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Full text of "The gasoline engine on the farm; a practical, comprehensive treatise on the construction, repair, management and use of this great farm power as applied to all farm machinery and farmer's work indoors and out .."









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. . LIBRARY . . 

Connecticut 
AgricuftupaS College. 

CLASS NO G.1 i.4p..^!.a. 

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BOOK 62 1.4.P98 c 1 

PUTNAM # GASOLINE ENGINE ON FARM 




3 T1S3 00D2231S fl 



cn.f 



THE 

GASOLINE ENGINE 

ON THE FARM 



A Practical, Comprehensive Treatise on the 

Construction, Repair, Management and Use of this 

Great Farm Power as Applied to All Farm Machinery 

and the Farmer s Work Indoors and Out 

THIS TREATISE, BECAUSE OF THE SIMPLE, NOX-TECHNICAL EXPOSITION 

OF MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES, IS ESPECIALLY VALUABLE TO THOSE 

WITHOUT PREVIOUS MECHANICAL KNOWLEDGE WHO WISH TO 

BECOME THOROUGHLY FAMILIAR WITH THE OPERATION 

AND CARE OF GASOLINE ENGINES, TRACTORS 

AND AUXILIARY DEVICES. 

THIS IS A COMPLETE WORKER'S HAND BOOK ON THE INTERNAL COMBUSTION MOTOR 

AND ITS MANY APPLICATIONS IN MODERN, FARM LIFE. CONSIDERS ALL THE 

HOUSEHOLD, SHOP AND FIELD USES OF THIS UP-TO-DATE PRIME MOVER 

AND INCLUDES CHAPTERS ON ENGINE INSTALLATION, POWER 

TRANSMISSION, AND THE BEST ARRANGEMENT OF THE 

POWER PLANT WITH REFERENCE TO THE WORK. 

By XENO W. PUTNAM 




Fnlhj lUtisirated by 179 Carefully Selected Engravings of great value to all 
interested in the efficient (ind economical applictition of farm power. 



NEW YORK 

THE NORMAN W. HENLEY PUBLISHING COMPANY 

132 NASSAU STREET 

19L3 



r:4 



Copyright, 1913, by 
THE NORMAN W. HENLEY PUBLISHING COMPANY 



I Xill 



Composition, Electrotyping and Printing 
By J. J. Little & Ives Co., New York. 



PREFACE 

It requires the theorist's careful study to develop new 
inventions, even though accident may have first sug- 
gested them. It remains for the practical workman to 
adapt something that may have only great academic 
interest in practical work and thus obtain results that 
make the new discovery of world-wide value. The for- 
mulae of philosophy are needed among engineers and 
scientists and should not be discredited or valued too 
lightly, but, at the same time, the workmen who apply 
the theory to practice require only the every-day lan- 
guage of the field in an exposition designed for their 
instruction. 

The gasoline engine was, until recently, but a theory; 
it is now a completed fact and has been turned over to 
the result getter. It is doing the world's work every- 
where. In many industries it is taking the place of 
other forms of power, but it is just entering into a mis- 
sion upon the farm that has heretofore been unfilled. 

With the coming of a prime mover that is really ap- 
plicable to the peculiar conditions surrounding the farm- 
er's work, there comes a demand for men trained for 
the opportunity, capable of making the most out of that 
which was yesterday a dream and is to-day an achieve- 
ment. The problems of the engine and its management 
will face the farmer of the future with the same impera- 
tive demand for their solution that now obtains regarding 
those incidental to the intelligent care and control of 
his live stock and agricultural machinery. They are 
facing him now and will continue to confront him until 

V 



vi Preface 

he solves them and wins for human inteUigence another 
triumph of magnitude. 

This volume is intended for the workmen of the farm, 
to assist them in meeting a new condition ; because of 
this purpose all technical statements of the laws of phi- 
losophy and exact science have been discarded wherever 
possible for simpler language and expression intelligi- 
ble to those needing the information. 

The Author. 

January, 1913. 



ACKNOWLEDGMENT 

The Author desires to acknowledge his appreciation of the 
valuable assistance received from many of the leading firms in 
the field of gasoline engine manufacture and associated indus- 
tries. The illustrations, for the most part, have been furnished 
by progressive manufacturers whose publicity efforts and excel- 
lent product have done so much to popularize the gasoline farm 
engine and tractor, and many valuable suggestions regarding 
treatment of the subject have been obtained from the literature 
cheerfully supplied. The following list of firms contributed ma- 
terially to making this work complete and of value : 

U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Washington, D. C 
-- Rumely Products Co., LaPorte, Ind. 

The Gas Tractor Co., Minneapolis, ]\Iinn. 

The Avery Company, Peoria, Illinois. 

The Hart-Parr Co., Charles City, Iowa. 

Jacobson Machine Mfg. Co., Warren, Pa. 

S. F. Bowser & Co!, Ft. Wayne, Ind. 

Robert Instrument Co., Detroit, Mich. 

Brown Clutch Company, Sandusky, Ohio. 

Kinnard-Haines Co., ]\Iinneapolis, Minn. 

Austin Mfg. Co., Chicago, Illinois. 

Termaat & ]\Ionahan Co., Oshkosh, Wis. 

C. F. Splitdorf Co., New York City. 

Packard Electric Co., Warren, Ohio. 

Electric Storage Battery Co., Phila. 

Altorfer Bros. Co., Chicago, 111. 
— -International Harvester Company, Chicago, 111. 
—The "New Way" Motor Co., Lansing, Mich. 

The J. I. Case Company, Racine, Wis. 

"Sta-Rite" Engine Co., LaCrosse, Wis. 

The Bates Tractor Co., Lansing, Mich. 
— New Holland Mch. Co., New_ Holland, Pa. 

Detroit Lubricator Co., Detroit, Mich. 

Aultman Taylor Co., Mansfield, Ohio. 

Bates & Edmonds Motor Co., Lansing, Mich. 

Reeves Pulley Co., Columbus, Ind. 

The Heald Mch. Co., Worcester, Mass. 

Bosch Magneto Co., New York City. 
' Gray Motor Co., Detroit, Michigan. 

Cushmann Motor Works, Lincoln, Nebr. 

Automatic Cream Separator Co., Milwaukee. 

The Deming Company, Salem, Ohio. 

The Coldwell Lawn Mower Co., Newburgh, N. Y. 
vii 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

(The figures refer to Paragraphs) 

CHAPTER I 

THE CALL AND THE ANSWER 

I. The Great Farm Problem — 2. The Machine Designer's 
Problem— 3. The Call of the Farm— 4. Where Farm 
Power Fails— 5. The Ideal Farm Power— 6. The 
One Best Answer — 7. The Gasoline Engine in the Field 
— 8. As General Utility Man — 9. In the Kitchen — 10. 
With the Boy— II. The Hired Man Problem— 12. The 
Greatest Mission of All 33 

CHAPTER II 

THE INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE 

13. The Principle— 14. The First Engine— 15. Other At- 
tempts — 16. The First Success— 17. What Internal Com- 
bustion Includes — 18. The Real Source of Power — 
19. The Complete Cycle — 20. The Four-Cycle Engine — 
21. The Two-Cycle Engine — 22. Where the Four-Cycle 
Excels — 23. Six and Eight-Cycle Engines — 24. The Vital 
Parts — 25. The Necessary Trimmings — 26. Necessary 
Conveniences — 27. Types of Engines ... 42 

CHAPTER III 

THE COMBUSTION CHAMBER 

28. Functions of the Cylinder — 29. What It Determines — 
30. Best Material — 31. The Foundry Work — 32. Boring 
ix 



Table of Contents 

the Cylinder — 33. As Combustion Chamber — 34. What 
Compression Is — 35. What It AccompHshes in the En- 
gine — 36. How the Charge Is Compressed — 37. Com- 
pression Limits — 38. Where Higher Compression Is 
Useful — 39. Compression Gains and Losses — 40. Clear- 
ance — 41. Faulty Compression — 42. Testing Compression 
— 43. Decreasing Clearance — 44. Increasing Power 
Through Clearance — 45. Lubricating the Cylinder — 46. 
Carbon and Its Effects — 47. Symptoms of Carbon — 48. 
Cleaning the Cylinder — 49. Removing the Cylinder — 50. 
Re-assembling — 51. Packing the Cylinder Head — 52. 
Material to Employ — 53. Cleaning Without Remov- 
ing 51 



CHAPTER IV 

THE PISTON AND ITS AUXILIARY PARTS 

54. Functions of Piston — 55. Construction of Piston — 56. 
Best Material — 57. Design and Workmanship — 58. The 
Rings — 59. Their Construction — 60. Material for Rings — 
61. Making the Ring— 62. Truing the Ring— 63. A Few 
Piston and Ring Diseases and Their Remedy — 64. The 
Dirt Menace — 65. Cleaning Piston and Rings — 66. Re- 
moving the Rings — 67. Returning Rings— 68. The Piston 
Pin — 69. The Connecting Rod — 70. Crank-shaft and 
Connecting-rod Lubrication — 71. Repairs and Care — 
72. Other Troubles — 73. Hints and Suggestions . 72 

CHAPTER V 

THE PORT AND VALVE SYSTEM 

74. Subject to Rough Treatment— 75. What It Includes— 
76. The Intake Port— 77. Size of Intake Port— 78. Com- 
mon Troubles— 79. Faulty Valve Seating— 80. Effect of 
Bad Air— 81. Leak-hunting— 82. Fuel Required in New 
Engine— 83. The Exhaust Port— 84. Inspecting the 
System— 85. Valve Timing— How to Determine and 
Correct— 86. The Object of Valve Timing— 87. Testing 



Table of Contents xi 

and Setting the Intake Valve — 88. The Exhaust Valve 
— 89. Some General Rules — 90. Valve-grinding — 91. The 
Muffler; Its Use and Abuse — 92. A Word of Caution — 
93. Valve Vagaries 85 



CHAPTER VI 

THE CARBURETOR 

94. The Heart of the Engine— 95. Carburetors to Be Let 
Alone — 96. The Real Engine Fuel — 97. Unvarying Ad- 
justment Impossible — 98. Variation of Fuel and Re- 
quirements — 99, How the Carburetor Vaporizes — 
100. Mixing Air with Gasoline — loi. Automatic Car- 
buretors— 102. Effect of Impure Air— 103. Carburetor 
Troubles and Their Cure — 104. Barking — 105. Misfir- 
ing — 106, Backfiring — 107. Flooding — 108. Priming the 
Carburetor — 109. Size of Carburetor — no. Adjusting the 
Carburetor — in. Adjusting the Float Valve — 112. Mis- 
cellaneous Hints 99 



CHAPTER VII 

THE IGNITION SYSTEM 

113. Special Difficulties — 114. Effect of Failure — 115. Open 
Flame Method — 116. Hot Tube Ignition — 117. Compres- 
sion Firing— 118. Electrical Firing — 119. Necessary 
Electrical Knowledge — 120. Four Electrical Processes — 
121. Producing the Current — 122. The Dry Battery — 
123. What a Cell Contains — 124. Connecting Cells — 
125. Life of Dry Cells — 126. Advantages of Dry Cells — 
127. Their Defects — 128. Care of Dry Cells — 129. A 
Good Battery Arrangement — 130. Connecting Battery to 
Engine— 131. The Spark Coil— 132. The Spark Plug— 
133. How the Spark Is Formed — 134. How It Fires the 
Charge — 135. The Jump Spark — 136. The Make-and- 
break — 137. The Magneto — 138. How It Works — 
139. Low Tension Magneto — 140. Care of Magneto — 
141. Advantage of Double System — 142. The Primary 



xii Table of Contexts 

Circuit — 143. The Secondary Circuit — 144. Wiring Up — 
145. Ignition Timing — 146. Irregular Mechanism — 
147. Spark Follies 11 1 



CHAPTER VIII 

A CHAPTER ON ENGINE-SPEED REGULATION 

148. Controlling an Engine — 149. True Mission of the Gov- 
ernor — 150. Some Rules to Remember — 151. Changing 
Governor Adjustment — 152. Methods of Governing — 
153. Regulating Fuel — 154. Hit-or-miss System — 155, The 
Throttling Governor — 156. Types of Governors — 
157. The Centrifugal Governor — 158. The Pick-blade 
Type — 159. Care of the Governor — 160. Controlling by 
Ignition — 161. Controlling the Temperature — 162. The 
Usual Methods — 163. Air-cooling — 164. The Water- 
cooling System — 165. The Open-jacket Method — 
166. The Circulating System — 167. A Good Circulating 
Pump System — 168. Other Systems — 169. Amount of 
Water to Use — 170. Care of Water System — 171. Anti- 
freezing Mixtures — 172. Utilizing Waste Heat . 133 

CHAPTER IX 

THE CRANK SHAFT AND ITS BEARINGS 

173. The Engine Frame— 174. The Crank Shaft— 175. Fly 
Wheels and Their Mission— 176. Heavy Fly Wheels — 
177. Main Bearings — 178. The Best Lining— 179. Why 
Bearings Heat— 180. Gear Wheels — 181. Care of Minor 
Parts — 182. Casual Acquaintances . . . . i49 

CHAPTER X 

SETTING THE ENGINE 

183. Importance of Proper Setting— 184. Stationary Founda- 
tions— 185. The Four-fold Object of a Good Founda- 



Table of Contents xiii 

lion — 186. Depth and Nature of Foundations — 
187. Foundation Blue Prints — 188. Tying Engine to 
Foundation — 189. Material Required — 190. Preparing 
Material — 191. Making the Templet — 192. Making a 
Frame — 193. Filling the Pit — 194. Placing the Engine — 
195. The Final Setting — 196. Locking the Bolts in Place 
— 197. Lining Up — 198. Leveling the Engine — 199. Other 
Foundations; Their Failings — 200. A Unique Founda- 
tion — 201. Portable Foundations — 202. Mounted En- 
gines — 203. Shelter — 204. Fittings of an Engine Room — 
205. Storing Oil in the Engine Room — 206. The Work 
Bench — 207. The Engine-room Floor — 208. Ventilation 
209. The Engine-room Line Shaft — 210. The Mission 
of Paint — 211. Painting the Muffler — 212. Engine-room 
Abominations — 213. And a Few Cautions — 214. Eliminat- 
ing the Danger Risk 161 



CHAPTER XI 

THE FUEL SUPPLY 

215. Gasoline and Its Nature — 216. Its True Value and Dan- 
ger — 217. Pure Gasoline Vapor Non-inflammable — 
218. How Gasoline Is Obtained — 219. Grades — 220. Tests. 
— 221. A Good Storage System — 222. A Good Tank — 
223. The Foundation — 224. The Connections — 225. The 
Joints — 226. Guarding the Feed-pipe — 227. Gasoline 
Dangers — 228. Gasoline Not Inflammable — 229. The 
Exact Danger Point in Gasoline — 230. Small Danger in 
Tank From Natural Causes — 231. Rules for Safety — 
232. Two Fundamental Rules — 233. Common Risks and 
Errors — 234. Gasoline Fires; How to Handle Them — 
235. Kerosene; Its Advantages — 236. Objections to 
Kerosene — 237. Which Is Best? — 238. Changing From 
Gasoline to Kerosene — 239. Distillate — 240. Alcohol — 
241. Its Advantages — 242. Some Peculiarities of Alco- 
hol — 243. Its Fatal Weakness — 244. The Engine-user's 
Dream. — 245. Notes on Fuels 181 



xiv Table of Contents 

CHAPTER XII 

LUBRICATION 

246. Importance — 247. Purpose — 248. How Lubricants Work 
— 249. What a Lubricant Is — 250. Viscosity — ^251. Fluidity 
—252. The Flash Point— 253. The Cold Test— 254. Car- 
bon — 255. Gum and Acids — 256. Variety in Lubricants 
Needed — 257. Gasoline Engine Cylinder Oil — 258. Bear- 
ings and Their Requirements — 259. The Specific Pur- 
pose — 260. Animal and Vegetable Oils — 261. Mineral or 
Hydrocarbon Oils — 262. Testing for Acids — 263. Test- 
ing Viscosity — 264. Testing for Adulterants — 265. Test- 
ing for Gum— 266. The Flash Point— 267. The Fire Test 
— 268. The Cold Test— 269. Caibon — 270. Oil Waste and 
Engine Waste — 271. Quantity of Oil — 272. Lubricating 
Systems — 273. The Gravity System— 274. The Splash 
System — 275. The Loose Ring Method — 276. The Pres- 
sure System — 277. The Positive or Force Feed — 278. 
Oiling Through the Carburetor — 279. Filtering — 
280. Other Lubricants — 281. Graphite — 282. Grease — 
283. Foolish Economy — 284. Ten Lubricating Command- 
ments ..... 201 

CHAPTER XIII 

ELIMINATION OF ENGINE TROUBLES 

285. Classified Trouble— 286. Starting Troubles— 287. Oper- 
ating Troubles — 288. Transmission Troubles — 289. En- 
ergy Troubles — 290. Irregular Troubles — 291. The 
Source of Most Trouble — 292. The First Thing to Do— 
293. When Real Trouble Comes— 294. Test v^rith a Sys- 
tem — 295. A Few Questions — 296. Protecting the Hands 
— 297. Testing the Electric System— 298. If the Spark Is 
Good — 299. A Poor Spark — 300. Testing the Batteries — 
301. The Coil — 302. A Faulty Magneto — 303. A Good 
Spark— 304. Where the Shock Is Felt— 305. A Few Ig- 
nition Facts — 306. A Suspected Timer— 307. Other 
Troubles— 308. When the Engine Starts— 309. Lack of 



Table of Contents xv 

Power — 310. Overheating— 311. Cause of Overheating — 
312. Causes — 313. CooHng a Hot Engine — 314. Speed 
Variations — 315. Suspecting the Governor — 316. A Lazy 
Engine — 317. Pre-ignition — 318. Misfiring — 319. Back- 
firing — 320. Knocking — 321. Pounding — 322. Outside 
Knocking — 323. Summing Up Common Troubles — 324. 
Parting Advice 223 

CHAPTER XIV 

SELECTING AND OPERATING THE ENGINE 

325. Selecting — 326. Style Needed — 327. The Best Size — 
328. A Plea for the Small Engine — 329. Power Re- 
quired for Various Tasks^ — 330. What Horse Power 
Means — 331. Various Kinds of "Horse Power" — 
332. Purchasing Horse Power — 333. The Overload as 
Affecting Ratings — 334. The Question of Weight — 
335. Where the Light Engine Wins — 336. Simplicity — 
337. The Price — 338. Adaptability — 339. Other Consid- 
erations— 340. Testing the Engine— 341. Being Fair — 
342. When the Agent Does Not Come — 343. Turning on 
the Load— 344. The Outfit— 345. The Second-hand En- 
gine — 346. After Buying — 347. Oiling the Engine — 
348. The Cooling System — 349. Retarding the Spark — 
350. The Carburetor— 351. The Switch— -352. Starting the 
Wheel — 353. Just After Starting — 354. Getting Up 
Power — 355. Going After All the Power — 356. The Gos- 
pel of Attention — 357. And of Letting Alone — 358. Shut- 
ting Down — 359, Things to Think About — 360. Over- 
hauling the Engine — 361. The Personal Hazard . 245 

CHAPTER XV 

THE TRACTION ENGINE 

362. Its Message to the World — 363. Its First Accomplish- 
ment — 364. The Second— 365. And the Third — 366. What 
the Gasoline Tractor Is Doing — 367. Special Appeals to 
the Farmer— 368. The Small Farm Tractor — 369. Trailers 
Not Satisfactory — 370. Cost of Tractor Farming , 277 



^vi Table of Contents 

CHAPTER XVI 

WHAT IS BEST IN A TRACTOR 

371. The Demand— 372. The Tractive Power— 373. General 
Construction-374. Other Forms of Transmission— 
375. Steam and Gasoline Tractor Differences— 376 The 
Best Engine-377. The Clutch-378. The Best Trans- 
mission— 379. Differential or Compensating Gear— 
380. How It Works-381. Power of the Gasoline Tractor 
-382. Power Needed in Plowing-383. Home-made 

Tractors 

290 

CHAPTER XVII 

OPERATING THE TRACTOR 

384. Preparing for the First Start-385. Starting-386. 
Learning to Guide the Tractor-387. Mud-hole Philoso- 
phy-388. Lots of Sand— 389. Bridges and Other Ob- 
stacles-390. Speed Allowable-391. Hauling with the 
"rrT^!:^''' ^''''- ^^—93. General Care 

303 

CHAPTER XVIII 

POWER TRANSMISSION 

394. An Important Problem_39S. Methods in Use-jofi 
Shaftmg_397. Poor Shafting Unprofitable-agS Gen 
eral Shaftmg Wisdom-399. Balancing Pulleys-400 
Speed of Shafts-4ox. Size of PulIeysl4o.. Pulleys-!: 
403. Straight and Crown Face-404. Use of Pulleys- 
405. Covering Iron Pulleys_4o6. How Secured to Shaft 
-407. The Deadly Set.screw-408. Other Pulley Dan 
gers— 409. Tight and Loose Pulleys— ^in Th • r 
for Trouble-4rr. Cone Pulleys. \Z ¥heir^ u/eiT; 



Table of Contents xvii 

Home-made Pulleys — 413. Bearings — 414. Roller Bear- 
ings — 415. Ball Bearings — 416. What Babbitt Metal Is — 
417. Preparing Boxes for Babbitting— 418. Preparing the 
Babbitt — 419. Casting the Bearing — 420. Babbitting a 
Split Box 313 

CHAPTER XIX 

BELTS AND BELTING 

421. Reasons for Using Belts — 422. A Few Drawbacks — 423. 
Belt Essentials — 424. Leather Belts — 425. Rubber Belt- 
ing — 426. Canvas Belting — 427. Care of Belts — 428. Belt 
Dressing — 429. Size Required — 430. A Convenient Rule 
— 431. Length of Belts — 432. Speed of Belts — 433. Belt 
Slipping — 434. Belt Hints — 435. A Useful Belt Kink — 
436. Belt Lacing — 437. Lace Leathers — 438. Methods of 
Lacing — 439. Wire Laces and Belt Hooks — 440. Cement- 
ing Belts — 441. Splicing a Gandy or Canvas Belt — 442. 
Rope Transmission 33° 

CHAPTER XX 

OTHER FORMS OF TRANSMISSION 

443. Gear Wheels — 444. Material — 445. Finish — 446. Spur 
Gearing — 447. Bevel and Miter Gears — 448. Intermittent 
Gears — 449. Cams — 450. Worm Gear — 451. Other Gear 
Wheels — 452. Raw Hide Gearing — 453. Care of Leather 
Pinions — 454. Rules Governing Gear Repairs — 455. 
Power of Gear Wheels — 456. An Ideal Gear Wheel Or- 
der — 457. General Care 34^ 

CHAPTER XXI 

THE FEED ROOM 

458. When Feed Grinding Does Not Pay — 459. Convenient 
Grinding — 460. Convenient Feeding — 461. Feed Always 
Fresh — 462. The Balanced Ration — 463. A Good Feeding 
Plan — 464. A Special Appetizer — 465. Grinding Cob 



xviii Table of Contents 

Meal — 466. Grinding the Family Grist — 467. Accessories 
of the Feed Room — 468. Objections to Constant Water 
Supply — 469. Constant Renewal Necessary — 470. The 
Gasoline Engine a Necessity — 471. The Open Trough— 
472. Automatic Troughs — 473. A Home-made Substitute 
— 474. Advantages of Drinking System — 475. The Work 
of the Engine — 476. Flushing out the Gutters — 477. Sta- 
ble Arrangement Required — 478. Flushing Out, the More 
Sanitary Way — 479. Final Disposal on Fields . 356 

CHAPTER XXII 
THE WORKSHOP 

480. Its Mission — 481. As Trouble-healer — 482. A Good 
Equipment — 483. The Engine in the Workshop — 484. Its 
Proper Place — 485. An Ideal Shop Arrangement — 486. 
The Engine's Position — 487. Connecting Engine to 
Work— 488. Locating Machines — 489. Effect on Man and 
Boy 367 

CHAPTER XXIII 

THE FARM WOOD PILE 

490. Two Memories — 491. A Thankless Task— 492. What It 
Really Cost— 493. To-day's Wood Pile— 494. Why Popu- 
lar— 495. The Circle Saw Rig— 496. Power Required— 
497. The Best Rig— 498. Setting Up— 499. The Drag 
Saw— 500. Construction— 501. Operating the Drag Saw 
—502. A Complete Automatic Rig— 503. Wood Split- 
ting • 375 

CHAPTER XXIV 

ORCHARD AND GARDEN 

504. Slipshod Spraying Wasted Time— 505. Where the En- 
gine Excels— 506. Nature's Method— 507. What Spray- 
ing Is for— 508. Causes of Failure— 509. A Successful 
Method— 510. A Good Pumping Outfit— 511. Good Noz- 
zles — 512. The Hose— 513. Good and Cheap Outfits— 514. 
Results of Spraying— 515. When Trees Are Not 
Sprayed .387 



Table of Contents xix 

CHAPTER XXV 

IRRIGATION 

516. Why Needed — 517. Where — 518. When^Sig. Where 
Drought Has No Terrors — 520. Certain Drawbacks — 521. 
A Good Irrigation Plant — 522. Quantity of Water Re- 
quired — 523. The Cost — 524. The Engine Required — 525. 
The Centrifugal Pump — 526. Its Limitation — 527. Dif- 
ferent Types — 528. Garden and Small Farm Irrigation — 
529. Deep-well Pumping — 530. Distributing the Water — 
531. Kinks and Cautions 399 

CHAPTER XXVI 

THE WOMAN'S STORY 

532. What Machinery Has Done for Some Farm Women — 
533. The Farm Power Laundry — 534. Ironing by En- 
gine Power — 535. The Water Supply — 536. The Storage 
System — 537. Elevated Tanks — 538. The Pressure Tank 
— 539- Advantages Over the Elevated Tank — 540. Mak- 
ing It Pay — 541. Dish Washing — 542. Outside the House 
— 543. The Vacuum Cleaner — 544. Cleaning House — 545. 
Milking Machines — 546. The Cream Separator — 547. The 
Governor Pulley — 548. How It Works — 549. For Bottled 
Milk — 550. Churning by Power — 551. The Ice Problem — 
552. Other Household Uses— 553. A Handy Kitchen De- 
vice — 554. Cleaning Various Utensils — 555. Starting and 
Stopping the Engine— 556. Filling the Lamps — 557. Stor- 
age Battery Capacity — 558. Lighting Up — 559. The Sys- 
tem Complete — 'Seo. Door Maid and Burglar Chaser — 
561. Making Electrical Conveniences Available on the 
Farm — 562. The Engine That the Housewife Needs — 
563. The Farm Girl and Boy— 564. The Price— 565. 
What Others Pay 416 

CHAPTER XXVII 

HOME-MADE CONVENIENCES 

566. Self-propelling Engines — 567. Light Power Tractors — 
568. The Horseless Buggy — 569. Low Power Trucking — 
570. What the. Old Farm Wagon Can Do — 571. A Rapid 
Post Hole Digger— 572. The Home-made Well Drill— 



XX Table of Contents 

573. A Good Barn Hoist — 574. Grain Tender at Thresh- 
ing Time — 575. A Home-made Auto — 576. Two Boys 
and a Cultivator — 577. Wheelbarrow Energy — 578. A 
Uniaue Fruit Harvester — 579. A Home-made Power 
Saw — 580. Minor Contrivances 452 

CHAPTER XXVIII 

MODERN POWER APPLICATIONS 

581. Helping the Binder— 582. In the Hay Field— 583. Mak- 
ing the Spreader Work — 584. The Short tower Wagon — 
585. At Threshing Time — 586. Harvesting the Corn Crop 
—587. Hauling by Cable— 588. The Road Machine; What 
Gasoline Is Doing for Our Country Highways — 589. 
Fighting Weeds — 590. Ditching — 591. The Farm Roller 
— 592. Shearing and Dipping — 593. In the Poultry Yard 
— 594. The Road to Market — 595. Building Home Mem- 
ories 470 

CHAPTER XXIX 

THE IDEAL FARM 

596. A Look Into To-morrow — 597. Summary of the Com- 
plete Farm Home, Including Household, Garden, Barns 
and Fields — 598. How the Gasoline Engine Makes It 
Possible— -599. When Dreams Come True . . 493 

CHAPTER XXX 
USEFUL RULES AND FORMULA 

600. Tables, Rules, Calculations, Hints and Suggestions 
Useful in the Application of the Modern Farm 
Power 497 

601. Mutual Relations of These Measurements . . 499 

602. The Fire Hazard 500 

603. Fire Fragments 502 

604. Heat Values 502 

605. Thermal Efficiency 503 

606. Horse Power Formulae 503 

607. The Brake Test 504 

608. The Prony Brake Test 504 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

PAGE 

Fig. I — Frontispiece — Gas Tractor Doing the Work of 

Forty Horses and Twenty Men .... 2 



CHAPTER I 

Fig. 2 — The Portable Gas Engine Solves the Problem of 

Practical Farm Power 35 

Fig. 3 — The Call of the Field for Power Best Met by 

Modern Gas Tractor 2>7 

Fig. 4 — The Man with the Hoe of To-day . . .40 



CHAPTER II 

Fig. 5 — Showing Action of Inlet Valve on Suction 

Stroke 45 

Fig. 6 — Piston Nearing End of Compression Stroke. 

Position Just Prior to Ignition . . . -45 

Fig. 7 — Piston Descending on Power Stroke . . .46 

Fig. 8 — Depicting Action of Exhaust Valve on Scaveng- 
ing Stroke 46 

Fig. 9 — Sectional View of Reeves Horizontal Engine, 
Illustrating All Important Parts of Modern Gas 
Motor 48 



CHAPTER III t 

Fig. 10 — Sectional View of Vertical Engine Showing Im- 
portant Components 49 

Fig. II — Illustrating Defects Liable in Boring Cylinder. 
Compare Defective Spots Shown at a and b with 

Perfect Wall at c 54 

xxi 



xxii List of Illustrations 

PAGE 

Fig. 12 — Sectional View of I.H.C. Engine Cylinder 

Showing Water Jacket and Valve System . . 62 

Fig. 13 — Sectional View of Air-Cooled Motor. Figures 
Denote Following Parts: 12 — Crankshaft. 14 — Oil 
Pipe. 19 — Petcock for Compression Release. 20 — 
Valve Spring Key. 21 — Valve Washer. 22 — Inlet 
Valve Spring. 23 — Inlet Valve Guide. 24 — Intake 
Valve. 25 — Valve Cage. 26 — Sparkplug. 27 — Spark- 
plug Porcelain. 28 — Exhaust Valve. 29 — Exhaust 
Valve Seat. 30 — Exhaust Valve Guide. 31 — Ex- 
haust Valve Stem. Z'^^ — Exhaust Spring. 34 — Ex- 
haust Operating Rod. 35 — Cam Roller. 36 — Timer 
Cover Screw. Z7 — Contact Spring. 38 — Timer Ad- 
vance Lever. 41 — Timing Pinion. 42 — Cam Gear. 
43 — Drain Cock. 44 — Pipe Regulating Oil Level. 
45 — Gear Operating Shaft. 46 — Camshaft for Ex- 
haust. 48 — Piston. 50 — Oil Groove . . .65 



CHAPTER IV 

Fig. 14 — Vital Parts of a Jacobson* Horizontal Gas 

Engine 68 

Fig. 15 — Piston of I.H.C. Engine and Rings . . - IZ 

Fig. 16 — Longitudinal and Cross Section of Typical Pis- 
ton 74 

Fig. 17 — Concentric Ring with Diagonal Cut Joint. Fig. 

18 — Eccentric Ring with Stepped or Lapped Joint . 74 

Fig. 19 — Piston Pin Oil Feed . . . . . . yy 

Fig. 20 — Simple Device for Removing and Replacing 

Rings 79 

Fig. 21 — Marine Type of Bushed Connecting Rod . 80 



CHAPTER V 

Fig. 22 — Cross Section of Valve Chamber . . .86 
Fig. 22^ — Sectional View of Combustion Chamber, Show- 
ing Arrangement of Valves in Cylinder Head . 87 
Fig. 24 — Typical Mechanical Valve Gear . . .95 
Fig. 25 — Sectional Views of Conventional Mufflers . 97 



List of Illustrations xxiii 



CHAPTER VI 

PAGE 

Fig. 26 — Exterior View of One Model Kingston Car- 
buretor 100 

Fig. 2^ — Sectional View of Kingston Carburetor . . 100 

Fig. 28 — How the Carburetor Vaporizes. Sectional 

View of Breeze Device Shows Important Parts . 102 

Fig. 29 — Sectional View Showing Parts of Krice Car- 
buretor . . 104 



CHAPTER VII 

Fig. 30 — Bent Hot Tube Igniter 112 

Fig. 31 — Sectional Views of Standard Dry Cells. A — 

European Construction. B — American Design . 115 
Fig. 32 — Showing Dry Cell Battery Wired in Series . 116 
Fig"- ZZ — Simple Jump Spark Wiring System . . .118 
Fig. 34 — Jump Spark Vibrator Coil for One Cylinder 

Ignition 119 

Fig- 35 — Sectional View of Spark Plug .... 120 
Fig. 36 — Bosch Magneto, Exterior View . . 122 
Fig. Z7 — Longitudinal Sectional View of Bosch Magneto 123 
Fig. 38 — Rear View of Bosch Magneto, Showing Con- 
tact Breaker and Distributor 124 

Fig. 39 — Showing Ignition Magneto in Place on Engine 

Base 127 

Fig. 40 — Simple High-Tension Wiring System, Using 

Batteries and Magneto 128 

Fig. 41 — Low-Tension or Make-and-Break Spark Wiring 
System Using Magneto with Batteries as Auxiliary 

Source of Current 129 

Fig. 42 — High and Low-Tension Current Conductors . 130 



CHAPTER VIII 

Fig. 43 — Method of Speed Regulation through Valves . 136 
Fig. 44 — Centrifugal Governor Attached to Carburetor . 138 
Fig. 45 — Pick-blade Governor, Showing Cam Action . 139 
Fig. 46 — Side View of Cam Action on Lever . . . 140 



xxiv List of Illustrations 

PAGE 

Fig. 47 — Type of Air-Cooled Cylinder Used on "New 

Way" Engines 141 

Fig. 48 — Depicting Flow of Water Through Jackets of 

Water-Cooled Engine 143 

Fig. 49 — Sectional View of Cylinder of I.H.C. Engine, 
Showing Integrally Cast Hopper Used in Open 
Jacket Cooling System 144 



CHAPTER IX 

Fig. 50 — Main Bearings Incorrectly Placed. Strain of 
Explosion Impulse Exerted Directly Against Cap 
and Bolts 149 

Fig. 51 — Main Bearings Placed so a Twisting Strain 

Comes on Cap and Bolts Every Impulse . . 150 

Fig. 52 — Main Bearings Correctly Placed — All Stress 

Taken by Bed of Engine 150 

Fig- 53 — Single Throw Crankshaft 151 

Fig. 54 — Three Throw Crankshaft, with Counterpoise or 

Balance Weights 151 

Fig- 55 — Gas Engine Flywheel of Approved Design . 152 

Fig. 56 — Typical Engine Bearing, Showing Oil Grooves 

C and Retaining Plugs A . . . . . . 153 



CHAPTER X 

Fig. 57 — The New Farm Factory Made Possible by 
Modern Gasoline Engine. Note Wood Saw at One 
End and Watering Trough at the Other . . 160 

Fig. 58 — Gasoline Engine Base Plan to Show Amount 

of Space and Holes Needed for Installation . . 162 
Fig. 59 — Method of Securing Heavy Engine to Concrete 

Foundation 163 

Fig. 60 — Template for Locating Bolt Holes . . . 165 
Fig. 61 — Engine on Foundation, Bolted in Place . . 168 
Fig. 62 — Method of Re-inforcing Wooden Floors . . 170 
Fig. 63 — A Gasoline Engine-Driven Concrete Mixer . 171 
Fig. 64 — A Gasoline Engine-Driven Stone Crusher . 172 
Fig. 65 — A Wheeled Foundation Needed for Tractor 

Engine I73 



List of Illustrations xxv 

CHAPTER XI 

PAGE 

Fig. 66 — A Bowser Gasoline Storage System . . . 184 
Fig. 67 — Bowser Gasoline Storage Tank with Con- 
venient Fittings . 185 

Fig. 68 — Bowser Underground Tank with Measuring 

Pump Attached 189 

Fig. 69 — Simple Gasoline Tank Gauge .... 193 

Fig. 70 — Typical lO-H.P. Kerosene Engine . . . 196 

CHAPTER XII 

Fig. 71 — Polished Steel. Rod Looks Rough if Magnified 

Greatly 202 

Fig. 72 — Section Through Four-Cylinder Motor, Show- 
ing Lubricating System 209 

Fig- 73 — Exterior and Interior Views of Sight Feed 

Gravity Lubricator 214 

Fig. 74 — Explaining the Splash System of Lubrication . 215 
Fig- 75 — Loose Ring for Bearing Lubrication . . 216 
Fig. 76 — Mechanically Operated Plunger Oil Pump In- 
sures Force Feed 217 

CHAPTER XIII 

Fig- 77 — Pocket Size Battery Testing Gauge Indicates 

Either Volts or Amperes 229 

CHAPTER XIV 

Fig. 78 — A Typical Horizontal Gasoline Engine . . 246 
Fig. 79 — Easy Work for One and One-half Horsepower 

Gray Engine 248 

Fig. 80 — Corn Sheller Easily Operated by One Horse- 
power 249 

Fig. 81 — Simple Prony Brake Test 250 

Fig. 82 — Another Type of Prony Brake .... 251 



xxvi List of Illustrations 

PAGE 

Fig. 83 — Correct and Incorrect Method of Cranking an 
Engine. Correct Method, Left Hand Used. In 
Case of Pre-ignition Handle Is Jerked Away From 
the Hand, Which Is Left Outside of Crank Circle. 
Incorrect Method, Uses Right Hand. Back Kick 
Will Either Drive Handle Against Hand or Leave 
Hand in Crank Circle. Result, Broken Arm or 
Wrist 274 



CHAPTER XV 

Fig. 84 — Assembly View of Oil Pull Gas Tractor, Show- 
ing Working Parts and Their Relation to Each ' 
Other 276 

Fig. 85 — Gas Tractor Insures 100 Per Cent. Gain in 

Production Through More Thorough Tillage of Soil 284 

Fig. 86 — The Hackney Small Farm Plowing Tractor 

Carries the Plows as Part of the Machine . . 286 

Fig. 87 — The Broad Wheels of the Gas Tractor Should 
Make Cultivated Fields as Smooth as Floors and 
Add Greatly to Life of Machinery .... 288 



CHAPTER XVI 

Fig. 88— The Power Plant Is the Heart of the Tractor. 

Many Present-day Traction Engines Are of the 

Four Cylinder Four Cycle Type .... 292 
Fig. 89 — Bevel Reversing Gear Train .... 293 
Fig. 90 — Reversing Gear of Gas Tractor . . . 294 
Fig. 91 — Typical Tractor Steering Gear, Front Truck 

Showing 295 

Fig. 92 — Bevel Differential and Spur Driving Gears of 

I.H.C. Tractor 299 



CHAPTER XVII 

Fig- 93 — Simple Home Made Tractor and Circular Saw 

Stand 303 



List of Illustrations xxvii 

PAGE 

Fig. 94 — A Recent Factory Output with Enclosed Power 

Plant and Mechanism 304 

Fig. 95 — A Gasoline Engine Operated Hay Press . 312 



CHAPTER XVIII 

Fig. 96 — Countershaft and Hangers Ready for Belts . 314 
Fig. 97 — Construction of Split Wood Pulley . . . 31? 
Fig. 98 — Method of Covering or Lagging Pulley . . 318 
Fig. 99 — Countershaft Assembly with Tight, Loose and 

Stepped Pulleys 321 

Fig. 100 — Solid Box Bearing or Pillow Block . . 325 
Fig. loi — Sells Roller Bearing Shaft Box Fits Standard 

Hangers 3^5 

Fig. 102 — Sectional View of New Departure Ball Bear- 
ing Shaft Hanger Box 326 



CHAPTER XIX 

Fig. 103 — A Study in Belt Contacts. Two Equal Pulleys 
a and b Have a Belt Grip of 180 Degrees. When 
Two Unequal Pulleys Are Used, the Largest One, 
d, Gains in Transmission Efficiency, Because Belt 
Contact Is More Than Half the Circumference; the 
Smaller One, c, Looses Because Belt Contact Is Less 

Than 180 Degrees 334 

Fig. 104 — The Crossed Belt. Each Pulley Has an Arc 
of Belt Contact More Than 180 Degrees. In Gen- 
eral, Loss Because of Friction in Twisted Belt 
Overcomes Advantage of Greater Belt Contact. 
Arrangement Shown Useful for Reverse Drive . 335 
Fig. 105 — Driving with Long, Heavy Belt, Showing Sag 336 
Fig. 106 — A Useful Kink. Driving Belt Loose, but Kept 
in Contact with Pulleys with Lighter, Narrow Bind- 
ing Belt 339 

Fig. 107 — The Finished Joint, Pulley Side . . . 340 
Fig. 108 — The Finished Laced Joint, Top of Belt . 340 
Fig. 109 — Several Methods of Belt Lacing . . . 342 
Fig. no — Some Approved Metallic Belt Hooks . . 343 



xxviii List of Illustr.' 



vnoNS 



CHAPTER XX 



Fig, 
Fig 
Fig 
Fig 
Fig 
Fig 
Fig 
Fig, 



III — Internal Spur Gear 347 

112 — External Spur Gearing 347 

113 — Bevel Gearing 348 

114 — Intermittent Gears 348 

115 — Action of Cam Outlined 349 

116 — Worm Gearing Used in Tractor Steering Gears 350 

117 — Spiral Gear Used for Cam Shaft Operation . 350 
118 — Illustrating Terms Used in Ordering Spur 

Gear Wheels 352 



CHAPTER XXI 

Fig. 119 — Feed Mill with Direct Shaft Drive from New 

Holland Engine 356 

Fig. 120 — Mill for Grinding Two Kinds of Grain . . 359 
Fig. 121 — Power Driven Mill for Grinding Grain, Cob 

and Husk 360 



CHAPTER XXII 

Fig. 122 — A Handy Shop Engine, Equipped with Coun- 
tershaft and Three Different Sizes of Driving 
Pulleys 369 

Fig. 123 — The Most Important Farm Implement . . 370 

Fig. 124 — Gray Engine Driving Bandsaw in Wood- 
working shop 371 

Fig. 125 — General Farm Workshop Floor Plan, Show- 
ing Good Arrangement of Machines and Housing 
of Engine in Separate Compartment to Reduce Fire 
Risk 372 



CHAPTER XXIII 

Fig. 126 — Sawing Wood by Gas Power Not an Irksome 

Task . . . .374 



List of Illustrations xxix 

PAGE 

Fig 12/ — Gasoline Engine and Circular Saw Outfit in 

Portable Form 378 

Fig. 128 — A Drag Saw Worked by Engine Power . 381 
Fig. 129 — Wood Splitter Operated by Engine Power 

Works Well in Combination with Circular Saw . 386 



CHAPTER XXIV 

Fig. 130 — Fruit of Sprayed Trees. Sound Fruit in Pile, 
Wormy Fruit in Basket. On Adjacent Tree of 
Same Variety, which Was Not Sprayed, Only 42 
Per Cent, of Fruit Was Sound 389 

Fig. 131 — Gasoline Engine with Triplex Pump for Large 
Capacity Spraying Outfits or Water Supply Pur- 
poses 390 

Fig. 132 — A Typical Animal Drawn Gas Engine Oper- 
ated Spraying Outfit 392 

Fig- 133 — Portable Spraying Outfit at Work in Orchard, 
Showing Utility of Platform in Reaching Top of 
Trees 393 

Fig. 134 — A Few Examples of Spraying Nozzles . . 394 

Fig. 135 — Power Spraying Outfit at Work . . . 395 

Fig. 136 — Results of Spraying Illustrated. Nine Baskets 
of Perfect Peaches, Unsound Fruit on Upturned 
Basket at Left 397 



CHAPTER XXV 

Fig. 137 — Drought Has No Terrors where Power Driven 

Pumping Outfits Are Used 400 

Fig. 138 — What a Good Irrigating Plant Contains . 401 

Fig. 139 — Plenty of Water Here 403 

Fig. 140 — Centrifugal Pump Directly Coupled to Gaso- 
line Motor ......... 405 

Fig. 141 — Small Gasoline Power Plant Operating Two 

Diaphragm Pumps 406 

Fig. 142 — Garden Irrigation by Flowing Method . . 409 
Fig. 143 — Power Pumping Outfit for Deep Well . . 410 
Fig. 144 — Deming Horizontal Power Pump . . .411 



XXX List of Illustrations 

PAGE 

Fig. 145 — Air Cooled Engine and Pump Mounted on 

Common Base 412 

Fig. 146 — Water Distribution by Seepage Method . 413 
Fig. 147 — Water Distribution by Flooding Method . 414 



CHAPTER XXVI 

Fig. 148 — The Woman's Engine 417 

Fig. 149 — The New Washerwoman Lightens a Former 

Household Burden 418 

Fig. 150 — A Complete Washing Outfit Adapted for Use 

with Power 419 

Fig. 151 — No Lifting Except to Fold for Wringer . 420 

Fig. 152 — When Electric Power Is on Tap to Operate 
Washer. A — Washer Pulley. B — Wringer Pulley. 
C — Countershaft Pulley. D — Electric Motor Pulley. 
E — W^asher Driving Pulley on Countershaft. F — 
Hangers. I — Electric Motor. K — Snap Switch. L 
— Power Release Lever 421 

Fig. 153 — A Complete Pneumatic Water Supply System 
Gives Important City Convenience in Country 
Homes 423 

Fig. 154 — A Portable Vacuum Cleaner Operated by 

Cushman Farm Motor 427 

Fig. 155 — Creating the Vacuum for Milking by Gasoline 

Power 429 

Fig. 156 — Milking Cows by Vacuum Process Cleanly, 

Sanitary and Not Injurious to Animals . . . 430 

Fig. 157 — The Present Day Dairy Maid Uses Gasoline 
Power to Advantage. Note Engine on Base of 
Cream Separator . 432 

Fig. 158 — The Parker Speed Governor Pulley Secures 
Steady Separator Drive from Even Intermittent Gas 
Power 433 

Fig. 159 — How Parker Speed Governor Pulley Is Em- 
ployed 434 

Fig. 160 — Churning by Power of Gray Motor . . 435 

Fig. 161 — Gasoline Motor Driven Ice Cutter . . 436 

Fig. 162 — A Well Kept Lawn Insured with Motor Pro- 
pelled Lawn Mower 438 



List of Illustrations xxxi 

PAGE 

Fig. 163 — A Light Horizontal Air-Cooled I.H.C. Engine 

Suitable for Household Use 439 

Fig. 164 — Dynamo Operated by Small Gas Engine Pro- 
vides Inexhaustible Lighting Current . . . 440 

Fig. 165 — Electric Farm Lighting Outfit Turns Night 
into Day and Provides Another City Convenience 
for the Farmer 443 

Fig. 166 — Complete Residence Lighting Outfit for Coun- 
try Use 444 

Fig. 167 — Storage Battery Employed in Connection with 

House Lighting Outfit 445 

Fig. 168 — Electric Lamp Using Incandescent Filament . 446 



CHAPTER XXVIT 

Fig. 169 — Tractor Sawing Outfit of Leslie Reed, Cotton- 
wood, Idaho, Goes to Work Under Its Own Power 
and Is an Ingenious Home Made Apparatus . . 452 

Fig. 170 — Double Drum Hoist for Use in Connection 
with Gasoline Engine Made by Brown Clutch Com- 
pany 459 

Fig. 171 — Unloading Hay by Gasoline Power Utilizing 

Brown Double Drum Hoist ..... 461 

Fig. 172 — Engine Outfit Easily Moved by One Man Be- 
cause of Wheelbarrow Truck ..... 465 

Fig. 173 — Small Gray Motor Helping the Binder . . 470 



CHAPTER XXVIII 

Fig. 174 — The Motor Truck in the Hay Field 

Fig. 175 — The Modern Connecting Link Between Farm 
and Market . 

Fig. 176 — The Gasoline Engine Indispensable in Thresh 
ing Time 

Fig. 177 — Better Roads Made Possible at Small Cost by 
Gas Tractor Outfits ...... 

Fig. 178 — The Gas Tractor Shortens the Road to Mar- 
ket 

Fig. 179 — Home Memories 



473 

475 

476 

480 

487 
490 



THE GASOLINE ENGINE ON THE 
FARM 

CHAPTER L 
THE CALL AND THE ANSWER. 

1. The Great Farm Problem. — The world is asking 
for bread and the farmer must supply it. For that 
purpose he cultivates his lands. The call of the 
farmer is for efficient helpers. There is a scarcity of 
workmen which is hampering him at every turn. It 
required 50,000 acres, some one has figured, to supply 
the meager necessities of a single savage, but less than 
twenty-five acres are available to supply the more ex- 
acting demands of each citizen to-day. Intensive cul- 
ture alone can meet the demand ; more work and bet- 
ter work on every available acre, and the call for extra 
helpers which cannot be answered with men must be 
met by machinery. The farmer of the future must be 
a mechanic rather than a day laborer. He will have 
time for little but the intellectual part of soil-tilling, 
while the manual labor will more and more of it be 
done w^th wheels and levers. Hand labor was long 
ago dispensed with in the mill and factory wdierever 
possible because it is more expensive than the factory 
can afford. The farmer has adhered to the harder and 
more costly method and has performed work manually 
that some adequate farm power might have done bet- 
ter and cheaper. 

2. The Machine Designer's Problem. — ]\Iany de- 

33 



34 The Gasoline Engine on the Fx\rm 

vices that might have reduced the labor of the farmet 
have never been placed upon the market, because all 
farm machinery formerly had to be restricted to the 
limits of the horse in power and speed. In this re- 
spect the farm implement designer has been more 
seriously hampered than any other class of inventors. 
Without the aid of steam and electricity our factories 
would still be in their infancy. How much the world 
has lost through its most important industry, agricul- 
ture, because of this unfortunate limit placed upon her 
field appliances can only be guessed at. Many valu- 
able inventions have been abandoned because they had 
to be made too light or too slow for effective work, in 
order that they might be handled by the ordinary 
farm team. 

3. The Call of the Farm. — The call of the farm is 
for power; some means by which the intelligence of a 
single man can direct a force that will do as much 
work as a dozen or a hundred men could do with their 
unaided hands. Farming has indeed advanced from 
the plane of simply making a living to that of a great 
commercial project. From plowing to shelling, it 
takes four and one-half hours' work to raise one 
bushel of corn by hand. Machinery and power reduce 
this to forty-one minutes. The same commercial argu- 
ments which demand power in the factories render it 
€ven more necessary upon the farm. 

4. Other Forms of Power and Where They Fail. — • 
Various forms of farm power have been tried and have 
failed. The tread-mill was not a real power, but a 
clumsy means of transmitting the limited energy of 
some animal. It was unsteady, hard to operate, and 
soon became a synonym for drudgery. Sweep power 
is hard to move, cumbersome, and usually requires 
the exposure of its operators to every storm. The 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



35 




36 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

water wheel is of very restricted application. It may 
easily fail in dry weather and, at best, cannot be 
moved about. Wind mills are objectionable for the 
same reason; also from the unreliable nature of their 
motive force. Steam alone has been the only serious 
competitor of the horse in general farm work ; still it 
is not by any means the ideal farm power. 

5. The Ideal Farm Power. — Much of the farmer's 
work is done in short runs and at many different 
places. His ideal power must be ready at a moment's 
notice and must not cost anything to maintain except 
wdiile in use. It must be safe, reliable, easy to operate 
and portable ; not easily disturbed by weather condi- 
tions ; available at any place, indoors or out. Elec- 
tricit}^ might avail for all of this excepting portability, 
were it more generally to be obtained upon the farm. 
It usually is not, unless produced by the borrowed 
energy of steam or gasoline engine at a good deal of 
waste in transmission or in transforming mechanical 
to electrical energy. 

6. The One Best Answer. — The gasoline engine is 
the only pow^er at the present time that has answ^ered 
all of these various demands. It is a wonderfully 
flexible power, adapting itself to all conditions. While 
the teams are being fed the engine may be started 
upon a day's run at the feed mill ; then the operator 
is free to go back to breakfast. No fuel is being used, 
as is the case with a steam boiler, while steam is 
raised. The operator needs no greater mechanical 
training than should be considered necessary to 
properly run a binder. If power is needed in the 
kitchen to operate the washing machine two men can 
pick the engine up and take it there. If w^anted in 
the farthest corner of the wood lot it can be set on 
the farm w^agon and conveyed there without the neces- 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



37 



sity of a second or third trip for water tank and fuel; 
neither is there a trail of feed-wires to erect. The 
driest and calmest weather does not disturb it, nor 
does it break away from its moorings in the fiercest 
wand. It can be obtained in ^ horse power sizes if 
required, while five thousand horse power engines 
are in successful operation. It works properly in 
zero weather or excessive heat and functions no mat- 
ter Avhat the mercury registers. . 




Fig. 3.— The Call of the Field for Power Best Met by Modern 
Gas Tractor. 



7. What It is Actually Doing in the Field. — The 

most convincing argument in the world is achieve- 
ment. Let us see what the gasoline engine has 
actually done ; what it is now doing on the farm. In 
parts of the West where best known, it is driving the 
steam tractor from the field; is plowing, harrowing 
and seeding all in one operation, by the square mile 
instead of by the acre, and is doing the work better, 
as well as quicker and cheaper, than horse power can 
do it. It is harvesting the grain when the fields are 
too soft to carry the ordinary binder and when the 



38 The Gasoline Engine on the-Farm 

steam tractor would be helpless ; then, after thresh- 
ing, it is conveying a part to market and converting 
the balance into the most available form for feeding 
cattle. It is loading hay in the fields and then un- 
loading it in the barns or placing it in stacks. With- 
out fear of hunger or thirst, it turns away from its 
source of supplies and requires no procession of fuel 
and water wagons to follow upon its trail. If the 
season is short or the weather threatening, it turns 
the night into day with its own headlight and lives 
its working life in twenty-four-hour days as cheer- 
fully as in periods of eight or ten. Where necessary 
it has run without stopping from ^Monday morning 
until Saturday night with hardly an hour's attention 
during the entire time. 

8. As General Utility Man.— The gasoline engine 
is irrigating fields and putting on the finishing touches 
of success where drought and failure threatened. It 
is annually saving to the world thousands of dollars 
worth of fruit from the ravages of fungus and insect. 
It is digging the farmer's post-holes ; it is cutting his 
wood and hauling it to the sheds. It is taking out 
of farm life much of that drudgery Avhich destroys 
human life more through dreariness than through ex- 
pended energy. Perhaps its greatest value is in the 
every-day, humble occupations, and from these it 
never shirks. 

9. In the Kitchen.— Unlike the general run of 
labor-saving implements] the work of the gasoline 
engine is not completed in the field. It runs the 
washer and wringer for the housewife with ease, 
pumps the water for her, does the churning, skims the 
milk, and has even been known to sweep the floor, 
clean the carpet, wash the windows and the dinner 
dishes. In numberless ways, after doing the heavy 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 39 

field work, it has lightened the burden for some tired 
or semi-invalid housewife and added that touch of 
leisure or of beauty to the house or lawn so dear to 
the heart of the farm girl. 

10. With the Boy of the Farm. — Between the gaso- 
line engine and the boy of the farm there seems to be 
a special bond of sympathy that removes from the 
latter those terrors of wood-pile and grindstone that 
drove his older brother from the farm. It silences 
the call of the city by rendering farm life the more 
attractive of the two. The boy is progressive unless 
his ambition is crushed out with hard work. His 
school life feeds his ambition and the farm must either 
keep up with his love of progress or he will grow 
away from it. The engine is the boy's confidant and 
friend, for it develops in him that love of machinery 
upon which is based the world's achievements. 

11. The Hired Man Problem. — Modern farm work 
has outgrown the capacities of a single pair of hands. 
The hired man is a necessity; but where the number 
of places needing him is so greatly in excess of the 
supply of desirable men, it is but natural that the 
farm which is best equipped for the elimination of 
drudgery is most attractive to the most progressive 
men. The engine is making it more desirable by mak- 
ing it more efficient ; by shifting the drudgery of 
physical routine to the alertness of applied intelli- 
gence; for drudgery always dulls the intellect and 
produces the lowest form of efficiency. 

12. The Greatest Mission of All. — The gasoline en- 
gine has done all this ; it is doing still more. Many 
of to-day's important industrial problems originate 
upon the farm and depend upon its productiveness, its 
extension, and its life for their solution. As the pro- 
portion of workers remaining on the farm becomes 



40 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



less, their importance to those who have left it be- 
comes greater, and nothing raises the standard of civil- 
ization in any community so quickly as a decrease in 
the cost of power ; a conserving of human life by sur- 
rounding its workers with better conditions, which 
have been robbed of drudgery and no longer dwarf the 
intellectual man. The highest form of conservation 
applies to the world's men and women more than to 
her raw material. Manual labor has become too slow 




Fig. 4.— The Alan With the Hoe of To-day. 

and it accomplishes too little ; it cannot keep up with 
the demand. The only true economy in the use of 
human energy lies in putting it to some more produc- 
tive work than that a machine can do as w^ell and 
twenty times as fast. The true place for the man him- 
self is at the controlling lever, where more than auto- 
matic machine action is needed and where human 
intelligence rules supreme. This wonderfully uni- 
versal and flexible power is placing the modern 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 41 

farmer's work on a higher plane and is turning former 
hit-or-miss methods of farming into a definite science. 

In its one expression, the automobile, it has given 
farm intelligence its rightful place in the social world. 
It has broken down the false and undesirable social 
barriers that formerly existed between town and coun- 
try life and which, in a great measure, have been re- 
sponsible for the unpopularity of farm life among both 
city and country young people. To-day the best 
schools and lecture halls are placed within reach of 
the farm door and country youth, surrounded at last 
by environments it craved, has made the most of 
them. After the hour of intellectual enjoyment they 
return to the farm still loyal to it, but with new ideals 
and a broader appreciation of life. 

The farm house itself, stripped of its atmosphere of 
drudgery and grinding toil, becomes an actual home 
where culture is no longer impossible. Out of the 
added leisure springs an influence of affection and re- 
spect that makes the man live a better life because of 
the home life from which the boy received his training. 



CHAPTER 11. 

THE INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE. 

13. The Principle. — An ordinary shot gun, at the 
moment of discharge, dehvers a pressure of about four- 
teen tons against the load before it. If we multiply 
this pressure by the length of the barrel — that is, by 
the distance through which the pressure is exerted — 
we have the working energy that the gun can deliver 
from one impulse. Three hundred such impulses a 
minute would multiply the amount of working energy 
or power by that amount. It is probable that the gun, 
in one of its earlier types, was the first internal com- 
bustion engine ever put to practical use. Such a de- 
structive force could not be applied to machinery, but 
it set men to thinking that the principle so powerful 
in the destruction of life might be made to aid in more 
peaceful occupations. 

14. The First Engine. — Two hundred and fifty 
years ago the Abbe d'Hautefeuille, a French chemist, 
began to develop the idea and, about 1680, an engine 
of this sort was actually built. It was not a success, 
for it required delicate mechanism to feed solid powder 
in suitable amounts and at regular intervals to the 
combustion chamber, and the grease, soot and sticky 
residue soon put this out of working condition. 

15. Other Attempts. — Other attempts, usually with 
some explosive gas that could be more readily fed 
than powder, were experimented w^ith, but it was not 
until i860 that a practical working engine was brought 

42 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 43 

out. This was the Lenoir engine, in which many of 
the features used to-day had a rude beginning ; but the 
expense of operating it was so great that its manu- 
facture was soon discontinued. This, of course, was 
before the day of gasoline. 

16. The First Real Success. — The Otto engine, 
brought out two years later by a young German, is 
generally considered the beginning of the gas engine 
industry, although, during the five-year interval be- 
tween his first production and the engine that finally 
made him famous, several other styles, of greater or 
less merit, were announced. These partial successes, 
although crude and somewhat unreliable, convinced 
the world that there was an assured principle behind 
them and that the war implements of the past were 
indeed to be beaten into the plowshares of the future. 

17. What Internal Combustion Includes. — All heat 
engines for which the heat is developed within the 
engine cylinder, instead of in a boiler or some outside 
receptacle, are internal combustion engines, whether 
the fuel used is gunpowder, gas, gasoline, kerosene or 
alcohol. For convenience all are usually called gas en- 
gines, and they differ little in construction aside from 
the variations required to get the different forms of 
fuel into the cylinder. Nearly all gasoline engines can 
be operated on kerosene by slightly changing the in- 
take system ; while the true gas engine differs hardly 
at all from the others except in substituting a device 
for mixing gas and air in place of the appliances re- 
quired to convert the liquid fuels into vapor. 

18. The Real Source of Power. — There is a com- 
mon belief that the energy hurled against the piston 
of a gasoline engine acts as a baseball might act when 
thrown against some movable object. This is hardly 
the case. The impulse against the piston is due merely 



44 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

to the expansion of gases under the intense heat gene- 
rated by the sudden combustion, the temperature at 
that instant rising to between 2,000° and 3,000° Fahr., 
or enough to melt the iron walls if provision was not 
made for quickly cooling them. Only about twenty to 
twenty-five per cent, of this heat or thermal energy can 
as yet be directed into useful channels, the rest being 
wasted. In the use of steam, however, there is even 
a greater waste, while animal muscle, though it makes 
use of nearly fifty per cent, of its entire thermal energy 
during its working period, represents a continuous 
loss during idleness which brings the total waste up 
to even higher figures. 

19. The Complete Cycle Explained. — Unlike the 
working energy of the horse, the gasoline engine pro- 
duces its power in a series of sudden impulses and, 
for each impulse, must accomplish four things : First 
the combustible vapor must be drawn into the cylinder 
or combustion chamber ; second, this must be com- 
pressed ; third, the compressed charge must be fired ; 
and, last, the burned gases must be driven from the 
cylinder in preparation for the next charge of vapor. 
The complete process is called the cycle. Some en- 
gines accomplish this with one revolution of the crank, 
others with two. As perhaps eighty per cent, of all 
engines in use upon the farm are of the latter class, the 
actual working operations of the two-revolution, or 
four-cycle, engine will be first described. 

20. The Four-Cycle Engine. — In the illustration 
(Fig. 5), the piston, P, is near the closed end or head 
of the cylinder, S ; the exhaust valve, B, which opens 
inward, is shown as closed, and during the suction 
stroke is held shut by a heavy spring. (See top of 
cylinder. Fig 10.) As the piston descends it leaves a 
vacuum behind it; in other words, creates a suction 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



45 



which causes the intake valve, A, to open and admit 
a charge of the fuel mixture through the intake pipe. 
The second or return stroke of the piston compresses 
the air and gas already admitted, closing the valve, 
A, and keeping it closed against the escape of the gas 
and so compressing or condensing the fuel mixture 
to the small chamber between the end of the piston at 
its highest point and the cylinder head. This is illus- 
trated by Fig. 6. 




s 6 

Fig. 5. — Showing Action of Inlet Valve on Suction Stroke. 

Fig. 6. — Piston Nearing End of Compression Stroke. Position 

Just Prior to Ignition. 

When the piston has returned to its outermost point 
(or a little before, in actual practice), the highly com- 
pressed fuel is fired and the intense heat is turned 
loose upon the task of expanding the confined gases 
and hurling them against the piston, now just entering 
upon its third or real power stroke, illustrated at Fig, 
7. The impetus received from this carries the engine 
through the return or discharge stroke (Fig. 8), dur- 
ing which the exhaust valve, 3, is opened by mechani- 
cal means. These four strokes or two revolutions of 
the crank shaft complete the cycle of the four-cycle 
engine. 



46 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



21. Two-Cycle and Four-Cycle Engines Compared. 

— In the two-cycle engine all of these operations are 
accomplished with one revolution of the crank shaft 
or two strokes of the piston. Theoretically it has 
several important advantages over the four-cycle, and 
may in time become the more popular engine of the 
two. As it gets a power impulse with every revolu- 
tion there is less tendency to speed variation and it 
does not require such heavy balance wheels to carry 




Fig. 7. — Piston Descending on Power Stroke. 
Fig. 8. — Depicting Action of Exhaust Vahe on Scavenging 

Stroke. 



it through the intervening periods. For the same rea- 
son the power is considerably increased for the weight 
of the engine. The valves are in part or wdiolly dis- 
pensed with and a long chapter of trouble from their 
fouling or warping with the heat is avoided. The 
two-cycle engine has fewer moving parts, less oppor- 
tunity for wear and is easier to understand. Because 
of the greater frequency of explosions it is smioother 
running than a four-cycle engine having the same num- 
ber of cylinders. 

22. Why the Four-Cycle Engine Is Preferred. — 
In practice, however, it has not been found possible 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 47 

to rid the combustion chamber of burned gases in the 
small part of a stroke the two-cycle engine devotes 
to that work ; neither does it, in the hurried blending 
of operations, take in a proper supply of fuel and, 
though it takes up a charge twice as often, it does not 
make as good use of it or give out proportional re- 
sults. So, while the two-cycle engine gives out more 
power for a given number of pounds of engine, the 
four-cycle delivers greater power from a certain quan- 
tity of fuel ; and fuel, of course, represents a definite, 
continuous expense. The crank case, too, of the 
simpler two-cycle motors has to be gas tight and con- 
siderable difficulty obtains in keeping it tight after 
the bearings become worn around the shaft which 
extends through them. At the present stage of de- 
velopment the two-cycle engine has a great number 
of theoretical advantages, but the features of the four- 
cycle power plant are of greater importance in prac- 
tical field work. 

23. Six- and Eight-cycle Engines. — Six-cycle en- 
gines have been manufactured on a small scale, the 
two extra strokes being devoted to the discharge of 
all burnt gases and the admission of pure air. Even 
an eight-cycle engine was recently announced. Their 
advantages, however, are so questionable and their use 
so much of an experiment that at the present time 
they may be regarded as more of a curiosity than 
anything of practical importance. 

24. The Vital Parts. — Every gasoline engine of 
whatever form, in order to convert the energy of com- 
bustion into working energy, must have a receptacle 
for the confinement and explosion of the gases ; a 
means of introducing the fuel to its place in proper 
quantities ; a system of firing the charge, and a mov- 
able plunger to receive the impulse and convert it into 



48 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

mechanical motion. These may be considered the 
vital parts of the engine. Then there is the frame nec- 
essary for its support and for keeping the other parts 
together in their relative positions. 

25. Other Necessary Components. — There are cer- 
tain parts which do not enter directly into the opera- 
tions of the cycle, that are none the less essential to 
continuous operation. A crank shaft is necessary to 
convert sliding into rotary motion and a belt pulley 




Fig. 9. — Sectional View of Reeves Horizontal Engine, Illustrat- 
ing All Important Parts of Modern Gas Motor. 

or some substitute is needed to transmit it. A con- 
necting rod between piston and shaft is a necessity ; 
also a piston pin ; some form of governor to regulate 
the speed ; valves to admit and retain the gases, and 
a timing mechanism to regulate the operation of the 
various parts in unison with each other. 

26. Conveniences Which Are Necessities. — Some of 
the conveniences, too, are so essential to the continu- 
ous operation of the engine that they may almost be 
considered necessary, although they take no direct 



Ti-iE Gasoline Engine on the Farm 49 



EXHAUST VALVE SPRING m5HfR'W 



EXHAUST VALVE LEVER 
VALVE ROD HEAD 



16NIT0R TRIP ROLLER 



IQNITOR TRIP CLAMP 




Fig. 10. — Sectional View of Vertical Engine, Showing Important 
Components. 

part in the operations. Chief among these is a fuel 
tank, without which the time of the operator would 
be constantly taken up in introducing liquid to the 
intake system. Cooling provisions must be made un- 



50 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

less one is willing to shut down frequently or else stand 
beside the engine with dipper and pail. Except for 
the piston lubricator, no other oiling provisions are 
necessary than occasional oil-holes over the bearings, 
but the life and efficiency of both engine and operator 
will be greatly extended by the use of lubricating cups. 
Other attachments or trimmings, which may be luxur- 
ies with some engines or in certain lines of work, 
become actual necessities under other circumstances. 
27. Other General Types. — Besides the vertical and 
horizontal engines, there are several kinds made for 
special purposes which are so constant in some char- 
acteristics with all makers that they may be classed as 
distinct types ; the marine engine, made without base 
and designed particularly to meet the requirements of 
the motor boat ; the automobile engine, also lacking 
the solid base that characterizes the farm and factory 
engine and introducing the opposed cylinder principle 
in which two or four cylinders are arranged to counter- 
act each other's vibration imder the power impulse, 
and to give the crank shaft an impulse in the one 
direction, while the resistance of compression is being 
exercised from the opposite side. The motor-cycle 
engine might also be included as an extreme type of 
light and baseless engine, though the last word of all 
in point of lightness is spoken by the aviator's motor, 
some types of which have been created w^ith a capacity 
of one horse-power per 3 pounds weight. With the 
possible exception of the automobile and motor-cycle 
engines, none of the above are entitled to a legitimate 
place upon the farm. 



CHAPTER III. 

THE COMBUSTION CHAMBER. 

28. Functions of the Cylinder. — The primary mis- 
sion of the engine cyHnder is receptive rather than 
operative. It is the gun barrel into which the fuel 
is introduced and wherein the gases are expanded by 
the heat of combustion until they exrert a tremendous 
energy in their struggle to occupy a much larger space 
than they did before the heating took place. This 
energy, hurled against a movable piston at one end 
and confined between rigid walls in all other direc- 
tions, forces the sliding metal back with so much 
energy that the crank shaft to which it is attached at 
the outer end is carried past its center and far upon 
the return stroke against the burned-out gases which 
have as quickly lost most of their heat and power 
of resistance. 

A second service of the cylinder is the confinement 
of the fuel gases at a point where they will be com- 
pacted by the up-stroke of the piston and in that 
compressed form fired by the spark. 

29. The Influence of the Cylinder Upon the En- 
gine. — The position of the cylinder determines 
whether the engine is to be horizontal or vertical in 
form and fixes in a great measure the power and spe- 
cial line of work to which it will be best adapted 
when finished. 

In this chamber all operations which originate or 
represent force are transformed into power. 



52 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

30. The Best Material. — The best gray cast iron 
is now favored for the cyHnder. This is an iron 
which contains sufficient graphitic carbon, that is uni- 
form of texture, and which is reasonably free from 
phosphorus and sulphur. Patches of light and dark 
grav are serious defects, as they indicate a difference 
in texture wdiich may result in uneven expansion un- 
der high temperatures. An engine cylinder must 
stand a temperature which varies from about normal 
to very little below the melting point of iron and, in 
order to expand evenly, must be of absolutely the 
same material in all its parts. Cheap iron may look 
as well as any other, but it will contain weak places 
which the extremes of heat and pressure developed in 
the cylinder are sure to find. 

31. The Work of the Foundry. — Engine cylinders 
must be well cast. Dirt pockets or blow-holes are not 
permissible. In order to insure prompt cooling the 
walls have to be as thin as the stress upon them will 
permit, and such thin castings have to be poured much 
hotter than heavier pieces in order to prevent the 
smaller stream of metal from getting too sluggish 
to fill out the corners of the mould well. At this stage 
of engine building the little defects must be particu- 
larly guarded against, the air bubble, the bit of un- 
fusible foreign matter, the sand scale, the unfilled cor- 
ner. Even with the best of foundry work, a good 
many cylinders that come from the mould smooth and 
seemingly perfect must later be rejected because of 
defects that are disclosed by the lathe. The care re- 
quired at this stage, and the extra cost in production 
it sometimes occasions, should not be lost sight of by 
the man who wants to buy a good engine, but who is 
inclined to be unduly influenced by a low price. 

32. Boring the Cylinder. — Even greater care, if 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 53 

anything, is needed in the boring and finishing of the 
casting and a good many inferior engines originate 
through a cheapening of this process, either to meet 
the demand for a low-priced article or through the 
practice which some amateur machinists have of buy- 
ing the castings and finishing them up themselves. 

The casting to be bored must have absolutely rigid 
support : there must be no spring. The bore must also 
be a true circle and perfectly centered so that all of 
the wall surface will be of uniform thickness. The 
first cut is made quite heavy; then in the best made 
engine cylinders the casting is removed from the lathe 
and allowed to ''rest" for from 30 to 60 days ; this to 
allow all molecular strains and stresses to "season 
out." Then a second cut is made, very much lighter 
than the first and intended mainly to remove the drill 
marks of the coarser tool. Some makers follow this 
by a third cut, which is exceedingly fine. The final 
cut is followed in most of the best engines with a fine 
emerv wheel revolving at a very high speed and re- 
moving the last one-thousandth of an inch of cut with 
almost mathematical precision. This accuracy must 
obtain the full length of the cylinder and the bore 
must not vary in size or from its circular form. Be- 
cause of the vibration set up in the grinding machine 
by the high speed and the solidity with which the 
work must be held against the tool so that there is 
no springing away from any hard spot in the metal, 
it is very necessary that the machine frame be rigid 
far in excess of the requirements for such seemingly 
light work. 

A few manufacturers argue against the grinding 
method, partly on account of its cost and the heavy 
machinery required, and partly because of the possi- 
bility that particles of emery and abrading powder 



54 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



may remain in the cylinder walls to score them or the 
piston when in use. ]\Iost of the best grade engine 
cylinders, though, are finished in this manner. What- 
ever process is used, the walls should be left entirely 
free of tool or chatter marks, and with a mirror sur- 
face. Fig. II illustrates a smooth, absolutely straight 
wall (indicated at c), as it should be. At a and b are 
shown respectively high and low spots caused by the 
springing of the thin cylinder walls as the boring tool 




Fig. II. — Illustrating Defects Liable In Boring Cylinder. Com- 
pare Defective Spots Shown at a and b With Perfect 
Wall at c. 



passed over hard and soft places in the metal. Per- 
fect compression can never be obtained in a cylinder 
like that. 

A ground cylinder, if properly finished, gives as 
nearly perfect results as we can hope to attain and 
at the same time the small sharp particles of the 
vitrified grinding wheel do their work by means of 
so many and such rapidly moving points that the 
walls are left smooth as a mirror and absolutely true, 
since there is practically no pressure put upon them. 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farai 55 

Lapping and all forms of smoothing out with powdered 
glass or other abrasing material, while fairly effective 
if well done, require very careful cleaning, as any of 
the cutting material left in the cylinder w^ould be 
likely to continue its work of scoring upon both 
cylinder and piston. 

33. Severe Duty as Combustion Chamber. — Of its 
several functions, that of combustion chamber is more 
exacting than any other to which the cylinder is sub- 
ject on account of both the excessive temperature and 
the pressure. While neither of these can be very 
accurately determined, it is generally considered that 
an initial pressure of around 350 pounds per square 
inch gives the most economical results, while it is 
probable that at the moment of discharge the tempera- 
ture developed inside the cylinder varies between 2,000 
and 3,000 degrees Fahrenheit, depending a great deal 
upon compression, hotness of spark, correctness of 
the mixture, etc. 

34. What Compression Is. — A bit of gun cotton, 
fluffed into a light mass, may be ignited without danger 
on the palm of the hand. The same mass, confined 
in the barrel of a gun, would hurl a charge out through 
the muzzle with considerable force. In the one case 
the expansive gases are free to escape without hin- 
drance. In the other the force is confined. The 
amount of gas is the same in both cases but the ex- 
pansion is more violent in its results because of the 
momentary compression. Let us now ram into the 
gun barrel all the gun cotton that can be crowded 
into the same space under pressure ; probably several 
times as much as was in the first charge. When the 
gun is fired we have several times the quantity of 
gas expanding suddenly in the same fixed space 
and the firing charge is either hurled out w^th 



56 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

tremendous energy or else the barrel itself must 
burst. 

35. Compression in the Gasoline Engine. — When 
the piston of the gasoline engine has reached its high- 
est or inner point there is a short air space between 
it and the end of the cylinder, usually about one-fifth 
of the entire cylinder volume. If we now opened the 
inlet valve and allow^ed the fuel vapor to enter, it 
w^ould fill this space until the internal pressure equaled 
that of the air on the outside, or about 14.7 lbs. to the 
square inch ; then no more fuel would enter. By fir- 
ing this charge, that is, raising the temperature to the 
combustion point, the gas would be expanded until 
it occupied several times its original volume and the 
pressure or forward thrust against the piston would 
be, we Avill say, something like 90 lbs. per square 
inch of surface. This, working against the normal at- 
mospheric pressure of 14.7 lbs., would leave us 75 lbs. 
of active working energy. 

Before firing the charge let us now, with the intake 
valve still open, advance the piston to the outer end 
of its stroke and so increase to five times its first 
dimensions the receptacle for fuel gas. This greater 
area, like the other, fills to the point of atmospheric 
pressure ; then we turn the piston back to the end of 
its inner stroke. 

36. How the Charge Is Compressed. — As soon as 
the gas fills the cylinder and is pressed upon by the 
returning piston it closes the intake valve. It cannot 
escape in that way. The rings prevent its slipping 
out between the cylinder walls and the piston. It is 
simply forced or pressed together as the gun cotton 
was pressed, until, when the piston is at the end of 
its inner stroke, the gas has been compacted into 
about one-fifth of its normal volume and consequently 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 57 

is struggling to escape with force five times greater 
than atmospheric pressure or nearly 80 pounds per 
square inch. We now fire the charge and the ex- 
panding gases call for nearly five times greater space 
than before, bringing the theoretical w^orking pressure 
hurled against each square inch of the piston head 
up to over 400 pounds. Deducting the original atmos- 
pheric pressure from this, we have a working energy 
of about 400 pounds per square inch of piston head 
surface. 

37. Compression Limits. — If the working energy 
of the fuel may be rendered so much more available 
by a moderate compression it would seem that we 
might increase our power almost indefinitely by di- 
minishing the clearance volume of the cylinder, but 
in practice it is found that this can be done only 
within moderate limits. After a certain amount of 
compression has been done the resistance of the gas 
becomes so great that it uses up as much power in 
compressing it as we gain by the higher compressed 
charge. Of still greater importance is the fact that 
the compression of gas introduces considerable heat 
and the moment we carry this process beyond a cer- 
tain point so much heat is generated that the fuel is 
fired before the piston reaches its proper position. In 
other w^ords, if we carry the compression of gasoline 
much beyond 100 pounds, the charge is liable to be 
fired against the ascending piston b}^ the developed 
heat, thus reducing instead of increasing the work- 
ing energy of the engine by hurling one impulse 
against another. 

38. Where Higher Compression Is Useful. — Where 
alcohol is used as a fuel it is found that the compres- 
sion may be run much higher without danger of pre- 
ignition ; in fact, an alcohol engine to work efficiently 



58 The Gasoline Engine on the Farai 

requires a compression of something like 140 lbs. per 
square inch. 

It has been suggested, too, and has been a dream 
with gasoline engine men, that some means of shift- 
ing adjustment might be introduced whereby an igni- 
tion temperature would just be generated at the point 
where the charge ought to be fired. This would do 
away with the necessity of batteries, magneto, or any 
other firing device. Promising experiments have been 
conducted along these lines, but as yet the promises 
have only been realized in part. 

39. Compression Gains and Losses. — Since inter- 
nal combustion engines are heat engines, and the heat 
we are obliged to dissipate in order to protect the 
cylinder and its associates is wasted energy, it fol- 
lows that the smaller the surface we are forced to cool 
without sacrifice of temperature the more we gain in 
efficiency. This is another reason why compression 
adds to the efficiency of the engine, the real combus- 
tion chamber being practically confined to that small 
portion of the cylinder into which the fuel is com- 
pressed at the moment the charge is fired. 

'Tt has been shown that an ideal efficiency of 33 
per cent, for 38 lbs. compression will increase to 40 
per cent, for 66 lbs., and 43 per cent, for 88 lbs. com- 
pression. On the other hand, greater compression 
means greater explosive pressure and greater strain 
on the engine structure, which wall probably retain, 
in future practice, the compression between the limits 
of 40 and 80 lbs. 

'Tn experiments made by Dugald Clerk in England, 
with a combustion chamber equal to 0.6 of the space 
swept by the piston, with a compression of 38 lbs., 
the consumption of gas was 24 cubic feet per indi- 
cated horse-power per hour. With 0.4 compression 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 59 

space and 61 lbs. compression, the consumption of gas 
was 20 cubic feet per indicated horse-power per hour ; 
and with 0.34 compression space and 87 lbs. compres- 
sion, the consumption of gas fell to 14.8 cubic feet 
per indicated horse-power per hour — the actual effi- 
ciencies being respectively 17, 21 and 25 per cent." 
Gardner D. Hiscox, in "Gas, Gasoline and Oil 
Engines." 

40. Clearance. — Between the top of the piston at 
the instant of its extreme inner stroke and the closed 
end of the cylinder is a space into which the charge 
is compressed. This is the "clearance" of the engine 
and it usually amoimts to about twenty or .twenty-five 
per cent, of the combustion chamber, the exact per- 
centage of course determining the compression of the 
engine, provided rings and valves are doing their 
work properly. 

41. Faulty Compression. — While a gasoline engine 
can be operated without compression, it is always done 
to the tune of extravagantly wasted fuel and without 
the satisfaction of accomplishment. Such an engine 
has very little power, so it is evident that any faults 
of compression are eliminated only at the expense of 
both the fuel tank and the belt wheel. Faulty com- 
pression is generally due to a worn or badly seating 
valve or piston ring, or to some leak in cylinder walls 
or piston. Blow holes in the castings will cause it ; 
so will rings that are rough upon the edges or either 
too narrow or too wide for the grooves they occupy. 
If the ring is too wide the edges bind in the groove 
and keep it from opening freely against the cylinder 
walls ; if too narrow, so that there is a little end play 
in the groove, there is an instant of time at the dead- 
center of the inner stroke when the ring pressure shifts 
from one side to the other of the groove, at the in- 



6o The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

stant that the piston reverses its motion. During this 
period the ring touches neither side and permits a brief 
but many times repeated leakage of highly compressed 
gas or of the explosive force w^hich has just been de- 
livered against the piston. Dirty, gummy rings cause 
similar trouble. A ring must work absolutely free, 
but without any reciprocating or end motion, in order 
to do its work properly. 

42. Testing Compression. — The compression of a 
five H. P. engine should as a rule be too great to 
permit of the wheel being turned. over by hand with- 
out opening the relief cock in the cylinder, while even 
a one and two horse engine should put vip stiff oppo- 
sition. By holding the piston of the engine at the end 
of the compression stroke for a few moments the 
amount of compression leakage at the most critical 
point may be determined but it must be remembered 
that this test alone does not determine the oper- 
ating compression of the engine, as many leaks 
which do not appear at this point may cause trou- 
ble at some other place or while the parts are in 
motion. 

A hissing sound is indication of a leak somewhere 
and, by listening at the inner and outer end, the leak 
can frequentl}^ be located at once. If it comes from 
the lower or open end of the cylinder the fault is 
somewhere about the piston, its rings or the castings ; 
or perhaps a worn or scored cylinder wall, or one that 
is not true. If the sound seems to come from the 
other end of the cylinder, test the exhaust valve and 
see that it seats properly; also, that the stem works 
easily in the guide. Make this test while the engine 
is at running heat, then try the intake valve. A little 
soapy water may sometimes help in determining the 
leak, the escaping gas creating bubbles. Sometimes 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 6i 

a broken thread on the spark plug will cause a leak 
around its base. 

If the cylinder and head are cast in two 
separate pieces the joint and packing between 
them should be carefully examined. In a two- 
cycle engine worn crank shaft bearings are as 
troublesome avenues of leakage as the piston 
rings in a four-cycle engine. Where the leak 
is external it should not be difficult to locate, but in 
case of an internal leak into an enclosed crank case, a 
water jacket, a muffler or some other hidden part of 
the engine, it sometimes becomes quite a puzzling 
problem, but the search should be persisted in until 
the trouble is found, as otherwise serious damage may 
result. 

Leaks in multi-cylinder engines are more difficult 
to locate than in a single cylinder, the compression 
strokes frequently overlapping or blending together. 
This difficulty may be overcome by removing the spark 
plugs of all but one cylinder ; then turn the wheel over 
and note the compression in that. If satisfactory, re- 
move the remaining plug and place it in one of the 
other cylinders, which may then be tested, until all 
are tried. The source of leak once located, the remedy 
is self-evident. 

43. Decreasing the Clearance. — The crank shaft 
bearings always wear away most rapidly on the side 
opposite the cylinder and through wear the piston 
may be drawn farther out and so increase the clear- 
ance or compression space and weaken the pressure. 
Metal disks have sometimes been bolted to the end of 
the piston in order to overcome this but the remedy is 
objectionable, as are all other remedies wdiich intro- 
duce bolts into the combustion chamber. Another way 
is to lengthen the connecting rod, but it would seem 



62 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



that the simplest and cheapest method would be to 
restore the worn bearings to the condition thought 
necessary by the designer. Changes of this sort should 
be made with a good deal of caution by the amateur 
engine operator, but when one is certain the compres- 



EXHAUST PORT 
J 




Fig. 12. — Sectional View of I. H. C. Engine Cylinder, Showing 
Water Jacket and Vahe System. 

sion is really defective one should not hesitate to adopt 
any necessary remedy. 

44. Increasing Power by Decreasing Clearance. — 
While less clearance means greater compression and 
more power within certain limits, there will come a 
time when the extra power generated will be more 
than absorbed in making the extra compression, even 
if the fuel used does not limit the point to which the 
process may be carried. Up to this limit, however, 
or to the point wdiere the increased temperature causes 
pre-ignition, this resistance against the ascent of the 
piston, or negative stroke, as it is termed, is not with- 
out its use. Were the power stroke of the engine 
allowed to exert its force entirely against the solid 
mechanism, the strain and jerky effect w^ould be far 
more pronounced than it is when finally caught in 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 63 

part against this elastic cushion of compressed gas. 

45. Lubricating the Cylinder. — The requirements 
which gas engine cylinder oil must meet are so dif- 
ferent from those of the steam engine cylinder that 
to use the very best oil suitable for the latter might 
])e worse for a gas engine than to use none at all. 
In the first place, the temperature of the combustion 
chamber is so great that ordinary oil is burned up at 
once, before it has a chance to do its work as a 
lubricant. Then the combustion leaves a residue of 
carbon and dirt which in themselves do harm. Steam 
engine cylinder oil must not be used in the gasoline 
engine cylinder, even for a short run. To this rule 
there is positively no exception; at least not for the 
novice. The subject of proper and improper oil is 
fully discussed in another chapter. A word here is 
sufficient in explanation of how the oil should be 
introduced. 

All parts of the cylinder requiring oil are usually 
reached through the lubricator which oils the piston 
and its rings, the oil dropping or being forced through 
its channel upon the piston rings which scrape and 
spread it over the surrounding surface of the cylinder 
against which they press. No other part of the sur- 
face needs oil. 

The system of oiling the cylinder through the fuel 
mixture, wdiich is becoming more and more popular, 
is fully described under its proper head. 

46. Carbonizing, Its Cause and Effects. — The best 
of oil, under the test which is placed upon it by 
gasoline engine temperatures, is very quickly con- 
sumed, though not, in the case of good oil, until it 
has had time to accomplish its mission. The best of 
oil contains some carbon, w^hich is released by the 
process of combustion and spreads itself over all sur- 



64 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

faces to which it has access, the piston head, the rings, 
the cylinder walls and combustion chamber, the valves 
and the muffler. A glance into the muffler of an en- 
gine wdiich has been long in operation will show the 
extent and nature of this deposit. Inside the cylinder, 
however, it is subject to the alternate influence of 
moisture and baking heat, and eventually a hard, slaty 
shell may be formed in some parts while in others the 
deposit w^ll be more of a tarry, sticky nature. In either 
of these forms the free action of the valves or the 
rings is likely to be interfered with. This alone occa- 
sions many gas and pressure leaks. 

Scaly projections of this coating are liable to be- 
come in part detached and to so stand out that they 
receive the entire heat impulse without being in con- 
tact with any cooling influence. In this condition 
they quickly become heated to a dull red and, after 
the fuel charge is inhaled by the down stroke of the 
piston, as compression begins and the temperature in- 
creases on the upstroke, these living coals may fire 
the charge against the ascending piston, not only 
wasting the power impulse, but extending it directly 
against the proper working of the engine. This is one 
of the most common causes of pre-ignition. 

This heavy scale of hard carbon, too, may interfere 
seriously with the cooling of the cylinder walls and 
cause heating of piston or cylinder. Carbon in the 
cylinder is one of the most frequent troubles with 
which the gasoline engine man has to contend. 

The lubricating oil is not the only source of these 
cylinder deposits. An excess of oil may cause them, 
or too much gasoline. All the gasoline vapor wdiich 
fails to find sufficient oxygen from the air supply to 
produce carbonic acid, carbonic oxide and water will 
deposit free carbon, providing the heat is great enough 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 65 




Fig. 13.— Sectional View of Air Cooled Motor. Figures De- 
note Following Parts : 12 — Crankshaft. 14— Oil Pipe. 19 — 
Petcock for Compression Release. 20 — Valve Spring Key. 
21 — Valve Washer. 22 — Inlet Valve Spring. 23 — Inlet 
Valve Guide. 24— Intake Valve. 25 — Valve Cage. 26 — 
Sparkplug. 27 — Sparkplug Porcelain. 28 — Exhaust Valve. 
29— Exhaust Valve Seat. 30 — Exhaust Valve Guide. 31— 
Exhaust Valve Stem. 2>^ — Exhaust Spring. 34 — Exhaust 
Operating Rod. 35 — Cam Roller. 36 — Timer Cover Screw. 
Zl — Contact Spring. 38 — Timer Advance Lever. 41 — Tim- 
ing Pinion. 42 — Cam Gear. 43 — Drain Cock. 44 — Pipe 
Regulating Oil Level. 45 — Gear Operating Shaft. 46--Cam- 
sliaft for Exhaust. 48— Piston. 50 — Oil Groove. 



66 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

to break up the gasoline formation. To this silicon 
and various impurities of the air are added. 

47. Symptoms of Carbon Deposit. — Pre-ignition is 
one symptom of carbon. It is announced by the 
knocking of the engine the same as when the spark 
is advanced too much. Back-firing is frequently 
caused by carbon holding the valve from closing. Mis- 
firing may be occasioned by carbon short-circuiting 
spark plugs or by the gap between the points being en- 
tirely closed. Usually only a part of the current is 
short-circuited; then the spark is weak and the igni- 
tion irregular. One of the most characteristic symp- 
toms of carbon deposit is the presence of plenty of 
power at high speeds but little when speed is re- 
duced and load thrown on. This is due to the fact 
that the carbon causes pre-ignition when the speed is 
slow while at high' speed an advance of the firing 
instant is not great enough to catch the rapidly mov- 
ing piston on the up-stroke with an}^ retarding force. 

48. Cleaning the Cylinder. — At least once or twice 
a year the piston should be taken from the cylinder 
and all carbon deposits thoroughly removed. If the 
head is removable it is a comparatively easy matter 
to thoroughly clean all parts. Kerosene is one of the 
best liquid cleansers. Do not use gasoline, as it de- 
stroys the smooth mirror glaze with which the iron 
walls have become polished and leaves the original 
porous surface of new iron. Do nothing to destroy 
or break up this glaze. Besides, gasoline is not as 
good a solvent of carbon as kerosene, which is less 
harsh in action. 

When the deposits are very hard, scraping may 
have to be resorted to. This should be done thor- 
oughly but with care not to injure the surface of the 
cylinder or to scratch the walls. Particularly should 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm ^'j 

care be taken to remove all loosened scales and par- 
ticles, if necessary using kerosene in a closed end 
cylinder. A cylinder should seldom be opened up. 
When it is done, let the cleaning be thorough. Note 
specially the nature of the deposits and so form an 
estimate of the brand of lubricant in use. 

49. Removing the Cylinder. — So many different 
patterns exist, only the most general rules can be given 
for this. All pipes should first be disconnected from 
the cylinder casting, water pipe, exhaust pipe, etc., 
then the bolts holding it to the crank-case may be 
loosened and cylinder removed ; or, it may be neces- 
sary to loosen and remove piston. In either case great 
care must be taken not to injure the piston or rings. 
If the head is removable place that and the nuts which 
are taken off wnth it in a bath of kerosene while 
scraping and cleaning the cylinder walls. Copper, 
soft steel or bronze tools should be used for scrap- 
ing. Never insert chisel or other tool between head 
and cylinder to pry the head loose. 

50. Reassembling the Engine. — In rebolting the 
closed end cylinder to its base, or the removable head 
to the cylinder care should always be taken to avoid 
throwing excessive strain on any one bolt alone. 
Tighten all up together, or nearly so, and avoid danger 
of a cracked casting. 

To return the piston and rings to the cylinder easily, 
compress each ring tightly to its groove and fasten 
it there by wrapping each with a separate coil of soft 
copper wire. Insert piston head in cylinder and ad- 
vance carefully. As each coil of wire is reached it is 
forced ahead of the end of cylinder, toward the lower 
end of piston after the ring has been entered into 
place enough to be secured. Finally the wires will 
all be slipped down upon the connecting rod, from 



68 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 




^ 




Oh 
> 

d 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 69 

which they may be readily removed. This saves much 
trouble in compressing and holding in place several 
unruly and delicate rings. 

51. Packing the Cylinder Head. — Blown-out or 
defective cylinder packing has been the cause of as 
much profanity among gas engine users probably as 
any one source of trouble, not even barring the igni- 
tion system. The avoidance of this trouble should 
begin at the factory, in the construction of the engine; 
if not there, then in its selection. See that all packed 
joints are held with studs and not with cap screws ; 
and that the studs are ample in size. A little care- 
lessness and an ordinary monkey wrench may twist 
off a ^^-inch stud quite easily, although that is a size 
made use of by a good many builders of small en- 
gines. A ^-inch stud is quite likely to take care of 
itself. 

52. Material to Employ. — All rubber or other 
packing injured by heat is barred from use around 
the combustion end of the gasoline engine cylinder. 
Ordinary asbestos mill board is as good as anything 
if applied right, and is much cheaper than the wire 
wove and other special brands. One sheet of i/32-in. 
mill board is usually enough and if a thicker pack- 
ing is needed, two sheets of this thickness are better 
than one of a heavier grade. Copper-asbestos pack- 
ings, in which a piece of asbestos board is sandwiched 
between two layers of copper sheeting, are the best. 

As soon as the head is removed from the C3dinder 
the old packing should be scraped and cleaned off 
thoroughly before it has time to dry. The surface 
must be perfectly smooth and level if a tight joint 
is expected. 

Do not mark out the new packing by hammering 
the sheet material lightly against the face of the cyl- 



70 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

inder head. A few such treatments are almost certain 
to send the head back to the lathe for refacing. By 
laying the sheet upon the faced side of the head and 
rubbing along all edges with the finger a sufficiently 
distinct mark will be made; then lay sheet upon a 
clean board and cut out with a sharp knife. Dip the 
sheet in boiled linseed oil but do not allow it to soak 
long or the asbestos fibres will have a tendency to 
separate. If one side is coated with a good quality 
of flake plumbago it will detach readily from head 
when next removed and will be fit to use again. In case 
a packing is specially difficult to hold, shellac is some- 
times added. Allow no fragments or edges of pack- 
ing to project into the combustion chamber or they 
may heat and cause pre-ignition and be careful that no 
ragged edges project into water ports or gas openings. 

53. Cleaning Cylinder Without Removing Head. — 
If not convenient to shut down for a complete clean- 
ing of the cylinder a very effective temporary method 
which has been known to answer for some time is 
to work equal parts of alcohol and carbon disulphide 
into the cylinder through the lubricator. This acts 
quicker without oil but enough of the latter must be 
included to keep the cylinder from cutting while the 
other is being applied. 

By pouring alcohol and kerosene in equal quantities 
into the top of the cylinder slowly when shutting down 
at night the carbon may also be loosened ; then do not 
be deceived into thinking the oil bad the next day on 
account of the dense smoke which rolls out of the 
muffler. 

Where scraping must be resorted to it may be done 
through any small opening in the top of the cylinder 
by use of a mirror to reflect the light, or by intro- 
ducing a small incandescent bulb. The scraping can 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 71 

then be done by means of soft steel wires the ends of 
which have been fashioned into sharp scrapers or 
hoes bent at different angles. Never use hard, brittle 
material for this purpose, or any metal that might frac- 
ture and leave fragments in the cylinder. 



CHAPTER IV. 
THE PISTON AND AUXILIARY PARTS. 

54. The Piston's Several Functions. — Upon the 
smooth fit of the piston and its rings depend the four 
important functions of drawing in the fuel vapor, com- 
pressing the charge, receiving the impulse and convert- 
ting it into mechanical action, and scavenging out the 
cyHnder in advance of the next cycle. More care is 
required to secure a perfect fit for the piston in the 
cylinder and the rings in their grooves and against 
the cylinder walls than in any other part of the en- 
gine, for, without the highest degree of efficiency at 
this point, the full power of the most carefully con- 
structed engine can never be developed. Use will fre- 
quently improve a set of poorly fitting rings but will 
seldom if ever make them as efficient as they would 
have been if properly fitted in the first place. 

55. Construction of Piston. — The piston may be 
described as a short cylinder closed at one end by a 
flat head, open at the other and attached to the con- 
necting rod at the center by a pivot or piston-pin. Be- 
tween the head and the piston-pin a number of grooves 
are cut around the outside of the piston for the re- 
ception of the rings. These vary in number with dif- 
ferent engine builders, three or four being usually 
considered enough for small and medium size engines, 
with possibly one between the piston-pin and the 
open end to assist in the lubrication process. 

56. The Best Material. — Pistons should be made 

72 




The Gasoline Engine on the Farm /^3 

from a close grained gray cast iron, of a texture sim- 
ilar to that used in the cylinders in which they work; 
then the expansion from heat will be more nearly alike 
in each. They must contain no sand holes, blow holes 
or other serious foundry imperfections, else there is 
likely to develop a troublesome leak which may be 
hard to locate. 



^Piston ring grooves .^^up joint piston rincs 

'^0000 

Fig. 15. — Piston of I. H. C. Engine and Rings. 

57. Design and Workmanship. — Gasoline engine 
pistons must be longer than the pistons of steam en- 
gines because the piston rods are not steadied by 
guides but are united to the crank shaft through a 
single connecting rod. This, without the greater 
length, would give a tendency to tilt or rock. From 
one to one-and-a-half times the diameter is the length 
most favored in the United States, though in Europe 
much longer pistons are used, and more rings. Flat 
surface piston heads are generall}^ considered best be- 
cause they cool more evenly than a curved surface. 
Deflecting lips and all projections are defects, as they 
are apt to over-heat, often to the point of causing pre- 
ignition. Built-up pistons are usually objectionable, 
as the bolt heads retain too much heat. The one-piece 
piston is best. 

58. Piston Rings; Their Purpose. — It would not 
be possible to fit a solid block of iron so closely within 
the walls of the cylinder that no gas could escape be- 
tween them and at the same time keep it loose enough 



74 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



to work easily back and forth at high speed under a 
great variation of temperature. This is not attempted. 
Instead, the diameter of the finished piston is made 
slightly less than the bore of the cylinder and the 




Fig. i6. — Longitudinal and Cross Section of Typical Piston. 

escape of gases past it is prevented by introducing 
expansive rings into grooves cut in the surface of the 
piston. The rings should fit closely but smoothly in 
their grooves and, by their tendency to expand, should 





iiiiiii:r^^iii-iiiiiiipaiiiiiiiiiiii»^ ii^-iiiimi^^ 

17 18 

Fig. 17. — Concentric Ring With Diagonal Cut Joint. 

Fig. 18. — Eccentric Ring With Stepped or Lapped Joint. 

press lightly against the cylinder walls at all points. 
At the same time their elasticity reduces the friction 
to the minimum. 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 75 

59. Construction of Rings. — The ideas of different 
engine builders vary greatly as to the best type of 
ring in width, thickness and style. Some favor the 
concentric (Fig. 17) and others the eccentric type, 
shown in Fig. 18. The matter of joints, too, is one 
of disagreement, the diagonal and stepped joint each 
having its adherents. Good rings, as well as poor ones, 
are- made after all of these ideas, and it is for the 
engine owner to concern himself with results only, 
letting the manufacturer take care of his own means 
of obtaining them. 

60. The Best Material. — An engine ring has to be 
sufficiently elastic to admit of spreading over the end 
of the piston into the groove without breaking. This 
requires a degree of toughness. Once in its place, 
however, it must spring back to its original form ; 
hence it must be hard enough to retain its tensile 
strength. The happy medium between the two ex- 
tremes is rather difficult to find, because iron varies 
so much in its grading. A ring that is tough enough 
to open without breaking is likely to be too soft to 
return to its original shape. One having spring 
enough to resume its circular form may easily break in 
spreading. 

61. Making the Ring. — The best rings are machine 
moulded from brass or iron patterns. They are then 
more uniform. These castings are tube-shape and the 
rings are cut in a lathe from this, a trifle wider than 
the groove they are to fill. They are then faced to 
a standard width from both sides and a small piece 
cut either diagonally across the metal or in the form 
of a stepped joint. It is probable that there is very 
little difference in the merits of the two when prop- 
erly fitted. In the case of eccentric rings the cut is 
made in the thin side. 



'j^ The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

62. Truing the Ring. — In some cheap engines the 
rings, after being cut or spHt, are merely forced to- 
gether. Such a ring is not a true circle but assumes 
a slightly oval shape, hardly noticeable to the eye. It 
bears against the cylinder walls at two points only 
and wears them oval, while the rest of the way around 
there is a leak because it does not touch. The split 
ring ought to be clamped together in a lathe, returned 
or ground to a true circle, and then finished up be- 
fore it is sprung into place upon the piston. It will 
then seat itself evenly in the groove and give a uni- 
form outward pressure clear around against the cyl- 
inder walls. Even then, if there are hard and soft 
spots in the metal, there w^ill be high and low places 
in the ring, due to uneven tension, so it is specially 
necessary that metal for piston rings be of uniform 
texture. Some manufacturers give their rings a spe- 
cially desirable surface by a light lapping with pow- 
dered glass or grinding with a hard wheel. The abra- 
sive must be carefully cleaned ofif after the lapping 
is completed or it will adhere to the surface and tend 
to cut the walls of the cylinder to some extent. 

63. Piston and Ring Defects and Their Remedy. — 
Two special remedies may be relied upon to prevent 
nearly ever}^ defect of piston and rings ; cleanliness and 
lubrication. Unlike other machine bearings, the tem- 
perature is so high that ordinary lubricating oil, if 
used on the piston, is carbonized before its mission 
is accomplished, while every flash of the fuel in the 
presence of poor oil deposits a new layer of carbon, 
gum and trouble-breeding residue. The best of gaso- 
line engine cylinder oil must be used at this point or 
there is sure to be trouble. All modern gasoline en- 
gines have some provision (see Fig. 19) for feeding the 
oil in a small but continuous supply against the piston 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



17 



and the rings and then spreading it over the cylinder 
walls. Even a very brief failure of the supply, on 
account of a clogged oil tube or empty cup, may set 
the piston or cylinder to cutting and render reboring 
necessary ; or disaster may come to the piston rings in- 
stead; as the oil is very quickly burned up, leaving 
the surface hot and dry after each flash. Since the 
engine may continue to v^ork for some time without 
complaint while it is being ruined, this point, of all 
others, should be watched most closely. 




Fig. 19. — Piston Pin Oil Feed. 

64. The Dirt Menace. — Cleanliness depends a great 
deal upon the cjuality of the lubricating oil used, but, 
even with the best of oil, the rings will become so 
coated in time with sticky or baked residue that they 
no longer close or expand freely in the groove ; then 
compression will be incomplete and much of the power 
impulse will blow past the rings and piston into the 
crank case. 

65. Cleaning Piston and Rings. — At least twice a 
year the piston and rings should be inspected and 
thoroughly cleaned by scraping, after the deposit has 



78 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

been softened with kerosene. Gasoline, though some- 
times used, is too powerful a dissolvent, for it removes 
the minute particles which have lodged in the sur- 
face grain of the metal and so destroys the mirror or 
glaze finish which use puts on the rings and cylinder 
and which renders an absolutely new motor less sat- 
isfactory at this point than one that has seen mod- 
erate use. This high glaze surface, once acquired, 
should neither be removed by chemicals nor severe 
scraping. 

66. Removing the Rings. — It is a mistake for a 
novice to remove the rings from the cylinder every 
time the piston is cleaned, although some engine text- 
books freely advocate that. A well tempered ring is 
a brittle aftair and it requires more springing of the 
metal to remove one than to replace it; hence it is 
very liable to break in the hands of the inexperienced. 
Occasionally though it will be necessary to remove 
them in order to correct a roughened edge; then each 
ring should always be returned to its own groove. 
The best of machine parts develop some individual 
characteristic in use and it is more than likely that 
each ring will fit the groove in which it has been run 
better than any other. 

67. Replacing the Rings. — Rings are not difficult 
to replace if three or four thin, narrow metal strips are 
used for slides and expanders until the ring is slipped 
directly over its own groove ; then the strips may be 
pulled out. Rings should be so turned that joints in 
two successive rings do not come opposite each other 
and, if either edge of a ring presses more firmly against 
the cylinder than the other, let it be the one turned 
toward the combustion end. 

68. The Piston Pin. — The piston or gudgeon pin 
should be made of hi^h .o^rade case hardened steel and 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



79 



must be heavy enough to stand the jerking thrust of 
the full load delivered against it at every power im- 
pulse. As this sometimes reaches a maximum pres- 
sure of 450 pounds per square inch of piston face it 
is evident that a 4-inch cylinder, with a piston area 




Fig. 20. — Simple Device for Removing and Replacing Rings. 

of over 12.5 inches, might deliver sudden strains of 
about three tons upon the piston-pin. With the factor 
of safety figured in, the tensile strength of steel is 
about 2,500 pounds per square inch of projected sur- 
face, and the piston-pin of a four-inch bore engine, 
with something like a two-inch bearing, should be not 
far from one inch in diameter, which is about the size 
used in good engine practice. Even the cheap en- 
gines are usually provided with good material at this 
point, as the diiTerence in cost of so small a part would 
be insignificant, while the certainty of at least a hole 
punched through the piston head in case of a broken 



8o 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



pin would be almost absolute. In the best engines 
the pin is ground to fit the piston bosses and is some- 
times forced into place under pressure. 

69. The Connecting Rod. — All of the power de- 
veloped by the engine is delivered through the con- 
necting rod and the full strength of the engine is 
consequently needed here. In the heavy, long-stroke 




Fig. 21. — ^larine Type of Bushed Connecting Rod, 



engines the distance between bearings is relatively 
great and the rod must be heavier in proportion. On 
the other hand, a short rod tends to cramp the piston 
in the cylinder and increases the friction by side- 
thrust. Some engine builders favor drop forged steel ; 
others use malleable iron, semi-steel or bronze I-beam 
type castings. There is considerable difference of 
opinion, too, about the bearings, especially for the 
piston-pin. Some still prefer the two-piece box, ad- 
justable for wear, and secured by a bolt at each side 
(see Fig. 21) ; others adjust with a wedge, held in 
place by a single bolt, which also holds the box. A 
few have discarded all attempts at wear adjustment 
at the piston end further than to furnish a removable 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 8i 

bushing which can be replaced when w^orn out ; this 
to avoid the danger from accident caused by bolts 
and wedges working loose. All makers provide ad- 
justable bearings at the crank shaft, though not all 
use the same material. Phosphor bronze has the ad- 
vantage of being unwearable and the drawback of cut- 
ting the shaft A'ery rapidly if lubrication is neglected. 
Babbitt is too soft to be durable, but for that very 
reason is less a menace to the shaft, and the material 
is cheaper to replace. 

70. Crank Shaft and Connecting Rod Lubrica- 
tion. — The engine designer usualh^ provides for the 
oiling of the piston-pin from the same cup that oils 
the cylinder and piston, so the operator has little more 
to do with this than to keep the lubricator filled. The 
crank shaft may be oiled by means of any ordi- 
nary lubricating device ; or the splash system may be 
adopted where an enclosed crank case is used. Enough 
oil is poured into the case to reach the revolving shaft 
nicely at its lowest dip and is thrown or splashed 
over the bearings. This is a very sure and efficient 
system so long as the oil supply is kept at the proper 
level in the case and is not permitted to go too long- 
without renewing. The system requires the occasional 
but not the frequent attention of the operator; in 
fact, there is no system of oiling yet discovered that 
will do its work unless a supply of oil is furnished by 
the watchful operator. The method that has to be 
attended to once or twice a day however is Jess likely 
to be forgotten than one that is self regulating for 
days or weeks. 

Sometimes a wire ring or chain is suspended loosely 
upon the shaft and, as this slowly works its way 
around under the constant vibration, it carries up 
with it a quantitv of oil continuallv (see Fig. 27). In 



82 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

open end engines without a crank case oil cups or 
some similar devices have to be used. 

71. Repairs and Care. — Considering the excessive 
strain placed upon its parts the piston and correlated 
parts seem wonderfully free from accident or from the 
necessity of repairs that an amateur can make. Occa- 
sionally the bearings need adjusting; the lubricating 
system always merits watchfulness ; then an occa- 
sional clean-up when the carbon deposits begin to 
gum the rings is about all — cleanliness, care and lubri- 
cation. Occasionally a ring will break and have to 
be replaced with a new one; then all of the broken 
pieces must be removed, even the smallest; otherwise 
they are liable to be ground into an abrading powder 
and will score or cut the cylinder. 

Sometimes a ring may becomie weak in its outward 
pressure and cause leakage of compression and power 
impulse. While this soon means a new ring, a little 
longer service may sometimes be secured from the 
old one, at least through the emergency of the job 
in hand, by inserting a piece of clock spring or other 
light steel spring in the groove under the ring or by 
peening the ring. Broken connecting rods have been 
welded or united by means of riveted plates ; but this 
is work for the shop and not for the novice ; work, too, 
that should be done with the fact in mind that a 
break here may easily wreck the engine and the oper- 
ator also. Piston-pins may be driven out when 
broken, and new ones substituted. Leaks and blow 
holes have been closed up in pistons by the autoge- 
nous welding process or tapped out and closed with 
plugs, although a projecting plug or bolt is always 
a menace, owing to its tendency to over-heat and cause 
pre-ignition. 

Frequently a new engine will not run as smoothly 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 83 

as one that has seen service ; have patience till the 
bearing surfaces become smooth and reconciled to 
each other. Do not load a new engine too heavily 
while the bearings and reciprocating surfaces are still 
rough, or a seized piston may be the result. An en- 
gine under load has to endure a higher temperature 
than when running empty and it suffers greater ex- 
pansion of its exposed metal parts. 

72. Other Troubles. — Smoke issuing from the open 
end of the cylinder indicates a bad leak somewhere 
about the piston and may mean the loss of fully 30% 
of power. 

Black oil running or dripping from the cylinder 
should set one looking for a broken piston ring. 

Poor compression or shortage of power may mean 
only a stuck ring, caused by the gummy residue of 
combustion in the groove; or the edge of a ring or 
a groove may need a little grinding and polishing up 
with rotten stone and oil. Sometimes a little friction 
from rough ends at the ring joint is the cause of the 
trouble. High or low spots in cylinder piston are sure 
to be found by the explosive force hurled against 
them. If slight and in the piston the rings may over- 
come it. If in the cylinder and bad the cylinder may 
have to be rebored. 

Most of this work requires special tools and a ma- 
chinist's training and is not repair work for the farm 
shop. But for a properly designed engine, not over- 
loaded and well cared for, such troubles come so sel- 
dom that they are not burdensome; while to depend 
upon untrained and inexperienced hands for the more 
serious repairs at this point is to hazard the safety 
of the entire engine. 

73. Hints and Suggestions. — The piston is not 
sensitive, it is brutal, and when it goes wrong some- 



84 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

thing serious is pretty certain to happen." A scraping 
or grating noise of dry metals rubbing together at 
each stroke means that the lubrication has failed. 
Don't wait to find out why; take it for granted there 
is a good reason — and shut down. If it is seen that the 
piston is drawing hard, better slow down as much 
as possible but still keep up motion until things can 
be cooled off a little or a seized piston may result. Of 
course the load must all be turned off at once and lubri- 
cation attempted, though the walls may be too hot 
to retain it in the usual w^ay. 

Sometimes a leaky piston is caused by the rings 
getting turned so that the joints of all are directly in 
line. Investigate and, in that case, turn them around ; 
otherwise be careful not to disturb them. Xot only 
will they fit best in the particular groove they have 
been occupying; they may refuse to work as well 
turned in any other way, and it is always best, where 
possible, to favor the whims of an engine that is work- 
ing all right. 

Barring accident, there is little to get wrong with 
the piston itself if it was made right in the first place. 
Nothing about it wears ; it is protected from that by 
the piston-pin, the connecting rod and the rings. All 
of these may have to be replaced occasionally. 



CHAPTER V. 
THE PORT AND VALVE SYSTEM. 

74. Subject to Rough Treatment. — While more 
engine troubles probably come from the ignition sys- 
tem than from all other sources combined, there is 
no other part which receives as much rough physical 
and chemical treatment for its regular heritage as the 
exhaust port and valve system ; hence it is of special 
importance for the engine operator to understand just 
what the valves are for and how they ought to work ; 
what troubles they are most commonly afflicted with 
and how to remove them. 

75. What the System Contains. — In a general way, 
all engines require two openings or ports in the cyl- 
inder, an intake port for the admission of the fuel 
and an exhaust port for the expulsion of burned gases. 
The exact method of accomplishing these two proc- 
esses may differ a little in different engines, some en- 
gines using two exhaust ports instead of one ; but 
they all have the same results to accomplish and a 
variation in design represents, not different principles, 
but a difference in the ideas of individuals for getting 
at the same thing most effectively. 

76. The Intake Port. — Through the intake port, 
which is situated in or near the closed end of the cyl- 
inder, a pipe leading from the carburetor discharges 
the fuel mixture into the combustion chamber, and it 
is the work of the valve at this point to open freely 
for the admission of this charge and then close ab- 

85 



86 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



solutely against any back leakage under the pressure 
of compression or combustion. This valve must work 
easily when opening, must close promptly, and its fit 
in the seat must be perfect. 

77. Size of the Intake Port. — The size or capacity 
of the intake svstem fixes in some measure the amount 




Fig. 22. — Cross Section of Valve Chamber. 



of power or speed variation obtainable from an en- 
gine through varying the charge, and is of course 
fixed by the designer in the shop. While some de- 
parture may be allowable through a change in the 
frequency of the charges, the valve area provided by 
the maker of the engine is a fixed condition designed 
for a certain capacity, and is usually not so well 
adapted to any other. 

Approximately, the size of the intake passage in 
usual engine practice is about as follows : 

Diameter of passage equals that of piston multi- 
plied by .316; 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



87 



Area of passage equals area of piston multiplied by 

.1 ; or, 
Intake passage area should equal area of piston 
multiplied by the speed of the piston in feet per 
minute ; then divided by 6,000. 
While, the question of size is one for the designer 
rather than the operator, it is referred to here in order 
to emphasize the importance of keeping dirt and ob- 
structions out of the passage and of keeping the valves 
opening to their full intended capacity. 




Fig. 23. — Sectional View of Combustion Chamber, Showing Ar- 
rangement of Valves In Cylinder Head. 



78. Some Common Valve Troubles. — The three 
most common dangers from v^hich the intake system 
suffers are dirt, leaks in joints or pipe, and worn or 
pitted valve faces. A very small obstruction, though 
not enough to close the passage against the fuel, may 
be a nucleus for the accumulation of other particles 
until the supply of vapor is reduced and the charge 
not sufficient ; then the engine loses most of its power 



88 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

even though it may continue to run. A much smaller 
particle of dirt carried along by the air current to the 
valve seat may hold the valve up a trifle from the 
surface against which it should rest; there is then a 
serious loss during the pressure of both compression 
and of combustion and a corresponding decrease of 
power. A bad leak of this kind may be rather difficult 
to locate, especially in a multi-cylinder engine, al- 
though bad leaks are rather prone to announce them- 
selves by permitting a part of the firing flash to 
follow back through the valve and intake pipe to the 
carburetor. The result to the engine is much the same 
that it would be to a gun if the firing chamber was 
left partly open and a part of the charge allowed to 
escape without exerting any pressure against the mis- 
sile. A single scale from a rusty pipe may in this way 
so far reduce the power of the engine as to render 
it incapable of accomplishing work for which under 
favorable conditions it would have ample power. 

79. Other Common Causes of Trouble. — Faulty 
valve-seating may result from a weak compression 
spring or from the stem rubbing too heavily against 
one side of the guide, or by becoming warped from 
over-heat. The latter condition may only appear after 
the engine has become heated when running; or it may 
become a •permanent defect. In the former case it 
is often specially difficult to locate. 

80. The Effect of Bad Air. — The danger from dust- 
laden air drawn through the carburetor into the in- 
take pipe and valve can hardly be overestimated. 
This is specially the case where the engine is set 
near an emery wheel or wood-working machinery, such 
as a turning lathe, where fine, light shavings and par- 
ticles of wood are almost certain to be drawn in and 
deposited around the valve. Any considerable ob- 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 89 

struction is likely to be noticed at once but the fine 
particles carried in from dust-laden air may settle and 
accumulate about the valve so gradually that the fail- 
ing power of the engine is not noticed until it has 
become all but useless. 

81. Leak-Hunting. — It is a curious fact that in a 
multi-cylinder engine the guilty cylinder may work 
faultlessly and cause one of its neighbors to do all the 
missing. A small leak is specially hard to find in slow 
speed engines. Leaks in the intake system are, how- 
ever, much more serious in their effect than wdien in 
the exhaust, since they not only permit the escape 
of pressure but may so adulterate the charge with an 
improperly proportioned mixture as to destroy in a 
great measure the efficiency of the fuel that is used. 
Mis-firing often results from this, followed, perhaps 
by a cannonlike report which announces the accumula- 
tion of two or more charges in the muffler, where it 
may finally ignite all at once. More often though 
the unfired charge is merely expelled through the ex- 
haust and wasted. 

A leak should be strongly suspected if there is a 
tendency to back-fire or if the mixture is so weak that 
it ignites slowly and is still afire when the valve next 
opens to receive the succeeding charge. Often it can 
be located by holding a bit of flaming paper near 
the valve (having first removed the manifold), while 
someone hand-cranks the engine. Even a slight leak 
under pressure will be enough to flare the flame ; or, 
if the engine is standing too near some stack or mow 
to permit of this method, the smoke from a recently 
extinguished stick is about ecjually sensitive to air 
currents. Often the leak can be located by covering 
the pipe with soapy water; then the issuing gas will 
appear in the form of minute bubbles or "soap-suds." 



90 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

82. Note Fuel Required in New Engine. — Every 
engine purchaser should note carefully the amount of 
fuel consumed by his purchase, both running empty 
and under load, then make a record of the same. A 
decided change from these first results should set the 
operator leak-hunting and examining the valves and 
seats for carbon deposits or pitted faces. A little care- 
lessness at this point may increase the running ex- 
pense of the engine a fourth or more besides reduc- 
ing its power by an equal amount. 

83. The Exhaust Port. — The exhaust port is simi- 
ilar to the man behind the straw-carrier, upon whom 
all the soot and residue of the entire engine pours, 
so here is where leaks are most likely to occur. Here, 
instead of an occasional particle of rust or dirt, the 
valve is being constantly bombarded with all sorts of 
deposits which, owing to bad fuel, bad lubrication, 
or bad management, the engine has occasion to re- 
ject. It is the mission of the exhaust valve, after the 
charge is fired, to conduct all the burned gases and 
heated air from the combustion chamber in almost as 
brief an interval as the firing of the charge requires. 
More or less of this refuse is sure to be deposited with 
all that it touches and, in the presence of the extreme 
heat, is liable to be burned on. The hot gases, too, 
set up chemical actions which quickly pit the surface 
of the valve or warp it so that it does not seat prop- 
erly. No part of the entire engine is given more con- 
tinual abuse than the exhaust port and valve, and, in 
the presence of a mysterious compression leak, no 
other part should be more quickly suspected. 

Usually the diameter of the exhaust port equals that 
of the piston multiplied by thirty-five hundredths, and 
its area the area of the piston multiplied by .12; or, 
the area of the exhaust passage should equal that of 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 91 

the piston multiplied by the speed and divided by 5,100, 
the average speed of the exhaust charge in feet per 
minute. 

84. Inspecting the System. — At least once a month, 
and oftener if the engine shows signs of low compres- 
sion or general lethargy, the valves should be thor- 
oughly inspected, specially with reference to their free 
action when opening and closing. If a valve seems 
sluggish, look to the compression spring; also notice 
whether the stems are wearing excessively by rubbing 
against the guides. If the valves or their seats are 
dirty, clean with kerosene or gasoline. If the faces 
are much pitted, regrind. If one side of the face is 
bright and the rest coated, see whether the heat has 
not warped it out of true. 

85. Valve Timing. — Occasionally the valves show 
none of these defects and are still causing the trouble; 
they may be working out of time. When an engine 
leaves the works it is supposed to be properly set and 
the timing should not be interfered with ; but after it 
has been used for some months retiming may be nec- 
essary ; so every operator ought to know what the 
timing is for, and how it is accomplished. 

86. The Object of Valve Timing. — As the piston 
starts upon its suction stroke the intake valve natur- 
ally opens to admit vapor into the vacuum created, 
though some engines secure more positive and quicker 
action by opening the valve by mechanical means ; 
otherwise, during a fraction of the stroke the valve 
remains closed awaiting sufficient pressure t(3' open 
it. During the suction stroke the fuel enters the com- 
bustion chamber through its narrow passage at 
a velocity of approximately 5,000 feet per min- 
ute and if the intake valve is held open a 
little beyond the end of the stroke this veloc-' 



92 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

ity will cause fuel to continue entering for an 
instant after the compression stroke has actually com- 
menced. In other words, for an instant after the space 
is filled, the velocit}^ will cause the gas to "pile up" 
if given a chance. It will thus be seen that mechan- 
ically operated valves have a distinct advantage over 
those worked by suction and compression alone, pro- 
viding the cams which open and close them are set 
properly. 

In most small engines the intake valve is opened by 
suction and closed by compression, which is hastened 
by a compression spring; then, so long as the valves 
work freely, the timing is automatic. The time of 
opening for the intake valve is rather less important 
than for the exhaust, though its closing time afifects 
both power and speed. 

Valve timing must not be confused with ignition 
timing. The spark must work in harmony with the 
opening and closing of the valves but the two timing 
movements are distinctly separate and should each be 
compared with the movement of the piston rather than 
with each other, as both must co-operate with that. 
A great deal of trouble may sometimes be avoided if 
w^ell defined and permanent guide marks are placed 
upon the fly wheel and valve gear when the engine 
is in first-class working condition ; in fact, many en- 
gines are now marked in this manner before being 
sent from the factory. 

87. Testing and Setting the Intake Valve. — Re- 
volve -the engine fly wheel slowly by hand in the di- 
rection it should run tmtil the intake valve cam barely 
begins to lift; then stop engine and note position of 
piston, which should have reached and passed by 
about ten degrees its extreme inner, or (in the case 
of vertical engines) upward, stroke. If much beyond 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 93 

this position the valve is opening too late for insur- 
ing a full charge of fuel and the power of the engine 
is reduced. This may be due to improper setting or 
to a bent rod or to wear off the cam operating valve. 
To determine which, again revolve the engine, always 
in the same direction, and note the position of piston 
at the instant the cam roller releases the valve and 
permits it to close. If this occur before the crank 
has traveled 180 degrees from the point of opening the 
difference is due to wear or a bent rod as a rule ; if 
the opening and closing points are 180 degrees apart 
the cams are all right and any error in relation to the 
time of the valve closing w^ill be accompanied by a 
similar error in the time of opening; that means that 
the setting of the gear wheels is wrong and should 
be advanced or retarded, as the opening is too early 
or too late. Both the opening and the closing of the 
intake valve should take place with the piston 5 to 10 
degrees past the inner and outer extreme center re- 
spectively, and it should remain open during a full 
180 degrees of the revolution. 

88. The Exhaust Valve. — Turn the engine, as be- 
fore, by hand. The exhaust valve should open when 
the piston has covered about four-fifths of its outward 
and downward stroke and should remain open until 
within three degrees of crank travel from the point 
where the inlet valve begins to open, that is, barely 
past the extreme center of the return stroke. 

89. The General Rule. — This allows us to formu- 
late the time of opening and closing the tw^o valves 
somewhat as follows : the intake valve should both 
open and close from five to ten degrees late, that is, 
beyond the exact stroke center. The exhaust valve 
should open early and close late in relation to the dead 
centers, its departure from the center being greater in 



94 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

relation to its opening and less with regard to its clos- 
ing time. Some engine makers so time the valves that 
the exhaust closes and the intake opens at exactly the 
same time, while in some of the high speed racing en- 
gines used in automobiles both valves are actually 
open for an instant at the same time, but this, wdiile it 
may add a little to the efficiency of a high speed en- 
gine, is a distinct sacrifice of fuel to speed. 

One other fault may affect the time when a valve 
operates. Betw^een the top of the stem and the bar 
wdiich depresses it there should be a slight clearance 
of 1-64 to 1-32 of an inch to allow for expansion of 
metal ; otherwise wdien hot the stem may be in con- 
stant contact with bar and so kept from closing fully. 
This space, however, may in time be increased by 
wear and so compel the bar to move farther down- 
ward before the valve begins to open and be unable, 
in its limited movement, to open the passage wdde. 
This W'Ould of course afitect the work done by the 
valves and might reduce the power of the engine 
either by curtailing the inflow of fuel or by prevent- 
ing the burned gases from being properly discharged. 
The amount of this clearance space should be noted 
occasionally both when the engine is cold and when 
it is at operating heat. 

90. Valve Grinding; When and How. — Valves 
ought to be reground at least once each season, as 
the chemical action of the gases and the heat will cer- 
tainly pit them more or less. Burned valves have 
sometimes to be gromid much oftener, but it is well 
to remember that, like saw filing, the grinding of a 
valve removes a part of the metal, drops it deeper into 
its seat and advances the time when a new valve wall 
be necessary, so they should not be ground any oftener 
than needed. The inlet valves do not as a rule need to 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



95 



be reground as often as the exhaust valves, since they 
do not pit as quickly and are not so much inclined to 
warp with the heat. Valves should be examined once 




Fig. 24. — Typical Alechanical Vah^e Gear. 

a month for pitting and the carbon should be removed 
from them with kerosene. 

Fine emery dust and the finest grades of powdered 
glass made into a paste with lubricating oil are gen- 
erally used, though many engine men object to even 
the finest emery as, once embedded in the metal, it 
tends to remain and continue the erosive action in the 
engine. At least, cheap emery should not be used, as 
the size of the grains varies so greatly. Care must 
also be taken that no emery is allowed to get into the 
cylinder. Emery cuts the fastest, while powdered 
glass, which looks like the finest flour, gives the most 
perfect finish. 

To grind, remove spring from stem and cap from 
valve chamber. Apply semi-fluid paste of oil and 



96 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

emery or glass on valve seat ; then revolve valve with 
screw driver or by twirling stem between the hands. 
Do not use much pressure, but lift valve frequently 
to remove dirt balls. When it turns without much 
friction examine seat frequently and discontinue when 
there is a bright ring clear around, indicating that the 
surface is touching evenly its entire circumference. 
When finished give the final touch with tripoli and 
water. This insures a smooth face which Avill wear 
well. Wash in gasoline and wipe dr}' ; then carefully 
remove all grit from the cage. Some valve seats are 
a part of the cylinder head but the better class are in 
a block, called a cage, which is removable like a spark 
plug. Test these after grinding by inverting cage after 
valve and spring are replaced, and filling with gaso- 
line. If there is not even a sweating of gasoline be- 
tween the valve and its seat when the valve is re- 
volved the grinding job is perfect. Hand grinding, 
though slower, is the best method, though some use 
drill press or lathe. Wlien hand grinding, motion 
should frequently be reversed. In drill press use slow 
speed and not much pressure, to avoid heating; also, 
release every few seconds. The job should not be re- 
garded as complete until it will pass the above test 
with gasoline or at least will show a bright ring clear 
around both valve and the seat. 

When valves are out notice whether the spindle has 
been worn smooth by rubbing hard against the guide. 
Polish the spindle w^ith emery cloth. 

Where emery is used in grinding, two teaspoonfuls 
of powdered emery in one pound of vaseline make a 
good mixture, but be exact with the measurement and 
clean 'the metal thoroughly after grinding. 

91. The MufHer; Its Use and Abuse. — Few human 
made machines are so perfect that they do not include 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



97 



some necessary evil. The muffler is the gasoline en- 
gine's Jonah, yet without it the entire neighborhood 
would soon vote the constant fusillade of cannon-like 
cracks a public nuisance. 

A muffler of correct design and sufficient size to 
avoid back pressure may be made only a relative evil, 
although it is likely that the best of them destroy 
some power. By actual experiment a 36 H. P. engine 
running at 1,500 revolutions per minute, exhausting 
into the open air, became a little over 33 H. P. with 
exhaust pipes, and lost nearly 30 per cent, of power 
Vv^ith both pipes and muffler. 

Mufflers of greatest length and least diameter are 
most effective silencers — and power destroyers. 
They should not be too small or hampered by long 
exhaust pipes with many turns. The straightest course 




Fig. 25.— Sectional Views of Conventional Mufflers. 



possible and with the least obstruction should be the 
rule with all exhausts, whether using a muffler or an 
exhaust or an exhaust pipe high in air. Some high, 
narrow pipes have actually been known to shut the 
engine down so that it would not run at all. 

Dirty and obstructed mufflers must not be tolerated 
if the greatest power is desired. When the sound is- 
suing from it resembles that of a continuous stream of 
compressed air the muffler is clogged with dirt or else 
some of the plates have been displaced. Remove muf- 



98 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

fler and note result on engine. If it runs much better, 
clean and overhaul the muffler before returning. 

92. A Word of Caution. — Never allow a gasoline 
engine to exhaust inside a stable or any other closed 
building where there is animal life. The burned out 
gases are in many cases active poison and live stock 
or human beings may be killed outright by the poison- 
ous fumes. For this reason it is well to carry the 
exhaust well up in the air, but not through small pipe 
or one with many turns. 

93. Valve Vagaries. — If the inlet and exhaust 
valves are on opposite sides of the cylinder head the 
spark plug points will remain much cleaner. 

When the exhaust valves open too late the engine 
lacks speed ; if they close too early it loses power, 
the plugs foul, the gasoline consumption is too high, 
the engine heats and does not throttle down. 

Nickel steel exhaust valves resist heat much better 
than those of common steel, but do not wear so well. 
Latest automobile practice uses a nickel steel head 
electrically welded to a carbon steel stem. 

Black smoke issuing from the exhaust indicates 
too much gasoline, and all the extravagance in fuel 
and dirt which goes with it. 

Blue smoke mxans too much oil. Though less in- 
jurious, it should be corrected. 

AVhite smoke also means too much oil — and laziness 
in adjustment; or, it may mean water in the gasoline 
— that is, steam. 



CHAPTER VI. 

THE CARBURETOR. 

94. — The Heart of the Engine. — Some one has called 
the carburetor a box full of mysteries with nothing in 
it. This is hardly true, but it may well surprise any- 
one who is familiar with the important function it 
performs to see for the first time the interior of this 
complicated looking contrivance. Instead of the hand- 
ful of delicate wheels one almost looks for, the interior 
is about as simple and plain as the outside. However, 
more hidden mysteries and surprises await one in this 
little bundle of rigid pipes and outlets than in any 
other part of the engine excepting the ignition sys- 
tem. Here, too, lies the most vital difference between 
the gas, gasoline, and kerosene engine, where a 
little change may convert the one into the other. 
Here, too, without the proper special adjustment, a 
change of fuel may speedily convert an engine of one 
kind into none at all. 

95. Carburetors to Be Let Alone. — Carburetors as 
a rule are adjusted before being sent out, so there is 
no excuse for meddling with them unless they meet 
with an accident or there is to be some radical change 
of fuel. To understand how they are constructed and 
just how they work when in good working order is 
essential. To know when to let them alone is at least 
equally important ; often it is more so. 

96. The Real Engine Fuel. — Neither a gasoline, 
kerosene, nor a gas engine can be run on the fuel 

99 



100 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



alone. All require air as a part of the combustible 
mixture, and it must be supplied in much the largest 
quantity of the two. Air alone would be quite as 




Fig. 26. — Exterior View of One Model Kingston Carburetor. 

effective a fuel as gasoline alone, and gasoline cannot 
be used at all until it is converted into an air-like gas. 
It is the mission of the carburetor to so convert it 




Fig. 27. — Sectional View of Kingston Carburetor. 

and to mix it with the amount of air required for the 
best combustion ; then to deliver the completed mix- 
ture to the intake pipe and from thence to the com- 
bustion chamber. 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm lor 

97. Why an Unvarying Adjustment Is Not Possible. 

— Theoretically, it would seem that the exact propor- 
tion of air and vapor which gives the greatest power 
could be determined by experiment, and then a car- 
buretor made that would deliver this proportion al- 
ways and no other. Mechanical mixtures, however, 
are never so constant in their proportion as are chem- 
ical combinations, and all petroleum vapors are in 
some measure mechanical blendings. Water vapor, 
carbonic acid gas, nitrogen and other more or less 
incombustible vapors are always present, but by no 
means always in the same proportion. Some of the 
burned gases from the previous explosion, too, re- 
main in the C3dinder, and the mixture delivered to the 
spark is sometimes very dififerent chemically from 
that passed over by the carburetor, while the exact 
conditions under which it is fired may not be the 
same in any two consecutive charges. 

98. How Fuel and Its Requirements Vary. — If 
there was not some range in the proportion of air 
and gasoline vapor that can be ignited the gasoline 
engine would hardly be possible. Air mixed with 1.25 
per cent, of gasoline will barely ignite at atmospheric 
pressure ; then the vigor of the combustion increases 
steadily until about 2.5 per cent, of gasoline is intro- 
duced, when it diminishes again until at about 5.5 
per cent, it again becomes non-inflammable. Greater 
heat permits the use of a somewhat weaker mixture, 
and it sometimes happens that the fuel which is right 
for starting the engine up when cold becomes too 
rich after the metal has become heated. High com- 
pression also makes the use of a weaker mixture pos- 
sible, so that a part of the energy lost in the extra 
compression is made up in the increased economy in 
amount of fuel. The mixture which is correct at nor- 



102 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



mal speed is, on the other hand, too weak for low 
speed. 

99. How the Carburetor Vaporizes the Gasoline. 

— AMien the piston starts upon its inhaling stroke it 
leaves a partial vacuum behind it, and the intake valve, 







Fig. 28. — How the Carburetor Vaporizes. Sectional View of 
Breeze Device Shows Important Parts. 



responding to the suction, admits a current from the 
pipe back to the carburetor, where an opening admits 
a supply of outside air. This action serves two pur- 
poses. Not only does a current of air begin to rush 
into the cylinder and fill the vacuum, but in passing 
across the surface of a shallow pool of gasoline in the 
carburetor, it turns a portion of this into vapor and 
carries it along as we have seen a current of heated 
air evaporate a saticer of gasoline in the sunlight 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 103 

when the wind is blowing across it. It is this prop- 
erty of ready evaporation that makes gasoline spe- 
cially adaptable to use as an engine fuel. 

100. Mixing Air and Gasoline Vapor. — Some en- 
gines accomplish the mixture by the mere act of draw- 
ing the air current across the surface of gasoline, while 
others depend upon spraying the liquid through a fine 
nozzle into the midst of the current and so present 
in the form of mist a relatively large surface area of 
gasoline to be acted upon. With the known area for 
the admission of air the flow of gasoline may be so 
regulated that the resulting mixture will approximate 
that point at which the combustion possesses the most 
energy. A float valve made of cork or light metal 
cylinder or can, hollow and air-tight, regulates the 
flow of the liquid into the float or receiving chamber 
by connection with the inlet valve, which in turn cuts 
off or admits more gasoline as the supply rises above 
or falls belovv^ a certain level. 

loi. Automatic Carburetors. — Automatic carbu- 
retors are intended to partially close at low engine 
speed and gradually open as the speed increases. 
They are specially essential when the load thrown on 
the engine is likely to vary considerably, as it does in 
much farm work — such as hay pressing. Formerly 
it was thought that the best carburetor was the one 
which did its work with the least possible variation, 
but it is known that where the load varies the supply 
of fuel should fit the work it is intended to do. 

102. Bad Air. — It is easy to see the importance of 
keeping dirt out of the pipes and valves by keeping 
the gasoline free from dirt particles. That the air 
supply needs to be equally well guarded does not 
appeal to some. If the engine gets its air supply from 
a dusty barn or workshop and there is no trouble 



104 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 




The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 105 

some place along the intake pipe, we may be sure 
that sooner or later the gradual accumulation will be 
heard from in the valve seats. The air that an engine 
breathes should be as free from dust as the gasoline 
is from dirt ; and, in cold weather, there will be a 
saving of energy if the air be warmed somewhat 
before it reaches the cylinder. This is imperative in 
the case of kerosene engines, as kerosene requires a 
higher temperature for vaporizing than does gasoline, 
kerosene engines, for that reason, are generally started 
on gasoline until the metal has time to warm up ; or 
the carburetor may be warmed by direct heat, and the 
trouble of using the two fuels avoided. 

103. Carburetor Troubles and How to Cure Them. 
— Nearly all carburetor troubles come from one of 
two avoidable faults ; incorrect mixtures, and dirt. 
Temperature troubles may arise, but are so well under- 
stood that there is little mystery about them. Al- 
ways, when dealing with gases in pipes open to the 
outside air, atmospheric pressure will keep a full 
supply of something constantly coming over. If one 
of the gasoline pipes happens to get half clogged with 
dirt, the place of the gasoline vapor is taken by a 
greater proportion of air, and the same amount of 
mixture seems to be coming into the cylinder. The 
fuel will be too poor or weak, though ; the explosions 
will lack force, or possibly miss fire entirely until an 
accumulation of the unexploded charges may lodge in 
the muffler and make a startling report to the man 
outside. 

104. Barking. — This is called barking or after fir- 
ing, and should not be confused, though it often is, 
with back firing. Barking may be due to either too 
rich or too weak a fuel. It always indicates mis- 
firing or incomplete combustion. The remedy is ob- 



io6 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

vioiis ; find out what is wrong with the mixture and 
correct it. 

105. Misfiring. — Misfiring may be the result of any- 
thing which renders ignition difficult; either too weak 
or too rich a mixture often causing it. It is also 
caused by various ignition vagaries. If the mixture is 
too rich, more or less black smoke will be seen to roll 
out of the muffler. If this is not present, gradually 
increase the gasoline supply until the misfiring dis- 
appears, or else the black smoke becomes visible. If 
the latter occurs first the misfire is not due to carbu- 
retor trouble. Sometimes a leaky intake pipe causes 
misfiring by the admission of air which dilutes the 
correctly proportioned mixture delivered by the car- 
buretor. 

106. Back-firing. — This rather startling accident is 
as a rule more exciting than dangerous, and is often 
caused by too weak a mixture which does not ignite 
readily and burns so slowly that the cylinder holds 
the fire until the valve opens to admit the next charge ; 
the combustion flashes back along the incoming 
charge toward the carburetor. Like all other mixture 
faults, the remedy is to correct the defect. 

107. Flooding. — When for any reason the float 
ceases to shut off the supply of gasoline at the right 
time, flooding is sure to result. The failure may be 
due to the imperfect seating of the float valve, either 
on account of a grain of dirt or an imperfect fit. If 
the latter, a light grinding of the valve in its seat 
with or even without abrasive paste will probably 
overcome the difficulty. If dirt is lodged under the 
float, depressing it repeatedly may wash out the ob- 
struction. Occasionally the coating of a cork valve 
breaks down and permits the float to become soaked 
until inclined to sink too low in the liquid. In the 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm joy 

case of metal floats a leak may bring the same result ; 
then the liquid is allowed to rise too high in the cham- 
ber. All of these causes, of course, suggest their own 
treatment. The presence of liquid inside a metal 
float is evidence of a leak, and the leak may generally 
be located by heating the float and then applying a 
match to the side until the issuing jet of gas is found. 

io8. Priming the Carburetor. — The occasional ne- 
cessity of this arises from the fact that the supply 
of gasoline has to be higher in the float chamber in 
starting an engine than after it is warmed up by 
running. In the top of most float chambers is a pin 
by means of which the float may be depressed and an 
excess of gasoline alloAved to enter. This is called 
priming the engine or "tickling the carburetor," a 
process generally overdone. A slight depression is 
enough to start the flow, while a continuance soon 
floods the chamber and renders a mixture so rich that 
frequently the engine refuses to start. A steady de- 
pression, too, is quite as effective as a s-eries of hard, 
sudden jabs, such as many people use, and is far less 
likely to do an injury. 

log. Size of the Carburetor. — As a rule the en- 
gine purchased for the farm is already supplied with 
a carburetor ; still it is not always fitted with one ; 
for a carburetor, like any other vital part, may easily 
be too small ; wdiile, on the other hand, it may be too 
large. 

If too small, it cannot deliver in sufficient quantity 
the mixture of fuel vapors which mean the power of 
the engine. If too large, so that a greater quantity 
is presented to the intake valve than it is capable of 
admitting, the speed of, the current is so far reduced 
that the process of evaporation may be seriously in- 
terfered with and a poorly proportioned mixture be 



io8 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

the result. In another chapter is given the formula 
for finding the effective valve area, and the carburetor 
with an outlet diameter slighth^ larger than the valve 
area will be the best size, a little excess being allowed 
to overcome friction of the fuel in passing through 
carburetor and pipe. 

no. Adjusting the Carburetor. — With so many 
dift'erent carburetors on the market it is difficult to 
lay down rules for adjustment that would apply to 
all, or even in all cases to any one. The air valves of 
automatic types are intended to close at lowest en- 
gine speed and to open by degrees until the maximum 
opening is reached at the highest speed. The maxi- 
mum lift, of course, depends upon the size and speed 
of the engine. There is usually a stop, which is ad- 
justable, to prevent fluttering and to control the maxi- 
mumi opening of the valve. This should be carefully 
adjusted. Usually a needle valve of some sort regu- 
lates the liquid entering the spraying nozzle. This 
should be adjusted until the engine runs best at its 
lowest speed with throttle as nearly shut as possible. 
The throttle should then be gradually opened and the 
tension of auxiliary air valve increased or diminished 
slowly until the best average running condition is 
found; then at high speed a slight readjustment of 
the needle valve may be some improvement. If maxi- 
mum speed is desired, a little wider opening of both 
needle valve and auxiliary air valve should be given 
than for ordinary running; but this is a sacrifice to 
economy of fuel and the engine will be harder to 
start. The auxiliary air valve screw should be used 
only to hold valve on seat with enough pressure 
to keep it there under lowest throttle. The valve 
movements should be controlled by size of the 
spring, either through a change in the size or number 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 109 

of coils, and not by tightening or loosening the screw. 

111. Adjusting the Float Valve. — With the float 
valve chamber filled to the point where shut off by the 
float, notice whether there is a continuous dripping 
from the spray nozzle and, if there is, press the valve 
shut and see if the dripping continues. If it does the 
valve does not shut properly ; if not, the liquid is too 
high in the chamber and the float valve should be ad- 
justed to shut it off sooner. 

Carburetor adjustment is a delicate thing which 
needs both care and some little skill. It should not 
be attempted by the novice unless absolutely neces- 
sary. When it must be done, attempt but one adjust- 
ment at a time and, when the points are finally found 
in all the adjustments where the engine runs the best, 
in some way mark the places so as to save complete 
re-adjustment if the carburetor should ever be dis- 
arranged. A small, simple mark may be the means 
of avoiding a very difficult task. 

112. Miscellaneous Hints. — Most leaks in the gaso- 
line system occur near the carburetor and are caused 
by the continuous vibration of the engine while run- 
ning. They seldom develop near the tank except in 
case of a direct injury or accident. 

Sometimes there is a point in the overflow pipe 
lower than the tank wherein the gasoline will be 
trapped. The overflow pipe should have a distinct 
pitch toward the tank. 

The flow of the gasoline through the pipes is so 
slow that all dust has a chance to settle to the bottom 
rather than be carried along. This renders straining 
all the more necessary. 

Occasionally set drip pan under carburetor, if for 
no other purpose than to see for certain it is not 
leaking. 



no The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

Always have a good stopcock on the line somewhere 
between tank and carburetor. Do not depend upon 
the carburetor to shut off the flow when the engine is 
standing idle. 

Gasoline which has stood long in the carburetor 
while the engine is idle may become stale and life- 
less ; then it must be drawn off and new gasoline sub- 
stituted by priming before the engine will start readily. 

Back firing is sometimes caused by too close needle 
valve, as well as by water or dirt in the gasoline ; in 
fact, anything which so reduces the supply of gaso- 
line that the fuel mixture is too poor may be the 
prime cause of a back fire. 

Occasionally a continuous spray is thrown from the 
inlet. A larger pipe for the air inlet may remedy this ; 
if not, discard for a new one. 

If the correct mixture at normal speed is too rich 
at low, release auxiliary valve spring a little ; if too 
weak, increase tension on spring. If this makes 
spring too stiff for ordinary speeds, reduce needle or 
enlarge intake opening slightly. 



CHAPTER VII. 

THE IGNITION SYSTEM. 

113. Difficulties of the Problem. — To fire a single 
charge of fuel mixture is a simple matter. To intro- 
duce and extinguish from one hundred to fifteen hun- 
dred separate flames per minute into the same re- 
ceptacle used for receiving and compressing the gas 
at just the right instant to ignite the charge at the 
momicnt of complete compression, without missing a 
charge, is entirely beyond the working possibilities of 
any igniting agent known to man but the electric 
spark. 

114. The Effect of Failure. — The occasional miss- 
ing of a charge not only entails a waste of fuel and 
power which becomes more and more serious as the 
size of our engine increases ; it leaves a portion of the 
missed charge to accumulate in the cylinder to pre- 
ignite or to form too rich a mixture with the next 
charge, or to ignite later in the muffler, creating back 
pressure and making an active working force against 
the power of the engine. 

115. The Open Flame Method. — The problem was 
first met by the use of a continuous igniting agent 
which was shut away from the cylinder excepting at 
certain points in the cycle of the engine. The idea 
has been fairly successful, though more or less trouble 
arises from the fact that no separating device has 
been obtained that is absolutely instantaneous in its 
action, and the operating delay increases with the 

III 



112 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



soot and dirt accumulation of actual use. Still it was 
with the aid of this system that the first gasoline en- 
gines were made to run. 

This is referred to merely as a matter of history; 
it is no longer of mechanical importance, as the 
method has long ago been abandoned. It was found 
that the exploding impulse of the engine, as well as 
outside disturbing elements, was likely at any time 
to extinguish the flame ; hence the system required 
constant attention and was even then unreliable. 

ii6. Hot Tube Ignition. — This has been fairly suc- 




FiG. 30.— Bent Hot Tube Igniter. 



cessful and, though nearly discarded for the electric 
spark, enough hot tube engines are still in vise to 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 113 

merit attention. As first produced, an iron tube was 
heated by means of a Bunsen burner flame and the 
heat conducted by means of the iron tube to the ignit- 
ing chamber. In this way the flame itself was pro- 
tected from the blast of the explosion. The intense 
heat and pressure, however, caused the tubes to break 
down from very brief service, and porcelain has been 
substituted for iron. These do not oxidize and, though 
somewhat easily broken in *the setting or through ac- 
cident, when once in place, they frequently last for a 
year or more at a less cost than for a single cell of 
dry battery. 

Nickel-alloy rods are now the favorite with hot tube 
engine men, as their life is even greater than porce- 
lain and they are not so apt to be broken by accident. 

The hot tube system is confined almost wholly to 
stationary engines in the oil fields and elsewhere, 
where fuel is cheap and the speed irregularities due 
to missed charges are not important. 

117. Firing by Compression. — The compressing of 
gas raises its temperature, and some have hoped to 
use this very feature, which limits the compression 
possible to give gasoline without danger of pre-igni- 
tion, for the purpose of firing the charge at just the 
right moment. This would do away with the entire 
electrical ignition system and at the same time allow 
greater compression. While experiments along this 
line have been quite successful, the device as yet is 
not in general use. 

118. Firing by Electricity. — Nearly all gasoline en- 
gines of the farm type are fired by electricity, the 
only known igniting agent that is quick enough and 
dependable enough to fire every charge of an engine 
at high speed. Perhaps the greatest objection to it 
is the special electrical knowledge which the operator 



114 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

needs, and which even the trained general mechanic 
may not always possess. For this very reason, more 
electrical troubles arise than in all other parts of the 
engine combined and they are harder to locate be- 
cause the current itself is invisible. 

1 19. Gasoline Engine Electrical Knowledge. — 
Without attempting to go into the details of elec- 
tricity, the electrical appliances in common use in 
engine ignition will be named, briefly described, and 
their exact uses designated, always with a view to 
being practically rather than scientifically accurate in 
terms. 

120. The Four Electrical Processes and Their 
Agents. — ist. Producing the current. Agencies, bat- 
tery of cells, wet or dry (the chemical process), or 
the magneto or dynamo (mechanical process). 

2nd. Intensifying, either by means of the spark coil 
or in the magneto itself as sometimes made. 

3rd. Conveying the current. This includes wires 
or cable of both high and low tension, the switch, bind- 
ing posts, and terminals, and distributor. 

4th. The current breakers, which change the in- 
visible current into a point of intensely hot spark. 

The general meaning of all of these should be fa- 
miliar to all engine men. 

121. Producing the Electric Current. — Two meth- 
ods are in use for the production of the electric cur- 
rent ; from a battery (usually composed of dry cells) 
and by means of a magneto. The latter is practically 
a small dynamo, which is run at high speed by being 
belted or geared to the engine, either with tooth or 
friction gear. 

122. The Dry Battery. — A dry battery consists of 
two or more dry cells (usually four to six in a gaso- 
line engine), connected bv wires so that all the cells 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



115 



act together as one, but with united intensity. Each 
cell is capable of producing, when fresh, about i>< 



Ni/t- 




Q)epolarizer 



,T)epolarT2fir 



Fig. 31. — Sectional Views of Standard Dry Cells. A — European 
Construction. B — American Design. 



volts of electric current through a luiion of chemical 
and mechanical action. 

123. What the Cell Contains. — The cell as usually 
made consists of a zinc cup about six inches long and 
two and a half across, open at one end. This is the 
positive element of the battery, from which the nega- 
tive current is obtained. An inch of pitch or some 
non-electrical conductor covers the bottom ; then a 
carbon rod in held upright at the center and the space 
around it packed with manganese dioxide or some 
other depolarizing material, then filled with sawdust 
or some good absorbent over which a solution of 25 
per cent, to 30 per cent, of sal-ammoniac and water 
is poured to saturation. The top is sealed with pitch 
and the outside usually wrapped with light straw- 
board. A binding post at the edge of the cup and 



ii6 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



the top end of the carbon form the two poles of the 
cell. 

124. Connecting the Cells in a Battery. — Unscrew 
the cap from binding post of a carbon rod and wrap 
a short piece of insulated copper wire, with the end 
scraped bare and bright, tightly around it in the di- 
rection the cap turns to tighten; then return cap, 
screwing it down firmly to insure good contact. 
Fasten the other end of the same w^ire in this manner 




SPARK COIL^ 

Fig. 32. — Showing Dry Cell Battery Wired in Series. 

to the zinc cup of the next cell. Connect all the cells 
in the same way, always joining zinc to carbon. This 
is called connecting in series, and the whole number of 
cells connected form the battery. It is not correct to 
speak of a single element or cell as a battery. The 
wire for this connection should be at least No. 14 
(though No. 10 or 12 is better) and must be insulated 
or the current w^ill short-circuit, just as w^ater, cir- 
culating through a network of pipes, would take the 
shortest course that was open to it. 

125. Life of Dry Cells.: — The life of a dry cell is 
uncertain with the best of care. One cell may become 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 117 

exhausted in a few weeks and another of the same 
make last as many months. Abuse soon exhausts 
them, such as connecting them up with a spark coil 
for an interesting display of electric sparks. One run- 
down cell in the battery weakens the rest and should be 
removed. Under fair treatment the average life of a 
fresh cell is probably between three and six months, 
though many fail before that time and some have 
gone much longer. 

126. Advantages of Dry Cells. — Their first cost is 
very light, from 25 cents per cell up. They are simple 
and easily connected and, if let alone, do not get out 
of order easily. They may be obtained of any elec- 
trical supply store and may be installed by any one. 
They are ready to produce a spark with the first revo- 
lution of the fly wheel ; are clean, reliable when fresh, 
and not easily broken. 

127. Their Defects. — They are uncertain of life and 
not generally counted reliable after a month old, al- 
though the writer has secured good results from cells 
that had been in the engine (though not in steady use) 
for over a year. Often a cell will become worthless 
even with the engine standing idle. In the end they 
are expensive because of the constant renewals. 

128. Care of Dry Cells. — Dry cells should be kept 
in a box by themselves, and other things kept out of 
it. Pieces of wire or metal tools may easily form a 
short circuit and run the cells down very rapidly; so 
may dampness ; they must be kept dry and cool. 
Where in constant use, two sets so wired that they 
may be used alternately will greatly increase the life 
of both. For instance, by placing two sets of six each 
wired up as two separate batteries and used on alter- 
nate runs, both sets will last much longer. 

129. A Good Battery Arrangement. — A plan in use 



ii8 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



en some of the motor boats of the United States sea 
service is worth giving. A battery box of galvanized 
iron is made just large enough to hold twelve cells 
and hot paraffine poured into the bottom. On this the 
cells are set in their paper cases, and two or three 
inches of paraffine poured around them. They are 
then connected, six in series, and the two batteries 
used alternately an hour at a time. A lump of lime 
laid in the box will absorb all moisture. Used in this 
way, cells frequently stand the hardest kind of con- 
tinuous ocean service for a space of six months. 

130. Connecting Battery to Engine for Spark. — A 
battery of six cells ought to give about nine volts of 




GROUND WJRE 

Fig. 33. — Simple Jump Spark Wiring System. 



electric energy. Connection is made with wire from 
the terminal carbon to the positive binding post of the 
spark or induction coil through the primary circuit, 
which carries the direct current from the batteries. 
The negative post in this coil leads to the timer and 
the positive pole of the battery connects with the iron 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



119 



of the engine frame, which, being a conductor, forms 
a part of the circuit through the timer. From the 
negative pole of the secondary circuit, the high tension 
wire, the current goes to the spark phig, which is 
usually located in the end of the cylinder. 

131. The Spark Coil. — This is really an induction 
or Ruhmkorff coil placed in the path of the current 
to store and intensify it. It consists of a magnetic 
core containing many turns of insulated wire wound 
like a spool of thread. The secondary or high tension 
current is much more intense than the primary, and 




Fig. 34. — Jump Spark Vibrator Coil for One Cylinder Ignition. 

gives a much hotter spark. This spark coil is rather 
a delicate affair, which should only be disturbed by 
those who fully understand it. Though it contains 
little that is likely to get out of order, a break in any 
part of the insulation along its many coils of wire 
would cause a short circuit and make rewinding nec- 
essary. About all the care a novice is called upon to 
give it is to see that water and abrading substances 
are kept away from it and that the connections, spark- 
ing points, etc., are kept clean and bright. The sys- 
tem of connecting here given is specially intended for 
the jump spark or high tension method of tiring. 



120 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



132. The Spark Plug. — Reference to the illustra- 
tion will show two platinum wire points at the inner 
end of the spark plug which, together with the insu- 
lating substance, comprise the essential parts. One 
of these wires, cut off from electrical connection with 
the other and with the rest of the plug by the insula- 
tion, is attached by means of the binding post at the 
top with the high tension cable ; the other is in direct 
communication with the cylinder and engine frame. 

133. How the Spark Is Formed. — So long as an 
electric current can pass Avithout interruption along 



ELECTRODE -. 
BUSHING 

8PARK POINT \ 




:^^^ TERMINAL NUT 
^H^MICA INSULATION 

jL: PLUG SHELL 
~^ SPARK GAP 



Fig. zS- — Sectional View of Spark Plug. 



a good conducting medium like copper wire, it is silent 
and invisible. It is only when w^e obstruct its passage 
by throwing a non-conductor in its path that it at- 
tempts to break down the opposition, just as a creek 
will try to leap over the dam that stops its course. A 
broken circuit with a layer of air between the ends 
forms such an obstruction. If the ends are reason- 
ablv near and the current is strong, it will undertake 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 121 

to jump across the gap, carrying minute particles of 
the metal along with it and heating these and all float- 
ing particles in the air to a white heat as a proof of 
the energy it has made use of in jumping the gap. 
This is the spark we see. 

134. How It Fires the Charge. — No amount of elec- 
tricity passing along a wire of sufficient carrying ca- 
pacity would cause an explosion in a keg of gun- 
powder so long as it was not interrupted ; in fact, it 
is not the current itself that does the igniting but the 
floating, heated particles where the break is. The 
only difl'erence between this and hot tube ignition is 
that the tube is heated in the one case and the floating 
particles in the other; but the heat from the spark is 
much more intense and easier to regulate. When the 
timer closes the circuit and allows the current to pass 
through the wire it is suddenly interrupted by this air 
gap between the platinum points and, if the current 
is strong enough and there is a space of only about 
1-32 to 1-16 of an inch between the points, it leaps 
across, heating the particles in the air to a white heat. 
This heat is sufficient to ignite the fuel vapor. 

135. The Jump Spark. — This is the so-called jump 
spark or high tension system, and on account of its 
simplicity and ease of operation, it has rather the 
lead among enginemen, especially for farm work. 
There is little about it to get out of order and, when 
the points become worn, as they finally will, under 
the repeated heating, the spark plug may be renewed 
for something like a dollar. 

136. The Make and Break. — Some engines use the 
make and break or low tension system. This consists 
of two metal points inside the engine cylinder, one of 
which is movable and is operated by mechanical means. 
These points are usually in contact, and a current of 



122 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

electricity passing through them is not interrupted as 
by the air gap in the spark plug ; then, at the moment 
when the charge is to be fired, the contact points are 
pulled apart and when the contact is broken a spark 
leaps between the two points. The make and break 
system furnishes rather the hottest spark, and the ef- 
ficiency of an engine has frequently been increased by 
substituting it for the jump spark system. The points 
and sliding mechanism are more liable to get out of 
order than stationary points, in the presence of carbon 
accumulation and intense heat, and are less accessible 
for cleaning or repairing than the plug, which screws 
into the cylinder at the top. For these reasons prin- 
cipally, the jump spark method seems to have the call 
among the non-professional engine owners, while very 
many of the experts favor the make and break system 
because of the more dependable service obtained from 




Fig. 36. — Bosch Magneto, Exterior View. 

the hotter spark in the presence of variable or faulty 
mixtures, and the increased power given the engine 
by firing the charge more promptly at the most ef- 
ficient moment and condensing the time of impulse. 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



123 



137. The Magneto. — Although the first cost of the 
magneto is several times that of a battery of dry cells, 
it is cheapest in the end for a good engine, as, once 
installed, it requires practically no attention or re- 
newal expenses for years. It also gives a hotter spark 
and greater engine efficiency, especially under adverse 
conditions of fuel or temperature where firing is dif- 
ficult. For an old or cheap or worn-out engine the 
expense would hardly be justified; nor possibly for 
one which stands idle a great part of the time. Aside 
from the greater efficiency of the hotter spark, the 
question is one between first cost and maintenance 
cost, of which the first has to be met but once and the 
latter is continuously to be reckoned with. 

138. How It Works. — It differs from a dynamo in 




Fig. 2>7- — Longitudinal Sectional View of Bosch Magneto. 



principle mainly in that the armature revolves be- 
tween permanent field magnets of steel instead of 
electro-magnets consisting of a soft iron or steel core 



124 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



wound with wire. Because of this difference, the 
magneto may be run at any desired speed or the speed 
may be varied, while that of a dynamo must be con- 
stant. 

A handful of wire nails, each brought in contact 
with a common horseshoe magnet, becomes a separate 
magnet which may be used to pick up small metallic 



Rear 



view 




Fig. 38.— Rear 



View of Bosch Magneto, 
Breaker and Distributor. 



Showing Contact 



objects. If a wire be wound loosely around the mag- 
net without touching it, each coil of the wire may be 
said to have become a separate magnet and the total 
strength of all these separate magnets will make up 
the strength of the so-called magnetic field. If a soft 
iron were substituted for the magnet and a current of 
electricity passed through, the magnetic action of the 
surrounding coil would be much more intense, but 
would only remain while the current was passing, 
while the magnetism set up by the steel, though less 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 125 

intense, remains in all parts of the coil on which it has 
exerted its influence. This second magnetic or electric 
action set up in the coil is called an induced current 
because, instead of being created by direct contact 
with some source of electrical or magnetic fluid, it has 
been influenced or induced into existence. 

By increasing the number of turns of wire in the 
coil and revolving it rapidly between magnetic or 
electrical fields, this induced current may be greatly 
strengthened until what began as a feeble magnetic 
impulse in the magnet finally becomes an electric cur- 
rent of considerable intensity. The armature on which 
this coil is carried is wound in two parts, the first 
consisting of a few turns of coarse wire, and the second 
of many turns of fine wire, all of which has to be in- 
sulated with some nonconductor of electricity its en- 
tire length. The electrical influence or current set up 
in this coarse or primary winding, as it is called, is 
frequently interrupted by a mechanically operated 
circuit-breaker, so that the current is allowed to flow 
only by short jerks. These interruptions to the -pri- 
mary current set up an induced current in the 
secondary or large coil of fine wire which, intensified 
as it is by the hundreds of turns of wire, becomes so 
intense that, when it presently passes over the high 
tension cable to the spark plug and there finds a 
break between the firing points, it promptly leaps the 
gap, forming an intensely hot spark. 

As this spark is only produced by the breaking of 
the primary circuit it is necessary for the magneto to 
be set in definite relation to the crank shaft of the en- 
gine, so that the break will occur at the instant the 
engine piston is at the right point for the firing of the 
charge. This calls for positive drive, and belt or fric- 
tion drive, possible with dynamo, cannot be used in 



126 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

connection with high tension magneto. Just why this 
secondary current is induced when the primary current 
is interrupted would require pages of explanation. 
Electricity, however, is a lazy fellow so long as things 
run smoothly. It is when he is interfered with that he 
puts forth his energies and does work or exerts useful 
energy. The above description is of an alternating 
current, high tension magneto, suitable for the jump 
spark system of firing with spark plug. They^ are 
driven by suitable worm, spur or bevel gears from the 
crank shaft of the engine and, once installed, need no 
attention for years beyond an occasional oiling of the 
bearings. Some of them, like the one described, have 
a revolving armature. In others the armature is sta- 
tionary, while the magnets revolve. 

139. Low Tension Magnetos. — The low^ tension 
magneto is for the make and break system of igni- 
tion, in which the current does not have to be intense 
enough to jump a gap, but simply follows out the 
moving point for an instant as the contact is broken, 
forming a short electric arc. It is also used for the 
high tension or jump spark system in which is in- 
stalled a separate intensifier or spark coil. It works 
like the high tension magneto excepting that there is 
no secondary winding, while the one coil of wire con- 
sists of moderate-sized wire. 

140. Care of Magneto. — In general terms the less 
attention the magneto gets from the amateur the bet- 
ter, for onl}^ an electrical expert understands how to 
reassemble them. x\ll the parts which ordinarily need 
readjustment are easily accessible; the rest should all 
be let alone. A little oil should be used on the parts 
where it was intended, but oil dropped carelessly on 
the coil softens the insulation and may easily ruin 
the winding. A\^ater may cause short circuits also. 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



127 



While most magnetos are regarded as water-proof, the 
term is only relative and intended for emergency 
safety only, not for weeks or months of exposure to 
the weather. Rust also attacks the connections. If 
properly cared for the winding of a magneto ought to 
be good for three to five years and the magnetic field 




Fig. 39. — Showing Ignition Magneto In Place on Engine Base. 

should last from eight to fifteen. Even then it can 
be renewed for a dollar or less. If the spark becomes 
uniformly Aveak the magnets may need remagnetiz- 
ing or a winding may be broken down at some point. 
This is not a repair job for the amateivr, but before 
sending the magneto back to the works for repairs be 
certain that is where the trouble is located. ]\Ianu- 



128 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



facturers say that at least fifty per cent, of the mag- 
netos and coils sent back to the shop for rewinding are 
all right and that the trouble is in some other part of 
the engine. 

141. Where the Double System Is Best. — Not all 
magnetos produce a spark with the first revolu- 
tion of the fly-wheel ; some are even reluctant about 
sparking at all under the low speed available while 




CPCyNO TO CTiClNZ FRAME 



Fig. 40. — Simple High Tension Wiring System, Using Batteries 
and Magneto. 



the engine is turned by hand. In other words, 
the spark is not produced until the engine starts and 
so runs the magneto, while the engine will not start 
without the spark. Some operators use a double igni- 
tion system. A battery of dry cells is installed to 
start the engine ; then it is switched of¥ and the mag- 
neto used the balance of the time. This makes a very 
satisfactory combination, though with some of the 
better grade magnetos now on the market the spark 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



129 



is produced so promptly that the auxiliary battery is 
not needed. 

142. What the Primary Circuit Includes. — The 
jump spark or high tension system has both a primary 
and a secondary circuit; the make and break usually 
but one. The primary circuit includes the battery, 
the primary or inner wire coil of the induction coil, 
the contact breaker or buzzer and the commutator or 
timer. Its object is to magnetize the core of the spark 
coil and, after the current has been set up, to operate 
the contact breaker or vibrator and set up a secondary 
induced current by the interruption of the primary 
circuit. 

143. The Secondary Circuit. — This includes the fine 
or secondary coil of the induction coil, and the spark 




Fig. 41. — Low Tension or Make and Break Spark Wiring System, 
Using Magneto With Batteries as Auxiliary Source of Current. 



plug, and high tension cable. Its mission is to in- 
tensify the primary current by induction, and to con- 
vey it to the engine cylinder, where the spark gap that 
fires the charge is located. 



130 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

144. The Wiring System. — The wiring system 
should be short as possible and of heavily insulated 
wire or cable. The best high tension cable used in 
connecting the spark plug with the coil is much larger 
than the lower-powered conductor and consists of a 
number of tinned copper wires, often as many as 
twenty, twisted together and covered by successive 




Fig. 42. — High and Low Tension Current Conductors. 

layers of insulating tape. The low tension wire con- 
nects the carbon terminal of the battery with the posi- 
tive pole on the coil. It usually consists of several 
fine copper wires, around which several layers of in- 
sulation are wound. A second wire of the same ma- 
terial runs from the negative pole of the battery to a 
ground connection — usually the frame of the engine. 
From the negative pole of the coil a third wire con- 
nects with the timer. 

It is important to see that all of these wires are 
thoroughly connected with clean contacts, and the 
nuts on the binding posts screwed down tightly, and 
that the connections are free from rust. A good var- 
nish for the terminals may be made of sealing wax 
dissolved in gasoline, with enough linseed oil to pre- 
vent its being brittle. Short circuiting is sometimes 
caused in damp or foggy weather by a drop of water 
getting in below the fly nut holding the high tension 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 131 

cable, and across the porcelain of the plug and hence 
to frame. 

145. Ignition Timing. — Ignition timing is a me- 
chanical rather than an electrical process, and the fir- 
ing time must work in harmony with the intake valve, 
though, like that, it should be regulated by comparison 
with the position of the piston. 

The earlier the spark, so long as pounding does not 
result, the greater the power of the engine; and the 
later the spark, the weaker the impulse. 

Theoretically, the charge should be fired with the 
piston exactly at the end of the compression stroke, 
but it takes an instant of time to fire the whole charge; 
and unless the spark occurs a little in advance part of 
the stroke is lost before the expansion of the gases 
catch up with the piston. 

As a rule, when running at 250 R. P. M., the spark 
should come at about % or even % compression 
stroke. Some fuels fire more promptly though 
than others, and the amount of compression also 
in some measure affects the amount of advance 
which can be allowed. When there is an excess of 
air in the mixture the power of the engine is increased 
by advancing the spark, but if gasoline is in excess it 
is likely to be diminished. Gasoline of high quality 
burns more promptly than the heavier oils, and the 
timing should be later. For 65 or 68 degrees Baume 
distillate 25 or 30 degrees crankshaft travel below the 
inward center is not far wrong; but the spark should 
be adjusted on the fuel used and then the point marked 
on the fly-wheel. In a two-cylinder four-cycle engine, 
having located the point for one cylinder, the other 
mark should be diametrically opposite, while in a four- 
cycle four-cylinder engine the points would be 90° 
apart, and the timer driven at one-half engine speed. 



132 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

146. Irregular Mechanism.— In the make and 
break system the igniter has a perceptible lag be- 
tween trip of the sparker and the formation of the 
spark, and the faster the engine runs the greater num- 
ber of degrees this lag covers, measured by crank 
revolution. If all the cylinders were alike this lag 
Avould be the same for all, and, once adjusted to one, 
the others would fall into step. If one of them has a 
weaker or a stififer spring the lag may vary in length, 
and a weaker explosion in one cylinder result. 

147. Spark Follies.— To change the governor springs 
without changing the spark to meet the new condi- 
tion is wasteful foolishness. If the engine is to be 
run faster the spark should be advanced. 

To start the engine without retarding the spark is 
still worse. Set for normal conditions, it is far too 
much advanced for the slow speed of hand cranking, 
and a pound or back kick is almost a certainty. Aside 
from great danger of a broken arm, this impulse 
against the ascending piston is a strain upon bearings, 
piston, and all of its connections. 

Do not run any length of time on retarded spark. 
Advance it gradually until the full power of the 
engine is developed, but not enough to pound. 

A good place to learn useful lessons on spark tim- 
ing is behind the exhaust, studying the character of 
the escaping gases. 



CHAPTER VIII. 
A CHAPTER ON ENGINE REGULATION. 

148. Controlling an Engine. — The two distinct 
phases of engine regulation that require separate treat- 
ment as such are speed and temperature control. Of 
these two the former will be first considered. 

149. The True Mission of the Speed Controller. — 
A good many engine operators have gone trouble- 
hunting around the governor when there was nothing 
in the world the matter except a mistaken idea of its 
mission. When an engine operates for any length of 
time at greater than its normal speed without being 
automatically checked there is something wrong with 
the governor. When it drops below normal the gov- 
ernor fails to act because there is nothing for it to 
do. The fault is in the load, the fuel, or the engine. 
The governor is intended only to control speed when 
it attempts to rise above the normal. With the speed, 
when on account of overload or poor fuel it drops be- 
low normal, it has nothing whatever to do, although 
many people seem to think the governor should 
keep the speed up to the standard as well as down 
to it. 

Governors are not speed creators. Their sole mis- 
sion is preventing the speed from rising above a cer- 
tain standard and, when we change their adjustment, 
we merely change the standard at which they operate, 
and not their mission. This idea should be firmly 
fixed in the mind, as a wrong conception of it has 

133 



134 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

been the cause of endless confusion with many engine 
operators. 

150. A Few Rules to Remember. — When the en- 
gine at normal speed is under full load the governor 
is unnecessary, and is not in action. 

If the load is increased a few pounds the speed may 
fall a trifle below the normal ; still the governor will 
be unnecessary and inactive. 

If the load is decreased a little so that the speed of 
the engine is inclined to rise above normal, the gov- 
ernor, if in working order, promptly checks the ten- 
dency and brings it back to normal ; then it ceases 
to act, and is no longer necessary until the speed at- 
tempts to rise again. 

In only one of the three conditions cited, the last, 
is the governor at fault if it remains inactive. In the 
first there is no fault ; in the second, the trouble is 
with the fuel, or the load is too heavy for the engine, 
or some part of the latter is out of adjustment. In 
the last, unless the speed is quickly brought back to 
normal, the fault is certainly with the governor. It 
must be remembered, however, that regulating a rise 
of speed such as may follow the sudden throwing off 
of a full load requires a moment or two for the gov- 
ernor to adjust itself to its work and regain control. 

151. What Changing Governor Adjustment Does. 
— We may set the governor so as to allow the engine 
to run below its normal speed; then it will keep it 
continually below and hold it steady at that speed 
under variable loads, but the engine will not develop 
full power. 

We may set it for a higher than normal speed in 
order to increase the power; then the governor will 
not respond ; it has no speed of its own to contribute. 
If there is no load the engine itself may have suf- 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 135 

ficient power, when unchecked, to run up to the higher 
speed the same as a runaway horse or a runaway 
steam engine might climb up above the normal. This 
would be due to the released powers of the uncon- 
trolled engine and not to any contribution from the 
governor. It is the natural inclination of any engine 
when running light to exhaust its surplus energy in 
extreme speed. It will do this always unless re- 
strained by a governor or a load that just consumes 
its entire capacity. Either one is sufhcient to control 
it and one is just as good as the other, while one is 
quite as helpless as the other to add to the speed from 
any energy of its own. 

152. Methods of Governing. — The speed of an over- 
industrious engine may be moderated in either of 
three ways: by retarding the spark, by limiting the 
supply of fuel, and by changing its quality. To ac- 
complish one or more of these we use one of three 
methods, which we designate as Ignition Control, the 
Hit-and-Miss system, and the Throttling method. As 
considerable has already been said with regard to the 
first in Chapter VII, we will now concern ourselves 
with the other two methods. 

153. Regulating the Fuel. — The fuel supply is reg- 
ulated through the valves. Sometimes the exhaust 
valve is kept from opening; then the burned gases re- 
main in possession and new^ fuel cannot enter, so the 
engine misses fire and loses power impulses until the 
speed returns to normal and the governor ceases to 
interfere. Sometimes it is the intake valve that is 
regulated, either by reducing the volume of vapor ad- 
mitted and so reducing both the compression and ex- 
plosion pressure, or by cutting ofif the gasoline only, 
and so, without reducing compression, introducing a 
fuel that will not explode at all ; or, if it does, with 



136 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



greatly diminished energy. In many smaller engines 
the fuel supply is cut out entirely and the engine's 
speed responses to this method are quite prompt but 
rather wasteful. 




Fig. 43.— Method of Speed Regulation Through Valves. 



154. The Hit-or-Miss System. — There are a great 
variety of mechanical devices for making these changes 
in the fuel, most of which may best be studied direct 
from the engine. None of them involve any mysteri- 
ous or new principles. In general, a push rod presses 
against the valve stem at properly timed intervals and 
opens it. When the speed increases the engine gov- 
ernor operates some chain of mechanical contrivances 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 137 

to deflect this push rod from its usual course, so that 
it does not touch the stem ; then the valve remains 
closed. In a four-cycle engine there is no chance for 
the governor to change the valve operation oftener 
than once in two revolutions, so it may require some 
little interval of time before the speed of an engine, 
suddenly released of its full load, would be reduced 
much, and this system, while very economical and re- 
liable, is not suitable for engines intended for driving 
cream separators, electric generators or any such ma- 
chinery requiring the maximum of steadiness. 

155. The Throttling Governor. — Like the hit-or-miss 
type, the throttling system of government is almost 
as varied as the different makes of engines. They vary 
the size of the charge instead of cutting it out entirely, 
and are considered the best for close regulation. 

156. Types of Governors. — Either of these forms of 
speed control may be secured by one of several types 
of controllers, the most common of which are the 
centrifugal, the pick blade and inertia governors. Each 
has its limitations. 

157. The Centrifugal Governor. — The centrifugal 
governors all depend upon the principle that a weight 
revolving rapidly around a center tends to swing out 
from the center. Two arms, each fitted with a weight 
at the outer end, are hinged at opposite sides of a 
shaft to a sleeve which is free to slide upon the shaft. 
To regulate the results of this tendency to swing out 
a spring is attached to each weight, tending to hold it 
toward the center. The mechanism controlling the 
feed of the engine gets its initial movement from the 
swinging outward of these weights beyond a certain 
point. The springs try to restrain the weights within 
that point, but when the latter are whirled by the speed 
of the engine up to a certain velocity their tendency 



138 



The Gasoline Exgine on the Farm 



to swing away from the center overcomes the power 
of the spring and the restraining mechanism ; then as 
the speed decreases the centrifugal pull is reduced so 
that the springs again overcome it. This type of gov- 
ernor may take the form of two fly-balls, familiar to 
all as a part of the steam engine ; or they may consist 
of weights in any form and may be attached to the 
cam shaft, the crank shaft, the fly-wheel or any other 
rapidly revolving part of the engine. Xearly all farm 




Fig. 44. — Centrifugal Governor Attached to Carburetor. 

engines are fitted w^ith some form of governor of this 
type. 

158. The Pick-Blade Type. — A swinging or pen- 
dulum device, which receives its motion from some 
moving part of the engine, is attached to a push rod 
or "pick-blade" which at ordinary speed swings into a 
notch in a rod or lever operating the valve. AVhen the 
speed of the engine increases beyond a certain point 
this blade swings outward too quickly and misses the 
valve lever; hence the valve remains closed. The 
operating speed of this type of governor may be 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



139 



changed by regulating the swing of the pendulum by 
means of a thumb nut. 

159. Care of the Governor. — The care of the 
governor consists mainly in keeping its bearings clean 




Fig. 45. — Pick-blade Governor, Showing Cam Action, 
and supplied with an ample amount of good lubricant 
without excess. To overcome the tendency of dirt to 
settle into the oil and gum so that it will not work 
freely, clean occasionally with kerosene ; then apply 
fresh oil. Changing the governor should be avoided 
unless for some well defined object. Usually it is set 
to keep the engine at that speed at which it wall do 
the best all around service, and every change brings 



140 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

one a little nearer to the time when governor, valve 
area, and the spark timing will be out of harmonious 
adjustment. 



e 





o 



Fig, 46. — Side View of Cam Action on Lever. 

160. Governing by Ignition. — Spark control can 
only be applied within very restricted limits, as all of 
its possibilities lie between the point where a reverse 
impulse is fired against the piston and that w^here the 
spark is so late that the full volume of the pressure 
never reaches the piston at all. These limits may be 
approximated at about 30° of the outward stroke 
before dead center and perhaps one-fourth as much 
after. To retard the spark, too, is very wasteful, and 
it is customary, when this method is used, to unite it 
with some form of throttling also. In fact, the same 
results may be obtained with throttling alone and, 
aside from such special reasons for retarding, as when 
hand-cranking and starting the engine, it seems 
preferable to depend upon governing the speed with- 
out interfering with the spark. 

161. Controlling the Temperature. — Although the 
internal combustion engine is essentiall}^ a heat en- 
gine and the conservation of all heat produced would 
seem to be a matter of fuel economy, there are reasons 
why it is necessary to introduce a cooling system and 
destroy a part of our high temperature after we have 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 141 

obtained it. First of these reasons is the danger of 
pre-ignition. If the combustion chamber was allowed 
to remain at the high temperature it attained at the 
moment of ignition all subsequent charges of fuel 
would be fired the instant they entered the chamber, 
before the latter could be filled or the charge com- 
pressed. Such extreme temperatures, too, would soon 
heat the metal too hot to operate and put the piston 
out of business. For the protection of the lubricants 
used in the cylinder it is also necessary that the tem- 
perature be controlled. 

162. The Usual Systems. — Practically all farm en- 




FiG. 47.— Type of Air Cooled Cylinder Used On "New Way" 

Engines. 

gines are cooled by one of two methods : air and water. 
Oil cooled engines have been built, and some of them 



142 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

have done good work, but they are not in common use 
under such conditions as the average farm would have 
to meet. 

163. The Air Cooled Engine. — For small size en- 
gines air cooling is a favorite method, especially where 
the engine is not usually run under full load for more 
than a few hours at a time. Air cooled engines are 
light and easily moved, a quality that is quite im- 
portant in the farm motor, especially the small engine, 
wdiich is used to do the chores and hand work about 
the barn and house. They are also simpler, have 
fewer parts and for these reasons are less costly. In 
cold weather they have a decided advantage ; a bit of 
forgetfulness does not mean a burst water jacket. The 
extra parts, too, of the water cooled engine all have to 
be cared for, cleaned occasionally, kept supplied with 
water, and in correct operation. 

164. The Water-Cooling System. — For long jobs 
though, or where the engine has to work under a full 
load, the water cooled system is the best, especially 
for heavy engines. Water temperatures are far more 
stable than air and the danger of overheating and 
warping some part of the engine, that always con- 
fronts with the air cooled system more or less, is en- 
tirely absent when water cooling is adopted. Water 
cooling also has the advantage of keeping a more con- 
stant temperature, after it is once regulated. An ef- 
ficient cooling system, too, will decrease radiation 
losses and increase working energy, while poor cool- 
ing decreases power. The variation from this source 
alone may be from 15 to 35 per cent, of the heat 
generated. 

165. The Open Jacket Method. — Usually the water 
jacket is a part of the engine casting, the cylinder walls 
being cast double and the space between filled in with 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 143 

water. The water, as it heats, boils and evaporates; 
then of course it has to be renewed. This method has 
the advantage of using a small amount of water, 




Fig. 48. — Depicting Flow of Water Through Jackets of Water 
Cooled Engine. 

which can be easily replaced; so there is no objection 
to opening the drain pipe at night and allowing the 
jacket to empty in freezing weather. 

166. The Circulating System. — Frequently a tank of 
greater height than its diameter is located beside the 
engine, from the bottom of which connection is made 
with the bottom of the water jacket. A similar con- 
nection is made between a point near the top of the 
jacket and the tank. Once filled, the circulation of 
the water is automatic, the heated water rising in the 
jacket and flowing from the upper outlet over to the 



144 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



tank while the cooler water of the tank is replacing it 
through the lower connection in the bottom of the 
jacket. Sometimes a pump is connected with this 




TAPPET 
ARM 
INLET 
VALVE 

SPRING 



INLET VAL 
CHECK 

GASOLINE 
FEED CUR 



Fig. 49. — Sectional View of Cylinder of I. H. C. Engine, Showing 
Integrally Cast Hopper Used in Open Jacket Cooling System. 



system and the water forced through by positive 
action of the engine. 

167. A Good Circulating Pump System. — One plan 
now in quite general use in the cooling of small size 
engines allows the water to fall at the top of an in- 
verted cone and so spread out to the air in a relatively 
large thin surface as it descends by its own weight. 
This makes quite an efficient cooler in which com- 
paratively little water is required. With this system, 
a pump is needed to elevate the water. 

168. Other Systems. — While there are a great va- 
riety of water-cooling designs upon the market, prac- 
tically all of them depend upon the action of gravity, 
of an engine pump, of difference in temperature, or 
the diversion of some running stream. Of all these 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 145 

systems the last is the most costly because the more 
wasteful of heat units. Gravity feed is all right if 
nothing goes wrong with it, but there is constant 
danger of some obstruction, the resistance of which 
it will not have force enough to overcome ; so, though 
it is the more complicated and costly in the beginning, 
some form of forced circulation is the best. 

169. Amount of Water to Use. — The least quan- 
tity of water that will keep the temperature of the 
engine down so that the water itself remains only a 
little below the boiling point is the best quantity to 
use and, having once determined what this is, the 
only deviation from it should be such as the differ- 
ence of conditions might require. An engine work- 
ing steadily at full load will have a greater tendency 
to heat than one only partially loaded or that has fre- 
quent intervals of rest. As a rule the most efficient 
results will be obtained with the cooling water some- 
where between 190° and 200°, or just a little below the 
boiling point. 

170. Care of Water System. — In cold weather the 
full advantage of an air cooled engine is realized if 
one ever forgets and allows the water to freeze up. 
Modern engines are now very generally constructed 
with a system of cooling which is claimed to be ex- 
empt from frost dangers, and to a limited extent this 
is true. Wherever water is used, however, in cold 
weather it is a part of the care of an engine to see 
that the pipes and water connections are in some way 
secured from danger. 

Where the circulating system is used see that the 
water really circulates, and clean out the sediment 
occasionally. If the scale is hard use one pint muriatic 
acid to from four to ten times its volume of water, ac- 
cording to condition of the scale. Be sure and add the 



146 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

acid to the water, not the water to the acid. Let this 
mixture remain from 12 to 48 hours, and then flush 
thoroughly. 

171. Anti-freezing Mixtures. — These are nearly al- 
ways injurious to the metal and should not be vised 
except where absolutely necessary, as chemical action 
of some sort is almost certain to result. Practically 
all of them depend upon some form of oil, alcohol or 
salt. 

Where the circulating system is not in contact with 
zinc, aluminum or galvanized iron, 3^ to 4 lbs. cal- 
cium chloride to each gallon of water is cheap and 
effective, but with zinc it starts a destructive action 
similar to electric battery. The salt sediment is also 
inclined to settle and make trouble. 

Thirty per cent, of glycerine in water will not 
freeze before 15° above zero is reached, and 55% will 
stand a temperature of 10° below. This, however, is 
expensive and contains acid. 

One-third alcohol and % water will stand 15° below 
zero and is not harmful, but the alcohol will gradually 
evaporate out. 

A mixture of 15 parts alcohol, 15 of glycerine and 
70 of water will not freeze above 10° and also raises 
the boiling point to a higher point. Glycerine is in- 
jurious to rubber tubing, though, and any alcohol 
solution loses its original proportions gradually when 
exposed to the open air. Where a temperature as low 
as 15° must be met, as much as 25% alcohol must be 
used in mixture to render them effective. If below 
zero, not less than 30% should be used. AYood alcohol 
has no sediment and does not corrode machinery. 
Twenty per cent, of wood alcohol and 80% water 
is suitable for ordinary weather. 

When the temperature falls to 40° draw the water 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 147 

from the jacket, cylinders, pipes and pump. It takes 
a surprisingly small amount of cold sometimes to burst 
a pipe or a brass connection. If the tank is in some 
danger and the refilling of it too much of a task, dis- 
connect the outlet pipe and stop with a cork plug that 
will blow out under pressure before the tank itself 
would burst. A few rods let down in the water, but 
with ends sticking out above the surface, will help a 
little, the freezing water not infrequently shoving the 
surface ice upward at the weakened point around the 
rod, and thereby gaining considerable extra space be- 
low to accommodate the expansion. 

172. Utilizing Waste Heat. — Under average condi- 
tions something more than 300 heat units or over 
233,400 foot-pounds energy is lost through the dis- 
carded heat passed through the exhaust valve for each 
pound of fuel gas consumed, a loss which somewhat 
exceeds 7 horse-power per pound of fuel. Various de- 
vices have been tried for making use of this wasted 
energy and some of them have been fairly successful 
while others have occasioned so much interference 
with the discharge of the burned gases from the en- 
gine that the back pressure and disturbed combustion 
resulted in a greater additional loss than the gain 
amounted to. Aside from its use for heating purposes, 
either to assist the carburetor in cold weather or for 
other uses, there is probably little chance of turning 
this lost heat into profitable channels. 

A number of successful experiments have been tried 
out in heating small rooms or even small buildings 
with this otherwise wasted heat and several special 
heating devices have been put upon the market. A 
home made heater of fair efficiency can be made by 
connecting an ordinary pipe expander by means of a 
collar coupling with the exhaust of the engine and 



148 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

extending it by means of a larger pipe up through a 
tank of water. The larger this pipe the greater will 
be the heating surface and the less interference there 
will be with the exhaust blast from the engine. A 
twenty gallon tank of water can be brought to the boil- 
ing point in from 30 to 60 minutes, and by providing 
for its circulation or by passing a series of air pipes 
through across the tank and with open ends both the 
hot water and hot air can be utilized in heating. Care 
must be taken that there is no leak in the pipe which 
will allow^ water to run down into the exhaust and 
so back to the engine cylinder. 



CHAPTER IX. 

THE CRANK SHAFT AND ITS BEARINGS. 

173. The Engine Frame. — It seems so utterly im- 
possible to construct an engine of any sort without 
a frame that we are apt to consider its presence forced 
upon us without any definite use. It has, none the 




Fig. 50. — Main Bearings Incorrectly Placed. Strain of Explosion 
Impulse Exerted Directly Against Cap and Bolts. 



less, a number of important uses. First, it supports 
the engine and provides a means of anchoring it se- 
curely to any independent foundation we wish to erect. 
It also holds the various parts of the engine rigid and 
in correct relation with each other; keeps the crank 
shaft in line with the piston stroke and its connec- 
tions, and gives to all a stability that could never be 
attained unless these various parts were securely tied 

149 



I50 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



together by all being fastened rigidly to this common 
base. 

Gasoline engine frames should be specially strong. 




Fig. 51. — Main Bearings Placed so a Twisting Strain Comes On 
Cap and Bolts Every Impulse. 

not only to resist the series of blows or shocks which 
come to them with each power impulse, but, in the 
case of large engines, to absorb in their body in some 




Fig. 52. — Main Bearings Correctly Placed — All Stress Taken by 
Bed of Engine. 

measure the vibration which would otherwise seri- 
ously afifect the more delicate parts. In the case of 
horizontal engines the bed design should be such that 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



151 



the force of the impulse impinges against a portion 
of the frame provided to receive it rather than against 
the bolted union between the cap and bed of the main 
bearings. (See Figs. 50 to 52.) The base plate of a 
horizontal engine should always be so set that the 
cylinder is inclined slightly toward the crank shaft 
in order to drain the lubricating oil away from rather 
than toward the inner part of the combustion chamber. 
174. The Crank Shaft. — The crank shaft has not 
inappropriately been called the backbone of the en- 




FiG. 53. — Single Throw Crankshaft. 

gine. It must receive the full powder of the engine, 
must deliver it to the driven machinery, and must be 
strong enough to give and to receive the impulse under 
a twisting strain instead of a straight pull. It should 




Fig. 54. — Three Throw Crankshaft, With Counterpoise or Bal- 
ance Weights. 



be made of the best mild steel and the crank should 
be cut out of a mass of metal rather than forged on. 
The crank-pin should be designed to stand a strain 
of 400 pounds per square inch of piston area, and the 



152 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

diameter of the shaft in the main bearings should be 
about 1.25 times the diameter of the crank-pin. The 
length of the main bearings should be from 1.75 to 2 
times the diameter of the shaft, and the length of the 
projection depends upon whether the belt wheel is 
bolted to the fly wheel or keyed to the shaft. If the 
latter, which is preferable, the shaft should be only 
long enough to engage the full hub of the pulley ; then 
there will be no temptation to the operator to set the 
wheel out from the gearing and so increase the twist- 
ing stress on the shaft. 

In order to make the shaft run more smoothly 
weights are fastened to the crank, to compensate for 
its weight beyond the center of shaft revolution. 




Fig, 55. — Gas Engine Flywheel of Approved Design. 

175. Fly Wheels and Their Mission. — It is the 

mission of the fly wheel to correct any unevenness of 
speed arising from the intermittent poAvers of the gaso- 
line engine or from varying crank positions by stor- 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



153 



ing up excessive bursts of energy and then giving it 
out again when the speed tends to fall below normal. 
In one sense they act as a governor, but they do more 
in that they also store energy. 

176. Heavy Fly Wheels Needed. — The heavier the 
rim of the fly wheel, the greater is its capacity for 
equalizing the variable speeds. The energy given by 
a gasoline engine fluctuates rapidly from its full max- 
imum power to the point where, during the compres- 
sion stroke, enero^v is being consumed instead of given 




Fig. 56. — Typical Engine Bearing, Showing Oil Grooves C and 
Retaining Plugs A. 

out. It is necessary that the fly wheel rim be heavy 
enough to absorb all excess energy given out at the 
instant of the power impulse and then without any 
sudden change of velocity, give enough of it back to 
carry the engine over the compression stroke. Centrif- 
ugal energy, however, inclines the swiftly moving rim 
to leave its curved path around a center and take up 
a straight one tangent to it; and this tendency is 
stronger in a heavy wheel than in a lighter one re- 
volving at equal speed. For this reason the point is 



154 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

soon reached when it is not safe to further increase 
the weight of the wheel unless we reduce its veloc- 
ity, so, in order to provide power necessary to carry 
the engine past its compression stroke, we divide the 
weight and the strain between tw^o wheels and place 
one at each end of the shaft, where there will be the 
least unbalancing and twisting of the shaft. That is 
why so many modern gasoline engines have two fly 
wheels. There are, however, several distinct ad- 
vantages in a single wheel of greater weight, of which 
these are perhaps the most important : 

A single wheel leaves one side of the engine more 
accessible. 

Any variation in the inertia between the two wheels 
sets up a serious twisting strain upon the shaft. 

With the one wheel a third bearing has to be pro- 
vided and the single wheel is supported on each side. 
This is usually provided though only with large, ex- 
pensive engines, and of the small power engines of 
moderate or low price nearly all have the two wheel 
system. 

At about 250 revolutions per minute engines of or- 
dinary farm size require fly wheel weight of about 100 
pounds per horse-power of engine, the weight being 
divided between the two wheels. Hit-and-miss gov- 
erned engines require somewhat heavier fly wheels 
than throttled, while an engine used upon a variable 
load can use to advantage greater weight than one 
inclined of itself to run with a steadier motion. Four- 
cycle engines require heavier fly wheels than two- 
cycle, because the power impulse only comes at every 
second revolution. 

Fly wheels are made with both straight and curved 
spokes. When the latter, they should invariably be 
put on the shaft so they will revolve with the advance 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 155 

part of the spoke next the rim. A safe rim speed for 
cast iron wheels of approved pattern is put at about 
5,000 feet per minute. The hub should be 2^/2 to 3 
times the diameter of the shaft. 

It is highly important that the fly wheel be prop- 
erly centered and balanced on its shaft. A small 
amount of wabbling increases immensely the strain 
upon the rim and may be the means of wrecking the 
wheel. See to it occasionally that the key has not 
become loosened enough to allow of any independent 
motion or that the bearings have not been worn until 
the shaft is out of true. 

Never remove a fly wheel from the shaft if possible 
to avoid it. As it comes from the factory, a fly wheel 
seldom works loose, but, once removed, it is some- 
times almost impossible to secure it safely again. A 
loose fly wheel is a very serious matter as it will 
almost invariably, on a high speed engine, break the 
crank shaft or else wreck the engine, while it is one 
of the most difficult troubles of all to locate on. ac- 
count of its habit of imitating to perfection the knock 
which is associated with other causes. Often it mim- 
ics pre-ignition admirably ; while other familiar 
sounds, such as produced by loose bearings, are 
produced. Occasionally the w^heel has to be removed 
in repairing or replacing a broken part, as a crank 
shaft, but, fortunately, the occasion is of rare 
occurrence. 

177. The Main Bearings. — The smooth operation 
of the crank shaft depends in a great measure upon 
the bearings, their construction, condition and care. 
Bearings should be long and heavy enough to insure 
complete support under the heaviest load without 
strain. Their alignment must be perfect. They 
should neither be too loose nor too tight and should 



156 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

be an accurate circle. The lining, too, should be of 
suitable material, and this includes the lubrication, as 
well as the permanent lining. 

178. The Best Lining. — There is a good deal of 
difference of opinion as to what material should be 
used for babbitting the boxes. The softer alloys, as 
true babbitt metal, have the advantage of being first 
to suffer in case of lubrication failure. The babbitt 
is simply melted out instead of a crank shaft being 
ruined. They have the fault of not only being too 
soft to wear well ; under heavy loads they tend to 
break down and spread, though under moderate loads 
their very pliancy sometimes keeps them best fitted 
close to a shaft that may have been wearing out of 
form. 

Phosphor bronze, on the other hand, will stand up 
under almost any load and seems almost unwearable ; 
but should lubrication be forgotten it begins to cut 
the shaft at once and may quite ruin it before the 
failure has been noticed. Some of the hard alloys 
are liable to crack and if their surface is not perfect 
the high and low spots wear unevenly and establish 
a decided tendency to cut. 

Linings made of alloys often develop a tendency to 
separate into the original metals, either on account 
of careless mixing, too much heat, or too rapid cool- 
ing. Sometimes there is a tendency to crystallize into 
coarse grains which are brittle and worthless for 
bearings. 

Lead is perhaps the best wear-resisting metal 
known, but it is too soft to stand the pressure. IMixed 
with antimony, the resulting alloy stands up better 
under pressure, loses some of its wear-resisting qual- 
ities, but, on the whole, is quite satisfactory under 
certain conditions. An alloy made up of but two sub- 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farai 157 

stances, however, lacks in pliability; hence, three or 
more are generally preferred. 

In lining the boxes for heavy usage one important 
difference should always be remembered between the 
so-called white alloys and the bronzes, which contain 
copper. If a bronze is used there is a tendency on the 
part of the copper to cling to the revolving shaft and 
roughen it. This of course increases friction. The 
white alloys begin to melt instead, and the softened 
metal acts as a lubricant, reducing the friction and 
protecting the shaft, though at the expense of the 
lining. 

179. Why Bearings Heat. — Heating may be caused 
by insufficient or poor lubricants, or by being too 
tight or too loose, or by the shaft or bearing being 
out of true. There cannot be a fit unless the journals 
are true cylinders, and there is a tendency with gaso- 
line engines to flatten at the points of highest 
pressure. 

In the latter case the bearings must be trued up by 
grinding; the shaft by grinding or filing; and this is 
not a job for the careless or the amateur. It needs 
the machinist's accuracy. As a rule the novice had 
better let all interference with the shape of the bear- 
ings strictly alone and should content himself with 
doing what can be done by means of oil. The treat- 
ment of hot boxes, also babbitting, will be treated 
fully in another chapter. 

180. Gear Wheels. — On almost all makes of gaso- 
line engines will be noticed various small gear wheels, 
cams, push levers and connecting rods. Most of these 
belong to the valve, ignition, and governing systems, 
and are set to mesh accurately with regard to each 
other and the main shaft. To change the set of any 
of them is to court trouble unless the exact purpose 



158 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

of the wheel is fully understood and the change is 
made to correct a previous fault. If for any reason 
one has occasion to remove any of these wheels from 
the shaft he should under no circumstances fail to first 
mark the tooth of a wdieel and the depression into 
which it meshes with its mate. Most engines are so 
marked when they come from the factory ; but some 
are not, and no one can afford to take any chances 
without positively knowing that the marks are already 
there. 

To attempt describing all of these trimmings in 
detail would be to make it necessary to describe 
about every make of engine on the market. By 
keeping in mind the general principles already 
given, a little study of the engine itself will soon 
disclose the purpose of each and how it is 
attained. 

181. Care of These Minor Parts. — They are under 
no strain but that of the usual friction. All the at- 
tention they require as a rule is enough oil to keep 
them always easy to operate, and free from gum and 
dirt. For the slides an occasional dressing of graphite 
is of benefit. Occasionally a w^ashing off with kero- 
sene or turpentine will relieve of gum, and a dressing 
of graphite now and then for the gear wheel teeth 
renders them smoother and causes them to mesh with 
less friction. 

182. Casual Acquaintances. — Almost every engine 
outfit, after it has been in use for a few years, has 
fittings of its own which represent the needs, wisdom 
or whim of the owmer. Self-starters are becoming 
more and more common and, while they are not very 
much needed for engines less than 4 or 5 H. P., and 
are by no means a necessity, even for a considerably 
heavier rating, they are, of course, always a conve- 



Tpie Gasoline Engine on the Farm 159 

nience, providing they are not too complicated and 
costly. 

Gasoline pumps are taking the place of gravity feed 
with stationary and even portable engines. The gaso- 
line is pumped up from a tank in the base of the en- 
gine or from a stationary tank below in such quan- 
tity that there is a constant excess delivered to the 
carburetor; then a return pipe is provided for taking 
the overflow back to the tank. This insures that the 
level in the carburetor remains always constant and 
there is no possibility of engine variations due to fluc- 
tuating supply of fuel. 

A\nien purchasing or considering any uncommon at- 
tachment one should first consider well what it is 
for; whether it was created just to sell or if it really 
fills a place that needs to be filled. If the latter, it is 
wise to next consider whether the work it will do is 
of enough importance to warrant the extra expense, 
the extra care and attention and, most important of 
all, whether it is something that may interfere with the 
working of the engine, either by obstructing the air 
intake or the exhaust or any other part of the system 
that the manufacturers installed, and that, left alone, 
is doing satisfactory service. 



i6o The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 




CHAPTER X. 

SETTING THE ENGINE. 

183. Proper Setting Important. — Gasoline engines 
are practically automatic when properly installed. 
Under less favorable conditions they are only par- 
tially so ; hence, it is important to give them the best 
surroundings possible. 

184. Stationary Foundations. — Stationary founda- 
tions are the most constant in their requirements. 
They also afiford the best chance for meeting the re- 
quirements, and include so many of the ideal condi- 
tions which all foundations should aim to include, that 
they should have our closest study. 

185. The Four-fold Object of a Good Founda- 
tion. — The several purposes of the foundation are to 
support the weight of the engine, to maintain it at 
a fixed position in relation to its work, to protect it 
from outside vibration, as of other moving machinery, 
and to absorb a certain amount of the vibration of the 
engine. A stiff, solid clay bed probably serves this 
four-fold purpose better than any other common sub- 
stance, as it is firm enough to do the work and at 
the same time contains enough elasticity to retard 
the dreaded crystallization which always sets up more 
or less in metals whenever an irresistible force is made 
to batter persistently against a rigid object. 

186. Depth and Nature of Foundation. — Surface 
clay, however, is subject to its own disturbances, so 
the foundation should be carried well below the surface 

161 



1 62 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



by a wall of stone or brick or concrete, the depth 
depending a great deal upon the size of the engine 
and the nature of the ground. Ordinarily a depth of 
three feet will be ample for engines of six H. P. or 
less ; 4 feet for up to twelve H. P. and five feet for as 
heavy an engine as twenty-five horse-power, or as 
large a stationary engine as a farm ever needs. 



Id'- 



-/6- 



-/6' 



f 



=iJ 



-/(T- 



t±i 



nu 



C|/l 



-=M 



3f"- 



^S4"- 



-56" 



f—V-^t^ 



t? 



IB 



-fO'- 



b 



^ 



Fig. 58. — Gasoline Engine Base Plan to Show Amount of Space 
and Holes Needed for Installation. 



187. The Foundation Blue Print. — Every station- 
ary engine sale should include a foundation blue print 
prepared at the factory. The lines of this are nearly 
always measured off from two base lines, one of which 
follows the center of the crank shaft and the other 
represents the center lines of the crank shaft and 
cylinder. In a horizontal engine these lines are at 
right angles to each other and parallel to the plane 
of the foundation. 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



163 




164 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

188. Tying Engine to Foundation. — The operative 
strength of the best foundation is only as great in 
relation to the engine as that of the ties which bind 
them together. But it is occasionally necessary to 
loosen an engine from its foundation, and the fasten- 
ings must be such as may be released with the least 
amount of labor, while at the same time making it 
possible to secure the engine as firmly as possible 
whenever that is desired. This double consideration 
is usually attained by means of long bolts set in the 
concrete and extending through the engine bed and 
almost through the entire concrete foundation, of 
which they are virtually a part. 

189. Material Needed for Foundation. — In addi- 
tion to the sand, gravel and cement needed for filling 
the foundation pit, the work requires as many long 
bolt rods as there are bolt holes in the bed of the 
engine, two heavy cast washers for each bolt, with 
nuts ; a length of gas pipe for each bolt, and a quan- 
tity of inch boards for the templet. 

190. Preparing Material. — Let us suppose we are 
to put in a three-foot foundation for a small engine. 
Each bolt should be just long enough to reach through 
the engine bed, two cast washers of suitable size, and 
two nuts (if the bolt is merely a rod threaded at each 
end and without head, three nuts will be required), 
besides all but a few inches of the concrete founda- 
tion. As it is hard to get such long bolts, a good 
way is to obtain an iron rod of proper size to fit the 
bolt holes, have it cut into lengths by a blacksmith, 
one end threaded for nut and two or three inches of 
the other end turned sharply at right angles for a 
head. 

For each bolt provide a gas pipe covering, the in- 
side diameter of which is at least one-half inch larger 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



i6s 



than the bolt. These pipes should reach from the 
head of the bolt (or the washer at the head, if one 
is used), to the surface of the concrete only. 

igi. Making the Templet. — The foundation tem- 
plet is usually made of one-inch boards, and in the 
form of a rectangular parallelogram, about four inches 
wider and longer than the size of the engine bed. This 
represents the surface of the completed foundation and 
provides for a two-inch projection all around beyond 
the iron frame. Lay off on this the line AB (see Fig. 



^;^^1^^:^.^>>C^^f^* 


111 
1 1. 1 


/4 

1: i 

1 
>- 




i ^ ::i 



Fig. 6o. — Templet for Locating Bolt Holes. 



58), along the center, corresponding with the center 
of the engine cylinder as on the blue print. Measure 
off on this line from each end the distance between 
bolt hole and end in blue print, then add the two-inch 
allowance for projection. That is, if the bolt holes 
are four inches from the end in the blue print lay 
them off six inches from the end of the templet, meas- 
uring along the line AB ; and at these points on that 
line draw lines at right angles to the AB or base line. 
Locate bolt holes on these lines and bore holes in 
templet a trifle larger than the bolts. Slip washer 
down to head of bolt, then put on length of pipe, in- 
sert threaded end through templet from under side, 



i66 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

put on upper washer and nut and draw templet tight 
between nut and shoulder made by pipe. 

192. Making a Frame. — The frame of small engines 
is usually thick enough to raise the fly wheel clear of 
the floor, but it is best to build the concrete founda- 
tion a few inches above the surface and, in order to 
have this form square, a frame is necessary. Some 
2 by 4-inch stuff is about right, the two side pieces 
being somewhat longer than the foundation for con- 
venience in lifting. The top of this frame will be on 
an exact level with the top of the foundation and upon 
it we will lay the templet, the bolts extending down- 
ward into the pit below. The frame must then be 
shifted until square with the lines on the templet, 
the latter, of course, being placed to exactly conform 
Vv^ith the position to be occupied by the engine. 

193. Filling the Pit. — Having fastened the frame 
in place by means of stakes, remove the templet and 
fill the pit up about a foot with concrete made from 
about seven parts of clean sharp gravel (crushed stone 
is better) to one of good cement. Tamp this firmly 
and then replace templet, squaring the lines carefully 
again with shafting, sides of building or any other 
lines in relation to which the engine should be square ; 
also see that the frame has not been moved. Fasten 
templet on frame and continue filling, tamping down 
as needed. When near the top change proportion of 
concrete to about five to one. Continue this until 
within three or four inches from top of frame ; then 
remove nuts and washers and lift off templet, being 
careful not to disturb the pipes encasing the bolts. 
Fill to the top of frame with clean sand and cement 
in about the proportion of two to one. The founda- 
tion should now be left to harden thoroughly. 

194. Placing the Engine. — To set a heavy engine 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 167 

upon a fresh cement foundation, without doing mis- 
chief, requires care. Raise engine upon blocks at one 
end of foundation and about six inches above it, the 
block being topped by two planks long enough to in- 
clude both the engine and the foundation. Holes or 
notches may have to be made in these planks to avoid 
the bolt ends. Slip small rollers under engine, across 
the plank, and work the engine slowly over its place 
on the foundation. Keep blocking in front of the rol- 
lers constantly to prevent any possibility of the en- 
gine getting away. As one roller comes to a bolt end, 
slip another in ahead of the bolt and remove the first. 

195. The Final Setting. — When the engine is ap- 
proximately in position, lower gradually until the bolts 
are all engaged in their respective holes in the engine 
frame, then the engine should be carefully lined up 
with any shafting which it is expected to work to 
when set. The use of the pipes around bolts will now 
be appreciated, as they give far greater latitude in 
this shifting or in correcting slight errors than could 
possibly be had with bolts set rigidly in concrete. 

196. Locking the Bolts in Place. — When the en- 
gine is finally placed, flow a mixture of water and pure 
cement into each pipe until it is full, then, without 
shifting it, lower engine upon the concrete, give the 
lines a final test and leave the engine undisturbed for 
a couple of days until the cement hardens in the pipes 
around the bolts. The result will be a job that is 
permanent, and as perfect, mechanically, as the skill 
and care of the workman have seen fit to produce. 

197. Lining Up. — Mention has been made of lining 
up with a line shaft. Where the engine is installed in 
some building in which machinery has been previously 
run this may be necessary, though it is usually best 
to set the engine first and then line the shafting to 



1 68 



The Gasoline Engine on the Far 



M 




The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 169 

it. To the amateur lining to a shaft may prove a little 
difficult. Two methods are in common use, the over- 
head and the floor method. In the former, a straight- 
edge is tacked lightly over the shaft and from one 
edge, at a distance of six or eight feet from each other, 
two plumb bobs are suspended. The straightedge is 
then shifted until each of these lines clears the side of 
the shaft in passing it by exactly the same distance, 
say one inch. Never undertake to drop the lines so 
they will be in contact with the shaft, as one or the 
other is almost certain to be slightly deflected by the 
contact to some extent — just how much is all guess- 
work. 

Slide the engine into approximately its correct posi- 
tion ; remove plumb bobs from first straightedge and 
fasten them to a second located above the crank shaft 
of the engine. Measure off on the ceiling equal dis- 
tances between the ends of these two straightedges ; 
then shift engine until the two plumb bobs clear crank 
shaft b}'^ the same amount. If the work has been 
accurately done the crank shaft will be exactly paral- 
lel with the line shaft. If the plumb lines trouble 
by swaying in the wind, let the bobs swing into pails 
of water. This steadies them and at the same time 
does not interfere with their taking their proper 
positions. 

198. Leveling the Engine. — This would not be dif- 
ficult if the top of the foundation was made perfectly 
level and no variation in the engine frame, but neither 
of these conditions may be absolutely true. 

It is the crank shaft always that must be level ; the 
rest of the engine has been built to that. In the en- 
gine's longitudinal direction, the setting is of less im- 
portance, the preference being that the combustion end 
of the cylinder in a horizontal engine be a trifle the 



170 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



highest in order to incline the lubricating oils toward 
the other end. If there is room to use a level on the 
crank shaft the work is simple, but there is not always 
room. In such cases it is sometimes necessary to take 
readings from the level applied to the rim of the fly 
wheel turned in different positions. If all correspond, 
the face of the wheel is true, and, by bringing it to a 
correct vertical line, the shaft will be level, the engine 
being held in position by means of thin wedges in- 
serted before the nuts are fully tightened. 

199. Other Foundations and Their Failings. — Many 
less substantial foundations are in use, and giving fair 




Fig. 62. — Alethod of Reinforcing Wooden Floors, 



to excellent satisfaction. Wooden timbers are often 
used, so are iron girders, reinforced wooden floors, 
even the earth, scraped smooth. Vibration troubles 
are almost sure to develop some time when an engine 
is set directly upon a floor of ordinary strength. 
Girders are rather expensive for small engines and too 
rigid for large ones, the crystallization danger being in- 
troduced. Direct earth foundations are unexcelled as 
vibration absorbers but are apt to collect too much 
dampness for the good of the machinery, besides being 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 171 

subject to changes from frost and other causes that 
throw the machinery out of line. 

200. A Unique Foundation. — Perhaps the simplest 
and most unusual foundation is the so-called vacuum 
or sheet rubber foundation, in which a thick sheet of 
rubber is spread upon the bare ground or floor. The 
pressure from the weight of the engine, it is claimed, 
binds this to the engine and the ground as firmly as 
bolts would and at the same time deadens the vibra- 
tion and reduces the running strain to the minimum. 
These foundations are still to be regarded as an ex- 
periment and not many of them are yet in use. 




Fig. 63. — A Gasoline Engine Driven Concrete Mixer. 

201. Portable Foundations. — Portable foundations 
are never as satisfactory as stationary, because they 
are not as secure. Only the small engine requires them 
usually, and the strain is not great enough to be exact- 
ing. Many of the smaller sizes are bolted to light sills 
Avith handles at each end and may be picked up and 



172 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

carried by two men. When running, they should be 
secured with floor hooks or by some form of staking 
down. Even wheelbarrow foundations are on the 
market ; then there are light engines designed for using 
on a binder and for such auxiliary work, that may be 
fastened almost anywhere by means of hooks or bolts 
or some special form of frame. For the larger sizes 
sills are often provided, each end of which is shaped 
like a sled-runner ; then it is little trouble to hitch a 
horse to either end and move the engine about at 
will. 




Fig. 64. — A Gasoline Engine Driven Stone Crusher. 

202. Mounted Engines. — IMounted engines of 
course add to the convenience of moving the engine 
about, as they also add to both the cost and the vibra- 
tion. No stationary engine should be purchased for 
this style of mounting without first finding out whether 
it is available for such a purpose. Some engines would 
produce so much vibration that half of their power 
would be destroyed. Others may be set without other 
support upon an empty barrel, without any display of 
unsteadiness. 

Where the engine is mounted on wheels, braces 
should be hinged at each end of the trucks and forced 
into place while the engine is running empty. If the 
coupling is long the sills should be very heavy or a 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



173 



jack-screw set under a cross-piece near the middle. 
Often the power of the engine will be increased at 
least a third by jacking up and making a vibrating 




Fig. 65. — A Wheeled Foundation Needed for Tractor hngi 



foundation more rigid. For tractor foundations see 
chapters on the traction engine. 

203. Shelter. — There is nothing about a gasoline 
engine except the ignition system that requires greater 
protection from the weather than a steam engine ought 
to have. Shelter pays with any engine and, where 
water is allowed free access to the ignition system of 
the gasoline engine, short-circuiting is almost sure to 
follow. The batteries must be kept dry. Water in the 
coil or spark plug may short-circuit quite as thor- 
oughly as a misplaced wire. Outside wires are sup- 
posed to be comparatively water-proof ; btit so is a 
safe fire-proof; if the fire is not too hot and long con- 
tinued. The elements wdll break through any ordinary 
protection in the course of time, and the water-proof- 
ing about the average engine is provided against 
emergencies, and not for continuous service. 



174 Tpie Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

Any engine, stationary, portable, or tractor, de- 
serves shelter and will pay for it in extra service. 
Nothing elaborate is required; just something that 
will turn wind and water; still, the double walls and 
dead air spaces of cement block structures present 
arguments of economy if the engine is to be used much 
in cold w^eather. Once started, it will furnish its own 
heat, but not always wholly from waste heat, or at 
least some of that spent in regulating temperature 
might otherwise have been used in creating power. 
Besides, a farm can make use of the waste heat usu- 
ally in cold weather, if the operator is ingenious. 

Whatever kind of enclosure is used, it should be 
something that will exclude dust, and it should be kept 
clean within. Dust may do as much harm to the gaso- 
line engine through the intake pipe as bad air can 
to the human lungs. Air taken from an elevation is 
best, away from the gases of the workshop and the 
stables ; but the pipe must be of ample size to insure 
against excessive friction. The power of the engine 
can be almost destroyed by limiting the supply of 
good, pure air. A long pipe no larger than the in- 
take or one with many turns is almost certain to give 
trouble. 

204. Fittings of the Engine Room. — There is more 
danger of having too many tools and supplies in the 
engine room than of not having enough, but no room 
can be kept in order unless there is special provi- 
sion for all that has to be kept there. Every engine 
room should be provided with closed shelves or cup- 
boards, and a few drawers. Devote one shelf entirely 
to the various wrenches needed about the engine, and 
then regard every wrench found out of its regular 
place, when not in use, as so much misplaced matter 
that should be set back where it belono-s. Another 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 175 

shelf may contain hammer, punch, cold chisels, files, 
etc. This should be locked and the key mislaid in 
order to give time for a second thought before apply- 
ing any of these harsher tools to the engine. A shelf- 
ful of supplies will be needed for the ignition sys- 
tem ; wire pliers, an ammeter, some insulated wire, 
a coil of No. 10 or 12 bare copper wire, a pair of rub- 
ber gloves or overshoes, and an extra cell or two for 
the battery. Most engines are sent out with an ex- 
tra spark plug. Keep this and all other electrical sup- 
plies on its own shelf, and NOT in the battery box. 

Frame the directions sent out by the factory with 
the engine and hang on the wall under glass, or else 
with a treatment of spar varnish ; then do not be too 
proud to consult them when in doubt. The man who 
made the engine knows some things about it that it 
is no disgrace for the man who runs it to have to 
learn. A drawer should also be given to all the printed 
price-lists of parts, or any other literature pertaining 
to the engine. Even the selling claims may help 
determine what may reasonably be required of it. 
Don't be afraid to consult the engine company's lit- 
erature, and to study it frequently. 

205. Storing Oil in the Engine Room. — One com- 
partment which should be kept closed from the en- 
gine room excepting when in actual use, and venti- 
lated from outside, should be lined with sheet iron, 
tin or zinc. An oil-tight tray at the bottom should 
be provided to catch any drip and to prevent disagree- 
able oily bottoms on jugs and cans, a sheet of cor- 
rugated roofing, with liberal perforations, may be 
fitted in just above the tray. In this compartment 
should be stored a large can or barrel of the best 
gasoline-engnie cylinder oil, and fitted near the bottom 
with a faucet and a funnel that is small enough to con- 



176 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

duct oil directly into the oiling can ; a similar can of 
good lubricating oil, for the bearings, a pot of best 
tested grease, and one of graphite ; also, a small can 
of kerosene, and of gasoline for cleaning purposes. 
Keep this compartment as clean as possible, but re- 
member that it is not possible to keep it as clean as 
the rest of the premises should be. x-\ box of drawers 
for waste should be close at hand, with a separate 
metal-lined tight drawer, for partly used waste and 
oily cloths. This should be small, so there will not be 
room for any great accumulation and it should be 
strictly fire-proof against any fire likely to occur in 
its own contents. 

206. The Work Bench. — A small work bench and 
vise are convenient, but nothing elaborate enough to 
attract general farm repair work to the engine room. 
A limited supply of nails, bolts, and rivets in drawers 
is advisable, also a rack for a few lengths of water 
and gas pipe, with drawers below for the couplings. 

207. The Engine Room Floor. — For the stationary 
engine a cement or wooden floor is better than earth, 
because it can be scrubbed out when necessary. 
Where a tractor is housed, grade up enough to insure 
complete surface drainage, and use gravel or plank 
for the run-way. A large door at both sides is a 
great convenience. If a plank floor is used, a pit for 
standing while at work under the tractor is a great 
convenience though not absolutely necessary, as a 
farm tractor does not run close to the ground like a 
locomotive. 

208. Ventilation. — Ventilation is of great im- 
portance in the farm engine house, even though the air 
supply for the engine is drawn from outside. There 
is always the possibility of a gasoline leak, and an 
air-tight building is a constant invitation to disaster. 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 177 

Window ventilation should be provided, but is not 
enough. A three-foot surface of grating should be let 
into the two opposite sides of the room and these left 
open constantly when the room is not in use. Dur- 
ing the severest weather, when the personal comfort 
of the operator requires it, they may be closed with 
hinged shutters inside. As the pump from the main 
gasoline supply tank should be located in this room, 
any leak which ever occurs in the system is pretty 
certain to find an outlet in this room. Because of this, 
as well as to prevent tampering with the engine, it is 
safest to keep the engine room locked when the oper- 
ator is not there. 

209. The Engine Room Lineshaft. — Where a sta- 
tionary engine and a tractor are both used, it is a 
good plan to run a lineshaft through the engine room, 
to which the tractor, when not in use elsewhere, can 
be belted. During the winter months, when much of 
the inside engine work of the heavier sort will be 
needed, one can then have plenty of power and at 
the same time have the advantages which the small 
engine for some purposes offers over a large one. Care 
must be taken in belting two engines to one shaft 
that the proportion between the driver and the driven 
wheels be figured out correctly, so that both engines 
will be driving the shaft at the same number of revo- 
lutions per minute ; otherwise there will be a good deal 
of lost energy and unnecessary strain of belt and ma- 
chinery. If the two engines can be located near op- 
posite ends of the shaft a good deal of torsion strain 
is saved. A better plan is to use a loose pulley next to 
each driving member and run the belt from either 
small engine or tractor free, driving from only one 
engine. 

210. The Mission of Paint. — This is not different 



178 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

from its mission around all kinds of farm machinery 
which is exposed to hard weather or usage condi- 
tions. In general, paint is intended to protect the sur- 
face to which it is applied from atmospheric chemi- 
cal action ; but it has been discovered that electrical 
action may be even more destructive, and in the paint- 
ing of metals it is highly important to take this into 
consideration. One of the very best paints for pro- 
tecting iron from rust is red lead, but to use it is to 
turn a small electric battery at work, tearing the iron 
to pieces wherever a porous place or a crack admits 
the atmosphere and moisture. Theoretically, a good 
oil varnish is the best possible covering for iron, if 
the iron is absolutely clean when painted. The var- 
nish will not adhere to rusty, greasy, or w^et iron, and 
its contraction while drying opens up minute cracks 
over the imperfectly coated spots and the work of 
destruction will continue unsuspected under the 
painted surface. In order to render the iron entirely 
waterproof, the varnish must be absolutely dry be- 
fore exposure to the weather. 

Iron can be cleaned of the grease and gum with 
which an engine is so frequently coated by thoroughly 
covering with turpentine for a few hours, floating the 
liquid on freely and frequently until the gum breaks 
down. Kerosene and gasoline are sometimes used for 
this purpose, but turpentine is better. Concentrated 
lye will sometimes succeed where other methods have 
failed, as it unites with the grease to form soap, and 
that is easily removed. The lye must afterwards be 
cleaned oft' very thoroughly before painting. 

211. Painting the Muffler. — For painting the muf- 
fler or pipes that are subject to severe heat, mix equal 
parts by vv^eight of Japan varnish and boiled linseed oil. 
For each half-pound of this mixture add slowly and 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 179 

in succession, while stirring briskly, one and one-half 
ounces of lamp black, the same of pure powdered 
graphite, and three-eighths of an ounce of powdered 
oxide of manganese. Thin down with turpentine, and 
paint at once. As this paint dries very fast, the muf- 
fler must be cleaned before the paint is mixed. Stir 
constantly while painting, and apply while the muf- 
fler is hot. 

212. Engine Room Abominations. — The loafer is 
always an abomination and especially when around 
machinery. Power producing plants seem to be spe- 
cially attractive to this class of people who appear to 
have so little business of their own, and the boiler or 
engine room of many a factory has ever been the favor- 
ite loafing place of the chronic story-teller. Avoid 
him by making no provision for his entertainment. 
The engine room is a place for business only. Chairs, 
boxes, benches are all out of place there. There is 
no necessity for the operator to remain standing 
longer at a time than his feet will sustain him and no 
one else has any business there ; not as a long time 
fixture. 

213. And a Few Cautions. — Nor is the chronic 
loafer the only one who likes to hang around engines. 
Often it is young boys, who seem to take to them by 
nature and who frequently, if the occasion presents, 
sometimes through mischief, but more through mis- 
directed curiosity and overconfidence, subject the en- 
gine to so many readjustments that the owner learns 
many new things in engine management before he is 
ever able to start up again. The spirit of mechanical 
investigation ought to be encouraged in the boys but 
they should also be impressed with the fact that all 
engine management must be under certain fixed rules 
and that only those who are first familiar with the 



i8o The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

rules know how to apply them. There is only one way 
for anyone to make this impression a fixed certainty, 
by knowing when people not connected with the farm 
are around the engine, who they are and what they 
are doing; that is by taking the same precautions 
which circumstances would make necessary in pro- 
tecting a new horse or any other attractive purchase. 
214. Eliminating the Danger Risk. — The rapidly 
revolving flywheel of the average engine when vised 
in exposed places introduces an element of danger to 
the onlooker that should be carefully guarded against 
by making a light frame of iron pipe or wood mem- 
bers to enclose the revolving member. If this has 
walls of poultry wire to enclose the mechanism, this 
precaution will prevent any projecting ends of cloth- 
ing from becoming caught in the flywheel. The hot 
exhaust pipe, too, is often a source of menace and 
should be covered with asbestos lagging to prevent 
inopportune burns. 



CHAPTER XL 
THE FUEL SUPPLY. 

215. Gasoline, and Its Nature. — Perhaps more 
people are killed or injured annually by gasoline 
through ignorance of its true character than by any 
other industrial agent; yet, properly handled, it is no 
more dangerous than water. At 40° a lighted match 
thrown on its surface would be extinguished. At 
90° it might be ; it certainly would be in liquid gaso- 
line or pure gasoline vapor. 

216. Its True Value and Danger. — Liquid gasoline 
will not ignite from flame at ordinary temperatures, 
but far less heat than that from a burning match will, 
if favorably placed, be enough to convert it rapidly 
into a gas which, mixed with the oxygen of the air, 
is very highly inflammable. This tendency to vaporize 
so readily, in fact at any temperature a few degrees 
above freezing, is what makes gasoline so readily 
available for engine use. As more heat is applied, the 
vaporizing becomes more rapid. An open dish of 
gasoline in the sunlight where a brisk current of 
warm air passes over it will evaporate so rapidly as 
to present the appearance of boiling. So the current 
of air passing over its surface in the carburetor car- 
ries a mixture of the readily formed gas along with it 
into the engine cylinder. 

217. Pure Gasoline Vapor Non-inflammable. — By 
itself, gasoline vapor will not ignite ; it requires the 
presence of oxygen, which it gets from the air. About 

181 



i82 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

one part of vapor to eight of air makes the ideal mix- 
ture for thorough combustion theoretically, though, on 
account of atmospheric impurities, one part to twelve 
of air is more nearly the proportion in actual prac- 
tice. Only a little variation either way destroys the 
combustible properties of the mixture. 

218. How Gasoline Is Obtained. — Gasoline is one 
of the most volatile products from crude petroleum, 
coming over as one of the first by-products in the 
process of distillation. It was formicrly counted of 
little or no value, 5c. per gal. being a good price. No 
mention is made of it in the 1890 Census report on 
the Mineral Industries of the United States, all the 
distillations from petroleum being classed together as 
naphtha. Its rise in commercial importance may be 
referred almost wholly to the development of the gaso- 
line engine. 

It is a colorless liquid of highly characteristic odor, 
the latter quality serving for a highly fortunate warn- 
ing as to its presence in case of a leak. Its specific 
gravity varies and it is considerably lighter than 
water, as it will float on its surface without mixing. 

219. Grade. — All gasoline used for engine purposes 
had formerly to pass the Baume test around 70° to 74°, 
76° being the highest grade. Owing to the increased 
demand and scarcity, it has been recently announced 
that nothing better than 64° gasoline will be supplied 
through the general market. This is only two degrees 
above the limit below which the product is no longer 
called gasoline, but carburetor construction has ad- 
vanced so much in recent years that this lower stand- 
ard will probably give no serious trouble ; in fact, 
not only kerosene but the distillates are coming into 
quite general engine use. Some of these low grade 
products stand higher in thermal value than gasoline. 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 183 

but they are more difficult to vaporize and contain 
more solid matter like carbon. 

220. Tests. — Quality tests are less important now 
than when the best of carburetors could only vaporize 
the best of gasoline ; still, there are times when a few 
simple tests are convenient. 

The volatile qualities may be determined by pouring 
a few drops into the hand and noting how quickly the 
liquid disappears. With 74° gasoline the hand should 
be dry in from seven to ten seconds. Sixty-two de- 
grees gasoline should require from a quarter to a half 
minute ; the lower grade products even longer time. 
Any unevaporated residue remaining in the hand 
means some non-volatile substance, and trouble for 
the engine. If the residue is sticky, the gasoline is 
of a grade unsuitable for engine use, or else it has 
been adulterated. 

Water can readily be discovered by pouring the 
liquid into glass. The water will sink to the bottom 
and a sharp line of division will be seen. 

221. A Good Storage System. — A good storage sys- 
tem without leaks is the best insurance policy in the 
handling of gasoline. Without this, no other sort of 
insurance will avail. Barrels and tanks stored care- 
lessly in barns for even a day are not to be tolerated. 
Gasoline is far more difficult than water to confine and, 
aside from the danger, a very small leak may permit 
the escape of as much gasoline as an engine would 
use. An underground tank is best, where the temper- 
ature is cool and unvarying. Three pipes should con- 
nect with the surface ; the one terminating in a gaso- 
line pump ; a second ending in a plate and plug through 
which the tank can be refilled, and the third, a smaller 
pipe, for ventilating purposes, should be discharged 
in the air several feet above the ground, where the 



i84 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



gasoline vapors will be diluted before reaching the 
ground, where there might be danger of ignition. 
Fresh air will enter the tank through this pipe to re- 
place any gasoline drawn out but the heavier gaso- 




FiG. 66. — A Bowser Gasoline Storage System. 



line vapors will not rise up and escape from it unless 
driven out by internal pressure. While the tank is 
being refilled these vapors, mixed with air, are forced 
out and form almost an ideal source for an explo- 
sion. ONE OF THE GREATEST GASOLINE 
DANGERS IS FROM THE VAPORS DRIVEN 
OUT OF THE VENT PIPE AND CONTAINED 
IN THE PIPE WHILE THE TANK IS BEING 
REFILLED. Fire and lights of all kinds must AL- 
WAYS be kept at a distance while filling a tank. 

222. A Good Tank. — The tank should be cylin- 
drical. Copper is best for the smaller sizes, but for 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



a large tank steel does very well. Galvanized iron 
is often used, but zinc coatings are sensitive to the 
sulphuric and other acids used in breaking up the 
petroleum to increase the yield of gasoline. This 
causes a sediment that may at any time close up a feed 
pipe, and the metal itself is sooner or later perforated 
by that most dangerous of "pin-hole" leaks. These 



'Suction pipe 
jeadinO to pump. 



Double tapped bushing__^ 

Suction pipe flange 
connection 



Union e'lbow 



Lock filler cap 




-Inner filler pipe 
Filler pipe 
^-niler pipe flange 
connection ^ 



Double'* brass 
foot' 

Fig. 6j. — Bowser Gasoline Storage Tank With Convenient 
Fittings. 



acids do not attack tin, and a heavily tinned tank, as 
nearly seamless as possible, makes a first class recep- 
tacle. 

223. The Foundation. — Tanks should be solidly 
placed on broad bearings and rigid foundations. A 
hundred-gallon tank when full weighs something like 
800 pounds, and the foundations should be planned 
not only to support this weight, but to so distribute it 
that not all the strain will come upon one portion of 
the tank. 

224. The Connections. — Flexible copper tubing of 
not less than ^-inch inside diameter is the best con- 



i86 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

nector with the carburetor, as it resists vibrations of 
the engine better than soldered joints. Brass pipe 
with threaded fittings well shellacked are satisfactory, 
while flared tube unions make excellent joints. Heavy 
lead pipe at least ^ inch is easily worked, and will 
give good service if not exposed to blows and 
bruises. 

225. The Joints. — Joint leaks are specially hard to 
locate and produce leakage of gasoline. Several firms 
make a specialty of gasoline fittings, and the standard 
ground union made by one of these is excellent; also 
one with two flat surfaces to be drawn together, with 
a paper gasket set in shellac. A well made globe valve 
or a ground pet cock answ^ers the purpose nicely, and 
has the advantage of having no gland with packing. 
Some such closing device should always be placed be- 
tween the supply tank and the carburetor to shut ofT 
the gasoline when the engine is not running. To de- 
pend upon the carburetor alone is very unsafe. 

226. Guarding the Feed Pipe. — The bottom of the 
filling pipe should be provided with a good screen 
strainer, and another should guard the mouth of the 
small feed pipe leading to the carburetor. This is 
small in diameter, and a very small scale or grain of 
dirt in this may be enough to put the engine out of 
business and provide plenty of business for the oper- 
ator. 

227. Gasoline Dangers. — Nearly all gasoline 
dangers consist of either leaks or carelessness. With 
a good storage system properly installed, the careful 
engine owner need have no fear. No gasoline engine 
ever exploded, and never did a steam engine. Gaso- 
line tanks and steam boilers sometimes "burst" when 
outside heat raises the internal pressure beyond safety 
limits ; but gasoline itself is quite as non-explosive 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 187 

in the true sense as is steam. The terms explosion 
stroke, explosion chamber, etc., are all misnomers 
which are justified only by popular use. Gasoline 
vapors, mixed with the proper amount of air, will ig- 
nite and burn with almost violent eagerness. A dry 
pine stick will burn more rapidly than green bass- 
wood ; neither the pine nor the gasoline becomes a 
true explosive because the combustion is more rapid 
than that of something else with which we see fit to 
compare it. There is a vast chemical difference be- 
tween even the most rapid combustion and explo- 
sion ; hence gasoline should never be classed with ni- 
tro-glycerine, dynamite, gun cotton, nitrogen chlo- 
ride, or any of the true explosives. 

228. Gasoline Not Inflammable.- — Neither is gaso- 
line inflammable in its pure state. A bucketful of 
gasoline dashed on a fire might extinguish it as quickly 
as a pail of water would ; still gasoline is not intended 
for a fire extinguisher, and this property is here re- 
ferred to in order to emphasize the foolishness of ap- 
plying it to all things that it might be used for, but 
for which it was never intended. In order to quench 
a fire the liquid must be present in such excessive 
quantity that its own temperature remains low until 
the fire is out ; otherwise the heat would vaporize it 
and convert it into a gas which, mixed with air, 
might become inflammable before the liquid had time 
to quench the flame. This same thing may happen in 
extinguishing fire with water, the water being decom- 
posed, in the presence of carbon (charcoal and burned 
wood), to carbon monoxide or water gas. This actually 
happened at the great Chicago fire ; but the tempera- 
ture at which water is thus acted upon is so high that 
the fire which reaches that temperature is very excep- 
tional. 



i88 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

229. The Exact Danger Point in Gasoline. — Let us 

imagine gasoline and its vapors composed of several 
distinct layers or zones piled one upon another. The 
bottom layer is the liquid itself; that will not ignite. 
Directly above it is a layer of pure gasoline vapor 
which contains no oxygen, and cannot take fire. In 
the zone next higher a small proportion of air is mixed, 
though not nearly enough to support combustion. Let 
us now begin at the other side of our pile. Some- 
where above this gasoline we know there must be a 
place which the vapors have not reached. Here we 
have pure air. Just below is a belt where there is a 
mere trace of gasoline ; not enough to burn ; but the 
next zone below is a little stronger. Now if the top 
of our pile consists of pure air and the bottom of pure 
gasoline, it is evident that at some place between these 
two belts is a spot where the mixture is exactly right 
to support the most complete combustion of which the 
air and gas are capable. It is also certain that a 
lighted match dropped downward from above must 
reach this inflammable zone before it comes to one so 
dense in gasoline vapor as to extinguish it. It ignites 
that zone and the disturbance so far mixes all those 
nearer to it that almost the entire vapor pile becomes 
in an instant a mass of burning gas, the heat and cur- 
rent from which almost as quickly convert the liquid 
itself into seething flame. 

230. Small Danger in Tank from Natural 
Causes. — L'nless the gasoline is being subjected to 
more than normal heat or the air and vapors above 
it are agitated and mixed by some mechanical means, 
the proportion of inflammable mixture existing at one 
time in a closed tank is very small. The greatest dan- 
ger consists of its ready abilit}^ to mix up an inflam- 
mable proportion out of the surrounding material. 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



189 



The air enclosed in a tank soon becomes saturated, 
and not inflammable; hence there is practically no 
danger of a flame from the engine following the tube 




Fig. 



58.— Bowser Underground Tank 
Attached. 



With Pleasuring Pump 



back to the tank. The liquid gasoline in it would pre- 
vent, or, if it did not, there would be nothing inflam- 
mable in the tank. 



igo The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

231. Rules for Safety. — Gasoline can, however, be 
easily made dangerous ; and a great many people are 
getting hurt through ignorance or carelessness in its 
management. It is always the free gasoline outside 
the tank that causes trouble ; that which has leaked 
out or been purposely drawn and exposed to the air. 
Leaks should constantly be watched for. When found 
they should be remedied at once. 

No poorly ventilated room through which gasoline 
pipes pass should ever be entered with an open light 
until the air is tested for gasoline vapor. For most 
people, the nose is a partial test and one which should 
not be disregarded. Never bring a light into a room 
where there is a noticeable smell of gasoline. 

Gasoline vapors are much heavier than air, and will 
be strongest usually near the floor ; hence the room 
should be ventilated from below. 

The leak that is searched for Avith a lighted match 
will surely be found, but the searcher may not be. 

Gasoline may be evaporated in an open dish by 
boiling without ignition, but as soon as the heavy 
vapors settle down to the flame, the room will make a 
first class combustion chamber for one power impulse 
only. 

One of the commonest dangers m the handling of 
gasoline is its use in small quantities for cleaning 
purposes, after w^hich it is discarded into the sink 
or slop bucket, where it will surely come to the sur- 
face and vaporize. In time, enough of the heavy 
vapor is likely to accumulate in the lower part of the 
room to spell disaster. 

Gasoline should never be drawn from a common 
spigot or poured from one vessel in the presence of 
flame, as the process exposes a large surface to vapor- 
ization and the fumes come ofl:* rapidly. For this rea- 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 191 

son gasoline should never be drawn in the presence of 
another person, who is liable at any instant to care- 
lessly light a cigar. 

Gasoline, in fact, should not be poured at all ; it is 
too wasteful. If drawn from a barrel, lower a length 
of rubber hose into the barrel, then pinch the end 
tightly between the fingers and draw out until the 
outer end of the hose reaches below the level of gaso- 
line ; then release the end and siphon out the desired 
quantity. 

232. Two Fundamental Rules. — ist. Avoid evapo- 
ration as much as possible by keeping the gasoline in 
a cool place and away from any but saturated air. 

2nd. See that all vapor or air space in the storage 
system is kept constantly at the saturation stage. 
This can always be assured by keeping all tanks, pipes 
and joints constantly tight and a supply of liquid gaso- 
line within them. 

233. Common Risks and Errors. — Do not expect to 
locate a small leak by dripping liquid, or even by mois- 
ture around it. In such quantities it is the nature of 
gasoline to vaporize and become invisible the moment 
the air is reached. .^ 

Do not use a dirty stick to measure the depth of 
the gasoline in the tank. It may result in a clogged 
pipe. Keep a clean rod in a clean place for that pur- 
pose, and have the scale in inches and fractions 
marked at its lower end. Some lower a glass tube, 
open at both ends, then close the upper end with the 
finger and draw out and note the height of gasoline in 
the tube. 

Do not use the same funnel for gasoline, lubricating 
oil, and kerosene. These are sometimes fed to the en- 
gine in mixture, but each funnel develops dirt enough 
of its own. 



192 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

Rubber tubing is not suitable for piping gasoline, 
kerosene or lubricating oil. The first dissolves it 
readily, while oil and the fatty remnants of oil left be- 
hind when kerosene evaporates soon rot the life out of 
rubber. Specially treated hose is furnished for such 
purposes. 

All gasoline joints should be unfailingly made up in 
shellac. A single joint that is merely "good enough to 
answer" may defeat all the other precautions and ren- 
der them care and money thrown away. 

Unfiltered gasoline is very likely to cause a trouble- 
some interview with the intake pipe or carburetor 
sooner or later. 

Never forget that the greatest danger about a gaso- 
line tank is the process of filling it; while the satu- 
rated air is being displaced by the inrushing liquid and 
forced into the open air to be diluted to the most com- 
bustible point. Then the cigar-lighter gets in his 
deadliest work. 

Wire screen strainers alone are not enough protec- 
tion from dirt. The needle valve is small and easily 
clogged. A chamois skin at some convenient part of 
the system not t©o remote from the carburetor is a 
great trouble saver. 

Do not attempt to solder a spot in a galvanized 
tank that has rusted through. Occasionally it pays, 
but it is usually a waste of time. 

The gasoline that has stood for some time in the 
carburetor of an idle engine may lose its more vola- 
tile elements and become useless as an engine 
starter. Better drain the carburetor and renew the 
supply. 

Make it a rule never to draw gasoline at night under 
conditions where a light from a naked flame is neces- 
sary. The occasional exception may not prove dis- 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 193 

astrous, but it will soon become the rule and serious 
consequences are sure to follow — some time. 

A bottle of mushy yellow shellac and a few strips 
of cloth should be in every gasoline engine repair 
chest. This will repair a leaky union temporarily 
without shutting down the engine until the run is 




Fig, 69. — Simple Gasoline Tank Gauge. 



finished. Som.etimes, when this fails, relief may be 
obtained by shutting off the gasoline, unscrewing the 
union, and making up the joint in soap or graphite. 

Remember always that, aside from the danger, even 
a small leak may consume gasoline faster than the 
engine does. 

234. Gasoline Fires; How to Handle Them. — The 
most important thing to do with a gasoline fire is to 
prevent it, and the next thing is to smother it out by 
cutting off the air supply, or the gasoline. Fighting 
with water is time worse than wasted ; it spreads the 
gasoline over a larger surface and increases the area 
of evaporation. Sand and sawdust are two of the 
very best extinguishers, though sand should not be 
used too near the engine, as grains of it in the cyl- 
inder may cut and ruin it. A few buckets of saw- 
dust near a gasoline engine or storage system should 



194 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

be as much a part of the equipment as buckets of 
water are around the furnace of steam boilers. It not 
only smothers but absorbs the liquid and prevents its 
spreading, while a few grains drawn into the engine 
will not do such serious damage. 

If sawdust is not available, old carpets, blankets, 
binder canvas, stack covers, anything to shut out the 
air, should be resorted to. Out of doors, a few shovels- 
ful of dirt may be sufficient and most readily obtain- 
able. This has the same objection around the engine 
that sand has. 

Chemical fire extinguishers are many of them all 
right. One of the very best may be made by mixing 
common salt and sal-ammoniac in equal parts ; then add 
to the mixture two-thirds of its bulk of bicarbonate of 
soda. Mix and screen thoroughly; then bottle for 
use, and keep in stock for an emergency. A little of 
this scattered over a gasoline fire will conquer it 
quickly. 

235. Kerosene: Its Advantages and Drawbacks.— 
In thermal heat value kerosene stands higher than 
gasoline in the proportion of about 22 to 18. 

Nearly every one is familiar with kerosene and its 
treatment, while gasoline is with many people a series 
of experiments. 

In some parts of the country gasoline is only obtain- 
able at certain stations, while kerosene can be ob- 
tained at any corner grocery. If the fuel supply runs 
out before a certain job is done, a few gallons of 
kerosene can be brought in the farm buggy, enough to 
finish the work without having to shut down. 

If a few gallons happen to remain over at the end 
of the season the housewife can burn it in her lamps. 
It does not have to be carried over till another year. 
This argument is hardly valid, however, in the case of 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 195 

small engines, as they are likely to be in daily use the 
year around. 

Insurance companies are more generally educated 
up to the point of tolerance in the use of kerosene, and 
are not so strict in their ruling as they are with gaso- 
line. Perhaps they realize that people know better 
how to handle it. 

Various experiments have proven that the same 
amount of work can be done cheaper with kerosene 
than with gasoline, the difference being due both to 
the lower price for kerosene and its superior thermal 
efficiency. 

Kerosene is somewhat safer to handle, both because 
it is less volatile and because it is more generally 
understood. Under ordinary conditions if it happens 
to escape from the tubes within which it is supposed 
to be confined in the form of a liquid it remains a 
liquid. This superior stability, however, is also one 
of its chief drawbacks. 

236. Objections to Kerosene.— It is much more dif- 
ficult to vaporize in the engine than gasoline ; in fact, 
artificial heat has often to be applied to jt at the be- 
ginning of a run in order to start at all. When once 
started the engine itself supplies the heat. 

Kerosene is not so fully consumed in the process of 
combustion as gasoline, and there is a much heavier 
deposit of carbon on the valves and in the cylinder. 
The piston rings must be cleaned oftener, and 
there is greater trouble with pre-ignition and leaky 
valves. 

Kerosene engines are apt to be offensive to the sense 
of smell. Not only that, when used in the stable or 
dairy, the milk has to be much more closely guarded 
or its products are likely to taint. 

Kerosene ensfines are more liable to smoke than 



196 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

gasoline, and are less available for interior work, espe- 
cially in laundries, kitchens, milk-houses, etc. 




Fig. 70.— Typical 10 H. P. Kerosene Engine. 

237. Which Is Best.— For tractors and out-of-door 
engines kerosene and the distillates are specially avail- 
able on account of their cheapness and superior power, 
but for small units and for in-door work the gasoline 
engine is probably enough better to pay the difference 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 197 

in the cost of fuel. Gasoline, too, is best for high 
speed engines, as kerosene is much slower burnnig. 

238. Changing for Kerosene from Gasoline.— Al- 
most any good gasoline engine can be used for kero- 
sene by a few minor changes. Two supply tanks are 
needed, a large one for the kerosene and a small one 
for gasoline." In starting the engine the gasoline 
should be turned on first until the iron is well warmed 
up; then the gasoline can be switched off and kero- 
sene turned on. A few minutes before closing down 
at night it is well to change back to gasoline ; then the 
carburetor will be charged with gasoline in the morn- 
ing for starting. Short shut-downs in the course of 
a run do not usually require this change, as the en- 
gine, once hot, remains hot enough for a reasonable 
Time to vaporize the kerosene. If at any time it will 
not start, the carburetor should be drained and then 
primed with gasoline. 

A good spark and good compression are essential 
for the use of kerosene. Without these it is generally 
a waste of time to attempt the change. Kerosene is 
more suitable for constant than for variable loads. 
Valves and connections must be kept tight, and rings 
and sparker clean. Sometimes it is necessary to pipe 
hot air from some part of the engine across the car- 
buretor, or a hot water jacket can be used. The 
spark must not be advanced too much or pre-ignition 
troubles are likely to come up. Some engine operators 
favor mixing a quart of gasoline with each five gallons 
of kerosene, while others operate successfully on kero- 
sene alone. Under favorable conditions a saving of as 
much as forty per cent, has been reported by changing 
from gasoline to kerosene, and with an increase of 

power. 

239. Distillate.— Distillate, which is really a low 



198 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

grade of kerosene in which more traces of the heavier 
oils remain, can be used in most gasoline engines in 
the same way kerosene can, and, like the latter it is 
more desirable for tractors and heavy engines of low 
speed than for the more speedy affairs for indoor work 
Some of the advantages which kerosene presents are 
not so marked, while others are more so. Also, the 
mam objections to kerosene appear in distillates in 
an aggravated form; still they are valuable in their 
place, when properly arranged for, and are among the 
very cheapest engine fuels. 
^ 240. Alcohol.— This is the great unfulfilled promise 
to the mdustrial world, of the internal combustion en- 
gme; mdeed, it was regarded as so important that a 
few years ago special revenue laws were enacted in 
Its favor, and it was confidently expected that de- 
natured alcohol would revolutionize the small power 
industries. 

241. Its Advantages.— In many respects alcohol is 
specially fitted for this work. It is far cleaner and 
less odorous than gasoline, and greater power is ob- 
tained from it for a given weight of engine. A gaso- 
line engine operating under ordinary compression of 
about 70 pounds will increase in power about 10 per 
cent, when run on alcohol; then by increasing the 
compression to 180 or 190 pounds, which could not 
be done with gasoline, the power will be nearly 30 
per cent, greater. It will thus be seen that in order 
to run on alcohol economically a much higher com- 
pression pressure should be provided for than either 
kerosene or gasoline would permit. 

242. Some Peculiarities of Alcohol.— Alcohol com- 
bustion is slower than gasoline, and less noisy. The 
heat from the flame goes up instead of spreading out, 
and a fire caused by it spreads less rapidly and is 



The Gasoline Iingine on the Farm 199 

readily extinguished by water, with which it mixes 
greedily. All alcohol contains some water; and its 
presence in the engine in the form of steam sometimes 
has to be considered. It has also a troublesome habit 
of corroding metals and of changing lubricating oils 
to gummy substances. It is more constant in its com- 
position than gasoline in its action and will stand over- 
loading better. It will operate the engine, too, when 
diluted with water as much as 50 per cent. 

243. Its Fatal Weakness. — So far its fatal weak- 
ness has been the prohibitive price and its low thermal 
value. In heat units it is much lower than gasoline, 
the relation standing about in the proportion of 2 to 
3, while the proportional price is more than reversed. 

244. The Engine User's Dream. — It has been an 
unrealized dream of power users that alcohol will 
some time be produced on the farm or in each farming 
community from farm refuse, like small potatoes, etc., 
at a low cost. It would then be almost an ideal and 
inexpensive source of power, of local production and 
not subject to excessive tax of transportation. The 
power, too, that could utilize the present waste of the 
farm and be independent for its source from any other 
industry must of itself, if ever realized, be of in- 
estimable advantage. Thus far, however, there has 
been little progress made in a realization of this 
dream, and at its present prices alcohol as an engine 
fuel can only be regarded as a promising possibility of 
the future. 

245. Notes on Fuels. — In spite of the fact that 
gasoline is much more costly now than it was a few 
years ago its use as an engine fuel is less so because 
of greater carburetor and general engine efficiency. 

American oils furnish on an average about 54 per 
cent, of kerosene and only 6 to 8 per cent, of gasoline. 



200 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

Gasoline cannot be ignited by overheating a tank, 
but it can be made to vaporize until the internal pres- 
sure may burst the tank. 

The only dangerous gasoline is free gasoline, and 
the entire danger from operating the gasoline engine 
may be said to consist of failure to confine the fuel. 
The difiference in the cost of a good and a poor job in 
the mstallation of the storage system should not be 
considered. 

It is the weak point of the storage svstem that the 
gasoline finds. Those parts that are strong enough 
are never in evidence. 

Any float-controlled valve may become clogged with 
dirt and fail to seat properly. This means a leak as 
surely as a rusted pipe. 

White or red lead is not suitable for making up a 
gasoline joint. The gasoline attacks and cuts them 
out. Litharge and glycerine mixed to a thick paste 
are excellent— as good as shellac. 

Alcohol dissolves shellac and soon attacks the usual 
float found in the ordinary carburetor, permitting it to 
become fuel-soaked and unreliable. 

One pint of gasoline or i.i pints of kerosene or 1.4 
pints of alcohol should produce on an average one 
horse power per hour. At that rate, with gasoline at 
14 centf per gallon, alcohol should cost 10 cents, and 
kerosene 13 cents; or, with alcohol at 30 cents, gaso- 
line at 40 cents would still be as cheap. 

IMany accidents arise from the storage of gasoline 
and kerosene in small quantities in similar cans. To 
prevent this paint all gasoline receptacles on the out- 
side a bright red. In some states this precaution is 
required by law, as it should be in all by common 
sense. 



CHAPTER XII. 
LUBRICATION. 

246. Importance. — If intelligent lubrication could 
become the gasoline engine owner's politics it would 
be well for him to be in the throes of a great national 
campaign continuously. More machinery is sacrificed 
each year to the god of friction than to all other legiti- 
mate causes ; and the shame of it is that much of this 
is easily prevented. 

Not only does carelessness in lubrication destroy 
machinery, it seriously diminishes the amount of 
energy available in useful w^ork by introducing a great 
amount of needless and unproductive work. The ef- 
ficiency of any power may be reduced as much as 50 
per cent, through lack of proper attention at the bear- 
ings. The fire risk is also greatly increased by it. 
Destructive fires are so often started by hot boxes 
that the rate of insurance upon any building contain- 
ing machinery is considerably higher than normal. 

247. Purpose. — An ordinary cast iron cylinder 
shows to the naked eye a rough surface covered with 
sand-holes and foundry defects. It is easy to see that 
such a bearing w^ould not be permissible in even the 
slowest of moving machinery. Steel and some other 
metals may present a smoother surface, but we would 
not think of using any of these in journal boxings 
until the surface was worked to a true circle and then 
polished until all of these defects which we readily 
see have been removed. 

201 



202 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

The most highly polished metal surface known to 
mechanics will, under a powerful microscope, present 
an appearance not unlike that which the unfinished 
iron gave to the naked eye (Fig. 71), and friction 




Fig. 71.— Polished Steel Rod Looks Rough If Magnified Greatly, 
works with microscopic exactness. The hardest steel 
is not incompressible either; and, unless we are will- 
ing to furnish the extra power energy to tear these 
multitudinous inequalities of surface apart and grind 
them down by main force, we must render the shaft 
more smooth. 

248. How Lubricants Work. — Some lubricants ac- 
complish their mission almost wholly by filling up 
these minute holes and inequalities, and then, under 
the pressure, forming a new surface of their own com- 
posed of the little globules of oil pressed and ground 
into each other until they form a smooth, hard glaze. 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 203 

Others do their work more by dividing into Httle 
elastic balls which cover the bearing surface con- 
stantly with self-adjusting ball-bearings, interspersed 
with cushions of imprisoned air. Either of these ef- 
fects prevents the two metal surfaces from ever com- 
ing together and, under perfect lubrication, nearly all 
of the wear is on the lubricating surface itself. Of 
course, in practice, lubrication is never continuously 
complete ; and, even if it were, some friction would 
result between the metal and the oil ; but the latter, 
being the more yielding, would bear the brunt of the 
wear. 

249. What a Lubricant Is. — Practically any liquid 
is a lubricant, since all liquids are composed of easily 
moving molecules or globules which readily adjust 
themselves to any surface. Not all liquids can be 
made to stay in place, nor have all of them strength or 
body enough to hold a heavy shaft clear of its bear- 
ings. In order to resist the tendency of the scraping 
metal to tear the lubricating film apart and let the 
metals come together, the liquid globules must have a 
strong inclination to stick together; that is, the liquid 
must have good cohesive properties. It must also 
adhere well to the metal surface it is applied to, or 
the moving shaft will shove it aside ; in other words, 
it must have good adhesive powers. 

250. Viscosity. — These two properties determine 
the viscosity or body of a lubricating agent, and in a 
great measure fix its lubricating value. Many liquids 
possess one of these qualities without the other. 
Water adheres well to the metal but does not stick 
together with enough persistence to prevent the metal 
surfaces from shoving it aside. Mercury is excep- 
tionally cohesive but has not sufficient adhesion to 
hold it to its work against the other metals. Neither 



204 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

of these two fluids will do as a lubricant because 
neither of them is truly viscous. 

251. Fluidity.— Fluidity is just the opposite of 
viscosity. There is a certain amount of friction be- 
tween all moving things which are in contact, not 
excepting the separate particles in the oil itself; and 
this internal friction or tendency to cling together is 
greater in the kinds of liquids which are less fluid. 
This stationary tendency in an oil increases its re- 
sistance to all motion, including that of the shaft, and 
after the point is reached where the oil has sufficient 
body to sustain the required load, any addition to the 
resistance is only adding to the friction between the 
oil and shaft v/ithout serving any useful purpose. 

252. The Flash Point — In gasoline engine lubri- 
cation the flash point and fire test of the oil are of 
very great importance. The first refers to the lowest 
degree of temperature at which the vapors from the 
oil will flash into momentary flame and then die out; 
the second to that point at which the vapor will con- 
tinue to form and burn constantly. As the tempera- 
ture in the engine cylinder is so high, it is necessary 
that a good cylinder oil have a very high test in both 
of these, else it would be ignited and consumed be- 
fore having a chance to do its work. A fire test of 
400° F., or more than the working temperature of the 
cylinder, is necessary, and some gas engine men insist 
on as high as 500° or even 600°. 

253. The Cold Test.— The cold test is of less im- 
portance ; still it should be considered where ma- 
chinery is to be run at a low temperature, as oil which 
is so nearly congealed that it will not follow in its 
proper channels is of no use as a lubricant. The 
usually accepted cold test for gasoline engine oils is 
around 20° Fahr. 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 205 

254. Carbon. — In the cylinder oil the per cent, of 
carbon is of very great importance, since each impulse 
of the engine consumes all the inflammable parts of 
the oil in the cylinder and leaves the free carbon and 
other unconsumed ingredients behind to gum the pis- 
ton and rings with their troublesome deposits. 

255. Gums and Acids. — Gums and acids, though 
present in most oils, are a detriment for obvious rea- 
sons, and an oil should be selected which is as free 
from them as possible. Acids, of course, attack the 
surface of the metal the oil is intended to protect and 
lubricate, while gum in cylinder oil is not to be toler- 
ated, as it is constantly depositing a few more engine 
troubles in the cylinder. 

256. Variety in Lubricants Needed. — No one kind 
of oil is best for all machines or all parts of the same 
machine. A thick lubricating film of good resisting 
body is needed under the heavily loaded shaft, and for 
such heavy machinery its greater internal friction is 
of no importance, the weight and momentum of the 
machine being enough to overcome the extra resist- 
ance without being retarded. For the light spindle of 
high speed such heavy oil Avould be unnecessary, and 
its retarding tendency would be serious. A drop of 
thick cylinder oil would put a watch out of commis- 
sion, while a gallon of typewriter oil would be worth 
about as much as the same quantity of w^ater to lubri- 
cate the line-shaft of an ocean steamer or the drive 
wheels of a locomotive. Friction between certain 
kinds of metal, too, it has been proven, is best re- 
duced by certain oils, wdiile the temperature at which 
the machinery works is an important matter. In 
comparison tests of good oils of seemingly similar 
nature it has sometimes been found that three-fourths 
of the oil required of one brand will accomplish more 



2o6 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

work with the same machine and load than some other 
brand would require, and that there would be a ma- 
terial saving in power and repair bills at the same 
time. 

257. Gasoline Engine Cylinder Oil. — This is per- 
haps the severest known test ever placed upon a lubri- 
cant of any kind. Ordinary cylinder oil which is satis- 
factory in the moist air of the steam engine cylinder, 
where the temperature rarely gets above 400°, will not 
answer at all in the presence of this dry heat of 1,500° 
or more at the moment of firing, and a continuous 
wall temperature of 350° or more. The oil would be 
burned up at once and the released carbon, uniting in 
the presence of the heat with the oxygen in the cyl- 
inder, not only chokes the engine up with dirt but, by 
removing some of the oxygen, interferes seriously with 
the firing of the charge. 

Gasoline engine cylinder oil must have enough vis- 
cosity or adhesive stickiness to carry its load well at 
these high temperatures and still be free from gum. 
It must have an exceptionally high fire test in order 
to resist consumption until after its work is done; 
then it must suffer as near complete consumption as 
may be, in order that but little deposit from it remains 
to trouble the cylinder. It should have a good cold 
test also, and it must be free from the various adulter- 
ants which are sometimes used to make cheap oil re- 
semble high grade cylinder oil in its "handling" 
qualities. 

Cheap cylinder oil should be avoided, because a 
good oil cannot be made cheaply. It requires many 
filterings until practically all of the impurities are 
taken out of it. It is then nearly colorless, like 
glycerine, instead of the dark green or amber fre- 
quently seen on the market ; but color alone does not 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 207 

prove the quality. Oil can be bleached by certain 
acids until it resembles the highly filtered oils ; then 
it contains, in addition to the objectionable carbon, a 
certain amount of free acid to attack and roughen the 
cylinder walls. Soap, alumina, soda, lime, etc., are 
often present in cheap oils. Their uses are many to 
the oil vendor. For the engine owner they accom- 
plish one result only — trouble. 

258. Bearings and Their Requirements. — The 
weight and strain upon a bearing and the speed at 
which the shaft is run in the main determine the na- 
ture of the best lubricant for most parts of ordinary 
machinery, including the gasoline engine, though the 
method used in its application may have much to do 
with it. The viscosity should be sufficient to carry 
the load and not much more. The oil should be fluid 
enough to freely enter the most difficult parts of the 
boxing channels, and the flow should be ready enough 
to insure a constant supply. The fluidity of the oil 
is specially important when some parts of the bear- 
ings are difficult of access or when the splash system 
of oiling is made use of. On the other hand, there are 
places where a thicker oil, even grease, is better for 
ordinary journals ; for instance, near an emery wheel, 
where bits of metal or grit are likely to abound. Its 
thicker body tends to protect the revolving surface 
from abrasure and to work the foreign particles out- 
side the journals. Where drip from the ends of the 
axles is specially objectionable, too, the heavier oils 
and greases are more appropriate. 

259. The Specific Purpose. — About the only way 
for the machine man to really know what oil is best 
for any specific purpose is iov him to understand the 
nature of the dift'erent oils and then study the require- 
ments of his machine, and select that oil best adapted 



3o8 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

to supplying them. To know the machine alone is 
not enough. There are some oils that might be spe- 
cially valuable under certain conditions, which possess 
some peculiarity that under other conditions would 
render them valueless in the same machine. Tallow 
and lard oil, for instance, so largely used on farm ma- 
chinery, have practically no lubricating value where 
there is much load if the temperature gets above ioo°, 
because their viscosity is then destroyed, and they 
have not sufficient body to hold the two metals apart. 
Beef suet, a favorite with some, will not begin to feed 
down until the boxes have become hot enough to be 
injured. This is almost a fatal weakness in its lubri- 
cating properties, it being the purpose of every good 
machinist to prevent hot boxes rather than to provide 
them for the purpose of melting his grease. It is 
always well when selecting oil to consider the tem- 
perature of the place, and to remember that high tem- 
peratures readily decompose the animal oils and render 
them rancid. 

260. Animal and Vegetable Oils. — Formerly the 
only oils in common use as lubricants were of animal 
or vegetable origin. This was largely due to their 
cheapness and greater supply. Animal oils are more 
oily, however, than mineral, and they mix better Avith 
moisture. For the latter reason they are more desir- 
able around steam than gasoline engines, though even 
for steam they are not ideal. As a class they are more 
oily than the hydrocarbons or mineral oils, and some 
of them are said to hold their viscosity better. They 
all contain oxygen, however, and so are subject to 
atmospheric changes, and form fatty acids which at- 
tack the metal. They are also liable to develop in- 
ternal heat, and become a serious fire menace through 
spontaneous combustion, a property that the mineral 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 209 

oils do not possess. The chief animal oils are sperm, 
lard, neat's-foot, tallow, and whale oil ; the best known 
vei^etable oils include olive, rape, castor, palm and 
cotton-seed. Of these sperm oil is specially good, but 




Fig 72.-Section Through Four Cylinder Motor, Showing Lubri- 
cating System. 

not for heavy loads at high temperatures. The vege- 
table oils as a class are particularly volatile. 

261. Mineral or Hydrocarbon Oils.— The mineral 
or hydrocarbon oils are obtained from crude petroleum 
by driving off the more volatile elements and then 
refining by acids and filtering what remains. This is 
technically known as the cylinder stocks. The paraf- 
fin distillates, which are somewhat lighter, are sepa- 
rately refined and the oil pressed from the flake paraf- 
fin which is then purified. From this oil come the 

. heavy engine oils, of high velocity. Out of the general 
classification comes a variety of brands, many of them 
arising from a difference in the characteristics of the 
crude oil taken from different fields. The Ohio oils, 
for instance, contain more or less sulphur and as- 
phaltum, while Texas oils, though free from sulphur, 



210 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

have fully as much asphaltum. The Texas oils have 
a purple bloom and are specially desirable, because 
of their fine cold test, in refrigerating works. Penn- 
sylvania oil has a distinctly greenish bloom and is 
much used in the cylinder oils of commerce. 

262. Testing Oil for Acids. — Mix a little oil with 
alcohol which has previously been heated to about 
120°. After several minutes dip a slip of litmus paper 
(obtainable at any drug store for a few cents) into the 
mixture. If the paper remains blue there is no acid ; 
if it turns red, acid is present. Or saturate a bit of 
waste or cotton with the oil and leave for eight or ten 
hours in the sunlight on a highly polished metal sur- 
face. Even a slight corrosion denotes free acid. A 
third test, rub some of the oil over a bit of polished 
brass and leave for twenty-four hours. If acid is pres- 
ent the metal will turn green. It is needless to add 
that oil which contains free acid will injure metal 
surfaces and is objectionable, as it soon roughens the 
bearings. 

263. Testing for Viscosity. — The relative viscosity 
or body of two different oils may be determined by 
placing a drop of each side by side upon an inclined 
pane of glass. The thinner oil wall of course run the 
farthest in a given time. By keeping a systematic 
record of all the different oils used and tested, one 
may soon have a very good knowledge of the com- 
parative body in the different oils he has used, and so 
determine the one that suits his purpose best ; provid- 
ing, always, this test is always made at the same tem- 
perature and with the glass always equally inclined. 
Another relative test is by counting the drops that 
fall from a small orifice, tlie two oils under the same 
temperature and pressure. 

In testing viscosity it should be remembered that 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 211 

the practical man is interested in the body which the 
oil shows at about the temperature which will be 
maintained while in use, rather than in its behavior 
in the oil barrel. 

Often the viscosity can be determined after a little 
experience by pinching or handling the oil between the 
thumb and finger. This test the adulterer has inter- 
fered with by introducing resinous or gummy matter 
in the oil to give it body. In order to determine this 
a quantity of the oil may be weighed and then ignited 
in a crucible until the carbon is burned out. If more 
than a tenth of the original weight is left in the ash 
residue the oil has been thickened with some adul- 
terant. 

264. Testing for Adulterants. — Adulterants may 
frequently be discovered by mixing a quantity of the 
oil with one-tenth its bulk of caustic soda dissolved 
in 95 per cent, alcohol. Fatty adulterants become 
gelatinous or solid when cold. 

265. Testing for Gum. — Going back to our first 
viscosity test, w^e may leave the oil on the inclined 
glass for an hour and then attempt to wipe it off. If 
it comes off clean it is free from gum ; if a sticky 
streak remains the oil should be rejected. Another 
test : spread a thin layer of oil over a glass pane and 
expose to sunlight but protect from dust. A gummy 
oil soon becomes sticky or tough. A still more defi- 
nite test : barely cover the bottom of a shallow dish 
with oil and heat to about 250° F., then cool slowly. 
When cold there should be no gummy residue. 

266. The Flash Test. — As the gasoline engine cyl- 
inder oil is used in the presence of excessive heat it is 
highly important that both the flash and fire test 
should be exceptionally high, though of course not 
nearlv so high as the excessive heat to which it is for 



212 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

a moment exposed at the instant the charge is fired. 
About the only satisfactory test of this requires a spe- 
cial thermometer whereon the reading goes much 
higher than the ordinary temperature thermometer; 
not less than 400'^ Fahr. Place a small metal or thin 
porcelain dish filled with oil in a larger vessel which 
has been filled with sand, sinking the fire well into 
the sand ; then apply heat until the oil begins to 
vaporize. The sand bath is for the purpose of heating 
all sides of the dish evenly instead of all at one point 
of contact. Hold a lighted match above the dish in 
the midst of the rising gases until there is a flash or 
ignition ; then note the reading of the thermom- 
eter. This is the flash point; that is, the lowest 
temperature at which the oil vapors take fire and 
then go out. 

267. The Fire Test. — The fire test is the same as 
the flash test, but is carried a little farther, as the fir- 
ing point is the lowest temperature at which the 
vapors not only ignite but continue to burn. This 
should be from 60° to 75° higher than the flash point. 

268. The Cold Test. — There are some instances 
where the cold test of an oil is of considerable im- 
portance, specially where the engine is to be operated 
much in low temperatures. The congealing point of 
any oil is easily taken by actual experiment. It should 
always be remembered though that after an oil has 
shown anything like reasonable working qualities at 
low temperature the test should not be too rigid, since 
extra superiority here is apt to mean a sacrifice of the 
other extreme. After all, a good cold test is more 
nearly a matter of convenience, while a high fire test 
is a positive necessity. 

269. Carbon. — The specific gravity of an oil is a 
pretty accurate guide to the carbon it contains, pro- 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 213 

viding adulterants have not been added. As the heat 
in the cylinder is enough to burn and evaporate any 
oil more or less, and as this drives out the hydrogen, 
it follows that the oil richest in carbon will deposit 
the greatest load of dirt and trouble. All of these 
oils deposit some carbon when they burn. That oil 
which is of lightest weight and still possesses body 
enough to do its work is best, where specific gravity 
alone is taken as the test. By igniting a quantity of 
the oil in a small vessel and holding a bit of window 
glass over it for a stated length of time while it burns, 
the amount of carbon it deposits can be readily ap- 
proximated. 

270. Oil Waste and Engine Waste. — No thorough 
test of the lubricating system has been made that does 
not include the man behind the oil can. The oil that 
is squirted carelessly over the outside of the frame is 
of no value to the engine, though it serves an im- 
portant mission in an accumulation of dirt. A gaso- 
line engine, if it is to do good work, must be kept 
clean, but this cannot be done unless good oil is used 
and not unless it is used properly. Where lubricators 
are not used it sometimes requires considerable judg- 
ment to know just when to oil ; when they are, one 
must know how to set them. 

271. Quantity of Oil. — For the new engine the cup 
supplying the piston and cylinder should be set to 
supply about 25 drops per minute, until the walls have 
begun to acquire their glaze and the engine itself has 
become tuned up for smooth working ; then the supply 
may be reduced. The exhaust is a good indicator if 
too much oil is being used, a heavy blue smoke being 
pretty conclusive evidence that there is. Too much 
oil is better than too little, but it is not very much 
better, for it soon loads the piston and rings down 



214 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



with a sooty deposit and is very likely to short-circuit 
the firing plug. 

The quantity of oil needed by the other bearings 
can best be told by careful attention, always remem- 
bering that some bearings tell the engineer Avhen they 
are dry while others only tell their troubles to the 
engine. It's always best to keep on familiar terms 
with them. 

272. Lubricating Systems. — While there are many 
lubricating devices and systems in common use, those 
described below will probably prove of greatest in- 
terest to the owner of a farm engine. 

273. The Gravity System. — The gravity system, 
much in favor some years ago, depends for the flow 




Exterior. 



Sectional. 



Fig. 



'/2i- — Exterior and hiterior Views of Sight Feed Gravity 
Lubricator. 



of the oil upon the elevated location of the cups 
through a small outlet pipe from which the flow can 
be regulated to very nearly a stated number of drops 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 215 

oer miiuite. While these are fairly accurate it does 
'ot " m.re a very great obstruction to cut off he 
flow a the pressure from the oil above m so small a 
S miel is insiguiflcant. This style, however is u. 
ve y common use, in part because of its simplicity 

In The Splash System.-The splash system re- 
quire; a tight' oil case enclosing the crank shaft. 
Enough oil is placed m 
the bottom of the crank 
case that the ends of the 
connecting rods dip or 
splash into the liquid on 
their downward thrust, 

at every revolution, and 

so carry up enough oil to 

the working parts of the 

shaft and crank to sup- 
ply them. Enough oil 

can be placed in the tank 

at once to last for some 

time, and all surplus oil 

carried up is caught. 

With some people there 

is more chance of forget- 

fulness with anything 

which is automatic for 




Fig. 74— Explaining the Splash 
System of Lubrication. 



wnicn IS auLuiiidLi^ XV... 

davs and then has to be attended to than with some- 
thing requiring constant attention; still the same ar- 
gument might be used against the use o a tank o 
hold a supply of gasoline ahead. The sp ash system 
is very effective so long as a supply of oil is kept in 
the tank. Occasionally, as the oil becomes discolored 
through use. it should be <lrawn off and filtered or new 

oil introduced. . • -i^^ 

a75. The Loose Ring System.-This is very smidar 



2i6 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

to the splash system, a loose ring being allowed to 
swing upon the shaft and carry the oil up with it as 
it slowly revolves. It is hardly as effective as the 
splash method, however, and is less in use. 




Fig. 75._Loose Ring for Bearing Lubricati 



276. The Pressure System.— Sometimes the oil is 
held in a central tank or source of supply, into which 
pressure can be introduced. This forces it through 
connecting pipes with the various bearings and the 
pressure is maintained by connecting the tank with 
the exhaust or with an enclosed crank case. 

277. The Positive or Force Feed.— A favorite 
method now because of its certain efficiency is the use 
of an oil pump which is geared to the engine and 
which forces a certain quantity of the oil through the 
various feed pipes attached to it with each stroke of 
the engine. This has several important advantages, 
and. with a supply of oil back of it, there is practically 
no danger of any bearing thus connected being over- 
looked. Of course, this system is not so simple as 
some of the others, and it is more costlv to install. 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 217 

278 Oiling Through the Carburetor.— While this 
method has hardly passed the experimental stage, 
enouo-h success has been attained to render it worthy 
of noHce; indeed, when the cylinder walls get hot and 




Fig 76.-Mechanically Operated Plunger Oil Pump Insures 
Force Feed. 

oil refu<;es to stav on them it is sometimes recom- 
mended to mix from a pint to a quart of the best heavy 
cylinder oil with each five gallons of gasohne and 
strain into gasoline supply tank. This divides the oil 
into fine globules which enter the engme cylmder 
readily through the carburetor along with the fuel 
vapor; still it retains enough viscosity to settle m 
a fire spray upon the walls and keep them lubricated 
where other methods fail. When this method is used 
all other means of lubricating the cylinder and its 
immediate accessories may be dispensed with, though 
of course the bearings and parts contained in the crank 
case are not afTected. These must be oiled through 
the cups, as usual. As the oil applied through the 



2i8 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

gasoline is better distributed directly to the point 
where it is needed, less oil is required and less car- 
bon, it is claimed, occurs in the cylinder. 

279. Filtering.— Oil finally becomes unfit for use, 
not only through a mixture of dirt, dust and the metal 
particles which scale from the bearings, but through 
evaporation and actual chemical change. Still it may 
be used over again several times for the bearings if 
filtered, but even after filtering should not be used 
again in the cylinder. Ordinary wicking makes a 
good filtering material, though it may take filler out of 
oil or heavy compounding out of paraffin oil or that 
of high viscosity, and leave it without body. Oil may 
be filtered tAvo or three times and used over. Even 
new oil should be filtered before using. This will re- 
move much dirt and impurities that otherwise would 
be liable to make trouble in some pipe in the lubri- 
cating system. 

280. Other Lubricants.— Perhaps this chapter would 
not be complete without a brief reference to a few 
supplemental lubricants so unlike oils in their nature 
that it hardly seemed best to refer to them under the 
same head. 

281. Graphite. — This substance, which occurs in 
nature in both crystalline and amorphous form, when 
free from grit and impurities, is a true lubricant, and 
possesses for certain places several advantages over 
oil. It is not aflfected by heat or cold and is not acted 
upon by acids or alkalies. In its solid form, too, there 
are places where it will stand up under its work when 
resisting a pressure that would break liquid lubricants 
down. In some measure graphite is a supplement of 
oil in that it fills in and removes the inequalities in 
the surface to be lubricated, while the oil merely slides 
over them. Its glaze surface is probably more durable 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 219 

and more the nature of metal itself in point of resist- 
ance against the breaking of the gloss than the best 
of oil ever becomes, and it has frequently happened 
that, applied alone or in combination with oil, it has 
succeeded in places where oil alone failed. 

As graphite is so little affected by heat, it is spe- 
cially useful in establishing a high glaze finish in the 
o-asoline engine cylinder, where it may be introduced 
through the spark plug port with a teaspoon. If 
mixed with oil, use not over a teaspoonful to a quart 
of oil, and do not try to introduce it through the 
regular oil cup feed pipes. This is frequently done 
wiUi entire success, but there is always risk of 

clogging. 

By adding graphite to the cylinder lubricating sys- 
temi faulty compression, when caused by any internal 
roughness, may be done away with. One engine user 
reports that after considerable trouble with his com- 
pression, by adding a teaspoonful of flake graphite 
each three hours during a twelve hour run the cylinder 
and rings of his engine acquired a mirror-like surface, 
and there was no trouble with his compression for 

three vears. 

In many power plants graphite is considered as 
much an essential as oil, especially where there are 
unusually heavy bearings with a low speed. Applied 
to valve stems in connection with valve oil, it is a 
complete success ; also when made into a paste with 
oil and rubbed upon cams, slides, gears, differentials, 
and other moving parts, chains, sprockets, etc. A 
chain treated with graphite occasionally will run dry 
but silent and dirt will not stick. It is also excellent 
as a coating for any threaded nut or bolt, as it per- 
mits easy insertion and at the same time easy removal. 
It is often used upon spark plugs before they are 



220 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

screwed into their socket, and insures absolutely tight 
joints. 

282. Grease. — There seems to be no one lubricant 
that is best in all places. In some respects grease has 
a decided advantage over oil. It stays in place better 
for one thing and, if a surplus happens to be intro- 
duced, instead of running down the outside of the 
boxings, it piles up in high collars on each side of the 
bearing and shuts ofif the entrance of dirt and grit. 

Oil is not heavy enough in body to protect the shaft 
from any real abrading substance which happens to 
get into the bearing, while grease is. It also acts as 
a cushion, and makes gears run more quietly, and of 
course with less strain and friction : hence they are 
not so liable to chip when going into mesh. Grease 
is also best for differentials, and in places where drip 
is objectionable it is of special value. IMixed with 
graphite it is one of the very best lubricants known 
for gear wheels. 

283. Foolish Economy. — Friction and actual abuse 
are the two things which above all others make ma- 
chinery expensive, and it is certainly foolish economy 
to cheapen the one thing with which we are able in 
some measure to overcome this expense. Some one 
has said that lubrication is cheaper than the cheapest 
machinery is, and some one else that it is the cheapest 
of repairs. Both of these statements are true. Both 
should be committed to memory by every owner of 
machinery, and should be repeated daily, especially 
if that machine is a gasoline engine. When we con- 
sider the tremendous strain of pressure, heat and 
speed that is put upon this one bit of mechanism all 
at the same time, it seems wonderful that any thing 
made Avith human hands could endure it and survive. 
Certainlv w^e who are benefitted should so far co- 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 221 

operate with our little assistant as to furnish the very 
best supplies the market affords. After all the d.t- 
ference between the price of worthless and of the 
be-t oil is but a few cents; not so great but we may 
most of us make it up in cleanlier habits and greater 
care in the use of the oil can. Much of the trouble 
experienced with the first crude gasoline engmes it 
has been discovered, lay in faulty lubrication-faults 
of 'the world's knowledge. When we take into con- 
sideration the fact that our more perfected methods 
of -etting the oil we use to the very spot where 
it is needed have effected a wonderful saving m the 
quantity of oil used, we surely have no possible excuse 
for using any but the very best lubricants, be they 
oil or graphite,. or grease, that the market will 

''"28/ Ten Lubricating Commandments.— The oil 

that rolls out of the exhaust in the form of smoke is 
not a lubricating expense. ,, c , 

It is the small crystal of grit that plugs the feed 
pipe;not the large one that cannot get in. 

Some engine owners seem to think that the best 
way to oil an engine is by the absorption system, 
through the pores of the frame. Don't try it. 

Fill all the large oil holes up with woolen yarn in- 
stead of hay-seed. 

Too much oil is a little better than not enough and 
a great deal better than a seized piston. 

Don't forget the bearings; the lower as well as the 

"Te'ros^'ene or gasoline will carry oil into places where 
it would not otherwise go. Be sure that it gets there, 

if it is needed. . 

The best oil is usually the thinnest that will stay 

in place and do its work. 



2.22 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

Proper lubricants insure against many cylinder 
troubles. 

There is only a few cents difference in the first cost 
of a good and poor lubricant. The later difference 
mav be many dollars. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

ELIMINATION OF ENGINE TROUBLES. 

285. Classified Trouble. — Even our troubles may be 
classified if we look after them with sufficient system ; 
and system is the one thing which above everything 
else it is the writer's wish to urge in this unlucky 
thirteenth chapter. 

286. Starting Troubles. — Gasoline engine troubles 
include those numerous ailments, little and big, any 
one of which may prevent the engine from starting at 
all or with enough real life to keep it in motion until 
we have a chance to come upon our second class of 
difficulties, or operating troubles. 

287. Operating Troubles. — By this we mean the 
various matters wuich, while they permit us to start 
the engine and keep it going, compel us to face some 
more or less disagreeable behavior which is not nor- 
mal and which we wish to discontinue. 

288. Transmission Troubles. — The engine itself 
may operate without fault, and still, because of some 
difficulty we may have in transforming its energy into 
useful work, we may be able to accomplish a desired 
task with it only through the unreasonable waste of 
personal effort, or else not at all. 

289. Energy Troubles. — It is not so very uncom- 
mon for an engine when out of repair to run empty 
with as much seeming willingness as usual and still 
not develop enough energy to carry it along when 
hitched to a load. 

223 



224 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

290. Irregular Troubles.— Some troubles come to 
us out of conditions from which we might expect the 
very results we get as soon as our attention is called 
to them. There are, however, occasional surprises for 
which we are not prepared, and perhaps cannot at the 
time account; the irregular things that do not happen 
very often, and for which the usual list of ready made 
remedies will not avail. To all of these classes we will 
now give a few moments' attention. 

291. The Origin of Most Trouble.— A\ hen we come 
to look at the matter fairly most of our gasoline engine 
troubles come from one of two sources, the things we 
forget, and the things we don't know. The frozen 
water jacket is not one of the inevitable results of gas 
engine management. Usually it troubles us only once 
at the first of the freezing season before draining the 
pipes becomes a fixed habit. So it is with nearly all 
trouble ; something that doesn't often go wrong gives 
us a surprise, or else some part of the engine that has 
been so completely self-attending that we have never 
given it any thought springs something upon us that 
we did not previously know. 

292. The First Thing to Do.— The very first thing 
to get when trouble comes is a firm grasp of the idea 
that there is a reason. The engine ran all right in 
normal condition. If it fails later on it is because 
that normal condition has been disturbed. The rea- 
son may be hard to find, but there is one, and nothing 
else is to be done until that reason is hunted out. 
Above everything else, don't get excited ; nothing 
serious is going to happen if we keep our nerve. It 
isn't like having something go wrong with a steam 
boiler and a full head of steam and heavy fire behind 
it. While we are studying the situation over the gaso- 
line engine is just a harmless piece of iron, no more 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 22^ 

dangerous than the anvil beside it ; so there is all the 
reason in the world for keeping it just a piece of iron 
until we can begin to understand the nature of the 
trouble. 

It's a pretty good idea, first of all, to go over the 
simpler things that we sometimes forget, or are care- 
less about because they are simple. It does not take 
long to investigate these, and it is surprising how 
many gasoline engine experts have been called out 
when the gasoline tank needed refilling or the engineer 
had forgotten to close the switch. Look first of all 
to the tank. If it is full, notice whether a flying new^g- 
paper or even a dead leaf may not have closed the air 
entrance, and so shut off the oxygen. While looking 
at the carburetor better notice, too, whether the gaso- 
line is coming over. Maybe the pipe is clogged. A 
good way to test this is to open the switch, so there 
can be no ignition, then have some one crank the en- 
gine and stand directly back of the exhaust. If get- 
ting its supply of fuel, and the valves are working as 
they should, a strong scent of gasoline is noticeable 
in the discharge. If the engine is water cooled notice 
whether it has been overheating. Even if no ice is in 
the jacket pipes are prone to freeze before the heavier 
body of water is affected. 

293. When It Proves to Be Real Trouble. — Once 
convinced that none of the little outside slips of 
memory are to blame, we are ready to go after the 
difliculty in the interior of the engine. Other things 
being equal, it is always best to investigate the 
simplest thing first, though of course we ought to 
modify this so as to first catch that which we have 
some reasonable excuse for thinking may be wrong. 
Whatever wrenches, pliers and other tools we have 
that we are at all likely to need should be laid out 



22.G The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

in convenient reach as there is nothing more dis- 
turbing to the puzzled machinist than having to spend 
half his mental energy in finding things. A good 
assistant is a great help in this, while a poor one is 
worse than a wrench without a handle. 

294. Test with System. — In no part of engine 
management is system more an assistance than in the 
hunting of trouble. On no account permit in yourself 
or any one else the habit of testing a part here, another 
there and another over on the other side. After the 
first cursory glance over the entire engine for some 
superficial difficulty, the most rigid attention to sys- 
tem is surprisingly helpful, even a poor system being 
better than none at all. As 60 per cent, of all real 
engine troubles lie in some part of the ignition system 
that is the most logical place for us to go. 

295. A Few Simple Questions. — To avoid the pos- 
sibility of confusion, let us take one thing at a time 
and think it over a little before beginning to take 
things apart. With the switch open, let some one 
hand crank the engine slowly and study each stroke 
by itself. 

Is the suction stroke all right? Does the intake valve 
appear to be opening as it should, and does it appear 
to close soon after the end of the stroke? If so, step 
back of the exhaust and let the cranking continue till 
the cylinder is scavenged out; then notice whether the 
customary fumes of gasoline vapor are coming over. 
If not, suspect the carburetor or the intake system 
somewhere, and test in detail. If so, continue the 
cranking and study the compression stroke. 

Is there as much resistance to the piston as there 
should be? The compression in a five-horse engine 
should be just a little too much for an ordinary man 
to crank against without opening the relief cock. If it 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 227 

fails to put up that sort of a fight look for external 
leaks first, around the base of the spark plug, the 
valves, the joint between the cylinder and its head 
if detachable, or the piston rings. Somew^here a hiss- 
ing may be heard. If at the open end of the cylinder 
the rings are leaking. If the hissing is some place 
about the other end, coat all the places suspected w^ith 
soapy v^ater or oil, and v\^atch for bubbles. If the 
compression is good, try out the power stroke. As 
most of the functions of tliat can only be studied from 
within, assume them to be properly performed, while 
strongly suspecting that they are not, and pass on to 
the exhaust stroke long enough to watch the working 
of the valve. 

We have now found out that the fuel is being de- 
livered and compressed, that the cylinder is being 
cleared of burned gases. Is the charge really being 
exploded? Let us close the switch and see. If so, is 
it on time? If it isn't, our interview is with the 
timer. If it doesn't explode at all there is something 
wrong with the spark, its formation, transmission or 
delivery. 

296. Protecting the Hands. — The current from a 
four to six cell battery, which is about what most farm 
engines use, is not at all dangerous, and only moder- 
ately painful ; still there are people whose nerves will 
be so affected by a few shocks that it may trouble 
them, so it is best to put on a pair of rubber gloves. 
This insulates the hands. Rubber boots or even a dry 
board is usually sufficient, or any other insulating sub- 
stance interposed between the person and the ground; 
still one may have occasion, while working with both 
hands, to connect himself into a circuit through the 
iron frame, so the gloves are best. They are not ex- 
pensive are so pliable that 'they do not interfere with 



228 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

the work, and a pair used only for engine repair work, 
if kept free from oil, will last a long time. 

297. Testing the Electric System. — Before making 
any internal investigation notice whether all the wires 
are fast on the binding posts, and if the latter are 
screwed up tightly enough to insure a perfect contact 
with the metal. If there is a loose wire end the trouble 
is found. Next, release the wire running to the spark 
plug hy turning off the screw cap, and, holding the 
point of the wire near the engine frame but not quite 
touching ; have an assistant close the switch and crank 
the wheel. If a fat, yellow spark jumps the gap be- 
tween the wire and frame there is probably nothing 
wrong with the electric system unless it is in the plug 
or the timing; but if no spark appears or if it is of a 
pale color the difficulty is in all probability between 
that point and the battery. Care must be taken not 
to force the spark over too wide a gap or the insula- 
tion of the coil may be broken doAvn and a serious 
repair bill engendered. For the inexperienced, less 
than an eighth of an inch gap should be used. 

298. If the Spark Is Good. — If the spark seems 
strong remove the spark plug from the cylinder and 
note whether the gap between the points has gotten 
closed up with carbon deposit or if the metal is badly 
corroded. Clean the points thoroughly and also wipe 
the porcelain clean. It is just possible that the in- 
sulation of the plug may have been broken down. 
Test this by replacing the wire terminal, screwing 
down the cap and having the engine cranked. If the 
resulting spark is good, the trouble is in some other 
part of the engine ; if much weaker than that which 
passed between the wire and the frame, the plug is 
faulty; if about the same, but weak, some other part 
of the ignition system is 'at fault. These directions 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 229 

have been written with the jump spark system in mind, 
but apply equally to the make and break system. 

299 A Poor Spark.— If the spark is poor or does 
not appear at all we will follow the cable carefully 
back from the plug to its other terminal, notmg par- 




Fig 77.-Pocket Size Battery Testing Gauge Indicates Either 
Volts or Amperes. 

ticularly whether there are any points in it which in- 
dicate a broken wire under the covering. If there are 
none, see that the terminals are free from grease and 
with good contacts under the binding posts. 

300. Testing the Batteries.— Beginning at the other 



230 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

end of the system, we will now find out Avhether we 
have anything that will make a spark. Let us see 
Avhether all of the battery wires are properly con- 
nected, whether any are broken, if all terminals are 
clean and the contact good, or if there are any signs of 
a short-circuit in them. Next disconnect both ter- 
minal wires and test the reading with the ammeter; 
then test each cell separately, at the same time watch- 
ing for one coated on outside of cup with white 
crystals. If one is weak, remove it, as it will run the 
others down rapidly. 

If an ammeter is not at hand for this testing, the 
same results may be obtained by bringing the bare 
ends of two wires attached to the battery terminals 
into contact and then pulling apart. Each cell can 
be tested separately in this way, although, of course, 
the intensity of the resulting spark can only be esti- 
mated by its color. 

301. Testing the Coil. — We have now reason to 
believe that a good spark is being delivered to the 
coil ; that is, after we have seen that these connec- 
tions are all right. It still remains to test the coil. 
If it is receiving a good current it is either delivering 
a good one to the secondary cable or else is wasting 
it through some short-circuit or broken down 
insulation. 

Remove the secondary cable from the coil terminal 
and substitute a short wire from the end of which an 
air gap may be formed with any primary or low-ten- 
sion post. If, with a gap of about % inch, a good 
white spark is delivered, the wire may be removed 
and the secondary cable replaced. But if the coil fails 
to deliver the spark, a readjustment of the platinum 
contacts (see that they are clean) may help matters. 
Loosen the screw that holds them slightly and then 



The C7\soline Engine on the Farm 231 

tighten a little at a time and test. Then look to the 
timer and see that the inside spring is not broken. If 
all is found right and there is still no spark we may 
be pretty certain that the coil is burned out; that is, 
that somewhere within that winding of wire the in- 
sulation has given way and is permitting the current 
to short-circuit and be wasted. It is useless for the 
novice to attempt to remedy this, or, in most instances, 
for the local repair shop, either. The coil should then 
be removed from the engine and sent back to the 
factory where it was made or to one of its branches. 
Except from abuse this very seldom happens. Ex- 
posure to moisture, however, will in time rot out the 
insulation while an over-resistance placed in the path 
of the current, such as a wider gap than the coil is 
made for, or poor contact of the terminal wires through 
careless connections or greasy terminals, may cause 
the spark to break through the insulation in its ef- 
fort to find an easier path. 

If spark from coil is intermittent, examine the plat- 
inum points for pitting and, if found, smooth them 
down with a fine file or, better still, an oil stone. 

If the spark is uniformly weak there may be a 
broken dov/n condenser which the shop had better 
replace. 

302. A Faulty Magneto.— If the spark is uniformly 
weak in the case of a magneto the field magnets need 
remagnetizing or else the armature winding is burned 
out. In either case the magneto must be returned to 
the shop. 

Irregular firing of the magneto may be due to the 
incorrect working of the contact breaker. This can 
be determined by swinging the flat spring (numbered 
119 in cut) aside, taking off the end cap (117) and 
tightening up the screw at 2 (see cut No. 45). Also 



232 The Gasolixe Engine ox the Farm 

tighten screw at 5 and 6 and the steel segments at 
21. Examine platinum points and remove any oil or 
grease. The contact breaker can be removed by means 
of screw at Xo. 2 but any further dismantling of 
the magneto by the novice is useless and should not 
be undertaken. 

Aside from dirty or wet connections or a slight dis- 
placement of the contact points, it is not once in a 
hundred times that any trouble will be found with the 
coil or magneto; indeed, the trouble here is so infre- 
quent that it sometimes is overlooked because one is 
likely to forget between times that any trouble can 
occur here. Always, before condemning either, be ab- 
solutely sure that all connecting Avires are insulated 
and that the terminal connections are complete. A 
loose binding nut due to a stripped thread, or even 
dirty contacts, may be enough to interrupt the current. 
Spark plugs, it is well to remember, may short- 
circuit an electric current when hot and not when 
cold ; also they sometimes fail to produce a spark prop- 
erly when in place in the cylinder although they may 
do so when removed from it. 

303. A Good Spark.— It may. be well to describe 
what a good hot spark looks like and what some of 
its feeble imitations are. 

A w^hite or blue-white compact spark is ahvays a 
good hot one. If it shows red it is weak. If divided 
into little tongues of flame, look for short-circuits. If 
pale and rather greenish the spark is weak. A short, 
fat, yellow spark can always be trusted. 

304. Where the Shock is Felt.— In making the ex- 
amination of the ignition system one may notice that 
the primary circuit causes no serious inconvenience 
when so handled that a shock is felt, and that it is 
always the secondary currents that have the sting in 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 233 

them. The Avinding in the induction coil is for the 
purpose of intensifying the current of the secondary 
or high tension system. How well this is done may be 
surmised from the fact : that, while a battery of six 
ordinary dry cells produces a current of about nine 
volts, it requires something like 4,000 volts to pro- 
duce a ^-inch spark. 

305. A Few Ignition Facts. — Faults of insulation, 
that is, short-circuits, are more important along the 
transmission line than are dirty plug points unless 
there is a complete bridge between the latter for the 
current to cross. 

The positive battery terminal, the carbon, should 
always be connected with the coil, in the jump spark 
system. 

With the wiring all connected up, the absence of 
the characteristic buzz at the coil box when the engine 
wheel is turned over is evidence that something is 
wrong with the system. 

Six volts and one-half ampere of current should be 
ample to operate a good coil. If set to use more, 
it only runs the battery down that much faster. Five 
cells of dry battery ought to give this. 

Excessive current or disconnected secondary wires, 
if the cells are fresh and strong, may cause the cur- 
rent to seek a short cut in the coil and break down 
the insulation. 

The make and break contact points gradually fuse 
and shorten with use until presently the time comes 
when they will no longer reach to complete the cir- 
cuit ; then the engine refuses to fire at all, until they 
are lengthened. 

If one cylinder of a multi-cylinder engine continu- 
ally misfires while the others do not, suspect the plug. 

If ignition fails suddenly it is a pretty good indica- 



234 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

tion that there is a short-circuit, probably in the wires 
or coil. 

Often a broken porcelain in the spark plug causes 
the short-circuit; and the break is often due to screw- 
ing the plug into its socket too tightly. Never use a 
large wrench for this. The hand is often enough 
though, with the standard }4-inch pipe thread which 
is tapering, more leverage may be needed. A plug 
that is moderately tight wdien cold may become so 
tight when heated that the porcelain will break. 

306. A Suspected Timer. — Notice if there are any 
worn parts about the timer. It must be absolutely 
accurate, and there is nothing accurate about worn 
parts. The ground wire circuit should be looked after, 
lest the timer lubricants may be interfering with it. 
Clean out all grease, gum and oil, and put in new 
castor oil or light sewing machine oil. 

Open pet cock in top of cylinder and turn engine 
over by hand with switch closed and fuel shut off. 
The spark should come just after the escaping air stops 
hissing. This is not a very delicate test but it is 
sufficiently accurate to prove whether the timer has 
slipped. 

307. Other Troubles. — With a good spark at the 
plug and the gasoline mixture coming over all right 
some of the other reasons for a balky engine are stick- 
ing valves, and water in the gasoline. The first of 
these may be detected by watching the valve stems 
while the engine is being cranked ; the second, by test- 
ing the gasoline. 

Often, too, the novice, in his anxiety to start well, 
is overzealous in supplying gasoline to the carburetor, 
and floods it so that too rich a mixture comes over; 
or the air inlet may be too small, or obstructed. On 
the other hand, there may be an excess of air because 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 235 

of a leak somewhere along the intake pipe or on ac- 
count of a grain of dirt in the spray nozzle. Remem- 
ber that air is sure to occupy all space not taken up 
with gasoline vapor, and, if anything cuts down the 
supply of the latter, there is certain to be an excess of 
air. 

308. When the Engine Starts. — It is generally use- 
less to continue cranking the engine that refuses to 
go with the first half dozen turns. That is more 
than enough to overcome all the little ordinary causes 
of hesitation. Let us suppose the engine starts off 
nicely and takes us along to our next counterful of 
troubles — operating difficulties. 

309. Lack of Power. — Many an engine will run 
nicely empty, and still balk if asked to take on even a 
moderate load. Almost the same list of questions may 
be asked again that were, when it refused to start, al- 
though the answers may be different. 

1st. What about the mixture; is it right? 

This question can only be answered by experiment- 
ing a little. Increase the supply of gasoline until black 
smoke appears in the exhaust, then gradually cut off, 
and watch the engine. When it begins to show more 
power, continue cutting down the gasoline until the 
explosions begin to lack regularity and vigor, then 
increase until at their strongest. In the same man- 
ner, open and cut off the supply of air until satisfied 
that there is nothing wrong with the mixture. 

2nd. How about the compression? 

This can best be studied before the engine starts, 
so, after having previously watched it so closely, we 
can now afford to take it for granted for the time. 

3rd. All that remains to study about the ignition 
is to. notice whether the timing is in harmony with the 
work and the fuel ; whether the explosions come at 



^Z6 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

the right moment of revolution, and if about the right 
proportion are missed. Running under full loadt a 
miss of one explosion in eight is a very fair perform- 
ance : and running under light load, three misses be- 
tween each fire is not bad. A short time studying 
these symptoms sometimes accomplishes more in the 
right direction than several hours of dismantling and 
reassembline. 

4th. The exhaust should next be studied; whether 
the valve is opening fully and at the right time or if 
it is closing as it should. It is always barely possible 
that there is not sufficient vent, owing to an accumu- 
lation of carbon or lime. Never forget, either, the im- 
portance of the symptoms which may be found here; 
that black smoke means too much fuel or, rather' 
faulty combustion ; blue smoke, too much lubricating 
oil, and white smoke, too much oil or water or oil of 
an inferior quality. While only a matter of extrava- 
gant expense in itself, this represents a condition in 
the interior of the cylinder which is daily bringing 
us nearer to the time when pre-ignition, broken or bent 
crank shafts and similar troubles will be taking our 
attention. 

5th. Is the power impulse delivered to the crank 
shaft, or is it distributed pretty evenly through loose 
piston rings, worn bearings and connections, or wasted 
in overcoming useless friction in the shaft or bear- 
ings out of line? It is not uncommon to see a large 
proportion of the power after it is produced dissipated 
in some such useless way. 

6th. Is the lubrication what it should be at all 
points? Faulty lubrication always means needless fric- 
tion, which is one of the worst machine and energy 
consumers in the world. Often a few drops of oil 
more per minute will add lo to 20% to the available 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 2};j 

power by preventing the cutting of a shaft. With the 
gravity system, 8 to lo drops per minute are required 
by the moderate size farm engine. This number, on 
account of the larger drops, should be reduced to 5 
or 6 per minute if force feed is used, and will have 
to be increased a little if the engine is air — instead of 
water-cooled — on account of the higher temperature. 

Three or four drops per minute for the crank shaft 
bearings, if w^ith gravity feed, should be enough, the 
exact amount being of course determined by appear- 
ances in each individual case. 

When w^e consider each of these half-dozen matters 
by itself we are apt to get a more comprehensive view 
of things than when we try to scatter our attention 
over too much territory at once. 

One other cause for lack of power may come up in 
the cooling system. If that fails for any reason the 
engine heats, the oil burns out, the rings leak com- 
pression, and the gas may expand so in the hot 
chamber that less than a full charge is inhaled each 
time. Any or all of these might easily affect the 
power of the engine appreciably. 

310. Overheating. — When an engine shows a ten- 
dency to overheat under load, the job in hand may 
sometimes be completed by giving it a little extra 
time and an occasional rest. A perfectly Avorking 
engine ought to run under load continuously from one 
week's end to the other if necessary ; but nearly all 
farm work may be adapted without great loss to short 
runs in an emergency, and by that means the engine 
kept upon the job without injury. 

311. Causes of Overheating. — Overheating may be 
the result of faulty construction ; then, perhaps it can- 
not be overcome. It may be due to overload, or to 
some other form of mismanagement. Dirt may have 



2sS The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

clogged the water or the lubrication system in some 
pipe or valve. The exhaust valve may not lift enough 
or the exhaust port be too small ; or' the same result 
may come under a different name from back pres- 
sure in the muffler. An overdose of gasoline will 
cause excess heat and a late spark is specially trouble- 
some as a heat producer and power extinguisher as 
well. Nearly all of these difficulties are registered in 
the discharge from the exhaust. 

312. Other Causes.— An engine that has once been 
tested on a full load without overheating has elimi- 
nated from the possible causes faulty construction. 
What has been done can be done again. With a 
water-cooled engine the trouble, if it lies there at all, 
IS purely mechanical, similar to any of the correspond- 
ing troubles that come to any pump. If the engine 
is air cooled there is the possibility of a displaced fan- 
blade, or the current may not be directed against the 
air jacket around the cylinder; or very possibly some 
partition near by is interfering with the ready air 
supply. 

313. Cooling a Hot Engine.— If the trouble is not 
noticed until after the engine is very hot it may not 
be safe to start up the water circulation suddenly until 
the iron has had a chance to cool. The load should 
be removed at once, but if the engine is seen to drag 
it may be unsafe to shut down entirely, or a seized 
piston may result. If such is the case, keep run- 
ning slowly, with the greatest spark advance, but with 
the fuel cut almost off, until it has a chance to cool 
so lubrication becomes effective again. Watch the 
temperature carefully during the continuance of these 
more favorable conditions; then, as SQon as safe, start 
up the cooling circulation. 
314- Speed Variations.— A certain amount of speed 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 239 

variation is to be expected on account of the power 
impulses coming in the shape of sudden blows rather 
than by steady impact. This tendency is very no- 
ticeable in the running of an electric generator direct 
from a single-cylinder four-cycle engine, which is not 
provided w^ith a special balance wheel. These varia- 
tions are, however, normal within certain limits, after 
which they indicate some fault in the engine or its 
management. 

315. Suspecting the Governor.— Racing and then 
dying way below normal may be due to a disarranged 
governor or to one the springs of which are too stifif 
to respond as readily as they should. If the charges 
are being admitted and exploded regularly, do not 
blame the governor. If several charges are exploded 
without missing when the engine runs way above 
normal and then a number are missed after it has 
dropped below, the chances are that some part of the 
governor is working too hard, either on account of 
a stiff spring, or a rough casting, or some other source 
of excess friction. 

316. A Lazy Engine.— A lazy engine is pretty cer- 
tain to have a leak in the valves or the piston rings 
or the spark plug, unless the ignition is at fault. In 
a well timed engine good compression may be con- 
sidered a result and, if it fails, a leak is the cause. If 
every charge under the extreme load the engine will 
carry is being fired regularly the spark is all right 
and 'nothing is left to suspect very seriously except 
the compression. If the engine still runs too slow 
when firing every charge and the compression seems 
all right, suspect overload. Throw oft' a part of the 
load and note whether speed is increased so that the 
governor begins cutting out. If not, there is some 
other cause, and it is findable. The day of spooks 



240 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

and witchery has gone by. Sometimes a leak occurs 
from the water jacket, which admits water or steam 
.nto the combustion chamber. The water-coo^ ' J" 
en, and the lubrication should be looked after at^onc 
as there may be a threatened seizing of the piston' 
Heated bearings at the crank shaft, or even in' s me 
o he driven machinery, may slow down the engine 
or there may be trouble with the mixture. The im^ 
proper admission of air will cause irregular spee^ 
rhis IS a trouble that must never be allowed to con 
tinue witliout hunting out the cause. The tightenTg 
of worn bearings may i„ time affect the alignment 
enough to cause excessive friction and heating The 

are normal, may be the most affected by this 
317. Pre-ignition.-Pre-ignition, fortunately for the 

self w th so much vigor that it is not apt to be long 

itf'. '."'''"'"^ '^ *'" "°^-'" -ho nieets with 
t for the first time. It may be caused bv advancing 
the spark too far, so that the power impul'se is buried 
against the piston before it has quite finished its com- 
pression stroke; then it is driven violently back 
against its own stored energy. Anything like burn- 
.ng soot or failure of the cooling system, or anything 
which permits the temperature of the combustion 
chamber to reach the igniting point of gasoline, may 
cause It, or an attempt to run on advanced spark when 
an excessive load has crowded the speed of the engine 
below the point where an advanced spark can be used. 

and v!it? ''■°"\''^'='!-fi-"§^> -'"ch it closely resembles, 
and wit which It IS often confused, in that pre-igni- 
.on IS the result of some igniting influence exerted 
too eariy in the engine cycle, while back-firing may 
and may not be. Often the latter is caused by a 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 241 

faulty mixture which burns so slowly that the interior 
of tlie combustion chamber is still a mass of flames 
when the intake valve opens to receive its next charge ; 
then the flame flashes back along the intake pipe, fre- 
quently to the carburetor; or a poorly fitting valve 
may not close sufficiently tight, and the flame rush 
back Pre-ignition is accomplished in the cyhnder, 
too; while back-firing takes place in the intake pipe, 
although its source may be in the cyhnder. 

318. Misfiring.— This occurs from any of several 
causes or a combination of them. The mixture may 
be faulty and fail to ignite, or some defect of the elec- 
tric system may occasion a spark that is not hot 
enou-h. Weak batteries or faulty insulation or foul 
spark points, anything which tends to reduce the spark 
intensity, may bring about misfiring, especia ly a 
hio-h speeds or if the timer happens to be slightly out 
of adjustment. Misfiring is perhaps more frequent 
than pre-ignition, but not so serious in its results, it 
wastes the charge and allows considerable speed 
fluctuation and slowing down of the engine, but it 
does not jeopardize the crank shaft and piston by 
hurling its energy directly against the energy already 
developed. Its efl:ect is negative almost wholly, in- 
stead of a positive hindrance. ^ _ 

319 Back-firing.-This is one of the legitimate 
results of misfiring, which it very often follows, the 
unfired charge being trapped in the hot muHler and 
there fired into the open air. Perhaps its greatest harm 
is the consumption of good fuel without benefit, but 
there is perhaps no other engine prank more terrify- 
ing to the amateur, who first receives a fusillade of 
these startlingly sharp reports, especially if two or 
more charges happen to be delivered before either of 
them is ignited. If the mixture was too rich to burn 



242 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

well in the cylinder it may, on being discharged into 
the presence of more air, become readily combustible. 
It also frequently occurs when the spark is being re- 
tarded before stopping the engine. 

320. Knocking. — Knocking, rightly enough, sets 
the operator hunting for its cause — frequently quite 
in the wrong direction. Usually it means that some- 
thing serious is wrong, such as a broken piston-pin, 
a worn cylinder, or worn connecting rod bearings. 
Bad lubrication or a piston threatening to seize are 
other possible causes that demand immediate and 
rapid attention. Occasionally a certain amount of 
knocking arises from a tardily fired charge or some 
less serious cause, but the occasions are so many 
where this can be taken as a most alarming symptom 
that no one should allow a knock to go uninvesti- 
gated. 

321. Pounding, often classed with knocking, is 
only an aggravated form of the other in its manifesta- 
tions, although it is usually caused by a pre-ignited 
charge being hurled against an ascending piston, and 
is generally due to an over-advanced spark. 

322. Outside Knocking. — Knocking outside the 
cylinder is less difficult to locate, though it demands 
immediate attention. Usually it means some purely 
mechanical trouble about the crank shaft or its bear- 
ings, things not at all exclusive to the gasoline engine, 
and only coming to it with a little more severity be- 
cause of the extra force that is behind the piston. 
Any loose shaft may occasion it more or less; also 
occasionally a cylinder loosened from its base. 

323. Summing up Common Troubles. — In general 
terms, most of the distinctly characteristic gasoline 
engine troubles may be subdivided into four groups, 
as follows: 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 243 

Faults of poor mixture, including carburetor faults, 
clogged pipes, cups, nozzles, screens, water in the gas- 
oline, clogged valves and faulty air inlet. 

Faults of poor ignition : Weak current, short-cir- 
cuits, broken circuits, poor spark plugs, worn or dirty 
points, loose wires and poor connections, broken-down 
coil, poor timing, points too close or too far apart. 

Poor compression : Leaky valves or piston rings, 
broken rings, faulty construction. 

Poor delivery : Poor foundation, poor balance, un- 
due friction, due to failure of cooling system or of 
lubrication, bearings untrue or out of alignment. 

324. A Bit of Parting Advice. — Remember always 
that the best way to overcome gasoline engine troubles 
is to prevent them by taking in advance of the trouble 
the care that has to be given afterwards. 

When trouble comes it is best, unless one really 
knows the cause from its nature, to look for some- 
thing simple first, the empty tank, the corroded or the 
open" switch, the disconnected wire. 

Do not be too ready to meddle with things that are 
working all right. Carry the oil can and the cleaning 
rags around a little more, and leave the hammer and 
the monkey Avrench alone unless it is certain they are 
really needed. 

In making adjustments, especially of the carburetor, 
expect a few back-fires and have the room well ven- 
tilated, and a pail or two of sawdust handy in case 
of fire. 

Above all, when things go wrong do not get excited. 
Take things cool all the time, but take them to pieces 
only when it is recjuired. Remember, that there are 
a few hundred thousand gasoline engines doing good 
work in the hands of all kinds of people, and that the 
burden of blame before the engine can be condemned 



244 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

is with the user. Barring accidents and long con- 
tinued wear, the only trouble that ever comes to the 
engine comes through the operator; while the most 
frequent source of trouble is the fact that it is not 
understood. 



CHAPTER XIV. 
SELECTING AND OPERATING A GAS ENGINE. 

325. Selecting the Engine. — Perhaps no mistake is 
more common among purchasers of the first gasoline 
engine than the determination to get the best, unless 
it is the effort to get the cheapest. There is no best 
for all purposes; nor can the most experienced en- 
gineer, after having tested different standard engines 
side by side for months, always decide which one he 
likes best even for his own use. Almost any engine 
will give entire satisfaction so long as everything runs 
well. When trouble comes the engine is apt to be 
criticized, whether it is to blame or not. The first 
step, then, in selecting a good engine, is to decide, 
not which is the best, but what particular place and 
work it is wanted for. The question must be answered 
wholly out of the farm, from the kind of work it is 
to do. 

326. Style Required. — For stationary purposes, the 
horizontal engine requires more floor space than the 
upright, and is not so well adapted to high speed. Be- 
cause of its broader base, it is firmer under a heavy 
belt pull than the upright, the piston and cylinder are 
more accessible, and it can be bolted more rigidly to 
its foundations. Its lower center of gravity, too, ren- 
ders it more solid for portable purposes, and in most 
cases it will probably give the best results in larger 
than four or five H. P. sizes. For the smaller engines 

245 



246 The Gasoline ExNgine on the Farm 

intended specially for extreme portability, such as for 
doing the choring and hand work about the house and 
barn, the upright has the advantage of lighter weight 
for a given horse-power both on account of the liglfter 
frame and because of its higher speed. They are 
also more economical in floor space, and in the smaller 
sizes seem to be preferred by purchasers and manu- 
facturers alike. They have some advantage in the 
matter of friction, a more important consideration in 
the small than in the larger engine, where there is a 
greater likelihood of margin in power. 




Fig. 



-A 'J'ypical Horizontal Gasoline Engine. 



327. The Best Size. — Every large or even moderate 
size farm needs two engines; one to do the heavier 
work like threshing, wood sawing, feed grinding, hay 
baling, etc., and another of from one to three horse- 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 247 

power capacity for economical use in doing those 
numerous bits of drudgery that will save the man 
and woman. As a rule the man who buys a two- or 
three-horse engine now will put in more machinery 
in a year or two which may require more power ; then 
he will probably regret having purchased so small an 
engine, but it is well for him to remember that he 
needs the small one worse than any other. For the 
heavier work he can, if he has to, get along with a 
hired engine, by adapting his heavier work to longer 
runs while the light engine is used perhaps several 
times every day in doing that back-breaking drudgery 
that is killing more men and women daily on the farm 
than anything else, but that would still be done in 
the old way in spite of the larger engine. Only the 
small power engine fits into this work with either 
economy or convenience. How many, for instance, 
have their buildings so arranged that it would be con- 
venient or economical to use an eight or ten horse- 
power engine for pumping a couple of buckets of water 
or running the churn or the cream separator in a 
small family dairy for four or five cows? It is just 
such tasks as these, however, that are shortening the 
lives of hundreds of people on the farm ; not the hard 
work so much as the unvarying hard drudgery. 

The larger engine is u^^ually purchased to save the 
farm team or to increase working capacity. It is the 
small engine that saves the man himself and his fam- 
ily. It will be used for a greater variety of work and 
more continuously than the larger engine, and the 
man himself will derive more direct benefits from it. 

328. A Plea for the Small Engine. — It seems a 
little like advising a man regarding the size of his 
hat to tell him how large an engine he needs, 
the advice in both instances being the same : 



248 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

get the size that fits the place. In farm work, 
though, the power required has an unusual range, and 
when one engine only is to be purchased the ques- 
tion seems to be one between a life of greater ease 
for both the farmer and his wife and family, or more 
extended field operations. Perhaps the best solution 
would be, say, a one or two horse-power engine for 
doing the every day farm drudgery, and a tractor for 
the farm. AVith the latter all such tasks as thresh- 
ing, hay baling, wood cutting could be done, while at 
the same time the farmer and the housewife would 
be relieved of more real work and care through the 
engine of smaller size. 




Fig. 79-— Easy Work for One and One-half Horse-power Gray 

Engine. 

329.— Power Required for Various Farm Tasks.— 

For most of the work about the house and dairy a 
one or two horse-power engine will be ample. This 
will pump water in moderate quantities, separate the 
milk, churn, run the washing machine and wringer, 
spray the trees, and water the flower bed and garden,' 
wash the windows, including those of the upper story,' 
run a dish-washer or a vacuum sweeper, supply a 
modern bath room and all rooms of the house with 
running water, run the shop lathe, grindstone, emery 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 249 

wheel, rip saw and small cut-off, wash buggies, white- 
wash the outbuildings, ten times faster than can be 
done by hand, sprinkle the lawn and a few other sim- 
ilar tasks that on the average farm are done at the 
price of aching backs or not at all ; while in its spare 
time the same industrious little worker would, with 
the aid of a storage battery, accumulate enough elec- 
trical energy to give the farm buildings every night 




Fig. 80. — Corn Sheller Easily Operated by One Horse-power. 

the same lighting conveniences enjoyed in the city 
residence at very little cost. 

With a three to five H. P., the farm supply of wood 
could be sawed, the feed ground, hay and straw and 
stalks run through the cutter, grain and hay elevated, 
corn shelled, stock watered, and feed conveyors 
handled almost without hand work. An eight to ten 
horse-power would do practically all of the heavy 
work a stationary engine could be made to do upon a 
farm; such tasks as threshing, ensilage cutting, heavy 
grinding, corn husking. For a tractor, less than twelve 
horse would hardly be advisable, while for real satis- 
factory work at the plow and harrow on say a 200- 
acre farm, less than a twenty horse could not be ad- 
vised. For smaller farms, tractors are now made of 
half that power that will do good work with the plow. 

For attaching to the table or rear of machine for 



250 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

binding grain, one of the light three H. P. now made 
is just the thing. 

The power required depends a good deal on the con- 
dition of the material delivered to the machine, and 
a great deal more on the condition of the machine itself 
and of the engine ; in other words, upon the care of the 
man who runs it. An engine that is big enough to 
do the work under most unfavorable conditions is, 







a 



Fig. 8i.— Simple Prony Brake Test. 

of course, powerful enough for all the others, while 
one that will come up to the estimate only on the 
supposition that the material will be delivered in rea- 
sonably good shape may fail if the conditions are 
extremely bad. 

There is, of course, danger of having a small engine 
overloaded in a short time if it is installed for gen- 
eral farm work, but for really saving the work and 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 251 

sparing the health of the man and of his wife the small 
engine is ideal. It is also best to learn with ; then it 
can be turned over to the boys to give them a new 
interest in farming, and a greater love for farm life 
than all the grindstones in the world could ever do 

unaided. 

330. What Horse-power Means.— Horse-power is 
a somewhat arbitrary measure of energy, same as the 




Pic_ 82.— Another Type of Prony Brake. 

foot or the mile is a measure of distance, though it is 
founded upon the more definite supposition that a fair 
load for an average horse would be the equivalent of 
a lift in one minute of 33.000 pounds a height ot one 
foot. Since this unit of energy measure has been gen- 
erally adopted as a standard, it is quite as accurate for 
purposes of comparison as though an actual horse had 
really been sent out to make the lifting test. 

There are several kinds of horse-power in common 
use, however, or rather the standard of measurement 
is taken in several different ways, no two of which 



252 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

mean exactly the same thing in amount of work actu- 
ally done. As some machine men have been known 
to take advantage of this while others have certain 
standards of their own which are recognized generally 
111 the measurement of certain kinds of ener-y it is 
necessary to understand the comparative value of each 
m order to know what horse-power really means. 

331. Various Kinds of Horse-power Defined.— 
Actual horse-power is the horse-power really devel- 
oped, as proved by trial. 

Brake horse-power is the power shown by a friction 
brake, the Prony brake being a favorite means of meas- 
unng. This is not scientifically accurate, but is near 
enough to answer all practical purposes. Brake horse- 
power represents the amount of working energy de- 
livered at the belt. 

Effective horse-power is the same as brake. 
Indicated horse-power is the measure of the power 
developed in the cylinder, and is, of course, consider- 
ably m excess of the actual energy delivered. It is 
figured out by multiplying the area of the piston head 
m niches by the length of stroke in feet and the prod- 
uct first by the number of strokes per minute and then 
by the average effective pressure on the piston in 
pounds during each power stroke. The result, being 
m foot-pounds, is divided by 33,000 for the indicated 
horse-power. This is the measure upon which all 
formula for computing horse-power from piston area 
are based. The brake horse-power is equal to the 
mdicated horse-power after we have subtracted from 
the latter the energy lost in friction, passive resist- 
ance, etc. 

Nominal horse-power is defined as the horse-power 
calculated by a conventional and usuallv incorrect 
method of rating, as that based on the area of the 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 253 

piston It has so far lost any fixed meaning it ever 
mav have had that it is of little hnportanee exeeptmg 
for' the fact that it is still used as a commercial term 
for selling engines and confusing purchasers. 

Tractive horse-power, owing to the rapid advance- 
ment of the traction engine, must now be admitted as 
, measure of engine efficiency. It represents the work- 
ino- energy delivered at the draw-bar: that is the belt 
energy less whatever power is absorbed m the trans- 
mission gearing and the moving of its own weigh^ 
This usually amounts to between 50% and 60% of the 
brake horse-power, though one tractor now on the 
market claims a draw-bar energy of Sofo. 

332 Purchasing Horse-power.-With even the 
most careful attention to the relative meanings of these 
different ratings, purchasing horse-power is stUl some- 
what an elastic operation. Many engines, - m tance 
which would operate for an hour or so at f"" latec 
capacity would by that time have become so hot that 
they could not be run at all. While most farm work 
is done on comparatively short runs, an engine should, 
none the less, be capable of maintaining for an indefi- 
nite period the full rated capacity for which it was 
sold. Probably no gasoline engine can develop more 
than 90% of its full possibilities and maintain it 
steadily for an entire day ; hence it is necessary that an 
engine to be honestly rated, have at least 10% reserv 
energy above its rating. Many of the best engine 
makers now supply this reserve; some of them, mtic 
more. In buying a cheap engine, though, or one f om 
an unknown firm, it is well to keep this po.n m mincl 
In justice to the gasoline engine before it 1. made 
to suffer from comparison with steam engine or actual 
horse ratings, we must give fair consideration to the 
subject of overload. 



254 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

333. The Overload as Affecting Ratings.— An ac- 

tua horse, under the lash of a brutal driver, can be 
made to develop several horse-power for a few min- 
utes and then perhaps drop dead the next. A good 
steam engme, with an equal or heavier rated boiler at 
Its highest rated pressure and a hot fire back of it 
might be able to handle an overload of 40% or even 
50% for a little while; then its capacity might drop 
below normal until steam was raised again unless in 
the meantime it had the assistance of a m.ost strenuous 
and wdling fireman. 

The gasoline engine will take up the load that it was 
built to carry, less a small margin t)f under-rating al- 
lowed for unfavorable conditions, and will carry it con- 
stantly without any help from anyone. Beyond a small 
margin, no amount of urging will tempt it into in- 
creasing its exertions for even a short time- and 
abuse. It It has any effect at all, will probablv retire 
it from the job. It has little reserve force back of 
It to draw on, and that little may be needed in over- 
coming the unfavorable conditions under which it may 
be working. The statement sometimes made that a 
steam engine will outpull a gasoline engine of the 
same rating is not true if the steam engine is worked 
in accordance with its permanent capacity, as the -as- 
oline engine is. If a 15 horse-power boiler is set be- 
hind a 10 horse steam engine and steam raised to the 
point of blowing off, with the hottest of fires in the 
grates, and a good fireman doing his best to make it 
hotter, there is nothing to prevent the engine carry- 
ing an overload of several horse-power so long as the 
stored steam, the overcharge of fire, and the energy 
of the fireman hold out. The gasoline engine is self- 
contained, and depends upon itself. It has the strength 
for even a greater overload, for its shafts and bear- 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 255 

ings are heavier, but it has no stored-up or borrowed 
energy to help it along. Whatever power it is re- 
quired to use it develops and uses as the occasion re- 
quires, and, if it has no reserve power to help it along 
on overloads, neither has it a lot of reserved and 
wasted energy that was not used when an overload 
was not required. When we consider that overload- 
ing any engine is an unwarranted strain upon its 
structural strength, it would seem as if the engine that 
can be depended upon to develop its full rating stead- 
ily, without reserve power and without wasted power, 
has the best of the argument. 

334. The Question of Weight. — The question of 
weight is more a problem of individual requirement 
than of engine necessity. There are places where, 
other things being equal, the heavy engine has a de- 
cided advantage. The massive frame absorbs consid-^ 
erable vibration and, like the heavy man on the lever, 
does some work to better advantage. There is also 
less strain on the engine because it is distributed 
through a greater mass of metal. 

335- Where the Light Engine Wins. — On the other 
hand, one of the greatest arguments in favor of the 
gasoline engine is its supreme portability; and every 
pound of unnecessary weight added thereto is a de- 
parture from one of its great advantages. Weight 
alone is not always strength, not unless it is put where 
greater strength is needed than the light engine pos- 
sesses. The old-fashioned binders were immensely 
heavier than the light steel structures of to-day, yet 
no one will say that they were as strong. Often the 
light machine indicates that it is a better balanced 
machine, more carefully planned out and less cum- 
bered by unnecessary weight. Undoubtedly the heavy 
fly wheel and the corresponding machinery back of it 



256 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

supply a greater amount of stored up energy; that 
is, the momentum is greater to carry the engine over 
sudden loads, or the idle strokes, but for much of 
the every-day farm work the light engine is decidedly 
preferable. For strictly stationary purposes the heavy 
engine bed and massive balance wheel absorb much 
of the destructive vibration, and add rigidity to the 
engine providing the weight is properly distributed. 
The present-day tendency though is toward lighter en- 
gines, not so much on account of the price as because 
of their greater convenience. Engines that weigh 200 
pounds or less and develop three horse-power can be 
used in many places to far better advantage than a 
heavier engine could. In tractor engines w^eight has 
a greater significance, the tractive power of the wheels 
having a direct relation with the weight which holds 
them down. 

336. Simplicity.— Always, when simplicity is ob- 
tained through a skillful placing of parts, the engine 
is more durable and easier managed, besides requir- 
ing less energy for its own propulsion. When it re- 
sults from the omission of important details, we have 
to consider whether the result obtained will lose more 
in efficiency than we have gained in mechanical econ- 
omy. The engine should have parts enough to insure 
good work, but those added for show alone should be 
discarded, and even the value of the conveniences 
should always be weighed against the extra parts they 
require. It never pays to curtail to a material degree 
the usefulness of the engine for the sake of saving a 
few extra parts or a little in price and weight. Neither 
should we choose an engine cumbered with a lot of 
attachments that are not needed for our work and 
that only render the task of taking care of the engine 
a little more complicated. On a farm where hired 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 257 

help is kept we should always bear in mind that the 
engine ought to be so simple that the most inexperi- 
enced farm hand can soon learn to operate it under 
ordinary conditions, while it should not be beyond 
the boys of the farm to fathom its management under 
any conditions. So long as kept within the bounds of 
continued efficiency, simplicity means freedom from 
trouble for the novice. 

337. The Price. — Price sometimes gets greater con- 
sideration than it deserves. We get about what we 
pay for, usually, but in the purchase of an engine it is 
well to consider whether we really need all that we 
get or whether some of the price is being expended 
upon things of negative value. Quality, experience in 
engine building, good workmanship, and good mate- 
rial are all worth paying for. Expensive clerks and 
salesmen, big commercial splurges, are not unless the 
increased sales they bring enable the manufacturer to 
give better quality on a closer margin of profit. Al- 
ways it is the purchaser who has to pay the manu- 
facturer's bills, but he can only judge of them to a lim- 
ited extent, and when they represent a policy that is 
specially aggressive. 

Continued improvements represent a progressive 
spirit. Excessive changes every season may represent 
designs that have not been w^orking out right or ex- 
periments which may be more costly than beneficial. 

It is a good idea for the prospective engine buyer 
to read and study the catalogues of a good many man- 
ufacturers, not only for the suggestion he will get 
in the selection of an engine for his purpose, but be- 
cause in this way he will finally get at something like 
a normal price ; then when an agent asks him much 
above or much below this figure he will be in a posi- 
tion to find out why. It is well, too, for everyone to 



258 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

remember that the ''terms" of 30 days' trial offered 
by many engine firms are of little practical value 
except possibly a means of determining whether a cer- 
tain size is large enough to do the work required of 
it. So far as general engine merit is concerned, any 
engine that will run at all will run for thirty days 
without showing much wear. Almost any engine sent 
out can be made to run quite well by an expert, while 
a novice would hardly be accustomed enough to his 
engine in that length of time to give it a fair trial. 

338. Adaptability. — This is of more importance 
than some phases of the price consideration or alluring 
''terms." The cream separator needs a steadier run- 
ning engine than the hay work hoist or the pump re- 
quires. The light, air-cooled cylinder could stand 
work that was cut into one or two hour periods, and 
not be suitable for a steady pull under full load all 
day. There is a record of one engine that had not 
made good under certain conditions, that nevertheless, 
when nearly submerged in a cellarful of water, pa- 
tiently pumped itself and the cellar dry, a feat that 
would have been too much for many a sturdier en- 
gine. 

339. Other Considerations. — Repair economy is al- 
ways a feature worth paying something for, and the 
engine made by a responsible house near home is 
worth several dollars more than one sent out by an 
institution about the stability of which nobody knows, 
and which at best is hundreds of miles away, with a 
heavy freight rate between. Other things being 
nearly equal, the engine with a local representative 
can be kept in working order better and cheaper than 
one that can never receive a supervising word from 
one of its own people. 

Ease of adjustment is specially important on farms 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 259 

where hired help is kept and engine experts hard to 

find. , 

Some engines save enough fuel in a season to make 
up for a few dollars difference in first cost. The pur- 
chase price is an investment ; the upkeep, an expense. 
Sometimes it is a choice between the two. A pint of 
gasoline per horse-power hour is a liberal allowance 
of fuel for some engines, while others have been known 
to more than double this amount, while there are a 
few that can reduce it. 

340. Testing an Engine.— Every engme sent out 
from the shops is supposed to have been tested, but 
shop conditions are very different from actual work 
in the field. A reasonable test should mclude the 
same character of work the engine will be used for, 
and under similar conditions. If wanted for electric 
lio-ht work and the plant has not yet been mstalled 
hitch the engine to something that will show speed 
variations readily, and run it for several hours on a 
steady pull. Part of an engine's, test should be un- 
der a full load and part of it at considerably less. 
A loaded engine sometimes develops characteristics 
such as heating, which it would not do running empty, 
but the loaded engine will be run as a rule at a lower 
percentage of fuel expenditure. Wood sawing is 
rather a trying test as the strain is so intermittent 
but that will not bring out a propensity to heat, i hat 
requires a steady pull at full load. ^ 

341. Being Fair with Engine and Agent.— Be fair 
with the engine and the agent, though. A new en- 
gine is never in condition to stand the run without 
heating that it could after the bearings, rmgs and 
cylinder walls had seen a little service. It is not fair 
to put it to the last strain, nor to subject it to any 
strain which is not a part of regular work. The de- 



26o The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

liberate effort to stall the new engine or in some way 
force it to show a weakness that is not a part of its 
factory inheritance is neither good business nor good 
intelligence. If an expert is there to install the en- 
gine, do not have a big crew of hostile men and a lot 
of work piled up in his face. Plan to give him all the 
chance in the world to get the engine into good work- 
ing order rather than to get a lot of wood sawed, or 
furnish amusement for the neighborhood. Do not 
undertake anything that will keep you too busy to 
receive and think about his instructions. Do not keep 
him too busy to give them. Have plenty of mate- 
rial handy for a reasonable test, with a man or two 
to assist him if he needs them. Let him do the test- 
ing, and the helpers all the other work, while you 
watch him and the engine. If you are sincere in want- 
ing to buy an engine, you want it to be a success ; give 
it a fair chance to be, and give yourself a fair chance 
to see how it can be made one. After he has had it 
working nicely for some time get him to shut down 
and watch you run it. Power and efficiency curves 
are worth a lot to the engine designer. An hour or so 
of practical field work with a practical man is worth 
a great deal more to you, and be sure the average ex- 
pert will exert himself a great deal more to help you 
if you help him by being reasonable. 

342. When the Agent Does Not Come. — Sometimes 
no agent or expert is sent. In that case the engine 
generally comes crated, and set up ready to run. The 
first thing to unpack is the instruction book ; take it 
to the house and study it until the next day. In re- 
moving the crate, be careful with the hammer. Some 
parts of the engine are made to stand hard knocks ; 
but learn which first. A half day spent in washing it 
off thoroughly with turpentine will be well spent 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 261 

for two reasons. There will be more or less grit about 
it that may, if at once started, be drawn into the cyl- 
inder, so it really needs the thorough cleaning. Then 
as the work is done each part is likely to be located, 
studied and compared with the description in the in- 
struction books. At the end (not the beginning) of 
that time would be most suitable for marking the 
timer and similar adjustments that are not already 
marked. After the cleaning is done, oil carefully and 
hand crank, again studying the different parts in 
motion. 

Before starting under its own power, fasten se- 
curely to the floor or some solid foundation. No en- 
gine can do its best work while hopping around 
loosely. Run empty for balance of the day, and note 
carefully the exact consumption of gasoline and oil. 
Never start an engine standing over a spot where gas- 
oline has been spilled. If the engine should race it 
might back-fire and cause trouble. After getting some- 
what acquainted with it, turn off the gasoline, feed 
slowly until the place is found where it will develop 
its full power and where further reduction decreases 
it. 

343. Turning on the Load. — Perhaps you have seen 
the claim that "the engine runs itself." After run- 
ning it empty for a while, to prove that it does, it 
is time to find out what else it will run. Hitch it 
first to some empty machine and turn on the load 
gradually, watching closely. Let it carry a fair load 
then for several hours, but on the first sign of heat- 
ing above normal, shut down. Once cutting begins, 
it is very hard to overcome. Do not condemn the 
engine for a little heating until paint and all rough- 
ness have been worn down. Above all, do not begin 
trying it out on overloads until the superfluous paint 



262 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm. 

is taken off, and your knowledge how to run it put 
on. Nothing is harder on an engine than to stall it 
down, as the advanced spark throws full force of the 
explosion against the engine for the last few strokes. 
Do not give it a taste of full load the first run. No 
skilled machinist would think of doing that with a new 
lathe or new machine of any kind. The first day he 
accomplishes little real work w4th it; just works it 
into harness gradually, and watches it too closely for 
any little troubles to have time for much work. If 
the troubles come he tries to help it overcome them. 
Often he does not allow it to carry a full load for two 
or three da3^s. When giving the engine its first run, 
shut down frequently and examine, to see if it is 
heating beyond what it ought to and if the parts, 
particularly the cylinder, are being oiled. Watch all 
the bearings, and be careful that none of the nuts jar 
loose. Make no changes in the adjustments when run- 
ning all right, but study out what you would do if 
this or that went wrong, and why, before it does go 
wrong; then try and find out from the instruction 
book or some one who knows whether you are right, 
and, if not, why not. Do not take the advice of any 
one as the last w^ord in engine culture, though. The 
man who thinks he knows all there is to know about 
the management of engines would do well to wait a 
few days, for he has a lesson coming to him. If he 
realized that, he would think the other fellow might 
be like him and not trust too implicitly to all he said. 
344. The Outfit. — When buying an engine some ex- 
plicit understanding should be had as to what it in- 
cludes. There are some outfits being advertised at a 
low price which include little but the bare engine. 
Tank, connections, pipe, batteries, spark plug, etc., 
have all to be bought afterwards. Some outfits in- 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 263 

elude part of these but not a carburetor. Others in- 
c de all that is necessary, even a magneto belt pul- 
: and all connections ready to turn the wheel over 
and start All of these matters should be arranged by 
a"reement beforehand or they are likely to arrange a 

'^'^f ^krndrnd' Engine.-A second-hand engine 
i/ga^erally a bargain for buyer or seller; the question 
is which? Anyone purchasing an engine so far re- 
;; -ed from the dealer's guarantee is justified in ask- 
" a good many questions. Why is f be>ng sold? 
'said to be "too light." just what did it fail to do 
and what did it do? Look closely tor wear at the 
b arings. particularly if a two-cycle: also to the con- 
nec ng od, and all the cams and their rolers. The 
bearings may be replaced with a little babbiU met 1 , 
the cams cannot be. Test the '^-"P'^f ^'°\*".' ^ ' " f^ 
if poor, try and make out whether the leak is at the 
park plug or the rings. Hand crank for this test, 
afd tur'n off all lubrication in order to find out whether 
it is the rings or the oil that is holding Notice 
whether the valves are pitted or if they have been 
reground until they are almost buried in their seats_ 
If the spark is a little weak test the connections and 
the coil; then the batteries. If the fault is here fig- 
ure on an expense of about $1.50 to "-enew them. I 
the coil is wrong the cost may be ^— ' / "« J^^ 
much The cylinder and water jacket should be ex- 
amined for cracks and the owner made to give a 
definite statement as to their condition. A crack can- 
not always be seen, but gasoline under pressure will 
find it Paint may tell something about the age of an 
engine and how well it has been cared for: or ,t may 
be used fresh for the occasion to cover up defects. 
Which one the engine is a bargain for depends as much 



264 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

upon the honesty of the seller and the practical knowl- 
edge of the buyer as upon the engine. It is always 
safe to remember that an expert will get good work 
out of any engine for some time if it will run at all, 
and that the owner is very likely to be something of 
an expert with his own engine. 

346. After Buying. — Having purchased an engine 
of this sort, do not get discouraged at the first 
glimpse of trouble. Any engine may be thrown out 
of adjustment while being torn out and moved. A 
wire may be broken or rusted ; many trifling things 
may happen. Don't take the w^ord of the first *agent 
that it is only fit for the junk pile. Let him show you 
why, if he wants to, but do not let him take it to 
pieces to show you. He may drop some valuable hint ; 
his aim is to make a sale. 

Write to the company who made it and get their 
catalogues, their directions, their advice. It may have 
to be sent to some shop for a general overhauling, or 
it may not be worth it; but be game until you find 
out. Don't condemn it until the minor repairs are 
made, if the case is hopeful. If it isn't, don't buy in 
the first place ; but, having made the one investment, 
better put enough more with it to see it through. If 
the trouble is in the trimmings, the chances are it 
may be fixed up at a reasonable expense. If there 
is a cracked or oval cylinder to deal with, the case is 
dubious, though not hopeless. 

347. Oiling the Engine. — So many of our engine 
troubles come to us because of things we forget, that 
any system which enables us to remember things will 
do much to eliminate our troubles. A regular system 
in starting and stopping the engine will save us many 
failures and not a few cracked water jackets in cold 
weather. 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 265 

First, clean out oil holes from dirt and grit, and see 
that lubricators are all in place and filled. For start- 
ing the first time, open the cylinder lubricator and per- 
mit the oil to drip a short time, hand cranking the 
engine so as to get the inside of the cylinder, the piston 
and rings thoroughly oiled. Oil the balance of the 
engine same as any other machine, beginning at one 
side and making a clean sweep of it while going 
around. Take this occasion always to notice whether 
the valves are sticking or the governors and gearing 
all right. 

348. The Cooling System. — See that the cocks are 
open along the water system and that the water is 
circulating through the pipes. Do not guess at this ; 
be sure. Of course all drain cocks must be closed and 
there must be a supply of water in the tank. If the 
engine is air cooled notice that the fans are all in 
place. If the engine has been run, open drain cock 
in muffler pipe if one is there, and drain off any con- 
densed water it contains. 

349. Retard the Spark. — Of all directions, this is 
one of the most important, for upon its observance 
depends the operator's safety. Set the spark lever 
back as far as it will go, or follow whatever directions 
for spark retarding came with the engine. Perhaps 
more people have been injured by gasoline engines by 
reason of not observing this rule than from any other 
cause. 

350. The Carburetor. — Open the cock between 
carburetor and fuel tank and depress the spindle to 
the float valve until a supply of the liquid comes over. 
See that the air intake is open. In cold weather it 
may be necessary to warm the tube or the intake. 

351. The Switch. — Close the switch by bringing the 
lever down until it is pressed clear back into the 



266 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm • 

groove made to receive it. See that the metal is clean 
and the contact good. 

352. Starting the Engine. — If the engine is small 
grasp the fly wheel rim with both hands, if crank is 
not used, and turn the wheel over, in most engines 
from left to right or with the hands of a watch. Re- 
lease just as the compression has been overcome and 
the resistance begins to ease ofif. If the engine is too 
large to turn over by hand, a bar is sometimes used, 
but is rather dangerous for a novice. If there is a 
relief cock in end of cylinder, open this and crank until 
first explosion occurs, and then close at once ; if not, 
the exhaust valve may be held up with a block tied 
to a string until the power stroke begins ; then the 
block should be jerked out quickly. Usually the ex- 
plosion will come with the first or second turn of the 
wheel. If not with the first, catch the rim as it comes 
around after being driven back by the compression 
and, with the momentum gained, try and keep it go- 
ing over the next compression. Do not forget to re- 
lease the hold at once when extreme of compression 
stroke is passed. If the spark does not come within 
the first half-dozen turns better stop and investigate, 
as something is wrong. Be careful always, while turn- 
ing the wheel, that there are no projections to catch 
the clothing or strike the person. Never under any 
circumstances turn the wheel by setting a foot on the 
spoke. 

353- Just After Starting. — As soon as possible after 
the engine has started shut ofif the cock on the gaso- 
line line about a half, as the mixture, once the -suction 
of the cylinder is established, would otherwise be so 
rich the engine would soon choke down and stop. Ad- 
vance the spark gradually, as the engine picks up 
speed until it is running strong ; then go back to the 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 26^ 

gasoline supply and regulate the flow of air and gas- 
oline as already described until just the right open- 
ing is found. By noting the position carefully, these 
adjustments can afterwards be made with very little 
trouble, although there is a little variation required 
under certain conditions. 

If the engine should not start, don't blame the en- 
gine. Open the switch, shut off the lubricators and 
read youi" instruction book again. 

354. Getting up Power. — Do not expect full power 
of any engine at once. Everything about it is cold. 
Sometimes in cold weather it will be found necessary 
to partly close the end of the air pipe while starting. 
In that case open again gradually as the engine warms 
up, until wide open. If the engine is new, a good deal 
of its power may have to be expended on itself for 
some time. If old and for some time in disuse, the 
cylinder walls may have become rusty and so retard 
it. 

355. Going After All the Power. — A surprising 
number of people will select their engine with most 
critical regard for its economy in fuel for the power 
developed, and will then defeat their own object 
through carelessness in adjustment. Engines that are 
set level and on firm foundations will do more work 
and at less cost for fuel and less wear on the engine. 
Dirt, grit, floating dust, obstructions of any kind, have 
more or less effect, and that effect is always bad. In 
the first place it invariably means careless habits, and 
that is fatal to getting the full power out of the en- 
gine. Valves that are poorly regulated are wasting 
fuel and energy. The poor adjustments which might 
be made right as easily as wrong may overcome more 
than 30% of the engine energy sought after with so 
much care while making the selection. The man who, 



268 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

after paying a round price for an engine of the high- 
est efficiency, gets less result from it than one who 
buys a cheaper make, may have his ignorance of en- 
gines to excuse him at the start. If that ignorance 
continues, he has no excuse. He is to blame himself. 

Dirt means anything out of place. Too much gas- 
oline in the cylinder is dirt, and so is too much oil. 
Even the tools required to operate the engine may be- 
come rubbish by getting out of place. The most un- 
tidy engine room on earth may not contain so very 
much that its most up-to-date neighbor does not con- 
tain. The difference is only in the arrangement; in 
a carelessness that will be fatal to the working of an 
engine. Remember that whatever is worth doing at 
all is worth doing the right way, and whatever has 
to be done is worth doing well. 

Some gasoline engine men will run their engine for 
months without learning more about its construction 
than they were obliged to learn the first day in order 
to run it at all. This speaks well for the engine but 
not for the man. A steam engine would in that time 
compel at least a speaking acquaintance with the man 
behind it, or quit work. Possibly the engineer would 
quit at the same instant. Some engine men, and not 
professionals either, can tell from the sound what the 
engine is doing; others are barely able to tell from 
the looks afterwards what it has done. 

356. The Gospel of Attention. — Gasoline engines 
are often advertised to run without attention ; that does 
not mean that reasonable care is injurious to them 
although they are often neglected on that account. 
A new engine, in particular, should be watched for 
loose nuts, loose bolts, tight or loose bearings. Very 
few things go wrong without some indications or 
symptoms that the observing attendant can read. 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 269 

Not only does the engine need this close attention 
until thoroughly installed ; the novice engineer needs 
it even more. The drill in close observation v^ill be 
invaluable to him, and will serve him many times in 
getting out of trouble because of his familiarity with 
the exact performance of each part when all was 
working well. Reading instruction books may do 
much toward teaching him what to look for. Experi- 
ence and observation alone will teach him how to make 
the most of what he sees. 

After the engine and the engineer have been tried 
out and are fully acquainted with each other, close 
attention or at least continual attendance may not be 
necessary. The engine may often be left to itself for 
hours. In all machinery, however, there is always the 
possibility of something going wrong, and the true 
engineer will prefer to at least come within earshot 
of his engine occasionally. As a general thing the 
man who could leave his engine wholly to itself with 
the least risk is the one who would be last to do so. 

357. Importance of Letting Alone. — The gospel of 
attention should include special instruction in the 
necessity of letting alone. When everything is going 
as it should go, further adjustment is work for the 
experienced engineer. The novice who begins to ex- 
periment is just beginning his troubles. Even worse 
than this, though, is a willingness to let someone else 
experiment. We should be alert for suggestions, but 
should use our own brains a while on the idea before 
using the latter on the engine. If the engine don't 
work, master it yourself or else get an expert ; don't 
let someone else try experiments at your expense. 
Even an expert, if the agent for some other line, should 
not be trusted. He may be conscientious ; he is sure 
to be prejudiced and to have less real personal inter- 



2^0 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

est in fixing up your engine than he would have in fix- 
ing his own. 

Whenever, in walking around an engine, one is 
tempted to take up a wrench and go to work on some 
questionable adjustment make it a rule to pick up a bit 
of waste instead and clean a wheel or brighten the 
trimmings. That rule alone, if rigidly adhered to, will 
save a vast amount of trouble, as will the other rule 
to never take up a wrench until there is use for it. 

358. Shutting Down.— There should be a regular 
system of shutting down as well as of starting; then 
nothing will be forgotten. Shut off the water supply, 
if a water-cooled engine; shut off the gasoline, open 
the battery switch. Stop the engine so that all valves 
are closed, so there will be no communication between 
the inside of the cylinder and the open air. Remove 
the drive belt by running it from the fly wheel as the 
engine slows. Shut off the lubricators. If the weather 
requires it, drain the water pipes. Clean up all patches 
of grease and oil; put tools in their place. Leave 
everything in perfect order for beginning another day. 
If intending to leave the engine idle for some time, 
inject a small quantity of kerosene into the cylinder. 
It will remove most of the carbon and still leave the oil 
glaze on the walls and piston and rings. Turn the 
engine over a few times by hand while introducing 
it, then drain out, until the oil comes fairly clear. If 
very bad, inject a pint and let stand for ten min- 
utes, turning the engine enough to keep it agitated; 
then open tap and leave open for 24 hours or else pre- 
pare to leave the neighborhood when next the engine 
is started. A coating of vasoline on the valves will 
do much to protect them while the engine is standing 
idle. 

359. Things to Think About.— It's always the 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 271 

blunders that cost. Things that go right are inex- 
pensive. 

In the present age of well made engines, the only 
troubles that usually come to an engine, outside of 
disturbed adjustment through vibration, are due to ig- 
norance, carelessness and natural wear. Of these three 
causes, the first two are most prolific of trouble, and 
both of them are directly in the hands of the man 
himself. 

The driven as well as the driving machinery must 
be kept in order if we are to get full returns in power 
from our engine investment. Dull knives, worn cogs, 
and shafts out of line all destroy engine energy and 
waste both fuel and power. 

An engine that will deliver 10 full horse-power per 
hour on a gallon of gasoline may barely develop power 
using the same amount, in other hands. The differ- 
ence is neither due to engine nor to fuel, but to the 
men. 

Sometimes we know what we' are paying for our 
power, without knowing wdiat power we are getting 
or what it is costing us per unit of useful energy. 
" The vital time with any machine is when it begins 
to wear out. Easy repairing sometimes determines the 
difference between continued service and the scrap 
pile. 

When the engine balks, as it some day surely will, 
consider five things well ; compression, fuel, timing, 
spark, insulation. 

At all times bear in mind these four rules : 
Use good oil, especially about the cylinder. 
Draw off the water in frosty weather. 
Do not feed too much gasoline. 
Keep battery connections tight. 

If you want to make a success of operating your 



2'j2 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

engine study the engine. If you want to become a 
neighborhood expert at it add to your course of study 
mechanics, heat, chemistry, electricity, good sense, and 
your own engine. 

360. Overhauling an Engine. — If the cylinder heads 
are removable, remove them, if the operation is to be 
thorough. Place them in kerosene to soak while 
cleaning the cylinder. Note the nature of the deposits ; 
whether the oil used has been what it should be. 

Have valves in soaking. Clean and scrape the heads, 
especially at the joints, but do not break the surface 
glaze. The valves may be rubbed with fine emery 
cloth. Notice that the valve guides are not worn un- 
evenly along the side, and whether the valve seats 
properly. 

Let the timer alone until the setting as supplied by 
the factory has been unmistakably marked. This 
should always be done when the engine is new, before 
it has a chance to lose its adjustment. By using 
graphite on the nuts they go on much better and do 
not rust. 

If the engine is a multiple C3'linder do not mix the 
pistons, even though they are interchangeable. Do 
not even change the rings. Each wears to its own pe- 
culiar position. If made to scrape out a new one 
each time there will be lots of waste energy and 
waste engine. Each ring will seat best in its own 
groove. 

Note carefully the wear on the gudgeon. There 
should be some side float but no shake. Worn pins 
are probably case-hardened and something is wrong. 
If the wear on pins or bushings is at the ends, the 
rod is out of line. If full length the bushings should 
be scraped to fit the new pin. Bearings that are bright 
all over should not be meddled with ; but if in spots 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 273 

only, scrape the spots down enough to ease them. 
Scrape out any score marks on pin or in shell, then 
rub with oil stone or emery stone and finish with fine 
emery cloth. , 

The crank shaft should be specially well mspected 
for signs of uneven wear or false alignment. Nothing 
is harder on an engine than to jerk a wabbly shaft 
around by means of a twisting piston. 

Clean all the wiring terminals thoroughly with gaso- 
line The coils should be cleaned also, but always 
with a care for the insulation, which must be guarded 
from oil or water. 

If possible blow steam from a steam boiler through 
all the fuel and water pipes. Do not leave them un- 
connected until dirt gets in again. Connect up at 

once. 

If a magneto is used, take it over to the electric 
light station and have it fully tested with a generator 
and Ohm meter. Coat the winding with shellac after 
brushing out and .cleaning the armature thoroughly. 
After the shellac is dry, varnish. Do not forget to 
clean the armature bearings and to see that the oil 
grooves are open. Spark plugs should be removed 
and cleaned, then coat the screw base with graphite 
and screw into place with the hand if possible, never 
with a large wrench. Spare plugs should be looked 
over at the same time, coated with mineral grease, 
and wrapped in waxed paper. Keep them dry as well 
as dry cells and spark coil. 

Even the fuel tank should not be forgotten. Clean 
out and look for leaks. Disconnect the pipe and get 
rid of all rust and scale. 

The muffler should be given a thorough cleaning 
and its load of soot entirely gotten rid of. There is 
nothing to be injured here; use kerosene, gasoline, 



274 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

whatever keeps the dirt coming, until the liquid comes 
out clear. 

Goat the battery terminals with vaseline if the en- 
gine is to remain idle for a while as a protection from 
acid. 

361. The Personal Hazard. — Accidents to the per- 
son usuallv consist of burns about the hands and arms 



^ A\ \ 



I 



Fig. 83. — Correct and Incorrect Method of Cranking an Engine. 
Correct Method, Left Hand Used. In Case of Pre-ignition 
Handle Is Jerked Away from the Hand, Which Is Left Out- 
side of Crank Circle. Incorrect Method, Uses Right Hand. 
Back Kick Will Either Drive Handle Against Hand or 
Leave Hand in Crank Circle. Result, Broken Arm or Wrist. 

or about the face from flashes of gasoline at some un- 
expected time and place. Hot pipes, hot cylinders, a 
hot muffler, and the hot blast of the explosion itself 
are all about equally frequent ofifenders. 

Injury to the eyes come from the muffler blast on 
account of after-firing or from back-firing to the car- 
buretor. 

Broken bones, broken noses and lost teeth are part 
of the general tribute levied by the fly wheel on the 
careless operator. To avoid these, never forget to 
retard the spark before cranking the engine. 

The fans on an air motor give many a vicious 
bruise and cut. 

A good many sore fingers have resulted from the 
hand-hold on the fly wheel being such that it brought 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 275 

the fingers against the base or a projecting part, as 
a bolt head. 

In starting with crank see that the crank is on and 
properly clutched; then, standing at the rear of the 
wheel with respect to its revolutions, grasp handle 
firmly and revolve over and from the person until 
compression is passed, then bring the handle around 
until turning against compression again. This ought 
to start the engine, when the clutch will be disengaged 
and the crank will drop from the wheel and remain 
in the hand. Use weight rather than strength in 
turning heavy engine over, then keep it rolling with 
the hands imtil the first impulse is felt. 

Always suspect that there is a charge of unexploded 
gas in the cylinder. After the plug is removed this 
may be tested for with a lighted match, but keep 
hands and face away from all ports. 

It is the business of every engine operator to pro- 
tect all visitors he admits to the engine room. Danger 
signs are good, but not enough. The engine looks 
harmless and inviting, while the damage, if any, that it 
does is done in an instant. 



2^/6 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 




£0 



o 



CHAPTER XV. 
THE TRACTION .ENGINE. 

362. Its Message to the World. — The stationary 
gasoline engine has given its message to the world 
through farm and factory alike. The traction engine 
is to discharge its more important mission through the 
farm alone, a mission of threefold import at least, ob- 
tained as a direct result of accomplishments which 
are wholly its own. 

I St. Through more extended operations. 

2nd. Through more thorough work. 

3rd. Through more timely work. 

No mention is made here of the additional message 
to the farmer himself of cheaper labor, easier and 
pleasanter work, and more time to enjoy the luxuries 
of life, for which the tractor also furnishes the oc- 
casion. 

363. Its First Accomplishment. — That the average 
man could not give true intensive culture to more 
than twenty-five acres of land has been the judgment 
of the best agricultural authorities for years, and even 
this amount would not be taxed to its utmost as fully 
as the man would. As the pressure for supplies be- 
comes greater it has been more and more evident that 
the world cannot afford large farms skimmed over with 
careless culture ; her one course, if she would keep 
her children all supplied with bread, is to increase the 
product of each acre by substituting twenty-five acre 
culture wherever the extensive methods are in use. 

277 



278 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

This means more men ; more than she has to spare of 
the right kind. The problem was a perplexing one 
until the traction engine solved it by putting into the 
hands of one man the reins which control the work 
C)f twenty-five to fifty horses. Since the American 
farmer has not the time to properly till all the tillable 
land in the old way and there is no way of increasing 
the number, the time that was his has been increased 
by putting into his day the working energy of many 
men and teams. 

364. The Second Message. — Usually the area of a 
single man's cultivated fields is increased at the ex- 
pense of efficient work. The tractor is permitting him 
to do better work by giving him the power that is 
needed to run the most efficient machinery that can 
be made. The machine designer does not now have to 
limit his implements to machines that a team will 
handle ; he is permitted to regard them from the stand- 
point of efficiency alone. 

365. And the Third. — Only the farmer himself 
realizes how many times he has been forced to begin 
his plowing or seeding or harvesting before the ground 
or the crop was ready because at best the last part 
of the work w^ould be delayed until later than it ought 
to be. With a 25-acre field to plow and fit for each 
man and team not less than twenty days would be 
required, of which perhaps ten would be within the 
time w^hen the crop should be sowed and the ground 
in the best condition. During the first five days of 
the fitting the ground would be too wet to work well ; 
during the last five the season would be getting late ; 
but if the farm work was planned to the best me- 
chanical advantage and the harvesting of the field to 
be done all at once as it should be, none of the field 
was sowed until all was fitted. Then how many of 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 279 

us can tell the story of a large field almost ready for 
drill or planter when a three days' rain suspended 
operations for at least a week, made refitting neces- 
sary, and brought the planting almost hopelessly late? 
Not less than thirty per cent, of the world's output in 
farm crops — her possible output — is lost annually be- 
cause of unseasonable seeding. 

366. What the Gasoline Tractor Is Doing. — The 
small tractor for the 150 to 300-acre farms is plowing, 
fitting and seeding fifteen to twenty acres a day ; an 
output to cover the entire farm it is intended for within 
the usual best seeding season, and enough to complete 
in one or two days the usual field of any one crop on 
a mixed farm of that size. Some of the farming mo- 
guls of the West are multiplying this output by three, 
and could, if run the full twenty-four hours, as they 
may be if required, have a couple of townships in 
growing crops at the end of the average seeding 
season. 

367. Special Appeals to the Farmer. — Almost all 
kinds of soil, if worked in the proper condition, can 
be harrowed as soon as plowed more effectively than 
at any other time. Some farmers make it a rule to 
do this, though it necessitates extra teams or else a 
change of teams each working period from plow to 
harrow. The tractor can harrow as it plows. Once 
over and the work is finished, no matter what weather 
changes may come up. 

Farmers differ greatly in their belief as to which 
is the best kind of harrow to use even for the same 
purpose and upon the same land, while many fields 
differ in patches in character of ground. The fact is, 
every harrow has its own distinct uses, and on most 
grounds a combination of several kinds would be a 
distinct advantage did it not necessitate driving over 



28o The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

the ground so many times. A good tractor will pull 
a number of these different harrows after it at the same 
time it plows the ground, and may be rigged to be 
the most effective of clod crushers with its own weight. 

One objection to the thorough harrowing a field 
should really have is the trampling of the fresh plowed 
earth by the horses' feet. The tractor can be rigged 
to plow, harrow and seed all in one operation ; or, if 
more harrowing is desired, the broad wheels do not 
throw nearly as much weight on one portion of the 
ground as the horse does and the rolling contact is 
less objectionable. If they are run twice over the field 
the thoroughness of the harrowing that can be done 
with them in the two operations would exceed per- 
haps a dozen times what could be done with horses, 
since several different kinds of harrows could be 
hauled at a time and supplement one another. 

The plowing can be deeper than is done with teams 
and can be regulated more uniformly. A good many 
fields plowed by team power are from four to six 
inches deep, though perhaps their owners would be 
astonished to see their own furrows measured. The 
depth of a furrow is very deceptive to the eye. Eight 
to ten inches is the usual depth for tractor plowing, 
though a greater depth can be used if desired. This 
greater depth is of special benefit on those farms 
which have been plowed for years on the system of 
surface skinning until a hard, polished bottom of com- 
pressed soil has been established by the bottom of 
the plow, that cuts the roots of the plant off from nour- 
ishment below. By plowing a couple of inches deeper 
for a few years and then increasing the depths again, 
the depth of the seed bed can be gradually increased 
without bringing to the surface an excessive amount 
of hard-pan at any one time. The tractor can turn 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 281 

this extra depth without torture and with astonish- 
ing uniformity. The thorough harrowing it can give 
while the earth is fresh will so completely pulverize 
this hard-pan and mix it with the other soil that it 
will not have any injurious effect, while it will help 
in the work of air and moisture-gathering and the seed 
bed will be deepened. 

A horse cannot pull more than fifteen miles per day 
on an average, but a team must w^alk sixteen miles to 
plow two acres with a 12-inch furrow. The tractor 
will draw a gang of from two to twelve 14-inch plows 
two and a half or more miles per hour and will keep 
it up all day, without stopping to rest at the end of 
the furrow ; then, by changing men, will keep it up all 
night. 

The life of a horse is figured at about 10,000 work- 
ing hours, but his maintenance is several times that. 
The working life of the tractor is at least twice as 
many hours, and its maintenance ceases when its work 
is done. The first cost is not so great as that of the 
horses it displaces. 

Whether working or idle, the horse requires food, 
attention and shelter. All the idle engine wants is 
shelter — and work. This does not mean, however, 
that an engine should be kept idle. The man who 
makes his tractor pay the best is the one who man- 
ages to keep it busy the greatest proportion of the 
time. 

The engine can be made an all the year around 
servant, something that can be said of very few other 
farm machines. Besides plowing, harrowing and seed- 
ing, it hauls binders, hay, and grain wagons both to 
the stack and to market, by almost a train load ; 
threshes, grinds, and does all the other work a sta- 
tionary engine can do, digs ditches, grades roads, rolls 



282 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



meadows and grain fields, and hauls heavy loads of 
any kind. If the ordinary wagon load is to be con- 
veyed, the tractor w^ill do it. If some unusual work is 
to be done, such as the moving of a building, the 
tractor is ready with the power, and if, in the midst 
of its various tasks, night overtakes it, the headlight 
turns night into day ahead of it and guides it along. 
Twenty-four-hour stunts are not by any means rare 
in operating a tractor during the busy season. 

The tractor, too, will take up its w^ork at full ca- 
pacity after a season of idleness without any coaxing 
or favoring while its muscles are being hardened. It 
is never out of condition. 

One acre in five under cultivation is required to 
produce the food for the horses that supply the power 
to work the rest, a food product valued at $1,250,000,- 
000 per annum, or the total income of 2,000,000 fami- 
lies. The tractor consumes nothing that could be 
made into food for the human family in any more 
direct way than through the tractor. 

"There is no question," says a modern agricultural 
writer, "but that the crops on many farms might be 
doubled if a proper seed-bed were prepared and proper 
cultivation given ; but on account of having a large 
acreage the work is hurriedly done ; consequently only 
about half a crop is realized. One of the advantages 
of the small farm is that it is possible to do things in 
the proper way and at the proper time for growing a 
maximum crop." Profitable farming is now a power 
and implement problem. Power combines the intensive 
culture possible on the small farm with the economi- 
cal management of the large one. In actual experi- 
ment a gain of two hundred per cent, which was made 
in the productiveness of a certain area, one hundred 
per cent, was found to be due to better plowing and 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farai 283 

harrowing, fifty per cent, to better cultivation and the 
rest to better seed. 

Sixty per cent, of the power used in raising wheat 
at the present time is expended in plowing ; the shal- 
low plowing method now so generally in vogue. For 
permanent culture deeper plowing is needed — and the 
farm world is power-short now. Horses increased fifty 
per cent, in numbers in the past ten years and one 
hundred and forty-three per cent, in price. The supply 
has not nearly kept step with the demand. Neither 
are horses able to adapt themselves so fully as the 
tractor to the wide range of utility represented be- 
tween the slack and busy season on the farm. The 
horse force must be kept on an average 9,000 hours 
for every 1,000 hours of full service. Animals cannot 
respond quickly enough to the increased demands of 
the rush season unless they are kept in numbers which 
at most seasons of the year are entirely excessive. 
The tractor can be worked to its full capacity every 
da}^ of the year if there is work to do, and wdthout re- 
gard to excessive heat, flies or continuous hours. 
Weed-killing, in particular, can be done by plowing at 
a time when both the heat and the flies are a torture 
to horses. Engine culture, too, makes it possible to 
work land that because of its extreme refractoriness 
could not otherwise be put into tillable shape. It also 
makes it possible to avoid bad conditions by rushing 
the work through w^hen weather and ground are the 
most favorable. 

368. The Small Farm Tractor. — Because there are 
tractors now plowing and seeding a fair size farm 
complete between sunrise and sunset we are apt to 
forget its importance on the small farm; indeed, until 
quite recently the manufacturers have so far over- 
looked it that there was not a single small farm 



284 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 




o 

_ O 

•S'o 

a 
^ bo 



tu- 



tu bfl 
•^ O 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 285 

tractor excepting those home-made affairs constructed 
out of old binder and mowing machine wheels. The 
success of these and the demand for something of a 
more finished and uniform design has forced the fac- 
tories to take the matter up, and several of the late 
designs are intended (as some of them succeed in 
doing) to cater to the wants of the small farm. This 
demand has been more difficult to meet than that for 
the large farm, for the big tractor, working in large 
areas where there is ample room to turn, can be rigged 
with trailers, and its work may be of a more re- 
stricted nature, and still be profitable. 

The small farm tractor must be furnished at a cost 
in keeping with the other equipments of the place. 
It must contain within itself a place for attaching and 
operating four or five plows, and it ought to be so 
constructed that it will thoroughly pulverize, roll and 
seed the strip it covers in one operation. 

The seeding done, the tractor should be readily 
stripped of its tilling attachments and converted into 
a common power truck or general farm wagon, made 
so nearly a part of the load it conveys as to derive a 
part of Its tractive force from the weight it is carry- 
ing. In a similar manner it should be converted into 
a manure spreader by attaching its tractor trucks in 
place of the customary front trucks of the regular 
machine. Again, in the meadow, the same tractor 
truck must be readily equipped with cutting bars, a 
complete power mower in itself. 

One of the features which the user of the farm 
tractor should insist upon is greater efficiency as com- 
pared with any other sort of farm power. The tractor 
that does not do its work better as well as quicker has 
failed in its mission, and so have its manufacturers 
failed in theirs. The heavier weight, the smooth, broad 



286 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 







E 

m 

o 
c 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm • 287 

wheels which apply their own powder without the de- 
stroying footprint of the horse, should make our cul- 
tivated fields as smooth as a floor, and decrease the 
strain on the machinery w^e use by forty per cent. 
Instead of seed beds that in spots contain unbroken 
clods and poorly w^orked land, every foot of the land 
should be ground, and pulverized and crushed into 
almost a powder, until the dust-bed of the most in- 
tensive market gardener is obtained, thoroughly 
aerated, completely oxygenized, but still without the 
clodding effect of the horse's foot. Not only will the 
work of the harvesters be greatly reduced by the 
smooth, even ground over which they will travel, but 
the cultivation, in the case of corn, can consist more 
directly of soil culture without partaking of the 
nature of miniature plows and harrows, completing 
the work that in the seed bed was neglected. Experi- 
ence has proven beyond question that a thoroughly 
tilled field is given a fair coating of manure every 
time its soil is brought into thorough contact w^ith the 
oxygen of the air. 

As a cultivator the ideal tractor will be readily 
stripped of its broad wheels and a narrower set pro- 
vided which will enable it to traverse the rows with a 
set of crust breakers and soil aerators that will cover 
several rows at a time. The rows in planting are 
measured accurately and run absolutely straight. As 
a cultivator the same width setting should be used, 
then the minimum amount of guiding will be neces- 
sary for w^orking one row or many at a time. With 
the same set of wheels, the field spraying should be 
done ; and with such facilities it will be done, and will 
not be neglected. 

369. Trailers Not Satisfactory. — For most of our 
eastern farms trailers will not answer, for they require 



288 



The Gasoline Exgixe ox the Farm 



too much space in which to turn. Some of these late 
self-contained plows claim to turn in a space of from 
eight to fifteen feet, while the old heavy tractors re- 
quired something like fifty, not including the train of 
implements which they dragged along behind. 





■ ^1 




^^^•^7— The Broad Wheels of the Gas Tractor Should Alake 
Cultivated Fields as Smooth as Floors and Add Greatly to 
Lite ot Alachinery. 

370. Cost of Tractor Farming.— This is determined 
so largely by individual conditions that anything more 
than a general estimate is out of the question. Per- 
haps of all farm operations plowing furnishes about 
the most uniform conditions and may be compared 
most accurately. 

In a number of competitive tests with all kinds of 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 289 

tractors the cost of plowing an acre has ranged from 
18 cents up to $1.00, or perhaps a little more. The 
smaller figures however do not include the wages of 
the operator — just the fuel, lubricating, and other cash 
expense ; while in the higher estimates are included 
the wages of men, interest on investment, deprecia- 
tion and all legitimate expense. With all of these 
included, from 40 cents to 50 cents per acre seems at 
the present time to be a fair cost estimate, figuring 
the wages of the operator at $2.50 per day and board. 
Here is a fairly representative estimate with all the 
items included. 

Cost of plowing for 10 hours. 

i^ gal. gasoline $0.20 

57 gal. distillate 2.85 

2 gal. lubricating oil 40 

Depreciation 1.20 

Interest J2 

Labor, engineman 2.70 

Labor, plowman 1.50 

Board of men 1.14 

Total $10.71 

Amount plowed 25.6 acres. Cost per acre $.418. 

It will be noticed that this estimate is for an engine 
requiring the attendance of two men, while many rigs 
of equal capacity are now constructed so that only 
one man is needed. 



CHAPTER XVI. 
WHAT IS BEST IN THE TRACTOR. 

371. The Demand. — Few more severe strains are 
ever put upon any form of machinery than that which 
falls to the lot of the farm tractor. Not only must it 
do a certain amount of work at the drawbar as its 
stationary brother does, and at the same time propel 
its own weight, but it must do this while traveling 
over uneven ground and constantly shifting positions 
in relation to its work. To stand this strain, all of the 
w^orking parts must be made strong and heavy, and 
an important percentage of the power developed has 
to be diverted into the moving of its own weight. 

372. The Tractive Power. — Weight is also neces- 
sary in order to increase tractive power, or the grip 
which the drive wheels get upon the ground. A light 
weight engine, even though it could be constructed 
strong enough and powerful enough, would fail as a 
tractor because a reasonable weight is necessary to 
insure firm contact and prevent the wheels from slip- 
ping upon the ground the moment a load was hitched 
to the drawbar. 

373. General Construction. — The gasoline tractor 
consists of a gasoline engine mounted upon wheels, of 
which usually the two hind wheels are the drivers or 
tractors and the front truck a part of the steering 
gear. Usually the latter is equipped with two wheels 
like a wagon, but there are special forms of tractors 
now on the market where one broad wheel or roller 

290 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 291 

is substituted for the usual front wheels. Some 
tractors have the drivers in front, and at least one 
tractor recently brought out derives its tractive power 
from all of the four wheels. 

Usually the power is transmitted from the engine 
to the drivers through a train of gearing of which a 
bull gear is cast or bolted securely to the drive wheel. 
This meshes with a pair of bull pinions, or one for 
each tractor wheel. A compensating gear or differ- 
ential and an intermediate gear connect the bull 
pinion with a main pinion secured to the friction 
clutch and revolve with it on the main shaft with the 
fly wheel of the engine. This intermediate gearing is 
necessary for two reasons. First, it reduces the 
speed from the fly wheel rate of several hundred rev- 
olutions per minute to a safe rate for engine operation 
over rough ground; second, it permits the engine to 
be located in the most convenient place, even though 
not always in close proximity to the drive wheels. 

374. Other Forms of Transmission. — \\h\\e gear 
wheels are in almost universal use in steam tractors, 
and are most common in gasoline tractors, some other 
forms of transmission are occasionally seen. Friction 
gearing is becoming more and more a favorite, for one 
reason, because of the greater range it allows in the 
matter of speed. In some home-made tractors, too, 
belt power has been utilized, though it is hardly neces- 
sary to add that most of these have little power beyond 
that of self propulsion. Chain driven tractors, too, are 
in occasional use for light forms of work, but the gear 
wheel occupies a place with heavy tractors that noth- 
ing else has yet usurped. 

375. Steam and Gasoline Tractor Differences.— In 
most respects the gasoline tractor is merely a steam 
tractor without the boiler, and its mounting is more 



292 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



simple. There are, however, certain radical differences, 
of which one of the most important is the methods nec- 
essary for reversing and for changing speed. Steam 
engines can be made readily reversible, the forward 
or backward movement being accomplished at will 
through the engine itself. In the gasoline tractor this 
has to be accomplished in the transmission gear, dif- 
ferent sets of cogs being thrown into mesh for higJi 
and low speed and reverse. All gasoline tractors are 




Fig. 88.— The Power Plant Is the Heart of the Tractor. Many 
Present Day Traction Engines Are of the Four Cylinder 
Four Cycle Type. 

limited to two or at most three speeds ahead and re- 
verse. The starting of the gasoline tractor has also 
been more of a problem than for the more elastic 
steam, though it is one that has been worked out at 
the factory rather than on the farm. A steam engine 
may be started very slowdy and gradually speeded up. 
The gasoline engine speed is practically continuous 
almost from the first turn of the wheel ; hence, far 
more depends upon the operator and the management 
of the clutch in the easoline than in the steam tractor. 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 293 

Friction gear tractors have, of course, a greater elas- 
ticity of speed, but they obtain it from the transmis- 
sion and not from the engine. 

376. The Best Engine.— Most of the best tractors 
now on the market favor the four-cylinder four-cycle 
type of engine with oiling system incorporated in the 
crank case. The water jacket should be ample, and, if 
the thermo-syphon system is used, the w^ater spaces 
must be generous in size. The crank shaft and bear- 




PiG 89.— Bevel Reversing Gear Train. 

ings must be heavy, and, of course, the lubricating 
system is of far greater importance than in the case of 
engines designed for lighter work. The exhaust pipe 
should be large and, if noise is not too much of an ob- 
jection, the muffler should be dispensed with. This 
adds materially to the power and subtracts from the 
cost in fuel. The power of the engine should be care- 
fully calculated to the work. There is always the pos- 
sibility of too powerful an engine in a tractor just as 
there is in a boat. Power enough, with a reasonable 
reserve, is necessary. More than that means unneces- 
sary torsional strain — and weakness. 



294 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



377. The Clutch. — Since this regulates the applica- 
tion of the power to the work, the life of a tractor 
depends very largely upon the clutch and its opera- 
tion. An irresistible power applied of a sudden to an 
immovable object means catastrophe, and that, to a 
limited degree, is what it means to turn the full powder 
of a gasoline engine operating at top speed suddenly 
loose against the transmission of a tractor which is 
at rest. Either the gear wdieels must be stripped of 




Fig. 90. — Reversing Gear of Gas Tractor. 

their teeth or there will be a tremendous strain upon 
both engine and tractor connections. It takes a good 
deal of power to bring several tons of metal into 
action, and it is the mission of the clutch when 
properly handled to effect this work without undue 
suddenness. ]\[ost clutches and the pinions they carry 
to engage the transmission gear are not fixed upon 
the main shaft of the engine wdiere they usually run 
and onlv revolve with it when the toggles force the 
clutch blocks out solidly against the inside of the 
belt-wheel's outer rim. 

378. The Transmission. — There is room for a good 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



295 



deal of difference of opinion with regard to the 
strength of transmission required, one operator get- 
ting along nicely for years with gearing that another 
would strip in a day. The farm engine, though, needs 
to have much heavier gearing than the thresher en- 
gine only. Good authority estimates that the relative 
strain placed upon the threshing and the plowing 
tractor is about as 30 to 70. While this estimate may 




Fig. 91. — Typical Tractor Steering Gear, Front Truck Showing. 



seem a little high, the main gear of a plow engine 
should not be less than a 6 or 7 inch face, while some 
thresher engines are only 4. This difference in re- 
quired strength accounts at least in part for the num- 
ber of thresher engines which have been ruined 
through being harnessed to the plow. They may have 
sufficient power, but they haven't the means of trans- 
mitting it. 

Tractor wheels, too, should be broad enoueh to in- 



296 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

sure good grip. Usually they are provided with spurs 
or lugs to prevent slipping, and there is quite a preva- 
lent opinion that their power to hold is materially 
greater if the lugs are sharp and new. This is not 
always the case. Particularly on springy sod, the 
sharp edges of the new lugs cut away the ground more 
readily than the rounding corners do, and as long as 
the ground is merely cut and thrown back the tractor 
is powerless to move. Large wheels travel over soft 
ground best because there is a greater bearing surface 
and a small angle of contact at the front of the wheel. 

379. Differential or Compensating Gear. — The use 
and construction of the compensating gear are so sel- 
dom understood that it seems wise to give the subject 
a little special notice. 

If the two drive wheels of an engine were fastened 
rigidly upon a shaft and the entire shaft revolved, it 
is plain that both wheels, if of the same size, would 
not only turn over an equal number of times but they 
w^ould both roll forward the same distance upon the 
ground. This is exactly what is wanted so long as 
the engine moves in a straight course over level 
ground. If, instead of revolving the shaft, we ap- 
plied power to each wheel by means of revolving 
pinions of equal size, we would accomplish the same 
result. Both wheels would travel ahead the same dis- 
tance and at the same speed. 

If we now wished to turn a corner we would find 
it impossible, since in turning it is necessary for one 
wheel to advance faster than the other and describe 
a greater arc in the turning circle. We might provide 
for turning by applying the power to only one wheel, 
but that would reduce the tractive power of the engine 
one-half. Or some means might be devised of throw- 
ing the one wheel out of gear while turning by means 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 297 

of a lever, but that would hardly be convenient, espe- 
cially when we came to a field of which the surface 
was so uneven that in effect the engine would be 
obliged to make almost continuous little circles, first 
with one wheel and then with the other. Some means 
of relieving either wheel automatically on demand 
without releasing it from its w^ork is necessary, and 
that is exactly what the differential does. 

380. How It Works. — Let "us suppose that three 
pulleys, numbered respectively i, 2 and 3, are sus- 
pended close together on a shaft on which they revolve 
loosely and independent of each other. By so plac- 
ing them that a spoke in i and 3 are in exact line and 
say two inches in advance of the spoke in 2, and then 
thrusting a two-inch rod or bar across between these 
spokes, it is evident that if we turn 2 the wheels will 
all revolve at the same speed. This will continue so 
long as 2 revolves and the bar remains at right angles 
to the pulleys. 

Now if we should attempt to revolve No. i a little 
slower than 2 was turning by retarding it the bar 
would be swung around the spoke of No. 2 as a pivot, 
and if we continue to retard No. i the bar will finally 
be so far deflected from its first position that its ends 
will slip from the spokes of both i and 3 entirely. By 
thrusting a second bar through at this instant in the 
same position the first bar originally occupied the 
process would be repeated and would of course con- 
tinue so long as we replaced each bar, as it slipped 
away from the spokes, with a new one, providing we 
still continued to retard the same pulley with the same 
force. If the spokes were properly spaced in relation 
to each other and w^e could slip bars in fast enough 
to keep one at right angles constantly as well as at 
all the angles between that and the point where it 



298 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

slipped past the spokes, there would be no change in 
the influence of one wheel upon another, even though 
the one still continued to move at a slower rate. 

Let us now substitute for the spokes and bars a pair 
of bevel gear wheels, the smaller one revolving on one 
spoke of pulley 2 for its axis, each tooth of the larger 
wheel taking the place of a spoke and each one on the 
smaller pinions answering for one end of the bar. As 
each tooth slips out another is slipped in to take its 
place mechanically, so that the action is continuous. 
This principle is introduced not only into the traction 
engine, but in other similar machinery one wheel of 
which must occasionally turn faster than the other. 
By this means one of the tractor wheels is free to 
travel much slower than the other, while both are still 
doing equal tractor work. 

381. Power of the Gasoline Tractor. — In estimat- 
ing the horse-power recjuired in a gasoline tractor we 
must remember that the power of a horse is measured 
by his effective pull, which is made while he is in 
motion. No tractor can propel itself about and at the 
same time do the same work at the belt that it could 
do as a stationary engine. Some of its power is lost 
in transmission ; much of it, in self-propulsion ; hence 
it is unreasonable to expect a 25 H. P. engine to draw 
as much load mounted as a tractor as twenty-five 
horses w^ould draw. The brake test rating measures 
power of a stationary engine only, and does not repre- 
sent effective draw-bar pull. 

Formerly some gasoline engines, rated the same as 
steam engines, when mounted as tractors gave disap- 
pointing results because a tractor when pulling its full 
load is being almost constantly overloaded for an in- 
stant by the little obstacles which even the smoothest 
ground presents. When one of these is struck the 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 299 

steam engine's more elastic power will carry it over, 
and then it will recover while the load eases down. 
The gasoline tractor hasn't the reserve ; it has to stop. 
Gasoline tractors, too, when used for threshing pur- 
poses are being continually "tested," "crowded" and 
"tried out" by hostile or curious threshing crews, 



-^ ^JiS-'^W -^ ^ 




Fig. 92. — Bevel Differential and Spur Driving Gears of I. H. C. 

Tractor. 

some of whom would like nothing better than to "stall 
the new-fangled engine down." For this and various 
reasons it is wise to be certain that the engine pur- 
chased is large enough for the work. 

382. Power Needed in Plowing. — The plow test is 
the hardest necessary test the tractor ever has, and, 
with plowing requirements provided for, the operator 
has no occasion to be afraid under any reasonable con- 



300 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

ditions. Tests have shown that a pull of from 500 to 
900 pounds is required to draw a plow 4 inches deep 
through gumbo soil. On ordinary farm fields one 
large engine user reports that with a 35 H. P. engine 
he can easily handle fourteen 14-inch plows cutting 8 
to 10 inches deep and running at a speed of three 
miles per hour. For moderate sized farms 20 to 25 
H. P. tractors can easily operate from 4 to 6 plows, 
while even more has been accomplished. Tractors of 
15 and even 12 H. P. have been reported as doing 
satisfactory work on moderate sized farms, while in 
a few instances home-made tractors of special design 
have been made to plow wdth even less power. It is 
doubtful, however, if less than a 12 horse tractor of 
the trailer type can be regarded as a practical plow- 
ing engine for even one or two plows under most 
conditions, while a 20 to 25 horse will undoubtedly 
give far better satisfaction and be found most eco- 
nomical. 

Specially designed plowing engines with the plows 
a part of the engine are illustrated elsewhere, and it is 
possible that further development along these lines 
will bring out a gasoline plow of much lighter power, 
one that will be wholly available for small farm plow- 
ing. Until quite recently it was believed that some- 
thing like a 7 H. P. engine w^as required for the con- 
struction of a self-moving tractor. Home-made af- 
fairs constructed out of binder wheels, mowing ma- 
chine wheels and other remnants of the junk pile 
proved the fallacy of this belief, and many ingenious 
farmers have at small cost rigged as small as 2 and 3 
H. P. engines up as available tractors. Now one en- 
gine house manufactures regularly working tractors 
of as little as 6 H. P., while self-moving engines of 
1V2 H. P. are now on the market. 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 301 

383. Home-made Tractors. — Perhaps the reluc- 
tance of the manufacturers in taking up the problem of 
farm tractors has had as much to do as anything with 
the number of home-made tractors which have been 
constructed and put into practical use by farmers and 
their boys. Some of them have been made in the 
simplest manner and have cost very little that could 
not be supplied from the old machinery on the farm. 
More elaborate designs have also been attempted, in 
some instances disastrously expensive, the cost finally 
reaching more than the price of a regular market 
tractor and the results much less. Until the manu- 
facturers awoke to some idea of the opportunity they 
were facing, these home experiments seemed about 
the only way the requirements of the farm could be 
served. Now that special study is being given the 
subject by practical machine men it is usually much 
cheaper in the end to purchase a tractor than to con- 
struct one. The home-made tractor is an entire prac- 
ticability, however, and for those who are unable to 
afford a factory-made one, and who are willing to put 
up with less convenience in order to get something 
that will do the work, it is often worth while trying, 
and for such people several home-made tractors are 
illustrated in this volume. Most of them are belt 
transmission, a simpler and cheaper form and a far 
less durable one than gearing. Probably most of the 
performances reported represent work done when the 
tractor was first constructed. Some of them have, 
however, been made at a cost a little in excess of $10 
money outlay and were undoubtedly well worth what 
they cost, even though of short life. 

For the lighter sort of tractors^ mowing machine 
wheels are favorites as drive wheels, but for heavier 
work binder wheels are essential. Some of these 



302 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

have been made to do quite heavy work, and under 
favorable conditions have even been harnessed to the 
plow. Discarded steam tractor wheels have also been 
utilized and engines of lo, 20 and even as much as 40 
horse-power tractors have been made at home which 
w^ere capable of any sort of farm work at all likely to 
be put upon them, and including threshing, and pull- 
ing the rig from barn to barn over hilly roads, ensilage 
cutting, corn husking, plowing, moving buildings and 
tearing out hedge fence. While such ambitious efforts 
have been frequently successful, it is well to remem- 
ber that the first attempt of an amateur in tractor- 
building is at best only an experiment, and it is well 
not to undertake it upon a. scale that will sink too 
much time and money in the venture if it proves dis- 
appointing, until some experience is obtained by 
smaller ventures. 



CHAPTER XVII. 
OPERATING THE TRACTOR. 

384. Preparing for the First Start. — The man who 
is at all self-conscious or easily confused by the com- 




FiG. 93. — Simple Home Made Tractor and Circular Saw Stand. 

ments of other people had better restrict his audience 
to one or two efficient helpers, and it might be well 
enough to give these helpers plenty of their own work 
to do. A good many men, in control of their first 
tractor, have landed it in the ditch at the start, per- 
haps at the same time trying to check it with a 

303 



304 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



strenuous **whoa." An experience of this kind is 
rather stimulating to a crowd of idle spectators; also, 
it is somewhat confusing to the man who has made 
the blunder. Any man needs all of his attention cen- 
tered upon his work when starting his first tractor, 
without having any distraction by the comments of 
a crowd. 

By all means if possible make the first start at some 




Fig. 94-— a Recent Factory Output With Enclosed Power Plant 
and Mechanism. 

place where there is plenty of room. At any rate, 
avoid the street or any place where a short mis- 
directed run may endanger the operator, or the en- 
gine, or the lives of other people. A level field with 
a firm, hard sod is the ideal place. 

Before attempting to start, try the spark and see 
that the current is all right ; also make sure that there 
is gasoline in the tank and that it is coming over 
properly. No steam engineer would think of starting 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 305 

without looking to see if he had plenty of water, fire 
and steam. Oil the engine as though it were a sta- 
tionary affair and, after making sure that the clutch 
is disengaged, set the fly wheel in motion. While it 
runs, go over the transmission and tractor part and 
see that everything is in order and with a good supply 
of lubrication. Remember that a more liberal amount 
is needed when first starting a new tractor than after 
the bearings have taken on their glaze. Notice while 
oiling that there are no cinders or bits of metal in 
the oil holes or at any place where they will be likely 
to get into a bearing. Look the position of the levers 
over and be certain to know the use of each. Try the 
steering wheel enough to make sure that it will turn 
freely and that the front wheels of the tractor are not 
half blocked by an obstruction that will deflect them 
from a straight course. The steering gear is much 
harder to operate when the tractor is at rest than 
when it is in motion. 

Examine the bearings of the engine to see that 
nothing is heating and that it is working properly as 
an engine. You will have no time to consider the 
engine itself when first beginning to operate the 
tractor. 

385. Starting. — If there is a moderately extended 
clear course straight ahead, as there should be, with 
the steering wheel bring the front truck of the tractor 
into place, at the same time noticing whether the 
steering chains are too loose or too tight. If the 
former, the tractor will be hard to guide because it 
will not respond quickly enough ; if the latter, there 
w411 be excessive friction and strain. 

Lock the steering gear in place for a straight course 
ahead (most tractors have provision for this), and so 
be rid of the details of guiding the engine at the in- 



3o6 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

stant of starting. Engage the clutch carefully, not 
suddenly enough to set the transmission into action 
with a jerk, but without letting the rim of the fly 
wheel revolve unduly long against the clutch arms 
after beginning to make contact. It takes some little 
skill to do this always at the happy medium, but 
practice will bring the skill. The tractor should be 
first started on slow speed. 

386. Learning to Guide the Tractor. — As soon as 
the tractor is fairly started unlock the steering wheel 
and hold it to a straight course with the hand. A 
skilled engineer can tell much from the "feel" or vi- 
bration thus conveyed to him. After becoming some- 
what accustomed to this quivering sensation under 
normal conditions and well before there is any neces- 
sity for forced action, begin to experiment a little 
with the steering wheel by turning it slightly and 
then bringing the engine back to a straight course 
again. If the chains are properly adjusted the wheel 
need not be turned far in order to change the direc- 
tion of travel quite a little. Continue this practice 
first in one direction and then in the other for some 
time, but do not attempt any short turns. Aim to 
acquire the habit of bringing the tractor about easily 
and smoothly rather than by means of abrupt and 
sudden changes. 

Before reaching the end of the field, and with 
plenty of room ahead, begin to bring the engine 
around for the return trip, first in a wide circle, then 
narrowing down to a shorter turn after getting fa- 
miliar with what a certain amount of changing the 
steering wheel will do. Remember always that neither 
the new engine nor the novice in operating should be 
given a severe test at the start. After a little practice 
at slow speed the higher speed may be undertaken, 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 307 

and after that the reverse. The first run should not 
be a lengthy one without a stop and examination for 
hot boxes, nor should any attempt be made to run 
near deep ditches, bridges, or to turn in narrow places 
until considerable self-confidence seems justified by 
previous control. In stopping, the novice should al- 
ways try to select a place in which there is reasonable 
space for starting again. To find out in advance 
just how short a turn may be made with any engine, 
cramp the wheels around, while it is stationary, as 
far as would be advisable when running, and draw a 
line directly under the front axle, extending it some 
distance from the engine. Next draw a line under the 
rear axle and continue it until it intersects the first 
line. This point of intersection will be the center of 
the circle within which the engine can turn, and to 
find the exact amount of room needed double the dis- 
tance from this point to the further side of the truck. 

Perhaps the most important rule of all in tractor 
guiding is to run slow enough always to keep the 
tractor under perfect control and have plent}^ of time 
to use the steering wheel. If the place is specially 
difficult or the turn unusually short this is particularly 
important. By always following this rule and watch- 
ing the front axle of the engine closely as a guide, 
the problem of steering will soon become almost 
wholly automatic and need give one but little con- 
cern under ordinary circumstances. 

387. Mud-hole Philosophy. — So long as there are 
mud-holes tractors will get into them occasionally, 
and it is probable that there will be mud-holes as long- 
as tractors last. The first thing to do is to keep out 
of them ; the next, not to get in deeper. It is a great 
mistake to turn on all the power available, and pos- 
sibly the high speed into the bargain in a case of this 



3o8 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

kind. The momentum a stuck engine will acquire is 
very little, and it is always safe to remember that 
the tractor which is moving slowly, so long as it is 
really moving, stands a much better chance of climb- 
ing out than if an attempt is made to hurry it. The 
tractor can pull ahead or back only so much as the 
ground into which it thrusts its wheel lugs holds for 
it to pull against, and the ground is far more likely 
to hold if the strain is thrown upon it very gradually, 
so that it has a chance to compress than if it is hewed 
and torn violently by rapidly revolving lugs. The 
moment the wheels begin to slip and spin around shut 
off the power, as a slipping drive wheel will dig a 
deep hole very rapidly. 

Often the tractor will climb out of itself if it can 
only be given something that will not allow it to slip. 
Pieces of fence rail, straw, plank, anything in fact 
into which it can sink its lugs and not have them 
break out again, will help. If that fails, a long rope 
hitched to the main shaft and then carried ahead 
and hitched to a tree may be sufficient ; then start the 
engine and wind up the rope on the shaft. If a chain 
is handy drop it into the mud hole ahead of the 
tractor wheels ; then start the engine. So long as the 
wheels can be turned the engine is ready to pull itself 
out if something can be put under them that will hold 
and not permit them to slip. If the engine cannot 
turn its wheels, probably the only way out of it is to 
dig the tractor out. 

388. Sandy Places. — Always aim to run the engine 
as straight and as steady as possible in crossing 
patches of sand, so as not to break the grip of the lugs 
loose by disturbing its surface. The weight of the 
engine helps to pack it down ; on a straight, steady 
pull it may hold, but to screw and twist the wheels 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 309 

across it is only to loosen up the surface without doing 
any good. Often a bale of hay or straw will save all 
trouble if scattered ahead. 

389. Bridges and Other Obstacles. — The farm 
tractor is not often called upon to cross a bridge un- 
less in use hauling a heavy load to market, but oc- 
casionally a bad bridge is encountered. A strange 
bridge should always be examined before attempting 
to cross and, if it shows much wear or rotten plank 
or timbers, should be avoided if possible. If it must 
be crossed, a couple of long planks three inches thick 
at the center and tapering to two at each end may 
be laid across to run the tractor wheels on and so 
distribute the load over more of the bridge at once. 
For a longer bridge use shorter planks at each end 
of the long ones. Always carry a supply of good plank 
along when traveling on the road with a tractor unless 
familiar with the condition of all of its bridges. A 
long rope should also be at hand so that the load 
drawn behind, if any, can be hitched back far enough 
to be clear of the bridge until the tractor has crossed 
it. Run very slow across bridges and avoid sudden 
jerks or anything that tends to set up vibration. 

Hill climbing with a gasoline tractor, unlike that 
needed when using steam, requires no special precau- 
tions other than to climb slowly and without any at- 
tempts at gaining an advantage by the use of sudden 
spurts. No advantage will be gained, and every jerk- 
ing strain should always be avoided. 

Occasionally some seemingly good authority will 
recommend the surmounting of small obstacles which 
are too much for the engine at ordinary speed by 
throwing out the clutch until the engine is running at 
full speed and then throwing it in again suddenly. If 
one is willing to risk stripping the cogs from a gear 



310 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

wheel and the certainty of a very severe strain upon 
every part of both the engine and the tractor, this 
plan may be adopted, but not otherwise. Under all 
conditions it is the aim of the really skillful engineer 
to handle his tractor as quietly as possible, to avoid 
all useless strains and sudden jerks, and to make 
every move count in the right direction. There is no 
bluster or swagger about the man who is fully master 
of his job. 

390. Speed Allowable. — When running on good 
roads the gasoline tractor may be put upon the high 
speed without any serious risk, providing the operator 
has skill enough to guide it. As this is not over five 
or six miles an hour with most engines, a little prac- 
tice ought to give him this. Obstacles, lack of skill 
in the engineer, and increased vibration are about the 
only things that make it necessary to keep the speed 
of the engine down when traveling over fair roads. 
In plowing again the speed is determined more by the 
plow than by the engine. Usually 2^ to 3 miles per 
hour is considered about right. 

391. Hauling with Tractor. — Approximately the 
load a tractor of known power will draw with wagons 
as trailers may be figured from the fact that with i^- 
inch tires a weight of one ton shows a resistance of 
121 pounds on broken stone roads and of 466 pounds 
on freshly plowed land. With 6-inch tires the pro- 
portion is 98 to 323. A common earth road gives a 
resistance of 100 pounds per ton to the tractor power 
with an addition of 20 pounds extra for each per cent, 
of grade. 

392. The Real Tractor Danger. — The man who can 
run any kind of a gasoline engine will generally find 
that any difficulty he may have with a tractor is a 
matter of his own fault. He mav be careless and 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 311 

attempt to run his engine without proper provisions 
for controlHng it. With such a man a few tons of 
metal in motion may become a pubHc menace ; so, 
for that matter, wouhl the same man render a spirited 
horse dangerous. He may be prone to take the advice 
of others and so fall a victim of every one who has a 
curiosity to see how some pet theory of his own 
would work out — at somebody else's expense. He 
may like to show off and may believe that starting 
things with a lively bang and bringing them up with 
a whirl looks fearless and skillful. 

The really skillful engineer sees to it first of all that 
everything about his engine is in working order, and 
he tries to avoid all risks and strains which might in- 
cline to put it out of that condition. He shows his 
skill by keeping as far away from trouble as he can, 
by starting up quietly, without any jerks and strains, 
by doing everything with as little fuss and swagger 
as he may. If people offer him advice he receives it 
for what he thinks it is worth, studies it over in his 
own mind, as well as the source from which it came ; 
then, if he thinks it good, perhaps makes cautious use 
of it at some future time — .ifter he has given it due 
consideration. 

393. General Care of a Tractor. — All that applies 
to the care of an engine might be repeated in connec- 
tion with the tractor, and" to this may be added such 
shelter and protection as any reasonable man would 
expect to give any sort of transmission machinery 
which operated between his investment and the profits 
he expected from it. Some tractors are weatherproof 
— for a time. The writer knows of none that are in- 
jured by reasonable protection when idle or that are 
improved by exposure to every passing storm. 



312 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 







to 

w 

a; 



o 



i 



CHAPTER XVIII. 
POWER TRANSMISSION. 

394. An Important Problem. — The best engine in 
the world is of no value on the farm or anywhere else 
if the power it develops cannot be transmitted to 
some other machine. Every one knows this, but not 
every one realizes what a difference there may be in 
the manner of transmission or how easily the power 
that is developed in the engine may be thrown away 
while conducting it to the w^ork. 

395. Methods in Use. — Shafts, belts, and gear 
wheels are the means most commonly used for trans- 
mitting power from its source to the place where it 
can be converted into work. Nearly all the rarer 
methods are merely modifications of some of these. 
For instance, the belt drive may be accomplished by 
a rope or by chain and sprocket wheels as well as by 
means of the usual form of belt and pulley ; gear 
wheels may include friction as well as tooth gearing ; 
shafts may refer to revolving rods or to various forms 
of levers. 

396. Shafting. — Usually when we speak of shafting 
it refers to rods which revolve and carry pulleys or 
gear wheels somewhere along their length. They are 
usually of metal and the better the material the less 
the shaft will cost in power. Cheap shafting is one of 
the most serious means of wasting power in the trans- 
mission. 

397. Why Poor Shafting Does Not Pay. — Shaft- 

313 



314 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



ing should transmit to the pulleys or wheels that it 
carries whatever working energy it receives, less that 
amount consumed by friction at its own bearings. 
Where a steel shaft of the best quality requires i 
H. P. of an engine to revolve it a given number of 
times per minute a cheap iron shaft of equal strength 
would Aveigh nine times as much and require some- 
thing like a 28 H. P. engine to operate it at the same 
rate. As the power consumed by friction is a con- 




FiG. 96. — Countershaft and Hangers Ready for Belts. 

stant expense while running, it will be seen that cheap 
shafting is the most expensive in the world. 

Shafting should be of the very best material in 
order to reduce friction by reducing the size. It 
should be absolutely straight because it requires a 
good deal of power to spring even a two-inch line- 
shaft into line once during each of its 200 or 300 
revolutions per minute. All of this power comes out 
of the engine, but the strain is divided between the 
engine, the shaft bearings, and the belt. A shaft 
should be somewhat elastic or it will quickly crystal- 
lize and break. If possible the driven pulley should 
be toward its center and between two bearings. By 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 315 

all means, if it can be done, avoid applying the power 
on one end and taking work off at the other. When 
this must be done on a long line the shaft should be 
composed of lengths decreasing in diameter, and the 
power should be applied at the heavy end. A lighter 
shaft can be used if the strain is applied between bear- 
ings instead of at the end, and friction thus avoided. 

398. General Shaft Wisdom. — If possible, heavy 
shafts should have their bearings rest upon posts with 
a ground connection, as there is always more or less 
spring in any ordinary floor. Avoid shifting weights 
on the floor above long shafting that is hung from 
the ceiling as the floor is constantly springing them 
out of line. 

Line shafting hangers should not be over 8 feet 
apart, and if the shaft is light they must be closer. 
Even the smallest engine needs not less than a i 3/16 
shaft. Approximately, the horse-power a good shaft 
ought to stand may be found by multiplying the cube 
of its diameter by the number of revolutions per min- 
ute and dividing the result by 82 for steel and no 
for iron. The amount of power that can be trans- 
mitted by two shafts of similar quality varies directly 
with the speed of revolution and w^th the cubes of 
their diameters. 

The twisting strain upon a shaft is greatest near 
the main drive and, aside from friction, is zero at the 
bearings ; hence, the nearer the main drive is to the 
bearings the more nearly will this strain be counter- 
acted. 

A disregard of any of these principles not only 
wastes power but delivers an unsteady, jerky energy 
to the machine driven, and affects both its life and 
efficiency. In many instances the shifting of the main 
drive from the end of a shaft to a point between two 



3i6 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

bearings has been known to overcome trouble that 
had previously prevented the operation of a machine. 

399. Balancing Pulleys. — If the shaft is a long or 
a light one the question of balancing weights and 
strains along its length may become specially im- 
portant. The heavier driven machines should take 
their power from the shaft at points not far from 
where it is applied, and two heavy machines should 
be set on opposite sides of the drive pulley. This is 
true to some extent whether both machines are to be 
run at the same time or not, since the pulleys driving 
them will be heavy and this arrangement will better 
distribute the weight. A heavy belt pull or even a 
great pulley weight at the end or anywhere along the 
line that is not properly supported by the bearings 
may throw the whole shaft out of line. 

400. Speed of Shafts. — The relative speed of the 
driven and the driving pulleys of course determines 
that of the shaft, as one of the uses of the latter is 
to temper the speed to the machine. Where only one 
machine is driven from the shaft the problem is easy, 
providing the speed of the engine and that required by 
the machine are known. (See rule elsewhere.) If 
several machines of different speed are to be run by 
the same shaft it is sometimes necessary to take an 
average between the highest and lowest speed re- 
quired and then make up the additional difference by 
varying the size of the pulleys. This avoids ex- 
tremely small or extremely large pulleys. 

401. Size of Pulleys. — To determine the size of 
pulley needed on shaft when there are given the speed 
and diameter of the engine pulley and speed of shaft, 
multiply engine pulley speed by its diameter and di- 
vide by the speed of the shaft. 

402. Pulleys. — Pulleys are made of cast iron, steel, 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 317 

wood and paper; and, of the four, iron is in more 
common use than all of the others united. It is more 
compact and neater than wood, and cheaper than 
steel, although a wooden pulley can be safely speeded 
up considerably higher than can an iron one of sim- 
ilar size and design. Wooden pulleys have the ad- 
vantage, too, of holding the belt better. They are 




Fig. 97. — Construction of Split Wood Pulley. 

usually made, in the larger sizes, in the split form ; 
that is, they can be divided into halves, secured upon 
a shaft without disturbing other wheels, and then 
bolted together. Iron pulleys may also be obtained in 
the same form and, if large, are safer than when cast 
solid, on account of possible defects in the latter 
through the contraction of the iron. 

403. Straight and Crown Face. — Iron pulleys are 
usually made crowning, that is, slightly oval, across the 



3i8 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



face, where there is no belt-shifting to do, as a belt will 
always hunt the high place in the pulley, if there is 
one,- to run on, and by giving it a high place in the 
center of the pulley it can easily be kept there. Some 
machinists object to the crowning face because it 
throws the entire load upon the center of the belt 
instead of distributing it, but nearly always where a 




Fig. 98. — Method of Covering or Lagging Pulley, 

pulley is ordered one with a crowning face will be 
sent unless the straight is specified. Where belt- 
shifting is necessary the pulley must be straight- 
faced. 

404. Use of Pulleys. — Pulleys are used to convey 
power, to change speed, and to alter direction or form 
of motion. They are usually used in connection with 
a belt, but also in friction transmission and occasion- 
ally with crank-pins and connecting rods. More than 
90 per cent, of power transmission, it is estimated, 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 319 

is effected in America by means of the pulley and belt. 

405. Covering Iron Pulleys. — Frequently an iron 
pulley does not hold the belt well and a great deal 
of power is lost in slippage. To overcome this pul- 
leys are often faced with leather. One way of doing 
this is to clean the pulley thoroughly, coat with coach 
varnish, then a layer of soft paper and a second coat 
of varnish. Put on the leather, cut to proper size and 
length, and thoroughly clean; then lace loosely, as in 
Fig. 98 ; slip into place, and tighten lacing. 

Another wa}^ roughen face of pulley with cape 
chisel. Lace the proper length and width of cotton 
belting loosely and soak well in pail of paste made of 
cold water and flour. Slip this upon pulley and draw 
lacing tightly as possible. Put on more layers pre- 
pared in the same way, taking care to break joints each 
time. Then drive in Buffalo belt fasteners here and 
there to clinch against pulley. As the covering dries 
it will shrink and hug the pulley nicely. 

In both cases, particularly the latter, it must not 
be forgotten that the diameter of the pulley has been 
materially increased and the speed must be regulated 
accordingly. 

At least 25% may sometimes be added to the power 
transmitted by covering an iron pulley, as iron has a 
tendency to polish quickly and refuse to hold the belt. 
Cement and glue will not hold a leather covering on 
iron. 

406. How Secured on Shaft. — Pulleys are secured 
to the shaft either by key seat or set screw. If the 
former, the key should be the exact width of the key- 
way and the latter, cut in both the shaft and the 
pulley, must match accurately; otherwise the key can- 
not be driven tight, the pulley will be forced away 
from the center and will soon work loose. If secured 



320 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

by a set screw the latter should be kept tight enough 
to avoid slipping as, after a set screw has been allowed 
to slip a few times and thread the shaft, it will never 
hold as well. 

407. The Dangerous Set Screw. — Perhaps no 
simple thing about machinery is more dangerous than 
a projecting set-screw head or similar projection on a 
revolving shaft. When in rapid motion it cannot be 
seen, and some one, while oiling a bearing, is almost 
certain to have the clothing caught and be drawn upon 
the shaft or at least have a finger or a hand destroyed 
by it. Always, if it can possibly be done, have every 
set screw deeply recessed and use a socket wrench. 
Test them frequently until they become thoroughly 
fixed, as the expansion of heat often loosens them ; 
then, once they are thoroughly settled in their place, 
avoid disturbing them if possible. 

408. Other Pulley Dangers. — Pulleys out of bal- 
ance on the shaft run with a wobble that is ruinous to 
belts and machinery, and destructive of power. This 
may occur if the pulley does not fit the shaft or if 
the key does not fit the keyway ; or the pulley may 
have been improperly cast or bored. A wabbling pul- 
ley should be fixed or else replaced ; it costs too much 
to retain it. 

Pulleys having a thick or thin edge at one side 
while true at the other may seem to stand up well 
when at rest, but run decidedly wrong wdien set in 
motion. 

Small, high speed pulleys full of dust are dangerous ; 
so are pulleys used as convenient shelves while remov- 
ing nuts from some near-by machine. Never permit 
anything to be laid on any part of a pulley. If left 
there it may be hurled against someone with almost 
the force of a bullet when the pulley starts. 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 321 

409. Tight and Loose Pulleys. — The tight and 
loose pulley consists of two pulleys, side by side, one 
of which revolves with the shaft and the other re- 
volves upon it. By shifting a belt from one to the 
other the shaft and its machinery may be started and 
stopped at pleasure without disturbing the operation 
of the engine or of any other machine belted to the 
same shaft. It is a necessity in cases where one ma- 




FiG. 99. — Countershaft Assembly With Tight, Loose and Stepped 

Pulleys. 

chine of several, belted to a line shaft, is frequently 
to be thrown in and out of motion. 

410. Its Love for Trouble. — The loose pulley is 
generally thought a necessary nuisance, but much of 
the trouble comes from carelessness and neglect. The 
hubs should have an oil reservoir of some sort with a 
tight cover, as fully half of the oil used on most loose 
pulleys is wasted. Then the pulley should be started 
in right when new. First, it should be removed from 
the shaft and cleaned out thoroughly; then oiled; then 
returned to shaft and revolved on shaft under belt for 
a half hour. Remove, wipe off black coating of oil, 
dirt and iron particles ; then, after it is clean, oil 
and replace, and run again. Repeat this until pulley 



Z22. The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

is absolutely clean; then it will take on a smooth 
polish or glaze. If properly oiled it will then run 
smooth and true for years ; otherwise it will wear off 
at the edges in the shape of an hour glass, and speed- 
ily develop a wobble that will render all the other 
machinery silent by comparison. A good many of the 
loose pulley's troubles are due to the fact that it is 
not considered of enough importance to merit atten- 
tion until it has developed the ability to out-clatter 
everything else in the place. 

411. Cone Pulleys; Their Use.— Cone or stepped 
pulleys are sometimes used on farm machinery for 
the purpose of changing the speed of a shaft by 
shifting a belt from one section to another, but are 
in more common use on lathes and similar machinery 
of the shop. Usually connection is made between the 
two pullcA^s by means of a belt, though friction pul- 
leys are frequently used in this way. The same prin- 
ciple is made use of with spur gear wheels in chang- 
ing the speed of traction engines and automobiles. 

412. Home Made Pulleys.— Sometimes one is 
tempted to utilize a rainy day and a few pieces of 
plank in making a wooden pulley, and so save the 
outlay of several dollars. Occasionally this is entirely 
successful, but it should not be undertaken unless one 
has facilities for turning off the face of the pulley 
absolutely true and for centering it accurately when 
boring it out. A good many home made pulleys 
are now in daily use and their owners point them out 
with pride as doing their work all right at only a 
fraction of the cost of a "boughten" pulley. The fact 
is, they cost less to obtain in the first place, but they 
are most of them wasting their price many times every 
season in strained shafting, strained belts, worn bear- 
ings and lost power. Not one person in a hundred 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 323 

can construct and bore out a wooden pulley that will 
be absolutely true in face, bore and balance, unless he 
has better facilities for that kind of work than are 
available on the average farm. 

413. Bearings. — The ideal bearing is a perfectly 
round hole surrounding an absolutely round shaft, and 
with just enough room between the two for a film 
of the proper lubricant. If this could be secured in 
the first place it is evident that it could not be re- 
tained because the pull upon any machinery doing 
work is in some one direction more than another, and 
the hole could not long remain round. Bearings for 
light, high speed machinery are generally made of 
phosphor-bronze or some such high-test, unwearable 
metal, but for heavier and slower running machines, 
babbitt is usually preferred, as it does not cut the 
journals and it is easily replaced when worn. Bear- 
ings of the same material as the shaft are not found 
suitable. They develop more friction and are more 
likely to abrade than are two metals of different hard- 
ness. 

414. Roller Bearings. — Roller bearings have been 
proved by experiment to require less than half the 
power to overcome their friction that is required for 
ordinary babbitt bearings. While their use is being 
extended somewhat it is still of only limited applica- 
tion because they are rather costly and difficult to 
keep in order, on account of their reluctance to re- 
main parallel. In theory their contact with the shaft 
is a line, but in practice it is a narrow parallelogram, 
a much larger surface than that presented in ball 
bearings. They have the advantage of a much longer 
bearing and can therefore carry a heavier load and 
carry it steadier. 

415. Ball Bearings. — Ball bearings consist of a 



324 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

number of hardened steel balls confined in grooved 
raceways (Fig. 102) and presenting but a small part 
of their surface to the journal. As formerly employed 
they were quite small, and sometimes gave trouble by 
jamming so as not to revolve freely, then the sides 
soon wore flat. Improved methods now in use pro- 
duce them very accurately formed, and they are some- 
times made as large as 4 inches in diameter and ca- 
pable of sustaining a load of 50 tons. Theoretically, 
their bearing surface is a point only, but in practice 
it is a small circle. They are calipered and accurately 
sorted as to size so that all fit accurately into the 
same groove. Those to be used for shafting are fitted 
with an adapter to permit easy assembling. 

When cheap bearings are used one of a set of balls 
may break and the sharp, edges are likely to do seri- 
ous mischief to the rest of the set. Of late their use 
has been greatly extended, because of improvements in 
design, and they are in quite common use in various 
machines which the gasoline engine is now operating 
on the farm, as well as in line shafting applications. 

416. What Babbitt Metal Is. — Babbitt metal, 
named after its inventor, the late Isaac Babbitt, is 
somewhat variable in composition but is made up 
principally of block tin and antimony. In the better 
grades a little copper is added, while that of an in- 
ferior quality contains a little zinc. This causes the 
boxes to heat more or less, and is not so durable as the 
true babbitt. About 5 parts tin to 5 of antimony and 
I of copper is the usual proportion. The result is a 
soft white metal that is easily fused, and that has 
the peculiar property of generating little friction. 

417. Preparing Boxes for Babbitting. — All the old 
babbitt, dirt and grease must be removed and the box 
washed out with gasoline. The box must be thor- 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



325 



oughly dry or steam will form and cause trouble. 
Bolt the box into position so there will be no danger 
of throwing it out of alignment after the babbitting 




Fig. 100. — Solid Box Bearing or Pillow Block. 

is done. If the box is solid, that is, not cast in two 
pieces bolted together, wrap a paper smoothly around 
the shaft and gum the lapped edges fast. Otherwise, 




Fig. ioi. — Sells Roller Bearing Shaft Box Fits Standard 
Hangers. 

the cooling metal will shrink so tightly about the 
shaft as to hold it fast and make it necessary to break 
the box or subject shaft and all to the babbitt furnace. 
The ends of the paper should project a little beyond 



326 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



the box. Block up the shaft so that it is properly 
aligned and central in the box, then close up the ends 
with stiff putty or clay. Vent holes must be left at 
the top for the escape of air and for pouring the hot 
metal into the box. The oil hole is sometimes used 
for this purpose ; if not, insert a wooden plug through 




RETAINER 



Fig. 



102. — Sectional View of New Departure Bal 
Hanger Box. 



Bearini? Shaft 



the oil hole in the casting with the end resting on 
the shaft, and so save the bother of drilling it out 
afterwards. A wall of putty or clay should be made 
around each vent-hole to keep it clear of flowing 
metal. 

418. Preparing the Babbitt. — A plumber's furnace 
is convenient for melting babbitt, as it is portable and 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 327 

the metal needs to be poured hot. Some boxes re- 
quire three or four pounds of metal, and the ladle 
must be large enough to hold the full amount for one 
pouring as it will not unite with fresh metal when 
once set. Heat the babbitt until it will brown or 
char wood. Test the temperature by inserting a pine 
stick occasionally. 

419. Casting the Bearing.— When the metal is hot 
enough pour it as fast as it will run through the hole 
and without any breaks until it begins to come up 
through the air holes. Do not stop if some is spilled. 
It can^ easily be gathered up when cold. Keep the hot 
metal running in a full stream into the box and give 
attention to nothing else. 

After it is filled and cool remove from the shaft, 
clean off the clay or putty, ream out ihe oil hole with 
the sharp end of a file, trim off the edges and, start- 
ing at the oil hole, cut a groove slanting down and 
across each side. These are for the oil to lie in against 
the shaft, and must not be forgotten. 

420. Babbitting a Split Box.— The box is prepared 
in the same way excepting that pieces of cardboard 
or sheet-iron must be placed between the top and 
bottom half of the casting. These should be wide 
enough to rest tightly against the shaft and holes 
should be cut through them corresponding with the 
bolt holes through which the two parts of the box are 
bolted together. Enough of these shims or liners 
should be^ used to allow for taking up the box after 
the bearings have become somewhat worn. Notches 
should be cut in the ends of these liners next the shaft 
to allow the metal to run down into the lower half of 
the box. Rapid pouring is even more essential in 
babbitting a two part box than in a solid one. 

When the metal is cold loosen the bolts a little and 



328 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

with a sharp cold chisel break the two halves apart; 
then remove the top half and with a file trim off the 
edges, cut off the pouring gates with the cold chisel, 
file smoothly and with a round nosed cold chisel cut 
the oil grooves. The job is now complete and, after 
removing the paper from the shaft and smoothing any 
roughness noticed about it with emery cloth, the box 
and shaft should be thoroughly oiled and returned to 
place. 

In bolting a split box together use the shims to 
build up the shoulders enough, so that the strain of 
the bolts when drawn down will come upon the 
shoulders and not upon the shaft. This is of vital im- 
portance; otherwise, the shaft will either heat or re- 
fuse to turn at all. It is also important to put the 
same thickness of shims at both sides, so that the 
stress on the bearing be alike all around. As the 
babbitt wears the shims may be reduced either by 
removing part or by using thinner ones, but they 
should always be reduced on both sides of the shaft 
alike. The bearings should hold the shaft firmly, but 
must not bind it. 

Instead of casting the top of the box solid some pre- 
fer to fasten a strip of leather in the top around the 
oil hole before pouring and then fill this with wool 
as an oil holder, from any part of which the spiral oil 
grooves may be cut. 

Do not attempt to use too small a melting pot, as 
it is practically impossible to use up all of the metal 
melted without some of it becoming too cold to run 
well. More than is needed for the job should be 
melted, the amount depending a little upon how con- 
venient the furnace may be placed in relation to the 
job. On the other hand, too large a melting pot is 
heavy and inconvenient to handle. For the ordinary 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 329 

run of farm work one holding five pounds would prob- 
ably be about right. 

Do not attempt to make a catch-up and hurry-up 
job of babbitting. The bearings are of enough im- 
portance to merit careful work and a good job, once 
done, need not be repeated for a long time, if the oil- 
ing is attended to. 



• CHAPTER XIX. 

BELTS AND BELTING. 

421. Reasons for Using Belts. — While the transmis- 
sion of power by means of belts has long been known 
to the mechanical world, its wide application is due to 
America, European machinists until recently having 
favored gear wheels. In this country more than 90% 
of all power used is transmitted by means of belts in 
some form. 

Belts are almost noiseless. Power may be trans- 
mitted by them at much greater distance than by di- 
rect gears. There is less risk from accidents. They 
are simpler and more convenient, applicable to a 
greater variety of conditions and, in case of a break- 
down or a change in the position of machines, they 
may be repaired or refitted w^ithout sending to some 
distant factory for a machinist. For this last reason 
they are particularly valuable on the farm. 

422. A Few Drawbacks. — In one respect belts are 
expensive ; they are wasteful of power. The move- 
ment of gear wheels, properly set up, is absolute. One 
revolution of a 12-inch wheel will drive its mate a 
distance equal to its own circumference each revolu- 
tion. Belts will slip ; and while the per cent, of waste 
from slippage ought not to exceed 2% there is no 
question but that there is a much greater loss than 
this under average working conditions and that if the 
belts are not closely watched the loss is liable to be 
quite serious. 

330 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 331 

423. Belt Essentials. — The value of any belt de- 
pends upon four special qualities; strength, durability, 
absence of stretch and pulley grip. In special cases 
other things must be considered ; resistance to mois- 
ture, flexibility, etc. The first four qualities are neces- 
sary, however, in any belt, and material which has 
not a fair amount of all of these is not suitable for 
belting. 

424. Leather Belts. — Oak-tanned leather is the best 
of all for belts — it being strongest, most durable and 
best in nearly every way. It has the disadvantage of 
coming in short lengths, but these are so perfectly 
united in the modern methods of belt-making that the 
joints can hardly be found and in most cases do little 
harm. 

425. Rubber Belting. — Rubber belts are made of 
several plies of cotton duck alternating with rubber 
composition, and then vulcanized. Their strength de- 
pends upon that of the fabric out of which they are 
built up, and is something of an uncertain quantity. 
They have the advantage when new of being water- 
proof, and may be made in any length with but one 
joint or even without any, endless belts being supplied 
to order by any belting house. Oil of almost any 
kind is ruinous to them and must not be allowed to 
come in contact with them. Rubber belts are spe- 
cially valuable in the presence of steam and they stand 
a greater amount of both heat and cold than leather. 
They are less liable to slip on the pulley. In strength 
a four-ply rubber belt is counted about the same as a 
single thickness leather belt of the same width. The 
first cost of a rubber belt is considerably less than for 
a leather belt of equal capacity. 

426. Canvas Belting. — Canvas belting is about the 
same strencrth as rubber and is liehter. It is much 



332 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

used in connection with thresher engines but is less 
suitable between two fixed pulleys because it stretches 
and contracts with the weather. 

427. Care of Belts. — The efficiency of a belt de- 
pends fully as much upon its care as on its original 
quality. They should be kept pliable and reasonably 
clean. A belt run too tight or under an overload will 
give out first besides causing trouble with hot boxes, 
broken pulleys and sprung shafting. It has been found 
by experiment that as high as 30% more power and 
considerably greater wear can be obtained from a 
leather belt by running it with the grain or hair side 
toward the pulley. If this is not done the less pliable 
grain side is likely to crack from being strained over 
the pulleys and, as this is the strongest side, the belt 
is seriously weakened. A cemented or lapped leather 
belt should be turned so that the pulley runs of¥ and 
not on the point of the lap. All belts should be some- 
what narrower than the pulley upon which they run 
as few things strain a belt worse than projecting over 
the edge at one side or the other and so being pulled 
across the rim. 

Some belts do not stretch alike at both edges. If 
one inclines to climb continually toward one side of 
the pulley, reverse it. If it still runs on the same side 
the fault is in the pulley, the shafting or the align- 
ment; if toward the opposite side it is in the belt. 

Belts should be kept as free as possible from mois- 
ture and extremes of heat and cold. Under no cir- 
cumstances oil a rubber belt. Put the oil on the 
bearing. The practice of throwing oil and powdered 
rosin on any belt, particularly rubber, to make it stick 
to the pulley is almost certain to shorten the life of 
the belt by months if not years. 

428. Belt Dressings. — Avoid belt dressings as 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 333 

much as possible. As a rule the belt that requires the 
use of a sticky dressing to make it adhere to the pul- 
ley is suffering from some form of abuse, such as 
overload or faulty drive. Many of the dressings on 
the market are decidedly injurious. Seldom if ever 
are any of them needed except for one of two things ; 
to keep the leather in soft, pliable condition or else 
to tide over some emergency strain that, if avoidable, 
should never be placed upon the belt. A hard, glazed 
surface on a belt is a pretty sure indication of some 
form of injurious dressing, though it is not always 
anything that has been put upon the belt intention- 
ally. It may be the result of some dust and moisture 
combination in the air, and occasionally it means over- 
work. In either event it ought not to be there. It will 
always be found more difficult to keep belts clean 
than to keep them soft and it is fully as important; 
in fact, if they are kept clean and not abused in any 
other way they are more than likely to be soft. If 
it is found necessary after cleaning it to soften a 
leather belt, use something with a neat's-foot oil foun- 
dation, but not mineral oils. If a dressing is found nec- 
essary to hold a rubber belt to its place — don't use it ; 
instead, correct the load or the alignment. A belt 
should be wide enough to transmit twice the horse- 
power required of it. 

429. Size of Belt Required. — The breaking strain 
of the best leather belting is given at 3,360 pounds per 
square inch of cross section and, figuring out the nec- 
essary factor of safety, the safe working strength is 
counted but one-tenth of that or 33 pounds per square 
inch or about 41 pounds per inch in width of belting 
ys inch thick. This allowable strain in practice is 
still further reduced to from 30 to 35 pounds by 
the best authorities, presumably to allow for the ordi- 



334 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

nary range of strength to be expected even in a good 
quality of belting. Some adhere, however, to the 
higher estimate. A belt one inch wide traveling 800 
feet per minute is figured to transmit i H. P. and 
each additional inch should add i H. P. if conditions 
are favorable. The pulling power of a belt depends 




Fig. 103. — A Study In Belt Contacts. Two Equal Pulleys, a and 
b Have a Belt Grip of 180 Degrees. When Two Unequal 
Pulleys Are Used the Largest One, d, Gains in Transmission 
Efficiency, Because Belt Contact Is More Than Half the 
Circumference ; the Smaller One, c, Looses Because Belt 
Contact Is Less Than 180 Degrees. 

Upon its frictional surface presented to the pulley and 
its pulling strength. A double leather, six-ply rubber, 
or six-ply cotton belt will safely transmit from 50 to 
75 per cent, power, the usual rule being one horse- 
power for each one inch width at a speed of 550 feet 
per minute. 

430. A Convenient Rule. — To avoid calculating the 
number of feet per minute that a belt is traveling a 
convenient rule is to multiply the diameter of the pul- 
ley in inches by its number of revolutions per min- 
ute and this by the width of the belt in inches. Di- 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 335 

vide this product by 3,300 for single belting and by 
2,100 for double. The quotient will be the required 
horse-power. 

431. Length of Belts. — Within reasonable limits a 
long belt will transmit more power than a short one, 
and can be run much looser. To find the length of 
belt required between two given pulleys add the diam- 
eters of the two pulleys and divide by 2; then mul- 
tiply by 3^4 and add the product to twice the dis- 
tance between the center of the shafts. Where space 



r^ 


fe^ 


& 



Fig. 104.— The Crossed Belt. Each Pulley Has an Arc of Belt 
Contact More Than 180 Degrees. In General, Loss Because 
of Friction in Twisted Belt Overcomes Advantage of Greater 
Belt Contact. Arrangement Shown Useful for Reverse 
Drive. 

permits, a distance of 20 to 25 feet between pulley 
centers is a good working distance. 

432. Speed of Belts. — Increasing the speed of a 
belt increases its power up to certain limits, but this 
cannot be carried beyond 6,000 feet per minute, as the 
power then begins to fall. In practice it is a safe rule 
in anything to avoid extremes, 4,000 to 4,500 feet per 
minute being a more economical and a far safer speed, 
while as little as 600 can be used. In lagging or cov- 
ering pulleys it must always be borne in mind that 



336 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

adding to the size of the pulley increases the speed of 
the belt. 

433. Belt Slipping. — All belts slip more or less, 
and within certain limits it is an advantage, as the 
sudden obstruction of a load, such as the clogging of 
a thresher cylinder or similar accident, may merely 
cause the belt to slip when a positive drive like cog 
gears would cause a serious breakage. When a belt 
because of slippage fails to deliver 97 or 98 per cent. 




Fig. 105, — Driving With Long, Heavy Belt, Showing Sag. 

of the power it should transmit, the loss is too great. 
Most slips originate where the laced joint strikes the 
smaller pulley, which is where the contact is the least 
and is therefore most easily broken. It is important 
that the joint be made as even as possible to decrease 
the jerk at this point. Pulleys of about equal size hold 
the belt much better than where the difference of di- 
ameter is great, as the belt is in contact more nearly 
its full 180 degrees (see cuts). For this reason a belt 
that is long and heavy enough to permit considerable 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 337 

sag without loss of necessary tension hugs the pulley 
better than a tight belt. On account of the greater 
tension, however, the tight belt will deliver the most 
power, but an over-tight belt consumes more power 
by increased friction on the journals and is less ef- 
fective than one of moderate tension. Slipping creates 
hot belts and a tight belt causes hot boxes. By mak- 
ing the lower side of a horizontal belt do the power 
transmitting and letting the upper do the sagging the 
amount of contact is increased and the tendency to 
slip diminished. For small high speed wheels, light, 
soft belting hugs the pulley better than heavy or 
double belts. 

Nearly three times as much power can sometimes 
be transmitted from a leather faced as from a smooth 
iron faced pulley. Manila paper answers a similar 
purpose, and if smoothly put on and not overloaded 
will last for years. Soak good glue in its w^eight of 
water till water is absorbed, then melt. Roughen pul- 
ley face with acid or coarse file and spread on glue, 
then paper, rubbing on with a brush to expel all air. 
Use several layers of glue and paper ; or old split belt- 
ing or split leather may be used if desired. 

When a belt once slips badly it is more difficult to 
hold, and it is more important to guard against the 
first slip than to correct it afterwards. Wet belts 
are sure to slip on iron and are injurious to wood pul- 
leys, hence should be dried before used. Belt dress- 
ing that contains mineral oil or rosin soon coats belt 
wath a glaze that is fatal to holding unless kept con- 
stantly sticky; then it is disagreeable to handle and 
catches all the floating dust and dirt. A belt once 
glazed by dope is half spoiled, as the natural oils of 
the leather are drawn out and the fiber deadened. If 
a belt becomes hardened castor oil may be used to 



338 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

restore it partially. One of the worst dangers of belt 
dressings is the fact that any of them work w^ell at 
the start. 

434. Belt Hints. — Cold weather is hard on belts. 
When first starting, run without load until they are 
warmed up. 

Tight belts are expensive in leather, power and bear- 
ings. A belt so tight as to cause the loss of power by 
friction at the journals to exceed 20% of the load may 
be classed as a tight belt. 

Six-inch belts or heavier should have bearings on 
each side of pulleys. 

Old belts that are saturated with grease are hard 
to hold. They may be partially restored by sprink- 
ling Fuller's earth or prepared chalk over them to ab- 
sorb the grease and then scraping with a wooden strip 
slightly sharpened. 

Narrow double belts are more economical, efficiency 
considered, than single wide ones. 

A rubber belt from which part of the rubber sur- 
face has been worn will shrink badly if wet. 

Cheap grade leather belts are fair for light work 
and slow speeds, but are not suitable for heavy or 
high speed machines. 

Belts running curled over the edges of pulleys may 
be due to faulty alignment in shafts, a slight taper in 
the pulley, a hanger support that yields under a pull, 
or to the uneven stretching of the belt. 

Belts should be run with a slight wavy motion on 
slack side, showing slight tension. Swaying is caused 
by pulleys being out of line or out of balance, or there 
may be an unevenness in the thickness or the pull of 
the leather. At rest the edges of the belt should hug 
the pulley. 

To avoid as much friction as possible, belts should 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



339 



be run at rather high speed and with less tension. 
Heavy pulls should come near hangers and ought, 
if taken from a line shaft, to be delivered to the side 
opposite that from which the power is taken in order 
to have the pull of the machine in some measure 
counteract that of the engine. 

Never overload a belt that is not in sight, as there 
is constant danger from fire. 

A good leather belt, well cared for, ought to last 
for ID or 12 years, though' there are cases on record 




Fig. io6. — A Useful Kink. Driving Belt Loose, But Kept in 
Contact With Pulleys With Lighter, Narrow Binding Belt. 



where they have been kept in continuous service for 
i8 or even 20 years. A belt working under moderate 
load and over well set pulleys will last much longer 
than otherwise. 

A crossed or twisted belt is sometimes necessary for 
reversing the motion. If the pulleys over which it 
works are nearly alike it should increase the arc of 
contact though it adds to the friction. 

435. A Useful Belt Kink. — The drawing power of 
a large belt may be materially increased and the strain 
on both the belt and the journals greatly diminished 
by running decidedly loose and at the same time hold- 
ing the belt snugly to the pulley surfaces by running 
a small binder belt outside of it (Fig. 106). The lat- 



340 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

ter should be drawn tight. This permits doing away 
with most of the tension without diminishing the grip 
of the main belt on the wheel face. 

436. Belt Lacing. — A good belt should have but 
one joint, and even that, where practicable, had bet- 
ter be dispensed wath. Endless belts are' only avail- 
able, however, where one of the pulleys over which 
they are to be used may be moved up or back at will, 
as a belt will stretch and, wdien made to fit between 
two wheels at the beginning, will soon become too 
long for the place, and have to be taken up. 

To lace a belt, first cut the ends off square across 
so that the tension will be even. Cut the holes with 



:t=i 




107 108 

Fig. 107. — The Finished Joint, Pulley Side. 
Fig. 108. — The Finished Laced Joint, Top of Belt. 

a belt punch, and a sloping, shearing cut gives smooth- 
est edges. One row of holes is enough for light work 
and two is plenty for the heaviest work around the 
farm, though three are sometimes used in running 
heavy machinery. The lacing should be done so that 
an equal strain is placed on all the holes and none 
of the laces either twisted or crossed on the pulley 
side of the belt. The laces will not wear out nearly 
so fast and will not jerk the machinery so much. An 
oval punch is best wnth the large diameter turned 
lengthwise of the belt. Many belts are ruined by large 
holes or holes too close together. The latter makes 
a stronger lace but weakens the belt. 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 341 

If a six-inch belt or less is being punched, mark a 
line square across each end one inch back, and along 
these lines lay off the places for the holes exactly op- 
posite each other and with equal spacing between. An 
odd number of holes in each row works out best. For 
a larger belt and for heavier loads use a second row 
of holes the same distance back of the first. The dis- 
tance apart and from the ends may be increased a 
little for w^de belts and diminished for narrow. Can- 
vas belts should be punched with a pointed instrument 
that will shove the fibers aside instead of cutting them 
off. For leather or rubber, a smooth cut is best and 
the hole should be large enough to pass the lace 
through twice without straining the fiber of the 
leather. 

437. Lace Leathers. — Rawhide is used for lacing, 
and it may be purchased already cut or by the side, 
and then cut up by hand. The latter method is much 
the cheapest, but the strips should be cut straight, 
smooth and even in width. A lace that varies in width 
is an abomination. When buying those ready cut, se- 
lect those of medium and uniform thickness in pref- 
erence to extra heavy or light. The first are not flex- 
ible enough ; the second lack strength. From five-six- 
teenths to a half-inch is the usual width, the former 
being preferable excepting for the heaviest belts. If 
the smooth or hair side of the lace is placed out if 
will wear longer. By wetting the ends and then burn- 
ing them until slightly crisped they may be put 
through the hole more easily. 

438. Methods of Lacing, — To double lace a single 
row of holes, begin at the center of the belt and, with 
the pulley side below, pass each end up through the 
center hole in each end of the belt, then down, the 
one to the right and the other to the left, through the 



342 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



next hole in the opposite end of the belt. Continue 
this until the edge is reached, then turn and lace back 
through the same holes. When the edges of the belt 
are again reached each hole will have two laces 
through it, all of the crossing will have been done 
on the upper side, and the ends of the lace will also 
both be at the top. Instead of tying these, poke the 
ends through under one of the other laces and then 
carry them down through smaller holes that they 
will fill snugly, and cut them off with the ends a very 
little beyond the under surface. The pressure of the 
pulley will soon settle them into place. The two sides 
of this lace when finished will, if rightly done, look 
like those in Figs. 107 and 108. Short pieces of lac- 




FiG. 109. — Several Methods of Belt Lacing. 

ing drawn in over the main piece where it wears 
upon the pulley will increase the life of the lace but 
it also adds to the jar of the belt in passing, and de- 
creases the surface of contact at the instant when it 
is most needed. Other methods of lacing are given in 
the illustration (Fig. 109), from which they may be 
easily worked out. Hinge lacing takes less lace than 
some of the others, and has the advantage of drawing 
upon the body of the belt between the holes instead 
of directly on the hole. For this reason it is specially 
good for old rotten belts ; also for rubber and web 
belting. Bootleg lacing does not come in contact with 
the pulley at all, and for cotton or badly frayed rub- 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 343 

ber belting is cheapest and makes the smoothest run- 
ning belt. It looks bungling and unworkmanlike, 
however, and is somewhat dangerous to operators, and 
is little used. 

Never allow several inches of free lace ends to whip 
about the machinery. It is constantly catching and 
straining both lacing and belt, and is dangerous to op- 
erators. Cut the ends off or tuck them under. 

439. Wire Lacing and Belt Hooks. — Wire lacings 
when properly made are quite durable and give little 
jolt at the joint, but their efficiency depends a good 
deal on the lacer. The holes may be much smaller; 




READY TO APPLY FtNISHED JOINT 






Fig. no.— Some Approved Metallic Belt Hooks. 

just large enough for the wire to pass through twice. 
They are fastened by flattening with a hammer. They 
are specially intended for leather belts and are also 
used for canvas. Wire lacing should never be crossed 
on the pulley side of the belt. Belt hooks and other 
metallic fasteners are convenient to apply but some of 
them lack flexibility and should specially be avoided 
with small pulleys. Some of them work well when in 
good condition. A broken and projecting belt hook- 
may become a very dangerous thing. 

440. Cementing Belts. — But for the one difficulty 
of stretching, the cemented or spliced belt would be 
ideal for leather, but unless the distance between jour- 



344 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

nals or the size of the. pulleys can be varied, such a 
joint should not be made until the stretch has been 
taken out of the belt by a period of use. A joint of 
this sort, if well made, is permanent and is supposed 
to wear as long as any other part of the belt, and it 
runs over the pulley without jerk or vibration. 

For a six-inch belt or smaller, cut the belt six 
inches longer than for lacing; mark off six inches 
from end and taper with plane or spoke shave. Do 
the same with the other end but on the opposite side. 
Scrape the laps with steel or glass to make them even. 
Have a smooth surface under belt while splicing. 
After cutting, place belt on pulleys and draw tight, 
with the joint at some point between the pulleys. Hold 
a board under joint and nail belt to it with small 
nails to insure again slipping. Remove belt and board 
to a convenient place and apply belt glue (not com- 
mon glue) hot. Apply this to both ends of the lap, 
then place together and hammer lightly for a few min- 
utes to expel all air. Glue a strip of paper over the 
tips of the leather to keep them in place until the work 
is thoroughly set; then clamp tightly together for a 
few hours. The laps must be kept clean while gluing. 

441. Splicing a Gandy or a Canvas Belt. — For a 
six-inch belt make the splice about four times the 
width of the belt and lay ofif the splice into as many 
equal parts as there are layers in the belt. Cut one 
ply off the entire length, the second at the next point 
of division, and so on ; then do the same with the 
other end but work from the other side of the 
belt, so that the longest ply in the one end will come 
opposite the place where the full lap was cut off in 
the other. 

Fit the ends together and sew lengthwise of the belt 
with waxed thread, the seams about one inch apart. 



Tpie Gasoline Engine on the Farm 345 

An occasional coat of linseed oil and red lead will 
prolong the life of a Gandy belt materially. 

442. Rope Transmission. — Where the power has to 
be transmitted considerable distance and a variety of 
directions, cotton, manila and hemp ropes over 
grooved wheels or sheaves are becoming popular as 
they wear longer, are more flexible, less costly, and 
transmit more power than belts. Their motion is also 
very smooth and noiseless. The speed should be 
around 4,000 .feet per minute ; never over 5,000, and 
the smallest pulley should have a diameter at least 
30 times the rope. Rope drive may be used even if 
the shafts are not quite parallel and, on account of 
greater contact in the wedge-shaped grooves, they 
may be run more loosely and with less slip. There 
should be a distance of at least 20 feet between pul- 
ley centers. Worn rope, once it begins to roughen, 
is very troublesome and should be replaced. An occa- 
sional dressing of beeswax and graphite will add much 
to the life of a rope drive. 



CHAPTER XX. 
OTHER FORMS OF TRANSMISSION. 

443. Gear Wheels. — In spite of its defects gear- 
wheel transmission will probably be in use so long as 
it is necessary to transmit an absolute motion, no 
matter how much the load varies. With it there is 
no stretching or slipping of belts. Whatever the over- 
load the motion will be transmitted so long as the 
driving wheels revolve unless the gear is stripped. It 
is also a convenient means of cutting out or revers- 
ing or changing speed, though lately the friction 
clutch has in part usurped this field. In using this 
form of transmission, however, one must remember 
that as the power is faithfully transmitted, so is any 
unsteadiness in it likewise, together with more or less 
vibration originating in the gear itself. Overloading 
is more unsafe, too, than with belts, because there is 
no slippage to guard against a serious strain. With 
the belt, something gives ; with the bearing, it breaks. 

444. Material. — Gear wheels are made of brass 
(for small work), iron, steel, bronze and raw hide. 
They vary in size from the finest pinion of a watch 
to mill machinery weighing many tons. On account 
of their absolute transmission under variable load, 
they are specially well liked for traction engines. 

445. Finish. — Iron gear wheels are made to certain 
specifications, recognized as standard by manufac- 
turers. To depart from this is not only to insure 

346 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



347 



greater cost on the first special order but on all sub- 
sequent repairs and possibly some difficulty in coup- 
ling up with other machinery. Iron wheels are either 




Fig. III. — Internal Spur Gear. 

cut or cast, the latter being cheaper, and the cut gear 
much the smoothest and most desirable for fast run- 
ningf wheels, or where an even motion is desired. For 




the rougher work, and with slow moving machinery, 
the cast wheels will often answer. Many farm ma- 
chines use the cast gear, though some of the finer sort, 
like the cream separator, require the cut. 



348 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

446. Spur Gearing. — Spur gears, the most common 
of all in use, are those which turn on parallel axes, 
without regard to the form of teeth. They may be 




Fig. 113. — Bevel Gearing. 

either within the rim of the driven wheel, as in the 
main drive wheels of some mowers and of most 
tractors, or around the outer side of the rim, as in 




Fig. 114. — Intermittent Gears. 

most of the intermediate transmissions. Fig. iii il- 
lustrates the first type, and 112 the second. 

447. Bevel and Miter Gears. — If the axes of a pair 
of gear wheels meet at an angle they are called bevel 
gears ; if they meet at a right angle and the gears 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



349 



are equal they are termed miter gears. All miter gears 
are bevel, but not all bevel are miter gears. They are 
used when the direction of the power transmission 
must be changed (Fig. 113). 

448. Intermittent Gears.— Intermittent gears are 
occasionally introduced into the timing system of a 
gasoline engine, but are not in common use in farm 
machinery. Their purpose is to transmit power while 
turning a certain distance but not continuously. Most 
engine timing is done by means of cams (Fig. 114). 

449. Cams.— Cams are a species of gear peculiar 
in that they are fashioned on the principle of a wheel 




Fig. 115.— Action of Cam Outlined. 

turning on an axis not at its center, in order that 
they may press more firmly against a near-by lever 
or spring at one time than another. Often their shape 
is such a departure from that of the true wheel that 
they bear little resemblance to it (Fig. 115). 

450. Worm Gear.— Worm gearing is in very com- 
mon use in the guiding systems of tractors ; the power 
applied by the operator to the hand wheel being trans- 
mitted to the front axle through a worm gear.^ They 
represent a very great reduction of speed applied and 
distance covered by the actuating energy but add 
greatly to the power, combining as they do the lever- 



350 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

age principle of the wheel and the inclined plane (Fig. 
1x6). 

451. Other Gear Wheels. — Some of the other com- 
moner forms of gearing are the sprocket wheel, 
ratchet wheel, escape wheel, crown gear wheel, spiral 
gear, rack and pinion and elliptic gear. Most of them 
are found in farm machinery so seldom that their 
special description is unnecessary. Cog wheels, the 
name under which all gear wheels erroneously pass 
with many people, are wheels into which the gear 
teeth are set in separate pieces. They are seldom seen 





Fig. 116. — Worm Gearing Used In Tractor Steering Gears. 
Fig. 117. — Spiral Gear Used for Cam Shaft Operation. 

on the farm and are only referred to because so often 
confused with gear wheels. 

452. Rawhide Gearing. — One of the objections to 
iron gear wheels has always been the noise they make. 
To obviate this, other substances as fiber, leather, 
etc., have been tried. Leather has been found spe- 
cially successful after being subjected to special treat- 
ment but is rather expensive for large wheels. It has 
been found that an iron wheel meshing with one of 
leather does away with most of the noise, so leather is 
often used for the small wheel or pinion to mesh with 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 351 

one of iron much larger. For a specially silent gear 
the face of the rawhide gear is sometimes made 
slightly wider than its metal mate and, to guard 
against curling over, brass flanges are bolted securely 
to each side of the wheel, including the teeth This 
adds somewhat to the cost and a great deal to the life 

of the gear. 

Even when badly worn, a leather gear wheel re- 
tains its elastic nature and continues to transmit 
power without vibration or jar and so materially in- 
creases the life of its metal mate. It is not desirable 
in places where it is likely to become wet and not 
,n connection with irregular motion or with cast gear- 
in.r the irregular shrinkage of the latter, in cooling 
making too much unequal strain because of the rough 

surface. 

453 Care of Leather Pinions.— Do not use min- 
eral oil on rawhide pinions as it tends to soften them 
and they usually get all the oil they need from their 
bearings. Instead, coat the surface with a dressing 
of graphite and hard grease. 

Never allow the bearings to become hot. Leather is 
an animal substance and may be consumed. 

Store them, when not in use, in a cool, dry place 
and cover the rawhide slightly with the hard grease 
and graphite mixture. 

See whether the teeth are meshing properly. 1^ all- 
ure to do this may ruin the pinion in a very short 

454 Rules Governing Gear Repairs.— The outside 
diameter of a gear wheel is taken from the circle made 
by a line drawn around the outside tips of the teeth. 

The pitch diameter is taken on a circle through the 
point where the teeth roll into working contact with 
those of another wheel. 



352 The Gasoline Engine on the FaRxM 

Diameter, applied to gearing, always means pitch 
diameter unless otherwise specified. 

The diametrical pitch is the number of teeth to each 
inch of pitch diameter. The pitch of any standard 
wheel may be obtained by dividing the number of its 
teeth by the number of inches in its pitch diameter 




SPOKED GEAR 



Fig. ii8.-IIlustrating Terms Used In Ordering Spur Gear 
Wheels. 

The pitch of any standard wheel may be obtained 
from the outside diameter (which is more convenient 
to measure) by adding 2 to the actual number of 
teeth and dividing by the outside diameter. From this 
the pitch diameter may be found by dividing the num- 
ber of teeth by the pitch. 

Circular pitch is the distance from center to center 
between the teeth measured along the line of the pitch 
circle. It may be obtained by dividing 3.1416 by the 
diametrical pitch. 

The above rules will enable any one to calculate for 
themselves by counting the teeth and taking the out- 
side measure of the wheel those commoner specifica- 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 353 

tions which are necessary to know in ordering gear 
wheels that will fit other gearing. 

The length of a gear wheel hub is its projection 
beyond the rim and not from the spoke. It is much 
better to state the length of the hole instead of the 
hub. 

To find the size of a gear wheel needed upon a fixed 
shaft to mesh with a certain gear wheel on a second 
fixed shaft, measure the distance from center to center, 
between the two shafts in inches, double the distance 
and multiply by the diametrical pitch (as obtained 
by means of rule already given from wheel on shaft), 
and from the quotient subtract the number of teeth 
on the wheel given ; the result will be the number of 
teeth in the wheel to be obtained. With this and the 
diametrical pitch, which is the same as for the other 
wheel, all the dimensions of the new wheel may be 
worked out. 

Whenever the term "pitch" is applied to gearing it 
is understood to mean diametrical pitch; that is, the 
number of teeth to each inch of pitch diameter. 

The above rules are for spur gear calculations. 
Those for bevel gear are considerably more compli- 
cated and of less general use. 

455. Power of Gear Wheels. — The horse-power 
that a certain gear wheel will transmit depends upon 
four things; the face, the pitch, the velocity of pitch 
circle in feet per second, and the kind of wheel, 
whether spur, or bevel. To find the velocity multiply 
the pitch diameter in inches by the number of revolu- 
tions per minute and divide the product by 230. At 
a velocity of 6 feet per second a spur wheel with i- 
inch face and i-inch pitch will safely transmit 2.782 
horse-power and each trebling of velocity for the same 
wheel will a very little more than double the power. 



354 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

If the pitch and face are more or less than one inch, 
multiply the power given at the required velocity 
by the number of inches or the fractional part of an 
inch, and that result by the number of inches of face. 
This gives the horse-power transmitted. In practice 
under average conditions but half or two-thirds of this 
result should be expected. 

The velocity of gearing should be kept below 2,200 
feet per minute for iron gear and 3,000 for wood and 
iron. 

456. An Ideal Gear Wheel Order. — If the follow- 
ing specifications are given there should be no excuse 
for any supply house failing to send the wheel wanted. 

I, material — 2, outside diameter — 3, pitch diameter — 
4, face — 5, bore — 6, number of teeth — 7, pitch (dia- 
metrical or circular) — 8, diameter of hub — 9, distance 
through hub — 10, projection — 11, distance from center 
to center of shafts. 

When ordering spur gears to transmit a certain 
horse-power give the number of revolutions per min- 
ute, size of shafts or bore, and largest and smallest 
allowable diameters. 

Bevel gearing will transmit approximately ^ the 
horse-power safely conveyed by spur gear. 

The above calculations are for involute teeth, which 
are now more popular and in far more common use 
than the epicycloidal pattern, one advantage being 
that they do not require such accurate adjustment. 

457. General Care. — Transmission gearing requires 
occasional attention quite as much at its rim as at 
the axle, and this is particularly true in relation to the 
tractor gearing, especially the differential. Grease, 
oil, graphite and reasonable cleanliness, at least free- 
dom from the grit of road dust and ground-up peb- 
bles, will cure most of the ills it is heir to, old age 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 355 

excepted. The proper use of the clutch might also 
be urged here. More gearing has unquestionably- 
been stripped by sudden than by excessive strains. 

Noisy gears may sometimes be silenced by cleaning 
thoroughly with kerosene or gasoline and then pack- 
ing with medium grease to which flake graphite has 
been added. 

Worn gears should be replaced promptly as they are 
a constant source of annoyance and even danger. The 
strain of any sudden emergency hunts out the worn 
tooth with unerring accuracy and a broken gear or 
pinion is likely to set some of the others to stripping. 
Worn gearing does not mesh properly and not only 
causes considerable loss of motion or power through 
slippage, but wears more rapidly, once the proper re- 
lation between the wdieels is disturbed. 

A temporary remedy for worn and noisy gearing is 
a handful of sawdust. This, of course, is a make- 
shift only. Thick grease and French chalk are also of 
considerable use. Worn gear teeth are noisy because 
they strike against each other instead of rolling. 



CHAPTER XXL 
THE FEED-ROOM. 

458. When Feed-grinding Does Not Pay. — There 
is a great difference of opinion as to whether the 
grinding of feed is profitable under the usual condi- 
tions. That it is beneficial no one doubts. Wliether 




Fig. 119. — Feed Mill With Direct Shaft Drive From New 
Holland Engine. 

the benefit is enough to justify the double handling of 
large quantities of grain, of hauling it, perhaps over 
bad roads, several miles to the nearest mill and then 
back again, and of the expense in cash or toll for 
grinding is an open question. Often it is cheaper to 
let a part of the grain be wasted by being fed un- 
ground than it is to put so much extra work and ex- 
pense into the grinding. 

356 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 357 

459. Convenient Grinding. — With a gasoline engine 
properly installed this waste of the farm crops at the 
feed bin is unnecessary, nor is any great an^onnt of 
extra work called for. A link-chain conveyor or ele- 
vator, run by the engine, should carry the grain in a 
constant stream from a portable bin or trough set be- 
side the thresher to elevated bins in the feed room 
above the stables. Below these bins, and connected 
to its hopper by closed v/ooden spouts, should stand 
the feed grinder, belted to a shaft or directly con- 
nected with the engine. By opening slides in one or 
more of these spouts a stream of any grain stored in 
the bins above or a mixture of any two or more is con- 
ve3"ed directly into the hopper without a pound of 
grain having to be lifted with human hands. The at- 
tendant may then start the engine and, once having 
thrown the mill into operation, need give it no further 
attention until the grinding is completed. 

460. Convenient Feeding. — The discharge from the 
mill may be conveyed to a bagger or directly into 
a portable bin supplied with wheels and shafts, and 
which is easily moved along the row of feed chutes 
leading into the feeding boxes in the mangers below. 
From the time the grain leaves the threshing machine 
it need not be touched until it is stored, ground, mixed 
in any desired proportions and delivered to the hands 
of the feeder directly over the animals in the stable 
below. All lifting is avoided and all carrying. The 
engine and gravity do it all ; but only the work of the 
engine renders it convenient to elevate the grain 
where gravity can be used. 

461. Feed Always Fresh. — Ground meal, if stored 
in quantities, is far more likely to taint, heat or be- 
come infested with insect enemies than the whole 
grain. No matter how well seasoned the corn, there 



358 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

is always so much risk in the continuous storing of 
corn meal in quantities that constant watchfulness is 
necessary; often frequent handling. Still, if the grain 
has to be hauled some distance to a mill or if it is 
worked up on the farm with a steam powder grinder, 
there is little economy in grinding it in small quan- 
tities. 

With the gasoline engine feed may be ground fresh 
as needed, wdiile the water is being pumped or the 
morning chores done. Little attention is required. 
All mixtures, too, may be regulated when the slides 
are opened so that the nature of the feed is changed, 
without any trouble, to suit conditions ; or a different 
mixture may be provided for different lots of cattle 
or even for different individuals. It is no longer nec- 
essary to have storage bins for the mixtures best 
adapted to the dairy cow, the horse, the growing calf, 
nor are we compelled to feed the same mixture to all 
alike without consulting the purpose. 

462. The Balanced Ration. — The farm feed mill 
and the power which can be made available at any 
time without fuss lend themselves specially to the 
compounding of balanced rations best suited for any 
specific purpose or for several of them which may be 
served all at once. 

463. A Good Feeding Plan. — Most animals are in- 
clined to bolt their grain and then pick over their 
roughage very gingerly, selecting only the choicest 
portions and - tossing the rest upon the floor to be 
wasted. Hay thrown to them in bunches and separate 
from the grain rather invites a playful attack with 
the horns and a tendenc}^ to cull it over with too much 
discrimination, while the grain, fed alone, is eaten too 
fast. 

If the hay or fodder is first run through a feed 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 359 

cutter or shredder there is ahiiost no waste. It may 
then be fed in tight boxes and, by being mixed with 
the grain and fed all at once, it is all eaten and at 
the same time the grain is not swallowed so hurriedly, 
nor does it reach the stomach in a compact mass. The 
actual quantity being fed is more handily determined, 
too, either by the scales or by measure, and there is 
far less likelihood of feeding entirely by guess. Tak- 
ing into account all of the leaks which accompany 
the old method of feeding, there is here an increased 
efficiency of from 25% to 40% in the actual feeding 
value of the same hay and grain. 




Fig. 120. — Mill for Grinding Two Kinds of Grain. 

464. A Special Appetizer. — The addition of water 
in reasonable quantities does much to freshen up the 
usually dry, hard feed of the w^inter months and a 
small handful of salt adds not a little to the relish. 
Three minutes with the spray pump over the mixing 
bin prepares the cut hay specially well not only to be 
relished by the cattle, but also moistens it enough so 
that the ground feed scattered over it is eaten at 



360 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



the same time, and does not sift through to the bot- 
tom of the manger. 

465. Grinding Cob Meal. — The cob meal attach- 
ment should not be forgotten when the home grind- 
ing mill is run. It is true that there is not a great 
deal of nutrition in the cob itself but when reduced 
to a coarse meal it serves well as a mechanical mix- 
ture and helps lighten up the heavier portion so that 




Ipiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimii 

Fig. 121. — Power Driven ^Nlill for Grinding Grain, Cob and Husk. 



it is better exposed to the action of the gastric juices. 
Cobs are rather hard to grind and the average miller 
will not grind them except for an extra price. Besides, 
they are bulky and that much more of a load to haul 
over the roads, when taken away. Worked up on the 
home mill they are worth at least the extra power 
they take, and well repay the little attention they 
require, even though they feed a little more slowly 
into the hopper. 

466. Grinding Family Grists. — By adding only a 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 361 

few dollars to the first expense of the mill one can be 
obtained which will do first class work on corn meal, 
graham flour, and whole wheat flour for family use. 
The grist obtained is at least a good ways ahead of 
some that is furnished when grain is taken in exchange 
by the village miller and stored meal supplied. The 
home grist is always fresh and every man who takes 
enough pride and care in his farming to produce first 
class grain is certain of being rewarded by meal from 
his own instead of from that raised by some careless 
neighbor. 

467. Accessories of the Feed Room. — Good feed 
alone is not the only subject of importance to the feed 
room nor is it the only one wdierein the gasoline engine 
plays a most important part. Actual experiments have 
proven that where water is supplied to dairy cows 
at stated intervals of twice daily the milk yield aver- 
aged 225 pounds less per annum than where they 
were allowed to drink at will. As nearly half the ani- 
mal weight of the fat ox is water it is evident that 
drink should play an important part in the fattening 
of beef cattle as well as in their growth and develop- 
ment. It is safe to say, though, that for every stock 
barn equipped with a continuous watering device there 
are hundreds wherein cattle are watered less than 
twice daily ; in fact, the average general purpose farm 
is conducted on the single-watering plan. 

468. Objections to the Continuous Water Supply 
System. — Ordinarily there have been several objec- 
tions to attempting to maintain a constant water 
supply. First, running water is not furnished by na- 
ture at every location, while we are becoming more 
and more suspicious of that which is, as a possible 
source of contagion. Storage tanks of sufficient size 
to supply constant running water are expensive, in 



2^62 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

the way and, to a certain extent, dangerous. To run 
the troughs full of water once or twice daily is to in- 
vite a mixture of dust and hay stems in the water that, 
in the process of drinking, the animals are liable to 
draw into the wind-pipe, while_ much of the most nu- 
tritious part of the hay finds its way into the water- 
ing trough to be drawn off and wasted whenever the 
trough is cleaned. It is always objectionable, too, 
for water intended for stock to be exposed to the 
breath of stabled animals on account of the vapors 
absorbed by it. 

469. Constant Renewal Necessary. — No system of 
stock watering is successful which does not supply 
the animals with fresh water whenever it is supplied 
at all, without having to resort to any extensive stor- 
age system. A small reserve supply is not only al- 
lowable but necessary ; but the system which depends 
on great quantities of storage water exposed to the 
dust and odors of the place is never suitable. 

470. The Gasoline Engine a Necessity. — Excepting 
in some few highly favored localities, some form of 
dependable power must be at hand which is so easily 
applied that we may safely rely upon direct pump- 
ing, with scarcely any storage provisions of any kind. 
A small pressure tank, though, is a great addition, in 
the absence of which a closed storage tank holding 
two or three barrels of water will answer nicely. 
Whichever is used, an indicator must be attached to 
regulate the amount of pressure in the one case and 
of water in the other. 

471. The Open Trough. — The simplest method of 
getting the water constantly before the cattle is to 
run it directly into one end of a continuous trough 
and allow it to drain out at the other. This consumes 
lots of water; all the objections urged against the 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 363 

old style water systems may be raised against it ; 
while those cattle at the end most remote from the 
inflow are entirely dependent for their own supply 
upon the caprice of all the other animals in the 
stable. 

472. Automatic Troughs. — There are several styles 
of individual automatic troughs upon the market that 
are satisfactory, though some of them are rather ex- 
pensive to install. The water is under very perfect 
control though, and all that is stored ahead is confined 
in air-tight pipes which protect it from dust and stable 
odors. 

473. A Home Made Substitute. — For the drinking 
wells a row of ordinary granite wash basins are not 
at all bad, although a dish measuring a little less in 
diameter would be somewhat better. These are all 
fitted snugly into wooden seats or collars that hold 
them rigid and distribute the strain well over the bot- 
tom and sides of the basin. It is but to so arrange 
them that they may be easily removed for cleaning 
whenever desirable. 

Behind these and supported to the back of the 
manger, an inch or inch-and-a-quarter pipe serves as 
the main conductor, and from it a half-inch (or less) 
tee located opposite each basin permits water to 
escape through a discharge pipe coming up over and 
then down into the basin. The main pipe should be 
so placed that the top surface of the water it con- 
tains is rather less than two inches above the bottom 
of the basins. This insures about two inches of water 
always in each basin, a quantity so small that the 
arguments against standing water do not apply to it 
with any great force. One draught of the animal 
empties the basin and starts the water to flowing in 
until the level in the pipe is reached again. At niglit 



364 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

and in cold weather the main pipe may be drained by 
a spigot at the lower end, or a small stream left run- 
ning, and all danger of freezing is avoided. Perhaps 
the gasoline engine does not seem to have a great 
deal to do with this system but in the majority of 
barns the plan would be impracticable were it not 
for some power that could be called upon readily and 
that would always respond. 

474. Advantages of This System.— Aside from the 
benefits of a constant supply of unpolluted water, 
there are several other advantages. The supply comes 
rather slowly to each animal, if the discharge pipes 
are small, and rapid drinking is discouraged. The 
water, pumped from far below the surface, is freer 
from contagious influences and dangerous germs of 
all kinds. It is practically never exposed even to the 
air from the time it leaves the well until it is dis- 
charged into the animal's basin. Neither does one 
animal have to drink what another has left. There 
is no danger through the transmission of disease from 
the drinking water and a well balanced system with 
a capacity reasonably tempered to the size of the 
herd admits of no contaminated water finding its way 
from any herd to any near-by stream. The amount 
of water which enters this system and escapes it save 
through the stomachs of the animals is so small that 
it filters into the earth and is purified before find- 
ing its way to any natural channel. The matter of 
temperature, too, is of considerable importance. 
While it has not been found advantageous to regu- 
larly heat water for animals, it is none the less in- 
jurious to them to be compelled to drink that which 
is far below the normal. A milch cow promptly 
shows this in shrinkage of milk. The effect is just as 
serious to the beef animal, only the latter is not sup- 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 365 

plied with a natural thermometer that we can read 
as readily as we can the record of the milk pail. 
Water pumped from deep in the earth and not sub- 
ject to any great change of temperature, winter or 
summer, never chills or shocks the sensitive nervous 
system of a cow, while that which varies with the 
weather is almost sure to do so. 

475. The Work of the Engine. — Any watering 
system which depends upon anything but gravity or 
some form of natural delivery must have back of it 
a source of power which is actually dependable ; one 
that can be used whenever needed, and one so conve- 
nient that it will be used. Without such a power, 
meaning the gasoline engine in most cases, watering 
systems like this would be worse than useless, be- 
cause, once depended upon, if something went wrong 
with them suddenly, their very completeness at or- 
dinary times would make us forget to provide against 
possible failure. 

476. Flushing Out the Gutters. — One form of 
gasoline engine efficiency in the stable has never been 
appreciated as it should be, excepting by the few who 
have the system in operation. That is in the flush- 
ing out and better cleansing of the gutters and the 
application of the manure upon the fields in its best 
form. 

477. Stable Arrangement Necessary. — In order to 
adopt this system it is necessary that the stable be 
provided Avith good gutters, either cement or wood ; 
then it is the work of the engine to supply plenty 
of water and good pressure, either direct from the 
pump or from a pressure or storage tank. One other 
duty the engine must perform as already referred to ; 
the chaffing of all the hay, fodder and bedding used 
in the stables. 



366 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

478. The Flushing Process Easier and More Sani- 
tary. — Instead of scraping out the gutters with a 
fork or shovel and leaving every crack and depres- 
sion reeking with filth and germs, both gutters and 
floors are washed clean by means of a hose, with 
water under pressure. The work is done more quickly 
and thoroughly than is possible in any other way, 
and the process is far more agreeable to the man who 
does it. Everything is either reduced to a liquid form 
or at least held in suspension until it can be removed 
from the stable ; while every crevice, no matter how 
small, is searched out and thoroughly cleansed, in- 
stead of being left to ferment and form a harbor for 
vermin and disease. 

479. Final Disposal on the Fields. — From the 
end of the gutter the liquid is conducted by any con- 
venient method directly into a tight manure vat or 
tank, which is mounted on wheels. This should be 
provided with some sort of agitator operated by means 
of gearing, to insure against the undissolved particles 
settling to the bottom of the tank. When hauled to 
the field the contents may be far more evenly dis- 
tributed through a coarse sprinkling attachment than 
the best spreader can do under the most favorable 
conditions, Avhile there is none of the hard lifting 
ordinarily required in loading up. 

No other method of stable cleaning is so free from 
lifting or unpleasantness. No other is so economical 
in the application of the manure upon the field. No 
other method gets it into the earth as a plant food so 
quickly, all through the water and the pressure, which 
the engine supplies. 



CHAPTER XXII. 

THE WORK-SHOP. 

480. Its Purpose. — The farm work-shop is required 
for two purposes ; for making things and for repair- 
ing them. Of the two objects the last is undoubtedly 
of greatest importance. Because of his greater re- 
moteness from the town or village shop, the farmer 
must always depend more upon his own skill in keep- 
ing his tools in order than his city brother has to do ; 
and a good farm repair shop, with a good man back 
of it, always means better kept farming tools, more 
conveniences, more efficient work and better farming. 

481. As Trouble Healer. — The great mission of the 
farm repair shop is in the prompt removal of possible 
trouble before trouble itself comes. When the re- 
pair of a weakened part means a trip to town, there 
is a tendency to continue using it as it is so long 
as it holds at all ; then it frequently gives way in 
the midst of the very busiest time, when it is being 
put to the greatest use, and often with disastrous re- 
sults to the entire machine. We do not like to spend 
too much time and money making repairs until we 
see for a certainty whether the part is ever going to 
break or not. With our own work-shop handy though, 
and well enough equipped to be efficient without add- 
ing to our drudgery, the first rainy half hour will 
probably see the part made good as ever, and save 
an expensive breakdown. 

482. A Good Equipment. — Almost any farm pos- 

367 



368 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

sesses a grindstone, an emery wheel, perhaps a lathe 
and a saw arbor. All of these are valuable only as 
they are made use of. When their use means an 
extra session with the tread mill there is a human 
tendency to postpone work that might, if promptly 
done, increase the efficiency of our regular work. 
Even a grindstone may easily become a source of 
drudgery to some one, usually the boy of the farm. 
Anyone who has ever turned one by hand for an 
hour at a time appreciates the tendency to slight the 
grinding of the mow^er knives or to let the axes and 
hoes go with less keen edges than they ought to carry. 
The emery wheel loses much of its efficiency unless 
speeded up well ; while the farm lathe must either be 
too light for real efficiency in order to keep within rea- 
sonable foot power limits or it is certain to have 
weeks of rest that it has never earned. 

483. The Engine in the Work-shop. — The gasoline 
engine in the farm work-shop is out of place ; it has 
no business there. Connected to the end of a line 
shaft running the work-shop machinery it is the ideal 
power, but the union should be neighborly only, not 
domestic. Emery dust, grit from the grindstone, even 
the floating particles of wood, notably cedar, have an 
abrading tendency, wdiich is disastrous to the engine 
cylinder; while we have already seen that nothing 
is more disastrous to the valves than particles of shav- 
ings or an accumulation of light dust of the air drawn 
through the carburetor. 

484. The Proper Place. — The proper place for the 
gasoline engine is either in an enclosure adjoining 
the work-shop or with a good tight partition to pro- 
tect it from the shop air. It must be belted to a line 
shaft anyway, in order to allow us to start and stop 
any machine in the shop at will. There is no neces- 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



369 



sity for having it in the same room the machines are 
in. 

485. An Ideal Shop Arrangement. — The shop itself 
should be equipped with a good roomy bench along 
one side, the lower part of which may contain a sys- 
tem of drawers and cupboards for the convenient 
storing of the bench tools ; or a near-by cabinet of 
drawers made from boxes of one size may be pre- 
ferred. If the shop is in the barn, the position of 




Fig. 122. — A Handy Shop Engine, Equipped With Countershaft 
and Three Different Sizes of Driving Pulleys. 



the power shaft must be determined by that of the 
engine, which will, of course, be the same one which 
provides power for other barn work. If a separate 
shop is to be built, it should be quite long in propor- 
tion to its width and, if located near the house, can 
wxll be arranged for a shop at one end and a laundry 
at tlie other. 

486. The Engine's Position. — The engine should 
preferably be installed near the center of the build- 
ing and one line shaft run the full length, near the 
ceiling. This gets the shaft out of the way better 
than any other location and prevents accidents. By 



370 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

belting the engine to it near the center instead of 
at one end a good deal of torsion or twist is avoided. 
No matter how well the shaft is put up, if the power 
is applied at the end there is more or less of this 
twisting tendency, which in field machinery becomes 
side draft. The shaft may be so rigidly held that it 
will stay in place and do its work all right ; still there 
will be considerable lost energy, consumed by the ex- 
tra friction, and friction ahvays means w^ear as well 
as work. For this reason the longer shaft can be 
run and two rooms equipped with power as easily as 
the shop alone, and at less cost of friction. 




Fig. 123. — The Most Important Farm Implement. 

487. Connecting Engine to Work. — For ordinary 
farm shop work a i-fV shaft will probably be the 
best size, although, if of considerable length, the 
hangers should be close enough together to insure 
against an}^ possible tendency to spring. Remember 
always that a bent shaft requires the engine to bend 
or spring it into line by "main force" every time the 
shaft turns over, and when that is a good many times 
per minute it wastes a good deal of engine energy be- 
sides wrenching the machinery. The shaft may be 
equipped w4th tight and loose pulleys for each ma- 
chine to be connected, or loose belts and tighteners 
may be used. The former are the best in most cases 
and they cost the most to install. For directions as 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



371 



to size of pulleys and belts required, see chapters on 
Belts, Pulleys, etc. 

488. Locating Machines. — Where convenient it is 
always best to install the heaviest machines, that is, 
those that require the most power, nearest the en- 
gine. Always remember that, no matter how rigidly 




Fig. 124. — Gray Engine Driving Bandsaw in Wood-working Shop. 

the shaft is held to its place, side draft or twist still 
remains in the line of working energy whenever the 
pull of the machine operated is at one side of the 
engine working line, and the farther to one side it 
is removed the greater is that strain. If a heavy 
lathe is installed it should be placed near the parti- 
tion next to the engine room, while something of 
light draught, though of steadier use, should be re- 
served for attachment at the further end. Light ma- 
chines, such as emery wheels, jig-saws, small cut-off 
saws, etc., may be located along the bench at the most 
convenient places. Among the light power machines 



Z7^ 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farai 



which should by all means be included in the work- 
shop equipment is a small rip saw suitable for rip- 
ping up plank. A six or eight-inch saw will be suffi- 
cient and a self feed equipment is not necessary. Per- 
haps there is no other single experience which will 
bring out the blessing of power in the work-shop 
so much as will one job of plank ripping with the cir- 
cle saw in comparison with the old back-breaking 
laborious way. 

489. Effect on Man and Boy. — The introduction 
of power into the repair shop will make so many 





p 












Wood YiTork Bcr>cV» 








0^ 










. 


1^^ 


/Jnva^ 


Torrit 





(ivindstonc 


/4o) 


Dff 











Fig. 125. — General Farm Workshop Floor Plan, Showing Good 
Arrangement of Machines and Housing of Engine In Sepa- 
rate Compartment to Reduce Fire Risk. 



labor-saving machines available, that are not of much 
practical use without it, that the care and repair of 
the farm implements soon become a pleasure, in- 
stead of a dreaded task that has been in the past too 
often neglected. Then labor-saving devices will be 
studied out and made in spare minutes which will 
gradually make the equipment of the whole farm 
more complete, convenient and up to date. Gradually, 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 373 

too, the habit of noting the condition of tools more 
closely will be formed, the little defects noticed and 
remembered as they come to us in our field work ; 
and the defect will be remedied at the first leisure 
time. Without this observation habit, the weakness 
might have been forgotten as soon as the occasion 
for annoyance, because of it, had passed. In no other 
place more than the shop does the engine develop in 
the man and the boy the attention and thorough care 
of their equipment. 



374 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 




o 



CHAPTER XXIII. 
THE FARM WOOD-PILE. 

490. Two Memories. — There are two memories, 
either in combination or one of them alone, which 
even yet disturb the farm boy of yesterday with 
dreams of cold fingers, backaches and frozen mit- 
tens — and ahvays more of it ahead. One of them is 
flavored with the old cross-cut and its never-ending 
toll of hard work and spoiled half-holidays. The other 
is still accompanied by the grating ring of the neigh- 
borhood buzz-saw, which always meant weeks of 
strenuous log-piling and splitting in advance, a couple 
of days of almost killing work throwing the cut blocks 
of wood upon high piles, always hurrying to "keep 
ahead of the saw," or else "to keep the saw busy," and 
with the consciousness that there were days of this 
ahead helping the neighbors through similar jobs. Al- 
ways, too, there was the consciousness that the very 
hardest part of this, the piling up of those great log 
heaps and the great stacks of wood, that all had to be 
undone again as time afforded, was labor wasted ; that 
it was only necessary, because, in the hurry that the 
one or two day job of buzzing required, things had to 
be done the hardest way because there was no time 
for any other. 

491. A Thankless Task. — Nothing is more dis- 
couraging than to do the hardest kind of work for 
hours or days, knowing all the time that it is abso- 
lutely resultless work and that it is only necessary 

375 



376 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

because of inefficient planning; that an easier way 
would be even more efficient. Those high piles of 
logs were required because, with the saw only avail- 
able for a day or two and at a high cost for ma- 
chine and men per hour, the material had to be at 
hand ; but it meant that all of the hard lifting was 
only to be undone almost as soon as finished ; that 
the big wood pile, builded up by one laborious swing 
of aching arms for each stick it contained was only 
a temporary affair, to be torn down again and hauled 
to the house as soon as there was time. All of the 
hardest work in the job was due to inconvenient and 
inefficient methods, but methods which, nevertheless, 
seemed the best that could be used, 

492. What It Really Cost. — Much of that hard 
work was condoned by the thought that "the boys" 
were at home and the farm labor cost little or noth- 
ing. It probably cost many a farmer the help he 
afterwards needed from his grown-up boys, and it 
no doubt cost many a boy who was unfitted for the 
struggle for existence in the city, but who was driven 
from the farm by just such tasks, long years of dis- 
appointment; perhaps a ruined life. If we were to 
ask a number of farm-bred men who are now strug- 
gling in the congested cities, with more or less suc- 
cess, why they left the farm, it is likely that at least 
eight out of ten of them would think first of the 
wood-pile, the old pump, the grindstone and similar 
bits of every-day drudgery, before they would an- 
swer. It was just such tasks as these that convinced 
most of them the farm was only a big factory for 
turning out hard work and most of it of a hopeless, 
ineft'ectual kind. 

493. To-day's Wood-pile. — Methods of that sort 
would be even more expensive now. Good farm labor 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 377 

is scarce, and time is worth money. Then, too, the 
trees which were then only fit for fuel are plenty good 
enough for lumber now, while the material for fire- 
wood has to come from sources which would then 
have been despised. The straight-grained maples that 
split easily are no longer food for the buzz-saw. In- 
stead, the wood-pile is replenished from the occasional 
windfall from which the best of the body wood has 
been removed for boards ; from the scraggly apple 
tree ; from the old rail fence. Not even boy labor 
would justify the time and teamwork necessary to 
handle these odds and ends of the woodlot in the way 
the ''buzz wood" was formerly managed, and on many 
farms these are permitted to rot where they fall, be- 
cause it costs more to work them up than to buy 
coal. 

494. Why Popular. — The gasoline engine has made 
the wood-pile of to-day a popular place with the aver- 
age healthy farm boy. It is worth a trip to the woods 
for a load of logs for the privilege of running the 
engine long enough to saw them up. The work does 
not have to be done at break-neck speed and it does 
not last so long that every muscle in the body is pro- 
testing ; neither does the wood have to be thrown upon 
a pile that will presently all have to be torn down 
and piled over again. The wood is cut with the mini- 
mum amount of handling and all the work required 
can be efificiently applied so there is no dissatisfac- 
tion in the thought that it is energy thrown away. 
Enough logs can be hauled up for a reasonable run 
without having to lift them upon a high pile or drop 
them back too far from the work. Wood-cutting now 
is a glimpse of modern life, instead of drudgery and, 
if the boy should ever leave the farm, one of the 
pleasant memories that will occasionally call to him 



378 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

will be that of the gasoline engine that he had to leave 
behind him when he went. 

495. The Circle Saw Rig. — For cutting up limbs, 
old rails, tops and small logs, the circle saw still has 




Fig. 127. — Gasoline Engine and Circular Saw Outfit in Portable 

Form. 



the call, although the drag saw will require less heavy 
work, used in connection with logs of considerable 
size. 

Any farm machinery supply house will furnish a 
good circle saw outfit, or one may almost make his 
own. There are several styles on the market, not 
different in general principle and only differing in 
those little details which mark the variety in personal 
tastes. A wooden or iron frame to hold the saw arbor 
and that may be anchored securely to some solid foun- 
dation ; a tilting or sliding table ; a four-foot steel 
shaft, i^ inches or more in diameter and with saw 
arbor and flanges at one end ; three babbitted boxes 
bored for bolting to the frame; a loo-pound balance 
wheel, a 6x6 or 5x6 crown-face pulley; a saw 
guard ; these, with a 20 to 24-inch saw and a good two 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 379 

or three horse-power engine will keep one or two men 
fairly busy ; or, if the rig is turned over to the boys, 
it will cut more wood in the course of the afternoon 
than they would willingly cut all winter ; two or four 
cords per hour being an entire possibility, providing 
there is provision for getting it to the saw and tak- 
ing it away. 

496. Power Required. — With a somewhat heavier 
engine, say a five or six H. P., a 28 to 30-inch saw 
may be easily run and, with a force of four men, 50 
or 60 cords a day may be cut and piled. The fact 
remains, however, that on level ground there is con- 
siderable lifting to do. On the ordinary farm the 
smaller size is best ; then the work can be taken in 
smaller doses and less unnecessary work in repiling 
will be required. 

497. The Best Rig. — If the saw is to be taken to 
the work a traction rig is an advantage, or at least 
a mounted portable power. For this purpose one of 
the home-made tractors produced from the junk pile, 
at the cost of a few idle days and perhaps a dozen 
dollars, is just the thing. It will not be strong enough 
to draw a load behind, but may quite readily be made 
self-moving, which is all a wood sawing rig requires. 
Bolt the engine securely to the bed timbers over the 
drive Vv^heels and the saw frame over the front trucks. 
Once bolted in place to the same timbers, there will 
be no bother about having to line up the engine with 
the rig every time it is moved. 

498. Setting Up. — If convenient, run the rig below 
a bank upon which the logs can be hauled ; then lay 
skids from bank to saw table. The rear end of the 
log may be held up by extending a part of the skids; 
or, better, support a steel rod on tripods and bolt upon 
it some form of track-door hanger or hay carrier that 



380 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

runs upon a single rod. From this suspend a double 
rope, the one end reaching within a couple of feet of 
the level of the saw table and terminating in a few 
rather large links of chain. The other rope should 
be long enough to reach around a small log as it lies 
on a level with the saw table and should be provided 
at the end with a hook. The logs may then be hauled 
by team poAver upon the bank, rolled along the skid- 
way until nearly upon the saw table at one end ; then 
by throwing the rope about the other end, raising it 
slightly and catching the hook into the proper link 
in the chain and then rolling it from the skidway, a 
carriage will be improvised that will move the log 
forward as required with the minimum of friction and 
with practically no lifting. By rigging a 6 x 6-inch 
hard-wood timber upon supports and spiking regular 
door track along one side, two and even three hangers 
can be rigged which will not only support the entire 
log and allow it to swing free from all rigid supports, 
but would have the advantage of permitting it to 
swing against the saw with far less muscular effort 
than where a table is used. A permanent rig of this 
sort just outside the wood-shed will permit the run- 
ning of the logs under cover during the actual saw- 
ing, the saw frame and engine being set inside. The 
work could then be done in stormy weather and the 
wood be stored in the shed as fast as sawed. 

499. The Drag Saw. — For larger work the drag 
saw has a number of advantages. It handles logs 
of any size without turning and does not require that 
they be lifted up to it or shoved forward by hand 
power. Though slower than the circle saw, it can 
be arranged to go on working, once it is set and put 
in motion, and permit the operator to split or pile 
the blocks already sawed off. so there need be no time 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 381 

lost. Considering the man-power it requires, a drag 
saw well set-up and operated will probably accom- 
plish as much as the average circle saw, and do it with 
less previous preparation. 




Fig. 128. — A Drag Saw Worked by Engine Power. 

500. Construction. — Drag-saw frames can be pur- 
chased, or they can easily be made on the farm and 
the conditions under which they operate vary so much 
that this is often the best plan. Two 6x6 hard-wood 
sills should be tied together by three 2 x 8 or four 
2x6 planks, which should be morticed in and bolted. 
Two 6-inch uprights, four feet long, should be se- 
curely bolted and braced upon one sill, with" a two- 
inch block between at top and bottom. A small wheel 
fastened to a slide works freely up and down between 
these guides. This carries the weight of the saw 
frame and is raised and lowered by means of a rope 
carried over a grooved pulley to a lever. This may 
be arranged to hold the saw in place when lifted, by 
means of a quadrant, or merely with a hook, the 
weight of the frame being allowed to rest upon the 
log when lowered. 

The pulley for the engine belt should be between 
the sills. This, in turn, belted to a countershaft, 
should reduce the speed of the latter to about 70 rev- 
olutions per minute. At one end of the countershaft, 
preferably at each end, if steady running is desired. 



382 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

there should be a balance wheel, one of them pro- 
vided with a crank-pin on its rim. A hard-wood arm, 
with a brass bushing at one end for the crank-pin, 
is clamped solidly to the saw at the other and works 
between the two four-foot uprights. If an ordinary 
cross-cut blade is used it should be made rigid by 
clamping an upright iron at each end to a slide arm 
18 or 20 inches above the blade ; otherwise there would 
be constant danger of a kinked or broken saw. Short 
legs should raise the machine just high enough to 
give the balance wheels room to revolve, though the 
shorter they can be the less will the log being sawed 
have to be raised from the ground. The diameter 
of the crank wheel must, of course, be the same as 
the desired sweep of the saw. The sills must be long 
enough for mounting the engine back of the saw rig, 
so that all danger of its shifting in relation to its 
work or the trouble of lining up is done away with. 

In front of the rig construct a narrow log slide con- 
taining a series of rollers along the bottom and with 
a groove around their center sufficiently deep for a 
half-inch steel cable to pass over freely. This cable 
terminates at the one end in an ordinary log hook 
while the other passes the length of the slide through 
the grooves and around a grooved sheave at the end 
of the slide from which it goes to a drum revolving 
loosely on (not with) the shaft for the engine belt 
pulley. A taper or cone pulley, leather-faced, is 
mounted beside this drum which revolves with the 
shaft. A few inches of the shaft should be squared 
for the cone pulley to slide on and still revolve with 
the shaft in any position. This virtually makes a 
friction clutch and by means of a shifting fork the 
cone may, by being forced into the drum, lock it to 
revolve with the shaft or, by releasing the lever, the 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 383 

drum will remain stationary while the cone and shaft 
are still rotating. 

501. To Operate Drag-saw Rig. — The log to be 
sawed is rolled upon the slide, which is adjusted in 
width so that the weight rests upon the rollers in 
the bottom and the log hook at the end of the wire 
cable is driven into the end . most remote from the 
saw. By means of a loose or friction pulley on the 
engine belt, the countershaft which runs the crank 
wheel and the saw is started and at the same time the 
blade is allowed to rest lightly upon the top of the 
log, the entire weight being gradually let down after 
the saw is in full motion. While the cut is being 
made the taper pulley revolves with the drum upon 
the shaft. As soon as it is completed the saw frame 
is raised clear of the log and stopped at the same 
time by releasing the friction pulley; then the shift- 
ing fork is made to crowd the cone into the drum 
and turn it with the shaft. This winds the cable upon 
the drum and so draws the log hook and log endwise 
along the slide toward the saw. For convenience a 
log stop or buffer should be set across the slide on 
the opposite side of the blade and this should be ad- 
justable for any length cut desired. When the log 
advances until it strikes this stop, the shifting fork 
is reversed, the drum ceases to revolve and the saw 
may be let down and started as before. By lock- 
ing the friction pulley to its place the operator can 
then leave the rig to itself, while carrying on other 
work, until the next cut is nearly completed. A well- 
made rig of this sort will handle almost any size log, 
without lifting or wasted work and it may be kept in 
such steady operation that the amount a single oper- 
ator can do with it in a day's run is quite surprising. 

502. A Complete Automatic Rig. — Occasionally it 



384 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

may be found convenient for the operator to devote 
nearly the whole of his time to other work near by, 
such as splitting and piling up the wood as it is cut. 
If the work is close at hand and the logs not too 
rough to handle easily, this may be arranged by a 
little addition to the above rig. 

The square portion of the main pulley shaft must 
be increased in length and for the single taper pul- 
ley we must substitute one that tapers at both ends 
and with a narrow ring or ridge running around its 
largest circumference at the center. If a pulley of 
this shape cannot be purchased one can be turned 
out of wood and rendered quite serviceable by hav- 
ing iron rings shrunk upon each end. These should 
be recessed in and should be flush with the surface 
of the wood. Both tapers of the pulley should be 
leather faced. 

The same loose drum is used at one end. At the 
other a second drum is mounted, exactly similar to 
the first. These drums and the pulley between them 
are spaced so that the latter can be shifted to engage 
and lock either one at will ; or it may remain at the 
center and neither of the drums will rotate. The one 
drum is connected as before with the cable that ad- 
vances the log; the other with a similar cable, which 
passes over a grooved pulley at the top of the guide 
frame and so raises or lowers the saw, as the drum 
winds it up or releases it and permits it to unwind. 
When the drum is released the weight of the saw 
frame unwinds it. The ridge at the center of the pul- 
ley is a convenient means of engaging it with the 
shifting fork. 

A slot is cut in the upright guide sufficiently deep 
to permit the insertion of a one-inch lever, an end 
of which is pivoted to the main sill. This lever has 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 385 

a few inches vertical play and crosses the path of the 
slide which carries the saw below and at right angles 
to it, but directly above a toggle joint. As the log is 
sawed and the slide descends it reaches and presses 
against the free end of this lever which, as it is 
forced down, finally depresses the toggle below it until 
the latter is pressed shut and its free end made to 
crowd the end of the shifting-fork lever to one side. 
This forces the ccme into the drum which raises the 
frame of the saw by winding up the cable. As the 
frame rises its top bar presses a similar lever above 
it, which, at a given point, releases the toggle again 
and shifts the pulley from the drum. At the same 
time a similar toggle has been depressed by this sec- 
ond lever and the shifting fork made to engage the 
second drum, which advances the log. This second 
drum revolves until the log, pressing against the top, 
releases, by means of a rope, the second toggle and 
returns the shifting fork to an intermediate position. 
The second cut is then ready to be made without the 
operator so much as lifting his hand. 

Theoretically, once a log is placed upon the slide, 
it may be entirely sawed up before requiring the 
slightest attention ; in the meantime the operator 
could go to the woods for another log. In practice, 
while the rig may be made to work complete, it 
should never be left entirely to itself. All the regu- 
lar operations of sawing up the entire log it can be 
made to do, entirely with engine power. But logs 
intended for wood are seldom straight or free from 
knots, and the little unexpected hitches and irregu- 
larities inseparable from such rough work as wood 
cutting require the supervision of the human brain. 
The man who runs the rig may devote practically all 
of his time to other work. He should be at hand 



386 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



though, in case a projecting knot or bit of bark should 
happen to check the advance of the log, as otherwise 
the engine will most certainly try to force matters, 
possibly with disastrous results to engine or rig. 




Fig. 129. — Wood Splitter Operated by Engine Power Works Well 
In Combination With Circular Saw. 



503. Wood Splitting. — Even wood splitting is now 
done by machinery, some firms now having upon the 
market splitters that are guaranteed to split the knot- 
tiest oak or maple at the rate of 4 or 5 cords per day, 
with an engine of one or two horse-power. One of 
these and an automatic saw rig might be run by one 
operator at nearly full capacity. 



CHAPTER XXIV. 
ORCHARD AND GARDEN. 

504. Thorough Spraying Essential. — There are 
some things which produce results in direct propor- 
tion to the thoroughness with which they are done, 
while others, unless the process is complete, are en- 
tirely unproductive. This is often true of spraying. 
In the lower branches of large trees the work may be 
ever so thoroughly done, but the lift to the upper 
limbs, particularly when a good many trees are 
sprayed, soon sets the muscles aching and relaxes our 
diligence. The result is a fine colony of some dreaded 
insect pest above the spray line to descend and undo 
the thorough work we have done lower down. 

505. Where the Engine Excels. — A gasoline en- 
gine outfit puts greater pressure upon the escaping 
liquid and so divides it into finer particles. This ob- 
viates the danger of damaging the foliage by drops of 
over-strong liquid falling upon the leaves, as the fine 
spray, even though considerably more heavily charged 
with the poison, distributes it so evenly over the en- 
tire surface that a smaller quantity may be used and 
still be more effective. Then the fine spray, propelled 
by a greater force, penetrates crevices in the wood or 
nooks shielded by heavy foliage, which no reason- 
able amount of hand pumping would ever reach. The 
highest limbs, too, are as thoroughly sprayed as those 
nearer the ground, so there is no danger of some un- 
sprayed limb, a little beyond our reach, furnishing 

387 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

enough of the pests to undo most of the work that 
we have faithfully done. 

506. Nature's Method. — One of the most efficient 
methods of spraying is to force the stream of fine 
mist high into the air above the tree and then let it 
float down by its own weight into the foliage. This 
is nature's method, and so long as she arranges the 
leaves for this very purpose we may be certain we 
can do no better than to imitate her method of ap- 
plying liquid, which is always from above. 

507. Real Purpose of Spraying. — Spraying, from 
being a desperate expedient, has become that last atom 
of human efTort which renders all the rest effective, 
and without which, more often than not, the fruit 
grower's reward is a half-crop of imperfect and un- 
marketable fruit, or none at all. If a single tree is 
maintained at a loss it is one of those dangerous little 
canker-worms that devour the farm profits on so 
small a scale that it is not apparent, yet just as surely 
as though it were multiplied by hundreds and formed 
so large a part of the investment that to fail meant 
ruin. 

Spraying is for protection ; it is not a cure ; and the 
man who does it incompletely either by not half pene- 
trating the thick foliage or by missing the higher 
branches is like the one who weatherboards his barn 
and then leaves the roof frame uncovered. It is also 
an operation which has its own brief seasons. It is 
specially effective then, while it may be entirely use- 
less at any other time. A day later may be compared 
to leaving ofT the shingles ; a week's delay after the 
proper time may be like leaving ofif the whole roof. 

508. Causes of Failure. — There are several reasons 
why spraying may fail of its object, of which the use 
of the gasoline engine will remove a number. Prob- 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



389 




390 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



ably no other farm process depends so vitally upon 
thorough work, because in the dealing with insect 
life that which escapes treatment on a single un- 
sprayed limb may cover the whole tree with the pest 
that we are fighting so completely that all our thor- 




FiG. 131.-— Gasoline Engine With Triplex Pump for Large Ca- 
pacity Spraying Outfits or Water Supply Purposes. 



ough work on the rest of the tree may be practically 
defeated. This does not mean that it is necessary to 
so drench the tree that all of its leaves are dripping 
with the poison liquid; indeed, the foliage may easily 
be injured by just this practice ; and many an orchard- 
ist has taken to reducing the strength of his spray to 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 391 

the point where it is only partially effective under the 
impression that he had been using it too strong, when, 
as a matter of fact, the trouble was in the over quan- 
tity with which he deluged the lower portions of the 
tree in his vain attempt to reach the higher limbs. 
For best results the spray should reach the entire 
foliage in a fine mist that moistens the whole of it, 
without drenching any part, and this is only possible 
where power is used and the liquid thrown with 
enough force to reach easily the most remote branches 
and penetrate readily into the densest foliage. Even 
the cracks and crevices in the bark must be reached 
in the case of many fruit pests — where the force ob- 
tained from hand pumping would never penetrate. 
One of the most efficient methods of spraying is to 
force the stream of fine mist high into the air above 
the tree and let it come down as a fog by its own 
weight into the foliage. This is Nature's own method 
of applying moisture, and the leaf growth has been 
arranged with the special object of doing this most 
thoroughly and economically, and it is very certain 
that we can do no better than to distribute it from 
above. This method, if backed by high pressure, in- 
sures a thorough and even distribution of the poison. 
509. A Successful Method. — For the best results 
the pressure should not be less than from 125 to 150 
pounds, while in practice the hand pump seldom rises 
above 50. The hose should be long enough to reach 
all sides of the tree with one setting and an agitator 
of the liquid in the tank should be provided. This is 
highly important ; otherwise, the poison will settle to 
the bottom and the first of the liquid thrown will fail 
of efficiency because too weak while some of the 
settlings will be dangerously strong. Various forms 
of agitators for the smaller outfits are provided, but 



392 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



they add something to the power required to work 
them and thereby become inefficient in hand-power 
outfits, either by being neglected or by rendering the 
work so much more tiring that it will be less thor- 
oughly done. A gasoline engine never gets tired, and 
the extra strain of running a thoroughly efficient agi- 
tator constantly does not trouble it at all ; so by its 
use the spray is properly mixed as well as applied. 




Fig. 132. — A Typical Animal Drawn Gas Engine Operated 
Spraying Outfit. 

510. A Good Pumping Outfit. — A good spraying 
outfit may be made with a i^ to 2 H. P. engine of 
either horizontal or upright design. Quite frequently 
the marine type is used and is as good as any if prop- 
erly fastened to a foundation. Usually, though, the 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



393 




394 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



pump and engine mounted on a single base or directly 
connected are the most satisfactory as the two are then 
much easier held in a constant relation with each 
other, while with the two separately mounted the 
chance of one or the other shifting about and disturb- 
ing the power connection is greater, especially if the 
orchard, as often happens, is situated on a hillside or 
on broken ground. 

The outfit should be so mounted that it may be eas- 
ily turned and also may be readily conveyed under 
the low branches, although an elevated platform for 
the operator with an extension pipe is necessary where 
the trees are large. Of course the pump should be 
double acting; that is, water is taken in and thrown 





.Sprinklaij. Lonj Dijttjict, Oi»4utir.gVcfTTicM:Noi2!e. Rtgu! 

Fig. 134. — A Few Examples of Spraying Nozzles. 



with both the up and the down stroke. It should be 
supplied with a relief valve for the return of a part 
of the liquid to the tank after the pressure gets too 
great. Of course no power outfit with which either 
gas or liquids are forced into an enclosed space can 
safely dispense with a pressure indicator; that is as 
indispensable as it is on a steam boiler, and should 
be as carefully watched for signs of failure. 

511. Good Nozzles. — It would be the height of 
foolishness to provide an expensive spraying outfit and 
then fail in the work for want of good nozzles. Get 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



395 




O 

G 



in 

O 

I 



396 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

the best, and do not be satisfied with one or even 
two. One that will work interchangeably with another, 
though of a somewhat different pattern and de- 
signed for another purpose, may be the means of sav- 
ing the day if one of them suddenly plays out — and 
of saving the crop. One of the Vermorel types is the 
most popular. In this the stream is given a rotary 
motion as it leaves the orifice. For power spraying a 
grouping of nozzles is a great saving of time, two or 
more being so arranged that they are both used at 
once and vastly increase the area of the tree Avhich is 
constantly being sprayed. A supply of coarser noz- 
zles should also be at hand for use where the trees 
are to be thoroughly drenched, as in the case of us- 
ing a lime-sulphur wash ; also for spraying after the 
petals have fallen, as the greater direct force with 
which the liquid is expelled carries it more surely 
into even the most remote cavities of the calyx. 

512. The Hose. — The best hose for power spray- 
ing is ^ inch, although the necessary couplings are 
not quite so easily obtained. One-half inch is per- 
haps in most common use and should not be less than 
3 or 4 ply. with a pressure capacity of not less than 
200 pounds per square inch. It is very necessary to 
provide for excess pressure. Twenty-five to 50 feet 
is a good length for working on the ground around 
the trees and 10 or 12 feet for use with extension 
rods. These are not only necessary for getting into 
the tops of tall trees but are convenient for working 
lower down because they carry the spray at any de- 
sired angle quite away from the operator. Often Yz- 
inch gas pipe or less is used, though bamboo fitted 
with brass or other metal connections is lighter to 
handle and very well liked. One end of these pipes 
is fitted for direct coupling with the hose and should 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



397 




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398 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

be provided with a stop cock. At the other end the 
nozzle is attached. The pipes may be made in sec- 
tions if desired for different heights of working, and 
may total anywhere from 8 feet to twice that height, 
depending upon the size of the trees. For high 
spraying a platform rigid and safe for the operator 
to stand on should be raised above the wagon bed 
6 or 8 feet. 

513. Good and Cheap Outfits. — All working parts 
of the pumps, the bar, the valves, etc., should be made 
of brass or bronze, as tin or iron is easily attacked by 
some of the liquids in common use. A good brass 
spray pump ought to be good for a number of sea- 
sons, and a good grade of hose for two or three, 
though some prefer to get a cheaper quality of the 
latter and then renew every year. This may be a 
little dangerous, because the hose that is cheap enough 
to throw away so quickly is apt to be so cheap that 
it is not of uniform quality. There is liable to be a 
weak spot in it — and an accident. 

514. Results of Spraying. — The beneficial results of 
intelligent spraying are clearly shown at Fig. 136. 
A peach yield from sprayed trees consisting of a trifle 
over nine baskets is shown, and of these only about 
2 per cent, of the fruit was unsound. As a general 
rule, spraying will result in saving over 90 per cent, 
of the fruit yield, providing proper solutions are used 
and applied in a careful manner. 

515. When Trees Are Not Sprayed. — A low ca- 
pacity spraying outfit is not desirable and a higher 
initial investment to procure first-class material is 
more than justified by the returns. When trees are 
not properly sprayed, it is seldom that 50 per cent, of 
the fruit yield is marketable if the parasites are at all 
active. If overlooked, the fruit grower will be ex- 
ceptionally lucky if he saves 25 per cent, of the crop. 



CHAPTER XXV. 
IRRIGATION. 

516. Why Needed. — "Irrigation is essential to all 
parts of the country where continuous and heavy 
cropping is expected. The farm which is always sup- 
plied with sufficient moisture will yield 20% to 50% 
more than another in the same region without a reg- 
ular water supply. This has proved to be true in 
nearly all parts of the country, where averages have 
been kept for series of five years." The above state- 
ment, made by an agricultural expert in Washington, 
D. C, in effect sums up a number of good reasons 
in two words — better crops. 

517. Where. — In the arid and semi-arid regions ir- 
rigation is, of course, a necessity. It has already re- 
claimed for cultivation tens of thousands of acres 
which were previously considered worthless and which 
would again become worthless if left to depend upon 
natural rainfall. 

In regions of normal rainfall it is hardly less valu- 
able because, although the full required amount of 
water may reach each acre of ground from natural 
sources during the year, much of the rain falls at a 
season when it does no good because it is not needed. 
Water applied by artificial means comes at the time 
when it does the most good because it is most needed, 
and considerably less water in amount may equal in 
efficiency or even surpass several times that which 
comes in torrents at irregular intervals. < 

399 



400 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

518. When. — Everyone knows that crops are dam- 
aged and often ruined by continued drought. Not 
everyone stops to consider that even a short period 
of extreme thirst injures the vitahty and quahty of 
the plant as certainly as it does of a suffering animal. 
The quality of growing vegetables is greatly improved 
if plenty of moisture is always available to their 
roots through the entire growling season. To deprive 
them of this even for a short time is certain to give 
both the quantity and quality of the crop produced a 
decided setback. 

519. Where Drought Has No Terrors. — Drought 
has no terrors for the man who has a really effi- 




FiG. 137. — Drought Has No Terrors Where Power Driven Pump- 
ing Outfits Are Used. 

cient irrigation system in a country wdiere there is 
little rain ; in fact, he finds it rather an advantage, as 
the rainfall does not then interrupt his work and he 
can at all times regulate the watering of his crops to 
his own convenience without subjecting them to ex- 
cessive moisture or violent downpours. ^Nlany of the 
fungus germs, too, which are found in the air and 
carried into the ground or upon the plants by the 
rain, are avoided by the system of root irrigation, the 
water for which is pumped from deep wells. 

520. Certain Drawbacks. — The expense and addi- 
tional w^ork of having to supply the water ourselves 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



401 



are always the greatest objections to it. Then, when 
the supply is pumped from the rocks it is pure and 
does not carry the loads of silt always found to a 
greater or less extent in surface water and which, 
however objectionable it may be for drinking pur- 
poses, has a distinct fertilizing value to the growing 
plant. There are some other objections. These, too, 
are specially mentioned, because they are among the 
most important and because the gasoline engine has 
in a great measure done away with both. 



Fig. 




138.— What a Good Irrigat 
ing Plant Contains. 



521. What a Good Irrigation Plant Contains. — The 

chief essentials of a good water supply are: ist, 
that it be economical ; 2nd, reliable ; 3rd, easily oper- 
ated ; and 4th, that it must not require too much at- 



402 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

tention. Natural rainfall always fails in relation to 
the second and third essential and frequently, after 
pouring torrents have undone much of our careful 
work, seem to be deficient with regard to the last. 
The good irrigating plant must be economically op- 
erated, as the gasoline engine outfit is. It must be 
available whenever needed ; must require very little 
attention and be so easily operated that one man 
can run the engine of a fair sized plant and have 
time to take care of the water after it is pumped. 
With a good gasoline engine he can do this, if the 
trenches are prepared in advance ; can fill the oil ciips, 
start the engine, and remain at work out in the field 
until the cups need refilling; four or five hours, if 
large enough cups are put on the engine. The cost 
of irrigating should be kept within $2.00 per acre for 
the season under ordinary conditions, and the supply 
can always be depended upon at the time and place 
it is desired. Root irrigation has the advantage that 
it can be applied at any convenient hour of the day, 
whether the sun is shining or not, while sprinkling 
from above is likely to do injury unless done after 
night or in cloudy weather. 

522. Quantity of Water Required. — -Corn, oats and 
wheat require from 350 to 400 tons of water per acre 
to bring them to maturity, but much of the water ac- 
tually applied escapes, so that several times this 
amount must reach the ground in which they grow, 
if they are properly watered. One inch of water per 
acre weighs something like 112 tons and it is esti- 
mated that on an average it requires six acre inches 
to thoroughly irrigate the ground ; that is, if none of 
the water soaked in or ran off, each acre would be 
covered with a sheet of water six inches deep. Two 
or three such irrigations as this per season will be 



The Gasoline Engine on the F. 



\RM 



403 




P^ 



404 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

needed, or a total of 16 to 18 inches. Making due 
allowance for the waste from evaporation, it requires 
a little less than 28,400 gallons to irrigate one acre of 
ground one inch deep, and an acre-foot requires about 
325,900 gallons. 

523. The Cost. — A general rule applied in many 
places is 5c. per acre for the season for each foot of 
lift. This requires a good engine and a good pump, 
neither of which will do the work without the other. 
It includes all operating expenses and supposes that 
the plant is in good working order and that the at- 
tendant knows his business. Bad management or un- 
usual conditions may increase this cost a little and 
there are ways in which it can often be reduced. For 
instance, if there is a natural basin at hand or if one 
can be made by erecting a dam and holding back 
some of the natural waters that fall in too great quan- 
tity or at times when they are not needed, the amount 
of water to be pumped from a deep well might be 
decreased by drawing on the supply in the pond. For 
many reasons a good storage basin is quite a con- 
venience. 

524. Engine Required. — A good pumping plant 
once installed frees from all worry about moisture as 
no other system will ; a poor one is itself a source of 
constant worry. Of course, the engine is the heart 
of the plant. Too small an engine means too low a 
speed for running a centrifugal pump most econom- 
ically. On the other hand, too large an engine for 
the pump, unless so located that other work can be 
done with it at the same time, is not utilizing its own 
efficiency to the best advantage. The pump and the 
engine should be figured to balance each other very 
closely. A 10 to 15 H. P. engine will run a No. 4 to 
6 centrifugal pump with a lift of 15 to 25 feet and 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 405 

deliver around 2 cubic feet of water per second. A 
cubic foot of water per second equals about 450 gal- 
lons per minute and 600 gallons per minute will cover 
1.3 acres one inch deep per hour, or 13.2 acres per 
working day of 10 hours. If the plant was run the 
whole 24 hours the amount covered would be 31.8 acres 
per day. Five and three-tenths acres per 24-hour day 
could be given the full six inches of water required 
for thorough irrigation and a plant of this size in con- 
tinual operation might be able to supply the water 
requirements of a fifty-acre farm each ten days with- 
out rainfall if run continuously. A great deal, how- 
ever, depends upon the lift required and the efficiency 
of the pump as well as on the crop and season. Under 
certain conditions an engine of this size has been 
found ample for irrigating 200 acres with a 20-foot 
lift. 




Fig. 140. — Centrifugal Pump Directly Coupled to Gasoline Motor. 

525. The Centrifugal Pump. — For raising large 
quantities a short distance the centrifugal pump is 



4o6 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



without a rival and is almost entirely used for pur- 
poses of irrigation and drainage. As they are valve- 
less they are not likely to clog and are for that rea- 
son adapted to pumping muddy water which an ordi- 
nary valve pump would only handle under continu- 
ous protest, if at all, even such solid substances as 




Fig. 141. — Small Gasoline Power Plant Operating Two Diaphragm 

Pumps. 

large pebbles, walnuts, leaves, etc., not troubling the 
centrifugal pump seriously. The water also comes 
from them in a steady flow, instead of impulses as 
with valve pumps. Centrifugal pumps have been con- 
structed that would deliver several hundred tons of 
water per minute. 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 407 

526. Their Limitations. — Formerly it was believed 
that the centrifugal pump was only capable of lift- 
ing water a few feet and even to-day many people 
consider 40 to 50 feet the extreme limit of their work- 
ing possibility. As a matter of fact, the single stage 
volute centrifugal has been operated on a lift up to 
500 feet, but this requires so great a speed and such 
heavy power that a plant of this sort is too expen- 
sive for the irrigation of ordinary crops, the working 
parts of the pump being made of a special bronze and 
very carefully adjusted. Single stage pumps of this 
kind can be economically and safely used though up to 
a 100-foot lift and, by compounding the stages, this 
lift can be very much increased. 

527. Different Types. — Centrifugal pumps may 
be of the vertical or horizontal form, the latter being 
sometimes called the top-lift and depending upon suc- 
tion. They are placed at the mouth of the well and 
ought not to be more than 20 feet above the source 
of supply. As they are the easiest to install and re- 
pair they are in most common use. They often need 
priming, though, which the submerged does not. In 
some comparatively shallow wells, too, they would be 
useless because of the shifting of the water level, the 
water perhaps dropping 20 or 30 feet or even more 
after pumping begins before the level is reached at 
which it remains constant. In such a well a pump of 
this sort if set at the top would be beyond suction 
distance and if lowered to suction distance of the 
working level would be submerged when pumping was 
suspended. 

The vertical type of pump will work submerged and 
may be lowered into wells of sufficient diameter, 
where, if properly installed, they do excellent work. 
They are specially intended for wells too deep for 



4o8 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

the top lift pump and will be found most efficient if 
the suction lift is not greater than from 12 to 20 feet. 

Centrifugal pumps are very sensitive to speed in- 
fluences, their output being determined by the height 
of the raise and the speed at which they are run. 
A speed indicator should be used and, once the most 
efficient speed for a certain pump and well is de- 
termined, it should never be allowed to drop below 
that speed. It may for a short time go higher, but 
at a waste of energy and relative economy. 

Centrifugal pumps are sometimes sold at a price 
too low for good internal finish. The blades and sur- 
faces are left rough and without machining. They 
will work but, on account of the extra friction retard- 
ing the water, w^ill be very greatly reduced in effi- 
ciency ; in other words, by buying such a pump the 
continuous or operating cost is greatly increased in 
order that a few dollars may be saved in the instal- 
lation cost. The purchase of cheap unfinished pumps 
is perhaps the most frequent and worst trouble against 
which the centrifugal pump has to contend. Their 
other chief troubles are poor priming, leaks in the 
suction connections, and being run at too low a speed, 
either because of wrong calculations or because the 
pulleys on both pump and engine are too small and 
too much power is wasted in belt slippage. 

528. Garden and Small Farm Irrigation. — Where 
the lift is greater than 50 feet the subject of general 
irrigation as a regular dependence becomes somewhat 
questionable. For special crops, however, and as an 
occasional resort much greater lifts are entirely feas- 
ible ; indeed, after a crop has been started and per- 
haps brought well toward maturity the most expen- 
sive irrigation one can imagine is that which might 
have insured a fine harvest, but did not, because it 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 409 

was not done. It is very seldom that the rainfall is 
heavy enough at the right time to insure a full 100% 
crop without damaging it. Crops are every year re- 
duced from 20% to 80% in some places by dry weather 
and thousands of dollars are annually wasted in the 
regions which do not depend upon irrigation, that 
might be saved by a little timely work in an ama- 
teur way. Even the difference between a good and 




Fig. 142. — Garden Irrigation by Flowing Method. 

a dried up garden may almost mean a living, during 
four or five months of the year at least, to the aver- 
age farmer. 

529. For Deep Well Pumping. — Driven or drilled 
wells, if deep or of small diameter, may be more ad- 
vantageously pumped with some form of valve pump, 
although the cost, efficiency considered, is much 
greater. Power pumps for this are of two general 
classes, the horizontal and vertical. The first of these 
is for conditions not unlike those best adapted to the 
centrifugal pump, for shallow wells, cisterns, and 
springs. 

The deep well power pumps sometimes require a 
long stroke and cylinder of small diameter. They 
consist of a rigid frame carrying the shaft for the 
engine pulley, upon which are keyed small pinions 
that mesh with large gear wheels near the rim of 



410 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



which a crank-pin projects. To these are attached 
the connecting rods, working on each side of the pump 
frame and carrying at their other end the cross head, 
which travels upon or between vertical guides and at 
its center operates the plunger rod. This is the gen- 
eral type. Special features refer to discharge pipe ar- 




FiG. 143. — Power Pumping Outfit 
for Deep Well. 



ranofement, air chamber, valve location and distribut- 
ing arrangements. These pumps are often run in 
connection with artesian well cylinders which may 
be lowered any depth into the well and operated near 
its bottom as suction pumps below and lift pumps 
above the plunger. Connection is made between the 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



411 



plunger and the crosshead by means of wooden rods, 
coupled together to the required length. Air chambers 
are used at the distributing tees where the water is 
forced any distance from the mouth of the well or into 
elevated or pneumatic tanks. For the latter, they may 
be so arranged that the air will be compressed for 
use in the tank by the action of the pump itself to the 




Fig. 144. — Deming Horizontal Power Pump. 



desired amount and then cut out at will, without in- 
terfering with the working of the pump. 

The horizontal pump is also intended for forcing 
water into tanks and may be equipped with the same 
air condenser. The pulley shaft is generally carried 
on the cylinder head ; connecting rods working from 
each end of this along each side of the pump body to 
a guided crosshead which works the piston in the 
cylinder. This avoids all twisting thrust and not only 
reduces strain but also friction. Valve chambers at 



412 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



some convenient point contain the suction and dis- 
charge valves. Access for cleaning and repairing the 
valves is usually through hand holes for that purpose, 
so the cylinder head need not be disturbed. A good 
pump of this type is provided with tight and loose 
pulleys and should be operated at a speed of about 40 




Fig. 145. — Air Cooled Engine and Pump Mounted on Common 

Base. 



strokes per minute. These belted power pumps, 
though long known, as now developed are a direct 
result of the gasoline engine. 

530. Distributing the Water. — Instead of the irri- 
gation ditches and expensive provisions necessary in 
the west for extended irrigating, the truck patch and 
family garden may be watered without great outlay. 



The Gasoline Engine on the I'\\rm 413 

Usually it is best to first pump the water, or a por- 
tion of it, into a tank of moderate elevation. It is 
rather more convenient to distribute from a tank than 
direct from the pump and water pumped from a great 
depth is apt to be too cold. By standing exposed to 
the sun the temperature is more suitable. With a 
garden hose, a spray nozzle and a moderate pressure 
the water may be applied from above. This is nec- 
essary in the case of grass and similar close-growing 
plants, but for garden crops and plants in rows root 




Fig. 146. — Water Distribution by Seepage Method. 

irrigation is the best. This is done by running the 
water into small trenches on each side of the row of 
growing plants. The trench made by a cultivator with 
shovels set for hilling up is just the thing, particu- 
larly if the garden is cultivated with a wheel hoe and 
the rows close together; say a foot apart. Run the 
hoe exactly as though hilling up, being careful not 
to cut through the headlands at the ends ; then across 
the highest end of the garden cut a similar furrow 
somewhat larger than the others, by expanding the 



414 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



wings of the hoe a little and deepening by several 
cuttings. Connect the tank or the pump with this 
main ditch and then see that it is opened to each of 
the irrigating trenches cut between the rows. The 
discharge pipe from the tank should end in a hori- 
zontal wooden box with holes in the side or one end 
removed, to avoid the wash that would accompany 
the continued discharge of water under pressure upon 
loose dirt. 

The trenches should all be prepared before the water 







Fig. 147. — Water Distribution by Flooding Method. 

Is turned on. Then oil up and start the engine, con- 
nect with the tank, open the escape from the tank 
into the head ditch and the rest of the job, aside from 
an occasional supervision, may be turned over to the 
engine. Without interfering with the regular field 
work, it is possible to start up the engine just before 
supper, after the night chores are done, and then just 
before bedtime go out and shut down the engine, the 
work completed and a fine crop of vegetables or ber- 
ries saved. In time of a severe droug-ht it is not much 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 415 

of a farm garden that will not produce more than a 
small gasoline engine costs in return for occasional 
treatment of this kind. 

531. Kinks and Cautions. — Where the spraying 
method of watering is used do not apply the water 
until after sunset or else before sunrise or on a cloudy 
day; never when the sun is shining. 

If a full stream of water fails to come from the 
pump and the supply in the well is ample try run- 
ning a little faster. If that does not work and the 
pump seems to be in good condition it is probable 
that the strainer is deficient in waterway. 

It pays to keep the connections between tank and 
pump tight and free from leakage. The greatest 
troubles and expenses come from neglected minor de- 
tails. This is specially true in relation to the engine 
itself. 

Trouble always means expense. To cut expenses 
down keep things in order. 

A breakdown in dry weather may mean ruin to the 
crop and loss of all work previously put upon it. 

Other things being nearly equal, select that imple- 
ment, machine or system that is likely to give the 
least trouble afterwards. 

Produce from a well watered garden will be fresh 
and marketable in spite of drought. 



CHAPTER XXVI. 
THE WOMAN'S STORY. 

532. What Machinery Has Done for Some Farm 
Women. — From perpetual motion to hours of rea- 
sonable industrial requirements the daily working 
period of the modern farmer has been reduced by 
farm machinery. In some instances the wife has 
shared in this emancipation ; in a good many others 
the only direct benefit she has received from the me- 
chanical helps she has helped to pay for is a partial 
or complete escape from having to go out in the field 
and help the men with their work after having done 
her own. Men no longer care to cradle and rake and 
bind their grain by hand. Still less would they favor 
a hand-power threshing machine or fodder shredder. 
They sometimes forget that a w^asherful of clothes 
requires some form of motive power even if the washer 
itself is of the latest design. Nearly all washing ma- 
chines are rated by machine men to require from a 
^ to I H. P. engine and the average man is expected 
to be capable of producing 1/7 H. P. How about 
the woman who has to turn the w^asher by hand? 
The average w^ringer turns even harder than the wash- 
ing machine, and the clothes all have to go through 
it three or four times. Is it any w^onder if the woman 
who turns it sometimes thinks longingly of that will- 
ing little helper, the gasoline engine, that would do 
the hard part of her washings for her if it had a 
chance? 

416 



The Gasoline Engine on thf Farm 417 

533. The Farm Power Laundry. — No doubt the 
average woman would be so much relieved by hav- 
ing the washer and wringer turned for her that she 
would be satisfied for weeks to come ; still it is much 
more economical to install complete plants, once the 
power is supplied, than to provide a few separate 



1 ii, L4S. — The Woman's Engine. 

items. It will cost some money but the beginning is 
the most expensive part of it. 

The complete power laundry should include a w^ash- 
ing machine and wringer mounted together and ar- 
ranged to operate at the same time or either one 
alone, at the will of the operator. There should be 
space on the tub rack for one or two rinsing tubs, 
beside the washer and the wringer, made to slide along 



4i8 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



a frame to operate over any of these and in either 
direction. The clothes may then be wrung from any 
one tub to the next one without lifting. The wringers 
on some power washers are thrown in and out of 
gear by a foot pedal ; on others with a lever. It is 
very important that, whichever method is used, the 
device should be within easy reaching distance of the 
operator at any time so that the accidental catching 
of the clothing or a finger between the revolving rub- 




FiG, 149. — The New Washerwoman Lightens a Former House- 
hold Burden. 

ber rolls may be checked before any serious damage 
is done. Unprotected gear wheels about a washer 
should never be tolerated, the clothing is so easily 
caught and wound in. A belt drive is much safer, 
though belts are rather prone to slip when run near 
soapy water. Some washers have enclosed gear which 
is comparatively safe. 

Washers are on the market which are guaranteed 
to handle the heaviest carpets or the most delicate lace 
curtains. This claim should be made good to a rea- 
sonable degree. There must be no bearings where 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



419 



the oil required will reach the clothes. In many of 
the modern washers raising the lid of the machine 
throws it out of gear and stops it until the lid is again 
closed. This is much more convenient than having 
to shift a belt or stop the engine whenever it is nec- 
essary to turn or examine the clothes. A reversible 
drip-board makes it possible to wring the clothes from 
one rinse tub to another; then back again into a new 



WRINGER ON „,^,,ro 

, MOVABlt FRAME ^ ^t?rDR.?E 




niNCED 

riATFORM FOR 
ORAININb TUK 



Fig. 150. — A Complete Washing Outfit Adapted for Use With 

Power. 



water ; or, one washing may be going forward at 
the same time that an earlier one is being rinsed. 

The best washing machine in the world is not com- 
plete unless conveniently placed faucets supply hot 
or cold water at will to any of the tubs. This may 
be arranged by a swinging faucet for each over the 
central tub but with the swinging arm long enough 
to reach over the other tub or the washing machine as 
turned. For convenience the arms may be kept folded 
back against the wall when not in use. Both tubs and 
washer are drained from below by means of faucets 



420 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



emptying into a sink or basin from which the water 
is conducted by a pipe. From the time the clothes are 
put into the washer until they are finished ready for 
the drying line they need never be lifted excepting 
as the ends are inserted between the rollers of the 



W^^9 




Fig. 151. — No Lifting Excepting to Fold for Wringer. 

wringer and the pieces straightened out as they are 
being run through. If efifectively arranged, a good 
sized family washing can be done in from ^ hour to 
I hour with very little drudgery for the operator. The 
engine does all that, and does not mind it in the least, 
but the power washing outfit is no longer merely a 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 421 

concession to aching back and muscles; it is an 
economic necessity in the household as surely as the 




Fig. 152.— When Electric Power Is on Tap to Operate Washer. 

A Washer Pulley. B — Wringer Pulley. C — Countershaft 

Pulley. D— Electric Motor Pulley. E — Washer Driving 
Pulley on Countershaft. F— Hangers. I — Electric Motor. 
K— Snap Switch. L— Power Release Lever. 

binder is in the harvest field, while the price of two 
5c. cigars a week for a few years is enough to pay 
for the outfit. 



422 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

534. Ironing by Engine Power. — This may be done 
by means of the mangle, engine run. The smooth rolls 
of polished steel, operating much like a wringer, are 
usually heated by gas, where that is available, and 
take the place of the hot flat-iron admirably, the oper- 
ator merely having to fold and arrange the garments. 
As the pressure between the rolls may be regulated 
at will, not even the most liberal expenditure of "el- 
bow grease" can be as effective as this nerveless laun- 
dress that never tires and does not have to ease off 
on the pressure because of aching arms. Where gas 
is not obtainable some other means of heating the 
air in the interior of the rolls, which are hollow, can 
be obtained. 

535. The Water System. — A good old proverb 
states that water never rises higher than its source. 
The success of any laundry is limited to its conve- 
nient supply of water, but the same engine that sup- 
plies the power is specially adapted to supplying the 
water also. Not even a special kind of pump is nec- 
essary, though sometimes it is preferred. There are 
pump jacks on sale that may be hitched to any hand 
pump, and in such a manner that the pump may be 
released and used in the ordinary way in an instant. 

536. The Storage System. — With a gasoline engine 
there is no necessity for storing up enough water at 
a time to last until the next wind blows ; the power 
is always available. For some purposes, though, 
water under pressure is a distinct advantage, even 
though it is no more work to start an engine up than 
to pump half a pail of water. 

537. Elevated Tanks. — An elevated tank outside 
is at the mercy of the hot sun in summer and of freez- 
ing troubles in the winter. If set indoors, there is 
apt to be more or less drip and leakage to rot out the 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



423 



timbers of the house and cause dampness, with always 
the possibility of a weakened hoop, a burst tank and 
disaster. 

538. The Pressure Tank. — The water storage sys- 
tem under present favor is the pressure tank, which 
consists of an iron or steel cylinder holding anywhere 
from a few to many barrels, and tapped for the inlet 
pipe from the pump and the discharge for the dis- 
tribution of the water. A third hole, small in size, 
is usually made for attaching a pressure gage or in- 
dicator; or this may be made a branch of the other 



3 Va PRESSURE 
GAUGE 
ELL 




lyr STREET ELL 

SPECIAL PUMP JACK 

Fig. 153. — A Complete Pneumatic Water Supply System Gives 
Important City Convenience in Country Homes. 

pipe but must not under any consideration be omitted, 
and is far more dependable when attached to its own 
orifice. 

The tank, of course, is full of air at first and the 
air condenses as water is forced in by the pump until 
it forms an elastic cushion in the top of the tank with 
a pressure sufficient to drive the water, out through 
the distributing pipe, to any part of the house. Usu- 
ally the pumping is continued until the pressure gage 
shows 30 pounds. As the air in the tank would not 
alone supply enough pressure to force nearly all of 
the water out, more air is pumped in so that when the 



424 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

gage shows 30 pounds pressure there may not be 
enough water to more than half fill the space. Many 
power pumps are now made so that air or water or 
both together may be forced in by the engine. Of 
course, a much higher pressure may be carried by 
forcing in more air. 

539. Advantages Over Elevated Tanks. — There are 
several advantages which a pressure tank has over one 
that is elevated. In place of being set in an exposed 
position, if outside, it is usually buried under ground ; 
if in the house, it is in a cellar or basement where any 
accident would flood only the one room instead of the 
whole house. Because of the location of the tank the 
w^ater is cooler, and because of the air forced through 
it it is thoroughly aerated and much more palatable 
and wholesome. 

540. Making Use of It. — With a pressure or ele- 
vated tank installed and a convenient means of filling 
it, the water system of the farm house is merely a 
question of distribution, and may be made quite as 
complete as that of any city house. Hot and cold 
water can be had with the turning of a faucet in any 
room desired, upstairs or down. The modern bath- 
room, for years so impossible for the farmer to possess, 
is one of the most natural consequences of the tank. 
With water coming to the faucets above the tubs the 
laundry becomes a complete plant, and of course the 
same method will be used to bring water into the 
kitchen sink. By running up a little extra pressure at 
cleaning time and attaching a hose, both upper and 
lower windows may be washed thoroughly without re- 
moving the sash or risking a broken neck. One of the 
beauties of this system, an advantage over that in the 
city home, is the control the individual has of the pres- 
sure. On special occasions it may be run up to the 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 425 

point which would under ordinary circumstances be 
unnecessary and inconvenient. In the country home, 
too, the water may be pure ; there is no excuse for its 
being otherwise, but the city man has to drink what- 
ever is furnished him and must pay for its production 
tmder the management of somebody else. 

Mopping, one of the dreaded tasks of the farm 
housewife, becomes, with the pressure tank, a matter 
of very little concern. A few turns of the engine will 
drive the pressure to the point where the hose will 
easily take the place of the scrub brush. There need 
be no more wringing out of dirty rags with bare hands, 
and no corners are too inaccessible for the hose to 
reach without any stooping or hard work. 

541. Dish-washing. — In the same way, but with a 
smaller pipe and less pressure, much of the dish-wash- 
ing can be done without wetting the hands. The 
dishes placed in the sink and soaped as needed, hot 
or cold water, or a combination of the two, may be 
turned upon them with sufficient force to do the wash- 
ing more effectually than any hand work and in less 
than half the time. Dishes not injured by heat may 
be washed in water much hotter than the hand will 
bear; then the pressure under which it is applied is 
even more of an advantage. 

Mechanical dish-washers now on the market are 
quite a little in use in hotels, and are frequently run 
by engine power. They are a convenience. Without 
them, though, but with this easily regulated pressure 
at command, the housewife on the farm has quite as 
efficient a dish-washer as the city housewife and one 
that will not be nearly as destructive to the dishes as 
the average hired girl. 

542. Outside the House. — Lawn sprinkling, while 
not eactly a part of woman's work, falls to her fre- 



426 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

quently; that is, she assumes it rather than see it go 
undone. To the flower beds and pet shrubs she is ac- 
customed to carry a good many pails of water in 
the course of a season, but the engine 'could do it for 
her through the pneumatic tank a great deal easier 
than she can and much quicker, for he makes no re- 
turn trips empty handed. Automatic sprinklers, too, 
may be introduced ; such details every one, once the 
means is at hand, will work out for themselves, and 
enjoy the fun of doing it. As a general thing there are 
some fruit trees near the farm house if there are any 
on the farm. If the women folks have an engine and 
pressure tank to carry water for them it will soon be 
noticed that the trees around the house are pretty 
certain to bear some fruit whether those in the orchard 
do or not. EverA^thing that has life carries within it a 
large percentage of w^ater, and a good many small boys 
and women folks have had reason to conclude that 
life itself was most of it made up of carr3ang water 
for the rest of creation. 

543. The Vacuum Cleaner. — With provisions for 
convenient water cleaning it is time to consider that 
which is best done dry. Whenever a really new ma- 
chine comes out one may judge a good deal as to its 
value by the number of cheap imitations which are 
thrown upon the market. The vacuum cleaner is one 
of those machines mentioned earlier in this bool^ 
which does not reach its full efficiency until some more 
efficient power than is ordinarily available is applied. 
Hand power is not enough, though hundreds of hand- 
power machines are in daily use and are pronounced a 
success; still they lack in complete efficiency. It is 
the extra pound of energy which makes their success 
absolute. The gasoline engine can supply that. 

544. Cleaning House. — House-cleaning time is 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



427 



largely dreaded because of the general tearing up con- 
sidered necessary. With the vacuum cleaner this is 
done away with, providing the cleaner has its full ef- 
ficiency back of it. With the stronger machine and 
more complete vacuum available with engine power, 
the carpets may remain upon the floor and be thor- 




FiG. 154. — A Portable Vacuum Cleaner Operated by Cushman 
Farm Motor. 



oughly cleaned every day instead of twice a year. Not 
even moths can resist the suction of a vacuum cleaner 
that is working as it should. With a clean carpet al- 
ways, there is less dust to settle on the furniture,, 
although the vacuum cleaner is supplied with a special 
nozzle for cleaning it. Window curtains and the most 
delicate draperies are cleaned where they hang. Even 
the wall paper may be brightened by this method of 



428 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

renovation as well as by the comparative absence of 
dust. Clothing may be brushed out and cleaned after 
a muddy ride and the beauty of it all is that the dirt 
is really removed instead of being chased from place to 
place, ^^^hen one stops to consider the work being 
done by these comparatively new assistants there 
seems to be some little foundation for the advertised 
claim of one establishment: "We clean everything 
but the baby and leave everything but the dirt." 

At the barn more than one progressive dairyman is 
now currying the cows with a vacuum cleaner and in 
that way, just before milking, ridding their coats of 
all dust and loose hairs without loading the air w^ith 
dust that will settle into the pails while the milking is 
being done. Power for this purpose is supplied by 
the same engine that runs the milking machine in the 
same stables. 

545. Milking Machines.— While the milking ma- 
chine seems at first thought to belong to the stable 
rather than the kitchen, it is a part, and an important 
one, of the dairy, over which the woman usually pre- 
sides. Milking machines of the past have some of 
them been unsanitary, inefficient, expensive and posi- 
tively harmful. Any mechanical device which is ob- 
jectionable to the cow is sure to decrease the milk 
flow. The successful machine must be easily cleaned, 
sanitary, strong, time-saving, economical, and not in- 
jurious. It must also reduce the amount of help 
needed or else increase the possibilities of the help 
employed in number of cows handled. 

The milking machine of to-day is not more difficult 
to clean than the average cream separator. Some spe- 
cial devices are needed with it; so are they with the 
separator. It is more sanitary than hand milking, as 
the work is all done under cover. The milk at no 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



429 



time comes in contact with the dust or odors of the 
stables from the time it is drawn until it is poured into 
the separator tank. There is nothing about it that 
cannot be made strong; that is merely a matter of 
manufacturing economics. It milks a cow more 
quickly than a hand milker can, and one man can be 
milking two or even four cows at a time. It is eco- 
nomical in permitting a reduction in the number of 




Fig. 155. — Creating the Vacuum for Milking by Gasoline Power. 



men employed or of an increased number of cows that 
the present force can manage. That it is not injurious 
to the cows has been indicated from the fact that they 
no longer object to it, some of thetn standing more 
quietly than for hand milking and giving better re- 
sults. It also frees the owner from absolute depend- 
ence upon hired help. Formerly he either had to keep 
a number of men or else reduce his herd to a point 
where it could not be run the most economically, and 



430 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



if he chose the former course he was absolutely at 
the mercy of his men. 

While several different machines are now in use a 
description of one will answer for all. The machine 
consists of a heavy covered tin pail with a cone-shaped 
top, the disc-like lid "of which contains the vacuum 
motor operating on the cows. One rubber tube con- 
nects this with a pipe overhead from which the air is 
exhausted by the engine. When the stopcock is 
opened between pail and pipe the air in the pail is dis- 




156. 



-Milking Cows by Vacuum Process Cleanly, Sanitary 
and Not Injurious to Animals. 



tributed through the vacuum and a suction set up. 
The pressure carried is about ^ an atmosphere or 7I/2 
pounds per square inch. Valves prevent the milk from 
being drawn back into the pipe and give continued 
suction for 10 to 15 seconds, then pressure, about 60 
pulsations per minute, is applied by alternating the 
suction with the pressure of an air compressor. One 
pail or machine is set between two cows. A vacuum 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 431 

reservoir is connected with the pump to prevent too 
high a vacuum. Two rubber tubes, each with a glass 
section inserted for inspecting the flow, lead from the 
top of the can to the cows and terminate in four caps 
which are adjustable as to size. The operator should 
watch closely that all of these are working, and, as 
soon as milk ceases to flow through glass sections, 
should shut ©fif the suction. One machine is usually 
allowed for every ten or twelve cows. While the ma- 
chine should have intelligent attendance, there is noth- 
ing complicated about it, and trouble comes to it 
through misuse rather than from any fault of the ma- 
chine. No doubt milking machines, like all other im- 
portant inventions, will be greatly improved upon 
after they have come into more general use, but in 
their present stage they are neither less efficient nor 
more objectionable than many another farm utensil 
that is regarded as a success. 

546. The Cream Separator. — It is possible to so 
contrive the stable arrangement that the milk, instead 
of falling into a pail, will be drawn along through a 
tube, from the milking machine, directly into the tank 
of the separator, which may itself be kept covered. At 
least one separator now on the market contains a gaso- 
line motor in its own base and may be started up as 
soon as the milking begins and kept running con- 
tinually until the work is done. This of course re- 
quires no intermediate pulley. As a rule, however, 
one of the special clutch or friction pulleys must come 
in between engine and separator, as the latter, though 
•strong enough to do its own work, is not able to en- 
dure the constant though slight -rise and fall of speed 
that accompany the impulses of the engine. Some 
separator bowls revolve as many as 20,000 times per 
minute, and are geared so high that a variation of 10 



432 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

revolutions per minute in the engine's speed might 
make a difference of 500 to 1,000 in the bowl. 

547. The Governor Pulley, Why Needed.— Sepa- 
rators do their work best at the speed they were made 
to run, and they must be protected against sudden 




Fig. 157.— The Present Day Dairy Maid Uses Gasoline Power 
to Advantage. Note Engine on Base of Cream Separator. 

jerks or extreme variations. Few people turn the 
separator as steadily as it should be turned by hand, 
and not many turn it fast enough. Without a pulley 
between there is always trouble when starting. A 
gasoline engine starts off at full speed ; the separator 
has to be coaxed up gradually. This trouble can be 
overcome by means of a belt tightener, which can be 
thrown in easily and the speed of the spindle brought 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 433 

up ; after that it is at the mercy of the engine, no mat- 
ter how unsteady the pull or how great the overspeed. 
This soon throws the bowl out of balance and ruins 
the separator. A steam engine can be run without any 
governor, and so can a power separator ; neither one 
is safe nor economical. The speed of both should be 
right and it should be uniform. With a governor pul- 
ley and a gasoline engine the speed of the separator 
may be made both without any guess-work. The 
combination is better than hand work ; not so much 
for a saving of work, as for conserving cream and 
butter fat. 

548. How It Works. — The governor pulley is a 
friction pulley which controls the amount of energy 



Fig. 158. — The Parker Speed Governor Pulley Secures Steady 
Separator Drive From Even Intermittent Gas Power. 

or pull which the engine exerts upon the separator as 
the governor does the amount of energy turned into 
the steam engine. The central part of the pulley re- 
volves with the engine and starts at full engine speed, 
with the shaft that turns it. As the wood friction 
blocks are forced out slowly against the rim of the 



434 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

loose pulley that carries the separator belt, the latter 
is coaxed gradually into motion, the blocks slipping 
a good deal but holding enough to start the bowl. As 
the grip increases the speed of the bowl increases also, 
and the blocks slip less until they are finally brought 
into full contact and turn the belt pulley uniformly 
with the shaft. By means of weights and spring, how- 
ever, if the speed of the pulley gets above a certain 
limit the grip is partially released, the blocks slip a 




Fig. 159. — How Parker Speed Governor Pulley Is Employed. 

little and continue to slip until the speed drops back 
to normal and the weights to their place. 

549. For Bottled Milk. — Where milk is sold direct 
to families without separating, or where cream is sold, 
it should be aerated thoroughly. This may be done by 
allowing the discharge to run over a cone-shaped cap 
of tin which may, if cooling is also required, be packed 
with ice. The milk, discharged upon its apex, spreads 
out in a thin sheet and is cooled very rapidly. If 
cooling is not desired and aeration is the object, the 
cone may be made of fine strainer cloth. 

550. Churning by Power. — With the coming of the 
gasoline engine butter-making is likely to again be 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 435 

drawn away from the factory and revived upon the 
farm. After the cream is separated the work saved 
will be more than enough to run the cream into a re- 
volving churn, throw on a belt and let the engine do 
the churning. The hard work in such a dairy is all 
done by engine power and under conditions that the 
operator can control. If the temperature is too low 
there is plenty of hot water to raise it ; if too high, 
cold water will reduce it, and of course thermometers 
will be at hand to tell when it is right. Even the 




Fig. K.'O. — Chuniing by Power oi Gray Alotor. 

butter working may most of it be done with power, 
several rotary workers being on the market that are 
easily adapted to engine action. 

551. The Ice Problem. — Cold storage, or at least 
some means of applying a low temperature at will is 
an essential to good butter-making. Without it some 
people make good butter; their care and skill in every 
other detail overcome the lack in one, but their suc- 
cess is achieved in spite of the one lack and not be- 
cause of it. 

Ice-making is certainly not a woman's work, nor is 
ice-storing, but much of her work is made so much 
more effective with the use of ice that the subject is 
referred to hurriedly and its possibilities merely 
touched. 

For the many farmers who wish to put up ice but 
dread to do so for fear of an accident if the work of 



436 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



cutting is done with team power, a gasoline motor ice- 
cutting machine is illustrated ; then, of course, whether 
the ice is to be stored at the edge of the pond or has 
to be hauled, the engine can be made use of just as 
readily as for any other kind of hauling. 




Fig. i6i. — Gasoline ]\Iotor Driven Ice Cutter. 



When the ice crop fails, or in parts of the country 
where there is no ice, artificial refrigeration has to be 
resorted to. Condensers, and in fact the entire plant, 
can now be purchased for family use with a capacity 
of as little as ^ ton, the rating in this case meaning 
not the amount of ice manufactured, but the amount 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 437 

of freezing or cooling capacity equal to that which ^ 
ton of ice would have in 24 hours while melting. 
One of these small machines will cool for one day a 
properly insulated cold storage room of 80 cubic feet, 
or say 10x10x8. By a system of piping in connection 
with tanks of calcium chloride solution the desired 
temperature, once obtained, may be held for some 
hours and the engine used for other purposes. The 
same plant would actually manufacture about half of 
the above amount of ice in twenty-four hours. Ala- 
chines of large capacity may, of course, be obtained. 
While outfits of this kind are somewhat costl}^, once 
installed, they may be operated on less than the annual 
loss sustained on many farms for want of ice ; while 
a good team lost in some lake while harvesting ice 
would go far toward paying for an artificial plant. 

552. Other Household Uses. — The ice cream 
freezer naturally comes to mind, after mentioning ice, 
as one of the uses to which gasoline engine power is 
daily being applied, though it may not be an important 
labor-saver in that one instance. It is the application 
of power to the countless little things, the doing of 
many things at once, the doing of all things more 
thoroughly than would be possible if it depended upon 
muscle power, that accounts for the extra time and 
vitality and satisfaction the housewife feels who really 
learns to make the engine help her in every task that 
comes to her, whether she ever heard of its being so 
employed before or not. Even if it proves to be no 
saving the first time, if it succeeds it probably will be 
the next, for she wall know better how to go about it. 

553. A Handy Device. — Back of each farm kitchen 
work-table a shaft two or three feet long and faced 
with leather should be stationed, with a driving pulley 
at the end, where least in the way. This may be 



438 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



driven from a line shaft at the ceiling of the kitchen 
or from one hung under the floor. The entire leather 
face of this revolving shaft is virtually a friction pul- 
ley. Near it fasten in a row, by means of wooden but- 
tons or easily adjusted clamps, some of the various 
revolving utensils of the kitchen, the coffee mill, the 
spice mill, the meat chopper, egg beater, nutmeg 
grater, whatever runs by wheel power. It looks like 




Fig. 162. 



A Well Kept Lawn Insured With ]\Iotor Propelled 
Lawn Mower. 



a foolish thing to use an engine for beating an egg. 
How about dropping the egg in to be prepared for 
that cake ; then, by swinging the beater into place 
and turning a button so that its wheel is brought into 
contact with the friction shaft, being able to turn the 
attention at once to grinding the coffee for dinner. 
That in the mill, and the mill swung into line, we 
might just throw a nutmeg into the grater in prepara- 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 439 

tion for the noontime pie. Or perhaps a batch of 
pepper is to be ground, or scraps of cold meat ; maybe 
all of these. By the time they are all in place the egg 
is ready for use, enough coffee ground for the next 
meal or two ; in fact a lot of odds and ends that would 
have kept one pair of hands busily occupied for an 
hour or more will have been gotten out of the way in 
five minutes without even a moment's tiring of the 
wrist, or the slighting of anything for want of time. 
Patent bread mixers are in extensive use by bakers 



Fig. 163.— a Light Horizontal Air Cooled I. H. C. Engine 
Suitable for Household Use. 

and in hotels, and many of them are run with engine 
power. If there is no bread to mix or if there is, set 
the engine to chopping cabbage or, if there happens 
to be fresh pork or beef at hand, just run out a mess 
of sausage ; then if the engine is still running light, 
stop sweating, switch on that fan overhead and enjoy 
better air and a cooler kitchen. There are a lot of 
things in any kitchen that alone do not require en- 
gine power, that deserve it if enough of them can be 
collected together and all done up at once. 



440 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

554. Cleaning Various Utensils. — When it comes to 
washing the kitchen utensils water pressure and 
rotary brushes, if necessary, will do wonders. Even 
the heavier dairy machinery may be in part at least 
cleansed as a direct result of engine energy. Of course 
the old rag that formerly was used in washing out the 
churn has long ago given w^ay to a brush that may 
not be any more effective but is less offensive to the 
health inspector ; still it has its germs. Maybe sprays 
of hot water under pressure have theirs, but they don't 




Fig. 164. — Dynamo Operated by Small Gas Engine Provides In- 
exhaustible Lighting Current. 

live long. Cream separators have to be taken apart 
in order to be thoroughly washed, but as each piece 
is taken out it can be laid upon a frame where pres- 
sure water of any desired temperature is playing upon 
it. By the time the last piece is out the first and 
probably all of the rest have been well cleaned. May- 
be the engine is not doing all of this work, but it 
supplies the energy that went into it. 

555. Starting and Stopping the Engine. — Turning 
the sewing machine is fun for an engine, and the tread 
can be replaced with a foot lever for throwing a belt- 
tightener on and off in order to stop and start at will. 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 441 

About every important task about the house the en- 
gine will take a hand at except perhaps filling the 
lamps and making the beds. Even in this it is not 
wholly useless. If an elevator is put in it will readily 
carry the bed-maker up to the task and then, if desired, 
down cellar, when the work is all done, to turn off the 
power. Even this is unnecessary work. A string can 
be carried from the end of the switch lever to the 
kitchen table and a pull upon it is enough to put out 
the vital spark and turn this jolly little helper in a 
moment into a piece of motionless iron. It will take 
a trip to the basement to revive the spark, but, by 
storing up a little compressed air in a tank for the 
purpose, or by a friction brake, we may easily ride 
down in the elevator and then, having started the en- 
gine, come up on gasoline power. 

Such are some of the possibilities, serious and other- 
wise, of the gasoline engine as a helper for woman- 
kind. Many of them are given only suggestively. 
Actual conditions vary too much for accurate details. 
The fact remains that ingenuity and a little money 
may introduce into any department of housework, al- 
most, a force that will save both time and vital energy 
for other lines of work. Filling the lamps we have not 
made the engine do yet. Let us see if that is pos- 
sible. 

556. Filling the Lamps.— ^A number of engines now 
on the market run so smoothly that it is possible to 
run a dynamo directly from the engine, but it is not 
always convenient to keep the power in operation at 
night, when lighting is needed ; so a storage battery is 
by far the best, as a successful lighting system must 
be available at any hour. These batteries may be 
charged during the day, whenever the engine is run- 
ning some other machine which does not require all 



442 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

of its energy. At first, to save installation cost the 
battery may be small in size ; enough for a little re- 
serve electric energy but still depending in the main 
upon the engine itself. This is quite economical if the 
engine is no larger than necessary to run the dynamo 
alone. If larger than that all of its superfluous energy, 
without the storage battery, is likely to be wasted. 
The storage system can be added to, cell by cell, much 
like the sections of a built-up book case, until not only 
enough energy to run the lights for the entire farm for 
a night is stored ahead, but enough for some of the 
small tasks that might be done by the engine direct, 
such as rimning the sewing-machine. For many of 
these light tasks electric motors are even more con- 
venient than the gasoline engine ; still it is all gaso- 
line power in another form, since it was the gasoline 
engine that created our electric current. 

557. Storage Battery Capacity. — Storage batteries 
are rated in ampere hours, a 24-ampere hour battery 
meaning one that will give 24 hours of current service 
when not discharged at more than normal rate. A 
battery of this capacity may give 3 amperes for 8 
hours at the normal rate, but if discharged at more 
than its normal hourly rate the time of its service 
would be more than proportionately decreased, so that 
its full 24-ampere hour capacity would not be reached. 
It is on this account ir-oortant that the battery in- 
stalled has sufficient capacity for all demands upon it. 
It takes about 10 hours to fully recharge at the same 
rate the 2-hour battery. A 36-ampere hour battery will 
run 9 15-watt i2-candle power tungsten lamps 7^ 
hours (the standard time of normal rating) in a 30-volt 
low voltage plant, which is satisfactory for the 
average residence lighting; it will run twice that num- 
ber (18) only 2y^ hours, or considerably less than half 



Tpie Gasoline Engine on the Farm 443 

as long. On no volts (used generally in large lighting 
plants) it will operate 19 25-watt, 20-candle power 
tungsten or 10 50-watt i6-candle power carbon lamps 
yYo hours. 

As there is always some wasted electric energy in 
the use of a storage battery it is more economical to 
operate the lights in part from the dynamo and depend 
upon the battery rather as an assistant when it is not 



convenient to run the engine. Stil 



the storage bat- 






«iil^ 



Fig. 165. — Electric Farm Lighting Outfit Turns Night Into Day 
and Provides Another City Convenience for the Farmer. 

tery does prove that a gasoline engine can be made to 
fill ready for lighting the finest lamps in the world. 

558. Lighting Up. — For the man or woman in the 
living rooms above lighting up consists only of press- 
ing a button or, more often, of turning a thumb-screw 
in the base of the lamp. The duty of the attendant in 
the basement is hardly more difficult, though of a dif- 
ferent nature. At one side of a well equipped electric 
light outfit stands the switch-board (see Fig. 166). If 



444 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

the lamps are to be operated from the dynamo only 
the dynamo or main switch is closed by bringing the 
handle downward until the copper frame is pressed 
into the grooves made to receive it. If the battery is 
to be charged, the two battery switches are raised. If 
the lamps are to be run with the battery only, the 
dynamo switch is opened by raising the handle and 
bringing the two battery switches downward. 




Fig. i66.— Complete Residence Lighting Outfit for Country Use. 



559. The Complete System. — The conditions placed 
upon an engine used to run a dynamo are so severe 
that it was long considered impossible to meet them 
with a power which, like the gasoline engine, acquires 
its energy in bunches; in fact, the present high ef- 
ficiency of our best steam engines was forced upon the 
engineering world to meet these electrical demands. 
To belt a dynamo directly to a gasoline engine is to 
reproduce in the current sent out all the energy pulsa- 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 445 

tions of the engine. Lights run directly from 
the dynamo would flicker and wink. This may 
be in part overcome by putting heavier balance wheels 
on the engine and so absorbing in their heavy rims 
slight speed variations. Governor pulleys are also 
sometimes used, the same as for a cream separator ; 
or the current may be conducted to a storage battery 
and then drawn from that. Several engines are now 
on the market, however, that run so steadily that 




Fig. 167.— Storage Battery Employed In Connection With House 
Lighting- Outlit. 

quite satisfactory results may be obtained from the 
direct belted dynamo providing the engine is not over- 
loaded. 

The low voltage (30-volt) outfits generally favored 
for residence and farm lighting consist of about a 
2 H. P. gasoline or kerosene engine, say a 50-light 
dynamo, a storage battery, switchboard, and the lamps 
required for the place, w^ith necessary wiring sup- 
plies. If there is plenty of room the dynamo should 
be driven by a belt; if not, it may be direct con- 
nected with the engine, but a belt driven outfit is 
rather more steadv. 



446 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

An outfit of this sort will furnish plenty of light 
for the average residence, barn and out-buildings, and 
at the same time the dynamo is charging the stor- 
age battery the engine may be used for other light 
power such as cooling fans, cream separators or any 
light running device that develops little speed varia- 
tion ; or a part of the current produced may be di- 
rected into convenient little electric motors for run- 
ning sewing machines, ice cream freezers, or into elec- 




FiG. i68.— Electric Lamp Using Incandescent Fila 



ment. 



trie flatirons and many other household conveniences. 
Where much of this work is to be done a larger 
dynamo and engine will be necessary. If general 
power engines are used for electric light work they 
must be of the highest grade. 

The wiring system should be as short as possible 
as there is always more or less waste along the line, 
usually 5% or more. The lighting plant is not com- 
plete, though, that fails to include the barn in the 
circuit. Not only is the electric light much more 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 447 

convenient than any other kind, it is much more 
effective and safer. There is no chance for over- 
turned lanterns and the hghts do not blow out at 
just the critical moment. When caring for sick stock 
the electric light is of special value. These low volt- 
age plants are not in the least dangerous as they are 
not powerful enough to be harmful if by acci-dent an 
uninsulated wire was touched. 

560. Door Maid and Burglar Chaser. — Among the 
earlier household conveniences likely to be installed 
after the electric light has been established is a sys- 
tem of electric door-bells and electric burglar alarms. 
The latter is particularly valuable in the country, 
where, as a rule, the attention of marauders is given 
to the hen-roost or horse stable or some part of the 
premises so far away that the invasion could not pos- 
sibly be heard at the house, except by accident. Not 
only will these electric signals frighten intruders away 
but they will keep them away more effectually than 
any watch-dog can. Either bells or buzzers or, per- 
haps better still, an electric light can be so wired in, 
that the opening of a door at night will close an 
electric circuit and flood the place with light. 

561. Making Electrical Conveniences Available on 
the Farm. — Practically all of the household duties that 
the gasoline engine can do the electric motor can 
do even more conveniently, after the engine has given 
it the power to do at all. Without the engine elec- 
tricity could not be made available on more than 
one farm in a hundred, and even where electric power 
plants are within wiring distance the man who must 
depend for his power upon someone else, rather than 
upon his own resources, is at the mercy not only of 
every breakdown but of all the strikes and disputes 
between labor and capital without having any voice 



448 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

whatever in their settlement. At best, the average 
price of electric energy when purchased is more than 
its production costs upon the farm and it is only into 
the home-grown product that the farmer may put his 
own work or that of his eager boys. Taking the 
country over, the average price charged by the cen- 
tral station companies is 12 to 15 cents per 
1,000 watts, which is equivalent to about i^ 
horse-power. Making a fair allowance for losses 
in transmission, the cost of the home-made cur- 
rent is less than half of that produced in the distant 
plant. 

562. The Engine the Housewife Needs. — The gas- 
oline engine for the woman must not be hard to start. 
Some of the first light engines brought out were too 
heavy and difficult; the average woman became dis- 
gusted or discouraged. The man who has been ac- 
customed to pottering with machinery problems all 
his life may be willing to spend two hours making 
an engine do a bit of work that he could do without 
it in twenty minutes, rather than give up. The aver- 
age woman will do the work the old way and order 
the engine to the junk-pile. 

The household engine must be moderately clean in 
its habits. A w^oman may put up with a tobacco- 
soaked man, but with an oil-soaked floor and greasy 
engine — never. 

It must not be immoderately noisy, and it must be 
dependable. After she has used it enough to form 
a lasting attachment for it she will overlook some of 
its occasional short-comings. At the first, the chances 
are she does not more than half believe in it any- 
way, and every little fault will only add to her 
suspicions. 

In short, the engine that a woman wants is one that 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 449 

will relieve her of a portion of her worries instead 
of adding to them. 

563. The Farm Girl and Boy. — Someone has dis- 
covered that the way to keep the boy on the farm is 
to keep the girl there, and there is a good deal of 
wisdom in his discovery; still it is only a half truth. 
The rest of it is to make farming conditions and coun- 
try life such that it will develop rather than suppress 
the best social and intellectual tendencies and 
respect the courtesies of life. Both the boy 
and the girl prefer the drudgery of some phase 
of city life which is a complete mystery to 
them to that of the ditch-digger and scrub- 
woman some of them are familiar with in their own 
neighborJioods. Such conditions have been abolished 
in many parts of the country and wherever this is 
so we will find farm conveniences and farm machin- 
ery in an advanced state of development ; the develop- 
ment, in fact, being largely responsible for the condi- 
tions. No boy or girl of independent spirit can will- 
ingly become a part of a life that seems inferior and 
humiliating so long as the world seems to offer bet- 
ter opportunities elsewhere. It isn't so much the 
lightening of their work that they demand ; it is the 
elevation of farm life from the drudgery of the slums 
to a plane of which they have no need to be ashamed. 
It means the touch of beauty and cultivated taste that 
all right lives desire ; an occasional hour of leisure for 
self culture, for improvement, for recreation, and that, 
too, in the midst of surroundings which suggest some- 
thing more than constant hard work. The average 
farm boy is not lazy and neither is the farm girl. 
They do not wish to escape work so much as to reap 
some of the rewards for it that they have earned, one 
of which is the right to develop their best ideals with- 



450 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

out the depressing influence of humiliating compari- 
sons. If there are any means within the reach of to- 
day's farm life for permitting this, that cheerful little 
plodder, the gasoline farm engine, is the most im- 
portant. 

564. The Price. — Reckoned in dollars and cents, 
the price of all this saving of a woman's energy may 
run anywhere from $20 up ; less than the cost 
of a binder, a mowxr, a corn harvester, a hay 
rake, a drill, a loader or any one of a dozen 
other man-saving devices. At least one special 
household engine, guaranteed to develop a full 
>^ horse-power and capable of running almost 
any one of the devices suggested at a time, 
can be purchased in one style for $16 and in another 
for $18; then there is the additional cost of installa- 
tion and applying, in money, work and ingenuity. The 
price of one good cigar a day for a month, of one 
doctor's bill, of a few weeks' loss of time while re- 
covering from the result of overwork, of a few months' 
washing bill if done outside, of the waste in cream 
and butter fat that occurs between factory and 
farm ; any of these, if we count it up in dollars and 
cents, would represent the price. 

565. What Others Pay. — The price that others 
pay, that we pay, if we persist in the old methods, is 
not to be so easily computed in coin of the realm, 
though it has a liberal expression in that also. The 
real cost, however, is in human life ; in the life of the 
housewife that is shortened by overwork ; that is 
blighted even before it is completed by the ceaseless, 
hopeless, unending drudgery which is never lightened 
by a sense of completion or by a promise of any- 
thing better for to-morrow than the unending tread- 
mill of to-day. The real cost is the home influence 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 451 

out of which the entire family is cheated because 
there IS no time for anything but work ; not the work 
that uplifts and inspires but the sort that dulls the 
intellect and kills out the ideals which are a legiti- 
mate part of human life and of which no one, young 
or old, has any right to be deprived. The real cost 
is the lost respect of the young people for the farm, 
which is to them a synonym of resultless toil ; their 
hatred of all that pertains to farm life, almost of do- 
mestic life, because of its caricature which has been 
forced upon them by a system of hard work which 
has all too often been allowed to degenerate into the 
drudgery that makes of the home only a place to 
eat and sleep — and work. 



CHAPTER XXVII. 
HOME-^IADE CONVENIENCES. 

566. Self Moving Engines. — With the possible ex- 
ception of wind-mills, home-made tractors have un- 
doubtedly been launched in greater variety than any 




Fig. 169. — Tractor Sawing Outfit of Leslie Reed, Cottonwood, 
Idaho, Goes to Work Under Its Own Power and Is an In- 
genious Home Made Apparatus. 

other form of home contrivance of importance on the 
farm. This has partly been due to the general call 
of the farm for power and partly to the tardiness of 

452 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 453 

the manufacturers in seeing either the possibilities 
along this line in the farm gasoline engine or the pe- 
culiar requirements which a farm tractor must ful- 
fill. Tractors and trailers had become so much a fix- 
ity in the manufacturing brain that no one but the 
farmer himself thought of considering any other 
design. 

567. Light Power Tractors. — Naturally the first at- 
tempts at farm tractor building were of the simplest 
kind. A pair of discarded mowing machine wheels 
furnished the drivers, to one of which a belt pulley 
was securely bolted. The other was left to turn free, 
and so the necessities of differential gear were avoided. 
A belt run from the engine to the drive wheel pulley 
applied the power to the work. A tightener pulley 
applied and released by a lever made it possible to 
start the engine without moving the drivers and then 
to turn the power upon them gradually. A team was 
sometimes hitched ahead to do the guiding or a guide 
rod similar to a regular tractor might be rigged. Any 
form of vertical drum upon which is wound at its 
center a length of rope which terminates at each end 
at the front axle makes a complete and cheap guid- 
ing outfit. Such a tractor can be made at very small 
cost, less than $10 outside of what material may be 
pulled from any junk pile, and it makes a very con- 
venient means of moving an otherwise stationary en- 
gine about from place to place, under its own power. 
Many 3 H. P. engines have been utilized in 
this way, while even as small as i H. P. tractors 
have been reported. This latter outfit had a 
speed of 6 miles per hour, would climb any 
ordinary hill and was capable of carrying two 
people besides moving itself. Its rear wheels came 
from an old mower and the front ones from a worn- 



454 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

out go-cart. Instead of the drum guide it was fur- 
nished with a lever which connected at one end of 
the front axle with both a rope and an iron rod. When 
the lever was pulled the rope drew the axle back ; when 
it was pushed the rod shoved it ahead. As extreme 
lightness has to be sought in these very small power 
rigs in order to keep within the capacity of the engine, 
there can be little tractive power and the work can 
only be of a carrying nature, the load being applied 
to the axle of the drivers from above and so adding 
to their tractive capacity. On a draw-bar pull so light 
a rig could not be very effective. 

568. The Horseless Buggy. — Quite naturally when 
it was discovered that small engines could actually 
be made to propel themselves, somebody thought to 
load one into a buggy and connect up in a similar way. 
The wheels of course lacked w^idth and tractor lugs ; 
still the greater diameter made the experiment enough 
of a success to w^arrant other attempts and it is not 
uncommon to see these home-made horseless bug- 
gies travelling around at a fair speed in sections where 
the roads are not too hilly. Where tractor lugs are 
found necessary, a makeshift that has the merit of 
cheapness may be made out of heavy fence wire 
wound spirally about the tires and properly secured. 

One rather unique road outfit was constructed out 
of a 2 H. P. marine engine mounted on ordinary bi- 
cycle wheels with the cones taken out and babbitted 
to a steel shaft. It was driven with chain and 
sprocket and developed a speed of about 15 miles per 
hour. 

569. Low Power Trucking. — Greater working ca- 
pacity can be gotten out of these small engines on 
trucking outfits than in any other way, because all 
the weight of the load put upon them, within the 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 455 

capacity of the engine, adds to their tractive power. 
Motor trucks which carry the engine within them- 
selves have a very much higher percentage of effi- 
ciency than do tractors used to exert their energy at 
the drawbar, and this advantage is, of course, more 
marked in the smaller engines than in large ones that 
have more or less power to spare. Farmers who have 
taken advantage of this fact have frequently obtained 
surprising results from their small-power engines and 
have in effect moved themselves several miles nearer 
to their city markets than they were while depending 
upon horses. 

570, What an Old Farm Wagon Can Do. — The 
ordinary farm v/agon, harnessed to a gasoline engine 
in the simplest manner, can be made to do almost the 
work of the factory truck so long as the pull is al- 
ways straight ahead and at the same rate of fravel. 
In practical work, however, it becomes necessary to 
introduce differential gearing and so permit of short 
turns and all inequalities of rate at which the driving 
wheels revolve. It is not good economy to apply 
the power to one wheel only when hauling loads and 
not convenient to apply it separately to each of the 
two wheels. The differential is the only really cor- 
rect solution. It is also often necessary, when going 
over difficult ground, to slow down much below the 
rate at which the wagon should ordinarily move, nor 
is any working rig satisfactory if it cannot be backed 
a few feet or inches by the same power that propels 
it. For these requirements a transmission, including 
gear shifts of some sort, is essential. All add a little 
to the work of construction ; also to the expense, but 
they add still more to efficiency, which after all is 
the true measure of profitable construction. With this 
in mind a number of farmers have constructed motor 



456 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

trucks of their own with which they can go any place 
on the farm at a safe rate, and on the road at a speed 
that makes them far more profitable than a team, 
although they did not cost as much. With 3 to 6 H. P. 
engines farm wagons have been turned by home work 
into motor trucks capable of hauling the full capacity 
of the wagon at a load and of making at least three 
trips to market while the average farm team makes 
one. 

571. A Rapid Post-hole Digger. — ^Making the hole 
and setting a post complete for the wires at the rate 
of one a minute would be considered quite a feat by 
any fence-builder, but the gasoline engine with a 
home-made rig can easily discount that. If there is 
a hoist at hand that can be mounted on the sills of 
the engine the work is greatly simplified, it being only 
necessary to add to the rig a couple of uprights 12 
or 15 feet high, well braced and boxed to guide a 
descending weight between them, and fitted at the 
top with an axle bearing a crown or sheave pulley for 
carrying the rope. An iron weight weighing from 
fifty to one hundred pounds is secured to one end of 
the rope wdiich passes over the sheave to the drum of 
the hoist and works easily up and down in the guides. 
By throwing the clutch to engage the drum this 
weight is wound up and lifted ; then hand power or 
an automatic clutch-release frees the drum and per- 
mits the weight to fall several feet upon the end of 
the post, which should be suspended over the spot 
where it is to be driven, so that it may of itself take 
a vertical position. The post, of course, is sharpened 
same as for hand driving, but a few blows delivered 
by such a force wdll settle it into the earth much 
quicker and more securely than the most vigorous of 
hand driving. A stop should be provided under the 



The Gasoline Exgine on the Farm 457 

weight to prevent its descent below a certain point ; 
then all the posts driven will be left the same distance 
above ground without the trouble of measuring. The 
truck on wliich the outfit rides may be hauled by team 
or by one horse, though it is much more convenient 
to make it self propelling, as the engine has nothing 
else to do while being moved from post to post. The 
weight should be large enough in diameter to permit 
of some variation in locating the post, as the rig may 
not alw^ays be stopped exactly on the line of the fence. 

Where a ready made hoist is not at hand the same 
results may be obtained by substituting for it a home- 
made drum or wheel of large diameter in the rim of 
which a crank-pin catches and then suddenly releases 
the rope, exactly as is done by the drill in well drill- 
ing. \Mth a well made outfit of this sort one can 
drive posts almost as rapidly as they can be swamg 
into place, a very few^ blows from such a weight being 
enough to sink a post any reasonable depth. 

572. The Home-made Well-drill. — Home-made 
well-drilling rigs are practically only simplified exten- 
sions of the post driving outfit. The uprights must be 
high enough to lift the drill and auger stem clear 
of the ground and strong enough to support it. Auger 
stems for w^ater wells usually run from 6 to 25 feet in 
length and weigh from 150 pounds up, a three-inch 
stem weighing about 23.5 pounds per foot of length. 
Where a very short string of tools is used the length 
of a joint of pipe or tubing will determine the height 
of derrick as it is much easier to add to the height 
than to cut and thread each joint. 

After strength and capacity for handling standard 
length pipe, the main features that determine the suc- 
cess of a w^ell-drilling outfit are the lift of the tools 
and the suddenness of their release, their power to 



458 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

penetrate the earth depending upon the number of 
foot-pounds energy per minute with which they strike. 
It is evident that a weight of 300 pounds falHng a 
distance of two feet will deliver twice the force in 
foot pounds of that given by a 150-pound weight fall- 
ing the same distance ; also that its penetrating ca- 
pacity would be doubled if its fall w^as four feet in- 
stead of two. Whether this force were delivered in 
the form of a sudden blow or as a gradual thrust mat- 
ters only because, if the latter, it indicates that there 
is either an excess of friction against wdiich the energy 
of the descending mass expends itself or else that a 
part of the force is absorbed by the rope. If it is the 
latter, it means that the cable is being restrained so 
that the foot-pound energy is being expended in part 
upon that instead of on the rock ; that is, the release 
of the cable is not quick enough or complete enough 
to allow the falling tools to follow the call of grav- 
ity without interference. The drilling speed depends 
entirely upon the hardness of the material penetrated 
and the number of foot-pound energy delivered 
against the rock. 

573. A Good Barn Hoist. — Tw^o stout brackets or 
standards, preferably of iron, support each end of a 
stout iron shaft on which revolves a flanged iron 
drum to which, when used in hoisting hay, the hay 
rope is attached. A friction clutch or disk which re- 
volves with the shaft is pressed forward by means 
•of a lever against the drum and made to revolve it as 
rapidly as the shaft revolves or less so, as the con- 
tact pressure is increased or diminished between the 
disk and drum. The pressure may be maintained by 
holding the lever on, in case the operator wishes to 
also run the fork at the load, by means of a small 
rope attached to the lever, while a heavy spring con- 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



459 



stantly tends to draw it back and insures the drum 
stopping- promptly when lever is released. By eas- 
ing the friction contact the load may be held at any 
desired point or lowered a little and then caught and 
held. With a return weight attached to hay car, when 
the load is dumped and the clutch released, the drum 
revolves as a loose spool upon the shaft and unwinds 




Fig. I/O. — Double Drum Hoist for Use In Connection With Gaso- 
line Engine Made by Brown Clutch Company. 



the rope readily, with far less pull than is necessary 
in drawing a heavy rope back over the ground. The 
shaft itself is geared or belted directly to the engine 
and revolves in the one direction constantly. In lifts 
of this sort gear or sprocket wheels are preferable 
to belts on account of the slippage of the latter under 
intermittent pulls. It is of great importance that the 



460 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

shaft be heav}" enough to insure against bending or 
springing. A good three-horse engine ought to oper- 
ate a well made rig of this sort with entire satisfac- 
tion and will unload hay considerably more than twice 
as quickly as a team will, especially if there is a 
shortage of help. One man on the load can tend fork 
and hoist very nicely, leaving all the rest of the help 
free to go into the mow if they are needed there. 

The same rig can, of course, be used for swinging 
up hay ladders, hoisting wagon-boxes or elevating 
loads of any kind. By means of it a small elevator 
may be operated from beside the threshing floor and 
the grain taken in lots of ten or more bushels to ele- 
vated bins, though a more convenient arrangement 
for the purpose is the regular grain elevator. 

574. Grain Tender at Threshing Time. — Elevated 
grain bins have many advantages, the most important 
of which, perhaps, is the ease with which gravity 
may then be made use of when bringing the grain to 
the stables, the feed mill, fanning mill, or when load- 
ing it for market. As a rule, too, elevated bins may 
be located in some out-of-the-way place where there 
is room to spare instead of on the main floor where 
perhaps every inch of space is needed. The one draw- 
back to them is the work required in getting the grain 
into them. This work the gasoline engine is always 
ready to do. 

A first class grain elevator is worthy of a perma- 
nent location ; it should be made a part of the barn 
itself. Having determined about what the position of 
the separator grain spout will be at threshing time, 
take up a couple of planks from the threshing floor 
and build a hopper-shaped bin or one with sloping 
bottom in between the joists; one that will hold from 
five to ten bushels of grain. Cut off enough from the 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



461 




462 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

ends of the flooring plank to cover this bin, return 
the long ends to place and fasten securely ; then out 
of the short ends construct a solid door or man-hole 
cover, both ends and both edges of which rest upon 
solid supports below. A little care in this respect may 
be the means of avoiding a serious accident. Never 
depend on dropping the short pieces into place with- 
out some means of fastening them there. Secure them 
with a hasp of some sort. If this fastening can be 
done from the lower side it will save the presence of 
annoying staples on the floor above. 

The elevating trough should begin just below the 
lowest point in the hopper bottom of the bin, so that 
everything in it will drop into the trough. At the 
lower extremity a pair of sprocket wheels carry each 
a chain to which are attached the conveyors. The 
shape of these depends a good deal on the pitch of the 
ascent. If there is plenty of slope a very satisfactory 
elevator may be made of wooden slats bolted upright 
upon the chains ; if the ascent approaches the perpen- 
dicular the regular purchased buckets, such as are used 
in mills, are best. They occupy less room and are 
so uniform in size that the spout in which they run 
may be a very accurate fit and so permit little grain 
to fall back. At the upper end of the elevator, which 
should go considerably above the top of all bins, a 
trough conveyor should be hinged in such a manner 
that it can be swung to discharge into any bin in 
the granary. 

When the grain thresher is set up, ready for work, 
a canvas or sheet metal spout is run from the grain 
spout of the separator into this bin under the floor 
and the grain, as it is discharged from the machine, is 
delivered to the elevator with no hand work what- 
.ever and with the least exposure to threshing floor 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 463 

dust. At least two men are saved in the threshing 
crew and, thanks to the gasoline engine, grain is de- 
livered directly into the bins without carrying, with- 
out hauling and without bagging. Not even tally- 
ing is necessary. The bins are measured and the exact 
amount of grain determined much more accurately 
than in the case of ordinary machine measurements. 

575. A Tractor Mower. — People had been making 
use of mowing machine wheels for some time for 
tractor drivers before it occurred to some one that 
the wheels ought to answer a similar purpose if power 
was applied to them wdiile they were left on the ma- 
chine. For this purpose one of the sprocket and chain 
drives is most convenient though not absolutely nec- 
essary. Instead of the tongue a pair of stout culti- 
vator wheels serve the double purpose of steering the 
machine and of supporting the end of the sills upon 
which the engine is mounted. The mounting should 
be back far enough to throw most of the weight on 
the mower wheels, wdiich are the drivers of the tractor. 
The pitman frame sustains exactly the same relation 
toward the sills which support the engine that it for- 
merly did to the tongue of the machine, and is sus- 
pended from it in the same way. 

Between the engine and the machine a counter- 
shaft should be placed. This should carry a friction 
clutch ; also two sprocket wheels speeded respectively 
to the drive wheel of the machine and of the pitman. 
Aside from this there need be practically no change. 
The mower itself is fitted with the differentials and 
its mechanism remains almost exactly as it was ex- 
cepting for the removal of the tongue and the con- 
nection of drive wheel and pitman each independently 
to countershaft instead of with each other. 

In operating, the engine is first started w^th the 



464 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

clutch thrown off; then as that is engaged the tractor 
part of the machine begins to operate, the gearing 
running exactly as it would with a team when out of 
gear. The cutting gear is then thrown into action. 
This machine has several advantages over one that is 
horse drawn, and a number of differences. If a long 
grade is struck the engine is not likely to gradually 
tire out and slow down as a team will. If it does 
the cutting gear will not begin to lag at the same 
time and so choke down. There is no necessity of 
stopping to rest the team at every round or tAvo and 
no need of turning out before noon in the best of 
haying weather because the sun is too hot for work- 
ing horses to endure. On the other hand it is more 
important that there be no hidden obstacles in the 
grass. A tough stubble or small stone that stops the 
team by stopping the cutting bar probably will not 
check the engine. If the knives must stop, some- 
thing will have to break and it is usually some part of 
the machine, which was built for horses only. About 
the only remedy for this is greater watchfulness and 
cleaner fields. 

576. Two Boys and a Motor Cycle. — There has 
been a good deal of doubt expressed about whether 
a gasoline tractor, light enough for ordinary plowed 
and cultivated fields, could ever be constructed to take 
the place of a horse-drawn cultivator. While several 
successful rigs have been built of a large size it re- 
mained for two southern boys to hit upon a form of 
cultivator specially adapted to garden cultivating. The 
machine they used was a motor cycle. A light frame 
for the usual cultivator attachments was carried be- 
fore the front wheels and then sloped back along 
either side, the width of cut being regulated by ex- 
panding or drawing together the outer ends of these 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 465 

Avings through rods and levers operating between the 
wheels of the machine. In order to give the machine 
as smooth and easy a path as possible a shovel plow 
or double hoe attachment may be located directly in 
front of the front wdieel and a smooth furrow with 
a firm bottom opened for the tractor wheels to run 
in; then, if desired, this trench can be closed by a 
pair of disks and some cultivator teeth following the 
rear wheel. The idea doubtless admits of some im- 
provement, but it may easily prove to be a step in 
the right direction for light power cultivators. 




Fig. 172.— Engine Outfit Easily Moved by One Man Because of 
Wheelbarrow Truck. 

577. Wheelbarrow Energy. — Several seasons ago 
engine makers began to advertise the fact that two 
men could easily pick up an engine capable of devel- 
oping several horse-power and carry it where it was 
wanted. The weakness in this w^as the fact that very 
often the engine is wanted on the one-man sort of 
jobs ; it was evident that some means was needed for 
one man to convey the engine from place to place, 
so it was mounted upon hand trucks. This idea had 
a decided advantage — and a drawback. Rolling sup- 



466 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

ports invariably add to unstability. The hand trucks 
had to be blocked very securely or they would show 
more vibration than would those on sills. Some bright 
mind has united the two principles in the wheelbarrow 
truck. One end of the sills under the engine is 
mounted on small wheels and have their lower 
corners cut away so as to clear the floor easily even 
though the diameter of the wheels is less than the 
depth of the sill. The other ends terminate in handles 
like those of a wheelbarrow. Wljen these handles are 
raised and the weight thrown upon the end supported 
by the wheels the engine may be moved about by 
one man like a wheelbarrow. When the handles are 
let down the deep sills raise the wheels entirely from 
the floor and the engine at once rests upon sills — 
ready for business. 

578. A Unique Fruit Gatherer. — Who, after weary 
hours of climbing up and down a ladder, tugging 
baskets of apples with always more to be picked, has 
not yielded to temptation or ill-temper, and ended the 
job by shaking bushels of good fruit down to be 
picked up from the ground? Of course, it was ruin- 
ous to the fruit, but after the hard work that had been 
endured there w^as even a little satisfaction in the ruin. 
A device made similar to a set of horse clippers, but 
with shorter blade and wider teeth, may reduce both 
the time and labor of hand picking and at the same 
time do the work quite as well. 

The blade is attached to the engine exactly as horse 
clippers are and a rod secured to the flexible shaft. 
A canvas tube, held open at its mouth by a small 
hoop, is swung to the rod directly below the blade. 
This may reach to the ground or, better, to the wagon 
in which the engine sets and that will be used to 
haul the fruit from the orchard. If this wagon has 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 467 

been fitted out with tractor power the same engine 
which supplies the power can be used in picking the 
fruit. 

The operator on the ladder hooks a rod at one end 
over any convenient limb and the other into some part 
of the canvas tube, some distance down. This relieves 
him from the weight of the apparatus. With the rod 
which carries the blade and mouth of the tube he 
svv^ings the contrivance here and there, just under the 
fruit and as rapidly as a stem is touched it is cut 
by the jaws of the blade which are driven by the 
motor below, the fruit falling through the hoop into 
the canvas tube, whence it is received by the attend- 
ant in the wagon below and sorted, if dry, into the 
regular packing barrels. Not only does this save all 
loading and nearly all climbing up and down ; it also 
avoids practically all handling of the fruit excepting 
the one placing in the barrel. The canvas bag or tube 
should be of sufficient length to admit of some slack 
so that the fall of the fruit will be retarded by fric- 
tion among the folds. It must also be kept constantly 
emptied by the attendant so that the fruit will not be 
bruised by contact. While a device of this sort might 
seem rather trifling for operating with engine power 
by itself it is no more so than the shearing of sheep 
or the clipping of horses, both of which have long 
been done with the help of power. There is no rea- 
son, however, why the same engine should not at 
the same time supply the tractor power for moving 
the wagon about ; also, for raising the ladder and 
swinging it from the tree while the wagon was shifted 
to another place. In fact, about all the lifting that 
goes with the harvesting of fruit can be done with 
a gasoline engine, and at very little expense. 

579. A Home-made Power Saw. — As an example of 



468 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

what may be accomplished by one possessing mechan- 
ical ingenuity and the ability to utilize odds and ends, 
which are found lying around any farm, the tractor 
saw outfit depicted at Fig, 169 is presented. This 
machine is built entirely of components wdiich had 
reached the end of their usefulness on various farm 
machines. Common header binder wheels serve as 
drivers, while the front end is supported by separator 
trucks having narrow bands shrunk onto the rims to 
prevent side slip. The differential gear is on the rear 
axle, which revolves in babbitted boxes. The counter- 
shaft is directly under the engine base and a chain is 
employed to transmit the engine power from the coun- 
tershaft to the differential sprocket. A jack shaft, 
which runs lengthwise of the frame, receives its power 
from a single pulley on the rear end of the engine 
crank shaft and drives the countershaft by a bevel 
gear. The reverse motion is obtained in a very in- 
genious manner. Two bevel pinions are keyed on 
the jack shaft a little further apart than the diameter 
of the bevel gear, driving the countershaft, which in 
turn drives the differential sprocket. If the jack shaft 
is moved endwise, so the back pinion engages the 
bevel gear, the machine moves backward on the road, 
while if the jack shaft is shifted backward so the front 
pinion engages, the forward motion of the tractor is 
obtained. A short belt, six inches in width, drives the 
jack shaft from the engine pulley and a jockey pulley 
or tightener serves the purpose of a clutch. If the 
jockey pulley is moved back, so that the belt is loose, 
the engine will run independently of the road wheels, 
whereas, wdien the belt is placed under tension, the 
engine will drive the conveyance. The frame is made 
of round wrought-iron pipe and the cooling water is 
pumped through it so the frame performs the func- 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 469 

tion of a radiator, as well as a support for the power 
plant. The saw is operated in connection with a swing 
table which the maker considers the quickest acting 
and easiest handled form of saw table. The engine 
is adapted to use kerosene so that very cheap power 
is provided. A machine of this nature may be dupli- 
cated by anyone having the patience and ingenuity to 
contrive and sufficient mechanical ability to join the 
various parts together and adapt odds and ends to a 
useful purpose. 

580. Other Home-made Conveniences. — The mak- 
ing of ingenious little labor saving devices, if per- 
sisted in, becomes a matter of demand and of habit, 
rather than of study. The occasion will supply the 
desire and, with that, the trained hand and brain soon 
find a way of accomplishment, although that way 
may not be exactly the same with any two different 
people. As surely, too, will the habit of applying 
power and mechanical advantage to the simplest tasks 
grow upon one, after it is fairly exercised, until the 
work of brute force and animal muscle will nearly 
all of it be replaced upon the farm as elsewhere 
through energy which originates with the brain and 
the intelligent directing of the forces that nature has 
placed within reach of our hands. 



CHAPTER XXVIII. 
MODERN POWER APPLICATIONS. 

581. Helping the Binder. — Any practical farmer 
understands that the bull wheel of a grain harvester 
must perform two duties ; first, carry the weight of 
the machine, and, second, supply the power required 




Fig. 173. — Small Gray Motor Helping the Binder. 

for operating the cutting, elevating and binding ma- 
chinery; and it is this second operating strain that, 
more than anything else, causes the binder to choke 
down and sink into the soft earth, when the ground is 
wet or the season unfavorable. Rarely is a team 
stalled with a binder running empty or when the bull 
wheel is merely carrying the dead weight of the ma- 
chine. Several years ago much of the grain grow- 

470 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 471 

ing section of the west became a veritable quagmire 
on account of heavy rains, and the grain was going 
down and shelling badly. Unless saved at once, thou- 
sands of bushels would be lost. Team power enough 
to drag the weight of the binders through any depth 
of mud could be supplied, but the instant the machines 
were thrown into gear the drive wheel would slip and 
refuse to turn. 

Someone, desperate at the prospect, fastened stout 
iron brackets to the rear of the binder frame and set 
a light gasoline engine on, took the drive chain from 
the binder, connected the sprocket drive to the en- 
gine, turned on his power and started his teams. That 
idea saved the world many thousands of bushels of 
wasting grain that season and the same idea has been 
in operation in the world's great grain fields annually 
ever since. Even if the ground is solid it saves one 
or two horses out of each team and makes it very 
much easier for them. It is also easier on the ma- 
chinery, as the motion can be regulated once and then 
kept uniform. There is no slowing down of the cut- 
ting bar in tangled spots where the full speed is most 
needed. The horses are not worn out or winded at the 
end of a few rounds. If there happens to be a long 
hard grade they do not in addition to this extra work 
have added to their burden the extra draught from 
the slower motion they are almost certain to maintain ; 
nor is a portion of the grain pulled oiit or slid over. 
The work can be done much faster, too, because a 
wider cut machine can be used with the same team, 
the dead weight of an eight-foot cut being very little 
more than one of six. 

A gasoline engine for this service must be light 
and smooth running. About three horse-power is gen- 
erally used, and an engine that can be mounted on 



472 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

brackets behind the binder or even set upon the table 
is best, as there is no trouble about alignment. Heav- 
ier engines are, however, mounted upon light trucks 
and dragged behind as trailers, the power being con- 
veyed to the binder by a shaft and universal joint. 
When mounted on the binder they are usually set 
directly on the table or else placed between the bull 
wheel and the beam back of the axle and are con- 
nected with a chain to the small sprocket. 

In 1909 the gasoline engine saved several million 
dollars worth of grain in the flooded districts of the 
Missouri river valley in this way. On account of their 
proven value in this field, binders are now being de- 
manded, with the engine supplied as a regular part 
of the binder, but detachable, for other light work 
when needed. 

582. In the Hay Field. — A light power engine set 
upon the frame of a mowing machine not only does 
the same thing for the hay harvest that it will do on 
the binder, but it enables the ordinary team to keep 
in steady operation, with little or no time wasted in 
turning corners or resting at the end of the swath. 
For this grade of work a sprocket wheel should re- 
place the usual belt wheel on the engine and posi- 
tive chain drive be used. Very little change need be 
made in the mower, a sprocket wheel being intro- 
duced to receive the drive chain and the regular driv- 
ing gear being disconnected from the drive wheels 
of the machine. The engine should be mounted well 
back, so that at least one-third of its weight will 
fall back of the machine axle. As it is usually neces- 
sary to move the driver's seat back a little his weight 
in its new position will generally about balance the 
extra weight of the engine so there will be no added 
pressure on the horses' necks. 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 473 

IMany small farms have been deprived of the use 
of the ]:ay loader for no other reason than because it 
is too heavy for a single light team to handle ex- 
cepting under the most favorable of conditions. A 
bracket platform hinged at one end to the under side 
of the loader at its base and supported at the other 
end by small wheels forms a convenient support for 
the ens^ine, which can then be attached to the ele- 




FiG. 174. — The Motor Truck In the Hay Field. 

vating machinery of the loader and the pull of loading 
the hay be transferred from the team to the engine. 

583. Making the Spreader Work. — The manure 
spreader is also a forbidden luxury on many farms 
because of the team powder it requires, although in all 
the list of farm machines, the gasoline engine alone 
excepted, there is no other that will pay for itself 
more certainly and readily. The work of the spreader 
is, however, more intimately associated with that of 
the team which propels it than of the binder or loader, 
there being no part of it that can be operated to ad- 



474 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

vantage independently from all of the rest. The en- 
gine may be applied to one or more wheels as a tractor 
or it may be attached to the spreader mechanism 
only and through the medium of a governor pulley 
which would admit of the engine exerting its full pull- 
ing capacity and at the same time guard against its 
being overloaded and choked dowm. Once started, a 
three or four horse engine will take off so much of the 
load from the team that there is no necessity as a 
rule for the latter to stop. With a little care on the 
part of the driver the team and engine may be kept 
working so nearly in unison that neither will be over- 
loaded and the advantage of the spreader will in this 
way become available upon thousands of farms that 
are now getting along the old, hard and extravagant 
way. 

For use with the spreader the engine should be 
mounted on a platform at the extreme front end of 
the box and across the top, so as to be above all the 
scatterings that might otherwise interfere with some 
part of the engine, or the connecting gear. 

584. The Short Power Wagon. — It is the experi- 
ence of everyone that, while an ordinary team can 
haul all that the farm wagon should be expected, as 
a rule, to carry, there are times when it is economy 
to overtax the usual capacities of the farm team. 
The pull may be over good roads but a long dis- 
tance ; or the roads may be too heavy for a team to 
handle enough of a load to make the trip justifiable; 
still, it may have to be made. 

The gasoline engine, applied as a tractor, can make 
possible a full profitable load under conditions that 
would otherwise make only a half loaded wagon avail- 
able. It will also supply that unflagging energy that 
will enable a team, without undue fatigue, to convey 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



475 



their full capacity for a long distance. With a good 
driver in control, the engine and team may become 
valuable supplements of each other and do work to 
good advantage, that neither one would do as well 
alone. Often the slippery track will not permit the 
drive wheels to hold enough to take the wagon on 
tractor power alone when a very little help from the 
team will relieve from that last pound of pull that 




Fig. 175. — The Modern Connecting Link Between Farm and 

Market. 



breaks the hold of the wheel lugs. Often even a 
little help from an untiring source will prevent the 
team from wearing out. 

Especially in going to market, where the pull is 
long and steady rather than hard, the engine will en- 
able the team to endure a load that could not other- 
wise be taken more than half of the distance, without 
cruelty to animals. 

585. At Threshing Time. — All energy, unless being 
continually overtaxed, is judged by the way it meets 
the calls of emergency, when some unusual demand is 
to be met. The farm equipment that goes smoothly, 
most of the time, may be found seriously wanting at 



476 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 










The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 477 

such unusual times of stress as threshing time and 
may have to draw heavily for help upon the resources 
of the surrounding farms. For the fully equipped 
farm only a little of this is necessary. A good gaso- 
line engine of very moderate size, but well managed, 
can do away with much of the old time calls upon the 
neighborhood and make each farm nearly, if not quite, 
self-sustaining in the matter of labor equipment. 
Many farms of the future will have each their own 
threshing equipment quite as certainly as they now 
have their own provisions for storing their own hay. 
Stripped of its portability and its wholesale capacity, 
the grain separator is not nearly so complicated nor 
so expensive as the binder or the mowing machine. 
When one is found built into every barn, the grain 
will be hauled from the field and unloaded directly 
into the separator without any intermediate handling. 
Such a process will not be as long or as hard as the 
present one, for both grain and straw will be elevated 
by machinery. 

Even with our present day system of neighborhood 
threshers, the gasoline engine can be made to take the 
place of most of the hands. We have already seen 
how it may supplant the two or three men at the 
grain. The modern wind stacker, directed into a tight 
mow and with its discharge end hung to a pulley 
traveling back and forth along a steel track, can be 
made to distribute the straw well over the mow with- 
out much attention. With the help of the engine, 
when hauling in and storing the grain, the mows may 
be so located that gravity may again be utilized to 
the best advantage and, by means of sloping floors, 
one or two men can frequently receive at the foot of 
the slope and drop into a conveyor almost every sheaf 
in the mow. Two hands, at most, would be ample 



478 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

for the grain sheaves. The gasoline engine, once the 
sheaves were dropped into any part of the conveyor 
trough, would take them to the machine. There are 
mechanical band cutters on the market ; one of these, 
at the end of the conveyor, w^ould dispense with an- 
other man. In all, we have one or two men in the 
mow and another one to watch the operations in the 
stack and bins; that is about all that are needed, pro- 
viding all the possibilities which the gasoline engine 
makes available are taken advantage of. Let anyone 
who is inclined to pronounce such arrangements vi- 
sionary take a trip through any other kind of factory 
and note how completely even the most trivial oper- 
ations are made automatic and mechanical before he 
decides that it is impracticable to put our great farm 
factories upon this same carefully constructed busi- 
ness basis. 

586. Harvesting the Corn Crop. — Because silos 
and corn harvesting by machinery are of such com- 
paratively recent origin, we have had fewer old pre- 
judices to overcome and it has been comparatively 
easy for people to adopt methods that are well ad- 
vanced in their mechanical perfection. Already we 
have corn harvesters at work cutting by the acre as 
we once cut by the hill, and we have them operated 
by gasoline engines both in the form of tractors and 
of small power helpers auxiliary to the team. We 
have tractors hauling the crop from the field after 
having loaded it on with their own power. We have 
ensilage cutters with self feeders, which require only 
a little hand work between the time when the shocks 
are taken from the load and the moment when they 
are finally deposited, shredded and with the ears sep- 
arated out and husked, if we wish, in the silo or the 
mow. We have elevators and wagon dumps that 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 479 

will deposit the husked corn, a wagon load at a time, 
in the cribs. We have shellers to shell it without our 
once touch'ng it by hand, and mills to grind it ; or, 
if we wish, it may go to the mill cob and all. From 
the time the seed is poured into the planter, until 
it has been raised, harvested, ground, fed, and con- 
verted into beef, it is necessary for the human hand 
to come in contact with it hardly at all. Surely this 
is a triumph for farming machinery along this one 
line, which ought to convince the most skeptical that 
equal results may be obtained along any other. But 
only a little of all this could be accomplished without 
the help of power — ^mostly gasoline power. 

587. Hauling by Cable. — Before the days of 
tractors, hauling and even plowing by cable was in 
common use, and even yet, in some parts of the world, 
it is resorted to, quite a little. It has one great ad- 
vantage over tractors, the difference between tractor 
and draw-bar efficiency which, in the case of most en- 
gines, amounts to 30% or 40% of the entire efficiency 
of the engine. Cable hauling, however, like coasting, 
has certain drawbacks in relation to the profitless and 
sometimes difficult "trip back up the hill." Where 
the engine can be located central to considerable work 
and within reasonable distance, such as where clear- 
ing off a piece of land from stumps or stones, the 
cable may be used to reasonable advantage ; but, for 
ordinary conditions the tractor, though it uses up a 
good deal of power in its own propulsion, is the most 
economical because the most efficient ; the engine 
power saved by the cable method having most of 
it to be made up by the extra man power required 
in the handling of the cable. 

588. What Gasoline Is Doing to the Road Ques- 
tion. — It was the bicycle first, and afterwards the 



48o 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 




o 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 481 

automobile, that impelled the recent countrywide 
movement for better roads. A little sectional feeling 
may have been engendered at the start because a 
few city people out for pleasure first made known to 
the world, with perhaps unnecessary criticism, the 
discovery that the country roads were, some of them, 
bad ; still, the farmer w^as not long in deciding that 
the same highway condition which was keeping the 
city pleasure seeker out of the country was making 
the distance between himself and his markets even 
more objectionably great, because his use of the roads 
was largely a matter of business instead of pleasure. 

Since it was through the agency of gasoline that 
this great problem was first convincingly presented, 
let us see what progress gasoline has made in solving 
it. 

In Bement township, Piatt county, Illinois, which 
now boasts of some of the best dirt roads in the state, 
a 45 H. P. gasoline tractor is used first to clean out 
both ditches thoroughly w^th the grader, then to level 
and crown the center of the road with the leveler, and 
last to press it into a compact surface that is almost 
waterproof by going over it with a 6-ton roller. This 
is done at a cost of $2.40 a day for coal oil, 55c. for 
gasoline, $1.00 for lubricating oil and the wages of 
two men ; say $8 in all. The result has been some 
of the finest dirt roads in the state of Illinois, 35 feet 
from gutter to gutter and from 16 to 20 miles of them 
completed each day. Three years ago these same 
roads were often all but impassable. Now the only 
attention they require is an ''occasional leveling after 
a rain to maintain their crown." 

Comparing these results with those obtained by 
other methods, including one or two expensive steam 
outfits, the road commissioners state that thev have 



482 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

moved more dirt in two years with the gasoline tractor 
and have accomplished more with it than in the en- 
tire twenty years preceding. Steam power they de- 
clare to be much more expensive in wages, fuel, run- 
ning expenses, and wear on engine, both while in use 
and specially when idle. 

589. Fighting Weeds. — For those highways, the 
surface of which is unsuitable for road making, there 
are gasoline outfits that gather up the loose dirt in 
the roads and ditches and deposit it either into a 
wagon driven at the side of the rig or at the side 
of the road beyond the ditches. This not only disposes 
of the wash from the ditches, which has left the road 
bed because it is too unstable in nature to be of use ; 
it also, in part, buries and discourages the weeds and 
brambles so prone, if left to themselves, to come up 
along the space between the ditch and fence. A more 
important weed-killer, however, is found in the spray 
pump, which, as we have already seen, is operated best 
by engine energy ; the efficiency of the work against 
the weeds, without injury to the growing grains and 
grasses, in the case of field work, depending very 
much upon the solution being applied in a very fine 
spray driven with a good deal of force — at least 100 
pounds pressure to the square inch being necessary 
at all times — and with enough pumping capacity to 
distribute from a barrel to a barrel and a quarter per 
acre, 52 gallons being reckoned as a barrel. 

In preparing the solution, too, the energy of the en- 
gine is of direct assistance, especially if copper sul- 
phate is used in preference to iron sulphate, as it dis- 
solves with greater difficulty, although 10 or 12 pounds 
of it, if really pure, are equal to perhaps 100 of the 
iron salt. Where horses are used as a motive power, 
it is customarv to take on a barrel or two of the pre- 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 483 

pared s(7iution at a time and then have more of it under 
preparation with hand agitation of the liquid, at dif- 
ferent points of the field. Where help is scarce, this 
is not always convenient, and where it is plentiful, we 
still have another case of using intelligent man energy 
for a purely mechanical task that a machine would 
do as well and even better. With the tractor a lareer 
quantity can be carried without an overload and a 
couple of barrels of the complete solution in one tank ; 
in the other the same amount, in process of prepara- 
tion, will only keep the tractor moderately busy; the 
same engine that carries the tanks about supplying 
the pressure for spraying and running the agitator in 
the mixture being dissolved. With plenty of carry- 
ing powder, a third or reserve tank may be advantage- 
ously carried, if the fields are large. Then as soon 
as one tank is emptied the second one can be switched 
to the spray nozzle and the refilling of the first done 
ready for beginning a new solution without having 
to wait until the stationary water supply is reached 
at the end of the field. By this means both of the 
working tanks may be kept supplied w^ith material 
for their respective tasks at all times and the re- 
serve tank replenished at the convenience of the 
operator. 

Another advantage that the engine sprayer has over 
one driven by horse-power is the fact that there is 
no animal life to protect against the effects of the drift- 
ing spray. Horses used in spraying must be kept 
closely blanketed and even then are more or less ex- 
posed to injurious effects, as they are continually 
breathing in air that is more or less charged with a 
poisonous mist. 

590. Ditching. — In a good many places tile drain- 
age is a necessity if w^e would obtain full 100% re- 



484 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

suits ; in very many it is a material advantage. Al- 
ways, though, it is an expensive and laborious task, 
when done by hand labor. Intelligent workers are 
specially hard to get at a reasonable price for ditch- 
digging, but it takes a certain amount of intelligence 
to finish the bottom up to the grade. A machine will 
do this much cheaper and with far more uniform re- 
sults. Gasoline ditching outfits are now made that 
not only dig the ditch any desired depth, but at the 
same time lay the tile and fill up the trench after 
themselves, a six to nine-foot ditch being dug by some 
of them at the rate of 120 feet per hour. Under spe- 
cially favorable conditions much greater results have 
been reported. With the advent of cheaper ditching, 
more of it will be done, many acres of land, that has 
been, hitherto, untillable or only partly so, will be re- 
claimed and thousands of acres will be sweetened and 
rendered more productive by making it possible to 
work them more promptly at the proper seasons and 
gaining control of underground moisture conditions. 

591. The Farm Roller. — Friction is the great en- 
ergy absorber wherever one moving body comes in 
contact with anything that supports it and this is 
quite as true of all contact with the earth as it is of 
journal boxes in machinery. In just the same way, 
too, can this power destruction be decreased by 
smoothing the surfaces at the points of contact. While 
we cannot lubricate the track of the binder across 
the field as we can its bearings for the axl^, we can 
decrease to a very great extent the friction strain 
by rendering the road under the wheels as firm, 
smooth and level as possible, an efficiency of any- 
where from 10% up to 60% or 70% being possible 
in this way, the gain depending a good deal on the 
amount of necessity for it. Of all known implements 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 485 

of the farm, the roller is the most effective in doing 
this. 

Horse drawn rollers have a number of drawbacks. 
In the first place, the ground that is mellow enough 
or soft enough to respond the best to the roller's pres- 
sure is just in the right condition to be injured by 
the sharp-cutting hoofs of the team. If the ground is 
firm enough to withstand the footmarks of the horses 
it requires a heavier roller than the ordinary farm 
team can handle to do the work in a really thorough 
manner. 

Powder driven rollers may be made a part of the 
power plant itself, the broad, smooth wheels that will 
entirely cover the ground the tractor covers being 
substituted for the usual tractor wheels. Because 
of the broader surface pressed upon there is no 
sinking below^ the general surface level in spots as 
in the case of a horse. Because of the unlimited horse- 
power that may be turned loose in a tractor there is 
no limit, within reasonable efficiency, to the weight 
that can be brought to bear directly upon tlie ground 
to be rolled. Where tractor farming has been in use 
for some time the fields will be found smoother even 
without the rolling, partly because of the continuous 
leveling off wdiich traction farming insures and partly 
on account of the more thorough system of harrowing 
and cultivating all the plowed fields are certain to be 
given and because, in order to get the work done at 
all, the ground does not have to be worked out of 
condition. 

592. Sheep Shearing. — Although sheep shearing is 
not generally thought of as one of the heavier tasks 
of the farm, it is safe to say that there are few others 
which leave the operator more tired when night 
comes, the work being particularly trying on the 



486 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

muscles of the arm and wrist. One of the most effec- 
tive and inexpensive sheep shearing outfits ever 
brought to the writer's attention was constructed by 
an Ohio farmer and consisted of a i H. P. gasoline 
engine mounted in a light wagon and belted to the 
shafts which operated two horse clippers. Very little 
alteration was needed excepting in the shape of the 
blades. The framework which supported the shearing 
arms was adjustable and could be readily moved to 
the extreme end of the rig when in operation and slid 
forward to the center of the buggy box when on the 
road. The entire outfit is easily hauled about with 
one horse, and w^orking full capacity it uses less than 
a gallon of gasoline per day. 

593. In the Poultry Yard. — In the poultry yard, 
aside from the usual work of shelling and grinding 
feed, the uses of the small power gasoline engine are 
numerous. Bones, instead of being buried or burned 
or thrown about the place, are thrown into the hopper 
of the cutter and reduced to good poultry tonic by the 
boys of the place for the fun of seeing the engine go. 
The straw is cut into short lengths and clover hay 
chaffed into meal. Water can always be handy and 
the roosts and inside of the building kept thoroughly 
sprayed out and cleansed and disinfected. Outside, 
the whitewash spray pump takes the place of the 
brush, and fills the crevices better besides doing it 
so much more quickly that it is done wnth greater fre- 
quency. Coops and all parts of the poultry plant will 
be kept in better repair because there is more time for 
it, and it can be done with so much less work. 

594. The Road to Market. — Aside from the things 
we eat, the value of what the farmer produces is after 
all finally determined largely by the proximity of his 
markets and his means of reaching them. Distance 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 



487 



1 






H 




1 


1 




1 



o 



488 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

alone is not the measure of remoteness. An im- 
briclged river, with no boat at hand, might cut a seri- 
ous amount of profit off from produce that would 
have a high commercial rating on the other side of 
the stream. The stream of mud, the channel of im- 
passable roads between the farm and its nearest mar- 
ket has sometimes been an equal menace to profit ; 
but now that the mud is being removed, and the bad 
roads in some measure done away with, actual mileage 
distance can be more directly reduced. Even this the 
gasoline engine has done much to overcome. 

Taking the country over the average team haul of 
wheat, to place it on the market is 9.4 miles, at a cost 
per ton of 19c. ; the average haul of cotton has been 
1 1.8 miles, at a ton mile cost of 27c. After a limited dis- 
tance the cost of hauling by team increases rapidly, as 
the reasonable endurance limit of the horse is ap- 
proached. The cost of hauling by motor decreases with 
the distance, the main expense being the handling of 
the load at either end of the trip. On the road the cost is 
very slight. This fact is an important one, both to the 
farmer and the man to whom he sells, because, as the 
population of the cities increases faster than the pro- 
ducing capacity of the territory around them, a larger 
area must be levied upon for the same quantity of 
supplies for each person; that is, the haulage distance 
is becoming greater. It has now outgrown the capac- 
ity of the horse and requires that of some other power. 
To a great extent railroads have taken and will con- 
tinue to take this place ; still there must be some 
means of connecting even the local station with the 
farm, and more and more is it becoming necessary for 
the farmer to handle his produce in the most economi- 
cal manner, by taking it in larger quantities ; by re- 
ducing the time required for each trip. 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 489 

Again the gasoline engine has met this new farm- 
ing condition. With the automobile at hand the road 
to town has been reduced at least 60 per cent., or, put 
in another way, the area of farming land now within 
reasonable market distance from the city is increased 
from four to eight times. In the matter of truck farm- 
ing alone the average haul was formerly 3 miles, a 
total acreage of 28.26 square miles. Improved roads 
finally raised the average haul to 6 miles, and threw 
open to each market an available area of 112.9 square 
miles. In these same good road communities the 
automobile has considerably more than doubled this. 

The above facts are considerably modified by the 
additional truth that, while only 80 years ago but 4 
per cent, of the population of the United States lived 
in cities, that percentage has now increased to over 40 
per cent. This means a smaller proportion of agri- 
cultural producers ; about 30 to every 100 inhabitants, 
as against a former 96 out of 100. The demand, then, 
is extending, and, while the average production per 
acre has also increased, the necessary hauling dis- 
tance, the territory that must be levied upon by each 
trade center, has been extended, from the capacity of 
the horse to that of the automobile and the motor car. 
Through good roads the cost per ton mile of horse 
haulage, as has been proved by experiment, may be 
reduced to lOc. but the cost of the same for a motor 
car is already only 3c. over good roads, a difference 
of $840 per 1,000 tons of country produce delivered, 
to be divided between producer and consumer, figur- 
ing on a twelve-mile haul. 

595. Building Home Memories. — "My recollections 
of the farm," declared a successful merchant several 
years ago, "consist of going barefooted through the 
frosty grass along about daylight after the cows ; in 



490 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

having to carry the wash water up a steep hill from 
the spring before breakfast, in order to get time for 
gathering sheaves after the cradlers and binders in 
the stubbly grain field the rest of the day^ of hav- 
ing to go out after supper for another load of hay, 
and then of hunting up the cows again and helping 




Fig. 179. — Home ^Memories. 

to milk them until after bedtime : of seeing my mother, 
sober-faced and weary, dragging herself, day after 
day, about the house with her entire life centered upon 
the drudgery of her kitchen and all the rest of the 
world a closed book to her; of seeing my father, 
broken down with long hours and hard work, finally 
relieved of the task of paying for the old place — just 
a few months before he died. I know that those early 
discouragements hardened me to meet those I have 
since met; that the strenuous life I lived in my child- 
hood did much to fit me out with habits of industry 
that have brought me success — that it equipped me 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 491 

with a bitter prejudice and an intense hatred of farm 
life. I know that the conditions there are different 
now, but my whole life, in spite of that, has been 
shadowed in a measure by certain mempries which I 
cherish, against my will, of the old farm. The man 
or woman who has been deprived of sweet home mem- 
ories in childhood has missed the best of life, and I 
still hate the farm for so depriving me." 

That merchant was right and wrong; wrong in 
permitting a prejudice to distort the experience of an 
individual into a type condition ; right in the extent 
to which old home memories may exert their influence 
and teach their lessons long after the home itself has 
nothing left but memory. No material results can 
ever equal the far-reaching influences they may be 
made to wield upon the man or w^oman all through 
life, if rightly exerted upon the child. Is not, then, 
all that will help materially in elevating those home 
memories, in lifting them out from the slums and 
ditches of drudgery more potent in the uplifting of 
the child than any material wealth that we can give 
him? So long as prejudice endures, the industrial 
status of farming will be judged by its influence upon 
the memories of our young people — whether it leaves 
with them impressions of a drudgery that is little 
above that of the animals of the field, or whether 
the recollections are linked up with intelligent appli- 
cation, a busy life, perhaps, but one wherein the su- 
perior brain power which has been given to the human 
race is not degraded into sheer brute force. On these 
old memories depends not only the industrial choice 
of the boy, but the respect of the man for farm work, 
country life, and the old home ; and no other single 
phase of the standing of agriculture in the world of 
industry so surely determines her place in the realm 



492 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

of intelligence as does the story of the power that 
turns her wheels ; whether it be expressed in terms of 
brute force or intelligence ; of animal muscle or of that 
greatest achievement of the human race — mechanical 
power. 



CHAPTER XXIX. 

THE IDEAL FARM. 

596. A Look into To-morrow. — It does not seem 
inappropriate, even in a semi-technical work, this 
hasty glimpse at the ethical side of life, when we 
consider that it is a legitimate feature of all life of 
which the farmer no longer has occasion to be de- 
prived. The yesterdays of agriculture were days of 
toil and patient effort ; those of to-morrow, we who 
have faith in her believe, will be days of achievement. 
One of the most coldly practical problems of to-day, 
then, is best answered by a brief study of the path 
directly ahead. Along what industrial lines may w^e 
best advance ; what use shall we make of this new 
mechanical force — power? 

597. Summary of the Complete Farm Home. — 
Somewhere, looking into the future, we can see, in- 
stead of the overworked, heat-tortured horses of the 
past, a vision of unwearying engines drawing behind 
them the most efficient weapons of conquest in the 
world's battle for bread which the world's best brains 
can produce, the speed, the depth of culture ; the best 
mechanical aids to plant growth that can be produced, 
without regard to capacity limits, and only consider- 
ing highest efficiency. Season conditions will count 
for little, because, with the forces in hand, the man 
work of weeks may be done in a day, perhaps in an 
hour. No form of mechanical efficiency, whether it 
be deeper cutting, more complete ])ulverization, or a 

493 



494 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

more thorough mixing of air with every grain of earth, 
will be lacking. The factory of yesterday and of to- 
day, so perfectly equipped to the finest details in 
quickly, cheaply, and effectively carrying out every 
constructive process that requires to be done in the 
conversion of raw material into the finished loaf or 
fabric, will just as effectively to-morrow perform 
every needed operation in converting the elements of 
the earth and air into her useful products. The one 
constructive word of the future will be efiiciency, in- 
stead of capacity, on the farm as elsewhere. Greater 
and better crops will be raised, and raised more 
cheaply, because the soil will be, not once, but always 
put in the best possible condition for feeding plant 
growth. The climatic and weather accidents of agri- 
culture will exert no more important influence upon 
the output of the farm than of the factory. A com- 
plete system of drainage will remove the terrors of 
excess rainfall. Irrigation will guard against danger- 
ous droughts. Frosts will be controlled, insect pests 
conquered, fungus diseases overcome, most of them, 
perhaps, through the pumping systems of to-day — and 
of to-morrow — all made possible only through this 
general application of limitless power. 

The harvests will also be under the most complete 
control ; the reaping, the gathering in, under the best 
of mechanical conditions ; the separating of the grain 
from the chaff ; the conversion of each to its own most 
efficient use ; the conservation of it all with chemical 
exactness. Because of available power the seed bins 
that are filled with grain that is faultless will be the 
rule. Because of the better developed and better used 
cleaning machinery the crops of the field will supply 
very little that is weeds or waste. The balanced ra- 
tion will be the rule instead of the exception ; it 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 495 

will insure a richer production of milk and of butter 
fat which engine driven mechanism will work up to 
the last degree of food efficiency. 

In the house, as in the fields and barns, this glimpse 
into the future shows equal changes. Work is not 
eliminated — who would wish it — but it is made to 
produce a higher degree of efficiency, and without 
sacrifice of the intellectual and the ethical side of life. 
The tasks of the day will be of a nature that w^ill ex- 
pand, broaden. Life will be uplifted by them to a 
higher plane instead of feeling that constant tugging 
downward to a level with animal life. Effort will 
mean achievement and duty growth ; growth not alone 
of the biceps or the pocketbook, but mind growth, 
soul growth, greater wealth of independent thought, 
a working out along those lines of inspiration that, in 
the fetters of yesterday's drudgery, were merely air- 
castles ; that in the atmosphere of this new inspira- 
tion become the true ideals of hope for us to work out. 

598. How the Gasoline Engine Makes It Possible. 
— How does the gasoline engine make this possible? 
By intelligent work; by releasing us from the fetters 
of muscular limits. With the constant grind of get- 
ting the most pressing tasks done as well as the cir- 
cumstances will permit removed, there comes in its 
place a new pride in reaching out toward the very 
best results that can by any possibility be attained. 
The soul-killing contest with hard necessity will be- 
come a spirited rivalry with progress, a desire to test 
her every possibility. Animal life considers only the 
ways and means of getting a living. Intellectual lives 
are constantly concerned in getting the best possible 
values out of life, the values weighed by constantly 
broadening standards and the best moral ideals. 

599. When Dreams Come True. — It is the old 



496 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

story of the man with the hoe against the man with 
the automobile. The ideals of the one are controlled 
by the limiting capacities of his owui physical endur- 
ance ; those of the other are expressed in terms of 
the world's possibilities which are stretched before 
him, and the world constantly widens out to him as he 
advances. To the man in the ditch the sunset tells 
only a story of supper-time and another completed 
day of toil. To the man who directs him it brings 
glimpses of eternal beauty — lifts him into a new life 
of ethical enjoyment — out of his own. 



CHAPTER XXX. 
TABLES AND FORMULAS. 

600. Electrical Terms Defined. — Water is readily 
compared in much of its behavior with air, steam, 
and other invisible vapors and gases. For purposes 
of explanation it may be considered in connection with 
another kind of invisible fluid, electricity ; at least the 
exact meaning of some of the arbitrary terms used in 
electrical measurements may be more easil}^ under- 
stood by a comparison with the better known quali- 
ties and measurements of water. 

The Volt. — The tendency of water to rush out from 
the end of a pipe which conducts it from an elevated 
tank to some lower level depends upon the pressure 
of the column of water behind it and we speak of it 
as so many pounds pressure. The tendency of the 
electric fluid to rush from a higher to a lower potential 
— that is, to equalize the two — we measure and speak 
of as so many volts pressure, meaning much the same 
thing that we mean by pounds pressure in the other 
case. The volt is the electrical term denoting meas- 
urement of pressure or intensity. 

The Ampere. — If the end of the pipe were left open 
the water would not all be able to escape at once, but 
would have a rate of flow which would depend upon 
the size — that is, the carrying capacity — of the pipe 
and the pressure back of it. The electrical fluid also 
has its rate of flow through an electrical conducting 
medium, say a wire, to the measuring unit of which 

497 



498 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

we apply the term, not of gallons but of amperes. 
The ampere is the electrical term denoting the unit 
for measuring the rate of flow in the electrical current. 

The Ohm. — No more than a certain quantity of 
water per minute wall pass through a pipe of given 
size so long as the pressure is the same, but by in- 
creasing the elevation of the tank or by closing its 
top and forcing air or steam into it or by increasing 
the pressure in any way, we can force a greater 
amount of water through by increasing the rate of 
flow. This proves that there has been a certain 
amount of resistance to the. flow wdiich the greater 
pressure in some measure overcomes. That resist- 
ance is most of it friction. There is also a resistance 
to the flow of the electric current through the wire 
which we measure and speak of as so many ohms 
resistance. The ohm is the unit with which we meas- 
ure the resistance or friction of the electrical current. 
The resistance to the water depends upon the size and 
the shape of the pipe. The pressure behind it de- 
termines how rapidly it will be overcome. The resist- 
ance to the electric current depends upon the size and 
the nature of the w^ire, some kinds of material present- 
ing more electrical resistance or friction than others. 
How that resistance is overcome depends also upon 
the pressure behind the current. The size and length 
of the pipe and of the wire influence the amount of 
resistance in both cases. The ohm then is the elec- 
trical measurement unit of resistance. 

The Watt. — When the water flows from the pipe 
against a wheel its force enables it to turn the wheel 
or do work. The amount of this force depends upon 
the quantity of water being discharged and the rate 
at which it is flowing. We often speak of this energy 
in terms of horse-power. Wlien electricity is con- 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 499 

ducted against some mechanical device which it 
moves we measure this working energy in terms of 
the watt. It depends upon the quantity and rate of 
electrical flow, as in the case of water. The watt is 
the unit of electrical energy and is the product of the 
volt and the ampere. 

601. — Mutual Relation of These Measurements. — 
These units of electrical measurement have certain 
fixed relations with each other as well as with non- 
electrical measurement units. The volt is the force 
required to send one ampere of current through one 
ohm of resistance. The ampere is the current which 
one volt can send through one ohm of resistance. The 
ohm is the resistance which one ampere meets when 
impelled by one volt of force. 

One electrical horse-power is equal to 746 watts. 
One thousand watts make one kilowatt, which is equal 
to about I 1-3 horse-power. This is the standard unit 
of measure applied to the dynamo. 

From the above units it is possible to make most 
of the calculations needed either in gasoline engine 
ignition or in the electrical equipments which have 
been described as direct outgrowths of engine con- 
veniences. The volts multiplied by the amperes give 
the number of watts, which in turn can be reduced to 
terms of horse-power or of kilowatts, always remem- 
bering that, owing to friction, resistance of wires, etc., 
it requires more than a i 1-3-horse-power engine in 
practice to drive a kilowatt dynamo. 

The ordinary i6-candle-power carbon filament lamp 
requires about 50 watts. The 15-watt (low voltage) 
tungsten lamp gives about 12 candle-power and the 
25-watt lamp 20 candle. Most small residence light- 
ing plants are run at 30 volts. Fifty 12-candle-power 
tungsten lamps can be operated with a 2-horse-power 



500 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

engine at a cost of little more than 5 cents per hour 
for fuel. If not charged with more than its rated 
voltage a lamp should be good for from 600 to 1,000 
hours. 

602. The Fire Hazard. — Fire insurance companies 
were inclined at the first to be unreasonably exacting 
in relation to all things using gasoline, in part per- 
haps because the nature of the fluid is so generally 
not understood. They have had to relent in regard to 
the use of stoves. They are relenting toward gaso- 
line engines, because the general pressure is so great 
that they must either come with the popular move- 
ment or be left behind. Some general rules of instal- 
lation have, however, very properly been adopted by 
the National Board of Fire Underwriters, which every 
gasoline engine owner ought to read and observe. A 
copy can be obtained of any fire insurance agent. 
The substance of the more important rulings is here 
given. 

Location of Engine should, if possible, be on ground 
floor; if a wooden floor, 24 inches outside of engine 
must be protected by metal. In shops containing 
dust and inflammable material the engine must be 
enclosed in fire-proof compartment, opening to outer 
air at floor and ceiling. 

Supply Tank underground, if possible ; at least be- 
low level of lowest feed pipe and 30 feet or more from 
building; or tank may be in fire-proof ventilated vault 
or building with tank below level of lowest 
pipe. 

Piping shall be as direct as possible, with tested 
pipe only, and both feed and overflow pipe sloping so 
gasoline will all drain back into tank. Pipes must 
not be in trench occupied by other piping and open- 
ings through walls for their admission shall be se- 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 501 

curely sealed, water and oil tight. Vent and fill pipes 
jacketed to prevent freezing. 

Muffler on a firm foundation at least one foot from 
all combustible material. 

Exhaust Pipe must extend outside building and 6 
inches or more from combustible material. If car- 
ried through floor or partition, surround with metal 
thimble at least 6 inches bigger, the vertical section 
through floor covered with fire-proof covering. It 
must not discharge into chimney. 

Care and Attention. — Cylinder, valves and exhaust 
pipe to be cleaned as often as fuel renders necessary. 

Electric Wiring Rules. — A set of rules regarding the 
construction of gasoline engines is also issued and a 
list of all those engines approved by the Association 
of Underwriters also has quite an extended code of 
rules relating to the electric wiring of buildings, only 
a small part of which are digested here. When ob- 
served, they render electric lighting much safer than 
ordinary lamps. 

Nothing smaller than No. 14 wire allowed except 
for fixtures and pendent lamps. Joints must be me- 
chanically perfect and then soldered. Wire must not 
be laid in plaster or cement. Side wall wire must be 
protected by boxing or iron conduit 5 feet above floor ; 
floor wires must have similar protection, an inch air 
space all around wire in boxing being required. The 
maximum current allowed a rubber insulated No. 14 
wire is 12 amperes, or 16 with other insulation; No. 
12 wire permits 17 and 2^, respectively, and No. 10, 
24 and 32 amperes. All wires must be insulated ac- 
cording to approved specifications. Where passing 
through walls, partitions, floors or timbers, they must 
be carried in porcelain or glass bushings which reach 
entirely through. No wire shall be permitted nearer 



502 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

than one inch to metallic or other electrical conductor 
without being threaded through porcelain or glass or 
with some non-conducting or non-absorbing material 
between. Many special rules in relation to "con- 
cealed" wires, etc., and applying to all conceivable 
cases make it advisable for those who have much 
electric wiring to do to obtain a copy of the rules in 
full. In motor wiring underwriters have a general 
rule requiring all motor leads to have a carrying cur- 
rent capacity of 25 per cent, more than the full load 
rating of the motor, even though the full load is sel- 
dom given. 

603. Fire Fragments. — In case of a gasoline fire 
don't use water. Use sand, sawdust, earth or flour. 

In case of a kerosene fire don't use water. Use the 
same as for gasoline. 

In case of an alcohol fire USE water freely. It 
unites with the alcohol at once. 

If the clothing should catch, do not, under any cir- 
cumstances, run downstairs or out of doors. The 
first will bring the flames about the head, and the sec- 
ond will fan them into greater life. Lie down ; wrap 
closely in heavy rugs, blankets, or carpets. Keep the 
head down constantly, as all flames tend to shoot up- 
ward, and the most immediate danger is from inhaling 
them. 

If the engine room or building gets on fire keep 
cool ; keep doors and windows shut. If caught inside, 
keep near the floor and get to a window at once. At 
all events, keep as far away from the gasoline supply 
as possible. 

604. Heat Values. — A British thermal heat unit 
(B. T. U.) is the quantity of heat required to raise 
one pound of pure water one degree Fahrenheit at or 
about 39 degrees. Like all other standards of weight 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 503 

and measure it is a purely arbitrary term used for the 
unit with which we compare and measure heat. 

I B. T. U. equals 778 foot-pounds. 

I H. P. equals 33,000 foot-pounds per minute. 

Therefore i H. P. equals 42.42 B. T. U. per minute; 
that is, 33,000 divided by 778. 

Of the more common engine fuels gasoline contains 
from 18,000 to 22,000 B. T. U. per pound, gasoline 
vapor the same, petroleum from 18,000 to 20,000. 

605. Thermal Efficiency. 

Heat converted into work 25 per cent. 

Heat lost through walls and cooling sys- 
tem 50 " 

Heat lost through exhaust 15 *' 

Heat lost through friction 10 " 



100 



The average thermal efficiency of gas, gasoline and 
oil engines is around 20 per cent., and the reasonable 
range from 10 to 2J or 28. The real efficiency of use- 
fulness can be somewhat increased by utilizing the 
waste heat for other purposes, but seemingly not at 
present in the engine. 

The thermal efficiency of the ordinary steam engine 
is seldom more than 12 per cent., excepting as use 
can be made of the exhaust steam. Triple-expansion 
steam engines using steam pressure of 200 pounds per 
square inch or more sometimes reach nearly or quite 
25 per cent, of thermal efficiency. 

606. Horse-power Formulae. — To compare four- 
cycle engines. — Square the diameter of the piston in 
inches, multiply by the number of cylinders, the 
length of stroke in inches, the revolutions per minute,, 
and divide by 16,000. 



504 . The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

Rule of the Royal Auto Club. — Add the diameter to 
the length of stroke, square the sum, multiply by 
number of cylinders and divide by 9.92. 

Another rule. — Multiply the radius (half the di- 
ameter) of the cylinder by the stroke, then by 3.1416 
or 3 1-7. This gives the total cubic inches. Divide 
by 10 for horse-power. 

Another. — Square the diameter, multiply by stroke, 
then by number of cylinders ; then divide by 12. 

By working out these different formulae it will be 
seen that there is quite a wide discrepancy in results. 
The only really trustworthy test is the brake test, and 
even that is only relatively accurate. 

607. The Brake Test. — A home-prepared brake 
test may be rather easily applied by fastening twine 
or rope to the crank shaft of the engine in such a 
manner that it can be wound up like a windlass. This 
may be done by rigging an extension of the shaft 
beyond the fly wheel. The twine should be free from 
knots and should be lowered out of an upper window 
of the barn or some high place in which a pulley can 
be fastened for the string to run in. At the lower end 
a weight is attached that will just cause the motion of 
the engine to slack down but still continue to run. 
Note the exact position of weight and accurately note 
the time in which this weight is wound up to the 
point from which it is suspended, then measure the 
distance it is raised. Multiply the weight by the dis- 
tance it has been raised (the work done by the motor) 
and then divide by the number of minutes or the frac- 
tion of a minute it has been in doing it. The result 
will be the number of foot-pounds lifted by the engine 
in one minute. By dividing this by 33,000 the num- 
ber of horse-power can be determined. 

608. The Prony Brake Test.— The prony brake is 



The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 505 

the standard popular means of determining the real 
power of an engine at the belt wheel, two forms of 
which are illustrated in chapter XIV of this work. 
A is a timber (Fig. 82) cut to fit over the belt pulley 
of an engine. To the lower side is attached a wide 
leather or heavy canvas band by means of two springs, 
the belt being passed around the wheel and secured 
at the other end to a bolt, C, which may be shortened 
slowly by turning down the nut. Just three feet from 
the vertical line which passes from the timber down- 
ward through the center of the engine shaft, the other 
end of the timber is supported to a spring balance — 
one with a capacity of 25 pounds is sufficient for a 
small engine. In case the spring balance is not at 
hand a pail, working over a pulley and into which 
weights may be dropped, will do as well. 

The engine is started with belt band loose so as not 
to interfere ; then nut at C is taken up until band 
tightens so that the engine begins to slow down. 
Note the reading on the balance, which is the down- 
ward pull the engine is exerting on the band ; then 
with a speed indicator take the number of revolutions 
per minute the engine is making. If no indicator is 
handy tie a bit of string to one of the slow-moving 
shafts which is geared to the crank shaft, and count 
the number of revolutions per minute that it makes. 
After stopping the engine turn the wheel over by 
hand and count the revolutions necessary for it to 
make while the string and shaft are revolving once. 
The number of revolutions the small wheel makes in 
one minute multiplied by the number of times the 
fly wheel revolves to each revolution of the small one 
will give the number of revolutions of the belt or fly 
wheel per minute when the test was being taken. 

The pull on the balance (or the weight in the pail) 



5o6 The Gasoline Engine on the Farm 

which the engine exerted represents the energy with 
which it tried to swing the weight around in a circle, 
the radius of which is the distance from the center of 
energy or the center of the belt wheel to the point 
where weight or balance was attached, in this case 
three feet. Twice this distance or six feet would be 
the diameter of the circle, and this multiplied by 
3.1416 gives the circumference of revolution or the 
distance through which the engine was exerting its 
pulling energy each revolution. If we multiply this 
result by the number of revolutions made per minute 
we would get the total distance through which the 
weight was lifted in one minute and multiplying this 
by the number of pounds in the weight would give 
the total foot-pounds lifted per minute. Dividing by 
33,000 gives us the required horse-power which the 
engine will deliver at the belt under full load. 



INDEX 



Accessories of Feed Room, 
361. 

Action of Differential Gear, 
296. 

Action of Dry Battery, 114. 

Adaptability of Gasoline En- 
gines, 257. 

Adjustment Changes Governor 
Action, 134. 

Adjustment of Carburetor, 108. 

Adjustment of Carburetor 
Float Valve, 109. 

Adulterants of Lubricants, 
211. 

Advantages of Deep Plowing, 
280. 

Advantages of Dry Cells, 117. 

Advantages of Gasoline En- 
gine, 36. 

Advantages of Heavy Gasoline 
Engines, 255. 

Advantages of Kerosene, 194. 

Advantages of Light Gasoline 
Engines, 255. 

Advantages of Magneto, 173. 

Advantages of Simple En- 
gines, 256. 

Advice for Use of Shafting, 
315- 

Aerating Milk Before Bot- 
tling, 434. 



A Good Feeding Plan, 358. 

Air and Gasoline Mixtures, 
103. 

Air Cooled Gasoline Engine, 
142. 

Alcohol, Advantages of, 198. 

Alcohol as Engine Fuel, 198. 

Alcohol, Peculiarities of, 199. 

Alcohol, Weaknesses of, 198. 

Animal and Vegetable Oils, 
208.. 

Animal Power, Method of 
Using, 34. 

Anti-Freezing Cooling Mix- 
tures, 146. 

Automatic Carburetors, 103. 

Automatic Drag Saw Rig, 384. 

Asbestos Mill Board Pack- 
ings, 69. 

Automatic Troughs, Home- 
made, 363. 

Average Life of Horse, 281. 



B 



Babbitt Bearings, Casting, -^^y. 
Babbitt Metal Bearings, 324. 
Babbitt Metal, Nature of, 324. 
Babbitting a Split Box, 328. 
Backfiring, Causes of, 241. 
Backfiring in Carburetor, 106. 
Bad Air, Effects of, 88. 
Balancing Pulleys, 316. 



507 



5o8 



Index 



Ball Bearings for Shafting, 

324- 
Batteries, Method of Testing, 

229. 
Battery of Dry Cells, 116. 
Bearing Lubricants, 207. 
Bearings, Babbitting of Split 

Box. 328. 
Bearings, Ball, 324. 
Bearings for Gas Engine 

Crank Shafts, 150. 
Bearings for Shafting, 323. 
Bearings for Shafting, Babbitt 

Metal, 324. 
Bearings, Linings and Bushes, 

156. 
Bearings, Roller for Shafting, 

323- 
Bearings, Why They Heat, 

157. 
Belt Capacity, Rule for Fig- 
uring, 334. 
Belt Hints, 338. 
Belt Lacing, 340. 
Belt Lacing, Hook, 343. 
Belt Lacing, Wire, 343. 
Belts and Belting, 330. 
Belts, Canvas, 331. 
Belts, Dressings for, 333- 
Belts, Faults of, 330. 
Belts, Leather, 331. 
Belts, Length of, 335. 
Belts, Method of Cementing, 

343- 
Belts, Requirements of, 331. 
Belts, Rubber, 331. 
Belts, Sizes Required, 333. 
Belts, Speed of, 335. 
Belts, Slipping of, 336. 
Belts, Splicing Gandy, 344. 
Belts, Useful Kink, 339. 
Best Material for Piston, 73. 



Best Size of Gasoline Engine, 

247. 
Bevel and Miter Gearing, 348. 
Boring the Cylinder, 53. 
Brake Horsepower, 252. 
Bushings for Connecting 

Rods, 80. 

C 

Call of the Farm, 34. 

Canvas Belts, 331. 

Carbon Deposits, Cause of 
Preignition, 64. 

Carbon Deposits, Softening 
with Kerosene, 70. 

Carbon Deposits, Symptoms 
of, 66. 

Carbon in Lubricants, 205. 

Carbonizing, Cause and Ef- 
fects, 63. 

Carburetor, Adjusting Float, 
109. 

Carburetor Defects, Back- 
firing, 106. 

Carburetor Defects, Flooding, 
106. 

Carburetor, How It Vaporizes 
Gasoline, 102. 

Carburetor Troubles, Elimi- 
nating, 105. 

Carburetors, Automatic, 103. 

Carburetors, IMethod of Ad- 
justment, 108. 

Carburetors, Method of Prim- 
ing, 107. 

Carburetors, Miscellaneous 

Hints, 109. 

Carburetors, Size of, 107. 

Care and Repair of Piston 
jMembers, 82. 

Care of Dry Cells, 117. 

Care of Gears, 355. 



Index 



509 



Care of Governor, 139. 

Care of Leather Gear Wheels, 

351- 

Care of Magneto, 127. 

Care of Water Cooling Sys- 
tems, 145. 

Casting Babbitt Bearings, 327. 

Causes of Carbonizing, 63. 

Causes of Bearing Heating, 
157. 

Causes of Defective Compres- 
sion, 59. 

Causes of Faulty Valve Seat- 
ing, 88. 

Cementing Belts, 343. 

Centrifugal Governor, 137. 

Centrifugal Pump for Irriga- 
tion, 406. 

Centrifugal Pumps, Limita- 
tions of, 407. 

Centrifugal Pumps, Suction 
Lift, 408. 

Centrifugal Pumps, Types of^ 
407. 

Changing Governor Action by 
Adjustment, 134. 

Churning by Power, 434. 

Circle Saw Outfit, Portable, 
378. 

Circulating System of Water 
Cooling, 143. 

Cleaning Cylinder Without 
Removing Head, 70. 

Cleaning Piston and Rings, 
17- 

Cleaning the Cylinder, 66. 

Clearance of Cylinder, 59. 

Clutch, Function of, in Tract- 
ors, 294. 

Cold Test of Lubricants, 204. 

Comparing Steam and Gas 
Tractor, 292. 



Comparing Two-Cycle and 
Four-C3'cle Engine, 146. 

Compensating or Differential 
Gearing, 296. 

Complete Electric Lighting 
System, Z144. 

Compressing Gas, Value of, 56. 

Compression, Effect on Effi- 
ciency, 58. 

Compression, Effects of 

Faulty, 59. 

Compression, Effect on Fuel 
Consumption, 58. 

Compression, How Obtahied, 
56. _ 

Compression, Limits of, 57. 

Compression, Locating Leaks, 
60. 

Compression, Method of Test- 
ing, 60. 

Compression, Reason for, 55. 

Concentric Piston Rings, 75. 

Cone and Stepped Pulleys, 
322. 

Connecting Battery to En- 
gine, 118. 

Connecting Rod Bushings, 80. 

Connecting Rod Design, 80. 

Connecting Rod Lubrication, 
81. 

Connecting Rods, Materials 
for, 80. 

Connecting Rod Types, 80. 

Connections for Gasoline 
Tanks, 186. 

Construction of Drag Saw, 
381. 

Construction of Dry Battery, 

115- 
Construction of Piston, 72. 
Construction of Piston Rings, 

75- 



510 



Index 



Construction of Spark Plug, 

120. 

Continuous Water Supply, by 
Open Troughs. 362. 

Continuous Water Supply, 
Objections to, 361. 

Controlling Engine Tempera- 
ture. 140. 

Controlling Gasoline Engines, 

133- 
Convenient Rule for Belt Size, 

334- 

Cooling Hot Engine, 238. 

Copper-Asbestos Packings, 69. 

Cost of Irrigation, 404. 

Cost of Tractor Farming, 288. 

Covering Iron Pulleys, 319. 

Crank Shaft Lubrication, 81. 

Crank Shaft of Gasoline En- 
gines, 151. 

Crank Shafts, Counterbal- 
anced, 152. 

Crank, Use in Starting En- 
gine, 275. 

Cream Separator, Power Op- 
erated. 431. 

Cultivating bv ]\Iotor Cvcle, 
464. 

Cure for Slipping Belts, 2>2>7- 

Current Production, by ]Mag- 
neto, 123. 

Cycle of Operations in Gaso- 
line Engine, 44. 

Cylinder, Best ^Material for. 

Cylinder, Boring the, 53. 

Cylinder Clearance, 59. 

Cylinder Clearance, Decreas- 
ing, 61. 

Cylinder, Defects in, 54. 

Cylinder Demands Best Foun- 
dry Work, 52. 



Cylinder, 

53- 
Cylinder. 
Cylinder 

Packing 
Cylinder, 

Design, 
Cylinder, 
Cylinder. 
Cylinder. 

'66. 
Cylinder, 



Finish by Grinding, 

Functions of, 51. 
Head, Method of 
, 69. 

Influence on Engine 
51- 

Lubricating, 62,. 
Lubricant for, 206. 
^lethod of Cleaning, 

Removal of, 67. 

D 



Dangers of Gasoline, 187. 
Dangers of Projecting Set 

Screws, 320. 
Decreasing Clearance, 61. 
Decreasing Clearance, Effect 

on Power. 62. 
Deep Plowing. Advantages of, 

280. 
Defective Compression. Causes 

of. 59. 
Defects in Cylinder Bore, 54. 
Defects of Dry Cells, 117. 
Defects of Piston, '/6. 
Defects of Piston Rings, ^6. 
Dehnition of Horsepower, 251. 
Deflnitions of Electrical 

Terms, 497. 
Depth of Engine Foundations, 

161. 
Design of Connecting Rods, 

80. 
Design of Fly Wheels, 154. 
Design of Piston Rings, y^. 
Differential Gear, Action Ex- 
plained, 297. 
Differential Gear, Action of, 

296. 



Index 



511 



Differential Gear, Function of, 
296. 

Dimensions of Gear Wheels, 
352. 

Disadvantages of Horse as 
Power Plant. 2SJ1,. 

Dish Washing by Engine Pow- 
er, 425. 

Disposal of ]\Ianiire on Fields, 
366. 

Distillate as Engine Fuel, 198. 

Distributing the Water for Ir- 
rigation, 412. 

Ditch Digging by Gasoline En- 
gine, 484. 

Double Ignition System, 128. 

Drag Saw, Construction of, 
381. 

Drag Saw Rig, Automatic, 

384. 

Dressings for Belts, 333. 

Dry Battery Action, 114. 

Dry Battery Construction, 115. 

Dry Cell Battery, Connecting 
to Engine, 118. 

Dry Cells, Advantages of, 117. 

Dry Cells, Care of, 117. 

Dry Cells, Connecting Into 
Batter}', 116. 

Dry Cells, Defects of, 117. 

Dry Cells, Good Arrange- 
ment of, 118. 

Dry Cells, Life of, 117. 



Eccentric Type Piston Rings, 

75- 
Effects of Bad Air, 88. 
Effects of Carbonizing, 63. 
Electric Current, Producing, 

114. 



Electric Lighting by Gas Pow- 
er, 441. 

Electric Lighting, Storage 
Battery for, 442. 

Electric Lighting System, 
Complete, 444. 

Electrical Conveniences^ 447. 

Electrical Ignition, 174. 

Electrical Ignition System, 
Testing for Faults, 228. 

Electrical Processes, 114. 

Electrical Terms Defined, 497. 

Electrical Terms, Relation of, 

499- 
Electrical Terms, the Ampere, 

497- 
Electrical Terms, the Ohm, 

498. 
Electrical Terms, the Volt, 

497- 

Electrical Terms, the Watt, 
498. 

Electrical Wiring, Rules for, 
501. 

Eliminating Carburetor Trou- 
bles, 105. 

Engine Accessories, 159. 

Engine for Gas Tractors, 

293- 
Engine for Workshop, 368. 
Engine Installation, Rules for, 

500. 
Engine Operated Vacuum 

Cleaner, 426. 
Engine Power for Ironing, 

422. 
Engine Room Abominations, 

179. 
Engine Room Cautions, 179. 
Engine Room Fittings, 174. 
Engine Room, Floor for, 176. 
Engine Room, Line Shaft, 177. 



512 



Index 



Engine Room, Mission of 
Paint, 178. 

Engine Room, Painting Muf- 
fler, 178. 

Engine Room, Provisions for 
Storing Oil, i75- 

Engine Room, the Work 
Bench, 176. 

Engine Room Ventilation, 176. 

Engine Speed Control, 133. 

Engine Temperature, Method 
of Controlling, 140. 

Engine Troubles, a Bit of 
Parting Advice, 243. 

Engine Troubles, a Few Igni- 
tion Facts, 232. 

Engine Troubles, a Suspected 
Timer, 234. 

Engine Troubles, a Few Sim- 
ple Questions, 226. 

Engine Troubles, Back-firing, 
241. 

Engine Troubles, Cause of 
Shocks, 232. 

Engine Troubles, Common, 
242. 

Engine Troubles, Faulty 
Transmission, 223. 

Engine Troubles, First Thing 
to Do, 226. 

Engine Troubles, Irregular, 
224. 

Engine Troubles, Knocking, 
242. 

Engine Troubles, Lack of En- 
ergy, 223. 

Engine Troubles, Lack of 
Power, 235. 

Engine Troubles, Misfiring, 
241. 

Engine Troubles, Operating, 
223. 



Engine Troubles, Origin of, 
224. 

Engine Troubles, Outside 
Knocking, 242. 

Engine Troubles, Overheat- 
ing, 237. 

Engine Troubles, Pounding, 
242. 

Engine Troubles, Pre-ignition, 
240. 

Engine Troubles, Speed Vari- 
ations, 239. 

Engine Troubles, Starting, 22^. 

Engine Troubles, Testing Bat- 
teries, 229. 

Engine Troubles, Testing Coil, 
230. 

Engine Troubles, Testing 
Electrical System, 228. 

Engine Troubles, Testing 
Magneto, 231. 

Engine Troubles, Test with 
System, 226. 

Equipment of Work Shop, 
368. 

Exhaust Port, Size of, 90. 

Exhaust Valve, Setting, 93. 

Explaining Dififerential Gear 
Action, 297. 

Extinguishing Gasoline Fires, 
193- 



Face of Gears for Tractor 
Transmissions, 295. 

Farm Dairy, Churning by 
Power, 434. 

Farm Dairy, Gasoline Engine 
in, 428. 

Farm Dairy, ]\Iilking Ma- 
chines for, 428. 



Index 



513 



Farm Dairy, Power Operated 
Separator, 431. 

Farm Water Supply Systems, 
422. 

Faulty Compression, Effects 
of, 59- 

Faulty Valve Seating, 88. 

Feed Grinding by Power, 356. 

Feed Grinding, When Conve- 
nient, 356. 

Feed Room Accessories, 361. 

Fighting Weeds by Gasoline 
Engine, 482. 

Filling Foundation Pit, 165. 

Filtering Lubricants 218. 

Finish of Gears, 346. 

Finding Size of Pulleys, 316. 

Fire Extinguishing, Rules for, 
502. 

Fires, Gasoline, How to Ex- 
tinguish, 193. 

Firing Charge by Compres- 
sion, 113. 

First Accomplishment of Trac- 
tion Engine, 277. 

First Gasoline Engine, 42. 

Fittings for Engine Room, . 
174- 

Flash Point of Lubricants, 
204. 

Flash Test of Lubricants, 211. 

Float Valve Adjustment, 109. 

Flooding Carburetors, 106. 

Floor for Engine Room, 176. 

Fluidity of Lubricants, 204. 

Flushing Out Gutters, 366. 

Fly Wheel Design and Con- 
struction, 154. 

Fly Wheels, Why Needed, 153. 

Foolish Economy in Lubrica- 
tion, 220. 

Force Feed Lubrication, 216. 



Forms of Farm Power, 34. 

Formulae for Horsepower, 503. 

Foundation Blue Print, Use 
of, 162. 

Foundations, Filling the Pit, 
165. 

Foundations for Engines, 161. 

Foundations for Engines^ 
Depth of, 161. 

Foundations for Gasoline 
Tanks, 185. 

Foundations, Lining Engine 
on, 167. 

Foundations, Leveling En- 
gines on, 169. 

Foundations, Locking Bolts in 
Place, 167. 

Foundations, Making a 

Frame, 165. 

Foundations, Making a Tem- 
plate, 165. 

Foundations, Material Need- 
ed, 164. 

Foundations, Placing Engine 
on, 167. 

Foundations, Portable Engine, 
171. 

Foundations, Preparing Mate- 
rial, 164. 

Foundations, the Final Set- 
ting, 167. 

Foundations, Vacuum Type, 
171. 

Foundations, Various Types 
of, 170. 

Four-Cycle Engine Operation, 
44. 

Four-Cycle Engine, Why Pre- 
ferred, 47. 

Frame for Foundation, 165. 

Frame of Gasoline Engine, 
149- 



514 



Index 



Fuel and Air Proportions, loi. 
Fuel Feed Pipe, Guarding, i86. 
Fuel Feed Pipe Joints, i86. 
Fuel for Engines, Alcohol, 198. 
Fuel for Engines, Distillate, 

198. 
Fuel for Engines, Gasoline, 

181. 
Fuel for Engines, Kerosene, 

194. 
Fuel for Engines, Notes on, 

199. 
Fuel Regulating Governor, 

135- 
Functions of Cylinder, 51. 
Function of Differential Gear, 

296. 
Function of Intake Port, 85. 
Functions of Piston, ^2. 



Gasoline, Changing from, 197. 
Gasoline, Common Risks with, 

191. 
Gasoline, Dangers of, 187. 
Garden and Small Farm Irri- 
gation, 408. 
Gasoline Engine, Air Cooled, 

142. 
Gasoline Engine, as Fruit 

Gatherer, 466. 
Gasoline Engine, as Post Hole 

Digger, 456. 
Gasoline Engine, as Utility 

Man, 38. 
Gasoline Engine, as Well Drill 

Power, 457. 
Gasoline Engine, Convertible, 

43- 
Gasoline Engine, Cycle of Op- 
erations, 44. 



Gasoline Engine, Ditching 

with, 484. 
Gasoline Engine, Effect on 

Farm Boy, 39. 
Gasoline Engine, First, 

42. 
Gasoline Engine, for Barn 

Hoist, 458. 
Gasoline Engine, for Churn- 
ing, 434- 
Gasoline Engine, for Farm 

Power, 36. 
Gasoline Engine, for Fighting 

Weeds, 482. 
Gasoline Engine, for Grain 

Tender, 460. 
Gasoline Engine, for Low 

Power Trucking, 454. 
Gasoline Engine, for Spray- 
ing, 387. 
Gasoline Engine, for Tractor 

Mower, 463. 
Gasoline Engine, for Wood 

Sawing, :i,T7. 
Gasoline Engine Foundations, 

Filling the Pit, 165. 
Gasoline Engine, Governor 

for, 137. 
Gasoline Engine, Harvesting 

Corn Crop, 478. 
Gasoline Engine, Helping the 

Binder, 470. 
Gasoline Engine, Hints for 

Starting, 265. 
Gasoline Engine, Household 

Uses for, 437. 
Gasoline Engine, Ice ^Making 

by, 435- 
Gasoline Engine, in Ideal 

Farm Home, 493. 
Gasoline Engine, in the Field, 

Z7- 



Index 



515 



Gasoline Engine, in the Hay 
Field, 472. 

Gasoline Engine, in the 
Kitchen, 38. 

Gasoline Engine, in the Poul- 
try Yard, 486. 

Gasoline Engine, in Road 
]\Iaking^ 481. 

Gasoline Engine, Making 
Spreader Work, 473. 

Gasoline Engine, Necessary 
Components of, 48. 

Gasoline Engine, Oiling New, 
264. 

Gasoline Engine, Operating 
Cream Separator, 431. 

Gasoline Engine, Otto, 43. 

Gasoline Engine, Plea for 
Small, 247. 

Gasoline Engine, Power Re- 
quired for Various Tasks, 
249. 

Gasoline Engines, Price of, 

257. 
Gasoline Engines, Second 

Hand, 263. 
Gasoline Engines, Selecting, 

245- 
Gasoline Engines, Setting, 

161. 
Gasoline Engines, Shelter for, 

173. 

Gasoline Engines, Shutting 
Down, 270. 

Gasoline Engines, Six and 
Eight Cycle, 47. 

Gasoline Engines, the Crank 
Shaft, 151. 

Gasoline Engines, the Person- 
al Hazard, 274. 

Gasoline Engines, Troubles 
Classified, 223. 



Gasoline Engines, Testing, 

259- 
Gasoline Engines, Things to 

Think About, 271. 
Gasoline Engines, Tying to 

Foundation, 164. 
Gasoline Engines, Types of, 

50. 
Gasoline Engines, Type Re- 
quired for Irrigation, 404. 
Gasoline Engines, Vacuum 

Cleaner Power, 426. 
Gasoline Engines, What to 

Let Alone, 269. 
Gasoline Fires, How to Ex- 
tinguish, 193. 
Gasoline, Grades of, 182. 
Gasoline, How Carburetor 

Vaporizes, 102. 
Gasoline, How Obtained, 182. 
Gasoline, Nature of, 181. 
Gasoline, Rules for Safety, 

190. 
Gasoline, Storage System for, 

183. 
Gasoline, Tank for, 184. 
Gasoline Tanks, Connections 

for, 186. 
Gasoline Tanks, Foundations 

for, 185. 
Gasoline Tanks, Joints for 

Pipes, 186. 
Gasoline, Tests of, 182. 
Gasoline Tractor Compared 

with Steam, 292. 
Gasoline Tractor, Starting, 303. 
Gasoline Tractor, What It Is 

Doing, 279. 
Gasoline Tractors, Power of, 

298. 
Gasoline Vapor, Mixing with 

Air, 103. 



5i6 



Index 



Gear Wheels, Bevel and Mi- 
ter, 348. 
• Gear Wheels, Cams, 349. 

Gear Wheels, Care of Leath- 
er, 351- 

Gear Wheels, Dimensions of, 
352. 

Gasoline Engine, Principle of, 
42. 

Gasoline Engine, Relation to 
Hired ]\Ian, 39. 

Gasoline Engine, Sheep Shear- 
ing with, 485. 

Gasoline Engine, Shortens 
Road to ^Market, 486. 

Gasoline Engine, Source of 
Power in, 43. 

Gasoline Engine, Style Re- 
quired, 246. 

Gasoline Engine, S3'stem in 
Starting, 264. 

Gasoline Engine, Tempera- 
ture in Cylinder, 44. 

Gasoline Engine, the Best 
Size, 247. 

Gasoline Engine, Thermal Ef- 
ficiency of, 503. 

Gasoline Engine, Turning on 
the Load, 261. 

Gasoline Engine, Use at 
Threshing Time, 475. 

Gasoline Engine, Vital Parts 
of, 47. 

Gasoline Engine, Watching 
New, 262. 

Gasoline Engine, Water 
Cooled, 142. 

Gasoline Engine, What Five 
Horsepower Will Do, 
249. 

Gasoline Engine, What Outfit 
Includes, 262. 



Gasoline Engine, What to Do 

with New, 261. 
Gasoline Engine, What Two 

Horsepower Will Do, 249. 
Gasoline Engine, Why Cooled, 

140. 
Gasoline Engines, Adaptability 

of, 257. 
Gasoline Engines, Advantages 

of Heavy, 255 
Gasoline Engines, Advantages 

of Light, 255. 
Gasoline Engines, Advantages 

of Simplicity, 256. 
Gasoline Engines, Arrange- 
ment of Main Bearings, 150. 
Gasoline Engines, Attention 

Required, 268. 
Gasoline Engines, Controlling, 

133- 

Gasoline Engines, Cooling 
Hot, 238. 

Gasoline Engines, Cylinder 
Oil for, 206. 

Gasoline Engines, Dish Wash- 
ing by, 425, 

Gasoline Engines, Electrical 
Knowledge for, 114. 

Gasoline Engines, for Electric 
Lighting, 441. 

Gasoline Engines, for Farm 
Women, 416. 

Gasoline Engines, for Ice Cut- 
ter, 435. 

Gasoline Engines, for the 
Housewife, 447. 

Gasoline Engines, Foundations 
for, 161. 

Gasoline Engines, Frames of, 
149. 

Gasoline Engines, Fuel for, 
181. 



Index 



517 



Gasoline Engines, Function of 
Fly Wheel, 153. 

Gasoline Engines, Getting Up 
Power, 267. 

Gasoline Engines, Heart of, 
99. 

Gasoline Engines, Mounted, 
172. 

Gasoline Engines, Main Bear- 
ings of, 155. 

Gasoline Engines, Overhaul- 
ing, 272. 

Gasoline Engines, Placing on 
Foundation, 167. 

Gear Wheels, External Spur, 
348. 

Gear Wheels, Finish of, 346. 

Gear Wheels, for Power 
Transmission, 246. 

Gear Wheels,, General Rules 
for Care of, 355. 

Gear Wheels, Ideal Order for, 
354- 

Gear Wheels, Intermittent, 349, 

Gear Wheels, Internal Spur, 
348. 

Gear Wheels, Alaterials for, 
346. 

Gear Wheels, Rawhide, 351. 

Gear Wheels, Spur Type, 348. 

Gear Wheels, Strength of, 353. 

Gear Wheels, Worm and Spi- 
ral Types, 349. 

General Care of Tractors, 311. 

General Construction of Tract- 
ors, 291. 

General Types of Gasoline En- 
gines, 50. 

Good Arrangement of Dry 
Cells, 118. 

Governing by Hit or Miss Sys- 
tem, 136. 



Governing by Regulating Fuel, 
135- 

Governing, Methods of, 135. 

Governor Action, Rules Con- 
cerning, 134. 

Governor, Care of, 139. 

Governor, Centrifugal Type, 
137- 

Governor, Ignition, 140. 

Governor, Pick Blade Type, 
138. 

Governor Pulley for Separator 
Drive, 432. 

Governor Pulley, How It 
Works, 433. 

Governor, Throttling, 137. 

Governors, Fuel Regulating, 

135- 
Governors, Hit or Miss, 136. 
Graphite as a Lubricant, 220. 
Gravity Oiling System, 214. 
Grease as a Lubricant, 220. 
Grinding, Advantages of, 53. 
Grinding Cob Meal, 360. 
Grinding Cylinder Bore, 53. 
Grinding Family Grists, 360. 
Gudgeon Pin, Material for, 79. 
Gums and Acids in Lubricants, 

205. 

H 

Hands, Protection of, 227. 
Harrowing with Tractor, 280. 
Hauling with Tractors, 310. 
Heat Measurement Units, 502. 
Hints for Care of Piston and 

Auxiliaries, 83. 
Hints for Starting Gasoline 

Engine, 265. 
Hit or Miss Governor, 136. 
H o m e-m ade Automatic 

Troughs, 363. 



5i8 



Index 



H o m e-m a d e Conveniences, 

Horseless Buggy, 454. 
Horn e-m a d e Conveniences, 

Light Power Tractors, 453. 
H o m e-m a d e Conveniences, 

Post Hole Digger, 456. 
H o m e-m a d e Conveniences, 

Power Saw, 468. 
H o m e-m a d e Conveniences, 

Self-Moving Engines, 452. 
H o m e-m a d e Conveniences, 

Well Drill, 457- 
Home-made Pulleys, 322. 
Home-made Tractors, 301. 
Hooks for Joining Belts, 343. 
Horse as Power Plant, Disad' 

vantages of, 283. 
Horse, Life of Average, 281. 
Horse, Work of While 

Plowing, 281. 
Horsepower, Brake, 252. 
Horsepower, Formulae, 503. 
Horsepower, Lidicated, 252. 
Horsepower, Nominal, 252. 
Horsepower, Purchasing, 253. 
Horsepower, Tractive, 253. 
Horsepower, What It Means, 

251- 

Hose for Spraying, 396. 

Hot Tube Ignition, 112. 

Household Conveniences Oper- 
ated by Electricity, 447. 

Household Uses of Gasoline 
Engine, 437. 

How Charge Is Compressed, 56. 

How Governor Pulley Works, 

433- 
How Lubricants Work, 202. 

I 

Ice Cutter, Gasoline Engine 
Operated, 435. 



Ice Making by Power, 435. 

Ideal Farm Home, 493. 

Ideal Farm Power, 36. 

Ideal Gear Wheel Order, 354. 

Ideal Work Shop Arrange- 
ment, 369. 

Ignition, by Compression, 113. 

Ignition, by Double System, 
128. 

Ignition, by Electricity, 114. 

Ignition, by Hot Tube, 112. 

Ignition, by Jump Spark, 121. 

Ignition, by Open Flame, 112. 

Ignition, Function of Spark 
Coil, 119. 

Ignition Governor, 140. 

Ignition, How Spark Fires 
Charge, 121. 

Ignition, j\Iake and Break, 121. 

Ignition. Problem of, iii. 

Ignition Systems, a Few Facts, 

22>2. 

Ignition, the Wiring System, 
130. 

Ignition, Timing, 131. 

Importance of Lubrication, 
201. 

Increasing Power by Decreas- 
ing Clearance, 62. 

Indicated Horsepower, 252. 

Induction Coils, Faults of, 230. 

Influence of Cylinder on De- 
sign, SI. 

Inlet Valve, Setting, 92. 

Inlet Valve, Testing, 92. 

Inspecting Valve System, 91. 

Intake Port, Size of, 86. 

Intermittent Gears, 349. 

Ironing by Engine Power, 422. 

Iron Pulleys, Covering, 319. 

Irrigation, Centrifugal Pump 
for, 406. 



Index 



519 



Irrigation, Cost of, 404. 
Irrigation, Distributing the 

Water, 412. 
Irrigation, Engine Required 

for, 404. 
Irrigation from Deep Wells^ 

409. 
Irrigation, Garden and Small 

Farm, 408. 
Irrigation, Kinks and Cau- 
tions, 415. 
Irrigation Plants, What They 

Contain, 402. 
Irrigation, Quantity of Water 

for, 402. 
Irrigation, When Necessary, 

400. 
Irrigation, Where Necessary, 

399- 
Irrigation, Why Needed, 399. 



Joints for Gasoline Pipes, 186. 
Jump Spark Ignition, 121. 



K 



Kerosene, Advantages of, 194. 
Kerosene as Engine Fuel, 194. 
Kerosene for Cutting Carbon, 

70. 
Kerosene, Objections to, 194. 



Lace Leathers, 341. 

Lacing Belts, 340. 

Lacing Belts, Methods of, 342. 

Laundry for Farm, Ironing by 
Power, 422. 

Laundry for Farm, Power Op- 
erated, 417. 



Laundry for Farm, Washing 
jMachines for, 419. 

Leaks, Method of Locating, 89. 

Learning to Guide the Tractor, 
306. 

Leather Belts, 331. 

Leather for Belt Lacing, 341. 

Length of Belts, 335. 

Leveling Engines on Founda- 
tions, 169. 

Life of Dry Cells, 117. 

Life of Horse, Average, 281, 

Limitations of Centrifugal 
Pumps, 407. 

Limits of Compression, 57. 

Line Shaft of Engine Room, 
177. 

Lining Engines on Founda- 
tions, 167. 

Linings and Bushes for En- 
gine Bearings, 156. 

Locating Leaks, 60. 

Locating Machines in Work 
Shop, 371. 

Locking Foundation Bolts, 167. 

Loose Pulley Troubles, 321. 

Loose Ring Lubrication, 216. 

Low Tension Magneto, 126. 

Lubricants, Amount of Carbon 
in, 213. 

Lubricants, Animal and Vege- 
table, 208. 

Lubricants, Carbon in, 205. 

Lubricants, Cold Test of, 204. 

Lubricants, Filtering, 218. 

Lubricants, Flash Point of, 
204. 

Lubricants, Flash Test of, 21 r. 

Lubricants, Fluidity of, 204. 

Lubricants, for Bearings, 207. 

Lubricants, for Engine Cylin- 
ders, 206. 



520 



Index 



LubricantSj Graphite, 220. 

Lubricants, Grease, 220. 

Lubricants, Gums and Acids 
in, 205. 

Lubricants, How They Work, 
202. 

Lubricants, Mineral Oils, 
209. 

Lubricants, Quantity of, 213. 

Lubricants, Testing for Acid, 
210. 

Lubricants, Testing for Adul- 
terants, 211. 

Lubricants, Testing for Gum, 
211. 

Lubricants, Testing for Vis- 
cosity, 210, 

Lubricants, Variety Needed, 
205. 

Lubricants, Viscosity of, 203. 

Lubricants, Waste of, 213. 

Lubricants, What They Are, 
203. 

Lubricating Systems, Gravity, 
214. 

Lubricating the Cylinder, 63. 

Lubrication, Foolish Economy 
in, 220. 

Lubrication, Force Feed, 216. 

Lubrication, Importance of, 
201. 

Lubrication, Loose Ring Sys- 
tem, 216. 

Lubrication of Connecting 
Rods, 81. 

Lubrication, Pressure System, 
216. 

Lubrication, Purpose of, 201. 

Lubrication Systems, Splash, 

215- 

Lubrication, Ten Command- 
ments of, 221. 



Lubrication, Through Carbu- 
retor, 217. 

M 

Machine Designers' Problem, 
34. 

Machinery, What It Has Done 
for Farm Women, 416. 

Magneto Action, 123. 

Magneto Advantages, 123. 

Magneto, Care of, 127. 

Magneto, Method of Testing, 
231. 

Magneto, How It Generates 
Current, 125. 

Magnetos, Low Tension, 126. 

Main Bearings of Gasoline 
Engines, 155. 

Make and Break Ignition, 121. 

Making Piston Rings, 75. 

Material, Best for Cylinder, 52. 

Material for Gudgeon Pin, 79. 

Material for Piston Rings, 75. 

Material for Packings, 69. 

Materials for Connecting 
Rods, 80. 

Materials for Gears, 346. 

Materials Needed for Engine 
Foundations, 164. 

Message of Traction Engine, 
277. 

Method of Locating Leaks, 89. 

Method of Priming Carburet- 
or, 107. 

Method of Proportioning In- 
take Port, 86. 

Method of Valve Grinding, 95. 

Methods of Governing, 135. 

Methods of Lacing, 342. 

Methods of Power Transmis- 
sion, 313. 



Index 



521 



Milking by Power, Vacuum 
Process, 428. 

Milking Cows by Gasoline 
Power, 428. 

Milking Machines, Power Op- 
erated, 428. 

Mineral or Hydrocarbon Lu- 
bricants, 209. 

Misfiring, Causes of, 241. 

Mixing Air and Gasoline Va- 
por, 103. 

Motorcycle Used for Cultivat- 
ing, 464. 

Mounted Gasoline Engines, 
172. 

Muffler, Use and Abuse, 97. 

N 

Nature of Babbitt Metal, 325, 
Nature of Gasoline, 181. 
Necessary Components of Gas- 
oline Engine, 48. 
Nominal Horsepower, 252, 
Notes on Engine Fuels, 199. 
Nozzles for Spraying, 394. 



Objections to Kerosene, 194. 

Object of Valve Timing, 91. 

Oiling New Engine, 264. 

Open Flame Ignition, 112. 

Open Jacket Water Cooling 
System, 142. 

Operating Cream Separator by 
Power, 431. 

Operation of Four-Cycle En- 
gine, 44. 

Otto Gasoline Engine, 43. 

Outfits for Spraying, 398. 

Overhauling Gasoline Engine, 
272. 

Overheating, Causes of, 237. 



Packing the Cylinder Head, 

69. 
Packing, Treatment of, 70. 
Packings, Asbestos Mill Board, 

69. 
Packings, Copper-Asbestos, 69. 
Packings, Material for, 69. 
Paint, for Muffler, 178. 
Paint, Its Mission in Engine 

Room, 178. 
Peculiarities of Alcohol, 199. 
Personal Hazard with Gasoline 

Engines, 274. 
Pick Blade Governor, 138. 
Piston and Auxiliaries, Care 

of, 83. 
Piston and Rings, Cleaning, 

77- 

Piston, Best Material for, 73. 

Piston, Construction of, 72, 

Piston Defects, 76. 

Piston, Design and Workman- 
ship, 73. 

Piston, Functions of, 72. 

Piston or Gudgeon Pin, 79. 

Piston Pin, Method of Propor- 
tioning, 79. 

Piston Pin, Pressure on, 79. 

Piston Ring Joints, 75. 

Piston Rings, Concentric Type, 
75- 

Piston Rings, Construction of, 

75- 

Piston Rings, Defects of, 76. 

Piston Rings, Design of, 73. 

Piston Rings, Eccentric Type, 

75. 
Piston Rings, Making, 75. 
Piston Rings, Material for, 75. 
Piston Rings, Purpose of, 73. 



522 



Index 



Piston Rings, Replacing, 78. 
Piston Rings, Removing, y2:. 
Piston Rings, Truing, 76. 
Plea for the Small Engine, 

247. 
Plowing with Tractor, 280. 
Plowing, Cost for Ten Hours 

with Tractor, 289. 
Plowing, Power Needed for, 

300. 
Portable Circular Saw Outfit, 

378. 
Portable Engine Foundations, 

171. 
Port and Valve System, 85. 
Power for the Farm, Forms 

of, 34- 
Power for the Farm, Gasoline 

Engine, 36. 
Power for the Farm, Ideal, 

Power Laundry for Farm, 417. 

Power Needed for Plowing, 
300. 

Power of Gasoline Tractors, 
298. 

Power of Gear Wheels, 353. 

Power Operated Wood Split- 
ter, 386. 

Power Required for Sawing, 

379- 

Power Required for Various 
Farm Tasks, 249. 

Power Saw, Home-made, 468. 

Power Transmission by Belts, 
330. 

Power Transmission by Gear 
Wheels, 346. 

Power Transmission by Ropes, 
345- 

Power Transmission by Shaft- 
ing, 313. 



Power Transmission Methods, 

313- 
Preignition Caused by Carbon, 

64. 

Preignition, Causes of, 240. 

Preparing Boxes for Bab- 
bitting, 324. 

Preparing ]\Iaterial for Engine 
Foundations, 164. 

Preparing to Start Tractor, 
303. 

Pressure on Piston Pin, 79. 

Pressure Sj'stem for Water 
Supply, 423. 

Pressure System of Lubrica- 
tion, 216. 

Price of Gasoline Engines, 257. 

Primary Circuit, What It In- 
cludes, 129. 

Principle of Gasoline Engine, 
42. 

Problem, Great Farm, t,^. 

Problem, Machine Designers, 
34- 

Problem of Ignition, iii. 

Producing Electric Current, 
114. 

Prony Brake Test, How 
Made, 505. 

Proportioning Piston Pin, 79. 

Proportions of Fuel and Air, 

lOI. 

Protecting the Hands, 227. 
Pulleys, Balance of, 316. 
Pulleys, Cone and Stepped, 

322. 
Pulleys, Covering, 319. 
Pulleys, Finding Size of, 316. 
Pulleys, Home-made, 322. 
Pulleys, Securing to Shaft, 

319- 
Pulleys, Split Wood, 317. 



Index 



523 



Pulleys, Straight and Crown - 
Face, 318. 

Pulleys, Tight and Loose, 321. 

Pulleys, Type of, 317. 

Pulleys, Use of, 318. 

Pumping Outfit for Spraying, 
392. 

Pumps for Deep Well Pump- 
ing, 409. 

Purchasing Horsepower, 253. 

Pure Gasoline Vapor, Not In- 
flammable, 181. 

Purpose of Farm Work Shop, 

Purpose of Lubrication, 201. 
Purpose of Piston Rings, 72>- 



Ratings, How Overload Af- 
fects, 254. 
Rawhide Gear Wheels, 351. 
Reassembling Engine, 67. 
Reason for Compressing 

Charge, 55. 
Removing Piston Rings, 78. 
Removing the Cylinder, 67. 
Replacing Cylinder, 67. 
Replacing Piston Rings, 78. 
Requirements of Belts, 331. 
Requirements of Small Farm 

Tractors, 285. 
Road iMaking by Gas Power, 

481. 
Road IMaking by Gas Power, 

Cost of, 481. 
Roller Bearings for Shafting, 

2,23. 
Rope Transmission, 345. 
Rubber Belting, 331. 
Rules Concerning Governor 

Action, 134. 



Rules for Electric Wiring, 501. 

Rules for Engine Installation, 
500. 

Rule for Figuring Beit Capac- 
ity, 334. 

Rules for Figuring Gear 
Wheels, 352. 

Rules for Fire Extinguishing, 
502. 

Rules for Safety When Using 
Gasoline, 190. 

Rule for Size of Exhaust Port, 
90. 

Rule for Size of Inlet Port, 86. 

Rule, General, for Valve Tim- 
ing, 94. 



Secondary Circuit, What It 
Includes, 129. 

Second Hand Gasoline En- 
gines, 263. 

Securing Pulleys to Shaft, 319. 

Selecting a Gas Engine, 245, 

Separator Drive by Governor 
Pulley, 432. 

Set Screw Dangers, 320. 

Setting Exhaust Valve, 93. 

Setting Gasoline Engines, 161. 

Setting Intake Valve, 92. 

Setting Up Wood Sawing Out- 
fit, 379- 

Shafting, Advice for Use, 315. 

Shafting Bearings, z^^- 

Shafting for Power Transmis- 
sion, 313. 

Shafts, Speed of, 316. 

Sheep Shearing with Gasoline 
Engine, 485. 

Shelter for Gasoline Engines, 
173. 



;24 



Index 



Shims, Use in Boxes, 328. 
Shutting Down Gasoline En- 
gines, 270. 
Simple Home Brake Test, 

504. 
Six and Eight Cycle Engines, 

47. 

Size of Carburetors, 107. 

Size of Intake Port, 86. 

Size of Belts Required, 333. 

Slipping Belts, 336. 

Slipping Belts, Cure for, 337. 

Small Farm Tractors, 283. 

Small Farm Tractors, Re- 
quirements of, 285. 

Source of Power in Gasoline 
Engine, 43. 

Spark Coil Functions, 119. 

Spark Follies, 132. 

Spark, How Formed, 120. 

Spark Plug Action, 120. 

Spark Plug Construction, 120. 

Speed Allowable with Tractor, 
310. 

Speed Controller, Mission of, 

133- 
Speed of Belts, 335. 
Speed of Shafts, 316. 
Speed Variations Caused by 

Governor, 239. 
Speed Variations in Engines, 

239- 
Splash System of Lubrication, 

215- 

Splicing Gandy or Canvas 
Belt, 344- 

Spraying, Effect on Yield, 398. 

Spraying, Good and Cheap 
Outfits, 398. 

Spraying, Good Pumping Out- 
fit, 392. 

Spraying, Hose for, 396. 



Spraving, Nature's ]\Iethod, 

388. 
Spraying, Nozzles for, 394. 
Spraying, Real Purpose of, 

388. 
Spraying, Successful Method, 

391. 
Spraying, Value of, 387. 
Spraying, Vermorel Nozzles 

for, 396. 
Spraying with Gasoline En- 
gine, 387. 
Spur Gearing, 348. 
Starting Engine with Crank, 

275- 
Storage Battery, Capacity of, 

442. 
Storage Battery for Electric 

Lighting, 442. 
Storage System for Water 

Supply, 422. 
Storing Oil in Engine Room, 

175- 

Straight and Crown Face Pul- 
leys, 318. 

Style of Gasoline Engine Re- 
quired, 246. 

Suction Lift of Centrifugal 
Pumps, 408. 

Summary of Complete Farm 
Home, 493. 

Symptoms of Carbon Deposit, 
66. 

System in Starting Gasoline 
Engine, 264. 



Temperature in Gas Engine 
Cylinder, 44. 

Template for Foundation, 165. 

Ten Lubricating Command- 
ments, 221. 



Index 



525 



Testing Batteries, 229. 

Testing Compression, 60. 

Testing Electrical Ignition 
S}-stem, 228. 

Testing for Acid in Oil, 210. 

Testing Gasoline Engines, 259. 

Testing Ignition System, 
Cause of Shocks, 232. 

Testing Ignition Timer, 234. 

Testing Induction Coils, 230. 

Testing Lubricants for Adul- 
terants, 211. 

Testing Lubricants for Gums, 
211. 

Testing Magneto, 231. 

Testing Oil for Viscosity, 210. 

The Balanced Ration, 358. 

The Dirt Menace, 'j'j. 

The Farm Wood Pile, 375. 

The Intake Port, Function of, 
85. 

Thermal Efficiency, 503. 

Threshing by Gas Power, 475. 

Throttling Governor, Action 
of, 137- 

Tight and Loose Pulleys, 
321. 

Timing Valves, Object of, 91. 

Timing Ignition, 131. 

Traction Engine, Its First Ac- 
complishment, 2^^. 

Traction Engine, Its Message, 

Tractive Horsepower, 253. 

Tractor Advantages That Ap- 
peal to Farmer, 280. 

Tractor Farming, Cost of, 288. 

Tractor, Harrowing with, 280. 

Tractor, Learning to Guide, 
306. 

Tractor Operation, in Mud- 
holes, 308. 



Tractor Operation, in Sand, 
308. 

Tractor Operation, on Bridges, 
309. 

Tractor Operation, on Hills, 
309- 

Tractor Operation, Speed Al- 
lowable, 310. 

Tractor Operation, When 
Turning, 307. 

Tractor, Plowing with, 280. 

Tractor, Preparing to Start, 
303. 

Tractor, Use as Cultivator, 
287. 

Tractors, Best Engine for, 
293- 

Tractors, Forms of Trans- 
mission, 291. 

Tractors for Small Farms, 283. 

Tractors, Gasoline, Power of, 
298. 

Tractors, General Care of, 311, 

Tractors, General Construc- 
tion of, 291. 

Tractors, Getting Out of Mud- 
holes, 307. 

Tractors, Hauling with, 310. 

Tractors, Home-made, 301. 

Tractors, Steam and Gasoline, 
Compared, 292. 

Tractors, Use of Clutch, 294. 

Tractors, Wheels for, 296. 

Transmission Gears, Face of, 

295- 
Transmission of Tractors, 291. 
Treatment of Packing, 70. 
Troubles, Gasoline Engine, 

Classified, 223. 
Troubles of Loose Pulleys, 

321. 
Truing Piston Rings, 'jd. 



526 



Index 



Two Boys and Motorcycle, 
464. 

Two-Cycle and Four-Cycle En- 
gines Compared, 46. 

Types of Centrifugal Pumps, 
407. 

Type of Pulleys, 317. 

Tying Engine to Foundation, 
164. 



U 



Unique Fruit Gatherer, 466. 
Units of Heat Measurement, 

502. 
Utilizing Animal Power, 34. 
Utilizing Waste Heat, 147. 
Use and Abuse of Aluffler, 97. 
Use of Foundation Blue Print, 

162. 
Use of Pulleys, 318. 
Useful Belt Kink, 339. 



Vacuum Cleaner, Engine Op- 
erated, 426. 

Vacuum Process of Milking 
Cows, 428. 

Vacuum Type Engine Founda- 
tion, 171. 

Value of Gas Compression, 56. 

Value of Thorough Spraying, 
387. 

Valve Grinding, Method, 95. 

Valve Grinding; When and 
How, 94. 

Valve System, Inspecting, 91. 

Valve Timing, 91. 

Valve Timing, General Rule 
for, 94. 

Valve Vagaries, 98. 



Variety of Lubricants Needed, 
205. 

Ventilation of Engine Room, 
176. 

Vermorel Nozzles for Spray- 
ing, 396. 

Viscosity of Lubricants, 203. 

Vital Parts of Gasoline En- 
gine, 47. 

W 

Washing Machines for Farm 
Laundry, 419. 

Waste Heat, Utilizing, 147. 

Water Cooled Gasoline En- 
gine, 142. 

Water Cooling, Amount of 
Water Needed; 145. 

Water Cooling, Anti-Freezing 
Mixtures, 146. 

Water Cooling, Open Jacket 
]\lethod, 142. 

Water Cooling Systems, Care 
of, 145- 

Water Cooling, the Circulat- 
ing System, 143. 

Water Needed for Cooling, 

145- 

Water, Quantity Needed for 
Irrigation, 402. 

Water Supply, Automatic 
Troughs, 363. 

Water Supply by Pressure 
System, 423. 

Water Supply by Storage Sys- 
tem, 422. 

Water Systems for Farms, 
422. 

What Five Horsepower En- 
gine Will Do, 249. 

What Gasoline Engine Outfit 
Includes, 262. 



Index 



527 



What Internal Combustion In- 
cludes, 4,3. 

What Lubricants Are, 203. 

What Old Farm Wagon Can 
Do, 455- 

What Primary Circuit In- 
cludes, 129. 

What Secondary Circuit In- 
cludes, 129. 

What the Gasoline Tractor Is 
Doing, 279. 

What Two Horsepower En- 
gine Will Do, 249. 

Wheels for Tractors, 296. 

When to Irrigate, 400. 

Where to Irrigate, 399. 

Why Irrigation Is Needed, 
399- 

Why Four-Cycle Engine Is 
Preferred, 47. 

Wire Belt Lacing, 343. 

U'iring of Ignition System, 
130. 

Wood Sawing Outfit, Setting 

Up, 379. 



Wood Sawing, Power Re- 
quired, 379. 

Work Bench for Engine 
Room, 176. 

Work of Horse While Plow- 
ing, 281. 

Wood Sawing, Drag Saw for, 
380. 

Wood Splitting by Power, 386. 

Work Shop Engine, Connect- 
ing to Work, 370. 

Work Shop, Engine for, 
368. 

Work Shop Engine, Placing, 
368. 

Work Shop Equipment, 368. 

Work Shop, Ideal Arrange- 
ment, 369. 

Work Shop, Its Purpose on 
Farm, 367. 

Work Shop, Locating Ma- 
chines, 371. 

Work Shop, Moral Benefits of, 
372. 

Worm Gears, 349. 



^^^s^ 




PRACTICAL SCIENTIFIC 
TECHNICAL 

EACH BOOK IN THIS CATALOGUE IS WRITTEN BY 

AN EXPERT AND IS WRITTEN SO YOU 

CAN UNDERSTAND IT 



THE NORiN I Wmi PUBUSmNIl COIPANy 

Publishers of Scientific and Practical Books 
132 Nassau Street New York, U. S. A. 



Any book in this Catalogue sent prepaid on receipt of price. 



SUBJECT INDEX 



PAGE 

Accidents 18 

Air Brakes 17, 19 

Arithmetics 20 

Automobiles 3 

Balloons 3 

Bevel Gears 14 

Boilers 22 

Brazing 3 

Cams 15 

Car Charts 4 

Change Gear 14 

Charts 3, 4, 22 

Chemistry 23 

Coal Mining 23 

Coke 4 

Compressed Air ^ 5 

Concrete 5 

Cyclopedia 4, 20 

Dictionaries 7 

Dies 7 

Drawing 8, 24 

Drop Forging 7 

DjTiamo 9, 10. 11 

Electricity 9, 10, 11, 12 

Engines and Boilers 22 

Factory [Management 12 

Flying Machines 3 

Fuel 13 

Gas Manufacturing , 14 

Gas Engines 13, 14 

Gears 14 

Heating, Electric 9 

Hot Water Heating 27 

Horse-Power Chart 4 

Hydraulics 15 

Ice Making 15 

India Rubber 25 

Interchangeable Manufacturing 20 

Inventions 15 

Knots 15 

Lathe Work 16 

Lighting (Electric) 9 

Link Motion 17 

Liquid Air 16 

Locomotive Boilers 18 

Locomotive Engineering 17, 18, 19 

Machinist's Books 20, 21, 22 



PAGE 

Manual Training 22 

Marine Engines 22 

Marine Steam Turbines 29 

Mechanical Movements 20, 21 

IMetal Turning 16 

Milling Machines 21 

Mining 22, 23 

Oil Engines 13 

Patents 15 

Pattern Making 23 

Perfumery .- 23 

Pipes 28 

Plumbing 24 

Producer Gas 13 

Punches 7 

Railroad Accidents 18 

Receipt Book 23, 25 

Refrigeration 15 

Rope Work 15 

Rubber Stamps 25 

Saws 26 

Sheet IMetal Working 7 

Shop Tools 21 

Shop Construction 20 

Shop Management 20 

Sketching Paper 8 

Smoke Prevention 13 

Soldering 3 

Splices 15 

Steam Engineering 26, 27 

Steam Heating 27 

Steam Pipes 28 

Steel 28 

Superheated Steam 17 

Switchboards 9, 11 

Tapers 16 

Telephone 12 

Threads 22 

Tools 20, 22 

Turbines 29 

Ventilation 27 

Valve Gear 19 

Valve Setting 17 

Walschaert Valve Gear 19 

Watchmaking 29 

Wiring 9, 11, 12 

Wireless Telephones and Telegraphy .... 12 



1^*=- ANY OF THESE BOOKS PROMPTLY SENT PREPAID TO ANY ADDRESS IN 
THE WORLD ON RECEIPT OF PRICE. 

^^^='How to Remit.— By Postal Money Order, Express Money Order, Bank Draft 

or Registered Letter. 



CATALOGUE OF GOOD. PRACTICAL BOOKS 



AUTOMOBILE 

THE MODERN GASOLINE AUTOMOBILE— ITS DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, 
MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR. By Victor W. Page, M. E. 

The latest and most complete treatise on the Gasoline Automobile ever issued. Written 
in simple language by a recognized authority, familiar with every branch of the automobile 
industry. Free from technical terms. Everything is explained so simply that anyone of 
average intelligence may gain a comprehensive knowledge of the gasoline automobile. 
The information is up-to-date and includes, in addition to an exposition of principles of 
construction and description of all types of automobiles and their components, valuable 
money-saving hints on the care and operation of motor cars propelled by internal combus- 
tion engines. Among some of the subjects treated might be mentioned: Torpedo and other 
symmetrical body forms designed to reduce air resistance; sleeve valve, rotary valve and 
other types of silent motors; increasing tendency to favor worm-gear power-transmission; 
imiversal application of magneto ignition; development of automobile electric-lighting 
sj^stems; block motors; imderslung chassis; application of practical self-starters; long stroke 
and offset cylinder motors; latest automatic lubrication systems; silent chains for valve 
operation and change-speed gearing; the use of front wheel brakes and many other detail 
refinements. 

By a careful study of the pages of this book one can gain practical knowledge of automobile 
construction that will save time, money and worry. The book tells you just what to do, how 
and when to do it. Notliing has been omitted, no detail has been slighted. Every part of 
the automobile, its equipment, accessories, tools, supplies, spare parts necessary, etc., have 
been discussed comprehensively. If you are or intend to become a motorist, or are in 
any way interested in the modern Gasoline Automobile, this is a book you cannot afford to 
be without. Nearly 600 6x9 pages — and more than 500 new and specially made detail il- 
lustrations, as well as many full; page and double page plates, showing all parts of the 
automobile. Including nine large folding plates. Price $S.50 

BALLOONS AND FLYING MACHINES 

MODEL BALLOONS AND FLYING MACHINES. WITH A SHORT ACCOUNT OF 
THE PROGRESS OF AVIATION. By J. H. Alexander. 

This book has been written with a view to assist those who desire to construct a model airship 
or flying machine. It contains five folding plates of working drawings, each sheet containing 
a different sized machine. Much instruction and amusement can be obtained from the making 
and flying of these models. 

A short account of the progress of aviation is included, which will render the book of greater 
interest. Several illustrations of full sized airship and flying machines of the latest types are 
scattered throughout the text. This practical work gives data, working drawings, and details 
which will assist materially those interested in the problems of flight. 127 pages, 45 illustra- 
tions, 5 folding plates. Price $1.50 

BRAZING AND SOLDERING 

BRAZING AND SOLDERING. By James F. Hobart. 

The only book that shows you just how to handle any job of brazing or soldering that comes 
{Jong; tells you what mixture to use, how to make a furnace if you need one. Full of 
valuable kinks. The fifth edition of this book has just been published, and to it much 
new matter and a large number of tested formulas for all kinds of solders and fluxes have 
been added. Illustrated 25 cents 

CHARTS 



MODERN SUBMARINE CHART— WITH 200 PARTS NUMBERED AND NAMED. 

A cross-section view, showing clearly and distinctly all the ix^terior of a Submarine of the 
latest type. You get more information from this chart, about the construction and opera- 
tion of a Submarine, than in any other way. No details omitted — everything is accurate 
and to scale. It is absolutely correct in every detail, having been approved by Naval 
Engineers. All the machinery and devices fitted in a modern Submarine Boat are shown, and 
to make the engraving more readily understood all the features are shown in operative form, 
with OflBcers and Men in the act of performing the duties assigned to them in service con- 
ditions. This CHART IS REALLY AN ENCYCLOPEDIA OF A SUBMARINE. It 
is educational and worth many times its cost. Mailed in a Tube for 25 cents 



CATALOGUE OF GOOD. PRACTICAL BOOKS 

BOX CAR CHART. 

A chart showing the anatomy of a box car, having every part of the car numbered and its 
proper name given in a reference list 20 cents 

GONDOLA CAR CHART. 

A chart showing the anatomy of a gondola car, having every part of the car numbered and 
its proper reference name given in a reference list 20 cents 

PASSENGER CAR CHART. 

A chart showing the anatomy of a passenger car, having every part of the car numbered and 
its proper name given in a reference list 20 cents 

WESTINGHOUSE AIR-BRAKE CHARTS. 

Chart I. — Shows (in colors) the most modern Westinghouse High Speed and Signal Equip- 
ment used on Passenger Engines, Passenger Engine Tenders, and Passenger Cars. Chart 
II. — Shows (in colors) the Standard Westinghouse Equipment for Freight and Switch En- 
gines, Freight and Switch Engine Tenders, and Freight Cars. Price for the set . 50 cents 

TRACTIVE POWER CHART. 

A chart whereby you can find the tractive power or drawbar pull of any locomotive, without 
making a figure. Shows what cylinders are equal, how driving wheels and steam pressure 
affect the power. What sized engine you need to exert a given drawbar pull or anything 
you desire in this line 50 cents 

HORSE POWER CHART. 

Shows the horse power of any stationary engine without calculation. No matter what the 
cylinder diameter of stroke; the steam pressure or cut-off; the revolutions, or whether con- 
densing or non-condensing, it's all there. Easy to use, accurate, and saves time and calcu- 
lations. Especially useful to engineers and designers ... 50 cents 

BOILER ROOM CHART. By Geo. L. Fowler. 

A Chart — size 14 x 28 inches — showing in isometric perspective the mechanisms belonging 
in a modern boiler room. Water tube boilers, ordinary grates and mechanical stokers, feed 
water heaters and pumps comprise the equipment. The various parts are shown broken or 
removed, so that the internal construction is fully illustrated. Each part is given a reference 
number, and these, with the corresponding name, are given in a glossary printed at the sides. 
This chart is really a dictionary of the boiler room — the names of more than 200 parts being 
given. It is educational — worth many times its cost 25 cents 

CIVIL ENGINEERING 

HENLEY'S ENCYCLOPEDIA OF PRACTICAL ENGINEERING AND ALLIED 

TRADES. Edited by Joseph G. Horner, A. M. I. E. M. 

This set of five volumes contains about 2,500 pages with thousands of illustrations, including 
diagrammatic and sectional drawings with full explanatory details. This work covers the 
entire practice of Civil and Mechanical Engineering. The best known experts in all branches 
of engineering have contributed to these volumes. The Cyclopedia is admirably well adapted 
to the needs of the beginner and the self-taught practical man, as well as the mechanical en- 
gineer, designer, draftsman, shop superintendent, foreman, and machinist. The work will be 
found a means of advancement to any progressive man. It is encyclopedic in scope, thorough 
and practical in its treatment of technical subjects, simple and clear in its descriptive matter, 
and without unnecessary technicalities or formulae. The articles are as brief as may be and 
yet give a reasonably clear and explicit statement of the subject, and are written by men who 
have had ample practical experience in the matters of which they write. It tells you all you 
want to know about engineering and tells it so simply, so clearly, so concisely, that one cannot 
help but understand. As a work of reference it is without a peer. $6.00 per single volume. 
For complete set of five volumes, price $25.00 

COKE 

COKE— MODERN COKING PRACTICE; INCLUDING THE ANALYSIS OF 
MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS. By T. H. Byrom and J. E. Christopher. 

A handbook for those engaged in Coke manufacture and the recovery of By-products. Fully 
illustrated with folding plates. It has been the aim of the authors, in preparing this book, 
to produce one which shall be of use and benefit to those who are associated with, or inter- 
ested in, the modern developments of the industry. Contents: I. Introductory. II. Gen- 



CATALOGUE OF GOOD, PRACTICAL BOOKS 



eral Classification of Fuels. III. Coal Washing. IV. The Sampling and Valuation of Coal, 
Coke, etc. V. The Calorific Power of Coal and Coke. VI. Coke Ovens. VII. Coke Ovens, 
continued. VIII. Coke Ovens, continued. IX. Charging and Discharging of Coke Ovens, 
X. Cooling and Condensing Plant. XI. Gas Exhausters. XII. Composition and Analysis 
of Ammoniacal Liquor. XIII. Working-up of Ammoniacal Liquor. XIV. Treatment of 
Waste Gases from Sulphate Plants. XV. Valuation of Ammonium Sulphate. XVI. Direct 
Recovery of Ammonia from Coke Oven Gases. XVII. Surplus Gas from Coke Oven. Use- 
ful Tables. Very fully illustrated. Price . . « $3. 50 net 

COMPRESSED AIR 

COMPRESSED AIR IN ALL ITS APPLICATIONS. By Gardner D. Hiscox. 

This is the most complete book on the subject of Air that has ever been issued, and its thirty- 
five chapters include about every phase of the subject one can think of. It may be called an 
encyclopedia of compressed air. It is written by an expert, who, in its 665 pages, has dealt 
with the subject in a comprehensive manner, no phase of it being omitted. Includes the 
physical properties of air from a vacuum to its highest pressure, its thermodynamics, com- 
pression, transmission and uses as a motive power; in the Operation of Stationary and Port- 
able Machinery, in Mining, Air Tools, Air Lifts, Pumping of Water, Acids, and Oils; the 
Air Blast for Cleaning and Painting, the Sand Blast and its Work, and the Numerous Appli- 
ances in which Compressed Air is a Most Convenient and Economical Transmitter of Power 
for Mechanical Work, Railway Propulsion, Refrigeration, and the Various Uses to which 
Compressed Air has been applied. Includes forty-four tables of the physical properties of 
air, its compression, expansion, and volumes required for various kinds of work, and a list of 
patents on compressed air from 1875 to date. Over 500 illustrations, 5th Edition, revised and 
enlarged. Cloth bound, $5.00. Half Morocco, price $6.60 

CONCRETE 

ORNAMENTAL CONCRETE WITHOUT MOLDS. By A. A. Houghton. 

The process for making ornamental concrete without molds has long been held as a secret, and 
now, for the first time, this process is given to the public. The book reveals the secret and is 
the only book published which explains a simple, practical method whereby the concrete worker 
is enabled, by employing wood and metal templates of different designs, to mold or model in 
concrete any Cornice, Archivolt, Column, Pedestal, Base Cap, Urn or Pier in a monolithic 
form — right upon the job. These may be molded in units or blocks, and then built up to suit the 
specifications demanded. This work is fully illustrated, with detailed engravings. Price $2.00 

CONCRETE FROM SAND MOLDS. By A. A. Houghton. 

A Practical Work treating on a process which has heretofore been held as a trade secret by 
the few who possessed it, and which will successfully mold every and any class of ornamental 
concrete work. The process of molding concrete with sand molds is of the utmost practical 
value, possessing the manifold advantages of a low cost of molds, the ease and rapidity of 
operation, perfect details to all ornamental designs, density, and increased strength of the 
concrete, perfect curing of the work without attention and the easy removal of the molds re- 
gardless of any undercutting the design may have. 192 pages. Fully illustrated. Price $2.00 

CONCRETE WALL FORMS. By A. A. Houghton. 

A new automatic wall clamp is illustrated with working drawings. Other types of wall 
forms, clamps, separators, etc., are also illustrated and explained 50 cents 

CONCRETE FLOORS AND SIDEWAf^KS. By A. A. Houghton. 

The molds for molding squares, hexagonal and many other styles of mosaic floor and side- 
walk blocks are fully illustrated and explained 50 cents 

PRACTICAL CONCRETE SILO CONSTRUCTION. By A. A. Houghton. 
Complete working drawings and specifications are given for several styles of concrete silos, 
with illustrations of molds for monolithic and block silos. The tables, data and information 
presented in this book are of the utmost value in planning and constructing all forms of concrete 
silos 50 cents 

MOLDING CONCRETE CHIMNEYS, SLATE AND ROOF TILES. By 
A. A. Houghton. 

The manufacture of all types of concrete slate and roof tile is fully treated. Valuable data 
on all forms of reinforced concrete roofs are contained within its pages. The construction of 
concrete chimneys by block and monolithic systems is fully illustrated and described. A 
number of ornamental designs of chimney construction with molds are shown in this valu- 
able treatise - . . .... 50 cents 



CATALOGUE OF GOOD. PRACTICAL BOOKS 



MOLDING AND CURING ORNAMENTAL CONCRETE ^.v A A. Houghton. 

The proper proportions of cement and aggregates for various linishes, also t'le methods of 
thoroughly mixing and placing in the molds, are fully treated. An exhaustive treatKe on this 
subject that every concrete worker will find of daily use and value 50 cents 

CONCRETE MONUMENTS, MAUSOLEUMS AND BURIAL VAULTS. By A. A. 

Houghton, 

The molding of concrete monuments to imitate the most expensive cut stone is explained in 
this treatise, with working drawings ot easily built molds. Cutting inscriptions and designs 
is also fully treated .50 cents 

MOLDING CONCRETE BATH TUBS, AQUARIUMS AND NATATORIUMS. 

By A, A, Houghton. 

Simple molds and instruction are given for molding many styles of concrete bath tubs, 
swimming pools, etc. These molds are easily built and permit rapid and successful 
work 50 cents 

CONCRETE BRIDGES, CULVERTS AND SEWERS. By A. A. Houghton. 

A number of ornamental concrete bridges with illustrations of molds are given. A collapsible 
center or core for bridges, culverts and sewers is fully illustrated with detailed instructions for 
building 50 cents 

CONSTRUCTING CONCRETE PORCHES. By A. A. Houghton. 

A number of designs v/ith working drawings of molds are fully explained so any one can easily 
construct different styles of ornamental concrete porches without the purchase of expensive 
molds 50 cents 

MOLDING CONCRETE FLOWER POTS, BOXES, JARDINIERES, ETC. By 
A. A. Houghton. 

The molds for producing many original designs of flower pots, urns, flower boxes, jardinieres, 
etc., are fully illustrated and explained, so the worker can easily construct and operate 
same 50 cents 

MOLDING CONCRETE FOUNTAINS AND LAWN ORNAMENTS. By 

A. A. Houghton. 

The molding of a number of designs of lawn seats, curbing, hitching posts, pergolas, sun dials 
and other forms of ornamental concrete for the ornamentation of lawns and gardens, is 
fully illustrated and described 50 cents 

CONCRETE FOR THE FARM AND SHOP. By A. A. Houghton. 

The molding of drain tile, tanks, cisterns, fence posts, stable floors, hog and poultry houses 
and all the purposes for which concrete is an invaluable aid to the farmer are numbered 
among the contents of this handy volume 60 cents 

POPULAR HANDBOOK FOR CEMENT AND CONCRETE USERS. By Myron 
H. Lswis, 

This is a concise treatise of the principles and methods employed in the manufacture and use 
of cement in all classes of modern works. The author has brought together in this work all 
the salient matter of interest to the user of concrete and its many diversified products. The 
matter is presented in logical and systematic order, clearly written, fully illustrated and free 
from involved mathematics. Everything of value to the concrete user is given including kinds 
of cement employed in construction, concrete architecture, inspection and testing, water- 
proofing, coloring and painting, rules, tables, working, and cost data. The book comprises 
thirty-three chapters, as follows: 

Introductory. Kinds of Cements and How Thev are IMade. Properties, Testing and 
Requirements of Hydraulic Cement. Concrete and its Properties. Sand, Broken Stone and 
Gravel for Concrete. How to Proportion the INIaterials. How to Mix and Place Concrete. 
Forms for Concrete Construction. The Architectural and Artistic Possibilities of Concrete. 
Concrete Residences. Alortars, Plasters and Stucco and How to Use Them. The Artistic 
Treatment of Concrete Surfaces. Concrete Building Blocks. The Making of Ornamental 
Concrete. Concrete Pipes, Fences, Posts. Etc. Essential Features and Advantages of Reen- 
forced Concrete. How to Design Reenforced Concrete Beams. Slabs and Columns. Ex- 
planations of the Methods and Principles in Designing Reenforced Concrete Beams and 
Slabs. Systems of Reenforcement Employed. Reenforced Concrete in Factory and General 



CATALOGUE OF GOOD, PRACTICAL BOOKS 

Building Construction. Concrete in Foundation Worlf. Concrete Retaining Walls, Abut- 
ments, and Bulkheads. Concrete Arches and Arch Bridges. Concrete Beam and Girder 
Bridges. Concrete in Sewerage and Drainage Works. Concrete Tanks, Dams and Reser- 
voirs. Concrete Sidewalks, Curbs and Pavements. Concrete in Railroad Constructions. 
The Utility of Concrete on the Farm. The Waterproofing of Concrete Structure. Grout 
or Liquid Concrete and Its Use. Inspection of Concrete Work. Cost of Concrete Work. 
Some of the special features of the book are: 1. The Attention Paid to the Artistic and 
Architectural Side of Concrete Work. 2. The Authoritative Treatment of the Problem 
of Waterproofing Concrete. 3. An Excellent Summary of the Rules to be Followed in 
Concrete Construction. 4. The Valuable Cost Data and Useful Tables given. A valuable 
Addition to the Library of Every Cement and Concrete User. Price $2.50 

WATERPROOFING CONCRETE. By Myron H. Lewis. 

Modern Methods of Waterproofing Concrete and Other Structures. A condensed statement 
of the Principles, Rules, and Precautions to be Observed in Waterproofing and Damp- 
proofing Structures and Structural Materials. Paper binding. Illustrated. Price. .50 cents 

DICTIONARIES 

STANDARD ELECTRICAL DICTIONARY. By T. O'Conor Sloane. 

An indispensable work to all interested in electrical science. Suitable alike for the student 
and professional. A practical hand-book of reference containing definitions of about 5,000 
distinct words, terms and phrases. The definitions are terse and concise and include every 
term used in electrical science. Recently issued. An entirely new edition. Should be in 
the possession of all who desire to keep abreast with the progress of this branch of science. 
Complete, concise and convenient. 682 pages, 393 illustrations. Price .... $3.00 

DIES— METAL WORK 

DIES: THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND USE FOR THE MODERN WORKING OF 
SHEET METALS. By J. V. Woodworth. 

A most useful book, and one which should be in the hands of all engaged in the press working 
of metals; treating on the Designing, Constructing, and Use of Tools, Fixtures and Devices, 
together with the manner in which they should be used in the Power Press, for the cheap and 
rapid production of the great variety of sheet metal articles now in use. It is designed as a 
guide to the production of sheet metal parts at the minimum of cost with the maximum of 
output. The hardening and tempering of Press tools and the classes of work which may be 
produced to the best advantage by the use of dies in the power press are fully treated. Its 
505 illustrations show dies, press fixtures and sheet metal working devices, the descriptions 
of which are so clear and practical that all metal-working mechanics will be able to understand 
how to design, construct and use them. Many of the dies and press fixtures treated were 
either constructed by the author or under his supervision. Others were built by skilful 
raechanics and are in use in large sheet metal establishments and machine shops. Price $3.00 

PUNCHES, DIES AND TOOLS FOR MANUFACTURING IN PRESSES. By J. V. 

Woodworth. 

This work is a companion volume to the author's elementary work entitled "Dies, Their 
Construction and Use." It does not go into the details of die making to the extent of the 
author's previous book, but gives a comprehensive review of the field of operations carried on 
by presses. A large part of the information given has been drawn from the author's personal 
experience. It might well be termed an Encyclopedia of Die Making, Punch Making, Die 
Sinking, Sheet Metal Working, and Making of Special Tools, Sub-presses, Devices and Mechani- 
cal Combinations for Punching, Cutting, Bending, Forming, Piercing, Drawing, Compressing 
and Assembling Sheet Metal Parts, and also Articles of other Materials in Machine Tools. 
2d Edition. Price $4.00 

DROP FORGING, DIE SINKING AND MACHINE FORMING OF STEEL. By J. V. 

Woodworth. 

This is a practical treatise on Modern Shop Practice, Processes. Methods, ISIachines. Tools, 
and Details, treating on the Hot and Cold Machine-Forming of Steel and Iron into Finished 
shapes; Together with Tools, Dies, and Machinery involved in the manufacture of Duplicate 



CATALOGUE OF GOOD, PRACTICAL BOOKS 

Forgings and Interchangeable Hot and Cold Pressed Parts from Bar and Sheet Metal. 
This book fills a demand of long standing for information regarding drop forging, die-sinking 
and machine forming of steel and the shop practice involved, as it actually exists in the 
modem drop forging shop. The processes of die-sinking and force-making, which are thor- 
oughly described and illustrated in this admirable work, are rarely to be foimd explained in 
such a clear and concise manner as is here set forth. The process of die-sinking relates to 
the engraving or sinking of the female or lower dies, such as are used for drop forgings, hot 
and cold machine forging, swedging and the press working of metals. The process of force- 
making relates to the engraving or raising of the male or upper dies used in producing the 
lower dies for the press-forming and machine-forging of duphcate parts of metal. 

In addition to the arts above mentioned the book contains explicit information regarding 
the drop forging and hardening plants, designs, conditions, equipment, drop hammers, 
forging machines, etc., machine forging, hydraulic forging, autogenous welding and shop 
practice. The book contains eleven chapters, and the information contained in these chapters 
is just what will prove most valuable to the forged metal worker. All operations described 
in the work are thoroughly illustrated by means of perspective half-tones and outline sketches 
of the machinery employed. 300 detailed illustrations. Price $2.50 

DRAWING— SKETCHING PAPER 



LINEAR PERSPECTIVE SELF-TAUGHT. By Herman T. C. Kraus. 
This work gives the theory and practice of linear perspective, as used in architectural, engi- 
neering, and mechanical drawings. Persons taking up the study of the subject by themselves 
win be able by the use of the instruction given to readily grasp the subject, and by reason- 
able practice become good perspective draftsmen. The arrangement of the book is good ; 
the plate is on the left-hand, while the descriptive text follows on the opposite page, so as to 
be readily referred to. The drawings are on sufficiently large scale to show the work clearly 
and are plainly figured. The whole work makes a very complete course on perspective draw- 
ing, and will be found of great value to architects, civil and mechanical engineers, patent 
attorneys, art designers, engravers, and draftsmen $2.50 

PRACTICAL PERSPECTIVE. By Richards and Colvin. 

Shows just how to make all kinds of mechanical drawings in the only practical perspective 
isometric. Makes everything plain so that any mechanic can understand a sketch or drawing 
in this way. Saves time in the drawing room, and mistakes in the shops. Contains practical 
examples of various classes of work. 3rd Edition 50 cents 

SELF-TAUGHT MECHANICAL DRAWING AND ELEMENTARY MACHINE 

DESIGN. By F- L. Sylvester, M.E., Draftsman., with additions by Erik Oberq, 

associate editor of "Machinery." 

This is a practical treatise on Mechanical Drawing and Machine Design, comprising the 
first principles of geometric and mechanical drawing, workshop mathematics, mechanics, 
strength of materials and the calculations and design of machine details. The author's 
aim has been to adapt this treatise to the requirements of the practical mechanic and young 
draftsman and to present the matter in as clear and concise a manner as possible. To 
meet the demands of this class of students, practically all the important elements of machine 
design have been dealt with, and in addition algebraic formulas have been explained, and 
the elements of trigonometry treated in the manner best suited to the needs of the prac- 
tical man. The book is divided into 20 chapters, and in arranging the material, mechan- 
ical drawing, pure and simple, has been taken up first, as a thorough xmderstanding of the 
principles of representing objects facilitates the further study of mechanical subjects. This 
is followed by the mathematics necessary for the solution of the problems in machine de- 
sign which are presented later, and a practical introduction to theoretical mechanics and 
the strength of materials. The various elements entering into machine design, such as cams, 
gears, sprocket wheels, cone pulleys, bolts, screws, couphngs, clutches, shafting and fly- 
wheels have been treated in such a way as to make possible the use of the work as a text- 
book for a continuous course of study. It is easily comprehended and assimilated even by 
students of limited previous training. 330 pages, 215 engravmgs. Price. . . . $2.00 

A NEW SKETCHING PAPER. 

A new specially ruled paper to enable you to make sketches or drawings in isometric perspective 
without any figuring or fussing. It is being used for shop details as well as for assembly 
drawings, as it makes one sketch do the work of three, and no workman can help seeing just 
what is wanted. Pads of 40 sheets, 6x9 inches, 25 cents. Pads of 40 sheets, 9 x 12 inches. 
50 cents; 40 sheets, 12x18, Price $1.00 

8 



CATALOGUE OF GOOD, PRACTICAL BOOKS 
ELECTRICITY 

ARITHMETIC OF ELECTRICITY. By Prof. T. O'Conor Sloane. 

A practical treatise on electrical calculations of all kinds reduced to a series of rules, all of the 
simplest forms, and involving only ordinary arithmetic; each rule illustrated by one or more 
practical problems, with detailed solution of each one. This book is classed among the most 
useful works published on the science of electricity covering as it does the mathematics of 
electricity in a manner that will attract the attention of those who are not familiar with alge- 
braical formulas. 20th Edition. 160 pages. Price $1.00 

COMMUTATOR CONSTRUCTION. By Wm. Baxter, Jr. 

The business end of any dynamo or motor of the direct current type is the commutator. This 
book goes into the designing, building, and maintenance of commutators, shows how to locate 
troubles and how to remedy them; everyone who fusses with dynamos needs this. S5 cents 

DYNAMO BUILDING FOR AMATEURS, OR HOW TO CONSTRUCT A FIFTY- WATT 
DYNAMO. By Arthur J. Weed, Member of N. Y. Electrical Society. 

A practical treatise showing In detail the construction of a small dynamo or motor, the entire 
machine work of which can be done on a small foot lathe. Dimensioned working drawings 
are given for each piece of machme work and each operation is clearly described. This 
machine, when used as a dynamo, has an output of fifty watts; when used as a motor it will 
drive a small drill press or lathe. It can be used to drive a sewing machine on any and all 
ordinary work. The book is illustrated with more than sixty original engravings showing 
the actual construction of the different parts. Among the contents are chapters on 1. Fifty 
Watt Dynamo. 2. Side Bearing Rods. 3. Field Punchings. 4. Bearings. 5. Commu- 
tator. 6. Pulley. 7. Brush Holders. 8. Connection Board. 9. Armature Shaft. 10. 
Armature. 11. Armatiire Winding. 12. Field. Winding, 13. Connecting and Starting. 
Price, paper, 50 cents. Cloth $1.00 

ELECTRIC FURNACES AND THEIR INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS. By J. Wright 

This is a book which will prove of interest to many classes of people; the manufacturer who 
desires to know what product can be manufactured successfully in the electric furnace, the 
chemist who wishes to post himself on the electro-chemistry, and the student of science who 
merely looks into the subject from curiosity. The book is not so scientific as to be of use 
only to the technologist, nor so unscientific as to suit only the tyro in electro-chemistry; it 
is a practical treatise of what has been done, and of what is being done, both experimentally 
and commercially with the electric furnace. 

In important processes not only are the chemical equations given, but complete thermal data 
are set forth and both the efficiency of the furnace and the cost of the product are worked 
out, thus giving the work a solid commercial value aside from its efficacy as a work of reference. 
The practical features of furnace building are given the space that the subject deserves. The 
forms and refractory materials used in the linings, the arrangement of the connections to the 
electrodes, and other important details are explained. 288 pages. New Revised Edition. 
Fully illustrated. Price $3.00 

ELECTRIC LIGHTING AND HEATING POCKET BOOK. By Sydney F. Walker. 

This book puts in convenient form useful information regarding the apparatus which is likely 
to be attached to the mains of an electrical company. Tables of units and equivalents are 
included and useful electrical laws and formulas are stated. 

One section is devoted to dynamos, motors, transformers and accessory apparatus; another 
to accumulators, another to switchboards and related equipment, a fourth to a description 
of various systems of distribution, a fifth section to a discussion of instruments, both for 
portable use and switchboards; another section deals with electric lamps of various types 
and accessory appliances, and the concluding section is given up to electric heating apparatus. 
In each section a large number of commercial types are described, frequent tables of dimen- 
sions being included. A great deal of detail information of each line of apparatus is given 
and the illustrations shown give a good idea of the general appearance of the apparatus under 
discussion. The book also contains much valuable information for the central station engi- 
neer. 438 pages. 300 engravings. Bound in leather pocket book form. Price . $3.00 

ELECTRIC WIRING, DIAGRAMS AND SWITCHBOARDS. By Newton Harrison. 

i thorouglily practical treatise covering the subject of Electric Wiring in all its branches, 
including explanations and diagrams which are thoroughly explicit and greatly simplify 
the subject. Practical e very-day problems in wiring are presented and the method of 
obtaining intelligent results clearly shown. Only arithmetic is used. Ohm's law is given 



CATALOGUE OF GOOD, PRACTICAL BOOKS 

a simple explanation with reference to wiring for direct and alternating currents. The funda- 
mental principle of drop of potential in circuits is shown with its various applications. The 
simple circuit is developed with the position of mains, feeders and branches; their treat- 
ment as a part of a wiring plan and their employment in house- wiring clearly illustrated. 
Some simple facts about testing are included in connection with the wiring. Molding 
and conduit work are given careful consideration; and switchboards are systematically 
treated, built up and illustrated, showing the purpose they serve, for connection with the 
circmts, and to shunt and compoimd wound machines. The simple principles of switchboard 
construction, the development of the switchboard, the connections of the various instru- 
ments including the lightning arrester, are also plainly set forth. 

Alternating current wiring is treated, with explanations of the power factor, conditions 
calUng for various sizes of wire and a simple way of obtaining the sizes for single-phase, two- 
phase and three-phase circuits. This is the only complete work issued showing and telling 
you what you should know about direct and alternating current wiring. It is a ready refer- 
ence. The work is free from advanced technicalities and 'mathematics, arithmetic being used 
throughout. It is in every respect a handy, well-written, instructive, comprehensive 
volume on wiring for the wireman, foreman, contractor, or electrician. 272 pages; 1051 illus- 
trations. Price $1.50 

ELECTRIC TOY MAKING, DYNAMO BUILDING, AND ELECTRIC MOTOR CON- 
STRUCTION. By Prof. T. O'Conor Sloane. 

This work treats of the making at home of electrical toys, electrical apparatus, motors, dynamos 
and instruments in general, and is designed to bring within the reach of ydurig and old the 
manufacture of genuine and useful electrical appliances. The work is especially designed for 
amateurs and young folks. 

Thousands of our young people are daily experimenting, and busily engaged in making electrical 
toys and apparatus of various kinds. The present work is just what is wanted to give the 
much needed information in a plain, practical manner, with illustrations to make easy the 
carrying out of the work. 19th Edition. Price $1.00 

ELECTRICIAN'S HANDY BOOK. By Prof. T. O 'Conor Sloane. 

This work of 768 pages is intended for the practical electrician who has to make things go. 
The entire field of electricity is covered within its pages. Among some of the subjects treated 
are: The Theory of the Electric Current and Circuit, Electro-Chemistry, Primary Batteries, 
Storage Batteries, Generation and Utilization of Electric Powers, Alternating Current, Arma- 
ture Winding, Dynamos and Motors, Motor Generators, Operation of the Central Station 
Switchboards, Safety Appliances, Distribution 'of Electric Light and Power, Street Mains, 
Transformers, Arc and Incandescent Lighting, Electric Measurements, Photometry, Electric 
Railways, Telephony, Bell-Wiring, Electro-Platmg, Electric Heating, Wireless Telegraphy, etc. 
It contains no useless theory; everything is to the point. It teaches you just what you want 
to know about electricity. It is the standard work published on the subject. Forty-one 
chapters, 610 engravings, handsomely bound in red leather with title and edges in gold. Price: 

$3.50 

ELECTRICITY IN FACTORIES AND WORKSHOPS, ITS COST AND CONVENIENCE. 

By Arthur P. Haslam. 

A practical book for power producers and power users showing what a convenience the electric 
motor, in its various forms, has become to the modern manufacturer. It also deals with the 
conditions which determine the cost of electric driving, and compares this with other methods 
of producing and utilizing power. 

Among the chapters contained in the book are: The Direct Current Motor; The Alternating 
Current Motor: The Starting and Speed Regulation of Electric Motors; The Rating and 
Efficiency of Electric Motors; The Cost of Energy as Affected by Conditions of Working, The 
Question for the Small Power User; Independent Generating Plants; Oil and Gas Engine 
Plants; Steam Plants; Power Station Tariff s ; The Use of Electric Power in Textile Factories; 
Electric Power in Printing Works; The Use of Electric Power in Engineering Workshops 
Miscellaneous Application of Electric Power; The Installation of Electric Motors; The Lighting 
of Industrial Establishments. 312 pages. Very fully illustrated. Price .... $2.50 

ELECTRICITY SIMPLIFIED. By Prof. T. O'Conor Sloane. 

The object of "Electricity Simplified" is to make the subject as plain as possible and to show 
what the modern conception of electricity is; to show how two plates of different metals 
immersed in acid can send a message around the globe; to explain how a bundle of copper wire 
rotated by a steam engine can be the agent in lighting our streets, to tell what the volt, ohm 
and ampere are. and what high and low tension mean; and to answer the questions that 
perpetually arise in the mind in this age of electricity. 172 pages. lUustratSf". Price $ 1.00 



CATALOGUE OF GOOD. PRACTICAL BOOKS 

HOUSE WIRING. By Thomas W. Poppe. 

This work describes and illustrates the actual installation of Electric Light Wiring, the manner 
in which the work should be done, and the method of doing it. The book can be conveniently 
carried in the pocket. It is intended for the Electrician, Helper and Apprentice. It 
solves ah Wiring Problems, and contains nothing that conflicts with the rulings of the Nation- 
al Board of Fire Underwriters. It gives just the information essential to the Successful 
Wiring of a Building. Among the svibjects treated are: Locating the Meter. Panel Boards. 
Switches. Plug Receptacles. Brackets. Ceihng Fixtures. The Meter Connections. The 
Feed Wires. The Steel Armored Cable System. The Flexible Steel Conduit System. The 
Ridig Conduit System. A digest of the National Board of Fire Underwriters' rules relating 
to metallic wiring systems. Various switching arrangements explained and diagrammed. 
The easiest method of testing the Three and Four-way circuits explained. The grounding 
of all metallic wiring systems and the reason for doing so shown and explained. The in- 
sulation of the metal parts of lamp flxtm-es and the reason for the same described and 
illustrated. 125 pages. Fully illustrated. Flexible cloth. Price 60 cents 

HOW TO BECOME A SUCCESSFUL ELECTRICIAN. By Prof. T. O'Conor Sloane. 

Every young man who wishes to become a successful electrician should read this book. It tells 
in simple language the surest and easiest way to become a successful electrician. The studies 
to be followed, methods of work, field of operation and the requirements of the successful 
electrician are pointed out and fully explained. Every young engineer will find this an ex- 
cellent stepping-stone to more advanced works on electricity which he must master before 
success can be attained. Many young men become discouraged at the very outstart bv 
attempting to read and study books that are far beyond their comprehension. This book 
serves as the connecting link between the rudiments taught in the public schools and the real 
study of electricity. It is interesting from cover to cover. Fifteenth edition. 202 pages. 
Illustrated. Price $1.00 

MANAGEMENT OF DYNAMOS. By Lummis-Paterson. 

A handbook of theory and practice. This work is arranged in three parts. The first part 
covers the elementary theory of the dynamo. The second part, the construction and action 
of the different classes of dynamos in common use are described; while the third part relates 
to such matters as affect the practical management and working of dynamos and motors. 
The following chapters are contained in the book: Electrical Units; Magnetic Principles; 
Theory of the Dynamo; Armature; Armature in Practice; Field Magnets; Field Magnets in 
Practice; Regulating Dynamos; Coupling Dynamos; Installation, Running, and Maintenance 
of Dynamos; Faults in Dynamos; Faults in Armatures; Motors. 292 pages. 117 illustra- 
tions. Price $1.50 

STANDARD ELECTRICAL DICTIONARY. By T. O'Conor Sloane. 

An indispensable work to all interested in electrical science. Suitable alike for the student 
and professional. A practical hand-book of reference containing definitions of about 5,000 
distinct words, terms and phrases. The definitions are terse and concise and include every 
term used in electrical science. Recently issued. An entirely new edition. Should be in the 
possession of all who desire to keep abreast with the progesss of this branch of science. In 
its arrangement and typography the book is very convenient. The word or term defined is 
printed in black-faced type which readily catches the eye, while the body of the page is In 
smaller but distinct type. The definitions are well worded, and so as to be understood by 
the non-technical reader. The general plan seems to be to give an exact, concise definition, 
and then amphfy and explain in a more popular way. Synonyms are also given, and refer- 
ences to other words and plu-ases are made. A very complete and accurate index of fifty 
pages is at the end of the volume; and as tliis index contains all synonyms, and as all phrases 
are indexed in every reasonable combination of words, reference to the proper place in the 
body of the book is readily made. It is difficult to decide how far a book of this character 
is to keep the dictionary form, and to what extent it may assume the encyclopedia form. 
For some pm-poses. concise, exactly worded definitions are needed; for other purposes, more 
extended descriptions are required. This book seeks to satisfy both demands, and does it 
with considerable success. Complete, concise, and convenient. 682 pages. 393 illustra- 
tions. Twelfth edition. Price $3.00 

SWITCHBOARDS. By William Baxter, Jr. 

This book appeals to every engineer and electrician who wants to know the practical side of 
things. It takes up all sorts and conditions of dynamos, connections and circuits and shows 
by diagram and illustration just how the switchboard should be connected. Includes direct 
and alternating current boards, also those for arc lighting, incandescent, and power circuits. 
Special treatment on high voltage boards for power transmission. 2d Edition. 190 pages. 
Illustrated. Price $1.50 

II 



CATALOGUE OF GOOD. PRACTICAL BOOKS 

TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION, INSTALLATION, WIRING, OPERATION AND 

MAINTENANCE. By W. H. Radcliffe and H. C. Gushing. 

This book gives the principles of construction gnd operation of both the Bell and Independent 
instruments; approved methods of installing and wiring them; the means of protecting them 
from lightning and abnormal currents; their connection together for operation as series or 
bridging stations; and rules for their inspection and maintenance. Line wiring and the wir- 
ing and operation of special telephone systems are also treated. 

Intricate mathematics are avoided, and all apparatus, circuits and systems are thoroughly 
described. The appendix contains definitions of vmits and terms used in the text. Selected 
wiring tables, which are very helpful, are also included. Among the subjects treated are 
Construction, Operation, and installation of Telephone Instruments, Inspection and Main- 
tenance of Telephone Instruments; Telephone Line Wiring; Testing Telephone Line Wires 
and Cables; Wiring and Operation of Special Telephone Systems, etc. 100 pages, 125 illus- 
trations $1.00 

WIRELESS TELEGRAPHY AND TELEPHONY SIMPLY EXPLAINED. 

By Alfred P. Morgan. 

This is undoubtedly one of the most complete and comprehensible treatises on the subject 
ever published, and a close study of its pages will enable one to master all the details of the 
wireless transmission of messages. The author has fiUed a long felt want and has succeeded 
in furnishing a lucid, comprehensible explanation in simple language of the theory and 
practice of wireless telegraphy and telephony. 

Among the contents are: Introductory; Wireless Transmission and Receptior? — The 
Aerial System, Earth Connections — The Transmitting Apparatus, Spark Coils and Trans- 
formers, Condensers, Helixes, Spark Gaps, Anchor Gaps, Aerial Switches — The Receiving 
Apparatus, Detectors, etc. — Tuning and Coupling, Tuning Coils, Loose Couplers, Variable 
Condensers, Directive Wave Systems — Miscellaneous Apparatus, Telephone Receivers. 
Range of Stations, Static, Interference — Wireless Telephones,. Sound and Sound Waves, The 
Yocal Cords and Ear — Wireless Telephones, How Soimds are changed into Electric Waves — 
Wireless Telephones. The Apparatus — Summary. 200 pages. 150 engravings. Price $1.00 

WIRELESS TELEPHONES AND HOW THEY WORK. By James Erskine-Murray. 

This work is free from elaborate details and aims at giving a clear survey of the way in which 
Wireless Telephones work. It is intended for amateur workers and for those whose knowledge 
of electricity is slight. Chapters contained: How We Hear; Historical; The Conversion of 
Sound into Electric Waves; Wireless Transmission; The Production of Alternating Currents 
of High Frequency; How the Electric Waves are Radiated and Received; The Receiving 
Instruments; Detectors; Achievements and Expectations; Glossary of Technical Words, 
Cloth. Price $1.00 

WIRING A HOUSE. By Herbert Pratt. 

Shows a house already built; tells just how to start about wiring it; where to begin; what 
wire to use; how to run it according to Insurance Rules; in fact just the information you need. 
Directions apply equally to a shop. Fourth edition 25 cents 

FACTORY MANAGEMENT, ETC. 



MODERN MACHINE SHOP CONSTRUCTION, EQUIPMENT AND MANAGEMENT. 

By O. E. Perrigo, M.E. 

The only work published that describes the modern machine shop or manufacturing plant from 
the time the grass is growing on the site intended for it until the finished product is shipped. 
By a careful study of its thirty-two chapters the practical man may economically build, 
efficiently equip, and successfully manage the modern machine shop or manufacturing estab- 
ishment. Just the book needed by those contemplating the erection of modern shop buildings, 
the re-building and re-organization of old ones, or the introduction of modern shop methods, 
time and cost system. It is a book written and illustrated by a practical shop man for practical 
shop men who are too busy to read theories and want facts. It is the most complete all around 
book of its kind ever published. It is a practical book for practical men, from the apprentice 
in the shop to the president in the office. It minutely describes and illustrates the most simole 
and yet the most efficient time and cost system yet devised. Price $5.00 

12 



CATALOGUE OF GOOD. PRACTICAL BOOKS 

FUEL 

COMBUSTION OF COAL AND THE PREVENTION OF SMOKE. By Wm. M. Barr. 

This book has been prepared with special reference to the generation of heat by the combus- 
tion of the common fuels foimd in the United States, and deals particularly with the condi- 
tions necessary to the economic and smokeless combustion of bituminous coals in Stationary 
and Locomotive Steam Boilers. 

The presentation of this important subject is systematic and progressive. The arrangement 
of the book is in a series of practical questions to which are appended accurate answers, 
which describe in language, free from technicalities, the several processes involved in the 
furnace combustion of American fuels; it clearly states the essential requisites for perfect 
combustion, and points out the best methods for furnace construction for obtaining the great- 
est quantity of heat from any given quality of coal. Nearly 350 pages, fully illustrated. 
Price y! $ 1 .00 

SMOKE PREVENTION AND FUEL ECONOMY. By Booth and Kershaw. 

A complete treatise for all interested in smoke prevention and combustion, being based on 
the German work of Ernst SchmatoUa, but it is more than a mere translation of the German 
treatise, much being added. The authors show as briefly as possible the principles of fuel 
combustion, the methods which have been and are at present in use, as well as the proper 
scientific methods for obtaining all the energy in the coal and burning it witliout smoke. 
Considerable space is also given to the examination of the waste gases, and several of the 
representative English and American mechanical stoker and similar appliances are described. 
The losses carried away in the waste gases are thoroughly analyzed and discussed in the Ap- 

gendix, and abstracts are also here given of various patents on combustion apparatus. The 
ook is complete and contains much of value to all who have charge of large plants. 194 
pages. Illustrated. Price $2.60 

GAS ENGINES AND GAS 

GASOLINE ENGINES : THEIR OPERATION, USE AND CARE. By A. Hyatt 

Verrill. 

The Simplest, Latest and IVIost Comprehensive popular work published on Gasoline Engines 
describing what the GasoUne engine is; its construction and operation; how to install it; 
how to select it; how to use it and how to remedy troubles encountered. Intended for owners. 
Operators and Users of GasoUne Motors of all kinds. This work fully describes and illus- 
trates the various types of Gasoline engines used in Motor Boats, Motor Vehicles and 
Stationary Work. The parts, accessories and Appliances are described, with chapters on 
ignition, fuel, lubrication, operation and engine troubles. Special attention is given to the 
care, operation and repair of motors with useful hints and suggestions on emergency re- 
pairs and make-shifts. A complete glossary of technical terms and an alphabetically ar- 
ranged table of troubles and their symptoms form most valuable and unique features of this 
manual. Nearly every illustration in the book is original, having been made by the author. 
Every page is full of interest and value. A book which you cannot afford to be without. 320 
Nearly 150 specially made engravings. Price $1.50 



GAS, GASOLINE, AND OIL ENGINES. By Gardner D. Hiscox. 

Just issued, 20th revised and enlarged edition. Every user of a gas engine needs this book. 
Simple, instructive, and right up-to-date. The only complete work on the subject. Tells 
all about the running and management of gas, gasoline and oil engines, as designed and manu- 
factured in the United States. Explosive motors for stationary, marine and vehicle power are 
fully treated, together with illustrations of their parts and tabulated sizes, also their care and 
running are included. Electric ignition by induction coil and jump spark are fully explained 
and illustrated, including valuable information on the testing for economy and power and the 
erection of power plants. 

The rules and regulations of the Board of Fire Underwriters in regard to the installation ani 
management of gasoline motors is given in full, suggesting the .safe installation of explosive 
motor power. A list of United States Patents issued on gas, gasoline, and oil engines and their 
adjuncts from 1875 to date is included. 484 pages. 410 engravings Price . . . $2.50 

MODERN GAS ENGINES AND PRODUCER GAS PLANTS. By R. E. Mathot, M.E. 

A guide for the gas engine designer, user, and engineer in the construction, selection, purchase 
installation, operation, and maintenance of gas engines. More than one book on gas engines 
has been written, but not one has thus far even encroached on the field covered by this book. 
Above all Mr. Mathot's work is a practical guide. Recognizing the need of a volume that 

13 



CATALOGUE OF GOOD. PRACTICAL BOOKS 

would assist the gas engine user in understanding thoroughly the motor upon which he depends 
for power, the author has discussed his subject without the help of any mathematics and 
without elaborate theoretical explanations. Every part of the gas engine is described in detail, 
tersely, clearly, with a thorough understanding of the requirements of the mechanic. Helpful 
suggestions as to the purchase of an engine, its installation, care, and operation form a most 
\aluable feature of the work. 320 pages. 175 detailed illustrations. Price . . . $2.50 

GAS ENGINE CONSTRUCTION, OR HOW TO BUILD A HALF-HORSE-POWER 

GAS ENGINE. By Parsell and Weed. 

A practical treatise of 300 pages describing the theory and principles of the action of Gas 
Engines of various types and the design and construction of a half-horse power Gas Engine, with 
illustrations of the work in actual progress, together with the dimensioned working drawings 
giving clearly the sizes of the various details; for the student, the scientific investigator and the 
amateur mechanic. 

Tnis book treats of the subject more from the standpoint of practice than that of theory. The 
principles of operation of Gas Engines are clearly and simply described and then the actual 
construction of a half-horse power engine is taken up, step by step, showing in detail the making 
of the Gas Engine. 3d Edition. 300 pages. Price $2.50 

THE GASOLINE ENGINE ON THE FARM: ITS OPERATION, REPAIR 

AND USES. By Xeno W. Putnam. 

This is a practical treatise on the Gasoline and Kerosene engine intended for the man who 
wants to know just how to manage his engine and how to apply it to all kinds of farm work 
to the best advantage. 

The book includes selecting the most suitable engine for farm work, its most convenient and 
efficient installation, with chapters on troubles, their remedies and how to avoid them. 
The care and management of the farm tractor in plowing, harrowing, harvesting and road 
grading are fully covered; also plain directions are given for handling the tractor on the road. 
Special attention is given to relieving farm life of its drudgery by applying power to the 
disagreeable small tasks which must otherwise be done by hand. Many homemade con- 
trivances for cutting wood, supplying kitchen, garden and barn with water, loading, hauling 
and unloading hay, delivering grain to the bins or the feed trough are included; also full 
directions for making the engine milk the cows, churn, wash, sweep the house and clean the 
windows, etc. Very fully illustrated with drawings of working parts and cuts showing 
Stationary. Portable and Tractor Engines doing all kinds of farm work. 300 pages. Nearly 
150 engravings. 12mo. Price $1.50 

CHEMISTRY OF GAS MANUFACTURE. By H. M. Royles. 

This book covers points likely to arise in the ordinary course of the duties of the engineer or 
manager of a gas works not large enough to necessitate the employment of a separate chemical 
staff. It treats of the testing of the raw materials employed in the manufacture of illuminat- 
ing coal gas, and of the gas produced. The preparation of standard solutions is given as well 
as the chemical and physical examination of gas coal including among its contents — Prepa- 
rations of Standard Solutions, Coal, Furnaces, Testing and P^egulation. Products of Car- 
bonization. Analysis of Crude Coal Gas. Analysis of Lime. Ammonia. Analysis of Oxide 
of Iron. Naphthalene. Analysis of Fire-Bricks and Fire-Clay. Weldom and Spent Oxide. 
Photometry and Gas Testing. Carburetted Water Gas. Metropolis Gas. Miscellaneous 
Extracts. Useful Tables $4.50 

GEARING AND CAMS 

BEVEL GEAR TABLES. By D. Ag. Engstrom. 

A book that will at once commend itself to mechanics and draftsmen. Does away with all 
the trigonometry and fancy figuring on bevel gears and makes it easy for anyone to lay them 
out or make them just right. There are 36 full-page tables that show every necessary dimen- 
sion for all sizes or combinations you're apt to need. No puzzling figuring or guessing. 
Gives placing distance, all the angles (including cutting angles), and the correct cutter to use. 
A copy of this prepares you for anything in the bevel gear line. 66 pages. . $1.00 

CHANGE GEAR DEVICES. By Oscar E. Perrigo. 

A practical book for every designer, draftsman, and mechanic interested in the invention and 
development of the devices for feed changes on the different machines requiring such mechan- 
ism. All the necessary information on this subject is taken up, analyzed, classified, sifted, 
and concentrated for the use of busy men who have not the time to go through the masses 
of irrelevant matter with which such a subject is usually encumbered and select such infor- 
mation as will be. useful to them. 

It shows just what has been done, how it has been done, when it was done, and who did it. 
It saves time in hunting up patent records and re-inventing old ideas. 88 pages. $1.00 

14 



CATALOGUE OF GOOD, PRACTICAL BOOKS 



DRAFTING OF CAMS. By Louis Rouillion. 

problem unless you 
any kind of cam yc 

HYDRAULICS 



The laying out of cams is a serious problem unless you know how to go at it right. This puts 
you on the right road for practically any kind of cam you are likely to run up against. 25 cents 



HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING. By Gardner D. Hiscox. 

A treatise on the properties, power, and resources of water for all purposes. Including the 
measurement of streams, the flow of water in pipes or conduits; the horse-power of falling 
water; turbine and impact water-wheels, wave motors, centrifugal, reciprocating, and air- 
lift pumps. With 300 figures and diagrams and 36 practical tables. 

All who are interested in water- works development will find this book a useful one, because 
it is an entirely practical treatise upon a subject of present importance, and cannot fail in 
having a far-reaching influence, and for tills reason should have a place in the working library 
of every engineer. Among the subjects treated are: Historical — Hydraulics, Properties of 
Water; Measurement of the flow of Streams; Flow from Subsurface orifices and nozzles; 
Flow of water in Pipes; Siphons of various kinds; Dams and Great Storage Reservoirs; 
City and Town Water Supply; Wells and their reenforcement ; Air lift methods of raising 
water ; artesian wells ; Iri'igation of Arid districts ; Water Power, Water Wheels ; Pumps and 
Pumping Machinery; Reciprocating Pumps; Hydraulic Power Transmission; Hydraulic 
Mining; Canals; Ditches; Conduits and Pipe Lines; Marine Hydraulics; Tidal and Sea 
Wave power, etc. 320 pages. Price $4.00 

ICE AND REFRIGERATION 



POCKET BOOK OF REFRIGERATION AND ICE MAKING. By A. J. Wallis- 
Taylor. 

This is one of the latest and most comprehensive reference books published on the subject of 
refrigeration and cold storage. It explains the properties and refrigerating effect of the different 
fluids in use, the management of refrigerating machinery and the construction and insulation 
of cold rooms with their required pipe surface for different degrees of cold; freezing mixtures 
and non-freezing brines, temperatures of cold rooms for all kinds of provisions, cold storage 
charges for all classes of goods, ice making and storage of ice, data and memoranda for constant 
reference by refrigerating engineers, with nearly one hundred tables containing valuable 
references to every fact and condition required in the installment and operation of a refrigerat- 
ing plant. Illustrated. (5th Edition, revised.) Price $1.50 

INVENTIONS— PATENTS 



This is a book designed as a guide to inventors in perfecting their inventions, taking out their 
patents and disposing of them. It is not in any sense a Patent Solicitor's Circular, nor a 
Patent Broker's Advertisement. No advertisements of any description appear in the work. 
It is a book containing a quarter of a century's experience of a successful inventor, together 
with notes based upon the experience of many other inventors. 

Among the subjects treated in this work are: How to Invent. How to Secure a Good 
Patent. Value of Good Invention. How to exhibit an Invention. How to Interest 
Capital. How to Estimate the Value of a Patent. Value of Design Patents. Value of 
Foreign Patents. Value of Small Inventions. Advice on SelUng Patents. Advice on the 
Formation of Stock Companies. Advice on the Formation of Limited Liability Companies. 
Advice on Disposing of Old Patents. Advice as to Patent Attorneys. Advice as to SeUing 
Agents. Forms of Assignments. License and Contracts. State Laws Concerning Patent 
Rights. 1900 Census of the United States by counties of over 10,000 population. Revised 
edition. 120 pages. Price $1.00 

KNOTS 

KNOTS, SPLICES AND ROPE WORK. By A. Hyatt Verrill. 

This is a practical book giving complete and simple directions for making all the most use- 
ful and ornamental knots in common use. with chapters on Splicing, Pointing, Seizing, 



CATALOGUE OF GOOD, PRACTICAL BOOKS 

Serving, etc. This book is fully illustrated with one hundred and fifty original engravings, 
which show how each kxiot, tie or spUce is formed and its appearance when finished. The 
book wUl be found of the greatest value to Campers, Yachtsmen, Travelers, Boy Scouts, 
in fact to anyone having occasion to use or handle rope or knots for any purpose. The book 
is thoroughly reliable and practical and is not only a guide but a teacher. It is the standard 
work on the subject. Among the contents are: 1. Cordage, Kinds of Rope. Construction 
of Rope, Parts of Rope Cable and Bolt Rope. Strength of Rope, Weight of Rope. 2. Sim- 
ple knots and Bends. Terms used in Handhng Rope. Seizing Rope. 3. Ties and Hitches. 
4. Noose, Loops and IMooring Knots. 5. Shortenings, Grommets and Selvages. 6. Lash- 
ings. Seizings and SpUces. 7. Fancy Knots and Rope Work. 128 pages. 150 original 
engravings. Price 60 cents 

LATHE WORK 

MODERN AMERICAN LATHE PRACTICE. By Oscak E. Perrigo. 

This is a new book from cover to cover, and the only complete American work on the subject 
written by a man who knows not only how work ought to be done, but who also knows 
how to do it, and how to convey this knowledge to others. It is strictly up-to-date in its 
descriptions and illustrations, which represent the very latest practice in lathe and boring 
mill operations as well as the construction of and latest developments in the manufactiire 
of these important classes of machine tools. 

Lathe history and the relations of the Lathe to manufacturing are given ; also a description 
of the various devices for Feeds and Thread Cutting mechanisms from early efforts in this 
direction to the present time. Lathe design is thoroughly discussed, including Back Gearing, 
Driving Cones, Thread Cutting Gears, and all the essential elements of the modern Lathe. 
The classification of Lathes is taken up, giving the essential differences of the several types 
of Lathes, including, as is usually imderstood, Engine Lathes, Bench Lathes, Speed Lathes, 
Forge Lathes, Gap Lathes, Pulley Lathes, Forming Lathes, Multiple Spindle Lathes, Rapid 
Reduction Lathes, Precision Lathes, Turret Lathes, Special Lathes, Electrically Driven 
Lathes, etc. 424 pages. 314 illustrations. Price $2.50 

PRACTICAL METAL TURNING. By Joseph G. Horner. 

This important and practical subject is treated in a full and exhaustive manner and nothing 
of importance is omitted. The principles and practice and all the different branches of Turn- 
ing are considered and well illustrated. All the different kinds of Chucks of usual forms, as 
well as some unusual kinds, are shown. A feature of the book is the important section de- 
voted to modern Turret practice; Boring is another subject which is treated fully; and the 
chapter on Tool Holders illustrates a large number of representative types. Thread Cutting 
is treated at reasonable length; and the last chapter contains a good deal of information 
relating to the High-Speed Steels and their work. The numerous tools used by machinists 
are illustrated, and also the adjuncts of the lathe. In fact, the entire subject is treated in 
such a thorough manner as to make this book the standard one on the subject. It is indis- 
pensable to the manager, engineer, and machinist as well as to the student, amateur, and 
experimental man who desires to keep up-to-date. 400 pages, fully illustrated. Price $3.50 

TURNING AND BORING TAPERS. By Fred H. Colvin. 

There are two ways to turn tapers; the right way and one other. This treatise has to do with 
the right way; it tells you how to start the work properly, how to set the lathe, what tools to 
use and how to use them, and forty and one other little things that you should know. Fourth 
edition 25 cents 



LIQUID AIR 



LIQUID AIR AND THE LIQUEFACTION OF GASES. By T. O'Conor Sloane. 

This book gives the historv of the theory, discovery, and manufacture of Liquid Air, and 

contains an illustrated description of all the experiments that have excited the wonder of 

audiences all over the country. It shows how liquid air, like water, is carried hundreds of 

miles and is handled in open buckets. It tells what may be expected from it in the near 

future. 

A book that renders simple one of the most perplexing chemical problems of the century. 

Startling developments illustrated by actual experiments.' 

It is not only a work of scientific interest and authority, but is intended for the general reader, 

being written in a popular style — easily understood by every one. Second edition. 365 

pages. Price $2.00 

i6 



CATALOGUE OF GOOD, PRACl ICAL BOOKS 
LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 

AIR-BRAKE CATECHISM. By Robert H. Blackall. 

This book is a standard text book. It covers the Westinghouse Air-Brake Equipment, in- 
cluding the No. 5 and the No. 6 E. T Locomotive Brake Equipment; the K (Quick-Service) 
Triple Valve for Freight Service; and the Cross-Compound Pump. The operation of all parts 
of the apparatus is explained in detail, and a practical way of finding their peculiarities and 
defects, with a proper remedy, is given. It contains 2,000 questions with their answers, 
which will enable any railroad man to pass any examination on the subject of Air Brakes. 
Endorsed and used by air-brake instructors and examiners on nearly every railroad in the 
United States, 25th Edition. 350 pages, fully illustrated with folding plates and dia- 
grams $2.00 

AMERICAN COMPOUND LOCOMOTIVES. By Fred. H. Colvin. 

The only book on compounds for the engineman or shopman that shows in a plain, practical 
way the various features of compound locomotives in use. Shows how they are made, what 
to do when they break down or balk. Contains sections as follows: — A Bit of History. The- 
ory of Compounding Steam Cylinders. Baldwin Two-Cylinder Compound. Pittsburg Two- 
Cylinder Compound. Rhode Island Compound. Richmond Compound. Rogers Compound. 
Schenectady Two-Cylinder Compound. Vauclain Compound. Tandem Compounds. Bald- 
win Tandem. The Colvin- Wight man Tandem. Schenectady Tandem. Balanced Loco- 
motives. Baldwin Balanced Compound. Plans for Balancing. Locating Blows. Break- 
downs. Reducing Valves. Drifting, Valve Motion. Disconnecting, Power of Compound 
Locomotives. Practical Notes. 

Fully illustrated '^and containing ten special "Duotone" inserts on heavy Plate Paper, show- 
ing different types of Compounds. 142 pages. Price $1.00 

APPLICATION OF HIGHLY SUPERHEATED STEAM TO LOCOMOTIVES. By 

Robert Garbe. 

A practical book. Contains special chapters on Generation of Highly Superheated Steam; 
Superheated Steam and the Two-Cylinder Simple Engine; Compounding and Superheating; 
Designs ofj Locomotive Superheaters; Constructive Details of Locomotives using Highly 
Superheated Steam; Experimental and Working Results. Illustrated with folding plates 
and tables. Price . , $3.60 

COMBUSTION OF COAL AND THE PREVENTION OF SMOKE. 
By Wm. M. Barr, 

This book has been prepared with special reference to the generation of heat by the combus- 
tion of the common fuels found in the United States, and deals particularly with the condi- 
tions necessary to the economic and smokeless combustion of bituminous coal in Stationary 
and Locomotive Steam Boilers. 

The presentation of this important subject is systematic and progressive. The arrangement 
of the book is in a series of practical questions to which are appended accurate answers, 
which describe in language, free from technicalities, the several processes involved in the 
furnace combustion of American fuels; it clearly states the essential requisites for perfect 
combustion, and points out the best methods of furnace construction for obtaining the 
greatest quantity of heat from any given quality of coal. Nearly 350 pages, fully illustrated 
Price $1.00 

DIARY OF A ROUND HOUSE FOREMAN. By T. S. Reilly . 

This is the greatest book of railroad experiences ever published. Containing a fund of infor- 
mation and suggestions along the line of handling men, organizing, etc., that one cannot afford 
to miss. 176 pages. Price $1.00 

LINK MOTIONS, VALVES AND VALVE SETTING. By Fred H. Colvin, Associate 
Editor of "American Machinist." 

A handy book for the engineer or machinist that clears up the mysteries of valve setting. 
Shows the different valve gears in use, how they work, and why. Piston and slide valves 
of different types are illustrated and explained. A book that every railroad man in the mo- 
tive power department ought to have. Contains chapters on Locomotive Link Motion, 
Valve Movements, Setting Slide Valves, Analysis by Diagrams, Modern Practice, Slip of 
Block, Slide Valves, Piston Valves, Setting Piston Valves, Joy-Allen Valve Gear, Walschaert 
Valve Gear, Gooch Valve Gear, Alfree-Hubbell Valve Gear, etc., etc. Fully illustrated. 
Pnee , 50 cents 

17 



CATALOGUE OF GOOD, PRACTICAL BOOKS 

LOCOMOTIVE BOILER CONSTRUCTION. By Frank A. Kleinhans. 

The construction of boilers in general Is treated, and following this, the locomotive boiler 
is taken up in the order in which its various parts go through the shop. Shows all types of 
boilers used; gives details of construction; practical facts, such as life of riveting, punches 
and dies; work done per day, allowance for bending and flanging sheets, and other data. 
Locomotive boilers present more difficulty in laying out and building than any other type, 
and for this reason the author uses them as examples. Anyone who can handle them can 
tackle anything. 

Contains chapters on Laying Out Work; Flanging and Forging; Punching; Shearing; Plate 
Planing; General Tables; Finishing Parts; Bending; Machinery Parts; Riveting; Boiler 
Details; Smoke Box Details; Assembling and Calking; Boiler Shop Machinery, etc., etc. 
There isn't a man who has anything to do with boiler work, either new or repair work, who 
doesn't need this book. The manufacturer, superintendent, foreman, and boiler worker — 
all need it. No matter what the type of boiler, you'll find a mint of information that you- 
wouldn't be without. Over 400 pages, five large folding plates. Price 53.00 

LOCOMOTIVE BREAKDOWNS AND THEIR REMEDIES. By Geo. L. Fowlee. 
Revised by Wm. W. Wood, Air-Brake Instructor. Just issued. Revised pocket 
edition. 

It is out of the question to try and tell you about every subject that is covered in this pocket 
edition of Locomotive Breakdowns. Just imagine all the common troubles that an engineer 
may expect to happen some time, and then add all of the unexpected ones, troubles that could 
occur, but that you had never thought about, and you will find that they are all treated with 
the very best methods of repair. Walschaert Locomotive Valve Gear Troubles, Electric 
Headlight Troubles, as well as Questions and Answers on the Air Brake are all included. 294 
pages. 7th Revised Edition. Fully illustrated $1.00 

LOCOMOTIVE CATECHISM. By Robert Grimshaw. 

The revised edition of "Locomotive Catechism," by Robert Grimshaw, is a New Book from 
Cover to Cover. It contains twice as many pages and double the number of illustrations 
of previous editions. Includes the greatest amount of practical information ever published 
on the construction and management of modern locomotives. Specially Prepared Chapters 
on the Walschaert Locomotive Valve Gear, the Air Brake Equipment and the Electric Head 
Light are given. 

It commends itself at once to every Engineer and Fireman, and to all who are going in for 
examination or promotion. In plain language, with full complete answers, not only all the 
questions asked by the examining engineer are given, but those which the young and less 
experienced would ask the veteran, and which old hands ask as "stickers." It is a veritable 
Encyclopedia of the Locomotive, is entirely free from mathematics, easily understood and 
thoroughly up-to-date. Contains over 4,000 Examination Questions with their Answers. 
825 pages, 437 illustrations and three folding plates. 28th Revised Edition. . . $2.50 

PRACTICAL INSTRUCTOR AND REFERENCE BOOK FOR LOCOMOTIVE 
FIREMEN AND ENGINEERS. By Chas. F. Lockhart. 

An entirely new book on the Locomotive. It appeals to every railroad man, as it tells him 
how things are done and the right way to do them. Written by a man who has had years 
of practical experience in locomotive shops and on the road firing and running. The infor- 
mation given in this book cannot be found in any other similar treatise. Eight hundred and 
fifty-one questions with their answers are included, which will prove specially helpful to 
those preparing for examination. Practical information on: The Construction and Opera- 
tion of Locomotives. Breakdowns and their Remedies; Air Brakes and Valve Gears. 
Rules and Signals are handled in a thorough manner. As a book of reference it cannot be 
excelled. The book is divided into six parts, as follows: 1. The Fireman's Duties. 2. 
General description of the Locomotive. 3. Breakdowns and their Remedies. 4. Air Brakes. 
5. Extracts from Standard Rules. 6. Questions for examination. The 851 questions have 
been carefully selected and arranged. These cover the examinations required by the different 
railroads. 368 pages. 88 illustrations. Price $1.50 

PREVENTION OF RAILROAD ACCIDENTS, OR SAFETY IN RAILROADING. 

By George Bradshaw. 

This book is a heart-to-heart talk with Railroad Employees, dealing with facts, not theories, 
and showing the men in the ranks, from every-day experience, how accidents occur and how 
they may be avoided. The book is illustrated with seventy original photographs and draw- 
ings showing the safe and \ansafe methods of work. No visionary schemes, no ideal pictures. 
Just plain facts and Practical Suggestions are given. Every railroad employee who reads the 

i8 



CATALOGUE OV GOOD, PRACTICAL BOOKS 

book is a better and safer man to have in railroad service. It gives just the information 
which will be the means of preventing many injmues and deaths. All railroad employees 
should procure a copy, read it, and do your part in preventing accidents. 169 pages. Pocket 
Size. Fully illustrated. Price 50 cents 

TRAIN RULE EXAMINATIONS MADE EASY. By G. E. Collingwood. 
This is the only practical work on train-rules in print. Every detail is covered, and puzzling 
points are explained in simple, comprehensive language, making it a practical treatise for 
the Train Dispatcher, Engineman, Trainman, and all others who ha- e to do with the move- 
ments of trains. Contains complete and rehable information of the Standard Code of Train 
Rules for single track. Shows Signals in Colors, as used on the difterent roads. Explains 
fully the practical application of train orders, giving a clear and definite understanding of all 
orders which may be used. The meaning and necessity for certain rules are explained in 
such a manner that the student may know beyond a doubt the rights conferred under any 
orders he may receive or the action required by certain rules. 

As nearly all roads require trainmen to pass regular examinations, a complete set of examina- 
tion questions, with their answers, are included. These will enable the student to pass the 
required examinations with credit to himself and the road for which he works. 256 pages;. 
Fully illustrated with Train Signals in colors. Price $1.26 

TRAIN RULES AND DESPATCHING. By H. A. Dalby. 

Every railroad man, no matter what department he's in, needs a copy of this book. It givej> 
the standard rules for both single and double track, shows all the signals, with colors wher- 
ever necessary, and has a list of towns where time changes, with a map showing the whole 
country. The rules are explained wherever there is any doubt about their meaning or where 
they are modified by different railroads. It's the only practical book on train rules in print. 
Over 220 pages. Leather cover. Price $1.50 

THE WALSCHAERT AND OTHER MODERN RADIAL VALVE GEARS FOR 
LOCOMOTIVES. By Wm. W. Wood. 

If you would thoroughly understand the Walschaert Valve Gear you should possess a copy 
of this book, as the author takes the plainest form of a steam engine — a stationary engine in 
the rough, that will only turn its crank in one direction — and from it builds up — with the 
reader's help — a modern locomotive equipped with the Walschaert Valve Gear, complete. 
The points discussed are clearly illustrated : two large folding plates that show the positions 
of the valves of both inside or outside admission type, as well as the links and other parts of 
the gear when the crank is at nine different points in its revolution, are especially valuable 
in making the movement clear. These employ sliding cardboard models which are contained 
in a pocket in the cover. 

The book is divided into five general divisions, as follows: I. Analysis of the gear. II. De- 
signing and erecting the gear. III. Advantages of the gear. IV. Questions and answers 
relating to the Walschaert Valve Gear. V. Setting valves with the Walschaert Valve Gear; 
the three primary types of locomotive valve motion ; modern radial valve gears other than 
the Walschaert; the Hobart All-free valve and valve gear, with questions and answers on 
breakdowns; the Baker-Pilliod valve gear; the Improved Baker-Pilliod Valve Gear, with 
questions and answers on breakdowns. 

The questions with full answers given will be especially valuable to firemen and engineers 
in preparing for an examination for promotion. 245 pages. Third Revised Edition. 
Price $1.60 

WESTINGHOUSE E— T AIR-BRAKE INSTRUCTION POCKET BOOK. By Wm. 

W, Wood, Air-Brake Instructor. 

Here is a book for the railroad man, and the man who aims to be one. It is without doubt 
the only complete work published on the Westinghouse E-T Locomotive Brake Equipment. 
Written by an Air Brake Instructor who knows just what is needed. It covers the subject 
thoroughly. Everything about the New Westinghouse Engine and Tender Brake Equip- 
ment, including the Standard No. 5 and the Perfected No. 6 Style of brake, is treated in de- 
tail. Written in plain English and profusely illustrated with Colored Plates, which enable 
one to trace the flow of pressures throughout the entire equipment. The best book ever 
published on the Air Brake. Equally good for the beginner and the advanced engineer. 
Will pass any one through any examination. It informs and enlightens you on every point. 
Indispensable to every engineman and trainman. 

Contains examination questions and answers on the E-T equipment. Covering what the 
E-T Brake is. How it should be operated. What to do when defective. Not a question can 
be asked of the engineman up for promotion on either the No. 5 or the No. 6 E-T equipment 
that is not asked and answered in the book. If you want to thoroughly understand the E-T 
equipment get a copy of this book. It covers every detail. Makes Air Brake troubles and 
examinations easy. Price $1.60 

19 



CATALOGUE OF GOOD, PRACTICAL BOOKS 

MACHINE SHOP PRACTICE 

AMERICAN TOOL MAKING AND INTERCHANGEABLE MANUFACTURING. By 

J. V. WOODWORTH. 

A "shoppy" book, containing no theorizing, no problematical or experimental devices, there 
are no badly proportioned and impossible diagrams, no catalogue cuts, but a valuable collec- 
tion of drawings and descriptions of devices, the rich fruits of the author's own experience. 
In its 500-odd pages the one subject only. Tool Making, and whatever relates thereto, is 
dealt with. The work stands without a rival. It is a complete practical treatise on the 
art of American Tool Making and system of interchangeable manufacturing as carried on 
to-day in the United States. In it are described and illustrated all of the different types 
and classes of small tools, fixtures, devices, and special appliances which are in general use 
in all machine manufacturing and metal working establishments where economy, capacity, 
and interchangeabilitv in the production of machined metal parts are imperative. The 
science of jig making is exhaustively discussed, and particular attention is paid to drill jigs, 
boring, profiUng and milling fixtures and other devices in which the parts to be machined 
are located and fastened within the contrivances. All of the tools, fixtures, and devices 
illustrated and described have been or are used for the actual production of work, such as 
parts of drill presses, lathes, patented machinery, typewriters, electrical apparatus, mechan- 
ical appliances, brass goods, composition parts, mould products, sheet metal articles, di-op 
forgings, jewelry, watches, medals, coins, etc. 531 pages. Price $4.00 

HENLEY'S ENCYCLOPEDIA OF PRACTICAL ENGINEERING AND ALLIED 

TRADES. Edited by Joseph G. Horner, A.M.L, M.E. 

This set of five volumes contains about 2,500 pages with thousands of illustrations, including 
diagrammatic and sectional drawings with full explanatory details. This work covers the 
entire practice of Civil and Mechanical Engineering. The best known expert in all branches 
of engineering have contributed to these volumes. The Cyclopedia is admirably well adapted 
to the needs of the beginner and the self-taught practical man, as well as the mechanical en- 
gineer designer, draftsman, shop superintendent, foreman, and machinist. The work will be 
found a means of advancement to any progressive man. It is encyclopedic in scope, thorough 
and practical in its treatment of technical subjects, simple and clear in its descriptive matter, 
and without unnecessary technicalities or formulae. The articles are as brief as may be and 
yet give a reasonably clear and explicit statement of the subject, and are written by men who 
have had ample practical experience in the matters of which they, write. It tells you all you 
want to know about engineering and tells it so simply, so clearly, so concisely, that one cannot 
help but understand. As a work of reference it is without a peer. $6.00 per volume. For 
complete set of five volumes, price $25.00 

MACHINE SHOP ARITHMETIC. By Colvin-Cheney. 

This is an arithmetic of the things you have to do with daily. It tells you plainly about: how 
to find areas of figures; how to find surface or volume of balls or spheres; handy ways for 
calculating; about compound gearing; cutting screw threads on any lathe; drillmg for taps; 
speeds of drills taps, emerv wheels, grindstones, milling cutters, etc.; all about the Metric 
system with conversion tables; properties of metals; strength of bolts and nuts; decimal 
equivalent of an inch. All sorts of machine shop figuring and 1,001 other things, any one of 
v'hich ought to be worth more than the price of this book to you, and it saves you the trouble 
of bothering the boss. 6th Edition. 131 pages. Price 50 cents 

MODERN MACHINE SHOP CONSTRUCTION, EQUIPMENT AND MANAGEMENT. 
By Oscar E. Perrigo. 

The only work published that describes the Modern Machine Shop or Manufacturing Plant from 
the time the grass is growing on the site intended for it until the finished product is shipped. 
Just the book needed bv those contemplating the erection of modern shop buildings the re- 
building and reorganization of old ones, or the introduction of Modern Shop Methods, time and 
cost systems. It is a book written and illustrated by a practical shop man for practical shop 
men who are too busy to read theories and want facts. It is the most complete all-around 
book of its kind ever published. 400 large quarto pages. 225 original and specially-made 
illustrations. Price !1>5.UU 

MECHANICAL APPLIANCES, MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS AND NOVELTIES 
OF CONSTRUCTION. By Gardner D. Hiscox. 

This is a supplementarv volume to the one apon mechanical movements. Unlike the first 
v'olume, which is more elementary in character, this volume contains illustrations and descrip- 
tions of many combinations of motions and of mechanical devices and appliances round in 
different lines of machinery. Each device being shown bv a line drawing with a descnption 

20 



CATALOGUE OF GOOD. PRACTICAL BOOKS 



showing its working parts and the method of operation. From the multitude of devices de- 
scribed, and illustrated, might be mentioned, in passing, such items as conveyors and elevators, 
Prony brakes, thermometers.i various types of boilers, solar engines, oil-fuel burners, condensers, 
evaporators, Corliss and other valve gears, governors, gas engines, water motors of various 
descriptions, air ships, motors and dynamos, automobile and motor bicycles, railway block 
signals, car couplers, link and gear motions, ball bearings, breech block mechanism for heavy 
guns, and a large accumulation of others of equal importance. 1,000 specially made engrav- 
ings. 396 octavo pages. Price $2.50 

MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS, POWERS, AND DEVICES. By Gardner D. Hiscox. 

This is a collection of 1,890 engravings of different mechanical motions and appliances, accom- 
panied by appropriate text, making it a book of great value to the inventor, the draftsman, 
and to all readers with mechanical tastes. The book is divided into eighteen sections or 
chapters in which the subject matter is classified under the following heads: Mechanical Powers; 
Transmission of Power; Measurement of Power, Steam Power; Air Power Appliances; Electric 
Power and Construction, Navigation and Roads; Gearing; Motion and Devices; Controlling 
Motion; Horological; Mining; Mill and Factory Appliances; Construction and Devices; 
Drafting Devices: Miscellaneous Devices, etc. 12th edition. 400 octavo pages. Price $2.50 

MACHINE SHOP TOOLS AND SHOP PRACTICE. By W. H. Vandervoort. 

A work of 555 pages and 673 illustrations, describing in every detail the construction, operation, 
and manipulation of both hand and machine tools. Includes chapters on fiUng, fitting, and 
scraping surfaces; on drills, reamers, taps, and dies; the lathe and its tools; planers, shapers, 
and their tools; milling machines and cutters; gear cutters and gear cutting; drilling machines 
and drill work; grinding machines and their work; hardening and tempering; gearing, belting 
and transmission machinery: useful data and tables. 6th edition. Price . . . , $3.00 

THE MODERN MACHINIST. By John T. Usher. 

This is a book showing, by plain description and by profuse engravings, made expressly for 
the work, all that is best, most advanced, and of the highest efficiency in modern machine 
shop practice, tools, and implements, showing the way by which and through which, as Mr. 
Maxim says, "American machinists have become and are the finest mechanics in the world." 
Indicating as it does, in every line, the familiarity of the author with every detail of daily 
experience in the shop, it cannot fail to be of service to any man practically -connected with 
the shaping or finishing of metals. 

There is nothing experimental or visionary about the book, all devices being in actual use 
and giving good results. It might be called a compendium of shop methods, showing a vari- 
ety of special tools and appliances which will give new ideas to many mechanics, from the 
superintendent down to the man at the bench. It will be found a valuable addition to any 
machinist's library, and should be consulted whenever a new or difficult job is to be done, 
whether it is boring , milling, turning, or planing, as they are all treated in a practical manner. 
Fifth Edition. 320 pages. 250 illustrations. Price ... $2.50 



MODERN MILLING MACHINES: THEIR DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION AND OPERA- 
TION. By Joseph G. Horner. 

This book describes and illustrates the Milling Machine and its work in such a plain, clear, 
and forceful manner, and illustrates the subject so clearly and completely, that the up-to-date 
machinist, student, or mechanical engineer cannot afford to do without the valuable infor- 
mation which it contains. It describes not only the early machines of this class, but notes 
their gradual development into the splendid machines of the present day, giving the design 
and construction of the various types, forms, and special features produced bj' prominent 
manufacturers, American and foreign. 

Milling cutters in all their development and modernized forms are illustrated and described, 
and the operations they are capable of producing upon different classes of work are carefully 
described in detail, and the speeds and feeds necessary are discussed, and valuable and useful 
data given for de^rmining these usually perplexing problems. The book is the most compre- 
hensive work published on the subject. 304 pages. 300 illustrations. Price . . $4.00 

" SHOP KINKS." By Robert Grimshaw. 

A book of 400 pages and 222 illustrations, being entirely different fron^ any other book on 
machine shop practice. Departing from conventional style, the author avoids universal or 
common shop usage and limits his work to showing special ways of doing things better, more 
cheaply and more rapidly than iisual. As a result the advanced methods of representative 
establishments of the world are placed at the disposal of the reader. This book shows the 
proprietor where large savings are possible, and how products may be improved. To the 
employee it holds out suggestions that, properly applied, will hasten his advancement. No 
shoD can afford to be without it. It bristles with valuable wrinkles and helpful suggestions. 
It will benefit all, from apprentice to proprietor. Every machinist, at any age, should study 
?ts pages. Fifth Edition. Price » $2.50 

21 



CATALOGUE OF GOOD, PRACTICAL BOOKS 

THREADS AND THREAD CUTTING. By Colvin and Stabel. 
This clears up many of the mysteries of thread-cutting, such as double and triple threads, 
internal threads, catching threads, use of hobs, etc. Contains a lot of useful hints and several 
tables. 3rd Edition. Price 25 cents 

TOOLS FOR MACHINISTS AND WOOD WORKERS, INCLUDING INSTRUMENTS 
OF MEASUREMENT. By Joseph G. Horner. 

The principles upon which cutting tools for wood, metal, and other substances are made are 
identical, whether used by the machinist, the carpenter, or by any other skilled mechanic in 
their daily work, and the object of this book is to give a correct and practical description of 
these tools as they are commonly designed, constructed, and used. 340 pages, fully illustrated. 
Price $3.50 

MANUAL TRAINING 



ECONOMICS OF MANUAL TRAINING. By Louis Rouillion. 

The only book published that gives just the information needed by all interested in Manual 
Training, regarding Buildings, Equipment, and Supplies. Shows exactly what is needed for 
all grades of the work from the Kindergarten to the High and Normal School. Gives item- 
ized lists of everything used in Manual Training Work and tells just what it ought to cost. 
Also shows where to buy supplies, etc. Contains 174 pages, and is fully illustrated. 
2nd Edition. Price $1.50 

MARINE ENGINEERING 



MARINE ENGINES AND BOILERS, THEIR DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION. By 

Dr. G. Bauer, Leslie S. Robertson, and S. Bryan Donkin. 

In the words of Dr. Bauer, the present work owes its origin to an oft felt want of a Condensed 
Treatise, embodying the Theoretical and Practical Rules used in Designing Marine Engines 
and Boilers. The need for such a work has been felt by most engineers engaged in the con- 
struction and working of Marine Engines, not only by the younger men, but also by those of 
greater experience. The fact that the original German work was written by the chief engineer 
of the famous Vulcan Works, Stettin, is in itself a guarantee that this book is in all respects 
thoroughly up-to-date, and that it embodies all the information which is necessary for the 
design and construction of the highest types of marine engines and boilers. It may be said, 
that the motive power which Dr. Bauer has placed in the fast German liners that have been 
turned out of late years from the Stettin Works, represent the very best practice in marine 
engineering of the present day. 

-This work is clearly written, thoroughly systematic, theoretically sound; while the character 
of its plans, drawings, tables, and statistics is without reproach. The illustrations are care- 
ful reproductions from actual working drawings, with some well-executed photographic views 
of completed engines and boilers. 744 pages. 550 illustrations and numerous tables. 

$9.00 net 
MODERN SUBMARINE CHART. 

A cross-section view, showing clearly and distinctly all the interior of a Submarine of the 
latest type. You get more information from this chart, about the construction and operation 
of a Submarine, than in any other way. No Details omitted — everything is accurate and to 
scale. It is absolutely correct in every detail, having been approved by Naval Engineers. 
AU the machinery and devices fitted in a modern Submarine Boat are shown and to make the 
engraving more readily understood all the features are shown in operative form with Ofiflcers 
and Men in the act of performing the duties assigned to them in service conditions. This 
CHART IS REALLY AN ENCYCLOPEDIA OF A SUBMARINE. It is educational 
and worth many times its cost. Mailed in a Tube for 25 cents 

MINING 

ORE DEPOSITS, WITH A CHAPTER ON HINTS TO PROSPECTORS. By J. P. 

Johnson 

This book gives a condensed account of the ore-deposits at present known in South Africa. 
It is also intended as a guide to the prospector. Only an elementary knowledge of geology 
and some mining experience are necessary in order to understand this work. With these 
qualifications, it wiU materially assist one in his search for metalliferous niineral occurrences 

22 



CATALOGUE OF GOOD, PRACTICAL BOOKS 

and, so far as simple- ores are concerned, should enable one to form some idea of the possi- 
bilities of any he may find. 

Among the chapters given are: Titaniferous and Chromiferous Iron Oxides — Nickel — Cop- 
per — Cobalt — Tin — Molybdenum — Tungsten — Lead — Mercury — Antimony — Iron — Hints to 
Prospectors. $2.00 

PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY OF MINING. By T. H. Byrom. 

A practical work for the use of all preparing for examinations in mining or qualifying for 
colliery managers' certificates. The aim of the author in this excellent book is to place clearly 
before the reader useful and authoritative data which will render him valuable assistance in 
his studies. The only work of its kind published. The information incorporated in it will 
prove of the greatest practical utility to students, mining engineers, colliery managers, and 
all others who are specially interested in the present-day treatment of mining problems. 
Among its contents are chapters on: The Atmosphere; Laws Relating to the Behavior of 
Gases; The Diffusion of Gases; Composition of the Atmosphere: Sundry Constituents of the 
Atmosphere; Water; Carbon; Fire-Damp; Combustion; Coal Dust and Its Action; Ex- 
plosives; Composition of Various Coals and Fuels; Methods of Analysis of Coal; Strata Ad- 
joining the Coal Measures; Magnetism and Electricity; Appendix; Useful Tables, etc ; 
Miscellaneous Questions. 160 pages. Illustrated $2.00 

PRACTICAL COAL MINING. By T. H. Cockin. 

An important work, containing 428 pages and 213 illustrations, complete with practical de- 
tails, which will Intuitively impart to the reader, not only a general knowledge of the princi- 
ples of coal mining, but also considerable insight into allied subjects. This treatise is posi- 
tively up to date in every instance, and should be in the hands of every colliery engineer, 
geologist, mine operator, superintendent, foreman, and all others who are interested in or 
connected with the industry. 2nd Edition $2.50 

PATTERN MAKING 

PRACTICAL PATTERN MAKING. By F. W. Barrows. 

This is a very complete and entirely practical treatise on the subject of pattern making, illus- 
trating pattern work in wood and metal. From its pages you are taught just what you should 
know about pattern making. It contains a detailed description of the materials used by 
pattern makers, also the tools, both those for hand use, and the more interesting machine 
tools; having complete chapters on the band saw, The Buzz Saw, and the Lathe. Individual 
patterns of manj^ different kinds are fully illustrated and described, and the mounting of 
metal patterns on plates for molding machines is included. 

Rules, Formulas and Tables are included, containing simple and original methods for finding 
the weight of castings, both from the pattern itself and from the drawings. This section 
contains some new and practical formulas, which will be found very useful in estimating 
weights, with the accuracy required for quotations to prospective customers. All of these 
rules are simple, and can be put to practical use by the ordinary, every-day man, and they 
have been proved by years of actual use. 

Plain rules for keeping down the cost of patterns, with a complete system for checking the 
cost of and marking the patterns, and a card record showing what the pattern is, material 
used, where> located in safe, with its cost and date of production, is included. The book closes 
with an original and practical method for the inventory and valuation of patterns. Con- 
taining 326 pages and 150 detailed illustrations. Price $2.00 

PERFUMERY 

HENLEY'S TWENTIETH CENTURY BOOK OF RECEIPTS, FORMULAS AND PRO- 
CESSES. Edited by G. D. Hiscox. 

The most valuable Techno-chemical Receipt Book published. Contains over 10,000 practical 
receipts, many of which will prove of special value to the perfumer, a mine of information, up- 
to-date in every respect. Price, Cloth, $3.00; half morocco $4.00 

PERFUMES AND THEIR PREPARATION. By G. W. Askinson, Perfumer. 
A comprehensive treatise, in which there has been nothing omitted that could be of value 
to the Perfumer. Complete directions for making handkerchief perfumes, smelling-salts, 
sachets, fumigating pastilles: preparations for the care of the skin, the mouth, the hair, cos- 
metics, hair dyes and other toilet articles are given, also a detailed description of aromatic 
substances: their nature, tests of purity, and wholesale manufacture. A book of general, 
as well as professional interest, meeting the wants not only of the druggist and perfume man- 
ufacturer, but also of the general public. Third edition. 312 pages. Illustrated. . $3.00 

2-? 



CATALOGUE OF GOOD, PRACTICAL BOOKS 
PLUMBING 

MECHANICAL DRAWING FOR PLUMBERS. By R. M. Starbuck. 
A concise, comprehensive and practical treatise on the subject of mechanical drawing in its 
various modern applications to the work of all who are in any way connected with the 
plumbing trade. Nothing will so help the plumber in estimating and in explaining work to 
customers and workmen as a knowledge of drawing, and to the workman it is of inestimable 
value if he is to rise above his position to positions of greater responsibiUty. Among the 
chapters contained are: 1. Value to plumber of knowledge of drawing; tools required 
and their use; common views needed in mechanical drawing. 2. Perspective versus mechan- 
ical drawing in showing plumbing construction. 3. Correct and incorrect methods in 
plumbing drawing; plan and elevcction explained. 3. Floor and cellar plans and elevation; 
scale drawings; use of triangles. 5. Use of triangles; drawing of fittings, traps, etc. 6. 
Drawing plumbing elevations and fittings. 7. Instructions in drawing plumbing elevations. 
8. The drawing of plumbing fixtures; scale drawings. 9. Drawing of fixtures and fittings. 
10. Inking of drawings. 11. Shading of drawings. 12. Shading of drawings. 13. Sec- 
tional drawings; drawing of threads. 14. Plumbing elevations from architect's plan. 
15. Elevations of separate parts of the plumbing system. 16. Elevations from architect's 
plans. 17. Drawing of detail plumbing connections, 18. Architect's plans and plumbint? 
elevations of residence. 19. Plumbing elevations of residence (continued); plumbing plans 
for cottage. 20. Plimibing elevations; roof connections. 21. Plans and plumbing eleva- 
tions for six-flat building. 22. Drawing of various parts of the plumbing system; use of 
scales. 23. Use of architect's scales. 24. Special features in the illustrations of country 
plumbing. 25. Drawing of wrought iron piping, valves, radiators, coils, etc. 26. Drawing 
of piping to illustrate heating systems. 150 iUustrations. Price $1.50 

MODERN PLUMBING ILLUSTRATED. By R. M, Starbuck, 

This book represents the highest standard of plumbing work. It has been adopted and used 
as a reference book by the United States Government, in its sanitary work in Cuba, Porto 
Hico, and the Philippines, and by the principal Boards of Health of the United States and 
Canada. 

It gives connections, sizes and working data for all fixtures and groups of fixtures. It is 
helpful to the master plumber in demonstrating to his customers and in figm-ing work. It 
gives the mechanic and student quick and easj- access to the best modern plumbing practice. 
Suggestions for estimating phimbing construction are contained in its pages. This book 
represents, in a word, the latest and best up-to-date practice, and should be in the hands of 
every architect, sanitary engineer and plumber who wishes to keep himself up to the minute 
on this important feature of construction. Contains following chapters, each illustrated 
with a full-page plate: Kitchen sink, laimdry tubs, vegetable wash sink; lavatories, 
pantry sinks, contents of marble slabs; bath tub, foot and sitz bath, shower bath; water 
closets, venting of water closets ; low-down water closets, water closets operated by flush 
valves, water closet range; slop sink, urinals, the bidet; hotel and restaurant sink, grease 
trap; refrigerators, safe wastes, laimdry waste; lines of refrigerators, bar sinks, soda foun- 
tain sinks; horse stall, frost-proof water closets; connections for S traps, venting; con- 
nections for drum traps; soil pipe connections; supporting of soil pipe; main trap and 
fresh air inlet; floor drains and cellar drains, subsoil drainage; water closets and floor 
connections; local venting: connections for bath rooms; connections for bath rooms, con- 
tinued; connections for bath rooms, continued; connections for bath rooms, continued; 
examples of poor practice; roughing- work ready for test; testing of plumbing system; 
method of continvious venting ; continuous venting for two-floor work ; continuous venting 
for two lines of fixtures on three or more floors ; continuous venting of water closets ; plumb- 
ing for cottage house; construction for ceUar piping: plumbing for residence, use of special 
fittings; plumbing for two-flat house; plumbing for apartment building; plumbing for 
double apartment building; plumbing for oflSce building; plumbing for public toUet rooms; 
plumbing for pubhc toilet rooms, continued; plumbing for bath establishment; plmnbing 
for engine house, factory plimibing ; automatic flushing for schools, factories, etc. ; use of 
flushing valves; urinals for pubhc toilet rooms; the Durham system, the destruction of 
pipes by electrolysis; construction of work without use of lead; Automatic sewage Uft, 
automatic sump tank ; country plumbing ; construction of cesspools : septic tank and auto- 
matic sewage siphon: country plumbing; water supply for country house; thawing of 
water mains and ser\ice by electricity; double boilers: hot water supply of large build- 
ings; automatic control of hot water tank; suggestions for estimating plumbing construc- 
tion. 400 octavo pages, fully illustrated by 55 full-page engravings. Price . $4.00 

STANDARD PRACTICAL PLUMBING. By R. M. Starbuck. 

A complete practical treatise of 450 pages covering the subject of Modern Plumbing 
in all its branches, a large amount of space being devoted to a very complete and practical 
treatment of the subject of Hot Water Supply and Circulation and Range Boiler Work. 
Its thirty chapters include about every phase of the subject one can think of, making it 

24. 



CATALOGUE OF GOOD, PRACTICAL BOOKS 

an indispensable work to the master plumber, the journeyman plumber, and the apprentice 
plumber, containing chapters on: the plumber's tools; wiping solder, composition and use; 
joint wiping; lead work; traps; siphonage of traps; venting; continuous venting; house 
sewer and sewer connections; house drain; soil piping, rougliing; main trap and fresh air 
inlet; floor, yard, cellar drains, rain leaders, etc. ; fixture wastes: water closets; ventilation; 
improved plumbing connections; residence plumbing; plumbing for hotels, schools, fac- 
tories, stables, etc.; modern country plumbing; filtration of sewage and water supply; 
hot and cold supply; range boilers; circulation; circulating pipes; range boiler problems; 
hot water for large buildings; water lift and its use; multiple connections for hot water 
boilers; heating of radiation by supply system; theory for the plumber; drawing for the 
plumber. Fully illustrated by 347 engravings. Price $3.00 

RECEIPT BOOK 



HENLEY'S TWENTIETH CENTURY BOOK OF RECEIPTS, FORMULAS AND PRO- 
CESSES. Edited by Gardner D. Hiscox. 

The most valuable Techno-chemical Receipt Book published, including over 10,000 selected 
scientific, chemical, technological, and practical receipts and processes. 

This is the most complete Book of Receipts ever published, giving thousands of receipts for 
the manufacturer of valuable articles for everyday use. Hints, Helps, Practical Ideas, and 
Secret Processes are revealed within its pages. It covers every branch of the useful arts and 
tells thousands of ways of making money and is just the book everyone should have at his 
command. 

Modern in its treatment of every subject that properly falls within its scope, the book may 
truthfully be said to present the very latest formulas to be found in the arts and industries 
and to retain those processes wliich long experience has proven worthy of a permanent record 
To present here even a limited number of the subjects which find a place in this valuable 
work would be difficult. Suffice to say that in its pages will be found matter of intense in- 
terest and immeasurable practical value to the scientific amateur and to him who wishes to 
obtain a knowledge of the many processes used in the arts, trades and manufactures, a 
knowledge which will render his pursuits moro instructive and remunerative. Serving as a 
reference book to the small and large manufacturer and suppplying intelligent seekers with 
the information necessary to conduct a process, the work will be found of inestimable worth 
to the Metallurgist, the Photographer, the Perfumer, the Painter, the Manufacturer of 
Glues, Pastes, Cements, and Mucilages, the Compounder of Alloys, the Cook, the Physician, 
the Druggist, the Electrician, the Brewer, the Engineer, the Foundryman, the jMachinist, 
the Potter, the Tanner, the Confectioner, the Chiropodist, the Manicure, the Manufacturer 
of Chemical Novelties and Toilet Preparations, the Dyer, the Electroplater, the Enameler, 
the Engraver, the Provisioner, the Glass Vorker, the Goldbeater, the Watchmaker, the Jew- 
eler, the Hat Maker, the Ink Manufacturer, the Optician, the Farmer, the Dairyman, the 
Paper Maker, the Wood and Metal Worker, the Chandler and Soap ]Maker, the Veterinary 
Surgeon, and the Technologist in general. 

A mine of information, and up-to-date in every respect. A book which will prove of value 
to EVERYONE, as it covers every branch of the Useful Arts. 800 pages. Price $3.00 

WHAT IS SAID OF THIS BOOK: 



"Your Twentieth Century Book of Receipts, Formulas and Processes duly received. I am 
glad to have a copy of it, and if I could not replace it money couldn't buy it. It is the best 
thing of the sort I ever saw." (Signed) M. E. Trux, 

Sparta, Wis. 
" There are few persons who would not be able to find in the book some single formula that 
would repay several times the cost of the book. " — Merchant's Record and Show Window. 

RUBBER 



RUBBER HAND STAMPS AND THE MANIPULATION OF INDIA RUBBER. By 

T. O'CoNOR Sloane. 

This book gives full details on all points, treating in a concise and siini)l(> manner the elements 
of nearly everything it is necessary to understand for a coniniencenicnt in anv branch of the 
India Rubber Manufacture. The making of all kinds of Rubber Hand Stamps, Small Articles 
of India Rubber, J. S. Government Composition, Dating Hand Stamps, tlie Manipulation 
of Sheet Rubber, Toy Balloons. India Rubber Solutions, Cements, Blackings, Renovating 

25 



CATALOGUE OF GOOD, PRACTICAL BOOKS 

Varnish, and Treatment for India Rubber Shoes, etc.; the Hektograph Stamp Inks, and 
Miscellaneous Notes, with a Short Account of the Discovery, Collection, and Manufacture of 
India Rubber are set forth in a manner designed to be readily understood, the explanations 
being plain and simple. Including a chapter on Rubber Tire Making and Vulcanizing ; also a 
chapter on the uses of rubber in Surgery and Dentistry. Third revised and enlarged edition. 
175 pages. Illustrated $1.00 

SAWS 



SAW FILINGS AND MANAGEMENT OF SAWS. By Robert Grimshaw. 

A practical hand book on filing, gumming, swaging, hammering, and the brazing of band saws, 
the speed, work, and power to run circular saws, etc. A handy book for those who have charge 
of saws, or for those mechanics who do their own filing, as it deals with the proper shape and 
pitches of saw teeth of all kinds and gives many useful hints and rules for gumming, setting, 
and filing, and is a practical aid to those who use saws for any purpose. New edition, revised 
and enlarged. Illustrated. Price $1.00 

STEAM ENGINEERING 

AMERICAN STATIONARY ENGINEERING. By W. E. Crane. 

This book begins at the boiler room and takes in the whole power plant. A plain talk on 
every-day work about engines, boilers, and their accessories. It is not intended to be scien- 
tific or mathematical. All formulas are in simple form so that any one understanding plain 
arithmetic can readily understand any of them. The author has made this the most prac- 
tical book in print; has given the results of his years of experience, and has included about 
aU that has to do with an engine room or a power plant. You are not left to guess at a single 
ooint. You are shown clearly what to expect under the various conditions ; how to secure 
the best results; ways of preventing "shut do^Tis" and repairs: in short, all that goes to 
make up the requirements of a good engineer, capable of taking charge of a plant. It's plain 
enough for practical men and yet of value to those high in the profession. 
A. partial list of contents is: The boiler room, cleaning boilers, firing, feeding: pumps; 
jispection and repair; chimneys, sizes and cost; piping: mason Avork: foimdations; testing 
cement; pile driving; engines, slow and high speed; valves: valve setting: Corliss engines, 
setting valves, single and double eccentric: air pumps and condensers: different types of 
condensers: water needed: lining up; poixnds: pins not square in crosshead or crank; 
engineers' tools: pistons and piston rings; bearing metal: hardened copper ; drip pipes from 
cylinder jackets; belts, how made, care of; oils; greases: testing lubricants: rules and 
tables, including steam tables; areas of segments; squares and square root: cubes and cube 
root; areas and circumferences of circles. Notes on: Brick work; explosions; pumps; 
pump valves: heaters, economizers; safety valves ; lap, lead, and clearance. Has a complete 
examination for a license, etc., etc. Second edition. 285 pages. Illustrated. Price . $2.00 

EMINENT ENGINEERS. By Dwight Goddard. 

Everyone who appreciates the effect of such great inventions as the Steam Engine, Steamboat, 
Locomotive, Sewing Machine, Steel Working, and other fundamental discoveries, is interested 
in knowing a little about the men who made them and their achievements. 
Mr. Goddard has selected thirty-two of the world's engineers who have contributed most 
largely to the advancement of our civilization by mechanical means, giving only such facts as 
are of general interest and in a way which appeals to all, whether mechanics or not. 280 
pages. 35 illustrations. Price $1.50 

ENGINE RUNNER'S CATECHISM. By Robert Grimshaw. 

A practical treatise for the stationary engineer, telling how to erect, adjust and run the prin- 
cipal steam engines in use in the United States. Describing the principal features of various 
special and well-known makes of engines: Temper Cut-off. Shipping and Receiving Founda- 
tions, Erecting and Starting, Valve Setting, Care and Use, Emergencies, Erecting and Ad- 
justing Special Engines. 

The questions asked throughout the catechism are plain and to the point,'"and the answers 
are given in such simple language as to be readily understood by anyone. All the instructions 
given are complete and up-to-date; and they are written in a popular style, without any 
technicalities or mathematical formulae. The work is of a handy size for the pocket, clearly 
and well printed, nicely bound, and profusely illustrated. To young engineers this catechism 

26 



CATALOGUE OF GOOD, PRACTICAL BOOKS 

will be of great value ^ especially to those who may be preparing to go forward to be examined 
for certificates of competency; and to engineers generally it will be of no little service, as they 
will find in this volume more really practical and useful information than is to be found any- 
where else within a like compass. 387 pages. Seventh edition. Price .... $2.00 

ENGINE TESTS AND BOILER EFFICIENCIES. By J. Buchetti. 

This work fully describes and illustrates the method of testing the power of steam engines, 
turbines and explosive motors. The properties of steam and the evaporative power of fuels. 
Combustion of fuel and chimney draft; with formulas explained or practically computed 
255 pages, 179 illustrations $3.00 

HORSEPOWER CHART. 

Shows the horsepower of any stationary engine without calculation. No matter what the 
cylinder diameter of stroke; the steam pressure or cut off; the revolutions, or whether con- 
densing or non-condensing, it's all there. Easy to use, accurate, and saves time and calcu- 
lations. Especially useful to engineers and designers 50 cents 

MODERN STEAM ENGINEERING IN THEORY AND PRACTICE. By Gardner 
D. Hiscox. 

This is a complete and practical work issued for Stationary Engineers and firemen dealing 
with the care and management of boilers, engines, pumps, superheated steam, refrigerating 
machinery, dynamos, motors, elevators, air compressors, and all other branches with which 
the modern engineer must be familiar. Nearly 200 questions with their answers on steam 
and electrical engineering, likely to be asked by the Examining Board, are included. 
Among the chapters are: Historical; steam and its properties; appliances for the genera- 
tion of steam; types of boilers; chimney and its work; heat economy of the feed water; 
steam piunps and their work; incrustation and its work; steam above atmospheric pressure; 
flow of steam from nozzles; superheated steam and its work; adiabatic expansion of steam; 
indicator and its work; steam engine proportions; slide valve engines and valve motion; 
Corliss engine and its valve gear; compound engine and its theory; triple and multiple 
expansion engine, steam turbine; refrigeration; elevators and their management; cost 
of power; steam engine troubles; electric power and electric plants. 487 pages. 405 en- 
gravings. Price $3.00 

STEAM ENGINE CATECHISM. By Robert Grimshaw. 

This unique volume of 413 pages is not only a catechism on the question and answer princi- 
ple; but it contains formulas and worked-out answers for all thje Steam problems that apper- 
tain to the operation and management of the Steam Engine. Illustrations of various valves 
and valve gear with their principles of operation are given. Thirty-four Tables that are 
indispensable to every engineer and fireman that wishes to be progressive and is ambitious to 
become master of his calling are within its pages. It is a most valuable instructor in the 
service of Steam Engineering. Leading engineers have recommended it as a valuable educa- 
tor for the beginner as well as a reference book for the engineer. It is thoroughly indexed 
for every detail. Every essential question on the Steam Engine with its answer is contained 
in this valuable work. Sixteenth edition. Price $2.00 

STEAM ENGINEER'S ARITHMETIC. By Colvin-Cheney. 

A practical pocket book for the steam engineer. Shows how to work the problems of the 
engine room and shows "why." Tells how to figure horse-power of engines and boilers; area 
of boilers ; has tables of areas and circumferences ; steam tables ; has a dictionarv of engineering 
terms. Puts you on to all all of the little kinks in figuring whatever there is to figure around 
a power plant. Tells you about the heat unit; absolute zero; adiabatic expansion; duty of 
engines; factor of safety; and 1,001 other things; and everything is plain and simple — not 
the hardest way to figure, but the easiest. 2nd Edition 50 cents 

STEAM HEATING AND VENTILATION 



PRACTICAL STEAM, HOT- WATER HEATING AND VENTILATION. By A. G. 

King. 

This book is the standard and latest work published on the subject and has been prepared for 
the use of all engaged in the business of steam, hot water heating, and ventilation. It is an 
original and exhaustive work. Tells how to get heating contracts, how to install heating and 
ventilating apparatus, the best business methods to be used, with "Tricks of the Trade" for 

27 



CATALOGUE OF GOOD, PRACTICAL BOOKS 



shoo use. Rules and data for estimating radiation and cost and such tables and information 
as make it an indispensable work for everyone interested in steam, hot water heating, and venti- 
lation. It describes all the principal systems of steam, hot water, vacuum, vapor, and vacuum- 
vapor heating, together with the new accelerated systems of hot water circulation, including 
chapters on up-to-date methods of ventilation and the fan or blower system of heating and 
ventilation. Containing chapters on: I. Introduction. II. Heat. III. Evolution of 
artificial heating apparatus. IV. Boiler surface and settings. V. The chimney flue. VI. 
Pipe and fittings. VII. Valves, various kinds. VIII. Forms of radiating surfaces. IX. 
Locating of radiating surfaces. X. Estimating radiation. XI. Steam-heating apparatus. 
XII. Exhaust-steam heating. XIII. Hot-water heating. XIV. Pressure systems of hot- 
water work. XV. Hot-water appliances. XVI. Greenhouse heating. XVII. Vacuum 
vapor and vacuum exhaust heating. XVIII. jMiscellaneous heating. XIX. Radiator and 



pipe connections. XX. Ventilation. XXI. IMechanical ventilation and hot-blast heating. 
XXII. Steam appliances. XXIII. District heating. XXIV. Pipe and boiler covering. 
XXV. Temperature regulation and heat control. XXVI. Business methods. XXVII. 



JMiscellaneous. XXVIII. Rules, tables and useful information. 367 pages. 300 detailed 
engravings. Price $3.00 

STEAM PIPES 



STEAM PIPES: THEIR DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION. By Wm. H. Booth. 

The work is well illustrated in regard to pipe joints, expansion offsets, flexible joints, and 
self-contained sliding joints for taking up the expansion of long pipes. In fact, the chapters 
on the flow of steam and expansion of pipes are most valuable to all steam fitters and users. 
The pressure strength of pipes and method of hanging them are well treated and illustrated. 
Valves and by-passes are fully illustrated and described, as are also flange joints and their 
proper proportions, exhaust heads and separators. One of the most valuable chapters is that 
on superheated steam and the saving of steam by insulation with the various kinds of felt- 
ing and other materials with comparison tables of the loss of heat in thermal units from naked 
and felted steam pipes. Contains 187 pages. Price $S.OO 

STEEL 

AMERICAN STEEL WORKER. By E. R. Markham. 

This book tells how to select, and how to work, temper, harden, and anneal steel for everything 
on earth. It doesn't tell how to temper one class of tools and then leave the treatment of 
another kind of tool to your imagination and judgment, but it gives careful instructions for 
every detafl of every tool, whether it be a tap, a reamer or just a screw-driver. It tells about 
the tempering of srnall watch springs, the hardening of cutlery, and the annealing of dies. In 
fact there isn't a thing that a steel worker would want to know that isn't included. It is the 
standard book on selecting, hardening, and tempering all grades of steel. Among the 
chapter headings might be mentioned the following subjects: Introduction; the workman; 
steel; methods of heating; heating tool steel; forging; anrealing; hardening baths; baths 
for hardening; hardening steel; drawing the temper after hardening; examples of hard- 
ening; pack hardening; case hardening; spring tempering; making tools of machine steel; 
special steels; steel for various tools; causes of trouble; high speed steels, etc. 366 pages. 
Very fully iUustrated. 3rd Edition. Price $2.50 

HARDENING, TEMPERING, ANNEALING, AND FORGING OF STEEL. By J. V. 

WOODWORTH. 

A new work treating in a clear, concise manner all modern processes for the heating, annealing 
forging, welding, hardening, and tempering of steel, making it a book of great practical value 
to the metal-working mechanic in general, with special directions for the successful hardening 
and tempering of all steel tools used in the arts, including milling cutters, taps, thread dies, 
reamers, both solid and shell, hollow mills, pimches and dies, and all kinds of sheet metal 
working tools, shear blades, saws, fine cutlery, and metal cutting tools of all description, as 
weU as for all implements of steel both large and small. In this work the simplest and most 
satisfactory hardening and tempering processes are given. 

The uses to which the leading brands of steel may be adapted are concisely presented, and their 
treatment for working under different conditions explained, also the special methods for the 
hardening and tempering of special brands. 

A chapter devoted to the different processes for Case-hardening is also included, and special 
reference made to the adoption of machinery steel for tools of various kinds. 4th Edition. 288 
pages. 201 Illustrations. Price $2.50 

28 



CATALOGUE OF GOOD. PRACTICAL BOOKS 



TURBINES 

MARINE STEAM TURBINES. By Dr. G. Bauer and O. Lasche. Assisted by 
E. Ludwig and H. Vogel. Translated from the German and edited by M. G. S. 
Swallow. 

This work forms a supplementary volume to the book entitled " Marine Engines and Boilers." 
The authors of this book, Dr. G. Bauer and O. Lasche, may be regarded as the leading 
authorities on turbine construction. 

The book is essentially practical and discusses turbines in which the full expansion of steam 
passes through a number of separate turbines arranged for driving two or more shafts, as 
in the Parsons system, and turbines in wliich the complete expansion of steam from inlet 
to exhaust pressure occurs in a turbine on one shaft, as in the case of the Curtis machines. 
It will enable a designer to carry out all the ordinary calculations necessary for the con- 
struction of steam turbines, hence it fills a want which is hardly met by larger and more 
theoretical works. 

Numerous tables, curves and diagrams will be found, which explain with remarkable lucidity 
the reason why turbine blades are designed as they are, the course which steam takes through 
turbines of various types, the thermodynamics of steam tiu-bine calculation, the influence 
of vacuum on steam consumption of steam tiu-bines, etc. In a word, the very information 
which a designer and builder of steam turbines most requires. The book is divided into 
parts as follows: 1. Introduction. 2. General remarks on the design of a turbine installa- 
tion. 3. The calculation of steam turbines. 4. Turbine design. 5. Shafting and pro- 
pellers. 6. Condensing plant. 7. Arrangement of turbines. 8. General remarks on the 
arrangement of steam turbines in steamers. 9. Turbine-driven auxiliaries. 10. Tables. 
Large octavo. 214 pages. Fully illustrated and containing 18 tables. Including an entropy 
chart. Price, net $3.60 

WATCH MAKING 

WATCHMAKER'S HANDBOOK. By Claudius Saunier. 

This famous work has now reached its seventh edition and there is no work issued that can 
compare to it for clearness and completeness. It contains 498 pages and is intended as a 
workshop companion for those engaged in Watch-making and allied Mechanical Arts. Nearly 
250 engravings and fourteen plates are included. Price ... .... $3.00 



29 



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