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Full text of "Gas, gasoline, and oil-engines, including producer-gas plants ... describing and illustrating the theory, design, construction, and management of the explosive motor for stationary, marine, and vehicle motor power"

GIFT OF 
Marston Campbell, Jr. 




JLihzarv 



This NEW and REVISED EDITION of GAS, 
GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES, by Gardner D. 
Hiscox, is a NET BOOK, and must be sold by the 
book trade at the RETAIL PRICE of $2.50. 

THE NORMAN W. HENLEY PUBLISHING Co. 

PUBLISHERS 
132 NASSAU STREET, NEW YORK, U. S. A. 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 

INCLUDING 

PRODUCER-GAS PLANTS; 



A NEW, COMPLETE, AND PEACTICAL WORK ON 

GAS, GASOLINE, KEROSENE, AND CRUDE PETROLEUM OIL-ENGINES, 
INCLUDING PRODUCER-GAS PLANTS FOR GAS-ENGINE OWNERS, GAS 
ENGINEERS, AND INTENDING PURCHASERS OF GAS-ENGINES, FUL- 
LY DESCRIBING AND ILLUSTRATING THE THEORY, DESIGN, CON- 
STRUCTION, AND MANAGEMENT OF THE EXPLOSIVE MOTOR FOR 

STATIONARY, MARINE, AND VEHICLE MOTOR POWER 

BY 

GARDNER D. HISCOX, M.E. 

Author of "Mechanical Movements, " Compressed Air," etc., etc. 



INCLUDING A LIST OF UNITED STATES PATENTS ISSUED ON 
THE GAS-ENGINE INDUSTRY TO THE PRESENT TIME 

A NEW BOOK FROM COVER TO COVER 
ENTIRELY RESET, REVISED, AND ENLARGED 

ILLUSTRATED BY THREE HUNDRED AND FIFTY-ONE ENGRAVINGS 
SIXTEENTH EDITION 



NEW YORK 

THE NORMAN W. HENLEY PUBLISHING Co. 

132 NASSAU STREET 

1907 




Engineering 
Library 

COPYRIGHTED, 1907, BY 
THE NORMAN W. HENLEY PUBLISHING CO. 



COPYRIGHTED, 1905, BY 
THE NORMAN W. HENLEY PUBLISHING CO. 



COPYRIGHTED, 1904, BY COPYRIGHTED, 1898, BY 

THE NORMAN W. HENLEY PUB. Co. NORMAN W. HENLEY & Co. 



COPYRIGHTED, 1897, BY 
NORMAN W. HENLEY & Co. 



COPYRIGHTED, 1902, BY 
NORMAN W. HENLEY & Co. 



Entered at Stationers' Hall, London, England 



All Rights Reserved 



COMPOSITION, ELECTROTYPING AND PRESS- 
WORK BY TROW DIRECTORY, PRINTING AND 
BOOKBINDING COMPANY, NEW YORK, U. S. A. 



PREFACE TO THE SIXTEENTH EDITION 

A BOOK representing and illustrating the details of design, 
manufacture, and management of a new and progressive prime- 
moving power, falls behind its time. by age and therefore needs re- 
arrangement and additions to bring its text and illustrations up 
to date in all the departments of such progressive industry. 

There is probably no more important mechanical industry, 
involving the production of motive power for all purposes within 
the age of steam, than that of the explosive motor and its far-reach- 
ing effect in the promotion of industry by a cheap helping hand. 

So quickly has this new power expanded to almost universal 
usefulness as a labor-saving element in the lesser industries, that 
the literature of the past is found lacking in its up-to-date needs. 
Progress and improvement are the drift of genius in this advanced 
age. The progress made in adapting the use of crude petroleum 
as fuel for explosive power, together with the rapid development 
of the producer-gas industry, have given a new economy in the 
production of power, while the use of the hitherto neglected gaseous 
elements of the blast-furnace and coke manufacture have added 
new sources of power production at a nominal cost. 

With these matters in view the author has revised, rewritten, 
and added to the contents of the last edition of this work such 
material and ideals that have come to his knowledge as will better 
represent the latest standards of construction and operation of the 
explosive motor ; to which is included an illustrated chapter on the 
production of the new fuel gases and their uses. 

The producer, suction, blast-furnace, and coke-oven gases, which 
are now coming to the front on a large scale for economic power, 
are included in this work, while crude petroleum and its conversion 
into power fuel is described and illustrated in the chapter on Oil- 
Vapor Motors. It has a growing usefulness as the cheapest power 
fuel where the erection of gas-plants are not convenient. 

7 

834143 



8 GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 

The insurance interest has formulated rules and regulations for 
the safe installation of gasoline-motors and producer-gas plants, 
which are given a place in this edition as a much needed matter of 
reference. 

The list of patents has been extended into the past year, and 
a list of the manufacturers of explosive motors of all types, in the 
United States and Canada, has been added for the information of 
inquirers. 

The publishers have had the entire work reset from new type, 
and have .added several hundred new illustrations. The book has 
therefore been brought right up to date. 

GARDNER D. Hiscox. 
JANUARY, 1907 



CONTENTS 

CHAPTER I 

PAGE 

Introductory 15 

Historical Progress of Explosive Power 17 

CHAPTER II 

Theory of the Gas and Gasoline Engines. Heat and its Work. Iso- 
thermal and Adiabatic Law. Formulas and Examples. Tables 20 

CHAPTER III 

Utilization of Heat and its Efficiency in Explosive Motors. Tables 
and Diagrams. Temperatures and Pressures. Formulas and 
Examples ,32 

CHAPTER IV 

Retarded Combustion, Wall-Cooling, and Compression Efficiencies. 

Advanced Ignition. Diagrams 46 

CHAPTER V 

Compression in Explosive Motors and its Work. Formulas, Tables, 

and Diagram. Examples 54 

CHAPTER VI 

Causes of Loss and Inefficiency in Explosive Motors. Combustion 

Chamber, its Form and Influence 59 

CHAPTER VII 

Economy of the Gas-Engine for Electric Lighting. Merits of the Two 

and Four Cycle Type. Charge Distribution 63 

9 



10 CONTENTS 



CHAPTER VIII 

PAGE 

The Materials of Power in Explosive Engines. Illuminating Gas, 
Natural Gas, Producer-Gas, Gasoline, Kerosene, Acetylene, and 
Alcohol. Composition and Fuel Valves. Tables . . . .70 



CHAPTER IX 

Carbureters and Vaporizers. Vapor-Gas for Explosive Motors. Atom- 
izing Carbureters and Vaporizers. Methods of Starting Motors . 85 



CHAPTER X 

Cylinder Capacity of Gas and Gasoline Engines. Tables of Sizes and 
Powers. Cylinder Diameter, Stroke, and Motor Parts. Table 
of Motor Dimensions 106 



CHAPTER XI 

Governors and Valve-Gear. Fly-Ball, Inertia, and Pendulum Types. 

Direct Valve-Gear. Cams . 112 



CHAPTER XII 

Explosive-Motor Ignition. Hot-Tube Igniters. Timing Valves. 
Electric Ignition. Primary Batteries, Sparkling Coils, Magnetos, 
Dynamos, and Multicylinder Ignition. Break-Spark Devices. 
Ignition-Plugs. Exploder, Jump-Spark Coil. Dash Coil. Non- 
Synchronous Action of Vibrator. Wiring for Sparking and Jump- 
Spark Coils. Multiple-Spark Timer 122 



CHAPTER XIII 
Cylinder Lubrication. Mufflers. Gas-Bag. Constant Oil-Feed . .162 

CHAPTER XIV 

Constructive Details and Parts of the Explosive Motor. Cylinder, 
Piston, Piston-Rod, Crank, Journal Bearings, and Counter-Bal- 
ance. Self-Oiling Journal Box 167 



CONTENTS 11 

CHAPTER XV 

PAGE 

Explosive-Motor Dimensions. Formulas for Parts. Worm-Gear. 
Valves and Their Design. Rotary Valves. Motor-Cycles. Cam 
Design. Diagrams 178 

CHAPTER XVI 

Types and Details of the Explosive Motor. Day Model.: Root Model. 
Non-Vibrating Model. Automobile and Stationary Models. 
Differential Piston and Scavenging Models. Plans and Models of 
Various Builders. Air-Cooled Motor. The Lightest Motor. 
Balanced and Combination Motors. Special Valves and Valve- 
Gear. Kerosene-Motors. Double - Acting Motors. Opposed 
Cylinder Motors. Water-Cooled Valves. Curious Two-Cylinder 
Motor. The Scavenging Engine. Cooling Radiators. Fan- 
Cooled Motor. Starting Clutches. Reversing Gear. Speed Gears 
for Automobiles. Vehicle-Motor Starter. Foot Treadle. Safety 
Device 191 

CHAPTER XVII 

The Measurement of Power. Prony Brake. Tachometer. The Indi- 
cator and its Work. Vibration of Buildings and Floors . . 250 

CHAPTER XVIII 

The Management of Explosive Motors. Pointers on Explosive 

Motors. Troubles Explained 262 

CHAPTER XIX 

Explosive-Engine Testing. Back-Firing in Explosive Motors. Fire 

Underwriters' Regulations for Gasoline-Engines .... 272 

CHAPTER XX 

Gas and Gasoline Motors. The Amateur's Motor. Gemmer, Westing- 
house, Lambert, Union, Blakeslee, Hartig, Root & Vandervoort, 
Hubbard, Fairbanks, Morse and Company, Motors. Crude-Oil 
Generators 284 



12 CONTENTS 

CHAPTER XXI 

PAGE 

Marine Motors. Marine Engines and Their Work. Table, Size of 
Engines and Boats. Bridgeport, Yacht Gas-Engine and Launch 
Company Motors. Racing Launch. Godshalk and Company 
Motors. J. J. Parker Company and Standard Construction Com- 
pany Motors. Trawl Boats. Mianus, Hall Brothers', Lozier, 
Cushman, and Smalley Motors 313 

CHAPTER XXII 

Motor-Bicycles, Tricycles, and Automobiles. Thor Motor-Bicycle. 
Operation of the Motor-Bicycle. Mitchell Motor-Bicycle. 
Tricycle Motor. Brennan and Chadwick Motors. Dynamo 
Governor for Automobiles 336 

CHAPTER XXIII 

Kerosene, Distillate, and Petroleum Oil Motors. International Power . 
Vehicle Company, Kerosene Oil Engine Company, American 
and British Manufacturing Company, Henshaw, Bulkley and 
Company, Mietz and Weiss, and Hornsby-Akroyd Oil-Engines. 
Diesel Motor. Crude-Oil Gas-Generators of Samson Iron Works 
and Best Manufacturing Company 347 

CHAPTER XXIV 

Producer-Gas and its Production. Coke-Oven Gas. Blast-Furnace 
Gas. Producer-Gas for Marine Propulsion. Producer-Gas Genera- 
tors of Various Types. Low, Belgian, German, Pintsch, arid Mond 
Types. Aspirator-Gas Plant. Nagel's Suction-Gas Plant. Press- 
ure Producer-Gas Plant of the Wile Power Gas Company. Suction 
or Aspirator Gas. Riche Distillation Producer for Wood Gas. 
Fairbanks, Morse Company, and German Suction Producer-Gas 
Plants. Regulations of the National Board of Underwriters for 
the Location and Management of Producer-Gas Plants . . 370 

CHAPTER XXV 

List of Patents Issued since 1875 on Gas, Gasoline, and Oil Engines . 401 

CHAPTER XXVI 

Names and Addresses of Builders of Gas, Gasoline, and Oil Engines in 

the United States and Canada . . . 423 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 

INCLUDING 

PRODUCER-GAS PLANTS 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



CHAPTER I 

INTRODUCTION 

MUCH attention is now being given by mechanical engineers to 
the economical results that may be developed in the working of 
gas, gasoline, and oil-engines for higher powers from producer 
and other cheap gases and from petroleum and its products. In an 
economical sense, for small and intermediate power, steam has 
been left far behind. 

It now becomes a question as to how to adapt the design of the 
new prime mover to a wider range of usefulness and economy. 

The best condensing steam-engines now made run with a con- 
sumption of about one and one-quarter pounds of coal per horse- 
power hour; while from two and one-half to seven pounds is the 
cost per horse-power hour in the various kinds of non-condensing 
engines now in use. This only covers the cost of fuel; the attend- 
ance required in the use of small steam-power is often far greater in 
cost than the fuel. 

When we come to require the larger powers by steam, in which 
economy may be obtained by compounding and condensing, the 
facility for obtaining the requisite water-supply is often a bar to 
its use. The direction in which lies the line of improvement for 
larger powers with the utmost economy, is as yet a mooted point 
of discussion in engineering construction, as to steam or explosive- 
motor power. 

The expansion of single-cylinder dimensions for explosive mo- 
tors, involves practical problems in the progress of ignition of the 
charge, as well as the thoroughness of mixture of the combustibles; 
the interference of the products of the previous combustion 
by producing areas of imperfect mixture or stratification, as dis- 
cussed in the earlier publications, and which are not yet fully solved ; 
but good progress has been made in this line. 

The enlargement of cylinder-area is a source of engine-friction 

15 



16 ' V ::/; (ks. GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 

,; * ;,%''** * * " ' * 

- *t * * * * * ,** a * 

economy ; while,* "on - the contrary, the multiplication of cylinders 
involves numbers and complexity of moving parts, which go to make 
disparity between the indicated and brake horse-power, which is 
the measure of machine efficiency. 

An impulse at every stroke, so desirable in an explosive motor 
and so satisfactorily carried out in the steam-engine, seems to have 
as yet but a limited counterpart in the explosive motor, as trials 
of motors with explosion at every stroke have not yet proved 
entirely satisfactory in service, although double-acting motors are 
in use, and in order to accomplish fully the desired result, resort has 
been had to the duplication of single-acting cylinders. This class 
of explosive-motors seem to fill the bill in effect; yet the complica- 
tion of a two-cylinder engine as a moving mechanism must com- 
pete w r ith a single-cylinder steam-engine. 

The principle types of explosive motors seem to have gone 
through a series of practical trials during the past thirty-five years, 
which have finally reduced the principles of action to a few per- 
manent forms in the design of motors that have shown by their 
long-continued use the prospect of their staying qualities and 
efficiency. 

For a gas, gasoline, or oil-explosive power to approximate an 
ideal standard as a prime mover, it should be simple in design and 
not liable to get out of order; the parts must be readily accessible, 
the ignition of the charge must be positive and controllable, the 
governing close; the motor must run quietly, and must be durable 
and economical in the use of fuel. 

These points of excellence have been striven for by many de- 
signers and builders, with varying success; but to get the entire 
combination without the sacrifice of some good point is not an easy 
matter. 

But for all, the internal- combustion engine has come seemingly 
like an avalanche of a decade; but it has come to stay, to take 
its well-deserved position among the powers for aiding labor. 

Its ready adaptation to road and marine service has made it a 
wonder of the age in the development of speed, not before 
dreamed of as a possibility; yet in so short a time, its power for 
speed has taken rank on the common road against the locomotive 
on the rail with its century's progress. 



HISTORICAL 17 



HISTORICAL 

Although the ideal principle of explosive power was conceived 
some two hundred years since, and experiments made with gun- 
powder as the explosive element, it was not until the last years of 
the eighteenth century that the idea took a patentable shape, and 
not until about 1826 (Brown's gas-vacuum engine) that a further 
progress was made in England by condensing the products of com- 
bustion by a jet of water, thus creating a partial vacuum. 

Brown's was probably the first explosive engine that did real 
work. It was clumsy and unwieldy and was soon relegated to its 
place among the failures of previous experiments. No approach to 
active explosive effect in a cylinder was reached in practice, al- 
though many ingenious designs were described, until about 183S 
and the following }^ears. Barnett's engine in England was the first 
attempt to compress the charge before exploding. From this time 
on to about 1860 many patents were issued in Europe and a few in 
the United States for gas-engines, but the progress was slow, and 
its practical introduction for power came with spasmodic effect and 
low efficiency. From 1860 on, practical improvement seems to 
have been made, and the Lenoir motor was produced in France and 
brought to the United States. It failed to meet expectations, and 
was soon followed by further improvements in the Hugon motor in 
France (1862), followed by Beau de Rocha's four-cycle idea, which 
has been slowly developed through a long series of experimental 
trials by different inventors. In the hands of Otto and Langdon 
a further progress was made, and numerous patents were issued in 
England, France, and Germany, and followed up by an increasing 
interest in the United States, with a few patents. 

From 1870 improvements seem to have advanced at a steady 
rate, and largely in the valve-gear and precision of governing for 
variable load. 

The early idea of the necessity of slow combustion was a great 
drawback in the advancement of efficiency, and the suggestion of 
de Rocha in 1862 did not take root as a prophetic truth until many 
failures and years of experience had taught the fundamental axiom 



18 GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 

that rapidity of action in both combustion and expansion was the 
basis of success in explosive motors. 

With this truth and the demand for small and safe prime movers, 
the manufacture of gas-engines increased in Europe and America 
at a more rapid rate, and improvements in perfecting the details 
of this cheap and efficient prime mover have finally raised it to 
the dignity of a standard motor and a rival of the steam-engine for 
small and intermediate powers, with a prospect of largely increasing 
its individual units to many hundred, if not to the thousand horse- 
power in a single cylinder. The unit size in a single cylinder has 
now reached to about 700 horse-power and by combining cylinders 
in the same machine, powers of from 1,500 to 2,000 horse-power are 
now available for large power-plants. 

The application of the gasoline and oil-motor to marine propul- 
sion, to the horseless vehicle, the automobile, tricycle, and bicycle, 
has had a most stimulating effect in adapting ways and means for 
applying this power to so many uses. For launches and as auxilary 
power for yachts and larger sailing vessels, the explosive motor has 
overreached its steam competitor for economy and convenience and 
is now the leading power for the smaller craft; even aerial naviga- 
tion has come in for its share in motor-power for air-ships. 

Although the denser population of Europe claims a very large 
representation of explosive motors in use for all purposes, the 
manufacture in the United States is fast forging ahead in its output 
of this cheap power, for there are now more than six hundred es- 
tablishments engaged in their manufacture, and the motors in 
operation number many thousands. Their safety and easy man- 
agement as well as their economy have made in their adoption as 
agricultural helpers a marvellous inroad on the old-fashioned hand 
and horse-powers and are now reaching a ne.w and prominent place 
as a ready means of power for pumping water for the farm and for 
irrigation, and for driving threshing-machines and wood-saws; the 
operation of mowers and reapers are some of its late innovations. 

Its adaptability as a power for generating electricity for all 
purposes, is fast expanding the use of lighting and power in fields 
that the higher cost of small steam-power had precluded, and is 
now in its newer phases, due to the use of the cheap producer gas- 
fuel, extending its usefulness to the largest electrical plants. 



HISTORICAL 19 

Thus the incentive to invention has been the father to a fast- 
growing industry that has ameliorated and will continue to amelio- 
rate the labor and cost of power for all purposes. 

The kerosene-oil engine although tardy in its development, due 
to tenacity of the fuel, is now so perfected as to take a prominent 
place for all power purposes within the range of its application, 
and passing all other fuel types in the economy of its power. 

Crude petroleum is on trial for power-fuel, with undoubted 
economy as to cost, but its mixed constituents are not as satis- 
factory to manage as the refined product; yet crude-oil motors are 
in use and their improvement is progressive. 

The sporting world has been given a new phase in its possibilities 
for racing speed from the power and adaptability of the explosive 
motor. 

To make the automobile speed on a good common road range 
in a parallel with that of the steam-locomotive on steel rails, is an 
accomplishment of the last decade and should satisfy the speed 
appetite of the most reckless riders. 

The racing launch has also nearly reached a possible limit of 
speed due to the application of this new power to marine use. 

The amateur craze for motive power seems to have spread with 
the bicycle pace, until the fever has broken out in a multitude of 
young machinists with motor proclivities. 

The intense interest manifested by inventors and engineers in 
the new motive power is well shown in the progress of the issue of 
patents during the past thirty years for explosive motors and parts 
in the United States. 

From three patents in 1875, the number has gradually increased 
to about eighty per annum in the past few years and numbers a total 
of over eighteen hundred the present year (1905). 

The expiration of patents in Europe and the United States has 
now cast loose many of the bonds that have in a measure retarded 
the freedom of manufacture in the explosive-motor line, so that the 
fundamental principles of construction are no longer a hindrance 
to anyone desiring to build a motor without infringing on patents 
in force. 



CHAPTER II 

THEORY OF THE GAS AND GASOLINE-ENGINE 

THE laws controlling the elements that create a power by their 
expansion by heat due to combustion, when properly understood, 
become a matter of computation in regard to their value as an 
agent for generating power in the various kinds of explosive engines. 

The method of heating the elements of power in explosive 
engines greatly widens the limits of temperature as available in 
other types of heat-engines. It disposes of many of the practical 
troubles of hot-air, and even of steam-engines, in the simplicity 
and directness of application of the elements of power. In the 
explosive engine the difficulty of conveying heat for producing ex- 
pansive effect by convection is displaced by the generation of the 
required heat within the expansive element and at the instant of 
its useful work. The low conductivity of heat to and from air has 
been the great obstacle in the practical development of the hot- 
air engine; while, on the contrary, it has become the source of 
economy and practicability in the development of the internal- 
' combustion engine. 

The action of air, gas, and the vapors of gasoline and petroleum 
oil, whether singly or mixed, is affected by changes of temperature 
practically in nearly the same ratio; but when the elements that 
produce combustion are interchanged in confined spaces, there is 
a marked difference of effect. The oxygen of the air, the hydrogen 
and carbon of a gas, or vapor of gasoline or petroleum oil are the 
elements that by combustion produce heat to expand the nitrogen 
of the air and the watery vapor produced by the union of the oxygen 
in the air and the hydrogen in the gas, as well as also the monoxide 
and carbonic-acid gas that may be formed by the union of the carbon 
of gas or vapor with part of the oxygen in the air. 

The various mixtures as between air and gas, or air and vapor, 
with the proportion of the products of combustion left in the cyl- 
20 



THEORY OF THE GAS AND GASOLINE-ENGINE 21 

inder from a previous combustion, form the elements to be con- 
sidered in estimating the amount of pressure that may be obtained 
by their combustion and expansive force. 

The working process of the explosive motor may be divided into 
three principle types: 

1. Motors with charges igniting at constant volume without 
compression, such as the Lenoir, Hugon, and other similar types 
now abandoned as wasteful in fuel and effect. 

2. Motors with charges igniting at constant pressure with com- 
pression, in which a receiver is charged by a pump and the gases 
burned while being admitted to the motor cylinder. 

Types of the Simon and Brayton engine. 

3. Motors with charges igniting at constant volume with vari- 
able compression. Types of the later two and four-cycle motors 
with compression of the indrawn charge; limited in the two-cycle 
type and variable in the four-cycle type with the ratios of the clear- 
ance space in the cylinder. 

The explosive motor of greatest efficiency. 

The phenomena of the brilliant light and its accompanying heat 
at the moment of explosion have been witnessed in the experiments 
of Dugald Clerk in England, the illumination lasting throughout 
the stroke; but in regard to time in a four-cycle engine, the in- 
candescent state exists only one-quarter of the running time. Thus 
the time interval, together with the non-conductibility of the gases, 
makes the phenomena of a high-temperature combustion within 
the comparatively cool walls of a cylinder a practical possibility. 

THE ISOTHERMAL LAW 

The natural laws, long since promulgated by Boyle, Gay 
Lussac, and others, on the subject of the expansion and com- 
pression of gases by force and by heat, and their variable 
pressures and temperatures when confined, are conceded to be 
practically true and applicable to all gases, whether single, mixed, 
or combined. 

The law formulated by Boyle only relates to the compression 
and expansion of gases without a change of temperature, and is 
stated in these words: 



22 GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES i ', 

// the temperature of a gas be kept constant, its pressure or elastic 
force will vary inversely as the volume it occupies. 

It is expressed in the formula PxV = C, or pressure X volume = 

C C 

constant. Hence, = V and = P. 

Thus the curve formed by increments of pressure during the 
expansion or compression of a given volume of gas without change 
of temperature is designated as the isothermal curve in which the 
volume multiplied by the pressure is a constant value in expansion, 
and inversely the pressure divided by the volume is a constant 
value in compressing a gas. 

But as compression and expansion of gases require force for their 
accomplishment mechanically, or by the application or abstraction 
of heat chemically, or by convection, a second condition becomes 
involved, which was formulated into a law of thermodynamics by 
Gay Lussac under the following conditions: 

A given volume of gas under a free piston expands by heat and 
contracts by the loss of heat, its volume causing a proportional 
movement of a free piston equal to ^3 part of the cylinder volume 
for each degree Centigrade difference in temperature, or -%\^ part 
of its volume for each degree Fahrenheit. 

With a fixed piston (constant volume), the pressure is increased 
or decreased by an increase or decrease of heat in the same propor- 
tion of 2T^ part of its pressure for each degree Centigrade, or 4-^ 
part of its pressure for each degree Fahrenheit change in tempera- 
ture. 

This is the natural sequence of the law of mechanical equivalent, 
which is a necessary deduction from the principle that nothing in 
nature can be lost or wasted, for all the heat that is imparted to 
or abstracted from a gaseous body must be accounted for, either 
as heat or its equivalent transformed into some other form of 
energy. 

In the case of a piston moving in a cylinder by the expansive 
force of heat in a gaseous body, all the heat expended in expansion 
of the gas is turned into work; the balance must be accounted for 
in absorption by the cylinder or radiation. 

This theory is equally applicable to the cooling of gases by 



THEORY OF THE GAS AND GASOLINE-ENGINE 



23 



abstraction of heat or by cooling due to expansion by the motion 
of a piston. 

The denominators of these heat fractions of expansion or con- 
traction represent the absolute zero of cold below the freezing-point 
of water, and read - 273 C. or -- 492.66- - 460.66 F. below 
zero; and these are the starting-points of reference in computing 
the heat expansion in gas-engines. 

According to Boyle's law, called the first law of gases, there 
are but two characteristics of a gas and their variations to be con- 
sidered, viz., volume and pressure: while by the law of Gay Lussac, 
called the second law of gases, a third is added, consisting of the 



ABSOLUTE PRESSURE IN LBS.PER SQ. IN. 

KJtu^OiO*-J 00 <D O 10 CO 4>. ui CTi ~J CC 
OOOOOO 0000 OOOOOOC 








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ATMOSPHERIC 
LINES 



10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 

VOLUME 

FIG. 1. Diagram Isothermal and Adiabatic lines. 

value of the absolute temperature, counting from absolute zero to 
the temperatures at which the operations take place. 

This is the Adiabatic law. 

The ratio of the variation of the three conditions volume, 
pressure, and heat from the absolute zero temperature has a 
certain rate, in which the volume multiplied by the pressure and 
the product divided by the absolute temperature equals the ratio 
of expansion for each degree. 

If a volume of air is contained in a cylinder having a piston and 
fitted with an indicator, the piston, if moved to and fro, will alter- 



24 GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 

nately compress and expand the air, and the indicator pencil will 
trace a line or lines upon the card, which lines register the change 
of pressure and volume occurring in the cylinder. If the piston is 
perfectly free from leakage, and it be supposed that the tempera- 
ture of the air is kept quite constant, then the line so traced is called 
an Isothermal line, and the pressure at any point when multiplied 
by the volume is a constant according to Boyle's law, 

pv = a constant. 

If, however, the piston is moved in very rapidly, the air will not 
remain at constant temperature, but the temperature will increase 
because work has been done upon the air, and the heat has no time 
to escape by conduction. If no heat whatever is lost by any cause, 
the line will be traced over and over again by the indicator pencil, 
the cooling by expansion doing work precisely equalling the heating 
by compression. This is the line of no transmission of heat, there- 
fore, known as Adiabatic. 

The expansion of a gas ^rs" f ^ s volume for every degree 
Centigrade, added to its temperature, is equal to the decimal .00366, 
the coefficient of expansion for Centigrade units. To any given 
volume of a gas, its expansion may be computed by multiplying 
the coefficient by the number of degrees, and by reversing the process 
the degree of acquired heat may be obtained approximately. These 
methods are not strictly in conformity with the absolute mathe- 
matical formula, because there is a small increase in the increment 
of expansion of a dry gas, and there is also a slight difference in 
the increment of expansion due to moisture in the atmosphere and 
to the vapor of water formed by the union of the hydrogen and oxy- 
gen in the combustion chamber of explosive-engines. 

The ratio of expansion on the Fahrenheit scale is derived from 
the absolute temperature below the freezing-point of water (32) 

to correspond with the Centigrade scale; therefore ~^^~^ = .0020297, 



the ratio of expansion from 32 for each degree rise in temperature 
on the Fahrenheit scale. 

As an example, if the temperature of any volume of air or gas at 
constant volume is raised, say from 60 to 2000 F., the increase in 

temperature will be 1940. The ratio will be - -= .0019206. 

oJU.oo 



THEORY OF THE GAS AND GASOLINE-ENGINE 25 

Then by the formula: 

Ratio X acquired temp. X initial pressure = the gauge pressure; 
and . 0019206 X 1940 X 14 . 7 - 54 . 77 Ibs. 

By another formula, a convenient ratio is obtained by 

absolute pressure 14.7 . . 

- or Eor> gfl=. 028233; then, using the difference 
absolute temp. 520.66 

of temperature as before, .028233 X 1940 = 54.77 Ibs. pressure. 
By another formula, leaving out a small increment due to spe- 
cific heat at high temperatures: 

Atmospheric pressure X absolute temp. + acquired temp. 

Absolute temp. + initial temp. 

absolute pressure due to the acquhed temperature, from which 
the atmospheric pressure is deducted for the gauge pressure. 

14. 7X460. 66 + 2000 
Using the foregoing example, we have - 460 66 + 60 

= 69.47-14.7 = 54.77, the gauge pressure, 460.66 being the 
absolute temperature for zero Fahrenheit. 

For obtaining the volume of expansion of a gas from a given 
increment of heat, we have the approximate formula : 

Volume X absolute temp. + acquired temp. 

II. - rr i T - -. , = heated volume. 

Absolute temp. + initial temp. 

In applying this formula to the foregoing example, the figures 
become : 

_ 460. 66 + 2000 

LX ^60766T60~ = 4 726 4 VolumeS ' 
From this last term the gauge pressure may be obtained as follows : 

III. 4.72604X14.7 = 69.47 Ibs. absolute -14. 7 Ibs. atmos- 
pheric pressure = 54 . 77 Ibs. gauge pressure; which is the theoretical 
pressure due to heating air in a confined space, or at constant vol- 
ume from 60 to 2000 F. 

By inversion of the heat formula for absolute pressure we have 
the formula for the acquired heat, derived from combustion at 
constant volume from atmospheric pressure to gauge pressure plus 
atmospheric pressure as derived from Example I., by which the 
expression 

absolute pressure X absolute temp. + initial temp. 

initial absolute pressure 
= absolute temperature + temperature of combustion, from which 



26 GAS, GASOLINE, AN.D OIL-ENGINES 

the acquired temperature is obtained by subtracting the absolute 
temperature. 

Then, for Example, 5MLX^ 6f =2460.66, and 2460.66 

-460.66 = 2000, the theoretical heat of combustion. The drop- 
ping of terminal decimals makes a small decimal difference in the 
result in the different formulas. 



HEAT AND ITS WORK 

By Joule's law of the mechanical equivalent of heat, whenever 
heat is imparted to an elastic body, as air or gas, energy is generated 
and mechanical work produced by the expansion of the air or gas. 
When the heat is imparted by combustion within a cylinder con- 
taining a movable piston, the mechanical work becomes an amount 
measurable by the observed pressure and movement of the piston. 

The heat generated by the explosive elements and the expan- 
sion of the non-combining elements of nitrogen and water vapor 
that may have been injected into the cylinder as moisture in the 
air, and the water vapor formed by the union of the oxygen of the 
air with the hydrogen of the gas, all add to the energy of the work 
from their expansion by the heat of internal combustion. 

As against this, the absorption of heat by the walls of the 
cylinder, the piston, and cylinder-head or clearance walls, becomes 
a modifying condition in the force imparted to the moving piston. 

It is found that when any explosive mixture of air and gas or 
hydrocarbon vapor is fired, the pressure falls far short of the pressure 
computed from the theoretical effect of the heat produced, and 
from gauging the expansion of the contents of a cylinder. 

It is now well known that in practice the high efficiency which is 
promised by theoretical calculation is never realized; but it must 
always be remembered that the heat of combustion is the real agent, 
and that the gases and vapors are but the medium for the conversion 
of inert elements of power into the activity of energy by their 
chemical union. 

The theory of combustion has been the leading stimulus to large 
expectations with inventors and constructors of explosive motors; 
its entanglement with the modifying elements in practice has de- 



THEORY OF THE GAS AND GASOLINE ENGINE 27 

layed the best development in construction, and as yet no positive 
design of best form or action seems to have been accomplished; 
although great progress has been made during the past five years in 
the development of speed, economy, and the size of the individual 
units of this new power. 

One of the most serious entanglements in the practical develop- 
ment of pressure due to the theoretical computations of the pressure 
value of the full heat is probably caused by imparting the heat of the 
fresh charge to the balance of the previous charge that has been 
cooled by expansion from the maximum pressure to near the atmos- 
pheric pressure of the exhaust. The retardation in the velocity 
of combustion of perfectly mixed elements is now well known from 
experimental trials with measured quantities; but the principal 
difficulty in applying these conditions to the practical work of an 
explosive engine where a necessity for a large clearance space cannot 
be obviated, is in the inability to obtain a maximum effect from 
the imperfect mixture and the mingling of the products of the last 
explosion with the new mixture, which produces a clouded condition 
that makes the ignition of the mass irregular or chattering, as ob- 
served in the expansion lines of indicator cards; but this must not 
be confounded with the reaction of the spring in the indicator. 

Stratification of the mixture has been claimed as taking place 
in the clearance chamber of the cylinder; but this is not satisfactory, 
in view of the vortical effect of the violent injection of the air and 
gas or vapor mixture. It certainly cannot become a perfect mixt- 
ure in the time of a stroke of a high-speed motor of the two-cycle 
class. In a four-cycle engine, making 300 revolutions per minute, 
the injection and compression take place in one-fifth of a second- 
far too short a time for a perfect infusion of the elements of com- 
bustion. 

In an experimental way, the velocity of explosion of a perfect 
mixture of 2 volumes of hydrogen and 1 volume of oxygen has been 
found to approximate 65 feet per second; and for equal volumes of 
hydrogen and oxygen, 32 feet per second; with 1 volume coal-gas 
to 5 volumes air, 3} feet per second ; 1 volume coal-gas to 6 volumes 
of air, 1 foot per second; and with an increasing proportion of air, 
10 to 9 inches per second. These velocities were obtained in tubes 
fired at one end only. When the ignition was made in a closed tube, 



28 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



so that compression was produced by the expansion from com- 
bustion, the velocity was largely increased; and with compressed 
mixtures a great increase of velocity was obtained over the above- 
stated figures, as has been proved in motors running at 2000 revolu- 
tions per minute. 

The different values of time, pressure, and computed heat of 
combustion are shown in Table I., and graphically compared in the 
diagram (Fig. 2). 

The mixtures were Glasgow, Scotland, coal-gas and air. The 
table and the diagram (Fig. 2) make an excellent study of the con- 



o 

- 90 

gu.80 
Sf70 

ggeo 

I ?50 

* 

1 SI 40 

I" 

I 20 

\ 10 



IXTURES USED. GLASGOW COAL GAS AND AIR 




.30 SECONDS 



FIG. 2. Diagram of moments of combustion in a closed chamber, 
constant volume. 

ditions of time and pressure, as well as also of the control of the 
work of a gas-engine, by varying the proportions of the mixture. 

TABLE I. EXPLOSION AT CONSTANT VOLUME IN A CLOSED CHAMBER. 



Dia- 
gram 
curve 
Fig. 2. 


Mixture injected. 


Time of 
explosion. 
Second. 


Gauge 
pressure. 
Pounds per 
square inch. 


Computed 
temperature, 
Fahr. 


a 


volume gas to 13 volumes air. 


0.28 


52 


1,916 


b 


a a n 


0.18 


63 


2,309 


c 


a a "9 , 


0.13 


69 


2,523 


d 


y i< 


0.07 


89 


3,236 


e 


" " " 5 " " 


0.05 


96 


3,484 



The irregularity of the explosive curves in the diagram is fail- 
evidence of imperfect diffusion of the gas and air mixture at the 
moment of combustion, assuming that the indicator was in perfect 
action. 

Experiments with mixtures of coal-gas and air (Fig. 3), made at 



THEORY OF THE GAS AND GASOLINE-ENGINE 



29 



Oldham, England, show a slight variation of effect, which is prob- 
ably due to different proportions of hydrogen and carbon in the 



MIXTURES USED. OLDHAM COAL GAS AND AIR 




FIG. 3. Diagram of moments of combustion in a closed chamber, 
constant volume. 

Oldham gas, with the same elements in the Glasgow gas. In 
Table II. the injection temperature is given, which in itself is not im- 
portant further than as a basis for computing the theoretical temper- 
ature of combustion. 

A record of the hygrometric state of the atmosphere in its ex- 
tremes would be valuable in showing the variation in explosive 
effect due to the vapor of water derived from the air under different 
hygrometric conditions. 

TABLE II. EXPLOSION AT CONSTANT VOLUME IN A CLOSED CHAMBER. 



Dia- 
gram 
curve 
Fig. 3. 


Mixture injected. 


Temp, of 
injection, 
Fahr. 


Time 
of explo- 
sion. 
Second. 


Observed 
gauge 
pressure. 
Pounds. 


Com- 
puted 
temp. 
Fahr. 


a 




volume gas to 14 volumes air. 64 


0.45 


40. 


1,483 


b 










13 




51 


0.31 


51.5 


1,859 


c 










12 






51 


0.24 


60. 


2,195 


d 










11 






51 


0.17 


61. 


2,228 


e 










9 






62 


0.08 


78. 


2,835 


f 










7 






62 


0.06 


87. 


3,151 


g 










6 






51 


0.04 


90. 


3,257 


h 










5 






51 


0.055 


91. 


3,293 


i 










4 






66 


0.16 


80. 


2,871 




| 









In an examination of the times of explosion and the corre- 
sponding pressures in both tables, it will be seen that a mixture of 
1 part gas to 6 parts air is the most effective and will give the 
highest mean pressure in a gas-engine. 



30 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



In this diagram the undulations of the rising curves due to 
irregular firing of the mixture are well marked. There is a limit 
to the relative proportions of illuminating gas and air mixture that 
is explosive, somewhat variable, depending upon the proportion 
of hydrogen in the gas. With ordinary coal-gas, 1 of gas to 15 
parts air; and on the lower end of the scale, 1 volume of gas to 2 
parts air, are non-explosive. With gasoline vapor the explosive 
effect ceases at 1 to 16, and a saturated mixture of equal volumes 
of vapor and air will not explode, while the most intense explosive 
effect is from a mixture of 1 part vapor to 9 parts air. In the use 
of gasoline and air mixtures from a carburetter, the best effect is 
from 1 part saturated air to 8 parts free air. 

TABLE III. PROPERTIES AND EXPLOSIVE TEMPERATURE OF A MIXTURE OF ONE 
PART OF ILLUMINATING GAS OF 660 THERMAL UNITS PER CUBIC FOOT WITH 
VARIOUS PROPORTIONS OF AIR WITHOUT MIXTURE OF CHARGE WITH THE 
PRODUCTS OF A PREVIOUS EXPLOSION. 








Specific Heat. 




V 




Q 


i ^ 


&l 


|s 


Heat Units Required 
to Raise 1 Ib. 1 


Heat to 


Is 




.2 


H^l 


If 


<l 


Fahrenheit. 


Raise One 
Cubic 


3 


Ratio, 


II 


6 


'I >, 


JJ g 






Foot of 


tjfi 


Col. 


o' S 


2 * o 


li 


|| 
PH 


Constant 
Pressure. 


Constant 
Volume. 


Mixture 
1 Fahr. 


F 




1 


iff! 


6 to 1 


.074195 


.2668 


.1913 


.014189 


94.28 


6644.6 


.465 


3090 


7 to 1 .... 


.075012 


.2628 


.1882 


.014116 


82. 


5844.4 


.518 


3027 


8to 1 


.075647 


.2598 


.1858 


.014059 


73.33 


5216.1 


.543 


2832 


9 to 1 


076155 


2575 


1846 


014013 


66 


4709 9 


56 


2637 


10 to 1 


076571 


2555 


1825 


013976 


60 


4293 


575 


2468 


11 to 1 


076917 


2540 


1813 


013945 


55 


3944 


585 


2307 


12 to 1 


.077211 


.2526 


.1803 


.013922 


50.77 


3646.7 


.58 


2115 














! ; 



The weight of a cubic foot of gas and air mixture as given in 
Col. 2 is found by adding the number of volumes of air multiplied 
by its weight, .0807, to one volume of gas of weight .035 pound 
per cubic foot and dividing by the total number of volumes; for 

example, as in the table 6 X .0807 = lL y~ = .074195 as in the first 

line, and so on for any mixture or for other gases of different spe- 
cific weight per cubic foot. The heat units evolved by combustion 
of the mixture (Col. 6) are obtained by dividing the total heat 



THEORY OF THE GAS AND GASOLINE-ENGINE 31 

units in a cubic foot of gas by the total proportion of the mixture, 

= 94.28 as in the first line of the table. Col. 5 is obtained 

by multiplying the weight of a cubic foot of the mixture in Col. 2 
by the specific heat at constant volume (Col. 4), ^ g = Col. 7 

the total heat ratio, of which Col. 8 gives the usual combustion 
efficiency -Col. 7X by Col. 8 gives the absolute rise in tempera- 
ture of a pure mixture, as given in Col. 9. 

The many recorded experiments made to solve the discrepancy 
between the theoretical and the actual heat development and 
resulting pressures in the cylinder of an explosive motor, to which 
much discussion has been given as to the possibilities of dissociation 
and the increased specific heat of the elements of combustion and 
non-combustion, as well, also, of absorption and radiation of heat, 
have as yet furnished no satisfactory conclusion as to what really 
takes place within the cylinder walls. 

There seems to be very little known about dissociation, and 
somewhat vague theories have been advanced to explain the phe- 
nomenon. The fact is, nevertheless, apparent as shown in the pro- 
duction of water and other producer gases by the use of steam in 
contact with highly incandescent fuel. It is known that a maximum 
explosive mixture of pure gases, as hydrogen and oxygen or car- 
bonic oxide and oxygen, suffers a contraction of one-third their 
volume by combustion to their compounds, steam or carbonic acid. 
In the explosive mixtures in the cylinder of a motor, however, the 
combining elements form a so small proportion of the contents of 
the cylinder that the shrinkage of their volume amounts to no more 
than three per cent, of the cylinder volume. This by no means 
accounts for the great heat and pressure differences between the 
theoretical and actual effects. 



CHAPTER III 

THE UTILIZATION OF HEAT AND ITS EFFICIENCY IN EXPLOSIVE 

MOTORS 

THE utilization of heat in any heat-engine has long been a 
theme of inquiry and experiment with scientists and engineers, 
for the purpose of obtaining the best practical conditions and 
construction of heat-engines that would represent the highest 
efficiency or the nearest approach to the theoretical value of heat, 
as measured by empirical laws that have been derived from experi- 
mental researches relating to its ultimate value. It is well known 
that the steam-engine returns only from 12 to 18 per cent, of the 
power due to the heat generated by the fuel, about 25 per cent, 
of the total heat being lost in the chimney, the only use of which is 
to create a draught for the iire; the balance, some 6.0 per cent., is 
lost in the exhaust and by radiation. The problem of utmost 
utilization of force in steam has nearly reached its limit. 

The internal-combustion system of creating power is com- 
paratively new in practice, and is but just settling into definite 
shape by repeated trials and modification of details, so as to give 
somewhat reliable data as to what may be expected from the 
rival of the steam-engine as a prime mover. 

For small powers, the gas, gasoline, and petroleum-oil engines 
are forging ahead at a rapid rate, filling the thousand wants of manu- 
facture and business for a power that does not require expensive 
care, that is perfectly safe at all times, that can be used in any place 
in the wide world to which its concentrated fuel can be conveyed, 
and that has eliminated the constant handling of crude fuel and 
water. 

The utilization of heat in a gas-engine is mainly due to the 
manner in which the products entering into combustion .are dis- 
tributed in relation to the movement of the piston. 

The investigation of the foremost exponent of the theory of 

32 



HEAT AND ITS EFFICIENCY IN EXPLOSIVE MOTORS 33 

the explosive motor was prophetic in consideration of the later 
realization of the best conditions under which these motors can be 
made to meet the requirements of economy and practicability. 
As early as 1862, Beau de Rocha announced, in regard to the 
coming power, that four requisites were the basis of operation for 
economy and best effect. 

1. The greatest possible cylinder volume with the least possible 
cooling surface. 

2. The greatest possible rapidity of expansion. Hence, high 
speed. 

3. The greatest possible expansion. Long stroke. 

4. The greatest possible pressure at the commencement of expan- 
sion. High compression. 

In the two-cycle motors of the early or Lenoir type, the gas or 
vapor and air mixtures were drawn in during a part of the stroke, 
fired, expanded with the 
motion of the piston, and 
exhausted by the return 
stroke. The proportions of 
the indraught to the stroke 

of the piston, and the vol- 

FIG. 4. Lenoir type of indicator card. 

ume of the clearance or 

combustion chamber, as it is usually called, have been subject to 

a vast amount of experiment and practical trial, in an endeavor 

to bring the heat value of their power up to its highest possible 

limit. 

To this class belonged some of the earlier gas-engines; their 
indicator cards have a typical representation in Fig. 4. 

The earlier engines of this class used as high as 96 cubic feet of 
illuminating gas per horse-power per hour. The consumption of 
gas fell off by improvements to 70 cubic feet, and finally dropped to 
44 and 36 cubic feet per indicated horse-power per hour in the 
various modifications following the early trials, all of which have 
dropped out of use. 

The efficiency of this class of gas-engines seldom reached 20 
per cent., of the heat value of the gas used, while in the compression 
types of two and four cycle motors there are possibilities of over 
40 per cent. The total efficiency of the gas or vapor entering into 




34 GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 

combustion in an internal-heat engine is variable, depending upon 
its constituent-combining elements and the degree of temperature 
produced. The efficiency due to heat only varies as the difference 
between the initial temperature of the explosive mixture and the 
temperature of combustion; and as this varies in actual practice 
from 1400 to 2500 F., then the reciprocal of the absolute heat of 
the initial charge, divided by the assumed heat of combustion, 

TT _ TT1 

would represent the total efficiency. The formula ^ represents 

this condition, "in which H is the absolute heat of combustion, 
and H 1 is the absolute initial temperature," so that if the operation 
of the heat cycle was between 60 and 1400 F., the equation would 



be TTTTT TTT = .279 and 1 . 279 = .72 per cent. But this cannot 

represent a working cycle from the change in the specific heat of the 
gaseous contents of a cylinder while undergoing expansion by the 
movement of a piston. 

The specific heat of air at constant volume is .1685, and at con- 

2375 
stant pressure is .2375. Their ratio ' , = 1.408. The ratios of 



the other elements entering into combustion in a gas-engine are 
slightly less than for air; but the ratio for air is near enough for all 
practical operations. The formula for the application of the con- 

(TT1\ 
1.408 ); or, as for 

(v,w r TCV,W ' 

1>408 1400 + 460 ) = - 3928 ' and l--3928 = 

.6071, or 60 per cent. 

As the temperature cannot be utilized for work from the excess 
of heat in the products of combustion when the expansion has 
reached the atmospheric line, then the practical amount of expan- 
sion and the heat of combustion at the point of exhaust must be 
considered. In practice, the measured heat of the exhaust at atmos- 
pheric pressure, plus the additional heat due to the terminal pres- 
sure, becomes a factor in the equation; and, assuming this to be 
950 F. in a well-regulated motor, the equation for the above exam- 

(qp;0 460\ 4QO 
1.408 X 1 4QQ_4 6 o) = ^5 = - 521X1.408 = .733, and 



HEAT AND ITS EFFICIENCY IN EXPLOSIVE MOTORS 35 

1 .733 = .26, or an efficiency of 26 per cent. The greater differ- 
ence in temperature, other things being equal, the greater the 
efficiency. 

In this way efficiencies are worked out through intricate formulas 
for a variety of theoretical and unknown conditions of combustion 
in the cylinder: ratios of clearance and cylinder volume, and the 
uncertain condition of the products of combustion left from the 
last impulse and the wall temperature. But they are of but little 
value, except as a mathematical inquiry as to possibilities. The 
real commercial efficiency of a gas or gasoline-engine depends upon 
the volume of gas or liquid at some assigned cost, required per 
actual brake horse-power per hour, in which an indicator card should 
show that the mechanical action of the valve gear and ignition was 
as perfect as practicable, and that the ratio of clearance, space, and 
cylinder volume gave a satisfactory terminal pressure and com- 




FIG. 5. Comparative card, Lenoir and perfect expansion. 

pression the difference between the power figured from the indica- 
tor card and the brake power being the friction loss of the engine. 

In practice, the heat value of the gas per cubic foot may vary 
from 30 per cent, with illuminating and natural gases to 75 or 80 
per cent, as between good illuminating gas and producer gas; then, 
in order that a given size engine should maintain its rating, a larger 
volume of a poorer gas should be swept through the cylinder. This 
requires adjustment of the areas in all the valves to give an ex- 
plosive motor its highest efficiency for the kind of fuel that is to be 
used. 

The practical effect of the work done by the half-cycle in the 
earlier type of the two-cycle engine is graphically shown in Fig. 5, 



36 GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 

in which /, d represents the stroke of the piston; the dotted line, 
the indicator card; and the space in the lines, a, 6, c, d, the ideal 
diagram of a perfect gas exhausting at the point d, in its incomplete 
adiabatic expansion. In the valuation of .such a card, the depres- 
sion of the indraught below the atmospheric line and the pressure of 
the exhaust line should have due consideration as negative quanti- 
ties to be deducted from the pressure values above the atmospheric 
line. This class of engines is fast becoming obsolete as a type. 

In two-cycle motors of the compression type and in four-cycle 
motors of the same type, the efficiencies are greatly advanced by 
compression, producing a more complete infusion of the mixture 
of gas or vapor and air, quicker firing, and far greater pressure than 
is possible with the two-cycle type just described. 

In the practical operation of the gas-engine during the past 
twenty years, the gas-consumption efficiencies per indicated horse- 
power have gradually risen from 17 per cent, to a maximum of 40 
per cent, of the theoretical heat, and this has been done chiefly 
through a decreased combustion chamber and increased compres- 
sion the compression having gradually increased in practice from 
30 Ibs. per square inch to above 100; but there seems to be a limit 
to compression, as the efficiency ratio decreases with greater in- 
crease in compression. 

It has been shown that an ideal efficiency of 33 per cent, for 38 
Ibs. compression will increase to 40 per cent, for 66 Ibs., and 43 per 
cent, for 88 Ibs. compression. On the other hand, greater com- 
pression means greater explosive pressure and greater strain on 
the engine structure, which will probably retain in future practice 
the compression between the limits of 40 and 80 Ibs. 

In experiments made by Dugald Clerk, in England, with a com- 
bustion chamber equal to 0.6 of the space swept by the piston, with 
a compression of 38 Ibs., the consumption of gas was 24 cubic feet 
per indicated horse-power per hour. With 0.4 compression space 
and 61 Ibs. compression, the consumption of gas was 20 cubic feet 
per indicated horse-power per hour; and with 0.34 compression 
space and 87 Ibs. compression, the consumption of gas fell to 14.8 
cubic feet per indicated horse-power per hour the actual efficien- 
cies being respectively 17, 21, and 25 per cent. This was with a 
Crossley four-cycle engine. 



HEAT AND ITS EFFICIENCY IN EXPLOSIVE MOTORS 37 



In Fig. 6 is represented an ideal card of the work of a perfect 
compression cycle in which the gases are compressed. Additional 
pressure is instantly developed by combustion or heat at constant 
volume, and then allowed to expand to atmospheric pressure the 
curves of compression and ex- 
pansion being adiabatic, as for 
a dry gas. 

In this diagram the lines follow 
Carnot's cycle, in which the whole 
heat energy is represented in work. 
The piston stroke commencing at 
0, compression completed at D, 
pressure augmented from D to F, 
expansion doing work from F to 
B, and exhausting along the at- 
mospheric line B A. The gases 




FIG. 6. Diagram of a perfect cycle 
with compression. 



in this case expand till their pressure falls to the atmospheric line, 
and their whole energy is supposed to be utilized. In this imagi- 
nary cycle, no heat is supposed to be lost by absorption of walls 
of a cylinder or by radiation, and no back-pressure during exhaust 
or friction are taken into account. 

The efficiencies in regard to power in a heat-engine may be 
divided into four kinds, of which 

I. The first is known as the maximum theoretical efficiency of a 
perfect engine (represented by the lines in the indicator diagram, 

T, T 
Fig. 6). It is expressed by the formula ^ - and shows the work 

of a perfect cycle in an engine working between the received tem- 
perature + absolute temperature (T,) and the initial atmospheric 
temperature + absolute temperature (T ). 

II. The second is the actual heat efficiency, or the ratio of the heat 
turned into work to the total heat received by the engine. It 
expresses the indicated horse-power. 

III. The third is the ratio between the second or actual heat 
efficiency and the first or maximum theoretical efficiency of a perfect 
cycle. It represents the greatest possible utilization of the power 
of heat in an internal-combustion engine. 

IV. The fourth is the mechanical efficiency. This is the ratio 



38 GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 

between the actual horse-power delivered by the engine through a 
dynamometer or measured by a brake (brake horse-power), and the 
indicated horse-power. The difference between the two is the power 
lost by engine friction. 

In regard to the general heat efficiency of the materials of power 
in explosive engines, we find that with good illuminating gas the 
practical efficiency varies from 25 to 40 per cent. ; kerosene-motors, 
20 to 30; gasoline-motors, 20 to 32; acetylene, 25 to 35; alcohol, 20 
to 30 per cent, of their heat value. The great variation is no doubt 
due to imperfect mixtures and variable conditions of the old and new 
charge in the cylinder; uncertainty as to leakage and the perfection 
of combustion. In the Diesel motors operating under high pressure, 
up to nearly 500 pounds, an efficiency of 36 per cent, is claimed. 

On general principles the greater difference between the heat of 
combustion and the heat at exhaust is the relative measure of the 
heat turned into work, which represents the degree of efficiency 
without loss during expansion. The mathematical formulas apper- 
taining to the computation of the element of heat and its work in 
an explosive engine are in a large measure dependent upon assumed 
values, as the conditions of the heat of combustion are made uncer- 
tain by the mixing of the fresh charge with the products of a previous 
combustion, and by absorption, radiation, and leakage. The com- 
putation of the temperature from the observed pressure may be 
made as before explained, but for compression-engines the needed 
starting-points for computation are very uncertain, and can only 
be approximated from the exact measure and value of the elements 
of combustion in a cylinder charge. 

Then theoretically the absolute efficiency in a perfect heat-engine 

T T 

is represented by ~~ ', in which T is the acquired temperature from 

absolute zero; T n the final absolute temperature after expansion 
without loss. 

Then, for example, supposing the acquired temperature of com- 
bustion in a cylinder charge was raised 2000 F. from 60 : the abso- 
lute temperature twould be 2000 + 60 + 460 = 2520, and if expanded 
to the initial temperature of 60 without loss the absolute tempera- 



oprorv 

ture of expansion will be 60 + 460 = 520, then - Q = .79 per 



HEAT AND ITS EFFICIENCY IN EXPLOSIVE MOTORS 39 

cent., the theoretical efficiency for the above range of temperature. 
In adiabatic compression or expansion, the ratio of the specific heat 
of air or other gases becomes a logarithmic exponent of both com- 
pression and expansion. The specific heat of air at constant volume 
is .1685 and at constant pressure, .2375 for 1 Ib. in weight; water = 

2375 

1. for 1 Ib. Then i^7 = the ratio y - 1.408. 



Then for the following formulas the specific heat =K V = .1685 
constant volume, and K p = .2375 constant pressure. 

The quantity of heat in thermal units given by an impulse of an 
explosive engine is K v (T- t)=heat units. Then using the fig- 
ures as before, .1685 X (2520 - 520) = 337 heat units per pound 
of the initial charge. 

The heat in thermal units discharged will be K p (^-t), 

(rn\ 
-Y ; t = absolute initial temperature, say 520. 

Then using again the figures as before and assuming that T = 



2,520 F., then T,=520 = 520 X (log. 4.846 X .7102) = 



1594 absolute, and 1594 - 520 = 1074 F. Then the heat in thermal 
units discharged will be .2375 X (1594-520) = .2375 X 1074 = 255 
heat units. 

With the absolute temperature at the moment of exhaust known, 
the efficiency of the working cycle may be known, always excepting 
the losses by convection through the walls of the cylinder. 

T t 
The formula for this efficiency is: eff. = 1 y IT? _.; then by 



substituting the figures as before, 1 1.408 0590- 520 = 2000 = 

X 1.408 = .756, and 1 -.756 = 24 per cent. 

To obtain the adiabatic terminal temperature from the rela- 
tive volumes of clearance and expansion, we have the formula 

/VA-y- 1 T, V 

\V~) ^T* 1 ' ^ n which y 2 i g the ratio of expansion in terms of 

the charging spacp m engines of the Lenoir type to the whole volume 
of the cylinder, including the charging space, so that if the stroke of 



40 GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 

the piston is equal to the area of the charging or combustion space, 
the expansion will be twice the volume of the charging space and 

v s _i T, /iy 408 /iy 408 

y 2 inen ^ = I - 1 and T, = T ( - 1 . Using the same value 

(]_ \.408 | 

9J and using logarithms for -, log. 2 = 

2520 



IV / o o ' fyj 

.408 

0.30103 X - log. 0.12282 = index 1.32, and y|^ = 1908, the 

absolute temperature T, at the terminal of the stroke. Then 1908 
-460 = 1448 F., temperature at end of stroke. 



iGo 




I Vo\, 



FIG. 7. The four-cycle compression card. Theoretical. 

For obtaining the efficiency from the volume of expansion from 

V 2 

a known acquired temperature we have 77 t = - X520 = 1040 abso- 

* 

lute = t,. Then 



Then using the values as above, 

(1908-1040) + 1.408 (1040-520) 



efficiency = 1 . 



2520-520 



= 868 + 1.408X 



1600 



520 = 732 + 868 - ^^ - .80, and 1 - .80 = .20 per cent. 



For a four-cycle compression-engine with compression say to 
45 Ibs., the efficiency is dependent upon the temperature of com- 
pression, the relative volume of combustion chamber and piston 
stroke, and the temperatures. Fig. 7 is a type card of reference 



HEAT AND ITS EFFICIENCY IN EXPLOSIVE MOTORS 41 

for the formulas for efficiencies of this class of explosive motors, 
in which : 

t = abs. temp, at b normal. 
t c = abs. temp, of compression /. 
T = abs. acquired temp. e. 
T l = abs. temp, at c. 
P = abs. pressure at b. 
P c = abs. pressure at /. 
P = abs. pressure at c. 
V = volume at b. 
V = volume at c. 
V c = volume at/. 

vo = V or volume at compression = volume at exhaust. 
K v = .1685 specific heat at constant volume. 
Let T = abs. acquired temp. = 2520 F. as before. 

t = abs. normal temp. = 520 or 60 F. 

y-i 

(P \ y 1 4081 
P/ 1 408 = 0-29. 

/QQX0.29 

Then 520 (77) =777 absolute temperature of compression. 

Tt 2520 X 520 
T, = abs. temp, of expansion = or - = 1686 . 

The terms being assumed and known from assumed data, the 

K v (T-t c )-K v (T,-t) 
efficiency = 1- Kv (T-t c )" 

T t 

Reducing, efficiency = 1 ~^r~ T', substituting figures as above 

I t c 

found, 1~ 9 2Q _ 7 _ =.333 per cent,; also 1 - = = .333 and 

1 - = ^ = .333 approximately. 
t> 



For obtaining the efficiency from the relative volumes at both 
ends of the piston stroke, with an expansion in the cylinder equal to 
twice the clearance space, by which the total volume at the end of 
the stroke will be three times the volume of the clearance space, 

/FA* 1 

efficiency in this case may be expressed by the formula 1 - ( ^7 1 



42 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



/iy 408 

substituting, the values become l-(o) ; using logarithms as 
before, log. 3 =0.477121 X. 408 = 0.194665, the index of which is 
1.565, and - = .639. Then 1 - .639 - .36 per cent. 



TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURES 

Owing to the decrease from atmospheric pressure in the indraw- 
ing charge of the cylinder, caused by valve and frictional obstruc- 
tion, the compression seldom starts above 13 Ibs. absolute, es- 
pecially in high-speed engines. Col. 3 in the following table 
represents the approximate absolute compression pressure for the 

TABLE IV. GAS-ENGINE CLEARANCE RATIOS, APPROXIMATE COMPRESSION, 
TEMPERATURES OF EXPLOSION AND EXPLOSIVE PRESSURES WITH A MIXTURE 
OF GAS OF 660 HEAT UNITS PER CUBIC FOOT AND MIXTURE OF GAS 1 TO 6 
OF AIR. 



Learance Per Cent, 
of Piston Volume. 


Ratio 
V P + C Vol. 


I 


pproximate Com- 
pression from 13 
Ibs. Absolute. 


Approximate 
Gauge Pressure. 


bsolute Tempera- 
ture of Compres- 
sion from 560 F. 
in Cylinder. 


bsolute Tempera- 
ture of Explosion. 
Gas, 1 part ; Air, 
6 parts. 


pnroximate E x - 
plosion Pressure 
Absolute. 


Approximate 
Gauge Pressure. 


pproximate Tem- 
perature of Ex- 
plosion, Fahren- 
heit. 


O 






* 




* 


< 


* 




^ 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 






Lbs. 




Deg. 


Deg. 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Deg. 


.50 


3. 


57. 


42. 


822. 


2488 


169 


144 


2027 


.444 


3.25 


65. ! 50. 


846. 


2568 


197 


182 


2107 


.40 


3.50 


70. 


55. 


868. 


2638 


212 


197 


2177 


.363 


3.75 


77. 


62. 


889. 


2701 


234 


219 


2240 


.333 


4. 


84. 


69. 


910. 


2751 


254 


239 


2290 


.285 


4.50 


102. 


8$. 


955 . 2842 


303 


288 


2381 


.25 


5. 


114. 


99. 


983. 2901- 


336 


321 


2440 










! 









clearance percentage and ratio in Cols. 1 and 2, while Col. 4 indi- 
cates the gauge pressure from the atmospheric line. 

The temperatures in Col. 5 are due to the compression in Col. 3 
from an assumed temperature of 560 F. in the mixture of the 
fresh charge of 6 air to 1 gas with the products of combustion left 
in the clearance chamber from the exhaust stroke of a medium- 
speed motor. 



HEAT AND ITS EFFICIENCY IN EXPLOSIVE MOTORS 43 

This temperature is subject to considerable variation from the 
difference in the heat-unit power of the gases and vapors used for 
explosive power, as also of the cylinder-cooling effect. 

In Col. 6 is given the approximate temperatures of explosion 
or a mixture of air 6 to gas 1 of 660 heat units per cubic foot, for 
the relative values of the clearance ratio in Col. 2 at constant 
volume. 

The formulas for the above approximate table, avoiding decimal 
values, are as follows: 



= absolute pressure Col. 3. 
.35 log. Ratio = log. | Col. 5. 



f- = P absolute pressure Col. 7. P-p = Col.8. T- 461= Col. 9. 

p c = absolute pressure of compression. 

p = initial absolute pressure in cylinder before compression, 

13 Ibs. 

P = absolute pressure of explosion. 
T = absolute explosion temperature. 
Z = initial absolute temperature in cylinder after charge 560 

F. 
t c = absolute temperature of compression. 

The explosive absolute temperature in Col. 6 decreases in pro- 
portion to the dilution of the gas with air, until with the propor- 
tion of 12 air to 1 gas, but 69 per cent, of the temperature given 
in Col. 6 is available. The decrease in pressure follows in a like 
proportion. 

In Col. 7 is given the absolute explosive pressure due to the 
conditions in the preceding columns and computed from the formula 

p T 

-- =P, in which p c = absolute compression pressure Col. 3. T = 

absolute explosive temperature Col. 6. t = absolute compression 
temperature Col. 5, for each ratio in Col. 2. 



44 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



Col. 8 is the gauge pressure derived from the absolute pressures 
in Col. 7. 

Col. 9 is the explosive temperature on the Fahrenheit scale, 
T - 461, or Col. 6 - 461. 

The following table and diagram show the approximate result- 
ing temperatures usual in gas-engines, in consideration of the heat 
values of each element in the gas and its distribution to the air 
and heated contents of the clearance space from a previous explo- 
sion, and the estimated absorption of heat by the walls of the 
clearance space at the moment of combustion, for gas of 660 
thermal units per cubic foot : 

TABLE V. 







Usual rise in temperature of explosion of various air and gas 


Clearance Per 


Ratio 
P + C 


mixtures, due to the ratio of compression in column 2. 


Cent, of Piston 






Volume. 


n 


















6 to 1 


7 to 1 


8 to 1 


9 to 1 


10 to 1 


lltol 12tol 


.50 


3. 


2,029 


1,922 


1,845 


1,739 


1,629 


1,524 i ,398 


.444 


3.25 


2,111 


2,001 


1,918 


1,807 


1,693 


1,584 ,452 


.40 


3.50 


2,183 


2,069 


1,981 


1,866 


1,748 


1,635 j ,500 


.363 


3.75 


2,245 


2,127 


2,036 


1,917 


1,795 


1,679 ,540 


.333 


4. 


2,300 


2,178 


2,084 


1,961 


1,837 


1,718 ! ,578 


.285 


4.5 


2,390 


2,269 


2,165 


2,036 


1,907 


1,783 ! ,636 


.25 


5. 


2,462 


2,343 


2,225 


2,098 


1,963 


1,836 ! 1,683 


.222 


5.5 


2,522 


2,404 


2,282 


2,145 


2,008 


1,878 ' 1,722 


.20 


6. 


2,572 


2,456 


2,326 


2,186 


2,046 


1,914 1,755 



Diagram of the rise in temperature of various mixtures of air 
and gas of 660 thermal units per cubic foot at ratios of compression 

of ' , and of piston-stroke volume, less the estimated 

Clearance Vol. 

loss of temperature due to the clearance volume of a previous com- 
bustion and wall-cooling. 

The ratio of compression is obtained by the stroke volume of 
the piston, which may be represented by 1. to which is added the 
percentage of the volume for clearance, and the sum divided by 
the clearance equals the ratio. For example : 



1 + .50 
.50 



3. and , = 6. the ratios as in the diagram. Then 



HEAT AND ITS EFFICIENCY IN EXPLOSIVE MOTORS 45 

o 

using the ratio for obtaining both stroke and clearance ^r = l and 
3 -1 = 2 the stroke and 2 1 = 1, the clearance. At the other end, 



Piston Stroke Volume 

.25 .285 .333 .363 .40 .444 .50 




FIG. 8. Heat diagram, in the gas-engine cylinder. 

/> 

for example, 7 = 1. and 6. - 1 = 5. the stroke and 6 5 = 1. the clear- 
ance in parts of the stroke. 



CHAPTER IV 



RETARDED COMBUSTION, WALL-COOLING, AND COMPRESSION 
EFFICIENCIES 

SOME of the serious difficulties in practically realizing the con- 
dition of a perfect cycle in an internal-combustion engine are shown 
in the diagram Fig. 9, taken from an Otto gas-engine, in which 
the cooling effect of the walls is shown by the lagging of the explo- 
sion curve, by the miss- 
ing of several explo- 
sions when the cylinder 
walls have been unduly 
cooled by the water- 
jacket. The same de- 
lay is experienced in 
starting a gas-engine. 
The indicator card IAD 




representing the normal 



FIG. 9. Variable card from wall cooling. 

condition of constant work in the cylinder; the curve I B D an 
interruption of explosions for several revolutions; and I C D a 
still longer interruption in the explosions with the engine in 
continuous motion. 

In an experimental investigation of the efficiency of a gas- 
engine under variable piston speeds made in France, it was found 
that the useful effect increases with the velocity of the piston that 
is, with the rate of expansion of the burning gases with mixtures 
of uniform volumes; so that with the variations of time of complete 
combustion at constant pressure, as illustrated on pages 28-29, and 
the variations due to speed, in a way compensate in their efficiencies. 
The dilute mixture, being slow burning, will have its time and 
pressure quickened by increasing the speed. 
46 



COMBUSTION, WALL-COOLING, AND COMPRESSION 47 



TABLE VI. TRIAL EFFICIENCIES DUE TO INCREASED PISTON SPEED. 



Efficiency = 



_work of indicator diagram 



theoretical work. 





. 


t-d 


. 


13 -S 




Mixtures. 


Ill 


08 


|1]| 


|l|| 


I 




H 


S2 3s 


O ^ o 


f 1 o 


w 






P-t 


fe 


* 




1 volume coal-gas to 9.4 volumes air (.1093 
cubic feet mixture) . 


.53 


1.181 


70.8 


4917 


1.44 


1 volume coal-gas to 9. 4 volumes air 
1 " " " "9.4 " 


.40 
.25 


1.64 
3.01 


85.3 
105.5 


4917 
4917 


1.70 
2.10 


1 " " " " 9.4 


.16 


4.55 


125.8 


4917 


2.60 


1 " " " '" 6.33 " " (.073 












cubic feet mixture) 


15 


5.57 


127.2 


4793 


2 60 


1 volume coal-gas to 6.33 volumes air .... 


.09 


9.51 


289.9 


4793 


6.00 


1 < a > .1 . i 


.06 


14.1 


364.4 


4793 


7.50 



These trials give unmistakable evidence that the useful effect 
increases with the velocity of the piston that is, with the rate of 
expansion of the burning gases. 

The time necessary for the explosion to become complete and 
to attain its maximum pressure depends not only on the composi- 
tion of the mixture, but also upon the rate of expansion. 

This has been verified in experiments with a high-speed motor, 
at speeds from 500 to 1,000 revolutions per minute, or piston speeds 
of from 16 to 32 feet per second. 

The increased speed of combustion due to increased piston speed 
is a matter of great importance to builders of gas-engines, as well 
as to the users, as indicating the mechanical direction of improve- 
ments to lessen the wearing strain due to high speed and to lighten 
the vibrating parts with increased strength, in order that the 
balancing of high-speed engines may be accomplished with the 
least weight. 

From many experiments made in Europe and in the United 
States, it has been conclusively proved that excessive cylinder 
cooling by the water-jacket is a loss of efficiency. 

In a series of experiments with a simplex engine in France, it 
was found that a saving of 7 per cent, in gas consumption per brake 
horse-power was made b}^ raising the temperature of the jacket 



48 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



water from 141 to 165 F. A still greater saving was made in a 
trial with an Otto engine by raising the temperature of the jacket 
water from 61 to 140 F. it being 9.5 per cent, less gas per brake 
horse-power. 

In view of the experiments in this direction, it clearly shows 
that in practical work, to obtain the greatest economy per effective 
brake horse-power, it is necessary: 

1st. To transform the heat into work with the greatest rapidity 
mechanically allowable. This means high piston speed. 

2d. To have high initial compression. 

3d. To reduce the duration of contact between the hot gases 
and the cylinder walls to the smallest amount possible; which 
means short stroke and quick speed, with a spherical cylinder-head. 



Actual Indicaf or 

Diagram from 

Otto Engtiie. 




< TMs length is proportional to the. stroke of Engine. >j 

FIG. 10. Otto four-cycle card. 

4th. To adjust the temperature of the jacket water to obtain 
the most economical output of actual power. This means water- 
tanks or water-coils, with air-cooling surfaces suitable and adjust- 
able to the most economical requirement of the engine, which by late 
trials requires the jacket water to be discharged at about 200 F. 

5th. To reduce the wall surface of the clearance space or com- 
bustion chamber to the smallest possible area, in proportion to its 
required volume. This lessens the loss of the heat of combustion 
by exposure to a large surface, and allows of a higher mean wall 
temperature to facilitate the heat of compression. 

It will be noticed that the volumes of similar cylinders increase 
as the cube of their diameters, while the surface of their cold walls 



COMBUSTION, WALL-COOLING, AND COMPRESSION 49 



varies as the square of their diameters; so that for large cylinders 
the ratio of surface to volume is less than for small ones. This 
points to greater economy in the larger engines. 

The study of many experiments goes to prove that combustion 
takes place gradually in the gas-engine cylinder, and that the rate 
of increase of pressure or rapidity of firing is controlled by dilution 
and compression of the mixture, as well as by the rate of expansion 
or piston speed. 

The rate of combustion also depends on the size and shape of 
the exploding chamber, and is increased by mechanical agitation 
of the mixture during combustion, and still more by the mode of 
firing. A small intermittent spark gives the most uncertain igni- 
tion, whereas a continuous electric spark passed through an ex- 




8UCTION 

COMPRESSION *j 

EXPANSION (WORKING STROKE) 
FULL STROKE ) 



EXHAUST 



FIG. 11. Indicator card, Atkinson type. 

plosive mixture, or a large flame as the shooting of a mass of 
lighted gas into a weak mixture, will produce rapid ignition. 

The shrinkage of the charge of mixed gas and air by the union 
of its hydrogen and oxygen constituents by the production of the 
vapor of water in a gas-engine cylinder, using 1 part illuminating 
gas to 6.05 parts air, is a notable amount, and of the total volume 
of 7.05 in cubic feet, the product will be: 

1 . 3714 cubic feet water vapor. 
.5714 " " carbonic acid. 
.0050 " " nitrogen derived from the gas. 
" " " " " air. 



4.8000 
6.7428 " 



products of combustion. 



50 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



Then 7.05 cubic feet of the mixture charge will have shrunk by 
combustion to 6.7428 cubic feet at initial temperature, or 4.4 per 
cent. 

This difference in the computed shrinkage at initial temperature 




FIG. 12. Indicator card, full load. Four cycle. 

is manifested in the reduced pressure of combustion due to the 
computed shrinkage, and amounts to about 2 per cent, in the mean 
pressure, as shown on an indicator card. 

With the less rich gas, as water, producer, and Dowson gas, the 
shrinkage by conversion into water vapor is equal to 5.5 per cent. 

In Fig. 11 is represented a card from the Atkinson gas-engine. 




FIG. 13. Indicator card, half load. 

The peculiar design of this engine enables the largest degree of 
expansion known in gas-engine practice. 

In Fig. 12 is shown an actual indicator diagram from an Otto 
or four-cycle engine, in which the sequences of operation are deline- 



COMBUSTION, WALL-COOLING, AND COMPRESSION 51 

ated through two of its four cycles. The curve of explosion shows 
that firing commenced slightly before the end of the compression 
stroke, and that combustion lagged until a moment after reversal 
of the stroke. The expansion line is somewhat higher than the 




FIG. 14. Typical compression card. Mean pressure, 76 Ibs. per square inch. 

adiabatic curve, indicating a partial combustion taking place dur- 
ing the stroke of the piston, showing an irregularity in firing the 
charge, and probably an irregular progress of combustion by de- 
fective mixture. This card was made when running at full load, 
and computed at 69 Ibs. mean pressure. 

Fig. 13 represents a card from the same engine at half load and 




FIG. 15. Kerosene motor card. Mietz & Weiss. 

lessened combustion charge. It shows the same characteristics 
as to irregularity, and also a lag in firing and a fitful after-com- 
bustion ; but from weak mixture and interrupted firing the cooling 



52 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



influence of the cylinder walls has prolonged the combustion with 
ignition pressure. Mean pressure, about 68 Ibs. per square inch. 

Fig. 14 represents a typical card of our best compression-engines, 
with time igniter, at full load and uninterrupted firing. 

The kerosene-motor card of the Mietz & Weiss engine (Fig. 15) 
taken from a 20 horse-power actual, motor with cylinder 12 inches 
X 12 inches, at 300 revolutions per minute, shows a compresssion 
of nearly one-half the explosive force. Its efficiency is very high, 
and by test gave 21 \ horse-power from 16J pints of oil per hour. 

A most unique card is that of the Diesel motor (Fig. 16), which 
involves a distinct principle in the design and operation of inter- 
nal-combustion motors, in that instead of taking a mixed charge for 
instantaneous explosion, its charge primarily is of air and its com- 
pression to a pressure at which a temperature is attained above the 
igniting point of the fuel, then injecting the fuel under a still higher 




Y. 



FIG. 16. Diesel motor card. 



pressure by which spontaneous combustion takes place gradually 
with increasing volume over the compression for part of the stroke 
or until the fuel charge is consumed. The motor thus operating 
between the pressures of 500 and 35 Ibs. per square inch, with 
a clearance of about 7 per cent., has given an efficiency of 36 per 
cent, of the total heat value of kerosene oil. 



ADVANCED IGNITION 



The governing of an explosive motor, by changing the time of 
ignition, may be done by advancing or retarding the ignition spark 
from the dead centre of the stroke. 



COMBUSTION, WALL-COOLING, AND COMPRESSION 53 

In Fig. 17 is shown the effect of pre-ignition for regulating speed. 
The relative areas of the combined card show the change in mean 
pressure and also the increased compression before the crank ar- 



16 H. P. Otto Gas Engine 
Full Load 



151 revs, per minute 

Scale of spring, 56 Ib. = i inch 




(Half actual size) 

FIG. 17. Effect of advanced ignition. 

rives at its dead centre. This may be carried so far that a reversal 
of the motor may take place. In some automobile practice both 
the advance and retardation of ignition is employed in Europe; 
but is not recommended in lieu of variable-fuel charge. 

The value of an indicator card for ascertaining the true condi- 
tion of the internal activities within the cylinder of an explosive 
motor is most apparent, and it should always be made the means 
for finding the cause of trouble that cannot be traced to the out- 
side mechanism. 

An indicator card, or a series of them, will always show by its 
lines the normal or defective condition of the inlet valve and pas- 
sages; the actual line of compression; the firing moment; the pres- 
sure of explosion; the velocity of combustion; the normal or defec- 
tive line of expansion, as measured by the adiabatic curve, and 
the normal or defective operation of the exhaust valve, exhaust 
passages, and exhaust pipe. 

In fact, all the cycles of an explosive motor may be made a 
practical study from a close investigation of the lines of an indicator 
card. 



CHAPTER V 

COMPRESSION IN EXPLOSIVE MOTORS, AND ITS WORK 

THAT the compression in a gas, gasoline or oil-engine has a direct 
relation to the power obtained, has been long known to experi- 
enced builders, having been suggested by M. Beau de Rocha, in 
1862, and afterward brought into practical use in the four-cycle 
or Otto type about 1880. The degree of compression has had a 
growth from zero, in the early engines, to the highest available 
due to the varying ignition temperatures of the different gases and 
vapors used for explosive fuel, in order to avoid premature explo- 
sion from the heat of compression. Much of the increased power 
for equal-cylinder capacity is due to compression of the charge 
from the fact that the most powerful explosion of gases, or of any 
form of explosive material, takes place when the particles are in the 
closest contact or cohesion with one another, less energy in this 
form being consumed by the ingredients themselves to bring about 
their chemical combination, and consequently more energy is given 
out in useful or available work. This is best shown by the ignition 
of gunpowder, which, when ignited in the open air, burns rapidly, 
but without explosion, an explosion only taking place if the powder 
be confined or compressed into a small space. 

In a gas or gasoline-motor with a small clearance or compression 
space with high compression the surface with which the burning 
gases come into contact is much smaller in comparison with the 
compression space in a low-compression motor. 

Another advantage of a high-compression motor is that on 
account of the smaller clearance of combustion space less cooling 
water is required than with a low-compression motor, as the tem- 
perature, and consequently the pressure, falls more rapidly. The 
loss of heat through the water-jacket is thus less in the case of a 
high-compression than in that of a low-compression motor. In 
the non-compression type of motor the best results were obtained 
with a charge of 16 to 18 parts of gas and 100 parts of air, while 
in the compression type the best results are obtained with an ex- 
plosive mixture of 7 to 10 parts of gas and 100 parts of air, thus 
54 



COMPRESSION IN EXPLOSIVE MOTORS 55 

showing that by the utilization of compression a weaker charge 
with a greater thermal efficiency is permissible. 

It has been found that the explosive pressure resulting from 
the ignition of the charge of gas or gasoline-vapor and air in the 
gas-engine cylinder is about 4J times the pressure prior to ignition. 
The difficulty about getting high compression is that if the pressure 
is too high the charge is likely to ignite prematurely, as compression 
always results in increased temperature. The cylinder may become 
too hot, a deposit of carbon, a projecting bolt, nut, or fin in the 
cylinder may become incandescent and ignite the charge which 
has been excessively heated by the high compression and mixture 
of the hot gases of the previous explosion. 

With gasoline-vapor and air the compression cannot be raised 
above about 85 pounds to the square inch, many manufacturers 
not going above 55 or 60 pounds. For natural gas the compression 
pressure may easily be raised to from 85 to 100 pounds per square 
inch. For gases of low calorific value, such as blast-furnace or 
producer-gas, the compression may be increased to from 140 to 190 
pounds. In fact the ability to raise the compression to a high 
point with these gases is one of the principal reasons for their suc- 
cessful adoption for gas-engine use. With kerosene the compression 
of 250 pounds per square inch has been used with marked economy. 
Many troubles in regard to loss of power and increase of fuel 
have occurred and will no doubt continue, owing to the wear of 
valves, piston, and cylinder, which produces a loss in compression 
and explosive pressure and a waste of fuel by leakage. Faulty 
adjustment of valve movement is also a cause of loss of power; 
which may be from tardy closing of the inlet-valve or a too early 
opening of the exhaust-valve. 

The explosive pressure varies to a considerable amount in pro- 
portion to the compression pressure by the difference in fuel value 
and the proportions of air mixtures, so that for good illuminating 
gas the explosive pressure may be from 2.5 to 4 times the compres- 
sion pressure. For natural gas 3 to 4.5, for gasoline 3 to 5, for 
producer-gas 2 to 3, and for kerosene by injection 3 to 6. 

For obtaining the compression clearance we have the equations : 

/ v \i.35 /pV- 35 

(p v) 1 - 35 = (p, vO 1 ' 35 . Then p, = p ( - ) and v, = v K- 1 and 



56 GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 

substituting values for p, and p b we have values for the volume of 
the clearance, say for 100 pounds gauge pressure of compression, 
in which v and p represent absolute volumes and pressures. 

Then using the expression for pressure, say for 100 pounds, in 
which p = normal absolute pressure and p l = absolute compression 
pressure, the expression becomes for clearance plus stroke, 1 

14.7 V- 35 

wn i cn worked out by logarithms = .1281 log. 1. 107549 X 



1.35 == . 145191 15 index of which is .1397, the adiabatic ratio of 
compression for the stroke + clearance, and 1 . 1397 = .8603 the 
ratio for obtaining the clearance. Then by dividing the stroke 
in inches by this ratio and subtracting from the quotient the 
length of the stroke gives the clearance length also in inches. 

For example, for 10-inch stroke, -=11.623-10 = 1.623 

. oOUo 

inches clearance in the length of a plain cylindrical space for 100 
pounds compression. If the clearance space is of other form than 
the plain extension of the cylinders the volumes will have the same 
relation. 

For example, for 100 pounds compression, a motor with an 
8-inch cylinder and 10-inch stroke, the stroke volume will be 502.6 

502.6 
cubic inches, and Q ' -584.2 cubic inches, and 584.2 502.6 = 

.oOUo 

81.6 cubic inches clearance. From this formula the following 
table of compression pressures and their clearance ratio in parts of 
the stroke has been computed : 

TABLE VII. COMPRESSION AND CLEARANCE. 



Compression in pounds per square inch. 


Ratio. 
Stroke c . ni 


Ratio ICC> 


100 


.8603 


90 


.8419 


80 


.8189 


70 


.7890 


60 


.7508 


50 


.6972 


40 


.6201 


30 


.5058 



The compression temperatures, although well known and easily 
computed from a known normal temperature of the explosive 
mixture, are subject to the effect of the uncertain temperature 



COMPRESSION IN EXPLOSIVE MOTORS 



57 



of the gases of the previous explosion remaining in the cylinder, 
the temperature of its walls, and the relative volume of the charge, 
whether full or scant; which are terms too variable to make any 
computations reliable or available. 

For the theoretical compression temperatures from a known 
normal temperature, we append a table of the rise in temperature 
for the compression pressures in the foregoing Table VII : 

TABLE VIII. COMPRESSION TEMPERATURES FROM A NORMAL TEMPERATURE OF 

60 FAH. 



100 Ibs ""aug^ 1 


484 


60 Ibs. gauge 


. .373 


90 " " 


. . . 459 


50 " " 


.339 


80 " " 


433 


40 " " 


301 


70 " " 


404 


30 " " 


258 











To which must be added the assumed temperature of the con- 
tents of the cylinder above 60 at the moment that compression 
begins. For example, for obtaining the assumed temperature at 
the moment that compression begins for 100 pounds compression 
and for an observed temperature of the exhaust of 750 F. we 
have the compression clearance of .1397 X 750 = 104.7 and 
piston volume of .8603 X 60 = 51.6, making the charged tem- 
perature 156.3 to which may be added 10 for increase from the 
walls of the cylinder = 166 + 484 for compression rise = 650 
the probable compression temperature for 100 pounds per square 
inch compression. This is, no doubt, a crude method, but we find 
nothing better. 

The effect of compression on fuel economy is well shown in 
trials of a four-cycle gas-engine and given in the following table: 

TABLE IX. COMPARISON OF THE THEORETICAL AND ACTUAL EFFICIENCIES OF A 
FOUR-CYCLE GAS-ENGINE AND FUEL ECONOMY WITH VARYING COMPRESSION. 



Compression 
pressure, 
pounds. 


Ratio of 
compres- 
sion. 


Computed 
efficiency 
from compres- 
sion volume. 


Actual indi- 
cated efficien- 
cy by card 
and fuel. 


Gas burned 
per I. H. P. 


Ratio of actual to 
computed effi- 
ciency. 


38 


.6 


.33 


.17 


C. ft. 
24. 


^1 =.51 


61 


.4 


.40 


.21 


20.5 


-^ =.53 


87 


.34 


.428 


.25 


14.8 


iSr^ 



58 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



From considerations shown in the table it is evident that there 
is economy in compression and it is claimed that still higher com- 
pression may be used to advantage; but from reasons given in the 
foregoing discussion of this subject, the practical limit of com- 
pression may be stated to be at 100 pounds. 

The diagram (Fig. 18), drawn to scale from trials with compres- 
sions at 38-61, and 87 pounds, gives an ideal conception of the 



280 
240 
200 
160 
120 
80 
40 




g c b 

FIG. 18. Compression diagram. 

value of the power of the same engine under various compressions, 
in which a, b, represents the piston and clearance space and 
b, c; 6, g, and 6, 1, the relative piston strokes and clearance for the 
compressions of 38, 61, and 87 pounds. The relative areas show 
at a glance and the above table shows the relative value of the fuel 
consumed per indicated horse-power. 



CHAPTER VI 

CAUSES OF LOSS AND INEFFICIENCY IN EXPLOSIVE MOTORS 

THE difference realized in the practical operation of an internal 
heat engine from the computed effect derived from the values of 
the explosive elements is probably the most serious difficulty that 
engineers have encountered in their endeavors to arrive at a rational 
conclusion as to where the losses were located and the ways and 
means of design that would eliminate the causes of loss and raise 
the efficiency step by step to a reasonable percentage of the total 
efficiency of a perfect cycle. 

An authority on the relative condition of the chemical elements 
under combustion in closed cylinders, attributes the variation of 
temperature shown in the fall of the expansion curve, and the sup- 
pression or retarded evolution of heat, entirely to the cooling action 
of the cylinder walls, and to this nearly all the phenomena hitherto 
obscure in the cylinder of a gas-engine. 

Others attribute the great difference between the theoretical 
temperature of combustion and the actual temperature realized 
in the practical operation of the gas-engine, a loss of more than 
one-half of the total heat energy of the combustibles, partly 
to the dissociation of the elements of combustion at extremely 
high temperatures and their reassociation by expansion in the 
cylinder, to account for the supposed continued combustion and 
extra adiabatic curve of the expansion line on the indicator 
card. 

The loss of heat to the walls of the cylinder, piston, and clear- 
ance space, as regards the proportion of wall surface to the volume, 
has gradually brought this point to its smallest ratio in the con- 
cave piston-head and globular cylinder-head, with the smallest 
possible space in the inlet and exhaust passage. The wall surface 

59 



60 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



of a cylindrical clearance space or combustion chamber of one-half 
its unit diameter in length is equal to 3.1416 square units, its volume 
but 0.3927 of a cubic unit; while the same wall surface in a spherical 
form has a volume of 0.5236 of a cubic unit. It will be readily 
seen that the volume is increased 33J per cent, in a spherical 
over a cylindrical form for equal wall surfaces at the moment 
of explosion, when it is desirable that the greatest amount 
of heat is generated, and carrying with it the greatest possible 
pressure from which the expansion takes place by the movement 
of the piston. 

The spherical form cannot continue during the stroke for me- 
chanical reasons; therefore some proportion of piston stroke or 
cylinder volume must be found to correspond with a spherical 
form of the combustion chamber to produce the least loss of 




FIG. 19. Spherical combustion 
chamber. 



FIG. 20. Enlarged combustion 
chamber. 



heat through the walls during the combustion and expansion 
part of the stroke. 

This idea we illustrate in Figs. 19 and 20, showing how the 
relative volumes of cylinder stroke and combustion chamber may 
be varied to suit the requirements^ due to the quality of the elements 
of combustion. In Fig. 18 the ratio may also be decreased by 
extending the stroke. 

Although the concave piston-head shows economy in regard to 
the relation of the clearance volume to the wall area at the moment 
of explosive combustion, it may be clearly seen that its concavity 
increases its surface area and its capacity for absorbing heat, for 
which there is no provision for cooling the piston, save its contact 
with the walls of the cylinder and the slight air cooling of its back 
by its reciprocal motion. For this reason the concave piston-head 



LOSS AND INEFFICIENCY IN EXPLOSIVE MOTORS 61 

has not been generally adopted and the concave cylinder-head, as 
shown in Fig. 19, with a flat piston-head is the latest and best 
practice in explosive-engine construction. 

The mean temperature of the wall surface of the combustion 
chamber and cylinder, as indicated by the temperatures of the cir- 
culating water, has been found to be an important item in the econo- 
my of the gas-engine. Dugald Clerk, in England, a high authority 
in practical work with the gas-engine, found that 10 per cent, of 
the gas for a stated amount of power was saved by using water at a 
temperature in which the ejected water from the cylinder-jacket 
was near the boiling-point, and ventures the opinion that a still 
higher temperature for the circulating water may be used as a 
source of economy. 

This could be made practical by elevating the water-tank and 
adjusting the air-cooling surface so as to maintain the inlet water 
at just below the boiling-point, and by the rapid circulation induced 
by the height of the tank above the engine and the pressure, to 
return the water from the cylinder-jacket a few degrees above the 
boiling-point. 

For a given amount of heat taken from the cylinder by the 
largest volume of circulating water, the difference in temperature 
between inlet and outlet of the water-jacket should be the least 
possible, and this condition of the water circulation gives a more 
even temperature to all parts of the cylinder; while, on the contrary, 
a cold-water supply, say at 60 F., so slow as to allow the ejected 
water to flow off at a temperature near the boiling-point, must make 
a great difference in temperature between the bottom and top of 
the cylinder, with a loss in economy in gas arid other fuels, as well 
as in water, if it is obtained by measurement. 

In regard to the actual consumption of water per horse-power, 
and the amount of heat carried off by it, the study of English trials 
of an Atkinson, Crossley, and Griffin engine showed 62 pounds water 
per indicated horse-power per hour, with a rise in temperature of 
50 F., or 3,100 heat units were carried off in the water out of 12,027 
theoretical heat units that were fed to the motor through the 19 
cubic feet of gas at 633 heat units per cubic foot per hour. 

Theoretically, 2,564 heat units per hour are equal to 1 horse- 
power. Then 0.257 of the total was given to the jacket water, 0.213 



62 GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 

to the indicated power, and the balance, 53 per cent., went to the 
exhaust, radiation, and the reheating of the previous charge in the 
clearance and in expanding the nitrogen of the air. Other and 
mysterious losses, due to the unknown condition of the gases enter- 
ing into and passing through the heat cycle, which have been 
claimed and mathematically discussed by authors, have failed to 
satisfy the practical side of the question, which is the main object 
of this work. 

From the foregoing considerations of losses and inefficiencies, we 
find that the practice in motor design and construction has not 
yet reached the desired perfection in its cycular operation. Step 
by step improvements have been made with many changes in 
design that may have been without merit as an improvement, 
further than to gratify the longings of designers for something 
different from the other thing, and to establish a special construc- 
tion of their own. 

These efforts may in time produce a motor of normal design for 
each kind of fuel that will give the highest possible efficiency for 
all conditions of service. 

The advent of the speed craze in automobile and marine service 
has given a great incentive to activity in inventive design in the 
lines of economy of fuel, stability of action, and lightness of parts 
so essential to locomotive speed. The progress is apparently slow, 
yet when compared with the progress of the steam-engine it is a 
wonder of the past decade. 



CHAPTER VII 

ECONOMY OF THE GAS-ENGINE FOR ELECTRIC-LIGHTING AND MERITS 
OF THE TWO TYPES 

IN the lighting of large dwellings or other buildings, where there 
is no power used for other purposes, the use of gas, gasoline, or oil- 
engines for operating an electric generator is not only cheaper in 
running expenses than the steam-engine, but the comparison holds 
good for the lighting of towns and villages at the usual cost of gas 
to consumers ; but when the generation of producer-gas can be made 
for such use on the premises of the electric plant and by the 
same persons that operate the electric plant, the saving in cost of 
electric-lighting is several-fold less than by direct gas-burning. 

In many towns where oil producer-gas is used, the cost of ma- 
terial used in making the gas is less than thirty-five cents per thou- 
sand cubic feet of gas produced. In such places the labor of 
producing the gas for a town of say fifteen hundred inhabitants is 
from two to three hours per day, and in some towns, as observed 
by the author, three hours every other day giving ample time 
for the same operator to run the electric plant in the evening, or 
both may be run simultaneously. 

When the mere fact of the cost of gas for direct lighting and 
its cost for producing the same light by its use in a gas-engine to 
run an electric generator is considered, the difference in favor of 
electric-lighting in preference to direct gas-lighting is most apparent. 

It has been known for some years that for equal light power 
but about one-half the volume of gas consumed in direct lighting 
will produce the same amount of candle-power when used in a gas- 
engine for generating electricity for lighting. 

Again, when we leave the realm of a fixed gas and the cost of 
its producing-plant, the gasoline and oil-engine again come to the 
rescue of the fuel element for lighting, from an average cost of 
7J cents per hour for 192 candle-power in lights by direct illumina- 

63 



64 GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 

tion, and 2 J cents for the same amount of light by the use of illumi- 
nating gas consumed in a gas-engine with electric generator, to 
one cent or less by the gasoline and oil-engine for equal light. 

In English trials with a Crossley engine of 54 indicated horse- 
power running a 25}-kilowatt generator (34 electrical horse-power), 
lighting 400 incandescent lamps (16 candle-power), consumed 1,130 
cubic feet illuminating gas per hour, or 2.82 cubic feet of gas per 
lamp per hour. 

The gas used for direct lighting was 16 candle-power at 5 cubic 
feet per hour. Then, if it had been used for direct lighting, it 
would have produced ^- = 226 16-candle-power gas-lights, a 
little over one-half the amount of the electric light or the efficiency 
of the direct light would have been but 56.5 per cent. 

To show the difference between running a gas-engine at full 
or less than full power, the same engine and generator when run- 
ning with 300 incandescent lamps (16 candle-power) used 840 
cubic feet of gas per hour, and ^1^ = 168 16-candle-power gas- 
lights, or 56 per cent, efficiency for direct lighting. 

When the lamps were cut out to one-half or 200, the consumption 
of gas was 740 cubic feet per hour, equal to - Z -|- Q - = 148 gas-lights, 
with a direct gas-light efficiency of 74 per cent. the difference in 
efficiency being chiefly due to the constant value of the engine and 
generator friction in its relation to the variable power. 

Another trial with a Tangye engine of a maximum 39 indi- 
cated horse-power running an 18.36-kilowatt generator (24.61 elec- 
trical horse-power), lighting 300 16-candle-power incandescent 
lamps, consumed 770 cubic feet illuminating gas per hour. With 
direct lighting, ^P- = 154 gas-lights (16 candle-power), or an effi- 
ciency of 51 per cent, for direct lighting. With 220 incandescent 
lamps in, 640 cubic feet of gas were consumed per hour, equal to 
f- = 128 gas-lights and a direct gas-light efficiency of iff = 58 per 
cent. Again reducing to 100 lamps, 320 cubic feet of gas were 
used, equal to 64 gas-lights with an efficiency of 64 per cent, for 
direct gas-lighting. 

It will readily be seen by inspection of these figures that the 
greatest economy in gas-engine power will be found in gauging the 
size of a gas-engine by the work it is to do when the work is a 
constant quantity. 



THE GAS-ENGINE FOR ELECTRIC LIGHTING 65 

In a trial by the writer of a Nash gas-engine of 5 brake horse- 
power, driving by belt a Riker 3-kilowatt bipolar generator of 120 
volts, 25-ampere capacity, the engine speed was 300 revolutions and 
the generator 1,400 revolutions per minute; consumption of New 
York gas, 105 cubic feet per hour. With 50 120-volt A.B.C. lamps 
in circuit giving a brilliant white light of fully 16 candle-power, the 
actual voltage by meter was 120, amperage by meter 24, voltage and 
amperage perfectly steady with continuous running. By turning 
in resistance and reducing the voltage to 110 and the amperage to 
21, the lights were still brilliant in the 50 lamps. With the lamps 
cut out to 40, the voltmeter vibrated 2 volts and immediately came 
back to 110 volts, with the amperemeter at 17. With a further 
and sudden cutting out the light to 20 lamps, the voltage fell to 
105 with but slight vibration; amperage, 11. With 15 lamps on, 
the voltage crept up to 110, amperage 6J; and with 10 lamps only 
the voltage vibrated for a few seconds and rested at 110, amperage 
4J. The engine seemed to answer the change of load remarkably 
quick, so that there was no perceptible change in speed. 

The investment of local lighting-plants by the use of gas, gaso- 
line, and oil-engines in factories and large buildings has been found 
a great source of economy as against the direct use of municipal 
electric current or the direct use of gas. 

The gasoline or oil-engine makes a most favorable return in 
economy when used for local lighting as against the prevailing 
price charged by the operators of large steam-power installations 
for town and city lighting. 

In a trial of eleven days by a 10-horse-power four-cycle gas- 
engine of the Raymond vertical pattern, belted direct to a 150-light 
direct-current generator making 1,600 revolutions per minute, with 
the current measured by a recording wattmeter, giving a steady 
current to 90 16-candle-power lamps on a factory circuit, the total 
cost of gas at $1.50 per 1,000 cubic feet with lubricating oils was 
$20.16. The kilowatts produced by measure were 239.1 at a cost 
of .0844 cents per kilowatt. The price of the current by the same 
measure from the electric company was 20 cents per kilowatt a 
saving of 57 per cent. In places where gas is $1 per 1,000 feet, the 
cost would have been only 5| cents per kilowatt. 

In the lighting of churches the gas or gasoline-engine has been 



66 GAS, GASOLINE AND OIL-ENGINES 

found to be not only economical, but has largely contributed to the 
cheerful surroundings of a lighted church at less than one-half the 
cost of gas for direct lighting, and with no more attention in start- 
ing the engine, cleaning, etc., than required for lighting and regu- 
lating the ordinary gas-lights. 

The last few years have ushered in a most extended use of 
explosive engines as prime movers for generating the electric cur- 
rent for lighting and the transmission of power. For this purpose 
the duplex vertical engine and direct-connected multipolar gen- 
erators are used, from which very favorable results have been ob- 
tained. Trials with a 22-brake horse-power two-cylinder vertical 
engine of the National Meter Co., direct coupled with a 15-kilowatt 
6-pole, compound-wound Hiker generator, using illuminating gas of 
701 thermal units per cubic foot, with engine and generator run- 
ning at 300 revolutions per minute, are quoted. " The output 
was 1,312 watts, or equal to 345 lamps of 3.8 watts each say 
16 candle-power, with a total brake horse-power = 22.71. Total 
consumption of gas per brake horse-power =17.62 cubic feet. Re- 
lative illuminating power of electric light 2.21 as compared with 
equal consumption by direct gas lighting. Efficiency of engine 
20.6 per cent.; efficiency of generator 83.1 per cent." 

Statements of still greater economy for lighting by gas and 
gasoline-engines, in which claims for from 14 to 16 cubic feet of 
gas and J gallon of gasoline per brake horse-power are made for 
large-sized electric plants, and but a trifle more for smaller sizes. 
Electric-lighting by the power of the explosive engine is conceded 
to be economical at all ranges of its power, but with gasoline and 
oil-vapor the cost of fuel for light drops to less than -fa of a cent 
per 16-candle-power light per hour. 

Electric-lighting plants operated by gas,- gasoline, and oil-motors 
are making rapid advances in the number of units of power, and the 
small powers of the date of the early edition of this work, have 
gradually advanced to unit instalments of 100, 500, and 750 horse- 
power in double and triple-cylinder motors, and by duplicating 
the motor-units, almost any desired installation can be made on 
the most economical running basis. 

The American practice of construction seems to favor the smaller 
cylinder volume and their duplication for the higher powers. In 



THE GAS-ENGINE FOR ELECTRIC LIGHTING 67 

this manner power installations for from 1,000 to 10,000 incandes- 
cent lights may be made a most economical plant with illuminating 
gas, gasoline, producer-gas or petroleum oil. 

The extension of electric power for all work by the use of the 
cheap producer-gas fuel in the explosive motor for generating and 
transmitting electric current, has taken an advanced position in 
the manufacturing industry of Europe and the United States, by 
developing a system of driving machines and tools of all kinds by 
individual and local motors; thus doing away with a vast amount 
of running shaft lines and belting with their loss of power. 

Marking the rapid progress of events in adapting the explosive 
motor to the work of high-speed road locomotion and to the pro- 
pulsion of marine craft and its culmination in racing vehicles and 
boats that have exceeded in speed, the ardent expectations of the 
inventors and constructors of the past century, and which has be 
come a marvel of progress in the first years of the new century. 

THE TWO-CYCLE AND FOUR-CYCLE TYPES 

In the earlier years of explosive-motor progress, was evolved 
the two types of motors in regard to the cycles of their operation. 
The early attempts to perfect the two-cycle principle were for many 
years held in abeyance from the pressure of interests in the four- 
cycle type, until its simplicity and power possibilities were demon- 
strated by Mr. Dugald Clerk in England, who gave the principles 
of the two-cycle motor a broad bearing leading to immediate im- 
provements in design, which has made further progress in the 
United States, until at the present time it has an equal standard 
value as a motor-power as its ancient rival the four-cycle or Otto 
type, as demonstrated by Beau de Rocha in 1862. 

Thermodynamically, the methods of the two types are equal as 
far as combustion is concerned, and compression may favor in a 
small degree the four-cycle type as well as the purity of the charge. 

The cylinder volume of the two-cycle motor is much smaller 
per unit of power, and the enveloping cylinder surface is therefore 
greater per unit of volume. Hence more heat is carried off by the 
jacket water during compression, and the higher compression avail- 
able from this tends to increase the economy during compression 
which is lost during expansion. 



68 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



In the two-cycle motor a scavenging may be obtained to a small 
extent under the conditions of a crank-chamber pressure charge, 
while in a four-cycle motor the charge is made by the suction stroke 
of the main piston and at less than atmospheric pressure, and no 
scavenging can be made possible except by the momentum of the 
exhaust in a long exhaust-pipe, which is not always available. 

The result of these conditions is that the two-cycle type has a 
denser charge and a gain in power per unit of volume. 

From the above considerations it may be safely stated that a 
lower temperature and higher pressure of charge at the beginning 
of compression is obtained in the two-cycle motor, greater weight 




H 




FIG. 21. Theoretical condition. 



FIG. 22. Practical condition. 



of charge and greater specific power of higher compression resulting 
in higher thermal efficiency. 

The smaller cylinder for the same power of the two-cycle motor 
gives less friction surface per impulse than of the other type; al- 
though the crank-chamber pressure may, in a measure, balance 
excessive friction of the four-cycle type. Probably the strongest 
points in favor of the two-cycle type are the lighter fly-wheel and the 
absence of valves and valve gear, making this type the most simple 
in construction and the lightest in weight for its developed power. 



TYPES OF EXPLOSIVE MOTORS 



Yet, for the larger power units, the four-cycle type will no doubt 
always maintain the standard for efficiency and durability of action. 

The distribution of the charge and its degree of mixture with 
the remains of the previous explosion in the clearance space, has been 
a matter of discussion for both types of explosive motors, with 
doubtful results. In Fig. 21 we illustrate what theory suggests 




\ \ 

H 


1 


1 


1 

| 


// 


\r 




FIG. 23. Exhaust. 



Fig. 24. New charge. 



as to the distribution of the fresh charge in a two-cycle motor, and 
in Fig. 22 what is the probable distribution of the mixture when 
the piston starts on its compressive stroke. 

The arrows show the probable direction of flow of the fresh 
charge and burnt gases at the crucial moment. 

In Fig. 23 is shown the complete out-sweep of the products of 
combustion for the full extent of the piston stroke of a four-cycle 
motor, leaving only the volume of the clearance to mix with the new 
charge and Fig. 24 the manner by which the new charge sweeps by 
the ignition device, keeping it cool and avoiding possibilities of pre- 
ignition by undue heating of the terminals of the sparking device. 

Thus, by enveloping the sparking device with the pure mixture, 
ignition spreads through the charge with its greatest possible 
velocity, a most desirable condition in high-speed motors with 
side-valve chambers and igniters within the valve chamber. An 
igniter in the cylinder-head in this design would be one of the 
sources of unseen trouble from uncertain ignition. 



CHAPTER VIII 

THE MATERIAL OF POWER IN EXPLOSIVE ENGINES 

THE composition of illuminating and producer-gases, alcohol, 
acetylene, gasoline, kerosene and crude-petroleum oil, and air, as 
elements of combustion and force in explosive engines, is of great 
importance in comparison, of heat and motor efficiencies. By re 
ported experiments with 20-candle coal-gas in the United States, by 
the evaporation of water at 212 F., a cubic foot of gas was credited 
with 1,236 heat units; while reliable authorities range the value of 
our best illuminating gases at from 675 to 810 heat units per cubic 
foot. The specific heat of illuminating gas is much higher than for 
air, being for coal-gas at constant pressure 0.6844, and at constant 
volume 0.5196, with a ratio of 1.315; while the specific heat for 
air at constant pressure is 0.2377, and at constant volume is 0.1688, 
and their ratio 1.408. 

The mixtures of gas and air accordingly vary in their specific 
heat with ratios relative to the volumes in the mixture. The prod- 
ucts of combustion also have a higher specific heat than air, rang- 
ing from 0.250 at constant pressure and 0.182 at constant volume, 
to 0.260 and 0.190 with ratios of 1.37 and 1.36. 

A cubic foot of ordinary coal-gas burned in air produces about 
one ounce of water-vapor and 0.57 of a cubic foot of carbonic-acid 
gas (C0 2 ). Its calorific value will average about 675 heat units 
per cubic foot. 

A cubic foot of ordinary coal-gas requires 1.21 cubic feet of 
oxygen, more or less, due to variation in the constituents of dif- 
ferent grades of illuminating gases in various localities, for com- 
plete combustion. 

Allowing for an available supply of 20 per cent, of oxygen in 
air for complete combustion, then 1.21 X 5 = 6.05 cubic feet of air 
which is required per cubic foot of gas in a gas-engine for its best 
work; but in actual practice the presence in the engine cylinder of 
the products of a previous combustion, and the fact that a sudden 
70 



THE MATERIAL OF POWER IN EXPLOSIVE ENGINES 71 



mixture of gas and air may not make a homogeneous combination 
for perfect combustion, require a larger proportion of air to com- 
pletely oxidize the gas charge. 

It will be seen by inspection of Table II that the above pro- 
portion, without the presence of contaminating elements, produces 
the quickest firing and approximately the highest pressure at con- 
stant volume, and that any greater or less proportion of air will 
reduce the pressure and the apparent efficiency of an explosive 
motor. There are other considerations affecting the governing 
of explosive engines, in which the gas element only is controlled 
by the governor, requiring an excess of air at the normal speed, 
so that an economical adjustment of gas consumption may be ob- 
tained at both above and below the normal speed. 

In Table X the materials of power in use in explosive motors 
are given with their heat-unit and foot-pound values. 

TABLE X. MATERIAL OF POWER IN EXPLOSIVE ENGINES. 



Gases, Vapors, and Other Combustibles. 


Heat Units 
per 
Pound. 


Heat Units 
per 
Cubic Foot. 


Foot-Pounds 
per 
Cubic Foot. 


Hydrogen H 


61,560 


293.5 


228,343 


Carbon C 


14,540 






Crude Petroleum, sp. gr. 0.873 
Crude Petroleum, Perm., sp. gr. 0.841 
Kerosene CioHa2 


18,324 
18,401 
22,000 






Benzine CeHe . . . 


18,448 






Gasoline CeHi 4 


18,000 






Alcohol Methyl C 2 H 4 O 2 


20000 






Denatured Methvl Alcohol 


13,000 






Acetylene CsHs . . 


21,492 


868 


675,304 


19-can.-power Illuminating Gas 
16- " 
15- " 
Gasoline Vapor CaHi4 


18,000 


800 
665 
620 
692 


622,400 
517,370 
482,360 
538.376 


Natural Gas Leechbur " Pa 




1051 


817,678 


" " Pittsburg Pa 




892 


693,976 


\Vater-Gas average 




290 


225,620 


Producer-Gas 100 to . . 




150 


116,700 


Suction-Gas, average 
Marsh-Gas, Methane, C.H 
Olefiant Gas Ethylene C 2 BU 


23,594 
21 430 


135 
1051 
1677 


105,030 
817,678 
1,304,716 











The various other gases than coal-gas used in explosive engines 
are NATURAL GAS, ACETYLENE, liberated by the action of water on 
calcium carbide; PRODUCER-GAS, made by the limited action of air 



72 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



alone upon incandescent fuel; WATER-GAS, made by the action of 
steam alone upon incandescent fuel; SEMI-WATER GAS, made by 
the action of both air and steam upon incandescent fuel also 
named DOWSON GAS in England and SUCTION-GAS. Alcohol is 
also coming into use in Europe. 

NATURAL GAS 

The constituents of natural gas vary to a considerable extent 
in different localities. The following is the analysis of some of the 
Pennsylvania wells: 

TABLE XI. NATURAL GAS CONSTITUENTS, BY VOLUME. 



Constituents. 


Olean, 

N. Y. 


Pitts- 
burg, 
Pa. 


Leech- 
burg, 
Pa. 


Harvey 

Well, 
Butler 
County. 


Burns 

Well, 
Butler 
County. 


Hydrogen, H 




22.00 


4.79 


13.50 


6 10 


Marsh-gas, CH 4 


96.50 


67.00 


89.65 


80.11 


75 44 


Ethane, C 2 H 4 
Heavy hydrocarbons 


i.oo 


5.00 
1.00 


4.39 
.56 


5.72 


18.12 


Carbonic oxide, CO 


.50 


.60 


.26 


trace 


trace 


Carbonic acid, CO. 




60 


.35 


.66 


34 


Nitrogen, N 




3 00 








Oxygen, O 


2.00 


.80 






















100.00 


100.00 


100.00 


100.00 


100.00 


Heat units, cubic foot 


1200 


892 


1051 


959 


1151 



Density, 0.5 to 0.55 (air 1). 

The calorific value of natural gas in much of the Western gas 
fields is below these figures. 

In experiments recorded by Brannt, " Petroleum and Its Prod- 
ucts," with the oil-gas as made for town lighting in many parts 
of the United States, of specific gravity about 0.68 (air 1), mixt- 
ures of oil-gas with air had the following explosive properties : 



Oil-gas, volumes. Air, volumes. 

1 4.9 

1 5.6to5.8 

1 6 to 6.5 

1 7 to 9 

1 10 to 13 

1 14 to 16 

1 17 to 17. 7 

, 1 . . . 18 to 22 



Explosive effect. 
None. 
Slight. 
Heavy. 
Very heavy. 
Heavy. 
Slight. 
Very slight. 
None. 



THE MATERIAL OF POWER IN EXPLOSIVE ENGINES 73 

It will be seen that mixtures varying from 1 of gas to 6 of air, 
and all the way to 1 of gas to 13 of air, are available for use in gas- 
engines for the varying conditions of speed and power regulation; 
and that 1 of gas to from 7 to 9 of air produces the best working 
effect. Its calorific value varies in different localities from 600 to 
700 heat units per cubic foot. Ordinary oil illuminating gas varies 
somewhat in its constituents, and may average: Hydrogen, 39.5; 
marsh-gas, 37.3; nitrogen, 8.2; heavy hydrocarbons, 6.6; carbonic 
oxide, 4.3; oxygen (free), 1.4; water-vapor and impurities / 2.7; 
total, 100; and is equal to 617 heat units per cubic foot. 

PRODUCER-GAS 

The constituents of producer-gas vary largely in the different 
methods by which it is made; in fact, all of the following described 
gases are made in producers, so-called. The constituents of the 
low grade of this name are 

Carbonic oxide, CO 22 .8 per cent. 

Nitrogen, N 63.5 

Carbonic acid, CO. 3.6 

Hydrogen, H 2.2 

Marsh-gas (methane), CH 4 7.4 

Free oxygen, O .5 

100.0 " 

The average heating power of this variety of producer-gas is about 
111 heat units per cubic foot. 

Another producer-gas called 

WATER-GAS 

has an average composition of 

Carbonic oxide, CO 41 per cent. 

Hydrogen, H 48 " 

Carbonic acid, CO* 6 " 

Nitrogen, N 5 " 

100 " 

and has an average calorific value of 291 heat units per cubic 
foot. 



74 GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



SEMI-WATER GAS 

or, as designated in England, Dowson gas, from the name of the 
inventor of a water-gas making plant, has the following average 
composition : 

Hydrogen, H 18 . 73 per cent. 

Marsh-gas, (methane), CH 4 .31 

Olefiant gas, C 2 H 4 31 

Carbonic oxide, CO 25 .07 

Carbonic acid, CO2 6 . 57 

Oxygen, 03 

Nitrogen, N 48.98 

100.00 " 
It has a calorific value of about 150 heat units per cubic foot. 

PETROLEUM PRODUCTS USED IN EXPLOSIVE ENGINES 

The principal products derived from crude petroleum for power 
purposes may commercially come under the names of gasoline, 
naphtha (three grades, B, C, and A), kerosene, gas-oil, and crude 
oil. 

The first distillate: Rhigoline, boiling at 113 F., specific gravity 
0.59 to 0.60; chimogene, boiling at from 122 to 138 F., specific 
gravity 0.625; gasoline, boiling at from 140 to 158 F., specific 
gravity 0.636 to 0.657; naphtha "C" (by some also called benzine), 
boiling from 160 to 216 F., specific gravity 0.66 to 0.70; naphtha 
"B" (ligroine), boiling at from 200 to 240 F., specific gravity 
0.71 to 0.74; naphtha "A" (putzoel), boiling at from 250 to 300 F. 

The commercial gasoline of the American trade is a combina- 
tion of the above fractional distillates, boiling at from 125 to 200 
F., specific gravity 0.63 to 0.74. 

Kerosene, boiling at from 300 to 500 F., specific gravity 0.76 
to 0.80. 

Gas-oil, boiling at above 500 F., specific gravity above 0.80. 

Crude petroleum, boiling uncertain from its mixed constituents, 
specific gravity about 0.80. 

The vapor of commercial gasoline at 60 F. is equal to 1,200 
volumes of the liquid, sustains a water pressure of from 6 to 8 



THE MATERIAL OF POWER IN EXPLOSIVE ENGINES 75 



inches, and will maintain a working pressure of 2 inches, or equal 
to any gas service when the temperature is maintained at 60 F., 
and with an evaporating surface equal to 5J square feet per re- 
quired horse-power, using proportions of 6 volumes of air to 1 
volume of gasoline-vapor. 

Commercial kerosene requires a temperature of 95 F. to main- 
tain a vapor pressure of from J to J-inch water pressure, requiring 
a much larger evaporating surface than for gasoline. It may be 
vaporized by heat from the exhaust, and is so used in several types 
of oil-engines. 

TABLE XII. PERCENTAGE, SPECIFIC GRAVITY, AND FLASHING-POINT OF THE 
PRODUCTS OF PETROLEUM. 



Products. 


Per Cent, 
of Each. 


Specific 
Gravity. 


Flashing- 
Point, F. 


Rhigolene and chimogene 


trace 






Gasoline ) 


02 


650 


10 


Benzine naphtha [ Commercial gasoline 


10 


700 


14 


Kerosene, light . ) 
Kerosene, medium 


.10 
.35 


0.730 
800 


50 
150 


Kerosene heavy 


.10 


890 


270 


Lubricating oil , . . . . 


.10 


905 


315 


Cylinder-oil 


.05 


915 


360 


Vaseline 


.02 


0.925 




Residuum and loss 


16 
















1.00 







GASOLINE 

The gasoline of the American trade varies somewhat in specific 
gravity from 0.70 to 0.74 as measured by the Baume scale. Seventy 
is a light grade and 0.74 is termed stove gasoline from its general 
use for heating. 

The analysis of 71 gravity gives carbon, 838; hydrogen, 155; 
impurities, 007 in 1,000 parts, with a heating value of above 18,000 
thermal units per pound. 

The variation in gravity of gasoline is due to the percentage of 
hydrogen. The vapor of gasoline is equal to 160 cubic feet per 
gallon or about 1,200 times its liquid bulk. 

A saturated "air-gas" of equal parts air and vapor equals 320 



76 GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 

cubic feet per gallon of liquid. It is non-explosive and much used 
as an illuminating gas. 

Seventy-four gravity gasoline weighs 6.16 pounds per gallon; 

18 000 
its pure vapor is 26 cubic feet per pound and ' = 692 heat units 

per cubic foot. The evaporation of gasoline at atmospheric pres- 
sure varies approximately as the relative squares of the tempera- 
ture; so that in summer, with a temperature of 80 F., the evapora- 
tion may be four times greater than in winter at a temperature of 
40. Hence a carbureter may do four times as much work in 
evaporation, without artificial heat, at one time as at another. 

Under the varying temperatures to which carbureters are subject 
from atmospheric and surface conditions, the more evaporating 
surface the generator presents, the stronger and more uniform will 
be the quality of the gas furnished. 

The boiling-point of gasoline, such as is usually in use for explo- 
sive engines, ranges from 150 to 180 F., and the flashing-point of 
the liquid ranges from 10 to 14 F. The complete combustion of 
the vapor of gasoline from one pound of the liquid requires 189 cubic 

189 
feet of air, and as one pound is equal to 26 cubic feet of vapor, 

= 7.3, so that 1 part gasoline-vapor to 7.3 parts air may be said to 
produce a perfect combustion of the mixture, so that less parts of 
air may leave a residuum of unconsumed vapor in the exhaust, 
while an excess of air may add to the fuel efficiency up to a possible 
limit of 1 part vapor to 10 parts air. 

KEROSENE OIL 

Kerosene oil is now taking a front rank among the fuels for 
explosive power, and crude petroleum is growing in favor as the 
most economical explosive-power fuel in use. Kerosene-oil motors 
are largely in the market and a number of concerns are building 
motors for crude-oil fuel. A " fuel-oil" (distillate) obtained from 
the residue after the kerosene has passed over from the still, and a 
grade cheaper than kerosene, is becoming available as an explosive- 
power fuel. 

Kerosene has a variable specific gravity from 0.78 to 0.82, a 



THE MATERIAL OF POWER IN EXPLOSIVE ENGINES 77 

vapor flashing-point at 120 to 125 F., and the oil ignites when 
heated to about 135 F., and boils at about 400 F. Its vapor is 
five times heavier than air and requires about 190 cubic feet of 
air per pound for its complete combustion, or 76 cubic feet of air 
per cubic foot of its vapor. Its heat of combustion varies slightly 
from 22,000 B.T.U. per pound. 

Fuel-oil (distillate) has an average specific gravity of 0.82 and 
weighs 7.3 pounds per gallon. Its vapor-flashing temperature is 
at 218 F., and temperature of distillation above 400 F., and it has 
a heat-unit value of about 18,000 per pound. 

Crude petroleum varies considerably in the various parts of the 
United States in its chemical composition and specific gravity, 
with an average of 85, C. 14 H, 1.0 in 100 parts, and 0.88 to 
0.90 sp. gr. Its heating value is about 20,500 B.T.U. 

Crude petroleum and kerosene are available also by injection 
in a class of oil-engines of the Hornsby-Akroyd and Weiss type, 
in which the oil. can be so atomized and vaporized as to make its 
entire volume available as an explosive combustible, in order 
that the accumulation of refuse shall be at a minimum. Crude oil 
is also used in the "Best" oil- vapor and other crude-oil engines by 
vaporizing the oil in chambers heated by the exhaust of the motor. 

ACETYLENE GAS 
FOR EXPLOSIVE ENGINES 

Much interest has been lately shown and some experiments 
made in regard to the availability of carbide of calcium for gen- 
erating acetylene gas as a fuel in the motive power of the horseless 
carriage and launches. Liquid acetylene has been also suggested 
as the acme of concentrated fuel for power. 

The gas liquefies at 116 F. at atmospheric pressure, and 
at 68 F. at 597 pounds per square inch. Its liquid volume is about 
62 cubic inches per pound. 

The specific gravity of pure gaseous acetylene (C 2 H 2 ) is 0.91 
(air 1), and its percentage of carbon 0.923, and of hydrogen 0.077. 
Its great density as compared with other illuminating gases and 
the large percentage of carbon is probably the source of its won- 
derful light-giving power. 



78 GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 

It is credited by hydrocarbon-heat values with 18,260 thermal 
units per pound of the gas (14J cubic feet) and 1,259 thermal units 
per cubic foot. These figures vary in published statements. 

One volume of the gas requires 2J volumes of oxygen for perfect 
combustion, which is equivalent to 12J volumes of air, provided 
that all the oxygen of the air can be utilized in the operation of a 
gas-engine; probably the best and most economical effect can be 
had from the proportion of 1 of acetylene to 14 or 15 of air. This 
proportion has been used in Italian motors with the best effect. 

One pound of calcium carbide will yield 5f cubic feet of acety- 
lene gas, and requires a little over a half pound of water to com- 
pletely liberate the gas, so that where weight is a factor, as with 
carriages, tricycles, and bicycles, the output of gas will be but 3.83 
cubic feet per pound of generating material. The large proportion 
of air required for perfect combustion makes a favorable compen- 
sation for the necessity for carrying water for generating the gas, 
as compared with gasoline, which yields 26 cubic feet of vapor per 
liquid pound with its best explosive effect of 9 volumes of air to 1 
volume of vapor. 

In liberating the gas from carbide in a closed vessel the pressure 
may rise to a dangerous point, depending upon the clearance space 
in the vessel, say from 300 to 800 pounds per square inch. In 
this manner a few accidents have occurred. 

One pound of liquid acetylene, when evaporated at 64 F., 
will produce 14 J cubic feet of gas at atmospheric pressure, or a 
volume 400 times larger than that of the liquid. Its critical 
point of liquefaction is stated to be 98 F.; above this tempera- 
ture it does not liquefy, but continues under the gaseous state at 
great pressures. 

The heat-unit value of acetylene gas from its peculiar hydro- 
carbon elements, it will be seen, is far greater than that of gasoline- 
vapor per cubic foot, but experiments seem to have cast a doubt 
upon its theoretical value, and assigned a much less amount, or 
about 868 heat units per cubic foot. 

As the comparative volume of explosive mixtures of gas or 
vapor and air is largely in favor of acetylene over gasoline, and 
as the weight of material for a given horse-power per hour also 
favors the use of acetylene, it will no doubt become a useful and 



THE MATERIAL OF POWER IN EXPLOSIVE ENGINES 79 

economical element of explosive power for vehicles and launches; 
always provided that the commercial production of carbide of 
calcium becomes available as a merchandise factor in cities and 
towns. 

The explosive mixture of acetylene and air spontaneously fires 
at lower temperatures than illuminating-gas mixtures; it varies 
from 509 to 515 F., while illuminating-gas mixtures range from 
750 to 800 F. Claims of a higher temperature have been made. 
It is of doubtful availability for high-compression motors. 

In the use of liquid acetylene, the cost of liquefying the gas 
may be a bar to its ordinary use, but for special purposes there 
are possibilities that only future experiments and trials may de- 
velop into useful work from this unique element. In trials of 
acetylene for power in gas-engines, made in Paris, France, it was 
found that a much less volume of acetylene was required for equal 
work with illuminating gas and that it was a practical explosive 
fuel. The only change required was found to be a more perfect 
regulation of the valve movement, or a smaller valve to meet the 
smaller volume of acetylene. In these experiments the explosive 
mixture was approximately 10 parts air to 1 part acetylene; and 
using from 4 to 7 cubic feet of gas per horse-power per hour. 

From another account of trials in France, it appears, as the 
result of experiments made by M. Ravel, that 6.35 cubic feet of 
acetylene gas generate 1 horse-power per hour, which is equiva- 
lent to a reduction of two-thirds as compared with petroleum. 
As to the explosiveness of mixtures of air and acetylene, it was 
found that 1.35 parts of this gas mixed with 1 part of air began 
to be explosive, the explosive force of such mixture rising rapidly 
as the dilution with air increases, attaining finally a maximum 
when there are 12 volumes of air with 1 volume of acetylene; then 
as the proportion of air is increased beyond this limit, the explo- 
sive force subsides, until at 20 to 1 it becomes entirely extinct. 
The flashing-point approximates 900 F., whereas in the case of 
most other gases used to generate power the requisite ignition 
temperature is about 1,100 F. The temperature of combustion 
is very much higher than that of the other gases with which it 
can be compared. The special characteristics of this gas, there- 
fore, are great rapidity of the transmission of flame, low-ignition 



80 GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 

temperature, high-combustion temperature, and extraordinary 
energy evolved in the explosion. 

For the comparison of gasoline and acetylene, a series of tests 
were made with mixtures of air and vaporized gasoline in the 
ratio 4 to 1, which gave the greatest explosive pressure, 165 pounds, 
at initial pressure of 20 pounds. At the same initial pressure the 

273 

9 to 1 mixture of air and acetylene produced a pressure 77 greater 



than that by the gasoline, so that the volume of acetylene to give 

1 1 A r 

the same pressure need only be -Xzr= 0.304 of the gasoline. 



Taking the theoretical indicator diagrams for the explosion of 
these two mixtures, the area of the acetylene diagram measured 
4.91 square inches, and that of gasoline 1.79 square inches, giving 
a ratio of power nearly 3 to 1. Indicator diagrams show that the 
time rate of the actylene explosion is five times faster than that 
of the mixture of gasoline and air. As vaporized gasoline acts 
more slowly than acetylene, the practical test makes acetylene 
(mixture 9 to 1) 3.28 times more powerful than gasoline (ratio 
of 4 to 1), whereas theoretically it should be only 3 times as great. 

The calorific value of the acetylene used was 1,350 thermal 
units and that of gasoline 700 heat units per cubic foot. A cubic 
foot of each of the above mixtures at initial atmospheric pressure 
would give 90 pounds and 43 pounds per square inch respectively. 
Allowed to expand adiabatically to 10 cubic feet, the calculated 
external work, 

K l ' (where K= : 



would be for acetylene 22,403 foot-pounds, and for gasoline 12,132 
foot-pounds. But only 0.0625 cubic foot of acetylene was used, 
while 0.20 cubic foot of gasoline-vapor was needed, or 3.2 times 
as much. With the given ratios of mixtures only 0.0312 cubic 
foot of acetylene is required to do the same work that 0.20 cubic 
foot of vaporized gasoline will do. Or comparing equal quantities 
of the two gases, acetylene has about 6.5 times the intrinsic energy 
of vaporized gasoline at the given ratios of air and gas. 

Assuming an engine of total efficiency from fuel to useful work 



THE MATERIAL OF POWER IN EXPLOSIVE ENGINES 81 

of 15 per cent., and a consumption of 22 cubic feet of gasoline- 
vapor per horse-power per hour, the cost of 1-horse-power hour 
would be 1.3 cents, at 58 cents per 1,000 cubic feet of vaporized 
gasoline. The cost per horse-power per hour for acetylene in an 
engine of equal efficiency would be 2.6 cents, with acetylene $8 
per 1,000 cubic feet, or 4 cents per pound. To do the same work 
with acetylene in place of vaporized gasoline, therefore, would be 
about twice as expensive. For this reason acetylene would only 
be of practical use to produce power where safety and light compact 
engines were required, as in automobiles and launches. In the 
event of a 50 per cent, reduction in the price of calcium carbide, 
however, it might probably come into more general use for gas- 
engines. 

ALCOHOL AS A MOTIVE POWER 

For some time past the French public has been studying a 
question interesting from the stand-point of the engineer, impor- 
tant from an economical point of view; the question of alcohol 
in its domestic and industrial applications. Among the latter the 
utilization of this combustible in explosive motors is the most 
interesting, and this is why the experiment has been tried of sub- 
stituting for imported gasoline a national product resulting from 
French or colonial crops. One of the unquestioned advantages 
of alcohol over gasoline is that alcohol is a fixed product, what- 
ever may be its use. The same alcohol for motive purposes can 
therefore be produced in any part of the globe, and its origin is 
revealed only by special aromas, which are of no consequence 
when it is used as a motive force. 

If the consumption of alcohol-motors is compared with that 
of gasoline it is seen at once that the former consumes consider- 
ably more than the latter; and as the alcohol is the more costly 
of the two combustibles, the problem would seem h priori insolu- 
ble from an economic point of view. 

Since denatured alcohol contains 4,172 heat units per pound, 
while gasoline contains 18,000, it has been found necessary to 
raise the calorific power 'of the former and at the same time lower 
its price, and so it has been mixed with high-grade gasoline of 



82 GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 

70 gravity, which contains about 18,000 heat units per pound, 
and which can be produced under good conditions at a low net 
cost. Mixtures containing from 50 per cent, to 75 per cent, of 
alcohol have been used; but it is the 50 per cent, mixture, which 
has a calorific power of 11,086 heat units per pound, which seems 
to be the most advantageous at the present state of development. 
From the result of numerous trials made in France it has been 
found that the consumption of 50 per cent, carburet ted alcohol 
is nearly the same as that of gasoline for a given power, and this 
notwithstanding the difference in the theoretical calorific powers 
of the two combustibles, from which it follows that the efficiency 
of the alcohol-motor is greater than that of the gasoline. 

Some very exact experiments made by Prof. Musil at Berlin 
have shown the efficiency of various kinds of motors to be as follows: 
Motors run on city gas (according to the type), 18 to 31 per cent.; 
portable steam-motors, 13; kerosene-motors, 13; gasoline-motors, 
16; alcohol-motors (mean figure), 23.8 per cent. 

The high efficiency is evidently due to the great elasticity de- 
rived from the expansion of the water-vapor that is contained 
or produced by the alcohol at the moment of its combustion, this 
expansion tending to make the explosions in the cylinders less 
violent than when gasoline is used, and thus giving a longer life 
to the wearing parts of the motor. So much has this been found 
to be the case that in order to increase the beneficial action of the 
water-vapor the German Motor Construction Company, of Marien- 
feld, recommends a mixture containing 20 per cent, of water, and 
it has built motors to run on such a mixture that consume only .17 
pound per horse-power hour. The fact must not be overlooked 
that in order to secure good efficiency with either pure or carburetted 
alcohol recourse must be had to specially constructed motors hav- 
ing the following characteristics : the stroke nearly double the bore, 
high compression, and a good spark. 

Finally, the result of the latest experiments recently made in 
France on the " Economic" motor, which was specially constructed 
for use with alcohol, has been a lowering of the consumption to 
.124 pound per horse-power hour for medium-sized motors, em- 
ploying a 50 per cent, mixture of carburetted alcohol. For sta- 
tionary motors the problem is therefore solved. 



THE MATERIAL OF POWER IN EXPLOSIVE ENGINES 83 

When it has to do with automobiles the substitution of alcohol 
carburetted with gasoline is a matter of great interest, for it is 
evident from statistics that if a liquid containing 50 per cent, 
denatured alcohol could be used, a large industry would be 
induced. 

As the results of late trials in France, the thermal efficiency 
of the following fuels of power are given: for gasoline, 14 to 1.8 
per cent.; kerosene, 13 per cent.; gas, 18 to 31 per cent., and 
for alcohol, 24 to 28 per cent. The efficiency of gasolene and 
kerosene has been greatly improved in the United States in the 
last few years. 

With the use of alcohol, an oxidizing effect has been noticed on 
valves and seats by the action of acetic acid derived from the 
occasional incomplete combustion of the alcohol and contained 
in the large amount of water- vapor from the hydrogen element in 
the alcohol. 

This will, no doubt, be overcome by the use of non-corrosive 
valves and seats made from alloys that resist the action of acetic 
acid. 

There is no doubt whatever that if the purchasers of automo- 
biles required of the manufacturers carriages that would work 
equally well on 50 per cent, carburetted alcohol or gasoline the 
manufacturers would devise practical and simple apparatus, so 
that one combustible could be immediately substituted for the 
other, and that supply stations having carburetted alcohol would 
soon be established. 

A little perseverance and attention is all that is necessary, 
therefore, to make the alcohol-motor prosper, as has already been 
done in Germany and France. 

It is the consensus of opinion, and so far verified by practical 
work, that the regulation of the power of the explosive motor has 
its most economical working condition, first, in the variation of 
the quantity of fuel injected within certain limits for its highest 
explosive force with certain mixtures of air; and second, beyond 
this limit by the regulation of the quantity of the fuel and air 
mixture in their best proportions for highest effect. 

It has been shown in other parts of this work that mixtures 
of good illuminating gas, one part to between five and six parts 



84 GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 

air, give the highest constant volume pressure and the highest 
temperature by explosive combustion. Also that the time of 
combustion is quickest under the above proportion. But for all 
kinds of fuel there is a proportion of air mixture that gives the 
highest explosive pressure per unit of fuel quantity, and for eco- 
nomic work. This proportion should be retained by the governing 
mechanism for economic power. 

There may be occasions when the over-riding of economical 
fuel conditions is done for imaginary conveniences in handling 
high-speed automobiles and launches, which are mostly through 
misguided judgment in regard to the best conditions of running, or 
from the ignorance of drivers in regard to the nature of the clouds 
of gasoline-vapor seen following the track of their vehicles or 
launches. 

This condition is daily witnessed by the author from his resi- 
dence, where the whirl of automobiles, at unlicensed speed, is in 
constant view, with a too frequent following of a cloud of gasoline- 
vapor that floats into the dwellings with its peculiar odor that 
signifies unburned vapor from excessive fuel feed; a needless waste 
that is a nuisance to the following vehicles and to roadside dwellers. 

From the fact that it requires 7.3 parts of air to 1 part of gaso- 
line-vapor for perfect combustion, it is obvious that the feeding of 
an excess of this fuel is not only a waste, but is also a loss of power, 
due to decrease of explosive pressure as the proportions are de- 
creased in the charge mixture. The control by the fuel inlet alone 
should be confined to within the limits of 7.3 of air to 1 of vapor, 
and 12 of air to 1 of vapor; beyond these limits the control should 
include both air and fuel for economy and road-followers' comfort. 



CHAPTER IX 



CARBURETERS 

THE use of the vapor of gasoline, naphtha, and petroleum 
oil for operating internal-combustion engines is increasing to a 
vast extent in all parts of the civilized world, and will be no doubt 
the cheapest medium for generating power so long as petroleum 
and its products are at the present low price. In gas-engine run- 
ning, air saturated with the vapor of gasoline and naphtha is in 
general use, and when so used is produced by passing air through 
the liquid or over a surface largely extended by capillary attraction 




v 
^ 

V 



FIG. 25. The circular carbu- 
reter, plan. 



FIG. 26. The circular carbureter, 
section. 



of the fluid by fibrous surfaces dipping into the fluid, by vaporiz- 
ing the fluid by means of the heat of the exhaust, and by injecting 
the fluid in small portions into the air-inlet chamber or under its 
valve, and directly into the clearance space of the cylinder. 

In Figs. 25 and 26 are illustrated a form of carbureter, made 
by the writer many years since, for carbureting air and low-grade 
illuminating gas. 

This carbureter may be made of heavy tin-plate. The spiral 
partition, made of tin-plate, is perforated with sufficient small 
holes at top and bottom to fasten strips of cotton or woollen flannel 

85 



86 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



on both sides of the spiral plate by stitching with coarse thread 
and needle. The spiral plate should extend so as to nearly touch 
the bottom of the tank; the bottom is to be soldered on last. The 
valve V, for the purpose of preventing the escape of the vapor 

when the carbureter is not 

A A 

in use, may be made as light 
as possible, of tin-plate or 
brass, and faced with soft 
leather wet with glycerine 
or a composition of glyce- 
rine and glue jelly, which 
always keeps soft and is 



33: 



FIG. 27. Plan and section of ventilating 
carbureter. 



not injured by the gasoline 
or its vapor. By this arrangement many square feet of surface 
may be obtained in a small space and perfect uniformity of satu- 
ration insured. As the enclosed walls of this form become very 
cold by long-continued use, an improvement was made by making 
each division wall with an outside air surface, so that there was 
a natural down-draught of air on the outside of the entire 
.evaporating surface of the carbureter. In Figs. 27 and 28 are 
shown the plan and sections. 

In this form the air spaces prevent excessive cold by a circu- 
lation of air downward against the cooling surface of the walls 
the whole interior vertical walls being lined with cloth fastened to 
a wire frame made to fit each section and pushed into place before 
the ends of the sections are soldered on. 

Very good carbureters have been made by a long cast-iron 
box with a cover bolted 
on with a packing of glue 
and glycerine jelly on felt 
or asbestos packing, in 
which' a frame of wire- 
work and cloth or yarn 
is made to give the de- 
sired evaporating surface. 

For any carbureter of the forms here described, the depth 
should be limited to 8 inches, as the capillarity of the fibrous ma- 
terial is of little or no value at a greater height than 6 inches above 



^ 



r r, 
I-^- 1 " 



FIG. 28. Section of ventilating carbureter. 



CARBURETERS 



87 



the fluid, which should not be charged above 3 inches in depth 
for best effect. 

In Fig. 29 is represented the carbureter of the Gilbert & Barker 
Manufacturing Company, Springfield, Mass. It is made of wrought 
iron, has four divisions, in which perforated capillary partitions 
are set around each division or story of the carbureter, thus greatly 
enlarging the evaporating surface. The air enters the lower com- 
partment, becomes saturated, and leaves the carbureter from the 
top. Provision is made for pumping out any residue that may 
require removal when the carbureter is placed underground. 




FIG. 29. Gilbert & Barker carbureter. 

Many other forms of carbureter have been tried, without, 
however, securing better results than -with those here described. 

Air saturated with gasoline-vapor has a heat value of about 
200 heat units per cubic foot. 

A claim has been made in France that by saturating part of 
the exhaust and by heating the gasoline, also by the exhaust, a 
concentrated vapor was produced which, used with the air, pro- 



88 GAS, GASOLINE, AND OILENGINES 

duced a power value of y-^ of a gallon of gasoline per horse-power 
per hour. There is no doubt that greater economics are in prog- 
ress in the operation of gasoline and oil-engines; but the use of 
part of the products of combustion from the exhaust tends to lessen . 
its value, if it has a value above its use as a part of the contents 
of the clearance space now in use in engines of the compression 
class. 

The evaporation of gasoline of 0.74 specific gravity at a tem- 
perature of 60 F. varies somewhat from the form of its element- 
ary constituents, and from the form of the evaporating surface; so 
that an average of 1,173 grains per square foot of saturated surface 
per hour in the open air may be assumed as the basis for carburet- 
ing surface. 

When evaporated in a closed vessel, as a carbureter, the vapor 
may start at about 1,000 grains per square foot of surface per hour; 
but if the area of evaporating surface is so extended that little 
or no tension or pressure is produced by its evaporation, due to the 
draught upon it by the motor, and the temperature of the gasoline 
is kept near to 60 F., the evaporation may be relied on at about 
800 grains per square foot per hour. 

This gives a basis for computing the area of carburetted sur- 
face at any assumed consumption of gasoline per horse-power per 
hour. For example, gasoline weighing 6 pounds per gallon, with 
an assumed requirement of y-g of a gallon per horse-power per 
hour, and an evaporation of 800 grains per hour per square foot, 

T 6 o-X 7,000 
will require T. =5J square feet of evaporating surface in 



the carbureter per horse-power. 

With our present experience there is no doubt in regard to 
the advantage, economy, and safety in the use of carbureters for 
gasoline, in which the air becomes thoroughly saturated with 
the gasoline-vapor before it meets the free air at the charging 
valve. Air saturated with gasoline-vapor is not explosive, and 
is considered in practice to be as safe in pipes and gas holders 
as any other gas used for illuminating purposes. It does not 
become explosive until further diluted to 5 parts of air to 1 part- 
pure vapor. The mixture of air saturated with vapor of gasoline 
is largely in use in all parts of the United States for illuminating 



CARBURETERS 89 

purposes, conditioned as to safety and favorable insurance; there- 
fore there is no bar to its use under the same conditions as an 
explosive element for power. Its safety will always be insured 
by an excess of evaporating surface in the carbureter. 

So far as experience goes the sufficiency of the carbureter 
surface is a most important detail in its application for the fuel 
supply of a gasoline-engine, and its deficiency has been at the 
bottom of much trouble with the builders of these engines. 

A point of great value in the economy of fuel has been brought 
out by German engineers, in trials as to the time of combustion 
in a cylinder and its relation to the perfection of the mixture of 
air and vapor. It was demonstrated experimentally that in the 
ordinary method of mixing a pure gas or vapor with air, at the 
instant of injection into the cylinder did not produce an instan- 
taneous explosion, but from the first impulse the combustion con- 
tinued throughout the stroke with a portion of unburned gas in the 
exhaust. This resulted, as observed, in a reduced initial pressure 
and consequent reduced efficiency by the indicator card. The 
continued combustion also increased the heat of the cylinder, as 
shown by the increase of temperature of a stated quantity of 
water for cooling a slow-combustion cylinder. 

It was found experimentally that an injection of equal parts 
of gas and air into a cylinder required 6 seconds to become fully 
diffused, and that 1 part of gas to 6 parts of air required from 10 
to 12 seconds for perfect diffusion. When, therefore, the time 
of a single revolution of a gas or gasoline-engine is considered, as 
compared with the time for charging and compression in a four- 
cycle cylinder, it will be seen that the mixture cannot become 
sufficiently intimate to permit the desired instantaneous explosion 
necessary for the highest fuel efficiency. 

The tendency of efficiency in gas and gasoline-engine con- 
struction appears to be increasing in the line of more perfect mixt- 
ure of the explosive fuel before injection into the cylinder; and to 
this we probably owe the possibilities now claimed of from 12 to 
14 cubic feet of good illuminating gas, and ^ of a gallon of gasoline 
per indicated horse-power per hour, and which in some cases has 
raised the pressure of explosion to 4 times the pressure of com- 
pression in four-cycle engines. 



90 GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 

VAPOR-GAS FOR EXPLOSIVE MOTORS 

Much of the risk and inconvenience of handling gasoline for 
motive power may be avoided by using the mixture of air and 
gasoline-vapor as a gas, and under the same conditions at the 
motor as with illuminating gas. Many power plants now utilize 
the vapor of gasoline generated at or in the immediate vicinity of 
the motor cylinder. This requires the presence of gasoline in 
quantity within the building, which largely increases the insur- 
ance risk, and is always a source of discussion and doubt with 
underwriters. 

The vapor-gas as now extensively used for lighting dwellings 
and factories has been brought to such perfection in its genera- 
tion and application to lighting purposes, as well also to many 
other applications of heat generated by Bunsen and other forms 
of gas-burners, that it may now be considered the most conven- 
ient form for a gas-generating system for isolated places, where 
an element is required for both lighting and power. The uncer- 
tainty of perfect diffusion of vapor and air with the present methods 
of producing the mixture of vapor and air near or within the cylin- 
der cannot be considered the highest economy in the element of 
power production, in view of the assumed fact that commercial 
gasoline of an average of 0.75 gravity, weighing about 6} pounds per 
gallon, is claimed by the builders of the most economical motors 
to require but J gallon per actual horse-power per hour. This 
is equal to 0.78 of a pound, and the pound is credited with 18,000 
heat units, or 14,040 heat units per horse-power per hour. This 
at 778 foot-pounds per heat unit is equal to 10,923,120 foot-pounds 
per horse-power per hour. The actual or brake horse-power per 
hour is 1,980,000 foot-pounds or 0.181 per cent, of the theoretical 
value of gasoline. With more perfect mixtures of vapor of gaso- 
line and air the percentage in efficiency should be increased and a 
uniformity in the action of the motor obtained by a more perfect 
diffusion of the elements of combustion. 

One of the means for automatically regulating the mixture 
of vapor and air is illustrated in the combined mixer and regulator 
of the Gilbert & Barker Mfg. Co., 82 John Street, New York, Fig. 
30, and in Fig. 31, the mixer and meter air-pump placed within 



CARBURETERS 



91 



a building. The carbureter, as shown in Fig. 29, p. 87, is placed 
in the ground or a vault outside of the building. The air is forced 
by the air meter-pump at a low pressure (1 to 1J inches water 
pressure) to the carbureter on the outside of the building and 
returned through another pipe, loaded with the vapor of gasoline, 
to the regulator, where, by a differential gravity balance, a sup- 

Connecf" ft "ft, 

Qd* 





-G/U 
INLI 



flff INLLT. 

FIG. 30. The differential gravity regulator. 

plementary valve is opened by which a direct current of air enters 
from the pressure-pipe of the air meter-pump and dilutes the 
direct vapor charge from the carbureter to a uniform mixture, 
thus producing a constant flow of gas of a gravity for the best 
effect in lighting, and also, when further diluted at the inlet-valve, 
for the best explosive effect in a motor. 

The pure vapor of gasoline is of a gravity of 2.8 (air 1) and 
the air-gas vapor as it comes from the carbureter may be of vary- 



92 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



ing gravities from 2.5 to 1.5 (air 1), and it is the difference in the 
gravity of air and the heavier vapor of gasoline and air as it 
comes from the carbureter that operates the diluting mechanism 
of the apparatus to produce a mixture of uniform quality. For 
this purpose, the float B is a sealed metal can, containing air 
which with its weight and the air inlet-valve C is exactly balanced 
by an adjustable counterpoise F and enclosed within a cast-iron 




FIG. 31. The air pump and regulator. 

case. The vapor-gas enters at the bottom through an annular 
inlet Q from the carbureter and fills the case with a vapor mixture 
slightly heavier than the balanced can of air, which is thus caused 
to rise and open the direct air inlet-valve C, admitting air at a 
slightly increased pressure, due to differential friction, as between 
the short-air connection with air-pump and the long-pipe connec- 
tion to the carbureter and back to the regulator. 

By the delicate adjustment of the counterpoise weights at M 
the exact conditions for a uniform gravity gas supply may be 



CARBURETERS 93 

obtained for lighting. This is assumed to be also the most eco- 
nomical for combustion in an explosive motor; it then requiring 
only the regulating admixture of air at the inlet-valve of the motor 
cylinder for adjusting the force of explosion and for regulating 
the speed of the motor. 

Fig. 31 shows the arrangement of setting the air-pump and 
regulator with the short-circuit of the air-pipe to give a prepon- 
derance to the air pressure at the regulating valve C (Fig. 30). For 
motor service a gas equalizing bag should be used as with other 
kinds of gas supply. 

A strong feature of this carbureter, as illustrated at Fig. 29, 
is the large evaporating surface, it being in fact a compound gen- 
erator consisting of a number of independent and perfect evapora- 
tors, one placed over the other. The effect of cold by evaporation 
commences at the bottom pan, and the saturation of the air is 
completed in the next pan, and so on successively, so that deterio- 
ration does not commence until the last or top pan is partially 
exhausted. 

The air-pump is of the wet-gas meter type with the motion 
inverted and propelled by a weight as shown in Fig. 31, or by 
a small overshot water-wheel operated by a jet from any source 
of water pressure. 



ATOMIZING CARBURETERS AND VAPORIZERS 

In Fig. 32 is illustrated a novel atomizer and vaporizer for a 
marine engine. The rising vapor-pipe is shortened in the cut for 
the convenience of illustration. 

The gasoline tank is placed in the bow of the boat and the 
atomizer at the base of the engine. The gasoline flows to the 
chamber F by gravity and is stopped by the deep-seated conical 
valve E. The cage of the air inlet-valve D is screwed into the 
metal box at B and is adjustable so as to bring the push-centre 
of the valve D to the proper distance for operating the gasoline 
inlet-valve E, The lift of the air-valve D is also adjustable in 
its lift by the lock-nuts at I on the spindle C, which is guided by 
a cross-bar near the top of the cage. The main air inlet is at H 
with a diffusion inlet at G regulated by a plug-cock. The gaso- 



94 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



line is thoroughly atomized by the action of the two valves E 
and D, and meeting the fresh air through G is vaporized in its 
passage through the pipe and inlet-valve chamber. 

In Fig. 33 is illustrated a heat vaporizer used on the "Cap- 
itaine" motor in which the inlet nozzle V is ribbed on the 
outside and is enclosed in a chamber through which the exhaust 
passes. 

Gasoline and air are drawn into the nozzle regulated by the 
small valve, and additional air for the explosive mixture is drawn 




FIG. 32. Gasoline atomizer and vaporizer. 

in by the piston through the large valve. By this arrangement the 
gasoline is broken up and thrown against the hot walls of the 
nozzle by the air drawn through the small air inlet. 

The atomizing vaporizer (Fig. 34) is conveniently placed on 
the side of a cylinder with the exhaust-valve G spindle in line 
with the exhaust push-rod. 

The gasoline is injected through the small valve C, opened 
by the lift of the air-valve D. The inlet-valve E makes a closure 



CARBURETERS 



95 



of the vaporizing chamber during the compression and exhaust- 
stroke of the piston. 

The constant-level feed atomizer (Fig. 35) is of French origin 
and used on the "Abeille" au- 
tomobile motor. It regulates its 
feed from a higher-level reservoir 
or tank, by means of a float B 
in the receiver A, which, by its 
floating position, opens a small 
conical valve on the lower end of 
the spindle C through the opera- 
tion of the lever D. The spindle 




FIG. 33. Heat vaporizer. 



C being a counterpoise weight to close the inlet-valve when the 

float B exceeds the proper height. 

The level of the gasoline in the receiver is adjusted to stand 

just below the top of 
the jet nozzle at E. 

An inlet for air to 
meet the gasoline jet 
J at the neck of the 
double cone H is shown 
in the circular opening 
in the oval flange. The 
suction of the piston 
during the charging 
stroke jets the gasoline 
against the perforated 
cone with the annular 
jet of air from below, 
where it is met by the 
diluting air from the 
holes in the cone. The 
cap L has holes corre- 
sponding with the holes 
on the inner section for 
adjusting the area of the 

diluting air inlet by rotation on its screw thread. The jet nozzle can 

be quickly removed, cleaned, or adjusted by removing the plug F. 




FIG. 34. Atomizing vaporizer. 



GAS, GASOLINE, .AND OIL-ENGINES 




A vaporizer having some excellent features for perfecting the 
vapor and air mixture before it enters the cylinder is detailed in 
Fig. 36 and patented by Walter Hay, New Haven, Conn. 

The gasoline enters the small annular chamber aa through the 

pipe d. Several small 
holes open from the an- 
nular chamber upon the 
central line of the valve 
seat of the inlet air-valve 
E, some of which have 
screw needle-valves for 
regulating the flow of 
gasoline. The inrush of 
air when the valve opens 
by the draft of the piston 
atomizes the inflowing 
gasoline and precipitates 
the atoms upon the deep 
wings of a fan h hung 
upon the central spindle 

j. The fan is set in motion by the inrush of air, and throwing the 
excess of gasoline against the hot walls of the annular exhaust- 
chamber a'/, produces a perfect mixture of vapor and air before 
passing through the second inlet-valve A. The exhaust in passing 
around the annular chamber also imparts heat to the annular 
gasoline chamber aa' and makes its final exit through the slotted 
apertures in the outer casing, as at g, or may pass into an exhaust- 
pipe. 

We illustrate in Figs. 37 and 38 two forms of atomizers or 
mixing valves which have been designed for use on gasoline-en- 
gines. They take the place of carbureters, and, for certain pur- 
poses, users have found them efficient and reliable. The construc- 
tion of these valves is very simple. They have few parts, and 
there is no liability of their proving troublesome after having been 
used a short while. 

Referring to the sectional views it will be seen that the valve 
disk E is held against its seat by a light spring M. The seat of 
this valve is wide, and the port opening slightly smaller in diam- 



FIG. 35. Constant-level atomizer. 



CARBURETERS 



97 



eter than the pipe connections, 
the valve disk is of full area, 
a gasoline inlet tapped for } 
gasoline inlet a passageway 
through the valve body 
and is in communication 
with the main valve seat. 
The opening of this pas- 
sageway K into the valve 
seat is controlled by a 
small needle - valve F, 
which has an indicator 
arm G. 

The valve stem F has 
a stuffing-box II so as 
to enable it to be well 
packed to prevent leak- 
age of gasoline. 

In this construction 
no gasoline is spilled, 
nor will it accumulate 
in the valve body; any 
excessive amount will be 
drawn into the vaporiz- 
ing space between this and the 
nated by the pipe size of the 
sizes as follows: 



The body of the valve L below 
At the side of the valve body is 
inch pipe thread. From the side 
of ample area leads around and 




FIG. 36. The " Hay " vaporizer. 

inlet-valve. The sizes are desig- 
screw and are rated for cylinder 



Diameter of Cylinder, inches 
Size Pipe Connection on Genera- 
tor Valve, 'inches 


2 

4- 


3i 

SL 


^ 
1 


Si 
1^ 


7 
1* 


8 
2 


10 
2* 


12 

2* 


14 























Tiie above proportions are based on a piston travel of not more 
than 600 feet per minute. For higher speeds than this the genera- 
tor valve should be the next size larger than shown above. 

The valves are made by the Lunkenheimer Company, Cincin- 
nati, 0. 

The plan and section of a" noiseless automatic carbureter is 



98 GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 

shown in Fig. 39. It is well suited for charging multiple-cylinder 
motors and is very uniform in its supply. The left-hand section of 
the cut shows the plan of the float tank, valve, and the wire gauze 
in the air-pipe, of which there are sufficient in number, say nine, 
to give a large wire surface for fully evaporating any charge of 
gasoline for the motor for which the size of carbureter is adapted. 
Referring to section of carbureter as cut on a line AB, with 
position of adjusting screw shown at a. The level of gasoline 



SECTION ON&-B. 





FIG. 37. Angle atomizer. 




SECTION ON A-B. 




FIG. 38. Vertical atomizer. 

being lifted automatically by the suction of the motor, the supply 
is shown below point of adjusting screw, the gasoline being regu- 
lated by the needle-point on screw which forms the spraying nozzle 
and the constant level being maintained at all times by the ball- 
valve v y which has a capacity much greater than outlet at needle- 
point, so it is easy to see that it would be impossible to lower the 
level of gasoline. And the float acting as it does on the lever /, 
and I resting as it does squarely on the centre of the ball and the 
ball fitted in a perfect seat, the float being hinged to lever, it will 



CARBURETERS 



99 



be seen that any vibration that would cause the float to shake 
within the cup will not disturb the ball, which will maintain a con- 
stant level through any kind of vibration, making it perfectly 
adapted to engines and motors for traction or marine purposes as 





FIG. 39. Kingston carbureter. 

well as stationary. This carbureter may be used with a throttling 
governor if desired. 

In Figs. 40 and 41 we illustrate a later design of the Kingston 
carbureter of which Fig. 40 is an outside view and Fig. 41 a section 
showing the detailed parts. 

In describing the principle and method of throttle control in 
this carbureter we will refer to the vertical cross section showing 
the entire workings of this car- 
bureter: J represents the float 
chamber; F, the float; v the 
bell-metal ball-valve and valve- 
stem to which the float is rigidly 
connected; G the fuel connec- 
tion; T a trap at bottom of float 
chamber to catch and hold any 
dirt or water that may find its 
way to float chamber; P is a 
i-inch pipe plug which may be 

taken out for draining and cleaning the trap, for convenience this 
plug may be taken out and a pet-cock screwed in its place; 




100 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



H represents the air chamber; a the fuel needle-point valve; 
D the air-regulating valve; d a lug cast on air-valve, used as 
an adjustable stop, being provided with screw and clamp to hold 
screw firmly after adjustment is made; e is a lug on main casting 

forming a stop for d; this screw 
adjustment at d is used for ad- 
justing throttle for low speed; 
s is a clamp having a fork at 
one end for making a loose 
connection with d, the other 
end forming a clamp with 
screw tension for locking same 
to a after the fuel adjustment 




FIG. 41. Section Kingston carbureter. 



is made: L is a lever for oper- 
ating a and D together form- 



ing the throttle; t the fuel-spraying nozzle in tube projecting from 
cavity shown around needle-point of a, this nozzle is placed in 
apex of i;-shaped orifice leading to the engine, also connection for 
intake pipe to motor; I is the air inlet to carbureter; M, M are 
baffle-plates which are thin semi-disks or bridges, and closing one- 
half the opening in each case from opposite sides, and doing serv- 
ice as baffle-plates, keeping the mixture from being forced back 
out I by reaction on back-lash of motor valves, also as a silencer 
as they muffle the inrush of air; V represents a conduit leading 
from float chamber and terminating at t at apex of r-shaped orifice 
leading to the motor; the flow of fuel through V being controlled 
by needle- valve a. 

These carbureters are made by Byrne Kingston & Co., Kokomo, 
Ind. 

We illustrate in Fig. 42 and Section -Fig. 43, a vaporizer of the 
constant-level type with a regulating device in which the index to 
the gasoline feed is adjusted by a sector and worm-screw which 
cannot be displaced by jar or vibration. 

It will be seen that the device is very compact, practically all of 
it being contained in a space but little larger in diameter than the 
ordinary inlet-pipe. Gasoline enters from the supply through the 
pipe m, filling the reservoir d and overflowing through the pas- 
sage g to the pipe /. Air enters through the openings in the cap 



CARBURETERS 



101 



e, which serves to throttle the air supply. Passing around the 
chamber d it produces a draft which draws fuel from the reser- 
voir through the nipple c and the plug- valve i which is counter- 
bored at y. Passing onward, the mixture of gasoline and air leaves 
the casing a through the pipe 6, which is threaded so that it may be 
connected to the inlet of the engine. The vent h keeps the pres- 
sure constant within the reservoir and the gasoline may be drained 
through the cock k. 

Those who have had experience with gasoline vaporizers will 
at once recognize the good features of this device, which are the 
location of the gasoline nozzle in the centre of the air passage, 
the location of the fuel-valve close to the opening of the nozzle 





FIG. 42. Aldrich vaporizer. 



FIG. 43. Section. 



into the air passage and the general compactness of the entire 
vaporizer. It is manufactured by R. & W. T. Aldrich, Millville, 

Mass. 

THE CLUADEL OIL-CARBURETER 

A French design by M. Cluadel for carbureting air with kero- 
sene or the heavier oils by the heat of the exhaust. 

The carbureter is composed of a double heating chamber u, 
in the centre of which is placed the retort m. In the annular space 
included between the retort and the outer walls of the heating 
chamber, the exhaust from the motor circulates, entering by the 



102 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



pipe k and escaping by the pipe L The position of the retort m 
is assymmetric with regard to the centre of the heating chamber, 
in proportion to the supply and exhaust-pipes, k and c; so that the 
amount of heat imparted to the retort may be regulated by the 
movement of the valve s in Fig. 45. 

With the valve in the position shown, the flow of heated gases 
from the exhaust follows the course of the arrow 2, Fig. 46, being in 
contact with only a small portion of the circumference of the re- 
tort, and imparting but little heat. With the valve in the posi- 
tion shown by the dotted lines, the current of gas, following the 
direction of arrow 1, almost completely surrounds the retort. 

The difference between the two passages is further increased by 
a very thin wall on the right of arrow 2, which may be in the form 




FIG. 44. Plan and top view of carbureter. 
Dotted lines show auxiliary air intake. 

of a screen or damper permitting an ingress of outside air; while the 
wall on the left of arrow 1 is a part of the casting of considerable 
thickness, thus retarding the radiation. The air-valve is operated 
by the lever and spring stop, while the cam lever T (Fig. 46) regu- 
lates and locks the cooling damper. By the proper adjustment of 
these two valves, and the diversion of the exhaust, the retort may 
be maintained at any desired temperature up to the maximum 
limit of the exhaust. 

The retort is made of drawn tubing, which may be formed with 
an internal web n, increasing the heating surface and breaking the 



CARBURETERS 



103 



flow of the combustible contents. The retort is connected with the 
mixing chamber y by the tubes o, o, o, of such size and form as to 
act in connection with the web n to break up the various elements 




FIG. 45. Vertical section of Cluadel carbureter for heavy oils. 

A, Regulator for gasoline supply. B, gasoline reservoir. F, Stop-valve for oil supply. G, 
Oil reservoir. P, Damper of main air supply. S, Damper of auxiliary air supply. T, Locking 
lever of air-damper of exhaust, a, Gasoline supply, b, Gasoline float, c. Gasoline feed-nipple. 
d, Button for lowering float, e, Independent oil-supply valve, f, Oil-suoply pipe, g. Oil float. 
h. Oil feed-nipple. ;', Stop and lever of exhaust-pipe valve. k, Supply pipe from exhaust to 
carbureter. Z, Discharge pipe of exhaust, m, Retort, n. Rib of retort, o, o. o, Mixing pipes 
from retort, p, Main air supply, r. Pipe from carbureter to motor, s. Auxiliary air supply. 
u, Heating chamber for retort, v, Drain, x, Adjusting-screw of oil-supply valve, y, Mixing 
chamber. 2, Air-duct to retort. 

within the retort and to provide the throttling which is essential 
to automatic regulation. 

The mixing chamber is provided with three openings; one 
for the main air supply, p; one for an auxiliary air supply, s; and 
one, r, for the passage of the mixture to the motor. An internal 
diaphragm directs the course of the air admitted by p and s, and 
regulates the suction according to the speed and other conditions. 
The opening s is fitted with a damper by which the auxiliary supply 
may be regulated according to the kind of oil used. 

Attached to the mixing chamber is the float chamber B of the 
ordinary gasoline carbureter, with the float b, regulating the level 
of the gasoline which enters by the tube a, and which is discharged 
into the air of the mixing chamber by the nipple c, on first starting 
the motor. 



104 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 




FIG. 46. Transverse vertical section 
through retort and exhaust-pipe. 



The regulation of the heavy oil supply is through the float cham- 
ber G, and float g, the oil entering at /, under the control of the point 

F. The float g operates a lever, 
which acts on the upper end 
of the pointed rod F, the exact 
adjustment being made through 
the screw x and its nut. Be- 
tween the discharge-nipple A, 
within the retort, and the float 
chamber G is a spring valve 
operated by the lever e, by 
which the passage of the oil 
may be controlled. 

A very important detail of 
the retort is the plate w, which 
connects it with the oil-float 
chamber, and which is pierced, as shown by a small opening 2, 
which admits the necessary amount of free air in proximity to 
the nipple h. 

METHODS OF STARTING 

In practical operation, the motor may be started by means of 
the auxiliary gasoline-carbureter on the left, with a small reservoir 
for fuel, and when well under way and with the exhaust going, 
the gasoline may be shut off and the kerosene turned on. The 
motor may, however, be started directly on the oil, provided a 
torch is first used to heat the retort until a flow is secured from 
the exhaust. 

The oil supply in the reservoir G is maintained at a constant 
level by means of the float g and its lever. acting on the valve F; 
the rate of feed through the nipple h is regulated by the amount 
of pressure within the retort m, which is in turn dependent upon 
the flow of the gases through the contracted opening of the rib n and 
the indirect passages of the mixing tubes o, o, o, which serve to 
alter the effect of the motor's aspiration and to make it prolonged 
and regular instead of intermittent. At the lower speeds there is 
very little resistance to the flow from the retort to the mixing 
chamber; but as the speed increases and the aspirations of the 



CARBURETERS 



105 



K 



motor become more powerful, the effect is to throttle the gas in its 
way through the indirect passages. The result of this apparently - 
contradictory phenomenon is an automatic regulation which is 
practically perfect. Once set for a given quality of oil, the supple- 
mentary air supply s, s, may be left without further attention; 
the air duct z of the retort remains unchanged; and the position 
of the regulating valve i in the exhaust-pipe as set by the lever 
and stop j is also unchanged. It has been found in practice that 
the exhaust supply-pipe k should be 
placed as close as possible to the heads 
of the cylinders. 

In Fig. 47 is illustrated an atomiz- 
ing vaporizer of the Generator Valve 
Co., New York. 

It has an addition to the ordinary 
atomizing devices, a throttle- valve 
with spindle and handle L, to regu- 
late the charge, and ready to connect 
with any two-cycle motor by the screw 
at I. 

The air inlet is at H, gasoline in- 
let at G. The needle- valve opens on 
the air-valve seat and carries a milled index-head E, held as set 
by the spring pointer F. The air inlet-valve is closed lightly by 
the spring C, and its lift adjusted by the milled head-screw K. 
The throttle- valve is held in any set position by pressure of a spring 
on the milled disk on its spindle. 




FIG. 47. Atomizing vaporizer. 



CHAPTER X 

CYLINDER CAPACITY OF GAS AND GASOLINE-ENGINES 

THE cylinder volume of gas and gasoline-engines seems to be 
as variable with the different builders as it is with steam-engines 
in its relation to the indicated power. 

The proportion of diameter to stroke varies from equal meas- 
ures up to 38 per cent, greater stroke than the measure of the 
cylinder diameter. The extreme volumes of cylinder capacity 
(measured by the stroke) varies from 28 to 56 cubic inches for a 
1 horse-power engine and from 48 to 98 cubic inches for a 2 
horse-power engine; for a 3 horse-power engine from 77 to 142 
cubic inches, while for a 6 horse-power engine it ranges from 182 
to 385 cubic inches. This disparity in sizes for equal indicated 
power may be caused by the different kinds of gas and its air 
mixtures under which the trials for indicated power may have been 
made, or it may be partly due to relative clearance and facility for 
exploding the charge at some fixed time. 

It may be readily seen from inspection of the heat value of 
different kinds of gas varying as they do from about 950 heat 
units per cubic foot for the highest illuminating gas to from 185 
to 66 heat units in the different qualities of producer-gas that 
large variations in effective power will result from a given-sized 
cylinder. It will also be plainly seen that with the extreme dilu- 
tion of producer-gas with the neutral elements that produce no 
heat effect, that no combination with air that also contains 80 
per cent, of non-combustible element can produce even a modicum 
of power in the same-sized cylinder as is used for a high-power gas. 

In view of this it seems necessary to build explosive engines 
with cylinder capacities due to the heat-unit power of the com- 
bustible intended to be used, as well as to the method of its appli- 
cation. 

In the following tables are given the indicated and actual 
106 



CYLINDER CAPACITY OF GAS AND GASOLINE-ENGINES 107 



power, revolutions, and size of cylinder and stroke of various 
styles of gas-engines for comparison: 



TABLE XIII. 



THE NASH. 


THE SINTZ. 


Actual 
Horse- 
Power. 


Revolu- 
tions per 
Minute. 


Diameter 
of 
Cylinder. 
Inch. 

3 

3 
4 
5 
5 

61 


Stroke. 
Inch. 


Horse- 
Power. 


Revolu- 
tions per 
Minute. 


Diameter 
of 
Cylinder. 
Inch 


Stroke. 
Inch. 




350 
350 
325 
300 
300 
300 
280 


4 
4 

41 
5 
61 

71 


1. . 

2 
3 
4 
6 
8 
10 
15 


425 
400 
375 
350 
300 
270 
250 
225 


3| 
4 
4| 
5 
51 
6i 
8 
9 


31 

5 

6 
6 

7 
8 
9 


1 


2 
3 
4 
5 





TABLE XIV. 



STAR. 






DIMENSION TABLE, PAGE 110. 



















Actual 
Horse- 
Power. 


Revolu- 
tions per 
Minute. 


Diameter 
of 
Cylinder. 
Inch. 


Stroke. 
Inch. 


Horse- 
Power. 


Revolu- 
tions per 
Minute. 


Diameter 
of 
Cylinder. 
Inch. 


Stroke. 
Inch. 


2.. . 
3 


250 
240 


*i 

5 


6 

6 


2 
3 


350 
350 


4 

5 


51 

6J 


4 
6 

8 
10 


220 
220 
180 
180 


5 
61 

8 


10 
12 
13 
14 


4| 

10 ! '. 
13 


325 
320 
300 
275 


6 

7 
8 
9 


1 

10 
111 










17 


250 


10 


121 



TABLE XV. RATING OF SOME ENGLISH ENGINES. 



Indicated 
Horse-Power. 


Revolutions. 


Diameter. 
Inches. 


Stroke. 
Inches. 


Name. 


9 


164 


6 


16 


Crossley. 


9 


164 


8 


16 





14 


200 


7 


15 


ci 


16 


160 


H| 


20 


Burt's Otto. 


18 


180 


91 


16 


K 11 


19 


160 


9i 


18 


Crossley. 


20. ... 


184 


92 


17 


Stockport. 


20 


164 


12 


18 


Wells. 


24 


180 


10 


18 


Barker's Otto. 


30 


170 


12 


20 


it tt 


33 . 


210 


17 


2H 


Crossley 


40. .. . 


160 


18 


24 


Tangye. 













108 GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 

The apparent discrepancies in the above table of cylinder, 
capacities, as to their size when compared with their indicated 
power, are not really so great as may be noticed at first inspec- 
tion; for the mean pressure varies very much with the various 
fuels, as well also from the relative variation of the proportion 
between the volume of the combustion chamber and the volume 
swept by the piston. The difference in speed between the various 
engines noted also complicates the direct comparison for cylinder 
capacities. 

The whole subject of size and weight of explosive engines for 
stated powers appears to be still in the experimental stage, which 
by continued experiment and experience may be brought into an 
approximate uniformity in practice for specified values of fuel and 
speed. 

CYLINDER DIAMETER, STROKE, AND MOTOR PARTS 

The practice in cylinder proportions in the United States ap- 
pears to vary considerably among engine builders, from equal 
diameter and stroke to from 1J to 1J their diameter for length 
of stroke, while in Europe the smaller-sized engines have strokes 
of more than twice the diameter, grading to 1J times in the larger 
engines. 

Like the steam-engine cylinder proportions, there seems to 
be no settled opinion as to the best ratio, except that high speed 
indicates short stroke. The longer stroke European engines are 
quoted as low speed and run at from one-half to two-thirds the 
speed of most American engines of the same caliber. 

In the following table of gas and gasoline-engine dimensions 
we have figured the speed at about the maximum rate arid have 
endeavored to show about the average practice with builders of 
four-cycle engines in the United States for ordinary power use. 

The table has been computed for convenient measurement for 
amateur use and may not meet the exact and decimal values for 
expert designers. 

In assigning these values a consideration of 60 pounds M.E.P., 
with a clearance of from 30 to 35 per cent, of the piston stroke, 
has been made for the combustion chamber. 

The tabulated horse-power has been computed on the basis 



CYLINDER CAPACITY OF GAS AND GASOLINE-ENGINES 109 

of the M.E.P. of 60 pounds per square inch with an adiabatic com- 

39 
pression of TTJT: of the total volume and a mean back-pressure 

from the compression stroke of 26 pounds per square inch, which 
is deducted from the mean of the explosive-pressure stroke of 89 
pounds per square inch; which being 63 pounds, from which a 
deduction of 3 pounds is made for losses from leakage, leaves a 
net mean pressure of 60 pounds. 

Then the cylinder area X mean explosive-pressure mean 
compression pressure X impulse stroke travel in feet per minute 
and product divided by 33,000 = indicated horse-power. 
Ax M.E.P. x S 
33,000 

To obtain the value of S, multiply the stroke in feet or decimals 
of a foot by one-half the number of revolutions per minute, which 
is the impulse travel of the piston per minute. If misfires are 
made they should be deducted from the half number of revolu- 
tions in practice. 

As an example of an 8 X 10 four-cycle engine at 300 revolu- 
tions per minute, we have area of cylinder 50.26 square inches 

10 300 
and S = T^ X ^- = 125 feet piston travel per minute. Then 

.50.26X60X125 

=11.41 I.H.P., which we have rated as 10 actual 



horse-power in the table. In the smaller engines the difference 
between indicated and actual horse-power increases as the size 
diminishes. 

The thicknesses of cylinder wall, water-jacket, and water space 
have been assigned with due regard for overcharged explosions 
and the possibilities in core-making for the water space; they are 
often made thicker than given in the table. 

The length of the connecting rod from centre to centre is made 
from medium practice, or about 2{ times the stroke with the piston- 
pin at the centre of the piston. 

The figured dimensions of piston-pins of the same bearing 
length as the crank-pin, as also the crank-pins and shaft, are de- 
rived approximately from formulas which we find variable with 



110 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



different writers, as well as variable in size by different builders 
of explosive motors. The dimensions in the table are a medium 
suitable to a clearance ratio of 3 to 3.5. 



APPROXIMATE DIMENSIONS OF FOUR-CYCLE MOTOR PARTS. 

For M.E.P. 60 Ibs. Clearance, 30 to 33 per cent. Compression, 50 to 60 Ibs. 
Explosive Pressure, 160 to 200 Ibs. 

TABLE XVI. 



2. 
3 

7 4 
10 
13 
17 
22 
30 
43 
57 



500 
450 

425 
400 
350 
350 
350 
325 
320 
300 
275 
250 
200 
175 
160 
150 



linder 
meter. 



Ins. 



2* 



Ins. 

4" 

4 f 

5 2 
51 

V 



10 

HI 

121 

15 

17| 

20 



JlfJ 1 

g'll! 

V MTT K- 



Ins. 



Ins. Ins. 



Ribs 



Ins. 

Ribs 

Ribs 

or 



li 



1| 



_ 

Ji 



Ins. 



101 

HI 

12 

141 

17 

20 

22i 

251 

281 

34 

45 5 
50 



Ins. 

A 



Ins. 



as 



Ins. 



Ins. 



1 

11 l 



i! 



gth 
ourn 



Ins. 
1 

H 

ii 

2 

2.1 

21 

3 

3 

44 



9\ 



~^ 

? 

K 



Ins. 

13 

15 



Lbs. 
66 
133 



200 
270 
475 
525 
575 
800 
900 
1130 
SOI 1500 
64 2350 
66 3600 
72 6000 
82 9500 
9610500 



Ins. Ins 



1* If 
1| 2 
2 I 21 
2i 2| 
2i| 3 
3 
3} 



The diameters and weights of fly-wheels vary to a considerable 
extent among engines by different builders to adapt them to special 
service where the steadiness of speed is a special factor of design. 

For electric-lighting purposes, either- or both diameter and 
weight of the fly-wheels may be increased above the tabulated fig- 
ures, which have been computed for ordinary power service. 

The sizes of the inlet and exhaust-valves have been figured 
for a free inlet and discharge at the maximum speed in the second 
column of the table. For higher speeds of special motors the 
valve area should be somewhat increased. 

Of explosive motors of the larger units now in the market, we 
detail in the following table some of their most salient features 



CYLINDER CAPACITY OF GAS AND GASOLINE-ENGINES HI 

as a study of the progress of this class of prime movers for large 
power instalments: 



TABLE XVII. 



















Weight. 















1 








rfil 








1 


| 






fe 


System 


Type 


M 

d.Src 




OJX! 


Builders. 


d 


j3 
o 




fe 


PH 


of 


of 


fii 




^JS| 




s 


C 

1 1 


^ 


E 


8 


Governing 


Engine. 


c" 3 ^ 

C.S 


I* 


i?'S H 

* 




1 


4) 

r* 


. 


JS 


s 






'& L 


^l-H 






s 


1 


tf 


PQ 


6 






13. 


1 




Strut hers. Wells 






















& Co. (Warren V 21 


24 


180 


300 


20 


Throttling. 


Ver. 2-cyl., 4-cy. 


75,000 


250 


12,000 


National Meter 
Co. (Nash) . . . 


13.5 


16 


225 


125 


19 


Hit or miss. 


Ver. 3-cyl., c-4y. 


28,500 


99 o f3,600 
(2,400 


The Bessemer 




















Gas Eng. Co.. 


13.5 


20 


180 


100 


14 


Throttling. 


Hor. 2-cyl., 2-cy. 


23,000 


230 


5,800 


Marinette Iron 




















Wks(Walrath) 14 
TheAlbergerCo.|l7 


14 
19 


250 
200 


125 
125 


23 

21 


Throttling. 
Auto cut-off. 


Ver. 3-cyl., 4-cy. 
Hor. 2-cyl., 4-cy. 


23,000 
25,000 


184 
200 


6,600 
7,000 


Lazier Gas Eng. 
Co 


15 


21 


160 


50 


20 


Hit or miss. 


Hor. 1-cyl., 4-cy. 


14,000 


280 4,000 


National Meter 






















Co. (Nash)... . 


9 


11 


270 


50 


22 


Hit or miss. 


Ver. 3-cyl., 4-cy. 


11,000 


220 


3,600 


Westinghouse 
Machine Co. . 


18 


22 


200 


300 


21 


Throttling. 


Ver, 3-cyl., 4-cy. 


95,000 


316 


8,600 


W estinghouse 
Machine Co ... 


8 


10 


325 


38 


21 


Throttling. 


Ver. 3-cyl., 4-cy. 


10,500 


276 


j 1,750 
j 1,150 



Still larger units and installations are built and in use in Europe 
and in the United States, for the use of blast-furnace gas. The 
Cockerill type is now built by the Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Com- 
pany, Cleveland, 0., with single-acting cylinders, for blast-furnace 
gas, up to 600 brake horse-power, and double-acting up to 1,200 
horse-power. By doubling up these units any desired power may 
be obtained in a single installation. 

The double-acting Nurnberg engine is now being built by the 
Allis-Chalmers Company, with cylinders of fifty-nine inches in 
diameter; with duplex tandem double-acting cylinders, in units 
up to 1,800 horse power. In Germany, blast-furnace gas-engines 
are in use up to about 2,000 horse-power, in unit combinations of 
double-acting cylinders of forty-one inches diameter by four and 
one-quarter feet stroke. The low-explosive pressure of blast-fur- 
nace gas has greatly favored large cylinder dimensions, and thus 
given an impulse to the building of large power-motors with the 
least number of individual units. 



CHAPTER XI 



GOVERNORS AND VALVE GEAR 

THE regulation of the speed of explosive engines has an im- 
portant bearing upon their usefulness and freedom from constant 

personal attention. By 
experience from trials 
during the few years of 
the growth of the new 
motor, much progress 
has been made in per- 
fecting the details of 
this important adjunct of 
safety and uniformity in 
speed regulation through 
the action of a governor. 
There are four principal 
methods in use for con- 
trolling the speed, viz.: 
(1) By graduating the 
supply of the hydrocar- 
bon element; (2) by com- 
pletely cutting off the 
supply during one or 
more revolutions of the 
crank; (3) by holding the 
exhaust- valve open or 
closed during one or 
more strokes ; (4) in elec- 
tric ignition by arrest- 
ing the operation of the 
sparking device. 




FIG. 48. The Robey governor. 



To vary the quantity of the hydrocarbon fuel by the action of 
the governor is claimed to be the most economical as well as the 
112 



GOVERNORS AND VALVE GEAR 



113 



most satisfactory method in use, if the variation in the work of 
the engine does not carry the charge beyond the limit of combus- 
tion; otherwise the second method seems to give the best results. 
In Figs. 48 and 49 are two elevations of the centrifugal ball- 
governor, as used on the Robey and other engines in Europe, 




FIG. 49. The Robey governor. 

and adopted with many variations on a number of American en- 
gines. In this type the bell-crank arm of the governor, by its 
centrifugal action, raises or depresses a yoke and sleeve which 
operates a bell-crank lever with a forked end astride a rotating 
disk which rides on the cam of the secondary shaft. The disk 
has a lateral motion on the end of the valve lever, so that the 



114 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



action of the governor rides the disk on to or off the cam, and 
thus makes a hit-or-miss stroke of the inlet- valve. 

The centrifugal governor (Fig. 50) is another application of 
the hit-or-miss principle, by the use of a pick-blade operated 
from the governor by a balanced bell-crank and connecting rod. 
The cut fully explains the detail of its construction and opera- 
tion, by which an abnormal speed of the governor pulls the pick- 




FIG. 50. The pick-blade governor. 

blade away from the gas-valve spindle. In some forms graduated 
notches are made on the pick-blade or spindle-blade, so that in 
action the governor gives a varying charge within certain limits 
and a mischarge when the speed is beyond the limitation. 

The inertia governor used on the Crossley engine in England, 
and with many modifications in use on American engines, is illus- 
trated with plan and elevation in Figs. 51 and 52, in which A is 
the cam shaft, B the cam, C the roller, D the lever, H the lever- 



GOVERNORS AND VALVE GEAR 



115 



pin, L the spring to hold the roller C to the cam, J the governor 
weight, K the adjusting spring, G the pick-blade, and F the valve 
stem. 

In the action of this governor the initial line of motion of the 




FIG. 51. Inertia governor, plan. "Crossley." 

ball J, in regard to its centre of motion H, is shown by the dotted 
curved line. By the sudden movement of its pivoted centre L, 
the ball is retarded in its motion by the regulating spring K, which 




FIG. 52. Inertia governor, elevation. "Crossley." 

tends to throw the pick-blade G off the shoulder of the valve 
stem F. 

It will be readily seen that the inertia of the vibrating ball 



116 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



will vary as the speed of vibration, so that by carefully adjusting 
by the spring K, the action of the ball will vary the disengagement 




W 

FIG. 53. The vibrating governor, elevation. " Stockport." 

of the pick-blade to correspond with the over-speed of the engine, 
and make an entire miss at the limit of its variation. The air- 
valve may also be operated by the spud E. 

Another form of governor, involving the same principles of 
inertia as the last one, is used on the Stockport engine in England, 
and is illustrated in Figs. 53, 54, and 55. It consists of a weight 
A, balanced on the vibrating arm B. A groove around the weight 

operates a bell-crank, to which 
the pick-blade is attached. The 
balance spring is adjustable for 
regulating the position of the 
pick-blade and its contact with 
the valve spindle. By the va- 
riation in overcoming the in- 
FIG. 54.-The vibrating governor, plan. ertia f ^ ^ b ^ 

"Stockport. .,,.. ., 

spring with different vibrating 

speeds in the lever, the disengagement of the pick-blade with the 
spindle-blade is varied or a miss-stroke made. 




GOVERNORS AND VALVE GEAR 117 

The pendulum governor (Fig. 56) is also an inertia governor 
in the principle on which it operates. It is attached to the exhaust- 
valve push-rod, and vibrates horizontally with the rod. The 
weight or ball has an extension or neck, with a pivoted eye, a yoke, 
and a vertical lug. The eye is pivoted in the box, and the yoke 
embraces the push-blade stem, which is also pivoted horizontally 
with the eye in the box or frame. The lug bears on an adjusting 
spring, which is set up by a screw so as to limit the swing of the 
ball to the normal speed of the engine, so that when the speed rises 
above the normal the inertia of the ball holds it back in its vibra- 
tion and lifts the push-blade out of contact with the valve stem. 

In some engines the position of the ball is reversed, and it stands 





FIG. 55. End view, elevation. FIG. 56. The pendulum 

' ' Stockport . ' ' governor. 

above the valve push-rod on a finger and is made adjustable in its 
length of oscillation by its distance from the fulcrum. 

Several modifications of the governors here described are in 
use, devised on the principles of inertia as illustrated in Figs. 
50, 53, and 56. 

Apart from the ordinary methods of operating the valves of 
explosive motors by reducing spur gear and the reducing screw 
gear for driving a cam-shaft for four-cycle engines, we illustrate 
in Fig. 57 and Fig. 58 two very simple methods of operating 
the charging or exhaust-valve by the direct action of a push-rod 
from an eccentric on the main shaft. 

In Fig. 57 the vertical section shows the form of the cam 
on the central thread of a tw r o-thread worm on the main shaft 
with the push-rod and valve. The horizontal diagram shows 
the worm and intermittent ratchet-wheel pivoted in the fork of 



118 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



the push-rod. At every other revolution of the shaft the cam 
section of the worm falls into a shallow notch of the ratchet and 




FIG. 57. The worm cam push-rod. 

thus gives a push stroke of the valve at every other revolution 
of the shaft. 

Fig. 58 illustrates another form of ratchet push-rod. In this 
device the ratchet is mounted on a friction-pin which may be 
adjusted by a thumb-nut and soft washer so as not to turn back- 




FIG. 58. The ratchet push-rod. 

ward, yet may easily be rotated forward by the motion of the 
cam-moved push-rod. The upper figure shows the tooth of the 



GOVERNORS AND VALVE GEAR 



119 



push-rod on the shallow notch and missing contact with the valve 
spindle; at the next revolution of the shaft the tooth catches the 
deep notch and makes contact with the valve spindle. The throw 
of the eccentric should be slightly greater than the distance be- 
tween two consecutive teeth in the ratchet. 

A governor of the inertia or ball type can be attached to the 
push-rod with a step contact on the valve spindle, making a very 
simple valve movement and regulation. 

The ring- valve gear (Fig. 59) is another way of operating the 
exhaust push-rod of a four-cycle engine directly from a cam on 
the main shaft. The inner-ring gear is swept around within the 
outer fixed gear, skipping by one tooth at each revolution of the 
engine-shaft. 

The outer stationary ring has twice the number of teeth in the 





FIG. 59. Ring valve gear. 



FIG. 60. Double-grooved 
cam. 



ring gear, plus a hunting tooth, which makes a contact of a ring- 
gear tooth with the exhaust-valve rod at every other revolution. 

A double-grooved eccentric (Fig. 60) is another method of 
operating the exhaust- valve of a four-cycle engine by traversing 
the push-rod end, in the grooves which cross each other on one 
side of the cam; the groove on one section of the cam being enough 
smaller than the groove on the other section to give the valve its 
direct proper movement. 

The pendulum governor (Fig. 61) is a simple and unique ar- 
rangement derived from the musical beat pendulum. It is hung 
in a frame that is attached to and vibrates with the push-rod. 
The swing of the pendulum is adjusted by the distance of the small 
compensating ball from the centre of motion to vibrate synchro- 
nously with the push-rod at the required speed of the engine. In- 



120 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



creased speed increases the range of vibration and releases the 
curved pawl of the push-blade C and catches it again at the next 
stroke. 

The differential cam (Figs. 62 and 63) is much in use on the 
Otto engines in Europe and the United States. It is also called 





FIG. 62. Differ- 
ential cam. 




FIG. 61. Pendulum governor. 



B 

FIG. 63. Differential 
cam governor. 



the step cam and is made for from closed to four grades of valve lift 
with corresponding differential charge. The centrifugal movement 
of the governor-balls slides the sleeve on the governor-shaft and 
through the bell-crank lever the step-cam sleeve a on the valve-gear 
shaft. The disk-roller b on an arm of a rock-shaft, rolls upon one or 
the other cam steps at c, thus varying the movement of the inlet- 
valve, which is connected to another arm of the rock-shaft. The 
tread of the roller b is beveled and the steps of the cam are also 
beveled to match, so that the roller cannot slip off the cam. 





FIG. 64. Double port inlet valve. 



FIG. 65. Valve gear. 



The double-port inlet-valve (Fig. 64) is one of the methods 
of mixing the charge of gas or gasoline and air directly into the 
cylinder. It is made in reverse design and with a groove around 



GOVERNORS AND VALVE GEAR 



121 



one or both the valve disk and valve seat, so that the gas or gaso- 
line may be injected through the seat or from beneath the valve. 

In Fig. 65 is shown a gas-engine valve gear in which both valves 
are operated by an inlet and an exhaust-cam through a bent lever. 
The form and set of the 
cams give the proper 
time action and the set- 
screws in the lever 
adjust the lift of the 
valves. E is the inlet- 
valve; F the exhaust- 
valve; C, a double cam 
with groove that rides 
the sliding roller H al- FIG. 66. "Union" valve gear, 

ternately on to the in- 
let and exhaust section. The inlet-valve is double seated, the 
small flat disk covering the gas inlet from the chamber K, the air 
inlet being between the disks. 

The " Union" valve gear (Fig. 66) has a double push-rod. The 
one for the charge is operated by a cam on the reducing gear with a 
straight lever to bring the rod in line with the valve. A second 
cam and lever for the exhaust-rod changes the direction of the 
push by a bell-crank. 

The governing device of the Ruger and Olin gas and gasoline- 
engine is of the centrifugal type and consists of two weighted 





FIG. 67. Centrifugal governor. 

levers L, L (Fig. 67), which operate a small bell-crank and adjust- 
able spindle which rides the push-roller on to or off the exhaust- 
cam, thus holding the exhaust-valve open during excessive speed. 



CHAPTER XII 

EXPLOSIVE-MOTOR IGNITION 

THE devices for firing the charges in explosive motors have been 
of many types and designs through the decades of their develop- 
ment; but the early forms using outside flames and sliding ports 
having been generally abandoned in favor of newer devices, we 
have therefore omitted their illustration in this edition. 

The successful operation of the explosive motor depends very 
much on the perfection of the ignition outfit. 

The outside flame gave way to the hot-tube system, which we 
represent but do not recommend, as it seems to be fast fading in 
favor of the methods of electric ignition, which seem to fulfil all 
the requirements for rapid and accurate ignition, as well as for the 
time adjustment so essential in high-speed motors. For stationary 
motors many manufacturers still supply both hot-tube and electric 
combination for gas-engines and a few for gasoline-engines. 

HOT-TUBE IGNITERS 

Much of the difficulty in maintaining a constant and uniform 
explosive effect from the hot tubes used in the early or experi- 
mental period of the explosive motor was due to the inability 
to know or see what was the exact condition of the progress of 
combustion which was taking place within the tube and passage 
to the combustion chamber of the cylinder. 

The want of a durable and inexpensive material for the igni- 
tion-tubes was an unsatisfactory experience in the early days 
of the explosive motor. The use of iron, with its uncertain and 
perishable nature, under the intermittent high pressure and at 
the continual high temperature of the Bunsen burner, oxidized 
the tubes on the outside, making them thin, so as to burst in a 
month, a week, or a day; but only occasionally a tube would last 
122 



EXPLOSIVE-MOTOR IGNITION 123 

a month, although by the use of extra-strong iron pipe their life 
has somewhat lengthened. One of the principal causes for the 
short life of the iron tube may be found in the management of 
the Bunsen burner. A tube of iron or any other metal should 
not be used at a white heat even at any one spot. A uniform 
band at a full red heat all around the central or other part of the 
tube suitable for timing the ignition is the most desirable tem- 
perature for ignition, and for the lasting quality of the tube. In 
the construction and setting of the Bunsen burners, the point 
of greatest heat in the flame is too often made to impinge directly 
against the tube, heating it to a white heat at one spot. This 
causes a change in its molecular condition, weakening it by crys- 
tallization and oxidation, when, in a short time, the constantly 
repeated hammering of the explosions bursts the weakened metal. 

Porcelain tubes are free from the oxidizing properties of metals, 
but require considerable care in fastening them in place. When 
once properly set their wear is imperceptible, and if not broken by 
accident, they seem to stand the pressure well and have a life of 
a year or more at the trifling cost of from 20 to; 30 cents for the 
sizes ordinarily used, and in quantity at a much lower price. 

The usual lengths of porcelain tubes as made by the R. Thomas 
& Sons Co., East Liverpool, 0., are 6, 8, 10, and 12 inches in length. 
Pass & Seymour, Syracuse, N. Y., also manufacture procelain tubes 
for explosive engines. 

The best metallic tubes now on the market are made from 
the nickel-alloy rods imported from the Westfalisches Nickelwalzer 
in Swerte, Germany. The rods are furnished in about 6-foot 
lengths, of sizes f, J, ^-, f , and ^--inch diameter. Herman Boker 
& Co., 101 Duane Street, New York, are the United States agents. 
They keep the rods in stock, and also furnish the finished tubes of 
sizes to order. 

This metal is now largely in use by the leading gas-engine 
builders in the United States, and its lasting quality has been 
amply tested by more than a year's wear, and in some cases 
two years' wear for a single tube. The only trouble or shorten- 
ing of the running time of the nickel-alloy tubes has been from 
excessive heating and from sulphurous gas, such as the unpurified 
producer-gas, and in a few instances from sulphurous natural gas, 



124 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



against which the porcelain tubes seem to be proof. The drilling of 
the nickel-alloy tubes requires considerable care in order to keep 
the drill centred in the rod, which is best done by revolving the 
rod in a dead-rest and feeding the drill by the back centre. Drills 
should be hard and kept sharp. Use milk for lubricating the 
drill. 

The running out of the drill will make a thin side to the tube, 
which will be liable to overheat, and by expansion and contraction, 
due to unequal temperature, will cause the thin side to bulge and 
finally rupture. 

Platinum tubes have been used to considerable extent in Ger- 
many and a few in the United States; their cost will probably send 

them out of use in view of the last- 
ing quality and cheapness of the 
nickel-alloy and porcelain tubes. 

In Fig. 68 is shown one of sev- 
eral methods for setting the por- 
celain tube in a socket to be 
screwed into the cylinder. 

The packing may be asbestos 
washers, dry or moistened with 
wet clay. 

The application of a new device 
for hot-tube ignition as used on the 
Mietz & Weiss engines, by which 
a short and plain porcelain or lava 
tube, open at both ends and set 
between sockets with asbestos pack- 
ing, has made a marked progress in simplifying the care and 
adjustment of tubes and time of firing.- 

A reinforcement of the combustion passage of this device by 
an iron-pipe extension enlarges the power of the small hot tube 
by prolonging the burning of the firing charge, and thus making 
a short tube available to meet the requirement for timing adjust- 
ment. Such tubes should last indefinitely; they are cheap, quickly 
changed, and easily cleaned. 

The hot-tube igniter (Fig. 69) shows a view of an ignition-tube 
used on the Robey engines, which is adjustable for the position of 




FIG. 68. Porcelain-tube setting. 



EXPLOSIVE-MOTOR IGNITION 



125 



the igniting surface of the tube as well as for the position of the 
Bunsen burner, being combustion chamber, igniter passage, and 
Bunsen burner, pivoted to the chimney frame, which allows the 




FIG. 69. Adjustable-tube igniter. 



FIG. 70. Bent-tube 
igniter. 



burner to be tilted slightly to regulate the distribution of the flame 
around the tube. 

The set-screw in the chimney socket allows of a ready adjust- 
ment of the position of the chimney and burner for the time of 
ignition. Fig. 70 shows a bent-tube igniter of German model. 

IGNITING TIMING VALVES 

The value of an exact time of ignition for producing uniformity 
of speed in explosive engines is attested by the exhaustive experi- 
ments of years with the many devices made for the ordinary tube 
igniters, and the final recourse to electric ignition. A satisfactory 
result has been obtained in several designs for operating a valve 
at the mouth of the ignition-tube that admits the compressed charge 
to the ignition-tube at an exact point in the piston-stroke. 



126 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



In Fig. 71 is illustrated a timing valve used on the Robey 
engine, in which A is the combustion chamber; B the passage lead- 
ing to the hot tube, a double-seated valve and spindle held to its 
front seat by the spring D; E a lever operated from the cam shaft; 
F adjusting spool with set-nuts. In action the valve is opened 
at or about the end of the compression-stroke and kept open during 
the exhaust-stroke, thus clearing the ignition-tube uniformly and 
insuring exact time of ignition. 

In Fig. 72 is illustrated a combined timing- valve igniter and 
starter, as used on the Stockport engines. In this arrangement 




FIG. 71. Timing valve. "Robey." 

a double tube is used, with an annular space between the inner 
tube and the hot tube, through which the products of combustion 
may be blown out, followed by the explosive mixture, into the hot 
tube, by compressing the timing valve and the starting valve at 



EXPLOSIVE-MOTOR IGNITION 



127 



the same moment. Referring to the cut, F is the timing valve, 
operated by the lever D; A the starting valve, with its waste out- 
let at V; H is a mantle to draw the flame closer to the igniting tube. 




FIG. 72. Timing valve and starter. " Stockport." 

There are many variations in form and attachments for timing 
valves in use in Europe and the United States. They are much 
in favor for hot-tube igniters for the larger gas-engines. 



IGNITION DEVICES 

The ignition devices have been a puzzle to motor builders and 
operators during the decades of explosive-motor development, 
and so-called improvements are still in vogue. For gas-engines, 
tube ignition has had its day for want of a better way and is still 
in use to a considerable extent, probably because it is simple and 
cheap to make; but the short life of the tubes when made of iron 
has made this material unreliable and the resort to a nickel alloy 
and porcelain has bettered the condition which still has its annoy- 
ances. 

Electric ignition has become the most reliable and is easily 



128 GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 

managed and adjusted to meet the requirements for timing. In 
its best designs it has been largely adopted by motor builders, 
and has become a favorite with motor engineers. Notwithstanding 
the troubles with early designs of electric igniters, from unseen 
causes due to the hidden position of their vital parts, the later im- 
provements have brought their action to almost a positive con- 
dition. 

Of the types of electric igniters in use, the break-contact or 
hammer type involves the motion of a spindle arranged as a rock- 
shaft with a contact-arm or hammer acting upon a stationary 
electrode, or a vibrating spindle passing through the walls of the 
cylinder to make contact with the same hammering force, or, as 
in a late improvement, to dip into a small mercury cistern. The 
hammer type, whether it involves the action of a spring to cause a 
draw break-contact or by a direct-face contact, is subject to wear 
that either changes the adjustment for timing or prevents ignition 
by enlarging the contact-faces to such an extent as to allow the 
spark to occur before the charge can pass in between the faces. 
Many igniters of this type are made with broad-faced hammers, 
which become fouled or are so tightly faced by the hammer action 
that the spark passes before the gas charge can reach the spark 
between the faces, causing misfires. 

This has been remedied by reducing the size of the contact- 
faces and rounding their surface, which serves to give free access 
of the explosive charge to the spark at the moment of break of 
contact. 

The single wire-wound sparking coil and battery seems to be 
the most suitable means for storage of electric current for the in- 
ternal break-contact igniter. 

The jump-spark igniter is increasing in favor among engineers 
and operators, owing to the simplicity and fixedness of its cylinder 
terminals, which places the intermittent action on the outside of 
the cylinder, thereby allowing of ready observation and adjust- 
ment without stopping the motor. In the early form of the jump- 
spark igniter with both terminals passing through a single insula- 
tion in the plug, the space on the insulated face of the plug was 
made so short that by the fouling of the surface the electric current 
was short-circuited and no spark was produced; this gave much 



EXPLOSIVE-MOTOR IGNITION 129 

trouble from the necessity of frequently removing the plug for 
cleaning the insulating surface. Its construction has been modi- 
fied so as to increase the distance between the terminals by an 
extension of one of the terminals from the body of the plug, which 
is an improvement, but still defective. A later improvement has 
been made by extending the porcelain insulator beyond the face 
of the plug from a half to three-quarters of an inch and extending 
the opposite terminal from the face of the plug with a hooked 
end and clearing the insulator by a quarter inch, thus giving more 
than three-quarters of an inch of insulating surface between the 
electrodes. In some motors the plug terminal is a single positive 
electrode, while the negative electrode is fixed to the cylinder-head 
away from the plug, making a greater distance over which short- 
circuiting has to pass, but this is a mistake, for the insulated part 
of the plug is the limitation of short-circuit possibilities. 

The jump-spark system of ignition requires a secondary or 
induction-coil, and, for further efficiency, a condenser with a break- 
ing device operated from the valve-gear shaft to open the otherwise 
closed primary coil from which the secondary or jump-spark is 
generated at the moment of closure for timing the spark. 

There are two methods of operating the jump-spark ignition; 
in one a magnetic vibrator is employed which makes and breaks 
the primary circuit many times during the open contact of the 
time switch by the secondary shaft, during which moment a series 
of sparks is sent across the terminal electrodes in the combustion 
chamber, thus insuring ignition by repeated sparking. 

In the use of the induction-coil without the vibrator, but a 
single weak spark is produced at the opening and a single strong 
spark again at the closing of the timing switch, thus giving twp 
sparks; but the first is not considered available, except from a 
more powerful induction-coil than needed for the vibrating attach- 
ment. 

The distance or opening between the terminals of a sparking 
plug is of greater importance than generally considered, as much 
hidden trouble has arisen from the form and spacing of this impor- 
tant adjunct in the operation of explosive motors. 

For a satisfactory effect a four-element battery in series and 
an induction-coil for sure ignition should give a spark of maxi- 



130 GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 

mum range from three-eighths to half an inch, for which the ter- 
minals of the sparking plug should be set at from three to four 
thirty-seconds of an inch apart, or one-quarter of the extreme 
length of the spark. The voltage for a reliable spark need not 
exceed one and a quarter volts in each of a four-battery series, 
equal to five volts, acting through an induction coil consisting of 
a soft iron wire-core five-eighths of an inch diameter, No. 12 gauge, 
insulated by a paper-tube spool five inches in length between the 
shoulders, on which is wound two layers of cotton-covered copper 
wire, No. 12, B. & S. gauge, well insulated with paper and shellac 
varnish. For the secondary coil, wind 10 ounces of No. 36 B. & S. 
gauge cotton-covered copper wire, shellacing and covering each 
winding with a layer of uncallendered writing paper. See details of 
induction-coil further on. 

A vibrating hammer and condenser adds to the efficiency of 
the jump-spark igniter. 

ELECTRIC IGNITION 

Of the two forms of ignition by the electric spark, it has been 
shown in practice that both the break-spark and jump-spark are 
equally applicable and efficient for all speeds and on single or 
multiple-cylinder motors. 

The jump-spark method possesses the advantage of mechanical 
simplicity and the disadvantage of electrical complication, while 
the break-spark possesses electrical simplicity and mechanical com- 
plication. Either method can be successfully used with any of 
the regular apparatus for furnishing the electric current that is, 
the battery, dynamo, or magneto, or combination of dynamo or 
magneto and battery, providing the complete apparatus is con- 
sistently designed. 

It is noticed that the jump-spark with battery is meeting with 
probably the greater favor by American manufacturers, while the 
European builders are using the break-spark more extensively with 
the alternating-current magneto, a few with the alternating mag- 
neto and jump-spark. 

Batteries possess the advantage, over other forms of current 
generators, that their maximum strength can be used for starting 
the engine, but the disadvantage that, after the engine is running, 



EXPLOSIVE-MOTOR IGNITION 131 

they grow weaker, until they are exhausted. Some kinds can be 
recharged to advantage; others must be replaced with a new bat- 
tery when exhausted. The first cost of batteries is low, and their 
care is fairly well understood by the average operator. The facts 
that it is impossible to determine in any practicable way just when 
a battery will become exhausted, and the cost of maintenance, are 
probably its most objectionable features. 



PRIMARY IGNITION-BATTERIES 

Much of the success of explosive-motor running depends on 
the efficiency of the ignition outfit. The usual primary battery 
and spark-coil do not always give uniform results. 

The life of the battery depends on the chemicals of which it is 
composed; or, in other words, on its ampere-hour capacity; on the 
number and voltage of cells connected in series; on the internal 
resistance of the cells; on the speed of the engine and number of 
hours which it runs per day; on the design of the igniting mechan- 
ism that is, on whether or not the sparking points make contact 
every, or every other, revolution or only at times when fuel is ad- 
mitted; on the length of time points are in contact; on the resistance 
and efficiency of the spark-coil; on the insulation of the sparking 
plug, and on the resistance of the external circuit. 

By ampere-hour capacity of a cell is meant the quantity of 
current, measured in amperes, which a cell will furnish for a definite 
number of hours. Thus, a 300-ampere-hour cell is supposed to be 
capable of furnishing a current of one ampere for 300 continuous 
hours. Dry cells are not regularly given an ampere-hour rating 
for the reason that individual cells vary greatly and, moreover, 
it is difficult to determine their capacity since, on account of rapid 
polarization on discharge, it is impossible to take a constant, con- 
tinuous current from them. 

The dry battery, which is used most extensively, is reliable and 
cleanly, but of short life, making it expensive to maintain. It 
will regain part of its original strength, if allowed to rest after being 
exhausted; but, when once exhausted, a new battery should be 
considered a necessity of the near future. 

The storage-battery, in connection with the dynamo or direct- 



132 GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 

current magneto, forms an ignition system which is almost ideal 
theoretically, but ofttimes impracticable. The storage-battery 
is of great strength and is reliable until exhausted, providing 
proper care is taken of it; but unless it is given more attention than 
is generally given it will prove a failure. For instance, if it be 
charged above a certain maximum rate, it will not receive a nor- 
mal charge, and will therefore become exhausted earlier than it 
would naturally do. If it be discharged above a certain maxi- 
mum rate, the battery will not only fall short on its present charge, 
but on all subsequent ones; and the time of its ultimate destruction 
is hastened by the excessive discharge rate. If the battery has 
been allowed to discharge after the voltage has reached a certain 
minimum indicated by the makers of the battery, generally about 
one and eight-tenths volts per cell, sulphating and its consequent 
troubles result. Owing to the nature of automobile work, this last 
abuse is probably responsible for the bad reputation that storage- 
batteries have acquired with those experienced with them. The 
storage-battery should be both charged and discharged through 
ammeters; and the discharge should be watched with a voltmeter, 
not to mention tests with hydrometer for specific gravity. It is not 
practicable to constantly observe these precautions for ignition 
purposes. 

The dynamo system for ignition, with the speed-governing 
pulley, is theoretically a fine ignition system; and, if operated by 
one familiar with caring for electrical apparatus, it is a very satisfac- 
tory method. This system, however, possesses two very great dis- 
advantages: first, the dynamo generates a direct current of low 
voltage, necessitating care and attention to be given the dynamo; 
second, the dynamo must run at a constant speed, necessitating 
the use of a speed-governing device, which, for the service required, 
has not proven altogether reliable. The dynamo system will some- 
times work perfectly for a very long time, and then fail at a time 
most disastrous to its operator, without any apparent reason for 
its stubbornness. 

The Edison Primary Battery, formerly known as the Edison- 
Lalande battery, and exclusively made by the Edison Manufact- 
uring Co., New York, Chicago, and Orange, N. J., is now the lead- 
ing type for efficiency and lasting quality for primary-battery 



EXPLOSIVE-MOTOR IGNITION 



133 



ignition for all types of explosive motors. The batteries are made 
in varying sizes to meet the requirements for stationary, portable, 





FIG. 73. Type R R, 1\ x 



FIG. 74. Type V, 5| x 8". 



launch, and automobile services. In the construction of these 
batteries, a double zinc plate forms the negative element and a 
single plate of compressed oxide of copper forms the positive ele- 
ment of the battery. The fluid is a solution of caustic soda, 
which is sealed by a layer of paraffine oil to prevent evaporation 
and creeping of the solution. The plates are all suspended from 
the cover of the battery, as shown in Fig. 73, 
which is the largest (or R R) size contained 
in a porcelain jar, of which five cells, having 
a capacity of 300 ampere-hours, is the usual 
outfit of a large motor plant. 

For launch motors, the size V is in general 
use, having a liquid- tight cell of enamelled steel, 
which will stand hard usage, and of which six 
cells are sufficient for single or double-cylin- 
der two-cycle or four-cycle motors. On three 
or four-cylinder motors two batteries of six 
cells each are recommended, which have a F IG . 75. Type Z, 
capacity of 150 ampere-hours each 4x6f". 




134 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



For automobile work, the size Z is recommended for its com- 
pact size and less liability to splashing from the vibration of the 
vehicle. Its capacity is 100 ampere-hours, and from 6 to 7 cells 
are used for spark-coil ignition. The cell is in a liquid-tight enam- 
elled steel jar. 

These various types of Edison primary batteries have the small- 
est resistance and the most lasting capacity of any primary battery 
in use. 

The sparking coil used with this form of igniter is shown in 
Fig. 76. It consists of a bundle of iron wire, insulated and wrapped 
with insulated copper wire. It is a simpler device than the induc- 
tion or Ruhmkorff coil, but will not project a strong spark or at a 
great distance between the electrodes, as may be obtained from 
a Ruhmkorff coil the breaking device being necessary in either 
case. 

A simple primary sparking coil may be made with a core of 
iron wire (No. 16) ten inches long and one inch in diameter. Fasten 




FIG. 76. The sparking coil. 

heads for the spool on this, and cover the core with a few turns of 
brown paper shellaced to make a tube. -Wind No. 14 single cotton- 
covered magnet wire on this to a depth of about f inch, insulating 
each layer from the next by a layer of paper. Give each layer a 
coat of shellac also. The coil is used in series with a battery, and 
the spark is obtained when the circuit is broken. With six or eight 
strong cells a thick spark will be given. This coil is illustrated in 
Fig. 76, only instead of four windings make six to eight windings. 
The Edison spark coil (Fig. 77) is the result of large experience 
in an effort to produce the largest spark from the least battery 



EXPLOSIVE-MOTOR IGNITION 



135 



current. Its short length and large number of wire turns make 
the magnetic changes instantaneous, producing a hot and power- 
ful spark, so necessary in high-speed motors. 

In Fig. 78 is illustrated an ignition-battery plant, in which 
the batteries may be from three to four in series, connecting with 
the binding post p of the primary winding of the induction-coil 
T and continued through the other binding post p l to the breaker 





FIG. 77. Edison spark coil. 



FIG. 78. Electric igniter. 



at k, which is operated by a break-contact arm or cam on the 
reducing gear or shaft. 

The secondary winding of the induction coil is connected to 
the ignition plug P by the wires e, e, and continued through separate 
insulating sleeves, i, i, terminating in the platinum points or pref- 
erably small knobs, c, c. The distance apart of these electrodes 
should be in proportion to the strength of the current. With an 
induction-coil and battery of size to produce a half-inch open jump- 
spark, one-sixteenth to three-thirty-seconds of an inch should be 
the limit. With three-fourths to one-inch open jump-spark the 
limit may be one-eighth inch between the electrodes. The primary 
circuit is made and broken by the passage of the contact piece k, 
betweeft the spring clips x, x, at the moment required for firing the 
charge. 

DYNAMO ELECTRIC IGNITION 

The permanent field dynamo or magneto for producing the 
ignition current are in favor and are made in a variety of styles. 
They have a drum armature, enclosed so as to be proof against dirt, 
oil, and moisture. They can be run by belt or by contact with the 
fly-wheel with a band of rubber stretched tightly and cemented 



136 GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 

upon the dynamo pulley. They are made in several styles and are 
a favorite for marine and vehicle gasoline-engines. 

In Fig. 80 is represented the horizontal magneto as made by 
the Holtzer-Cabot Electric Co., Boston, Mass. It has a belt or 
wheel-contact tightening device on a permanent platform. It is 
their No. 2, or automobile size, which is also best suited for launches. 
The sparking device for which they are specially designed is the 
break or wipe spark. This magneto-igniter, while having an ar- 
mature of the drum type similar to that used in direct-current 
dynamos, has permanent magnet fields, so that not only is no 
current wasted to energize them, but the armature can be run in 
either direction and a wider range of speed employed without 





FIG. 79. Ignition 

dynamo. FIG. 80. Horizontal magneto. 

danger of a "burn-out," while a good hot spark can always be 
depended upon. 

The fields of this machine are composed of steel, permanent 
magnets, and unless subject to abnormal conditions will retain 
their strength indefinitely. The fl-shaped bars should never be 
removed from the fields without substituting an iron keeper across 
their prongs, and this same precaution should be taken before 
attempting to withdraw the armature. 

Either carbon or woven- wire brushes may be used; the copper 
brush should be soaked in oil from time to time to prevent cutting 
the commutator. Carbon brushes will not cut the commutator, 
but occasionally may become glazed and fail to give reliable con- 
tact; when this occurs their ends should be filed off to a new surface, 
when they will operate as well as new brushes. 



EXPLOSIVE-MOTOR IGNITION 



137 



The Carlisle & Finch Co., Cincinnati, 0., are making a mag- 
neto dynamo, the distinctive feature of which is the method of 
supporting it. It is mounted on a strong pin on which it rocks. 
This permits of the belt being tightened if it becomes loose, and 
an adjusting screw is provided for this purpose. The square 
base or pedestal is to be fastened to the floor, and the tightening 
screw inserted in the hole on the side toward the engine. This 
will allow the dynamo to be pushed away from the engine, so 
as to tighten the belt as it becomes loose. 

If it is desired to run the magneto by a friction-pulley, a spring 
may be attached to the bot- 
tom of the magneto, so as 
to draw it toward the fly- 
wheel of the engine. In this 
case, the tightening screw 
will be omitted. Friction- 
pulleys are furnished. 

The armature is complete- 
ly enclosed, and the magneto 
may be sprinkled with water 
without damage. 

For small engines, when 
the fly-wheel can be turned 
by hand, it is not necessary 
to use a battery for starting; 
but when the engine is so 
large that it can be turned 
but slowly, it is necessary 
to have six or eight cells of 
open-circuit battery for furnishing the initial spark. Any good 
type of Leclanche battery will answer. Dry batteries may be 
used if the magneto is to be used on an automobile where the 
available space is small. 

To meet the wishes of those who have individual preferences 
for the dynamo type of igniter, and to meet conditions which de- 
mand an igniter that will deliver a large amount of energy con- 
tinuously, as for instance multiple-cylinder engines, the Holtzer- 
Cabot Electric Company have brought out a dynamo type of 




FIG. 81. Vertical magneto. 
Holtzer-Cabot type. 



138 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



igniter. This new igniter will work through a range of speed from 
1,000 R.P.M. to 2,500 R.P.M.; it may be used to advantage in auto- 
mobile work, it being 
unnecessary to use any 
governor whatever. It 
will deliver a continuous 
output of 50 watts and 
will serve under the 
most severe and exact- 
ing conditions. The ig- 
niter is pivoted on a 
sub-base and the belt 
is tightened or the pres- 
sure of the friction-pulley regulated by means of two butt-screws 
which rock the machine forward or backward as the case may be. 
Fig. 82 represents a generator used on the Sumner gas and gaso- 
line-engines. The spark is produced by a plunger contact with the 
commutator operated from a cam on the secondary shaft. 




FIG. 82. The permanent-field generator. 



MULTIPLE-CYLINDER IGNITION 

In Fig. 83 is illustrated a dynamo of the Bosch type. The arma- 
ture A, which is stationary, is provided with two windings, AI and 
A 2 , of which AI is of stout wire, 
and corresponds to the primary 
winding of an induction coil, A2 
being of fine wire and correspond- 
ing to the secondary. The changes 
of magnetism in the armature 
core, which give rise to the cur- 
rent, are produced by the rotation 
of a soft iron sleeve B, which par- 
tially surrounds it, and is integral 
with the hollow shaft BI, which 
also carries the notched disk B 2 , 
and the high-tension distributing 
disk D. One end of the winding 
AI is grounded Oil the shaft of the FIG- 83. Multiple-cylinder ignition. 




EXPLOSIVE-MOTOR IGNITION 139 

apparatus, and the secondary winding forms a continuation of 
the primary. The other end of the primary winding A! is 
led to one side of the contact-breaker B 3 , and to one terminal 
of the condenser, the other terminal of the condenser, and the 
moving arm of the contact-breaker B 3 , being grounded. The 
sleeve B is slotted, and when the slots come opposite the poles 
of the field magnet, the armature receives magnetism from the 
field magnet, and is deprived of it again as the slots pass around, 
and a powerful current is consequently induced in its wind- 
ings. The contacts of the contact-breaker B 3 are normally held 
together by the action of the disk B 2 , and during these periods the 
low-tension winding AI is closed on itself, so that a powerful current 
flows through it at the moments when the magnetism of its core 
is being varied by the rotating sleeve B. When one of the notches 
in B 2 , which are steep on one side and bevelled on the other, come 
under the lower end of the contact-lever arm B 3 , the latter snaps 
back, owing to the action of its spring, separates the two contacts, 
and breaks the circuit of AI. This produces a high-tension current 
in the secondary or fine-wire winding A 2 , the condenser C in- 
creasing the effect. As the secondary winding is connected to the 
primary as described, and as it is grounded through it, successively 
connecting the central rods of the sparking plugs FI, F 2 , F 3 , F4 
to the opposite end of the secondary A 2 , it causes sparks to pass in 
the four cylinders at the right moments, the tension or voltage of 
the primary and secondary being added to one another. The dis- 
tribution is effected by the commutator, or distributor, D. This 
consists of the rotating disk D, carrying the metal plate A 2 , which 
is in conducting connection with the insulated end of the secondary 
winding A 2 . As the disk revolves, this metal plate makes contact 
successively with the fixed brushes 1, 2, 3, 4. 



THE APPLE IGNITION-DYNAMO 

In Fig. 84 we illustrate a neat and compact ignition-dynamo 
made by the Dayton Electrical Manufacturing Company, Dayton, 
0. It is entirely enclosed in a case, practically water and dust 
proof. The pulley has a friction-clutch governor acting on the 
rim of the pulley and attached to the spindle of the armature. The 



140 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



clutch shoes of the governor are closed on the rim by the springs, 
while the centrifugal force of overspeed releases them, and between 
the action of the two forces, the dynamo runs steadily with a vari- 
able speed of the motor. 

In the sectional detail of the parts of the Apple dynamo, A 
is the cast-iron case; B, the hinged cover; C, one of the cast-iron 
pole pieces of the field magnets, which are fixed to the case by 
screws as shown; D, the armature, the core of which is built up 
from thin-toothed disks of soft sheet-iron; E, the coil of one of the 
field magnets; F, brass bearing; G and H, hard-fibre tubes covering 
the spindle; K, brass spider and spindle bearing; L, commutator 




FIG. 84. Sectional diagram of the Apple dynamo, 

with mica insulation; M, wick-feed oil-cup; N and P, bevelled nuts 
clamping the commutator bars; R, driving disk and rim containing 
the centrifugal clutch cover; S, pinion fixed to driving disk R and 
revolving freely on the spindle. 

Several forms of internal circuit-breakers have been devised, 
in which is represented a reciprocating rod which may be operated 
by a connecting rod with a cam. The insulation is made within a 
sliding tube, which allows of considerable motion in order to allow 
the contact piece to slip off suddenly from the stud which is fixed 
in the cylinder-head. 

In Fig. 85 is represented a similar device, in which the insulated 
rod rotates by an outside gear driven from the valve shaft. The 



EXPLOSIVE-MOTOR IGNITION 



141 



rotating spindle carries the insulated rod and break-piece eccen- 
trically, so that its contact and break can be accurately regulated 
by rotating the position of 
the teeth of the gears. 

Fig. 86 represents the 
sparking device used by 
the Union Gas Engine 
Company, San Francisco, 
Cal., and consists of a 
rocking shaft carrying a 
flattened pin K on the 
end inside of the firing 




FIG. 85. Rotating spark-break. 



chamber, which, by its 
rocking motion, is brought 
in contact with an insulated spring S. The spring contact piece, 
bearing against and rubbing the rocking pin, secures perfect free- 
dom of current circuit while in contact. 

The operating device is shown in Fig. 87, where the push-rod 
R, connecting with an arm moved by a cam on the secondary 

shaft, is adjusted to 
make the break con- 
tact at the required 
moment ; while the con- 
tact spring at M re- 
lieves the battery cir- 
cuit dur ng the time 
of three cycles. 

Ignition from the 
current of a small dy- 
namo attached to the 
engine and driven at 
the proper speed from 
the engine-shaft is in 
successful use and does 

FIG. 86.-Rocking shaft sparker. awa ^ with the Care f 

a battery. This re- 
quires no induction-coil, the spark being made directly through 
the break device and electrodes. 




142 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



A current-breaker used on the Priestman engine is shown in 
Fig. 88, where an arm kept in position by a spring or weighted 




FIG. 87. The operating device 

lever is made to touch a spud revolving on the secondary shaft. 
A movable sleeve on the shaft is set back or forward for time adjust- 
ment of the contact-break. 

In Fig. 89 we illustrate a simple and easily made hammer 
spark-plug which may be inserted through the cylinder-head with 
a flange-joint, fixed with two studs or tap-bolts. A spring at s 




FIG. 88. The current-breaker. 

holds the shoulder of the terminal a close to the plug P so that the 
shaft b may have free motion in the plug; d is the outside arm 
rocked by the cam rod. 



EXPLOSIVE-MOTOR IGNITION 



143 



The fixed terminal is insulated by a lava sleeve which may be 
in two parts with asbestos washers to prevent breaking of the lava 
shoulders. 

The contact surfaces x and y, shown in the front view of the 
plug, should be made of platinum, brazed to the terminals. The 
method of connecting with the battery and spark-coil is distinctly 
shown in the cut 

In Figs. 90 and 91 we illustrate the details of the mercurial 
sparker of Mr. J. V. Rice, Jr., Edgewater Park, N. J. It is well 




FIG. 89. Hammer spark igniter. 

known that the break of contact with mercury produces a brilliant 
spark from the electric current, or what is called in gas-engine par- 
lance a "fat spark." This idea has been found in practice to meet 
some of the faults of the hammer break devices and seems to insure 
a constant service in this important adjunct in explosive-motor 
running. 

The deep cup of mercury is enclosed in a small water chamber 
forming part of the cooling circulation of the cylinder, and make- 
and-break contact is made by the movement of an insulated spin- 



144 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



die operated direct from a cam in a two-cycle engine or the reducing 

shaft in a four-cycle type. 

The timing is regulated by screwing the spindle up or down, 

as shown in the cuts. The 
connections with a spark- 
ing coil and battery, or 
with a dynamo, are made 
in the same manner as 
with other break-contact 
sparking devices. 

The sparker has been 
in use for many months 
on a gasoline- engine driv- 
ing a machine-shop motive 
plant, a launch, and a 
.high-speed tricycle, with- 
out misfires except by 
control. 

The evaporation of 
mercury from the cell is 

exceptionally small and 
FIG. 90. The Rice sparker. " 

does not spill by the jar 

of the motor. The amount of mercury actually lost in a year's 
run of a 12 H.P. motor does not exceed 35 cents in cost. High 





TO BATTERY 



FIG. 91. Rice valve gear. 



EXPLOSIVE-MOTOR IGNITION 



145 



speed, which sometimes interferes with the perfect operation of 
igniters, in a test of this device by the writer, has been found to 
give a perfect ignition at all speeds 
up to more than 2,300 revolutions 
per minute. 

In Fig. 92 is illustrated the break- 
spark controlling device of the Lozier 
motor. 

The motion of the cam-operated 
rod B, which carries the bell-crank 
push-blade, regulated by the let-off 
screw J, lifts the bushing D against 
the spring K thus allowing the arm 
E to be lifted by the spring and 
plunger L, M, making contact of the 
break-spark points and establishing 
the electric circuit. At the desired 
sparking moment, the rod B and trip disengage the plunger D, 
and it drops by the force of the spring K upon the arm E, and 
breaks the contact of the sparking points. 




FIG. 92. Lozier break -spark 
device. 



ELECTRIC IGNITION-PLUGS 

The Sta-Rite Ignition-Plug is now made by The R. E. Hardy 
Company, 225 West Broadway, New York City. The special 
points in its construction make it long lived and a 
sure ignition device. 

In Fig. 93 we illustrate a detailed section of this 
plug. As the end of plug entering combustion cham- 
ber is much hotter than the outer end, the porcelain 
is made in two pieces to take care of the difference 
in temperature. The best porcelain is used and the 
inner porcelain is turned in a lathe so that the ma- 
terial is much closer and tougher than if made in a 
die. Ample air space is provided so that soot and oil 
do not cause short circuiting. 
Section of The shoulder of inner porcelain is forced against 

plug. the packed shoulder of shell by the head on the bolt, 




146 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



instead of away from the shoulder. It is, therefore, very easy to 
keep the plug tight. 

The short protected point is not warped out of position by the 
intense heat. 

Flat-steel tension-washers are placed under the set-nuts, so that 
they do not work loose. These washers, with the vulcabeston 
packing washers, allow for difference in contraction and expansion 
between the metal and porcelain parts of the plug. 

The shell of plug is made of steel and all exposed metal parts 
are nickel-plated. 

In Fig. 94 is shown the "Standard" plug in general use. This 
company manufacture a variety of models of their plugs with 





94. Standard plug. 



FIG. 95. Special plug. 



Hnch and f-inch threads, and short and long shanks, to suit the 
requirement of thickness of cylinder-heads and valve chambers of 
marine and automobile-motors, and also to suit the metric threads 
of imported automobile-motors. 

In Fig. 95 is shown an example of a special plug made for the 
" Thomas flyers." 

On the care of the sparking plug, the makers of the "Sta-Rite" 
have given some details which are worthy of a place here : 



EXPLOSIVE-MOTOR IGNITION 147 

."In all forms of gasoline internal-combustion engines, the most 
difficult and severest duty falls upon the spark-plug, which must 
resist 350 pounds pressure per square inch, must stand a high 
temperature (it is exposed to flame under pressure at a tempera- 
ture of 3,000), and in addition it must perfectly insulate a high- 
pressure electric current of from 10,000 to 25,000 volts. It is 
also exposed to deposits of carbon which tend to allow the spark 
to escape by providing a path for it to go where the combustible 
gas cannot get to it, thus causing misfires or total stoppage of 
motor. The spark-plug is thus seen to be the most important, 
part of the machine, and also the part which most needs to be 
thoroughly understood and carefully handled. 'Sta-Rite' plugs 
are designed to fulfil all of the requirements of severe conditions of 
service, and are also constructed so as to be readily taken apart for 
inspection, cleaning, repairs, or any other purpose. And when 
they fail to work properly it is always because of some easily reme- 
died fault which should be sought intelligently and removed. In 
case of failure to ignite at all, the first thing to inspect is your coil ; 
see that the vibrator works when circuit is on; next, remove wire 
from top of plug, hold it J of an inch from metal parts and observe if 
spark will jump the gap. It must be capable of jumping at least 
six times the space of gap between spark points inside, as the re- 
sistance of hot gas under pressure is much greater than free air. If 
spark is weak, a new battery or coil is required; but if this cannot 
be supplied at once, a plug having shorter spark gap may be made 
to work, or the one in hand may have gap shortened by turning 
bolt inside of porcelain (first removing cap and loosening nut), till 
best position is found. The best distance for most circumstances 
is ^ f an inch, but with weak battery better results may be secured 
by a shorter gap. While with strong spark, capable of jumping 
greater resistance, a more certain ignition is secured by having a 
somewhat wider gap, it all depends on the power of coil and battery 
what width is best, and you should never make changes unless sure 
that you have extra plugs with you, or are certain that you know 
what the result will be. If the spark is good, the plug should next 
be removed and inspected for carbon deposit, or cracks in insulation. 
Carbon deposit will not take place unless you are feeding too much 
oil, or burning more gasoline than can be completely consumed. If 



148 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



carbonized, the deposit may be washed out with gasoline or kero- 
sene and a small sliver of wood. If tube is cracked or broken, a 
new one must be inserted. If sparking end of plug appears all 
right, the next thing is to remove nuts and cap from top of plug, 
and see if it is wet or coated with carbon on inside. If wet, it must 
be wiped dry, and replaced; if black, it must be cleaned, and a new 
packing inserted inside of steel shell under shoulder of porcelain 
tube; or else the packing has been destroyed under head of bolt, 
and must be renewed, which may be done without removing por- 
celain from shell. If necessary to remove it, same is safely done by 
swinging entire plug in hand, and striking threaded end of bolt 
rather sharply against end of wooden box, hammer handle, or other 
surface which cannot injure threads. When reassembling plugs, 
care should be taken to replace porcelain tube in same position it 
formerly occupied, or else change packing for a new one. Other- 
wise a leak may result. The small nut inside of cap should have an 





Fig. 96. French ignition-plug. 



FIG. 97. Soot-proof sparking plug. 



asbestos packing or a spring washer under it to prevent coming 
loose. The bent washer on top of cap is intended to allow for ex- 
pansion of porcelain when heated, and should always be placed 
concave side down under check-nuts and drawn down till about 
half flattened out. If drawn down solid, porcelains are more apt 
to break, and the bolt head may be pulled off by expansion when 
hot." 

The ignition of the charge has undergone much change in the 
past five years in the various appliances and trials which have 
resulted in placing the electric jump-spark in the lead for relia- 
bility and certainty of action. The form of the plug containing 
the electrodes has undergone many changes in order to eliminate 
the short-circuit propensities of these simple devices by the car- 
bonizing of the insulating surfaces and to obtain adjustment to 
meet the abrading propensities of the electric spark. In Fig. 96 



EXPLOSIVE-MOTOR IGNITION 



149 



we give a section of an ignition-plug of French design much in use 
on automobile-motors. The plug and nut may be made of hard 
brass with an extension piece with an electrode of platinum; the 
spindle of copper with a fixed collar for adjustment and terminating 
in a platinum blunt-point electrode. The insulation is porcelain 
or of lava in two pieces with a mica disk between, thick enough to 
allow of closing the electrodes by splitting off thin slices from the 
mica disk. The lava insulator can now be obtained from the 
makers, the D. M. Steward Manufacturing Company, Chattanooga, 
Term. 

A soot-proof sparking plug of the Mezger type is shown in Fig. 
97 and consists of an annular projection on the end of the porce- 
lain insulator which extends the insulating surface and prevents 




FIG. 98. Double spark-plug. 



FIG. 99. The Splitdorf ignition-plu; 



short circuiting of the electric spark. These plugs are made by 
C. A. Mezger, 203 West Sixtieth Street, New York City. 

The double-break spark-plug of the Westinghouse Machine 
Company is a novelty in its line, which we illustrate in Fig. 98. 

By a special system of wiring and break-spark connections the 
double spark may be made simultaneous or successive, a most de- 
sirable feature in electric ignition. 

The Splitdorf ignition-plug shown in Fig. 99 has a high reputa- 
tion ; the insulation being of porcelain and mica, and the electrodes 
of iridium and platinum alloy, a guarantee of their lasting quality. 

A sparking plug with an extended insulation-cylinder with a 
crossed-wire electrode has been the subject of a recent patent, in 
which a double loop of two U-shaped platinum wires crossing each 
other at right angles at the sparking distance from the insulated 
electrode, is used in connection with the extended insulation-plug, 



150 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 




FIG. 100. Ignition-plug and valve 
position. 



and so placed that the inlet charge sweeps across the wires and 
keeps them cool enough to prevent premature firing. The plug 
and valve positions are shown in Fig. 100. 

In Fig. 101 is illustrated an ignition-plug, the design of Mr. 

Harry B. Maxwell, Rome, 
N. Y., in which the termi- 
nals are blunt and spherical, 
which produce a more brilliant 
spark than plugs with small 
or thin terminals. In this 
design it is noted that the 
lava or porcelain insulating 
tube extends a distance be- 
yond the iron plug that 
greatly increases the insu- 
lating surface and distance 
between the metallic parts of the plug. The extension-finger 
electrode may be made of steel or copper with a cap of nickel or 
platinum brazed on. The centre-rod electrode with a nickel or 
platinum cap may fit loosely in the insulating tube with the shoul- 
der packed with asbestos. Asbestos also makes a good and elastic 
packing for the shoulders of the lava or porcelain tube. The spring 
and nuts hold the central electrode firmly to its seat and allow for 
differential expansion. 

A novel igniter, the invention of Mr. Chas. E. Duryea, and called 
the "Exploder," is of a design to replace the jump-spark plug with 
an automatic make-and- 
break spark mechanism, 
furnishing a powerful 
single spark of low ten- 
sion. The spark is not 
a series of flashes like 
those from a jump-spark 
coil fitted with a vibra- 




Fig. 101. Maxwell ignition-plug. 



tor, but the entire force of a primary circuit is given in a single 
flash, always produced at a predetermined time that remains 
unaffected by the tone at which the vibrator is pitched. 

When the circuit is connected the exploder magnet instantly 



EXPLOSIVE-MOTOR IGNITION 



151 



closes the sparking circuit through the spark-coil, and when the 
circuit is broken the spark-coil circuit instantly breaks, discharging 
its full intensity, made even more intense by the discharge of the 
magnet. The result is a superior spark, with easy starting, great 
power, steady running, practically no misfire or jerking and strain- 
ing of the gears, chains, bearings, and other parts. 

Any suitable source of electricity may be used, but unless other- 
wise ordered, the exploders are wound for regular direct-current 
magneto. From the generator the electric current flows, when 
connected by the commutator, through binding post to coil of the 





FIG. 102. The exploder. 



FIG. 103. Section of exploder. 



magnet, finally grounding on the shell of the magnet and returning 
by way of the engine and the ground wire of the generator to com- 
plete the circuit. The magnet instantly attracts the armature and 
forces the reciprocating spark-pin firmly into contact with the 
adjustable sparking point, thus closing the sparker circuit. This 
permits a flow of current through the coil, thence to the binding 
post, and through the armature and sparking pin to the engine 
and ground wire of the generator. The resistance of the magnet 
winding is so great that but little current flows through it, which 
forces almost the entire output of the generator through the coil, 
thoroughly saturating it. When the magnet circuit is broken by 
the commutator the armature is released and flies back quickly 



152 GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 

under the action of its spring till it strikes the head of the sparking 
pin, still held hi contact by a light spiral spring, and knocks it out 
of contact with a velocity exceedingly great, due to the extreme 
lightness of the needle and the rapid movement of the armature. 

The entire strength of the current is available to close the con- 
tact, and since magnetic pull increases inversely as the square of the 
distance, the contact is always firm and sure, in spite of oil or soot. 
Once in contact, an infinitesimal amount of current suffices to hold 
the armature because of the short distance and the very great pull 
exerted by the magnet when once closed. This permits nearly all 
the current to saturate the coil, giving the largest spark possible, 
even with a weak current. The breaking of the magnet circuit 
throws all the current through the coil, charging it to the fullest as 
the magnet discharges, and in addition throwing into the coil the 
intense discharge impulse of the magnetic circuit, actually com- 
pounding the effect. 

The spark does not occur until the magnet circuit is broken at 
the commutator, and this magnet circuit does nothing except close 
and break the sparking circuit. This insures that the spark-coil is 
saturated as fully as the source of current will permit, instead of 
making a spark as soon as the magnet is strong enough to work 
the armature and before the coil has time to saturate. This device 
will work with a weak current or a strong one and give the greatest 
spark possible with either, and in these facts lie its merit. 



THE JUMP-SPARK COIL 

For a better understanding of the detail of construction of an 
induction-coil of suitable size for the ignition of the explosive 
charge of a gas, gasoline, or oil-engine, we therefore illustrate 
in Fig. 104 the details of such a coil without a vibrator, and in 
Fig. 105 the same coil with the vibrator. A coil of the size here 
given and detailed should give a full and hot spark for any or- 
dinary engine across a T V to -^-inch space between the elec- 
trodes. Its full-length spark should be equal to a jump of from 
to f of an inch between wire terminals. The iron core, H, H, 
is made up of annealed wire, No. 20 wire gauge, 6 inches long, as 
many pieces as can be pushed into a f-inch paper tube, 5f inches 



EXPLOSIVE-MOTOR IGNITION 



153 




long, made by wrapping paper on a f rod with shellac varnish be- 
tween the layers, say a half-dozen layers, and shellac the outside. 
Push on to each end of the paper tube a square wooden flange, 
\ inch thick, 4 inches diameter, even with the end of the paper tube 
and square with it. Fas- 
ten the wood ends strongly 
with shellac and shellac 
their entire surface. 

This will then make a 
spool 4f inches long for 
winding the coils. Bore a 
hole in one of the heads 
close to the paper tube to 
pass one end of the primary FlG " 104. -Jump-spark coil, without vibrator. 

coil through and another a little farther around to receive the 
other end. Wind on the spool two layers of No. 16 double 
cotton or silk-covered copper wire with the ends passed through 
the holes in the spool flange. Give the coil a coat of shellac 
varnish and dry. Then wrap the primary coil with three thick- 
nesses of paper with shellac varnish between each wrapping 
with a perfect closure at the flanges and over the exit wires of the 
primary. Dry and shellac the outside. 

The secondary coil may be made of 8 ounces of double silk- 
covered copper wire, No. 36 gauge; commencing by passing one 
end through the hole in the opposite flange from the primary ter- 
minals and winding closely 



but not tight, one layer, 
shellac and cover with two 
layers of paper, shellaced, 
and a third layer at each 
end to make a sure closure 
against a spark passing 
across the layers at the 
ends of the spool. Con- 
tinue this back and for- 




105. Jump-spark coil, with vibrator. 



ward method of winding for the whole amount of wire, covering 
each layer as the first, and terminate through a hole in spool flange 
at the same end as it commenced. This should not be a hurried 



154 GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 

job; give each layer time to dry. The perfection of the whole 
coil depends upon its thorough insulation, especially at the ends 
of the layers, where the difference in potential is greatest with a 
liability of sparking from layer to layer of the coil and the ruin 
of the work. 

Such a coil may be used without a vibrator, and referring to 
Fig. 104, in which the leading principles of construction are shown, 
P, P, M, M are the primary binding posts. The upper posts, P and 
P, are connected through the battery and switch. The lower posts, 
M and M, are connected through the breaker on the reducing gear 
from the crank-shaft represented at N, F, D, G. The upper post P, 
and the lower post M, are directly connected, making a complete 
primary circuit from the battery A, through the switch J and post 
P around the core and post M to the breaker at D, and through the 
lower post M and across by the upper post P to the battery. 
The condenser L is composed of strips of tin-foil separated by 
paraffined paper in series and connected at M M as a shunt 
across the contact-breaker for the purpose of absorbing an extra 
current induced in the primary coil by the breaking of the circuit, 
which would tend to prolong the magnetization of the core beyond 
the desired limit in a high-speed engine. 

The condenser may be made of a size to be enclosed in the 
hollow base upon which the coil is to be fixed, and made up of about 
71 sheets of plain uncalendered writing paper, say 5 by 8 inches, 
dipped in melted paraffine or varnished with shellac on each side; 
interleaved with 70 sheets of tin-foil, cut 4 by 7 inches, with an ear 
at one corner of each sheet to project beyond the paper sufficient 
to allow of the alternate sheets to be connected together on op- 
posite corners. The pile may then be clamped together with 2 
pieces of board well shellaced. The ears of each set of 35 sheets 
may then be pressed together and clamped for connecting to the 
binding posts M M. Condensers are not absolutely necessary 
and many jump-spark coils are in use without them. The theory 
is that the electro-magnetic force of self-induction in the primary, 
which is principally instrumental in causing the spark at break 
contact, will expend most of its energy in charging the condenser, 
causing the break-spark of the primary to be less and the current 
to become zero with greater rapidity. The practical effect of the 



EXPLOSIVE-MOTOR IGNITION 



155 




FIG. 106. The Splitdorf induction-coil case. 



condenser on the spark volume of the secondary is very great, or 
what is commonly called a fat spark. 

The vibrating coil (Fig. 105) is of the same general construction 
as described, with the addition of a spring vibrator shown at F G. 
The steel spring G F 
may be 1J inches in 
length and J inch in 
width, fastened to a 
post at F and fixed 
to a small armature of 
soft iron at G with a 
platinum or, what is 
better, an alloy of plati- 
num and iridium con- 
tact piece at E. D is 
a brass post with a platinuin-iridium-point adjusting screw, and 
connected to the breaker N and to the condenser K L, completing 
the primary circuit through the post F, the switch J, and the 
breaker B. 

The office of the vibrator is to give a rapid intermission of the 
primary current while the commutator bar C is in contact with the 
spring B. By this means the induced secondary current also be- 
comes intermittent and so secures a succession of sparks at the 

electrodes that insures a 
positive ignition. 

The complete induction- 
coil may then be enclosed 
in a box as shown in Fig. 
106, which illustrates a 
jump-spark ignition appa- 
ratus as made and sold by 
C. F. Splitdorf, 25 Vande- 
water Street, New York 
City, who also makes an 
up-to-date sparking plug 
and dynamo sparker. 
In Fig. 107 is illustrated the four-cylinder engine-dash or vibrat- 
ing coil, which consists of four vertical induction coils in a single 




FIG. 107. Four-cvlinder dash-coil. 



156 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



case. The coils are made by the Splitdorf Company, in one, two, 
three, and four each in a single case, with cut-out switches as re- 
quired. They operate at a pressure of from 4 to 5 volts, and need 
not over 4 dry-battery cells of 1J volts each for continued use on 
automobile-motors. The terminals projecting beneath the case 
are for the spark-plug connections. The post at the right connects 

with the battery, switch, and 
motor frame; the four others 
to the four-part commutator 
on the crank or cam-shaft. 



IRREGULAR TIME IGNITION FROM 
NON-SYNCHRONOUS ACTION OF 
THE VIBRATOR IN HIGH- 
SPEED MOTORS 

The length and stiffness of 
a vibrator spring 
on a jump-spark 
coil causes consider- 
able variation in its 
time beat and in 
this way, by vary- 
ing the time of ig- 
nition, may influ- 
ence a motor's run- 
ning not easily 
observed and this 
source of trouble 
may become a cause 
of anxious search 
in the action of very high-speed motors. A vibrator may have 
a possible variation of from 15 to 150 strokes per second, and 
the sparking time may therefore vary from -^ to T J-g- of a second. 
With a motor running 1,800 revolutions per minute, a revolu- 
tion is -^j- of a second, so that the strokes of the vibrator at 15, 30, 
45, 60, and 120, may coincide with the strokes of the motor and 
their synchronism will produce exact and uniform time sparks. 




.Spark Coil 
FIG. "108. Dynamo wiring. 



EXPLOSIVE-MOTOR IGNITION 157 

Any variation in the running time of the motor and the time vibra- 
tion of the armature will advance or retard the sparking moment; 
so that for the most uniform sparking effect under the varying 
speed of a motor, the highest effective speed of the vibrator will 
give the best results. 

EXPLOSIVE-MOTOR WIRING 

In Fig. 108 is illustrated the break-spark method of wiring for 
motor ignition from a dynamo either of the magneto type or the 
self -exciting field-wound type as before described, which will fur- 
nish sufficient current for a good spark at the low speed of 800 revo- 
lutions per minute; but for sure ignition at normal speed, the 



Batteries 





FIG. 109. Wiring. 



FIG. 110. Wiring. 



motor should run at a speed of about 1,200 revolutions per min- 
ute. The break connections are not shown. The usual current is 
at about 10 volts and 2 amperes. 

When an igniter is used in connection with an engine having 
two cylinders, there should be a separate spark-coil employed 
for each cylinder, unless a multicylinder timing device is used. 

In Fig. 109 are shown the wiring and ignition connections 
for gas and gasoline- engines, showing battery cut-off switch . of 
double-throw type, location of spark-coil, and current-breaker 
on engine. If a jump-spark igniter is used, an induction-coil 
should be substituted for the spark-coil. 

In Fig 110 are shown an automatic switch and ignition con- 
nections for gas and gasoline-engines, a one-point switch to cut 
out the battery and an automatic switch so arranged that failure of 



158 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



the dynamo-igniter current turns on the battery by release of the 
armature of the automatic switch. On restoring the dynamo cur- 
rent, the automatic switch cuts out the battery. 




i 

FIG. 111. Jump-spark ignition wiring, crank-shaft breaker. German type. 

Fig. Ill shows the direct connection of an induction-coil and its 
battery with its crank-shaft breaker. German type. 




IGNITER PLUG 



WIRING FOR A SPARK-COIL 

The manner in which wires are connected has considerable 
to do with the successful operation of an explosive motor, par- 
ticularly when a magneto is used. It is an easy matter to wire a 

battery and magneto, and 
yet successful electricians 
have been puzzled for the 
moment over the matter. 
Whether a magneto or only 
a .battery is used, the wire 
from the spark-plug on the 
motor should be connected 
to the outer winding of wire 
in the spark-coil. In wiring 
a magneto (Fig. 112), wire 
1 is from the negative pole 
i of the batterv to the bind- 

}. 112. Wiring; combined battery and J 

dynamo. ing post on the side of the 



EXPLOSIVE-MOTOR IGNITION 



159 



motor; wire 2 is from the positive or zinc pole of the battery 
to the left side of the double switch; wire 3 is from the centre 
post on the switch to the 
inner winding of the spark- 
coil; wire 4 is from the 
right pole of the switch to 
one post on the magneto; 
wire 5 is from the other 
post on the magneto to 
the binding post on the 
side of the motor; and wire 
6 is from the spark-plug 
on top of the motor to the 
outer winding of the coil, 
which is easily determined. 

In setting a magneto care should be taken to have the shaft 
of the magneto as nearly parallel to the engine-shaft as possible, 
so that the armature may work without binding and heating. 
The friction- wheel of the magneto should be set against the 
fly-wheel of the motor sufficiently to permit it to be turned 




113. Wiring for battery and spark-coil. 




GROUND WIRE 

FIG. 114. Jump-spark from battery. 



readily, but at the same time not so close as to prevent it from 
running easily. 

Where the battery alone is used diagram (Fig. 113) may be fol- 



160 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



lowed, care being used to see that the plug on the motor is con- 
nected with the outer winding of the spark-coil. 



WIRING FOR JUMP-SPARK 

In Fig. 114 are shown the wiring connections of a four-cell bat- 
tery, switch, and vibrating induction-coil to the shaft-break and 
spark-plug of a two-cycle vehicle motor. 

In Fig. 115 are shown the wiring connections of a combined 
dynamo, battery, and vibrating induction-coil to the shaft-break 
and spark-plug of a two-cycle vehicle motor. 




GROUND WIRE 



FIG. 115. Jump-spark from dynamo and battery. 

These vibrating induction-coils are made by the National Coil 
Company, Lansing, Mich. 



MULTIPLE-SPARK TIMER 

In Fig. 116 are shown a plan and section of a jump-spark timer 
for four cylinders. 

These timers are made by the Pittsfield Spark Coil Company, 
Pittsfield, Mass., for 1, 2, 3, and 4 cylinders. 

The working parts are of steel, the arms being solid steel with 
coiled springs in the pivot ends which hold the rollers on the hard- 
ened steel cam. The cam is pinned by a steel pin to the secondary 



EXPLOSIVE-MOTOR IGNITION 



161 



shaft of the engine. The contact is made by the cam lifting each 
arm in turn and engaging the contact surfaces with a slight sliding 
motion; the contact points are held firmly together by springs until 
the cam passes and the contact is broken. By means of the slight 




FIG. 116. The multi-cylinder timer. 

sliding motion the contact surfaces are cleaned at each impulse 
so neither oil, dirt, nor heavy grease will prevent a perfect and 
complete low-resistance circuit between the coil and batteries 
during the time of impulse. 



CHAPTER XIII 

CYLINDER LUBRICATORS AND MUFFLERS 

THE lubrication of cylinders of explosive motors is a matter of 
great importance, as the intensely hot gases in immediate contact 
with the lubricating oil, although the oil is in contact with a com- 
paratively cool metallic surface, have an evaporative effect, tending 





FIG. 117. The mechanical lubricator. 
Crossley. 



FIG. 118. The Robey oil-feeder, 
section. 



to thicken the oil into a gummy lining on the surface of the cylinder. 
To avoid this and keep a perfect lubrication, an oil that is adapted 
to this severe heat trial should be used and fed to the cylinder walls 
and piston in constant flow, and not too much or too little, but just 
enough so that the oil cannot be pushed into the combustion cham- 
ber in excess, so as to be blown through the exhaust-valve to clog 
the passages with oily soot. 
162 



CYLINDER LUBRICATORS AND MUFFLERS 



163 



The sight-feed and capillary drop-oil feeders have been per- 
fected to such an extent in the United States that they are almost 
in universal use. Yet on some engines with revolving valve-cam 
shafts, the facility for obtaining easily the motion for a mechanical 
lubricator has kept this form in use on many engines. 

In Fig. 117 is illustrated a mechanical lubricator used on the 
Crossley engines in England, and with some variations on other 
European and American engines. A small belt from the valve- 
cam shaft to the pulley A 
gives the required motion .to 
the spindle and crank C C, to 
which is loosely attached a 
wire D, that dips into the oil 
and carries a minute portion 
to the wiper E, from which the 
oil drops into the passage to 
the cylinder. 

In Figs. 118 and 119 are 
shown a section and plan of 
a lubricator used on the Robey 
engines, which is an improve- 
ment over the previous one, in that it has a small receptacle 
above the level of the main oil cistern, which is fed by a re- 
volving shaft and crank arm with drop wire reaching to the bottom 
of the cistern and wiping the oil on a fixed wiper over the recep- 
tacle, from which a second crank arm and drop wire lifts the oil 
to the wiper that feeds the passage to the cylinder. By this ar- 
rangement the oil for the cylinder is drawn from a fixed level, and 
the feed is therefore perfectly uniform at any level of the oil in 
the cistern. 

Strict attention should be given to the quality of the oil used 
in the cylinder. Such oil is now made and sold as gas-engine cylin- 
der oil of a less density and viscosity than the ordinary cylinder oil, 
and more fluid, so that it flows readily over the surface of the piston. 
Such oil does not readily gum in the cylinder and on the piston. It 
evaporates more readily than heavy oil and in a measure mixes with 
the explosive charge, and is burned and discharged with the gases of 
the exhaust, thus avoiding the sooty oil that lodges in the muffler 




FIG. 119. The Robey oil-feeder, plan. 



164 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 




and exhaust-pipe from the heavier oils. A very small quantity of 
finely pulverized graphite, used with this oil occasionally, gives good 

results as a cylinder lubricant and 
imparts a smooth and glossy surface 
to both cylinder and piston. For 
all other parts of the engine the best 
engine oil is none too good. The 
poorer grades of machinery oil are 
not economical at their price. 

The ojl feed to the main journals 
of a motor is of importance as to its 
constancy, and has suggested some 
ingenious devices for this purpose in 
the form of chain belts and rings 

running; over the journals and dipping 
FIG. 120. The constant oil-feed. 

into an oil bath. In Fig. 120 we il- 
lustrate the ring feed as used on the Mietz and Weiss and other 
oil-engines. A cavity at the outer end of the journal box returns 
the excess of oil to the oil-well, as shown in the illustration. 

THE GAS BAG 

One of the sources of annoyance in operating a gas-engine comes 
from defective construction of the gas bag. Many times it is either 
too small or made of material that is soon decomposed by the acid 
constituents of the gas 
as now made, when the 
wrinkling of the bag 
at the tube connections 
causes a rupture that 
is not repairable. We 
illustrate in Fig. 121 a 
newly designed gas bag 
in which the former 
troubles are avoided by 
reenforcing the entrance 
and exit-tube connection with flanges of rubber, so extended as to 
prevent buckling, and with an enlarged capacity by side gussets, 
so that the action of the bag has great freedom from the jerky 




FIG. 121. The improved gas bag. 



CYLINDER LUBRICATORS AND MUFFLERS 165 

action of high-speed motors. They are made of a high-grade and 
flexible rubber that resists the injurious effects of gas, and sold by 
Montgomery Brothers, 48 North Front Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

MUFFLERS FOR EXPLOSIVE MOTORS 

The method of muffling the sound of the exhaust, as well as 
also the sound or clack of the valves, was a puzzling problem to the 
early builders of gas-engines. The matter has finally sifted down to 
a plain cast-iron box of from 1 to 3 cubic feet capacity, set near 
the engine, and into which the exhaust-pipe is connected, and con- 
tinued by a separate connection to the outside of a building. 

Connection of the exhaust with a chimney should not be made 
under any circumstances, as there are unknown elements of ex- 
plosion liable to be accumulated in the line of the exhaust that 
might do damage to a chimney; and for the same reason the muffler- 
box should be made strong enough for a pressure equal to the ex- 
plosive power of the gas and air mixture, or say 175 pounds per 
square inch. This insures safety from any explosion that may 
accidentally occur in the exhaust by missed explosions in the cylin- 
der or otherwise. 

The muffler-pot is also a water-catch, in which part of the water- 
vapor formed by the union of the hydrogen and oxygen is con- 
densed. It should have a draw-off cock a few inches above the 
bottom, so that the muffler may always have a little water in the 
bottom, the water having been found to have a deadening effect on 
the exhaust. 

A second muffler-pot has been found to still further deaden the 
exhaust, and is preferable to throttling the exhaust by mufflers 
with perforated diaphragms, as used on vehicles and boats. 

In all cases an enlargement of the exhaust-pipe from the muf- 
fler to the roof by one or two sizes larger than the engine exhaust, 
will modify the intensity of the exhaust at the roof, and often 
abate a nuisance. 

In Fig. 122 is shown a muffler easily made from ordinary gas- 
pipe and fittings, consisting of a perforated exhaust-nozzle within 
an open-end pipe of larger size. Its construction is shown in the cut. 

The outside or shell of all mufflers should be felted with asbes- 
tos to deaden the vibration and sound. 



166 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



Fig. 123 shows a novel muffler of the Thompson type, which has 
a cylindrical chamber with a hooded spreading inlet-pipe; and 

a deflector on the 
exit pipe, by which 
the exhaust puffs are 
expanded in the cy- 
linder and issue in 
nearly constant 



g|S 


\\\}vTT 






;^<^2BVfcV 


i 


o 


O oo oo 


oo 


00 






o o o o 








m 











FIG. 122. Gas-pipe muffler. 



a 

stream. 

Other types of mufflers have strong wire-gauze cylinders within 
the drum so arranged as to break the impact and disperse the ex- 
haust before it leaves the outer shell. 

Mufflers for automobiles and launches have been the subject of 
much designing in order to have them meet the requirement 
of almost absolute silence, so much to be desired. The method 
of perforated tubes with wire-cloth casings of large area for cutting 
the exhaust into infinitesimal streams, and of so large an area that 
the back-pressure may be reduced to an imperceptible amount, 
seems to be in the right direction for vehicles, and an extension 
of the terminal under water at the stern of launches with a small 
vent above water has given good results. The vent prevents 
water drawing back to the muffler when the 
motor stops. For large stationary motors a 
variety of designs for the internal space of a 
muffler-box have been made, all seeming to tend 
to obtain the desired conditions. A series of per- 
forated plates, both flat and circular; small stones 
filling the muffler-box, through which the exhaust 
passes; a spiral case within the muffler-box; in 
fact, almost any device which tends to -stop the 
sudden impact of the exhaust and its expansion are 
the means that modify and in a measure prevent 
the noisy propensities of the explosive motor. 




FTG. 123. 
Thompson muffler. 



To prevent nuisance to neighbors by open-air exhaust, the turn- 
ing down of the exhaust-pipe into a barrel or second muffler-pot 
with a few inches of water, has given satisfaction in many cases. 
It prevents the spread of oil-vapor into neighboring windows. 



CHAPTER XIV 

CONSTRUCTION DETAILS AND PARTS OF THE EXPLOSIVE MOTOR 

THE design of an explosive motor should start from some as- 
signed dimension of the cylinder, based upon the assumed num- 
ber of revolutions, its required horse-power, and the quality of the 
fuel to be used. Compression is also a factor to be considered 
in a nice adjustment of the details for the required power. In 
Chapter X we have given a few samples of practice among builders 
of engines as to size, power, and speed, and a table of sizes of the 
essential parts for a clearance of 33 per cent, and compression of 
50 to 60 pounds per square inch. The table represents the actual 
or brake horse-power, and the sizes of the cylinders and speed are 
a mean, as in ordinary practice for stationary, engines. High- 
speed motors are a specialty and require some experience for suc- 
cessful designing. 

The diameter and stroke of a proposed design must be derived 
from some assumed mean pressure and speed for the relative condi- 
tions of impulse for either of the cycles contemplated. The factors 
of fuel power and compression are also essential elements of design 
in construction that need primary consideration. From these data 
the indicated horse-power may be computed and the actual or brake 
horse-power obtained from some known mechanical efficiency of this 
class of motors. 

From the many sectional and detailed illustrations throughout 
this work, the general constructive design of the various models 
of the two types of motors of the horizontal and vertical styles, and 
in the stationary and marine class, are sufficiently shown as a guide 
for the draughtsman and amateur of constructive ability; and to- 
gether with the computed sizes of parts formulated, should enable 
any draughtsman of ordinary experience to make a creditable de- 
sign of an explosive motor. 

In Fig. 124 is shown the German method of making the cylinder 

167 



168 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



and water-jacket in separate castings; the jacket being made an 
integral part of the bed-frame and bored with aligned bearings to 




FIG. 124. The cylinder. 



FIG. 125. Gasket-joint. 





FIG. 126. Plain joint. 



FIG. 127. Stuffing-box joint. 



fit their counterparts on the cylinder. The two designs for bolting 
the cylinder and water-jacketed head separately to the jacket are 
shown in Figs. 125 and 126. In one a groove is made to hold 
a metallic packing, while the other may be a ground-joint or 

plain gasket. 

In Fig. 127 are given 
the details of the stuffing- 
box. 

By this arrangement 
the cylinder is allowed a 
movement due to differ- 
ence of temperature be- 
tween the cylinder and 
jacket, and yet makes a 
rigid connection between 
the cylinder and bed- 
frame through the jacket. 
FIG. 128. The long piston. In Fig. 128 is illus- 




DETAILS AND PARTS OF THE EXPLOSIVE MOTOR 169 

trated a section of a piston of German type, nearly two and a 
quarter times its diameter in length, showing the German practice 
in regard to the number of rings and their disposition. 




FIG. 129. Medium-length piston and oiling device. 

In Fig. 129 is given another piston of twice its diameter in 
length, and in Fig. 132 a bushed piston of one and a half times 
its diameter in length, one and a half diameters for the length of 
the piston being the average of American practice. 

The length of the cylinder must include the assumed length for 
clearance, less an allowance for protrusion of the piston at the end 
of the outward stroke, which may be studied from an examination 
of many sectional views of engine details in the following pages of 
this work. 




FIG. 130. Section of short piston. 

The short piston in Fig. 130 is nearly the proportion in general 
use in the United States, with the number of rings varying with 
different builders. 



170 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



REPLACING A PISTON 

The following plan has been suggested by Mr. E. W. Roberts 
for easily entering a piston and rings into a cylinder : Take half a 

dozen or more strips or bands 
(S, S, Fig. 131), the thick- 
ness of which is equal to one- 
half the 
diameter 




difference in the 
between the bore 
of the cylinder and that of 
the counterbore. Slip the 
piston in part way and then 



FIG. 131. Replacing a piston. 

put in the strips. Bend the strips outward, as shown in the 
sketch, forming a tapered guide which will gradually close the 
rings as the piston is pushed in. In case there is a port leading 
into the counterbore these strips will also prevent the rings from 
jumping into the port. Almost any machinist will realize that this 
is a very sure and efficient method, and it does not shove the edge of 
the rings against the end of the counterbore, which is quite often 
an abrupt shoulder and likely to require much pressure to push the 
rings past the shoulder of the counterbore. 

The number of piston-rings varies with different builders, the 
Germans using the larger number. For small engines, three rings 




FIG. 132. Bushed piston and oiling device. 

are sufficient, while four are used on medium-sized pistons, with 
sometimes an extra ring toward the open end of the piston. 

The connecting rod should always have an adjustable box at 
the crank end and in medium and large engines also at the 



DETAILS AND PARTS OF THE EXPLOSIVE MOTOR 171 

piston end. Very small engines need only have a solid eye at the 
piston end, bushed or not as judged best. 






FIG. 133. Bushed piston-rod. 

In Fig. 133 are shown the details of a bushed piston-rod much 
in use, and in Fig. 134 a box-rod with a strap take-up and keys 
for the piston end. 




FIG. 134. Strap take-up piston-rod. 

A novelty in the make-up of large vertical motors has been 
adopted by Struther, Wells & Company, Warren, Pa., in their 




FIG. 135. The two-part connecting rod. 



" Warren Motor." The connecting rods are made in two parts, as 
shown in Fig. 135, joined by a heavy bolted flange near the centre 



172 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



of the rod, which allows the piston to be taken down through the 
bottom of the cylinder for inspection and repairs without disturbing 




FIG. 136. Piston-pin oil-feed. 



FIG. 137. The crank oiling device. 



the cylinder-head and valve gear, which is attached to the cylinder- 
head. 

In Fig. 136 is shown the piston-pin oiling device used on the 
engines of the Capital Engine Company, Indianapolis, Ind. 

A small tube B, extending from the oil-cup C, and attached to 




FIG. 138. The base frame. 



the oil-port in the piston, conveys the oil to a recess in the connect- 
ing-rod box at D. The recess is long enough to receive the oil in all 



DETAILS AND PARTS OF THE EXPLOSIVE MOTOR 173 




FIG. 139. German shaft and bearings. 

positions of the connecting rod. The sight-feed oil-cup at 0, feed- 
ing both the piston and its pin. 

Fig. 137 details the balanced crank-shaft, with a novel method 
lor oiling the crank-pin, con- 
sisting of a disk with a cavity 
to receive the oil which is 
spread to the outer side by 
the centrifugal force of revo- 
lution and through the drilled 
passages to the crank-pin 
box. 

The proportions are to a 

scale in parts of the crank- FlG ' I 4 0--Fastenings of the crank 

counter-balance. 

pin diameter. 

The base frame as usually made with flange-bolted cylinders is 
shown in Fig. 138, but its design is illustrated, with many varia- 
















-A 




r- 


A 




If 




FIG. 141. Counter-balanced crank, bolts or stud-bolts and nuts for each weight. 



174 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



tions to suit special conditions, in the general views in the fol- 
lowing pages. 

In Fig. 139 is delineated the crank-shaft of the larger German 

motors with an outboard- 
bearing and enlarged shaft 
diameter for the safer key- 
ing of the fly-wheel. It 
will be seen that the left- 
hand end of the shaft has 
its size reduced to accom- 
modate the desired small 
size of the spiral gear. All 
parts of this cut are made 
to a scale derived from the 
diameter of the main jour- 
nal as a unit. 

It will be noticed that 
the shoulders of the jour- 
nals are lipped in order to 
divert the excess of oil into the ring oil-reservoirs, 

In Fig. 140 is shown the method of fastening the counterbalance 
to the crank by a short stud-bolt, with the nut in a mortise in the 
side of the counterbalance. The centrifugal strain is countered by 
the diagonal keys in the side-bearing. 

Fig. 141 shows the ordinary method of fastening the counter- 




FIG. 142. Fly-wheel of approved design. 




FIG. 143. The plain single crank. 

balance weights to the crank : a close fit and two strong tap-bolts 
or stud-bolts and nuts for each weight, 

In Fig. 142 is shown the design of a fly-wheel of approved form. 

The curved side of the spokes should turn forward as shown by 



DETAILS AND PARTS OF THE EXPLOSIVE MOTOR 175 

the arrows, which produces compression of the spokes at the mo- 
ment of impulse and thus avoids possibility of fracture. 

This form is also safest in casting, as it avoids fracture by 
shrinkage. The models of straight-arm fly-wheels are illustrated 
further on ; for fly-wheel dimensions see Chapter X. 




FIG. 144. Westinghouse three-throw crank. 

In Fig. 143 is shown the model of the plain single-crank shaft in 
general use. 

In Fig. 144 is shown the three-throw crank-shaft of the West- 
inghouse Machine Company, with their method of balancing by 
screwing the balance-blocks to the crank-arms. 

In Fig. 145 are represented a German type and horizontal hous- 
ings, with the method of keying the crank-counterweight in ad- 
dition to the usual stud-bolts and nuts. 




FIG. 145. Crank-shaft and housings. 

In Fig. 146 are llustrated a longitudinal and a cross section 
of a German journal-bearing with a double-ring self-oiler. 

The cuts represent nearly the exact proportions, using the 
journal-shaft diameter as a unit. 



176 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



In Fig. 147 is the sectional design of a single-ring oiling device 
of German design. 

The pillow-block of an explosive motor is deserving of special 




FIG. 146. Horizontal self-oiling journal-box. 

care in its design, in order to withstand the shock of explosion with- 
out injury to itself or the crank-shaft. A perfect journal fit will 

often save the breaking 
of a crank. 

In Fig. 148 is de- 
tailed a half-section of 
a main journal-box of 
approved design. The 
composition box has a 
stop-rib to keep it from 
turning. The length 
of the journal- bear ing 
should be twice the di- 
ameter of the crank- 
pin. 

The proportions in 
the cut are a fair rep- 
resentation with the 
journal-shaft diameter 
as a unit. Also see 
illustrations of motor 

FIG. 147. Single-ring self-oiling journal-box. details further on. 




DETAILS AND PARTS OF THE EXPLOSIVE MOTOR 177 

We illustrate both the horizontal and angular style of journal- 
box housings, as both are in general use. It is claimed that the 
angular housing is the least complex and most reliable for strength 
and wear to sustain the one-direction shock of explosion. 

One of the fine points in fitting the main journal-boxes for 
perfect work is to give the ends a perfect bearing, so that they 
may not sag at the inner end by the explosive blows and elas- 
ticity of the shaft, and thus extend the length of the shaft be- 
tween its actual bear- 
ings ; this condition 
being too often neg- 
lected, resulting in 
the mystery of a 
broken shaft. 

Boring the hous- 
ings and turning the 
bored boxes on the 
outside with keys to 
hold them in place 
is probably the best 
practice. 

There is a differ- 




FIG. 148. Main journal-bearing. 



ence of opinion among designers and builders of explosive motors 
in regard to the kind of metal or alloys for the journal-boxes, 
each advocating some special composition as the best: phosphor 
bronze, Tobin bronze, aluminum bronze, tin-copper bronze, and 
Babbitt metal being in use. For low-compression motors the 
phosphor and Tobin bronzes give good results. Babbitt metal is 
a cheap substitute in fitting ; but the hard alloy is weak and 
liable to crack under the heavy blows of explosion, and the soft 
alloys are still weaker and liable to spread. For high-compression 
motors the ten per cent, alloy of aluminum and copper (aluminum 
bronze) and those of tin and copper are tough and resisting, 
wearing well. Probably there is nothing better than aluminum 
bronze for hard work. 



CHAPTER XV 

EXPLOSIVE-MOTOR DIMENSIONS 

THE diameter of the cylinder of an explosive motor and its ini- 
tial pressure are the safest bases from which to compute the di- 
mensions of all the parts subject to strain by the action of the motor. 

As compression of the explosive charge has a greatly controlling 
influence on the initial explosive pressure, it should be made an ex- 
ponent in every formula for strength against the strains of ex- 
plosive pressure. 

In a cylinder, as well as in other parts, the dimensions given in 
the formulas are for finished sizes; for cylinders, ample allowance 
should be made in the casting for boring. 

Any simple proportion of diameter to thickness of cylinder wall, 
while giving the relative strain on different-sized cylinders, does not 
satisfy the practical condition of manufacture; which, to be safe and 
practicable on a basis of five times the extreme pressure, would be 
practically too thin for small cylinders and too thick for the larger 
size. 

The tendency of constructive design at the present time is 
toward economy of material in general terms and the special re- 
quirement of lightness for marine and automobile service. 

The strains on the various parts of a motor most to be consid- 
ered are derived from the explosive moment, which are the pres- 
sures and strains due to the most intense part of the motor's work. 

The ultimate or breaking resistance of the material of construc- 
tion of the quality suitable for such work, is for cast iron suitable for 
cylinders from 18,000 to 20,000 pounds per square inch, for which 
one-sixth, 3,000 pounds, is a safe factor or margin for computing 
the thickness of cylinder walls subject to an extreme pressure of 500 
pounds per square inch. Then for obtaining the least safe thick- 
ness of cylinder wall, under the consideration of strength alone, the 
safe-resisting thickness will be derived from the extreme or maximum 
178 



EXPLOSIVE-MOTOR DIMENSIONS 179 

pressure in pounds per square inch multiplied by one-half the dia- 
meter of the cylinder in inches. 

D stress 

PX~r = stress, and ; -r = thickness in inches or 

2 factor of strength 

decimals. 

For example, a 10-inch cylinder and maximum pressure of 500 

pounds with a safe factor of 3,000 pounds. 500 X~^ = 2,500, and 

2 5Q0 

^ = .833 inch thick, to which should be added enough to meet 
o,UUU 

the contingencies of unequal thickness in setting the core and for 
boring in the making of the pattern. 

The next vital point from which trouble may arise, is the com- 
pression-strain on the piston-rod, boxes, pin, and crank-shaft at the 
moment of explosion. 

The tortional strain on the crank-shaft does not reach its maxi- 
mum effect until the piston pressure has fallen to one-half the ini- 
tial pressure, and on this only depends the diameter of the main 
journals to resist torsion due to the fly-wheel resistance. The di- 
mensions of these parts have been developed both theoretically and 
by practice, from which these formulas have been derived. 

The author finds that the square root of the diameter in inches, 

divided by 5, r , gives a much more satisfactory thickness of 
o 

cylinder wall for low compression, say 40 pounds and under. For 
higher compression, say up to 100 pounds, a compression exponent 
should be added to the above formula, for which we propose 

4/ D / |/ D cqmpA 

- JL z 4 I 7- X OKr f I as giving a satisfactory safe thickness for 
o \ o ^ou j 

high- compression cylinder walls at the clearance end of the cylin- 
der. The crank end may be made thinner when the cylinder is 
supported by the jacket casting, or should have its thickness 
uniform when it is to be bolted to the frame with a flange. 

By this formula a low-compression 4-inch cylinder wall may be 
.4 inches thick, and for high compression .56 inches. This grada- 
tion will give a 10-inch cylinder .63-inch and .87-inch wall, and for a 



180 GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 

16-inch cylinder .89 and 1.27 inches respectively for low and high 
compression. 

For the water space, the thickness is a matter of expertness in 
making cores that will stand the strain of moulding and casting; 
but on general principles the thickness of the water space should 
equal the thickness of the cylinder wall; except when the jacket is 
made in a separate piece, when the water space may be made to suit 
the convenience of construction. 

The thickness of the water-jacket wall with a cored water space 
may be one-half the thickness of the cylinder wall, depending upon 
the method of fastening the cylinder to the bed-frame; whether 
flanged on the head or with side-flanges on the jacket. 

These are matters of study, shown in the detail illustrations 
throughout this work. 

The sizes of valve-aperture are a ratio of the volume and piston 
speed for the best effect and we find that the square root of the 
cylinder diameter in inches, multiplied by the piston speed in feet 

4/D S 
per minute, the product divided by 600 Ann = d, gives a very 



satisfactory size for the inlet-valve aperture. The exhaust-valve 
should be one-fifth larger in diameter. This is suitable for motors 
at ordinary speeds, to have the valves fitted in the head of the 
cylinder; but for high-speed motors, up to 1,000 or more revo- 
lutions per minute, side-chambers may be made available for 
larger valves. 

The form of valve seats, their angle and width, with the va- 
riations in practice, are fully shown by the detailed illustrations 
throughout this work, and in the section on valves and their design. 

The dimension design of pistons varies considerably in European 
and American practice; but on general principles lightness, with due 
regard to resistance to the impact of explosion on the piston-head, 
and to lessen the balancing weight, is most desirable. 

For pistons of 8 inches diameter and under, there need be no 
bracing ribs at the back of the head, while for larger sizes the ribs 
strengthen a comparatively thin head and increase the cooling 
effect from air circulation within the piston. For the cylindrical 
shells of all sizes up to 20 inches diameter, the thickness of the metal 
under the ring-grooves and beyond the pin-bosses may conform to 



EXPLOSIVE-MOTOR DIMENSIONS 181 



the formula for shell- thickness and ~~ for the heads. The 

pin-bosses should have a proportion for the strain on the forward 
side with a sub-boss for the set-screws. The number of rings varies 
somewhat among builders of motors; but good practice seems to 
indicate three rings on pistons up to 6 inches diameter and four 
to five on the larger diameters. A supplementary ring near the 
open end of the piston is not recommended as of any value. 

The bearing length of piston-pins varies somewhat among build- 
ers in Europe and the United States from 1 j to twice their diameter. 
One and a half diameters for the bearing length is a good propor- 
tion, and for this proportion the formula for the diameter may be 

I/ D X 1 - n makes a fair ratio for different cylinder-diameters in 
lou 

inches to meet the difference in extreme explosive pressures due to 
difference in compression. 

The length of the connecting rod of an explosive motor varies 
from two to three times the length of the stroke; the longer rods 
being better adapted to the horizontal model. 

The diameter of a round connecting rod should be at its largest 
part a slight swell from the crank end for one-third its length and 
with a gradual taper to the piston end, to four-fifths of the largest 

diameter. For the largest diameter the formula ~ X \ / - ^E* ~ ' 

^ V 75 

gives a safe size for explosive pressure. 

The crank-shaft requires much consideration from the great 
strain that it sustains at the moment of explosion, when the shaft 
and crank-pin are on the centre line and at that moment subject to 
the greatest strain. The strain is at first a bending one, changing 
to a tortional one as the crank angle increases. The basis of a for- 
mula is from the cube root of the square of the diameter multiplied 
by the compression and their product divided by 100 gives good 
proportions for steel shafts with strong fuel-pressure in inches of 

diameter. D = diameter of Cylinder. VY - 

V J-UU 

The journals should be twice their diameter in length and the 
diameter of the crank-pin should be from 12 to 15 per cent, larger 



182 GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 

than the main journals for equivalent strength to resist the initial 
blow of explosion. The width of the crank-arm should be 1.33 
times the diameter of the crank-pin, and its thickness .7 the crank- 
pin diameter. 

The form of the frame or engine-base is so varied among builders 
that we can only advise following the designs illustrated throughout 
this work, with a main view to a safe margin of strength due to the 
assumed pressures on the piston in the top member of the frame. 
The other parts to conform to lightness and constructive effect. 

The method of counterbalancing the reciprocal and revolving 
parts of a motor, that contribute to its vibration is still a mooted 
point among designers of motor-motion, without arriving at a 
possible balance system for both motions. 

As these conditions of reciprocating combined with circular 
motion cannot be made to agree, a mean equalization of the two 
forces seems the only possible solution. 

The following formula for the weight of a counterbalance of the 
form in Fig. 141, bolted to the crank, is an approximation for equal- 

p_i_r T> 

izing the reciprocating and revolving parts ^~X = W, in 

z r 

which P= weight of piston and rod; C, weight of crank and J of 
rod, crank-end weight; R, radius of crank in inches; r, radius of 
centre of gravity of counterweight. 

The fly-wheel of an explosive motor is a matter of much consid- 
eration in regard to its weight and diameter for the many conditions 
for its application to the speed-control of the motor-impulse. On 
general principles, a four-cycle motor requires more fly-wheel con- 
trol than the two-cycle type. A single cylinder of either type 
more than motors of two, three, or four cylinders. 

Again, slow-speed motors of any type or number of cylinders 
require more fly-wheel control than high-speed motors. A high- 
compression motor more than one of low compression; so that the 
problem becomes a complex one in order to exactly meet every 
condition of motor service for stationary, marine, and vehicle pro- 
pulsion. 

For stationary power, a fly-wheel diameter of four times the 
stroke of the piston is the usual practice. For marine and automo- 
bile service the fly-wheel diameter should be much smaller to meet 



EXPLOSIVE-MOTOR DIMENSIONS 183 

the conditions of boat and vehicle construction with their weight 
increased to the motor requirement. 

T TT T> 

The formula ! : 77 X 34,000 gives a good average weight of 

the fly-wheel rim for diameters of four times the piston-stroke. 

The diameter of a fly-wheel hub should be 2J times the diameter 
of the shaft; the spoke-web, 3J times shaft diameter. The spokes 
should taper slightly from web to rim, and each have a mean area of 
the shaft area at the web. A study of details illustrated in this 
work will suggest the best forms of rims and other parts from the 
practice of builders. 

WORM-GEAR 

The reducing gear of the worm-gear type may be made an exact 
relation for difference of speed, which for the four cycle explosive- 
motor valve gear should be two revolutions of 
the crank-shaft to one revolution of the valve- 
shaft. As the relative pitch diameters of the 
gears cannot always be made the same, some 
fixed relative diameter must be made and the 
spiral angle of their teeth cut to meet the 
required speed relation; or with a fixed angle 
of the teeth, the pitch diameters must be made 
to meet the required speed relation. Thus if 
the spiral angles of two matched gears are FIG. 149. Theworm- 
the same the velocity ratio will be inversely 
as the pitch diameters; but if the spiral angles are not equal, 
as in the usual gas-engine gears, the number of teeth per inch of 
pitch diameter will vary as the cosine of their angles. In any 
case the velocity ratio will depend upon the number of teeth and 
their spiral angle, as expressed in the following proportion : v, the 
velocity of the small gear, is to V, the velocity of the large gear, 
as D ; the pitch diameter of the larger, multiplied by the cosine 
of its spiral angle, is to d, the pitch diameter of the smaller, mul- 
tiplied by the cosine of its spiral angle. 

Then, for example, a shaft spiral gear of twice the pitch diam- 
eter of the cam-shaft gear and running at twice its speed, their rel- 




184 GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 

ative teeth spiral angles will be 2 X 2 = 4, and for the proper 

oomTiP* 

meshing of their teeth, requires that any that will equal its 

sine, will represent the proper angle of the teeth of the driving gear 
with the plane of its motion; while the angle of the driven gear- 
teeth will be the cosine of the plane of motion of the driven gear. 
By comparison of sines and cosines as tabulated, we find that a 

cosine 

is equal to the sine of 14 2', and the cosine 75 58', which 

represents the relative angles of the teeth of the driver and driven 
gear with their planes of motion in the above case. 

For spiral gears of equal diameter for velocities of 2 to 1 to 
match, with the shafts at right angles, the engine- 
shaft gear should have the lesser angle and the 
gear on the reducing or secondary shaft should 
have the greater angle as referred to their planes 
of motion respectively. The cosines of these 
angles must bear the same relation to each other 
on the pitch line as their velocities, and by in- 
spection of a table of sines and cosines this re- 
lation is easily found; for example, in follow- 
FIG. 150. Spiral j n g a j on g ^he co l umns O f s i nes and cosines we 

find .44724 is as 2 to 1 to .89448, which agrees 
nearly to 26 34' and 63 26', the respective angles of the teeth 
with their planes of motion for equal-sized gears; their sum being 
equal to 90. 

VALVES AND THEIR DESIGN 

The general designs of explosive motors, so far as their power 
moving parts are concerned, are so much' alike that, excepting 
their ignition devices, any explosive motor may be made inter- 
changeable or readily convertible to the use of either of the ex- 
plosive materials for power, for each requires an equal strength 
in all the parts of the motor as well as an equal treatment in 
the regulation of cylinder temperature. 

The value of the materials of explosive power has been as 
fully discussed under the head of " materials of power" as is con- 




EXPLOSIVE-MOTOR DIMENSIONS 



185 



sistent with our present knowledge of the experimental details in 
regard to the explosive values of such materials. Their study 
becomes an essential feature in motor design, especially in regard 
to cylinder volume to meet specified power. 

The details of valve gear may be made variable to meet the 
fancy of designers or their judgment of fitness; but there are a 




FIG. 151. Steel drop-forgings. 

few points in their operating principle which must be made to meet 
the requirements not only of each form of explosive element to be 
used, but also of the varied values of gases in gas-engines, from 
acetylene to producer and blast-furnace gas, and of the volatility 
of the variable grades of gasoline, kerosene, and the cruder oils, and 
which dominate the sizes and relative proportions of the inlet and 
exhaust-valves. 

The forms of the faces and seats of valves seem to have been 
varied to meet the fancy of designers in a great measure, and even 
the crudity of a spindle riveted to the valve disk has been used 
and published as a desirable makeshift. The flat-faced valve is 
also in use, but from the author's experience is unreliable and makes 
an imperfect seat by use. Conical-seated valves with faces at from 
thirty-five to forty-five degrees from the axis of the spindle are giv- 
ing good service. A flatter cone of from fifty to sixty degrees is in 
use with apparent wearable properties and with slightly less lift for 
its full area than with the deeper-seated valves. A fifty-degree 
angle is recommended for high-speed motors. 

Spindle-valves with stems one-fifth to one-quarter the outside 
diameter of the valves, well filleted under the disks, give general 



186 GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 

satisfaction for ordinary speeds; but for very high-speed motors 
the valve stems should be somewhat larger. The general valve 
arrangements are well shown in their various modifications as illus- 
trated in this work. 

The relative size of these valves has been a subject of inquiry 
and discussion, with so far no fixed general rule applicable to the 
required conditions of each element. Some designated speed 
should first be assigned for any given-sized cylinder volume, from 
which the size of the valves may be computed for the full flow of 
the inlet charge and for the discharge of the exhaust without undue 
back-pressure during the times of the inlet and exhaust-strokes. 
This means larger valves for high-speed than for low-speed 
motors a practice too often ignored, to the detriment of motor 
efficiency, by making these valves too small for the motor's 
best work; while if made to meet the requirements for highest 
speed capacity their efficiency action will be best for all lower 
speeds. This should be made a study with the designers of ex- 
plosive motors. 

The present practice with builders in regard to the size of the 
valves seems to vary the extreme diameter of the exhaust-valve 
from a quarter to four-tenths of the diameter of the cylinder, and 
the charging valve a little less, sometimes but one-fifth of the 
diameter of the cylinder. 

Indicator cards taken from motors with small valves, if properly 
done, plainly show the effect of back-pressure from both the ex- 
haust and charging strokes. Good practice suggests the larger 
valves with full lift of one-quarter their diameter for developing 
the full power of the motor. 

The width of the valve contact-seat has been the cause of much 
trouble with valve action by the mistaken judgment of designers 
that great width of contact adds to tightness and wear of the valve 
and seat. Practically this is an error that should only be tolerated 
with inlet-valves having fuel feed through holes or channels in the 
seats. The width of bearing on inlet and exhaust-valves should 
have no more than one-eighth of their diameter. 

The conical bearings should also be the limit of inside and 
outside diameter for valve and seat. 

The best material from experience is solid valves of mild cast 



EXPLOSIVE-MOTOR DIMENSIONS 187 

steel, " machinery-steel" grade; of which the drop-forgings (Fig. 
151) are good examples; the tips to be cut off in finishing. 

There are differences of opinion in regard to the methods of 
opening the inlet-valve, the " suction or vacuum/ 7 and the "me- 
chanical-lift/' of which both are in use, the principal difference 
visible turning on the point of simplicity and complexibility in 
valve-gear construction. Theory, as well as practice, places the per- 
centage of efficiency in favor of the " mechanical-lift." 

With the suction-lift the piston must travel a certain distance in 
the cylinder to create a vacuum strong enough to act upon the sur- 
face of the valve to lift it, and overcome the tension of the light 
spring that is acting against it to cause it to return to its seat 
quickly. The tendency of the suction-valve is always to return and 
remain on its seat, and it is only opposed from doing so as long as 
the vacuum in the cylinder is strong enough to hold it therefrom. 
Thus the valve chatters as it remains in space trying to respond to 
the summons of both agencies, the spring and the vacuum. While 
so doing it retards the inflow of mixture to the cylinder. If the 
spring has too great a tension the vacuum cannot properly lift it, 
and the cylinder is deprived of a sufficient amount of mixture. If 
the tension is too weak then the valve does not seat quickly enough, 
and part of the charge drawn in is forced back again through the 
inlet until the valve has made a proper seating, with the possibility 
of back-fire. Thus can be seen the value of a spring possessing the 
proper tension. Another thing that can be looked for is that a 
spring, when new and possessing the proper tension, will, in the 
course of constant use, lose some of its tension and change the re- 
sults. The mechanically operated valve possesses a superiority 
over the suction type in several ways, and the additional expense 
and complication of operating an intake-valve is not worthy of men- 
tion. With a mechanically operated valve the necessity of having 
the spring tension to a certain point is obviated. But the spring 
should be strong enough in tension so as to always ride the cam 
that lifts it, but not too strong, to make working on the mechanical 
parts too severe. A motor with a mechanically operated valve will 
start more easily and is more sure of starting than the suction-lift, 
for the simple reason that the cam, being timed properly, will open 
the valve immediately as the piston starts on its suction-stroke and 



188 GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 

the vacuum immediately acts on the vapor without any extra duty 
to perform or obstructions in the way to give free access to a full 
and uniform charge. 

ROTARY VALVES FOR EXPLOSIVE MOTORS 

The slide-valve having passed its trial in the early form of the 
explosive motor, yielded its place from its mechanical defects and 
the progressive change in the manner of ignition to the poppet 
type. The flame ignition having been entirely superseded by the 
hot-tube and electric ignition, has left the valve question to be 
solved upon its merits alone. A sliding or rotating valve seems to 
work well in a steam-engine, where the steam is in part a lubricator 
and clean from grit or abrading material; but the sliding principle 
seems to have failed in fulfilling expectation and it is to be seen 
whether the rotary valve will survive its initial trials. 

A balanced rotary valve has been lately brought into use by 
Mr. Edward Butler, of Gleneldon Road, London, England, which 
controls both the induction and exhaust, and so arranged in the de- 
sign as to control two or three cylinders and has been applied with 
success to a 700-horse-power double-acting gas-engine ; a 35-horse- 
power single-acting; a three-cylinder engine with a single valve and 
a tricycle. The valve is water-cooled by a jacket and in the double- 
acting engine the piston is cooled by water circulation through the 
piston-rods; the stuffing-boxes being also water-jacketed. 

We await the success of the continued trial of the rotary valve. 

MOTOR-CYCLES 

The cyclical succession of operations, crank angles, and piston 
positions for the crank angle of each phase of the action of a four- 
cycle motor is shown in Fig. 152. 

Commencing with the inner circle, it will be seen that the charg- 
ing may commence just before the crank reaches the dead centre 
owing to the momentum of the exhaust just before the piston stops; 
resulting in an extension of the charging to a point beyond the out- 
ward dead centre. The momentum of the charge through the inlet- 
valve and the compression through the balance of the return-stroke 
are shown on the diagram; then ignition at any designated point 



EXPLOSIVE-MOTOR DIMENSIONS 



189 



just before, at, or just after the dead point of the stroke. The ex- 
plosive impulse in the outward stroke to a designated point for the 
exhaust-valve to open and exhausting to near the end of the re- 
turn-stroke at which point the exhaust-valve closes by its spring 
pressure, just before 
the crank reaches 
the dead centre, are 
also shown in the 
outer circle. 

The crank should 
move in the direc- 
tion of the arrow 
and by withholding 
the closure of the ex- 
haust-valve mechan- 
ically, a scavenging 
effect may be had 
by the momentum 

of the exhaust in its 

r IG. 152. Cyclic phases of a 4-cycle motor. 

pipe-passage. 

The diagram is an example that may be changed to suit any 
required conditions, so as to show at a glance the piston positions 
and relative crank angles. 




TIMING VALV 
OPE 



IR VALVE 
CLOSES 



CAM DESIGN 

The designing of explosive-motor cams, by many considered a 
difficult problem, can be worked out on the drawing-board with 
accuracy when the conditions of opening and closing time are 
given : For an exhaust-valve cam for a high-speed motor, assum- 
ing to open at 40 crank motion above the terminal of the im- 
pulse-stroke and closing at 10 past the rear centre, as shown in 
the motion diagram (Fig. 152). 

Thus the valve is held open through 230 of the crank's revo- 
lution and therefore through 115 9 of the cam-shaft's revolution. 
The cam proper is made up of two parts one portion, B M A (Fig. 
154), concentric, and another portion, G E K, eccentric to the shaft. 
For convenience we will consider the cam to be standing still and 



190 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



the cam-roller to travel around the cam-counter clockwise i. e., 
from A toward B. 

From centre 0, lay off a circle ABM equal in diameter to the 
concentric portion of the cam. Then from lay off A and B 
115 apart. A is the line on which the valve begins to open, and 
B the line on which it is just closed. Lay off C D equal to the 
amount allowed for lost motion before the valve begins to open, and 
D E equal to the amount of the opening of the valve. With the 
centre draw arcs of circles through D and E, respectively ; E 
will be on the outer extremity of the cam. On A and B, pro- 




FIG. 153. FIG. 154. 

Exhaust-cam design. 

duced, lay off circles 0' F N and 0" J N' equal in diameter to the 
cam-roller and tangent to the arc F D J. Draw G H tangent to 
both circles ABM and 0' F N; similarly K I tangent to both ABM 
and 0" J N'. This gives us the bounding lines of the eccentric por- 
tion, G E K, of the cam. The corners at H and I should be rounded 
off with radius R to suit the judgment of the designer. 

For medium-speed motors the crank-angle opening of the ex- 
haust may be made much less than the extreme figures above named 
and so varied for assumed speeds to as low as 25 crank-angle open- 
ing and 5 for closing. 

These angles are also applicable where piston-ports are used. 

A similar method applies to the inlet-cam as well, although the 
angle of opening is somewhat less than that of the exhaust-cam. 



CHAPTER XVI 

TYPES AND DETAILS OF THE EXPLOSIVE MOTOR 

THE leading features of two-cycle engines are essentially an em- 
bodiment of the Day model as first made in England, and noted 
for the absence of valves for inlet and exhaust, and for a compression 
initial charge from a closed crank chamber, made by the impulse- 
stroke of the piston and a final compression and explosion of the 
charge at every revolution of the crank-shaft. The air and gas or 





FIG. 155. The Day model. 



PIG. 156. Root engine. 



vapor are drawn into the crank chamber by the action of the piston 
and the mixture completed by the motion of the crank. From the 
absence of cylinder-valves and valve gear this type of explosive en- 
gine has the peculiar advantage that it can be run in either direction 
by merely starting it in the direction required. This type of motors 
receives its charge and exhaust through cylinder-ports at the end 
of the impulse-stroke of the piston. In some modifications of the 
Day model a supplementary exhaust is provided for by the use of a 

191 



192 GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 

valve in the cylinder-head or near it, which facilitates the passage of 
the fresh charge to meet the ignition- tube or electrodes, and thus 
contributes to the regularity of ignition. 

This has become a leading type with many variations of detail, 
which are illustrated and described in the following pages of this 
work. 

Among the many designs for increasing the power of a gas- 
engine the Root model for a duplex explosion seemed to be a step 
in the right direction. It is a four-cycle compression type with 
a secondary explosion chamber and cylinder-port, which is closed 
by the piston at about half compression stroke and shutting off 
part of the explosive mixture, which is exploded at about one- 
third of the impulse-stroke by the heat of the primary explosion 
in the clearance space at the beginning of the stroke. The gas 
and air mixture was injected through the supplementary cham- 
ber, thus leaving a strong charge for the secondary explosion, and 
so largely increasing the pressure during expansion of the exploded 
charge. 

This type has not proved of practical value and the author 
knows of none in use in the United States. It was an English 
invention. 

The non-vibrating gasoline-motor (Fig. 157) is of French origin, 
but now adopted with modifications by a number of motor-carriage 

builders, for its quiet running. 
It is of the four-cycle type with 
the cylinders offset enough to 
allow of a double crank at 180. 
The ignition adjusted to take 
place at the same instant, thus 
almost entirely eliminating vi- 
bration, or ignition may be 

FIG. l57.-Non^brating motor. made alternately with a two- 
cycle effect. The radial ribs on 

the motors of suitable size for light vehicles are found efficient and 
most convenient in eliminating one of the troubles of explosive- 
motor power the water-jacket. The Crest Manufacturing Com- 
pany, Cambridge, Mass., are building motors similar to this type. 
Water-jacketed motors of this type for all uses are made by the 




TYPES AND DETAILS OF THE EXPLOSIVE MOTOR 193 

Brennan Motor Company, Syracuse, N. Y., a detailed section of 
which is shown in Fig. 158, which represents their four-cycle, high- 
compression, non-vibrating, opposed-cylinder motor, with a legend 
of its parts. 

In Fig. 159 are illustrated some details of the Win ton automo- 
bile-motor to which is given the names of the parts figured in the 




FIG. 158. Sectional plan of the Brennan motor. 

3- The crank-shaft. 4. Connecting rod. 6. Piston. 7. Compression rings. 8. Relief-valve. 
9. Cap for admission-valve case. 10. Admission- valve case. 11. Admission-valve spring. 12. 
Exhaust-valve. 13. Admission-valve. 14. Exhaust-outlet. 15. Spark plug. 16. Exhaust- 
valve guide. 17. Push-rod. 18. Push-rod roller. 19. Exhaust-valve cam. 20. Sleeve for push- 
rod. 21. Gear of secondary shaft. 22. Gear on crank-shaft. 23. Water-jacket space. 24. 
Crank-pit and base. 25. Time-ignition case. 26. Post for battery wire. 27. Time-ignition cam. 
28. Binding screw. 30. Bearing for shaft. 33. Bearing for crank-shaft. 



cut. The design is of a very compact and quick action. The de- 
tachable portion of the crank-case 48 is shown set off, to which is 
attached the hand hole cover and yoke. 

A compact horizontal gasoline-motor, rib-jacketed, and de- 
signed for an automobile (Fig. 160), is of French origin. It has a 
special combustion chamber and attached valve chamber for facil- 
itating ignition by tube or spark, the tube being shown in, the sketch. 
P is a short platinum tube directly over the Bunsen burner G, 
operated by gasoline-vapor generated in the burner. H is the 
carbureter, which receives its charge through an automatic valve 



194 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



where it is vaporized by warm air from over the burner. The vapor 
charge with its air mixture is drawn in through the valve E. A 



,17 




FIG. 159. Section and frame of the Winton automobile motor. 

Reference Numbers. 3. Drop-frame. 4, 5. Exhaust-pipe leading to 6 Expansion chamber 
or muffler. 7, 8. Water-circulating centrifugal pump. 9. Crank-case. 10. Exhaust-valve cam on 
secondary shaft for each cylinder. 11. Cam-roller. 12. Exhaust-roller guide. 13. Exhaust-spring 
chamber cover plate. 14. Exhaust-valve spring and spindle. 15. Inlet-valve chamber. 17, 18. 
Inlet-valve piston and spring. 24, 25. Inlet-valve chamber and valve. 27. Bushings for spark- 
plug wires. 28. Water-pipe from cylinders to radiator. 29. Cylinder relief-cock. 37. Cylinder oil- 
connection. 48. Detached portion of crank-case. 

reducing gear, cam and lever, operates the exhaust-valve, and speed 
is regulated by varying the charge of gasoline-vapor, which is con- 
trolled by an index-cock. The crank end and fly-wheel are enclosed 




FIG. 160. Gasoline automobile motor. 



TYPES AND DETAILS OF THE EXPLOSIVE MOTOR 195 



in a light iron case, which holds the oil for lubricating the journals 
and gearing. The other lettered parts are self-explanatory. 

In Fig. 161 is illustrated in section a two-cylinder marine auto- 
mobile-motor of European design, with platinum hot-tube igniter. 
The gasoline is fed through a regulator to a jet-nozzle at the bottom 
of the atomizing chamber K and mixed with the incoming air 





FIG. 161. Vertical marine or automobile 
model. 



FIG. 162. Vertical stationary 
model. 



through the cage and air chamber H, and finally vaporized in the 
passage E. 

In Fig. 162 is illustrated a vertical stationary model, also of Eu- 
ropean design, and also with a platinum hot-tube igniter and similar 
feed as described above. The cylinder-heads of both motors are 
water-jacketed, integral with the cylinder. The exhaust-valves of 
both motors are operated by a pick-blade action from cams on the 
secondary shafts; but by what means the speed is governed is not 
made clear. 



196 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



In Fig. 163 is illustrated a vertical motor of European design 
with cross-head and guides, in section, and in Fig. 164 a side-view 




FIG. 163. Sectional elevation. 



LUBRICATO 




FIG. 164. Side view. 



of the same motor. This type relieves the piston of side-thrust, 
but involves a longer gait or shorter connecting rod; a disadvantage 




FIG. 165. Differential piston-motor. 



TYPES AND DETAILS OF THE EXPLOSIVE MOTOR 197 

not approved of by our best engineers. It is derived from the lean 
of designers toward steam-engine practice. It is a departure from 
the most approved explosive-motor practice and is not recom- 
mended as the basis of simplicity in motor design. 

In Fig. 165 is illustrated a gas-engine of the scavenging class, 
of European design, in which a piston of larger size than the engine- 
piston acts as a cross-head for the connecting rod and as a pump for 
compressing the air charges. Each outward stroke of the differen- 
tial pistons draws air through the valves F, and by the return 
strokes compresses it in the chamber D, which communicates with 
the passage E, for furnishing the charge under pressure. The inlet- 




FIG. 166. Vertical section of cylinder. 

valve H opens during the last moment of the exhaust-stroke, forc- 
ing a scavenging blast from the accumulated pressure in the passage 
E. The double piston largely adds to engine friction and compli- 
cation, which lessens the mechanical efficiency to a greater extent 
than the value of the scavenging effect. 

In Fig. 166 is illustrated a vertical section of the gas and gasoline- 
engine as built by the Columbus Machine Company, Columbus, 0. 
Its design has been toward the fewest parts that will give efficiency, 
ready adjustment, and renewal of vital wearing parts, together with 
a gas and gasoline attachment that allows of interchange of fuel 
elements without stopping the engine, if necessary. 

It has a supplementary exhaust through a port in the cylinder, 



198 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



opened by the piston at the end of its stroke, which has been shown 
to be a great relief to the work and wear of the exhaust-valve, as by 
this exhaust arrangement the exhaust-valve opening follows the 
piston-port opening. 

The governor controls the gas and air charge by holding or 
throttling the inlet duplex-valve, the lower section around the 
spindle being a gas chamber fed by the pipe y (Fig. 167), while the 
annular chamber receives the air through a side inlet, the mixture 
taking place between the two valves. The spindle of the gas-valve 
is hollow, through which the spindle of the inlet- valve passes beyond 
the spring-block x, at o', so that the cam-operated lever opens the 
inlet-valve first and wider than the gas- valve. Both valves are 

fitted and seated in re- 
movable cases; the cylin- 
der and head being cast 
in a single piece. The hole 
through the cylinder-head 





w V 
FIG. 167. Valve-cases. 






FIG. 168. Gasoline attachment. 



serves the work of boring the cylinder, and to receive the igniter 
device, which is a contact-break with a wiping motion, which 
prevents fouling of the electrodes, as shown at m', n'. 

In Fig. 168 is a section of the gasoline attachment, consisting 
of a constant-level chamber /", an inlet-pipe </', overflow exit e", 
a small needle-valve z' ', and tubes &", discharging into the air- 
mixing chamber u 1 . The cylinder and its water-jacket is cast in 
one piece with an open water space at the crank end, which is 
covered with ring flanges o" and n". The ignition and valve 
chamber are water cooled as shown at t" . 

In Fig. 169 is shown a sectional plan of the White and Middleton 
motor of the four-cycle compression type, with the principal exhaust- 



TYPES AND DETAILS OF THE EXPLOSIVE MOTOR 199 

port opened by the piston at the end of its impulse-stroke. The 
supplementary exhaust-valve is operated by a lever across the cyl- 
inder-head and a push-rod direct from a differential-slide mechan- 
ism, which does away with the reducing gear used on other engines. 
An arm on the push-rod operates the gas-valve stem, which is 
provided with a regulating adjustment. 

A small roller-disk on the push-rod mechanism is under the con- 
trol of a centrifugal governor and a spring, being thrown out of gear 
with the shaft-cam whenever the speed of the engine exceeds the 
normal rate, and thus failing to open the gas supply and the supple- 
mentary exhaust-valve until the speed of the engine has returned to 
its normal rate. There is a relief-valve opening into the supple- 




FIG. 169. Sectional plan of the White and Middleton engine. 

mentary exhaust-passage for relieving the pressure in the cylinder 
when starting the engine. The whole design of the engine is ex- 
ceedingly simple and its action noiseless. 

When gasoline is used the gas-supply valve is replaced by a 
small pump, which is operated by the push-rod, and its hit-or- 
miss stroke is governed by the action of the push-rod and its gov- 
ernor. 

We illustrate the special construction of the Lewis gas and 
gasoline-motor in Figs. 170 and 171, built by J. Thompson and 
Sons Manufacturing Company, Beloit, Wis. The principal feat- 
ure of this motor is the addition of the cylinder-port exhaust as 
an auxiliary to the regular exhaust-valve, which is now a conceded 
measure of economy in reduced exhaust back-pressure and in the 
saving of wear on the exhaust-valve. 



200 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



The vaporizer is shown in section in Fig. 171, which consists 
of a chamber M, with an air-pipe A, by which the mixture of 
gasoline and air is regulated by drawing the air-pipe to or from the 
surface of the gasoline constant-level, which is regulated by the 
overflow-pipe at M. A further regulation of the charge mixture is 
made by the valve at the right of the vaporizing chamber. The 
gasoline-pump is operated from the arm of the exhaust-valve lever. 
The igniter is of the hammer-break type and is attached by a flange 
to the side of the inlet chamber and operated directly from a snap- 
cam on the reducing shaft. The governor limits the lift of the inlet- 
valve through the arm on its spindle. 




FIG. 170. Lewis motor. 

In Fig. 172 is shown a sectional plan of the Olin gasoline-engine. 
It is of the four-cycle type with an exhaust-port opened by the 
piston at the end of its impulse-stroke by which the exhaust with its 
terminal-stroke heat is impinged upon a tube through which the 
charge is fed and vaporizes the gasoline. The exhaust surrounds 
the vaporizing tube by the passage and chamber J. The exhaust 
is continued after the closure of the piston-port by an annular valve 
around the inlet-valve. 

In Fig. 173 is shown the sectional detail of a vehicle motor 
lately brought out in France. The engraving has been made on 
a scale of T 3 g- of an inch to one inch, the diameter of the cylinder 
being 3| of an inch, with 4-inch stroke. It is rated at 4 horse- 
power at full speed. 



TYPES AND DETAILS OF THE EXPLOSIVE MOTOR 201 

A novel arrangement for cooling the motor by means of a 
mechanical ventilator has been adopted, and is one of the most 
successful features of this motor. Motors with the ordinary type 
of cooling wings, of which the De Dion is a good example, offer 
great advantages of simplicity which make them preferred for 
the smaller powers, but unfortunately they do not always give 
entire satisfaction on account of the insufficient cooling when the 
vehicle moves slowly and the current of air is small; this is espe- 
cially noticed in hill-climbing. To remedy this the motor runs a 
small fan which is mounted on ball-bearings and consequently 




FIG. 171. Vertical section of motor and vaporizer. 

takes but little power. It is set in motion by a friction-roller in 
contact with the fly-wheel of the motor. This ventilator blows 
a current of air against the motor-cylinder, and thus the cooling 
is independent of the speed of the vehicle. This motor drives by 
a shifting belt on tight and loose pulleys with separate speed and 
reversing gear. It is noticed that the crank-shaft bearing is six 
times longer than its diameter, which makes the balanced crank 
self-supporting, the pin of which carries freely a secondary gear- 
crank 45 and pinion, gearing into a spur-wheel on the cam-shaft 
46, which also operates the electric-current brake (37-39) with 
a jump-spark igniter 26. Oil is fed at the bottom of the cylinder 



202 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



into an annular groove into which the lower edge of the piston dips 
at each stroke. The main journal is oiled by the overflow from 
the annular groove and the dash of the crank, through the long oil- 
passages and the surplus returned to the crank chamber from the 
end of the bearing. A leather washer between the end of the shaft 
bearing and the fly-wheel hub prevents waste of oil and entrance 
of dust. Speed is controlled by the gasoline-feed through atomiz- 
ing vaporizers (which see, ante). This class of motors makes an 
excellent study for amatuer mechanics. 

The latest design of the Nash gas-motor is illustrated in section 
in Fig. 174. It is of the four-cycle type, with one, two, or three 
vertical cylinders. The speed is controlled through the governor 
by missed charges. 




FIG. 172. Plan of the Olin gasoline-engine. 

The air chest surrounds the passage by which gas enters and 
is drawn with the air into the mixing chamber A. The admission 
valve B is open during each suction-stroke and the mixture passes 
through that valve to the cylinder to be compressed upon the 
succeeding stroke and then exploded. The toe which lifts the 
gas-valve is carried upon the stem of the admission-valve and is 
kept from engaging with the latch upon the gas-valve stem when 
explosion is not required. The admission is operated by a posi- 
tive cam upon the side-shaft in an obvious manner, and the fact 
that it is opened every fourth stroke insures an indraft of fresh air, 
even when no gas is admitted, scavenging the cylinder of any prod- 
ucts of combustion remaining. The exhaust-valve is similar to 
the admission-valve, but its roller can be thrown to a cam, relieving 
the compression when starting up. The igniter is at 1 and is oper- 



TYPES AND DETAILS OF THE EXPLOSIVE MOTOR 203 

ated by an eccentric upon a side-shaft on the opposite side of the 
engine, this side-shaft being operated by a cross-shaft geared to 




FIG. 173. Section of air-cooled motor. 

Figured parts of the motor. 12. Crank-shaft. 13. Oil-cooling tube. 14. Oil-duct. 19. 
Pet-cock. 20. Key. 21. Washer. 22. Spring. 23. Valve-guide. 24. Admission- valve. 25. 
Valve-seat. 26. Igniter. 27. Porcelain. 28. Exhaust-valve. 29. Exhaust-valve seat. 30. 
Exhaust-valve stem guide. 31. Exhaust-valve stem. 32. Spring. 33. Collar. 34. Exhaust- 
valve operating rod. 35. Cam-roller controlling exhaust. 36. Thumb-screw. 37. Contact. 
38. Platinum contact. 39. Screw-controlling platinum contact. 40. Distributing-crank bear- 
ing. 41. Distributing-gear wheel. 42. Distributing pinion. 43. Drain-cock. 44. Waste-pipe 
45. Distributing-crank. 46. Cam-shaft for exhaust. 48. Piston. 49. Pin of piston-rod. 50. 
Oil-groove in frame. 



the other side-shaft, which in turn is geared to the main shaft with 
two-to-one spur gears. The governor is driven from the first side- 



204 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



shaft and simply regulates the position of the latch upon the gas- 
valve stem. 

The Diesel oil-engine has come to the front for economy and 
as a motor in which any of the fuel-oils of commerce give most 
satisfactory results. It is of German origin and with the late 
improvements obtained from American suggestions in design and 
the modifications brought out from its extensive use in Germany, 
its details have been much simplified, and in the hands of the 




FIG. 174. The Nash gas-engine. 

Diesel Motor Company of America, whose office is at No. 11 Broad- 
way, New York City, and factory at Worcester, Mass., it is now 
taking the lead for the larger powers and is especially adapted 
for operating electric plants. It is a two-cycle type and with du- 
plex cylinders for driving electric generators brings the variation in 
light effect within one per cent, The points of difference from 
other explosive motors are a small clearance of about seven per 
cent, of the piston-sweep, high compression to about 500 pounds per 
square inch, sudden injection of liquid fuel at a still higher pressure, 



TYPES AND DETAILS OF THE EXPLOSIVE MOTOR 205 



and its spontaneous ignition by the heat of compression. Appar- 
ently there is no sudden explosion, but rather a gradual combustion 
of the charge of the sprayed oil and the oxygen of the hot com- 
pressed air during part of the stroke. The motor is of the four- 
cycle construction, operated on the two-cycle impulse, and is repre- 
sented in its essential parts in the section (Fig. 175). The steel 
reservoir T is the high-pressure air-reserve, supplied by an air- 
pump P, driven by the motor through the rocker-arm Y, while the 
small pump Q, also operated from the same arm, supplies the fuel- 





FIG. 175. The Diesel engine. 



FIG. 176. The light motor 



oil at the required pressure to be injected with the high-pressure air 
used for spraying the charge. Further details are given in the 
general description of explosive motors. Also see indicator card, 
page 52. 

One of the lightest gasoline-motors that we know of on record 
has been produced by the Duryea Motor Company, Reading, Pa. 
It is a six-cylinder motor of the opposed-cylinder type, working on a 
three-throw crank-shaft in a perfectly mechanical balance. Its 
four-cycle type gives the motor three impulses to each revolution, 
thus reducing the fly-wheel to the smallest dimensions and weight. 



206 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



As it appears in the cuts it weighs slightly over 200 pounds, or 
less than five pounds per horse-power. With spark-coil, battery, 
fuel, and water- tanks partly filled, it weighs 232 pounds, or 5.7 
pounds per horse-power. The cylinders are 4J-inch bore by 5J-inch 
stroke, with bearings of the same size as used in the company's 
regular automobile-motors. Jump-spark ignition is used, having 
a single coil and commutating the secondary current. The inlet 
and exhaust-valves may be removed from any cylinder-head by 
loosening a single nut. The crank-shaft and crank-pins are hollow 
for lubrication purposes. 

This motor is believed to be the lightest for its power ever con- 
structed and is another evidence of the mechanical development 
brought about by the requirements of the automobile. 

One of the later designs for balancing the explosive shock is 
the balanced explosive motor of the Secor type in Fig. 177. The 
charge is fired in the chamber X, 
between the two pistons H H' 
whose motion is transmitted to 
the cranks G G', having equal 
throw and set at 180 apart on 
the crank-shaft. 

The pistons are connected by 





FIG. 177. Balanced motor. 



FIG. 178. Combination motor. 



the short connecting-rods H H' to the vertical levers D D', which 
transmit motion to the cranks through the connecting rods F F'. 

A more curious than practical design of a motor is a combina- 
tion of a steam and an explosive motor in one machine, as shown 
in Fig. 178, and is thus described : 

In this design the piston of the explosive motor is made the 



TYPES AND DETAILS OF THE EXPLOSIVE MOTOR 207 

cross-head for the connecting rod. A duplex steam-engine with a 
duplex explosive motor as an auxiliary power in which the exhaust 
of the steam-engine may also be turned into the explosive-motor 
cylinder as an additional power and lubricant when the explosive 
motor is not in use. 

In Fig. 179 is shown a section of the two-cycle marine motor 
of the Lozier Motor Company, Plattsburg, N. Y. The principal 



WATER JACKET 



IGNITIOM 

W#& .MECHANISM 
^^mu' S 




FIG. 179. Lozier gasoline-motor. 

features are the throttle- valve to regulate the charge from the crank 
chamber and the operation of the hammer spark-break from a cam 
on the shaft. A rotary circulating pump is driven by chain from 
the main shaft and bhe discharge of the water from the cylinder is 
around the exhaust-pipe. The thrust is taken by ball-bearings in 
the cam-hub. A throttle-valve in the passage from the crank cham- 
ber to the cylinder, with an index handle, regulates the charge. 
The starting handle is located within the rim of the fly-wheel and 



208 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



held by a light spring. To start the motor the handle is pulled out 
and flies back the moment the motor starts by its own impulse, 

thus saving much annoyance from 
starting crank- wrenches. 

In Fig. 180 is shown a horizontal 
section of the cylinder-head of a mo- 
EXHAUST tor designed by H. J. Perkins, Grand 
Rapids, Mich. It is seen that the 
fitting of the inlet-valve casing is re- 
cessed on its outside so as to make 
an annular gas chamber immediately 
behind the valve seat and through 
which 38 small holes are drilled around 
the face of the seat, thus making a 
simple and thorough mixture of the 
charge at the moment of entrance to 
the cylinder, the air entering through 
a side passage, as shown by the circle in the valve chamber. The 
motor is of the four-cycle type and the exhaust-valve governs by 
the hit-or-miss action from the fly-wheel centrifugal governor. 
The regulation is by holding open the exhaust-valve by a stop- 
lever that catches the push-rod when the valve is open and hold- 
ing it until released by the governor. A single eccentric actuates 




FIG. 180. The valves. 




VALVE CHAMBER 



FIG. 181. The Lazier motor. Sectional plan. 

the four-cycle principle by a pick-blade that makes a miss-push at 
every other revolution. 



TYPES AND DETAILS OF THE EXPLOSIVE MOTOR 209 

It may be noticed that the valves in this design are as large as 
can be made practical in a cylinder-head and that the inlet-valve is 
larger than the exhaust-valve, which allows for a low lift for better 
mixing of the fuel and air. 

The motors of the Lazier Gas-Engine Company, Buffalo, N. Y., 
have a peculiar valve-arrangement, which we illustrate in Figs. 
181, 182, 183. The design is of the four-cycle type, with the hit- 
or-miss governing gear, but is peculiar in the fact that its exhaust- 
valve is the only one mechanically operated, and is so constructed 
that when the engine needs to miss an explosion it is held open, 




FIG. 182. Vertical section of valves. 




FIG. 183. Horizontal section of valves. 

telescoping over the seat of the air-suction valve, cutting off all fuel 
supply, and allowing the piston to travel in the cylinder without 
compensation, during which time the valves remain in a state of 
rest. Fig. 181 shows a plan in section of the cylinder, while Figs. 
182 and 183 are horizontal and vertical sections, showing the valve- 
mechanism upon a larger scale. Fig. 184 shows the position of the 
valves during a suction-stroke, the admission-valves a A being 
drawn open by suction, the explosive charge entering as shown by 
the arrows, and the exhaust-valve E being seated. On the next 
stroke the charge is compressed; the next is the explosion or work- 
ing stroke. At the end of the power stroke the piston uncovers the 



210 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



automatic port in the side of the cylinder, which allows the high- 
terminal pressure to be reduced, thus permitting the main exhaust- 
valve to open at atmos- 
pheric pressure, at which 
time the piston sweeps back, 
clearing the residue gas 
from the cylinder, and is 
then ready to take in a new 
mixture if governor permits, 
and on the next the exhaust- 
valve is held open, allowing 
the products of combustion 
to escape. All this time 
the pressure on the cylin- 
der has been greater than 

FIG. 184.-Inlet valve open. the outside Q f the a dmission- 

valve, and there has been no tendency for the latter to open. In 
fact, during the exhaust-stroke the valve is in the position shown 
in Fig. 184, completely covering the admission-valve. When the 
speed exceeds the normal, the exhaust-valve remains in this posi- 
tion, so that on the suction-stroke there is no vacuum created, the 
exhaust-passage being open, and even if there were the admission- 
valve is effectively closed by the telescoping of the exhaust-valve. 





FIG. 185. Section, Oil City Motor. 

Neither is there any useless compression, the exhaust remaining 
open and the valve remaining motionless until another admission 



TYPES AND DETAILS OF THE EXPLOSIVE MOTOR 211 

is required. The air-suction and fuel- valves are mounted in a 
cage with ground seats with ports registering with openings in the 
valve chamber proper, thus allowing the valve cage to be taken 
out without disturbing the piping. 

In Fig. 185 we illustrate in a vertical sectional view the "Oil 
City Motor," built by the Oil City Boiler Works, Oil City, Pa. 
An auxiliary exhaust by a cylinder-port is one of the features 
of this four-cycle motor. The gas-inlet and atomizing valve for 
gasoline, seen at the top of the cylinder-head, is an annular cham- 
ber around a perforated valve seat, with space between it and the 
final inlet-valve for thorough vaporization of the gasoline and mix- 




FIG. 186. Longitudinal section of engine. 

ing with the incoming air. In their smaller motors regulation is 
made by holding the exhaust-valve open by the governor. In the 
large motors the throttling system is used. Hot-tube or electric 
ignition as desired. 

Valve-action of the Bessemer engine, of the Bessemer Gas-Engine 
Company, Grove City, Pa. The engine is of the two-cycle type and 
its operation is as follows: 

During the backward stroke of the piston, Fig. 186, the mixture 
of air and gas is drawn into the front end of the cylinder through the 
port A, while at the same time the previous charge is being com- 
pressed in the back end or combustion chamber B. As soon as the 



212 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



piston completes the stroke, the charge is ignited and the piston 
driven forward by the burning gases. When the piston reaches the 
end of the stroke in the direction of the shaft, the exhaust-port C 
is opened, and at about the same time the gas-port D, at the top of 
the cylinder, is opened, admitting the fresh charge, which was com- 
pressed by the piston during the working stroke. 

The incoming charge enters the cylinder under moderate pres- 
sure and drives the burnt gases before it, thus filling the cylinder 
very quickly with the fresh mixture. 

The air and gas are drawn into the front end of the cylinder 

through the gas-valve E, lo- 
cated beneath the cylinder, 
Fig. 187 being an enlarged 
view of this valve. The air 
enters through the large an- 
nular opening F, while the 
gas is admitted through a 
series of small holes or ports 
G. The valve H when seated 



closes the opening F and the 
small ports G, both being 
opened simultaneously by the 
valve, which is raised by the 
suction of the piston. Air en- 
ters the valve-body through 
the air-pipe I (Fig. 187), which 
is connected with the interior 




FIG. 187. Section of air and gas valve. 



of the bed to avoid drawing in dust and dirt. 

The governor is located in the gas-pipe at the side and on a level 
with the top of the cylinder, the speed being regulated by throttling 
the gas and thus modifying the force of the explosion to meet the 
requirements of the load. The cylinder and back cylinder-head are 
water-jacketed, the front head having no jacket, since it is sub- 
jected to the low temperatures due to the slight compression of 
the fresh charge or mixture. This engine is provided with a piston- 
rod, cross-head, and guides the same as a steam-engine; in fact, 
the construction throughout is in accord with the practice in steam 
and gas engine-construction. 



TYPES AND DETAILS OF THE EXPLOSIVE MOTOR 213 



The stuffing-box in the front head is subjected to only moderate 
pressures and temperatures, consequently no trouble is experienced 
in maintaining a tight 
and durable joint. 
The working parts are 
enclosed by a neat 
hood and crank-case 
which not only pre- 
vent dust and dirt 
from reaching the vital 
parts, but render the 
engine self-oiling and 
adapted to making 
long continuous runs 
with the minimum of 




FIG. 188. Valve gear. 



attention. The con- 
necting rod is of the 
marine type and extra heavy. The pins are also large and pro- 
vided with means for obtaining ample lubrication. The main 
shaft-bearings are provided with chain-oilers which ensure copious 
lubrication at all speeds, and at the same time prevent any waste 
of oil. 

The piston is oiled by means of a special automatic sight-feed 

oiler. The piston is very 
long, thus providing liberal 
wearing surfaces and is 
provided with four wide 
packing rings. The engine 
is not only very simple, 
but is unusually massive, 
being designed for all kinds 
of service for which gas- 
engines can be employed. 
The gas-engine of the 
Dudbridge Iron Works 
Company, Strand, England, 
has some peculiarities 
FIG. 189. Cylinder and inlet valve. worthy of record, and which 




214 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 




we illustrate in Figs. 188, 189, and 190. The cylinder is over- 
hung and bolted to the bed-piece and made in two pieces. The 

jacket and cylinder-head 
are cast in a single piece 
and the liner made of a 
specially hard mixture of 
iron for wearing quality 
and easy replacement 
when worn out. The 
valve-casings are all con- 
tained in the cylinder- 
head, which is spherical 
and water-jacketed. All 
valves are contained in 
casings with flanges and 
shoulder joints, easily re- 
moved for cleaning or re- 
pairs. Ignition is of the 
hot-tube type, as shown 

at J I, and the gas-inlet is regulated by an index-cock at V 
(Fig. 190). 

The governor, as will be seen by reference to the illustrations, 
is of the fly-ball type, controlling the engine on the hit-or-miss 
principle. 

The construction of the valve gear may be more readily under- 
stood by reference to the figures. All valves are worked from the 
reducing shaft L, which is driven from the crank-shaft by means of 
helical gears. F and G are air and gas-valves respectively, valve 
G opening directly into the air-inlet H. The exhaust-valve E 
opens directly into the exhaust outlet 0. The air-valve F is driven 
through the lever / by means of the cam c. The exhaust-valve 
is controlled by the lever e, operated by the cam d. The gas- 
valve is opened by means of a small arm B, and the striker-blade 
A attached to the air-lever arm. Small arm B also carries a striker 
which is met by the striker-arm A as it moves toward the cylinder 
to open the air-valve. Arm B is under control of the governor 
through the arm C, and so connected that, as the governor rises, 
lever B is lifted and the striker b is lifted out of the path of A. In 



TYPES AND DETAILS OF THE EXPLOSIVE MOTOR 215 

this manner, when the speed rises above the limit, the gas-valve G is 
not opened, and the cylinder takes in a charge of pure air, thus miss- 




FIG. 191. Section, Wayne motor. 

ing impulses and developing less power. The speed of the engine 
may be increased by putting on extra weights as shown at D, or the 
speed may be decreased by removing weights on the governor at D. 
In Fig. 191 are shown some of the details of the " Wayne Motor/' 
built by the Fort Wayne Foundry and Machine Company, Fort 
Wayne, Ind. A double cam on the reducing gear-shaft operates 




FIG. 102 Longitudinal section of the Elyria gas-engine. 

the exhaust- valve E through a push-rod and lever across the cyl- 
inder-head and also a supplementary gas-valve, independent from 
the free opening inlet- valve. The igniter of the make-and-break 



216 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



type is operated by a pick-blade on the end of the firing-rod which 
engages with the arm of the igniter-spindle. The throw of the firing- 
rod is controlled by the governor. 

In Fig. 192 is illustrated a section of the horizontal gas-engine 
of the Elyria Gas-Engine Company, Elyria, 0. The section is on 
the central line and shows the method of bolting the cylinder to 
the base-frame, which is of box form. The cut shows all the parts 
of cylinder, piston, piston-rod, crank-balance weight, and fly-wheel 
radius in good proportions. 

Fig. 193 shows a cross section of the cylinder, valve chamber, 

valves, and exhaust-valve 
bell-crank lever, a simple 
and compact device. 

Ignition is by means of 
an electric spark, the plug 
for which is placed in the 
valve chamber between the 
inlet and exhaust - valve, 
where it has the benefit of 
the cooling effect of the in- 
coming air, thereby prolong- 
ing the life of the sparking 

points. It will be seen that 
FIG. 193.-Cross section through the cylin- ^ inlet . valve ig enclosed 
der and valve chamber. , . 

in a flanged bushing large 

enough to allow the exhaust-valve to be drawn out through the 
inlet-valve opening. A good construction design. 




A NOVEL KEROSENE-OIL MOTOR 

In Fig. 194 is illustrated the details of a kerosene vaporizing 
device as applied to a two-cycle motor, the invention of J. F. Deni- 
son, New Haven, Conn. Only pure air is contained in the crank- 
case and by this means the motor is made in a degree a scavenging 
one; the fresh air from the compression in the crank-case for a mo- 
ment is blown into the cylinder before the opening of the vapor- 
inlet valve. 

The method of operation is as follows : 



TYPES AND DETAILS OF THE EXPLOSIVE MOTOR 217 



Kerosene is kept in a tight tank or reservoir. Pressure is put on 
the fuel by connecting the upper part of the reservoir with the 
engine crank-case and interposing a check-valve V in the pipe 
between them. 

The kerosene is drawn from the bottom of the reservoir and 
passes through a coil C in the combustion chamber, where it is 
turned into gas or vapor. 
While the engine is running 
the oil is heated to form 
the kerosene-vapor in the 
coil C and is then let into 
the cylinder through the 
poppet-valve P. 

This valve P is moved 
by a cam in such a way as 
to time the inlet of the gas 
a little later than the com- 
pleting of the exhaust and 
a little later than the be- 
ginning of the inlet of fresh 
air from the crank-case. In- 
cidentally the engine, like 
the old Day engine the 
original two-cycle engine FIG. 194. Section of motor, 

uses no inlet-valve to the 

crank-case, but uses an air-port which is uncovered by the pis- 
ton at the highest point of its stroke. 

In starting up, a secondary vaporizing coil S, in the supply-pipe 
outside the cylinder, is heated by a blow-torch. This coil S is kept 
heated only until such time as the heat from the explosions gets the 
coil C in condition. 

The advantages of using kerosene in vapor form are very pro- 
nounced. In this condition it makes a perfect mixture, free from 
fine drops of liquid such mixtures permit of much higher com- 
pression and much higher economy than is possible with oil spurted 
directly into the cylinder. A mixture of air and kerosene "gas" 
burns without depositing soot. 

This engine is also designed with an air-starting device. 




218 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



This starter supplies air through a poppet-valve moved by an 
eccentric, and since the air must pass through a check-valve before 
reaching the piston, it follows that the engine changes automatically 
from the air-starter to fuel-burning. 

No vapor can reach the crank chamber from the vaporizing coil 
C, as the mechanically operated inlet- vapor valve P is closed dur- 
ing the up-stroke of the 
piston, arid the check- 
valve V prevents vapor 
from passing to the crank 
chamber from the kero- 
sene tank. The air-inlet 
port at A furnishes suffi- 
cient air at or during the 
terminal of the up-stroke 
of the piston. 

The air for starting is 
compressed in a small 
cylinder operated by hand 
or in multicylinder motors 
by the motor for storage. 

THE MILLOT OIL-ENGINE 

This is of French origin 
and has some novel fea- 
tures of construction. The 
oil, which is kept in a 
separate reservoir, comes 
into a chamber where it 
is kept at a constant level. 




FIG. 195. Millot engine, showing vaporizer 
and governor. 



The oil which is drawn into the engine passes through a spray- 
ing device to a very small opening which compels the oil to spurt 
out forcibly. This spraying is made still more active by the air 
coming from the valve C (Fig. 196; , this valve being opened by 
the suction from the descent of the piston. The vaporized oil 
arrives by the opening P U (Fig. 195), in the gasifier G, which 
is a kind of cast-iron bowl kept at a dark-red heat by means of 



TYPES AND DETAILS OF THE EXPLOSIVE MOTOR 219 



an oil-lamp with Bunsen flame. The oil in vaporized state passes 
through the orifice G (Fig. 195) into the compression chamber and 
then into the cylinder. 

At the end of the induction stroke, the cylinder and the com- 
pression chamber are filled with a mixture of gas and air. The pis- 
ton, rising, gives a high compression to this mixture as it can occupy 
a volume only equal to that of the compression chamber. The 
pressure of the mixture striking upon the walls of the gasifier 
G (Fig. 196), which are at red heat, determines the time of explosion. 
After a few minutes of running, the heat produced by explosion 
is sufficient to keep the 
walls at red heat and the 
lamp L can then be re- 
moved. 

The governor is a 
novel feature in a ver- 
tical engine, it being of 
the inertia type. This 
consists of a stem K, fast- 
ened to the side of the 
escapement, which is 
pivoted at the lower end. 
During normal running, 
the pawl is held by a 
spring in a vertical posi- 
tion. The catch C has 
an oscillating movement 
given it by the lever Q, which is driven by the cam R. The ten- 
sion of the spring which holds the catch is such that the inertia of 
the weights is not sufficient to prevent the catch from follow- 
ing this movement when the engine turns at its normal speed; 
but when this passes the proper limit, the inertia of these weights 
makes the catch oscillate and leave its contact with the stem of 
the escapement. Consequently the valve F is not raised by the 
escapement and there is no exhaust, the cylinder retaining the 
products of combustion from the preceding explosion. No ex- 
plosive mixture is drawn in, therefore, and no ignition can be pro- 
duced so that the motor slows down. When the engine reaches its 




FIG. 196. Petroleum-engine on the Millot sys- 
tem; top of cylinder. 



220 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



normal speed, the governor ceases to act and exhaust commences 
again. 

Fig. 197 is a cross section of the Wayne gas and gasoline-engine, 
showing the position and operating gear of the gas-valve, inlet-valve, 
and exhaust-valve. 

The operating cam, which is mounted on a short secondary 
shaft geared to the main shaft, throws the rocker-arm to the left, 
this movement being imparted to the valve-rod opens the exhaust- 
valve A. The spring D returns the rod when it is released by 
the cam and opens the gas-valve C, as the spring D is much stronger 
than the seating spring on the gas-valve stem. The gas-valve de- 
livers fuel to the valve B, 

EaT 



which is opened directly 
into the combustion cham- 
ber by atmospheric pres- 
sure. Thus during a nor- 
mal charging-stroke the 
valve-rod is entirely re- 
leased by the cam, and 
by means of the spring 
D holds open the gas- 
valve, which it releases 
at the end of this stroke, 
and the rod takes an in- 
termediate position during 
the compression and working strokes. At the end of the working 
stroke the cam comes into position and pushes the valve-rod clear 
out, thus opening the exhaust. 

This cycle is repeated so long as the speed is at or near the nor- 
mal value, but when the speed is excessive the governor raises the 
end of a latch, which engages a lug on the rocker-arm actuating the 
valve-rod, thus holding it back and allowing the gas-valve to remain 
closed so that air only enters the cylinder through the admission- 
valve. 

In Figs. 198 and 199 are shown the details of the valve gear, 
valves, and ignition gear of the Blaisdell double-acting four-cycle 
engine, having two cylinders placed tandem. 

The valves, which are shown in Fig. 198, are of the poppet type, 




FIG. 197. Cross section of cylinder and valves 
of the Wayne engine. 



TYPES AND DETAILS OF THE EXPLOSIVE MOTOR 221 

working vertically, and are held to the seats by means of springs. 
The inlet-valve, it will be noticed, is located immediately above the 
exhaust-valve, thus causing the incoming charge to impinge upon 
it and to pass over the exhaust- valve, thus keeping the temperature 
comparatively low and rendering it unnecessary to circulate water 
through the valves. The inlet-valve is placed in a cage, which is 
readily removable, thus exposing the exhaust-valve, the latter being 
readily removed through the opening normally filled by the cage. 




FIG. 198. Section of valves. 



FIG. 199. Valve gear. 



The exhaust- valve chamber is water-jacketed, thus preventing the 
overheating of its stem and guide. 

The igniter and valves are operated by means of a cam on the 
side-shaft, one cam being used to operate both the inlet and exhaust- 
valves. The igniter mechanism is illustrated in Fig. 199 and rep- 
resents a special form of make-and-break contact operated by the 
eccentric. The eccentric-rod rests in a small forked timing lever 
forming one arm of the rock-shaft, which, however, is not a part of 
the igniter proper, thus permitting the latter to be removed without 
disconnecting or otherwise disturbing any other parts. 




222 



TYPES AND DETAILS OF THE EXPLOSIVE MOTOR 223 

The engine is started with compressed air, one cylinder being 
operated by air pressure until the other cylinder receives an im- 
pulse, after which the engine continues to run on its own fuel. 



THE NURNBERG GAS-ENGINE 

The following illustrations present the more important, as well 
as the especially interesting, features of the Nurnberg gas-engine aa 
built by the Allis-Chalmers Company, Milwaukee, Wis. This en- 
gine has been designed especially for the use of blast-furnace gas and 
consequently all the details of construction have been developed 
with a view to adapting the engine to the perfect utilization of this 
fuel, as well as coke-oven gas, producer gas, and Mond gas. 

Thus far the Nurnberg engine has been built in large sizes only, 
viz., in units ranging from 250 to 3,200 actual horse-power. 

The engine is of the four-cycle, double-acting type. The opera- 
tions taking place at each 
end of each cylinder are on 
the Otto cycle, hence the 
results accomplished in each 
end of the cylinder are the 
same as in the single-act- 
ing Otto engine, and, there- 
fore, each end of the cy- 
linder is provided with 
three distinct valves. First, 
the inlet-valve, admitting 
either air or combustible 
mixture into the cylinder; 




FIG. 201o Section of piston-rod guide. 



second, the gas-valve, regulating the amount and period of gas 
admission to the cylinder for each impulse; and third, the ex~ 
haust-valve. 

Fig. 200 is a longitudinal section of the engine, showing the gen- 
eral arrangement of the interior and the location of the valves, while 
Figs. 201 and 202 are cross sections between the cylinders and 
through the valve chambers, respectively. The inlet and exhaust- 
valves are of the usual poppet type, positively operated by a simple 
form of valve gear, a general view of which is shown in Fig. 203. 



224 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 




The inlet- valves open approximately when the crank reaches one 
dead centre and close approximately when the crank reaches the 

opposite dead centre. The 
gas-valve is operated 
by a governor-controlled 
mechanism illustrated in 
Fig. 202. This type of 
gear is what is known as 
the "Marx" patent gear, 
which has proved to be 
especially well adapted to 
operating the valves of 
large-sized gas-engines. 

Referring to Fig. 203, 
the forked rod A is ac- 
tuated by an eccentric on 
the lay-shaft, the upper 
end of A being carried by 
the swinging link B. To 
the pin C is pivoted the 
hook D, which engages 
the outer end of the rolling 
lever E, the inner end of 
which is connected to the 
gas- valve stem. Lever F 
is provided with a curved 
upper edge, upon which 
lever E rests. One end 
of the lever F is fulcrumed 
upon a pin fixed in the 
valve-bonnet, while the 
outer end is raised and 
lowered by the arm G, 
which is actuated by the 

governor through the arm 
FIG. 203. Gas-valve mechanism. 

When the outer end of lever E is drawn downward by the hook 
D, the rocking motion imparted to E lifts the inner end, and with it 



FIG. 202. Section through valves. 




TYPES AND DETAILS OF THE EXPLOSIVE MOTOR 225 



the gas- valve, the hook releasing the lever E at the end of the pis- 
ton stroke. The easy seating of the gas- valve is assured by means of 
the dash-pot J. It will be seen that as the outer end of the lever F 
is lowered by the governor, the motion of lever E is modified so that 
the gas-valve is lifted later in the stroke of the piston. Thus, by 
varying the position of the lever F the opening of the gas-valve 
can be effected at any point in the stroke according to the power 
demand and the consequent speed and position of the governor. 
The gas-valve opens quick- c 

ly and closes instanta- 
neously, but is prevented 
from pounding the seat by 
the dash-pot. The ex- 
haust-valve is opened by 
a simple rolling lever 
operated by an eccentric 
on the lay-shaft as shown. 

The results obtained 
by this simple valve gear 
are the opening and clos- 
ing of the air and mixing 
valves, as well as the ex- 
haust-valves, while the 
crank is close to the dead 
centres, and the opening 
of the gas-valve earlier or 
later in the stroke accord- 
ing to the variations in 
the load. The retardation 
of the opening of the gas- 
valve is accompanied by a proportionate throttling of the gas. 

The Westinghouse vertical motor is a model of compactness 
and is shown in sectional detail in Fig. 204, and as built for natural 
gas has a usual compression of 120 pounds, with an explosive 
pressure of 350 pounds per square inch, exhausting at 30 pounds at 
full load, which decreases as the load falls. 

All valve movements are operated from a single-cam shaft A. 
One of the features in this design is the location of the admission 




FIG. 204. Section of Westinghouse vertical 
engine. 



226 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OILENGINES 



and exhaust-valves in line, and both operated by push-rods and 
levers from cams on the shaft A, both valves being held to their 
seats by springs. The admission-valve B is mounted in a bonnet 
C, and can be removed without removing other parts. This also 
allows room for taking out the exhaust-valve and its seat F when 
required. 

Duplex hammer-spark ignition is employed and, when conven- 
ient, with a direct reduced current from a lighting circuit. A con- 
spicuous feature in this design is the housing of the cranks, trunk- 
pistons, cam-shaft, cams, and push-rod rollers; all of which can be 
quickly got at through movable doors in the box-frame. 

In the sectional view (Fig. 205) are shown some of the details of 
construction of the double and opposite-cylinder engine of the Amer- 




FIG. 205. Sectional view of one-half of engine. 

ican type of the Crossley engine. Some notable features of this 
design are the casting of the cylinder, water-jacket, cylinder-head, 
and exhaust- valve chamber in separate pieces and bolting them 
together. This allows of the novelty of water- cooling ribs on the 
cylinder. The water cooling of the piston for large engines is ac- 
complished by circulating sections in the piston and a flexible pipe- 
connection to traverse with the piston. 

The crank-shaft has a centre- crank and the connecting-rods 
work on one crank-pin, one rod having a single box and the other a 
forked end with a box in each fork. 




.s . 

-^ - 



o 

8.8 



Q -2 



1 1 
II 
II 



227 



228 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



In Fig. 206 are shown the details of a double engine working 
upon a single crank and pin, one rod having a single box and the 
other a forked end with two boxes. 

In Fig. 207 is shown a section of a water-cooled balanced ex- 
haust-valve used on the American Crossley engine. 

It is of the poppet type and the relation between the valve and 
its seat is the same as in the ordinary mushroom 
form of valve. An oscillating arm, receiving mo- 
tion from the cam on the secondary shaft, oper- 
-ates the valve. The valve and stem are hollow 
and water for the purpose of internal cooling is 
conveyed through the pipe shown at the top in 
the cut. The water escapes around this pipe 
through a second pipe, the direction being in- 
dicated by arrows. This valve has the unusual 
advantage of travelling in double guides, one on 
each side of the exhaust, which prevents the 
pressure from within from throwing it out of 
alignment with the seat. Oil-ducts, for the pur- 
pose oL lubricating the guides of the valve-stem 
FIG. 207. Water- and valve-shell, are shown in the cut. The ex- 
cooled balanced naus t_valve chamber is a separate piece, bolted to 
the under side of the cylinder, and can be taken off 
without interfering with any other working parts of the engine. 

In Fig. 208 are shown the vaporizer and water-cooled valve 
chambers of the new Crossley oil-engine. It is essentially a kero- 
sene and distillate-oil engine, but a claim is made that crude oil 
may be equally useful as explosive fuel. It will be noticed in this 
design that an air-snifting valve makes a water-spray into the 
vaporizer near to the oil-spray inlet, making an explosive compound 
of oil, air, and water-atoms to be ignited by compression and an 
igniter- tube projecting within the vaporizer, as shown in the small 
cross section. 

The outside ribs on the vaporizer facilitate the heating of the 
chamber when starting and are also for regulating the temperature 
while the motor is running. 

The water element in this combination of explosive fuel allows 
of excessive compression without preignition, otherwise possible. 




TYPES AND DETAILS OF THE EXPLOSIVE MOTOR 229 

In Fig. 209 is represented a detailed section of a late type of the 
Olds gasoline-engine. A notable feature, apart from the position 



AIR SHIFTING 
VALVE 




SECTION ON X-X 

FIG. 208. Section of vaporizer and valve chamber. New Crossley. 

of the valve chambers in the head of the cylinder, is the making of 
the cylinder and jacket in two pieces bolted together by contact 
with the head, which is bolted to lugs on the cylinder. 




FIG. 209. Section of type A, Olds engine. 



230 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



WATER OUTLET 

I 



WATER INLET- 



STATIONARY 
ELECTRODE 



- "vVATER JACKET 



The inlet-valve and seat are encased in a double-seated flanged 
cage, which is easily removed to allow the exhaust- valve to be drawn 
out through the opening. 

The exhaust- valve is operated by a cam on the reducing shaft, 
two bell-cranks, and a push-rod. 

In Fig. 210 is shown a vertical section of the Walrath three-cylin- 
der engine of the four-cycle type, and in Figs. 211 and 212 a plan of 

the cylinder-head and valve- 
levers and a vertical section 
of the water-cooled exhaust- 
valve as applied to the larger 
engines of 50 horse-power. 

The general style of con- 
struction is shown in Fig. 
210, which gives a cross- 
sectional view of the engines 
with cylinders 12 X 12 inches 
or smaller. The base, cast in 
one piece, is bored to receive 
the cylinders, crank, and cam- 
shaft bearings. The main 
bearings, being a separate cast- 
ing made to fit a correspond- 
ing circular bore in the base, 
can readily be removed with- 
out disturbing the crank-shaft. 
The cylinders are bolted 
on the top of the base, fitting 
into the bore made to receive 
them, as shown. 

FIG. 210. Cross section of vertical engine. The valves> Q f the pop pet 

type, are two in number, one serving as the inlet for the explosive 
mixture and the other acting as the exhaust-valve. In all en- 
gines of over 10 horse-power the valves are placed in cages which 
fit into the cylinder-head. By having the joint between the cages 
and the head ground, it is the work of but a few minutes to remove 
either valve when desired. In the larger engines a special water- 
cooled valve, illustrated in Fig. 212, is employed. 




TYPES AND DETAILS OF THE EXPLOSIVE MOTOR 231 

The valves are operated by a cam-shaft revolving at just one- 
half the speed of the crank-shaft. This is accomplished by a train 
of three spur gears, which, with those used to drive the governor, 
are the only gears used on the engine. This cam-shaft operates 
both the valves and the igniter for all of the cylinders. 

The pistons are extremely long to give enough surface to reduce 
the wear on the cylinder and pistons to a minimum. This is a vital 
point in cases where the piston must perform the additional services 
of a cross-head, for when short, undue wear will result, giving ne- 
cessity for extensive repairs and large repair bills. 



WATER INLET 




FIG. 211. Cylinder-head and valve- 
levers. 



FIG. 212. Water-cooled exhaust- 
valve. 



To reduce the friction and wear on the pistons from the angu- 
larity of short connecting rods they are all made three strokes in 
length. The boxes at both ends are of bronze, while the rod itself 
is of forged steel. 

The igniter is of the break-type and consists of a casing holding 
two electrodes, one of which is stationary and insulated from the 
main body of the casting. The other electrode is movable and 
operated by a cam, which causes it to make and break contact with 
the insulated electrode. The contact points are composed of a 
special metal, which is adapted to withstand great heat. 

The governor is of the fly-ball type, driven by means of bevel 



232 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



gears. It operates a piston- valve which regulates the amount of 
explosive mixture required for each impulse to maintain a steady 
speed under all conditions and variations of load. This method of 
governing gives an impulse every second revolution for the one- 
cylinder type, every revolution in the two-cylinder, and every two- 
thirds of a revolution in the three-cylinder type, no matter what the 
load may be. 

A starting device is provided upon all engines above 20 horse- 
power, and can be supplied on the smaller sizes. An air-pump, gen- 



CHARGE VOL= 1 



COVPRECGION VOL= 25 



EXPANSION VOL 1.7 




FIG. 213. The Lister two-cylinder motor. 

erally driven by a small pulley on the engine crank-shaft, charges 
a storage tank with air at a pressure of from 100 to 200 pounds. 
A starter-lever of the piston type, operated -by a cam, admits the air 
above the piston, which moves downward. The valve then opens 
communication between the engine-cylinder and the atmosphere, 
which causes the air to be exhausted. The engine goes through a 
series of such operations until an explosion of the gases takes place. 
In Fig. 213 we illustrate a two-cycle design of English origin 
(the Lister), in which two pistons are connected to a single crank- 
pin, by which a direct impulse is given to the crank when it is on the 



TYPES AND DETAILS OF THE EXPLOSIVE MOTOR 233 

ceatre. The three positions of the pistons and crank-pin are shown 
in the three sections of the cut. 

It will be seen that two cylinders, A and B, are arranged parallel 
to each other above the crank-shaft, A being the exhaust and B the 
inlet-cylinder, connected by a common compression chamber at 
their inner ends. The pistons are joined by the connecting rods, R 1 
and R 2 , to two corners of the triangular frame, as shown, the other 
corner being attached to the crank-pin C. The movement of the 
frame is constrained by the radius-rod L, the other end of which is 
jointed to the casing of the engine. Ignition of the compressed 
charge takes place when the pistons are in the position shown by 
2. The crank rotates in the direction of the arrow, so that piston 
B travels faster than piston A, and has approached the end of its 
out-stroke by the time the latter piston has arrived at the exhaust- 
port. Their positions are then as in 3. When the exhaust-port 
is uncovered the pressure drops to atmospheric, and piston B, 
then passing an inlet-port communicating with the enclosed crank 
chamber, allows a volume of air to pass through the check-valve 
into the cylinder B, in order to scavenge the cylinders from the 
products of the previous explosion. The piston B then commences 
its stroke again in advance of piston A, forcing out a quantity of air, 
and nearing the end of its in-stroke at the time the exhaust-port is 
closed by piston A. The position of the pistons before compression 
is shown in 1. Shortly before the closing of the exhaust-port a 
charge of gas or gasoline is pumped into the cylinder B, forming an 
explosive mixture with the air previously drawn in. In engines, 
the close governing of which is not essential, the charge may be 
drawn into the crank chamber with the air, and thence delivered to 
the cylinder, thus doing away with the necessity for pump-charging, 
though the advantages of scavenging are lost by this arrangement. 
The mixture is compressed as the pistons approach the upper end of 
the cylinders, ignition is effected by any of the usual methods, and 
the cycle is repeated as before, one explosion taking place to every 
revolution of the crank-shaft. It will be noticed that the initial 
volume of the charge is increased by from 50 to 70 per cent, before 
the exhaust, allowing more work to be obtained from the fuel to- 
gether with a lower exhaust pressure. The ratio of expansion 
volume to compression volume is as 6 to 8. The design permits of 



234 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



the connecting rods being kept very short, and they are so propor- 
tioned that at no point of the stroke do they make a greater angle 
with the centre line of the cylinders than 5 ; thus the pressure on the 
cylinder walls and the consequent wear are very small. The com- 




FIG. 214. Section Weiss kerosene-oil motor. 

bined effective-power strokes of the two pistons are approximately 
equal to 1.8 times the crank-stroke, the compression portion of the 
return-stroke amounting to 1.2 times the crank-stroke. 

In Fig. 214 is illustrated the working detail of the Weiss kerosene- 
oil engine in a sectional elevation showing the conical vaporizer 
E D enclosed in a shell for confining the lamp flame when starting 
and to keep the outer walls hot when the engine is running. 




FIG. 215. Oil-pump and pick blade. 

A front view of the vaporizer at the lower left-hand corner 
of the cut shows the extended web surface. The small spring- 
held oil-valve at h holds the oil between it and the pump intact 
during the impulse-stroke. The small oil-pump at g is operated 



TYPES AND DETAILS OF THE EXPLOSIVE MOTOR 235 

by the pick-blade c, with a hit-or-miss charge, governed by the 
momentum of a small weight sliding on an inclined plane, the 
amount of charge and the interruption being readily adjustable. 

In Fig. 215 is shown an enlarged section of the oil-pump and 
pick-blade. The injection by the movement of the motor-piston is 
of pure air drawn into the crank-case by the forward motion of the 
piston and compressed ; when at the opening of the cylinder-port at 
the end of the impulse-stroke, the compressed air is injected into 
and guided to the head of the cylinder to meet the vaporized oil 
in the vaporizing cone. Compression and the heat of the vapor- 
izer fire the charge at the proper moment. 




FIG. 216. Sectional elevation of Bollinckx gas-engine. 

In Figs. 216, 217, 218 we illustrate some of the details of a novel 
type in a four-cycle gas-engine of the scavenging type, made by the 
Societe Anonyme des Moteurs a Gaz A. Bollinckx, at Buysinghen, 
Belgium, in which compression is carried up to 165 pounds per 
square inch, and a special scavenging arrangement expels the burnt 
gases after the explosion, thereby increasing the efficiency and pre- 
venting premature explosion. The governor is of the hit-or-miss 
type, and ignition is effected by electric spark, produced by a mag- 
neto machine. 



236 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



The frame is very heavy and strong, being cast in one piece in 
the smaller sizes, and is designed to serve as an oil catcher. The 
bearing brasses are in four parts, of cast iron lined with white 
metal. The cylinder, which is shown in section in Fig. 216, is 
separate from the frame, and the latter is provided with spiral 
fins in the water-jacket, so that the cooling water is compelled 
to follow a spiral path round the cylinder, producing the maxi- 
mum effect. On withdrawing 
the cylinder it is easy to clean 
the water spaces of sediment 
and incrustation. The crank- 
shaft is of steel and is provided 
with rings to receive oil from 
a fixed lubricator, the oil 
being driven into the crank- 
pin by centrifugal force. Com- 
plete automatic lubrication has 
been avoided, as the makers 
believe that the attendants 
trust too implicitly in such 
devices, with the consequence 
that accidents result The 
crank-shaft is very massive, 
and is fully counterbalanced by counterweights attached to the 
crank-webs. The crank end of the connecting rod is fitted with 
phosphor-bronze bushings, and the small end with a cylindrical 
cast-iron bushing, working on a pin of hardened steel. 

The piston, as usual, is provided with a large surface bearing on 
the part of the cylinder which is not directly heated by the hot 
gases, the diameter of the piston being reduced at the back end. 
Only one ring is exposed to the highest temperature, the remainder 
working in the cooler portion of the cylinder. The admission and 
exhaust-valves work vertically, as shown in Fig. 217, the former 
above the latter, and are especially easy to inspect, while their ar- 
rangement tends to prevent wear. A drain-cock, shown in Fig. 216, 
permits the removal of oil, which might collect in the bottom of the 
cylinder and cause premature explosions. The valves are driven 
by means of a cam-shaft and cam B (Fig. 217), actuated from the 




FIG. 217. Section through admission 
and exhaust-valves. 



TYPES AND DETAILS OF THE EXPLOSIVE MOTOR 237 



main shaft by skew gear; at the end of the explosion-stroke the 
exhaust-valve is opened and allows the burnt gases to escape, and at 
the end of the return-stroke the admission-valve is opened to admit 
the scavenging current of air, which is sucked in by virtue of the 
high velocity and inertia of the exhaust gases, producing a partial 
vacuum in the cylinder. The vertical arrangement of the valves is 
more costly than other systems, but has been preferred on account 
of its superiority. 

The cylinder is lubricated by a special sight-feed lubricator, 
with a catch-feeder for the piston-pin. 

Ignition is produced by means of a small magneto-dynamo car- 
ried on the engine. Inside the cylinder there is a fixed insulated 
contact and a finger, which normally rests against the contact, 
under the control of a spring. The armature of the magneto C 
(Fig. 218) is pushed round through an angle of about 90 by lever 
A, operated by the cam-shaft, and on its release is quickly pulled 
back by spring R, thus 
causing a momentary 
but powerful current to 
flow through the finger 
to the contact in the 
cylinder; at the same 
moment the finger is 
suddenly drawn from 
the contact, breaking 
the circuit and produc- 
ing a very intense spark. 




FIG. 218. Ignition mechanism. 



Moreover, the spark is just as intense when the engine is being 
started, and the compression is weak, as when the engine is run- 
ning at full speed. The action of the igniting device is a most 
novel one and well worthy of study in regard to the part revolu- 
tion of the armature of the magneto generator, taking place at a 
uniform speed at the starting of the engine, however slow, and the 
trip of the circuit-breaker at a positive and adjustable time. 

The governor is of the centrifugal type, with provision for adjust- 
ing the speed while running, and actuates a small fork which deter- 
mines whether the admission-valve shall be opened or remain closed 
for one or more cycles. 



238 GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 

THE SCAVENGING ENGINE 

A slight increase in the power of an explosive motor is claimed 
from the discharge of the products of combustion in the clearance 
space at the moment of the close of the exhaust-stroke, by holding 
open the exhaust-valve until the crank is slightly passed the centre 
and mechanically giving a free opening to the air-inlet valve or a 
supplementary valve arranged to give a free air-inlet at the right 
moment. 

The addition of a lengthy exhaust-pipe, with bends instead of 
elbows, gives the rapid-flowing exhaust a momentum that produces 
a slight vacuum or draught in the combustion chamber and through 
the air-inlet valve, which sweeps out the products of combustion and 
fills the clearance space with fresh air, while the piston is nearly 
stationary at the end of the exhaust-stroke. An exhaust-pipe of 
about 100 times the length of the stroke, with the muffle-pot at the 
end of the pipe, has been found to give the best effect. A saving of 
about 20 per cent, per brake horse-power has been shown by scav 
enging over non-scavenging engines as constructed by the Crossleys 
in England. For this type the valves must be located on opposite 
sides of the cylinder and so arranged that the gases of combustion 
will pass out with as little friction as possible. The Crossley four- 
cycle scavenging engine was designed with curved cylinder-head and 
piston-head to conform to least friction, but any motor with valves 
in line on opposite sides of the cylinder can be given the scavenging 
effect, more or less efficient according to the valve and exhaust-pipe 
arrangement. 

Nor is it necessary to adjust the inlet-valve for air alone to enter 
at the moment of scavenging, as there can be but little loss in scav- 
enging with the explosive charge. A considerable increase in the 
explosive pressure may be obtained, with" a consequent increase in 
the power of the motor, from a full charge of explosive elements. 

COOLING RADIATORS FOR WATER-JACKETED AUTOMOBILE MOTORS 

Experiments in cooling the water of the cylinder-jackets of 
automobiles has shown that a dead-black surface is the best liberator 
of heat from the circulating water and that black-iron pipe is supe- 



TYPES AND DETAILS OF THE EXPLOSIVE MOTOR 239 



rior to copper or brass. If the iron pipe is tightly wound with No. 10 
black-iron wire one fourth of an inch apart, the efficiency of the 
cooling-coil will be largely increased. 

Rapid circulation of the water is also a factor of the best work of 
the radiator. The proportion of heat-unit power in an automobile 
varies greatly with the speed, as does also the air-cooling effect; 
so that at all speeds a given-size radiator should control an even 
water temperature. 

The proportion of total radiating surface in the cooling coils when 
placed in front with a free access of air varies somewhat with makers, 
but many approximate 30 square inches for each square inch of 
heating surface that is water-jacketed in the cylinders. 

The driving of a fan behind the radiator for drawing air through 
it when hill-climbing, or when the wind is strong in the direction the 
automobile is running, is one of the later devices and a much-needed 
improvement. 

THE FAN-COOLED MOTOR 

In Fig. 219 is shown a fly-wheel fan consisting of light wings at- 
tached to the front face of a fly-wheel, and the wheel and fan encased 
to direct the air-blast directly on to the 
motor-head and cylinder air-cooling 
flanges. This system has been the 
subject of English experiments with 
the following results: 

When enclosed in a suitable case, 
arranged to concentrate the whole blast 
on the engine, it took only ^ f a 
horse-power at full speed, and gave a 
blast of 25 to 28 miles per hour. It 
kept the engine rather cooler than 
when running full speed on the road 
without the fan. 

It is generally admitted that no air- 
cooled engine can work at full power 
continuously without overheating, ex- 
cept when running at a very high speed 
with a light weight on a level track, and 




FIG. 219. Motor-driven air- 
blast. 



240 GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 

with a high gear suitable only for racing. Where such a machine 
is required to climb hills on a low or medium gear, some makers fit 
a little fan to stir the air around the head of the engine, but the ma- 
jority are reverting to water-cooling as the only satisfactory method. 
It seems to be generally considered that the power wasted in driv- 
ing the fan is greater than the power gained by more effective cool- 
ing. This misconception arises chiefly from inefficient methods 
of constructing the fan and applying the cooling blast. The fly- 
wheel fan absorbed so little power that it was very difficult to detect 
or measure the power absorbed. By employing a small electric 
motor to run the fly-wheel alone in its bearings (the piston and the 
rest of the engine gear being removed) with and without the fan 
attached, it appeared that the power absorbed at 2,000 revolutions 
did not exceed -^ of a horse-power, which is quite negligible in 
comparison with other losses. This very small outlay of power, 
properly applied, makes all the difference, when carrying a load of 
five hundred weight up a long hill, between the motor overheating 
hopelessly and coming to a stop in the first half-mile, and racing up 
the whole three and a half miles at full throttle. 



THE EXPLOSIVE-MOTOR CLUTCH 

The clutch for facilitating the starting of explosive motors has 
become a most essential adjunct of every motor plant. The later 
designs are automatic in their action, and when once closed with the 
driven machinery increase their frictional resistance by automatic 
closure. The creeping of clutches, with its consequent loss of power 
and wear due to the impulse operation of the explosive motor, has 
been overcome and creeping is automatically arrested by increase of 
frictional pressure. 

In Fig. 220 we illustrate a front view and in Fig. 221 a section 
of a pulley or gear-clutch of the Carruthers-Fithian type, as used on 
motors of from 5 to 35 horse-power. 

The hand-wheel 8 locks the screw-sleeve 9 by pushing and 
turning the wheel in the direction that the motor is running, which 
pushes the cross-head 3 and the rack-bars in, revolving the gears 
4 on right and left screws, which throw out the friction-shoes to 
contact with the friction rim. Then drawing the hand -wheel back 



TYPES AND DETAILS OF THE EXPLOSIVE MOTOR 241 

locks the wheel in the dentals of the nut and screw-sleeve, when 
the motion of the motor tightens up the friction automatically. 




FIG. 220. Front view of clutch. 



FIG. 221. Section of clutch. 



In Figs. 222 and 223 we illustrate their worm-gear clutch for the 
larger motors of from 40 to 150 horse-power. The operation of 
throwing the clutch in is much the same as with the smaller clutch, 
only that the transmission is through three spur-gears and worm- 




FIG. 222. View, worm-gear clutch. 



FIG. 223. Section, worm-gear 
clutch. 



gears on the right and left screws, which operate the friction-shoes 
with great power. 



242 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



Engine Fly Wheel, Showing- 
[Method of Attaching Clutch 



These clutches are made by the Carruthers-Fithian Clutch Com- 
pany, Grove City, Pa. 

In Fig. 224 is a section of the B and C gas-engine clutch, which 
consists of three main parts : the pulley, the carrier, which is bolted 
to the arms of the engine fly-wheel and acts as a journal of the 
pulley, and the gripping mechanism, which consists of a gripping 
plate, spindle, and cam-levers. The clutch has a side-grip which 

eliminates the effect of centrifugal 
force and insures a positive release. 
Two rollers are mounted on the 
end of the spindle, which works in 
and out through a hole in the grip- 
ping plate, and journaled on the end 
is the operating hand-wheel, which 
can be held in the hand regardless 
of the speed of the engine. Bearing 
on the rollers are cam-levers, which 
in turn are pivoted on the gripping 
plate, and lugs on the levers abut 
against the adjusting screws. These 
adjusting screws go through a flange 
on the carrier, and are locked in place 
by lock-nuts, which also hold the 
gripping plate in position. 

In the operation of the clutch, 
when the spindle is pulled out against 
the stop, the pulley is free to turn on 
the carrier-journal and when pushed in is gripped in a circular 
vise and turns with the engine fly-wheel. The load can be taken 
up as gradually as desired by pushing in the hand-wheel slowly, 
and released at will by pulling it out. Made by the Whitman 
Manufacturing Company, Garwood, N. J. 




FIG. 224. Gas-engine clutch. 



REVERSING GEAR FOR MARINE ENGINES 

A five-spur gear-reversing clutch (Fig. 225) is much in use on 
marine engines in which the gears are constantly oiled by the dip- 
ping of the shaft gears in the oil-trough below. The gear on the 



TYPES AND DETAILS OF THE EXPLOSIVE MOTOR 243 




FIG. 225. Reversing gear. 



wheel-shaft is fixed to the shaft and driven for forward motion by a 
friction-clutch sleeve feathered on the end of the motor-shaft. 

For reversing, the yoke- 
lever is thrown over and 
engages the feathered 
sleeve in the clutch of the 
idle gear on the motor- 
shaft, when the back- 
motion is transmitted 
through this reverse-gear 
train to the propeller- 
shaft. The clutches are 
of the expanding ring type. 
Made by the Michigan 
Motor Company, Grand 
Rapids, Mich. 

A simple and effective 
reversing gear for marine motors, made by the William H. Brodie 
Company, 45 Vesey Street, New York City, is illustrated in 
Fig. 226. 

It consists of three bevel gears and a clutch-sleeve; the sleeve is 
on the motor-shaft with a traverse spline and friction-drive on the 
shaft bevel wheel. 

The bevel wheel on the propeller-shaft is fixed to the shaft, while 

the bevel wheel on the motor- 
shaft runs loose. 

The third bevel wheel 
runs on a pin fixed to the 
box-frame. When the lever 
is thrown forward the sleeve 
is thrust against the friction 
surface of the propeller gear 
and the other bevel gears 
run loose. When the 
lever is thrown to the cen- 
tre all the gears are in re- 
pose. For the back motion of the propeller, the lever is thrown 
back and the sleeve engages the friction of the loose motor 




244 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



gear and reverses the propeller through the action of the idler 
gear. 

In Fig. 227 is shown a sectional detail of the Mietz and Weiss re- 
versing friction-clutch as used on their marine oil-engines. 

It consists of an oil-tight cast-iron drum made in two sections 
and is keyed to the shaft. 

Inside of this drum is a steel stub-shaft on the inner end of which 
is keyed a friction-driving cone. There are two friction-disks with 




FIG. 227. Mietz and Weiss reversing clutch. 

beveled gears and interposed pinions on a bronze sleeve, which is 
prevented from rotating by a key in its bearing, screwed to the base 
of the engine. This bronze sleeve is free to slide longitudinally. 
The two friction-disk bevel gears rotate around this sleeve and are 
held in place by means of split-washers. 

On the forward motion the stub-shaft, to which the propeller- 
shaft is coupled, is brought forward by means of the lever, and the 
friction-driving cone on its inner end engages the inner surface of 
the drum, imparting a forward motion direct from the engine-shaft 
to the propeller, the thrust of the propeller thus acting directly 
on the friction-cone and on the thrust-ball collar at the engine- 
bearing. 

On the reverse, the lever is thrown back, thus releasing the for- 
ward thrust of the driving cone, and bringing its inner friction 
surface directly in contact with the friction surface of the first bevel 



TYPES AND DETAILS OF THE EXPLOSIVE MOTOR 245 

gear, while the second gear, engaging the inner friction of the drum, 
imparts through the interposed pinions a reversed motion to the 
stub-shaft and thence to the propeller. 

A central position of the lever disengages the friction surface 
from the drum entirely, so that the engine may continue to run idle 
while the propeller is at rest. 

The thrust of the propeller on the forward motion exerts its 
entire force directly against the friction surfaces, without the assist- 
ance of toggle-levers or cams, the whole connection from the engine 
to the propeller acting as one shaft. On the reverse, the tension of 
the propeller upon the shaft exerts its force against the reverse- 
gearing and inner-driving surface of the drum in the desired direc- 
tion. The lever must be locked in its forward, central, or reversing 
position. 

SPEED GEARS FOR AUTOMOBILES 

Fig. 228 illustrates a speed gear of the Doris type. To the upper 
shaft are fastened three gears corresponding to the three pinions, 




FIG. 228. Automobile change-speed gear. 

and in addition an internal gear outside the casing and of compara- 
tively large diameter. A pinion is mounted upon the lower shaft, 
at the end thereof, adapted to mesh with the internal gear, but is 
normally held out of mesh by means of a coiled spring at the end of 
the shaft. The pinion is mounted upon a long sleeve surrounding 
the shaft and extending through the bearing into the casing. The 
set of three shifting pinions is shown in the position of slow forward 
speed. By moving them to the left the second and third speeds are 
engaged in succession, and after the gears of the third speed are out 
of mesh, if the motion is still continued, the sliding pinions will abut 



246 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



against the sleeve of the reverse pinion, and shift the pinion into 
mesh with the internal gear against the pressure of the spring. 




FIG. 229. Automobile change-speed gear. 

Fig. 229 illustrates a speed gear of the Petteler type French 
in which A is the driving shaft with fixed gears; B, collar on spear- 




FIG. 230. Winton automobile change-gear. 

Reference Numbers: 19, gear-case; 81. high-speed shifting-yoke; 32, high-speed cone; 34, 
high-speed gear; 35, high-speed clutch-pin; 36 high-speed gear; 38, low and reverse-speed 
shifting-yoke; 39, low-speed gear; 40, low-speed pinion; 41, low and reverse-speed clutch-ball ; 
42, counter-shaft gear; 44, reverse-speed pinion; 45 r reverse-speed gear; 46, reverse-speed 
idler-gear; not shown. 116, high-speed clutch-ball; 117- high-speed clutch-dog; 118, high- 
speed gear dog-plate; 119, high-speed friction-disk; 120. emergency-brake drum; 121, low- 
speed clutch-dog; 122. low-speed clutch-plate; 123. low-speed cone; A, reverse-gear combina- 
tion with idler; B low-speed gear combination; C, high-speed gear combination. 



TYPES AND DETAILS OF THE EXPLOSIVE MOTOR 247 




FIG. 231 Motor-starter. 



shaped blade-rod for operating the plungers for clutching the for- 
ward-motion gears; C, collar to a sliding conical sleeve that oper- 
ates the plungers for the back motion through an idler gear, not 
shown. 

In Fig. 230 is illustrated the change gear of the Winton auto- 
mobile-motor, of which the sub-references indicate the parts which 
are operated by two shift- 
ing yokes controlling the 
speeds and reverse. 

A novel starting device 
for small motors on runa- 
bouts or other light car- 
riages, an English design, 
is shown in Fig. 231. A 
starting wheel B, with ob- 
lique saw-teeth, is fixed on 
the motor-shaft A. A sprocket chain C C' is wound on a drum 
containing a coiled spring D, so arranged as to rewind the chain 
with a stop J, so as to allow it to hang free from the ratchet- 
wheel when the finger-loop at E is dropped to the eye in the 
vehicle floor. G is the sheave; K the slotted guide-plate; F the 
lanyard. To start, pull on E to catch the chain in the teeth of 
the wheel and with a jerk set the wheel revolving, and, if neces- 
sary, repeat. 

AN AUTOMATIC FOOT-TREADLE 

In Fig. 232 is shown a device for controlling the motor of an auto- 
mobile, which is made by the Turner Brass Works, Chicago, 111. 

The great advantage claimed for this device is that it gives com- 
plete control of the two most vital parts of an automobile, viz., 
the spark and throttle on carbureter, by having automatic means of 
setting and holding either in any position, operating either one sep- 
arately, or both simultaneously, as desired, with one foot. 

This leaves both hands free for operating the wheel or clutch- 
lever and one foot for whatsoever duty it may be desired, such as 
for operating the brake. 

In starting the motor, the carbureter throttle can be thrown wide 
open and held there by the ratchet, while the spark can be set to 



248 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



just the point where practice and best judgment dictates it should 
be set to give the best chance of starting. It also gives one the 

advantage of being able to alter 
the speed while vehicle is standing 
and slow the motor down to any 
speed desired, while for checking 
the speed of a car no better or 
more efficient means could be 
devised than to throttle carbureter 
and retard the spark simulta- 
neously, as can be done with this 
attachment by the simple opera- 
tion of tilting the two pedals 
together. In starting the vehicle 
the carbureter can be first thrown 
on full and the spark advanced 
gradually to suit speed of motor. 
This device is easily applied, being self-contained. The lugs on 
treadle are sufficiently large to allow for pinning on shoes or ex- 
tension-shafts, which can be carried to the opposite side of the 
automobile when occasion demands. 

In Fig. 233 is illustrated the safety device of the E. R. Thomas 




FIG. 232. Automobile motor-con- 
troller. 




FIG. 233. Safety automobile device. 



TYPES AND DETAILS OF THE EXPLOSIVE MOTOR 249 

Motor Company, Buffalo, N. Y., used for preventing automobiles 
from backing on uphill grades, should the motor stop from any 
cause. By its use the car cannot back on the steepest hill. 

Every Thomas automobile is equipped with the Thomas safety 
device, a peculiar ratchet cast integral with the brake and sprocket- 
drum on the rear hubs, the co-acting pawl being pivoted to the 
brake-spider. It is operated by a hand lever on the right side of the 
dashboard to which the pawl is connected by a wire cable. This 
safety device positively prevents the car from backing downhill 
should the engine stop. It can be used in place of the brake when 
stopping on a hill. This makes the Thomas car particularly adapted 
for use in hilly sections, and renders accidents from backing an im- 
possibility. It is one of their distinctive and exclusive features. 

The devices for controlling the motion of vehicle-motors and 
the speed of automobiles are most numerous, and to which many 
pages might be devoted, perhaps without furthering the object of 
this work, which is naturally confined to the principles and con- 
struction of the explosive motor alone; yet there are so many 
points in the application and use of this novel power, so many ad- 
juncts required in its successful adaptation for all purposes, that 
their illustration seems necessary in order to extend such details for 
the satisfaction of the inquiring reader. 

The application of this new power to, and its development of 
high speed in automobiles, racing boats, and for direct-connected 
electric-generating power, depending, as it does, upon the highest 
designing and constructive art, has made a marvellous progress 
during the past few years. 

Although we have endeavored to bring out in this work, by 
illustration and description, the most essential features of the ex- 
plosive motor and its adjuncts, there is still a large field open 
for development of economy in design and construction, while the 
field of invention is not yet near exhaustion. 

Its many points of advantage in power for vehicle and launch- 
service will no doubt make it the leading type in the future for 
this particular service. 



CHAPTER XVII 

THE MEASUREMENT OF POWER 

THE methods of measuring power are of but two general forms 
or principles, although the individual machines or instruments 
for accomplishing the measurement are of many kinds and of a 
variety of construction. 

The one form is especially adapted for the measurement of the 
available power of prime movers under the various conditions of 
the application of their elementary power constituents, by the ab- 
sorption of their whole output of power at the point of delivery 
and there record the value of its force and velocity. Its represen- 
tative is the brake-dynamometer, or Prony's brake, in the various 
details of construction that it has assumed as designed and applied 
to meet the views or fancies of mechanical engineers. 

The second form is a marked departure from the structural form 
of the first, and with the principle in view of placing as little ob- 
struction as possible to the transmission of power from the prime 
mover to the receiver of power, to measure the actual net or differ- 
ential tension of a belt or gear, and with its velocity indicate the 
exact amount of power delivered to a line of shafting or a machine. 
These are called transmitting dynamometers in distinction from the 
absorption dynamometers of the Prony type. They are of two 
kinds, one with a dial and index-pointer, by which the hand on the 
dial must be constantly watched and recorded for a length of time 
and a mean pressure obtained from the varying record. The other 
carries a self-marking register moved by clockwork, by which the 
actual pressure is a constant record for any desired time, or a full 
clay's work, the only personal observation required being the speed 
of the pulley or belt or its average throughout the time or day. 

In Fig. 234 we illustrate the first form, a simple absorption 
dynamometer or Prony's brake, named after its inventor, in which 
A is the radius of the pulley-drum or shaft to which resistance may 
250 



THE MEASUREMENT OF POWER 



251 



be applied; B, the length of the lever from the centre of the shaft 
to the point of attachment of the spring scale or other means of 
measuring the tension of the lever; C, a spring scale, which is pref- 




erable for light work within its range; and N N, lever-nuts for quick 
control of the pressure. 

In Fig. 235 is presented a simple and inexpensive arrangement 



252 GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 

of a power-absorbing brake for a large driving pulley or finished 
fly-wheel, in which a belt is lined with blocks of wood spaced and 
fastened to the belt with screws or nails, a few of the blocks pro- 
jecting over the edge with shoulders to prevent the belt from run- 
ning off the pulley. 

Spring scales may be purchased of the straight and dial pattern 
up to one or two hundred pounds capacity at reasonable figures, and 
are a source of satisfaction in showing the amount of vibration due 
to irregular pulsations of the motive element and crank motion. 
Where the measurement of power beyond the range of a spring 
balance is required, the use of a platform scale or any other weighing 
device may be made available. With a platform scale the light 
wooden strut E (Fig. 235) may be adjusted to any length of lever, 
vertically reaching from the platform to the horizon line B, from 
the centre of the shaft; lanyards or any convenient means being 
used to keep the end of the lever from swaying. 

Water from a squirt-can is the best lubricant for this class of 
dynamometers, as it can be easily thrown upon the face of the 
pulley at the interstices of the blocks and lagging, and by its quick 
evaporation carries off the heat generated by friction. Soapy water 
has been used to good effect in preventing irregular pressure or 
stickiness of the friction surfaces. 

It matters not in what direction the brake-lever is placed to 
suit the convenience of observation, so long as the pull of the scale 
is made at right angles to the radial line from the shaft centre. Its 
weight, as indicated on the scale, with the friction-blocks or strap 
loosened in any position that it may be set, should be noted and a 
record made of the amount, which must be deducted from the total 
observed weight of the trial. If it is necessary to reverse the posi- 
tion of the lever or the relative direction of the motion of the pulley 
(as shown in Figs. 234 and 235), then the weight of the lever must be 
added to the weight shown by the scale under trial. When the 
platform scale is used the weight of the lever must necessarily be 
downward and should be deducted from the weight shown by the 
scale under trial. Making D equal the diameter of the face of 
the pulley, fly-wheel, or shaft upon which friction is applied, in feet 
or decimals of a foot, B the length of the lever from the centre of 
the shaft to the point of the scale suspension, A the radius of the 



THE MEASUREMENT OF POWER 



253 



pulley fly-wheel, or shaft, also in feet or decimals of a foot, and R the 
number of revolutions of the shaft per minute : the weight used in 
the formula must be the net weight of the power stress, or the gross 
observed weight less the weight of the lever. Then 

T> 

Dx3.1416xRX-rX weight 

= horse-power, 



or 



33,000 
Bx 6.2832 XRXW 
33,000 



= horse-power. 



H 



-rX weight = the stress or pull at the face of the pulley, and Dx 
A 

3.1416 XR = the velocity of 
the face of the pulley or of 
the belt that it is to carry. 
In Fig. 23.6 is represented 
a simple and easily arranged 
differential strap-brake or 
dynamometer for small mo- 
tors of less than two horse- 




FIG. 236. Differential strap-brake. 




FIG. 237. Differential rope-brake. 



power. It consists of a piece of belting held in place on the pul- 
ley by clips or only strings fastened parallel with the shaft to 
keep the belt from slipping off; two spring scales, one of which is 



254 GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 

anchored and the other attached to a hand-lever to regulate the 
compression of the belt upon the surface of the pulley, when the 
differential weight B C on the scales may be noted simultaneously 
with the revolutions of the pulley. The simple formula 

D X 3. 1416 XR X differential weight 

33,000 = horse-power. 

Fig. 237 illustrates a rope-absorption dynamometer or brake 
with a complete wrap on the surface of the pulley, very suitable 
for grooved pulleys or fly-wheels used for rope- transmission. In 
this form the friction tension may be regulated with a lever as at A. 
The weight W in the formula is the differential of the opposite 
tensions of the two scales, or B-C = W (Fig. 237), and the formula 

DX3.1416XRXW 
will then be: 00 AAn = horse-power, as in the notation 

oo,UUU 

(Fig. 236). 

Thus it may readily be seen that the difference of the pull in 
a rope or belt on the two sides of a pulley, multiplied by the velo- 
city of the rim in feet per minute, and the product divided by 
33,000, gives the horse-power either absorbed or transmitted by 
the rope. 

THE MEASUREMENT OF SPEED 

The revolutions of a motor may be readily obtained by an 
ordinary hand-counter, with watch in hand to mark the time; but 
for accurate work and to show the variations in the fly-wheel speed 
by the intervals of revolution between impulses, and especially the 
effect of mischarges or impulses due to governing the speed, there is 
no more accurate method than by the use of the centrifugal counter 
or tachometer. 

These instruments are designed to show at a glance a continuous 
indication of the actual speed and its variation within 2 per 
cent, by careful handling of the instrument. The tachometer (Fig. 
238), with a single-dial scale three inches in diameter, reads from 
100 to 1,000 revolutions per minute, and by changing the gear for 
the range of gas-engine indication the actual revolutions will be 
one-half the indicated revolutions, which divided by 2 will repre- 
sent the actual speed. In this manner a very delicate reading of 



THE MEASUREMENT OF POWER 



255 



the variation in speed may be obtained. For testing the variation 
of speed in electric-lighting plants operated by gas, gasoline, or oil- 
engines, there is no method so satisfactory as by the use of the 
tachometer. 



/\ 





FIG. 238. The tachometer. 



FIG. 239. The triple-indexed 
tachometer. 



The triple-indexed tachometer (Fig. 239) is a most convenient 
instrument for quickly testing and comparing speed of great differ- 



256 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



ences, as the motor and the generator, by simply changing the 
driving point from one to another gear stem. These tachometers 
are made by Schaeffer and Budenberg, New York, and may be or- 
dered for any range of speed, from 50 to 500 for gas-engines and 
from 500 to 2,000 for generators, in the same instrument or separate 
as desired. 

THE INDICATOR AND ITS WORK 

We have selected among the many good indicators in the market 
the one most suitable for indicating the work of the explosive en- 




FIG. 240. The Thompson indicator. 

gine. The Thompson indicator as made by Schaeffer and Buden- 
berg, New York, and illustrated in Figs. 240 and 241, is a light and 
sensitive instrument with absolute rectilinear motion of the pencil, 



THE MEASUREMENT OF POWER 



257 



with its cylinder and piston made of a specially hard alloy which 
prevents the possibility of surface abrasion and insures a uniform 
frictionless motion of the piston. It is provided with an extra and 
smaller-sized cylinder and piston, suitable with a light spring for 




FIG. 241. Section of indicator. 

testing the suction and exhaust curves of explosive motors, so use- 
ful in showing the condition and proportion of valve ports. 

The large piston of the standard size is 0.798 inch in diameter 
and equal to J square-inch area. The small piston (Fig. 242) is 
0.590 inch in diameter and equal to 0.274 square-inch area, so that 
a 50 or 60 spring may be used in indicating explosive engines with 
the small piston, which will give cards within the range of the 



258 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



paper for low-explosive pressure but full enough to show the vari- 
ations in all the lines. With the 100 spring and J-inch area of pis- 
ton 250 pounds pressure is about the limit of the card, but with 
this size piston a 120 or 160 spring is more generally used. 

The pulley V is carried by the swivel W, and works freely in 
the post X; it can be locked in any position by the small set 
screw. The swivel-plate Y can be swung in any direction in its 
plane and held firmly by the thumb-screw Z. Thus with the 




FIG. 242. Small 
piston.- 




FIG. 243. The reducing pulley. 



combination the cord can be directed in all possible directions. 
The link A is made as short as possible, with long double bear- 
ings at both ends to give a firm and steady support to the lever 
B, making it less liable to cause irregularities in the diagram 
when indicating high-speed motors. 

The paper drum is made with a closed top to preserve its 
accurate cylindrical form, and the top, having a journal-bear- 
ing at U in the centre, compels a true concentric movement to 
its surface. 

The spring E, and the spring-case F, are secured to the rod 



THE MEASUREMENT OF POWER 259 

G by screwing the case F to a shoulder on G by means of a thumb- 
screw H. 

To adjust the tension of the drum-spring, the drum can be 
easily removed, and by holding on to the spring-case E, and loosen- 
ing screw H, the tension can readily be varied and adapted to any 
speed, to follow precisely the motion of the engine-piston. 

The bars of the nut I are made hollow, so as to insert a small 
short rod, K, which is a great convenience in unscrewing the indi- 
cator when hot. 

The reducing pulley (Fig. 243) is a most important adjunct 
of the indicator. The revfclving parts should be as light as possible 
and are now made of aluminum for high-speed motors, with pulleys 
proportioned for short-stroke motors. In the use of indicators 
for high-compression motors it is advisable to have a stop-tube in- 
serted in the cap-piece that holds the spring and extending down 
and inside the spring so as to stop the motion of the piston at the 
limit of the pencil motion below the top of the card. This will pre- 
vent undue stress on the spring and extreme throw of the pencil 
when, by misfires, an unusual charge is fired. With the smaller 
piston and the usual 100 or 120 spring any possible explosive pres- 
sure may be properly recorded. 

The proximity of the indicator to the combustion chamber 
is of importance in making a true record of the explosive action 
of the combustible gases on the card. The time of transmission of 
the wave of compression and expansion through a tube of one, two, 
or three feet in length is quite noticeable in the distortion of the dia- 
gram. It shows a delay in compression and carries th'e expansion 
line over a curve at the apex lower than the maximum pressure, 
and by the delay raises the expansion curve higher than the actual 
expansion curve of the cylinder. An indicator for true effect should 
have a straightway cock screwed into the cylinder. 



VIBRATION OF BUILDINGS AND FLOORS BY THE RUNNING OF 
EXPLOSIVE MOTORS 

Since this class of engines has so largely superseded small 
steam-power, and the vast extension of their use in the upper part 
of buildings due to their economy for all small powers, the trouble 



260 GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 

arising from the vibration of buildings and floors by their running 
has largely increased. 

The necessity for placing motive power near its point of appli- 
cation has resulted in locating gas, gasoline, and oil-engines in light 
and fragile buildings and on floors not capable of resisting the slight- 
est synchronal motion. 

This subject has been often brought to our notice since the 
advent of the gas-engine in the lead for small powers. It is a dif- 
ficult question to advise remedies for it, from the variety of ways in 
which the effect is produced. Synchronism between the time 
vibration of a floor and the number of revolutions of the engine is 
always a matter of experiment, and can only be ascertained by a 
trial in varying the engine speed by uniform stages until the vibra- 
tion has become a minimum. Then if the engine speed of least 
vibration is an inconvenient one for engine economy, or for the 
speed layout of the machinery plant, a change may be made in the 
time vibration of the floor by loading or bracing. The placing of 
a large stone or iron slab under a motor will often modify the in- 
tensity of the vibration by so changing the synchronism of the floor 
and engine as to enable the proper speed to be made with the least 
vibration. 

A vertical post under the engine is of little use unless it ex- 
tends to a solid foundation on the ground; nor should a vertical 
post be placed between the engine-floor and floor-beams above, 
as it only communicates the vibrations to any floor in unison with 
the vibrations of the engine-floor. 

A system of diagonal posts extending from near the centre 
of a vibrating floor to a point near the walls or supporting columns 
of the floors above or below, or a pair of iron suspenders placed 
diagonally from the overhead beams near their wall bearings to a 
point near the location of an engine and Strongly bolted to the floor- 
beams, will greatly modify the vibration and in many cases abate 
a nuisance. 

In the installation of reciprocating machinery on the upper 
floors of a building in which the reciprocating parts of the motor, 
as a horizontal engine, are in the same direction as the reciprocating 
parts of the machines (as in printing press-rooms) the trouble from 
the horizontal vibration has been often found a serious one. It 



VIBRATION OF BUILDINGS 261 

may be somewhat modified by making the number of the strokes of 
the engine an odd number of the strokes of the reciprocating parts 
of the machine. 

It is well known to engine-builders that explosive motors, like 
high-speed steam-engines, cannot be absolutely balanced, but their 
heavy fly-wheels and bases go far toward it by absorption, and the 
best that can be done with the balance is to make as perfect a com- 
promise of the values of the longitudinal and lateral forces as pos- 
sible by inequality in the fly-wheel rims. 

The jar caused by excessive explosions after misfires and muf- 
fler-pot explosions is of the unusual kind that cannot be easily 
provided with a remedy where the transmitted power is not uni- 
form, for where it is uniform there is ample regulation from the 
governor to make the charges regular, and if the igniter is well ad- 
justed there should be no cause for " kicking," as our European 
cousins call it. A good practice in setting motors is to locate them 
near a beam-bearing wall or column that extends to the foundation 
of the building. Many motors so placed are found to be free from 
the nuisance of tremor. 

The duplication of cylinders and the definite counter-balancing 
now in use has, in a great measure, modified these troubles and two 
and three-cylinder motors are in great favor where only unstable 
foundations are available. 



CHAPTER XVIII 

ON THE MANAGEMENT OF EXPLOSIVE MOTORS 

THE drift of constructive practice in the United States seems 
generally to be in the line of simplicity and least number of parts, 
in order to conform to the needs of the people that have the care of 
such motive power. The explosive motor now appeals to no ex- 
perience as an engineer for its care and running; yet it does seem 
to require some common sense as to cleanliness and the propriety 
of things that may assume a menacing or dangerous habit by 
neglect of some of the few points of attention required in persons 
having the charge of this rising prime mover. The ability to dis- 
cover leakage of gas or oil-vapors or the products of combustion in 
the pipe connections, through valves, or by a defective or worn 
piston; the thumping in journal-boxes, looseness of pins, and piston 
thump is easily acquired when a person assumes the care of an en- 
gine. The regulation of the explosive mixtures is fully explained 
in the instruction pamphlets and display sheets of the builders, and 
from the completeness of instructions furnished there seems nothing 
to fear in the first start of an explosive motor by any person of ordi- 
nary intelligence. 

Cleanliness being of the first order, due attention should be 
given to the cleaning of the cylinder, valves, and exhaust-pipe 
at stated intervals; in some motors at least once a month, in other 
motors several months may elapse without internal cleaning being 
necessary, apparently without detriment.- But we apprehend that 
the quality of the fuel has much to do with the fouling of the com- 
bustion chamber and exhaust-pipe, and therefore the quality of the 
fuel should be suggestive of the times indicated for internal clean- 
ing. Excessive use of fuel or a too rich mixture is the cause of 
many mysterious troubles, especially in motors using the heavier 
oils, as with kerosene, distillate, and crude petroleum containing a 
large percentage of carbon, which is not burned and becomes pre- 
262 



ON THE MANAGEMENT OF EXPLOSIVE MOTORS 263 

cipitated on the interior walls of the motor and the exhaust-pipe. 
The outside surfaces should be wiped off before starting or at the 
close of work every day, especially where the location is in a room 
with working people, as the odor of^ the lubricating oil is not agree- 
able when the oil is spread in excess over an engine. 

In workshops or rooms where dust prevails it is most desirable 
to enclose the motor in a small room by itself, well ventilated from 
without, for motor cylinders are mostly open and gather dust on 
their oily surfaces, and dust in the in-going air of combustion leaves 
grit and ashes in the cylinder. The oil for lubricating the cylinder 
should be the best "cylinder-oil" of the trade, and is sold by 
many dealers as "gas-engine cylinder-oil." It is not so expensive 
as to preclude its use for all the moving parts of an explosive motor, 
although a poorer quality is in general use. 

Automatic oil-feeders are almost universally furnished with 
these engines, so that there should be very little waste of oil. In 
cleaning the internal parts from carbon and oil crust, no sharp 
scrapers should be used on any rubbing parts or the bearing of 
valves. If unable to remove the crust with a cloth and kerosene 
oil, a hard-wood stick and oil will generally remove the incrustation 
down to the metal, while the valves, if not cut, only need rubbing 
on their seats with finely pulverized pumice or other polishing pow- 
der. Emery is not recommended, as valves often get too much 
grinding to their detriment by the use of this material. 

In starting a motor it should always be turned over in its run- 
ning direction, and when compression makes this difficult the relief- 
valve (most motors have one) or the exhaust or air-valve may be 
opened to clear the cylinder, if an overcharge of gas or a failure has 
been made at the first turn. 

In most cases turning the fly-wheel two or three revolutions 
will clear and charge the cylinder under the usual conditions for 
starting. With most of the large motors a starting device is pro- 
vided, which is described in the special exhibit of the explosive 
motors further on. 

Some of the troubles to be met are severe explosions after sev- 
eral misfires, by which the cylinder may become overcharged with 
the combustible mixture. This is often caused by irregular work 
on the engine, and the consequent scavengering of the cylinder of 



264 GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 

the products of previous explosions, replacing with pure mixtures 
at the next charge. Again, by a misfire from failure in the igniter 
an explosive charge is intensified at the next ignition or exploded 
in the exhaust-pipe. Other interruptions sometimes occur, such 
as the sticking of the exhaust-valve open by gumming of the spindle 
or a weak spring. From this may also arise some of the back-firings 
in the muffler and exhaust-pipe. All of these explosions taking 
place at irregular times may be attributed, first, to irregular work; 
second, to irregularity in the operation of the valve gear or igniter, 
and although not pleasant to the ear may not be considered dan- 
gerous, because the motors and all their parts subject to explosion 
are made equal in working strength to the greatest pressure made 
by such explosions. 

With the compression usual in motors, 40 to 60 pounds, the 
greatest force from misfire or back-fire explosives can scarcely 
reach 300 pounds per square inch in the cylinders and 150 pounds in 
the mufflers, unless, by a possible contraction of the exhaust-pipe 
by carbon deposit, a muffler-pot may have possibilities of rupture. 
In no case should an exhaust-pipe be turned into a chimney. With 
gas-engines the full power is sometimes not realized from insufficient 
gas supply. The gas bag is a good indicator of this condition, 
caused by a too small gas-pipe or a small meter, by which a flabby 
appearance of the gas bag shows that the motor is drawing more 
than the pipe or meter can supply with a proper working pressure. 

The muffler-pots have been known to accumulate water in cold 
weather, by condensation of the water vapor formed by the union 
of the hydrogen and oxygen of the gas and air, to such an extent 
as sometimes to cause fear in an attendant of a cracked cylinder 
and leakage of water in from the jacket circulation. 

The water should be drawn off occasionally from the muffler-pot 
by a cock. Gas-motors running with electric igniters sometimes 
do not start at first trial from the accumulation of air in the gas- 
pipe. Testing by a gas-burner or a second trial will show where 
the difficulty lies and its remedy. And, finally, much caution should 
be observed in examining the interior of valve chambers and the 
electric exploders by taking off caps or plugs and using a light near 
them until assured that fuel-inlets are closed and the motor has been 
turned over several times to clear it of all explosive mixture. The 



ON THE MANAGEMENT OF EXPLOSIVE MOTORS 265 

consequences of explosion from peep-holes are obvious. Even when 
a motor has been idle for a time it should be opened with the above 
caution. 

The adjustment of governors requires only care and a careful 
study of the directions for operating the engines, as there are too 
many variations in the designs and methods of adjustment for 
definite instructions under this head. Much care is required in 
renewing the ignition-tubes, especially after the spare tubes fur- 
nished with the engine have been all used. The same size gas-pipe 
and of the same length as the tubes furnished with the engine should 
be made and the end welded up or capped, so that they may con- 
tain the same volume as the original tubes. This caution will en- 
sure the uniform adjustment of the time of ignition by change of 
tubes; otherwise tinkering with the position of the Bunsen burner 
will not enable an attendant not experienced in regulating the time 
of ignition to regulate it with any degree of certainty. The regula- 
tion when once lost can be properly tested only by an indicator 
card. 

With a timing valve and the amount of lead for the return fire 
from the tube being known, the adjustment of the timing- valve 
throw can be made from the position of the dead centre of the crank 
at the end of the forward stroke. The timing lead is the time that 
is required for the mixture to pass the valve and become compressed 
in the igniting tube and the flame to return to the combustion cham- 
ber, as measured on the circumference of the timing- valve cam. 

Other than iron tubes are used, such as nickel-steel, aluminum, 
bronze, and porcelain, with satisfactory results. The porcelain 
tubes are made short and require a special fitting to adapt them to 
a chimney, or the chimney should be of special design (as shown 
in Fig. 68), for a cross impact of the flame of the Bunsen burner. 

There are many points in the management of explosive motors 
that cannot be discussed in a general treatise, arising from the 
varied details of design, in which special reference to the methods of 
operating the valve gears of igniters and governors of each indi- 
vidual design is required. The special instructions furnished by 
builders are ample for the operation of their motors, and if carefully 
studied lead to success in their operation by any person of ordinary 
intelligence or tact in handling moving machinery. 



266 GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 

Recent experience with gas, gasoline, and oil-vapor engines 
has brought out more strongly the good qualities of well-made ex- 
plosive motors, and placed them far ahead as a reliable, cheap, and 
easily managed motive power, even up to many hundred horse- 
power in a single installation. The application of power from ex- 
plosive motors for the generation of electricity for lighting and the 
transmission of power is no longer a mooted point of economy, but 
has become a fixed principle in the application of prime-moving 
power. The governing devices have been improved and applied 
in the line of uniform motion from intermittent impulse. An elec- 
tric gas-governing device for controlling the flow of gas to correspond 
with the required amperage is a new governing application that 
seems to break the last objection to the use of explosive motors for 
generating the electric current for lighting purposes. 

The hot-tube ignition seems to hold its own with increased life 
by the use of the nickel alloy and porcelain tubes as described in the 
article on Hot Tubes; for, while the electric spark has its advantages 
in many respects, it has likewise a few annoyances. When the spark 
or ignition fails, much detention may follow the search for the fault. 
The hidden contact-points, fouling of sparking insulation, battery 
faults and connections are to be looked after; or if a generator is 
used, the chances for faults in a constant-current generator are no 
less, but also become a cause of watchfulness. 

The alternating generator is now coming into use for furnishing 
the igniting current with prospects of an exactitude so long desired, 
and to obviate some of the exigencies of the controlling mechanism 
in the continuous-current system. 

As it is now well known that the full firing of an explosive charge 
is not instantaneous from the moment of igniton in the hot tube, 
and that the greatest mean pressure on the piston results from per- 
fect ignition of the whole charge at the moment of the passage of the 
crank over the centre, it becomes a matter of considerable impor- 
tance that the hot tube and Bunsen burner should be adjusted so 
as to allow the compressed fresh charge to reach the part of the hot 
tube at which the temperature is high enough to cause ignition of 
the charge at a moment just before the crank reaches its centre. 
The variable mixture of the charge, either from misfiring of a pre- 
vious charge or from the action of an over-sensitive governor, has 



ON THE MANAGEMENT OF EXPLOSIVE MOTORS 267 

made this adjustment heretofore somewhat difficult, especially 
where short-lived tubes were in use, for a change of tube usually 
varies the moment of ignition. Since the advent of the nickel alloy 
and porcelain tubes this difficulty has been greatly overcome, and 
the ignition tube has been restored to favor with many engine-build- 
ers who had adopted the electric system for its positive timing. 
The marine and automobile-engines, however, will probably hold to 
electric ignition from the obvious difficulty in managing a gasoline 
burner for such service. 

Many minor improvements of the past year have conduced 
to a general economy in running expense and to ease of manage- 
ment, among which may be noted a device on the White and Middle- 
ton and other engines, by the turning of which the time of sparking 
is retarded at starting, and the engine prevented from the possibility 
of starting backward by explosion before the crank reaches the 
centre. 

In this device the sparking push-blade has a double trip swiveled 
on the push-rod, the turning over of which changes the time of ig- 
nition. 

The use of a generator armature revolving within the sphere 
of a permanent magnet, and operated from a contact on the fly- 
wheel of the motor to a pinion on the armature, is in use on a large 
number of motors and is well adapted to the marine and automobile 
types. It is growing in favor, and appears from inspection to be a 
reliable and satisfactory device. 

In trials of gasoline-engines with gas-engines of the same size 
and construction, it has been found that the indicated horse-power 
from gasoline is from 12 to 20 per cent, higher than from illu- 
minating gas, when running at full power. This does not cor- 
respond with the assigned number of heat units per cubic foot of 
gasoline-vapor and illuminating gas; for gasoline-vapor has been 
credited with almost the same value in heat units with 16-candle- 
power illuminating gas. The excessive power of gasoline- vapor 
is probably due to modern methods in the manufacture of illu- 
minating gas, by which a large percentage of non-combustible 
element is produced in the form of carbon dioxide and nitrogen. 

These elements of non-combustion exist to a very large extent 
in producer and water-gas, which is well known to require a 



268 GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 

much larger engine for equal power with a high illuminating-gas or 
gasoline-engine. There is a tendency toward increase of com- 
pression to near its greatest theoretical economy, and engines are 
now in use with compression of 90 or more pounds per square inch, 
and with a clearance of 25 per cent., or less, of the space swept by the 
piston, with claims of from 14 to 12 cubic feet of illuminating gas 
per indicated horse-power per hour. 



POINTERS ON EXPLOSIVE MOTORS 

The explosive motor now appeals to no experience and respon- 
sibility of a professional engineer for its care and running, yet it 
does require much common-sense as to cleanliness and the propriety 
of things that may assume a menacing or dangerous habit by neg- 
lect of some of the few points of attention absolutely essential. 

The ability to discover and locate leakage of gas or oil- vapors, or 
the products of combustion in the pipe connections, through valves 
or by a defective or worn piston; the thumping in journals, loose- 
ness of pins, and piston thump, is easily acquired when a person as- 
sumes the care of an explosive motor. The regulation of the explo- 
sive mixtures is so fully explained in the instructions now sent out 
with the motors that there seems nothing to fear in their first start- 
ing by any person of ordinary intelligence. 

In the operation of these motors, cleanliness is of the first order, 
and due attention should be given to the cleaning of the cylinder, 
valves, and exhaust-pipe at stated intervals, according to the kind 
of fuel used. The highly carbonaceous gases and vapors require 
more attention in internal cleaning than those containing an excess 
of hydrogen and nitrogen constituent. 

In using highly carbonaceous gases and vapors, cylinders, valves, 
and exhaust-pipes need cleaning at least once a month, while with 
the cleaner fuels, several months may elapse without cleaning. 

The outer surfaces, boxes, and parts bespattered with oil should 
be kept clean, as well as the floor, which should have a zinc lining 
around the motor. Wiping up twice a day is none too much for 
cleanliness and the welfare of people working in the same room with 
a motor. 

It is better to enclose the motor in a small room by itself, well 



POINTERS ON EXPLOSIVE MOTORS 269 

ventilated from without; it keeps dust from the cylinder and foul 
odors from the workrooms. It pays to use the best cylinder-oil 
for all parts of a motor, as it requires less of the good oil than of the 
poor quality for lubricating any surface and is inducive of efficiency. 
In cleaning the internal parts, avoid the use of a sharp scraper on rub- 
bing surfaces and valve seats. A hard- wood stick and kerosene oil 
will generally do this work and save much after-trouble. 

For regrinding valves, emery should not be used; pulverized 
pumice-stone and oil do the work well without overgrinding. 

Some of the troubles met with in the operation of explosive 
motors are severe explosions after one or several misfires, by which 
the cylinder becomes overcharged with combustible mixture and 
on firing produces an excessive explosion and kick in the motor. 
This is due to irregular work of the motor or misfiring of the igni- 
ter. Other interruptions sometimes occur, such as the sticking of 
the exhaust-valve open by gumming of the spindle. From this may 
also arise the back-firing in the muffler-pot and exhaust-pipe, which, 
although not pleasant to the ear, is not considered dangerous, be- 
cause the motors and all their parts subject to this explosive force 
are made equal in working strength to the greatest pressure from 
such explosions. 

One possible evil is the rupture of a weak muffler-pot from the 
choking of the exhaust-pipe by soot a suggestion to make the ex- 
haust-pipe from the muffler-pot two pipe sizes larger than the usually 
assigned size for the motor. 

In examining the interior of an explosive motor, care should be 
taken to remove any gas or vapor from all chambers and recesses 
by closing their inlets and turning over the fly-wheel several times 
with the air-inlet open. This is most essential for safety in remov- 
ing plugs for examining the sparking electrodes. A few accidents 
have happened when looking at the sparking device through a plug- 
hole. 

An accumulation of air in the gas-pipe is sometimes the cause 
of failure in starting with an electric igniter, and often attributed to 
the failure of the spark. A search in both directions will find the 
true cause of failure. 

On purchasing a motor, the one who is to operate it should care- 
fully study the mechanism and the instructions, as the detail in 



270 GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 

operating the three kinds of fuel gas, gasoline, and kerosene or 
crude oil vary enough to require special inquiry for the operation 
of each kind. 

The method of ignition is also peculiar and requires special in- 
struction in either of the kinds of devices by which the motor is 
operated. Whether tube, hammer-spark, or jump-spark is selected, 
they are each so different in detail as to need special instruction. 

One of the annoyances in explosive-motor service is the incrus- 
tation of the water-jacket by lime. Hard water, or such as contains 
a considerable amount of carbonate or sulphate of lime, when used 
as a free-running stream, has been found to choke a water-jacket in 
a few months so as to render the jacket almost useless as a cooling 
device. To obviate this difficulty a cooling tank of about twenty 
gallons per horse-power should be used, set above the cylinder and 
of such a form as to give large surface to the air, with a free circula- 
tion on all sides. A round tank gives the least air-cooling surface, 
while a long tank of galvanized sheet-iron with vertical corrugated 
sides has given the most satisfactory service. 

By the use of a cooling tank charged with the best water attain- 
able, preferably rain-water, and a pound of caustic soda to each five 
gallons, an encrusted jacket can soon be cleaned, or the incrustation 
so loosened that it can be easily scraped and washed out through 
the core openings. Acid and water has been recommended and 
used; but such treatment is not as convenient as the soda-circula- 
tion. 

The manufacturer, if he understands his interests, usually fur- 
nishes sufficient explanatory matter to enable the operator to under- 
stand all details. Often this has been a failure, to the detriment of 
both maker and purchaser ; but if the seller thinks he can afford to 
be careless about this, the buyer need not, for all shut-downs and 
interruptions caused by failure to operate a motor satisfactorily 
are more or less expensive. 

For preventing the freezing of the water in the jacket or cooling 
tank in winter there is probably nothing better than a five per cent, 
addition of glycerine or a few pounds of chloride of calcium to the 
water of the cooling tank will prevent solid freezing in the coldest 
weather. For engines exposed to outside weather, ten per cent, 
glycerine may be used. 



POINTERS ON EXPLOSIVE MOTORS 271 

Finally, in starting a gas or gasoline-engine, it is well to remem- 
ber a few facts in regard to the explosive qualities of the gas or 
gasoline-mixture. It has been shown in other parts of this work 
that the proportions of gas or gasoline and air have their limits 
for explosive effect and that too much or too little of the fuel element 
is non-explosive. This is often the real trouble, when in starting a 
motor it refuses to go, in which case it is better to shut off the fuel 
and turn the fly-wheel over to clear the cylinder of the first charge 
with the relief-cock open; it should always be open in starting to 
save the severe work of compression. The same difficulty may 
also occur in charging a self-starting motor of the larger size, which 
cannot be turned over to relieve the cylinder of the misfired charge, 
but by lifting the exhaust-valve and charging lightly with some 
pure air or fuel, as the judgment of the engineer may suggest, the 
start may be made. Herein lies the value of positive and full in- 
struction that every builder of explosive motors should furnish with 
each motor sent out, as well as a practical lesson whenever possible 
to the person that is to operate the motor. 

Do not once think because a motor slows down by the turn- 
ing on of one or two more machines than it has been giving power 
to, that more fuel is all that is needed, for it may have been run- 
ning with more or less fuel than was due to the greatest mean 
pressure. It may be noted that 1 part good illuminating gas to 6 
parts air or 1 part of heavy oil-gas to 9 parts air, or 1 part gasoline- 
vapor to 8 parts air gives the quickest explosion, the highest 
explosive temperature, and the greatest mean pressure. Any de- 
partures from these proportions in the mixtures are weakening in 
their effects, and where the highest power and efficiency of the 
motor is required, any variation from the above-named proportions 
is not the most economical in practice. As between the hit-and- 
miss charges and the graduation of the charge in its best mixture, 
there has been and is a margin for discussion in which builders of 
explosive motors do not agree, and may not, until long experi- 
ence, trials, and new methods of regulation may lead to the best 
practice. 



CHAPTER XIX 

EXPLOSIVE-ENGINE TESTING 

FOR the reason that elaborate and complicated tests have been 
made and exploited in other works on the gas-engine, which may 
be referred to for the details of expert work, the author of this work 
has decided to reduce the practice of testing explosive motors to a 
commercial basis on which purchasers can comprehend their value 
as a business investment for power. The disposition of builders of 
explosive engines to follow the economics in construction in regard 
to least wall surface in contact with the heat of combustion, and of 
maintaining the wall surface at the highest practical temperature 
for economical running by the rapid circulation of warm water from 
a tank or cooling coil, leaves but little to accomplish, save the proper 
size and adjustment of the valves and igniters for the engines, in 
order that they may properly perform their functions. The in- 
dicator card, if made through a series of varying proportions of gas 
or gasoline and air mixtures, will show the condition of the adjust- 
ments for economic working. The difference between the indicated 
power for the gas used by the card and the power delivered to the 
dynamometer or brake shows the mechanical efficiency of the engine. 
The best working card of the engine should be a satisfactory test 
to a purchaser that the principles of construction are correct. A 
brake-trial certificate or observation should satisfy as to frictional 
economy, and the price and quantity of gas per horse-power hour 
should settle the comparative cost for running. The variation in 
the heating power of illuminating gas in the various parts of the 
United States is much less than its variation in price. Producer- 
gas is a specialty for local consumption, and its cost drops with its 
heating power. 

Apart from the actual cost of gas in any locality and the quan- 
tity required per brake horse-power, durability of a motor is one 
of the principal items in the purchase of power. 
272 



EXPLOSIVE-ENGINE TESTING 273 

In the use of gasoline, kerosene, and crude petroleum in explo- 
sive engines, their heating values are uniform for each kind, and as 
motors are generally adjusted for the use of one of the above hydro- 
carbons only, the difference of cost between these various fuels is 
the best indication as to the relative cost of power. 

No instruments have yet been contrived for giving the temper- 
atures of combustion, either initial or exhaust, in an internal-com- 
bustion motor; for at the proper working speed the changes of 
temperature are so rapid that no reliable observation can be made 
even with the electric thermostat, as has been tried in Europe. The 
computed temperatures are unreliable and at best only approxi- 
mate; hence the indicator card becomes the only reliable source 
of information as to the action of combustion and expansion in the 
cylinder, as well as to the adjustment of the valves and their proper 
action. 

The temperature of combustion as indicated by the fuel-con- 
stituents, and computed from their known heat values, gives at 
best but misleading results as indicating the real temperature of 
combustion in an explosive engine. There is no doubt that the com- 
puted temperatures could be obtained if the contaminating influ- 
ence of the neutral elements that are mixed with the fuel of com- 
bustion, as well as the large proportion of the inert gases of previous 
explosions, could be excluded from the cylinder, when the radiation 
and absorption of heat by the cylinder would be the only retarding 
influences in the development of heat due to the union of the pure 
elements of combustion. 

For obtaining the indicated horse-power of a gas, gasoline, or 
oil-engine, the mean effective pressure as shown by the card may be 
obtained by dividing the length of the card into ten or any con- 
venient number of parts vertically, as shown in Fig. 244, for a four- 
cycle compression-engine. For each section measure the average 
between the curve of compression and the curve of expansion with a 
scale corresponding with the number of the indicator-spring. Add 
the measured distances and divide by the number of spaces for the 
mean pressure. With the mean pressure multiply the area of the 
cylinder for the gross pressure. If there have been no misfires, then 
one-half the number of revolutions multiplied by the stroke and by 
the gross pressure, and the product divided by 33,000, will give the 



274 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



indicated horse-power. If there is any discrepancy along the at- 
mospheric line by obstruction in the exhaust or suction-stroke, the 
average must be deducted from the mean pressure. 

The exhaust-valve, if too small, or with insufficient lift, or a too 
small or too long exhaust-pipe, will produce back-pressure on the 
return line, which should be deducted from the mean pressure. A 
small inlet-valve or too small lift, or any obstruction to a free entry 
of the charge, produces a back-pressure on the outward or suction- 
stroke and a depression along the atmospheric line, which must also 
be deducted from the mean pressure. 

It is assumed that the taking of an indicator card must be done 
when the engine is running steadily and at full load. During the 




M 4 SI I ** 

FIG. 244. Four-cycle gas-engine card. 

moment that the pencil is on the card there should be no misfires 
recorded, in order that the card may represent the true indicated 
horse-power of the engine. The record of the speed of the engine 
should be taken at the same time as the card, but the measurement 
of the quantity of gas used cannot be accurately observed on the 
dial of an ordinary gas-meter during the few moments' interval of the 
card record and speed count. For the gas record, the engines should 
be run at least five minutes at the same speed and load and an exact 
count of the explosions made. The misfires or rather mischarges in 
an engine running with a constant load are of no importance in the 
computation for power because they are properly caused by over- 
speed, and the overspeed and under speed should make a fair balance 
for the average of the run as indicated by the speed-counter. 



EXPLOSIVE-ENGINE TESTING 275 

The number of cubic feet of gas indicated by the meter for a few 
minutes' run, multiplied by its hour exponent and divided by the 
indicated power by the card or the actual horse-power by the brake, 
will give the required commercial rating of the engine as to its 
economic power. The difference as between the cost of gas for the 
igniter and the cost of electric ignition is too small to be worthy of 
consideration. 

In testing with gasoline or oil the detail of operation is the 
same as for gas, with the only difference of an exact measure of 
the fluid actually consumed in an hour's run of the engine under 
a full load. The loading of an engine for the purpose of testing to 
its full power is not always an easy matter; although, when driving 
a large amount of shafting and steady-running machines, a brake 
may be conveniently applied to increase the work of the engine. 
In trials with a brake alone, a continual run involves some difficul- 
ties on account of the intense friction and heat produced, which 
makes the brake-power vary considerably and cause a like variation 
in the ignitions. 

Probably the most satisfactory method of testing the power of 
a motor is by its application to generate an electric current, which, 
if properly arranged in detail, allows the test trial to be continued 
for a length of time and makes the test a perfectly reliable one. For 
this purpose the motor may be belted to a generating dynamo of the 
same or a little higher rating than that of the motor. A short wir- 
ing-system with a volt and ampere-meter and a sufficient number 
of 16-candle-power lamps in circuit, of a standard voltage and known 
amperage, will indicate the power generated in kilowatts, to which 
should be added the loss of efficiency in the dynamo. 

From this data the actual horse-power of the motor may be 
computed, which with the fuel measurement and the speed of the 
motor during test trial is all that is needed for a commercial rating. 

In testing motors with ordinary illuminating gas under street 
pressure as used for lighting purposes, the ordinary meter measure- 
ment will be found correct, but with natural or other gas supplied 
at high pressures, the pressure should be reduced by a pressure- 
regulator, or by drawing the gas from a properly weighted gas- 
holder. A one-inch water-pressure in an inverted glass siphon gives 
the proper pressure for meter measurement. The details for the 



276 GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 

finer tests of explosive motors have but little commercial value and 
require much expert experience in the computations in such tests; 
so that for ordinary purposes in testing for best effect the cylinder- 
cooling water should be run long enough and with the engine run- 
ning at full load to establish an overflow temperature of 175 Fah., 
which has been found to give a good working efficiency in the cylin- 
der temperature. This may be readily obtained by regulating the 
quantity of flowing water. Then the actual measurement of the 
gas or other fuel and its cost as compared with the brake horse- 
power may be said to give a fairly just measure of its fuel-economy. 
The test of endurance is a strictly mechanical one due to design and 
quality of construction, which may be obtained, first, by inspection 
or detailed examination of the motor, and further from guarantee of 
the builder. 

BACK-FIRING IN EXPLOSIVE MOTORS 

The so-called back-firing may be located in the exhaust-pipe or 
passages and is usually caused by a misfired charge being fired by 
the exhaust of the next impulse-charge. It may be recognized by 
its peculiar sound and seen at the exhaust-pipe terminal. The 
cause of misfiring is a frequent effect of the uncertainty of hot-tube 
ignition in which there is variation in the temperature of the tube 
at the proper point, when the greatest compression occurs. This 
peculiar condition has brought out the use of timing valves in large 
engines. 

The regulation of engine speed by varying the gas charge makes 
a variation in temperature at the ignition of the charges and so 
makes misfires a persistent tendency. Short-circuiting of the elec- 
tric current in the break and jump-spark ignition systems is often a 
puzzling trouble to locate when the motor gets to kicking. 

There is another form of back-firing which is more perplexing 
still. It occurs in the inlet passage between the point of air admis- 
sion or mixing-valve and the actual inlet to the cylinder. The first 
and most readily perceived is a leaky inlet-valve, transmitting the 
combustion within the cylinder to the mixture without. The 
other is based on the theory that the combustion of a lean mixture 
or a rich mixture is a prolonged one, and that a lingering flame hold- 
ing over during exhaust-stroke and until the next opening of the 



BACK-FIRING IN EXPLOSIVE MOTORS 277 

inlet-valve fires the supply in the mixture chamber. Invariably it 
has been the case of the lean mixture, notwithstanding the foredrawn 
conclusion that it should be with the other, that the lean mixture, 
with its excess of oxygen, would be snapped up and quickly con- 
sumed; that the rich mixture, seeking out the last atom of oxygen, 
would linger in the inlet chamber, unexploded. 

Irregularity of explosion, often a source of apprehension as to 
back-firing, is due to extreme governing action at full or partial 
load, which may need no further investigation than to find and cor- 
rect, if the governor is not acting freely. A sticking action of the 
governor, often unnoticed, may lead to a suspicion of other troubles. 
The effect of irregular governing is shown in explosions of various 
strength in succession or at various intervals. 

This is one of the points requiring careful management in start- 
ing suction gas-motors with gasoline. The change from the feed- 
adjustment of a high-compression suction gas-motor for starting 
with gasoline should be so arranged as to allow of the least injection 
of gasoline that will produce an explosive charge, and thus avoid 
possible danger that may arise from a rich charge in a motor de- 
signed for weak charges. 



AND USE OF GASOLINE-ENGINES 

Rules and requirements of the National Board of Fire Under- 
writers for the installation and running of gasoline-engines. 

As these rules are standard for practically all of the United 
States, they should be of interest to both the manufacturer and 
the user of gasoline-engines. 

The rules for installation are as follows : 

1. Location of Engines 

a. Should, wherever possible, be located on the ground-floor. 

b. In workshops or rooms where dust and inflammable flyings 
prevail, the engine to be enclosed in a fire-proof compartment well 
ventilated to the outer air at floor and ceiling. 

c. If located on a wooden floor the engine to be set on a metal 
plate turned up at the edges. 



278 GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 

2. Supply-tank 

a. Shall be located outside the building, underground, where 
possible, at least thirty feet removed from all buildings, and below 
the level of the lowest pipe in the building used in connection with 
the apparatus. 

b. If impracticable to bury the supply-tank, the same may be in- 
stalled in a non-combustible building or vault properly ventilated, 
preferably from the bottom, always remembering that it must be 
below the level of the lowest pipe in the building used in connection 
with the apparatus. 

c. Auxiliary inside tanks, if used, shall not exceed one quart in 
capacity, and shall not be placed on, in, or under the engine, and 
shall be so arranged that when the supply-valve is closed a drain- 
valve into the return-pipe will be automatically opened. (See also 
paragraph 8, Note.) 

3. Piping 

a. None but tested pipe to be used. 

b. Connections to outside tank shall not be located near nor 
placed in the same trench with other piping. 

c. Openings for pipes through outside walls shall be securely 
cemented and made water and oil-tight. 

d. Piping to be run as direct as possible. 

e. Piping for gasoline-feed and overflow from auxiliary inside 
tank and feed-cup shall be installed with a good pitch so the gasoline 
will drain back to the supply-tank. 

/. Fill and vent-pipes leading to the surface of the ground shall 
be boxed or jacketed to prevent freezing of earth about them and 
loosening or breakage of connections. 

4. Muffler or Exhaust-pot 

a. Shall be placed on a firm foundation and be kept at least one 
foot from woodwork or combustible materials. 

5. Exhaust-pipe 

a. Exhaust-pipe, whether direct from engine or from mufflers, 
shall extend to the outside of the building, and be kept at least six 
inches from any woodwork or combustible material, and if run 
through floors or partitions shall be provided with ventilated 
thimbles. 

b. Shall in no case discharge into a chimney. 



FIRE UNDERWRITERS' REGULATIONS 279 

6. Care and Attendance 

Due consideration shall be given the cleaning of the cylinder, 
valves, and exhaust-pipe as often as the quality of the fuel may 
necessitate. 

The rules for construction are as follows : 

These rules are not to be considered as specifications for the shop 
construction of an engine, inasmuch as questions of design, efficiency, 
and operation are largely omitted. They cover only the outlines 
of construction of parts of special interest to the underwriters, and 
it should be noted that all engines conforming to the same are not 
of equal merit. 

7. Outside Supply-tank 

a. Must be constructed of iron or steel plate, securely riveted 
together or pressed into form. Tanks should be galvanized, or 
painted on the outside with rust-proof paint. 

b. Must be provided with a fill-pipe and a vent-pipe. 

c. The fill and vent-pipes to terminate in an iron box, cover of 
which should be flush with the ground, and locked with a padlock. 

These pipes should be provided with screen near the top and the 
box to be properly ventilated. 

8. Inside Auxiliary Tank 

Note : Auxiliary inside tanks with gravity feed are not advised 
as their use requires extra piping and fittings and an additional 
receptacle containing gasoline is introduced within the premises. 

The gasoline feed-cup provided for below is sufficient for all or- 
dinary purposes. 

a. Must not exceed one quart in capacity and must be construct- 
ed in an improved manner of brass or copper of at least No. 20 B. 
and S. gauge or else made in a casting. 

b. Must have no valves or plugs opening into the room with the 
exception of an air-vent. 

c. Must be provided with an overflow connection draining to the 
outside supply-tank. 

9. Gasoline Feed-cup 

a. Must be of cast metal rigidly secured to the engine-frame or 
mixing chamber, and must not exceed in capacity one-half pint. 

b. Must be provided with an approved controlling-valve or regu- 
lator. 



280 GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 

c. Must be arranged to prevent spattering, dripping, or exposure 
of gasoline during operation or with the engine at rest. 

d. Must be provided with an overflow connection draining to the 
outside supply- tank. 

10. Gasoline Feed-pump 

a. Should be of the simple single-plunger type with check-valve 
as close to the pump as convenient. 

b. No packing should be used on plunger of pump. 

11. Igniter or Exploder 

a. Electric ignition must be used. 

12. Muffler or Exhaust-pot 

a. Must be made equal in strength to the cylinder or other parts 
subject to effects of the explosion, and should be made in cylindrical 
or spherical form with as few joints as possible. 

6. Must be provided with a draw-off or drain- valve placed near 
the bottom and below the exhaust-pipe connection. 

13. Valves 

a. Shut-off valves must close against the gasoline supply, must 
be made of brass and have a stuffing-cap of liberal size arranged to 
force the packing against the valve-stem. 

b. No packing likely to be affected by gasoline to be used. 

c. Regulating valves, if not designed to close against the gasoline 
supply, or if used as a shut-off valve, must be provided with a special 
stuffing-cap having a follower-gland designed to hold and compress 
the packing. 

Note: Engine- valves of the poppet type should preferably be 
so placed that gravity will act with spring to keep the valve 
closed. 

14. Pipings and Fittings 

a. Tank and drain-piping must be of brass or iron, not smaller 
than f-inch size. Drain-pipe to be at least one size larger than 
supply-pipe. 

b. Connections by right and left couplings are advised in place of 
unions. 

If unions are used they must be of brass, with a ground conical 
joint, obviating the use of packing or gaskets. 

c. A filter must be provided in the gasoline supply-pipe located 
near the engine and accessible for purpose of cleaning. 



FIRE UNDERWRITERS' REGULATIONS 281 

Note : A substantial flange-fitting containing fine brass gauze is 
recommended for use as a filter. 

15. Engine Base 

a. Must not be used as a storage space for gasoline or any other 
material. 

b. It is recommended that the base be constructed with a groove 
or channel to prevent lubricating-oil from soaking into floors. 

16. Lubricating Oil-drips and Pans 

a. Must be provided where necessary to prevent the spilling 
of oil. 

6. Cranks and other rapidly revolving or reciprocating parts 
must be shielded to prevent throwing of oil. 

17. Name-plate 

a. Must be provided with a plate giving the name of the manu- 
facturer, the trade-name of the engine, and its rated horse-power. 

The Southeastern Tariff Association, operating in Alabama, 
Florida, Georgia, North and South Carolina, Virginia, and some 
other Southern States, uses the following gasoline-permit: 

Specifications to which all gasoline-engines must conform in 
order to be approved for their installation: 

1. Engines to be ignited by electric spark; tube-igniters not 
allowed. 

2. Storage-tanks for gasoline shall be located under ground, 
outside of the engine-room, and top of tank shall be below the level 
of the base of engine and not less than ten feet away from any build- 
ing. Gasoline must be drawn from the general supply-tank, either 
to the engine, or the auxiliary or secondary reservoir or receptacle 
into which the pump discharges, and out of which the gasoline is 
fed into the engine. The overflow of said auxiliary or secondary 
reservoir or receptacle must lead back to the main storage-tank 
and be of four times the capacity of the pump. 

3. Tanks to be cylindrical in shape and constructed as follows: 
viz., less than 200-gallon capacity to be of not less than J-inch 
steel throughout. Tanks of 200 to 300-gallon capacity to be of not 
less than -j^-inch steel throughout; heads to be stayed with iron; 
seams of all tanks to be securely riveted and caulked. Tanks to be 
coated with tar before being placed in the ground. No tank of 
larger than 300 gallons allowed. 



282 GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 

4. Pipes leading from storage-tank to engine must be put to- 
gether at every joint, metal to metal, with pipe-screw connections. 
Supply and overflow-pipes to incline toward tank in order that sur- 
plus gasoline may drain back to tank from building when engine is 
not in operation; hand- valves to be placed in each supply and over- 
flow-pipe outside of building, said valves to be closed when filling 
tank and when engine is shut down for the night. A vent provided 
with screw-cap must be attached to tank, said pipe to be open 
during filling. Storage-tank must be always filled by daylight, 
and all attachments between supply-wagon, tank-car, or barrels 
shall be tight-fitting screw-connections. 

5. Any form of carbureter or vaporizer (that is, engines with a 
carbureter or vaporizer so constructed that by the passing of air 
over or through the gasoline the explosive mixture is formed within 
the carbureter or outside of the engine cylinder) is prohibited. This 
rule will apply except where vaporizer or carbureter has been specif- 
ically approved by this Association. 



KEROSENE-OIL ENGINES 

In New York City gasoline-engines are prohibited. The follow- 
ing are the requirements of the New York Board of Fire Under- 
writers for the installation and use of kerosene-oil engines: 

Location of Engine 

Engine shall not be located where the normal temperature is 
above 95 F., or within ten feet of any fire. 

If enclosed in room, same must be well ventilated, and if room 
has a wood floor, the entire floor must be covered with metal and 
kept free from the drippings of oil. 

If engine is not enclosed, and if set on a wood floor, then the 
floor under and three feet outside of it must be covered with metal. 

Feed-tank 

If located inside the building, shall not exceed five gallons in 
capacity, and must be made of galvanized iron or copper, not less 
than No. 22 B. and S. gauge, and must be double seamed and sol- 
dered, and must be set in a drip-pan on the floor at the base of the 
engine. 

Tanks of more than five-gallon capacity must be made of heavy 



FIRE UNDERWRITERS' REGULATIONS 283 

iron or steel, be riveted, and be located, preferably, underground 
outside of the building. If there is no space available outside the 
building for a tank, it may, by written permission from this Board, 
be located in an approved vault attached to the building, or in a 
non-combustible and well-ventilated compartment inside the build- 
ing, but no such tank shall exceed five barrels capacity. 

Tanks, irrespective of the method of feed, must not be located 
above the floor on which the engine is set. 

The base of an engine must not be used in lieu of a tank as a 
receptacle for feed-oil. A tank, if satisfactorily insulated from the 
heat of the engine, and approved by the Board, may be placed inside 
of the base. 

In starting an engine, gas only, properly arranged, must be used 
to heat the combustion-chamber. 

A high-grade kerosene oil must be used, the flash test of which 
shall be not lower than 100 F. 

Oily waste and rags must be kept in an approved self-closing 
metal can, with legs to raise it six inches above the floor. 

The supply of oil, unless in an approved tank outside the build- 
ing, or in a non-combustible compartment, as above provided for, 
shall not exceed one barrel, which may be stored on the premises, 
provided same is kept in an unexposed location ten feet distant from 
any fire, artificial light, and inflammable material, and oil drawn by 
daylight only. 

A drip-pan must be placed under the barrel. 

Empty kerosene barrels must not be kept on the premises. 



CHAPTER XX 

GAS AND GASOLINE-MOTORS THE AMATEUR'S MOTOR 

WE illustrate in the following pages a gas or gasoline-motor 
most suitable for amateur workmen who wish to build for them- 
selves an experimental power-motor. The motor is of the four- 
cycle type of about 1J horse-power. The castings and all parts, 
even the necessary screws, with the blue prints for working finish, 
or the most difficult parts are furnished machined with the blue 




FIG. 245. The Weed gas or gasoline-motor. 

prints and instructions by The Sipp Electric and Machine Com- 
pany, Paterson, N. J. The blue prints contain all details of the 
parts and may be purchased separate, if desired, for $2.50 for the 
set. A complete set of the castings, parts, and screws, with the 
blue prints for $15; thus saving the most difficult part of the 
work for amateurs, the pattern-making. 

It will be seen that the push-rod from the crank on the secondary 
shaft operates the exhaust-valve and also the circulating-pump for 
forcing water from a tank near by; but when located where there 
is a flow of water, or if the use of an elevated cooling tank can be 
utilized, the pump may be left off. The action of the governor is 
284 



GAS AND GASOLINE-MOTORS 



285 




very simple; the end of the spindle drops into a notch in the valve- 
spindle when the speed is excessive, holding the valve open for 
miss-charge until the normal speed is regained. Where illuminating 



286 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 




gas is not available, an independent carbureter is supplied to 
produce an air and vapor gas from gasoline, using a rubber tube 
to connect the carbureter directly to the gas-cock nozzle. 



GAS AND GASOLINE-MOTORS 287 

MOTORS OF THE GEMMER ENGINE AND MANUFACTURING COMPANY, 

MARION, IND. 

The gas and gasoline-engines of this company are of the four- 
cycle type made on the standard principles of design. The valve 
and ignition-gear is novel in design; the governor, igniter-trip, and 
gasoline-pump are all operated from the reducing-gear pin by a 
connecting-rod to a slide to which the inertia governor and gaso- 
line-pump are attached, making a hit-and-miss regulation. 

The governor is very simple, consisting only of a weight, a 
hardened steel finger, and a small spring. The speed is changed 




FIG. 248. The Gemmer gas and gasoline-engine. 

by adjusting the spring by means of a knurled thumb-screw. This 
is easily done while the engine is running. 

The carriage rides on a steel slide, which gives it a very dura- 
ble bearing. An adjustable-gib provides for wear. 

In operation, when the engine is below normal speed, the gov- 
ernor-finger engages with the sliding bar, as shown in cut, driving 
it forward and opening the fuel-valve (the round stem shown at 
end of bar), permitting a charge to be drawn into the cylinder. 
As the carriage returns it engages with a pin on the bar and draws 
it back, and the igniter is snapped, igniting the compressed charge, 
and giving an impulse that brings the engine up to the proper 



288 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



speed. When above normal speed the governor-weight drags 
behind and causes the finger to miss the bar, letting it remain 
stationary. This leaves the fuel-valve closed, and only pure air 
is drawn into the cylinder, until the speed again falls below normal 
and the finger engages the bar as before. As shown, the igniter- 
trip is mounted on the sliding bar and moves only when it does, 
hence the igniter is snapped only when a fuel charge is admitted, thus 
more than doubling the life of the igniter-points and the batteries. 
The carriage operates the lunger of the pump, that draws 




FIG. 249. Valve and pump gear; Gemmer engine. 

the gasoline supply from a tank placed under the ground, outside 
the building, and forces it into a small reservoir above the vapor- 
izer. The plunger ends in a handle, that has a projection which 
fits in between two lugs on the carriage, and by which it is drawn 
back and forth. This plunger may be operated by hand, inde- 
pendently of the carriage, by simply raising the handle to a hori- 
zontal position. 

The operation and general principles of construction of the ver- 
tical engine are the same as the horizontal and, in general, the same 
description of details applies to this type. 



GAS AND GASOLINE-MOTORS 



289 




FIG. 250. Gemmer vertical engine. 



290 GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 

The cylinder is placed downward, with the crank-shaft up, as it 
can be lubricated much better and all parts, especially the piston 
and connecting-rod, are much easier to get at than if the cylinder 
were the other way up. 

The governor is attached to the reducing-gear. A A are the 
weights. When the speed is above normal, these weights fly out, 
overcoming the tension in the spring B and sliding hardened steel 
collar C toward the gear-wheel D, when the steel piece E on the 
lever F engages with the steel catch G and holds open the exhaust- 
valve. The exhaust-valve is opened by a cam W on gear D, 
pressing down on roller J mounted on a hardened steel pin in 
lever F, which presses down the stem H, opening the valve. When 
the speed returns to normal and the cam again presses down stem 
H the tension of the spring B brings the weights AA together, 
moving the collar C so that the E returning misses the catch G, 
permitting the valve to close, when the engine takes up its regular 
cycle. This governor is very sensitive and holds the speed con- 
stant, making the engine suitable for operating a cream-separator 
or any machine requiring a steady speed. 

The pump draws the gasoline from the supply tank, which 
may be placed outside of the building, thus complying with the 
insurance regulations. The engine is shipped with this tank in 
the wooden sub-base, as shown in the section. The pump may be 
worked by hand at will, which is a great convenience, as the gaso- 
line-vaporizer reservoir must be filled before starting. 

In the vaporizer the gasoline is fed through a sight-feed needle- 
valve and drops onto a brass wire screen, where it is caught by 
the incoming air and sprayed through other screens of graduated 
meshes, atomizing it perfectly. This vapor passes through the 
fuel-valve, opened at the proper time by the governor, and is 
mixed with the necessary amount of air for perfect combustion 
and enters the cylinder through the inlet-valve. Any possible 
mixture of vapor and air desired is obtained by simply turning 
the brass knob, which controls the passages to both the gas and 
air chambers of the vaporizer. 

The gas-engines of the Westinghouse Machine Company, East 
Pittsburgh, Pa., are built in the vertical and horizontal form of the 
four-cycle type peculiar to their unique design, and also a new 



GAS AND GASOLINE-MOTORS 



291 



type of double-acting model in single and cross-tandem units of 
great power. 

In Fig. 251 we illustrate a section of their standard vertical 
model which is built in units of one, two, and three-cylinder 
combinations, in sizes from 10 to 300-brake horse-power. 




FIG. 251. Westinghouse standard vertical gas-engine. 

Among the claims for special good service in the Westinghouse 
motors are pistons of unusual length, nearly twice their diameter, 
providing ample bearing surface. A cylinder centre-line offset from 
crank-centre on the impulse side, for reducing the angularity of 



292 GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 

the connecting-rod on the power stroke. All valve and igniter 
movements controlled by a single cam-shaft. 

The governing is by a centrifugal fly-ball type that controls the 
speed by varying the quantity of fuel mixture. 

In Fig. 252 is shown the double-break spark-igniter, which is 
also a novelty, and \vhich may be made to give simultaneous or 
successive sparks as found best for perfect ignition. 

Duplex ignition, by its constancy of action, is a most desirable 
feature of uniformity in the running of large units for electric 
lighting and power. 

In Fig. 253 is illustrated the three-throw shaft of this com- 




FIG. 252. Westinghouse-ignition-plug. 

pany with cranks at 120, counterbalanced and showing the 
method of bolting on the counterbalance. 

In Fig. 254 we illustrate the new double-acting gas-engine of 
the Westinghouse Company. 

In construction the engine embodies many established features 
of modern steam-engine practice. From crank to cylinders the 
construction is that of a horizontal steam-engine suitably strength- 
ened in proportion to the increased maximum pressure due to the 
explosion of the charge. The design of cylinders, pistons, and 
valves, of course, departs materially from steam-engine practice. 
The cylinders are double- walled, with the outer walls split per- 
ipherally to permit independent expansion and contraction without 
placing the cylinder-casting under stress. 



GAS AND GASOLINE-MOTORS 293 

The many difficulties arising in providing a suitable packing- 
gland for the cylinder-heads have been overcome by means of a 
simple metallic packing similar in some respects to that used on 
high-pressure steam-engines. 

Both valves are of the single-beat poppet type and seat vertically 
along the same axis, the admission-valve opening downward and 
the exhaust upward. The admission-valve is mounted in a sepa- 
rate bonnet which, together with the valve, may be readily removed 
without dismantling any parts of the engine other than the tappet- 
lever through which the cam motion is imparted to the valve. 
Both admission and exhaust valves are of steel and are held to 
their seats by spiral springs. The exhaust-valve is water cooled. 




FIG. 253. Three-crank counterbalanced-shaft. 

It is bored hollow throughout its length, and this canal conveys 
cooling water to the head of the valve; the water returns in the 
opposite direction through an inner concentric tube, finally emerg- 
ing at the lower end. By spraying a small part of the jacket- water 
into the exhaust-pipes, the temperature of the pipe may be kept 
at a comfortable point through the absorption of the latent heat 
of evaporation of the water used. 

Both pistons and the piston-rod are water cooled, as well as 
other parts subjected to internal heat. Means for introducing 
the cooling water is secured by a telescopic pipe connection bolted 
to the inside of the cross-head guide. The inner tube of this tele- 
scopic joint is attached to the cross-head at such a point as to con- 
vey the cooling water to the end of the piston-rod bore, whence 




294 



GAS AND GASOLINE-MOTORS 



295 



it proceeds in succession through the two pistons, emerging through 
a bronze tail-rod extending through the rear cylinder-head. Each 
piston is a one-piece casting, cored hollow to accommodate the 
circulating water, and packed by cast-iron packing-rings set out 
with flat steel springs. In order to convey the water in and out 
of the piston, deflecting plugs are inserted at the proper points in 
the rod-bore. A cast-iron jacket surrounds the tail-rod and re- 
ceives the water emerging from it, whence it is drained away. 

The one-lay shaft paralleling the cylinders operates, through 
cams, all of the valve movements of the engine. Independent 
cams are provided for inlet-valves, exhaust-valves, and igniters, 
so that the action of each valve may be timed in order to secure 
the best results. The main cams are all of cast iron with working 
surfaces chilled and ground. 

The engine is started by compressed air, and for this purpose 
a special disengaging gear is provided which isolates the rear 
cylinder, and on admitting the compressed air allows the cylinder 
to operate as an air-motor until the regular combustion cycle is 
taken up in the forward cylin- 
der; the rear cylinder may then 
be thrown into normal action. 

The engines built by the 
Lambert Gas and Gasoline 
Engine Company, Anderson, 
Ind., are all of the horizon- 
tal four-cycle type. They are 
scheduled in fifteen sizes, from 
1 to 40 B. H. P. The valves 
are all of the poppet type and 
are operated by a secondary 
shaft and worm reducing-gear. 
The exhaust-valve is opened by a lever across and under the end 
of the cylinder, the lever having a roller riding against a cam 
on the secondary shaft. The exhaust-chamber has a water cir- 
culation through a jacket, and the cylinder-head is also jacketed 
and connected, so that there can be no leak into the cylinder from 
the water circulation. 

In Fig. 255 is shown the left side with the valve gear and loca- 




FIG. 255. The Lambert gas and gaso- 
line-engine. 



296 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



tion of the governor, which is driven by a bevel gear on the secondary 
shaft. 

In Fig. 256 is shown the detailed end view of the engine; the 
bell-crank lever that operated the gas inlet-valve from a cam 
on the secondary shaft, as also the sparking-cam o at the end of the 
shaft. 

The spark-breaker and electrode are fixed on a small-eared 
flange bolted to the cylinder-head, through which a rock-shaft and 




FIG. 256. The Lambert valve and ignition-gear. 

insulated electrode pass. One arm of the rock-shaft presses the 
electrode on the inside, while the outside arm is attached to a 
connecting-rod, operated by the spring lever z and cam-block k, 
which is adjustable. The amount of pressure of the inside arm 
is adjusted by the nuts x and y on the connecting-rod. 

In Fig. 257 is shown the electric battery, sparking-coil, and 
wiring, in which H and G are the binding-posts on the valve- 
chamber and insulated electrode. A relief-cock is furnished for 
starting these engines. 

In Fig. 258 is shown the gas-regulator used with the Lambert 



GAS AND GASOLINE-MOTORS 



297 



engines a most useful 
adjunct where the gas- 
pressure is not uniform. 
A priming-cup for start- 
ing the gasoline-engines 
and a gasoline-pump op- 
erated by the cam-shaft 
are not shown in the 
cuts. 

The "Leaflet" of di- 
rections issued by the 
Lambert Company is an 
excellent guide to the 
operator of a gas or 
gasoline-engine, and gives 
special directions for ob- 
serving the internal ac- 
tion of the engine by the 
sounds to the ear. 

The stationary and 
marine engines of the 
Union Gas Engine Com- 
pany, San Francisco, 
Cal., are all of the four- 
cycle type and adapted 
to the use of gas, gaso- 
line, distillate kerosene 
or crude oil, as required 
for their special work. 

The fuel, gasoline or 
oil, is drawn from a float 
feed-chamber meeting the 
hot air from the exhaust- 
heater, by which it is 
made a perfect mixture 
before passing the inlet- 
valve. Fig. 260 illus- 
trates their latest type 




FIG. 257. The electric connection. 




FIG. 258. Gas-regulator and gas-bag. 



298 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 




FIG. 259. Horizontal engine, for gas, gasoline, or kerosene oil. 

of vaporizer, the upper section of which contains a throttle-valve 

controlled by the governor. 

Their marine engines are built in one, two, three, and four- 
cylinder units with all 
the latest improvement 
in the running gear and 
regulating appliances. 
Their vertical motors 
are fitted in portable 
form for all kinds of 
agricultural and mining 
work. Their tunnel lo- 
comotive is a model of 
completeness. 

The engines of the 
White-Blakeslee Manu- 
facturing Company, Bir- 
mingham, Ala., are of 
the horizontal and ver- 
FIG. 260. Union vaporizer. tical model and four- 




GAS AND GASOLINE-MOTORS 



299 



cycle compression type. The horizontal engines are built in single- 
cylinder units of eight to thirty-six B. H. P., and the vertical en- 
gines in units of one to six B. H. p. Direct-tandem compressed- 
air cylinders and pumping outfits are in their line. In these 
engines the gasoline-pump throws a regulated charge of fuel into a 
vaporizing chamber beneath the cylinder, where it meets the in- 








I. ^ 



FIG. 261. Blakeslee vertical engine. 

coming air by the suction of the piston producing the proper propor- 
tion of air and gasoline mixture as regulated by the gasoline and 
air valve. The governing is by varying the charge by the action 
of a throttle-valve operated directly by the governor at the upper 
end of the vaporizer above which is placed the inlet-valve. The 
exhaust-valve is in a chamber at the opposite side of the cylinder 
and operated by a cross lever from a cam on the side-shaft. 
Ignition is by contact break spark. 



300 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



The vertical engine receives its charge from a constant-level 
reservoir regulated in the same manner as the horizontal style. 
The inlet and exhaust valve and the igniter are all located in the 
head of the cylinder. Both valves and the igniter are operated 
by a push-rod from the reducing gear, and regulation is by a gov- 
ernor on the fly-wheel. 

ENGINES OF THE HARTIG STANDARD GAS-ENGINE COMPANY, 
NEWARK, N. J. 

The motors of this company, both horizontal and vertical, are 
of the four-cycle type and are governed by a pendulum or inertia- 
governor operating on the hit-and-miss principle on the exhaust- 




FIG. 262. Hartig pumping-engine. 

valve by holding it open, which prevents a charge. The hori- 
zontal engines have an auxiliary exhaust-port uncovered by the 
extreme forward stroke of the piston. The exhaust- valves are of 
steel and conical seated. The admission-valves are of the self- 
acting type, double-conical seated, and control both the air and 



GAS AND GASOLINE-MOTORS 



301 



gas ports. Engines fitted for using gas are usually fired by 
porcelain hot-tubes; but nickel tubes may be used if required. 
The hot-tubes are placed horizontal on all their engines and so 




FIG. 263. Hartig vertical pumping-engine. 

arranged that they may be heated to the igniting temperature at 
any part, to control the time of firing. 

Gasoline-engines are usually fitted with electric ignition, of the 
make and break type, so arranged as to control and vary the time 
of ignition while the engine is running. 

Electric ignition may be fitted to either gas or gasoline-engines, 



302 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



as desired. With slight alteration of the sizes of ports and valves, 
these engines work perfectly with acetylene gas. The gasoline- 




FIG. 261. The K. & V. horizontal gasoline-engine. 

engines have a pump-feed from a tank below the engine, or buried 
outside of a building, the surplus gasoline draining back to the 
tank. The vaporizer is of the constant-level type with a glass 

sight-feed body, showing 
clearly to the eye by a 
glance that the constant 
level is being maintained. 
The feed is by suction and 
controlled by a needle- 
valve with graduated disk. 
The motors of the Root 
and Vandervoort Engi- 
neering Company, East 
Moline, 111., are of the 
horizontal and vertical 
four-cycle type, and are well designed for all kinds of power ser- 
vice and for pumping and hoisting. In Fig. 264 we illustrate their 




FIG. 265. Direct-connected engine and 
generator. 



GAS AND GASOLINE-MOTORS 



303 



horizontal gasoline-engine, showing the valve-gear and gasoline- 
pump operated by a side-shaft driven by spiral gears from the 
main shaft, at half-speed for the four-cycle effect. A fly-ball gov- 



EXHAUST VALVE 




FIG. 266. Section of R. & V. vertical engine. 

ernor driven from the side-shaft controls the flow of gasoline to 
the atomizer and vaporizer, so that the engine speed is governed 
by the varying volume of fuel. The ignition is electric, of the 



304 GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 

hammer-spark type, operated by push-rod from a crank-pin at the 
end of the side-shaft, as shown in the cut. 

In Fig. 265 we illustrate the horizontal engine, direct connected 
to a four-pole generator on a substantial base bolted to the engine- 
base. The running of this engine of eight, fourteen, and eighteen 
horse-power direct connected to a four and one-half, eight and 
one-half, and twelve-kilowatt generator of 110 to 120 volts is so 
steady that the voltage does not fluctuate to exceed one volt. 

The vertical engines of this company are of the same cycle type 
as before described but the arrangement of the valve and pump- 
gear are made to meet the vertical position of the cylinder. A 
pair of spur-gears on the inside of the crank-chamber drives a 
short shaft on which are fixed the exhaust and pump cams. The 
exhaust push-rod also carries a short igniter-rod, which by a 
double motion of the exhaust-rod operates the hammer-stroke 
of the igniter. 

In Fig. 266 is illustrated a section of the vertical engine, show- 
ing details of the parts. 

The pump, operated from a cam on the small shaft pumps an 
excess of gasoline to the small constant-level reservoir at the top 
of the cylinder, and overflows to the main reservoir in the base 
of the engine, which holds a day's supply. By this means a con- 
stant level of gasoline is maintained at the mixer, assuring a uniform 
charge. The governor of the vertical engine is of the centrifugal 
type, with a single weight and arm, adjusted by a spring, making 
a hit-or-miss charge by holding the exhaust open. 

MARINE AND STATIONARY ENGINES OF THE HUBBARD MOTOR COM- 



We illustrate in Fig. 267 a section of the two-cycle vertical 
motor of this company; its characteristics of construction are similar 
to the general type of this class of motors. Its movement is simple, 
complete, with the ignition device driven by a single push-rod con- 
nected to a cam-rod and which also carries the plunger of the 
circulating-pump. 

In upper right-hand corner of the cut is shown the quick-acting 
spark-break device. 



GAS AND GASOLINE-MOTORS 



305 



The action of the spark is very simple and easily understood. 
The slide S, which carries both the plunger of the pump P and the 
spark-trigger T, is moved by an eccentric on the fly-wheel, so that 
it is at the top of its stroke simultaneously with the piston. When 
it nears the top, T strikes plunger H and lifts it against spring U, 




FIG. 267. Section of the Hubbard motor. 

allowing the inside spark-lever R and outside spark-lever K, which 
are firmly pinned together, to be pressed upward by spring U till 
R touches F. Then T strikes screw N, causing H to be released 
and strike K sharply, thus snapping R quickly away from F and 
making a bright spark. In order to advance the spark, N 
screwed down, and to retard it, screwed up. 



is 



306 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



During the up-stroke of the piston a mixture of air and gaso- 
line is drawn from the mixing-valve through the opening A into 
the tightly enclosed crank-chamber. At the beginning of the down- 
stroke the mixing-valve is automatically closed, and when the 
piston passes the inlet-port D the mixture in the crank-chamber 
is sufficiently compressed so that it rushes through port D into the 




FIG. 268. Vertical two-cycle motor. 

cylinder, where it is deflected upward by the baffle-plate B, and 
forces out any remaining burnt gases through the exhaust-port 
E. When the piston goes up again the charge is compressed into 
the space above the dotted outline of the top of the piston and 
fired by a spark between firing-pin F and inside spark-lever R. 
This makes a pressure of about 300 pounds per square inch, which 



GAS AND GASOLINE-MOTORS 307 

drives the piston down on its power stroke, at the end of which 
the charge is exhausted through E when that port is uncovered 
by the piston. 

The single and double cylinder marine motors are of the two- 
cycle type, with the heads and cylinders cast in one piece and 
water- jacketed. The four-cylinder motors are of the four-cycle 
type, with their heads and cylinders cast in single pieces and water- 
jacketed. The exhaust- valves are operated directly from a cam- 
shaft in front of the crank-case, and the ignition-gear by a small 
shaft at the head of the cylinders, driven by an upright shaft and 
bevel gears from the main cam-shaft. 




FIG. 269. Horizontal gas-engine. 

In the following figures we illustrate the various models of 
gas, gasoline, kerosene, crude-oil, and suction gas-engines of Fair- 
banks, Morse and Company, Chicago, 111. All the engines of 
this company are of the four-cycle compression type. The hori- 
zontal engines in cylinder units from five to sixty horse-power, and 
the vertical engines in cylinder units from two to twelve horse-power. 
The multicylinder engines are built in sizes from 20 to 150 horse- 
power. Fig. 269 shows the valve side of a gas-engine in which 
the fuel is regulated by an indexed valve and the speed governed 
by holding the exhaust open by the action of the governor on the 
fly-wheel. The gasoline-engine is of the same model, with an 



308 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



automatic-pump supply of the gasoline-fuel to a constant-level 
reservoir and overflow to the tank. 




FIG. 2 Plan of horizontal engine. 

In Fig. 270 is shown a plan of the gasoline-engine with the 
position of the governor, reducing-gear, exhaust push-rod with 

the cam-lever for regulat- 
ing, by holding open the 
exhaust-valve. The start- 
ing air-pump is shown at 
the side of the engine. 

In Fig. 271 is shown the 
gasoline-engine starting- 
^ pump and detonator, by 
which a charge is forced 
into the cylinder to be fired 
by the detonator or by 
the electric igniter. By 
this means the engine will 
start under a half-load 
without jerk or jar. 

The engines, operated 
with kerosene or crude oil, 
are fitted with a generator 
FIG. 271. The starting pump. attached directly to the 




GAS AND GASOLINE-MOTORS 



309 




exhaust-outlet of the engine. The oil is supplied to the top of 
the generator and is converted into a gaseous vapor which is 
drawn into the cylinder with 
the air as an explosive mixt- 
ure. The generator is pro- 
vided with a torch-lamp for 
generating vapor gas for 
starting the engine. 

In Fig. 273 is illustrated 
a larger generator arranged 
for converting the heavy 
crude oils into a suitable 
vapor for explosive power. 
It is constructed on the same 
lines as the generator for FIG. 272.-Kerosene-oil generator. 

kerosene and with an enlarged heating surface necessary for con- 
verting the heavy crude oil. 

The oil-feed device is shown on top of the generator, with its 
pipe connections. A torch-lamp is also used for starting the 
engine. A pump supplies the oil-feed device with a return of the 

overflow to the tank. 

The generator consists of 
an outer shell surrounding 
the heating passage, which 
is so constructed that the 
exhaust from the engine 
passes through it. The heat 
admitted to this chamber is 
regulated by a by-pass cham- 
ber, directing some of the 
heat straight to the atmos- 
phere before it enters the 
heat chamber. 

Crude oil or kerosene is 

FIG. 273. Crude-oil generator. . . 

admitted within the outer 

chamber at the top. The device used for admitting the fuel is 
the same as that of the Standard Gasoline-Engine. 

As the engine makes the suction or inhalation stroke, there is 




310 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



a vacuum set up in the generator. This vacuum is placed so as to 
draw the fuel through the nozzle from which it discharges on the 




FIG. 274. Suction gas-plant. 

heating surface of the internal heater, and the result is gasification 

of the oil or kerosene. This gas, of course, is drawn into the engine 

at the next suction stroke. 

The feed-device being automatic, also properly measures the 

quantity of fuel to be used in the next charge, and with the hit-or- 

miss governor the exhaust is held 
open and no suction occurs; con- 




FIG. 275. Vertical engine. 



FIG. 276. Vertical engine direct connected to 
dynamo. 



sequently gas is not drawn from the generator until speed of engine 
slackens, and the governor releases the exhaust, which is then 



GAS AND GASOLINE-MOTORS 



311 




closed. With the volume-governor the vacuum is light or heavy 
in the generator, according to how the fuel is proportioned. 

The crude-oil gen- 
erator is considerably 
taller or larger than 
that used for kerosene, 
the exhaust entering 
at bottom and con- 
tinuing through the 
spiral to discharge at 
top. Fuel is admitted 
at top end of the spi- 
ral, travelling the entire 
length while its vapor 

is being generated FIG. 277. loO-horse-power vertical three-cylinder 

Fig. 274 illustrates 

the gas-engine connected to a suction gas-producer, which consists 
of a generator in which the gas is made, a small steam-generator 
in the hot chamber of the gas-generator for supplying moisture 
to the air entering the gas-generator, a scrubber through which 
the gases pass for purification, and a tank for a surplus supply to 
meet the sudden draughts of the engine during the charging 
strokes. A further description of the details of gas-producers 
is given in Chapter XXIV. 

Fig. 275 shows the single-cylinder vertical model, the details 

of construction following the 
same general lines as their hori- 
zontal four-cycle type. They 
are built in two, three, four, 
six, nine, and twelve horse- 
power, and are supplied with 
generators for kerosene when 
required; otherwise gas or gaso- 
line is the usual fuel. 

Fig. 276 shows their two- 
cylinder vertical engine, direct connected to dynamo of multipolar 
type. All their multicylinder engines are supplied with direct- 
connected multipolar dynamos for electric light or power work. 




FIG. 278. Multicylinder marine 
engine. 



312 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



Fig. 277 illustrates their vertical multicylinder 150-horse- 
power engine, showing arrangement with out-board bearing and 
belt pulley. 

In Fig. 278 is illustrated their multicylinder marine engine 
with reversing gear. This type of marine motor is made in 
units of one, two, three, and four cylinders, from 2 to 100 horse- 
power. The simplex or single-cylinder engine is of the two-cycle 

type. All others are four 
cycle. 

Fig. 279 shows their 
combined engine and air 
compressor, with the 
power and air cylinders 
arranged tandem or di- 
rect connected, and for 
the larger sized in cross- 
connected model. These 
compressors are furnish- 
ed with all the devices 
necessary for regulating 




FIG. 279. Motor air-compressor. 



the motor-speed and compressed-air pressure. 



CHAPTER XXI 

MARINE MOTORS 

THE explosive motor has of late acquired a success in its appli- 
cation for marine power, in which its use has developed a marvel- 
lous speed in small craft that has outstripped anything hereto- 
fore accomplished by steam-power. 

Racing launches and yachts are nearing the 40-mile mark, 
and their speed limit may be far beyond our earlier dreams; all 
due to the new element of power. For the accomplishment of 
this ideal purpose a marine motor must be as compact and light in 
weight (compatible with strength) as possible, and should be so 
designed that any part can be adjusted, taken out, or renewed 
without disturbing anything else, for the quarters in which 
engines of this type are placed are oftentimes cramped and dark, 
and accessibility, after reliability, is a prime necessity. When 
these points are given proper consideration in the design and con- 
struction of marine motors, far greater success and pleasure will 
attend their use than has been experienced in the past. 

Yet the era of advancement during the past decade has had 
its salient points of interest and pleasure in sailing speed, and the 
present designs of marine motors are fast approaching the perfec^ 
tion of action and convenience of management so desirable in the 
motor service for pleasure craft. 



MARINE ENGINES AND THEIR WORK 

The oft-repeated inquiry as to the proper size of motor and 
wheel for certain-sized boats has induced the author to gather, in 
the following table, the leading points for moderate-speed boats, 
as derived from a leading yacht and launch motor-boat concern. 
The conditions are much too high for auxiliary power for sailing 
craft, and too low for racing craft, which in all cases requires special 

313 



314 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



APPROXIMATE SIZES OF ENGINES, PROPELLERS, AND BOATS. 



Size. 


Cylinder. 


Revo- 
lutions. 


Propeller- 
Wheel. 


Launch or Boat. 


Diam. 


Stroke. 


Diam. Pitch. 

I 


Length. 


Beam. 


3 H. P. Single-cylinder 
4 " 
5 " 
6 " " 
6 Two-cylinder 


5 in 

5| in 
5| in 
6* in 
5 in 
5i in 
6i in 
7J in 
9 in 
6i in 
5i in 
6i in 
7i in 
9 in 


7 in. 
7 in. 
9 in. 
9 in. 
7 in. 
7 in. 
9 in. 
11 in. 
13 in. 
8 in. 
7 in. 
9 in. 
11 in. 
13 in. 


480 
450 
425 
400 
475 
400 
410 
325 
300 
380 
375 
360 
330 
300 


16 in. 
18 in. 
20 in. 
21 in. 
18 in. 
23 in. 
26 in. 
30 in. 
34 in. 
28 in. 
28 in. 
30 in. 
36 in. 
40 in. 


24 in. 
26 in. 
28 in. 
28 in. 
26 in. 
32 in. 
34 in. 
38 in. 
48 in. 
38 in. 
35 in. 
40 in. 
48 in. 
54 in. 


18 ft. 
25ft. 
28 ft. 
30 ft. 
30 ft. 
32ft. 
35 ft. 
40ft. 
45 ft. 
40ft. 
40 ft. 
42 ft. 
48ft. 
50ft. 


5 ft. 
6 ft. 
6i ft. 
7 ft. 
7 ft. 
7| ft. 
8 ft. 
8i ft. 
9 ft. 
8i ft. 
8i ft. 
8i ft. 
9i ft. 
10 ft. 


10 " ' 
16 " ' 


25 " ' 
16 Three-cylinder 


16 Four-cylinder 
20 " ' 


32 " ' 
50 ' 





design of boat lines and allotment of power as well as of size and 
pitch of screw. The approximate speed of launches and larger 
boats as scheduled in the above table may be obtained by deduct- 
ing from 20 to 25 per cent, of the product of the revolutions per 
minute and the pitch of the wheel in feet and decimals which gives 
the speed in feet per minute. Multiply this product by 60 and 

divide by 5280 for the miles per hour, or 
divide the first product by 88, which is 
-f|-, a shorter way. 

The motors of the Bridgeport Motor 
Company, Bridgeport, Conn., are of the 
marine and stationary two-cycle type and 
are of compact and simple design. The 
ignition by hammer break-spark and the 
circulating-pump are both operated by the 
pump-rod from a cam on the motor-shaft, 
the igniter being" a separate rod lifted by 
a trip-block on the pump-rod and let go by contact with an ad- 
justing timing-screw. The gasoline is fed to the crank-chamber 
by an atomizing carbureter with an adjusting needle-valve opening 
on the seat of the inlet air-valve with an adjusting screw to regulate 
its lift. The feed to the cylinder is regulated by a revolving 
perforated damper as shown in the drawings (Figs. 281 and 282), 
which are to a scale for small-sized motors. 




FIG. 280. Atomizer. 




315 




316 



MARINE MOTORS 



317 



By this double adjustment the charge-mixture is regulated in 
its proportions in the crank-case, and the quantity of each charge 
is also regulated for the speed of the motor. 

SOLID AND REVERSING PROPELLERS 

The Bridgeport motor runs equally well in either direction, dis- 
pensing with th6 necessity for a reverse clutch or reversing pro- 
peller, except in the larger sizes. With a solid propeller-wheel, in 
any size up to six and one-half horse-power, if it is desired to re- 
verse, the switch is thrown off as in stopping engine, and when 
the engine fly-wheel is near to last revolution and nearly on centre, 
switched on again, and engine is thus reversed without stopping. 

SPECIFICATIONS OF BRIDGEPORT MARINE GASOLINE-ENGINES. 



Engines 

Cylinders, number 

Bore, inches 

Stroke, inches 

Revolutions per minute. . . 
Diameter balance-wheel, 

inches 

Diameter engine - shaft, 

inches 

Size of base, inches 

Height of engine above 

shaft line, inches 

Weight, pounds 

Diameter propeller-shaft, 

inches 

Diameter propeller-wheel, 

inches. . . 



UH.P. 



ill 
I 
12 



2iH.P. 
1 

3! 

500 
13 

8x12 

14 
170 

f 
14-16 



3JH.P. 

4i 
5 
475 

15 

9xl3i 

164 

210 

1 

15-18 



5JH.P. 
ft 

si 

450 
17 

12xl6i 



415 

u 

16-20 



6JH.P. 
51 



13x18 



18-22 



8H.P. 



6J 
400 



13x 4 18 

23f 
575 

U 
20-24 



12H.P, 
2 



400 
22 

2 
19ix26 

24 
1,000 

1* 

22-26 



20 H. P. 
3 



400 
22 

2 
19ix38 

24 
1,300 

11 

24-26 



The above dimensions are given for the study of all desiring 
to fit up a launch. The following are the boat dimensions suit- 
able for the horse-powers in the above table of motor dimensions. 



Dimensions of Stock Sizes. 


Standard Models. 


Comfort 
Models. 




18ft. 
5ft. 
25 in. 
20 in. 
*i 


22 ft. 
6ft. 
27 in. 
22 in. 
31 


25 ft. 
7ft. 
30 in. 
27 in. 
61 


28 ft. 
7ft. 
30 in. 
27 in. 
61 


30 ft. 
7ft. 
36 in. 
30 in. 
61 


17ft. 
7ft. 
24 in. 
20 in. 
31 


22 ft. 
7ft. 
27 in. 
22 in. 
61 


Beam extreme 


Depth least .... 


Draught 







GASOLINE MARINE MOTORS OF THE YACHT, GAS-ENGINE, AND 
LAUNCH COMPANY, PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

The motors of this company are of the four-cycle type in units 
of two and four cylinders. The bed-plate and housings are made 
of an alloy of alumina and magnesium, called by the company 



318 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



" alumagnia," which has a tensile strength equal to wrought iron and 
lighter than aluminum. This, with a sheet-metal water-jacket, 

brings the weight of a 
two and one-half horse- 
power "Baby Crown" 
marine motor at 120 
pounds. 

The cylinders are set 
on stanchions, which 
leaves an open space 
for observation and ad- 
justment of the running 
parts. The carbureter 
is of the float-feed type 
with a separate pipe 
to each cylinder. Igni- 
tion is jump-spark, with 
Herz timer and soot- 
proof plugs. 

The company also 

FIG. 283. " Baby Crown," 2$ horse power. ,.,, c 

builds a fine class of 

launches, racing boats, and cruisers, with or without auxiliary 
sails. In Fig. 284 we illustrate their pleasure launch with stanch- 
ions and awnings. 





FIG. 284. The pleasure launch. 
Debutante," 35 feet by 6 feet 9 inches, 16 horse-power, and speed of 12 miles per hour. 



MARINE MOTORS 



319 



MARINE MOTORS AND LAUNCHES OF E. H. GODSHALK AND 
COMPANY, PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

We illustrate in Fig. 286 a light-weight, high-speed marine 
motor of the two-cycle type, model B, of the above company, built 
in units of two and four cylin- 
ders. Also in double units with 
the reversing-gear between the 
units, an innovation upon ordi- 
nary practice with many con- 
veniences in operating the motor. 
As the two-cycle engine will run 
in either direction by simply 
changing the lead of the spark, 
the forward engine may be run 
in one direction, and the after 
engine in the other; or the for- 
ward engine may be used to 
start the after engine in the re- 
verse direction, and the for- 
ward engine then cut out. By 
disconnecting the two engines 
the forward engine may be start- 
ed by hand and then used to 
start the after engine by oper- 
ating the clutch, thus avoiding 
the use of a starting device. 

The principal features of this 
engine are that the crank-cases 
are of nickel aluminum, so treat- 
ed as to be unaffected by the 
action of salt water, and the 
cylinders are of cast steel. The 
water-jackets are separate from 
the cylinders and are made of 
seamless drawn-steel shells. The 
vaporizer is of the compensating 
type, needing no adjustment for 
changes in temperature, or in the 




320' 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



speed of the engine. The engine has absolutely no valves, as it is 
of the three-port type, the inlets to the crank-cases being opened and 
closed by the piston. This form is found better adapted to high 
speeds than a check-valve. Ignition is of the jump-spark type, 
the timer being driven by a silent chain and the timer-shaft sup- 
ported on a bracket at about one-half the height of the engine. 
The spark-plugs are entirely enclosed in a moisture-proof shield. 

The engine is twenty- 
one inches high from 
the centre of the shaft 
to the top of the spark- 
plug shield, and the 
forward engine is forty- 
two inches long from 
the centre of the coup- 
ling to the outside of 
the fly-wheel. The ap- 
proximate weight of the 
two engines combined, 
exclusive of the reverse 
gear, is 600 pounds, and 
at 950 revolutions per 
minute, which is the 
normal speed of the 
engine, it will develop 
between 60 and 65 brake horse-power. 

The manufacturers build a number of different sizes on this 
same general design. The smallest of these is 3|-inch bore by 4- 
inch stroke, developing 4J horse-power per cylinder. A second 
size is 4J-mch bore by 5-inch stroke, developing 1\ horse-power per 
cylinder. The largest size is 5|-inch bore by 6-inch stroke, de- 
veloping 11 horse-power per cylinder. The normal speed at which 
these three sizes is rated, is 950, 900, and 850, respectively. 

Marine motors of the J. J. Parker Company, Fulton, N. Y., are 
of the two-cycle type, of light yet strong construction, suitable for 
the lightest rowboats; a simple design, taking its fuel-mixture from 
the crank-chamber with a regulating-valve in the passage. A 
pump driven by a cam on the main shaft supplies water to the 




FIG. 286. Two-cylinder, 4x5, 15 horse-power, 
900 revolutions per minute. 



MARINE MOTORS 



321 




FIG. 287. Four-cylinder, 4|x5, 30 horse-power, 900 revolutions per minute; 
weight, 400 pounds. E. H. Godshalk & Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

cylinder-jackets. The propeller is of the reversing type, as shown 
in the cut. The motors are built in units of one, two, and three 
cylinders, from one and one-half to fifteen horse-power. The one- 
and-one-half-horse-power motor is suited for sixteen and eighteen 




FIG. 288. Light-weight marine motor. J. J. Parker Co., FuJton. N. Y. 



322 GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 

foot boats; three horse-power, for twenty-foot boats; five horse- 
power, for twenty-five-foot boats, and the ten-horse-power, double- 
cylinder, for boats of twenty-eight to thirty-five feet, and the 
fifteen-horse-power three-cylinder motors for boats from forty to 
fifty feet in length. 

MARINE MOTORS OF THE STANDARD MOTOR CONSTRUCTION 
COMPANY, JERSEY CITY, N. J. 

We illustrate in Fig. 289 the six-cylinder Standard marine 
motor of this company. The cylinders are 8 inches in diameter, 
10-inch stroke, and the motor runs 600 revolutions per minute, 
driving a propeller 36 inches in diameter. The " Standard " is of 




FIG. 289. The " Standard" 100 horse-power motor. 

the four-cycle type and reversed by shifting the valve motion; 
receives the explosive fuel through a single atomizing vaporizer, 
with a con trolling- valve and index. 

The motor is started by compressed air, and, having no dead 
centres, instantly starts on opening the compressed-air valve. 
A small air-pump keeps an air-tank at sufficient pressure for start- 
ing several times without continuous running. 

The " Standard" racing launch, with the above motor, has a 
speed capacity up to thirty miles per hour. 



MARINE MOTORS 



323 



ENGINES AND TRAWL BOATS OF THE MIANUS MOTOR WORKS 
MIANUS, CONN. 

The above works are largely engaged in fitting auxiliary 
motors to yachts, which are a great comfort to yachtsmen when the 
wind fails. 

Their trawl-boat motors, not only drive the boat, but also 
hoist the trawls by a double-drum chain-hoist operated as re- 




FIG. 290. Two-cycle marine motor. 

quired by a clutch and lever. Light-draught twin-screw boats are 
a great convenience in shallow-water sporting, are one of the 
specialties of these works. All of their motors are of the two- 
cycle type, with a snap break-spark with a regulating adjustment 
for timing the spark, under control by a small hand-lever; alto- 
gether one of the most simple and compact designs of this type 
of motor. A water-circulating pump is attached to the lower end 
of the igniter push-rod and operated by the same cam that operates 
the igniter. 




18-118 



33 
>> -o 



_n cc -73 

2. O S3 t* 



1 






S o 

P __, 



>> 

O ,_, * 

I. ^x 

3 I 

<N W 02 

o ^ 

M 

^ ^r? 



8 -S 

" S 
g o 

a 



3 





-i 


S-? 



g| 

1 
f 






MARINE MOTORS 



325 



MARINE MOTORS OF HALL BROTHERS GAS-ENGINE WORKS, 
PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

The aim in the design of these motors is to provide a motive 
power that will maintain its wearing properties, and stand the abuse 





FIG. 292. Si-horse-power 2-cycle 
motor. Exhaust side. 



FIG. 293. 31-horse-power 2-cycle 
motor. Water side. 




FIG. 294. 5-horse-power 4-cycie 
motor. Valve side. 



FIG. 295. 5-horse-power 4-cycle 
motor. Water side. 



that this class of motors is subjected to in the hands of unskilled 
operators. 

These motors are built on simple, compact, and durable lines, 
and with lightness compatible with wear and smooth running. 



326 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 

Float-feed carbureter, regu- 



Solid-head cylinders, steel pistons, 
lation by throttle and spark-timer. 

All the motors of this company have a great range of speed. 

In Fig. 296 is illustrated the single-cylinder marine motor of 
the two-cycle type. On the side of the crank-case is shown the 
carbureter and the air-inlet device, also the inverted water-pump 
with a direct-drive from a cam on the shaft. The details of the 




FIG. 296. Lozier two-cycle marine motor. 

action of these motors of the Losier Motor Company, Plattsburg, 
N. Y., are illustrated and described in Chapter XVI. 

The ignition is by the hammer-break system, with both elec- 
trodes in a single, easily removed plug, which also has the battery- 
switch attached. These motors are built in sizes of three, five, and 
seven and one-half horse-power, and of models designated as A, 
B, and C type, which relates principally to the arrangement of 
the ignition and controlling parts. The carbureter is of the float- 
feed type, with a governor to control the gasoline-charge. 



MARINE MOTORS 



327 



The larger Lozier marine motors are of the four-cycle type, 
with four cylinders, and are a model of compactness and lightness. 
The twenty-five-horse-power motor, with the bed-plate, fly-wheel, 
and reversing-gear weighs 850 pounds, or only thirty-four pounds 
per horse-power. 

In the four-cycle type of the Lozier motors the admission- 
valves, as well as the exhaust-valves, are mechanically actuated, 
and the principal governor, of the ball type, operating on the 




FIG. 297. Four-cycle auto-marine motor, four-cylinder, 25 horse-power. 

admission-valves throttles the gas as it enters the firing-chamber. 
This governor automatically responds to any change in the load, 
and is a feature which cannot be applied to a motor, the admission- 
valves of which are operated by suction. A valuable point to be 
noticed in connection with this governor is the fact that the speed 
may be reduced, with a corresponding reduction in the amount of 
gasoline consumed. 

The time of ignition may be changed by means of the timing- 
lever, which enables the speed of the motor to be controlled at the 
will of the operator, making a great range of speed possible. 



328 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 




FIG. 298. Four-cycle auto-marine motor, four-cylinder, 40 horse-power. 

The admission and exhaust-valves are on opposite sides of the 
motor, giving it a well-balanced appearance. The valves, being 
mechanically lifted, are positive in action, and there can be no 
sticking or fouling, as is liable to be the case where valves are 








FIG. 299. Cushman marine motor and equipment. 



MARINE MOTORS 



329 




FIG. 300. Two-cylinder high-speed automobile motor. 

operated by suction. By unscrewing the covers, which are set in 
the cylinder-heads directly over the valves, they may be easily 
removed and examined. The valves are of nickel-steel and not 
easily affected by the intense heat, thus removing one of the 
prevalent sources of trouble with four-cycle motors. 




FIG. 301. Section of motor, wiring, and muffler. 



330 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



The exhaust-valves may be lifted by means of a single hand- 
lever, which relieves the compression and allows the fly-wheel to 
be turned in starting with very little exertion. A safety locking- 
device makes it impossible for the operator to start the motor 
without setting the timing-lever at "safety." 

The igniter mechanism is of the make-and-break type. The 
firing-plug for each cylinder contains both the firing-pin and 





FIG. 302. The carbureter. 

A. Cover of mixing-chamber. B. Gas-outlet. 
C. Throttle-valve. D. Adjustable-disk. 
E. Nozzle. F. Throttle-lever which con- 
trols speed. G. Needle-valve. Controls 
proportions of mixture. Easily remov 
able if nozzle becomes clogged. H. Float- 
chamber. I. Set-screw to hold disk in 
position. J. Disk. K. Throttle with disk 
removed. L. Pipe which carries gasoline 
from float-chamber to nozzle. M. Float- 
valve. N. Feed-pipe. O. Float-cham- 
ber. P. Drain-cock. Q. Float-chamber 



rocker-arm, and occupies a central position in the cylinder over 
the firing-chamber. 

In Fig. 299 we illustrate the high-speed marine motors of the 
Cushman Motor Company, Lincoln, Neb. In the design of these 
motors, simplicity in the arrangement of all their parts has been 
followed, with the result that a light-weight, high-speed motor, 
suitable for any service of the pleasure or racing boat, has been 
attained. Their product is in one and two cylinder motors of 
two, four, seven, eight, and fourteen horse-power, and stationary 
motors of three and six horse-power. Fig. 300 represents their 



MARINE MOTORS 331 

two-cylinder automobile motors of eight and fourteen horse-power. 
In Fig. 301 are shown some peculiar details of construction worthy 
of note. The atomizing-carbureter discharges its gasoline and air- 
mixture into an annular chamber at the lower end of the cylinder, 
where it is perfectly vaporized, and enters the cylinder on the 
opposite side through pressure from the crank-chamber and ports 
in both cylinder and piston, opened at the charging end of the 
stroke. 

The Cushman igniter is so constructed as to form a make-and- 
break for either non-vibrator or vibrator coils. It is placed on the 
main boxing of the engine and revolves on the steel ball-bearing J 
around a cam H placed on the shaft G, which changes the posi- 





FIG. 303. The Cushman igniter. 

tion of the spark, and is usually termed a spark-shifter. The cam 
employed for this purpose is a hardened-steel roller on a steel 
pin which revolves with the shaft. This roller comes against a 
spring F carrying one of the contact-points. The other contact- 
point is fastened to an insulated screw, the insulation being of 
hard fibre held in place by the igniter-frame. 

The igniter may be moved to any desired point while the 
engine is running, and remain in that position until moved again, 
being held by a rack-and-spring plunger. C, B and E, D are the 
wires and posts forming the circuit. 

In Figs. 304 and 305 we illustrate the details of the marine 
gasoline-engines of the Smalley Motor Company, Bay City, Mich. 



332 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



The method of admitting the charge at the top of the cylinder 
through a by-pass from a port in the piston is a distinct feature 
of the Smalley motors, and a valuable one in defining the boundary 
of the new charge and the exhaust of the last explosion. 




FIG. 304. Section showing charging by-pass. 

When the piston moves upward a charge of vaporized gasoline 
is drawn through the vaporizer-inlet B into the crank-chamber C. 
When the piston moves downward this vapor is compressed in the 



MARINE MOTORS 



333 



crank-chamber C. As the piston reaches the lower end of its stroke 
it brings the admission-port D (Fig. 304) in the hollow piston oppo- 
site the by-pass opening E E E, thus allowing the vapor-charge in 
the crank-chamber to pass into the upper end of cylinder or com- 



H 




FIG. 305. Section of ignition-chamber and break-spark device. 

bustion-chamber G, through the admission-valve f , which is forced 
open. At the beginning of the upward stroke of the piston, the 
valve f is closed by the tension of the spring S, and the gas thus 



334 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



held in the chamber G is compressed by the piston moving up against 
it. The charge is then ignited by an electric spark in the ignition- 
chamber H (Fig. 305). The expansion caused by the explosion of 
this gas forces the piston downward. As the piston passes down- 




FIG. 306. Section of small sized motor. 



ward, the exhaust-port K is opened and the burned products of 
combustion are entirely exhausted from the cylinder, upward 
pressure on the valve f is thereby relieved, and the new vapor, 
which has been compressed in the crank-chamber by the downward 



MARINE MOTORS 335 

stroke of the piston, is again allowed to pass through the port D 
and the chamber E E E, and thus, by its pressure, forces open 
the valve f, which allows a new charge to enter the cylinder- 
chamber G. 

A special feature of both types of design in the Smalley motors 
is the charging-port through the wall of the piston, which by its 
position effects a cooling influence on the piston not attainable 
otherwise than by water circulation, which is complicated and 
troublesome. 

The method of oiling the piston and crank-pin is also notable 
in these motors. The piston-pin and connecting-rod are hollow 
and receive oil through the piston-pin from the cylinder oil-cup 
and cylinder oil-hole at the moment of exhaust. 

The general agency of the Smalley Motor Company is the Fair- 
banks Company, corner of Broome and Elm Streets, New York. 



CHAPTER XXII 

MOTOR-BICYCLES, TRICYCLES, AND AUTOMOBILES 

THE great progress made in adapting explosive motor-power 
to high-speed road- travel during the past few years has accom- 
plished marvellous results in speed and design of road- vehicles. 
The bicycle and tricycle are now self-running road-speeders, and 
the automobile of many kinds and names is in range with the 
steam-locomotive in speed and in racing has outreached all com- 
petitors. It has fostered a desire for good roads among our 
people, resulting in a vast improvement over the rough roads of 
the olden time. Let the good work go on! As this book is in the 
line of technical art, the details of automobile-power have been 
illustrated as far as attainable throughout its pages, and we only 
give a few examples of reference in this chapter on motor-vehicles. 
The racing automobiles of a special design for great speed, with a 
hundred horse-power and a capacity of as many miles per hour, 
are marvels of this fast age. 

THE MOTOR-BICYCLE 

In this age of rapid transit, both in commercial and pleasure 
pursuits, the public are interested in a machine which will carry 
them at either a high or low rate of speed over all ordinary roads, 
found in the city or the country. 

The bicycle has been enjoyed in the past by thousands of riders 
who, until then, did not know the pleasures to be found from "a 
run into the country." There are many now who look back on 
those days as among the most pleasant they have ever enjoyed. 
But as the world moves on, so has the demand for more rapid travel 
with less physical exertion brought to perfection the motor-bicycle. 

There is probably no machine which so fully meets the general 
requirements as the motor-bicycle. It is light; can be driven over 
336 



MOTOR-BICYCLES, TRICYCLES, AND AUTOMOBILES 337 

roads impossible to pass in a four-wheeled machine; carried, if 
necessary, over impassable roads, or propelled by its rider in case 
of break-downs. For business, it is always ready; is quickly 
handled; capable of going everywhere, and will " stand without 
hitching." 

For pleasure, it gives the rider trie opportunity of seeing the 
greatest extent of country in the shortest possible time. 

The motor-bicycle is not an expensive machine to operate and 
keep. It costs less than a cent per mile to operate, and does not 
require a special building or barn, as it occupies but little space, 
which can be easily spared in any house. 




FIG. 307. The Thor motor-bicycle, made by the Aurora Automatic 
Machinery Company, Aurora, 111. 

In fact, to sum the whole matter up, all the arguments which 
are usually brought against the horse and automobile are answered 
and overcome in the motor-bicycle. 

The principal feature in the general construction and design 
of the Thor motor and component parts is that the main parts are 
so combined that none of them can be omitted without weakening 
the general construction, or marring the beauty of the outline. 

The frame is not built up complete in itself, and the motor and 
accessories clamped on, as in many other designs. The motor 
itself forms a necessary part of the frame. The inlet-tube and the 



338 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



throttle-device form the support for the carbureter. The wheel- 
guard forms a support for the tanks; the exhaust- tube a support 
for the muffler, etc. In this way there is secured, to the greatest 
possible extent, the stability, compactness, and light weight of the 
complete machine. 

The motor is of the ribbed, air-cooled, four-cycle type, with the 
exhaust-valve opened by a cam on the reducing-gear, jump-spark 

ignition, and controlled from 
the handle by holding the ex- 
haust open and by interrupting 
the electric current. 





FIG. 308. Thor motor. 



FIG. 309. Grip-controller 
and automatic switch. 



The tanks holding gasoline and lubricating oil are attached to 
the machine in a manner that adds to the general symmetry. 
These tanks are clamped together around the rear stays and sup- 
ported by the rear-guard. They appear as a part of the frame, and 
assist, in a large measure, in steadying the entire structure. 

The control is in the right-hand grip, and can be operated as 
easily and as effectively by a child as by a man. It does not 
interfere with the steering, it being possible to turn the front 
wheel around, at the same time operating from any angle, or com- 



MOTOR-BICYCLES, TRICYCLES, AND AUTOMOBILES 339 

pletely reversed, if desired. It operates both the exhaust-valve 
and the current, and when shut off the rider unconsciously stops 
the flow of electric current; this effects a saving in batteries, which 
up to this time has not been fully appreciated. 

The control does away with the wiring through the handle-bar, 
and all loose wiring around the motor. The automatic switch 
positively disconnects the electrical circuit when exhaust-valve is 
lifted. 

The battery and induction-coil cases are attached to the lower 
front bar on the machine in such a manner that they occupy the 
least possible amount of space, and at the same time are out of the 
way. They are so situated that the necessary wire-connections are 
all short and easily accessible. 

OPERATION AND CARE OF THE THOR MOTOR-BICYCLE 

A few instructions for the operation and care of the motor- 
bicycle may be appreciated by the novice as well as by the expert. 

When starting out for a ride, fill the gasoline-tank, using from 
74 to 76 test gasoline. A pocket- tester for this purpose may be 
secured from any dealer in automobile or motor-bicycle supplies. 
When filling the tank, use a funnel with a strainer. A lower-test 
gasoline can be used, but the best results, especially in cold weather, 
are secured from the higher test. 

Fill the lubricating oil-tank, using a high grade of cylinder- 
oil. Open the oil-tank valve, and allow the oil to flow into the oil- 
cup. When the cup is full, close this valve, and open oil-cup 
valve, allowing the oil to flow into the base of the motor. This will 
lubricate all the working parts automatically, and will last from 
twenty-five to thirty-five miles, ordinary riding. Owing to the 
high speed of the motor, a better grade of cylinder-oil than is 
generally used in automobiles is desirable. 

Examine all electrical connections, making sure they are clean, 
properly attached, and tightened. Investigate the battery. It 
should contain at least four and one-half volts, and should not run 
below two or three amperes. A set of batteries will last for about 
1,500 miles with ordinary care and usage. 

See that all the screws and connections are properly tightened. 



340 GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 

Open valve between gasoline- tank and carbureter. 

If the machine has been standing out in freezing weather, the 
piston will work hard, and the inlet-valve may stick. To release 
the valve, press down the spring-cap on top of the exhaust-dome. 
Should this not overcome the trouble, unscrew this cap, and a little 
gasoline dropped into the dome while valve is depressed, and 
machine is slightly pushed forward, will make the motor start 
easily. 

Replace the cap, and insert switch-key, which must be clean; 
see that the regulating-pins on top of carbureter are turned tow- 
ard the letter S; press down the priming-pin in the carbureter, 
and admit fresh gasoline. Mount the machine and pedal, at the 
same time turning the right-hand grip to the left. This will close 
the exhaust-valve, connect the current, and the motor will start. 
Continue pedalling a few turns after the motor has started, as this 
will greatly relieve the strain, which naturally occurs when putting 
motor into full action. 

Upon returning from a trip of from twenty-five to thirty-five 
miles, or if on a journey exceeding this mileage, while the motor 
is still hot, open the exhaust-valve at the bottom of the motor- 
base, and drain off the old lubricating oil. 

When the machine is not in operation, the valve from the gaso- 
line-tank should be kept closed, and the switch-key removed. 

Chains should be kept adjusted tighter than on the ordinary 
bicycle, and well lubricated. 

If any trouble occurs on the road, it is either due to the insu- 
lation, electrical connections, or to the spark-plug being fouled. 
These parts should be carefully investigated and cleaned. There 
may, of course, be other reasons, but from actual experience it has 
been found that the above reasons cover the majority of troubles. 

Rules and regulations may be laid <iown, but of all the rules, 
reasonable care, cleanliness, and, above all, common-sense, will 
enable the rider to enjoy every mile of his ride. 

With proper care and precaution, the motor will start at a 
moment's notice at any time, rain or shine, day or night, summer 
or winter, and carry its rider swiftly and silently to destination. 



MOTOR-BICYCLES, TRICYCLES, AND AUTOMOBILES 341 



THE MITCHELL MOTOR-BICYCLE 

We illustrate in Fig. 310 a motor-bicycle made by the Wis- 
consin Wheel Works, Racine, Wis. The general model is of the 
ordinary type with a diamond tube-frame with stronger reinforce- 
ments than used in the foot-power machines. The motor is of the 
ribbed four-cycle type for air-cooling with a 3-inch X 3-inch diam- 
eter and stroke cylinder. The motor runs up to 1,400 revolutions 
per minute; it drives the bicycle by a rawhide band and pulleys of 
varying sizes, suitable for heavy and light road-work, or hill climb- 




FIG. 310. Motor-bicycle. 

ing. An adjustable tightening-pulley makes the one band suitable 
for all speeds. Weight of the complete outfit, 120 pounds. Tank 
supply, seven pints of gasoline, which gives a mileage of from 
sixty to seventy miles. The ignition is by jump-spark from a pair 
of dry batteries attached to the frame behind the seat and an 
induction coil under the seat, the gasoline being stored in a nar- 
row case inside the frame near the motor. 

A lever convenient to the right hand lifts the exhaust-valve 
for ease of starting and allows of coasting with the gasoline cut 
off, thus cooling the motor and saving fuel. 

The mo tor- tricycle, so greatly popular in France, and for a time 
popular in the United States, for a single rider, has been partially 
superseded by the motor-bicycle. Its freedom from balance-care 
and breakage from overturning still recommends it as a comfortable 
light vehicle. 

The De Dion-Bouton carbureter and motor for tricycles are 



342 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



detailed in sections in Fig. 311. In the vaporiz ing-carbureter the 
air enters through the tube A, spreading over the surface of the 
gasoline and under the plate B, which is adjustable to the vary- 
ing height of the gasoline by sliding the tube in the socket at A. The 
same tube carries a wire and float for indicating the height of the 
fuel. Additional air for regulating the mixture is drawn in through 
the regulating-cock at C, and shown in detail in the small section 







FIG. 311. Tricycle-motor and carbureter. 

at the lower left-hand corner of the cut. The diluted mixture is 
further regulated in its passage to the cylinder by the cock in the 
right-hand chamber of the section. 

A part of the exhaust is passed through the carbureter by the 
pipe G to avoid excessive cooling of the gasoline by evaporation. 
The details of the motor parts are self-explanatory. 

The vehicle-motors of the Brennan Motor Company, Syracuse, 
N. Y., are standardized for the special service of light vehicles of the 
runabout class and for the finer styles of automobiles for high 



MOTOR-BICYCLES, TRICYCLES, AND AUTOMOBILES 343 

speeds. Their air-cooled, five-horse-power, two-cylinder motor for 
runabout service is a model of compactness, lightness, and power. 




FIG. 312. 5-horse-power, light-weight, air-cooled runabout motor. 

The balanced method of construction by the opposed cylinders 
gives absolute freedom from vibration by the simultaneous im- 




PAT.DEC.6.J903 

FIG. 313. Water-cooled motor, 8 to 30 horse-power. 

pulse from opposite pistons and opposite rotative forces. The 
water-cooled motors especially designed for high-class automobile 



344 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



service are illustrated in Fig. 313, and a section of the detailed 
parts in Fig. 158. It has a three-speed sliding-gear direct in line 
of the shaft with a clutch fitted to the balance-wheel. They are 
operated at 90 pounds compression, and in motors from six to 
sixteen horse-power have a range of speed of from 150 to 1,300 revo- 
lutions per minute. Those of twenty and thirty horse-power have 




FIG. 314. Chadwick light auto-motor. 

a speed-range of from 100 to 1,100 revolutions per minute. The 
vertical multicylinder motors of this company, in units of twelve, 
eighteen, and thirty-two horse-power, are on the high-speed grade 
and variable to meet automobile requirement. They are fur- 
nished with three-speed sliding-gear direct in line with motor-shaft, 
clutch fitted to balance-wheel. 



MOTOR-BICYCLES, TRICYCLES, AND AUTOMOBILES 345 

In Fig. 314 we illustrate the Chad wick automobile and marine 
motor, built by the Fairmount Engineering Works, Philadelphia, 
Pa. Their motors for special service are the lightest made, having 
copper water-jackets and aluminum base. 

The twenty-horse-power auto-motor with four cylinders, four 
and one-sixteenth by five inches, complete with fly-wheel, weighs 
315 pounds, or less than sixteen pounds per horse-power, with 
speed variation of from 100 to 2,000 revolutions per minute. The 
twenty-four-horse-power auto-motor, with four cylinders, four and 
one-half by five inches, complete as above, weighs 450 pounds, or 
18.7 pounds per horse-power; speed variation of from 100 to 2,000 
revolutions per minute. The forty-horse-power auto-motor, with 
four cylinders, five by six inches, is a marvel of lightness, weighing 
but 460 pounds, or 11 J pounds per horse-power. 



THE HENRICKS MAGNETO AND GOVERNOR 

In Figs. 315 and 316, we illustrate one of the latest novelties 
in ignition appliances ; a magneto generator and governor in which 
the speed of the armature is so controlled by a centrifugal governor 





FIG. 315. The Henri cks FIG. 316. Dynamo governor and 

magneto. friction-disk. 

on its own shaft, that the variation of the motor-speed does not 
affect the speed of the armature. 

The governor consists of a friction-disk held to the fly-wheel of 
the engine by means of a spring. The pressure of the spring 
holding the friction-disk to the fly-wheel is controlled by the 
centrifugal action of the governor-balls, so that as the speed in- 



346 GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 

creases, the balls expand and loosen the tension of the spring 
against the friction-disk, thus slowing down the speed of the arma- 
ture and the contrary when the engine-speed slows. 

In this manner by the slipping of the friction-disk the speed 
of the armature is made uniform within very narrow limits and 
thus insuring a steady and powerful electric-sparking current, 
so desirable for the uniform action of explosive motors. The 
irregular speed of the armature of an ignition dynamo, when driven 
at the varying speed of the motor on automobiles and launches, 
makes one of the troubles in firing the explosive charge not easily 
found or accounted for and which makes this governor a most 
desirable adjunct of every sparking dynamo for controlling its 
speed when driven from a variable-speed motor. These magneto 
dynamos and governors are made by the Henricks Novelty Com- 
pany, Indianapolis, Ind. 



CHAPTER XXIII 

KEROSENE, DISTILLATE, AND PETROLEUM-OIL MOTORS 

THE incentive to explosive-motor design in the line of economy 
of power has been the means of producing remarkable results in 
the adaptation of the use of the cruder and cheaper fuel-oils for 
motive power. The rise in the cost of gasoline gave an impetus 
to experiments for utilizing the heavier petroleum products, and 
kerosene and distillate came into successful use, and finally crude 
petroleum in its cheapest form is at the head of fluid fuel as an 
all around and portable element of power and obtainable the world 
over. 

For stationary motive power there is a further economy in 
the producer and blast-furnace gases that is greatly expanding the 
field of operation for the explosive motor and will continue during 
the coming years, when its power, like that of steam, will become 
stationary in its economical progress. 

Much detail of oil-motors is also described and illustrated in 
previous chapters of this work. 

In Fig. 317 is illustrated a view of the kerosene-oil engine of 
the International Power Vehicle Company, Stamford, Conn. 

The kerosene-engine differs from the gasoline-engine in essential 
details of its mechanism, due to the different natures of the two 
fuels. Kerosene being less volatile, no carbureter is used to con- 
vert the fluid into gas. The oil is introduced into the cylinder as 
a spray, mixed with air, and is changed into a gaseous condition 
within the cylinder before ignition occurs by means of heat which 
must be within well-defined limits. If the vaporous fuel comes 
in contact with too great a heat the petroleum is disintegrated, its 
hydrogen escapes, and its carbon deposits in stone-like scales upon 
the cylinder-head, while too little heat will not produce the gaseous 
condition necessary to perfect combustion. 

The engine is shown in Fig. 318, and Fig. 319 in section, show- 

347 



348 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



ing the position of the piston when ignition is taking place, and 
when the exhaust-gases are escaping and the fresh charge entering. 
When the piston has risen nearly to the end of the upward stroke 
the air-inlet A is uncovered, and as there is a partial vacuum 

in the air-tight crank-case 

C, the air rushes in. As 
the piston descends, im- 
pelled by the ignited gases, 
the air in the crank-case 
is compressed, the pressure 
extending to the passage 

D. The descending pis- 
ton finally uncovers the 
exhaust - passage, through 
which the inert gases of 
combustion escape, im- 
pelled first by the pres- 
sure remaining in the 
cylinder, and then by the 
rush of air through the 
inlet E, which is opened 
after the exhaust, as will 
be noticed in Fig. 319. 
The moment the inlet E 
is opened the compressed 
air in the crank-case and 
air-passage rushes into the 
cylinder, driving out the 
remaining gases, except a 
small amount left in the 

cavity holding the firing-plug F. This small residue plays an im- 
portant part in the successful operation of the engine, for it keeps 
the new charge away from the red-hot firing-plug until the proper 
time for igniting. As compression takes place above the piston 
during its upward stroke, the new charge forces the burned gases 
farther into the cavity, until the new charge comes in contact 
with the plug and is ignited. The plug has a screw-stem, by which 
its position in the cavity may be adjusted by a nut on the outside 




FIG. 317. Kerosene-oil engine. 



KEROSENE, DISTILLATE, AND PETROLEUM-OIL MOTORS 349 

of the cylinder-head to correspond to the power required. With- 
drawing the plug into the cavity delays ignition, thus furnishing 
greater power. Advancing it nearer to the opening of the cavity 
advances the ignition, and less power is developed. 

The charge of fuel is introduced through the inlet B, either from 
a pressure-tank or by the suction created by the partial vacuum of 
the crank-case. A check- valve prevents the oil from returning 
through B after it has been admitted. The oil as it enters the 
engine is received on a gauze screen H, and by capillary attraction 
forms a thin film upon it until the entrance E is uncovered and 
the air rushes into the cylinder, passing through the gauze, taking 
the oil with it in a very fine spray, so fine that if permitted to 
escape into the air it would float. The intermingled air and oil- 
spray passing up into the cylinder strikes the hot cylinder-head at 




FIG. 318. Ignition. 



FIG. 319. Exhaust. 



G. The heat of the metal is not enough to ignite the oil, nor to 
cause it to " crack," i.e., give off hydrogen and deposit carbon. 
Instead, this heat converts the oil and air into a gaseous mixture, 
which is maintained by the heat of compression until the moment 
of igniting. 

The ignition-plug replaces the torch, which need be applied only 
in giving to the plug its initial red heat for the first discharges, after 
which the heat of ignition is all that is necessary. 



350 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



For changing the speed of the engine a butterfly-valve ? shown 
at M, Fig. 319, in the air-transfer box, is employed for throttling 
and is automatically controlled by the governor, which is of the 
usual type. 

In Fig. 320 is illustrated their marine motor, of the kerosene-oil 
type, which is of the same design as the stationary motor. The 
perforated tube projecting below the exhaust-opening is a pro- 
tecting cover to the air-inlet A, as before described. A reversing- 




FIG. 320. Kerosene-oil marine engine. 

gear controlled by a lever is used in connection with a solid three- 
blade propeller. 

NEW YORK KEROSENE MARINE MOTOR 

Fig. 321 illustrates a marine engine built by the New York 
Kerosene-Oil Engine Company, New York City. This engine 
is provided with a combustion-chamber B, into which kerosene 
is injected through an atomizer A. A lamp L is used to heat 
the chamber B, preparatory to starting. The air inlet-valve and 
the exhaust-valve are actuated by cams in the ordinary manner 



KEROSENE, DISTILLATE, AND PETROLEUM-OIL MOTORS 351 



> A 



WATER OUTLET 



on a secondary shaft, the engine being of the four-cycle type. 
The injection of oil is accomplished by the pump D, actuated by 
one arm of a rock-lever, which is oscillated by a cam on the sec- 
ondary shaft. 

The charge of kerosene is regulated by the stroke of the pump, 
which is controlled by a lever in the marine motors and by a 
governor in stationary motors. 

The injection of the oil is in a very fine stream under con- 
siderable force, by which 
it is atomized in the hot- 
chamber B. The blow- 
pipe lamp L is made per- 
manent in the stationary 
engines with an air-pres- 
sure combination for gas 
or gasoline. In the marine 
motors a tank air-pressure 
kerosene - torch is used 
which heats the combus- 
tion-chamber ready for 
starting the motor in about 
five minutes. The clear- 
ance is so adjusted that 
the compression is carried 
to eighty-five pounds, at 
which point, or just before 
the piston reaches the dead 
centre, the charge of oil 
is suddenly injected and 
vaporized by the heat of compression and the walls of the vapor- 
izing-chamber. By the late injection of the oil preignition is 
impossible, and the atomizing of the oil being instantaneous is 
followed by its perfect vaporization in its mixture with the hot 
air. The firing of the charge of partially mixed oil-vapor and 
air is exact and instantaneous as to time, and owing to the small 
volume of the clearance space carries the pressure up to about 190 
pounds, and by continuous combustion during the impulse-stroke 
gives a higher expansion-curve than is due to the adiabatic 




FIG. 321. New York kerosene marine 
motor. 



352 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



line, and showing by the indicator card a mean effective pressure 
of seventy-four pounds. This exceeds the usual mean pressure in 
gas and gasoline explosive motors. These motors are built in 
sizes of two, five, ten, and twenty horse-power, with one, two, and 
four cylinders. 

In Fig. 322 is illustrated a section of the kerosene-oil motor of 

the American and British Manufacturing Company, Providence, R.I. 

It will be noticed that the ignition is accomplished by the usual 

ignition hot-dome D, at the 
upper end of the cylinder, the 
dome being protected by a dam- 
per-cap to prevent heat radia- 
tion after the engine is started. 
A concentric cap fits over the 
inner cap. When both apertures 
coincide, the heating-lamp for 
starting is placed inside; after 
starting, the outer cap is rotated 
till the apertures are covered. 

The operation of the engine 
is as follows: the ignition-dome 
D is heated for five minutes or 
more by a Primus kerosene blue- 
flame torch, then the handle of 
a small oil-pump is operated a 
few times, to force the oil up 
from the tank T through the 
nozzle into the cylinder F. 
One or two quick turns of the fly-wheel are given, then the engine 
starts. 

On the up stroke of the piston P, air is drawn in through two 
holes A in the base, and follows the piston through the port B into 
the crank-case C as soon as the piston uncovers the port. On its 
descent the piston slightly compresses this air in the crank-case 
until its upper end uncovers the exhaust E and also the air-inlet, 
then the exhaust-gases pass out of E, and by the curved top of 
the piston the air from the crank-case is projected upward at the 
same time into the cylinder and locked there upon the upward 




FIG. 322. Section of oil-motor. 



KEROSENE, DISTILLATE, AND PETROLEUM-OIL MOTORS 353 

stroke of the piston P, which closes the air-inlet and exhaust- 
port E. 

The air in the cylinder is then further compressed and heated 
by the continuation of the up stroke of the piston, and just as the 
latter is about to descend a minute quantity of kerosene is injected 
by the oil-feed pump and is immediately vaporized and mixed 
with the air, forming an explosive mixture that is in turn ignited by 
the hot dome D, the explosion driving the piston downwarcT. The 
combustion is so perfect that the cylinder always remains clean 




FIG. 323. The Doack motor, 3 to 10 horse-power. 

and the piston is never clogged by soot. There is thus a positive 
entrance of the air and oil to the cylinder in regular sequence. 
G is an oil-well for one of the main bearings, and H is a faucet for 
drawing off the oil collecting in the bottom of the crank-case. 

An eccentric on the main shaft with a variable throw, regulated 
by a simple governor, changes the stroke of the oil-feed pump to 
suit the load. The engine responds very quickly to the varying 
quantities of fuel it receives, and the governing action is conse- 
quently positive and very close. This results in high efficiency, 
and makes it possible to obtain a brake horse-power with 0.7 to 
0.8 pound of oil, or a little less than a pint. 



354 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



The gas, gasoline, and oil engines of Henshaw, Bulkley and 
Company, San Francisco, Cal., are of compact and neat design, and 
embrace some novelties of simplicity of parts that obviates some of 
the troubles of complex parts in explosive-motors. The frame, 
cylinder, and cylinder-head are cast in one piece and are mounted 
upon a stone or concrete sub-base, which with its weight makes 
a very solid foundation. The cylinder and head being in one piece, 
the troubles of water-leakage into the cylinder are entirely overcome. 

The fuel and air-inlet valves are in a separate casting, bolted 
to the top of the cylinder, so as to avoid a side-chamber and its 




FIG. 324. Details of the motor parts. 

C. Distillate-pipe. D. Gasoline-pipe. 1. Admission-valve. 2. Admission-nuts. 3. Ad- 
mission-spring. 4. Admission-cap. 5. Fuel-valve. 6. Fuel-valve casing. 7. Needle-valve. 
9. Admission valve-chest. 26. Exhaust-cam. 27. Exhaust-roller. 28. Exhaust roller-stud. 
29. Exhaust-lever stud. 30. Exhaust roller-shipper and knob. 31. Exhaust-lever. 32. Exhaust- 
lever steel tongue. 33. Governor latch-blade. 34. Governor-latch, bell-crank. 36. Cam-shaft 
bracket. 37. Governing spring-nut. 38. Governing spring-rod. 

extra wall-surface. The exhaust- valve is on the underside of the 
cylinder with its seat water-jacketed. The governing is by holding 
open the exhaust-valve and making a hit-or-miss charge. 

The governor is a very neat device. A three-arm bell-crank, 
on the centre arm of which the governor acts by a push-rod, 
pressing it down against a spring and regulating-nut, on the 
upper arm, causing the lower arm to push the roller of the exhaust- 
valve lever onto a high section of the cam and thus holds open the 
exhaust-valve until relieved by the governor. 



KEROSENE, DISTILLATE, AND PETROLEUM-OIL MOTORS 355 

The fuel used is gas, gasoline, kerosene, or distillate. When 
kerosene or distillate is used the engine is started with gasoline. 
With crude oil a retort heated by the exhaust is used. 

The engines were designed by Mr. John E. Doack, and are known 
as the Doack engines. 

KEROSENE-OIL ENGINES 

In Fig. 325 we illustrate in sections the details of the new style 
Mietz and Weiss kerosene-oil engine. The new feature is the use in 




FIG. 325. Section of steam, air, and oil-engine. 

the cylinder of steam generated in the water-space of the cylinder- 
jacket, which is different from all other explosive motors in principle 
and effect. 

It utilizes a large part of the heat ordinarily lost through the 



356 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



cylinder-walls and cooling- water, and considerably reduces the 
trouble from deposition of carbon in the cylinder (probably by 




FIG. 326. Mietz and Weiss marine oil-engine. 

REFERENCES : 34. Ignition-ball. 70. Mantle. 125. Damper. 160. Damper-regulator. 
176. Blow-pipe. 94. Lamp. 61. Oil-injection. 179. Regulator-handle. 42. Oil-pump plunger. 
44. Oil-pump handle. 31. Air-relief cock. 40^. Suction and pressure oil-valves. 123. Cen- 
trifugal governor operating the throw of the pump-plunger. The other parts shown are self- 
explanatory as to the general arrangement of the two-cycle engine. 

the dissociation of the water-vapor furnishing oxygen to the hot 
particles of carbon). 




"So 



357 



358 GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 

The new parts are a small steam-dome A, a short steam-pipe 
B, connecting the steam-dome with the air-port, where it is ad- 
mitted with the charge of air into the cylinder, when the piston is 
at the forward end of the stroke. When the piston reaches the 
correct position, a small quantity of oil is drawn by the oil-pump 
G through the pipe F from the oil-tank E, and delivered through 
the pipe H to the opening C, where it falls upon the lip of the red- 
hot igniter-ball D, and is exploded along with the air and by its 
heat dissociates the steam, which adds further elements of com- 
bustion to the unconsumed carbon; thus increasing the mean 
pressure of the expansion-curve. 

An efficiency is claimed for the steam, air, and oil mixture of 
from fifteen to twenty per cent, higher than for the oil and air 
mixture alone, the total thermal efficiency in a test being forty- 
four per cent, with a compression pressure of 100 pounds gauge, and 
170 pounds explosion pressure by gauge, using one pint of oil per 
brake horse-power per hour. 

The tests were made on a fifteen-horse-power engine of the two- 
cycle type in which the air is drawn into the crank-case, during 
the compression-stroke through the suction-port from the engine- 
base'; is compressed during the impulse-stroke and passes through 
the side-port, taking a portion of steam in its passage. Since there 
is no circulation through the water-jacket, the level of the water 
in the jacket is maintained at a constant level by a float-trap 
in a side compartment, and only water is fed to equalize the evapo- 
ration, with a water temperature just below the boiling-point and 
which has been found to be the best working temperature for an 
explosive motor. 

In Fig. 326 we illustrate a sectional view of the Mietz and Weiss 
vertical marine oil-engine with reference figures showing the detail 
parts. Kerosene oil, the most economical and conveniently ob- 
tained fuel for explosive-motor service, has been the incentive for 
bringing the oil-engine to its utmost perfection in design and work- 
ing power, and for marine motors, safety as well as economy has 
made it of primary importance for launch, yacht, and auxiliary 
service. 



KEROSENE, DISTILLATE, AND PETROLEUM-OIL MOTORS 359 
THE HORNSBY-AKROYD OIL-ENGINE 

This engine is of English origin, the invention of Mr. H. Akroyd 
Stuart, who has lately made many improvements in its design by 
perfecting the charging-mixture. It is built in the United States 




by the licensees of the United States patents, the De La Vergne 
Refrigerating Machine Company, New York City. 

These engines are of the four-cycle compression type, using 
kerosene and any of the heavy mineral oils as fuel. 



360 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



In Fig. 328 is shown a sectional elevation, details of design 
of the cylinder, piston, combustion-chamber, and its case. It may 
be noticed that the combustion-chamber is made in two parts, 
flanged together, so that by a special water-jacket the front half is 
kept cool and to limit the firing-plane in the combustion-chamber 
to a definite position. The oil-reservoir, located in the base of the 
engine, is partitioned to allow of traversing the intake-air over 
and around the oil to take any vapors or odors from the oil and 
constantly sweep them into the cylinder. 

An extension of a chamber from the cylinder-head, somewhat 
resembling a bottle with its neck next to the cylinder-head, per- 
forms the function of both evaporator and exploder. Otherwise 
these engines are built much on the same lines of design as gas 
and gasoline engines, having a screw reducing-gear and secondary 
shaft that drives the governor by bevel-gear. 

The bottle-shaped extension is covered in by a hood to facili- 
tate its heating by a lamp or air blow-pipe, and so arranged as to be 
entirely closed after the engine is started, when the red heat of the 
bottle or retort is kept up by the heat of combustion within. The 
narrow neck between the bottle and cylinder, by its exact adjust- 
ment of size and length, perfectly controls the time of ignition, so 
that of many indicator cards inspected by the writer there is no 





FIG. 329, Injection, air and oil. 



FIG. 330. Compression. 



perceptible variation in the time of igniti'on, giving as they do a. 
sharp corner at the compression terminal, a quick and nearly 
vertical line of combustion, and an expansion curve above the 
adiabatic, equivalent to an extra-high mean engine-pressure for 
explosive engines. 

The oil is injected into the retort in liquid form by the action 
of the pump at the proper time to meet the impulse-stroke, and 
in quantity regulated by the governor. During the outer stroke 




KEROSENE, DISTILLATE, AND PETROLEUM-OIL MOTORS 361 

of the piston, air is drawn into the cylinder and the oil is vaporized 
in the hot retort. At the end of the charging-stroke there is oil- 
vapor in the retort and pure air in the cylinder, but non-explosive. 
On the compression-stroke of the piston the air is forced from the 
cylinder through the communicating neck into the retort, giving 
the conditions represented in Fig. 329 and Fig. 330, in which the 
small stars denote the fresh air entering, and the small circles the 
vaporized oil. In Fig. 330 mixture commences, and in Fig. 331 
combustion has taken place, and 
during expansion the supposed con- 
dition is represented by the small 
squares. At the return stroke the 
whole volume of the cylinder is swept 
out at the exhaust, and the pressure 
in the retort neutralized and ready FlG - 331. Combustion and ex- 
pansion, 
for another charge. 

It is noticed by this operation that ignition takes place within 
the retort, the piston being protected by a layer of pure air. 

It is not claimed that these diagrams are exact representations 
of what actually takes place within the cylinder; nevertheless, 
their substantial correctness seems to be indicated by the fact 
that the piston-rings do not become clogged with tarry substances, 
as might be expected. 

This has been accounted for by an analysis of the products of 
combustion, which shows an excess of oxygen as unburned air; 
which indicates that the oil-vapor is completely burned in the 
cylinder, with excess of oxygen. 



THE DIESEL MOTOR 

This motor is an innovation upon all former ideals in explosive 
power and indicates the " Ultima Thule" of explosive-motor com- 
pression, and possibly the limit of fuel economy in this type of 
prime movers. Mr. Diesel has attempted to realize, within the 
limitations of practice, an approach to the conditions of the "Carnot 
cycle" by the production of a motor of very high thermal efficiency. 
In order to accomplish this result it was evident that a much 
higher degree of compression was necessary than that used in 



362 GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 

existing motors, since it was demanded that the charge be com- 
pressed adiabatically to the maximum initial pressure at \vhich 
the motor was to be operated, this pressure not to be exceeded by 
the gases generated during the combustion. Such a compression 
would naturally produce an increase in temperature sufficient to 
ignite the combustible, and hence it became apparent that the fuel 
must not be introduced with the air, but that the air must first be 
compressed adiabatically and that the fuel must then be intro- 
duced and burned during the out-stroke of the piston isothermally, 
if the desired cycle was to be practically realized. 




FIG. 332. The first German Diesel motor. 

In the Diesel motor the high temperature attained by the com- 
pression of the air is sufficient to provide for the ignition of the 
combustible, and it is only necessary for the fuel to be injected 
into the heated air for its ignition and combustion to take place. 

In his theoretical discussion of the subject, Mr. Diesel laid 
down four conditions as essential to the realization of the highest 
economy : 

First, that the combustion temperature must be attained not 
by the combustion, and during the same, but before, and inde- 
pendent of it, by the compression of pure air. 

Second, that this is best accomplished by deviating from the 



KEROSENE, DISTILLATE, AND PETROLEUM-OIL MOTORS 363 

pure Carnot cycle to the extent of combining two of the stages 
of the cycle, and directly compressing the air adiabatically, instead 
of first isothermally from two to four atmospheres, and then 
adiabatically to thirty or forty fold. 

Third, that the fuel be introduced gradually into the com- 
pressed air, and burned with little or no increase in temperature 
during the period of combustion. 




FIG. 333. First American type, Diesel motor, 30 horse-power 

Fourth, that a considerable surplus of air be present. 

It will be seen from these conditions that a motor to meet 
them, although operating upon the so-called "four-cycle" principle, 
must differ essentially from engines of the Otto type, and it was 
to realize these conditions that the Diesel motor was designed. 

In general construction it resembles the design of a vertical 



364 GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 

steam-engine, except that all parts are built to stand the high 
pressure employed. 

In the Diesel engine, compression is entirely independent of 
the quality of the fuel, for the simple reason that no fuel is intro- 
duced until it is wanted to ignite. Pure air alone is compressed, 
and therefore the intensity of compression is limited only by two 
factors the ability of the mechanical construction to withstand 
the stresses, and the thermal possibilities involved. The high com- 
pression produces a temperature sufficient to cause ignition of the 
fuel, and this ignition takes place as soon as the fuel is introduced 
to the heated atmosphere in which it burns. 

The working cycle is as follows : 

On one down-stroke the main cylinder is completely filled with 
pure air, the next up-stroke compresses this to about thirty-five 
atmospheres, creating a temperature more than sufficient to ignite 
the fuel. At the beginning of the next down-stroke the fuel- 
valve opens, and the petroleum, atomized by passing through a 
spool of fine wire netting, is injected during a predetermined part 
of the stroke into this red-hot air, resulting in combustion controlled 
as to pressure and temperature. This injection is made possible by 
the air in the star ting- tank, which is kept by the small air-pump 
at a pressure some five or ten atmospheres greater than that in the 
main cylinder. A small quantity of this air enters with the fuel- 
charge, which it atomizes as described. When the motor is run- 
ning at full load, a very small quantity of injected air suffices, and 
the pressure in the air-tank steadily rises. At half load, with less 
fuel injected, more air passes in. For this reason, the starting- 
tank is made large enough to equalize these differences, and a 
small safety-valve is provided on the air-pump. 

The petroleum is pumped into the fuel-valve casing by a small 
oil-pump bolted to the base-plate. This pump is arranged to pump 
a fixed maximum quantity of petroleum. A by-pass is provided 
so that this whole quantity, or any portion of it, can be returned to 
the supply-tank. The governor controls the action of this by- 
pass valve, closing it just long enough to compel the exact quantity 
of the fuel required to pass into the fuel-valve casing. The full 
charge of air being always supplied for complete combustion, it 
matters not whether the governor permits one or fifty drops of 



KEROSENE, DISTILLATE, AND PETROLEUM-OIL MOTORS 365 

petroleum to enter the working cylinder at each motor-stroke, 
the combustion is always complete. To stop the motor it is 
only necessary to close the valve which admits the petroleum 
into the fuel-valve casing. The valve-gear consists of a series 




FIG. 334. Three-cylinder Diesel motor, 225 horse-power. 

of cams placed on a shaft journaled on brackets cast on the 
cylinder. 

The highest efficiency indicated has been found to be thirty- 
seven per cent, at full load and forty-one per cent, at half load, 
with a brake efficiency at full load of twenty-seven per cent, and at 
half load nineteen per cent. These high efficiencies are probably 



366 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



due to perfect combustion under high pressure, which is an essential 
feature of this motor. 

As a machine, the Diesel engine may be fully as frictionless 
as a steam-engine, and recent tests of a Diesel engine have shown 
that this is the case. It is also found that an indicated horse-power 
hour can be got for about 0.32 pound of crude oil with a calorific 
capacity of about 19,000 B. T. u., and this points to a very efficient 




FIG. 335. The crude-oil generator. 

utilization of the heat-value of the fuel. This high efficiency is a 
result due largely to the high compression which is possible only 
with the Diesel system of fuel admission. It is also partly due to 
diminished friction and diminished jacket losses. 

The future improvement of internal-combustion engines lies 
so much along the lines followed by Diesel that this motor may be 
studied to good advantage, for its system of compression removes 



KEROSENE, DISTILLATE, AND PETROLEUM-OIL MOTORS 367 

the most serious limitations of the ordinary motor, and in weight of 
combustible per unit of energy output its record is far ahead of 
any other motor. 

The offices of the Diesel Motor Company of America are at 
No. 11 Broadway, New York City. 

In Fig. 335, and following, we illustrate one of the later devices 
for generating the cheapest of power fuels yet obtained from fluids 




FIG. 336. Outside view of generator. 

or their vapors. Crude petroleum has become directly subservient 
to the requirement for power-fuel in explosive motors by an evapo- 
rative process that utilizes all its available properties and at the 
same time allows the waste tar products to be discharged, and also 
of the thorough cleaning of the evaporating surface when required. 
.The generator consists of a chamber of two compartments separated 
diagonally by a partition on which projects a series of ribs that 
causes the oil to flow in a zig-zag course down the surface heated 
by the exhaust through the chamber beneatn. 






0) 

'o 

I 

1 

t>l 

Si 

2 
fa 



368 



KEROSENE, DISTILLATE, AND PETROLEUM-OIL MOTORS 369 

The crude oil is fed at the top, as shown in the cuts; the 
vapor is drawn to the motor through the pipe and small chamber 
around the exhaust-pipe as shown. A three-way cock regulates 
the quantity of the exhaust required for evaporative effect in the 
generator. 




FIG. 338. Portable oil-motor sa wing-rig. 

A small injection of gasoline into the air-pipe at the side of the 
cylinder is used for starting. When the generator is warmed up 
the crude oil is turned on. The governor regulates the mixture- 
charge. 

This type of oil-gas generator is made by the Samson Iron 
Works, Stockton, Cal., and applied to their stationary and port- 
able engines. 

Traction engines for logging, road work, and portable wheel 
rigs for power for all kinds of agricultural work are largely in use 
in the Western States. 

The Best Mfg. Co., San Leandro, Cal., also make a crude-oil 
converter for their oil-motors, for logging, road, and agricultural 
work. 



CHAPTER XXIV 

PRODUCER-GAS AND ITS PRODUCTION 

THE theory of the formation of this gas is that, by limiting the 
amount of air admitted to the fire, complete combustion of the coal 
is not permitted and the supply of oxygen being insufficient, carbon 
monoxide, CO, is formed instead of carbon dioxide, C0 2 , while the 
steam formed in the vaporizer is led back under the grate and breaks 
up on striking the incandescent fuel, giving free hydrogen and car- 
bon monoxide, the carbon monoxide and the hydrogen forming the 
power-gas for the engine. 

The average gas, with a good grade of anthracite, should have a 
heat value of 130 to 140 British thermal units per cubic foot, and 
the constituents by volume as follows: 

Carbon dioxide, C0 2 6 % 

Carbon monoxide, CO 24 % 

Hydrogen, H 15 % 

Nitrogen, N 55 % 

Hydrocarbon, CH 4 trace 

Oxygen, trace 

The actual combustion in the producer forms, at the grate, car- 
bon dioxide, which on passing up through the glowing coal above 
the grate is robbed of one atom of oxygen to supply the coal above, 
which is getting insufficient air, and becomes in great part CO. The 
steam, H 2 0, which is admitted under the grate, on encountering the 
glowing mass of coal is broken up into hydrogen and oxygen. The 
hydrogen passes through the producer as a free gas, while the oxygen 
unites with the coal to form CO. 

Injection of steam under the grate serves four purposes: 

First. It gives the hydrogen for the actual power-gas. 

Second. It furnishes oxygen to the fire on breaking up and 
370 



PRODUCER-GAS AND ITS PRODUCTION 371 

gives greater freedom from clinkers due to more complete combus- 
tion. 

Third. It keeps the grate cool and prevents the burning out of 
grate-bars. 

Fourth. It is made by the heat of the gas passing from the gen- 
erator, utilizing this heat which would otherwise be wasted, and 
bringing the gas to more nearly the temperature required at the 
engine, where it must be cool. 

Should the apparatus be of faulty design and more steam be 
admitted than the fire can break up, the effect will be a deadening 
of the fire and the diminution of the gas formed and in the end a 
complete shutting down. On the other hand, if an insufficient 
amount of steam is provided, the grates will burn out rapidly and 
the gas, through a lack of hydrogen, will be lacking in power. 

When anthracite is used, the amount of water transformed 
should be from 0.8 to 1.2 the weight of the coal. 

In the cheaper forms of apparatus the cleaner is often omitted, 
but an examination of the pipes on such a plant after a month's use 
will conclusively prove its necessity. Where water is an important 
factor, the scrubber may be run hot and less water used, but it will 
be done at the expense of a cleaner which will be forced to remove a 
greater percentage of dust carried through to it by the uncondensed 
vapor, so that the sawdust and shavings in the cleaner will require 
more frequent renewal. Wherever necessary a cooling system can 
be installed and the water reused after slight filtration. 

As an example of the efficiency with which the gas is cleaned and 
dried, an instance may be cited of an installation of Julius Pintsch, 
at Heusy, in Belgium, which was run for an entire year without any 
cleaning of either engine or gas-apparatus; the deposit of foreign 
matter found at the end of the year was inconsequential. 

The superiority of the suction system over the pressure type 
of gas-producers has been conclusively demonstrated. Originally 
many objections were raised to the suction type, and the idea of 
having the engine draw in its charge of gas, thereby making the draft 
for the fire, was considered impractical. The point was raised that 
the gas, being at less than atmospheric pressure, would interfere with 
the satisfactory working of the engine. If it were impossible to 
regulate the admission of the air with the pressure of the gas this 



372 GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 

objection would hold true, but this is taken care of by providing a 
separate air-inlet on the engine which allows the formation of a 
suitable mixture in all cases. 

Suction gas-plants are simpler and require less room than pres- 
sure plants They are more economical of fuel and require less 
attention. They require no separate steam-boilers or large gas- 
holders and there is no chance for gas to escape into any of the 
rooms of the building as the whole apparatus is always under slightly 
less than atmospheric pressure, and any leakage would be of air into 
the apparatus instead of gas out. A leakage sufficient to bring 
about a stoppage would have to be very large and could not occur 
except through some extraordinary accident. 

In the pressure type the air necessary to maintain the fire in the 
gas-generator enters the bed of fuel under pressure, caused by a 
steam-jet, blower, fan or similar means. Hence the gas passes 
through the apparatus and reaches the engine under a pressure of 
two or three inches of water. 

In the suction type the air required for generating gas is drawn 
through the bed of fuel and the resulting gas is then drawn through 
the cooling and cleansing apparatus by the sucking action or partial 
vacuum created by the engine-piston. 

The pressure system has the advantage of being able to use a 
greater variety and an inferior quality of fuel than the suction type. 

Anthracite or bituminous coals, lignite, wood, peat, tan-bark, 
coke, and charcoal may be successfully gassified in the pressure-type 
producer. It can also work more satisfactorily when supplying 
gas to a number of engines from a central producer plant. 

In the suction type the character and heat value of the generated 
gas are essentially the same as from a pressure type of plant. It is 
of the first importance that good coal be selected, if undue care and 
interrupted operation are to be avoided. -It is best also to install an 
apparatus of ample capacity for the work desired. The overrated 
power of these installations has oftentimes caused needless annoy- 
ance and expense, besides condemning an apparatus of much merit 
when intelligently proportioned and rated. 

To date, the use of bituminous coal is confined to large units. 
In order to successfully operate a gas-engine, the tar must be re- 
moved, which necessitates either an elaborate system of scrubbers 



PRODUCER-GAS AND ITS PRODUCTION 373 

and cleaners, or the combustion of the tar in the producer itself. 
Working on the latter principle, Julius Pintsch has in operation 
plants for both lignite and bituminous coal, a plant of 400 horse- 
power working admirably on the latter fuel with the very low con- 
sumption of ten ounces per brake horse-power hour. With bitu- 
minous coal at $3.00 a ton, this brings the cost per horse-power 
hour down to ^-cent per horse-power hour, which, barring water- 
power and natural gas, may be said to be the cheapest form of 
power yet known. 

COKE-OVEN GAS 

The coke industry affords an important field for gas-power. 
Coke by itself represents about 75 per cent, of the best value of the 
coal coked. The remaining 25 per cent, in the case of the ordinary 
bee-hive oven is discharged into the atmosphere in the form of 
products of combustion. The gaseous distillate is practically the 
same as ordinary retort coal-gas and as such forms a most excellent 
fuel for power purposes. 

In the process of coking coal in closed retorts or ovens, the gas 
obtained is obviously similar to the coal-gas manufactured for illu- 
minating purposes, and contains an average of 39 per cent, of hydro- 
gen, 45 per cent, of hydrocarbons, 5 per cent, of carbon monoxide, 
and 3 per cent, of carbon dioxides. 

For this gas, the gross heat value is 679 British thermal units per 
cubic foot and the available heat value 560 thermal units. The 
gas leaves the retorts at a high temperature and carrying a consider- 
able burden of impurities, must be cooled and purified before it 
is fit for use in an engine-cylinder. Its high hydrogen contents 
makes it somewhat sensitive and violent; but with reasonably care- 
ful adjustment and operation it constitutes a good fuel for use in a 
gas-engine. 

In coking one ton of average coking-coal in a retort there are 
generated from 8,000 to 10,000 cubic feet of gas, carrying from 60 
to 100 pounds of tar and 10 to 25 pounds of ammonium sulphate. 
The tar and sulphate must be extracted and are marketable their 
sale value more than covering the cost of their extraction; but gen- 
erally the gas carries an excess of sulphur and always some dust, 
and the amount of these must be reduced to a minimum. 



374 GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 

Of the total volume of gas only about one-half is required for 
carrying on the coking process; a balance of 4,000 to 5,000 cubic 
feet remains available for other purposes, such as illumination 
or power-generation. In other words, in the coking of one ton of 
coal there become available, and are only too frequently wasted, 
about 2,500,000 thermal units, sufficient to develop in gas-engines 
at least 205 effective horse-power hours. Thus for every 11 pounds 
of coal coked per hour, one effective horse-power is available as a 
by-product. 

In the Connellsville district about 300,000 tons of coal are coked 
per week. The surplus gas from this coal would develop 366,000 
effective horse-power continuously. 

The use of coke-oven gas is one of the results of the perfection 
of the by-product coke-oven, although the primary object of this 
form of oven was perhaps as much for the recovery of tar and am- 
monia as for the waste gases. About half of the gases are, however, 
used as fuel for heating the ovens themselves for the distillation of 
the coal charges and the recovery of the gas for this purpose was 
undoubtedly the primary object sought. 

But since only a portion of the gases voided are necessary for 
heating the ovens, the remainder are available for other uses, and 
while they have been used as fuel in boilers, it has been found that 
for the production of power a most efficient use has been to burn 
them, after purification, in the cylinder of a gas-engine. 

In showing the adaptability of the waste gases of coke-ovens 
in gas-engines, and also the magnitude of the power available, it 
is preferable to sketch briefly the method by which they are gen- 
erated, and so exhibit their qualities and qualifications for this 
work. 

The possibility of utilizing this source of power may be said to 
be due to the development to perfection of the by-product coke- 
oven, though perhaps the contemporaneous development of the 
gas-engine itself should be counted as an equal factor. It may not 
be known to all that the operation of coking coal consists simply in 
heating it, out of the presence of the atmosphere, so that the volatile 
matter is distilled off, leaving almost pure carbon or coke as the re- 
sidual product. The coal is delivered to each oven from a travelling 
larry, which runs over the top, through spouts, thus delivering the 



PRODUCER-GAS AND ITS PRODUCTION 375 

fuel charge comparatively level on top and nearly filling the oven. 
The heat is supplied to the ovens by the combustion of gas beneath 
them, the products of combustion passing up through flues in the 
brick work between each oven. The air used in burning the gas is 
brought from the outside through a regenerator placed under the 
ovens, whereby it becomes heated to a high temperature, thus mak- 
ing the temperature of combustion correspondingly higher. The 
burned gas, after passing through the flues between the ovens, is led 
through the regenerator. The valve arrangement allows of a trans- 
position of air and burned gas in the regenerators, so that one is 
being heated by burned gas while the other is giving up its heat to 
the air used in the combustion. 

Coke-oven gas is largely in use in England, Germany, and 
Belgium, and although on limited trials only in the United States, 
its future extension is apparent, and pipe-line extensions may 
build up large industries within reasonable distances from the 
coke-producing centres. 

BLAST-FURNACE GAS 

The gases from blast-furnaces, heretofore used under boilers 
for generating steam for power to drive the blowing-engines of the 
furnaces, is now coming into use for a more direct application of its 
power by its use in the cylinders of the blowing-engines. 

Its limitation to the iron-making districts bars it from general 
use, but the surplus power above the requirement of the furnace, 
when used in a gas-engine for the furnace-blast, hot stoves, etc., 
makes it an available means of profit for distribution to a neighbor- 
hood. The approximate analysis of blast-furnace gas is as follows: 

Hydrogen, H 5.2 % 

Carbon- monoxide, CO 26.8 % 

Marsh gas, CH 4 1.6 % 

Carbon dioxide, C0 2 8.2 % 

Oxygen, ... .2% 

Nitrogen, N 58.0 % 



100.0 
Heating value 106 British thermal units, and from 80 to 120 



376 GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 

cubic feet is required mixed with an equal quantity of air per horse- 
power per hour. 

Blast-furnace gas is found by experience to make an excellent 
power-gas, as it is not "snappy," therefore permitting of compara- 
tively high compression and consequently high efficiency. The 
difficulties in cleaning have apparently been overcome and several 
American engine-builders are prepared to meet the demand for 
heavy-duty engines of several thousand horse-power capacity. 
Every iron and steel works operating a blast-furnace establishment 
should thus become a producer of energy for its own and outside 
consumption, instead of an augmenter of the smoke nuisance. 

It is now generally conceded that blast-furnace gas must be 
cleaned before use in the gas-engines; if for no other reason than 
that the cleaning process at the same time reduces its temperature 
and thus increases its density, thereby increasing the power avail- 
able from a cylinder of given dimensions. Whether cleaned by 
transmission through great length of pipe at low velocity, or by 
contact with sprays or surfaces of water, the temperature is lowered. 
Cooling and cleaning by the dry or transmission method is not sat- 
isfactory, and becomes very costly if a temperature below 120 
F. is desired. Nor do conditions of velocity, satisfactory for cool- 
ing, permit the settling of the dust, and the finest particles, when 
dry, require practically absolute rest, which is, of course, impossible. 
Water cooling and washing is now generally employed. 

For the gas delivered at the top of a blast-furnace, consisting 
of the products of combustion and partial combustion of coke, 
and the decomposed moisture and volatile contents of the charge, 
the average volumetric composition is: 

Hydrogen ...... 2 .25 % 

Hydrocarbons . 25 % 

Carbon monoxide : 24 . 5 % 

Carbon dioxide 12 % 

Nitrogen 62 . % 

Gross heat for this gas is 92.5 British thermal units per cubic foot 
and available heat 86 heat units. 

This gas leaves the furnace top at a temperature of about 400 
F. and carrying a considerable burden of dust and moisture. It 



PRODUCER-GAS AND ITS PRODUCTION 377 

must be cooled, cleaned, and dried before it is in a condition fit 
for use in an engine cylinder. The heat value of blast-furnace gas 
lies chiefly in its carbon monoxide, the proportion of hydrogen being 
very low; the gas is therefore neither sensitive nor violent, will 
safely permit a high compression, and as a result its ignition is sure 
and its efficiency high in spite of its low heat value. 

For each ton pig-iron output, the average blast-furnace delivers 
about 10,500 pounds of gas at its top. In other words, the gas de- 
livered by a blast-furnace weighs 4.7 times as much as the pig-iron 
it produces. The volume of such gas at 62 Fah. and 30 
inches of mercury, equivalent to a weight of 10,500 pounds, is 131,- 
000 cubic feet. Thus, per ton of pig-iron produced, there are de- 
livered by the furnace 11,266,000 net thermal units. 

A portion of this gas is utilized to heat the blast for the furnace 
to a temperature of about 1,200 Fah., but a surplus of 76,000 
to 77,000 cubic feet, or, say, 6,580,000 heat units per ton of pig may 
be safely figured upon. 

As has been stated, the gas, as it leaves the blast-furnace top, is 
hot, dirty, and wet, and must be cooled, cleaned, and dried. A 
typical mode of procedure is to pass the entire volume of gas 
through a dust-catcher, the area of which is proportioned so that 
the gas travels at a low velocity. In this dust-catcher the major 
portion of the heavy dust settles out, and the gas temperature is 
reduced by radiation. As a rule, the gas passes directly from here 
to the stoves and boilers. If the gas-mains are long and of ample 
diameter, a further considerable quantity of dust settles out in them, 
and where water is scarce and space available, a multiplication of 
dry-dust catchers or long, large mains with dust-pockets affords an 
efficient means at low operating cost for all but the final drying and 
cleaning. 

But where an ample supply of cold water can be obtained, the 
cooling and cleaning of the gas becomes simpler and all the gas 
whether for stoves, boilers, or gas-engines should be washed by 
passing either through vertical tanks or horizontal pipes against fine 
sprays of water. The gas for gas-engines must be still further 
cleaned and dried, and various means can be employed for this pur- 
pose: coke-scrubbers with steam-jets, lattice- work with water-cur- 
tains, or centrifugals with water-injection, these to be followed by 



378 GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 

filters consisting of layers of excelsior or sawdust, or followed by 
water-separators. 

Provision of a gas-holder is always desirable, but its capacity 
per gas-engine horse-power may be varied to suit the blast-furnace 
plant the greater the number of furnaces, the smaller may be the 
gas-holder. A satisfactory gas-cleaning installation in a plant 
whose space will not permit more than a fractional cooling by direct 
radiation, consists of vertical tanks set in water-seal catch-basins 
followed by centrifugals with water-injection. 

PRODUCER-GAS FOR MARINE PROPULSION 

Experiments are in progress for utilizing producer-gas for launch, 
yacht, and ship service, not only for economy over fluid fuels now in 
use, but for safety from the occasional disasters due to the use of 
the highly volatile fluids. Trials of marine engines driven by pro- 
ducer-gas now being made in Germany by Mr. Capitaine, and in 
England by Thornicroft and Company and Beardmore and Com- 
pany, which may make a further and more extended use of the ex- 
plosive motor for marine propulsion. 

It is claimed that the additional weight of engine, producer-plant, 
and coal will be but slightly increased beyond the present equipment 
of marine motors of the explosive type and far less than for steam- 
driven motors. 

PRODUCER-GAS GENERATORS 

This gas, like its congeners water-gas, Dowson gas, suction or 
aspirated gas, and Mond gas is made by distilling by heat and 
steam or air, bituminous or anthracite coal in a closed furnace, using 
the heat generated by their partial combustion for producing the 
chemical reaction resulting in a permanent gas of varying constitu- 
ents due to the different methods of operating the generating fur- 
naces. 

In Fig. 339 is illustrated a producer-gas generator in which A is 
a swing or lift-door for feeding coke, anthracite, or bituminous coal 
to the furnace B, and for blowing up. C, fire-brick walls of the fur- 
nace. E, air-inlet for heating the furnace of the generator. F and 
G, gas blow-off pipe, interchangeable to reverse the gas-blow. J, 



PRODUCER-GAS AND ITS PRODUCTION 



379 



valve that automatically closes when A is opened. L, L, steam-pipes 
for alternating the steam-blow. H, superheating coil for heating the 
steam by the hot gases passing to the scrubber M. N, sprinkler. K, 
wheel and drum for simultaneously opening and closing the valves, 
J and G, and the blast-door A. The initial firing produces C0 2 
with air alone, and an addition of hydrogen when steam is blown 
alternating with air. The air-blast raises the heat of the furnace to 
a high temperature ; when the air is shut off and steam turned into 
the furnace, it is forced into contact with the surface of the hot coal 




SCRUBBER SUPERHEATER 




FIG. 339. Gas producer. 



FIG. 340. Gas generator. 



and becomes dissociated, the oxygen uniting with the carbon, 
forming carbonic monoxide CO, setting hydrogen free. This 
product is technically termed water-gas. While the non-use of 
steam or the mixed use of steam and air in the after-blow produces 
the various grades of gases and their respective heat values, all pro- 
ducer-gases, but termed technically water-gas, semi water-gas, 
Mond gas, and suction or insp5rator-gas, are later detailed as to 
analysis and heat value. Fig. 340 illustrates a simple gas-gener- 
ator of the Lowe type, an iron cylinder lined with fire-brick. Air 
is blown in at the bottom for heating the coal or coke. Then steam 
is blown in at the top, passing through the hot fuel, and discharged 
at the bottom as water-gas. Fuel is fed through the hopper at the 
top. By reversing the blowing by steam and air, producer-gas 



380 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



is made and discharged through the side pipe at the right. This 
simple generator is only suitable for anthracite or coke-fuel. 

In Fig. 341 is illustrated a gas and steam generator of Belgian 
design. A magazine-furnace with a double-valve hopper for 
charging the magazine. The steam-generator consists of a number 
of drop-tubes closed at the bottom, each with a central water-feed 
tube of smaller size. The drop-tubes are screwed into the bottom 
plate of the steam chamber, which has a partition to separate the 




FIG. 341. Gas and steam generator. 

water-inlet from the steam compartment, from which the steam is 
drawn through the small pipe to the ash-pit beneath the grate. 
The blower at the right is for starting the fire. The air is drawn 
in for continuing the combustion through the pipe K, by the suction 
of the motor. 

Fig. 342 represents a very complete producer-gas generator of 
German type, in which steam is generated in a double-shell boiler 
at the left in the cut, superheated in a coil over the fire, and then 
passed through the combined air and steam inlet to the converter, 



PRODUCER-GAS AND ITS PRODUCTION 



381 



the incoming air being heated in the jacket of the outgoing gas- 
pipe. The blower is not shown. To the right of the converter is 
a tar-box and waste-siphon. 

In addition to the usual scrubber, a lime-purifier is used to elim- 
inate any sulphurous gases passing the scrubber. 

In Fig. 343 is illustrated the German producer-gas plant of Julius 
Pintsch. 

This producer was simple in construction and operation, required 
little attention, and gave a brake horse-power hour in small units 
on one pound of Belgium anthracite. Four years' practical experi- 




FIG. 342. Purified producer-gas plant. 

ence with this plant brought many improvements and the construc- 
tion of the present Pintsch suction gas-plant is as follows : In Fig. 
343, A is a blower, furnishing draught for starting the fire and raising 
the heat in the generator to the proper temperature for the produc- 
tion of gas; B, the generator, equipped with a grate on which the 
coal is burned, a hopper H, which allows charging during operation, 
a window-valve for inspection of the fire, and fire-doors for poking 
down; C is a vaporizer fitted with a small tubular boiler for the gen- 
eration of steam, and a relief-pipe or chimney for use when the engine 
is not running; D, a scrubber consisting of a coke-tower with a water- 
spray for washing the gas; E, a cleaner containing wooden trays 



382 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



covered with wood shavings or sawdust through which the gas is 
filtered, giving up the last of its dirt and dust; F, a governor or 
pressure-equalizer for maintaining a steady pressure throughout 
the apparatus. 

To operate the plant, a fire is lighted in the generator and a small 
amount of coal added, the blower being run until the fire is burning 
strongly with the relief-valve R open. After ten to fifteen minutes 
blowing, the fire is sufficiently hot to give off gas; the relief -valve is 
then closed and the gas allowed to pass through the apparatus, the 
blower being kept running at slower speed until the gas burns freely 
at a test-cock beside the engine. The engine is then started, the 




FIG. 343. Pintsch producer-gas plant. 

blower stopped, and the formation of gas becomes automatic; the 
suction-stroke of the engine furnishes the draft through the fire. 

In ordinary practice, the fire is left burning overnight with 
limited draft and only a few minutes' blowing is required to brighten 
up the fire in the morning. The generator should be kept full of 
coal and the fire kept clean and bright. Since the apparatus is 
always under a slight vacuum, the fire-doors can be opened at any 
time for cleaning out the fire. 

The vaporizer is built in three sections, the upper being simply a 
chamber connected with the relief-pipe or chimney; the middle, a 
small tubular boiler, and the base section acting as a cleaning-pot 
and water-seal when the engine is not running. By the passage of 



PRODUCER-GAS AND ITS PRODUCTION 383 

the hot gases coming from the generator through the flues of the 
boiler, the gas is cooled and steam is generated which is passed back 
under the grate. The cleaning-pot or bottom section collects the 
heaviest dust and dirt coming over with the gas. By the admis- 
sion of water to the cleaning-pot on shutting down, the rest of 
the apparatus is water-sealed and the gas therein kept intact for 
starting up again. 

The scrubber should never feel more than warm to the hand, 
otherwise steam will pass through it to the apparatus beyond, car- 
rying with it a considerably greater percentage of dust, and the gas 
will not be cool when it reaches the engine. The gas must reach 
the engine cool or the charge taken in will be a charge of expanded 
and rarefied gas and will not carry sufficient energy. 

In the cleaner, the gas gives up the last of its dust and moisture 
and emerges cool, clean, and dry. 

The apparent simplicity of the suction gas-producer has led to 
the introduction of plants in which the chemical and scientific sides 
of the problem have been entirely disregarded. Cheapness of first 
cost has been sought rather than economy of operation, the ar- 
rangements for cleaning the gas being in almost every case insuffi- 
cient, so that the whole installation requires frequent cleaning. The 
dirt thus allowed to pass through with the gas fouls the valves and 
cylinder of the engine, causing a leaky piston and rapid deterioration 
of the moving parts. 

In Fig. 344 is illustrated a suction gas-plant of the Crossley type. 

Besides producers of the pressure type, for use with either an- 
thracite or bituminous coal, Messrs. Crossley make a special feature 
of their suction-gas producer-plant, which consists of the producer 
proper, coke-scrubbers, and an expansion-box. The construction of 
the principal parts is shown in the cross section, which is largely self- 
explanatory; the engine draws air and steam through the fuel in the 
producer, generating the gas, which passes through the scrubbers on 
its way to the engine. The steam is raised by the waste heat of the 
producer from water surrounding the bell of the feeding hopper, 
and is superheated before entering the furnace. The hopper holds 
sufficient fuel to last for four hours without attention, the operation 
of the plant being automatic. The notable features of this producer 
plant is the water-jacketed magazine-bell which acts as the steam- 



384 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



generator, air and steam mixing chamber at the top of the generator ? 
and the double-chambered scrubber, in which the gas and water 
flow in one direction, depositing the ash, tar, and dust in the hy- 
draulic box, while the contrary currents in the compartment further 




FIG. 344. Crossley suction gas-producer. 

clear the gas from sulphurous gas and ammonia. The friction of 
the gas is also partially eliminated by passing with the water current 
through one-half of the length of an equal single scrubber, besides 
being a convenience in compactness of the plant. 

It is claimed that there is considerable economy of fuel with the 
statement that the consumption of anthracite at full load is from 
0.65 to 0.85 pound per brake horse-power hour, and of water 1 
gallon for all purposes. The plant is made for outputs up to 300 
brake horse-power, the largest size occupying a space of 21 feet 6 
inches by 15 feet by 19 feet high. 

In Fig. 345 is illustrated the Mond gas-generator, which is briefly 
described as follows : 



PRODUCER-GAS AND ITS PRODUCTION 



385 



The cheapest bituminous slack obtainable is mechanically de- 
posited in hoppers above the producers. From this it is discharged 
into the producer-bell, where the heating of the slack takes place, 
and the products of distillation pass down into the hot zone of fuel 
before joining the bulk of the gas leaving the producer. The hot 
zone destroys the tar and converts it into a fixed gas, and pre- 
pares the slack for descent into the body of the producer, where it 
is acted upon by an air-blast which has been saturated with moisture 
and water superheated before contact with the fuel. The hot gas 
and undecomposed steam leaving the producer pass first through 
a tubular regenerator in the opposite direction to the incoming 
blast. An exchange of heat takes place, and the blast is still further 
heated by passing down the annular space between the two shells 




FIG. 345. The Mond gas-generator. 

of the producer on its way to the fire-grate; then the hot products 
from the producer are further passed through a "washer," which 
is a large, rectangular, wrought-iron chamber with side-lutes; and 
here they meet a water-spray thrown up by revolving dashers, which 
have blades skimming up the surface of the water contained in 
the washer. The intimate contact thus secured causes the steam 
and gas to be cooled down to about 194 Fah., and by the 
formation of more steam tending to saturate the gas with water- 



386 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



vapor at this temperature, then passing upward through a lead- 
lined tower, filled with tile to present a large surface, the producer- 
gas meets a downward flow of acid liquor, circulated by pumps, 
containing sulphate of ammonia with about four per cent, excess of 
free sulphuric acid. 

Combination of the ammonia of the gas with the free acid takes 
place, giving still more sulphate of ammonia, so that, to make the 
process continuous, some sulphate liquor is constantly withdrawn 
from circulation and evaporated to yield solid sulphate of ammonia, 
and some free acid is constantly added to the liquor circulating 




" : -muttX 

FIG. 346. Suction or aspirator gas-plant. 

through the tower. The gas, being now freed of its ammonia, is 
conducted into a gas-cooling tower, where it meets a downward 
flow of cold water, thus further cooling and cleaning it before 
it passes to the various furnaces and gas-engines in which it 
is used. 

Fig. 346 illustrates a suction or aspirator gas-plant and connec- 
tion with a gas-engine in which A is the generator proper, where 
the combustion takes place. The gas produced passes into the. 
evaporator B, the interior of which is filled with small vertical tubes 
through which the hot gases pass while water trickles over their 
outer surfaces, cooling the gas and at the same time evaporating the 



PRODUCER-GAS AND ITS PRODUCTION 387 

water, which, mingling with the air, also drawn in at the top, is 
carried into the generator A. The evaporator is provided with an 
overflow for the water which is not thus evaporated. 

From the cooler, or evaporator, the gas passes to the scrubber C, 
which is simply a shell filled with coke through which the water 
passes downward against the ascending current of gas, the water 
being discharged to the sewer from the collecting tank at the bottom, 
while the gas passes to the receiver E. The coke and the water 
retain not only the entrained dust, but the ammonia and other chem- 
ical impurities of the gas. 

The receiver E may be replaced to advantage by a small gas- 
holder with water-seal and top section suspended by a very elastic 
spring, to neutralize the jumping action of the engine-piston. 

In order to start the generator, the small hand-blower G is em- 
ployed, by the aid of which sufficient air is introduced to ignite the 
bed of fuel. The gas at first formed, which is not suitable for use in 
the engine, is allowed to escape to the atmosphere through the es- 
cape-pipe D. Some fifteen or twenty minutes after the generator 
has been ignited, the pipe D may be closed and the engine started. 
The aspiration by the engine itself commences, little by little the 
normal condition is established, and in from one-quarter to one-half 
an hour the gas becomes sufficiently rich to take care of the motor 
under full load. 

In Fig. 347 we illustrate the suction gas-plant as built by Mr. 
Oscar Nagel, No. 90 Wall Street, New York City. 

The suction gas producer-plant consists of a producer, an evap- 
orator, an overflow water-pot, a scrubber, and an equalizer. 

The producer is lined with fire-bricks. By the sucking action 
of the engine a mixture of air and steam is drawn through the burn- 
ing fuel, whereby the producer-gas is generated. 

The producer is provided with a hopper through which fuel can 
be filled into the producer without interfering with the working of 
the engine. The cleaning of the grate may be performed during 
the regular work. 

The gas leaving the producer heats up the evaporator and causes 
a formation of steam which goes under the grate together with 
the necessary amount of air. From the producer the gas goes 
through the scrubber, in which it is cooled and purified from the 



388 GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 

dust and tar. From the scrubber it goes through a small equalizer 
to the engine. 

Before starting the engine the fuel in the producer has to be 
heated up by means of a small hand-blower a, attached to same, 
until the fuel is burning well. For this about ten minutes are 
required. When this point is reached the hand-blower is stopped 
and the engine started in the usual way. 

The engine then draws, by its own sucking action, the necessary 
amount of air and is producing its own power-gas. The air is enter- 
ing at c and goes through the evaporator b. Here it is saturated 
with steam and the mixture of air and steam passes through pipe 
d under the grate of the producer, through the fuel, and then 
through pipe e to the scrubber; from here through pipe e to the 
equalizing tank /, which is directly connected with the engine. 
k is the overflow and tar-box. 

The gas-making process continues as long as the engine is run- 
ning, but as soon as the engine is stopped the gas-making is also 
stopped. 

The cut shows a sectional elevation of a 25 horse-power plant. 
The plants up to this size are provided with a sufficiently large fuel- 
hopper so as to contain fuel for the working-day and to avoid the 
necessity of recharging the fuel during the working-hours. The 
sizes above 25 horse-power are provided with a bell-hopper, and the 
sizes about 75 horse-power have, instead of a water-jacket evapo- 
rator, an independent evaporator. These producer-gas plants can 
be used equally well on board of boats in connection with producer- 
gas marine engines. 

Anthracite, charcoal, or coke can be used for generating gas in 
the suction gas-producer. It will take, according to the ash con- 
tent, 1 to 1} pounds of anthracite or charcoal, or 1J to 1J pounds of 
coke for developing 1 horse-power per hour. With anthracite 
(pea) at $5.00 per ton, 1 horse-power for 24 hours will cost from 
6 to 8 cents. This is about one-sixth the cost of illuminating gas- 
power (at a price of 75 cents per 1,000 cubic feet of illuminating 
gas) or one-eighth the cost of gasoline (at a price of 16 cents per 
gallon). 



390 GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



SUCTION OR ASPIRATOR-GAS 

In the above-described gas-producer the boiler and gas-holder, 
two troublesome adjuncts, are dispensed with and their cost, care, 
and room made a saving clause in the generation of power. In 
this apparatus the gas is produced directly by the suction or aspira- 
tion of the motor and in such quantities as required for immediate 
use. 

In the use of this gas, an open fire in the generator, to give the 
draught of the motor as free from obstruction or friction as possible, 
is desirable, such as derived from coke or clean anthracite coal. 

The average composition of this gas from coke of 13 240 heat 
units per pound, consists of : 

Hydrogen, H 7.0% 

Monoxide of carbon, CO. 27.6% 

Methane or Marsh gas, CH 4 . 2.0% 

Carbonic acid, C0 2 4.8% 

Nitrogen, N 58.6% 



100.0 

One cubic foot weighs 0.0748 pounds and density 0.93 (air 1) 
with a heating value of about 135 British thermal units per cubic 
foot. 

The volumes of air and gas in the charging mixture are propor- 
tionately as their heat-unit values; so that, practically, with the 
low combustible value of this gas, but 1.25 parts of air to 1 part gas 
is required for perfect combustion. This requires a like proportion 
of the inlet-ports and supply-pipes and their change to these pro- 
portions in motors built for illuminating and other high thermal 
gases and vapors. The size of the motor for a given horse-power 
is also subject to the heat value of the combustible used for power. 
Hence a gas-engine of given dimensions, using illuminating gas of 
700 heat units per cubic foot and in proportions of 6 air to 1 gas, 
will represent a power of - 2 -f- Q - = 100 heat units per cubic foot of 
the mixture fed to the engine; while with suction-gas of 135 heat 
units, the power will be represented by the charging mixture, 







391 



392 GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 

1 J air to 1 gas = i-|-| = 60 heat units per cubic foot of the mixture 
fed to the engine. These differences should represent inversely the 
relative volumes of the cylinders for equal power. 

In Fig. 348 we illustrate an automatic-pressure producer-plant 
as built by the Wile Power Gas Company, Rochester, N. Y. 

The automatic producers represent a considerable advance in 
the producer-gas industry, combining the best features of ordinary 
suction and pressure producers. 

An important feature of the automatic type is that the producer 
is under suction while the gas is supplied to the engine under a con- 
stant pressure of a few inches of water in a small regulating gas- 
receiver. The producer is fitted with a regulator which automati- 
cally controls the amount of gas generated and at the same time 
ensures a uniform quality of gas which is essential for the steady 
working of any gas-engine. 

This producer uses any class of fuel which is available and makes 
the gas automatically as it is required. When the demand ceases, 
the aspirator, instead of drawing air and steam through the fuel- 
bed and generating new gas, circulates the gas already made. As 
only the amount of steam and air enter the fire which is necessary 
for making gas, the fire in the producer has a uniform temperature 
and only gas of uniform quality is made. 

Pressure gas-plants, the main characteristics of which are a steam- 
boiler and gas-holder, which can also be used for power or heating 
or both, obtain their draught by means of steam raised to a press- 
ure of about 40 pounds in a small steam-boiler, which is led through 
an injector placed at I (Fig. 348), and enters the generator mixed 
with air and making the gas as above described, which then passes 
through the hydraulic seal-box and the scrubbers to the gas-holder. 
This position of injector for making gas is very satisfactory when 
the load is constant, but difficulty is experienced in making gas of 
uniform quality under varying loads, and to meet this demand an 
improved pressure-plant has been designed, in which the injector is 
placed at B(Fig. 348), above the water seal-box D, and a return pipe 
E comes from the gas-holder to the seal-box D. It will be recog- 
nized that with the injector at I gas will constantly be manufactured 
unless provision is made for cutting off the steam-jet when the gas- 
holder is full and no further gas is required. This is commonly done 



PRODUCER-GAS AND ITS PRODUCTION 393 

by a chain arrangement which runs from the gas-holder to the in- 
jector and comes into action when the gas-holder is at its top posi- 
tion. This stoppage of the blast tends to cool the fire, and as the 
gas-holder falls, the steam-jet will again come into action at full 
force, and a further cooling will take place, due to the impingement 
of a full blast of steam. These wide variations of blast lead to such 
variations in the temperature of the furnace that at times operations 
must be stopped, so as to blow up the fire, the gas-holder shut off, 
and the poor gas made thrown away. A large gas-holder which the 
engine can draw upon to keep going is therefore necessary, and also 
the constant attention of a man. 

In the plant shown in Fig. 348 the injector, with its forty pounds 
of steam pressure placed .at B, is always acting on the water-seal D, 
and owing to the fact that the return-pipe E leads back to the seal, 
the injector is either acting upon the gas-holder when the gas-holder 
is at its top position and the gas return-valve open, or is acting upon 
the generator when the valve is shut and the gas-holder down. The 
tendency of the injector is to act on the gas-holder, as there is less 
resistance to the pipe than from the generator. Steam and air at 
atmospheric pressure are led through the saturator I into the open 
ash-pit, and the mixture can only enter the generator when the 
injector is drawing upon it, and only in the quantity required. An 
even temperature of fire in the generator is obtained, and a uniform 
quality of gas is made automatically with varying loads. The gas 
return-valve is opened by the catch H when the gas-holder is in its 
top position, and the gas is then constantly recirculated from the 
gas-holder to hydraulic box and through the cleaning apparatus. 
The steam at B aids greatly in cleaning the gas. With this plant the 
gas-holder, now a regulator, is continually moving slightly up and 
down near its top position. 

In Fig. 349 we illustrate a wood-fuel gas-producer, the design of 
M. Roche, Paris, France, which brings out the possibilities of utili- 
zation of saw-mill waste, slabs, and sawdust, and the waste of wood- 
working mills for the production of power-gas. 

It consists of a central furnace in which the fuel charge is burned 
and which is surrounded by a series of retorts. The fuel used is 
wood or wood-waste matter, and the products of combustion in the 
furnace F pass through the flue E and around the retort B. Fuel 



394 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



is fed to the upper part of this retort, which is sealed, and the gas is 
distilled off by the high temperature maintained. The only exit of 
the retort is at the bottom, and in travelling down through the retort 
the gases pass through the lower bed of fuel, which is at a very high 

temperature, being prac- 
tically in a state of incan- 
descence. Any condensable 
gases or vapors in this part 
of the retort are broken up 
and fixed so that the gases 
which pass through the U-- 
shaped pipe L to the hold- 
er K are in the condition 
of permanent gases. When 
wood is used as fuel the 
composition of these gases 
is about 18 per cent, car- 
bonic acid, 22 per cent, car- 
bon monoxide, 15 per cent, 
methane, and 45 per cent, 
hydrogen. The calorific 
value of the gas is about 
346 British thermal units 
per cubic foot. While this 
is quite high it should be 
remembered that it is gen- 
erated by distillation, and 
is therefore free from ni- 
trogen, which usually forms 
about 50 per cent, of the 

volume of producer - gas 
FIG. 349.-Rich6 distillation producer. made by combustiori; and 

it also contains a larger proportion of hydrogen. The products 
of combustion in the furnace F, after circling around the retort, 
pass out the upper flue H, through the opening in the damper 
I, and out the exhaust-passage J. 

In Fig. 350 is illustrated the suction gas-plant of the Fairbanks- 
Morse Company, Chicago, 111. 




M 



PRODUCER-GAS AND ITS PRODUCTION 



395 



The plant consists of generator A, a scrubber B, a gas-tank or 
receiver C, and the economizer or vaporizer D. The generator is 
fitted with stationary cast-iron grates, and lined with fire-brick up 
to the gas-outlet. It is surmounted by a coal-hopper or charging 
reservoir of large capacity, which reduces the frequency of charges. 
Poke-holes are so located in the top of generator as to permit ram- 
ming down any clinker which may collect by the use of inferior 
grades of fuel. 

Upon leaving the producer the gases pass through the vaporizer 
or economizer D, which is constructed with large gas-passages for 
the purpose of avoiding the objectionable clogging which results 




Trap 

FIG. 350. Suction producer-gas plant. 

with the use of a multiplicity of small tubes of the vertical tubular- 
boiler construction. 

Upon leaving the vaporizer the gas passes to a combined three- 
way and relief-valve, this valve being so constructed as to either 
vent to the atmosphere or through the scrubber, and also to serve as 
an automatic safety-valve which will vent gas to the atmosphere 
in case any excess pressure should accumulate in the system for any 
reason. Passing from the relief-valve the gas enters the lower part 
of the scrubber, which is built of unusual height, thereby cleaning 
the gas thoroughly before its passage to the purifier or engine. 

The scrubber is provided with cast-iron grates and a water- 
pocket in its base, and filled full of coke. A spray-valve or nozzle is 
located in the centre of top of the scrubber and is of such design as to 



396 GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 

permit carrying full water pressure at the valve itself and control 
the amount of spray by adjustment of the nozzle. 

From the scrubber the gases are taken out at the top to prevent 
carrying an unnecessary amount of moisture to the engine. The 
gas passes next to a gas-tank or receiver C, which serves to condense 
any moisture or by-products present in the gas and carry them down 
its side to its base, which is provided with hand-hole openings and 
cleaning facilities. This enlargement of pipe, or receiver as it is 
called, also provides sufficient storage of gas immediately adjacent 
to the engine-cylinder to insure always a full cylinder-mixture and 
also produces a relatively steady draft through the producer and 
constant action of the fire. 

Test-cocks are provided at the three-way valve mentioned and 
also in the base of the gas-receiver, which make it possible to deter- 
mine the value of the gas before any attempt is made to put the 
engine in service. 

A sawdust purifier is furnished and installed between the scrub- 
ber and engine, whenever the character of the fuel to be used in 
the producer is of such nature as to make additional cleaning neces- 
sary. 

Considerable attention has been given to the detail of design 
with a view to facilitating inspection and cleaning of the various 
parts and insuring continuous and economical service. All principal 
piping connections are flange-fitted, having elbows provided with 
hand-holes to permit of cleaning in both directions. All principal 
water connections have T's or crosses for the same purpose, and 
cleaning doors and openings of liberal dimensions are provided in 
each one of the members. 

These suction-plants are built in units of from 21 to 150 horse- 
power each and installed for powers as large as desired. For plants 
larger than 150 horse-power two or more units are furnished and so 
piped as to make engines and producers completely interchangeable. 

Plants of various sizes have been installed which operate con- 
tinuously 24 hours per day, six days per week, and endurance tests 
have been conducted which demonstrate that a producer-gas instal- 
lation is in every respect as dependable as the best laid-out steam- 
plant. 

In Fig. 351 we illustrate a German suction gas-producer plant 



RODUCER-GAS AND ITS PRODUCTION 



397 



of the magazine-generator type, with some peculiarities worthy of 
note. 

Reference to the diagram, which represents a section through 
the plant, will make the matter clear. A is the generator, which is 
a cylinder of wrought or cast iron -with a fire-brick lining. A 1 is a 
small hand-fan which is attached to the producer, and which is used 
for starting purposes. B is the vaporizer, consisting of a grilled 
pipe passing through a water-jacket as shown. Its function is to 
vaporize the small quantity of water required in the generator. C 




FIG. 351. Sectional view of suction gas-plant. 

is a coke-scrubber for cleaning the gas, and D is a gas-box fixed close 
to the engine. The fire is lighted in the fire-box by means of oil- 
waste and ordinary kindling. Anthracite coal or coke is put into 
the generator through the hopper the fire-box door is closed, the 
valve E is opened, and the fan A 1 is started. While the fire is being 
blown up, the smoke and hot gases which resemble those from a 
smith's forge pass through the vaporizer B and escape to atmos- 
phere through the valve E. The passage of these gases heats the 
vaporizer and forms water-vapor, which is drawn into the bottom of 
the generator. After about six minutes the gas is tested by a small 
pet-cock. As it improves in quality the valve E is gradually closed, 
and the gas is driven through the scrubber, where it meets a stream 
of water from the rose 1, and so to the engine. There is another 



398 GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 

test-cock at this point, and as soon as the gas is considered rich 
enough the valve E is entirely closed, and the engine is started. 
The vessels J, J are water-seals for collecting the surplus water 
from the scrubber. 

It is a good practice, where electricity is available, to couple the 
small blowing fan directly to the spindle of a small electric motor. 
This is very useful, the cost is small, and it saves labor and gives the 
engine-driver time to oil up and look round his plant and engine be- 
fore starting up. It also enables the driver to brighten up his fire 
from time to time when he is standing by during the dinner-hour or 
at any other time. For this latter reason the by-pass pipe to atmos- 
phere which is used when the engine is not at work should be made 
as high as is conveniently possible, so as to create a draught and 
keep the fire alight during the dinner-hour. At some tests made 
with one of these suction-plants, burnable gas was being produced 
seven minutes after the fire in the generator was lighted, and the 
engine was working on its load three minutes later. This may have 
been exceptional, and as a general rule 15 to 20 minutes from cold 
is ample for starting purposes. With these plants it is desirable 
to have a fairly large capacity in the generator-hopper, so that 
stoking need be less frequent and so that the coal can be warmed 
and dried before it actually comes into contact with the fire. It 
is also desirable to have a fairly large capacity in the generator, 
so that if the fire is dirty, or the coal contains shale, the produc- 
tion of gas does not suffer. The consumption of anthracite coal 
in a suction-plant is one pound per brake horse-power per hour, but 
a brake horse-power hour has been obtained on test from 0.6 of a 
pound of coal, and it seems probable that in future the consump- 
tion will be considerably below one pound. 



REGULATIONS OF THE NATIONAL BOARD OF UNDERWRITERS 

IN REGARD TO THE INSTALLATION AND OPERATION OF 

PRODUCER-GAS PLANTS: 

1. Pressure Systems. All pressure systems must be located in a 
special building or buildings approved for the purpose and at such 
distance from other buildings as not to constitute an exposure 
thereto. 

2. Suction Systems. (a) A suction gas-producer of approved 
make, having a maximum capacity not exceeding 250 horse-power, 
may be located inside the building, provided the apparatus for pro- 
ducing and preparing the gas is installed in a separate, enclosed, 
well-ventilated, fire-proof room, with standard doors at all commu- 
nicating openings. 

The installation of gas-producers in cellars, basements, or any 
other places where artificial light will be necessary for their opera- 
tion, is considered hazardous, and will not be permitted except by 
special permission of the underwriters having jurisdiction. 

(6) The smoke and vent-pipe shall, where practicable, be carried 
above the roof of the building in which the apparatus is contained, 
and adjoining buildings, and when buildings are too high to make 
this practicable, the pipe shall end at least ten feet from any wall. 
Such smoke or vent-pipes shall not pass through floors, roofs, or 
partitions, nor shall they, under any circumstances, be connected 
into chimneys or flues. 

(c) Platforms used in connection with generators must be of 
metal. Metal cans must be used for ashes. 

(rf) The producer and apparatus connected therewith shall be 
safely set on a solidly built foundation of brick, stone, or cement. 

(e) While the plant is not in operation the connection between 
the generator and scrubber must be closed, and the connection be- 
tween the producer and vent-pipe opened, so that the products of 
combustion can be carried into the open air. This must be accom- 

399 



400 GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 

plished by means of a mechanical arrangement which will prevent 
one operation without the other. 

(/) The producer must have sufficient mechanical strength to suc- 
cessfully resist all strains to which it will be subjected in practice. 

(g) Wire gauze, not larger than sixty mesh or its equivalent, must 
be used in the test-pipe outlet in the engine-room. 

(h) If illuminating or other pressure gas is used as an alternative 
supply, the connections must be so arranged as to make the mixing 
of the two gases, or the use of both at the same time impossible. 

(i) Before making repairs which involve opening the gas passages 
to the air, the producer-fire must be drawn and quenched, and all 
combustible gas blown out of the apparatus through the vent-pipe. 

(/) The opening for admitting fuel shall be provided with some 
charging device so that no considerable quantity of air can be ad- 
mitted while charging. 

(k) The apparatus must have name-plate giving the name of the 
device, capacity, and name of maker. 



CHAPTER XXV 

PATENTS 

ISSUED IN THE UNITED STATES FOR GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 
AND THEIR APPLIANCES, FROM 1875 TO SEPT. i, 1905, INCLUSIVE 



1875 






J. Robson 


243.795 


G. W. Daimler 


. . . 168 


,623 


G. Wacker 


242,401 


J. Taggart 


. . . 161 


,454 


N. A. Otto 


241,707 


P. Vera 


. . . 160 


,130 


J. Ravel 


236,258 


1876 






1882 




J. Brady 


... 176 


,588 


C. G. Beechy 


264,126 


A. de Bischop 


... 178 


,121 


R. Hutchinson 


253,709 


T. W. Gilles 


. . . 179 


,782 


A. P. Massey 


260,587 








T. McAdoo 


253.406 


1877 






P. Munsinger 


266,304 


J. Wortheim 


. . . 192 


,2O6 


L. C. Parker 


269,813 


R. D. Bradley 


... 187 


,092 


C. M. Sombart 


260,620 


F. Deickman 


. .. 195 


,585 


K. Teichman 


269,163 


N. A. Otto 
Otto & Crossley 


. . . 194 
196 


,047 

,473 


H. Wiedling J 


259.736 
269,146 


i- Qf*Q 






A. K. Rider 


267,458 


1878 

J. Brady 


. , . 200 


.97 


E. W. Kellogg 
H. H. Burritt 


265,423 
258,884 


1879 






W. H. Wigmore , 


260,513 


F. Burger 


f 222 


,569 


1883 




J. H. Connelly 
J . Robson 


. . . 211 
. . . 220 


,836 
,174 




^276,747 
276,748 


Wittig & Hees 
G. W. Daimler 


. .. 2I 3 
. . . 222 


,539 
,467 


C. W. Baldwin 


276,749 
276,750 










276,751 


1880 








287,897 


E. Buss 


. . . 226 


,972 




288,399 


L. Durand 


. . . 232 


,808 




-290,310 


. Linford 


. . . 232 


,987 


J. Charter - 


270,202 


A. K. Rider 
Wittig & Hees 
D. Clerk 
G. W. Daimler 


233 
. . . 225 
. . . 2 3 
232 


,804 
,778 
,470 
,243 


1 
H. Denney 
Eteve & Lallemont 
J. A. Ewins 


270,203 
290,632 
272,130 
278,421 








E. J. Frost 


273,269 


1881 






W. Hammerschmidt 


288,632 


E. Renier 


. . 247 


,74i 


( 


284,555 


. J. B. Gaume 


. . 240 


,994 


Geo. M. Hopkins < 


284,556 


A. K. Rider 


245 


,218 


( 


284,557 






401 







402 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



G. M. & I. N. Hopkins .... 


284,851 S. Marcus 


306,339 


Jackson & Kirkpatrick .... 


283,398 


f 296,341 


S. Marcus 


286,030 


291,065: 


H. S. Maxim . . . J 




"< 293,762 


i 


279,657 


302,271 




'271,902 


[.293,185 




278,255 J. Spiel 


291,102 




278,256 C. H. Andrews 


3 OI .78 


L. N. Nash ^ 


289,019 J. Schweizer 


292,864 




289,691 N.H.Thompson & C.B 


Swan 300,661 




280,692 






c 289,693 1885 




N. A. Otto 


288,479 S. Wilcox 


332, 3 12 


L. C. Parker (reissue) 


10,290 C. H. Andrews 


. . . 314,284 


1 


284,061 


r 3 2 5,377 


G. H. Reynolds - 


,:S3 C - W - B ^win 


J325.378 
1 325,379 


J. Robson 


27S,60O 


^325,380 


C. Rohn 


280,083 C. Benz 


316,868- 


C. Shelburne 


277,618 M. G. Crane 


327,866 


T. W. Turner 


289,362 Q Daimler 


j 3J3.922 


L. C. Parker 


287,855 


( 3*3.923 




W. A. Graham 


33>3 I 7 


1884 


H. Hartig 


324,554 


G. M. Allen 
J. Atkinson 


301,320 G. M.& I. N. Hopkins 
306,712 


c 326,561 
( 326,562 


J. Charter 


292,894 T. McDonough 


315.808 


E. Edwards 


3 o.453 


r 3 I2 ,494 


C. J. B. Gaume 


302,478 


J 312,496 


Geo. M. Hopkins 


306,254 


1 312,497 


G. M. & I. N. Hopkins 


305.452 


1312,498 


I. N. Hopkins 


306,924 j F place 


j 322,477 


C. W. King & A. W. Cliff.. 


293. J 79 


( 328,970 


S. Lawson . J 


306,933 D.S.Regan 


333,336 


1 


-307,057 C . Shelburne.... 


( 322,650 


H. S. Maxim. . . j 


295,784 


( 332,447 


I 


296,340 D. S. Troy 


317,892 


J. A. Menck A. Hambrock 


295,415 


^ 332,313 


I 


-305,464 S. Wilcox 


j 332,314 


P. Murray, Jr -| 


305,466 J. S. Wood. . . . . 


' 332,3*5 
328,170 


\ 


-305,467 A. W. Schleicher 


3*4,727 


B. Parker 


308,572 H. P. Feister 


324,244 


F. W. Rachholds 


301,009 E. Schrabetz 


312,906 


J. Spiel 


3 02 ,045 


^312,499 


W. L. Tobey 


30 6 ,443 


1 33*.o78 


S. L. Wiegand 


297,329 L. N. Nash 


..-^ 33i,o79 


T. S. Wood 


300,294 


331,080 


A. K. Rider 


292,178 


[,331,210 


C. G. Beechev 


306,314 D. S. Regan. 


320,285 



PATENTS 



403 



S. Sintz 

G. M. Ward.. 



315,082 
311,214 



1886 



G. Ragot & G. Smyers 357 t) 9 

L. H. Nash 334,041 

1887 



C. H. Andrews H. Williams 341,538 


J. Atkinson 


367,496 


G. C. Anthony 


337,226 


C. W. Baldwin. . ./ 


368,444 


J . Atkinson 


336,505 


I 


368,445 


J. Charter 


335,564 


H. Campbell 


367,184 


J. H. Clark 


347,469 


J Charter \ 


356,447 


G. Daimler (reissue) . . 


10,75 




370,242 


E. Delamare Deboutte- 


L. T. Cornell 


359.920 


ville 


333,838 


F. W. Crossley 


370,322 


J. Hodgkinson J. H. 


Dew- 


C. J. B. Gaume 


374,056 


hurst 


347,603 


F. W. Ofeldt 


356,419 


E. J. J. Lenoir 
J. J. E. Lenoir 


345,596 
335,462 


A. Schmid J. C. Beckfield f 362 ' 187 
(reissue) j 371.793 




( 35^393 


V. 




P. Murray, Jr 


] 35 I >394 


R. Van Kalkreuth 


358,134 




\ 35 1 ,395 


J. S. Wood 


363,497 




(334,039 


N. C. Bassett 


359.552 


L. H. Nash 


j 34i,934 


T. Shaw 


367,936 




* 34i,935 


W . Gavillet L . Martaresche 


357, J 93 


N. E. Nash 


340,435 


E. Korting 


366,116 


J F Place 


j 348,998 


F. Von Martini 


358,796 




( 348,999 


T. Backeljan 


364,205 


N. B. Randall 


355, 101 


H. P. Holt F. W. Crossley. 


37,258 


A. L. Riker 


349,858 


N. A. Otto 


365,701 


C. Sintz 


339,225 


F. W. Crossley H. P. Holt 




H. & C. E. Skinner. . . 


335,97! 


F. H. Anderson 


363,508 


R. F. Smith 


f 345,998 


B. F. Kadel.... 


374,968 




1347,656 






J. Spiel 


349,464 


1888 




S Wilcox 


(343,744 


H. T. Dawson 


392,191 




(343,745 


E . Delamare Deboutteville 




L. H. Nash 


j 334,038 


(reissue) 


10, 95 1 




I 334,040 


H. Hartig 


39*. 528 


E. Korting 


346,374 


I. N. Hopkins 


379,397 


J. H. Clark 


353-402 


E. Korting 


377,623 


C. E. Skinner 


( 352,368 
i 335,97 


L. H. Nash j 


386,208 
386,210 


F. Bain 


354,88i 


( 


386,211 


C. W. Baldwin 


352,796 


J. Noble 


379,807 


N. A. Otto 
H. Robinson 


35.o77 
346,687 


H. K. Shanck j 


376,212 
390,710 


N. A. Otto 


335,038 


W. S. Sharpneck 


391,486 


J. P. Holland 


f337,ooo 


C. Sintz 


383,775 




1335,629 


H. Skinner 


389,608 


A. K. Rider 


349,983 


R. F. Smith 


377,962 


G. Daimler 


334,109 


G. W. Stewart 


381,488 


J. Spiel 


349-369 


J. Bradley 


386,233 



404 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



J. R. Daly 392,109 

(-386,214 
386,216 

L. H. Nash.. J 386,212 

1 386,213 

386,215 

[386,209 

R. Bocklen 384,673 

N. A. Otto 388,372 

H. Williams 386,949 

N. A. Otto 386,929 

A. Rollason.... . j 39i,33 

1 394,299 
C. L. Seabury 393,080 



N. Rogers J. A. Wharry. j 



1889 

A. Schmid J. C. Beckfield. 
J. J. R. Humes 

C.W.Baldwin.. . J 



C. W. Baldwin 
T. B. Barker.. 
J. C. Beckfield. 
L. T. Cornell . . 
W. E. Crist.... 
H. J. Hartig... 
A. Histon. . 



S. Lawson. . 

J . Mathies . . 
L. H. Nash. 



D. S. Regan.. . 

N. Rogers J. A. Wharry. . 

A. Schmid 

C. Sintz 

H. Tenting 

W. von Oechelhaeuser 

C. White A. R. Middleton. 

L. F. McNett 

N. Rogers J. A. Wharry. . 

W. E. Crist 

L. H. Nash 

E. D. Deboutteville L. P. c 
C. Malandin { 

E. Capitaine 

E. Korting 



403,294 
400,850 
407,320 
407,321 
408,623 
400,163 
396,022 
406,263 



400,458 
399.907 
399,9o8 
402,749 
402,750 
402,751 
411,668 

401,453 
418,417 
408,356 
403,379 
396,238 
416,649 
402,363 

417,759 
406,807 
407,961 
403,378 
417,472 
418,419 
400,754 
411,644 
408,460 
417,924 



L. H. Nash 

L. C. & B. Parker 

E. Capitaine 

I. F. Allman 

N. Rogers J. A. Wharry. . 

J. C. Beckfield 

S. Griffin 

H. Hoelljies 

L. H. Nash 

E. Capitaine 

C. S. A. H. Wiedling 

J. J. Purnell 

S. Wilcox.. 



L. C. & B. Parker. 



W. J. Crossley 

G. Daimler 

J. Charter 

N. A. Otto 

M. V. Schiltz 

A.Allmann-F. Kuppermann 
K. Gramm . . 



G. B. Brayton 

W. D. & S. Priestman 



E. Butler 

H. Lindley & T. Browett 
N. A. Otto 

H. Campbell 

G. McGee 

J. Taylor 



N. A. Otto 



403,377 
403,376 
401,452 
401,204 
408,459 
411,211 
403,380 
417,624 
412,883 
408,483 
418,418 
406,160 
398,108 
408,137 
402,549 
403,367 

405,795 
406,706 
418,112 

415,446 
407,234 

399,569 

412,228 
415,908 



432,260 
430,038 
423,214 

437.973 
440,485 
433.8o6 
433.8o7 
428,801 
432,638 
443,082 
433,809 
433.8io 
433.8n 
433.8i2 



433.8i4 
437,5o8 
1.424,345 

M. M. Barrett J. F. Daly \ 434,6 9 5 

(430,504 

F. Diirr 442,248 

H. J. Baker. 421,473 

C. W. Baldwin 434.I7 1 



PATENTS 



405 



M. M. Barrett J. F. Daly J 43 ' 5 5 
1 430,506 


M. A. Graham 
O. Kosztovits 


445,110 
448,924 


J. C. Beckfield 432,720 


G.W.Lewis 


451,621 


5421,474 


E. Narjot 


448,989 


42i,475 


B. C. Vanduzen 


448,597 


42i,477 


G. J. Weber j 


449,507 


E. H. Gaze 437,776 




444,031 


J. Mohs 426,297 


M. M. Barrett 


452,174 


E. Quack 441,582 


M. M. Barrett J. F. Daly. 


463,435 


D. S. Regan (reissue) 11,068 


D. D. & J.T. Hobbs 


460,070 


A. Schmid J. C. Beckfield 421,524 


C 


459,403 


H. K. Shank 439,200 


F. W. Lanchester J 


459,404 


W. S. Sharpneck 441,028 


I 


459,405 


C. Sintz 426,337 




465,480 


J. D. Smith 418,821 


L. G. Wolley 


450,091 


E. A. Sperry 433, 55* 
J. R. Valentine A. T. Grigg 425,116 


J. S. Connelly j 


457,459 
457,46o 


C W Weiss.. (419,805 


V. Loutsky 


460,241 


( 419,806 


P. Neil A. Janiot 


462,447 


C. White A. R. Middleton. 438,209 


H. Williams 


457,020 


J. J. Pearson J. Kunze. . . . 428,858 


B. C. Vanduzen 


448,386 


G. H. Chappell. . . . (Rotary) 441,865 


P. C. Sainsevain 


461,802 


J. H. Eichler (Rotary) 442,963 


G. Roberts 


446,016 


G. E. Hibbard. . . . (Rotary) 424,000 


F. S. Durand 


455,483 


W. S. Sharpneck. .(Rotary) 428,762 


H. Schumm 


458,073 


W. C. Rossney 420,169 


H. Lindley 


450.77 1 


E. F. Roberts 424,027 


E. Kaselowsky 


463,231 


C. W. Baldwin 439,232 


G. W. Lewis 


451,620 


J. J. Pearson 426,736 
J. W. Eisenhuth 436,936 


A. Rollason J. H. Hamil- j 
ton 1 


456,505 
456,853 


J.W.Eisenhuth.. . j 430,310 


{ 


457.332 


( 43, 3 12 


O. Lindner 


453,446 


G. B. Brayton 432,114 


L. Kessler 


451,824 


A. W. Schleicher P. A. N. 


D. S. Regan 


448,360 



Winand 434,609 

P. A. N. Winand L. V. 

Goebbels 435,637 

J. Roots 425,909 

H. A. Stuart 439,702 

N. A. Otto 437,507 

C. von Lude 435,439 

1891 

A. Harding 452,520 

I. F. Allman. 453,071 

J. Charter 455,388 

B. H. Coffee 446,851 

P. T. Coffield C. H. Poxson 456,284 

E. W. Evans 452,568 

J. Fielding 450,406 



1892 

J. Joyce 480,019 

B. Stein 478,651 

D. Best 484,727 

J. Charter 472,106 

J. A. Charter.. . j 473, 293 

( 477,295 

H. T. Dawson 466,331 

E. W. Evans 488,165 

J. W. Raymond 488,483 

H. Warden 486,143 

J. Wehrschmidt 484,168 

C. W. Weiss 473,685 

S. Withers D. S. Covert. . 487,313 

H. Schumm 488,093 



406 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



C. W. Pinkney, 



E. I. Nichols 480,272 

H. Schumm 482,202 

A. Niemezyk 480,737 

G. W. Weatherhogg 480,535 

1893 

F. E.Tremper j 495,28i 

/ 503,016 

J. S. Bigger 49 I >403 

F. Cordenons 500,754 

J. Foos C. F. Endter 494,134 

C. J. B. Gaume 501,881 

W. W. Grant 497,239 

C. F. Hirsch A. Schilling. . 507,436 

D. D. Hobbs 506,817 

G. E. Hoyt. . . J 502,255 

( 510,140 

S. Lawson 498,476 

G. W. Lewis 5*1,535 

W. von Oechelhaeuser H. 

Junkers 508,833 

r499>935 
I 504,614 

i 505.3 2 7 
^511,158 

J. W. Raymond 491,855 

C. Sintz 509,255 

C. V. Walls 498,700 

H. A. Weeks G. W. Lewis. 511,478 

W. H. Worth 504,260 

H. W. Tuttle 510,213 

D. Best 496,718 

C. W. Weiss 492,126 

A. Niemezyk 508,042 

C. B. Wattles 509,981 

E. Delamare Peboutteville 

L. Melandin 511,593 

H. Schumm.. . j 497,68 9 

< 5 IO >7 12 

C. Stein 511,661 

P. H. Irgens 55.7 6 7 

H. Williams 490,006 

B. Chatterton -. 505,751 

A. Gray. 504,723 

W. Seek 509,830 

1894 

J. Low J. W. Gow 515,297 

P. A. N. Winand 525,828 

A. J. Painter 5 2 3'3 6 9 



W. S. Elliott, Jr. 523,628 

H. F. Frazer 526,348 

J. B. Carse.. . j Si,i77 

f 518,178 

B. H. Coffey 514,211 

H. T. Dawson j 513,486 

W. W. Grant 525,651 

J. W. Hartley J. Kerr. . . . 515,770 

C. F. Hirsch 526,837 

F. Hirsch . < 522,712 

(530,523 

C. S. Hisey 514,713 

J. Labataille J. J. Graff.. 517,821 

D. C. Luce 519,863 

J. McGeorge 525,857 

F. S. Mead 528,006 

H. B. Migl-iavacca 528,105 

E. Narjot 515,530 

F. C. Olin 525,358 

J. & W. Paterson 528,489 

T. H. & J. T. H. Paul 530,237 

H. Pokony 514,271 

S. D. Shepperd 521,443 

H. Swain 519,880 

R. Thayer 517,077 

H. Voll , 527,635 

J. Walrath 522,811 

F. Hirsch 518,717 

W. W. Grant 514,359 

K. A. Jacobson 514,996 

M. Lorois 529,452 

W. A. Shaw 523,734 

W. F. West 513,289 

W. Seek 517,890 

H. M. L. Crouan 515,116 

H. H. Andrew A. R. Bel- c 526,369 

lamy \ 528,063 

H. Schumm 528,115 

H.Campbell 523,511 

L. Crebessac 530,161 

R. B. Hain 531,182 



G. W. Waltenbough 543, 116 

H. Schumm 548,142 

F. M. Underwood 542,743 

F. S. Mead 546,238 

H. Thau. 545-553 

A. J. Signor 53 8 . 1 3 2 



PATENTS 



407 



C. L. Ives 


534,886 


B. W. Grist 


545- 12 5 


M. L. Mery 


543, J 57 


J . Robison 


532,098 


C. W. Weiss J 


543, l6 3 


P. Burt G. McGhee 


550,674 




543. l6 5 


G. W. Roth 


539,923 


J. J. Norman 


548,922 


F. S. Mead 


544,586 


J. J. Bordman 


547.414 


J. E. Weyman A. J. & J. 




J. Bryan 


542,972 


A. Drake 


542,124 


E. E. Butler 


546,110 


P. Bilbault 


532,412 


J. A. Charter 
F. W. C. Cock 


532,314 
544,210 


A. R. Bellamy . . . j 


536,997 
537,963 


F. W. Coen 


55^579 


O. Colborne 


550,675 


G. F. Conner 


548,628 


J. Robison 


53 2 ,o99 


F. E. Covey G. W. Haines. 


532,869 


C. & A. Spiel 


53 2 , 2I 9 


W. L. Crouch E. E. Pierce 


535. 8l 5 


J. E. Friend 


550,785 


J. Day.. j 


543.6x4 


S. Griffin 


542,410 




544,214 


W. Seek 


549,939 


H. J. Dykes 


539.122 


H. F. Wallmann 


548,824 


J . Froelich 


550,266 


W. E. Gibbon 


547,606 


E. R. Gill 


53 6 . 2 9 


( 


535,9!4 


H. H. Hennegin 


545.502 


V. List J. Kossakoff -J 


536,090 


F. Hirsch 


532,555 


( 


550,185 


A. R. Holmes 


540,490 


A. W. Brown 


532,865 


L. M. Johnston 


538,680 


F. Mayer.... 


549,677 


T.W.Lambert.. . J 


534,i63 


F.W.Ofeldt.. .5 


538,694 


1 


550.832 


( 


540,757 


H. A. Lauson J. J. Nor- 




W. Lorenz 


535,837 


man A. D. Nott 


550.451 


J . Robison . .i 


53 2 ,o97 


F. S. Mead. . . .< 


54i,773 


I 


532,100 


I 


545.709 






F. P. Miller 


532,980 


1896 


- 


C. M. Rhodes ( 


53i,86i 


J. F. Duryea 


557,469 




540,923 


J. F.Daly & W. L. Corson. . 


557,493 


F. A. Rider S. Vivian. . . . 


533,922 


G. E. Hoyt 


561,890 


B.L.Rinehart B.M.Turner 


552,332 


A. A. Hamerschlage 


561,886 


C. Sintz 


539, 7!o 


G. F. Eggerdinger and G. R. 




E. J.Stoddard 


533,754 


Swaine 


56i,774 


H . Swain 


535.964 


G. W. Lamos 


562,307 


G. Van Zandt 


537.253 


Fred Mex 


562,230 


C. V. Walls 


537.370 


H. G. Carnell j 


533,662 


G. J. Weber 


534,354 




556,o86 


H. A. Weeks 


543,8i8 


F. W. Mellars 


556,195 


C. J. Weinman E. E. Euch- 




C. J.Weinman E. E. Euch- j 


555,717 


enhofer 


537.512 


enhof er | 


555,791 


C. White A. R. Middleton 


545.995 


F.W.Crossley &J. Atkinson. 


555.898 


D. Best 


544,879 


M. G. Nixon 


559,399 


F. Burger 


549,626 


J. M. Worth 


559,oi7 


J. R. Bridges 


548,772 


G.L.Thomas 


558,749 


J. W. Lambert 


536,287 


C.Wagerell A.A.Williams . 


555,355 


G. W. Roth 


55 2 , 2 63 


W W Grant j 


553,46o 


W. R. Campbell 


550,742 


1 


553,488 



408 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



S. M. Miller 

F. M. Underwood 

W. D. & S. Priestman 

J.S. F. &E. Carter 

L. J. Monahan J. D. Ter- 

mant 

P. A. N. Winand 

H. L. Parker 

J. W. Eisenhuth 

G. Alderson 

A. F. Rober 

L. H. Nash 

T. M. Spaulding 

L. S. Gardner. . 



553,352 E j p ennmgton 



j 

E. Kasalowsky 

I. F. Allman 

H. C. Baker 

F. S. Mead 

A. W. Bodell 

P. A. N. Winand 

L. F. Allman 

L. M. Burgeois, Jr 

A. J. Pierce 

E. N. Dickerson J 

H. Swain 

J. Robison 

R. E. Olds M. F. Bates. .. 

B. Wolf 

A. Barker 

H. Ebbs 

G. H. Willets 

H. A. Winter 

H. Van Hoevenburgh 

C. D. Anderson 

J. S. Klein 

J. S. R. D. W. D. & C. H. 

Cundall 

G. A. Thode.. 



F. C. Olin.. 



H. A. Winter 

C. J. Weinman E. E. Euch- 

enhofer 

H. Schumm 

H. C. Hart 

M. W. Weir 

T. von Querfurth 

R. E. Olds.. 



55 2 . 7 l8 
552,686 

561,123 
561,302 
560,920 

558,369 
560,016 
560,149 

563.051 
562,673 
562,720 
558,943 
559. 2 9 
556,237 
563,249 
563,67 
563,548 
563.535 
563,541 
564,182 

564,643 
564,684 

565,157 
564,769 
565,033 
565,786 
566,263 
566,125 
566,300 
567.530 
567,432 
567,928 
567,954 
568,115 

568,017 
568,814 
569,386 
569,564 
569,530 

569,365 
569.942 
569,918 
569,694 
569.672 
570.263 



R. Rolfson 

L. Gathman . . . s 

E. Prouty 

C. W. Pinkney 

C. A. Kunzel, Jr 

G.W.Lewis 

F. C. Olin 

E. Rappe 

M. Blakey 

J. F. Duryea 

E. E. Ludi 

E. Capitaine 

F. J. Rettig 

F. E. Culver 

S. M. Balzer 

J. Charter, Jr 

G. S. Tiffany 

M. F. Underwood 

J. W. Eisenhuth 



1897 



F. Burger 

F. C. Southwell. 



J. Walrath 



L. Benier. 
H. S. Bristol. . 
T. W. Cohen.. 
P. T. Coffield. 
O. Colborne.. 



W. L. Crouch J 

C. L. Grohmann 

G. Joranson 

J. Ledent 

L. H. Nash J 

L. H. Wattles 

G. W. Lamas 

J. D. Blagden (Rotary) 

E. W. Blum 

W. Donaldson 

E. Fessard 

W. F. Trotter 

W. Rowbotham. . . 5 



A. Peugeot . . 
G. W. Lewis. 



570,440- 

57o.44i 
570,649. 

570,47' 
570,500- 

571.239- 
57!,447 
571,534 
571,495 
57 I ,49 8 - 
571,966 
572,051 
572,209- 
572,498- 
573>296- 
573,209. 
573, !74- 
573,762 
573,628. 

574,i83. 
574,3" 



576,43o- 

577,898- 
578,377 
579,378- 
575,326 
575,878- 

579,860- 
574,670 

575,502- 

574,535 
574,610- 

575,72 
576,604 
578,112 
577,567 
574,6i4 
575, 5 J 7 
579,554- 
577,160 

574,723 
575,66i 
574,762 
578,266 
577,536 



PATENTS 



409 



O. Bamborn 


578.034 


L. S. Brown 


585,504 


E. Merry 


. 579,068 


H. B. Steel 


585,601 


W. Maybach 


577,167 


F. Burger 


585,651 


M. Blakey 


. 580,172 


J. A. Charter 


585,652 


J. G. Lewis 


. 580,090 


C. Jacobson 


586,312 


G. H. Ellis and J. F. Steward 580,387 


J. D. Russ .-. 


586,321 


H. C. Baker 


. 580,444 


E. P. Woillard 


586,409 


D. Best 


580,446 


E. J. Pennington 


586,511 


F. G. and F. H. Bates 


58o,445 


T. A. Redmon 


586,826 


W. O. Worth 


. 581,683 


A. A. Williams 


587,627 


E. P, Woillard 


. 58i,385 


P. Mueller 


587,747 


A. Winton 


. 582,108 


H. C. Hart | 


588,061 


T Small 


(581,783 




588,062 




"1581,784 


A. G. Pace 


588,466 


F. S. Mead 


582,073 


S. A. Reeve 


588,292 


G. Alderson 


58i,93 


C. Quast 


588,876 


W. H. Knight 


. 581,826 


L. Ely 


588,629 


O. Mueller 


. 582,540 


White & Middleton 


588,917 


J. W. Lambert 


582,532 


J. C. Wilson 


5 8 9> I 5o 


H. T, Dawson 


. 582,271 


E. R. Moffitt 


589,509 


F M Rites 


( 582,231 


J. S. Walch 


590,080 




i 582,232 


A. J. Tackle 


59, 79 6 


J. A. Charter. 


. 582,620 


V. G. Apple 


59 I > I2 3 


G. W. Lewis 


583,399 


F. Conley and C. J. Macom- 




G. Westinghouse and E. 
Rund 


(583,586 
] 583,584 


ber 
M.O. Godding 


59 1 >34i 
59 J >598 




'583,585 


D. Best (reissue) 


11,633 


G. Langen 


. 583,600 


C. I. Cummings and J. C. 




H. B. Maxwell 


583,495 


Hilton 


591,952 


L. H. Nash 


( 583,627 


C. W. Weiss 5 


592,033 




1 583,628 


( 


592,034 


J. W. Raymond 


j 583,507 
I 583,508 


P. Auriol 
C. L. Mayhew 


59 2 ,o73 
591,862 


J. H. Tuffs 


583,872 


C. Sintz 


592,669 


F. Burger and H. M. Will- 


F. C. Olin 


592,881 


iams 


. 584,282 


F. W. Spacke 


593,034 


F. C. Griswold 


. 584,130 


F. W. Lancaster 


562,794 


P. B. and S. D. McLelland 


. 584,188 


J. J. Heilmann 


593,29 6 


W. F. Davis 


583,982 


C. A. Schwarm 


593,970 


P. A. N. Winand 


583,962 


F. F. Snow 


593,911 


J. O. Brown 


. 584,622 


A. Rosenberg 


593,859 


E. B. Dake 


584,674 


W. Bayley 


594,37 2 


C. C. Wright and W. J 




J. Q. Chase 


595,043 


Stephens 


, 584,448 


McFadden and Lloyd 


595,324 


C. Quast 


{ 584,961 
} 584,960 


A. L. Harbison 
E. Meredith 


595,625 
595,489 


C. A. Miller 


585,n5 


W. Rowbotham 


595,497 


G. W. Starr and J. H. Cogs 


- 


J. B. Fenner 


596,239 


well 


585,127 


E. R. Bales 


596,35 2 


W. E. Gibbon. 


585,434 


F. W. Lancaster 


596,271 



410 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



1898 

W. J. Wright ............. 607, 

W. E. White .............. 599, 

J.Madlehner and F. Hamilton 616, 
W. von Oechelhaeuser ..... 596, 

W. O. Worth ............. 607, 



J. S. Klein 



615, 



T. M. Doyle 602 

F. S. Mead.. . j 6 3 

I 612 

H. A. Humphrey 611 

W. Morava 608 

W. R. Bullis 597 

R. Diesel 608 

F. L. Merritt 605 

M. H. Rumpf 615 

G. L. Woodworth 607 

G. H. Gere 598 

R. B. Hain 599 

W. F. Trotter . 603 

C. A. Lefebvre 614 

A. A. Vansickle 615 

P. E. Singer 600 

A. Howard 602 

G. A. Marconnett 6n 

E.WiesemanandJ.Holroyd J 6o 

( 600 

S. Rolfe 597 

S. Bouton 606 

L. Halvorson 600 

C. E. Henriod 603 

P. L. Hider 599 

G. A. Newman 602 

J. A. Secor 602, 

E. D. Strong 597 

(598 
A. Winton J 6oo 

(610 

M. F. Bates 607, 

M. Beck 602, 

L. F. Burger 598, 

H. G. Carnell 613, 

J.CarnesandC.W.McKibben 603, 

F. E. Culver 601, 

A. H. Dingman 610, 

J. F. Duryea 605, 

J. Fraser 599, 

C. Guyer 596, 

H. H. Hennegin 597, 



,904 
376 
059 
,613 

.613 

,284 

'393 
,556 
,9i4 
,258 
125 
968 

389 

>845 

.583 
049 

3i7 
986 

653 
297 
,114 
766 
971 
161 

813 
,107 

974 
860 

504 
J 47 
986 

235 
707 

477 
921 

832 
819 
465 
536 

820 
496 

757 
125 

OI2 
034 

8lS 
496 
809 
771 



T. H. Hicks 

D. D. Hobbs 

C. Jacobson 

J. N. Kelly and W. M. Kelch 

J. Lizotte 

S. E. Maxwell 

L. H. Millen 

J. J. Ohrt 

F. C. Olin 

J. A. Ostenberg 



C. Quast 



J. Reid 

S. S. Simrak. . . . 

H. C. Strang 

D. M. Tuttle..., 
B. C. Vanduzen, 
W. E. White... 

L. J. Wing 

W. J. Wright... 



1899 

A. G. Pace (reissue) 

R. Mewes 

F. R. Simms 

F. R. Simms (reissue) 

E. Fessard 

F. Burger 

E. Brillte 

W. Jasper 

E. J. Fithian 

G. Hirt and G. Horn 

H. Smith 

H. C. L. Holden 

S. N. Pond 

A. Howard 

F. Hayot 

C. J. F. Mollet- Fontaine and 

L. A. C. Letombe 

F. Diirr 

F. C. Hirsch 

H. N. Bickerton and H. W. 

Bradley 

J. W. and P. L. Tygard 

E. J. Stoddard 

A. Mahon 

S. W. Zent 

C. A. Anderson and E. A. 

Ericksson.. ...... 



606,386 

613,417 
607,566 
610,682 
600,675 
601,210 
612,047 
608,298 

613,390 
612,756 
597,326 
607,878 
607,879 
607,276 
598,025 
615,052 
604,241 
600,754 

599,375 
607,580 
607,903 



".775 
633,878 
617,660 

11,763 
639,160 
623,980 
618,638 
626,206 
626,155 
630,083 

632,763 

622,047 

633,484 
617,529 
623,713 

634,063 

625,387 
622,469 

640,083 
619,004 
623,224 
625,180 
637, 3*7 

630,838 



PATENTS 



411 



J. H. Frew ............... 623,361 

G.W.Lewis .............. 621,110 

H. J. Perkins ............. 630,738 

P. W. Weeks .............. 635,624 

J. H. Hamilton ............ 621,525 

J. B. Doolittle ............ 637,450 

C. O. White ............... 634,679 

J. A. Harp ................ 628,316 

E. H. Korsmeyer .......... 636,048 

E. L. Lowe ............... 624,355 

J. W. Eisenhuth ........... 620,554 

E.J.Woolf.. (627,219 

( 627,220 



C. R. Daellenbach. 



. 
( 632,918 

L. B. Doman ............. 625,839 

T. C. Kennedy ............ 621,572 

G. W. Lewis .............. 620,941 

H. P. Maxim .............. 620,602 

J. A. Secor ............... 623,568 

F. H. Smith .............. 636,298 

H. Smith ................. 624,555 

E. J. Stoddard ............ 623,190 

E. E. Truscott ............ 617,372 

J. Walrath ................ 632,859 

( 617,978 
A. Winton ............... J 626,120 

( 636,606 
S. A. Hasbrouck ........... 624,649 

J. W. Eisenhuth ........... 620,431 

E. E. Allyne and R. G. 

Anderson ............... 622,876 

C. R. Alsop ............... 618,972 

S. A. Ayres ............... 632,888 

E. and W. F. Bauroth ..... 617,388 

C. P. Blake ............... 631,003 

C. W. Bogart ............. 628,518 

J. O. Brown .............. 635,294 

F. Burger ................. 632,913 

W. H. and J. Butter worth. . 624,750 
O. F. Good ............... 634,686 

E. W. Graef .............. 622,891 

J. D. Hay and B. M. Bullock 632,814 

L. J. Hirt.. (620,926 

( 629,904 
L. S. Kirker .............. 627,338 

H. A. Knox ............... 627,857 

A. Lee ................... 634,529 

P. Murray ................ 619,776 

A. H. Neale ............... 639,683 



W. S. Sharpneck 



R. f Sr.,andR.NuttallJr.. j 6 3 J ' 22 4 

( 640,018 

G. Palm 618,435 

C. Quast 624,975 

E. Rappe 637,975 

J. W. Raymond 636,451 

C. C. Riotte 616,974 

r6 2 8,i22 

J 628,123 

I 628,124 
^628,125 

H. Smith 632,762 

G. S. Strong 637,298 

T. J. Sturtevant 634,509 

A. A. Vansickle 620,080 

G. A. Whitcomb. 634,654 

J. Williams, Jr 636,478 

E. E. Wolf 618,157 

C. Hoerl 633,380 

G. Dahlberg, J. Clicquennoi j 633,338 

and E. Uhlin ] 633,339 

J. H. Hamilton 621,526 



1900 



J. W. Eisenhuth 



J. L. Baillie and P. B. Verity 
J. F. Craig.. .............. 

J. F. Duryea .............. 

G.W.Lewis.. . J 



T. Malcolmson 

J. A. Secor 

C. Sintz 

G. A. Tuerk 

A. Heil 

W. A. Kope 



G.W.Lewis 






A. L. Navone ............. 

A. T. Otto ................ 

G. S. Shaw ............... 

J. Straszer ................ 

P. Robertson and C. Mat- 

son .................... 

B. M. Aslakson ............ 

A. J. Frith. . . ............. 

E. Thomson .............. 



640,890 

642,434 
642,949 
644,004 
646,399 
640,674 
640,675 
642,143 
640,711 
646,322 
641,659 

645.293 
642,043 

640,393 
640,394 
640,672 
640,673 
642,706 

645- 44 
641,156 
640,237 

641,727 
644,566 
644,798 
642,176 



412 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



J. E. Thornton and J. P. 

Lea .................... 

A. G. New ................ 

L. Charon and F. Manaut. . 
J. G. Lepper and W. F. Dial . 
A. Bink .................. 

E. Fahl .................. 

H. A. Frantz .............. 

C. O. Heggem ............. 

C. W. Hunt ............... 

A. J. Martin .............. 

E. A. Sperry ............. 

H. Stommel .............. 

G. E. Whitney ............ 

G. E. Whitney and H. 

Howard ................ 

W. O. Worth ............. 

A. Olson ................. 



F. W. Toedt, 



J. W. Lambert 



L. Jones, Jr. 

F. J. Macey. 
C. R. Alsop. 

G. W. Lewis, 



H. F. Probert ..j 

D. Drawbaugh 

W. J. Perkins and C. H. 

Blomstrom 

F. R. Simms 

W. Banes 

E. T. Headech 

J. C. Anderson. . . 

J.Craig, Jr . 

G. A. Fleury 

C. A. Scott 

T. Cascaden, Jr., and T. C. 

Menges 

A. H. Goldingham 

H. Sutton 

W. J. Woodward and D. 

Barckdall 

J. H. Atterbury 

W. R. Dow 

W. W. Gerber 

J. S. Losch 

C. A. Miller 

C. K. Pickles and N. W. 

Perkins, Jr 



644,951 

642,871 A. Martini 

645,458 E. Funke 

644,295 J. McLean 

644,843 H. Swain 

644,853 H. Crouan 

644,590 J. Wickstrom 

644,598 A. Adamson 

641,514 H. T. and H. A. Dawson. . . 

641,313 V. R. Stewart 

643,258 H. A. Bertheau 

645,497 C. E. Belcher 

642,771 T. Croil 

T. B. Dooley 

642,943 J. Greffe 

645,378 R. Hagen 

643,525 F. K. Irving 

640.667 F. A. La Roche 

640.668 A. H. Overman and J. H. 

645,398 Bullard 

643,513 R. M. Owen 

640,252 L. W. Ravenez 

640,392 E. S. Sutch 

640,395 O. Waechtershaeuser 

642,366 J. A. Ostenberg 

642,562 W. J. McDuff 

643,087 O. Owens 

L. Hutchinson 

643,002 E. S. Haines 

642,167 W. F. Davis 

644,027 W. H. Cotton 

646,282 D. M. Tuttle 

651,741 J. C. Anderson 

650,525 C. E. Duryea 

651,966 W. E. Cary 

647,583 C. Hautier 

F. C. Olin 

652,470 T. B. Royse 

650,583 C. W. Shartle and C. E. 

650,736 Miller 

H. Smith 

649,713 E. C. Wood 

652,382 G. W. Starr and J. H. Cogs- 

647,651 well 

652,539 S. F. Beetz 

650,789 C. R. Daellenbach 

652,544 O. J. Fairchild 

H. A. Bertheau 

652,724 F. J. Sproehnle 



650,549 
651,216 

651,875 
650,312 
646,452 



650,576 
651,062 
651,780 
650,661 
648,914 
650,816 
65 2 >534 
651,323 
652,673 
646,982 
646,993 
652,278 

648,286 
652,486 
650,950 
648,059 

652,57! 
648,520 
650,266 
646,867 
648,689 
652,104 
648,122 
647,946 
649,778 
651,742 

649,441 
657,810 
656,020 
653,876 
653,040 

658,594 
657,576 
655.473 

657,140 
657,384 
653,379 
656,101 
655,186 
653,97 r 



PATENTS 



413 



S. Messerer 

V. V. Torbensen 

R. H. Little 

E. Haynes and E. Apper- 
son 

M. F. Marmonier 

R. A. Frisbie 

G. E. Hoyt 

W. J. Baulieu 

C. L. Mayhew 

J . J . Simmonds 

J. Rambaud 

G. Palm 

W. E. Simpson 

S. W. Rea 

F. A. Law 

L. Witry 

G. W. Henricks 

R. R. von Paller 

C. H. Blomstrom 

A. C. von Fahnenfeld and 

E. S. von Wolfersgrun. . . 

J. G. MacPherson 

G. Kiltz 

R. Diesel 

F. A. La Roche 

I. H. Davis 

J. G. MacPherson 

H. Wegelin 

G. L. Reenstierna 

A. J. New 

S. A. Hasbrouck 

H. C. Thamsen 

L. S. Clarke, W. Morgan, 

and J. G. Heaslet 



C. J. Coleman < 



654,996 H j Lawson 



P. J. Collins, 



E. P. Cowles.... 
J. : T. Dougine... 
C. E. Duryea. . . 
J. W. Eisenhuth. 
C. D. P. Gibson. 



656,823 

658,367 
657,226 

656,539 
657,934 
653,651 
652,909 
658,127 
654,356 
654,761 

658,595 
657-45 1 
653,353 
655, 28 9 
653,957 
655,269 
657,055 

653,341 
655,407 

657,739 
654,140 
657,662 
657,760 
655,406 
654,693 
655,661 
656,143 
654,894 
654,818 



653,167 
653,168 
653, l6 9 
653,^0 
653,172 
657, 5 l6 
657,899 
658,238 

655,853 
656,389 
654,716 

655,329 
653,224 
656,396 
656,962 



H. W. Libbey 

C. A. Lieb 

J. H. Munson 

L. J. Phelps 

W. Scott 

C. T. Shoup 

F. E. and F. O. Stanley 

V. V. Torbensen.. 



G. E. Whitney, 



W. S. Halsey 

L. H. Nash 

J. M. Olsen 

E. A. Mitchell 

A. A. Williams 

W. F. Davis 

D. E. Barnard 

H. D. Weed 

P. H. Standish 

F. G. Bates 

G. H. Rogers 

C. Bonjour 

F. Diirr 

A. Hayes. 

J. W. Lambert 

E. T. Birdsall 

J. W. Lambert 

G. L. Reenstierna 

A. Johnson 

A. and E. Boulier 

T. M. andF. L. Antisell. . . . 

F. C. Dyckhoff 

J. B. Rodger 

L. Charon and E. Manaut. . 

X. de la Croix 

J-Day 

N. A. Guillaume 

M. Flood 

F. R. Simms 

A. J. Signer 

T. L. and T. J. Sturtevant. . 
A. J. Signer 

G. J. Altham and J. Beattie, 

Jr 

G. A. Timblin (designs) 



654,797 
658,068 

654,741 
653,102 

653, J 99 
653,879 
656,483 
658,046 
657>7n 
653-855 

652,940 
652,941 
652,942 

652,943 
652,944 
659,027 
658,858 
659,095 
658,993 
659,426 
660,073 
659,911 
659,944 
660,129 
660,482 
660,338 
660,412 
660,292 
660,954 
660,778 
660,786 
661,181 
661,276 
661,291 
661,439 
661,300 
661,369 
661,078 
661,235 
661,854 
661,559 
661,865 
662,189 
662,317 
662,315 
662,040 
662,155 

662,181 
33,592 



414 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



H. B. Steele 662,631 

P. Swenson 662,507 

O. F. Good 662,718 

M. S. Napier 663,388 

H. W. Strauss 663,106 

A. D. Garretson 663,091 

G. A. Tuerk 663,798 

W. H. Cotton 663,653 

G. Buck 663,725 

L. S. Clarke and J. G. 

Heaslet 663,729 

F. R. Simms and R. Bosch. 663,643 

H. Smith 663,475 

C. O. White 664,110 

A. T. Otto 664,360 

L. H. Nash 664,025 

C. O. White 664,200 

J. Dougill 664,134 

J. W. Eisenhuth 664,018 

H. Sutton 664,689 

G. Miari and F. Giusti 664,661 

W. K. Freeman 664,632 

IQOI 

W. Maybach 668,111 

C. E. Dawson 668,954 

S. Miller 667,846 

H. L. Arnold 666,838 

S. M. Zurawski 668,250 

O. B. Johnson 669,416 

E. Courvoisier 670,311 

C. R. Daellenbach 665,881 

L. H. Solomon 665,665 

L. F. Burger 666,260 

J. Walrath 669,272 

E. Thompson 669,737 

T. McMahon 670,803 

W. O. Worth 670,550 

W. E. Simpson 667,590 

H. F. Walman 666,368 

C. F. Bergman 665,849 

H. L. Arnold 666,839 

W. H. Aldrich 668,617 

Kopp & Preston 674,421 

J. A. McLean 674,979 

G. A. Bronder 673,109 

J. Eckhard 673,427 

W. O. Worth 673,809 

J. Rourk 674,709 

M. L. Wood 676,523 



G. L. V. Chauveau 

C. C. and E. A. Riotte 

Schumm & Munzel 

J. Doorenbos 

J. A. McLean 

H. F. Wallman 

H . Schwarz 

J. Sterba 

A. T. Stimson 

Tuck & Wassman 

E. Butler 

E. T. Birdsall 

C. W. Weiss 

C. E. Duryea 

W. J. Pugh 

A. F. Bardwell 

S. W. Zent 

W. S. Sharpneck 

E. N. Dickerson 

C. C. Bramwell 

R. R. Darling 

M. W. Jamieson ] . 



Campbell & Hawkins 

B. F. Stewart 

V. St. John 

A. C. Wolfe 

O. Snell 

F. Reichenbach 

Toepel & Widmayer 

W. B. Cuthbertson 

J. D. McFarland 

A. Tourand 

E. J. Wolf 

J. Valentynowicz 

H. Enge 

A. Hayes 

F. Burger 

W. S. Halsey 

M. E..Durman 

H. M. McCall 

C. L. Mayhew 

W. G. Marr 

M. F. Bates 

J. Badeker 

E. Caillavet 

L. Genty 

H. F. Wallman 

C. A. Hirth 

C. A. Marrder. . 



671,160 
671,934 
675.796 
672,615 
670,907 
677,048 
676,449 
672,432 
677,001 
682,003 

678,715 
679,410 
680,953 
682,606 
680,616 
680,907 
682,583 
680,985 
681,111 
678,823 
679,367 
681,704 
681,705 
682,788 
683,080 
683,152 
681,162 
677,898 
682,567 
682,822 

677,949 

682,385 
687,084 
683,886 
684,011 
686,806 
688,245 
684,743 
684,813 
687,678 
687,924 
688,426 
688,536 
689,351 
683,587 
689,791 
687,152 
688,907 
685,141 
685,722 



PATENTS 



415 



Box & G. Labedan 686,801 

J. H. Reed 688,335 

S. M. Williams 688,566 

J. W. Plimpton 683,705 

1902 

F. D. Sweet 690,481 

A. D. Richardson 690,610 

H. F. Wallmann 690,542 

F.W.Toedt (691,083 

( 691,084 

E. Thompson 691,017 

C. Robinson 691,489 

W. J. Pugh 692,071 

W. A. Swan 692,218 

T. Myers 693,529 

G. V. Petter 694,186 

W. S. & C. Hibbard 694,016 

A. W. Clayden 694,090 

H. Junkers 694,552 

Freeman & Troop 694,735 

C. F. Lembke 694,557 

W. F. Davis 694,948 

W. L. Judson 695,731 

J. D. McFarland 696,251 

E. Thompson 696,518 

P. Burt 696,547 

J. A. McLean 697,649 

M. N. Hylland 698,285 

J. V. Rice 699,014 

R. L. Young 699,433 

F. Durr 699,503 

J. W. Stanton 700,100 

W. J. Robb 700,241 

S. S. Rose 700,243 

H. A. Bertheau 700,295 

A. L. Kull 700,785 

J. T. Metcalfe 701,069 

D. A. Briggs 701,140 

F. Reichenbach 701,505 

F. L. Nichols 7 02 >375 

C. W. Kelsey 701,891 

J. S. Rogers 702,246 

J. F. Hobart 702,430 

F. A. L. Sneckner 703,157 

S. E. Poole 703,463 

G. Wood 703,511 

E. B. and L. S. Cushman. . . 703,695 

G. Gibbs 703,724 

J. Lizotte 703,937 



F. Lister 

C. F. Cope 

M. J. Klein 

C. W. Weiss 

W. Bernhardt 

A. T. Brown 

M. J. Sullivan 

R. L. Barnhart 

G. A. Graves 

F. R. Simms and R. Bosch. 

T. Doherty 

A. Vogt and M. von Reck- 

linghausen 

J. Lizotte 

G. S. Andres 

G. Erikson 

H. H. and C. B. Segner. . . . 
G. Dahlberg, J. Clicquen- 

nov, and E. Uhlin (reissue) 
E. Estcourt 

E. T. McKaig 

C. O. Hedstrom 

R. Diesel 

J. B. Hicks 

G. Dahlberg, J. Clicquen- 

nov, and E. Uhlin (reissue) 

A. C. Krebs 

W. A. Leonard 

C.W.Weiss 

W. J. Still 

A. T. Bossett 

W. Heckert 

A. McCahon 

H. C. Strang 

B. C. Van Duzen 

F. B. Warring 

H. A. Gray 

C. W. Weiss 

P. A. Prestwich 

H. E. Barlow 

R. C. Marks 

G. Westinghouse 

P. F. Maccallum 

L. W. Witry 

W. G. Wilson 

T. S. Glover 

C. W. Weiss 

H. E. Ebbs 

E. G. Shortt 

W.J.Wright. 



704,060 
704,618 
704,713 
704,995 
705,022 
705,201 
705,881 
705,897 

70S,99 6 
706,121 
706,167 

706,366 
706,492 
706,711 

706,733 
706,859 

12,021 

707,570 

707,793 
707,922 
708,029 
708,042 

12,024 
708,053 
708,236 
708,284 
708,502 
708,518 
708,637 
709,030 
709,060 
709,126 
709,428 
709,598 
710,026 
710,302 
710,312 
710,329 
710,385 
710,483 
710,647 
710,727 
710,771 
710,824 
710,911 



416 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



J. F. Hill 

E. S. Bowen 

C. E. Inglis 

L. A. C. Letombe 

C. O. Hedstrom 

W. L. Judson , 

W. M. Power 

E. B. Parkhurst 

J. McCoy 

H. F. Wallmann j 

J. A. Ostenberg J 

L. B. Smyser 

C. Hendricks 

C. A. Anderson, E. A. 
Erickson, and J. Wick- 
strom 

F. Lagoutte 

J. Hirst 

F. G. Bates and B. A. Will- 
iams... 

J. W. Hinchley 

C. C. Chamberlain 

J. Lizotte 

W. W. Tuck and A. Wass- 
mann 

B. F. Bain 

F. E. and M. E. Vaughn 

C. E. Henriod 

E. E. Koken 

E. J. Stoddard 

1903 

F. R. McMullin 

J. F. Curtis and H. F. Miller. 

W. P. Flint.... 

W. Langdon-Davies and A. 

Soames 

F. A. Law 

J. A. Ostenberg 

H. F. Wallmann 

P. Robertson and C. Matson 

H. J. Hurd 

C. G. Armesley 

C. E. Dawson 

H. Gross 

B. Niles 

L. G. Woolley 

H. W. Tuttle.. 



711,628 
711,652 
712,067 

7 I2 .393 
712,791 
712,805 
7 I 3. I 47 
7 I 3 I 94 
7*3.33 2 
713.366 

713.367 
7*3, 79 2 
713.793 
714,049 
714,180 

714,352 
7 J 4.353 
714,492 
7*4.799 

7*4,853 
714,902 

7 I 5, I 9 6 
715,208 

716,314 
716,615 
716,792 

717,000 

7*7,417 
717,466 



717,902 
718,131 
7*8,334 

718,481 
718,482 
7i8,5n 
7 l8 ,55 2 
718,658 

7i8,933 
719,072 
719,199 
719,326 
719,247 
719,407 
7 I 9>53 6 



J. Willoughby 

W. M. Everett.. . . 
H. Morningstar. . . . 

A. F. Parks 

L. A. Frayer 

G. A. Ede 

C. L. Straub 

H. W. Tuttle 

C. A. Bailey 

L. P. Mooers 

E. H. Rousseau. . . 
J. Cereghino 

A. Evensen . . 



C. E. Duryea 

G. W. Euker 

B. Garllus 

J. W. Packard 

C. C. Riotte and C. R. Rad- 
cliffe 

L. F. Burger 

D. C. Stover 

F. W. Toedt 

G. Westinghouse and E. 
Rund 

L. M. Johnston 

T. C. Menges 

H. Essex 

A. H. Dingman 

C. W.Weiss 

J. Dabled 

F. W. Rogler 

J. B. O'Donnell 

A. M. Zimmerman J 

W. Roche 

J. A. Jenney 

A. A. Low 

R. A. Allsop 

H. C. Strang 

W. A. Whiling 

G. A. Goodson 

G. A. Goodson 

E. W. Graef 

C. A. Miller 

L. F. Splitt 

A. L. Riker 

A. Krastin 

G. A. Gemmer 

L. A. C. Letombe ..... 



719,547 
7*9,653 
719,836 

719,855 
720,126 
720,336 
720,752 
7 2 ,759 
7 2 ,995 
721,065 
721,238 
721,285 
721,872 

721.873 

722,005 
722,176 
722,223 
722,431 

722,629 
722,671 
722,767 

722,774 

722,787 
722,846 
7 2 3.54Q 
723,660 
7 2 3. 8 44 
7 2 3.956 
7 2 4, 2 39 
7 2 4,333 
724,606 
724,648 
724,649 

7 2 4,945 
725,087 
725,104 
7 2 5> I 9 I 
7 2 5. 2 95 
7 2 5.5 2 8 
7 2 5,556 
7 2 5. 6 44 
725,700 

7 2 5,74i 
7 2 5.789 
7 2 5.99 
726,226 
726,671 
726,710 



PATENTS 



417 



W. J..McVicker 

J. McCluer 

J. S. Lang 

E. Maerky, 

M. H. Rumpf 

G. W. Starr and J. H. 

Cogswell 

V. G. Apple 

L. M. Foster. , 

C. O. Hedstrom 

R. A. Mitchell and L. L. 

Lewis 

F. Reichenbach 

R. D. Chandler 

J. H.Jones 

H. M. McCall 

J. S., R. D., W. D., and 

H. C. Cundall 

W. E. Dow 

A. C. Mather 

J. MacHaffie 

J. C. White 

J. MacHaffie 

I. Lanster 

C. T. Osborne 

R. P.Thompson and E. Koeb 

H. F. Wallmann.. 



W. J. Boemper 

A. M. Coburn 

S. M. Balzer 

F. G. Ericson 

M. H. Neff 

M. Pivert 

E. E. Williams 

C. E. Sargent 

O. B. Perkins 

J. M. Smelser 

H. Austin 

R. Gumming 

K. Schafferkotter 

T. B. Jeffery 

C. Rossler 

A. T. Collier 

A. F. Evans 

H. G. Mears and H. W. 

Aylward 

W. J. Wright 

W. E. Nageborn 

H. F. Wallmann.. 



726,731 
726,971 

727,158 
7 2 7.399 

7 2 7.455 

727,476 
727.564 

727.777 
727.944 

728,123 
728,297 

728,543 
728,724 
728,747 

728,873 
728,882 
728,950 
729,194 
729,467 

729.499 
729,613 
729,652 
729,700 

7 2 9.983 
729,984 

729.995 
73 .345 
73.433 
730,626 

730.683 
730.695 
731,001 

73!.!34 
731,218 

73 1 . 2 3 6 
731.265 
731,286 

731,507 
73i,78i 
73 I ,95 6 . 
731,995 
732,343 

732,365 
732,683 

733,256 
733,350 



H. A. Gilman 

V. R. Nicholson.... 

G. R. Albaugh 

T. Charlton 

A. L. Riker 

F. Bryan and A. H. Bayley . 

J. D. McFarland, Jr 

M. Offenbacher . . 

P. Gaeth and A. Griebel. . . . 

A. Krebs 

R. Gumming 

G. A. Goodson j 

J. M. Stadel 

W. H.Jones j 

F. C. Hirsch 

G. C. Eskholme 

W. Walke 

W. C. Matthias 

O. C. Duryea and M. C. 

White 

C. Schrotz 

J. M. Wilson 

F. H. Gile 

J. D. McFarland, Jr 

H. H. Mulherm 

E. B. and L. S. Cushman. . . 

P. Gervais 

L. Jones 

A. A. and D. E. Karcher. . . 

C. A. Wilkinson 

R. Diesel and H. Giildner. . 

R. J. Voss 

W. Brown 

C. F. Pearson 

B. L. Toquet 

C. F. Hitchcock 

P. P. G. Hall, Jr 

F. T. Cable 

J. D. Lyon 

F. Charron and L. Girar- 

dot 

W. W. Tuck, A. A. Low, 

and A. Wassmann 

W. J. Wright 



J. H. Redfield 



T. B. Jeffery 
G. B. Fraley. 



733,384 
733,417 
733, 8 94 
733,90 2 

734,138 
734,220 

734,237 
734,356 
734,415 
734,421 
734,827 
734,85i 
734,852 
734,986 
735,035 
735,036 
735,256 
735,483 
735,627 
735,67.4 

735,863 
735,912 
735,923 
735,964 
735.997 
736,i3 2 
736.224 

736,715 
736,734 
736,737 
736,807 

736,944 
737, 48 
737,o69 
737,463 
737,532 
737,737 
737,923 
738,160 
738,690 

738,772 

738,860 
739,050 
739.219 
739.220 
740,020 
740,117 



418 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



C. R. James 

H. Soeldner 

R. P. Thompson and E. 

Koeb 

G. Joranson 

J. W. Sutton 

T. L. and T. J. Sturtevant. . 
C. F. Jaubert 

E. C. Richard 

J. A. Nickelson 

R. Jensen 

C. W. Spousel 

F. Sproehnle. 

H. Guillon 

J. W. Packard 

J. W. Sutton 

F. H. Smith 

F. C. Hirsch 

C. M. Mohler 

O. E. Pehrsson 

J. A. McGee 

V. J. Emery 

R. P. Thompson and E. 

Koeb 

R. P. Thompson 

H. Spiihl 

W. J. Wright 

R. R. Gaskell 

L. Roedel 

G. S. Billman 

F. C. Hirsch 

C. C. Chamberlain 

O. P. Ostergren 

E. E. Arnold and A. T. 

Kasley 

E. N. Dickerson 

G. A. Phail 

G. C. Blasdell 

W. Remington 

M. H. Roberts 

E. J. Stoddard 

D. F. Graham and F. A. Fox 

H. F. Wallmann 

B. V. de Sutter 

B. G. Holz 

J. C. Meredith......... 

R. C. Shepherd 

L. S. Chadwick 

W. W. Tuck, A. A. Low, 

and A. Wassmann 



740,138 
740,195 

740,488 
740,571 
740,711 
740,781 
740,864 
740,924 
741,064 

74i,i3 8 
741,178 

74i,i79 
74i,3 2 9 
74i,3 6 5 
741,419 

741,559 
741,79! 
741,810 
741,824 
74i,9 2 3 
741,959 

74i,9 8 5 
741,986 
742,079 

742,143 
742,184 

742,493 
742,566 
742,651 
742,774 
742,799 

742,820 
743,o 6 4 
743,097 
743.230 
743,3 2 7 
743,332 
743>405 

743,637 
743,78o 

743,977 
744,342 

744,3 8 o 
744,418 
744,486 

744,822 



C. N. Cook 

H. Sohnlein 

R. Harris 

G. Erikson 

J. Geisslinger 

A. G. Melhuish 

C. R. Daellenbach 

C. G. Dean 

H. Richter 

R. B. Weaver 

G. Westinghouse 

L. H. Nash 

W. C. Weatherholt 

E. Korting 

G. J. Murdock 

G. J. Rathbun 

A. Krebs 

W. C. andS. Hibbard 

W. G. Wilson 

W. J. Kurd 

A. McCahon 

N. Crane 

A. A. Low and A. Wass- 
mann 

B. Wright 

G. McCadden . . 

W. Remington 

H. G. Underwood 

W. M. Britton. . 



1904 

W. R. Kahlenberg 

C. K. MacFadden 

E. Prouty 

H. H. andC. B. Segner 

B. Banta and C. Mathews.. 
T. S. James 

E. L. Russell 

J. W. Swan 

S. Cunningham 

W. W. Grant 

B . Musgrave 

B. H. Pomeroy 

H. Nelson 

F. A. Seitz 

A. A. Low 

J. M. Johanson 

R. Dempster. 



744,857 
744,881 

745,055 
745,098 
745, 102 
745,215 
745,422 

: 745.423 
745,578 
745,669 
745,701 
745,703 
745,704 

746,133 

746,212 

746,342 
746,358 
746,377 
746,527 
746,701 
746,770 
746,840 
746,870 
746,925 

747,620 
747,828 
748,001 
748,01 r 
748,029 
748,045 



748,615 
748,763 
748,883 
748,990 

749,654 
749,864 

749,883 

75, 3 l8 
750,349 
75,45 r 
750,478 
750,489 
750,885 
750,901 
751,188 
751,292 
75 I -47 2 



PATENTS 



419 



J. L. Lawrence and G. W. 

Stewart 

A. Vogt 

W. E. Dow 

J. B. and J. B. Dunlop, Jr. . 

O. P. Ostergren 

G. J. Pelstring 

F. Baltzinger 

J. W. Sutton 

L. J. Le Pontois 

L. H. Fey 

A. Vogt 

A. G. Ronan 

J. W. Sutton 

B. Botkowski 

A. A. Low 

W. W. Tuck and A. Wass- 

mann 

G. W. Fulkerson. . 



G. J. Murdock. 



J. M. Stadel 

O. B. Thorson 

W. J. Hart 

L. B. Smyser 

R. W. Brockway and F. J, 

Meckensturm 

D. Glasby 

A. P. Brush 

H. Richter ,. 

H. B. Nicodemus 

P. H. Brennan 

S. S. and A. Lewis 

J. White 

H. Lepape 

N. L. and W. W. Tuck 

N. A. Wright 

C. E. Shambaugh 

D. M. Tuttle etal 

H. C. Bergemann 

J. A. McGee 

J. F. Denison 

N. E. Hildreth 

C. W. Carrier 

H. J. Smith 

J. J. Murray 

A. Rollason 

T. Reichenbach 

W. L. Paul 

R. Jardine 



752,273 
752,384 
752,386 
752,410 
752,412 
752,434 
752,479 
752,690 
752,832 
752,936 
753,003 
753, QI 3 
753.226 



753.33 1 
753.483 
753, 5 10 
753.5H 
753.527 
753.647 
753.795 
753.8i4 

753.845 
753,876 
754,121 
754,i63 
754,385 
754,4i8 
754,466 
754,728 
754,929 
755,079 
755.093 
755,399 
755.8i7 
756,458 
756,68 7 

756,834 
756,961 
757,022 

757,o64 
757,215 
757,415 
757.636 

757.673 
758,076 



K. J. McMillen and M. H. 

Robinson 758,189 

F. H. Marsh and C. W. 

Nichols 75 8 ,373 

H. R. Palmer 757,632 

E. L. Russell 758,854 

F. Dickinson 758,902 

R. P. Thompson and E. 

Koeb 758,943 

E. Korting 758,959 

F. E. Pfister 759,011 

F. A. Gardner 759, 093 

J. J. MacMulkin 759,624 

D. V. Bagwell 759,953 

C. O. Lucas 760,462 

A. J. Fisher 760,531 

W. M. Jewell 760,631 

F. E. Schoonmaker 760,649 

M. C. White and O. C. 

Duryea 760,673 

L. H. Nash 760,950 

D. L. Doering 761,363 

F. K. Landgraf 761,510 

J. E. Pfeffer and R. H. 

Layton 761,539 

H. M. McCall 761,599 

F. A. Seitz 761,613 

F. Charron and L. Girardot . 761 ,656 

C. E. Van Norman 761,927 

A. Leingartner 762,421 

A. J. Bradley 762,574 

L. Cordonnier 762,577 

R. B. Hain 762,708 

N. L. and W. W. Tuck 762,960 

L. F. Washburne 762,965 

J. D. Wheeler 763,133 

R. Algrin 7 6 3>535 

D. Ogden 763,626 

C. A. Marlitt 763,773 

H. C. Waite 763,819 

W. B. Hayden 764,356 

G. F. Murphy 764,614 

J. C. Crocker 764,840 

E. Forg 764,998 

C. E. Shumway 765,047 

B. M. Aslakson 765,159 

C. R. Daellenbach 765,357 

J. D. Maxwell 765,628 

P. Murray 765,629 

J. F. Hathaway 7 6 5-777 



420 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



F. L. Chamberlin 



H. M. Rawl and D. L. 

Reehl 

A. Buchner and E. P. 

McClure 

F. Reynolds 

P. Schmitz 

A. A. Low 

A. S. Dickison 

N. E. Egge 

L. Bayer 

C. J. Everett 

G. S. Billman 

W. W. Tuck et al 

H. C. Folger 

E. Korting 

H. Soeldner 

L. D. Toliver 

D. Clerk 

M. F. Bates 

D. Roberts et al 

H. Sohnlein 

W. Roche 

J. W. Swan 

M. Beck 

E. C. Richard 

O. P. Ostergren 

W. C. Tompsett 

G. K. Benner and H. B. 

Nicodemus 

S. E. Doane 

P. P. G. Hall, Jr 



j 765,814 D. R. Morrison 771,881 

(765,880 C. W. Little , 772,160 

F. Reaugh 772,178 

766,116 W. B. Hayden 772,235 

C. H. Wisner 772,856 

766,166 S. S. and A. Lewis 773,021 

766,525 R. and J. Cooper 773,062 

767,369 F. E. Hall 773,206 

767,483 F. M. Rites 773-339 

767,549 R. Miller 774,39 2 

767,556 C. W. Hart 774,752 

768,110 J. F. Duryea 775,103 

768,436 F. Henriod-Schweizer 775,120 

768,506 J. S. Losch 775,243 

768,641 P. Schmit 775,314 

768,793 P. J. Shouvlin . 775,385 

768,807 C. and W. Hibbard., 775,819 

768,866 J. S. Losch. 775,908 

7 6 9,3 6 3 J.W.Packard 775, 932 

769,589 M. H. Daley 776,118 

770,212 E. P. Lamb 776,406 

770,388 J.V. Ebel and W.J. Hudson 776,586 

770,872 C. E. Sterne 776,700 

770,927 F. J. Rochow 776,800 

771,028 G. Marx, Jr 777, 295 

771,037 W. I. Spangler 778,082 

771,095 J. Reek 778,146 

771,320 A. M. Sweder. . . 778,154 

771,511 J. B. Morrison 778,261 

H. F. Wallmann 778,289 

771,601 K. Reinhardt 77 8 >375 

771,616 F. Lamplough 778,417 

771,631 F. Reichenbach 778,707 



1905 to September ist 



G. A. Brouder 779,116 

H. Devlin 779,207 



A. Bougault. . 
H 



779.256 



M. Svebilius 779,328 

E. T. McKaig 779,49 

N. W. Traviss 779,509 

F. J. Miller 779, 727 

F. W. Hagar 779, 778 

A. N. Parnall and E. W. 

Coryell 780,013 

R. G. V. Mytton 780,119 

J. G. Callan 780,549 



A. E. Doman j 7o,555 

( 780,559 
S. F. and C. E. Burlingame 780,635 

P. F. Maccallum 780,722 

A. Radovanovic 780,812 

E. R. Hewitt 781,064 

T. Wright 781 ,484 

P. C. and E. R. Hewitt 781,604 

J. W. Kales 781,607 

E. J. Stoddard 781,751 

A. Vogt 781,923 

S. J. Webb 782,205 



PATENTS 



421 



C. E. Sterne and S. J. 

Davis 782,471 

W. B. Hayden 782,502 

E. F. Hulbert 782,659 

J. A. Arthur 782,812 

C. R. Daellenbach 783,104 

A. G. & C. R. Daellenbach. 783,106 

E. Martignoni 783,121 

A. E. Taylor 783,158 

A. Hardt 783,194 

C. R. Twitchell 783,336 

H. Holzwarth 783,434 

C. E. Sargent 783,983 

T. L. and T. J. Sturtevant. . 784,191 

G. McCadden 784,626 

I. E. Hendman and J. J. 

Albright 784,677 

C. J. Rousseau and E. C. -j 784,759 

Ferris \ 784,760 

C. A. Sawtelle 784,808 

C. W. Weiss 784,818 

A. Buchner and E. P. 

McClure 784,917 

H. J. Leighton 784,949 

F. A. Haselwander 785,166 

W. C. and M. W. Risbridger. 785,229 

(785,387 
N. L. and W. W. Tuck. . . . j 785,388 

'785,389 

A. M. Melson 785,428 

A. Krebs 785,558 

E. A. Rutenber 785,684 

N. L. and W. W. Tuck 785,687 

M. E. Clark 785,713 

L. D. Kinzig and G. C. 

Riber 785,809 

J. D. Termaat and L. J. 

Monahan 785,922 

J. W. Packard 787,212 

R. A. Mitchell and L. L. 

Lewis 787,341 

A. Willmer 787,487 

C. W. Weiss 787,709 

N. W. Hartman 787,918 

R. H. Layton and J. E. 

Pfeffer 787,925 

D. R. Morrison 788,057 

C. S. Dutton 788,253 

F. A. Haselwander 788,402 

W. S. Browne 788,579 



W. J. Perkins 788,594 

H. J. Podlesak 788,595 

J. P. Seaton 788,732 

A. F. Bauer 788,748 

G. A. West 788,868 

O. Minton 788,929 

W. C. Weatherholt 788,972 

L. Mertens 789,047 

L. Brandenburg and C. N. 

Hiester 789,079 

F. E. Youngs 789,246 

H. Gerdes 789,321 

H. Richter 789,382 

A. Herz 789,426 

H. Richter 789,673 

E. R Langford 789,921 

G. A. Aldrich 790,018 

H. B. Steele 790,325 

J. D. Maxwell. 790,374 

C. B. Harris 790,833 

T. L. and T. J. Sturtevant. . 790,856 

F. K. De la Saulx 790,925 

J. Bartosik, 791,071 

D. E. Barnard 791,126 

W. L. Breath 791,447 

E. C. Richard 791,501 

C. A. Dreisbach 79 1 ,75 7 

A. M. Brown 791,871 

W. E. Clifton 792,119 

R. E. Olds 792,158 

C. W. Weiss 792,300 

C. D. Shain 792,670 

D. G. Williams 792,804 

J. E. Green 792,894 

F. L. Perry 793, 091 

W. J. Perkins 793, 223 

F. X. Atzberger 793,263 

H. E. B. Blomgren 793,270 

V. R. Browning 793-347 

W. B. Hayden 794,01 1 

J. W. Seal 794,192 

W. J. Bell 794,275 

C. C. Riotte 794,683 

J. F. Merkel 794,727 

E. Westman 794,826 

R. O. Le Baron 793,842 

C. E. Sargent 795,236 

A. Markman 795,295 

F. A. Thurston 795,459 

W. B. Hayden 795,698 



422 GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 

J. L. Bogert 796,106 F. C. Goddard 797.57* 

A. J. Postans 796,349 E. P. Gray 797,681 

A. Houkowsky 796,425 J. B. Moreland 797,972 

A. Wassmann and A. A. M. Ferrero and A. Franch- 

Low 796,479 etti 798,328 

E. Seller and F. Hottinger. 796,680 W. H. Schoonmaker 798,366 

H. O. Westendarp 796,686 A. Winton . 798,553 

C. A. Carlson 797.555 



CHAPTER XXVI 

GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINE BUILDERS IN THE UNITED STATES 

AND CANADA 



Abenaque Machine Works, 
Westminster Station, Vt. 

Acme Oil Engine Co., 
Bridgeport, Conn. 

Acme Road Machinery Co., 
Frankfort, N. Y. 

Adams-McCoy Electric Co. , 
Muscatine, Iowa. 

Advance Electric Co., 
Indianapolis, Ind. 

Advance Machinery Co., 
New York City. 

Advance Mfg. Co., 
Hamilton, Ohio. 

Ajax Iron Works, 
Corry, Pa. 

Akron Engineering Co., 
Akron, Ohio. 

Alamo Mfg. Co., 
Alamo, Mich. 

Alberger Company, 
Buffalo, N. Y. 

Alexander & Crouch, 
Chicago", 111. 

Allis-Chalmers Co., 
Chicago, 111. 

Allman Gas Engine & Mach. Co. 

New York City. 

Alma Mfg. Co., 
Alma, Mich. 

American & British Mfg. Co., 
Bridgeport, Conn. 

American Diesel Engine Co., 
New York City. 



American Engineering Co., 

Springfield, Ohio. 
American Gas Engine Co., 

New York City. 
American Gas Engine Co., 

Sheboygan, Wis. 
American Machine Co., 

Wilmington, Del. 
American Well Works, 

Aurora, 111. 
Anderson Tool Co., 

Anderson, Ind. 
Angola Engine & Foundry Co., 

Angola, Ind. 
Arnold's Son, G. W., 

Ionia, Mich. 
Ash, Harper & Co., 

Lyons, Mich. 
Ashurst Press Drill Co., 

Havana, 111. 
Aultman Co., 

Canton, Ohio. 
Aurora Automatic Mach. Co., 

Aurora, 111. 
Austin & Son, 

Grand Rapids, Mich. 
Austin Mfg. Co., 

Chicago, 111. 
Automatic Machine Co., 

Bridgeport, Conn. 
Averill, F. E., 

Buffalo, N. Y. 
Ayres Gasoline Engine Works, 

Saginaw, W. S., Mich. 



Bachus Water Motor Co. 
Newark, N. J. 



423 



424 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



Baldwin Machine Works, 
New Haven, Conn. 

Barker, C. L., 
Norwalk, Conn. 

Bates & Edmonds Motor Co., 
Lansing, Mich. 

Bauroth Bros., 
Springfield, Ohio. 

Baylis Co., 

New York City. 

Bay State Machine Co., 
Erie, Pa. 

Beach, O. B., 

Stony Creek, Conn. 

Beaver Machine Co., 
Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Beaver Mfg. Co., 
Milwaukee, Wis. 

Beilfuss Motor Co., 
Lansing, Mich. 

Benton & Son, 
La Crosse, Wis. 

Bessemer Gas Engine Co., 
Grove City, Pa. 

Best Mfg. Co., 
San Leandro, Cal. 

Beverly Engine & Machine Co. 
Beverly, Mass. 

Blum Bros. Co., 
Chicago, 111. 

Borden & Selleck Co., 
Cleveland, Ohio. 

Bovaird & Co., 
Bradford, Pa. 

Bo wen Electric Co., 
Providence, R. I. 

Braden Gas Engine Co., 
Butler, Pa. 

Brass Foundry & Heating Co., 
Peoria, 111. 

Brennan Motor Co., 
Syracuse, N. Y. 



Bridge City Construction Co., 

Logansport, Ind. 
Bridgeport Motor Co., 

Bridgeport, Conn. 
Brooklyn Gas & Gasoline Engine Co., 

Brooklyn, N. Y. City. 
Brooklyn Railway Supply Co., 

Stamford, Conn. 
Brown-Cochran Co., 

Lorain, Ohio. 
Brown Gas Engine Co., 

Columbus, Ohio. 
Bruce-Meriam- Abbott Co., 

Cleveland, Ohio. 
B runner, Chas., 

Peru, 111. 
Bryan Mfg. Co., 

Baltimore, Md. 
Buck, J. W., 

Davenport, Iowa. 
Buckeye Engine & Foundry Co., 

Joliet, 111. 
Buckeye Mfg. Co., 

Anderson, Ind. 
Budd, L. M., 

Saginaw, Mich. 
Buffalo Engine Co., 

Buffalo, N. Y. 
Buffalo Gasoline Motor Co., 

Buffalo, N. Y. 
Buick Mfg. Co., 

Detroit, Mich. 
Burger Gas Engine Co., 

Ft. Wayne, Ind. 
Burlingame, S. C., & Co., 

Providence, R. I. 
Burrill, G. T., & Co., 

Chicago, 111. 
Byron Jackson Machine Works, 

San Francisco, Cal. 



Caldwell, F. R., & Co., 

Bradford, Pa. 
Caldwell, H. W., & Son, 

Chicago, 111. 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINE BUILDERS 



425 



Callahan, W. P., & Co., 

Dayton, Ohio. 

Camden Anchor- Rockland Machine 
Co., 

Rockland, Me. 
Canada Cycle & Motor Co., 

Toronto, Ont., Can. 
Canfield, P. R., 

Binghamton, N. Y. 
Capital Gas Engine Co., 

Indianapolis, Ind. 
Carl, Anderson & Co., 

Chicago, 111. 
Carlin Mach. & Supply Co., 

Allegheny, Pa. 
Carlisle & Finch Co., 

Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Carr & Sprague, 

Fowlerville, Mich. 
Carse Bros. & Co., 

Chicago, 111. 
Cascaden Mfg. Co., 

Waterloo, Iowa. 
Central City Iron Works, 

Stevens Point, Wis. 
Central Iron Works, 

Quincy, 111. 
Challenge Wind Mill & Feed Mill Co., 

Batavia, 111. 

Chambers, G. S., & Co., 
Des Moines, Iowa. 

Champion Gas Engine Co., 
Beaver Falls, Pa. 

Chapman, H. L., 
Marcellus, Mich. 

Charter Gas Engine Co., 
Sterling, 111. 

Chase Machine Co., 
Cleveland, Ohio. 

Chicago Flexible Shaft Co., 

Chicago, 111. 
Chicago Scale Co., 

Chicago, 111. 

Chicago Water Motor & Fan Co., 
Chicago, 111. 



Chicago Wheel & Mfg. Co., 

Chicago, 111. 
Church, S. B., 

Boston, Mass. 
Church, S. B., 

Seymour, Conn. 
Church Mfg. Co., 

Adrian, Mich. 
Clay Christie Co., 

Cedar Falls, Iowa. 
Clifton Motor Works, 

Cincinnati, Ohio, 
Clinton Novelty Iron Works, 

Clinton, Iowa. 
Clizbe Bros. Mfg. Co., 

Plymouth, Ind. 
Clot & Co., 

San Francisco, Cal. 
Coffee, R. W., & Sons, 

Richmond, Va. 
Colborne Mfg. Co., 

Chicago, 111. 
Collins, F. F., Mfg. Co., 

San Antonio, Tex. 
Columbus Machine Co., 

Columbus, Ohio. 
Connecticut Valley Mfg. Co., 

Center Brook, Conn. 
Continental Engine Co., 

Chicago, 111. 
Cook Mfg. Co., 

Albion, Mich. 
Cooley Mfg. Co., 

Waterbury, Vt. 

Cooper Machine Co., 
Saltsburg, Pa. 

Cormack & Co., 
Rockford, 111. 

Cornell Machine Co., 

Chicago, 111. 
Cornwell, R. M., Co., 

Syracuse, N. Y. 
Crescent Machine & Tool Co., 

Indianapolis, Ind. 
Crest Mfg. Co., 

Cambridge, Mass. 



426 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



Crown Machine Works, 
Dayton, Ohio. 

Curtis, G. H., Mfg. Co., 
Hammondsport, N. Y. 

Cushman Motor Co., 
Lincoln, Neb. 

Custer Mfg. Co., 
Marion, Ind. 



Daimler Motor Co., 
New York City. 

Davis Gasoline Engine Works, 

Waterloo, Iowa. 
Dayton Globe Iron Works, 

Dayton, Ohio. 

D. C. & U. Gas Engine Co., 
McDonald, Pa. 

Dean- Waterman Co., 

Covington, Ky. 
Deeming & Co., 

Salem, Ohio. 

Delano, E. A., 
Chicago, 111. 

De La Vergne Machine Co., 
New York City. 

Delaware Machine Works, 
Wilmington, Del. 

De Mooy Bros., 
Cleveland, Ohio. 

Dempster Mill Mfg. Co., 
Beatrice, Neb. 

Denison, Julian F., 
New Haven, Conn. 

Des Moines City Gas Engine Works, 
Des Moines, Iowa. 

Des Moines Gas Engine & Elec. Co., 
Chicago, 111. 

Detroit Brass & Novelty Co., 
Detroit, Mich. 

Detroit Motor Works, 
Detroit, Mich. 

Detroit River Gasoline Engine Works, 
Detroit, Mich. 



Dimmer Machine Works, 

Detroit, Mich. 
Dingfelder, Max, 

Detroit, Mich. 
Dirigo Engine Works, 

Portland, Me. 
Dissinger, C. H. A., & Bro., 

Wrightsville, Pa. 
Doman, H. C., 

Oshkosh, Wis. 
Dominion Motor & Machine Co., 

Toronto, Ont., Can. 
Downie Pump Co., 

Downieville, Pa. 
Drahanousky Motor Co., 

Chicago, 111. 
Dunn, Walter E., 

Ogdensburg, N. Y. 
Dunton Chenery Co., 

Portland, Me. 

E 
Eagle Bicycle Mfg. Co., 

Torrington, Conn. 

East Davenport Machine & Novelty 
Works, 

Davenport, Iowa. 
Economist Gas Engine Co., 

San Francisco, Cal. 
Ellington Mfg. Co., 

Quincy and Chicago, 111. 
Ellsworth Iron Works, 

Ellsworth, Wis. 
Elyria Gas Engine Co., 

Elyria, Ohio. 
Enterprise Machine Co., 

Minneapolis, Minn. 
Eureka Mfg. Co., 

Chariton, Iowa. 
Evans Mfg. Co., Ltd., 

Butler, Pa. 
Ewald Die & Machine Co., 

Chicago, 111. 



Fairbanks Co., 
New York City. 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINE BUILDERS 427 



Fairbanks-Grant Mfg. Co., 

Ithaca, N. Y. 
Fairbanks, Morse & Co., 

Chicago, 111. 
Fairfield Motor Co., 

Fairfield, Conn. 
Fairmount Engineering Works, 

Philadelphia, Pa. 
Farquhar, A. B., & Co., 

York, Pa. 
Farrar & Trefts, 

Buffalo, N. Y. 
Fay & Bowen Engine Co., 

Auburn, N. Y. 
Fay & Bowen Engine Co., 

Geneva, N. Y. 
Fidelity Machine Works, 

Santa Paulo, Cal. 
Field, Brundage & Co., 

Jackson, Mich. 
Flickinger Iron Works, Inc., 

Bradford, Pa. 
Flint & Walling Mfg. Co., 

Kendallville, Ind. 
Foos Gas Engine Co., 

Springfield, Ohio. 
Force & Briggs, 

Pittsburg, Pa. 
Fort Wayne Foundry & Machine Co. 

Fort Wayne, Ind. 
Foss Gasoline Engine Co., 

Kalamazoo, Mich. 
Fostoria Foundry & Machine Co., 

Fostoria, Ohio. 
Fox, John, & Co., 

Covington, Ky. 
Franklin Supply Co., 

Franklin, Pa. 
Fremont Foundry & Machine Co., 

Fremont, Neb. 
Frontier Gasoline Motor Co., 

Buffalo, N. Y. 



Gade Bros. Mfg. Co., 
Iowa Falls, Iowa. 



Gardner Elevator Co., 

Detroit, Mich. 
Garfield, Richardson & Co., 

Algona, Iowa. 
Gas Engine & Power Co., 

Morris Heights, N. Y. City. 
Gates, E. L., Mfg. Co., 

Chicago, 111. 

Geiser Mfg. Co., 

Waynesboro, Pa. 
Gemmer Engine Co., 

Marion, Ind. 
General Power Co., 

New York City. 
Gere Yacht & Launch Works, 

Grand Rapids, Mich. 
Ghormley Gas & Gasoline Engine 
Co., 

Kansas City, Mo. 

Gibson, Alex. T., 

West Winfield, N. Y. 
Gidley, H. E., & Co., 

Penetanguishene, Ont., Can. 

Gillespie, L. W., & Co., 
Marion, Ind. 

Globe Gas Engine Co., 

Philadelphia, Pa. 
Globe Iron Works, 

Stockton, Cal. 
Globe Iron Works Co., 

Minneapolis, Minn. 

Globe Mach. & Supply Co., 

Des Moines, Iowa. 
Godshalk, E. H., & Co., 

Philadelphia, Pa. 
Goetz-Coleman Mfg. Co.. 

New Albany, Ind. 

Golden State & Miners Iron Works, 
San Francisco, Cal. 

Goldie & McCulloch Co., 

Gait, Ont., Can. 
Good Gas Engine Co., 

Dayton, Ohio. 
Goodman, W. A., 

Waterloo, Iowa. 



428 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



Goodwin, Thos. W., & Co., 
Norfolk, Va. 

Goold, Shaplery & Muir Co., 
Brantford, Ont., Can. 

Grand Rapids Gas Engine & Yacht 

Co., 
Grand Rapids, Mich. 

Grant, Ferris Co., 
Troy, N. Y. 

Grant Mfg. & Machine Co., 

Bridgeport, Conn. 
Graves Motor Mfg. Co., 

St. Paul, Minn. 

Gray & Prior Machine Co., 
Hartford, Conn. 

Green Bay Machine Co., 
Green Bay, Wis. 

Greendale Gas Engine Co., 
Worcester, Mass. 



H 



Hagan Gas Engine & Mfg. Co., 
Winchester, Ky. 

Hall Bros. Gas Engine Works, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

Halliday Mfg. & Engineering Co., 
Chicago, 111. 

Hamilton Motor Works, 
Hamilton, Ont., Can. 

Hardy Motor Works, 
Port Huron, Mich. 

Hart-Parr Company, manufacturers 
of Internal Combustion Engines, 
Gasoline and Oil, 
Charles City, Iowa. 
Hartig Standard Gas Engine Co., 
Newark, N. J. 

Hawkeye Mfg. Co., 
Tama, Iowa. 

Hawkins Mfg. Co., 
San Francisco, Cal. 

Haynes & Apperson Co., 
Kokomo, Ind. 



Heinel, H. A., & Co., 
Wilmington, Del. 

Hendricks Novelty Co., 
Indianapolis, Ind. 

Henshaw, Buckley & Co., 
San Francisco, Cal. 

Hercules Gas Engine Works, Inc., 
San Francisco, Cal. 

Hicks, J. L., 

San Francisco, Cal. 

Hicks Gas Engine Co., 
Detroit, Mich. 

Higginsbottom, S. H., 
Saginaw, Mich. 

Hill Machine Co., 

Anderson, Ind. 
Hinds, Thos., 

Malone, N. Y. 
Hoff, Joseph B., 

Lake wood, N. J. 

Hoggson, Pettis & Co., 
New Haven, Conn. 

Holbrook, C. D., 
Minneapolis, Minn. 

Holly Motor Co., 
Bradford, Pa. 

Holt, S. L., &Co., 
Boston, Mass. 

Homan, J. & E., 
New York City. 

Horton, Edw., 
Saginaw, Mich. 

Howe, A. D., Co., 
Wheeling, W. Va. 

Howe Engine Works, 
Indianapolis, Ind. 

Howe Scale Co., 
Boston, Mass. 

Hubbard Motor Co., 
Middletown, Conn. 

Humphreys, F. J., 
Skaneateles, N. Y. 

Hunt & Connel Co., 
Scranton, Pa. 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINE BUILDERS 



429 



Hutchinson Mach. & Foundry Co., 
Hutchinson, Minn. 

I 

International Harvester Co., 

Chicago, 111. 
International Motor Co., 

St. Louis, Mo. 
International Power Vehicle Co., 

Stamford, Conn. 



Jackson Byron Mach. Works, 

San Francisco, Cal. 
Jackson Engine & Motor Co., 

Jackson, Mich. 
Jager, C. J., Co., 

Boston, Mass. 
Jamieson, W. W., & Co., 

Warren, Pa. 
Jefferson Gas Engine Co., 

Jefferson, Iowa. 
Jeffery, Thos. B., & Co., 

Kenosha, Wis. 
Jessen, Jas., 

Minneapolis, Minn. 
Johnson Foundry & Mach. Co., 

Reading, Pa. 
Johnston Gasoline Motor Co., 

Manchester, N. H 

K 

Kaestner, Chas., Mfg. Co., Manu- 
facturers of Automobile Motors, 
Transmissions, Mine Locomo- 
tives, and Mining Machinery, 
operated by Gasoline Power, 
South Bend, Ind. 
Kahlenberg Bros., 

Two Rivers. Wis. 
Kalamazoo Railway Supply Co., 

Kalamazoo, Mich. 
Kane, Thos., & Co., 

Chicago, 111 

Kansas City Hay Press Co., 
Kansas City, Mo. 



Keim, John R., 

Buffalo, N. Y. 
Kelly, O. S., Western Mfg. Co., 

Iowa City, Iowa. 
Keystone Gas Engine Co., 

New Brighton, Pa. 
Keystone Iron Works, 

Fort Madison, Iowa. 
King Gas & Gasoline Engine Co. 

Battle Creek, Mich. 
Kinnard Press Co., 

Minneapolis, Minn. 
Kinne, W. A., 

New Britain, Conn. 
Kiser & Shellaberger, 

Dayton, Ohio. 
Kling Bros., 

Chicago, 111. 
Knight Mfg. Co., 

Canton, Ohio. 
Kowalsky, J., 

Pittsburg, Pa. 
Kroger, J. M., 

Stockton, Cal. 
Kumberger & Vreeland, 

New York City, 



Lackawanna Mfg. Co., 

Buffalo, N. Y. 
Lacy Bros., 

Toledo, Ohio. 
Lake Shore Engine Works, 

Marquette, Mich. 
Lamb Boat & Engine Co., 

Clinton, Iowa. 
Lambert Gas & Gasoline Engine Co. 

Anderson, Ind. 
Lammert & Mann, 

Chicago, 111. 
Lansing Boiler & Engine Works, 

Lansing, Mich. 
Latham Machinery Co., 

Chicago. 111. 
Lathrop, J. W., 

Mystic, Conn. 



430 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



Laubert & Nonnemacher, 

Youngstown, Ohio. 
Lauson, C. P. & J., 

Milwaukee, Wis. 
Lawrence Machine Co., 

Lawrence, Mass. 
Lazier Gas Engine Co., 

Buffalo, N. Y. 
Leader Gas Engine Co., 

Dayton, Ohio. 
Leland & Falconer, 

Detroit, Mich. 
Lennox Machine Co., 

Marshalltown, Iowa. 
Leonard Engine Co., 

Philadelphia, Pa. 
Lester & Brundage, 

Albion, Mich. 
Light Inspection Co., 

Hagerstown, Ind. 
Limbacher & Ternes, 

Detroit, Mich. 
Lizotte, Jos., & Co., 

Quincy, Mass. 
Longtime Gas Engine Co., 

Williamspcrt, Pa. 
Loomis, F. W., 

New York City. 
Losch Engine Co., 

Reading, Pa. 
Lowell Model Co., 

Lowell, Mass. 
Lozier Motor Co., 

Plattsburg, N. Y. 

Luitwieler Pumping Engine Co., Gas 
and Oil Pumping Engines for 
Railroad and Water Works, 

Los Angeles, Cal. 
Lunt, Moss & Co., 

Boston, Mass. 
Lyons Engine Co., 

Lyons, Mich. 

M 

Mackey Engine Co., 
Pontiac, Mich. 



Mansfield Machine Works, 
Mansfield, Ohio. 

Marine Engine and Machine Co., 
New York City. 

Marinette Iron Works Mfg. Co., 
Marinette, Wis. 

Marquette Gas Engine Co., 

Chicago Heights, 111. 
Mathews & Co., 

Bascom, Ohio. 

Mayer Bros., 

Mankato, Minn. 
Mayor, Lane & Co., 

New York City. 
Maywood Foundry & Mach. Co., 

Chicago, 111. 

Maywood Foundry & Mach. Co., 
Maywood, 111. 

McClure-Buckner Co., 
Chicago, 111. 

McDonald & Erickson, 

Chicago, 111. 
McDuff, W. J., 

Tilton, N. H. 

McElwaine & Co., 
Bradford, Pa. 

McKenzie, D., & Co., 
London, Ont., Can. 

McLachlan Gasoline Engine Co., 
Toronto, Ont., Can. 

McMyler Mfg. Co., 
Cleveland, Ohio. 

Mead Gas Engine Co. , 
Providence, R. I. 

Merian- Abbott & Co., 

Cleveland, Ohio. 
Messenger Mfg. Co., 

Tatamy, Pa. 
Metzger, Wm. F., 

Detroit, Mich. 

Mianus Motor Works, 
Mianus, Conn. 

Michigan Brick & Tile Machine Co., 

Morenci, Mich. 
Michigan Mfg. Co., 

Ypsilanti, Mich. 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINE BUILDERS 



431 



Michigan Motor Co., 

Grand Rapids, Mich. 
Michigan Yacht & Power Co., 

Detroit, Mich. 
Middletown Machine Co., 

Middletown, Ohio. 
Mietz, A., 

New York City. 
Miller & Richard, 

Toronto, Ont., Can. 
Miller Improved Gas Engine Co., 

Springfield, Ohio. 
Milwaukee Rice Machinery Co., 

Milwaukee, Wis. 
Miner & Peck Mfg. Co., 

New Haven, Conn. 
Minneapolis Brass & Iron Mfg. Co., 

Minneapolis, Minn. 

Model Gas Engine Works, 
Auburn, Ind. 

Modern Elevator Co., 
Coif ax, Wash. 

Mohler & De Gress, 

L. I. City, New York City. 
Moline Pump Co., 

Moline, 111. 
Monarch Gas Engine Co., 

Indianapolis, Ind. 

Montague Iron Works Co., 
Montague, Mich. 

Moore, C. A., 

Westford, Mass. 
Morgan Construction Co., 

40 Exchange Place, New York. 
Morton Gasoline Traction Co., 

York, Pa. 
Motor Car Power & Equipment Co., 

Milwaukee, Wis. 
Motor Engine Co., 

Mariner's Harbor, S. I. 
Motor Vehicle Power Co., 

Philadelphia, Pa. 
Muncie Gas Engine & Supply Co., 

Muncie, Ind. 
Murray & Tregurtha Co., 

South Boston, Mass. 



N 

Nadig, Chas. H., & Bro. Mfg. Co., 

Allentown, Pa. 
Nagel, Dr. Oscar, 

New York. 

National Engine Co., 
Rockford, 111. 

National Gear Wheel & Foundry Co., 

Allegheny, Pa. 
National Mach. Co., 

Hartford, Conn. 

National Machine Works, 
Milwaukee, Wis. 

National Meter Co., manufacturers or 
Nash Gas and Gasoline Engine, 
New York, Chicago, Boston. 

National Rotary Valve Engine Co., 
Dayton, Ohio. 

Nelson Gas Engine Works, 
Harlan, Iowa. 

Newark Gas Engine Co., 
Newark, N. J. 

Newell Bros., 

Cleveland, Ohio. 
New England Gas Engine Co., 

Boston, Mass. 
New Era Gas Engine Co., 

Dayton, Ohio. 
N. Y. Kerosene Oil Engine Co., 

New York City. 
Nichols, Chas., 

Buffalo, N. Y. 

Nielson, H. P., 
St. Joseph, Mo. 

Norfolk Foundry & Mach. Co., 
Norfolk, Neb. 

North, L. C., & Co., 
Jefferson, Iowa. 

Northey Co., Ltd., 
Toronto, Ont., Can. 

Novelty Iron Works, 
Dubuque, Iowa. 

Noye Mfg. Co., 
Buffalo, N. Y. 



432 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



Ohio Mfg. Co., 

Upper Sandusky, Ohio. 

Ohio Motor Co., 
Sandusky, Ohio. 

Ohio Motor Co., 
Toledo, Ohio. 

Ohio Valley Supply Co., 
Marietta, Ohio. 

Oil City Boiler Works, 
Oil City, Pa. 

Oil Well Supply Co., 
Oil City, Pa. 

O. K. Gas Engine Works, 
Winchester, Ohio. 

Olds & Hough, 
Albion, Mich. 

Olds Gasoline & Oil Engine Works, 
Lansing, Mich. 

Olin Gas Engine Co., 
Buffalo, N. Y. 

Oriental Gas Engine Co., 
San Francisco, Cal. 

Osborne Machinery Co., 
New Haven, Conn. 

Otto Gas Engine Co., 
Philadelphia, Pa. 



Peerless Mfg. Co., 

Springfield, Ohio. 
Peerless Motor Co., 

Lansing, Mich. 
Pelton, T. G., & Son, 

Lyons, Iowa. 
Pennsylvania Iron Works Co., 

Philadelphia, Pa. 
Pierce-Crouch Engine Co., 

New Brighton, Pa. 
Pierce Engine Co., 

Racine, Wis. 

Pittsburg Machine Co., 
New Brighton, Pa. 

Pohl, Geo. D., Mfg. Co., 

Vernon, N. Y. 

Port Huron Mfg. Co., 
Port Huron, Mich. 

Potts Machinery Co., 
Columbus, Ohio. 

Power & Mining Machinery Co., 
Cudahy, Wis. 

Presler-Crawley Mfg. Co., 
Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Puget Sound Iron & Steel Works, 
Tacoma, Wash. 

Pungs-Finch Auto & Gas Engine Co. 
Detroit, Mich. 



Palm Gas Engine Co., 
Butler, Pa. 

Palmer Bros., 
Cos Cob, Conn. 

Parker, J. J., Co., 
Fulton, N. Y. 

Pass City Foundry & Mach. Co. 
El Paso, Tex. 

Pattin Bros. Co., 
Marietta, Ohio. 

Pease Engine & Mach. Co., 
Goshen, Ind. 

Peerless Gas Engine Co., 
Chicago, 111. 



Racine Boat Mfg. Co., 
Muskegon, Mich. 

Racine Hardware Co., 
Racine, Wis. 

Regal Gas Engine Co. 
Coldwater, Mich. 

Reilly, J. J., Mfg. Co., 
Louisville, Ky. 

Reliable Machine Co., 
Anderson, Ind. 

Reliance Mfg. Co., 
Providence, R. I. 

Richmond & Holmes, 
St. Johns, Mich. 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINE BUILDERS 



433 



Ried, Jos., Gas Engine Co., 

Oil City, Pa. 
Riley-Wayman Mfg. Co., 

Dayton, Ohio. 
River Machine & Boiler Works, 

Cleveland, Ohio. 
Robertson, J. G., 

St. Paul, Minn. 
Robertson Mfg. Co., 

Buffalo, N. Y. 
Rochester Machine Tool Works, 

Rochester, N. Y. 
Root & Vandervoort Engineering Co. 

East Moline, 111. 
Ruger, J. W., Mfg. Co., 

Buffalo, N. Y. 
Ruggles Machine Co., 

Poultney, Vt. 

Rumsey- Williams Co., 
Johnsville, N. Y. 



Salem Iron Works, 
Salem, N. C. 

Samson Iron Works, 
Stockton, Cal. 

Sands, H. S., Mfg. Co., 
Wheeling, W. Va. 

Sarvent Marine Engine Works, 
Chicago, 111. 

Savage & Love Co., 
Rockford, 111. 

Schaefer.W. E., 
Ripon, Wis. 

Schilling, Adam, & Sons, 
San Francisco, Cal. 

Schoonmaker-Brennelson Co., 
Warren, Pa. 

Sciple, H. M., 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Scott Bros. Co., 
Detroit, Mich. 

Shawd Gas Engine Co., 
Springfield, Ohio. 



Sheffield Car Co., Engines for Auto- 
mobile Work and for Marine 
Work, 

Three Rivers, Mich. 
Shepard, Chas. G., 

Buffalo, N. Y. 
Shorthill, A. E., Co., 

Marshalltown, Iowa. 
Silvester Mfg. Co., 

Lindsay, Ont., Can. 
Sintz, Claude, 

Grand Rapids, Mich. 
Sintz Gas Engine Co., 

Grand Rapids, Mich. 
Sipp Electric & Machine Co., 

Paterson, N. J. 
Skillin & Richards Mfg. Co., 

Chicago, 111. 
Smalley Bros. Co., 

Bay City, Mich. 

Smart-Turner Mach. Co., 
Hamilton, Ont., Can. 

Smith-Courtney & Co., 

Richmond, Va. 
Snow Mfg. Co., 

Batavia, 111. 
Snydor Pump & Well Co., 

Richmond, Va. 
Spade Engine Co., 

Vicksburg, Mich. 
Spaulding Gas Engine Works, 

St. Joseph, Mich. 

Spears & Riddle, 
Wheeling, W. Va. 

Springfield Gas Engine Co., 

Springfield, Ohio. 
Stamford Motor Co., 

Stamford, Conn. 

Standard Auto Gas Engine Co., 
Youngstown, Ohio. 

Standard Motor Construction Co., 
Jersey City, N. J. 

Star Foundry & Mach. Co., 
Oshkosh, Wis. 

Star Gas Engine Co., 
New York City. 



434 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



Star Mfg. Co., 
Wabash, Ind. 

Stearns Gas Engine Works, 
Los Angeles, Cal. 

Stickney, Chas. A., Co., 
St. Paul, Minn. 

St. Louis Gas & Gasoline Engine 

Works, 
St. Louis, Mo. 

St. Mary's Machine Co., 
St. Mary's, Ohio. 

Stohr & Freund, 
Muscatine, Iowa. 

Stover Engine Works, 
Freeport, 111. 

Strang Engine Co., 
Harvey, 111. 

Stratford Mill Building Co., 
Stratford, Ont., Can. 

Strelinger, Chas. A., Co., 
Detroit, Mich. 

Strobel, Fredk., 
Marion, Ohio. 

Struthers, Wells & Co., 
Warren, Pa. 

Superior Gas Engine Co., 
Springfield, Ohio. 

Swain Hardware Mfg. Co., 
San Francisco, Cal. 

Swan, John W., Co., 
Lima, Ohio 

Swan Electric Mfg. Co., 
Middletown, Conn. 

Swartzenburg Mfg. Co., 
Minneapolis, Minn. 



Tate, Jones & Co., 
Pittsburg, Pa. 

Taylor & Hough, 
St. Paul, Minn. 

Temple Pump Co., 
Chicago, 111. 



Termaat & Monahan Co., 

Oshkosh, Wis. 
Thomas, E. R., Motor Co., 

Buffalo, N. Y. 
Thomas, W. K., & Co., 

Baltimore, Md. 
Thompson, Andr., 

New York City. 

Thompson, J., & Sons Mfg. Co., Gas, 
Gasoline and Producer-Gas En- 
gines; Gas Producer Plants, 

Beloit, Wis. 
Three Rivers Elec. Co., 

Three Rivers, Mich. 
Tillinghast, B. D., 

McDonald, Pa. 
Titusville Iron Works, 

Titus ville, Pa. 
Trask, Chas. A., 

Jackson, Mich. 
Trebert Auto & Marine Motor Co., 

Rochester, N. Y. 
Troy Engine & Mach. Co., 

Troy, Pa. 
Trumbull Mfg. Co., 

Warren, Ohio. 
Truscott Boat Mfg. Co., 

St. Joseph, Mich. 
Turner & Swarzenberg, 

Lawrence, Mass. 

Tuttle, D. M., Co., 
Canastota, N. Y. 

U 

Underwood, F. M., Gas Engine & 

Motor Co., 
Elmore, Ohio. 

Union Gas Engine Co., 
San Francisco, Cal. 

Union Iron Works, 
Memphis, Tenn. 

Union Machine & Boiler Works, 
Cleveland, Ohio. 

Union Steam Specialty Co., 
Scranton, Pa. 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINE BUILDERS 



435 



U. S. Engine Co., 

Parkersburg, W. Va. 
U. S. Engine Works, 

Oshkosh, Wis. 
Utica Gas Engine Works, 

Utica, N. Y. 

V 

Valentine Bros. Mfg. Co., 

Minneapolis, Minn. 
Van Auken & Clevauc, 

Yonkers, N. Y. 

Van Dusen Gas & Gasoline Engine 
Co., 

Cincinnati, Ohio. 

W 

Wabash Engine Co., 

Wabash, Ind. 
Walof, E. G., 

Minneapolis, Minn. 
Waterloo Gasoline Engine Co., 

Waterloo, Iowa. 
Watkins, F. M., Mfg. Co., 

Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Watrous Engine Works Co., 

St. Paul, Minn. 
Webber & Richer Mach. Works, 

San Francisco, Cal. 
Weber Gas & Gasoline Engine Co., 

Kansas City, Mo. 
Webster Mfg. Co., 

Chicago, 111. 
Weeber, C. R., Mfg. Co., 

Albany, N. Y. 
Welch & Lawson, 

New York City. 
Werner, Chas., & Co., 

Pine Grove, Pa. 
Western Gas Engine Co., 

Mishawaka, Ind. 
Western Iron Works, 

Los Angeles, Cal. 
Western Launch & Engine Works, 

Michigan City, Ind. 



Westinghouse Co., 
Schenectady, N. Y. 

Westinghouse Machine Co., 
East Pittsburg, Pa. 

White & Middleton Gas Engine Co., 
Baltimore, Md. 

White-Blakeslee Mfg. Co., 
Birmingham, Ala. 

White Mfg. Co., 
New York City. 

Whitney, F. E., 
Boston, Mass. 

Willard, C. P., & Co., 
Chicago, 111. 

Willmar Gasoline Engine Works, 
Willmar, Minn. 

Wing, L. J., Mfg. Co., 
New York City. 

Winkley Engine Co., 

Lynn, Mass. 
Wisconsin Wheel Works, 

Racine, Wis. 
Witte Iron Works Co., 

Kansas City, Mo. 

Wolverine Motor Works, 

Grand Rapids, Mich. 
Woodin & Little, 

San Francisco, Cal. 

Wooley Foundry & Machine Co., 

Anderson, Ind. 
Wright Motor Co., 

Buffalo, N. Y. 

Wyandotte Gas Engine & Novelty 

Works, 
Wyandotte, Mich. 



Yacht Gas Engin .? & Launch Co., 

Philadelphia, Pa. 
Yale Gas Engine 'o., 

Cedar Falls, lo a. 
Young, E. R., & o., 

Titus ville, Pa. 



INDEX 



Absolute efficiency, 38. 

Acetylene gas, 77-81. 

Advanced ignition, 52, 53. 

Air-cooled motor, 203. 

Air-pump, 92. 

Alcohol motive power, 81. 

Amateur, 284-286. 

Apple dynamo, 140. 

Aspirator gas-plant, 386. 

Atomizers, constant-level, 96, 99, 100. 

Atomizing carbureters, 93-105, 314. 

Automobile motor-controller, 248. 

Automobile motors, 19*2, 194, 205, 

343.344- 

Automobile safety-device, 248. 
Automobile speed-gears, 245, 246. 



B 



Back-firing, 276. 

Balanced motor, 206. 

Balancing cranks, 173-175. 

Base-frame, 172. 

Batteries, primary, 131-133. 

Battery, dry, 131. 

Belgian gas-producer, 380. 

Bessemer motor, 211. 

Bicycle motors, 338-341. 

Blast-furnace gas, 375. 

Boat dimensions and powers, 314, 

3 1 ?- 

Bollinckx gas-engine, 235. 
Boxes, journal, 176, 177. 
Boyle's law, 22. 
Brake, prony, 251. 
Brake, strap, 253. 
Break-spark devices, 141-145. 
Brodie re versing- gear, 243. 
Bushed piston, 170. 



Calcium carbide, 78. 
Cam design, 190. 
Cam governor, 120. 
Carbureters, 85-105. 
Care and operation of the motor- 
bicycle, 339. 

Centrifugal governor, 121. 
Change speed-gears, 245, 246. 
Claudel oil-carbureter, 102-105. 
Clutches, 240-242. 
Coal-gas, 70. 
Coil, dash, 155. 
Coil, jump-spark, 152155. 
Coke-oven gas, 373. 
Combustion chambers, 60. 
Combustion, rate, 49. 
Combustion, retarded, 46. 
Combustion theory, 26, 27. 
Combustion velocity, 27, 28. 
Comparative card, 35. 
Compression, 36, 40, 48, 54. 
Compression values, 54-58. 
Connecting-rods, 171. 
Constant oil-feed, 164. 
Construction details, 167-177. 
Controller for automobiles, 248. 
Counter-balancing crank, 173, 175. 
Cranks, 173-177, 293. 
Crossley engine, 226, 227. 
Crossley gas-producer, 384. 
Crude petroleum, 77. 
Cycle, perfect, 37. 
Cycles of the motor, 188. 
Cyclic phases, 189. 
Cylinder capacity, 106-110. 
Cylinder friction, 68. 
Cylinder joints, 168, 169. 
Cylinder lubricators ,162. 
Cylinder volume, 67, 106. 
437 



438 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



Dash coil, 155. 

Day model, 191. 

Diagram adiabatic and isothermal 

lines, 23. 

Diagram compression, 40, 58. 
Diagram of combustion, 28, 29. 
Diagram of explosive mixtures, 45. 
Diagram of perfect cycle, 37. 
Diagram, Otto cycle, 48. 
Diesel motor, 205. 
Differential cam, 120. 
Dimensions of motor parts, no, in. 
Distillates, 74, 77. 
Dudbridge gas-engine, 213. 
Duryee exploder, 151. 
Dynamo electric ignition, 135. 
Dynamo, winding, 139. 



Economy, De Rocha, 33. 
Economy for electric light, 63. 
Edison batteries, 133. 
Efficiencies, actual, mechanical, 37. 
Efficiency formulas, 34. 
Efficiency, greatest, 21. 
Efficiency of early engines, 33. 
Efficiencies, motor, 38. 
Efficiencies, piston-speed, 47. 
Electric ignition-plugs, 145-152. 
Electric-light trials, 64-66. 
Elyria gas-engine, 215. 
Expansion of gases, 24, 33. 
Explosion at constant volume, 28, 

29. 

Explosive effect, mixtures, 72. 
Explosive-motor ignition ,122. 
Explosive motors, early types, 17. 
Explosive-motor testing, 272-276. 
Explosive motor, types, 191-249. 
Explosive-motor wiring, 156-160. 



Fairbanks-Morse Co. producer, 395. 
Fire Underwriters' regulations, 277- 

28 3. 399- 
Fly-wheels, no, in, 174. 



Formula for counter-balance, 182. 

Formula for worm-gear, 184. 

Formulas, compression, 55, 56. 

Formulas for horse-power, 253, 254. 

Formulas of efficiency, 34, 39, 40. 

Formulas of expansion, 25. 

Formulas of temperature and press- 
ure, 43. 

Formulas, motor dimensions, 179- 
182. 

Fuel oil, 77. 



Gas and gasoline motors, 284, 294. 

Gas-bag, 164, 297. 

Gas, gasoline, and oil-engine build- 
ers, 423-435. 

Gas-generators, 309, 310, 338. 

Gas-oil, 74. 

Gasoline, 74, 75. 

Gasoline-vapor, 76, 88, 90. 

Gasoline, waste, 84. 

Gear, change-^peed, 245, 246. 

Gear, reversing, 240-246. 

German gas-producer, 381, 397. 

Governors and valve-gear, 112-121, 
213, 214, 345.. 

Gravity-regulator, 91. 

Grip controller, 338. 

Grooved cam valve-gear, 119. 



II 



Heat absorption, 26. 

Heat and its work, 26. 

Heat efficiency, 41. 

Heat formulas, 25, 39-41- 

Heat ratios, 70. 

Heat utilization, 32-36. 

Henricks magneto speed-governor, 

345- 

Historical progress, 17-19. 

Horse-power and sizes, marine en- 
gines, 314, 317. 

Hot-tube setting, 124-127. 



I 

Igniter, Cushman, 331. 
Igniters, hot-tube, 122-127. 



INDEX 



439 



Ignition, 122161. 

Ignition devices, 127-130, 237, 292, 

35- 

Ignition, electric, 130-161. 
Ignition, multicylinder, 138. 
Ignition-plugs, 145-162, 292. 
Ignition wiring, 156. 
Indicator and its work, 256-258. 
Indicator card, advanced ignition, 53, 
Indicator card, Atkinson, 49. 
Indicator card, compression, 51. 
Indicator card, Diesel motor, 52. 
Indicator card, full load, 50. 
Indicator card, half load, 50. 
Indicator card, kerosene-motor, 51. 
Indicator card, Lenoir, 33, 35. 
Indicator card, wall-cooling, 46. 
Inefficiencies, 59-62. 
Inertia governors, 115, 116. 
Insurance regulations, 277-283, 399. 
Isothermal law, 21. 

J 

Jacket water, 48. 
Joule's law, 26. 
Jump-spark, 128. 
Jump-spark coil, 152-155. 

K 

Kerosene, 74, 76. 

Kerosene-oil engines, fire regula- 
tions, 282. 
Kerosene-oil motor, 216, 217, 220, 

234- 
Kerosene vaporizers, 309, 310. 



Launch, racing, 319. 
Law, adiabatic, 23. 
Law, Boyle's, 22, 23. 
Law, Gay Lussac, 22. 
Law, isothermal, 21. 
Law" of expansion, 24. 
Lazier motor, 208. 
Lewis motor, 200. 
Lightest motor, 205. 
Liquid acetylene, 78. 



Lister two- cylinder motor, 232, 
Loss and inefficiency, 59-62. 
Lowe gas-producer, 379. 
Lozier break-sparker, 145. 
Lozier motor, 207. 
Lubricators, 162. 



M 

Magneto generators, 136-138. 

Magneto speed-governor, 345. 

Management of explosive motors, 
262-268. 

Marine motors, 311, 313, 314-335- 

Marine motors and their work, 313. 

Material of power, 70-84. 

Measurement of indicator card, 274. 

Measurement of power, 250. 

Measurement of speed, 254. 

Mechanical equivalent, 23. 

Mietz & Weiss reversing-gear, 244. 

Mond gas-generator, 385. 

Motor air-compressor, 312. 

Motor-bicycles, tricycles, and auto- 
mobiles, 336-346. 

Motor, Chadwick, 344. 

Motor clutches, 240-242. 

Motor, the Diesel, 361-365. 

Motor dimensions, 178-183. 

Motor, Mitchell, 341. 

Motors, air-cooled, 203. 

Motors, American and British Man- 
ufacturing Co . , 352. 

Motors, balanced, 206, 343. 

Motors, Bessemer, 211. 

Motors, Blakeslee, 299. 

Motors, Bollinckx, 235. 

Motors, Brennan, 192, 343. 

Motors, Bridgeport, 315-317. 

Motors, combination, 206. 

Motors, Crossley, 226, 227. 

Motors, Cushman, 328-331. 

Motors, Day, Root, 191. 

Motors, Diesel, 205. 

Motors, differential piston, 196. 

Motors, Dudbridge, 213. 

Motors, Elyria, 215. 

Motors, Fairbanks, Morse and Com- 
pany, 307-312. 

Motors, fan-cooled, 239. 



440 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



Motors, Gemmer, 287-289. 

Motors, Godshalk & Co., 319-321. 

Motors, Hall Bros., 325. 

Motors, Hartig, 300, 301. 

Motors, Henshaw, Bulkley & Co., 

354, 355- 

Motors, Hornsby-Akroyd, 359-361. 
Motors, Hubbard, 304-306. 
Motors, International Power Vehicle 

Co., 347-35- 
Motor sizes, propellers, and boats, 

3*4. 

Motors, kerosene, 216. 

Motors, kerosene, distillate, and pe- 
troleum, 347-368. 

Motors, Lambert, 295-297. 

Motors, Lazier, 208. 

Motors, Lewis, 200. 

Motors, lightest, 205. 

Motors, Lister two-cylinder, 232. 

Motors, Lozier, 207, 326-328. 

Motors, Mianus, 323, 324. 

Motors, Mietz & Weiss, 355-358. 

Motors, Millot, 218. 

Motors, Nash, 204. 

Motors, N. Y. Kerosene Oil Engine 
Co., 351. 

Motors, non-vibrating, 192, 343. 

Motor, Nurnberg, 222-224. 

Motors, Oil City, 210. 

Motors, Olds, 229. 

Motors, Olin, 202. 

Motors, J. J. Parker Co., 321. 

Motors, R. & V., 302-304. 

Motors, scavenging, 197, 238. 

Motors, Smalley, 331-335- 

Motors, Standard Motor Construc- 
tion Co., 322. 

Motors, Union, 297, 298. 

Motors, Walrath, 230. 

Motors, Wayne, 215. 

Motors, Weiss kerosene, 234, 355, 

356. 

Motors, Westinghouse, 225, 291. 
Motors, White & Middleton, 199. 
Motors, Yacht, Gas- Engine, and 

Launch Co., 318. 
Motor, Thor, 338. 
Motor, tricycle, 342. 
Motor, Winton, 194. 



Mufflers, 165. 
Multiple-spark timer, 161. 

N 

Nagel gas-plant, 387, 389. 
Nash motor, 204. 
Natural gas, 72. 
Nickel-alloy tubes, 123. 
Non- vibrating motor, 192, 193 
Nurnberg engine, 222224. 



O 



Oil City motor, 210. 

Oil-gas, 72, 367. 

Oil-gas generators, 367. 

Oil-feed journals, 176. 

Oil-feed piston and crank, 172. 

Oil-motors, 347-368. 

Oil-pump, 234. 

Olds motor, 229. 

Olin motor, 202. 

Operation and care of motor bicycles, 

339- 
Oyster motor-boat, 324. 



Patents, 19. 

Patents since 1875, 401-422. 

Pendulum governor, 117, 120. 

Petroleum products, 74. 

Petteler change-speed gear, 246. 

Phases of the motor cycle, 189. 

Pick-blade governor, 114. 

Pintsch gas-producer, 382. 

Piston and pin oiling, 169, 172. 

Piston, bushed, 170. 

Piston, proportions, 168, 169. 

Platinum tube, 124. 

Plug, Duryee, 151. 

Plug, Maxwell, 150. 

Plugs, ignition, 145-162, 292. 

Plugs, Splitdorf, 149. 

Plugs, Sta-Rite, 145, 146. 

Pointers on explosive motors, 268- 

271. 

Porcelain tube, 123. 
Pressure gas-producer, 392. 



INDEX 



441 



Principle types, 21. 

Producer-gas, 73. 

Producer-gas and its production, 370. 

Producer-gas for marine propulsion, 

378. 

Producer-gas generators, 378. 
Prony brake, 251. 
Pump, kerosene, 234. 
Pump, starting, 308. 

R 

Radiators, cooling, 238, 239. 

Ratchet valve-gear, 118. 

Ratio of expansion, 24. 

Reducing pulley, 259. 

Regulations, Board of Underwriters, 

277-283,398. 
Regulator, 91. 
Replacing piston, 170. 
Reversing-gear, 242-246. 
Rice sparker, 144. 
Ring valve-gear, 119. 
Robey governor, 112. 
Root model, 191. 



Safety-device for automobiles, 248. 
Scavenging, 68, 238. 
Self-oiling j ournals ,176. 
Semi-water gas, 74. 
Shaft-bearings, 173-177. 
Shrinkage by combustion, 49, 50. 
Sizes and horse-power marine engines, 

3*4, 3*7- 

Spark-break devices, 141145, 149. 
Sparking-coil, 134. 
Specific heat of gases, 70. 
Speed efficiencies, 47. 
Splitdorf plug, 149. 
Sta- Rite plugs, 145, 146. 
Starting clutches, 240-242. 
Starting gear, 247, 308. 
Suction gas-plant, 310. 
Suction producer-gas, 371, 386, 395. 



Table I. Explosive pressures, 28. 
Table II. Explosive mixtures, 29. 
Table III. Explosive properties, 30. 



Table IV. Temperature and press- 
ures, 42. 

Table V. Temperatures, clearance, 
and mixture, 44. 

Table VI. Piston-speed efficiencies, 

47- 

Table VII. Compression and clear- 
ance, 56. 

Table VIII. Compression tempera- 
tures, 57. 

Table IX. Compression ratios, 57. 

Table X . Material of power, 7 1 . 

Table XI. Natural gas constituents, 
72. 

Table XII. Specific gravity ,75. 

Table XIII. Cylinder capacity and 
rating, 107. 

Table XIV. Cylinder capacity and 
rating, 107. 

Table XV. Rating of English en- 
gines, 107. 

Table XVI. Dimensions, engine, no. 

Table XVII. Dimensions, large en- 
gines, in. 

Tachometer, 255. 

Testing motors, 272-276. 

Theory of the gas and gasoline en- 
gine, 20. 

Thor motor-bicycle, 337-340. 

Time of explosion, 28. 

Timer, multiple-spark, 161. 

Timing valves, 126, 127. 

Troubles, 269. 

Types and motor details, 191-249. 

Types of explosive motors, 21, 67, 69. 

U 

Underwriters' regulations, 277-283, 

398. 
Utilization of heat and its efficiency, 

32- 

V 

Valve design, 184, 228, 231. 

Valve details, 187, 198, 208-210, 211, 

213, 214, 216, 220, 229. 
Valve, double-port, 120. 
Valve-gears, 118-121, 220, 221, 224, 

230, 236, 296. 



442 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL-ENGINES 



Valves and design, 184-186, 228. 

Valve sizes, 180. 

Valves, rotary, 188. 

Vapor-gas, 90. 

Vaporizer, Hay, 97. 

Vaporizer, heat, 95, 219, 229, 298, 

39> 3 10 - 

Velocity of combustion, 27, 28. 
Vertical atomizer, 98. 
Vibration of buildings and floors, 

259-261. 

W 

Wall surface, 48. 
Walrath motor, 230. 



Water-cooled valve, 228, 231. 

Water-cooling, 61. 

Water-gas, 73. 

Wayne motor, 215. 

Weed motor, 284. 

Weight of gas and air mixtures, 30 , 

Weiss kerosene-oil motor, 234. 

Westinghouse engine, 225. 

White & Middleton motor, 199. 

Wile gas-plant, 391. 

Winton change-speed gear, 246. 

Winton motor, 194. 

Wiring, 156-160. 

Wood-fuel gas-producer, 393, 394- 

Worm-cam valve-gear, 1 18. 

Worm-gear, 183. 



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CHESTER C. SHEPHERD 

Attorney and Counsellor-at-Law 



C. LE ROY PARKER, M.S. 
Late Examiner U. S. Patent Office 



SHEPHERD & PARKER 

PATENT LAWYERS 

Patents Secured Promptly Trade Marks Registered 

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TYPE RR for Gas Engines, Railroad Crossing Signals, Fan 
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Alarm Telegraph, Local and Main Line Batteries, 
Turntable Motors, Electroplating and Slot 
Machines. 

TYPE S for Fan Mot< rs Phonographs, Electroplating, Chem- 
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and X-ray Coils. 
Details about them in catalogue No. 19. Send for it. 

EDISON MANUFACTURING CO. 

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THE THREE STRONG POINTS 

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SCIENTIFIC AND PRACTICAL BOOKS 



PUBLISHED BY 



The Norman W. Henley Publishing Co. 

132 Nassau Street, New York, V. S. A. 



y of these books will be sent prepaid on receipt of price to any address in the 
world. 

5|F = ' We will send FREE to any address in the world our complete Catalogue of Scientific 
and Practical Books. 

Appleton's Cyclopaedia of Applied Mechanics 

This is a dictionary of mechanical engineering and the mechanical arts, fully describ- 
ing and illustrating upwards of ten thousand subjects, including agricultural machinery, 
wood, metal, stone, and leather working ; mining, hydraulic, railway, marine, and military 
engineering; working in cotton, wool, and paper; steam, air, and gas engines, and other 
motors; lighting, heating, and ventilation; electrical, telegraphic, optical, horological, cal- 
culating, and other instruments; etc. 

A magnificent set in three volumes, handsomely bound in half morocco, each volume 
containing over 900 large octavo pages, with nearly 8,oop engravings, including diagram- 
matic and sectional drawings, with full explanatory details. Price $12.00. 

ASKINSON. Perfumes and Their Preparation. A Comprehensive 
Treatise on Perfumery 

Containing complete directions for making handkerchief perfumes,' smelling salts, 
sachets, fumigating pastils; preparations for the care of the skin, the mouth, the hair; 
cosmetics, hair dyes, and other toilet articles. 300 pages. 32 illustrations. 8vo. Cloth, 
$3.00. 

BARR. Catechism on the Combustion of Coal and the Prevention of 
Smoke 

A practical treatise for all interested in fuel economy and the suppression of smoke 
from stationary steam-boiler furnaces and from locomotives, 85 illustrations. iamo. 
349 pages. Cloth, $1.50- 

BARROWS. Practical Pattern Making 

This is the best treatise on pattern making that has appeared. There is a general 
introduction on pattern making as an art, followed by a section on material and tools, tak- 
ing up subjects like lumber, varnish, hand tools, band saws, circular saws, etc. Then 
follows a section devoted to examples of wood patterns of different types, and one upon 
metal patterns. There is then a section upon pattern-shop mathematics and one upon 
cost, care, and invention. It is indispensable to every patternmaker. Cloth, $2.00. 

BAUER. Marine Engines and Boilers : Their Design and Construction 

A large practical work of 722 pages, 550 illustrations, and i? folding plates for the 
use of students, engineers, and naval constructors. 

Clearly written, thoroughly systematic, theoretically sound; while the character of 
its plans, drawings, tables, and statistics is without reproach. The illustrations are care- 
ful reproductions from actual working drawings, with some well-executed photographic 
views of completed engines and boilers. $9.00 net. 

BENJAMIN. Modern Mechanism 

A large octavo volume of gsg pages and containing over 1,000 illustrations dealing 
solely with the principal and most useful advances of the past few years. Issued under a 
title which exactly describes its contents "MODERN MECHANISM." The most eminent 
experts have contributed to this volume, and the benefits to be derived from the result of 
their researches and scientific accomplishments are of incalculable value to the man seek- 
ing the highest and most advanced practice in Applied Mechanics. Bound in half moroc- 
co. $5-00. 

BLACK ALL. Air-Brake Catechism 

This book is a complete study of the air-brake equipment, including the latest devices 
and inventions used. All parts of the air brake, their troubles and peculiarities, and a 
practical way to find and remedy them, are explained. This book contains over 1,500 
questions with their answers, and is completely illustrated by engravings and two large 
Westinghouse air-brake educational charts, printed in colors. 312 pages. Handsomely 
bound in cloth. 2oth edition, revised and enlarged. $2.00. 



Publications of The Norman W. Henley Publishing Co. 

BLACKALL. New York Air-Brake Catechism 

This is a complete treatise on the New York Air-Brake and Air-Signalling Apparatus 
giving a detailed description of all the parts, their operation, troubles, and the methods of 
locating and remedying the same. It includes and fully describes and illustrates the plain 
triple valve, quick-action triple valve, duplex pumps, pump governor, brake valves, re- 
taining valves, freight equipment, signal valve, signal reducing valve, and car discharge 
valve. 200 pages, fully illustrated. $1.00. 

BOOTH AND KERSHAW. Smoke Prevention and Fuel Economy 

As the title indicates, this book of 197 pages and 75 illustrations deals with the problem 
of complete combustion, which it treats from the chemical and mechanical standpoints, 
besides pointing out the economical and humanitarian aspects of the question. $2.50. 

BOOTH. Steam Pipes: Their Design and Construction 

A treatise on the principles of steam conveyance and means and materials employed in 
practice, to secure economy, efficiency, and safety. A book of 187 pages which should be 
in the possession of every engineer and contractor. $2.00. 

BUCHETTI. Engine Tests and Boiler Efficiencies 

This work fully describes and illustrates the method of testing the power of steam 
engines, turbine and explosive motors. The properties of steam and the evaporative 
power of fuels. Combustion of fuel and chimney draft; with formulas explained or practi- 
cally computed. 255 pages; 179 illustrations. $3.00. 

BYRON. Physics and Chemistry of Mining 

For the use of all preparing for examinations in Mining or qualifying for Colliery 
Managers' Certificates. $2.00. 

COCKIN. Practical Coal Mining 

An important work, containing 428 pages and 213 illustrations, complete with practi- 
cal details, which will intuitively impart to the reader, not only a general knowledge of 
the principles of coal mining, but also considerable insight into allied subjects, including 
chemistry, mechanics, steam and steam engines, and electricity. In elucidating the vari- 
ous divisions incorporated in this excellent work, the author has started at the task from 
the very inception, and has ignored all obsolete methods, excepting where they illustrate 
fixed principles or are in touch with the march of modern improvements. The treatise 
is positively up to date in every instance, and should be in the hands of every colliery 
engineer, geologist, mine operator, superintendent, foreman, and all others who are inter- 
ested in or connected with the industry. $2.50. 

FOWLER. Locomotive Breakdowns and Their Remedies 

This work treats in full all kinds of accidents that are likely to happen to locomotive 
engines while on the road. The various parts of the locomotives are discussed, and eyery 
accident that can possibly happen, with the remedy to be applied, is given. The various 
types of compound locomotives are included, so that every engineer may post himself in 
regard to emergency work in connection with this class of engine. 

For the railroad man, who is anxious to know what to do and how to do it under all 
the various circumstances that may arise in the performance of his duties, this book will 
be an invaluable assistant and guide. 250 pages, fully illustrated. $1.50. 

FOWLER. Boiler Room Chart 

An educational chart showing in isometric perspective the mechanisms belonging in 
a modern boiler-room. The equipment consists of water-tube boilers, ordinary grates 
and mechanical stokers, feed-water heaters and pumps. The various parts of the appli- 
ances are shown broken or removed, so that the internal construction is fully illustrated. 
Each part is given a reference number, and these, with the corresponding name, are given 
in a glossary printed at the sides. The chart, therefore, serves as a dictionary of the boiler- 
room, the names of more than two hundred parts being given on the list. 25 cents. 

GRIMSHAW. Saw Filing and Management of Saws 

A practical handbook on filing, gumming, swaging, hammering, and the brazing of 
band saws, the speed, work, and power to run circular saws, etc., etc. Fully illustrated. 
Cloth, $1.00. 

GRIMSHAW. "Shop Kinks" 

This book is entirely different from any other on machine-shop practice. It is not 
descriptive of universal or common shop usage, but shows special ways of doing work better, 
more cheaply, and more rapidly than usual, as done in fifty or more leading shops in .bu- 
rope and America. Some of its over 500 items and 222 illustrations are contributed di- 
rectly for its pages by eminent constructors ; the rest has been gathered by the author in 
his thirty years' travel and experience. Fourth edition. Nearly 400 pages. Cloth, $2. 50. 

GRIMSHAW. Engine Runner's Catechism 

Tells how to erect, adjust, and run the principal steam engines in the United States. 
Describes the principal features of various special and well-known makes of engines. Sixth 
edition. 336 pages. Fully illustrated. Cloth, $2.00. 



Publications of The Norman W. Henley Publishing Co. 

GRIMSHAW. Steam Engine Catechism 

A series of direct practical answers to direct practical questions, mainly intended for 
young engineers an,l for examination questions. Nearly 1,000 questions with their an- 
swers. Fourteenth edition. 413 pages. Fully illustrated. Cloth, $2.00. 

GRIMSHAW. Locomotive Catechism 

This is a veritable encyclopaedia of the locomotive, is entirely free from mathematics, 
and thoroughly up to date. It contains 1,600 questions with their answers. Twenty- 
fourth edition, greatly enlarged. Nearly 450 pages, over 200 illustrations, and 12 large 
folding plates. Cloth, $2.00. 

HARRISON. Electric Wiring, Diagrams and Switchboards 

A thorough treatise covering the subject in all its branches. Practical every-day 
problems in wiring are presented and the method of obtaining intelligent results clearly 
shown. 270 pages, 105 illustrations. $1.50. 

Henley's Twentieth Century Book of Receipts, Formulas and Processes 

Edited by G. D. HISCOX. A complete work giving ten thousand formulas which will 
be of value to the housewife, the painter, the carpenter, the metal worker, the farmer, the 
soap and candle maker, the photographer, the jeweller, the watchmaker, the electroplater, 
the electrotyper, the tanner, the mechanic, the engineer, and the manufacturer. 900 
pages. $3.00. 

Henley's Encyclopedia of Practical Engineering and Allied Trades 

Edited by JOSEPH G. HORNER. The scope of this work is indicated by its title, as 
being both practical and encyclopaedic in character. All the great sections of engineering 
practice and enterprise receive sound and concise treatment. 

Complete in five volumes. Each volume contains 500 pages and 500 illustrations. 
Bound in half morocco. Price, $6.00 per volume, or $25.00 for the complete set of five 
volumes. 

HISCOX. Gas, Gasoline, and Oil Engines 

Every user of a gas engine needs this book. Simple, instructive, and right up to date. 
The only complete work on this important subject. Tells all about the running and man- 
agement of gas engines. Full of general information about the new and popular motive 
power, its economy and ease of management. Also chanters on horseless vehicles, electric 
lighting, marire nropulsion, etc. 450 pages Illustrated with 351 engravings. Fifteenth 
edition, revised, enlarged, and reset. $2.50 

HISCOX. Compressed Air in All Its Applications 

This is the most complete book on the subject of Air that has ever been issued, and its 
thirty-five chapters include about every phase of the subject one can think of. Beginning 
wit.i a history of the progress that has been made in this ne, it takes up the properties of 
air, gives tables of its volume and weight, both dry and saturated, as well as numerous 
other conditions. Step by step the reader finds how it is used, the various methods of 
compression and apparatus employed, its use in transmitting power, air motors and their 
efficiency, and a host of other information in this connection. Pneumatic tools and their 
uses receive ample attention, as do the sand-blast, pneumatic tube transmission, and other 
amlications, such as raising water, ice machines and liquid air, while the air brake and air 
signal also come in for their share. Taken as a whole it may be called an encyclopaedia of 
compressed air. It is written by an expert, who, in its 825 pages, has dealt with the sub- 
ject in a comprehensive manner, no phase of it being omitted. 545 illustrations, 820 
pages. Price, $5.00. 

HISCOX. Horseless Vehicles, Automobiles and Motor Cycles, Operated 
by Steam, Hydro-Carbon, Electric, and Pneumatic Motors 

A practical treatise of 459 pages and 316 illustrations for Automobilists, Manufacturers, 
Capitalists, Investors, Promoters, and every one interested in the development cr.re, and 
use of the Automobile. 

Nineteen chapters. Large 8 vo. 316 illustrations. 460 pages. Cloth, $1.50. 

HISCOX. Mechanical Movements, Powers, and Devices 

This work of 400 pages contains 1,800 specially made illustrations with descriptive 
text. It is a Dictionary of Mechanical Movements, Powers, Devices, and Appliances, 
embracing an illustrated description of the greatest variety of Mechanical Movements and 
Devices in any language. A new work on illustrated Mechanics, Mechanical Movements 
and Devices, covering nearly the whole range of the practical and inventive field for the 
use of Machinists, Mechanics, Inventors, Engineers, Draughtsmen, Students, and all others 
interested in any way in the devising and operation of mechanical works of any kind. $3.00. 



Publications of The Norman W. Henley Publishing Co. 

HISCOX. Mechanical Appliances, Mechanical Movements and Novelties 
of Construction 

The many editions through which the first volume of "Mechanical Movements" has 
passed are more than a sufficient encouragement to warrant the publication of a second 
volume of 400 pages, containing 1,000 larger and specially-made illustrations, which are 
more special in scope than those in the first volume, inasmuch as they deal with the pecul- 
iar requirements of the various arts and manufactures, and more detailed in their ex- 
planations, because of the greater complexity of the machinery illustrated and described. 
$3.00. 

HISCOX. Modern Steam Engineering in Theory and Practice 

This book has been specially prepared for the use of the modern steam engineer, the 
technical students, and all who desire the latest and most reliable information on steam 
and steam boilers, the machinery of power, the steam turbine, electric power and lighting 
plants, etc. 450 octavo pages, 400 detailed engravings. $3.00. 

HORNER. Modern Milling Machines : Their Design, Construction and 
Operation 

This work of 304 pages is fully illustrated and describes and illustrates the Milling 
Machine from its early conception to the present time. $4.00. 

HORNER. Practical Metal Turning 

A work covering the modern practice of machining metal parts in the lathe. Fully 
illustrated. $3.50. 

HORNER. Tools for Machinists and Wood Workers, Including Instru- 
ments of Measurment 

A practical work of 340 pages fully illustrated, giving a general description and classi- 
fication of tools for machinists and woodworkers. $3.50. 

Inventor's Manual ; How to Make a Patent Pay 

This is a book designed as a guide to inventors in perfecting their inventions, taking 
out their patents and disposing of them. 119 pages. Cloth, $1.00. 

KRAUSS. Linear Perspective Self-Taught 

The underlying principle by which objects may be correctly represented in perspec- 
tive is clearly set iorth in this book ; everything relating to the subject is shown in suitable 
diagrams, accompanied by full explanations in the text. Price $2.50. 

LE VAN. Safety Valves; Their History, Invention, and Calculation 

Illustrated by 69 engravings. 151 pages. $1.50. 

LEWES AND BRAME. Laboratory Note Book 

A practical treatise prepared for the Chemical Student. 170 pages. Cloth, $1.00. 

MATHOT. Modern Gas Engines and Producer Gas Plants 

A practical treatise of 320 pages, fully illustrated by 175 detailed illustrations, setting 
forth the principles of gas engines and producer design, the selection and installation of 
an engine, conditions of perfect operation, producer-gas engines and their possibilities, 
the care of gas engines and producer-gas plants, with a chapter on volatile hydrocarbon 
and oil engines. $2.50. 

MEINHARDT. Practical Lettering and Spacing 

Shows a rapid and accurate method of becoming a good letterer with a little practice. 
Oblong. Paper cover. 60 cents. 

PARSELL & WEED. Gas Engine Construction 

A practical treatise describing the theory and principles of the action of gas engines 
of various types, and the design and construction of a half -horse-power gas engine, with 
illustrations of the work in actual progress, together with dimensioned working drawings 
giving clearly the sizes of the various details. Third edition, revised and enlarged. Twen- 
ty-five chapters. Large 8vo. Handsomely illustrated and bound. 300 pages. $2.50. 

PERRIGO. Modern Machine Shop Construction, Equipment and Man- 
agement 

The only work published that describes the Modern Machine Shop or Manufacturing 
Plant from the time the grass is growing on the site intended for it until the finished prod- 
uct is shipped. By a careful study of its chapters the practical man may economically 
build, efficiently equip, and successfully manage the modern machine shop or manufact- 
uring establishment. Just the book needed by those contemplating the erection of 
modern shop buildings, the rebuilding and reorganization of old ones, or the introduction 
of Modern Shop Methods, Time and Cost Systems. It is a book written and illustrated 
by a practical shop man for practical shop men who are too busy to read theories and want 
tacts. It is the most complete all-around book of its kind ever published. 400 large 
quarto pages, 225 original and specially-made illustrations. $5.00. 



Publications of The Norman W. Henley Publishing Co. 

PERRIGO. Modern American Lathe Practice 

A new book describing and illustrating the very latest practice in lathe and boring 
mill operations, as well as the construction of and latest developments in the manufact- 
ure of these important classes of machine tools. 300 pages, fully illustrated. $2.50. 

REAGAN, JR. Electrical Engineers' and Students' Chart and Hand- 
Book of the Brush Arc Light System 

Illustrated. Bound in cloth, with celluloid chart in pocket. 50 cents. 
SAUNIER. Watchmaker's Hand-Book 

Just issued, ?th edition. Contains 498 pages and is a workshop companion for those 
engaged in watchmaking and allied mechanical arts. 250 engravings and 14 plates. $3.00. 

SLOANE. Electricity Simplified 

The object of "Electricity Simplified" is to make the subject as pl-in as possible and 
to show what the modern conception of electricity is. 158 pages. Illustrated. Twelfth 
edition. $1.00. 

SLOANE. How to Become a Successful Electrician 

It is the ambition of thousands of young and old to become electrical engineers. Not 
every one is prepared to spend several thousand dollars upon a college course, even if the 
three of four years requisite are at their disposal. It is possible to become an electrical 
engineer without this sacrifice, and this work is designed to tell "How to Become a Suc- 
cessful Electrician" without the outlay usually spent in acquiring the profession. Twelfth 
edition. 189 pages. Illustrated. Cloth, $1.00. 

SLOANE. Arithmetic of Electricity 

A practical treatise on electrical calculations of all kinds, reduced to a series of rules, 
all of the simplest forms, and involving only ordinary arithmetic; each rule illustrated by 
one or more practical problems, with detailed solution of each one. Nineteenth edition. 
Illustrated. 138 pages. Cloth, $1.00. 

SLOANE. Electrician's Handy Book 

An up-to-date work covering the subject of practical electricity in all its branches, 
being intended for the every-day working electrician. The latest and best authority on 
all branches of applied electricity. Pocketbook size. Handsomely bound in leather, 
with title and edges in gold. 800 pages. 500 illustrations. Price, $3.50. 

SLOANE. Electric Toy Making, Dynamo Building, and Electric Motor 
Construction 

This work treats of the making at home of electrical toys, electrical apparatus, motors, 
dynamos, and instruments in general, and is designed to bring within the reach of young 
and old the manufacture of genuine and useful electrical appliances. Eighteenth edition. 
Fully illustrated. 140 pages. Cloth, $1.00 

SLOANE. Rubber Hand Stamps and the Manipulation of India Rubber 

A practical treatise on the manufacture of all kinds of rubber articles. 146 pages. 
Second edition. Cloth. $1.00. 

SLOANE. Liquid Air and the Liquefaction of Gases 

Containing the full theory of the subject and giving the entire history of liquefaction 
of gases from the earliest times to the present. It shows how liquid air, like water, is 
carried hundreds of miles and is handled in open buckets. It tells what may be expected 
from it in the near future. 365 pages, with many illustrations. Handsomely bound in 
buckram. Second edition. $2.00. 

SLOANE. Standard Electrical Dictionary 

A practical handbook of reference, containing definitions of about 5,000 distinct words, 
terms, and phrases. An entirely new edition, brought up to date and greatly enlarged. 
Complete, concise, convenient. 682 pages. 393 illustrations. Handsomely bound in 
doth. 8vo. $3.00. 

STARBUCK. Modern Plumbing Illustrated 

A comprehensive and up-to-date work illustrating and describing the Drainage and 
Ventilation of dwellings, apartments, and public buildings, etc. The very latest and most 
approved methods in all branches of sanitary installation are given. Adopted by the 
United States Government in its sanitary work in Cuba, Porto Rico, and the Philippines, 
and by the principal boards of health of the United States and Canada. The standard 
book for master plumbers, architects, builders, plumbing inspectors, boards of health, 
boards of plumbing examiners, and for the property owner, as well as for the workman 
and his apprentice. 300 pages. 50 full-page illustrations. $4.00. 

USHER. The Modern Machinist 

A practical treatise embracing the most approved methods of modern machine-shop 
practice, and the applications of recent improved appliances, tools, and devices for facili- 
tating, duplicating, and expediting the construction of machines and their parts. A new 
book from cover to cover. Fifth edition. 257 engravings. 322 pages. Cloth, $2.50. 



Publications of The Norman W. Henley Publishing Co. 

VAN DERVOORT. Modern Machine Shop Tools ; Their Construction, 
Operation, and Manipulation, Including Both Hand and Machine Tools 

An entirely new and fully illustrated work of 555 pages and 673 illustrations, describ- 
ing in every detail the construction, operation, and manipulation of both Hand and Machine 
Tools; being a work of practical instruction in all classes of machine-shop practice. In- 
cluding chapters on filing, fitting, and scraping surfaces; on drills, reamers, taps, and dies; 
the lathe and its tools; planers, shapers, and their tools; milling machines and cutters; 
gear cutters and gear cutting; drilling machines and drill work; grinding machines and 
their work; hardening and tempering; gearing, belting, and transmission machinery; useful 
data and tables. Fourth edition. $4.00. 

WALLIS- TAYLOR. Pocket Book of Refrigeration and Ice Making 

This is one of the latest and most comprehensive reference books published on the sub- 
ject of refrigeration and cold storage. It explains the properties and relrigerating effect 
of the different fluids in use, the management of refrigerating machinery and the construc- 
tion and insulation of cold rooms, with their required pipe surface for different degrees of 
cold; freezing mixtures and non-freezing brines, temperatures of cold rooms for ell kinds 
of provisions; cold-storage charges for all classes of goods, ice-making and storage of ice, 
data and memoranda for constant reference by refrigerating engineers, with nearly one 
hundred tables containing valuable references to every fact and condition required in the 
instalment and operation of a refrigerating plant. $1.50. 

WOOD. Walschaert Locomotive Valve Gear 

The only work issued treating of this subject of valve motion. 150 pages, illustrated. 
Cloth $1.50. 

WOODWORTH. American Tool Making and Interchangeable Manu- 
facturing 

A practical treatise of 560 pages, containing 600 illustrations on the designing, con- 
structing, use, and installation of tools, jigs, fixtures, devices, special appliances, sheet-metal 
working processes, automatic mechanisms, and labor-saving contrivances; together with 
their use in the lathe, milling machine, turret lathe, screw machine, boring mill, power 
press, drill, subpress, drop hammer, etc., for the working of metals, the production of in- 
terchangeable machine parts, and the manufacture of repetition articles of metal. $4.00 

WOODWORTH. Dies, Their Construction and Use for the Modern 
Working of Sheet Metals 

A complete treatise of 384 pages and 505 illustrations upon the designing, constructing, 
and use of tools, fixtures, and devices, together with the manner in which they should be 
used in the power press, for the cheap and rapid production of the great variety of sheet 
metal articles now in use. It is designed as a guide to the production of sheet-metal parts 
at the minimum of cost with the maximum of output. The hardening and tempering of 
Press tools and the classes of work which may be produced to the best advantage by the 
use of dies in the Power press are fully treated. 

The engravings show dies, press fixtures, and sheet-metal working devices, from the 
simplest to the most intricate, and the descriptions are so clear and practical that all metal- 
working mechanics will be able to understand how to design, construct and use them. $3.00. 

WOODWORTH. Hardening, Tempering, Annealing, and Forging of 
Steel 

A new book containing special directions for the successful hardening and tempering 
of all steel tools. Milling cutters, taps, thread dies, reamers, both solid and shell, hollow 
mills, punches and dies, and all kinds of sheet-metal working tools, shear blades, saws, 
fine cutlery and metal-cutting tools of all descriptions, as well as for all implements of steel, 
both large and small, the simplest and most satisfactory hardening and tempering processes 
are presented. The uses to which the leading brands of steel may be adapted are con- 
cisely presented, and their treatment for working under different conditions explained, 
as are also the special methods for the hardening and tempering of special brands. 320 
pages. 250 illustrations. $2.50. 

WOODWORTH. Punches, Dies and Tools for Manufacturing in Presses 

A work of 500 pages, and illustrated by nearly 700 engravings, being an encyclopaedia 
of die-making, punch-making, die-sinking, sheet-metal working, and making of special tools, 
subpresses, devices and mechanical combinations for punching, cutting, bending, forming, 
piercing, drawing, compressing, and assembling sheet-metal parts and also articles of other 
materials in machine tools. $4.00. 

WRIGHT. Electric Furnaces and Their Industrial Application 

This is a book which will prove of interest to many classes of people ; the manufacturer 
who desires to know what product can be manufactured successfully in the electric furnace, 
the chemist who wishes to post himself on electro-chemistry, and the student of science 
who merely looks into the subject from curiosity. The book is not so scientific as to be of 
use only to the technologist, nor so unscientific as to suit only the tyro in electro-chemistry ; 
it is a practical treatise of what has been done, and of what is being done, both experi- 
mentally and commercially, with the electric furnace. 288 pages. $3.00. 



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