kutsa, Yajnavalka, Devala, Vyasa, ParSishara, 
Sharmada, GSLngeya, Hrishikesha, Vrihatshrava and Keshava. 
He is the destroyer of miseries, has beautiful ears and is 
without them. The great Narayana is the lord of Prana, of 

* Literally ** white or black." It is an epithet of Shivat 




Vital air the Apina, of VySina, of Udana and of Samana. He 
is the best master of sound, touch and colour. He is the 
master of the destruction of the world, the first-bom, has a 
sword in his hand, the plough-share for his weapon, the 
discus in his hand, the Kundalas [on his ears] and the 
mystic mark Srivatsa on his breast. He is Prakriti, htLs the 
Koustava gem on his neck and is clad in a yellow raiment. 
He has a beautiful face, an ugly face and is without any. 
He is without end, of endless forms, has beautiful nails and 
is the handsomest of all the celestials. The lord Vishnu has 
a beautiful quiver and most resplendent arrows. He is the 
destroyer of Hiranyakashipu, the grinder of Hiranyaksha, 
the killer of PutanSl and Bhiskaranta. He is the grinder 
of Keshin, and Mushtika. He is the killer of the demoa 
Kansa, of ChSlnura and Aristha. He is fond of Akrura. He 
b without wickedness, is wily and is adored by those who are 
fond of simplicity. He is the destroyer of the lordly powers, 
is himself endued with them, the sun and the Lord himself. 
He is Uddhava, Uddhava's lord, and is being meditated on by 
Uddhava. He is the holder of discus, is fickle and is devoid 
of the moveable and immoveable properties. He is egoism, 
determination, mental faculties, the sky, earth, water, air, eye, 
«ar, tongue, nose, palate, hand, foot, waist and the organ of 
generation. He is Shankara, the giver of auspiciousness, the 
giver of endurance ; and he forgives men. He is fond of his 
votaries aad is their protector. He is endued with reveren* 
tial faith and himself increases it. He is lauded by his 
votaries, devoted to them and gives fame ; and he multiplies it. 
He is fame, resplendence, forgiveness, patience, reverential 
faith, compassion, the great, the gift, the giver, the agent of 
action, is fond of the celestials, is purity, is pure, the giver of 
felicity, emancipation and the object of desire. He has a 
thousand feet. He is the thousand-headed physician who 
opens the gate of emancipation. He is the door of subjects, 
has a thousand ends and a thousand hands. He is Shukra, 


has a beautiful head-geari and a beautiful neck. He is 
Keshava, Pradyumna, Aniruddha, Ha)ragriva, Shukara 
(boar), Matysa (fish), Parashurdma, Pralhada and Bali. He 
is daily sought by people for help, enlightened, emancipated 
and the holder of forms. He is the destroyer of Khara and 
Dushana and the g^rinder of Rlvana. He is the husband of 
Sita and the prosperous Bharata. He is the killer of the 
victor of Kumbhendra, the grinder of Kumbhakarna, the 
destroyer of the killers of men and celestials. He is the 
destroyer of the wicked Asuras and the enemy of Shamvara. 
He is the destroyer of (the demon) Naraka as well as of the 
three-headed demon. He broke down [the trees] Yamala 
and Arjuna and always helps asceticism. He plays on the 
musical instrument and is himself the instrument. He is 
enlightened and the giver of boons. He is the substance 
and is fond of substances. He is Soura and the destroyer of 
time and is incapable of being cut. He is Agastya, Devala, 
N^rada, and fond of Narada. He is Prana, Apana, Vyana 
(vital airs), the qualities of Rajas (darkness), Sattwa (good- 
ness) and Tamas (ignorance). He is beyond Tamas (ignor- 
ance). He is Udana, and Samana (vital airs). He is medicine 
and the medical man. 

He is perpetually and universally the same. His form is 
transparent and he is devoid of any form. He is devoid of 
the organs of vision and speech, of hands, fat, the organs of 
generation and excretion. He is devoid of great asceticism. 
He is devoid of perception, intellect, consciousness and 
vital airs, Prana, Apana, Vyana, Udana and Samana. 

He is devoid of the ether and fire, water and earth. 
He is devoid of sound, touch and all colours. He is devoid 
ci carnal passion and other inferior appetites. He is shorn 
of grief and the power of speech. He is devoid of the 
quality of Rajas (darkness) and six-fold deviations from the 
natural state. He is devoid of sexual passion, anger, avarice^ 
and pride. He is the subtlest of the subtle and the grossest of 



the gross. He is clever, leader of the strong and the agita- 
tor of all. He agitates Prakriti (nature), Mahat (intellectual 
principle), the elements, intellect, the organs of sense and 
of the objects thereof. He is the agitator of Brahma and 
Rudra. He is beyond the range of vision and hearing. 
Skin cannot touch him. He is tortoise. Tongue cannot 
perceive him. He is beyond the range of smelling and 
speech. The hands and feet cannot reach him. Hari is 
beyond the range of mental and intellectual perception and 
understanding. He is within the comprehension of the sense 
of ego and mental faculties. 

He holds the conch-shell in his hand, is undeca}ring and 

holds also the club and Shr^nga bow in his hands. He is 

dark-blue, the image of knowledge and the scorcher of the 

enemies. He is within the range of the knowledge of the 

ascetics; he is endued with knowledge and knows all by 

his knowledge. He is comprehended by knowledge and 

manifests the consciousness of the objects of knowledge. 

He is the soul, object of mental perception, the creator of 

the world and the destroyer of it. He is Govinda, the lord of 

kine and the giver of felicity unto the cow-herds. He is the 

protector of kine, the master of kine, Gomati and Godhara. 

He is Upendra, Nrisimha, Shouri, JanlLrddana, Araneya, 

Vrihatbbanu and highly effulgent. He is Dimodara, the 

three-fold time, cognizant of time and devoid of time. He 

is the three-fold Sandhya (periods of conjuction), is Dwapara, 

Treta, the creator of subjects and of the foot steps. He 

is powerful and holds a rod in his hand. He holds one and 

three rods in his hand. He is the division of the Samaveda, 

its means, of the form of Saman and the chanter of Saman. 

He is conversant with Atharvan Veda and is the preceptor 

thereof. He is the Rik of the Rik Veda and is stationed 

there. He is the reader of the Yayush, the Yayurvcda itself 

and is conversant with the rituals thereof. He has one foot, 

many feet, beautiful foot, a thousand feet, four feet, two feet. 


The powerful lord b like unto Smriti and Nyaya. He is a 
Sanyasin (disassociated from the world, and is the four orders 
of hermit &c viz, a Brahmacharin (student), Grihasta (house- 
holder), VSnaprasta (retired into forest) and Bhikshsu (a 
hermit living on alms). He is the four Vamas (castes) viz 
the Brahmanas, the Kshatryas, the Vaishyas and the Shudras. 
He gives good character, is endued with the same and devoid 
of a bad character. He is emancipation, is engaged in 
spiritual communion, is the encomiastic verse, the encomiast 
and the worshipper. He is worshipful, the speech, the object 
of speech and the speaker. He is the knower, the grammar, 
the word and is conversant with words. 

He is within the reach of words, lives in sacred shrines, 
is the sacred shrine and is conversant with the knowledge of 
all the shrines. He is resident in all the sacred shrines, b . 
Sankhya, Nirukta and the presiding deity thereof. He is 
Pranava^* the lord of Pranava and is adored with Pranava. 
He b Gayatrii and the holder of club. He lives in 
Shalagrama and b ShSLlagrama itself. He resides in water, 
lies in Yoga, on Sesha and Kushi. He is the earth, b the 
action, th« cause and the holder of the earth. He b the 
Patriarch, and the eternal. He is the object of desire and 
Che universal creator of desire. He is the Lord Paramount, 
the sun, the heaven, is stationed on a car and the strength of 
the charioteer. He is rich, the giver of riches, blessed and 
engaged in the well-being of the Yadavas. He b the 
favourite of Arjuna and he b both Arjuna and Bhima. Un- 
bearable is hb prowess and he b a master of all the 

* The sacred syllable Oni, an abbreviation of the Hindu triad, «t«, 
Brahma, the creative force, Vishnu, the protecting force and Shiva, 
the destructive force. These three forces or the deities presiding over 
them are represented by Om. The abbreviation is intended for the 
purpose of recitation. The prayers and sacred hymns and mantrams of 
the.Hindus are all presented by Om. 

t The sacred verse which the Brahmanas recite. It is one of thr 
verses of the Rik vcda, embodying the worship of the sun-god. 


scriptures. He is Saraswati, the great Bhishma and the 
captor of Parijata flowers. He is the giver of ambrosia, the 
ocean of milk and the milk itself. He is the protector of 
Indra's son and the upholder of the mount Govardhana. He 
u the destroyer of Kansa, the master of his elephant and the 
killer of the same. He is Shipidisthe* (pervaded by rays), 
cheerfulness and the destroyer of the calamities of all people., 
He b Mudra, the maker of Mudras and is devoid of all 
Mudras. He is endued with a body, is stationed in a body, 
and the organizer of the body. He is the hearer, the creator 
of the ears, the object of hearing and the power of hearing. 
He is stationed in skin, is one who touches, the object and 
power of touching. He resides in the eye, is the seer of 
forms and the creator of the eye and is the object of vision. 
He resides in the tongue, has a strong taste and b the 
organiser of taste. He resides in smell, creates smell, him- 
self smells and is the creator of the organ of smelling. He> 
resides in speech, is the speaker, the object of speaking, . the . 
power of speech and the creator of the same. He resides 
in vital airs. He is the creator of fine arts, is the fine art 
itself and the creator of hands. ' He is the foot, the agent of . 
going, the place of going and the power of going. He is 
the ordainer of gifts, is stationed in the organ of generation . 
and is the pleasure. He is the slayer of enemies, KSLrtavirya, . 
Dattltreya, is engaged in the well-being of Alarka and is the 
destroyer of Kartavirya. He is Klilanemi, Mah&nemi, the 
cloud and the lord of clouds. He is the giver of food, of 
the form of food, the eater of food and the ordainer of 
food. He creates smoke and b of a smoky form. He is the 
most excellent son of Devaki. He is the delight of Devaki, 
Nanda and Rohini. He b a favourite of Vasudeva and hb . 
son. Hb smiles are both like Dundhuvi (tnmipets) and : 
flowers. He b fond of laughing aloud. He b the lord of • 

* An epithet of Vishnu. 


all, decaying and undecaying. He is Achyuta (undecaying), 
the lord of truth and is fond of truth. He is the most 
beloved husband of Rukshmini. He is the* favourite of 
milk women and his piety has been sung in well known 
verses. He is Vrish^kapi, Yama, Guhya, Mangala, Budha, 
R^hu, Ketu, the crocodile^ and the union of the mouths of the 
elephants. He is the destroyer of crocodiles and the 
protector of the headmen of villages. He is the Kinnara, 
Siddha, the Prosody and easiness. He is of the universal 
form, of large eyes and the slayer of the Daityas. He is of 
endless forms, is stationed in elements, in the celestials and 
Danavas. He exists in dreamless sleep, is dreamless sleep 
itself and is the place for it. He exists in an awakened state, 
is the agent and the place thereof. He exists in the state of 


dreamless sleep, is conversant with it and is the dream itself 
He also exists in the fourth state devoid of these three states 
of dreamless sleep, dreaming sleep and awakening. He is 
the discriminating knowledge, is Chaitra, the sentiency and 
the creator of sentiencies. He is the lord of the worlds and 
the ordainer of the worlds. He resides in the nether region, 
the nether region itself and the destroyer of all sorts of 
feverish complaints. He is of the form of great felicity and 
the propounder of various forms of faith. He is easily 
accessible, and accessible with difficulty. He is engaged in 
Pr^niylma {suppression of vital air). He is Pratyahara,* 
Dh^rakaf and the maker of Pratyahara. He is effulgence, 
personal grace, rays, pure and like unto crystal. He is above 

* It is the Yogic process of restraining the organs of senses from 
suscipitibility to outward impressions, and directing them entirely to 
mental perceptions. This is one of the means for effecting the entire 
subjugation of the senses. 

t Steady thought ; retention or holding of the image or idea formed 
en the mind by contemplation. 


perception, white coloured, the all and pure. He is Vashat* 
kar,* Vashat, Voushat, SwadhA, S\v&h«L and inclination there- 
to. He is the agent of cooking, -giving delight, eating, 
understanding and thinking. He is identical with knowledge 
and understanding. He is the Great and the Creator of all 
Creators* He is the river, Nandi,t the lord of Nandi and 
the destroyer of the trees of India. He is the holder of 
discus, the husband of Shree and the king of the Lords 
Paramount. He is the master of all the celestials and is 
the leisure. He is Pushkara,| the lord of Pushkara and 
the Pushkara island. He is Bharata, Janaka, Janya§ 
and is devoid of all forms. He is without any form, 
without any cause, without any fear and without any 
help. O bull-emblemed deity, I have thus described 
to you the thousand names of the Lord Vishnu destruc- 
tive of all sins. By reading them a Brahmana attains 
to Vishnu-hood, a Kshatriya acquires victory, a Vaishya 
acquires riches and a Shudra is endued with reverential faith 
in Vishnu. 



RuDRA said : — O holder of conch-shell, discus and club, 
do thou again describe the Dhyana (meditation) of the Deity, 
the Lord Vishnu, the pure, impersonal self. 

HaRI said : — Hear, O Rudra, Hari's dhyana^ destructive 
of the tree of transmigatory series, never seen before, exten- 
ding all over and eternal. It is undecaying, present always 

* An exclamation used in making an oblation to a deity with the 
dative fomn of the deity. 

t The attendant of Shiva. It may also mean the character in a 
drama who introduces the prelude. 

X Literally it means a " lotus." It is an epithet of Krishna. 

S Father. 


and every where and consists only in the thought " I am 
Brahma." [Meditate on him as] the root of the entire world, 
the lord of all, the Great Demiurgus, as stationed in the 
hearts of all creatures, as the great lord of all creatures. 
He is the container of all, having none to contain 
him and is the cause of all causes. He does not come 
in contact, is emancipated and is being meditated on by 
emancipated Yogins. He is without the gross body, 
the eyes, organs of vitality, the action of vital airs, the 
organs of generation and execretion, the organs of sense, 
the mind, the action of mind, intellect, mental faculties, 
egoism, the action of intellect, the vital airs, PrSina, Ap&na 
and their actions. 

Hari said : — I will describe again the adoration of the 
sun which had been related formerly unto Bhrigu. 

Om salutation unto Khakholka. 

This is the principal mantram of the sun affording emanci- 
pation and objects of enjoyment. 

Om salutation unto God Khakholka. Om unto rays ta, ta, 
salutation unto the head. Om unto knowledge, salutation 
unto the tuft of hair on the head. Om unto him of thousand, 
ta, ta, salutation unto the amulet. 

Om salutation unto the master of all light. Ta, Ta, salu- 
tation unto the weapon. Om, burn, burn, burn burn, ta, ta, 

This is the. fiery mantram of the sun destructive of the 

Om Adityaya, Vidmahe, Vishwabhavaya dhimahi, Tanna 
Suryye Prachodayat. 

The worshipper should perform the Sakalikarana rite 
with this Gayatri of the sun. He should worship Dharma 
in the east, Yama in the south, Dandan^yaka and Vaivama 
in the north, dark-blue, twany and other colours in north-east 
and north-west, the holder of thunder-bolt in the south-west 
and the earth and sky in the north-west. 


Om salutation unto the moon the lord of stars. Om 
salutation unto egoism the son of the earth. Om, salutation 
unto Budha, the son of Soma. Om salutation unto the lord 
of speech, the master of all forms 6f learning. Om 
salutation unto Bhrigu's son, the great saint Shukra. Om 
salutatatioQ unto Shani (Saturn) the son of the sun. Om 
salutation unto Rihu. Om salutation unto Ketu. 

In all the quarters beginning with the east and ending 
with the north-east all these should be adored, O bull-em- 
blemed deity. 

Om salutation unto Anuruka. Om salutation unto the lord 
of Pramathas.* Om salutation unto Budha. O lord ! O 
thou endued with immeasurable rays ! O lord of the entire 
world ! O thou carried by seven horses I O thou having 
four arms ! O thou, the giver of great supernatural powers I 
O thou twanty-coloured with scintillations ! O auspicious 
deity, take this arghya. Salutation unto thee. Take this 
dreadful fire. Burn, burn, ta, ta, salutation. 

Having invoked the sun-god with this mantram he should 
make the Visarjana (life-destroying rite) with the following 

Om salutation unto the sun endued with six lordly 
powers, of a thousand rays. Go happily to return again. 



Hari said : — I will describe the adoration of the sun 
formerly related unto the god of riches.t 

* Shiva. t Kuvera* 


In a purified place a worshipper sbouid draw the figure 
of a lotos with e^t petals and pericarps. Then making 
Avakam nudra* he should invoke Hari there. 

He should place in the middle the diagram form of the 
Sim and sprinkle it with water. He should place the heart of 
the deity in the quarter presided over by the fire-god. He 
should place the head in the north-east and the tuft of hair in 
the south-west. He, having his mind fixed in concentration, 
should assign Dharma to this quarter preuded over by Puran- 
dara. He should place his eyes in the north-west and his 
weapon in the comer presided over by Varuna. He should 
place Soma in the north-east and Lokita in the quarter be- 
longing to Purandara. He should place Soma's son in the 
east and Vrihaspati in the south. He should place the pre- 
ceptor of the Danavast in the south-west and Shani (Saturn) 
in the comer presided over by Varuna. He should place 
Ketu in the north-west and Rahu in the quarter presided 
over by Kuvera. 

In the second apartment, he should adore the twelve 
suns viz Bhaga, Suryya, ArjramS, Mitra, Varuna, Savita, 
Dh&tl, the highly powerful Vivashwan, Twasta, Pusha, and 
Indra. The twelfth is Vishnu. In the quarters beginning 
with the east, a man, filled with 'reverence, should adore 
Indra and other deities, JayS, Vijayl, Jajranti, Aparajita, 
Sesha, Vftsuki and other Nagas. 

* A particular kind of the arrangement of fingers made before in« 
voicing a particular dotty, 
t Shukra. 


SuTA said : — I will describe the Ardina (adoration) of 
Mritunjaya (the victor of death) narrated unto Kashyapa by 
Ganida, which gives redemption, is holy and identical with 
all the deities. 

First Om should be placed, then Jumkara and thirdly 
Virsarga. This mantram destroys death and poverty. This 
great mantram of three letters is the lord of ambrosia. By 
reciting it people become freed from death and all sorts of 
sins. By reciting it a hundred times one reaps the fruit of 
Vedic recitations and of the celebration of sacrifices at sacred 
places. By reciting it one hundred and eight times at three 
periods of junction one defeats the Death and his enemies. 
He should meditate on the lord of ambrosia, seated on a white 
lotus, the g^ver of boons, with the promise of protection in one 
hand and jars full of nectar in two other hands. He should 
think of the goddess of ambrosia as stationed on his limb, 
sweet-sp^eched like ambrosia, holding the pitcher in her right 
hand and lotus in the left. He, who recites it eight thousand 
times at the three periods of junction for one full month, 
becomes freed from decrepitude, death and leprosy, 
defeats his enemies and gives peace unto all creatures. He 
is the [real] worshipper who knows the site [of a temple], 
the placing [of an idol] , the suppression of vital airs, the 
appearance, the temple, water for washing feet, the water for 
rinsing mouth, the water for bathing, Arghya, Aguru, pastes, 
lamps, raiments, ornaments, edibles, drinks, drinking water, 
^^atra, Mudra, recitation, meditation, gifts, oblation, the 
chanting of glories, playing on musical instruments, singing, 
dancing, Ny«Lsa (assignment of limbs), yoga, circumambula- 
ticyi, bowing, mantrams, clarified butter, eulogy, (the life- 
destroying rite) Visarjana, the adoration with six ingredients 
emanating in order from the mouth of the great Deity. 


The Arghya, Padya, &c., should be fanned with a piece 
of cloth, and then purified with Kavacha mantrams and then 
the rite of Amriti-Karana (conversion into nectar) should be 
performed. Then Adhara Sakti^ should be adored and 
PrSlnayima (suppression of vital airs) should be practised in 
the seat. Then the purificatory rite of Pinda\ should be per- 
formed. Then with Agni and other mantrams he should medi- 
tate on the self as being identical with the deity. He should 
then make assignment of hands and other limbs and after- 
wards adore the self in the form of light stationed in the lotus 
of the heart. He should then throw shining flowers on the 
idol or thei altar. For the adoration of the door of the self the 
Adhira Saktis should be worshipped. And bringing one^s 
self near the deity he worships his family. For the adora- 
tion of six Angas (limbs) the quarters should be divided. 
Dharma and other gods, Shakra and other celestials, the 
various members of their families and their weapons, the 
cycles, and the Muhurttas (divisions of time) should be adored. 
This worship yields enjoyment and emancipation. He should 
first adore the Matrikas, Ganas, Nandiganga, MahakSila, 
Yamuna and Dehalya. 

Om salutation unto Bhairava, the lord of ambrosia. Evam, 
Om, Jum, Sas, salutation unto the sun. In this way adora- 
tions should be offered to Shiva, Krishna, Brahma, Gana, 
Chandika, Saraswati, Mahalakshmi and others. 


* Female deities presiding over various articles, 
t Balis of food offered to the departed manes. 


SuTA said : — I will now describe the Praneshwara* rite of 
Garuda narrat<id by Shiva. 

I shall first describe the places where a person, bitten by 
a serpent, does not survive, tf/xr., funeral pyre, ant-hill, well, and 
the cavity of a tree. The person, three lines on whose limbs, 
are hidden, does not live. [A man dies if he is bitten] in 
the sixth day of the fort-night, when the sun is in the cons- 
tellation Cancer, when it is in the Aries, when it is with the 
asterism Mula or when it b in the Maghaf or Asblesha^ 
[A man dies when he is bitten] on the sides, on the loins, on 
the throat, on the joints or the temple, ears or belly. The 
Dandin (hermit), a person holding weapons, a mendicant 
and a naked person are the emissaries of Death.§ If d: person 
is bitten on the mouth, arms, neck, and on the back, he does 
not survive. 

Every day the sun, first of all, lords, for half a Yama,|| 
over all the serpents. Then with six revolutions the six 
planets lord over them. In the night with five revolutions 
the five planets lord over them. The sun is the presiding 
star of Sesha, the moon of Phani, Mars of Taksbaka, Jupiter 
of Karkotyna, Venus of Padma and Mahapadma, Saturn of 
Shankha, and Rahu of Kuluka and Ahi. Jupiter is the Death 
itself in both days and nights.^ Saturn is Death in the day and 

« U perhaps refers to the rile for counteracting the evil effects of the 

f The ninth Nakshatra or lunar mansion containing five stars. 

\ The tenth lunar mansion containing five stars. 

{ The meaning is that if these persons are sent for calling a phy- 
sician the patient dies. 

1 Eighth part of a day. A watch of three hours. 

^ If a person is bitten on Thursdays he never survives under any 


the period when Rahu presides over Kuluka at the hour^ 
of the conjunction of two-half Yamas, it is hostile to life. 

A day, consisting of sixty dandas^ should be distributed 
over a human body divided into three sections. Five dandas 
should be assigfhed to the toe, twelve to the feet, five to the 
calf, two to the knee and one to the organ of generation. Six 
dandas should be assigned to the navel, four to the breast 
and eight to the throat. Fifteen dandas should be allotted 
to the tip of the nose and one each to the eye, ear, eye-brow, 
and temple. Then all the days, beginning with Pratipat^ the 
first day of a fort night, should be allotted to all the limbs 
beginning with the bead. If the moon lords over the right 
part of a man's body he does not survive. If it lords over 
the left part of a woman's body she dies. The benumbed 
part should be rubbed over with a hand till unconsciousness 
is not removed. 

The great mantram of self, pure like crystal, called Hansa, 
is to be known as one which counteracts the evil effect of 
poisoning. Its Veeja \& of four sorts. 

Om, Kuru, Kunde Sw^lhSL. 

Formerly this learning was kept by Garuda for protecting 
the three worlds. Desirous of killing the serpents he assigned 
Pranava to his mouth. An intelligent worshipper should assign 
Kuru to his throat, Kunda to the calves, and Swaha to the 
two feet. This Nyasa is called Yugaha. The serpents leave 
the house in which this mantram is written. Having 
recited it a thousand times one should place a thread on his 
ear. The serpents leave the house in which sugar, after 
reciting this mantram, is thrown. By reciting it seven lacs 
of times the celestials and Asuras obtain Siddhi, 

Om, Swaha unto golden lines, unto him having the form 
of a fowl. 

In this way two letters should written on each petal of a 

* One sixtieth part of day and night. Twenty four minutes. 


lotus of eighteen petals. When a person, bitten by a snake, 
is sprinkled wiUi water with this mantram the poison 
goes out. 

Om, pakshi (bird) S.w2lhS. Then the assignment of all 
fingers, beginning with the thumb and ending with the 
youngest finger, should be made in the body. Garuda 
should be assigned to the mind, mouth, heart, organ of 
generation and feet. Even in a dream the venomous serpents 
do not transgress his shadow. He, who recites this mantram 
for a lac of times, destroys the poison even by his very sight. 
Om, Hrom, Hroum, Hdm, BhirundSyai SwShS. 

Having recited this mantram by placing his finger on the 
ear one should destroy the poison of the person bitten. He 
should then assign a, d to the tips of the feet, eA. to the 
calves and knees, u, i, a ai to the waist, or to the navel, and 
on to the heart. He should assign am to the mouth and as 
to the head. Hansa^ when recited, meditated on and adored, 
destroys all sorts of poison. Having meditated " I am 
Garuda" he should perform the rite destructive of poison. 
Having assigned the mantram Ham to the body he should 
say '' Destroy poison, &c." Having assigned Hansa to the 
left hand, he should close up his mouth and nostrils. This 
mantram destroys the poison affecting the skin and flesh. 
Having attracted it by the air he should remove the poison 
of the person bitten. He should next assign it to the body 
of the person bitten and meditate on the blue-throated 
deity (Shiva). When the juice of the root of Pratyangira 
is drunk with rice it destroys poison. The root of the new 
Phalin is eijually effective. When clarified butter is pasted 
on the head it also destroys poison. If a person drinks up 
hot ghee (clarified butter) the poison is not increased. If 
the root of Sirisha compounded in five parts with one part 
of red garlic (Grin j ana) is pasted all over the body or is 
drunk it destroys poison. 

Hrim destroys the poison of Gonasha (a large kind of 


snake Boa). When the man tram Hrim ending with Visarga 
is meditated on it brings all under control ; when it is as- 
signed to the female organ it brings a maiden under control 
and clears up the muddy water. Having recited "Garuda is 
every where" fifty-six thousand times a person becomes a 
poet, well read in Sruti and obtains a submissive wife. The 
theme of the Muni Vyasa forsooth destroys poison. 



SUTA said :— I will now now describe the highly secret 
mantrams narrated by Shiva. His weapons are the noose, 
the bow, the discus, the club, the dart and Pattisha. Having 
used these weapons inspired with mantrams in a battle a 
king conquers his enemies. The mantram for purifying the 
mantrans should be first written on a lotus petal. Om is the 
Brahma Vijam, Hrim is the Vishnu Vijatn. These three 
Vijams should be assigned to the head of Shiva thrice in 

Om, Hrim, Hr}m. 

Having taken up the dart in his hand he should whirl it in 
the sky. By seeing it all the evil stars and serpents are 
destroyed. Having held the smoky coloured bow by the 
hand a man should meditate on it in the sky. By it the 
wicked serpents, the levil stars, clouds and Rakshasas are 
destroyed. This mantram protects the three worlds, what to 
speak of the land of mortals ? 

Om, jum, Sam, Hum, Phat. Eight sticks of Catechu 
wood, inspired with mantrams, should be placed on the 
ground. That will prevent the falling of thunder-bolt. The 
eight sticks should be inspired with great mantram described 


by Caruda. The ground should be dug twenty one times in 
the night. This will ward off the dangers proceeding from 
lightning, mouse, and thunder-bolt. 

The mantram is : — Hara, Kshara, amaia, Vashat, added 
with Vindu Sadasiva. 

Om, HratHf salutation unto Sadashiya. 

He should then assign fiinda (balls of rice) effulgent like 
Darimi flowers with the fore-finger. By seeing it the evil 
clouds, lightning and other enemies viz. the Rakshasas, 
goblins and female ghosts fly away into the ten quarters. 

Om, Hrim, salutation unto Ganesha. Om, Hrim, salutation 
unto the chakra of Sthambhana. 

Om, em, salutation unto the Damaras of the three worlds. 

This finda is called Bhairava which counteracts the effect 
of poison and the evil effects of the hostile planets. It pro- 
tects the field and grinds the goblins and Rakshasas. 

Om, Namas. Having meditated on the thunder-bolt of 
his hand he should ward off the evil influence of wicked 
clouds and with Vajra Mudra all the ghosts, the enemies 
with pobon. Om, Kshum, Namas. He should meditate on 
his left hand. It destroys all venomous creatures. 

Om, Hram, Namas. The very recitation of this mantram 
destroys the evil clouds and stars. Having meditated on 
death he should consume the universe with the destroying 

Om, Kshma, Namas. 

Meditating on Bhairava one should remove the evil influ- 
ences of stars, goblins and poison. 

Om lasat, jhvaksha Swihl. This mantram destroys the 
enemies of the field vtj, the evil stars, goblins, poison and 

Om Ksham Namas. The figure of a cistern should be drawn 
with blood and then the names of planets should be written 



Ora, Mara, Mara, Maraya, Maraya Sw2ha. Onii Hum/ 
Phat, Swaha. 

The dart should be inspired mentally with eight hundred 
mantrams. It destroys all the enemies. 

With higKer energies the lower ones should be suppressed. 
Then the mantrams should be practbed in Puraka* and 
should be again well inspired in Kumihaia.f They should 
then be received with Pranava. When the mantrams are thus 
properly received and used they yield fruts like servants. 



SUTA said : — I will now describes separately the adoration 
of Panchavakira (five mouths) which yeilds enjoyment and 

Om bhur [salutation unto] Vishnu, the first bhuta, the 
stay of all, unto him having a form, Swaha. 

First of all witii this mantram invocation of Sadyajata 
(Shiva) should be made. 

Om, Ham salutation unto Sadyajata. His kalas (parts) 
are eight in number viz, Siddhi, Riddhi, Dhriti, Lakshmi, 
Medha, Kanti, Swadha, Sthiti. 

Om, Ham, salutation unto Vamadeva. His kalas are 
thirteen in number, vizy Raja, Raksha, Rati, Palya, Kanti, 
Trishna, Mati, Kriya, Kama, Buddhi, Rati, Trasani, and 

* A Yogie posture in which the thumb is placed on the right nostril 
and the fingers raised from the left through which the breath is inhaled. 

t The posture in which both nostrils are closed and breathing 


Manonmani, AghorS, Moh§, KshudhS, Kala, Nidra, Mrityu, 
Maya — these arc the eight dreadful Kalas. 

Om, Hraim, salutation unto Tatpurusha. His Kalas are 
Nivrithi, Pratishtha, Vidya, Shanti and Kevala. 

Om, Hroum, salutation unto Ishana. His kalas are Nish- 
chata, NiranjanS, Shashini, Anganl, Marichi and Jv^lini. 


SuTA said : — I will now describe the great adoration of 
Shiva which yeilds enjoyment and emancipation. He is of a 
quiescent soul, present every where, void and stationed in a 
room of twelve parts. His ^w^ mouths are represented by 
five short vowels and his limbs by leng vowels added with 
Vindu. His weapon is represented by Visarga. Then the 
word Shiva should be written upwards. With the sixth the 
great mantram Houm impregnated with various meanings 
should be written. With hands the after parts of the feet 
should be held and then the ends thereof should be placed 
on the head. This is the great Mudra. Then the assignment 
of hands should be made. With the astra mantram the back 
should be purified. Then beginning with the youngest finger 
and ending with the fore all the fingers should be assigned. 

I wilt now describe the adoration in the pericarp of the 
lotus of the heart. One should adore religion, knowledge^ 
disassociation from the world and prosperity in the heart. 
The invocation and the installation [rites of the Deity], the 
water for washing feet and Arghya should be dedicated to 
the heart. And similarly the rinsing of the mouth, sprink- 
ling of water and adoration should be made. 


I will now describe the rites of fire worship. Thej 
should be written with the astra mantram. Then the coat 
of mail should be sprinkled with water. And Sakti should 
be assigned to the heart. Then he should place fire either 
in the heart or in the pit for Sakti. Having performed the 
GarbhldhSna he should celebrate the other rites. Afterwards 
having assigned to the heart the freedom from all those rites 
as well as all other rites he should perform Homa for Shiva 
and all the members of his family. Then in a diagram having 
the figure of a lotus drawn inside it he should worship the 
bull-emblemed deity Shambhu. 



SurA said: — I will describe the adoration of Shiva bj^ 
which religious profit, desire &c. are secured. With threcr 
mantrams beginning with Om and ending with Swlhi ther 
mouth should be rinsed with water. 

Om, Ham, salutation into the principle of self. Hirm^ 
salutation unto the principle of learning. Om, Hum, saluta^ 
tion unto the principle of Shiva Swaha. The ears should be 
closed with the heart. 

Om, ham, yam, Swaha, are the mantrams for bathing 
with ashes and offering oblations of water. All the gods- 
and all the Munis should be adored with the mantram* 
" Salutation bhoushat." 

All the Pitris and all the Pitamahas (patriarchs) should be- 
adored with mantrams ending with the word Swadha. 

Om, Ham, salutation unto the great grand-fathers. The 
same is for the maternal grand-fathers. [The next is] Hatp,, 


salutation unto all the Matris. Then the vital airs should be 
suppressed. Then he should rinse his mouth with water, rub 
his body and recite the Gayatri [which is as follows]. 

Om, Ham, Tan Maheshaya Vidmahe, VSLgvishudhaya. 
dhimahi Tan no Rudra Prachodayat. 

Then having placed near the sun be should adore him with 
Surya (sun) mantrams. [It is] Om, ham, Him, Hum, Haim,, 
Houm, Has salutation unto Shiva Suryya. Om, Ham saluta^ 
tion unto Kakolka, the form of the sun. Om, Hram, Hrim, 
Sas, salutation unto the sun. In the same way [the atten- 
dants of the sun] Dandina and Pingala should be remem- 
bered. Then in the south-east and other comers of the mystic> 
diagram Vinata, Ish& and other powers of the sun should be- 
adored with great felicity. Then he should adore PadmSL 
with the mantram Ram, Dipta with the Sreem^ Sukshma 
with rum, Jaya with rem, Bhadr2L with raim, Bibhuti with- 
rom and VimalSL with Roum, He should adore lightnings- 
with Ram, in the east and other quarters, rom in the middle 
and ran on all sides. He should adore the seat of the sun,, 
the form of the sun and the sun itself with the mantran^. 
" Hr5m, Hrum, Sas." 

Om and am are the mantrams for the he^rt of the sun* 
and his head and tuft of hair. Roum is for heaven, sky and- 
earth. The burning mantram Hum is for the coat of mal! ; 
astram is for the initiated queen. The worshipper should^ 
adore all in the heart of the sun. 

Som is the mantran for Soma, Man for Mangala, Vam* 
for Budha, Vrim for Vrihaspati, bham for Bhargava, Jum for 
Shani and ram for Rahu. With Ram one should adore Ketu: 
and with Om the solar disc. 

Having adored the sun and rinsed his mouth with water 
be should assign all the fingers beginning with the youngest. 

Ham, Him is the mantram for the head,. Hum for Sikhi 
(tuft of hair), Haim for coat of mail, Houm for eyes and 
Hos for the weapon. Having thus placed the Sakti he 


should perform sgdAn the nyasa of bhuta-suddhi (purificatioa 
of elements). 

Then making a vessel of atghya, he should sprinkle it 
with water and then adore the self as being stationed in the 
lotus, in the exterior with the mantram " Salutation unto 
Shiva/' then Nandi and Mahakila at the gate, then Ganga, 
Yamuna, the goddess of speech, (the mystic mark) Srivatsa, 
the presiding goddess of the land, BrahmSL, Gana, the 
preceptor, Sakti and Ananta in the middle pericarp, Dharma 
(the 'god of virtues and others, in the east and other sides, the 
god of sin (Adharma) and others in the south-east pericarp, 
Yama and Jejeshtha in the middle pericarp, Roudri, KUli and 
ShivSlsita in the eastern pericarp of the lotus of the heart. 
Then the Valavikarini should be adored with the mantram 
" Om, Houm, salutation unto Valavikarini". The goddess of 
strength, which subdues aJl creatures, should be next adored. 
Then in the pitha before Shiva Manonmani should be adored. 
He should then make a seat for Shiva and his great image. 
He should invoke the sp irit of Shiva within the image. He 
should then perform the rites of Sthapanam (installation of 
the image), Sannidhana, Nirodha, Sakalikarana, Mudra, 
Arghya, Padya, Achama, Abhyanga, Udvarta, Snina (bathing) 
and Nirmanchana (rubbing). Next he should offer raiments, 
unguents, flowers, incense, lamps, charu (a kind of food) water 
for rinsing mouth, delightful habitation, betel, umbralla, 
chowries, and sacred thread. He should then imagine the form 
of one God, recite his name and dedicate it to him. With 
eulogy, bowing and [meditation in the] heart this adoration 
of NSLmanga (Name and limbs) should be finished. Agnisha 
should be placed in the north-west. He should then adore 
Indra and other deities and Chanda and dedicate to them 
offerings, saying " Thou art the mysterious of the mysterious 
and the protector. Do thou accept this my recitation. O 
god, may I, by thy favour and on thy being present here, 
attain success. O god ! O thou the giver of fame ! do thou 


destroy all my actions, good or bad whatever I have done 
who am of the dignity of Shiva. Shiva is the giver, Shiva is 
enjoyer and Shiva is the entire universe. Shiva is victorious 
everywhere. I am myself Shiva. O Shiva ! thou art the 
saviour and the leader of the universe. Save thee I have no 
other lord." 

I shall now describe another method of the adoration of 
Shiva. Gana, Saraswati, Nandi, Mahlk^Ia, Gang?l, Yamuna, 
and the presiding deity of the house — all these should be assign- 
ed to the eastern gate. Then should be adored Indra and other 
deities, earth, water, fire, air, sky, smell, taste, form, sound, 
touch, speech, hand, feet, the organ of generation, ear, 
skin, tongue, nose, mind, egoism, nature, man, anger, malice, 
learning, proper time, improper time, fate, (illusion, pure 
learning, Isluvara (creator) and Sadasiva. 

Having known all these as the powers of Shiva an 
emancipated person, having the true knowledge of the deity, 
becomes himself Skiva. [He should also meditate] " He who 
is Shiva is Hari and BrahmSL. 



SUTA said : — I will now describe the most excellent 
adoration of Ganas* which gives all and even heaven. The 
worshipper should adore the seats qf Ganas, the images of 
Ganas and the lord of Ganas. Heart and other limbs should 
be assigned to DurgS. The sandals of the preceptor, the 
seat of Durg^ and her image should be adored with the 

* Troops o£ fnferior deities considered as Shiva's attendants anil 
under the special suptrintendcnce of Ganetha« 


mantram : — ** Hrim, O DurgSL, protect" Then assignm ent 
should be made to the eight Saktis, called Chandikas, viz 
Rudrachanda, Prachanda, Chandogra, Chandanayika, Chanda, 
Chandavati and Chandanipa with the mantram " O Durg&, 
O Ourgi, O protectress" Then Vajra, Khanga and other 
Mudras of Shiva should be adored in the south-east Then 
SadasivSL, the lord of goblins and the lotus seat [should be 

£m, Klim, salutation unto Sonstripura. Om, Hrami Hrim, 
Kshem, Kshaim, Strim, Skom, Rom, Sphem, Sphom, the 
lotus seat and the heart &c of Tripura. 

Then in the lotus pitha (altar) should be adored Brahmanii 
Maiieshwarii Koumiri, Vaishnavii Vir&hii Indradevatl, 
Chamundi and Chandika. Then :the Bhairavas should be 
adored. AsitSnga, Rum, Chanda, Krodha, Unmattabhairavai 
Kapali, Bhishana, and Samhara, are the Jtight Bharavasa. 
He should meditate in his heart, in a mandala (diagram) with 
a lotus inside it and having three comers, on Rati, Priti, 
Kilmadeva, the five arrows, Yogini, Valuksi, Huiga, Vighnar&jai 
Xjuru (preceptor) and Kshatrapa. 

By reciting this mantram for a lac of times and by offer- 
ing oblations to the fire Tripura gives Siddhi. 


SUTA said :— Em, Krim, Shrim, Sphem Kshoum, I adore 
the paduka.(shoe), of Ananta-Sakti. 

Em, Hrim, Phroum, Kshoum, I adore the paduka of 
AdhSLrSL-Sakti, salutation. 

a These are the personifications of the terrific power of Shiva* 



Om, Hum, I dore the paduka of Katagni Rudra, saluta- 
tion. Om, Hrim, Hum, I adore the paduka of Hatakeshwara, 

Om, Hrim, Shrim, I adore the seat called Ananta, having 
the earth, insular continents and the oceans on all sides, 

Hrim, Srim, Nrivritti and other Kalas. Earth and other 
elements. Ananta and other worlds. Omkar and other 
letters. The nine syllables Hakar etc. Sadyajita and other 
Man trams. 

Ham, the heart and other limbs. This is the mantram 
of Maheswara. It is identical with the most consummate 
learning and is the ocean of great ambrosia. 



SuTA said : — Thereupon Karanyasa (assignment of hands) 
and the purificatory rite should be performed. Having formed 
Padmamudra he should make the assignment of mantrams. 

Koum, salutation unto the youngest finger. Noum, salu- 
tation unto the nameless (ring) finger. Moum, salutation 
unto the middle finger. Toum^ salutation unto Tarjani. Am, 
salutation unto Augustha. Um salutation unto the soles of 
the hands. Vam, salutation unto the back of hands. 

Then Deha (body) Ny^sa. Kam, salutation unto 
Manivandha. Em, Hrim, Shrim, salutation unto K^Lraskara. 
He should consecrate the hands with Hum Hum, effulgent like 
the great fire. 

Em, Hrim, Hrim, Shrim, Hraim, Saphaim, salutation unto 
Bhagavate. Sphaim salutation unto KuvjikAyai.* Hnim, 

^ An unmarriod girl of 8 years. 


Hrim, Kroum Anganame of dreadful mouth. HaiOi Hinii : 
Kilikili,. Hrini| * H rioii Shrioii Em, salutation untot Bhagavate 
of the upper mouth. Sphoum, salutation unto Kuvijakayai. 
of the left mouth. Hrim, Shrim, Hrim/ salutation unto 
Anganame of the southern mouth. Om, Hrim, Shrim^ 
salutation unto Kilikili right mouth. Om, salutation unto. 
Ag^oramukhiJ (dreadful mouthed) of the northern mouth. 
Om, Namas salutation unto the heart of Bhag^avate. Kshem, 
Em, Kuvjikayai, Sirase (head) Sw2Lh2l. Hrim, Krim, Hrimi 
Pram, Ang, A Na Name, Shikhayai (tuft of hair), Aghora- 
mukhi, KavachSLya, (coat of mail) Hum. Haim, Im, unto 
three eyes Voushat. Kiliki unto weapons phat. 

Em, Hrim, Shrim, salutation unto the mystic diagram of 
the great dart of a connected circular form. Em, Hrim, 
Shrim, salutation unto the circular orb of the air. Em, 
Hrim, Shrim salutation unto the disc of the moon. Em, 
Hrim, Shrim, salutation unto the mystic diagram of 
Mahakulavodhllvali. Em, Hrim, Shrim, salutation unto the « 
mystic diagram of Koula. Em, Hrim, Shrim, salutation unto 
the mystic diagram for the preceptor. Em, Hrim, Hrim, 
salutation unto the mystic diagram of the Saman. Em, 
Hrim, Shrim, salutation unto the diagrams of the principal 
and minor pithas of all Siddha yoginis, of all the principal 
fields and minor ones and of all their offspring. 

These twelve mystic diagrams should be adored in order 
of succession. 


SUTA said : — Om, O thou the skeleton of Kila and 
Vikala ! O Chandini ! O thou the destroyer of creatures ! O 

•'dARUDA PURANA^r. ^7 

Ihoa the venom of serpents ! 6 Virathanarayani ! ITma f O 
tlioa of burning hand ! O Chanel I O Roudri ! O MSiheswarr, 
O thoa of a hage mouth, O thou of a burning mouth f O 
thou having dart-like ears! O Sukanrundhaf O thou the 
destroyer of all, destroy the enemies. Khakha, thou dost 
look at all with thy entire body covered with blood. O 
goddess ManasS I Stupify all, stupify all. Q goddess f thou 
art bom in the heart of Rudra, thou art stationed there and 
thou dost appear in a terrific form. Protect, Protect Mam, 
Hum, Mam, Phapha, Tata, O thou wearing a girdle of beads. 
O thou destroyer of the poison of plants and enemies. O 
O ShSiM ! O MM& r Hara, Hara, Vishoka, Ham, Ham f 
Shavari, Hum, Shavari, Prakonavishare ! Sarve ! Vinchamegha 
Mile ! It is destructive of the poison of all serpents. 


SUTA said :^ will now describe the adoration of 
Gopila which yeilds emancipation and enjoyment. In the 
door Dhiti, Vidh^t^, GangSL with YamunS, the Nidhis 
Sangka and Padma, Sharanga, Sharabha and Shree should 
be adored. In the east should be adored Bhadra and 
Subhadra, in the south Chanda and Prachanda, in the west 
Vala, and Pravala and Jaya and Vijaya in the north. In 
the four doors Shree, Gana, Durgi and Saraswati should be 

In the south-east and other comers of the field N&rada, 
Siddhas, the preceptor, Nalakuvara should be adored. In the 
east the worshipper should adore Vishnu, his asceticism and 
power. Then in the middle be should adore the family of 


Vishnui the . Saktis, the tprtoise, Ananta, earth, religion, 
knowledge and disassociation from the world. He should 
adore pro^erity in the south-east and the manifest -self in 
the north. : He should then adore the Sattwa guna identical 
with Prakriti (nature), and Rajas identical with *Bfl>lia 
(stupefaction) and Tamas, the lotus and the principle of 
egoism, learning, the great principle and the solar 
and lunar. discs. Then in the east he should adore Vimala 
and other seats with the mantrams Shrim, Hrim, salutation 
unto the dearest lord of milk-men, SwSLhS. This is the 
mantram. . . 

In the eastern comers of the diagram of the heart he 
should adore his weapons viz Achakra, Suchakra,. Vicbakra, 
the discus Sudarshana, whidi protects the three 
worlds and destroys the Asuras. Then in the east he 
should adore the Saktis namely Rukshmini, Satyabbima, 
Sunanda, Nignajiti, LakshmanS, MitravrindS, Jamyavati and 
Sushita. Then in the east he should also adore his conch- 
shell, discus, club, lotus, mace, the Shranga bow, sword, 
noose, goad, the mystic mark Srivatsa, and the jewel Kous- 
tava. He should then adore his crown, garland of wild flowers, 
his Indra and other flags, Kumudas, Vishwaksena and 
Krishna along with Shree. By reciting his name and 
adoring him one attains all desired-for objects. 



Hari said : — I will now describe the Trailokyamohini rite 
(fascinating the three worlds) of the foremost of male beings^ 
its adoration and the mantram called Shridhara which 
ycilds religious profit, desire and wives. 


'.Om, Hriin, Shrim, Kiim, Hum, Om, Namas : O foremost 
of male-beings 1 O thou of an incomparable form! O thou 
the abode of the goddess of prosperity I O thou the agitator 
of the entire universe ! O thou who rivest the hearts of all 
women ! O thou who maddenst the three worlds I Distress 
the hearts of all beautiful women amongst the celestials and 
Asuras ; dry them up, strike them, check them^ melt them 
and attract them. O thou of great auspiciousness I O thou 
of good luck ! O thou the giver of all desired-for objects I 
destroy 4uch and such person with thy discus, club or 
sword. Cut him with all thy weapons, strike him with thy 
goad, inflict him. Why dost thou wait. ? Save me, save 
me, so long my Siddhi is not perfected. Hum, phat, salu- 
tation. Shrim, salutation unto the holdisr of Shree and the 
enchanter of the three worlds. Klim, salutation unto the 
foremost of male beings, the enchanter of the three worlds. 

Hum, salutation unto Vishnu, the enchanter of the three 
worlds. Om, Shrim, Hrim, Klim, salutation unto Vishnu, 
the enchanter of the three worlds. 

All the Trailokyamohana mantrams are capable of secu- 
ring the accomplishment of all objects. They may be medi- 
tated upon again separately and in brief. 

Having adored with mantrams the seat, the image, the 
six limbs, discus, club, sword, mace, conch-shell, the Shr2nga, 
arrow, noose, goad, Lakshmi, Garuda and Vbhwaksena one 
attains to all. 



SuTA said :— I will describe in full the auspicious adora- 
tion of Shridhara. The family of all should be looked at 
impartially by the learned. 


Onii Shi^nii salutation unto the heart. ' OiHi Shrinii 'unto 
the head SwSLhS. Om Shram, unto* the tuft of hair oq> the 
head, Vashat. • Onii Shraim unto the coat of mail/HuoK Ofn^ 
Shroura, unto the three eyes, Voushat. Om, Sheas- unto* the 
weapon, Phat. 

Havin<g thus shown unto- self the various Mud^ras ad 
Sangka, Chakra^ Gadi etc. and meditated ion self known a^ 
Shridhara, the holder of conch-shell, discus and duly a wor» 
shipper should adore the deity in the mystic diagram. 
Sastika and othersw He should &st of all adore the seat of 
the god of gods, the holder of ShrSLnga with the folk>wing 
mantram,: O MahSLdeva. Hear them, O Shank'ara. / 

Om, O presiding deity of the seat of Sridfaara, come here. 
Om, salutation unto the entire family of the presiding deity 

of the scat of Achyuta. 

. • • . - 

Om salutation unto Dh^tri,. Om salutation unto VidhSitri. 
Om salutation unto Gangl. Om salutation unto Yamunl.. 
Om salutation unto the Adhira Saktis. Om salutatioa 
unto the tortoise. Om salutation unto Ananta. Om -salu- 
tation unto the earth. Om salutation unto religbn. Om 
salutation unto knowledge. • Om salutation unto Yairagya 
(the spirit of disassociation from the world). Om salutation 
unto prosperity. Om salutation unto irreligion. Om saluta-- 
tion unto ignorance. Om salutation unto • worldliness. Om 
salutation unto poverty. Om salutation unto Skanda. Om 
salutation unto Neela. Om salutation unto the lotus. Om 
salutation unto VimaUL. Om salutation unto Utkarshini. Om 
salutation unto JninSL. Om salutation unto Kriy&. Om salu* 
tation unto Yogin. Om salutation unto PutrSL. Om saluta-. 
tion unto Prarhd. Om salutation unto SatySL. Om salutatioa 
unto Ish^ncL. Om salutation unto Anugraha. Having wor-. 
shipped them, O Rudra and invoked Hari a greatly wise 
worshipper should adore him with these mantrams destruc- 
tive of all sins. 


They are:— Om, Hrim, salutation unto Shridhara, Trailo- 
Icyamohana and Vishnu. 

Om, saliitatioA unto Shree. Om, shrSm, salutation onto 
^he heart. Om, Shrim, salutation unto the head. Om, 
Shmm, salutation unto SikhH (the tuft of hair on the head). 
Om, Shraim, salutation unto the coat of mail. Om, Shroum, 
salutation unto the three eyes. Om, Shras, salutation onto 
the iveapon. Om, saliftation unto the conch-shell. Om, 
salutation unto the letas. Om salutation unto the discus. 
Om, salutation unto the club. Om, salutation unto the mystic 
mark Srivatsa. Om salutation unto the jem Koustava. Om 
salutation unto the garlan4 of {forest flowers. Om, salutation 
unto the yellow raiment Om, salutation unto Brahml. 
Om, salutation unto NSLrada« Om, salutation unto the pre« 
<eptors. Om, salutation «nto Indra. Om, salutation mito 
Agni. Om, salutation*unto Yama. Om, salutation unto Nirhita. 
Om, salutation unto Varuna. Om, salutation unto VSyu. Om, 
salutation unto Soma. Om, salutation unto IshSna. Om, 
salutation unto Ananta. Om, salutation unto Brahman. Om, 
salutation uate Sattwa. Om, salutation unto Rajas. Om, 
salutation uirto Viswaksena. 

Then he should dedicate raiments, sacred thread, scents, 
blowers, incense, lamps and food and then trircumambulate 
the deity. Having dedicated them with great Mantrams 
he should recke the mantram. Having recited it one hundred 
and eight times he should dedicate it. Then for a moment 
he should meditate on the deity stationed in his heart, pure 
4tke crystal, effulgent like a koti of suns, of a delightful 
countenance, gentle, adorned with shining ear-rings, crown, 
lieautiful limbs and a garland of forest flowers. A learned 
worshipper should think of Shridhara in his own form as 
identical with Para Brahma. With the following hymn he 
should chant the glories of the great Ishwara. 

Salutation unto the deity the abode of Shree. Salutation 
Qata the lord of Shree. Salutation unto Shridhara with the 


Shranga bow, unto the giver of prosperity. Salutation again 
and again unto the dearest lord of Shree of^a quiescent soul, 
unto Shriman. Salutation unto the abode of Shri mountain, 
unto him who does us good. Salutation again and again unto 
the mass of spiritual well-being. Salutation again and again 
unte Shrikara. Salutation again and again unto . him who is 
worthy of adoration and being taken refuge with. 

Having thus chanted the hymn, bowed unto him the 
worshipper should perform the Visarjana (the life-destroying 
rite) of the god of gods. 

O Rudra, I have thus described the adoration of the 
great Vishnu. He, who does it with great reverential faith, 
attains to the gpreat station. He, who reads this chapter des- 
cribing the adoration of Vishnu, has all his sins washed off, 
and attains to the exalted station 6f Vishnu. 


RuDRA said : — O lord, do thou again describe unto me 
the adoration of the lord of the universe by which I may 
cross over the most difficult ocean of Samsara (transmigatory 

Hari said :— O bull-emblemed deity, hear, O great one, 
I will describe the adoration of the Lord Vishnu which yeilds 
the most auspicious emancipation and enjoyment. 

Having bathed and performed the rite of SandhySl a 
worshipper should enter the sacrificial room. Having washed 
hands and feet and rinsed his mouth particularly he should 
assign the words of the principal mantram to his hand. Hear, 
hear, O Rudra, I will describe the principal mantram of the 



Weapon. Om, salutation unto Shree. Om, salutation unto 
the conch-shell. Om, salutation unto the lotus. Om, saluta- 
tion unto the discus. Om, salutation unto the club. Om, 
salutation unto the mystic mark Srivatsa. Om, salutation 
unto the jewel Koustava. Om, salutation unto the garland 
of forest flowers. Om, salutation unto the yellow raiment. 
Om, salutation unto the sword. Om, salutation unto the 
mace. Om, salutation unto the noose. Om salutation unto 
the hook. Om, salutation unto the ShrSLnga bow. Om, 
salutation unto the arrow. Om, salutation unto BrahmS. 
Om, salutation unto > Nlrada. Om, salutation unto all the 
Siddhas. Om salutation unto Bhagavan. Om, salutation 
unto the preceptor. Om, salutation unto the great pre- 
ceptor. Om, salutation unto Indra, the king of the celes- 
tialsi bis carrier and entire family. Om, salutation unto 
Agni| the king of fire, his carrier and the entire family. 
Om, salutation unto Yama« the king of the dead, bis 
carrier and the entire family. Om, salutation unto Nirhiti, 
the king of Rakshas, his carrier and the entire family. 
Om, salutation unto Varuna, 'the king of waters, his carrier 
and the entire family. Om, salutation unto Vayu, the 
king of vital airs, his carrier and the entire family. Om, 
salutation unto IshSina, the king of learning, his carrier and 
the entire family. Om, salutation unto Ananta, the king of 
serpents, his carrier and the entire family. Om, salutation 
unto BrahmS, the lord of creation, his carrier and the entire 
family. Om, unto thunder-bolt, Hum, phat, salutation. Om, 
unto Sakti, hum, phat, salutation. Om, unto rod, hum, phat, 
salutation. Om unto the sword, hum, phat, salutation. Om, 
unto the noose, hum, 'phat, salutation. Om unto the stan- 
dard, hum, phat, salutation. Om, unto the club, hum, phat» 
salutation. Om unto the trident, hum, phat, salutation. Om, 
unto the discus, hum, phat, salutation. Om, Voum, salutation 
unto Vishwaksena. 

With these mantramsi Mahidevai bis attendants and 


the gate. 'Orri, ^Alutation unto the AdhSLra Sakti^ Om, 
salutation unto the tortoise* Otn, salutation untd Ananta. 
Om, salutation unto Shree. Om, salutation unto Dbanna« 
Om, salutation unto knowledge. Om, salutation unto the 
spirit of disassociation from the world. Om, salutation unto 
religion. Om, salutation unto Worldliness. Om salutation 
unto poverty. Omi salutation unto Sattwa. Om^ salutation 
unto Rajas. Om, salutation unto Tamas. Om^ salutation 
unto Slcanda. Om, salutation unto Neela. Om^ salutation 
unto the lotus. Om, salutation unto the solar disc. . Only 
salutation unto the lunar disc. Om, salutation unto the orb 
of fire. Om, salutation unto Vinata. Om, salutation unto 
Utkarshini. Omi salutation unto knowledge. Om, salutation 
unto action. Om, salutation unto disease. Om, salutation 
unto Prarhl. Om, salutation unto Satya. Om; salutation 
unto Ishclna. Om, salutation unto Anugraha. 

With these man trams and scented flowers these deities 
should be adored. Thereupon having worshipped Vishnu^ 
the author of creation and destruction and invoked his 
spirit in the mystic diagram, O Rudra, the worshipper should 
worship the great Ishwara. O Rudra, this religions rite of 
Vishnu destroys all sins. He should first of all make. 
assignment of mantrams in self and the deity. He should then 
show Mudra and afterwards offer Arghya. Then be should 
bathe the deity and next offer raiments and water for rinsing 
the mouth. Next he should present scented flowers, incense^ 
lights and charu. Then circumambulating the idol and recit-* 
ing the name he should dedicate it to him. A worshipper 
should also adore his limbs with other mantrams. Know this 
to be the principal mantram of the deity. Hear, O three-eyed 
deity, I will now describe the other mantrams. 

Om, Ham, salutation unto the heart. Om, Him, salutation 
unto the head. Om, Hum, salutation unto the tuft of hair. 
Om, Haim, salutation unto the coat of mail. Om,. Houm, 
salutation unto the three eyes. Om, Has, salutation unto the 


"Weapon. Om, salutation unto Shree. Om, salutation unto 
the conch-shell. Onii salutation unto the lotus. Om, saluta- 
tion unto the discus. Om, salutation unto the club. Om» 
salutation unto the mystic mark Srivatsa. Om, salutation 
unto the jewel Koustava. Om, salutation unto the garland 
of forest flowers. Om, salutation unto the yellow raimeht. 
Om, salutation unto the sword. Om, salutation unto the 
mace. Om, salutation unto the noose. Om salutation unto 
the hook. Om, salutation unto the ShriLnga bow. Om, 
salutation unto the arrow. Om, salutation unto BrahmS. 
Om, salutation unto * NSrada. Om, salutation unto all the 
Siddhas. Om salutation unto Bhagavan. Om, salutation 
unto the preceptor. Om, salutation unto the great pre- 
ceptor. Om, salutation unto Indra, the king of the celes- 
tialsi his carrier and entire family. Om, salutation unto 
Agnii the king of fire, his carrier and the entire family. 
Om, salutation unto Yama, the king of the dead, bb 
carrier and the entire family. Om, salutation unto Nirhiti, 
the king of Rakshas, his carrier and the entire family. 
Om, salutation unto Varuna, 'the king of waters, his carrier 
and the entire family. Om, salutation unto Vayu, the 
king of vital airs, his carrier and the entire family. Om, 
salutation unto Ishlna, the king of learning, his carrier and 
the entire family. Om, salutation unto Ananta, the king of 
serpents, his carrier and the entire family. Om, salutation 
unto BrahmS, the lord of creation, his carrier and the entire 
family. Om, unto thunder-bolt, Hum, phat, salutation. Om, 
unto Sakti, hum, phat, salutation. Om, unto rod, hum, phat, 
salutation. Om unto the sword, hum, phat, salutation. Om, 
unto the noose, hum, 'phat, salutation. Om unto the stan- 
dard, hum, phat, salutation. Om, unto the club, hum, phat, 
salutation. Om unto the trident, hum, phat, salutation. Om, 
unto the discus, hum, phat, salutation. Om, Voum, salutation 
onto Vishwaksena. 

With these mantramsi Mabadevai his attendants and 

'76* -* GARUDA. PUR ANAM^ 

pa rapharoalU. should \>e adored by men.:. Having adored .thCr 
great Vishnu, identical . with Brahman he should chant the % 
glories of the great undecaying Atman, with the following .^ 
hymn. . . . 

Salutation unto the powerful lord Vishnu, the god of ^ 
gods. Salutation unto Vishnu, unto VSsudeva, the author of 
creation. Salutation unto Grasishnu who lies. at the time of , 
universal dissolution. Salutation unto the lord of celestials 
and sacrifice. Salutation unto Vishnu, the lord of Munis and 
Yakshas.' Salutation unto the great Jishnu, the lord of all 
gods and present every where. Salutation again and again . 
unto the lord of all adored of Brahml, Rudra and Indra. • 
Salutation unto the lord of the world who encompasses the , 
well-being of all {creatures, who protects all, who creates all| , 
who destroys the wicked, who gives boons, ' who is; of a*; 
quiescent soul, who' is worthy of adoration, who is worthy of 
taking refuge with, who is manifest in his own form and. who i 
gives religious profit, worldly profit and desire.. ; . ^ 

Having thus chanted his glories the worshipper should r 
meditate on the undecaying Brahman in his heart and should , 
thus adore Vishnu, O Shankara, with the principal mantranu .. 
The man, who recites this principal mantram, goes to HarL; 
O Riidra, I have thus described unto thee, the most excellent . 
theme of Vishnu, mysterious, highly secret and yeilding; 
emancipation and enjoyment. The learned person, devoted, 
to Vishnu, who reads this, listens to it or makes others listen ; 
to it; goes to the region of Vishnu. 


• • » ; • 




Maheshwara said : — O holder of conch-shell, discus and . 
club, do thou describe the adoration of five Tattwas* by • 
knoyring which discriminately a man attains to the most 
exalted station. 

Hari said :-^-0 Shankara ! O thou of TOod vows ! I will 
describe Ihe adoration of five Tattwas, which yeilds auspici- ' 
ousness and is itself auspicious, heavenly, secret, great and 
yeilds all desired-for objects. Do thou listen to this most . 
sacred subject, O MahSLdeva, which destroys Kali. 

Visudeva is one, undecaying, peaceful, the great soul, 
eternal, unstained. O god, by his MSLySL (illusive power) 
Hari exists in five forms, viz. as Vishnu who favours the 
creation and destroys the wicked, as VSLsudeva, Sangkarshana, 
Pradyumna and Aniruddha. In his own form NidLyana 
exists as five.. O bulUemblemed deity, listen to the mantrams 
expressive of these five forms. 

Om, am, salutation unto VSsudeva. Om, [Im, salutation 
unto Sankarshana. Om, am, salutation unto Pradyumna. 
Om, salutation unto Aniruddha. Om, salutation unto 

I have thus related the five mantrams expressive of the 
five deities. They are destructive of all sins and diseases 
and are holy. I will now describe the most auspicious 
adoration of the five Tattwas — the religious prescription . 
and the mantras involved therein, O Shankara. 

A worshipper should first of all bathe and' then perform 
the Sandhya rite. Then entering the temple of worship he 
should wash his head, rinse his mouth and then sit in a baddha 
posture. Then with the mantram " Am, Kshroum, Ram" 

... . . ■ , 

. • Five Tantrik ingredienls worship. 


the purificatory rite of all the articles should be performed. 
Then hardening the ordinary article he should make to egg. 
And then dividing it he should meditate on the great Ishwara 
in it — ^VSsudeva, the lord of the universe clad in a silk 
raiment, effulgent like a^thousand suns and wearing shining 
Kundalas. Then in the lotus of the heart he should meditate 
on the great Ishwara. Then he should meditate on the 
lordly 'deity Sangkarshana, his own self, Pradyumna, 
Aniruddha, Narayana and all the celestials headed by Indra, 
all originating from the god of gods. Then he should make 
assignment of two hands. Then with the mantrams for 
limbs he should perform the AnganySLsa called VySLpaka, O 
Mah^deva. Listen to these mantrams, O thou of firm 
vows. Om, Sm, salutation unto the heart. Om, Im, 
salutation unto the head. Om, um, salutation ^unto the tuft 
of hair. Om, Em, salutation unto the coat of mail. OnSi 
Oum, salutation unto the three eyes. Om, as, salutation unto ' 
the weapon, phat. 

Om, salutation unto the entire family of Achyuta. Om, 
salutation unto DhSLtri. Om salutation unto VidhSLtri. Om, 
salutation unto the AdhSira Sakti. Om, salutation unto the 
tortoise. Om, salutation unto Ananta. Om, salutation unto 
the earth. Om, salutation unto knowledge. Om, salutation 
unto the spirit of disassociation from the world. Om, salu- 
tation unto prosperity. Om, salutation unto irreligion. Om, 
salutation unto ignorance. Om, salutation unto poverty. 
Om, salutation unto the solar disc. Om, salutation unto the 
lunar disc. Om, salutation unto the orb of fire. Om, salu- 
tation unto V2Lsudeva, the great Brahman, Shiva in the 
form of fire, extending all]over, the presiding lord of all the 
celestials. Om, salutation unto Panchajanya. Om, salutation 
unto Sudarshana. Om, salutation unto the club. Om, salu- 
tation unto the lotus. Om, salutation unto Shree. Om, 
salutation unto Kriy^ (action). Om, salutation unto Pushti 
(nourishment). Om, salutation unto Sakti (energy). Om, 


salutation iinto Priti (affection). Onif salutation unto Indra. 
Onii salutation unto Agni. Omi salutation unto Yama. Onii 
salutation unto Nairita. Om, salutation unto Varuna. Om, 
salutation unto V§yu. Om, salutation unto IshSna. Onii 
salutation unto Ananta. Om, salutation unto Brahml. Onii 
salutation unto Vishwaksena. Om, salutation unto the lotus. 
O Rudra ! I have thus described to thee all the mantrams. 
The adoration should be offere'd in the mystic diagram of 
Sastika and others. Having made the assignment of limbs 
the worshipper should show all the Mudras. Having medi- 
tated as the self, Visudeva and the Great Ishwara a man 
should first worship the seat and then invoke the spirit. O 
bull-emblemed deity, DhStri and Vidh^ltri should be adored 
in the door. O Shankara, before the image of V^sudeva 
a person should adore that of Garuda. He should adore in 
the middle of the diagram [all his paraphamalia] beginning 
with the conch-shell and ending with the lotus. In the east 
[the presiding gods of] religion, knowledge, the spirit of 
disassociation from the world and prosperity [should be 
adored.] In the south-east pitha comers he should adore the 
four deities of irreligion &c. In the petals of the eastern 
side Sangkarshana and other deities should be adored. 
A person should adore the Lord VSLsudeva in the pericarp. 
In the north-east and other corners Panchajanya and other 
weapons should be adored. O Shankara, on the eastern side 
of the god of gods all his Saktis should be adored. In the 
eastern and other sides Indra and other guardian deities of 
the world should be adored. A good worshipper should 
adore the serpent downwards and Brahman Aipwards. O 
Shankara, thou shouldst thus learn of the positions in the 
mystic diagram. O Shankara, having invoked the spirit 
of the deity in the mystic diagram, performed NySsa and 
displayed Mudras a worshipper should dedicate, with the 
principal mantram, water for washing feet and other ingye* 
dients. He should then, O Shankara, bathe him, offer 


• * • 

* ' 

^Vaimeht, 'water for rinsing moi^th, salutation,^ and circumani- 
'bufation. Then he should recite theinanie with the 'principal 
* mantram 'and dedicate it. Then recollecting VSLsudeva he 
*;shouId recite afterwards the following hymn. '. . 

< '^Ofti, salutation' linto VSsudeva. ' Salutation unto'^ang- 

karshana'. . Salutation unto the first deity Pradyumna. Salu- 
'tation unto Aniruddha. Si^lutation unto NirSyana. Saluta- 

tioh unto the lord of men. Salutation ' unto him who is 
' adored by men, whose glories are described and sung by 
' them, and who gives boons. Salutation unto the ancient who 

is without ^beginning and destruction. Salutation unto the 
.lord of Brahma who is the agent of creation and destruction. 


Salutation unto him who is known in^ the Vedas and who 
is the holder of conch-shell and discus. JSalutation unto the 
lord of celestials who saves all from the sins of Kali. Saluta- 
'tion unto him who cuts the tree of SamsSLra (transmigatory 
series) and snaps MSiySi (illusion). Salutation unto him of 
manifold forms, who is identical with all the sacred shrines 
and the three gunas (qualities). Salutation unto him of the 
form of Brahml. and Vishnu, who is the giver of . salvation. 
Salutation unto the road of emancipation, unto religion and 
renunciation. Salutation unto him identical with Para 
Brahman and who gives all desired-for objects. Do thou 
save me who am immersed in the dreadful deep of SamsSra. 
O lord of celestials ! O lord of the universe ! save thee 
there is no other saviour. I seek refuge with thee, O Vishnu ! 
O thou omnipresent ! By giving me the lamp of knowledge, 
do thou make me freed of ifi^norance. 

This ,is. the hymn of the king of gods destructive of 
all sorts Jof afflictions. I Having chanted his glories with 

* * « • * 

other Vedic hymns, O blue-throated deity! a man should 
meditate in his heart on Vishnu with the five Tattwas. 
Afterwards he should ^ throw away the image of the deity. 
Thus, O Shankara, the most excellent adoration of Visu- 
deva is described which' yields all desired-for objects. By 


pffering this adoration a man becomes successful In all hb 
objects. The man, who reads this adoration of the five 
Tattwas, who listens to it or makes others listen to it, repairs 
to the region of Vishnu. 

■ . • ■ • 


RuDRA said : — O holder of conch-shell and mace, do thou 
describe unto me the adoration Sudarshana. 

Hari said : — O bull-emblemed deify, listen to the adora- 
tion of the discus Sudarshana. A man should first qf all 
bathe and then adore Hari. And afterwards he should 
perform the rite of Ny«Lsa with the principal mantram. 
Listen to the principal mantram. 

Om, Sahasram, Hum, Phat, Namas. This mantram 
destroys all wicked beings. A man should meditate on the 
deity Sudarshana in the pure and auspicious lotus of the 
heart. O Hara, then invoking, according to the mantram 
described before, the deity of gentle form, adorned with a 
crown and holding conch-shell, discus, club and lotus, in the 
mystic diagram he should worship him, O Meheshawara, 
with scents, flowers and other ingredients. Having adored 
him a man should recite the mantram one hundred and eight 
times. O Rudra ! he, who makes this most excellent adora- 
tion of the discus, attains, freed of all diseases,, the region of 
Vishnu. Afterwards he should recite the following hymn 
destructive of all ailments. 

Salutation unto Sudarshana, effulgent like a thousand 

suns, lighted up with a garland of flames, having a thousand 

blades for eyes, the destroyer of all wicked beings, the 

grinder of all sins. Salutation unto Suchakra, Vichakra, the 



river of all mantras, the originator of all, the protector of' 
the universe and the destroyer of the same, the protector of 
the worlds and the slayer of the wicked Asuras. Salutation 
unto him of a terrific form, unto him of a gentle form, unto 
Chanda, unto him of the form of an eye, unto him who 
dissipates the fear of Samsara. Salutation unto Shiva, the 
breaker of the bone of MiySi. Salutation unto him of the 
form of a planet and the lord of planets. Salutation unto 
K^la, death and Bhima. Salutation unto him who shows 
favour unto his votaries and protects them. Salutation, 
again and again unto the form of Vishnu, unto him of a 
dispassionate mind, unto the holder of weapons, unto the 
weapon of Vishnu and unto discus. Thus the highly sacred 
hymn of Vishnu is described. He, who reads it with great 
reverential faith, goes to the region of Vishnu. O Rudra ! 
the self-controlled man, who reads this prescription of the 
adoration of the discus, reduces his sins to ashes and reaches 
the region of Vishnu, 



RUDRA said :— O Hrishikesha ! O holder of club ! des- 
cribe again unto me the adoration of the deity. I am n6t 
satiated with listening to thy account of adoration. 

Hari said : — I will describe unto thee the adoration of the 
deity Hayagriva. Listen to it, O lord of the universe, by 
which Vishnu is pleased. O Mah^deva ! O ShankaraT listen, 
I will describe first the highly sacred principal mantram of 

Om, Houm, Kshroum, salutation unto the head (Shirase 
Namas) Om. 


should bathe at the period of conjunction. That process of 
Yoga is called PrinSLy&ma in which a man, having controlled 
his vital breath, reads thrice the Gayatri with Pranava and 
Vyarhriti.* By the yogic process of PrSnayama a twice-born 
one destroys the impurities of the mind,, speech and body 
and therefore practises it during all hours of the day. Then 
reciting the mantram *' Sayam Agni (fire in the evening" as 
well as " Pr^ta Surya (the sun in the morning" he should 
drink water. Then duly touching water in the noon and 
by reciting the Rik " Apohista" he should rub his body with 
the water of Kuga blades. Then adding to this mantram 
Pranava he should sprinkle water at every step. With nine 
he should destroy the nine-fold impurities originating from 
Rajas (darkness), Tamas (ignorance), Moha (stupefaction), 
from waking state, dreaming state and that of dreamless 
sleep, those originating from speech, mind and action. 
Taking ' up water in his two palms and reciting [the Gayatri) 
he should throw it quickly thrice, six, eight or twelve times. 
It destroys all sins. He should stand facing the sun and 
recite it. It destroys immediately all sins which a man 
commits day and night. Sitting in the west he should recite 
the first Sandhya — the Gayatri, consisting of the great 
Vyarhriti and Pranava. Gayatri destroys sins committed 
before in ten or a hundred births, and in three or a thousand 
yugas (cycles). Gayatri is crimson-coloured and Savitri is 
white-hued and Saraswati is dark-blue. These are called the 
three Sandhyas. Having assigned the letters Om, bhur to 
the heart he should assign Oim, bhuvas to the head and Om^ 
Shwar to the tuft of hair on the head. A learned man 
should assign the first word of the Gayatri to the coat of 
mail, the second to the eyes, the third to the limbs and the 
fourth to every where. Having made this assignment at the 

* A mystical word or tound as Oin, 5W#r, BhmvmSt etc., frhich com* 
mencc the daily prayet t of the 


'entire family .'' This worship ishould be offered in the middle 
of the diagram. He should adore GangSL in the door. la 
the fore part, Yamuna, Mahadevi, Sangka and Padma Nidhis 
and the Adhara Saktis should be adored. O Mah^deva, he 
should next worship the tortoise and then Ananta, Earth, 
religion and knowledge. In the south-east corner he should 
adore the spirit of disassociation from the world and pros- 
perity. In the east he should ' adore irreligion, ignorance, 
worldliness and poverty. He should adore the qualities 
Sattwa, Rajas and Tamas in the middle of the diagram. He 
should also adore there Nanda, Nala and the lotus. The 
orbs of the sun, the moon and fire, O Rudra, should also be 
adored in the centre of the diagram. O bull-emblemed deity, 
Vimolotkarshini, JnSna, Kriy3, Yoga, Prarhi, Satya, Ishlna, 
Anugrah§ — ^these Saktis should be adored in the eastern 
petals and Vimal§ and others in the pericarp. Anugrahas should 
be adored by men seeking well-being. With the mantrams 
formed of their names in the dative form beginning with 
Pranava and ending with Namas the worshipper, O Mahl- 
deva, should adore the seat. The most auspicious adora- 
tion of the seat should be made with the offerings of bathing 
water, scents, flowers, incense, lamps and edibles. 

I have thus described the prescription, O Hara. He should 
next invoke the deity, Hayagriva, the king of the celestials. 
He should think of his arrival through the left nostril. The 
invocation rite of the god of gods, the holder of conch-shell, 
should be performed, O Shankara, with the principal mantram. 
Having invoked his spirit ' in the mystic diagram a care- 
ful worshipper should perform the rite ofNySsa. Having 
performed the NySsa he should meditate on the Great 
Ishwara as being stationed there the great deity Haya- 
griva, adored of the celestials and Asuras. Having meditated 
on the • undecaying Vishnu accompanied by Indra and other 
guardian deities of the quarters he should make the Mudra 
Sangka, Chakra and others. He should next offer unto 




. .^^hnu water for washing feet, :Arghya and water for rinsing 
mouth. Then he should bathe the changeless, lotus-navelled 
deity. Having duly placed the image of the deity, he should 
•first dedicate to him, raiment, .0 bull-emblemed deity, then 
water for rinsing mouth and sacred thread. Thereupon hi th^ 
mystic diagram, O Rudra, he should meditate on the Great 
Ishwara. Having meditated on him, O Shankara, he should 
again offer unto him water for washing feet and other 
articles. He should offer these with the principal mantran^ 
O Shankara. 

With mantram " Om, Ksham, salutation unto the heart'' 
he should adore the heart. With the mantram "Om, Kshim, 
salutation unto the head," he should adore the head. With 
the mantram "Om, Kshum, salutation unto the tuft of hair," 
he should adore Shikhl. With the mantram "Om, Kshanr, 
salutation unto the coat of mail," he should adore the coat of 
mail. With the mantam "Om, Kshoum, salutation unta the 
eye" he should adore the eye. With the mantram "Om, Kshas, 
salutation unto the weapon" he should adore the weapon. 

In the eastern and other slides he should adore the heart, 
the head, the tuft of hair and the coat of .mail. • O . Rudra, 
in the corner of the diagram he should adore the weapon 
and the eye in the centre. In the eastern side he should 
adore the conch-shell, the lotus, the discus and the club. 
O Rudra, again in the eastern side with those mantrams des- 
cribing their names, he should adore the sword, mace, noose, 
and the bow with the arrows. O Rudra, he should next 
adore in the east, the mystic mark Srivatsa, Koustava, 
garland, the sacred yellow raiment as well as the holder of 
conch-shell, discus and club. He should next adore Brahmi, 
Nirada, Siddhas, the great preceptor, the shoes of the 
preceptor, those of the gfreat preceptor, Indra, his carrier 
and the entire family, Agni, Yama, Nirhiti, Varuna, VJlyu, 
Soma, Ishana, and Nagas, from the east upwards, O bull 
emblemed deity. He should next adore thunderbolt, 


Sakti, rod| sword, noosci standard, club, trident, discus, 
lotus and other weapons. In the north«east comer he 
should worship Vishwaksena, with these mantrams beginning 
with Om and ending with Namas (salutation) O bull-emblem-' 
ed deity. O^ MahSldeva, O bull-emblemed deity, adoration 
of the deity Ananta should be made with the principal 
mantram. He should next offer scents, flowers, incense, 
lamps, and edibles. He should circumambulate the deity, 
bow unto him and recite his name. With the following hymn 
beginning with om he should chant his glories, O bull- 
emblemed deity. 

Om, Namas, salutation unto Hayasira, the master of 
learning. Salutation again and again unto him of the form 
of learning, and the giver of the same. Salutation unto the 
deity of a quiescent soul, identical with three gunas, the 
destroyer of the celestials and Asuras and of all wicked 
beings. Salutation unto him of the form of Brahman, the 
lord of all the worlds. Salutation unto him adored of Ishwara, 
the holder of conch-shell and discus. Salutation unto the 
first cause, who is self-controlled, <levoted to the well-being 
of all creatures, invested with three gunas, devoid of them, 
identical with Brahmi and Vishnu, the creator, destroyer, 
the king of the celestials and present everywhere. 

Having recited this hymn, O Rudra, a worshipper should 
meditate in his pure lotus of the heart, on the god of gods, 
the holder of conch-shell, discus and club, effulgent like a 
Koti suns, perfectly beautiful — Hayagriva, the undecajring 
impersonal self. O Shankara, I have thus described unto 
thee the adoration of Hyagriva. He, who reads it with great 
reverence, attains to the most exalted station. 


Hari said :— I will now describe the nySsa and the metre 
of Glyatri. Vishwamitra is the Rishi thereof and Savita 
(the Sun) is the god. She has Brahman for her head, 
Rudra for the flame and is stationed in the heart of 
Vbhnu. She has application for her one eye and is 
bom in the race of KitySLna. She is known as having 
the three worlds for her feet and is placed in the belly 
of the earth. It consists of three words and eight letters 
and again of four words -and six letters. The one of 
three words should be used for the purposes of recitation 
and that of four words for the purposes of adoration. In 
the rites of Ny&sa, recitation, meditation, adoration and 
fire a worshipper should daily use Ga3ratri destructive of alt 
sins. One should assign it to the toes of the feet, insteps, 
knee-]ointS| organ of excretion, scrotum, tubes, navel, belly^ 
breast, heart, throat, mouth, palate, eyes, eye-brows, fore- 
bead, in the east, south, north, west and head. The color 
of sappire, the color of iire, yellow, dark-blue, twany-colour, 
that of white, that of lightning, dark, crimson, that of conch- 
shell, grey, that of wine, and sun [constitute it]. All articles 
which he touches with his hands or sees with his eyes become 
purified. There is nothing superior to Gayatri. 


Hari said:—- Hear, O Rudra, I will now describe the 
rites of Sandhyi which destroy all sins. Having practised 
Prln&yima, (suppression of vital airs), thrice the worshipper 


should bathe at the period of conjunction. That process of. 
Yoga is called Pran^yama in which a man, having controlled 
his vital breath, reads thrice the Gayatri with Pranava and 
Vyarhriti.* By the yogic process of PranSyama a twice-born 
one destroys the impurities of the mind,, speech and body 
and therefore practises it during all hours of the day. Then 
reciting the mantram •* Sayam Agni (fire in the evening" as 
well as " Prata Surya (the sun in the morning" he should 
drink water. Then duly touching water in the noon and 
by reciting the Rik " Apohista" he should rub his body with 
the water of Kuga blades. Then adding to this mantram 
Pranava he should sprinkle water at every step. With nine 
he should destroy the nine-fold impurities originating from 
Rajas (darkness), Tamas (ignorance), Moha (stupefaction), 
from waking state, dreaming state and that of dreamless 
sleep, those originating from speech, mind and action. 
Taking ' up water in his two palms and reciting [the Gayatri) 
he should throw it quickly thrice, six, eight or twelve times. 
It destroys all sins. He should stand facing the sun and 
recite it. It destroys immediately all sins which a man 
commits day and night. Sitting in the west he should recite 
the first Sandhya — the Gayatri, consisting of the great 
Vyarhriti and Pranava. Gayatri destroys sins committed 
before in ten or a hundred births, and in three or a thousand 
yugas (cycles). Gayatri is crimson-coloured and Savitri is 
white-hued and Saraswati is dark-blue. These are called the 
three Sandhyas. Having assigned the letters Om, bhur to 
the heart he should assign Om^ bhuvas to the head and Om^ 
Shwar to the tuft of hair on the head. A learned man 
should assign the first word of the Gayatri to the coat of 
mail, the second to the eyes, the third to the limbs and the 
fourth to every where. Having made this assignment at the 

* A mystical word or sound as Om^ S'mer^ Bhuvas, etc., which com* 
mence the daily prayers of the Brahmin. 


period of junction he should recite the mother of the Vedas. 
This Gayatri consists of three padas and is identical with 
Brahma, Vbhnu and Maheshwara. Having learnt its appli- 
cation, saintly author and verse one should begin its recitation. 
Being shorn of all forms of sins he repairs to the . region of 



Hari said :— The great goddess G&yatri gives enjoyment 
and emancipation. He who recites it has even mighty 
iniquities dissipated. I will now describe the Gayatri Kalpa 
which yeilds enjoyment and emancipation. Having recited 
it one thousand and eight times or one hundred' and eight 
times at three periods of junction one repairs to the region 
of Brahma. Then after reciting it a hundred times he should 
drink water. Having invoked the spirit of the goddess 
having twelve names who destroys all sins at the period of 
conjunction he should adore her, with her own man tram 
*' Bhur, Bhuvas, Swas. 

Om, salutation unto Gayatri. Om, salutation unto 
Savitri. Om, salutation unto Saraswati, unto the mother of 
the Vedas, Sangkriti, Brahmani and Koushiki. He should 
assign the mantram " Bhur, Bhuvas" to SSLdhyS, having a 
thousand eyes, who accomplishes all objects. With the 
mantram " Swar" he should offer unto fire, one thousand and 
eight or one hundred and eight times, sacrificial twigs, 
butter and Havi. He should make all these oblations for 
attaining success in religious rites, personal undertakings 
and all other works. Having adored an image, made of 
sandal wood or gold, recited the name a lac of times, lived 


on water, roots and fruits and performed two Ayutas of 
Homas a person attains to all desired-for objects. O 
goddess, ordered by Brahma, do thou, at thy pleasure, repair 
to the land situated on the northern summit. 


Hari said: — A worshipper should adore'. Durgi in a 
Navami and other days with the mantram : — " Hrim, O 
Durga ! Protect me, O mother, O foremost of mothers, O 
thou who dost grant all desired for objects. Being gratified 
with this offering do thou give me all desired-for objects. 
I Gouri, KSLli, UmSL, Durga, Bhadra, Kanti, Saraswati, Mangala 
I Vijaya, Lakshmi, Shiva, NSrSiyani — ^he who adores all these 
in order beginning with the third day of the dark or light 
fornight, does not suffer from separation. He should then 
meditate, with mantrams, on. her having eighteen arms, on 
Khetapa, hell, mirror, the fore-finger, bow, standard, 
axe damaru (a small drum), noose, Shakti, mace, dart, skull, 
goad made of adamant, arrow, a discus and probe. I will 
now describe the recitation of the names of the auspicious 

Om, salutation unto the auspicious goddess ChSimundSy 
living in the cremation ground, having a skull in her hand, 
seated on the back of a huge goblin, having a garland of 
huge conveyances, the night of death, encircled by a number 
of Ganas, having a huge mouth and many arms, armed with 
a bell, a small drum and Kinkini and laughing aloud with the 
sound of Kilikili, Hum. [Salutation unto her], making 
enough of loud sound, having her body covered all over with 


the skin of an elephant, as well as blood and flesh, having a 
tongue hanging down, a great Rakshasi, having hideous teeth, 
laughing aloud, effulgent like lightning, having terrific eyes. 
Hili, Hili, do thou put thy tongue into thy mouth. Hum, 
salutation unto thy tongue Trini, O thou having a face 
covered with frowns, O thou having an auspicious seat, 
wearing a garland of skulls, (around the neck), braided locks, 
crown and the moon (on the head) and laughing aloud Kill 
KilL Hum, Hum, O thou having terrific teeth, O thou who 
dost dissipate all obstacles, do thou make me accomplish this 
work, Do it ! Do it I Kaha ! Kaha ! do thou make me 
enter Mrith the goad. Vanga ! Vanga ! make me tremble ! 
make me tremble. Go 1 Go ! guide me 1 guide me 1 O thou 
fond of blood, flesh and wine, kill, kill, grind, cut, cut, 
strike, strike, make my body strong as an adamant. 
Destroy all the wicked beings of the three worlds. Make 
me possess every thing that is taken or not taken. Make me 
walk I Make me walk. Dance ! Dance ! Bind ! Bind ! Jump I 
O thou having eyes entered into sockets I O thou having 
hairs tied up ! O thou having the face of an Uluka ! O thou 
wearing a garland of hands 1 burn, burn, rot, rot, take, take, 
make me enter this mystic diagram. Make me possessed by 
the energies of Brahma, Vishnu, Rishi and Rudra. Kili, 
Kili, Khili, Khili, Mili, Mili, Chili, Chili, O thou having a good 
appearance ! O thou having thy body encircled by a black 
serpent ! O thou having all the planets in thee ! O thou hav- 
ing elongated lips! O thou having a nose sunk between the 
two eye-brows ! O thou having a grim face ! O thou, having 
twany coloured braids ! O Br^hmi ! break, break, burn, bum. 
O thou having a death-like face ! Khala, Khala, strike down, 
strike down. O thou having red shot eyes, roll them, strike, 
strike the ground. Take, take, open up your eyes, open. 
Break, break feet, take, take. Display, display, the Mudras. 
Hum, Ham, phat, rive, rive, cut asunder with the trident. 
Kill, kill with the trident, strike, strike with the rod. Cut, 



c\it, with the Sakti ; wound, woud with discus. Bit, bit/ 
with the teeth. Strke with a stick. Strike, strike with ' the' 
goad. Take, take the head suffering from fever coming 
every day, every second day, every third day and every 
fourth day. Release me, release me from the she goblins, 
Skandas and evil stars. Lana, Lana, raise up, rabe up the 
earth. Strike down, strike down. Take, take Brahman. 
Come come, MSLheswhari. Come, come, Koum^ri. Come, 
come, VSLrSLhi, come, come, Aindri. Come, Come, Chamundi. 
Come, come, Vaishnavi. Come, Come, NSLrasimhi. Come, 
come, Shivaduti. Come, come, Kapalini. Come, come, 
Revati. Come, come, Sushkarevati. Come, come, Ak&sha 
Revati. Come come, O thou ranging on the mount Himalaya. 
Come, Come O thou ranging on the mount KailSLsha. Comei 
come, cut open this great man tram. Kili, Kili, O thou 
having Vimva-Iike lips, O thou * of a dreadful form, O 
ChamundSi, O thou originating from the anger of Rudra, O 
thou who dost destroy the Asuras and range in the sky, 
bind, bind the time with thy noose. Enter, enter into this 
mystic diagram. Strike, strike, take, take, bind, bind the 
mouth. Bind the eyes, bind the feet, bind the hands and 
feet, bind, bind all the evil stars. Bind, bind all the directions. 
Bind, bind, all the opposite directions. Bind, bind the up 
and down. Bind, bind with the ashes, drinks, earth and 
sessamum seeds. Possess, possess, strike, O Chamundft. 
Kili, Kili, Vichhe, Hum, Phat, SwShi. 

' This is the recitation of the Mula mantram consisting of 
one thousand and eight letters. Each word should be recited 
eight thousand times. With sessamum seeds mixed with 
sugar, honey and clarified butter eight thousand Homas 
should be performed. With human flesh, sugar, honey and 
clarified butter one should recite a word one thousand and 
eight times. With sessamum seeds, sugar, honey and 
clarified butter he should perform one thousand and eight 
Homas. Or with human flesh, honey, sugar and clarified 



batter he should perform all the rites. By throwing water/ 
sessamum seeds and ashes one achieves victory in battle &c. ' 

The goddess should be meditated on as having twenty- 
eight arms, eighteen arms, twelve arms or four arms. Her 
two hands are adorned with sword and Kheta, the other twa - 
with club and rod, the other two with arrow and bow, the 
other two with dagger and mace, the other two with conch-shell 
and belli the other two with standard and rod, the other two 
with 'axe and discus, the other two with a small drum and 
mirror. The other hands are endued with Salcti, mace, 
noose, Tomara, drum and Panava. With the other hand 
she is striking a drum and a making a sound. She gives 
protection, kills the buflaloe-faced demon, and rides a lion. 
Victory unto thee, O queen of ghosts and others encircled by 
goblins. Save me from thy goblins and accept my sacrifice. 
Salutation unto thee. 

RUDRA said : — O Janarddana, do thou describe, again in 
brief, the adoration of the deity, the sun, another form of 
Vishnu, which yeilds emancipation and enjoyment. 

VSsudeva said : — Hear, O Rudra, I will describe again 
the adoration of the sun. 

Om, salutation unto Ucchaishravas. Om, salutation unto 
Aruna. Om, salutation unto Dandin. Om, salutation unto 
PingalS. O bull-emblemed deity, these should be adored at 
the door with the following mantrams. 

Om, A, salutation unto the Bhutas. These should be 
adored inside the mystic diagram — these known as 

Om, am, salutation unto VimalSL. Om, atn, salutation* 
unto SirSL. Om, am, salutation unto AdhSlra. Om, am, 
salutation unto Paramamukha. These Vimal2L and others 
should be adored in the south-east and other corners. 

Om, salutation unto the lotus. Om, salutation unto the 
pericarp. O Rudra, a worshipper should adore them inside 
the diagram and in the east and other directions. He should 


then adore Dipt! and others as well as Sarvatomukhin inside 
the diagram. 

On^, Vam, salutation unto Dipta. Om, Vini, salutation 
unto Bhadrk. Om, Vaim. salutation unto Ja^. Om, Voum, 
salutation unto Bibhuti. Om, Vam, salutation Aghoril. Om, 
Vam, salutation unto Vidyajuta. Om, Vas, salutation unto 
VijaySL. Om, salutation unto Sarvatomukhi. 

Om, salutation unto the seat of the sun. Om, Hram, 
salutation unto the form of the sun. Om, Ham. Sam, Kham 
unto Khakhola, Kram, Krim, Sas, SwSlh^. Salutation unto 
the form of the sun. 

With this mantram a worshipper should invoke life in the 
image of the sun, install it, and perform the rite of 
SannidhSlnakan (bringing near). Then with the Sannirodhana 
mantram he should perform the rite of Sakalikaranam. O 


Rudra, then he should adore the mudras. He should meditate 
on the sun, as being of the form of light, of crimson hue, 
seated on a white lotus, riding a car with one wheel, having 
two arms and holding a lotus. Listen to the principal 

Om, Hram, Hrim, Sas, salutation unto the sun. 

He should next form Padma and Viniva Mudra thrice. 
Om, am, salutation unto the heart. Om, unto the sun, unto 
the head, swSLhSL. Om, As, a, Bhur, Bhuvas, Swas, Jvalini, 
Shikhai, Vashat. Om, Hum unto the coat of mail. Hum, 
Om, bhSLm unto the eyes, Voushat. Om, Vas, unto the weapon, 
phat. O Hara, a worshipper should adore heart &c. in the 
south-east, north-east and south-west and the eyes in the 
north-west corner. In these directions he should adore 
the white-hued Soma. In the eastern petal, O Rudra, 
he should adore Sudha. He should adore the yellow-hued 
preceptor in the southern petal. In the west he should 
adore the lord of goblins and the white-hued Bh2Lrgava in the 
north. He should adore the black Shani (Saturn) in the 
south-west, RSlhu in the north-west, the smoky-coloured 


Ketu in the north-east. Tliey should be adored with the 
following mantrams, O Mah^deva. Hear them, O Shankanu 

Om, Som, salutation unto Soma. Om, bum, salutation 
unto Budha. Om, Vrin, salutation unto Vrihaspati. Om, 
bham, salutation unto Bh^rgava. Om, am, salutation unto 
Angaralca. Om, sham, salutation unto Shani. Om, Ram, 
salutation unto Rlhu. Om, Kam, salutation unto Ketu. 

Having, with the help of the principal mantram, dedicated 
unto the Sun, the water for washing feet and then offered 
edibles, the best of worshippers should display the Dhenu 
mudra. Having recited the mantram eight thousand times 
he should dedicate them unto him. In the north-east and 
other comers, O lord of goblins, he should adore Tejaschanda 
(the power of the Sun) [with the mantram] '* Om, Tejas- 
chandiya. Hum, phat SwadhI, Voushat." O Hara he should 
next dedicate unto him flowers and Arghya, consisting of 
sessasum seed, rice, red sandal, scented water, flower and 
incense. Having placed that vessel on his head and sup« 
ported it by his knees, he should offer it, with the mantram 
Ham unto the sun, O bull-emblemed deity. Having adored 
the Ganas and the preceptors he should worship all the 

Om, gam, salutation unto the lord of Ganas. Om, am, 
salutation unto the preceptors. I have thus described the 
adoration of the sun. Having offered it one attains to the 
region of Vishnu. 


Sankara said: — O Shankara, describe unto me the 
adoration of M^heshwari, by knowing which, O great God, 
men attain to Siddhi. 


Hari said : — Hear, O bull-emblemed deity, I will describe 
the adoration of Maheshwari. 

Having bathed firsti then rinsed his mouthi taken hb seat 
and performed Nyasa a worshipper should adore Maheshwara in 
.the mystic diagram together with her family, with the follow- 
ing mantrams, O great IshSLna. 

With the mantram, " O Ye presiding deities of Shiva's 
seat, come here" he should, O Rudra, invoke the presiding 
deities of the seat. . . 

Om, H^m salutation unto the lord of Ganas. Om, Ham, 
salutation unto Saraswati. Om, Ham, salutation unto Nandi. 
Om, Ham, salutation MahSLk&la. Om, . Him, salutation unto 
Gang^. Om, Ham, salutation unto Lakshmi. Om, am, 
salutation unto the weapon. 

< O Hari, with water for bathing and scents these should 
be adored at the door. 

Om, H9m, salutation unto Brahmi, the presiding deity of 
the habitation. Om, ham, sulutation unto the preceptors. 
Om, ham, salutation unto the AdhSLra Sakti. Om, ham, 
salutation unto Ananta. Om, ham salutation unto knowledge. 
Qm, HSlm salutation unto the spirit of disassociation from 
the worid. Om, ham, salutation unto wealth. Om, ham, 
salutation unto irreligion. Om, ham, salutation unto ignorance. 
Om, ham, salutation unto worldliness. Om, ham, salutation 
unto poverty. Om, ham, salutation unto . Urdhachhandas. 
Om, ham, salutation unto Adhaschandas. Om, ham, saluta- 
tion unto the lotus. Om Ham, salutation unto the pericarp. 
Om, ham, salutation unto V2Lm2L. Om, ham, salutation unto 
Jyestha. Om, ham, salutation unto Roudra. Om, Ham, 
salutation unto Kali. Ham, salutation unto Kalavikarini. 
Om, Ham, salutation unto Balapramathini. Om Ham, 
salutation unto her who suppresses all beings. Om, Ham, 
salutation unto Manonman^. Om, Ham, salutation unto 
Mandaltritaya. Om, Ham, salutation unto the form of 
' Shiva. Om, Ham, salutation unto the President of learning. 


Om, Ram, Hinii Hounii salutation unto Shiva. Om, Ham, 
Balotation unto die heart. Om, Hinii salutation unto the 
head. Oro, Hum, salutation unto the tuft of hair on the 
liead. Om, Haim, salutation unto the coat of mail. Ontf 
Houma, salutation unto the two eyes. Om, Has, salutation 
«ato the weapon. Om, salutation unto SadyajSLta. 

Om, Hum, salutation unto Siddhi. Om, Ham, salutation 
vnto Riddhr. Om, Hum, salutation unto Dyuti. Om, Ham, 
salutation unto Lakshmi. Om, Ham, salutation unto Bodha. 
Om, Ham, salutation unto Kali. Om, Ham, salutation unto 
SwadhSl. Om, Ham, salutation unto Prabh^. 

These are known as the eight Kalas or parts of Satya.. 
They should be placed in the east and other sides. 

Om, Ham, salutation unto Vamadeva. Om, Ham, saluta- 
tion unto Rajas. Om, Ham, salutation unto Raksha. Om, 
Ham, salutation unto Rati. Om, Ham, salutation unto 
Kany2L. Om, Ham, salutation unto Kama. Om, Ham, salu- 
tation unto Sajani. Om, Ham, salutation unto Kriy2L. Om, 
Ham, salutation unto Vriddhi. Om, Ham, salutation unto 
Kirji. Om, Ham, salutation unto Ratri. Om, Han), salu- 
tation unto Brahmi. Om, Ham, salutation unto Mohini. 
Om, Ham, salutation unto Twar^. 

O bulUemblemed deity, these thirteen are known as ttie 
Kalas or parts of Vamadeva. 

Om, Ham, salutation unto Tatpurusha. Om, Ham, saluta- 
tion unto Vritti. Om, Ham, salutation unto PratisthSL. Om, 
Ham, salutation unto Vidy2L. Om, Ham, salutation unto 

O bull-emblemed deity, these four are known as the 
Kalas or parts of Tatpurusha. 

Om, Ham, salutation unto Aghora. Om, Ham, salutation 
unto Uma. Om, Ham, salutation unto KshmSL, (forgiveness). 
Om, Ham, salutation unto Nidrl (sleep). Om, Ham, salutation 
unto Vy&dhi (disease). Om, Ham, salutation unto Kshudhi 



(hunger). Onif Ham, salutation unto Trishna (thirst). O 
Hara, these are the eight terrific parts of Agfaora« 

Omi Ham, salutation unto Ishana. Om, Ham, salutation 
unto Samiti. Om, Ham, salutation unto Angad2l. Om, Ham, 
salutation unto Krishnl. Om, Ham, salutation unto Marichi. 
Om, Ham, salutation unto Jv^ta. O bull-emblemed deity, 
know these to be the Kalas of Ishana. 

Om, Ham, salutation unto the family of Shiva. Om, Ham, 
salutation unto Indra, the king of celestials. Om, Ham, 
salutation unto Agprii, the lord of fire. Om, Ham, salutation 
unto Yama, the lord of departed spirits. Om, Ham, saluta- 
tion unto Nairita, the lord of Rakshas. Om, Ham, saluta- 
tion unto Varuna, the lord of waters. Om, Ham, salutation 
unto V§yu, the lord of vital airs. Om, Ham, salutation unto 
Soma, the lord of eyes. Om, Ham, salutation unto Ish&na, 
the lord of all forms of learning. Om, Ham, salutation unto 
Ananta, the king of serpents. Om, Ham, salutation unto 
BrahmSL, the lord of all the worlds. 

Om, Ham, salutation unto Dhulichandeshwara. 
O Shankara, a worshipper should thus perform the rites 
of invocation, installation, making near, concentration and 
Sakalikarana, and next the assignment of Tattwas, the dis- 
playing of Mudras and meditation. He should next dedi- 
cate water for washing feet, that for rinsing mouth, Arghya, 
flowers, water for bathing, scents, unguents, raiments, 
. ornaments, objects of enjoyment, incense, lamps, food. [He 
should also propitiate the deity] with water for washing feet, 
water for rinsing mouth, scents, betel, umbrella and Mudras. 
He should meditate on the form and recite the name and 
dedicate the adoration and recitation with the principal 
mantram. O Rudra, I have thus described the adoration of 
M^heshi which destroys all sins. 


. . i 


Vasudeva said : — Om, there is a Gandharva, by name 
Vishw&vasu, the master of maidens. I will secure him for 
you. "Having begotten maidens. Unto Vishwavasu, Sw^ha." 
This is the recitation of the mantram for obtaining wives. 
I will describe the night of death. 

Om, salutation unto the auspicious goddess, having ears 
like those of a bear and four arms. O thou having hairs, 
tied up ! O thou, having three eyes ! This is the night of 
death for men in the matter of feeding upon marrow and 
blood. May death approach such and such person who has 
come to the proper time. Ham, phat, kitt, kitt, bum, burn, 
flesh and blood, pacha, pacha, Rikshapatni (wife of the bear) 
SwahS. There is no restriction for the observance of lunar 
days, stars, or fasting. 

A worshipper should rub his hands with blood and then 
take up all articles with them. Early in the morning he 
should recite the name of the phallic emblem and strike it 
with a mangoe leaf. Om, salutation unto all the weapons, 
%o that, O Jambhani, O thou who charmest all, O thou who 
dost destroy all the enemies, protect me, such and such a per- 
son, from all fears and calamities, SwahSL. On the destruction 

of Shukra, O Mahadeva, I described it which saves all the 


Hari said :— I will now describe the eternal rite of Shiva 
called Pavitrarohana* which, O Hara, a priest, a worshipper 
or his son or a person, observant of a vow, should perform. 

* The rite <A putting sacred thread around the neck of iht image 
•I a particular deity. 


Having performed the adoration extending over fuIT one* 
year one should perform this rite in the month of Ash&da^ 
Shravana, MSlgha or Bh2ldrapada. He should first of alt 
procure a thread made of gold, silver, copper or of cottoi> 
spun by a maiden. Having made nine folds of this thread 
he should perform the rite of Pavitrakam. With the VJma* 
deva mantram he should make the Granthis (knots). With 
the Satya mantram,. O Shiva, he should wash the thread,, with 
the Aghora mantram he should purify it, with the Tatpunisba. 
mantram he should tie it and with Tsha mantram* he should 
place incense. The following are known as Tantudevas or 
deities of the thread viz., OmkSLra, GiandramS, Vanhi,. 
Brahml, Nlga,. Shikhidwaja, Ravi, Vishnu and Shiva. The 
length of (the sacrificial thread, O Rudra, should be either 
one hundred and eigfht fingers ia length, or fifty or twenty^ 
five. There are ten Granthis or knots. And the interstice 
between one Granthi and the other should be four fingers ; or 
It may be twa fingers or one. [The names of the ten Gran- 
this are :— ] Prakriti, Pourushi,, Ve<era, AparSLjita^ J^y^i. 
Vijay^, Rudr^,. Ajata, Manonmani and Sarvatamukhi. Oni 
the seventh or the thirteenth day of the light fortnight 
one should dye it with, saffron^ and perform- the Pkvitrakat 
rite with scents. Having sprinkled the phalfic emblcto* witb 
thickened milk he should rub it with scents and dedicate 
the sacred perfumeries to the self — the Brahman. 

He should place scented flowers at the foot of the image 
of IshanSl, sticks for cleansing teeth, in the east and fruits^ 
of emblic myrobalam in the north. He should place eartb 
in the west and ashes in the south. One, conversant witb 
mantrams, should place, with Sikha mantram^ Aguru m 
the south-east corner and sessamum seeds with the Kavachai 
mantram, O bull-emblemed deity. 

Having encircled the house with a thread he should offer 
sacred scents. Then after offering oblations to fire he should! 
place offerings for pernicious spirits. 


O king of gods. O Maheshwara, thou bast been invited 
. with thy ganas (goblins). Do thou come near, I will adore 
thee in the morning. 

Having thus invited the deity he should spend the night 
in singing and place, by the side of the image, sacred articles 
inspired with mantrams. Having sprinkled the sun with 
water on the fourteenth day of the dark fortnig^ht he should 
adore Rudra. He should first meditate on self, in the form 
of the universe, as being stationed on the fore-head and 
then adore it. He should sprinkle it mth water with the 
astra mantram and adore it with the Hridaya mantram. He 
should next dedicate incense inspired with mantrams. He 
should first of all adore Shiva Tattwa, then Vidy& Tattwa 
and next Atma Tattwa. 

Om, Houm, salutation unto Shiva Tattwa (essence of 
Shiva). Om, Him, salutation unto the essential spirit of 
learning. Om, Ham, salutation unto the essence of self. 

Om, Ham, Him, Hain, Kshoum salutation unto the- 
essence of all. O God f O Shambhu [ what-ever, thouy • 
identica! with time, hast seen in me, whatever I have done^ 
have offered as oblations to fire, whatever I have created, have 
all been done by me, by thy will, for the rite of Pavitrakan^.. 
Om, fulfill my vow of sacrifice. Om, Ham, Him, Hum^ Haim^ 
Houm, salutation unto Shiva, the lord of observances, identi* 
cat with all essences and the cause of all. 

With this mantram the four offerings of a Pavitraka rite 
should be made. Having offered Pavitrakam to the fire one 
should make presents unto the preceptor, offer food, feed the 
Brahmanas, worship Chanda and then perform the Visarjana 
(life-destroying) rite. 


• Hari said : — I will now describe the Pavitrarohana 
rite of Hari which yeilds emancipation and enjoyment. 
Formeriy in the war between the gods and Danavas, the 
celestials, headed by Brahm^, sought refuge with Vishnu who 
conferred on them the standard Graiveyaka. Seeing them: 
Hari said that they would overcome the Danavas. On- 
Vishnu saying so, the NSga, VSLsuki's younger brother, 
said : — " O bull-emblemed deity, I pray from thee this boon, 
called Pavitraka, so that the Graiveya, conferred by Hari, 
may pass by my name". On his thus addressing the Devas • 
they conferred on him the same boon. 
. The mortals, who worship me with the Pavitraka rite 
during the rainy season, have their adoration extending over 
full one year rendered useless. The Pavitrarohana rite of 
all the deities should be celebrated in order on the lunar days 
respectively reserved for them, beginning with the first day 
after the full moon. On the twelfth day of the dark or light 
fortnight the one for Vishnu should be performed. It is always 
necessary to perform the Pavitra rite during the rainy 
season, preference being always g^ven to a Vyatipata^ day, 
to a solar or lunar ecclipse, to a day when the Vriddhi rite of 
Vishnu is performed or when the precepter comes. The 
sacred thread should be made of either red silk, silk fibres, 
cotton or linen. The twice-born should offer a thread made of 
Ku(a reeds, the kings that made of silk, the Vaishyas that of 
wool and the Sudras that made of new barks. O Ishwara ! 
one, made of cotton or of fibres of a lotus, is preferable unto 
all castes. 

* The seventeenth of the astrological Yogas. Day of new moon 
when it falls on a Sunday and the moon is in certain mansions, 
Sravana. * 


Three knots of three folds each should be made of a 
thread spun by a Brahmana. A worshipper should next 
recite the names of the presiding gods of the thread beginn- 
ing with Om. They are Shiva, Soma, Agni, Brahm^, Phani, 
Ravi, Ganesha and Vishnu. BrahmSL, Vishnu and Rudra 
are the three presiding gods of the three threads. One 
should keep the thread in a golden vessel, or in one made of 
silver, or of copper, or of bamboo or of earth. The size of 
the best vessel should be sixty four fingers in circumference, 
that of the middling one its half, and that of the youngest 
one its half again. The best thread must be one hundred and 
eight fingers in length, the middling one its half, and the 
youngest its half again. The best knot should be of the size of 
a knot of the thumb ; the middling one of that of the 
middle finger and the smallest one of that of the youngest 
finger. The measurement of the sacrificial altar must be 
guided by these general characteristics. The sacrificial 
thread must be placed on the idol (of Vishnu) which should 
be of the size of that of Shiva. It must pass through 
breast, navel, thigh and hang up to the knee-joints. With a 
thread measuring one thousand and eight fingers in length 
should be formed four, thirty-six, twenty four and twelve 
knots severally, each being of the size of a finger knot. It 
should be then dyed with saffron, turmeric or sandal. After 
fasting a worsipper should place the sacred thread on a 
vessel and perform the initiatory rite of consecration. Then 
in vessels made of fig leaves it should be placed in the 
eight quarters. Twigs and Ku(a blades should be dedicated' 
to Sangkarshana in the east. Rochani (yellow figment) 
and saffron should be dedicated to Pradyumna in the south. 
A person, who is about to undertake a war and seeks for 
victory, should dedicate to Aniruddha in the west, sandal, 
blue colour, sessamum seeds, ashes and Akshata. In the 
south-east and other corners he should make assignment of 
Shree and other goddesses. 


Having then inspired the sacred thread with V§sudeva 
mantrams, looked at it again and worshipped it he should 
cover it with a piece of cloth. He should then place it before 
the image of the deity or the mystic diagram. Having 
placed duly as before Brahmanas in the west, south and 
north he should worship the pitchers. Then having drawn 
the mystic diagram with a weapon he should place the 

Having thus performed the Adhiv^sa rite of the sacred 
thread he should encircle the altar with three or nine threads 
and then connect his own body and the pitchers with it. 
Connecting the well of sacred fire, the pedastal, the awning 
and the temple with one thread he should place it on the 
head of the deity. Having thus offered the thread and 
worshipped the great god the worshipper should recite the 
following mantram. 

** O King of gods ! O Great Ishwara I I have invoked thy 
presence here for adoring thee. I will adore thee in the 
morning. Do thou come near these articles." Having 
performed the Adhiv&sa rite of the sacred thread for one 
or three nights a worshipper should keep up the night and 
adore Keshava in the morning. He should next place (on the 
image) the biggest, middling and the smallest threads. Then 
having incensed the sacred thread he should inspire it with 
mantrams. Having recited the names of the knots he should 
adore them with flowers and other articles. Then having 
recited the Gayatri he should adore the deity with the 
following mantram. 

May my sons and wife hold this thread. O god, I hold 
before thee this purified and beautiful knot destrutive of the 
greatest iniquity and of all sorts of sins. 

Having thus worshipped the sacred thread with incense 
and other articles he should dedicate the middling and other 
ones, [rle should next say] " For achieving sucess in religious 
rites and worldly undertakings I hold on my neck this sacred 


energy of Vishnu." Then having worshipped the garland of 
forest flowers with its own mantram he should offer it. Next 
lie should place various offerings, flowers and edibles. Then 
liaving offered oblations to the sacred fire deposited in an 
well measuring twelve fingers he should offer one sacred 
thread, one hundred and eight fingers in length. 

Having first offered Arghya unto the Sun-God he should 
dedicate to him a sacred thread. O Hara, he should next 
adore Vishwaksena and his preceptor with Arghya. Clasping 
liis hands he should recite before the deity the following 

O lord of celestials, may all adorations, whatever I have 
offered knowingly or unknowingly, be crowned with success 
l>y thy favour. O Gamda-emblemed deity, I offer this thy 
adoration extending over a year with garlands of jems and 
sapphires and of Mandira flowers. O god, hold this sacred 
thread on thy breast as thou dost always carry the garland 
of forest flowers and the mystic mark of Srivatsa. 

Having thus , adored the deity, fed the twice-horn and 
distributed presents amongst them a worshiper should 
perform the life-destroying ceremony of the deity in the 
evening. Having thus duly performed the adoration extend- 
ing over a year as well as the offering of sacred thread one 
repairs to the region of Vishnu. 


Hari said: — Having adored Brahman with Pavitra and 
other rites and meditated on him one becomes Hari. I will 
now describe the meditation of Brahman which destroys 


the weapon of M2yS (illusion). The learned maUi who 
recites the name of Brahman by words and mind, acquires 
the knowledge of self. He, who desires to acquire this 
knowledge, gains great knowledge. 

Brahman is shorn of body, organs of sense, mind, 
intellect, vital principle and egoism. It is shorn of elementSi 
Tanmatras (subtle particles), the gunas (qualities), birth 
and decay. It is manifest of itself, devoid of a formi 
eternally blissful, without any beginning, eternal, purified, 
intelligent, undecaying, existent, blissful, without second 
and eternal. [The state of mental realization). ''I 
am Brahman, I exist in Brahman" is known as SamSdhi 
(mental concentration). The soul is known as the 
charioteer, the body as the chariot and the organs of sense 
are known as the horses. The objects of sense are known 
by the latter. The soul is endued with mind and the • 
organs of sense. .Therefore the learned designate it as 
the enjoyer. He, who is endued with the discriminative 
knowledge of the external objects and mental perception, 
attains to the station of Brahman and is not bom again. 
The man, whose charioteer is the dbcriminative knowledge,, 
goes to the other side of the world by the help of mental 
abstraction and attains to the most exalted station of 
Vishnu. Not to hurt animals &c. is called Yama (restraint). 
Purification and other rites are called Niyama (religious 
observances). Padma and other postures are called Asana 
and the suppression of vital airs is called Pr2Ln2]rlUna« 
The withdrawal of organs from the objects of sense is 
called Jaya ; the meditation on the Lord is called dhySna ; 
the restraint of mental faculties is called Dh§ran2L. 
Although Brahman is without any forms still a worshipper 
should meditate on a form in the pericarp of his heart's 
lotus as holding" conch-shell, discus and club, bearing the 
mystic mark of Srivatsa and the Koustava jem, adorned 
with a garland of forest flowers, as being eternal, pure. 


intelfigentf ever existenti blissful and supremei thinking 
" I am selfi the impersonal and Absolute self| the Great 
Light" Harii having twenty four forms, situate on the 
ShUagrSma stone and on the height of Dw&rak9| is worthy 
of being adored and meditated on. 

Having meditated on this form, lauded it and recited 
its name, a person, acquiring all the objects of his desire^ 
becomes an etherial god, and shorn of desire, obtains 


Hari said :«->As a side issue of this discourse I shall 
describe the characteristic marks of Sh&lagrSLma, by 
touching which stone, one has the sins, accumulated in a 
Koti of births, dissipated. 

The holder of conch-shell, discus, club and lotus,' 
known as Keshava, is [also called] Gad^dhara (the holder • 
of dub] . The Lord NSLrSLyana is also the holder of lotus, 
the bow Koumodaki, discus and conch-shell. - He is the 
holder of discus, conch-shell, lotus and club and is also 
named MSLdhava and Shree Gad2Ldhara. Govinda, Gad&dhaiist,' 
the holder of club, lotus, conch-shell and discus is adorable. 

Salutation unto thee of the form of Vishnu, the holder 
of lotus and the conch-shell, unto thee of the form of Madhu- 
sudana, the holder of conch-shell, lotus, club and discus. 
Salutation unto that form of thine which holds the club, 
conch-shell and lotus, unto that form, which is of three 
foot steps, unto that form which holds the bow Koumodaki, 


lotus and conch-shell and unto- thy dwarfish form. SaTu**^ 
tation unto thee the holder of conch-shell, lotus, discus and 
clubv Salutation unto that form which bears the mystic 
mark of Srivatsa, unta Hrishikesha,. and the weilder of lotus^ 
club, conch-shell and discus. Salutation unto the holder oC 
lotus, discus, club, conch-shell, unto PadmAnabha (lotus^ 
navelled), unto DSmodara, unto the weilder of conch-shell, 
discus, club and lotusv Salutation unto* V^sudeva. unto the 
holder of conch-shell, club and lotusw Salutation unta Sangr 
karshana. Salutation unto the form of Pradyumna, the 
holder of a beautiful conch-shell, a beautiful club and a beau- 
tiful lotus. Salutation unta Aniruddha and the weilder of 
club^ conch-shell and lotus. Salutation unto the Purusottama 
form with lotus, conch- shell, club and discus. Salutation 
unto the form of Adhokshaja, the holder of club, conch-shell,, 
and lotus. Salutation unto Man-lion form, the holder of 
lotus, club and concb-shell. Salutation unto the form,. 
Achyuta, the weilder of lotus, conch-shell and club. I will 
bring here Janl&rddana with his conch-shell, discus, lotus tad 
club and Upendra with his wheel, dub^ lotus and conch-shell.. 

Salutation unto this form of Hari, holding a beautifuf dis^ 
cus, lotus, club and conch-shell. Salutation unto the form- 
Srikrishna weilding club, lotus, wheel and conch-shelf. 

The Sh^LlagrSLma stone, known as VAsodeva, is of a white 
colour and possesses two ring-like marks around its mouth.* 
The one, known as Sankarshana, is of a red colour, has two> 
ring-like marks around its mouth or lateral aperture and has- 
the mark of. a lotus on its eastern side. The one,, known as: 
Pradyumna, is of a yellow colour, has a small ring-like mark,, 
is of an elongated shape and bears on its surface a large 
number of impressions: like pin-holes. The one, known as 
Aniruddha, is of a circular shape and blue colour and is 
marked with three lines around its mouth. The one known 
as NftrSyana is of a black colour, contains the mark of a club* 


like Iiire in its cavity and has the circular mark at the navel 
or a little raised up. The Nrisimha alone b elevated on the 
breast, b of a twany colour, and b dotted with fine spots ; 
while a VadLha resembles a Sakti in shape and has two 
rugged and uneven circular marks* A Sthula stone b of 
blue colour, has three lines, is of the form of a tortoise and * 
b dotted with marks. The stone, known as Krishna, is- 
round and depressed at the back. Sridhara has the marks- 
of five lines, that of a g^land of forest flowers and that of^ 
a club. The V2Lmana stone b of a round and puny sixe and 
Sureshwara has a circular mark on its left side. The one, ' 
known as Anantaka, has various forms and bears an impres* 
sion like the hood of a serpent. The Damodara stone is 
thick, of blue colour, and contains a circular mark of blue ' 
colour in the central part of the cavity. Brahma stone has a 
small mouth and is of thick blue colour. Susbira stone has-' 
marks of long lines, while Amvuja stone has the mark of one 
circular figure and is thick. A Sthulachakra stone has deep- ' 
boles and is dotted with dark marks. A Hayagriva stone is * 
of the shape of a goad ; while a Kaustava stone possesses 
marks of five lines. A Vaikuntha stone is of the hue of a jem 
on the hood of a serpent, of dark colour and bears one cir- 
cular mark. A Matsya stone is of the shape of a long lotus 
and has marks of lines at the mouth. A Trivikrama stone 
bears the mark of a circle on the left side, that of a line on 
the right side and is of a dark-blue. colour. 

Salutation unto the holder of club who is situate in 
Sh^lagr^ma as well as in DwSLrakSL. 

A Laksbmi Narayana stone is of the shape of a Kadamva^ 
flower, bears marks of four circles at one mouth, b adorned 
with the figure of a garland of forest flowers, b marked with 
golden lines and cow's hoofs. 

The Sudarshana class has got only a single circular mark,.' 
while the existence of two characterises the class Lakshmi 
Narayana. The Tivikrama class has got three circular marks,.' 


the Chaturvyuha class has got four, the Vasudeva classF 
has got iivei the Pradyumna class has got six, the Sang-^ 


karshana class has got seven, the Punisottama class has 
got eight, the Navavyuha class has got nine, the Dash^va* 
tara class has got ten, the .Aniniddha class eleven, and the 
Dw&dashSLtmSL class has twelve circular marks. The Ananta 
class bears more marks than twelve. He, who reads this 
poem, describing the forms of Vishnu, repairs to the celes^ 
tial region. 

The image of BrahmSL has four mouths and is endued 
with a staff and Kamandalu (water-pot). That of Mahes* 
wara has five mouths, ten arms, is seated on a bull with wea* 
pons as well as Matrika goddesses, such as Grouri, ChandrikS, 
Saraswati and MahSLlakshmi. The image of the sun holds 
a lotus in the hand. Gana has the head of an elephants 
Skanda has six mouths. 

Adored these images should be placed in the edifice wor» 
shipped of Vastu deities. By adoring them a man obtains 
religious profit, worldly objects ^nd emancipat ion. 


Hari said :— I will now describe in brief the adoration of 
the Vastu deity presiding over the house which destroys all 
impediments. Beginning with the north-east comer a wor« 
shipper should adore him in a diagram of eighty one rooms* 
He should adore the head in the north-east comer, feet in : 
the south-west and two hands in the south-east and north- 
west corners. In a temporary dwelling house, in one's own 
house, in a city, in a village, in a merchantile thorough-fare, 


in palaces, pleasure-housesi fortsj temples and Mathas a 
person should adore the twenty-two deities outside the dia- 
gram and thirteen in the end of the same. [The deities are] 
hha, Parjanya, Jayanta, the weilder of thunder*boIt (Indra)^ 
Surya (sun), Satya (the god of truth), Bhrigu, Akasa (the 
god of sky), the wind-god, PushS, Vitatha (the god of untruth* 
fulness), Graha, Kshetra, the two Yamas, Gandharva, Bhrigu- 
raja, Mriga, the Pitris, Dwouvarika, Sugriva, Pushpadanta, 
Ganesha, Asura, the two Seshapadas, Roga (god [of disease), 
Ahimukhaja, Bhattata, the two Somasarpas, Aditi and Diti. 
These are the thirty-two deities who should be adored out- 
side. Hear of the four deities who should be worshipped in 
the end. A learned man should adore the four deities sta* 
tioned in the four corners, north-east etc, viz. Apa, Savitri, 
Jay a and Rudra, 

In the ninth room of the central part of the diagram he 
should adore BrahmSL and his eight attendant deities begin- 
ning with the east. Hear their names. AryamS, Savita, 
VivaswSLn, VivudhSLdhipa, Mitra, Raja-Yakshm^, Prithvidhara, 
and Apavatra are the deities known as encircling BrahmS. 
The group beginning from the north-east is called Durga; 
while the one beginning from the south-east is called Dur* 
dhara. Having worshipped the three deities Aditi, Himavanta 
and Jayanta, as well as NSyikS, Kalika, Sakra, Gandharvas— 
all those VSLstu gods, a worshipper should undertake the con- 
struction of a divine palace. 

First of all the image of the teacher of gods should be 
erected in front. Then the great seat should be constructed 
in the south-east comer. The altar of sacrifices should be 
constructed in the east. The house of scents and flowers 
should be constructed in the north-east corner. The store- 
room should be erected in the north and the cow-shed in 
the north-west. The room, for keeping water, should be con- 
structed with windows in the west ; while tliat for keeping 
sacrificial twigs, grass, fuels and weapons should be cons- 


tnicted in the south-west. The guest-house, beautiful and 
•containing beds, shoes, water, fire, lamps and good servants, 
should be constructed in the south. Other minor houses 
should be constructed containing water, plantain trees and 
be adorned with flowers of five colours. A wall should be 
elected around the divine edifice, five cubits in height. 
Thus the divine edifice of Vishnu should be erected contain- 
ing forests and gardens. 

The edifice of Vastu, containing sixty four rooms, 
should, first of all, be adored. In the central part one of 
Tour rooms should be dedicated to Brahma and one of two 
rooms should be dedicated each to Arjama and other deities. 
All other celestials have houses of two rooms dedicated to 
each of them severally. These are the deities known as pre- 
siding over sixty four rooms. 

Charaki, Vidari and the sinful Rlkshasi Putana should 
be adored in the north-east and other comers. The 
Hetuka and other deities should be worshipped^ outside. 
They are Hetuka, TripurSntS, Agni, Vetalaka, Yama, 
Agnijihva, KSilaka, Kalara, EkapSdaka, Bhimarupa (terrific- 
visaged deity) should be adored in the north-east comer, 
the regent of the spirits in the nether region, GandhamSili 
and Kshetrapala in the sky. 

A worshipper should next undertake the extension, 
multiplication, lengthening and the numbering of the V§stu. 
A person should build his dwelling house before the Vishnu 
temple and not behind it. And he should sleep on the left 
side. There is nothing to be questioned in this matter. 
It is better for those persons whose births are respectively 
governed by Leo, Libra, and Scorpi, to have the door of the 
house opening out in the north and for others whose births 
are govemed by Scorpi and the succeeding signs of the 
Zodiac to have them in the east, south and west. The 
breadth of the door should be half of its length. And there 
must be eight doors. 


SuTA said : — Sounaka, hear me describe the essential 
features of a divine temple or palace. A plot of ground 
should be divided into sixty-four equal rectangular divisions 
occupying all the points of the compass. The Chatuskon 
or the inner court of the adytum should be comprised of 
four such rectangular divisions, and the doors of the temple 
should be made to number twelve in all. The walls of the 
edifice should be raised upon such forty-eight quadrilateral 
divisions. In height the plinth should be made commen- 
surate with the length of the platform at the top of the 
ground elevation and twice that measure above that. The 
inner cavity of the vault should be made co-extensive with 
the entire length of the adytum. The indents on both sides 
should measure a third or a fifth part of the chord of the 
inner vault, which should be so arched as to rise up to 
the half of the entire height of the pinnacle. The height of 
the terrace or the pinnacle part of the divine edifice should 
be divided into four equal parts over the third part, from the 
bottom of which the yedi or the top of the platform should be 
consthicted ; and on the top of the fourth part the ornamental 
figure should be placed which is generally made to edge 
the entire height of the temple from the bottom. 

In the alternative, the homestead land should be divided 
into sixteen equal parts over the four central parts of which 
the adytum of the temple should be raised. The walls of 
the edifice should be raised upon twelve such rectangular 
divisions or chambers, and the height of the walls should be 
made commensurate with the length of four such parts as 
are compatible with the laws of proportion. The height of 
the terrace or the pinnacle should be made to measure twice 


the height of the wall| and the open verandah or the plat- 
form all around the temple should be made of a quarter part 
of the height of the terrace in breadth. The indents on 
both sides of the temple should be of a fifth part of the 
length of the adytum in breadth. Again an indent should 
be left out which would measure such a fifth part. The 
essentials described above are what should be complied with 
in building divine edifices in general. 

Now I shall deal with another class of divine structures 
which are usually constructed in proportion to the lengths 
of the images of their inmate deities. The Peetha or the 
pedestal of the image should be made commensurate with 
the length of the latter and the adytum should be made, 
O Sounaka, of twice that length. The walls should be of 
equal length with the latter, while the plinth should be made 
half as much broad as the adytum. O Sounaka, the pinnacle 
should have twice the height of the plinth and the vault of 
the temple should be made so as to cover the entire space 
occupied by the pedestal and the adytum combined, the 
indents having been left aside to the measure previously 

O Sounaka, I have described the characteristic measures 
of temples which are built in proportion to the dimensions 
of images of their inmate deities. I shall presently deaj with 
a class of divine edifices which are constructed in measures 
proportionate to those of their door-frames. A measure 
of four forearms should be divided into eight equal part<^ 
which would be the measure for the breadth of the door, 
or the same might be made of twice that breadth. The 
upper part of the door, like the upper part of the pedestal, 
should be perforated with holes, as the upper part of the 
door would be taken in by the wall to the length of a pada 
measure. The plinth should be made twice as much broad 
as the door and the terrace or the pinnacle part of the temple 
should be made of twice that measure. The vault should be 


arched from the spring line as before laid down on the 
regions of indents at the top of the walls of the temple. 

I have already described the essential traits of a divine 
temple built proportionate to its mandap ; now I shall 
describe one of a different structure. The ground, on 
which the image of the deity would be installed, should 
be tripled in measure, which would thus give the dimensions 
of the exterior ; the area of the temple must be less than that 
of the ground on which the same should be erected by a 
pada in all directions, and the area of the adytum should be 
made half of that of the latter. The walls should be made 
equal in height to the length of the adytum or the space 
enclosed within them, and the pinnacle should be twice as 
much high as the height of the wall. 

Now I shall describe the different classes of temples 
according to their respective measure and origin. The 
different forms of divine edifices are mainly grouped under 
five heads such as the Bairaja, the Puspakiksa, the Kailasa, 
the Malikahvaya and the Tripistapam, which should be 
looked upon as the abode of all deities and in which their 
images might be safely installed. The first of the above 
classes of temple is characterised by a rectangular shape ; 
the second class is marked in a quadrilateral shape ; the third 
class has a circular shape, the fourth class of temples has a 
shape which appertains to the different segments of spheres ; 
while the fifth class of temple is octagonal. These five 
classes of temples, which are the proper abodes for all forms 
of divine manifestations, admit of being divided into various 
sub-divbions as it were, thus giving rise to forty-five different 
shapes of temples which are the Meru, the Mandara, the 
Vimana, the Vadraka the Sarvatovadra, the Ruchaka, the 
the Nandana, the Nandivardana and the Shrivatsa, these nine 
arising out of the class of the rectangular Vairaja form of the 
temple. The nine temples which owe their origin to the genus 
Puspaka are known as the (i) Badavi, (i) the Griharajai 


(3) the Shalagriha, (4) the Mandira, (5) the Vimaoa t 
(6) the Bramhamindara, (7) the Vavana, (8) Uttamva, and 
(9) the ShivikSiveshma. The names of the nine circle 
temples which appertain to, and proceed out of, the genus 
Kailasa are the i Valaya, 2 Dundubhi, 3 Padma, 4 Mali- . 
padma, 5 Mukuli, 6 Ushnishi, 7 Shankha, 8 Kalasa^ 
9 Guv^briksa. The class Malakahvaya has fathered the nine 
spheriodical temples which are called the i Gaja, 2 Vrisava, 
3 Garuda, 4 Sinha, 5 Bhumukha, 6 Bhudhara, 7 Shrijaya and 
8 the Prithividhara and 9 the Hansa. The nine octagon- 
shaped temples, which fall under the genus Tripistapa, are 
named as i Vajra, 2 Chakra, 3 Mustika, 4 Vabhru, 5 Vakra, 
6 Svastika, 7 Gada, 8 Shrivriksa, and 9 Vijaya which is 
also known as Vijaya Sveta. 

Now I shall describe the situations of the triangular, lotus- 

shaped, crescent-shaped, rectangular and the octagonal 

divine edifices, and narrate the purposes for which they 

should be built in those shapes. A temple, built in the shape 

of a triangle, imparts wealth and sovereignity, increases the 

duration of life and gives wives and male offsprings to the 

consecrator. The consecrator should plant a banner on 

the top of the temple, and build the Garbha Griha or the 

entrance chamber just in front of the door ; and the mandap 

or the sanctuary of the temple should be built with an 

equal number of lines with the latter, one full window and 

a half having been opened therein. The mandap should be 

commensurate with the measure of a wall and a half should 

be made to measure twice the thickness of the walls iit 

length. The ornamental cornices should be laid down so 

as to include spaces of unequal measure between them, the 

intervening spaces having been filled in with horizontal lines 

of unequal thickness. A divine edifice, of the Meru class» 

should be provided with doors and furnished with four sheds 

or top chambers over them, while the terrace should be 

decorated with a hundred turrets. The mandapas or the 


top chambers of the above edifice should be so constructed as 
to have three arches differing from each other, both as 
regards their shape and dimension. In some of the temples 
the bullocks are carved out in relief while in others they are 
carved into the body of the top chambers. Thus the temples 
differ from each other in appearance, shape and size which 
vary in construction according as the character of the image 
residing therein varies. No hard and fast rule can be 
laid down for constructing temples for the gods who are 
self-originated, and accordingly they should be built accord- 
ing to the measures stated before, of rectangular shape and 
possessing courts and turrets and top-chambers over their 
terraces ; and the hall for musical entertainments should be 
built contaguous to the door of the temple. The celestial 
warders of the gods should be sculptured on the various 
angular quarters of the divine mansion, and a little re- 
mote therefrom the houses for monks should be built. The 
ground should be washed with water containing fruits and 
flowers. The consecrator should previously worship the 
gods about to be installed in the temple. Vasudeva is the 
god of gods, and a person, who consecrates a temple to him^ 
attains all merit. 



SuTA said : — I will now describe in brief the installation 
of the images of all the deities. Under an auspicious planet 
and in a beautiful building a preceptor should perform the 
rite of installation. He should, in the company of sacrificial 
pricbts, elect a Brahmana of the Central Provinces as the 


with the water of the Arghya vessel he should wash the 
sacrificial shed. He should next make the assignment of a 
pitcher named after the deity whose image is to be installed. 
He should adore the pitcher in the north-east and the 
Vardhani (broom) in the north with the Astra mantram. He 
should place the pitcher, the Vardhani, the planets and the 
Vastu god in their respective seats with the recitation of 
Pranava. The preceptor should adore the pitcher, having a 
thread round its neck, containing jems, covered with a piece 
of beautiful cloth and scented with all the medicinal herbs: 
The deity should be adored in the pitcher together with the 
Vardhani and the most excellent cloth. He should after- 
wards roll the pitcher together with Vardhani (broom) ; then 
sprinkling the ground with drops of water pouring from the 
broom he should place it before. Then having worshipped 
the broom and the pitcher he should adore the deity in the 
sacrificial altar. Having invoked the pitcher in the north- 
west quarter as well as the Gana deities a learned wor- 
shipper should recite the name of the Vastu deity in the 
north-east quarter. For making good the imperfections of 
the ground he should with the Vastospati mantram 
dedicate offerings of animals to the evil spirits and their 
leader on the eastern side of the pitcher. Afterwards a 
learned worshipper should perform the rite of slaughtering 
those animals. With the mantram " Yoga, Yoga" he should 
next spread sacrificial fuels and Ku(a blades. Then the presi- 
ding priest should place the images along with the Ritwikas 
(sacrificial priests) on the altar of bathing. Then having 
recited many holy and auspicious verses through the Brahma 
ghosas* the twice-born should place the image of the deity 
in the Brahma-car. Then having brought the altar to the 
north-east comer the preceptor should place it in the sacri- 
ficial shed. With the mantram " Bhadra Kame" he should 

* The rcdctrs of Vsdic hyoms. 


)>athe the image and then put on the sacrificial thread. 
Having sprinkled the image he should make the door after 
saluting it from a distance. He should next put collyrium 
for the eyes in a bell-metal or a copper vessel containing 
honey and Sarpi.* Then with the **Agni-Jyoti" mantram 
he should open up its eyes with a golden probe. Then with 
due rites he should give the name. Then with the Ganga 
mantram "Imamme" he should perform the rite of cooling 
the eyes. With the mantram "Agni-Murdheti" he should 
place the dust of an ant-hill. With the mantram ''Yajnayajna" 
he should place the branches of astringent trees, vis.^ 
Bel, Oodumvara, Ashwatha, Vata and Palasha. He should 
then sprinkle the image with five products of cow together 
with the goddesses, vis., Sahadevi, Bali, Shatamuli, Shat^i- 
vari, Kumari, Guduchi, Sinhi and Vyagrihi. 

The image of the animal, the god rides upon, should 
be built in the front of his temple, and gems, cereals, 
paddy and the Cotapuppika should be buried in the 
four corners of the edifice, the eight oceans such as 
the Ksherodi, Dadhi, etc., having been located by imagi- 
nation in all the corners thereof by reading aloud the 
mantras which respectively begin as Apyasva, Dadhikratro, 
and Ya Ousadhi (those cereals) etc. The sacrificial pitchers 
should be invoked by uttering the mantra which runs as 
Tejosi, (thou art the light) etc., and bathed with water by 
repeating four times the mantra, known as the Samudraksa 
mantra. The preceptor, having bathed and dressed well, 
should offer the incense sticks together with the perfumed 
gum resin known as the Guggula, and invoke the particular 
sacred pools for bathing the sacrificial pitchers therein. 
The pitchers should be invoked with the mantra which runs 
as Ya Ousadhi ; and they should be bathed in the sacred 
pools previously invoked by reading aloud the following 

* A small m«dicin*l shrub. 


mantra. "A fiiaiii who bathes in that water, is purged off 
all sins etc.'' Having performed the rite of oblation unto the 
sacriRcial pitchers and by uttering tiie mantra of the ocean 
(Samudra mantra), the Argha offering should be presented 
to them. The perfumed sandal paste should be presented 
repeating the mantra which begins as Gandhadvara, etc., and 
the Nyasa (rite of locating the fiery images Of mantra or god 
in the different parts of the body) should be performed by 
uttering the mantras of the Veda. The cloth should be 
offered with the mantra which reads as this obtained wiib 
the means approved of the Shastras. The god should be 
taken into the sacrificial shed by reciting the mantra known 
as the Kavivaha, and laid down in the bed with the mantra 
which runs as Shambhavaya, etc. All the articles should be 
purified with the mantra known as the Devatacchakan. 
Then having merged himself in the supreme principle of the 
universe, the preceptor should perform the Nyasa rite known 
as the mantra Nyasa. Then the mantra should be worshipped 
under a covering. 

Then as directed by the Scripture he should place offer- 
ings at the foot of the image. He should place the pitcher 
with goldi covered with pieces of cloth and inspired with 
Pranava mantra, where the head of the idol lies. Having 
placed it near the receptacle the preceptor should perform 
the rite of placing the sacred fire either according to the 
religious prescription of his own sacrificial code or accord- 
ing to the Vedic mantrams. One should recite Srisukta,'"' 
along with fire, its dwelling place, servants and deer-skin, 
Vrish^kapi and Mitra in the west. A successful Adhyaryut 
should recite in the south Rudra, Purushasukta,t SlokSdhyaya^ 

* A hymn describing the glories of the goddess of prosperity, 
f A Bramhan well-versed in the Atharva Veda. 
X A hymn of the Rig- Veda. 
\ A Chapter of verses of praise. 


Bnunhay the Pitris and Maitra. A person, versed in Chhandas 
(prosody), should recite, in the west, the Vedic observance 
Vimadevya, Jyesthasama,* Bherundast and Samans4 A 
Bramhan, well-versed in the Atharvan Veda, should recite 
in the north the principal portion of the Artharva, the 
(Kumbha Sukta verse) of the Atharva Veda, Neela Rudras§ 
and Maitra. 

Touching the receptacle with the astra mantram, the 
Acharya (preceptor) should bring the fire, either in a copper 
vessel or an earthen one, according to his means, and 
place it before. A worshipper should light the fire with the 
astra mantram, should encircle it with the Kavacha mantram 
and afterwards perform the rite of Amritikarana with all the 
mantrams. He should take up the vessel with his two hands 
and roll it over the receptacle ; and then with the Vishnu 
mantra he should throw the most excellent fire there. Either 
with the general mantrams or with those of his own sect he 
should place Brs^ma in the south and the sacrificial vessels 
in the north. Then with Ku(a grasses he should place 
Paridhisll in all the quarters. Brahm2L, Vishnu and Hara 
should be adored with the general mantrams. He should 
place fire in the sacrificial grass and should encirde it with 
the same. That which is touched with a sacrificial grass is 
purified even in the absence of the mantrams. Encircled by 
uncut sacrificial grasses, with their blades directed in the east, 
west and north, the fire, of its own accord, comes near. 
One, well versed in mantrams, should do what has been said 
for the protection of the fire. Some preceptors hold that 

* A portion of the Sama Veda. A religious rite of which its perusal 
is a part. 

t One of Vakshinis or female attendants of Durga. 

X Verses of the Sama Veda. 

\ Mantrams of the Artharva Veda. 

II A wooden frame round the hole in which the a sacrificial fire is 


the rite, consequent on the birth of a child, should be per-^ 
formed after the installation of the sacred fire. Thereupon 
performing the rite of Pavitra one should purifj his kingdom. 
The preceptor should next see that the rite of prostration is 
performed with mantrams. He should pour clarified butter 
in drops into the fire for making the former succssful. He 
should next offer ten oblations of clarified butter unto fire. 
As long as the rite of giving away kine continues so long 
GarbhSidh&na and other rites should be solemnized. Either 
with the mantrams of his own Scriptural code or with 
Pranava a preceptor should perform the rite of Homa. 
Thereupon he should offer PurnSLhuti (consummated oblation) 
from which one's desires are ail fulfilled. A fire, thus 
generated, yeilds success in all works. 

Thereupon having worshipped the fire he should place it 
in the receptacle. Then with his own mantrams he should 
offer a hundred oblations in honor of Indra and other gods. 
Then unif3ring his own self with all the gods, mantrams and 
fire he should offer the Pumkhuti. Then coming out the 
Achaiya should offer sacrificial beasts to the guardian 
deities of the quarters, the evil spirits, gods and Nagas. 
Sessamum seeds and sacrificial fuels are the two necessary 
articles of Homa. Clarified butter is an auxilliary to them. 

He should next assign Purushasukta to the east, Rudra to 
the south, and Jyesthasama and Bherunda to the west. 
Neelarudra is a great mantram of the Kurma Sukta (hymn) 
belonging to the Atharva-Veda. He should offer a thousand 
oblations to each of the gods — to their head, body and foot, 
and then offer Purn&huti. In due order and without any 
distinction he should offer oblations to the spot where the 
head of the image is placed. The twice-born should offer 
oblations in honor of the gods either with the principal 
mantram, the mantrams of his own Scriptural code or with 
the Gayatri, or with only Gayatri, Vyarhriti and Pranava. 
Having thus duly performed the Homa rite a worshipper 



should make assignment of the mantrams. He should assign 
Agnimili to the feet, Ishitwa to the ankles, Agniaylhi to the 
hips, Saunodevi to the knee-joints, Vrihadantara to the 
thighs, Shwatira to the belly, Dirghayustra to the heart, 
Shree to the neck, Trataramindra to the breast, Triyugmaka 
to the eyes, and MurdhSLbhava to the head. 

Thereupon a preceptor should raise up the image saying 
" Rise up, O lord of the Brahmanas." Then with the Vedic 
and other sacred recitations he should circumambulate the 
divine edifice. 

A person, well versed in mantrams, should next make the 
foot-stool of the deity. With jems he should place the 
imagei of the deities of the quarters, metals and medicinal 
herbs and Louha Vijani behind the image. The image 
should not be placed in the centre of the adytum nor it 
should be absolutely abandoned. It should be placed a tittle 
distant from the centre and all imperfections should be re- 
moved thereby. Then sessamum seeds should be placed in 
the north. Afterwards reciting the mantram"Om, remain 
here permanently and do good unto the creatures, salutation 
unto thee" the preceptor should make assignment of mantras 
to the deity, the Sun and the six other gods. Having made 
the six-fold assignments for accomplishing success he should 
inspire them with mantrams. 

He should next sprinkle the well-fixed image with the 
water of the Sampata pitcher and adore it with lamps, 
incense, scents and edibles. Having oflFered Arghya and 
bowed unto the deity he should pray for forgiveness. Then 
according to his means, vessels, two pieces of raiment, 
umbrella and good rings should be presented as Dakshina 
(fee) to the officiating priests. Afterwards, with a controlled 
mind, the sacrificer should offer a hundred oblations and 
then the PurnShuti. And then coming out of the temple 
the preceptor should dedicate offerings to ihe guardian 
deities of the quarters. With flowers in his hands and say- 


ing " Forgive" he should dedicate them. After the termina- 
tion of the sacrifice the sacrificer should present unto the 
preceptor a Kapila cow, chowri, head-gear, ear-rings, 
umbrella, bracelet, an ornament for the waist, [fans, villages, 
and raiments &c. He should then give a grand dinner 
party. Being liberated by the favour of the divine edifice 
a sacrificer becomes successful. 



Bramha said :«— Hari, the author of creation, &c.j should 
be adored by the Self-create Bramha and other gods, and 
Bramhana and other castes, according to the rites of their 
respective orders. Hear their respective duties, O Vyasa. 

Celebrating sacrifices for themselves and others, making 
gifts and accepting them, study and teaching constitute 
the six-fold duties of the Brahmanas. Making gifts, study- 
ing and celebrating sacrifices are the duties of the 
Kshatryas and the Vaishyas. To govern is also the duty of 
a Kshatrya whereas cultivation constitutes that of a Vaishya. 
To serve the twice-born is the duty of the Sudras. Handi- 
craft and menial service are also their duties. Begging, 
attending the preceptor, Vedic study, abandonment of 
world4y affections and possessions and the preservation of 
the .sacred fire constitute the duties of a Bramhacharin. 

All :the four Ashramas (orders) have two-fold conditions. 
They are called Bramhacharin (religious student) Upakur- 
vana j(bouse-holder), Vaishthika* and Bramhatatpara.t He 

* The Bramhan who continues with his spiritual preceptor and 
always remains in the condition of the religious student. 

t He, who giving up every other work, is solely engaged in the 
meditation of Para*Bramha. 


ivho having duly studied the Vedas enters into the order 
of the house-holder, is called Upakarv^naka. He, who con-* 
tinues the life of the religious student till his death, is called 
Vaishthika. O foremost of the twice-born, the preserve- 
tion of sacred fire, the entertainment of the guests, the cele- 
bration of sacrifices, making gifts and the adoration of the 
deities constitute the duties of a house-holder. A Udftsina 
(one disassociated from the world) and a SSdhaka (one 
devoted exclusively to religious practices), becomes a house- 
holder in two ways. A Sadhaka, while he is busy with 
maintaining his relations, becomes a house-holder. He, who 
having neglected the payment of three-fold debts* and 
renounced wife and earthly possessions, &c. roves about 
alone, is a nominal UdSLsina. 

The duty, of a dweller of the forest (hermit)> consists 
in duly sleeping on earth, living on roots and fruits and study* 
ing the Vedas. He is the best of ascetics living in the 
forest who practises austerities in the forest, worships the 
gods, offers oblations to iire and studies the Vedas. Being 
emaciated greatly by practising hardest austerities, he, who 
is engaged solely in the meditation of the Deity, is known as 
a Sanyasin stationed in the Vanaprastha order. The Bhikshii 
or the mendicant, who daily practises Yoga, is self-control- 
led and follows the light of Jn&na (knowledge), is called 
P^rameshthika. The great ascetic, who delights in self 
and is ever gratified and besmeared with sandal, is called 
Bhikshu. Begging alms, Vedic studies, vow of silence, asce- 
ticism, meditation, perfect knowledge and disassociation 
from the world constitute the duties a Bhikshu. PSrames- 
thikas are divided into three classes — vis,, Jn&na Sanyasinsf 

* Every one, that is born, has got three debts to pay off :— to Mgts, 
gods and the Manes. 

t The Sanyasins who follow the road of Knowledgt. 


Veda Sanyasins* and Karma Sanyasins.t Yoga is also three- 
fold — Bhoutika,t Kshatri ; and the third is Antashrami. 
Abstract meditation of the Deity is also three-fold — PrathamS, 
Duskara, Antimi. Religious rites beget emancipation and 
pursuance of worldly objects creates desire. Vedic rites are 
two-fold — Pravritti and Nivritti.§ Nrivritti or extinction of 
desire is preceded by Jnana or knowledge and Pravritti is 
worked out by the worship of sacred fire. 

Forgiveness, self-restraint, compassion, charity, want of 
avarice, simplicity, want of jealousy, visiting sacred shrines, 
truthfulness, contenment, faith in the existence of God, the 
subjugation of senses, the adoration of the deities, the wor* 
ship of the Brahmanas, abstinence from doing injury, speak- 
ing sweet words, not to slander and amiability, — ^these are 
the duties of the various orders of the four castes. The 
region of Brahma is reserved for those Brahmanas who 
perform sacrificial rites. That of Indra is intended for those 
Kshatryas who never fly away from the battle-field. That 
of the Gandharva is reserved for the Sudras who steadfastfy 
serve [the three higher castes] . 

The region, of the eighty-eight-thousand Rishis who have 
controlled their vital powers, is also reserved for those who 
Jive for ever with their preceptors. The region, which is 
reserved for the seven Rishis, is also intended for the ascetics 
who live in the forest. The blissful region of Brahma is 
reserved for the Yatis who have controlled their mental and 
intellectul faculties, for those who practise Nyasa and those 
who uphold the discharge of vital fluid. No ascetic returns 
from this region. The immortal, eternal, undecaying, ever 

♦ Those who read the Vedas. 

f Those who follow the road of action — i,e. who always engage in 
disinterested works. 

X Elemental. 

$ Pravritti is what destroys desire and Nivritti withdraws the mind 
from worldly objects. 


blissful region of Ishwara, called Vyom, from which an 
emancipated person never return"^, is reserved for the Yogins. 
Hear, I will describe in brief the eight sorts of Mukti or 

YSma* is of five sorts, via., abstaining from harming 
others, abstaining from killing animals, truthfulness, doing 
good to all creatures, restraint of speech, belief in God/ 
abstaining from knowing a woman, Brahmacharya (life of 
a religious student), renunciation of all and >dccepting no 
gifts. Niyamast are five, beginning with truthfulness and 
divided into two classes, external and internal. They are 
purification, truthfulness, contentment^ penance and subjuga- 
tion of senses. S^dhyaya is the recitation of Vedic Mantrams. 
And with the concentration of mind one should adore Hari- 
AsSna (yoga posture) consists of Padma and others, and 
Prin^yima is the suppression of vital airs. Inhaling the 
breath and sending it with Mantrams and meditation, either 
twice or thrice, is called Puraka. Absolute suspension of 
breath is called Kumbhaka. Expiration by one nostril is 
called Rechaka. The withdrawal of the organs of senses 
from external objects is called PratyahSira. DhySLna is the 
meditation on self and Brahma. The steadying of the mind 
b called DhSLran^. The state of mind in which one's soul 
is absolutely immersed in Brahma and when be thinks " I am 
Brahma" is called SamSLdhi. 

I am Self, the Para-Brahma, ever existent, full of know- 
ledge and without end. The bliss of knowing Brahma 

* Self-control ; — a great moral or religious duty or observance* 
And here though it b mentioned five, but ten sorts of Ylma mrm 
enumerated. The names are given differently by different writers. 

t Religious rites or austerities which are not so obligatory as Yama. 
(In Yoga philosophy) Restraint of the mind, the second of the eight 
principal steps of meditation in Yoga. 



i^ realized when one understands Tattwutnasi.* I am 
Brahma, am without body and organs of senses. I am 
devoid of mind, intellect and egoism. I am the light in 
three states of wakefulness, dreaming sleep, and dream-less 
sleep. I am eterrtal, pure, enlightened, existent, blissful and 
without second. I am that Prime Purusha. I am that un- 
divided, portionless Purusha. 

fit Brahmana, thus meditating, is freed from the fetters 
of the world. 



Brahma said: — He who performs religious rites daily 
attains to JnAna (knowledge). Having got up from bed at 
the Brahma-muhurtaf he should meditate on religious profit 
and worldly profit. He should also meditate, in the lotus 
of his heart, on blissful and undecaying Hari. When the 
dawn approaches a learned man, having performed the 
necessary .rites, should repair to a river of pure water for 
bathing, and perform there duly the purificatory rite. Even 
sinful wights are sanctified by morning ablutions. There- 
fore with every possible care a person should bathe early in 
the morning. Wise men speak highly of morning ablutions 
[in consequence of their yielding fruits] seen and unsepn* 
When a person sleeps at ease saliva and other impurities 
come out. Therefore without bathing first no one 
should perform a religious rite. Poverty, misfortune, bad 

* It is a iranscendenul Vedic plirase occurring in the Chhandogya 
Upanishad, meaning ** That art Thou." 
\ Early part of the day. 


dreamsi and -anxious thoughts — all these sins are forsooth 
destroyed by morning ablutions. It b not proper for persons 
to perform religious rites without bathing. Particularly in 
Homa and Japa one must bathe. He should sprinkle his head 
with water and rub his body with a piece of wet cloth. He 
should perform the six forms of bathing, viz., Brahma, Agneya, 
VSyavya, Divya, V^runa and Yougika. The Brlhma form of 
bathing consists in rubbing the body with drops of water 
poured through Ku$a reeds and accompanied with Mantrams. 
Agneya form consists is besmearing the body, from head to 
foot, with ashes. The most excellent form of bathing, name* 
ly, Vlyavya, consists in rubbing on the body the powder of 
cow-dung. Bathing in the sun-shine is called Divya. Varuna 
consists in plunging into water and knowing the self in mind* 
Meditation on Hari by means of Yoga is called Yougika 
form of bathing. It is the shrine of self resorted to by 

With his face directed towards either the north or the 
east a person should cleanse his teeth with the twigs either 
of Kshira, Malati, Vilwa or Karavira trees. Standing on a 
purified spot he should wash his teeth and mouth and then 
throw the stick away. Afterwards having bathed he should 
offer libations of water to the celestials, Rishis and the depart- 
ed manes. Having rinsed his mouth he should do it again 
observing silence. Having sprinked his body with drops of 
water through Ku{a reeds and with Mantrams, Apohistha, 
Vyarhriti and the auspicious V^runi and having recited the 
Gayatri, consisting of Om and Vyarhriti, the mother of the 
Vedas, he should offer libations of water to the sun with his 
mind fixed in him. 

Thereupon sitting on Kuga grass in the morning, con- 
trolling his mind and suppressing his vital air he should 
meditate on Sandhyi. Mantrams. She, who is SandhyS, is 
the mother of the universe, beyond illusion, sinless, divine 
and sprung from three-fold energies. Raving thus meditated 


a learned man should recite crimson-colouredi white ancF 
dark-blue Gayatri. With his face directed towards the earth' 
a Brahmana should always perform his San dhya rites. He, 
who does not make Sandhya worship, is impure and Is not 
competent to perform any action. And he does not reap the 
fruit of any thing else he does. Having duty adored Sandhya,- 
the pure and self-controlled Brahmanas, the masters of the 
Vedas, attain to the most excellent region. That best of 
the twice-born, who, neglecting the Sandhya rites, tries to per- 
form any other religious ceremony, goes to a million of hells. 
Therefore with every possible care one should perform the 
Sandhya rites. By doing so one gets the most excellent 
celestial and Yoga body. 

A learned man*, controlling his senses, purifying his own 
body and mind, and sitting with his face towards the east, 
shoi/ld recite the Gayatri, a thousand, hundred or ten times. 
Having controlled.his mind, he should sit facing the rising 

• • • • - • • 

sun. With many potent Mantrams, belonging to the Rik, 
Yayush and Sama Veda, he should adore and salute the 
Sun, the god of gods, touching the ground with his head, 
saying '' Om, salutation, I dedicate my self, unto Khasholka, 
the cause of the three-fold causes, unto him of the form of 
knowledge. Thou art Brahma, the great water, fire and 
juice. Thou art earth, heaven and sky, Om and the etemat 

• • • 

Rudra.'^ Having recited mentally this most excellent hymn 
in the morning and noon one should bow unto the Sun. 

Then returning to his house and rinsing his mouth duly 
with wat^ a Brahmana should light up (himself) the sacred fire 
and offer oblations unto it. With the permission of the sacrificer, 
his priest, son, wife, pupil or brother may also offer oblations. 
Any religious rite, that is performed without Mantrams, 
yields^ no fruit in this world. He should bow unto the deities 
and dedicate unto them offerings. He should adore his pre- 
ceptor and do what is.conducive to his well-being. A twice- 
born should afterwards, according to his power, study the' 


Vedas with proper care ; he should recite the Mantrams, teachf 
his pupils, conceive the 'meaning and discuss the same. 
That best of the twice-born should also read the Dharma 
Shastras (Religious Codes), the Vedic texts and the Vedangas.*" 
For making his Yoga successful the twice-born should 
approach the Deity and afterwards do various works, for his 
relatives. Thereupon in the noon he should collect, — for 
the purpose of bathing, earth, flowers, dried paddy, sessa-* 
mum seeds, sacrificial grass, and the pure cow-dung. He 
should bathe in a river, in a tank dedicated to a deity, in a 
pool or in a pond (of his own) but he should never bathe 
(in a well or tank) belonging to another person. If he does 
not offer five pindas every day his bathing becomes im- 
pure. The head should be washed once with earth, the 
navel twice, the part beneath it thrice, and the feet six times.' 
Earth should be of the quantity of a ripe Myrobalam ; cow- 
dung should also be of the same quantity. He should then 
besmear his body with it. Having washed his body and 
rinsed his mouth, he should bathe with a controlled mind. 
Then coming on the shore, he should besmear his body with 
earth, reciting the Linga Mantrams. He should then inspire 
the water with the auspicious Varuna Mantrams. At the 
time of bathing he should think of the NSirlyana form of 
Vishnu in the water. Having^ooked at the sun with Om, 
he should thrice plunge himself into the water and again rinse, 
his mouth with the following mantram. 

"Thou rangest in the mind of creatures and art the 

* Certain classes of works regarded as auxili;iry to the Vedas and*' 
designed to ^id in the correct pronounciation and interpretation of the- 
Uxt and the right employment of Mantrams in the ceremonials* They: 
are six in number : — (i) Siksha, Ortheopy, or the science of proper artU 
culation and pronounciation ; (2) Chhandas, Prosody ; (3) Vyakarana» 
Grammar; (4) Nirukta, Etymology, or derivative explanations of Vedic 
words and phrases ; (5) Jyotish, Astronomy ; (6) Kalpa, Ritual. 


mouth of the universe. : Thou art Yama, Vashaikardi water^ 
fire, juice and ambrosia." 

• • • 

He should repeat thrice the Dnipada Mantram con-^ 
sisting of Vyahriti and Pranava* The learned worshipper 
should next recite the Savitri Mantram destructive of 
sins. Thereupon he should cleanse the earth with the 
Apohistha Mantram, with the Mantram " flow^pure water" 
and with Vyahriti. He should next inspire water with 
Apohistha Mantram. He should next repeat thrice . the 
Mantram "Antarjalamavagagnon" destructive of all sins, or 
Dnipada or Savitri, the most excellent region of Vishnu. 
He should next recite Pranava and meditate on Hari the 
god of gods. Taking up water in his hands and reciting the 
Mantram, he should sprinkle the head therewith, and would 
thus be freed off all sins. 

Having made the Sandhy§ adorations and rinsed his mouth, 
he should daily meditate on the God, and sit facbg the sun, 
placing his palms .full of flowers on the crown of his bead. 
Throwing them he should look at the god stationed on the 
rising mountain {i.e. the rising sun) with the Mantram "Thou art 
the eye, ever pure, supreme soul and existent," or particularly 
with the Savitri or other Vedic Mantrams. He should next 
repeat GSyatri and various other mantrams. Sitting on a 
seat of Ku$a grass with his face towards the east he should 
look at the sun and repeat prayers with a controlled mind. 
The garland of beads should either be made of crystal, lotus, 
Rudraksha or Putrinjiva. If his cloth be tattered he should 
stand in the water and perform his adorations. Else he 
should sit, with a controlled mind, on Ku$a grass spread on 
a sanctified spot.^ Then going round, he should bow touching 
the ground with his head. Then rinsing his mouth as 
sanctioned by the Shastras, he should read the Vedas accord- 
ing to his power. Afterwards he should offer libations of 
water for the gods, Rishis and the departed manes with the 
prayer ]^ OtD, salutation unto you all, I offer these libations 

garuda puranam. 13s 


of water." He should dedicate libations of water and fried 
paddy unto the celestials and Brahma Rishis. He should 
dedicate offerings reverentially unto the departed manes, 
gods and ascetics according to the prescription of his own 
Religious Code. He should gratify the celestial saints 
and the departed manes with palmfuls of water. Sacrificial 
threads are also offered to the gods along with water, 
Niveeta (the Brahminical thread suspended round the neck) 
to the Rishis and Pr^cheenavitins (the sacrificial thread 
worn over the right arm and passing under the left) to the ' 
departed ipanes. 

Pressing the water out of the cloth after bathing, rinsing 
his mouth and observing silence, he should adore the deities 
with flowers, leaves and water, and Swa Man trams. O 
wrathful Hara, [he should adore] Brahm2L, Shankara^ the 
sun-god, the slayer of Madhu (Vishnu) and various other 
approved deities. With the Purusha Sukta Mantram he 
should dedicate flowers and other offerings ; or he should 
adore all the deities with water only. Controlling his mind he 
should meditate on the deity repeating Om. Then saluting 
him he should keep flowers and other offerings in separate * 
places. Without adoration no Vedic rite becomes conse- 
crated. Therefore in the beginning, middle and end of every 
rite, one should mentally meditate on Hari. With the Mantram 
''Thou art Vishnu" and the hymn of the Purusha-Sukta,* 
one should dedicate his self unto Vishnu of pure effulgence. 
Having all his mental faculties tranquilized and his mind 
fixed on the deity, he should, with the Mantram, '' thou art 
Vbhnu," perform the five sacrifices, namely that for the* 
deities, that for the evil spirits, that for the departed manes, 
t]iat for men and that for Bramha. Without the offering 
of libations of water Brahma Yajna is not finbhed. After 
celebrating the sacrifice for men (M^nushayajna) one should 
read the Vedas. In a sacrifice for the gods offerings should 
be made to that class of gods called Vishwadevas. In a 


Bhutayajna animals should be sacrified for the evil spirits. 
The foremost of the twice-born should next offer food to the 
dogs, the degraded caste people, outcastes and birds, on the 
ground outside the house* 

In honor of the departed manes the best of sacrificers 
should feed at least one Brahmana. He should perform the 
daily SrSddha in their honor. Such a Pitriyajna yields 
blessed regions. Then with a controlled mind he should, 
commensurate with his means, take up a portion of food and 
offer it to a Brahmana well-read in the Vedas. He should 
daily treat his guests hospitably and welcome a Brahmana 
who comes to his house and adore him with mind, words 
and deeds. 

A mouthful of food is called BhikshSl (alms) and enough 
is given when four times as much is distributed. A guest 
should wait for the period that is necessary for milching a 
cow. One should, as much as lies in his power, .treat 
uncalled-for guests hospitably. One should daily offer alms 
to a mendicant, and food to a Brahmacharin (religious 
student) and to beggars what they want proportionate to his 
means, and being himself freed from avarice. He should 
next take food in the company of his friends. The foolish 
Brahmana, who takes his food without celebratinjg . these 
five sacrifices, is born in a degpraded caste. Those, who 
are competent to celebrate a^great sacrifice, should, study 
the Vedas. The adoration of a god dissipates speedily .all 
sins. He, who, either out of ignorance or laziness, takes 
his food without worshipping the deity, goes to hell .and .is 
bom as a hog. 

I will now describe what is impurity. An impure man is 
visited by sins. Impurity is generated either by associating 
with impure persons or avoiding the company of pious men. 
The learned Brahmanas speak of ten sorts of impurity. 
The Brahmanas are impure if any person dies in their family 
or any child is born. When a child dies before teething the 



period of impurity is immediately over ; it lasts for a day 
before the solemnization of the rite of tonsure. It lasts (or 
three days before the rite of wearing sacred thread is not 
performed. After that it lasts for ten nights. For the 
Kshatryas the period consists of twelve days, and for the 
Vaishyas fifteen days. A Shudra is cleansed from impurity 
after a month. For a Yati there is no impurity. For 
abhortion it lasts either for a night or (or a month. 



Brahma said :-^I willnow describe the most excellent 
rules of making charities. Wealth should be respectfully 
ffiven to a worthy person. Charity yields enjoyment and 
emancipation. Riches, acquired by fair means, when given 
away in charities, yeild the fruits of enjoyment Teachings 
officiating as priests and accepting presents are the duties of 
the Brahmanas. Usury, agriculture and trade are the duties 
of the Vaishyas. When charity is made to a worthy person 
it b called Svattwik (z^. one pervaded by the quality of 
goodness). Besides there are various other forms of charity, 
vtM., Nitya (daily), Naimittika (occasional), Kamya (made with 
the desire of fruits) and Vimala (pure, or disinterested). 
Whatever is daily given to persons who have done us no 
good or to the Brahtnanas without any expectation for 
fruits it is called Nitya. Whatever is given to a learned 
person, for the expiation of sins or for averting evib, b 
called Naimittika. Such charities are made by pious men. 
Whatever is given for having children, achieving victory, or 
attaining heaven, is called by the Rishis, well read in the 


Religious Code, KSmya. With a mind pervaded by the 
quality of Svattwa (goodness) when a man makes presents to 
persons conversant with the knowledge of Brahma, only with 
the object of pleasing God such a gift is called Vimala. 

If a man gives lands abounding in barley and corns and 
outskirted on all sides with sugar-cane plants, he is never 
born again. There never had been nor there will be any 
charity superior to the giving away of lands. By giving 
education unto the Brahmanas one becomes glorified in the 
region of Brahma. By giving reverentially food unto the 
Brahmacharins one, freed off of all sins, attains to the region 
of Brahma. If a person, after fasting on the full-moon day 
in the month of Vaishakha (March- April), adores twelve 
Brahmanas with honey and cakes of sessamum seeds or with 
scents or with sweet and moral words, all the sins, committed 
by him all through his life, are immediately dissipated. 
Having placed sessamum seeds, gold, honey and sarpi on 
skin of a black antelope he, who makes them over to )a 
Brahmana, crosses over all his iniquities. He, who specially 
in the month ofr Vaishaka treats the Brahmanas with 
clarified butter, boiled rice and water in honor of Dharma* 
raja, becomes freed from all fear. If on the twelfth day of 
a fortnight a person* adores Vishnu who destroys all sins he 
forsooth becomes freed from all sins. Whatever deity a 
man wishes to adore he must beforehand worship the 
Brahmanas and feed the women and celestials. He, who 
wishes to recover from a disease, must worship the Sun ; 
while one, wishing for riches, should worship the fire-God. 
One, wishing for success in all his undertakings, should 
worship VinSyaka and one, wishing for enjoyments, should 
worship the moon. One, wishing for strength, should adore 
the Wind-god. And he, who wishes for emancipation from 
worldly fetters, should with every care adore Hari. He, who 
does not desire for any thing or he, who desires for every- 
thing, should adore GadSdhara. The giver of water attains 


to gratification. The giver of boiled rice enjoys happiness. 
The giver of sessamum seeds obtains good offspring and 
the giver of lamps most excellent eyes. One, who gives 
away. lands, attains to all while the giver of gold acquires 
longevity. The giver of houses attains to the most esalted 
station in the world and the giver of silver a most handsome 
appearance. The giver of dwelling houses attains to the 
region of the moon and the giver of horses to tliat of 
Ashwins. The giver of bulls attains prosperity while 
the giver of kine attains to the region of BrahmSL. He, 
who gives conveyances and beddings, 'obtains a wife, and 
the giver of protection attains wealth. The giver of corns 
enjoys eternal happiness ; while the giver of Brahma 
(knowledge of) attains to the neighbourhood of Brahma. 
Imparting knowledge on the knowers of the Vedas one 
becomes glorified in the celestial region. By giving grass 
to the kine one becomes freed from all sins. By giving 
sacrificial fuels a man becomes effulgent like fire. By giving 
to the diseased, for the removal of his ailments, medicines, 
attendance and food one becomes freed from diseases, 
enjoys happiness and lives long. By giving away umbrellas 
one passes unscathed through a road of Asipatra leaves, 
sharp as razor and does not suffer from the fierce rays of 
the sun. He, who wishes things never to end, must give 
away unto qualified persons the various desired-for objects 
of the world and whatever is most favourite unto him in the 
house. If any thing is given away in charity during the 
equinox, the solar and lunar ecclipses and on the last day of 
a month it becomes never exhausted. There is no religious 
rite for a man to perform in this world superior to the 
making of charities in Pr^yaga (Allahabad) and various other 
sacred places and especially in Gayi where charities are 
made for attaining heaven and averting evils. The sinful 
person, who prevents a Brahmana from worshipping sacred 
fire and celebrating sacrifices, goes to hell. He, who does 

^.. ,„ 






not give food during a faminCi becomes the hateful destroyer 
of the Brahmanas on account o{ their meeting with death 
(for his negligence). \ ' ' 



Bramha said : — I will describe the regulations of 
Pr^yaschitta or penances. The principal sinners are those 
who kill Brahmanas, those who drink spirituous liquorS) 
those who commit thefts and those who violate the beds of 
their preceptors. And the fifth class of sinners are those 
jwho associate with all those people. The minor sins, as 
described by the celestials, are the slaughtering of kine, etc. 
One, committing the sin of Brabmanicide, shouM make a 
cottage in a forest and live there for tweWe years ^ or be 
should fast or level the summit of a mountain ; or be should 
himself either enter into fkre or water. * For the Brahmanas 
or the kine, one should entirely give up his life. By giving 
food ta the learned one may expatiate the sin of Brabmani- 
cide. By performing a horse-sacrifice or bathing in a sacred 
shrine, one is freed from the sin. Or be should mrice over 
bis all to a Brahmana, well read in the Vedas. A twice* 
bom one should bathe thrice a day at the sacred and cele* 
brated confluence of all the streams of the river Saraswatr 
and fabt for three nights. By bathing at the Setuvandha,* 
at Kapalmochana and Benares, one is freetf from the siir 
of Brabmanicide. The twice-born, who has drunk spirituous- 

* Near Rameshwaram in Ike District of Madura in the Madras 
Presidency where Rama, the hero of Ramayana, constructed a bridge 
over the ocean for going to Lanka (Ceylon)«-»The Adam's Peak ol 
Modem Geography. 


liquOFi is freed from the sin by drinking, hot as ' fire, wine, 
milk, clarified butter and co\/s urine. By being killed by a 
king with a mace the stealer of gold is freed from the sin. 
For expiating the sin of Brahmanicide, a twice-born one 
should, clad in bark, live in the forest. A Brahmana, wbo 
possessed by lust, knows his preceptor's wife, is to embrace 
the heated figure of a woman made of black iron. Or 
he may observe the penance of Brahmanicide or perform 
the ChSindrSLyana'''' vow. A Brahmana, who keeps company 
with degraded people, should perform the following penance 
for cleansing himself of the sin. He should undergo hard- 
ships without any sleep for one full year and duly give 
atV^ay his every thing. This will destroy all sins. Due 
celebration of ChSLndriyana accompanied with all possible 
hardships and the visiting of sacred places, such as Gaya, 
also leads to the destruction of the sin. He, who on an 
AmivashySL day adores Bhava and feeds the Brahmanas, is 
also freed off of all sins. If one, bathing in a river in the 
forenoon and fasting on the fourteenth day of the dark fort- 
night, offers seven handfuls of water with sessamum seeds 
to Yama, Dharmaraja, Mrityu, Anantaka, Vaivaswata, Kala 
and SarvabhutaKshaya (the destroyer of all creatures) be 
becomes freed from all sins. Having controlled his intellec- 
tual and mental faculties he should observe the vow. of 
celibacy, sleep on earth, fast and adore the twice-born. Oa 
the sixth day from the full moon he should, with a controlled 
mind, adore the deity (Vishnu), and on the seventh day, the 
sun-god. He would thus be freed off of all sins. Having fasted 
and adored Jan&rddana on the eleventh and the. twelfth days 

* A religious observance or expiatory penance regulated by th« 
moon's age (the period of its waxing and waning) ; In it the daily 
quantity of food, which consists of fifteen mouthfuts at the fuIl-iiioon» 
is diminished by one mouthful tvtry day during the dark fortnight 
till it is reduced to zero at the new moon and b increased in Uk« 
manner during tlie light fortnight. 


of the light fort«night, one becomes freed from all great sios.; 
Recitation, visiting the sacred shrines and the worship of 
the deities and Brahmanas during an eclipse also destroys 
sins. Even if visited by all sorts of sins, a man duly re- 
nounces his life at a sacred shrine he becomes freed from 
them all. If a woman enters into fire with her husband, she 
reclaims him, even if he be guilty of Brahmanicide, ingrati- 
tude or of other vile iniquities. The chaste woman, who 
is always anxious to serve her husband, is visited by no sin 
either in this world or in the next. As it is said that the 
lucky wife of Rama, the son of Dasharatha, Sit a, celebrated 
in the world, defeated the king of Rakshasas. By bathing 
in the sacred Phalgu river one reaps the fruit of all the 
religious rites. Formerly thus did the divine Vbhnu speak 
to me, O ye of controlled actions. 


SuTA said : — ^Thus did Brahma describe the eight Nidhis* 
as he had heard from Vishnu. They are Padma, Maha- 
Padma, Makara, Kachchapa, Mukunda, Nanda, and Neela. 
And the other Nidhi is Sangkha. I will now describe their 
characteristic marks. A person, bearing the mark of Padma, 
becomes Svattwika (pervaded by the quality of goddess). 

* Divine treasures of Kuvera nine of which are enumerated vig,, the 
Padma, Mahapadma, Sankha, Makara, Kachchapa, Mukunda, Nanda, 
Nila and Kharba : their nature is not exactly defined though some of 
them appears to be precious gems. According to the Tantrik system 
they are personified and worshipped as demi-gods attendant either 
upon Kuvera or upon Lakshmi* 


He is compassionate by naturCi collects gold, silveri etc., and 
dedicates them to Yatis, celestials and ascetics. A person, 
bearing the mark MahSLpadma, gives away wealth unto the 
pious. Persons, bearing the marks of Padma and Maha- 
Padma Nidhis, are called Svattwika. A person, bearing the 
mark of Makara, becomes the collector of swords, arrows and 
lances. He gives away wellth unto persons, well-read in 
Shrutis and contracts friendship with kings. He also des- 
troys his enemies in battle. Makara and Kachchapa are the 
two Tamasik (pervaded by the quality of ignorance) Nidhis. 
One, bearing the mark of Kachchapa, does not confide in any 
one and does not eat ; nor does he give anything to any one. 
That singular person, bearing the mark of this Niddhi, fills 
the earth with treasures. • ' 

A person, bearing the mark of the Rajasik (pervaded by 
the quality of darkness) Nidhi Mukunda, becomes the collec- 
tor of kingdoms. He enjoys freely and liberally and makes 
presents to the songsters and prostitutes. A person, bear- 
ing the mark of Nanda pervaded by the qualities of dark- 
ness and ignorance, becomes the support of his family, 
always pleased with eulogy and the husband of many wives. 
He loses affection for his former friends and finds delight 
in new ones. One, bearing the mark of Neela, is endued 
with the virtues of Svattwa guna. He collects clothes and 
corns and digs tanks, etc. The Niddhi Sangka is selfish and 
himself squanders away his money. His relatives live on 
a very wretched fare and do not put on beautiful raiments. 
One, bearing the mark of Sangka, is always busy with seek- 
ing his own pleasure and does not give his money to any 
one else. The characters of these Nidhis were thus described 
by Hari unto Hara and others. I describe the treasures of 
the world as recounted by Hari. 


Hari sard :— Agnidhra, Agnivahu, Vapushman, DyutU 
man, Medhatithi, Bhavya, Shavala, Putra, and the tenth 
Jyotisman — these were the sons of Priyavrata. Medha and 
Agnivahu had three sons each, who were given to Yoga, 
were great, had the recollection of their pristine births and 
fixed their minds on the kingdom. Having divided the 
earth into seven insular continents the king conferred 
them on his seven sons. The earth is situated on the water 
like unto a boat and is five hundred koti yojanas in dimen- 
sion. O Hara, the two insular continents are Jamvu and 
Plaksha. The next is Shalmala. The others are Kusha, 
Krouncha and Shaka. The seventh is Pushkara. All these 
islands are each girt by seven oceans. They are Lavana, 
Ikshu, Sura, Sarpi, Dadhi, Dugdha, and water. Each ocean 
is double in dimension than the island it encircles^ O 
bull-emblemed deity. In the insular continent of Jamvu is 
situate the mount Meru extending over a lak of Yojanas. 
Its summit is eighty four thousand Yoyanas in height. Its 
base is sixteen thousand Yojanas and is of the shape of 
a pericarp of a lotus. The boundary mountains Himavan, 
Hemakuta and Nishadha are situate on its south, while 
Neela, Shveta and Sringi mountains are situate in the 
north. O Rudra, the persons, who live in the insular con- 
tinent of Plaksha, are immortal. O Shankara, there is no 
division of Yugas (cycles) in all these islands. Agnidhra, 
the king of the insular continent Jamvu, had«nine sons, viB.^ 
Nabhi, Kimpurusha, Harivarsha, Ilavrita, Ramya, Hiranw^Ln, 
Shastha, KurubhadrSLshwa and Ketumila. The king 
divided his kingdom into nine parts and conferred them on 
all his sons. Nabhi begat on Merudevya a son by name 
Rishabha. lib son, the ascetic Bharata lived in Sb^lagr&ma. 


Bharata^s son was Sumati whose son was Tejasa. His son 
was Indradyumna, whose son was known as Paramesthi. 
The tatter's son was Prateeh&ra whose son was Pratiharta. 
He begat a son by name Prastara whose son was the 
powerful Prithu. His son was Nakta whose son was Gaya. 
Gaya's son was Nara whose son was Buddhirat. His son 
was the intelligent and highly powerful Bhouvana. He had 
four sons, viz., Twastha, Twasthu, Viraji and Rajas. Raja's 
son was Shatajit whose son was Vishwakjyot. 



Hari said :— In the centre is situate the kingdom of 
Mivrita ; while that of Bhadrishwa is situate in the east. 
In the south-east is situate Hiranw2Lnvarsha, O bull- 
emblemed deity, Kimpurusha Varsha is situate in. the 
south of the mount Mem.. Bharata Varsha is situate in the 
south, while Hari, in the south-west.' Ketum&la is situate in 
the west, while Ramyaka, in the north-west In the north 
is situate Kuruvarsha covered with Kalpa trees. O Rudrav 
except Bharata Varsha, Siddhi is naturally obtainable every- 
where. Indradwipa, Kasherumana, Tamravarna, Gabhasti- 
man, NSgadwipa, Kataha, Simhala and Varuna — these are 
the nine islands each encircled by an ocean. The Kiratas 
live in the east, the Yavanas in the west, the Andhras in 
the south, and the Turashkas in the north. The Brahmanas, 
Kshatryas, Vaishyas and Sudras live in the central group of 
the islands. 

Mahcndra, Malaya, Sahya, Shuktiman, Riksha, Vindhya, 
Paribhadra,— all these are the seven boundary mountains. 



Vedasmriti, NarmadS, VaradS, Suras^i Shivai Tapi, Payoshni, 
Sarayu, Kaveri, Gomati, Godiveri, Bhimarathi, Krishna^ 
varna, Mah&nadi, Ketumlla, Tamraparnii ChandrabhagS, 
Saraswati, Rishikuty&i MritagangSi Pajrashwini, Vidarbha 
and Satadru — these are the sacred rivers destructive of all 
sins. The inhabitants of the central countries drink the 
water of all these rivers. 

' Panchalas, Kurus, Matsyas, . Youdhejras, Sapatacharas, 
Kuntis and Surasenas, are the the clans who inhabit the 
central countries. O bull-emblemed deity, the Padmas, Sutas, 
Magadhas, Chedis, KSshSLyas, Videhas live in the eastern 
countries. Koshalas, Kalingas, Vangas, Pundrangas, Mula- 
kas as well as those living around the "^ndhya ranges are 
said to inhabit south-eastern countries. The inhabitants of 
Pulinda, Ashmaka and Jinutanaya as well as Kambojas, 
Kamatas and Ghatas are called Southerners. The people 
of Amvastha, DiavidI, Latta, Kamboja, StrimukhSL, Sak^, 
and Anartha are said . to inhabit south-western, countries. 
Strair^jyas, Saindhavas, Mlechchhas and the godless 
Yavanas together with Naishadas and the people of Mathura 
are known as inhabiting the western countries. M2Lndavya, 
TushsLra, Mulika, Musha, Kosha, MahiLkesha, MahSLn&da are 
the countries lying in the north-west. Lamvakas, TananSgas, 
Madragandharavahyikas are the Mlechchhas living in ther 
north beyond the Himalaya. Trigarta, Neelakolabha, 
Brahmaputra, SatangkanSL, AblushSlha and Kashmira are all 
situated in the north. 


• • • • 

• • * • . • 

. « 

• / 


Hari said :— Medatithi, the king of the insular continent 
of Plaksha, had seven sons,, viz., the eldest ShSLntabhava, 
Shishira, Sukhovaya, Nanda, Shiva, Kshemaka and Dhruva. 
These seven were the kings of the insular continent 

Gomeda, Chandra, Nirada, Dundubhi, Somaka, SumanS, 
and Shaila were the seven sons of Vibhraja. Anutaptd, 
Sikhi, Viplsha, TridivSL, Krama, AmritSL and Sukriti were 
the seven rivers. VapushmSn was the king of the insular 
continent Shalmala. His sons were called Varshas. They 
were Sweta, Harita, Jimuta, Rohita, Vaidyuta, MSlnasa and 
Saprabha. Kumudary, Unnata, Drona, Mahisha, Val2lhaka, 
Krouncha and Kakudman, these seven were the mountains. ' 
The rivers were Yoni, ToU, Vitrishna, Chandra, ShukliL and 
Vimochani ; the seventh was Vidhrit ; and they all afforded 
release from sins. 

JyotishmSn, the king of the insular continent Kusha, had 
seven sons. Hear their names. They were Udvida, Venu- 
m§n, Dwairatha, Lamvana, Dhriti, Prabhikara and Kapila. 
The mountains were Vidrumft,' Hemashaila, Dyutim&n, 
Pushpamin, Kusheshaya, Hari and the mount Mandara. 
The rivers were Dhutap^p^, ShivSi, Pavitra, Sammati 
Vidyudambh^, MahikJLsha. They were all destructive of all 

Dyutim&n had seven high-souled sons in the insular 
continent of Krouncha. Kushala, Mandaga, Ushna, Pivara, 
Andhak^iraka, Muni and Dundubhi ; these seven were his 
sons, O Hara. The seven mountains were Krouncha, 
\'amana, the third Andhak&raka, Devavrit, Mahashaila, 
Dundubhi and Pandarikavan, Gouri, Kumudvati, Sandbya, 


Vedasmriti, NannadSi Varadl, Suras^i Shiva, Tapi, Payoshni, 
Sarayuy Kaveri, Gomati, Godiveri, Bhimarathii Krishna^ 
varnS, Mah&nadi, Ketumlla, Tamraparnii ChandrabhagS, 
Saraswati, Rishikuty&i MritagangSi Pajrashwini, Vidarbha 
and Satadni — these are the sacred rivers destructive of all 
sins. The inhabitants of the central countries drink the 
water of all these rivers. 

' Panchalas, Kurus, Matsyas, Youdheyas, Sapatacharas, 
Kuntis and Surasenas, are the the clans who inhabit the 
central countries. O bull-emblemed deity, the Padmas, Sutas, 
Magadhas, Chedis, KflshSLyas, Videhas live in the eastern 
countries. Koshalas, Kalingas, Vangas, Pundrangas, Mula- 
kas as well as those living around the ^ndhya ranges are 
said to inhabit south-eastern countries. The inhabitants of 
Pulinda, Ashmaka and Jinutanaya as well as Kambojas, 
Kamatas and Ghatas are called Southerners. The people 
of Amvastha, DravidI, Latta, Kamboja, Strimukhi, SakSL, 
and Anartha are said to inhabit south-western, countries. 
StrairSjyas, Saindhavas, Mlechchhas and the godless 
Yavanas together with Naishadas and the people of Mathura 
are known as inhabiting the western countries. MSLndavya, 
TushSLra, Mulika, Musha, Kosha» Mah&kesha, Mahin&da are 
the countries lying in the north-west. Lamvakas, TananSgas, 
Madragandharavahyikas are the Mlechchhas living in the 
north beyond the Him&laya. Trigarta, Neelakolabha, 
Brahmaputra, SatangkanSL, Ablush2Lha and Kashmira are all 
situated in the north. 


• •.!•.••. 


. They are . Rourava, . Sukara, Vodha, Tlla, Vishasama, • 
MahajvSla, Taptakumbhai Layana, Yimdhita^ Rudbtra^ 
Vaitarani, Krimisba, . Krimibbojana, Asipatravana, Krisbna^, 
tbe terrific bell Ninabbaksba, Pujavaba, Papa, Vanbi]v&I% 
Sadangsba, Krisbnasutra, Tama, Avicbi, Swabhojana,, 
Apratisbtba, Usbnavicbi. Tbe sinners wbo administer poison,, 
use weapons and set fire, are wasted tbere. O Rudca^ 
tbe various lokas or regions are situate one over another. 
Tbe various elements are also situate in this order. O 
Rudra, the egg is encircled by tbe principle of g^eatness^ 
and that again by water, fire and ether covering tbe space 
ten times that occupied by the egg. \ 



Hari said : — Hear, I will now describe tbe position andT 
the dimension of the sun and other planets. Tbe sun ba»! 
nine cars, each a thousand yojanas in dimension. Twice' 
this number is the dimension of its plough, O bull-emblemed 
deity. Half a Koti and seven Niyuta of yojanas is tbe 
dimension of its Aksha (part of wheel), where the wheel' 
is placed. It has three naves and six Nemis (circumference). 
Tbis wheel goes one round within one full year. Tbe second 
Aksba of the car of Vivashwan is forty thousand yojaims* 
in dimension. The five others have each half tbe same 
dimension, O bull-emblemed deity. The extent of each of 
the two Akshas is half a yuga (cycle) ; the smaller Aksba, of 
tbe car, with half the cycle is stationed in tbe polar star. 
And the second wheel is stationed in the mount Mlnasa. 

Gayatri, Samvrihati, Ushnic, Jagati, Tristuv, Anustup^ 
and Pankti — these metres arc the tbe horses of the sun. 


Dh^tS, Kratusthala^ Pulastya, Vasuki, Ratbakrit, Agiamaii^. 
Heti and Tamvaru reside in the solar disc in the month of'^ 
Cbaitra, Aryaml, Pulahi, Rathonjas, Pnnjikasthala/ 
Praheti, Kachcha, Nira and Narada in the month of 
Vaishaka. Mitra, Atri, Takshaka, Raksa, Poumsb^ya,' 
Menaka^ Haha, Rathaswana reside on the car of the sun in 
the month of Jaistha. Varuna, Vasistha, RambhSi Sajanjra, 
Kuhu, Budha, Rathachitra and Sukra live in the month of . 
Ashida. Indra, .Vishwavasu, Srota, EUpatra, Angira, 
Plamocha and Nabha — these serpents live in the month of 
Srivana. VivaswSLn, Ugrasena, Bhrigu, Apurana, Anumlochl, 
ShangkaplLla and Vyagra live in the month of Bhldrap&da.' 
PushI, Suruchi, Dhitl, Goutama, Dhananjaya, Sushena, 
Ghritachi live in the sun in the month of Ashwin. Vishwi- 
vasu, Bharadwija, Parjanya, Airavata, Vishw^chi, Senajit, 
and ApSL — these are entitled to live in the month of Kartika. 
Angsu, Klshyapa, Tarkshya, Mahlpaoma, Urvashi, Chitra- 
sena, and Midyut live in the month of Agrahayana. Kratu, 
Bhargay.Um&yu, Sphurja, Bharga, UmSLyu, Karkot, Aristha- 
nemiy Purvachittii and the most excellent Apsaras live 
in the solar disc in the month of Poush. Twastha, Jama- 
dagni, Kamvala, Tilottaml, BrahnULpeta, Ritajit and Dhrita- 
rastra live in the solar disc in the month of M9gha. Vishnu^ , 
Ashwatara, Rambhl, Suryavarchcha, Satyajit, Vishw&mitra^ 
Raksha and Yajnapela live in the month of Phalguna.* 

• The foUowifig to 


liit of 

EUigltoh monlhs correspondiiig wiih 




Emglisk. . 

Vatohak ... 



... March, ApnI. 


•.. AprO, May. 


... May, June* 



•.. June, July. 


••• July* Aug tttf. 


... August, September. 


... September, October* 

Agrahayao ... 

... October, November. 


O Brahman, the solar disc is pervaded by the energies of 
Vishnu. The ascetics laud the sun and the Gandharvas sing 
before. The Apsaras dance and the night-rangers follow 
the sun. The Pannagas carry (the vehicle) and the Yakshas 
collect the bridles. The Valikhilya Rishis sit encircling him. 
The car of the moon has three wheels and the horses 
are. white as Kunda flowers. It ninSi drawn by ten horses^ 
on the right and left. The car of the son of the moon (Budha) 
is made of [the essence of] air and fire. It b drawn by 
eight yellow-coloured steeds fleet 'as the wind. The great 
chariot of Shukra has a Varutha,* Anukarsha,t is drawn 
by horses born of earth and adorned with flags. The huge; 
chariot of. Bhumi's (earth) son (Mars) is of the colour of molten 
gold and is drawn by eight steeds, of the colour of the filaments 
of a lotus and born of fire. Jupiter resides for one year at 
every sign of a Zodiac sitting on his golden car drawn by- 
eight yellowish-white horses. Riding a car drawn by 
horses of variegated colour and bom of ether Saturn moves 
slowly on ; Swarbhanu^ has eight horses of the colour of. 
the earth and his car is grey-hued. O lord ^of goblins, 
yoked to hb car they carry him, day and . night. R2Lhu's car- 
has eight horses, fleet as the wind and smoky-coloured and. 
which have their tongues coated with saliva. On it he roams 
over the earth consisting of blands, rivers and mountains. . 

Poush ... ... ... November, December. 

Magh ' ... ... ... December, January. 

Phalgoon ... ... Jinoary, February. 

Chaitra ... ... ... February, March. - " ' 

* A tort of wooden frame or fender with which a chariot is provided 
as a defence against collision. 

t The axle-tree or bottom of a carriage. 
. X Rahu ; the personified ascending node. 


I i 


» • • • • 

SuTA said: — Having leamt the solar system and the 
dimension of the earth Keshava communicated, ' unto Rudrai 
the essence of astronomy having four characteristic marks. 

Hari said : — Krittik& (Gemini)* is the planet of the dre* 
god and Rohini (Cancer) is of Brahma. IliwalSL (stars in the 
Orion's head) belonging to Soma and Ardra (Virgo) to Rudra 
Aditya (the sun) and Punarvasu (Libra) are the planets of 
the preceptor. Ashlesha (Ss^ta) is the planet of the serpents 
while Maghi (Capri) is that of the departed manes. Purva- 
Phalguni (Aquarij is the planet of good luck as well as the 
sun; Uttara-Phalguna (Pisces), Savitr^ (sun) Hasta,t Cbitrat 
and Twaisti (sun).' • '• ' 

Sbyati is known ias the star of the wind-god and 
Vishakha, O bull-emblemed deity, is that of India and Fire- 
god. Maitram, Iksham/Anurudha and Jyestha are: the stars 
of Shakra. Mulas is the star of Nirhriti. Ashada * Purva is 
that of water^god and UttarSL is that of VishwadevatSLs. 
Abhijit is the star of Brahma, and Shravana is that of 
Vishnu. Rlksham is. the' star of Vasava, and Dhanistha 
is that of Budha; while the star Shatabhisha is that Of 
Varuna. Bhadrapada appears in the east, Ahivradhana in 
the itorth as well as Pouishya, Revati, Riksham, Ashwajuk. 
Bharani appears in the north. These are called Riksha- 
devatas. » 

■ . • • • • 

r On. the first and ninth day of the fortnight Brahmani 

is stationed in the east, on the second and tenth day 

1 . ■ ■ • — 

* The third of the lunar mansions or constellation in the moon's 
path, consisting of six stars and corresponding to Pleiades. 

t The thirteenth lunar a^terism designated by a hand and contain- 
ing five stars. 

} A star in the virgin's spike. 

x;aruda puranam. 153 

t>f Ihe fortnight/ Maheshwari is stationed in the north, on 
the fifth, and the thirteenth days, VarSLhi appears in the south, 
an the sixth, and the fourteenth days, IndrSLni is stationed 
in the west oh the seventh day and on the fulUmoon day, 
Chamundi appears in the north-west, on the eighth, and 
Amanrashya day, Mahalakshmi is stationed in the north-east, 
t}n the elerenth, and third days of the fortnight, Vaishnavi 
appears in the south-east, on the twelfth, and on the fourth 
tlay Koumari appears in the south-east. 

One should not leave his house for another place while 
Yogini* IS in front. Ashvini, Revati, Mrigamula, Punarvasu, 
Pushya, Hasta and Jyesta are the most auspicious stars 
tinder whose auspices one should leave his house. The five 
Rikshas, Hasta,t the three Uttaras, Ashvini, Rohini, Pushya, 

* A female fiend or spirit attendant on and created by Ourga* Heftt 
it refers to the star presiding over evil spirits. 

t These groups of fixed stars or ^ constellations'* can be identified on 
dear itar-light nights by the following marks :— 




3 stars resembling a horse's face. 



• a. 

3 stars in the shape of deep-laid 

• • 

• - * 






6 stars resembling a barber's ra»r. 




5 stars resembling a cart* 



. • • 

3 stars in the shape of a man's head. 



• • • 

I star bright as coral bead. 



• •• 

5 stars in the form of a potter's wheel. 




3 stars resembling a blood-sucker. 




• • * 

6 stars like a serpent. 



• • * 

5 stars like a planqoin. 


Purva Phalgooni 

• • . 

2 stars resembling eyes. 


Uttara Philgooni 

• • • 

3 stars resembling eyes, • 



■ • t 

S stars like human fingers. 



• •• 

I star shining like a pearl. 



• • • 

I star like a sapphire. 



• • • 

5 stars like a potter's wheel. 



• • • 

3 stars resembling an umbrella. 



• • * 

diuo ditto. 


Dhanbtha, Punarvasu are the stars, most favourable, for 
putting' on new raiments. Kirttik9, Bharani, AshleshI, 
Magh&, which are known to hare their faces directed down* 
wards, are favourable for digging tanks, wells and reservoirs 
of water and for cultivating lands and laying foundations of 
temples and dwelling houses. When these stars and others, 
O bull-emblemed deity, go down it is the best time to begin 
the study of Mathematics, Astronomy and enter into mines, 
ditches, etc. When Revati, Ashvini, Chitra, Shyati, Hasta, 
Punanrasu, Anurudha, Mriga, Jyestha, all these lie 
sideways it'is the the best time for taming elephants, camels, 
bulls and buflfaloes. for sowing seeds and for paying vbits. The 
cows should also be tamed under the influence of these 
stars. The wheels and machineries of cars should be 
constructed and boats should be floated. When Rohini, 
Ardra, Pushya, Dhanishtha, the three Uttaras, VSLruna, 
Shravana, — these nine have their faces upwards it is the best 
time for installing asking in the kingdom, and putting on silk 
raiments. The most'inauspicious days are the fourth, sixth, 
eigth, ninth and AmAvashySL. The full-moon, the twelfth, the 
fourteenth, and the first day of the dark fort-night, are most 
auspicious days as also the second day when presided over by 
the Moon's son (Mercury), the third, by the Earth's son (Mars), 
and the fourth, by Saturn. The fifth day of a fortnight is 
auspicious when it is presided over by Jupiter, the sixth day, 
when by Mars and Venus, the seventh day, when by Mercury, 



• • • 

5 stars like a crouching lion. 



• • • 

2 stars each resembling the points of 


a square. 



• • • 

2 ditto ditto. 



• • • 

3 stars like an arrow. 



• • • 

3 stars like a man's head. 



• • • 

A hundred stars in the shape of a flower. 



• t* 

2 stars each forming the sides of a cot* 



• ■ • 

2 ditto ditto. 



f • • 

3 stars in the shape of a fish. 


the eighth when, by Mars, the ninth day, when by the Moon, • 
and the tenth, when by Jupiter. The Jupiter is auspicious 
and pure on the eleventh day of a fort-night, the Mercury, - 
on the twelfth day, the Venus, on the thirteenth day, the 
Saturn on the fourteenth day, and Jupiter is the most auspici* 
bus both on the AmivashySL and the fuII-moon day. 

The Sun burns the twelfth day of a fort-night, the Moon, 
the eleventh day, the Mars, the tenth day, the Mercury, the 
ninth day, the Jeeva,* the eighth day, Bhargava (Venus), the 
seventh day, and the Sun's son, the sixth. One should not 
leave his house on such a day. On the first, ninth, four- 
teenth, and eighth day of a fortnight, and on Wednesday one 
should postpone his departure for a dbtant country. The. 
sixth day under the influence of Ariesf and Cancer, the eightK 
day of Virgo and Gemini, the fourth day of Taurus and 
Aquaris, the twelfth day of Capricornus and Libra, the tenth 
day of Libra and Scorpio and the fourteenth day of Sigatta- 
rius and Pisces are all inauspicious, and no man should leave 
his house on any these of days. When the three stars of 
Dhanistha are in conjunction with Mars, when the three 

. * The constellation Pushy a — the eighth lunar mansion (Scoq>i) 
consisting of three stars. 

t The following are the English equivalents of the Rashis or signs of 
the Zodiac under the influence of which men are bom« 


•* • 



1st sign. 





4th „ 


• • • 



6th „ 


• • • 


* . • 

3rd M 





and M 




• • . 

nth „ 




•• . 

loth „ 


. • • 



7th H 





Sth „ 




• • . 

5th „ 


• • . 


• •• 

9th M 


• • • 


• • • 

uth u 


stars of Revati are with Mercury, when the three stars of 
Vishaka are with the sun, when the. moon is in the three 
stars of Purvashlda, when the three stars of Rohini are in 
Pushyil and when the three stars of Pushya are with Venus — 
[they always fore-bode feril.} One should avoid the three 
stars of Uttara Phalguna on Saturday. These conjunctions 
forebode calamities either ending in death or a fatal disease. 
When the Sun is in conjunction with Mula, when the 
moon is with Shravana, when Mars is with Purva and Uttara 
Bhadrapada, when Mercury is with Kirttika, when Jupiter is 
with Punarvasu, when Venus is with Purva Phalguna, when 
Saturn is with Shyati — these conjunctions are called Amrita- 
yoga which yields success in all undertakings. Visbkumbha- 
yoga lasts for five hours. Shula-yoga lasts for seven hours* 
Ganda-, and Atiganda-, yogas, last for six hours, and VyiLghi- 
tavajra, for nine hours. And Vyatipat-, and Pareegha-, yogas^ 
last for one whole day. These combinations may even bring 
on death and therefore a man should avoid then every work. 
The combination between Hasta and the Sun, Jupiter and 
Pushya, Mercury and Anuradha, Rohini and Saturn, Moon 
and Souma, Venus and Revati and Mars and Ashivini is 
always auspicious. These combinations are called Siddbi* 
yogas and they avert every form of calamity. The combi- 
nations between the Sun and Bharani, the Moon and Cbitra^ 
Mars, Uttara-Ashada, Mercury and Dhanistha, Saturn and* 
Revati are called, O Shambhu, Visha-yogas (poisonous 

When the combination takes place between Pushya^ 
Punarvasu, Revati, Chitra, Shravana, Dhanistha, HastI,, 
Ashivini, Mriga, and Shatabhisa, a man should perform rites 
consequent upon the birth of a child. O Rudra, if a man 
leaves home for another place under the combination of any 
three planets of VishakhS, Uttara, Magha, ArdriL, Bharani 
AshleshfiL and Kirttik§, he meets with death. 


Hari said :— The Dashli, or the maximum inflaence of 
the Sun lasts for six years, that of the Moon, for fifteen years, 
that of Mars, for eight years, that of Mercury, for seveateen 
years, that of Saturn, for ten years, that of Jupiter, for nine- 
teen years, that of Rlhu, for twelve years, and that of Venus, 
for twenty one years. The influence of the Sun produces 
misery and anxiety and brings on the destruction of a king. 
The influence of the Moon yields wealth, happiness and 
savoury edibles. The influence of Mercury gives heavenly 
bride and kingdom and increases wealth. The influence 
of Saturn brings on the destruction of kingdoms and the 
misery of friends. The influence of Jupiter gives kingdom, 
happiness and virtue. The influence of Rlhu brings on the 
destruction of kingdoms, misery and diseases. The 
influence of Venus gives elephants, horses, kingdom and 

The constellation of Aries is the house of Mars ; Tauras, 
is of Jupiter ; Gemini, is of Mercury ; Cancer, is of the Moon ; 
Leo, of the sun ; Virgo is of Mercury ; Libra, is of Venus ; 
Scorpio, is of Mars ; Sagittarius, is of Jupiter ; Capricomus 
and Aquaris are the houses of Saturn ; Pisces, is of Jupiter. 

When there are two full-moon nights in one month, two 
Purva Ashadas and two Ashadas Vishnu sleeps in Cancer. * 

The stars Ashvini, Revati, Chitr§, and DhanisthSl are 
the most auspicious stars for starting for a new place. Deer, 
monkey, cat, dog, parrot, mungoose and mouse, when seen 
on the right side; are auspicious at the time of departiure.' 
The daughter of a Brahmana, a dead body, conch-shell, bugle, 
earth, bamboo, a woman, a pitcher full of water are auspi- 
cious when seen at the time of , departure. A jackal, camel, 
and ass are auspicious when seen on the left hand side at 


the time of departure. Cotton, oil of a medicinal plant, 
burning embers, snakes, a woman with dishevelled hairs, a 
garland of red flowers and a naked person are always 
inauspicious when seen. 

I will now describe the characteristic marks of hiccough. 
When a man stands facing the east hiccough produces great 
fruits. When he faces the south-east it produces sorrow and 
anxiety. When he faces the south it does injury. When he 
faces the south-west it produces sorrow and anxiety. When 
he faces the west it gives sweet food. When he faces the 
north-west he obtains wealth. When he faces the north he 
enters on a quarrell. When he faces the north-east he is 
doomed to die. These are the good and evil fruits of 

Having drawn the solar circle one should imagine it to 
be the figure of a man. He should next calculate in what 
stars the Sun resides. He should then attribute three stars to 
the head ; another three, to the face ; one, to each shoulder ; 
one, to each arm ; one, to each hand ; five stars to the heart ; 
one, to the navel ; one, to the buttock ; and one, to each 
knee-joint. The remaining stars should be assigned to the 
feet of the Sun. 

When one's presiding star is at the foot, the man be«> 
comes short-lived. When it is on the knee-joints, he goes to 
live in foreign countries. When it is on the buttock, he knows 
other people's wives. When it is on the navel, he becomes 
contented with little. When it is on the heart, he becomes 
Maheshwara. When it is on the hands, he becomes a heroe. 
When it is on the arms, he loses his position. When it is 
on the mouth, he obtains dainty dishes. When it is on the 
head he obtains silk raiments. 



Hari said : — When the Moon is on the increase from its' 
seventh digit it is always and everywhere favourable. * Jt 
should be adored by people and the Moon is seen like 

There are twelve Dashas or stages of the Moon. Hear 
them. I will describe his station in every three stars begin- 
ning with Ashvini. The twelve stages are Prav&sas (living 
in a foreing country), Punarnastha (lost again), Mrita (dead), 
Jaya (success), H^sya (smiling), Krida (sporting), Pramoda 
(enjoying), Vishada (sorrowing), Bhoga (enjoying), JvarS. 
(decrepitude), Kampa (trembling) and Svastha (sound health). 
The Moon, in his condition of Pravasa, brings on injury 
and death, and in that of Jaya, merriment, sexual pleasure, 
and happiness. The other stages, viz., Shoka, Bhoga, Jvara, 
Kampa and Sukha respectively produce their destined fruits. 

When the Moon resides in the first house of constella- 
tion at the time of birth he always gives satisfaction ; when 
in the second, the person does not feel satiation ; when in 
the third, the person enjoys royal honours; when in the 
fourth, he quarrels with other people ; when the moon is in 
the fifth house the person obtains a good wife ; when in the 
sixth, the person acquires wealth and corns; when ' in the 
seventh, he enjoys sexual pleasures and becomes the adored 
of all ; when in the eighth there is danger to his life ; when 
in the ninth, his wealth is accumulated ; when in the tenth, 
he brings his work to a successful close ; when in the 
eleventh, he meets with success ; when the Moon is in the 
twelfth house there is, forsooth, death for the man. 

Under the influence of the seven stars forming the 
constellation of Kirttika it is better to start for the east. 
Under the influence of Magb& it is better to start for the 


south ; under the influence of AnurSdhi it is better to start 
for the west. Under the influence of Dhanistha it is better 
to start for the north. Ashvini, Revati, Chitra» Dhanistha, 
Mrigashiras, Pushya, Mula and Hasta are |always favourable 
in marriage, for giving away a daughter in marriage, for 
going out on business, for consecrating temples and for other 
religious and social ceremonies. 

If the Moon and Jupiter reside in the second faqusd at 
the time of birth they are auspicious. The Moon, Jupiter and 
Pushya are auspicious when they live in the third house 
with Gemini. Mars, Saturn, Moon, Sun and Mercury are 
'most auspicious when they live in the fourth house. Saturn, 
Sun and Mars are auspicious in the sixth house, while 
Jupiter and Moon in the seventh. Venus is most auspicious 
in the eighth hoose, while Jupiter in the ninth. The Sun 
and Moon are auspicious in the tenth house, while all the 
planets are auspicious in the eleventh house. Venus and 
Mercury are favourable in the twelfth house. 

The combinations, between Leo and Capricomus, between 
Virgo and Aries, between Libra and Pisces, between Aquarius 
and Cancer, between Sagittaries and Taurus and between 
Gemini and Scorpio are most auspicious. These fourteen 
combinations always conduce to well-being. 


Hari said : — Beginning from the lime of its rising the 
sun lives in the various Rashis (signs of the Zodiac), O 
Hara. He lives for six days and six nights in his own 
Rashi. He lives for five hours in Pisces and Aris, four 
hours in Taurus and Aquaris, three hours in Capricornus 


•9nd Gemio'if five hours in Sagittarius and Cancer, • six 
hours in Leo and Scorpio and 9even hours in Virgo and 
Libra. This is described as the extent of Lagna.^ If a 

• woman is born when the Sun is in Aries she becomes barren; 
when he is in Taurus she becomes handsome in person ; when, 

• in Gemini, she becomes lucky ; when, in Cancer, she becomes 
dissolute i when, in Leo, she becomes the mother of few 
children ; when, in Virgo, she becomes supremely beautiful ; 
when, i5 Libra, she is endowed with ooth beauty and fortune ; 
when, in Scorpio, she becomes foul-mouthed; when, in 
Sagittarius, she becomes fortunate ; when, in Capricornus, she 
becomes mean ; when, in Aquarb, she becomes the mother 
of few children; when, in Pisces, she is endued with the 
spirit of disassociation from the world. The Rashis Libra, 

. Cancer, Aries, Capricornus are both moveable and fixed. Leo, 
Taurus, Aquaris, and Scorpio are all fixed groups of stars. 
Virgo, Sagittarius, Pisces, and Gemini, are endued with two- 
fold characters. It is better to leave any place under the 
influence of moving stars and enter the house under that 
of fixed ones. The installation of an image of the deity 
-should be made under the influence of that group of stars 
which are both moveable and fixed. 

The first, sixth, or thti eleventh, day of a fortnight is called 
Nand^. O bull-emblemed deity, the second, seventh, or the 
twelfth day is called BhadrSL. The eigth, third, or the thir- 
teenth, day is called JaySL, O Rudra. The fourth, or the ninth, 
day is call Rjkti. The fourteenth day is called Varjya. The 
fifth, or the tenth, day is called Pumft. And the full-moon 
day is called ShubhSl. 

Mercury is always on circuit, Jupiter is always quick in 
motion, Venus is slow, the Sun is certain, Saturn is terrific, 
Mars is fierce, and the Moi^n is calm. Under the influence 
of Mercury and Jupiter one should leave his house ; under 

* The Sua*s cnuince into a ZudUcal sign. 



the influence of Venus and Sun one should enter a house; 
under the influence of Saturn and Mars the Kshatryas, who 
desire for success, should be engaged in battle. 

The installation of a king and sacred fire should be done 
on a Monday. Under the influence of the Moon one should 
lay the foundation of a dwelling house. Under the influence 
of Mars one should accept the command of an army, under- 
take a war and practise arms. Under the influence of 
Mercury any work, deliberation, or journey, is crowned with 
success. Under the influence of Jupiter one should study, 
adore the gods, and put on new habiliments and ornaments. 
Under the influence of Venus it is better to give away a 
daughter in marriage, ride an elephant, enter into contracts, 
or espouse a wife. Under the influence of Saturn it is 
auspicious to enter a house for the first time, or entrap an 



Hari said: — ^^Hear, O Shankara, I will now describe ih 
brief the characteristic marks of men and women. 

'} Tender palms like lotus petals and not perspiring, fingers 
adjoining each other, copper-coloured nails, beautiful ankles, 
well-formed head and feet, plump like a tortoise, mark out a 
man to be a king. Yellow nails, rough face, high head, feet 
like winnowing baskets, and withered fingers of the feet, are 
the marks for sorrow and poverty. There is no doubt 
about it. Thighs like the trunks of elephants containing 
few hairs, and one hair in the navel are the marks for great 
kings. The learned hien and persons conversant with Srutis 
have two hairs each on their thighs. Those, who are poor, have 


three hairs 'and diseased men have their knee-joints devoid 
of flesh. :One, who has got a small genital organ, becomes a 
rich man with no issue. One, who has got a big genital 
organ, becomes poor. One, who has got one scrotum, becomes 
poor. One, who has got unequal testes, gets a fickle wife. 
One, who has got equal testes, becomes a king. One, witb 
hanging testes, becomes short-lived. One, having a bad 
wrist, becomes poor. With pale-coFoured wrists a person 
becomes happy. 

An idigent person passes urine with great sound. Those, 
who pass urine without any sound, become kings. Those,, 
who have even bellies, enjoy various pleasures of life. 
Those, who have bellies like pots, become indigent. Those,, 
who have serpentine bellies become poor. Linear marks 
indicate longevity. He, who has three lines on the fore- 
head, becomes happy, gets sons, and lives for sixty years. 
One having two lines lives for forty years. One, who has sr 
line on the fore-head extending to the ears, lives for twenty 
years. If one has three lines on the fore-head extending 
up to ears he lives for a hundred years. One, having twa 
lines, lives for seventy years. One, having three lines, lives 
for sixty years. The person, having two lines one clear 
and another indistinct, lives for twenty years. One, who has 
short lines, lives for forty years. The person, who has 

• • > 

broken lines, meets with an accidental death. The person, 
on whose head are seen the marks of a trident or Patti^a, 
is favoured with riches and children, and lives for a hundred 
years. The person, whose line of life passes through the 
middle and fore-fingers, lives for a hundred years, O Rudra. 
The person,— on whose palm the line of knowledge extends 
up to the thumb, and the line of life extends up to the foot 
of the middle fingers from the youngest in an unbroken and 
undivided condition,— lives for a hundred years. The person, 
on whose palm the line of life appears in a distinct form, 
lives for a hundred years and becomes the happy recipient 


ol'all earthly blessihgs. The person, on whos6 palm the line 
of life extends also from the youngest to the middle fibger, . 
lives for eighty years. 


Harf said :— TTie maiden, who has got curling locks, a 
round face and a deep navel, increases her family. A woman^ 
whose colour is like that of gold, and whose hands are red, 
is called Padmini. Such a woman, bom one in a thousand, is 
personification of chastity. The woman, who has uneven hairs 
and round eyes, becomes widowed, and is always unfortunate 
in her Surroundings. The maiden, who has a face like the fulU 
moon, is effulgent like the rising Sun, has expensive eyes and 
Vimva-like lips, enjoys happiness. Many lines indicate miser/ 
, and dearth of the same signifies poverty. One, baring crim- 
son-coloured lines, enjoys happiness, and one, having dark' 
blue linesi, becomes unchaste. A wife is like a minister to^ 
her husband in works, a friend in enjoyments, a mother iir 
affection, and a public woman while on bed. 

The woman, who has the marks of a goad, circle and' 
discus on her palm, gives Irirth to a son anil obtains a king 
a^.her husband. The woman, whose two sides and breasts are 
covered with hairs and whose lips are high, soon destroys- 
her husband. The woman, who has the marks of a wall or 
gateway on her palms, becomes a queen even if she is bom 
as a maid servant. One, who has rows of reddish and high 
hairs on her person, becomes a maid servant even if she is 
born in a royal family. One, who has got her thunftb and 
ring-finger of an unusually high stature, soon kills her husband 
and leads a loose life. Oily eyes indicate good luck, oily^ 


teeth indicate good eating, oily skin indicates a good lied» 
and oily feet indicate conveyances. The auspicious sign» of 
women are cool and high breasts, copper-coloured nails,, 
beautiful feet^ marks of fish, goad, lotus^ discus and 
plough-share on the soles and paints which do not 
perspire, a beautiful hip without - hairs, thighs like the 
trunk of an elephant, most excellent and capacious buttock 
like a fig leaf, spacious and deep navel and chest aad breast 
shorn of hairs. 



Hari said : — t will now describe the auspicious marks of 
men and women as described by Samudra (Palmistry), by 
knowing which one may without any labour calculate the 
past and future. 

Unperspiring palms, lotus-like belly, fingers adjoining one 
another, copper-coloured nails, warm feet like tortoise, 
strong ankles and beautiful sides are the marks of a king. 
Rough, uneven feet like winnowing baskets, dry locks,, twany 
coloured nails, and distantly placed fingers are the marks 
of poverty. Well-formed and red feet, equal shanks without 
hairs, thighs like the trunks of elephants and equa) knee* 
joints are the characteristic marks of a king. The indigent 
have shankles like those of a jackal and have hairs m the 
navel. The kings, the Srotiyas and the intelligent have two 
hairs each. Persons, having three hairs, become poor, 
miserable and are always objects of censure. 

A person, having curling hairs« dies in a foreigny:ountry. 
A knee-joint without sufficient flesh indicates good luck 
(in a man). With a knee-joint of insufficient flesh one knows 


.- /• 

degraded women. One, having deformed knee-joints, 
becomes poor and one having plump ones obtains .a 

• • • " 

A person, having a short genital organ, lives long and 
becomes rich and has few offspring. One, having a huge 
^ genital organ, becomes proud of his wealth. When the left 
testes is swollen the person does not get sons. When the 
testes are uneven the person obtains sons; and when they 
are bent down it indicates poverty. When the genital orgair 
is small a person obtains sons ; when the head of the 
genital organ is plump the person becomes happy ; when 
there are thick chords in the organ the person becomes 
happy. When the testes are thick-set the person becomes 
a king ; and when they are long and rugged the person 
becomes poor. One, who has a small testicle, becomes a 
strong and powerful warrior. One, who ha^ got one teste, 
becomes weak ; and one, who has got uneven testes, gets a 
fickle wife. One, who has got even testes, becomes a king ; 
and one, who has got a long testicle, lives for a hundred 

One, who has got high wrists, lives for many years ; 
one, . who has got rugged wrists, becomes a master. With 
yellow-coloured wrbts people become poor, and with dark 
wrists they enjoy happiness. 

Persons, who pass urine either with or without any 
sound,. become poor. When urine comes out in one, two,, 
three,, four, five, or six lines and passes towards the right, it 
indicates the signs of kinghood. Tbose, who pass urine in 
a scattered way, become indigent, those, who pass urine in . 
a strong flow, become happy and obtain good wives. When 
urine remains on an equal level a man obtains wife, gems 
and riches, and when it goes down he obtains maidens. 

When the semen is dry a person becomes indigent and 
when there is scent of flower in the semen he becomes 
king. When thejc is smell of honey in it he acquhres 


immense riches. When there is the smell of fish in the ' 


semen he gets a son. When semen is scanty he obtains 
maidens. When there is the smell of meat he enjoys various 
luxuries of life ; when there is the smell of wine he becomes 
a priest. When there is smell of ashes he becomes poor. 

One, who finishes soon his sexual intercourse, lives long* 
He, whose sexual intercourse lasts long, b short-lived. 

. One, having big buttocks, becomes proud of his 
wealth. One having fleshy buttocks becomes happy ; and one 
having leonine buttocks becomes a king. One, having a 
monkey-Iike waist, becomes indigent. Persons, having 
serpentine bellies, become poor. Those, having pan-or pot- 
like bellies, become rich. 

People; having spacious arm-pits, become indigent ; those, 
having equal arm-pits, enjoy various objects of life ; those, 
who have hollowed arm-pits, become proud of wealth ; those, 
who have elevated arm-pits, those, who have uneven arm-pits^ 
and those, who have crooked arm-pits, become kings. Those, 
who have got fish-like bellies and navels, becofne happy. 
Those, who have got capacious or low navels, are doomed to 
suffer miseries. If there is wrinkle inside a navel it brings 
on death at the stake for the person. If there is wrinkle on 
one side the man lives for ever. If it is in an equinoctial 
position he becomes the possessor of riches. If it is down- 
wards he becomes the possessor of kine. It it is of the 
shape of a pericarp of a lotus he becomes a king. If there 
is one wrinkle the person lives for a hundred years. If there 
are two he enjoys prosperity. If there are three wrinkles be 
becomes a preceptor. 

If the wrinkles are straight the person becomes happy. 

If the wrinkle is awry he knows women unworthy of being 

Icnown. If the arm-pits are fleshy, tender, even and 

covered viith rows of hairs on the right side, the person 

becpmes a king. If the rows of hairs tend towards the 

1 — 

r* ■ 



^opposftii^ .'^IrectiQa jthc person bccomca devoid o!. all objects 
and happiuess. . • '.r* ; .-: • • r- - ' 

If the nipples. of the breasts are not hig^ the persons 
become very lucky V Bat if they are uneven, high' and of 
yellow colour they become poor« 

The kings have high and fleshy chests which do not 
tremble, are sinewy and covered with strong hairs going 
downwards. A rich man has an even chest. One, having 
phimp chest, becomes very powerful. Persons, having un- 
even chests, become indigent and are killed by weapons. 

Persons, having nigged eollar-bonesi become indigent. 

Those, having elevated collar-bones, enjoy various objects of 

life; those, having depressed ones, become indigent; and 

those, having plump ones, become rich. One, who has a flat 

fieck become^ indigent, He« who has got the arteries of his 

lieck, not very proi}!i}neyit, becomes happy. He» who hb buffalo- 

•ecked^ becomes V^ihero, He, who has a neck like 'that 

<>f a deer> masters the Holy Scriptures. One, who has a neck 

.lik^ a CQngh-shell, becomes a king; whereas one, who has a 

.ICMig neck^ becomes 3i voracious eater. 

. . ' A bade, not covered with hairs and even in shape, always 

indicate^ auspiciousness, while of any other kind it is the 

forerunner o( inauspiciousn ess. > >:''^' • - , 

The most auspicious arm-pit is that of the shape of a 
.flg<rleaft which is. covered with brown hairs and from .which 
good smell comes out. Any other description is the mark of 
:POVerty. .■■.■. .:»'•*••'•.•.: 

Fleshy, well-formed and welt-joined arms are the most 
auspicious. • Well-rounded and fleshy arms^ extending up to 
the knees, indicate the signs of royalty. Short arms, covered 
with hairs, indicate signs of. poverty. Arms, like the trunks 
of elephants* are.^ the best. Fingers of the hands, when 
straight, are most auspicious. Those of the intelligent are 
short and those of the servants are flat. The indigent. haye 
either fat, crooked or bent and lean fingers. Those, who 


GAlhjDA PtmANAM. I^ 

\t7t hands likiA liio$fc at k ihohkfey, becorrte indigent. That 
liki: a tiger ihdicates sir^hgth. Tht d6pr6^ded pkihi of at p6t^ 
Mn indicate!( the d^struetioit of his pltefhial property. Tb^ 
kings havb well-formed, thick-^et and sw^et-scented wrists. 
Those, whose fingers make a sound when handled, become 
degraded and poor. Persons, who have uneven fingers, 
^Iwa3rs pay taxes. Th<>se, who have r^ bands an^ pklms, 
t>ecome very rich. Those, who have yelltfW-c6lourfcd and 
rough ones, become indigent and addicted to other people's 

Those, who have nails like husks, become eunuchs. Those, 
who have nigged and broken nails, become indigent. Thos^, 
who have discoloured and disfigured nails, always pfy iht6 
other^s busiMsfs. Those, who have copper-coloured nails, 
become king^. Tho^e, who have th6 thark of a barley on 
tfaetr thumbs, becoihe rich. When there is such a mark at 
the foot of the thumb a person gets sons. If a person has 
long kaots fn th« titigtts he lives a long life arid becomes 
titcky. He, who has disjoined fingers, becomes poor. Me, 
who has got close fingers, becomes a rich mart. 
' The person, on which palms three lines appear from tilt 
wrbt, becomes a king. tVhen the figures of two fishes 
appear on: the palm the personr becomes a great sacri- 
Acer. The sigtr of a thunder-bott appearing on thcf' palkh 
indii^ates the possession of riches. Th^ sign of the tail 
of .a fish indicates intellect. Th6 signs of cohch-shelt, 
umbrella, vehide, elephant and lotus indicate royalty. The 
mark^ of a pitcher, goad, flag and lotus^stalk indicate the 
possession of j^ms. The mark of a chord indicates the 
possession of kine; that of Swasthika iildicates rojralty: 
The marks of discns, sword, Tomara, bow and teeth appear 
on the hands Of a king. The mark of a mortar appears on 
the. palms of a person Who celebrates sacrifices and thit of a 
sacrificial altar appears on the palm of an Agrtihotii. Tbt6 
marks of a tank and triangle indScat^ rightedusn^sl. 



Lines, originating from the root of the thumb, indi* 
cate the possession of sons and happiness. A line, extend* 
ing from the tip of the thumb to that of the fore-finger and 
originating from the root of the youngest finger, makes one 
live for a hundred years. When it is broken it indicates 
danger from a tree. Many lines indicate poverty. ''^ 

A spare chin indicates want ; while a fleshy one indi- 
cates riches. Red lips indicate royalty. Smiling and tender 
lips, resembling Vimva fruits, indicate the same. Those 
who have rugged lips become poor. Thick-set and cool 
teeth are the best. Sharp but even teeth are also most 
auspicious. Red tongue is also most auspicious. Blue and 
tall tongue is also the best and a ,white palate indicates the 
destruction of wealth. There are two kinds of faces— Klark 
and rough ; tender and gentle. Clean and tender face indi- 
cates royalty and its opposite indicates poverty. A son, 
possessing the face of his mother, suffers great miseries. 
A rich person has a round face and a poor man a tall one.. 
The vicious have cowardly faces and the wicked cunning 
ones. Those who have depressed faces get no sons. The. 
misers have short faces. The happiest of men, who enjoys 
all the luxuries of life, has tender, thin and beautiful beards. • 
A thief has got thick, short and crimson-coloured beards. 
The sinful persons have red and rugged beards. 

The 'misers have short ears. Those who have got spear- - 
like ears become kings. Those, who have got hairs on their, 
ears, die soon. Persons, having big ears, become kings and . 
rich men. Persons, endued with hanging and fleshy ears, . 
also become kings. On^e, having depressed cheeks, enjcJjrs 
all the luxuries of life. One, having well-formed cheeks,, 
becomes a minister. One, having a nose like that of a 
parrot, becomes happy. One, who has got a thin nose, lives • 
long. One, who has got a well-like nose with its tip broken, 
knows women unworthy of being known. One, who has 
got a long nose, enjoys good luck. . A thief has got a flat . . 


nose. A flat nose also indicates death and misfortune. A 
straight nose, with beautiful tip and small 'nostrils, indicates 
the signs of royalty. A little curve on the right side indi- 
cates crookedness. Continual sneezing indicates strength. 
A flat nose indicates the possession of delight and that 
with sound indicates the possessor as being the supporter 
of all creatures. 

Persons, having eyes like lotus-petals with a little curve 
at the comers, enjoy all the luxuries of life. Sinful persons 
have eyes like those of a cat and wicked wights have 
twany-coloured eyes. The crooked are squint-eyed and the 
sinful persons have yellow-coloured eyes. The heroes have 
oblique eyes and the warriors have eyes like those of an 
elephant. The kings have got grave eyes and the ministers 
fleshy ones. The learned have eyes like the petals of a red 
lotus ; while the fortunate men have dark-blue eyes. Dark- 
blue pupils and the absence of eye-lids indicate the des- 
truction of the possessor. The sinful wights have round 
eyes and the indigent have poorly-looking eyes. 

Those, who have got cool skin, enjoy the various objects 
of life. Those, who have got elevated navels, live for a short 
time. Those, who have got capacious and elevated navels, 
become happy. Those, who' have got uneven eye-brows, 
become poor. Long but unconnected eye-brows indicate 
riches. He, who has got crescent-shaped eye-brows, becomes 
rich. One, who has got a cut between the two eye-brows, 
becomes indigent. Those, who have got bent down eye- 
brows, know women unworthy of being known. 

A high, capacious, conch-shell-like and rugged fore-head 
indicates poverty. Persons, having crescent-shaped fore- 
heads, become rich. Persons, having spacious fore-heads, 
become preceptors. Persons, having sinewy fore-heads, be- 
come sinners. Persons, having high and triangular fore- 
heads, become the possessors of wealth. Persons, having 
depressed fore-heads, are .addicted to wicked deeds and' 


Yrorth]r qf being slitin. A roviQ4 for^-head u^dicdtes * ims<;r& 
ness. . An elevated fQre-he«l4 * indicates ro]raIt3r. ^ dry tin-« 
perspiring fore-head is not i^vspiciorus for men. A sufficientljf 
perspiring and rough fore-^ea^d indicates happinciss. Uiki 
trenibling ^nd expensive fore-h^ad is the best sind e^q>resi9ivcr 
of happiness. A laughing and wicked fore-be^d iodicate^ 

Three lines on the fore-head iodlcate loQg[^vit}c (or a 
hundred years. Four lines indicate royalty ai?td hmg^vi^ 
for ninety-five years. Absence o( any line indicates loQge-r 
vity for ninety years. When the lines on^ tb^ (oce«head ^^ 
broken a man becomes licentious^ If the. lioes ext^d up. 
to hairs a person lives for eighty yea^j^ If theicc; ace 6ve^ 
sevea or six ^nes, a person lives fifty ]^ears or more. U they 
are dark-bli;e in colpur a man lives fort;y years; aad ^ tK^]^ 
ex,tend up to the. eye-brows the persg:OL Uyes. tbkl}^ years^ 
When there are twenty lines beodi^^g towards. Ib^ k(t it 
indicates longevity and when there ajre ^Of;! lioie^ it indv 
cates short life. 

An umbrella-like head indicates royalty^ auspicipusoess 
and riches. A, bland head indicates tbe. death oC piije's (at^c 
while a circular head indicates riches. A .^itcbeic-lijie head» 
indicates vile desire and poverty. 

Black, straight, thin and not top much hai^. indicate: 
royalty. Hairs, having many root^ uneven^ with gross tips, 
twany-coloured, bent down, ai)d.darK*blue also indicate, 
signs of royalty. Highly rough, sinwey body, devoid oC fiesh, 
is most inauspicious. Any other description, is. auspiqious.. 
For kings there are three deep, spacious and. long marks, 
five very fine, six elevated, four short and ^evjcn crimson-, 
coloured. Navel, voice and. understandiog: — these three 
should be deep. Fore-head, face apd. chest broad. 
Eye, side, tooth, nose, ipouth.and. back of. tbe neck should, 
be high. Shank, neck, genital organ and back-^^ese four 
should be short. Palms, corners of, the mouth, nails, c,Qrners 

GAKUDA FVnMiAm. 173 

oC the eyes, feet» tongue and lips should be red. TeetbiT 
knots of fingersi nails, hairs and skin — these five should 
be very fine. The distance between breasts, arms, teeth^ 
eyes and nose should be long. I have thus- described the 
characteristic marks of men. 1 will now describe those of 

She, who has got cool and equal feet and palmsi, copper}r 
nails, joining fingers with elevated tips, becomes a queen* 
One, obtaining her [as a wife] becomes a king. Well- 
formed ankle, lotus-like, tender and unperspiring palms con- 
taining the marks fish, goad and flag single out a woman toe 
a queen. The feet of a queen bear the marks of a thunder- 
bolt, lotus and plouglvshare. ' Well-rounded hips, devoid o£ 
hairs and arteries, are most auspicious* WelUfocmed. joints 
and even knee-joints are most auspidcaoas.. Tbighsv like the - 
(ruak of an elephant, even and wtthout hairs,, are most auspi- 
OU3. A capacious buttock, like unto a fig-leaf,, is most au^icb-^ 
ous. Loins^ fire-head and chest, when, they are of tiie fornn 
of a tortoise,, are most auspicious. Fleshy wrists and hips acei 
most auspicious for women. A navel,, capacious^ deep> aack 
fleshy with three wrinkles inside^ is most auspicious* .Even^ 
and pointed breasts without hairs are most auspicious^ Redi 
lips are most auspicious and round and fleshy mouth- is the- 
best. Teetb must be like Kunda flowers and speech^ must 
be sweet like. the. notes of a coek Mercy, simpGcityi and^ 
even nose are the most beautiful marks for women. Eyes- 
like blue lotuses welt attached to the nose, eye-brews no^ 
very plump and like unto the rising moonv fore-head' no4 
very elevated and without hairs, not very fleshy and tender' 
ears of equaL size,, and tender, curiing and dark hairs are 
the most auspicious marks.. Well-formed, head and* soles or 
palms, bearing the marks of horse, elephant, tree, sacrificial 
stake, wheat, Tomara, flag, chowri, garland, hill, well, altar; 
conch-shell, umbrella, lotus, fish. Swastika, car and goad are 
the signs of royalty in women. The auspicious marks in^ 




women are- well-formed wrists and hands like lotuses and 
palms not depressed nor very elevated. Linear marks oir 
the palms are;the signs which show that a woman will not be 
widowed and enjoy her life. If a line rising from the wrist 
goes to the middle finger it indicates the possession of 
kingdom and happiness in women. A line originating from 
the root of the youngest finger indicates life for a hundred 
years. If a line passes from the tip of the .thumb to that of 
the fore-finger it indicates the shortness of life. M a line 
originates from the foot of the thumb and is long it indicates 
the possession of sons; 'and if it is short* it indicates the 
possession of women. If that line is broken at many places 
it indicates the shortness of life ; and if it is broken at a 
long interval it indicates longevity. These are the auspicious- 
marks for women and others are inauspicious. 

The woman, whose youngest or ring finger does not 
touch the ground or whose thumb is bigger than the fore- 
finger, becomes unchaste. Elevated calves, sinewy, hairy or 
fleshy hips, pitcher-like belly, depressed and small buttock 
are the signs of misery. Short neck is the sign of poverty 
and a long one is the sign of the extinction of the family. 
Fat women are forsooth terrific. Squint and twany-coloured- 
eyes, dark-blue smiling looks, and smiling and depressed 
cheeks are the signs of uncbastity. If a woman has a 
tall fore-head she kills the younger brother of her husbands 
If the belly is long she kills her father-in-law and if the 
hips are high she kills her husband. Hairy lips are most 
inauspicious for husbands. Hairy breasts, rugged ears, 
sharp and uneven teeth conduce to their miseries. If the 
flesh is dark-blue it shows she will be a thief and if it is 
tough it indicates the death of her hil^band. A sinewy, 
uneven and dry body indicates poverty. If the upper lip 
is high it shows she will be quarrelsome and harsh-speeched. 
Want of accomplishments and an ugly feature are both 
short-comings in women. 


1 have thus described the characteristic marks of men 
and women which confer Avisdom on men. 




Hari said : — It is better to adore a stone which has no 
characteristic marks than the one which has a circular mark 
on it. 

The first image is Sudarshana. The second is Lakshmi* 
Narayana. The third is Tree-Chakra (three discus), the 
fourth is Achyuta, the fifth is Chaturchakra and the sixth is 
Chaturbhuja (four-armed). The next is Vasudeva, then 
Pradyumna, ^then Sangkarshana and the eighth is Punisot- 
tama. Navavyuha is the tenth. Aniruddha is the eleventh, 
then Ekadasa and then Dwadashatmi.- Ananta is on the 
top of all the lines* 

Where there is ShalagrSLma stone there lives the lord of 
Dw^ravati (Vishnu). Where is the meeting between these 
two there is forsooth emancipation. Shilagr^ma, Dw2Lraka, 
Naimisha, Pushkara, Gya, Baranashi, Prayaga, Kurukshetra, 
Gangi, Narmud^, Chandribhaga, Saraswati, Purusottama, 
and Mahak^Ia — these are the sacred shrines, O Shankara, 
which dissipate all sins and yield enjoyment and eman- 

Prabhava, Vibhava, Shukra, Pramoda, Prajapati, Angira, 
Shrimukha, Bh<Lva, Pusha, Dh§ta, Ishwara, Vahudhanya, 
Pramathi, Vikrama^ Vidhu, Chitrabhanu, Swarbh^nu, Diruna, 
Brarthiva, Vyaya, Sarvajit, SarvadhSiri, Virodhhi, Vikrita, 
Khara, Nandana, Vijaya, Jaya, Manmatha, Darmukha, Hema- 
lamva, Vilamva, Vikira, Sharvarii Plavi, Shubhakrit, Sho- 
bhana, Krodha, Vishw&vasu, Par^bhava, Plavanga, Keelakax 


Soumya, S2Ldh2Lrana, Virodbakrit, ParidhSra, Pramildi; 
Ananda, Raksbasa, Nala, Piagala^ K&lasiddharta, Durmatii 
Sumati, Dundubhi, Rudhirodgiri, Rakti^ksba, Krodbana, 
Aksbaya— are the names which indicate years to be either 
auspicious or inauspicious. 

O Rudra, I will now describe time leading to success 
according to the system of Pancbasara* (five vowels.) They 
are Riji, StjSl, Sija, UdSLsI, Peed& and Mrityu. In the 
figure of five fires one should write the vowels A, I, U, E, 
OU. Six fires should come from the lines drawn upwards or 
askance. In the house of one fire the times Raja, S&ja, 
Udas^, Peedi and Mritiyu are in order presided over by 
MarS| Mercury, Jupiter, Venus, Saturni the sun and the 
moon. The first division of the time is presided over by 
the stars beginning with Revati and ending with Mrigasira. 
Beginning with the month of Chaitra each group of five- 
stars appears. From the first letters of the names of the 
stars twelve days and two months are derived. In the 
filth house of 'th^ figure the characteristic marks of the 
various divisions of Time are found. From the first letter 
of the name of any article pronounced by a party divisions of 
Time, the. various Thhis, various days, stars and months zt6 
calculated. • 

• The mantram is '^ Om, Ksboam, Siv&ya Namas." It ii ' 
called Trailokyamohana. It counteracts the influence of 
evit stars on mental faculties and yeilds success, when ' 
written on a Bfaufja leaf with.Gorochana and along witfaf tiie 
names of Siva, Gana and Lakshmi, it is placed on the itcck 
or arms. 


* Panchasura is one of the divisions of Hindu Jyotish (astrology). It 
refers to the five elements viz, earth, air, fire, water and ether which 
compose the human body* Aaspictousness and inauspiciousn6ss of 
tim« ia calcuUted, accordmg to the Panchasara, by the increase or 
decrease of all these elements severally. 


SUTA said : — Now I shall narrate to you the science of 
divination which the god Hara learned from Hari and dis- 
closed to his consort Gouri, and the data of which can 
be gathered from one's own internal system or organism. 
The Mars, the Fire-God, the Sun, the Earth, the Saturn, 
the Water-God and the Nodes ( Rahu ), should be deemed as 
seated in, or permeating with their respective influences, the 
air or the vital wind that blows through the right nostril of 
a man ; whereas the Jupiter, the Venus, the Mercury and the 
Moon should be regarded as the presiding planets of the 
wind that escapes through his left nostril. Rites or incanta- 
tions undertaken or practised for the acquisition of territories 
or a place in the king's service, as well as acts such as the 
first starting of a trade or the first interview of a king, and 
auspicious works in general, should be performed when the 
breath-wind would blow through one's left nostril. The 
Saturn, the Nodes, the Mars, the Sun, andS the Planet of 
Water, should be deemed as ascendant when the process of 
respiration would be performed through the right nostril, and 
all baneful principles should be likewise regarded as domi- 
nant with them. 

The good or evil fate of a man can be divined from the 
escapage of the breath-wind through the different nostrils as 
well as from the predominance of the concomitant principles 
( Svarodaya ) in the diviner. Net works of nerves of varied 
shape and immense extensions run through the, body in 
all directions. From the nerve-bulb or nerve ganglion alone, 
situated below the umbilicus, there branch out no less than 
seventy-two thousand nerves, rolled up in the form of a coil 
^r whed, each carrying away the stream of life in their 

178 GARUDA f»t!RANAM. 

course. Three out of these innumerable nerves, pte-ettiu 
nently rank as the most important^ These three (occult) 
nerves run below the spinal column of a man, the (eft one 
being called the Ida, and the right one, the Pingala. The 
central one of this nerve system is called the Sushumna^ 
The Moon is the presiding deity of the Ida or the left nerve, 
the Pingala or the right nerve is effulgent with the light of 
the sun, while the Sushumna or the central one owns the Fire- 
God as its tutelary divinity, and is the destroyer of all pheno- 
menal life. The Ida or the left nerve flows with the stream 
of divine ambrosia and laves the shores of the organic world 
with a perpetual flow of life. The Pingala or the right 
nerve is permeated with the essence of the god of destruc- 
tion ( Rudra ) and carries within it the principle of universal 
dissolution. The concerted work of these two nerves ( the 
left and the right ) leads to death and ushers in an absolute 
breakdoTi'n of all undertakings. 

Inspiration or taking in of the breath wind is performed 
by means of the Ida, while respiration or the process of letting 
it out, is done with the help of the Pingala. 

All blissful or auspicious acts, should be undertaken when 
the vital energy of the doer would remain confined to the 
Ida, while all fatal, or harmful incantations should be practised 
when the same would be lodged in the Pingala. Sojourn 
to 'a distant land and all processes for the elimination of 
poison from the human system, should be started under the 
auspices of the flowing of the vital stream through the Ida^ 
while a predominance of the Pingala (flowing of the life 
stream through Pingala ) in a man, should be deemed as the 
most auspicious occasion for taking his dinner, or visiting his 
wife, or fighting his antagonist. Similarly a predominance of 
the Pingala should be made use of, in practising incantation* 
which are fatal in their effect or can send one's adversary 
crazy from his household. A dinner, or a battle, or a sexual 
intercourse, partaken of, entered into, or commenced during 




the assendency of the Pingala, is sure to be crowned wit& 

Kings and crownrd heads, should take advantage of such 
a state of the Ida, in undertaking all acts which tend to 
make men happy, as well as in commencing a sojourn to a 
dbtant country, or in practising venomous charms or those 
which bring about the fruition ( realisation ) of one's own 
speech. A simultaneous flowing of the life current through 
both of these occult nerves ( Ida and Pingala ) should be 
interpreted to indicate an occasion when charms of both 
blissful and fatal virtues, should not be practised, and 
such a state should be deemed as the equator of life. A 
predominance of the left occult nerve is the most auspicious 
occasion for the purposes of a journey and for practising all 
lucky incantations, as well as for undertaking all works of 
profit and victory and those that contribute to the preser- 
vation of health and life. Similarly an ascendency of the 
right occult nerve, Pingala, should be deemed as the signal 
moment for starting on a military expedition, or for visiting 
the bed of a woman and for undertaking all minor acts in 

A battle should be commenced, when the general or the 
warrior leading the attack, would feel his vital wind blowing 
through the occult nerves of the Sun and the Moon, and a 
person with such a state of vital air, enquiring about the 
probable result of the battle, should be assured of the success 
of the party on whose behalf he had consulted the diviner. 
Such a party is sure to conquer the whole country lying at 
the angle of the compass which the vital wind blows to, even 
if the lord of the celestials confronts his army as an opposing 
rival. The ten occult nerves, such as the Aries, etc., and 
which are arranged in both sides of a human frame, represent 
the Lagnas such as the Chara (mobile) the Sthira (fixed), etc. 
The diviner or prophet should hold up his face, in the 
shape of a bell after the enquirer had finished putting his 


query, and he would take in or let out his breath win^ 
simultaneously with the inspiration or respiration of the 
enquirer. O^Shiva, the five fundamental material principles 
of the universe, are situated in the right and left sides of a 
human organism. The predominance of the principles of 
fire in a human system, should be inferred from the escaping 
of the vital wind along the upper part of the nostril, while 
the ascendency of the water principle, should be judged from 
its outflow, touching the bottom line of the nostril. In the 
same manner the escaping of the breath-wind in a slanting 
direction, would indicate the predominance of the principle 
of wind. The predominence of the earth principle would be 
indicated by the breath-wind keeping a middle path inside 
the nostril, while the predominance of the principle of sky 
should be inferred from the outflow of the breath as stufiing 
the nostril and running in all directions. 

Incantations, endued with the mystic virtues of destroying 
life, should be practised during the ascendency of the prin- 
ciple of fire, rites of pacification during the predominance 
of the water-principle, charms for distracting human mind 
during the predominance of the wind, spells for benumbing 
the faculties of one's adversary during the ascendency of the 
earth principle, while penances for the emancipation of one's 
own self, should be practised during the predominance of the 
principle of the sky or ether. .. 



SuTA said : — Now I shall discourse on the method of 
testing the genuineness of gems and precious stones. There 
lived in ancient time a demon, named Vala. Vala conquered 


the god Indra and his celestials, and reigned supreme and 
invincible in the universe. The gods, on the occasion of a 
religious sacrifice, jocularly asked him to play the part of the 
animal of the sacrifice. This Vala consented to do and pledged 
his word for the performance of the part and suffered himself 
to be bound at the sacrificial stake. Whereupon the gods 
turned the jest into earnest and killed the invincible Vala 
in that mockery of a religious sacrifice. Thus Vala yielded 
up his ghost for the good of the universe and the welfare of 
the gods, and, behold, the severed limbs and members of his 
sanctified body, were converted into the seeds of gems. 

Then the gods and the Yakshas and the Siddhas and the 
Nagas eagerly rushed to collect those seeds of gems and 
there were mighty flutterings of celestial pinions and rustlings 
of celestial garments in heaven. The gods came riding in 
their aerial cars, and carried away the seeds of gems for 
their own use, some of which dropped down on earthy 
through the violent concussion of the air. Wherever they 
dropped, whether in oceans, rivers, mountains or wildernesses 
there origined mines of those gems through the celestial 
potency of their respective seeds. 

Of the gems and precious stones, some are endued with 
the virtues of expiating all sins or of acting as a prophy- 
lactic against the effects of poison, snake bites, and diseases, 
while there are others which are possessed of contrary 
virtues. Gems, such as the Padmaraga, the Emerald, the 
Indranila, the Vaidurya the Pushparaga, the diamond, the 
pearl, the Karketana, the Pulaka, Rudhirakhya ( blood stone ) 
the crystal, and the coral, should be carefully collected, 
subject to the advice of experts on the subject. First the 
shape, colour, defects or excellences of a gem should be 
carefully tested and then its price should be ascertained in 
consultation with a gem expert who has studied all the 
"books dealing with the precious stones. 


A king: or a ruling chief with a view to acquire a greater 
prosperity, shall collect and wear a gem that has been found 
pure after a satisfactory test. Men, dealing in gems and ex- 
perienced in the art of detecting its defects and well versed in 
the knowledge relating to the appraising of precious stones, 
should be deemed as the only persons capable of fixing the 
price and ascertaining the water of a gem. Since the 
learned hold diamond to be the most effulgent of all preci- 
ous stones, we shall first describe the mode of testing the 

The least particle of bone of the conquerer of Indra, 
falling or dropping down from the sky in a country, 
germinates diamond-crystals of varied shapes. The eight 
regions or divisions of the country in which diamond is 
found, are the Himalayas, the Matangas, the provinces of 
Anga, Saurastra, Poundra, Kalinga, Koshala, the basin 
of the river Venva, and the country of the Souveras. 
Diamonds found in the region of the Himalays, are tinged 
with a little copper-colour, while those found in the basin of 
the Venva are coloured like the disc of the full moon. 
Diamonds found in the country of the Souvera, are possessed 
of a lustre similar to the deep shade of a black rain cloud, 
while those found in the country of Sourashtra, shine with a 
copper-coloured effulgence. Diamonds found in the country 
of Kaling^, are coloured like the molten gold, while those 
found in Koshala are yellow. Diamonds found in the country 
of Poundra, are coloured blue, while those found in the 
regions of the Matangas, are yellowish in their hue. 

Gods are supposed to dwell in a particle of diamond, 
wherever found, which is possessed of a clear, light shade and 
the usual commendable features, is smooth and even at the 
sides, and is divested of all threatening traits such as 
scratches, dot like impressions, marks of crow's feet, or cloud- 
ing impurities in its interior. Coloured diamonds, should be 
be regarded as presided cv ^r by different divinities according 


t6 ther riespective hues. Green, white, yellow, brown, blae 
fiind copper-coloured diamonds are ascribed to the direct 
tutelage of the Sun^ Vaninai Indra, the Fire-God, the Lord of 
the Pitris and the Maruts, respectively. 

A Brahmana is enjoined to wear a diamond which 19 
coloured like a conch shell, or a Kumuda flower or a white 
crystal, whereas a Kshatriya should wear one that is coloured 
brownish yellow like the eyes of a hare. A diamond possessed 
of a soft greenish colour like the tender leaves of a plantain 
tree, prove beneficial to a man of the Vaishya class, while a 
Shudra would do well to wear a diamond that has a lustre like 
that of a newly washed sword. Diamonds which are coloured 
yellow or possessed of a hue like that of a coral or a Java 
flower, (China Rose) should be held as fit only for the use of a 
king and would prove positively harmful to any man occupjring 
a lower position in life. A king in his capacity of the lord of 
all the castes, is privileged to wear diamonds of any colour he 
pleases, provided they are not vitiated by the prohibited 
features, whereas such a conduct on the part of an ordinary 
man, is sure to be attended with evil consequences. 

A diamond possessed of a double or dubious shade or 
colour, should be looked upon as portending dire calamities 
like the birth of an illegimate or half caste child in the family, 
etc. A diamond ^should not be used only with a look to the 
caste or class it specifically belongs to, inasmuch as a 
diamond possessed of all the commendable features proves as 
a source of boundless prosperity to its wearer, whereas a 
diamond vitiated by any of the condemnable traits, turns 
out to be a spring of unmitigated evil. 

A diamond with one of its angles or horns broken or 
mutilated, or looking as if scratched, withered or trampled 
down, should^not be retained in the household, though other- 
wise possessed of all commendable features, as it would cer- 
uinly bring hosts of unsuspected evils in its train. The , 


goddess of wealth is sure to part company with a person who 
is impudent enough to wear a diamond which emits a red 
glare through one of its mutilated horns or angles and looks 
cloudy and impure at the centre. A diamond scratched in 
any part of its body and which appears to be painted with 
stripes of red in the inside, robs the decent competence of 
its wearer, and subsequently brings on his death and ruin. A 
diamond found in its natural state in the bed of a mine, is 
either hexagonal or octagonal in shape or appears like a 
polygon of twelve sides with all it3 exterior angles or points 
prominently marked and equally sharpened. 

A diamond, cut into the shape of a regular hexagon with 
well-smoothed sides and well-marked points or angles, and 
shedding a clear prismatic lustre from the inside and divested 
of all the harmful traits described in the books on gems 
and precious stones, is to be rarely found even amidst the 
treasures of crowned heads. Prosperity, long life, increase 
of wives and progeny and domestic animals, and the bringing 
home of a teeming harvest, attend on the use of a diamond, 
keen and well marked in its points, clear in lustre and divest* 
ed of the characteristic baneful traits. Serpents, tigers, and 
thieves fly from the presence of a person wearing such a 
diamond. Fatal and dreadful poisons, secretly administered, 
prove inoperative in his system and all his possessions enjoy 
a sort of immunity from acts of incendiarism or erosions 
by water. The complexion of such a person improves in its 
healthful glow and all his undertakings become prosperous 
and thriving. 

A diamond, devoid of all the characteristic blemishes and 
weighing twenty tandulam in weight, and worn by a man, 
should be regarded as double in value of the standard of 
appraising used in respect of ascertaining the water, lustre 
price and the commendable traits of diamond. Fractions 
such as i, i, tV» Tr» tj ^^ tzv should respectively used in 
computing the price of a diamond, wherever it would be 


tovifid necessary to appraise a diamond by the standard of 
Unother diamond of greater weight and brilliancy. An in- 
finitesimally small fraction in such an instance, should be 
computed as equal to a thousandth part of the latter in price. 
Eight seeds of white sesamum equal a Tandulam in weight, 
and the use of a diamond weighing less than even the latter 
standard-measure, is not prohibited. A diamond possessed 
of all th^ commendable traits and found to float on the water 
ill test, should be worn by a man in exclusion of all the other 
gems happening to be in his possession. 

A diamond found to be affected with small defects 
whether visible or invisible to the naked eyes, should be 
appraised at a price equal to a tenth part of that of a diamond 
of similar water and weight, but devoid of all such blemishes. 
A diamond marked with many a patent defect, whether 
great, or small should not be appraised at a price even equal 
to a hundredth part of that of a similar stainless diamond. 
A diamond otherwise defective, but set in a prepared article 
of ornament, should be valued at a very low price. A diamond 
of the first water, but found to be other\vise possessed of 
any of the condemnable traits, should not be set in a royal 
ornament even for the purpose of decoration. Diamonds are 
prohibited as articles of female wear, as they are possessed 
of the mystic virtues of making them sterile and unhappy. 
A diamond which has a stunted, elongated or a flattened 
look like that of a thrashed paddy, should be looked upon 
as devoid of all commendable features. 

Imitation diamonds are made by skilful artisans with 
such substances as the iron, the Pushparaga (topaz) the 
Gomeda, the Vaiduryyam (lapis-lazuli), the crystal and 
the glass, and hence their genuineness should be made to 
be tested by experts, well-versed in the art of recognising 
and appraising precious stones. A diamond offered for sale, 
should be put to such tests, as scratching, shana (emery wheel) 
and immersion in alkaline solutions. A diamond would scratch 


all other metals or gems, such as the iron, etc., without btiag 
scratched by any of them in return^ Weight goes a long way 
towards the determination of a higher price of a gem or a 
metal, whereas the contrary should be regarded as the cri- 
terion of judgment in the case of a diamond, as laid down 
by the immortal gods. A Kuruvinda of inferior water can 
be scratched or written upon by a Kuruvinda of a h^her 
water, while a dianK)nd is alone capable of cutting a diamond. 
The lustre of all genuine gems, pearls or dianfond, cut or 
set in an ornament, never shoot upwards, while those that 
are obliquely or laterally cut, emit a ray of slanting ar lateral 

A diamond scintillating with flashes of rainbow coloured 
hue at the centre, though otherwise stained and marked wkh 
dots and lines, or narrow at the sides, blesses its wearer with 
a prosperous family and well-frlled granaries. A king wear- 
ing a diamond dazzling with lightning flashes, is sure to 
subdue the prowess of his neighbouring monarchs and to exer- 
cise an unbounded control upon his vassab and liege subjects* 



SUTA said : — Pearls are found in the temples of etepEfanis 
and wild boars, in conch-shells, in oysters, in the hoods 
of cobras and in the hollow stems of ba*mboos. The origin 
of a species of pearls is abscribed to the effect of thunder. 
Pearls fonmd in Oyster shells, abound in numbers and are 
usually included within the category of gems. An oyster 
pearl is capable of being pierced with a hole in the middle 
(running through its entire length) while the remaining 
species do not admit of being similarly bored. Pearls found 


in the stems of bamboos or in the temples of elephants and 
wild boars or in the mouths of whales or in the entrails of 
conch-shells, are devoid of lustre, though possessed of other 
auspicious virtues. 

Of the eight species of pearls described by the con- 
noisseurs of gems, those obtained from conch-shells and the 
temples of elephants should be deemed as standing in the 
bottom of the list as regards colour and brilliancy. A conch- 
shell pearl is usually as big as a large Kona (point of a 
rapier) and assumes a colour similar to that of the mollusc it 
is found in. 

A pearl found in the temple of an elephant, is marked by 
the absence of any definite colour and is lustreless like a 
pearl found in the stem of a bamboo. A pearl found in the 
mouth of a fish, is a perfect sphere in shape and is marked by 
a yellowish hue, like the back of a pathenam fish as is occa- 
sionally found inside the mouth of a whale that frequents 
the unfathomable depths of ocean beds. A boar-pearl re- 
sembles the tip of its tusk in colour, and is obtained in cer- 
tain quarters of the globe and is blissful like the boar incar- 
nation of the divine Vishnu. A pearl obtained from inside the 
hollow stem of a bamboo, resembles a hailstone in colour, and 
is found only in a bamboo that grows in the land of the 
honest and the pious, and not in every tope of that grass. 

A pearl found in the hood of a cobra is round in shape 
like the one obtained from the mouth of a fish and emits a 
<lazzling effulgence from its own natural seat. After copious 
washing such a pearl assumes the lustre of a well-polished 
sword. The possessor of a cobra or serpent-pearl, meets 
with a rare good fortune, and becomes a pious and illustrious 
king in time, with a treasury fiill of other species of pre« 
cious gems. 

Dark clouds, hung down and heavily charged with rain, 
and roaring with the voice of the eternal trumpets blown 
upon at the time of universal dissolution and spangled with 


flashes of lightning, closely envelop the sky, at the time, 
when the Bramhana, well versed in the religious and cere- 
monial proceedings, after enquiring about the acquisition 
of such a pearl, and having done the necessary rite of pro- 
tection unto it, formally takes it into the interior of the 
house of its possessor. Neither the serpents, nor the 
Rakshas, nor diseases, nor disturbances of any kind would 
assail the man amidst whose treasure such a snake-pearl 
would lie. 

A cloud-grown pearl rarely reaches this mortal globe^ 
and usually falls to the lot of the celestials. By illumining 
the four quarters of the sky with its native lustre, a cloud- 
begotten pearl, like the sun, dispels the gloom of a cloudy day. 
Outshining the combined effulgence of the fire, the moon^ 
and the myriads of scintillating stars, such a pearl, like the 
dawn of day, can dispel the gloom of even the darkest night 
on earth. The whole earth, girdled by the four oceans 
containing innumberable gems in their fathomless depths, can 
not be deemed as the adequate price of such a pearl, even 
if she be covered over with layers of pure gold. A man^ 
bom in indigence and of humble parents, but happening to 
be the possessor of such a pearl, only through the transforma- 
tion of a good deed done in a previous existence, is sure to 
be the paramount sovereign of the entire surface of the 
Earth. Not to the good deeds of the king alone, but 
to the better fortune of the whole humanity ,^hould be as- 
cribed the advent of such a man on earth, and no evil would 
ever strike the land to the extent of a thousand Yojanas 
round the place of his birth. 

The teeth of that great Vala lay scattered and perched 
up over the wide expanse of heaven like the gallaxy of 
stars, and dropped down one by one into the wonderfully 
coloured waters of the oceans, and originated the seeds of 
gems vicing with the beams of the full moon, and the rain- 
bow tint of a peacock's feathers in colour. Some of these 


seeds entered into the inner organisms of oysters that lay in 
the deep beds of oceans and gave rise to pearls. 

Pearls are divided into eight di£Ferent species according 
to the places of their origin, such as the Sainhalika (off the 
coast of Ceylon), the Paraloukika (heavenly) the Sourash- 
trika (bom in the country of Shourashtra), the Tamrapama 
(off the coast of modern Tamluk), the Parashava (P«rsian)» 
the Kouvera, the Pandyahataka and the Hemaka. Pearls 
obtained from oysters fished off the coast of Ceylon^ 
Vardhana and Persia or the coast of any other foreign or 
southern islands (Patala) do not lose much in comparison 
with the other species as regards shape, size, colour and 
other properties. 

The place of origin, should not be taken into account 
in determining the price of a pearl. A learned gem-expert 
shall only notice its shape and size. Nor can it be said that 
defects or excellencies are restricted to any particular species^ 
since pearls of all shape and size can be obtained from 
oysters of the several fisheries described above. 

An oyster-pearl, grounded into a well round shape, should 
be appraised at a price of thirteen hundred and five silver 
coins. A pearl, weighing half a mashaka less in weight than 
the former, should be valued at a sum of mony equal to a 
two-fifth part of that of the former. A pearl weighing three 
Mashakas, should be valued at two thousand silver coins. 
According to a similar computation, the price of a pearl 
weighing two Mashakas and a half, should be fixed at two 
thousand and three hundred silver coins. A pearl, weighing 
two Mashakas only, but otherwise belonging to the commen- 
dable type, should be valued at eight hundred silver coins. 
A pearl weighing a Mashaka and a half, should be valued 
at three hundred and twenty-five silver coins. The price of 
a pearl weighing six Gunjas, should be laid at two hundred 
silver coins, while a pearl, weighing half as much as the 
former, should be valued at a hundred silver coins only. A 


pearl, weighing less than the preceding one by sixteen 
Dharanas, is called a Darvikam as regards its weight, and 
can fetch a price of hundred and ten silver coins only from 
the hands of the ignorant. A pearly weighing less than the 
foregoing one by twenty Dharanas, is called a Bhavakam by 
the experts and should not be valued at a higher sum than 
seventy-nine silver coins. 

A string of thirty pearls, each weighing a Dharanam, 
should be valued at forty-four coins. A string of forty-four 
pearls of Shiktha class, should be valued at thirty silver 
coins. A string of sixty pearls, each weighing a Nikara, 
should be valued at fourteen silver coins. A string of eighty 
or ninty pearls : of the Kupya class, should be respectively 
valued at eleven and nine silver coins. 

The process of cleansing and perforating the pearl seeds, 
is as follows :— First, all the pearls should be collected and 
kept in a bowl of boiled rice, previously saturated with the 
expressed juice of the Jamvera fruits (lime). Then the 
whole contents of the bowl, should be kept simmering for 
a while, after which the pearls should be taken out and 
rubbed with the liquid extract of boiled rice. Thus soft- 
ened they, should be pierced through as desired. The pro« 
cess of cleansing consists in gently heating the pearl seeds 
placed in a] covered crucible, known as the Matsaputa and 
covered over with a plaster of clay, after which they should be 
boiled in milk, water or wine, according to the process known 
as the Vitanapatti. Then the pearls should be gently rubbed 
with a piece of clean linen, until they would begin to shine 
with their characteristic lustre, which would indicate the 
completion of the process of cleansing. This is what the 
mighty Vyadhi laid down as regards the cleansing of pearls 
out of his compassion towards the good and the erudite. 

Pearls used for the personal decorations of kings and 
noblemen, should be kept immersed in mercury contained in 
a glass receptacle saturated with a solution of gold. This 


Is what is done by experts in the island of Ceylon* A pearl 
of suspected genuineness, should be kept immersed, for a 
night, in warm oil saturated with a quantity of common salt* 
Its genuineness should be pronounced in the event of its 
successfully stood the preceding test. In the alternative, 
a pearl of questionable appearance, should be covered with a 
piece of dry linen and rubbed with a seed of Vrihi grass, and 
its genuineness should be presumed from the fact of its 
colour having not been any way affected by the friction. 

A pearl which is white, of good size, heavy, transparent, 
round and possessed of cool and effulgent lustre, should be 
regarded as the best of its kind. A pearl, which is possessed 
of a pretty large size, is white, and round, emits rays of efful- 
gent lustre, is pierced with a hole of uniform girth throughout 
its length and evokes even the pleasure of a person not dis- 
posed to purchase the same, should be looked upon as a pearl 
of rare virtues. Not even a single evil can befall the possesor 
of a pearl which is possessed of all the commendable features 
and qualities enumerated in the present chapter. 



SuTA said:— The sun-god, having collected the gezn- 
begetting blood of that great demon (Vala) who was high in 
dignity and mighty in prowess, attempted to stealthily fly 
away by scaling the expanse of ether, blue like the colour 
of a newly polished sword blade, when Rivana, the king of 
Lanka, the conqueror of the celestials in a thousand battles, 
intoxicated with his prowess, strength and victory, obstructed 
his path in heaven like a second Rihu (Nodes). The sun- 
god, afraid of his dreadful presence, dropped that blood in 


dismay into the unfathomable depth of the pool of Lanka^ 
tossing with myriads of sun-lit waves and girdled with a 
belt of Arecanut trees. From that day, the pool has 
acquired the celebrity of the Ravana Ganges and ranks 
equally with the sacred Ganges in respect of religious merit 
and sanctity. 

From that day, the foreshores of that sanctified pool are 
found to be strewn over with innumerable precious gem^i and 
shine with wonderful effulgence in the night as if pierced with 
hundreds of golden shafts (Narachas). On its banks are 
originated the bright and the beautiful-coloured Padmaragas 
(Ruby) and crystals and Kuruvindas of untold virtues are 
begotten of the perfume wafted from its fragrant foreshores* 
Several of the Kuruvindajas (which belong to the family 
of the crystals, as are found in the country of Soug^ndhika) 
resemble the flowers of the Vandhuka, the Gunja and the 
Kinshuka trees in colours, some are coloured like the human 
blood, while several of them resemble the colour obtained from 
the insects known as the Indragopas or that of the seeds of a 
pomegranate. Several of them are coloured like vermilion 
or the Utpala flowers or saffron or like the dye obtained from 
the solution of shellac, which though coloured uniformly deep 
throughout their body, shine with a special intrinsic light at 
their centre. These members of the family of crystals, illumi- 
nated by the light of the sun, shoot forth rays of wonderful 
colour and brilliancy from their sides which lighten up the 
surrounding space and are refracted in all directions. 

Some of these gems are coloured like the water dyed 
with indigo and the expressed juice of the Kusumbha flowers. 
Some of them vie with the extremely deep red ©f the Utpala 
flowers. Some of them are tinged with a hue similar to that 
of the flowers of a Kantakari plant, while several species bear 
the colour of asafcetida. Some of them shine with an efful- 
gence which resembles the eyes of a chakora or a male 
cuckoo in colour, while the rest of the group are tinged deep 


red like the flower of a Kokonada plant (red lotus). GemS| 

bom of Sougandhika, which are coloured like the red Utpala 
flowers, or arc possessed of a bluish hue, are nearly equal 
to those of the crystal family, as regards bright ness, hard- 
ness, heaviness, etc. The colour of the gems belonging 
to the Kuruvinda family, is not so deep as that which 
characterises the species of crystals, the former being 
somewhat dull-hued and devoid of brilliancy, though there 
are several shining Kuruvindas which are decidedly inferior 
to the crystals in point of lustre and brilliancy. 

Kuruvindas, found in the bed of the river Ravana Ganga, 
are possessed of a deep red hue like the gems known as the 
Padmaragas, and can be favourably compared with the mem- 
bers of the crystal family, as regards lustre and brilliancy. 
A species of gems, resembling the Kuruvindas in colour, is 
not usually found in the country of the Andhras and fetches 
an inferior price, if accidentally obtained in that division 
of Bharatavarsha. Similarly, gems, possessed of properties 
kindred to those of the crystal family, are found in the 
country of Tamvaru and are valued at a lower price. 
Brilliancy of colour, heaviness, coldness, equal transparency 
throughout its body, effulgence and dimension are the good 
features of a gem. 

A gem, though genuine and otherwise possessed of the 
characteristic features of the family it belongs to, should not 
be commended to use or wearing, if found to be stained, or 
sandy or cracked in the inside, or rough, dull and lustreless. 
Grief, care, disease, death, ruin and loss of fortune over- 
take the man who wears such a gem of the condemnable sort, 
even out of ignorance or lack of sufficient knowledge about 
the properties of precious stones. The five genuine species of 
beautiful gems are usually substituted with the inferior or the 
alien one's, which the wise and the intelligent would carefully 
mark at the time of purchase or selection. The gems, found 



in the countries of Kalasapura, Sinhala, Tamvani, Mukta^ 
paniya and Shrecparnakas, which go by the name of the 
Padmaragas, are allied to one another, and should be re- 
garded as alien to a Padmaraga of the genuine species. 

The first of the above named species ( kalasa ) is marked 
by a frosty or husky aspect. The alien species, found in 
the country of the Tamvaru, is characterised by a redLsh or 
copper-coloured hue, that found in the island of Sinhala, 
looks thin and perched up, the Muktapaniyam is marked by 
a shade of sky blue tint, while the Shreepamakam is devoid 
of lustre and brilliancy. These, in conjunction with the follow- 
ing, form the distinctive traits of the several alien species of 
the Padmaraga, viz., that they are either marked by a copper- 
tint, or look frosty at the centre, or seem to be clouded 
with an oily coating, or shine with a faded or discoloured 
light after rubbing, or cast a dark shade at the sides, if pressed 
or^the head with the fingers. In testing a Padmaraga, which 
excels in lustre and brilliancy all other members of its own 
family, but which bears a weight unequal to the specific weight 
of a gem of its own class and size, the wise should give their 
verdict, as regards genuineness, to the one of greater weight of 
the two gems compared. In a case of doubtful and bewilder- 
ing testimonies, the gem should be subjected to the test of a 
testing stone, or examined by scratching it with a gem of the 
same species. Excepting diamond and Kuruvinda, no other 
gem can cut or scratch a bit of Padmaraga or Indranila. 

A gem, belonging to an alien or an incompatible group, 
should not be worn with one of the genuine species and 
possessed of great virtues. Even the wearing of such a 
gem is forbidden, if strung together with the Koustabha of 
divine potency. As a Chandala in the company of a host of 
mighty Brahmanas, can defile them without the least effort, 
!>o a gem of the incompatible type, can nullify the potencies 
of all other precious stones, if worn or strung together. No 
evil can befall the wearer of a genuine Padmaraga, even if 


lie lives in the midst of his deadly enemies, or walks in the 
path of illusion and unrighteousness. Diseases, incidental 
to the derangement of the vital humours, or disturbances of 
any kind, can never assail the man who wears a Padmaraga, 
burning with the effulgence of its own stirring and sterling 

The price fixed for a tandulam weight of cut and polished 
diamond, should be understood as equal to that of a Mashaka 
weight of cleansed and polished Padmaraga. A gem is 
valued for its hue and brilliancy, and hence any deterioration 
of these two qualities will correspondingly deteriorate its 
price or value. 



SUTA SAID : — Vasuki, the lord of the serpents, carried 
away the bile of that chief of the demons ( Vala ) and rent in 
twain the vast expanse of heaven with the sweep of his 
mighty tail. The body of that primordial Hydra, illumined 
with the effulgence of gems glowing on his thousand hoods, 
lay like a bridge of shining silver across the infinite deep of 
dark blue ether ; whereupon behold, the mighty Gurada, whirl- 
ing round with the strokes of his mighty pinions, darted down 
upon that lord of the nether worlds and obstructed his way. 
Vasuki in his turn, terrified at that dreadful presence, dropped 
that bile, in dismay, down in that vale of the mount of Afanikya, 
shaded with the luscious boughs of resinous Turaksha trees, 
and perfumed with the scents of the forests of Nalika. 

Simultaneously with the fall described above, a portion of 
the bile dropped down in the country, situated beyond the 
Himalayas ( Varalaya ) and graced with the presence of the 


goddess of fortune ; and the coast of the land-locked sea of 
that country! was transformed into one bed of Emerald The 
mighty Garuda, the lord of the celestial birds, picked up a few 
of the emeralds with his beaks, even from the coast of that 
inland sea, but he soon dropped down in a fit of fainting and 
all the emeralds were cast forth through the apertures of his 

An emerald, possessed of a colour resembling the tint of 
the neck of a parrot, or that of a Shirisha flower, or tinged 
like the blade of a green grass or a new grown moss, or glow- 
ing with a hue that marks the feathers of a peacock or the 
back of a fire-fly, should be deemed as possessed of the virtue 
of bringing good luck to its possessor. The country in which 
the bile of the lord of the demons dropped down from the 
beaks of that dreadful destroyer of the serpents (Garuda), 
thus originating the veins of emerald therein, is very difficult 
to get at, though Nature has bestowed her bounties upon it 
with the most lavish hand. 

An Emerald found in that emerald bed, is endued with the 
virtue of neutralising the effects of poisons. Poison, secreted 
from the fangs of a Maha-Sarpa ( /// : the great serpent, 
black cobra ) or incidental' to the bite by such a snake, which 
baffles the virtues of all medicinal herbs and incantations, is 
neutralised by its simple touch. An emerald, not found in 
the abovesaid bed, but mined from any other place in the 
same country, is the holiest of the holies. 

The gem experts accord the highest praise to an emerald, 
which is possessed of a dark green colour, and sheds a soft 
glow, and looks as if stuffed with powders of gold in the 
inside, in company with the one which is coloured with an 
uniform shade of green all through its body, is heavy in 
weight, is devoid of the condemnable traits and shoots 
forth rays of effulgence with the reflection of the sunlight. 
An emerald whose inside changes its natural green hue 
and shines witli a dazzling light like that of a flash of 


lightning modified with a greenish shade, as well as the one 
which pleases the mind of the onlooker at the first sight, 
should be deemed as possessed if the most excellent 
qualities ' An emerald, possessed of a transparent hue at the 
centre, though coloured like the tender blade of a kusha 
grass in its body, ranks very high as regards value and 
quality. An emerald, simply glowing with its native dark 
green hue, should be deemed inferior to one of the preceding 

An emerald, blackish ( dark blue ), lustreless, looking 
sand-grained, dry and hard, and encrusted with Shilajatu 
( bitumen ) should be deemed as of a very inferior sort. A 
person seeking his own good and prosperity, shall never wear, 
nor purchase a gem which has been made to look like 
an emerald by means of dying or any other chemical process. 
Similarly, the use of an emerald, possessed of a double shade 
of colour, is prohibited by the injunctions of the Shastras. An 
emerald coloured like a Putrika or a Bhallataka, should be 
deemed as not belonging to the genuine t)rpe ( vijati ). The 
colour or the glow of a Putrika-coloured emerald, is per- 
ceptibly aflFected by rubbing it with a piece of linen, which 
is often suspected to be a bit of glass for its lightness of 
weight. The colour of an emerald possessed of a variety of 
shades and attributes, is affected by the contact of a wind, 
saturated with the essence of the Bhallataka. 

Diamonds, pearls, or any other gems belonging to the 
alien species, fail to shoot up rays in the upward direction 
when not set in an ornament. In certain cases the upward 
rays are perceptible, if the gems are cut straightwise or 
held longitudinally, which disappear as ^soon. as they are 
held in a slanting position. 

The wise and the intelligent, should wear an emerald set 
in gold, at the time of religious ablution, or of rinsing the 
mouth with water on the occasion of a religious sacrifice, or 
during the performance of protective incantions, or at the 


time of making gifts of cows and gold, or during the perform- 
ance of obsequious rites done unto the gods and one's depart- 
ed manes, or for the cure of diseases, brought about by the 
deranged condition of the vital winds, or incidental to the 
effects of poison. Similarly an emerald devoid of all blemishes 
and set in gold, is possessed of the mystic virtue of bringing 
victory to its wearer, if engaged in a battle with his adversary. 
A pure emerald fetches a higher price than a ruby 
( Padmaraga ) of equal weight, while a defective one should 
be valued at a lower price than a similarly defective Padma- 
raga of the same weight. 



SUTA SAID : — ^The eyes of the lord of the demons ( Vala ) 
which resembled the full blown blue lilies in hue and shape, 
were severed from his dismembered organism and cast into a 
country, where the beautiful damsels of Sinhala cull the 
fragrant flowers from the stems of suppliant and inviting 
creepers, in testimony whereof the expanding foreshores of the 
ocean that washes the coasts of that favoured isle, edged with 
a slender border of the Ketaka plants, glow as paved with one 
continuous bed of sapphire ( Indra-Nila ). These gems are 
coloured like the black ( dark blue ) flowers of the mountain 
Karnika which grow on those banks and around which swarms 
of black bees hum day and night, and which flowers are endued 
with a sour taste through the contact of the throat-serum of 
the Chakravakas ( birds ) that greedily suck their luscious sap 
and flap about their gladsome wings. Several of these gems 
are coloured like the clear and transparent water of that 
tranquil sea, others are tinged like the breast-feathers of a 


peacock, others are possessed of a hue which resembles the 
colour of the bubles that burst out on the surface of that dark 
blue sea, while the rest are coloured like the hue that corner 
upon the breast of a male cuckoo in spring. 

An Indra-Nila gem possessed of an uniform shade of 
colour throughout its body, and clear and effulgent in its 
lustre, should be deemed as a gem of a very high value. An 
Indra-Nila possessed of a colour like that of an impregnated 
rain-cloud or any way scratched or splintered, or found 
encrusted with bits of stone, earth, or other ores or impurities, 
or looking sandy in its grain, should be regarded as possessed 
of dreadful features. Learned men, wise in the wisdom of 
the Shastras, are loud in the praise of those excellent gems 
which are largely found in the foreshores of the sea of 

Men acquire the same merit in and derive the same 
benefit from, using an Indra-Nila which they derive from 
wearing a gem of the Padmaraga species, and in the case 
of doubt, an Indra-Nila should be subjected to the same 
tests as are laid down in the case of a Padmaraga. 
The features which characterise the three alien species of the 
Padmaraga, apply mutatis mutandis to the case of an Indra- 
Nila, which should be carefully noticed at the time of 
purchase An Indra-Nila would stand a greater amount 
of heat or fire than a Padmaraga of equal size and weight. 
But under no circumstance, a gem should be subjected to 
an ordeal of fire, inasmuch as a gem burnt for the purpose 
of being purged off of all impurities, or for a greater 
brilliancy, brings ill luck to the person who burns it, as well 
as to him on whose behalf such burning is performed. 

Glass, marble, Vaiduryaya (lapis-lazuli) and crystals, though 
made to be possessed of a colour like the Indra-Nila, should 
be regarded as alien to the latter in species. The weight 
and hardness of these gems which are found to grow in an 
increasing ratio from the glass upward, should be always 


tested. An Indra-Nila which shoots forth dark or faint rays 
of copper-coloured light from its inside, as well as the one 
shining with the blended colours of a Karavira and a blue 
lotus, should be carefully preser\'ed as a precious treasure. 
An Indra-Nila which scintillates with the blended colours of 
a solar spectrum, should be looked upon as a rare find on 

An Indra-Nila, immersed in a quantity of milk weighing 
hundred times its own weight and tinging the latter with its 
native hue, is called the Maha-Nila. The price of a Masha 
weight of Padmaraga is same as that of the four Masha 
weights of Indra-Nila. 



SUTA SAID : — O thou twice-bom one, the mode of testing 
such gems as the Vaiduryaya, the Padmaraga, the Karketana 
and the Bhisma-stone, were first described by the god Brahma 
to the holy sage Vyasa, who subsequently disclosed them to 
the world for the good of the human race. 

The bosom of that primordial ocean was violently agitated 
by the thundering war-cry of that lord of the demons, whose 
swollen and frenzied waters began to madly lash the jagged 
faces of its rock-bound coasts ; and behold, Vaiduryayas of 
varied colours and matchless brilliance, were showered down 
through the clefts of those water-riven shores, turning them 
into beds of shining light. Accordingly the brow of the 
contiguous hill of Vidura was transformed into a mine of 
Vaiduryaga, which was originated by the war-cry of the demon 
Vala and is named after the rock in which it was first found 
to be imbedcd. 


The thunder like roar of the demon, gave rise to the 
formation of packs of sable clouds, and Vaiduryyas of varied 
colours were formed under their influence, as so many efful- 
gent shootings off from that primordial sky^ Colours which 
mark the several classes of the Padmaraga, as well form the 
distinctive features of the several species of the Vaiduryya^ 
of which those that are tinged like the breast-feathers of 
a peacock, or coloured pale green like the leaves of a bamboo^ 
are the best as regards price and quality. A Vaiduryya, 
possessed of a blended hue like that of the primary or the 
exterior feathers of the wings of a Chasa ( bird ) occupies the 
lowest place in the list as regards value and intrinsic virtues, 
and accordingly its use is forbidden by the gem experts. 

A Vaiduryya, .belonging to the commendable type, 
brings good luck to its wearer, whereas the use of one of 
the condemnable species, is attended with dreadful conse- 
quences. Hence a Vaiduryya should be carefully observed 
and tested before wearing. Stones, known as the Girikacha, 
Shaishopala, or glass crystals, appearing as clouded smoke, 
may be easily]mistaken for a Vaidutyya, though they are alien 
to it in species. They should be pronounced as bits of glass 
in the event of their proving incapable of cutting or scratch^ 
ing a Vaiduryya of tested genuineness, whereas a Shaisho- 
palakam stone, simulating the properties of a Vaiduryya, 
should be detected by its lightness. A crystal, mistaken 
for a gem of the species under discussion, should detected 
by its greater brilliance. 

The price of two pala weights of Vaiduryya, should 
be laid at the amount fixed for the value of a Suvarna weight 
of Indra-Nilam. Gems apparently resembling a Vaiduryya 
in colour, but virtually belonging to the alien species, should 
be|compared in respect of gloss, softness, lighter weight, etc.| 
with a Vaiduryya of tested genuineness. The price of 
a Vaiduryaya, in common with the rest of the gems, varies 
according to its setting and purifica tion and depends upon 


the fact of its being possessed of auspicious or inauspicioo^ 
features. A gem losing nothing of its excellence in courser 
of ages, and carefully set by a jeweller in a suitable metal, or 
found in a mine of Samateta or in a country near the sea 
coast, should be valued at a price six times greater than 
that of an ordinary gem belongfing to the same species. 
The price enumerabid above, should be deemed as obtaining 
in markets near the sea coast and in vicinity of the gem 


Sixteen Mashakas are equivalent to a weighty technically 
known as the Suvarnam in the parlance of the gem dealers, 
a seventh part whereof is called a Sana. Four Krishnalas 
make a Masha or a Mashaka. A tenth part of a Pala makes 
a Dharana. 



SUTA said : — Gems known as the Pushparagas ( topaz y 
origined out of the perched skin of that dismembered body 
of Vala, which fell on the summits of the Himalays and 
were thus naturally endued with high qualities. A topaz 
possessed of pale yellow colour, usually passes under the 
denomination of the Padmaraga, while the one tinged with 
the blending of a reddish and yellow hue, is called the 
Kourunda. A topaz which is transparent and possessed of a 
reddish colour, is designated as the Kashayaka, while the one^ 
tinged with a cold shade of bluish white, is known by the 
denomination of Samanaka. A topaz coloured deep red or 
dark blue is known by the epithet of Padmaraga or Indra- 
Nila. The price of a topaz should be appraised at a rate as 
previously laid down by the gem experts in the case of 



The man who devoutly wears a pure Bhishma stone, set 
in gold, about his neck, perpetually meets with the good in 
life.The wild and fierce beasts of the forest, such as wolves, 
leopards, Sharabhas ( fabulous eight-feeted beasts of the 
rhinoceros tribe ) elephants, tigers and lions, shun the pre- 
sence of a man who wears a Bhishma stone about his neck, 
and hurriedly fly away even if happened to be near his 
person. Such a man can easily satisfy any number of wives, 
and usually gets the upper hand in matters of sexual enjoy* 
ment Libations of water or obsequious oblations offered to 
one's departed manes with a hand, adorned with a ring set 
with a Bhishma stone, give them a satisfaction which lasts 
for years to c«me, and poisons of such venomous creatures, 
as serpents, moles, scorpions or of any other oviparous 
animals, however strong and active, readily yield to its mystic 
potency. The wearer of such a stone enjoys a sort of 
immunity from the dangers of a watery grave and acts of 
incendiarism, and thieves and robbers dare not intrude upon 
the precincts of his house. 

A wise man shall shun, from a distance, a Bhishma stone 
which is possessed of a blended colour ( greenish blue ) like 
the hues which respectively mark a rain cloud and the 
zoophytes (water plants,) or tinged with a dull, lifeless yellow, 
or faded and discoloured. The intelligent shall fix the price 
of a Bhishma stone with an eye to the nature of the season 
of the year and the place of its origin, one obtained in a 
remote country fetching a higher price than its kindred of 
local origin, or obtained in a country which is not distant 
from the place of its sale. 



happiness to his household by destroying the evil propen* 
sities of his mind, which are the inseparable companions of 
the miscreant Kali ( the lord or creator of all moral evils ). 

Men who use such a Karketanam gem of high and won- 
derful virtues, whether for the purposes of decoration, or 
otherwise, are sure to be the masters of untold wealth, and 
are glorified in the world, and enjoy universal fame and per« 
petual felicity amidst the unsolicited affections of many a 
true, tested and devoted friends. 

Stones of inferior light, shade, lustre, weight and origin^ 
may be found to simulate a Karketam of the genuine species, 
which may be detected, at the first sight, by its high and 
inimitable excellence in respect of the foregoing points or 

A Karketanam, clear and effulgent like the rays of the 
midday sun, should be valued by a connoisseur at a proper 
and adequate price, and according to its weight and native 



SUTA SAID : — The (seeds) semen of the lord of the 
demons which was contained in its natural receptacle at the 
time of his dissolution, was cast in a country situate to the 
north of the Himalayas, and was transformed into the mines 
of that excellent gem which is [known as the stone of 

A Bhishma stone is usually found to be of a white colour 
like that of a conchshell and resplendent like a ray of the 
unclouded sun, while the one of a comparatively later origin, 
is sometimes mistaken for a diamond. 


The man who devoutly wears a pure Bhishma stone, set 
in gold, about his neck, perpetually meets with the good in 
life.The wild and fierce beasts of the forest, such as wolves, 
leopards, Sharabhas ( fabulous eight-feeted beasts of the 
rhinoceros tribe ) elephants, tigers and lions, shun the pre* 
sence of a man who wears a Bhishma stone about his neck, 
and hurriedly fly away even if happened to be near his 
person. Such a man can easily satisfy any number of wives, 
and usually gets the upper hand in matters of sexual enjoy- 
ment. Libations of water or obsequious oblations offered to 
one's departed manes with a hand, adorned with a ring set 
with a Bhishma stone, give them a satisfaction which lasts 
for years to c«me, and poisons of such venomous creatures, 
as serpents, moles, scorpions or of any other oviparous 
animals, however strong and active, readily yield to its mystic 
potency. The wearer of such a stone enjoys a sort of 
immunity from the dangers of a watery grave and acts of 
incendiarism, and thieves and robbers dare not intrude upon 
the precincts of his house. 

A wise man shall shun, from a distance, a Bhishma stone 
which is possessed of a blended colour ( greenish blue ) like 
the hues which respectively mark a rain cloud and the 
zoophytes (water plants,) or tinged with a dull, lifeless yellow, 
or faded and discoloured. The intelligent shall fix the price 
of a Bhishma stone with an eye to the nature of the season 
of the year and the place of its origin, one obtained in a 
remote country fetching a higher price than its kindred of 
local origin, or obtained in a country which is not distant 
from the place of its sale. 



SuTA said : — The serpents, having worshipped the nails 
of the deceased lord of the demons, carried them away in 
their mouths and deposited them on the summits of the 
holy mountains ( Himalayas ) and in the beds of rivers which 
flow through the hallowed confines of the countries beyond 
( situate to the north of ) those mountains. 

Pulakas ( a kind of gem ) found in the beds of rivers 
flowing through such countries as Dasharna ( the eastern 
part of modern Malwa ), Agadha, Makala ( Modern Amara- 
kantaka, the source of the Narmada ) and in the provinces 
of Gandhara ( modem Afghanisthan ) and Valhika ( Bactria 
or modern Balkh ), and coloured like the seeds of the Gunja ' 
( a kind of shrubs bearing red-black berries ) honey and the 
stems of the lotus plants or earth-coloured, should be regarded 
as belonging to the most commendable type. 

Pulakas possessed of variegated colours like those of 
conchshells, lotus flowers, black bees, and Arka flowers and 
chequered with lines, should be deemed as the most aus- 
picious and holiest of their species, and as granting increase 
of wealth and progeny to their wearers. 

Pulakas possessed of a hue like the colour of a crow or 
of an ass or of a jackal or of a wolf or carried away and 
deposited in a place by vultures in their blood-stained beaks, 
bring death to the person who collects or keeps them in his 
possession. Hence the intelligent should avoid a Pulaka of 
any of the aforesaid characters. 

A Pulaka of the commendable type, weighing a Pala in 
weight, should be valued at five hundred silver coins. 



SUTA said : — The Fire God, having picked up the com-' 
plexion of the lord of the demons, cast it into the waters of 
the Narmada, a portion of which fell into the low-lying lands 
of the vicinity, occupied by the communities of vile caste. 
From the complexion so cast about, originated the gem, 
known as the blood-stone, coloured like the hue of the 
Indragopa insect blended with that of the mouth of a parrot, 
and characterised by an uniform elevation and brightness 
of all its parts. 

Blood-stones of various colours have been obtained on 
different occasions, some of which are extremely clear and 
coloured pale red like the disc of the half moon. A blood 
stone should be subjected to the same test as a sapphire, and 
looked upon as possessing the mystic virtue of increasing 
the wealth and the number of servants of its wearer. A 
blood-stone fully matured, assumes the colour of a flash of 



SuTA said : — The god Langali took up .the fat of the 
deceased demon king, scattered it with his plough-share 
over the countries traversed by the river Kaveri and the 
Vindhya mountain, as well as over the countries of Nepal and 
China and the tracts of land inhabited by the Yavanas. The 
scattered bits of fat were transformed into crystals which 
assume a white colour like that of conch shell or of the 


fibres found inside the stems of a lotus plants No ottief 
gem can vie with the pfesent one in respect of absolving 
the sin of a man. A crystal cut and polished by a skilful 
artizan, should fetch a higher price than one in its uncut or 
natural state. 

:o: ^ 


SUTA said : — The primordial hydra ( Vasuki ) carried away 
the entrails of the lord of the demons and cast them into 
the countries of Kerala, etc., out of which the corals of high 
and excellent virtues were originated. Of these, those that are 
coloured like the blood of a hare or that of a Gunja berry 
or of a China rose, should be deemed as the best of their 
kind, the countries of Romaka, Devaka and Sunilaka, being 
the places of their origin. Corals obtained from any other 
source are not so good as the aforesaid ones. The price of 
a coral depends upon its cutting. A coral which is coloured 
dark red and possessed of a cool, pleasant and soft shadei 
should be deemed as belonging to the best species and as 
endued with the virtue of augmenting the riches and filling 
in the granaries of its wearer, as well as the best eliminator of 
poison and a safeguard against all dreaded evils. O Sounaka, 
the corals and the crystals should be included within the 
category of gems and used in testing their genuineness. 



ISUTA said : — Now I shall describe the holy pools and 
l^anctuaries of which the river Ganges pre-eminently stands 
as the most sacred*, and which is easily accessible everywhere 
throughout its course, except in three places, such as Harid- 
Vara, Prayaga and Sagara (the Gangetic estuary) Prayaga is 
the best of all sanctuaries, inasmuch i^ a man quitting this 
life within the precincts t>f that sacred city, becomes a 
liberated soul after death, and oblations offered therein for 
the absolution of the departed souls, fully serve their initiative 
purpose, and moreover because, men resorting to its blessed 
sanctum for the fruition of any definite desire, are sure to 
witness its realisation. 

The city of Benares is the foremost of all the sacred places 
in which the god Keshava is transformed into the shape of 
the god Vishvesha. The field of Kurukshetra is a great 
sanctuary where men by making gifts and doling out 
charities, become entitled to the privileges of an emancipated 
soul or to the enjoyment of (Creature comforts, as the case 
may be, in the life to come. The sacred pool at Prabhasa, 
is a great place of pilgrimage where the divine image of the 
god Somnath is installed. The fair city of Dvaraka is the 
holiest of the holy spots on earth and grants enjoyment 
of earthly cheers or salvation to those who resort to its 
sanctum. The eastern bank of the river Sarasvati is holy 
and likewise is the country of the Sapta Sarasvatam. The 
sanctuary at Kedara has the merit of absolving a pilgrim 
from all sins, whereas the village of Shambhala is a good 
place of pilgrimage. The sanctuary of Narayanam is a great 
shrine, whereas a pilgrimage to the holy forest of Vadarika, 
leads to the emancipation of self. 



Similarly, places or pools or hills like Shvetadvipa, Maya'<' 
puri, Naimisha, Pushkara, Ayodhya, the Aryatirthanii the 
Chitrakutam, the Gomati, the Vainayaka, the hermitage of 
Ramagiri, . Kanchipuri, the Tunga-Bhadra, the Shreeshailam^ 
Setubandham, Rameshvaram, the Kartikeyam, the Bhrigu-^ 
tungamr, the Kamatirtham, Kamaram and Katak, should be* 
regarded as important sacred pools, places or hills. 

The god Mahakala is the presiding deity of the sanctuary 
at the city of Ujjayani, while the god Hari, installed in the 
shape of the imaged Shri-dhara, is the guardian deity of 
Kuvjaka. Likewise Kuvjabhrakam is a great place of pil- 
grimage, whereas a resort to Kalasarpi fulfills the desires of 
a pilgrim. 

The •' other renowned places of pilgrimage are the rivers 
Maha-keshi, the Kaveri, the Chandrabhaga, the Vipasha^ 
the sacred forest of Ekamram, the Brahma-tirtham, the 
Devakotakam, the beautiful city of Mathura, the rivers Shona,. 
Mahanada and the Jamvusara. Sacred is the spot where 
stands an image of the god Hara or of Hari or of Gana or of 
the Sun-god. 

Rites of religious ablutions, acts of worship, and charity. 
Shraddha ceremonies, repetitions of Mantras, or offerings 
of oblations to one's departed manes, performed or done 
within the sanctum of any of the abovesaid pools or places, 
tend to bear immortal fruits. 

A pilgrrimage to the sacred village of Shalagrama, is re- 
warded with the fruition of all desires, while the sanctuary 
sacred to the god Pashupati, should be deemed as the holiest 
of all holy places, like those known as the Kokamukha, the 
Varaha, the Bhandiram and the Svamitirtham. 

The Maha (supreme) Vishnu manifestation of the god 
Hari, is the presiding deity of the sanctuary at Mohadanda, 
while the Madhusudana manifestation of the same deity is 
the tutelary god at the sanctuary at Mandara. The sanctuary 
of Kamarupam where resides the goddess Kamakshya, should 


l>e deemed as one of the most sacred spots on the globe, and 
likewise is the sanctuary at Pundravardhanam where resides 
the god Kartikeya. Extremely holy are the sanctuaries at 
Viraja and Purushottam and sacred are the hills and rivers 
which go by the denominations of the Mahendra, the Kaveri 
the Godavari, the Payoshni, and the sin absolving Vindhya. 

Similarly sacred are the hills and cities and pools which are 
known by the names of the Gokarna, the city of Mahishmati- 
pura, Kalanjara and the sanctuary of the Shukra-Tirtham, 
where acts of charity and obsequious offerings performed and 
made in the presence of the bow-wielding (Sharnga-Dhara) 
manifestation of Vishnu, lead to the emancipation of one's 
self, and grants a religious merit equal to that of resorting to 
a million of other sancturies. The sacred shrines at Nandi- 
Tirtham, Nasika, the Govardhana, the Krishna, the Veni, the 
Bhimaratha, the Gandaki, the Tviravati, the Vindu-Sara, as 
well as the washings of the feet of an image of Vishnu, 
should be deemed, as the sancto sanctum of all sanctuaries. 

A meditation upon the infinite self of Bramha, is the holiest 
of all sanctuaries. A control or subjugation of the senses is 
a great sanctuary. Holy is the sanctuary of one's curbing the 
evil propensities of one's own mind, and holy is the sanctuary 
of the purity of thought. The man who makes an ablution in 
the waters of divine meditation of the pool of pure know- 
ledge, undefiled by the sediments of passion and envy, 
attains to the highest station of spiritual existence. 

Men who make any nice discrimination as regards the 
sacred or non -sacred character of a particular sanctuary, alone 
acquire the merit of making any pilgrimage. The man who 
beholds the universe as but the manifestation of the one 
and the secondless Bramha, stands above the necessity of 
resorting to any so-called sacred place in the world. To him 
all places are alike, as being equally sanctified by the pre- 
sence of that supreme entity. 

All pools and rivers, all hills and mountains which are the 


favourite haunts of the gods, are hallowed shrines^ and actm 
of religious ablutions and charities s^nd tKe offerings of obse-^ 
quious cakes to one's depi^rted manes on the occasions of* 
Shraddha ceremonies, done and performed at s^iy d these 
sacred places, bear immortal fruits. 

The sanctuary at Shriranga, sacred to the god Hari^ the 
holy river Tapi, the seven sanctuaries alogng the banks of 
the Godavari, the sacred hill of Kona, the sanctua^ry ol Maha- 
Lakshmi with the close flawing ss^cred streamlet of th.e 
Pranita, situate in the brow of the Sajhyadri (thye wester^ 
Ghauts) and the shrines sacred to the deities Ekayira an4 
Sureshvari, are renowned places of pilgrimage. A maa 
by bathing in any of the sacred pools at the GUinga-Dvara,, 
Kushavarta, Ka,nkhala, the Yindhyaka and (he NM-Parvartai. 
never reverts to the miseries of humai^ life. 

Suta said : — ^The god Bramha first beared o( 2JI these 
all-giving sanctuaries. frqm the god Hari, and subsequently 
described their sacred characters to Vyasa, I)aksha and to^ 
the rest of the brotherhood of the sagres. O Bramhai^ a des- 
cription of the origin and sanctity of the holy shrines a;t 
Gaya, a pilgrimage whereto ensures a perpetual residence 
in the region of Bramha, formed the sequei %o t^X sacredk 



Said THE God Brahma : — Hear me, O Vyasa, briefly dis- 
course on the sanctity of the holy city of Gaya, which is the 
holiest of the holies, and a patient hearing whereof entitles 
the listener to all the good things in this life and to salvation 
in the next. Once on a time, there lived a mighty demon 



named Gaya, who agitated the whole universe with the 
energy of his own well-practised and austere penances. The 
gods scorchedi as it were, with the fiery emanations of hia 
austerities, deliberated his death in a synod duly convened^ 
Itnd resolved to seek (he umbrage of the protecting arms o( 
Vishnu to that end. 

The Utter promised them protection and the impendn 
ing f^ll of the mighty Gayasura, and the Gods, encouragecl 
by the wqrds of th^^t supreme divinity, repaired to their 
respective abodes. 

Once upon a time, the mighty Gayasura culled several 
lotus flowers which decked the waters of; the ocean of cream^ 
the favourite haunt of Vishnu, with the object of offering 
them to the god Shiva in the course of a worship, and carrie4 
them away to the country of Keekata, Misguided by tho 
illusive energy of Vishnu, the demon turned them to 2^ 
sacrilegious purpose, by making a bed of them for his own 
use, and fell under the fatal stroke of the celestial mace of 
that divinity and departed his life in peace. 

Since then, the mace-wielding Vishnu has been staying 
within the precincts of that sacred city (Gaya) and on the 
ossified remains of that mighty demon, with the single object 
of granting salvation to those who might come there on 
pilgrimage, and likewise the gods Br^mha and Kalesha have 
been living ever since within their imaged embodiments, 
installed on the sanctified remains of that illustrious Gaya. 

"Now then," said the mace-beaming god — ''Behold, I shall 
make a sanctuary of this blessed city. The man who bathes in 
the holy pools which flow within its sacred confines, or makes 
any gift or performs the Shradha ceremonies in honour of hia 
departed manes therein, shall ascend to the region of 
Bramha, and shall never be doomed to the sufferings of hell.'* 

Then the god Bramha, the grandfather of the celestials, 
having been informed of the sacredness of the city (Gaya) 
celebrated a religious sacrifice therein. The Bramhanas who 


were invited on the occasion, were honoured with substan- 
cial tokens of devotion, and the priests, who officiated at the 
sacrifice, were rewarded with as much gold as they could 
carry. Streams of milk, curd, cream and thickened milk, were 
made to flow through the city, and reservoirs of cordials and 
luscious drinks were opened free to the public, not to speak 
of other sweet and costly viands were served to all who 
were present there. The god Bramha, by way of sacrificial 
remuneration, transferred to the Bramhanas the proprietary 
right of the whole city to the circuit of about ten miles, 
but cursed them for their greed of gold which they did 
not take the trouble of hiding on the occasion. Thus 
addressed them the offended god : — " Cursed be ye all. Futile 
will be the knowledge acquired by yourselves and your 
fathers, and the studies of your progenies in the Vedic lore 
will fail to bear any fruit. The wealth acquired by you and 
your fathers shall be miserably squandered, and penury shall 
fall to the portion of your children. Cursed be the soil of 
your city, cursed be the hills which defend its borders, cursed 
be the clouds which bring rain to your country, and cursed 
be the rivers which irrigate your fields." 

The Brahmanas, on their turn, fell on their knees and 
propitiated the enraged divinity, who, in a relenting mood, 
assured them that men coming on a pilgrimage to their 
sacred city, would purchase their satisfaction for good value, 
and that they would live on the bounties contributed by 
persons performing Shraddha ceremonies in honour of their 
departed manes at Gaya. 

The fourfold means of salvation consists of a knowledge 
of the Supreme Brahma, performance of Shraddha cere- 
monies in honour of one's departed forefathers at Gajra, 
death in a cowshed, and residence within the confines of the 
holy field of Kurukshetra. 

O Vyasa, all the holy oceans and pools and rivers and wells 
attend upon the man who makes a religious ablution in any 


of the sacred pools at Gaya. Sins incidental to the murder 
of a Brahmana, or to the drinking of wine, or due to one's 
defiling the bed of a superior person, or incidental to the 
company of a person guilty of any of the aforesaid crimes, 
is absolved by performing a Shraddha ceremony in honour 
of his soul at Gaya. Persons who have departed this life 
without the rites of purification done unto their souls, or 
killed by thieves and ferocious wild beasts, as well as the 
souls of persons died of snake bites, enter the region of 
paradise through the merit of a Shraddha ceremony done unto 
them at Gaya. I cannot exhaust the merits and benefits 
which a man acquires and derives by offering an obsequious 
oblation at Gaya, if I go on relating them even for millions 
and millions of years. 



Said THE God Brahma : — The city of Gaya is a sacred 
sanctuary in the country of Keekata and likewise is the forest 
of Rajagriha (modern Rajgir) in that part of the continent 
of India. Sacred is the place called the Vishaya Charana, 
and the rivers which drain the aforesaid tracts are the holiest 
of the holies. The part of Gaya known Munda-Prishtha 
covers an area of a crosha and a half (three Englbh miles) 
measured from north to south and from east to west, the 
entire site of the sanctuary (Gaya) enclosing an area of 
ten square miles. The part of the sanctuary known as 
the Gaya-Shirah (/iV., the head of Gaya) measures a crosha 
(two English miles) in length, and oblations offered to one's 
departed manes within its limit, secure them an elevated 
sUitus in the next world. A man, by simply making a 

^l6 tiAkUOA purAnaM. 

pilgrimage i6 Gaya, stands absolved from all debts Jil^ 
by him to his forefathers. The God Janarddana stands as 
the embodied image of the Pitris at Gaya, and a simple 
glance at that lotus-eyed deity, is enough to discharge the 
threefold obligation which he has incurred in the CBpachj 
of a son, a created being, and a disciple to a particular sage 
or Rishi. 

Similarly) by witnessing the images of the gods Rudra, 
Kaleshvara and Kedara at Gaya, a man is supposed to pay 
off the debts he owes to his fathers. By seeing the image 
of the celestial grandfather at Gaya, a man is absolved from 
all sins, whereas by repairing to the presence of the divine 
image of the great grandfather at Gaya, a man b sure to enter 
the sinless region after death. 

The man who approaches in a humble and contrite spirit 
the divine image of the mace-bearing deity and devoutly 
lays himself prostrate before that best of all male subjects 
in the universe, is freed from the cycles of necessary existence 
and never reverts to the pangs of mortality after death. 

O thou sage among the twice-born ones, the man who visits 
the shrines of the god Mounaditya and Kanakarka in a spirit 
of devotion, is purged of all sins and is discharged from all 
obligations to his fathers. By worshipping the god Brahma 
at Gaya, the worshipper is sure to ascend, after death, to the 
region presided over by that divinity. The man^ who haviiq^ 
performed his daily right of Sandha (recitation of certain 
Vedic hymns and verses by a Brahmana at the three diwi* 
sions of a day) repairs to the divine presence of the im^[ed 
Gayatri at Gaya, acquires the merit of reciting the entire 
Vedas through the grace of that benign goddess. Similariy 
by resorting, in the noon, to the shrine of the goddess Savitri, 
a pilgrim acquires the merit of celebrating a religious sacri- 
fice. A visit to the shrine of the goddess Sarasvati in the 
evening, adds to the credit of the votary the merit of making 
an unsolicited gift. 


A Visit to the image o( the divine sage Augusta, or to Ihe 
forest of Dharma graced by the presence of that imaged 
god of virtue, .and situate within the holy confines of that 
sacred city, absolves a man from all debts to his fathers. 
Where is the man, where is that degraded, abject, and 
hardened sinner who does not feel himself * emancipated 
from the trammels of life in the presence of the divine 
image of Gridhreshvara ? The man who sees the cow- 
goddess in the sylvan abode of that divinity, is sure to 
lead his departed manes to the region of Brahma. The 
man who pays a visit to the shrine of the god Prabhashesha 
at Gaya, acquires an elevated status in after life. By 
viewing the image of god Kotishvara, or by resorting to 
the sanctuary of Ashvamedha, a man is freed from all 
indebtedness to his forefathers. By seeing the divine image 
of the god who commands the gates of heaven, a man 
is liberated from the trammels of existence. The man who 
visits the shrine of Rameshvara or that of the mace-playing 
God at Gaya, ascends to the region of the immortal gods. 
Similarly by paying a visit to the shrine of Bramhesha, a 
man is absolved from the sin which he had committed by kill- 
ing a Bramhana. 

By resorting to the shrine of the goddess Mahachandi 
at Munda-Prishtha, a man is enabled to witness the realisation 
of all his heart-felt desires. By paying a visit to the shrine 
of the god Phalgvisha (the god of the river Phalgu) or by 
seeing the images of the goddesses Phalgu Chandi and 
Gouri or of such gods as Gomaka and Gopati, a man is 
supposed to fully discharge his debts to his fathers. A similar 
benefit is derived from paying a visit to th6 shrines of 
Angaresha, Siddhesha, Gayaditya, Gaja and Markandeya- 
shvara. Does not an ablution in the holy pool of the 
Phalgu and a visit to the shrine of the god Gadadhara, 
signify the acme of one's good fortune ? What more can 
the pious and the devout expect for the recompense of their. 


good deeds in life ? The merit of these acts leads the scuts 
of one's departed ancestors, removed even up to the twenty-. 
first degree in the ascending line, to the region of Brahman. 

All the holy streams, lakes and mountains which sanctify 
our mortal globe, resort to the waters of the river Phalgu, 
once a day. Gaya is the most sacred spot in the world. 
The quarter known as the. Gayashiras, is the sancto sanctum 
of that hallowed sanctuary, and the river Phalgu is the holiest 
of the holies as well, since it forms the mouth of the im- 
mortal gods. 

The holy pool known as the Nabhi-tirtham lies to the 
north of the river Kanaka, and occupies a middle place 
between that river and the holy well of Brahma-Sada 
an ablution wherein leads the bather to the region of Brahma 
after death. The man who offers oblations or obsequious 
cakes to his departed manes on the rim of that sacred well 
and casts them in its holy, waters, is freed from all moral 
indebtedness to his forefathers. Similarly a Shraddha cere« 
mony performed by a man at the shrine of the immortal 
Vata tree, leads the souls of his departed forefathers to the 
region of Brahma. The man who bathes in the holy pool, 
known as the Hansa-tirtham, is absolved from all sins. A 
Shraddha ceremony performed by a man at any of the follow- 
ing sacred spots or shrines, such as the Koti-Tirtham, the 
Gayaloka, the Vaitarini, and the Gomaka, leads the souls of 
his ancestors, removed even to the twenty-first degree in the 
ascending line to the region of Brahma. ' 

The man who performs a Shraddha ceremony of his 
deceased ancestors at the Brahma-tirtham, or Rama-tirtham, 
or Agni-tirtham, or Soma-tirtham or at the banks of the Rama- 
hrada, ensures the residence of his departed manes in the 
region of Brahma. By performing a Shraddha ceremony at 
the banks of the Northern Manasa, a man is liberated from 
the trammels of re-birth, while a similar ceremony performed 
at the banks of its name sake in the south, leads his 


departed manes to the region of Brahma. A ceremony of 
Bhishma-Tarpanam, performed at the sanctuary known as 
the Kuta, brings salvation to the performer, while a man can 
fully discharge his debts to his fathers by performing a 
similar ceremony at the shrine of Gridhreshvara (the lord of 

The man who pays a visit to the goddess Dhenuka (cow- 
goddess) in the forest named after her, and performs a 
Shraddha ceremony in honour of his departed manes after 
having made a gift of the type, technically known as the 
Tila Dhenu (cow of sesamum) ensures their residence in the 
region of Brahma. A similar ceremony performed at any 
of the following sacred places such as the Aindra-Tirtham, the 
Nara-Tirtham, the Vasava-Tirtham, the Vaishnava-Tirtham, 
or on the banks of the river Mahanadi, is attended with 
the same result. 

The man who bathes, or performs the rites of his daily 
Sandhya worship and offers libations of water to the gods 
and his departed manes, and performs a Shraddha ceremony 
for the welfare of their soul, in or about any of the following 
sacred shrines such as the Savitri, the Gayatri, the Sarasvati, 
etc., succours the souls of a hundred and one generations of 
his fathers and cognates, and ensures their residence in the 
region of Brahma. 

By passing through the hill crevice or the natural tunnel 
known as the Brahma-Yoni, with his mind absorbed in the 
contemplation of his forefathers, a man is exempted for good 
from the trouble of passing through the uterine canal of any 
woman in the shape of a child. Libations of water, offered 
by a man to his departed manes at the shrine of Kakajangha, 
give them infinite and perpetual satisfaction. The man who 
performs a Shraddha ceremony at the well of Matanga in 
the holy forest of Dharmaranya, ascends to heaven after 
death. A similar ceremony performed at the well of virtue 
or at the siirine of the stake of virtue (Dharma Yupa) 


absolves a man from all obf^tions to the souTs of hSs forew 
fathers. The gods should be mvoked to bear testunony 
to the fact as follows : — ** Witness, O ye god?,, and the 
guardian angels of the (Efferent regions or abodes^ that I have 
come to the welt of Matanga in this holy forest and have 
brought about the liberation of my departed manes.'*' 

The man who performs his ablution in the holy pool 
of Ran£a-Sara and celebrates a Shraddha ceremony in 
honour of his' departed nwines,. at the sacred shrine of 
Prabhasaka, witnesses their liberation from astraf existence 
on the simimits of the hills of the grhosts (Pteta Shila) if 
they had been doomed to the tortures of such a Kfe through 
the effects of their misdeeds in this mortal globe. The ma» 
who performs a Shraddha ceremony at the sacred shrine 
of Svapushta or at the sacred hill of Mund^ristha^ leads 
his departed manes to the region of Brabnnu 

There is not a single spot within the boundaries of the 
city of Gaya which is not a sanctuary in itself. An oblation 
offered any where within the precincts of that sacred city,, 
bears immortal fndt and carries the disparted manes of the 
person making the offerii^ to the eternal region of K-ahma» 
The man who offers an obsequious cake for the benefit of his 
own soul into the hands of the god Janarddana, by reciting the 
prayer which runs as. — *^ 1 have offered this obsequrous oh- 
lation, O Janarddana, in thy eternal hands. May this oblation 
last me for eternal time and make me an en>ancipated self 
in the worid to come/ is sure to ascend to the region of 
Brahma in the company of all his departed manes. 

An oblation offered to the soul of oner's ancestors either 
at the sanctuaries of Dharma Prishtha, Akshayavata or Gaya 
Shiras or on the banks of the sacred pool of Brahma 
(Brahnia-Saras) bears immortal fruit. The man who per-- 
forms a Shraddha ceremony of his forefathers after having 
visited the holy forests of Dharmaranyam, Dhenukaranyam 
and the sacred hill of Dharmapristham, is sure to succour 


the souls of his cognates to the twentieth decree of 

That quarter of the sacred city which lies to the west of 
the river Maya, is called the forest of Brahma, the hermitage 
of Bharata, while the hill of Nagadri and Brahma Sada occupy 
the eastern portion thereof. A Shraddha ceremony should 
be performed at the foot of the god Matanga in the hermitage 
of Bharata. The hill known as the Pandushila is situated 
in the forest known as the Champaka Vanam, lying to the 
south of the Gaya Shiras and to the west of the river 
Mahanadi. A Shraddha ceremony performed under the 
auspicies of the third phase of the moon and within the 
boundaries of the sacred pools of Nischira or the great lake 
or the Koushiki, bears immortal fruit. 

The hill known as the Krounchapada lies close to the 
lake of Tritiya which is situated to the north of the river 
Vaitarini, and there, by performing a Shraddha ceremony of 
his departed manes, a man is sure to carry them up to the 
eternal heaven. The lake called the Nischira lies to the north 
of the hill known as the Krounchapada. 

The man who contemplates that a visit to Gaya is not a 
matter of every day probability, and that it does not fall to 
the lot of every one to offer obsequious cakes at Gaya to 
one's departed manes more than once in life, shall do well 
to touch the holy waters of the river Mahanadi and to offer 
libations of the same to his departed manes, whereby they 
would be enabled to ascend to the regions of eternity, 
accompanied by the souls of all the departed cognates of the 
offerer. The man, who recites at the shrine of the goddess 
Gayatri, the Vedic hymns and verses composing the rite of 
his daily Sandhya, is sure to acquire the merit of such conti- 
nuous recitation for the period of twelve consecutive years. 

The man who resides for two fortnights, both light and 
dark, within the sacred walls of Gaya, sanctifies the seven 
generations of bis own family and children. By visiting the 


sacred hills of Mundaprishtha, Aravinda and Krounchapada 
which rise up from the hallowed plains of that sacred city, 
a man is absolved from all sins and of whatsover nature. 

An offering of an obsequious cake to one's departed 
manes at Gaya, under the auspices of the continuance of 
the sun in the sig^ of the cancer or under that of a solar or 
a lunar eclipse, should be regarded as a piece of exceptionally 
rare good fortune. 

Rare is the man in the three habitable worlds who is 
fortunate enough to cast obsequious cakes in honour of his 
departed manes at Gaya under the auspicies of the sun's 
continuance at the sign of the cancer, or under that of a 
solar or a lunar eclipse. A Shraddha ceremony performed at 
any of the seven following sites in Gaya, such as the great 
lake, the Koushiki, the Mulakshetra and the rock-hewn cave 
of the mount Gridhrakuta, etc., ensures an elevated status in 
the plain of astral existence to the soul for whose benefit the 
ceremony is celebrated. The man who performs a Shraddha 
ceremony at the place where flows the mighty stream of 
Maheshvari is supposed, to discharge all debts to his ances- 
tors. The man who performs a Shraddha ceremony on the 
banks of the world-renowned stream of the sacred Vishala, 
acquires the merit of celebrating an Agnisthoma sacrifice 
and is translated to heaven after death. Similarly a Shraddha 
ceremony celebrated at the sacred shrine of Mashapada, as 
well as a rite of ceremonial ablution performed therein, 
ranks equal in merit with the celebration of a Vajapeya 
sacrifice. An obsequious cake offered at the shrine of the 
Ravipada, lifts up a fallen and benighted soul from the 
bottom of perdition. 

The Pitris (departed manes of a person) acknowledge 
the sonship of a child and own him alone as their true 
offspring who resorts to the sacred precincts of Gaya 
for the sole purpose of benefiting them spiritually and 
offers them boiled rice by way of funeral oblation. The Pitris, 


afraid of the torments of heli, pray for the birth of a male 
child in their surviving family on earth, so that he might 
make a pilgrimage to Gaya, and succour their distressed 
souls from the gloom of the nether worlds. Verily do they 
rejoice over the advent of a son in Gaya, thinking that the 
water accumulated in the ruts of the streets of that sacred 
city and tossed off by his legs, might some day lead to the 
emancipation of their selves. 

An obsequious cake offered to a departed spirit at Gaya 
by his son in flesh or by any other person, lifts him up to the 
region of the eternal Bramha. A similar pilgrimage to the 
sacred pool of Koti-Tirtham leads a man to the region of 

The river, which is renowned in the three worlds by the 
name of Vaitarini, is descended from the region of the im- 
mortal gods and laves the shores of the sacred Gaya, 
absolving the souls of all departed beings. The man who 
performs a Shraddha ceremony, or offers an obsequious 
cake to, or makes the gift of a cow for the benefit of, his 
departed manes on the banks of that sacred stream, succours 
the souls of twenty-one generations of his ancestors. 

A son, visiting the sacred sanctuary at Gaya in course of 
time, and for the spiritual benefit of his own departed fore* 
fathers, shall give a sumptuous repast to the local Bramhanas, 
as directed by the grandfather of the celestials. By wor- 
shipping his departed manes, a man acquires the merit of 
worshipping all the gods. The Bramhanasi on such an 
occasion, should be fed and propitiated according to the 
rules of a Havya Kavya ceremony. 

Gaya is the best place for the religiously disposed to 
quit their mortal frames. The man who performs a Vrisho- 
tsarga ceremony at Gaya, the best of all sanctuaries, is sure 
to acquire the merit of a hundred Agnisthoma sacrifices. 
An intelligent man shall prospectively offer obsequious 
cakes to his own soul at Gaya, as well as to those of others 


withoat the customary admixture of sesamum with them. 
O Vyasa, such calces should be duly offered at Gaya to the 
souls of one's all departed cognates, agnates and ancestors 
in the direct line of succession, as well as to their friends 
and relations. 

By performing a ceremonial ablution in the sacred pool 
of Rama-Tirtham, a man acquires the merit of making a 
gift of a hundred cows at a time. A similar ablution in the 
lake of Matanga, is sure to enhance that merit ten-fold. The 
man who bathes at the confluence of the sacred Nishchira, 
leads his departed manes to the region of Brahma. By 
bathing at the hermitage of Vashista, the bather acquires 
the merit of performing a Vajapeya sacrifice. A residence 
near the sacred stream of Koushika ensures the merit of 
performing a Horse-Sacrifice. The hallowed fountain of 
Agnidhara rises from the lake sacred to the grandfather of 
the gods, and is usually known as the Kapila. The man 
who performs a Shraddha ceremony at or near this sacred 
stream, acquires the merit of performing an Agnisthoma 
sacrifice. By performing a similar ceremony near thie foun- 
tain, sacred to the god Kumara, a man is sure to acquire 
the merit of performing a Horse-Sacrifice, whereas a visit 
to his divine image at the adjoining shrine, leads to 
the emancipation of one's self. An ablution in the sacred 
fount of the moon god, ensures one's residence in the 
region of that divinity after death. The man who offers 
an obsequious cake to his manes on the banks of the pool 
sacred to that god leads them to the region of Brahma. 



Brahma said : — ^The man who is about to start on a 
pilgrimage to Gaya, shall only perform a Shraddha ceremony 
before setting out on his journey, circumbulate his native 
village in the garment of an anchorite, take up his residence 
in an adjoining village, live on the residue of obsequious 
cakes offered to his manes in the course of that Shraddha 
ceremony, and shall then go on his way, refraining from 
taking alms and charities on the road. The departed 
ancestors of a man commence to ascend each step of stairs 
to heaven at his each foot-fall on the way to that sacred 
city. The rules of fasting and shaving the head hold good 
in the case of all sacred pools and shrines, except Kurukshetra, 
Vishala, Viraja, and Gaya. A Shraddha ceremony at Gaya, 
does not wait for any particular part of the day for its per- 
formance, which may be gone through at any time in the day 
or night. By performing a Shraddha ceremony at Benares, 
or at the banks of the Shona, or the Mahanadi, a man is 
sure to ensure a felicitous residence to ^his manes in heaven. 
A pilgrimage to the sacred pool of Uttara Manasa at Gaya, 
grants the greatest success to the pilgrim in respect of his 
penances and penitential observances in general. By per- 
forming a Shraddha ceremony at the latter sanctuary, a man 
is sure to witness the fruition of all his desires and becomes 
an emancipated self after death. A man by observing a vow 
of silence and by offering an obsequious cake to his manes at 
the shore of the sacred pool of Dakshina Manasa at Gaya, 
stands absolved from the threefold obligations of human life. 

The sacred pool of Kankhalam lies to the north of the 
shrine of Mundaprishtha at Gaya, and is the favourite haunt 
of the gods and the spirits of the immortal sages. The 
Siddhas delight to wade along the banks of this sacred fount ; 
and serpents of dreadful appearance, guard its shores with 


their protruding tongues, inspiring terror into the hearts of the 
wicked and the unrighteous. An ablution in the waters of 
this sacred pool paves one's way to heaven, and a Shraddha 
ceremony performed at its shores is sure to bear immortal 
fruits. The pilgrim having duly made obeisance to the sun* 
god and having offered obsequious cake^ to his manes, 
should recite the following prayer: — "Come, O ye high-souled 
Agnishvata and Vahirsadas, come O ye my heavenly manes 
whose drink is the juice .of the ambrosial Soma, come and 
take me under your protection during my sojourn in this 
sacred city. I have offered obsequious cakes to the souls of 
my forefathers and to the spirits of those who had once been 
the members of my family on earth. I have come to Gaya for 
that express purpose." 

Then having cast obsequious oblations to his manes as 
above indicated, he should resort to the sacred pool of the 
Phalgu and subsequently see the divine image of the celestial 
grandfather and that of the club-Weilding deity, whereby 
he would be able to discharge all obligations, incidental to 
his birth. An ablution in the waters of the sacred Phalgu, 
as well as a visit to the divine image of the mace-bearing 
god, leads to the emancipation of a man after death and 
liberates the souls of his deceased cognates, even removed 
ten degress from him both in the ascending and descending 
lines of succession. 

I have described the doings of a pilgrim in his first day 
at Gaya. On the second day, he should visit the holy forest 
of Dharmaranyam and offer obsequious cakes to his manes 
on the hallowed banks of the lake sacred to the god 
Matanga. A visit to the sacred forest of Dharmaranyam 
ranks equal in merit with the performance of a Vajapeya 
sacrifice. A pilgrimage to the sacred pool of the Brahma* 
tirthakam equals in merit with the performance of a Vajapeya 
or that of a horse-sacrifice. A Shraddha ceremony should 
be performed and oblations and libations pi water should be 



offered to one's manes at any spot lying between the Yupa 
and the sacred well aforesaid (Brahma-tirtham). 

The duty of the third day consists in paying a visit ta 
the Brahmasada and in offering obsequious cakes and 
libations of water to one^s departed manes, and in perform- 
ing a Shraddha ceremony in their honour at a place midway 
between the Yupa and the sacred well. All beings^ from the 
minutest animalculum to the creator of the universe, per- 
petually g^ace with their presence the holy pasturage known 
as the Goprachara^ and a propitiation of those immortal 
spirits by a man, leads to the emancipation of his departed 
manes. By circumbulating the sacred Yupa, a man is sure 
to acquire the same merit as that of performing a Vajapeya 

On the fourth day, having bathed in the sacred waters 
of the Phalgu, and having offered libations of water to the 
gods and his departed manes, and performed a Shraddha 
ceremony in their honour at the sanctuary of Gaya-Shirsha, 
O Vyasa, the pilgrim should offer cakes at the mouth and 
over the three foot-prints of the deity, as well as in the five 
sacred fires ( Panchagni). A Shraddha ceremony performed 
at Gaya-Shirsha under the auspicious aspects of the sun aad 
the moon in the month of Kartikeya, hears immortal fruits, 

A Shraddha ceremony usually embraces the worship of 
nine different deities which should be made to include 
( Dvadasha-daivatam ) three nK>re, while performed within 
the sacred precincts of Gaya. A Shraddha ceremony in 
honour of one's deceased mother, should be separately per- 
formed on the occasion of an Anvastaka, or Vriddhi, or on 
the date of her death, as well as in Gaya, wliile on all other 
occasions, the ceremony should be performed jointly with 
that of his father. 

The man, who having bathed at tlie Dashashvamedha, sees 
the image of the celestial grandfather and touches the fool 
of the god Rudra, is exempted from reverting to life and its 


miseries. By performing a Shraddha ceremony at Gajra* 
shiras, a man acquires the same merit which oae gets by 
making a gift of the whole earth, covered over with threefold 
layers of gold. The obsequious cakes» ta be offered at the 
sanctuary of Gaya-shiras, should be made to measure the 
leaves of a Shami tree in size^ the occult energy of which 
may be unquestionably looked up to as the deliverer oi the 
manes of the performer. 

The god Mahadeva rested his foot on the sanctuary at 
Munda-prishtha and accordingly a n^n may achieve peni-^ 
tential success at the place with the least effort or exertion. 
Spirits in whose names obsequious cakes are offeied at Gaya^ 
shirsha, rise to heaven if doomed to the tortures of hell,, or 
become emancipated selves^ if already h^^eoed to be in the 
former place. 

On the fifth day of {his stay at Gaya^ the pilgrim sheuld 
perform a religious ablution at the sanctuary of Gadalola and 
offer obsequious cakes to his departed naanes ajt the root o£ 
the sacred Yata tree^ whereby he would succour the souls of 
his deceased ancestors from the gloom of the nether regions. 
Even by feeding a single Brahmana with boiled rice and 
prepared potherbs at the sacred Vata tree, a man would 
acquire the merit of treating a million of Brahmaoas to a 
sumptuous repast. By performing a Shraddha ceremony at 
the root of the immortal Vata tree and by seeing the divine 
image of the celestial grandfather, a man is sure ta ascend 
to the region of the immortals and to deliver a hundred 
generations oi lus departed manes from the shades of Hades. 
A father usually desires the births of many sons of his own 
loins, so that some of them might resort to Gaya, or perfonik 
a Wishot-sarga Shraddha ceremony, or undertake a horse 
sacrifice for the welfare of his spiritual self after dealK 

Once on a time, a ghost met a certain merchant ii> the 
way and addressed him as follows : — 

**Cabt some obsequious cakes in my name at the sanctuary 


of Gayasbirsha, since both the offerer and the receiver of such 
cakes are liberated from the confines of the nether regions 
and are admitted into the abodes of the gods.'' The merchant 
did as he was requested to do by the departed spirit^ and 
subsequently offered obsequious cakes to his own forefathers 
jointly with his younger brothers, who were immediatey re- 
leased from the mansion of death. The merchant in his 
turn was blessed with the birth of a male child named 
Vishata. His wife VTshali bore him that son. Vishala, who 
was childless up to that time, asked the Brahmanas, bow he 
could beget children, and the Brahmanas replied that a pil- 
grimage to Gaya, would remove all impediments in the way of 
having offsprings of his own. Vishala went to Gaya and 
offered obsequious cakes to his departed fathers at the sanc- 
tuary of Gayashirsha. Whereupon a son was bom to him. One 
day Vishala saw three shadowy images^ white, red, and black 
reflected in the sky )ust before his eyes. He questioned them 
as to their identity and whereabouts, whereupon the white one 
replied. '' I am thy father, O Vishala, and am at present re- 
siding in the region of Indra throi^ the merit of my good 
deeds in life. O son, the red spectre thou findest is my 
father who killed a Brahnuina in his human existence and was 
a man of the blackest inequity on earth. The black one is my* 
grandfather who had taken by forcible hands the life of many 
a holy sages in their hermitage. They are now doomed to the 
torments of that particular quarter of the sea of hell, whose 
dire monotony is not broken by the rising of a single wave 
and wluch hides within its lethian and unfathomable depth 
an eternity of impious misery and wailing. Release them^ 
O thou the offerer of our obsequious cakes, from the dismal 
confines of that infernal world and send them haf)py and 
emancipated to the region of the immortal gods.'^ 

Now Vishala did what he was requested to do by his father 
and assended heaven after a prosperous sovereignty on 


" May our departed manes who have been deprived of 
their obsequious cakes and libations of water^ as well as the 
spirits of those who had been born in our family and died 
immediately after having been delivered of the womb,, or 
without the rite of Chudakaranam done unto them, together 
with the souls of those whose earthly remains had not been 
cremated in the funeral pile^ or whose earthly bodies had 
been consigned to the unconsecrated fire, be propitiated with 
the obsequious cake now offered by me,, on the ground. 
This funeral oblation offered to the souls ^of ray father, 
grandfather, great grandfather, mother, paternal grandnK>ther, 
paternal great grandmother, or to those of my maternal 
grandfather, maternal great grandfather,, maternal great 
great grandfather, maternal grandmother, maternal great 
grandmother, or maternal g^eat great grandmother, or to 
the spirits of any other departed person or relation, fumbh 
them with eternal satisfaction." 



Brahma said: — Then having performed a ceremonial 
ablution with the Varunastra Mantra, the pilgrim should offer 
obsequious cakes to his departed manes at the sanctuary of 
the hill of spirits (Pretashila) and invoke them as follows >— 
'' On the blades of Kusha grass extended in my front, and 
with this libation of water containing sesamum, I invoke the 
presence of the souls of those who had been born in my family 
and subsequently died without any means of succour from 
the shades of the infernal region. I offer these obsequious 
cakes for the liberation of those spirits who had once born 
in flesh in the family of my father or mother. I offer this 
obsequious cake to those spirits, who had once taken their 


ViTth in the Family ol my materna) grandfather and who are 
xKvested of ali means of liberation from their infernal confines. 
I offer this obsequious cakes for the release of those of my 
relations who had died in their mother's womb, or had found 
an untimely grave even without cutting a single tooth. I have 
offered this obsequious cake for the succour of those of my 
friends, whether born in my family or otherwise^ and even 
whose names and spiritual clanship have escaped from my 
memory. I offer this cake to the souls of those who have com*' 
mitted suicide or met a violent death either by water, poison^ 
blow, or strangulation. I offer this obsequious cake to the 
spirits of those who had been burnt to death, or devoured by 
lions and tigers, or killed by horned cattle, or expired under 
the bites of fanged or sharp-toothed beaists. I offer this obse» 
quious cake to the spirits of those whose earthly remains 
had been cremated in unconsecrated fire, or had not been 
consigned to the flames of any fire at all, as well as to the 
souls of those who had been killed by thieves or lightning. 
I offer this obsequious cake for the liberation of those spirits 
who had been kept confined within the dark walls of the 
hells known as the Rourava and the Kalasutra. I offer this 
obsequious cake for the liberation of those spirits who are 
at present doomed to the tortures of those divisions of hell, 
which are known as the Kumbhipaka (hell of whirling eddies) 
or Asipatra Vanam (Forest of sword blades). I offer this 
obsequious cake for the liberation of spirits who are tortured 
in other quarters of hell. I offer this obsequious cake for 
the emancipation of those spirits who had re-incarnated as 
serpents, birds, or other lower animals, or had been consigned 
to the voiceless agonies of vegetable life. I offer this ob- 
sequious cake for the liberation of those spirits who under 
the ordination of the god of death, had been consigned to 
suffer eternal tortures in hell. I offer this obsequious cake 
for the elevation of those spirits in the astral plane who, for 
their countless misdeeds in successive re-births, and through 


the t^orlcings of the propulsions of ignoble passions turned 
into dynamics of fate, are perpetually getting do^vn in the 
graduated scale of life> and to whom a working upward to 
to the plane of human existence has become a thing of 
rarest impossibility. May the souls of those who were friends 
to me in this life, or had been my friends in any other 
existence, or of those who are not related to me in that 
capacity and are utterly friendless for the present, be propi«> 
tiated and liberated by this obsequious cake which I have 
offered at the present sanctuary in Gaya. May the souls of 
any of my forefathers, who might be staying at present in the 
shape of astral beings, derive perpetual satisfaction from the 
obsequious cake which I have offered. I have offered obse** 
quious cakes for the satisfaction of all those spirits who had 
once taken their birth in the family of my father or mother^ 
or who were related to my preceptors, or father-in-law or any 
other relations in life, or who had died without having any 
issue of their own, and accordingly stand, at present, divested 
of their specific shares of funeral cakes and libations of water, 
or who had been bom deaf, dumb, blind, cripple or idiotic 
in life, whether they are any way related to me or not, or 
who had died in the womb without ever seeing the light of 
god, (whether do I know them or not), and may they derive 
eternal felicity from this cake which I have offered to them* 
May the gods and Brahma and Ishana, etc., in particular, bear 
testimony to the fact that I have come to Gaya, and effected 
the liberation of my fathers from the confines of the nether 
world. Witness, O thou mace-bearing god, that I have 
arrived at Gaya, done all the needful rites for the emancipa- 
tion of my departed manes, and stand fully absolved from the 
three-fold debt of human existence." 

The sanctity of the sacred field of Kurukshetra appertains 
to the Mahanadi, to the Bramhasada, to the Prabhasa, to the 
Gayashira, to the Sarasvati, to the Akshayavata, to the 
Dharmaranyam and to the Dhenukapristha at Gaya, and these 


plades should be deemed as equally sanctified as the memor* 
aible battle«-field of the Kauravas. 



Br AM HA said : — ^The well renowned hill of Pretashila lies 
detached in three places at Gaya, vit., at the sanctuaries of 
Prabhasa, Pretakunda and the Gayashira. The hill^ rests on 
the shoulders of the god of virtue, and is supported by the 
aforesaid deity only for the elevation of the whole world. 
It is so called from the fAct of its emancipating the departed 
spirits of one's parents, friends and relations in life, and 
thus fulfilling the initiative purpose of its own creation. The 
spirits of sages and potentates and canonised queens of 
old, perpetually grace with their presence the summits of 
the blissful Pretashila, and hence a Shraddha ceremony 
performed at the foot of this sacred hill, leads its performer 
to the region of Bramha, after death. The hill known as the 
Mundapristha is so called from the fact of its standing on 
the exact spot where fell the head of the demon Gaya at 
the time of his demise, and forms a sort of natural pantheon, 
visited by all the gods in the universe. The strip of forest 
which stretches along the foot of the hill of Mundapristha 
and is washed by the head waters of the sacred Bramha* 
sara (the lake of Bramha) is called the forest of Aravindam 
(Aravinda Vanam). Partly hidden by the forest, the bill of 
Aravinda rears its lofty head and is seen looming at a 
distance. The hill is also known as the Krauncha-pada 
from the fact of its being impressed with the marks of a 
Krauncha's (a bird of the heron species) feet. 


The spirit of the original deities, such as the inace4>earing 
god, etc.i hovered over and lay inherent in that sacred hilt, 
and hence it should be regarded as an elevation permeated with 
the respective essences of the aforesaid gods. The hill, preg- 
nant with the spirit of the club-wielding god, had originally 
buried under its weight the head of the demon Gaya, but 
the divine spirit became patent and manifest in course of 
time, and the hill is to be looked upon as identical with his 
divine self. For the preservation of order and religion in 
the world, and for the suppression of evil-, and wrong-, doers, 
the birth and deathless Hari had incarnated in the shape of 
the divine fish, tortoise boar, Nrisinha (Man Lion), Vamana 
(Dwarf), Rama (Parashu Rama), Rama (the son of Dasaratha\ 
Krishna, Buddha and Kalki, in the company of his celestial 
cohorts, the Ruddras etc. In like manner, the club wield- 
ing god, who was invisible and disembodied in the beginning, 
became patent and took shape at Gaya. And since he was 
worshipped at the outset (Adi) by such gods, as Bramha, 
etc., with offerings of flowers, perfumes, etc., he is called the 
original (Adi) club-wielding deity. Accordingly the pilgrim 
who pays a visit to his divine image, or worships him just 
after his arrival at Gaya (Adyam) with such offerings as 
Arghas, water for absolving his feet, perfumes, flowers, 
lamps, burning sticks of incense, garlands, sweets and 
edibles, garments, bells, mirrors, chowries, ornaments, boiled 
rice, obsequious cakes, etc., is blest with all the good things 
which wish can name in life, becomes the possessor of un- 
told wealth and well-filled granaries, is enabled to live up to 
a ripe old age, honoured and revered as a man of knowledge 
and wisdom, and becomes the happy progenitor of a prosper- 
ous and fruitful race. Blest in the love of a true and devoted 
wife he is privileged to taste of an advance draught of 
heaven, where he is sure to be glorified after the close of 
' his mortal career. From heaven he will reincarnate as the 
undisputed monarch of the whole earth, victorious in wars 


against -his adversaries, courageou3. and noble in his thoughts 
and dealings, and so on through successive re^births until the 
final liberation or emancipation of his Self will be worked out. 
The man who performs a Shraddha ceremony at the present 
shrine, ascends to the region of Bramha with bi» departed 
manes, after death. 

The man who worships at Gaya the divine image of Vala- 
bhadra, and that of his sister Subhadra, acquires wealth and 
wisdom in life, and goes to the region of Purushottama after 
death, leaving a large number of sons to mourn his loss. By 
casting obsequious cakes to his departed manea in the front 
of the divine images of Gana, Purushottama and the sun- 
god, a man is sure to lead their spirits to the region of 
Bramha. By devoutly making an obeisance to the god 
Kapardi Vignesha a man is sure to mount over all obstacles 
in life. The man who worships the god Kartikeya, is sure to 
be translated to the region of Bramha. A worship of the 
twelve Adityas, duly performed, is sure to prove curative in 
cases of all bodily distempers. A worship of the god of fire, 
imparts a healthful glow to the complexion of the worshipper. 
By worshipping the god Revanta a man becomes the possessor 
of a splendid stud of horses. The moon god, duly propitiated, 
grants the boon of unbounded wealth to the worshipper. 
A worship of the goddess Gouri confers affluence upon her 
votary. A worship of the goddess Sarasvati brings on 
wisdom to her suppliant, whereas the goddess Lakshmi in- 
creases ^the pecuniary resources of the man who duly suppli-. 
cates her favour. 

By worshipping the lord of the celestial birds (Gastida).^ 
one is sure to get over all impediments in the way to success, . 
while the god Kshetrapala, duly propitiated, relents tp.nuMify 
the evil influences cast by the malifjnant planets, Th« maf¥ 
who worships the sanctuary of the Mundapri:^tha hill, lives 
to witness thf realisation of all his desires. A man bitten 
by a serpent, is made sound and whole by worshipping the 


Nagastakam. The man who worships the god Brahma, h 
translated to the region of Brahma after death. A worship 
of the god Vaiabhadra imparts health and strength to the 
votary, whereas a propitiation of the goddess Subhadra 
brings good fortune in its train. By worshipping the god 
Punishottama the best wishes of a man are sure to be 
realised. The man who worships the god Narayana is sure 
to extend his sway over the entire earth, and to become the 
undisputed monarch of the whole human race. 

By touching, and making obeisance to, the image of the 
Nrisinha (man-lion) manifestation of Vishnu, one is sure to 
win victory in battle. The man who worships the image of 
the boar manifestation of Vishnu at Gaya, is sure to be 
crowned as a king and to acquire proprietory rights in lands. 
By touching the image of Vidyadhari, one is 9ure to acquire 
the status of a Vidyadhara (celestial musician). By worship- 
ping the image of the original club-wielding deity, a man is 
enabled to witness the realisation of all his desires. A 
worship of the god Somanatha leads his votary to the region 
of Shiva. By making obeisance to the god Rudreshvara, a 
man is sure to be glorified in the region presided over by 
the Rudras. The man who makes an obeisance to the image 
of Rameshvara, becomes endeared to the people like the illus- 
trious prince (Rama) after whom the god is named. The 
man, who hymnises the god Brahmeshvara, should be regarded 
as already a fit inmate for the region presided over by that 
divinity. By worshipping the god Kaleshvara, a man becomes 
invincible to decay. A worshipper of the Kedara mani- 
festation of Shiva, is glorified in the region sacred to that 
divinity. The man who worships the god Siddeshvara, is 
sure to achieve penitential success and is belauded in the 
region of Brahma. 

The man, who sees and touches the image of the original 
club-wielding deity at Gya (Adi Gadadhara) succours the 
souls of a huiidrrd generations of his departed manes and 



•is translated to the region of. Brahma. By worshipping the 
same deity, a seeker of sovereignty is ^ure to acquire a king* 
dom, a suppliant for peace would enjoy divine tranquillity 
in his soul, a worker for the liberation of his self would 
undoubtedly see his labours crowned with success, a lover of 
virtue would be strengthened in his love, and a solicitor of 
creature comforts would have enough of good things in life. 
In short there is not a single blessing which the human wish 
can name, which is not promised to a votary of the club^ 
wielding divinity. Similarly a female votary of the god 
would be blest with the pleasures of maternity, or would be 
rewarded with the undying love of her husband as her 
supplication might be. 

The man who having worshipped the image of the club- 
wielding deity, makes a gift of water, or of boiled rice or of 
obsequious cakes at Gaya, is sure to ascend to the region of 
Brahma after death. Gaya is the most sacred of all the 
sanctuaries on earth, and the club-wielding god, transformed 
into stone at Gaya, is the foremost of all the deities that 
deign to visit our mortal globe. He who has seen the club- 
wielding god (maintainer of order and equity in the universe 
symbolised by his club or mace), has also seen his stone 
manifestation at Gaya, since He is the Universal Spirit who 
is all and runs through all. 



Said the God Hari : — 1 shall enumerate the names of 
the different law-givers of the world (Many) who flourished 
in the different cycles of time, as well as their sons and 
progenies such as Suka, etc. Sayambhuva was the name of 


the first law-giver of the world. He had seven sons named 
Marichi, Atri, Angira, Pulastya, Pulaha, Kratu, and Vashishtai 
who formed the brotherhood of the seven holy sages known 
as the Saptarishis. Twelve Ganas (regents or tutelary gods 
of the different quarters of the sky and of the physical 
phenomena as well) of that cycle of time, were named Jaya, 
Amita, Shiikra, Yama, the four drinkers of the expressed 
juice of the Somaplant, Vishvabhuk, and Vamadeva. The latter 
was elected the lord of the celestials at the time. The 
Demon Vashkali invaded the kingdom of the then lord of the 
gods and the God Vishnu killed him with his own discus. 

After him Svarochisa became the Manu or the law-giver of 
the world. His sons were named Mandaleshvara, Chaitraka, 
Vinata, Karnanta, Vidyata, Ravi, Vrihatguna, and Nabha. 
The seven holy sages who sanctified that particular age with 
their holy lives, were called Urja, Stambha, Prana, Rishabha, 
Nichala, Dambholi and Arvavira. The race of Paravatas then 
habited this terrestrial globe. The guardian deities of 
heaven were twelve in number. Vipaschit reigned as the 
lord of the celestials in that age and the demon Purukrit- 
sara was his antagonist. The god Hari assumed the shape 
of an elephant and killed that dreadful demoniac adver- 
sary of the contemporary Indra, and restored the mora! 
order of the universe. 

The names of the sons of Outtama, the third Manu or law- 
giver of the world, were Aja, Parushu, Vinita, Suketu, Sumitra, 
Suvala, Shuchi, Deva, Devavridha, Rudra, Mahatsaha, and 
Ajita.* The seven sages who flourished in that age, were 
named Rathouja, Urdha-Vahu, Sharana, Anagha, Muni, Sutapa 
and Shanku. The sons of Outtama numbered twelve in all. 
The races of celestials who habited the region of heaven, 
were five in all and named as the Vashavartis, the Svadhar- 
manas, the Shivas, the Satyas and the Pratardanas. Svashanti 
reigned over them all as their Indra or overlord. The demon 
Pralamva was the antagonist of the Indra of the age and the 


God Hari in his Fish Incarnation had to kill that enemy of * 
the gods. 

The sons of Tamasa, the fourth Manu, were named Janu, 
Jangha, Nirbhaya, Nava, Khyati, Naya, Priya-bhritya, Vivik- 
shita, Havu-Skandhi and Prostalaksha. The seven holy 
sages who flourished in that age, were named Jyotidharm^iy 
Dhrista-Kavya, Chaitra, Agni and Hemaka. The twenty five 
clans of celestials who peopled the region of paradise in that 
age, were named as the Suragas, the Svavhavyay, etc. There 
were four sun gods in those days and Shivi reigned as 
their Indra. The demon Bhimaratha disputed the suzerainty 
of heaven with the latter and was subsequently killed by 
Hari in his tortoise incarnation. 

The sons of Raivata Manu were named as Mahaprana, 
Sadhaka, Vanavandhu, Niramitra, Pratyanga, Paraha, Shuchi, 
Dridhavrata, and Ketushringa. The seven holy sages who 
flourished in that age, were named Deva Shri, Veda Urdha- 
vahu. Hiranyaroma, Parjanya, Satyanama and Svadharma. . 
The four celestial clans which peopled heaven in that age, 
were named Abhuta Rajasa, Devashvamedhas, Vaikuntha and 
Amritas. The regents of the sky were fourteen in number, 
and Vibhu was the Indra or paramount soverign of them all. 
The demon Shanta was the antagonist of the contem- 
porary lord of heaven. The god Vishnu assumed the shape 
of a swan and destroyed that molester of celestial peace. 

The sons of Chakshusha Manu were named Uru, Puni, 
Mahavala, Shatadumnya, Tapasvi, Satyavahu, and Kriti. 
The names of the holy sages who practised penances 
in that age, were Agnishnu, Atiratra, Sudyumna, Nara, 
Havishmana, Sutanu, Shrimana, Sadharma, Viraja, Abhimana, 
Sahishnu, and Madhu-Shri. The five clans of the celestials 
were named the Aryyas, the Prasutas, the Bhavyas, the Lekhas, 
and the Prithnkas, and Manojava ruled as their Indra. The 
demon Mahakala was the enemy of the contemporary king 


of heaven who was killed by the god Hari who had to assume 
the shape of a horse for the purpose. 

The sons of Vaivasvata Manu were named Ikshaku, 
Nabha, Vishti, Sarjati, Lavishyanta, Panshunabha, Navishta, - 
Karusha, Prishadra and Sudyumna. The seven sages who 
sanctified the age with their piety, were named Atri, the god 
like Vashista, Jamadagni, Kashyapa, Goutama, Bharadvaja 
and Vishvamitra. The wind gods (Marut) numbered forty- 
nine in all, and the celestial hierarchy which numbered fifteen 
in all, was divided into Adityas, Vasus, Sadhyas, Rudras, etc. 
There were eleven Rudras, eight Vasus, two Ashvins, ten 
Vishvedcvas, ten Angirasas and nine divine Ganas in those 
days and Tejasvi was the Indra of them all. The demon 
Hiranyaksha was the sworn enemy of the then lord of the 
celestials and met his doom at the hand of the god Vishnu, 
incarnated as the primordial boar. 

Now I shall enumerate the names of the sons of Savami, the 
future Manu of the world. Their names would be Vijaya, Arva- 
vira, Nirdeha, Satyavak, Kriti, Varishta, Garishta, Vachas and 
Sug^ti. The seven ages, who would grace the age with their 
advents, would be named Ashvathama, Kripa, Vyasa, Galava, 
Diptimana, Rishyashringa and Rama. The gods such as Su- 
tapas Amritabhas, and Mukhyas, etc., would people the ethe- 
real plains of heaven, and Vali, the son of Virochana would 
reign over them all as their Indra. The god Vishnu, incarnate 
as a Dwarf, would beg of him only three foot-measures of 
land. Vali would gladly grant him his behest, but would be 
deprived of his kingdom of the three worlds just at the time 
of ratifying his agreement, when the dwarf manifestation 
of god, would expand into his Infinite and eternal self to 
the consternation of all ihe on-lookers. Subsequently Vali 
would make over his sovereignty to the god and happily 
descend into the shades of the nether world. 

Now hear me enumerate the names of the sons of Daksha 
Savarni, the ninth Manu or the law-giver of the world, 


Uieir names would be Dhritiketu, Diptiketu, Pancha-hasta, 
Nirikriti, Prithushrava, Vrihatdumnya, Richika, Vrihata and 
Gana. The demon Kalakasha would be the enemy of the then 
lord of the celestials and would be destroyed by the Padma- 
nabha manifestation of Vishnu. 

The names of the twelve sons of Dharmaputra, the tenth 
Manu, would be Sukshetra Uttamouja, Bhurishrenya, Virya- 
vana, Shatanika, Niramrita, Vrisha-sena, Jayadratha, Bhuri- 
dyumna, Suvarcha, Shantirindra and Pratapavana. The names 
of the seven holy sages who would sanctify that age with 
their holy lives, would be Aayomurti, Havishman, Sukriti, 
Avyaya, Labhaga, Apratima and Sourabha. The inmates of 
heaven would be divided into a hundred clanships at that 
Cycle of time and would be called the Pranas, etc. The 
demon Vali would dispute the suzerainty of heaven with the 
then lord of the celestials, and the god Hari would slay him 
with one stroke of his mighty mace-weapOn* 

Now hear me enumerate the names of the sons of Rudra- 
putra, the eleventh Manu. They would be called Sarvatraga, 
Susharma, Devanika, Pururguru, Kshetravama, Dridheshu, 
Ardraka and Patraka. Havishman, Havishya, Varuna, Vishva, 
Vistara, Vishnu and Agniteja, would be the names of the seven 
holy sages who would flourish in that age. The inmates of 
heaven would be divided into different clanships, such as the 
Vihangamas ( sky-coursers ), Kamagamas ( going anywhere 
they like ), Nirmanas and the Ruchis. Members of the celestial 
family of Ruchi would rule over each of the other. clans of 
heaven, and Vrisha would be the overlord of them all. The 
demon Dashagriva ( ten-necked one ) would contest the 
sovereignty of heaven with the then lord of the celestials, 
and would ultimately fall at the hands of the Shrinxpa mani- 
festation of Vishnu. 

Hear me enumerate the names of the sons of Daksha- 
putra, the twelfth Manu of the world. They would be named 



as. Devas, Anupdevas, Devasbreshthai Vidurafha Mitraf 
vanai Mitradeva, Mitravindo, Viryavan, Mitravahu and - 
Pravaha. Tapasvi, Sutapa, Tapoimirti, Taporati, Tapo-dhriti, 
Dyuti and another, would be the names of the seven holy 
sages whose gloiious advent would sanctify that particular 
cycle of time. The gods would be divided into different 
clans such as the Svadharmans, Sutapasas, Haritas, Rohitas,. 
etc.| and Retadhama or Bhadra would be their Indra or over- 
lord. The demon Taraka would in^de the territories of 
the then lord of the celestials. O Shankara, the god Hari^ 
incarnate as a eimucb, would destroy that felf peace-breaker 
of the universe. 

. Now hear me emmierate the maaes of the sons of the 
thirteenth Manu of the world. They would be named a» 
Chitrasena, Vichitra, Tapas. Dharmarata, ERiriti^ Kshetra- 
vrittiy Dharmapa, and Dridha. O thou possessed of band-' 
some eyes, the serenr hofy sages who would grace the world 
with their advent in that age, would be calTed Dhritimana, 
Avyaya, Nisharvpa, Nirutsaka, Nirmanaf and Tattvadarshi. 
The celestials would be divided into thirty-three different 
clanships, such as the Svaromanas, the SvadharmanaSi the 
Svakarmans, etc^ and the god Divaspati would be the overlorcf 
of them alTr The demon Tristhubha would dispute with him 
the suzerainty of heaven, and the god Madhava wimid kill 
him in the shape of a peaecock. 

Now hear nre emimerate the names of the sons of 
Bhoutya, the fourteenth Manu of the worfcT. They would 
be named as Uru, Gabhira, Dhrista, Tarasvi, Graha, Abhimani, 
Pravira, Jishnu, Sankrandana, Tejasvi and Durlabha. The 
seven holy sages who would flourish in that age, would be 
named Agnidhra,. Agni-vahu, Magadha, Shuchi, Ajita, Mukta 
and Shukra. The gods would be divided inta five clanshipsr 
each consisting of seven sub-groups, or families, such as the 
Chakshushas, the Karma-nisthas, the P^vitras, the BfarajinaSr 
and the Vachavrithas, and the god Shuchi^ would be their 


ladra or paramount ruler. The demon Maha-dsutya vfovAd 
inimically intrude upon the rights of the then lord of the 
celestials, and the god Hari would slay him with his own 

The god Vishnu, incarnate in the shape of the holy 
^ Vjrasa, would divide the one and the entire Veda, into four 
different parts, and subsequently compose the Puranas and 
the eighteen different branches of learning. The Vedas 
with t^eir four kindred branches of study, the schoob of 
philosophy known as the Mimansa, etc., the Puranas, the 
Dharma-Shastras, the Ayur- Vedas ( science of medicine ) the 
Arthashastrakara, the Dhanur-Veda ( science of archery ) the 
Gandharva«Vidyas ( music and fine arts ), etc., form the 
eighteen different branches of learning. 



SUTA said : — The God Hari related all about the different 
ages or cycles of time to the gods Hara, Brahma, etc. Now 
hear me narrate the Hymn known as the Pitri-Stotram which 
the holy Markandeya heard of yore from the lips -of Kroun- 

Markandeya said {—Once in days of yore, ths patriarch 
Ruchi, who was shorn of all vanity and attachment to 
world and its concerns, started out on a journey, free and 
friendless, with a view to see the different countries of the 
world. The departed Manes of the patriarch viewed him 
from their abodes, trudging the land houseless and alone, and 
passing his nights in bleak and unsheltered wildernesses 
without fire or friends to share in the perils of his jqucney. To 



him did they adfdress as follows : — " son, why hast thou fore- 
gone the pleaisiires of blessed matrimony, and why dost thoii 
roam about cheerless and disconsolate without being bound in 
holy wedlock with an eligible bride ? By duly propitiating ther 
gods and one's departed Manes, and by attending to the wants 
of the needy and the holy sages, a householder, O son, becomes 
entitled to an elevated station after death. By uttering the 
Svaha Mantras (casting libations of clarified butter in fire ), a 
householder is enabled to appease the gods, and a repetition 
of the Svadha Mantra leads to the propitiation of his de- 
parted Manes. Practice of free and hearty hospitality en- 
dears him to his guests, while servants and dependants eating 
his bread, look upon him as the mainstay of their lives. O 
thou holy one among mortals, from day to day, thus thou hast 
been incurring more and more debts to the gods. Thy obli- 
gations to us, — thy departed Manes, are getting heavier, and 
thy debts to the beings at large, as an inmate of the created 
universe, stand undischarged even up to the present moment. 
Where is the chance of thy working up to a better life, O my 
son, if you fail to marry and propagate children and to take to 
the life of an anchorite afterwards, as laid down in the books 
of the Shastra. Thy present conduct, therefore, brings thee 
nothing but misery and dooms thee to the pangs of successive 
re-births even after the cessation of the torments of that parti- 
cular hell to which the souls of the " sonless are consigned." 

To which Ruchi thus replied — Marriage is the parent of 
sin and misery, O fathers, and serves only to lower a man in 
the world to come. This thought alone has heretefore desisted 
me from being united with a wife. In a moment, it makes a 
man doubtful of his own spiritual life and therefore serves as' 
a stumbling block in the way of his own salvation. Think-' 
ing of this I have hitherto refrained from marrying a wife. 
It is better that an unwedded person, though fondly attached 
to life and its cares, should wash his soul daily with the water 
of pure knowledge than that he would marry and forget all 


about his spiritual self, aiid become of the earth and earthly.' 
It is imperatively obligatory on a man to subjugate his senses/ 
and to constantly cleanse his soul of the mire, which his mufti- 
farious acts and promiscuous contact *with a large concourser 
of created beings deposit upon it." • • 

To which the spirits of his fathers thus replied : — " O son^ 
certainly it is incumbent on all of us to wash our souls of alF 
impurities by subduing our senses, still the way thour 
treadest, O darling, is not the proper road to salvation/ The 
effects of good or evil deeds done by thee in a previous exis- 
tence, would not fetter thy soul in the event of thy performing 
the five daily sacrifices peculiar to a householder ( Pancha 
yajna ) and practising penances and charities without any 
regard to their ulterior effects, and simply as a passive and 
involuntary instrument for the discharge of thy duties and 
for the absolution of thy daily sins. The effects of good or 
bad deeds done by a person in a prior existence, are 
constantly worn away by his actual experiences of pleasure 
or pain in this life. Wise men thus absolve their soul and 
protect it from being any way fettered with the bonds of 
Nescience. The soul thus' guarded,' can never be soiled with 
the mire of sin." 

Rue HI said: — "Acts have been condemned in the Vedas 
by the celestial Brahman as the direct resultants of 
Nescience, and wherefore, O fathers, do you knowingly 
direct me to the path of action ?" To which the spirits of his 
fathers thus replied : — "All is illusion in the universe and this 
universe itself is an illusion, O darling, and it is wrong to say 
that Nescience proceeds from action alone. On the contrary 
action primarily leads to the expansion of true knowledge 
and this brooks no contradiction. The good and the honest 
shun the evil incidental to the omission of a good act, and 
this self-imposed restraint leads to salvation. A restraint 
of a contrary nature tends to degenerate a soul. Thou hast 
considered it better to cherish pure thoughts in a pure soul. 


but it avails thee nothing, my son, so long as any charge of 
neglect or omission of duty may be laid at thy door. 
Nescience, like an active poison, has its utility in the universe, 
which, being judiciously employed, rather serves to unfold the 
spirit than to tighten its shackles. Therefore do thou law- 
fully • take a wife, O son. Otherwise in the absence of any 
provision for the future world, thy whole life would prove a 
miserable failure." 

RuCHi said :— " I have grown old, O fathers, and who shall 
marry his daughter to an old man ? Moreover marriage is a 
luxury which the poor can hardy afford to indulge in." 

The Manes said : — " Our descent into the lower regions 
as well as the degradation of thy own Self, is certain, O 
son, if thou dost not profit by our advice." Saying this the 
spirits of his ( Ruchi's ) fathers vanished in the air like a 
lamplight suddenly blown out 'by the wind. The ;holy sage 
Markendeya of mighty penance, narrated the entire discourse 
between Ruchi and his departed Manes to Krounchaki. 



SUTA said :— -Having again* requested by Krounchaki the 
holy sage Markandejra resumed the thread of the narrative 
and related as follows :^" The holy sage of Bramhanic extrac- 
tion being thus agitated by the words of hb departed Manes, 
roamed over the whole earth in quest of a bride. But a bride 
he could not secure anywhere. The words of hb fathers' 
spirits were burning like living fire in his heart. So he 
easily fell in that mood in which a man often holds colloquy 
with himself and began to dbcoursc as follows :-— '' Where 


can 1 secure a suitable bride for myself and thud ensure aif 
elevated station to my fathers and to my own self In the ifett- 

. Then having indulged in a similar strain of thought for 
a considerable time, the high.souled one resolved to realise hid 
end by practising penancei and accordingly began to pnropi^ 
tiate the lotus-origined Bramha with his austerities* 

For a hundred years thereafter, the magnanimous sager 
practised austere penances in that forest^ and meditated upon 
the self of his tutelary deity in perfect masteiy over senses*- 
Then Bramha, the progenitor of the different worlds with 
their inmates, manifested himself in his presence and asked 
him to name his wished-for, boon as he had been highly 
pleased with his penances. The holy sage laid himself 
prostrate at the feet of that appeased divinity and told the 
progenitor of the universe his intended course itt actioif 
according to the directions of his departed Manes« 

Brahma said :— •'' You shall be honored as a patriarch in 
the world. You shall be the progenitor of a mighty race of 
offsprings. O. Brahman, it shall be your portion in this life ta 
celebrate many a religious sacrifice and to rule the country 
in all the glory of a patriarchal sovereign, and then your 
penitential labours will be crowned with success. Be united 
with a handsome damsel in holy wedlock as your Manes bad 
enjoined you to be. Worship and propitiate the spirits of 
your departed forefathers, and marry in fulfilment of their 
pleasant command. Your fathers, perfectly appeased, would 
grant you the fruition of all your desires. What is it that is 
not in the gift of one's departed Manes ? Fathers, duly pro- 
pitiated, bless their descendants with wives and children.'' 

. Markandeva said : — Having heard these words of the 
divine Brahma, the eldest offspring of the Phenomenal 
Evolution, the holy sage offered libations of water to his 
departed Manes at the open and spacious foreshore of a 
river, aad with his head bent down in devotion, and in a 


^4^ GAftUOA •l>URANAM. 

spirit) earnest humble and contrite, he propitiated them Unth 
a hymn which runs as follows ;-:-: 

RUCHI said : — With deep and unbounded devotion I ita^ke 
obeisance to the spirits of my fathers who sit beside the godS| 
and whom even the heaven-borns worship and propitiate with 
the Svadha<»ending Mantras in the course of a Shraddha 
ceremony. I make obeisance to the Pitris, whom even the 
great sages^who are seekers after both salvation and earthly 
enjoyment, adore in heaven and propitiate with rites of purely, 
mental Shraddha worship. I make obeisance to the Pitris^ 
whom the Siddhas propitiate in heaven with offerings of celes^ 
tial produce in the course of a Shraddha ceremony. I make 
obeisance to the Pitris, whom the Gujhyakas worship in heavenj 
with their whole soul merged in the contemplation of the 
former with a view to acquire infinite beatitude,'and unparalleU 
ed and most exulted divine privileges. I make obeisance to '' 

the Pitris, who are worshipped in this mortal globe with the. 
offerings of a Shraddha ceremony and who, when properly 
propitiated, bless its performer with a long line of sons and 
grandsons. I make obeisance to the Pitris, who are worship- 
ped even by the twice-born ones in this world with a view 
to obtain their, wished-for boons and who confer on their 
votaries the glories of an illustrious patriarchs I make 
obeisance to the Pitris, who are worshipped by the forest- 
dwellers of regulated diet, with fruits and flowers — the simple^ 
though godly, offerings of the forest tress, sanctified with the 
occult energry of their well-practised Yoga. I make obeisance to 
the Pitris, who are worshipped and propitiated with the sacred 
energry of their Samadhi Yoga by Brahmanas exercising a 
perfect control over their senses, and the propulsions of whose 
minds have become one with the principles of virtue. I make 
obeisance to the Pitris, who are worshipped by crowned heads 
and potentates with various victuals of costly manufacture and 
who, when duly propitiated, bless their votaries with blessings 
which take effect both in this world and the next.. I make 


obeisance to the PItris whom the Vaishjas (members of the 
trading caste) who are always mindful of their own work, 
worship with flowers, incense-sticks, boiled rice and water. I 
make obeisance to the Pitris, who are worshipped even by 
the Shudras and are known as the Sukalinas. I make 
obeisance to the Pitris whom the great demons worship 
in the nether worlds, foregoing the pleasures of wine, bestial 
food, boisterousness and animalism. I make obeisance to the 
Pitris whom the various serpents worship in the nether world 
with a variety of costly oblations for the fruition of their 
heart-felt objects. I make obeisance to the Pitris whom the 
snakes worship with the gift of their incantations, etc. 

I make obeisance to the Pitris who dwell in my presence, 
or on earth, or in the welkin, and to those who ramble in the 
glorious fields of heaven, adored by the lord of the celestials. 
May they deign to accept the offerings which I have made at 
this place. I make obeisance to the Pitris, who live in heaven 
as embodied beings, and who form the highest object of 
thought and contemplation, and whose satisfaction is the 
summum bonum of human existence, and whom the adepts 
in Yoga worship in a pure and unspotted heart for exemption 
from pain and miseries of successive re-births. 

I make obeisance to the Pitris who dwell as embodied 
beings in heaven, living upon the libations of clarified butter 
cast in the course of a Shraddha ceremony in the accom- 
paniment of the Svadha Mantras, and who are capable of 
granting all wished-for boons to their votaries ; crown with 
success all ceremonial rites undertaken for the fruition of 
any definite object ; and are the liberators from all undesirable 
situations. May my fathers in heaven be propitiated in the 
present Shraddha ceremony. May my Pitris, who grant all 
sorts of boons to persons soliciting them, and in whose gifts 
are the sovereignty of heaven, horses, elephants, cars,' 
gem-studded dwellings and other paraphernalia of riches, be 
pleased with the present Shraddha ceremosy celebrated for 



their satisfaction. Mav the spirits of mj departed foreCatlKTS» 
who float in the moon-beam and ride on the white rajs of 
solar light, be pleased with the present ceremonj, and may 
they thrive on the offerings of flowers, perfumes, etc., offered 
in the course hereof. May the sools of my departed ancestors, 
who i ii^'it is a well-kindled sacrificial fire blazing with 
the libarions of clarified butter, and who, by temporarilj re- 
siding in the bodies of the Brahznanas invited on the occason, 
partake of what is offered to them in the coarse of a Shraddha 
ceremony, be pleased with the offerings of boiled rice and 
libations of water offered to them in the present ceremony. 
May the Pitris whom the gods worship with the flesh of a 
rhinoceros and the offerings of black sesamam of celestial 
origin, and whom the holy sages propitiate with dishes of 
cooked and prepared pot-herbs, known as the Kala Shaka, be 
pleased with the present ceremony undertaken for their 
propitiation. In the present ceremony I invoke the presence 
of the revered souls of my departed ancestors, who are ex- 
tremely fond of obsequious cakes, in order they might receive 
the offerings of boiled rice, and perfumes, and libations of water 
to be offered to them at its close. May my departed M anes, 
who receive our loving homage every day and are wor- 
shipped every month on the occasion of an Ashtaka ceremony 
and at the close of each year under, the auspicies of a 
Vriddhi Shraddha, be pleased with the present ceremony. May 
the departed Manes of the Brahmanas, who shine with the cool 
and mellow lustre of the moon-beam, and the departed Manes 
of the Kshatriyas, who shine with the dazzling effulgence of the 
noon-day-sun, and the departed Manes of the Vaishyas whose 
complexions art as the colour of molten gold, and the 
departed Manes of the Shudras whose complexions are deep 
blue, combinedly grace the present ceremony with their 
august presence, and be pleased with the offerings of flowers, 
perfumes, and edibles, etc., and the sweet exhalations of 
clarified butter cast in the sacrificial fire. Perpetually do 


I make obeisance to the Pitris. May the Pitris, who partake 
of the obsequious cakes just after they had been eaten by 
the gods, and who, when duly appeased, confer prosperity 
upon their votaries, be pleased with the present ceremony. 
I make obeisance to them. May the Pitris, the mighty 
members of the celestial hierarchy, and revered by the gods, 
destroy the demons, and the monsters and the evil spirits 
and all other baneful visitations in the universe. I make 
obeisance to the Pitris. 

May the different clans of the Pitris, such as the Agni- 
svattas, the Vahrishadas, the drinkers of clarified butter, and 
the drinkers of the expressed juice of the Soma-plant, be 
propitiated in the present Shraddha ceremony. I have propi- 
tiated the souls of my departed forefathers. May the mem- 
bers of the Agni-Svatta clan of the Pitris, guard my person 
in the east. May the members of the Vahrishada clan of 
that celestial order, protect me in the south. May the 
drinkers of sacrificial clarified butter, protect me in the west, 
and the drinkers of the expressed juice of the Divine Soma- 
plant, defend me in the east. May the Petris perpetually 
guard me against the malignant influences of ghosts, demons, 
monsters, and Pishachas. 

The nine clans of Pitris are named as the Vishvas, 
the Vishvabhugs, the Aradhyas, the Dharmas, the Dhanjas, 
the Shubhananas, the Bhutidas, the Bhutikrids, and the Bhutis. 
The six other clans of Hfe same celestial order, are known as 
the Kalyanas, the Kalyadas, the Kartas, the Kalyatarashrayas, 
and the Kalyatahetu. The seven other clans of the same 
divine order, are called the Varas, the Varenyas, the Varadas, 
the Tushtidas, the Pushtidas, the Vishvapatas, ^nd the Dhatas. 
The five clans of the same order, are named as the Mahan, the 
Mahtmas, the Mahitas, the Mahimavanas and the Mahavalas. 
The four remaining clans of the same order, are called the 
Sukhadas, the Dhanadas, the Dharmadas, and the Bhutidas, 
thus making thirty-one clanships in all, who guard the 


different approaches of the heaven, and are distributed all 
over the universe for the good of its inmates. May all of 
them be pleased with the present ceremony, duly inaugurated 
for their propitiation. 

Markandeya said: — ^While Ruchi was thus devoutly 
hymnising his departed Manes, a vast column of light 
suddenly shot across the heaven, and, behold, the universe 
stood entranced, wrapped in that mystic glow. Ruchi 
looked up and beheld that glorious phenomenon in mute 
wonder, and began to recite the following hymn on bent 
down knees. 

Ruchi said : — Ever do I make obeisance to the Pitris, 
who are resplendent and disembodied spirits, endued with 
the faculty of spiritual vision, and always absorbed in 
the contemplation of the supreme Bramha. I make obei- 
sance to the Pitris, who are the leaders of such celestial 
potentates as Indra, etc., and direct such holy sages as 
Daksha, Marichi, etc., who constitute the holy fraternity of 
the seven sages, in the path of truth and light, and who confer 
all boons upon their suppliants. I make obeisance to the 
Pitris who are the leaders of such mighty law-givers as 
Manu, etc., and who direct the sun and the moon in their 
path of heavenly duty. I make obeisance to the Pitris, 
who control the movements of the wind, guide the stars 
and planets in their orbits and sojourns, uphold the welkin, 
make the fire bum with its natural heat and glare, and fill 
in the earth and heaven and the space lying between them. 
With blended palms, I make obeisancce to Prajapati, to 
Kashyapa, to Soma, to Varuna, to the lord of all religious 
sacrifices. I make obeisance to the seven clans of the 
Pitris, who dwell in the seven regions or worlds. I 
make obeisance to the self-begotten Bramha whose vision 
is the light of Yoga (divine communion). I make obeisance 
to the Soma-drinking Pitris who are possessed of astral 
bodies. I make obeisance to the Moon God and the father 


of the universe. I make obeisance to the fiery-bodied Pitris, 
as well as to those whose persons are composed of the cool- 
ing principle in the universe. The two fundamental prin- 
ciples (fiery and cooling) run through all objects, and hence 
either they are fiery (heat making) or cooling (watery, 
albuminous) in their potencies. With a controlled heart 
I make obeisance to all the Yogins and the Pitris, who form 
the illuminating principle of light, and manifestly shine in the 
sun, in the moon and fire, and who are the models of creation 
and are identical with the Self of Supreme Bramha. May the 
Pitris who live upon the sweet exhalations of clarified butter 
cast in the sacrificial fire in the accompaniment of the 
Svadha Mantras, be pleased with the performance of the 
present ceremony. 

Markandeva said: — Having been thus propitiated by 
Ruchi, the best of the holy sages appeared to him in quick 
succession, illumining the ten quarters of heaven with the 
effulgence of their own spiritual bodies, and decked with 
the same sandal pastes and garlands of flowers which he had 
offered to them in the course of that Shraddha ceremony. 
Then Ruchi, having again made obeisance to them, addressed 
them for the second time as follows : — " With blended palms 
I make obeisance to each of you, O you Pitris !" Where- 
upon the Pitris, appeased by his devotion and humility, 
asked him to name his boon, to which Ruchi, with his head 
hung down in deep humility, replied as follows :t— '^ I have 
been directed by the god Brahma to beget children and 
propagate my species. Accordingly most fervently do I . 
pray for a noble and fruitful wife of celestial origin." 

The Fathers replied : — **0 you, the best of the holy sages, 
this very day you shall be united with an extremely handsome 
wife. By her you shall have a son, O Ruchi, who would be 
named Rouchya after your honoured self, and who would 
rule the universe as a patriach and law-giver. He shall be 
the fore-runner of a mighty race of kings, high-souled and 


victorious, who would govern the whole Earth. You in your 
old age, would retire from the world^ decked with the full 
glory of a pious and revered patriarch, and shall attain your 
penitential success and salvation. Blessed is the man who 
recites the aforesaid hymn for our satisfaction, for he will be 
blest with sons, and a long life of progeny, and all the creature 
comforts in this life. A suppliant for health, longevity and the 
blessings of fatherhood, shall do will to propitiate us with a 
recitation of the aforesaid hymn. A recitation of the hymn 
at the close of a Shraddha ceremony and before an assembly 
of Brahmanas sitting down at their meals, would bear im- 
mortal fruits through our intercession. Verily does its reci- 
tation make a Shraddha ceremony, endearing to us, even if 
it is not attended by Brahmanas well-versed in the Vedas 
(Shrotriyas), or is any way vitiated as to its precedure, or is 
celebrated with ill-gotten gain, or is attended by men who 
should not be invited on such an occasion, or performed at 
an improper place or time, or out of a spirit of bravado. 
The satisfaction which we derive from a Shraddha ceremony, 
in the course of which the hymn is recited, lasts us, O child, 
(or a continuous period of twelve years. A single recitation 
of the hymn in the forepart of winter (Hemanta) gives us 
a satisfaction which lasts for twelve years. A single reci- 
tation of the hymn in winter gives us a satisfaction which 
continues for twice as many number (twenty-four) of years. 
The aforesaid hymn, recited in the course of a Shraddha 
ceremony performed in spring, furnishes us with a sense of 
repletion which lasts for a continuous period of sixteen years. 
O Ruchi, a Shraddha ceremony, otherwise vitiated, or 
made defective as to its procedure, may be remedied by a 
single recitation of the hymn under discussion. O Ruchi, 
infinite is the pleasure which we derive from a recitation 
of the hymn during the rainy season. The satisfaction 
which we derive from a recitation of the hymn in autumn, 
lasts us for fifteen years. We grace a Shraddha ceremony 


With our presence in the event of its being performed in a 
room in which the hymn stands transcribed. Therefore, 
O you of mighty heritage, you shall recite the hymn before 
an assembly of Brahmanas invited on the occasion of a 
Shraddha ceremony and seated at their meals, whereby you 
would ensure infinite and eternal satisfaction to us, your 
departed Manes." 



Markandeva said : — The tranquil bosom of that loiiely 
pool was stirred for a moment, and, behold, there appeared 
to Ruchi, Pamlocha, the slender-waisted water nymph of 
celestial beauty. The nymph solaced him with many a sweet 
and encouraging words and addressed him as follows :— - 
Pushkara, the son of Varuna, the Ocean God, has begot on 
me a handsome daughter of uncommon beauty. Do you 
take her as thy lawful bride at my hands, O sage. By her 
you shall have a son of rare talents who would be the future 
law-giver of the universe. 

Markandeva said : — Then Ruchi, having consented to 
her proposal, drew that beautiful virgin out of the water of 
that lonely pool and duly married her on its green-dad bank. 
By her he had a son, named Rouchya after his honoured self, 
who had been a Manu (law-giver) of the universe, as narrated 



SUTA said : — ^The Manus, such as SvayambhuvaS, ^c.f 
observe the rules of penance, worship, contemplation, and 
prayer, etc., recite the iSantras sacred to the God Hari, and 
meditate upon His eternal Self, which is shorn of body, 
senses, mind, intellect, vitality and the sense of egoism. 
The sky does not constitute His Self, nor does heat (light) 
enter jnto its composition. Water does not enter into the 
composition of His Supreme Self, nor do the attributes 
which characterise that material element, affect that eternal 
entity. Similarly, it is above all the fundamental principles 
of the earth matter, and is necessarily beyond the opera- 
tive zone of virtue^ which specifically belong to that essen- 
tial substance. Controller of all beings and becomings, 
he is the ever enlightened, ever wakeful One, the director 
and lord of all, the final receptacle of all force ahd energy, 
shorn of all illusion, and identical with pure consciousness. 
He is One, and without a second or companion, the supreme 
God, represented by light though void of fundamental 
quality of illumination (Sattva) and is hence beyond the 
necessity of practising any austerity. He is shorn of the 
quality of Rajas, and the three fundamental qualities of 
Sattva, Rajas and Tamas, do not affect his Supreme Self. He 
has no shape, is devoid of all action and desire, and is pure 
and incapable of sin and evil. Hankerings cannot assail him, 
nor griefs and ignorance can disturb the infinite serenity of 
His eternal Self. He knows no old age, death or decay. With- 
out end or origin, he lies inherent in all, — the eternal witness 
to the process of phenomenal evolution and from whose vision 
nothinsr lies hidden or veiled and which nescience itself can- 
not clouden. He is the perfect and absolute truth, the 
Supreme God, one and indivisible, beyond all rules of ethics, 



nameless, and knows no sleep, nor dream, nor wakening. He 
is the only real factor in individual consciousness that makes 
the states of wakening, etc., possible. He is the personified 
peace, the lord of the gods and the celestials. He is real, 
and, as such, underlies the states of wakening, etc., void of 
the necessary categories of cause and effect. He is imaged 
in the phenomenal universe, and is accordingly seen by alh 
He is the most invisible of all invisible entities, and, as such, 
can be only perceived by means of pure knowledge, or through 
scriptural learning. He is the highest felicity, beyond all 
material process of creation or construction. He is shorn 
of intellect, and is beyond the process of intellection, and is 
identical with the fourth stage of pure consciousness (Turiya\ 
He is the protector and destroyer of all. Beyond all virtues 
and attributes, he is the soul of all created beings. Without 
any receptacle to hold him in, he directs the universe in the 
path of light and benediction. He is Shiva (the blissful one, 
the highest bliss). He is Hari, the remover of all sin and 
misery. He suffers no change, nor knows any modification. 
He is known only, through the teachings of the Vedanta 
philosophy. He is personified knowledge, the real substantial 
substratum whose attributes the senses inform us of. He is 
without the faculties of hearing, taste, touch, vision and smell- 
ing. He is without any origin, and lies inherent in the top- 
most cavity of the human brain, dawning upon the individual 
consciousness only to establesh its identity with his eternal 
Self, a fact which the human mind interprets in its experience 
of " I am He " 

O thou, the supreme god, having realised this experience 
in mind, and having cast his whole self in the thought-mould 
of '* I am He," a man should meditate upon the self of the 
supreme Brahman. He, who does this, is no other than the 
supreme One. I have disclosed to you the mode of contem- 
plating the self of the supreme God. Now tell me, Rudra, 
whatever else you want me to speek about. 


RUDRA said : — Relate to me, O thou, the wielder rf lotaSf 
mace, discus, and conch shell, the mode of meditating upon 
the divine self of Vishnu, a knowledge whereof leads to 

Said the god Hari : — ^Yes, t shall describe to you the mode 
of contemplating the divine self of Vishnu, which b of two 
sorts, according as the embodied or disembodied self of the 
god is meditated upon. O Rudra, in the preceding chapter 
I have discoursed on the latter mode, now hear me describe 
the process of contemplating the imaged or the embodied self 
of that deity. A seeker of salvation should meditate upon 
the god as burning with the combined effulgence of a million 
of suns, and moving about in the infinite space with the 
dignity of unquestioned prowess and unobstructed energy. 
The complexion of his divine body should be contempla- 
ted to be white as the hue of a Kunda flower. In the alter- 
native, the god should be contemplated as burning with the 
combined effulgence of a thousand suns, and dreadful to look' 
at through an excess of light, 'and as wielding a large and 
beautiful conchshell, a discus, a lotus flower, and a mace in 
his four hands, his face beaming with the calmness of divine 
peace. The crown or the head-gear of the god, should be 
contemplated as shining with the scintillations of a myriad 
of gems, and his attendants should be likewise contemplated 
as waiting upon his gracious divinity. 

The mental picture, in the present instance, would not be 
complete without decorating the central figure with a garland 
of full-blown wild flowers. The image should be placed men- 
tally on a full-blown lotus flower, decked with bracelets, 
necklace, etc., fof celestial manufacture. The diamond Kous- 

tubha should be imagined as dangling over the region of his 



breast, grown over with the peculiar ringlets of hair, known 
as the Shrivatsam. 

The imaginary person of this creator and destroyer of 
the universe, whom the gods and the holy sages contem- 
plate in their celestial and sylvan retreats, should be contem-^ 
plated as composed of the beatific attributes of Anima, etc., 
the different grades of conscious animalism, from the minutest 
animalculum to the mightiest Brahma, as having had their 
seats in the cardiac region of the image. 

Thus the mental picture of the god shoald be conrpleted, 
and the votary should worship it with the knowledge, that 
the deity imaged in his heart, is but the reflection of that 
primal light, the god of the gods, the absolute purity, the lord 
of all, and the only being equally compassionate towards al> 
created life. He is the ever blissful lord, the regenator of the 
the human soul, and the destroyer of the'threefold misery. He 
punishes the wicked, exhorts the good in the path of rigfate* 
ousness, is the soul of all, all-pervading, and the appe^er of 
all malignant stars. The beautiful circles of light which serve 
to relieve the darkness of the nighty are his finger-rings. He 
is the primary source of all forms, and all shapes lie inherent 
in his disembodied spirit. He is the supreme god^ the per- 
fect beauty, the grand and final resort of all, the fountain* :: 
head from which equal felicity flows to all. 

His body is decked with all sorts of ornaments, and is 
smeared with sandalpaste. The gods wait upon him in the 
spirit of loving servitude, and he does what the gods approve 
of. He does what is beneficial to them. He is Vasudeva, the 
lord of the universe. He-looks after the universe. He looks 
after the good of all beings. He it is that shines in the 
sun. He it is that forms what is so wholesome in water. 
He is the only subject contemplated by all, the supreme or- * 
dainer in the universe, the supreme Vishnu, whom the seekers 
of salvation meditate upon. 



"I am Vasudeva, I am He, the supreme soal," should be the 
form of thought in all who meditate upon the self of Vishnu. 
Those wha contemplate him in this way, acquire the most 
exalted station after death. For having thus meditated upon, 
the self of Vishnu, the holy Yajnavalkya, was honoured with 
the office of laying down the rules of conduct of hb age. 
Therefore, O Shankara, O you, the lord of the celestials, 
always meditate upon the Self of Vishnu. Even he, who 
reads the present chapter, acquires the most elevated spiritual 
existence after death. 



Maheshvara said: — ^Tell me, O Hari, O Madhava, O 
you who have destroyed the demon Keshi, what is it that led 
the holy Yajnavalkya, to lay down the rules of conduct in 
days'of yore ? 

Said the god Hari : — Once on a time, the holy sages 
visited, in a body, the venerable Yajnavalkya in his hermitage 
at Mithila ; and having duly made obeisance to him, they 
asked him about the rules of conduct to be observed by mem- 
bers of the different orders of society. Whereupon the self- 
controlled Yajnavalkya, meditating upon the self of Vishnu, 
replied as follows. 

Yajnavalkya said : — Pious is the country where herds of 
black deer are found to roam about. Knowledge is in the 
Vedas, in the Puranas, in the different schools of philosophy 
"^ such as the Nyaya, the Mimansa, etc., in the Dharma 
Shastras (Ethics and Social Economy) and in the books of 
money-making and temporal sciences : Manu, Vishnu, Yama, 
Angira, Vashishtha, Daksha. Samvarta. Shatatapa. Parashara, 


Apastambha, Ushana, Vyasa^ Katyayana, Vrihaspati. Gou« 
tama, Shankha, Likhita, Harita, and Atri» are the names of 
the fourteen holy sages, who, having worshipped the god 
Vishnu, were enabled to become the ethical dictators and 
law-givers (Dharma-Shashtrakaras) of the ages in which they 

A gift, made at a proper time and place, and to a deserving^ 
person in a tj^ue spirit of compassionate sympathy, carries 
the merit of all sorts of pious acts. Right conduct, self-con- 
trol, charity, annihilation of all killing propensities, reading 
of the Vedas, and the performance of ceremonial rites therein 
enjoined to be performed, are the best of all pieties. Viewing 
of one's own soul through self-communion, is the highest 
and most imperative of all religious duties. The four Vedas 
together with the Trividyas form the branch of learning which 
is called the Para-Vidya (Supreme knowledge.) 

The first three of the four social orders of Brahm^na, 
Kshatriya, Vaishya and Shudra, are called the twice-born 
castes, and all rites, from nativity to death, should be done 
unto them in the accompaniment of the Vedic hymns tod 


The rite of Garbhadhanam (///., rite for the taking of the 
womb) should be performed closely following upon the ap- 
pearance of her first menses unto one's wife, and the rite of 
Punsavanam (rite for the conception of a male-child) just 
as soon as the movements of the fcetus in the womb would 
be felt by the mother. The rite of Sisanta should be don^ 
unto her in the sixth or in the eighth month of gestation, 
while the post-natal rites (Jatakarma) of the new-bom babe 
should be performed after delivery. 

The rite of naming (Nama-karanam) should be done urtto 
the child on the eleventh day of its birth, while the rite of Nwh- 
kramanam (ceremonial taking of the child out of the room) 
should be done unto it, in the fourth month after delivery. The 
rite of Annaprashanam (first taking of boiled-rice by a child) 


should be done in the sixth month after its birth, while the 
rite of Chuda-karanam (tonsure) should be performed in a<> 
cordance with the custom obtaining in the family. The sin, 
which attaches to the ovum and the semen, is absolved by the 
performance of the aforesaid rites, which should be omitted 
in the case of a female child, only on the occasion of whose 
marriage the Vedic Mantras should be recited. 



Yajnavalkya said : — A Brahmana boy should be invested 
with the holy thread at the eighth year of his age, inclusive 
of the period of gestation, a Kshatriya child at his eleventh 
year, and a Vaishya child at an age as is customary in the 

The preceptor, having duly invested him with the holy • 
thread, shall first teach him the Maha-Vyahriti Mantras, and 
tlien the verses of the Vedas, as well as the rules of conduct 
and hygriene. 

In the day, and at morning and evening, a member of any * 
of the twice-born castes, shall pass urine with his face turned 
towards the north, while in the night he shall look towards 
the south under similar conditions, hangring the holy thread 
on his right ear at the time, whether in the day or in • 
the night. He shall rise up from that sitting posture with the 
external organ of micturition firmly grasped with his fingers, - 
and shall then wasn the part with water kept ready for the 
purpose, or rub it with earth for the purpose of removing the - 
characteristic smell. Then having sit on his haunches in a 
pool or a river, and with his face turned towards the nocth 
or towards the east, a member of any of the twice-born castes^ 


shall wash and rinse his mouth with water, lifted up with that 
part ofthis palm which is called the Brahma-Tirtham. Regions 
about the first or the lowermost phalanges of the little, and 
the middle, finger, as well as the one lying about the root 
of the right thumb, should be held as sacred to the gods 
Prajapati, Pitri, and Brahma, which are accordingly called 
the Prajapati-Tirtham, the Pitri-Tirtham, and the Brahma-* 

A member of any of the twice-born castes, shall first take 
two draughts of water to rinse his lips with, and then cleanse 
his face with undisturbed and frothless water. The twice-born 
ones shall purify their breasts, throats, palates and umbilical 
regions with water. It will be enough for women and 
Shudras to purify their regions of back and umbilicus. 

A member of the twice-born order, shall bathe every day, 
perform the rite of cleansing his body with the same Mantra 
as he shall recite at the time of ablution, practise the rite of 
Pranayama, invoke the Sun-god, and recite the Gayatri Mantra. 
After that, he shall mentally recite the Gayatri-shirah Mantra, 
and the Vyahritis with the holy Pranava prefixed to each part 
of its component parts. Then he shall thrice practise the rite 
of Pranayama (a peculiar mode of controlling the process oi 
respiration) after reciting the three Riks for its purification, 
and shall then go on mentally reciting the Savitri- Mantra, till 
the appearance of stars in the evening sky. 

The rite of morning Sandhya, should be commenced before 
dawn, and the twice-born worshipper, should sit self-controlled 
in his seat, reciting the Vedic Mantras enjoined to be read 
in connection with the aforesaid rite, till the rising of the 
Sun-God above the horizon. The rite of Agni-Karyam 
should be practised both morning and evening, after which 
the worshipper should visit and make obeisance to his elders 
by saying " I am That." 

After that he shall visit his preceptor, and sit beside him 
humbl e, docile and self-controlled for the purpose of studying 


the Vedas. In the alternative, he should wait till sent for by 
his preceptor, and then learn his daily Vedic lessons from his 
lips. H«e sliall make no secret of anything to his preceptor, 
and constantly look after his welfare, whether by word, or by 
thought, or by bodily toil. 

He shall carry the anchorite's staff, put on the holy thread 
;lnd a sable-coloured blanket, and girdle up his waist with the 
holy girdle made of the blades of the consecreted Kusha 
grass twisted together. 

For the purposes of maintenance, he shall beg alms only of 
the householders of twice-born order, or of men of pure and 
unimpeachable character. The Vedic verses should be recited 
in the morning, evening and at noon, and a Brahmana shall 
beg alms only of persons of Kshatriya and Vaishya castes. 

Having performed the morning Agni Karyam, the 
disciple shall sit down to his meal, in all humility and with 
the permission of his preceptor. He shall perform the rite of 
rinsing his mouth with water, and purify the plate of boiled 
rice served out to him before partaking of a single morsel, 
and shall eat his meal silently and without making any sort of 
reflection upon the nature of the food and its cooking. A 
Brahmana, who has subjug^ated his senses, and leads the life of 
a Brahmacharioy is at liberty to take a full meal of boiled rice 
on the occasion of a Shraddha ceremony, without incurring 
the risk of breaking his vow of asceticism. A Brahmana shall 
forego the use of wine, meat, curdled milk and its prepara- 
tions. He is the Guru, who, having initiated the pupil into the 
mysteries of spiritualism, makes him conversant with the 
knowledge of the Vedas. He, who having duly invested his 
disciple with the holy thread, teaches him the holy Vedas, is 
called an Acharya. A tutor, living in the same village with 
his pupil, is called an Upadhyaya. A priest, officiating at a 
sacrificial ceremony, is called a Rittik. The person of each 
preceding one of these functionaries, is more venerable than 


that of the one immediately following it in the order of enu- 
meration, and a mother is the most venerable of them all. 

A pupil shall read each of these Vedas for a period of 
five or twelve years, and he shall live as a Brahmacharin 
with his Guru, up to the age of sixteen, twenty, or twenty-four 
years. The age of investing a child of the Brahmana, 
Kshatriya or Vaishya order, with the holy thread, has been 
laid down before ; and a non-performance of the ceremony 
within the stated period, leads to his spiritual degeneration. 
A Brahmana, or a Kshatriya or a Vaishya child, thus degenera- 
ted as regards his Savitri initiation, is called a Vratya, the 
process of regeneration consisting in the performance of a 
Vratya-Stoma sacrifice. 

The three twice born castes of Brahmana, Kshatriya and 
Vaishya, are, so called from the fact of their being bom a 
second time through spiritual initiation (tieing of the sacred 
Mounji, or strings of deer skin and blades of Kusha grass 
twisted together, the symbol of Savitri initiation) after having 
been delivered of the mother's womb. 

The Vedas are the highest depository of all sacrificial 
and penitential knowledge, and of all acts which conduce 
to the spfritual welfare of the twice-born ones. A member 
of a twice-born caste, shall offer libations of milk and honey 
to the gods and his departed manes. The libations should 
be offered from day to day, and^the Vedic Ricks should be 
recited in connection therewith. A member of any of the 
twice-born orders, shall read the Saman, the Atharvans, and 
the Angirasam in the same manner, and shall appease the 
gods and his departed manes with similar libations. The 
gods and the Pitris are pleased with him who reads the Vedas, 
the V'eda-Vakyam, the Puranas, the Gathikas, and the Itihasas, 
every day, to the best of his ability, and propitiates them with 
offerings of meat, and libations of milk and honey. The 
merit of performing a particular religious sacrifice can be 
acquired by reading the portion of the Veda which deals with 


that particular sacrifice, and the twice-born one who reOiAs 
his Veda every day^ acquires the merit of making [the gift of 
a plot of land, as well as that of practising austerities. 

A Brahmana disciple or pupil, pure in thought and con- 
duct, and with an absolute control over his senses, shall sit 
beside his Acharya, or by the side of his wife or son in his 
absence, or in front of the sacred fire. The self-controlled 
one shall live according to the injunctions laid down above, 
whereby he will go to the region of Brahman after death, and 
will not revert to the chain of life. 



YajnavalkvA said : — Hear me^ O holy sages, describe thcf 
duties which are obligatory on a house-holder. A house-* 
holder, having made a money-gift to his preceptor, and 
having performed the rite of ceremonial ablution, shall wed 
a wife with all the auspicious marks on her person at the 
close of his life of asceticism. The wife should be a girl 
young in years and not previously married to any other 
husband, in the possession of sound health and having had 
uterine brothers of her own, and not 'related to him by any 
tie of Sapinda relationship, nor belonging to the same 
spiritual clanship (Arsha Gotram) as his own. She should 
be taken from any of the sixteen reputed families of the 
Shrotriyas, not related to the bridegroom within five and seven 
degrees in the lines of his mother and father respectively. 

A bridegroom, wjell-versed in the knowledge of the Vedas, 
erudite and belonging to the same social order as herself^ 
should be regarded as the only eligible one for a Brahmana 


bride. I denounce the practice of a 6rahm?na being united 
with a Shudra wife as he incurs the risk of taking birth in 
her womb in the shape of the child begotten by him on her 


A Brahmana is at liberty to take a wife from any of the 
first three social orders, or to put it more explicitly, a Brah- 
mana shall marry a girl either of his own caste, or one belong- 
ing to the warrior (Kshatriya), or to the trading (Vaishya) 
community. Similarly a Kshatriya shall marry a Kshatriya or 
a Vaishya girl, while a Vaishya shall take a wife from his own 
community, the marriage of a Shudra girl with a member of 
any of the twice-born castes being hereby absolutely forbidden. 

A Brahma form of marriage is that in which the bride- 
groom is invited to take his bride, decked with ornaments 
as the means of her father would admit of, and an offspring 
of such a marriage purifies the members of both the families 
thus united, even removed from him to the twentieth degree 
in the ascending line. In the Daivam form, the daughter of 
a sacrificer (person on whose behalf a sacrifice is per- 
formed) is given away in marriage to the priest officiating 
at the ceremony (Rittik). In the Arsha form, the marriage 
is celebrated by making a gift of a pair of cows to the 
bridegroom. A child, who is the fruit of a Daivam 
marriage, sanctifies the members of both the united families 
to the sixteenth degree in the ascending line, while in the 
case of an offspring of the latter (Arsha) form, such sancti- 
fication extends to the sixth degree. The offspring of a 
nuptial union in which the bride is given away with the 
injunction '* Live with him and discharge the duties of a 
householder/' to one soliciting her hands, sanctifies the 
members of both the united families to the sixth degree in 
the ascending line. In the Asura form, the bride is received 
on the payment of a pecuniary consideration. In the Gan- 
dharva form, the union is effected on the mutual consent or 
agreement of the contracting parties. The Rakshasa form 


of marriage consists in taking away the bride by force, while 
in the Paishacha form the marriage is effected by practising 
a stratagem on the bride. 

Only the first four forms of marriage are allowed in the 


case of a Brahmana. The Gandharva and Rakshasa forms are 
commended in the case of a member of the warrior caste, 
the Asura form in the case of a Vaishya, and the most con- 
demnable form in the case of a Shudra. 

A bride of the warrior caste, shall take hold of an arrow 
at the time of her marriage, a Vaishya girl shall hold a 
shuttle (Pr^oda) in her hand at the time, while a Brahmana 
bride shall be formally united with her husband with a 
Vedani (sharp- pointed instrument) in her hands. 

The father of the bride, or her paternal grandfather, or 
her uterine brother, or an agnate of her father's (Sakulya) 
or her brother, shall give her away in marriage, the right of 
such giving a^vay being held as vested in each of these suc- 
cessive relations in the absence of the one immediately pre- 
ceding it in the order of enumeration. The relations of a giri 
incur the sin of wilfully creating a miscarriage, or of killing a 
foetus in the event of their failing to give her away in 
marriage before she has commenced to menstruate. A girl is 
at liberty to make her own choice, and to be united with a 
husband, in the absence of any such relation to give her 
away in marriage. A girl should be given only once in 
marriage and any one carrying away a married girl should be 
dealt with as a common felon. 

Any one deserting a good and faithful wife, commits a 
crime punishable under the Code, while a wife possessed of 
contrary virtues, should be summarily discarded. The younger 
brother of a husband, may go unto a childless wife of his 
elder brother for the purpose of begetting an offspring on 
her person with the permission of his elders, first had and 
obtained in that behalf, and with his body annointed with 
clarified butter. A Sagotra (related by ties of consanguinity) 


or a Saplnda relation of the husband, may act in a similar 
capacity and for similar purposes. Such visits should be 
permitted only as^ long as there would remain any natural 
chance of conception, otherwise the visitor would be degraded 
in life. A child thus begotten, shall belong to the lawful 
husband of its mother. 

A married woman found guilty of wilful incontinence to 
her husband, and again placed into his lawful custody, shall 
be made to wear dirty clothes, and to live on a single morsel 
of food (at the close of day), negligent of her toibette and 
sleeping on the bare ground instead of her usual bed. The 
Moon-God gave the women their sanctity, Gandharva gave 
them the sweetness of speech. Sacred is fire and sane* 
tified is the person of a woman. She, who wilfblly brings 
about an abortion, except for the purposes of purifying her- 
self after having committed an act of adultery, commits the 
sin of killing her own husband born in her womb in the 
shape of the foetus. Polluted is the person of such a 

A husband is at liberty to summarily discard a wife, 
addicted to the habit of drinking wine, or afflicted with an 
incurable disease, or found to be inimically disposed t^ 
wards him. O ye holy sages, a wife, blest with the gift of 
sweetness of speech, tender, and graced with all those 
peculiar and excellent virtues which are found only in 
women, should be maintained and provided for at all hazards. 

The threefold benediction of god reigns in the house- 
hold where the husband and the wife live in perfect harmony ; 
and paradise is the house which harbours such a * true, loving 
and virtuous pair under its roof. 

She, who does not take a second husband after the 
demise of her first one, achieves fame in this life, and lives 
in the same region with the goddess Uma in the nexL Who- 
ever discards a good and chaste wife, shall give her a third 


portion of her ornaments before formally effecting a separa- 
tion. The ^acred and imperative duty of a wife is to 
carry out the commands of her husband, and to live in ptrfect 
obedience to his wishes. 

The menstrual period of a woman extends up to the 
sixteenth night after the the catamanial flow, each month, 
and her husband may visit her during that time ^n each 
even day, avoiding her bed side on the first three days 
of her unclearliness, as well as on days marked as Parvanas 
(days of full moon, new moon etc.,) in the Indian Calendar. 
The husband shall bide his time as a Brahmacharin before 
the actual meeting takes place. Days marked by such 
asterisms as the Magha, the Mula, etc., (when the moon is in 
such lunar mansions known as the Magha, Mula, etc.,) should 
be regarded as forbidden for the purposes of a sexual inter- 
course. He, who observes these rules in respect of visiting 
the bed of his wife, is sure to beget healthy children, marked 
by all auspicious features of the body and mind. In the 
alternative, a husband may visit the bed of his wife when- 
ever he shall feel any propulsion for it, and he shall meditate 
upon the god of love during the continuance of the act of 

A man, true and faithful to his own wife, shall protect the 
female members of his family. The husband, or brother, or 
father, or the agnates, or the father-in-law, or the husbands' 
brother of a woman, shall maintain her with food, raiments 
and ornaments. A woman, who is economical in her habits, 
simple and not extravagant in her toilette, cleanly and ingeni- 
ous in her household works, and is of a cheerful temperament, 
should be maintained by her friends (relations, Vandhus). 

The wife of an absentee husband shall renounce all 
frolics, and forego the pleasures of mixing in society, or of 
sight-seeing and merry-making. She shall not smile, nor 
attend to her daily toilette, nor shall she stay in another's 
house till the return of her lord. 


The father of a woman shall protect her in her infancy, 
the husband in her youth, and her son in her old age, in 
absence whereof the duty of maintaining her shall devolve 
upon his friends and relations. Day and night, a woman 
shall not quit the side of her husband. 

The elder co-wife shall be the companion of her lord, in- 
asmuch as the younger one does not enjoy that privilege. 
The husband shall personally attend to the cremation of the 
dead body of his own faithful wife with rites, as laid down 
under the head of an Agni-Hotra sacrifice, and is at liberty to 
marry a second wife with the same sacred fire. The wife, 
who devotes her whole self to the good of her husband, 
achieves fame in this life and goes to that particular connu- 
bial paradise after death, which is ^reserved for chaste 



Yajnavalkya said : — Now I shall enumerate the names 
of the mixed castes, the offsprings of clandestime intercourse 
and unsacramental marriage, and describe the functions which 
the members of these hybrid communities^ are expected to 
perform in the social economy. 

A son begotten by a Brahman father on a Kshatriya 
mother, is called Murdhabhishikta, while a son by him on 
Vaishya woman, is called an Amvasta. A ^on by a Brah- 
mana father on a Shudra woman, is called either a Nishada or 
a Parvata. O you, the best of erudite ones, a son begotten by 
a Kshatriya father on a Vaishya mother, is called a Mahishya, 
while a son born of a Shudra mother by a member of the 
trading community (Vaishya) is called a Karana. 


A son born of a Brahman mother by a Kshatriya fathef 
is called a Suta, while a son begotten by a Vaishya father 
on a Bfahmani woman, is called as Vaidehka. A son 
born of a Brahman mother by a Shudra father, is called a 
Chandala, the most abject of all social orders. A son bom 
of a Kshatriya mother by a Vaishya father, is called a 
Magadha, while a son begotten by a Shudra father on a 
Kshatriya mother is called a Kshetrabama. A son begotten 
by a Shudra father on a Vaishya woman, is called a Ayogava. 
A son born of a Karana mother by a Mahishya father, is 
called a Rathakara. These hybrid castes, whether begotten 
by members of the twice-born castes on Shudra mothers, 
or the contrary (Pratilomaja and Anulomaja) are all unsancti- 
fied races without any right to the sacramental rites or 

The twice»born castes occupy the foremost place of ali 
other social orders, as regards the glory of descent and 
sanctity, and a member, belonging to any of them, acquires 
the full privilege of his order at the fifth or at the seventh 
year of his age through his second birth in spirit. 

A householder shall daily perform the rites laid down 
in the Smritis with the help of the sacred fire, first lighted on 
the occasion of his marriage, and all Vedic rites should be 
performed in the same, save and except on the occasion of 
making gifts. A member of the twice-born order shall leave 
his bed early in the morning, attend to the calls of nature, 
then wash and cleanse himself, specially cleansing the teeth 
with a crushed twig of any of the medicinal plants, and shall 
thereafter perform the rite of his daily Sandhya (worship^ 
Then having cast libations of clarified fire in the sacred fire, 
he shall mentally repeat, in an unruffled spirit, the Mantras 
sacred to the Sun-God. Then having discoursed on the 
teachings of the Vedas, and discussed several topics of the 
kindred branches of study, a householder shall resort to his 



gfod with the object of attaining divine beatitude through the 
practice of Yoga. 

Then having bathed, he shall propitiate the gods and his 
Pitris with libations of water, and worship them with the 
most heartfelt devotion. After that, he shall read several 
portions of the Vedas and the sacred Puranas. For the 
successful termination of his daily Japa-Yajna (divine medi«> 
tation\ he shall mentally recite the Adhyatmiki Vidyam. 
Offering of oblations to the created beings, to the gods, 
to the Pitris, and Brahma, casting of libations of clarified 
butter in the sacrificial fire, reading of the Vedic verses, 
and practice of hospitality to chance-comers, are the great 
daily religious sacrifices of all human beings* Libations of 
clarified butter should be cast in the sacred fire for the propi- 
tiation of the gods, and oblations of food stuff should be 
offered to the beasts (///., created beings). Boiled rice should 
be offered in the open, and on the bare, ground for the use of 
the crows and the Chandalas, and similar oblations of cooked 
food (///., rice), and libations of cold water should be daily 
offered to the gods and the Pitris. 

A (twice-born) householder shall daily read his Vedas, 
and shall not cause any food to be cooked for his own 
exclusive use. He shall take his meal with his wife, after 
having fed all the infants, old men, invalids, and girls in the 
family and all chance-comers to his house. He shall eat his 
meals without finding any fault with it, and after having per« 
formed the rite of Homa to his vital (intestinal) fires. 

He shall first feed the boys and infants in the house and 
observe moderation in eating. A householder is hereby 
enjoined only to take that sort of food which is wholesome 
in its digcstionary reaction (Vipakam). 

A member of the twice-born order shall convert his meal 
into ambrosia by performing the rite of Amritikaranam 
(transformation into ambrosia), and shall partake of the same 
in a covered place, screened from the view of the public« 



• • • • ■ . 

He shall distribute food to the chance-comers to his house, 
ancf to the members of the temaining Social orders, as his 
means would admit of. He shall not look upon a chance*^ 
comer, to his house as an unwelcome intruder, nor try to 
identify him with another person, come on a previous occa- 
sion. Charities should be doled out to begq^ars and to nieii of 
commendable vows, and the Shrotriyas, and all comers should * 
be treated with a sumptuous repast. The Snatakas (per- 
formers of ceremonial ablutions), Acharyyas and the princes, 
should be feasted each year. 

A chance-comer, worn out with the faticrues of a longr 
pedestrial journey, is called an Atithi, while a Brahmana, 
well-versed in the knowledge of the holy Vedas, is called 
a Shrotriya. A householder shall revere the Shrotriyas and 
the Atithis with a view to ascend to the region of Brahma 
after death. 

A householder of the twice-born order shall feel no incli- 
nation for a food, cooked and prepared by another, nor shalf 
he make any reflections on another man's conduct, except 
while deliberating a question of public interest in a council or 
meeting convened for the purpose. He shall not dangle his 
legs, nor listlessly move his arms, nor be hasty in his speech, 
and under no circumstance shall he indulge in the vice of 
over-eating. He shall escort a Shrotriya or an Atithi to the 
border of his land or village, after having fed him well in 
his own house. He shall pass the closing part of the day 
in friendly gossips with his trusted and well-meaning friends. 
A householder shall leave his bed early in the morning, and 
propitiate the gods and the Brahmanas with precious gifts. It 
is incumbent on a householder to ponder well over a matter 
bffore executing it (Vriddha-Pantha), to be godly and devoted 
to the service of the deity, like a man in disease (Arta-Riti), 
and not to suffer any delay in the execution of a work, when 
once he has chosen his line of action, like a load-carrier 
briskly running with his load in the way (Bharavahi-Ritij. 


The worldly duties of a Vaishya, or of a Kshatriya, con- 
sist in the celebration of religious sacrifices, and in the study 
and practice of chanties, while performance of religious rites, 
study of the Vedas, acceptance of gifts, practice of charities, 
teaching and officiating at the religious sacrifices of others in 
the capacity of a priest, are morally obligatory to a Brahmana, 
living the life of a householder. The one and imperative 
duty of a Kshatriya is to protect the people from foreign 
invasions and civic or internal disturbances. Banking, mer- 
chandise, and rearing of large herds of cattle, are the 
functions which a member of the Vaishya (trading) com- 
munity, is born to perform, while the sole duty of a Shudra 
is to render personal service to the foremost of the twice- 
born castes. 

Truthfulness, annihilation of all killing or hostile propen- 
sities, non-stealing, personal cleanliness, and self-control, are 
the virtues, the practice whereof is equally obligatory on all 
human beings, irrespective of castes or functions in life. One 
should earn his livelihood by means proper to, and specifically 
enjoined in the Shastras for, the particular community one 
would belong to, which should never be crooked or deceitful. 
He who is in the habit of taking rice, matured for more 
than three years, is alone fit to drink the holy Soma, 
while the person whose daily meals consist of boiled rice, 
not more than one year old, should perform the proper and 
necessary religious sacrihces before taking it. 

A householder shall duly celebrate, each year, the . Vedic 
sacrifices known as Soma. PashurPratyayanam, Grahaneshti, 
and Chaturmashyam, in the failure whereof the one known as 
Vaishvanari, should be performed. A religious sacrifice, 
should not be celebrated with a number of articles or offer- 
ings, less than that laid down in the Shastras in that behalf. 
By celebratiiij; a religious sacrifice with money or articles 
begged of a Shudra, a Brahmana is sure to reincarnate as a 
Chandala in his next existence. By stealing anything 


collected for the celebration of a religious sacrifice, the 
^ stealer becomes a crow or a Bhasa (bird) in his next birth. 
Of the four persons whose granary is filled with grains, who 
has got enough grain stored in his house to last him for three 
days, who has got sufficient only for a day's use, and 
the person who lives by picking up grains from the stubbles 
(Uncha-Vritti), the each preceding one is happier and lives in 
greater comfort than the one immediately succeeding him in 
the order of enumeration. A Brahmana is prohibited from 
adopting a profession which is caculated to interfere with 
his studies and divine contemplation, and who, in want of the 
barest necessaries of life, may be allowed to beg of a pupil, 
of a king, or of a fellow Brahmana. Any dishonest means 
of livelihood, or maintaining himself by passing off as a 
false prophet, or a false ascetic, is equally nefarious and 
criminal. It is sin for a Brahmana to earn money in pursuits 
of vanity. 

A householder shall put on clean clothes, shave himself 
and pare off his finger-nails every day, and in short, must be 
cleanly in his habits. A man is enjoined not to sit down 
to his meals in the presence of his wife, and nor without 
being decently wrapped in his upper garment. A Brahmana 
should be always humble, and constantly wear his holy 
thread, nor shall he speak harsh to any body. 
' Micturation in a river-bed, in a shade, over ashes, in a 

pasturage, in water, or in the road, is forbidden, it being 
sinful for a man to pass urine while looking at the sun, or 
at the moon, or at the gloom of the evening, or at a woman, 
or at a Brahmana. One should not look at the blaze of fire, 
nor at any naked woman, nor at one sharing the bed of her 
husband, nor at any excreted matter, nor sleep with his head 
towards the west. It is forbidden to spit or throw blood, 
or poison, or any sort of excreta into water. It is injurious to 
bask one's soles in the glare of fire, or to leap over a blazing 
fire, or to drink of the blended palms of one's own hands, or 



to rouse up a sleeping person, or to play with any dishonest 
gambler, or to live in contact with any diseased person. 
Exposure to the smoke and vapours of a cremation ground, 
and residence on a river bank, should be avoided as harmful. 
One should not stand over torn hairs, hnsks of grains, and 
ashes, nor upon particles of any human cranium. A cow 
should not be disturbed while drinking, nor a chamber 
should be entered into by any passage othter than its proper 
door. Money or any pecuniary help should not be asked of 
a greedy king, nor of a person who does not live according 
to the injunctions of the Shastras. 

A rite of Upakarma (study of the Vedas after performing 
certain religious rites), should not be performed under the 
auspices of the full moon of Shravan, or of the asterism 
of Shravana and Hasta, nor on the fifth day of the moon's 
wane in the month of Shravan, nor on a day marked by 
the asterism of Rohini or Pushya, nor on the occasion of an 
Ashtaka. The stool, urine and other excreta should be put 
and deposited at a distance from one's dwelling-house. 

The study of the Vedas should be discontinued for three 
successive days on the occasion of the death of one's disciple, 
priest, spiritual preceptor, or a male cognate relation. Cessa- 
tion of Vedic study should be enjoined on the happening of 
an earthquake, or meteor-fall, or thunder-clap, or on the 
of a Shrotriya Brahmana, and after finishing the recitation 
of a Veda and its allied Aranyakam by a student or pupil, 
duly initiated. A study of the Vedas is forbidden on days of 
the full and the new moon, as well as on the eighth or the 
fourteenth day of the moon's wane or increase, on the occa- 
sion of a lunar eclipse, after eating, at the meeting of two 
seasons, after taking any gift, at any Shraddha ceremony, 
and on the passing of a snake, hog, mungoose, dog, or cat 
between the pupil and the preceptor at the time of study. 
A study of the Vedas should be discontinued just as the reader 
would hear the bark, or howl, or braying or screeching, or 


•crying, ormnoanii^ of a dog, or a jackal or an ass, or ,an owl, 
•or an infant or a sick person, as well as on the near approach 
of a dead body, or a Siiudra, or any morally degraded person. 
One should refrain from studying the Vedas at an unholy 
fplace, in the road, on hearing a thunder clap, after dinner, in 
wet palms, in water, at the dead of night; in storm, on the 
appearance of meteoric flashes in the sky, in dust storm, at 
•evening, and during snowfall. The Vedas should not be . 
studied from a preceptor in motion, and be stopped on the 
advent of a holy person in the house, or while the disciple is 
riding an elephant, a horse or a camel, or in a carriage, or 
climbing a tree or a hill, or crossing a river ; these thirty- 
,seven occasions of non-study of the Vedas should be regarded 
as contingent on the happening of particular events, and as 
ttmited by the period of their respective durations. 

Acts enjoined in the Vedas, as well as the commands of a 
king or a preceptor, should be executed without questioning. 
The wife of another person, should never be polluted, and 
the shadow (of a person) as well as all excreted matter, and 
oils • and cosmetics for human use, should never be leapt over 
and crossed. It is a sin to make light of a king or of a Brahmana, 
or of a snake, or of a disease lurking in the system. The re- 
fuges of tables and all sorts of excreta, should be shunned from 
a distance as impure. One shall not repent after executing 
any act approved of the Shrutis or the Shrastras, nor ques- 
tioa its propriety or ethical fairness. A son or a disciple 
should be flogged, at times, for the purpose of discipline. 
Virtue should be perpetually practised and by all means, and 
vice should be repre^ed and refrained from. One should not 
airgrily dispute with one's parents and guests (/// : chance- 
comers at one's house), even in the existence of a right cause 
for the same. One should not bathe in another's tank before 
lifting five handful of clay from its bed, which rule does not 
hold good in respect of lakes, springs and other natural 
reservoirs of water. 


The bed of one should never be ased by another, and 
the food prepared by one's own enemy, or by a Brahmana 
who is not a keeper of the sacred fire (Niragni), might be 
partaken of only in severe distress. A bad food, or the one 
prepared by a professional musician {lit: lute-player), or by 
a defiler of another man's bed, or by a person who lives by 
making breaches among friends and relations (Varddhushika), 
or by Brahmana who is the spiritual preceptor* of prostitutes, 
or by a professional physician, or by a professional actor, or 
by a dishonest and furious person, or by a member of any 
of the twice-born castes, not formally invested with the holy 
thread (Vratya), or by an arrogant braggart, or by one who 
eats the refuges of others men's boards, or by one who lives 
by selling knowledge, or by an uxorious husband, or by a 
village priest, or by a cruel king, or by a traitor, or by a public 
executioner, or by a malicious person, or by an utterer of 
falsehood, or by a wine-seller, or by a bard (Vandi), or by a 
goldsmith, should never be taken. The flesh of an animal 
not sacrificed to a god, or boiled rice infested with worms and 
hairs, should never be partaken of. 

An article of food, such as boiled rice etc, prepared on a 
previous day or night, or partaken of by another, or touched 
by a dog, or sprinkled over with water by a morally degraded 
person, or polluted by the touch of a woman in her menses, or 
squeezed by another, or smelled by a cow, or eaten by a bird, 
or trampled down with foot, should be shunned, as impure 
and unwholesome. A food (including boiled rice), prepared 
by a Shudra, should be unconditionally rejected with the ex- 
ception of one made by a Dasa, Gopa, Kulamitra, Ardhasiri, 
Napita, or a Shudra, who has surrendered himself to a Brah- 
mana, which may be eaten without any prejudice. 

Boiled rice, prepared on a previous day and kept soaked 
with clarified butter, may be safely taken without any un- 
wholesome effect. Articles made of wheat and barley, and 
without any admixture of clarified butter, should be rejected 


as food. The milk of a she-camel, or of any female aniitlal 
with unbifurcated hoofs, should not be used< The flesh of 
any carnivorous bird or of a Dyatuha, as well as that of a 
dog, should never be eaten. The sin,— consequent on eating 
the flesh of a Sarasa, Hansa (Ekashapha), Valaka, Vaka or 
Tittibha, as well as the one originating from the use of Kri-* 
shara, Pupa, Shankuli, etc., without dedicating them to one's 
guest, or from that of the flesh of a swan, Kunira, Bhasa^ 
Khanjana, or Shuka, — may be expiated by a three days' fast. 
The use of garlic or onion in food, should be atoned by per-* 
forming a Chandrayana penance. The use of any cooked meat 
on the occasion of Shraddha ceremony, and after dedicating 
it to one's departed manes (Pitris) does not entail any sin. 
The soul of the person, who wantonly kills any animal 
in this life, lives for as many number of years in hell after 
death, as there are hairs on the body of that slaughtered 
animal, and who may be only. rescued, if the god Hari kindly 
listens to his constant prayers for expiation on the condition 
of his never killing any animal in his next re-birth. 



Yajnavalkya said : — O Brahmanas, now hear me discourse 
on the means of cleansing or purifying the articles of daily 
use. All articles of gold, silver, conch-shell, or precious 
stones, as well as blankets and utensils are made pure by 
simply washing it with water. A spoon, or a laddie, as well 
as paddies, may be made pure by simply dipping them in hot 
water. An article, made of wood or horn, is made pure by the 
scraping off of a slice from its body, while the utensils to be 
used in a sacriikial ceremony, may be made pure by simply 


washing them with water. A blanket, or a cloth, made 
of sheep's hair or silk, is purified by dipping it in hot 
water, or by sprinkling drops of cow's urine over its surface. 
An article, obtained by begging, is made pure by being 
looked at by a woman, while a baked earthen pot is puri* 
fied by a second burning. A pot of boiled rice, smelled by 
a cow, or dropped upon by a bunch of hair, or an insect, 
may be made pure by simply throwing a pinch of ashes 
over it. The ground is purified by rubbing it with water. 
An utensil made of brass, lead, . or copper, is purified by 
rubbing it with alkali or any acid substance, an iron-made one 
by being rubbed with ashes, while a newly-gotten thing is 
always pure. The water of any natural reservoir of water, 
is made pure by being smelled by a cow, while a bit of flesh 
dropped from the beaks of any carnivorous bird in carriage, 
or from the mouth of a dog, or touched by a Chandala, 
does not lose its natural purity. The rays of the sun, fire, 
the shadow of a goat or a cow, the earth, a horse, a goat, 
a Brahmana, and a dewdrop (drop of water) are above all 
contamination. A man should change his clothes after 
bathing, drinking, sneezing, sleeping, eating, or returning 
from a walk, and by rinsing his mouth with water after 
having made an Achamanam. A Brahmana need not rinse 
his mouth with water after an act of sneezing, sleeping, 
spitting, wearing an apparel, or lachrymation. It Is enough 
to touch his right ear under the circumstance, since all the 
gods, such as Agni, etc., reside in the Scapha of that organ 
of a Brahmana. 



Yajnavai.kva said : — O you holy masters of excellent 
penitential rites, now hear me discourse on the method of 



making gifts. The ^ Brahmanas are the fittest persons to 
make gifts to, foremost among them being those who regular- 
ly perform and celebrate the Brahminical rites and cere- 
monies. The best even among the latter are those \rho 
know the Supreme Brahma, and have devoted themselves to 
the cultivation of intellectual and spiritual knowledge. 

Gifts of cows, proprietory rights in lands, food grsuns 
and gold, should be given to a Brahmana, who is every vray 
worthy of receiving the same. A Brahmana, who has neither 
erudition, nor is a seeker of spiritual knowledge, has no right 
to accept any gifts ; and degrades the giver as well as his 
own soul by accepting any. A gift should be made every 
day to a worthy receiver, as well as on special occasions. A 
person is morally bound to give something in charity to a 
person in straitened circumstances, and soliciting bis hdip, 
according to his own means and in a devout spirit. 

A thousand of milch-cows with their horns cased in gold, 
and hoops bound with silver, may be given in gift to a Brah- 
mana with thousand bowls of Indian bell-metal. The horn 
■ . fc •■ • . . . • ^ • , . 

cases should be made of a Pala weight of gold (one Pala= 
eight tolas), the hoofs, of seven Palas of silver, and the bowls, 
of fi^ty Pala weights of bell-metal, each. A calf shoula be 

given with each of the abovesaid number of cows, or a 

. • • ... 

sound and healthy calf, with a golden bowl, should be given, 
with them. 

■ By making a gift in the preceding manner, a giver is 
enabled to live in heaven for as many years as there are^ 
hairs on the body of each cow, gifted away. A cow of the 
Kapila species, gifted away in the preceding manner, succours 
the souls of the relations of her giver, removed to the 
seventh degree in the ascending line. A cow with the 
head and hoofs of a yet unborn calf just issued out of 
the passage of parturition, should be regarded as the 
embodied representative of the earth goddess ; and the merit 
of making the gift of such a one at the time, is identical with 


that of making a gift of the whole world. A giver of a 

healthy and disease-less cow, whether with or without a calfr 

is glorified in heaven. By shampooing the feet of a tired 

and travel-worn person, by nursing the sick and the poor^ 

by worshipping the god, or by washing the holy feet of a 

Brahmana, one is sure to acquire the same merit as that of 

making the gift of a cow. A man, by making the gift of a 

wished-for thing (desired by the receiver bin>self) to a 

Brahman, is glorified in the region of the gods. By making 

gifts of lands, lamps, boiled rice, cloths, and clarified butter, a 

man is sure to acquire opulence in his next birth. The merit 

of making the gift of a house, or paddy, umbrella, garfami 

of flowers, or of a tree, or a carriage or of darifred butter, 

or water, ensures an exalted position to the g^ver in heaven. 

By making the gift of Vedas, a man is translated to the 

region of the supreme Brahma, unattainable even by the 

gods. By transcribing the Vedas, Yajna Shastras or the 

works on Dharma Shastras even for money, a man is 

elevated to the beatitude of Brahmaloka. The true signU 

fication of the Vedic verses, is to be gathered at all costs, 

since God created the universe on the basis of the immutable 

Vedas (knowledge). By making the gift of a well-trans* 

cribcd work on Itihasa or Puranam, a ntan is glorified 

in the region of the supreme Brahma, and becomes 

doubly entitled to the privileges of heaven. It b sin 

for a Brahmana to join in any secular topic, or to 

lend his ears to any scandalous gossip, or listen to a speech, 

made in a vulgar, or in a MIechchha tongue. He, who 

though being a fit and worthy receiver of gifts, studiously 

avoids accepting any, acquires the same relgious merit as a 

maker of gifts. Water, Kusha grass, milk, sandal wood, or 

any kind of edible roots or leaves, need not be refused 

when offered, it being not anywise impious to accept a gift 

from a dishonest person, voluntarily made and received 

without asking, .\nything offered byja eunuch, by a man or 


woman of questionable morals, as well as the one offered bjr 
one's enemy, should be unconditionally rejected, except for 
the purpose of celebrating any. religious ceremony, er per- 
forming the obsequies of one's own father. 



Yajnavalkya SAID : — Now I shall describe the process of 
celebrating Shraddha ceremonies for the propitiation of one's 
own departed manes, whereby all sins are expiated. 

A day of the new moon, Ashtaka, Vriddhi (occasion of 
the marriage of one's son) the advent of Pretapaksha (dark 
fortnight in the month of Bhidra) the passing of the sun 
into the sign of cancer or of capricornus, receiving of any 
kind of excellent meat, the advent of Brahmanas well-* 
versed in the Vedas in ones's house, the two equinoxes, 
the passing of the sun into a zodiacal sign, the astral com* 
bination known as Vyatipata Yoga, Gajachcbaya (Maghl 
trayodashi — the thirteenth day of the moon's wane marked 
by the asterism Maghi) a solar or a lunar eclipse, are the 
occasions on which a Shraddha ceremony is to be performed. 

Young Shrotriya Brahmanas well-versed in Vedic lore, 
astrologers, Trimadhus, the three Savarna friends the sister's 
son, the family priest, son-in-law, the preceptor, the father-in* 
law, the maternal uncle, daughter's son, the disciple, the wife's 
brothers, and friends and relations of the deceased, Ibe three 
Nachiketas, and Brahmanas who officiate at the religioas sacri^ 
fices or are the keepers of the sacred fire, or practise asceti* 
cism, or arc fondly devoted to their parents, or strictly conform 
to the rules of Brahmanism, should be alone invited on the 
«K:casion of a Shraddha cercmonv. A diseased or a maimed 


Brahmana, as well as one bom \iith an additional bodily 
appendage, or born in the unmarried state of his mother, 
or the issue ot her second marriage, or any wise deviated 
from the execution of his true Brahminical duties, or ungodly 
(///., having no faith in the god Vishnu) in his conduct should 
not be invited on the occasion of a Shraddha ceremony. The 
Brahmanas, eligible to be present in the ceremony, should 
be invited on the day, previous to its celebration through 
other Brahmanas. 

Then on the occasion of the ceremony, the performer 

of a Shraddha, should first humbly ask the invited Brah* 

manas to be seated in their respective seats, and then with 

his blended palms entreat them to arrange themselves 

in the following order, v/^., two Brahmanaas before the 

vessel containing offerings for the gods, with their faces 

turned towards the east, and three before the vessels contain* 

ing offerings for the performer's departed manes and with 

their faces turned towards the north. Similar disposition 

of Brahmanas, should be made in respect of the vessels 

containing offerings for the performer's maternal ancestors. 

Then after having offered water to the Pitris for washing 

their hands with, and cushions of kusha blades to seat 

upon, the performer, with the permission of the Brahmanas 

officiating at the ceremoney, would invoke the presence of 

his departed manes in it, by reciting the proper Mantras, 

and scatter barley grains over the vessels containing the 

sacred knots of kusha grass (Pavi tram). After that he shall 

offer water to the Brahmanas by reciting the **^Shannodevi " 

etc., Mantra, barley grains by reciting the one, beginning 

with '* Yavosi" etc., Mantra. Then with the permission of 

the Brahmanas, he shall invoke the presence of his departed 

manes in the ceremony by reciting the Mantra, running as 

'* Ayantu nah Pitara" (Come, O our fathers) etc., by whirling 

his right hand over his hsad from the left. In offering 

Arghas to the Pitris, sesamame seed should be used instead 



of barley grains, and the performer of the ceremony shall 
then meditate upon their divine selves. 

Then the vessel containing the offering for the Pitris shall 
"be bent by reciting the Mantra running as " Pitribhyoh 
Sthanam-aisi." Then boiled rice, soaked with clarified "^ 

'butter, should be taken in hand, and the permission of the 
Pitris should be obtained by reciting the Mantra, running 
as "Agnow Karishye," etc., after which the Gayatri Mantra 
and the one running as Madhuvdtd, etc./ should be thrice 
recited over it. Then after having recited the Mantra 
Tunning as Yathdsukham Vakjatah Sada (stay silently for a 
while as you please) etc., the performer of a Shrdddha should 
mentally recite the sacred Mantras for a while during which 
period the Pitris should be contemplated as partaking of 
the oblations of boiled rice ofFered to them. 

The performer should offer the Havishya oblations to /' 

liis fathers, if desired, in an ungrudging spirit. He should 
mentally repeat the of God or any other sacred Mantra, 
vntil the Pitris w*ould finish their nieal, and then recite the 
benedictory Vedic Verses, running as Madhu Viti ritiyat£ 
(may the sweet wind blow over the land), etc., and scatter 
*the dedicated boiled rice over the ground by reciting the 
" Om, Triptah Stha" (Be you appeased) Mantra. After that, 
oblations of boiled rice, mixed with sesame seeds, should be 
offered near the vessel containing the refuge of the meals of 
the Pitris, the offerer looking towards the South at the time. 
Oblations should be thus offered to the souls of one's grand« 
father and great grandfather, both in the paternal and the 
maternal lines ; and the rite of oblations should be closed 
by offering Achamaniyam (water for rinsing the mouth) 
to them. 

A Brahmana shall utter the term " Svasti" in connec- 
Cion with' all acts done by him in course of the ceremony, 
after which tlie Akshayyas should be given, and the Brah- 
lianas officiating at the ceremony, should be remunerated 


with Dakshinas, as his means wouTd admit of. Then he woulcF 
ask the permission of the Brahmanas for lUlering '*Sv&dha"* 
with a recitation of the Mantra^ running; as ''Svadham* 
Vachayishey" and the Brahmanas would express thair con^ 
sent thereto by uttering ** Vachyatam" (speak out.) Then the- 
sacred knot of the Kusha grass (Pavitram) should be untied^ 
with the permission of the Brahmanas, by reciting '' Pitribhyah* 
Svadhochaty4m/' and he should sprinkle water over the 
ground with a similar permission of theirs with the Mantra. 
^'Om, Ashta Svadhi." Then [having again sprinkled >vater 
over the ground in accompaniment of the IVCantra running as 
** Vishv^devah PriyantAm, etc. (May the Vishv^dev&s be 
pleased with the ceremony), he should recite the one begin- 
ning with " D&taro Noh Abhivarddhan*Ain" (May our 
givers enjoy greater prosperity), whereupon the Brahmanas- 
would reply ** Om, Astu" (Om, be it sc^ Then the per- 
former of the ceremony, would devoutly make an obeisance 
to the Brahmanas and dismiss them with sweet words. Then 
the Brahmanas in connection with the vessels known as the 
Pitri pAtras, etc., would be bidden adieu^ to by reciting the- 
Mantra running as " Vaje," ** Vaji," etc;. Then the lid or 


the cover of the Pitri pAtra containing tha- Argh^-sprinkled 
water, should be removed, and the performer would sprinkle a 
few drops thereof, and bid them (Brahmanas^ farewell as be- 
fore. He should circumbulate the ground erthe site of the 
ceremony, and take the resdiue of the oblations dedicated to 
his manes. Both he and his wife, would practise a votv of 
continence for the night. 

A Shrdddha ceremony, should be perforn>ed on the occa- 
sion of a marriage in the house in the aforesaid manner, with 
the exception that the term " Nandimukha" should be appen- 
ded to the name of each of the performer's departed manes, 
and the oblations containing Vadari fruits, should be offered' 
to them. 

In a rite of Ekoddishta Shr&ddhha, the vessel of oblatioa 


t •«• 

of ba:!'*;.' 

then rr.-- :■■ 

Th-:" • ■ 

Stnar..-! - 
"butt'jr. ^ 
Pitris . . 
as "A/-. •• 
-and i:.-. •■ 
runrir. :^ . 
whi!-: ..- 
menta". V 
perioi t' 
the ob!.i'.': 
Th- • 
his fath^T 
mental! V • 


^intil th- 
bcncdlc: • 
(may t'-.- 
the d-:'.. ■ ' 
"Om. Tr- • 
offered r.-i- 
the Piirir. ;.. 
Oblaiio!.- .. 
father r. ... 
materr.i'i ... 
bv ofT^Ti;.. 
to them. 

lion wi:*:; 
after wr.i 
oianas ^::... 

- -niirevi, and the 

.. J. ^*T^5, should be 

— a-^nce of ail in- 

. • .-c:c-Ii be per- 

- . :::j.r:ya) being 

:-: k::asavvavatl. 

■ :.:o present rile 

••tc -D while the 

r,^ 'Abhiramva- 


. « -vaicr contain- 

:iT vessels at 

. :: :hem .should 

"T rrsra ^departed 

.:•: ceremony is 

.. . :i:-rirgs offered 

-:r::tir!j the two 

.. . ir.d then mixed 

-T-^r 5 grandfather. 

...-jwi and Parvana, 


>f crfered to the 

.^ j: :he year in the 

. 'r«?i-C Dcrtormed 

* ie?arted manes 


. :r j\cr to a cow, 
. ;. I'ie close oi the 

• - .T water. The 
' -rr.TV perijrmcJ 

« ,s any vegetable. 

• ■;%i'ihA ^swectencil 

.*. ra^es. lasts them 

..4, ::» the periorm- 
, r,::.^^ ^^5- Shakula 
^ 4 •^;»hata or an tna 



or a Rum (different families of deer), or of a boar, or of a 
hare, successively endures for a month more, in the order of 

A Shraddha ceremony should be celebrated each year, on 
the thirteenth day of the moon's wane marked by the asterism 
(lunar mansion) Magha. A Shraddha ceremony should be. . 
likewbe performed each day, in honor of one's departed 
manes from the first day of the dark fortnight to its close 
(day of the new moon) in the month of Bhadra, known in ^ 
the Sanskrit calendar as Pretapaksha (when the departed 
Manes are supposed to visit the earth), the benefit of 


such peformances being the birth of a daughter in the per- ' 
former's family. Shraddha ceremonies for the salvation of 
souls who had quitted the world in consequence of any cut, 
blow or sword-thurst, should be celebrated on the fourteenth 
day of the moon's wane, in virtue of which the performer ' 
would be rewarded with wealth, offspring and valour in this 
life. By duly performing a Shraddha ceremony in honor 
of his departed manes, a performer is enabled to live a long 

life in the full possession of a good name, and a sound bodily 


health, suffers no bereavement in life, and attains an elevated 
status in the world to come. Knowledge spreads her stor^^ 
to such a man, the goddess of wealth pours down" plenty 

over his fields, filling his chests and coffers with all sorts of' 

^ • • * - . - « « 

precious metal, and the number of his cattle swells by daily 
additions. A similar benefit is derived from celebrating a 
Shraddha ceremony under the auspicies of ' any of the three 
asterisms (lunar mansion) calculated from the Krittika. 
The Pitris of a Brahmana, who performs a Shraddha cere- " 
mony with new water (water of the rainy season) or with 
newly harvested rice, con^^*" upon him the blessings of 
longevity, . fatherhood, opulence, erudition and sovereignity in , 
this life, and a residence in heaven, and even salvation, after 
death in return. 

■ 37 


Yajnavalkya said:— Now hear me describe the symptoms 
which are exhibited in a person, struck by the malignant 
influence of a Vinayaka. The afflicted person dreams 6( 
water and fancies in dreams that he has been bathing in a 
lake or pool. The patient pines away in sorrow and silence, 
and all his undertakings end in dismal failures. A king 
under the influence of a Vinayaka, loses his sovereignty, a 
virgin cannot secure a husband, and a matron continues 
sterile or is deprived of the blessings of motherhood. The 
remedy consists in a ceremonial ablution effected in the 
following manner :-— 

The body of the patient should be first nibbed with a 
compound consisting of white mustard seeds and sandal 
wood pasted together with the admixture of clarified butter, 
his head being plastered with a paste of the drugs, known as 
Sarvoushadhi and Savagandha. Then he should be seated 
on a platform, as is generally raised on the occasion of a 
religious sacrifice ; and the Brahmanas shall be asked to 
recite benedictory Mantras over his person. Then four 
earthen pitchers, all of the same colour, and filled with water 
fetched from the same lake or natural reservoir of water, 
and saturated with Rochona (yellow pigment), sandal paste, 
and Guggulu (aromatic gum resin) should be emptied over his 
head, the patient being seated on a red leather cushion, and 
the Brahmanas chanting the following Mantras at the time :— 
'' We bathe thee with water which has been purified by the 
Sun-God and the Holy Sages. May the purifying element in 
the water, imparted to it by their sacred touch, clelnse thy 
spirit. May the gods Varuna, Indra, the Sun, the Wind, the 
concourse of the seven Holy Siges, as well as the Jupiter and 


the sacred person of the king, give ba ck to thee thy lost splen« 
dour and fortune. May the til fate wh ich clings to thy hatrsi 
forelock, head, temples, ears and ey es, be hereby dispelled 
and washed away." After that, musta rd oil should be poured 
over his head and in his ears, and a Homa should be performed 
in the fire of lighted Kusha blades soaked with clarified 
butter, and held over his head. Libations of clarified butteti 
surcharged with powdered turmeric, should be subsequently 
cast in the sacrificial fire in honor of the gods, known as Kush* 
manda and Rajputra, by appending the term Svaba (obei* 
sance) to their respective names, each time they are invoked 
in the course of the ceremony. Then bUdes of Kusha grass 
should be spread over a place where four roads meet, and the 
■ votary or the priest officiating at the ceremony, should sit 
upon them with a tray on his head, containing both ripe 
and unripe grains of rice, sweet-scented flowers of beautiful 
colours, the three kinds of wine, curd, sweet porridge, boiled 
rice, clarified butter, treacle and sweetmeats, and worship 
the goddess Amvica in that posture with blended palms and 
in a drvout spirit. He shall dedicate those offerings to the 
goddess, and pray as follows :— '* Grint me the boons of 
beauty and fame, O goddess, and make me happy in the 
delights of fatherhood." t 

' Gifts of white cloths and white sahdal pastes should be 
made to ther Brahmanas at the close of the worship, aqd the 
spiritual preceptor of the patient's family, should be appeared 
with the gift of a pair of cloths, and the tutelary deities of 
the planets should also be propitiated with a worship. 


I • 



.• I- rt vri! 'J r.- f» 

. I 

,1- ■ 


• ' , r » 

• •• • , • . I 

*• • 

Yajnavalkya said :. — It is incumbent on a person, cast 
.' under the maligna nt influences of hostile planets, to cele- 
brate a religious L«acrifice for their propitiation, which is 
.called a Grahayajna, *and which a man, in quest of earthly 
prosperity and pes;.ce in life, shall do well to perform. The 
• learned have designated the planets as the Sun, the Moon, 
the Mars, the Mercury, the Jupiter, the Venus, the Saturn, 
and the Nodes, both ascending and descending (Rahu. and 
Ketu); and their respective malignant influences entail the 
wearing of copper,* Indian bell metal, crystal,, red sandal- 
"wood; gold, silver, iron, lead and Indian bell metal, by.persons 
struck with them, on their bodies. 

' "* iio-w hear me, O 4ioly sages, describe the respective colours 
of the aforesaid planets. The Sun is red ; the Moon ; white, 
the Mars, red; the' Mercury and the Jupiter, yellowbh ; and 
the Venus, white ; all the rest being black. 

A person struck by the malignant influence of any of 
the planets, should- be bathed with water containing bits of 
the metal, specifically held sacred to it, and libations of clari- 
fied butter surchai^ged with its particles should be likewise 
cast in the sacrificial fire in honour of its tutelary god. Offer- 
ings of gold, cloth, and flowers, should be made to the anta- 
' gohistic planet, and the worship should • be conducted with 
flowers, perfumes, edibles and burping incense-sticks made'of 
aromatic gum resin. The tutelary gods of the planets, as well 
as their subordinates, should be. worshipped by reciting the 
Mantras respectively held sacred to them. The Rik running 
as ** Akrishnnaa Rajasa," should be chanted during the wor- 
ship of the Sun-God, the one beginning with ** Imam Deva," 
etc., should be recited in worshipping the Moon-God. The 
Mar:^ should be invoked by reciting the Vedic verse, running 

gAruoa P'jranam. 293 

as " Agnimurdha," etc., while the Mercury should be addressed 
with the one beginning with '' Udbudhyasva," etc. The Rik 
running as " Vrihaspati," etc., shall be chanted on the occa- 
sion of a worship of the Jupiter, and the Mantra of "Anyat," 
etc., on that of the worship of the Venus. The Saturn should 
be invoked by reciting the Rik running as " Shannodevii"* etc., 
while the Nodes should be respectively addressed With' tfic 
verses running as " Kayayana" etc;, and " Kranvana etc.'" " 

The twigs of such sacrificial trees or plants such as the 
Arka, the Palasha, the Khadira, the Apamarga, ' the* Pippafa, 
the Oudumvara, the Shami, and Durva and Kusha blsfdes, 
soaked with curd, honey and clarified butter, shoulcf tie 
respectively cast in the sacrificial fire, in Homa ceremonies 
celebrated for the propitiation of the planets, suclir as the Sun 
etc., '' Treacle and boiled rice, Payasa, Havisbyannam (sun- 
dried rice cooked with any sacred vegetables and soaked 
with butter), boiled rice mixed with milk condensied' and 
sweetened by boiling, curd with boild rice, clarrfied butter, 
cakes, cooked meat and Vichitrannam (some thing Tike 
our modern Pilaos) should be respectively' dedicated ^s 
offerings to the planets beginning with the Siin. * A cow, 
a conchshell, an ox, gold, a cloth, a horse, a black cow, iron 
and a goat, are the Dakshinas (honorarium), which should 
be paid to the Brahmanas officiating at the ' ceremonies 
respectively celebrated for the propitiation of the Sun, the 
Moon, the Mars, the Mercury, the Jupiter, the* Venus, the 
Saturn and the Nodes. Even a king *may derive* many 
benefits from worshipping the planets. 



YajnavalkvA said :— Hear mcf O you holy sages, enumerate 
the duties of a householder, entering the life of a hermit 
at the close df his wordly career (Vanaprastha Dharma). 

Having left his wife in the charge of his son, or in her 
company a householder, retired from the affairs of the worlds 
shall enter the forest, and live the life of a forest-dwellidgf 
hermit (Vanaprastha). Putting his senses under perfect 
control, and banishing all procreative desires from bis mindi 
he shall be a custodian of the sacred fire, revere the Brah* 
manas who shall belong to his own cult of fire worship, be 
hospitable to his guests, and propitiate his departed Manes 
with the celebration of Pitriyajnas. Self-controlled, he shall 
not the embellishment of his own person, wear long 
hairs, and please or endear himself to his own servants. 
Accepting neither gifts nor diarities, he shall refrain from 
pursuing all sorts of worldly pursuits^ and live contented 
and happy in perfect mastery over his own self* Once only 
in \ day or a month, he shall bestir himself about procuring 
thcjuecessaries of life, and pass his time in meditation and 
goodly thoughts, wishing and doing good to all. He shall 
sle^ on the bare ground, and all his acts shall be shaped to 
the fruit^n of one grand desire, v/j., the expansion of his 
spiritual felf. Never angry, and ever contented, he shall 
p^^ctUe Yoga amidst the fires (with blazing logs of wood 
on four sides and the Sun over head) in summer, in an opeo 
plain during the rains, and in wet clothes in winter* 



YajnavalkYA 5aid : — Hear mc, O you, the foremost of 
beings, narrate the duties of a Bhikshu (mendicant friar). 

Having^ returned from the forest and performed the 
religious sacrifice, knoitn as the Sarva-Veda Dakshiiiika, he 
shall celebrate a Prajapatya Vratam. Then humble, felf« 
controlled, and doing good to all, he shall abstract the 
divine energy from the sacrificial fire and assimilate It in his 
own self. Now he shall be considered fit to reside in a 
village, living on alms voluntarily offered. Otherwise he 
shall stir abroad in the evening witheut any of the para« 
phemalia of begging, which characterise ' a common mendi<« 
cant, and live contented on what will be obtained in a 
single stroll. He shall carry his bowl of gourd (Kamandula) 
and his Tridanda staff with him. He shall beg for the 
barest necessaries of life, and not out of any motive for 
gain. By practiseing self-control and regulation of breathi 
etc., a Bhikshu may attain the elevation of a Pararabansai 
and ultimately emancipate his self at the completion of his 
Yoga. By practising Yoga and moderation in diet, a Bhikshu 
may acquire an elevated status after death. Even a house- 
holder may emancipate his self by dint of wisdom, hospita* 
lity and charity. 



AJSAVALKVA said :— Tlie soul of a sinner^ after enduring 
the pangs of hell, is necessitated to revert to the lower plain 
of animal existence, and to incarnate in toccession therein 


till the Gnal extinction of the effects of his prior sinful acts. 
The killer of a Brahmana, after passing through the bodies 
of a dog, an ass and a camel, in succession, shall again 
work up its way to the plane of human life, and shall be 
born deaf ahd> dumb in his first incarnation therein. A' 
stealer of gold, shall take birth as a worm or an insect in his 
nejfi existence. A person defiling the bed of his own 
preceptor or superior, shall .vegetate as a blade of grass in 
his next incarnation.* A killer of a Brahmana will be afiSicted 
with an -. attack of* Pthysis in his next life, a gold-stealer 
will have black teeth, and one seducing the wife of one's 
own 'preceptor, will have an attack of whitlow in his next 
birth. He who steals food-grain in this life, will be de- 
prived of food in his next, while he who breaks the music 
at a duet, will be bom dumb in his next existence. A grain- 
stealer is born with an additional limb, and is tormented with 
a fcetid smell in his nostrils, and a crooked nature, which can 
not bear the* good fortune of others. An oil-stealer will be 
bom : as an insect known as oil worm in his next life, or 
as a mean,: malicious person with fetour in his mouth. Those 
who. have auspicious marks on their persons, will be rich 
and' happy/ while, the opposite may be predicted of those 
possessed of contrary features. 

f ' 



YaJNAVAlKYA said !— For commission of heinous and infamous 
acts, and omission of doing what is good and commendable, 
a person* is sure to be condemned to the torments of helL-- 
An unbridled gratification of the senses paves one's way . 
to the . ^ates . -of hell. Hence Tites . oi, expiation should be , 


P^rfofmed both for th^ cleansing of the spirit and the body. 
A performance of any expiatory kite restores the lost good 
name of its performer in society, and brirtgs on that secret 
joy in the mind which is the true criterion of a reclaimed 
spirit. A non-repenting sinner, or the one not atoning for 
past iniquities with the performance of a proper expia* 
tory rite, is sure to be doomed to the pangs of any of the 
different confines of hell, which are respectively known as 
Mahi-Rouravam, Timisram, Hansavanam, Lohitodakam^ 
Sanjivana, Nadipatham, Mahi-Nilyayam, Kikolam^ Andha 
Timisram, Avichi and Rumbhipikam, the doors of which 
are guarded by iron bolts and which ztc full of fcttid exhala« 

A wine-drinkef, of an assaulter of the ^aered person of 
a Brahmana, or a gold-stealer, or a person defiling the bed bf| 
or calumniating) his own spiritual preceptor, as well as the one 
who speaks lightly of the Vedas, commits the same sin, both 
as regards extent and atfocity, as the killer of a Brahmana. 
By eating a food prohibited in the Shastras, by doing any 
thing low and deceitful, by kissing the lips of a woman in her 
menseS) one commits the same sin as that which originates 
from the use of wine. The sin, which is attached to the steal- 
ing of a horse, is identical in all respects with what is com- 
mitted by a theft of gold. By going unto the wife of a friend,- 
or on a virgin daughter of one's own loins, or unto a girl of 
lowcaste, or unto a woman of one's own consanguinity, or 
unto a sister of one's own father or mother, or unto the wife 
of one's own maternal uncle, or by visiting the bed of one's 
own sister, or by living with a sister or a ca*wife of one's 
own mother, or with the daugher or wife of one's own 
preceptor, one commits the same sin which is attached to 
the defilement of the bed of a preceptor. The male offend- 
ing party should be killed by cutting off his genitals, as well 
as his female accomplice, if found to be a willing party to the 
incest under the circumstance. 


29^ 6aRUDa^ pur ahai^' 

The following sinful acts, viM.^ cow-killing, robbing of M 
Brahmana, non-repayment of one's debts, and non-discharge 
of one's monitary obligations^ non-keeping of the sacred firo 
by a Brahmana, or his engaging in any sort o£ trade or 
merchandise, |marriage by a younger brother in the unmarried 
state of his elder, tutelage under one's own servant^ or ac« 
ceptance of any gift from him, going unto another man's 
wife, negotiation of the marriage of a younger brother before 
that of his elder, creating a breach among friends and rela- 
tions for money, tuition for pecuniary considerations, sale of 
sah, murdering of a Kshatriya, Vaishya or a regenerated 
Shudra, infamous livelihood, misappropriation by a man of 
any property held in trust, breaking of a vow, selling of meat 
roasted on a gird iron, or of a cow, abandoning by one of one's 
own parents, selling of tanks, gardens, etc., dedicated to the 
■se of the community,' giving of one's daughter in marriage 
with a Parivinda (a younger .brother marrying in the un- 
married state of his elder), officiating as a priest in a religious 
ceremony celebrated by a person charged with the preceding 
guilt, selling by one of the ornaments of one's own daughter 
given her by her husband or friends, following of a crooked 
path in life, an attempt at defiling a religioua vow or a 
penance of another, undertaking of any act for onc^»sole 
and exclusive benefit, drinking of aoy spirituous liquor^ 
seduction of another man's wife, renunciation of the study 
of the holy Vedas, desertion of one's sons and relationSr aban- 
donment of the sacred fire, perusal of immoral literature^ 
and selling of one's sons and wives, are included witbia the 
category of Upapatakas (minor moral delinquencies). 

Now bear me describe the mode of performing Ibe proper 
expiatory rites for the atonement of sins, enunKfated 

The killer of a Brahmana shall live on a spare diet, faking 
only as much* food as is absolutely necessary for bare sub- 
sistence and roam about for a continuous period of twelve 

• • 


years, bearing a human skull on his head, and thereby making 
a contrite confession of his grave and unmitigated ain to the 
world at large. Paying no heed to the embellishment of 
his person and expressing the sincerest repentance both by 
his mind and mein, he shall not think of shaving himself and 
cast libations of clarified butter in the sacrificial fire by -re- 
citing the Mantra running as '' Somebhyo Svaha," or in the 
accompaniment of the Mantras, sacred to the god Skanda. 
The sin which is attached to the killing of a Brahmana, may 
be expiated in the preceding manner. The sin which is 
incidental to the killing of a bird or a cow unsuspiciously 
reposing in a bush or a forest, though killed at the instance 
and for the benefit of, a Brahmana, is atoned for by reciting 
all the Mantras contained in the three Vedas, in the gloom of 
a lonely forest, or by worshipping the goddess Sarasvati 
(Minerva of the Hindu pantheon) and by making money- 
gifts to any worthy receiver of public munificence. 

The sin, which is attached to the killing of a Kshatriya or 
a Vabhya while engaged in celebrating a religious sacrifice, 
may be atoned for by doing the same penances, as enjoined in 
the case of killing a Brahmana. The sin which is incidental 
to bringing about the abortion of a pregnant woman, 
may be expiated by doing a penance which is laid down 
in respect of an act of destroying a foetus or a child of the 
same caste. The man engaged for the purpose, or one 
attempting to bring about such a miscarriage, shall perform 
a penance every way similar to the preceding one.^ven when 
the attempt will prove abortivt;. The sin which is attached 
to the killing of a Brahmana, while engaged in a rite of 
ceremonial ablution at the close of a religious sacrifice, may 
be atoned for by doing over again the penance previously 
enjoined in that behalf. A Brahmana who has wilfuHy 
Ifken any wine or spirituous liquor, shall expiate his sin 
by attempting self-immolation with. potions of flame-coloured 
wine, water, cow's urine and clarified butter, or shall grow 


• • • 

long hairs and perform/ in tattered rags, the penances lafd 
down in connection with an act of Brahmana-slaughter. All 
the Brahmanical rites such as those of tonsure, investiture of 
the holy thread, etc., should be done unto him after his puri- 
fication through the performance of proper penances. A 
Brahmana woman polluted with any spirituous drink, or defiled 
by drinking semen or urine, is sure to be ousted of the eternal 
heaven of female chastity (Patiloka) and to reincarnate in 
the shape of a she-vulture, or as a sow or a bitch on earth. 
The expiation in the case of a Brahmana gold-stealer, 
consists in his being cudgled to death by his king with a 
club, voluntarily given by him to the latter with an express 
entreaty for the purpose, after having made a free and 
full confession of his own guilt, or in the alternative, he shall 
purchase his atonement by making a gift of gold of his own 
weight. A man ravishing a woman by taking advantage of 
her sleep in a lonely bed and chamber, shall atone for his crime! 
by voluntarily cutting off his genitals and throwing them in 
the southwest quarter of the sky. A man defiling the bed of 
bis preceptor, or going unto a woman bearing to him a rela- 
(ion-ship included within the category of Gurupatni pre* 
yiously described, shall expiate his sin with the perfor- 
mance of a Chindriyana penance, or ^nth a continuous 
recitation of the Veda Sanhitas for an unbroken period of 
three months. A cow-killer, protected by the absence of any 
deliberate motive ;for the crime, shall practise self-control 
for a month, sharing the same shed with the cows, and 
leading them to pasturage, and drink by way of expiation 
the sacred conipound, known as the Panchagavyam (/i/., the 
five things .obtained from a cow, consisting of milk, curd 
clarified butter, cow's wine and cow-dung-serum). All crimes 
included within the list of Upapatakas (minor sins) may be 
expiated by performing a ChAndrayana-Vrata, or by living 
on a milk-regime for a month, or by practising a f^araka- 

<;arvda puranam. 3^1 

* The sin, which is attached to the killing of a Ks&atFiya.(a 
inember of the military caste), may be atoned for by making*^ 
the gift of a full-grown heifer with a thousand of young and 
healthy cows, or by doing for three years a penance enjoined 
to be performed for his expiation by a Brahmana-killer. Its 
duration shall be curtailed to one year only in the case of 
a p^son, who has killed a member of the trading commuaky 
(Vaishya), whereas only a six months' practice of the 
penance, or a gift of ten cows, shall be the proper atone- 
ment for an act of killing a Shudra. A man who has 
accidentally killed his own good and unoffending wife, shall 
practise expiatory penances, as laid down in the immediately 
preceding instance. 

The killer of a cat, or a lizard or a mongoose, or a toad, 
shall live on the milk regime for three days in sucession, 
or shall practise a Krichchha Vrata penance in addition 
thereto. The sin of killing an dephsuil^. may be atoned for 
by making the gift of five bhie-coloured heifers and a white 
calf of two years of age to 2i Brahmana. A gift of a single 
ox, will expiate the sin of one's killing a sheep, or an ass, or 
a goat, while in the case of a heron-killing (Crouncha) the 
animal of gift shall be a healthy calf of three years of age. 
The sin of tearing or uprooting a plant, or a shrub or a 
creeper, shall be expiated by mentally repeating a hundred 
Riks, while a Brahmacharin (a person who has taken the 
vow of celibacy) going unto a woman and thereby breaking 
his vow, shall touch an ass by way of atonement. The sin 
of eating a diet of honey and meat, may be expiated by 
practising a Krichchha Vrata or any other similar penance. 
In the death of a messenger in a foreign country, or at his 
destination, the sender of the message, or the person at whose 
instance he has been sent, shall practise the three penances 
designated with the term Krichchha An act of disobedience 
or insubordination to one's preceptor, is atoned for by doing 
his pleasure. The bin which results from dping an injury 


to one's eibemyi i« expiated by itiaking a :gift of pliddi^s to 
the latter, or by ..winning his good gractesin a friendly and 
affectionate discourse, after having banished M hostile and 
uncharitable feelings from the mind. Death is the only 
atonement for a Brahmana, found guilty of ingratitude, or 
of repaying good by evil. An . utterer of falsehood or in* 
decent langu^^e, shall live in perfect continence and prac- 
tise self-control for a month, passing his time in a solitary 
place and without asking for food of anybody. A roan, 
going unto his brother's wife without any appointment from 
her husband, shall practise a Chindrdyana penance. A 
person, going unto a woman in her menses, is purified by 
taking a draught of clarified butter at the end of a three 
days* fast. The sin of accepting a gift at the hand of 
an evil or a dishonest giver, it atoned for by his constantly 
repeating the Giyatri Mantra, for a month in a cowshed or "^ 

pasturage, and in perfect mastery Over his senses. Three 
Krichchha . Vratas should be performed for the expiation of 
the sin, incidental to the failure of a member of any twice- 
born order to be invested with the, holy thread at the proper 
time (Vritya), and a Brahmana, officiating at any religious 
ceremony undertaken by or on behalf of such person, shall 
do the same. The sin which originates frotn one's forsaking 
and deserting a person, who has asked one's protection, 
shall be atoned for by reading the . Vedas to the best of his 
ability. A man while riding in a carriage drawn by an ass 
or a camel, shall thrice control his respiration in the manner 
of a Priniyima. A man, who has gone unto a woman in the 
day time, shall expiate his sin by bathing naked in a pool or 
a lake. The sin which is incidental to reprimanding one's 
elders or preceptors, as well as that which results from using 
abusive language towards a Brahmana, may be atoned for by 
regaining their favour, and observing a fast for a single day. 
A man aiming a blow at a Brahmana shall expiate his guilt by 
practising a Krichchha Vrata, while the expiation shall consist 

tiAttiJOM P-JRXNAKf. 909 

in the perfM'Mahce of i^ttte. one kncywn sts AtikrichcHha Vratal 
in the case of actual assault and battery^ 

The circumstances of the guilt, as well as the age, and 
physical capacity of a sinner, should be taken into considera- 
tion in determining the nature of his expiatory rite. Wilful 
miscarriage of a foetus, and speaking ill of her husband, are* 
the acts which degrade'^ woman, whose very presence should 
be shunned from a distance. A fi^rson of notorious guilt 
shall do his penances of atonement at a public* place, and^ 
in conformity with the injunctions of his preceptor, while an 
atonement for a sin which has not got any publicity, shall be 
done in private. A killer of a Brahmana shall fast and 
recite the " Aghamarshana Shuktam" for three days stand- 
in water, after which he shall make the gift of a milch* cow 
with milk. Then he skatt recite the Rik beginning as " Obei^ 
sance to Soma," observing a fast on the day following, and 
cast forty times libations of clarifted butter in the sacrificial 
fire, while standing in water. A wine-drinker or a stealer of 
gold shall fast for three days, recite the Mantra sacred to 
the god Rudra^ and cast libations of clarified butter in the 
fire by chanting the KushmAnda Mantra. A sin unwittingly 
committed by a Brahmana, as well as the one which he 19 
nnqpnscious of, is atoned for by his regularly attending to 
his Sandhya, thrice each day, whereas a sm may be expiated 
by reciting eleven times the Rudr&dhyiya. The sin of 
defiling the bed of one's own preceptor may be expiated^ by 
mentally repeating the ** Sahasra Shirsha'' Mantra, whereas- 
a sin of whatsover denomination may be atoned for by 
practising PrAn4y<Lma for a hqndred times. 

A persQn inadvertently taking any semen, uriiMor fecu<^ 
lent matter, shaJ4 fast for the day, aad drink water consecrated 
with the GAyatri Mantra in the evening. No sin can assail the 
divine self of a Brahmana who has subjugated his senses, and 
Uvee in diviae peace and coatentment, daily reoiting the holy 


yeda:^, and practising the five religious sacrifiees, enjoined to 
he performed by a householdel* (Pancha^Yajna). All sins other 
than the one incidental to the killing of a Brahmana, are ex- 
piated by mentally repeating the Giyatri Mantra for a thou- 
sand times. Practice of Brahmacharyya (continence), pity, don* 
tentment, contemplation, truthfullnesS) sincerityi Annihilation 
of all killing propensities, non-stealing) sweetness of tempera* 
ment and subjugation of senses, constitute Ivhat is techni* 
cally known as Yama (self-control)4 Ablutiohi VoW of silence« 
fasting, performance of religious sacHficesi reading of the 
Vedas, self-control, practice of austerities^ nonMrascibilitVi 
devotion to preceptors, and cleanlinessj constitute what is 
called Niyama. A Brahmanaj practising a krichchha Satita- 
pana Vratam shall live on a milk regime on the first dayi 
on curd on the second day, on cow's urine on the thirdi oft 
cowdung on the fourth, and on clarified butter on the fitthf 
and fast on the sixth day, breaking the vow on the sevenths 
A vow practised for a week in the preceding manner is 
called the Mahi-Sant&panam Vratam. In a vow of Parna« 
Krichchha, the observer shall successively live on the leaves 
of Oudumvara, Rajiva, and Vilva trees and on the washings 
of Kusha grass on the fifth. In the penance known as the 
Tapta Krichchham, the practiser shall successively live on 
warm milk, clarified butter, and water, observing a fast on 
the day of its close. A Pada-Krichchha Vratam consists in 
living on a single meal at day on the first day, on a single 
meal at night, obtained without asking, on the second day, 
followed by a day of fast. Any of the preceding penances 
practised for a thrice as much period, constitutes what is 
technically known as a Prajapatya, which may be converted 
into a Krichchhati-Krichchham, by its practiser's living on a 
palmful of water each day instead of the diet enjoined to 
be taken during the time by the scriptures. A continuous 
fasting for twelve days, constitutes what is called the Paraka 
Vratam. A diet of.Pinyaka, Whey and powdered barley 


stltemated with fast, constitutes what is called a Krichchha- 
Sima, which being extended to a period of fifteen days, is 
called a Tuiipurusha. A morsel of food to the size of a 
hen's egg, should be increased by one from the first day of 
the light fortnight to the day of the full moon, decreasing by 
the same number each day from the commencement of the 
dark one to the day of the new moon. This is what is known 
as Chindriyana Vrata. 

Now hear me describe another mode of practising the 
same (Chdndriyana) Vrata. The practiser of the penance 
shall thrice bathe each day, observing a regimen of diet as 
in the preceding case, recite the sacred Mantras, take morsels 
of food consecrated by reciting the Gayacri Mantra. A 
Ch^ndr^yana Vrata is the atonement for sins of all kinds and 
characters, and its performer is purified both in his body and 
spirit and goes to the region presided over by the Moon-God 
in the event of his undertaking the same out of a purely 
religious motive. A man practising a Krichchha Vrata for 
a similar purpose is rewarded with a boundless wealth. 



YajnaVALKYA said : — ^O you, who are masters in the art of 
self-control, now hear me describe the funeral rites to be gone 
through in respect of the dead, according to the difference in 
age and social order. A dead child, who has been dead before 
completing his second year, should be buried instead of being 
cremated, and no sort of S'raddha or Udaka-kriyl (offer- 
ing of libations of water to a departed spirit) is necessary 
in that case. The friends or relatives of a child, dead after 



completing its second year of life, shall carry its corpse to 
the cremation ground and exhume it in fire by mentally re- 
citing the Yama Suktam. The relatives of a deceased person 
related to him within the seventh or tenth degree of con- 
sanguinity on the father's side, shall perform the rite, of 
Udaka-kriyi with their faces turned towards the south, which 
rule shall be extended to include the funeral rite of one's 
departed maternal grandfather or preceptor's wife. Liba- 
tions of water should be offered to the departed spirits of 
one's friend, son, father-in-law and sister's son, by mentioning 
their name and Gotra (spiritual clanship) in life. The rite of 
Udaka-kriyi in these cases is optional, and its non-observance 
does not entail any moral delinquency. A rite of Udaka-kriyd 
is forbidden in the case of a Brahmacharin, or of a degraded 
or sinful person, which in the case of a wife, dead after 
breaking her vow of chastity in life, is optional. The death 
of a suicide or of a wine-drinker, should not be mourned for, 
nor the rites of Udaka-kriyi, etc., should be done unto their 
spirits. The death of any friend or relation or that of any 
man should not be mourned, nor should one indulge in an 
obstinate grief therefor, since life on earth is but transitory 
at the best. Having performed his funeral rites and paid the 
last honour to his earthly remains, the friends of a deceased 
person shall return to the house he has left behind for good, 
tear the leaves of a Nimva tree, and cross the threshold after 
having purified themselves with the touch of fire, cowdung, and 
white mustard seeds, perceded by acts of Achamanam. They 
shall strike their feet against a stone slab before entering 
the house. Similar procedure should be observed by all who 
m'ght have touched the corpse, while the mere onlookers of 
the scene would be purified then and there without undertak- 
ing any religious ceremony for the purpose. The friends and 
consanguinous relations of a deceased person should be con* 
sidered unclean till before their ablutions at the close of the 
funsfral cerenn )ny and until they would go through the ncces;- 

%. . 


sary rites of Sanyama (8elf<<H>ntroI) in connection with the 
event • Returned from the cremation ground, they shall pass 
the day or night on fares purchased at a shop or a market, and 
lie down on the bare floor or ground, apart from one another. 
The performer of the incidental funeral sacrifice, shall offer 
oblations of boiled rice to the departed spirit for three 
successive days, for whose benefit an earthen vessel contain • 
ing milk diluted with water, shall be as well kept in the open, 
during the period. The spirit should be invoked and wor- 
shipped in a lonely bower, and ceremonial rites (S'raddha, 
etc.,) enjoined in the SVutis in that behalf, should be per* 
formed for his salvation. 

The period of uncleanness in connection with the death 
of a child, expired before cutting its teeth, lasts for that day 
only, that incidental to the demise of one who has departed 
this life before attaining the age of tonsure, is one day and 
night, which extends to three days in the case of a boy who 
has been dead before attaining the proper age of taking the 
Brahminical vow (investiture with the sacred thread), while 
the death of a boy after that age entails a period of un* 
cleanness for ten days in the case of a Brahmana. Persons 
standing in Sapinda relationship with the deceased, shall be 
deemed unclean for ten days after the occurrence, while those 
bearing only Sagotra relationship to him, shall so continue 
for three days (if Brahmanas). Both these kinds of relations 
shall be considered as clean on the very day of the event in 
the case of the death of the child happening before the 
completion of its second year of earthly existence, and only 
its mother shall bide the full time of uncleanness. In the 
case of two deaths ocurring successively in one's family (the 
second happening within the period of uncleanness entailed 
by the first 1 the period of uncleanness shall expire with the 
one resulting in consequence of the second without neces* 
sitating the observance of two full terms of uncleanness in 
sucesbion. The period of uiKleanncss incidental to the birth 


or death of a child of any cognate relation of a Brahmana, or 
of a Kshatriya or of a Vaishya^ or of a S'udra, }s .ten days^ 
twelve days, fifteen days and thirty days respectively. . 
Cleanness in connection with the death of a male infant 

• • • ■ 

or of an unmarried daughter, is restored on the expiry of 
a single day after the event. . The period of uncleanness 
in connection with the death of one's preceptor, companion, 
inaternal uncle, king, or of a son not of one's own loins, or 
of one's wife who has known another person, as well as 
that incidental to the death of a S'rotriya (a Brabmana 
>vell- versed in the S'rutis), or of one who has completed the 
study of his V6d& with its kindred branches of study, is one 
day only. The relations of a person, who has suffered death 
in execution of the sentence of a king or of a king's court, 
or killed by any horned cattle, or has committed suicide in 
private or by taking poison, shall not bide any period of 
uncleanness in consequence thereof. Uncleanness incidental 
to the death of a person addicted to the performance of 
a religious sacrifice, or while observing a religious vow, or 
of a Brahmacharin or a practiser of charities, or of a knower 
of the Supreme Brahma, or of one expiring while engaged in 
making gifts or celebrating a religious sacrifice, or fallen 
in battle or in a civic disturbance or political revolution, or 
killed by an act of God, shall expire on the very day of the 
pccurrcncc. Fire, Time, good deeds, earth, air. Mind, 
knowledge. Meditation (divine) Repentence, fasting and 
practice of religious penances (Tapas) are the sources of 
all expiation and purification (cleansing) as the case may 
be. Charity is the atonement for all misdeeds and a river is 
purified by its current. 

A Brahmana in distress, as well as the one fallen on evil 
days, may earn his livelihood by doing the office of a 
Kshatriya (a member of the military caste) or of a Vaishya 
(trader). One thus living by trade or merchandise, shall not 
9cll any fruit, Soma, silk cloth (Kshouma), salt, edible shrub, 


curd, thickened milk, clarified butter, water, sesamum, 
boiled rice, mercury, alkaline preparation, honey, shellac* 
Aconite, requisites for a Homa ceremony, cloth, stone^ 
wine, salads, earth (clay), leather-shoes, deer-skin, blanket, 
salt, flesh, levigated paste of any oil-seeds, edible roots 
or perfumes, however, may be sold for money only for 
religious purposes (celebration of a religious sacrifice, etc.,) 
in exchange of paddy and sesamum seeds. Even in most 
abject penury, a Brihmana shall rather live by agriculture 
than engage in selling salt, and shall make it a religion never 
to sell a horse under whatsoever circumstance in life. Even 
in the absence of any means of livelihood, a Brihmana shall 
fast for three days and abide by the decision of the king of 
the country regarding the choice of any new profession. 


CHAPTER evil. 

SUTA said : — ^The holy Paris'ara narrated to Vyasa the 
duties of the different social orders. Change is the law of 
the universe, and in each cycle the earth passes through the 
successive phases of origin, and decay, but the birthless 
ones (Vishnu, etc.,) suffer no modifications. The S'rutis, 
(///., things heard, are spiritual truths transmitted orally 
from generation to generation), Smritis (/iV: — things 
remembered, are the unwritten laws of conduct, etc., subse-' 
quently collected into codes,) and the good institutions have 
their origin in the holy \€dis. It was Brahmi who first 
revealed the inspired rhapsodies of the V^dis to the world 
at large, and the divine lawgivers of old, such as Manu etc, 
were the authors of the Dharma S'istras (Institutes or Cedes 


of Law, both moral and positive). Charity is tht only virtue 
M-hich would be practised in the cycle of Kali, and the votaries 
of all others would be scarce' therein Hence it is the only 
one virtue which should be practised for the redemption 
of human nature in that iron agre. The kinsjdom of evil 
would come and vice vi'ould reign supreme on earth. Curses 
would take effect within one year of their making (giv- 
ing). A pious conduct and a pure character «would be 
the passport to all those merits in that age, which could 
have been secured only with the practice of the most austere 
penances in the preceding ones. The six acts of necro- 
mancy (Shatkarma) would be the matters of daily under- 
taking and the rites of Sandhyi (recitation of a certain 
fixed portion of the VedAs by a Br^ihmana) ceremonial ablu* 
tions, mental repetition of any sacred Mantra, Homa, wor- 
ship of the gods and practice of hospitality, would be the 
stepping-stones to piety. Scarce would be the number of 
Brihmana-Yatis in the Kali Yuga who would stick to the noble 
art of spiritual culture, and the K«hatriyas would rule the 
earth by conquering the armed forces of other sovereigns even 
in the absence of any legitimate cause for war, and simply out 
of a spirit of land-craving. The members of the mercantile 
community, should diligently ply on their respective trades 
and engage in agriculture, and the S'udras should live by 
serving the Brihmanas in the age of Kali. 

A man would degrade himself by stealing or by going 
unto a woman related to him in the category of a 'forbidden 
woman," or by eating any thing that is prohibited in the 
Shastras for the purpose. A Brihmana engaged in agricul- 
ture, should not yoke a team of tired bullocks to his plough. 
The Brihmanas even in the age of Kali, shall bathe at 
midday, practise trance for a while, and then feed the 
Br4hmanas assembled at his house. The five rclisrious sacri- 
fices enjoined to be performed by a BrAhmana householder, 
each day, should be likewise performed in the Kali Yuga, and 


sins and inequities should be held in contempt they deserve. 
A Brdhmana shall not sell sesamum and clarilied butter for 
any pecuniary consideration. An agriculturist is absolved 
of all sins by giving a sixth part of the produce to his king, 
a twentit^th part to the god--, and a thirty-third part therelDf 
to the Brlhmanas. A K.-hatriya, a Vaishya, or a S'udra agri- 
culturist piying no such tithes as the preceding ones, stands 
charged with the guilt of theft. 

A Brdamana, who knows the Supreme Brahma, becomes 
clean on the third day of the event on the happening of 
any birth or death In his family, whereas the period of un- 
cleanness, under the circumstance, shall extend to ten, twelve, 
and thirty days in respect of the Brahma-knowing Ksha- 
triyas, Vaishyas, and S'udras respectively. On the contrary, 
persons belonging to the Br4hmana, Kshatriya, Vaishya 
and S'udra communities by mere accidents of birth, shall be 
respectively deemed pure at the expiry of ten, twelve, fifteen 
and thirty days after the event under the circumstance. 
The Sapinda relations of a deceased person or of a stillborn 
child, though not living in the same house, nor in commen- 
sality, shall bide the same full term of uncleanness, while 
those removed from him to the fourth degree of consan.- 
guinity shall be unclean for ten days, those removed to the 
fifth degree shall be judged unclean for six days, those re- 
moved to the sixth degree of consanguinity shall be regarded 
unclean for four davs, and those removed to the seventh 
degree, shall be considered unclean for three days only from 
the date of the event under the circumstance. A child dead 
ill a distant country does not entail any period of uncleanness 
to his relations beyond the moment the news is heard and 
delivered. The corpse of a child dead before cutting its 
teeth as well as th::t of a still-born one should not be crema- 
ted in tire, nor anv funeral oblations and libations of water 
should b" offered to it. In the case of a miscarriage or abor- 
tion of a fectus, the pepod of uncleanness in respect of its 


mother, wodid extend to as many days as the age of 
the fcetus in months at the time of abortion. The period of 
uncleanness incidental to the death of a child, dead without 
the rite of Nimakaran (nomenclature) having been done untd 
him, shall expire with the day of its occurrence, that on the 
occasion of one expired before the rite of tonsure shaill con* 
tinue for the whole day and night, while that incidental to 
the demise of a child, dead before having been invested 
with the holy thread, would last for three days from the date 
of it^ happening, and for ten days after that age. 

Ah abortion of womb happening within the fourth month 
of gestation is called a Garbhasriva, while the one occurring 
at a later period and in the fifth or sixth month of incuba* 
tion, is called a miscarriage (Garbha-Ty&ga). No such un* 
cleanness can attach itself to the person of a Brihmana who 
is a Brahmacharin or is a daily worshipper of the sacred 
fire, or has renounced all company and lives in solitude. 
The artisans, the mechanics, the physicians, and one's 
servants, male slaves, and female slaves, are incapable of 
catching such personal disqualifications (uncleanness inci- 
dental to the birth or death of a person). The persons of 
kings, S'rotriyas and custodians of the sacred fire, are per- 
petually cleat). On the occasion of the birth of a child, 
its mother shall be considered clean at the close of teti 
days after the date of the event, while its father shall 
be clean again by an ablution on the receipt of the 
news. All acts should be suspended on the happening 
of the birth or death of a relation at the celebration 6f 
a marriage or a religious sacrifice or festivity, except 
those which have been actually projected and undertaken 
before thie event. The mother of a child, dead within 
the period of uncleanness incidental to its birth, shall be 
clean again on Ihe date of the event. The period ef 
uncleanness incidental to the death of a person, dead in a 
cowshed, is only one day. By carrying the dead body of a 



dAftUoA i^uftANAKr: ^ij 

tnehdless person to the cremation ground/a mln shall remain 
unclean for a single day, while th^ period of uncleanness in 
respect of carrying the dead body of a Shudra, is three days 
only. The right of cremation is denied to a suicide, no matter 
whether the death has been brought about by .self-poisoning 
or strangulation, as well as to one who has died of an insect- 
bite. A man, defiled by the contact of the corpse of a 
person, killed by any horned cattle or died of an insect-bite, is 
purified by practising a Krichchha Vrata. 

He who forsakes a chaste and undegraded wife in her 
youth, is sure to incarnate as a woman, and to suffer th^ 
pangs of widowhood in his six successive re-births. By not 
visiting the bed of his wife during her menstrual period as 
enjoined in the Sh^stras^ a man incurs the sin of infanticide^ 
while a non-acommodating wife under the circumstance, is 
sure to be born as a sow in her next birth* An abstinence 
by the husband on the ground of being engaged in celebra-^ 
ting any Vedic rite or sacrifice at the time^ deprives him of 
funeral libations, etc., after death. A son of one's own loins 
as well as the one begotten on one's wife by another under 
an appointment and hence related to one in that capacity! 
is equally entitled to offer oblations to one's departed spirit. 
A younger brother marrying in the unmarried state of his 
elder, as well as his bride shall practise a penance oC 
Krichchha Vratam for the expiation of the crime. TTie person 
at whose hand the bride is taken, shall as well practise the 
penances respectively known as Ati-krichchha and Chindri- 
yana Vratas. A younger brother is not prohibited from taking a 
bride even in the unmarried state of his elder^ when the latter 
is found to be born a hunchback, or a dwarf, or impotent, deaft 
blind, or dumb, or as an idiot, or as one incapable of distinct 
articulation. A betrothed girl may be married to another in 
any of the five following contingencies, vim., in the event of no 
trace having been found of her appointed bridegroom, or in 
the event of his death, or of bis taking to the life of a hermiti 


or on his lo^s of manhood or moral degradation. A wife 
immolating herself with the dead body of her husband at the 
same funeral pile, shall live in heaven for as many number of 
years as there are hairs on the human body. A man, bitten 
by a dog, or by an animal of the kindred species, is purified 
by mentally reciting the Giyatri Mantra. 

The dead body of a Brdhmana should be exhumed on 
a funeral pyre lighted with LoukikAgni (fire brought ffom 
a household). The bone of a Brahmana, killed by a 
Chand^Ia, should be washed with milk in order to impart 
to it the necessary purity before cremation, and burnt in 
fire witk a recitation of the proper Mantras. An effigy 
of a Brdhmana made of Kusha-blades, should be burnt 
in the following manner in the event of his death having 
happened in a distant country. Six hundred Palasha-twigs, 
should be spread in the shape of a man over a piece 
of black deer skin, a Shami-twig being placed over the 
spot where the penis would be, an Arani (fire churning 
apparatus) at the region of its scrotum, a Kunda (vessel) at 
the region of its right hand, an Upabhrit (a sacrificial utensil) 
at its left, an Udakhalam (a grain thresher) on cither of its 
sides, a Mushala (threshing rod) at its back, 'k atone slab at 
the region of its breast, with rice, sesame and clarified butter 
at its mouth, a Prokshani on either of its ears, an Ajyasthali 
(vessel for clarified butter) on either of its eyes, and bits of 
gold in the orfices of its mouth, ears and eyes! Thus all the 
articles and utensils required in an Agni Hotra sacrifice, 
should he arranged along the different parts of the effigy 
of Kuslia griiss, which should be lighted with fire, and a single 
libation of clarified butter, should be cast therein by reciting 
the Mantra, ** Asou svargiiya lokdya sviiha ' (obeisance to 
the Fre-God, may he ascend the region of heaven). By thus 
burning the effigy of a Brdhmana, dead in a distant country, 
his relation may ensure tlie residence of his soul in the 
region of Brakma. 



'^'{CAtajDA P'JRANAM. 3 15 

The killer of a S^Vaj)r'2<'rasa, Heron, Chakravak, or a cock 
may regain the former purity of his self by fasting for a single 
day, which rule holds ^ood as regards the killing of any other 
bird. The rite of expiation in connection with the killing 
of a quadruped, consists in fasting for a day and in mentally 
repeating any sacred Mantra. The proper atonement for 
inadvertantly bringing about the death of a Shudra, consists 
in practising a Krichchha Vrata, that for killing a membeF 
of the Vaishya caste, is the practice of an Ati-Krichchha 
Vrata. The penance to be practised for expiating the sin 
of killing a Kshatriya, is a Chdndrdyana, which should be 
practised twenty to thirty times by way of atoning for an 
I act of Brdhman-killing. 



SuTA (Lomaharshana) said : — Now I shall discourse on the 
Science of Ethics and Expediency, a perusal whereof may 
benefit kings and commons alike, and enable them ta secure 
long lives, and good names on earth, and exalted stations 
in heaven after death. A man wishing success in life, shall 
make it a point not to mix in vulgar companies, but to 
associate onlv with the best and the most virtuous in the land. 
Company of the wicked or of the inequitous, is neither good 
in this life nor in the one to come. A man should shun even 
any oral discourse with the wicked, avoid their presence 
and company, be on his guard against picking up a quarrel 
with his trusted friends, or against mixing with those who 
serve his enemies or are in friendlv terms with them. 

Even a learned man comes to grief by teaching a bad 
pupil, or by maintaining a bad wife. An evil campaoy is bul 

rT— T V".: 

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^ . . •- * . ^ . « . ~? . ^ T ^ ^ C 

1 >•?::"* :r.*r.i is &a 
s i. ibkk i:-dv is an 
- tke. fores: (and out* 
>i« no. Buiauias a pcrsoa 


is a father to him. He in whom confidence is reposed is 
a friend and the country which provides one's means of liveli« 
hood is one's true country. A servant who does the com- 
mands of his master, is a true servant, a seed which 
sprouts is a true seed ; a child that lives is a true child, 
and a^wife v;ho speaks sweet is a true wife.. He who has 
virtue is truly alive. He \/ho has piety lives but in the 
true sense of t!ie term. Futile is the life of him who is 
bereft of piety and commendable attributes. She who 
speaks sweetly to her husband and is a clever manager of 
household affairs, h a true wife. She who is otie in spirit 
with her lord and devotes her whole self to his happiness, is 
a true wife. He whose wife decorates her person with 
sandal paste and perfumes her body after her daily ablution, 
talks little and agreeably, partakes small quantites of food, 
is ever fond of him and is constantly engaged in doing acts 
of piety and virtue with a view to bring happiness and 
prosperity in the house, and is ever ready to yield to the 
procreative desires of her lord, is not a man, but the lord of 

A scolding wife, wild, querulous and argumentative, is 
but the blight of life (//V. : — old age itself). A wife, attached 
to another and fond of staying in an other man's house, .and 
who is not ashamed of her own depravity, is but the curse 
of life. A wife who appreciates and honours the good 
qualities in her lord and lives in loving submission to his 
wishes, is satisfied with the little she gets, is alone entitled 
to be called a beloved. An unchaste wife, an in.sincere 
friend, an argumentative servant, and a residence in a 
snake-infested chamber, are but the preludes to death. Walk 
not in the path of the wicked, but sit in the assembly 
of the pious and the godly. Suffer not the transitory 
character of all mundane things to be absent for a mo- 
mjerjt^rojp your mind, and be perpetually engaged in doing 
w.)]|at,^i^ 2j[ood and commendable. A woman who is deadlier 


than the fangs. of a serpent, or one that is blood-eyed, black 
and fierce as a tigress, or is possessed of a cow-like tongue 
and becomes foul-mouthed in rage, or is eccentric in her 
habits, apathetic and fond of staying in an otherman's house, 
s!iould not be courted by a wise man for matrimonial 
alliance He who lives in a snake-infested chamber, or 
whose disease has run into an incurable type, as well as the 
one who has passed through the three bodily stages of in- 
fancy, youth and old age, is undoubtedly inl the grasp of 
Death. Where is the man who can retain his mental equili- 
brium under the circumstance ? 



LOMAHARSHANA said : — Money should be saved for the time 
of distress, and a wife should be protected even at the 
sacrifice of a stored up treasure. A man should defend 
his own self even at the cost of his wealth and wife. It is 
prudent to sacrifice a individual for the protection of a family. 
The safety of an village should be purchased with the loss of 
a family, while that of a country should not be regarded too 
dear even at the sacrifice of a single village, it being impera- 
tively obligatory on a person to save his own self even at 
the loss of the whole world. It is better to live in hell than 
to reside in a house of infamy. Extinction of the effects 
of his own misdeeds in life, sets free a condemned spirit from 
its doleful confines, whereas a person who has once resorted 
to a house of ill fame, can never be properly reclaimed. A 
wise man does not move one step by letting go his sure and 
former foot-hold. An old situation of trust and tested safety 
should not be given up without well ascertaining the /nature 
of a new one. A man should renounce a country wh6se 

• ■ • 


inhabitants walk in the path of inequity, give up his resi- 
dence in a house found to be infested with dangers, avoid 
all connections with a niggardly prince, and forego the com- 
pany of deceitful friends. Of what good is the gold which 
is in the greedy gripe of a miser? Of what worth is the 
knowledge which is wedded to a low cunning nature ? What 
does mere personal beauty avail a person whose mind is not 
adorned with ennobling attributes ? And what is the good 
of one's having a friend who forsakes one in days of 

From unforeseen quarters friends gather round a man 
in power and prosperity. Even the very kins of one, out 
of office and fortune, turn their back as enemies in one's 
adversity. Friendship is tested in distress ; valour, in battle ; 
a wife, on the loss of fortune ; and an agreeable guest in 
time of famine or scarcity. Birds forsake a tree whose 
fruits are gone. Herons visit not the shores of a dried pool. 
Courtesans smile not on (forswear the company of) a person. 
whose purse is exhausted, nor Ministers flock round a king, 
bereft of his sovereignity. On the withered flowers the bees 
sit not with their melodious hummings, nor do herds of deer 
roam about in the forest which a wood fire has consumed. 
One person endears another simply out of motives of self- 
seeking. Is there any love for love's sake an earth ? 

The greedy f re taken by gain, the proud by a show of 
humility, fools, by pleasing 'themes, and the wise by truth. 
The gods, the good and the Brahmans, are pleased with the 
exhibition of genuine goodness, the vulgar, with food and 
drink, and the erudite, with learned discourses. The good 
should be won over with marks of respect. The crafty 
should be won by creating a breach in their ranks, the low 
by making tritling gifts or concessions in their favour, and 
one's rivals by exhibiting equal prowess. An intelligent 
man shall enter into the good graces of persons he shall 
have to deal with* through an accurate .judgment of their 


liked and disliked, ind thus speedily win them mtv l6 bi^ 
cause or side^ 

No confidence shonld be reposed in (the freaks of) rivers^ 
horned cattle^ clawed beasts, women, persons of royal blood 
and arm«-bearing individuals (fully equipped soldiers etc.,) 
A prudent man should never give any publicity to any insult 
he might have suffered, to atiy deception that might havebeed 
practised upon him, to any heart-ache of his own, nor to an 
instance of female infidelity in his house. Movements in a low 
or wicked company, a long separation from her husband, ex- 
cessive and indulgent fondling, and a residence in another's 
house are the factors which excite a wife to break her plight- 
ed faith. Who is he who can boast of a spotless pedigree 7 
Where is the man who has never been assailed by any 
malady ? Who is he whom danger doth not beset in life ? 
Who can be sure of the perpetual favours of fickle fate? Who 
is he whom opulence filleth not with pride ? Who is he who 
€tandeth above all probability of danger ? Where is the man 
who is impervious to female charms ? Who is he whom a 
king doth love in his heart ? Who is he whom Time doth not 
sway ? Who is he whom begging doth not lower ? Who is he 
who being netted with the guiles of the crafty, has come ot( 
Unscathed ? Perpetually in distress is the man who has no 
friends or relations of his own, nor endowed with a sharp in-' 
tellectual faculty and incapable of putting a success to better 
advantage. Wherefore should a wise man engage in a pursuit^ 
success in which does not bring in any profit, and failure 
whereof is fraught with dangerous results. Quit the country 
where you can find neither friends nor pleasures, nor in which 
is there any knowledge to be gained. 

Acquire that wealth which kings or thieves can neither 
exto.-t nor steal and which follows a person even beyond the 
grave. Your successors, after your demise, shall inherit and 
divide among themselves the wealth which has cost you life- 
long and killing toils to acquire. 

f ■ • 


f ' 



The sOul only enjoys the fruits of the sins and inequities 
Involved in the acquisition of wealth which) again, forms the 
Iportion of others who come next. A miser^ earning and hoar- 
ding up gold without knowing its proper use, is like a mouse 
which steals from other men's granarieS) and is only troubled 
with the care of defending his ilUgotteil gain. A miser, naked, 
wretched and lamenting the loss of his fortune- by striking his 
liand against his forehead, shows but the evil effects of not 
making'any gift (proper use of money). A miser, continually 
crying for fresh hoards, and stretching out his palms in greedi 
demonstrates but the plight in which a non-giver would stand 
in his next birth. May you never be in such a predicament. 
Money hoarded up by a miser simply for the pleasure of 
hoarding, without being spent in the celebration of a hundred 
Horse-Sacrifices, or in relieving the want of the wise and the 
erudite, ultimately finds its way into the coffers of thieves 
and king's courts. The wealth accumulated by a miser, 
never comes to the use of the Brahmanas, nor to that of his 
own relations; is never spent for any religious purpose, 
nor in purchasing his personal comforts, but is consumed 
by fire, thieves, and law-courts. 

May that wealth which is acquired by vicious ways, or 
by excessive toil, or by bowing down to one's enemies, 
be never yours. 

Non-cultivation thereof, is a blow to one's learning ; a 
shabby dress is a blow to a woman ; eating after digestion is 
.1 blow to a disease ; and cleverness is a blow to one's enemies. 
Death is the penalty for theft, a separate bed is the 
punishment for a wife, a cold greeting is the punishment 
for deceitful friends, and non-invitation is the'punishment 
for Brahmanas. Rogues, artisans, servants, badmen, drums, 
and women, are softened and set right by beating. They 
do not deserve good behaviour. A mission is the true test 
for the efficiency of one's servants ; adversity, for the sin- 
cerity of one's friends ; and loss of fortune is the proper 



occasion to test the fondness of one's wife. A woman takes 
twice as much food, is four times as much cunning, six 
times as much resourceful, and eight times as much a/morousi 
as a man. Sleep cannot be conquered by sleeping. A 
woman knows no satisfaction in sexual matters. Fire can« 
not be conquered with logs of wood, nor thirst, with wines* 
Amorous fancies in women, are roused up by a meat diet and 
emulsive fares, by good apparels, flowers, perfumes and wine. 
Verily do I say unto you, O Shounaka, that even an ascetic 
Brahmacharin, becomes fascinated [at such a sight], and the 
sexual organ of a woman, is moistened at the sight of a hand- 
some and well-dressed youth, even if he happen to be con- 
nected with her in the relationship of a father, a brother, or a 
son. A woman as well as a river, let alone, is sure to take the 
downward course. A woman, under the circumstance, brings 
down the honour of her family, while a river tumbles down 
her banks. A free woman, or an unchecked stream of water, 
is sportive in her course. Fire is never satisfied with fuels ; 
nor an ocean is satisfied with receiving rivers. Death knows 
no satiety ; and a woman knows no gratification in matters 
sexual. A man knows no satiety in discoursing with good 
and sincere talkers ; pleasure never palls ; and a man knows 
no satisfaction as regards the increased duration of his life, 
and increased number of his progeny. A king knows no 
gratification in the acquisition of wealth, nor is an ocean 
satisfied %vith the increase of its tributaries. A learned mai¥ 
knows no content in discoursing, nor the eyes suffer any 
satiety with their feasts of royal sight (sight of the king). 

Those excellent men, who live by plying any honest 
trade, and rest contented with money honestly earned and 
cbtaine.'!, are true to their own wives and pass their timer 
in intellectual pursuits, practise hospitality to all comers^ 
and are the lords of their own senses, attain liberatioa 
even in their own homes. Residence in a brick-built house 
«f one's own, in the company of a beautiful and loving 


wife, bedifFked'mth ornaments, and in elysian felicity, should 
be ascrib^ffW^e dynamics of good deeds done in one's 
prior birth.^o ^«^6lnan baffles the best wisdom of the wise. 
She is incorrigible and simply incomprehensible, being in- 
capable of being won with flattery, jewels or frankness, or 
of being cowed down to submission with threats of violence, 
and sets at naught the injunctions of the S'astras. Little' 
by little a man should acquire learning. Little by little a 
mountain should be climbed. Little by little desires should be 
gratified, and virtues acquired. These five things should be 
gradually performed. 

Eternal are the effects of divine worship and contempla- 
tion. Through all eternity runs the merit of the gift to a 
Brahmana. Eternal is the happiness which a good friend and 
a good education confer on a person. Pitiable, indeed, are 
they who have got no education in their childhood, and fail 
to secure any wealth and wives in their youth. They may 
be likened unto the beasts that roam about in the world in 
the guise of human beings. A student of the Shastras, shall 
not constantly indulge in thoughts of eating, but travel even 
to a distant clime for his study with the speed of the celestial 
Garuda (the bird of conveyance of the divine Vishnu). Like 
the lotus in winter, those who have not studied out of play- 
ful tendencies in their infancy, and have defiled their souls 
with the follies of youth, shall be withered up in their old 
age, overwhelmed with griefs and cares. 

Disquisitions on Religion and Godhead are as old as the 
human race, yet the SVutis could not come to an agreement 
ancnt those subjects. There is not a Rishi but propounds 
a theory of his own. True religion lies hid in a cave. The 
path of the masters is the true path in life. 

The latent, or hidden workings of a man's mind, should 
be gathered and ascertained from his mien, demeanour, and 
the contortions of his face and eyes. A wise man can catch 

f'V ^ * 

/ -' 

324- -GARUDA PURANAM.. ii^r^:'^ 

the significance even of an unarticulated spe^h. ATlie func« 
tion of the intellect is to read the language of. ..demeanours, 
etc. Even a beast can understand the meaning, of; an arti- 
culated speech. Do not horses, elephants, etc., execute the 
biddings of their drivers ? Tumbled out of a fortune, one 
should start on a pilg^mage ^ a distant shrine. Deviation 
from the path of truth leads to Rourava (a hell of that name), 
deprived of the privilege of trance (occult sight). One should 
bide his time with truth and patience. Ousted of his king<i 
dom, a king should go out on a hunting excursion ia 
the forest, 


CHAPTER ex. t- 

SuTA said :— He who rejects a certain good in quest of one 
which is uncertain and remote, loses both the certain and 
the prospective one. Like erudition in the dumb, like swords 
in the hands of cowards, a beauty wedded to a blind husband^ 


loses the significance of her life. A good appetite with plenty 
to eat, a healthy sexual potency with a bevy of handsome 
wives, and opulence with a heart that unstintedly gives to 
the poor, are the effects of a prior-life Tapasya of no mean 
order. The high prerogative of reading the immutable 
Vedas (revelations) is the fruit of performing the Agnihotra 
sacrifices. Good both in this world and the one to come, is 
the fruit of one's moral living in this existence. Offsprings 
and sexual pleasure are the fruits of marriage, and charity 
and enjoyment are the fruits of wealth. One should marry a 
girl of noble descent even bereft of personal attractions, in 
preference to a handsome one with spacious and well-formed 
hips but of low and obscure parentage. 



riches of the mighty who would meet such 
effo punishment. Who on earth will stretch out 

his faan^tfr/T^ a cobra of the jewel which shines on its hood ? 
Clarifiedrtftutttr may be taken even from a house of divine 
service, and good words may be considered, even if spoken by 
a child. Gold may be taken from a person of impure descent, 
and a good and virtuous wife, even from a family of question- 
able morals. Friendship with a Icing is an absurdity. Ab- 
surdity is a serpent without venom, and absurd is the lasting 
good name of a house in which female children are born. 
One should engage a devoted person in one's own house, en- 
gage one's sons in pursuit of knowledge, keep one's enemies 
engaged with dangers, and engage one's own Self in the ' 
pursuit of God. Servants and ornaments should be kept and 
worn in their proper places. No one puts on a head-gear 
around his ankle, nor a servant thinks that he is the master. 
Head is the natural place for fire, ocean, king and head jewels. 
They should never be touched with the foot even through 

Even in their own homes, liberation awaits those free 
and foremost of men, who are true to their wives and the 
commandments of tlie scriptures, and live content with their 
honest gain, practising hospitality and self-control and 
dedicating themselves to the services of the God and the 
Brahmanas. Paradise on earth is the residence in a splendid 
mansion in the company of a pleasant, handsome^ and 
gem-bedecked wife, which can result only from the dynamics 
of good deeds done by a man in bis previous existence. 
Neither by gift alone, nor by simple respect, cauTtesy* 
nursing, chastisement, etc., nor with knowledge alone 
that a woman can be conquered. Gradually knowledge 
should be acquired. Little by little a fortune should be built 
up. By degrees a mountain should be climt>ed (difficulty 
should be surmounted). Little by little desires should be 
gratified, an^ litttle by little virtues should be acquired. 


• ■ * • 



graduated efforts being enjoined to be made.4D these five 
things. fZi^y^^Jt' 

For all eternity lasts the merit of divine ^rvite, while 
that of making a gift to a Brahmana endurestior*. good. 
Eternal are the fruits of knowledge wedded to a noble* 
nature ; and eternal is the friendship which is roused up 
in a lofty soul. Pitiable, are those human mammals in life 
who neglect their studies out of excessive fondness for play 
in their childhood ; and fail to secure good^ friends, wives, 
and fortunes in their youth. They are but beasts in human 
shapes. Like the petals of a flower, only two alternatives 
are open to a man of true vigour, either to be placed 
on the heads of men, or to drop down withered and unnoticed 
in a lonely forest. A gem which is fit to be worn on the head, 
set in a fitting ornament of gold, shines none the less if it is 
tied around the ankle. But censurable is the man who puts / 

it in such a low and wrong position. Great is the differ- 
ence between a horse and an elephant, wood and iron, stone 
and sliver, and a man and a woman. The lofty aspirations 
and ennobling virtues of a truly great man who is vanquished^ 
are not jeopardised in his disgrace ; the tongues of a flame 
(fire), never cease to point upward even when held in an 
inverted position. A good horse brooks not the touch of a 
whip ; nor a lion, the roar of an elephant ; nor a true hero, the 
boastings of his rival. Seek not the service of the wicked, nor 
beg of the mean and the vulgar, even if thou chancest to be 
fallen on evil days. A lion, even under the pangs of hunger, 
eateth not grass but drinketh the hot blood of an elephant's 
heart. A reunion with a friend who has once betrayed himself, /' 
is fatal to a person like conception to a she-mule. A wise 
man shall not spare the offsprings of his enemy, even if 
courteous and sweet-mouthed inasmuch as they can prove 
themselves fatal like cups of poison. One enemy .should 
be got rid of through the help of another one by a favour, as 
a thorn, pricked into the sole of the foot, b extracted with 


the help of one taken bold of by tbe hand. No means is 
necessary to be devised for the fall of a person whose 
constant theme is the downfall of others, as he meets his 
own overthrow in the usual course of things, like a tree 
which grows on the bank of a treacherous riven The harni- 
tul appear as good and -the good as harmful, when for<^ 
tune fiowns. A man, under the circumstance, is inevitably 
drawn on towards the evil which leads to his doom. Good 
propensities return with the smile of Fortune^ and a man^ 
perceiving the errors of his judgment and conduct, forth* 
with turns aside from the path of ^ eviL No sense of false 
delicacy should be observed in matters of learning, pecu« 
niary transaction and mutual dealing.^ Live not in a country 
which can not boast of these five factors, namely, a king, 
rich men, S'rotriyas (scholars well-versed in Vedic lore), a 
river and a physician. ^ Live not in a place, even for a 
single day where th<;se five things, such as^ prospect of 
earning a livelihood, sense of shame, dread of law, mercy, and 
charity, exist not.. Live not in a place which is devoid of 
these five things, such as, an astrologer, a S'rotriya, a king, a 
river, and a true anchorite. >^0 S'ounaka, perfect knowledge 
does not culminate in any particular individual, since every 
one knows not all, nor there can be found an omniscient 
being among men. None is omniscient in this world, nor is 
there one entirely devoid of knowledge. .Wise men make 
such distinctions as Erudite, Idiot and Average Intellect, 
according to a relative standard of knowledge possessed by 
the individual members* of a society. 


• . • 


SUtA said : — Now t shall deal with th^ tomnieiidabie itkit§ 

in kings, and servants in regal employ, which a king should 

keep a constant eye upon, during their entire period of 

Service. A king; should rule his kingdom according to the 

tenets of true religion, and in the light of truth altid justice^ 

and protect the Country from the inroads of foreign invaders^ 

Like a florist who makes a festoon by culling flowers frorrt 

flower-bearing trees without uprooting them^ a king 

should collect a tithe of the income of his subjects by the 

way of imperial revenue^ without creating any hardship on^ 

or grinding, them with an unbearable taxation. As a milk-» 

man milches a cow without exhausting the supply in^ / 

or cutting away^ her teats, so a king shall justly tap the 

resources of an enemy's counti'y brought under his sway^ 

without draining it dry or carrying fire and sword through 

its entire lengths Hence a king should rule the world for 

the advancement of order and prosperity, since the Earth 

with the fame, valour and strength which follows a just and 

vigorous rule, belongs to her protector. 

That king, who, having bridled his senses, dedicates him- 
self to the service of God and the well-being of the world (Es) 
and the Brahmanas, is alone capable of justly ruling his sub- 
jects. Even amidst when flushed with victory and prosperity^ 
a king should devote his Self to the pursuit of Virtue, since 
the riches of the world are always liable to decay, wherea» 
the opulence of the soul knows no perishing. Pleasant indeed 
it is to gratify one's desires. Pleasant, indeed, are the riches 
of the world, but they are fickle and transitory as the flurried 
and wistful glances of an amorous damsel. 

Old age, like a tigress, is lying in wait just to spring 
upon a man ; and Diseases, like victorious enemies, are 


COttSUmirt^ his llmb^ — and life, like water in a leaky vessel, is 
fast ebbing away. Ah, wherefore should he not attend to the 
Well-being of his Own Self ? Why do you continue in com- 
placent quietitude, oh men ? Why do you allow yourselves 
to be smitten with the amorous glances of youthful maidens ? 
Why do you not think of what will befall you after death ? 
Life is tra nsitory ; and each moment, the Ghati-yantra (a time- 
measuring apparatus somewhat like our modem clock) of the 
heart ticks Out the footfalls of approaching Death. 

He, who looks at another's wife as his own mother, at 
another's goods as (worthless) brickbats, and upon all men 
as similarly susceptible to impressions of pleasure and pain 
as his own self, sees but right. King^s desire realms, 
O lord of the Brdhmanas, only for the end that their com- 
mands might not be frustrated. Kings collect money only 
to leave its residue at the disposal of the Brihmanas after 
first providing for their own legitimate wants. Omkir is the 
natural sound of the Brihmanas. Recitation of Omkar leads 
to the expansion of the suzerainty of a king and contributes 
to his health and prosperity in life. 

Even * the Munis, though otherwise incapable of earning, 
are found to make provisions for times of scarcity, and 
hence it is doubly incumbent on a sovereign, who rules his 
liege subjects in a paternal spirit, to keep his treasuries 
well-replenished at all times. He who has money, has many 
friends. He who has money, has many relations — he who 
has it is a learned man. He only is really worthy who 
has a long purse at his command. Friends, wives and 
sons forsake a man in distress and fall off in his days of 
adversity. They return to him with the return of fortune. 
Hence money is the only true friend a man may have in 
this life. Blind is the king who is bereft of knowledge. 
A blind prince may see through the eyes of his spies, but 
an ignorant king is always in the dark. Transient is the 
sovereignty of the prince whose sons, servants and priests 


are not always on the alert, and whose senses hate 
lost their wonted vigour. The king who . has conquered 
the hearts of his friends, sons and servants may already 
count upon the sovereignty of the whole .ocean-girdled earth 
with the homage of the potentates of her different divisions* 
The king, who defies the dictates of reason and. the injunc- 
tions of the Shastras, is dead both in this world and the next* 
Even in defeat or discomfiture a king should not give vent 
to grief or despondency. Equally indifferent to pleasures 
and pain, he shall always try to preserve his equanimity. 
The wise grieve not at the loss of fortune. Does not the mooD 
come back resplendent out of the jaws of the Rahu ? Fie 
to him who thinks only of his body and its comforts. Grieve 
not at the loss of flesh and muscular strength. Whoever has 
not heard it that the sons of Pindu managed to retrieve their 
fortune even amidst almost insurmountable difficulties ? 

A king shall protect the courtesans by hearing their songs 
and witnessing their dances and theatrical performances, and 
his subjects with the cultivation of sciences of money-making 
and warfare. An unjust and groundless chastisement of his 
servant by a king is often retalliated by an attempt at 
poisoning him. A king shall renounce all fickleness in his 
dealings and be always truthful and pleasantly disposed to 
his servants, subjects and the Brihmanas. A king, who being 
elated by the fealty of hb friends ^and relations yields to ^ 
the snares of gossip and falconry, is easily conquered by his 
adversary* A king shall not alwajrs roar nor frown, but 
protect his servants without infringing the rules of state-' 
craft. Pleasures and luxurious habits are the two things 
which should be foresworn by a king: The luxurious and 
the voluptuous are easily defeated by their enemies in battle.. 
Even the gods stand in dread of him who is possessed of 
energy, daring, fortitude, strength, valour and intelligence* 
It is an evil providence that mars the success of an energetic 
exertion, still a man must exert and command success* 



SUTA said :-*-There are three kinds of servants, good, bad and 
indifferent, who shall be posted to offices best suited to their 
capacities. Presently shall I describe in detail the traits which 
are to be commended in the character of each of them, as 
narrated in the works on Social Economy. Gold is tested by 
touch, cutting, striking and melting, whereas a servant is known 
by his conduct, character, parentage and acts. A man of 
noble birth and character, who is further graced by the qualifica- 
tions of truthfulness, honesty of purpose, handsome features 
and a broad catholicity of views, should be entrusted with the 
management of a realm. He who can rightly assay gold, 
silver and precious stones, should be alone appointed as the 
jeweller to his king. An officer, who understands the com- 
parative strength or weakness of the enemy's forces and 
can at once detect the point of vantage in a field of 
battle, should be alone confided with the martialship of the 
realm. ^ He, who can read the mind of his master by his looks 
and ge.stures, and is strong vigilant, and handsome, and can 
successfully deal or pair off a blow, should be appointed as a 
warder. "^The king's writer or secretary shall be a man, who 
is intelligent, wise, truthful and self-controlled and is well- 
read in all the branches of the Shastras. ^The royal ambas- 
sador shall be a man of profound intelligence and clear com- 
prehension. An adept in the art of simulation, be must be 
capable of reading what passes in other men's mtnds and of 
giving the right reply at the opportune moment. The high 
priest of the realm, should be a man of vast erudition and 
perfect self-control — a hero in soul and virtue, ^he royal cook 
should be a man whose father and grandfather had served 
in the same capacity before and who is truthful, hardy 
and cleanly in his habits ; He, who has acquired a masttry 


in the science and practice of medicine and is virtuous, 
frank and friendly to all — ^beaming with the glow of health 
and kindness which virtue sheds only on the face of her 
sincere and ardent votary, shall be the royal physician. The 
royal priest should be a man who has studied the V^dis and 
the V^dingas, and constantly meditates upon the divine Self, 
and celebrating Homa ceremonies and pleasing the whole 
woild in his weal and woe. A king shall dismiss from the 
royal service any writer (secretary), astrologer, computer, and 
the head of any civic corporation, etc., any way found 
wanting in their respective duties. 

Double-tongued are the snakes and the malicious ; their 
cruel mouths are the source of many an evil to man. Avoid 
the company of an erudite miscreant : Is not the serpent that 
bears a gem on its hood doubly dangerous for the stone ? 
Who is he that dreadeth not the malicious who work 
mischief without any provocation and who are but the ser- 
pents in human form ? Words of spite drop down from the 
mouths of the malicious ; the fangs of serpents secrete dead- 
ly venom. The king, who ruins a servant, who is equally 
rich, powerful and influential as himself and holds a divided 
sway over the country, escapes ruin ill hb turn. They bode 
no good — those servants who show themselves silent, va« 
larous, truthful, self-controlled and capable at the outset, and 
exhibit contrary qualities in the course, of the service. Rare 
are the servants who are contented, laborious, vigilant, equal- 
ly devoted for good or for evil, and capable of being readily 
roused up from their sleep. A man bereft of all fortitude, 
character and honesty as well as the one who is arrogant, 
gluttonous, dishonest, spiteful, should be excluded from the 
royal service. A king shall take recourse to his fortress 
for the purpose of destroying his enemy as soon as he can 
secure a well-replenished treasury and a well-equipped 
arsenal. A* king shall bide in peace with his adversary under 
a treaty, for six months or a year at the outsidci and shall 


give battle thereafter as soon as he will be able to fully re- 
coup his losses. Infamy, frustration and Hell are the three 
dire consequences which befall a prince that emplo}rs a foolish 
and illiterate man in his service. The subtle dynamics of 
good or evil deeds determine the prosperity or ruin of a 
sovereign, and therefore he shall ponder well over a thing 
before undertaking it. Hence a king should constantly dedi-^ 
cate himself to the good of the cows and the Brdhmanas. 



SUTA ' said :— Try to secure the services of the qualified and 
reject the incapable from the list inasmuch as all virtues 
grace the mind of the erudite,, and an illiterate fool is, at 
best, but the embodiment of all evil propensities. Sit in the 
assembly « of the honest ; combine with those that are good 
and virtuous ; nay seek out a noble enemy where enmity can 
be helped and have nothing to do with the wicked and the 
unrighteous. Even in bondac:e thou shalt live with the vir- 
tuous, the erudite and the truthful ; but not for a kingdom 
thou shalt stay with the wicked and the malicious. Good 
can come only out of a work that has been rightly carried 
through ; and therefore thou shalt leave no work unfinished* 
A king shall tap the resources of his dominion just as a 
bee culls honey from a flower without killing ' it. He shall 
milch a cow or the earth, leaving $ome sustenance for her 
offsprings. A bee culls honey from flower to flower with- 
out fully draining any particular one, and a king shall collect 
his revenues, bee-fashion, from his subjects without creating 
hardship on any. Day by day the royal granary and 


treasury should be replenished and filled as an ant-hill/ 
a bee-hive, and the phases of the moon in a light fortnight are' 
increased. A little ink (used every day in writing) writes a 
good volume in the long run. By little fresh accretions, each 
day, an ant-hill reaches to a pretty good height. A* little 
\ study, a little virtue, a little act of charity practised, each day, 
may serve to make the life unbarren at its close. 

Desires assail the worldly«disposed even amidst the solitude 
of a wilderness and the subjugation of his senses by a man 
even amidst the tumults of the world and domesticity cons- 
titues true penitence and meditation. The house of a man 
who has abjured evil and killed all desires, is the true her- 
mitage. Piety is preserved by truthfulness ; knowledge, by 
constant cultivation ; courtesy, by humility ; and a family good 
name, by the character of its members. Better it is to dwell 
in the howling Vindhya forest, better it is to die of starvation, 
preferable it is to live in a snake-infested chamber, infinitely 
preferable is a leap in a well or in a whirlpool where sharks 
and other dreadful water-animals abound, than to say " help 
me" to one's friends and relations. Enjoyment does not 
consume the opulence of a man, it is the end of his good 
luck that leads to his ruin. The effects of his deeds in a prior 
birth has a hand in hewing his destiny in this as in other 

Knowledge is the ornament of the Brdhmanas ; the king, 
is that of the Earth. The moon is the ornament of the 
heaven ; and a good character is a decoration and distinction 
to all and everywhere. 

The valorous Bhimasena and his brothers Arjuna,.etc., 
were all heroes of royal descent. They were truthful and 
resplendent like the mid-day sun and enjoyed the direct tute- 
lary protection of Keshava. Even they, under the influence 
of a malign fate, were bound to live in penury and beg their 
bread from door to door. What can a man achieve in life with- 
out destiny? It is Ute that makes us fulfill our own destiny on 


earth according to the effects of our own deeds iti a prior life* 
Obeisance to Karma that has fixed Brahma in this globe o£ 
the universe (/s/., — region of Beconing) which is perpetually 
revolving like a potter's wheel — that has consigned the divine 
Vishnu to the pangs of ten successive incarnations on earth- 
that has sent out the immortal Rudra in the guise of a com- 
mon mendicant with an alms-bowl of human cranium in his 
hand^*and that has driven the Sun-God as a blazing, burning 
itinerant across the plains of heaven. The good king Vali 
made a gift of the whole earth amidst the best of the Brih- 
manas to the god Muriri, who stood as a supplicant for it at 
his door ; and in consequence he was incarcerated for good 
in the gloom of the nether worlds— tObeisance to Fate, the 
creator of all anomalies. Which way will trend the thoughts 
of a being whom the supreme god has begotten on Lakshmi, 
the goddess of opulence ? What wonder is there that good 
fortune wi}l preside at his nativity. We enjoy or suffer the 
effects of our own good or bad deeds of our past birth. A 
man is the creator of his own fate, and even in his fcetal 
life he is afHected by the dynamics of the works of his prior 
existence. Whether confined in a mountain fastness or lul- 
ling on the bosom of a sea, whether secure in his mother's 
lap or held high above her head, a man cannot fly from 
tile effects of his own prior deeds. Rivana had his fortress 
on the summits of the mount Trikruta, moated by the deep 
sea; and innumerable hosts of valiant Rikshasas were ever 
ready to lay their lives for him. The wise sage Ushani 
(Shukrichdryya) himself tutored him well in ethics, politics 
and social economy. Time has killed even that mighty 
Rivana. Whatever is to befall a man on any particular age 
or time, will surely overtake him then and on that date. Scale 
the heavens, or plunge into the nether regions, or enfilade the 
quarters of the skies, a thing, which you have once gfiven 
away, can never be yours. Knowledge acquired by a man 
in his prior birth, wealth given away in charity in his prior 


existence, and works done by him in a previous in<!afnati<MI| 
go ahead of his soul in its sojourn. A person's Kaiina 1^ 
the principal factor in determining Ms happiness of utihappK 
ness in life, inasmuch as Janaki, though joined in wedlock 
under the auspices of blissful asterisms by the holy Vashishtal 
himself, had nothing but misery for her portion in life. [A 
good physiognomy does not necessarily ensure a happy Kftf 
on earth.] Rima was round^thighed, Lakshmana Was fleet-* 
coursing as the wind, and Siti had a crown of fine, thick-se€ * 
hair, yet they were all unhappy. A son cannot relieve the ' 
misery of his father's spirit by performing propef obsequies^ 
nor a fond father, with all his anxious care for his g^d and 
due performance of his paternal duties, can lead him in the 
path of happiness. This human body entombs a Self which is 
nothing if not emphatically a worker. It is the works of this 
Self in a prior existence which determine the nature of its * 
organism in the next, as well as the character of the diseases^ 
whether physical or mental which it is to fall a prey to« 
Shafts discharged even by strong-armed archers fall to the 
ground and wise men even with their knowledge and fore-- 
thought are sometimes vanquished. Hence all projects should 
be carefully judged and deliberated in the light of the Shastras. 
A man reaps that at that age, whether infancy, youth or old 
age, at which he had sowed it in his previous birth« The 
Karma of a man draws him away from a foreign country and 
makes him feel its conseqnence even in spite of his will. A 
man gets in life what he is fated to get, and even a god can-* 
not make it otherwise. Thus neither do I wonder nor mourn 
my lot, O Sounaka, What is lotted cannot be blotted.* A 
frightened mouse runs to its hole ; a scared serpent, to a well : 
a terrified elephant, to its stake— but where can a man fly 
from his Karma ? 

Knowledge imparted is knowledge gained. Fresh water 
springs up from beneath the well that has been bored out. 

* Different reading.--'* What is mint cannot bt others." 

bAkuDA iP'jkANAM. 33^ 

t* • • • ■ , . ' ' . . 

Riches earned honestly and fairly, 'are true riches ; opulence 
acquired by honest means, is true opulence : — Do not lose 
bight 6l the fact, when you try to acquire any thing in life. 
The amount of hardship which a man undergoes in order 
io earn his bread, is infinitely greater than what is necessary 
for acquiring religious merit which can grant him an immu« 
hity from such troubles in his births to come. 

Of all cleanliness, cleanliness of food, is the best. 
Truthfulness is the cleanliness of speech. A clean mind 
denotes a clean spirit. Subjugation of the senses is the only 
irue cleanliness of the flesh. Kindness to all constitutes one 
Sort of cleanliness of which cleansing by water forms the 
fifth method. Heaven is open and easily accessible to a man 
of truth ; and he who lieth not, is holier than a horse- sacrifice. 
Impure is the person of a miscreant or of an evil-thinker whicU 
* cannot be cleansed, though a thousand times rubbed with 
clay, or a hundred times washed with water. He who had 
Subjugated his mind and acquired knowledge, fame and a full 
control over his hands and feet, and has practised penance 
arid meditation a^ well, acquires for himself the merit o£ 
a pilgrimage. Not to be jubilant over a mark of honour or 
distinction, nor to take umbrage at any humiliation, as well as 
forbearance from using any abusive language are the qualities 
which mark a truly virtuous man. A man can never come 
to any grief by listening to the sweet admonition^ of a, 
Ihough poor man at the opportune moment. Neither by 
prowess and Wisdom, nor by magic and incantations can a 
man attain to that which he is not fated to receive : — What 
is there to mourn for in this ? Sometimes I have got a thing 
without seeking it. Sometimes my fervent prayer for a 
thing has rested unanswered: A thing goes there where it 
is wanted : — What is there to mourn for in this ? BevieS of 
birds pass the night on the boughs of the sanie tree only 
to be dispersed on the break of day :r What is there to 
mourn for in this ? What is there to mou . for in the fact, if 



one or two out of an innumerable host, all permeated Willi 
the same purpose and proceeding to the same destinatioiii 
reaches the goal a little earlier ? Our life comes from the 
unseen and goes to the unseen, its middle part being only 
patent and manifest : — ^Wh'at is there to mourn for in this, O 
Shounaka ? A man dies not before the appointed time, even if 
he is riddled with shafts. A wound from the tip of a Kusha 
sprout proves fatal at the right moment. A man receives that 
which he is fated to receive, goes only there where fate lead^ 
him to, and finds only that much pleasure or pain what he is 
destined to meet in this life :-^What is there to mourn for in 
this life ? Flowers bloom and fruits ripen in their appointed 
time and of their own accord without waiting for any body's 
bidding; and the effects of one's Karma, O Shounaka^ bide 
their ,time and become patent only on the right occasion^ 
Birth, education, conduct, character, virtue or connection • 
avails not a man in this life. The effects of one's Karma and 
penance, done in a!prior existence, fructify, like a tree at the 
appointed time in the next. 

The Karma of a man forcibly draws him to the place 
where death or fortune waits him. The effects of deeds 
(Karma) done by a man in a prior existence overtake and 
choose him out in the next, as a calf seeks out its own 
mother out of a thousand cows. Thus one's Karma blinds 
one for good or for evil. Pleasure or pain, happiness or 
misery is the direct result of one's good or bad deeds in a 
prior birth. Why do you make such a heavy stock of misery 
out, O you foolish one ? 

The vile are ever prone to detect the faults of others^ 

though they be as small as mustard seeds, and persistently 

shut their eyes against their own, though they be as 

)arge as Vilva fruits. I come to the conclusion after muck 

deliberation, O thou twice-born one, that pleasure exists 

not where desire, >r affection has a room to be. True 

" o 

happiness lies i^^i .oe extinction of all emotions. Appre^ 



hension is where aifection is. Where there is affection 
there is misery. Pain has its root in love or affection. 
Renounce affection and you shall be happy. This human 
body is a theatre of pleasure and pain, and they come into 
being pari passu with the ^If of a man. Dependence or 
Bondage is misery. Liberty or Emancipation is the only 
happiness vouchsafed to man. Learn this to be a general 
synopsis, O Shounaka, of the rules of pleasure and pain. 
Misery follows happiness and happiness follows misery like 
the spokes of a wheel. What is gone is gone for good. 
What is future is still remote. He who acts only in the 
living present, knows no affliction. 



SuTA said : — No body is no bod/s friend. No body b no 
body's enemy. Friendship or enmity is bounded with each 
other by a distinct chain of cause and effect (self-interest). 
A source of solace in grief, a succour in distress, and a repo* 
sitory of happiness and confidence :— O who has created the 
two letters, '' Mitram" (friend) which are more predoas than 
a mine of gems I By the single utterance of the two letters 
" Hari" a fettered Self makes a step towards emancipation. 
A man does not repose so much confidence in his sons, wives 
and brothers as he implicitly places in his own natural friend. 
Gamble not and make no pecuniary transactions with a man, 
nor see his wife in his absence ; these three being the 
essentials of a permanent amity. Never stay in a lonely 
place with your own daughters, sisters or step-mothers. 
The fiend of lust takes advantage of solitude and pleads 
•vil counsel to the heart to which the learned have been 


known to yield. How absurd is the love God in his 
frolics \ A man naturally shuns a woman who loves him 
and is easily available to him, and covets one whose touch b 
the forfeit of life. Easier it is to determine the velocity oi 
a horse or of a storm, or even the depth of an unfathomable 
ocean ; but how puerile is the attempt at soundings a heart 
that loves not. It is the absence of a nook of vantage, or the 
want of leisure or of a person making love-overtures to her, O 
Shounaka, that mainly accounts for the chastity of a woman. 
It is only rarely, O Shounaka, when a couple is fondly ^at- 
tached to each other that the wife is true at heart. A son 
should not think, out of a sense of decorum, what ia done by- 
his mother in a passion of love. 

A courtesan is a dependant even in respect of her sleep, the 
sole aim of her life being to reo^ale the hearts of her visitors^ 
as long as they can decently bear their wine. She is a sort 
of perpetual smiling machine, being obliged to hammer out 
a horse-laugh, even with the weight of a life-long grief, misery- 
and futility lying heavy on her heart. Her person is sold 
to others for money, while she often meets a violent death. 
Fire, water, a king, a woman, a fool, or a serpent u.sed or 
provoked by another, shouid be regarded as fatal. What 
wonder is it that a man well-versed in letters will pass as. 
an erudite one ? What is surprising in the fact that a 
king who is learned in the science of politics will rule justly- 
as a virtuous prince ? What is there to wonder, if a young and 
beautiful woman, proud and conscious of her charms, leads 
a gay and fast life ? What is there:to surprise, if an indigent 
person commits a crime ? Let not your neighbour know of 
your weakness, but rather observe his weak points unseen, 
like a turtle, from your own housetop. Amorous fancies 
spontaneously occur even in the mind of a girl, who has been 
incarcerated from her infancy in a moated castle in the 
nether worlds. Who can pretend to conquer a woman ? O 
Shounaka, an intelligent brother- worker of yours can do youj 



mor^ harm, if inimical, than a professed enemy who is not 
in your line. He who can preserve his children in healthi^ 
please the ladies of his household with money^ propitiate 
the heavens with his penances, and win the good opinion of 
the public with his urbanity, alone deserves the epithet of a 
learned ipan. Those who try to coerce a man to friendship^ 
or to win a woman with brute force, and seek knowledge with- 
out any effort and prosperity, by working the ruin of others, 
cannot be called wise. It is fooJishnes;s^ ta cut down a tree 
for its fr^its. A tree or a project tha,t yields good fruits,, 
should never be uprooted, O Vipra. How can I believe that 
a rich man to be an anchorite, and a drunken womai\ 
chaste ? Trust not the untrustworthy nor confide any 
secret in your friend, lest he might betray you in a fit of 
anger. A vast, deep and child-like faith, in all, a universal 
clemency, and a close and watchful veiling of his awn god- 
like inherent virtues, are the traits which mark a noble soul. 
The doer of ai> act does alone feel its consequence. Hence 
all works should be coolly pondered over before execution. 
The six things, such as the use of a new wine or Trimulakanx 
(///., — horse radi>h in its^ three different forn>s\ the partaking 
of curd in the night, or of dried meat, sleep during the day,, 
^nd the bed of an elderly woman, should be abjured. 

A family is a poison (ruinous) to a poor man. A young 
wife is a poison (fatal) to an old man. Poison is an ill- 
?icquired kr^owiedge^ or a food that cannot be digested. 
Sweet is charity to a man of bountiful spirit, sweet is social, 
elevation to a man who has ^-isen from the ranks, bounties 
are sweet to the indigent, and by far the sweetest of them 
all is his youthful bride to a man of advanced years. Exces- 
sive water-drinking, constant use of hard seats or cushions,, 
loss of vital fluid, repression of any natural urging of the 
bodyj sleep by the day and vigils in the night, are the six 
exciting factors of disease. Exposure to the rays of the sun 
when he stays in the sign of Virgo, sexual excesses,, 

342 gas^uda puranam. 

exposure to the smoke of a cremation-ground, the heating 
of the palms of one's hands, and the sight of a woman in 
her menses, tend to shorten life. Dried melt, exposure to 
the rays of the autumn, sun (in Virgo), curd of more than 
two days' manufacture (Tarunam Dadhi), intercourse w^ith 
a woman older than one's own self, and sleep and coitus in 
the morning are the six depletive agents that tend to reduce 
strength and vitality. The six things such as, butter manufac- 
tured and clarified very same day, grapes, a young wife, a 
milk potion, tepid water and the shadow of a tree, instan- 
taneously contribute to the formation of strength in the human 
organism. The water of a well, the shadow of a Vata tree, 
and the breasts of a youthful maiden, become warm in winter 
and cold in summer. 

The three following, vis,^ a young wife, an annoint-^ 
ment with oil, and a wholesome, toothsome meal instanta- 
neously tend to impart strength to the organism. A fatiguing 
journey, an act of sexual intercourse, and an attack of fever 
are the three factors which instantaneously diminish the 
strength of a man. Dry meat should not be taken with milk, 
nor a man should sit down to a meal in the company of bis 
friends and wives, or with the king of his country, inasmuch 
as such a conduct might lead to a rupture and misunderstand- 
ing. Torn and filthy clothes, voracious eating, rough speak- 
ing and sleep at dusk and dawn, are the factors which may 
bring bad luck to the God Chakrapdni, the lord of the wealth 
goddess. The cutting of weeds with nails, the digging of earth 
with toes, the bandying and beating of legs against each other, 
the wearing of filthy garments and dirty clotted hairs, sleeping 
both at day-break and night-fall, and without the wearing cloth, 
the beating against one*s back and belly to keep time with 
music, a voracious appetite and boistrous laughter are the 
causes which may destroy the opulence even of the god 
Keshava himself. A cooled and well-washed head, the well- 
cleansed extremities, an intercourse with a virtuous woman of 

CAftUDA PUltANAM. j4d 


Cdrtimendabie features except on the nights of the new and the 
full moon, and sleeping in the night with the usual wearing 
cloth on^ are the acts which may retrieve one's long-lost for-* 
tune. The wearing of any flower^ and of a white flower in 
special, on the head, bars the advent of Bad Luck which has 
her favourite haunts in the back shadow of a bedstead^ or in 
that of a cushion or lighted lamp, and at the pools where 
washer women wash their dirty linens. A man with any 
love of life and health shall avoid exposui'e to the autumnal 
sun (///., staying in the sign of Virgo), or to the smokes 
and exhalations of a cremation ground, or to the sweepings 
of a chamber, and coition with woman who is his oldef 
in years, and the use of putrid curd technically known as 
Tarunam Dadhi< The particles of dust brushed off from 
the sides of a horse, of a cow, of an elephant, or of a chariot 
are auspicious, while those obtained from the body of an ass^ 
of a sheep, or of a camel are unholy. Paddy-dusts as 
well as those which stick to the body of one's own child 
or cow, are holy and sin-expiating in their contact. Dusts 
which are brushed off from the sides of a goat, or of an ass, 
as well as those which are raised by a sweeping broom are 
unholy and unhealthy. The wind wafted by a winnow, 
the washings of hair and nails, the dribblets from one's 
bathing cloth and bath-pitcher, as well as the dusts which 
float before a sweeping broom, have the power of des-' 
troying the pieties of a man acquired even in a previous 

You must not walk between two rows of Brdhmanas, not 
between a Are and a Brdhmana, nor between a man and his 
wife, nor between two bulls or elephants. What- wise man will 
believe in a woman, in a serpent, in a king, in the services 
done by his own enemy, in the infallible nature of his own 
knowledge and memory and in the enjoyment of the worldly 
pleasures, even for once in life ? Trust not those who are 
unworthy of credence. Do not repose unbounded faith even 

344 tiARliDA PURANAiH. 

in the trustworthy, lest they might bfing aboiit yoiir ruiri aii<i 
overthrow by betraying it. 

He who rests conndeht after having made a retronciliation 
with his enemy, is sure to a fall otie day like a mail whd 
peacefully reposes on a tree-top. Be not too mild nor too 
fierce, but Subdue a mild enemy with a mild means and a fierce 
one with fierce measures. Be not too straight nor too crooked. 
Crooked trees are left standing while the straight ones art! 
felled by a forester. Trees that are laden with fruits are bent 
under their burden, a heavy rain-cloud seems to touch the 
ground with the weight of its charge ; but a fool and a dry 
wood breaks under pressure but knows no bending. Pleasure! 
and pain come and go without asking. Men, like cats, are 
ever ready to pounce upon happiness. Many a happiness 
walks before and after a virtuous man, the contrary being 
the case with the inequitous. A counsel heard by six ears ' 

(discussed among three men) is soon divulged ; heard by 
four it is kept secret for a while. He who keeps his own 
counsel baffles the scrutiny of the god Brahmin 

Of what use is the cew which does not conceive and give 
milk ? Of what good is the son who is not wise and virtue - - 
ous ? A single moon illumines the heaven ; a single son/ 
virtuous and erudite, sheds lustre on the family. A single 
tree in blossom purfumes the whole wood land; a single' 
good son gives fragrance to the whole family tree. A single 
erudite son is the light of the whole family^ a family of a 
hundred illiterate ones is but a grand noodledom. A single 
moon dispels the darkness of the heaven which hundreds of 
stars are incapable of doing. A child should be only fondled 
for the first five years, and ruled or tutored for the next ten. 
A son of sixteen should be looked upon in the light of a friend 
and adviser by his father. A son, as soon as he is born, 
monopolises (robs his father of) the love of his mother. Coming 
into age he usurps his father's estate. His doleful look is a 
death to the parent. A son is the worst enemy a father may 


possibly have. There are deer-mouthed tigers and tiger* 
tnouthed deer in this world ; an implicit confidence in them is 
the best means of drawing out their nature^ on each occasion* 
The only defect of a pardoning spirit is that its toleration 
is often mistaken for its weakness or incapability. I do not 
know what other defects it has. Know all enjoyments in life 
to be transitory, and do not build your happiness on the 
foundation of a frail heart's aflFectlon ; since whom you love 
most, may be taken away the next morning. The eldest 
brother, O Shounaka, is a father to the younger ones after the 
demise of their progenitor. Hence he shall look after them 
all with the same loving and anxious care. The younger 
brothers should be devoted to their eldest, and he shall look 
upon them as his own begotten children* Strong is the 
combination of small and insignificant men. Straws, strung 
together into a rope, may be strong enough to fetter an 
elephant. Benevolence with stolen or ill-gotten wealth, leads 
to hell ; the merit is of him to whom the money rightfully 
belongs* The family of one who robs the gods and the 
Brihman«Ls or humiliates a member of that sacred order, is 
degraded. The sin which is attached to w^ine-drinking, to 
theft, to a broken vow, or to a Brdhm ana-slaughter may be 
atoned for. There is no expiation for ingratitude. The 
gods and manes accept not the offerings by a person who 
is uxorious, or who connives at the whoredom of his own wife 
or at her illicit amours under his own roof. The dishonest, 
the wicked, the crooked and the invalid, form the four classes 
of Chandilas, the fifth being by the accident of birth. An 
enemy or an evil propensity, however small, should not 
be neglected. A tiny spark of fire may eventually spread 
and consume the whole world. Self*control in youth is the 
only genuine thing ; continence is the natural offspring of 
old age. A public woman, like the right of passage on a 
public thorouq;hfare belongs to the whole community ; and 
hence she shculd not be suffered to be molested or insulted. 



O thou the foremost of the Brdhmands, the vital principles of 
the body are dependent on consciousness (///., mind). The 
body perishes when the mind is extinct for good. Hence the 
equilibrium of mind should carefully preserved. A healthy 
mind is the nursery of healthy thoughts. 



SUTA said : — A false wife, a false friend, a false prince, a 
false relation, and a false country, should be shunned from a 
distance. Virtue will fly from the earth in the Kali Yuga J 
Truth will be taken down from her altar and pilloried in the 
market ; Earth will lose her fecundity ; Craft will usurp the 
throne of ethics ; Greed will be the god of the Brihman^ 5 
men will be slaves to their wives' fancies ; and the low and 
the vile will be elevated in the world. Blessed are they that 
die early in that iron age. Blessed are they that witness 
not the ruin of their own house or country, or live not 
to see their wives making love to others and their sons 
walking in the path of infamy^ Countless are the ways in 
which a bad son torments his father. What love can. there 
be for a false wife, what confidence in a false friend ? 
What guarantee of life and living can there be in the realm 
of a false prince ? To eat another man's bread, to be a 
hangeron on another man's purse, to lie in another's bed and 
with another's wife, and to lodge in another man's house are 
the iniquities which may send even an Indra (lord of the 
celestials) to go a-begging in the world. 

Sinful contagion spreads from man to man by conversa*- 
tion, by touch, or by company of the impious, or by sharing 
same beds and cushions with them. A woman is ruined by her 




beauty ; a penance, by anger ; a cow, by straying far out of the 
fold ; a Brdhman, by partaking of a meal cooked by a S'udra. 
Sin spreads from man to man by contagion as water parses 
off from one pitcher to another by syphoning. Fondling 
of a son by his father is fraught with many an evil conse- 
quence. Innumerable are the benefits which accrue from 
chastisement. Hence a son or a disciple should be birched 
and not fondled. • A long pedestrial journey is old age 
(proves exhausting) to men (///., organic beings.) Water is 
death to a mountain, the abjuring of her bed by her lord spells 
death to a wife, and heat is death to clothes. Sensuality is 
the idol of the vulgar ; good men long for peace, and the 
best covet honour which is the true wealth to the noble. 
Honour is the culminating stage of wealth. Why do you 
covet wealth when you have honour? What is wealth to a 
man who has suffered in his honour and prestige ? The vulgar 
seek only wealth ; good men, riches and honour ; the best 
only strive for honour which is the wealth of the noble. A 
hungry lion do not flap his ears, nor bend down his head 
to look at his armpits. A noble man in indigence, does not 
stoop to mean things. 

A lion does not wait for being anointed, or a crowned 
king of the forest by any body. The right of sovereignty 
is inherently vested in valour ; and the chivalrous are the 
born rulers of men. A dishonest merchant, a haughty s«*rvant, 
a luxurious friar, a poor voluptuary, and a scolding beauty 
are the anomalies in the world. A poor, benevolent person, 
a rich miser, a wild disobedient son, a service under the 
wicked or the vulgar, and the ruin of a person in a philan- 
throphic cause, are the five anomalies in life which illustrate 
the examples of . living death. The death of one's own 
dear wife, humiliation at the hands of one's own relations, 
a debt — unpaid and undiscliarj^ed, a service of the low and 
the vulgar and desertion by friends in one's evil days, are the 
five things which though not fire in themselves, consume 


one's vitals. The thoughts of a starving family, of a scoldings 
wife, of dissensions with one's own brothers, and of suffer- 
ing humiliation at the hands of a mean, sordid wretch, are 
the four thoughts which are like sword blades to the heart, 
out of the hundred that agitate or ruffle the human mind. A 
good obedient son, a knowledge that helps one to earn money, 
a sound health, the company of the virtuous, and a loving 
sweet speaking wife, are the five things which dispel misery 
in the world. The bear, the elephant, the fly, the bee, and the 
fish are the five animals which destroy one another in the 
universe in their order of enumeration ; but man deals death 
to all of them. Why should he not be killed by his fully 
gratified senses by way of divine retribution ? The presence 
of a poor, ill-clad, rough-haired Brdhmani, though otherwise 
erudite like the holy Vrihaspati, passes unnoticed in the man- 
sions of the rich. The longevity, desting, character, erudition 
and death of a child are the factors, which should be reckoned 
at the time of its nativity. Commendable is the charactn^ 
of the man who succours a drowned man from his watery 
grave, or one fallen in climbing a hill, or in a local feud, or 
is attacked by a wild bull in a pasturage, or any way de- 
graded in society. 

The shadow of a cloud, the love of the malicious, an 
intimacy with another man's wife, youth and opulence, are 
the five equally transitory things in the world. Life is tran- 
sitory. Transient are the youth and opulence of a man. 
Wives, children, friends, and relations are but passing sha- 
dows in the phantasmagoria of life. Only virtue and good 
deeds endure. Even a centenarian has but a short space of 
life, the one-half of which is covered by the night, the other 
half being rendered fruitless by disease, grief, imbecility 
and toil. Night covers the one-half of the hundred years 
allotted to man and is spent in sleep. Infancy and boy- 
hood cover the half of the other moiety, a part of its 
remaining half being cloudened by grief, misery and service. 


The rest is but changeful and transient like a wave of the 
ocean. Ah, what is the end of life ? What does glory, fame, 
or honour signify ? Death with his attendants Day and 
Night is perpetually travelling the world in the guise of Old 
Age, and is devouring all created beings, as a serpent gulps 
down a gust of wind. • 

At rest, or while moving about, in sleep, or while awake, 
always try to do good to the world. Good deeds are the 
wages of life. He who seeks only his own good, is an animal. 
The man who has lost all conscience, lets himself be carried 
away by many an ignoble and worldly care at the time 
of divine service, and is troubled only with the cares of 
pampering his belly, is an animal. The man, who has ac- 
quired no fame in respect of piety, penance, benevolence^ 
and learning, is but the excrement of bis own mother. A 
good life, lived even for a short while by a man in the fame 
of his learning, valour or manliness, is called right living by 
the wise. — Does not a crow eat and live to term ? A life 
without wealth or fame is a failure. What is the use of an 
ally who constantly apprehends evil and falls back at the 
wanted time ? Cast not doleful looks, but live like a hero, 
O Shounaka, even a crow gets its food in the world and is 
plagued with the toil of simple continunance from day to 
dav. Of what use is the life of a man who does not come 
to the help of his servants, relations, friends or the needy? 
Does not a crow eat and live to term ? He who passes his 
days without earning fame, piety, and wealth, is like the 
belows of an Ironsmith which breathes out wind but does 
not live. An independent living is success in life, a dependent 
existence is the false rendering of life's inner meaning. 
They who are scrvanted to others, are the monuments 
of living death. Cowards are they who rest satisfied with 
the fulfilment of their own personal wants. — Does not the 
mouse in the hole gets his bellyful ? Cowards grumble most 
but are contented with a little. 


The shadow of a cloud, the wild-fire, tlie service of 
the vulgar, the water in a rut, the love of a courtesan^ 
And the friendship of the malicious, are the six things 
which are transient like the bubbles of water. A good 
advice is always unpalatable. Life is leased on honour. 
What remains when truth is broken ? The king is the 
strength of the weak. The strength of a woman lies in 
her tears ; silence is the shield of the ignorant, and false- 
hood is the refuge of the thieves. Study a science so that 
you may have your own light on the subject, that is the 
only right kind of study. While staying in a country do 
what is done by its inhabitants, combine with them, win their 
favour and thereby serve your own interest. A man is 
ruined by his greed, lust or undue confidence. Hence these 
three should be averted. A dread is to be dreaded so long 
as it does not come ; when once present, a man should meet 
it with a bold front. The undischarged residue of a debt, 
the unextinguished residue of a fire, and the unconquered 
ntsidue of an enemy, may increase and grow stronger. 
Hence they should be totally extinguished. Repay good by 
goo 1 and evil by evil, O Shounaka, I do. not think it bad 
politics. Avoid a friend who speaks sweet in your presence 
and slander you behind your back. A good man is ruined by an 
evil company ; clear water is made turbid with clay. What- 
ever is enjoyed by a Brdhmand, is put to right use. Hence 
a Brihmand should be feasted at all costs. He who eats 
the residue of the dishes of a Brihmani, eats only in the 
right way. He who commits no sin, is clever. A friend is he 
who speaks good of you behind your back. A good deed done 
without bragging, is piety. It is no assembly where there is 
no old man. They are no old men who do not uphold what 
is virtuous What does not contain truth, is no virtue, and a 
truth which is a half truth, is no truth at all. 

The Brahmanas are the noblest of mankind ; the sui 
is the modl rcM)lendcnt o( the starb; the head is the mobt 




important of all organs ; and tnith is the highest ot.kll vows. 
A thing which instantaneously affects the mind as good, is 
good. Living, without serving any body's will, is true livings 
True earning is that which is enjoyed by one's relations. 
He who has been abandoned by his enemy in a battle-field, 
Is abandoned. A wife who is not proud of her charms, 
is a true wife. He who has abjured all desires, is happy^ 
He is a friend in whom confidence is reposed^ The man 
who has subjugated his senses, is a man. He who brags 
of his own virtues and holds a very exalted opinion of him- 
self, should r ot be loved, nor be made a friend. The sources 
of rivers, fire-worshippers (Agni-hotris) and the race of 
Bhdrata should not be tried to be discovered, as it may lead 
to the discovery of many an unpleasant thing. The sea is 
the final goal of a river, one's love-making ends with the illicit 
amours of one's own wife ; and a mischievous propensity is 
checked by a healthy public opinion. The effect of wealth 
is misery. The prosperity of a king may be ended by the 
curse of a Br.ihmana ; decency and cleanliness, by living 
close to the dwelling of a Ghosa ; and a family is ruined 
where women reign supreme*. All accumulations are followed 
bv waste. All risingrs end in fall ; combinations, in dissolu- 
tions ; evolutions, in involutions ; and life, in death. 
Proceed not far with haste in a business so that you may easily 
retrace your steps. Walk not far with your guest from a 
place where you intend to return. A friend or a preceptor 
should be bid adieu to by following him up to the border of a 
pool, or under the shade of a tree of pleasant foliage. Dwell 
not in a country where there is no law, or in which the 
central government is vested in a more than one respon- 
sible head, or which is governed by a woman or an infant. A 
woman is protected by her father in infancy, by her husband 
in youth, and by her son in old age. She has no separate 
and independent living. A man is at liberty to marry a 
second wife in the event of his first having had no issue 



ftftcf eight, years of wedlock; after nine years ot thlt cl- 
one whose children die in their infancy ; after eleven 
years of the marriage a wife that has given birth to 
daughters only> and instantly when the first is foul-mouthed 
and tries to give him a bit of her mind. A man of honest 
purpose and entrusted with the duty of feeding many 
mouths, never suffers any humiliation on account pecuniary 
difficulties. A noble forethought for providing for the wants 
of many and a sacred dread for being found wanting in 
his duties, makes him a ready master of resources and of 
ways and means under difficulties. A suppliant never re-^ 
turns half-fed from his door. The family is a seminary of 
applied ethics. Fatherhood is a synopsis of the moral eco* 
nomy of the universe and marriage is the pledge (///., — » 
a pawn) for its realisation on earth) serving as a gfatld citadel 
of man on the border land of mental affections where the 
light begins to fail and the kingdom of darkness begins. 

A wise man should keep at a respectful distance from 
a tired horse, a wild (excited) elephant, a cow after her first 
parturition and a toad squatting on the dry ground. A 
suppliant for money has nither- friends nor relations. A 
voluptuous man has neither shame nor dread. A care-worn 
man is a stranger, to sleep and happiness, and a starving 
man wants no salt but nutrition. Sleep is forbidden to the 
poor, to the slaves, to thieves and to those who are in love 
with their neighbours' wives* Soundly do they sleep who are 
healthy, free, or owe no money-debts, or are not plagued 
Avith the love of a woman. A servant is honoured in propor-^ 
tion to the social elevation of his master ; the height of a 
lotus lily is proportionate to that of the water level of the pool 
it grows in. The sun and Varuna (water) serve as friends 
to a water-lily in its days of bloom and prosperity, but they 
cause it to wither and petrify when it is severed from its 
stem. The friends who flock round a man in office turn his 
enemies when he is ousted of it. The sun who gladly 



The goddess Durgi with her female cohorts and the 
guardians of the different'quarters of the heaven, should be 
worshipped on the eighth and the ninth day of the fortnight 
for a pecuniary boon ; the Moon-God, on the tenth ; the Rishb, 
on the eleventh ; the god Hari, on the twelfith ; and the god 
Maheshwara on the thirteenth day of the moon's increase 
which is known as the Madana-Trayodashi. The god Brahmi, 
and the Pitris, worshipped on the fourteenth and the fifteenth 
day of the fortnight, give wealth to their votaries. The 
presiding deities of the different dajrs of the week, as well 
as the sun god and the asterisms, etc., worshipped on the 
day of the new moon, give all that they are supplicated 
for by their votaries. 



SUTA said : — O Vyasa, the vow of Ananga-Trayodashi falls 
on the thirteenth day of the moon's increase in the month of 
Margas'irsha ; and the god S'iva should be worshipped oil 
the day with the offerings of Dhustura flowers and tooth* 
brushes of Malliki twigs. The votary shall live on honey 
on the day of the worship in the month of Pousha and make 


offerings of a variety of confectionaries to the god of love, 
and worship the god Yoges'vara (S'iva) with Vilva leaves, 
tooth-brushes of Kadamva twigs, sandal-paste and S'uskuUs 
(Puris and Kachouris). The god Nateshvara' should be wor« 


shipped with Kunda flowers ; and strings of pearls and offer* 
ings of Purikas and of Plaksha twigs as tooth-brushes should 
be made to him. The god Vires'vara should be worshipped 
with Maruvaka flowers in the month of Philguna and offer* 
ings of sugar, pot herbs and Mandas should be made to him, 


was first related to S'aUnaka by Vishnu. The god Mafa 
learnt it from S'aunaka and related it to the birthlesa Vyasd 
who has illumined our minds on the subject. 



SuTA said :— I shall now deal with the mode of practising 

those religious vows and penances, O Vysisa, by trhich a man 

may win the good graces of the god Hari to the extent 

that he may be pleased to answer all his prayers. The god >' 

should be worshipped in all months of the ye3tr and in alf 

days of the week, and under the auspfeies of all lunar 

phases and astral combinations. The votary shall observe 

a fast or take a single meal in the night, or live upon 

a fruit regimen on the day of the vow, and make gifts 

of money and paddy for the satisfaction of the god 

Vishnu, for which he will be blest with the birth of a son and 

the ownership of fresh landed estates. The gods Kuvera 

and Vaishvdnarai worshipped under the allspices oH the 

first phase of the moon's wane, grant wealth and opulencer 

to their votary. On the same day, the votary shall fast and 

worship either the god Brahmd which wij} be rewarded 

with opulence and a number of mares. The deities Yama, 

Lakshmi and NirAyana, worshipped on the second day of 

the fortnight, grant wealth to their votaries. The three 

deities Gauri, Vighnesha and S'ankara, should be worshipped 

on the third day of the fortnight. The god Chaturvyuha 

should be worshipped on the fourth day of the moon's wane 

and the god Hari on the fifth ; the Sun God and Kartikeya^ 

on the sixth ; and the god Dhas>kara on the seventh. 


The goddess Durgd with her female cohorts and the 
guardians of the different quarters of the heaven, should be 
worshipped on the eighth and the ninth day of the fortnight 
for a pecuniary boon ; the Moon-God, on the tenth ; the Rishis, 
on the eleventh ; the god Hari, on the twelfith ; and the god 
Mahesh^vara on the thirteenth day of the moon's increase 
which is known as the Madana-Trayodashi. The god Brahmi, 
and the Pitris, worshipped on the fourteenth and the fifteenth 
day of the fortnight, g^ve wealth to their votaries. The 
presiding deities of the different days of the week, as well 
as the sun god and the asterisms, etc., worshipped on the 
day of the new moon, give all that they are supplicated 
for by their votaries. 



SUTA said : — Vyasa, the vow of Ananga-Trayodashi falls 
on the thirteenth day of the moon's increase in the month of 
Margas'irsha ; and the god S'iva should be worshipped on 
the day with the offerings of Dhustura flowers and tooth- 
brushes of Malliki twigs. The votary shall live on honey 
on the day of the worship in the month of Pousha and make 
offerings of a variety of confectionaries to the god of love, 
and worship the god Yoges'vara (S'iva) -with Vilva leaves, 
tooth-brushes of Kadamva twigs, sandal-paste and S'uskulis 
(Puris and Kachouris). The god Nateshvara' should be wor- 
shipped with Kunda flowers ; and strings of pearls and offer- 
ings of Parikas and of Plaksha twigs as tooth-brushes should 
be made to him. The god Vires' vara should be worshipped 
with Maruvaka flowers in the month of Phllguna and offer- 
ings of sugar, pot herbs and Mandas should be made to him. 


Q holy sage, together with the twigs oi a Ckuta tree && 
tooth-brushes. The votary shall take nothing but camphor • 
on the day of worship in the month of Chaitra, when the 
Surupa manifestation of the god shall be propitiated with 
the offerings of S'uskulis and tooth-brushes of Vata twigs. 
In the month of Vais'Aka, the god S'ambhu should be wor- 
shipped with the offerings of Modakas and As'oka flowers 
and confections made of treacle as well as tooth-brushes of 
Audumvara twigs, and nutmeg should be dedicated to him. 
by reciting the Mantra which reads as, ** Obeisance to Maha- 
rupa." The god Pradyumna should be worshipped with Cham- 
paka flowers in the month of Jaishtha ; and tooth-brushes of 
Vilva twigs should be offered to him. The votary shall take 
nothing but cloves on the day of the Puja in the month of 
Ashlda and worship the god with the flowers of Apdmdrga.. 
Tooth-brushes of Agaru twigs should be offered to the god 
by reciting the Mantra which runs as " Om, Obeisance to 
the god Umi-bhadra. The god should be worshipped with 
the offerings of Karavira flowers, clarified butter and cushions 
in the month of S'rdvana, and tooth-brushes of Karavira 
twigs should be dedica.ted to him with the repetition of th^ 
Mantra which reads as " Om, Obeisance to the mace-bear- 
ing god who is without any origin.'* In the month of A's'vina 
the god should be worshipped with the offerings of Vakula 
flowers, cakes and tooth-brushes of Madhavi twigs which 
should be dedicated to him by reciting the Mantra which 
runs as, ** Obeisance to the god who is the source of perpetual 
ja;enesis.'* The Surddhipa (the lord of the celestials) mani- 
festation of the god, should bo worshipped in the month of 
A's'vina when offerings of Champaka flowers, Modakas, and 
tooth-brushes of catechu twigs should be dedicated to him. 
The god Rudra should be worshipped in the month of 
Kdrt'ika with the offerin^j^s of tooth-brushes of Vadari twigs. 
At the year's end. the Puja should be closed with the offcr^ 
ings of milk, pot herbs and lotus flowers to the de'ty. 




The votary who has been living a life of strict conti- 
nence from a few days before the date of the worship, shall 
worship the image of the god of love on'a golden throne 
with the offerings of flowers, perfumes, etc. ; and a thousand 
oblations of Vrihi and sesame seeds should be cast into th*5 
sacrificial fire in his honour. The votary shall pass the 
night in songs and festivities and again worship the god on 
the morrow, making gifts of bed, cushions, umbrellas, 
shoes, clothes and metal-utensils filled with seeds, to the 
Brdhmanas. After that, he shall feed the cows and the 
Brdhmanas and think himself as a man who has accomplished 
the ends of his life. The vow should be thus practised for a 
year, after which it should be closed. The VraUm under 
discussion is called Ananga-Trayodashi, a due performance 
of which is rewarded with health; opulence, a beautiful wife 
and the blessings of paternity. ] 




Brahma said -.—'Now I shall describe the mode of prac« 
tising the Akhanda-DvAdashi-Vratam, the merit attending it 
performance enables the votary to enjoy divine beatitude 
in life. The votary shall take nothing but the Panchagavyara 
(the five kinds of articles obtained from a cow such as, milk, 
etc.,) on the day previous, and fast on the twelfth day of 
the moon's increase in the month of Mirgas'irsha, spending it 
entirely in the worship of the god Vishnu. Five metal vessels 
filled with Vrihi corn, should be gifted away to the Brihmanas 
each day for the four successive months commencing from the 
date. The votary shall pray as follows : — "May the merit of all 
good and pious acts done by me in my seven prior incarnations^ 


continue one and indivisible, O lord. May all my pieties 
continue whole and undivided as tbe universe is, and just as 
;thou art the one* and indivisible spirU which runs through all." 
Vessels filled with powders of freed barley corns, should be 
gifted away by him in the month of Chaitra ; and bowls filled 
with clarified butter, in the month of S'rdvana. Earthly bliss 
And the pleasures of fatherhood are the rewards of the vow 
in this life^ and an elevated stAtus in heaven, in the next. 



3RAHMA said ; — Now I shall describe the mode of practising 
the Agastydrgha-Vratam. The vow should be celebrated on 
the three days immediately before the sun passes into the 
sign of Virgo. O thou holy sage, an image of Agastya^ 
should be made of K«isha flowers, and worshipped inside 
ja water-pitcher. The Argha offering should be duly made 
to it and the votary shall pass the night in vigil and divine 
contemplation. He shall fast that day and worship the 
image with the offerings of curd, sesamum, fruits and flowers 
and formally dedicate the vessel containing the Argha offering 
to the god. The vessel should be tinged with five colours 
(containing rice powders of five colours) and filled with bits 
of gold and silver and the seven kinds of cereals, technically 
known as the Saptadhdnyam, besmeared with curd and 
sandal paste. The Argham should be finally offered by reci- 
ting the Mantra which reads as follows : — " I make obeisance 
to thee, O Agastya, who art the offspring of Mitri • and 
Varuna, and hence retain in thy self the principles of ether 
and water. I make obeisance to thee, (O Agastya,) who art 
hoary as the Kasha flower and wast bom in a pitcher." 

GA^ODA t\Jt(AUAM. 3S^ 

• ... 

Even womert * Slid S'udras J^e admitfed tb the pVivilege. 
of practising the votv as above described. The votary shall 
forego all fruits, rice meals, and vegetable juices during the 
observance of the tow, which should be closed by feasting 
^nd making gifts of water- pitch-crs with bits of gold to the* 
Brdhmanas. The successive observance of the vow for 
seven years is rewarded with the realisation of on^'s al( 
\\'ishcd*for ends. 



Brahma said : — Now I shall deal with the mbde of practising 
the Rambhi-Tritiyd-Vralam ' which bringls^ good luck, and 
opulence to the votary and blesses him with the pleasures of 
fatherhood, etc. The votary shall fast on the third day of 
the moon's increase in thf month of Mdrgas'ira, procure 
water and the blades of the sacred Kusha grass, atid worship' 
the goddess Gouri with the offerings of Vilva leaves and tooth- 
brushes made of Kadmava twigs. In the month of Pousha 
he shalt take nothing but camphor on the day of the Vratam 
and worship the goddess Girisutd (the mountain-daughter)* 
with the offerings of Kuruvaka flowers, Krisharas and tooth- 
brushes of Mallikd twigs. In the month of Migha, the votary 
shall live on a butter regimen on the day of the penance 
and worship the goddess Subhadrd with the offerings of 
Kalhcira flowers, Mandas, and imaginary tooth'-briishes formed 
of the spirit of song and harmony (Gitimayi). In the months 
of Phdiguna, the votary shall take nothing but barley gruel 
after the Puja on the day of the vow, and worship the goddess 
Gomati with the offerings of S'askulis and tooth-brushes 

38o ttARUDA '1>ukAMAMi 

of Kunda sterns. The goddess Vis'Aldkshi slioujd be \Vot^^ 
shipped with the offerings of Midhavi flowers and Krisbras) 
and the votary shall take curd after that and dedicate tooth-^ 
brushes of Tagara twigs to the goddess. The S*rimukhi 
manifestation pf the deity should be worshipped with KaraTi- 
kara flowers in the month of Vais'ika, the votary eating 
nothing but the polens of As'oka flowers and dedicating 
tooth-brushes of As'oka twigs to her, therafter. Tbc 
Narayani manifestation of the goddess should be worshipped 
in the month of Jaishiha with the offerings of treacle (khanda) 
and lotus lilies ; and the vdtary shall take nothing but cloves 
after the Puja on the day. The goddess Mddhavi should be 
worshipped with the offerings of Vilva leaves in the month 
of A'shad'a. The goddess S'ri should be woshipped in 
the month of S'rivana with the offerings of Kshirinnam 
and tooth-brushes of Audumvara twigs. The votary shall 
take nothing but sesame seeds and offer tooth-brushes 
of Tagara twigs, after that, to the goddess. The goddess 
Uttamd should be worshipped in the month of Bhddra with 
the offerings of tooth-brushes of Mallikd twigs. The votary 
shall take nothing but S'ringada after the Puja on the day. 
The goddess Rijaputri should \)« worshipped in the month 
of A's'vina with the offerings of Javi flowers ; and the votary 
shall eat nothing, but Jiraka on the night of the Vratam« 
The goddess Padmajd should be worshipped in the month 
of Kirt'ika with the offerings of Jiti flowers, fruits, viands^ 
and Krisharas and the votary shall take nothinjf but the 
Panchav^avyam, that day. The Vratam should be thus cele- 
brated for a year and closed by feasting a Brahmana pair 
and distributing confections made of clarified butter to the 
Brihmanas. After that, Uml and MahesVara should be 
worshipped with the usual ceremonial rites ; and gold, silver, 
confectionaries, clothes, and umbrellas should be given to 
the Brahmanas, the night of the final celebration being spent 
in songs and revelry. 



itfou, the originless, all-pervadiog deity. The phalUc emblem 
should be bathed with ther compo^tions known a» the 
Panchagavyam and the Panchimritam^ and worshipped by 
reciting the Mantram running as, ** Om, obeisance to S'iva.'' 
Libations of clarified butter containing rice, Vrihi, sesame 
seeds and little morsels of the cooked sacrificial porridge 
should be cast into the fifre, after wMcJi the closing libation 
should be casi« The votary shall hear the legend of the 
Vratam recited by the priest, and worship the god once in 
each quarter of the night and recite the sacred Mantra till 
the break of dawn, when he shall bid farewell to the deity 
by asking his pardon a» follows : — ** I have safely and peace^ 
fully fulfilled this vow by thy grace, O thou the k>rd of the 
three worlds. Most humbly do I dedicate the merit of these 
performances to thy self. I supplicate thy grace, O k>rd, I 
have invoked thee on the occasion of my Vratam, now I 
beseech thee, O lord, to go back to thy mansion from whence 
thou hast come. Thy very presence has absolved me of all 
sins. Graciously accept my humble offerings, O thou the god 
of the gods, who art the origin, stay and goal of all created 
beings, and kind and compassionate to all.'' 

Thus the Vratam should be practised for twelve conse- 
cutive years, the reward of which is fame, opulence, kingdom 
and progeny in this life and residence in the region of S'iva 
after death. The Vratam may be practised as well on the 
same night in each month of the year, and should be closed 
by feasting a dozen hermits and by illuminating the temple 
of the deity, by which a perpetual residence in heaven may 
be ensured. 




Said the Divine Grand Father :— The king Mandhata 
managed to be the undisputed lord of the three worlds by 


shall live on powdered barley (Shaktu), barley gfrtief, mtlkf 
curd or clarified butter, or on aJm^ during the entire ternf 
of the vow, which may be substituted for cow's urine, barley 
gruel or the Panchagavyan*. He shall forego the use of 
a-n pot herbs, f ruits> roots and vegetable juice* Her who 
practises the vow ae above in<licatedv sbaU attain to ihcr 
region of Vishnu* 

criAPTBR cxxrr. 

BlRAHMA said : — I^ow I shall describe the mode of practising^ 
the vow of a month's- privation, which' is tbr best of all pen- 
ances. It is imparativeFy obligatory oiv women, anchorites andf 
torest-dwefling hermits to practise the' penance. TTie votary 
shall undertake' the vow, ffrst on* the day of the eleventh phase 
of the moon's^ increase in> the month of AsMna, and which 
is to be continued for the next consecutive thirty cEays. He 
^hall invoice the help of the god Hari for the successful 
termination of hi^ vow by reciting the prayer which reads a» 
follows : — '' I undbrtake this vow inr thy presence, O Vishnu. 
From this date,. I shalT worship thee fasting continuously 
for a month eachr day until the day of thy rising fron> 
slumber. I shall practise this vow from the twelfth day of 
the moon'is- increase in the month of As'vina ta the corres- 
ponding d;ay of the montb of K&'rtika^ May I not be 
accused of the sin of a broken vow if I die in the interim,, 
and may my Vratanr be deemed complete by thy grsvce evenr 
under the cfrcum stance."' 

The penitent shall thrfce bathe each day, and worship 
the god Hari with the offerings of perfumes, 'etc., during 
the term of the Vratam. He shall abjure the use of oil 
and unguents- during the period,, and break bis vow on the 



^ay of the twelfth phase of the moon's increase in the month 
t>f Kirtika. The god should be worshipped at the close of 
the Vratam 7 and the Brihmanas, sumptuously feasted ; after 
which the penitent shall break his fast. Milk may be taken 
by the penitent in the case of his fainting during the fast, 
without 'any apprehension of breaking his vow, the reward of 
its observance being enjoyment of creature comforts in this 
Gfe, and residence in heaven in the next 



Brahma said :— I shall now enumerate the Vratas which are 
to be practised in the month of Kirtika. A votary'of Vishnn 
shall take his ablution and worship his deity each morning. 
The votary shall take a single meal each] day, or shall live 
on alms in connection with the practising of any Vratam in 
the month of Kirtika. In the alternative, he shall live on 
vegetables or on a milk regimen, whereby he shall be 
exonerated from all sins, will witness the realisation of 
all his wished-for objects, and ascend, a stainless spirit, to 
the region of heaven after death. A Vratam, practised 
at any time in honour of the god Hari, ranks foremost in 
respect of merit ; and specially so is the one, performed when 
the sun is in the winter solstice. The Chaturmisyam is 
the greatest of all annual Vratas, while the one, practised in 
the month of Kdrtika and known as the Bhishmapanchakam, 
is better than the former. The Bhishmapanchakam Vratam 
should be practised on the day of the eleventh phase of the 
moon's increase in the month of Kirtika, in connection with 
which the practiser shall thrice bathe each day, worship the 
god Hari, and propitiate his departed manes with the oflFericgs 


of barley corn. Further he shall observe a vow *of silence^* 
. perform the rite of ceremonial ablution, with a solution of ^ 
Panchagavyam in sacred water, unto the god Hari ; andan-^' 
noint his image with camphorated unguents. A'BrAhmana* 
votary, under the circumstance, shall continuously burn, for 
five days, incense sticks made of Guggulu and clarified butter, * 
and dedicate viands, edibles and Paraminnas (a kind of 
sweetened rice porridge) to the god, and cast hundred and- 
eight libationis of clarified butter into the sacrificial fire by 
repeating the Mantra which runs as, " Om, obeisance to the 
god Vasudeva." 

On the first day, the feet of the divine image (Vishnu) 
. should be worshipped with lotus flowers ; its knees, with the 
Vilva leaves on the second ; its navel, with sandal paste on 
the third ; its shoulders, with the JavA flowers and Vilva leaves ,* 

on . the fonrth; and its head, with the Malati flowers on .the * 
fifth. . The votary shall lie down oh the bare ground during, 
the entire term of the Vratam and successively take the five; 
components of .Panchagavyam, ws., one on each day of the 
worship, taking the entire compound (Panchagavyam) on the^ 
! fifth night. By practising the vows as above described, a • 
man becomes entitled to the pleasures of the two worlds. 

The performance of the Ekidasi Vratam is imparatively 
obligatory on all, a breach being sinful and degrading-, 
A man shall observe a fast on the eleventh day of the 
fortnight, whether light or dark, inasmuch as- it tends to « 

absolve him of all sins, precludes the chance of his ever 
visiting the shades of Haydes and makes him entitled to 
the beatitude of the region of Vishnu. A man observing 
jsl fast on the eleventh day of the fortnight, shall break ifc 
on the twelfth, and resume his usual mode of living on thd 
night of the thirteenth. A day entirely marke<l by th^ 
.eleventh phase of .the moon, should be regarded as permeatec} 
with the blessed Self of Hari. The day on which the moon i^ 
.\>oth in her tenth and eleventh phases, should be. regarded a^ 



consigned to the demons. Hence fasting on such a day ia 
prohibited. • . 

The votary shall break his fast on the twelfth day of the. 
fortnight The performance of an Ekidasi Yratam is never 
a^Fected by the personal uncleanness incidental to .the death^ 
or birth of one's agnates. Fasts, which are to be made.QQ^ 
the fourteenth, or on the first day pf the fortnight, should, be^ 
respectively observed on a day when the moon exists for 
a while in her preceding phase. The same rule holds good in 
respect of Dvitiyi, Tritiyd, Chaturtbi, Panchami and Sl^hthl^ 



Brahma said :^A shall now describe the mpde of practising 
the S*ivaritra Yratam, the performance of which confers all 
wished-for blessings on the pracftiser. The goddess Gour) 


learnt it of yore from the god Mahideva, the lord of al| 
created beings. The god said :— 'VHe who keeps a vigil and 
worships the god Rudra on the night of the foyuteenth 
phase of the moon's wane which comes between the months 
of Mdgha and Philguna, becomes entitled to the pleasures 
of life and the liberation of self. . The . god Mahideva 
emancipates the votary trom the chain of necessary exis^ 
tence in the instance, as the god Kes'ava does on the occasioo 
of an EkAdasi Yratam. 

Once upon a time, the vicious Sundara Sena, the king 
of the country of Arvuda, went out, with his dogs, on a hunt- 
ing excursion in the forest. But the .day wore on and night 
came without any game even being sighted. The hunter. 
hungry and jaded with the Jay's trouble, sat. .down weary 


and watchful in a bower on the bank of a pool on the hill- 
brow. But lo, there happened to be a phallic emblem in that 
bower, and the leaves of the Vilva tree, which was shaken by 
the impact of the hunter's body as he strove to lie down on 
the ground, rustled and fell in heaps over !the emblem, 
without his knowledore. The fowler fetched water from the 
pool and sprinkled it over the floor of the bower to lay 
down the dust ; and drops of water thus dribbled down over 
the head of the emblem from the tips of his fingers. Suddenly 
there fell down a shaft from his quiver on the ground, and 
the fowler crawled on his all fours to lift it up, when un- 
knowingly he touched the emblem with his chest. Thus he 
touched and bathed and worshipped a phallic emblem on the 
night of the Vratam, which he passed in a vigil, though for 
quite a different purpose. 

The fowler returned home on the following morning and 
took his meal with his wife and children. So years came 
and years went away, and the fowler died a natural death 
at the end of his appointed days, when the emissaries of 
Death came to take his unclean spirit in fetters to the 
mansion of their lord. But lo, my own warders sprang npon 
them, and overpowered them in the scufRe that ensued, and 
finally brought him, a free and unfettered spirit, to my own 
special region of bliss (S'iva-loka) in the company of that 
faithful dog which watched by him on the night of the chase 
in the bo^'er." 

The votary shall practise self-control on the day of the 
thirteenth phase of the moon's wane, and worship the god 
Rudra by praying as follows : — " Next night, I will keep a 
vigil in thy honour, O lord, and worship thee and meditate on 
thy divine self. I undertake to perform a Homa ceremony 
and give alms to the poor for the glorification of thy honour- 
ed name. I will fast on the day of the fourteenth phase 
of the moon's wane, and break it on the day following for 
the emancipation of my self* Be thou my help in that, O 




ttiou, the originless, all-pervadiog deity. The phallic ernUem 
should be bathed with the compositions known a» the 
Panchas^vyam and the Panchiniritany, and worsbippeii by 
reciting the Mantram running as, ^ Om, obeissnce to S'iva*'' 
Libations of clarified butter containing rice, Vrihi, sesame 
seeds and little morsels o( the cooked sacrificial porridge 
should be cast into the fire, after which the closing libation 
should be cast. The votary shall hear the legend of ther 
Vratam recited by the priest, and worship the god once io 
each quarter of the »igbt and recite the sacred Mantia till 
the break of dawn, when be shall bid farewell t» the deity 
by asking his pardon as follows >-'^ I have safely and peace-' 
fully fulfilled this vow by thy grace, O thou the k>rd of the 
three worlds. Most humbly do I dedicate the oserit of these 
performances to thy self. I supplicate thy grace, O ferd, I 
have invoked thee on the occasion of my Vratam, sow I 
beseech thee, O lord, to go back to thy mansion from whence 
thou hast come. Thy very presence has absolved me of all 
sins. Graciously accept my humUe offerings, O thou the god 
of the gods, who art the origin, stay and goal of all created 
beingrs, and kind and compassionate to all/' 

Thus the Vratam should be practised for twelve conse- 
cutive years, the reward of which is fame, opulence, kingdom 
and progeny in this life and residence in the ttfpaa of S'ivm 
after death. The Vratam may be practised as well on the 
same night in each month of the year, and should be closed 
by feasting a dozen hermits and by illuminating the temple 
of the deity, by which a perpetual residence in heaven may 
be ensured. 


Said the Divine Grand Father :— *The king Mandhata 
managed to be the undisputed lord of the three worlds by 

36^ d^kuDA ^ukANAM? 

by practising the Ekddas'i Vratam of yore. Hence on<i sti&ir 
fast both on the eleventh days of the light atid dark fort->> 
nights. The queen Gindhari fasted on the day of the tenth 
phase of the moon, and lost her hundred sons in consequence. 
Hence one shall not fast on the eleventh day of the fort- 
night. Even in spite of the dictum that the god Hari pre->> 
sides over the day when the moon is both in her tenth, and 
eleventh, phases, one should fast on the day of the twelfth 
phase of the moon, and break it on the day following; One 
shall fast on the day marked eVen by a Kali of Ekdiashi^ 
or on the day when the moon is successively in her eleventh^ 
twelfth, and thirteenth, phases. The king Rukmdngada used 
to keep vigils on the nights of the two EkAdas'is and hear 
the Purinas recited to him by the holy sages, in Consequence 
whereof he was liberated from the trammels of life and 
ascended to heaven after death. 



&R>HMA said: — Now I shall describe a mode of worshijl 
-which entitles the votary to the highest beatitude, as well a^ 
to the pleasures of this life and to the joy of self-emancipa- 
tion. The votary shall psychically locate the mystic Manda- 
1am (a trancendental figure) in the mystic nefve phlexus in 
his heart and mentally worship the deities Gangd, Jamund, 
Mahinadi, Dhata, and Vidhata at its different approaches. 
The deities, such as, S'ri, Danda, Prachanda and Vdstu- 
Purusha, should be likewise worshipped at its exterior lives^ 
while the mystic tortoise (smybol of universal evolution and 
involution,) the universal receptacle and eternityi should be 
worshipped at its centre. 


After that, the attributes, location, virtue, knowledge, non« 
littachment, splendour, impiety, uon-knowledge, bondage, 
and the pollens, stems, and bulb of the mystic lotus lily 
should be worshipped. After that, the petals and stamens of 
that mystic flower, as well as the qualities of illumination, 
action, and nescience, the solar world, the lunar world, the 
region of fire, and the divine energies such as, VimaU, etc., 
should be worshipped in that psychic diagram over that 
mystic nerve plexus of the heart. Similarly^ the deities 
Durga, Ganes'a^ Sarasvati and Kshetrap&la, should be wor- 
shipped at the four cardinal points of the Mand'alam. After 
that, the pedestal and the embodied image of the God should 
be worshipped followed by a similar puja of Vdsudeva, 
Valabhadra, and the God of Love. After that, Aniruddha and 
N&rSyana with his weapons and conch-shell should be wor- 
shipped, and the votary should practise the rite of Shad'&nga* 
nySlsa (psychic attraction and localisation of certain universal 
categories and attributes in the different parts of the human 
organism) in the usual orthodox way. Then having wor« 
shipped the deities, beauty, growth and Garud'a, he should 
worship the guardian deities of the different quarters of the 
heaven and the god Brahmil, above, and the god Ananta, 
below. After that, the god Vis'vaksena should be worship- 
ped at the north-east angle of the Mand'alam. 

He, who can thus worship the god even for a single time 
in his life, is freed from the chains of successive re-births. The 
Pund'arika and Gadidhara manifestations of the deity should 
be as well meditated upon in connection with the present 
form of worship. 




Brahma said: — ^The renowned Bhimasena of yore fasted oti _ . 
^he day of the eleventh phase of the moon's increase (Ek^das'i) 
marked by the Asterism HastS, in the month of MSgha ; and 
behold, he was instantly exonerated from his obligations 
to the Pitris in consequence. Accordingly the Vratam is 
called Bhaimi Ek&das'i. This Bhaimi DvSidas'i is renowned 
for the fact of its increasing the piety of men. He, who 
observes a fast on this EkSldas'i and breaks it on the following 
day, acquires merit in the eyes of heaven. One should fast 
on that EkSdas'i in the month of MSigha even if it be not 
marked by the above-named asterism, and even by so-doing /^ 

one would be freed from the sins of a Br&hmana-slaughter. . 
This Ekadas'i Vratam destroys all sins as surely as a bad 
son brings ruin on his family, a false wife brings death and 
disgrace to her husband ; a false minister brings confusion 
to his king, and a pious act dispels the gloom of iniquity. A» 
knowledge dispels nescience, as purity removes the impurity 
of the heart ; as truth conquers untruth } and reverence, 
irreverence; so thb Vratam annihilates all kinds of siur 
As surely as cold removes heat, as profligacy destroys a 
stored up treasure, asbragging of it destroys the merit of ' 

a gift, as worldliness destroys penance, the Ek&das'i Vratam 
destroys all sin. As surely as a son is ruined without good ■ 

education, cattle are destroyed by straying far from the folds, 
as a peaceful temperament is ruffled by anger, and as expen- 
ditures without income destroy one's wealth, so the Ek&das'i 
Vratam fiestroys all kinds of sin. As surely as a motive 
destroys the merit of an act, as knowledge destroys nesci- 
ence» this Vratam destroys all kinds of sin. The sin, which 
is attached to the acts of Brahmana-slaughter, wine-drinking 
gold-stealing and defiling the bed of a preceptor, when 



simultaneously done, are absolved by performing the EkSdas'i 
Vratam in its true spirit. The dreadful astral combination^ 
known as the Tripushkara Yoga, can annihilate the progeny 
and relations of the man, who dies under its influence, but 
cannot destroy his sins, which may be expiated by performing 
the Ekddas'i Vratam. 

Neither the holy shrines of Kuru-Kshetra, PrabhSsa and 
Naimisha, nor the sacred rivers, the Ganges, the YamunS, 
the Kalindi and the Sarasvati^ can rank equal in merit with 
the EkSLdas'i Vratam. Neither the practice of charity and 
philanthropy, nor meditation and burnt offerings can vie 
with the Vratam under discussion, in respect of merit 
and sanctity. The merit of an Ekadas'i Vratam weighed 
in balance with that of making a gift of the whole world, 
immensely outweighs the latter. This Bhaimi EkSldas'i is by 
far the most sacred of all the other sacred Ek&das'is in 
the year. 

A golden image of the VarSLha manifestation of the god 
should be worshipped inside a copper vessel placed on the 
top of the sacrificial pitcher. The image should be covered 
with a clean sheet of white linen, and worshipped with the 
offerings of lighted lamps of gold, and a variety of costly 
viands. The lower extremities of the image should be 
worshipped by reciting the Mantram, '* Om, obeisance to 
Varahi;^ its lips, by reciting the one which reads as *' Om, 
obeisance to Krodhikriti ;'' its navel, by reciting the Mantram, 
''Om, obeisance to the deep-voiced one ;" its chest, by reading 
the Mantram, ** Om, obeisance to S'rivatsadhdri ;" its arms, 
by reciting the Mantram, " Om, obeisance to the thousand- 
headed one;" its neck, by reciting the Mantram, ''Om, 
obeisance to the lord of all ;" its face, by reciting the Mantram, 
*' Om, obeisance to the soul of the universe /' its fore-headed, 
by reciting the Mantram, " Om, obeisance to the Universal 
Master," and its hair, by reciting the Mantram, which reads 
as, "Om, beisance to the hundrcJ-mouthcd deity," 


Having thus duly worshipped the god, the votary shoufd 
pass the night in a holy vigil, and hear the glorious exploits of 
his VarJ&ha mamfestation on earth from the Puranam, which 
deals with them. Gifts should be made to the beggars and 
the BrShmanils, the next morning; and wearing apparels 
containing bits of gold should be given to the BrShmanfts in 
special. After that, the votary should break his fast and take 
only a few morsels of food instead of eating too much. He, 
who practises the Vratam in the afore-said manner, suffers not' 
the pangs of re-births, and is exonerated from the three-fold 
obligations which a man incurs at his birth. The performance 
of the Vratam grants the merit of performing all other vows, 
and makes the performer, the happy possessor of all his 
wished-for objects. 



Brahma said: — O VySsa, hear me discourse on the mode 
of performing a variety of Vratas, which can win the 
good graces of the god Hari, who blesses the performer 
with all his cherished boons in return. A Vratam signifies | 
an act of living in conformity with the rules of conduct 
and self-control, as laid down in the S'9stras. The Vratam 
is but another name for penance (TapasySl). AVrati (per- 
former of a Vratram) is under the obligation of observing 
sepecific rules of conduct and self-control. He should bathe, 
thrice every day, during the entire term of the Vratam, 
and sleep on the bare ground, contented, and controlled in 
his mind and senses, and renouncing all talk with women, 
S'udrsa. and degraded persons. He should make burnt 
offerings of the five sacred articles, as his circumstances 



would admit of. A Vrati wishing to acquire the full merit 
of his vow, should practise the above-named austerities, and 
undergo double the hardship, in the event of his wearing 
long hair during the entire term of the Vratam. He should 
not take any thing out of a bowl of Indian bellmetal^ 
nor consume any potherbs, nor take honey, grain, and 
Koradushaka, nor chew any betel leaf on the day of break- 
ing his fast, not take his meals in another's house on the 
occasion. A fast is vitiated by using flowers, perfumes, un* 
guents, collyrium, a tooth brushy a new cloth, or an article 
of ornament. A Vrati should wash his mouth with the Pancha- 
gavyam in the morning before breaking his fast. The merit 
of a fast is destroyed by gambling, by indulging in day-sleep 
or in sexual intercourse, and by constantly drinking water oiv 
the day of its breaking. Forbearance, truthfulness, clemency, 
charity, cleanliness of body and mind, and subjugation of 
the senses, divine worship and Homa celebration are the ten 
cardinal virtues, which should be practised in connection witb 
the performance of every Vratam. A meal after a whole 
day's fast and taken after the rising of the evening star is 
technically called a night-meal (Nakta Bhojanam), which- 
must not be interpreted to simply mean a meal in the night. 
Take of a Pala weight (eight to12Ls) of cow's urine, a half 
thumbful of cowdung, seven Pala weights of milk, three 
Pala weights of curd, one Pala of clarified butter, and one 
Paki of the washings of Kus'a grass and mix together. 
The resulting compound is called be the Pancha-gavyam. A 
person about to practise the Brahmakrichchha- Vratam should 
take Pancha-gavyam after purifying its component cow's urine 
by reciting the GSLyatri Mantram ; cowdung,. by reciting the 
Gandha DvSlra, etc., Mantram ; curd, by reciting the Dadhi- 
kravya, etc., Mantram ; milk, by reciting the Apyayasva, etc., 
Mantram ; clarified butter, by reciting the Tejoshi^ etc., Man- 
tram ; and the washings of the Kus'a grass, by reciting the 
Dtvasya, etc., Mantram. 


Celebrations of such religious ceremonies as, Agny^dhSnam 
(/iV., first kindling of the sacrificial fire), installation of a 
divine image, a religious sacrifice, Vedavrata, rite of tonsure^ 
investiture with the sacred thread, Vrishotsarga (the rite of the 
setting free of a sacrificial bull), as well as acts of charities 
and penances should not be made in a month, which contains 
two new moons (MalamSLsha). 

A Sivana month consists of thirty days counted from 
one new moon to another. A Saura (solar) month is com- 
puted from the passing of the sun from one zodiacal sign to 
another. The time taken by the twenty-seven asterisms 
(lunar mansions) to make one complete revolution round 
the earth, is counted as an astral (NAkshatra) month, which 
consists of twenty-se/en days. The Saura mode of compu- 
tation should be adapted in respect of celebrating marriages ; 
and the SSLvana style, in respect of celebrating religious sacri- 
fices. The second and the third, the fourth and the fifth, the 
sixth and the seventh, the eighth and the ninth, the tenth and 
the eleventh, the twelfth and the thirteenth, the fourteenth 
and the fifteenth phases of the moon's wane or increase 
are called YugmSLdara to each other. A Tithi Vratam perform- 
ed on a day when that Tithi (lunar phase) meets its YugmSL- 
dara, is doubly meritorious. A female vowist menstruating 
after taking the vow is not disqualified from practising it to 
term in consequence. The Vratas may be practised through a 
proxy, but penances must be personally performed. A vow 
broken through anger, greed, or incontinence, should be 
atoned for by a three days' fast and a clean shave of the head. 
The performance of a Vratam may be delegated to one's 
son in case of one's ill health. A Br&hmana, swooning away 
in course of a Vratam, should be enlivened with milk, and 
cold applications. 




Bkahma said: — Now I shall describe the mode of prac« 
tising the Vratas, which should be performed on the days of 
the first phase of the moon, etc. A votary should take a single 
meal on the day of the first phase of the moon, and make the 
gift of a cow of the Kapila species, the next morning. The 
Vratam is called S'ikhi Vratam, the merit of which leads the 
performer to the region of the Fire-God, after death. The 
Vratam should be commenced from the month of Chaitra, 
and the God Brahm& should be worshipped with offerings 
of perfumes, flowers, and flower-garlands. The worship 
should be closed with a rite of Homa, and the votary should 
think himself as to have been already possessed of the good 
he covets in life. A person seeking personal beauty in his 
next re-birth, should worship the god with the offerings of 


flower-garlands, etc., on the day of the sixth phase of the 
moon's increase in the mouth of K&rtika, and thenceforth on 
the same day, each month, for a year. The S'ridhara 
manifestation of Vishnu should be worshipped in the company 
of his consort Lakshmi, on the day of the third phase of the 
moon's wane in the month of S'rftvana. Beds, bedsteads, 
and fruits, etc., should be gifted to the BrAhman&s at the 
close of the worship, which should be conducted by reciting 
the Mantras, which respectively run as, " Om, obeisance to 
S'ridhara ;" and " Om, obeisance to S'ri." The God S'iva 
and his consort UmJl should be as well worshipped on the third 
day of the fortnight in the month of Chaitra. Offerings of 
viands and Madanaka should be made to the deities. The 
Vratam, which should be commenced from the month of 
Chaitra, should be practised, for a year for the fruition of 
the end for which it is undertaken. The God S'iva has given 
this injunction to his divine consort. A Vrati should formally 


abjure tlie use of salt in his meals, on the day of the third ^ 

phase of the moon in the month of Ph&lguna, and refrain 

from using any, for a year. The Vratam should be closed by 

making gifts of beds and furnished dwelling bouses to the 

Br^hman2ls. A married couple belonging to the same social 

Order should be sumptuously feasted on the occasion as 

the prototype of the divine man and wife, and addressed as, 

" Be thou propitiated, O thou the consort of the god of 

becoming, etc/' He, who performs the Vratam as above 

described, is translated to the region of Gauri after a prosper* 

ous career on earth. The different manifestations of energy 

such as, Gauri, Kili, UmS, Bhadrft, Durgl, KSnti, Sarasvati^ 

MangalSL, Vaishnavi, Lakshmi, S'iv2 and N&r^yani, should 

be successively worshipped on the day of the third lunar 

phase, each month, whereby the performer would never know 

the pangs of separation and bereavement. The Vrati should /" 

fast on the day of the fourth phase of the moon's increase ' 

in the month of MSgha, and give measures of sesame seeds 

to the Br&hmanas, taking nothing but sesame water that 

day. The Vratam should be performed on the same day, 

each month, for a period of two years, the reward of its per* ' 

formance being a peaceful and undisturbed life on earth. 

*' Gah Sv^ha" is the principal Mantram, which should be used 

in the worship, and the rites of Shadangany&sa, etc., should l>e 

duly performed. The GSLyatri Mantram sacred to the god of 

this worship ^Ganapati) reads as follows, ** Om, let us know ' 

the long-eared deity ; let us meditate upon the Self of the . 

god with protruted lips, may the tusked-one lead us to do • 

the same." Burnt offerings of sesame seeds should be made -1 

to the god, and his divine cohorts should be likewise worship* 

ped as follows : — " Obeisance to Gana, obeisance to Ganapati, 

obeisance to Kushmdnd'aka, obeisance to Amogholka^ obei* 

sance to Ekadanta, obeisance to Tripur2lntaka-rupi." After 

that, S'yamadanta, Vikarilisya, A'haves'a, and Padma- 

daushtra, should be worshipped. After that, the votary should i 


laugh/ and clap his hands and dance round the divine image 
for the propitiation of the god. The reward of thus wor»hipf» 
ping the god, for a year, on the day of ihe fourth phase of the 
moon's increase, each month, is erudition, opulence, fame, 
longevity and a large progeny. The God Gana should be 
worshipped on a Monday marked by the fourth phase of the 
moon's increase, and rites of Japa and Homa should be duly 
performed thereafter, the reward of the performance being 
an immunity from the calamities of the world, and a glorious 
residence in heaven after death. By worshipping the god 
Vignes'vara on the day of the fourth phase of the moon's in- 
crease with offerings of sugar, laddukas and other articles of 
confectionary, a man becomes the happy possessor of all earthly 
good things in life. By worshipping the god with the oiler* 
ings of Damanaka flowers, the votary is blest with the 
pleasures of fatherhood. The God Gana may be worshipped 
under the auspices of the fourth phase of the moon in any 
month of the year by reciting the Mantra which reads as, 
'' Om, obeisance to Ganapati." The Mantra specifically sacred 
to the deity, should be as well recited on the occasion ; and 
libations of clarified butter, cast into the fire, the reward of 
tlie performance being an immunity from all earthly calamities 
and the enjoyment of all good things, which this life can 
possibly offer. The man, who worships the image of the God 
VinJ^yaka and addresses him in any of the following names, 
VIM,, the worshipped one of the gods, the one-tusked deity, the 
god with the protruted lips, the three-eyed or the three-mouthed 
one, the blue-necked celestial, the large-bellied god, the dread* 
f ul one, the lord (succourer) of distress, the dusk-coloured deity, 
the young moon Vin&yaka, the lord of the Ganges and the 
elephant-faced one, attains to an elevated status after death, 
and becomes entitled to the privileges of heaven in the capa- 
city of a liberated Self. The intelligent votary, who worships 
the true import of any or all of the abovesaid epithets, wit- 
■cssess the realisation of all bis heartfelt objects. 



■ The; divine serpents Vdsuki, Tahshaka, Kftliya. 
bliadraka, Airftvaia, DliritarSshira^ Karkataka, and Dhanan«-- 
jaya, should be bathed with clarified buiter, elc, in either oF 
the blessed month's ut Shr^vana, Bh&dra, AVwina or Kilitika 
and under the auspices of the fifth phase of the moon'a- 
increase. The serpents named Ananta, VAsuki, S'ankha,* 
Padma, Kamvala, Kaikotaka, Shankhaka, KAliya, Takshakap 
and Pingala. sliould be worshipped in each month of the 
y«*ar. A votary by worshipping these eight celestial serpents 
h) the light fortnight of BhAdra, is librrated from the tram* ' 
mels of rebirth. The pictures of these celestial serpents 
should be drawn on each side of the door of the house under * 
the auspices of the fifth phase of the moon's increase in the 
month of BhAdra, and the household should invoke and wor- ' 
ship the divine snakes by name, in each of them. Milk and 
clarified butter should be offered to the imagiis of snakes on ' 
the occasion, inasmuch as it would ward off the danger 
of snake bites in the household. The Vratam is called 
Dashtoddhftra (prophylasis against snake bites) P^nchami. 



Brahma said:— Similarly, the god KSrtikeya should be 
wornhipprd under the auspices of the sixth phase of the 
moon's increase in the month of BliAdra. Acts of ceremonial 
ablution, etc., prrformrd on that day, bear immortal fruits. 
The votary should brrak his fast the nrxt morning, after 
having worshipped the Sun-Gtd and sumptuously feaytrd the 
BrAhminas. Tlie Mantra to be recited in connection with 
the solar wc rship on the occakion, reads as follows :«-'* Om, ' 


t) Sun, O thou the first and permanent light-meteor, tfiat 
illumineth the vast expanse o^ heaven, the parent of all life 
on ^arth and emblem of eternal life, beest thou my friend and 
guide in the universe. Humbly do I lay fhyself prostrate 
before thy i^odly presence." The votary should break his 
fast thereafter on the day of the eighth phase ^ the moon's 
increase, and eat nothing hut pepper that day. The Vratam 
is called Maricha Saptami, the reward of its performance 
being the attainment of all objects in life. 

The votary having bathed and lived as an anchorite on 
the day of the seventh pliatte of the moon's increase in the 
month of Bli&dra, should worfl«ip the Sun-God and make gifts 
of fruits to the Brihman^s. His food that dav should consijit 
of nothing but Matulungas or cocoanuts. The fruits should 
be gifted to the BrAhmanJ^s on the occasion by reciting the 
Mantra, " Be pleased, O Sun-God." The Vratam is called 
Phala-Saptaroi. It makes its performer the happy poss»*ssor 
of all good things he covets in life. The votary having 
worshipped the Sun-God under the anspicips of the seventh 
phase of the moon's increase in BhSdra, should make offerings 
of sweet porridge (PSyasa) to the god, and feast the Brfth- 
m^nSs with that article of food. He should take nothing but 
milk on the day of thr Vratam, and pay money remunerations 
to the HrShmai)As, who have been feasted on the occasion 
with food, drink, lambatives, etc., which should be foregone 
by the votary himself. The Vratam is called Anodana- 
Saptami, which brings wealth, progeny and creature comforts 
to its performer. A person wishing victory in life should take 
nothing but air on the occasion of the Vijava-Saptami, 
whcrras a person with the realisation of any dVfinite object 
in his heart, should live on Arka leaves on the day. Tlic 
performance of the Vratam is rewarded with the fulfilment 
of all desires of the votary, wlro i^ enjoined to refrain from 
using all kinds of cereals, honey-cakes, utensils made of stone, 
or of Indian bell-metal, unguents, oils, meat, etc. Moreover 


he should foreswear his cup and the bed of bis wife on the 
day of the Vratam, which enables its performer to witness 
the realisation of all his desires. 



Brahma said : — O BrSLhman, the deities S'iva, Gauri, Ganesha, 
and Durv& should be worshipped with offerings of fruits and 
flowers under the auspicies of the eighth phase of the moon's 
increase in the month of Bh&dra. Offerings consisting of 
fruits and Vrihi seeds, should be made to the deities S'ivA and 
S'ambhu. The presiding deity of the eighth phase of the 
moon, should be invoked as follows: — " O thou, the eighth 
phase of the moon, who art begotten of the divine ambrosia 
and whom this bunch of grass represents in its primeval 
verdure and spreading roots (the symbols of perpetual life), 
dost thou enable me to realise all my desires." The per- 
formance of the Vrata under discussion is rewarded with 
the fruition of one's all desires. By performing this Vrata 
and foregoing all cooked food during the day, a man b 
exonerated from the sin of killing a BrSLhmana. 

ROHiNi-AsiiTAMi Vkatam: — The God Hari should be 
worshipped, at mid-night, on the day of the eighth phase of 
the moon'si wane in the month of Bhadra. The Vratam, which 
consists in worshipping the deity, should be performed oa 
the aforesaid day marked by the asterism Rohini, and even 
if the moon continues in her seventh phase for a few hours, 
that day. The performance of the Vratam absolves its per- 
former from the sins of his three previous re-births. The 
votary should worship the gods fasting, and break his 



fast after the moon has entered her next phase stnA man* 
sion. The rite of ablution should be done uiuo the ^od by 
reciting the Mantra. "Obeisance to Yoga", to the lord of 
Yoga, to the god of Yoga, and to Govinda/' (the stay of the 

The Manira, which should be recited during the worship, 
runs as, " Obeisance to sacrifice, to the lord and god of 
sacrifice, and to the one begotten of the merit of celcbra-, 
ting a religious sacrifice/' The god should be laid down in 
bed by reciting the Mantra, ** Obeisance to the lord stwd god 
whose embodiment the universe is. and who is the main 
stay of the universe." The Moon-God with his consort 
Rohini should be worshipped on the sacrificial sand*cushion, 
and the deity should be addressed, on the occAsion as, **0 thou, 
the universal spirit, that is in all, and runs through all, and 
determines all becoming and is the support of all." An Argha 
offering composed of fruits, flowers, sandalpaste, and water 
should be kept in a coochshell. and the votary should offer 
the same^ on bent knees, to the Moon-God by reciting the 
Mantra, which runs as follows :-»*' Accept this offering, with 
thy consort Rohini, O Moon, who came out of the primordial 
ocean of water and sprang from the eyes of Atri. Similar 
Argha offerings consisting of fruits should be separately 
made to S'ri, V&sudeva, Nanda, Vala and YashodA. The 
god should be addressed as follows :— -'* I make obeisance to 
the eternal spirit that shines in the sun. I bow down to the 
great VSisudeva, the greatest self-conscious individuality, and 
who, though grand yet beyond all comprehension, had born as 
a dwarf on earth. Salutation unto the god Madhava (/i/., the 
husband of beauty), who killed the demon Madhu, and who is 
also called Hrishikes'a, and whose abode is in the heart of 
faith that doubts not. Obeisance to the lotus«eyed one, to 
the great boar and Nrisinha manifestations, the slayers of 
demons. Salutations unto Dftmodara, Kes'ava, Padman&bha 
and to the one on the pinnacle of whose car sits the mighty 


Gariida. I make oheiitance to Govind^.the seed of ihti 
universe, the supreme cause of all creation, continuance and 
dissolution. Salutation unto the eternal spirit, which the 
eye seeth not and which is absolute and irresistihie and 
suffers no decay. I bow dow down to Vishnu, the supreme 
lord of the three regions, who is without end or origin. 
I make obeisance to NSrSyana, the four-armrd one, who is 
clad in a gold-coloured garment and wirlds a mace, discus, 
and a conchshe II in his hands. Salutation unto S'ridhara. 
S'ripati, and Hari, on whose spacious breast there are curls 
of hair and on which hangs a garland of wild flowers. I 
make obeisance to him whom Vasudeva begot on his m'ife 
Devaki for the safety of the earth and BrAhman3(s." 

After having addressed the god as above, the votary should 
pray as follows : — " Take me across this ocean of existence, 
O Hari, absolve my sins, and succour nie from the sea of grinf 
and misery. He, who utters your name even once in life, 
he who calls Vishnu, the all-pervading one, even for a single 
moment, is rescued, howsoever great a sinner he may be. 
Deeper and deeper do I plunge in the ocean of misery and 
nescience. O lift me, lift me up, O lord ! who eUe will run to 
my rescue I Salutation unto the sHf-origined VAsudrva, ta 
Krishna and to Govinda, who sees the good of the BrAh« 
manSs and the universe. May the divine light fait on my 
soul, may I find bliss in this life, may my fame, wealth and 
possessions increase." 









Brahma said :-M3ne should perform a Vratam, on the day of 
the ei)^hth phase of the moon, and hreak hiH fast on the night 
of the vow. He, who continually praclises the Vrata for a 
year, and clones it by making the gift of a cow to a BiAh« 
mana, is elevated to the status of an Indra, after death. 
The Vratam is called Sadgati Vratitm. The same Vratam 
practised on the day of the eighth ph;tse of the moon's 
increase in the month of Pau^ha, is called the Maha Rudra 
Vratam Such a Vratam practised in my honour is ten 
thousand time;! more meritorious than the one practised for 
an ordinary end. The Vratam should be specially performed 
if the proper day of its celebration happens to fall on a 
Wednesday, inasmuch as its performance would ensure 
endless prosprrity to the votary. A seeker after self- 
emancipation should take nothing but eight pinchfuls of 
cooked rice on the occasion, and live as devout and pure as* 
possible. . . 

By taking Kalamvici treated with acid and enshrouded 
with the blades of Kusha grass, on the occasion, a man is sure 
to acquire all wished-for objects. The god Mercury should 
be worshipped in a pool with the five kinds of offerings, and 
a Karkari (a kind of small water pot) full of rice, should 
be givrn to a Br^hmana by way of DakshinA. The god' 
should be contemplated as armed with a bow and an arrow^ 
shining wiib the greenish golden hue of his complexion, and 
worshipped on the petals of the mystic Mandalam by recti* 
ing the '• Vang, etc.," Vijam. The votary should then bear 
the irgends of the Vratam recited by a Brihmana, which it 
as follows : — " Once upon a time there lived in the city of 
P^taliputra a good Br&hmana whose name was Vira. Vira had 
a wife named Rambhft, a daughter named VijayS, a son named 


384 Cakuda puranam I 

Knushika. and a bullock named DhanapSla. One hot day ill' 

summer, Kaushika, opprr9!(t;d with the scorching heat of the 

sun, took the bullock to the Ganges to i^ive him a much-need« 

ed ablution. While he was himself bathing, several cowboys 

came and decamped with the bullock before he could raise thcr 

necessary alarm. Kaushika came out of the river and began 

to wander in the forest in grief and despair. It so happened 

that his sister Vijayft came to fetch water from the Ganges - ^ 

at the time and saw her brother in that sad predicament. So 

she joined him in the wood and went on rambling in quest 

of the bullock. Thirsty and worn out with the fatigues of 

the day, Kaushika went down to a pool of water to fetch 

some dark lotus stems for his sister, when, behold, there 

appeared to him on the green grassy bank of that limpid 

pool a bevy of celestial nymphs engaged in practising the 

Vud&shtami Vratam. Kaushika, hungry and exhausted asked / 

them for food. The nymphs in their turn directed him to first 

practise the Vratam. Kaushika called his sister and did as 

directed Kaushika and Vijayft practised the Vratam, be 

with the object of recovering his lost bullock, and she with 

the motive of securing a suitable husband for herself. They 

took their meals out of two mango leaves as served out to 

them by the nymphs; and the nymphs vanished after their 

rrpast. Kaushika recovered his lost bullock through the merit 

of performing the Vratam. The thieves voluntarily restored 

the same to him in the morning, and Kaushika and his sister 

went home with their boons. 

" Now the good Bri^hmana Vira had past an anxious and 
sleepless night, and he was glad when his son and daughter 
saluted him in the morning. Now Vira was anxious to 
secure a suitable husband for his daughter as she had 
attained a marriagable age. There were idle speculations for 
many long days of suspense and domestic quarrel. At last 
Vijayd, the daughter, disgusted with the peremptory way in 
which her father wished to dispose her off, broke her 


^Ifrence and said " I shall be. wedded to the God of Death." ; 
Now Death was the bridegroom she had chosen for herself, . 


and the merit of the Vratam had entitled her to have the 
husband of her choice. So the Lord of D«ath appeared to Vira . 
And sued for the hand of his daughter. Irrevocable is the 
decree of heaven, and the gods brook no equivocation of terms. » 
So there could be no refusal, and the marriage of fair VijaySL , 
with the Lord of Death was contracted with the seal of fate« 
Vira and his wife RambhSL were translated to heaven, and the, 
son Kaushika was rewarded with a kingdom at AyodbyS. 
Kaushika celebrated the marriage of his sister in a style quite^ 
in keeping with his new dignity, and the Lord of Death took 
away his bride to his mansion in the nether world. After his 
installation as the Queen of Yama (the God of Death), VijaySL . 
was suddenly roused up, one day, from her revery by the 
agonised cries of her own mother. She saw her spirit, chained . 
and fallen from heaven, and about to be consigned to the 
pangs of hell. Vijayi performed this Vratam for the liberation 
of her mother's spirit and asked it to do the same after , it 
had been liberated. The mother again ascended to heaven 
through the merit of performing this Vratam, and lived there 
happy in the company of her husband. 



Brahma said : — He, who eats eight buds of As'uka flowers 
oil the eighth day of the moon's increase in the month of 
Chaitra marked by the asterism Punarvasu, suffers no 
bereavement in life. The Mantra, which should be recited 
on the occasion, is as follows : — " I bereaved and miserable, 


cat ihcr, O As'oka, who art a favourite with the God Hart. 


3^^' QARUDA MmAllAM.- 

Eiost tfiou' itatiice infe griefl^ss in life.- Thus the piroceif of' 

performing As'okSslitarmi is 6€strib€d.'' 

BftAfJMA- sarid:— thef Mntti darjr of the niobA'd^ incr^a^i 
marked by tht sisterfsm' Uttdtr^Hldz, rs talted MahSnaTainL 
A gift or a cefe^monfat ablution matde* tfndef tBe auspices of 
this^ a'^ral cbmbinatioh' bears imitibrtal fruits. Tbe Goddess* 
Durgi worshipped on that dfay grants in6nite piety to^ her 
votary. Tlie God^ S'ahkara and others worshipped her on that 
day stnd acquired fnfinite piety. A king wishing victory over 
his ^oyal adversaries, should practise an Ajftchtta Vratam from 
the previous sixth day of the moon's increase, and close it on 
the abovesaid day with rites of Japa and Homa, and by feasting 
the unmarried virgins. The worship should be conducted by 
reciting the " Durg^, DurgS, Rakshini Svfth& " (Oh, Durg9, 
D'urgi, obeisance to Durgi, the protectress) Mantra. The rites 
of Hridinyftsa etc., should be performed by appending thci terms 
"Kfamah, Svaha, Vasat, Hum, Voushat and Fat" to the princtpaF 
Vija-&fantra. The Puj4 should be concluded by performing thef 
'^Aiigushtha-Kanishtha NySsa." A new wooden^ templet should 
be constructed, and i gordeir or silver image of the! Goddess 
DurgSl should bef worshipped therein, oh the eighth day of the 
moon's increase. As an- alternative', the Goddess should be 
invoked and worshipped at the head of a spear, or at a sword« 
blade, or in a book, picture or a mystic diagram. The God* 
dess should be contemplated as respectively holding a human 
skull, a dagger, a bell, a mirror, a Tarjani, a bow, a banner, a 
small drum, and a noose in her left bands, and a spear, a club| 
a trident, a thunderbolt, a sword, a mace, an arrow, a discus 
and a rod in her right. The goddess should be worshipped 
'fully equipped as described before. The different mani- 
festations o( the Goddess, such aS) UgrachandS, Prachandi, 
ChaCridogrS, Ghand&vati, ChandarupS and AtichandikS should 
hd as well worshipped on the occasion. Of these Ugrachandft 
' is coloured like yellow pigrment. Prachand& is coloured like 
roty dawn ; Cbandogri is sable ; Cbanda-nSyikA is blue ; 




ChandarupSi y^Uow ; and Aticb^adika, |[rey;. Each of .these 
divinities should fbe coiHempIate^ .a^ f^n^ing sidewlse ,00 
^tlioiij wth (her left ^eg ^levated.^n^<thurst.Q\it A furious 
centaur -(ba^f mani half btuffalo) ^hould be contemplated as 
charging the .4city, who has got a sword in one ,haod and has 
caught hold of |he hair of the centaur in ,the other. The 
Mantra, which .consists of ten letters (Dash2Lkshari) and is 
sacred to^tfie Goddess^ should be piientally recited by the votary ; 
after which the trident of the Goddess should be .worshipped. 
The votary should observe a f^t on the eighth day of the 
moon's increase after having worshipped the Goddess in an 
image, or in a divine sandal, or in water. A bull buffalo, five 
years old, should be sacrificed at the close of the night, and the 
blood of the offering should be offered by duly reciting the 
'* Kali, Kali" Mantra. The blood should be dedicated to 
Putani in the south-west ; to the sin demoness in the north- 
west ; to Chandika, in the north-east and to Vidarik2L , in the 
south-east ; quarter of the heaven. 



Brahma said : — Now i shall recite the MahS-Kaushika 

... . , 

Mantra, which ranks foremost in respect of merft. [.Here 
follows a recitation of the MahA-Kaushika Mantra.] 

An animal consecrated with the MahS-Kaushika Mantra 

• - ■ . . ■ 

should be sacrificed at the south-west angle ol the sacrificial 
ground, and the rite of ceremonial ablution should be done 
unto the king in front of the sacrificial offering. The .king 
should cut with one blow of his sword a rice-paste image of 
his adversary, bits of wliicli should be dedicated to Skanda and 
Vishikha. The M^Ltiik^s should be worshipped in the night by 

388 GARUDA ^URANAftf! 

fecitiog Ihe Mantra, which runs as, " Obeisance to'BrarnrtiSn?^ 
Mahesbi, ,Kaum&ri, Vaishnavi, VarSLhi/ MSihendri, ChlmundA; 
Chandika, Jayanti, MangalS, Kali, Bbadrak&ii, Kapaiinf, 
DurgS, S'iva, Kshama, DhSLtri, SvSLhS, ;ahd Svadli^.*' The 
image of the Goddess should be bathed with milk, and virf^ins/ 
maidens, Br4hman2Ls and Chand^lSs shoald be sumptbot»ly^ 
feasted and propitiated with money gifts. By worshipping 


the Goddess with the offerings of banners, poles, cars, cloths,* 
etc., under the auspicies of the Mah9-Navami, a votary can 
win kingdoms and victories in war. 




BrAHMA said: — A votary having fasted on the'dayoff^d 
ninth phase of the moon's increase in the month of AVvin, 
should worship the Goddess and the BrShman&s, and mentally 
recite, a hundred thousand times, the Mantra which is held as 
principally sacred to her. This Vratam is called Vira Navami. 

Brahma said: — By worshipping the goddess with the 
offerings of Damanaka twigs on the day of the ninth phase 
of the moon's increase in the month of Chaiira, a roan 

erings, ana 
defeats in life. Such a man bears a kind of charmed lif^ 
against sword cuts, etc., and is immune from the horrors o^ 
violent or premature death. This Vratam is called Damanaka 

BRAHNf A said : — A votary should worship the Goddess 
Durg& on the day of the tenth phase of the moon's increase 
in the month of A's'vin. The Vratam thus undertaken should 
be practised for a year under the auspices of the same lunar 
phase,* each month. It should be concluded by making a gift 




of ten cows and the golden images of the presiding Deities of 
the quarters of heaven to the Br&hmanSs. The merit of the 
performance entitles its practiser of the suzerainty of the 
universe. This Vratam is called Digdas'ami. 
- ' Bariima said : — For worshipping the Rishis on the day of 
the eleventh phase ot the moon with various kinds of offer- 
ings, a man is rewarded with wealth, beauty and progeny^ 
and is glorified in the region of the celestial saints. Tlie 
Rishis such as, Marichi, Atri, Angirasa, Pulastya, Pulaha, 
Kratu, Prachet^, Vas'ishta, Bhrigu and NSrada should be, 
worshipped in the month of Chaitra with garlands of Dama« 
naka flowers. I have finished describing the Ashokishtami, 
Vira-Navami, Damanaka-Navami, and Digdas'ami Vratas. 

• • . 



Brahma said : — I shall now deal with the mode of per* 
forming S'ravani-DvSdas'i Vratam, a practice whereof 
grants enjoyment and salvation to the person who practises 
it. The day of the eleventh or twelfth phase of the moon's 
increase^ marked by the asterism S'ravani is cabled Vijayft. 
A Puji done unto the God Hari on that day bears immortal 
fruit. A night meal^ or a single meal in the day time, or a 
meal voluntarily offered to the votary without any solicitation 
on his part and taken by him on the occasion, does not 
vitiate the vow of DvSdas'i Vratam. He should refrain 
ifrom using any utensil ' of bell-metal, honey, lentil and 
collyrium, and renounce all false talk, greed, physical ezercis^ 
and sexual intercourse. ' 

The day of the twelfth phase of the moon's increase 
in the month of Bhidra marked by tbe asterism S'ravani, 




is called Mahati Dvftdas'i. A last observed under the attt* 
pices of Ihis astcat * combioationi bears iuunortal kiiiu«t 
Great is the merit of a ceremonial ablution per-foroied at a 
junction of streams .on »the occasion, specially if th^ combi* 
nation 'happens to fall on a day when the moon is in .oppo&i« 
tion with the Mercury.. /Gems ishould be imoiersed in jiratec 
contained in a pitcher of gold which should be covered witb 
a pair of cloths^ and the god V&mana should be ;W.Qrsbippe4 
with offerings of umbrella, shoes, etc. Naividyas .consisting 
of P&yasam and clarified butter should be offered Xo the God, 
and the votary should pass the inight in a holy vigil, and 
make gifts of ModakSLs and water-pitchers to the Brihmanis. 
Then having bathed and taken some Jight jefreshmeots 
(water according to others,) on the day following, he should 
again worship the Dwarf Manifestation of the God, and ad- 
dress him as follows : — ' .. / 

" Salutation unto Govinda, who is the presiding Deity of 
of the asterism S'ravanSL^ and who is. also called the Mercury. 
Expiate my sins, O lord, and bless me with all the pleasures 
and comforts of this life. Be pleased with me, O thou the God'v 
of ,the ^ods." The Vratam ;(nay be as well j)^rforipe.d pp. M^ v 
bank pf a rivfir. ,' 



,BRAHMA-said ; — ^The god (S'iva) should be wpr^hij)p^ed .wit^ 
(the offerings of Damanaka leaves, etc., .pp .th|e da^ pf .tb.c 
.thirteenth ^phase of the moon's increase, which js held sacred 
to the God of Love. The merit of the Puji would make the 
votary a favourite with the fair sex, .and enable him to live 
bappy and prosperous, free from all pain and bereavement. 



Thus (he description of the Madam Trayodai'i k fiMtbeiL 
By worshipping the GodS'vva oit the eighth, andthe fousleeiUb, 
day of the foitnighf, each inonlhi for a yeacr, the iK>tary it 
freed from the chains of necessary re-btrtbs. By makbg Um 
gift of a well-furnished rdon» on the fullmooa night in the 
monCIv of Kl^rtika^ and by observing » fast fos three days 
(rrevious thereto, the giver is translated to the regioii> of the 
Sun, after deaths Libations of water should be offered to 
the Pitrir on the day of the new moony and on each day 
by mentioning its name. The votary should fast the whole 
day and take his meal in the night, whereby be would 
be entitled to all the pleasures of life. The God Hari should 
be worshipped on a day in the month of Agrah&yana, marked 
by the asterism Mrigas'iri, by addressing him aS| "O Kes^ava, 
etc/' He should be addressed as Nir&yana and worshipped ia 
the month of Pausha on a day marked by the asterism Pubhyi. 
Similarly, he should be invoked by the epithet Mftdbava 
add worshipped in the month of M^gha on m day marked by 
the asterism Maghft. He should be invoked by the name of 
Gdvinda in the month of PhAlguna and worshipped on a day 
marked by the asterism Purva PhalgunL The name by which 
he should be invoked on the day of the Puji in the month of 
Chaitra, which should be under the auspices of the aster- 
urn Chitra, is Vishnu. Similarly, "Madhusudanai Tribikramat 
Vamana, S'ridhara, Hrishikes'a, Padmanftbba^ and Dftmo- 
dara/' are the epithets by which he should be invoked and 
worshipped on the diqfs in the months of Vaishftkhay Jaishtbat 
I A'shftda, SbrSvana, Bbidra, AVvin, and KArtika, respectively 
/ marked by the asterisms Vb'ikhft, Jestha, Purvishlda, 
Shravanft, Purva^BMLdrapada, As'vini,^ and Krittikl. Offer 
logs of Pftyasha, etc, should be made to the God in the 
months of A'shAda, etc., and the Brfthman&s should be samp* 
tuously feasted therewith. Only Brthmanfts well versed ia 
the knowledge of Pincha-Ritra school of philosophy sboeld 
be invited on the occasion. The Vratam should be practised 


for a year, at the close of which the God Vishau should be* 
worshipped and addressed as follows:— i. . •;. v.f 

''O thou who sufferest no decay, O thou who art. thei 
supreme Brahmi make infinite the good which I co/et io:- 
this life. Absolve my soul from all sins which I haveiwit** 
tingly or unwittingly committed, O lord, who can not be 
measured by any standard of measurement. Grant all .my 
prayers, O thou, the eternal immeasurable stay of the universe^* 
whom decay afHicteth not and who art the foremost of 
beings." A person seeking beauty, possession, or longevityi 
should practise the Vratam for seven years in succession. 
The Gods Kuvera, Agni and As'vis should be worshipped on 
the first ; the Deities S'ri and Yama, on the second ^ the God- 
dess PArvati, on the fifth ; the NSgas, on the sixth ; the Sun* 
God on the seventh ; the MSitris, on the eighth ; Takshaka, oa 
the ninth ; Indra and Kuvera, on the tenth ; the holy sages, oh 
the eleventh ; the God Hari, on the twefth ; Mahes'vara on the 
thirteenth ; and Brahm^, on the fourteenth day of the fort* 
night. The Pitris should be worshipped on the days of the 
new and full moon. The day of the thirteenth phase of the 
moon on which the god Mahes'vara should be worshipped is 
known as K2Lma-TrayodasM. • . i. 

• • • ■ 



Said the God Hari :-^Now I shall describe the geneology 
of the princes of the blood royal, as well the exploits done by 
each of them. The God BrahmJi sprang from the navel of 
the eternal Vishnu. Daksha, the father of all created beings 
sprang from the thumb of Brahma. Daksha begat Aditi, and 
Aditi was the father of the Sun-God. The Sun* God created 





Manu, and Manu was the father of IksMku, Sbaryiti, Mriga, 
Dhrishta, Prishadbra, NarishyanU, N&bhaga, DisbU, and 
Shashaka. Manu, Ibe son of the Sun God, bad a daughter 
named Ila, who was subsequently known as Sudyumna* Mer- 
cury^ the son of the Moon God, had a sexual congress with l\\ 
end begat on her person the three sons named R&jih, Rudra 
and Puraravl. In the character of Sudyumna Hi bad three 
sons named Utkala, Vinata and Gayi. Prishadbra, a son of 
Manu, killed a cow, and so he was degraded to the status of 
a S'udra. After that, the race of the Kshatriyfts that sprung 
from Karusha, is called Kirusba. Disbta, a son of Manu, 
had a son named Nabb&ga, who became a Vaisbya. Nabhiga 
had a son named Bhanandana, and the son of Bhanandana 
wasVatsapriti. Subsequently the said Bhanandana begat 
two other sons named Pinshu and Khanitra, and Khanitra 
had a son named Kshupa. Vinsha was the son of Kshupa and 
Vivinsha was the son of Vinsha. Vivinsha bad another ton 
named Khaninetra, and Kbaninetra had a son named Vibhutt. 
Vibbuti begat Karandhama, and Karandhama begat Abiksbita. 
Abikshita had a son named Marutta, and Marutta was 
.the father of Navishyanta. Tamas begat Rijvardhanai 
Rijvardhana begat Sudbriti, and Sudhriti begat Nara. Nara 
had a son named Kavela who was the father of DhundhumSna. 
Dbundumlna begat Vegavan, who was the father of Budba. ^ 

Afteawards Budha begat a son named Trinavindu and a 
daughter named AilaviU. The said Trinavindu begat on 
Alamvushi a son named Vish&la. Vbh&la had a son named 
Hemchandra who in his turn begat Chandra. Chandra begat 
Dhumrishva who begat Srinjaya; and Srinjaya had a son 
named Sahadeva who was the father of Krisb&shva. The 
name of the son of Krishishva was Somadatta who begat 
Janamejaya. Janamejaya was the father of Sumantri. All 
tliese princes ruled in the city of VishiUL. 

Sharyayftti had a daughter who was married to Ih^ holy 
Chyavana. SbaryayiLti had a son named Ananta^ and Ananla 

I I 


•^as the father of Devaka. 'Afterwards Revata'bad a^onnvlib . 
"was called 'Batvatakaand adaughter named Revati.- Tbe'soa 
'begat by Dhrista^'the son 'of *Manu, was tcalled •Dhirstaka 
who though 'bom *a Kshatriya/took'to theJife of aVaishya« 
Amvarisha was the son of N8bhaga,'a son of «Manu. ^Amva- 
*risha begat Virupa, Virupa begat ^Prishadashva, -^Prishadashva 
begat Rathinara,' who was 6rmly devoted to Vdsudeva.* 

Of the three sons of IkshSkshu, the first was named 

- Vikukshi, the second was called Nimi ; and the third Dandaka, 
Vikukshi ate the hare kept for sacrificial purposes and hence 

•he was called the hare-eater (S'as'ada). This S'as'ada had 

•z son named Puranjaya who begat Kikutstha. - Kikutstha 

-had a son named Anen9, and the son of AnenI 'was named 

'Prithu. Prithu had a son named VishvarSLta who* was the father 

'of Ardira. Ardra begat 'YovanSLs'va who begat S'rftlraiita. 

•S'rlvanta had a son named VrihadAs'va, who 'was the father 

of KuvalayAs'va^ who had a son 'ciHed Dridfls^va,'and wlio 

was better known by 'the epithet of Dhiodumirsu" Thb 

DridSLs'va had three sons, vf jr., Ghandrfts'i^, 'KapilisVa and 

^Hary&s' va. HarySs'va begat Nikdmbha. Niknmbha ' begkt 

•HitSshvawho was the father of 'PujSLsVa. Pd]as^ra'*had ^ 

a son named YuvnSLs'va. The son of YuvanSs'va' was called 

MftndhSLti who had a son named Vindu ' Mahya. ' 'Vtndu 


Mahya had three sons named Muchukunda, Amvarisha and 
^Purukutsa. The aforesaid Vindu Mahya had ' fifty daughters 
'who became the wives of the holy sage Sauvari. * Amvarisha 
'begat Yuvan&s'va who begat Harita. The 'son begotten 

- on NarmadSL by Purukutsa was called Trasadasyu. Anaranya 
'was the son of Trasadasyu, and the son of Anaranya 'was 

called Haryayas'va. Vasumanah was the son of Haryayas'va 
and TridhanvSL was the son of Vasumanah. Tridhanvi had 
a son named TraySruna who was the father of Satyafata. 
This Satyarata became famous by the name of Trishankn. 
The son of Trishanku was named Harish Chandra, who was 
* the father of RohitiLs'va. Harita was the son of 'RohltAs'Va 




i«tf Chtiictitf #it )lhi toi» of Huitv; Ghiuicbii Vq^ Viftf^ » 
ftud' Vijkyi begttt R\iniki and Raruk }SkgA Vriluu VUiii » 
war^tbiBi «m of Vrika' and» Be became a kbg.: S^rftra^. 
wtetheson('oi» Vlhuwho- bad lixly tboosaad soaa by. bit * 
wife Sumati, and a ton* named Aiamanjaia by bb wife 
KeshiilL Anshomana was' ibe son of Asamanjata, and 
Dilipa #as the ton of Ansbomana« Bhagiratba was Ibe 
son of Dilipa^ and be brongbt down Ibe Ganges on eaitb. 
S'riita was Ibe son of Bbagiralba, and Ibe son of Strata was 
named N&bbiga. NibbSg^ bad a son named Amvarisba 
who was the father of Sindbudvifia. Ajutlytt was the son * 
oF SindhudvipSi and the son of Ajntijn was Riluparna. 
SarvakSroa was the son of Ritupamai and Siidasa was 
the Ibe son of oSanrakima. The son of Sudasa became 
famous by Ibe name of Mitrasaha. Sudasa begat a son ' 
on bis wife DamayaAti who was caHed Kalm&sbapi'da. '• 
Kalm&sbapftda begat As^aka, and As'vaka begat Mulaka, ' 
and Muhika begat Das'lrha who was Ibe father of Ailavitau* . 
The son of ^avila was named Visbvasabai #bo was the * 
father of Kbattlnga. iOiatlinga bad a son named ' 
DirgbaHbu who was the father of Aja. The son of Aja" 
was Dasbaratha who bad four sons, vtf., Rima, Bbaratat • 
Lakshmana and S'atrugbna. • Ali of them became 'faflBoaa • 
in history for prowess and glorious acbieirelnenls. Kns^a 'and • 
Lava were the sons of Rlma. Bharat's sons wece liamed '' 
\ Ttrksha and Pus'kala. Chitringada and Cbaadrakein were ' 
I the sons of Lakshmana, while the loos'or Shatrugbna * 
were named Suvihu and Surasenk. Kiis'a bad a son * 
named Attthi who was the father of Nisbtda. • Nala was 
the son' of Nishida, * and Nabhasa was Ibe soA of Nala. • 
Piindarika was the son of Nabhasa, and Ksbemdhabvi wai 
the son of Pundarika. Devinika was the son of Ksbemn* 
dbanvA, and Ahbaka was the son of DeiAoika. Abiaaka ' 
begat Ruru, and Rum begat Plripatra. and Plripalra begat - 
Qala, and Oala begat Cbhala. Vukiba was Ibe son of-. . 


Chhala and Vajriainabha was the ton of Vuktha. ' The son ; 
of Vajran&bha was Gana who was the father of Ushitls'va ; 
who was the father of Vis'vashaha. HiranyanSbha twas 
the son of Vis'vasaha, and Pushpaka was the son of 
HiranyanSbha. The son of Pushpaka was Dhruvasandhi > 
who was to father • of Sudars'ana. Siidars,ana begat 
Agnivarna who was the father of Padmavarna. Padma«» i 
varna begat S'ighra, and S'ighra begat Maru, and Maru 
begat Pras'ruta who was the father of Udftvasu. Nandi- ' 
vardhana was the son of UdSvasu. Suketu was the son of 
Nandivardhana. Suketu had a son named DevarSta who was 
the father of Vrihaduktha. Vrihaduktha had a son named 
Mah^virva who was the father of Sudhriti. The son of Su- 
dhriti was Dhristaketu who was the father of Haryayas'va. 
The son of llaryayas'va was Maru who was the father of 
Pratindhaka. Pratindhaka begat Kriliratha, and Kritiratha 
bi*gat Devamidha who was the father of Vivudha. The son 
of Vivudha was MahSdhriti who was the father of KritirSta. 
The son of Kritiidta was ManoromSL who was the father of 
Svarnaromi, whose son was flrasvaromi, whose son was 
Siradhvaja who had a daughter named Sit2L. Kushadhvaja 
was the brother of S'iradhvaja who had a son named Bh9nu« 
man. S'atadyumna was the son of Bhinuman and S'uchi 
was the son of S'atadyumna. S'uchi begat Urja. *Urja 
bei^at Sanadhvftja whose son was Kuli. The son of Kuli was 
Ananjana who was the father of Kulajit. The son of Kulajit 
was Adhinemi who was the father of S'rutllyu. The son 
of SVutSyu was Sup!irs'va who was the father of Kshemlrt. 
KshemSri begat Aneni who was the father of Rimaratha. * 
Rimaratha be^at Satyaralha ; and Satyaratha, Upaguru 
Upaguru brgat Up^gupta whose son was Svagata. Svagafa 
had a son named Svanara, who begat Suvarcha, who begat ' 
SiipJrs'va, who begat Sus'ruta. The son of SusVota 
wa< Java who wa* the father of Vijaya. Vijaya b^gat Rita, 
and Rita begat Sunaya, and Sunaya begat Vitahavyai who 


was the father of Dhrili. The son of Dhriti was VahulSa'va ' 
who was the father of Kriti. Two different races sprang - 
from Janaka who were all addicted to Yoga. * 



IlARi said :-»! have finished descrtbinf^ the solar race, now 
hear me narrate the genealogy of princes who were the 
descendants of the Moon*God. BrahmS, the son of NfldI* 
yana created the holy Atri. From Atri sprang the Moon- 
God who became the consort of the beatiful TSrS, the favourite ' 
wife of Vrihaspatiy the preceptor of the celestials. The' 
Moon-Ciod begat on the person of his beloved Tiri a son 
named Budha, who in his turn begat Puraravft. 

The son of Budha begat on the nymph Urvasi six sons 
who were named S'rutltmakai Vis'vSvasu, S'atflyu, A*yU| 
DheemSni and Amivasu. Bhima was the son of AmSvastti 
KSnchana was the son of Bhima, Kinchan*s son was Subotm 
who was the father of Janhu. Janhu's son was Sumanta and 
Sumanta's son was ApajSpaka. The son of ApajSpaka 
was Valikis'va, who was the father of Kus'a. Kus'a had 
four sons named Kus'Ss'ava, Kus'aUbha, Amurtaraya and 
Vasu. The son of Kus'fts'va was Gldhi who was the father 
of the celebrated Vts'vflmitra. GSdhi bad a daughter named 
Satyavati, who was given in marriage to the holy sage 
Richik. The son of Richik was Jamadagni, who was the 
father of Paras'ur9ma. The sage Vis'vlmitra bad a large 
family of sons such as Devarakia, MadhuchchhandSi etc, 

A'yu (a son of Budha) had a son named Nabusha who 
had four sons named Aoenl, RAji, Rambhaka and Ksbaira 

3fl& - (BiMiuDA PDRArrxnt^ ^ 

Vriddte. The: toni oF Kshatra VKddfia iflriisi SuhUtm' '«rto r 
bad three tons\ vii^* KisEya, K&sfao, and GHtsamadi^' 
S'aunaka was the. sod 06 Gritsannwlkr and< Dfrgha^iniLwast 
the son of Kds'ya. The son of DirghatamSL was Dbanvantari 
who took the profession of a physician. Dhanvantari had a 
son named Ketum&n wh(r Was cK<f father of Bhimaratha. 
DivodSLsa was the son of Bhimaratha, and Patardana known 
to history as S'atrujit (conquerer of enemies) was the son 
of Divodftsa. The son of Pratardana' Wais Ritadhvaja, who 
was the father of Alarka. Alarka's son was Sannati and 
Sunita was Sannati's son. The son of Sunita was Satyaketu 
w.ho was the father of Bibhu. The son of Bibbu wal^ 
Subibhu, the father of SukumSLra. Sukumftra begat Dbrista-^' 
ketUy and Dhristaketu begat Vitihotra who. had a son named. 
Bhargaw The son of Bharga was Bhargabhumii All .these • 
magnanimous princes were firmly devoted to Vishnii and*, 
niled in K^shi* ' . V 

.. Raji (a SOD of Nahusha) had five hundred sons who-, were' 
killed by the God-Indra. Kshatra Vriddha (a son otNabusha). 

had another son named Pratikshatra who was the father* of 

f' • - 

Sanjaya.. Sanjaya begat Vijaya whose soo' was- Krita.' Krit&r 
begat, Vrishadhana» and Vrishadhana begat ; Sahadeva whbsenr 
aba was.Adina who begat Jayat Sena. . The latter bade soa: 
named Satkriti whose son was Kshatradharmai Nabusha had" 
a, family of another five sons (who were called- Yati^ ' Yayftti,* 
Sanyati^ AjSLti and Kriti. Out of these, Yay&t» begat dH his* 
wife Devayflni two sons who were namlcd Yadu and Turvusu, ' 
and* three sons on his wife S'aTmistha whe- weri!' called' 
Drahyu, Anu and Puru. Yadu had thfee sorts' named ^ 
Sahasrajitf Kroshtum2Lna and Rdgbu. The son^ of Sahasrajit" 
was S*aU] it who was the father of Haya and Haiheya. Tb^"' 
son of Haya was Anaranya who wasrthe father of Dharma.' 
Dharma's son was Dharmamitra, whose ^on was Kunti. Kunti's' 
son was Sahanji .whose son was Mahishman. Mahishntan's 
son was Bhadras'renya whose son- wat Durdama. Durdama's I 


ion !was 'Dhanaka who had four -sons '.named Krhavirjat 
KriUigni, iKriUkarm& and Kritogu. All of them were 
of mighty prowess. ' ' 

'Kritavirja had a son named Arjuna whose sons were 
S'urasena, Jayadhvaja, Madhu, S'ura and Vrishna. 
All' these five sons of Kritavirya were princes of excellent 
conduct. Jajadhvaja's son was Tftlajangha whose son was 
'Bharata. Madhu was the son of Vrishanai and from him 
'(Madhu) sprang the race of Vrtshni. Ahi was the son 6t 
Kro^hta and his son was Ashanku. The son of As'anku wail 
Chitraratha whose son was S'as'avindu. S'as'avindu had 
two wives. By his first wife he had a hundred thousand 
vonSy while by his second he had ten hundreds of thnusandsi 
<euch as Prithukirti/'etc. 'Prtthukirti had three sons, visl, 

• • • • • ' 

•Prithujayai Prithudana * "and -PrithusVavA. Prithus'ravi 

begat Tama, Tama begat UshanSl, 'UshanA begat S'itagUi 

and S'itaga begat Rulcmakavacha^ -Rukmakavacha ba/i 

'4ive sons 'vis,, *Rukma, Prithurukmai 'Jyamagha, Palita and 

Mart* The son of Jy^niagha was Vidarbha whdse wtfn 

name was S'aivySl. Vidarbha begat on his wife S'aivyi three 

.sons whose names were Kratha, Kanshika, and Romap&da': 

'Romap4da's son was Babhru, and Babhru's san was DhritL 

•The son whom Kaus'ika begot was named Richi whose soil 

>was Chaidya. Chaidya begat Kunti, and Kunti begat Vrishni 

'and Vrishni begat Nibriti, who was the father of Das'ftrha« 

The son of'Das'irha was Vyoma whose son was Jimuti. 

The 'son of Jimuta'was Vtkriti, who was the father of 

Bhimaratha. Bhimaratha begat Madhuratha whose son was 

S'akuni, who begat* Karambhi, who was the father of Deva*^ 

tmata. The son of Devamata was Devakshatra whose sob 

was Madhu, whose son was Kuruvan^'a. Kuruvans'a begart 

Anu. Anu begat Puruhotra. who bef^at Ans'u whose son waa 

Sattvas'ruta, who was the father of Sattvara. 

Bhajina, BhajamSna, 'Andhaka, Mahabhoja, Vrishni| 
*Divya, Aranya, and Devavriu were the sous of Sattvafa* 


Nimi, yrishnii Ayutajit S'atajtt, Sahasrajit, Vabhni, Devii 
.and.Vrihaspati were.tb^ sons of Bhajamina. . Bboja was the 
son of Mahabhoja, and Sumitra was the son of VrishnL 
.Svadhajit was the son of Sumitra, and S'ini and Aniroila 
were the sons of SvadhSjit. Nighna was the son of Anamitrai 
and S'atajit was the son of Nighna. The other two sons of 
Anamitra were Prasensa and S'iva. Satyaka was the son 
t>f S'ivi| and the son of Satyaka was S&tyaki. Sanjaya was 
the son of SStyaki, and the son of Sanjaya was Kuli who was 
. the father of Yugundhara. Ail these princes were the vota^ 
ties of the God*S'iva. 

Vrishni, S'aphalka, and Chitraka were the sons thai 
graced the line of Anamitra. S'aphalka begat on t6e person 
of GSLndhini a son named Akrura, who was firmly devoted to 
the God-Visbnu. Upamudga was the son of Akrura, and the 
son of Upamudga was Devadyota. Akrura bad two other 
sons who were called DevaySina and Upadeva. 

. Pritbu and Viprithu were the sons of Chitraka. who was of 

the race of Anamitra, and S'uchi was the son of Andhaka 

the son of Sattvata. Kukkura and Kamvala Varhisha were 

.the sons of Bhajam^na. Kukkura had a son named Dhrista« 

end Kapotaromaka was the son of Dhrista. Viloma was the 

son of Kapotaromaka, and Tumvuni was the son of Viloma. 

,The sons of Tumvuru was Dundubhi who was the father of 

Punarvasu. Punarvasu had a son named Abuka. and a 

daughter named Aliuki. The sons of Ahuka were Devaka- 

.end Ugrasena. The daughters of Devaka were named 

.Devaki, VrikadevS, UpadevS, Sahadevft, Sarakshitfi, Shridevi, 

and S*Sntidevi, who were all married to Vaaudeva. Saha* 

«dev& had two sons named Deva and Upadeva. Ugrasena had 

several sons named Kansa^ Soluma and Chavata. 

Viduratha was the son of Bhajam^na, a son of Andhaka. 
The son of Viduratha was S'ura, who was the father of 
S'ami. Pratikshatra was the son of S'ami, and the son of 
Pratikshatra was Svayambhoja, who was the father of 


• - f^ 

^ridtka. The son of Hridika Was Kritavarma. The sbii 6f 
JSluira. the son of Vidiiratha, were Deva, Shatadhanu, and 
bevamidusha. Shnra had another wife named MSrishA, who 

hf-camf^ the mother of five daufj[hters named PrithI, Shruta- 


dev2. ShrtitAkirtt, ShrutashravA and RSjAdhidevi ; and of two 
sons Slid) as V^asudeva, etc. PrithJk was filiated to Kuntiraja 
who married her to Pandii. The God of Virtue begat on the 
person of PrithS, a son named Yudhisthira, while the Wind- 
God and Indra successively begot on her two sons named 
Bhima«ena and Arjuna. The king P^ndu had another queen 
nntned M^dri, who became the mother of two sons named 
Nakula and Sahadeva, bpgot on her 'person by the Ashvts 
N^satva and Da«ra. Kimti had another son before marriage 
\vho was named Kama. Siinitadev& was the mother of Danta- 
vakra who was valiant in battles. The king of Kekaya 
begat on the person of Shrntakirti five sons such as Shan. 
tardhana. etc. RSjAdhidevi had two sons named Vindhu and 
Annvindha. Damagho«a begat on the person of Shnitashravli 
a son named Shishupala. Vasudeva had several wives named 
Pauravi, Rohini, MadirA and Devaki, etc. Of these Rohint 
bf'came the mother of BalarSma. Balarftma begat on his 
wife Revati several sons siich ^s Sarana, Shaitha, Nishatha, 
and Ulmaka, etc., 

Devaki became the mother of six sons, who were named 
KirtimSlna, Sushena, Udarya, Bhadrasena, Kiju'dasa, and 
Bhadradeva. King Kansa destroyed all these six sons 
bi Devaki. Sankarshana or Valar^ma was the seventh son of 
Devaki, and Krishna was her eighth. Krishna had sixteen 
thousand wives, of whom Rukmini, Satyabliftml, Lakshman& 
ChSlruhSLsini, and jAmvavati were the eight principal ones. 
Kribhna had a large family 6f sons by these wives, ofwhon; 
Pradvumna, Ch^rudeshna, and ShSmva were famous. Pr.> 
dyumna begat on his wife Rati a son of mighty prowess %viio 
i\as named Aiiiruddha. Aniruddha had by^his wife SubhadfS/ 



Yamiiia was Dhriliiiicliin, whose son was Salvadliriti. whosn 
hoii was Dridhainiini. Tlir son of Dridltamuni was Snparshva, 
whose son was Sanhati. Tlie son of Sannati was Kntu, 
who>e son was UgrAyiidha, whose son was Kslicma, whose 
son was Sudhira, wliose son was Puranjaya, who was the 
father of Viduratha. 

Ajainida had a wife named Nalini, who gave birth to Nila, 
The son of Niia was SliAnti, wliose soi« was Sush&nti, whose 
son was Puru. whose son was Aik.i/whose son was Haryashva, 
who was the father of Mukula. This Mukula became the 
xnler of the country of PAnchSla. He had five sons named 
Yuvanira, VrihadbiiSnu, Kampilla, Srinja\ a and Sharadv^ina. 
This SharadvAna was 6rmlv devoted to Vishnu. Sharadvi&na 
begat a son on Ahaiyd, who was called DivodSsa, the socond. 
DivodlLsa had a son named ShatAnanda. Satyadhriti was 
the son of Shat§nanda. Satyadhriti lost control over his 
senses at the sight of the nymph Urvasi, and a son named 
Kripa and a daughter named Kripri were born out of his 
emitted seed. Kripri was married to Dron&ch&ryya, and 
'AshvathvSmA was the fruit of this union. 

The son of Divod3sa was MitrSLyu, whose son was 
Chyavana, whose son was Suddsa, who was the father of 
SaudAsa. The son of Saud§sa was Sahadeva, whose son was 
Somaka, who had two sons named Jantu and Prishata. The 
' son of Prishata was Drupada, through whom Dhrishtadyumna 
came into being. The son of Dhrishtadyumna was 

The aforrsaid Aj^iinida had a son iiame*d Rik^ha. The 
son of Kiksha was Sliamvarana, who was the falhrr of Knni, 
Siuihanu, P.irikvhit ?.nd Jr^nhu. The son of S«idl»«nn was 
Suhotra, whoNc >oii wa^ Chvavaua. who wa^ the father of Kin«f 
. Kritaka. The son of Kntaka wa^ Uparichayavasu, the father 
of Vrihadratha. Pratyacjra, Satva and others. The son of 
VrihadraUid w«ib Ivi^l^*'^^''^' uhu^c aun \\a^ Uidiiabha, who^c 



fson was Pushpan^bha, who was the fathctr of kin^ Saly&liita. 
TUti son of SatvAhita was Sudh^nvil. whose son was Janhu. 

The said Vrihadratha had another son named JarSsandha. 
The son of JarSsandha was Sahadeva, whose son was Somdti, 
who was the father of Bhimasena, Ugrasena, Shrutasena and 

The abovesaid Janhu had a son named Suratha. The son 
of Suratha was Viduratha, whose son was Sflrvabhauma, 
whose son was Jayasena^ who was the father of A'v4dhita. 
The son of A'vi&dhita was AyutAvu, whose son was Akro* 
dhana, whose son was Atithi, who was the father of Riksha. 
The son of Riksha was Biiimasena, whose son was Dtlipa, 
whose son was Pratipa, who was the father of Devftpi, 
Shantanu, and Valhika. Somadatta owes his paternity 
to King Valhika. The son of Somadatta was Bhuri, whose 
sons were Bhurishravdi and Sh&la. 

ShSntanu begot on the person of GangJi, a son named 
Bhishma, who was noted for his piety. The said Sh&ntanu 
had two other sons named ChitrSngada and Vichitraviryya. 
Vichitraviryya had two wives named Amvikft and 
Amv^Iikfl. The holy Vy&sa begot on Amvika, a son named 
(Dhritardshtra ; on AuivaltkS, a son named PAndu ; and on the 
person of a slave girl, a son named Vidura. Dhritarftshtra had 
by his wife G«indh2Lri, a hundred sons named Duryyodhana, 
etc., while PAndu had five sons named Yudhishthira, etc. 
By their common wife Draupadi, Yudhishthira had a sen 
named Prativindhya ; Bhima, a son named Shrutasonia ; 
Arjuna, a son named Shrutakirti ; Nakula, a i»oii named 
SliatAnika ; and Sahadeva, a son named ShrutakarniH. 
Yudhibihira and liis five broilirrs had a nunibrr of wivrh ; 
such as, Vdndli.iyi, nidiinvA, Kauhlii, SubhadrA VijayA and 
Renumati, who respectively bec«4nie the mothers of Devaka, 
Gliatalkacha, Abhimanyu, Sarva^a, and Suhotra. Abhimanyu 
Wdb the father of i'arikahit, whu^e aou was Janauiej.ixa, 


Yamina was Dliriliin<ina, whose son was Satvadliriti. wliosn 
son was Dridhainiini. The son of Dridhamuni was Suparshva, 
whose son was Saniiati. The son of Sannati was Kritu, son was UgrAytidha, whose son was Kshcma, whose 
son was Sudhira, whose son was Puranjaya, who was the 
faliier of Vidura^ha. 

Ajainida had a wife named Nalini, who gave birth to Nilsi^ 
The son of Nila was ShAnti, whose son was Sush&nti, whose 
son was Puru. whose son was Aik.i/whose son was (laryashva, 
who was the father of Mukula. This Mukula became the 
jrnler of the countrv of PAnch^la. He had five sons named 
Yuvanira, Vrihadblianu, KampilU, Srinja\a and SiiaradvSna. 
This SliaradvAna was Hrnilv devoted to Vishnu. SharadvSna 
begat a son on AlialyS, wlio was called Divodcisa, the socond. 
Divodlsa had a son named Shat^nanda. Satyadhriti was 
the son of Shat§nanda. Satyadhriti lost control over his 
senses at the sight of the nymph Urvasi, and a son named 
Kripa and a daughter named Kripri were born out of his 
emitted seed. Kripri was married to Dron«lch2ryya, and 
'Ashvathv2Lm& was the fruit of this union. 

The son of DivodSsa was MitrSLvu, whose son was 
Chyavana, whose son was Sud3sa, who was the father of 
SaudSsa. The son of Saud§sa was Sahadeva, whose son was 
Somaka, who had two sons named Jantu and Prishata. The 
'son of Prishata was Drupada, through whom Dhrishtadyumna 
came into being. The son of Dhrishtadyumna was 

Tiie aforesaid Ajamida had a son named Riksha. The 
. son of Riksha was Shamvarana. who was the faiher of Kiirti, 
SiKlhanu, P;irikshit ?.nd Jnnhu. The son of Sudhann was 
Suhotra, who^c son was Chvavana, who was the father of King 
.Kritaka. The son of Kritaka was Uparichayavasu, the father 
of Vrihadralha. Pratyagra, Satva and others. The son of 
Yrihadrallid was lyialiai^ra, whui^c :)un was I\i5liablia, whodc 


gon was Piishpan^bha, who wa!i the father of k\ng SalyfthiUu 
Tht! son of Satyfthita was Sudh^iivft. whone son was Jatihu. 

The said Vrihadratha had another son named JarAsandha. 
The son of farSLsandha was Sahadeva, whose son was Sotnfltii 
who was the father of Bhimasena, Ugraseua, Sbrutasena and 

The abovesaid Janhii had a son named Suratha. Tlie son 
of Suratha was Viduratha, whose son was SArvabhauma, 
whose son was Jayasena^ who was the father of A'vftdhita. 
The son of A'vAdhita was AyutAvu, whose son was Akro- 
dhana, whose son was Atithi, who was the father of Rikaha. 
Tlie son of Riksha was Bliimasena, whose son was Dilipai 
whose son was Pratipa, who was the father of Devftpi, 
Shan tan u, and Valhika. Soinadatta owes hb paternity 
to King Valhika. The son of Somadatta was Bhuri, wbo«« 
sons were Bhurishravft and Shila. 

Shintanu begot on the person of Gangft, a son named 
Bhishma, who was noted for his piety. Tlie said Shftntanu 
had two other sons named Chitrlngada and Vichitraviryya. 
Vichitraviryya had two wives named Amvikft and 
Amv^likfl. The holy Vy4sa begot on Amvika» a son named 
(Dhritar^shtra ; on Amv&likS, a son named Pftndu ; and on the 
person of a slave girl, a son named Vidura. Dhritarisbtra had 
by bis wife G&ndh&ri, a hundred sons named Duryyodhanai 
etc., while Pftndu had five sons named Yudhbbthira, etc 
By their common wife Draupadi, Yudhishthira had a 9mn 
named Prativindhya ; Bhima, a son named Shrutasoma ; 
Arjuna, a son named Shrutakirti; Nakula, a son nani#d 
Shat^nika ; and Sahadeva, a son named Shrutakarnia. 
Yudhisthira and his five brothers had a number of wivr» ; 
such as, Yandh.iyi, nidimvft, Kau»hi, SubhadrA VijayA and 
Renumati, who resp«*ctively becMme the mothers of Detaka. 
Gliatalkacha. Abhimanyu, Sarvaga, and Subotra. Abhimaayii 
wdb the father of Parikahit, wlio»e sou was Jauawej.iya, 


Now hear nir fiiunif rale the namfb of kings who caintr after 




Hari said : — ^The son of Shat^nika" was Ashmedhadatta. 
whose son was Adhisimaka, whose son was Krishna, whose 
son was Aniruddha. whose son was Ushana, whose son was 
Chitraratha, whose son was Shuchidratha, whose son was 
Vrishnimana, whose son was Susena, whose son was Sunitha, 
whose son was Arichakshu, whose son was Muk&vana, whose 
son was MedhSvi, who was the father of Jaya. 

The son of Nripanjaya PSriplava. whose son was Sunaya, 
whose son was MedhAvi, who was the father of Nripanjaya, 
The son of this Nripanjaya was Hari, whose son was Tigma, 
whose son was Vrihadratha, whose son was Shatanika who 
was the father of SudSnaka. The son of Sud2Lnaka was 
Udana, whose son was Anninara, whose son was DantapAnt, 
whose son was Nimitlaka, whose son was Kshennaka who 
was the father of Shudra. 

Now hear me narrate the genealogy of princes, who would 
grace in future the life of Vrihadvala of the race of Ikshdku. 
The son of Vrihadvala would be Urukshaya, whose son would 
.be Vatsavyuha, whose son would be .Vrihadashva, whose 
son would be BhSnuratha^ whose son would be F'rativya, 
whose son would be Pratilaka, whose son] would be Manu- 
deva, whose son would be*Sunakshatra, whose son would be 
Kinnara, whose son would be Anlarikshaka. Antarikshaka 
would beget Suparna, wiiu wuuld bcg^-l Knlajil, who would 


beget the pious Vrihadbhraja. who would beget Kritanjayai 
who would beget Dhananjaya, who would beget Sanjaya, 
who would beget Shaky a. Shaky a would beget Shoddho- 
dana, who would beget Vfthula, who would beget Senafit, wh0 
would beget Kshudraka, who would beget SamUra. who 
would beget Kudava, who would beget Sumitra. 

Now hear me narrate the genealogy of the princes of 
Magadha. The son of JarSsandha was Surilpi, whose son 
was Shrutashrava, whose son was AyutAyu, whose son was 
Niramitra, whose son was Svakshetra, whose son was Kar- 
maka. The son of Karmaka was Shrutanjaya, whose son 
was Senajit, whose son was Bhuri, whose son was Shucbi^ 
whose son was Kshemya, whose son was Suvfata, whose son 
was Dharma, whose son was Shmashruma, whose son was 
Dridhasenaka, whose son was Sumati, whose son was Savala, 
whose son was Neeta, whose son was Satyajit, whose son 
was Vishvajit^ whose son was Ishanjay. All these princes 
were of the race of Vrihadratha. After thU^ impious Shudra 
kings, who wi>uld stick at nothing to gain their ends, would 
be the rulrrs of the world, and oppression, duplicity and 
falsrhood would be the only recognised principles of stat0« 

The eternal N^rSiyana, who suffers no change nor decaf, if 
the creator, protector and disintegrator of the cosmic t/nt^ 
verse. This Pralaya or dissolution of the cosmos admits of 
being grouped under three different heads ; socb as, Che 
Naimittika (accidental or contingent, and conditional) ; PA^ 
kritika (physical and cosmic) ; and lastly, A'tyantika (final, and 
without any chance of the re-integration and re-combination 
of its molecules). The different categories of cosmic eToht* 
tion will merge in one another in the inverse order ol their 
enumeration, viz., the solids will dissolve into the tiquidS| 
the liquids will br abnorbrd in the gaseous or the heat, the 
heat will die away inXhe ether, the ether will be merged io 


• ■ 

the etherine, the ctli^rriiie. in the category of AbankSri 
fEeoi^m); the AhankJlra in the principle of • Intellection, 
(Biiddhitattva); tlie Inirllection iii the Self or Jiva, and the 
]\vH in the uninanifest Braliina. Vishnu, the Soul of the Uni- 
Vfr«ip, is tlie onlv dcathlrj^s Realitv in the Universe, which 
hiake-s ilself patent in the shape of Nar NSrSy.ana (the Divine 
Man.) The universe is transient and illusory. Many kings 
there had hff n in tlit* world and many more will come and 


pass a\vav as fiifnl shadows. Therefore walk ve not in the 
paths of ther unrii^hteous. Ahjure sin and work out the purity 
of thonglw, for in stich thonahts consists the salvation of 21 
than ; and Such thoiights Irad to the blissful Hari. 


tH\PTE^ cxi-ii. 

nilAIIMA said : — The God Hari incarnated on ea'rth an*? pro- 
tected the seed of the A'ryyas. His advent on this fleeting' 
world was for the destruction df the kingfdom of the AsnrSs* 
and the propagation of the religion of the VedAs. His 
several incarnations virere in the fornis of Fish Tortoise, 
etc. The God Keshava incarnated himself as the Fish 
in the primordial ocean, carried the immutable VedSs 
' on his hack, killed the demon Hayagriva, and protected 
the patriarch Manu and others. Incarnated ni a Tortois**, 


he carried the Mount Mand^ra on .his hack, wherewith' 
the gods and demons churned the primordial ocean for 
amhro»iia As the fruit of that churning, Diianvantara, 
the first of the propounder of the medical science, came 


out of its troubled water:*, carrying the pitcher of divine 
ambrosia in his hand. Dhanvantari relat«*d to Sushruta the 
science of Ayurveda with its eight subdivisions, and the 
God Hari, assuming the shape of a girl of fascinating beautfi 
doled out the ambrosia to the gods. Incarnated as the 
Divine Boar, the God Hari killed the demon Hiranyflksha, 
lifted up the submerged earth on his tusks from beneath 
the waters of the enshrouding ocean, and protected the 
gods and patriarchs. Incarnated as the redoubtable Nrisinba 
(half-man, half-lion), the God Hari destroyed the demon 
Hiranyakashipu with his sinful allies, and vindicated the 
religion of the Ved&s. Alter that, the lord of the universe 
was incarnated as Parashurftm, a son of Jimadagni. For 
twenty-one times in succession he extirpated the race of 
the wicked KshatriySLs, killed the dreadful Kftrtaviryftrjunai 
made a gift of the whole earth to Kashyapa, and finally 
settled himself on the summits of the Mount Mabendra. 
After that, the subduer of the wicked divided hb divine self 
into four parts and came into the world as Rlma, Bbarata, 
Lakshmana and Shatrughna, the four sons of king DasharallUL 
J&naki was the wife of RSma, who, for the good of his step* 
mother Kekayi, and for the performance of a promise made 
her by his father, resorted, as a voluntary exile, to the forest 
of Dandaka. He cut the nose of Surpanakhi, killed the 
monsters Khara and Dushana, and destroyed the dreadful 
R&vana, who had carried away his wife Sit&. After the fail 
of R^vana, Rima installed Vibhishana, a brother of Rlvana, 
on the throne of his kingdom Lank&, and returned to his own 
capital in the aerial car, Pushpaka, in the company of 
Hanum^na, Sugriva and his faithful Sitft. In the bliss of 
his consort's love^ R&ma ruled his kingdom for the good 
of his people ^nd the gods, and performed a Horse-Sacrifice 
to commemorate his suzerainty over the earth. 

Sit&, though passed a long time in the bouse of RAvana, 
did not betray his lord either in deeds or tbougbts. SiU was 



as chaste as the virtuous Anasuyi, the beloved wife of 
Atri. Now hear me narrate the excellence of Site's chastity 
and the exalted station which virtuous and faithful wives 
occupy in the economy of the universe. 

Once on a time there lived in t^e city of PratisthSLna, a 
leper Brahmana whose name was Kaushika. His wife, who 
was firmly devoted to him, used to adore and worship her lord 
as a god without even thinking for a moment that he wa» 
afflicted with such a foul and loathsome disease. But 
Kaushika was a cross and peevis^h husband, and never missed 
opportunities to abuse his wife, who, though often chastised, 
never ceased to pay him god-like veneration and love. One 
d.iy, Kaushika took a fancy to visit a courtezan in the city, 
and expressed that desire to his wife. Whereupon she took 
him on her shoulders and safely carried him to that house of 
ill fame. Nor did she forget to take with her a considerable 
amount of money which the courtezan might ask for her 
nefarious trade. 

Now it happened that the Sage Mindavya was thea 
undergoing punishment on the top of a pointed mace, as 
he was unjustly sentenced by the authorities on a false 
charge of theft. The faithful wife, on her way to the house 
of the courtezan, touched with her feet the body of that 
afflicted sage, who, in his agony, cursed her with the pangs 
of widowhood on the break of day. The wife, on the 
other hand, forbade the Sun to rise in order that the curse 
of the Sage might not take effect. The Sun-God, over- 
powered by the energy of conjugal chastity, was afraid to 
show his face, and creation was enshrouded in a pall of dark* 
ncss. Ages past without the Sun in the sky. The frightened 
gods resorted to Brahm^ for help and advice. Brahmi said, 
*' It is the energy of Chastity that has overpowed the energy 
of asceticism, and obstructed the advent of the Sun. Go, 
ye gods, to AnasuySi, and she will plead, on your behalf, to 
the wife of Kaushika." The gods did as they were told to da. 

&ARUDA PURANAli; ' 41/ 


W^ (engaged by the tyrant Kansa to put an eild to hb life, in 
infancy, with the pretext of ilickling him. But KrisboA 
Siucked her pobon^d nipples with a force that verily killed 
her on the spot. The mighty prowessed Krishna overturned 
the car-demou, felled the two tree-monsters named Jamala 
and Arjuiia, and destroyed the serpent Kftliya and the 
monster Dhenuka. At this time, he supported the mount 
Govardliana on the tip of his finger, and was honoured and 
Worshipped by the God Indra for this exploit. He relieved 
this sinful earth of its weight of sin, and pledged himself to 
protect the five sons of Pftndu in their days of trouble and 
distress. The demon Arishta fell an easy victim to his 
prowess^ and he cheered the GopAs and Gopa«maidena 
of Brindaban by slaying the monster Keshi. He draped 
down the demon Kansa from the platform, and killed tiid 
wrestlers Chinuka, Mushtika and Malla^ who guarded the 
person of that detestable tyraht. 

Krishna had eight principal wives, such as Rukminii 
Satyabhftma, etc., besides a seraglio of sixteen thousand 
other wives. By them he got • hundreds^ nay thousands 
of sons and grandsons. By Rukmini he had a son named 
Pradyumna« who killed the demon Shambara. The son of 
Pradyumna was Aniruddha, who married Ushi, the daughter 
of king VSLna. There ensued a deadly conflict between 
Krishna and tlie God Shankara, when the elopement of Uslit 
with Aniruddha was detected and made known to the world. 
Krishna cut down the thousand arms of king Vina with thn 
exception oi two. Once upon a time, he killed the demon 
Naraka and carried the flower PirijAt from the garden of 
heaven. Shishuplla, Vala, and the monkey, named Dvibidha, 
were also among the victims, who fell at the stroke of his 
mighty discus. 

rbe son of Aniruddha was Vajra, who became the king 
.of MdLthura, when Krishna was translated to heaven. In order 
to .please bit precq>to,^andipani, Kiisbna brought Mxk tbt 



to instal his favourite R9ma asthe Crown-Prince of 
dominion, when his consort Kaikeyi asked him to send RAroa 
in exile for a period of fourteen years. For the spiritual 
edification of bis father, RAma renounced the kingdom as a 
thing of little consequence and went out as a voluntary 
exile, in the company of his betoved Sit& and Lakshmana, 
to the city of Shringabera. He renounced the use of his 
car, and travelled on foot to the city of Prayftga from whence 
be sojourned to tbe Mount of Chitrakuta. 

King Dasharatha, in agony of separation and in bitter 
remorse for what he had done, died and ascended to heaven. 
Prince Bharata performed the funeral rites of his father 
Dasharatha, and thtrn went to R&ma with a large army to 
welcome him back to his kingdom and heritage. R&ma 
did not return to his capital, but gave his sandal to Bharata 
instead, to be installed on the throne of his kingdom as 
a royal insignia. Whereupon Bharata justly ruled the king- 
dom in the name of his sovereign Rlma. Thus dismissed 
by RSLma, Bharata did not return to AyodhySi, but fixed his 
residence in the town of Nandigrama, while R&ma there- 
after sojourned to the hermitage of Atri from the Mount 
Chitrakuta. Thence having made obeisance to Sutikshna 
and Agastya, R^lma entered the forest of Dandaka, where 
the Monstress Surpanakbi attempted to devour (Sit&). R9ma 
disgraced her by cutting her ears and clipping away her 
nose. Thus disfigured and insulted, Surpanakhft prevailed 
upon the Monsters Khara, Dushana, and Trishir^ to attack 
R2Lma simultaneously from three different sides. The three 
RSLkshasa heroes, with an army of fourteen thousand RSikshasa 
soldiers drawn up in a battle array, attacked RSma in battle, 
but R^ma with the help of his deadly shafts, consigned 
them all to the mansion of death. R&vana, through the insti- 
gation of this Rftkshasi (SurpanakhSL), resolved to carry away 
Sita by fraud ; and for that end, he despatched before him a 
R&kshasa named MSiricha to lure away R3ma in the forest 


in the m^ic guise of a golden stag. Sit& entreated R2kna to 
chase the golden deer and to secure that golden query (or 
her. R&ma chased and killed that magic deer with his 
arrow, and the disguised Monster expired shouting, '' Help, 
O SitA, help, O Lakshroana !" Lakshmana importunated by 
Sits, ran to the re^ue of RSma, and beheld him in the foresL 
R&ma said, ** O Brother, these are the wicked charms which 
the R^kshasas practise in this dense and lonely forest, and 
surely they have carried away Sit& by fraud." In the mean- 
time, R&vana appeared before the cottage of R&ma, and carried 
away the beloved bride of Rlma vainly struggling on his lap. 
The mighty JatSyu, the king of the birds, assailed the dark- 
souled mbcreant on the way, but Rlvana was more than a 
match for him. So in the battle that ensued Ravana com* 
pletely defeated the bird-king Jat&yu, and returned victor 
with his beautiful prize to his capital at Lankft, and kept her 
well guarded in a shady garden of Ashoka trees. 

Rama and Lakshmana returned to their forest-retreat^ 
their hearts foreboding all sorts of dire mishaps,— -and found 
it lonely and deserted. Ob, the first stifled sobs of widowed 
love that almost broke the all-conquering soul of RUma ia 
their repression ! Lakshmana wept like a child in the first- 
gloom of a dire calamity in which suspense metamorphises^ 
itself into a torrid noon of burning shame, and a robust 
stream of molten affection suddenly broke forth^ in his heart, 
into a deathless volcano of vengeance and retaliation, for the* 
consummation of which all eternity expanded its bloated 
bosom and hypothecated itself to the prospective realisation 
of that spiritual wrath. 

RSLma and Lakshmana followed the trail of their stolen 
goddess — sombre and ominous like a summer thunder cloud. 
On and on they went, weary and footsore, and traversed 
many a mile of that sylvan solitude when they stumbled 
upon the wounded body of the brave though dying JatAyu. 
That gallant bird-king narrated the whole history of Sitft'a 


forcible carrying away by the benighted Rlvanai and breath- 
ed his last in the presence of the divine brothers rRftma 
and Lakshinana). They collected the cast off leaves and 
twigs of the forest, exhumed the dead body of the godly 
Jatiyu, performed the lAst earthly rites to hb mortal reinainSi 
and trended their way to the South. 

While there, RSLma entered into a friendly compact with 
Sugrivai the brother of the monkey-king VUi, and showed bis 
skill in archery by shooting through the trunks of seven TSla 
trees. Then he killed V2Lli and made over the sovereignity 
of the monkey-land Kishkind2L to his brother Sugriva, 
and quartered himself with his beloved Lakshmana in the 
outskirts of the Mount Rishyamukha. Then Sugriva com- 
missioned the leaders of his monkey-troops to search for 
Sit2L in all directions, and the huge monkey-generals, with 
their bodies mountain high, went out north, south^ east and 
west in quest of the sunny bride of the solar race. In vain 
did they search every stream or river bank, hill or dale, forest 
or hamlet, and at last while deliberating suicide in despair, 
they saw ShaftipSti. HanumSLn, the greatest of the monkey- 
generals, having got the information from ShampSti, leapt 
over the sea, which is hundreds of miles wide, and forms the 
abode of monsters. He saw the lovely J&naki imprisoned 
in the forest of Ashoka trees, chastised by its female 
guards who had been pressing her hard to share Ihe bed of 
R&vana, and harshly rousing her up from her revery of R&ma's 
company. The monkey-general dropped down to Sit& the 
signet ring of RSma, and asked her about her health. "Do 
not be dejected, O Maithiii," observed that gallant monkey, 
" but rather give me something of yours which my master 
Rlma might cherish as a sweet memento of love. Do not 
be frightened, O Maithili, for I am the servant of Rama." 
Whereupon Sita unfastened a jewel from her chignanon, 
made it over to Hanumin, and asked him to request Rflma 
to succour her immediately after his return to RSma's 

Oaruda puranaM 41) 

residence (at Rishyamukha). Hanum&n gUdly assented to 
her request, and thereafter began to destroy the pleasure- 
garden of RAvana, killing prince Aksha and many a R&kshasa« 
soldier in the act. A Brahm2istra cast by Indrajita hit •him 
hard and left him a captive in the hands of Rlkshas2Ls, 
who dragged him in fetters to the presence of Rlvana. 
HanumSn said. " I am a servant of RSma. . Return to 
him, O miscreant his faithful Maithili." RSvana, madly 
infuriated by these observations ordered to burn the tail of 
the monkey general, and HanumSn, by wildly lashing his 
burning tail against the thatchech roofs of LankS, instanta« 
neously set the whole city on fire. Having consumed 
Lanki with fire, the monkey-general returned to the side of 
RSma and reported to him of his having eaten mango, and 
of the general conflagration that broke out in Lankft through 
his own instrumentality. ^H2 made over to him the head 
gem of Sits, and RSma with Lakshman, HanumSn and his 
monkey-army with its generals and officers, marched in the 
direction of LankS. 

Meanwhile, Vibhishana slighted by his brother Rivanai 
went over to Raima's side and made a common cause with 
him. After that, R9ma caused a bridge to be built across 
the ocean with the help of the monkey- gen era! Nala, and 
crossed over with his whole army and officers to the Isle of 
Lanka. He viewed the splendid prospect of the Island from 
the summit of the Hill Suvela, where he fixed his quarter for 
the day. Then the monkey-generals Nila, Angada, NalSi 
Dhuma^ DhumrSiksha, j9mvuv2Lna, Manda, Dvividha and 
others set to demolish the fortifications of the city (LankA) 
and killed many leaders of the RAkshasa-army. RS'ma and 
Lakshmana destroyed, with the help of their monkey-army, 
many an eminent RSkshasa-hero of gigantic stature and 
black as the sable colly rium of death, such as Vidyutjihva, 
Dhumr&ksha, Dev2Lntaka, Narlntaka, Mahodara, MahSplrshva, 
Atik&ya, Kumbha, Nikumbha, Matta, Makar&ksbSi and 


Alcampana. After that, Lakshmana defeated and killed ia 
a single combat, the redoubtable Indrajita, and Rlma haTing 
severed with his arrows the twenty arms of R&vana, subse- 
quently killed him in battle. 

Sitft gave ample proof of her chastityi and came 
unscathed out of an Ordeal of Fire. Sitft, thus purified by 
Fire, ascended the aeriel car with her beloved consort, and 
the whole monkey-army, jubilant, and elated with victory, 
followed its gracious leader to his capital at AyodhyS. 

Rama ruled the country for eleven thousand years, and 
protected his subjects with paternal love and care. He 
undertook and accomplished the celebration of ten Horse« 
Sacrifices in succession, and offered oblations to his departed 
manes at the shrine of Gaya-Shirsha. He was blessed with 
two sons named Lava and Kusha. It was in his reign that 
the holy Sage Bharata first organised dramatic performances, 
and Shatrughna killed the demon Lavana. Rlma heard the 
origin of the RAkshasas narrated to him by the holy Agastya. 
Having made over the sovereignty to his sons Lava and 
Kunha, Kama made his exit from the world at the close of 
a glorious though chequered lifej dedicated exclusively to the 
furtherance of good therein. 



Brahma said :— Now I shall narrate the family hbtory of 
Hari which teems with the sanctified exploits of Krishna. 
Vasudeva begot Krishna and Valadeva on the person of 
Devaki for the edification of the righteous and annihilation 
of the wicked. The eternal God was incarnated on thb 
mortal globe in the shape of Krishna. The Honstress Pulanl 


Wis bngaged by the tyrant Kansa to put an edd to his life, in 
infancy, with the pretext of ftUckling him. But Krishna 
ducked her poisoned nipples with a force that verily killed 
her on the spot. The mighty prowessed Krishna overturned 
the car-demon, felled the two tree-monsters named Jamala 
and Arjuna, and destroyed the serpent Klliya and the 
tnonster Ohenuka. At this time, he supported the mount 
Govardliana on the tip of his finger, and was honoured and 
Worshipped by the God Indra for this exploit. He relieved 
this sinful earth of its weight of sin, and pledged himself to 
protect the five sons of Pftndu in their days of trouble and 
distress. The demon Arishta fell an easy victim to his 
prowess) and he cheered the GopSs and Gopa-maidens 
of Brind&ban by slaying the monster Keshi. He dragged 
down the demon Kansa from the platform, and killed the 
wrestlers Ch&nuka, Mushtika and Malla^ who guarded the 
person of that detestable tyraiU. 

Krishna had eight principal wives, such as Rukmini, 
SatyabhamS, etc., besides a seraglio of sixteen thousand 
other wives. By them he got hundreds^ nay thousands 
of sons and grandsons. By Rukmini he had a son named 
Praidyumna, who killed the demon Sliambara. The son of 
Pradyumna was Aniruddha, who married UshS, the daughter 
of king V&na. There ensued a deadly conflict between 
Krislina and the God Shankara, when the elopement of Ush& 
with Aniruddha was detected and made known to the world. 
Krishna cut down the thousand arms of king VSLna with the 
exception of two. Once upon a time, he killed the demon 
Naraka and carried the flower P&rij2t from the garden of 
heaven. Sliishup&la, Vala, and the monkey, named Dvibidha, 
were also among the victims, who fell at the stroke of his 
miglity discus. 

The 5on of Aniruddha was Vajra, who became the king 
;Of M^ithura, when Krishna was translated to heaven. In order 
to .please his preceptor^andipani, Krishna brought back the 


4t8 garudA puranam, 

soul of his son from the mansion 6f death, and brought back 
to life the son of that holy sage. For the furtherance of 
the divine cause, he installed Ugrasena as king on the throne 
of MathurSL. 



Brahma said :— Now hear me narrate the story of the MahS« 
bh&ratam. It is so called (Bharatam) from the fact of Krishna,9 
espousing the cause the Ptndavas in battle, for relieving the 
earth of its weight of sin (Bhubh&ra). Brahmll sprang out 
of the lotus navel of Hari. The son of Brahml was Atrt. 
The son of Atri was the Moon*God, and in the line that sprang 
from him was bom Pururava, who begot on the nymph 
Urvasi a son, named A'yu. Yayftti, Bharat, Kuru, and ShSn« 
tan u were of the race of A'yu. The divinely wise Bhishma 
was the son of ShSntanu by his wife GangSL. This Shftntanu 
had two other sons named Chitr^ngada and Vichitravirya by 
his wife Satyavati. This ChitrSLnguda was killed in battle by 
a Gandharva of the same name. The secoud son, Vkhitra-' 
virya married Amvic& and AmvalikS, the daughters of the king 
of K§shi. After the death of Vichitravirya, the holy VySsa 
begot sons on the wives of Vichitravirya. AmvikS became the 
mother of Dhritarlshtra ; Amv^llika, of PSindu ; and BhujisyS, 
of Vidura. Dhritar9shtra had a hundred sons by his wife 
Gflndhftri such as Duryodhana, etc., while the five sons, 
who were begotten on Kunti and M2Ldri, the two wives of 
Pftndu^ were Yudhishthira, etc. 

By a preordinance of fate there spraeg up a bitter animosity 
between the Kurus (sons of Dl>ril<fishtra) and the PSndai^9 
(sons of Pftndu}. Duryodhana, a mm %l ickle tempecaaieiit 




tod uniUble principles, was not slow to devise means fof 
harrassing the P^ndav&s. He attempted to kill them by burn- 
ing them down in a house of shellac. The guileless P&ndavis, 
saved through the merit of their faith and innocence, sojourned 
to the village of EkacbalcrS, and took shelter in the house 
of a Br&hmana. These mighty P^indavls stayed for a while in 
the bouse of that Brfthmana, and, while there, the redoubtable 
Bhimasena killed the monster Vaka. Thence they went to 
the country of P&nch&la and married Draupadi, the princess 
of that country, whose hands had to be won by a competition 
in skilful archery, and by showing matchless proficiency in 
that art. 

In the meantime, Dhritarishtra, who had been prevailed 
upon by Bhishma and Drona to grant them the sovereignty of 
half the kingdom, called the P&ndavSs over to his capital, and 
installed them as kings in the city of Indraprastha. Tnen the 
self-controUed P&ndav^s caused a splendid pavilion to be 
raised at Indraprastha, and there they celebrated the Rdjasuya 
sacrifice. At Dvoraks, Arjuna wedded his bride SubhadrS, 
the sister of Krishna, and secured the friendship of that great 
personage, who stood by him as his staunchest ally all through 
life. From the Fire-God Arjuna obtained a car named Nandi- 
ghosa, the invincible bow named GSndiva, the inexhaustible 
quiver, and a suit of unpierceable armour« With Krishna as his 
second, and with the help of this invincible, bow, Arjuna was 
able to appease the hunger of the Fire-God. In his campaigns 
of world-conquest, Arjuna defeated many kings, and made 
over their treasures to his brother Yudhishthira, tbe master of 
politics and statecraft. In a fraudulent game of dice, Duryo- 
dhana managed to win all that belonged to Yudhishthira, and, 
through the machination of the evil-souled Kama and 
Shakuni, pursuaded him to continue the play, pledging a 
residence incognito for one year out of an exile of twelve at 
his stake. Yudhishthira lost this last stake, and went out as a 
volunUry exile in the company of his faithful and devoted 


brothers and their beloved Draupadi, Dhaumya and a cOfK* 
course of other holy sages. For one year, they lived in- 
cognito in the house oi the king of Vir&t, serving as cowherd* 
and menials in his household. After one year, they 
declared themselves, and asked for their moiety of the country, . . 
or a proprietary right in only five villages in its stead, 
which Dur)'odhana, in an evil hour and through the machiDai- •- 
tion of his eviUgrained courtiers^ refused to grant. 

The five brothers, thus insulted and ousted of their legiti- 
mate birthright, began to collect troops and secure powerful 
allies. With an army of seven Akshauhinis of soldiers they 
met Duryodhana at the head of eleven Ashauhinis at the field 
of Kurukshelra. So there ensued a cruel and dreadful war 
between the Kurus and the P9ndav§s, similar to the one that 
was waged by the gods against the demons of yore. 
Bhishma was the leader of Duryodhana\4 forces just an the 
hostilities commenced, while the armies of the PdndavSs were 
led by Shikhandi. 

Shikhandi chose out Bhishma, the commandant of the 
Kaurava-forces as his opponent in battle, which lasted for ten 
consecutive days, the archers posted against archers^ and 
swordsmen and spearsmen picked against soldiers similarly 
equipped as themselves. Bhishma, pierced through amd 
throucrh by the arrows of Shikhandi and Arjuna, saw that the 
sun had just then entered the summer solstice, ami having 
medicated upon the divine self of the mace-beartng Deity and 
discoursed on many a topic of ethical and political philosophy, 
propitiated his departed Manes with suitaMe obUtions ; and 
the spirit of that brave and righteous soldier, who bad Bcver 
swerved from truth in his life, joyfully abandoned its earthly . 
tenement and merged itself in that infinite joy, knowledge 
and purity, which the wise men worship as the Supreme 

Then Drona, the preceptor ot the race" of Kum, took ui> 
the command of the Kaurav&*s army, and went out to fight 


the valiant Dhrishtadyumna, the commandtr of the Pftndavi'* . 
troops. For five days the battle raged furious and ondecid* . 
ed, and many gallant chiefs fell on both the sides like sear 
leaves . before* the winter wind.. • Drona sadly dejected^by the 
news of his son's death, fell an easy victim to the sword 
thursts of Dhrishtadyurona. After that, Kama became the 
leader of the Kuru's forces, and picked out Arjuna as hb oppo* 
nent in battle. For two days the battle raged furious, and 
victory oscillated between the banners of the Kurus and the 
Pindavis. At last, Kama, tossed about like a weed in the 
scathing sea of Arjuna's arrows, breathed his last and entered 
the region of the Sun-God. After that, Salya was elected com- 
mander of the Kuru's forces and fell at the hands of Yudhish- 
thira at the middle of the day of battle. Then Duryodhmomi 
mad with despair and ignominy, ran, club in hand, towards 
the redoubtable Bhimasena, like the God of Death bent on 
stifling out the life of Time and Space. But the redoubtable 
Bhimasena proved too much of a match for him and killed 
him quick with one stroke of his deadly club. 

After that^ AshvathamA, the son of Drona, determined to 
storm the PSLndav&'s camp by surprise at night, and to annihi- 
late the P^ndav2L-army while peacefully lulled in the lap of 
sleep. Bent on avenging the death of his father Drona, he 
stealthily entered the PindavSL's camp, and brooding over the 
death of his illustrious progenitor, he severed with his sword 
the heads of Dhrishtadyurona and the five sons of Draupadt. 
Arjuna, maddened by the agonising wailings of Draupadi, 
took the fugitive miscreant a captive, and cut out of his 
(Ashvathaman's) head the famous gem with the means of his 
Aishika-weapon. Arjuna consoled the widows of the killed 
warriors and performed funeral obsequies in honour of bis 
departed friends, relations and cognates. Yudhishthira, coo- 
soled and advised by Bhishma in his last moments, ascended 
the throne, and ruled the kingdom according to the injunctions 
of the Scriptures. He propitiated the God Vishnu by 


celebrating a Horse-Sacrifice, and haviog beard of the anaiiU* 
lation of the race of Jidavi bj that cursed dab» made over 
the sovereignty to his graodsoo Parikshita, and ascended. Co 
the re|(fon of Vishnu io the company -of his brother, wfaOo 
repeating the sacred name of that Deity* 

After that, for the furtherance of the divine good, as well 
as for the punishment of the wicked and elevation of the 
righteous, the God Vasudeva was incarnated on earth. He 
comes down on earthy at intervals of centuries and in the 
shape of man, to chastise the wrong-doers and to set right 
the path of truth and piety. In the twentieth Ifanvantara 
(age of the twentieth Manu). he sprang out, in the guise of 
Dhanvantari, of the ocean of milk, as it was churned by the 
gods and demons for the divine ambrosia, and taught the 
^ence of life (Medical Sciencft) to Sushrutac the son of 
Vishvimitra. He, who hears of die geneib (evolution) of 
this grand idealist and his adjunct ideas, goes to heavea 
after death. 



Dhaiivantari said : — O Sushnita, now I shall deal with the 
nosology pathology, pathogeny and symptomology of all the 
diseases as related by the holy Atreya to the' sages of yore. 
The terms Roga, Pipma, Jvara, Vyadhi, Viidra, Dushtam^ 
Amaya, and Yakshmi are the synonyms of disease. The 
five essential categories in respect of a disease may be 
described as its (NidSLnam) pathology (///., exciting factors), 
preliminary or incubative stage (Purvanipa), manifestation 
of characteristic indications (Rupa), amelioration (Upashaya), 
location (Samprapti), Diagnosis (Vijoanam). Reason, cause, 


patbogneyi ezdting factors are the synonyms of the term 
NicUlnam. The stage in which an uncertain kind ql malaise 
is complained of by the patient in the absence of any 
particular characterestic triat of any given dbeasej is. called 
its incubative stag^e, which points to the certain genesis 
of the dbease but does not furnish any clue to its name 
and character-«*Manifestation (Rupa) of a disease indicates 
the stage in which its distinguishing and characterestic 
traits or symptoms become patent* The terms Samsthftnam 
(fixity), Vijnam (distinctive traits)i Liogam (differentiating 
features), and Laksbanam (symptoms) are the synonyms 
of Rupam. Upashaya signifies the amelioration of the 
morbific diatheses in a particular diseasei effected with 
the help of drugs which are contrary in character to the 
esse of the dbease, or are contrary in virtue to its exciting 
factors, or are contrary both to the esse of the disease and ita 
exciting factors, or are similar in character to the esse of the 
dbease (pathogenetic principle), or are similar in virtues ta 
its exciting factors, or are similar both to the esse of the 
disease and the elements that favour its genesb, or with the 
help of proper diet and conduct.* 

The genesis or appearance of a disease in a particular part 
of the human body, either through the upward, downward, 
oblique, or transverse movement of the morbific principles, such 
as the deranged nerve force (Vftyu), defective metabolbnt 
(Pittam), or disordered secretary or execretory procesa 
(Kapham) concerned in the case and determining location of 
the disease, is called its Samprlpti (Pathogeny). The 
terms Agati, and Jati are the synonyms of 9an»prlpti. The 
contrary of amelioration is called aggravation, dbease or 

^ The A'jurveda racofpniset both the laws ol limikn afid eontrai 
hi the domain of practical therapeutics* The fact that m drug, which ean 
induce a disease simihir in character to t>ie one under obser v a ti on 
b curative to it, was discovered by the savants of Indian medicine 
long before the birth of Hanemann, or of Hooicejpachy in Europe* 


incongeniality. The mode of this pathogeny differs kcebVcKhg 
to the nature of the prevailing season of the year and the num- 
ber nature, strength, predominance, or neutrality of the dtSeN 
)ent morbific principle involved in the case. The genesis of the 
\eight different types of fever owing to tlie^ varied strength, and 
several or Combined actions of the three morbiflc prindples 
x>f V&yu, Pittam and Kapham, may be cited as an eit^Libple 
of the foregoing dictum. The niimbelr Of types into which 
a disease may be divided, or which is usually detected ill 
practice, is called its Sankhyi (numbef). The relative pre-* 
ponderance of any of the pathogenic principles involved lit 
a disease, is called its Vikulpa, The virulehce or serious 
character of a disease is proportionate to the combined or 
several actions of the morbific principles acting as its etciting 
factors. The relative virulence or strength of a disease should 
be ascertained with a due regard to its pathology, and the 
import of its indications, etc. Deliberations as to the aggra- 
vation or manifestation of a dis^«ft^whether in day or nighty 
or whether before or after a meal^ or during summer or winter, 
etc., help the detevmination of its periodicity (K2Lla Nirupa^ 
nam;. Thus we have briefly described the outlines of patho- 
geny (Nid^nam)i etc.j which shall be more elaborately descri- 
bed later on. A vareity of injudicious conduct tends to enrage 
the fundamental organic principles of V&yu, Pittam and 
Kapham. Ingestion of a large quantity of hot, astringent 
acid, pungent, and parchifying articles of fare^ heavy meals, or 
voracious eating, running, climbing, lifting, loud-talking, night' 
keeping, vigorous and energetic action^ fright, mental and 
physical labouri and sexual intercourse are the factors, which 
enrage or aggravate the bodily V&yu^ which becomes sponta- 
neously aggravated in summer and after meals, aud at the 
close of the day or night. Ingestion of pungent, acid, sharp^ 
hot, fetid, or indigestible articles of food, and indulgence in 
irascible feelings are the factors which tend to enrage the 
Pittam, which becomes spontaneously aggravated in Sharat 


(months of lUrtika'and AgrabSyana according to the Ayur- 
vedic calender)^ at the middle part of the day or night, as 
well as when the food undergoes an acid reaction in the 
stomach after digestion (Videha). Ingestion of sweet, acid| 
saline, demlucent, heavy (of digestion) and cold articles of fare, 
as well as of those which increase the humidity of the system, 
a long sitting at one place, want of sleep, day-sleep, and 
indigestion are the factors, which tend to enrage the Kapbam, 
which becomes spontaneously aggravated in spring (Baisbl- 
kha and Jaishtha), in the forepart of the day or night, and 
immediately after eating or vomiting* 

Now I shall discourse on the combination of the deranged 
VAyu, Pittam and Kapbam. Ingestion of insufficient, indiges- 
tible, irregular and incompatible meals, use of stab wine, dried 
potherbs, green radish, and fetid or dry fish, sudden) change 
of food and drink, contrary or unnatural seasons, exposure 
to the east wind, sudden change of one's mode of living, par- 
taking of raw, uncooked food accumulation of phlegm in 
the body, malignant influence exerted by one's natal star, 
false dealings and evil doings, non-gratification of any mental 
or bodily hankering , and the puerperal conditions of wom^n 
are the factors, which help the combination and concerted 
action of the deranged Vftyu, Pittam and Kapbam. In each 
disease, the Vflyu, Pittam and Kapbam tproduce chemical 
changes in the blood according to the nature of the disease 
they give rise to and their characterestic symptoms. 

* T»ie term Viyii, PitUm and Kspham have l>sen very loottly ustd 
by (Ke Ayurvedic Phyiiolosisu to detigiuUs two different taU ol tub* 
tunces. In one accepunce, Viyu, PitUia and Kapham mean nerve 
force, metabolism, and unutiliied producu ol the body ; while in another, 
Ihey signify gas, bile and phlegm.-^T. R. 


I » 

• 1, « 


Dhanvantari said:— Now I shall describe the NidSnam of "^^ 

fever, with the help of which a fever of whatsoever type may be 
correctly diagnosed. The terms, the lord of diseases, the sio- 
f ol one, the lord of death, the devourer, and the finisher are the 
synonyms of fever. Sprung from the upper eye of the wrath- 
tul and insulted Rudra in the sacrifice which was celebrated by 
Daksha^ this dreadful and sinful disease attacks all species of 
animals^ through their injudicious conduct. Unconsciousness 
heat and delirium being its principal characteristics. Mani- 
fest in the body of an elephant, it is called P&kala. The type 
of fever which is peculiar to the horse, is called AbhitSLpa, 
In dogs, it .is called Alarka ; in clouds, it is called Indramada ; 
in water, Nilika ; in cereals, Oshadhi ; in soil, Ushara. 

: The type due to the action of the deranged Kapbam, is 
marked -by nausea, vomiting, cough, numbness of the body, 
coldness of the skin, and appearance of rashes or eruptions 
on (the body. As birth, growth, and death are natural to all 
cpeated beings, so aggravation and amelioration are natural 
to all types of fever. Indigestion with a non-relish for food, 
numbness of the body, lassitude, a burning sensation in the 
segion of the hearty restlessness (the patient finding no relief 
in any position whatsoever), non-evacuation of stool 'and 
other deranged principles, salivation, nausea, loss of appetitOf » 

tasteful moisture in the mouth, heat and gloss of the 
skin, heaviness of the body, constant urination, and natural 
fulness .of the body, are the symptoms, which mark the type 
known as A'ma-Jvara, (i.^., the stage in which the deranged 
humours have not been digested or resolved). Rousing of 
the appetite, lightness of the limbs, abatement of the bodily 
temperature, and evacuation of the contents of the bowels 
after the eighth day of the attack, are the indications, which 



show that the deranged humoara have been digested or have 
undeigooe resolution. Symptoms, which are peculiar to the, 
several deranged humours combinedljF mark the type of fever. 
which is the product of their concerted action. Headache, 
swooning, vomiting with a burning sensation in the body and- 
parchedness of the throat, aching pun in the jointSi insomnia^ 
fright^ horrification, yawning and delirium, are the symptoms 
which characterise the type of fever due to the combined action, 
of the deranged V&yu (nerve-force) and Pittam (metabolism).. 
Small heat, with a non-relish for food, pain m the joints and 
headache, low breathing, cough, and dbcolouring of the skin 
are the indications of the type due to the combined actioo 
of the deranged Vftyu and Shleshmi (Kapham). Fitful shi* 
vering, numbness of the body, perspiraton with a burning sen^ 
sation of the body, thirst, restlessness, vomiting of mucous and 
bilious matter, stupefaction, drowsiness, clamminess and a 
bitter taste in the mouth,* are the indications of the type due to 
the combined action of the deranged Pittam and Kapham. 
All the symptoms combioedly mark the type which is due to 
the concerted action of the deranged VSyu, Pittam, and 
Kapham in addition to the following specific ones, vijv., alter* 
nate fits t>f shivering and burning sensation in the body, vertigo, 
sleepy in the day, sleeplessness in the night, constant sleepir 
ness or complete insomnia, excess or absence of perspiration, 
singing, dancing, laughing, stoppage of the natural functioof 
of the organs, with sunk, redshot, watery eyes, and drooping 
eyelids, accumulation of grity wax at the comer of the eyes^ 
; pain at the head, sides, joints and calves of the legs', vertigo^ 
ringing in the ears, pain, violent shivering or absence of shi- 
vering, sooty colour of the tongue which t>ecomes as black as 
charcoal and rough as that of a cow, heavbess and loose- 
ness of the joints, vomiting of bloody or blood*streaked bile, 
rolling or tossing about of the head, violent unquenchable 
thir St, eruptions of warts or circular rushes on the skin, palp 
at the heart, purgbg or scanty evactiatkma of stool, glossiness 


of the facei prostration of strength, loss of voicei deliriunif 
deep heavy sontinolence, and a croaking or wheezing sound in 
the throat. The type which is marked by the foregoing 
symptoms is called Abhinyasa Sannip2Lta. It destroys the 
principle of Ojas in the body (protoplasmic cells). In the ^ . 

SSinnip&tika type of fever, the deranged Vftyu produces the 
constriction of the throat, and the deranged Pittam consumes 
the vital principle of the organism. The deranged Pittam, 
on account of its expansive character, finds an outlet through, 
and tinges the conjunctiva with its own characteristic colour 
(yellow). Hence the yellowness of the eyes in a case of 
SannipSLtika fever. A case of SSnnipStika fever in which 
the deranged VSyu, Pittam and Kapham, being extremely 
aggravated, impair the digestive heat and thereby help the 
full development of all its characteristic symptoms, proves 
incurable. In all other events, a SSLnnip^tika fever can be 
made amenable to medicine only with the greatest diflSculty. 
There is a different type of S&nnipStika fever in which the 
deranged Pittam, separately enraged and aggravated, gives 
rise to a burning sensation in the skin and the stomach (litt 
the abdominal cavity), the burning sensation coming oq 
either with the commencement or with the abatement of the 
paroxysm, and being first experienced either in the stomach 
or in the skin. Similarly, the aggravated VSLyu and Kapham 
produce rigor in SSnnipSLtika fever, which being preceded 
by a burning sensation in the body indicates an unfavourable *f 

prognosis and is more dangerous of the said two types. » 

In a case of S&nnip2Ltika fever in which the rigor comes on 
first owing to the action of the deranged and aggravated 
Pittam, the Kapham is set free and corrected, and with the 
abatement of the action of the aggravated Pittam comes on 
fainting, with swooning, vertigo, and thirst, etc. Somnolence, 
langour and vomiting manifest themselves in succession at the 
close of the paroxysm, which is ushered in with a shivering 
sensation. Fevers caused by the effects of a hurt or a blowi or 


contracted through any foul contagion, or engendered through 
the potency of any spell, magic, or incantation, as well as those 
which are due to bums or scalds, are usually grouped under 
the traumatic head of fevers and owe their origin to extrinsic 
causes. Extreme fatigue or exhaustion brings on a type 
of fever in which the enraged and aggravated Vftyu affects 
the vascular process of the organism, and produces pain, 
swelling and discolouring of the skin. Anger, fright, 
bereavement, passion of love, exhalations of pobonous drugs, 
dusts of flowers, narcotics and the baneful influence cast by 
malignant planets may engender types of fever, which may 
be grouped under the traumatic head^ and in which the patient 
laughs, weeps or raves like a maniac in succession. The 
type of fever caused by the odours or exhalations of any 
drug or cereal is marked by headache, vomiting, epileptic 
fits and wasting, etc., while the one, due to the effects of 
any poison, develops dysentery, epilepetic fits, vertigo with a 
yellowish black clour of the skin, and a burning sensation in 
the body. 

Palsy and pain in the head are the symptoms, which 
mark the case of fever due to anger, while delirium and 
palsy characterise the one due to the conjoint effects of 
fright and rage. Fever, which has its origin in the ungratified 
sexual desire, develops such symptoms as loss of conscious- 
ness or absent-mindedness, with somnolence, impatience, 
shyness, and a non-relish for food. In fever due either to 
the influence of malignant stars, or to the concerted action 
of the three morbific principles of V2lyu, Pittam and 
Kapham (S&nnipata) both the Viyu and the Pittam of the 
organism are simultaneously enraged. The types of SSnni- 
pStika fever caused through the dynamics of a curse or an 
incantation, are simply unbearable in their intensity. In 
cases of spell-origined fever the patient should be basked 
in the glare of the sacrificial fire (Hom^gni) into which 
libations of clarified butter should be cast by reciting the 


AbhichSLra-Mantranii The two last named typiss: of fever^ 
are usually ushered in by the appearance of a large crop ot 
bilious eruptions on the skin, great restlessness^ fainting- 
fits, and the absence of any distinctive knowledge regardingr 
the different quarters of the heaven. The patient tosses* 
about in the bed in intense agony, and the heat goes ov 
increasing day after day. Thus the premonitory symptoms 
of the eight forms of fever have been briefly described 

All types of fever are either mental or physical, superficial 
or affecting the deeper principles of the organism, and mild 
or virulent. Similarly they may be grouped under two broad 
sub-divisions such as mature or immature, and Epidemic or 

A paroxysm of bodily fever first affects the body, whereas 
it first invades the mind in a case of the mental type. 
In cases of fever due to the action of the deranged Kapham 
(cold or catarrhal fever), the deranged VSyu, in conjunction 
with the deranged Kapham, produces rigor and horripilar 
tion, whereas the combination of the deranged Pittam in 
such cases is witnessed as the burning sensation in the body. 
Contrary symptoms such as hyperperaxia with loose motion^ 
of the bowels are manifest in a case of SSnnipStika fever only 
on account of the simultaneous derangement of the di£Ferent 
morbific principles of the body of a contrary, character, 
In cases of Vahirlinga S^nnipSta all the symptoms are res^ 
tricted to the external or superficial principles of the organ? 
bm, and therefore they become fully patent. , .. 

The organic Vftyu becomes deranged during the rainy 
season (Bh&dra and A'shvin), the Pittam in autumn (Kftrticka 
apd Agrabiyana;^ and Kapham in. spring (Ph&lguna and 

* A case of fever, which is caused by the deranged morbiBc principle 
which is naturally enraged and aggravated during any particular season 
of the year, is said to be seasonable (Prakrita) when it breaks out in that 
season. It is called Vikrita (unnatural) when contrary is the case* * 



Cbaitra)* Hence a case of fever which is due to the 
deranged V&yu is said ^o be natural when it breaks out in 
the rainy season. Similarly, cases of Pntaja or Kaphaja 
fever breaking out in autum or spring are said to be 
' natural. In fever due to the action of the deranged Pittam 
and which breaks out in autum, the Kapham lies subservient 
to the deranged Pittam. Accordingly the patient may be 
safely advised to fast in the case of fever which is due to the 
concerted acti9n of the deranged Pittam and Kapham. la 
spring, the deranged and aggravated Kapham, in conjunctioQ 
with the deranged Viyu and Pittam, gives rise to a type 
of fever in which the two last named morbific principles of 
the body remain subordinate to the enraged Kapham. 

A paroxysm of fever unattented with any supervening 
or dreadful symptoms and appearing in a person of un- 
impaired strength readily proves amenable to medicine, 
while the one which is accompanied with grave symptoms, 
and evinces the concerted derangement of all the three 
inorbific principles of the body often finds a fatal termina- 
tion. The holy ^ages of yore have thus opined on the subject* 
The presence of a large concourse of distressing symptoms 
together with a sense of constant malaise and aching pain 
in the limbs, constant micturition, intene heat of the body, 
loss of appetite, non desire for food, and impairment of the 
digestive function mark a case of immature fever (A'majvarii 
or the stage .of lever before the resolution of the different 
morbific principles which lie at its root). Heat, hyper* 
pcraxia, waterbrash, delirium, motions of the bowels, vertigo. 

* In certain parts of India. 


and rapid breathing indicate that the fever is approaching its 
crisis (/tV.| — is being matured). Rice meal should be pro- 
hibited and a light diet should be enjoined in its stead for 
seven days in cases where there would be reasons to appre- 
hend the immature (unresolved) state of the deranged organic 
principles in fever. 

The holy sages have classified the S&nnipStika fever into 
five different kinds according to the nature of the morbific 
principles which serve as its exciting factors, its periodicity 
or time of attack, and the strength or weakness of the 
patient (the line may be likewise interpreted to mean accord- 
ing to the virulence or mildness of an attack). These 
five types of fever are respectively named as -Santata 
(remittent), Satata (intermittent), Anyedyushka (appearing on 
every alternate day), Tritiyaka (tertian) and Chaturthaka 
(quotodian). The morbific principles such as the deranged 
V2Lyu, Pittam and Kapham, enraged and aggravated by their 
own enraging and aggravating factors, lie stuffing the ducts 
which carry the feces, urine, and sweat, etc., and invade as 
well the fundamental organic principles of the body and 
give rise to heat and pyrexia. The disease (fever) 
affects the lymphchyle (blood or the vascular system) and 
grows in strength and intensity without knowing any re- 
mission or abatement. It is simply unbearable in its virulence. 
The disease runs its course in seven, ten or twelve days 
according to the predominance of the deranged Vflyu, Pittam 
or Kapham, on which days the morbific diatheses are either 
fully resolved and eliminated (Malapftk) thus bringing on 
an unfavourable crisis ; or the fundamental principles of the 
body are dried up through the agency of fever-heat and 
predict a fatal termination. This is the opinion of the holy 
Agnivesha. But according to H&rita, the critical days in a 
case of SSnnipSlta-fever are the seventh, the ninth, the 
eleventh, and the fourtenth. The patient either dies on any 
of these days, or passes iuto a state of convalescence. The 


course of the disease is shorter or longer according as the 
affected fundamental principles of the body are purified and 
brought back to their normal state, sooner or later. Even s 
small quantity of morbific diatheses present in the organism 
Of a weak or Emaciated person of unwholesome living, is 
augmented by, and gains in intensity from, the cumula- 
tive strength of the other^morbid matter continuing therein, 
and thus leads to a gradual wasting of the body. Thus by 
causing the general wasting of the body, it brings on a type 
of fever which bafiles all medical skill. The fever thus 
aggravated leads to a general break down of the constitution. 
On the other hand, the disease, if checked by any kind of 
medicine, soon suffers an abatement, the small residue of fever 
still remaining being absorbed in the lymph chyle. With the 
absorption of fever in the lymph chyle, cachexia, sallowness 
of complexion and lethargy also vanish. In the mean- 
thne, owing to the dilation of the vessels that carry the 
lymph chyle, the morbific diathesis is set free, and eliminated 
through the natural outlets of the body without being able 
to spread through the^Whole organism. The type of fevefi 
which continues without remission for a certain number of 
days, is called Santata (remittent). The type in which there 
are periods of distinct intermission or abatement is called 
Satata (intermittent). The type known as Vishama has no 
definite periodicity, nor any fixed term of continuance, and its 
attacks are usually nocturnal. Any morbific diathesis taking 
lodgment in the blood, produces Santata-type of fever. In the 
type known as Anyedyushka, the paroxysm comes once within 
twenty-four hours at the juncture of the day and night. In the 
Tritiyaka-type (Tertian), the vessels containing fat and carry- 
ing the essential principle of flesh are contaminated. In this 
fever the patient suffers from an excruciating headache through 
the action of the deranged Vlyu and Pittam, from ao aching 
pain in ths sacrum (extending to the cocc}x) through the 
action of the deranged Kapbam and PiiU0| and frcm* a 


pain along the spinal column through the actioil of th6 

deranged Vayu and Kapham. The type called Chaturthakai 

fever results from the contamination of either the fat, mar* 

xoWf or any other secretion of the body by any of the 

morbiilc diatheses. Moreover the quotodian-fever which is 

confined to the mar/ow, makes itself manifest twice a day* 

In the first-named type, the paroxysm is ushered in with a 

numbed pain in the knee-joints and calves of the legs> while an 

excruciating headache markes the advent of the last-named' 

one. The type known as the Chaturthaka-Viparyayai has 

its seat in the bone and the marrow. The paroxysm comes 

on the first day and continues for three days in successioni 

completely going down on the fourth. ^ Owing to the 

virulence of the morbific diatheses through injudicious diet and 

conduct of the patient, the deranged morbific principles are 

not eliminated in well-digested condition, hence arises^tbe 

necessity of foregoing rice«meal and observing a light diet for 

seven days in this type of. fever. The mind and physical 

acts of the patient are equally affected ; and in consequence 

of its invading the deeper principles of the organbm and the 

concerted action of the deranged Vayu, Pittam and Kapham 

therein and their equality in virulence and intensity, a case of 

the Chaturthaka-type of fever soon runs into an incurable one. 

The morbifiic diatheses go on accumulating in the remote and 

minute bloodvessels of the body, in consequence ' whereof 

the body does not suffer any attenuation, though the patient 

complains of a little heat and an uncertain kind of malaises 

The disease, not checked with proper medicines at this stage 

of its incubation, manifests itself in nightly paroxysms of 

pyrexia, and other serious symptoms. The fever slowly 

infiltrates into the succcessive fundamental principles of 

the organism in proportion to the 'diminution of the bodily 

strength of the patient ; and a short while after, the angry 

morbific diathesis incarcerated in the organism begins to work 

mischief and brings on its own peculiar cachexia. As a seed 




town in a congenial aad well- watered soil doea not wait It 
to sprout, so the morbific diatheses, the seeds of diseasesi 
incarcorated in a disordered human organism and nourished 
by their own exciting or aggravating factors, do not take a 
long time to take shape and manifest themselves in the form 
of a particular disease. As an extraneous imbibed poboQ 
carried down into •the stomach, gains in strength from its 
own aggravating factors, and produces its harmful effects in 
due course of time, so the different types of Satata^, and 
Santata-, fever are originated in the human body. 

The symptoms, which mark the type o( fever restricted 

*to the organic principle of lymph chyle, are water brash^ 

nausea, a feeling of heaviness in the limbs, dejection, ach- 

ing pain in the limbs and yawning, together with vomitings 

difficult breathing and a marked non-relish for food. The 

following symptoms are developed in the type in which the 

fever invades the circulatory system (blood;. vtM., spitting of 

red (arterial) blood, thirst, and appearance of crops of dry, 

hot eruptions on the skin, together with a redness of the 

skin, vertigo, delirium, 4 sense of intoxication and a burning 

sensation of the body. Thirst, lassitude, emission of semeoi 

an internal burning sensation in body, vertigo, jerky move* 

ments of the limbs, and fetour of the skin are the sjrmptoms 

which characterise the type in which the fever invades the 

flesh. Perspiration with an unquenchable thirst, vomiting, 

fetid smell of the skin and impatience are the symptoms 

which mark the type in which the fever affects the fat The 

type in which the fev<?r invades the organic principle of 

marrow, manifesto ^uch symptoms as evacuation or elimina* 

tion of the morbific matter from the system, sl6epIessnesS| 

dyspnoea, convulsive movements of the limbs, together with 

difficult respiration and a sensation of beat in the inside^ 

and cold on the s^trface of, the body. Vanishings of sight^ 

severance or disunion of the Mannas (vulnerable bone-joints 

or venali neural or arterial anestomoses)| numbneuof the 



male organ of generation, and non-emission of semen art the 
symptoms which are exhibited in the type in which the 
fever attacks the principle of semen. Each of these five types 
of fever are respectively more difficult to cure than the 
one immediately preceding it in the order of enumeration. 
A case of seminal fever usually ends in death. The types 
in which the fever affects the marrow or the semen are 
absolutely incurable. 

The type known as Pralepaka is marked by rigour, deli* 
riufi, a comparatively lower temperature ' of the body, and 
heaviness of the limbs. The patient feels as if his whole 
organism has been plastered with a coat of phlegm. 

In the Angavalasaka-type there is small heat with numb* 
ness of the limbs, parch^-dness ot the ikin, and rigour. The 
patient feels as if his whole body has been stuffed with 
phlegm (mucous). The fever is persistent in its character 
and may be cured only with the greatest difficulty. In the 
Haridrabha-type (yellow fever), the skin, urine and feces of 
the patient become yollow. It is fatal as death itself. Ii» 
the type known as Ratrijvara. both the deranged VSyin 
and Kapham of the patient's temperament become equally 
dominant owing to the Pittam being considerably reduced. 
There is but little pyrexia in the day which is increased in 
the night with the aggravation of the paroxysm. The 
deranged Kapham (phlegm) in the patient's body is natvrally 
dried up by the rays of the sun as well as by the heat 
originated through the movements of his body duripg the 
day. Hence the small rise of the bodily temperature during 
day in this type of fever, which persists as a remnant •( the 
night's paroxysm only through the action of the deranged. 
V&yu. When the Kapham continues in the j>atient's stomachy 
which is its natural seat, and the deranged Pittam in tbs 
abdomen, the upper part of the body remains cold, while its 
lower part is felt hot to the touch during a paroxysm-fever. 
On the contrary, when the deranged Kapham is located io 


the* extremities, and the deranged Pittam is incarcerated 
in l?he trunk of the body, the hands and feet are felt hot» 
and the latter cold. 

The fever, which invades the principle of lymph chyle^ 
blood, flesh or fat, is easily curable, while the one, whicb 
aflccts the bone or marrow, and is detected from the atrophy 
and discolouring of^ the locality affected, can be made amen* 
able to medicine only with the greatest difficulty. This type 
of fevef is further characterised by unconscious or sub- 
comatose of the patient, hyperpyrexia, frequent loose motion» 
of warm muco-billious matter, and an angry look of the eyes. 

Subsidence of heat and pain, appearance of sordes on the 
teeth or of herpetic eruptions on the lips^ perspiration, with a 
desire for food and an unruffled state of the mind, and healthjr 
functions of the organs of sense-perceptions are the symp* 
toms which indicate that the fever has perfectly gone down. 



Dhanvantari said : — ^Now I shall discourse on the iCtiotogy 
and symptoms of Raktapittam (Haemorrhage). The bodily- 
Pitta m deranged through such factors as excessive in- 
gestion of Kodrava and Uddalaka (grains) or extremely hot| 
bitter, acid, or saline things, or of those which are followed by ' 
an acid redaction in the stomach, or through the agency 
of those which accelerate the process of metabolism and 
increase the metabolic heat in the organism, deranges, in its 
turn, the liquid bile which by gradually contaminating the 
blood, courses with it throughout the system. Owing to 
a similarity which exists between the blood and the bile, in 
colouri smelli origin and morbific effecti this bile-chargpd blood 


43^ 6ARUDA PURANAtf. ' 

in Hacmorrhag'e is called blood in the parlance of tbe 
Ayurveda.**^ The blood in Haemorrhage riaes from the spleeo, 
liver, bloodvessels, and the receptacle of blood. Heavinesa 
of the head with a non-relish for food, desire for cold things 
and cool contracts, vertigo, darkness of vision, nausea, 
vomiting with a belching sensation, cough, laboured or difficult 
breathing (dyspncea^ with a sensation of fatigue or exhaus* 
tion, a fishy smell in the mouth, redness of the face, redness, 
blueness or yellowness of the conjunctiva, inability to dbtin- 
guish a red colour from the yellow or blue, dreams of insanity 
in sleep and an absence of fever are the symptoms which 
mark the premonitary stage of Raktapittam. There i» 
haemorrhage either from any of the super-clavicular cavities 
of the budy, such as the ears, the nose, or the eyes, or from 
any of the downward passages, such as the anus, penis *or*^ 
vagina. Sometimes the deranged blood flows out in ]et» 
through the pores of the skin. Hacrmorrhage from any of the 
superclavicular passages of the body, readily yields ta 
medicine inasmuch as the deranged Kapham which serves a^ 
the exciting factor of the disease in these cases, may be easily 
curbed with the help of purgatives. In such cases^ a medi- 
cine which helps the purging of the deranged Pittam (bile) b 
a far better remedy than that which arrests its secretion, more 
so because the deranged Kapham which invariably acts inr 
concert with the disordered Pittam in such cases, gets the 
chance of being eliminated from the system. Drugs of m 
sweet or astringent taste, as well as those which generate 
Kapham in the system, or increase glandular secretions of the 
organism, or are 'bitter or pungent, should be deemed bene- 
ficial in these cases. 

Palliation is the only remedy possible in cases where 
Haemorrhage occurs from any of the downward passages 

* In the Aynrvedtc physiology blood and bile are but the modi- 
fications of the lymph ch>le uader different degress of metaboli&ui 


p\ the bodyi )iincie the administration of emetics u the only 

treatment admissible. The patient in such a case should 

be looked upon as a person whose days are numbered. A 

little of any of the drugs which help the elimination of the 

deranged Pittam, and a little other medicine to subdue the 

concomitant symtoms may be given to a Raktapittm patient 

of unimpaired strength and of not much disordered Pittam* 

Sweet and astringent substances are good for patients of the 

foregoing type. Cure is almost hopeless in the case of 

a patient iii whom both the derenged V&yu and Kapham act 

in concert with the deranged Pittam and serve as the ezcit» 

ing factors of the disease. A case of Raktapittam, io 

which Hemorrhage occurs from both the upward and 

downward passages of the body, baffles all medicine since 

purgatives and emetics are the only two remedies which 

can be given with benefit in this disease. In short, emetics 

may be given with advantage even in a case of Raktapittam 

where the morbific principles act in concert. It is needless 

to say that the last-named type of the disease is fatal as a 

spear-dart of the God Shiva, since many a distressing and 

unfavourable symtoms are found to supervene from the 




Dhanvantari said :— I shall first deal with the etiology of 
cough, inasmuch as this disease fast affects the entire organ- 
ism, and speedily runs its course. The disease admits of being 
grouped under five sub-heads according as it is brought about 
through the deranged action of Vftyu, Pittam, or Kaphami 
or as the outcome of consumption^ or ulcerative Endocirditii« 

44d ttAkODA fUKAflAtl. 

Any of these five types of cough, being neglected afc the 'Mllel^ 
may run into a case of Pthisis, and each of them is toc- 
cessively more virulent than the one immediately preceding 
it in the order of enumeration. An itching, tickling sens»« 
tion in the throat, and a non-relish for food are the symptomfl 
which mark the premonitory stage of every type of cough. 
Parchedness of the throat and mouth, and a sensation 
of dryness in the cavity of the ear are the symptoms which 
characterise the type due to the action of the deranged Vftyti. 
The wind, which courses through the lower parts of the 
body, violently rusHes upward and presses upon the larynt 
and the bronchi. The agitated wind fills the vessels causing 
the sides to heave up in spasms, and the eyes seem as if 
starting out of their sockets. The voice becomes weak and 
a sound resembling that of a broken belmetal gong is per- 
ceived in the mouth and larynx. The patient complains of 
a bruised pain at the sides, attended with a violent headachCi 
and an aching pain about the region of the heart. Aphonia, 
hurried breathing and swooning may be also preseht, and a 
sort of dry spasmodic cough constantly harlrasses the patient 
who finds a little relief only by hawking a kind of dry 
mucous out of the throat, which often causes horripilation^ 
These are the symptoms which mark the type due to the 
action of the disordered Viyu (Nervous, spasmodic cough). 

A bitter taste in the mouth accompanied with fever, vertigo, 
billious vomitting, and yellowness of the conjunctiva, as well 
as blood-spitting, thirst, aphonia, darkness of vision, etc.| 
mark the billious type, and the patient sees bright rings of 
fire floating before his eyes during a fit of cough. In the 
type due to the action of the deranged Kapham, the patient 
complains of a slight dull pain in the chest^^and a'Jheavy 
numbness in the head and cardiac region, and feels as if the 
throat has been plastered with a coat of sticky mucous, 
which cannot be scraped out with efforts. Vomiting, arid 
horrifibation, attended' with a fluent coryza secreting a thick 


» • • 


• * » 

ftMiy onttMitf , and a oon-relUh for food ire Uio qroiploiaib 
which further characterbe this type of cough. 

The local Vlyu enraged through toch factora aa InordU 
nate and overfatxguing physical exerdsei lifting of hMvj 
loads, et&i which give rise to ulceca in the cheat, Jbecomea 
united with the aggravated PitUoii and produces a lyp# of 
cough in which the pitient cougha out bloody or Uood* 
atreaked roucouSi or spits out a sort of brown, yellowish, drft 
knotty, or angry-looking mucous. The patient feels pdtt 
in the throat at the time of coughing, and complains of host 
and an aching, piercing pain in the heart while splttsng; 
or hawfcbg out the phlegm. Fever with thirst, shhreriog, and 
dyspno^ and hoarseness with a breaking pdb in the joitttSi 
supervene ; the voice becomes small, weak and reaembtea tlia 
cooing of a dove ; the sides ache ; the digestion b impdred { 
and palour and weakness go on tncreasbg every day. In thia 
stage all the specific symptoms of Pthi^ are developed. 
There u extreme prostration with bloody micturition, dyapMM 
and a catching pain at the back and sacrum. A pthisb patieak 
generally coughs out a greenish, bhMMlyi or blood-streaked^ 
fetid, pus-like, mucous ; and complains of diverse kind of paio 
even in bed. The heart seems as if It is being bdled ; and 
the patient, without any ostensible reason, complaiaa of heat ; 
and evinces a desire for cool things and heavy meals^ Ftaa* 
tratioo goes on increasing ; the eyes, teeth, and face of tte 
patient assume a glossy peaceful look ; and all tht apedle 
symptoms of wasting supervene. ^ 

A case of consumption (EUja Yakshml) or Ulceralive 
Endocarditb (Urah-kshata) may be arrested, if not fidicalljf 
cured, under a judicious medical treatment resorted to at tho 
very commencement of the disease. Both these diseases la 
a strong and young patient, may be expected to be cured, if 
wrll-cared for from the outset. All those forma of ailment 
which admit only of a palliative treatment, aa well aa 
the maladlea of old age may bong oa dppMMi ceu^ 


7' ...... 

consumption! vomiting, Aphonia and a host of othtr di^, 
tempers, if not well-cared for, at the outset. Thus ends 
the i£tiology of Cough. 



Dhanvantari said : — Now I shall discourse on the NidSnam 
of Dyspnoea ^ShvAsa . A case of chronic or aggravated 
cough may run into one of Dyspncea, or the enraged morbific 
principles of the body may likewiise give rise to this diseased 
condition. Difficult breathing may also mark the sequel of. 
A'm2Ltis&ra (mucous dysentery), vomiting, chlorosis, fever, 
or poisoning, or may be produced as the effect of an ex* 
posure to dust storm^ smoke, cold wind, or of a blow on any 
of the vulnerable amestomoses of nerves, arteries, etc, 
(Marmas). Dyspnoea may be divided into five different kinds 
such as Kshudraka, Tamaka, Chhinna, Mahftn, and Urdha- 
Shv^sa. The VSyu (nerve«force)| that courses all through 
the organsiro, affects the channels of food-carrying, water- 
carrying and breath-carrying ducts in the event of its own 
vessels being obstructed by the deranged Kapham (mucoos. 
deposits), and remains incarcerated in the cardiac region,, 
producing dyspnoea from the lower end of the stomach. An 
aching pain about the heart and the sides, contrary direction 
of the breath-wind, long drawn breaths, pain at the temporal 
bones, and tympanites are the premonitory symptoms of this 
disease. The V2yu, enraged and aggravated by the toils of 
overeating, and over fatiguing physical labour, obstructs the 
vessels by enraging and aggravating the deranged Kapham, 
coursing through them in a contrary direction, and pro* 
duces the form of difficult breathing known as Ksbvdra- 



Shvisa. The enraged VftyUi by exciting the deranged 
Kapham, lies catching at the head^ neck and cardiac region, 
and produces an aching pain at the tides. A wheezing 
sound is heard in the throat, and catarrh with fits of fainting 
and a non-relish for food supervene. The aggravated Vftya 
increases the difficulty of breathing, and the patient is seized 
with a violent fit of cough, feeling a little relief when a 
little mucoua is coughed, or belched out. He is obliged to 
sit up, as a lying or recumbent posture tends to aggravate 
the pain and difficulty of breath. The eyes are turned upward 
and beads of perspiration break out on the forehead of the 
patient, testifying to the intense agony he suffers from in this 
form of disease. The lining membrane of the cavity of 
the mouth gets dry and parched up by constant drawing in 
of the breath-wind, and the patient evinces a strong desire 
for hot drinks or food. Winter, rain, east- wind, and par- 
taking of phlegm-generating food, are set down as the 
aggravating factors of Asthma. 

The type known as Tamaka Shv9sa is curable only in a 
strong patient, but the paroxysm does not speedily abate in 
the event of there being fever, epiliptic fits, rigouV, etCi 
in its company. In this type both cough and dyspnoea are 
marked by their virulence. The patient becomes emaciated, 
and complains of a cutting pain at the chest and the Marmas. 
Perspiration, fainting fits, and tympanites with a burning 
sensation in the bladder are its further characteristicr. The 
eyes become red,, swollen, and glossy, and are turned down* 
ward. The patient complains of a dryness in the throat, and 
drops down unconscious^ moaning in a low, piteous voice: 

In the type known as Maha-Shv9sa (cerebral dyspnoea) the 
patient breathes very hard and- upward (with upturned nose) 
like an infuriated bulL The breathing is hard, rapid and hurriedi 
and the patient lies senseless and almost speediless with eyes' 
turned upward, and' stool- and urine are entirely suppressed. 
Tbr throat in dry and parchedi respiration becomei bard^'and 


rapid, drops of perspiration appear on the fore&ead, and dMi 
patient complains of an excruciating pain at the head and the 
temples. All chance of recovery should be given up if the 
patient is found to continue in this state for a while. In this 
type the mouth and ears of the patient are found to b« 
stuCFed with mucous, and the eyes under the influence of the 
aggravated V^lyu, are found to roll about in their sockets 
or. are fixed in an upward stare. The heart seems as if 
being torn asunder, and tlie patient moans for a while and 
then lies speechless in death. Medical treatment maybe 
useful in this tye of dyspnoea until the preceding symptoms 
appear, in which case the physician should thinly it prudent 
to retire. 




Dhanvantari said :— Now I shall discourse on (he Kidinam 
of Hiceoi^b. Hiccough and dyspnoea result from similar 
causes, and its preliminary symptoms, as well as the number of 
types in which it is ordinarily divided by pathologists! are 
same as those mentioned under dyspnoea. The several types 
of hiccough are named as Vaksbyodbhav^, KshudrS, Yamalli . 
Mahati, and GambhirS. The wind in the stomach, enraged anil 
aggravated by hasty and injudicious eating, partakfng of 
sharp, unwholesome and parchifying substances and such Uke 
causes, produces a kind of hiccough which is never loudj and 
which abates with the eating of the evening meal. This type of 
biccosgh is called Vakshyodbhav& or Annaj9. The low and 
mild hiccough, which is caused by the wind enraged by fati- 
guing physisal exercises, is called KshudriL. It rises from the 
root of the threat, becomes ^[gravated through labouri and 

• I 

dXllUDA PURAJpAllw ' 441 « 

'. abtttt Willi the partaking of food. Tbo type in wliidi hicoongltt 
rise in couples, and which, though mild at the outset, becomea 
Solent in course of |inie, and in which the head and tlio 
neclc are simultaneously shaken, b called Yamali. Delirium, * 
Tomiting, dysentery, yawning, and distortion of tlie eyea are the 
symptoms that are found to supervene with the advancement 
of this type of hiccough. In the Mahihiccl«type |the eye- 
brows droop down^ the temples are sonic, coaadousiiesa 
Tanishesi a peculiar pain if felt in all the aense-orfana, the 
spinal bone is arched down, and an aching pain is fek about tbo 
heart. This kind of hiccough violently risea from tfie bottom 
of the abdomen, or from the region of the umlulicos, ia 
quick .succession and accompanied by a loud report and an 
excruciating pain. Yawning and spasmodic jerlca of tba 
limbs, are its characteristics. This type of hicooi^ proceeda 
only from fatal and deep*seated organic disorders, and die 
remedies administered to subdue the same, must be likewiao 
deep-acting in their potency. The two last-named typea 
ahould be abandoned as incurable, while the one, which ia 
not ordinarily fatal, should be regarded as indicating aa 
unfavourable prognosis as soon as it develops all the afovo* 
said grave sjrmptoms. Any of the typea of biccoogh, afflict* 
ing an old man, or one of impaired digestion, or one that b 
extremely run down from sexual e x c ess es, muf have a fatal * 
termination. Any disease of whatsoever type and denomina- 
tion, may prove fatal, but the only two miladies, that poftesd 
an impending danger, are hiccough and dyspnoea. 



Dhanvantari said .h— Now I shall discourse on the NMuai 
of « RAja Yakshmi (pulipooary cbnaamp t ion). . The 


Rftja YakshmS, wasting; (Kshaya), Shosha (atrophyi Kf. 
witht^ritig up), and RogarSt (king of maladies^ are all synonym 
mous trrms. The Moon-God, the King of the BrShroanas aad 
Asterisms, had an attack of pulmonary consumption in days of 
yore, and as it first appeared in that King (Raja) of Heavens; 
it has since been honoured with the proud designation of 
King of Maladies* 

The disease may appear as a sequel ro any other diseasef 
and certainly runs as the harbinger of many. The disease 
is called Kshaya from the fact of its causing a g«*neral wast^ 
ing of the body, as well as from the incapacity of any medi* 
cine in arresting that waste. It is called Shosa (Atrophy) from 
the fact of hs withering up the fundamental organic prin- 
ciples of lymph chyle, blood, flesh, fat, bone, marrow, and 
semen in succession. Rash feats of strength, over-fatiguing 
physical exercise, loss of semen, albumen or any other albu* 
minous principle of the organism, voluntary suppression of 
any natural propulsion of the body, and irregular or insuffi- 
cirnt food may be set down as the exciting factors of Rftja^ 
Yakshmft. The Vdyu, enraged by any of the preceding 
causes, affects the process of metabolism all through the 
organismi and hence the unutilised products of the body 

* With a view to emphasise the facts of a gradual watting of th« 
fundameiMal principles of the body and formation of cavities in the: 
lungi in pulmonary consumption, onr Ayurvedic pathology, in which 
science has been sublimized to chime in harmony with the univenal 
poetry of Brahmanic genius, has made use of the gradual waning of the 
moon's disc in 2the dark-fortnight and the existence of daik caves in 
the lunar continent as representing the typical picture of the or^faniCf 
lesions and changes in the human body in Pihisis. The Moon- God 
has been punished with this disease in the Puranas for his ardent and 
sinful passion for his preceptor's beautiful wife (Tiid), i«nd it may not 
be incorrect to asset t that ori«in:illy the lesion, as handed down to 
posterity, might have soma CQuna;uou with mcnul dejections andscxua^' 
ttccsses.— 7n 


(Kapham or Vjrartham), which becomes Inrr^a^ed in conse* 
quence, are carried into the unions ol bodily membifrs and 
appendages (such as amestomoses of veins and arteries) 
and dilate or contract the orfices of the principal ducts of 
the body, giving rise to paia in regions above, below, aboul 
and across the heart. 

Salivation with fever, hyperperaxia and a sweet taste 
in the mouth, dulness of appetite, a gluttonous desire for 
food and drink, a thoui^ht ol uncleanness in things clean and 
pure, a feeling as if his food and drink have been studded 
with bitH of hair or flft-s' wing^, naufiea, vomiting, a non*relish 
for fiK>d, extreme whitrnessi of the eyrs, chest, palms of the 
hands and soles of the feet as well as of the armpits, and ex« 
pectoration of thick mucous even without bathing, are the 
symptoms which mark the premonitory stage of this disease* 
The patifrnt rxperiences a pain in the tongue and arms, leame 
to abhor his body, becomes unreasonably fond of wine and 
women or loathes their sight, and suffers from giddiness. Haira^ 
and nails of toes or fingers become marked by their rapid 
and excessive growth, and sleep become chequered with 
fearful dreams. The patient dreams of lizatds, serpents, 
monkeys, or of savai^e birds or beasts darting upon bis head, 
or as if he is citmbmg a hill of ashes, hairs, paddy husks, 
or a withered tree. He sees deserted hamlets and homesteada 
in his sleep, or dreams of burning forests, and dry and empty 
river-beds. Catarrh, dyHpnoea, cough, headache, loss of votcer 
a non-relish for food, updrawn breath, emaciation, vomithig, 
fever, and pain at the sides, chest and joints are the eleve» 
specific symptoms of the disease under discussion. The 
distressing symptoms, which are invariably found tosupenreoe, 
are a breaking pain in the throat, yawning, aching pain in the 
limbs, spitting of blood, impaired digestion, and a fool-smell 
in the mouth. Of these, headache, aching pain at the sidea* 
and in the limbs, constriction of the throat, hoarseneaa, and 
kindred symptoau should be attributed to the •ctao»*of 



the deranged VSyu, while to the deranged Pittam should b6 
ascribed the burning sensation in the shoulders and extremities 
dysentery, blood-spitting, foul-smell in the mouth, fever, . 
and the general excited condition of the body. Vomiting 
coughi feeling of heaviness in one half of the body, water* 
bash, catarrh, dyspncea, aphonia, and impaired digestion with . 
a non-relish for food are the symptoms^ which owe their origin 
to the action of the deranged Kapham in R&ja YakshmS. 
The enraged morbific diatheses, such as, the V2Lyu, Pittam and 
the Kapham, produce a general anasarca in these cases only 
on account of the impairment of digestive capacity. The 
burning sensation in the cardiac region, which is usually ex- 
perienced in these cases, b only for the diminution which 
the fundamental principles of lymbh chyle, and blood, 
suffer on account of the obstructed orfices of the vesseb 
of the vascular system. The food undergoes a sort of 
acid reaction in the stomach, for which reason the food 
ingested by a pthisis patient cannot contribute to the 
formation of a healthy lymph chyle, and hence cannot make 
good the waste which incessantly goes on in the body. 
Accordingly, a pthisis patient may be described as living 
by drawing upon the reserve capital of life, and his body, in 
the absence of healthy nutrition and assimilation, becomes 
emaciated from day to day. A prudent physician should 

. not take in hand a pthisis patient whose sense-organs have 
been affected even before the development of most of the 
specific symptoms of the disease. The disease occurring 
in a strong and young patient and well cared for from 

. the outset, may not develop more unfavourable symptoms, 
and may ultimately prove amenable to medicine. Once its 
specific symptoms have been fully de-veloped, the disease 
should be regarded as past all cure. Ths voice becomes 
weak or rough in this disease owing to the loss of the organic 
principle of fat. In the type due to the action of the 
deranged VAyu, the body loses its gloss and beat^ and the 

GARUOA raRANAMi 44fv. 

I^atirat feels as if his throat has been studded with th«: 
bristles of Shuka Sbimvi leaves. The gradual waitiflg of r 
the bodjTi and the burning sensation in the throat and palate, : 
in these cases, should be ascribed to the action of the derang«f 
ed Pittam. The sensation of a sticky mucousi together with • 
the speciic wheezing sound, in the throat u due to the action 
of the deranged Kapham. Vertigo, darkness of vision, and • 
symptoms peculiar to the deranged Kapham are invariably * 
present. Wasting of the body is accelerated by an unwhole- * 
some diet and injudicious and intemperate living in Rija** 
Yakshmft. This disease is seldom curable, and a wise pbysi—. 
cian should abandon the patient just as its specific symptoms 
would be but partially developed. 




DiiANVANTARl said :— Now hear me, O Sushruta, discourse 
on the Nidlnaro of Arochakam (Non-relish for food). The 
several morbific diatheses of Vftyu, Pittam, and Kapham, bj 
finding lodgment in the tongue and the heart, give rise to 
three different forms of Arochakam. The fourth kind owee* 
its origin to their concerted action, while the fifth is usually - 
brought about through a perturbed condition of the 'mind.' 
The patient complains of an astringent taste in the mouth 
in the VSyu-origined, of a bitter taste in the Pitta ja^ -and 
of a sweet taite in the Kspbaja type. In the type due to 
gr ief, fright, or anxiety, all things seem vapid and tastelei% 
The vital UdAna VAyu flings up the morbific principles from 
the bottom of the stomach, and thus carried up Into the 
ca viiy of the mouth, they give rise to waterlirasb with a 
ftaline tsste in the mouib, innibilate all desires for food| ud 


bring a host of other discomforts in their train. The pttient 
suddenly feels a pain at the back and about the umbilicuSi 
and the ingested food is thrown up in the side of bis stomach, 
causing him to belch out a scanty, frothy, and astriBgent 
chylous matter. 

In the VAyu-origined type of this disease there are loud 
eructition5, and painful and violent vomitings after that, bring* 
ing cough, parchedness of the mouth, and hoarseness in their 
train. In the Pittaja type, the patient vomits a kind of 
greenish, or yellowish, blood-streaked acid matter of a bitter 
and astringent taste, resembling alkaline water — thirst, faint- 
ing, and a burning sensation in the body being its further 

In the type due to the action of the deranged Kapham, 
there is expectoration of thick glossy, yellowish, ropy mucous 
of a sweetisli saline taste, attended with a copious salivation, 
and horiipilation. Symptoms such as, swelling of the mouth, 
somnolence, cough, and nausea with a sweetish taste in the 
mouth, are found to supervene. In the type due to the con- 
certed action of all the three morbific principles of VAyu, 
Pittani and Kapham, the patient finds no pleasure even in 
the most congenial topics, which, according to Vishnu, ought 
to be discu<«sed in a gentle assembly. All sights and sounds 
are hateful to him. The disease is aggravated with the 
aggravation of any of the abovesaid morbific principles ia 
the body. The type due to the presence of worms in the 
intestines, or to the ingestion of any stale or unwholesome 
food, m^iiiifesis colic, shiveringi and nausea, etc., as its specific 

.% ■• * % 

• • 


Dhanvantari naid: — O Suiihrttia« now I shall ditcotirse Oft. 
the NiH^iti«in of Hridroga* which admtU of being grouped 
under five nub-heads according as the deranged Vayu, Pittam. 
and Kapham, either severally or concertedly lie at Ibti. 
root of the disease, or as any parasitic growth in the heart 
serves as its exciting factor. In the type due to the actioo 
of the deranged \'&yU| the patient complains of a vacuun 
in his heart, which seems dry, numbed, and at tl being^ 
broken or turn asunder. He cannot bear the least sound or 
noise, and is frightened, or feels dejected, or indulges in grief 
without any apparent reason. Insomnia becomes markedly 
patent, and the patient suffers from difficult breathiogi. 
shivers, and lapses into fits of unconsciousness. The btliooa^ 
type develops such symptoms as thirst, fatigue with a burning 
sensation in the body, perspiration, acid eructationsi vomit- 
ing of acid or bilious matter, fever and darkness oi vision. 
The symptoms, which manifest themselves in the type dM 
to the action of the deranged Kapham, are a sensation of 
numbness in the heart, impairment of digestive faculty, dis*. 
taste in the mouth, cough, pain in the bones, expectoratioa 

• ■ I 

of mucous, somnolence, and fever with a non-relish for food. 
The type, which is due to the concerted action of tbe do* 
ranged Viyu, Pittam and Kapham, exhibits symtoms which ara 
peculiar to the form which are respectively brought about bv 
each of these morbific principles. A blackisb. (dull) yellow 

* The term Hridrosa ol the Ayurvtdie pathelof y. which Is a usually 
Irifislated at ditestet ol tlis Heart, indodts palpitoiion ec ihe hentl^ 
Angina Pectoris and kindred disordert, such as an s ur ii m el the Iheracle 
auoru. bui doss net signily any structural er vahmlar dissfder el At 
heart.— fn • • 


colour (brownish) of the conjunctiva accompanied by vertigo^ 
nausea, waterbrash, oedema, expectoration of mucouSi and 
an itching sensation in the limbs form the specific indica- 
tions of the type of Hridroga which is of a parasitic origin. 
The patient feels as if his heart is being sawed with a sharp- 
toothed saw. The medical treatment of a case of any of 
these types of Hridroga should be commenced almost simuU 
taneously with the manifestation of any of its specific indi- 
cations, inasmuch as it is often found to run into one of the 
incurable types, and speedily runs its course, terminating 
fatally in most instances. The sixth form or typ^ of Hridroga 
is fouud to result as a supervening symptom of any other pre- 
existing distemper in which ;«ny of the vital principles of 
the organism, sucii as, blood, lymph*chyle, albumen, etc., 
iidb buffered ah abnormal loss or diminution. In almost all 
the types of Hridroga, there occurs a loss of any of the 
abovesaid vital principles of the body in consequence of 
which both the Vayu and Pittam are enraged. Hence 
an abnormal derangement of the VSiyu and Pittam, causing 
spasmodic jerks in all the limbs, rigour, palpitation of, 
and a burning sensation in, the heart, and fits of un- 
conscious should be looked for in all the types described 
above. The water-crrying vessels, which traverse the throat, 
palate, lungs and the root of the to ugue, become dry and 
parched up, giving rise to a short of unquenchable thirst 
which is common to all the forms of Hridroga. An un- 
quenchable thirst attended with dryness of the mouth (the 
patient craving for more water each time), loss of voicei 
roughness of the throat, lips and palate, difficulty in pro- 
truding the tongue, delirium, mental aberrations and loud 
eructations, are the further characteristics of this disease. 
Prostration, dejection of spirit and vertigo with a break- 
'ing pain in the temples, loss of smell, dulness of 
Tiearing, and insomnia witli a vapid taste in the mouth, are 
the symptoms which are developed through the action^of 


the deranged V2Lyu in Hridroga. A Ktile increase of rel 
actionary acidity in the stomach after digestion accompanied 
by a bitter taste in the mouth, redness of the eyes/ a 
burning sensation in the body^ dryness of, and a feeling as 
if fumes are escaping through, the skin, and fainting are 
the symptoms which should be specifically attributed to the 
action of the deranged Pittam in the present disease. In the 
Kshayaja type the aggravated Kaphah chokes up the passages 
of V2Lyu in the heart, and the sticky mucous accumulated in 
those vessels absorbs heat, like thickened slime. Somno* 
lence, and a sensation as if the lining membrane of the 


throat has been studded with the bristles of a Sbuka tosec^ 
together with a sweetish taste in the mouth, are the symp« 
toms which should be attributed to the action of the deranged 
Kapham in this disease. A sensation of heaviness 'and 
numbness in the head, vomiting, lassitude, indigestion with, a 
non-relish for food, and tympanites, are the symptoms, which 
should be attributed to the concerted action of the deranged 
Vflyu, Pittam and Kapham in a case of Hridroga. Owing 
to the obstructed course of blood and generation of mucous 
in the system in this disease, both the deranged VSyu and 
Pittam are inordinately aggravated, and for this the patient, 
-though suffering from an intense heat in the body, is suddenly 
seized with a rigour which shakes him to the very bones. 

The type of Hridroga, which is caused by the Pittam 
being obstructed in the thorax through the agency of thirst, 
should be regarded as of a bilious origin. Similarly, a kind 
of aching pain is felt in the henrt throuf^h drinking large 
quantities of water inasmuch as heavy drinks naturally dis* 
solve the albuminous constituents of the body and help their 
digestion in the usual way. The kind of thirst, which is 
generated through taking acid, saline or emolient things, 
should be regarded as caused by the deranged Kapham. The 
kind of thirst which follows from the loss of lyroph-cbyre 
(any vital organic principle) is but an indisation of wastiagtor 


consumption. The thirst, which is experienced during • 
paroxysm of fever or in consumption, should be regarded at 
a mere supervening symptom. 


Dhanvantari said : — Now I shall discourse on the Nidt* 
fiam of MadSLtyayam (diseases which result from the abuse 
of wines and spirits) as formerly described by the holy 
Rishis of yore. 

Wine is sharp, acid (gives rise to an acidtdigestion), dry, 
parchifying, light, fatiguing and its potency at once pervades 
the minutest capillaries of the organism, and tends to vitiate 
the fat of the body. All the preceding properties of wine 
such as sharpness, etc., tend to produce a disturbed state of 
the mind, and clouden the intellect. Excessive drinking may 
even prove fatal. The primary property of wine is' to 
injuriously affect the ten organs of sense-perception of a 
man ; and wine, though heat-making and stimulating in its 
primary action, deteriorates the strength of the organism 
in its reaction. The use of the first two kinds of wine if 
always injurious. It is only the fools of fortune that find 
pleasures in cups. A drunkard, even if he happena to be a 
king, cannot maintain the dignity of his position, and only 
cares for drink in this world. A drunkard. king, like a fanged 
and uncaged serpent, is capable of committing any mischief 
in the world. Wine is the progenitor of filthy speeches, and 
the only royal road to wretchedness and misery. In the 
third stage of drinking there comes unconsciousness. A 
drunkard suffers more than death-pangs in life, and loses aU 
distinction of virtue and vice, honour and dishonour, or plea* 
suKt and pain. He indulges in fits of grief or seaseiesf 


laughter at intervalsy or falls down uocooscioos io coiiTidiive« 
ipasmi, A strong roa^ after a hearty meal may bear bb • 
wine well. The deranged Viyu, Pittam and Kapbah may also 
serve as the exciting factors of the disease known at Madi« . 
lyayam. Intoxication, pain at the heart, loose motions of 
bowels, thirst, unstability of gait, fever with a non*relisb for. 
foodi vanishings of sight, cough, dyspnoea^ iusoainiai oacea- 
sive perspiration, oedema, and tympanites are the general 
symptoms of the disease.* 

The patient in such a case remains in a drowsy state, 
and talks garrulously even without being spoken to. Fever 
with a burning sensation in the body, persp*ration| distrac* 
tion of the mind, and fits of fainting are the symptoms, which 
mark the bilious type of Mad&tyayam, while vomiting, nausea* 
somnolence, and tympanites are developed in the one which, 
owes its origin to the deranged Kapham. All the above, 
said symptoms are exhibited in the Sannipitika type oi 
Mad&tyayam. Nothing can be distasteful or disagreeable to 
the person who indulges in cups even with a full know* 
ledge of its baneful consequences. Such a person enly 
courts mental imbecility and wilfully kills bis mind and 
intellect. A Mad&tyaya-patient cannot tell the difference 
between a chip oi wood and an article of fare in respect 
of taste. 

Expectoration of mucous, dryness of the throat, somno*. 
lence, incapability of bearing the least sound with a disisiM- 
ted state oi the mind and shooting pain in the Umbflp 

. * The Ayurvedic Malaria Medics cacof niata tbraa diffaraie 
stagat af wine, such aa Sauvika, Rajaaikaand TaroaaiaatboagkSlMlviile 
recognises a fourih stage or form of drinking called Aliiimasa« 

VS" frt^Jn 

456 GARUDA Pt/RANAll.' 

diseases of the heart and larynx, epileptic fits, dyspnc^i 
thirst, voiQiting and fever, are the supervening symptoms of* 
the type of MadStyayam, which owes its origin to the dis*> 
ordered V&yu. The self-controlled person, who intelligently 
foregoes the pleasures of wine, defies all diseases whether 
of the body or of mind. Intoxication, Epilepsy, and Palsy 
(corea), are the three diseases which result from the derange- 
ment of the vascular and lymphatic systems and are usually 
found to [afflict a person *of injudicious diet and living and' 
of an irascible or lymphatic temperament of mind. Each of 
these diseases is respectively stronger than the one immedia- ' 
tely following it in the order of enumeration. This kind of 
MadStyayam has its origin in the impure blood, or results ' 
from the presence of ^ wine ""(alcohol) in the system, or from 
any other idiopathic causes such as aggravation of any of 
the morbific principles of the body. In the V&tajatype of 
MadSLtyayam the complexion becomes pale or sallow on 
account of the anaemic condition of the body, or assumes a 
dry, reddish; or brownish hue, and the patient is tormented 
with a kind of listlessness, and takes recourse to acts of low 
cunning. In the Pittaja type, the skin of the body asumes a 
reddish, ydlow colouf, and the patient becomes irritable and 
queruloiis. Somnolence, delirium or loose talks mark the 
type which owes it origin to the deranged Kapham. All the' 
a1>bvesaid symptoms are exhibited in the Sannip&tika type 
of Mad^tyayam. The specific symptoms of the deranged' 
Pi'tt^ are' usually found to be present in almost all tber 
types of Madityayam. The patient fails to recognise even 
the most familiar voices, and palsy, somnolence, and above 
sLll; a feeling of exhaustion (prostration) gradually supervene.' 
A languid circulation, or obstruction of the blood in certain' 
parts of the body, and a partial paralysis of the limbs may 
be witnessed in the Sannipatika type. In the Vataja type 
of Mad&tyayam the patient beholds the sky as enveloped in 
a blue, redj or black colour, and faints away, regaining 



consciousness very soon after. Shivering, vertlgbp coogli witli 
a pain -about the cardiac region, epileptic (its, and a brbwnisli 
or reddish colour of the skin during the fit are the further 
characteristics of this type. In the Pittaja type the patient 
faints' aiway seeing the sky wrapped in red or blue, and 
regains consciousness oppressed with thirst, perspiration and 
a burning sensation in the body. The complexion becomea 
blue or yellow during Ihe paroxysm of fainting, the eyes 
become red or yellow, and the patient complains of a break* 
ing pain in his body and talks incoherently. In the Kaphaja 
type of MadStyayam the patient sees the welkin enshrouded' 
with a cloud like pall, and falls down unconscious. Conscious* 
ness returns late in this type, and the patient suffers from 
nausea and salivation after being restored to bis senses. 
Owing to the sensation of numbness and heaviness in the 
limbs, the patient falls down all on a heap like a goat All the 
aforesaid symptoms are combioedly exhibited in the S&nni* 
pStika type of MadAtyayam. Moreover, the patient suffers from 
epileptic fits in this S&nnipStika type, and falls down uncons- 
cious through the aggravated condition of the morbific prindplei 
of his body, even in the absence of 'any frightening or anesthetic 
agent. The fit passes off spontaneously as soon as the dynamics 
of the morbific diathesis spends itself in the body, and the 
patient regains his consciousness even without the help of 
any sense*restoring medicine. The functions of the mind 
as well as of the sense organs, and the faculty of speech 
are jeopardised in this disease, and the patient, though other** 
wise of an unstable and impaired mind, acquires a kind of 
increased physical strength through the disorder of the 
nervous system. A sudden derangement of the respiratory 
system brings on a swoon in Madltyayam, which may 
terminate fatally, and in which the patient lies stiff and rigid,' 
like a log of wood, with a bloish, shrunken, cadaverooa 
countenance. A little delay in calling in medical helpia 
these cases is often followed b)* a fatal coostqueace. ll b 



morally obligatory on a physician to rescue a man from 
drowning in the ocean of Mad&tyayam, which, like any other 
ocean abounding in dreadful sea-monsters, is full of many 
serfous symptoms. There is a dictum in the Vedas to the 
effect that a drunkard feels merrv or irritated at intervals. 
Vices described before should be considered as appertaining 
to wine improperly taken or used. " Wine pave^ the roa4 
to heir' is a prohibitory aphorism, which should be inter- 
preted as interdicting the abuse or injudicious use of wine. 
Wine properly and judiciously taken is same as the divine 
ambrosia. It gives health, strength and beauty to persons 
using it, and ultimately leads to their salvation. 



DtiANVANTARi said : — O Sushruta, I shall now discourse 
on the Niddnam of Haemorrhoids. Fleshy condylomatoua 
growths are found to frequently crop up on the body. Polypi, 
that appear in the region of the rectum obstructing its orfice, 
are called Arshas (flaemorrhoids). The enraged and ag<« 
gravated morbific principles of the body such as, the deranged 
V&yu, Pittam, etc., give rise to these growths of diverse 
shape in the anal region by vitiating the local skin, fat 
(adipose tissue) and flesh, which the learned call Haemorrhoids. 
These growths may be divided into two classes such as, the 
congenital and post-natal ones. They are either dry, bleed« 
ing or jagged, and are situated in the region of the rectum. 
The passage of the rectum measures five fingers' widths and 
a half in length, and haemorrhoids are found to appear 
within the length of three fingers^widths and a half from the 
external orfice of the anus. Bleeding occurs from the veins 

• « 


uhich run through these internal piles or haemorrhoids, while 
the external ones are found to be situated in the region 
of the anus within the length of a finger's-width of its 
external orfice. Another kind of polypi crop up in the region 
about a finger and a half distant from the anus, aronnd the 
outskirt of which the hairs grow. 

The congenital haemorrhoids are attributed to injudicious 
conducts of its parents during the period of gestation and 
the bodily discomfort of the child during its inter-uterine 
life. The Sftnnipitika form of haemorrhoids owes its origin 
to the concerted action of the deranged morbific principles 
of the body, and to the curse of gods as well. Congenital piles, 
like any other congenital disease, are incurable, and they are 
^Tf ugly* looking, pointing inward, of a pale (yellowish) 
colour, and are attended with all the dreadful supervening 
symptoms. Haemorrhoids may be divided into six different 
forms, vis., those which are severally due to the action of 
the deranged VSyu. Pittam, or Kapham, of VSyu and 
Pittam, of Viyu and Kapham, of Pittam and Kapham, and 
of VSyu, Pittam, and Kapham combined. 

The polypi, which are due to the action of the deranged 
V2yu and Kapham, are dry, while those which owe their 
origin to the concerted action of the Viyu and Pittam, are 
moist and exuding. The factors, which tend to aggravate 
the morbific principles of the body in this disease, have been 
described before, and likewise, impaired digestion, accumula- 
tion of feces in the intestines, and sexual excesses may be 
set down as conditions which help the growth of these 
polypi. Similar vegetations of polypous growths may appear 
in the throat, eyes, bladder, uterus, lips, etc., through a 
pressure, or friction, or rubbing of those localities with fingers, 
or with any other hard substance, or through the agency^ 
of a small cough, or choking cough during a drink. Con- 
stant contact of extremely cold water, long and frequent 
rideS| voluntary repression of any urging toward micturition 



I . f . .1. 

or defecation, violent straining at the time of bearing down 
the stool, or of passing water, daily ingestion of loathsoqa^ 
food, lienteric diarrhcea, fasting, pulls that involve a beayj 
strain on the muscles, acts that involve a heavy strain OQ 
the female organs of generation, and miscarriage are factors 
which tend to enrage the ApSlna VSyu (Geni to-urinary and 
illiac nerve force) of the organism. The feces lie incarce* 
rated in the grooves (flexus) of the rectum owing to the 
disordered condition of this angry ApSna, giving rise tea 
sort of congestion in those localities which help the yegeta- 
tionlof haemorrhoids. 

The symptoms, which mark the preliminary stage of this 
disease, are impaired digestive capacity, loss of appetite, 
distension of the abdomen, aching pain in the loins and 
calves lof the^ legs, vertigo, a burningj.^ensation in the eyes, 
oedema, and loose motions, or constipation, of the bowels. 
The J wind incarcerated. *about and below the umbilicus^ is 
passed with the greatest (difficulty, and attended with loud 
reports and^bleeding. 

The aggravated;Vdyu, by producing a parched condilioa 
of the, ^intestines, gall and urinary bladders, gives rise to all 
kinds of haemorrhoid growths. The patient gradually becomes 
thinner and more dejected. The complexion becomes pale 
and^sallow ; the strength of the body is markedly diminished; 
and the whole organism becomes sapless as a worm-eaten 
tree. The pain in the regions of the Marmas specifically 
described under YakshmSL is found to supervene with cough, 
thirst,* dyspncea, lassitude, vomiting, oedema, fever, deafness, 
and a disagreeable taste in the mouth. An aching pain in 
the limbs, anus, groins, umbilicus, and the region of the heart 
may [be also present. The patient constantly spits and 
evinces no desire for food, and^remains drowsy all day long. 
A kind of bilious discharge, resembling washing of meat, is 
secreted from the rectum. 

In some cases the vegetations remain dry^ while in others 





tbey are found to suppurate and burst. In the type due to 
the action of the deranged Pittam, they become yellow, sop- 
purate, spontaneously bur^t, and bleed. In the type due to 
the action of the enraged Vftyu, the polypi are marked by their 
small growth and absence of any secretion. Tbey are found 
to be rough, uneven, sharp.ppinted, hard, and of a reddish or 
brownish colour, with their external ends, cracked and severed^ 
resembling a Vimba, K&rkandu, Kharjura, or Kftrpfts^ s^^m! in 
shape. Some of them grow in the shape of Kadamva flowers. 
while others are found to resemble mustard aeeds io sixe and 


shape. An excruciating pain in the head, sides, shoulders^ 
thighs and inguinal regions, salivation, eructation, dtsteasiop of 
the abdomen, cough, dyspncea, vertigo, noise in the ears^ 
impaired digestion with a catching pain in tb^ hearty aad 
an extreme nonrelish for food are the symptoms, which inarlf 
the V&yu-origined type of haemorrhoids. Th^ patient in t)||f 
type passes hard, knotty, slimy, stool with loud flatus att<| 
much straining. The skin, nails, feces, urine, fyes and face pf 
of the patient assume a black (dep blue) hue, and splenip 
dropsy, internal glands (Gulma) and mucous tumours mak9 
their appearance with the progress of the disease. In the 
Pitta ja type, the heads of the polypi assume a blackish, blu^b» 
or yellowish red colour. They are felt soft to the touch, i^mit 
afleshy smell, and secrete a thi ^ bloody discharge from their 
elongated ends. Some of them are either like the tongues of 
parrots, or resemble the mouths of leeches ifi shapei or nr^ 
shaped like the liver. A burning sensation of the body 
together with suppuration of the growths, perspiration, epi* 
leptic fits and an extreme repugnance for food ar^ the tymp* 
toms which are found to supervene. The patient pass^i a Ifia^ 
of hard undigested feces which are coloured green, y^loff^ pf 
bloody at intervals. The polypi are thick at the middli^ li]|Cp 
barley corns, and the skin, nails, feces, urine^ ^Jf^t ^tc, of 
the patient assume a yellow color in this type of the d i f e asc* 
In the Shieshmaja type, the bapmorrhoid gKOW.tba arc thick aii4 


flat at their base and are found to vegetate over a consider* 
able area around the anus. They are white, slightly painful, 
glossy, unyielding, firm, smooth, globular in shape, and are felt 
soft^to the touch. An itching sensation is invariably experi- 
enced in the affected region, and the patient feels an irresisti- 
ble desire to constantly handle the growths, which seem heavy 
and as if enshrouded with a wet compress, resembling either 
the Kantaki seeds, bamboo sprouts, or the teats of a cow 
in shape. The patient complains of a catching, binding 
pain in the inguinal regions, and of a drawiug pain either in 
the bladder, rectum, or in the umbilical region. Cough, dys- 
pnoea, nausea, vomiting, catarrh, repugnance for food, stran- 
gury, heaviness of the head, rigour, fever, increased sexual 
desire, mucous dysentery, dulness of appetite, and urethral 
and urinary disorders are the symptoms which are likewise 
found to supervene. In this type the patient passes stool 
in large quantities with much straining. The stool is found 
to be largely charged with thick, lard-like mucous, and the 
polypi are marked by the absence of bleeding or of any kind 
of slimy discharge. They look grey and glossy, and do not 
burst or crack even under the pressure of hard feces. The 
type of haemorrhoids, which owes its origin to the concerted 
action of the deranged V&yu, Pittam, aod Kapham, exhibits 
symptoms which are respectively peculiar to the three kinds 
described above. Haemorrhoids, which result from a cotami- 
nated (lit : enraged) condition of the blood, resemble Gunja 
berries, or coral or Vata sprouts in shape and colour, and 
are attended with all the symptoms specificaHy described 
under the Pittaja type. The polypi, under the pressure of 
hard stool, violently bleed in this type, and in consequence of 
such copious haemorrhages the complexion of the patient 
becomes pale Snd yellowish like the skin of a yellow frog, 
not to speak of hosts of other distempers which result from 
the loss of blood. The patient gets thinner and feebler every 
day. The complexion becomes pale and sallow, the organs 


fail to perform their proper functions, and the spirit becomea 
gloomy and dejected. The V2yu enraged and aggravated 
through the ingestion of gram, mudga, bamboo sprouts and 
such lil^e stuff, takes lodgment in the region of the rectumi 
and obstructs the downward passage of the body by absorb* 
ing moisture .from the urine and stool, which becomes ex- 
tremely hard in consequence. Thus incarcerated in the 
system they give rise to an excruciating pain in the sides, 
abdomen, back, and sacral and cardiac regions, bringing 
on tympanitis, ascites, salivation, colic in the urinary bladder, 
Gcdematous swelling of the cheeks, and an obstinate constipa- 
tion of the bowels with the progress of the disease. The 
deranged V^yu, if happens to take an upward direction in the 
system, in tliis disease, produces vomiting, repugnance for 
food, fever, palpitation of the heart and kindred complaintS| 
diarrhoea, dysentery, suppression of urine, deafness, dyspnoea 
cough, coryza, fecal disorders, thirst, internal glands (gulmas), 
cephaUgia and a violent obstinate headache, etc., which are 
usually attributed to its aggravation and disturbance. As* 
thma or any other form of dyspnoea, and entire suppression of 
the !itool and urine with tympanitis are the distressing symp« 
toms, which are usually found, to supervene, causing death of 
the patient in unfavourable instances. Even in the absence 
of foregoing excitini^ factors, rectal hzmorrhoids may grow 
from quite idiopathic causes in persons whose abdominal 
chamber has been invaded by the deranged and incarcerated 
Viyu of the body. The congenital form of the disease, aa 
well as the one in which the polypi are found to vegetate 
upon the inner groove of the rectum soon becomes incurable. 
Palliation is the only treatment possible in these cases in the 
event of the digestive faculty of the patient being sound and 
unimpaired. A case of liaemorrhoids in which the polypi 
veget<ite on the second groove of the rectum may lapse 
into an incurable one in the event of their not being remedied 
wiibin the hrst year of their growth or appearance. A case 

• V ■ • • T . . t»\ 


ot haemorrhoids in which the polypi are of recent growth and 
irt found to vegetate on the outer or external grooiy of the 
rectum; and in which only a single morbific principle of the 
body serveis' as the' exciting factor, may yield to medical treat* 
ment. Polypi/ which are found to crop up on the generative 
organs (co'ndylomatous growths), or on the region of the um- 
bilicus, are slimy and felt soft to the touch like the mouth of 
an' earth-worm. The deranged Vy^na Vftyu of the system, by 
forcing out the deranged Kapham through the skin, gives 
rise to a kind of pappilatous growths on the surface of the 
body which are called Charmakilas, which are firm and 
rough to the touch. In the Vataja type of Charmakilas, 
a piercing pain is felt in the growths ; in the Pittaja type 
they are found to be black capped, while in the Kaphaja 
type they become glossy, concurrent, and of the same colour 
with the surrounding skin. An intelligent person should 
resort to ^obd medical treatment from the very first appear- 
abce of this disease in his organism, in as much as a little 
delay or neglect might bring in a host of other* rectal dis* 
orders and ascitis! 



«» .. 

DhAnVANTARI said : — Hear me now^ O Sushruta, discourse 
on the Nid^nam of Atis^ra (dysentery) and Grahini (Lienteric 
diarrhcea.) The three morbific principles of the body such as 
the VSyu, Pittam, and Kapham, as well as their combinations 
and fright and grief may be set down as the exciting factors 
of Atis&ira, which admits of being divided into six different 
types. Drinking of large' quantities of water, ingestion of 
dry' food,' or of inordinate quantities of lard; oil, butter, or 


<cakM, and excessive indulgence m cups mty be IQcewise set 
down as the exciting causes of the disease* The bodily 
Vftyu (nerve force), disturbed on account of either day-sleep, 
tceeping of late hours, presence of worms in the intestines, 
•and voluntary repression of any natural urging of the body, 
etc., takes lodgment in the intestines and impairs the digestive 
function, causing a rush of blood to the nether regions of 
the body. The V^yu by continuing in the intestines with the 
feces and ingested food, serves to liquify the stool and give 
rise to the disease which is called Atis9Lra. A breaking paia 
in the rectum, abdomen and cardiac region, together with a 
sense of lassitude and constipation of the bowels are the 
premonitory symptoms ci Atis&ra. Distendon of the 
abdomen, together with indigestion, scanty ejections of the 
contents of the stomach without any sound or report, frothy 
turbid stool, or constant passing of knotty, slinky feces, and 
a burning^ cutting pain about the anus mark the Vfttaja-type 
of Atislra. Fever is absent in this type of Atis&ra. The 
anus is constricted, or the patient suffers from prolapsas ani 
together with^dyspncea and horripilation. Gmstant passing 
of yellow, black, yellowish, greenish or blood-coloured, felid 
smelling stool, together with thirst, epileptic fits, and a 
burning sensation in the body mark the Pittaja-type* 
An aching, burning pain in the region of the anus, to« 
gether with constant passings of thick, slimy, scanty stool, 
characterises the Kaphaja-type of Atisftra. All the above- 
said symptoms together with nausea, vomiting, a sense of 
heaviness about the anus and in the abdomen, and horripi- 
lation are the characteristics of the Sftnnip&tika-type. The 
patient loses all conscnusness in this type, and thinks what 
he has done as undone. 

The bodily VSyu enraged through the effect of fright upon 
the mifid liquifies the stool which is immediately passed out 
in hot or warm jets. In the Vlta-Paittika-tjrpe symptoms 
respectively described under the Vttaja and Pittaja^types of 



Atis9ra are combinedly exhibited. The specific symptomf of 
Ati^ira brought about through the action of grief are identi- 
cal with those described under the fright-born type. 

The dib'ease admits of being further grouped under two 
hroad subdivisions such as, the Sima (with mucous) and 
NirAma (without mucous). In the first named type (Sima) 
the stool emits a very fetid smell, and nausea with distension 
of the abdomen, and suppression of urine are also present* 
A case exhibiting symptoms oth^r than the foregoing ones 
should bf iircludrd within the Nirftma group. A marked 
predominence of the deranged Kapham in the body during 
the term of AtisSra leads to death. A case of Atisftra neg- 
lected at the outset may run into one of Grahini (Lienteric 
diarrhoea). Ingestion of a large quantity of articles, that 
impair the digestive function, brings about either Ama or 
NirSma type of fever. Incarceration of undigested food 
in the stomach is sure to be followed by an attack of 
AtisSra of the S^ma-type. The disease is so named from 
the fact of one's passing large (Ati) quanties of stool during 
its attack. This disease naturally and invariably proves 
fatal. A case of Am2tis9ra usually follows from indigestioii 
and on account of the incarceration of undigested fecal 
matter in the intestines. A case of old and persistent Atisftra 
runs into one of Grahini, which may be divided into four 
different types such as, VAtaja-Grahini, Pittaja-Grahinii 
Kaphaja-Grahini, and SSnnipfttika- Grahini. A sense of 
lassicude in the limbs and constant emission of flatus 
togetbrr with <(alivation, and a distaste in the mouth, thirst, 
vertigir, repugnance for food, colic, vomiting, and buzzing in 
thtt ea:s are the 'general indications of Grahini. Weakness 
and emaciati«>n of the body, hot eructations, dyspepsia 
fever, epiiiptic fits, a sensation of numbness in the head and 
cardiac region, cedematous swelling of the extremities, 
drowsiness, parchedness of the palate, darkness of vision, 
noise in the ears, pain (crams) in the neck, thighs, sides and 

■ ^ 


inguinal regions, and cholera are the symptoms, which are 
found to supervene. All these symptoms are aggravated in 
a weak patient, thirst and hunger being specially and oppres« 
sively increased. 

The abdomen gets distended close upon the completion 
of digestion, and the patient finds a little relief immediately 
after eating. Palpitation of the heart, with pain in the car- 
diac region and kindred complaints, internal glands (gulmas) 
rectal haemorrhoids, splenic enlargement, Chlorosis and h>ss 
of consciousness should be regarded as the distressing and 
supervening troubles in a case of V&taja-Grahini. The stool 
is frequent, and either loose, hard or frothy and is passed with 
loud report, causing pain about the anus as well as cough 
and dyspnoea.. In the Pittaja-type, the stool is either yellow- 
ish, or bluish yellow. Acid eructions, with a burning sensa- 
tion in the heart and throat, repugnance for fQod, and an 
unquenchable thirst are the further characteristics of this type 
of Grabini. Painful motions of the bowels, difficulty of 
digestion, vomiting, reprugnance for food, burning sensation 
in the mouth, salivation, cough, nausea, catarrh, distension 
and heaviness of the abdomen, sweet eructations, lassitude, 
and horripilation are the specific /features of the Kaphaja- 
type. The patient passes thick stool charged with mucous 
All the abovesaid symptoms are exhibited in the S&nnipStika- 
type. Epilepsy, stone in the .bladder. Leprosy, Gonorrhoea, 
Ascites, fistula in ano, hemorrhoids, and Grahini should be 
regarded as great maladies (Mahft Roga) and cures in these 
cases are extremely difficult. 


Dhanvanta^ t Slid :— Now, hear me, O Soshruta, discowrte 
on the i£tiology and symptoms of Mutragh&ta (suppressed* 
or scanty urination) and Mutrakrichcbba (strangury). The 
urinary bladder, with its neck or region of outlet, as well a» 
the penis, the hip, the testes and the rectum are covered with* 
one and the same peritonium, and are situated within the 
pelvic cavity. The urinary bladder is placed with its cervix- 
(neck) hung downward and is filled with the help of the two 
ureters which open obliquely at the base of its fundus. The 
morbific principles of the .body such as, the deranged V&yu, 
Pittam and Kapham, may enter the minute nerve vessel* 
that transverse this membranous sac of the body, and ma^ 
give rise to twenty different forms of disorder. Both Pra* 
meha and MutraghSlta attack the Marma or the vulnervable 
part of the pelvis where the penis|(urethra), inguinal ligaments, 
and ligaments of the pelvic bones meet one. another, and in 
both these diseases, the patient constantly passes a very small 
quantity ef urine with pain in the aforementioned localities. 
In the Vfttaja form of Mutraghilta the urine is scanty and 
is constantly emitted with the greatest pain. In the Pittaja 
form the patient passes a high coloured or Moody lirine at- 
tended with a burning sensation and pain at the external 
orfice of the urethra. In the Kaphaja type the patient com- 
plains of swelling and heaviness in the urinary bladder and 
the urethra (lit: — penis). The face of the patient assumes a 
withered, bluish aspect in the case where the deranged and 
aggravated bodily V2yu serves as the exciting factor of this 
disease (Mutragh&ta). The preponderance of the deranged 
V&yu, Pittam, and Kapham in a given case of Mutraghftta is- 
marked by the scanty emission of urine charged with sperm^ 
bile matter, or mucous. The deranged Pittam in a case of 



the Pittaja type of Mutraghlta may generate urinary calculi 
or concretions to the size and colour of Gorochanft (bard 
biliary concretions occasionally obtained from the gall blad* 
der of an ox.) The der/iinged and aggravated Kapham should 
be regarded as underlying all cases uf urinary concretions 
(lit : — stone in the bladder). 

A distended condition of the urinary bladder witb ao ex« 
cruciating p^n in regions around that organ is the premoni* 
tary symptom of a case of stone in tba bladder— <iccumuIattoii 
of urine in that membraneous sac, difficult and painful mictu^ 
rition, fever with a repagnance for food, and a pain about the 
umbilicus, bladder and the perineal suture, and headache being 
ite general characteristics. These urinary concretions ob« 
struct the external o^ce of the bladder, and the patient passes 
a clear, crystal-coloured urine with extreme pain and difficulty 
A long retention of the urine in the bladder in these cases 
may produce local congestion followed by bleeding and a 
pain in the urethra. In the Vfttaja^type, the patient 
gnashes his teeth violently, and shakes. The incarcerated 
urine in this type of Ashmari produces an excruciating 
pain about the umbilicus, and the patient passes a sort 
of hot, frothy stool accompanied by emission of flatus, 
and the urine is dribbled out in drops witb pain. In the 
V&taja type the urinary, concretions become rough, and 
of a tawny-brown colour, and are found to be studded 
with thorns (crystaline.) In the Pittaja-type, the patient 
complains of a burning pain in the urinary bladder, and the 
concretions are found to 'resemble the stones of BballAtaka 
fruity or become of a red, yellow, or white colour. In the 
Kaphaja type of urinary calculi, an excruciating pain is expe- 
rienced in the bladder, and the concretions are felt to be cold 
and heavy. Urinary calculi found in the bladders of infants, 
usually become, small, heavy, white or honey-coloured. These 
calculi should be extracted from the bladder before they can 
gfow in size, or attain their fallest development. 


Astream of stmen, anywise obstructed in its emissioRi 
may give rise to the genesis of dreadful seminal concretions* 
The deranged and aggravated Vftyu of the locality dries 
up the drops of semen, thus Asloged from its proper recep- 
tacle, and keeps them ensconced in the shape of hard crystals 
within the spermatic Chords in the scrotum. The concre- 
tions "are called Shukrashmaries, which produce a painful 
swelling of the bladder and difficulty in passing urine. The 
formation of semen in a man is at once arrested imme- 
diately upon . the formation of seminal concretions in his 
spermatic chords. 

An attack of fever, or an obstinate cough may tend to 
transform these urinary concretions into gravels or SharkarSs. 
These calculi, being split and crushed .by the force x)f the 
aggravated bodily Vayu in the locality, may pass loff with 
the urine in its normal course. Taking a contrary or upward 
direction they lie incarcerated in the urinary bladder, pro- 
ducing- a kind of irritation in its cervix, which impedes the 
free emission ^of urine, and causes it to dribble out. The 
deranged V&yu, thus aggpravated, fills up the cavity of the 
bladder, and thence it gradually permeates the peritonium of 
the abdomen, causing it to be distended and producing pain- 
ful spasms in its inside, as well as tympanites. 

The enraged and aggravated bodily V&yu by taking lodg- 
[ ment in the urinary bladder causes the urine to flow out in 
drops. The urine is invariably emitted in broken or ob- 
[structed jets. The disease, thus engendered, is called VSLta* 
vasti. This disease is extremely hard to cure, and becomes 
much more difficult when it is associated with the deranged 
Vdyu. The deranged and aggravated bodily V^yu taking 
I lodgment in that part of the perineum which lies between 
the rectum and the urinary bladder may give rise to a kind 
of thick, knotty, round, raised concretions which is called 
Vitashthila. It brings on profuse micturition and copious 
evacuations of the bowels. The enraged bodily V2yu is 


coiled up, and produces an ezcrnciiting (Aitni in fKo nriniry 
bladder without in any way interfering with the flow of nrine^ 
but giving rise to vertigo, a sensation of nanbness and 
heaviness in the limbs, and nausea. 

The type of disease, which is known as VStakundalikl, and 
which is but an offspring of enforced continence or vohintarf 
suppression of semen, is characterised by a scanty though 
constant urination. The mrine suppressed in these cases 
produces a slight pain at the external orfice of the urethra. 
The suppressed flow (of i^rine), forced to recoil back upoa 
itself through the obstruction of the enraged VSyu^ tends to 
distend the abdomen from below the umbilicus, and gives 
rise to a kind of intolerable pain in the locality accompaniad 
by tympanites and loose motbns of the bowels. The en* 
raged Viyu, in this disease, tends to send up the urine bighsr 
up in the abdominal cavity, whence results the scaattaeas 
of that fluid. The said enraged Vayu finds lodgment either 
in the intestines, urinary bladder, or in* the umbilical region, 
giving rise to a constant, and^ sometimes slightly painfull 
micturition. The urine is emitted in gusts (/iV. in unbroken 
jets) and the residue of the fluid lies pent up in the scrotons, 
producing a sensation of heaviness in the scrotal sac Some- 
times, the urine^ accumulated and pent up Kttle by little io 
the bladder, gives rise to a kind of local^nodular grotrths, whidl 
somewhat resemble urinary calculi in shapei and are called 
Mutragranthis. A sexsual iotereourse in these uriaaiy 
diseases, enrages the local Vayu, which may tend to dislodga 
and draw up the spermatic fluid from its receptacle. Tkm 
semen, under the circumstance, is found to be emitted either 
before, or with the flow of urine, resembling washings of 
ashes. The disease u called Mutra Shokra (a type of 

The enraged Vftyu, by bringing down fecal matter into 
the urinary channel of a weak, emaciated patient of pardied 
temperament, causes the disease wluch b caDcd Ifolm- 


VighSlta. The disease is characterised by loose MOttOQi of 
the bowels with tympaViiteSi and emission of urine in 
drops, smelling like fecal matter. The bodily Viyu, enraged 
through the agency of the aggravated Pittam, inordinate 
physical exercise, excessive ingestion of sharp and acid sub- 
stances, and retention of urine in the bladder, causes a disease, 
called Ushna V^sl, its specific symptoms being an extreme 
burning sensation in the bladder^ scanty urination followed 
by emission of hot bloody urine, or hematuria. The 
deranged Pittam and V^yu finding lodgment in the urinary 
bladder of a person of exhausted and parched up constitu- 
tion, give rise to a disease which is called Mutrakshaya, 
characterised by scanty, painful, burning urination. When 
the local V&yu is. afiEtcted by the deranged Pittam and 
Kapham, it produces a disease which is called MutrasSLda. 
The urine is either red, yellow, or white and thick, attended 
with burning, or resembles the colour of oxbile, or powdered 
conch-shell. The urine may be entirely absent in some 
cases, or may assume any of the aforesaid colours. Thus 
all diseases affecting the flow of urine bavje ^beea described 
in detail. 


Dhanvantari said : — Now hear me, O Sushruta, discourse 
on the causes and symptoms of Pramehas. 

Twenty different forms of Prameha are recognised in 
practice. Of these, ten are due to the action of the 
deranged Kapham, six are caused through the agency of the 
deranged Pittam, and four have their origin in the aggra- 
vated condition of the bodily V^yu. The semen, fat, and 
urinej surcharged with Kapham, should be looked upoa a& 

t&AbtJDX PURANAtl. 473 

lihe Immediate ^exciting (actors of the several types of 

A patient suffering from HaridriL-Meha passes hot stool 
and urine, having the colour of turmeric. A person attacked 
with Maiijishthi-Meha passes urine like the solution of 
MangishthH (yellowish red). The urine in a case of Rakta- 
Meha is either pure blood, or hot, bloody and saline, while 
that in Vasil-Meha is either a jet of fat, or is found to be 
coloured like lard. A person suffering from Majj^-Meha 
passes urine, which resembles, or is charged with, marrow, 
A patient in this disease, like a wjld and infuriated ele- 
phant, does not constantly pass urine, but passes a copiotis 
flow whenever urinating. The urine in Hasti- Meha is copiotis 
and found to be largely charged with slimy mucous. A Madhu- 
Meha patient passes urine which resembles honeys The 
obstruction of the channels of the bodily V9iyu (nerves) by 
the deranged Pittam and Kapham in an organism, which -has 
suffered a considerable loss in its fundamental, vital princi<* 
pics, may -be likewise set down as the exciting factor of 
Madhu meha. The morbic principler, which usher in 'the 
tlisease in a given case, soon exhibit their specific symptoms. 

A case of Prameha spontaneously exhibits symptoms of 
amelioration or aggravation without any apparent reason, 
and soon runs into one of the most difficult and obstinate type» 
All types of Prameha, neglected at the outset, may run into 
Madliu-Meha in course of time. The urine in Madhu-Meha 
becomes sweet like honey. All cases of Prameha in which 
the bodily excretions of the patient acquire a sweetish taste, 
should be regarded as cases of Madhumeha. 

Indigestion, with a non*relish for food, vomiting, 
somnolence, cough, and catarrh are the distessing symptoms, 
which are found to supervene in a case of Meha due to the 
action of the deranged Kapham. A pricking pain in the 
urinary bladder and urethra, bursting of the scortum, fever 
with a burning sensation of the body, epilepsy, thirst, sour 


tisings, and loose motions of the bowels are the distressing 
symptoms, which supervene in a case of Maha due to the 
action of the derangedJPittam. Suppression of stool, SatuSi 
and urine, shivering, a catching pain about the heart, with a 
desire for (pungent, bitter or astringent) food), colic, insomnia, 
cough, dyspnoea, and wasting are the distressing symptoms, 
which mark a VSLtaja type of Prameha. 

The ten kinds of carbuncles, or abscesses, which mark the 
secjuel of Prameha are called Sar9Lvika, KachchhapikI, 
Jv4lini, Vinat3, Alaji, MasurikS, SarshapikiL, Putrini, and 
Vid^rika. The ingested food in combination with the 
deranged Kapham of the system usually ushers in aa 
attack of Prameha, and the deranged Kaphah, in most cases, 
may be set down as the primary and exciting factor of the 
disease. The urine in every type of Prameha becomes 
slimy, acid, sweet or saline, heavy (in respect of its 
specific gravity), oily and cold. Use of newly harvested 
rice, new wine, meat-soup, meat, sugarcane, treacle and 
milk in excessive quantities, and sharing the same bed or 
cushion with a Prameha-patient may be set down as the 
exciting factors of this disease. The deranged Kaphah 
located in the urinary bladder liquefies the fat and myosin 
of the body like excrementitious discharge. The aggravated 
Vlyu, on the subsidence of the action of the deranged 
Kapham, augments the action of the Pittam, and brings on 
congestion of blood in the urinary bladder, thus producing 
the disease, which is called Prameha. 

The prognosis in a case of Prameha should be deter* 
mined in consideration of the nature of the morbific' 
diatheses underlying the attack. A continuance of the VSyu, 
Piitam, and Kapham in their normal state (in the patient's 
body) points to a happy prognosis, while the reverse 19 
indicated when their natural equilibrium is in any way dis^' 
turbed. The patient, in each type of Prameha, passes a 
copious, turbid urine, which should be regarded as one 


of the general characteristics of the disease. As m 
variety of colours may be produced through a combioa* 
tion of those that are white, yellow, black or redy so the 
deranged V&yu, Pittam and Kapham, in combination with 
the different organic principles of fat, flesh, etc., may senre to 
give a variety of colours to the urine in this disease. 

In the type known as Udaka-Meha (poluria), the patient 
passes a copious, transparent, water-like or slightly turbid, 
slimy, cold, and odourless urine. In a case of Ikshu-Meha, 
the patient passes a sweet, vinegar-like urine. 

In S&ndra-Meha (Chyluria), the patient passes a thick 
urine, which resembles stale rice-boilings. In Pishta-Meha, 
the patient passes urine like a solution of pasted rice attended 
with horripilation. In SurA-Meha, the patient passes urine 
like wine, which is transparent in its surface but leaves a 
sediment at its bottom. In Sukra-Meha (Spermatorrbcsa), 
the patient passes urine highly charged with semen, or 
resembling semen in colour. In Sikatl-Meha, the urine be* 
comes turbid, and is found to leave a sediment resembling 
hard grains of sand. The urine becomes cold, sweet, and 
copious in S'ita-Meha, while it dribbles out or is emitted 
in successive and broken jets in S'anair Meha. In Lftlft-^ 
Meha, the urine becomes slimy and shreddy like saliva, 
while in KsbSra-Meha, it assumes an alkaline character, or 
resembles an alkaline solution in taste, touch, smell and 
appearance. In Nilameha, the patient passes a bluish urine, 
while in K^Ia Meha, the urine becomes black as ink. 

A case of Prameha, neglected at the outset, may be toU 
lowed by the appearance of one of the ten aforesaid types 
of abscess at a fleshy part of the patient's body, or about any 
of his bone-joints, or about any anastomosis of veins, arteritSt 
etc., (MarmasthSnam). Of these, the type of abscess known 
as S'ara'vikS^ is raised or elevated at its margin and dipped 
in its centre, characterised by the absence of any paio or 
discharge, and resembles a fau^er 10 shape. Ao abscess 


appearing^ about the seat of the ho6y^ and characteroedr bjfi 
aa intolerable^ bnrning sensation in its inside, and resembling 
a tortoise in shape, is called KaehchhapikS. An abscess^ 
which is of a considerably lasge size and assnmes a blvisb 
colour, is called Vinat&. An abscess, which develops m 
kind of intolerable, burning sensation in the skin during 
its stagr of incubation, is called JvAiini. An abscess ol the 
present type becomes extremely painful. An abscess^ whicb 
in tinged either red. or white, is studded with belbs or 
blisters, and is characterised by a sort of burning sensation, i» 
called Alaji. Postules to the size of lentil seeds are called 
Masurikfl, while those that crop up like small muf^tard seed» 
on the tongue in the latter stage of Prameha, attended wiU> 
an extreme pain and local suppuration, are called- SarshapikSl. 
' Abscesses, that crop up covering a considerably extensive 
area, marked by a comparatively smaller elevation., are called 
Futrini. An abscess, which is hard and round like the root oi 
a VidarikSl, is called VidarikS. An abscess, which is marked 
by features peculiar to erysipelas, is called Vi4radhik&. 0£ 
these, the types known as Putrinland Vid&ri are characterised 
by an excessive deposit of fat, and a kind o( intolerable pain. 
Other kinds of abscesses may mark the sequel of a case oE 
Prameha, marked by an extremely aggravated condition of the 
deranged E^ttam. The deranged Vdyu, Pittam and Kaplianfe 
in connection with a case of Prameha give rise to abscesses 
peculiar to their respective aggravated conditions in the bodj 
of a person of vitiated fat, even without an attack of Pra- 
meha, ' but their specific natures can not be ascertained 
till their characterestic colours are developed. A case ia 
which a person passes an extremely high-coloured urine^ 
like washings of turmeric or blood, without the specific 
features of urine in Prameha as described before, should be 
diagnosed as a case of Raktapittam (urethral haemorrhage) 
Perspiration, with a bad smell in the body, lassitude of the 
body with a kind of gone feeling in the limbs, incliaaiio* 

t&- sTeepv eatfng,. and repose^ a buroiiig^ sensatioii- m the 
heart, eyes, tongue and eara, gro.wthi acd thickness, of the 
ends of finger-nails and hairs,, londness foe cool things and 
cooling measures, and dryness of .the palate, with a sweet 
taste in the mouth and burning sensation in the extremities- 
are the syroptomsi which mark the premonitory stage of 
Prameha. Ants are found to infest the urine of a patient 
during this stage of Prameha,. and thirst, and sweetnesa of 
the urine^ etc^ are the symptoms, which are developed with 
the progress of the disease. The body having been per. 
meated. with deranged Kaphah, the bodily VSLyu gets the 
upper hand of the other morbific diathesis in the body,, and 
produces the Va'taja type of Prameha. Types of Prameha,. 
due to the action of the deranged Pittam or Kapham, fully 
exhibit their charateristic symptoms, while those, which are- 
due to any impure contact^ take time to develop all their 
specific features, and are contaminated from one person to* 
another. Types of Prameha, due to the action of the deranged 
Pittam, checked^ if not cured. A case of Prameha^ 
may be expected to be cured oaly before the specific symp- 
loiAS are fully, developed* 



Dhanvantari said : — Hear me, O Sushruta, now discourse- 
on thr aetioloj3:y and symptomology etc., of abscesses,. 
( VidradJn) and Gulmas (internal glands;. Ingestion of stale,. 
dry, parchifying, or extremely hot food may be set down as the 
primary cause of Vidradhis and Gulmas. The blood vitiated 
through such factors as gratification of carnal propensities- 
by unnatural lueanSf ,use oi bard and uneven ht^Sy etCr 


vitiates, in tU turn, the skin, flesb, fat, and bones of the hodf, 
and takes refuge in the abdominal cavitj, causing a rooDd 
or extended swelling to appear either in the inside or oa 
the surface of the body, attended with an ezcmdadngi ^^S^jg 
pain, which is called a Vidradhi. The morbific principles of 
the body, such as the deranged VSyu, Pittam and Kaphaa, 
cither severally or combinedly, may give rise to an abscess, 
which may likewise occur in any part of the body, which 
has been profusely bled. An external abscess appearing at 
any part of the body as an outcome of profuse blood-letting 
is found to have a knotty formation. An internal tumour, 
on the other hand, is always found to be deep-seated, com- 
pact as an internal gland (Gulma) and chequered with orfices, 
like an ant-hill, through which secretions are exuded. The 
patient complains of impaired digestion in thb internal type 
of Vidradhi^ which proves fatal in many instances. 

The spleen, liver, lungs, heart, urinary bladder, inter* 
costal, and inguinal regions principally form the seats of these 
inlrrnal abscesses. A heavy palpitation of the heart, en- 
hancing the pain, is experienced when an abscess occurs 
ill that locality. The abscess assumes either a blackish or 
bluish red colour, is slow in its growth and suppuration, and 
rrgular in its formation. Loss of consciousness, vertigo, 
tympanites with suppression of the stool and urine, and 
bleeding, attended with a kind of indistinct report, are the 
disirrsHing symtoms which are found to supervene. An 
ahHrrsft orignated through the action of the deranged Pittan» 
aimumrfi either a red, copper, or black colour, and is attended 
with fainting, fever and a burning sensation. The abscess 
is rapid in its growth, and suppuration sets in early in the 
Pitlaj.1 type. An abscess of the Kaphaja type is tinged 
(;rry, and is attended with an itching sensation, and shivering. 
Numbness of the affected part, yawning, and heaviness of 
the limbs, with a non-relish for food are the symptoms which 
further characterise this Kaphaja tyye. An internal abKess 




of the Sannipa'ta type, like an external one of the tame kind, 
k slow in growth and suppuration. It assumes a black colour, 
becomes studded over with belbs, and is attended with an 
intolerable burning pain, with fever and loose motions of the 
bowels. The external abscesses have all their origin in the 
deranged condition of the Pittam. There is another kind 
of external abscess which is peculiar to women. The blood, 
enraged by a blow or hurt, may give rise to another kind of 

The blood in any part of the body, that has been wounded, 
becomes agitated through the action of the local Viyu 
(nerve force). The enraged blood, failing to find out an out* 
let, mixes with the deranged Pittam, and produces a kind of 
abscess, which is attended with all the symptoms peculiar to 
the deranged Pittam and vitiated blood. 

Different symptoms are exhibited according to the 
variation in the seat of an abscess in the body, as for 
example, an internal abscess, occurring about the region of 
the umbilicus, brings on an obstinate tympanites, while the 
one, which appears in the urinary bladder, produces painful 
micturition. An abscess of the spleen brings on dyspnoea, 
and an unquenchable thirst. An abscess in the lungs pro* 
duces constriction of the larynx, while the one in the heart 
produces a pain all over the body. An abscess, occurring 
inside the intercostal region, produces vertigo, fainting, a 
digging pain in the heart, and the peculiar form of dyspnoea 
known as Tamaka S'vSsa (described before). An abscess, 
occurring inside the inguinal regions, about joint of the thighs, 
or about the union of the back and waist (sacrum), produces 
the incarceration of the wind and a kind of intolerable pain. 

The non-suppurated, suppurating, and suppurated stages 
of an abscess should be ascertained in the manner of 
any other swelling. An internal abscess, occurring in the 
region above the umbilicus, with its head pointing upward, 
bursts out in the stomach, and evacuates its contents through 


the passage o'f fhe anus. An internal abscess, occarring !h 
the rectum, mouth, or the umbilicus, and exuding its (pccniiar) 
-secretion, should be regarded as indicating a painful prognosis^ 
An internal abscess of the Sanntfidta type appearing in* aify 
of the aforesaid localities in the body produces an alteration 
in the composition of the local tissues, while an external 
-one, occurring about the umbilicus, or in or above the urinafy 
bladder, runs to suppuration and bursts. An internal abscess^ 
idly developed, is always found to suppurate, while the one, 
that is not well developed, gives rise to many a supervening) 
^distressing symptom in its immature stage. 

A peculiar kind of abscess is found to occur in the uterus 
-oF wicked women, who are addicted to the sinful practice of 
"effecting miscarriage of their pregnancy. The swellings in 
the uterus, caused by frequent abortions, become compact 
•and condensed, and are thus transformed into abscesses'.' A 
mammary abscess should be regarded as an external one to 
-all intents and purposes. - An internal abscess can never 
occur in any of the reproductive organs of a girl, owing to 
the comparatively greater thinness of blood that courses in 
the female economy, during childhood. It is the aggravated 
and obstructed Vayu (nerve force) that should be regarded as 
the primary cause of all swellings. The local Viyu, any 
wise aggravated, courses down from the region of union 
between the penis and the scrotum, finds lodgment in 
the spermatic chord of the testes, presses upon the local 
vessels, and produces a swelling of the scrotum by vitiating 
the fat of the locality. The disease is called Vriddhi 
Roga, which admits of being divided into seven different 
types. A preponderance of the deranged Vftyu in : a 
Vidradhi Rbga of this type, whether external or internal, is 
followed by copious micturitions. In the Vataja type of 
this Vriddhi Roga^ the swelling (scrotal tumour) 
inflated, parched and rough to the touch, marked by a buro* 
ing sensation in its inside. In the Pittaja type, the swelling 



tessmes a vermilioo tint like that of a ripe Aailamvara fruit 
(Ficus Indica)» and b attended with heat, burning, and sup* 
puration. In the Kaphaja type, the swelling becomes cold, 
lieavy, glossy, and slightly painful, attended with an itiching 
sensation. In the Raktaja type (Hematocele) (due to the 
action of the contaminated Mood), the swelling becomes com- 
jpact, and is covered with a crop of belbous eruptions on its 
surface, its other features being one with those described 
under the head of Pitaja type of VriddhL The swelling in 
the type originated through the action of the deranged fat 
and Kapham becomes soft and rounded like a palm fniit« 
The type known as Mutraja Vriddhi (Hydrocele, usually 
appears in those who are in the habit of voluntarily suppress* 
ing their urine. The patient leads a sort of quiscient lifOs 
and does not evince any desire for any thing in special. The 
swelling becomes distended with serous accumulations, and 
suffers a perceptible diminution in size, if its fluid contents 
are in any way evacuated. 

Cold ablutions and use of articles of fare^ that tend to 
aggravate the bodily Vftyu, are the factors which produce a 
kind of swelling at the bottom of the scrotum, pro- 
ducing painful micturition. The Vftyu aggravated by volun* 
tary repression of natural urgings of the body to urina* 
tioii or defecation, or by violent physical exercise or straining 
of the lower limbs in any unnatural posture, or sock like 
aggravating factors, tends to produce a det^mination oF 
blood to the lower limbs and inguinal regions, instantaneously 
causing the appearance of a ring*like glandular swelling 
(hernia) in the groin. Neglected at the outset, a case of 
this type of Vriddhi Rogm may run into one of Gtt/mm^ 
attended with tympanites, pain, and hosts of other dis* 
tempers. Firmly pressed, the ring*like, protuberant swrlling 
rises upward, making a distinctly audible report. The type 
(Rakta Vriddhi) is incurable, while the swelling iu a case of 
VAiaja Vriddhi continues in the same sisei traversed by a 


net-work of dry, bluish red veins. The aforesaid diseases 
may be divided into eight different types according as the - 
morbific principles of the deranged Vllyu, Pittam, and Kaphah 
severally or combinedly act as their exciting and underly* 
ing factors. 

The eighth kind of abscess (Vidradhi) is that, which occurs 
in any of the generative organs (ovary or uterus^ etc.) of 
women of impaired menstrual functions. Even a strong patient 
(during an attack) is afflicted with fever, dysentery, vomiting, 
rigor, and hunger, and gets emaciated. A Vidradhi-patient, 
who partakes of boiled rice, or drinks copiously, or batbe8» 
or fasts, during an attack, is soon overwhelmed with fits of 
fainting. Diaphoretic or emolient measures should not be 
resorted to in a case of Vidradhi, and expedients calculated to 
promote a free and healthy circulation of blood should be 
at once tried, no matter whether the morbific principles have 
been eliminated from the body of the patient with the help 
of suitable purgatives, or not. ' 

In a case of Vataja Vidradhi^ the wind and the filthy 
matter are either combinedly emitted from the abscesSi 
or they may be separately emitted at different times. Tlie 
aggravated VSiyu, coursing through the capillaries, sometimrs 
gives rise to bloody discharge from a V&taja abscess, while 
obstructing the upward and downward passages of the body 
it brings on a violent aching pain. 

A Gulma (internal gland) is tangible (can be caught 
hold of with the hand) like a stone, hot, and glandular in 
shape. The Vayu, aggravated through fasting, suppression 
of stool or urine, or obstruction of the channels of the body, 
hnd<; lodgment in the abdominal cavity, and dries up, in 
virtue of its own parchifying property, the feces and mucous 
accumulated therein in the shape of a hard lump, which is 
called Gulma. 

The deranged VSLyu continuing in its own locations acts 
independently, while located iu the Seat of any other morbiSc 


principle of the body (such as the Pittam aiid Kaphah) 
it acts subservient to that principle. The consolidated lump 
of Kapham, solidified in combination with mucous, and which 
is found to occupy the region either about the umbilicus, sidea^ 
or thoracic or abdominal cavitv, is called a Gulma. 

In the ViLtaja type of Gulma, fever with an excruciating 
headache, enlarged spleen, a rumbling or croaking sound in 
the intestines, loose motions of the bowels, a pricking pain 
in the limbs, and .difHcult or painful urination are the 9yrop* 
toms, which are invariably exhibited. The patient suffers 
from an oedematous swelling of the face and extremities, 
or from a general anasarca. The ball-like tumour rolls 
about, or shifts from one place to another, in the region of 
its location, the skin of the patient becomes parched and 
dark, the pupils of the eyes are dilated, and the sight is per* 
ceptibly impaired. The patient complains of a creeping sen« 
sation in the Gulma, as if hosts of ants are traversing it9 
inside, and the ball-like tumour is perceived to be shifting 
from place to place. 

In the Pittaja type, symptoms such as Epilepsy, acid 
eructations with loose motions of the bowels and a burning 
sensation in the body, perspiration, thirst, chlorosis, and 
anasarc;» are found to be m<«infest. In the Kaphaja type, 
the Gulma becomes hard, heavy, and fixed, attended with 
insomnia, or fretful sleep at irregular hours, obesity, nausea, 
white or dark colour of the skin, heaviness of the head, and 
a sensation, as if the body has been packed with a wet 
compress, with a non-relish for food are also present. The 
deranged Kaphah in the system is aggravated or suffers a 
diminution at times without any apparent reason,* scorching 
its specific seats in the organism. The distressful concomi- 
tants in this desease such as, hemorrhage etc., soon 4nanifest 
themselves through the deranged condition of the specific 
organs tliey are found to attack, thus bringing on a compU* 
cation which invariably proves fatal. The type known as 


Rakta-gulma (ovarian tumour) which occur* in* womeir i» 
found to be hard, raised and compact. The type should be 
attributed to the concerted action of the deranged VSyuv 
Pittam and Kaphah, elc, and is marked by an excruciating; 
pain and rapid suppuration. 

A hmg exposure to the wind by a woman', during her 
menses, or by one suffering from any kind' of uterine or 
vaginal disease, tends to augment and* aggravate the Vftyu in* 
her system. The V&yu, thus aggravated, obstructs the orfice 
of the menstrual duct, and the blood accumulated, each 
month, in^ her abdominal cavity, produces all the symptoms of 
pregnancy. Nausea, appearance of milk in the mamme, and a 
fretful mood are the symptoms, which characterise this disease 
in which the patient becomes fastidious in* her taste, and 
evinces her desires for various kinds of food, as in* true pr^g« 
nancy. The deranged E^ttam, in contact with the aggravated 
V&yu. leads to the accumulation of blood in the uterus, and 
the Gulma, generated in consequence thereof, manifests symp^ 
toms which are peculiar to both of them (V&yu' and I^ttamK 
The accumulated' blood in the uterus produces an intolerable 
aching pain in that viscus, attended with pain in the vagina; 
and a fetid, water-like, vaginah discharge, or teucorrhoea; 
The guima in this type sometimes develops air other symp-* 
turns of pregnancy. All these types of Gdma shouM be 
regarded as having their origin rn- excessive or unnaturaF 
gratification of sexual propensities. 

The food tong remains undigested in the stomach of a* 
Gulma-patient, and the growth and. progress of an abscess 
are arreste^ as soon as a Gulma makes its appearance m the 
body of the patient. A Vidradhi (abscess) is so called fromp 
the fact of its soon running to suppuration. A Gulma, 
occurring in the abdominal cavity, is marked by a burning 
sensation in the pelvic cavity, and a pain in the inside of the 
Gulma like that, which is experienced in an enlarged spleen. 
The complexion of the patient be cMies pale and saUow, the 


ftlrength of the body is diminished, the digestioii is- impairedv 
and the stool and urine are suppressed. External symptoms 
develop themselves, and the pa4i«nt complains of a pain in his 
limbs and abdomen, or about the umbilicus, while the rererse 
is the case (i e., in cases where the preceding: symptoms are 
not exhibited). Gough, palour, bulging out of the abdomeih 
rumbling sound in the intestine, tympanites, and an- excru- 
ciating pain in the abdonien are the symptoms, which- are 
found ta supervene. When in combination with the preceding 
symptoms, emission of flatus or rising of eructations are 
stopped, the disease is called A'na'ha. A thick, raised,, knotty^ 
and stone-like gland^ appearing in a case of Gulma^ is called 
Ashthihd. When the V^yu- inc.ircerated in the stomach gives 
rise to an excruciating, pain^ accompanied by all* the fore* 
going symptoms, the disease is called PralyO'ShthiU, Bulgr 
ing out of the abdomen, suppression of stool, dulness oi 
the senses with a rumbling sound in the intestines, tympanites, 
and distension of the abdomen are the symptoms, which mack 
all types of Gukna^ 



DhanVantarf said : — Hear me, O Sushrutt, now discourse 
on the Nidanam of Udaram (Ascites). All diseases are but 
the offspring of impaired digestion, and it is but superfluous 
to add that Udatam has its origin in the deranged condition 
of the digestive function. An accumulation of feces in the 
intestines may give rise to indigestion or to any other form 
of dyspepsia or disease, and the deranged up-coursing axd 
down-coursing Viyus of the system, being obstructed in 
their course, make the intestines {PraiMkiniJ inoperative* 


The Prana Vlyu (nerve-force of the respilatory centre) 
' brings about the derangement of the Apana VSyu /pneumo^ 
gastric nerveforce), and keeps them incarcerated in the 
union of the skin and flesh (faces), thus giving rise to a 
distended condition of the abdomen, which is called Udara* 
Rcga (Ascites.) 

The disease admits of being divided into eight types 
according as it is engendered through the several, or eon« 
certed action of the morbific principles of the deranged 
VSyu, Pittam, and Kapham, or through the enlargement 
of the spleen, or abdominal gUnds, etc., or is produced as the 
outcome of a wound in the abdomen, or is ushered in 
through an accumulation of serous fluid in the abdominal 
cavity. Dryness of the lips and palate, distension of the 
abdomen, diminution of strength and appetite, incapacity 
for all kinds of work, bulging out of the abdomen, and a 
cadaverous look are the premonitory symptoms of Ascites. 
Loss of appetite with a non. relish for fcod, which, if retained 
in the stomach, gives rise to an acid reaction are the further 
characterestics of ascites during its period of incubation. 
He, who does not experience a proper digestion of his inges- 
ted food, should do well to live on a wholesome diet. The 
strength of the patient is diminished, every day, and he 
feels tired after the least exertion. He becomes incapable 
of fixing his attention to any definite subject, and the least \ 
thinking distresses his mind. The limbs becomes emaciated, 
and the patient feels despondent and complains of a breaking 
pain in the pelvis, even after the scantiest meal. Somnolence, 
lassitude, loosr motions of the bowels, fondness for seclusion, 
impaired digestion with a burning sensation in the body, 
anasarca, and tympanites are the symptoms, which indicate 
the accumulation of water (serous fluid) in the abdomen* 
A case of Ascites invariably ends in death, and it is futile 
on the part of the patient's relations to mourn his death 
under the circumstauce. A rumbling souud is beard in the 


intestines, and the sorfAce of the abdomen becomes chequered 
with a net-work of veins. The intestines and the region 
of the nmbilicas becomes stuffed (with wind) in this disease, 
and an urging towards defecation vanishes as soon as it is 
experienced. In this VAtaja type, the patient experiences 
a pain in the groins, heart, and other parts of the l>odyi 
as well as about the waist, anus, and umbilicus. Flatus is 
often emitted with a loud report, and urine becomes scanty. 
All desire for food vanishes in this type of the disease, and the 
patient complains of a bad taste in his mouth. (Edematous 
swelling of the face, abdomen, and extremities, a breaking 
pain in the abdomen, or about the waist, sides, back, or other 
parts of the body, dry cough, pain in the limbs, heaviness of 
the nether regions of the body, suppression of stool, varied 
taste in the mouth, and a reddish or blackish colour of the skin 
are the further characteristics of the VAtaja type of Ascites. 
A breaking, piercing, pain is likewise experienced in the 
abdomen in this type, and the surface of the abdomen be* 
conies covered over with a fret*work of blue or black veins. 
The abdomen ^«;ts distended, and a variety of sound is heard 
within its cavity. The deranged bodily VAyu, which courses 
all through the organism, gives rise to various sounds and 
and diverse kinds of pain in the different parts of the body. 

Fever, epileptic fits, a bitter taste in the mouth, and a 
burning sensation in the body, vertigo, dysenteric stools, 
yellowness of the skin, and greenness of the skin of the 
distended abdomen are the symptom?, which mark the Pittaja 
type of Ascites. Yellow or copper-coloured veins appear on. 
the skin of the patient, who imagines as if fumes are escaping 
out of his body, and complains of constant* vanishings of 
sight. Perspiration becomes copious which does not relieve 
the intolerable burning sensation in the body. The abdomen 
is felt soft to the touch and speedily supperates in this 
(Pittaja) type of Ascites. 

Lassitude of the body, perspiration, osdematous sweliing 



of the limbs, heaviness of the body, somnolence whh tt 
non-relish for food, dyspnoea, coiJgh and whiteness of th« 
skin and conjanctivs are the features, which mark the 
Kaphaja t3rpeof Ascites. Tlte skin of the protruded abdo» 
men becomes glossy, and fretted with messes of black or white 
veins. On the excessive accumulation of waber (serous fluid) 
in the abdominal cavity, th« abdomen becomes hard, heavy, 
immoveable, and coid to the touch. In the Tridoshaja typ^ 
the symptoms peculiar to each of the three aforesaid types 
manifest themselves in unison. 

All the morbific principles of the body, in combination 
with the vitiated blood and accumulated fecal matter, find 
lodgment in the cavity of the abdomen, giving rise to vertigOi 
Epilrpsy, and emaciation in a form of Ascites in which symp» 
toms peculiar to the three morbific diathises of Vayu« 
Pittam, and Kaham are combinedly developed ; and suppura^ 
tion sets in early in the distended abdomen. The disease 
shows signs of aggravation in cold and windy days, and is 
extremely hard to cure. 

The spleen, which is situated in the left side of the 
abdominal cavity, is disloged (hangs down) from its seat 
through the ingestion of inordinate quantities of food, mental 
anxiety, or excessive riding or drinking, or through the abuse 
of emetics (excessive emisis). 

In the alternative, the spleen may increase in bulk through 
the accuinulalion of fat or engorgement of blood in its body» 
It becomes hard and raised like the back of a tortoise, and 
gradually tills a greater part of the abdominal cavity, bring* 
ing on dyspncea, cough, thirst, fever with a bad taste in the 
mouth, distension of the abdomen, yellowness of the skin, 
epileptic fits, vomiting, fainting, and a burning sensation in 
the body in its train. In abdominal dropsy due to enlarge- 
ment of the spleen, nets of red, blue, or yellow veins are 
found to appaer on the skin of the abdomen, and tympanites 
with suppression of stool and flatus, vertigo, and fever with 


ft burning sensation in the region of the heart are found to 

Similarly, the liver, which is situated in the upper part 
of the right side of the abdominal cavity, is pressed down 
from its natural position either throui^li a voluntary and cons- 
tant repression of any natural urging of the body, or through 
the heaviness of any of the surrounding appendages, or 
through eating without any relish for food, or in reason of 
its own indurated condition, gives rise, like the spleen, to a 
peculiar form of abdominal dropsy, which is called Yakritoda^ 
ram (lit Dropsy of the enlarged liver). The feces remain 
obstructed in the rectum of the patient as soon as the process 
of suppuration is established in the liver, producing dyspnoea, 
tympanites, etc. The enraged and aggravated V&yu, in this 
disease, arrests the secretion of bile, and those of the 
glands of the intestimes, thus obstructing the expulsion of 
the feces. The Apdna Vftyu, thus incarcerated in the 
abdominal cavity, brings on fever attended with cough, 
dyspncea, a gone feeling in the thighs, headache, an aching 
pain at the sides, in the limbs, or about the umbilicus, cons- ' 
tipation of the bowels, vomiting and a non*relish for food. 
The enraged bodily VSiyu should be regarded as the principal 
agent in engendering this, as well as every other,, form of 
abdominal dropsy. Blue or red veins are found to appear 
permanently on the skin of the dropsical abdomen, and 
the dropsy extends in the form of a cow's tail transvesely 
above the umbilicus, marked by crow-feet marks. 

The visceras of the abdominal cavity supparate in the 
event of any bone or foreign matter being pricked into the 
cavity of the abdomen. The abdominal dropsy engendered 
in consequence thereof is called Chhidrodara or Parisrdvy0^ ■ 
dara (Peritonitis) according to others The V&yu and 
Kapham in the system of an emaciated person, or of one of 
impaired digestive function or addicted to the habit of 
drinking large quantities of water, become enraged through 


such injudicious conduct, and arrest the discharge of the add 
secretions of the stomach, giving rise to an accumulation of 
water in the abdomen. Thirst, prolapsus ani, pain, coughi 
and dyspncea with a non relish for food, are the symptoms 
which are exhibited during the extremely aggravated stage of 
this disease. The surface of the distended abdomen becomes 
covered over with a net work of Vein!*. The abdomen js 
found to fluctuate under pressure, nnd is felt soft to the touch. 
In some cases the abdomen is felt to be firm and glossy like 
the abdomen of a heron, and the disease is found to invade 
the intestines. Th patient suffers from alternate fits of beat 
and rigor. In all types of Dropsy, neglect at the outset leads 
tu the further liquefication of the serous accumulations of the 
abdomen, which are diffused all through the organism, 
causing cedamatous swelling of the face, joints etc., and 
facilitating the accumulation of serous fluid in the vessels of 
the body. 

An obstruction of the ducts of the body that carry perspi- 
ration may help the accumulation of water in the abdomeo/ 
Purging or loose motions of the bowels precede an attack of 
this type of Ascites. The dropsy becomes firm, heavy, and 
spherical, and does not give the characteristic sound under 
percussion. The patient gets weaker, every day, and the 
disease becomes incurable as soon as it invades the internal 
vessels of the abdomen. A case of Ascites, in which the 
appearance of vejns on the surface of the bulged out abdo« 
men is obliterated, should be regarded as of a S2Lnnip&tika 

Of the different types of dropsy such as, the VStaja, Pittaja, 
Kaphaja, Plihaja (Dropsy of the enlarged spleen) and S9in- 
nipatika (due to the concerted action of the deranged Vftyu 
Pittam, and Kapham), and Dakodara (Ascites), each pre- 
ceding one should be regarded as more difficult to cure than 
the one immediately following it in the order of enumeration. 
All types of Dropsy, attended with the symptoms of obstruct- 

% • 


ed (flow), become iocarable after a fortnight from the date of 
their attack. A case of congenital Ascites invariably proves 



Dhanvantari :— Hear me, O Sushruta, now discourse on 
the Nidinrnm of chlorosis (Pdndu), QEdema and Anasarca 
(Shotha). The morbific principles of Viyu and Kapbab, m 
combination with the Pittam extremely aggravated tbrotigh 
their respective aggravating factors^ are carried upward in 
the region of the heart, the deranged and aggravated Vlyu 
supplies the motive power in these instances, and tbe ag- 
gravated Pittam, through the channels of tbe ten DhmmMms 
(nerves) which branch out from that localityi spreads all^ 
through the organism. The deranged Pittam vitiates tbe 
Kapham, blood, skin, and flesh of the body, imparting a varied 
hue to its fkin. As the colour of the skin largely becomes 
yellow (Pindu) like turmeric in this disease, it is called 
PSndu Roga (Jaundice). 

In the imaja type of Jaundice, tbe fundamental principles 
of the body become lighter and considerably lose their con* 
sistency. The patient suffers from a marked ansemia, the 
functions of the sense organs are impaired, tbe limbs become 
loose and flabby, the quantity of fat is diminished in the bodyi 
and the bones are deprived of their substance. The limbs 
get thinner and thinner every day, a clammy perspiration is 
felt in the region of tbe heart, a burning and addling sensa- 
tion is experienced both in the conjunctiva and sockets 
of the eyes, and tbe mouth becomes filled with saliva. TUrst 
is conspicuously absent. Tbe patient cannot bear the least 
coldi and abhors all cold things, and a perristent fever of 


equal intensity, attended with dyspnoea, earache, vertigo^ 
vanishings of si^ht, impaired digestion and horripilation Of> 
the skin of the head are found to supervene. 

The disease admits of being grouped under five subheads 
according as it is engendered through the several, or con- 
certed action of the morbific principles of the body. A pe-> 
culiar type of chlorosis is caused by eating earth, and the 
premonitory stage of all types of Jaundice develops such 
symptoms as, perspiration about the region of the heart, dry- 
ness of the skin with a repugnance for food, yellowness and 
scantyness of urine, or absence of perspiration. 

The Vataja type of Chlorosis is marked by lassitude of the 
body, a stupour like that of a drunkard, and an excruciating 
pain in the limbs. The veins, finger-nails, feces, urine, and 
conjunctive assume a black colour, or loook dry and coloured 
like vermilion, and cedematous swelling of the limbs aad 
dryness of the feces and of the mouth and the nostrils are 
the symptoms which further characterise this type of the 
disease. In the Pittaja type the veins become either yellow 
or greenish coloured, and fever with thirst, fainting, vanish- 
ings of sight, heat, and emaciation of the body with a bitter 
taste in the mouth and longing for cold things are found ta 

Diarrhoea, acid risings, a burning sensation in the body^ 
clamminess of the cardiac region, somnolence, a saline taste 
in the mouth, cough, and vomitting are the features which 
mark the Kaphaja type of Jaundice, which is very distressing 
in its effect. The expectorated mucous in this disease ac- 
quires a pungent or sweetish taste either through a preponder- 
ance of the deranged VSyu or Pittam. The deranged phlegm 
vitiates the fundamental principles of fat etc., of the body, 
and produces a condition of parchedness in the organism 
which results in haemorrage. The deranged Kaphah, as 
before described, obstructs the internal vessels of the body, 
. and thereby produces its general emaciation. In Jaundice, 



the face of the patient gets thinner^ the scrottm tod the 
muscles of the calves and abdomen are withered up, and the, 
patient passes stool which is mixed with blood and raucous^ 
and contains hosts of little intestinal worma. 

An injudicious use of extremely Pitta-generating food 
by a Jaundice-patient is followed by an attack of KimatA 
(Chlorosis). The deranged and aggravated Pittam, in thia 
disease, coming out of its teat in the abdominal cavity, scor- 
ches up the flesh and the blood. The urioft, eyes, skin, face 
and feces of the patient assume a yellow colour, and thirsty. 
and indigestion with a burning sensation in the body are found 
to supervene. The patient lies like a bloated toad, weak ia 
all his limbs and organs. The unassimilated Pittam, in thia 
disease, gives rise to a kind of general anasarca, which, beingr 
neglected, may run into a case of KmmNkm KSmati. The. 
undigested bile produces greenness of complexion, the de« 
ranged VSyu and Pittam give rise to vertigo and thirst, and 
a low fever with fondness for female company, somnolencei. 
extreme lassitude, and impaired digestion are the synptoma 
which mark the premonitory stage of HMiimmk. 

I have already, told you, O Sustruta, that Soikm is one 
of the most dreadful diseases, now hear me discourse oa 
the Nidftnam of that disease. The deranged Viyu, by 
driving the deranged iCapham (phlegm), Pittam and blood 
to the external vessels of the body, make them incarcerated 
in the local skin and flesh, giving rise to a raited and compact 
swelling which is called a S^ihm. The disease may be divided 
into nine different types according to the difference of the 
morbific principle acting as its exciting factor, inclusive of 
those which are of . extraneous origin, or are caused by ardent 
sexual passion. The last named kinds of S^otham extends 
all over the body. The swellings may be divided into three 
clashes according as they are extended, raised and pointed^ 
or knotty and concurrent in shape. The several actioot of 
the deranged Viyu, Pittam and Kapham may be aet down- as 


the exciting causes of all forms of swellings, and they are 
often found to invade persons emaciated with disease^ over 
work, or fasting. Ingestion of inordinate quantities of pot 
herbs, or of extremely cooling, saline, acid or alkaline articles 
of fare, drinking of large quantities of water, and excessive 
sleep or wakefulness may likewise serve to 'bring on an 
attack of S'otba. Suppression of any natural urging of 
body, ingestion of dry meat, or of heavy and indigestible 
articles of fare, or excessive riding are the factors which tend 
to obstruct the orRces of the vessels of the body, thus 
causing the appearance of an cedematous swelling about the 
locality of obstruction, 'dyspncea, cough, dysentery, haemor- 
boids, ascites, leucorrhoea, fever, tympanites, vomiting and 
hiccough may be manifest as supervening, distressing symp- 
toms in a case of oedema. The morbific principles of the 
deranged VSyu, Pittam and Khpham, finding, lodgmsnt in 
in the upper, middle, or lower part of the body, or in the 
urinary bladder, may give rise to an cedematous swelling 
about the seat of their lodgment, while spreading all through 
the organism they may give rjse to a general anasarca. An 
increased temperature of the body, heaviness of the limbs, 
and a kind of breaking, expanding pain in the veins are the 
symptoms which mark the premonitory stage of oedema. 

In the V§taja (nervous) type of oedema, the swelling is 
found to be shifting in its character. It assumes a blackish 
or reddish colour, and is felt rough to the touch. The hairs 
about the base of the swelling become rough, and the patient 
complains of a breaking pain about the temporal bones or 
in the urinary bladder, pelvis and the intestimes, and suflFers 
badly from insominia. The swelling is speedy in its growth 
and even in its formation, and perceptibly yields to pressure^ 
entirely disappearing after massage. After the application 
of a mustard plaster to it, a sort of tingling sensation is 
experienced inside the swelling, which increases in size 
during the night and markedly subsides during the day. 


In the Pittaja type, the swelling assomes m black, red or 
yellow coloufi and is marked by a bumiiig sensation in its 
inside ; the swelling does not readily sobtide, and an intoIer« 
able burning sensation of the body indicates its advent. 
Fever with thirst and a burning sensation in the skin, pers-' 
piration, vertigo, stupor, and loose motions of the bowels are 
its distressing concomitants. The swellbg emits m peculiar 
fetid smell, yields to pressure, and is felt soft to the touch. 

In the Kaphaja type, the swelling assumes m grey colour 
and becomes cold, glossy, firm and hard-skinned. An itching 
sensation is experienced in its inside, and somnolence, aching 
pain and impaired digestion are the symptoms whidi mani- 
fest themselves with the progress of this type of the 

An osdematous swelling may appear at the effect of a 
stroke, blow, cut, or wound, or as the outcome of an expo* 
sure to cold winds, or see-breezes, or that of being rubbed 
with a Kapikachchhu berry or with the juice of BAmlUisiMm. 
It may also appear in the body of a person after a long pedes- 
trean journey. All these kinds of swelling are narked bf 
extreme heat, and exhibit symptoms- peculiar to the Pittaja 
type. Similarly, the touch of a venomous reptile, or that of 
its excretions, or a bite by a venomous animal, or an expo- 
sure 10 a breeze blowing over poisonous trees, aiaelliag of 
dusts and pollens of poisonous flowers are the factors which 
may likewise produce swellings of the bodf. These swelliogs 
are soft and shifting, and usually appear about the lower part 
of the body. A swelling of recent origin, unattended witb 
any of the dbtressing symptoms, may be easily cured, wUlo 
one of the opposite kind should tie regarded as'iacarable. 



DiiANVANTARi said : — Hear me, O Sushruta, now discourse 
on the Niddnam of Visarpa (Erysipelas). To some extent, 
Gcdema (S'otha) and Erysipelas may -be attributed, to the 
same causes ; and a wound, in no small number of cases, 
has been known to bring about an attack of this disease. 
Erysipelas usually attacks those parts of the body which have 
been already described as the peculiar seats of cedematous 
swellings ; and fright and exhaustion, like the voluntary sup- 
pression on any natural urging of the body, may be enumera- 
ted as the exciting factors of cases of External Erysipelas. 
Of the several (Vataja^ Pittaja, Kaphaja, Sannip&taja) 
types of erysipelas, each preceding type is more difficult to 
cure than the one immediately following it in the order of 
enumeration. The morbific principles of the deranged 
V^yu, Pittam, and Kapham, aggravated through their res- 
pective aggravating factors and specially through the inges- 
tion of articles of fare which are followed by a reactionary 
acidity after digestion in the stomach, penetrate deep into 
the organism from their locations in the superficial principles 
of the body. An unappeased thirst, or a voluntary repression 
of any natural urging of the body, under the circumstance, 
again throws them up to the surface of the skin, bringing 
on an attack of external erysipelas. 

In the '\(SLtaja type of erysipelas, symptoms peculiar to 
the Vatika fever manifest themselves, a throbbing sensation 
is experienced in the belbs, and an aching, picreing pain is 
felt in the swelling, attended with horripilation. In the 
Pittaja type, the erysipelas shifts from one place to 
another, and the patches assume an extremely red colour, 
attended with fever. In the Kaphaja type of erysipelas, an 
itching sensation is felt in the affected parts, which assume 


ft glossy aspect, and svnnptoms peculiar to^Kaphaja (cattar* 
rhal) fever exhibit themselves. In the S^nnipltika type of 
erysipelas, symptoms peculiar to the there above said types 
manifest themeelves in unison, and the belbs are characterised 
by diverse kinds of pain. In the type due to the concerted 
action of the deranged Vftyu and Pittam (Agni Visarpa) 
fever, vomiting, fainting, diarrhoea, (or dysentery), thirst, and 
vertigo soon develop themselves. A breaking pain is experi- 
enced in the joints, the digestion is inpaired, all desires for 
food are gon^, and the patient suffers from vanishings of 
sight, and feels as if his whole body has been covered with 
live charcoal. The erysipelas swiftly shifts from one part 
of the body to another, leaving blue or black, burn*like, stains 
at its former seats. The disease gradually* invades the vital* 
principles of the body (such as the marrow etc.,) giving rise to 
an aching pain in the limbs ; and unconsciousness, insomnia, 
dyspncea, and hic-cough add to the trouble of the patient. The 
patient finds no relief in any posture whatsoever, and vainly 
tosses about on the ground in quest of relieving coolness. 
Stupor or unconsciousness gradually creeps over bis mind, 
out of which the patient can be hardly roused up, until death 
comes and relieves him of his trouble. This disease is called 
Agni Viarpa, 


The deranged Kapham, obstructed by the aggravated 
V&yu, is divided into many parta, and gives rise to a kind 
of round, extensive, painful, thick, rough and confluent 
patcbes of rrvidpelas by vitiatincf the blood, skin, veins, lif^a- 
inents, and blood (in the flesh) oi a man oi Kanguiiiouit (tem- 
perament) in combination with the aggra\ated' Vayu of his 
system. The erysipelas, thus generated is called Granihi 
Visarpa. Fever, dyspncea, cough, dysentery, parchedness 
of the mouth, hiccough, vomiting, vertigo, drowsiness, epilep- 
tic fits, dullness of complexion, pain in the limbs),and impaired 
digestive faculty are the symptoms^ which mark this type of 



Erysipelas, which is due to the action of the deranged VSjni 
and Kapham. 

The type of Eiysipelas, known as Kardama (sloughing) 
yisarpa^ which is due to the action of the deranged Kapham 
and Pittam, develops such symptoms as numbness of the 
body, excessive sleep or somnolence, headache, weakness, jerkjr 
movements of the limbs, delirium, vertigo, repugnance for 
food, epileptic fits, impaired digestion, a breaking pain in the 
bones, thirst, dullness of the senses, passing of undigested fecal 
matter, and deposit of mucous in the internal ducts of the 
body. The stomach is the seat of the Kapham and Pittam, 
hence, the disease (Erysipelas), first originating in the stomach, 
spreads and confines itself to any particular part of the body. 
A slight pain characterises this kind of Erysipelas (kardama) 
which becomes studded over with red, yellow, or grey co« 
loured pustules. The Erysipelas assumes a glossy, black, 
blackish, or variegated colour. It becomes hot and heavy« 
marked by much swelling which exudes a slimy secretion, and 
suppuration takes place in its deeper strata. The Erysipelas, 
when bursts, emits an extremely offensive smell, attended 
with sloughing of flesh which exposes che veins and ligaments 
in its inside. This kind of erysipelas (Kardama Visarpd^ 
is so called from the fact of its secreting a copious slimy 
discharge which emits cadaverous smell. 

The Viyu, enraged by a blow or hurt, vitiates the blood 
and Pittam in the incidental wound, and produces a kind of 
Erysipelas about its locality which becomes studded with 
crops of belbous eruptions, resembling Kulattha pulse. This 
kind of erysipeals is called Kshataja Visarpa, and is charac« 
terised by fever with a pain and burning sensation in its inside. 
The blood in this type assumes a blackish red colour. A 
case of Erysipelas, originating through the action of any of 
the several morbific principles of the deranged VSyu, Pittam 
and* Kapham, is curable ; cases at the root of which two such 
morbific principles lie as their exciting factors, and which 


tn without any complicatbo may yield to meA«at kroataieol^ 
while those which are of a SAoDipltika origm and emit m 
cadaverous smell, are situated at any of the Mannas^ and are 
attended with sloughing, laying bare the internal Teina and 
l^aments, should be regarded as 11 



Dhanvaniari said:— The principles of the deranged 
Vayu, Pittam, and Kapham, aggravated through the agency 
of injudicious diet and conduct, or through the dynamics of 
sinful acts or Karma^ are sent coursing through the Yessela 
of the body, which thereby vitiating the blood, fat, flesh, and 
skin of the locality, are kept bcarcerated in the surface 
of the skin, bringing about a discolouring of the skin. These 
diseases are called Kushtham • (cutaneous affections)* 
Neglected at the outset, these Kushthas spread all over the 
body, gradually invading the fundamental principles of the 
organism, whether external or internal. The affected parts 
become contracted, and are characterised by the absencei or 
discharge, of a clammy perspiration. Later on parasites are 
found to germinate in those localidesi which gradually 
attack the t kin, hairs, and vessels of the part. In the type 
known as Vahaya (external) Kushtham^ the body of tho 
patient appears as if it has been dusted with ashes. 

The disease (Kushtham) admits of being divided bto 
seven kinds according to the several, duplicate, or concerted 
actions of the morbific principles of the deranged VlyUf 
Pittam, and Kaphah, such as the ViUja, PitUja, Khapaja» 
V&ta-pittaja, Vau-Shleshmaja, Pitta-shledimaja, and Slaoi* 
pitika types. In each type of Kushtluun the deranged Vt/n^ 


Pittaih and Kapham are found to act in unison, thongfc the 
action of any one of them may predominate therein. 

The type of Kushtham, which is due to the action of 
the deranged VJlvu, is called KapSlla ; that which is due to 
the deranged Pittam is called Audumvura ;' and that which 
has its origin in the deranged Kapham is called Mandala. 
Besides these, the types known as VicharchikS and Rishyajihva 
originate through the action of the deranged VSiyu and 
Pittam, the types known as Charmakushtha (Prurigo), 
Kitima (Keloid tumour), Alasa and VipSdikft owe their 
origin to the deranged V^yu and Sleshma, while the types 
known as Dadru (Ring worm], Shataru. Pundarika, Vishphota, 
PAm^ Shidhma (leucoderma) and Charmadala ilmpertigo) 
are brought about through the action of the deranged 
Pittam and Kapham. Of all these types of Kushtham, Dadru 
and Kikana Kushthas should be regarded as most common 

The seven types such as the Pundarika etc., are called 
Maha Kushthas (Leprosy). The affected patches in this 
disease become soft and rough. Perspiration may be entire- 
Ijr absent, or a kind of clammy perspiration may be felt in' 
these localities. An itching, burning sensation in the akiny 
attended with complete anaesthesia and contraction of 
the spots, marks the premonitory stage of this desease, and 
the patient suffers from vanishings of sight. A large number 
of ulcers or patches are found to appear at a time in this 
disease, which become permament (refuse to be healed), and 
an aching pain is constantly experienced tn their inside. 
The patches, just after their appearance, are felt rough to 
the touch, and the deranged Viyu, Pittam and Kaphab 
in these spots are extremely agc^ravated even at a sKght 
exciting cause. Thinness or poverty of blood, and horrlipi- 
lation are the premonitory symptoms of all types of 
Kushtham. The forehead of the patient, during this stage, 
becomes blackish, or reddishi iben dry and rough. The diseaae 


shaper of the universe), PrajSpati (the lord of created beings)« 
SrashtiL (creator), Vibhu (lord), Vishnu (the all pervading one) 
Samharta (destroyer) and Mrityu (Dealth) to that end. 

A correct knowledge of physiological and pathological 
(Prikrita and Vaikrita) processes is necessary for a correct 
diagnosis of a disease. The combined and several actions 
of the morbific principles should be taken into consideration in 
arriving at a correct diagnosis. Niddnam (i&iology), premoni- 
tory symptoms, speci6c features, spontaneous aggravation or 
amelioration, and the exciting causes are the five factors 
which are included within the Prdkrita Karma (physiological 
cogitations). I shall now discourse on the causes and symp«* 
toms of V&ta Vyddhi (diseases of the nervous system) in the 
light of this Prdkrita Karma, One should at once abjure 
the use of articles that tend to destroy any fundamental 
principle of the Organism whenever there may be symp- 
toms to indicate that the bodily V^yu has been agitated or 
affected by their use. The deranged Vflyu chokes up the 
orifices of the vessels and keeps them stuffed. The vessels, 
thus stuffed up with the morbific principles of the body, send 
the deranged Vdyu to its surface, which, in its turn, chokes 
up the pores of the skin, causing colic, tympanites, rumbling 
in the intestines, suppression of the stool, loss of voice, 
and obstruction of sight, with a catching pain at the waist 
and back, as precursors to more dreadful diseases. 

Vdta Vyddhi located in (diseases of the nerves of) the 
stomach gives rise to vomiting, dyspnoea, cough, violent 
purging, itching sensations and diverse kinds of diseases 
above the region of the umbilicus. Similarly, the dermnged 
VAyu, located in the internal ducts (Sro/as) of the bodjr, 
produces cracking and dryness of the skin, escruciting 
pain, sallowness of complexion, symptoms of poisoningi 
tympanites with a non-relish for food, emaciation of the 
body, vertigo, glandular growths, and roughness of the skin. 
1 he body seems heavy and painful as if it has been violenll/ 


The form of Kiishtbam in which the patches are marked 
ivith red markS| being thin at their upper ends, and charac- 
terised by an extremely itching sensationi and which appear 
usually at the hands and legs are called Vip&dikS. An ez« 
eructating pain and an in tolerable itching sensation mark the 
several types of Kustham which become studded with red 
pustules and spread like the roots of Durva grass, tinged 
with a colour like that of an Atasi flower. In the type 
known as Dadru (Ring worm), the patches are found to be 
a little elevatedi distributed in ring-like grooves and are at- 
tended with an itching sensation. In the type due to the con- 
certed action of the deranged ViyU| Pittam and Kapham, the 
patches are found to be thick at the base, marked by bleed- 
ing and a burning sensation in the incidental ulcers, which 
break out in large numbers. Grey, or red coloured, circular 
patches, attended with pain and burning, appear on the skin 
of the patient in this type of Leprosy. The type in which 
raised, reddish, patches, like dried leaves, studded over with 
white or red-coloured vesicles, appear on the skin, is called 
Pundarikam. In the type known as PSmft, the patches are 
marked by a pain and itching sensation, and assume a reddish 
or dusky hue, covered over with dry, erysipilatous eruptions, 
and usually appear about the elbow, hands, and the lumbar 
region. An excruciating pain and an intolerable burning 
sensation mark the types known as KSkana, Charmadala 
etc., The colour of the patches in the KSikana type i» 
at first red which changes into black,- resembling the wash- 
ings of TriphaU. The patches in ' all tyes of leprosy may 
subsequently assume a black hue through the agency of 
their respective exciting factors. The exciting factor id 
each case should be ascertained with regard to the colour 
of the leprous patches and the symptoms, specifically 
developed therein. A case of Kustham originated through 
the action of any particular morbific principle should be 
abandoned as incurable, as soon as its complication with the 


Other two of the morbic principles of (V&yu, Pittam and 
' Kapham) would be detected. A cases o( Kus^tham in which 
the virus is found to invade the organic principles of bone, 
or semen, should be considered as extremely hard to cure. 
With the help of suitable medicines, the disease may be 
suppressed, for the time being, in cases where the virus 
affects the fat only, while a radical cure may be expected 
in those in which only the fish and bones are affected. 
Cases of Kushtham, originated through the action of the 
deranged Vftyu and Kapham, should be regarded as incurable, 
like those which are confined only to the skin, and do not 
secrete any discharge or cast any sediment. 

Discolouring and dryness of the skin are all that 
characterise a case of Kushtham confined only to the skin, 


while perspiration, heat, and swelling at and of the palms of 
hands and soles of feet, appearance of belbous ulcers about the 
joints, and an extreme pain are the symptoms which become 
manifest in cases in which the virus attacks the blood. The 
adipose tissues of the body seem as if being crushed, and 
suffer a markt-d deterioration through the virulence of the 
deranged V2yu, Pittam, and Kapham, in this disease. The 
voice becomes sunk and hollow, the eye sight is impaired, 
and bones, fat and marrow are destroyed with the progress 
of this dreadful scourge. The parasites destroy the organic 
principle of semen in the patient, disqualifyingbim to dis« 
charge his conjugal duties. All the abovesaid forms of 
Kushtham with their respective specific symptoms may attack 
even the lower animals. 

The disease known as S'vitram (Leucoderma) as well as 
the dreadful KilSsa originate from the same cause as Kush* 
tham. Both these forms of disease are Don^bleeding, and 
involve the concerted action of the three morbific principles 
of the deranf^ed VSyu, Pittam, and Kapham. In the VAtajm 
type of S'vitra, the patches become dry and vermiUcoloured, 
while in the Pittaja type they are found to be copper-colouredi 


like lotus leaves. A burning sensation is present in these 
patches, and the virus attacks the hairs of the affected 
parts, causing their entire destruction (them to fall off) in 
this type. In the Kaphaja type of S'vitra, the patches be* 
t:ome thick and twhite, attended with an itching sensation. 
The virus gradually and successively attacks the organic prin« 
ciples of blood, flesh, and fat in both these diseases, which 
become more and more difficult to cure as it invades these 
succcessive principles. Both S'vitra and KilSLsa (Psoriasis) 
originate from the same cause, and the patches in similar 
types of both of them are found to assume the same colour. 
Cases of recent origin in which the patches are not confluent, 
and the local hairs have not become white, and which are 
not the results of burns or scalds, may be expected to be 
cured, the rest should be given up as incurable. Cases of 
KiUsa even of recent origin, in which the spots (patches) 
are found to appear on the lips, or on the palms of hand, or 
on the soles of feet, or about the anus, should be specially 
given up as incurable. All diseases, and cataneous affections 
in special, are contagious ; and are contaminated from one 
person to another through the use of the same bed, seat, 
unguent, apparels etc., with a diseased person. 


DhaNVANTARI said :-^Bodily parasites may be divided into 
two classes according as they are external or internal in 
their origin. The external parasites of the body, again, may 
be divided in their turn into four species according as they 
germinate from mucous secretions, bodily excrements, fecal 
matter, or blood of the body. Twenty varities of parasitesj 


each with a corresponding epithet of its own, have been 
enumerated (in the A'yurveda). 

The external bodily parasites are but the offspring of 
the excrementitious matter of the body—vermin of the shape 
and colour of mustard seeds that usually infest ttie hairs 
and wearing apparels of persons of uncleanly habits. Although 
of extremely attenuated size, they are provided with a large 
number of tiny legs^ Yukas and Likhyas being the represen- 
tatives of these species. Two of these species should be 
regarded as the cause of two different diseases such as 
Urticaria {Kotha) and Itches (Kandu), All types of cutaneous 
affections Kushtham) should be attributed to the presence of 
para.^ites in the skin. The external parasites originate from 
the mucous discharges or secretions of the body. The 
deranged Kapliah in the system, augmented through in- 
gestions of incompatible aiticles of fare as treacle, sweet 
ric, milk, milk-curd, fish or newly harvested rice, give 
rise to the germination of a kind of worms, which, when 
fully developed, spread therefrom all through the organism. 
S )ine of them are circular in shape like the solar disc, 
some of them are shaped like common earth worm, some 
are long and transparent, while others are like newly 
sprouting paddy. Some of them are white and striated in 
shape, while others are copper-coloured. There are seven 
varieties of internal worms which are respectively named 
as the Anirdda (Gnawer of the intestines), Udaraveitm 
(encompassrr of the abdomen), Hridayida (eater of the 
heart;, Maha^uda (the great rectal one) Chyura, Dardka* 
Kttsuma (D.iibha flower^ m\A Sugandha ^Odoriferous one). 
I'he presence of any of these kinds of parasites in the 
human systen) is marked by nausea, water brash, indigestion, 
swoon iitgs. vomiting, fever, tympanites with suppression 4A 
the stool, flatus and urine, emaciation of the body, purging and 
runnin'^ at the nose. The extremely small parasites, which 
arc found in the blood or blood-carrying vessels, are roundf 



copper colouredi and are devoid of legs. Several varieties of 
these parasites are so small as to be invisible to the naked 
eyes. Six of these species, which have been named as 
Kes'dda (hair-eater), Roma-Vidhvansa (destroyer of bodily 
hairs) Udamvara (Bgcoloured), Roma dvipa, Saurasa, and 
Mdtri should be regarded as the primary cause of Leprosy 
and of cutaneous affections in general. 

The worms, which grow out of the feces in the intestines, 
usually travel in a downward direction to the anus, but 
when fully developed they ascend into the stomach, impart- 
ing a smell like feces to breaths, and eructations. Some 
of these varieties are elongated in shape, some are round, 
some are extremely attenuated in size, some are white, some 
black, some yellow, and some brown. They are respectively 
known as Kakerukas, Makerukas, Sansuradas, Kasul&khyas 
and Lalebas. Travelling in contrary directions, these in« 
testinal worms produce purging, colic, tympanites, emacia- 
tion of the body with dark rings round the eyes, palour, 
horripilation, impaired digestion, and an itching sensation 
about the anus. 



Dhanvantaki said :— Hear me, O Sushruta, now discourse 
on the Niddnam of the diseases of the nervous system ( Vtta* 
\yddhi). A disturbance of the normal equilibrium among 
the different fundamental ptinciples of the organism is the 
root of all bodily distempers. The bodily Vftyu, deranged 
through any unknown or invisible factor, makes the body 
inert and inoperative. A man should always endeavour to 
keep his body in health in conjunction with the efforts of 
Bis'vakarmS, (the architect of the universe), Vis'varupa (the 


shaper of the universe), PrajSpati (the lord of created beings), 
Srasht& (creator), Vibhu (lord), Vishnu (the all pervading one) 
Samharta (destroyer) and Mrityu (Dealth) to that end. 

A correct knowledge of physiological and pathological 
{Prikriia and Vaikriia) processes is necessaiy for a correct 
diagnosis of a disease. The combined and several actions 
of the morbific principles should be taken into consideration in 
arriving at a correct diagnosis. Niddnam (iEtiology), premoni- 
tory symptoms, specific features, spontaneous aggravation or 
amelioration, and the exciting causes are the five factors 
which are included within the Prikriia Karma (physiological 
cogitations). I shall now discourse on the causes and symp« 
toms of Vd