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or THE 




Under Govemment Orders. 





As far as possible the names of contribntora are shown in the 
body of the book. Special acknowledgments are dne^ in Catch, to 
the last Political Agent Colonel L. 0. Barton, for papers on 
Description, Prodnction, Trade, Manofactores, History, the Jideja 
Court, aad Haces of Interest The btdk of the P^anpur account is 
taken from a memoir prepared by the last Political Agent Major 
J. W, Watson. For Mahi K&ntha, Lientenant-Colonel P. H/LeGeyt, 
the last, and Major £. W. West, the present. Political Agents, 
have supplied very valoable papers. 

Febrtiary, 1880. 

■' ''" ^ 

Vocbu ^sr XT'* J' -cu 

■A ' ' 




. ^ JKTTCH, 

Chapter I.— Descnptioit. .^ piqk 

Position and Area ; BoandarieB ; DiTisions i Aspect ■^'' ... \-,2 

Geol<^y ; Hilla ; Bivers ; Lakes ... ... ... 3-10 

The Ban ; Earthquakes ; Climate ... .,. ... 11-18 

Chapter 11.— FroduetioiL 

Minerals ; Trees ; Plants ; Animals ; Biirds ; Fish *,• 19-37 

ChaptM* UI.— FoptilatioiL 

Origin ; lAngnage } Dress ; Census Details ... ... 38-42 

Hindu Castes ... ... ... ... 43-87 

Mnsalmiins ; Pdrsis ; Christians ... ... ... 88-100 

Villages ; Dwellings; Commonities; Movements... .^ 101-103 

Chapter IV.— A^cultnre. 

Arable Area ; Processes ; Crops ; Hnshandmen ; Bad Seasons. 104-109 

> Chapter v.— Cfipital 

Investments; Capitalists; Exchange Bills; Interest; Carrency; 

Bankruptcy ; Wages and Prices ; Weights and Meaaores ... 110-113 

Chapter YI.— Trade and Kannfactores. 

Section L— Trads. 

Beads ; Best-honses ; Vessels ; Steamers ; Harbours ; Light- 

hoases ... ... .•• ... ... 114-116 

Sea and Land Trade (1818, 1835, 1879) ; Brokers ; Insur- 
ance ; Trade Guilds ... ... ... ... 117-121 

Section II. — MASDFACTCKEa. 

Gold and Silver Work ; Copper Work ; Iron Work ; Gild- 
ing ; Polishing ; Mation's Work ; Carpentry ; Cotton 
Spinning and Weaving ; Embroidery ; Braid Weaving ; 
Dyeing ; Silk Weaving and Printing ; Shield Making and 
Painting; Oil Pressing ; Bracelet Making; Tanning; 
Basket Making; Shoe Making; Confectionery... ... 122-1£ 



<yiapter VII.— History. 

i-ygends; Early Notices (325 b. C.-640 a.d.) ; The Arabs 
(711 - 1020) ; Samma conquest (1320) ; Lakha Phulani 
(1320 - 1340) ; Pura Giivaui (1340-1350; ; Lakha Jadeja 
(1350 ■ 1366) ; Rata Bayadhau (13G5) ; Mahmad Begada'B 
conquest (1472) 

ThelUoa (1548-1879) ... 

Chapter VIIL— Land Adnunistration 
Chapter IX.— Justice. 

CiTil, Criminal, and Police 

Infanticide .•. ... 

Jidejf Cnurt 

Chapter X. \v. > uidFinance 
Chapter Xi.~ Instu.^ :ioii ... 
Chapter XII.- Health 
Chapter XIII. -Places of Interest 
Appendices :— 

A- His Highness the B&o's family tree 

B. The Honoorable Mr. Blphinstone's Minnto (1821) 

C. Sir John Malcolm's Minnte (1830) 










Chapter I.— Description. 

Position and Area ; Bonndarios ; Divisions ; Aspect ; Hills ; 

Bivors; Geology; Climate ... ... ... 281-284 

Chapter II.— Production. 

Minerals; Trees; Forests; Animals; Birds ;.Pisb ... 285-288 

Chapter IIL-Fopulation. 

Census Details ; Races and Castes ; Villages ; Movements ... 289-292 
Chapter IV.— Agriculture. 

Soil ; Holdings ; Crops; Husbandmen; Bad Seasons ... 293-296 

Chapter V.— Capital. 
V Investments ; Interest ; Wages and Prices ; Weights and 

MeaauTOs ... .... ... ... _ _ 297-298 

Chapter VI.-Trade ... ... ... ... 299-300 

Chapter VII.-History ... ... *„. ...301-303 

Chapter VIIL— Land Administration ... ... .,, 304.305 

Chapter IX.— Justice ... ... ,„ ...306-309 


Cli&irt«r X.— Bevenae and Finance. paov^ 

Revenue ; Cnstoms ; CeascB ..■ ... ...310-312 

Chapter XI.— Inatniction ... ... ...313-314 

Chapter HI.— Health ... ... ... ... 31&-316 

Chapter Xni.— States ... ... ... ... 317-338 

Chapter XIV.— Places of Interest ... ... 339-351 


Chapter I.— Description. 

Poflition ; Bonndarics ; Snb-divisioiiB ; Aspect ; Hills icJCirers ; 

Geology; Climate ... ... ... ... 355-359 

Chapter II.— Production. 

Minerals; Troea ; Forests; Animals; Fish ... ... 360-363 

Chapter IIL -Population. 

Census Details (1854, 1872); Hindn Castes; Muaalm&ns; 

Dwellings; Conuuunitios ; Movomeuts ... ... 363-368 

Chapter IV.— Agriculture. 

Soil ; Irrigation ; Fallows ; Holdings and Stock ; Crops ; 

Hosbandmon ; Bod Seasons and Blights ... ... 369-372 

Chapter V. -Capital. 

Capitalists ; Debtors and Creditors ; Mortgage of Labour ; 

Interest; Currency; Wages and I'riccs ; Weights and 

Mcasares ... ... ... ... ... 373-376 

Chapter VI, -Trade ... ... ... ... 377-380 

Chapter VII.-History. 

Early Hindus to 1412 ; Masalmans (1412 - 1700) ; Marathis 

(1760-1811); English (1811 -1879) ... ...381-385 

Chapter VIII. -Land Administration ... ... ... 386-387 

Chapter IX— JuBtice. 

Civil and Criminal ; Police ; Infanticide ; Widow Burning ; 

Prisons ... ... ... ... ... 388-391 

Chapter X.— Revenue and Finance ... ... ...392-393 

Chapter XI.- Instruction ... ... ... ... 394-395 

Chapter xn.-Health ... ., . ... ... 396-397 

Chapter XIIL-Stetee ... ... ... ... 398-429 

Chapter XlV.-Places of Interest ... ... ... 430-442 

Appendix A.— The Honourable Mr. Elphinstone's Minute (1821). 443-456 
Index ... ... ... ... ... 457-463 




» X w V ♦ 




Catch, or the sea-coast land,' lying between the peninsula of 
K&thiawar on the south and the province of Sind on the north, 
extends from 20''47' to 24° north latitude, and 68° 26' to 71° 10' east 
longitude. Ezclnsive of the Ran, it contains an estimated area of 6500 
Bqnarenii]e8,apopiUationof487j305 souls, or 74*97 to the square mile, 
and yields a yearly revenue of about £260,000 (Rs. 26,00,000).3 

A belt of land, 160 miles from east to west and from thirty-five to 
seventy from north to south, Cutch is almost entirely cut o£E from 
the continent o£ India, on the north and east by the Ran, on the south 
by the gulf of Cutch, and on the west by the Arabian sea and the 
eastern or Kori mouth of the river Indus. Prom its isolated 
position, the special character of its people, their peculiar dialect, 
and their strong feeling of personal loyalt y to their ruler, the 
peninsula of Cutch has more of the elements of a distinct nationality 
than any other of the dependencies of the Bomftiy Government. 
The territory of Cutch has as shown in the margin a threefold 

jurisdiction ; the first cbinpnsea 
the state, khalsa, portion under 
the direct Inariagement of His 
Highness the Riio ; the second 
are the estates of the Bhaijdd 
or cadets of the Rdo's house, a 
body of feudal landlords ; tho 
third, seven villages scattered 
over the centre of the province 

I Bcaidea to marahea and lowlauds the Sanskrit Kdclichh ia applied to river bauka 
and coast tracts. Lassen Indische Alterthumskundc, I. 132, note 5. 

a This includes the iQcomes of tho emaller chiefs. In 1878 the estimated t^tal 
retinue was £266,062 (Ra. 26,60,620). 

B236— 1 

AdministraiiM Sub-dwudons. 


Number of 



mi Hixhneai tbu Rio ... 

SlOBlltT Cliicf* 

Morri TMkor 

Total ... 






Chapter I. 





icfwirn u tbe Ai&p^ 

and h^ b^ one of tbe 

riptiia. eJuafa o* ike BfaTa faibe, tbe Th ikor uf Mo rri in Ktthuiwir. 

Tbe tofal Mm at the pronaoe is, for adnuiustntira p. 
dsBtnboted over et^t mb-drrmoBs witb ui aTenige an* 
•qoare miles, fxmtamiatg on aa avenge the Uads of 129 
and a popnlatioo of aboat G0.000 wok Tbe foUowing 
gtres tbe cbicf ataintia ol ewA of these snb-dirbiona .— 












■IBM *•'** 


Abdltm wVk 










Aitiir ... .^ 













ao <3 








IS 906 































Bipv with KhMtir.. 









Total ... 



6500 487,3a'» 


Pqp H^tf ly tHe province is divided Jpto aeTen diatrjc ta ; j^^gg^ 
to be llie original seat of the Kithis along the southera mar 
the Ran, and bounded on the soath by the ChArviid mn^c lA 
Garda PattuOc b et^-ccn PAvar and the Kori river ; A biKsa lumiw 
J&m Abda between the CbfuTad i-aogc aud cho Araliiau sen ; 
a emidl diBtrict in the extromo west ; K ^lha or Kflnthi, alt 
Bouth coast ; Mifiini east of Pivar, takiiig lU nninu froai tlie 
tribe ; oud \&f^ui, o ccupying the pouinsulu in the unst.' 

From the sea on the Bouth nnd west, and from the Rnn on 
north and east, the coast of Cut<'h is in sw>me phicoa very slightly rai 
and frinjjed with uiaugrovti swamps. In other ports it ristis in roi 
Rond hillw^ or as in the north-west, in broken rocky cliffa. 
especially on the south uud east, are broad plains soma deep 
and well tilled, others hjire and furrowed^ith water-coursuB. 
these plniiisriso tho central land!* of tho province, in places 
by bright eoloured rocks and patches of tillage, bat over most 
area brown waving uplands deep in loose sand, broken by 
peaks, and bordered by bare ridges of low dust-coloured liilk. 

1 Bwxoai's ArdhcolQsioal Beport, EilkblwAr sod Catob, IS9. 



[The rock ionntUwBS of Cntcfa Uavo heea thos Bab-dJTided : ^ 



*J.^wiii: Tcftisfy . 

Alluvinm, Mown wmoA aiiit milt-Tecotit 
Upper TurtiuT {uiutMffermitg) ... 

AiKillaomui Group {Fbuilifennii) 

Al*n»oi"ni» finwip 

NtmnnnlitK'Gnxnp ... ... 

Oy]««r>iu Shales 


Stntitii-i) Trap* 4diI AMOoiated Ititertnqi- 

iMUi Buds. 
Infra-TnkiijM^ut QritM [nacoti/orault/) 

Uii]j«T JiiraMJc firoiip 

Lovrar JuraMic Uroiip 

Cry*-'. Syvaite » 

I IntrtiaiTo Tmpa 



ProhttMy both rUi- 
uoeno »iid H«- 

Meiuoene or Upper 




Thd exAminatiou of these rocks 9eem>i to itliow that ut Home very 

ewir tirnft metamorpliic rocks woro exposotl arid worn awtiy till they 

: with wjiter. In this water, an arm of the sea not far 

uths of riren;, tihales and sandstones wero ]aid. 'J lie sea 

firtt docp, gnultinlly 8hoal«d till the rocks, at least in places, rose 

(OTfl iho water, Theo, forcing its way through matiy fissures, trap, 

time of it OQ h»nd hot most under the water covere*] the shales and 

. These ontbarets of trap la.'^ted throupli long penodtt uf 

of the lat*r iKring widely different fruiu the earlier flows. 

tbe outbursts of trap the bud sank, niidj under the sea, beds and marl were fonnd at first nnder a deep sea, 

undt't- gradually shoaler water full of life Qud not far from tho 

jd. Of tlie next ehauges tho only tmcca aro the wearing away of 

*.iiDO <if tlu- iur&co rocks and tho forming of new bod:* shore-liko 

uul oomparatirely lutii. Lu^t of all aro the surface rueks with littlo 

ibow liuw tlicy wero formed. 

Tho preseiieo of crystalUno rocka in Nagar Parkar on tho north 
nrp of tho Ktui, aud uf sclustv«o rucks is Kattiiawar, seems to 
.)W that inetAihorphic rockfl atrutch bulow tho Rao and Catch and 
jpport the secondaiy and newer formntiona. 

Juraxsic is Gxn most largely developed of Cutch formations. 

*br>agh with much general likeness and with no wclUumrkcd 

Kne, these rocka differ enongh to allow of their divisioa 

Ipper and a Ijowcr group.* Of these tho Lower Jums»io 

t TUi section i» cHitl^iiMvl from Mr. A. B. Wynne's Meragir on tbe Otology t^ 
iCatch. Man- *' 

S Tho Utrm- 

ruJi-WAlti I'cil' 

•<-' IX. 

.1 I.ow«rare panlylooaL They bare nnthiiw todowilli 
Hirtuons of Jaraaio rocks in Europe aiii] elMtwbvm. Utter 
iho Jnruau: xrnm inbo fourRToupB. tbrvc of lower marine 
: KaItoI, aad the fottrlh I'nica the uppcriuMt tnarijte uui tbo 
>•» lUuila see ManuU of G«olO£j ol Initm, 'iott-26i. 









bods arc chiefly foand in four ])liicP8; 1, A Ijelt fmm one to twelvo 
.'nd gencmlly about six miles broad, lying filong the norfh of Outcb 
from Lakhpat in tfao nest to a UtUo beyond whera tho Banni 
pcninaola joins the inaiDlnnd. This, especially in the west, is nmch 
broken by tmp ixitrusions ; 2, Abont tlio niitfdln of Ciitcli, dindodl 
into two nearly oquul parts by the Mandvi-Bhoj rood, a bull 
forty miles long' aud from oao to five milt's bi-uud ; 3, In tho 
east iu Vii^'ud, u large sti-etcb of country, abont forty miles from 
cost to west and foaitocn from north to Houth ; 4, ilxcept 
littUj utiuvium and a narrow strip of nummnlitio bwls the whole of 
tlio TInn i»luud». TliD Ijower JunLssic wcks have largo clayey becla 
UiHt, ;i8 ihi-y wtHiUior, givo lliinr hills rusty orange tints. Amoug 
them an' hard bluu nud ^ay (|unrlzoso layers j stning sandsLoncj 
, crenm colounnl, KTuy, blue, aud bhick ; gypseons ahales, covering th( 
grunnd with 8niatl red forruginuua iiiHlules ; bnff, oraugej blue, ani 
gray fUiSt; earthy liinestones ; tlien bauds of lumpy congloraorntc-liki) 
shale, and layera o£ «helly Hniestono. One very peculiar rock ib 
coarsi'-^jraiiied, gtihhni, Kunictiiiieu fowsil-yielding oolite*, tic 
cc-attd with a thin film (if lu:4trouFi brown hromatite. iVm. 
beds except of the nodular «ort arw rarer than they are higher 
tho furniation. In uuiiiy places igneona rocks conio through the 
lower durassirit. Somotimos tho Jnra»tic and the igtMKinn rocks 
8eem to have been laid one over tho other. But the effect is 

Jrobably due to the ignoous r^^icks forcing their way between two 
urnBaic b«ds. Of tho life of the period when they were formed, 
tho lowor Jnrassio rocks preserve many grass-like ira pre .«? ions 
and Bomo fragmcnta of fossil wood, but, oxoopt in tho oxtrcma 
west, uo traces of land animal life, jxilfroxninue. Of «ea aninutl 
rouiaina there is a largo store, including Trigouia, Anturlia, Gr/jpfnuttf 
Terehratu! ii, Oitlfttt, CiicuUeji, ami many Auivmnittit, somo of (jrcafc 
sixo ; som» Pli-uruftfrnnria, Cimmmtzin, ami a few more uuivulves ; 
iTimQins of echiuoderms, oonds^ fish tcoth, reptile bones, and 
quantities of SalemnUea. 

South of tbfi first belt of Lower Junuuic rocks, and including 
the second belt, thu Upper Jumssics stretch for about 120 miles 
east and vest with a breadth varying from one to twenty and 
aven^ng about ten miles. They also appear over smsll detacJieil areaa 
in the e^tfit «E Viigad. 'J'he charact^ristio beds of the upper group 
are coarso white sandstone, gravel and conglomerate, and layers of 
coarso sand and mud with crisp biscuit-like feiTugiuous partinsic 
In many places th&se rocks are so salt as strongly to taste tho wella 
and streams. Of the life of tiio period when the Upper Jurasaq 
rocks were formed there remain in a few gray and whito r" 
matted iiniiresfiiona of Zainitf; foms, mosses, and other land p' 
without a fragment of any s«a form. Onco or twice in the lower 
beds the vegetable remains bavo gathered into seams of coal 
with brilliant facets, but much mixed with carbonaceous shale and 
not of workable thickness. Of animal remains there aro in the weat 
a few sea KhelN of interest from their relation to some scmtli African 
Bhells. The upper layers, crowded in places with fossil land plants, 
•oem to shew that the rocks were formed at the foot of lakes. But 



|lsnd plants may tjave been waehoJ tl own into river moatlis 
>usj wlin&u liaU-frosb water was ill-Buitod to the growth oE 
plantH. With this Rxco|ition tbo ovidoncQ bdcdib to shuw that 
(js -' formed under the 8«» willumt any marked changes 
iuTmoas rockri havo In iiuuiy plocoSf anil with the 
a thrust through iho Upper Joraasice, 
^ , ■-■ red, or dark olive, auj Bandstouea whito 

litity. Hoinu hand speoimuuH havo trap on odo side and sand 
on the other, while in others the sandstono has completely 
, iutit thu trap. As noilher the baw uor the uppermost limit 
< Jnrasaic rocks can l>o trceu their depth In unknown. Tho 
le is (or tho Upper and for the Lower rocks a thickness of 
li 30QU feet each. 

Aljoai t'jn i:ilK'»i south of Bhuj, and at tlio oast end of the chiof" 


b' It, Inii-.i. Tnippimu Grita Jonn a fringe bolwcea the 

' -i and the Strarifiisd Traps. In other phioofl, a« in tho woat 

in, they are fouud iu sepa-rale patche»i. A peculiar 

led, and diuily «tnitified group of earthy and sandy 

j: greoniiih, nnxnpoj or dark, tho Infra Trappt-an 

'ly a local deposit of the lower SlratiSod Xmps. 

',' llie Ki^onp is closely i'<inn«cted with the early 

t'he bed 13 flcldom 200 feet thick. 

StmtJfiM Trapfl cover great part of Cutch. They form all tho 
I in the floDth Htretching u]un{; the whole length of tho 
!. , , JuraMio area from Anjar to the west. In the cast and 
iT.b tlie belt of Stratilied Trap is regTihu-, varj-ing from five to eight 
in breadth. Along Iho Boatb-west it is an irregalar strip, 
Oiw to fonrtet-a uiiles broad, sometimes cut right across by 
laliticand Up|)er Jtinusic inliers. In the west, whoro it uuda 
|e Ganla hills, it H|)penila over an area of abouttwelvo iiiilos by 
ri'-nty. Tlio bodAorflows.reatingontheJarassiorocks withcompleto 
jBf'rt-mity are of the nsuai Deccan gray, greeulsh-oUvo. and dark 
ptic and basaltic trap. Of the samoconsti-uetinntheCutch bods 
tho Pccenn bods in being less than half aa thick j and in 
Kiny fewiT dykes and an npijer surfnco mure couKirniuble to 
: uiry rocks. As in the Deccan thci-e ai-o no tracea of 
-1. In Mr. Wynno'fl opinion the Cutch traps were 
itly under wator, the materials rising through uumeruua 

tp infcrQBions aro almost confined to tbo Jurassic aroa. There 
gy appear in great anabors, the chief of them being in tho 
. .-^t, a narrow irregular band, muQing about twenty 
;miu Li^klia hill in tho west to Majal hill in tho east. 
Ihea eight tuilen south-east of Majal hilt, Kira bill ; twelve 
jiloi more, Dhinodhur ; eight miles more, a belt runuiug about 
Uiecn mites north-onst tuid snuth-wcst ; and twelve milca south, 
, hill and beds strfitching eight miles south-cost. Further 
[(h<*nt are few trap inlierS. The chief aro Vad&i hill about ten 
log D' ■ ■ ' '^ eight miles scntth of Bhuj, BhAnjda 

lU ! ' f Khadir and a few inliers m the Uela 


In/ra Trajn 







Chapter L 





anil Cliorad isljinds. They incloda nearly all varieties of 'I 
tracbytic, uud l>a»iltic traps, crystalline, compact or pur| 
seldoin ainygdaloitlal, somctinioa colanmar, and ofUm ao fri:i~ 
ready to weather away that no clean fractnro can ho ol>!^:i 
lliere scemH little doubt that, through channels like theso, 
opper Htratified trap found iU way to the Kurfaco, aiiil 
intinjsivo traps are bo me of the latest eraptiona. lu f ■ 
way through tlie Juiapsic rocks, tlio traps have, in many 
become a tanp^Icd net-work of dykca and intrnidous. li. .„ 
places thoy have formed conee the mass of the codc Jumssic uHJ 
the t-op trap. By cont-'ict with the traps whole beils of .' ■ 
n>ck have bcon mado much more splintery, darker, and m 
trap. 8oinc places hjwc many dykes, bat none are koowu io iim] 
jmrely aqacous tertiary rocks. 

Overlying the stratified traps, and osually rcstini? on a cryatallEu 
concretionary amygdaloidal flow, is a sinj^ilarly mixed aol 
varied band uf rueks. To the west and i^ulh it forms a 
botween the stratified traps, and the nDinmuHtio and arf^ll 
tertiarioB. It is seldom found to tho ea«t of the maia 1 
Htratifiod traps. But it again appeant umr Bhachfiu, iu Va^ . 
on the south and south-castt^m sides of tho Han islands. 'Dio groM 
IB beaatifally \'aried in texture and colour. It includes pale turnisi 
concretionary unctuous aluminous rocks; strong red and : 
laterittis sometimes with a^tes; coarse sandstone-s, red or n^^^fu 
gypseous, and dark aluminons or white sandy sliatea. Shurt aI 
absolute intercalation this ^oup preseuta many appearances ci 
conforinity to the traps. Tho laterites aro earthy compact ornodnkr 
and scoriaceous, somctimoa so highly ferruginous as to become tn 
iron ore formerly used in mnking iron. In eastern Cutch tbt 
latcritca and white buds form nearly all that is scKtn of the t^roo|t 
Here they yield rapidly to atmospheric action, the ground we«t' 
into hillocks like tho wasli^-heaps of a foundry. In other 
wide-swelling plains are shoetod over with a hardened latcrit*- . r»t.iij 
the surface somctimwi covered with a coating of agates. Thick* 
in tho north aud east than in tlie south of the district, the baiMl 
varies from twenty lu 2U0 feet. It rarely has fossils. j| 

Of Tertiary rocks tJiere are sevoml groups beginning from be^^V 
gypseous shales, nummnlitic rocks, an arenaceous group, an 
argillnceoiiH group, and upper tertiaries. Tho gypseous shales aw 
fouud beneath the nummulttic group round the western curve of (hii 
beds that flauk the Gurda hills and in a few other places. Ita nodukr 
clay stone and marl bands, and some of the shaioB ore full of littls 
mimiaittit^ and orbicuUna, and also have bones, reptile remains, 
6»h TertebrHij aud teeth. The boad varies in thickness from fift; '- 
l&O feet. 

The nnmmulitio rocks are found almost entirely in the 
stretching, a belt from three to six miles browl, along the oulflr _ 
of the gypseous shales. To the east they disap|)car with m 
obscurity, slight patches showing far to the east and sooth>eesL 
They are of pole yellow aud white marly impure limestono with 



womc suidy bnls anrl ahaly marls. Several kinds oF nuramulit^A 
abound. At tbe pcnod when nummalites cetised corals seem to fa&va 
§oort»hi.*tI, lurgu cfiml musses bi-in^ found wherever there are upper 
'hedi. Tbo i*oIftttd ar.d Hat-t'jpped hill of fjrifiii..idar near Khndi 
five miles south u£ Naru^ausar is probably an old coral ruoL 

Tbe arenaceotia beds, a groap of very little importance, are found 
is thp west on the skirts of the nammulitio rocks, and in the sootli 
bordering on the Rub-nnmraulitic rocks. It is charaetorizetl by 
*©ry irrogTilar and false-bedded sand or friable sandy shaloa geuemlly 
wbito and streaked by iron-stained laminic. These rest on dim- 
cnluurcil and bine Gncly laminatod olays in which only a few fossils 
and tlie cait.[);ico of a very small crab were fonnd. 

The argilliici^'ous jjroap, in thickaesa and extent by far tho moat 
tmport.-uit of the Ctitch tertiary deposits, starting in the extremtf 
wo9t stretches soath and oast for about 120 miles ending close to tho 
"jBO of tho Uhuj-Mandri ixmA. Dniiing the first aixty miles it nkirt^ 
■■ imqlitic rocks in a belt varying from three to six miles in 
M then for about twelve milea it broodeuu to thirteen milea 
again narrows frinffinjif, during tho last twenty miles, the 
nommulitic group. Among tho lowest argilLiceous beds are 
ma much like the uppor portions of tho arooaoeous sub-divifnon. 
icro aro also stronjfly fermginons or latcritic bands and soft brown 
jfoHow and mottled sandst-jnes. This group is very rich in tho 
nomlirrand variety of ita fossils. TttrriteUa^ with CorhuJ^. and Venus 
^rano)!,! occur ahuuditutty in one or two of the femigiaoDa baiidid. 
And aa one or two large bones and two fino molars of a bilobodont 
irero fomid in tho valley of the Madh river, it is probable that somo 
of tho nodular and ferruginous beda roprosout those of Piram island 
in tbe gulf of Combay. Above tho lowest beds are calearooua grita 
, and sandstones with rather few foasila. Above them a large 
^KUuckiiess of shaletj, clays, and marly beds with thiu diso-&hapud 
HEVvMiau/iVt'^ and other For<tminijerit. Abovo the shales come yellow 
Bmaria and marly limestone very full of fossils, some of the hard 
W muddy bods being almost entirely made of fossil shells. Above tho 
inarls are soft sandy clays and muddy shalas with a few compact ' 
"atono laycr-H thinly laminated and ripple-marked and a narrow 
largely made of Fnigmcutary shells. Higher up the beds 
ntain bontd clay uodules resembling pebbles and Bryozoa oucrusliiig 
o abolls of PtcteuM and oysters. 

Before tho upper tortiariea weredepositod tho higher argillaceous 

ds wen> in uuviiy places removed by denudation. At the baso of 

c upper lortiui-ics is a conglomerate, iu places more or less 

_'emigin(iU3, bnt of no great thickness. This is succoodcxl by 

thivkbedded brown ftands or incoherent sandstones, parts of which 

ear tho baso oro cemented by carbonate of lime. Calcareous 

~ ir throughout the rock. Tlie (mly orgaoie remains 

' a few large logs of fossil timber. Tho upper 

ambers vi thu group are ill defined. 

Thoallaviiim is the result of the degradation of the local rocks. 
Aa most of it overlies the tertiary beds, it consists largely of 
materials derived from tliem, oft«a mixed with fragments brought 






[Bombay Quetteer. 


Chapter ]> 



by rivcra from Ibo bills. Much of it, ab b limestooe or motUcd 
clay deposit witb red blotcJiM nud qnartz fyrains, resf^mbloB a newer 
tertiary t*tnitum. A hul)-rocL*ut cjilcai-eoas deposit is very goiiorally 
dtHtributcd over tho hilly country. Ha cnlcart'ous sondstonoa 
are Som(!tiii](}9 cobt>reiil t>n<tttgb for building, and it ia coinmoo]/ 
burned for lima No fosKiU have been found iu it. Along tba 
coast nre dune!) or moving nnnd hilla Notliing soon in Culcb holpti 
to settle the question of tbe formatiuu of tbe western India alluvial 
coast plaiufi. The ntatorials lu-e often, bat not fdnays^ of fine i^rain. 
Sometimes near the surftice am a few land sbpllH, but no sni remninH 
have been found. The deposits are often lil;e river deposits, tbough 
there arc now no rivers iu Cntcb tluit could have formed iliom. Tbi 
nJIuvinm may be marine. But there ar? no fossils to prove thk, and 
4bc ground is loss level than the Bun and less tmeven tbau thi 
bottom of the ucighbouriqg sea. 

Its hills, thongh of no great height, ore ono of tho chief nattmd 
fuatiirea of Cutob. They may bo divided into three b t oqw. tbfl 
hills of Cutch proper, of VAgod in tho east, and ol tli ^i Ban i flanda 
in the north. Hearly all therango.s imd many of the iiilts aro wtwip, 
scarped ou the north slupo gently towards tliu sootb. Moat of tno 
bods have long soutlterly sj opCB at right angles to threo parallel 
lines of disturbance ; one in tho Ran islands from Pnchiiaio to 
Chonld ; a second along the north of Cutch from Liddtpiit to near 
VAgad; and a third in tho central nplands from Robato Bhnchio. 
Except ono range rttuuiug north-west from the Dhola bills, with loujf 
slopes ii[Km tlio dip and stct-p &Lupos along the outcrop of the beds, 
the trap bills, particularly those formed of intrusivo trap, are often 
sharp leaked or uUfT-girt. In Cotc b p roper tho bills, widely 
spread over its western parts, gradually nariTiw eastw^fmls into a 
smglo range. Though nono of great boight, tho highest, Dhmodbnr 
only a little over lOUl) feet above the Ran, several of them are from 
some peculiarity of sliano or make worthy of notice. In the 
iionth*west about €vo miles south of N&r&yansar is Gi'ulipadar, « 
■conspieui-ms, 100 feet high, flat-toppe<l liill, a mass of limestomo 
below and ai tho top almost entirely corul. Tho Garda bills, tho broad 
west end of tbo central range of stratified trap, tliougli they rise bighj 
have no peaks of special interest. Among the Jurassic Inlls to tho 
north is Gitndhri, b'.ii foot above tho plain, steep on all sides and 
faced by a bold cliff, the body of the hill of white and pnrplu 
sandstone, and its peiik of basalt taxCt softer tmp. Further coat 
abonb twenty-four miles nortb-weet of Bhui is Dbinodhar, tho 
fabulous Cgtch volcaij o. This, ono of the nigheat hilU in tho 
province, 107!i feet above the Ran, is chieHy of coarse and iino whito 
sandstone with a basalt capping 180 feet thick. About ten miles 
north-e»st is Jbura, 890 feet above the Ran, chiefly of shale and 
liinestime; Vdnb about five miles south, an isolated tabular str^op- 
sided bill, rising S94 feot above the plain, is of sandstone with a 
thick capping of black columnar basalt, and four miles to tho west 
is Vichhis a far-Eoen conical peak of sandstono covered by in»p. 
Abont aeven miles east of Bhuj is tbo bold sub-conical stccpsided 
sandstono lull of Joudhariaj riding about 700 feet above the lian. 

it. I 



uul abfmt ftix mites north at Jaiidliaria, in tlie IjoiI^! aiitl Jhumn 

" '11 about 800 fi?pr ahovt^ tlio Una. lu 

L'o is iu the cast. Kli&trod, a (ruaicul 

peak with o stcop nonh cscnrpment rising 550 feet above tho plaJD. 

wuBt end of tho runge, rising 400 feet nUtve the plain is 

w, a Etccp flat'^toppoii biU of trap-covorcd sauilstonc, and a 

'' ' -"t Niinanuv, prjtiaViIy Uio stoitrco of sume of the 

.1 trnjii, a utwriy circular domi^-shaped nins8 of 

i. aLKjVi; llie plain and 'H miles rouud at tb« hast?. The 

'■• fin^i- of the 9onUi, or DholSj hills lia^ oo jjoak nf 

ift] intorest. 

IB Vfl j^n i' • brtwwl grnnp wfretching east and vrcat, have 

sepsr ' .-, Ihe chief of them Adhni, rising 270 feet 

ita htvu; ^lU'iiitono-cHpped with white bc<U strikiugly like 
•inifphic (|uart£tto. 

' UilU tlmt rise out of the Hait some details are given under 
■■■■-. tlie chief of them, 1 4:i7tectu bovotbB 

_' J ''^h i', 

lioy havedeBD-cutchanneld with steep macli-wom aidoa/ 

ot l!h:- L'utoh rivers navo water cnongh to flow thmnjifhout the 

Rising ID the central upliiada they find their way either north 

Knn or sotitii to the gulf of Cntcb. Of north-Howing riven 

ui-f I- tlicJChjjri with a coorwe of about thirty miles. Kiting 

! nm^aboiit eight milea south-west of Bhuj, tho Khan 

■. i_.huj and from tliere, between steep banks in places 110 

. 1, keeps Qorth for alwut twelve miles and after receiving 

iiiUii from tho right flows about oipht miles moro into the Ran. 

Ejoath-tlowing Btrwiras tho largest arc the Madh and Tera" which. 

course of alxjut thirty miles a cross the Abtjaaa pla in, fall 

tor into thogtUf of Ciitch near Jakhdu, 

Bwde» ilB local iitreeime three rivers pass by Culeh on their way 

a. Of tlic'^e, two, t ho Bau^ in the oast fnim Abn and 

■ ;in I rht' l.iini in the north-<si«fr from Ajmir and the ArtSvali 

iTelpiogto flood the Ran in the rainy season, littli* 

'. iu L'otch. In the weai t he Kori or east mouth of tho 

.'h of little vaino for trade or irrigation, ifl of much 

rif tn'.erest. At the time of Alexander {325 B.C.,) and of 

(150 A.n.), under the name of Lonibare it was one of tha 

}f munlha of the ludua." It seems to have continned of equal 



Tlic KUmolua t"r- •- ■ - - > mlly high luiil prccrpitou lianlcft cut (teep io 
iincfcsby tbo ra]< ut. A intvrlltT mny [imcHd for mitw aJonjf 

I.JI V> (j thoM at: ii;i'ie ftblfa iniltMCuitil h) Ul«ir botlt, i( h« llM iIm 

in itma Ue oe±vm {-uh. UcMurdo (1$]S|. Trua. Bom. Lit. Soc. II. 2U, 

tiont th« nnme* of C^itrh rivr.m. 
' pcnvnJIy koowo in ibe uouDtry. 

Orociian ct I^tiiie d« I'IimIv, Ififi. 

,'-> al'v Mivvin) to ItAT* b win iluo bu Utn Uiuviii(( ••! 

P«w (1818) lutvo 
>JcMimli>. TraiiB. 

AccortUng Ut Ichx] 

- "■ " 1' Siudbi ; 

' du ; thrn 

livr main hmly at 

[fiombay Quett«i 



Chapter I- 


import&nce with the mora western moaths until aboni IDOO, thi 
Tnain streum of tho river eecms to have turned towards i' 
Srill, as late u« the inkMIe of the eighteenth century, the ik\ 
Kori branch ooutinucd to biing water enough to irrigiite a large 
of rioe-Iand to tho north of Lflkhpat. Increasing- demands o 
wat«r by the people of Sind led to feuds between Cutcb and Son 
In 1764 at the battlo of Jh&ra the people of Cutcb tvcrc beaten 
soon after Gholitm Shah raised so great a bank tirross the Kori 
its stream whs nearly stopped and tho Lakhput rice-Gelds 
changed into gnutiug grouud. lu 1802 a fresh dam was raised iil 
Bandar. This «o entirely stopped the flow that OTon floods could 
pass. The channel tilling with mud dried abore Sindhdiaud shoi 
at Lakhpatj and the old rice-liclds, unublo to grow oion graes^ w 
iuclnded in the wa^tc lands of the Ran. For the next sixt^ien ycAi 
(180S-1818) except when Qooded during the windy aud rat 
nosoiis, May-Di-toher, the bed of tho river, and the piirt of Ih ~ 
through which it flowed, rem&incddry. The 1810 ciirthquake 
a great change. At Lakbpat, where it used to be fordablu, the ri 
bed became eighteen feet deep. Near Sindhu, abont sixteen mi 
further np, from two to sir miles of the bed were raised, and agi 
beyond Sindhu the level of tbe Ran fell, forming a btiain about 
feet deep, and behind the lianin right acroes the bed of the river 
the Allah Band or God's dam. At the same time a great wa 
rushed up the river and filled the basin with salt wuter. for eig 
yosirs the channel of tho rivor was closed and except daring t 
season of 6ood8 its bed was nearly dry. In 182G the upper Ind 
burst it« bauka, overspread tho desert, sad clearing every 
before it, burst through the Allah Band, filled the Sindhdi 
with fresh water and, sweeping the silt, so cleared the Kori bed! 
bwkta of IQO tons could pass from tbe sea to Lakhpat For 
years the Kori continued to come down in so large a stream that 
was open for trading as far as Amirkot. Meanwhile the Sin' 
were rebnildint^ their dams, and in 1834 tho stream was 
stopped. In 1833, except during the rains the channel wi 
For the next thirty-six years (1S39- 187-t) feilt kept gatheriug 
bed of tho river below the Allah Uand. In 1856 there n-as 
enough for boats from Sindhdi to the river mouth, and in 1868 
boat could not pass further up than Lakhpat. In 1871 there wi 
another flood on tho Indus, a large body of water ran through thi 
Alhih Band and filled tho 8indl)di lake.' 

IIm Indw vst«ra frora ih* •utora to tliv vKt«m braocb. MeoL GwA. 9ar. IX. M 
Thoiwb otliBT chum an ttJftrr«d to (v)4fl St. &L ISO-lfiO) tho chief wonU Mwm 
h«vc DMB dnriastne 11th or 12th emtur;; and vsu thti ojinko nf th* dcstnirtian 
tb« grenL city Alor kad ' 1000 b^irM. ' This bum rh iiiMription (Jniir. Bom. Ai. So« 
1. 9M> mnaC haw bMn IaIot than 9^3 (34 1 H, ) and must bxn bwo some contidenbl 
tino before tho «ad of the 13th century «■ bofon its orenhrow tiy Ali-nrt-dia Khll 
(aboDt 1300) the Snmr* dyuaaty had for )aaB iU head 4|aaK*>n «t Miituuuin«) Tn 
Aecoiding to the loosl «t«iry jUor wea rain«a bjr m meivbaol who hail bees defnodsi 
hj its mler aod who in revense raised a gntt dam aad ohjuutod tho oootm ci " 
Indaa. Tirikh-iTihih in Elliot. 1. JiMV^'i'VB, 

I In Jaanary 1875 at the .VJliih IIcmiiI the chuiont wa* 70 to 80 feet acroaa, Uk 
■peed MT aaooid 2) to 4i Umt, and the diiioharge from 1200 to lAOO onhio feet Til 
fuadbili lakf* oraa a iitr«tch of clear blue mitt broken onljr by tbe rained towar 
theSiitdhdi rort. Major .Snitb, B.B., tiaoUA by (^ol. Urton. 



BxcopC wbat is fotmd hj Aiggiog in river-bed sands, the venier of 

Btrcanui is unfit to druik, and during thi* hot seitsgn iii too 

I ares for cattle. In rocks at no greut dopiii from the surfaco, 

id reodilj found, and many wolU broin fifteen to forty-five feet 

excelloni supplies, and iu oo& or two spota it ia fotmd 

to Iho Buriaco. Irrijfation by the Ptreian wheel ia 

-iri.jutlicl leather bag it is practised over 

[ -rr tioil ia ugaiiif^t the storago of water 

rand r«it:rvt)ini. F»ii<L<t aro not UQcainmon, but tbey are of 

_ iiize, aud tor one that holds water durmg the n-hole year, 

rettlj run dry ia six moothe. 

K' ' spociol dcpresBion at Sindlidi in the we£t of tbv Ban^ 

of aoy size ii* io the east of tho Clmrrar range. This, 
ronnd valley called the Saror lake about 21 uiiles broad, with a daui 
wn across iu narrow onst«ra ontlotj is flooded during Ibe rains.' 

01 the take at Sindhdi in the west of the gulf o£ Cateb the chief 
Is have hLtm L'iven in the account of the Kori river. To tho 
-WDst I ■ !i Qt the timu of Alexander (;J25 B.C.) thero 
groat lor sea, and this., though perhaps an estuary 

)t-.r IbikQ fi Utku, cuTvliiiued till about 1300 years later the 
Ids left iU old no-itera channel ' and the chief part of its waters 
fkuacd to tho wBstero mouths. In 1819 at the time of the earthquake 
orer a tar^r^ tract north-west of Lakhpnt ihe land tiank and 
becaiiu! covcrc<l with wutcr. At first the lako wan salt, hut lu 132ti, 
the mouml that, in I81!>, Imd rnrnied on its north bonk, was- pierced 
_hv tl- !l»(>i tmtt-re of the ECori. and the Sindhdi became a fresh 
'.'?. Next year (March 1827) it was a vn«tfresh-wat«r lake 
>g t}io boriison on all i^ide-s with the Sindhdi tower otanding 
a n>ok. In August 1827 the lake wait two hel deeper but i^trcniii much ttmnller iu volume, the south- 
'_' lil'uvn the sea Wiiter in on the fresh. In 1>884 by 
'.ifi river the lagoon became much like wimt it 

'. - I'.'-'od. la I8;j3it wfts smaller and shallower, part 

dry. In 1 8 M tlic oarthquako is said to have made it a salt marsh 

one t'l fi.iur feet doep. It would seem to have kept in this 

slowly ailtinf? up, till in ISfi9 in tho fair season but littlo 

the rest of the Kan was dry. There were miU-s 

Tft! . ■■ u[ thu LoUnw cuvid still be traced. Iu 1874, 

J26, the Kwi riversetit ahirije volume of water through tio 

ig ID tho Alliih Band, and in May 1875 tho wholo li»w land 

. the AlUh Bnwl to Sindhdi whs again an I'Ktwnse of clear blue 

broken only by the ruined tower of the Sindhdi fort^" 



E ' ■"-- Cutch on tho north and oast is the Ron, mna or • the 

■ desert supposed to cover about 9000 sfiuaro miles, and 


5 Tu t' 

' .M»:'ir 

[K. 177. 

/'ui'.)n, II ntvnt Inke eidkil Ji&rAyAa Sanw It RMotioDMl is 
- ■■^' >■. This ia itill ft fuaw of pilgrinugc, bat the 

. 1. V I, -1 M«rtm. 170. 
Mii^lli, II. 1-1, iiu-iUd !>> tS<A- litLtUm. 

(Bombay Oaietl 



iapt«r i. 


Tb« Bjul 


believed to be tbe dtr betl of &□ arm of tbe neA. It is divided tr 

two parts, the gretit Ran to the north, about 1*30 miles from cast 
west and eighty from north to tiimth, strotohing over not \es» 
7000 square miles ; and the Uttle Ran tx> the ea«t ttbotii ]i>00 mill 
iu estent, about eighty miles lung from east to wcat and fmm ' 
to forty bi-oad from north to sooth. 

In ap{>eai'auce and general character tho two parts of tho 
differ little. Except tho four billy ialandti on tho Bouth shore 
the great Itan sod plots of nusod land, some of them of cousidersbl 
size) Uie whole area is, from April to Octt^ber tbe tteuHjn 
strong Ronth windi) and occoHional rain, frequently flooded to t\ 
depth of from one to tliree feet, Motit of thi^ water !•• salt, eitb 
sea water diiven by the t^trong Eouth-west ninds up tlie Ivori ri 
or beyond the head of tho galf of Cutch, or land water from 
Loni nnd Hau&s, or the brackish lot'ol tjlreamt:.' In spilf of tl 
yearly Hooding, the bed of the Ran, except in a few isnlalod sp 
does not he<!omo soft or &timy. The fl<»od waters, as they 
leave a hard 6ai surface covered with stone, shingle, and salt. 
tlie season weai-K on, and tho Iieat grows greater, the ground, bak 
ftnd blistered by the sun, flhines over large tmct^ of salt wi 
dazzling whiteness, and the air, dim and qaivering, mocks all distan 
by an almost oeasoh«ii mirage. Only on soiuo raided rocky lands 
water fnnnd, and only near water is there bru-shwood, grass, or bd 
sign of growth. Kxoept a chance bird or herd nf wild oBsefi 
antelope, or an ocoaaiona! camel caravan, no sign of life bi' 
weury loneliness. 

Tbe lands lo the west of the Ran arc low-lying and swampy ; U 
the north-west for about fifty miles stretches tUe level ridge of tU 
AUdh Hnndi along tb« north ore rows of aea-coast-Uke ttandhilla^ 
and on the north-enxt the high ames of the Knlingai' hilla. On th 
esat tho shores are low, and along the south, beyond the row of blai 
eteep ialnnds, the north coast of Cutch is at Brst fringed with i 
nan-ow belt of low alluvial land, then stretches into tho long \a% 
Banni peninsula, and lastly from near Nara rumt weiii in a row o 
capes, cliffs, and promontories. Where the edge in not rocky tli 
Ran stretches inland as the sea strt-lrhes along a low-lying coast 
fringed somtitiraes by » belt of gi-ass -yielding land, and in othe 
plaoes passing up tbe sandy bcda of rivers. Tbe margin of thi 
small litm is tow throughout, rich and wet on the goutU o 
Kathinwar side, dry and locky ou the north or Vdgad side. 

Tiie level bed of the Ran is, in nxost placcn, so tittle lower thai 
tlie land near it that it is often impusfiiblo to say whero the moii 

1 The Ran in tbo ««»t is muuh aireot«d by thr Bands' floods. Prora AT)u th« «ifil 
(IrainAifo line, tho Bumu briti^s down grcAt imnnCiltiTs o( water TOvertug Uta lUn ovt 
' '■■ v:htinil«» with Iroia ill to ei^hlfBol of fnah water. Tliu waters keo 


(n~ if tbe atrong »outh-wMl u-tn.ti ths((on« tliom back. Butwwn Jmi'tu 

tuiil 1 - „-- ' -■- amall belt of (ho river iauftca dev^Md (our or tive Iccl oud ta Uk 
the bM ol ft nver. Sir A. Bimiea. MS. I((2« ^ 

3 Th« Thnr, or litllu dmert, nluu;; tbe uorLb edge of llie Hna U m nicoaaaKin i 
■ucb nndhitli <>r itwm-» wi (nngi- Uh? K<>«.(.>k)ui, Their only |rcailurity in * aiiocuaBJoi^ 
irfUttlt bttfTDi. •)( .Millwjacr in tlt« buUuvra bctwren Uicbi, autl m \A;u:n, atuute 
Imthcit, Mem, *i«o|. S«r. J.\. ab. ^^ 





«nds Mid tho Ran begins, and it ib so near the sea level that 
lid b»roTnot<r» h.i\ to aliow any differenre. Almost perfectly 

the west; eJod^ fflb^SEff^n tJie soutAi between [[i 

-lir; ftod in tLe fl outh-eaal; near Adesnr. The su: ud 

-' rvtfular layers of sand odS cTay with a large mixture 

fEaii, nuii-h by druwing* moisture from the air, in some places 

damps tbo •inrf^r" In the Siiidbdi basin in tho west when, as in 


I mil 

I am the 


beginning from the east, ChDrad,_Be|ii^ 

Chapter I. 




I >iiics down the Kori river, the Ittia is all the 

1 wutcr. At othor times it is llowied only 

the aeaaon of strong south niuds and rain. For nbont 67c 

in tho year (November- Marcli) tbe whole is, except a few 

dry. tho partes whcni water Itas lain longest being deeply 

In March when strr^ng westerly winds sot in. 

If of Cuh'li ia lieiiped up and rises slow4y over the 

miti fulL-J, and almost the whole of the west is 

to a few feet deep tu water. Between Khadir 

depth is aevon (cct, and botw[>i?n Adesar and 

Mofit of the Ran is dry by the end of November 

of December, the lowljing Adesar strait dries in 

lAriH nUmg tbe iiorthuni ahoro and in tbe Sindhdi 

,. Ehriiughout tho yrar. 

north coast of Catch withia the limits of the Ran am 

Khttdir^ and 

Q^g^ in tho narrows between Vagnd and the mainland, at the (' j 
-■'■ ■■■■' of the Hon. thfjtijj^h [Witically i mrt of the PAJajipur A gqpcy, 

Cuti'b Lhififs. Almiit twti.ty tniloa from north to aonth ' ,-■ 
|ri fo wt-st, ihi;^ isUnd is low in the sonth, and in the 

mure than 100 feet. Thei-o is a belt of upper 
ic» in Lh(? Bouth, then a stretch of alluvium, and then sub- 
itcd with near tho north a nai-raw band of Jui-assic rock. 
LAbimt faar miloa w ost of f,'^. , )nLJ lies Bela. stretching uortb-caat| ' 
I., about tweniy-livu uiilt's long and ten broat!. Ijciw 
■nth, it rises ik-hi- tin.' iiurih luio a ebaiii i.'f hilla called 
higbt^t [xjint of which is 017 fucL u.bove the Han. The 
Bub-numniulitic tuwurds tho south and Jurassic in tba 
Id tbe Jura^xic beds was found a small and fragmentary 
iho only ypocimcu met with in tho east of t^uloh. 

west of Hela is K]mdu;, sloping gradu&tly north and Z*^ 
vodiug Rhurply in a cliff. Some oi tho cliSa on tho north side are 
-._. ,:_.. .1 ;p ((,pg f^n, 35(1 jQ ,^^)Q fgg^ above the Ran. They 

-4 of having ever been sea coast chfl's. 

IAbont twelve miles farthtT west liea P Y^^ham . in tho middle of 
» Kan, about fift^tcn miles from north to south and ten from cast 
weat. It in frtim eaat to west crossed by two chaiiia of^hills^ the 
ick^' kaiuj range on the north, and the whitv, goraj on tbe south. 

, 1^ hiBAl ttaryU Ifaat tkiit ruj^e wu uIIhI After a muuI, wbraw fkoo wa> bUck- 
-■ ^ Um ttuam of • «tiN»ut'< uvt) lyx. Su A. iiunira, MS, Ui23. 

rBombny OuettMf 


Chapter L 


In the black range is Pachham Pir, thohiffhost point in Catch, ]437 
foot sbovo tho Kau. The tup of th*; hill commaudii a wiijle view, 
To tho north, beyond a waste uf hsIl and watt?r, tho Parkar hitts ; to 
the south, ihe dark surface of the Itanni and Ciitch hills ; a salt wiuti 
Ut Lho west wiLh bohiud it a dark shadow, perhaps Ui9 All&h Bund 
Tho south or whit« hills, much lowur aiiu narrower, are like Uia 
black raogo alocp on tho north fride. The chief rocks in ihe black 
ranffo aru, at the foot, a fioo white and light fossil- buariuff diotjr 
sandfitone with hands of chalk aod slighUy Eermginoufl [> 
beds with otTusiouai umsaes of trap ; further up ooar«L ; 
weathered yellow or brown, with porphyritic dykes. Alter 
are parple and gray shales and white sandstono, mafiaivD gray 
Stone and fine naudstone with a few traces of fowila, purple 
greenifh variegated Bandy bhalea, whit« sandstone again, and o 
all a sot of gritty orange litnoatono and chitlky beda. In the snn 
rango are coarse or Hue chalky saudstunes with reil fositi!-' 
UyoTH, flinty and shaly olive Ixxls and hard bhully liaudg. 
crest and 9onth sides of the hill are moro brown and purple tin 
Of objt-cU of intert^at io Poehiiain are about 1^ miles north-east 
Kaara the remains of a Eurt built by llau Lakha and deiuoltsbed 
Kateh Muhammatl about 1800.* 

Though a peuinRula and not an island, some accouut may hero be 
giron of t he lowlying tr act, known aa ^h s B pnni. that strctrhes to th< 
south-west of Puchbom, between it and the mainland. Probably 
bank or bar of aod brought down by tho north-flowing Cntch rii 
it stretchiya »tmo»t parallel to the coast line of Cutch, about eiity- 
fivo miles long and from ten to eistfen broad. Where it joins tht 
mainland, tho Banni is so low that it can_hardly be distingnisbc 
from the Ran. Further out it rise* gently, Cut, except one uarroK 
strip in the west, is all apt to be coTcred with water in timcB of higl 
flooo. The whole ia scantily covered with coarse ^aaa and biihui 
trees, and eiup|xii't« largo herds of b uffaloe s and other cattle, 
whoRo use some wells and ponds have been Jug. Tho herdsmen j 
in clusters of b ee -h J y e-shaped g;i'9Sft. ix^ifi, and xuidcr the ord< 
their holy men use no sleeping cots and light no lamps uficr dark. 

The two chief routes across the Ran 

ai-e iu the west 
of tho Uanni, and 

in Cutch to 'j'una at 'the west end ot tbo Uanm, and Imm 
pretty straight north to tiAypy^fc^ RwyAi- ^f^ ^H Handur on 
fojri river. Tho other cbitJ route is further east f rom Sumr Asaf 
Cutch, north aeroas tho middle pf thti Hanni ;ilong the west oj 

Pachham to Bal kari in Thar. 
Bela_ north to jtfagar 

A third route lies from the ishmd 

3" alight depth of wator does not make 

Ron impassable; ou the contrary, camels move safer through wat 
than ovCT slippery mnd. Without a good guide the passage ia 

I 8irA.BaniM. U<!. Ifi?S. A low naniwt «r«nii«itbvDstniidiB|i. In 1$2T rTLi-l.lnin 
bad 13 villages, iv: ^ ..- aact S hcjos^^nit t« rtlf r 

tribtti; TEe»e vUlti.. : l » iKipuIation oftiSM^onl- 

of plnnil«ren tlip )i:< iir. Uin liill>. ihtr hitU all ntHt-rou feci. I'.iitnj; IU*] 

ninv wMon Riev ni im were an Ironbleacuic thai all «bo could affcrd 

SO, dsd tc CuUh. till A. oiirsca, US. 18'J7. 




timm daniteroan, travellers being sometimeg lost «ren in the 

< "'iv hot seosou, Er'Jiu tbe overpotToring beat, and iu 

to Avcid the bUntling Bait glaro, ibo passnge is 

rowie ul n ight. Tlio trttvellora, piii<l'^^<l vitlior by beecons 

suu-tij gei)i:nkUy spuud fruni tbo ovouiog to tiio indniiiig in 


'Salt-, tbf odIj- prcdiict nf tbe Ran, brongbt partly by »oa water 
and jnnly fntm tin- bnvckish hvurs ihnt How into it, crosta tho 
90tft» from one to three inches deep. Except when 

i5>i...-,. ^ . .^ ... d lift at Fatri, it is bitter in taste iuidUttlou£cd. 

[Tbti lUn iR ftlmnst certainly the rai.«ied bed o f an arm of the aea . 

It I.,'?.-- complytf. of the forces tbnt raided the coa«t 

India liiid Hind. These plains are belierod to 

rawed pretty p\*enly thronghc.nt, and then to have rcceired 

dtfi of tbo rivers that pooled through them to tho sea. 

tho raising n( tho land soems to have boon leas tmifbrm. 

■ i ^ge ibo land wn*t raised loto ni-oges «jf InlU, and 

^ was li'ft a large bullow almor-t an inland aea. 

'i down by the rivers gmdunlly filled the 

. . '_>:'a and the oc«>tui. Siu^-i^thi^u i<iU baa gone oo 

ig, and will continue to gather till the rivers that bring it 

" their way to tho sea through an alluvial plain. Though 

on* tliHii 2000 yeara known aa in'(i(i or * a salt mamh' ' the 

y changofl have occnrred, and great 
:rin once to have fiunk and been fl<x>ded 
&y iiiv 3C-R. Ai'.'mu dor the Uro at (Jilio b.c.) foand the llan a 
■ kti- ; Ai the time of the Periplns (80 a.d.) though shoal 
hard of access the Ran sefins to have been fit for 
*\; and it neonis probablo that for nearly a thoosand 
great part of the waters of the Indus crossed 
l^ Ran on tht-ir way to the sea. TUe north edge of the Ran ia 
(raiKod with a row of aind hills, Hucb ns in nmny places line the 
««■ ooa«t, and along that coast further to the west Ve gao gad, 
brick nil na may still bo seen, and further east yIb3&3» 
i, and yirnvan w ere sfaporta. In tho east tbo islands off the 
<ftiJ to have been sorronnded by a spa 
(?h ?:?iri M ^iQ^i r o p a on the edge o£ the 
" mi; i^M^XL on the woHt of the 
-._, ..- -L. ■ .■■■^jgYiidp in t he island of Pacbta m 
tre barlwors.' ' Tii a'tipport oE ibese local stones tliero are, on the 
afaoru of Parhhnin about twenty feet above the present Ran 
bI, trac<4i of an old nea in a patch of concrete full of marine y hclls, 
and near PlmTigvnd" in Pachham pieces uf iron and abip ntuls were 
m^tbrown np by the HlOearthgn ake. Tho date when tbo Ran was last 
Bkvigable cannot be (jxed The storiea point to the beginning of tho 


The EUik 



Mmi. <k^l -■ ■ r, !fl, and CapUin Trottw, 1872. 

Abowlaa^ ' ^ sea-fiih wen- fnuod iti it Alexsodir took Ifro vojwft 

Uw lodiu L" -.u' »>yc, k&d (iurin^ ike ici^ODd viiit ho ordand a lum t« H 
with Athar pkc«fl for tb« Mf«tv of stiip«L KiKilto'* ArrUn, 168. 
:oCnaille'» I' Ac^unliuij toViiioeut {II. 392) Uie Hui «u UiB^krad. 



Chapter 1 




fourteenth centm 


this can lutnllv bnvo br< 


- '-- . -- 'r y- - - - 

wa» ahoQC the mufdie o£ that centnry (tiJUO) thui 

all but periahed in the salt waetv of the Knnchi 1 ' 

The H outh-easi o f the Kaii, the part, kn ■ lin? 

innch later passed throngh ronsidcni: ■'.■^. In 

VaTApia OD the south coast was, about I T.VG, iom 

mud an old bt-'a t witliont aii_v inm hzA himud v. 

la rger than any now n^^ ^ d in t he g^ . ' -h. j'herii 

further east ou the samu slioro, wiu> ^..,.j ;>. lihve befi- ^■ 

in .I_70o, and pierced B tono apoho rs wero fouud on i : 

Ran. t)nring the present century fievomt 

takon place. In J_81.5i.tho watur wns insp"! ■■ 

18(i)j.tho head of I he little Han wassajl 

was made. Of two officers who pave <>|" ' ■ 

saw no POftson to belioTo the Ran ww being denre-^sed ; Iho 

Major Watson, thought that it was." Sinco then b> '■ ■ " 

and ATnkti creelcx tho sea has continued to encroach. 

pati'nt. Colonel Barton wrote in 1875, that yew 1 '. 

fur l her e aat witrd^ and places, a few years ag ■ 

now open to water traffic. Tho canse is by some obaervrrs 

to the formation of a groyne at the entrance of the gulf of Ca 

which by making the sea shallower is supposed to force the ti 

wave higher up t£e land. Others hold that the land is sitikitig, bn] 

this does not seom as yet to have been proved.* 

During tho present contury Cutch has Buffer ed m ooh From 
qviakes. The moat djsoatrons, severer tlmn any that hnd h 
for more than 40O years, began on tlie lOlh June I HI''. 'I 
shock was felt at about a quarter to seven m the ev' 
lor about two minutes. "The ground could be seen i 
hard to keep standing, and every house was shnkcn to iti 
Within four hours (II r.ii.) three slight shocks wero folt, and 
next day the earth was often in motion with gusts of wind, auA.. 
noise a« of tho ruuibling of carriages. This noise wt-ai on 
the whole night, and after stopping for a fuw miout<^'s .it n r 
to ten, a severe ahook, lasting about fifty seconds, bron 
number of shattered buildings. For «Jx weeka then. ■■^.■ 
shocks, Bud, during the next four months, they were filt 
intervals, tho lost on the 2(Hh November. Little has beet. ■ 
to the speed and course of the earthqu&ke wave. The 
to have been felt at the »aino timu 'tver tho whrile of l-'n 
have travelled north about fifty-three miles a minute. ' 
to have been the centre of disturbance, The dami^o caused by tlijj 
earthquake was very great. At Uhuj^ 7000 bouses including thj 
Rao's palace were destroyed, and 1150 persona "buried in tho roin* , 

I TArikh-i-FiRM SUhi in EUiot, III. 33U. Put at leut would eMm to b«ve 
Bsdar water ; u far w the sye coold roach oU was ntlt water. Uut tits rot wm 
dewrt ; " Wbora no bird laid on a^, or Happed its vrngg -whttn nu trw« wu to b«l 
MSB, and wbnrt! notilkil* of gnu* Drew," ^23. 

> Selection AsistL- JournJ. I.-^XVUl., 1816 1829, 35. 

3 ilem.UGoI. .Sur. IX. II. « l\il. Itartoii, 1877. 

!■ uf lioQM'B in Anj^r, M/uidvi, and Laklipat were hnrl»j to 
' "' ■ -i towim were injured, and Tera, the best 

■.',v miaed. During tho first and severest 
: iruiiiodhnr bill sent oat flamos, and othtr 
. dust. Rut iheiw stories were little better 
ly, and iho eiamiuatiou of the country by tho officers of 
il Survey has sbown that nmthor from Uhinodhar nor 
Sther hill conld fire or stiioke have issued. Other accounts 
AV woll i-nongh bo true, that water wa« forced 
(, fdling th(! rivera up to their banks. Of lasting 
I th'> Ifvt-I of tho Rau ill tho west at tbe Sindhdi 
iiurtb border of tho Kaii ; nud in the east near 
-tid, have alrcodj boon noticed. Bnt the most 
...., ........... t he bed of the Kori riveT. al ong about 

', as »l least it svymed fn)in the south, 

10 twenty fret bi gh^ which, as made 

■iwn as Mlah Band or God's mound. 

to most of the early ubKervere, tbis mound is not 

".Ij.-I nbovc the level of the country. Though »o well 

th, there was bo little slope to tho north, tiiat in tho 

[81:0 iwi cwuri rivur kept to ita old channel catting through 


SMxt earthquake recorded is a series of shocks in 1S44. 

*kjB lasted for a month and were so threateuing, that while 

I, tbe petmle of liakhpat feared to sleep in their houses. 

Mud to h&vo made the AlUh Band broader,* and on 

of the Siudhdi hollow to have raised tbe bed of the 

istoad of water paasjng over it at every tide it waa 

^^ llii)([h tide, and had then adepth of only eighteen inches. 

'next roar (lOth June 184!>) a thiru Khockis recoi-dcd' which 

■lown the walls of the fort, and caused tho loss of 

, f»i»»mi> time the sea rolled up the Kori, overflowing 

Itr ' to tbe west, and forty miles to the 

iihdi lake with from one to four feet of 

Prf.-w the Utth to tbe 26th of June, sixty-six shocks were 

and much damage done. It was thought that the land had 

it tho flooding may have been due ta a groat earthquake 

tin in Ib'vi there was an earthquake. But the shock waa 

ly felt iu VHgad, 

looff the north parfttlel of tho Tropic of Cancer, Cutch is 
food tho rain-bnngingintlacnceof the south-west roon^on, 
lerally comes against the usual winds in aqoalls from tbe 
i-west round by north and east to south.'* The supply is 
largo and sometimes fails altogether. The average annual 

IMoL 0«dL Sor 1X4) 

d»U of Uwm ahooki in not M«ankt«]y flxeiL It wu p«rhftM a/tw th«a that 
BkhKr Dfftlowl thaalojM on thu nortfi of tiio AUih Bud which had nevar 
Wjmne (Otfol. Stir. [X. 38) M«nu to think that thu aad tho 1944 ahook an 

Clmpter I 
Description. < 






UoL GmL Sdt. IX. 3t 

■ U«m. (itci. 8ar. IX. «. 

(Bontay ' 






nunfall at Bhuj for the thirty years ending 1878 is relni 
tour tecn inches. During this period the greatest amoiint rt^gist 
in any one jear was forty inches in 1878, and the least ten centi': 

From Jono to October the sonth-west monsoon winds are 
felt, the weather being seldom calm. In the cold months, 
east and north winds prevail, followed by strong sonth-wcst 
eales and steady winds, the air being frequently loaded with 
Along the sea coast throughoot the year, the climate is agreeafa^ 
over the whole province for nearly nine months it is cooTand h< 
But in A-pril and May burning winds and dost storms moke 
miserable, and daring October and part of NoTOmber, the climatarj 
oppressive and sickly. The drieat aeasona have been foondthc 
healthy for Europeans. The thermometer readings in the ahat 
fibaj give the following results : — 

Bkinf TknMwltr Bimdinf. tSK-tgn. 















um ... 






!■» ... 


















ura ... 









I The Available d«UiIa for tb« tovn gl Bfanj an «ztrKt«d from the Rtttdl 
RcfiuUr : 










UU ... 


ISM . 



ISTO ... 


UU ... 



IMO ,., 



IBTl .„ 



UM ... 



IHl ... 



I8TI ... 



HU ... 



IMt .. 



1B7I ... 


UU ... 



IMt ... 



IBTt ,.. 



IM ... 



t«M .., 



i>;> ... 


UM ... 



lUt . 



Mta ... 


MM ... 



IM9 ... 



IBTT ... 



UM ... 



ISAI -. 



UTS .- 



lUf ... 



UW ... 



UM ... 






Htm OmI Sur. IX. 6. 



Til chieS nuDerals of Cutch are coat, iron, alam, salt, and 
bdldiog' •tone,' 

Tbfl coal of the jomHsic roL*ks> thoagh neTer found in any large 

loantitT or of good quality, has, for some time, attracted att«ntiDn. 

workings, those at Trltmbal, are now closed by the 

m of tho tunnel that led into the mioe. According to 

Stanford, in tho Tranibiil seam of an apparent dcpr,ti of one 

luur inchce. eight inches were good coal, tioreral other aeams 

ire beon foond, chiefly in the neighbourhood of Sta£gad in central 

1 1 boi all yet reached are too thin to repay the coat of working. 

jua uala with coaly layers occurs in the rivor north of 

and a coaly shale of which a two feet thick aeam wa« 

, ws« found in a stream conr^e west of Guneri, near Lakhpat. 

ooal oocurred in thin bright layers between tho laminie of the 

le. beariog a Btrong roaomblance to some found north of the old 

( workioga at 'IV^mb&l, and perhaps lying on nearly the same horison. 

hShb of theae ccala aeem to be valuable. Even if the beds were 

^^^^^ Ibe intermixture of shale would be against them, while that 

^^C^ra Doar Sis&gad was so brittle that it fell through the gratings 

^nf the furnaces. Ail that was seen in the district, broke, on exposure, 

into minute fragmeats, and no piece of even an inch square 

coold be taken from ihe beds. The most clearly seen ecctions 

thowod rapid thinning out of the coaly portions, so that the 

crutvDCC of Urge workable deposits eeems doubtful, if not 

tapomiblo. A few thin carbonaceous layers of shale have ahio been 

itrnnd in tho tei^ary beds, but none of them are at all promising. 

Iron was formorW smelted ; but at present the cheapness of foreign 

kecpa the Catc^ mines unworketl. It is found m the hfemntitio 

ite of the sab-numnmlilic group^ and in some ferruginous 

mi^ mrar Bhachati. The manufacture was ohietiy carried on 

1, Liinva, and Dudhni in the east of the central plain, 

.„ ... laa west of the province, near Vitrei in V&gad, and at 

in Pachham island.' 

Daring oertoin months of the year much alnm is made at Nadh. 
jK^^^works, reported to bare been carried on for the last two or 

C»Mlt*rl hf 

:t AcoRUiftar ttlaeraU ts wmpOed fr«m Ifam. G«aL Rnr IX. S6-M, nypSa- 
I t>r Mr. A-N. PaMvin'B renort of 24Ui OtteamlMr 1878 ' On th« ManabotoK of 

A km,' 





Tb« K«an iroo yirMe^I H ewU. (tO 

■OM) ran Ufort IS*.*! ceaMd lo b« workad. Sir A. Butnu. MS. IS27- 

it fron IGcwt*. (4A innnn) ol f>n. H 

nombsy QonttM 

Chapter II- 



three eentnrjes, have toft the Btirtace roughened by hills and hntp 
and seamed by cracks and hollows. The mat<^nal used is a pjrttoQ 
dark-gray or bluck sboJe, closely associated with a soft alumiooa 
psoudo-brcccia of the subroarnmulitic group. Thitt appears to otctH 
or eDcloiiCt the eliale, or to have invaded it, as, in some parts of tb 
works, frugmcats o£ the shale form a coarse aagular breccia with tb 
alumiuous rock as a matrix. The native burrowings give apoo 
chance of studyiuj^ tho relations of the rocks ; the air in thetn u s 
bad that it is difhcult to obtain light, and much of the ground ma, 
have been disturbed by * old man'i' ' workings, which, according fa 
Colonel Graut, full in every year. Each work is entertxl by a narro* 
passage, the sides cut vertically and the lloor sloping. Abou 
twmity Feet below the surface the open-air paasago stops, and an 
undergroaud gallery about six feet nigh aud from three to 1 
wide alo]Kts down to the alum bod, throngh which, owing to 
accomulation of water, no passage has ever been driven. ~ 
thiti results a total want of fresh air, aud the heat, though oolj S 
i« unbearable. 

The alum earth is dng ont and exposed for months in lieaM; 
slow combustion or weathering going on from the dccompoEitii 
of the pyrites. It is then spread in Bqaaros like salt pans on 
Bpriukltd with water. After about twelve days it oonsolidatea in 
efflorescing and mamillated crystalUne plates or crusts of aulphai 
of alumina, called slum seed, phatal-di Jca btj or turi. These plate 
are in large iron pans luted iuside with Ume, boiled in wafer mizei 
with salt potash in the proportion of fifteen of tho snlphato o 
alnmina to six of the salt potash. Before tJie salt potash has timi 
to dissolve, the tliiid it) ladled into small earthen vessels, somewlu 
the aluipe of flower puts, and crystalliRation takes place in less thm 
two dayn. Those crystals are again boiled one or niore timea U 
concentrate the Bolutiou, which ia finally ladled into largo ihii 
bladder-sha]>i>d earthen jars, vtatM^, with small montfaA, annk in lh( 
gronnd to prevent their breaking. After font- days the jam are du] 
out and bixiken, and the alum in each jar having Formed into on 
aolid crystal is removed to a storohoase, the entrance to which i: 
huilt up until a favourable market can be obtained. In liJ67 tl 
yearly outturn was estimated at about 294 tons (8250 ma»»). 
1SG7 partly from the increased competition of ChincAo and Kngli 
alum, partly becaii^ the Cutch alum watj «aid to tinge cloth, anc 
ptirtly hccauso the working of the mines was a mismanaged monopol 
the demand for Cutch alum almost entirely ceased. In 1878 
examination by the Bombay chemical aualyGer showed that Cut 
al\im was better than either tho English or the Chinese varieti 
containing only thirteen per cent ol impurities and yielding 
analysis 1073 perceut of aJumina, or only 0"12 per centlesathan th 
theoretic quantity.' In the hope that with bett^ir management th 
demand For Cutch alum may be restoredj the state has discontinu 
the wunupolj of the minus and begun to sell the iduin ou its owj 

> Mr. Pcannn (utlntlktM Hint fnr ev«ry MXt pnnnil* (14 iimiim) of ftlltm, thmv 
l«t|uir«d v( aiid«riiil 4000 pouniU nf >lum e«rl)i, Mt)0 [muniU of Mlt-pnUuih. jtort 
youudt <A fuel i wid ul Ubour live nieu lor 4} <Uyi «t about li. (S ik>rtf ) Mch • Amy. 




•ccoant. It U &Ltu liopeil tlmt boforo lung a better syBtem of working 
mines may be iuirvducod.' 

Tb« alkaline salt, largely composed of potash, which is used in 

nuu) ' ' Imn, is made io rariooa places all over Cutch. 

jfc y .'-Tod and burned, placed over rude filters formed 

ielie«, and trcuted with wuter. The fluid that runs through 

lUectad and boiled duwn, aud the impure aali that reraaioa 

is^ nndor the namo of aurokhar, sent to the atnm works at Modb. 

Some friafab) brown shale in the sab-nummnlitic and next 
ling beds, contains small rehinoan and blaek bitumiaooB tamps, 
are burned in the uative temples aa incense. At Madb where 
lund it ia called spirit-food, bhui^kJidna. It aUo occurs at 
and near I^nkhput. 

Itch salt is iibundant. Nearly all the rocks are strongly 

ited with chloride of tiodium and other salts, to such aa 

It that a stream of fresh water is, except in the atratified trap 

Irea. rarely found. Many of the river pools were observed to be 

liiii<d with an inemstation of salt. On the Ran, salt is collected in 

tiot form an article of export, although it might be 

I iuoae quantities. 

Lime is made from the snh-reccnt concrete or calcareous tofa, 
Ij but irregularly distributed over the country. 

Lsr^o quanticicB of gypsum occur in shales belonging to the 
tic, sub-uummulitic, and tertiary groups ; the most highly 
ferouA bcint; those of the sub-nummiuitic bimd. The mineral 
ly trnniilitcent; and clean blocks np to several inchea by 
Ihrw.', mny be fmind weatherod out on the surface of the 
1. Aitlu'iiK'h much of it might be ohtained, without greater 
ibkt than picking up the pieoes, it does not appear to be utilised 
tcept to a slight extent by goldsmiths, who are said to use it in 
powdered state for poliabing their wares. Among other places it 
near a small mitlving patch of tertiary rocks on the Ran eaat 
loaar, near L'hitrod, between Adhoi and Badargad, in V&gad, 
ir- wf.>ttprn part of the district about two miles south«west of 
lUdli^ &!-i(i t<ast and norlh-eaj«t of Umar«ar, and nearer Lakhpat. 

SooiQ of tht* deonmpofli^fl red highly ferruginous beds of the sob- 
inomalitic s^ri>>n near I^akhpat are quarried, and the mass exported 
lurm a coluuriug material or dye. The pale whitish shales of the 
Bio rock'* are very irenerally wvA to make a kind of white.wash 
the hamblor dwelling** of the native*. And the unctuous green 
ad white aluminous rocks of the sub-nummulitic band are used aa 
lukving, it is being believed, wrticnlarly cooling properties. Some 
If rock, occurring as a pocket, enveloping a maaa of sandstone 
intrusion of ordinary doleritic trap near the villaffe of Rat&dia, 
ixrietl for sale in Bhuj, Some of the soft white aluminous 
of tlia sub-nammulitic band are roughly mined, on the west 







UMsflart prnixMnlii lian 1>ean dnva up bj Mr. Feanon. sod by October 1879 tfa« 
mol b«pv Kinl'tB'n " - -"--■cw of » penon eoiDpat«Dt to raiMnntaiil the niiikiiie 
ftlwtfeaA.ibe (onu - jfallehM, kod the cfcction ol ihcdikl Madh. Cutcn 

ration R»p«i: ' ,-> 'i9, 6. 

(Bontey OtNtliir. 

■d* of tha Biboa hill hi Uio Gsrda eoantry, 
exported at KoleAhvar. 

Thi! ailiciaaB ferruginooB gritn with quarts grains which occur 
in the janLuic and flub-DummaUtic groups, aod a very similar 
of Dvarlj black ojluur iu thu tertiary- bnls, at K^rimon hill, 
wUougtoafthia'iWsUmeti. Tbesearealao obtained from the ftmigrtieat 
qoartzito-likp grit of a loDg rmmp tHar ChsJidiat wett of Anjii. 

Baildit^ ttones aboand in Catoh. Trap u the onlj rock tha^ 
it Dot extcmdrely used. Some of the best Tarietie* are fomiifaMl 
theltrwor jnniHBioijand other much prized stones are quirried froa' 
Bppvr tertinrjr beds. In Puchharo, and at other point! of the 
laland chain, sonio thin-bedded red or y^ow calcarooaa rock, 
compoHod of broken shells, is found. This, which is alao ~ 
othar pnrtfi of the pronnce, takes a good polish, and has 
XiUM of Dukflviiiia marble.* The folluwing ia a liac o£ the 
•toncA naod at Bhuj : — 

Cvitk Bu^ttinQ SUmu. 

I. <^U\vria 

X Ut^M 

4. DUto 

A. Viuo 

0. JTMerJo 

7. H«Ma 

a JTdro Bhdto .. 
9. VbtgmdlOM ... 
la rdr4rtt9 

11. BagHUM ... 

12. Ddmano 

1». Kdio PaUhar.. 
M. B6ii Kh*% ... 
ISl Kdio Bkuin - 

16. liiUha Bhiim . 

17. tankmo 

18. />ftA» 


Four hUIot nortk of Bliaj .. 

At Ndbhoi or Siinlwt. twaoty 

milea foothwcal o( BImj. 
At BAvkas at^t mOw U.N.W.of 

Miudvi Itosd Bridgv, nx milea 

from Wiuj. 
KArigftr, K^trol ru4v, tmXh e( 

Ikf iiUpur. four tiiilet from BhnJ. 
Aik1;iv new Rhivda, fortytwo 

mile* DurUi of tHioj. 
HaUia or H*bt«i biUs IwtwMn 

Kote Mt.l I>Htii. 

YingAdift, eifbteen »□«« MMtb 

w««( nf Bhnj. 
VArirhiU. wwtby portbof Bhuj... 

Dftg&U, t«r«nty mile* cut of Bhnj 

b«tw««n Phlneti %nA Kaiiiibii. 
Nwr fusds grounil, Bbuj cunp... 

BJttti* or Rattrtn, tbnM irUm w<nt 

Kim Kadi our Rodar, nx milat 

north-CMt of BhuL 

NMr mnUi-WMt of B«aiden«Y, 

I Bbi>;. 

I Uiiki billi near SwUt 
At DavUn, oix miles oontb of Afijir. 

Lowor jnr* ; ft«ii'Ul«tt«. 
Fine gray gnt. 

Snh-rvccst oonorvta 
■loue, gocnl for Usw- 

lower jan ; Itoicflcaifc 

Lower jun i dark fray !!■» 

R«d ukadikicw : qsArry ta- 

Uiw«r jniai broms uair 

Lnwer ]iir« t p^e **A mait 

Upper jnra j fino wnrt1tM> 

■lightly cjJcaFooiM. 
CppM- jnre; corns "'"' 

U|iper jofa; f«rragi 

Truuition jtin j fin* l«A 

Cpp«r Jura ; toft landitaMi 

Da do, afllMllMk 

ITppor jura ; nd andstooa. 

At tbo jnu-tian of appir 
IcTluuy Kod U^, clriktdi 
white mubln found » 
byen not tnort^ titan thiM 

I Tkis >tou WM m«d by tbe Mog^al EmpwDn ia Monie work. BnaWk 
Bokkan, IIL 8S«. 




itc^i is a bare coaotry with do foreets and few trees. Tbd 
imon lim, Melia audirachtaj pipal, Ficus religiosa^ and babul, 
arabica, ooca6iona1Iy gn>w near Tillages. The tamarind, 
|i, TomarinduB iudica^ aud the banian, vad, I'icus indica, &re more 
Some manpDca aro cnltivatcd and, at a few places on the 
i, the cocuanut, naliari, Cocos nncifera, is reared with great 
The wild date, khiirakiija, Phccoix sylvestrie, ia many 
Tcry common, yields a fruit far inferior to that of Arabia, but 
Chut of the ordinary Indian wild dat«. It is an old 
itom to impregiiato tlie female date by scattering upon it 
)ffxter of the malo Hower.* 

the plants of Cutch, Colonel C. T. Palin has coutribated the 
"ing bst : — 

>. nil. 

i, nil ; Uichelia champaca, oocasionally found in gardens 
and toniple enclosores. 

□il ; Anona aqaamoaa, the custard-apple, is Fonnd in 
_ icna, bol is not mnch grown j Anona reticolata, romphal, 
may be seen in a garden bebuging to the Rao of Catch, near 
tho town of Bhaj ; Gaatteria longifolia id rare, aud fonnd only in 

Tinospora cordifolia, and Coccolus TiUoaas, are not 

_ c«D, Kymph™ slellatn., fonnd in pondg, hot is not common ; 

"S. lotus, even seldomer seen. 

iarid««. Qynandropsis pontaphylla, abnndnnt in waste places 
in the rains ; Cleome monophylla, not nnconnnon in the rainy and 
oold seasons; Polanisia icosaudra ; N'iebhuria oblongifolia^ and 
Cadaba indiea, the last two occaAionalty s^en in hedges. Capparis 
horrida, aud C. sepiaria, are both Qncomnion ; C. aphytia is 
rery ooromon. Arborescent Hpeoimens are froqaenrJy met with. 
Ilioy are conspicuons in Febrnary and March, when tlie bushes 
arc crowUetl with scarlet blossoms. 

Polygala triflora and P. elongate, may he fonnd on sandy 
tailed, ground in tho rains and cold season. 

lariadasa. Tamorix dioica, fonnd in tho beds of riven. 

itU w. Trianthema cTyotalliua and T. obcordats are both rery 

llaeaea«. Portolaca oleraoen and P. quadri£da are oommon 
in the rains and cold weother. P. tuberosa is found in sandy 
placoi, but is not so common as the two taat. 

fOphyUacMi, Glinos lotoides, found in dried-up water holes, la not 
common ; Polyoarpcsa corymboaa is commoB in tho cold season 
ID aaody soil. 

Chapter II. 


iBomlMj Qazett«B 


Chapter II. 


H&lvacea, Sida liumilis aad 8. retuf>a are both veiy commoi 
Abulilon indicnni and A. tomeiitosuin ot muticuni (Hooke 
F.B.A.) are botb common, chiefly in therainsand cold wwi.ther 
A. grareoleDS is not commoQ ; Tavonia glecbomifolia, is preU 
comraoD in the raios, in sheltered spots, auder the nhade of 
he<]ge or bnah ; P. zejlftnica and P. odorata aro both comroiM 
in the r&ius and cold weather; Lagnnea lobata; Hibiscn 
micr&ntbns; U. intermeiliaB is not uncommon in the rain 
season. It is n weak-stemmed annnal, with a line of bail 
along one side of the brnnches, shifting in position at eao 
joint ; Tbospesia populnca, Hhcndy tree, is sometimes seen t 
gardens or near wells; Abelmoschns esmlentns, hfiAndy, 
commonly grown as a vegetable ; Gossypium religiosmn is 
nnfroqnontly met with, planted near houses. Two or l"h 
varieties of cotton are grown, but the plants dn not thrive, an 
the crops aro poor, I^bably more careful tiUage would jiei 
better resnlta. 

Stercnliaceie, nil. 

ByttaeiiacesB. Walthena indica, is not common. 

XlUaceis. Corchorus acutangoluR ; C. liumilis is common 
Triomphetta rotnndifolia and T. angulata are both common 
Grewia villosa and 0. populifolia are botb common. 

Olacacea. Balanites segyptiaca, common. 

AurantiaoMB, nil ; Berbers kcenigii and Poronia dephantam, woo< 
apple, are grown in gardens; Citms dccumana, jHimpU-n0oa& 
C. aarantinm, orange ; C. hmetta, sweet lime ; C. borgamii 
lime ; C. medica, citi*on, are grown in gardens. 

Bapindaceffi, nil ; Sapindna lanrifolins, in Hia Highness the Rio'i 
garden at Bhuj. 

Keliacen, Molia indica, nimnim ; Molia azedaracfaj Persian li 
gardens occasionally. 

Ampelidea. Cissns camoaa, not common. 

Oeraoiacfla, Mousonia sraegaleuais, not anoommoo in the rainy seaaoi 

It is an annual, rasiiy known by its long-beaked Erait, ofte 

longer than the wholo plant. 

Zygopbylles, Tribulus terrestris, common in ihe rains; Fagonj 
arabica, a very common small green spiny under-flhrnb. 

Celaxtrac««, Celastrus montaua, grown in stony bnahy tracts, is 

RlutmnacsB. Zizyphos jujuba, is very common ; Z. nommn 
Z. oneopUa, uncommon. 

Terebinthacea. Mangiferft indica; Hhns mTBorensis, found onstoQ 
dry slopes, is not common ; Balsamoaendron mnkul, generall 
a stunted bnsh with knotty and crooked trunk and branches 
bark peeling off in 6ake8, exposing a green surfaco below, t 
is tolerably common on rocky ground. 

Korinsea. Moringa pterygosperma, planted near Tillages in tilla 
grounds, is not common. 

lilacs, i| 

I, lau 




Heyl&ndia latcbroaa ; CrotAlaria bnrhiti, ahmb easily 
pfQ by its duse-set, entangled, twiggy brauchca ; it 19 
cv>mtn<jn in »aDily places. C. juncea; C. rotusuj C. ro&traU ; 
luiligiifpra Ijnifolia ; and I. pnneaphylla are common in the rains 
and cold weotlier. - I. trifuliala is not common. I. paucifoliaj 
Bhmbby ; appnrently flowers more or lees tho year through, is 
nHnmoi). I. tinccoriA mid T. kirsuta, in the rain and cold 
nvather are iiot common. Tephi-oaia sonticosa; T. incatia; 
T. portiurca ; are comuiou in the raius and in tho cold weather 
hi Hanay pLirr.q. SpRbania acuUnkta ; 2U}mia tkngDBtifuUa ; very 
common in the rains; Alysicurpus longifolins ; A. vaginalis; 
Alhsgi maunTnim, the QliucI tlioni, uoi common; Clitoi'ia 
WmatCJi, tho blue, and al^o the white varieties, oro commoE 
among boabei iu the rains ; Butea frondosaj uncommon ; 
Hhyncusia medicaginea, common iu hcdgea in the rainB and 
cola wenther ; Abmfl precatoriuR, no.t common ; Guilandina 
bouiinc, not common; Cassia sopbora, C. tora,andC<occidoi]talis, 
are found in the rainy season, but are not common ; C. Econa, 
uncommon ; C. pumitn very common in tho rains ; Tanuuindna 
iodicus ; Bauhinla racemoaa, not common ; Proeopia apicigera, 
Ti>fy common as n email tree ; Diclirostsdiys ciucrca, 
□nct'^mmon ; lilimofw hamata, common ; Vflchollia famesiana ; 
AcKcia ebamea, not uncommon, is generally a small ehmb ; 
A- arabica^ fmhul, very common. A. catechu, tolerably common, 
in busby tracts, A. leucopUlatia, common. A small tree, easily 
Inyiwn by its pnic yellow flowei-s in large terminal 
|Miniclc(!i ; Albizria lehbok, sirris, may be seen in gardens, or 
cMXjaeioimlly planttjd near wells. The following also may bo 
found in gardens : Sfsbania a^gyptiaca, flowers dark purple 
with yellow spots; nlflo tho variety with pntv yollnw flowerH ; 
Air-dl fimidiflora ; Poinciuua pulcherrinia, gnlmohr; P. regia, 
ri ;. tnhr, a small tree; appears to thrive, and gruws 

ny. 11% , ilowers well but not so richly aa in Bombay; Medicago 
Bativ&, IrtJCtrne, ut grown as food for horses, and thrives well. 
PhaAeolos vnlpiris^ P. mnngo and aconitifolius, DolichoB sineunis, 
l*hlah vulgaris, are generally grown in ganJons iind fu-hia 
in the rainy aeitsou. Caianutt indicos, tuTf ia but sparely 

Syaygium jagibolanum, jambuJ, is found only in 
gardens, or t«casionally planted near wells ; Puinca granatnm, 
poDK-granate ; P»idium pyriferum, two or tjiree kinds of guava 
ai« tnoch grown. 

[tharacMi) RluKophora mncronata, fonnd in tidal creeks. 

tm, Rotala vcrticilkiris, found in ponds; Ammania octanJra, 
in wpt ground, and Lnwsonia alba, vifndi, the bonua plant, i& 
aaid to grow wild on the Charva hilts. 

Eilonicnii Myriopliyllum totraudum, found in ponds. 

CieBrWt«««e. Zvhueria garcini, with a small, rod, luuumor-sbaped 
berry, is not common ; yCchnmndra eplgsea, pretty common ; 
Mukia acabrella, common ; Bryoma laciaio«a, with a berry, the 

ch^pjsT n. 







BiKoof a cherry, red witli white streelcHf is not orinimon; OS' 
trigntions, ant! C. ptibesccms, creepinff pliuits. are comm 
the rains and cold season ; Cociriniti mUic-H with white H 
QDiI oblong fruit rtnl when riiK'. is vi'ry tt'inincu, in h- ■ 
all tho year ronnd. Citctiinis mclo and C. fwitivns, : ■ ji 

l^rardena. Also buffa pcntandra, turdi ; Momordica oluui 
hdrda; TriehoHanthes ungnina, Hnuku gtmnl ; Lage 
vnlgan's, bottle goord ; Cucnrbtta citralluB, with other aoi 
niclou.s and pnoipkins, aru much grown. 

Cactee, Opnntia dillenii, prickly-pcar, is grown aa a hedge, \ 

not cominoQ. 
Vmhelliferffi, nil ; Dancnn rarota, murh f^own as a fiold i 

Corifindruiu sativum, Uhoniit, in also grown. 

B.ubiacoa, Spormacoco hispidik, a weod, ia not conunon. 

Composits. Vernonia cint*rea, is very common in tho rains 
Cuhl weather; Agoralum aquaticiim, common by iho aidi 
wat«r-conree« in gardens and fields, flowers whit« ; Sphaftnu 
mollis, not common, found in damp graund ; PlueJJea indie* 
uncommon in hedgea, ie shmbby, growing tn a height of g 
eight feet, or even more; Ijaggent arida, an nndor-shruh, i 
oncommon in tho cold weather in stony ground, or in tho 
of wnt^r-ciinrses; illomen am^tlocteus, tho leaves lin' 
Rnbspnthiilat«, aciilo sOTsiloj above siibglabront, below d 
whtti>:hj 'hairy corymb Rtimowhat loose'; caj)ilula oblong, w 
Anaphalis cuti-hica; Innla cntchica, leaves fleshy, wr.^---^- 
apfx trilid, Uowt-r'^ yellow ; Vicoa indicu; I*uliearia ■ '^ 

Qommon in the cold weather in sandy soil. Blainvilluik l;iU£ 
Bicgesbeckia orientAlis ; Bidcna wallichii ; Glossae< 
boBwellla ; Echiucps cchinatus ; Trii-holupiH proeuubt 
Microrhynchtts sarmeutosus; Brouhyramphus uonubiEolios. 
tdl common. 

SapotacetB, ^filnnsops hexandra, in gardens only, or planted 
wrll.1. M. elengi, hnJthiJ, in gardens, occasionally, 

SalvadoractuB, Salvadora persica, juht, a large evergreen sli 
or generally a small tree, the tmnk contorted, with droc 
branchletH and glaucous bright green foliage ; the berry e: 
smooth, red, juicy, tasting like ci-esB, pungent and bttt«r. 
very common ; S. oleoides, generally a stunted, nirely a I 
Bhrub, is oawly known fmm S. pcrsica by its linear lane 
leaves ; the flowers are white and the berry yellowish 
ripe, [t is not nearly ho common as tho laat. 

ApocynacesB, nil. 

AsclepiadwB, Periploca aphylla, generally a low shmb 
numerous ramoua, twiggy branches ; leaves few, very ei 
thick, 'broad ovate*, or nearly orbicular; floworB dark pni 
aweet-scmited ; corolla IoIjch abovo with white, rather co 
hairs, a tuft of the tuuno kind of hairs at the back of 
anthers ; all parts of the plant full of a milky juico ; commo; 
Stony, rocky plucea. The long, iiliforpi, somewhat 



iariiitA of Uio fiUmtnal corona ara romarlcablc ; Calotropis 
' prooera., gLmemlly n »lirub, but frequtmtly a ainnll troc, is very 
cx>mmon ; Siircosteminii lirevistigma, common in slouy plncos, 
D!"i I bushes of Euphorbiu oiviijia; iVutatrupia 

nti' '111 in the nuni* nmi t-uld Huasun ; DiPtnin 

OJCt»ni«, very cx>imnon ; Ivcpmdenift jarquemnntiana, a bi-oom-Iike 
shrub, Icavus Cow uurruw-Unau', braiiclic>s long twiggy 
slender rury tough and Qbrous; usatl for tliatchiiig and niakbig 
tv^ea. It is very comniou. 

Hippicm oru'Dtttle, is coinraoa in tlic coUl season. 

TLH-cnia iimlubitu, in uot common ; Hilliiigtoniu horten* 
' sbi, found in gardi-ns only. 

IMS. Sosamuni iudicnin, not tmly wild ; Pedalium lunrex, an 
luTbiux'OQa aiinii»] ; at n little distance when lu tlowor is very 
hktf th« I^ngltsh primroao ; couiuiuu in the rains and cold 
I her. 

ea, Kvolvnlas hirsiitnR, in tlio rains and cold seasoa 
common ; Crwaa erotica, in fields in the cold weather is 
iwt r^ii'rtion : Onnvotvulas arvensis, in cullivjitwl tields is 
' V;-^ in Himdy pifict-s Is very coinnmn ; C. 

■ h not common ; C. hirsutiLS in tlie rains, 
tpoimcareptnnsjinpondsjis uolcommon; I. pescapiio, 
lU by tbe 8*ja shoro ia common; I. peatigndes, very 
1. pilosa, common in the rains; I. peutaphylln, ianot 
■ n ; I. filiaiulia, is uncommon ; Itivea hs-pocral^-riformis, 
■u in tW rains and cold seation; K. Iwna nox, not so 
oommon as the laat ; Argyrcia speciosa, elephant creeper, in 
gnrde>ns ; Cii»cuta aiilcata, a punu^ile, £iifui-ni-twining and 
h»fli34s, the flower vciy small and white. It is very abnndant 
in tbu rains. 

Uuliotropinin rottlcri, H. snpinnm, and Tonmofortia 
fdliuUta, arc oornmon. 

Trichod&sma amplexicanlo and T. iscylanicnm, ore 

Conlia Uiifolift, in gardens and near wells, not nncommon; 
fruit sieu of a pea, orange-yellow, eaten by the 
. ry common. 

thiturn alba ; Solftnum jacqnini ; and S. indicnm, are 
S. trilolmtnm, ia not common ; Pbyaalia aomnifcm, ia 
iiim e«rop:oum, a thnrny J^hnib, leaves lanceolate or 
ill' ,■' ■ •!«. Flower* solitary, 4 to } inch I'mg. limb short, 
tu\-o ! 1 gj whito. Tho berry small and. yellowish red. It is 

Linaria ramosiiisima; Lindcoborgia nrtiofe folia. 
>. Barlerialongifotia, not uncommon in the raina and cold 
•MUtou; B. prionitJEi, common in bushy ground ; B. dichotoma; 
LcpidagnthM mntala, common ; .Tn«;ticia difTnaa ; Kiingia 
rvfMoa; IVri:-U»phe bicalycnhita; Uapliuithuu verticillai-is. 

Cbtfpter U 



[Bombay 6&zett«er,^ 

Chapter IL 

F Domattie. 


VerbetuLoes. Prcmna Intifolia ; Glenxleuilroii phlomoides, nc 

Orobaitchacen, Phultpcua iudica, commoo. 
Iiablata. Ocytnnui cannm ; O. bn«ilk-um ; 0. saactoni ; 

(v[»lmlo[t'8. Olid L. ImifQlia. The two lost are common. 
Cbcnopodeacete, Sncc^ln indica. 
Nyctaginacee, Bccrhaavta diffusa j 6, ropcns; fi. stellnta, aro 

com 111 un. 
Folrgonacen, rolygoonm elegans. 
Anunataoea. Colosia argeiitea ; Amarnnthos tristis ; Koxol 

oloinceos; ^irajaranica and ^. munsonia, tlii>sD two v 

common; Amblogyna polygonokles ; Mengcft t^miifolia; 

Acliyrantbeaaspora; l'upalUi&tropurpun]a;Altoruaatlici'aHMidlii 

Aristolocbiacaaj, Aristolocliia bractcata, is common, 

£aphotbiacee, Euphorbia nivnlia, very common ; often an tmmnis 
bush, UBed as fuel by tho poorer natives ; R. tiniralli, milk-banh 
very coiutnim as a bt'djijo plant ; K. thyuiiJolia, and K. parviHon 
aro common in tbe mina and culd wt-atlier ; riiyllatitbos uiruri 
is oommou in tbo cold season. 

Koraces. FicTisbpnpilorsis.TiaTiyan tree ; F. rclij^iosa, \Aiv-p\pnX tree 

F. p&oudo-tjiela, tlio I'ipri, comuooly planted by roiu.l-sides an( 

near wcUs. 
Asparaginen, Asparagopsis suincntosa. 
Commelynaeeaei CommelyDaoommunia^andQ bengalcnsis, arc commoi 

iu tlie nuua 
FalmaleB. llioonix sylvostris ; Cocoa nucifora, the cocoanut troc, ma] 

be seen in garJuuD, but h not much plautod. 
Faudanace». I'ondanna odoratiBaimna, is not common and not tml 

wUd. ■* 

Tho chief dom(«tic animals arc horacB, camels, axon, cows 
buffaloes, slujop and goats, and osecs. 

Cutch' horses have long' been held in mnch esteem.* Generally 
little over (ourteoa bandB they arc well made, spirited, and H]iovr 
in ftotion, with clmn bony limbs, thin long neck, largo head nn< 
chcfk:*, ouLstJtndinp; mm-iikc brow, fnll sparkling cyca, and smal 
soft ears. His ebit-f defects are lus ill temper, the length of hi 
cannon bono, and his ugly heavy brow. To improve Uio broo^ 
Btalliona aro kept by tho state for tho use of their own mares, and 

* Cbi«Bv from not«a mppliv^ bj LimiU J. H. Swller, KSv., Aut. PoL Agtot. 

* Abul Flul <1M2) uyi ■ Th« hvncs of Outch an c<iu»l to Anba. It u tuud th. 
a Ions tine wo an Arab fthin noa wreaked and flnven to ths abore of CuU-h , ivml 
it hauMTeooluktoeliorset, from which, «cconliiij{ to tho f;l^no^•] Iwlief, the 
braad qina^ Blovhronnii'ii Ain-i-Akhnri, T. IICI. It >u^-iiii ta\m tnCuHIl Im 
Fluvli<l910) refen in hi> aw^uutof thu Rlja *ab<<ut OnjnrAt.' wlm had a 
hnrees 'not to )m> niAtriit-il in the r«st.' They wurc valiiisl al £IAO0 (Itt. Ifi.i 
anil Merc wd to Ik far alMivii tli« Arub* iiot Mily (ur *wift ruuuioi:, Iml for ittay 
powar, ' Ml thAt > nan might ride goe of thrm altoost at fuU ■[•ec-d a whole djij 
oeTwdnw biL' Uairu. L !)1. 

oUkv animals th.M may wisb to be Berred. Mora horses are 

in AbfliisA than iu ftoy otht-r part, of Cutch. Formerly (1918) 

hlioy were rcnrod by Raj|>uti<, Mt)lusalii[U8, Oii-isiAs, Siutlhis, and 

<tino Ahir ■ r^, \rhu, wlit-n yttiiiifr, fod thorn lorpcly on poal'a 

ouii !■ _i riug fruui Lwolvo to f^urteeu jjoatit.' Of Into 

: £a1I in tlio raluo of h»rt>c8, aud the bi^k prico nf f^rain and 

I.-..-,, been much nf^inst horsa brooding'. Many who ftirmorly 

■» for Bale have given it up, aud most are now lirod by tho 

liiu Uirxer j)ro|jri*?I<r)rH fur thoirowu use. The trudo Ju horaea 

A very few are imported from Sindh, and a ywirly average 

it fcifrty are iteut frcm Mandri to Bombay aud Z»Qzil>Ar. 

^Excopt in the lavra nf Bhuj where a few of the chiefs drive them, 

lhr>r«w iww twed soU'Iy for ridin^f. Thoy are generally piu to work 

Ifm yonpCi And thou^'h stn'Qg and enduring must of them at Bve 

fjfsuyi t>\d ore damaged. Hia ordinary fnod is a mixtorn of pulse, 

•truUk, rha«t'oliis acMnitifoIius, and millrt, hajri, Ponicilhiria apicattt, 

*n*h fn nrMiti..n, iu the cnld si^tason and after hard work, a mesB of 

-CH, aud elariGed butter. Before any uxtremoly hard 

... :. iliu old outlaw cnstom of giving the horse a feed of boiled 

f9 or sheep'tf flesh is said sometimes to be stiU kept up.' With 

tncreaiicd ca£o of im)x>rting horses from Arabia, Persia, aud 

An^tm)i& tho value of the Cutch breed haa declined. In the sevon- 

Ifl 1 7) Cutch horses are said to have been worth from 

(Ba. 201)0.3000); early in the present ceutury 

ir prioo is luud to have varied from £20 to £100 (Rs. 200 - 

and it in now retemed at from £10 to £60 (Rb. 100-&00). 

ilch has long been famous for its camels.* Somewhat slightly 

but vvrj- fu*t, thov are better fitted for riding than for burden. 

eht are chiefly reared by Rajjiut**, Rubrlris, Sindhis, and Hharvida. 

are nsod for tiding, carrying burdens, ami taniing oil-mills. 

;ir milk is the chief artielo of the Rubfiris' food. Tho price of a 

came! varies from tS to £12 10*. (Rs. 30-125). 

Cows, oxen, aud buffaloeii are found iu large numbers. Of oxen, 

ihrv r'«* three breedx: VAgadia, reared in Vagad by RabdriSj 

Bl ^id other cultivators ; Bannidi, roared in the Booni pastures 

_. \y ^Ui^idrnkun; and Cutchi, re«red in different villages 

ii }<'. \l.i::\\-in uud Bharviida. Tho VdgadJa bullock is tall, 

.,. i ,.ide, costing from £10 to £25 (Us. 10O-250) ; 

I! k is, except that it is sniallur, much like the 

Tl I coma from £fi to £15 (Rs. MI- 150) ; tho Cutchi, osed 

a* .. J-.' ri oullock, ts small and of little strength or beauty, and 
ot«ts lv:m £2 10*. to £12 10*. (Rb. 2o-125). In tho chief 
towns many bultoeks flevotcd to tho gods, alltiia, and uover set to 

■ Mwillsnla. Tnuu. Bom. Lit Soo. II. 220. 

* Oo^an Tnh'a Maroo Polo {1S90), II. ; SSI. whan tho people of M»Ubir, tha 

' CW.-jtffujhl^l (Vdjif nra Mill to fccrl thoii* horaca on ric« Uid boiled meat. 

VI, 3.'.rt. Maclfunlo. Trann, Bpm. Lit Soo. II. 326. 

Mia HKid (1u90) to Uuv« be«H brvl in th« lutihn of Gujiirdt nAU 

1. I-U. leiaworthf of notice tfaktcAiBPlB at« reaml with Rnec-CM 

;iart> of tJia proviiioo, but io the nutnliy Uoda of 11m unith-waat 

' i.itiricr Xarnim atatra tiiat Uio <doc«m of c*inol Iircetion in B«;^'tiut near 

t>4 la tfae atttafth tiicy drew (tvoi Itsdilg ou S4lt foo^ U.S. iicporl. 





Otaptor XI. 



any work, aro seen roaming tliroiigh the streets. Host C 
bullocks uro castrated. Tbo bullsi linkJUdi, are very miBr-i'-' mi 
ara coiisidtTcd of less valae, oosting from 15^. to £5 
A cow TOrifts ia value from lO*. to £4 lO«r. (Rs. 5-4uj, i 
ftbe-buffalo from £2 to £8 (It*!. 20 - 80). 

Tlie gCAt is held id high cfitcem Qinong the paatoral In ' 
Gutch, in particular by tbe Mubammndiitia duscundt'd from tU< 
Sindb triwa, who eat gout's flosb and live almost cnlircily onita 
and cluriliud butter. Of goata, there are two kiudB, '' ■! 

till! foniicr bpin" ehortor and of a liner breed thou tl 
am reared cbieitj by tbe RabAris and Bbarvads. Ruj" x mid f 
for bullocks are made of their wool. 8hecp, kepi cliittly for tbea 
milk, from which clarified batter, ghi, ia made, are pU-ntiial. That' 
wool is sold to Vania and Lohiiua merchants, and thuir Uush ia 
to a considerable extent. A goat coatn from 2jt. to Hjr. (Ra I 
and a ^cop from ia. to lOjt. (Its. 2 - 5). 

AssoB of two Eorts, Sindlii and Cutchi, ore reared by Kumb' 
potters, and Ods^ diggers, Thoy are nsod by grain merchants 
Kumbhirs to carry burdunsj and arc small and antractabit?, 
coRt from lOff. to £4 (Rs. 5 - 40). 

At tbo boginuing of the century, lions, tigers, and other large gniso 
wfire pleutiftd in Cutob.' But uf lato years, tigers and lioua 1 
alinost t'Dtiroly disappeared. The Panther, Polis jwinluR, is still (4, 
and is kept for His HighneRs the Rao^a shooting. 'ITiey Iiavo , 
and plentiful cover among the rocky hills, and, except after kil? 
cow or goat, ore difficult to traco. The Wolf, cam, Cauis ]• 

tho Ilj'funa, Uirat, Hj-ajna Htriata, and the Jackal, »ial, CWiin -., 

are also found but not in largo numbers. Of tho Fox, iohli, Vulpn 
bcngalensis, three vtiriytit's are fuuud; tbo first, the commi-' 
Indian fox ; the st-cond. white with black belly and legs ; . 
third, a large Knglisb-like ivx, of a light brown c-olour, with h '■:]u\v 
point to his brush. Tbe Wild Bom; ituJikar, Sus tndicus, ubiiin'lf 
lu most parts of the country and in mnch hunted with tho gun and 
spear by the J&doj&s.* IJlack Dut-k, hUuir, Antelope liezoortica, aiv 
to bo seen occasionally ou the alluviid sands aloug the shores of t^ 
culfof Outch, while the common Red Antolopo, rhiitktint, Goiella 
Denettii, aro found in the same places in much larger niinnlvr^. A 
few Blue Bull;.', ni!g»H, Portax pictus, are also found. Bi 
Cutcb has a wild auimal peculiar to it, tho Wild Ass, /..', . ,.- . . , 
Kquim onager, found in the desolate wastes of the Baa. It is our uf 
tlie most timid of animals, rarely coming within sight of man, seoking 
the loneliest spots, and coming near the Han islands and the oainlaiid 
only ar night for water and grass. In the cold season it is fnaml in 
the holds and does much harm to tho crops. It is thirteen haiidi 
high, has a light brown neck and body, a black strip down tbs 
back, and a whito belly. Like tho tome ass it lias long carv hut ila 
limbs are stronger and better made. Generally moving in hcnhi of 

t Man. f!«.l. Sur. IX- 21. 

> UwUimlo, Truu. ikoo. UU Buc. U. 337, 228. 



t«i U< fifty, it it) eometinios foimJ single or in pah-s. Its chi>*f 

^liiD salt grass and shrubs of tho desert. WhcD in herds, it 

lily friglttoncd »nd ctm be? rlosclj^ approached. When 

U t)> Miid itomotiuiC'9 to show li^hl, and In tlie fnniinv of 

will) ivLi'^ wore hiintc-d liv Kolis uud otbtr wild (ribcj^ for 

<U (tften ftlijifkorl llio hanters. The flwli 14 

i, but at ortliitarj tiuifs, cvcu tholowcal cIuks 

do not eat iL According to tho local belief, there arc, in 

1I of wild &»9«B, bf^itides ^'ouiig onts, ttcverat firTx>vrD animals 

and foiiiale. All the maloft, ext;cpi thu bund of tho hei-d, 

to b*' I. This, ii(cordin(y t^i one nccount, is done 

arc ;. ' (.-ordiiig l" imotlier ucfiCHnt, om each yuiitig 

of ii^L-, he ligliLiJ iiic head of iho bcixl, and tholoeor is 

•nd bccomos the victor's follower.' 

•nmllcr aniniats, tbo Uare, stuloj Lcpus ruficaudatus, is fonnd 
rg« nambors. 

tfaa binU of Cutcb Colonel C. T. Palin has prepared Uie fuHowing 

VoLTCiiiDX, there ai-e Otogypa cairns, Iho Blat-k 
I Vultare, not cninmnn ; (lypfl indicos, the Long-hilled Vultnro, 
not common; Oyps bengalcnsis, tho White-backed Vntture, 
Dflinnwn: Neophron percnopterus, tho Scnvenger VuUaro, 
common. rAurosiHiT,, l'"iilc\>ju£r;.'er, the Ijigffor Ffilcon, foinuion; 
Hj'p"lnorchiB thiofiiura, tariimli, tho Ued-headod Merlin, 
I- TinntineiiliiEi JLlauduhuSj ibo Kcstnl, coiiimoii; 
bndius, the Shilcra^ common ; Aquila fiilvcscens, the^'le, unt Common, and yot may always be aceu iu 
|ilnri'.s ; Circaetua gaUien.s, the Common Serpent Eagle, 
11 ; I'oliomis t«c«a, the White-eyed Buzzard, common, 
;<orehed mi treGH near welln Hml tilled ground ; CitvuH 
tho Piilo Hurrter, not comnmn, though often seen in 
isoD, hunting over fields and pond siiluJi i C. cineraoeus, 
-< Harrier, liko I^Jio liuit often Boeu hunting; 
indntj the Maroon -backed Kito, not common ; 
Mfi'U near Uie sea ; Milfus govindn, chit, 
"iiriah Kite, very Hbimilant, bn-iils nlmiit Kebriiiiry. 
*., Strii javftnica, the Indian Pcrcetrli Owl^ Oliia 
, tlio Short-eart'i] Owl ; Urrua bengnlcusiti, tho Itock- 
wwl; and Aifaene bruma, the Spotted Owlet, the last 
, Tery cominon. 

Among FissntosTBRS there are of rTiuustiisiD-K, Tlirnndo 
rn«ittca, tho Common Swallow, a eold-wcathtu" viniljint, not 
coinnmn ; Hirnndo tilifem, the Wire-t^viled Swallow, common ; 
U ■riniipod Swallow, very common, builds ita 

nr- ,1 ; Colyle coiicolor, the Dusky Crag Martin, 

, comnKm in fort walis and rocky hill sides, and Cypselsus alHuia, 
iho Common Indian Swift, common. A colony breeds under 

.Bom. 0«f)fc. Sna. XVI. (I. CftpL Del. )Io«t« (Itt^O) inenliaiui mnam caU);bt 
1 uiD«l. It wiw vuiy fon'I of lU mnst«r Uiou^ flvsry effort to break it lu 
Bdm. Ot-»g, Soc lU. (i^(. IdS. 




[Bom buy < 


Chapter XL 


the roof of the inner gateway in ihe Bhnjia fort. 
Capkimuloid-C) Caprimulg'us asiaticus, the Common lot 
Night-.Iar,rmnmon. Of Mbkopid*:, Morops viridU, the Cnini 
Indian liee-eatrr, common thronghont the year. OfCci 
Corncias indic'U, the Indian IttiUer, common, though mn 
in the hot weiithpr. Of Halctokid-k, Ualcyon f usong, th 
bi-castcd Kingfi.-:her, common; Alcedo bcu};^ensts, thti L — 
Jtidian Kingtishor, raroly seen ; and Ck^i-ylo rudis, tlio 
Kingfisher, not commoo, though found about large pondd 
deep river-bed hules. 
Among Sl'an80BK8, there are of Psittacidje, Palowrnis torqunt 
the Rosoringed Parraktict, very common. Of Picidje. Pit 
mahrattcnsi», the Yellow-froulod Woodpecker, not unoommt 
Of CucuLiD.K. Coccystes molanolencos, the Pied-Crostt-d ' ' ' 
fouud, thuujfh not often, in tho rains in bnah-land ; Ku- '. 
oriontfilia, the Indian Koel, common in jrindi-'us and ; i -. 
Oentropus rufipennis, the Common Corneal oi' Crow Pheh'^^iii' , i 
Dncommoa about field and garden hedges. 

Among TENNUtRosTBEs thcro nro of NECTAHiNroa:, Amehncc 
aaiatica, the Piirjjlt* Honey sucker, very couiuiou. Of U?l 
Upnpa ept^pB, the Kurojiean Uoopo(>, a cold wcathor vifitatil^ 
and U. nigripennin, tho Indian Hoopoe. 

Among DBNTiBOSTRBfl there aro of Laihada, Lantns lahLor 
the ludian Orey Shrike, common in the plains and in low thii 
bufih-laiid ; L. Uardwickii, the Uay-hucked 8hrike, common ti 
the cold weather, diaappenra towards the end of March or 
beginning of April ; L. cnntatii»,fhe Brown Shrike, unf. 
L. arcnariiis, the Pale-brown Shrike, very uncommon, n 
in MTlnin places on tho borders of tho Htiii ; Tephi. 
pondiccriana, the Common Wood Shrike, not common, met' 
only in thin bnah-land; Pericrocotus percgrinua, tho Si 
Minivet, not uncommon during the cohi weather, fonnd it 
bush-lands, babul troes, and poud banks ; Dicrums macroeor 
'King Crow/ tho Common Drongo-Shrike, very commonj 
breeds early in June, Of MnsciCAriD*, Leucocorca »lb'jfroD« 
tata, the White-browed Fantail, not common, disappi'urs in thl 
ijot weather. Of Mebulidje, Pyctorhia sinensis, the Yi*lIow-ey( 
Babbler, uDcommon, is found in low bush-lauds; Chutarrl 
caudata, the Striated Bush-Babhler, common every ^s ' '. 1 ■ -• 
in the rains, almost alwaya in a thorny bush. The < ■ .Aut 

Of Brachvp0DID.«, Otocompsa Wucotis, tho Whity-e«rt.>^i Ui 
Bulhnl, common, though not ho abandnnt us P^'cnonl 
hsemorhous, the common Madma Butbul; iora zeylouica. 
Black-headed Green Bulbul, is common. Its loud wbis 
makes it oftener heard than seen. One of its not«a low imi 
plaintive, sounds somewhat bke 'chee-chi-too,' repeated two o| 
three times. Of Svlvtad.'r, Thamnobiacambaiensia, tho Brown^ 
backed Indian Robin, is very common. It begins to build ii 
April among rocks, holes in walls, and in oat-hoosea ; Pmtint 
indtca, the Indian Bush Chat, is imoomraon, a cold weat 
visitut; Saxicoia picata, the Piod Stcufi-Cliat> is commoE 



llionctli oiily n cnl.l weather viaitaol, commg tato in July, and 

1- ' I of March ; S. leimulhe, the Wliontoarj aiiJ 

> k-throawd Wlieiitt-iir, viait Cuttili in tlw cold 
1- la fnsca, the Brown Rock Chat., is cominou, 
I ii'.is amoug recks, loose stoneRj aud oiit-housesj 
MiUicitlii rutiventris, tho Indian Kedstart, is not anronimon in 
ihe c<tM .Heaflun ; CyaaeulasDecica, the Indian Blue-throat, la in 
abandAncL' in the cold seasoQ, iu hi^U ^rain fiold<i, lull >?nu« and 
I ' ■. Orthtitornus long-icaiidn, the Indian Tailor 
t iionu ; Cistiwla schainicola, the Rufous Gnii»- 
^ I 15 (.'oinnioit in tho rold wtMither, iu high ^rain fields and 
i;i-^ ^._-^i ;Dr}*inuipu* intirxuitus, the Common \Vivn VVarble-r, 
i* not unoonimoii in low biufh-landti ; Drymoiputt hmgicaoUatoSi 
V ' ' tailed Wren Warbler, found in the same phic&s as 
1.1 -un, IS not Common ; Phyllowopus trititis, the Brown 
irvi> Wa/bler; Sylvia urphea, the Lat-^n B luck-tapped Warbler; 
S. iiffinm, the Allietl tlruv Warbler, is eomnioii in tho oold 
ycsA'in, hunting thron^h rKthut trees, bnshe!^, and hed^a ; 
\f ■• i-'ilU maderaspatanu, the Tied Wagtail, the largest of the 

II Wagtails, is nut ooiuniuu. Ii ik usnallv found in pairs 
• III .-vide* of water holes and ponds; M, Inzonienaifl, the 
White-faced Wngtail, is commoD in the C'?ld weather; 
ML dakhnni'ii'^ij, the Hlnt^k-Eaced Wa^ail. is not so common as 
SL lux^juieu-iia ; Badytes viridis, the Indian Field Wagtail, ianot 
meommDn in the cold weather, frequonting damp ground near 
irrera and pondii ; Agrodroma campestris, the Stone Pipit, is not 
nKoounon on open stony ground. 

Lnionir CoiftROSTRES there are of Cortid£, Corvns splendens, (he 
<' ' ludianCriJW, common in every town and village. Of 

> Arridr.theres trisHs, ihe Common Mjma, very common; 
i .us, the R'jge-coloured Starling, abundant iu the rains 
r ; "ijiilii^r, though tho flocka ore never huge. They 

aa long aa there la any grain or fruit to be had , a few 
?>ru\ birds atopptng through the hot weather. Of FHiaionxiDjB, 
Plooena Itaya. the Common Weaver Bird^ la common. It 
' tut the year but is often past unseen till at the 
the ruiuA, it puta on )t» bruediug plumage; 
[unia mainbarica, the plain Brown Munia, iti oonimon, living 
«0iull fluckii; Pn.4i<er indieus, the Indian House Sparrow j 
1*. fbcicoUia, the Yellow -neoked Sparrow, is nucommon. it 
probably is often pafwed over l'r<mi its likeness to tlie commoa 
■(MTow ; Knitwriza huttoni, the Grey-necked Banting, in 
■caUemi tlr>ekii, on »tony hill sides and river bank^, is not 
HnC'^mnion in tho cold weather; Kmberiza fucata, the Grt»y- 
li Glinting, is not uncommon. Itlivesintho name ground, 

b not make its appearance so early aa £. huttoui; 

( 14 errthrinuft, the Common Rofcfinch, is uncommon. 

> r ; it is foond only in fairly thick buah-land 

ij;, of the larger hills; Mirafra erj'thrr>ptera, 

tl .'Ltd Hurth Itark, is common in low*anittered 

Lu, _ _ .mmomuue»ph;euioiitajtln' liufotu-tailed Finchlttik, 


Chapter I 


Chapter* 11. 


ia Tiot unwmiiioo nn stony open ^uuocl ; PyrrbnlniiiJtt (frii 
the Blnt^k-bollfed Finclilurk, is t'ouuiiun on ojA-n bnn- - ' 

Cttlandrellft braobydftclyln, the Shnrl-toefl or Sfpcinl . 
coiDmun in flficks ii) the cold weatlier ; in March the <hii«ri'n 
t1(X-kB unite iu eouie years into vast troops cootaiiiing won 
thoDsand birds ; at thia season thpy «ro excellent eating ; tht 
leare early io April ; Spiwilauda derii, ihe Sninll-Crest* 
Lark ; Ainada golgula, the Indian 5ky<Lark : Galeri 
crifitata, thu Latye-Crostad Lark. 

Oemitores. Among- Couchbid*, there are Columba in' t^ t* 
the HI no Rock Pigeon, very coiimion ; Tortnr cambu^ i 
Little Brtm-n Dcvf, very conimno ; T. risoria, tho Coiuuimu Kia 
Dovp, LMininon in tht* iipt'n counliy, but tUx's not entur gar'loi 
and yavU so frc<'ly aa T. cambnyenMR ; T. humilia. the Ri 
Turtle Dove, is not cutuinon. It mav gcoeniUy be found 
ftertain plactifij but ia nut widely spread. 

Rasores. Among Ptebocmd*, there are Pterotrles arenanu 
the lAFge Sand Cimus**, a wintw visitant, cominj? in Soim-wb* 
leaving in Mui-ch. It (iicM in large tlnc-kK, frefjtieruing cerl 
places only, choosing opun Ratuly plaiua; P. fai^i'iain: 
Painted Sand tJMuso, is coinmnu, bat locally di.siHl 
It frequents bushy, stony, and hilly ground ; P. exustns, t 
Common Sand Gronoe, is very common j P. Beni-gallns. is n 
common. It ia found in certain plrtws uear the Han of Cute 
and may at oneo bt* known by the bii^'ht orange buff of i 
throat and sides of the neck. Of Phasiasiuj:, Pavo cristni 
the common Ptmcock, ctuntuon in cnUivHtcd field;) a 
husli-landa. Of TkTluoNlUJv, PrnQColinu.s vulgaris, the BI 
Pnt-Lridge, abundant in certain places, and found in 6e}da and 
gr&as and bushes on sandy ground ; OrtrgumiK pondiceria 
the Grey Partridge, is common and abundant flvon'whe 
Perdicula a-'iiatica, the Hock Bu^h Quail, is common id sci 
bti>ib-laiHl(> and aUmy hilU; Cotumix cunnnunis, thv LiitgeGrc 
Qimii, ubundnnt in the eold nr«Rth&r in grasa and grain fields 
i-xw^pt 3ome few birds that stay behind and apparently bree 
in the country, the Grey Quail leavea iu lln; enfi of ^larch <i 
the beginning of April ; C coroniandelica, the Blark-breoste 
Quail, abundant in the rains and cold staiion, breoiling fro 
Jyiic to August, Of Ti.vAMiii.t, Turuix sykesii, the Butta 
Quail, □oMiucmnmon, but not ahutidnnt. 

GrallatoreS- Among PDEfSiitiisTifES there are of Otidid 
Eupodotis edwanisii, the Indian Bustard, not uncommon 
ceriatu uIhcps, uxunJIy open plains; Uonbara macqueenii, ill 
Indian ilonbam Hiigtard, not bommon, but may generally I 
found iu tandr phiius and waritig i<audy ground ; Syphcotid 
auritUR, the Common or BUt-k Floriean, is plentiful m it 
rainV iieasoo, when thei-e has been an early and fairly frt-t- fa 
of rain. Of ChlflaoiiiDJ:, Cursoiiua gallicn!*, llie Km.pta 
Courier Plover, is comrooD in the cold weather in small Bocf 
on bare sandy plains. The pale isabcUino or aandy yeMow coloi 



of lb« white lifMlv with the pule givy of the top frf the hoad at 
^--'' ,r^ui»ho9 thin fpoin C. coprtmanrielicns, the Indian 
\ er ; ilitfi, noc iieurly bo common as C. gsllicu*. mav 
tul to U* unronimun. Of CuAU\iiRiP.c, /lilginiitis penffmyi, 
Lartr^^ Satid PloTor, and JR. phyrrhothora^, thi? small 
lail I'loTor, are both cpmuionlr Cuand id Hocks aloofi^ thti 
of the guU of Ciitch ; M. phdippcnsis, the Indian 
Plorer, and /fl. minalus, the Small Rinfyed Plover, 
riion, are both fuund in sDiall Uncles on tho sides 
Mielini"Jt in nptni ami ploughed lands ; Chtttusin 
krxa, Liii- iii»itk«RidM Uipwiiig, an nncommnn cold weather 
iDt, frequeute bare or low, dry, grafls-cwored plains in 
lerat-o sizml florks. Irby tniljr says : " when on the winjf it 
a dwtl of whiff" ; r^ohiv»n«llti8 goensia, the Ile<l-wattled 

51, ' Did he d'> it,' 18 very comoioD ; Sarciophorus bilobua, 
ow-waftled Ijapwinu", is uncommon, bnt found on arable 
aad dry plains: fK-iiciiomii:* rn'pit.iui«, tht* Ston^'-Plover, 
imon, g-eiuTiiUy choosing low, slooy, or bushy hillH. Of 
jpODios, Sipopailasinterproa, thoTarn^tonp, and Dromaa 
sla, Um Orab-Pktrer, sr« uocotnmon : and Hiematopns 
le^p, the Oyster- catcher, is common aJong lUo sborea uf 
lif of ratrh. 0\ (iRUlli-C, Gnis antigonc, tho Knnitt Crane, 
commoD ; ' -i, the Coranum Cmne. and Anthropoidps 

iTirjn. thf IJ- • iJmoo, both visit Cutch lu nuiiierona and 

.■ large Hockji daring the cold weather, coming in 
kbuno^w-. the end of October. 

■ I" r,'iNoifto8TKira, there are of Scolopacid^, Gultinago 

inns, the Uoinmon Snipe, abundant in the cold weather; 

'>, the Jack Snipe, not qiiito so abundant aa 

nun; Rhynrhosi beii^alyuaia, tho Painted Snipe, 

' y in the cnniitry, brw^ding in Jnne 

■ilmla, the Small (Joilwit, not romnion ; 

mma arquata, the Onrlew, is very Ccttomon on tho coast, 

often found inland in niamhy ponda; N. phisopns, the 

ibroL not so common h» the Curlew ; Tringa ttubRrtjuata, 

*^tint, common, in flocks on the coast; T. cinclua, 

is Said to be found on rhe shores of the pnlf of 

r. miniitn, tho Little Stint, nnd T. toinmim-kii, the 

ito-tttiled Stint, ore both common on mnnshy pround and 

>iiad the edges of ponds; Catidri-t arcnaria, the •^anderUng, 

^Ihe iihorf a of the golf of Catch ; AcUtis glareola. the 

-d Sandpiper, conimon in the cold season by the sides 

A- ochr^pns, the Green Sandpiper, common; A. 

lenrf?'!. tlie common Sandpiper, common; Totanus glottis, 

■vvM^, T. Bt^natUis, tho Little Ureenabanks, and 

,..,..,._., th« ReiUhank*, aro common. Of HdHNT-'piUjB, 

Flimantopiis cundidua, the Stilt, and Heourvirostra avocetta, tho 

.' common, freqnentiog the side5 of ponda in 


mg L*TiTOKr.-i. there are of Parkida, Hydropfaasianus 
chmargu^, the PheNsant- tailed ducana, Qocommon. Of KALiiD.r, 






Porphjrio poIioceplialuB, the Parple Coot ; Fulica atru, thts 
Coot ; GaUicrex cristatus, the Waier Cork, tho Uiat 

Ainniijf Cui,TiR03TBE8 there aTo of Anvv.\ux., Ardea oiuer 
Blue Reroii, c«miiioi] ; Uerodias alba, the l»«tv<* 
H. f ^vt.t(»ides, the Smaller Epret. U. garzetta, the I 
»ro all three veiy common ; Demiegrciia osha, tho _i -i ,. 
is common by the iWH-side and tidal creeks ; &ii 
coromandas, tho Cattle Epret, common ; Ardeola leoc 
the Pond Heron or Paddy Bird, oommou ; Butorides )avi 
the Little Green Heron; Botuurus stellaris, ihe ^" ■ 
Nyctiforax griseuB, the Nigiil flt^i-on. Of TantaliI'-T. 
leucocephalas, the Pelican Ibis, is common, freqnci ■ 
Platolea Icucorodiflj the Spoonbill, iH common : '!..;..-{ — 
Dielanofephalos, the While Ibis; Gcrontioua ]>&pt||o&u8, 
Watly-headed or Black Ibis, is not common. It brecda in 
mins and cold seaiHou. 
Natatores. Among Lamelmrostrcs, thrre are of Pn 
j'KHJD.i;, Pha'nicoptoms roseus, the Flamingo, commt-i! 
8ea<(Yiast. OF A»bigbid.i{, ^>arkidiurDiB melnnonotus, 
Black'hacked Gooae or "Comb Duck," iml-ta, is conzur 
during the rains and cold weather; Dendrocygna awauree. 
Whistling Teal, is tolerably oomuion ; U. major, the Larj 
W1n"stling Teal, not as common a« D. awsurce ; Casarca rnttl 
theRtiddy Shieldrake, ia not common. Of Anatip.c, SpatuI 
clypeata, the Shoveller, is abundant during the cold weaUierj 
foeding in shallow water ; Anas pufcilorhTncha, tl 
Spotted -hi lied Duck, common in the cold weather; Chanlelaemi 
Btreperus, the Oadwall, ahnndant in the cold season; Daflli 
acuta, the Pintail Duck, usually abundant iu_lhe cold westherJ 
their number, as is tlie case with most of the ilnck tril*] 
depending on tho fall of rain ; Mareca pcnelope, the Wigeooj 
not uncommon, but by no means abundant, secniB to comi 
to Cutch later than most other kinds of duck ; Qiiernuedul 
crecca, the Common Teal, very common and abundant, 16. tin 
first comer of all the dncks; Q. circiit, the Bliie-winged 
is later than the couimun teal, and not ncai'ly so abundant; 
Fulipula cri«(atfi, the Tuf Led Duck, is uncommon ; Aythya ferii 
the Red-hefldod Pochard; A. nyroca, the White-eyed Duck. 

Among MESQrroifEa there are of PosiciFinf, Podicepit philippens 
the Little Grebe or Dnbchick, not abundant. 

Among VAOATonKs, there are of IjARm.r, thclAmsfii- 
Lenficr Hlat^'k-hacked Gull, common on the ehorea of i 
of Cntch ; Xema bmnnicephaia, the Brown-hended Gull, 
in the gulf of Cntch ; and Gelochclidou caspius, the Lnrgf 
Tern ; G. anglicns, the Gull-billed Teni, freqiientn ponda 
rivers ; Hydrochelidon indica, the Small Marsh Tent ; 
niii-antin, tlio Largo Kiver Tei*n, and ThalaBseus bcngalcusi 
Hmallor Sea Tern. 

Among PiecATOBKS, of GsAccUDx, Oraculus javanicus, the LiUld 
Cormorant and Plutus raebiiiogaiiter, the Indian Snake-bird, are 



CUTCH. 37 

ih of good quality, amongBt them the mnch esteemed pomphlet, Olupto IZ. 

rb, crabs, aad prawns, aboand in the gulf of Ciitch, bat as the Frodoetion- 

is do not allow fishing to be carried on as a trade, the sapply is 

aes very unequal to the demand. The rivers are too dry and 

dsh in the hob weather to have any large store of fish, and none 

I tribes of Catch live as deep-sea fishermen. The fishing, chiefly 

) hands of V^ghers, is most practised along the shores of the 

if Cntch. Seventy-foar kinds are said to be canght. They 

^en either by stake nets or by baited hooks, and sometimes by 

ig walled or fenced enclosures along the sea shore and catching 

m stranded by the ebb tide. Sometimes milk-bush branches, 

orbin tirucalli, are used to poison fish. Except Brahmans, 

£St V&niiLs, and a few other high-caste Hindus, all classes of the 

ation eat fish. Fish salting is carried on to some extent along 

nst of the gulf of Cntch. The head quarters of the industry 

fc Mondra, Jakhfiu, Anjfir, and Bhuj. The deep-sea fishing 

the Catch coast is in the hands of south Gnjar&t and nortJb 

vn fishers chiefly from Bals&r, Dfunan^ and T&ripur. 

_-■" : -" " - ' ' ~ ~ " "~-"-^- — -— Tianroul 

- ~" :■ —---■-- - - - " - • " ~ ' r ' _— _iz.:.i. Tbeycamil 
■■ - ■ -. - - ~ - : -- .-- - -i-rvf- rr - Si:id lolj 

;:^"?:^^ - - ■ ~-- - - ^ - — - - ^1^77 ^^- helJi 

*-■=" — -"-- ^: — '• -- - ■ -■ - ■ ■" -■"--_-- -.. — The eial 
--~'~~~'~- " ~~ ■ ^j' \~'" ' - ■-■~:-^ :.z i :i.v Kiilia 

— - "-■ ■ ^ "- . ~~ ---■■--:-: - .. - - '^i- .>-nqaest^ 

;■■— " -" ■. ~~- ~ : - -' ' ~- - --" -^"^"-^ -- '^^ eastern 

z^.z.i -- ■ : .1. - .--■..; —r -:: -z~-,:r- rurz^ -z~ Yisheiit 
Z7 -L. -.:- -..'- . : : :r . ":■ ■: -: '^.jzj:; j.~ iz.i -"ii^-ij npto 
-.z-.T z.-.^. . -. .--- - - . --- = -; ----^r^. *.'»: othm, 
:•:* ..-- '^- -: -__- - - ? ~. ' -- ;. T- -^ i <:- :. MarwET, 

-~ -'v.~~"' ' -■ - " " " "-. " ~"~ " r^, ■-: - ' ^^"--^ i^^«? wme 
5.zL.:ir:z :__ ■"■_"•'"" ~ '-'-■ '^'- ~ "-'- r^.- :■-. Sind and 

-"^ '-^ ~- -■---■ - - '- " -' " " ' V '- " " ^'--o':: are rather 
■3.'.- --r -.u: L_ - ^ ■ -.:: :Z : -- __- T : 1. _" " . T Tiri* incliue to 
KT.r: i-.z,-. ■.-^■/-."i- ■_. _ ■.; :,i_-.T ,: r;.s: Braiiman^ and 
Vi^:;-7. ill .: -_: i: >. -;- ^^ -- ."-:7 r.i-j -i-LerhrrJ tribes, 

Cut-,:.:, ■-..r'..;* r--.^ .--^ :_: -. - .": '.'- u-rc ."^ ::.e l-"\vtr Indus, 
is thr 1, i-.T : --r-i- _::_-; -. ■..-;;--.__.--:..--Li5. Ar,i Bliatias, and 
of ■.■:i;-.-r ?■::..: -~..:-i.z. z.t'.z ■.:•:,. .~ "_-:: z-rZr~iV.y understood 
C'utoLi :■: ^-i .1 . -.z -^-z-r.-.-z.' 'zi:z'.:~-.&:L\ := j-:--. kt-u by great 
numbtTs. a-_i, -.x.-r-.: :l :1t l. r:!.. :* j^i-r*: -.a by all. ' Simple 
in their ha>>i:> rLv:r :-■_■: >. -.■.v.-.zj zzt i- • r.r.r the morning meal, 
millet or In.iiin ruil'-:: a-k- : -.r-.:b. uu'.sr ' an-i wliey. aud, in the 

' Oi" liTil\mAaA, the Siraj"vat, I'.kirn.-v. Bu-jak. \antlv:trji. PaljvJ, and Shrimll 

'i-J({' . . -, 

ISi All niiii-niviwiiiM. whohftvecAme frumKithiiwaranil Liajardt.almciec all \ iniis an 
a<ittl»r)i from Mitrwilr. 

* (i'lM nnil hWvf.T MtnithH uid ninflti And Musnlinan tape-makers and snMenerR n,y 
Utnt Uiiiy wf:r<: culli'l l>y thcNt&tft from .SiiKl; iih'icmakeni, varp«nters, biirben. and 
iinu-4\i'i lunkt^nt miy tliat thtiy i:iun« [mm fjujarit : tannen and blaokRniiths frmn 
Ki'lltiAwHr ; wuohirrniiii and rH.IixlibrH from Kind ; mppenmiths and cotton -»pinnen 
Iriiiii MArwAr; and ((■I'lxrn and Hlii'iM-mak'tn from Delni. 
' A trari>lati(iii nf th« l>ini'it I'raynr intriCutchi Bhewcil that of 33 words 34 
rwlltiHlly thn Hamc hm Mimluiitam and Ikngili B]>ccimcns. Hamill-on'i 
lilltiiitir lljiiiliiNUri, I, .'iWi 
k |im|m> UmiMalty iiBfil m iIumc/, I'liawulufi u<:oiutifoliuii. 




t^ [>l luilltl auii |]ul3e> khichJu. Tliu rJcli uiio niixod 

id pa\sc, Uiichdi, and add clarified butter and vcffctablos. 

holulojr food i» swoutments amuD}!' all cIu«!K's, and animal 

_ " ' ■ " " iiiaus, Viiniiis, and Bhatiii**. Many driuk 

■ opium and opium -watt ;r, kiiJtumha.* 

it tuuu 111 (.'uichj both tiitidns aud MusulmiiU», wear loaae 

>n, n Ii>Ufj;-!<lLm-vi>d undiT-jivclcot, a tdini-t coat ruacbinfr a little 

kbtf W]ii<it. u plain or MtHc-lKjrdered cintli wound round tbe 

I ' ' iiu'lu'is beluw ibi' kiHH»H, and nvt-r it a 

nis tho most ^mti(*l•ftbI^^ tnrlmtiMare.tho 

'i.the Bljiitiu's (.:lost*tiltiu(f and peakt>d, 

-. :i I :-.'.' bigger thnii a Boliura's. Kxpopting 

'.UR wear cb» lai*}^ Rajpnt tnrbansj rcvd, black or 

f'i ' ■'■■V p<.)iDtod Ciujarat eboe is worn bj all classes. 

^ers, inopi llrabniaDRj Bbiiti/is^ 8onif<, Vayda 

ilin \ ;iiui(.^, and othor VainhnavH, woar tht! waiatrloth, and 

lontf o>at and (ilicmlder clntb. ycnieynunarinL'n have o( 

Emu to wi-ar tight Kngliph trousprs. Kx»;ept Bhntia, IjuhAna, 

iLod Ksliurri wimien, whose robo, cAoi"«to, is five cubits l'»ng 

mt fuar bnmd, lir^ibinan, \'&ma, and most tiinda women 

the Ciujardt rtibt', ihillv, nUia cuhiia long and four broad, a 

fivn nibitj* round, and a bodino, kamkho, looaer and longfpr 

I ■ GujariSt f:anchli, but liko it open-backed. Tho 

|{ <i Kharn» women's nil«.'is a square cdlmiriMl i^Aorso, 

rt y five broad ; their petticoat Is twelve cubits round, 

'.!.. 4', ^oiiiHir, luD^-slpovod. Rxpopt Roroo Mouiaa, 

I, (ui'i Rbiidiiln wom<^n who wear tho MHsalmiSn ahirt, bodice, 

and Iri'HMTi*, till-' M'l-iibnan wODu'n'« dresa differs littlo Crom 

th(? (iiruaiu Kiijpiininis. AlinoHt nil I'lasscK of well-to-do 

I, und araoDi? iho Hindns tho JAdojaa and hiphor class 

Udt aUinv thuir woiuuu toapjK-ur in public Proud, laxy, 

tna, though nowftpttlin^ to pcnct'ful habits, many tribes in 

■niitnmll3r nmrtial nnd fond of predatory warfare.' Of the 

ion tho Dumbor of ri'U'uUr cuUivatora is small. A large 

I s of hi*rdsniiMi wtio liiLVo not long sni tied bo 

-.ill nf Cutt'h «M*aftfinion and' has looj^f 

iv, and jiH tnwti'Ri and labouivrs art' diKtiuguished for thfir 

id for tht>ir ruadinesa tu Iravu tbuir homes in smrch of wurlc. 

l,hi.t ti.ti.'ii.ipin;; o£ iho pnjsynt ueutury, ho progredsive was 
•m<'d ns if anoihcr huiidrod yrars would seethe 
:: I faith.'' In thr> worabip nf many local saints tha 

ILi}(idU. vti^n * ()narrcl ia acttiMl, the )«rUea tlrJnk opinin-wfttcr ia 

■ '■ ■ . ll«.n. 

Efr -!i they van furly bi<ut «'« in iifreat mounn 

I. ' >.' >>'>MiiuiB«an<i nutnlicrrtf their solflient. 

I.«^ m* furtilieii ; the .lAilrjiU iviuld 

"1^ .VIOO, tlic MintUa tOOu. and tha 

11 iU». luit. ^llh,d.l.597. 

( y* mt<«n>AtMl Knropi^ns by th« mkill Add daring of Ui«ir 

' mil Ui» c4Hnp*M, and vt«erby 
liiiliaitwji (Mm. PoKtuui' Oflteh* 

-.. Rjw OMli'i (l7m-ino) ahip, 

lit !i, RiiMle the raya^ tn Knglaad and badt 

ki . . I . ., 1^2). * Hjwu Doa. or Hind, I. 5M. 






' '—^ ~ ---^ li a-^ ~z^ -f".T-- :-£'i]_T mixed. 

- ^ ^- — ;— -ir-r- Li:i i-Li---^^ were not 
--— ■- — " ^ ^ -^"=- >-:■ i^^ ^-p^ :-irtf uj to keep 

■V ; ; , ■ ■ 

iT;;ii ofCnich 

:r iiaaT yean 

1^- - " "if-- "— - ■ -j^ :i "il-r eieliteeDtb 

■--. 1 . " r i-:--i * ' ':. "-^-t.- i-t :ie opening 

.^ . :^- -j-i'- i. ' Z t fc^i':eg:--T-3ceot I81g 

- :- -T-i,— - ,-..- W-iiijL- In 1821 

:,;- ::_."—- —r-z^r- c 'Zi- t» Tn-«ri:a al abont 

L- ~ -~"r"y " :L-T-T-r-i. .: thenifoand 

- J....:-—. _; ^:■ Tiir : -til -ra^rs-ramedat 
-_-^ ..-.--^ r T-.;- .rr-i. u ■r>i.*-:w.* i-f whom 
-:_^ ^z--. Vi:^-j.^.-^- rii= »-:^i seem to 

- ^- "-L- '"-; -^—jt::^ ^-~v s i-j'tai of oidj 

" ".:-" H^ :::.■? iz;L !! '.- .1 .^ McaalniBQ^.' 

: -:.- !.„- -I. *~i i " ~L. z ■!■?".?.>:• *:ais. Of 

^ - ~7 ~- :_-• .t:.- :z,::-5:!kfi' 65,^73 

r ■ 1- i^ 'ler ,t:,t wvrr Musalmina; 

- *-:--::-L- i: — r-i T.T 'Jir TeiT 1672, details 
. :.• ■ -t _r - i-Tt tzi sei : 

ti- ;. "^ ■-.- S -*- 

»..; .1 s. ;- , 

• - 


- - .^- 

■ _ - 

■■■? -— >« 

Skn. T«tlk> r«WiBII. 

*- " 

■:-l IH iV 

7'_V* I»J« 
^^■,' S-UT «:«! 

:ti.j,r :Tf,!w; r«».iM 

- ^\ oil ■-.: '.::.'. >, »>• 

• ]:■( .11 U .» V.-1 ■S-..-,r..i^:*. 

l;!,..I-.i.^. .ft,-,. A' i;;.x:. ».■..:!- i»A\ 

f-V "-•■ 

: '^'■' . ; - ! v_j.^ 3f. .\v. y-z-MF Tuiij. I6,0l», 

„;/** r>>.. V;.-. .,k Viijj.. 4(^;.. »;^^ Vinii*. 

!.:...* ■-\«. . ■ i.ij .-» "i Li-ud^ aX' : Li-iiuiAi, 60.000: 

'.-.-.^....t '} /. j-.i ij^y.Ei*. l.\wi< 1 inferior 

. .i >..;., *,► , j.r.^.* V I--.R. 4A1 : jiathiT*. 400 ; 
.~;i.-s '..*.*. . :"'K- :* --ifK' : Kcir,thir», -lOft) : 

.1^:.'.* :*r:«-^ U\' : KhkTk*. 3000: Variu 

mill huliui» i]>i\«i)iiii,%<. lilmi - t.-Til 4>4 "O-' 

» lJ..i,„y.S.l XV !*:,. lh..i.:*::>«.:x -■* -i^. K^^Jt.. S.W. Varf,*]. R.jputl. 



Cutttt PopalaGom, I8TS — oontintiMl. 


T«y _ 


M^m AmmIm H*1m. PmalM 

Ahcnir t) Mil 

Kit mom Umu 


UalM rbmalM H>U*. FtanOca 

;3,'«i« W'.uK . »,ws iii,4lii I n.frji t«.iiT ei.M! M.n'i ii*.«» 










37. Ul 










.10, «« 



M,W4 I >>l,Il)S 8r.0t6 

















ti.ij -t itcineut it nppearathat the pci-ccBtago of males on 

■nu n-as 52' IG and of females 47'84. Hiudu malea 

■n.Hi i'.'^.->lH or .')2*09 por cent, and Hindu femalns numbered 

t4 #»r 47'90 per Pont nf the total Hindu population ; Mnsalm/in 

-red 61,803 or o2'39 por cent, and Musaioi&u Euuatea 

' >0 ppT (^uut, of the total Musalmin population ; Christian 

rtuiiihercd nix, and CbriKtiAn females noven ; other males 

KmliL'rud twentj.faaraDd utber fumales twenty-one. 

TT.I- t..fRl munber of inGrm persons was returned at 3154 (males 
h ■! 1524), or 0-fi3 per cent of the total population. Of 

\: -■ -'line (mnlea forty-one, females eight) or O'OI were 

Bisr . (male* 16G, females sixty-one) or 0'05 per cent were 

«di>l '^ili'S 2it2, fi'malea 160) or 0'08 per cent wore deaf and 

Anai' - ^iiiLilea 1108, females 1293) or 0-49 per cent were 

mad tifteen (males thirteen, females two) were lepers. 

'i!ar statement p-ivea according to sex, the 
' .' '.'U>i cUsti at di^ureut ugcsj with, at each atagej 




nOlirstcm, tftllon, iboenwkerv. uiA otlier llinda eraftsnum, ?2Q,89S- Of 
cbc dcUili) won : Monans, KhcjAA. uid BohorOa, 74.&8I ; srtiMtiK, dyer*. 
hi»d nuajctwu, '27,A7t ; tiamsu, uid otiter bonadid thbea, W6S t ("id 


























From this it would seom that of the total Hinda population, the 
cla*ae« nnniliered 192j07I or 52*02 per cent ; the Vaishnara 
,192 (ir 22-80 per coot ; th« Shr&vulu (>5,B7U. or ITiJ-i porcent; 
*4tbo Shttivs 27,018 or 7-32 (XTceut. Of the 1 18,063 .\rusairnAn8, 
Kl weri* Siinnis ami HBhi Shifts. Ot fnvty-fivo whn (;ame under 
' ' vyre I'arsis al) Shahaiishtii, ami tire were 

'i. Shuh. Of the tbirttjuu CbriHliansj aiuo 
Catbolicfl, and four i'resbjterians. 

n the census roturna for 1872 divide the 

rhuU , 

.„ .„:. ^. ill flasues: 

I.— Kmfiltiyt*] atukTllnvertuBcDt Of MuRJct])*! or dUivr IockI antiioritiw, in ■!! 
4dM MMiIa. iir I'OU {Mf i:«ut t>r Uu> enttn tio{»uIatMJb. 

IL — I^i- i fc— it ifal poi«)Da.,tW3ur 1-12 per cent. 

-Ib mi I lim or [wrfiinniiig ponaiwl otBevi, BOH or 1'03 per cnit. 

r.— ftigimid in i^aultnn and wUli uiim»la, 1(19.453 or ^'^ per Mut 
T-^Xi^^^l in canuoectto and tnul«, 17.8A4 nr 3'OS fcr otmb. 
ITL — Employe)] in inouhiuiieiU arta, inMiufwttiTM, iui*l viminiwrin^ o|icntionn and 
•BgB^l tn iho Mkle ot utidw nuuiaf<iottin>d or olIienriM praporad fur 
c«Knm|)tiim. &2,l ID ur lU'tK) per coM. 

TQ. — UtaotUMMHM iMnciRS nut cUuued oLbsrwiK, (al wrivai l47,2<X)'nnilcbiMra] 
U8;W, in ■u 283,681 or 59*21 pvr Mot, Mid (b) niuuelUuouiui pvnutw 8603 
orS-in p«r eeDi;totel 293,484 or (iO 22 per nuit 

Brs h.nianB,acoordingtoiho 1 872 cx^n&nsretuma, included twcnty- 
■ii main divisions with a strength of 21,932 8<>o1h or (j*73 percent oE 
rbok^Uiudiipapulntirm. KxLt'iiL N&gVirs.of wb<im many as Inud- 
— ftud state sorvanta md in >^od ix>ndition, most CiitcU 
aro poor livini^ i>u alios urby tillay:*;, SV^asvai-s, 5-WiIj 
olai» (if Cntch Brahmans, art) said to tutu tlu-ir oamo 
toe Sarasrati river from which they came to C'litch by way of 
iD<l.' i^air in complexion, tlieir laugiiag'e and druBS aro tboso of 
■luaa Cutoh Hindua. BoHidtM wtiiiif an family priesta 
iiaay cttlHug^i, rcadinjif holy bo<ik.s, dniwing huroscopeu, 
ivntcsithrKilSitnidiui/, audsurvin^asacuouutantR, aoldiora, 
..iblea. Once tbtj holders of bigli ollice» they have Ion;; 
tftpAcial position and now are oeCTaded, eating with, and 
the family priests of, Kshatrisj hah&n&B, and Bhansiilin, 
th«»v «av, thnv saved from Harshur^m's pGrsocntions. In 
s : " " .^ worwhipperB," their family deity ia 

■ f worship is on the river of the same 
Not orxfnl U3 iieop the onlinary Brdhinan rules, they allow 
itiow marriage^ and freely travel acroes the seaa to collect 
paympntji from their patrons, Cutch V&nia traders settled in 
Aloftuuhiiiuc and Arabia. So bath I a SA'RAaVATii, distinct from tha 
regular Sanuivatu and atisociatiiiKwith no da&a of Cutch Brahmany, 
are a small body with a great local name for laaming. KA'jooRa 


I HiMllnr irf "~' ' -~-^» tlMfrnanufrora Bndnot'adingliterSararrKfcl.fendtTMM 

Umu ilauifit to H4[« Dadhichi. 

■ The e£)W ' 1 : n-ddMBMUv AiaUk», A iLipurs, niiaT;'.ai, Ksiiuri, awI 



Chapter ni. 



or chipra fnmily pricsta,' 4738, ori^nally of the An'dicli atoc 
tliough degraded id the eyea of ether Hrahmans, are iu <_' 
favoured daan owning lands Rnd Tillii#?e3, acting as Jddojot- 
and na hushnudmen. The RiijgoTs allow wdow tw- 
with ViiuijtB ftud Leya Kaubis. Aumchs, 21)45, wi . 
years settled in Cutch from Sihnr near Uhavna^nr, Jhaiavadii 
Jun&ffad in K&thiuw&r, form three divisions, GohelvuHi, Jhalal 
and <3ad]ivi, and live cbiedy in Bhuj, M&udvi, and Abdiea, ^ 
in complexion all are Shaivitca iu faith, except the Furdn 
who, probably In coniplintcul to their V&nia and Hbaria pat 
buTo bctximo f(»Uowcrs uf Vallabhiichirya. VAgad Aadicha 
cultivotx^rs, and as they earn.- cooked food to their Helda, wnok* 
the hulitt, and allow widow marriage^ are held degraded. tSfill 
matttrs of niarriape they are alK>wed to give their danghtora 
Andich Brdhmans of Halvad iu Kathiawar, whose daughtora 
marry witb DliraaLiidni Audicha, aud the daughters of Dhring; 
AudiohH with Aiidioh Bnihmans of Viiumpfini^ Ahmedulmd, 
Sidhpur, the highest (jujortii rcpresentfltircs ol their cjiHte. 
other Audicha are, by prufeasioo, horsebreakers (Uuirakn, prii 
cfxjks, beg^ra, astrologers^ SQheolmastersi traderSf writoni, 
Poran recitora. 

Pqkaesa' s.' 2321, rhioffy from MiSrwdr and Sind, gonemn] 
Bwarthy in conipleiion, do not differ in language (uid drf»s fnjml 
other high class Cutch Hindna. They are enterprising,' travfjliiigj 
to Tarions parts of India, and many of them anxious to vihitZaniQUil 
and Arabia though prcrentcd by their cante rules. They act: 
family priests to lihatiiis, and like their pntronx are willing to folic 
any calling. Thi-y are chiefly ejijniged as hiishandnien, <*^^ntrllc^J^ 
uonfectionera, and clerks. Followers of Vidlabhach^ira, Ihet 
family godJessoM are Lakshmiji aud Chamnnda in Marwar. Thoj 
wear tho aacrod thread putting it on with little ceremony, generallj 
at a relation's marriage or ni aomo place of pilgrimage. High casba\ 
Brahmansdo not eat with them. Aimmg members of the same fnmilyj 
8t«ck, (/<»/(■«, marriJige i*> not allowed. Ou tho sixth day after child-hirtaj 
the wunieuuf thf family, singing us at a marriage, bring a clay honce 
from the Luuso of the niothyr'n IJither to hur husband's house. Al 
niarriagea tho men dance in tiiu proco&atou oad the wumcn smj 

I One Bocmuit of the on'chi nf the name BAjgar ia that two of Uidr » b bmI 
K&ruijf Anil Nitrftnji (ixiin Siiihor wmI IsAmli, while on their my ju pil^ma tn 
temple nf Hin>i;lit} M&ta, 100 milM \6Xi k<t*\ (mm Kurracho*, tnarricl tliv iljLu^htari. 
uiut tlimii&, the funily i>rie«t of the Sumnia tli«n living u Na^r KAnuu bu Uic ail 
of tliQ modern Tatltk. Tlii.i IIiml4a allowed the ieU-MoriBoe (rf Uie d&iutltten of JAia] 
UUthft, and mtnctinno'l intanturide amoite tlie J^dejla. Cooacuace-smitton at tfa* • 
ho Imd fsnvtictKM], HnnUa mcriSctd kuaself on uiB funvnl p>n; iukJn|B Jiiu 
toaooepthiR Ktiut-iii-Uwafthik fiunily prieata. JimLAkhaagreulaod aU JOdejte niQ'] 
enploy RAJijor [Urieat«. 

'^AocordinetwuneMcioiuitlhey t«k«fcheirniun«rroinPuabk4T-ksli«tra in ItBJt'uUi 
where c>D« 01 tlwoi w«at trotn ShrimiU, and Imng nooivod witli hunvur. ■vHM.J 
AeoavAmg to uioCher aeoonnt tfacjr ma« called Puahpcarn, becnuo thejriidrenBd flnw* 
to Lnluhmi, and being conNtd hy Pir\'ati (or rafuaing ia uit flioah, migrate ftxuu Jaaalmirl 
to Siitd, Outch, MiUUd, aud tho Pauiab. Other vaatea amrm that t)t« I'okanui ia thai 
undertook to (0177 the hnly mnn acroaa a atKam. Barton'A Siiid. 310.SIL 

' Ono of tiieot who vUitvd Europe ajid Aawiio is now ui outvaite. 



jf. P aiiajia'b. 2l:iS. 

srn Piiraj new Junttjt^ii, wlic-i 

nJiU (747S.)i 

lAwns . s. Frum Junupud tin 

:iDiha.l luifl (ledi, spread to Halrtiiavit 
-. -.fRioIihJinimlji I. (1685- I0;31),M 
ud Bettlotl in Chulri\ri and Auj&r, tl- 
inrn the Miikhel villaffe near F« 
)1 »k in tinine 'jtliLT pltfL-O:^, HTi? cultivators. 

':(■ Aliirn. Uiiliki: othor Bribmans,' 
.L tliiur Imll nn the choat of the 
to the crtiwa, aud, after hreuking a pieca 
I lo a low cubu inaa ; thoy a\so giro the six 
death, •'AA.imdct, at the end of thu lirat month 
fcnet', r*" ''itfendofBix montbji. Shai^'itea 

wear the wu-n-'d thread, but im tL 
ii»g\' tujd <-•«[ vrith llAJpuLs, SiithArs, Liihirs, Bharvid*, Kuiuitharv, 
I, Hmh^ia, aud Darjis, thoy aru ht;ld degntded. 

Vi'.^ii^i irt!)4,Df twodiTisionH.VadiiagTaii.stateRerTHiifi umi' .i«:in<l 
1 ViBnaertis, land-holders,arosaid toha\ , . Ii 

(■nt fUn Khpnjfilrii (lonO). Mnons.' fll4, t.-i 
[yiUbweof Moherak r) r Nti irthera in tUc- Dhann 

first, , I iir Veda, r_;__^ 

-, yotnu. Uonuraily lair, remarkably cltanami relifriuas, 

, t ..<..ils, c»ipyi»tH, wrilera, Purdu rtTiturs, uooks, aiid boggHTs. 

kre a well-to-do cla^s and fond of giving caste di[uiera. 

TB of Itibn they b(>lon<; to the sect of KdmStmndis. Tho 

ij followprs of three Veds, claim deswDt fnim Uamchandra,' 

of the Rimiiyau. Accui-dinj? to thoir wtiiry they separated 

other Modfa suh-di visions nt Modhcra, aud persecuted by 

.d<din Khiiji (ISn-t) Hod to Cntch. Fair in complexion, they 

ijarftti juid dreea In the ordinary Cutch fashion. Most are 

Modi) Viniis and in poor circumHtances. Shaivitoe in 

■ '■ ■ is Bhatfirika of Modhera. All their 

.itt.*rual uncle dressinjf as ^.jhniuUi* in 

lau'sdotbc'sinnn heajiltawaisC^ndiumen'scIolbeebelow, rabahia 


* At ■ •Mrifioe nrfBriRMt by Bmhma, Vidnnt. and Rndn. st tho mytlirat Bnhmi- 
~~k. ISJKU Bnuinutju <«>1 m pruMta. Seeitig tfaem wHImut wivM Uut Uina 

« J,„ii.. -t il.^ .^., ,,,..■> ti. )• "M^h on«t«d 0000 virKins. Ttiwir fnriiiliaa 

UM^i iriK At MotUtars, caUm MnHhx, unl fnnned 

■hm. _ . ''V ''^^^' J'^hh "*^ Phiiwlii. TAad*li«, 

T»'£tE<r ttiTM aub-dirnioiu, AgiinM, Ohiooja, and Tiiulmljft, ww aot (Oood io 

At ■ MDrifi«e pesfnntied rt Uodh«n id Charil by Rimdmndra. theso BrdbtnaiM 

"'tis- *-■ ..*i-i.'-<i Mprieata. Por their miifttwiwou Rim crwttod 3tM>00 

I aZ' ^^^7 ^""^ *'' Umm hn onlered to tnuntaui & BcAhnua m 

ir^' tlw V&oiiia fulktw to tliii day. 

vU, ir. >'>nly nllsd Jiknds, w)tn in ntuvint CT*tumo ii oftcti 

»t*il >>> iiycni, bkatiitfiu, was « Pktlun tikkir. To pn>]utiat« bia 

tb' ' ' I ulrtiliMwd thin oaatntn xi tn«mii^c«, but llmbiiL; it iikxHXUt 

i'J I ; i:mu tbnTrivediModJu, l>y wbonitiistillkopt ufi^ 







roa ! 




dau^^hu r L-j 



ifiv:- 1 



[witL Ktl povder, and t)i«n sraied 
and bridtj^TOom to u pUoo wbera 
t mere till the pair offer tbeir f^ddess ' 

in- a CluUnrvedJ aub-divjaior. ; ' • ' 
1 'ipTi^rcmgft man wh<i m*rT : 
ilfl, wrw 

m to WDorCutcfa olutfaosliioagh the wo: 
<i.ii,-iry Gujar»t drpsn. State hm^s^-" '■■•-' 
~. xhey allow widow mumatre. and, > 

':.'.■ - ■ :,■ ■ .1 foouauau 
■ '■}• fToddwil 
w. Of lalu thL-ircuQtiiuuu hiM improved o 
lAtion and their increased emplo^-mont as clerl 

f^ 78, of two divisionftf chiefly foond in Vdg«d> of faltl 

dk Gujarat! and wear the ordinary Giitch drMS, . 
,■ cooks in Vaii^hnav teinpl(>s, beggars, and tr 
ni ilmen in Vflgbela villajteit Gemrmlly well off, 

[■ Vibihnaviti^s in reli}ri"n fii11o«"iiig tli'' 
I'he cliitiE ph«X' of their family ^jililttw* ! n» 

: ,S;k:lior ill Jodlipnr. They do not ilino wi. 
-i i:iMA'u a, 370, claiiD descent from f'^urtt»eii 
I ] ..:i tho occasion of her marriage with Krishna, tlaj 
rill was made over by Lakahmi They wore thea 
family stocks, gotrat, nnmlierin^ in ull 'lo,<HK)m>t 
'vd years lat^r, 18,000 families }at Shrimiil and 
!i:'>)ietra in llajpntaoa whence they caiiiu to bo 
...r Pokanifis. Oul. of these 18,000, SUOO dined wiAl 
U-->v... . j;a^ of Osoagar in Parkar and came to bo called dinen, 
bhujake, forming a separate caste. Unusually fair in complexion, thuic 
Iftngiiagoanddinesa are GiijarAti. Livinj^ aa priests of Viaut Soni^j 
and Shrimdli Vanias, husbandmen, traders, cooks, utid beggars tbCjJ 
aro as a class well-to-do. Shaivites in faith, tlu'ir family i|^dcK>K4 
MftTitiftxmi of Bhinm^l. At raarriapfes the bride's Euther must fti 
ten days at lca«t feed tho bridegroom's relatiomt, and >reu&rally f^ 
them for ten or twenty days more. They do not diue wiih otlwji 
high caste Br&hmaus. QibkVu's, 787, of the Panai sub-division oi 
mount Girnjir Bralmmns)* "liavo a tradition that Krishna whi-n ho] 
rose from the Ddmodar reservoir at liaivatfichal, tho modem 1 
Gimir, established them as Brahmans. More than rhree hiiodriij] 
years ago about 1557, tbeir number in Cutch was 1 1 DO. Very EairJ 
m comploxion, they ar« of average auw, apeak Gujarali and, excopr 
that their turbauH are Cutchi, wear the Gujardt droas. They 
a well-to-do class liringaa priests, Pur&n reciters, Hatrolugera,writ'Oi 

> Tba nsnia nf thii oMl«b kild t9 h*v« been fonn«d intlM fitattyri*, Sat Tmg^ 
nld' to bo ■ corruption of Sttibm or S»tipitr. S^ UikahAyMii bMtnvwl Ifaa M 
of Sktipur on tbirty-dx d«aoaidut8 of Bnluna. On thqis doaortin^ it M>ni« ttme kAhJ 
BgrcAt king, I'uninvB, ooUectod oightccD fluntUea, the uoeaton u( tbe 
8A«!lu>riii, anil n^pMlJM Um town M SALijiur. 

' l'h« Kiffvadi bIktshoH* of Hirwur orv tiut Toond la Cot«b. 

* The nUeranb^divistoDsof Ciniiiiis, Bvdais, Ajiktia, sad Chofvlhda «ra 
fouiMl iaCuUik 

ler-carricPB, money -lenilers, cooks especially in ViusknaTtempliM 
It — - ^'ate anapriTiiteclrrfcn, and frraiit,j7irtf*, holders. Thoy 
iihighcastv Br^hmnUK. Vaishnavij of the Vallabb^chilpjrA 
-es ioUow the Ri^', .SAiii.. and Yajor Veda, and Imv-r- thirtv- 
Miy goddesses, whiise U'lnplps aro in Korath and Halar in 
"KaXhi&^iir. \ tb\'iiW , -WO, called Vbihya' s in Benares, descendants 
,( n... ^-t^e VeUajnvyiSs, are rathur iLirk in ooiriulexiun and ep^ak 
^ in the ordinary Ciit-ch fashion. Though some are pnesta 
]<K>lmaat«rB, moet are hnsbandmen. FQlluvrers oi the Yajnr 
■nd Shaivites and Vaishnavs in faith, they are a well- 
elius. Tho chief place of worship of their family f^oddoM 
rati is at Benarea. They wear tbo sacrtxi thread and dine 


3. 39!, trace thfiir origin to the sage Vdlmiki's younger 

1. ■ «iii oih«- sages, was brou^'lit by garud, Vishnu's cagloj 

perfomjed by Krishna at DwArka, Rather ftvir in 

lieirlnnEfuaj^Liand droEs aroGiijardti. Aa a class they are 

Id Ifuiplu at-rvants, traders, Ixiggurs, and conEpctionera. 

,-iV« m pelijj^ion, thoir family god is Dw^rk^ath ftt Dwarka. 

. jLSx' a, yjU, fiiund about Anjdr, claim dyscont fi-om the aago 

iatu wbo. when otficiaiitiff at a horse sacrifice, was cursed by 

's wife Sivitri. Blighted by this corse tin descendants lost 

iptaru Icnuwlodge. but by tho kindnosaof their family goddees 

■' " '' iii in MArwfir, th*»y ra-gainftd thoir knowledge and 

. Irt be prifsts. Except that their women dress 

■iuuu their liiutrijage and drcflsaro (jujarati. Traders 

■ ira they an> chiiiiiy Shaivitea fullowing" tho Yajnr Vod. 

LS, 2d5r belonging U> the Gand division of Brihuians, 

i..;,. "" ■ ■'me fri-im Pali in Mfirwfir which, tlieysay, was about 1200 

W7\'- 1 them by Sioji RAthod, nephew or 'Taychand of Kanoj, 

i"!" wns overthrown by iShiihbnddin Gori (aj). 119\i}. 

.' :ind dreHK Htill show traooH of a Marvd^li origin. 

■lum, luid Vurg'ir't,' they are gftddftss wortdiipporSj 

.,, . ity being Baachraji of Chiival near Viramg&Di. 

iy2, come from Shrimill to Osnagar in Piirkar, separaling 

■- '•''^-- -1 ': parent stock. Called Bhojaks, diners, from 

s, they came to Cut-ch with theOsvils. Generally 

".-ill and wp:ir the ordinary Giitoh drens. Thoy 

r Jain Vriiiis-ii, and ministranlsin Jain tomploB, 

act UH t^iingHttTs and mi]i<iciuns<, on new year's day making 

nnur ol their Vdnia patmns. In «,pite of the wishes of their 

clinjif to the worship of goddesses and refuse to bccoma 

ir the sacTi'd thruiid and are fairly well off, spending 

'i-'V in bnngingwivesfm.m M/inviir. ^ OTTAJC g. 17-it, 

;iiit-s in V'aiHhnav tenjples. A tea Bba'umaks, 

I: Abirs for whom they at-t as Dimiiy priests and 

It, are tho same as Paroji^ Other minor classes are 

, o.v ueggara. Gcglis, 86, said to take theirnaroe from the 







' TV I'aIitaIa is the riUmgduf N*klitrAnA ua rioh mauy-knden, aotno ut Ihw 

IBoutl>Ky OaxoU 



Chapter tll- 



aloe, r/N^n/,' are rntli&r fair, ntid Apeak and dre<« in Gujarat fiuhi 

Priest-K of Kajtrttra^aiid niinistraiits vr' '■' ' 

they (ifficmWMi^pripstsin «ArdfWA(H*rut. 

lalte in Dn-Hrka, and ]Qvy fixed taxeja on nilfn^ms riRiiinp; tlmt 
island. I'uUowcra of the Yajur Vedanii VaitdiDariti.'^, <.'acli 
has its own goddess, Visot or Cfaandrabhitgn at Dwarka. A« &< 
they are poor. Sompuea's, 1 7, brought into C'utchfrom SomniStli 
we Giijurfitis in langua^ and drcnn. Priests of Sompiwa. So 
thoy aro Shaivs in faith fnlldwiniif tho Ram and Yajnr Veds. 
family poddees is Viipheshvari. As a class they aro wpll-tx>-fl( 
Uota'las, 16, and Deccatjir, 7, are state servants and in 
circtimetances. Kakdolia'Sj' 26, from K^thiSw&r, prieets to tj 
Borathia Vdnids, are tiujarfitis in langaage and uroaa. Shall 
or Vaishnara in reli^riun their family goddess is S&mndri, 
Kandolia near Dhoraji in KathiawAr. Jha'loea's, 58, are bej 
Va'ydas, 4^ are priests to Vfiyda Vanias, and FuaAsiA'Sj fiS, of 
India, are soldiers. 

Writers inclndod two classes, Kfiyasths 380, and Brahi 
Kshatns 38dO, a tuUl of 4270 souls or 1*15 per cent of the Ujndf 
popnlation. Ka'yaftus aro said, about the end uf the Fixtt.'tent 
century, to have como to Cutch from Sind, Marwfir, Ahmi^dahadj 
and Sorath. Once largely einploycd in tlio Rao'a anny they w? 
much moro numerous than at present. They arc found iu Hhtr 
M^ndvi, Anj4r, and Mundra as Btato serrants or accoantants and 
merchants and clerks. Tboy beluug to three sub-divisiona, Matiii 
Shrivastak, and VAImik. Most of them are Wathnrs, but as 
intermaiTy there is little difference. In colour much like the butt 
class of Vanias, they wear the sacred thread and have lately tokt 
to the Vfinia anil Rajput instead of the Bhiitia turlian. Thfy reapoi* 
Brdhmana and belong to the ShaJv, Vaishnav, and Svamiudrayi ' 
8ect8. There is no leading family among them. Though none 
them are scholars they freely send their children to school eren 

KsHATRis, properly Beahma-Kshatkib', 3890, found in Mi^di 
and Bhuj.and in small numbers over the whole proxince, art! attii 
tohavcorigjnally lived in the Antnrvcd, that is, the lauJ between il 
Ganges and the Jauma. They call themselves Suryavoushi KrI 

* Tho BtoTj IB tut of 60,000 BHiunaiu «all«d Vilkbel, created by 

sent to Bat and Dw&riu wvre by » dfinwa oillo<l Kiuh preTentMl fram liviag l__ 
But by ofTering a MoHfice of Mini wood, uid ti-yl, tli« fra^jnint gum at 
Anyru af;kll<iclta, tli«y itrovurad hi! dMtniotioi), 

* At the requut of the sage Kuivx wbcne atisteritlca plowd him, Bndtma< 
18,000 Brihrnuu in Kidp At the foot of the iliinil&yu, uid i^nOd ■>■ .Skonblit 
Tlie naije onl«r«d ^rathii VAni&s to bcoairf them m ttieii- prietU ami rulnuWd >p 
M&adliiLu (rf Aywlbya with their protvotuui. The hvnuiu^or K«)v» oallcc) Kui« 
SthAn in the ScU Yvg, Plp^wnodu in Trda, ami Kfimpil fSthAii in DvApat, i> kaum 
a» Kandol Stiiia in the proaeot Kali Vug, auil in rrptnHnUKl hy ui« 
Kaodolia oeai Mon'i- 

> In GnjarAt proper and Kiitliiiwir the artisan Brahma-Eshatria arc kne 

different iianMui aocording to thtur nccujiatiofi, iriicb m t'hiuhpjm, Irraodxt maki 
SartghOdids and Kharddu, turuura ; Ranffdnis, Ayent ; i'H'"jhuid4, tux 
and f dmttJidnfta* and in Bombay and tLe Deccan, Kamarit. 




Hid claim descent £rom tlie twelve sons of king Ratnasen whOj 
dming Parshoram's persecutions, were saved by the sage Dadliichi 
•nd Ixninght np in his hermitage as Br&hman boys. On a visit of 
Fuahnrim to his hermitage, Dadhichi passing them o£E as Brahman 
bc^Vj Farsharam took away the eldest and taught him the art of 
mr. Finding how he had been deceived, Farshuram cursed the 
hojp and made useless his knowledge of war. At Dadhichi's advice 
the boy went with his brothers and propitiated the goddess Hinglij. 
Unable aJtogether to reverse the curse, the goddess allowed them to 
reign for three generations in Sindh Sauvir when they were driven 
oat hy the Barbar, a tribe of foreigners. Again visiting the goddess 
ahe told them to give up hope of becoming rulers, and ordered 
VishTakarma to teach them the arts of dyeing, weaving, turning, 
and carpentry. As craftsmen they increased, and spreading over 
Marw&r, KAthiawar, GujarAt, and Cutch, are now divided into 96 
£unilies. They wear the Brahman thread. Following different 
Professions all belong to the same cast«, have the same H^rasvab 
Brahmans for priests, and have the same nukhs or family names. 
Fair and in appearance like G-ujnrat Kshatris, Catch Brahma- 
Eihatns, in language, food, and di-ess, do not differ from other 
middle das3 Cutch Hindus. Most are dyers, calico-printers, silk- 
Tearers, and carpenters, but some are revenue contractors, writers, 
Irad-holders, money •! en ders, traders, and ship-o^vners. Those at 
lUadvi are writers, silk-weavers, and labourers, and those at Bhuj, 
djen. Though some have risen to high posts, as a class they are 
badly off. At their marriages, accompanied by a party of his friends, 
tfce bridegroom, dressed in white, with a drawn sword and cocoanut 
in his hand, rides to the bride's house, and is there received 
by the bride's mother. Throwing a cloth round his neck she 
leads him to a cot in the centre of the marriage booth where 
the bride lies covered with one or two quilts. The bridegruom walka 
four times round the cot, distributes sweetmeats and a cocoanut, 
and, without seeing his brirle, retires to a neighbouring house, 
returning some time after for the regular CGremouy. During the 
ceremony both bride and bridegroom wear a white dress sprinkled 
with yellow, and when the marriage is over the bride's father-in-law 
gives her a suit of clothes with a special design, hhdf, not found 
in the clbthes of other castes. Widow marriage is allowed by 
artisan Brahma-Kshatris. The practice is said to date from Raja 
Todar Mai, who at Akbar's request married his widowed daughter 
a girl eleven years old. In widow marriages the bride and bride- 
groom instead of looking at each other look at their reflections in 
earthen waterpots. Their family goddess is Hinglaj, and excepting 
a few Vaishnavas who belong to the Vallabhiichari sect, they are 
generally followers of Shiv and Miita. In every village they have 
a place called the manayi with an image of Hinglaj or Ashapura. 
A fow Kshatris send their children to school, but they are not 
a pushing or a prosperous cla-ss. The section of the Brahma- 
K.shatris, writers and Government servants who, immigi-ants from 
Lahor, hold themselves aloof from tlie craftsmen ; do not allow 
widow marriage, and, as family priests have Karasvat Brahmans, 
who, nnliko other Sarasvats, do not dine with Luhamis and 
B 236-7 

Obapter IL 





Chapter III. 


'ESUSI VA'sua. 




Bhansalis, tliongh well known in most parts of Gujardtj are nof^ 

found in Ciitch. 

Of Merchants, Traders, and Shopkeepers, tBere 

fifteen classes with a strength of 117,684 souls or 3['93 per cottof^ 
the whole Hindu population. They belong to two main sectioiu^'. 
Cutchis originally from Sind whose home tongue is Catchi, 
Oujaratis who spoak Gujarati and hare most of them come fnnftl 
Gujarat within the last 200 years. Of the fifteen cla ssea, elere*.-^ 
were Me ahri or Brahmanic and thr ee Shravak or Jain Va ni^. 

Following tliis division there are of Meshei Va'nia's, Mosh^ 

1191, who, taking their name from Modhera in Par&ntij, 

are found in the chief towns of the province. They are said itf-\ 

have fled to Cutth from the persecution of AU-ud-din Khilji'J 

(1295 - lyio). Of the sis divisions, Daga and "Vi sa Go ghvfct. Daas 

and Visa Adiiljiiti. and Dasa and Visa Mdn3.'alia 3. distinct in other 

parts of Gujiii-at^ four, Dasa and Visa Goghvas and Dasa and Vi|» 

Adiiljas, interma rry in Cutch and Kath iawdr. Mandalifis, who 

are also fouyiF in C'utch, are separate. Fair in compTesion ^v 

look and home tuuguc are those of Gujarat V^ifis. Living ui 

well-built houses, tliey are neat, hardworking, intelligent, and, 

especially in Uhuj, well-to-do. Some of them of lato have risen to 

high places in the state, but luost are merchants, accountaIl^ 

state and private clerks, sliopkeej)ers, aud turners. Especially the 

Aiaudaliiis, Modh Vauiiis are religious, followers of VallabhachiSiy^ 

and carpful tu visit the shrino cf their family goddess Bhadririka 

at Modhera. 'I'liuugli they claim the right to do so all do not 

wear the sacriMl thread. Widow marriage is forbidden and 

polygamy is practised and allowed ouly when the first wife proves 

barreu. At iniivriages, except auiong the Maudalias, Modh 

bridegrooms wear tlie sword. Tliev have a hendman, patel, but 

allow him little aiitlmrity. All Mudhs give their children some 

Gujaiati schooling, :iud are, oti the whole, prosperous and well-to-do. 

Va'vda's ty^iy), coining in the latter part of the sixteenth century 

from Vayad in Piiliin, are found only in the towns of Bhuj, 

Kotluira, .Mihidvi, Nalia, aud Tera. Their two' sub-divisions Dasa 

and Visa, tlie \'isa very small and found ouly in Bhuj, marry with 

each otlier aud with Gujarat Vilydas. Speakiug Gujarati, and wearing 

the Bhatia turban and a simpler and coarser dress than other Vinias, 

they are clean, hardworking, quiet, and honest, somoof them labourers, 

but most dealing in tobacco aud grocery. They are in middling 

condition generally well removed fn)m iKiverty. Though they wear 

the V^aishnav sect-nuirk, kanthl, they are not strict Vaishnavs. 

Their priesis are Viiyda Brahmans of whom there is ouly one family 

in Cutch. tSpruug, according to their caste tradition, from Vayu's 

.son Hanumau the monkey god, though they hide it from outsiders, 

the bridegroom goes to the bride's house dressed as a monkey and 

there leaps about in monkey fashion. Allowing polygamy, bat 

forbidding widow nmrriago, the caste has a headman, patel, who 

settles disj>utes with the helpof some of the leading members. Most 

Vaydas give their boys sonu; little Gujaniti schooling. Sorathia's 

(101), found ill iliiudvi, have come from Sorath in Kdthiawar, 




ClL^Ftn in 


^ ftud claim to be of the solar race. Intermarrying with the KAthiawar 
I Sorathias, their language and dress are (zrujariti. Traders and 
merchamts' clerks, moat of them are in a middling condition. 
Vaiflfanars in faith their family goddess is Samuudri. Thoy allow 
polygamy, but forbid widow marriage. Jha'lora's, (97), a 
■mall community found at Miindvi and Viraci, said to have been 
created by Parvati to maintain Vdlkhel Brahinaus, take their name 
from Jhilor in Marwar^ whence they seem to have migrated to 
Catch. Their three 8nb-<liviaious, Uana, Visa, and I'ancha, speak 
GiiiaT<ti and dress in Cntuh fashion like Gujar Osviils. Generally 
tnders, shopkeepers, and writers, they are a poor clsiss. bhaivs, 
VaiahnaTS, and goddess worahippors, their family goddess is Hitaja 
(Purati) at Raythanpur. They allow polygamy, but forbid widow 
marriage. EIaba'ds (213), fuund chicdy at Godhra in the south, Karddi- 

claim descent from Kashyap, one of the sevou seers, S>ipt Uishin, 
and state that, originally of the Moshri aub-division, they came 
fcom Mirwar to Cutch before tho main body of their caste. 
Prospering in their new laud and takiug a new name, they began 
to despise the Meshris who retaliated by stopping iutermarriwre. 
Thea the Karads associated with Cutch Osvals and mostly adopted 
Jamism, though some, especially in foreign parts, kept to the 
Brahmanic faith. Cultivators and traders they are very well off. 
They allow polygamy if tho first wife is barren, but forbid widow 
marriage. Meshris (803), more correctly Maheshris, found at • MahrU. 
Madhj Bhuj, Mandvi, and in the west, are said to have come to 
Catch about 500 years ago from Nagor in Thar, and, establishing 
themselves in Kanthi, to have gradually spread over Abdasa. 
Speaking Thar Gujarati they wear a turban much like that worn 
by Thar Vaniaa, something between the ordinary Vania and 
the Bhatia head-dress. Chiefly dealers in claritied butter, ghi, 
oil, sugar, and molasses, they are a religious people, in middling 
coadition. Yaishnavs in name, but with goddesses &a their family 
guardians, their hereditaiy family pi-iests are Piilival Brahmans, 
thoagh of late some Pokamas have by purchase secured their 
patronage. Practising neither polygamy nor widow marriage, they 
are peculiar in not allowing their women to join tho marriage party 
that goes to fetch the bride. A headman, acih, with the help of 
other respectable members settles caste disputes. Most of them 
give their boys some Gujarati schooling, and to better their 
condition have, in considerable numlwrs, moved from Cutch to 
Bombay. Nha'oobis, a branch of Meshris, intermarry with, and in 
Teligion do not differ from, the main body of the ciistc. Theirwomen 
dress like Modhs and their men wear Cutch Brahman turbans. 

Va'nia Sosis,' an offshoot of tho Visa Shrimali Vanias, VdniaSonit. 
wear the Gujarat dress, and are by profession goldsmiths, making 
ornaments and setting precious stones. Dining with Viinias and 
not putting on the sacred thread, they are followers of Vallabha- 
charya and goddesses. Their family goddess is Vdgheshvari. 

' They c«ll themselves the deac end ants of the elder of twn sons burn at tliu 
ten)pl« of Vaj{hcshvari about 1000 years ago, nho atiopled thu [irufoiisuju of a gold- 
smith, the youuger becoming a traJor. See bcluv p. 71. 



kpter in 





Of Shba'vak Va'ku's there oro tliree claaaea ; SHKiMi"i,rs {" 
two i)iib-di%'itiiuiid Visa 4-IOU and Daaa 13'i5, li coni[)iLrutivi' 
CHSte, arts fniind all ovit tlio[frurinco. Aoc^rdtncti) their eaato s 

at Sliriiuf^l 9(VJ0i i ' ■ ■ : ' . 

gju-laii(i to iiiaiiir.. 

Ilip riplit siflo of t\w pirliiud wviv callud \ imu, ttud tUow i 
Jefl, lhi»a. Of rather ilark complexion, buih vivat tlitp •, 
Cutelii dresH wid npitak GniHrtfti, tlic VisAs with a rather indisti 
])i'oiiimciatioD. Clean, intfusfririus, sober,- and thrifiv, both 
tnkdurtt, tnerchautit, and clerks gVuvruU^' vrell-tO'-do. Thoutrh mo 
alike, the two diritjiuns do not inffniiarry and difT- 
other ill ffllij^ion aiiti cunttiinH. Thu Visas nrc. all Tli. 
noD-itnage-WLirbhippiug Jniiis j the D:*5ii3 are itnagw-worslii 
JairiH, Vaittliuavs, and 8hair?, 'J'bu family priuetM of both 
and Daa^s are Bbrimali Br^tinians. Unlilco the Da^dfl, tbo Visi 
iuterpwrrj- nitb the Visa Oavalh and do not keep the yearly Hind 
riiAd, nhttiihih, ill memory tiE deivased au(*ei«tt>re. Tlio fi 
'■ tlio Vifiiis arc Snrh^i and Chamunda, and of ifap Oj 
II uf Bhinmol in Marwiir. KjvNt>rj|(i (20j), an off. 
from Uit' iJvi-«a SbriinAliH, are now a aeparate i*.aBt«. Coufection 
by callinjj, thiry do not differ in other respects from their parenl 
caate. CurcH 0»v*'ls (17,472), from Og, I'arinajfsr, and Budhfjiar i 
I'firkar^ say, that forced lo leavu P^rkar uu awmnt of tbonii- 
of their chief, they went to Sind, and, fimlinjf the Mi. 
element t<x> atroajj, came to Ciitnh.' They aiv o£ three ?ub-divia)<.>uaj 
Visa, I>asa, and I'Ancha. Tlie Dasds separated about three hnndre 
years ago wishing to introduce widow marriage. They afterwa 
gave up the practice, and, m'thin the last few yenrs, a small ofTshoo 
reinlToilnced it and were named Paneha*. Vis&s and Das^ 
found over the wholo country, the Visas t-hietly in Kiiitlii and th 
Uasds in Abddsa. The I'dnchAs^ about 125 families, are ehiell 
conlined to Alidaso. Sjicnkinjj Cutchi, the Dasiw, bat not th 
Visas wear a tarlwin somewhat like tbo Bliatia head-dress. Tliey ari 
B mild peojtle, even amon^ Vdniaa, and have ^od saving hjibi 
Borne of them traders, bnt moftc cultirators, they are in goO( 
circumstancea, Alowly gaiuiu^'thuowmTship, i/r'nU, of rent-free Unda 
ChiuHy imago- worsluppiiig Jains in relij^rion ihi'ir family goddess ii 

■ Juua ol the DerirAai seat wonhip tb* itoigea of •oino gixItIeK, aD<l o( 
tfTonty-four sniiitA, tirlhankar*. 

* Anotfairr atoTT u tti:tt th« ShrtmAI kiti|> Deul itUouvd inmD I'uC millinnftirM 
live inaidtf hU cii^ itaIIs. OtH^nf ihc lackycitinuu. ftShriiuAli Vlitift iukm.-d RdAi 
bkd ft brothtf mkmril ^vi^t, irlKKK" rortuni; diii not como up to the diiul • )>t-in<lutl •! 
ivp^tfa. PufuMl lo tivu utitsiili;' 1m nakvil fail* limthrr to help biiu tn niukv up tbu ivi)uirt>^ 
tnUtion, bal aratinc wilb dm eitvouratf«inciit lit uid Jnycliiuiil. a (lEMioatenttxl «oa q( 
thekiiu; of ShrimAI. wid maaj Shriuiaus, R&jpiita, and Athera left ShrimA]. ftnd Httlini 
in the town nf Mindovodt ea\\t^ it iHa or t])<: fronlier. Among tho KlU»r* wen 
HhriuUi Vliii:ii>. Ithatti, Duifaiui, UWlol, (.:»!. O-jhil, ili'K JA<)»r, ]>lnk.<iiui, 
PumAr, It Ailiod uid Ttuir Kujiiuls. all dtwut w<>r<>)iip{>.-n( i^f Khiv. BKtAnNiiri r Jnu 
begtCir. by working miraclee, I'otiTGned Jftychand their kiii^, and all tlif> scEilnre i 
his failli, and i':alliii)( them UitvilB fcmiird tlit<tu into une «n«te ThiA is aaid to hkri 
hnjipontil "H the Stb .VAiTjmri ih<// jAupist) Idl!,!,;!, Shnui.'i'i Hr^hniona of tb< 
fum t y im nil: t>f Ma^lin, whu had count witb ihcm, liiii;; .liiutl wilb tlivm 
nitd AK tb ' ■ "h^jAkflv I'lid I \Vvef«ni lixiii. 4ti.'>)giv«.i»ii>nw*-iii (icconni 

(if their <•: - 111 M di^oc imIiuU* uf bha S^thnki king- of AubilviiU (942' 

1340J »t'.>^ - ^y 1-. ^..i.nifur Uj« till. 



's every 

] t has if 8 hcad> 
rliree of them 


i« ami yoiiiiiii.' caato (liHpiitea. Most Cucch OsTala give 

-r^'hr schooling. Glvar Omva'ls (11,49ft), living in 

prtiviboe, gpenk (iiijaniti and are the richort ciasa 

"if them, traderii aad inoreluiuts. Jains in 

'na^ and Ti'in-imnfro worahippinB- socta, their 

■l1 by Rome less illiterate 

, , ■', wlio, calliug iQ some 

s <_-)uitt! disuitea. Thuy are a preaperoos 
..., >^ ^» .1 ^<iL-.lren and williitg to taleeto new panmitfi. 

Vmiidi", nnfl'T (ho heaii MorcliaotS come BLdti&s, 
.-4, nii<) Viiv^, though many Lobilads and 

-, Qot tnidera. 

l'Sj' abont SO.OOO, are foaud in all uoris of the province, 

to bo BhAti IJfjjpnts of the Yridav'' Btock, who nnder the 

(hottiK or Hhiitid »re the niliug' tribe in Jeaalmir in north 

and, as >(tt»Lliii!iii Hhatis, aro fonnd in censiderablo 

tho [jAhiir and Mnltau dirisions of the Panjiib,^ and 

:teut iu the North-West Proviuoes.* In Bind, best known 

■- -.1 '\- '■] . !-.* thoy are found over tho whole province 

.ir, and tho towTis of Mfindvi, Mondra, and 

j rib iKvouuta their earliest cwital (OOU B.C.) 

■ ■■■ ity General Cunningham to havo been not 

nydefti Unral i*indi. From this, he thinks, they were 

iLury A..D. driven aoath-caat bcEoro thoIndo-Skythians.' 

s that in the eighth century tho Yadu Bhfittia 

li of tho Sat-Uj." But it would seem from the 

tLjird espedititia (lOOi) of Mahmad of Gbozni 





R'uuca. scconlins to CcoemI CnnnEngliam, fruRi Utat i wurior 

I TIii^v tre also sai<] to l>a cftllod eitlier after Blut one of 

U. lltm. IX. 218). «r Oliupat the grWMlKm dE SAm. (TuMstu- 

Tba nuuan ntunw, appumotly by atutalu^ giTvouly 7759 

ja umI Jii\[]ia tn bmwhM n(,the YiiUm. CWtwin's Aln-LAkhui, 
Huvlu S'^ ><- •<( t.-iLitmir ftra called Ultitii, thair brethron of the 
fliW Im>' ' *ttt knoKii an ltliati<t, CuaninuhatD'a Arch, 

11.20. -cVnir^ruBhatliM, tlioM uf Buuiu«r BlOtis, 

In tnAta^ <d. KDiot's IUr«e, K. W. ?., I. S7- 

lipiitinii ■< o( Ibu BliAttis, Ttip liedndaricB 

'.ii-> >-tb'. tlarrmnit, mi Uic icnntb BikiLner, mad 
L 'Siiii, la tUe tieuicmm^ of tbu Mntoty tb«lr 

■L 1 ■ . ,. '. .^-..'^ nurth-ewUof Bikuer. Uittou 

X. \V. I'.. 1 3r,3». 
[&.^-.N*. n- P.. I. 37- 

mimtian of tlum w AtbuBbhitia oa tlie Iitgb 
.1 b> tb« sea. He «1m ny* (2itil> that eanu 
. *, ol :lie i.Jni]g««. 

If, 22. Aouardinit bt Ociwnl Conningfatun, tb«Til(IftTg 
■ ^' -^Saii Aiui t>T bill sun RA#&lti, the fouiulvr of 
l.v aiiic :o Wil'ionl (A*. Ren. IX. 'JIS. S22t Mna 

: ilf*<;<>nt fniui Silivilisa auil cull (ItemaelvM 
ji or .■^*ltii-ltijii Kmnira tb" ntT.pring of S»k 
itiT their uiuoi tlwt rv()raii:nUlivtt uf SiUvAlun 




dttpter ni- 


that there was stfll & Blroiig Bhalia kingdom &i Bhiitia or 
vu tbo left baitk of the Jlielain near (he ealt rauj^.* Aij: 
prubably by tho later Mnealniaii invaders that tho Bhduas 
driven sooth into tho (it'sert and Sind.^ In Sind the Bhri' ' 
said to havu stuik to be fisbertuf n, and there tli^y still com iii . < 
fi(.h and drink spirits.' ''hatiiiri' amval ir 

hu» nut been traced. Pii^ jii huvo scftlfd -^ 

estabUahmentof Jadejapower Their two sub-divii 

Dasa and Visa, e-at ta^L-thiT. L~. ,.;. . .....i, while taJcing'Da^ti. , 

rarely gi^e t>ea&s their daajjliters in marrii^e. Tliey arO 
mndej tall, and aotiTe, ac>. 'i ' >MacMurdo (1818), a ran. 
{air and handsome mco.* ^me lan^age is Culrhi. 

that the wouten's Tobe i^ liuuic-what )>caiit)t>r, and tbiit t]i' 
turban has an estra poak ur hum in front, their dress U ihi? ■ 
the Vdniils*. Keen, vigorous, sabtle, and unstraijuloos, as mcrcbaatAij 
trader*, and brokers, they have, luider the British Guvuroi 
risen to much wealth and importance. Numbers havo moved' 
permEUiently or for a time to rtoinbay, and as there is do diffic 
in tho way of their traveltinif , many of them ani trti tied, tn 1 ha " 
in &B porta of the Persian Galf, tho Ked Sea, and Ziuixibilr, aj 
th« «a«t, as far as China.' Others arc spread over tiajardl sn 
ehopkoepors and milk-sol lers. In Cutch, beaidcij us traders, 
and shopkeepers, many of them earn a livinfi: as hoshnndmea, 
a few as laboorers. Probably from the religious feoliiiff ac 
taking life nono deal in vepntabloa or in root crop^. Ti 
ai-e clever with tho noodle, flowf;ring wilk with much 
About the ulosu of thu fLitveuth ct'utury, tho Cult-h Bbntias 
converted to the Vallalihachdrya sect of Vatshnava. Under 
in8uenco of tho MaluirajaB, for whom they have a very extrsDl 
veueralioD, they havo becumo very strict vegetariansj m-'st carrf 
not to take life, and very ^l»i(^rv^lr»t of ndijp^ons rites. Thi-v W' 
tho sacred thread and do not allow widow tnairinge. Th'*y h 
bead-maa, mnhajam, but give him no aulJir>rity, and settlf all 
disputes according to tho opinion of the majority of membera. 
the whole they are a rising class, oaj-oful to teach their chUd 
read and writo Gujnrdti, tho rich beginning to invest thoir ^livmgal 
in buying landed i^ntates. 

Loha'ka'b (30,939) are fotinil all over Cntch. Originafly IlAth 
Rajputs, they are said to tako their name from Lohaupur or Loboki 

> Elliot's Hiatorr, £L 30 (trn) 440. The Bkitlti Rajimte itill t^int to this 
H the plsos of their r«aiilmec Wfors their aflrniiof outvTnH, knd their oaiiw i* iL 
prMorved in the hrgfi town n( ISridi lihnttcat^ i>ii Itio L'hiuAli. (Oitt". 441). 

* Sir H. Elliot tncva the Uccliuv of tho dtfetrkt »( HhitiiAu. belwei'A ItUaraWll 
till.- Carni, M the Mnfaammiwl&n and Mochal iuruAJouB dU to the ctOHiitur r*va hI 
of Tiratir (1399). R*ue«. N. W. P.. II, 21, la 

" TrwM. Bom. Lit. Hoc. II. 244. 

* Tnuts. Bom. LH. Soc. n. 24.y. So the Bbiti* of RhitiiUiiv arf nii to bt oai of IM| 
Biie#t and bandnotneBt lrib«s in Tndio. Jonr. A. S, Bt-n({. SXXV. II. 97. 

* 'AmuDg KhitiAa,' wnt«N Sir Bartle Prera (18"^}, 'are (h» l«'«r.«itt nt trmt-n, HmJ 
(Doat Huaual of volu))tuart«a, iuuUecta nioiariiablc *:■■■' ' ' T 
and rabttety, »ftin«tin)«B an o1jtD««i>c«a of moral cfo- 

SUeyalaTt, bntin rare exi-cptioiui a iiimple (tomtinn ;.. ....... -i...... v.....iij >,. 
a Chriatiwi martyr". MacMillaa'a Mat.-»xiac. XXSII. 5W, 

* TroDt. Bou. Lit. Soc. XL £14. 

altfo^ oiitl to tiave I^ccn driven by the Musalroftns from the 

(b int4j 8(ud, auU aftenvardi>, about thu tbirtet'iitb century, to 

foand thrir way to Cutcb,* In Cutch, iu the Bevonteeutb 

itfsp«.'ciiiJly during tbo reigiia of Lafchuji uud Rilyudbaa 11., 

h'"Vi vnry hif^h pijsis ns bunkers and miuislors. In 1716 

bitterly pursoCHled by LiilcliAji, sucty-Bve of tlio 

lured tu death and a sum uf XbO^UOO oxtortcd from 

in 1778 tbo head of the uaato tDevchand) was pub 

1 :.!ia n Iwrge fino levied fTotti bis rtdatioiia. Sinco then a 

^Uon hu neror risen (■o tbo poat of minister, and few of thom 

: much wealth aud pivsiiiun.^ Among tho Sind 

II? Ht lea-st fifty sub-divisioiis, the chief of them 

nod Kk-bvani.* But in <Jut<^^b clau titles have worn 

Ciuutly uanuts, ntikhst aud atl dJnu together and 

Dnrkfr than Bhatiiis ^^^7 ^^ ''''^ tbem tall, stroug^, 

^njfiaLMlar. Their borne tontiuu bf Cutchi and tho dress, both of 

BWfti .^Tn] vnynf^n. ip that <.f ntbt'r hi^h class L'utcli Uiudua. Thoy 

iiu.* Very sturdy and hardworking, 

-, tii:i.sou.s, aud hiisbandmoii. HouiQ are 

iful wntrre, Hhopkeept^TS, and grain -deal (!rB. But, nnlike 

•' -y aeldoiu risk lanfo ventures ur pruth tbeir fortunes 

;i. or Africa.* YaishuaYs of the RiUu&uuj Boct their 

''■ ■ I Mdta, and they arc devout worshippers 

..i,(tnrija pir, who is said to have saved 

itw tbcj lied imru Alultau/ Every Lubdna village has 

built in houour of this Bpirit, where a lamp, fed 

ifiod buttw, i« kept burtiiiig day and night, and wber© in 

' '" 'tra (Majch- April) a festival is celebrated. 

irear ■ A thrr-'ad and allt>w polygamy and widow 

'i'bt^' Uuk aau, j/a(et, but ^ve him no peruonal 

settling I , ;a rastc ineotinjEis according to tbo 



W Arch. Sot. l!cn. I8H, IPS. lVrh*pi l*Uiteiny'i 
-t Lftli. S22). At Uui*™. T.kI (I«23| fuuuJ Lohimla 
^f BhsUi H»j[iutA. W«at«ni liidi«, 3o{). 
.;a« IB mytliKuiUy derired from Iav the too uf Rim. 

li.i.'i.i. W' r<- III S'lhi) hi^fnm MiiMdnkAn Utnfia. Untlcr 

: i;i>r of Itr.llii:iaji*liad *ai\ Oit! luunfl 

i uiitl LikUkolJuis. KUiot'e llistorr. 

;»M. 1, :M.'. L'jhAnas Arc itillthc chi«f Hindu tribs 

li bMrth-iinti Oil^h, Knd .Sind, |y>h.iiii« bltt found in 

't;i1 Aaia, and on the Arahutn 

.Ji;j all iilndd u£ hardship lod 

1.,..; uaSind, 314- 

. » Urgo nnmber of Luhiuiii bvro bocumc MuMlm&iu 

-'^. !(■ '!4S In Ktnd thev tat meftt, are addiotAd to miriKotta 

' and diink vrnU'r fmia tli« linnd of tfatir 

Burtonn Sind, 314, So Tml (Aunab of 

ij »)■<. I Li. 1. I 11 . - .Jic prov«rli ruiu, oxcupt caU uud ouwa thoy 

!; iiij liurTcr. Iu; Hm-.i-.h '!-lini]. 310^1"), uiM-ommotily Kcute la 

•:. la^iils. Ill Ai'gh.iruxt.iti thry am 
. ,v rsDturcs. cftLikiuiui, Biwl ptfliapa » 

^i uid some lutve adopted tlte faiUi of Bdb* 

Snn-.u B :'ii-)'i, Jij. 


Chapter JII. 



opinioD of tho majority of tlio members. Tboeo who ctui bSqi 
generally give their chilUrun some Unjurdti achuoliiij^. 

Bh&nbVus or Vsaos,' 10,599, foimd in ike oouth a^'' 
Cutch, claim to be Solanici Rajpiits, who, taking' to <■ 
Be])arutocl from tha rest of their tribe in the reign of tiidhruj day 
(1094-11-13). Of their arrival ill Cntrli iiotbing certjiin is fcu 
but they probably settleU dorin;^ the eleventh century wbeu C 
formei] part of tbo pos^^eseions of the Anhilvada ttiolankis. £ 
in woariug small gold earriugs and a white skull cup when wor 
in the field, their dress and lang^uage are like those of oihwr 
catitti Cuteh husbanduieu. >Vhen hard -worked the B 
adds to hia allowauco of clarified bulter, and in t!ii 
sometimes take* »wcct oil with his bi*oa"l. All am'^k' 
a few eat meat and driok Liquor; noue take opium. HusbiU) 
shopkeopcra, and traders^ they aro hardworkinj^ and thri 
Though, oxcopt some who have made fijrt.nncs in Gkirdbay, faii 
tbcm ara rich^ as a class they are free fi-om debt, geuomlly own 
one or two milch buffaloes and cowd. Kscept one monthly hyli 
and three or four ^iwcial rest days, the BhansAli cultivator wo 
in the field fix>m suuriito to sunset, his wife bringing him iliooei 
noon and gcnerHlIy working with him for snmu hours. Vai«hnaT( 
name, some uf thorn worship goddesses. But they chiefly rovora 
the M4]idvi saint, Sadhu L&ldaSf to whmu they ye-'irly mak< 
present of (i<l. (4 aa.) and some ffrain. Their family . ' ' i 
Mahdmiiya of Sidhpur Patun. Cuutniry to rule Ibey .. n 

twice, and bathe only once a month. More than otln-r On 
Hindus they live as ]oint families. Children are beiruthed m 
after birch and lourriud, about ten. Birth and marriago regis 
are kept by their prioals, and widows itre allowed tp moriy, T 
are on the whole a declining caste. 

DBP'Ai.A'fi (111), perhaps from Dopfilpur in the PanjiSb, are ta 
in amaJI niimbera in different jwrts of Cutch. Ortginnlly LuhA 
they have separHted from the main body of the cnate, and, thi 
thoy dine with thoni, do not intermarry.- Their liiiiffiiQpe and di 
are Gujarati, and they are employed as house sl-i vuutSj luU^un 
and traders. They wear the sacred thread and alluw mdow marria 
Their family goddesses are Ash&pura, Trijium, and Kalika. S<i 
families also worship the god Narsingji whoso chief tcmplo 
in JJhrangadra. Thongh poor as a chiss, one of them not mi 
years ago rose to a high popition in the aorrico of the rti 
Va'va's, 13, groin parrbers by trade, differ Uttle from Lohauas i 
Depdlas with wbum they dine. 

■ Of th« origiii of niiiiu^ or BluuiMlrt, a Ixtety aJoptod tutnA, no ctrImm 
bM b«« toaniL It ia lud to como from * uyLbicftl king IDuuiuuL FartDarly | 
were genarally IniDwn m Vrgi*« or Vepu. ne*nin^ a nii)>e<l race. I'hev wrvu I 
Uie tnlw r»(err«d to (l(iilSl in Knmiltoo'a De*onpt>go o( Hmil-.ift'n' (I. fi^S 
varanaantari «r mi^n <>( iciitnl l>irth. Alioiit ISO() tliOT hud a ioi^ 
FUa. north of IjJihiat. of wliicli triKi-* still romun, ho lUrr.u { . 
V. t.-a.p. I.) mflntione tbtin, aoder tb« DJUiicnf DongafknA, u> lium u 
who i>»t meal &ud fiih. 

^ Tbo Uhrtagadta oad Widhw&Q LulU4iidi do oot dioc with IX^IiU. 




EnjgUts, 40,160 strouR or 10-87 por cent of the toial Hindn 

. T^. . . i ,^, ^^y main dmsionn; thoee wfhohftTe come from Sind, 
ho have come from Gujarat, bind Rajpnts (2a,<)49) 
kUc Jdili'jsK, the twcDty-threo IowcIhks Sii-iDina ulans known 
ajT'. "^'1 Thf Snrlhds. GujariSt Hfljpnts (16,51 7j include, besides 
■ known locally as Gujars, representatives 
p, L. 4.., .; ...iiiki, Ya^hela, and GuLiI tribus. 

it, ike ralini; clan in Catcbj witli a strength of about lS,d99 
udfkll over the province and especially numeroas in Abdnsa 
-•' •, T\ro Hie Iciiding^ Hindn representatives of the old Sind 
< ma llajput«. The present Sauimas claim as MusaJm&na 
Arab origin.' Kut they, as well as thi> JAdejita, 
bflong to the ^reat Yadav stock whose peiligreo 
i:< (Samba, son of Krisbna, and who are probalily the 
:md Sninbna of Aluxander'a (325 B.c.) hiBtoriamt." Karly 
:i century (712), the Sanimas are specially mentioned 
with dancing and the beating of drums, to moot the Arab 
Mubiiiiuiiul Kasim, and to have gladly accepted hi.s ralc.^ 
^ty (1025.1316), the Samnida probably 
udent position in the Bonth of Sind,* and 
■ t seTeral tunes between the eleventh and fonrteenth 
„ Imvo moved south to Cntch to avoid Sumra tyranny.* 
orertlirow of tho Samris by Al&-ud>din (1315)^ ilie 
' iH) their head-quarters at Saraai near Tatta, bcirame the 
"'■h Sind. lu the spread of Mulianimadau power, the 
;be close of the fourteenth century^ bad adopted 
their eonversion, thongli it is still borne by several 
ge fn.ttoral tribes, the name Samma is less known than thoso 
M ■: hi branches nf the tritie, tho K4raej&s and JadejAs.' 
the latest acconnts, tho name J&deja was taken by the 

' y\»ey mm md I'j Iw iIi!*.«i<ioil from »n Arnh Ab« JaHI, abo to tkke their tuune 
■^^nn, or troni .SAm Uio ion trf the pniphot Nuh or Naah. 1'hair chiefa 
t'jm tame way ttiKed to the groat Psraian Jim gr JamihoJ. EUJat'a 



^wuUbi lu'i'ti.- krw uid kt that time to bare beCA under tlio inHaeooe of 

uijiLai A Arrian, tl>5, Tud ciinnccU thi: 8MiiraAM irith 8&Riba, wnt of 

brvu^'i ' iv of Y^Uvs trom Dwirka in KuLbii^war to Siadi 

.IKTr toumthcrracoonnt, thcJllde}i9,clainunctAi)««|)Tiin2 

uitl th'^ > .»>.•". Lncv their iIiMCont thitiugb a liuc of oiEh^ tn;thiii^ 

>nf ^Imriinitiraiid Miaar, tbv latter F.gypt, th« fanner (otnvnriav caUed 

■.J .-t lUnAnra Ieti;«D(lar>' kiue v( SouUwm India, whnw ittpry is 

Itdrt^eaa' Ar^. Bep. 1874-75, IM. 

Ht>!»ry. I. 191. »1tco Mnhanmad Kdaiin came (712), 

appnrontly Buililhiiita in reli^no. B31iat, 1 . 49tfi 

Mual rutcn, ihtir novror waa far from being 

^KiiofindewDdeatchielB in th« aanth ol Kind at the 

irly in the lnirt«i>atb cantary, and fntn tlw liata of 

. Tattav tlx Sammia pruUbljr oootlniwd iadvpoodaat. 


fr)i<H fnrth tJie hand of tyranny ortr th« penple of Ranma, 

Many families were driven by hii cxactium) tn 

iii'l »PCK rciiigi,' m C»it«'h, wtiiuh boa bctwcvn Gujarit 

Uod'a mvrey thoy have helil to (Jie pnaant day. 

..;valaIalAin waa not cwlicr than ISOI.BUiot'BHiatoty, 



lliatory. 1. 'IM. tUoicJa Hindua an act found in Caleb. 


3onibaT Gaxetten^ 

Th— ^ 1—--H - ■ ■ ' ' -.■-:'.■" ■» t'l'-;;! "Vis i ■ new aamg).} 

T. ■: : .- - 1- -\—= 'A i~;\.r.:iiz.< ind afterwardi] 

■ - ■ ■■ - -r-- . £ .; -. .-".i, -.1- ~:.-.'..-- -^i-h- /iai^-* of religioq 

■ ~ -• - ~. __ ..._ : -l:_i::.... ..-- I : ^-.. -. iz. r*. Ct the whola 

: ■•-:_• - . .^.- - ■' T-r- '^S.-i -.";^ afier Jada tha 

-..-...- " :.-- :.-'" ' — _:-- - ■-ij,: "Iicv bi-i. probably as^ 

-. ■; • ^- ■ ■ ~ .1 ~ ~-.r^ '-ti-Tijrr. rirt-n onTerted | 

"■•■■.- : .: \L.:— -...^..j. -■■- : "j..-:-^r:-; Mn^almaiujf^ 

.:! ; _. :_--i ^_- i\l..-j. z ::!.! ir_-iL -v-ij -> n,ew castom, j 

-\. :. ■-^_ k-::: v. v -;i- 3 _:■- r S-.i<Mw, an-itMbrudl : 

■ ^ ^ -^- ...:■- :^ ---;■-■:. ^^ V..: ." i^ s, if:*Qt l-JOO.iBti* " 

:-.: - j-.~ :. " * ■— ;T-:;r; '.•..'.': '. Z ii-i-iit. li zb^ reign d ' 

-..:::-. "- - " . ". ' - -"■ "— - ' --"^ - ■ .? -- -^■■■:r\l S35*« i:ieDri<nied viA J 

3i.: ...1 — "- '■ s _:,--■ :. ;- — *- -•■■ ■£-:: t it T.<;n f ri,ie:». Jit Bftlnclrii J 

■V -■-.-. --_. -.Li' i ' "". -■ j-^i_ 1 iz-isri i^-i t -1 ;t -cr:! iiathitrity, «• j 
4-- -i- ■ :: .- v.. ..-- .. -I.-., ■■ -- ■ ■ -:;.it - LiCcs f;<^ii: Liklia, («bost I 

.■_"•■ --. T '•_..■: .: '-^j..:.. ■-.::.: -... vij i,j-.i.";- 2 -iw. Cft Licha's storf 

■Lii.r- I.- -T - r-: :^. ■ -::.-: :. - --•■. :: :■ ti. ■ -■ - SiL XV, 'JCIS) mMkm 

-.:..: L_.i_i- V ii ^ ■ -V ..-, ^ . J :: r .: i t- ? jLI-ti; ii.ii "ne wu kuowK 
-.J. - . , ^ T . ■ ' ■■ .—- -: .:... -"- ? ~.:..r l-ii_i.i -it* :i5 only ope of 

>--.--■.; ■."■■. r -■- ^ -■ . ::. . -; . ": .: -^ :-z -\l^ .:-.■■: V^ wv--l2j a peacock- 
:..:-._■ -.7... . - -.- . _:. - - -J.-: 7..L1, 'A"i:le oScHiiK the* 

- ::_ -., _. ~ L- ■.•■-- ._:~ .: "_..i.M TLi TV: ^ c f -T i.Lt. anil Jiuia'i 

^.- -•^- :. -- :-—.-_ ,-. .i ■,:■ ■ ■ I -L Ti-r rZ'-.-^-^ _i :. nieauing 

^ .: :. i - - :_ .. .* — _/ — i-i. Ml, r-', 4\'. Wau-m). 

- L --.-■■•— :. V, - '..w . , : ■■7..-i. '.t :■*■ - ''J--^ •.'r.ii ihe Judejte 

■i.. ..' --.- :-.... :. - r. 1 >;_■■:■■ :V^;i i^-t-lolll. 

: .- _. . I-.-. - .-- . ■ I ..'.*_": -.■ ■ I 1:: -1 _-. :: ':l4i! I.>y0) long 

:' : . J'- ....-.■.^ :„■■ T . - -1 ~ ■/. -. -.1 ■ •.»-■• centiiiii what 

i ._--..,-_-■.,.. ,_, ^ i ;-. ':'.:. - ■-. -..~- .■■.;kff- ci i: *tira:i iinilwUe 
•:..i- -J. »■"- t -" " *- ■ •. ". "■-. . •'-- ■■ I'":"--', y th'i leaacra of ihe 

^■I L.- ,:- i.-. ^ -.. ■_ - - ■■; ..-.■■■.-.: .' : ■• ^'.■'':. .■;:::■..-- Thrtc aiXHtanti 

iv ;v --. " ' - ■■- ". " V ■ .... i.. ^.- : ■ '.. ■: riir;*. K-^nimUitiu 
.'. ■ . :. ' I ^ •■■.-..•...: - ..--k.:. 1 '■ " . :: ;• :lits i>>ai HAmJan 
;;.->:.^ -.: -.: ;- -. :-■:,_,. A. l ,: ; tlL ■: .Hist. II. JTS) 
,- ■ ■.■.-■ ■• ■■- .0 ■ ■ -. •; !■_■.. _-'z : '.--: : :_: '.t^ '^^■.■a'.istf he nilopted 

\ ■ - -. ■- ..-. :-..-- ^ .K.r.z^-. ■ ■. 1 ■■ .^:._: '■;■". \ "•i^i'i Tnuislatioo, 
I.' VJ.. .. ■■■ - .- ! .... .--■_- 7,_ ii _,■ '•' '.:':- .- ■ -i-. L. ITiis fnuDiU-r 

A.. ..^- -■;::■.. ■-;■. :^- - :' .i-r. ^r,. ,■....-■. .- Si ^> It i» aa ailhereot 
<:■ .\..7:ji.'., - :. • .-. ■ ■\i...... s :i _■ ^I . ^:;l Ki- ..■- '.^. in.i^or t-f Said vr 

I. .,..;.-.. "..■: :::...: : :... 7 .- .i:.'.- K .l:*s. "-'.. ■ :•.::..- i:-^- ^V'niinuiiitv o( 
w :..- .. i/. . .-:-'- .-._■ r.-.-i- fT :.. ^I'. ;;. -,1 i_ 1 t.. _: l^ :-.:.*. r. Jp.-.'- rlit; j; to biLliot) 
b ..-..:,_■ :.■--. 1 ■-..■.■-■ -...i: .•:.—:_. ..^ ..- -i 1. :. ':.■.■.:•.:.': '.^, H,i;i.'.ian Kannati 
(.."f- .'■';; :'." t;. ";..- v.--. .-.rf.- r- ;:. -.'. : -i" \;~:.; : .■arr- -;■.■.: '.v.* v:itt-s ■■.;.- \-!...leuce, and 
l^ j-if. a.-, ■.;-r. ■.;..--.;■:.-.-.- w.v ;;• ;. :'.:- —■'.::._■ ' ■.■■■-7^. -\... rvl'.i:,; tu' DHerl*lot (I. 
Mri. •?.-:>■ >..::.■:■.•;; .:. i _ v^rr.K. ■■,:,: :" ir._--li i:. ".V,-.--.l-. :;:r::-.-J tLc orvUrs I'f the Kunin 
inv. -i;i'-i; r.'-, -iii •■.:.\'. ■.;.- r-:;:_-: ;:; f.i'-: -«i.* i .-v;..'- : :"■.'■.. s. ncy » hioh shuuH he 
li""! t'.-'.tr.-ir..---r-. ;!:.■; :;:;it ;;:.:' LL::.f-Liiv-- : ■ •.\.^--iV.p .i! :.-_■.» i. :i.: f .TnioaTioii. was the 
tiii'l'sMi""" : .r..;'[-i'ii i.y tf.'r Kir.-.n. Irt :rv yv.r >■,■;' r '.I'.l O"*-! "r :^'0 H. t, \inder 
Sni'l ' iriiiini'7'l Ht'i^iii, tii'! Kanr.atianr- ^m^vi i:-- :: t'lv Kii-.lit M"in-ilii;t in Syria, 
t.;ikiiix ""'1 ri tiii:.;Ui':tr hcvl r[U--irt'.-r- at H3_" t':i= IVtra I'l-Lrti of tlsi; Koiiians, fmK 
111'- ';.jiit:il "f Ar-i^ia, wlKTfr, iifttr it rtiiij ■■f ai-.tit t.-n vciirs, S.l:.1 w:if a$K(s#iuat«(L 
IfiiiUii 111"* x"!!-"' K'.v<:rurii'iit. in !<■_':! Cill. H),tiu- t «!is nf Bu.-^ra aii-l Kiifa were 
('»|itiir'i], iimi, iri !i:il ':il!l 11.), iimlir afiiin'V.ii' li'.-i'iirr. .\1':; TMiir. the oitv of Mecca 
w.i- tnk'ii with tirriWI'- «'iiiii;ht(!r, thu ttrin)>l(; )>hin'icrv<l, uiul ihe htily lilai'k ftmie, 
/.u/,- III imi-il, cftrrjril iiHiiy, iirnl k<.j)t inr twunty viai-s. Ar-K^/i thi- twintifth 
Khilil Jn(pi"il t^i if;iy tlniiu iiii anniiul nuhsMy to Wturi' thi- sale ()as3af:e of jiil^jrinw 

III \l II, Ori I 111' ilt^ntti iif Saiil'M lutsori ViHuf or Aim Viknl>, 111 '.f.iS (3li6 H.l. the 

Knii'iiiliiiiiH i-iifiliilcil lljvir ;;iiv4T(iipiciit to HiJt f>yt-ils oalli'ii \mtK; >:t-tiih- Tr.watvla the 

1 liMf ■■[ Uii' t'Eiitli riiiiliii'y thu giivurunivut uf Jlagidr, u'uakviioil liy lUsput^s, oaiiie 




«K>latton (d Cntrh was the caiiso of )f« bec^ming^ nniftirfial. 
tljf'ir arrivtt! iu Cutch, the Jjidfijiis Imvo inaiuhiiued 
pjaition (15 the nilcM of the pvuvinco. A body, nr 
rnp)Ml, of chiefH, each in his own estate very indopendent v( 
'A tht) clnn, iboti^b di!>8i[)uti.''dj thriftlcsfi, »nd ittained 
rriino vt infnntimdo, iht-y have kept a htjjh nftini? for 
Dnv^>ii liv (hf rriiin'* of thoir niU'rs 
U 'liliHh, the hiiiiillLT cliictK guitiod in 1K18 

iiimu 111 lUo suite. Sintw then by thoji- idleueas, nud 
riug di\*iMioD of vstuiett, due tu ]w&ce &ud the eou8(>t)uent 
of ouinherA, thoir iitndtl-iuii has sunk hu luvr that about 
-firv per cont of the wholu cUn are little moro th»n UnlA 
mnd JK-Mvinl propriulorB. U ha« lalfly bt«?D found 
, »v-"« hdldcr* of onp nr m»re rillaj^'H, fitt«d 
iiii?o fuid iiiag'i.stpriiil |x»wnrs. Ktardy, high- 
lii uuiDly in ht'Ariug', ill coh/ur ralbcr dark and ruddy, tbe 
liefiy mituvablo fur tbfir (lowing whiskyts divided by * 
if! down tbft chin, And their hm^ Hntopinfr mristnchioK, 
oarefullT (LrMf and c«.»n»tnntly fi'iidW, iind dye when they 
•m t!T"y'' Thi'v also wear a pefnliar liilt of Iiair, jVWi, 
iTAinon, by birfh K:i.jpntKm« of the -IhAlii, 
.:!'..}i;!«, are faniyUK i<jr their good lookfl, 
iBxi t%ro thoy taks to preserve them even when advanced in 

Chapter Itl 


[Formerly p-vh .Tadpja chief had a fort of eome atrenjrth. These 

all :l ^^•n by thn 1810 earthijimki'and almost ntmeof them 

lil' K«n, iivnr or darlmr,* of a large propriotoror under- 

I.)forrnt5a quaiirnngle, abonl I ."iO foet long by 120 

It woll-bnilt !4ti>Du wall About tt^n to twenty font high 

-a^v frtJiu nuy of the iiiuer buildiuga. Kutered by a 

■' lire haa, oviside the gate but 

''t (a) used an fclodging for the 

!«r clksa of guests. On eiiher aido of the entranee passage is a 

,Baja- '' :<iuvtnd£>]>e(iMl- rSh«a*aD>lnatiti. n. 4SI, note 1). They 

t«aMri> I ve |aah«d intatlM IiirliiB vAl1«y. According to Al-Binini 

if), tbe> •.-■I. -i-'J tkr smui Miiltiti irlr>1, miiI Hk h«t«Ucaf king whom 
QhUBA*'i in lOSO (410 \i.) itmvH frmn Mtilt^n, i* known, fiinu itiitiitnanLi 
bT Tr/17 Una uiw vntcr. ('■ have beod a ra«iii)>er uf tlic fvArniBtiwi mmL 
1-1 rspfllir^l ' "Id boMey Ww nAt eapOTeMeri. Uuluuiuiui 

'■71 H ) N^in in t^liot, IL 2!l3) la matiLi>jti«(l m 

' itiMi- In 1S37 (014 U.) iIm KaniMtiwu 
jKOkqiu nod «liiw many worshipwn. 
...»- of theta killed. llOlint. II. A7:t), Tw-o 
Mp- !t-jl> twIoDoed l4i th« Knrmntiaa a«ot. About 

""tiL, - I - !- ■.'•■-a wMa KarmftlMft (RJiot, I. *91>;iujd lh« 

who. T'l iiy. ooav«rt«j1 Ihnm Iv Inl&in iFmLmHu. 11.300. K(w«c« 

[ifewir K- I tr.-..-*- fttrfl nnuiiniii^in tha IlabfiH ilan Knniiitti (KUicil, I, 

:\ th« luuM faith anil mural* uf tlic KAnimtiiuta 
. ida, a pnct)«a oppoMii botb to tho Hiuilu nnd 


I [iritlti UfrmaelTM co tboir whiiik4>ni and muitt&cHiM. The mnatiKhiM, 
. V ..n| lutm, uv Imaml in two lucks faUiiiK to tha cheat. 
n t9Bna€Torained/}arMr, Uut ti'le beug kvpi eatlrsly Imp 

[Bombay OuMI 



Chapter m. 


raised platform, deli (b and c), generally with an upper storey, 
one of these platforma the Jddeja sits and receives visitonB, mi 
the other sit the servants and the lower class of guests. Insid 
these platforms is an open space or outer court (B) with, to the ri 
in the outer comer a fenced space (G) used as a pound. Insid 
this space are two platforms {d and e) and a room (f) wherQ 
Jideja bathes, breakfasts, and sleeps in the afternoon, and it] 
girasia guests are lodged. Inside of this, entered by a zuii 
parage (h), is a stable (g) and a cattle shed and cart-room 
Across the court on the left hand side are, in the outer comi 
space (D) used for storing grass and fuel, and, close by, wit 
front verandah (j), two rooms (k and k') the sons* quarters, Jcvn 
karai. By a passage (E), placed so that no direct view is gi 
the iuner court (F) called dodlii is entered. To the right is a p 
(1) and a well, and to the left, inside of a verandah (m), is 
temple (n) of the goddess Momiya and its kitchen (n'). Ent^o 
through a doorway to the right of this inner yard not far from 
well, is the women's yard (G) with, in the outer comer, a gran 
kothdr, (o). To the left facing the women's yard are the c 
rooms of the house, a verandah (p) iu front, usually with cone 
floors, and to the left a cook room (q) and a water room 
Through the verandah is an inner verandah (s) and within it 

t^de/cui Mouso 

1 t 







rofftna ftiiud f) rahetanriaUy bailt of Monp and mortar witli 

, nnH (or li^lit two ortlin?eoponinj.'« lilgli up the watlv. 

■■-' tljf waiuoii of the family kpi>p their fumiiuro, and 

tbtf otbtr tiio JiiUoja slopps. Tbo dwolliuj? of a araallcr proprietor, 

PJ.ri l|,j If, tt quddrauplo of about -iS feet by 40, 

s a thum font». On tfae loft at the cotrance drwr Is a 

run TtKimji for cattln aud for storing grain. Across tho 

i \) (iro thu cbiof rooin»t of the liouso with ao open 

uud CMik moDi (c) and inside two chief rooms 

waWn of mild and rubblo and thu roof of tile. A poor 

hoiisd difff-rs little from tlioso of Kanbi aud T&uia 



-1*- head-drofls is a common silk, ™a*/irw, cap, and over 
iT-roMoJ turban rod with the ^^oting and white with 
tu ; Jt ittujif coat with wide sleeves; a Bcarf, dark with the 
and whitti with the old, wound roimd the loins, the ends 
Ui tXiii ku[H>hi and fiistt^neil at. the waist by a variety of 
olothfl ; a pair of looiio troiisni-s with a tij^ht button at the 
and (winti-d shoos. Thoy are good horsemon. aud, as arms, 
a short 8Wt.inl and one or two knives, but they arc poor shots 
ikr art of fencing has almost died out.' The women* wear 
t, \o<»^i2 spencer aud hend .sL-arf, and, except when lu 
ig, never p> ohI witht»iit slipiwrs. Of pettit-oats, usually 
ity fuut lodywtiru plaiUnl nuiud the waJst iindkuugiu)^ to 
tie, n«wi women have rtbi'Ui. JifKien, ihoBo for Dvcry day wt>ar 
jn or choap silk, and those for state occasions of cloth of gold 
U&iu^'d bitk. A petticoat, Imgha, of about seventy-five feet 
» Turkey rr>d rluth, Rewn into a largo number uf folds is 
- it honif dress. It is not yd itsc-d na a full 
iiii, rathur t<H»tuaud without a back, most women 
ly. All fU'fl niadcrif diffi>rr'ntc<iloiiredpi(too8of silk, the 
irh thick lace borders. The head scarf, chotito, <teven 
ibyoi^'ht, often rhaugiujLf in ^hion, is, furoi'diuary uito,of plain 
- '. ■^ r full drtwK, hnsagjild law border and on tho end that 
' laiHJ fringe. The favourite colours are blno, red, aud 
V<-liiiW Hud piirpl»' an- Kiddoru woru, liernnifo ur tnenia, iron- 
^oo a hnI jTHiiind, thtwolour of oldagc aud mourning, \h aluo, 
rkof svuipathy. Worn byyoungwomon whoso friends have been 
Certain uriiamcuts, depending ou the relatioDship to the 
)o u-huhaailied,sm Ifftoffin i^ign of mourning. Jddoja women 
' ■ suit in the umniing and a finer suit in the 
iieirbuat clothes for H[K*ciiil ceremonies. They 
i.f ihoir e)i>lhe.s ai^d art* faniouK for the length 
J ; _ 1 kt*u>p rhrm fresh. Very fond of rich clothoa 
yf can* lentt for jewelii than other Uiudutf, aud have a rule uuver to 

Chapt«r ZSU 




ZUU\m mvtv in r>ld tjinei Cuiwd for their ikiU « ftnhen. Briggi' Feiulitik 

hiM licr 0"*m«t4i.* nii'.l W'twh** wid 
. :li <m the mott Uvourebte "Jiot to 

[Bomb&7 OazettwT. 



Chapter in. 


wear silver except aa anklota. Lamp black, bat not antimony, nmi 
is ustid fur the e^es, aud henna to colour tbe hand:* and {vet. 

Id a rich family the head of the house ris&s nhoDi. five, and 
smoking a pipe aud n'a^bint;, drea^CA, and seating ]iiiiiKt*1f in 
gateway platform, delif i& juincd by Bhat, Chanui, and 
frjeuds. A« tbey sit a servant hringe a di&h of *i]-. 
Jcasumha. This the faost^ after offering it to a Bbdt, L'baran, or 
Rajput proprietor, qirdnia, if ono is pnaent, drinks some of it ant' 
given tbe rest, to the people rouud. The opium wat^r is fono«<d| 
by B pipe, hukii. TheQ abuut eight, for au hour or two, hi> hoar 
complaints from thti villaj,''prs, and itresfribes for the t*xck. m»«i| 
Jddoiaa having tunue knowtudge uf mediciue aud itome '' 
keeping a store of drupes. Uo then goes to the hUible fnr bi-i 
Before broakfaitc, onco evor)* two or tfaroo days, he bathes, luAJ 
regaliu-ly, Iho tmly rate buiug that lh« ofluuur Uo taktsa opiuni Onj 
aeldomer ho bathus. After bathing, somotimtoji innouae is luinHHl] 
and a few beadn tobl. Tliun, tn some placvs in tht- vuraii'' ' 
generally in the Hlablc, bnmkfaMt m wi-ved. Tht' party, fur 
tfl-do tbe bead of tbo bouse is ^momlly joined by somti res; 
Chil'ans and Gira^iati, seated on narrow ualtresces, t^t^ eiti 
ono big platter phu^od on a wooden stvol, or each fnmi a ^ 

elate. The meal is of mill(*t and wheat brea4l, ptilsrand rice ^'n 
attor EOrvod in a uniall cup, aiid whey» Bometuues milk, in a )air>l 
After another pipe tbo Jadeja gix-s to rest, and, rising' 
watihed and drvaso^, and t>its chattiog or eettliug fautily •■ 
al)«>nt live, be goeii to the villa^ temple and comes back at dukttti 
TaJciug bis scat in tho gateway platform, if he is a big man a tordi| 
is lighted and pt»oplo come and pay their re«pect8 to him aud btl 
hear» eomplainiB and Kcttlos diMpales. About r-iifbt, pii ■ 
outer robe, he gees to Mdta's t^^mple, and washing hi^ hai 
burns incuuKe iind says some piiiyertj.' Ho thou goes to ibc m ui 
qnartera, where, ncated on a Kmall riuilt«d soat, he gathers bi.-^ chiU 
round him and chatD with them liJl supper is rvady. He vat» »up| 
in the women's iptarUirs with tho men and some of tho cliildron tii 
tbe femily, tbe misal consisting of pulse and rice Uhi^-hdi, miWot breads 
pickles, thin wafer biscuits, pdjmd, aud uiilk. Some - 
never come ont after dinner. Others sit in tbe giitoway and 
bearing news and stories, and go to rest in tbe women's qi 
about ton or elevcD. The yuuug men of the family spend mc 
their time in looking afttjV VHuindaries, tracking thieves and n^bi/rsf 
ti'aiaiug horses, and learuiug to bant and shoot. Tbo wift* of 
Jadoja risos lator than her buHbaud, abuut sunrise. Bbe begins tt 
day by making three reverences to her mother-in-law and to ut~ 

' Twopmycniin cnrnmnn luie »ra : n||jji ^ )( wjjji, <^5 (ft Q '*\\\f \ iM^ 
M*l 2l4^r3 3>ntWMM ^Itj*; thUis. Ogwldonll know nothing luKlvnt 
nothing, Uioii knuwcnl everything. Cut me, I pray thee, on * heap of wealth Atid g 
fortonr. Tlit-<ith«rnini.:«Iatln'*«1liq^, "toi f^ <V^'**\\\ Willi ai>tlri« 
^ SXM^iX^^ N<^^i; t^»t IK, lb« hdght uid abMHlinoMnf ■ Usxt ilrp«si)( 
Uic itretiotli Aii'I tiehtncax ul tho inpn, w tJie grMtneM ot a aiutct L«. tlwj 
ii shiywD by bia kinmoM to hia {cople. i.t. tbs piayfir. 





vvfn to BfiTanta, khavati, who nro lirr soninm, bat not to bond- 

' Tbtn, after w^wiLing', »he luoks tfi tlie distribution of 

I'iilk iuuong KerruuiH aud depiriKlt^nlt!, ballieci ubout oightj 

sacroli basil, looks oftertho cbildrcu'st lirt-iikfaRt, andgoinp 

■|>I» the cooking' nr liclfih t« uiakt' j^oiue of 

■r liuitliain] li;iw douf, hIuj bivjik-fasts, alfops 

o ui hours, ituil if yoiin^'st-WK or chats, or if oUI reads or 

faiiTi'd K»oks HII evening. Bt*l'urQ diirk thejr put' ou fresh 

oluthw, uud thn yi^tuii^ wires but not thoduu^hutrs of the 

ic* as in the morning, rovorenco the mother-in-law aod 

r women. A tamp fed with biiittr in tlieu lighted in the 

^ ihti womun go aud bolp ia Jiwkiug after tho 

■ ■i-i«r. 

Td 1818, TiMiny wero in mattors of food MiihammadanR, pmplo>-ing 
[toalmin cooks, eating tiesh, and rofusiug things forbidden in tho 
Now, excepf about tlvp per i-ont, they hVe as Hindns, most 
ivn ^m pimpio fare, resrpcrHnjj the Uajpnt foeliTig- against eating 
h1 tifddum utiing animal food. Some omoog them, 
. am striet vegiilariaiis. Tho men are greatly 
(be use of inhiwvo and opium water, bnt except at their 
they do not drink liquor to oxccbb.' The woman chow 
id the old women take unufT, but they never smoke or take 
id •ehlom drink liquor or eat meat. \Vhen meat is used, it 
tiQed by a MiiHalaitiQ and conkod at a distance L'om the usmd 
In yoolh, viiforoHB, manly, anJ indepentlent, tho Jideja 
agrd liy debatichvryj Jiud thuugh kiudly, bunost, courieuus, 
le mattiTfi ke*fnwittod, in alw^iys ihriflleas, thoughilcaa, 
IttTcnIy, and proud.^ Tho women, very tidy and careful 
looks, are bold, eutorprisiug, aud high-spirited, a^^urdiug 
I ■ . ' 'the wice mothers of fools.' Intriguinj;, jt«I(Uis, 
V, aud fond of show, as the proverb says, ' they marry 
d, U'll ihv miin', uod when they can r^'cure rich husbauds, 
their separatu villages and their own egtubUshmciita. They 


rm xrf fercmoM IA, enverinff the n>ht band vith tJvc etui at tito hiwddnth, 

■ ■ ■' ■ ■ ' '■ -f , itU. thulHMxJ. 

:• iici-in Ui liBvi- itii|>r»vcd. Tba early 

..,.-.;. . L..t upci-suiue. Aliiioii tivtiry rilLme lud 

.u were ituuie (mm aagnr. cbtea, *nd curaCa. Many w«r9 

^c ttiAfl in * hnii<lre<t but •Iraok ipiriU aa mgolArly u a 

.UuMunUi. Trail*. Bom. Lit Sua IT. 22ft. 

< biuven', wtiivb tw« uideml twen <(n«*tkuied (Mr. Wtllianu, 

• lit, inanty, and ^irepiwenmnij mimnera (ICIpliinRtiiiiti'a 

lc. 4!)), the JAdejAa wnre fofucrl]' cn.-'litiil with Intt 

^_ .. ^ I , Lvt Miiii-r MiihanimA(l A1i(1805)> an i'"" "iit-iiuiiiiny 

t]»siMNU*E« '!av ami tu|;ht iii im sutA an»Athtg. leaving th«tr work to 

iTi^rj^Tn. -'n.-:. .'ndc:'.'.'',' r.'i), ir(lSIK}, 'Aie amoatignofwit uiil inilolcnt 

vii). tho spirit, tlbc acnv of hnnour, n>ir tho 

^1 .1, wJiicli vrcni lo nnuu'kablu ui tlii.>ir Aiiceaton.' 

IJ. :.'V;i. Ill ivti Mm. futUus (Cut«h,138) deicri boa them •■ 

IT--U-1, uid <Tn«l. tlieir lu^uiu-d fitcea Mtr^ins laleiDparMnce 

Siiic-e thiMi,tlii> dovay i-f Mu»«ln>An |)0«-Kr, tli« «i»Mpl« ot 

-I RAna, tJii> dci'Iinc <it utfnnticidn, tl>a clivisi»ii iif l&nd, atul tho 

i! eomh(Ded w lOjiLkv thu JatltjAi give uy eeveral uC Uietr liiuijwWd 





In auy ili>siirTatfl eutyrpri»n» ppvcml of tbom, weai-iDR 

!.,iip.-<-l LurhanH, used t<i vdw t<i rouqucr or die ; ft^iii when 

l>Altle> went afpuntft tbeni aucl Jufvut whs ccrtAiD, the 

jiutniuu-!! diijmotmCi'il, tini tbt*ir watAt^bitDili! t((|{other, lucked 

i» fiiifit (if rlii*Mi, and jjTft^pLHl iheir Rpoars.' An rho 

■try til*" .ladejas liav*? a strout'i'lan ffclinif, 

■ iire« willi iiim, u det'p resport fnr their 

Undor tho Rao in the brotherhood, hhayi'td, of smnllor 

id to jiL'ld him military si'rvicu, nn aiiccoMKion prvscated 

with a sword uml h turbiui, but, cx<;D[>t un the acceKi?-iou of a 

!■■: Tin rt'Ut nr tribntt*. On hi* own oHLftte each of 

liHs, until lately, bt'eu independent, eierctsing- 

id li. ' powtTK ijvor hiA people. lately, aA ia 

briow ,1 , rhe ohiofs have Iwvjn urranj^d into claanea 

to rhtir wealth and eHtnblishnients, and they have been 

with fix«'d and pnidi.Mi powt-rs. In ih« families of all the 

iiicladjutr His Hii^hncas (he Riio's family, each son can 

-' Thy younjrer familien uf each branch 

the Kau, but t') the bead nf thKir linvnrh; 

in the matter of military si^rvicc, the chiefs of the 

inches have no power uver tho younger meinbers of their 

rb. lu hifl omi villa^ each landlord is tnue]Ktideal<. StiU the 

ihc brancli han a pcsition r>f respect., and in chonen referee 

Thim^'b impr-iving' aa cultivatora, and giving must of 

10 (Jiijnrriti schooling, the JSdejits do not take to 

I' •', and frotu their iucreaw) in uuniberti and the 

itif diTiBion of eatotos are, oa tho wholoj a declining 


same stock as J&dojiis, the ^ ^ AtJ^p * bold a lower place, and 

'" I them in lottinfi- their women iipiXiar in pHblic, in alhnving 

fiiKge, in more freely g'iving their dau^ht*jrs to Ma-salmana, 

m luort) widely adopting Muftainian beliefs and practices. 

■ ■• 'hat they are rongheratid poorer, they do not differ 
in food, dress, or customs. Without thrift or 

uuui^ of them r^ve their children auy schooling and 
Rogiu of improvement. 

th*t Dnri(?r|nnB, Ahdwt (390) are partly npning from Abdo 

Til .\l»da, fifth in descent fi*om .lam Jdda, whn ifaye 

-trJci'it' AhJiitia ; A'mnm, sprung' from Aniarji are 

l« partly l)atiK^; and Bur<irkii, Hindus and MiiHaim^ns 

'hji the 6on of Mukaji. Theri! am Wftjdet ; 

^l|a«. cJiiefly in Abddl^a and Oarda, now Mu»uluian!?; Cfihtcjen 

■ weat abiHii l>akliiiat and Kora ; Dnl^^ Kindua 
'"« : Oajfinji, Miisaliiiitng sprung from Gajanji, the 

* from Lfikhn Jiideja ; fJiihdn found in AbdAsn ; 
II ^ ni Hothiji, Hec<^>nd in destx'nt from Ji^iu Lokfaa, 




\m BlfCVfT*, L m7. The Ant nf thcMc in ootnmun uiiau^ oth«r Rajpat tribto. 
tm IMK wmuu ■ nrnliii^ irr iiAtheriu)^ u .VuMindmi daivj, m tnMitin^ 
IiUiJm •won (•> "I'l^'y t''*^' " "■>) t<> t)i« low ur Suiauu tntHv lu Um 
)OBUi<r. the ntau, Um) itwb. 

• lK-9 

IBouiLay Ojut^tt 









DDfl funnd in Uikli^mt and K^ntbi ; Jdd'U au ufr»l)uot fniin u 
iiiniii clan tti Jil<lo]iii ; Jfunnt InnH-owncTK, muhjiMfuM, fo« 
iiltiiut NavinAI and Bt-rija ; Kimuhhs fmmd in Vii^iJ ; Kit 
liviuii,'»l>oiit Vatlvn ; Kcm (KtH> HfilH»), mm MusfLlnn'ms, Tnud-litilt 
JD itpiiraud Gholoi in OurJa; Kaiutihjn'ui ear]^ llajpuc wCtU'M liri^ 
abriiit ihu villa^^e of K^Uagrn ; Mokiin ku gSshoot uf tbe Moki ' 
Haj^iiits found about Hibbar and Aral ; Paijerit living abuoL 
P<uiayihi a brnnrb of rho Kann<iA»!s fi>und in Vn^iid ; Rt^i 
llTiugal'uii!. Vinjau ; Si>iiikfilii,a brancb of Sudbas, fuund in Kl 
VAgnd, and Knnibi ; \''irnmifis, an offshooL nf Ibe iSaiiiiuttH, f"uud< 
Uardaand Piivar; and V^erarH foniid abont PAvar and Lukhpat. 

Olhcr bnim-bt's of ibo Sainnia iribo arc Dcdds), lliilas, Mi 
Ustiyii*. Tin? Hbua's,' or Virbha<Iras {oOti), are an ear _ 
from Uie Jadej^s Bprung from Deda, twcoud iu desceut frota 
Lokba. Thoirare found in V&;^d, Machhultnntbu, and Hi'ililr. ' 
chief t«wn of ibeJr beadmau is Kanthkoi. Tbey pride tbtins*! 
on (be martial and eutt* rprisiutf spirit of their aucu^tum. Ua I 
(1050) are sprung from HAIaji, sou uf Gajanji, st'coud iti deficont fin 
J^ l,akba. Kalaji, after a long ^tingjcrle, subdued all tb(> rill 
iD tbu Houtb^ middle, aud wcHtof Cutob. Jdui lUval, a descvod 
of tliia UfiUji. couquered the west of KAtbiawfir, named it H/iUr, 
made Xaranngar bis capital. He is the ancestor of tbu pnMnMil JS 
Sucb lialds as remamed in Cutcb eujijy suuiu villagUH iu K&Q 
and Haliicbovisi. Mods (o*>0), tbo dosL'tudauLiof Mod, tbe brotl 
of Abibi, are laiid-owm-rtj, mulyirdsios, iu Ibw Modft-«a district. M 
became a I'nnvnrt Ut I»]iim and undertook an o^Lpodition to Uil 
where be died. Hi» body K-a^s brought to ModnKa and r>vcr his to 
a moiM^ue bad itwa i-aised, vrhera be is wombipped by the Mods- 

RonHA 'n, 4657 strong, botb Uindna and Muhammadans, are Ian 
iu the north of tbo ppoviuce. A diviaJou of tbe Parniiir Irib 
they are genpndly suppoHpii to be the Sogdoi or Sodno fou 
by Alexander (.^25 a.c.) below tbe conflucnco of tbo five Paoj 
rivers." At one lime boldiug a iargw territory in Upjjer Sind. 
which Aror was rhe capital, thoy were gmdiially, between tbe aij^l 
and thirteenth opnturiti«i, driven soatb-eajit by the IhlnmJin 
CDn({Uen>r8. Tbey coutiuued Iu rule at Umarkut iu the desiTt till Ui 
were clpf»>atP<I and driren nur by ihi- Siud KtillHrrfii* altout 17"jO.* 
branob of tbem entered (lujnrai. early in rhe fourteenili century, aei 
iu reward [or btdp given to tJie Vagbela chief of VVadhwiii, «■■ 
prewuted njib the estates of Mtilij Tbou, Chotila^ and Cbovari.* 
the boifinnincr of tbe proscDt century the Cutch Sodhds were in a Ti 

• Th'^e I>wU« who Iitp nor Silnhdrpur irr caIW KAlA*. 
s T-I's T! M*-'''*". ' *^^ : .Ii.i.r. R. A- Soc., I. ."O, 34. 

I SnJir«.:sf ; luiil DJoJomi, Sodroi. 

1. ...;;. 4i(TT, I't I atini- (if rindc, IftS,' 
ipil (ir St. SlaKiD, liFu^. > >n.-c. vX. Ijtttilie iJc I'Tti 
iius »D<i Jdi)e,>U« Li4.-tw'vi.-n Httakjir and I'inar. 
Ola<1<rm'« A in-> Aktion. il. 1(7. Tod liUjuithBa. L 6S) aMl«« that tbe Utu: 
TOlLdivininD r<f l^K^Iia*. gate il« auitf tu Uiiisrkat, 

* -Rla Mai*, iil. 2Sb. 

de.SL M 

wriWr* I" - ■•• .ii 

• Eliii'ti (tl.torw I. .'■ 



Iftinn livinir I'lii'-ffy at liaii'Iill.i, aii-l, for tH^venil yi-«i-s 

Ua^uf tliD HritUh connection with Cntcli( 1 8U>-ltj22), 

tb6 gremieat. ruin and dititresi) in tbo east of ihe 

! aro Liill, EHnmj;Iy nmde. arxl somowluit jiwiirthy, 

111 ■ >r their iicaiitl'. They tjilk Cutchi, and in ■ir(?v4 

.lilkT Erutn otlwr Cutob Hajjmfs. .Settlml Ju suuil! 

UMrtb I'f C'uti-h anrl in smne of the Kiiu ishituls 

»[H H few rulu'viitors, chiefly hordsmpn, most of ihcm in 

Their chii'f oiim"otion with Culch is through the 

thuir ilau>rhtt!r» with tho hi:i<liii^ Jiiihija nnd MnsnIiiitLn 

'I ira! alji!itii-.-i auil mnch personnl beauty the 

Hi iiud inlriimiuy, aoconiini^ to ilarMurdo,- 

U> rtiuK': iiWiiy with thuir liti^lm'ids that th'-'irHoiin tuny 

tnlii. .S'Kih«?t never iutrrmarry, hut tako wivoa from 

Kl>aiiri, Sulftiiki, Chnhlin, Ilflthod, and Vaghola HaiputB.* 

uDiirtfly without uducatinn. KA'MDKi'ora'As^ 53, a diatinot 

of .Sodhis, nro fuond in Khiivda. 

iGajfLr.'»{ K;ij[nita(Hv'>I7)i>f C'litWihrtlouj; trO two main dirisionti, 
iniiL ,i.-d of Chiivdaa, Kohinkis and Vajfholaa tho re])rt-'sentatives 
s in)n» of Aiihtlr^dA, th(i other including a numbor of 
!;, taxwuEisfitijiirs Kiipitoand t-o havo settled in Cutchwhtm 
Anhilviitln. ni!»((7i*l- I80t).* Tho chusses locally known 
' ~ '■ D'me .if thvin an.' yf the Gujar triho, are 

1 V«^'ht>!n towns of (Jtidi, Palanavn, JiltiviJa, 
IJmit\ aud KidiiinH^ar ; in tliij two HamipiKir*; auj 
. .^-vasof Kaiimor,Churod,and itav. Kaiiug withl*aruiia 
Ahini, Miiliflj SnthAm, Luhdrs, Kah^u-j^, jtharvii<1fl. 
'' ' '' .«id Atits, they allow widow niarriiiE^i' and 
■r in public. Of the three fcirinifly rubnif 
liuit ttui. tlo not, miirry with the Giijar*<, (ho <..'iiA'vriA'», 
Jy caim* from ]*»nt^hn.'<ar in l*alan[)ur, the scat of 





I we ftrvn lieJow p. KtS. 

~ ^' ~ U. 233. Uis dajigbtota aro <me of (he vminm of a 'Ips-rt 

'M mrti antnotiniM f«teh u much h £1000 (Rj. lii.'NHii, 

T tJie girl Mtil («r haJf « hundrtHl itocdy KlAtiniu. l>\t.*'\ 

lu (lltlK;Uie TUlU SixUtia were wi muuh inixL-il up with 

•I thev iiouM iiut 1m kiiuwri fmni tlt^m either iit drcMy 

.. Tnuia. Ki.iu. La. Sih-. 1L ^Vl. 

<%un itiin-t*. \Mnn. Kh.\UiM. lt»<L]inia, RiiCiyAA, CMndia, OhAmK 

"iMn-, Il-xlx, Ihi.UlU. <i«M>. .Ij^ JIulla, J«cu, Kller. 

jj^-v*. Hvirii*, M«r«. MulrAio. NKkumlte, rftmulrs, 

1-.. Sodlui, S>lAnki, Saxn. TaAgitaia. Tut^t I'ivan), 

I and Vko'iI*. Bxeepb tbose th*t «e oSUhoot* of Uu Mtme d*a all Uwaa 

■rihny proviuPcnfOwjsrtt, M wtjll 

I tillv 'i-vworit*'! a* alxirigiiic, ni 

. lUoeH.N.W.l'.. I. ya|. tioncntl 

•Mif Yi»chi or T'vhiin wIioi-uKhJ 

"',r-..i;,,Ti <.'<■ «•,!.. iir r^'. t. . .■•id\ 

.UJHI \ lUlllui, illF luUIul 11< l^'lllilHJ ■.illMlHt, Olt y 

■n >i( ilie riuifih wK'-rxi Hn^ wv M MUMlnian*. 

Ill l(m Xortli-W I yji. A ■t^'n.- nuuily 

• I. limy Vf re, i n ily>noiL> thu I'c* u>'l 

rBombftj G«a 


Chapter HI. 



JnyRhikhri tbe father of the ranownLnl VaiirAj (7 lf>-8(Hi).' The orif 
of thu Clrnvdaa ot C'liftl^tknta, who belmiK noither to the luniir ni 
IheRolnr mce and who jicoi^rdiiig to thciruwu lo^iuiai-y at'wtm( 
A<:' is trat'od to the wi-fct I'f rhe Indus. Thtiy iip»tt ;■ 

al. I .1 iidnl in no»"tjh-W4>st Kiithinwiir, thon ruled in 
PatOD SoiDDftlh io aoatb Kiitbiawdr, aod, abnnt the sixth uvntni 
retirod to HanuhaeAr on the wtstern shore of the Han.' Whawri 
tht'irorig^in, they wore, in thfiir rinic of pro»pe|iiy {746,.94'2) a.s kini 
of Auhitvada, ndniitti?d to » vvrv high nmk uiiiong Itajputf tnari 
oreu thf daiifjhtiTS of iht- <ndil<itsi)f Me^war.* WIh-Hj iu tf42^ 
Ch4Tdat4 Ifi^r Anhilvjidn, onp of .Sfiniatsiiijr's con»)in'3 Mnvi'fl, 
a Bbaiiiini, tied with her infant sod to hor father's house at J( 
This hoy, namtKl Ahipat, nu reaL-bing* manhood beonine a forrni(]n.t 
outlaw. 'I'akinjf nine hnndr(«! villages in Cutch he made JHorj 
his capital and riiied there for many years. The last chief of 
boQso was Funj&ji who tivml in t)ie rei^ii of Ald-nd-din Kbilj 
(1295 - ISIft).' In the fonrt<»entIi century the Saninms and Jadt-jt 
Hpread over Oulch and svrfslod their fortro»9ea fr>.mj the Chivi' 
chieftainH." In 1^18 theChovdns wore little known in Cutch. Tl 
bad ftiHen to be omiera ^if s<ime trifling estate, girtig, held rail 
as surrauts, khitvis, of the J^dcjns llian ils lords of the soil. 
present, 1876, CLavdte are almost all either Kajpiit serrnntn 
Miihaninindan tJuMiors. In all Cutch there are only oip^ 
of pure Chavda descent.' While the provinca was ui 
SoLANKi king^ of Anhilvadft {t}|.2-l2-M)) many feiuiilie* of thati 
tribe seltlud iu Cutch. Thu only tracu of thorn is in the namoti 
Bomo of the Rajput household sorvajiUt.^ Tho VA'auELA'e,* 17^ 
a bra nch of the Sol ao lri g, who nhoiifc 1240 overthrew the mil 
family of AnhilTada »ud retained power till the cI'irh of 
century,'" included pgi-t at , leaat of in their domJl 
Thoy were the ruling tribe in V6i^^ ' iu the fa^t when (135' 

' It u Ouubtful wlteiber Vanrilj'a f(ith«r wu not tb« king of IHn mtkw tl|M(< 
PutchilBKr. Of pADchlLasr is Der}iAfj« lli« miiiu likoly. Miijvr J. W. WatMa. 

* hill. Aiit. IV. l-h')- IM. Tfacv olaim ttescvnt fnita Kaja Mia 
> Ti-I'm Wontcrn Iiiilui, 41'Z A^t Wi,\\n, -Zi. Tuil iu t>ue [iwuge (RAjiu'' 

vugseab llit?y wnre Nkytliic. Ht aftenvani* (Wiwtcm indUL 412) tr i 
S««kho4TrtrA nr .Swotra (.IT tlit' tofcut <i< Africm, uti) no mARM tlicni i .. 
tA AJosiui'lor'a I.t25| tirueli Dolonisu iujt Miutuili'ii I'rami^a it'Or. Ill .%. :<7i 
Hknkhtxlvint uliicli Tud mi*tM>k Ua 8uti>trA nt, (JiDra mwhih little duolit, iipi n 
Dw4riui, tiut iiucotta whutr pnuRir Himlu iiAni« jg Uviua.SnlUitu*. Kinl'k Uinl 
Abmodi. StO. Mitj-.r J, \\. \\'*Uun. 

* Tod'* RA^tlijiii, I. ITJ. 
s &Ui«.l. W. \Vii,t«M., AMi. Iio|.. l8T4.7.'i. IBl 

* S<iu>e of t.^i' I'lilviU cliiela nt^rv tlioii •vtUv<l in the exlrviiu: out uf Cpb 
I>«tails«r* givon Ixiluw p, IHI. ^" 

* Mr. DaliMOrani l>. Khnkhar, ^Mt liuMmlM-t 1879. 
■ Iim). Aiil. V. i;i. lilt ni)rtJ)vm limiwii ■■( th« Kii?nt SoUtiki trtbc (•nuiiuif 

Gujjmit m SWl.maA in <47^ a.i>.) tlie»<iithvrij it OiAiukya lirAuJi hwl — t<>tJt->| 
it» BWty as lar north u tlM N»rf-i»-iB. Btihlur in Iml- Aiit VI. IJfi. 

' 111* u'lTwl (onn id nnid t<> \m llJiiKfila ('|V,.r» ItAj»><il.4ii. I ;Wi foKti BhAg It 
•on r>( Sxllirij. Ihit tin- imrm- iiniliKltly I'lunHa frou. V.littitl, vt Vyai-UnilNuli. 
P*tiii.jHir. Mr, rinlj^trAm l*. Klinkliar. 

" Vicb'-U fivmiliw vtill ruk- in BhigtlkliAm], in (tixiilvAiui, wit) in I*iUrur. I 
Th«t«d in i'Al&n[>ur. 

" Th'iir .'hiPl town* IB Vnjt«d Mid tV4inth»l urn Dch.~BllinuliU*Jjsi>j Jltt** 
U»di4iii, Mix! I'^ltUiw u. Tk»)' tv trilmui^- !■> Hi» Hi^kbOM ittc lUo. " 



was orcmiD Iiy flip Siiinnmi* ami .Isflejafl. Tlif'y suffored 

,At the IihikU of t)u! J/kIi-jiis, atifl Lif thtAr \r\hv oa\y abuut a 

|.fiMoilitw are lo ft of which iicd'i in the heml, Kxv^'pt that tbffV are 

fnaX \of^ flin4^:i io injitiurs of caste, a result f»f their closor 

tion with Nfuafilm^ns and half-MnnAlman Jndojiui, the Cnich 

^dg not iu customs or iu way of litriug differ frum ^jrdinary 

jM, ]ti'=idti3 C'hiJ TdfL s gii d S v-lanltia tkeir ihiughterB 

Uijiii, nnJT latf-ly, in a fnw cjvses, Musalradna.' 

may l>o added the Ctouiw,' 8y7, of whom ihore 

lOttaes of pupu bl(K>d »rid triAny that hnvu fallen inti) tho 

^ftl family srrvjinta, Jt/tonw. Theae four clans intemiBrry, 

\he tauiL' bui^uafp}, woar ths sanit! dro!<8, oat the same foud^ 

tho «Lino birtb, marriage, and death ciislotniii. 

I:! '1 -.i-ichteu snb-divisioQs are found in Central Cat«ht 
'TT tp. 85) undur the head " Musalinana" 

ftr IluBbautUU©!!* chuii,' four cIjMiwi'H with » st rou^'Th of 48,588 
or 11"^^ i-NT n'jit i.)f the whojo limdu ixipidation. Of these 
9^106 wvnTKunhiji; ltII9Sathvi;rHB; lO-W U&lis ; and U,i56 Kolis. 

!"',4titi, aro found in the east and west of tho province. 

H ' '!ti uuialior, l!l,Urt arc the- half Miisaluian half Hindu 

|'i«. an ao'.'iHiu'- of wh-ttn is ffivciit Wlow under the head 

_. ." Of tho n*«t, l-3>ti-Janf Luvaaaud 1789 AnjuiU, Except 

hart) nu rrindowsand no separate eook-rouin, thetr bouavsara 

Aunens Vhf^v u{ VauiapeaMiDia. Besideit their dwellingut 

lilies hava a ijteadinju^^ vdtii, where tjoimi of thu yoiin>|r men 

Mid wlii^rri tlitf pUiutfh oaitlt- and uiOHt of thu fodder and fuel 

E|i|it. In dress the Kaubi ■» Uke the Vania, only that instead 

[WiujU- cloth, he wears hyoAi^ Iruufltrs, churiui. Their ehief meal 

!>D iu the tieldit aUiut ei^ht in thi" muming, some of it being* 

(io bo hniflhcd about nuun. Like the Blutns&li, when hard- 

.iho Lern cats n specially larjn^ whare of claritied bntt-er, and 

>1d weathtT takef sweet fill wHth his bread. He sinokes 

rft rnbiici-ii, but neither eats me»t nor t^i-keH li<{nor or opium. 

3tft all of tht'iu are huttbaiidnien Hxwiling I'n patient haril 

Thuy are thrifty and pi-osperouK, muHt of thuin having, besides 

ir -'^ o'-li intltle, two LTiws and one or I wo buffaloes, and many oE 

-rort) of buried trmwuro. Brcept in the cold weather 

l- ' i"i work at daybreak, brei»kfa«ts about 

. >i re.-4lna>^itiu at niiun, and then works on 

irk. Till* women li«)ip in the HeblH bringing ihf'ir hiiRbamlti' 

iul and wurkiuff with them till evening, hevaa aj-» careful to 

Ibn rules ahciut watihinfr, bathing often, at Icait on ihe eleventh. 

■p. 1874-76, IM. Tnuu bout. Lit. S<k-. 1], 237. 

MArwilF hr tli<> IUiIiiwIb ntniiit thf mitMle of the 

V tiDnilrc<l nnil tiftj vriiM. t'">k I'lrwn in the gulf of 

<:ti bj Mnlianitn.'lil Tiijjlitik (1347) tv" lF>duii; Gnjointt 

(uiiMb. U|« ^Juefs of RajpipU in tUiwu Kkitha, and o( BluvuAgw in 

)>«. Bhirin, (Miuiilr^k. Dhamc, (lalincn, JaklianU, Kamvi. NlfpU, fliy«. 

-"*^W ndluvulinit eliwM*, itioAt <Uvi,l VAiuia nntl Bkftnuli*. wrt 
Ititx, bhAVaint, A hfn. Rbu-v»il8, mi<I i>lber law cUwea live If 

Chapter I] 






[Bombay Gazetta^ 

— - - - " *— " '-^:r Nsli.x'ks on ihe -JOtli,, 

r rr- 1 " _ " - - - -1 - =:- T- i - ij:e ...iilv three hulida^ 

- - ~ - - - ■ ; .; AU ".la BLavaDI, bllt Uia&J: 

- ' .- - - ~- _..— --- - z: . : uy^Ti j-i.inie grain fa; 

-■■--" _"~~i^:^ i<:> Xarnyiinsar ac\ 

- ■ ■",-:-:: ri'- :■ iii-i liiarried bef'We 

--■■■" -■ ."•-.._> ti- Ijridtr'o jewflry, 

Ilr. 7'J- lUU}. Birthi^ 
. -1.: i-rr-.-jisieriiiytliehirtt 

- 1 ~ V- - - ::.r Tr.]?„Tiy isdivided. 

- - ■ -'--'::-.: :*;. ..r: f-.r the funeral 

- ' .- - '-^-.~ .:•'■,■ wi'.h their sons in 

■* .: "-- _ i-e v.An-.iL'ciiieut, anil 

.— - : -'L !■: - --"s wiff, id made to 

- ---1 :^ ?.;:!:td «-iih cooked 

". - ■ -■ ■■ ■ 7. . .--. ^-^^.•■:-->5 skilful, hard- 

; _- - -. ^ . _-' .• \ ::■.'-'z^^\s in religion, 

--- '- . -.^- ". ':. .»i::.anj jwifi,'/, wLa 

' ' ^ - - - 1 - :■:' hiive come from 
■■".-- -r .-i Ma us, 1017, are 

- _■ ■ --7- i. . - _ t" ._-; :" ";:.■! i-bietly in A'agaJ. 

-...*. ■!.- i^-i" rii K- 'lis, who haw 

•.!.-. ■^ .-: L.~~: :: -/fKiithiawarandare 

■ - " "^ L-i- : ■■"7-:.-i.- i::\-me frc'Ui Catch. 

> *- ' "■■ - : -.-. :^ :. '-■: -:•_■* jeiideil from the 

- :. -"■■■-". 1 "r'vfl-wer Sind at the 

-" ~'- - " 7" .r'.T :';■..■ (.'H'.ch Kolis used 

; .' . -'~ :;.; .:.:v-. ;i':ii.'-t all settled as 

J-irtiiii;:: ..' -.r. - - ".t^- ; ^i:h ;! strenirth of ;)l,flt;6 
, - - :■:, ■■..; M ■.:::■ ;::Iati-.n. Ofthese^JW^ 

"■ . ' >. ~ ■.■.--■:' r r L .1. :r-. 'r;.t.!<>;;iitlis ; o:2li8 Darjis, 

< \ '"_■*, ■ ■ ". .n : 'I'.-r S'liij'iiT'a Salsits, masons; 

- - <. -:■-■■ :< : ■■rl Vii;-;!-;, wiavors of ailkicloth, 
■ ■, '. '. -'.■■. '.:-~. :::.ik-;--; ^f kimij',",' ba^-ki'tit. 

■' ' ■ "^ V - .: .'■■ ■. *. '. ■ '■'.'. ;"■' ^^ ' th'-T parts of ti'iijarat, IJcIonfC 

-, :',-'..- " '. ■ '\_".ii;ir .S'liis, o"»;J", kin.iwn as Vanis 
N ■ ^ 'i-> - ■r LToldsitiitlis, Kansnra Si'uis and 

M v' • " S ■■■■-;.. :r:A ::■ Binij. s-'iiie i>f the best silver workers 
.!•,' .' '■ ■%';• ■.:l!. tiirt'i-iir. r, uud >h"eiiiiiker eastes. The 

1,- ••.■'.:■■ <.•■■■• I ■.■■—. r> \:iw ■■mv been ^^^uilis iiiid say ahiWi. 
Ii'i'i' \ M'^ ,'.; ' :\u y ;.i.'k t.- iviirkiuL' in .irold and silver, atul Sii 
..iMi,. I.. ■.,• ,:i:,'.i S.'iii^. Tliey iiijike and jiaiiit ^'(dd, silver, niiJ 
|in.'|i,iil i'ii':i;!;irit-i. "I'liey an* in iniddlinL'" ennditinn with yearly 

■ . \.iv\ Ml',' ti\'ni 113 rii £70 (Kk. I:i0 - 7''i*). Thtm^di sniiic 

t(>.i lii}< .MuMi-^si'-.. the p-ealer part are fi>lli)wei-s iif (iusiiinji 

■ 111. I \>il III. '.-.'s. IV. ];i:t. J1.I1 KliiiriJiiiHw'sini-Jt Kr.l.iii the luu-ln-cvist i-vW 

■ •I (III I'lilii'.l ii It iriir<'?t to Kuli.- ill (null. Klli'iff Historv. I. \.\ 

IkJ \t.i \ . 171. '' KUi-'fi. llUt'Tv. I. \i\ -"il!i-.,:i| 

* Ai.l. K.|. Is; I T.'.. iVJ. 



family goddess is Vaghesbvari.* The caste liaa five headmen 
jwer to enforce caste rules, and, with the concurrence of four 
able members of the caste, to punish petty offences by fines 
^ from 7^d. to 8». (5 arts. - Re. l^), and graver breaches of the 
ly fines of as much as £3 (Rs. 30). 

Ni SoMia, 412 in number, claim to be Songhad Rajputs who* 
advice of Sidhraj Jaysing (1094- 1143), followed the profession 
dsmiths. 'J'hey are a sub-division of Parajia Sonis and are 

Patni from having lived at Patan. They have branches 
Chohan and Rathod. Some are goldsmiths, some carpenters, 
itone masons, and some husbandmen. They are in middling 
ion, their yearly earnings varying from £9 to£oO (Rs. 90-500). 

of them are followers of Vishnu, some of Svfi.minarayan, 
ime of goddesses. Different families have different family 
■flses, Hingiaj, Momai, and Asir, and some have as their guardian 
, Khftarpdl, the god of boundaries, or a Musalm&n saint, 
aen wear the sacred thread being girt with it generally at the 
ti mrflrriage, but with no special ceremony. They allow widow 
age and polygamy. Those who reverence Moslem saints,though 
bnry their dead, are still recognized as members of the caste. 

jisa'ea's, with a total strength of 2094 men, claim to have once 
K8hatri»,and state that, during some time of trouble, they took 
■calling of coppersmiths, Kansaras, on the advice of the goddess 
ikali. They claim to belong to the Mam or Marwar tribe of 
iras which they say has eighty-four branches, twenty-four of 
in Cutch.- They have no intercourse with goldsmiths and 
smiths. Their yearly earnings are said to be about £6 
iO). They are fullowei's of goddesses with Mahdkali as their 
divinity. They allow widow marriage. They have two 
len, patels, but allow them uo independent authority. 

aeSutha'rs, 2322, claim to bodescended from Gujar, the third 
Vishvakarma the divine ' world-builder,* and state that they 
jnce stone masons as well as carpenters, but gave up stone 
if because of an attack made on them when Sidhrfij Jaysing 
[gaged them in building his Rudramal.^ Their caste has, they 
OO Kub-divisious.* Must are carpenters, but some work in gold 
Iver and repair clocks and watches. They are in middling 
iou with yearlyincomes varying from £13 to£50 (Rs. 130- 500). 
follow Shiv, some Ramiiuaudj some Vishnu, and somo 

Chapter I 




I gfHideM is traditionally believed t<i have created two persons both of them 
The elder took to making ornaments oiid was (jailed Soiii, ajid the yuunger 
iu trade WM called V'^-pdri. 

four tribea of Kans^nia are according to these people Marni, Ahmedabwli, 
and Kdkrcji. 

ook on their caate, called Vishvakarma, says that about .^000 years ago when 
iste was formed, their ancestors washeii regularly, repeated the most sacred 
yo/ri mantra, and performed other ceremonies like Brdhmana, and like them 
'ided into families, <jatrm, aixl brariulies, nhiitlidii. 

iDg them are Abisnds, Agur^s, Baknlnids, Bhdrdtyis, Dndhaiiis, Gharvalias, 
is, VAgadi^s, Piniiras, aud N'adgduias. These are now family names rather thao 
tribe luviaiuiu. 



Ctuipt«r ZIL 




Svfiuiiunriyau- Piffprput fajiiilioa havo different p>ili!e»M*A ^ 
an Vcnli MstA and Dbrdng&d ){dta. Tbi>y aWuvt widviw tuariii 
Tliey have um KvuiIiikim, fnhl, rast« iiHU->liiiu» beiiiiT called atfl 
iQHlaticL' uf Edur n-ypir table jinMiibi-rs. Ma'bvadi 
cinjin t.t bflvc l«H)n Mirwiir Kiijputs whn took to ■ 
PantliurAiu rotolved to destniy the Kwhatris. T.ln>y aro uf 
brauches, Bambardi, Bhiiti, CLoliaii^ RaUiiMl, Sobuiki, and 
Thoujch some work in wood thpir chief occupation is buBlMndwl 
Their yearly parnings are eJitiiuated at fi-oin £10 Ui £13 (R«- 100^ 
1^0). Tliiiy all worship p-iddeswf's; dilTrrcnr fiiniilioR having dilTMr 
jfimrdiaii-s the c»jmiuonc?cli<iinir Chfliniin.X - liinki, V 

and Bbanililiau. Oim uf their aFicr-dpath i . , - is pfcul ■ 

the twnlfth day twolvo earthori jara full of waM-r, ejn'h with u met 
pot, tatmli, pontaininp codked food, are jj^von to BrAhmaua, who i 
making a male and female talf walk ruuud the jam, take ai 
the ptttH If^aving the cookud fnod to the boys of the ra.sic*. 
allow widow marriago, and havo a headman, p^*i, with 
limited authority. Ahib SrxRA'BS, 2600, say that thi>y«nnCT* 
Ahir KRliatris and took to i^rpt-ntry when Parabuniiii dcvt 
thft Kshatria. They aro of six tribps, Chohitn, Arndya, Fagni*! 
Ghiiti, Bhala, and Todhorya. They live aa carpenters uM 
hiuUaudmcii anrl are in nilddlin)| cinniuistanoes, their yesrij^ 
parninjfR var>-in|? from £211 ro £50 (Rr. 20i) -5O0). ^' 
ihem worship goddest^es, their guardian deity Ijeinfj .■ 
whose chief place of worship is the rillapo of Cmiya. i)i 
widow marriage and polygamy, and have no Leadiaau, ti^. 
cbooaing aomo of their number to aeUlodiKputea. 

Odjab Lii-iii'Rfl, 3407, claim to be of Kahatri descent. S[ 
from Home Kshatris who, f(>arin(? to fall Tictims to Parsho 
joined the Liihars* and took up the i-nlling' of blacksmiths. 
i»8t'e lias \fiii hraiichew, Balsom, (iohil, Kapya, ilakvana, 
Parmar, Piidana, ItAthod, Solanki, and Umrasto, and 
Hab-diviitionii, Sunitiva and Machhu-Kacha. Must are hlarka 
some carnentor^j ana seme workers in gold and silver. Th 
Bome follow Svaminarsyan, most wnrftliip jfoddesses. BhiivAn 
Miita, who founded tlieir caste and calling, is their family >;addew 
The men wear the sarreil thread Wing girt wiiJi it at. marrijig 
without any special ceremony. The caete allows widow marriag 
and polygamy, has a headman, paid, with little authority am 
aettlea dispntea at mass meetings. 

Dabjis,3268 strong, claim to be sprung from Kshatria who 
ei4ca]>e Parshiu-am's v('n;reance liecame tailors. There 
branchi>H, Chrivda, Drtbhij fialofha, Gohil, Lalnidia, Parmiir. . 
Solanki, and Sonara. Though »inme are car|)enier8, uR^Ht earn 
living aatiiilorH. They are a poor clana with yearly inromes rnrrii 
from £t> to £10 (Ra. GO. 100). Most wun<hip goddesjtes, bi 

* Tnulition hu it th&t the Lubir vab crcAleA hy flliortiai to pre|»fv Lli6 diMMif 
kill X ileiUAi) wlui hm pcuut a^uat all vtiicr ««K>[>utu. 

' Tritamji, luid somo Svaminfirftyan. HinglAj, whose chief 

irship is hhaj, ia thoir^mily goddess.. On the sixth day 

piur of sc'istiors covered with cloth is laid donn aud 

lo h'.'W before thBrn. At marri^eB the hridegroom 

thp house of the bride. They perforin no oeremoDiea 

of death, but on the eleventh day grain and clothes aro 

Br^hnums. They allow widow uiorriago. Thoy have a 

pattt, bnt give him little aathority and settle dispulea at a 

oi the ciute. 

KcKnnA'ss, 8216 strong, are hrieklayers, hut mostiy 

They ore in middlinfr condition with yearly incomes 

Ifrom £8 to £50 (Us. 80 . &00). Id religion chiefly 

lia fiome of them believe in Th&kor M^ndri. Their family 

BnUunoni. Thoy allow pelygBtny and widow marriage, 

headman, paid, with little authority. Ojha Kuicbha'bs, 

ig, say that thoir caste takes its origin from Brahma 

G a thoasand years old. Most of them live by making 

to. They are poor, with yearly incomes varying 

(Rs. riO-lSO], They worKhip goddcsscSj Chavau Milta 

family goddess. On the sixth day after birt.h a clay 

d, a round mark made on the child's forehead 

of lt>ad, and the child made to bow before the hurso. 

Kulow mansage and polygamy^ and have a headman, 

Tury little authority. 

taax'a Sala'ts, Formerly inhabitants of Navjinagar were 

, by the liirt of Cutoh, hocattse the Sompura Saints were 

ith their work. They chiim to be sprung from Kshatris, 

ipe Pamhurftu], saved themselves by pretending to bo 

iThey afterwards took to stone cutting and formed a 

>te. lliere are ei^ht hranchee, BaJsod, BUatti, Chohan, 

lUdthod, Solanki, and Tank. Most of them hving as 

aro poor, their yearly earnings varying from £6 to 

60-180). Bleep t a few who follow Svaminirayan fwd 

J, Uiey worship geddottses, their favourite family goardiana 

)ba, Chavan, and Parvati, whose chief place of worship is 

Widow marriage \» allowed. The caste haa ug 

, paid, four respectable mcmbura managing ita aSaira. 

' or Chhtta 's, 555 strong, claim to be of Kahatri descent 
Ivo branchea, Bhatti, ChohAn, dohil, ParmiSr, auj 
[*ailonng atul husbaudry are their chief occuputtous. They 
their yearly earnings varying from £7 lOff. to £12 lO/r. 
7b •\2^). They all worship goddesses. €hoal M£ta is 
fiunily goddess and her weapon a trident, trighitt, is kept 


(nAn luTA B tm<litt<m whm Panhurlin tnu nrtvnnisatitij) tlis 
ttkff won RajpuU livin^' at Itrij Mattitirft. FeuiDjf tlieir fate ibey 
I of caw Kiin Ui'vjt a m^t»lll:aIlt, uid cane tn Mirwir. This U&m 
'■nder, Chhi|i«, hi* folluwcra won; ftt lirat c«Itc4i C^IupiU. Tbi'ie 
' (lerlTtfd Itviui tboir haviug pbuod laitlt, Uuio, ia iUia ncaili«ant. 




Chapter in. 







by every EhfivsAr at his lioaae. The c&ete alloii-s widow n&r 
and polygamy, anfij without any headman, settles disputee si A ' 

Gita'ncra's, 101 ntrong, claiming deecent from a V&uia nu 
and a Rajput father, get their oaaie from mafciug battiK '■- -^ 
ghdneha, to bul<l tluwersfur Ihcirfaualy goddess Bahacb. '] 

aro of three branches, Solanki, Jliila, and Fadhior. '1 iii;y 
poor, bat not forced to beg. Followers of MAta, their fa 
goddess is Bahuchar&ji, whose chief place of worship in CI 
near Viramg^nt, where she has a handsome tctnplo built by agra 
Bajput whose infant daughter the goddeaa is said to hare cba: 
into a son. The caftfi has a headman, pahl. 

V k'K J x'»,G8l strong, we&ven of silk cloth, iMaYtAru., daira t( 
Kshatris the doscondaots of the great Sahaararjuu of Pnriuio U 
They are in middling condition earning yearly incomoa varying 
£6 to £80 (lis. 60 - 800). They worship goddesses, th^'ir fa 
goddess being Hingl&j Mits, whose chief place ofwor i 

villagu on the aea shore aboot 100 miles (60 kog) west, ct t 

All do not wear the sacred thread, hut some arc invested with 
before the goddess, and others for a fee of Cd. (4 os.) by G 
Mahdrdj. They atlow widow marriage and have a headman, 
with very little authority. Diiiputes are settled at a mass 
of the caste. , 

Under the head of Bards, Songsters aud Actors 
classes with a strength uf &8(i3 soulfi or 207 pur cent «if th 
Hindu population. Of these 619 wore Boa'ts and 9244 Cha* 
bards uud genial ogists. There ai-e two chief chwpt- 
l)ardH, Bhiits who are Hindus, and Dh^is who are 
Bb&ta, on the whole a declining class, are of two kinds, B 
Bhitts and Dougra Bhats, both originally Kan(7Jia Braha 
The Brahma BhdU though not now attacfaod to any parti 
caste wore originally the genealogists of the LohiSnAs, *nth i 
and the Kshatris they dine. They are tx>ggurs, husbandmen, 
Boldiora, and do not allow widow marriage. Tlio Doii^'th Bhiits( 
to bave come to Cutch with the Jadejiis, and are fouud chiefi 

' AcoordiDg to the Hiogal PnrAn the «rim <^f S»hurirjun, tb« gnat KutuUri 
and o( JuBuUgni, tho Btihrnm uga iukI falfagr of P&reburun, v«rv Mten. 
while fotebing water, for her hnalnad wm jxior. Rcnuka, the aage'* wite, ll 
of hor BUter's gruidenr sad her own ^vertv. Nn noiincr had ah« thought c 
than themtchcr bc«aiur ttngity. Oii }tvT hositaoJ oiiking whj thn jiitrhnr wm ■ 
ahe told him ahc had thought of hrr HuU-r'a wealth and hvr om n poverty, lu 
water leaked away. The aajie totd her ibv wiw 'H-mng in thinkiitg t< 
off than konelf. She aaid ' if I want to uic my K)*t«r tbrn; is iianily !< 
for ton men.' The sa^c replied thnt be had food for tea thxnisniid, l^ni nv hmI 
think it wiflo to call a Kihatri to dinner. Sh« penriated that tbv; abonld be j 
and her tict«r and her hiiiiliaud came with a varf Imx^ retinna Th>; ••mt- w% 
beipofhiawwh fulfilling cow. and his ncrcrHMnpty jnr BaliitiLi) iJit '■ i 

men. Lranitoj{ lh« aaun-c of the aaee'* ntcra of focij, t)ii> kingc*ri ' 
aad tb« jar, and forced the um to lie on a bed »< iK'Intod nails. V: 
the ill flfTocts of her partiatanM MDnka conunitud sni'-xli', nmt her voti I 
taking biaasc,jMrMii, irworc tn deatr- ') . ^ t MvKliatria. He hni< 
«ttbani, huiaoma whotookaheltcr, )..< \j MdMi wen 
(nm tfav TtfiM^ back, of th^goddeaa \<..w_ ,..:,, Lv i.,. Lt 




^tlndra iu Mntnil Abdilaa, and Bbujpurin the Kilnthi. 

w tli'j gi'tiealoj^ists of all tbo Sawmatri or Samma- 

d live on small rcj^istcriug* loca and yearly prosonts. 

R-ijpiitM uud KUiir&s, and do not woar tho sacrtid 

AJUc9 in tbf'ir duties and accomplimhmtmtSj Biaging festtre 

I or improved in booour of niarriagos and oilier great 

tmj Btoriea of the warlike deeda of the chiofa' 

^ of luve or telling old U'tfuds and tales of 

,. ~j tho Bhit and tbo Dluidi differ in lliit), that the 

or sings without, and tho Dh£di with, tho help of an 

tol acc^inpaniiucnt. Thore iii also tho diiforeuoe that the 

•re only Kiu^^n-H, and the Bh&ta, besides being utugora, ai-e 

uu and iioinotiinos hifltoriami. 




BAX was, according to Hindu 8t»ry, created, by Shiv 

• ■■ar animala of opposite dispoaitious, a lion, a sorpont, 

mad a goat. Tho lion attacked thn oow and tho serpent 

* the lion, liuitho herdsman (piiet^id them by the j^ft of some 

of his arm and bmugbt them safo to Shiv, who in ro^vard 

the name of th*! grazier, Chnran. In oriffin the Ch^rana 

»ai Ui be closoly allied to the* Alurs and Eathis; they are 

uf (he Kiithie, and address tho A.hirs as uncles, mufna. 

\3 to a local story thoy reached Cutch about the Barao 

tM t!i(< K&this. as R6m Parmar of Telang6na (700) ta Raid to 
to tho Chfirans. Thi-y are of three cJajyjea 
and Turners. The K-^ilihi^laa, found in cast 
Bfia aboQC Maujal and Kinpar, and in central Cutcb, are money- 
and Iruders. Fnjra their name, probjibly tho first of the 
vcttli'ra iu Cutcb. they speak a dialect liko that of the 
Tbe Mnru.s, from the du»crt in the north-east, are found 
anrl north AbdfUa includtnt^ M^k." Thay speak a 
;rt and live an cultivatoi-s. Tho TnniPrs, the largest 
fonud in tho K.anthi and Abdasa aa far wost aa 
iwid to have como with the Jddejils from 8ind. They 
W and are the JAdejaa* family bards.' They are fair, 
wtll luiide, not uuliko Kujputfi. The men dress like 
jU in turban, juioiH, jacket, hedio, tronsers, chomo, 
stb, dhoti, and tin* women in a robe, thtpado, bodice, 
and blaekwool blanket, ithihli, worn over the head. 
As hanlB. and as one of the Helf-muiitating ciistes, trdga taran, 
ChAnuia bold a high poettion. The Rajput allows him to Bmoke 


*Th*tAUu«iagu«cxainplaoftI)upecaIIu>(IUeot:y\Q«-'lfll^ vr ^It^ •^<1t>l 
f.tfHiM«l5; U'brn>.r<.ywi gwingT ^^, ^^ = sit; ^fl - -^X^, 
r-.^iUr ; »lly( = (»(l*t, «J»lcr; iH^i^fil^ll — *i' i\5. ^VUt mn yoa 

nr tlifl ilewy Und, U Una locftl iiAuie u( a trnct nMr NukhCnliMt in rautnJ 
I fammu tat it* li«K*7 dvwa. 

KikhiAwAr Cbamn Abal Pul a&yi < liSM) ' b battle thev rvpcat wirlika 
«tJi«CTMf»< They 4i« letter MldiernUun the BhAU.' CUdwia'a Aln-i- 







from fais pipe,' »n<l lio passes with hia waroe unharmed id 
tronblo and lij^htly taxed in times of peace. Cbiran wonieu, 
lo have supernatural power, are by tbe loner cluauw ad 
aa vuUa, mother or niut,ber-guddess, and several of them 
after death become goddesses.' Cb^rans are as a clnin 
and neat buth in their dress and houses, and Teiy v 
iudopendcnt. Except the bards who are idle and given L... .., 
they ore thrifty and hardworking. They are hardii, 
proprietoni, traders, and husbandmen. As bards they recite 
pruaes of Rajputs in short rude pieces^ some of them iu re< 
nolding large gifts of land. Leaving their women at homo, 
iraders they tako largo caravans of bullocks north to Mirwir 
Hiadn»tan, and cast through Gujar&t to M&lwa. 8omo of 
bullocks are for salo, the reat are pack carriers taking h 
oDcoannts, olnm, and dry dates from Cutch, and bringing back ea 
and tobacco from Miirw&r and Gnjur^t, By the opening of a 
roads and railways this pack bullock traffic has of Iftto grcal 
fallen off. Some of those who formerly had pack buUocks hA 
now eetttod as budera and monoy>lendorB. Others have tuken 
agricnltore, but they are new to the work and very unskilled. I 
grazier Charaus aro to be fonnd in Gulch. They ore very reUgia 
pa^g TOooh respect to Brihmans whom they employ aa bani 
pnests. Thoy cluofly worship the mother, mala, under n-.- ' 'i 

both in her woU known forniRof Hhav^ii, Ajnba^ and Toi 
under local namea.' Their birlb> marriage, and death cnstoms 
said not to differ from those of other Cutch Hindus. Wid 
marriage is allowed, and, especially among the TnraorH, both 
man and woman a divorce is veiy easily obtained. The K ' ' 
aJlow tho widow of the elder brother to marry the you: 
among none of thorn does the custom of female eocceasion pruvati 
preference to male. Each sob-division has its hereditary h 
called the old man, ghardero, and settles caste dispatea wbeu a 
company is met at some high feast. 

Of Personal Servants were there two cIbshob with a ai 
of 7055 souls or 1-91 percent, of the whole Hindu population. 
theael3C8 were Va'lakds, or Hajazns, barbers,* and 5067 Khan 
honaehold servants. Tho HuVxa, poor and in small nnmbers, foni 
in all porta of the province, do not differ from those of Gujnrfit. T 
Kbav&'s are the descendauUi of Itajpots who have lost their laoi 
Aa thmrwiTCH havo to appear in public and work in tho fielda, t 
better cksa of Bajputs will not give them their danghtersinmuriaj 
lliey have been forced to tako women irom the Tower dasaee ft 
to allow pcopio who have lost casto or arc of illE^giiimato Ita 
to join them. 8omo of tho Khav^s are the peritooal Berrants 
chiefs, others are soldiers, hnshaudmen, and taboorera. They i 

■ Mra. PiwtMn' Cutcb, 233 

'• Th« gvildeaMB. Kbodiyir, Varadi, and B*lia«h«n, oow vronUppod In Cntoha ' 
Cbilran women. 

* The chief Cnt<h 'MoUim' we Urmityi, A'ahAfinra, Rhiv K&miji, Biv 
KbodiyAr, VAruiIi, and Bahiichan- The lost tbnw aro iluiRod CbAfiin wmwai. 

' Muitt Cut«h bubcn «imI all wa«IiCRui». uiooiftafmr Slutvnrs, uvH' ~ '~' 



to tnarry ami cannnt at the plcasiirc of ihcir muster bo Chapter 
over to auotticr uwner. A Ktiavus, sombliuiL'S in faaiiDe FopalAtioi 
or wbcn li(piiul(>s»ly iodi^btcd, biufln hiinBulf ui surve a 
m hia nerrmit. These people calloij GoIar become for the 
tiioir tires the Bervaots of the chief who ieeda thenij cluthM 
if anil pn\'?i thotr uTqit'oses. FeinBlo BorviinlH fH-lilom marry. 
of tlu'iii are of cnsy virtae and the childron bocomo tho 
itM o£ thuir paront's miistcr, sDd may by bim bo bauded 
Ij> hi-, dikQghtvr as part of ber dowry. The rauks 'uE tho 
'I recroited from illegitimate children of tUl cantos and 
iiuaioQ from cbildron of destttato parents. They arc 
and lead easy livesj some of tbum gaining much 
'Dm orrr ibuir masters. 

i Sordsmea and Shepherds there were throe classes with a Her 
igtb of l{llj7<V.t i^uU or 10*78 per cent of tbo whole Hiada 
m. Of tbcKo 25,072 woro Abirs, 13,371 Kabdria, and 1316 

Ajiiieb, the Abbirs or cowherds of ancient Uinda writings,* 
a strt^Dgth of 2o,it72 miuly, are found north and eiist of 
ij, <*4t of Kantiii, and WAst of Vigad. Spninff, accor«iing to 
En v. a Brahman mun and an Ambastha or Vaid woman, 
i'trahnia Viirau from a Kshatriyafatboranda Vaisya 
idiis'iuiu^ to tbo Bbagvat Paran from Vaisya parents, and 
to an old tradition from a Rajput alavo ^rl and a Vaisya 
oy claim to bo Vaiayas, hut aro by Brdhniana classed as 
At pnistiui, beuides iu Cutch and K^thiuwAr cbey are found 
Dnmoers in contTal India^ and Rajpiitana, in many parts 
'Korth-Weflt Prorinois/ and cast in Bengal. Though now 
_ _ . and of little cousequence they were ouoo a powerful class. 
the Ahtr ruler of Asirgad/ connects them with the Shepherd 
ir ftiicU i7<«;rij» of Kiuindcsh ;' they ruled in Central India 
' Minipiir and iu Nepal '^ they aecm closely related to the great 
"rittdynafltyof PAl/ and according to tho ViHlmii Ptiriintbey wero 
aorer«:ignsreiguiug between the Andhraandtfae Gardabha 
* Traces of the Ajiiraare said to hu found in the Abisurea of 
*B historians (3-5 s.c), tho ruler of the hills between &Iari 

* Bssikrh wriUn nw Abhir m k HOuonJ term for Uia low oubo popnUttoD of tba 
iotil -i'Ua- Vivioi de St. Msrtw'BGfve.Qroo.etLntiBe da 1111(10,2301. 

i I iiidi* is a \argt Imct called nflcr thvtn A ItirvitU. Totl'a Wf«t«nt 

Ia the toatii ot l>elht, (mnt ^fiirvlinih to iw*r KbaoMjii, and Into Salempor in 

iMr bi Sin^nli in Uimpur. Klliot'a UaoM, 1. 3. 
il.u .iii.,t-l ■> I'ilit^t'B Hues, I. 3. 

Irvim iiAi n ul.-iLa, wtmld Beam to onnncci them vit}i th« early ff da at HbaVv 
(juJatAI. Olio antboritjr statm that they an ul tbv family ot Ahi uf Um 

BapM, L a. Tuti'i Wutem Indta, 3£S. AsUtio Boearehei. IX 43a 
iflfViriwnnthc Abhinking ooOara VIXL atN&aik, {tcrhniM liw third 

UiMla of EUjasUii&ii, II. 40SL 

OfilibituDu'a History, ISJ, 

Chapter •m 



and the Mtirtrala pass, a tract known by Hindn writers as Abfaia^' 
and in the Sabirin, Ibiria, or Abhiria in Dpper Siud mentioned 
Ptolemy (l&O a.v.), and in the I'eriplus (2-J6 a.u.), and opporen 
identified with the Abhira of Hindu ^vriters.'' At the aame ' > 

absence of Ahirs in the FanjAb and Sindj their position in i 
of the IJorth- West l^oviucee and in Deogal, and the meutiou ot thai 
io Manu would seem to show that tboy were older than tho raee t]u 
gave their name to Abhisiira in north-we»t Panjab, and Abhiria i 
north-cast Sind.' Like the Ahirs of the JJorth- West Proviniu** th 
Cuteh Ahirs claim Slathura, Krislma's birth-place, as tht'ir fin 
seat. They gay that from Mathura they came with Kn*liuii. to GiniA 
in KAthiiwdr, and, from there going to Thar and Ptirknr, &aa}\ 
ended in Cntch. Locally they are divided into five aub-triba 
Machhua, f rem the river Machbu near Morvi in north Ks*' ■■■•■' -J 
living in the district uf A nj&r ; Pr&uthalia, living in V&gad ; \ 

in Kanthi ; Sornthia, from Sorath in sonth Kdthiiiwdr, in ai .f 

Anj^r J and Chorida, I'rom the Ishiud of C)iorAd iu the Itan, . ij 

Adosar, Paliusva, iijauvfra, UmiyUj Jatav&da, fiela, and other parti 
of Vfigad.* These sub-divisionB do not intermarry, bat^ excep 
the Sorathiad who are Held in disgrace because they'ooce betrayei 
their chief R&o Navghan of Jun&gad to the Euiporor cif [>olhi 
they dine with each other. Well made, fair, and witn high fcaturn 
their home tongue in a corrupt Gnjurati.' Pwr, many of Ihem Boa 
in debt, Ahirs generally live in Kniall tiled bouBen n-ilh stune ani 
mud walls, with a good store of cattle, bat no furniture beyon 
bedding quilts, cots, and large earthen jars, the jars sometims 
omament4Hl with figures and prettily arranged in rows. Kxcept tha 
the women are fond of wearing black robes, their dress does no 
differ from that of V&nin rnltivators. His ordinal^ food is mad 
like that of the Vnnia and Xanbi, millet bread, and poise, and mille 
with milk and regetable!<. When he can afford it he drinks liqQo 
and eats any fiosh but that of tho cow. Though he nsBociatee witl 

> Virien tie St Mjkrtin, G«og. Greociue et tAtine de \'Iad«, 144 ; OaaiungbBU^ 
Aivih. Repi U. 33. 

* Lassen ann Ptolemy's S«biri» k tbo AUiira of Indian Gflo^plwn. (Jtntr. 
800. Boig. IX 276). Butiu)oorcUa$totlM>DHi>]a«catinttbe Abhin of the Paruu 
a>9 w«rtcra oout of loilU from tbe T&pti to Dcrgtut. Klliot'* Rac««, J >J ^ Uinl'i 
&Iir4t.i.A)uiuidi, 8. On tha AUaltnluul [lilUr (about 200 bx.) Alihira U ni«nti<m«ij 
uexl to PrardjoiuuiUppe^Sinil. St. ManLo (u above), 161. 

* Gen. Ctumingli&m (Arch. Bcp. U. S:{-33) vould trace both AbhiaArahi the Piui)tt 
and Abhirift in .Sim) to tbc Abin or Sua the grckt tudo-iiik^-tliiAn mx that 1 <1 
tb« PAnjllh tuul 8ii>)l in th« n»cc>ii(] c«ntuiy ictv A<'c<iT<ling to him A' A 
Ahhiain, *d Ittdianued form of Ahlriaidft. wu i-aUeU tdUr a Qo\oaj of Skvtuuiii* m 
th« Ab&T horde tnuuipl«nt«d fraiD Hyrk&iiia by Darius Hyttaspea <4flA ii,c. ) Thia 
Imuchof th« Ab4ra, ho holds, arc rcprcMuitcdb^ tho modem tiajtara In hit <>[iirit<]n 
tb« Abhiria iif It^ilmny. the Pttriplun, andth« rfindu GMigraphcns took itatianie frsyta 
ib« main body of tkv Ali^ or Sun M'hu, in tim •ei.-ooil century a.c., eonquurrd th« 
Fkitj&h and Sind, and about 100 ve*n lat«r were defeated by the Yneohi and thaii 
power confiutd tu the lower Panjab and .Siud, nnd who in bia opinion are repnwntad 
hy the JAta and ML>d«. In rapport of Ocnvml Cnnnittghatn's rtew it may be BOtuwd 
that the hurt roadinjt ngsetted for the dovhtlul pM«wn in the Peri plus n Ahartfiki 
not Abhinttike. (McOudle'a Ptriplua.nnd Cmininffhani's An^h. Itcn. 11. 49), 

* lud. Ant. V. lli& In KAtluAwAr 11813} the A hi ra were <Itvi<)«l tnto Nt<aa<« wU 
li«-od with oattiv, and Onjnn who livvd in towns. The Neeace uuury their broUiei'l 

* TI1C foUoKiDg a e ateoeea show aonte af the parti«abn in which tiie A'bir dl«l«efc 



i£ii9, almost all llesh-oatmg llinda catites rrill dine n-itli lum.' 
'■-1 nnl vary hardworkiuju", they are dirty in tlieir ways and 
^solves qnarrefsome and spiteful. Thoy haro jrivon up 
lug and tbougli poor and with little skill, excvpt a few who 
^nt^TS, live as hosbandinen.* The womyu help by rlw»ning 
ing cotton. Tbi>y worjihip gnddesses, miita, and Kri?(hna 
""d of liKal diTiuitiea Xlabbdy of the i iabba bill 
" rth of Bhu j; Mofcan, onoof tweWe ascetics wbo 
EnL'fii-'-fivPs alive at Dliraug eigbtoen miles iiorth-ea"it of 
id a Rnipnt saint called Vichara. They are said to 
■ f snake worship. Children are betrothed ai 
..■en twolvo and fifteen. Every year on one 
day Aiur marrinf^s tako place.' Ou the marriage day tbe 
of the bmily vnth singiuf? brin^a wooden image of Gnnpati 
ptftM it in tho marriage canopy. As tbe bridegrcKim's party 
op in carts the bridu's relations oome out to welcome them 
rio^. The ceremony is performed by a Parajia Bnihman,' 
ft fee of is. Sd. (5 korix). The dftaiU do not differ from 
at other Hindu marriages. During the day to the 


I froB eonect Cajuiti : 


OtiMsacT Oiiii'un. 

Ju W(CBB M-ilii tue I 




• -*»« *ll,ttxcepllhe fifth whioUUM**il'»Mtcaduf *eft'j a{[t«« 

PftnLJia BtihmuiM, Rkjputa. RahiLris, A'njtia Kanbuf.Chinuia, 
-!■». lUjAtn*, Oih* Kumlihilra, MilU, Atiu, DafjiB, Lnhdra. will 
ii-Wmt Provioco A'liini. Sir H. Ellu>tMj-s [Rmiv*, 1. 8), in Delhi 

f toil tmoke iu ooinnwn nut only \ntli Jita anil Ciajon, but iiuarr 

vith RajpiiU. In otli«r fiUiMs lUJtmto iroolil reiKiduU) all 

ptr.. -.11,11 •,(! L Lint. In KHDe diatrteta Biihiauui wtU take milk, wator, nsd ercn 

' T\-.- K^tih-Watl IVivinn) A'hinara Mill bcrdemon, tboea of Kitbi£vrir akillw] 

•.'.a rxrr in th; fliffrToat diviiiom. Atnoaa Ptinthalu Alura the ilay [i 
' USth (April- May). In othur mMiviMODa tl» day 
» lUi -.he A'hin. Tlwyaw aaid to baTrsavpiI tlia Aliuiat 
vnceutioii by nyiug lh«y ware not KalMtnyui bni tha 




Bomid of tho ttraiDj dkol, iho womon diuoe in a clrclo, and tho me 
go through a stick danco, dandiyo rd^j moving tn a circle ml 
strikinf^nt uach otiior with stinlcs. Two feasU aro givuu hy Ui 
brido's pnrty taid on tho third day the bridegroom Icarcfi tokin 
hits wife with him. AnioDg them it is uaaat for a younger bruthi 
to marry bis ohlor brother's widow. Some of tho Ahlr wuuien u 
more independent than among the atrictcr Hindus, not c-r'—^- 
thoir iixcGH in presonce of their elders and speaking freely w 
husibands. Their births and marriagw are registered by Kiivala 
kind of degraded Ithnts. The caoto has a headman who with 
committee of the catsto settles all disputes. Broach of 
mlea is ponished by fine and ealiug wiUi forbidden perso 
excommnnicatioD , 

Raba'bis, 13,371 strong, also called BuoPA'Sjbecaniw many of 
serve in Maids' temples, a wandering tribe of shepherds with a 
strength of 10,000 souls, are geuuraDy found in theUauniaud othc 
rich paaturo lands of north Cutch. Their story, that they came t 
Cutch from MarwSr, is supported by the fact that the soot of thei 
tribe goddess Sikotra ia at Jodhimr.' The story of their origin i 
that Shiv, while performing religions penance, tap, created a cam* 
and a man to btoko it. This man hod four daughters, who marrioi 
Baipntsof tho Choh'&n, Gambir, Solanki,and FarmAr tribes, ThfM 
Eina their offspring were all camel grsKioi-s. Other Rajputs joini 
them and fonriod a Hejwrate caste. Besides "Rnlwiris and Bho[ 
tbey are called VUottir», becauno at the time of the Parshui-a 
porsecntions one of them saved the lives of twenty^ vis, Ksha 
Their homo tongue in Gujar&ti with some M&rvAdi inflections, 
and strongly made with high features and an oval face, the Bab: 
like iho Abir takes tle&h and sjiiriti:!, and does not scruple to ent wi 
HuMilmiins. Ho lives for days Hlniost solely on camels' mfll 
Hxcei>t a black blanket over his shoulders the Rabin wear* coti 
clothes. Llis waistcloth, dhoti, is worn tucked through his I 
and not wound round the hips like a Ka.jpufc'8. They live much 
tliemsolvu'S iu small hamlets of six or eight grass buts styled >.-'■ 
nyce$. They are doaeribod as civil and obliging, honest, in:. 
oontonttd, and kindly.'' They ajo veiy poor living on tho prudu. 
of their berds.^ They are a religious class, many of them aeti 

Eieats in ifdids' temples. £aeh family has a sbc-camel called 
en, which is novor ridden and whose milkis oerer given (oiuty- 

■ Perluvni frwn Uidr Iii^h feuttinB they ore, aocorrliDs ta tme acnatuA, at 
origiu, Mia in Bupi>ort oi this it w maid ihtt vam of tbotr Tamil; uuum a A'gk 

^Ind. Ant. V. J72. 

> Tod'a Wcsfa^m Imltn, 3S4. 

* Col. Tod DoticdB tbo cattle stealing habiU (A the il«aert RaUm. H« ttj-i * 
is kAOvm tlmnughout UindufftdlB only m denoUng penvaa cniplgy«d in re 
teiKtins caracJa who arc olwayi Moakras. Hera toey an a duituict thbo 
ortirely ia rearisficainela or in stealing them, in which the)- e^-inoe a peculiai clexteHt 
imitiiig with th« BhUa >d the pnurtice. nHieu tb^ ooin« u[»a a kpM tlic IuMe 
uij must cxporiejicc*] strikes his lanc« lata ttio fint bq reodiea, then tlt|Mi a cl^tOl 
Uw blood whtrli at tho end of hie Ituiw ho thniala cloao to the tumt of Uir next un 
wheeling ahuut, utta ulT at (({K-ml lullowol \>y the whok- hesd Inmi) hjr iLr mivul < 
bhwd ood the txamjilv uf Uivir lea«Ivr.' Auoalsof Itftjxflhin, IL '.!93. 



4 Qtmlii. Like tlie Abira tbey practise po]y>ramy antl nllow 

'riifV Ii:iV(> » huadiiinu (Mtllud shitwif but bo hait 

rid moHt di^piitea are settled bya m&ss niectiug* ol 

roB, ISlfi, aro found in tlie north-oast of Cotch. 

to their own btory they are of the Hfune caeto aa 

'* fi'st. r fathiT, and came to Ciitcb from the North- 

Provincf>-.' Their homo tongue is GiijarAti. As heirdsmen 

And ttboep, as ha»bandmen anil as Inboureni^ tbcy are 

well ofT. Thuy worship female duitics, their trilw ' mothor* 

•call*>d Mai'hbn. Atthe hptnjthal the fathr.Tof thr bride gives 

li's frttherand pays him 2x. Hd. (bkorif), and 

^ to the briiio'fl mutliui" £1 Is. 4<t. {U) korin). 

ibo custom is for the p<toror men to wait till a rirh 

. . >a uiiurnod, and then for all to marry their danght-cra 

day^ tht; rich man paying the expenses. Thny 

jui called tn!r, but !»ettle di« at. -mass mfotiugs 

abduction by excommuuicatiou and other breaches oE 

mlcB by finu. 

~' * rs and Sailors thero wcmthroo claewis with a strength 
or 0'"i2 ]XT confc oi th« wholo Hindu population. Of 
1 143 won Kharviis, sailors, and 49 Mdchhis, fishermen. 

KoA'avx'ti, or Roamuu, with a strength of 1140 souls, claim Rajput 

- • Tliey aav that they fled from Ala-iid-din KJiilii (12!l5-iai5) 

liiwir, Lutoh, and Ildl&r. TaJcing to a sailor^e life they ^l'^ 

uj improve the knowledge of navigation omong tho Cutch 

B, and formed a separaro t-nste. There aro fovir brancbea, 

11, Jli(it;i, lt:i!li'id, and Solanki. They are excellent sailorn 

i.. II... ,1. riLrts of the Poraian Gulf and the Ked Sea, ami 

>-ar where Bb&tia, Vania, and Bohoru tKulers iiave 

.■^;i.-d.' As a class they are said to be batlly off. 

worship goddesses, the guardian of tbo ItiithodB being 

itl uf the Solankia, ChAmunda. AJl used to wear the sacred 

it the pnictiix' was 8top|>eJ bociuiso of the mle that no 

wf a si«-.r.>d thread should livo.ateoa. Four of them havo 

rowted with it, three for going pilgrima^ares and the fourth 

the Mabarfijaa. On Shrdvan vad lUth, they set the 

god Miirli Stanoharji ' in Mandvi in a fonr-whooled 

, ;*nd, drawing it to a pond, bathe it, and bring it hack. 

^««i with all KnjputH except such a^ associate i^'ith MusidmanH. 

have a headman, jiaiei, and under him a koicdtf who calls 

ineetiogR at t^ temple of Murii Manoharji. 

- irv Mv nf tiie Mmecwrte m XukI M«tir tk« f oater fftther of 
> (nnuGi^ul VtutdrAvin near Delhi to KUbiiw&r, Catvh, 

■ I>r*J WiUm ill Binu. Adm Rep, for 1872 73, l.'Vi. 

. , ft TCutiiry ago Mninhv)i appMnd to a KhirvA in k drcMn and tdd him 
I fahMe had AMt«d un ihore. auath wu inftd« ud tb« imago wt up lu it« 
I temple. 

Chapter I 



[Bombaf Goutt 



Chiipter in 



Of Labourers «ik1 Miscellaneous Workers tbem wltv wi 

fltt^.s4'8 with a 8trcD<ftb of 31 JO it<.>ulaor O'B&jkt wnt uf the wl 
lliudu iiopiilatjon. Of tbcee 1579 woro tthiU, rtflti yt 
Vf(,'t-tnl)lo ncller**, hiiutfirs and labourers fuuuil chielly in Vi 
if'Jl Uftviilihsor JAp»rms, inpewcnvers ; 27>9 Oiln, dijff^T.'i ; 10 
wcKxlcutti-rs and bejf^TiPs ; 10 MiiriSthiia, BcrvoJit--^, aiul 10 Kl _ 
iMIuoMoIk'i-s, Tlio Bliila unj.'iually from I'jiiaupiir and liriti 
flik-Hy in (he BliujtSadtu' nazararupalatuiuiu bcamrH aod labuui 
Tho JiigariAs were formerly Hivnt Jo^a, but tbcir profepfHon 
wcariiij^ tape and btiutiog drums, dnnkx, lud to the furniatiun ' 
Ri^lKU-nti) ca«tti. It lia» nix bran<:hos, 8iiignj-a nf 1G inon, Mr 
of H>, Mejiauf 11, Miijaria of 6, Kara of S.and Muyntrai.f i. 
are (wm-, tlieir yearly (•aruin^'s varym;f from £j to LS (R«. 50«l 
Tliry wtirsliip j^odilwiM's, tboir guardian dis-iiiity beiiijr Manivi ^f fili 
Aftvr death tliu budy is set clusc to a wall and some wheat tliinrj 
ft l>ot of water, a bajr, and twu wooden »hi>e» are placed beforoit 
The cnsto has n/i headman, ymi*'/. Onfi claim to bo*Knhafri8, tiru'fi 
their doswmt from Bliaj^rath' son of Rri^^ar, afttT whom 
Gan^fOH h called Bha^initlii. The catrte has four brBa< 
Sutiiukij Bhati, Clioluiu, tiiid Cioliil. Must of them are dij _ 
with yearly oamiTiga varying from XlU to X1& (Rs. 100-ifiO)^ 
Thuy bavti du h«;&duian. 

or Leather Workers then.' was ono clnsa with a sfrrngth o 
1237 souls or O'SiJ pur tt'iit of the whole Hindu population. 
Huohia came from Gujarat abont 200 yuars a^o, and from tluj 
family nameii Uabhi, I'ariu^-, ChubAn, Jbala, Mnkvana, Chii<^ 
and 8f>lanki seem to have once been l^ajpnts. Their home li 
IB Guiarati. 'Iliev are generally rather fair and dress liku u; 

Cutt;hjs. Tbey used to drink liquor and eat Hetdi, but since 

atio])t<td tbo religion of Svaminfiraynn they have given them nj? 
They are cleau, sober, well-behaved, and rather idle. Thoy nnikfl 
shoes iu native and European fashion, saddled, watcr-hn^, and 
brtttles. Four houses work as gold and silvep carvers, forty M 
embroidururs ou wool ajid silk, making table cloths, caps, ahoee^ 
slippers, and liandkorchiefsj and five as aiTn-pulishei-s tmd gihU-rs. 
'lliey do not clean or tan hides. They cam enough for Cirdinarr 
cxponaus and ad a rule are wetl-dre^ed. They belong to tm 
Svamiuilrnyan sect. Their marriage, birth, and death nistcms do 
not differ from those of other Hindus. Their family goddesses are 
AMh/tpura.. Chavau, and Brahmani. They have a headumn, but 
di>iputc3 are decided at moaa meetings. IteHidra the MtKrhiH, tha 
ideghvals and Turiyas clean, tan, and dye leather. The McguviUs 

* Tho trnilitiiiii w thit king Supir hiMl 7100 Mini. He or<1i>r»d th^m ' >' vi-*t| 

Kn<l HWDrtt Uiut Ik- wuuM «>"t w.tili liia (anu nntil watitr .::inie. \Vi ^e 

iigpttj^, A quantity of earth Cull uu lib HdDH iut<l all l>ut Blukcinklh ijioti. tim 

(iMige* to »&ve hi* (imtbt^rs Die boly river |iiY>niitio4] t<< tonic if lii^ ^^ -..k 

tMbind biin. After a little wiiilc. uii Iicihk triM tliAt Uii- Catiuea wm : int. 

^uiginlh looked behind, and Ihn O&ngM atupiie)], anil rirtlcml him i^ ' ho 

ttlvntiflaof hta brcithora tobcgui digifiBg. Ua, with some lioLJitutSt bctia.' n*l 

ud nrc cobblers. The Turi^iU are Muhamraa<!ane, 
My rarniiij^ ibcir living aa laiiniTs aaj luailier dyt-n}. 

>rossed CastOA there were four with a Btrcugth oE 
(«r U'8.ti [itT cent of the wholo Hindu population. Of 
t42 wen] Mi'j^'Iiv&Ih, 837 PuraJliis aud IGl Mcs. and 100 
Mixiiiv&'ut, also found in Siud, tbo Gongos Proviuoca, 
kl IliiiiiilaTiL",' stuto that in a twelvo yenrtt' drunght in 
'tbyv bewiinii di'^-idcd hy carryiujj and ekiimiinj doad 
iiinf.' imiiKliL .•;, llhuehiya, Bhuriu^'j'ft, Dliim, IJb<'pi*a, 
Lop»l, Itliitlii, ituniial, Qud Hosyn, they weave cloih, labuui*, 
dead cAttle. They worship goddeHses; They havu no 
'"' :hc ^rmcr of the tax on skinnorflof dead cattlu is 
: .-ui their bond. Brcakorsi of caritc ruloH ore roquirud to 
•Hj'jarii, TliOse prienl-s Gartid»oi eojtjy the 
. "of the iju^iko tciiipio &l Hbiiji:i t'urt (hc>u 
iin a Ganida pujilri marks tho now Uid'a brow 
-:, 11 (urban ou his bead. Bbanqia's, Hcavungom, 
Ui \!Q B\^nxni^ frcra a oi'itniu Vabun, who about 20U0 ytjara 
tbp profesHion of swwpinjf. 'Hiero am nix hrnnrhBS, 
r4mi, Parrniir, Udtbod, SSoIanki, and Va^'bola. Tbuy 
^sw.'H, diffi^n'iit faiiiiliirH having dilTi^iunt [^i.irdiiiii 
\ pKi'ndhin and Mi-.H luit f II i nd ti, half M iisiv) tnun, an.> 
wi-avors of leaf mats. A M^ oats foud cuokutl by h 
a MuHahnAii will uut eat food cooked by a Mc. 

Bjid Religious Beggars of various names, 

is, S;.i '.Its, Vainij^is, Joj?!^, Klinkhis, Atits or 

diBiiKi' , .(.-.■ntimbcred in ail Od-lUor rtJj percent 

Uindu popnlatJon, Tbo sanctity of Nar^yaai Suruvar and 

many religions Iwpgars to the province. Somo of 

for a considerable tune, others, after staying' a few 

>n in their lour of pilprima'»o. Of devotees settled in iha 

chief are Atits, Kapdis, and KanpbatAa. 

QoBA'ts, '(877, are in Cntch divided into two classes, 
th'ih/irig, and honseholdors, tjharbaris. The honseholdors, 
Bhaivg, are the largest clanx, numbering fit i)U suuls. 
^ to ion softs, Gir, I'arvat, Sagnr, Puri, Uhfinbi, Van, 
SumsToti, Tirth, luid Ashniin, and add tbo clan name to tbo 
name, as Karanjiar, Ilira-puri, Cbancbal-bhiirlhi. AH of 
.u^. i[ii,ro souieiif their members horiftcbulders, ijharhirut, ^w\ 
i"3, vniiltdhtirM, and take recruits from all clas.scs of 

rimdoSt. MartbC!o"e.nnH. et LaUho <)v rinil«, 209. The Mv{;Iib. pmbftbly 

ifiiuu rf 'nmur. on' A Ur^ |Mrt of the iiti)iu]ittiiin >if Itiyiei, Jumnu lutil 

I, • fMif rrtKA tl Invr <vi«bo, apparently oiituwiti! in oUirj- pLac«ti. Thoy ju« 

" ' ^VrYiuia anu hi thcrn bwliinK ^x-* M<-'kliiiwiU (MaIivILii^), 

:tt ItrAliniiins. Cumnnghnm, Arth. Itvp, II. 13. Humes 

I . >.>p Mpcalu ut Uu Mi^vani uf S^utli Tliar m iui nlMiri^iiuil or 

[iTolultty ocRUVMted witb ihe Meliitm ot lnwi-ir Siixl «nil l)i« 

l._ -(.ill. aii'l are, peiiukpa, I'linj'* (77) Mcgari or sii?ip!l* *ji>l tini 

Fat (fae Eajpiir vivwn it« St. Mactin, I9t). Burton {^iu<l .t2;i) apr-aka 

Mrvhh'tnr' :i Moghvila, tAJincn, ahoemakna and vcavGra, [ouiitl in 

- Thv t'ltiarkiit Mi'shawan w«» very wdUui-do, with jiTiiutii, 

!ulu, padtU of tliuir uwrn. They were aaiil tv OOfflO fruin UjIw^ 





rBombay OubI 


Chapter 41L 




Hindas. They eat. flesh, drinV liquor, and are either enlirfly 
partly clad in browa. Most of thoiu aro profeaeional I" ^^ 

aiuuug them somcaro biiDkc>r8,mci'chants,Btalu8ervuQi^. 
Thoy do not wear tho thread, ami hIIow widow tiirtri-i;ij,'t?. Tl 
are said to bavo come to Catch from Juuagad ia Kiithidtvfu- ubti 
throe hundred yoare ago^ and, of ihcir three chief soitlom* 
Katyincshvar ia Bhuj, Ajepil* in ADiAr,aijd Kolcshvar in the 
wrested two, Kotcshrar and Ajep&l, rrom the Ki^npliat^. 

Ka'cuis,' 285 strong/ are devotees of the temple of Ajhiij 
ll^ta at Madh, about fifty miles nort^h-west of Itbitj. Of 
name Kapdi no sfttisfoctoiy origin has Ixicn traced.' They say 
they oame from Gnjarat about 1800 years ago, and had records 
lato 88 the great deft'Ht of Jhara (t7G2) when they dt-^eKed t\ 
villages and Inst their property. All they now know of 
history is that Ldlu Jas Ilaj was their founder, and that thoy 
patroniaed by It^ja GtLddhesing, the father of Vikrutniijit (56 
After this nothing further is heard of them till, in the pi] 
century, Ita-j K-hengarji's father (1500), when in distress, Toi 
honnnr to AshApiini Miila if she helped his cansc. On 8ii(-re«>dii 
iQ his enterprise he went on a pilgrimage to Madh, endowed tl 
teraplo with several Tillages^ and with the title of Riija gave 
guardians the privilege of remaining sooted when visited by tl 
l{ao. About a hundred and fifty years later (1060) MmUmu, 
Itajpnt devotee of Madh, quarrelled with the head of ihe -• 
withdrawing from it fi»unaeda se^mrate Riih-division. Si . ■ 
the original sect has been known an Ashapurts, and the new be 
after their founder's name, a^ ^(ukji[»!uitliis. Living in hiiildin^ 
round the temple of Ashilpnra Miita, the KSpdis arc ruled by thi 
high priest or Raja. Suiuu years ago the hi^'h priest had U 
specially favoured disciplcdj Bhaghhara and Govind. \V hile the eldt 

1 KivA RcvAgir Ktiv.trgir, 1 loading Cntch Ixiaker, in IieM in gn«t rv'ptit' 
out Uiniliii'lim ; An<l lliivn SMV^i^ir was highly truBttiil by Uto lato 
BLdvnKgAT. IikI- Ant. V. It>7,lt». 

> Till) AUu o{ Ajcpdl, kiiowii by th«ir brick-nd turlnns, u* a Shjur aecL H| 
■ujTOil I'nil, iiaA'/i, ti'ilila a praroiuent place nn the plAffiinn faL-in^ ttic •1o<ir of 
A^]iil ol'niH!. hikI A /'»7(tmia8Dgrsv<:<l uti llii- anuU i.-«Uii, chiiaimi; Iniill over 
gra«ua «( ilivir bijfli prii"ft», Borgnw" An'h. Siir. K*p, (ist4 751, 210. 

* Tfaia occnitit vt compiled fmm Sir A. Buni«»' juiptn* of SUth Mnrth 1827, in Bai 
Gov. K<-1. ("LIT., Appeiiiliit, 17-19; Mr. Mnuey'a jw|«tr in On: i inM.tal t'hmtifti 
Ktt«vtAt'>r, VI., Deo. 1835 ; MA. PoatAtw' Outch, 1837 ; and Cuhmel Barton'* Tour 
Cuttiti, 18'S. 

* ThcirnnmWrMenu tobftve couSdcnbl)' iocrciuol during tfao taat fifty ytaif 
8>rA. lluni<:ii(l827)j;tTMaboiitlOO; Mr. Mancy (ISSij), ISO to 130;«ndMn. Ptwfau: 
(1837), lot. 

A The uaaal QKpliuiAtiou is that tho luinut Kiivti cpma from their wonUpefa 
PArv&ti aa KiU puri or K6>-a puri. Oou vtury of thvir ori^n ia that the Afauj^fe) 
jiftiT creating Brahma, Vinlinu. Rnitnt, and Shakti, ordnvl Kudrn to tnan^ 
fjhakti. Itiidr* itifu>«d uideu Sliakti ctiiui^d her funn. The chi»ij(o vtm* 
and Kiidra lU&rrieil her, butaoon a(ti-r, at hrrcimt-Rt wish, aUowuil ht.-r (<> I 
old (•>rni, The chilrlntn born.whilv SliaKti i\'m thu'tnuiAformu.i, Win- olU-d 
bc childnfii (if thrt fatlt-n UmIjt, frum X-iJyu Im«Ij uiol /••\rli fallvn. Atiiin- 
another tt^'ry I^hi Ja^ Ki] UiL-ir fuimdi'r, altar tin- i^torjiiriit <>f l.'r^-toH ;^nin 
RdiH t» Hiui;U) Miu ixi tbu hunlort ■>( Makr.'lti, wa«, n> tliey |wwod lhn>iiyh 
Irft hy him la build a leuipla to Aaki>iHin Alatn the wuh-(ulliUtDg godduu, and 
[outid Uiu acct o( KipdU. 



'bhsro was in Siud, tbo hi^li priest died. Govind 
on BbA^bbura'tt reiurn refused to acktiowlodge his 
BWgbhftw lippealed to die state, and the liao decided 
1 ~ ' Id be hi^li priest with the full management of tho 
Beet., and Gnviud Bhonld be rf/rn»i or lijija elect, 
;fcU> and with a snutll »cliix>l uf disciplos, ckeUtv. tiiaca 
Kajib diuit, the roni^i eucwudH biiu, iind the eldest 
of tbo decea;M.*d IWja Uetomes ror'in. If the rcrnhi dies 
llw Knjn, uiie uf hiK uwd di»ciple« in irboseu to fill his place. 
the raruMt aud hia tmtid of twenty-live disciples who hare 
e;>tiLblidhmeut, ibe Kapdis lire and eat tof^ether, and ss 
«toreH lire in the HuJu'k h»ud, the n^ni^i and hia disciples 
hini for daily sujiplies, all claf^hing of authority or 
m is avoided. As tbey may not nifirry, the K^pdis keep 
order by recmiting. Most disciples are Lobdo^, but 
01 the degraded ela^tteA tbey may be taken from any Hindu 
To rei-eive a new member the whole body of Kapais meet 
The new brotbtT is brought in, his tuft of hair, imliapaf 
nd the [^'tvaliar rap of the order placed on his head. He 
ted ti» AriliApurn, takes the rows, is weloomed by the whole 
hed with opium water, kaaumba, and feasted, lie boa 
learn bnt the art of beggring- and some special forma of 
"" V arc well-to-do and very hospitable, cArcful to offer 
iTS of every race and religion, and opium to visitons of 
»h. Tliey let out their land, tilling none of it thomAi-Ives, 
X an idle easy life, begging and looking after their 
■8, in the ubsoneo of women, cookinf* and other details 
them. They are utterly unlearned, none but the lUja 
able to read or write. They have some curiuuti rules, ouq 
Madb ho cannot eorno back till aftersnnset/ 
1 1 or pilgrim may stay moro than the twelve 
ui;;bt III ilin^fUj. If dayduwusou him in Hingldi his 
will drown orottierwirfle dentmy hini.^ Except the Ilaja 
bum, the Ka]>diii bury their dead. A ItAja ut mourned 
lys, and tbeu with feaotiug and merriiueut the lUja elect 


BrievA'H, 678, settled in Madb and tracing their origin to the Bhu* 

fiiunder of the Kfl]Kli8, differ frrim them in marrying, 

s, iind eating with all except the degraded claswfa. 
tbey lead an idle easy life, fed out of the 
..._ I ipio of AahJipnra.' 

'a 'tm« uta's,* or slit-eara, 822 in number, havo throe nopamte aeos, g^. 
' lar in thu north-west of Bhnj, at Shi'vra ^fandup in tho 
:lhuj, tuid ut Alaiiphara in Vagad. Of ihese the most 
irtanl \a Uhinudhar with about fifty members mid throe branches. 


^m nf thia rale b prolMlily tha aawdty of Wfttw. 
I . Apiicudix, 10. 
Uia aliL. Uum. Gov. 8al. CLll 12. 





at naladhiyn, Aral, and Mnthal. Taking t^dr name Crom sliti 

thvir ears and huagin^ from tiio elit a fvculiar ttorrin^ oh 
dnrshajit thuy clniin an their fumidor Dhommastb who, occon 
to CuU'h story, ainou^ otlior wonders dt'>In<yi>d Hajpur or 
Alitudvt imd drk'd up tbe Unn.' Formerly ilur Kiiiipliauis wyi 
very powerful body, lint us iiulici'd ahovoj about 3(M) ycarjt i 
two of tbeir chief moDJisteriea, at KotesUpar in the wust and Aj 
in the eaHt, wtiro wroated from them hy moDdicaatii, atita, I 

Tliu Dhiuodhar monks, cudowed by more than ooo of Lbe U 
nre a rich body liriiiji,^ iu a larf^ cutufurtably furtiliud and tm 
monastery on a wo&dod knoll ovcrlookinff a little lake at the fon 
Dbinodlmr bill, with tvmptctii dwdlin;^ liou«t*s, and the tomfal 
thfir bt'iulraoii, firs. Anmii|^ tho liuildiugw Dbonmimith's shrin 
ruiigb doiiit'd temple stiinding on a rai-iud plaifurm ami altrtut sn 
fiiot itiiuaru oud a^i many bij^fh, couUinti a inarblu statue of the* a 
tbree f«;t high, and weariiijir tho earriiiga uf the Beet. 
Dboraio oath's statao, there aru small Wiya and other bra.'is a^ 
idols. Horo, over gincu the time of Dhoramn^th, a lamp 
kept burning and worship ia porformod tvriisj a day. Iu 
close by ia a sacred Hrc, tho Homo I^d since thu lime of Dh 
by bluuka oE wood. 

Kxccpt for their hope bom, agate, or fi-lass oarrinjrs, thati a' 
seven inches round and 2\ onnooH (C iohU) in weight, make i 
oar-lolws ugly, nlmoiit {laiuful U> look at, aud a ueuklac^ of 
bends, tho Kiinphatas wear tho ordinary Uiudti dress, s coat, 
waist cloth generally of a rod ochre c^ilonr. Tlie 1- ' ' 
moniBtery is, on succession, invested bv the Rao withagoli 
bine silk tnriwiQ, a sacred woollen neck-t hrt-ad, ghiii, a sciuifcy W 
band, white waist cloth, a red or brick-coloured scnrf, «/iai, 1 
wooden jittttons, cJtakhih'M. His ornaments are very old and B 
His earrings, tho same in shape as those w(>rn by bis disciple*,, 
gilt and inlaid with gems. From his nock hangs a rhinoct^N^ 
whistle, which it is one of his chief privileges to blow 
worships his gods. 

Their ordinary food is millet aud pulso, Thoy am rick', i 
spend most of their yearly income of 417(X) (Hs. 1" * 
cut^rlaiuing sttangcra of all caatcs and creeds. To all . 
noala of millet aud pulse are served every day. 11 igh ea&tc stnm| 
take it nncookcd, low co&to Rtraiigcrs are fed in a largo hall, i 
Wusahnins and members of the degi-atled classes in tho gw 
On some sjiocial days, Gokal A'tham in Aagust, and Niiimi/r\ 
October, rice and taptti, that is wheat flour, molasses and buttcT) 
cooked, and epinm is distrihnted.' 



* Dotaib ue gl'reB andoT " Mindvi " and » Dhinndluu-." 


* I1ic cxpcnsn of their chnrily arc nict by Uio prodnce of slirint t-»remiy iHh 
u Uwi property (if thu CAUhr • - " 

original gruita um otn^n t>jf {lurdi. 

property (if Um CAUhlinlimmt. Sontc of Uium liavn bucn tw^njTC^ 

._ _.-„.j mod atifn W {lurduwe: Mm. Pvntaxii' (1837) Cat«h. 13], 

J Jusr. R.A.8oa,V. 268. 




(if Sliiv, tboy buTU n sjMcial ritiiul for their jToddcss, 

iNtitiui; n li.viim in her Imiiuiir uii the Hecuiid uf every 

r wi.rship 18 A form of abstrftctjon, f/og, the Rpecial 

of their founder harinj? \oug been fort^tt^n. As they are 

Imcy the sect is kept up by rucniiting-. New ctmera 

f- ■uff t*i one of two clashes, orphnaw or the cliiWi-en of 

I itis who enter as boys, aud lazy or dishenrteiiod men 

i ■ iu »<^iiu;Linie6 at an iidriuieed age. Thu novice atoi-ts 

I of stmte member of the sect who becomes his spiritual 

L j'^ru. Ou juining, his guide gives hiin a black woollen 

L tird n^iind the nook with n rudra knot, from which hangs a 

F ' ,' triiiiipet, xhriiitfini'ul, nnd through it he 

f is oitik'ir, ujt'lrsh, t'ultvh, or the mystic out, 

t t ordertt. His ctmduct is ch^iely watched for eight 

>, El, if he has byhaved well, be is taken before the god 

;v mod has tlic (uirtilago of his cars slit hy one of the dovotoca. 

^Ih a I ' ' '' ': is tlirnstand the wound cured by a dressing 

oil. *' ear is well, large agale, glajis, or bone rings 

I' hilt, (be hair, W'ard and uiustarliios are shaved, 

, the rule, xipih'fih nmuira, of the sect, " He wise, 

hm] nsofiil," is wliispered in the disciple's ear, and ho is 

hy A new uatno ending in ndth. Ho is now a regular dcTotee, 

The naiQf, dthla, of tho founder of the sect, serving his 

' . he may be set Ui. Devotees of this sect 

Iftli day aftur death a fwu^t is given and 

-d by tbe eldt-ht diHoiple who ftticceeds to his guide's 

. » . l.e death of the head of the monastery the guides uhoow 

tbeir nnmbcr to succeed. The position of head ih one of 

houi^iir, Tho Rao invests him with a dress, pay* him a 

IK n-i'cived by tho lidly man sirated. 'i'he present head, 

■ h in order of snwession, wh-s lustjilled in 1^70, In 

r u any uppression was threatened the Ki'mphatafl, 

t and C'luirans used to commit trtiga, sacrificing one of 

k^^.;.. .,so that the gnilt of his blood might be ou their 

Lur'a head.' 

I lery a( Khivramandap^ in Bliui wnsestalihrthed 

( ^i,aud given to a Jugi of iJhinodliar. This 

til afu*r rophiced by one Seviiuath Shrinagur, in vrhuse 
'■' still enntinues. Like tho Dbnramnath Kinphal^ 
^ ' uect of .Shantiniith. They worship the Hiiff,th& 

\ ' 'H^Ajthectmiug loath incarnation, 

y eat with jtauj/u'jtw, and feed them 
ihcar n,'Toiiues.- 

tliml T 


'V of KaiinhatAs is that of Kauthadnith at 
(hkot in \dgad. When the Sanuna chiefs 

" ' •> m. 987. lite MooDiituftbeKilitphKtijib compiled Crom 

I <>11 u d<Mli4:aUMl b> Nakxluik, and w in ahaiw lik« aShkiv 
. , N<i(«. 







Cluptor IIL 




Moil and Mnn^ come into Catch (1300), tlicy wiftlic<] 
fortroRS on Kanthkot bill. But ihc f^utid mut alri^ndy tnli 
dovot«o callei] Kautbnda/UI), and aL first as liis «ri^bc9 
«>i]iialUMl, ho threw down the wallo as aoou oa i\\v.y wore hiii 
laut ho was a]i])f;as<?d and the fort finishwl, and ca]I(!d aflcr himl 
dyvoteu's JescTridautK be^canie hvrdi^iiivn geiienilly staying im 
ai Manjiharin iirar Kauthkot. R^> KEmniialji (1716), uu(% 
WHR entertained by Udekanthad the head of the community, 
whuloonuy was fed from one small dish. InratumtbeRiiocHtf 
Udekanthad as the head iiE a monasterv and endowed it 
laniia near the Manphario. Thpy worship (lanish and Kanthadu 
Using KantlKulnnth's name in tellioi^ thi.'ir he:nl.i. 'Ilit-ir ^ ' 
is at Kanthkot where twico a Jay Kaiithadiiaih Li wori-li'_ ; 
takinifa vow of celibacy and in almost all their pastnm.<< tlu^y reMOi 
the JUhinodhar KAop^^.' They recruit chiefly frum 

Musalma'ns.accordiny: to thf latt'st ( 1 872) revised fipiirt 
liy,7l">ti(.>»iHor:i't';i5 p*>r(watorthe whoio Ciitch iKijiulutitJU. Ftf 
over the whoIo province thoy are in gi-cateat atrsngth in Qa| 
Abd£sa, aad Banni in the west and north-west, less nuineroii< 
Kanthi in the south, and fewest in VAgad in the east. 

Cutch I^tuHalniiins are partly immigrauts, partly local conv^ 
The immigrants Sind and fiujarfit arc% some of them, of mew 
lois foreign descent, and others purely llindo. The local Mnmli 
convorte are from among Cntch llindus. With few escx'ptions tl 
home tongne is Cntchi. Gnjanlti is spoken by a fow, and Urdn 
still fewer. Si.>me are lauduwuers, traders especially to IVmibay 
Africa, and craftsmen, hut most are cattle-dealers, soldiers, ix;nsa 
and Bcrrants. Except the trading classes, chicHy Meraans and Kha 
and some Banni ana Garda proprietont who are m easy circunistan 
Cutch MHsalm&tts are gonornlly much poorer thaa Cutch ilindua. 
faith more are Sunnis than Shids. At their chief family occasi< 
especially at marriaj^jt'S, most classes perform mauylliudu ceremon 
At the beginning of a marriage the wumi'ii meet iu the early nium 
and sing songs. This ia called fWirt/-«/iWj> literally drMm-boari 
Dates are then handed round, and on all relations' houses g:irdeui 
wives hakAlans, tie dfftjml, Polyalthia longifolia, garlaode. Tl 
the bridegroom loadwl with ornaments is seatf^d in a bower, eha^ 
aud dates are aguiu hauded round. Few of them 
children much schuoliog or take to aew purtsuits. Asa ^^ 
are neither a rising nor a pushing c\a&ti. 

Sybds, numbering IS19 soul »_, are found over almost 
of Cutch. According to tradition they represent different Sy*|i 
who ^om time to time came from uorthem ludia and Si 
Of their history aud dates no exact infonnation is available. Tl 
hare lost the special Syod appearance and differ tittle from oti 
Cutch Mosaimiius. Their borne language is Cutcht. Gcuen 

■ Bnoukof th«tt An (ie26)&llain!d ta mury. Dut th« (kCken will nafi «m 1 
eu* nra ■lit kiid othor detlicatoiy 

their cfaildtoi nitlil their 
Samoa Md. 





BDmo are hardworking, fairly boneat, sober, and 
1 teftchprs, hiiBbandinen, aorvonts, nnd beggars, thoy 
htg oDudilioiij maiiy of ibein iu dubt> but all tvith some 
's ID nainc, suiuo art* SbifiH at. heart. MarryiDg geoeraUy 
alvtrs thcT fonu a ai'poratL' and wclUmana^d coramnnity. 
la aameliint^B marry the dan^'bters of Sbaikhe aud other 
r lumt cbttwittt, but cbfMf fhiu^'ltCi^rs a» a rubs marry Syeda 
iCWit that tho lusher faiuilioa portion tlu>u> widowed 
Wpd do not let thuin re-marry, all fuUow Sunni cu&tums. 
fni givo Uiair childrou muufa schuuling or take to oeir 

Chapter III. 

IB, nambering75,5-l'!>5uiils, funod in almost all CutchvillagCBt 

bo bo tbo df-8ceiidant« of local Hindu converts. In the 

kd east, loading a wandering life, they are strung mid- 

■ irk, with high noetw, thick lipB, long necks, nnd long 

I'f brttr, Tlioir home tongue iu the north is like 

ist a rough Gnjarati. rhough dirty and untidy 

..- i.- !ug, honest, and thrifty, 'ITioy are cattle-dealers 

irtb, and iu th« east cultivalors, cattle-dealers, and eervaats. 

I (ood or clutbing and few are rich. Most have Home credit 

1 dabtd, apeudtug more than their aavingx on their family 

H. AU are, at least in name, Suuniti, fullowing religiona 

pirt, to whom aomo special fees and certain small yearly 

» fmid. Eai'ly marriage is customary, for girls about five, 

bofa aboDt eight years. Marrying only among tbomselvea 

B Mparatc communitiea generally settling their dispatoB by 

obu«enfroiu thenn»elTea. LikeGujarnt Mu^aluiaus, pregnancy 

|M are porftirmed on the seventh gr ninth mouth after 

rti, and the same rejoicings as in (Jiijarnt mark tho birth of 

tun. On the sixth day the rhhnlhi ceremony is held and 

fiea«tod. Amuog the poor cooked food is distributed to 

, who in cxchiinge send uncooked grain, which is generally 

the midwifu. Ttoys are circumcisetl in their third or fourth, 

* I'ir sftventh, year. Hacritice, nkUca, and inii iation, 

lea arc rare. At bolrothnls and marria^efl many 

■ are observe*!, They are not a rising claas. Very 

'hiidren much sehooling or tako t^ new pursuits. A 

- numbering 1327 souls and inhabiting Sumrasar, a 

L'cuf len miles north of Bhuj, are professional beggars. lo 

uy differ fnnn other Shaikhs only in wwirin^ turbans of 

)Uck wool. They go from door to door beating small dnims, 

Snnnu by faith they |,"ay special reveruuce to D^iival tShiih 

bear ceremonies do not differ from those of other bhaikhs. 

.•AOK of tliia uint wu Malik Abd-ul lalU thv vou of Muhuumvl 
of MUimntl Itc^la'a noblos [14£tf- 1511), wfcoM tiUe IMwar-uI mulk 
•d Utlfi Dlw>l KliAli I'ir. tn rnwnnl for hi* peuiuic«a }>liAii A'lam 
tiiin hM iliKi-i;il«i, lui'i iirwliumeil him vi^aai t» nnk to 9iUAr Maa'titi 
ccmunui' ^' ' -'ruiilGhaicu&viV Thu /'tr, oivtat nseb to ralfguvaa 

in tLe ;i i^AAtt 879 (1474 JLa.i suin by DeiU Rjuutialji 

Ai;ar. Many otTerin^ and Mcrifioea are miwiv b> 

•rbulQ vl OuJAMt aiid the Diicciu) hi* turns ii lield in 
-inoMii |>«ciilc HtniiuM and MuulraAna, BisfollAireni 
uuiu oMbUtt. TthkB-ui-awlij-s by Syed Ahnwl UnkbanAbld. 



[Bumbnr Qauj 

Chapter III. 






} naif 

MooHAt*, 39] strong, Bcattefed over different pertd iif 
ftottlitl cliti-tiy iu iJhuJ. Cuniiut.' from AluncUabad, Sititl, 
North-Wi-fit Fruviutvs aliout lOu ycarango^ tht-y are said !•> 
Grttt beeii Shi<u> aod to hsvn liy dogrees cliaoged to tbe 
Cutrch faithj and tube aow stauncli Suutii». Tlifir home 
is UinduiiiaDi inacli mixed with Cutcbi and GujnrAti. 
tbem survanl«, tbey are generally liardworking, hunifst,' 
eleauly. TUey are fairly well oR, witli in iiiu:^t cantfK, a oe 
amount of credit. They nro all I'oUowern of iho saiuii relij 
bead, ptr, and marry geuorally amonj^ tbemif^lveH. On ad 
ucua»i(iuH, when tboro is a want of girls iu tbeir own claAs^ I 
associate witb Puthaos. In tliotr pusttiniH thorc is nothing pf>c^ 
lliey ueeiii cniilout with tboir posttitm a« sen-antt) uud du not. 
to any nnw |iiir$iuts or lieud their cbildreu tu GcbiHiI. 

PatHa'ms, numbering 936 souls, found chiefly iu Bliui, MlS( 
VAgud, ari} said to l)o tbo dcftcendanls of l^tliAnK Iinuighi 
Ahiiipdabiulliy li&n Khpnpirji in 1634, when, wirh tbo help of 8< 
Itabi'idiir (lo^ij . Io:i0| of Abriiedabad, he eai^iblifht-d iumcd 
ruler of C'litch. Thoujfh by intormarriajfe they liiive lost I 
Bppcial size and Btrenj^h, their loujf fnccR and sharp pyea [ 
distinguish them from othtT Cut-chis. Their hum*^ tongue ia| 
UindtiHtiini though much mixed with Cutchi and (rujarati. All 
nil of them aro soldiers, fairly hardworking, wt'll-belmved, i 
tompt>red, and hot^pitablc. Th(>ir ooudition is niiddliufr, all ' 
aome credit but many t-'f t hem iu debt and none able t«.i Rave. Sn 
in faith some are reiigion«, but without auy special spiritual ll 
Marrying generally among theni^ekes they form n sopi 
oommunity. Their cuBtoms cio not differ from thoso of other S 
Mueatui&n^. Among* the murft refipeolabla families re-m^riaj 
unconimoo, widows dretisiug iu white and weai'ing no omaow 
They give their children very little schooling, and aro in no roan 
rising flasa. 

Movka's, numbering 14,000 souls, are found in greatest Diinj 
in the irrigated country to the north-west, 80uth-«a8t, and sonthJ 
of Bhuj, and chietly in the gimi*in villages. Descendants of Hi] 
of various cajntes, ihey are, according to one account, said to 
been converted to the Nfusalman 5uth by Imamohah, and a po] 
of them to have, after the great Uomua revolt and defeat (1691 
Gnjarrit, fled to Outch and settled at Shikra in V&gnd. Accor 
to another account they were Leva Ksnbis converted and a 
Momnas or M"minH, believers, by Pir Sadr-ud-din who is aai 
have become their independent pontiff, I'mdia.' Slightly made 
dark, the Momoas sliave the head except the top kuot, aud the 
exce])t the upper lip. The men wear coats, trouKurs, and tl 
cornered over-banging turltana. Dark in colour, their women 
pelliouats, jackets, aud head cloths. Their home tongue is Ouj 

' Bnm. (tov, S«l. C'lJl. 47> Acconlmff tntlif^ir (iw-ti aeominl tJicir luiccata 
CtujarAt L«v> KmiIiu haii) MiiiVi^rt(>i1 kV I'itjiti hy a Syt<i wlm nirt ttioui Uwn 
bjT taking tham tn tbo (>angv« mmI Imitgiug iiimm Liack in » trie*, iiuliMwd_ 
b«c«me MoulmAsK 

!.■ jM-vuliarities. Untidy, butsobor, qniet aud 

- wvrk cfimtiy as husbandmeu aud labourers. 

'icb or well titf, luiil uiaiiy tire iu debt, bub iui a olaiiB thpy 

-^'inir dnily wiknts. Sliiiis in faith they aro Miisaliuana 

I Dam?, thoir habits, Foeliug^, and geucral inodt> uf 

'I. The onlitiary form of aalutaticu am.injf 

.iTTik jthfase, Jo/fir johdr, and with atUfrs tUo 

riu, H'iin, Itiim ; akhouijU not kuowjug wliy, they 

'itutni and liiitili holidays dressiug iu their bosb 

TKoagb nccordtng to their own accomitij they believe 

of Pataa, the cidtivators devote oDo-twcutioth part of 

and the labourers a nipee a year cacIi to Iioiimah&h'fl 

The rich among tuem often, aud the ]>oor once io 

ithis touibat Piraua, Marry tniraiiinnj^'ihuniselves 

it« body with, at Mdnkuva near Bhuj, a hoadman, 

: .. .s all disputes. He has also the |)ower of tiaing aad 

'iog any one ,wbo breaks casto rules. Hia Haiiction 

IV for widow inamape, any widow marryinjf 

It being excointniiuifaled. Murder aud adtiltwry 

'mmiiuii_-aiiMU, thy dlTender tieini^ alluwcd to 

■'. They do not aescwiato with MusHlmans, eat 

ibj do □!*<' rircuincite, eny no five daily prayers, and do not 

I. . /.■-. -nsait faftt, <^ the sijilb day afier birth a red jwwdep, 

made on the pronnd by tho W(»incD of the fannly and 

viit Briihniau nanifi* tho child.* Tho 

. conient of Iwth fathers. Four days 

oinled lime a booth ix built, and a garland bung 

idegroom'e nock. Women aing songs and dates are 

On the raarriaffC day thobridegivwm's lather, with his 

id frieuds, formisjj a procession, Jau^ lea<!s the brideffrcwm 

io'a bouse where the ceremony is performed first by a 

then by a Syed, a desci'udant of Imamsbali one of 

I ftt every Momna .settlement. The dying are- bathed and 

fed with chirined batter is phiced before them. God's name 

._,! Ti,i when hfe has gone the body is tied on a new out, 

-.1 cuttoii cloth, and white the bearers repeat the words 

' is earried to the burial -gixfu nil, ami buried. As in 

,»d of n mo9*)ue, a dwelling. khdii<t, with a lamp always 

is set apart, and a 8e«it, <jiili, of Imam^^hah ]ie]tt. in it, 

11 every evening, nnd tho women ounisionally meet and 

The cidiivatora sot apurt a fifth of the gross income of 

na a gift to tho khdun,. They give their children no 

ad lake xo do fn>Ah calling!-. 

u'li, huu'jur<*blo or worsliipful eonverts, nnrabcring 72.>3 sonls, 

all over Culvh, cluutly uu tlu^ suutk cuoi^t iu Maudri, 

ChaEfter Itt. 


iimt in wuitliar occoiKit th^ |iaj- their duM to Sadr-udnlin's uivt. raomia^, 

~ ' <.'LI1. 47. BoMdsahdlivvingtn Im-^RiahAh MiilSulr^<).tUD 

iiiardoTuil rolibin- umI nutUw wid Uix wil« lUngw], « mtti 

' btjit-ve in Mtib.ttnmadiiii prccopln. 

-.'r U)oir Lofil nml MaftUr, tlii light that baraa in tlioir 

vt9 (fa« tU^l luMi'" Mtul from hell. 





Mimdra, and Anjar, and liave au old aiid \arffv aettlemeut in Bbt 
Somu of tbum clium Fei'sinii dL'sceuL aiid say time tliey tied f r.iui 
when their power was overthrown by HaWkti tliy Tiirtfir {li 
most are probably of Iliuda oriifiij, some Siudia, olten) C _ 
converted to tbo Khoja faith 4(H) yeara iigo by Pir Sadr-ud 
Acc-j>r<liiij,' to one nccount a detachment or them came from Si 
about 1<*)<>(> imder the guidance of a certaia I'lr DAdu. Of mi 
Hi»c, siroogly made aad of fair complexion, tUey tvear the I; 
short and the muustache long. They dress like other Cutchin 
at home speak Cutchi without any marked peooUarity. Thej 
well off, in no way scrimped for food or clothes. Many are 
meet spt'i-'ial expenses, but some are foi-ced to borrow. 'I'hrifl 
hardwurkiug they are quiet imd orderly. Most of them are t 
but if thoy soem likely to gnin by it they are ready to uUtu up a 
new calling. Several of them of late, prospering in trade, uv 
noar Bhuj, sunk wolU and built rest-houees. Shias of the Nai 
IsmAiti soct, they follow His Hif^hncas Aghii KhAn whom 
worship and obey as their unrevealed inwim and hf i " ■ 
duseeuded in direct line from Isiadd the son of Jafor > 
i>f tho revealo<i im'inix, and from the ' Old Man of the .V 
Shnikh'al-jiilml, othei-wiso known as Hasan -i-Rabbah the ■ 
of their faith and convert«r of their acceston the terrible 
of Alnmnt. Thoirconverter PirSadr-ud-din, amisaioaary, ti.(f, ut., 
of Hie Hi)jthn*»ss Agha KhAn's ancestorsj is said to have introd 
a reli;f^ouA book of ten ijicArnationd; (/i^ai'a^iir, cont» 
nine incamntions of Vishnu and the incarnation of the n 
Ali 38 the tenth.' They have uu mnKiiuef, bat sjiy their prayers, whi 
uonftist of heuriuj^ tliu l>enth ehapter of tho(2^jfarreydrand reciting 
podiffreo of Ilis Highness A^ha Kluin, in their a^st^nilily bo' 
Jaimit fihdnds. Sadr-nd-din, dyiuK'at Uchh in the I'auj&b, some 
his dRKC«udant« settled at Kadi in (he GaikwAr's territory, a.nd 
named Kadiwiila. One of the Kadiw^U, Ghulani All Shall by 
came in 171)2 to Kera in Cutch and being received by the Khoj 
witli mnch honour settled there.' At his shrine a yearly fair is hold 
Aof^nsl {Chaitr a 8 ud\i). Marrying among themeelves, the 
form a distinct community whose casto disputes are Bottlod by 
meetings. They have a treasurer or steward, muhh t, andan acco 
kumaria, whose doty it ia to collect and forward for trans 
to His Hiirhnes)* Ajrha Khiln, as imi'tm, wherever ho may c 
reside, the iiontribntions raised on his account by tho oomm 
Thoy have lately shewn UiDmselves anxioua to give their clul 


t The rvuoa of the Eh&js rclirion twng m mnch lik« tho II ' 
wrKinKr.ftlil«tPB»tiMftfrfa«<ira/.ir. neKplainad by th« f»ct tbiit the 

rf4i»,_we»»Iw»y»iiMtcTiitc«ltoa«uitwgr»dM»itUifltnithof thagrt-i. . |"-.>. ^ 

nligiana lenetii wf thoso whou tlwy wuhod to can vert, ll^tico th.- uli.ivfl trottil 
intmdod to oouvort to the lamiili f»ith ■ body o( not very IwmMd Hiti.iii«. auUBI 
tu« uiuo incnnutiona of Vislmu to Ite Iran an far m they tfo, and «uj)pWtD«att I 
ImpL'rfiwl VUIiri4ntB »j.t«m by ■njwnwl.iunf tlia ow^nil Srtctrine of tho Isra&il 
tliif irujiriia(n.i.. ai-.jttlr. »t Uic moal ImIv All. Sir H. B. K. Vrtn, MucMt" ' 
Mniiiuim-, XXXrV. 31*iMirl l.t« 

' Dctwla ari- giv«» uo'ler Uie Iwad "Kera." 



than (onnerly, and are on the whole a prosperous 

i'»,ntimlfeniig 7000soul8,ara found inthocafit and weRtoE the 

p. With till' bulk of thoir tribe they woro probably oonvorted 

in Siad abuiit ihe close of tbi* fourltieutli century and are 

Uu? lait.' ^i-tiliTH in Ciit<')i. Of mori; thsD average height 

th thpy "Ti? dark with flat ntt»<»H and faeoB, ions neclcs, 

hair, and long bcftnlH. They HjK^ik a mixture of Cutchi 

ids. CnrelffAH and untidy, thoy anj bnivp, hardworking, 

iijq»iUibli>. imd rhonjrh hot- tempered jfeurrally well-bohaTea. 

~<r(.'edc>rH and dealer:), they are an regards food 

iT, but niuHt of thorn have to borrow tn meet 

■rt|itr,.Hnf ibfir leading family corf monies. Kunnia in faith the 

of the weal koop their iliudu bards and have also spiritual 

I, pirr. Th'^e in the eaiib honour the ordinary mauhns. 

umnymi! amoni; thomaolvcs thoir nonn Romotimea take 

:ini>mtf the Muwilman tribes of Notiars, Hinjgolas, and 

Ml Stjdha Rftjjmts. They never give their dauiy^htera 

.^i«s. Disputo.i are very rare and are settic<l by their 

tho Jnm, who lives at Kuaaria. They keep to their old 

uunes andatpiibhc diiiiierH eat frutn He]>arate potB. Hut 

1, miirriaj;r(^, and dtiftth customs do not differ much from 

^' " '1 '■:■<. They give their children no schooling 

roving' iht'ir position. 

llusH, Dumhennt^ 6178 kuuIs, are partly immigranta from Sind, 
tf**^''^ ponverta chiefly Uihanas by caste. The Sind iMemanfl 
U> be Loh^Qftf^ conveTt4>d in 143:) {H38 II.) and named 
1, mofjiin, bv 'he lelehrntt'^l saint Syed Yuanf.ud-din tho 
int ofSvod Al)d-id-k^lir Jilanl.lhe saint of faints. Piranpir»ry of thoir conversion is (hat Suudarji and 
two men nf the Lohaua ca«te, lived at Nagar Tatta then tho 
Sind governed by Markabkhan a ruler tributary to tho 
_ 5. Swing some miracles performed by the aaint, who is 
bave coTne ihi-re in 1422, they becnme iMuHalmAns (i'i-.{3) and 
■ ■ ' ii^jiand Taj Mnhaminnd. Their examplt-waa 

!'. ina faniilie8,8uiularjiorAdamjibviug(tO-tI} 
m^ xhetn. UnderhiagrandBonKaio.thcy.atthe invitation 

irji, emigrated to Cutch where their numbers wore 
'Ortafromaniougthe CutchLohanas. Theyahave their 
.Lnhj,aud epeak Cutchi without any pc'culiaritiea. 
>r cleanly, they aro hardworking, honest, sober, 
'.lanis follow all prufeJ».*iou«, those living in villages 
rn. Their Btnte is middling, with enough for food and 
^iU)i*M, but presM'd to meet special demands. Snnnis in faith they 
-nid follow the regular Kaxi. In their marriage and 
- they do not differ from other Snnnis. They form a 
linp their casto disjiutcs by a committee of 
: ir children little ech<x>liug they are a pushing, 
iy U\ lake Ut any new callJiif^ mid going to dlntanb 
1^.. ■li.Mf fortnac:i. Many Cutch Memana, prospering 
, Bombay, the MalaMr coast, Uuidarabiid, 
iiaari-^, t^idiTULtii, uiiu AxkxaSh&r, have iu their tuitivo villaged built 



Chapter IIL 





mosc|U68, rGfit-UoascajCaHtu-hoDseSj Jatnd t khd nd*, wcIU and pond 
sot apart funds for the chnritAblo distributiou of grain. 'They 
like other Cutcli Masalmsios aud, eic«pt that at public fewtt 
use sweftmuata lust-ead uf uiuthm, thcro is notliiuy sjXH-ial in 
fuod. They perfurtu tho sairitiop, akiht, but seldoia the intttatig 
bitnUlliihf coremouy. They have a special spiritual guide, /«V, litr 
in Bhuj, wlio goes by the uaino of Bbid Vilo Tir, liia uwu 
bein^ Muhammad Shah, to whom fiiod yearly payments nro m 
They are also in the habit of becoming disuipIeSf niurida, oi 
whom they pay certain yearly Fees. 

The few Mnaalman Kdatri families fonnd in differrnt part* 
Catch, are said to Uavo come frum Siad ab<jut the middle \tt tl 
sixteenlb century (1544}, and to have adopted \°.\am bei-auw 
some dispute with th**ir priest'*, Rrahmans of thp SawUvat oat 
The men sliave the head aud wear the beard, and to look at do oil 
differ from other Culchi Mnsalmflna. They wear the auriinon C'u 
dress and their women <lrem like the Meman women. They are bt 
with Bat faces, long cars, and high prominent foreheads. Tbey npM 
Cuti^hi with no noticeable peeuliarities. Generally neat, they 
hardworking, honest, solier, thrifty, and orderly. They work A 
dyers, carpenters, turners, and cultivatora, and their woium an 
dkillod in embroiilerj- and frilling. As a claas they are well-lo-do 
able to meet all eJCpeusos aud to save. Snnnis in fairh rlioy an 
reltgioas following the urdiuary iSunni muufcu. Marrying amoi 
tbomaelvos they form a difltinct commnnity, settling dispnt^tt 
persons chosen for the purpose. Hindu Khalris wishing to ioi 
thoir clai$:!i are aonietimeft admitted. Their customs do not diflfr^ 
from thoAo of other Hunuia. Though well-to-do they are not 
rising clatw, giving their children no teaching aud taking to u 
new pursuits. 

Kvvhu&'BS, numbering 6000 souls, arc found in almost all Cut 
Tillagos. They are said to have eomc from Sind abiiut ihe middl 
of the aixtocnth century. Probably oQOverts from tho Hindu ca*t 
of the same name, they claim deijcent £rum Halimah, the IViphet' 
nurse. Both men and womon nro well-maile ami have good fcatnn' 
Their homo tongueisCutchi. Hardworking, but seldom ni'-nt, they at 
honest, a tew of them thrifty, mild-tei!i[K.-r(^U, and, aceurding t« (hot 
means, hospitahlo. Potters and aK«.liri*edors they are in middlin 
Condition not stinied for food or clothes, some of them indelit»'d, ba 
almost all with cre<UL. Sunnis in faith, besides a special ptr, tfacr 
honour Sunni mniilvlit. Fonning, as regai*ds nuirriage, a ilistino 
community, disputes are settled by an officer choaen by themselre* 
and named prince, mehlar. In their food, dxuss, and custoni.% the 

) Tluy h«vfi auoUicruiiii SyeH Bunirg Ali, th« linoal doaaooduit of tiieir Gi 
wavtaust tffud Ytunif-tuL.<Un ti> vrhoiD, tbougli Uivy huntwr liim mora tluu^ '^ '' 
Duide, thn maAv no paytiiuuu, Being iii a ven' poor suU', tlie (neixlE 
Eoely (lS7i1)iioWiHh«(l a book, called the Ibrtt-al-lUic, (Mintaini"" "ir hi.- 
McniAD o(>[i vera loll, lh« pntigrvc nf the fif, ait<\ n opv .^f n •!•" >i i 
Y<i"uf-U(l-ilin Hy the Menuuu, liuxitnu UiMnMilvcoi xn<I llicir ilifa. ' 
cveti i( in iluing m thoy w«rw to be soM ita eUre*, Uiu ;>tr ui'i Ills 'Uto t inlniiU. 
thin book WW pubtished the Menoaa htve bf^mi to fulfil Ihu |iromUc iiut'Jc tiy 



|Bot differ fram other Cutch Suonis. Tlwy never teach Iheir 
1, and though not a ming itre a Hteady clu&ij. 

"'iTobonng 400O sonia, botli riiudiiBaml Musnlnians, 

. aloag the central part uf the north shore of the 

Latcn. Aifnraiug to &oma accounis they camo beforn, 

to olht-rs they traiiie with the Jadejiis fnmi Sind [about 

ime years ahor their arrival Ihcy si's said to have boon 

to Isldni by Minchii one u{ their number who lived at 

Thone in the west ai-e more ciTilised than the rest. They 

Jlfltcbi with a rather harsh Sindi accent. Dirty, and not 

they are hardworking, hot-tempered, and bospitahlo. 

ar« cuttlo-breedori^, husbntidmeu, and servants. Aa 

are poor, ablo to meet ordinury charges, but forced to 

Lit ApLi'ial exi>eD8ei<. The SanfjS'hars of V^^jiid and Abdaaa 

nit, TlioHt? uf the south and other (xirt^ believe in maulvU 

Wo fpiritiutl ^idos, pif", but most of cbom worship jakhs or 

tbirsemen.' They used to intonnarry with Rajput*?, hut now 

only anion(jr thmn^nlves they fi^rm a distinct oommunity. 

^putds lin* jiX'unmlly st-tthid by persaus appyiuted by the 

riw-ir ehildrea have Hiudu nanu'jt, and about a fourth of 

Eao&otdrviiniL-Me. T)ie sacrifice, aleika, ceremony is unknown 

[nriy marriufres ore common, the ceremony being performed 

'.Kfcrdinir to the Muiuilman and the Hindu rites. Esoept that; 

r:ioof them first touching their feet with 

..< cusuim» ant Miisalriiau. Th«y are nut a 

aiu, Doither teaching their children nor taking to new 




Sunghilr*, thongh ba MusaltnilnR they claim. Arab descent, 

tu be of Hindu urigiu. Tht*y axv Kaid to include 

I of sevenii Hiijput tribt^a and to havn once formed four 

ktoa with many sub^diriiiionfi of which their seventy-two 

», nukfus, is a trace.' The name is thought to come irom 

>p or baud, and to mttau herdsmen. But they are 

tbe name as the Sangar Rnjput:) who npponr in two of 

and are stiti powitrful iu fuirt of the North-VVest 

This trih(< would Hueni to \w thi> Hiime a» the 8angiUl&s 

Flfiiund by Nean-hiw (32"» B.c.} to the west of the Indus, 

iho other detachment of Alesauder*8 troops between the 

west nuiuths of that river, and, sinoe then, under the uamea 

(r piaKK lit wtinhij) IB on the Kilkiulhct liil) eixht^en milna went nf Bbuj, where 
B'l lIondAy of Hhdilarra (Snfitpiiilipr), »y<^arly (uir, Ktl«tiil«<l by SangliAi*, 
I'-K Mmdmicu^ u livM. Tbe j'aAA« or wliJUi h«raefnsQ an aevi>uty-iwo 
tiererer the .SMigb,tn lire they bavo tboir pkcu at vinship vich ■ wk 

«L v. I«3- 

1. ''. T>! nnvM (107). '(>ft)ic8aiii^iin.£'fli9«tr», IHtlHia known. Th«y 

Th«ir snie chipfHhip i« Jagnujiuipur oc th« Jamnft,' 

.:.iw«h aIkiiiI eighty miloi st>utfa-<uwt of Agra. Tim 

'■i i/flnn^ng to Kitoauj, Lb«y pftMed U> th« ituntli, auine uy 

wandenagi, regained tfaetr power in the north-weat on ihitt 

.<i) <lliH). Klliot'a Racm, ^. W. P., L 333. Sinefa&n itre 

[Bombfty Oa 






± [I in-jr* 


Songam^, SangQe, SaognmaDs and Sangnrinns, known alt 
entirely aa pirates.* In the beginning ol > ■■ ■ 
it was the exceBses of the Sangamaras, Ta'^ i - 

tha Mmla and Kcrke, that bronghl u{»d »iad the Arub tai 
and conquest.^ Early in the ninth century under the 
Bawdrij, from Daira a boat, they cleared the seas ae iar n 
chnaiug the Arab ships bound for Indin and China.' tW 
eltjVL'Uth century, also under tlie name Baw^rij, Biruni [l( 
placev their hcad-quortcre at Outch and Sonmatb-* Tboy 
probably Harco Polo's (1290) 'desperate pirates of tJujiir'ii.' 
whose * atrocious practices ' was, in case they might lia . 
their iewolsj to force their morchftnt priaouera to taki* 
mixed with soa water which induced a violent purging.^ 
ninth century, they frequented Sokotra, a place of ■-■ 
where they oncaniped and sold Iheii- plunder to good pi 
Chrisrians bongbt it knowing well it was Saracen or Pagan 
Tunardii the close g£ the sevent«entb century, under the 
Saagoriea or SanganioQB/ they caused perpetual trouble to 
mercbants and sailors. In 1600, Ovington deacribes them as 
betwuen Stud and cu]K! Jagat, iufestiug all the wu&lern ccxvrt 
cruising to Ormaz.* Their bofUs were so East that, thoy ■ 
taken. Though pirates they were faithful to their pr 
1720 Hamilton' says, Sang&uia ia their pruvluce, Bci liimr 
and a quoen their goromor. All are pirates, rocruiu:v 
criminalB and villains. iJefure boarding a ship they drink 6/ 
and when they wear their long hair loose, they give no <: 
1788 Rennell "* describes them, an, from their chief pon ■ 
Aramra, crnizing as far as the Persian Gulf.'' With the 

1 ShJow. R. A.a,I. SIS, S03;M«Crindle'«NAaR!liu, 177;yiiiMnt,T. 198. 

iHaniiticntiiiii uprol«ble. Tliuugh aa C'utch SftU^fuLni am »eMBoii itMwt iif tiieiri 
KAIIii*vitr cliiiuiDeii are. 

■ EUir.t'B Uiatoi7, 1. 376, 508 ; Rvinaad (MBmoirSur. riiide, IftI) ' 
Mitiqnity the IikIim nuiutlin utH th« tinjiuAt onAKte wrrn * me/'t^^i,: 
ptTHtoa. In tbi; time at tlte HtukilAi) Kliiilijihs LIkw infoftvil thi; 'I 
mftde raidB u fiu- np th« K«JS«*aa JitiUa. Tuon^i Alvxati'l 
mmtioaof tlioLr piraouwthty am Ntidio oftriiar titaea tohave been ^.■.- ti"Lit'iru>] 
lo bavo fort'cil th« ("eniui kinga ta block the Ko^into* month. (Vinoent, M 
And. in the uitb oentury (fitiO ^d.), U waa Uieir uutram* that inaiU 
Navvtiu-w.'ln »f I'enia insivt on tb« traiutfcr to him of the B«lucutiUii oo»b 
on the I'cnuUia, Ind. Ant C. A C 1, Xii. 

> MmuUi (•fl9), PniriMd'Or, IIL 37. 

* EUioL'. HiMWry, 1. 66. • Yule'i Mareo Ptpio, U. 32SL 

■ VuIq'i Marco Polo, II 311. Muntakliabu-l-Inbiib (abvut Itiltt) «pMka oi 
Bftwilril aeSaluatMM. »lawleascot belonging to Santt notorioiu dir th<tr pJnciMV. 
boardvii snudl trading craft from Uantlar Abbasi and Maakat, but did not v«ntai«] 
attack larac uitgriin •liip*. KlUot, VD. SM. 

* C. Nlelniir (1763) pvet th« Ism aMUil bnt inora Mnoot fonn Suigeriea. 
IX. 204. 

* Voyage to Sunt, 439, 446. Th»y wonld w«m fttthts tinw tobftv* Viw tmj 
Boonffb to givu tb» name Sanjia to Uk whole tif Cutch. Tboa 0^)> 
(AtlK V. 2U8> Gnj&rat b boand«d on tbc n>-Tt>i by I)ii]l'.Sindi, 84nc^> 

■ New Aeoount, L 132. Aocoidtng Cu ViuL-cDi (TI. Slfl) they bad^lHtu nr 
Cnt«b and Mttlw oc th« oppoaitv ooart of KAtbi^tr&r. 

» Map oflndia. S03. 

■■ The foUowing CMea illuatratA thi Riutnnian piracies in tbc* ■ 
«igfal«et)th centnriaa. In 1680 Mr P«tit, hi^i in thx ISogliab Coni[NUiy'i 
Sunt, on » voyagq to Ui« goU of P^iaia, was »«ind by the SuguliOi. Tkty i 



octnf.".! .lUier triliea of pirates. Of these the cliief were the 

u£ Dwttrka and tha Viidhela of Aramra. At tbo uloso i>f 

?uth century (1799) tliey were once or twice attacked by 

of w;ir, but thoug-li tlie pirate fleets w^ro ilpHtn^ycd their 

not taken.' Later on they were (IbW) for » time 

[Tto onlor by Colonel Wjtiker. But they Ai^u broke out 

III ISIij Dwiirka anrl Het surr«ml0r©U to a British 

AfterwarUs, when Okhainaudal was madu over to 

Viighors roBo on tho garrison, ami were not fiually 

till, in 1820 (Nov. 26), a Dritiah force took and do-stroyi-d 

TftBd Bet.' 

r, aro found all over Cntch hut chiefly in Gfirda 

'< i-th of Uhuj. They are alt MiiiialDmuB, convertH 

:ribe of Jats or ^^t», who form tbo bulk uf the low 

►,i :i in the PanjAb and Siad. Tliey wonld soom to hare 

Cntch fr^ira 8iud probably with or after tho Sammas (1300). 

^Ihtfir arrivft! uothinsr certain has bcon traced. Cattle -dealera 

f.frwlf. m'«i of the Jata have no fixed abodes and keep moving in 

mffc. The maa are iail and stout, withrc^iiar featuroBj 

TioD, hif^h noaofi, thin lip;4, niundod chucks^ lank black 

thick full beardt!, worn sumetimea long, sometimee short. 

ju are ^tout and handHome. Their houio tongue is C'ntchi, 

ted with Sindi, on account of their frequent dealings with 

of Sind. Besides CALtlo-dealin^, a few are traders, 

and servants. As a class they are ivell>to-do, not 

'.dor food or clothes, and able to save. In religion they are 

L a separate spiritoal head, ptr. They also pay reverence to 

Chapter UI. 


Sattfffni r». 


IUb pt withimt » nutKin of R*. 90,000, uxl Mr Totit Hi«d a prisgner. lu 1686, 

~l fMginiaa aiun *riUi eight gmu. manoed by ■ furiotu uraw ol 300 men, eruia> 

»wB SonU taul Bcrabfty. attoclMid the Bn^ufa man alwAr Phonix of fotty.two 

F^'tK^ t^'-ir Tii-taLeUicy tried to get amy. Fununl by the bo»ta. tod 

p lud b> tw annk, an<l only fvantv of tbenn vore wvud. 

ard S«y wM, no&r Bombay, overtaKen by two Suigutiui 

nar- Mi*.n i.vr mta had lea gnna, the oth«r with four guns and fifty men. 

ap wiUi Say's al)i^, aboyl aeventy ui eighty men, anned with awords ud 

MfmoibWil on board. Say'a crew, who wcra mil Arata, leapt into tin na, 

the captAtn and two ivruita to th«ir tMe. Riuhiag at the captaJa, the 

tii«rlT cat off hia lianda, and OTcrpowering hint, sthppM him naked. Th^m 

rvautauce tJiey naed him well, Iaokc<l «ftcr bin wonnda, and refreahed 

iim and water. They th^a nuule for Armim in KAthiiwdr. Landinf 

t4im^t the captain livinn tbvir queen. She uakftd which of her mrn had 

I'ay rrf u(nl Ui tell, and waa kept priBoucr for a few dAya. Tlicn, 

- ' ' !bB Virjjiii lately robbed out of a Porlu^uvie »hi|i, that he 

>'i shajM the apMl, he wna let go. (OviaKton'a Voyoj'e, 

: jra aqnadroiu of (our lai^o aiid four email vmscIs with about 

i>r Knghah ahip MomingStaron her way to Svrat with a rich 

■ I thiy, a vowel of SOO tonj^ opened the eiw>^»)«nt, but waa 

' iheer tdL it^xt day they boarded tna iSnglimh veeee) from fivv pointa 

da^Mrately were not shaken off without a loaa to tbe ^AHah of mvcd 

Ml aeven wouoded (Low's [ndian Narjr, I. 101). In 1797, Lieutenant 

■ing tbe Entrance of the gulf of Cutch, wu nttacltnl by four 

'■hiiM <xch more than double tbe aiae of, aod carryiDn twice aa many nea 

tficrueaMAcklaatiiigfortbrMlioari tiiey wervdrivfiaoit (Low's 

- >'1l, IKt. Indian Ri^g. (IWO) ChronivU, Jt. 
I 2M. Tod'BWo«u-niIu'Ii3L.'l.'^1'44,1. laTod'aopinMn th* 

{Ki. 1 .11 '1 1 < \ [Ml conH from the leading tnbo of pintea^ bat from their pfMtau 
u tbe (ooutlia ol riven, nttgan. Ditto, 442. 

IU»— 13 

Chapter III. 



tbo tonib of a Jot woman, M^ta Bbambhi, about soren niil«^H 
Uhuj, wlwre, at a fair held every year, thoy meet to pay vows oBJ 
behalf uf their children. This toinb is respt^ctpd by nthar Svl 
The atditfti of the incense bnrnt at the ehrinCi if eaten ati-l 
tho wutiud, aro said to cure hydrophobia. la marriagx- 
reflpenta they form a distinct cuDimonity and settle their own disn 
They keep to moat of their foreSithers* customs eating more 
curds, ami clarified butter, than grain, l^ey wear two ishoeta, eAif 
one on the upper and tho other on the lower part of tho bodj 
oa their head» they tie a scarf, fdlia. To avoid the exp«n 
washing, the sheets and scarf are coloured a dark yellow. D 
the other women of Ciitch, Jat women wear a gtjwn, ghdghr, 
head scarf, udnt. Theynever wear bodices. They have also 
ornament, a thick tlat silver necklace called hans. Kz 
of the Kuriiu and some other religions books they toi 
children nothing, and are in no way a pushing or a rising d 

Mia'na's, nnmliering 'H>QO eonls, are spread over t 

proTiQce. They aro said to be formerl of Musalmfin 

conTerted from different castes from Sind, H&l&r, and K&t 

late years they are naid to have received recruits from sevi 

warlike classes of Cntrh Hindns. More active and bar 

than other Musalmiins, they are tall and strong, rather ruddy, 

regular features, round cheeks, and thick corling beards. 

home tongue is Cutchi. They are dirty in their habits, hardwoi 

hot-tempered, and thongh tetts so than formerly, onmly. Sol 

sailors, and husbandmen, many of them are still highiray Tol 

Without thrift, and with little credit, most of them aro poo 

in debt. Snnuis in faiih thoy have a special spiritual goidi 

hononring at the same time different SuDni vtaulvig. They gea 

marry among themselves. Except that they bnry their dead, 

customs aro Hindu tather than Musalm&n. The men wear 

and short clothes and the women, who have no charactt 

chastity or modeeity, instead of a gown, ghaghru, wear only a 

cloth, pemu or dltebado. Formerly the terror of the coantn 

have of late years settled to a much quieter and more orderl 

though they still show no siKoa of trying to improve their jg 

or any wish to have their children taught. ^| 

Bouora's of the Daudi sect, numbering 1947 aonls, ^v 
chieBy in lihuj, M^udvi, and Anjar. They arc s^d to have 
from Gujarat and Kathidwir about 800 years ago. Of e 
height, lean, and wheat coloured, with very little hair on tbeii 
they differ much from other Cutch Musalmdna. Their langn 
Qujaruti with the same pecnharities as among the 8urat 
B<jliori8. Neat, tidy, and hardworking, the Bohorfe are 
skilful, (piiot, and orderly. Kxcepi a few who hold land til 
others, all are tradera chiefly ocaipied in making and selling 
saltpetre, and soap, in wtvaving, and in dealing m iron, timb 
dyes, and ink. ShiAa uf the sectotMnstilJ-lsmSibs they are fo' 
of tho Mulla of Surat to whom, besides one-fifth of Uiejr i 
Wtwnw, they make fixed yearly payments. Regarding marria 
other ceremonies they form a distinct community. Smal 
aquabbles are settled by persons specially appointed by the 



ddcidoa any scrions diamites. TIi<?y drr-ss libo Gujariit 

m wbite, rathor nigh and well-folded turbans, 

ttxd ojnia, julddi, loose troosera, tammdna, and, over their 

iwls instead of cotton ehoulitor olotha. Thoir women 

io ivory braceleta or the nsl scarf, odni, oommoo in 

•tboy us« Lhu voil cloak, &ur^(i, cominoQin (lujojnt. The 

the beani long ami tbe mouatacho close cut. They 

with Sanats and at least outwardly differ little from (hem 

'a, nnmboring 1000 nanls, are chiefly fonnd in Mandri. 

is made np of families of several castes who seem at 

to have ooino from Sind, HaUr, and Uujar&t. 

to tradition some were MosalmAns before they came and 

convert*! after their arrival in Cntch. They arc strong 

, onQfh lilfe other Sunni Musalm&ns in featnre. Their homo 

is a somewhat pemliar form of Cntchi.' They lire in housoB 

^bnmt brick, very neatly covered by their womou with 

They are almost nil sailors moet of them engaged in the 

», but many «:)f thom ready for a voyage tn Aden and 

kad !k>mo of them captains of great skill and oonrage, 

with the use of the oompasa and quadrant. Somo aro njao 

Tlioir women nell tish and make coir ropes and pftlm-fans. 

middling condition, well fed, and well clothed, but 

to meet their special expenses. Simnia in fiiith 

rvligiotu and pay epe<niU rovcrenc« to Pir Mur4d Shdh 

iUial gutdo^ to whom, on the return from a voyage, over; 

oortain payments. Vows to the water angel, ^iirydpir^ 

Marrying only among themselves they forma 

icx. *.' whr>Hii disputes an> settled by a committee nhosen 

Thrtngh somo of their women still wear the Hintlu 

said of late years to koep much more carefully to 

CQ9t«ni8, thoso belonging to well-to-do familiee never 

j|^ in public. They do not te«ach their children or enter on 

pareuit •!, and on the whole are said to be faUuig off in 

and doDdition." 

l's, anmbenug 500 souls, are foond chiefly in Bhui and 

Thtty an- Llio dosoendanta of tho Hindu tribe who rnled in 

''■' ;2to l;i5I.' According to their own atoTf-jthoir ancestors 

i at the close of the escape from the 

' Ala-ud-din Khilji. On settling in ("uioh they arc said to have 

ITioditJi, till their headman and 1500 followers, crossing 

I to tho cast of Lakhpat> fell short of water, and wore suffering 

of extreme thirst when the Musalmdn saint Kaha-nd-din 

And quenched their (hirst from a single water-pot. On his 








«(al ;>H:uItiu-itina ar« tiie DM of Uw word «r, Tur pan, but ; hiiitia, for 

r«r Mr r':'!i l^'^.'hl, I {U« bn«<), thwy woviti »ay, A'u mdai ffuik in the 

uiA M • the reminioo. 

I tiwtr K< - At Anunra In wutfc Kittbiiw&r the BhadAllB wen. with 

:^.ul^!ill•, amanK the uwrt duif{«rous pitaU* in weatvm !t>diji. 

' StaA MiuaIrlIu Ibey claim (loKeat from tlio Arab Uihe of Kuniab, 










rftiiro to VadsSra, the Jtlm and nil his clan becaioe UuBal 
torn h, where a yearly fiur is held, is still to he sees at 
Uirty, bardworkiug, faunest, and well-bebaved, tbey are aoli 
Miilors, grass and wcmd cutlers, and cnttivatura. Thuir 
middling, not scrimped for Food, hnt poorly clad and on 
occasiona Forced to borrow. Sunnis in f»itb tboy arv not nrli 
They have a spiritual giiidu^ piTr wliu^e an(v8Ujr \» hhiU to 
oonie with them from ISind. Marryinj? generally among tho 
but occasionally giving their daughters to Syeds, they Co 
difitinct oommtmity stutling dis|nite8 at masB meetings. In 
dress and customs they do nnt differ from other Mnaalmfins. 
do not teach their children aud are in no way a pushing o<t 

KKBfi,' numbering only a few families ttcattered over the 
are said to Uave b»en Rajpntn, tho descendants of Manfii who. 
the beginning of tho lhirt«ctith roiitury, came from N 
in Siud, and settled at Ptilgliad, uow Artdo, goverof. ■ ■ 
Maniti's itncle aud aftorwardfi by Man^i hiii)»t^lf. Maiiiu, wiu 
|i strong leaning to the MuaalqiAn faith, is said co have 
concerted, along with many Rajputs of difTerent cUns. 
ICers speak a mixed Cutchi and Sindi dialect. Generally 
and clean, they arc idle, honest, thrifty, hot-tempered, honpj 
and well-behaved. Cultivators and cattle-breeders, tfao^ 
well-to-do, having euongli for food and clothes^ and abla to 
Although with gcod credit they seldom borrow, None are 
or beg. SuntuK by faith they are religious and bononr wi 
They give their danghters in marriage to the dcsoendnnta o: 
Uaha-ud-diu ;t Musahnfiii saint. Their chiefs, tilult, i<cc:is.i'> 
marry Jadcjafe* daughters. C^te disputes arc &citled by their 
They circumcise their anus but give their children Hindu 
At their Ijutrotlials, marriages, and deaths, they Lave many 
rites, and their women always dress like Rajputs. Thoir n 
l^re said to be falling off. 

PVhsis, 4U strong, found in Bhuj, came to Cntcb with the 
(1816) and settled at Anj^r then under British managemeni, il 
there still is a house known as the Farsi vddt*. Three of tba Plj 
including the Rjb's physician, aro statfi servants, one belongs tl 
Agency, and the rest are merchants. Kxccpt one or two w^-i 
families the state of the Ciitcli Pdrsis is middling, 

CnaiBTiASS, 13 strong, found in Bhuj, are for the most', 
British officers. Ono is the bead master of the arts school^ anj 
a tierinan, is a contractor. 

In the province of Cutch there is ono villago or town to about i 
six square miles, each village coutaiuiug on an average 475 inhaU 
and about 1 63 houges. W ith th(» exception of the people of six ti 
uuiubering 01,085 souls or 18"69 per cent of the entire inhabit 
the population of Cutch, according to the IB72 consna reti 
lived in 1019 villages, with an average of S88 ttonia to each rS 

< K^. in llie miM of ninnm. wai applieil in tlic dcKc^ttidAnU of &ruiAi whn 
took U>e Und tb*t luut born &ct K\<Kt\ lo Alone for Ihciniintri ol M>nAi'« «inc 

nAi« Moriw 

opomops facing (he east. The gates, made of thoras and 
oo wiNMlen liiu^s, are duntiiC^ harvest time closed at night. 
iOiiges bave hif^b rouod wat^h-towei-s, kothds, gonerally out 
lur.^ Outeide tfaf gate is a Haautnan, a largt' shapeless etono, 
iftdfvr'ri, and somctinieB a Shitladeri's, temple, and a pond 
".j-drv-in thohot seasoD,excopta holedagiu its bod. To meet 
s, some poTirls and wells have lands and Acacia 
.1 >v(.'^ n(lJU'bp<l. At the entrance gato are the houses 
hTa), the Kathodia; the i'injara, the Kucibhiir, and other 

•■■■ ''ivating chiKses. Then I' thecasoof targe 

i s of the barher, the toiler, the carpenter, the black. 

li luv L'liiuvators, In the centre are the houses of the village 
; the brahman, the devotee, niit or gorji in Jain Tillages, 
generally dedicated to Unm or Krishna, and sometimes a 
tD&D nii-is(|nc. The houses, built o£ stone and mud, have, except 
iKora Hub-di vision and in Fochbam and a few other places on 
a^ tilod roofs. Near the gate is a large fold, vdda, tor sheep 
mtM^ of wbii;U every viUago bos ono or two flocka. Fodder 
ttlo aro kept in separate eoolosures) wbero a mombcr of the 
f osualty ulccps. 

|re «'as, in 1372, a total of 1()7,878 houaos, oti od an 

•'''■7't bonscs to the square mile. Of the total number, 

• lodging 99,7S0 persons or 20"-l7 per cent of the entii-e 

lititin, at tlio rato of 2'6i S4-)nl3 to each house, were buildings 

(■rails oC tiru-baked bricka aud roufu of tile. ^I'he reuiaiuiug 

^ honaet;, accommodating i}H7,!> 15 pcreoos or 79'o3 per cent 

I T-.'-i-irion per bouse of S-ftO souls, mcluded all buildinga 

t hatch or luavos or whoao outer walla were o£ mud or 

[ tirick. 

D chii'C villagvoflicers paid by the atate or tlie people, are the 
^Oj p9i*l, the accotintaiit, taldlif the messenger, hardlddr and 
- •' nifismen,pa«f'ii/if5,the tracker, po-71, the guard, ;»(M«i(fta 
the stFolliog players, hhardyds, the revenue officons, 
„ nil J :b(! bt>a4lmnn'a assistant, c^uutf Art. Most headmen enjoy 
pji-nTi;:: nnly a quit-rent, and, though not hereditary, the office 
[r-d dowu from lather to sou On festive occaeiona, tlie 
: — ....iiiaapluccof honour amongst the villagers and is with hi» 
It Hked by them to dinner parties, or presented with, uncooked 


VOUgo*. J 



I ISSt onwy vilUm wwt fDrtiRcl wxiia nf Lhion |>rcs(mting tnort fonnid«btQ And 

uuriniv>u:iU)b]c(rt)atavlci> Ui Irciitne unfirovid^d witli f;uii4. Tbttjr an dutcribed 

txcwpl thasa at I.*kh[)at and M&ndn, wmarc or nblong. with 

■■", pt-n-^rsUy well tmilt, hut none »iiT<>unit»l by ititclics. Thsy 

.~]y iit'in weJlii. The EtW* forta wen; j;MTiMii>nl W 

Liiir BiibjectB. The Ai-iwe wUKeaerally fl)l«d wild 

■ '•. 1 lit. Tbuy wcru (nrnisbcd with gaia of nniU csh~hf«, 

bd Tr^ir. Sir A. Iliimm' MS. ISStL The IHIU Muifa. 

k>ir' ' ' . fnrtiliextion in I'ntch. In IS2S ther« wm( nc&roolj r 

riiLce, Hun. Dcv. of Hindusti'D, I. ■'■87. 

Iitcrallv wood cnttora from hatJt tfao i>itobi for iaal, htvc no 
tin: K«th>NiU> or KAtbkxtts, T«n« japonica or tali DiiilMr« of aoaUi 
K Mil kail. 

[Bombay 1 





fsTCinnite of 

raltfins. Either BliiitiaSf Ijnh&n&a, Yim&s, Khoy&s, or Hornaus 
caste, tfao talutit are formers of tbo petty daos that oro tcvietl in 
villaga Tbey sometimes, but not more than other oJucat^d vil 
b(>Ip the beadman to preporo tho rillago accounts. '' 
havdlddra, havo ouly lately bcji^n to be paid ia cosh, la pni'j 

C'rxmo, villages they are still paid in grain, and in i^omn places d 
,rvosi time they got bread irom tbo cultirators in tant. Mow 
or low class Hindu moaaongers, panlydg, are found in every rillage^] 
are paid by the villagers in gmiu worth about 10». (Ra. 5) a nioi 
Tbey serve as messeogers and seo to 'the wants of official traveUu 
Craltimon, vajtvaydjt, litomlly settlers, inolodingharljers, car| 
putterv, and ethers, are paid iu grain or uncrushed corn h 
ordinary, and iucaah for special work. In some oldvillagoa 
enjoy rent-free lands. Traokora, pagin, omployod only in 1 
Tillages, are more under the orders of the vdlage landlord than 
the villngurfl. Geneially paid in grain and sometimes in cash, th 
income amounta to about l&*. (Rs. S) a month. Thoy are nub boa 
to make good to the villagers their losses by thefi, but when 
theft luui been traced to a village its Kolia and Kiicbodifls aa tho i 
trustworthy claasDsaro held responsible. In girdsia villngoSt ox< 
when the person whose property has been stolen Is his teiiAn|i| 
the proprietor makes up tho loss. Gnarda, pasdUi'ui, found in smdi 
Tillages especially in Viigad enjoy ront-freo land.^. Kdthodii4t 
always carrying arms, trac*) robberies, and in return are allowed soma 
abatement in ordinary village paymputa and land tax. lihaviiijiMt 
strolliog players, oome from Gujarat in the dry sea-sun and roceiv 
some oustonury payments from the cultivators, DhTuit,sa.iii to talc 
their names from the polar star, are Htationary revenno officeps, with 
the charge of from three to four villflges. The headman's assist-wil, 
thaudimt gets do pay, but is oocaKioDally asked to dinner by tha 
Tillagere. l^ie common village fund ia callo<l the gate, jhrmpa, 
fund. Except K^thodiiis all villagers contribuW to it, cultiratora 
paying twice as much as the rest. Charities, public institattouSa 
except those of the Jains and MnsalmiUis,and expenses connected 
with the visits of official travellera are paid from this fund. Besides 
on death and marriage occasions tho villagers meet twico a year, on 
Qckal A'tham in the village temple, and on new year's day at ths 
hoose of the biggest man, who, if the proprietor, giravia, or the state 
agent, mebtn, gets presents of cocoanuts from the vitlagera. Ab 
funerals, except in tho case of the lower castes, a man from each 
family goes with the party to the burning ground. At uiarriagca 
tho villagers meet iu the marriage hull, vidndvOi and got preseata 
of dateji. 

Prom the nncerteinty of the rainfall and from the poshing, 
vigorous character of tho people, there Is much more migration in 
Cutcb than in most parts of the Bombay Presidency. The higher 
class of traders, among Hindus, Bh&tifls, Osval Vanias. and LobAn^, 
and among Mnsalm^ns, Khojas, Mcmans, and Bohor^, are lUways 
ready to leave their homes in search of employment. Mauy of 
them havo perraauenlly settled in Roml)ay. And among the young 
xneu, a very large number, both of Hindus and Mu.saUuatis, leaving 





{amiltes in Catch go to pash their fortanes not only in Bombay 
fe d other parts of India, but in Persia^ Arabia, Africa> and China. 
Ibny of them amass considerable fortunes and return to spend 
Hhmir gains in jewelry, feasts, house and temple building, and the 
fnrebase of land. Besides traders a few high class Hindus leave 
"ikildi in search of employment as clerks or in Government service. 
;mke the traders, many of the leading artisans, masons, blacksmiths, 
eoppenmithB, and weavers &id work oat of Catch, and in years 
dacncity large numbers of the poor are often for the time forced 
to lms9» their homes and seek a living either in Gujarat or in Sind.* 
Of 4ie classes who in ordinary seasons move about the province, the 
ddrfare^ of artisans, carpenters, blacksmiths, coppersmiths, masons, 
and weavers who witii little capital go from town to town offering their 
■erriceB or selling their wares ; of carriers, Ahirs, with their bullock- 
cute, Ch^rans, Lohin&s, and Memans with their pack bullocks, 
pot tom with their asses, and Sindis with their camels ; and of the 
, Wwer classes, shepherds, Ods or wandering diggers, cotton cleaners, 
I ud labourers, especially field labourers in harvest time. Of 
p hmnigrants, polishers, blacksmiths known as GadAliis, and Ods, 
flome from M&rw^ and return within the year ; and in the cold and 
hot Masons traders from Cabul and coppersmiths from K4thi^w&r 
noe and sell their fruit and brass vessels, and return before the 

< Aceordiag to the rotanu io 1862. 25,000 left ; in 1863, 36,000 ; in 1864, 23,000 ; 
■ VK. i3jS> ; in 1866* 18.600 ; io 1867, 20.267 ; in 1868, 20,000 ; in 1870, 16,000 1 
Mi in 187<^ 00,000. 

Chaptor U 


Chaptw IV. 

Anbla AreA. 






Tire CtitcU arable area is estimated at aboat 1,4o0,000 
which aboat GOO.UOO belong to the Kio and 850,000 la fqni 
chiuftiuud landlords. As most of the mi\ i*; kaikI^* and v.. ' 
holdiuffs are largo averaging abont thirty-fire acres. TIj. 
ftre generally Huwn id July, A'uluul, aud barrecited at the be^ini 
of October, A'la, About the tiuie o[ the tarly h&rTest, cold WWII 
cropA aro sown, all oF thcni in entered garden lands. Wat* 
hot-wealh«r crops, sown in March, Chailra, and roaped i^ril 
Jeth, are liable to sufior from an early rainfall. ^H 

The ordinsTy Eold tools are : the plougb, hal ; the weeding plo 
or hoc, kalia or ramp ; the seed drill, dantdl ; thq weeder, vik. 
or dhvndiu; the hoe, ffodtiU ; the scythe, tinlardu ; the band 
kharpi ; the rake, danUiti; Ibe acraping hoe, pauefo; the laa 
water bag and lift, io«'; and for harvetit work, a high stool 
loather-coveredcaneor iron winnowing ian,atipdu; and a loathi 
leather-covered banilxio basket. Thongb its value is best nndersl 
ID garden-land villages mannro is carefully preserved ihrongl 
tho country. In the dry weather, ehet-p and cattle arc fed 
stalled in the fields, and litter \» laid about theta and afterwi 
stored. Hou»e and yard sweepings are in most places c«mf 
gathered. In the hot weather they are spread on the land, and 
Held ploughed or worked with the hand hoe, kcddli. LeM comnM 
the soil is lirHt loosened and then mannred, an acre of wnter«d 1 
getting on an average from SO to 40 cart-loads (1 1 (o 15 tool 
manure. Bird dung, gathered from the floors of ruined buildj 
tuid from under trees where birds roost, is much used iu gran 
melons, and rotten lish and castor-seed cakes aro sometinies dii, 
round mango-tree roots. Bones and lime can be had in plen^, 
until lately they were never utilized. Except that soJt-eartl 
BOmotimOB niLxod with water to ripen irrigated crops and to irapi 
clftyoy lands, salt is never used as a fenilizer. Salt lauds 
often improved by filling them with fine dust or blunn sand, 

> HsterUli for grmt pArt of this chapter have been nipplied by Mr. Vioira 
Nii^na Niib Tnvko. 

■ "n* chi«E pftrt* at the Wkter-Iiit are, bcttidu the le«th«t bag, tot, lira vntm 
Iwtbu- mp««, ft Urgvr, roral. and a aniallcr, raroidi ; two opridiU au|i|)arU 
wkMl one ((K>t nine inches ia dunwtor and with a one foot long mm or wond 
■ad close to the grcniBd n wbr>c1 two tert ivo tachca long ud aboat nx ioclM 
diiatotcr otk which Uw aiullct rope worlt^. 


jwing into them ro.i*! scTApiDg!! and pond silt. 
put uf the prorince is the laud bnmt before it issuwa. And 
. in one vt twu places as at Jat^v^da in HrfiDtbul, lands tire 
t flooded that they maj be enriched by the silt. In the 
looMt tracts, kunthi, that it may be thoroughly turned, the 
often dng instead of ploughed. 

re spreading his fiold with manure the husbandman ploughs 
i,or tirice. The plough, drawn by one pair of bullocks, does 
than tbrco iochea deep. A skilled cnltiTator rakes off 
ij and dry sticks, and levoU the ground. A less careful 
only the hoe, kalia, or in jwor landsj fit only for 
it nothing till the rain falls. Aft«r the first rainfall 
ly) millet, hdjri, is sown, the seed being mostly covorod 
3w. After tho millet is in, comes the sowing of 
of guvdr and hornd, two kindj* of early pulso. ^Vlien 
trif and pulse, gumr and korad, are about a foot high the 
sn the rows is loosened by a weeder, vikhcdo. Millet is 
weeded by the hoe, both b«fore and after the loosening, 
nionalty more than onco loosened with the woodor, but for 
Inosoning is thought onough. Whon cotton plants are 
" " fb, tne earth about them is loosened by tho weeder, 
id a second time, and after the second wcodiug, to 
roots and drive down the main roots tho beab 
I plough and level the field. In garden lands, vddU^ 
nl, is chiefly grown. Cotton and Indiaii millet, jMmr, are 
liaed as garden crops. If tho rain&ll is timely, millet 
'Water in the beginning of the season. But if there aro 
' rain before the end of June, Jrth, the field is ploughed 
?d, divided into beds, kydrd^, and tho seed sowa and 
When the plants are aimut a foot high, the Boil is twice 
the hand hoe, klmrpi. 

rest operations are : for cotton throe pickings abont tho 

lary at intorrals of ten or fifteen days; for millet about 

ling oE October, first the cutting of the heads and 

of the stalks; for Indian millet, also early in October, 

cutting of the heads and afterwards the rooting up of 

or the cutting of heads and stalks together about a loot 

gronnd ; for early pnlse, vuiff and guvdr, in October, tho 

ig ovtir by a shovel, and for korad, almost at the same 

igging out by the hoe, khar^i. 

ii producta are : of early, kharlf, crops, uiillot, pulse, and 

^d of late, rain, crops, wheat, barley, gram, and rapeseod. 

not growB. Common millet, hdjri, Penicillaria apicata, one 

crofis, is of two kinds, a small, bhUhro, and a lai^, 

LargR millet sown in middling soils grows best when 

slightly salt. Millet wanta water and flourishes best aa 

jp. It is generally grown by itself. Rut in Alxlasa 

it is sown with nuig and kortid. In Abddsa each crop 

^As it ripens, and in Y£gad all throe aro cut together and 

tter cleaning. Iuami:ied field, ac<.'ording to the quality 




lapter. IV. 





of Hid Hoil, from two-tliirds to three-foortbs of the whol« 
uiitlet. The yielii of millot varies from eisty-foM in middling 
to 250 fold in watered land. Indian millet, juvar^ Borffl 
vuljfnre, ii chiefly grown in clayey eoila. It is rarely watepoa i 
ia for the most part sown by itself. There are five chii'fai 
_;Hr<ir and ;>ite/i«r, sown in Jtiiic or July soon aftor > ■ 
cotton J ijundiHl sown before the setting in of the cold i 
about the end of August {Shnivaii) ; eha^ttio sown about, the' 
of Fobruary and grown by iiri^i^ition ; and mtiul sown in July 
Aagnst with other grain as a dry crop, or in the hot leasovi t 
watered crop. The averago yield of juvdr is about sixtj'-l 
Wheat, </A«», Triticum 668tinmi, ia chiefly irrigHted. TnwaK 
wheat ia gyowa only in parts of Vagad liublc to RcK)diug. S4 
Boils in the coast alluvial limds, iitnth!, are suited to the grO, 
of wheat, but they are of suiall area, and by the beginning' nil 
cold weather the land is generally too dry for sowing wU 
\Vheat is genorally reaped in February (Af-IAn). Thonvyraifopitii 
of irrigated wheat is about fift*t'n-fold ristiug to thirty-fold m l 
good seasons. Barley, jnv, Uordoum hoiastichou, though leas l| 
wheat, is grown by irrigation. Tho climate, soil, and water m 
suited to it. Like wheat it is reaped in January {Mai 
Sumotimos, lest either crop should fail, a field is sown half i 
barley and half with wheat. Xtiijli, Klensino corocnna, and b^ 
Panicum spicatum, Iwth culd woathor croiw, are grown only in ti 
quantities and never without watpring. They are found in 
south alluvial plain, t<(n//*f, and in the plain, mai, north- 
Bhuj oboDt Dhinodhar. 

KoraiJ, Pliageolus oconitifoliug, an early crop, is in the mo 
parts grown from year to year iu nt^arly tho same Belds. 
the most part sown by itself, but ia sometimes mixed with 
0«ffiV, Cyamopsis psoi-alioides, an eai-ly, khnrif, crop is latj 
grown in sandy loam, sometimes by itself, soBietimea mixed j 
kttr/til. A crop of ijunir is thought to do good t»i the stiil. J 
Phaset.lus nwliatus, like guvir, an early cnjp, is grown in m 
loam. It is uuwii with millet and stimotimea with tlic varidj 
Indian millot known as fnich/tr. In Cutch, gram, Ciccr arietu 
ft cold weather crop, is very little gix>wn. Aitutt, PhaMolns Utt 
and ebenna, I'imicum mitiaceum, are sometime)! grown m llw 
weather in Holds that have already yielded an early crop. 

Castor-oil seed, crandi'a, llicinus commnuis, an early cro 
gonorally sown in the aame field as cotton. Jo parts of Ab 
and V^^ui it is in a very few cases sown by itaelf. Wbea i 
together the proportion of castor seed to cotton aeed Tarioa 1 
one-tenth to onc-fiftconth. Two kinds of gingellf seed, tal, n 
and black, Soaamnm indicum and Verliesina sativa, are gniWI 
the rainy scaaon. Sesamum is sown by itself chiefly in V<g«il 
parta of AbdAaa ; in other places it is sown with cotton or m] 
itapcsccd, ttarnav, Braasica napus, is grown as a cold weatber I 
in watered lauds, sometimus by itself and aomotimes with whedl 

Cotton, r», Gossypium borbaccnm, sown in clayey soils, n gt 
cliiefly in Vagad, Kautbi, and eastern Abddsa. 1 1 ia of Uio « 



ed aroda, and likn Dholera cottoD i? picked in iU 
in almost all grown aa a dry crop imd p;uL*raliy with 
ough of late yeai-s in some places the practice has 
growing it by itself. It is picked twice or aameliines 
ikbont thfl end of Fobrunry. The average outturn of cloon 
for tbo whole proviuce may be estimated at frotu fifty to 
poimdfl an aero. 

larauie, «etYJ>, Saocbfunim ofBctuarum, is grown only in small 
oc'utml Cutch ill the cuiinLry uultivatod 
l>is, »iid about Aujar and ^lundra. Tobacco, 
bujiur, Nicotiana tnlxwuni, id jfrowu only in small 
Among vogutablee, carrots, g>ijar, Oaucaa carulai 
Cnti^b being fiunous for itt> carrotH used for fodder and 
Chilli<.'i(, marr'tt, CnpAictim auiiuniii, in a small, nndonioui}, 
jbiCD cepa, and ^urlic, lasau. Allium stUtvuiu^ a iar^, crop 
cxpoTtod to llumbav- Of fruits ihu nian^i, dmha, 
indica, and goava, j<i<mphnl, l*si<liiim pycifomm, are by 
Ipof wiiUT liufjoly grown. The datt- palm, hh'iriki, Pha-nix 
• •i ciiltivali^d in some parts of tho sandy wator-buaring 
ivn soil. Inferii>r to tho6u> from Ai-abia, Paraia, and 
flitch date is better tliau any other grown in wt-Btera 
in naton as it ripens without, drying or storing. Tlia 
m' ~ ' <js nnrifora; grape, Hdinhh, Vitis vinifem; 

e, ^ Puuira ^lauatum ; lemon, Uwhu, Citrun 

«i;'Mi or Jl>it/i cAi/>(ia, Uarica papaya; and plantain, hela, 
fliiu-a, aro cultivated in small quuutilieit. Melons of 
ds grow in profusion at all seasons. Tho bewt varieties, 
and ii) melons, are raised in river bc(l« ripening in 
and Juno. The fruit of the/nVu, Salvadora porsica, 
iize of a currant and yellowish <ir dark red, is ploasanti 
and so liarsh a&to blister tho mouth. 

aling cUasos the chief in order of nnmbcr (u% OsriU 

. !■ GirAsii'i, im^lnding'.rriili'jri.s and V^ghotaa ; Ahira ; 

^. , Letik Kaiibis; Ithansalis; Kiuubhars; Suthfirsj' 

Of tkew, Viiuias, (.Tira-si.-i ]tajpul*i, IievAs, and 

_itit« are tho most prospenms. In intelligence Vanids 

the Bret place^ but in indii.stry they rank below Levn. Kanbis. 

» Bajpiits are a well maunorad cla!<s, some of them men of 

iL In riMuie roflpet'tK, Ahirs and Karadia HajpulK rank next 

■faiia. 1' '. MoniTift Kanbisarebottur cuitivators,. 

«ilis. irs, and Bhavs/ira are indiffercut 

. the ICumbhars adding to the profits of thuir 6eldii by 

-•'■ig« potters, bricklayers, and day-labonrers. In 

lio bIxiyc classes, Miilis, BrdhmanK,'DhedK, Khar^s 

ylas the descendants of llajpnta by slave girl*, and 

0. On the whole the euUivatora of Cutch are not 

in debt. 

ih water-supply depends almost wholly on the rain^l, 

fall ia mo8i uncertain, droughts aro common. The 

■ le cotDGs once every ton yeorft. Blights aro 

age is often doae by locusts, asid sometimes a 

Chapter IT? 









little by frost. Of the early famines very little is fcuuwn. In 
Cutcfa ptu^aed througK a timo of much distress. The well 
were ruined, aud eveo large Isndlorda, J(i(/ArV((cr*, were E( 
seek help from the lUo. During the latt«r half of ihu cigh 
centnry there were seven famine jeant, 1746, 1757, 1766, l1 
1782, 1784, and 17VH. The 1746 famine was severe. Tu 
the poor the lUo had larfro qiiiuititics of food oooked near 
or grain market gate at Bhnj, and allowed all whocamo to cat I 
they liked, and take home enough for one other person, 
bailding erected on the cooking spul is still called Tola 
Vitrtindt. In 1701 the rains ftiiled and the conntry swarmed 
black ants which were eaten in large, quantities by tho 
Doring the present century there have beeti many bad years. 
1803 a scarcity caused by locnstJi was in the next season folio 
by a failure of rain. Jamjar Fateh Muhammad, then at the h 
of the state, opened shops in Ithnj and sold grain at 
twenty-six pounds the rupee (4 jtfitis the kon). Large n 
migrated to bind and returned aft<?r rain fell. Nine yeum 
(IBJii) came the fiercest and mo^t destructive famine on 
Destitute and unruly hands passing to Sind plandered the villa 
and grain was sold only in well guarded stores. J'rices once rose 
ten pounds the rupee (1^ paits the kon). To relieve the disi 
work was offered on the Desalsar lake at Bhnj, on a daily wage 
four-fifths of a pound (J pdti) of grain. Well guarded grain sh 
wore also opened in Bhuj, ^lilndvi, Mundra, and Anj^,and pri 
charity heliwd by giving daily doiea of food. The distress, incre; 
by bands of destitute wanderers on their way to Sind, wasmoitt sei 
Many sold their children for food. A cat or dog was a deliraoy 
even human fiesh waeeaten. In 1815, still known as underiu or thi 
rat yt-ar, a promiaing early harvest was destroyed by rats, whi 
swarming over the fields carried off the ears of com and wlored 
in their holes. In 1820 heavy rain rotted the grain and 
millet and wheat wore frost-bitten, grain prices rising to 
thirty-nine pounds the rupee (6 patin the kori). In 18*25 t 
failure of rain caused great scarcity. To relieve the distress a lari^ _ 
nuinln-r ijf wolla were dug, the Hamirsar lake was deejwned, the 
workers n^oiving a daily wage of four-fifths of a pound {J 
grain, aud food was distributed both by the state and by p: 
persons. In 1826 rat« again appeared, but did less damage t 
in 1815. In 1834 the promise of a good harvest was destroyed 
IocobIs, who ate every green thing, crops, grass, and tree leav 
One (light Hwt^pb thraugh Bhuj filling some of the honses so thickly 
ajstoputa stop to all cooking. Grain rose to twenty -six pouniU thdl 
rupee {i ptitis the kori). 1839, 1841, and 1842 were years of waa 
Riio Desalji pmployed the destitute in building several palaces and i 
working at the Hamirsar and Desalsar lakes. Between two and th 
thousand workers vrere employed, the daily wages being at tho roto' 
of 1} pounds (1 pdti) of grain for n man and four-fifths of a pound 
(J ;ia(il fora. boy. 1846, 1840, aud 1858 were years of short rainfal* 
and failure of crops, with grain at from twenty six to ihirty-niu 
pounds t he rupee (4 to 6 pali* tho froW). In 1861 an almost complet 
Uuliiro of rain caused much distress. Work was ofierod on th 



X and Hamirsar lakes, the labourers being paid a daily wage 
)imds (I pdii) for a man and ^ of a pound (^ pdti) for a boy. 
nties were remitted aiid at state stores grain was sold at from 
hree to thirty-nine pounds the rupee (5 to 6 pdiU the Jcort). 
n 1862 and 1877 came a succession of unfavourable seasons. 
) the state opened a store, pedhi, and sold grain at the rate 
ity-six pounds the rupee (4 pdtie the kori). In 1869 the 
» of • good harvest was destroyed by locuBts, and in the two 
og years the rain was scanty and the crops bad. The 1872 
rere damaged by locusts, imd from scanty and unseasonable 
use of the next three years were so poor that many people 
orced to leave Gutch. In 1877 the rain, though abundajit, 
reasonable, the early crops failed and the scarcity pressed 
m the poorer classes. A kind of lark, banda, did much 
e scraping the seed out of the fields. To relieve the distress 
e grain import dues were remitted, wells were dug and works 
1, chiefly the Tuna-Anj4r and M^dvi-Bhuj roads. Local 
iptions were collected ; some rich merchants sold grain at low 
; uid supplies were forwarded for distribution by Cntch 
its in Bombay. 

Chapter 17. 





ExcErr tho fortnnDS made by tradors eottleil in forcil 
tbet-e is not mnch savinfij in Cutch.' Townsmen spend tli< 
income in making orn;LmeDt^, liouse building, tradin;^, anil 
lending'. Villagfra iaveut ihair saringu iu lending money or 

Men o£ capital are, among Hindus chiefly Bralimaiis, "V 
Bhiii&a, Loban&B, aud Oos^is, and among Mubalmfins, £1 
MemuiH, and Bobonis. Thc-y naraber about 500^ of whom 
400 bavo an ostiiuated capital varying from ±.3000 to . 
(He. aO,(K)0 . 50,000) ; about eigbty-fivc from ^5000 to £1 
(Us. 50,000 - 8,00,000) ; and about fiftten of more thau JK 
(Ha. 3,00,000). Tbo Cutcb backer keeps five books : (1) tbo ja 
dvra, bringing togetber for oacb day from tbe cash book, r 
&om the bill register, hindmi nodh, and from otber expaitsii; 
transactions both cash and adjubtmcuts ; (2) tho ledger, khdt 
containing an abstract of all eutiira made in tbe lirro arranged 
order gf their dateR under tho names of the portions to when 
refer; ('<i] I{f)kadvaht, containing all ready-paid it^ms ; (' 
bill register, jnmjadv<ihi, showing all billH of exchange isaaei 
discharged; and (5) the hathvahi ov noto book. JSomo hi 
keep only two books, und only a few have a H?parnto iutoreBt 
vidjvahi. Money lending ia a branch of most merchants' bm 
In towns the chief money-lenders are of Hindus, Vaui&8| Si 
Atits, Brabmans, and LuMu^, and of MusolmanR, Bo 
Jtfemans, and Khoji'is, In \'ilIagos tho chief money-lenders i 
Hindus, Rajputs, VaniAs, Lohanda, Bhiitias, and Kaubis, n 
MusalmSns, Muiitans aud Khujas. Small traders add to 
capital by borrowing money at iutereRt, using the advances 
ID trade, and partly in lending at higher rates. 

About fifty Cutcb firms hold tbo place of bankers issuing cxc 
bills, hundU, and lending money to traders. Bills of exchanf 
sums varying from iil to £700 (Rs. 10- 7000) are feveT" "" 
and taken goncrally at a diBCOunt of from | to | per cent 
for as mnch as £20,000 (lis. 2,00,000), are sometimes thoi 
accepted. They are of two kinds, numjo'j, in which tho 
and ithahjoijj in which aome distinguishing mark of 
entered. Some billsare paid at once, somo, tboagb paj 
are not paid till the day after presentation, and some are pi 
after a period uf from oiic to uincty-ouc days. I n the case of b 



baakcr paysat Lis uwn risk. If a bill is lost asccouJ dupter T. 
, IB ((iven. A bill can be rejected either on presentation, CftDitoL 

of the term. Dut if the banker once binds himself 

the bill, he caniiut reject it oven though the isaoer 

bocomcs inftolvcnt. in the interval. Bills arc sold like 
couuoodiFy by making' entries in the books uf tbo seUer 
bnyer. In Miindvi, Anjar, and Mnndra, the bill passes 
I ike haadii of a brolc(*r whose rates are onc-tnelfth per cent. 

a common craftsman bas, on personal security, to Intcrett 

' interest rru'yiag' from nine to twelve per cent ; a cultivator 
twelve pur cent ; aui3 a day labourer from tirelTe to Eftevn 

[«u b.-u a inuit st wbicb goM, silver, and copper coins are Cuireiicjr. 

irud. TIiu ^>ld coins are the rdvmi molu?r w\ua,\ to 100 

■u, tlie half nahor equal-to fifty .Hilvor feonV, and the gx}Iden 

'2'j\ silver karts. The silver coins are the/Kr'nc^io- 

vi>r ]uirt:f, iiTdhfuinehw equnl to 2^ karia^ the kori wortb 

:h ' of tht' Iinp»'rial riipoo, and the half kori. The 

"-• thetf/in^»!i cqTi:»l to otie-i^ijjrhth uf a kori, the dhingla 

y,lh of a kori, the diikila equal to ^jth of a kori, and tbo 

-""■■' to j^jth of a fei>ri. Up to the death of Riio Desalji II. 

<iuH ha<t ou one side tlin name uf the Emperor o£ 

ntd on the othtif the name of the Kao in Devnagri 

IfltiU the name of Hwr Majesty the Qneen^ 

riit ha<4 been snbstituted for that' of tbo Delhi KmpcixMr. 

Indian coins there are gold guineas, dollars of three 

irj» and TJUtijarahM, and silver dollars, dhnrarda, viUlt, and 

If bat ibey aro tu>t current and are takmi by money ohaagetft 

~ rate* of ilisconut. 

h lianlcent and tmdeni caaes of bankriiptey are rare. Bjuikraptcy. 

,. -i,.....!- fiuds that he cannot moot his liabilitieHj he shnts his 

nUirobntise. calls bis creditors, and hIiows them how 

stand. The ere<lit4>rs choose some {Ktrsons to audit the 

f#, and if fho bankrupt rtifuHi^s U> Khnv? hh ImokH, be is liable 

;roil. Wbfn thu* impury is over, except the 

livable and iminuvable property is attached 

'ngliiftcrtuditrirs. In cases, when hepromisea 

iipee or by ituttalment*!, ho is, by offering a 

:■ possession of his property. 

■ ira carpenters and masons nscd to got Qd, WAgenud 

.. .1,.,, ..Li jrdioju-y day labourers 3ci, (2 annaj'). The Pricea, 

daily w;i}*o of a carfumter or mason is Is. 'id. (10 annas) and 
.rcr OJ. (-t anntui). As a rule labourers are paid in 
ing tbc present year (1879) at Bhuj the prices ol the 
were : millet, Unjm, Pt^^iitrillaria spicatn, seventeen ami 
tls the rupee; Indian millet, jutvir, Sorgbnm vulgaro, 
pounds ; Sindhi red rice, lift«eu. aud white, thiiieuu 
mag, Pboscolus radiatus, twenty-two ponnds ; korad. 

' S79 ivri* an visual to 100 linp«ml rup«c>. 

CliaptMr V. 




Phaseolag aconitifoHus, twcnty-eigUt pounds, aod wheat, 
(cstivoiii, fiK«ea pounds tho mpce. 

The prices of millet, Jutrad, and rice are availabls only 
years gtven in the following table : 



Priou, PomivUfor lite Rupee, 17 fS- 





2 i 














Min ». ... 

Kanl _ ... 





n tt 

(b fiii 



M ISft 

i> ta 













!• , SB iM 

i i 


Jt^ ... 


i 8 

n M 

IS I n 


HI iq If 

Sa tt ,34 

BdJTQ, millvt, bimI ptil*e, horad, Pliaaooliu acoaitifolini. 

Gold and silver are sold by weight. The weiehts differ 
different places. A piece of gold weighing 100 gadianaa at M^nd' 
and Munura wilt weigh at Bhuj 1 06 gadiands. These uietals ai 
weiglied according to the following Bcalo : four maga, one raZt ; thn 
Talis, one vol ; and sixteen vaU, one gadidno. Groceries, spices, al 
and all metaU except gold and silver are sold by weight according 
the following Bcole : lQ\i.rpaiadhkdrs,anQnavtdnk ; two7iar£nn^, o 
j>rw«r; two pd»erg, one ardhser; two ardhsflra, one^er ' ; six «««, o 
'paJd pdnctU&ri J two pdnchseris, one dassero ; two da«serds, oi 
adhmani ; two adhmans, one raanlt' '; and twenty Tnan#, ono ^A^dfu 
Pearls and procioos stones are sold both by weight and nnrabor. 
buying jewels apdka rupoe contains 3 J fcorw.andaAuc/io rupee thn 
koris. Opium is sold by weight according to the following scali 
thirty-soren and a half j una dokdtls, one ser; and forty »fTs one 

In M&ndvi silk is sold by weight according to the following it^H 
thirty-five juna dokdds, one ^xiAu strr ; and lorty vdka ners, oneJiH 
•man. Irory when whole is sold according to the following seal 
thirty-two J«na dohUU one ser; and fifty sere one man. 

Grain is sold by cylinder-shaped capacity measnrea. Tho aoa 
is : two ehothldg, one pavdlu ; two pavdlde, one paid or pdli • ti 
pahna, one iokadiu ; two tokadidt, ono cAotu ; two ehoids, one map 
tour mdpSf one ndai aai'; four ndni aaist one choaiu ; two choirtd 

1 At prvMst a «rr ia equal to forty pni«f«; 

' Tbun &re two manj, k ^d^n man of (or^'-tuAt, 

* In BtiDj th«Mic<mtaiiungei^tfM(tjMH«ifiMl 

t, Mtd « tdeko man of [oitr. §en. 


CDTCH. 113 

ro ; two ha/rdsy one kalgi; and ten kalsia, one mudo. Excepting ChaptOT V. 

and woollen cloth which are sold by the yard, cloth is CapltaL 

y the gaj. A Catch gaj commonly called the Idkhasai gaj is MaMare*. 

d into twenty-fonr parts called tastis. In some places a gaj 
aize of a man's fore-arm, called hdthio, is used. Trimming, 
, is sold in bundles of eighteen vdh each. Wood is sold by 
ring its length and thickness by the hiadbi gaj, which is 
ehes long*. In Mandvi and Anjar wood is measured according 
following scale : twenty visvdsis, one visvo ; and twenty visvds, 
ij. In Mondra the scales are : twenty-fonr visvdgia, one viavOf 
noty-fonr visvdg, one gaj. In all state towns and villages the 
it and measures are made and stamped by the state^ and are 
t purchased by the dealers for their own nse. 


r^oinbkjr Gi 

Chapter VL 





Thb only metalled roads in Cntch are ttirty-sii miles 
Bhuj and Mlndvi, and ten miles between Anjar and Tuna. 01 : 
weather tmcka there are in all sixteen esteiiding ut<t a total 
of 7t)2 miles. The chief are a rood between Bhnj luid 
twenty-four miles ; between Mundraand Maudvi, twe" 
between Anjftr and 8hikarpnr by Bhaclmu, forty u 
Bhuj and Lakhpat by Maiih, eighty nitlcs ; b^-tweon iibi 
Uuudra, twenty-ibroo miles j between vVjijarand Muiidra,twen( 
miloa; between Mandvi and Jakhau, furty niilotj ; betweiiu Bhaji 
Bela by Kapar, ninety-six miles ; between Bbnj and lakhpat 
Kulhiira, ninety miles; betwoea Kotbara and ^arayaasHr, 
miles; between Luna and Mandvi, sixty-fivo miles; ! 
and Miindyi, lifiy-tour luilus ; bulweon Kbiivila and i; j r 
miles; betweou iJola and AnjAr, Rcrcaty-four miles; botwoan 
and Itoliar, ten miles; nnd between Bela and Paliinava, 
miles. Except in the R»u,wbi>re there is the ri»k uf a 
plundering party, the roads may at all times, by day and Dij 
safely travelled. 

In the districts of Abdfisa and K^nthi, along some of tba pal 

thoroupUfaros, charitable pcrsmna have built rest-bouse«, ill 
The state has built a travellers* bungalow and a lurge 
at Daisra, half way between Bhuj and Mi^ndvi, a anialler 
at Bit Assambin, between Daisra and Mandvi^ and a trai 
bungaluw at M^dvi. 

Of the different boaf^i used in Cutcb, one, the kolta comes 
made from the Jlalabfir coa-st. The rewt are built in Ciitch, 
MfindTi, Mandra, IHina, and Jakhau. The builders are Muttali 
called Vadhus and Hiudu Sutbiirs. The timber both for 
andforthomaatsowmcsfnira the Koukan, KSnara, and the 
coast. The sails ore made of cotton, woven in the villages rot 
Uandvi. The hulls are coloured with tar, and Bometimes 
paint, and caulked with cotton dipped in oil. When neces 
they are repaired by rubbing the upper parts of the hull wit 
mixture of cement, oil, and gugal, Balsamodendron mukol. 
Gutch harbours, besides canoes, lolly boats, fishing boala, and i 
boats, six Idnda of deep-sea trading vessels are found: the pt 
ndvdi, kotia, ganjo. batjala,Aiii haif.(a. Canoes, hodi, dugout 
aiuglo tree trunk from 12 to 22} feet long and from 3^ to 3 



cwt?. (12- J khdmlis) burden, nnJ custincf 

10». (R.S. 50-125), arp rnweii 1)^ |wwWIe3, j/^iienilly 

ireo or four men, and are used chiotly fw fifiiiing and 

igere (o and frota ships. Cutch-buUt jolly boats from 

lorifS and 3| to 4J bma*!, and from about 14 c«^-'^. to 

idiV) burden, cost from 120 to £40 (Rs. 2m - 400). 

they hava a mast with oao sail and a crew of 

to Boven men. Tlioy are chiefly used in harbours tu take 

ouH ahip to another. The ferry b(Mit, iara, built in 

im to 12 fiwt luQ^ and i^ to 6 foot bromi, and fn^m 

1 2 tons (4 - C ft/win.Jw) hnrdeu. Cootiug from £20 to JE30 

*\, it has paddleti wurked by ouo or two tmJIure. Ilia 

■ ' two kinds, a largo and a small, both btiilt 

T . iiij^ to lb ft*ut long- and fruin 3| to 

ti fpini 14^1 tmne. to 21 touK (2 - U khinditt) burden^ and 

with one iuil, four iiant, and a crow of fmm two tA four 

w naed For tarrying pa«ttt*Dgt<rs to and from tibipa aud 

for RHliiii^. Tho large mavhhva, about 27 font long by 

fthiKit 2H| tnna (fit) Uuituli*) burden, and costing from 

200 -OOO), ha«« ono irutst f»ud two sails and a crow 

ineu. Tlify rniis.*-' ln'iwcfU the Cutch and Sind 

' niiwl to bring mangrove and other Bea-growing timber. 

tcudiog boats them aru X\vi padnv, frv<tn 27 to 37} foet 

10) to 15 bn»ul, of from 28} to 62} tons (80 • 175 khnndis) 

Ing from £500 to £650 (Its. 5000-9500). It haa 

hree kuIk and a crow of from four to wven men. 

with Kathidwiir, Konkan, and Malabar p'trts. The Hrtfrfi, 

i40J feet long by]U4iuI2i broad,of from about 28 to tJI) 

't khi'nuiis) bux*den, and cttsting from £J500 to £1^00 

|-lt;,OtJO), has ono mast and three Bails, and a owiw of 

(>cwt>lve mvn. Tlu.< nrivdi trades with Ba&xoni, Zanzib&r. and 

'a, from 27 to 40i feet long by lOi to ICJ broad, 

- .at 28 to 80 Ions (80-225 khnndis) burden, and 

£504) to £ltj50 (\U. 5000- 10,500), has ifaree masta 

\{\a and a crow of from four to twelve men. Tim Icoiia 

icil>ur, Maskat, and other ports, and is tho chiof trading 

Jutch. The ffaiijo, from 37} tu 48 feot loug bv 15 to 18} 

from 152} to 125 tun« (175-350 H/infl'iH) burden, 

>m £1000 to £2hO('i (Hh. 10,000 - 28.0(>0), has three 

BoUfi, and a cruw uf from t^'igbt to tifUcu men. The 

to Zanzibiir, Maskat, and other porta. The batela, from 

■f ' ig by 104 to 18 broad, rarj-ing from about 28 to 

':A.indw) burden, aud coating from £500 to £2400 

l-Zlj'JWi) haa two maata and three aailB, and a crew of 

_ to twflvd meti. The hattda trades to Zanzibar, Maakat, 

sr distant ports. The itatjala, from 42 to 57 feet long by 

foot brood, varying fn>m about !tO to 285 Ions {250 - 8(K) 

rden, and contiug from £1700 to £3800 (Ra. 17,000- 

two mnst« aud three eaila and a civw cf from ten ia 

men. The hagala trades to Zanzibdrand Mafikat, and. 

ib ports. 



rBomtttf Ql 

Chapter VL 





Smal! boats gmcrany boloni^ to sailors, and larc^ ships to I 
In truding to Calcutta sailura arc paid montbly salaries ' 
Toyages thpy jjet a lump sum, khabif, for the (rip. li. 
sum vtwh man is givon an allowance, bhatta, of ucjtrlv 
(2 jhiUh) of f^ruin a day. Tlie (frsin is eitbur '"ijn, !' 
Bpit^ta, wheat, or rice, whichever in cheapest. The captaiu, hhi^ 
or nakhvo^ is paid twice as inach as the sailor. Accordiuf; to| 
present ratc^ in iidditiuti \m the lump KiiiA,]the sailor's mouihly hh^ 
amonnia tci about \i)s. Gtl. (20 korvi). The rnptaini', ' ■ ' 
lump 8UUI, khnUls, and an uDowam^, &/ia^/(j, an> paid a 
fee,i«yii(fo. Thec!iptaini<t.>f Catchfradinjf htiatakniiw how Lu aiM»' 
rompasBj and from a qnadranl. and piki* staff can at nouu calcaj 
the latitnde and longitude. They also have cbarta and a book 
oavtgatiou called capUiiii'e tahlen, -malnmni hisnimi ciiopdi.^ VeM 
that fiifu no farther than thi! Malabar coast hare no un%'igat 
c-aplaiuSj nntlam\ but their comniandors, nnkhini, am piiwl aailj 
Bkilli'd in lhi» nsu wf the e(miiia.sH. Cutch sailory arc jKirtly Hin^ 
TKirtly Miisalmnns. The Hnidns come from the srtuth <Xi«*ti 
Kdlhi^war and are called Kharvas. Among' the Musnlrnrtu aail 
thtisp fri»ra Kind and .lafarabail in south KalhiAwar are cal 
Bhadiilaa. Part nf them seem to l>c nf a special triljc, tho rosC' 
Hindu converts, who, though MusalmaD!* in habits, may itt 
kiiuwu by their Hindu sumaiiieH. Two other classetj, Miyi 
Vajrhors, follow the callin)? of Rcamen. 

Kxoept bftweon Jane and September when thoy do not 
British India steamer of from 000 to 000 t'.>us, calla at Maiulvf a 
a week ou itH way fmin IJorubay fco Kiirnichee, and another on 
way from Kurraehw Uj IVuubay. On the way from Bombay 
Kteamer fitupti off Ver^val, Mangrol, and Purbaudar in KAthiai 
(fenerally taking about forty-eight honrs on ihe way.' At Miin 
it has to Ho a mile or two from the shore. The tmflii' is ain 
entirely m jxiSKeugevs- Besides the BritJeh India ship^ several si 
weamtTS, ijom 150 to -J(*0 tons burden, some paddle and mune *cr 
daring the fair season (October - May) trade Ixitwcen BomI 

I The mttiain !■ tho nAvigatur, the mUMm bu cliarjj« of Uie nmn. 
bare only a ndWro. 

■Of tlie Cntvh uiluni And tin; v^ugn pcrfonned by tlnnn. Sir Alcx&nilrj' Bg 
wrot« in 1KI3 : ' It will Athke » KanifiAaa with mmt aurjuuM) wIimi Le Tiuda I 
iliiUut vuj'SijH* pcrfiirRicil by m*i\x vvawsfa, Attil the nturv »>. \3i:v\t»\», uWa it in « 
tliat tJioy atv iMvi)( witli |M«ci«ion kimI na mdaII iikill hv |>)lota Mbu Iiavp ao<^ 
tbemo nf tlictiuaalrant, luicl mvlt by diarta. Soiiw vf thmv Uttt-r. ir 
Ml origiiiftllty that winilil tH>t, I am sure, be diaputcd by Krftt>*t)>' 
oauuilniutur of s iiikp wbiMo n&ine bas besn handnt ituwu to posterity.' tiv iK-a^; 
(me of their cbftrtji *m '■ N[>«<;iintin of niivtU iinrv»ytag un«quall«cl iu way oil 
c»bin«tB of Europe,* and ooe wliicb may Ruvpty »»iuv notion cif tliu iHiarta Itat ti 
AkxjuiiIHan bbrary. Th« aatiTc* (A Cutcb infonned Sir AlcxMider ItnrniB Lbnt I 
ounimuniaatiunii with fi>rci^ luttiaiui had «xt»tMl for ntajiy ywini, but that 
knowledge of astriwioiny, navigation, ■bip-lniililing, aui) <«tbcr arta lukd 
intoodaoMl into tho country by a younj; Itajpui of Cutcb. now familiarly loHV 
BAmaiu^ Mitum, wbo> a oentor) iuir-u, h:iil I^iM'd cameil t(t ll<JIaii'I. u'ln^re be U 
thcwe aitJ!. Varioua cbarta ami l"'-kr-. miid ti) Itiivc Ijrcti Katimiuj,''* iimjxtrty, w«n 
ahown, vliji-b fully ogm>bprnt<Kl tbo traditiiiiu t>l ttkc peotilv. Joiir. Ko. 
VI. 27. 28. 

'To Verivaiai boon; to .Mjiasn>127; to rArbaadar 36) and toUiudvi' 




vi. They do not go beyond Mandvi and on their way call at Chapter ^ 
^eraval, M^grol^ and Porbandar. The time taken is generally Trade. 

■ forty-eight hoars. Like the British India ships they chiefly 
passengers though they sometimes take a little cotton and 
cargo. In spite of steam competition^ considerable trade 

remains for the sailing boats, and in 1878-79 twenty-three new 
Is aggregating 7G1 tons (2180 khdndts) were built at Mdndvi, 
lat twenty-one vessels aggregating 1412^ tons (^9bb khandis) 
in the previous year. 

ne are in all nine harbours, bandars. Of these the most Hacbotm 

irtent, though little more than a roadstead, is Mindvi on the 

of Cutch thirty-six miles south-west from Bhuj. To improve 

Mihour, a breakwater to be called the Mandvi Albert Edward 

hrater was begun on the 3Ist January 1878, and nearly 450 

of the work have been completed. When this breakwater is 

Md, Mandvi harbour will be littlo infei*ior to Kurrachee. At 

end of 1877 thero were, belonging to the Mfindvi port, 260 

feof an aggregate burden of about 15,140 tons (42,390 khdndia), 

'each vessel an average capacity of about 58 tons (163 hhandis). 

■ in importanco to Mfindvi is Tuna about thirty-five miles 
i-eastof Bhuj. Mundra, the third port, about twenty-six miles 
1 of Bhuj, is a safe and sheltered harbour during the stormy 
in (June- October). The others, Eohar, Vavfinia, Jinjuda^ 
»livar, Jakhau, and Lakhpat are minor ports. Lakhpat on the 

frontier, about seventy-five years ago a great seat of 
lerce, has lost its importanco partly fi'om the development of 
at Kurracheo and partly from the shoaling of the mouth of 
'ori river. 

jre are two light-houpes in Cutch, a diopteric light of the fourth Light Honi 
at Mandvi and a lantern at Tuna. 

rly in the present century (1818) Cutch is said^ to have had a 
trade with Bombay, the Malabar coast, and Arabia, employing 
■ds of 800 boats of 'from about 14 to 180 tons (40 - 500 kkdndui). 
exports were chiefly cotton, silks masrii, coarse cotton pieco- 
, alum, and clarified butter. Tho imports were bullion from 
a, ivory, rLinoccroa horn and hides from east Africa, dates, 
ants, grain of all kinds, and timber from the Malabir and 
an coasts. In 1835 Mandvi had no fewer tlian 250 vessels 
ig in size from 25 to 200 tons. They carried a large lateen 
ith two masts. A maritime communication was kept up with 
bar and the whole east coast of Africa, with tho Red Sea and 
a, with the Persian Gulf, Makran, Sind, and with India as 
Ceylon.^ The most valuable branch of traffic was with the 




Aaia MacMurdo, 1818. Tr.ins. Lit. Soc. of Bombay, II, 230, 231. 
their dealing with ii\c SoinAlin of ' Bartiiu-' tn Africa, outside the straits of 
ifandeb, the Vdnia traders had to HuSer great hardships. Immediateiy a boat 
eftcb persun had to couatgn himself to a Somdli who b^^ame hia dbdn or security 
Aiul property, Tliis arrangement was absolutely necessary as the SomAlis 
■erfidious, biKotcd, and fjuarrelsome. They used to enim ofif at night to 
ui ves»cU and mnrder all the crew. For such protection the tax of a dollar, 
per bead, and so much for each bale of cloth was exacted. Besides tbia the 







eastern ooost of Africa or 'Swally' a« it was caIImI in Cutcb, 
chief exports being cotton cloth, and the importo ivor)", rhii 
hiilesj aud dollars,' In 1837 the ildudri trade was cl " 
Bombay, ^falab^r, Bind, Makrati, Anibta, nnd ZanKili4r.' 
exports to Boinbny weri? cottou, wcm-iI, red and wbit.o i-U-e, wh« 
of pulsen, nidth PUasoolua aconitifolius, vnnj i'liajwolus m 
gr^m, fidail Fhasoolus moDgo, dariliefl bullur, iinduil. From 
Catch brought of tiuiber, teak and kher Acacia catechn, of 
colour much used in sugar mills, tint* t'kx, and a hue clutb called] 
worth about £3000 (Ra. 30,000) a year. Timberwus t ho chief i 
of trade, fifty or sixty vessels coming every ymir to " ' ■ 
cargoeaworthnboiit£!0,000 («s. 1,00,000). From Cm>L 
hlackwood ^iitam, pnnai, and dhnpla fur iiuisl^ und yui-titi, w( 
basins, and jackw<K>d worth nlto^'other fthout IJO.UOO (T!-. "^ '-f 
ayuar^ abtmi 5,000,000 cocoaauts, 300 tons (iOOO k-h' 
ropcB, 2O00 bundles of driod cocoonnts, 25,O00,Oo«r m-iv 
gupdrisj and 2002J toua {-33,000 vtwlui) of rice; uleo cloth, jui 
a Babstonoe used by sword-cleaaers, and jintttn^ wuud Cc 
Bappon, fratn which the rod powder, gidal, t.hroiyn al>ouc at 
and ulso U8«d as a dye is extracted. Fnim Sind nuue wt 
red rioo, millet, turmeric haldi, lotus seed pahadi, tuid 
Cutoh exported to Sind iron, atcol, load, tin, aufnr, rice 
Malabar called jirnttir, betel-mits, coir ropea gimhiri, 
wooden biwiua kalnil, dates khujur, ilried dates kivirik*. t*mli 
rafters and bamboos, Rilk-clotli viaxru, cloves, canlamc' 
ddlchini, cubobs kabdhehini, frankincense lohnn, 
boxes of silk thread, Kngltsh throHxl, HniifT, mjiiu'tiroes oottoo 
times of scarcity in Sind, cloth from the Mnlabar coa«t, wl 
haodkcrchieEs ; and oE Bombay cluth, miid:i|x.>latn8 mtidm 
hdsia, dori, satin, taLil-cIoth, vi-Ivi't, and oJiintz. Almnt fnrty 
boates traded to the Makrin c^ast. The exports were r-uk, blacks 

{"ackwood, boxes with locks, shields made of rhinnceroh aud ■li-phai 
lidos from Zany-ibfir, (tilk-cloth mnsrn, mndapolams from llomhaj 
tunneric, cnmin seed from Marwar, ginger and black ptijiper 
Malabnr, dark blue cloth, and mctids. In tbwa 
from Makriin chirifi^d l>utt.or, rapeseed, wheat, and pnl(*e. Onl] 
or five boats were f*rapl<.yed in the African cnaKt trade. The 
exported from Cuteh were about oOO bales a yoarof cloth of dif 
kinds. The imports wore btihul Mimosa arnbica, gum hher, and ale 
frij/tt, oaed to adulterate opiara and as a dye. To Aiokiia w«r» 

TiwAa w«r» aabjectMl V) the rowt Kvcrc ^'rivatioiui. After Uaditig thf^- ■-^— 

GnnilifcMl to -wcw a tuHiu : if thcv died tlitj- wcrc »ot*Uoircd to be btinir 
t a hole waa dug into whidi Itiey went imt in lui er««t pwition an-i 
piirQega they had to p^y henvily. TIm)- luui lo drink water brouKbt tii ikiua 
wtimala onty recently killed by tho MubamiDKiluu. But tli«ir tnvo of gvo iui<l ' 
grcMl t)rufiL« derived fmtn th'^ Indt ri\rrcut\t their m-ium' oI tbi-Mj hftrdatuM. In ret 
lor tlK'irrlnth, thn rtaple lutk'lc <rf (.■<>miti«rc«, tl>« Vjiitiiiii gi>t ^lats, onffev, gnm, < 
oUriiicd lmtt«r, bat cfaioBy itoILkiB wliicb tbe SotnAlU brought from Uarrw. m I 
nonbhB joamm in tli« tatnioy. Sir Altttutdar Bunuw. Jour. Bo. Ccoe. &oa VI. 
87. 2& 

■IHtto ditto, 2?. 

* Jjeot K. Leeuh, fi«m. tior.SeL XV.SII-996. 



Tear about 10,OOU l>»lc« of cottou nud clotli, 400 bales of 

-o buxmti:uTi(/i/(i«of Huuff, 2U0l)al(^>Nuf tialbmmoiiiac, 

. 250 mamt of lac, lotus nula, drieil rico cakea, 

juL I'j,' '<! ivorj combs.* Hemp smoking luixturu, 

W9'< II I^ nearly 300 mans a yotut, aud toddy^ 

I'lit toO casks each contnining from 500 to 

. ..;,..ura aiid grain were also exported. Tta 

rwcTC muiiis khivmis dntkh and Idi drnkh, nlmouds, datos, 

rinds, btTberrie-*, Bonpal madder majith, alotfn, ae^iqai- 

,«f Fods tuiji khar, and coffeo. 7xmziljiiSr supplied Cutch 

-TOH ekinSf cocoauutji, ludimi millet, HumotimoB a 

i-.ikrK of VAX, Aesamiim oil, lomon picfclp, cloves, 

reinn from the l^nufisylveslriH, and ox hides. There 

sis resKpU i?mploy(>d in thiH tnido. They made one trip 

tiofi; in Niiv»»mbor-T)t?<wmher, Pog, and coming back in 

Vitisdkk. Tbfy took from Cnt<:b, cloth, iron nails, 

'.1 seed, and boxes with locks, twine for sewing sails, 

itTitviiiid braM bars for armlets and anklets, opiunij shoes, and 


jw ese tit trade of Cutch, though in same reapocts Bhowing a 
off, ifl in it^ main featorcs littlo changed. Of its two main 
ti ''' ' sea and the laud trade, the sea trade season lasts 
to May, all trade in the gulf of Cutch boing at a 
iLill III the two stormy months of Juno and .fuly. During tli9 
ir *ii*3on thcFL' in a weekly coaating Bteumer from Kurratheo to 
Of the different euiling-boat rtmtes the first to open is, 
ifc soou after oocoauut day, to 8ind, Ki^tbiawar, and the 
"ftlien in Seutember to Bombay and the Malabilr coast ; and 
I .Ttiithe Aiii.1) p)rl3and Zanzilwlr. THl- present 
li, with Kiirnu-hee, of exports, Indian millet, 
tmi seudfi used as a medicine, eurtheu jai^, soils, silk and 
I, and snuff ; and of importJ^, millet, wheat, rice, gram, rape 
seed, fruit, clarified butt«r, gingelly oil, and mats. With 
r, of exports, gum, cloves, dates, ivory, wax, dyed cloth, 
kbnlh nilk and silk<cotton, embroidery, gold and silver work, and 
iid of imports, wheat, gram, pulse, admi Phaseolus mungo, 
na caiiaug, and molasEefi. With Damau, llalsdr, and other 
poTtfl, the exports are castor-oJl sfod, guvar Cyamopsia 
s, atid matj Pb»*eolus radiatus ; and the imports rice, gum, 
a dye, iurrr Cajanua indieus, ginger, oumia seed, anlne 
"'ruber, leaves for native chortxjts, and molasses. With 
oxpriftB are alum, white clay, oxide of iron kdnifo a 
miui-ral dye, pulso korad PhnacoluB aconitifolius. cotton, 
mkkI, garlic chiefly produced about Anjdr, onions, gugal^ 
lodendruu miikul, chimiul seeds used as au eye lotiou, wool, 
Mdery, and gold and silver work ; and the imports, metals, rice. 


hlW MdsBniMiDtic, bonx, ud Ufi atme from ItAnrkt. 

MAiaM/ te noe of til* oldaat nf Cutch protlncta. Al Bmuni (109Q) RMstioM Cslob 
moU, r'rabably th« txIeUiiim •>t ll>« uoiaola, the rarin o( the trigat or 
iTMt atikaL Ynle'B Marco Polo, 11. 331. 

IBombay Qui 


liipter VI 



wheat, RpicoSjflupir, sojfarcandy, iiiolni=i«'s,c'lnt.Ii, wi ■ " 
of Kuropean iiimmfafture, cairiayvs, fomiliirt-, (ir. 
ststioiitiry, anil iuaU:liQit. Witli the Alulnlmr jxirtM, Ki 
Cochin, tho imports arc timber, coctMmutit, rico, botol-nnis.rardi 
finger, coiTeo, pepper, chillies, myrobalanR tuirda, tnchuttieH, 
coir, aiid red |K)\vii(jr ifuidl. Tlioro aro unuxportHdirfi-ttoM 
With tho PiTfiiaii Gulf the only article of export, is dyi-d cU 
imports are dat«.'s, wheat^ |t?raiii, nVe, millut, ami raiitius. W 
Arab ]wrt.4, tlin vxiKirta are viny Phasoijlus mdiatus, tubat-oo, 
(K>tCon, and dynd cloth; aad the impcirtit, rock sale mtituUnii:, 
ocbre, grain, dates, raisins, pomef^rauates, dry rose flower*, luid 
With the Africiiu purts the exports are salt, horses, parUiuo 
dyed cloth, and silk; and the imports, rArtJuJroj r .' ;n 

Piuus sylvestritf, timber, wheat, rice, millet, m«p I'ba- iat 

toLuicco, (xwuaiiiitdj cloves> uiolaBsos, sugar, wax, aiid ivor\ . 

The Cutch land trade is chiefly across the Kan to 8iudj and 
and l*6rkar. As noticed in the account of the Ran the chic 
are : one in the west from Nara in Catoh to Luna at the 
of the fianni and from there pretty strai^'ht north to Kahim-kJ^ 
near Ali Bandar nn the Kori river; and the othor fnilhor i^iwt 
Suoir&sar in Cutch north across the middle of the iJaunJ nltiDgl 
woBt of Pachhani io Baliari iu Thar. A third rout.o lies 
inland of Bela north to Na^^. Thoug;h sometiinoH 
when flooded, tht'sc rout^ii ant littlo uAod except in the fein 
between Septcmljor and March. Tho tmffic is almost entirely] 
camels, the centrets of trade to uliich Cutch caravans f^* 
Umarkot iu Siud and Tbor. ficsides thpfk> roiitCH rhnro aro 
tJie littlo Ron in the east several tracts fit in tho fair sc-aaod 
paeoage of cart4. Along these trade pusses uhietly to Pi 
Aiimodnhad, and by pack bollocks to Ujain and )f&nrdr. 

The trading season laats from the middle of Scptombor, Bluit 
to the middle of Juno, Jt^th. 'ITie brisk seaaou for cotton and 
is in April and May {GhaHar and VniMtk), and that fi.r other 
from October to April {A'no to ChnOar). With Sind the 
exports are alum, dates, cocoannts, madder, sugar, molaa-se-s » 
gold and silver work, embroidery, and cloth both cotton aud siU 
and tho chief imports, carlK)iuitc of soda kJuiro, rice, mill 
Sorghum vnlgare, maize, acBaninm, turmeric, coriander seed* 
cheap molasses, lotus seed pohiuti, bullockti, and bufl'uloes. 
Thar and P6rkar tho chief exfiorts aro datoa, eocoanuts, 
betelnnts, pepper, chillies, pnrlic, engar, mola&sea, aud clolb; 
tho chief imports, millet hajri Peuicillaria apicatu, mag PI . 
radiatUB, tal Sesamum indiciun, math Phascolua acouiiifoliiu, 
Cyamopsis psoralioidea, khankhan a dyo, gugal Balsamodf 
mukul, gum, aud clarified butter. With Pdlannur the ex[>i.<nh.a. 
imports are the same oa VArkur. With Alimedarnul the chief expn 
are alum, kanyo a brown mincml dye, ivory, gold and silver 
and embroidory; aud tho imports, rice, tobacco, safflnwor, 
Bead, dry mangoes, aud gold and silver brocade. With Mjii 
chief exports arc alum and ivorjr, the chief import is dyed clolh* 


'.hie wiTw, probftbly, cHplTy owinj? to Iho centering of trfiflic 
;V linos, tIironj.fh traiJii hotwwm the Cuicli coast 
'ij hfw much bvlleu off. Tu revive it (lio stutc lias 
•Is Bi'iit itiliUiil fniiii Cuti;!], cniiotod a dmw- 
. H of tho duty pni'l on impfirting tbL- articles 
The ivory trade with Alarwor, formerly of oonaiderablo 
If,^/. 1, .J ai^ o( late 5*i)tirs declined. Tho dcclino began 
n account of a dispute with tho farmor of tho ivory 
' workmen went (o other places, but a few have 
"d to return to MiiudvJ. Taking tho sea and 
ihnleadinff Ciit<rh imports oro uiftals, timber^ 


■t, Cdcoanuts, betulnuts, jspiees, dry fruit, dye 

Pf mulAHses^ ivorTi nninials, and »ilk and cotton cloth. 

aro olain, salt,clBy,corn, cotton, castor oil BOodB,tol)acco, 

itm, spice's, garlic, sntrar, wool, lioi-ses, ivory, earthen 

biith rntrrin and silk, i^liiold^, euibroidery, and (^ild uud 

rlc nif chief change« in the trade oi tho i>ast twcnty-tivo 

side? the fulling off in tho through trade, in the lucal 

imports an increased demand fur Kun»|)trau gtnida» 

Joth,* pluin, colonred and printed, and bpn.ideluth, and for 

'rchair^. couches, cots, and other articlvs of European house 

^ K. There is aim a de<;line in the importa o£ timbor and 

'and tho export of ivory and dyed cloth. 

" tnclo Iho iield prodnco pulse, cotton, cotton sotsd, 

i y a Viinia or Bohom morclmnt gonoiully bonght in 

ss trnm tho growci^, and re-soid by liim to one of the 

traders in the sea ports and other trade cuutrea. 

Ily whim pn>dut*j3 ia in special diunand tho export traders 

"■ riudhuy up wlmt they can. tiombayand 

■ i:rt,*d in trade, most uf tho Io;uliug Uutch 

liiiviiif* citbi-r tigiinta, branchi^, or their chief houses in 

The importers, gimorally Bhatioji, Vtiuias, Lohanas, and 

men o£ capital with ugenta or branch houses in Bombay 

ribiir. Thfv L'f nerally re-sell to country town and village 

phi'^riy L.'5i,iti,-i_>? and Vanisij), who sell cithiT in country towns 

■ - :it fairs. The iuternul trade centers in tho t45Wii8 

■iilra, Aniar, Jaklirfu, and Xalia. In STuall villflgca 

lea which are bonght for the daily consmnptiun of bo obtained. The B\'atem of retail trade proTaila 

^extoni. When large piircnases have to bo made for a 

! nfjiiy, oT when timlier is wanted for hoasa 

I V buy in tho sea-port towns. Sorao Bohoria 

j-M iliitiii:/ (ill.) ftiir season move about as pedlars, selling 

ii«B, and articles of hardware. 

wht'Iesjile dealings in bills of esohango, metal, grain, cloth, 
-od oil are otnducted thi-oiijfh bnjkers, daldU. The broker 
by une or both parties a4!eunliug to the oiwtom of tho 
' branch of trade. The ratea aro ono-hidf 7>erceot on gold 
■•:• per ct'ut on jewela*and lone-twelfth per cent on 
The groin brokeroge vai-iua, dfpeuding on the 







Chapter VL prevailing priws. Brokers iiro held nwponsible for tho corn* 
iMiaoftiicturea. '^* ilieir wei>^h(« and monsiires. 11u»j-canniA pmilisp 
If»ve of a rfVfuuw officer, w\n.> has power to siwpeml or i 
Uiein, Slid tliey havo tri Sif^e th&i wbilo wf>rkiDg ns l" 
will carry oti no mdppi'ntlent tTRd<». In flomo places tin ■^- bii? 
pay the aUiW a ccrlaiu perwufago of their earuings. 

Itia*t1iu practice m Cutch to uiotire ship^ and canroM 

1(B8 at Boa, ami tonieli uls carried across tlr 

insttred. At. ^hindri .' huA appointed six i.. 

merchant g>iiM, muhijuH, (*> sijpcrinU^nd inminincv ii 
These aratiettledUin>UKhhrokcrti, ainliLpemuu who hiks ui^. 
himself on oath to a broker [a never relenwd. Ilie lirol 
rates in insurance by land are one-tiveUtli per cent, half paid b, 
uoderwriter and half by Uie insured. Itnpurted g<Htii-' are 
insured. Until the- g'oods are safely dellvored to the cci 
iQHuring afreut is liiible, hut (.mly in the case vi their !«■■ 
burnt, or olherwise lost. The twu chief niwlfs of insurance nron 
and vinu). in avang the undcrwritA'T pays sumc money in lul 
which with lutereHt at about ^ per cunt (6 anniu) i^ ret 
the insurer when Ins giwde have safely nrrivod. In n'wj. 
IH paid nfter the ^^kIk or shipH have been loKt. lt< 
bt>}>ius >vht-a the goodtt are ohipped. It is* not aeceMary t 
should he insured at their real value. Insumnce rattw n 
in the busy tltau in the slock season, and are ulways m 
raina and stormy weather. Usually Ttho tivmi^ rule vaf.i-n imij 
to eight jK'r cent, and the vimo frtjia 3^ to four per ccn.t>. I 

7*iwtft GniUs. Jn uuwt Cotch towns there is a merchnnt'a fr"ild, m< 

the i»ea porta some of its memlKTH are app^>inted by the i...-tjj| 
in insurance ijuestions, the amount to bo paid for daoiA(r^^| 
ship or cargo. Their awards are respected by both pnrtio^V 

giiJd derives an income from a tax known by the name of Ahi 
go. This ia IfTicd by tlii.i i-tnle sK>n!? with the exci«so dutWB 
its proceeds are handed over to the puild itninitjnT. Thu ineoi 
spent partly in ofTcrings toihe Valnhhiichilrya Muharhjai»nndp 
in the support of animal homefl. Most uf the k-adiug moqilii 
the giiildK an* VAiiiaa and Itb&tiiia. 


Of the manufacture of alum some details have beOD givi 
the head "I'roduetions" (p. 19,20). 

Cutch has lonffbeen famous for the superior design and 
ship of it3 ji ^ld ami silver ware. The ornaments most in de 
cups, llagons, Hijwor vase-s, ci|Lrar case*, e^'i? stands, t-. ■ < 

services, muffineers, rose-water fiprinkiers, and salvers. '1 n 

i« (1879) carried on only in Htiuj and there only by a ven 
^nilics. The best gold worker in Bhuj is by caste a carpo nlCT 

< This M wall SB th* ropolAlion, Atfricoltunt.wi'l Tnnlc Cbaptvn owe 
additions sud ooRveUoaa mii|iU«l by Ur. Rattuiji Enavji EotliAn oi Ehaj, 




t^tbe rest one ia by caste a coppersmith and anotlier a shoemaker. Chapter VI, 
Besides these, several Marvadi goldsmiths are employed by the Hao HamUbctnre 
Ao make common jewels and other women's ornameuts. The tlirco ., . , , _., 
firstnamedgoldsinithsare men of capital, making and selling on tlieir Work. ^' 

own acconnt. The rest are workmen, earning from 9(1. to !«. (6-8 
anii(»)aday. Especially when the demand is brisk, the leading 
oafesmen keep a large staff of workers. They buy what gold and 
nlTer they want from Vauia, Bhatia, and Khojaniercbants, who bring 
■mo* of it from Bombay and the rest from Zanzibar. Thoworkman- 
■bi]^ whatever be the nature of the article, is much the same and 
Tiriesonly with the skill and patience of the artist. Some of them 
«Bi»e themselves with eccentricities in tho slmpo of animals; otlic^rs 
flopf Enropean pitterns, entirely unsuited to their stylo of art. . Tho 
bwteachewnovelties, and keo[)to old favourite shapes and traceries. 
AH work on the same plan. Moulded into tho reijiiired shape, tho 
" liher plate is filled with a wax called kil; the design is tniced on 
fte surface of tte silver and worked by dr iving it in from 
OBtside by a small nail and hamm er. This worC over, the plato is 
■oftened by fire, the mfiltcn wax poured out, fi-esh was filled in, and 
tlie design again worked on it. Sometimes the openition is repeated 
ftthird time. When the design is pr(»perly executed, the wiix is taken 
out, and the outside of the vessel polished. The rough inner surface 
it sometimes covered by a coating of polished silver. It is then 
Rsdj for sale. The sharper and deeper cut the triicery, the better 
u the work. The present market valuo of tho articles is iis. fSd. 
(Re. I 'anitnK 12) for every rupee's weight of silver. A school of 
design has lately (1877) been started atBhuj, and it ishojx^d that it 
may raise to its former level the silversmith's art, lowered of late 
years by tho use of Kuro]w*an patterns, and the esise with which 
cheap work can be sold. The s«ms of many car^x-uters, goldsmiths, 
■nd Rajputs have joined this school. Th5 leasims are given by a 
Christian teacher seutfroju IheBombaySchooI of Art. Private silver- 
tmiths generally work articles ordered from Bombay, or other parts 
frf the country, or, if they have no ordei's, make articles and either 
directly or through agt-nts try to sell tliem. The prices charged 
kave them a good profit. Their instruments vary in value from 
to 4«. to Ll'i (Ks. .52-130). Including twenty-four elevenths, 
aoyaras, and twelve dark fifteenths, ((Hk!^, thoy rest from work forty- 
five days in the year. Though proverbially ready to chesit, the 
goldsmiths, especially those who do European work, are to bo 
thrifty and hardworking. They furm four g uilds, jtujuiffi, Vdnui- 
tonis, KanBiirn-toiiif, Sufln'ir-soni'n and Mui<tih)ian-^otii'nK of tlioAIenum 
«ect fonnd chiefly in Abdasa. Kach of the above guilds has an 
alderman, a code of rules, and a fund formed f njni a marriago cess, tho 
lure of vessels used at feasts, and fines for breaches of rules. This 
fund is, according to the will of the aldcrmjin and the coiamitteo, 
paneh, spent on religious objects, building or roiKiiring ])Iaces of 
worship, buying ft store of public cooking vessels, and on guild feasts. 
Almost all goldsmiths ai-o ablo to save. Very few send their 
children to school, and none of them have risen to high position. 

FourhundrednindafamilicsfromMarwiii'came toBhuj about 250 Coiiycr Wui 

(Bombay Ouet 



Cliapter 71. 

Copper Wgtk. 

OB Work. 


yearn agrj. Taking refiigo in tbo tempto of Maha KiU, thoy 
ordorwi \>y h«r to wurk na copp^Tsmilbs. At proscut ubuut 
faniiliuft romain, whofnUow this cratt. io Bhuj, Auj^r, Mrijuiri, 
and Lakbpat. They work in copjier^ brastt, bell-metal, tin, 
puwt<T, and prepare jars, plalus, diHlioii, cupH, luidlar^o |KrtB, 
In making; articles, snitahln pi(>('cs of mctihlar*! hamniL' 
a wuudeu block, ini.>itldi.'d iiitu ihe required tbapt*, aud ihvif 
ceirieiiti-d. Tho iiu'Lal \n broti^^lit (rata Mandvi uutl Aoj 
Vania, Bh&tia, nud Lohiina morchonta, wbo ^t it from H 
aud Hell it rutail to the uoppersmitbH, A fow am English 
but thuir tooln are genemlly bought £rom local bluck^miths. 
have capital, and otnors nrc laboiirors. Tho workmon cam a' 
(8 annat) a day. Mauy are able to save, and only a fuw are J 
Tboir pots niid oth^r jinnliioe nrti larjA'ly suld at fairs!. lucl 
twouty-Eour clcvcnthK, aijyaraA, and iwflvo dark fift^tnths, 
thev koyp fifty holidays in the year. They are hardwurkiii; 
thrifty, but havo no very high character for honesty. Thuy 
tnulo guild and a fund raisod and HpcQt in tho same way 
guldKinitba' fund. 

Tliore are BEty.throe families of blacksinitha, d**s(»nded from oi 
Surji, who 300 years agocarao to Bbuj from Juuagnd in KalbiiiM 
Of these one works ns a gold&uutb aud two as carpenters. Must 
thorn make looks, koye, pots for housohold purposes, and fiold 
artisan's tools. A fow make si»dos, shovels, knives, pcJBsora, 

and other cuilorj* after EiigliKh paMoniH, aud uf good work 

Good swords, daggors, spears, and muskc^ti are also made j but no 
are oxportod. lu Ldd7 iJhui irou-workern wt^re able to turn out 
flint or even a percussion lockj which many an Englislirnan wi 
not be aAbamed to own as hia production.' Altbongh tJiey ' 
no capital, tho LuhArs aro wolUto-do. The rains (June-Oo 
ia their busy season, ^loy oam from Qd. to 'Ze. (4 aa. - 1 
day, and arc on the whole a saving community. Village Luh: 
are generally jxtid ingrain. Although not very honest, the Lob: 
aro thriving and hardworking. Including tweuty-fonr elovont' 
agyfArae, and twelve dark filcocnths, amds, they keep forty holida' 
iu tho year. 

Thore are eight families of gilders said to tare come from Di 
to Bhuj. Uf these sevea are Musalm&a and belong to the b 
smith class. They cover brass ornaments and sometimes en 
and brass pots either with gold or silver. In gilding or silveri 
Delhi-made gold or silver leaves, or Cutch-mado wire is pres; 
into the lines of a pattern, cut fay a filmrp {Mtinti^d iron tool into ' 
fece of a metal vessel and then poUabed. Tliey have no cajiital 
thoir own and are generally forced to borrow money from trad 
Most of thcra work and sell on their own account. Others 
thomsolvos out as workmen, earning on an average about \i. 3< 
(10 a«.) a day. During the yuai*, ^Musalinios keep eleven anil 
ilindus ten holidays. With no very good narno for honesty, thi 
people are hardworking and thrifty. 

' Mrs. Pnctans, -U, Dr. Buntos [1830) mcntitms & Bhuj ^uo-lock puaiag forEt 
Hiat. of Catch, viii. 



itj MuHalm&D families came frum Siod with iho Jddojia oa 

hk«r«- They p»tli«li and sharpen Icnivtts and sworda. Thoy ar« 

tad witbout capit-uL. in JanuHry aud Fobniary when Uu'ir 

!)§ at its best, limy tjarn from iJi/. to I», (t)-8*M.) a day. 

BT ktv^i all tlu! MnliamtiiatUn hnlidays. Very f«w send their 

^cboul. Tbvy aro thrifty and hardworking'. 

'"J aro well known for their skill in stone cutting and 

and excellencD of their designs. They are Ilindua 

■, immitfrauts from Marwar, and i'lidWiar.", 

. ..^ in a pnjvince very rich in hiiilding-stoue^ 

f' lis Imvo i;arrivd tho art of etone-carving to gri>at 

u !)»»()» and oa))itals of the pillars and open tracery in 

r ic« Bhnj pnJaov, aud in somo Cutch Shravak templar show much 

•loiriETo and fin^nesg of work. They arc> a solwr, hard- 

1 titrifty riasfl with a trade ^lld much Uko that of tho 

it^ui. Many Cntch niaflons go to different parts of wcatom 

t& March uf work. 

(oU'rs, irttfArtr*, chiefly from Gajarfit,haTo been settled in 

jm a Very early date. Nearly 2000 families, 1200 Hindu 

MusiiliiiAu, are scattered over the province. Htcept bdbut, 

li, knnil'hiut, and fikijdo, almopt all tho timber used in 

le^ fruiii Daman aud the Malabar coast. Of the 2000 

about sixty oro said to haro capital, varying fnjm almut 

''fIfKKJ (11^. 200 - 10,000) earned in many casea by working in 

partti. 1'he rest axfi workmen eamioi; from Is. Id, to2«. Id, 

^ie* 8 -Be. 1 aa. + pies K) a duy. Kiting at six they wurk 

)t to twelve,, and again wurk from two to six. 8killt*d 

.glinendlywive.invi'^tiug- their money in nmaiuents. Among 

liu. caste iuilut-nce is Btrongj and ca-Jle dinners are given on 

■ of marriago and death. I'bey may follow any other craft, 

[inoi allowed to drink wine. They rarnly send their children 

It, TB said that, in former times, a carpeDtorj*u(7iir, was 

jht to U? (skilled in his calling-, nolens he had read a book 

pallalih, treating of the principles of car[HinIry mixed 

'ionch rr]igiou3 teaching. Originnlly in Sanscrit, this book was 

into Pr&krit. No Oujai-dti version has txieu made, and 

i>Mrpent<'ra are nnodaeatod, it ia now seldom read. 

>} MiiwilmAn families, chielly from ifarwar tspiu cotttm in 

Hi, [ I if them labourers, in their brisk pcasoii, February and 

'Har<'li, I'K/iyau, thojr cam from A^d. to 6d. (3 -4 aunm) aday, but 

—id fur their work is not very steady. Including fifty-two 

y keop aliout sixty holidays in tho yeiir. Children aro 

Vv; ' tent to Rrhool. Wino is forbidden. 

b... .... ..1)] aud black cotton cloth used to he woven in largo 

Iqaaotities for export to Z&nzih&T. Three varieties known aa jodi^ 
' ' ■' nijiin wero much val tied for tho fastne&s of the dye. 
i.- has fallen off. Hut it 18 h(){>tid that the ruueub 
LJvwL'riu^ •>£ duoct may help to restore it. 

Thoro aro about fifty families of Hindu embroiderers. Abnnt 250 
ago a MuaalmiiD beggar, /(lAiV, akillod in ombroldery, is uaid 


Miwuu'i Wi 


Cottoa 8p: 


Cotton Wl 


Ifi«mtia5 Qj 



Chapter VI. 



itl Wi«viiij{. 


Silk Wmtw^ 

to have came from Sinilf ani3 tau^fat liis art to Buma familioa uf 
shoemaker, moehi, rjwto, who both in Bhnj and MiiinU " 
fur tLeir skill. They wurk iu silk, frith a houked ii 
brond uwl on &ilk clolh, niashni, on bmiidcloth, act, aud 
With a silk thread in one hand, the artint wurks n-ith tho 
withoat auy dcaign flkstchod oa the cloth or even placcil Iwfc 
and with wondurfal speed forma letiiirs, leavus, frtiit, flt 
animals, and hiininu figures. iSome of thora kiX'ji for 8a1o a 
of capB, tapoi^, cushions, bodices and rohos, whilo otUcr 
to order. Fiftoun of tho famitios arc wctl-to-do, inai 
exporting large qiiantitios of ciubroidcry, and with from at 
to £50 (Rs. 50-500) iiivesUMl in their buKinesH. Iti tlicir 
Boftson, Janaary, tho inarrin^c tinic, the workmen onrti from la.^ 
to 2#. "Jljd. («j!t. 8 pitrs 4 -Re. 1 «*. 5) a day. Inclndiny twulrvi 
tjflfieiiihs, iimttH, tiioy keep ci)?hteon holidays in llio year, 
wurking-, sober, and thrifty, thoy invent thoir Ba^in^s in di-vol* 
lh(.-ir busioeaa. So hi;^hly is thtir akJll valued that Kathiawnrl 
othtT chiefs employ them, and thoir work ia iu great demand 
all India and in sent to ZanKibdr. 

Thirteen Hindu taniiliy* of the braid weaving, jrijrw, castB, 
said to have come from Marwar ondor an invitation from 
KighneHs the Kdo. Some of them are eottlod iu Bhnj ' 
Anjar. They are workmen, carryin>f out ordors from : 
when oogugcd, oaru from 3'i. (o 9(1. (2 - C (ififMi^) a day, 
do not always get workj havo no bn^ty HcaHon, anil arc not ^! 
position to Rave. Whpn their work issIockoAt, gcnerallyin Oetol. 
Fubruary, and April, they make coutiidcrublu Bitm.H as oxnrcut 
driring out Kpirltfl by iHiating the Kmnll il'ih, dnnu. They 
fonr holidays in the year and do not give coBte dinners. VVino 
forbidden Ibum. Their childreu aru not sent to school. 

There are abont 166 families of dyers, 1 12 of tliem Masulm^tu, 
descendants of converts from the Khnnibhiitri and KImtri caat 
and 53 of them Hindus of thcKhatri caste. tJomo 25(.i yifars 
tho Hqo aaked their ancestors to como from Sind to Bhui. Of tl 
whole uumUur of dyers only a few are well off, the rest are workmc 
earning from 4^ to 7^d. (3-5 a»n«jt)a day. The Hindu aa\ 
Muaalin&nKhatns gonorully dyeiug in fast indigo, dark-bUu- 
black colours, are Iwtter oJf than the MusaJniAns of the Khoinbliitl 
caate, who dye women's rubes, acarvcs, and handkerchiefs, iu lij 
noon fading shndc^i. The KhatriB have work thronghont tho y* 
but during the rainy season the Khomlihiiiria are nearly idle. 1 
hnsy season of lioth ia in the month of January, Povh. TheHiudi 
keep ten, and the Mnsahnans eleven yearly holidays. As a cl_ 
thev are hardworking aud thrifty, and both have gnilda for settlii 
their trade disputes. 

Silk weaving ia carried on to a large extent only in M»nd> 
The raw silk comes from China, Bongal, and Bokhint, genemllj 
through Bombay merchants. The silk weavers ore of iho Khali 
caste, most of thera wolUto-do. Some save money and iuvc«t it ii 
thuir hiuiineas; othura work for wagos uuuug tliciruwu aaato nuupJc 



Shiel.l Making 

fmra (i\iL to 9i(i. (rw. 4-01) a "^^y* ^''^* ^"^ ^7*'^ ''y Chapter VL 
partly tlincln-i partly Muf^nliiifiiis, in pits diijj oii tliB bunks Mjjinfactar«i.| 
Fiftrr river Itiiljlim.iTati wlicre ihc wiitor is Kiiid to jfivo 
U»ura. Soiut.' of thy silk is ii8o»l l-x"ally, 
, KiUbiiiwar, and liooibay. Tlipdealora 
libd V'aisliuav V^nida, and P&todia a cla^s of Kbatris. 
wea\'ing' has greatly fallen off. An attempt baa boon 
revire it by lowfrini? dntit'«. Tlioir busy tiino is in the 
I, during tin* months o( December oud JaDuary 
■aA). inr-liidirig twciity-fuur oUivcuUiH, ii'jydrits, they 
fforty y«ariy bobdays. 

vi Kbatris to a Binall extent print silk by knnttinff. 
u llie aauio us iu otbor [Mjirts uf Gujarat ; iha 
is almost euCircly local. 

in Bhnj about fifteen MnKalmaii fainibes of painters, 
vrh-i ore said to havo como from Uelhi, 'lliey niako 
■i sticks, and colour thera with different dyes. Shiold- 
■ o£ the s^K'fial Cuieh iudustriec. The kntmiujart 
locertis and elephant hides Erom Zanzibar, work ibeni into 
^nt discs of various »ij?cs, paint tlicm, and wldumt any 
ithor workers mount thorn as 8liiotds. The fewer (ho 
the theater is the value of the shield, Measarinjf 
)nt 2} feet acruit--^, the rhiuoccros sbields vary in price 
t*i jEIO (Ks. l-lOt)). Tliojie for iiohlus and chiefs are 
Ivor mountod, and »ometiinoA stnddcd with goms. Shield 
LTO uo pivrticiiUr busy seasuu, and iu the raio^ are more 
lie. Thoir avcrafnt daily earning are a^Kiut la. [tu. 8). 
»p eleven yearly holiday!!, and tbongh bardTrorkiog ajcid 
^<uru aol atile to save. 

- of oil propsers, thirty of tlicm GhiSnchiH and Oil Pnaringi 

..■rAs. They make iril from sesamunt, rape 

'«Qud, tUid fxroanut kerneU. They havo no capital aud 

Emeu oaruiui^ Crt>in about Q-l. hi Is. {as. 4-8) a day. 

il»i»yin DoficmlRT, .January and February, but at otber 

jinl al«ray« jret work. Inclndinp fifty-two Fridays^ tho 

keep sixiy-ei^ht holidays. Though hardworking, 

tt>,'they oro notablo to save. They rarely send 

■ ■-•ol. 

re arc MiT0Qty-6Te families of wood and ivory bracelet makcrHj Bowolot MftUag, 
or maitiar*, tweuty-G%'0 of tlium Hiudus aud thu rest 
T)i'^y live at Manrlvi, llbuj, and Anjdr. Tho 
[■•< wero Hajput h'lrnf-dealorH, who alxtut 2-MJ 
.■rted to Isliiui, and lUTunlin^' •'> 1^*J stury, wenj 
Blet Duikiuf^ by a holy man of Kndin&r near Juaiigad. 
■ 'v tho name of «wnittr», from mam", the Sindhi for 
jrk chielly iu ivory and blackwood, aud altto 
liia hide. Ivory bracelets are of two 
-i>s. The etli^d are always covered in 
il h'd, thiw without edges have no gold. BlacV 
. .-.I.v n-j -'(itfoilj and corored uitUer w\t\\ btaaa, 






. Buket Making. 

Bboc Mokiitjt 

ndlGS ui«l 


eilrer, or poXd. Tlin matprialfi arc supplied by M&iidvi and Anj| 
tnulers^ chitsUy VduiiSa nud llhriti(i8j who briDR tho ivory 
Zuuxib^r and tlie biHckwoud trom thu Malali^r coast. 
■nuinuirti are iiieu of i-apitiil nilU from rIiuui ICi to £00 (Rjl.| 
600) invcRtod in their Imsinosft. Tlioy onni from (W. tot 
Gd. {as. 4 - Ite. li) a day. Including Lwf»ty-t'<jur v]evi 
tigyaras, Hiid iwulvu dark tifl,eontha, amtU, fiio Hindus ubHerve 
Imlidays, and tho Mnnalin^na eloTOn. Although hardworking] 
are not in a position tu navu. 

Ft{t(«n Masatmi^ familioa of tanners, said to bare catDis 
ITalfir iu Kithiiwar, livo in Bhuj and Anjir. Tliey buy tho 
from buttihor» and Dhods, and dyes friim Mu$^ltu4ii ur 
ffroccrH, gdndhis. Thoir trade depeuda on the Irafher supply, 
in ^•nerally as much as is* wantod fur local c<jnisuinpti<>u. 
e.ini fntiQ about 4^ri. to 7^d. {as.3-T>) a day. lurludiii^ 
tvro Fridays they koop fifty -eight holidays in tho year. Tbeyi 
hardn'urkiug and aoWr. 

There ore twenty-five Rajput families of baakot makers, 
at Mdndvi and tho rest scall-ered ov«r (he province. Bait! to 
descendants of six brothera, who, SQO years ago, Srht made 
hoHkets for 51ai» lianeharaji. They work with bambooia 
from tho Malabar coast by Vritiia and Bhntia nn-n-hoDU. 
buy a year's supply at a time, bury theiu below high tide 
and take them *iut when waniod. Thoir hii«y s**as(ju i« 
NovonilK'r to Fi>bruary. Thoy gmiorally work at homo, and kt 
nearly sixty Imlidayri in tho year. Thpy are liardworkinif 
thrifty, and as a class are fairly well-to-do. 

Thuro are fivo hundred famtliea of Gujarit Hindu aliocmakci 
settled chiefly at Bhuj. 'ITie Meghvala, another claAB of 
8lio<-makcrs do not mix with them. Almot Bi-veDty-five of tfaei 
have cnpital, varying from £10 to t'tO (Rs. 10(1 -5(Hl) invented 
ornaments or lent at interest. They oam from OJ. to 1*. 3dJ 
(«. 6-10) a ilay. They keep aiitoeu holidays iu tho year, and 
Boher and hardworking. 

In 1877 an attempt was made, with Homo state help, to atari 
caudle and match ^tory in Bhuj. But it did nut pay and had 
be closed. 

About 150 families, five of them MnaalmAns, make sweetmnl 
eilhpr in their shoiw or in their customers' houses. Flardworkiul 
and thrifty, some oi tliem have capital and aru able to save, inveatii 
their earnings Ui oruomentB. They Darn fr(»m aboot Gd. to 2«. 7J 
(as. 4-Re. 1-4J) a tlay. Including twonty-foor elevenths, ■ 
and twelve dark fifteenth.?, Bnni*, thoy keep about forty hul 
the year. 

C H A P T E K V 1 1 . 


istery of Cnt^h may be roughly dirided into 
and a modeni, betpreM ^aftcr th y Sfi"f' 
about the begitim^r^^WB'^wrrteentli cent 


In old 

writiniT-' the country is, tindfir the name of KachchKa or coast 

FT-"!;!^!! [if Bsa desert with few and wild people. So it remained 

'!taD, losing himself in the forests on hia way from the 

.-wirorar or lake of NiiriSyan in the extreme we«t, cleared 

ifcry by fire. From the asheR sprang crops of gra^s so rich 

nnmbfu^ of pnstomi triboa settled in Cutch. ' 

It historic notices of Culcli are in the Greek writera. In 

< euiitflrn branch of the river Indaa^ Alexande r IH'i^ B.C.) 

It lake, formod either by the Hproading of the river 

pg together of the ueighbouriog waters. The entrance 

uinn the entrance ot' the western month, and, to 

lUr supply of frtwh water, wells were due' -''^"i- 'he coast.' 

krs later (142-124 B.n.) Cut<!h was \> -nander's 

rhich stretched from the Jamna to Sainn-ituni.' Soon 

ISO B.C.) the Ors^cu-DakLrian empire wu£ ovurthrown, and 

t^own to the Indians or S4ka or Min, ptks^in^ »outh 

liemBclreH in Cutch and other parts of north Oujan^t. 

by Vikmrnfidityo, abont 50 u.c, thoy came back botwt?ou 

^ftod thirty years [at«r, and nnder Yeokaotachin founded a 

Kf which in turn wa-i, in the 6rst century of the Chrintian era, 

ttt>wn by Pdrthinns wh'we power ptretchint from Siud aa far 

&> BroadL* In the lirst uentnry after Christ, Pliny 's {77 jld.) 

l<M«mU Bom. Ut Boe. Tnoi. 11. 218 (New Bd.). 

VI, It. S. Uooke'H TnuUL, 168. Tbfi wetia aeeiD to hftve been dug 
pf the ladu mouth and not n Vineott (Con. of tbo iVncientn. I. 178} 
Cetch. Viviot de St MKtJn Googrftphio Or«qii» rt lAtino de I'lndo^ 

, Martn m kbore, 193. Note 3. For three or four hundred ytMiw imeem 

alun, fortilit^l rAinps, and iu^e nuoory irdls r«tnKlnMl, 

-TUJWd' ill Hotgww' Arcb. Snr Itep. 1874-IS76. 190. C. Wtlfotil, As. 
. e^|it)un« 8tr«b"'« (Cfi ii.u -24 a.v.) TfjnratJiira as thu omntryof 
u-liim. one of thecarliuatieUlvmcnUinCaUh. Su« below, "PUL-ogiif . 
:»D (ArituiA AntiquA, 212} for T«JarAal)trft rcada SahumUM nuit 

'50. or (he Skythinn cotifiMrrt Irwfi* nrniain in 
i-vthJB given by Ptolcniy iHvrUuK, 7102) ond Uifl 
■' to Sind And the (wnntrj- ut>rlh of Cut<'lu 
IW mora u( the ) diMflly <<nrrKi|K>nil> with Dia nppeamno* 

sf tlM Uoilgxla, wi i;iui overran Cut<'n and mmed off evcryttiing 

to Omt own oauDLry. ItAo VUU, 7. A tnoe of the PvtbiMU, th« I'sndn of Saiulint 
. ia ItilW, liiuixl )» u numbi-r of cwoa dng out of ue fort of Puuvkr Skc 

Chapter VIL 


Rtrly Motion.] 
.t25 ikc -MOA.D.I 

■ t?M-l7 




Chapt«r VIL 


Qda mbari are ganerallj taken tol]av<> hcen tlio people of Ciitdi. 
Ptolemy's (150 a.d.) town of OrbaHnrt to the east of tl^ ' 
have beea th«ir head-quflrt«re.' Ptolem?* knew the >; 
as K&ntbi, a name Btill applied to the Blrip of land alotii; lU 
shore, and to the Kanthkot fort near tho soath shore of tho 
About a htindre^yearsTater (240) the author of the 
speaks of the out«r pari of tho gulf of Cutcb as Barake.' 
in, ho aays, is tho gulf of Eirinon (the Sanscrit iri no 'nsnlt 
tlie modern Ban), divided into twp parts, a greatt>r and - 
nnexploreil, diingt'nius to ships, Buallovr, and villi vi'i 
Tho conntry along the coofit of the gnlf, which both ho and Pu 
call Surastreiie,'* wiis rich, ^'ielding in abundance corn, rice, sew 
butter, and cottoD for ordinary inanufacliire, the people were td 
black, and they bad many herds. Rrropfc pftrhapx ni n pnrt 
Kurrachee where Ptolemy has a station of tbeKanttii ^bips, LheG 
wonld 8«em U} have had no direH trmle wilh Ciitch. Thy gi 
Eirinon is spoken of as a place to Ix* shnnn^d, and all tmde oe: 
in Broach.' Soon after the tionc of the author of the PennluB, ( 
was conquered by the SSh (140-380 A.p.j' Kiu^ ol Saunb 
and then, probably 'after Tormuig part of the Gupta dotnit 
came about tho end of the 6fth century under the Val ■' '■ " i 
In the seventh century (about 610) Cutcb was part of < i 

of Sind. It is described by tbe Chinese pilgrim Hintirn I'ti-m n 
lying 267 miles (1600 its) south-west of the capitJil ol >!.ih! , a^ 
time Alor near Bhakar on tho Indus.^ He colls it Ql' I 

irhicb M. JuUeti renders Adhynvukilu, and General t<ii.:iu-.{ 
would connect with Pliny's Oilanibira. The circuit of tho pro 
is giTen at 833 miles (5000 lis) and that of the capital « 
miles (30 Ua). The capita l's name is Kie-Ui-sUi-Ja-lfi 

'H-ty IM 

' V. tie Rt Martin m Alkore, 346. Tl)« fnnn of thft word in 
(II- 4S) u UilonbeuNM. Tlitj oaine •eemii to BuiriTU m the AvdumhMAt, a tt; 
•ab-tlirujoa pretty widely epretad over norih UujaHit. Tlis An'hitiiluir 
■BootioDod in the HkHvamsa as a taywX riu% V. do &%. Moriui, 'ii6. 
(Indisobe Alt«rthnm«knnclr. Ml. n't) iitrntlGea OrbMWu vtOi RAiUuiipur. 

' B»rtiiu' Ptolemy, Aain .\fa|i X. atia 1911. 

* B«nk« ia probably Banivavic tbe Ma£sdlu form of Dn-Arkft. Btirgou' 
Sur. K«p, LS7-l-7fi, 194. 

* Vinoent'* CommeiTW of the Ancient*, II. SBH; BertiM' ttnlem^-.SOS. 

* Vtuoeat'a Comiiiiam of lh« AmuiaRU, IL 392- 396; Berliiu' PtoIcoM, 
Map X. 

■ r ) irADjtaftjBRcHplijn. datsi 7S (M^aUy ISO ^.n.) 

Bieutn.T I- 1 in tii^ ii-ii ol auojieot liuuli It supjiow^TOnWSRcHrDiiirgfl**' Acd 
Rep. 1871 7i. 131. 

' Ditto, 13S. From bu nnccrtiunty as to the rackoaiDg oE sru tboM 

■ Jnlwn'* HiouOD TTwmb, 1 207. 20R 

* Cuunintfbum'B Aack'Ul Geography of India.!. 303. Jnliim n-Ail* 
the c«ptA] Khajidwu'a, and L&iMH K&chchecwara. Sw bolow, " Plncutof 
Mr. Ihirjjmi (|uot«a •n^tlicr pht\ «i Ilinuen ThMngs itinenry {JnlicD, 
&» refarnng to Catch- It >■ a plftcc Kiccli'-x utiil to bo About AOO tuiln ( 
in circuit, and with ■ capital Sf luJlos (20 lit) ronnd. 'n)eMni«T«-r< 
tliui that oi lh« iith«r pasmn, but the aixount of tho voui;-. 
ixajitilirAtilr. TliK'Idy pcuplod and rich, utider Malw>. and 
pruduce, and in thv pikuplr'a ciutoma. AjvIi. Sur. Bept I874-7&, ItMH 




mention of Cutoh h that eitrly iu tbc oigtith century 
r4), *»u the doath of PrumSr of Telojru, Culch was given 
los.' Soon utter tbis the KatUi B would seem to have 
■li fnim Siiid. aiid with tlii'ir head-quarters at 
i.rohahly the niling trilx;, DsptTially in the centre 
,oi cti>-' province.' At this tim» the chief other Cutch 
pLl i.....„ to have been the Chivdas in the east, whoso 
I of the kings of Panchit<uir&n(i Anhilvddsj probably 
iiie L-ighth and itinlh centoriea. In the tentb century^ 
ib*_' HccL'saiiiu of MulrAj SolMikij the Chavdia were 
ivadathey retired tn C'ot^ihfij Shortly afterwai-ds 
'■'I pr essed by the Chalu kT^s of Kalj&n, Muiraj 
_ Kn^y^jt.^ Juuring this time the Arabs , beginning 
the KathiAwar and Gujarat coastJi, had completed the 
[Stnd. In the ninth century they b&d made settlements on 
si, and in the bj'gjm^i pg of the t enth the province was 
rt of Sin d.» M Sirnn i [070 . 10391 apeaks of Cntch 
name and notices that one branch of the Indus flows 
Sfigar on the borders of Cutch." The chief roferonccB 
[in the writings of the Arab traTellers of the t«nth anil 
itnries are eonncctcd with its piratc a. who, with their 
irs at Cuich and Scmuath, were, from the word Baira 
jWu *s Bawarij.' 

the eleventh century (1023) Bl^ tfogeg I. (1022 - 1072) of 

fled beiore M ahmnd of jthazni to Kanthko t (Kanda 

Muiraj ho held tha whole oj V&gad 'and two of his 

10 of Cnich villages. Abont the cIdso of the century 



« la Tnd't AnnaU of BAiMtUa, I. 81 AwonluiJi to MaulfflAa 
I WW p arTci? Om Autaiwypa ^ aJ Ijhy fcii^ ot Alor. Bom. Got, 8eL 

Anb. .Snr. Rep. 1S74-79. 191. With tho Kki\>i% t]ra Ahirs ««» 
About IM, wfit Culaoel Tod, the KltliJi UMMMd tbu Ran in 
I ftom MulUn, wicl e«tu>luhed tfaun&elvea in tbe regjona of the Sanru. 

i.Wtibt* Hkjot J. \V. Watkon. onv nf tho 4)nMai* nf Snmiuitsinti*, by 
flad to bcr falhere liotuM in Juialm et with her iafuii nm. 
Tvc-Ai .>M Tina Iviy Una n&tnc<i Ahif*<, ftiu) wtlen ho grewtn rDui's 
--law and um<I U> tSVV^ liio Ffttau dooiiuioiui. M« 
•juiuCutdi, knd bailt tdggjg^ which ho nudflths 
at| A&.l iiuio u-^'iuiilidfttiog hii mlc he reigaed Ivr miitiy yeim. 
^^ i bj hii wm Vikmntni. whoHi »i>ii wiu Vihhuni]&. Vibhur^ja was 
nSt Vm. TiUmJji , vrbimv luti luid iiicoaaMr wm SqUutSPii- SabLunuiii 
linl bj bii wo*it;hyi. who WM »uc««edad by bi« md AUi«nk}a, mm 
t.^r^A '.y I . > r. TcJAei, Tsjiwii by Kuununha, stid KamiMinbK 
InntsitihA, Mill .Mokamunba by PanjAii, Ponjlji 
. I lUn Khilji (129&-I3I5). Boraeu' Arch. bur. 

Arch. ftar. B«p. I«74 7«. Il«; Ind. Ant. VT. IM. Aceording to ono 
>• MiU. (l-43)Mulrij iu bi> liuhl wiih ()rAh lUpa killed J.iUui tho 
nh. but Me dnrstm' Arch. Sur. Itop. IS74-7'>, 1S2- 

"" , (SI21 in Elliot. 1. 14, Mid Al BilA^lan (S40I in Elliot. 1. 129. Ono 
rtU «mt prol<«bly SnndhAit. S«6 belov, " PImw of [nterest." . 

, Rdfuind's FmpDenU. 12ft, by Al Mundi (BST) aDd Al 
Th«y went on till the close nftlio thirtwnth otniury, 
">HiVt* whcr* they cn<»inii«H »ml m.>1iI ttao »p(ill. tb« 
Ut« uli' 'Jy*<% >t, Vnowitit; tt«U Umt it wio 8anocji or I'lgoa 

iAlarcr< i'j'x, ii. ^11*. 

tBombAy Gi 

Chapter VII. 

8*ainu Cofnuett, 

— nsBr- 



the provinco was, ' as Ear u Manikbai/ overran by Sing har tho 
Sumra priace vj Si ndJ But hia power did DotuutT^g oa 
in said lu linvu foniifd part o£ the dotniiuooa of Sidf 
of Anhilv^ln (1094- 1 148).^ Not many yean later, (ai 
accorduig' to one versiou of Anhilv&da history, iu the 
betwoon Frilhi'-^ MJ^M Per U.. fialla of Co 
horse {ought on Bfaim Dev's side.'' And in the tUiri 
on succeeding to tho power o£ the Sohickis, tho Vi 
(1240 • 13(H) seam to have maintained the old AnhiW: 
in Cutch.* 

Tho modem history of Cotch maj be said to date '■ 
ootiquest by tlie Bind tribe of ^UUSkjBAii''^^- '^ii<* t< 
or at l«ist was completed, during ths foortceDtb ccutuiy. 
aro said to have begun to come into Cutch severa] con 
before, probably durmg Musalntdn rule in Sind (712 - 1 
Rarly in the thirteenth ceninry, at the time of Stiums-i 
Altamsh'a (1211 • 1236) conquest of Sind, othf^r bands of Sa 
seem to have retired into Cutch.° According to local traditi' 
reason of tho Sfltnm^H coming to Cutch waa a quarrel ainon 
sons of a Sind Samraa chief by name ^j^k^- On lAkha'a 
two of bis younger sons. Mod and Itianai plotted agaioet the ri 
successor, their elder brother Unad or Umar. Their plot failin] 
were forced to fly to Cut«h, where Mod's n ncle V^g am, a Cb ^Tda 
rnled in Pitg ad on the Ran. Vagam received tiis nephews k 
But after a snort timo tlicy rose Bgainst him, took his fort,^ 
bim to death. This outrage brought on tho brothers 
of Vagam's over-lord the VSghi^la of Gunthli. To please 
brotbprK pmmiKed to double V^am's tribute, and agreed 
one of tbem should remain hostage m Qonthli. Part of 


> BurseM* Aruh. Sur. jR*p. 1874-75. 197. M^kb&i ib nnknowtu 11 ia i 
NiDik m Btiio. Oct. Sol. Xlll. i\. * Hit M«)a, 13S. 

> Tml's \V.i«teni ledls, 20U. Tod. folluwinff Chocd, makes ouL 
lulled, knd uu« &Ujb, Kpiwrpiilly Ui« Cutcb dud, Mst in Iub uUce. Dil 
>M na Milm 178. 

* Sec KB ■"igirtiM ■*^'"' dated 1271. AtmJuin KcBhBVjfa Cuidi 
■ TlU! fttUBmia cuq« KtMut the ninth centt.rT'. Dr. RaraM* BaUaj 

Bom. Uov. SeL XV. 92. At> x cUu tti« Skuunia gUdty w.xept«d MahMDi 
mU (712 - 715) (CHtach NftniA in Elliot. I. 191), to st Uurt time tUB.v mn i 
hnve inovrnl inbi Cutch in &ny Iftrge niimbor. Two «»nics t>robably bolpwl ti 
thn S.ininiAs south tuto Ciitcli . thi> niin \a wnfagm Sir ' ::- ' -' - "*<00) 
clinti^L' iu tlie L< mr»B pf llic lo ilim. nti<l tho ponaculi .-md 

(Elliot, II.57S) A{rJ9lEM(!>k.Uuuituiikaa gUhuSUWd;- - 
of Cku K&intiiiU eccm to hn-Vd bbloiiged. ^S^wESb<^BJu' )■ 

* For ShainN-iid-iUD> L'onqucrt of SindTMe^Aant-i'Nuiri in KUi<^ 
El[>hitut«ii«, »7:t,:)74(l$F>fl, ,1:hl&l.>. Bcaidesb^Shimx-ud din, .Sinawnl 
(.■uutiuerwl by Naiiur ud din. .Shum-ad-dia'i wifv's asdii. ^nd b^ JaUl*' 
refugee rnltr of Khirlzin. This dat« (ISSfi) itgnt* vei7 cloeely with the 
m-cotiut of Mtv nrriTAl uf the ^vtniBUU m Cutch given iii the tent. It kIao lib 
with stutaninnt* ia tbe ooofiuod MuBalmdu BiBtories of ihi' Siii«t S« 
(1025 - 131$), tii&t ^wnt tho midtUii of tlu thirteenth ctntury iht-rv itcre 
Cntch morn or leu depesdent on the SumrAn. Tnnkh-i-M'a»timi in Kl 
Tuhfalii-LKirim in ElUot, L 345; aee tthio dittci. 48^ Tlte im-iviU of the »h 
MacMurrlo (Ttmw. Bom. LiL Soo. IX 21S), took jjlnce before theond of the 
Gvniury kod i>robAb!y mnch cArlier. Tod ( Wt«t).rn fndio. 470) plAcei Ui 
U 1003. But i^veii .V(-(.ixtine to C'oL Tod'a Labli-, counting; hoick (rom 
(I637J the lint ceii^iu dklc, 1053 ia netitly s cvtittiry too v-u-iy . 




It of fnurteon cart-toeds vf grass. Ono year, under Uie 
wert? Iiid. Ueavinj; their biding' place at night they 


MWieiision of the fort of Gnntldt and drove the Vaglif las across >.^ 

ilf into Kiitiiifiwiir.' After this succosa Mod mied as chiylD ^"l^l 

llcrn Oatch. ii&d wbo rame oeift, was, about 11105, after 

■ n, 8ucc(H:*dod by hia sfjn Phul, and be, aboat 
ilaiii. Meanwhile, accordiug' to Ihu Munalrniin 

ot Sid J," ihe SumrAs whoso head-nuartors were at 

Tur,' after being defeated by AJa-ud-din Kbilji (1296- 

it the cloee of the thirtoeuth coiitury> ao oppressed tha 

10 ancient laudholders, that they i-etired to Cutcn. Shortly 

' at Musalman iDvuMion Ujok nlac^, Muhammad Ttir the 

waa destroyed, aud tUu .Suiurds' wivca and children 

protection to the Samm^ of Cutch.' On their 

Catch Lbe .'Sammas at Smt svttled in the deaert. After 

loy bogged the chiefs, who were Chivda Rajpnts, to 

a tract o5 land. This wa<> agreed to, and cm condition 

msa to the Ch6vda chief as tribute they woro 

■ raiu. The story of their capture of Gunthli and 
power in Tutch is the same as that already given from 

_ lilions.* The two acceunts so far agree that the year 1320, 
according to Musalmiin nccounte^ tlie last bands of the 
rive«l, is, lu'eording to Cutch tradition, the date of the 
oE idikba i'hulAni the hero of Cntch legend, who, ruUug 
ot, completed the compost of Cntch, subdued the Kfithia, 
I about ViiO tigbttug in Kathiaw&r.' 

of the Sanitna conquest Cntch in described aa a land 

and hills. It wtnjld seem to have bt-en thinly peopled 

in the south and by Chiivd^ and ViighelaH in oUier 

K^tlus were driven across the gulf, but the Ch&vdiia 

once the masters now the tenants,' and were contmlted 

wall or pond was to be dng.* 

I'huliini wna sncoeodod by his nephew Ppra or- Punvart^'! 
iftera short rcign was killed by the YafcshAs.' Pnra 
cr bratheraDethaand Setha, but aa neither of them was 


1S78, 0,10. PflrtiM in Joor. A». Sm- Bcng. TH. 102- 
riy ,\U-nd-<Ur. waa at Sh.ikiuur t<!ii mika north lA 
if^<- iiricx> jiiiii I'liirfr nniHUoa Mre aLUl fuiinJ. 'KlfTnt,^. -AL1,4U4. 

■is lustorlaas tit AU'iid-dtb'a ivign do not muutiua liia inntaion 

t^ir .> sh^tLi in ^ringita socoiuit nf Fina Tufihlik's bii«cm" (1361) 

I M* failure. Tdrikh i-FironShklii : KUiot, HL 337. 

[J' . xpeoiu of lui invaJUuD amt oMiiplctc licfcAt of tfas 

I Alter \ 1;{1G| Uie etianjji.* of dviiosty from ^umriji to Suam&a Menu 

iSotnrk piiwer WM frtuihed. KUiot, I. ST2. 

in EUipt, I. 207. DotaiU «rc given iimier the he*! "Gunthli," ^ 
&D'<tliar Kocaunt liv murdureil lij- lii» •oti-in-Uw. BurgaM 

,_ lh"4-"3, 191). Beside* their aucceai in Cntth Xbv HAminta 

U, UiU time la lur* Auniiusl tho govommonl of Sind. 3m bdowj 

. EUiot. 1 307, sea. 

prftperly k oIju* of lopcrhaman boian (»« Ki» VtU, 9), 
rtibtl>Iy meant In Oiitcli llie aame YaLsUa Msau alio to bt 
. nUivr race of iivrLboni iuvailBia. 

Tart C.ivi 
1340 -li 




Jib J4<l«j», 

Uta Bifkdlui). 

Gt tu manugti the &tate> Para's widow sent toStixl mid bruagbt 
L&klia the aon of JAda .^ I*(ikha*s reign is said to haTe b 
about 1350, and to have laated for fifteen yosrs. Some oE 
foiinpr Sumina rulers of Cutch had nproad their power to 
8oulh of KnChiAwar. Dnring Lakha's reign, according to 
Uiudu accv-iuut from the fierce opposition of eonie of 
Kriihiiiwor tribes," but more probably drivt-n back by the 
ftltihainmad Tujghjik (1S25-I351), Uieir territories were i 
to~ the pemnsula of Cutch.' After their powyr was l 
within Catch limits, the ruling tribocame to bo known mi >' 
and to bo marked by the systematic defitractioa of their lemwa. 
children. That Jadej a. or the children of J&da, was a new i 
swms probable^ though there is »ome endence to support too 
that the name is old, and that it was the conversion t-o 1^1 
the Tatta Samm&s, the head of their tribe, that brought intohn 
the little known snb-division of Jadej&a..* Infanticide 
doubt an early practice. Still, at this time, t-he Hi)rcad of I 
among the tribes of lower Hind and the isolation of ' 
in Catch, by iocreaain^ marriage ditficallies, Btrengi 
temptation to destroy female children," The JfidejiSs would seem to 
have been one of tlie Sind tribes who^ in the tenth century, wuro 
converted to the tenets of the KarmatianB. W hen the loading brano^ 
of iix6 Sauunfia adopted the orthodox form of IslAm the Ji'ulej4« 
seem to have kept to tlioir old half-Uiudu half-Uogalman foitiu 
The names of their rulers continue Hindu, while thoso of the Tatt^ 
JSmsaro Musalman; and Solah-nd-din (l<Jd3-I404), the Grat IStuama 
convert to Isldm, marked hiH reign by a fiorce and succet^sful attack 
on the rulers of Cutch.' Lakha was, according to i\ie> traditiomi, 
about 13t>5, succeeded by his Kon Hata lIAyadhu n, called the Red 
from the red scarf he used to tie raDnTrTi9n.Hrl«m.' An*T an 
unerentful reign Kata Rilyadhan died, leaving three sonSj I>ada rii, 
Uthaji. Gaja nii, and a fcurlh Ilothiji by a different mother. Tha 
three mil brothers d ivided tlio~Hiul into fi'iir parts, two for tho 
eldesb and one for each oi the others, twelve villages being sei 
spurt lor Hotbiji the fourth son. Oadarji's chief town was Kaathkob 

* Ji*\M ma the aoD oF SAndh tho aoii of Tuaieht SaminB the wa of 3tm tTaid 
the elder brother ft Mod. Burgeita' Arch. .Snr. B«p. 1871-7.V I9!f. 

* BuMww' Arcli. Sar. Bcp. lS7*-"5, ISfi. OhaniU iu soulh-wwl Killiiiwfc, 
now in rorbjuiilur, U aniil to Iiiiv« beeii,eariy ia tli* 14tb ccnlurj, tnkaD wul doctpj/M 
by CMM Bahnuai Saiaina from Outcb. 

■ Uab&minftd Tngblik (132r>*i;m) vtrj oonpletcly CBUbliAlud bb power ia 
nortb-wwL Uujarit. The Catch cb)«f ia iiieiilk)D«d am |Myini; him ttibnt«. Elliut, tlL 
Ki; Bint, 170. It WM about tluvtiiao (1361) tbut KirozToghHlii'Banny ww all but 
destrayvd in the San. Id th^t ynr no ueotioD of tbo Cutoh chief occnts. 

* IteUala kto given ia tbe " PopaUtiaD" «h*pter |[t. 57). 

* DetaO* are mrm below (p. IH*). 
i-M'aaujiu : Elliot, I. 237. Tbe 

Sammda were liindua wbeti doc 
Tbeir ooavenion dn«a Dot dato eartiorthin 1391. 

br Firoz Tughlik (1361). 
L *«. 

' Rsta Riyadbu has, hf Dr. J. ViUoa, been thoaght to bo tbo J^ Rit Dan, 
who comlnx from Cutch inooeeded is liM (658 H.) to tlio throue of Tatta in S&ad. 
(Tirikh.i-M'unmt in Elbot, I. £W|. Batbeddeathe dltfertnce r>f aculy luo yurs, t'ind lUi l>en would eeeio to bkv« belooged to the TitttA family, Mid to have 
lived ii) Cntch only aa a rcfiig»», In rpite oi hii oune tbe Siiid Rii ii*a would tmm . 
to bftve been « Mubuuniului Imo £Uiut, 1. 231). 




tcaat, Otiirtji'fi' head-quarters were Aj^mu]^ the north-east of 
, nt>t far fnirTj tho Hnba hilis, and Gajanji lived 
in the west^' 




Bftoonth crntnpy (1410) 

Siiii^ (13110 -1411), 
tffaLA-'d ibe chief of 

- - of llie Abmeilabad dynawty, 

In fipite of UuB ilefeai, though uomiuaUy subjiK:! to 

' ''.'.-ih remained independent till, in I-172, Muhmud 

■ 11), going ti gainst them^ with only 300 eavalrj-, 

Uid dufaHted n fart-e of -WOU iircherK. The Cutchia 

and being ulced by Mahmad what their religion waRj 

tlicy were men of the desert, witboot teachers ; the king 

imiM?.i lo send them twichers, and many of the chiofa who went 

?k wiih him to Jiimignd embraced Islam." 

Mafamnd Bq 

['- U: 

Tu tht! bt*giniiing of the sixteenth ci.*ntury the Cuteh chief ''oa!d(j)'**?-S^ 
been en no friendly terms with t he Arghun dyna sty 
, the overthrowors of tho Tatta Samnisis^ According 
'irianaonone occasion, about 1580, H hali H i isa in 
i L-ii Cutch, and inflicted on the IlAfTa sevorf' defeat.* 
■ rt'i'tesentrntiveaof the three bntncbes ijiths Jadtja 
1 riadarjL JAm Hamiri i. and Jam Hova l. Of these 
Uannrji rind Jani li.aval we^e uoigbbonrs and rivals, and in 1587, 
I l-v '< irilemn promise of frieDd3hip drawiog Uamir into his 
him. At the time of J6.m Hamir'ii death, Abruji,' the 
iir sons, was on a viwit to his sister, the wife rif the 
; and KhongJir ji tho second son, vras on a visit nt 
Fiirkar. The two yoiiiig'^'it »cm», Siibobji and Rdyabji, 
sOy i-arried off tu Kapar in Viigad ; and Kheogar, i-eturoing 
i'mrkar, took them wiiit him t o Ajimwiab ad, whore they were 
■va nnmbor of thoir family and followers. At an Ahinedabad 
iflrty, Khengir, though only a lad of fotirteeu, slew a tiger 
•J. PhAse^I with the lad's courage! king promisodf to 
I y thing ho might ask. Kbengar ii>iked that he and his 
-■!!.. v-r* might gettlf for a time at Morvi on the Itan. Tho territory 
'- I 'dp ovLT to bira in perpetuity, and Kliengiir was ennobled with 
jf lUo. From Morvi Kheng^r kept conaiantty attacking 
Jdm Jpj^darji, who was then on friendly terms with 
H" aI"A trie*! lo get leave to settle i n RAnar . and after 
ipt, Riicceeiied. Tie next, by the help of his 
>i'f, icinpted tho Kapar chief out of bis fort, and 
*fng both him and bis sons took his possessions^ After n foarteen 

■ uid to }una mlod at Ajipar »boai 1385. Burgcas' Arch. Snr. B*p. 

or. S«1. XV. 10. tHiUf'a ittwaMft ra wera Jihitji, B&nUli, JitUji, BUt. 

'ilmji, md Datiw ! CHhiJi^B aiJccMBora were OAhoji ('"'■'■' ^-^"ni)i 

.14501, KAuySird^'CSw^nHUaO). 051«), i' -■'•). 

injiji HAnocenonwara HftUtb afoBndwtff tuaBiUti. ' i^an 

1. t'nad. TiunoJcbi, lUtbhun, I]anl£iI7Xikita, a&ii lUval 

1 i.iai. ~~ 

.'ii It nftcnrarda anpearad tiwt they biwl lung faafor* 
>: 4 form irf latAin. (Sao kbore p. H|. 

r., irt ihim. i;ov. Scl. Xlir. tOG-IU& ThoCitt<rh Princ* u 
:>ni) II mid to btve mvwlvd Siud. fiiuton's Hind, 17. 
V, 11. • B«a, Ooy. 8cl. KV. 11. 



Chapter Til. 

R&o Khituglr I ., 
IMS- 1885. 


[Ua BhimaJ L, 


th in 1690. 

years ftrugfrli', Khengiir in 1548 JruvtJ Jnm R avnl, hii- 
mnrdercr, uat of Cutcii, and, iu.'litt>; with kindm^ii to tin ... 
induced them to stay cm their eiilat^^s aud oatuMiuhed biitiwll 
niler of Cu U.'h.' Jiim R^yul flod to K6ili idwAr, foiiiidtsl tlrn 
nf NftViinagar, and liooanie indojH-ndont. ^Settled as ru1i?r «C 0^ 
KiieDgaruelermitiyd to maku Filiiij tiib oipital . 'Hie foiiutry 
had loug beca a lavotirilo hauiiT uT ruuUi.Ts and uiamudiTB. 
innch difficulty they were drivon out, wid, hU dopctidcmtii 
to settlo then*, Kheng^'u capital was estaljlished. 

DyiDf^ in lo85 lihengar was sucnvnlcd by Ittjoaonl who 
1631. Duriu]^ his reign the government of ^Oojaiiit passed 
the Ahmodftlwd kings Co t bo Mugha l Empemra. Undor 
Ahmodabad kJugB the Cutch cbiel' reinained tu the last piiyit 
reg;ular tribute, but bound to serve with iA)00 horse." WTien 
power ceased Bhdnual scorns to have attempted to make bi 
iiidopendontj but after t wo doFpa te, in 15D0 and 1591, agr 
a dmi t_ thc guprein acy of ibe Moghal Bmperxjr, bo was conlinnt 
his former position, aud was only occasiouolly called on to] 

Of the state of Cutch at the close of the sixteen ih century, 
author of the Ain -i-.\kbari( l 5Hii - 1 5!Kt) has left the fnlluwing dcm^ 
The greater part waa composed oi woods and untillfd lands. 
horscB, Bappoeod to bo of Arab blood, its camels, and ite gonta 
remarkably good. Ita men, once JAdavs, now namfHl Jl 
were tall, haudsome, and long-bearded. Thu Muhaoimaduu rel 
had for hmg prevailed. Tho niilitary fureo of the country 
10,000 cavalry and 60,000 infantry. The capital waa Bhuj (i 
T^ej) and there were two strong forts, Bara and Kanthkot. 

In 1617 BhArmal went io Ahraedabod to pay his respt^cfl 
the Emperor JahAngir, pn-sentiug him with 100 Cutch he 
lOOosAro^,^ and 2000 rupees. lie is spoken of afl one of titl 
greatest Zamindars in Gujarat, who bad always fron 5O0U to 0Q( 
horse, and wa« able to time of war to double the number.' JahingirJ 

' Bam. Gov. Sel. XV. 13. 93. 

■ Hw mtrv ID tbu 1570 uwoanta ii JAdvja KJion^ir, Dm ZuniDtUr of 
with I-HKI nllwu. kftu with 5000 liont. Biril'A Minit -i-Ahiii«<Ii. I!27. 

> Blodimaiiii^ Aio-i-AklMri, I. 326,4)!). In lUK) K*o timmbt «( tb| 
Ifot^ estat«, WW bM» enougb to giv« np to bivm. Am KukaltoA, Akb^r t 
tiia eS'tcing Mnxaf&r who bu talioti ahaltor with bim. Duidaasc^l vitli 
traachcn' uil delighUKl with the cmirw^ tihtwn by tb« liet clni^f iu i>^ 
Miuafar N ilefanoe, Alcbu- ia laid U> have mt u[> twa aUiiieK, fft/i.'m, »t mk ■ 
DeUii g)rt«> and orilorw) mil pMWn-by to crown lh« Bel otueT* ritmr 
flowcB and hoAt the JAiloin's M-ith & slipper. Th« prftctic« wun<<' 
Jim Ueul ()7IH-I71l). «llow«l to pmtTor Any init, Mked tliat the ■ i 

tftkeo Bway, Tod'ttWoittem Inrliu, 4^. The chief oF Rhnj, imiIIp-I 
mid tribnto whvo it WH eoforvcd. Bird, 1.10. la 1609, withuforcv- 

UDtch chiofs son Mrv«d with the other iiajoMt chififa ftt Itimui^i . . .i ,. 

W»tMHi'«GujinU, tJS. 

* (iladwin's Ain-i-Aklnri, H- 71, 7S: Cutch hann fotclted w nnoh ai/fun £i 
to £300 (RtL 3000-3000). WRkiit-i-J«bi^K>ri: Klliol, VI. 35«. 

* Theie ware pralttbly snld Atkra/la or siBrapha, of wbich the tnveUer Hkwkh 
(lfl09.16tI)M]r8, "Sorttiliusefcboin whtdibc t«aruwic8 aptttOK" ThuniM' I^ ' 
KiDgBuf IMhi, 42S. 

* ^Vakkt-i.JBliiliigin in Elliot, Tt 356. 

witli Urn old chiff, gavo him his own horse, a male 

tttnloolc-plinut, a duf^gcT, a sfrord with dianioiid mounted hilt, 

ir riiigs.' At the same time, on the conditioa of giving 

it, a pasttaeo Ui Mocca, be freed Cutch from trihuto. On his 

in 1(1^1 BhitrmM was succeeded by Bhojraj, trhn, mltng till 

Raccit'dud by bin nt-phew Khyiigar II. Dying ia 1G54, 

was Hiicceodod by 'I'aiiiachi, iLiid he by RAyadhan ia l<jU2. 

iuna puMtvl withoati a oontost and durinj^ this period 

t«> have eiijoyt.*d unbryken peace. The ouly event of 

vraSf io 1(359, the arrival of the unfortunate prince Dara, 

from Anrangxob. Tam&chi at firat received him kindly, 

, tuniing against him, forced him to leave Cutch.' 

Rayn'ihiurH iddewt son, dim! young-, and during his fathcr*3 

rfigir-ftlii, llayadlian'fl third son, contnV(?d the murder of 

bivtlior ilaviji. B'^th the brothers had left sous who wore 

i\ t.. Kucceed; but as they wei-o young, Pnigmalji, on his 

!i in Iti07, found no difficulty in seizing the throne. 

fuiuvoji, the son of ilavAji whom iVagmalii had murdered, 

t a man, he left no means untried to win back his birth-right. 

■v.?r in lt>97(S. 1751) Pragmalji had placed htm in 

rri, ou the southern !<hore of the gulf of Cutch, a 

^il held by his desceudauts.* From Morvi, Kiiuyoji 

t yearly raids into Cutch. But the ruler of Bhuj was too 

for him, and he was always worsted. During tliis reign 

bi^ the sixth in descent fram Hala, driven from Halar, cama 

!gTT>it|ji, who eeudiug hia sou Godji with a stroug forco 

After a successful reign of eighteen years Pragraalji 

. '•.* Ho was succeeded by his son Godji, to whose 

ftwl courngo the success of the last reign had been 

mitiroly due. Of Qodji's short reign of three years 

I7I8I the chief event was despoiling H£loji, the son of 

' ' -i brother Nughuuji, of Im estate of Mundra. Haloji 

rt'tired to Abdasa, antl there founded the towns of 

k, and Nagnrohi. His descendants arc kuown as 

fg- in 1718" Godji was without opposition succeeded by his 
ani {171H-17J'l], a man in the prime of life, handsome, 
• and oourtooua manners. At this time the 
K^os of Cutch were extremely small. Before 
oi (JfHiji they were chiefly dorivod from the triHing 
jtiwir seaport Anj&r; from the Kora sob-divisiou ; from 

Chapter VI 

l64:.-l'!^•^. 1 

1GG2 IQ-JlA 

Bio Pnisnui] ] 
1607 -niM 

BAo GniIJi I 


fm TTiiinrv ■.( rTujsritt, 70. Tbn Itio is Mfttd tn have hotm tunoty yean 
'■^en ■<> mutili >u tie went od niluix tor fourtocD yean. 

"t. IS30, 142. 
■ p. 18:4-75, 20a 

iloMmlxia Otituh or Cntchnat^ar as wlinlttiag of •nm« 
<>a, Bum, cwuTH oloth, uid ehoA, a Bhol] flsh. in "hap4 lik« 
..1 ft iikou'a Mm above tho elbow, which iu BtuigiLl vru nwvd 
. ".-.u. N*w Acwaat, It. 132. 
~:4-7S, -.'00. 

.,;.. Bow. Gov, 8«L XV. 102. 





Chapter VIL 


some Tillages ia Miy^in ; and from Kapar in Vnt^d. 
Iniiils vi Mnndra »nil Kntitlii and Anji'ir Clntvisi, udtliid dDti 
Godji's reign, brought an itiipurbiQt incrt^<ie of rtvciiurt. ifi 
tliL' llbOi' income va» scnoty, am] their way of ' 
auil siiiijiltj. Auiun;; bis bruLhi't'ti<i<j(l llio K^u il 
mipreniary than what wnn duo to hlR title and larger n-f^tiBf 
Shohcrcd, by thu Erieadly fooling' of his relations and 6crv[>at«J 
lived safe and iiuguarded, without crippling hiH rueoarcuK by 
pay of iKerccnaries. The leadinjr Jiidoj^ luul rJI lately 
tboir possesiiious, and as, ap W ttiiH titnu, tho Uen of ruUtic 
litul BCiLH-'oly beon brokLMi, habit and duty iucliaiHl tlietn to 
their c*tinmon chief. Friendly inter(?oiirso and Tnotnal »c 
formed a bond of union betwet^n th& Kao aud hit. n'^ininal f^mdi 
in striking contract to the rividry and diccKinl u[ Itittr rei 
this time the ndliini.s had not lonfif iiictttod in Abda*ta; ttic 
or soiut nf Itao Uodji, were in their new Innils in the KAntlifl 
Siiiiebs, lueludiiig tbo lnu)j> t-slahlished chiet? of Knha and Mc 
"worecontimird in their estates ; and Tei"!! waa allnttc-d to one 
BODS of Itao Itnyadlma 1. The!<e eetatos, including the best 
and the richest towns in the province, were well peopled, p( 
well ns traders being always ready to leave their htiusos and 
in estates lately grauted to specially favoured children of thtt^ 
W»>st of the ennutry not held by the Jadejafl whs in f ' 
Vaghela and other Unjpiit chiefs, who through all rhai 
to their estates, and of siualler ppoprieiors, Miy&iu'is and or 
had earucd grants of free or service land. All Jrideja ehiof 
Gir&sia proprietors aekuowtetlged the Ituo as tbeir htw}, aud 
wantiMl wore rcwly tu fight fur him. 

As a provinee of (ho Mnghal Rmpire, Cnteh Imd. for nion; tiiac 
century and a quarter (1^,83- ]718), been free from iiMack ; 
for a hijudrcd years, under the arrangement bTiiK-lmiit*! by tl 
Kujperoi' Jrihaugir, pitgiiing bud tit^on sent to Mecca frci- of ebnrf 
and Cntch spared tho payment of tribute. Soon after ]>08U^ 
accession, tho Viceroy, pressed for funds in the decay of bis Qujut " 
revenue, aent a force into Cntch. This army, under the couimunj 
of n r«tlidii. Mozini Beg, advanced to Piular within ten niilesdf 
iloariug uf their approiicb, Ibe Uao, calling his Bhiyiid toj 
de»|»itclied a force to meet the invaders. At the t^aniu time he 
agents, represcQcing ttie injustice of the demand, and reminding thl 
Moghul leader c>C the terms under which the Cutch tribute bi 
bo<>n remiited. These ninisures were successful, and the Mngli 
leader, sceiug that tho HAn was ready to support remonsh-fince 
force, wilUilivw. Foreseeing b repetition of the demand, tiie 
set to work to buihi a fort at Hbuj, and in other ways ^purt^ 
neilher iX|>fnso nor trouble in his efforts to meet a future attatT 
, Kiir had he a long ret<pite. In 1721, before three yearn were ow 
Kawftb Kesnr Kbiin came into Cntch, again demanding tribuT< 
Hearing much of the Mreiiglh of the new furt Jit Bhuj he nvwdt 
it and led his lUToy to, ond plundered, Nnlia, nu onen toi 
of considen»bie wenlth in AbdiUft. lint finding thnt tJie tufipl 
of the country rouud had taken their guu^U with Ihciu ana 

CUTCn. 139 

M&adW and Blmj he withdrew.' The fiiihire of tlicsc two Chapter T 
ipts, followed by seven years of peace, lallod the Itao and History 

frwnds into unreadineaa. Then the Viceroy, SarbuLind Khaii . 

1723- 1730), at the head of an army of 50,000 men, and bringing' 1718-1741 

~ ihim Kanyoji, the Morvi chief, as a claimant to Cutth, advanced Mo'ihal 

iirds-Bbuj. The Kao was ill prepared to meet him, and though McpfiiUm 
I J&dejas loyally gathered at Bbuj, they and their followers woro ^'''^''* 

I able to oppose so strong an. enemy. To add to the Kiio's 
fffilficalties his minister failed him, declaring that he knew of no 
ISMMU for raising money or men. Among the women of his palace, 
iDbsU had one favonrite wife, whom his bounty ha<l greatly cui-iched. 
I ■ ^Itng her his difficulty ahe freely offered her whole wealth, and her 
er, Seth Devkarn a Lohana by caste, bowing before the Rj'uj, 
d, if scrWce were given him, to guide the state safely through 
ih present dangers. The Seth was made minister, and, by his power 
crer his rich ciicite-fellows, gatbered such large sums that, by oU'era 
of pay and opium, tho whole fighting population of the country was 
^nickly drawn to Bhuj. 

Encamping on the borders of tho lake outside the city, they wore 
dirided into two armies. One was sent to strengthen tho gai-rison of 
the Bhajia fori, and the other kept to guard tho town whoso walls 
»ere yet unfinished. Tho day after the dtifence was arrangctl, tho 
tfusalm&n army appeared before the city. An attack was made on 
the Bhojia fort, and two of its bastions were tjxken. Next day tho 
garrisoQ, in a successful sally, won back tho two bastions, and 
drove out the JIuaalmans with the loss of their leader tho Viceroy's 
nephew. Cheered by this success, the Kao, choosing three thousand 
of the best Jiidcja horse, and binding round their brows the orange 
tarban of self-sacnfice, dashed into tlie enemy's camp, and 
omsed such loss and confusion that the invaders retired. At Lakhona, 
where they halted, their supplies were cut off, and tiieir camp 
attacked and plandei-ed by troops of Miyana hoi-se. Seeing how 
matters went, tbeir guide Kanyoji left tlte MusalmiinK, and gaining 
hia pardon joined the Itao. The Viceroy soon after escaped to 
Oajar&t, and great numbei-s of his men following him in disorder 
were pnrsaed and slain by the Cutch horsc.^ 

Freed from the risk of foreign invasion the Rao re^vardcd Devkarn 
Seth by giving into his hands the whole management of the country. 
Knowing his love of wealth, the minister, letting the Rao's revenues 
accamulate, used all his own resources to improvo the state. 
(Tommerce was encouraged and the laitd revenue fostered by a 
nsefnl system of accounts, and by setting agents of the state in every 
town, and through them supplying the husbandmen with funds. 

' According to MuBolroAn accounts the Viccniy Hai'lAr Kuli KliAii dofeatol tlic 
Cntch chief, and mule him ]Uiy aauinuf C'I'2,500 (6,7i>,00O vuxlunud.!'). Wutsoii'a 
Onjarit, 93. 

* The Mahamniailan historians ailntit, hut tone dnwn, this defeat. ' The Viceroy 
nowlITSO) marcheil in the direction o[ Ciituh.aiul refusing tho olFt^r of .iliont L'.'t.t,*^) 
■dviacsd agaiiiBt Bhiij. AutheRanwaH very difliadt to croim, .as thtt Hiio hud cut 
oATsappliea, uidasnowa came of riotaiu Aliuicdahad, he liad to return toniilhiuipur.' 
WaUon'i Gujarat, 106. 



BAo [>eMl I., 

Timt ttf 


' Xflo't am 

By these means the C^'b joarly rercnao was nuflcd t( 

(la Iti}:ltg of koriit), and tic minister'a tn moro tlinn f?' ' 

lakhg of iofiJt). Besides euricliing tlio pruvioce, Df 
lUAdu it eccuro agaiust forci^:^ attack, f(ti-eiit,^ltt>iiing the . 
finishing tho wiills of tho capital, and fonifyiop the towi 
Mnndrft, nud Rapar. These places were garrisoned by tnx>p«, 
a rej^lur fcrco eugugod to protect the uuiiutry. Mut content 
Bfcuring ihe safety of the prrivince, he spread tho Rfio'a uame 
power by carrying au army int« Parkur, and, leaving a po«t 
overawed tbo Sodh&s aiid put a «top to their raids. In 
Kathiawdr, the Okhdranndnl pirates, who had boon hnmsftm^ 
trade of Mandvi, were punished and kept in order by building in 
district the fort of Cut4:faigad; and in the east liatamba and 
U&Ur villages were recovered from the estate of tbo tmit- *■'■ ■ 
In Sind, called in by the Kaimas, MnSalmaDB uE the •}' 
Dcvkani proti-cUsl thi^in, and, to WTrire thw lauds ho had won, 
a fort at Koliim-ki-h^dr. ^Ul thi.s wa<t done witbont ronsing' the 
will of the chiefs and proprietors, wlio, on the &light«&t si 
were ready to gather roiuul the JtUo's stuidard. 

TIio latter part of Desalji's reign waa distarbed by the viol 
and iiitrigiicA uf his only son Ltikliiliji. Cnliko \\'t>* fmh>>r, 
hiindi'd and fond of show, Tjflkhliii xvim pnpnlar, and 
hini a band of followers who stirred up iU fei'ling bet' 
chief and his father. Uoeasy as to his designs, the R6o rt<dueod ha 
son's expensoa, and refused him any share of power. I»Akhiiji IdIV 
Bhnj, and thi-eatening to take aervico with the Rdja of Udepur, Ii->n.-sil 
his father to yield to some of his demands. Thongb to appoarnnno 
8atinfied, Lakhajisecretly contin oed to scheme to bring the goveriKiiiut 
into his hand, llis first stup was to get rid of the luiutiitcr 
Dcvkam, whom he hated as the canso of his exclusion from a 
share of power, and whose close intimacy with his mother he is said 
to have had strong reason for believing to have been criminal. 
Accordingly, in 1788, ho raised a distnrbanoc in front of tha 
iniiiister's hoaao, who, coming out to restore order, was att^tcked 
and slain by a hired assassin. At first indignant at the Iokk of hia 
favourite miniator, the H&o was by degrees won by Ijiklulii'B 
submi»sion to grant him forgiveness, and in token of their friendsliip 
^recd to bo present at an entertainment in Liikluiji'a hoasc. 
The llAo brought with him most of his chief officers, nod U> sho' 
respect to his father, liskhaji had all his attendants in wiiilin|ir. 
There was much delay iu serving the feast, and the younj^ chief, 
after many impatient messages, hlniHclf lefr the room to hurry an 
the banquet. As he left every opening from the room was closed^ 
and the Rdo and his ofBcers were quietly secured. Placing his fatho 
iu confinement, L^khiiji liegan to rule, receiving the aubmission of 
the commandants of all the forts in the proviuf-e exc^-pt M»uidvi. 
"When TAklifl, mort> couimonly called lido Lukhimtji, was settled in. 
power, ho lillowed his father a suitable establish men t and jjix*atiT 
freedom. And his officers and pontoaal friends wrro releasc<l and 
Boiit Co distant parts of the country. In 1751, iUo DoKalji diud ab 
tlie age of SiTfnty. Love of money was his roling passion. But ib 



temper hold him back from cmelty anil cstorlion. 
coep fresh the mi.'iuory of tlie quiot and plenty of Dosalji's 
Gatoh grew populona and rich, and wna respected by its 

41, when be placed his father in confinemont and osBiiined 

of Catch, tiiikb^ji was thirtj-four years old.' His 

le form, pleasing inaoners, opeD-liaudodoeas, and love of show 

popular, and the grmt wealth, £1,000,000 (1 kror 

found ID hij father's treaaory did muc-h to strengthen his 

At the same time many of the Jidej&s were displeased at 

■ "Dtofhifl father, and one of them, SnmrfSji, Thfikor of 

>>Ti and furt in Ab(U«a, aixtke with open scorn of his 

eonduut. Wien firmly settleuin the government, Lakh^t 

to wipe out this affront. Collecting the Bhdy^, ho 

force agaiuBt Tera, and as the guns were served by coeu 

British UTritj>rv, the fart suffered severely. After a few 

iefs taking thought that on an eqtially slight pretext 

TQight destroy all their forts, wurued the gunners Lhnt, if 

tinned to damage the fort, they shoiiJd pay for it with their 

this the firing cansed Httlc injury, and failing to breach 

r a three months' siege, the army withdrew. 

ession of tho Ri5o, Devkarn's son Pnnja was appointed 
and so long as ho was able to £Uid funds he remained in 
At the end of five yeans, by a course of unbounded 
,ce, Lfikhfiji had wasted hia father's treasure, and, finding 
small for his wants, bo iliismisscd Punja and set a 
i Sha, in his place. One of Rupshi Sha's first steps 
t ts x c Ptmja and all his relations, and treat them with such 
cmclty that though sixty-five of them died under torture, 
£80,000 (30 lakht of kori^) was wrung from the rest. 

~ ing, first adoptoil by Rw> Lfikhfiii, soon became 

, and ministers were choHen solely on account 

wi'ttith which 800U passed to the Rfio. For four years 

oO) Uup-T^hi Sha continued in {mwer, and Punja wim kept in 

it. Then Unpshi Sha fell into disfavour, nnd I'unja, again 

, retaliated ou the Vinia, mas^^acring his relations and 

hu life only for prison and the nick. In such disorders 

look anrither turn, and Piinja, driven from power, was 

by Clordhan Mehtn. Thinking himself ill used, Funja 

lied himM>lf with Godji, the Rlio's only lawful son. Thongh 

a yean of ago, Godji, following bis father's example and 

by his mother and Funja, demanded from his hither nsharu 

■-if the stale. The Rao refused, nnd the young 

In hisdi^apiKiintment I'uDJa cc-unHolled Godji 

»i>8U his father, and the lad and his molher agreed {<> 

to Godji'fl town of Mnndra. Before leaving Hhui, Funja 

to ruin bis rival Oordhau Mehta. Ou the diiy of his tlight, 

saspicion, he sent a messago to the minister asking for a 


1741 ITi 


<Bom. Gov. SoLXV. too. 

(BombAj Oi 

Ohapter TIL 

Kin Ukha, 


private iDtoTTiew. ThatitnuglitaftcnfrardafeemtbAt hoiudGor 
hill! riigeibisr planneJ somo tre»cherv, bo wunt to GorUbm's ' 
with imicli show of mystei*y, drew public attention to liia visit, i 
two hours, with closed doors and windowH, contrived to < 
(iordhan with iriHiiig- cwnvtirsation. Shortly after, the If 
that his son and wife had Hed with Punja. And hcnn'ii 
hours licforn his tht^lit PuQJa had a lotitf and s>.":r(tt u 
Uordhati, ho was highly oiirHgi*d, and onluii**! Iroiilln' 
oxecutiou. On Gordhan's death Riipishi Sha waR (reed and reat 
power, lie continued ministiu' for a y^ar and a half, when, 
return from Cdbul, the post was given to Talahidius a (avouritoi 

Mf-anwhih^, Godji waa living in Muudra indopcndonfc f" ' 
Thouj^h chit-Hy advised by Punja, ho Irnsted inucii to one 
Bf g, a man oE bud rliaractcr, whom ho uimlo his Jtiiiiiulsr, 
this tjnio, a certain Sliah MiiJanji, a very rich mercliant. At 
Miindra, and to hix fuuend coreinuuioa some oE the wcakhjost 
Cutchrame. Acting on hiaJam&ddi-'s advice, (rodji, whowaa badls 
for funds, shut ihe city gatesand refused to lot iho raomhants 
Ihey paid large Hums of money, Knragod at hia son'-- 
aent a force against Mundra. Godji tied to Morvi, a:ii: 
with troops, came l>ack, drove off the attacking force, and 
the town. The Rao at length touipromised with hi if son in'.-j 
hitn to kuep Mundra on condition tliat ho would diKrniKs Punin. 
thia (lodji agreed, and in 1758 Punja retired to Moihiilii in A" 
on a monthly pension of about .£'25 (1000 fcfir«<). About this 
(1757) the Hio presenlwl the Kmpeii-vr Alamgir IL (1754-1763) 
some Cutch horses and Gujantt liullooks, and in return 
the title of Uiraa.' In the following year he planned an e _ 
against Tatta and was promised help both by the Peshwa an 
Gaikwar. No active steps would seem to have been tuken.^ Ho 
bonnnie extremely woakenedbyconstantdobnuchory^ncviM i 

his couch before four o'clock in the afternoon. The <- 
Govcruiiient were entrusted to a succession of incapable munste 
who8e one ijualiticaiiou was a willing assent to oveiy plan, hnwov 
disreputable^ which could contribute to tho R6o*» prodigate liftbi 
8ceuu8 of cruelty and oppression, previously unknown in Cutch. we 
common, and as the court tost character, its influence in Sind ant 
Pfirkar doclinod, and in 17(30 tho posts at Vii-aw&h and r&rkar w 
driven out. 

Though the wealth of the country was scjuandered, ifcs finance 
were flourishing. Lakhpat alone, from thecultn-ation of rice, yiel(' 
B yearly revenneof about £20,000 (8 lakhs oi korui). The province 
at peace with its neighbours, and the only internal disturbance, dt 
to some enoroachmontB on the part of tho Dhamarka chief, ended ii 
tho Riio's favour, and in the capture and destruction of tlie Tluikur* 

iWMtoD'aODJirit, IJS. Mr. nunrea (Arch. Sur. Ben. 1874-;5. 300> tan tho 
of "Unhiiia Rliri nnd IIh- M&bl ^lariOb. 
^ W»Uoq'> UuJwM, U9. 




a. In 1760 LakTia,who had boen suffering from leprosy and otlier 
ases, died at the age of fifty-four. Ou his death-bed he tried to 
tee the officers of his troops to appoint one of his six illegitimate 
1. They refused, and sending word to Godji, he came and 
xeded without opposition. Lakha was the first of the Jadejds to 
tblish the form and state of a Darb&r or court at Bhuj, and, being 
an of considerable intelligence, treated foreigners with much 
mlity, and from them picked up a large store of information about 
[ercoantries. He enlarged and embellished the palace with foreign 
tuoents, many of them of European workmanship. The taste for 
npean articles sprang from his acquaintance with an adventurer 
medBamsing Malam, who had made several voyages to Europe, and 
lO accidentally visited Bhuj. Rdmsing was a man of very high 
chanical talent. Taken into the service of the Rao, he established 
unon foundry and silk and glaaa manufactures, made clocks, and 
lately copied patterns of European models and figures. So well 
lie teach, that the mechanical skill for which Cutch craftsmen 
now famous is generally traced to his training. To reward these 
ices, the llao presented hira with the vill^e of Kalyanpur, and 
lis death he continued to live at Bhuj in wealth and comfort. 

a reaching Bhuj a few hours after his father's death,' Godji found 
Darbar officoi-s ready to acknowledge him, and without 
isition he began to rule at the age of twenty -six. He continued as 
ster a Lohana named Jivan Seth, who had held the post during 
aat years of his father's reign. This choice led to long years of 
ble. Pnnja, his old minister and supporter, hearing of Godji's 
>sion, hurried from his retirement in Junngad, confident of 
in? the reward of his former services. But before he had time to 
ti Bhuj, Jivan had persuaded the RaO that if Punja came he 
Id be told to leave without tasting the water of the town. Meeting 
this rebuff, Punja retired to Kanthkot. But as his reception 
! offence at Bhuj, the chief asked him to seek shelter elsewhere. 
hen went to Jatavada, and here too he was pursued ; and, only 
he kindness of his host, escaped a troop of cavalry sent to 
r him. From Jatavada he retired to Virawah in Parkar whose 
E, iQ return for former favours, was friendly. 

hnldm Shah Kalhora, then reigning in Sind, had long looked for 
ADCe of meddling in Cutch affairs. This was not unknown to 
ja, and was probably one of his reasons for retreating to Prirkar. 
3 Gidomal the Siud minister, a man of his own capte, Punja 
ed a correspondence. Hearing of this, Ghulam Shah lost 
imo in asking Punja to Haidarabad ; sent him £1500 (1000 
ir«) for his expenses and a palanquin with an escort of 100 
; and on his arrival received him with every honour. The Amir 
lined his wish to conquer Cutch, and gain tlie Rao's sister in 
iage. To the idea of conquering Cutch, Punja gave little 




' Bom. Ggv. Sa XV. 95. 




Chapter VII. 


o Oixtji XT,, 
1760. 177& 
Siiid /aeanon. 



eacoaragcment. bot ho strongly recoramemled ihn 
repre~'(CDlm^at tlm same timn that the prnpoaal would he v 
only if Oliutaro mppemred befure Bhuj at the head of a victon 
Meanwhile the Itno, nut uniLwaru of tho combination agoing. 
directed Jivnn l<) Hammon the Ahdasa and Vttgnd Gird^i^t M '"^ 
the country. The whole Bhsyad, except the SCothAla 
friondly to Funja, readily auKwored the amiimons, and ■ 
under tho miiuKtor. Godji remained in command at Bhiij whioCI 
garrinoned with lUUO men from Navauagar and a body uf Ki&dl 
tit)0(w. Ghnlam Sh&h and Punja, at the head of tho Sindii^ . 
quitted Haidarabad ncwimpanied by an immense body of full( 
who, it is said, raised the siren ^h of the expedition to aboat 
men. Crossing the Ran, the 8indiaus, after a heavy march ofta 
soron miles, found Nara deserted, and the wolls tilled vnth 
S<> great was their distress from thirst and fatigue. Chat bml 
marched ngainst them, they would haTc fallen an easy prej, 
the minister was no general, and, quietly encamping in a 
position close by on the Jiiru hills, allowed tho Siucl tronpH to ' 
themselves. After two days' rest Ghulam Shiih mfti-clicd to 
and attacked tho hill. The appitjach was dtfended by a lai 
round which the Cutoh army were gathei-ed. At the lirst sht 
gun bnrst doing much injury and causing great confusion in 
Cutcb ranks. Taking advantage of tho disonler, the Sindians 
the Itill Bword in hand, and doi^troycd almost the whole arinyj 
among the slain Jivan tho minister, three !ions of the TLi 
Nara, andDULuy other leading chiefs. According to Cutcb 
their total lotis was not less than a hundred thousand slain. 
J^ra, Ghul&ffl Shi(h, m&rcliing to Tera, levied a heavy fine,] 
plundered and burned the country. Learning of this cri 
defeat, tho Riio, sending a private agent to Pnnja, cool 
his anJQst conduct, stated that he had been deceived by Jl. 
and entreating Puuja tu arrange that tlie Sindinn army slnaiM 
withdrawn, invited him as his ministi>r to IJhnj, and promised U 
ratify any agreement he should make vHth Ghulam Sh^ 
return to favour at Bhuj secured, i'unja was not loss 
than the R&o to get rid of the Sindian army. To arrani, 
withont losing credit with Ghulam Shah seemed well nigh hoj 
But affairs took a turn that made his part easier to play. Kews^ 
tho wells on the straight rood to Bhuj had been poisoned IM Ghulai 
Bhih to advance by a longer ronte. As he went, he succeodc 
levying £ums of money from several chiefs. But a force 
against Sdndhfin wasrepnlsed. When tho news of this check; 

GhuUm Shah, Punja was with him. Affecting a keen 

Warned OLuUm SLdh that there were '^<iO [uria each as strong 
SAndh^n, and that Bhnj itself was guarded by the choicest troo 
of Navanagar and-nfidhanpur. So far, he urged, GhuUm Shfi^'J 
success was complete, and he engaged that if Ghulam withdrew, hi 
would go to Bhuj and arrange the marriage wiih the K&o'& sisterj 
To this Ghulam Shah agreed, and, taking with him Punja's son ani 
hostage, retired to Sind. On reaching B)iuj tlie Uao rewived Pnnja 
with ovoiy sign of roapoct, and at once made hira wiuiater. Aitei 
fulfilling his preliminary agrouuiout with Gbui&m £^hj PiuijVl 



are wax, partly by firmneRfl and paj-tly by paying their 
U) dismisii tno R^haQpor army which held the gates, nnd 
of Godji showed every wish to remain masters at Bhuj. 
tlie next two years Funja was uccapied in au PxpeditioD into 
wbera ho lened a Bee on Kanthkot and the chicf-i of tba 
All tbia time, though Ponja never cea^efl urging hitn, the 
buied t«i give his sister in marriage toGhulAm Shah. From 
Xant subject of diRpnte, and perhaps from tho manner in 
he had regained his post, the Rio was never well dJKponed 
and, wtiea he had repaired hi? fortsj raised a militia^ and 
hifl power, ho determined to rid himself of hiH miniitter. 
Older I'unja was seized, confined in irons for t«Q days, and, 
Rio hitaself, was presented with a cup of poison. On hearing 
iji'a murder. Ghulani Shdh gathered another army of 50,000 
.and re-entered Catch by the Nara route. Nara he again found 
at, and except at thesmall fort of Muru, where a Raj put garrison 
ity men remsted aod were all massacred, he advanced unopposed 
light of Bhuj. Encamping at Bodor M&tn within five miles 
tawHf he despatched his minister, Gidomal, with some men 
£itinc4ion to demand, aa had before been promised, the lUo'a 
rier in marriage. Godji, welt supplied with troops and rceotircos^ 
eeiTcd the envoys with little courtesy, and refused to give any 
twfoctory answer. During the night the envoys passed in Bhuj, 
9 B£o ordered that, at the same moment, every gun tn the city 
oald be fired. Hiia caused the strangers such alarm that they 
sk back with them the most exaggerated accounts of the height of 
ft walla and the strength of the town. After a few days akirmisiliing, 
raJ'i '^' '. wa« induced to listen to a compromise, by which, 
ttf-' R^'s sii^ter, he received in tnarnage the daughter of 

• oliiijij*^ K^hdkhar, a near kinsman of the Rao. After remaining 
r Mune time inartive he recrossed the Ran, leaviug at Lakhpat a 
at of 0000 men. About this time by bnilding at Ali Bandar a bank 
roaa the Kon month of the Indus, Ghnl/im Sh^h stopped tbosonrce 
mi which the great rice-lands of Lakhpat drew their water 
Mi)y i and tbe nco tract gradually became a aalt waste like the rest 
llifl Kan, leaving tbe Catch Rtat« poorer by a yearly uum of about 
0,000 (» Lil-lig of korijt). In 1772, seven years after bis fetum to 
11(1- fifiul&m Shih died, and wa& succcedtid by his son* Sarfarte. 
■e was Boon involved in trouble* at hia own court, and waa 
T thdraw his outpost from Lakbput. At the same timu 
■TJi, tlio ^(>n of Punja, to leave bis court and return to 
iJvvji wu well rcceivcti by the Riio, aod offered employoicnt. 
i^U by the fate of bi.H futberaud grandfather, boa»>ki*d leave 
re and rc-people lAkbpat. This was granted, and from the 
in which hia family was held, he succeeded so well that tho 
MVing the biifbest opinion of his abilities, aiixioas to get him 
ist«r, ordered him to Bhnj. He started for the capital, but, 
hn way, was poiaou(;d by Aome of tbe Darb^r people who dreaded 

" - time the affaii-s of the stale ba<l fallen into confusion 
_' After Puuja'a death a BU(M?essiun of ministers 


Chapter T 







Chapter 711. 

xlii II.. 


Situt InratiM, 

' Ineamun, 


fuUownd, most of vliotn irere miirdcrct] and ilieir projMfrtT mmmIi 
tko RAo. Duriiiff these chniif^'s ilui IWOj without, n sfr 
Bdlamha in KfUhiiiwiir. Oodji, iisitumlly of a Biispicioiift i 
for some tim» fntt-rtiuiKHl a continued dread of aaiossiii: 

few led him to collect a amall body of Sidii who oontinucd 

JD number till all the power of the Durbir rested with them; 
orerbeuring n-ere ihoy that, at last, the ladios and priiiri- \ * 
of the palace, to frpnthp RAo from thdir power, seized hi 
kept him in confinement till the whch? body (i( SidiR, ni 
in all, were dripon from Cutch, Knmpud nt Urn insult ( 
id dis^Bt to M^ndvi where he stayed huildiDsr a palnee aii 
beod to pnblic affaii*8. About 1775, Miyan Sa r Tara zK luin 1,1. .-- . 
GhuUra Sbiih'a son, the Kalhoro ruler nf ftaularnlJad in Hind, pulj 
Cutch, l^filc the route of tvhftVfJa and Sumrftsarj intcndtnjr to I 
to Bhuj, but tbo accounts of its streugtTr frightened h>n', «nd I« 
tho army to Chobari and Kanthkot, he marrird thi- 
Thakor, and levying fines at Adhoi and othfr pi; 
Siud. At thifl timo (1 776 - 1 786), ]n Sind, thy stnigglea betwetj 
KalhoWis and TilpnrAs divided Die country into i--'-- '■■■ 
Abd ul Nabbi Kh^n, who succeeded in 1777', had appoiiiT 
his minister. On M ir Bijr* s elevation to power, two beluuUifl 
ha<l Rssa-ssinated his father, sought refuge in Cut^ch, and, as tfall 
refused to give them up, the province was again iiivndetl and 
of Abdi^ plundered and laid waste. The Kao's morcenari 
this time a very formidable body, sent under the command < 
Uirza Kurpa Beg againtit the tSind army, fell in with a delacl^ 
of it and cut it to pieces, and the peopto of the couniry aidin 
K^'u tixwps, tho iavadera were forced lf> relri-at a<'r 
witb coQ»iderahle loss and di.Hirrace. Elated by hia »\v 
Kurpn Beg, upon his return to Bhuj, threw off all Hubjection » 
Rao imd began to act with great insolence, CHpecially tovan 
two Sind refugees. Complaiuing to tho Rao, the refogras 
encouraged, if tho chance offered, to assaa-nntito Mirxh Bog, 
many days after tho MIi-m sent for them and Iwing refused a 
of money, ordered their wives and childi-en to be sold. Gnraij 
this insult the Boluchis attacked him and slew him on tho 
For this deed of valour the l&iuo rewarded them with ban^ 
grants oP land. Soon after thia Godji sickened, it wna aft 
dropsv, and died at tho ago of forty-four. He left two 
KAyadhan who nucceeded and Prilhii-^j. He bud married one 
sisters to Daniaji Giiikw&r of Baroda. 

Small and mean in person, of a jealous andcrueP temper.oppr 
and nnscrupulouB, (Jodji is, among the jiooplc of Cutt-h, tbfl 
unpopular of their rulers. Frugal in private life, he kept an estn 
ment of elephants and horsws far beyouJ his meaus, and lu spite 
many largo fortnnea he SQiKod and turned to his own use, lu 
leaving au empty treasury. In npito of Qodji's mismanagcmoi 

» Bom. Gor. Sel. XV. <>>«■ 3«i«), 101. Ilarton (.Siml, 22)giTM 1778, a 
RitHl (;u«U»!r (M), I7S2. 

* ECu^i'lca |)<iiK'iuiiiK nr fLMMnjnitting twoity minlat«rs, Godji iu a QtnT 
kille^l hi* i"m lirnlher. 



ibcr of inraaioiid fntm wliicli H Iiml KuITcroi], Cnti^U had nut, 
liskhpnt, materinJIy fiUlrn off oithor in pooplo ()r tilliiffc, 
tbtf latter years oi Godji's rule ami tbc early years o£ bis 
' ' • ' ^' -liwith gmiaV _. 

■ ■ 1 d all his boyhood with tbo womca 

I poliioe* farceuled bia father, in i?78fal iho early affl o£ 
-" lahcritiiifr unlimited power at so early lui ago, and 
by atu-tidauta sullied imd dobiised by coDSlant scuoes of 
and cnu-lty, bo was cxfKisoJ tu tbtt wurnt advieu and 
Thn coiiniry was most dlsturbcHl. Thn bite war with 
irriv"! on wilbmit ubility or Imuusty, had oibaustod' tbo 
K, and fcliiL-k wan ihi? uihiiii^miiuiiI, tliia somit of tho rbicfa 
i*r pi"i>prii>t(ir8 wore subjoot to tho Kjio only in name, Hod 
'-wu f.- little ruprcssed, that there was security Deitlicr of 
aiif pn']"Tly. 

on&* rcipcct tho young^ R&o waa forioiuito. His tnotbor'8 
>'d tbo appoiutmcnt of minister to Dcvchand, a raoch 
■\i4, who duriiip; the hist ryj^n h*! more thao onuo 
'.'. ■\-.- <>( the 8Uttp. Too upri^dit to Korve th« lau? Rao's 
L ;ii> not on ull occasions enjoypd the ppitcctinff 
of Rityadhau's mother lie niighl have shared the fate of 
Gmlji'w miuibtori'. For a short time under l>evcband^ 
■DKut things went well. But before lonff a plot vras formed 
One evunirig oq reairhing the paliu-e he was arraatod 
imandrr cf lh<* Riij>'» bmly-trnifcrd, and, slmrtly nftcp, his 
"ieiCK. who ht-ld Atijar, Mnmlra, and Rapar, were seised 
to Bhuj, where Iho whole family, inclading Devchand 
lo death, and a targe line levied on their relations.' 
sltcr this, by the death of the RSo's uiotbor, the cause 
is Cutcb suffered another beary Iohs. Tbo young chief, 
jrto shown no special fondness for vice, gnve bimseU 
lofaer}', and disorder became geoersl over the province. 
rict managers thought themselves mora safe in open 
to the ttao than in his service ; and by dej;rcea the outlying 
the province wore uUeuated from the central authority at 

Chapter Vlt^ 

lUo RiywUiiui II 


„_ 1. .- .t. „,)., jj^j^j, ,),« R&o fell into tJie bands of Sidi Morieb 

mor of lihiij. Finding bimself umd)lo to control 

iliritli clmse as niinist^M- nf the prcivjnces V&gha Pilrekb, 

c^le, who, greedy aud overbeui'iug, attacked the J&doja 

XV. 10:1 Tillage tnuil )nv» beea oao,tho»>\ u> a f(rw rieb tntcta^ 
-"'llii Cutcb ft buren enniilry at bills. w/Kida, «iti) taadf wildi 
itlackod. U«moir of a Map of UinciuaiAii, CXXIV, 
'. IS. * B»m. OoT. S«L XV. 113. 

XV. 113. 

tl>'v<n iiinr4«n tw«MC«nntai ar* ^m. One tbU thaf won tba 

:iR wilbottt tht? 1ci»(>irle<1j;ir tJ Lliu lUo and li«fm« he had 

Tlie vKhvt tluit thoy wor* cHrriwl out by ilta Rio's 

'-" him by his father that th4 relnliAiuWtir^f.n lh«t 

lift], anil thai the lUn'a Aitgrttt ini>»t I >p wiped 

. j.teratifl bia (AniUy. B<ii». Hov. Hd .\V M. III. 


Chapter VU. 

iUoKiyadhu U., 



chief of Patri and slaying htm took his fort. This 
groat offence, uud Sidi Mericb seeing thai Viif^ha P&rekh'a 
mado himself unpopular tried to assassinate him. The 
fail&d, auJ Viiglis wiuuiug over the nobles .and the ladies 
procurod Iho btuiishmenb of the whole body of Sidi - 
Bnt V^ha's Rucceas was ahortlired. One of the Sidis, 
name, who, an a personal ^vourite of the Bio's was ullowed to i 
before lung succeeded in bringing about his imprisotunent 

About this time (1783) th e R^ia of Jo dhpar, nt the ■ 
army, passed throu Klt'UnT ois way to Sjtid to n- 
Nubbi Khiln, who had benu driven from his kingdom by the Xali 
The Rajtt tried to persuade the S&o to help him. But offaj 
Bhuj were in too great diaoi-der to allow of ready aid, and, be/br 
anything could be done^ the Jodhpur anoy, aft«r a contest wit 
Fat«h All at CHw^Ari ,- were forced to retiro in disorder. 
following year (tJ^*), vrhett twenty years of age, R&yadhAQ 
to show signs of madness. At lanl he did little harm, his 

ruliaricy being an extreme zeal for the Mnsalmin faith, wl 
is said to have learned from a Muhammadan beggar Muhazni 
Syed. Aft«rwardH he became more violent, attacked and impriao 
IlindnS] and, wandering with a band of followera throngfa tl 
streets of Bhaj, wounded or killed all who refused to profestf IsImdj 
By these and other outrages, Rayadhan so clearly showed himi 
mad, that his family and minister determined to take steps to 
him under restraint. Bui R^yadhan^ known as the F^lr^ 01 
athlete, was a man of great personal strength and courage, and 
he was always surrounded by a baud of trusty Pathans, it waa 
easy matter to seize him. Vigha Part-kh tho minister, nnddenlj 
brought a body of troops from Anjir into the ooortyurd of the Bhaj 
palace. Getting timely news of their arrival, Lbe R^, seudiog w( 
tu his body-goard, escaped to the top of the palace, and ouU' 
away tho stair gave his Pathina time to aasemhle uud come to 
rescue. With their help the whole body of the assailanta 
destroyed." Though succeKsful for the moment, the lUo's condt 
had eatranged all his servants, and from this time bis authority 
no longer acknowledged. Mandvi under lidrnji Khavas, Anjar undf 
Moghii Seth, and Mundra, takhpat, and several other towns un^* 
other leader* beoame molepend ent. The Miy&o&s, gathering in ' 

> Bom. Qov. fid. XV. 14 »ad 114,116. The aocooai in tfaia put n hom*] 

* Mir F»t«h AU did not gain much hy bi> viebwy, as he wm at aacc CftDvd tw^ ' 
meet ui invuion £rom Cibal. Two yc*n Utct (1765), «u(l agnia tn I7MII Mir Pkti 
Ali with hii brotliBrii, wivts, u>d attcnduits li&d to taka raluua in Catch. Bout. Gov. 
S«l. XV. 115. 

'Bom. Gor. Sel. XV. 117. According to snotlier •tory the pwpla froB 
Mked to have an tiit«rvi«w, and Lbe Rao anapetrtJu); (hat th«T nwuit to aviw . 
aammoiMKl them to a raoeption room in the upper story of the palaee. Hii_ 
retiriDii to the roof, ha gava ordera tlut tlia atair, littla more than a liulder, op «rl 
tho Anjir men had nome, abonld be taken away. Uaught in ihia trap hft dgati 
Ihr itciMiiatioa by throwing large ■juaotilici of j>i)U|w«r£ti into lbe room. B«a. 



I, Mitrenchod themsolTca at BalUri, and, s&lljing cut, plundered 
}ry lide. So graot was Uie disorder that tho poojile leaving 
bomoB fled for safety to tbo towna.' 

citBhaj things went from bad to worse. TheR^, in 

I ,.,^ils, laid hands oa the wealth amassed by his hvouritcs 

imad iiyed and 8tdi Ma&ut)^ and banished them both from 

Soon after thw Meghji Heth of A njar seized the palace gatefl> 

iHAo, forced to Bubciit. was placed under restraint (1786). Tho 

■mont of HAyadhuu was a relief to t ho whole country. The chief 

*, tbo Jatnid&rs and Meghji Seth, raising Prithiiiij or Bh&iji 

RAyudhou's younger brother to the chiefship, appointed 

his minonty a oonnci) known as tho Itdra Bhai with Meghji 

\mad Ousal Yen as its leading members.' This Government was 

-Hful, rcBtoring order and bringing the chiof of Mdndvi 

■ acknowledge and pay tribute to the central anthority. 

ujbf the council diaagreedj and Meghji iSeth, convicted of an 

^y, ujp'jisoD some of the members, was forced to flee. Seeking 

in mn old province of Anj^&r he established himself there w 

IlDost independent ruler. To his party belonged the chief of 

Ivt and Aiina Bai, the mother of tho Rao Bbiiiji Bava, and by their 

i.thepowcrof DosolVen andthcothermombcraof thcoouncil 

Jy reduced. To add to the confusion two members of the 

I &eed ii&3 R^yadhan from restraint. Tho rest left Bhuj , and, iu 

iDra that followed, Fatch Mahammod, a subordinate officer 

EaTunr. But the Hija was in no lit state to be free aud one day 

tng FaAeh Mohammad, that officer had to Qy fur his life. 

thinning himself iu one of the towers of the city wall he resisted 

!iB BAo's attaeka, and with the help of Dosal Yen, defeated the B&o 

id BgMX placed him under restramt.^ 

ThiA Fatah Muhammad, a Kotiir Masalmiin of Sind descent, of 
jpofvoiial strength, endurance and courage, of much tact and 
And, though illiterate, of strong personal influence, was, as 
aofcor in this second reyolution, admitted a member of 
Kira's council. Fora year matters went quietly. But Dosal 
rtbe head of the oouucU, a man of hasty aud violent temper, too 
hia position, neither took pains to treat the Rao with respect 
to win the regard of the Jddeja chiefs. Taking ndvant-age of 
tai Yen's want of popularity, Fatch Muhammad withdrew for a 
le from Bhuj, and, finding that tho J&deja chiefs wero annoyed 
DoBaJ Yen's tareatment of the R^, he in Uoaal's absonco 
back to Bhuj. Always a favourite with the troops, Fateh 
inud hod little difliculty in putting an end to Doeoi'a 
^premacy and restoring Bbiiji B&va to his proper position as iha 
1 uf the ntate. 
*As minister,* Fateh Mnharamad showed great prudence and 
aut. Acting towards him with the most careful respect and 
>Qand upon the most triilingoccasionssubmittiDghis plans for 



1T7S- ITW.1 

Bio Frit 


• On. Onv. Hd. XV. 117. 
' BwlOov.ScI. XV. 120. 

'Bom. Gov. Sel. XV. 118. 
•Bom Offv. Sol. XV. 121. 

Rupt« VIL 

lUa I'litturij. 


uppruval, bti wuu tlio regard of tbo joang Rao; bo socurvd i 

favour of the i&Ac\fL& by peasi(>ns; and, by raising a ] 

of mercenarieSj acted witb soch vi^nr agaiost tLost- 

bim, tbat except Dosal Yen, who rciinnl ia ^fumiru, aii j 

members of the conucil were either banished from Cnli^'h, ur d^ 

in confiucmcQi. 

He Tivni turned his attention to the ontlying parts of 
which during thu eight years of weak and divided i.i 
into disorder and become a prey to the raids of M iydna w 
robbers. V&pid was brou^t under order and miwle to p<. 
The town of SimvH, whuee uumly chief had refosed to fx.< 
was taken and plunderodjanditfibandnaf robI>crabroV ~ 
ont of the c^iuntry. After Vagad liad been bronpht m ■ 
two lowua ruHisted the Riio'a authority. One of rb<'^ 
which DuAal Voo had settled, was attacked and sun-'. 
Vcn withdrawing' with a pension to Bettain Abdasa. A& ^l 
otUy remaimng town, was too strong to bo token fay aasiii^. , . 
Muhaminad made ready a fleet of boats and seized its 
trading vessels. Disgusted with their loss, the M&tidri ' ' 
dctonnintid to quit M^dvi, whose nilor gave them nti i 
AnticijMiting this result, F^h Muliammad came to i 
receiving them with great kiudaesa, restored their j , 
retnm for this generous treatment the mcrchonta went boi^ , 
Alandvi, bought over the garrison, and delivered tliu pLusj 
Fateb Aliihainmad's bandw. Besides in brining disorderly 
obedience. Patch Muhammad spread the Ttiici's powei- 
arrears of tributo from the J6m of Nartiaiagar, and - 
the Giniai4s the cession of the Bluu.'h^n district in Vagadf 
under bis strong and careful management became one i>f the 
iind most populous parts uf C'ulch. One of his projurts of 
ment was to make Lakhpat a great port.. A fort wn» buih 
place prospered, its revenue doubling in a few years. Wi( 
estublishmont of order he introduced a sjTatem of strict 
govcruinent long nnknown in Cutch. To each district he ai 
a nmnagcr, and forced them to treat the peopio wr 
oonBidemlion. At the same time, so long as they had ^■" --— ^ 
he placed in their hands almost unlimited pawer, nc 
to stories against thom nop cramping them by rr ■ 
an adherence to rules. He thna roused an ontln 
dependents who carried out his orders with a spirit uud trusl 
ODBored success, iiia example was worthy of bis pn?cc»pt8. T" 
the nomber of his mcroenaries was mnch increased, iie.adi 
paasing through the country, allowed one of Kis men to 
Tillage. The headmen hod beforehand orders for sopp!tt>«, 
n'eaieatcare was taken to prevent trregnlarities. Dori: 
Catch, fovoored with fruitful seasons, recovered fn : 
and probably at no timo was its trade or its TCvimnp 

Prosperity lasted til] 6h4iji Bava, arrived bL ([•»'Hr 
began to view with jealousy his minisUir's almnst :)l 
The first open rupture was in 1801 at a plcosiin} j'-uiy^ 

[tilco.* UKuiji faa<l boi-u (Innkinfi',nnd on nome trifling flifFeronco 

^^ nut unly BCvii!M:-d Fateb Muliamrnad of rebcliioaa 

lit iivoutd Lavo utUicki!il Iiiiii luul liu nut lioeu belt) back. 

■•■ waa a show of nHtinciliation, hut Bhiliji lia4 lost 

! ib»nmtad,iinfl <joly waited a favourable ypportoaity 

Dg Iruin bim. Mattera caine to a crieis, when, shortly after. 

It* kAo tuilced for nnd war refused tlM reretitinR of the town of 

^Vitb hit) friends he now planned an escape from bhuj, and 

■ '■ M Mubaiumad was abst-nt at Lakhjiat, the officer 

. si-nt troops to escort tho Iliio to Mrindvi, whera 

, UiD txftuiiiaudunt of the town^ received him, declared in lus 

Tend dmvt' oui the militia that continued tnie to Fat^jh 

Vr intorcstfl. On reaching T^hpat, Fateh Mithanimad 

lof tbe VtAo'e dight and turning back with all speed collected hia 

i Kt Khnj. Under Askarn Heth ho sunt a detachment to tho 

hh: '■ lo prevent the arrival of troops from the Morvi chief, 

i- ■ i.:oQ did good een'ice, attacking and defeating a 

tillable lorce coming to the Kao's assistance from Kadhanpur, and 

ftt Pntri, on the way to Mandvi, defeating a detachment nent 

them by ilausr&j. While thuB successful, they wera suddenly 

I to Bhu], whore I' atoh Muhammad, dcseiled by one of his diief 

(Iif.rt>niniaadautof Lakhpat, and badly off for funds, had 

[itre his forces. The R^ now moved ag&inst Bhuj, 

(i by iriuny banda of morcQuarice, bocame ao strong 

}bMulianmiad feoliug resistance useless, agreed to snrrendor 

pitaJ, if ho wci-n given tbe estates of Aiijfir and Bbachdu. 

Iff these terms Bhiijji and Hansrdj took poaaesaion of Bhuj. 

1 nbuj, Fatoh Xubommad set free tho Lnsaae K&o 

J) which greatly embarrassed the new government. 

in WB« at first most grate^ll to them for his freedom, 

_.:, with much trouble was pacified by a daily grant of about 

'farii). Aft-er this tbo place of minister became a matter 

Inpnte, and Miiliammaa Miyan, passed over in favour o£ 

wits so dif^plensed that he retired tu Mondra. tjcarccly 

roublea settled, when Bhiliji died at the early age of 


rait (if Fa 


ftAo Riyadban, who had so far submitted chiefly from respect to 
' hor, now insisted on resuming his anthoHry. He hecaoio 
,_jy oiyipiuiafl eable and seJlied from the pahico to kill Uausruj, 
" his life by a speedy retreat to Mandvi. K^yadhan waa 
'■•T'cndent. Bnt he bad no funds, and before long, waa 
I Elanar&j to \m help. Haoaraj came, and socceeding 
"jpiai:iii4.' itftvadhan nnder restraint, carried on the government 
rfib'it. Al'^'l 'hrrt time (1S02), be offered to oedo Cutch to the Cntchoj 
I on condition that they would grant a ^ 

It . :..i lUyadhan and his relations." Meanwhile Katch ' 

. rum;iimug quiet at Anjai*. busied himself tn extending . 
'Ini'K: .^id eauibliahing a harbour at Tuna. In those schomca 

* hm Ovr, M. XV. IflS. 

> Sir Joha Maloolm't Mlnuta (Jane IS90). 

[Bentey Oi 



Chmpter VU. 

Uo RAyftdJun IL 


agoim i»powr, 



sad ia keeping ap a large bod; of tnerceDariet) be upent more 
his income, and looking about fur eome way to raiso monfly, 
so heavy a demand from hia follower Ankara, that ho, enU^nng 
Mcret communication with llAiurA], invited him to attack 
and flying from the town joined his troupe. They ad' 
together Against Anj&r; hut afTer remaining some days before 
town, were forced to return to Bbaj. Shortly afterwards, at T 
Askom taking advantage of Uansr&j'a absence, on condition 
promise of the post of minister, set Rio Biyadhan free. 
none of tlie districts would admit Askara's authority or pay 
revenue, and failing in another attack on Anjir he had again to 
to Bhuj. Here so cruel were his exactions, that the people 
against him, and the R^^ hearing their complaints, ordered 
to bo seized and put to death. Aakam saved his life by 
8helt«r in Muhammad Paoa's most^ueand afterwards escaped 
oiity two horsemen. 

Fateh Mnhainmad, aft<*r his victory over Askam, contanm 
advance on Bhnj, and, finding the merecuaries friendly, he waa at ni^A 
aecTotly admitted into the town. His troops had scarcely entered 
when they were attacked by Riyadhan, who had always a stTon|f 
dislike to Fateh Muhammad, and waanow determined to dispute bii' 
poSBBanon of Bhuj. In this irregular fight, Rdo R£yadhnn,wunnded 
m the foot by a musket ball, was caught and placed under restraint. 
This injury to the sacred person of the Rfio was much resented by 
the people, and in spite of his efforts to explain it and apologi**, tliM 
Bocident greatly lessoned Fateh Muhammad's popularity.' 

Fateb Muhammad was now (1804) once more in power. His views 
and diaract«r were much changed. Soured by misfortane he had 
grown suspicious and cruel, and his future conduct was guided 
neither by justice nor moderation. Finding that, he could place no 
trust in the Cutch militia he gradunlly disbanded them, aud in 
their atead brought in foreigners from bind and the neighbourinf^ 
provinoes. As ambitions as ever he determined to bring the whole 
of Cutch into his power. Those who yielded were plundered and 
ill-used; those who resisted were pursued with the koenestvengeonro. 
Between 1804 and 1808 he four times advanced against Lakhpat, 
but on each occasion had to retire defeated. His efforts ' 
Kiodvi, where Hansr&j was now settlod, wore attended wii 
better saooees.' For a time Hansrij was forced to pay. But .•jotjm 
excuse for refusing was always ready, and iu the fight be^weell 
the two rivals the whole country round waa laid waate. Sfaorl 
of funds, Fateh Muhammad added to hia revenue by levying Bnes 
and forced contributions. The whole of the Miydnaa' villages 
were taxed, and even towns granted in reltgious gift did not escape. 
One of these exactions nearly cost Fateh Mnhammad his life. 
Oajoji, a local chief, agreed, on promise of a share in the 
plunder, to help Fateh Muhammad (o recover a heavy fine from the 
village of Pa.'jura. The fine was levied, but the chief was paid uu 

• Bom. QoT. Set XV. IS8. 

Bora. Gov. Sol XV. 139. 



tl, and at tast^ wcon' with waiting, he m opon onurt, attacked 
'Muhaaiiaad, aud, before he wns cu( don'n, gave him a vttry 

STunnjif from hm wontid, Fatch Mnlininmsd, at Ite 
of Oil) chief of Adesiu-, marc-livd iato castcm Ctitub and 
lin Vj(<nid during tliegrfatt^r pari of this and tho twn 
rears 'JHoO-lftlS). While here, he raised largosnms W fines 
»Uj dnvinp people from the Girasia towns aad villaires 
tb&m to 8L'ttlc in a newly founded town which he named 
In epite of Fateh Mubammad's efforr-s thore was littlo 
ity in Cutch. The eaaC was overrun by liaiiditti, wbn, 
the Han, caused diatarbanco and luss in K&tbiitw^r^ 
, vna covered by pirates helped, it was b^dicvod, by pL-rsona 
who shared in tho epoils. Under thoao circui»n(aiice8, 
[of Cot^rh, who bad before souifht tlioir aid, a;^n turned 
I ibe British Gi,iv<?nimout, aslcinp; tlieni to geiid a force into 
|bnng tbo oouutry into order. But tho Britiah GovoriimeDt 
ig to side with either partj', and the work of pBtahliahinjy 
piiwer st-onied moro than they were calJed on to 
In their opinion, their two chief objocts wore to prevent 
[Catch ioti) Kathii&ivar and to put down piracy, and thoso 
be Mectiro'l by metlinlion. Accordingly two Beparato 
wuro made, oue on tho 2tJth October 181)9, with Vateh 
, Vozir to Hia Highness tho Kdo, proWding that no troope 
{ fac olhiwed to cross to tho Buuth shore of the gulf of 

K- •'"^ i" ' i-iis on tJje JAin of NavAna^r ahonld he 
-H ui ; that piracy .ihould d^aae; and that nu 

r A-riHTiirau power Hhuuld bo allowed to settle in Cutch. 
Willie time (^Sth October and 12th November 1869) 
ta VBVi^ paflAed by HansrAj aa Diwnn of His UighuoKs 
"it those the lirat wua the »amc wf that pnsHo'l by Faceli 
The second pmvided thii-r, an KiiglisK agent, with a 
I, should bo KTati'mcd at Maiidvi, tlie cost boiuff 
.^lymeut of £ltfUO (its. ly.OOO], and that in the 
rcnomy attacking Slandri, the British Gciveriitnent shonld, 
*nnB, piipply troc»p(i for itu defence.' Very shortly aftor 
this aj.TL'omout^ before the close of 1809, QansrAj diod." 
' il of Fatoh Muhanimad's rivalu, Hansraj owed hia 
h r<i strength a» to nmdoratiim. Under hia rule 
■idri felt wi stniDgly their freedom from fines 
re than once they opposed a reoonciliation 
»rAj and Fat^b Muhammad, fearing that, if M^advi 
hands, Fateh Mohammad would torture them with 
and levios. Uausrnj was succeeded by his brother 
'i Muhammatl, thinking that agnod time bad coma 
iUtaeked it but with no better succoHa than before. 

Chapter T] 
Rio RAyiwlbnn] 
1801 -Lbl3. 

Brilinh http 


1 for llkjcji's ooodact th« wtat«a of Uii Umily were wiMd and 
1 put oi th* BAo*« poaMAuoos. 
(ISTfil, rv, 11-13. 
XV. 13(k 




|Ch%pter VII. 


BAywIhan tl. 





Durinff the next two years (1810- 1812) Fateh Mnhs 
care was to raise tlio revenue.' Over the wliule prDVince n 
of luiliriii wa* Kijread, ami ■ " -re aud 
Hii power ujw Junn.' widely .>-dtliaiii. 

tVirint^ii the iloHign i}{ maitin^ ait the chii-lit )»ty inbuU 
Kao. Nor was he cunleol wilb Cutch. H« plaDin-il to 
KnglUh out uf Kiithidw&r and briii^ die whule of tiujurdt 
rule. On ooe ijcowum he crosst-d with his nrmv to Kj 
dctcriiiinpd to settle by arras his disputvi* with Navnnai 
at Hin-ii'ma he was met by an Erifrlihh aguut and, i' 
that Oih-tiiel WftlkiT was ch)se hy with a Imdy of 
ri'liriMl to Cutch.' Id iai2 the British were ainii" forci-d to int 
Contmry to their H^reeineiitA of I HO!), neither of tho Cl 
authorities had tflkon any steps to pot down piracy. Sbh 
Haii»*nij'a son, allowed it tu go ou unehecked, and ralch ^T * - 
onrouragt'd it pri>t4.i::Liu^ IJuiuiiii Ndkwa a DiiloriouK r 
coimi'iiuence of this, towards thr end of 1S12,' a ■ 
Ijieutcuant MacMurdo, wau sent t^ Mftodvi, with ;■ 
Ti*it oil the Culch jwrts towards Siud, h8 well hb the ^lud [ 
of Sihra and Kurrachce and to deliver lettors to Katoh Mi 
and Kliivraj, warninic tlieiu, that if piracy was not pnt<l< 
British subiecta repaid their losses, seriuuB steps wtmh] bo 

In Fohmary 1813, lieutenant MacMurdo reached M^nd^ 
person delivered the letter to SbivrAj, forwarding- Fatch Muhaium 
to Bbnj. The Maudvi aotliorities ajrreed to make j^'t>i>d I( 
snfTenul from pirntoa. But on his rulum on the SUt Mar<'h,ah 
visit to tho Sind ports, MncMiirdo found that a piraf.y had I 
oommitted, and no 8tej)9 taken to seiT*- the offender, or mnk*' iroo? 
loss.* At the same time the Vagad banditti wore can 
Diisc'hieF in Kfithiiwar and an outpost of Cutch troops wan o v^ 
at Santulpur ou the south shore of the ^ilf. By these aclJH 
Miihnminad showed how little he was inclined to carry out fHel 
of hi* engagements with the British. Twicp in the courso 
year, in April (12th) and a tew mouths later, strong Ic 
renmnstrance wore addres-acd to hiui. Thoy had little e( 
banditti were allowed to roam ojichockcd and the Cutch ac 
still meddled in K&thiawir affairs." A few mouths later 
n fiual letter was sent, telling Fatch Muhammad flmt, nnlei 
once took measures to put a stop to the rohbfries hv Inw 
sea, friendly relations hetweeu tho Compauy and the Cut 
must ci-'A^. Captain AlacMnrdo wa« directed to proceed 
OB tho south of the Kan and wait Fatch Muhammad'a ^P^/j 


I t^i 

' IV-m. (Vw. Sel. XV. I». ' Sir Jobn Malwlm'i MinuU (J 

» Horn. Guv. Sd. XV. 18 

* Tliii roWiery in whirh thp ninths gaineil tnnncy luad jtixxb wnHli aKmt 
(Rji. A6U0) wu L)«\-<'rl> All.) UiLlly pUiinKd. llinM boata wer^ lyia^ al wic 
Bel liarlxiur, whint Nikwa Kiii.tlii? nntt^d pirat«. M'hohwl vrith him otu> mkn Ui 
fuiir ciT (iw womnt, wkvU U> b« takun Bcniw u> eofun |ita«e in > 'ul<;h. IVo ' 
njitairu refuied, the third agned- Pn-iirntlj', when lwi> of tbe \iuitU liad U4% 
men. Ilimwing off their Nnmcn't cIoHhb, took poMeaHioii a( Uic tliini 
o\ri tu Ouli^h, tAitdfid tiicurow, anil putoot toMR. £«Kii. (lor, S«L XV l| 

* Bvui. (iov. Sri. \V. IP. 




,tdter Ihis jfrpiit eh.-uim^s took plare in Cutch. The 

with orhr-r parts tif uoith (J uj.iriit sufftTf J from locusts 

from a fiul>in.M)f rain id 1812, ami in tbe noxt HPU^ton, 

'^"•'plM ri'dueod by want and u-rowded into thv Inrt^-r 

::ce broke out that, cmryinfi" off hnlf of iJiwr nonifKT, 

lyi'j'l 'Mr whclo pypoIotioD.' Frum this pfulili-nw Fatob 

mm! «liil notesi-apu. During tlu'siepe of Kanllikot. in ViiynJ 

i R(> w^rpn^ly rhat Iw. wa« f irw;d ti) min? to Khu], 

It ff w dftj-s (*)ctobt>r 5th, 1813), at the age o£ sixty-oue 

ncluii to iho disease.' 

ik Tttiihuniumd it baa atrcady lieen noticed, thitt his Gi-i^t; 
^nile (I7ri6 - 1801) w-as a puriod of groat advance in CiitL-h, 
[tluthv had itbowu biinsulf loyal to the RAo, friendly to the 
cfaieffL. and kind to tbc common pooplo. During' bis 
of n\\f, hcsiHcs the fcoliugs of suspicion and distrust 
■ 'liltrs-f o'ndnot uf aomo of bi» ftirmer all'<'», hi« 
k well ('siablishod. Tbu Riki disliked him :tnd 

tki) t'hit'fs optnaly rr'siattd hfs powor. In spitt' of the 
" "f tluf tliuB be made sevi'ral succvMsf ul attempts to impnjve 
: Lhe country^ and thouj?h kei.>D fur fame and an^cious tn 
■iver (if Cntfb, ho checked his umbitifm from Iradinjf 
15 forvijtrn wars.' The iwo main resalts of bis rule 
iti people k'-avf iheir villa^'es and suttlis in 1«wnw ; 
I. the ptiwer and wealth of the Rao at the erponse of 
IttliUter chiefs.* 

a month (OcIoIkt aOth, 1813) of the death of Fnfeb 
, Hoi* Riiyiidhan sickt'ued of fever anti died. Through 
of his rnuSnomont be had rcmiiinod a .ttAnncb Mn«aliniin, 
hia £eal for the faith by aasumiji^ the character anil . 

of 8 f;ikir. Hn rtmiainea whole days with a stjiff in hi* 

mting bit bendw, and n^citing passages from the Kurno. 

e palace ha built a tomb, in whii'h he directed his body to 

But the mcmlwrs of his family were able to prevent this, 

body w»s boroud accordiuj^ to Hindu cnstom.* 

rl,.. .l.-atb of Fatob Mnhammud, his two sons, IbrAhim Miyao 
' Miyin, qniotly 8uceeede<l to bis power, their councija 
■U^d by their fatbor'a chief adviser, Jagjivan Mehttt 
ralunan. The death of R6a Bi&yadhjui cauHud further 

Chapt4r vn. 



Ifiic ttiti/adfiaH 

pTvi't<ii»>«ftni tliv ■mnllor vitUgM avflitradaoMveraly fmm Ui« contvxto 

Mit'iMPirnvl jui'i ih« otlicr chiofe thftl th« povple Hvd (rom thcin 

V. S(<]. .W. 132. Tkii cruvtliiigiuxiaabt inoniu*d,ifitdtd 

i ';tud (over. 

nmnil undTipii Sulbin of Mysnr there ww clow frienilahip 

' '■•-"■ nnilgifH. One trf \\w gifts waa r — '■ :nr|o.J at 

Viau ofthe Faith" ta hi* (neiwl ) urimI. 

' Mm tlieCitnUtia tie com|>let«il Uii r , < nco on 

' !H. XV. 133. Tlis Maluunnuultn raxHioo wantod to bare hia njnuuiu 
with M\t h«]]i af SOO l^jpuU atole the body, «nd, i^teedil/ 
lucd th« Hiiulu TiU», Buia. Gur. S«I. XV, K). 




Chapter VIL 


BiU> BiiAmiai n^ 

at Bkui, 

oomplicattons. As he had do lofritiinato clultlron^ LadhultliEi 
brotner'fl son, a boy elt'von yu'nrs old, had in 1 8OII, in th- ■ 
Trilb the Britiah Gowmmvut, hven c^usidwred h' 
tho Rhii'k di-reoKi-, th^ two broUii-rs, Hu&iuii Miy^ti :■ 
Miy.4n, supixirti'd the claim of Mdiiainpji hia iWt},:. 
Ja^ivan Mehta aod otWr leading- Hinduti Diroared J 
claiui ; Uie Jadttja chiefs were iTidifTorcnt, and the bn r! 
their point, nnd nn the 13lh January 1814, M&nein^rii 
the chiffship of Catch wilh the title *)f Main -j 

Mttb^r^ BhiVrnialji. TUir micucs*iou was littly ini ; 
the yniing- R^o and his consiu wi-rc prisoncrR of siaic*, vi 
mana^fumtfot of afFaii? wntt iu the bauds of the Mubajnuuida! 
The Ilritiith Govoruinent continued to pnjHS fur some Et>itlt 
it« flftims.' The brothers were divided in o]>inton as 
answer to pve ; llnsain was friendly and Ibrubjiu hoFtib", "lenrfin 
tbnt the Krilis^h bad any claim to iut<.'rfert! ia (' 
Husain's riews proraib:d, and the British Govemmer'- 
to Bund an ageot to Bbuj to adjust the niattent id di^[ 
native was at firBt sent, but afterwards (April ISI'l], ou l 
Miyiin's invitation, Captain MacMur do wont from Morri to 
Uo fonnd IlDsaiD Miyia wull disposed, full of ap'.doL'ies fc 
bj58 cauat'tl to BriliHh subjei'lti by the Vfifind mids, biii. unal 
do auythinj? as he was weakened by the disnfft^'tiou of hi» 
Ibrabim^ who had gone into outlawry and seized the Vii^rad 
Kanthkot. Under Captain &lacMurdo's adviee Hnsain niarchM 
rediicti V&gad to order. But bis fntid» failed, and without do; 
anjtbinjr to restore order ho returned to Uhnj. Thewbdlemimrry 
now in revolt and so great mischief was caused in tht? 
Briliab tfrritory that, in June (1814), Hti«iiii was i 
the Uritinb and Gfiikwar troo[>s could no loupor delay ad 
into Cutcb and putting down the disorder. At the WHnB t» 
BupreuiL* Uovermneot refused to saoction the odvouue of an 
forci?, and the British agent was informed that lie munt do " 
could by nectitiation. In July 1814 Captain Ma<?Murdo 
from Bhuj to Jlorvi. After he left, Bhuj was the sceue of 
greateBt disarder. Ibrahim was received into favonr, and, iimli-r 1. 
itnd hiB roethor's influence, a policy wa^ determined on in 
to the Bniish. I'iracy was allowed almost to put a sUjp Im 
Nakw» Kfi^i was invited back from Sitid, and tho murd 
Captain Pbi.-lan wa^s taken into tho service of tho Mmuira c 
Ja>fjivau &[ebtu opposed IhiseliHU^uf poliuy,andoD tbe^ULhAu 
botji ho and his family were most cruelly murdered.* Ibra 

' R.TO. Onv. S«L XV, OT. ' Bom. Got. 8eL XV. SI. 

' 8ir .lohti Mnlciilm'* Mintit« (Jane 1S80). 

' Sir.r>Un M*Ii-"lmi. MmnU- <.Inn« 18.10). 

* By Ibr&tiiiu'a orJer Jadjiv&n MaliU ww Kttachcd In hU nwn bnoM, dngnd 
thA il.Hir of the hcuso. where IIiuuiinMiyADUiil Ilin^itn Miytn wrrc Iniii^ aMFtbl 
\w UiP Iftltt-r'i order, <li:»|u4tc)i«<!. A nctiuiJ I)tiiUilt wu umiUrlv Imtrlirrpd, wfaiUj 
tninl. in the hojic nf liringinff cMnm vtt tliv hwuls <A the muHcTrre timU-m'rut ku 
or livv \mr\h\, wbilv kidc of the woiom at the fainily nimujittcd tnicido. Ihiin. 
Bel. -NV. 13. 



<1' ' Mon^. On tlio 23rd Scpf«m1ier, lie 1VBS QHudered 

ir t«r in tliu Rao's erapk>y, in the prweno* <rf )aa 

}\ 1 i.l](j miaistiir rjakiiiitUtt. SuHjwcting' that tho 

J, 1 hin fi^ards, iiwti({atod his hmihor's murder, 

e^ I them fura bodyof Arabs, and takingthe MSrvadi 

b^. r..4. jTL .n« put tho whole of thom, to the number of three 

1, to df!Ath.' In Apite of his Amb body-p^ard, Hasain, after 
thtT*« dt^iitb, remained in a aUite uf extreme alarm. The 

trtinnleti the Ki'io, and full oi «uH]iicion and fear Hnsain 

•'■huj. Xd'iinwhile diftordiT spwad. The Chobari and 

.... i? prtK'hiiiued their iudependence, and ravaged tbe 

up ui the walls of Bhoj. And at the same time, the Vdgad 

iffmw nion> and mora ilannf^ and dostractivc, till, in Octobor 
1^, Hiuaia was told tliaC tho Criti»h GovemmeDt coald ao 

debkj sending a force to restore ordur.' 

Bbaj, ihn utter failure of Husain's mauaffeuient led to a 
It, ID which Sliimij son of Haimnij and Askam were tho 
I, to jila**- the youiiff Rao at tho hnad of aftairg. After 
iths (January l4Lo|, iiusain agreed, on condition that 
Jar Bhocfaan Btitidargad and Kanthkot weru writton over to him 
j^. ...:,. to deliver tbe keys of Bhuj to His Hijyjhnesa the h&o, 
him most of his Arabs. WTiile these negotiations 
I. in the ht>]te that under a new Utjvemuient disorder 
111 -i-cked, the British troops refrained from enterinjij 

The jroun^' Riio, left in power, chose as miniatera ShivrtSj 
idin and Aakam, iho latt<?r notoriously nnfriendly to the 
The feelings of the Rau towards the Britiah were not 
showinjr thnraflolves. No anawor was given on tlio fiubjoct 
["VAjTftd banditti, and the British Native Agent was diamisged 
Jhpj.' Not many months aft-er (AutTiiiit 30th, 1815), tho 
handitli, about 500 strung, atlatked (Japtnin MacA(ur«lo'a 
ip, and were not beaten off till sBTcral lives were lost on both 
At Bhnj thint^B went from bad to wor«e. The Kao showed 
ike and hoKtiliiy to the Knglish, rowardod tho banditti, and 
T " ! nttat^k on the chief of Asambia made his rule 
. ja chiefs.' The more powerful of them, t be chiefs 
iliiiiilni, Anjfif, and Sisfigad stood aloof from the R6o, 
d to kt-'vp what tht>y held till they conld bring the lUo 
power. After the attack ou Captuu M:ic!Murdo*8 camp, 
miuln a short ospcdition into V'agnd, and punished some of 
ief banditti. Uo stayed only fifteen days and after he left. 

Chapter Tit' 


Bio BlUmiB) II 
t6M- ISift. 


JJortilUu to < 

9it Jabn Usleolm'a MbnU! (Jane 1830). 

Tk Va^l KtbbeTB wtnt in buula of hona and foot from dO to fiOO stnmo, 
I viU*CM wnv Uid «iute, aii'l property worth Bunf lakhi oJ fti[<civa wm ilestnyvd, 

■ \i-.i,.,i„.'. \i i„ . r„nu I830t. 

11^ wer« carried olF. Avtannyoi^tudadtpiilcd 

. . .lit to meat Httm. OoT. S«l. X V. 26. 

lIm fviti>i' Junn, thf-D in ivvult axwnat Uir Jini of Navdna^r, tho 

tlw garnwm nmiocl tuiil holiiol (tutii Blmj. AlxiuL tliv «uno tJmo ooo 

KnabtuCcn rcoaivvd a rabo of Iwoour Cram tbe Rdo. 8ir John Maloolm't 

(Bombay Qi 

158 • 



lo BhAnuKlIL, 
UU '16191 

en Cuteh, 



tho robber raida were more tlestriictivo tlmn ever.' Tn pntn 
tbeoc disorders the Britwh force, tlien rtMiueitig Jiiria in Kat 
Wfu held in reodinesv to iQTadc Cuivh, and nl>out the m 
of November 1815, a letter was delivered to the K&o, wiirning 
that tho troops would advADce, if "he. did not at nnr« arrunev to 
oompciwfttion for the loss of the British aud their a"' 
to prevent the raida of banditti in fiiliirej and pive ejn 
the affront he had committed in tiimtng away the Br-ni-ii 
Bhuj. Twelro daj-s passed without an answer, and, wii. . 
cone (November 2tith), the reply made no reference to any of 
British demandw. Accordingly, on the Hth of Decemlier, ''i- *■ 
under Colonel East eonsietin^ of about ■WW tiphtin^ men. 
with the G4ikwar'a troops, tToseed the Kan at Veuifaii 
miles eiist uf Anjiir. The chief of Vrindia ar, once ch-i 
and threw himself on the mercy of Uovummeut, ami nf.' 
wont on between the British Arant and llie chiefs of AnjAr, . 
Miiadri, and Si»&gad.' The force advanced aa far m Blum 
two marchea from Aujfir, where it was discovered that the wei 
were poisoned. Next they moved on Anjar, and a^i Hn»ain Miv 
refused to let tlie British occupy it, the fort was un 
morning of the 2oth December at 10 o'clock, and In., 
was surrendered. Ita port of Tuna was occnpicd on the r 
A few days later, Muhammad Sota the Mundra chief l-..-. 
campi and declared hia wish to farther tho plana of the B 
Goveruinent. The force next moved towards Bhuj, eii 
si Ldkond on the Urd January 18X6. Here ajjeult* fr 
waited on Captain Mac\rurihi, and after aorae nepiliir 
I'lth of January, it was finally agreed that the two '■ 
Bhould be at peace and friendly ; that compeuBatiun jihould lje niM 
for the losses in Katliiaw^r and for tho milit»iry cx]h*uhi!!i ; that tl 
It4o should be respon.sible that in futoro no auch lo^i Hhonl 
be incurred; that neither the subjects of the It^ uor the poopl 
of Kiithiawdr should cross the Ran wir.h lumtila intent; tat 
piracy should be repressed, loswcs made good, and wrecks hande 
over to their owners ; that no foreiKU European or American shou) 
pans throngh or live in Cntcfa, and that exiNjpt a troop of 400 i 
the H&u's service, no Arabs .should Imj allowed tf> settle In tl 
province; that tho Ilonourablo Company should reston? Ut the Hi 
anv estate.i which hia vassals had unjustly taken fr 
should establish order iu Vajjad ; that a reprepein ■ 
Hononrable Company should live at the lido's capital ; that tli 
subjects of tho Honourable Company should abstain from killin 
any cows or bullocks iu Cutch ; and that the Rao should engage 
harbour no outlaw from Kdthi&wdr. In return for the Compttny 
help tho Bao promised to hand over the fort of Aniar and twenl; 
three other villages, and in addition to pay a yearly anm of abo 
£5277 (2 lakhs of kori*).'^ 

■ In B Fi!V inoDtba 136 KdtbUw&r vUlAgn vera pliudtirod, 40.000 head of ad 
^xTKfl an-ay, ami £S0,000 wortii ol prvjwrty (l«atroyed. Bom. Gov. 8«1. XV, SS. 

' B<™. (!uv. Set XV. 27. 
* Ait<rhiar<n'<tTr«atiu (1S7C),IV. 13>17. 11. 
pound, u £i'Z!1-lO'll. 

The «XKt uDOoatt ft 00 korit to t 


Ay after ^the conclugion of this treaty, tlie British force 

Irawn (rom Hhnj nod marched into Va^d, wbere its 

wet! lit vnco estiililislioii order. The towns of Maiidvi 

fii-Aga'I wt*re surreudtred to ilis Uigbacss, the fort of 

Ihliijt. ^ "Lif I'f thu V'a^d struDghuUIri, •was given up without 

And oD the approach of the British force, Itcla, a 

jrder, wan sarrendored. By the end of February oi-der 

gly OHtablishod, and Captain MacMardo xvas left at Anj^ 

■ -'mient. Bhunnntji was now for the Bntt time in 

■■'U of Cuti:h. fle gave Uimself up to driinkcnnesa 

icsl. Hfiisiwhly, tmd the whole power of the Govem- 

bSptit the Imnda uf hi8 proHigato Eavuiirites. The reveniiea 

loths in advance were eeized from tha cuhivntorB, and 

?70 (20 lakliA of koris) woro exaetod in fines from the 

offii-pra and the niajiager» of districts, and wasted in 

tij. No iiiao uf wealth wa*i safe; thu Jddcju chiefs, with 

fy ua ou't'plii'n, withdrew to lli^ir estates and never visited 

y To June (I8tli) I8II1, the Hritiah Oiivemmeui hoping to 

It- 111 urn of prosperity to Cutch, aud to bind tho Rao by 

■-, of friondahip, finvo up tho anm of £81,387 12*. 

^'^•m;, dno to it ou account of military charg^fw, and io 

>went the yearly tribute of Jt0277 {2 iaiihs uikvrU) .' Id 

' tiurous treatment, thi* KAo ciirefuUv curried out 

fi.. .■*of I lie troftty. Captuiu MacMtinlo was a[>pointed 

ibl Bhitj and Collet^tor of Anjiir, and, fliiorlly aftorwarda, 

«tiroy came from rhe Sind Amim, propusinp; that tho 

enter with them into a treaty hostile to the Knglish, 

no encourafrement. Tn Anoint I8II!,* or a few luimtha 

•iirnin^ of tho tn-jity, the British Ajjfent of Anjiir waa 

t^ by ni'wp that the Kao was about to movo against Uira, 

itili« Krio wa.s c'i)IIf>cting fr<K>rKi thert? was no doubt, and that 

vaA to attaetc tho Brititib wa^^ bel!cve<1 in many quarterA. 

RiDuu-Htrunoes prevented matters going further, and shortly 

"iih Aujnist), in sending word to the British of the birth 

aod boir to the Ctttrb rhiefship, the B^ explained 

iToy from 8ind. telling him that the Kuglish were 

kdy an oxpeditinn for the conquest uf Cutch and Sind^ 

Jod liim ti» levy fi-esh troops. 

ler* were the VAgad bfijiditti overawed than the east of 
hrir beaan tn suffer fmm forays of Kliosaa and other 
ibra. Their expeditious wuro conducted with great secrecy, 
Band daring. Towanl.'^tbe middle of IH17, these deprcdationa 
and the Amirs of Sind were informed, tliat if th© 
pn'perly was not speedily restored and robbery stopped, 
iditrs would be attarfced in their plac* of refuge. The 
MQt a force to Parkar to overawe Ihem, but the troopn 
B«i to Uiiidarabad without ostabliahiug order, aud after they 

Chapt« VIIc 

B60 BbArmain 
18U- 1819. 

Order EilaitiiJM 

TrSmlt R(M% 


».,„. .■„.. B.,1 \-L- -,,). 'Sir John HJcoIiu'iMinat* (June 1830J. 

i>^76) JV'. 17, IS III. 
W. • Bwu. Uov. Set XV. 37. 


---"■ -i~ ban; 

'^. exf 


-.1 ::^>n-d 

T. 'z-a bni 
:.--r> dl 

- --■ --■ V.;.:u!"\> 
' - " ■ .:■. ■- — 'ifr;.!!!! 

- £- : - -r- ■ I sa;: wmI 

■ " -*• ~Tr_:r^7. ham 

■-■---'■ --r-r-<:. niulet 

- - '.r ~^ : ■. -Til* with 

— " " " " '--. ■._"r' WitS nM 

-■ " - " -' ^■' : • :-:.: ind I 


■ " ■- -:- '.1 -,.rlier. II 
■"---; -' ' .\ ': (. :::i-b in^ 
"; --■■■ ".-.'. Wealth 
■ - . - - ■ :.:-■; :-,.' i ■^,:;\:iti:iM 

: r ::.o E-iH>jsd 

- ■ '- '"-'-'. :\l.\ Iiailt'fft! 

■ -■- - : :_. ^[ coHl 

■■-- ■^■ fXivMeiit a>J 

- ■- ■ ■ -'- "•' ■■-■■ r.: : r nJin? art 

- -' - - " f'- - '" - "~"-;;>i'-^;iiI audnirf} 

-■■-""■■ . T. tl.f ri!ii'>r L-anlec 

■ - T ■ -;. ■-:■.:.-.: :ii..l tt-eii-ffd. the 

■ - ■ . -■ - ■-': ? : -. . : ■■ .I'll'. Thi're rm 

• ■ • ■ ■ ■ . :'t. -::l ;■ iirisk rnnio, a tf« 
- " ^" - "■'' ":.-■; r- -4'A' H..n../;.-/^ biinin 

- - -■ -- --" ■ ^-■^. -.: ..'■-' : BLiij. with2O,00 

• -. - -.-.:- ■-<■-.: :.:-■• nrTi-^ts in and uilrt 
■■. -< . . •. .■■ - . T ■ . •:: ; ;; vvai'iv rfvemie of £"00 

■i . ' ^: _-.■.-■., -^-".'i !_.• ■' iv-":''.e. !i!ul a yearly rfToniiei 

t ■ ' ■ ■■.- . . ■ ■ -- ■- "-■-:■ :■ ■»■-< ■ : tTV"ji .V "to 10,000 fiituli 

Ac :1:: i^"---" ""--■- "-- V*^' : ■- ^•^"'^' ^^^^' P'-"'') t^*-' uuilt-r-L-liitfK, i 

< Truu. Bjri. Lit. Soo. II. ->17-'2.w. 



run nw^y, liad Uj treat llicir labourers witli some 
[} Uit tlu' UiMi'h subjects, who could Dot so readily movo, 
iBud and plnnderod witUoutiutTcy. The herdsmeu, Cli&nuiR, 
ii ftnd tritkes of 8iudi Musalmniis, lived a rough an»cttted life 
tU Kfcictie.-! oE six ur ut^'Ui families, in giuss liute feadiug 
no milk and butU?r. Uf tho triKiing classes some of the 
rtfrli, bill tliu Lob6u&s luul lost their old pusition and 
%y '■ - aud busbatidtimit. Tho J^dci&s, the niliug 

l^....Ay idle, lazy, and dobanchcu. 'To speaJc 
nva Captuin MacMurdo, ' the people aro tvretcbedly poor, 
aebnucbed, and full of di^L^o. Exoopt iu climate^ 
ia perhaps Icaa favoured bj naturo than any I hare 


18)4- 181ft j 

State 0/ 1 

It-Ptt t\: 

bad, till lately, boea entirely indopendcnt, * the asylam of 

id murdfrursof every doscriptiou and country.' In other 

there won some idiuw of authority, the Government 

arisLocracy, the power vested in a variety of chiefs 

Htrou^ reseiubtance to the fcndal baroniea. Under 

chiefu were the cadets of tho chiofs family^ who 

•tervicti to tho bead of (heir house. Over tho cbiefo 

bum the chiefs owed inilitury wervice. Origiimlly 

duly waH limited to dei'cuw. liut of late years 

luut their •*er\-ioe8 to superiors ambitious of foreign 

Except tliat, from a feeling of respect, the cadets or 

~, tJuiydil, of a house ^quently submitted Lheir 

'i the deci()ion of its bead, neither the chiefs nor the 

(he smallest degree, intt.'rfere in the village concerns 

: he proprii-tcrs, ijirmui^. Many of tho proprietors 

i of lheir e?*iate8 by f'ateb Mubanmiad. But uon6 

■luy tax or tribute to the head of their house and none 

inade any payment to the K&o. 

lis Hnie the RAo's coadnct gave rise to moch complaint. 
Very di.-bauched life he gave gi-eat power to hia pruUigate 
d lar^'M Kiiiiij^ fn)iii tbo people and drove into 

ixly III .Iiiiioja ubic-f tains. It waa a favourite 
and bin adviueni tu reduce uU the Jiideja chiefs to 

iry landowoera. Kffurts were constantly mailo to 

powerand loiweu their poasesaious ; and so great waa tho 
"I'ctjou thai, bad i-he Ilettideut not Bucoeeded in 
'it/* give lip the aitempt to rctdune the chiefs, civil 
d ui I ■ tinly havf bt-oki^n ont. Toward tho close of tho 

ubli [^ ugaiuEit ihu Rao was further Htivugtheucd by 

okcd luurder of bis cousin Lmlbubha. On hearing of 
'a murder the Britiiib Government informed tbo lUo, that 


H. tk-m. TJt. 8oc. S46 - S46. I1ie people at Anj&r, of whom u Uietr owd 
^i.-fln know more thoD or ottierpnrtn nf tho proviuoe.wera, «ccept 
jjhiniU, WTptchwily pwir, comulittely ut tlie mercy of Buhon 
■UoM, |Mjrui^ ulvaiinoi »t tifty per c«iit uttcreat. Uombay 
M^ I&IS. KMt InU* Pnpora. III. 754. 




Cliapt«r VII. 

fUo riUnual )L, 

Bi* Bntrft of 



BAfij Tnixn, 


Bio Deaal II., 
1819 -IWO. 

tboy viewi'd bis conduct nitb horror, aiul tfant if any v'loU 
offert'ii to Jjadkiibha'a widow or tobcr cHW, tbn Britinh Govt 
would witlihold fii>ui the Ilfto their counttfiiamrf 
return the Hao.who uuder the iiiHueiiee uf his prtiU . 
for soiiiL- time ceased to be well disposed to the l^u^fl 
forward warlike ppeparsrionB at Bhuj.' Ht? tfaij, Ladhul 
cottccruod ao ouo but hini&olf ; h(> rcEuM-U U> ^nve up Lut 
widow; and tallied of tho Uritiah Governmont with hait* nnd| 
In Septomher 1818, thu Resident received a jieLition siiriied l» 
of the leading JAdeja cbiefs, ai^lclu^' for the help ut tbo 
Govprninent tind oompliuninj^, thiit, thouffh his ftnly f l!iiTn_ 
Wiuj for military sGiTice, the Ttao wa*j ill lreatiD^r:u 
Meanwhile the Rao continued to niiHtt fresh In ; id) 

Adesar in V£gnd, whose cliief wns then, onder the tennsj 
first treaty, attending ou Capt-ain Mac^tiirdo fur the tmttlet 
hia ditliciiltiee with the EjIo.' Towards the clojte of liio 
RAo's ill.feeliu^ was so unintstakablo, that the British Gove 
decided to consider him a public enemy .^ 

In the beginning of 1810 amingcmonta were made for tlirt i 
o( a force to coerce the Rao. The BhAyad were told tli ■ ■ 
were anxious tu settle the affairs uf Cutdi on a firm h.- 
asked to meet the RoKidentto couRutt on the subject. At tl 
tdmo the Resident was told tbat, in the opinion of Gurerumtmt 
could not bo esrAblinhcd (ill the Hao Yral^ removml. 
24tli March 1819, with a British force, accompanied by the 
JAdegn chiefs, the Residetit encamped before the fort, of] 
The Ilao wa-s inronned that the treaty of 18I(i was susi 
and that the Briti».h Gi>Ternmeut had determinedj in 
with tho chiefs of his Bhaysd, to organize the government of I 
He was called upon tu repair Ut cump or take the conse 
of resistance ; and wai^ as-tured that whatever decision mi| 
ooino to rejjurdiug a succe.'iKf)r to the throne, he woulc 
with tho pnitwtion and consideration tiF the British Gove 
On the moyning of the 2?jth of March, as ITis Fli^'hnes 
not repaired to camp, the fort of Bhuj was cscnladod'. A{ 
the a^ailants were wounded but no lives were lost. 
followiug ilay Uis Highness gave himself up, and was placed^ 
a guard. The Resident at once proceeded to di^char 
mercenary troops and consult the Jadejiia regarding a sn( 
to the chiefship. Their choice fell on a minor, the son 
BhArmalji, and, on the 19th April 1 8 1 0, he was invested 
chiefship nnder tho title of Jfaharnj Mirza Hao Shri Dcsal 
regency was formed for tho management of affairs. The 
Goveromont were anxious to leave every thing in the hands < 
Jadeja chiefs. But the chiefs refused, threatoning.nnless the 
t-ookchargeof affairs, that they would leave things to take i " 
and retire to their estates. Under these circumstaaoes 
arranged that^o Resident shonld bo head of the Regency 



■ JltdeJA chiefs ns members. Ono of thb matters that 

alk'J fur »t(>ttk>itienr ni the hands of the Dew H«geucy 

'*[ tlio Vii^'ad Uir^ciAs or laud proprietonu In 181 ti> 

se > iipi'i distriiM, was hntuifht imder order, these men fled 

ftod Viniwfili ou tln.> burdera of tlie desert, where, as the 

I'UfiiH'd Uj rest-on- tln-m l>< ihoir rights ia V&gad, they bui-umo 
' tn of most formidable blinds of robbijra. The British 
»t had (or long vainly urged the Hao to recall the 
< Mod give them fjock part of their hmd. I*uuj&ji,' chief of 
, a Sodha Uaiput, haid nssocinted ivith himself, for thoy 
]y r- * , sumo 400 or oOO Khosas, the scattered 
lofa .^'. .1 tribe who hitd been drivt-n from Siud iu 

tht! d.iiviuwil ofthe Kalhora dynasty. Since they had ht*a 
[from Siud iLy Kbosas lived in tbe wildest part of the desert 
the itdgc of the Ron, plundering and levying blachmail 
neighbouring districts either on their own account, or iu 
with some more poM-erful chief. In the former case they 
the !*iwtil, and ia the latt-er thi-y gavo tho chief a fuiirth, 
Of lat*) years, with ihe help of the KhtisaH, the ViniwiSh chief 
It plijiideriug expeditions, of from 200 to 800 horse and foot, 
jarit and Cutch, aa well om along the edgti of the Ran ttt 
-kiJiAzAr in Sind. In May IS 19 a jiarty of 800 men, mounted 
and hors«8, advancing by the Kan attacked Bhachau iu 
1, cliwe to the gulf. They were driven off by the gnus 
tbut net till they had eeciired 2(Ki head of cattle. From 
imoinug about two miles to Voud, a tine tJuurishing 
B, they nhnt the gates, and after pluiuhrriug tlio town carrieu 
)Di laouO to £4000 (Us. 35,000 - 4.U,O00). To put a. stop to 
diaonlera, the Keaident ofTerud, under the following 
to reatrtre the Vagnd Gininias to their lands. They 
show no help or. favour to any British or Cutch outlaw ; 
>w no thieves to live on their lands and to make good any 
theft; to refer disputes to the arbitration of the Cutch 
ptti&Ii GoTnmiiients ; to stxtp or give information of bands of 
.; t/j serve the R^ faith Pnlly in times of war; to pay a 
reane; and txi let all forts be disinantled. To these terms 
agreed and order was ofttahlished. 

) of the otate wore lieginuing to prosper wlmn the oarth- 

of Juno I6ih, 1819, cau-^d the greatci^t loss oE Hfo and 

tioD uf property, and lay ing low almost every plaice of strength 

.proviuce expow^d t<i ihe atuniks of its eneuiii's.^ Tlio Auiira 

an atu-mpr to take advantage of tho opportunity. 

lai Bhuj was justructod to aek the Ue)«ideut to give up 

rof t^khpat, which he asaortod the former R&o had cou^tiuitly 

I; if ihti Ilesidcnt refused to give it, he was, it was believed, 

!« demand it under the threat of invasion. Bnt tho 

t, tefuiied and the demand was not pressed. Hhortly 

^■^iBcovered that the ex-Il^'s sister, Kesabdi, in concert 

Chapter Vtt 

KiU> DcmI II., 

1819- i&ea 




Chapter VIZ. 





with ono of tho Rno's wivi3s, hod plannDd to murder 

minister; to attack the Jiidpjiw at Hhuj ; to overrnini- tl 

OTur hot brother ; aad U> carry him off. Thi* chiL"! jfluttd 

seized, and KL'salyLi, whu bud stuiulily rufusi'd all tiuirrii 

wna, in the beuianius"'^* 1820, imlnct-d to l>i?9tow her banc 

Kawnb of Juaagad.' During this time, the terms of thi* tivaly] 

tho Hritiah aud Catch Uovommcuts wfre prt>parL>d usd 

in October 1810. The chief provisions were; that Man Blmn 

should be deposed and kept as a stato piiaouer ; that he id 

suoufoded hj>- his infant sun ; that during tho tniiiorit^r tbo 

Govenimont should bo managed by a Regency, ronjpo«ed 

BritiBb Ifesidout and live othor raembors; that tho Compoay dl 

piaraotuo tho intoj^ity of tho Cntch dominions uf.'uinHt foreu 

domestic enemies ; th»l tho Company should stoJinn a force in C 

to be iiaid out of Ciitch revunuta ; tbot the Cutcfa GovuriM 

shoald entertain no fonti^n ti^tttdieitit and import no arm^ in hn* 

vessolft; that the Couipaiiy should exeroise no authority m 

domestic coneemsof tbo Kio or of the Jidoja chiofc, iutruduc 

civil or criminal jurisdiction, and limit changes to the (iriinii-.)! 

or reform of the Cutch military eatablishmeut, the c< ; 

abuses, aud the reduction of expenses; that the liao ami ui^ ) 

sliould enter into no nc-gotintinn without the sanction of thu Br 

Govoriiment, submit disputes to ita arbitration, and when w»i 

help the British Govorninftut with their military force; that." 

ports fihonld bo open to all British vcxjudM ; that tho British 

inent uhould guarantee tbo Jadeja chie^ their poiu>titu)iot 

tho RAo and the chiefs should engage to stop infauticide, and 

British Gorenitnent to prevent the suraghter of cows, bnllockt^ 


The Resident, as tho head of tho Cutch Government 
European and Native assistants, set to •woik tu bring oi 
system into the govorument of the pravinoo. Progress 
difficult ; all was confusion, tho exchoqaer was empty, fntaroi 
ha<l beeu foroiitUled, uud the btatti had oo body of trt 

Though order was eetablished in Cutch, notliingliad been 
put a stop to thu exoessoB of tho KhuKila and othor dcst-rt rubl 
Dnring the year 1810 constant coinplaintfi wtro made to the ( 
autUuritiea. They Kent a force iutu Parkar, harasML-d and liuud 
pcoplp, but did mi little to Kottlo the district that, ininiodiately a 
they left, in Doi^emher 1619, a party of 2.S0 Khosaamado a raid 
the Baoni grazing grounds in the north of Cutch, and were prevoi 
from carrying away the onttio only by the bravery of ■ i 
and of the outposts, who at the cost of several lives nti. 
robbers and recovered tho spoil.' In the hcgianing of 1^20, tsu g 
was the banditti's insolence, that a force wa^ made ready to act ago 
them. This caused the Siud Amira much alarm, and thennfortiu 

] wag 

u >Lfi| 


' Aftunranla oti tier hualMUkd's deatli KeuMi «wno back lUitl livol in CuliJt. 
« The Uwity i« Kiven in fuU U> Aildiiaon'B TrooOiN (1876). IV. IS-'J2, IV. i | 
Oo». Sol. XV. 5ft ' Bom. Gov. &1. XV. 47 



U -1, 

«D attack by Britieli troops on a Sind ontpoot, tbinkiug 
:i }y,iW of Khos&Sj so enra^id the Amira that they at oQco 
annioSj ono to Lakhjiat in tht; west, a second to 
tuL' d'utn?, and a, third to P&rknr in the oast. One of 
breus actually t^otcred Cuteh and plundun'd a village, • 

•anls the close of the year (Novenibor 9th, 1820), the Amirs> 
'ir nfi^But at Komlwy, entered into an n^ijeenient of 
udship irith the Bntish Govemuieut, and engaged to 
1 .vmor AiDfricaii to live in Sind ; toKurrmuKTuffitudore; 
■ ■It'pn-dHl.ion of the Khosiia and nthttr rohbor triljes.^ 
- uf the Aoiirs so little were Ihv exwssi^s uf tho 
J, -ted, that, to allay tho feeling of utter in»e<:iJnty 
I'MM) of the I'oona Irregular Uorso were in 1822 stationed 
u (rvjntit'rin tbi: north-east comerof theprovince.* lu the 
rHay 2 IhI. 1822, as the Ciitch authorities were anxious to havo 
■ tted poftitiod its possession was inoonvonient 
I , the di"itrii;t yf Aiijar ivas rest^ired for a 
lyinont ft t.-^.^ixt (R«. SM.OIH)). At the same time it was 
that tiiu Hriti-sh troops obould continne to hold the fort 
qta, near iho city of Bhuj,^ Mcanwliile improTcmont in the 
Mrmtinn of the province was steadily [frei^tied ou. Without any 
tB|^tKff,and withnnlcnowledgt> of the resources of the land, the 
nt had u'.> chdict* bub to lot out the reTonucn to farmurB. This 
urn in Iti'J" for a l-erm of live years. At the same time every 
ma made to curtail expenditure, the mercenary troops wer9 
•' '■■ f andor tJie most intclligout leadora, to protect person 
. detachments were stationed in different parta of the 
OE. A ■ 11 of aceuuut«was introduced, »ud in every 

gnwt 111 ' uouiy couni.-iteut with the Kho's dignity was 


»year or two of order and good harvests Cutoh again 
a lime of ioifering. 1'ho 1823 ruins fniled and in the 
it followed, thfjusands of cattle dtml, and whole villages 
rti>d. A fifth of its people, it waM estimated, loft the 
Thim trouble was followed early in 1825 by rumours of 
K* and buHtile preparatiuus in 8ind. Those nimoura were 
" hy the advance from Sind of a body of plnndomrs, 31)00 
-.■d the Kanfrimi Rahim-ki-bt'iXftr to the Pachham, 
■u of a fort in the Uaba hilU, eighteen miles uuHh 
.'ir '^r.ninirhi'ld llu' pliiudenTK rti'iit S(M) men agaiuHt 
i\,. 1 at first.thcy were oftenvards driven out of the town 

Bstderablu loss, includnig the duuth of their leader. Meauwhilo, 

», SJ. XV. fii 
:lily uiMtfe wu Vicwl ntthia time, tli&t Uie poa<pI« worhed id their 
tUK fi-Kh. Ik>in. Oov. 8d. XV. 59.<-hi»<u'a Tn^tiM (IS;fi), IV. 25, 26, VT. 

' Col. Tul, who waa in Ciitofa in 1823, tatinA ii thinly 

[]lll^^l vrith Dot uuov Ulftn 000,000 inlmliitauU ami niwreiiDwin 

lathM of kori*i^ |thB belongiiig tti the RAo ud {tha tn the Bhsivd-I. 

iM'.ii.i. . ii tii.< (I'lirrMorctnlM tmateil, KjuI Minoc 18IB VRr)'siiililealy 

niNl ; In |>ort it^vduuM from £'Jd.00O to £10,000 

^00tv20DlMU. W«ftcni India, JSa-tiV. 



Treaty with > 


Raid* from S\ 

Ch«irt«r VIL 


1819- ISIM. 

Sir Mm Ualtotn 

a force sont againsi Haha drove out and dispersed thv. muta 
of tlie pluntiorore, but not without a loss to the t^i 
(Ks. 2,tm,0a0). Duiiag tht- wxt yt^ar the nneasy i 
h._.!ttility, and the diaaffpctum of soruft of the Jidc-ja ciiici 
incniaiK) of tho British troops in Cutch to tiOUli men. 
excupb for occasionui luids from Parkar, Catch eujoyod soitiu 
of <iniot.' 

In 18^*0, when Sir John Malcolm, Governor of Bom^nv 
Cnti-h bo found llie ex-Bao practically froa from r^ 
livioj^ in his son's houite satisfied with bis position. 
Prince theu fourteen yoare of age wa« a youth of nn 
proniiso. llic Rosideiit, Colonel Puttinger, had attended witk 
to his odncjition and ho had gained much from tho Icmotw 
Bovd. Mr. liray, the Cliiiplain at Bhuj. The Ja«'li'ja 
wure prew'Utod to tlio Guvi'mor at Qhiij, woro aiixion 
cx-Rao's gnard nhonld he rotnovod, that thi^ youn^ Kan should flhai 
tho mifnagement of public alt'atrs, and that the tribute fnim Ql 
to the HHliHh Goveniiiiont tihould lie reducod. The first retiueit 
Governor pTnnr<?d. The guard had for sonic* time been ' i 

than nomiuat, and there seemeduoreanuutoft'arthat theox- i 

intri^ie for a reaU>i'alioii tti nowt-r.* A« rojfsircK'd thu soeouii rooa 
the GoTomor had no objrotion Ut tho name of tbo young Itjlo w 
introdnood into public deeds and to his being* gradually imtm 
into the nmnagoment of affairs, biiti he decided that he wa» still 
young to Iwar tho whole bui-deu of business. As to the A 
payincntj tho (Jiivernor could promise no relief.* Tho revenm 
the district had been small and the marriage of the young Riio 
caused spocial expenseSj Btill the country was increasing iu w« 
the paynjcnl was not hirge, and the British GoTcrnmont wcroni 
a position to remit it. The Governor took advantage of the oca 
to c-all the chiefs to account for their failure to give uuy hol; 
puttiug don-u the bands of plunderers. Considering? bhenuH 
shielded by the British guarantee from the jnst resentment of i 
Prince, they had made not one effort to protect his town* h 
plunder or his fields from devastation. Thoy had eavod their j 
estates at the pric« of a boao, if not a traitorons inactivity. Thoni 
nothing, ho ttaid, iu the guaraut«e obligatiuu that freed them { 
their allegiance to their prince and the aid ihcy wttro lH>und to 
liim. Hereafter any chief who was supine and did not i 
himself to the utmost to oppose and destroy his prince's enemio 
pluuderorS) should be dealt with as an abettor of hia enomiosj am 
the slightest punishment, should bo held to have forfoit4>d all ri 
to British protoctioa. Of tho relations between thu Xiao and thu Jl 
chiefs or Bhayad, Bir John Malcolui added, tlmt though, aa Ga 
outward show went, the chiefs jnelded tho lUo a respect iHirderinj 
Teueratioa, they had never hesitated when it suited their pcr^ 

' Bora. Gov. a«L XV. 55. 

• Sir John Malwlm'» Miuiitc (Jnoo IS30). Thii hope mu nut tltKaitpoJ 
The ex-KAotilUii«()cAth in I8i6 lived in U>£ fKkliuw with hia sun.witJMmt m lui 
interteriag with et>t« affiun. * Sir Johu Malcolm'* Minute ( Juaa 1( 


< OT ^ralifloil their {nssions of revenue or ambitioD to robnl 

ibcir rulrr's authority, rmA at times to dethrouo him.' This 

■>n tlx-ir ]mrt bad led their princes to similar acts <if vJoleuue 

■'ilf fiower either l>y the iiid of mcrconarios or 

■.•■^^U. Sir John Malcolm rogrettttd that at 

ot tmiuiupibc treaty (1822) aome more specific oblipitiona 

be«^n iinporfod ou the HmnJlor chiefs. Secure in tbo prut<!crion 

<ntish Govynimyut they had beoomo iudolent and iudifferont 

■tar^ that ilid not iiu mediately aiToct their porsouAl iut'urests. 

Hir enjoyment ol honsttat pleasures they nef^lected atl 

Eont "ii'J wiiig^bl. every means of opprej*sit>n. They had 

»upon their ruler till his rcvouucs bore no pii){>ur1ion to 
&A their hi?ad. Any cuao of helping rcholti or failing to 
plunderers should he followed by forfeiture or heavy 
& the (tiivernur'H ttpintOD tho only intMisure likely to render 
-■■ chiefs in tho power they enjoyed safe and 
- leu!, to briii^' near bis person some of their 
.liiiereiits, who, ho thouj^lit, tho chiefs would ^'ludly 

. r ihe impre^tfiiiin thai it was tho hi^t ineims of acquiring- 

t And fsTour. There was no course so well suited to explain 
'I Mtd principles of the Britiith (forernntL^ut to the people, as 
tMtdont to hare npar his p<;rson the sons, brothers, and 
I of the cLiefs of the country. 

rA. Barnes' notes ou Cutch, durinjf the five years ending 
id scvm that the people wore settling down to orderly 
■ I 'Illation was not less than 500,000 
. . il, whole villages niovluy to Sind if 

in were bad. 'Ibe uuiunion Ki^i^^ wert) millet and puke, and 
M cottun, castor^)!!, and tobaooo. As a rule, Cutch had to 
Ivod* cKpecially much coarse red rice from Sind, aud da.tea 
'Fhouj^h the soil suited them there was a great want 
Sheep and goals were abundant and there was a 
of butter. Besides the foi-eieru trade by sea 
— a larite paei traffic with Marwar and t^ujarat,' 
it ciivisidus AlKliisa alone was prosperous. Vdgiid in 
thinly peopled and poorly tilled. Half of it was waste 
OTcmin with lions, tigers, panthers, wolves, hyamas, and 
■' ' I- :liat the cultirators were carefn! to he safe in 
fnnaet. The chiefs and proprietors, though 
■ , were always fighting usually alvrnt village 
I ^ never lasting. The defeated rival would 
t his land, add to bis band of mercenaries, aud overrun his 
-'- '= -M^. Tius J^ejfis were a worthless set of spondihrift^s 
I r estates, wasting their property, and many of them 
'<iou husbandmon and 6eld lahourei-s. In the 
,1' north and on the Ran islands there was a 
i, and poor, hat hearty and strong popnlntion. 
.f. huts, almost never gruwiug or eating grain, thoj fed 



UaliMliu'a MtDnU {Jmt 1830]. 

> MS. Dooomher 1885. 




Chitptfir Tn. 

Jtin DesiO 11.. 

iMfinr BamUtti, 


lit Itemitted. 

entirely on milk, bnttermilk for every day faro anA strfuet 
thi'ir lew holidays. They bod large herds gf cuws, buffuliie!!, 
camols, and Hix'ke of ^heep mid eontA^ Bnd the uxjKirt of 1. 
hmupht in enoagh to meet their wauts for clnthus, to" 

In 1832 the Piirkar rohboTsbef^ to give frtwh trouble, 
the end of the year a force wait sent into Pirkar to ^iiniuh 
frwjbooters, and scvoral uf the leading mun were killed. The 
Goviimraent; mmt Aomo troops to co-opernto wit}! thn B' 
detachment, but tbey did iiutuctnallyl-akepart-BjiHinst r 
Witbihe viewof securiiigCntcb apaiiist any furtber < , 
Bind Government wore asked whether they would prefer to m 
good all losses on account of robberies or allow a BritiKb detachn 
toremainat P^kar. Tbev chose bialluw the detacbineut to be pa 
at. PArkar, and after this tho vigilance of the officers to wbnm 
charge of the frontier was entrusted, uiid the gallaotry of the Bri 
troops seuiired oomjmrative peace to Cnteh, and hi a few ytai 
cessation of desert inroads. 

Though, with order well tiBtablisbed and a firm 
Government, the ]»mvinco was slowly recovering from the 
many yoiirs of civil war, it was unable to pay the sum, 
altogether Ut about f a;i,8U0 (Ks. 3,3*1,000] due under former tra 
tothoBritiahGoverninQnt.' Under these circumstances, iu Septet 
18;12, iho amount in arrears, a little over £2o,(K)0 ^ (Ku. 'i,6p,( 
was struck off and a modified treaty drawn up, providing that 
e<juivak'ut (jf the Aujnr rcveuue should be forg>juo and tbal 
Cutch stat4> should never bo charged more than £20,000 for iba 
of the subsidiary force.* 

uw ytai 

ElMuula (MM HUM) of hiittor *re uid t>> )ia.v>- Ix-on iscnt, huiT every <U^ 
Banni Ihon wu ui export uf ISO to t&) \toutuU (3-4 manti. 

* Tha ihitaiU aro, tribuw about £S0OO |2 idiA« of Jbortt) i Anjftr 
^. SS.OOO} : i»y of the soMdiwy force, £^000. 

■ Tha exact mm wm C'i^Jla 10^ (lU. a57.-265l. 

• Aitchiaou'* Traatit. (IK7C),IV. a(.l>8.VlI. The nood nfUlisi . 
Manfrom Un following aMtumeut of Cutuli nvcuuo uid «x|>Qiu]iUm : 

Ctiti Sf'rmf, mit-llSlt. 









tSU-M .-. 



ISBSM ... 




ItM-ll ... 




ii»-n _. 




im-aa ... 



iMT-a ... 



lEOB-M ... 

7,41 ,»I 



iB»-n ... 



issB-n ._ 



1 ita-n „. 




ISSlML ... 



IR4-11 .. 



Ittl-SS* .. 



'4 mulDt tbaK ]r«>n AAJtr wna la Uiohuliof Um BrlUiti GaremmeuL 
U iliB»mM(nK«rlx itarmpnt U> Uw BrHlih wm aluu OM** fW. 

14*. {lU.«J»i»)> UtftotKl Bibula remitted, r«pKwnM pnUyt 



1 09 

I And 

it I had now (1832) reacliofl his spventoenth year. 

iJeraljie ability, tould read ami write English, aud 

noral kTiowIcdkjo of nrithmtatir, nnd of the outlines 

III lS'6-i hv bt%iui Uj ta^kf part in public business 

owed himsi-lf CKiua) to tbo cooduct of ordiiiiu-y affairs. 

djtily nt tbu UfTtlduDcy, iv itislant ly cuiiiing- from the 

t»ult the Kosidoiit uuany dmibrfiil jwiint. In coiiseqnenra 

ability bo showed, it was nrrauged that tlio time of 

of ai^ should )ki i-hangt'd fn)m Aa^ist I^^o to tho 

* At the itutallatioti all duo bononr was dnuc by the 

EiVKCDt iLiid gratefully uod graciously ackuowledged 
e Kcxidcnt, Colonel Pottiu^'er^oii Beating the young 
fbrono, bnuud <m his turban *>ni& inch jewels from 
tbit fiort-rnur of iJoDibay, prest'uted him with a letter 
' d him lloo of Cutch. J'oople of all cloasoB 

Desalji ooniinnod to nilo till I8G0. Besides the meiiBnres 

ite pliire f'>r the reprensifm of infanHoiflo, the Rfio 

, . stop to tbt* trade iu slaves, aud to the buruiugof 

jajn l>i^<j a jiHM'laniati'jn wuH issued, woj-tiing his subjects 

Rig in k1:iT0»i wa^ illi<>(ai, and that any vessel briuging' slaves 

e1i would be uoDfijtuiteii, and her crew and owners puniithod.' 

"- ':r^(>|)t tho modilied form of bondan^ in the housoholda 

1 (ithfr chiefs, slavery has ceflsed in Cntoh. In the 

■ miinir, the Ran was less ready to ad<,ip^th(> Kufrliah 

■ i .1 tho prHcr.ii'c was not affainst the Hindu scriptiiroa, 

iDDl till lHo'^, that he was persuuded Ia> forbid it. After 

>rtu.> (sutesi, tile i)oople concerned wore severely dealt 


GbaptMT VI 


BAo Dvnl II, 

Camw «/ Agt 



Iji't* government was on the whole prosperous ; oriler was 

land the weolib and rosonrces of the province dovoloped. 

ards tho cluae of his rejgu thera werej exclusivu of the 



I of 

peuTided, that oa tlw 8tli July tha Ragsoojr •faonld oeH* jwd 

111 >.-.tii onilvr th« OL'iutitatiuiu] and ««tabli«lwd advice of hin 
■■<hr.n u( Uicliilrja Uhi}*^!. AiubiBt^a'sTrctktiM (I87S). IV*. 
ijtcof Cutvti at cLu time, Mn. Postana (IS37) bu Uft f«w 
;■* waa icanlv and scattoiwl, not vi«lding mora than ooe-luU tJio 
mill. OnlKr had bmiti MUbliahod fur yean, l>ut ei«pt tlie 
iwed Hjuck akill ajul J•l■^lI^v£<TaIl<^e. Itia p«ii-ple were idk- aud lasy. 

' Mm. r.«laii.' I'liUfi. 3(^37. 

Uifi provIarafttUm were: "iU! it krinu-n to tfao priocipa] iTi«n.-hant« 

tmry other merchant aa woU u irwlur in Cut^h, whctli^x lielonginx 

tilii; tWn;U>, to all navigators o[ viwndni, tfi Uii^ inhabjtanta of Cuti^ 

'luvm, wiatatm or Akyuiiutaiti, ahall b« linmght for iial« tn 

-tertlie middle of July next, the vmmI oonvc-yitij; tliem ahall 

.>> ahall liGconto tho property of thte GovcnimcnC. No 

lII Lv li«t«-«iint ti> ; aiiil tiirtliT. thi< otfrmdrni ahall Im 

III lit. whrthcr tliey Irclung to L'ulcli or auutlmr i-inintry- 

buiii till* iwdutton. A venel wbicb briars slari* kliall 

\,\,wi\i intlk'tod on thoM wbo Bavinti" her. Th« 

< i^-ntit to Dtimreai tba tnA^ in unvt^it thnragbuut 

... t«] the <ilticei» ontnmiuiduig ita Rlii|M to avixv 

.^^». I Ihtr^fore atrictly prohibit, afu-r th« dot« 

Iwini; hiT'iiKbt to thin L^»uiitr\' ; let all niy iiuhje«tA 

.'- (iF»il of thia rMH'liniAtiiiii, uiil la>'ik to their uileruata 

igtiiit" Bom. ikiv. S«l, XV.07. 

imurv iiuii 


- -I 

- TiDfl 


.■- -ir :t« 
i :'i-r n 

— -..■.:•-! am 

. . :- -- L- -^-: i:;-^. All 

■■ _■-. - _- . : "'' Vr v.j:*:t into' 

. , ; ■ . - --■■-- :-,vr-'^v of Mud 

. -— •• I:-.'_>i:< takiniT f[rt 

. ■ • .. . : — - - -T'lLth to ■-ui'-hall 

• . ■- - ■ .1 r : '■'':.'.<■ i rr-.-^suro from 

-. -■ - - " z. :ir ra-Jt. continued i 

. - — ■ : ■■ .. 1 ■;. . .-:7i r- 7:.-.-r iir.'i Bhuj, a cart of gi 

. - ■ ■: r-- - -. :-^ r-^! vnlue. Tbr difficil 

1 - _- - ~".- "i.:T niany of the smaller cM 
■ -- • ■_■ ; - -i-.T .-:.":-:; :V::d tbem, and refused! 

V, V, -.-.-- .- .,- J -}..-.- h'ini'tis crimes were sent ■ 
p .■■■—--■-• -' "■; ; .-■;■■ -T itllr!' tliicfs jreiu-nilly inqiiiri'd intoi* 

l;,. Ii..i-. SrI. XV. :-j-74. 



an of rrimo OS occorrod on thc-ir cstatM. In the 

111 >' -> belou^Dg' toHis HigknesB the Kuo, crimes were 

[iavusti^iod by au arbitration cuurt, and afterwardu oxamioBd 
u{ bj tho Ilio himself. In V'Agad, where in the early 
interference (he power of the local chief;a had been 
jliixr was, undur the Assistant Pulitiwil Agwnt, ixmducted 
lot horsemen, posted in different villaj^s thniujifbout 
A native officer and writer constautLy inovdd frum 
to another, and partly because news of a criiuu was so 
«prt?Ad, partly from the isolated character of the conntrj* and 
ran of being caught, the amonnt of seriouii crime 


BAo D«wl 
1819 -U 



kiefs* territories petty offences were tried without appeal 
The graverchaxgeatbat went before the liao were heard 
jnally, sometimes with the help of the Political Agent. 
idiked capital puui-shmcnts, and never, if he could help 
seuteoce of dt-ath- The cvidcnoo of the pajlies was 
>n dowD ; but tm formal record of proceedings was kept. 
?sted to the Rdo that the forms of ciril and criminal 
followed in the Sind Desert district, might be of nse 
Bnt he wan disinclined to the change, thinking the 
too c<iraplicated for lus officere. Civil disputes were, over 
rinpo, settled by ftTbitmtion, tho tenant* of the petty 
ig any Hui'Hint of up[ires9ion, rather than appeal against 
^Knd clectsions of their lords and masters. • 

I position of the smaller chiefs vras, except in V&gad, very 
^>nt <jf the Kit). Tho only tribute thoy |iaid was some 
. present on tho marriage of the heir apparent or other 
sionK. Their aK.Bertion, that the only claim the R4u had 
was one of military senrice, wiui admitted in 1819, and 
wihe British gnaranteefor tho secority of their possessions, 
led Ui increase their independence. The absence of commuu 
had relax(Hl the fendol bonds that onited them to their 
But. it vra« believed that, should the occasiim arbe, they 
ly and ■ivilling to call together their retainers, and 
i-ftiy disputesrally round tho yellow pennant of their 

31IK' years thoro was an nnfijrtunate qnarrel between Rao 
I Acd Uis eldest son.' Bat before the close of his life friendly 
' werv extahliahed. In 1850, as he hod for some time been 
Ig from jii'rioim sickness, the Rao prayed Guverument by 
ia^ ti ri'irfi'-y I*» relievo hun from the weight of «tato affairs, 
"t-ed, and on tho I2th July, nnder the Political 
'i ■ : tlio Uiio chose the heir apparent, the mioister, 

Jidejii, cbieft<, as members of the Hegancy." On tho 2 let 
the next year, at the Hao's urgent request, the Regency was 
»nd the management of the state handed over to the heir 

< Bom. 0»t .S«t XV. 75.7«, s Bwi. G.w. .Sel. XV. 6d. 

* Col. Tnmil>-Mi to Govt. 20Ui Jnito ISHQ. 

chapter 711. 

BAoPnt«:iiul II., 

Bhaj Patar 

BAft Khenglr IIL, 
187)3 •1879. 

apparent. A few wwks laUjr, on t!ie Sfitli .laly Bio Dcsalji ^ 
auil nn iho 2Htli of the same muath iCau !' 
installed.' Jlorbcd by a lovo of truth ami 
IVsnIji waa pnjlmtjly more than any nne elfto in * 
thy tradiliooK and cufitonis of the proviace. He v.;- 
fiainRtakinf* jud^ and a staunch and derntcd ally of liie Ba 
Covernment, With the help of a few chiefs and court sorvanti 
mana^d the whule hutsint^ss oE tho country, and by hiu IniuMi 
of their chanw!t<>r, friendly intort-onrsc, and timt'ty 
aruided any struggle i^ntb the Jadi^ja chiefs.' 

RAo Prtlgmalji soon showed himself in Bevornl rcspoctR diJ 
character fr<>m his fatht-r. Equiilly tnithfid and hn ■ 
(Tuwrmiifnt, he had njfre courily mauuers, mort' r-. i 

tastC!!, and a ranch hig-htT idea of his power and prerogativu. 
the fiftcwii years of his rule {I8)>0-I87o), Bio Priig:tti8lti 
himself anxious to improve the management of his etate. Ha fn 
codes for the ^lidantu! of his officers in matters of civil ii : ' 
justice, ho uudcrtook works i»f public usofuluess, and 
state system of education and vaccination. In rcwjtnl bir liUi vl 
at good govemment, he was, in 1871, honoured with thiMjtlp of Kj 
Grand Commander of the Star of India. Unlike hia funrfati 
nono of whom left Cutch, ho thrioo vinited Bombay, in 1870 to 
His Royal Highness the Duke of Edinburifh, in 1871 t«i take p« 
a Chapter of tho Star of India, and in Ootobcr 187-') to do hoi 
Ui His Royal Highnesfl the Prince of Wales. On the last ocai 
suffering from a mnrtal disease, be retired to Bbuj and unable to i 
died on the let January 1670. By his death, Cutch lost a wiii 
beneficent rulor^ and the British Govemmont aloyal and dm 

Tho chief memorial of his reign, a work in which he took a 
keen interest and on which he spent a sum of £11)1,400, wa 
building of a palace at Bhnj. One long straggle over thu poi 
and rights of tho Bhdyild greatly marred the enccess of his n^igc 
atatcment of tho chief p«jint« that have been rai&ed and disc 
since, iu 1819, the chiefs* |»»ition was gnarantoed is given (pp. ISA 
in the cliapt»T on *' Justice '*. Though tho matter was not perl 
stittled, the n&i) bad, Wfore his death, the satiafactiou of kiK 
that most of the points on which he laid the greatest streas had 
cxtncedcd. R^o rragmalji left four widows, of whom two bare 
died, two sons, and one daughter. 

On tho ;ird January {\ii76) the young U&n was installed wit 
nsual ceremonies. As he waa ouly ten years of oge^ a Ret 
consisting of tho FolitJcal Agentj tho chief minister, a JAdeja 
and a leading merchant waa appointed, and under tlie s-i 
the Political Agent ha4 since managed tho affairs of tht 

The iUo is entitled to a salufpe of seventeen guns hdI Ijm 

' Col. II. W. Trrvchnui, f.B , t<' H.ivt, 8th June IS«I. 
■ Bom, tlov. S«\. XV. r>S ; i'<<i. luiru-ii. 
* U'ovenuui»tGuctl«,5Lli .]ijiuju'y IS7l>. 




nad, of atloptioD. The military force of the stnte cousiiita Chiiptor 
»eld aud tUU utber j^urf, twyuty-fyur iirliMfir}ineii, 373 
403 regular and ai3i> irrwpilar infiintry, and 412 police. 
ion ta these troops the KAo's Bb^vdd could furaish on 

n » mixod forco of about 4U0O mou.^ A gcuealogiual troe 
nilj ii) giveu id Appendix A. 

illoirtng suinmary, compiled from the yearly administTation 
KTVOs vrry nhortly tho chief UTont-t iu the history and 
t of Cutch during the latit twenty-five years. 

iO on alitio3l> total faitura of rain wan fi)1luw-Mi by extreme 

f piv.ri-Mons. Tlio price of milU>t rose fr<im 40 to 20J 
' nx^ved in Inrge numbers to Bind, Kiithiawar, and 
i imUHauda of cattlo were either driven away in search 

I, or periRhed. To leiisen the pressure of distress, the Itao 
mijnths t-ook off all import duties on grain and fodder ; offered 
deepening ponds near nhuj to large numbers of the destitute, 

.'h fthiiiit two poiiudi* of grain a day ; and opened stores at 
nUD was sold a( specially low prices'. When the scarcity 
V a.s tminy iis 00,000 pcu[)Ie wore said to have come back. In 

the management of the Vagad police, which had long been 

I Cutch Political Agency, was restored to tho state. 

'« y^ar, 1801, was a^in a season of short rainfall, only 81 
Hal tbo falls were well timed, and a fair crop brought down 
The old minister resigned, and the management of 
irandis and MtUlhavd^ K4mdas who succeeded, caused 
tcnntent ainotig the landed classes. Several works of pnblic 
wi»rc prcssod on ; cotton gina were ordered and screw 
ntp^dijcad, and the Bhuj and Maudvi rvaU was finished and 

8<ai rainfall was heavy, 34 inches. The raius closed 

') with a tivmendons storm that, besides damaging the crops, 

loflif of life and great destruction of houses and villages.' 

iticr>*«»ed by a plague of locusts.* The grain crops 

most, and tbnugbtbohiErh price oEcottonbenefit*^d tho country, 

dear, raillutpriccs standing as high as ifO pounds therupeo. 

,00U people are said to have left Cutch in search of work. 

53, the nunfall, 2iJ*24 inches, was sufficient and well-timed, /SCJ.' 

fosl gtKjd. 'llie very high value of cotton had tempted 

Jy to tnonmsQ its cultivation, and lieforo tho seaaon 

the large towns UTid among the labouring clasitea grain 

irce and dear, thai tliei-owasseverc distress. Millet prices 

1 30 to 1 tj pounds. As a measure of relief a state store was 

" gmin sold at low rotes. Money was also gathered from 

; , KUi June ]86l. 

iimna weradanutgad, uid m Vig»d taony vOIsgw vnn 

nr* ml'1 (ohsr* cohm from the east kad north. Alter cl«vaBtati&£ 

' to tinvo lnwrri Hnvftn wturt Mi<i "iit t^ ma. .Ship CftpUiiU 

[Ri .1, kumc huudted miloa (n>cn MiiiUvi, fuuiul UuMa covvnd 

tBomba; Qi 



Gkftpt«r VII. 

SiiBitBArjr. - 





rich Catch traders ib M^ndvi and Bombay, and i^Teo to tlit* d( 
Ah man)' as ^o,000 of the poor aud workiug dassef i 
Ifft Cutch. The luaua^LUODt uf the nuw mini 
unsatosbctory. Corruptioa spread, and at last, one ii\.-- 
twnpering' wiih the curreucy Wing^ brought to light by ' 
Agent, Motil&l aud MMhavdas were BUKuendud, aud Uw 
managemoDt ontrustcd to an old ticrrant of toe state, Jagjivan 
a Kfigar BHthman. 

In 1864, a very scanty rainfall of only seven inrHpfl, was f<tl|( 
by a short han'eat aud a rise iu the price of niillt-t [rom 16 to 
ponnda. Amonn: the cnltiTators the want of foddur and wBt«-j1 
among tho poorer classes of townspeople the high prico of 
cansecL great dixtress. The Hl«t« import duties on eniin 
remitted, and, against alwut SWJO rotuni-Hniif^nts, b' 
people are said to have left the country. Tho niftiiag.t.' 
Btat« waa again unnati^factory. Jagjiran's power had. lo 
Dieafiura, passed to Valubhji Mehta a Mod V&nia, u man of 
ability who had formerly been mixed op with the B^'s 

In 1865, the rainbill, 16*61 inches, vas imfBcient and well, 
and the han-est good. Though, frum the rerj* grrat dearaess of i 
all over thu Pi-esidoucy, uiillul pHuee remained Bteody at 22 
prices of labour m«o in proportion, and it was on the 
prosperous year. During the counie of the sonson 8580 peopldl 
aaid to have returned^ and 23,750 to have left' the province in wfl 
of work, lu state matters Valabhji's power iucreatied, aud Jagjil 
was dismissed. 

Tn 1866, the rainfall, 20- T2 inches, was sufficient. But il did 
bepn till the end of July and then fell so fnttt that in Kome 
the houses stiffered. Millet pric-es still continned high, 27J poanc 
the rupee. But wages were at least in proportion, and wl 
emigrauta fell to 18,600, the number who returned roue to lIt,970Lj 
From April to October, the eastern parts of Cntch, at fer west 
Bhiij and Maodvi, suffered from a rather severe eiiidetnic of > " 
Vnlabhji was founJ to be mismanaf^ng the state lor hiK privi.i 
and to be causing ft growing ill-feeling among the minor cbiefti 
At the Political Ageut'ii advice ho wu^ diiimisited, and the depiil 
onUootor of Hurat, Mr. Sh&h&budin Ibr^im was appointed ministerj 
Unring this year a son and heir was bom to the H6o. 

In 1B67, the rainfall, though it Iiisted late, was very scanty, 7H 
inches; the crops, ospecially cotton suffered, and the want of w»t 
and grass caused much distress. The iH-ice of millet was 22 poooi 
the raped. During the year 20,267 porsous are reported to hai 
left thfi province, and 10,805 to have come back. Under MrJ 
Gh&h^adin'e management many important iuipruvements were made^ 

In 1868, the rainfall, 8*81 inches, was short, and falling at Ion 
interrals, failed to keep alire the young crops. Th» serit>iis BfTarnit] 
in llAjpatAna incroasod tho pi-csBure of the bad local hnrvcst, ani 
millet prices rose to 2H pounds. Besides of grain, there wnw 
Kcarcity, and, in Eiumu jmrU, an abtsolule wont of fodder und vvMtL>rJ 



Uen tht' «Iis(rf>s?« prainwua ailawcd to pass duty-frcp. Durinff 
Mr. ^hfthabudiu resigned, uud was aucc-t'edud by Mr. 

>, th«' raiufall, 2^*25 ioches, was stifficiont and frell.timed. 

:l» wi*rti fi[iuil»d l>y Uicusts, whx) all oror tbo district uansDd 

$, and in some places utterly mined the millet crop with a 

nricoB from 21 ( Uj lU pounds. Large numbers, mado 

>[>y the Kajpntana famine, took shelter in Cutcb. Transit 

mtin wtrre again remitted. In stato affirurs mme 

. ^ ID tho revenue system were carried out, and for the 

wf judicial officers civu and Lirimiual procedure codes were 

I'lSTO, the rainfall, 7*80 iaches, was short, and the harvest poor, 

- at 224 pounds. Most of the famine immij^rants 

■niniia and transit grain duties were again levied.' 

includiug tho BC[mmtioii of the ftinctions of 

, u* farratT, wore introduced into the manageiueDt 

-<. At the same time the disputes between the Kfioand 

on mattvra of jurlsdietion bucame bo serious as to call 

jterferenoo of Gorernniont. 

I, the nunfHll, 13 inches, though ftiifftcient was ill-tiraed, the 

I was poor, and millet prices remained as high as 24^ pounds, 
attempt's were made to rednce them, grain transit duties 

II leviftd. Considerable trouble was caused by the raids of 
LlMa outlaws, Gira^ins nf Morri in KAtliiftwAr, who had taken 

'in VAjrad. Under the Political Agent's advice, tho Jtio and 

Managers joined in appointing an oiBcer to act ogainsb 

Fvalfakwc, and order was soon restored. The question of the Kio's 

lietion over tho Bhiiylld was discussed by trovoniment and the 

, and some advanco made in cloarinj^ and settling the chief points 

During this year, the Roboras or Musalmfin tnulers 

from a remnant of ViLnia oppression, by the abolition 

vld order forbidding them to ride on borsobock. The Rao's 

-to improve the a^lmiuisti'ation of his state and introduce a 

item of state edncation and vaccination were rewarded by 

TiuBod to tho dignity of a Knight Grand Commander of 

)(mr uf India. 

Tn 1872, the rainfull, 17'0fi inches, was sufficient and timely, but 

T„>.-rg td a g"wd harvest were spoiled by the ravages of locasts. 

o of millet remained as high as 29} pounds. The state also 

from a severe attack of cattle plague, which was said to have 

death)* of 2447 head of cattle of tho OKtiumted value of 

'£4000 (Kh. 40,000). So acute was the diseaiw that in most 

axiimfllB BtT^cken with it lived only a few hours. As Knight 

td Couiinaiider of tbe Order, Qis Highness the Gio attended a 

and Chapter of tbe Star of India in Bombay. Tho J&deja 

irt Biill n'orKe<l badly ; but progress was made towards the 

lemeut of sonae of tho points in dispute. 

, Historr* 








Chaptar Til- 






Id 1873, the miufall was partial, mrying from 3*1 1 iurhwifti 
Ui 24'I2 iiichoa at Mfindvi, On tho wholo, except in Hboj, 
wator antl fodder were scarce, it wtw sufBcieot, crupa were miod, i 
niillut prices fell from 29J to !J2i pounds. DuriuK tlilb ; 
ol a pespon.siblo uiiui^ter caused much c-onfosiou. 
considerable improvcmont in the working of the il&deja court . 

In 1874, thunj^h iht! minfnll, IS'IiO innhes, wa-* 
loo aoou over, the ci>'])s nuffered, and millet jii 
to 31 punuds. A[r. Laxumaii KrL'^hnaji wa-s chosen minlHteri ^ 
except that the rcluriona hct.we('n the llao and the Uhdyad f:--~^ 
atrained and nnsottled, the affairs of the atat« were wall tui 

In 1875, the rainfall was short, 7"21 inches, the barvt?»t 
pour> nitllct pricofi rose from 34 to S'2^ iiouuds, and oi-arlv SO^tiO 
people nro said to liave left in scareh of work. He^tdcs of gnit 
there was a soircily of fodder and water. In October tho lUi 
who hod fur Rome time been in IhuI hiidlh, wont to Homlmy to 
homngo to Uia Royul Hi^hnesn the Prince of Walcti. In Bonilmrlii 
sickness tucroajicd and after hix return he continued to (rrnw waikt 
till his death on tho lat of January 1870. As hin bod, the p 
Rfio, was only tun years of a>ro, a Tleffoncy of four members tudl 
tho rresideucy of tho Potitiial Ajjvnt was apjwiated, 

Id 187A, the rninfall averaging 12 inches wiki sufBeient, aa 
though in tho west locnata did some slight damage, the cmp» wertdl 
the wholtyfair. Millet prii'es rt'inainea steady at alH)Ut ^^^j jxititidi 
The ReRT^ncy winsistinj? of the Political Agent, the niinislvr, it Jiidd 
chief, and a Maudvi merchant wen? inNtallud. By the dejith of tl 
merchant tho numl>er was soon after nnluced to three. Diiriti!/ tbri 
ycAr, the Itao'a sister was married to the Maharaja of Bik^ner,a( 
event of importauce as the ttnst occaniou on which a dau^'hter of fki 
Cutch houi^o liad l)»;n united to a Rjijuntdna chief. The ninrriap* 
fostivitiftH, hold at a cost of about £40,000 (Its. 4,00,000), pre vriitt« 
the Itao frt)m lieiiijf preseut at the great Delhi ceivmouial. In bonaui 
of the prnclanmtion^ a I>arl)ftr wa^ held at RhnJ on iFanaary lafi 
The Presidency of the Jddeja court wa* tranj»ferred from the PoHtia 
Agent to Iho minister, and the courts of the minifitur and assista 
ininiHtcr were amalgamated with it. 

In 1877, the rniufall, 16'62 inches, thuug'h sufKcii'ut, wnj 
onsenaonnble. Tlio eai'ly crops failed, and though the oolil wetUha 
harreat was good, millet prices rose from 32J to 17 pounds, and tin 
poorer claaises suffered severely. To lessen the distress, half of Ihi 
grain dues were remitted and relief was given by o]>cning w*irk« tn 
the Tnnaand Anjdr, and tin the Mandvi and Bhuj roadj?. The youn 
Kio, who is being laug^ht at Bliuj under the 8u|K<rvit>touuf the IVlitia 
Agent and his Asaistant, made gofid progress. In Nuvemhe 
1877 he was, in full DarbAr, presented by Sir Ricliard Temple lli 
Governor of Bombay, with a Delhi banner. During the year i 
merchant was chosen to fill the place in the Council of 1' v-J 

To improve the management, tho country was distriboteJ »■■ t, 

anb-divisions, each underarevynue and judicial officer, witli o: 

police and rillage organisKition. KfTorts were made to n.s(t'i 

CUTCH. 177 

Btial and other reaonrcea of the state^ and measnreB taken with Chapter ^ 
view of derdoping trade and fosteiing local indastrieB. The HiitCT" 

it lUndvi pier and breakwater were began, the work proving 
preat service in employing labour. The two leading dimcnlties 
Sie maaagement of the state are dispntea with the Morri state 
Ci^t]£w&r on foreshore and other rights over the gulf of Gntch, 
L the loi^-standing jurisdiction difficulty between His Highness 
I BAo, and the leaduig members of the Bh&y&d. 


Chapter VHI. 


lAnd Roveaufc 

The lancU of Catch belong to two mBin cbiasoR, the state, 
lauds, tlu* property of His Hi^'huesstho RAo.aad the cadet, hhSy 
lamls, iu Ibtf bnuiis of younger branches i>[ the Rao'e &mil^. 1 
state laud is held mostly on an occupancj, buta, tennra. HI 
this, so loner as he tills the (jronnd pToperly and pays his reofc, i 
holder koG\is the l»nd at a tixed rate witli(>i]t Foar uf Ijein;; taii 
opt. If the holder faila to pay the rent or i« poihy i.f n-asto orw 
of care, the state can force him to give ap his hyldinjr- BoJ 
lone as he kt>ops to these conditions, one (niltivaior cbc tiaad o 
hitii land t» another. A socond form of tonnre is by ciuih paynM 
t nkhd !, and^r which tlio cnltirator holds land for a fixed nim 
of years. Patches of st^te, kJuiha, land are also he]d on religif 
rf/iariMii.(fi ; senrico, piiiL' priijia ; and reward, passa, gnnta. 1 
dhiirmd'la lands aw made over to temploa^ mosques, and ot 
religions infltitiilions far divini* service or for charity. Dm 
good bfhavionr aud tfiibmissioti to the state's orders, the gnni 
are generally bft Co mana^ their lands as they choose. M 
Tillages iu Cutoh are hold on this tenure. Serrioe, jviik fr^ 
land is given aa payment for certain services, and is kept oaljl 
lou^ as the service is performed. Reword, pajia, lands are ti^raa 
in retnm for some service done the state in time of danget 

The cadet, bfuiifa'l, lands are held on condition of fe 
allepiance to the central chief or over-]ord, the Bho. Abonl 
Cuteh is bold by these under -lords, chiefly the outlying part 
to the east paying a small yearly tribute and those bo the '^ 
paying nothing. Though these uuder-chiefs do uot recOgi 
occnpancy rights in thoir ordinary tenants, the holders of chnriti 
lands and a chu'^s of men caU<>d original owners, mulgtrtinias, 
not liable ^^ be turned out. In eastern Vftgad under the Viigl 
laii'ilords, c/i.rd^ifis, and others, is a large class of Rajputs and&l 
onro holders of service land, who now in many villages pntotifl 
pay a cash quit-rent. To pay his private debts, civil courts 
attat^h the cultivator's share of his fields' produce, but his fie^U 
and plough bullocks cannot be sold. ^B 

lAud revenue is generally collected by the cmp-din* 
bhd/ihatdi, system. The only exception is, that in a few of tlio I 
cadet villages lauds are for a short term of years let at a 6. 
money payment. In the state landa in aomo of the richor of 






.' 'ash rales were introdooed in 1879. Thestato 

I mm 4- to J of tlie produce. Tho prewut 

tixod in the time of Desaiji the late Rio. Id tixiD>( tho 

C-hief coQsider&tiona were the quality of the laud, the 

;he water supply, aud the character of the eoltirator. In 

iydd, or landlord., girdaia, villages the proprietor goiujralljr 

mnro than the state ^hare, tho amount rising in soma eaaos to 

fho produce iiicludiufj; (odder, and arorag-inp friTun ten to 

■*mt above the state ?bare. Besides the crop-share there 

minor land cesses, of which the chief are a horao oosSf 

1^, a produce cess, hmgari, a watchman's fee, chuki, a cash 

\ and an alienation cess, shedhavar. From the tillers oE 

' t il, because they do not hold the occupancy 

;'?s the rent due to the slate, darhdr, or to 

urd, itinhsia, Uio cultivator has always to make certain 

(c relt^nnus and charitable establishments and to villa^ 

These in the state villages are mad© from the cultivator's 

pf the produce and in cadet villages fixprn the common heap. 

ly tlic land revenue was realized by a system of farming, 
era not being allowed to levy more than the share, Ww'y, in 
U the time. In 1877-78 tho Council of Regency gave up tho 
fyatem and began to collect the revenue dejjortmuu tally. 
■ iiloycd in collecting tho reveuuc is, over a group of from 
'. . 1 villages, an officer styled mauiiger, rah'iviti>lar, oa j«y var>-ing ivjm JCC i»jr. to £ 1 1 1 s. (250 - 400 fc>rw), who 
iiMiur him sumu agents, knrkuns. Bach village or stnnll gronp 
Hkgei haa ii» aconuntant, dhru. or tafdti, and its meMenger, 
ra*. All subordinate revenue efitaliliBbmenta are under tho 
B of a revenue wimmisfi inner, who is aided by an a^Histant. 
thwo officers move about the country during the greater part 
tjnmr, and supervise the work of local nuinagers. Junt before 
•i the dilrivafiir goes to the village accountant, dftrn, and 
Leave Ut ent his crop. The accountant Minds word to the 
(er, vabivaldiir, who fixes a day, when under the su{)ervision 
F" Tnment messenger, lumahUr, the cultivator may cut, tho 
I 1. ^Vllen cut, the corn is heafted in the village grain 

;ile stJill being kept for each cultivator, where his 
■• . .1 of grain are stored separately. .\t such time tho 
O^r and his ^ulxiriliuate.^ keep strict watch at the grain yard 
i the villa^ entrance, tlutt uo com is pilfered or taken away 
Illy. When tho produce of all the Helds is gathered in tho 
th« state share is purtioued out in the presence of the 
lt?T, vahiviil>ldr, or his chief clerk, the accountant, dAru, the 
man, and tho other village officials. The cnltivatior parceta 
ur whulf iuto a number of small heaps, and the manager 
ng ont of it fho state share, it is taken away and piled on the 
"- — . ^inj. The groat heap, ganj, if not sold in wlvunce, is 
{, and either eoldorstorod in the slate granary, kothar. 
I '-"ases when the cultivator and the manager, vahlvatihtr, 

trice, the standing com is estimated al arertnin weight, 
ittte, rfttfWr, share taken -according to the ca'culatiou. 
acoouDlant, messenger, and others employed in 



X^iuid Re% 




Chapter Tin. collecting iihe rerenne had each, as a perquisite, a certain 

jTTj - measare of grain. Now the state recoTers their former ehares 
AdrnJniatration. P^y^ them by monthly money Balaries. A revenue sarvey of 
T A R^Mn state lands is now in progress. To enconrage the digging of 
iMAtmmn9. ^j^g state makes a grant of from £1 6*. to £2 (Bs. 13-20) 
every additional water>bag that a cultivator can work, and otl 
improvements are encouraged by the grant of advances, takdvi, 
moderate rates of interest. 



fnuntLT (1854) nithui their owd ostalcs, tbo petty chiofs t-ook 
ICC of disputes, thefts, anJ other miDor offenceB, and except 
iafcirtT'la between proprieroi-n and anch serious crimes as mm-^^er 
alld'foro the Darbar, their powers were little, if at all, interfered 
VAgad, though the chiefs had iurisdiL-tion over their own 
, wag tc some extent an exeeption. In Abd^sa mnrdor and 
' leriotu offences came, in the first instaoco, beforo tlio chiefs 
estate they occurred, but in Viigad, Bcrious coses were 
lired into hy rbe Agency police, and then handed over to 
3fir. In riliages belonging to the Hao, the rovcnuo officers 
p^tzauee of peLty offences, re[)urtiug the more serious to 
r, where they were personally dealt with by the HAo, 
Ijcing taken and read to the party or particB concomed. 
WCTD either heard in the Kao'h presence, or investigated 
■ lurts, ftaitchnyali, of which there were two, eomposwl 
-. nf the Bhriyid and other i-esjkoctahle nfEcink. For 
jces tho iiftual pnnishment was fine, with iinprisonnient 
finu could nut bo paid. The iniproveuout of the 
DiDJuimtinn of jUHtico was a suiijoct to which the lato S,&o paid 
\!ktlentiiin,And imdor his mle seveml changes were nmdc. In 
iril »ud urimiiiHl procedure codes, on the model of thoau in 
iu KriiHh diHtricttj, were introduced. These codes are at 
HDl (l>i7l') under revision. 

i There are now three clm^sea of courts in the province : those with 
n in the lUo's domain only, those with jurisdiction in the 
[it'tiy chiefs, and thw*© whose power extends over the 
tritK-i>. lu the Rao's villHges revenue and judicial powers 
I a certain extent been aepjimtcd, and for the sake of efficiency 
-•r supervision the pnj^-ince ba« been formed into ttighfc 
sinnn, ItilHiuM, each nnder the judicial charge of a suhordinatu 
Ot nydijd'lbUfi. All of these oflit^rs have both civil and criminal, 
of the eiirlit, those stationed at Bhachio, Mundra, and 
t, have iu addition, revenue powers. They aro divided into 
I, the iirsfc with, in criminal matt^^ra power to imprison for 
aih.l fine up to £25 (It*. 250) and to try civil suits up to 
1) in value ; tho second able to try civil suita up to 
.I'lui and in criminal matters imprison for three months, 
lip ^^ £(> (Rh. (itt). Of the eight subordinato judges, five, 
'" ■', Mondvi, imd Abdnsa are (irst class, and 
Ira, and Li»klipfit are second cWwa. Bt-sidea 
tg»!«, llirwi coummudants of lywbs, iharulnrg, at Kh;tdir. 
and Nakhtrana exorcise second clatis powers. Over the 

Chapter ZX. 

Jar infliction, 


IBombax < 


Chapter IX. 






dislrici' courts, is the High Court, vnrishl tnh'tJat, with 
irho is al»> deputy n)iQi!>ter, tu'tib diwiin, and one aMistnii: 
It hpare iijipeairt from, anil original oisea beyond tbi» pt 
diarrifit courts, nnd in nddition thp caa^ of (lie cfiri 
occording^ to tho sL'ttleincnt of 1872. Tbus the rnt 
practically two Bides kJinlsa and jt'tdfja, and ex<*!s fuJI (u 
criiniD»l jurisfdiction throughont the province, senronpi-jt of, 
tniii:!«pi'rtatioD for life, and fourteea voars itnprieonitu'n' 
suhjcct to confirmation by the Council of Uttgi'ncy Tliy ftr 
prf*tidoB over the jii'lrja side of tho coiirr, besiifp-B doing t 
nnportant work of the kJt<itsa side, of which the lighter w.irk 
on the assistant judg«. The Dottrta in tlio tt^rriUi 
subordJuato chiefs an> tho landholders' courts o1 which 
given below under tho head " Jadpja Court". Ap;^ 
decisions of tho rarinkt tiddlai are hoard by the Diw^i's 
is presided OTor by tho Oiwan. Cases considei-ed by hinT 
jtuportanoe are resei-vod by tho Diw^n fitr disposal by the d 

In 1877-T8, exchniive of cases brooght iu the warts <-rp 
and petij' chiefs who keep no record of proceedings, Ih''>2 si 
filed. This wifh 1(168 cases in arrears gs»ve a to(;il of 
decision. Of these, io tho coarse of the year, •5871 were 
leaving 64P iu am>ars. Of 136(1 appeals, 1I2^S wert? dinnoi" 
and H3 left on the files. The total value of suits on the bU 
£.i7/)42 8*. (Rh. 3,75,42.|.). ■ 

Under the system of registration intrudnced in 1878, jw 
acquiring immovable property and wishing to hnvo itd Ian 
recognized, produce their deeds boforo tho snburdintite 
Hi/iiyidhigh'-i; wlio, on pei\Tiient of certain ft-ca, take ot^ptes 
and give certificates that they have boon copied. 

In 1854 Vagftd was the only district with a fiystonuit!^ 
Under tho Ai^sistaut Political Agent was a truou of irregtil 
Consisting of 4 jamndnrB, 7 daffddrit, 0^ honKnnon, 
2 messengers, 3 hht)>tut, and (J horge boys, the whole paid by 
Of this body ono native officer ftud between twenty nod i 
horsemen were, for police purposes, stationed in VAgnd. Wil 
native officer was a Gujarati »Tif*r, who made a rdCu' 
complaints and proceedings, and submitted thcin to the Aotf 
Political Agent, and he forwarded them to tho Iliu with OB 
case an endorsement of what seemed noc&(»ary. Post's of hon 
were stationed in eleven ^'iIlngcs, uud tho native officer and w 
moving ahont were ready to aid any party in want of hotp. 
system, helped by the isulateil |)ositiou of Vagad, uiad« it 
difficult for criminals to e6car«',and ensured a high degriv of i 
of person andproperty. In 18^2, on the representation of the i*o 
Agent, the Bao appointed a special uthci^r to reorgaiiixe the }' 
and in 1873 an offieieut and pp(i|)(!rly LMpiipfwd force was estab 
over the whole of tho Uao's territory. For all state villages 
beiidmeu, pateh, wore npptfiuted. In 1876 formal deeds, m 
were granted investing the ftati-iM with the powers and pnnle; 
village headmen. At the same tiiuo simple rules were 



ince, ami the huWem of semce Iftud, jvi^AHn, wpto 

{itr duty ft.1 village police. A smnll boHy of water 

in 1877, bus proved very useful in looking after 

mcrflumt veasels, in prprentinp nncl flHioctiiiff pe» 

in Iiolpinir Kmtj» in (listreas. The whfile land prjHco force 

irw) divwiuim, each distributed over a certain number of 

Kw*. At ibe bcatl in tlie Holii-e Cdiimiissioner with an 

in th*» troublefKime district of VAgad and an inspector in 

In aiJditioD to his general cDUtro] the CommiKsioQer has 

I eharvv of the central districts. Under the Commissionei's 

each district hns it)4 niral chief cjnstnblp, faujiUlr, and 

*wu itK city chiff constable, hotf»l. In 1877 the strength 

l^ '^'12 !iii>iinted and 41'2 foot pfjlice, and the Intiil cost 

!*. (lia. t'.'i,7J^t>]. The men are regularly drilled and 

00 duty an? allowed to attend night schools. Freed by 

iif a dofachnient of British troops from the fear of 

(iM> or unrnly subject, the Cnt^-h state lias for years 

'' ut a regularly organiKed military force. 

•>d of a body of Masalman horse, with a 

Bgth of ninety-five, and an Arab militia, /tihnndi, 6<)0 

Mnealmau horse, who received in pay about £1400 

10) a year, were in 1876 found utterly unSt for actual 

if nineiy-five barely thirty wore forthcoming. In 

iiwtice uf thiH it WQB arranged with their leaders that they 

■h n ro«iiioeil number of ofFectivo horaemen. The Ambft 

I, though oppfiJ as seulinclei were imwdbng t^O obey 

'Submit lu dinfipHue, and they were too lazy and proud to 

-ft ordinary police duties. This body has (1877-78) boon 

and reduced to 300. Those who had not settled in Cutch 

Ifiid a gratuity anil indueed to return to their native land. 

1877. against 1098 in tho year before, 20G3 offences wore 
to the police. Of 3;^W persons nrrested 3180 were sent 
The coiirta dealt with 7151 persnns against .^208 in the 
3= mr. Of these 1220 were diprharged, 2468 acquitted, 
d, and 132 remained untried at tho close of the year. 
1$, in 90 the original sentience was confirmed, in 74 it 
. and in 17 rovcraod. In 16 cases farther inquiry was 
1, luui 24, most of them questions of oompcnsation, roniained 





follnwing )>tat4tment shows tho amount of property stolen and 
during the fnur years ending 1877-78: 

Cwf'A P»ricf. — pTOptrtjf Sl9Uu and Btnerrrd, JS7i-tVrT. 


houn. nwHTttW. 




1— f. 







tartilor;. , '"•"■ 




















I^ombay Qi 



Ch&itt«r IX. 


Since (he earliest Bnlisti coonectJoD with Catdi Uie> proTiooe] 
borne a had uniiiu ils the part of western ludiii where child mi 
wafl Tnoflt commonly practiwtd.^ Uesides the .Tadi'ja tribe, at 
the inoBt powerful in the proTinco and (he most Ihoroagh- 
murderers of their children, the custom prevwled among 
smnlter Rajput and Mnsalman dans, the Ho(hi8, Dediu, Mol 
Pbuls, Dais, Varomsts, Jh&r&s, Buttds, 3^r4t^s Pi^* Ch! 
Kaoaddes, Kera, Amars, Vdniniis, Bhiinania, and VnmrH.^ 
extent lo which the practice was carried hcEure (he dava of 
iuterfercDce no details are available. But it SEiemp probabls'^ 
at looat among the J^cjiis no female infiints and not oearly' 
male infants were allowed to live.' Child murder has, prol ' 
from vof}' early times, been practised by the JMej^s as by j 
•Rajput tTihes.' In the case of the Cutch Jildcj^ several circni 
combined to make the custom auiversal. The early convf 
the Jidej6« and other riinmlwr« of iho Sanima tribe to 
lowered thom in the eyes of the atauni'her Rajputs.' And 
theu their lonelinetis, their pride, and their poverty made 
hold aloof, who might otherwise have married with 

' The cwtoiD also previutnil ftin>i»i( Uie Kithiiwlir aod Msfai KAiit)!" l'^'<> 
' Sir A. Rurnu. Jour. R. A. Soc. I. ItM. Caiit MscMunlo's Ikt la - 
'About 800 funiljefl of MuhnumAilkns who cuuin Jiulejn (le«c«tit, aii>' 

MnHh*. I>»la, Kern, HnthiK. Mnk»Uia, Junita, Varmats, JhA'Hilu, mndlUunU* 
tnTuiticido." iTstis. Bom. Lit. Sw. II 
Infuitiade 1844. u. &S,) sHda MiAnAa. 

tnTuitiddo.' Tnn^ Bom. Lit. Sw. II. 243. Dr. Bh^u Dip (Prise En^r on 


* Thfi fact thftt Vvmue chiMnn Imv* {ltiS9] )Mm fonnil at aU ahomi tb«t our 
havo Dot been uitirelyfraitleas. Sir A. BuriiM, Jour. R, A. So«.L 1^ BothCd. 
(1829) (WeatAm India, 475) and Sir A. Buraoa (1829) (Jabt. R. A. Soc. 1.196} 
■uUaflAd that tx>yi aa well oa ^r\» w«rc killorl. ' During npvarda of a dusan 
but one daashtmr of a Rio of Cntdi i9aca]MHl the ruthtem nndo of th«il aiTM.* 
<iov. Sd. XV. 35. 

* In a paaaage in the Mahibbirat, about SCO ac (V. de St. Martin, Gm^. Groeq 
«t LjUine Sur I'lndo, 4(t3) the Djartibii and othvi Panj&b tiibeia are aoeiuaa 
tnunlfsriw their cbildrvu (Ditto, 4(K2.4IO}. It ig aaid that all the Samia |inctll 
tnfanticiiu while they remained Hindaa. (MacMunlo, Bom. Ut Soc. Tnuia. I (. Si 
JaofinomflAt (III. 307) found the pnctioe among thfi Main and Kaipota of Mcjwi 
ila auppraMJon )^ Mr. Ihincan among tho Rijkuinira i> well known, and 
OonUDonneea Col. Tod aitmita. (RAJHtbAn, I. MS). AccordintttoMvLenaan (Prauiti 
Harno^e, I3S, 165] the ori^o i<t iema]i> itirauticide, oammon nmung mvagea 
where, in r«ferali1« tothepnmeTol time of BtrugrieMidnecMnty irhen. uleaa i 
of aulf>aup|>ort, female infauta wore allowed Go periBh. ThoOAb infanticide 
^eoernlly be traced U> a primal alutc of strife the oaea of the JlAmtta ihows Uiat, 
m a tribe's hixtory, oinnuiutanciMunooiuu.-cied with strife, nay Anw to make gas. 
if not to introduce tite pneCiae. 

"Tlie leadiitg caoae of tbe univeraaUty of thcoractice among J&dejJia i> Uietr , 
of ca>t« by int^rnuuTying with MuMtlniina. Tbe owner of an aciv of land, wbeU 
Biaodia, Rithod, or Cbvli&n, wuuld score the band of a JAiloja prioc«aa. To 
BAjasthta, L MR. Dr. Btou D&ji (Infanticide, IK4-I, 4-i)adds, to thc^iitof acoriM 
A'vita, Obudiima, Abla, Mahida, I'aniiiir. -Sartaiya, Ai<d Vif^la RajpoU. 

■Western India. 474-477. Of poverty, (.Tapt. MacMunlo (Trana, Kom. lil^ S 
L £40) Mya, a very popular ojaniun is that child murder began in the want of taei 
to procure becoming marnagea. Of pride, in the same pAMa^;, he tuys Lhetw i 
feolingof pride cunDect«d wlui the praiTtice, for a J^IejaonncMiveitita Ion* of cliai-ac 
tiiat hiH dautfhter eboold wed any man. So Mrs. PoeUns (1837). who tmn-^ il nl! 
'tiendiah pride': 'ThoJiLdeiacunsidcn it a loss of character when hiadanfM 
fornomanishisci)Har(<'uti!h, MR), The right of dutroving their daughtt: 
Walkwr (I80>^), gi^w into a tirivilfice wbiii they reganinl an a diatmctioii )t.c i mr 
tlwiruute. (Boiu.Gov. .Sel. .V.X_XI\. :434,323}. Tbeir want of Dotghboun must alwi 
have incneaaed the JAdejie' diflicultv in gMtaae mntchea for tbcir danglita 
Stransera came reluctantly as they imnld gentgrally nnd wires neater lioiiie anri til 
aave tne tnmble andexpeoM of a long joumev. (Bom. Onv. 8eL XV'. 64. 62|. AiiM 
isolated Rajputs, says Col. Tod, the practioe is (oarfoM >,Te«te[ frvm the dificnJ 
of getting huftbanda Mr tlMir daughten. Bkjiathia, 1, ~ 



tn JiCdfja tnulition tbe custom dates from about the 

the twelfth cfiiiury.' Of the story of its origin there 

lwi> vrrj-ions, one tracing it to Jiideja pride, the other 

l>'i* ii!ipij|KiIarity. According to the pridu theory, either 

I, two bfittliers screuth in descent from Jam Unar 

) had seren daughters. To find husbands for these 

'W prii^t was sent to all the neighbouring tribea> 

'-I'll he came back declaring that no man was fit to 

Hearing this the dajightera vowed that rather 

T disgrace their family they would die eotit. The 

■^ •: ;o dissuade them, but their father was willing, and 

m leaa ■cnipuloiut Hrahnmn the nacrifice waa made and the 

ived.* According to f.ho unpopidarity theory, at the 

Uie daughter of Halla to the chief of Umarkot a fight 

the prinre of Umarkot and 10,000 of his men were slain. 

•iuvd the Sumra gaits, and as sho went to the fonera] 

hiT r:itht'r's house, praying that every Jideja's danghter 

Ijarren and eickly. Since then, says the bard, no one is 

|r to marry n J^deja girl.' 

- life wiM generally tAken by giving it milk drugged 
,j . .. jv it was smothered by drawing the umbilical cord over 
jOt or it woH left to die of weakness or of want of rara* 
■: — ■-' waa bom the fether ■was seldom told, all he heard 
wife had been delivered and that the child was ia 
Q. 1)q ilii-i he batht-d and nothing more waa said. Sometimes 
hther rt-fused tu take the babe's Ufo. Then the father waa 
[ nod ooloBs, which waa ran?, hi« heart softened, he vowed 
to enter the hongo nor cat till the child waa dead. Shrinking 
at first, women noon approved of the cuittom and when old 
than the mon that no girl's life should he spajcd. 
to Hindu custom the In^dy of the child waa privately 

Chapter Xi 

lonnesH of child murder in Catch was first in 18(H 
to the notice of Government by Captain Seton, then on a 
ndssioD nt the Klio's court." In 1807 Colonel Walker tried 
Patch Mnhr»iiimiid to exert himself to put down the practice. 
plwled that the custom was from God and should not be 
with.' The snbject waa prominently discu&aod in 1810, 

ImlLi, -177. 

XV. 34. Vi. Col Walker'i wnloa [Bon. Gov. SoL XXXIX. 323 • 
.u tanking t)».- n timber of victinu one instead of seven tuid in liUminff 
itiii^ i.|ij. i-hitncri-^ nf nuuriagr, iii«iatiii^ on Uvy pcKect a hiuhand 
Aoi-onling to JUiothiT accniint (Ditt(\ 563) thuir MuhanunacUii 
' <ic(l tke Juilcja cbivW Jauijliu-ra in miurlace. Thia t>i«y awlad 
"ir cMte daiigfaten were not olloircil tn livo, Tfavn, fearful thai 
I I Iw foonil out, and tmating to the (irmniM nf their family printa 
.M i_> .... 4h«ur hwula, thay murilnreil thitir dau^iUnv. 
. -. :)30. Captain MacMaHo|18tS|ta)-salittleopiam oatbs 
luiiiux inalMain of milk, or Uying the placenta in ha moutlk 
I f^ii*-. Bom. I.iL Am. T. 341. 
iiv. fl«l. 1 XLMl. &. T BfliB. Gov. Sd. CXLVIL 8. 

(Bombajr Qml 



kpUr IX but in liic trcaJy of that yoir no n-fi 

It la mii< 

JartiW. Cttjrtaiii McMiinio<U 



Jwlejds. JJe estimateil tbat iuiioD^ tbat trilw abuul 1 
were killed every vear, and tluii in tho whulw provintL' iheru 
MXty, probably not more than ttirty, girla alive. Tbe few ibia 
^been spnrod belonged to V^aishuaTito or Mosalmdn famiUei.' 
noxt year (1819) one of the chief rcoaona for the cxtremD leni' 
tlie tcrou of the trenty was the hope that the Buo aiid srunll&r 
would «xcrt tlicmsolves to pnt a stop lo iufauticidc. Tbo 
cDf^ngcd th&t in his family the L-usiom should ccaae, and thi> 
entered into a written agreement that any caftc uf itifanti 
thftir {amilies should be punished jointly by tbo British Govi 
ttiid riic H&o.' This ap^cmcnt would Nwm to bavo r(>i< 
a dead lottfr.* In 1823 O-lonel Tod learned on >j 
that thoogli mopo pains were taken to hido it, the pi-ni.-tii'Q ba 
all become loss common. He heard and bclioTed tiiat bo>ii 
«a girls were put to death.^ In tbe satne year, Mr. Gardioi 
Reaidont, reported some micceases in tbo attempts to save life, 
tho Kuccesti was small, for in 1826 a census of twoniy-live 
vill^es showed alwut six boys to one g'\r\. Nor wa« t^ 
«vil. Chiefs had rarely more than ono sun and nrobat>:_ 
as well as female children." A further census taken in lo2» 
•that in 112 villages, in different parta of CutcU, of 9^9 child 
were boys and 144- irirls.* This thongh nnsatixfactory was 
«dTUice. In 1830 8ir •!. Malcolm, tiovernor of Hombay, fi 
the great sacriticeB that had been made in the hope of abo! 
infanticide had proved somewhat fruitless He warned tbo 
that the English nation hated the crime, and that by continn 
practise it tlH>y ran the risk of losing itritinh snppurt.*' In 18 
assuming the govornmont, tho yoimg RAo Desalji took a freidi 
from tlK* Bhiy^ who again promised t^) give n]> the prnc^ 
to abide tbo full consequencett. This had little cmect.'" In 
the Resident Captain Melville wrote that female infjuitirlffp 
practised to a lamentable extrnt, and that very little ha^l r- 

done to put it down. lu the Jadeja population o£ 12,<' .: ji 

maiea, it was hard to find MK) females bom in Cutch. Kxcspt td 
TUo, not one of the Ji(deji.s had any wish that the practice aboti 

' Bom. Got. Sd. XV. S4-S8. « TrBw. Bam. Lit 8oc L fitt. 

> AitcbiaoB's Trratiefl a$'6l. IV. 21, 

• In 1821 (JutuirSS) Mr Klphinstoae.thenGnreiDor^ wnto iram Cntcb tiutk 
«im] WMlld be b«ct givinorl hy caubinn Mid delicacy iti the meftiu of d«tocUog ^il^ 
by ■wdcnttion in punuhing it. Bnm. Gov. nee. 10 of lEKl, 74. 

• Wwtaiti lodw. 475. CoL Tod tliotijHit that anlil tonus linit ww pnt to 
outom at altuing fjunjly csUtca nothing coald tie ilimo to stnp th« tnardor of difU 
(486). ^ RsipuUnK Jay Singol Amner tri«t! to nut dovro tba prafliMi liy limir 
iiie MDonnt of dou-rir*. But tn« vanity of bia «hi«n )dd tlMoi b» break tluxiiiitli 
rule. RijuthAn, I.647,54& 

• Bom. Uav. 8e1. CXLVII. 8. > Sir A. BnrttM. M>t. In26, 
■ Sir A. Buroea in Jour. It. A. Soc. 1.197. AsepaitlecenauaUiliini in 1929 ahoi 

•carcvly aaoli good n>>iih«. In 36 towna aad nlUuo« thmv wore 176 bujt aad 
17eirb. J. BamW Sind Court. S. " Mitiutu^lutL-d Dlpnri ISM. 

■* Rom. OoT. Set rXLVll, & Mrs. Postana (1S37, Cutcb, itl-tfil) «f>Ml» <4 
nurd«r emun^ the Jiilt>jita aa if it waa uoivsnal, {l«r fijpire*, SQOO Jm«jA« mm 
gifb,are tliowof 1818. 



lu Itiis jcor a cobo was proTo<I aod llio ofTc-Dtler Eiiictl. In 

ihe K(iii*R rofiaest, thf* J^ej&a oxecut«d a liaaA binding' 

to prvpare a txne yearly return of their numberB, to wport 

srcand still birtbn, to seati early newaofaoy child minuter, 

lit to hci fined, the floM going to form a fund in aid of 

-or J^eju.' A c«nsns taken in the same ye6e 

imd 385 female children uf Jideja origin or 

Be j^rl to seven boys.* In 1841 the Rao vho did hla utinosk 

.1..^.. t|,^ practice issaed a proclamation, reqaixiog under 

all tribes akin to iJie J&dej&s to abetain from the 

xju liiivr mi in the same yenr, m a cnso of infaaticide wag. 

one of them, the Llothi tribe were required to eign 

its.' At the same time rewards were offered for- 

1n 1844 the Jndeja chiefs, summoned by the Political- 

^•cknowledged their failure to keep their promise and meet 

of the British Government, nnd entered into a fnrther- 

it, afterwards renewed in 18-16, engnging to entert&in 

to report and keep birth and death regigt«rs, to take- 

' all jiruTDatan' births, auii if tin infant died to have the cause 

by two or three respectable persons. These stricter mles 

withoat Bomo result. During the five years ending 1847,. 

attion of females to males had risen from one in eight to* 

In April 18-t8 Govomment drew attention to the fi»ilure 

I to report caaos of crime, and suggcfited heavier penalties 

< if this and othrr cngagcmotits. At tho same time to 

'■■ r Jadejasin marrying Iheir daughters, a fund was 

by a yiWy subscription of £iO0 (Kb. 4000) from the- 

and on equal amount from the Cutch tioTcrmnent. The 

of lBo2 showed a proportion of one in four. In 1854 a 

ithreo writers was eogaiged to go mimd l.f> all Jiideja villages 

' fi^ a Mfi of birtlu, marriages, and dcath.t, to compile the- 

liieir n.>tum to Bhuj, bringing any suspicious cases to 

ICC of Govt>nunont bincu then no fresh meaeurcB have- 

Incod. SiiG.i^ostions to lower marriage exponsoa and to. 

circle within which J&deja girhi con marry, have hitherto. 


i873 censoe showed, exclusive of the wives of the- Jidei^^ 

longe«l to other Knjput tribes, 4272 Jiideja fsm^ee and 8371 

or about one female to two males. Still constant care was 

lo prevent infanticide from again becoming common. In 

' death rale anion^ female infants rose, 138 out of 378 dying 

~ with 72 unt uf 384 among male infante. In some villager 

lunler wa.s still unchecked. In the Abd£s» town of Nalia 

lie infant was systematically put to death. Doring eleren 

9I tliirtj-nine female infants only lire had lived, while of 

[^nu boys only teu bud died."^ Since 1874 with unceasing car» 

sgrctcs has l>een made. During the last sixty years the all 

pnu-tioo has fallen into such diatuo that tho 1877 

ahuwed among the whole J&deja poptdation 8tj72 males and 



(Jor. 8*I.CXI.V1I.8. 
Qox. ScL XV. &i. 

» Bom. n«v. Bel. CXLVTI. % 
* horn. Gov. Sel. CXLVIL UL 



»pt«r IX. S0i2 females, a proportion uf one female to 1 '07 main*, unS 
Jutict. *^^ "^^ ^^ tweutjr a return uu uearly equal a« 105 male* 

feiDoles. In the same year the Cutch mfantieide fund ainoa 
JK7U1W (Hs. 7it,900) of whicli £5:i3 (Ka. 0380) were given 
poor .Tii4lcji8 ill marryiu(f tlicir tituigliiera.' 

Of eieveu recognized places for confining priaonem 
lock-nps, and one at Bhnj, for cases of niorv llum otii.' 
impristmnieDt, is a lar^^e well Djaoagcd jail with ttkhu I 
inniBtea. In J877 the eleven jnils held :Lltogether 282-1 pri 
ora daily average of 2ill. Tlie pi-isoners in tiio Hhuj )«il, nn 
Haperinteudence of a jailor and staff, are cbietly employed in w 
tapes, towels, and rough white, chotdra, cloth. In 1H77 tb 
cost was £1143 (Rs. 1 1,400} or an average of £5 (1^,60) 
_J4d«)ftU>urL The Jadeja conrt is a Rpt'cial Cntch insfitntioiL. Under 

preeideucy of the deputy ininister, nath iliwtln, itn ba 
ouudQcUjd by a bench of four Jadeja nobles^ tnetubers of tbo 
and chosen by His Iltghness the Riio. This spnrial conrt 
origin (o the guarantee granted by the British Government 
Jaileja chiefs under thu tenris of the trealy of IHIS*. At 
noither the persons inrlnded nnder the giiarauN-e nor ihi- n 
scope of the guarantee was fixed. It ba& only been after a 
uf inqairy and discassion lasting over DtKirly sixty yearR, t-hait 
eettlemeni has (1878) been made. This settlement fixe? t! 
number of guaranteo holders at 139/ and as regards their rivil 
criminal puwera in thoir own cstatfls arrangofl them intotoTi- 
The first class, hulders of more than fifteen villages, liavtt : 
powers, and in criminal matters jurisdiction op to cases iuvoW 
seven years imprisonment or a fine of sibout £158 (GOiH) kariii) ; 
aecoud class of holders, with more thaa five villages, have 
to aettle civil casos up to about £263 (10,000 ton's) in value, 
criminal cases up to two years imprisonment or ££2 (: 
Avtm) fiue ; tbo third class, with more than one village, hM 
cini iorisdiction up to £52 (2000 ioW.*), and criminal up to t 
montha' imprisonment and £7 16«. {ZOO karut) fino; and the f.>Q 
class, owners of one village, have civil powers up to Co (200 
and power to imprison for fiftoen days or fine £1 68. (50 
Except that, with the concurrence of tho Political Al". 
RAo has power to call for and quash any proceeiliugs that :> 
to be nnjuat, no appeal lios in erimiuaj matters from a firat 
holder in cases involving a maximum sentence of three ni 
imprisonment or £5 4». (300 koriv) fiue, or from a «ecoud 
holder from a maximum Gonttiuoe of ono months impriaoninonty 
£2 12ff. {\00 koris) fino; or in civil cases from docisioiiB of 

' JUttjft girbi now (iod Imsbuid* in Mvcnl cluRaof Itn.j|KiU. Tb« oktaf 
JliAU. ChobAn, Jethva, Ritlhod, Vi^rln, rarm&r, ^Iho, KliUiida, CliATd«,r ' 
8in<llial, Suluiki, iuhl the ufrshui>t tncw* uf (.'LuliiiuAa an<l Kera. 

■ Of tlicM 18 *n ia Kipor, 1 1 in Uha'^lnku. 'i in AnJM, 3 w Bhtij. 9 b> \h\a-U 
36inUiioOvi, 60ta Abdiu, luiJ lOin LAkiiml. rnhtical .\^ei>t, 2107. 
1878. Tbe list faclti<leB the ilaceixUnt' ni *ll jMraimti wbo hdil Ihi. , g| 

ctu«[B «1 tho daU of the 1819 treaty. I'uliUi;*! Affait, 170, 6tli ULhrbcr IStl. 



I, when not more than £130 (5000 Awn*), or of second 
wbun nut muru than £b2 (2000 koria) ara in disjmto. 

139 gaarantee holdt-rs only fifteen have, by owning a village 
■eventy-fiire houses, been held fit to oxerciso civil 
powers. Of tho fifteen, ono, thoThiSkorofMom, ia in 
; Ito are in the third, and nine aro in the fourtli claaa.^ 

■ 'ii' JadLJa court tn hoar civil and criminal cases, 
* of p7iarant<r6 holders and beyond their powers ; 
which a guarantoo holder is ooncoruod, or iu nrhioh 
ijf tho partifja live on a pnarantco holder's estjvto. 
of death, transportatioa for life, or fourteen years 
I to cnufirioatirtn by His Highnosa thy R4o. 
■ na of jurisdiction holders lio to tho Jadeja 
les aUtve their liual juriisdictiou. From tho Jddeja 
'ihppoiil lioa to the K^, and from him to Govemmenl, 
in dispnto is tho land or rcTonuo of a ^arantee 
Boundary dieputos in which a guanuitou holder is a party 
" by tho Jadcja court with an app(>al to the Itao, and a 
rcppi-Al tu Gcvoriiuiout if the party liisnatisfied isa ^^uarautee 
itujuodary casi-a in which tliu Hao iH a [)arty, are decided 
court with an appeal to Government. 

summary of tho difToront phaeoa through which, 

I& and lB7dj tho qnestion of tho rights and dntios of 

Uars han pantiod, has boon |irep:irud by Colonel L. C. 

, as Pbliticai Af^mt, (1877-78) took a loading part in 

last difficulties that stood m the way of a final 

Chspt«r 12. 

JAdeJ* Vmxt 

if^ principle of tho different snb-divisiona of tho great 

is that all the hous d£ a chief must bo providc^l for out 

v.n-.' ^-tnto. The case is well pnt in the following passage 

]:in.* 'In all largo estates the chief must proride 

^r uruthers, according to his means. In an estate worth 

to £8000 (lis. 60,000 - 80,000) a year, the second 

migtit havo a village yielding a yearly rent of from £300 
fits 3000 - 5O0O). This is his jKitrimouy, hdpoHt and 
I ase by good service at the court of his sovereign 
-ui.iors sharo in proportion. These again sab-divide 
tlieir little roU of dependents. The extent to whiub 
l(tn is carrii^d in some Kajput ei^tates is ruinous to the 
and general welfare of the country. It is pursued ia 
t« until thoro is actoolly nothing left sufficiently large to 
fi. fiiniiali aubsistcucu for one individual.* Consequently 
Mio of services to tho state onsues, especially tn the 
if tii*ikurnU, ecattorcd over tho countiy, as amongst 
tlu) E^thi&wiir tribes, and tho small Gujar&t 
3rdoring on tho wnstam Rajput states. In these 

' ti! boll U Uiua fruin Wf nra*B 'ISAo of Cnteh ud 
I. 245 'SI?. C«l. BwUin. 
.V •■^'^- --Vol Ll73,l"4- 

_ _ _ _ _ in dv] 


to ch0CT*P SI 

of tfe Inding J4dqi^ 
1 m l&U, v^ea Bia ~ 
■■B m aoaordnce witfaj 
flCOs'M^^ Ib ratmfcrd»Mpgxffwbr tb* 

H ef the tia>7 a£ 1S19, • 
aaf xighft to e^eol. The 
I to TMfc» aot noD hit prDFed it 
g«mnt»Baft ^on tfee dene of Oe Wej* lUwTifL In' 
Mtida tbe Oooiw?^ a^wwMsBd DoMln H Rm o( Cotcli. 
rig^ g£ faMi, bat by titortion of fi» JUejft ofaiaEa. 
Kticle the JideJK Bh^^id, w at Ae tinie t2te sole 
povor, de tomi i w i l w^ tbe HoooonUs Computes 
snsflBcy rfK"H faa t u t i ned. Wboi, imder tius sixUi 
OoBOpuiv Agned to leBTe a Britab fbrae ia Cntch, this 
WHmdeattbedMirBallUoShriDeeBlu aodUu J&dojii 
and, asUum^^iiannl GoTenmeBtofCtetdivera notai' 
but a limited wootrtisjf faaSM Cor the pajnient of the 
gnarauteed by the eamo B&o 6hri DeBdji and tlie 3i 
Agun in the {onrteenth article^ proridmg the Brittah 
with niiUtaiy aid &om ^le Cntdi atate, a apBoal diuuB 
to tba efiect tbat the amo^opMot vraa not to bo ooi 
inpoMflxiy dntieaonthoJideriaBUEgr&d eanSnrj totheiri 
dutoms. Still more important were the tmtli, 
etgfateontli artioles. The tenth provided that the Bnliab < 
ahonld exercise no anthonty over tKo domestic conoGrMJ 
artboM of any of the Jadoja chieftains, and that tho 
aod moceBBora ahoold bo absolute maeters of their 
the cixteontb the Britiah Govcmmeot guaranteed tho J| 
of tho BhikyMf and geDGrolly all Uajput ohieb in 



[loewaHioiiUt mid in Llio eighteentli t1ir>ystipn1:tti>i1 
jii ;ho gnanLuUy>, tltac tUu jMoja chiefs ulumtd cntor 

whium engagtiuicDt to abstain (rum infauticiiie. 

.( this treaty wna thnt tho ntmnst aclvantaffca of 
■reauo were st'curcil to the JSdejn chiefs, whilo tlio 
tinseparahlo tbort^from wi;rf heiipeii on the Rau, then a minor 
[jears. In Jnnoftry 1 82 1 , the Uonourable Mouutetoart 
9, Giivemor of BoiidKt}', vi»ted Ciitch. Ue haa left tha 
'i£ th*' n-latioiis hciween tliu iWo and tha gmoUer 
.'s ordinary jurisdiction is confined to hia own 
i, eacb .ludejftchjcf i-xeiriBing' unliniited authority within hia 
la. The Kau can call uu the Jddejds to serve him in war, 
funiiuh them with pay at a fijcc-d rate while they are with 
Ha is the ^lai^Iiau of Ihe public peace, and as such 
all r~>hberB and other general eucmiea. It would Boem 
he oiitfht to reprc^ss private wax aud decide all 
jlween chiefs ; bnfc this prerogative, thonj^b constaiitly 
not sdmitted without dispute. Knch chief ha.ia Himilsr 
_ lauien, who posscaa aharosof the origiual appanage o£ tho 
sod etaud in tho samo relation of nomiual dciKudonoo to 
he bears to tho Kilo," Of tho condition of tho chiefs 
iinstono observed : ' Somo of them are reduced to poverty by 
>tu sub-dirisidna of their cstatos, orery yoimgor brother 
^oitittod ^] 5 share eqoal to one-third, uid ofUm to one-half 
, of tJm elder, bat on tho whule, tho number of oetatea that 
anded to aingln heirs induf^ea a Bnspidnn that ia Guteh 
is not confined to females.' In regard to the policy to bo 
. hj the Itogeaoy towards the Jfidej'&s, he laid down the 
ip'dintctiooH: ' U is UDcesmry tliat the JadejilH should be 
with att<mli»n and civility, and that care should be tnlcen 
zh on their priviluguj]. Tho vigilanco of the Rostdent 
-. affainsfc the negligence, partiaufcy, or corraption which 
isrincod by the Uegi-ncy in <leciding on the quarrels of the 
His aal.hority should repreisa all ^tempts on their part to 
' the practice of plunder oruE private war, and his moderation 
1 guard against tho temptation of adding to the Ibio'a 
^4KHUuns by forfeiture even in ca&es viheru the resistance of a 
lid have required theemployment of military force. Great 

cl.i.t .1, 

Chapter IX. 


lid be taken to avoid any a]i|Karaoce of arrogance in 
J.' LTvu'-ment of tho Jideju chiefs ; but 1 do not think there ia any 

Tut'a kcoomit writboi twi> yttan latvr cloMly igrMS with Ur. 

1 1 . j'c Of klwut 900 Mpftnte prophet"ra. Qfty wcni o( Hnut oaaasqauiDii muI 

bifkvu, mm of them tha dMom'iAnto at chicftainii ontAMixtKril Itefoia Khengar's 
fa»<l5T;v f< 'Tv^««1 ft mIccC b^/ of thv highntt nuilc. Tlie Rio li»(l tli« riglit Ui oil 
■ 1^ 'itarv asTVKe ; )>u( at tlio Hun« tim« lie IumI to Ki*« tbeiB a 

MMr wb«o a vsmoI J^<i<-ja ilied Uio R4o (umI the ri^ to Miad a 

Art <n tui-ui i" Llie beir ; hut this did not inflaenoa nieceMJon utd wm adk 
Mfcjunrlalt^l li; uiy lioma^. 'I'ha JidojAa mmte no hoauwa and paid no iavertibir* 
ifit ao Um m?owb<ii) ijf tliu Rao, on hi* nuurutti*, uiaan tha birth <4 a pnnos, 
pcOJi, t<y l\it; R.i-j wvK full and for ever. The Rio had Utn rijjht to hear 
A cuci <f* f'lK itif luIatioDa. lint he ifaoald not riecida aoch ant* without the 
[ Um a*" i''tl of •tAt«', thr Ufuii/titt r>r brotherhood, in which ovvT 

But-. I. a. Wnt«ni UiJia, 134-W», 



Chapter XX 


nocessity for rpfrm'ii)^ political <|Uitstions to tltc decision nf ihtir 
to thp DXteut wbicli a Kuperfidul view of tbe cturcupondeua) 
Residency woiilil load ua to think aflual. It w nuluntl Uisi 
ihat the fonniT RrioA wonld cim^ult the princijial .1, 
lliey enttrod uu auy moa«>rt» that reqnirod the tt.rdial 
of tbe BtiiSyAd, iind in tIa>abfioiu-c i>f an (^flii-jf'nt .■-' , *l 

still more neceasnry thai tho Kcgcncy shnuld li-nm th- ■\t 

that body, but it doeti nol appear to bo OKtml, nr t-o be ex|H;rtv«i,' 
to be practicabio t}mt all abould bo nsseuiblcd to ^ivn tbcir V' 
e?en on tbo most important qncaUons. Tho lio.-.idi-'nt 
continuo fo cooflult the (greatest chiefs at'iMrattOy or tc 
thinks Ixist Hiiittid to tlie oocasion, and may e:£U^od < 
nniiihfir according to tho importance of the t|nc8tit>n ; bnt J 
think tihy or sixty the gTuate!»t number that ooud over be con 

During tho minority of Rjio Desalji (1810 -183i) tho 
tho state were man»u:od by a Coimcil of Regency, at tho 
which watt the Briiutti RoHidouU During the latter bal i 
period (1827-1^31) the port was held by Major, ai 
Sir Henry, I'ottingor, who, while in the maio respoci 
JideJB independuncf, stojulily pursued a centriili?;inp 
Powora likely to interfere with tho maintenance of piili 
or with the policy of a ftood aud stroug fcfcjvyi'Dniunt, w 
but quietly taken out of their hauila. I'liey muld nu I 
their people to death, nor conid they venture openly to di- 
direct oriiers uf the Kej,'ency, actiut^ for the Darbfir. Of i 
mflmbers of the Regency, Copt. Walter, Assistant Resident 1 1 
1828), has lolt the folluwiuy account : ' From tho Jidcja 1 1 
are memherw of tho Rep:ency, no assistance haa ever boon d(*n 
Coniddering tho attaioment of the commoneat qnalificarions 
beneath their dignity a» Rajpnts, they are as little adaptod 
their i^oroncc as it is foreign to their habits^ to interfere or ad 
in tho affairs of tho H&a. On their own estates thpy evince 
greatest ignorance of their own affairs; but during tli> 
rotiidonco at Uhnj, thity appear tube BiilicitKiiti of i 
and, without their own individual interosta am concerned, noith 
an opinion nur judgment is ever cjcpruti&t'd by Lhem, exceptn 
in caaea whero ihc miniHt^nt, witthing to givo weight to t.hcir 
proposals, bring tho Jddejds to aasort their concnrrence.'^ 

In 1830, when Sir J. Malcolm, Governor of Bombay, Yink 
Cutch he a«Rcml)!od the Jfidcja chiefs and soundly rebuked iht 
for their bad return fgr tho libonil trt>atnient they lind rcceivi 
oloTon years Ixffore. * Yonr lands/ lio said, ' have been guaranteed 
you and your deact^ndants by the British Government with"ut tl 
stipulation of one cowry of pecuniar)' puytncnt to it or to your Prinoi 
and withont fixingany specific aid of troops in the event of invasion, 
of the public peac^ being disturbed. Since then yon have alio 
Bmiill and despicable bands of plunderers to traverse tho ronnt 
and carry off booty from the principal toiivns of yonr Prince. 

) WyUi«'i Kxteroxl Policy of ladia, 3GS, • WjUiv's External Pub'uy of ludai, 81 



the Rosidrmt and tho ministor to inform mo of tho 
nny rv<r»'>D thitt iListiti^iiili(.>ii himself duritig^ the laUi 
lint ucit uno Dame has bu^ii bront^ht lo my Dotice, 
ii lar)^! b'liiy of Rajpnt chiefs, bojisting the name 
amJ of dcvoU'd allfgrinDce to their ruler, considering 
■ '■ Itered by our too gOQeraiis guarautee from the 
of thoir Prince, made not one pffort to protect 
.phtnder or his fields frum deva»tat.iun, apparently 
^«avmi their own f-staUw from similar evils, ana 
ifWfl it is wtrongly fiu<)pftcted that the exemption 
kttack mn thu price of a batte, if uot of a traitorous 
Tliift ha^ paMHed;biit let it bo knuwn in future, that 
thini» in tho BritiHh guarantee that frees (he chiefs 
nlU'i^ancu, or from the aid they are bound to gira 
Any chief, who after this fails to exert himself to 
to nppufie and destroy bin (the Rao's) enemie.s or 
tre^^ will U? dcjalt with, as one who aids them, and shall, as 

It puniiUimont, be priNrlaimed Co have forfeited all right 
irritt)cHon.' *Tho Resident,' Sir John added, 'has been 
ttme b3 commumcate with all of yon individually upon 
I which is one of much inipurtauce for you fully to 
PHo will ojcplain to you the mode in which you can 
ligations that belong to your condition, and which ora 
baTiud in any engiigement nr treaty, bt^causo they are implied 
liot that can neither be evaded nor neglected without tho total 
utioo nf those tiea by which a Government like that of Cutch 
|Hbe maintained under itaprosont form and administration.' 

pVtniaiito from which this extract is taken tiir John Malcolm 
nnu up hill view9 on the Bh^y^ question. ' The chiefs of 
I kuro encroached on their ruler till his revenue bears no just 
ttion to hJB condition as their head, and it should be a principla 
r pnliry to take every fair advantage of events, tu increase 
Mo'* to the diminution of the depraved, disobedient, and 
^ftobte ctatiK of potty chiefs, whose existence in their actual 
I^B variantre with al) plans of improvement, and calculated to 
^nnp^iimble, if not to destroy, the alliance we have formed 

I, on attaining his majority, Bao Desalji .iiigned a new 

rhich the chief stipulatioa was, that the Kegency should 

It he Khonld be placed in chargeof the government of his 

'under the constitutional and estabti^bed advice of bis 

'ftnd the J^eja Bb^yad.' 

kyear 1842, a commiMsion, of whipb Mr. Lnmsden was 
was appgiutod for the purpose of dutermiuiug the rights 
ty the cuief of Morvi in VAgad in caateru Catch. la 
P' y Mr. Lmunden defined the lUo'a righia over his 
be: the rifcrht to sumiuon tho BhAyid for military 
]©ct to the cuiidition of subrtiritiug them and theii- troops ; 
lo ttcttle appeals frt^ro the Bhiiyad in their dispmca 
LDOth^r; the right to recover stolen property or its 
■Mvm any member of the Bhayid into whaae town it had been 

jAdoja Courti 

Chapter IX. 
JkUjft (.'on It. 


tnu:od; the coDtroI of all sea customB and otiier poi 
tlie riphl to trollivt. nerljiin l-ritJing' Cessna from parliculttr 
Wl<iii|trin^ u> .liideja chiefs; tlie rifrht, !□ cases of litKttvdtMl 
Ut trnimce his legitinuLte orders by billet, tnoh»il, or bj mititl 
h'TCi: Three iiiortt rights were claimed by the Rao : to Irrj 
subftrription from the Bhfiy^ for pwWic works; t<5 ]■' 
pusts in Jadeja towns ; and to saddle the estatea of Ju'. 
i\'ith the perpetiinl payment of certain religious ^mnis. 
three, Mr. Lumsdf*n tiisallowed the first and considered thl 
(loubtfol;he itdmitltd that the third was supportfld by si'll 
iustanccs. ' Beyond these nine items, no other ;■ 
' WHS fitrmerly exercised or is now claimed by t\\- 
he considered that the right of the fibay^ to exclueiTo cinl i 
criminal jnnsdictiou within their uwn towns and territo^ 

In iho following ynar (IS+S) Mr. Lumsdon became ' 
in Cntt^h, and thus recorded his obaervntions on the ■ 
the Outch JMej4s. ' It recognises a partition of juriftdictioi 
as uf land, but as this is incompatible with an efficient guv< 
and indeed would speedily lead to anarchy, wo find it nu 
circuin stance*, and an uucortaiu scale of iudepeudeiire accompa 
the posHession of landed property. The represt-nialives of nil 
great) families throughout Cutch are called the lUtitt. lliei 
their turn have 8hart>d their right*, y»V»M, with their yooi 
brethren, and the lattor again among thoir heirs. This mb 
sub-division of property and rights has led to the following rM 
Kver\'where are numerous petty proprietora living in pea 
independence, exercising in iheir own [wrBona the civil and pfl 
authority el.-'ewhero roatod in the chief. In many cases yau 
branches, who have either equalled or surpassed the elder in wo 
and infiiienco, have come to bo regarded by prescription aa- 
rei>resentativos of distinct houses; while in others by a sod 
family oompact, they acknowledge and support the bead 

In 1849 H&o Dcsalj! t^ent in a formal protest against the nriic! 
the 18^4 treaty, lliat declared ho was to rnleunder thecnTi--rvri 
and established advice of hia mininl^rA and the Jadeja Ttl 
based bis argument un general principles, and stated 
yna. on good terms with hin Bhfiy^, his motion was not a. . 
prnsaure uf any special cin'umstHnces. Tie stated that the gen 
government ot the province had al^Tays been carried on by the H 
personal authority, and he requested thnt in cases where 
Government guarantee was concerned, the R^ should act with 
advice of his hrethreu; and that all other alhiirs should be eonds 
in accordaniV with the ancient usages of the province. Govonu 
refused to alter the treaty, on the ground that it conceruMl ( 
than their own and the Klio's interests. 

ifeaawhile the civil and crimiual ctiutrol of the Bhiy&d over 
several estates n^maiiicd ]iraetically unchecked. The [{io se' 
interfered, and in the aiNBCucP of any judicial system very few \ 
came before his officialsr As time went on disputes of vii 

' sod 

anil the BhAyfiil. Tliej 

I Agpnt, Colonel Jacuh, who in hia rcpfirt to 

it remarked that there were four aeunral priucipltis ttt 

itha tiriLmh Guvumiiieut, iu vitidiciU'iuu ol the guaraotttB 

<A to thff> feutlatoriesj tmdor any obHfi^tion to check the 

fyHt«inatie ocquisitioD of cUiuim bj- jturchaoe or mortgage; 

hi R*' withnnfc (h« consent of his Bhiiyad, thu right- to 

l>Ie to the prtivince aX. larj^w; was the 

ti, mohnalf, on the vaaaals o{ his Bhayad ; 

k what, extern coulil tho Bbftyid oiiEoruo the puwt>r of aiUice 

wd uy them by the treaty of I83'i. On all thcAo poinia Colonel 

'totertaiaod opinioiis «trong:ly advenie to the pretensioon ot 

IVk" raised by Colonel Jacob were decided by Guvernraent 
-A. of Hth Au^utit 1857) in the fallowing nmuner. FirHt, with 
3 to the R&a'» acquiring claims on the OBtotisB of guarantcod 
, it W3U ruled tbut such claims couM give him no right to 
ich on the preruf^'aliToof the Jttdeja Bhdyd<^l, norlH)a(tpn)|iriato 
Ikndii withont Clieirexpr4>d8 consent, and that if hci^ucji-avnured 
krcc any eutrh pretoneion, the Britiah Government would 
Dm and viudteato its guarantoe. Secondly, it won; decided that 
» Rio, boforo the troalies of 1816 and 1819, had not the power 

Ke for any except his ownsnbjecta, he wa« nut, except with 
eat, entitled qow to trauegre^s that bound oud totogifilatti 
hject« of thoBhayAd; it waa noooo.sary to roinind luin, 
on IG of the treaty of 1^19 secured tu the chiefs, by the 
'tnll enjoyment of their po»£OR»ions' the onjoyincnt of the 
«go« which HQch poasosaioca conforrod. Thirdly, a^ to billeting 
on the chiefs' villages, tlie practice waa declared contrary to 
litittinn and cu^lotna of Cutch^ and, in case of an 
ived from any chief, could not bo jwrmitted by the 
ill ' vnl. Lastly, the rii^ht of advice secured to tho 

U u. .. . x'aty of I8'3l was dcfinod as rendering iheir consent 
mry to any law intended to have foroc ihronghont the Trhol» 
lion, but OH not binding the lUo to their riewti iu mattera 
1 concerned bin own prerogative. 

the fiillowing year, the order against the U&o's impositioa 
tleu wB^ modttied. The Political Agent suggested that billots 
Malt* of gnaranteed chiefs should bo imposed through tho 
rsnd in cases in which the R6o himself might be a party, a 
■TU'^ should, in the first instance, be made tu the Agency, and 
'ion was approved by Government and th<i fciccrotary 
^^_L .'tit the R^ repudiated any hmitatiou of liui rij^ht, and 

El after (1860) the quetstion was left open. 
Iji, tho next Rao, showed, Iwffire long, that he waa 
minotl to carry hi» prerogative fui-lbnr than hi.i father. H& 
iuned the jurisdiction of the Bhdy&d over their own raasols^ 
- - -!<:t them from their estates by pecuniary accommodation, 
I hw right t^i impose billets not only on the Bhdyad 
■naiita. With regard lo the laat point, fl^ivcm- 
iij luLiou of oth November lUii'i, doubted the 

Jidcja Court. 




propriety of allowing the Rfio, except on rety enic-r:g«il oet 
to billet meo on the chiefs. 

On tho 10th January 1805, tho Political Agent in CDtahstiTin 
a iiiemoraudum to Govdmmtmt, purporting to phic« cleti 
them tbu whole subject of the rcIatiouB botweco tlio Bf 
feadatories. He represented that the result of the Britiith < 
with Outch had be**n immeniwly to iucresse tho Kdi< 
Att an intttanco in piiut, ho quotod tho supervigiou 
infantioido opflrations which had piven tho Rfio a dpsahor 
iuterfert? iu the iut-erual affairs of the Bh&yid and other pi 
The chieffl> he said, coiuplninod : that men wore billi'U' 
not only by tho Riio but by hia subordinate officers ; thiu 
previons reforeuc* to them billets were placed on ilioir icn 
not otity by tho R&o, but by his subordinate othcers ; that r 
irapniwd on them and their tenanu by tho Rio and bi^ u&v 
the li.6.0 bad levied a new tax called taJclephan; that in ^ 
polico had interfered in petty cases in which both plui:.w. 
defendant were tenant« of tho saino proprietor; and thai, llio 
Umght rights, yirtU, troni parties who wore not I'unipetait 
alienate thoni. 

On these points the Political Ag<?nt requested order*. 
BQg'geeted the necessity for a more exact definition of the {ortic 
obioni or cstatos to which tho Bixteenth artiolu of tho trt'oty 
1819 WU8 tt> Ijo aijplied; ho asked for iiisti-uctions in r 
estates ffuaratiti?eil at the dato of tho tn^afy, but. which 
boon brolten up, or in which the KAo mig-ht have siucc 
a direct interest; aud ho su^jfosted that in tu-xordunct- .— -. 
treaty of 1834, tho council of tho Bhtiyiid inipht Iio ronstitnteili 
court to take co^Koneo of all niatlers connoetod with iui 
order, in other words of all uasvis iuvulving the interehta of U 
chiefs or their tenants. 

In A further memorandum submitted on the Ist Man;h l^*"v ''-^ 
Political Agent laid down as prouitsos, that tho normal > 
of tho fcuiIaioricSj within the limitR of their own estate.*, mu> 
of complete indepondtnco ; that by the deeds of g-iiamutcu istt 
to them in 1819, the Uritish (roverDment were Iwjund lo prf-^er 
that independence; that it had allowed their independr'UCii to 
infringed in many ways by the Rao ; that by sub-divisjon of pr 
the majority of tho bnd-holdei-s wore no longer fitt^Kl for 
exercise of a completely independent jnriaiiiction ; and that 
Government could hope to secure them was a modilit-d Fnnn 
indopendonce. He then proposed to define the liniitM of llio Hi 
logitimato jurisdiction over the gnarflntoed chie^ ; to nmke ot 
an authoritative li)jb of tho guarauloed chiefs; and to diviC 
thom into two clasHOs, those fitted and those unStted to oxc 
civil and criminal powers. Tho rights of the second class shouW 
bo proposed, be vested in a council of twelve of the bredirci 
sitting as a pcrmiuient court in lihiij, with tho Riio or»uy ohil 
named by bira aa I'rosident. 

On tho 2oth Angaat Id66, whiln these enggeritionn wont one 
conBidoratiuiij tbu Rbo addressed a protest agftinst the upinionja 



of Iho Political Ajj^cnt. He dcscnliofl them as subveraiva 

'preropitiro which, by bereditary rigbt and recognition of the 

UoTerumentj was })rQ|>erl}r vmted iu tho rulers of Cutcb. 

mened that be bad power to biltet tiion ol) over Cutch, and 

ftoluul& reserved critoiuaj jurisdiction in all »t>riou8 matters. 

littod thiLt. rJril suits were generally H<>ttIod by loc^l 

t, Imt arpiod that an appeal lay to thn RAo, and aj^od 

in imn'Ttanl. sniia an appeul sh'>uld alfio lie t<j thd PoliticAl 

m. \\ iih n^foreuco to the ^wnintee bu urgiHl that all that 

■fwcUicallr fnuuiuitood tn tho fondotorios wcro thoir'londod 

! il did iifit assure them the exorcise of a cinl 

iiiu iuouuipaiiblu with tbo suprciuacy of tho 

I ui ibo istttUi. 

'\b9 ]iaptirH thus 6ubmitti?d, tho Pulitioil Secretary to Iho 
in.i-ibt (if Bombay drew up a note on thu lOth October 18(i6. 
1 1 Ion that the Political Agent tn Ontch had overrated 
"[ the gtturaMeo granted to the chiofH by tho treaty of 
ihnt it was ntit at all clear that Government had 
■ -n) (lu-ir independence in such a sense that it mijfht 
. fd wii b iu the cause of gtKid ^overnmcut. Pi-aciicuJIy 
slini that the phit'fs should be clnysified according lo their 
■^t^m, and that after each cliit'l' liad been awiguod hi» 
iction, all reniaining iKiwer aliould centre iu ibe il&o. 
n.; -d that a special officerof woightaadstanding 

K Cut-L-b, for the puriXMMj of drawing up and 

'.-nt the draft of a settlement of all di&putod 
: 'jxisting treaties and engagements. 

f»niTiTnna o! tho Govommont of India on tho whole snbject 
I in their letter 808 of the Gth September 18ti9. 

i-.'iid that thn chief object wa3 to maintain oxisting 

between the Ra*> and the Hhkyii. Tho position of tho 

Oiwerumeut iiudor the treiity of 1819 was that of suzerainty 

|Catch state; that while, thoJ'oforo, it could not claim any civil 

" linal jurisdiciion in tho peninsulft, it reserved a certain 

genenil cjulrol, and more «pociticatly bound itself iu 

cnulin^'v-npioa to intorf^re between tho RAo and bia chiefs ; 

le bixujcn and tho deods of guarantee reanltiug from it 

no other righta than those enjoyed at the time by the 

' ' , ; they did not alTcct tho righta of tho Riio, or tho 

ieo which tho chiofa wore bound to rentier. Whoro 

ltd fallen into abeyance there was no call to resmsvitale 

tlio i-xurciso of rigbte Hknly to cause mi^mlo wait to be 

;; I bo lUo to be encooragod and strengthonod in the full 

of his legitimate powers ; and care to be taken to avoid 

ng bia autbority by auy 8tniu:h of tho gumuutood righta 

their reasonablo moaning. 

regarding tho egtatofl of the gnnrantond chiofsj tho 

India cousiderod thar the Rao whoiild have a council 

ruuld be bouud tu couuuU^ and that if be acted coutrary 

Ivico, the council, or tho voAoal whoso intoreaU wore 

Chapt«r IX. 

JAdeJA Court. 


Chapter tZ. 




fcffect-ed, slioiild have the right of apptiil to the PolititTiJ 
whose decision, subject to the control ol" (.Invcromoutj kIiuhJiI 
Aa rogarda the jarisdictiun of the chiefs the UovorumeDt of 1 
considered that a list shonld Iw premiered of thfwo who bv t' 
of their estat-es wurti qualified to excrcjue Hdminifitniti^ 
tho rest should ho eatitlod to elect a reproaoatative meiuWt uJ 
iClko's cotmctt. 

On the 7th October 1867, the Political Agent forwarded hew 
an arrangement, which he thought likelr to fnlfil the obj. 
policy Itiid down by the Uovemment of India. The aii..„^.. 
wiki founded on proposals submitltid hy the R&o'n Diwan 51r. 
SbaU^budin. As regards tho saggeRtion of the GovornmM 
India, that the lUo should be helped by a cooncil, the propoHl 
that there should bo a, panehnynt, under the proatd 
of the R^ to settle disputes between guamnt^^-ed prnpriotom; 
that beaidm the U&o and his minister it should consist of I 
tnetnbers, chosen by the votes of certain of the proprieiciriL 
regards jarisdiction, the Ctitch proposal wan tn nrrnngo the chi^ 
fire classes with graduated civil and crimiimi jwwers. 

On tho 18th March 1868 the Govornmoot of Bombay m 
for tho approval of the Oovorumont of India a draft agreemeal 
which it was pro[x>sed to define tho jarindiction and funrtioi 
thtf Rao and the guaraQleed Bli6y«d. Tho suggesfion of a ctn 
was actvpted on all sides. As reganls its functions it waw prof 
that they should not only advifie in matters affecting tho rtghu 
poesessiouB of guarantee holders, but should also act as a jud 
authority, in order to contro! and supplement tho guamnt ' ' 
limited jurisdictions. Also that in the first instance thr- 
civil and criminal powers should be classiIJed on the joint c^tll^ia■■Ii 
of their posHeg«ions and their character, a certain < ivil 
criminal jurisdiction being assigned to each cIam, and all remai 
juriadictiuu being assigned to the K&o through the council, 
rules thomaolTcs were designed, while acquitting the Govt-rnmy 
an erahamussing guarantee, to provide a large part of Cutch % 
local magitiirucy, and an independent court of justice. 

They did not ploaso the Rio. Ho thought they lessened 
prerogatives and dignity, and submitted modifications fot 
oonpideratiou of Govommont to meet his views. Government ( 
of Itith May) amended tho mlos and dosirod tho Political Age: 
obtain the BAo'b signature to the dnkft agreement. But the 
made many objections, and requested that the GovornTiieut of 
might postpone the consideration of the question until his fu 
obu;rvatiou8 had been received. Government declined to acce 
his re<ine8t, and having received tho confinaaiion of the Govert 
of India to tho amended draft ngrecmont, decided (1921 of 
Jul^ mC8) that tho matter couid not be re-opened. Againal 
decision the Rio cuorgotically protested. He assured GoverE 
that ho never conld accept tho proposed arrangement-, and reqi; 
them in the ovent of their adhering to their decision, to instruc 
Political Agent to rocoivo charge of the administration nniil b 
laid the case before the Secretary of Stale. After considoriu 



t, Opromraeat. (2251 oi 7th SciJUfinbcr 1868) agreed to 

ffs uf Hlt Majesty's Secretary of Sta(«. Meauwhilo, 

tioo of Snal orders, the Political Agent wiw told to prp]>ar«j 

leo holders entitled to exercise jurisdiction or to ve>te 

ition of the Hliavful council. The K£o wae to be rnvitud to 

in preparing' the lists. 

r at 16th September 1868, the Serretary of State 

'lon of the Bombay Government, and hoped to hear 

.riven his assent to the draft agreement. Upon 

!it of Uombajr (8395 of 5th December 18ti8) 

that the terms of the draft a^Teement mnst be carried out 

n---' ■'itiro doc'isioD of Government, so far only as they 

■d by the Bhajad themselves. 1'he Political Agent 

iruiiuT; directed to summon the leading members of the 

mnd to explain to them the terms of the draft agreementi 

I tho roaorved jiirisilit-tion was to be exercised by the Ufio. 

WM al»n to be invited to take part in the discnssions, and if 

to take his legitimate place in the council, the appellato 

tion waa to bo exercised by the Political Agent. 

Koo still determined to have nothing to do with the agreement^ 

liunt hia Diwdu Kflji Sli4h4budin to Kngland to represent his 

III thi) Socrolary of State. He also arrangfid that tho whola 

, ^ buAUio-u counocted with the Bh&y&l and their pottsessionii 

■.?d by tho Political Agent, for this pnrpose 

■ ittTsaoortain proportion uf his own establishment, 

[aubiig over to him a seal similar to that iised by the Darb^. 

tljr in I8t>i', by the votes of the Rhnydd, the conncil was chosen, 

till* iren^tral direction of affairs v/hb aKsiimed by the Political 

at. The llAo agnwd a« heretofore, to pay the exiKtnses of tho 

and the ext;cittivt< work of the court was conducted by his 

Chapter IZ. 

Jidci}» Court. 

|lUo Hoon after propared a lengthy printed momorial, giving 

of the caae. ITiis, after being t'tilly tou»^idtirud by Govern- 

, dj:^nosed of on the 3rd November 1870. Govonunent from 

cious desire to end the dispnte, and to maintain tho dignity 

ntioD of the Rao, determined to make several changes in the 

snt. The nuoat important were, that the Rio was to 

'jhe members of the council on his own responsibility; that 

Bsion granted to several holder** of lowt*r jurisdiction to 

fiirm 11 higher jnrisdiotion would not he pressed; that 

l.h« Riio bought a whole village, the jurisdiction might go with 

. not with portions of land less than au entire village ; and that 

tho advice given to tho Rdo by cho council, Gov(>mnienk 

allow tho matter to continne on tho terms provided in the 

ty. The Kuij was invited to agree to the amended draft, and to 

set of rules for the conduct of business. 

ror wme months the K&o gave no auswer. Meanwhile (28th 

1 871 ) the Political Agent submittod a report to Govornmeat 

working of the court during the past two years. Ho 

srvd that the membura uf the oouticil were more or less under 



'IX. the HUo's inBiifiio.' ; that the workiug of tho ooari n. 

uI)Ktriit;tt.'d ; tliai, as a nilt', ihe pnjprietons mraurt^irod jn-i .. 
on their own ettfAten, and that- Ihc'tr sah-vaisasli were iucitcd i 
them by thuso about tho Kao's person. 

On the 6th May 1871, Col. Ijaw, the acting; PuKIikiI 
rppurtod Id Gcremaient that tho H&o soomtnl mum i 
cume to a ounipruitiitiu. Hia rhieE objection to the onu- 
a^oemcTiC was thu principle on wliich the Iwt uf 
bolilCTa bad havu loade out. lit: WL<«he(l t> 
tht* Itriii.'i of thd trt'nly, iiudtT which th'- 
Wirli n'gar*l to thin, Col. liaw proposed tluxl il»« irn 
to bf speeitit'd iu the finsl instanco should be iho I^i!.._ 
and their dosctrndaut^, leavinfj all others to prova thoir iiil« m\^ 
to the sftDction of Govomment. The B<io nexi objwctfd Ihul' 
powurs propoaud for the eeveral classes of guarantee holders 
t'xci-'s»ive ; lliat tlm pruvisioD for appeal %vaB i- ■ " ' (J 

caro had Vrn shown for the rights of oriu 
girdtids, in Bbdyad etftates ; aud thai the clanse whic-h L-xclac 
CQurfa co^iizanco uxcrpL uq the complaint of oua of tho 
(javo ft (rwdom from inqniry eren in tho vsjus of heinous off< 
lit* also iirotested agaiast the rule that jarisdictton wont only 
purchftSL'a of whole villagys. 

In their letter 2261 of the '2nd June lb71, Goremniont declii 
to Rccflpl any luodificaiiou of their foriinT draft ap-eement, tl 
of which wure more libeml than thuse ordcrud bv the St 
of State ; these lemis, (hoy said, woi-o only offortd condit 
and must fall to the fjronnd unless the Rao a«!epiod thfni ii 
entirety. In roply the Rao sagjiested that the Political 
should nroeepd (o the seat of Goveriunent to explain pe 
the Bao a views and come to some final eettlement. To this oo 
GftveminGut aurved, and on the 7th October 1871, Col. 
mibinitted the Rfio's omendatious to tho amended draft 
U© pointed ont that tho RAo had chan^fod tho anoiont- council 
realm whose advice he mi^ht neglect, fur a coustitntional 
whonedcfisionawerologailybindiup:, and that he ai^knowled, 
anpi>llat'e jurisdiction of the British Govei-nmont as I^ord 
in all matters connected with the new court. These worn the 
points; others such aa whom the ^arantee wbh to comproho 
what ciaasification was to be adopted, what powoM ae»ij;ui:-d, ! 
how appeals vore to be n^ulated, were matters of detail fairly o 
to tlu ndlest debate. 

On the 16th July 1872, Col. Law gabmitted an amended 
■8 tfreed to by the Rfio, and this draft \vas Hubmitted to 
Q^jrennMBi of India by the Government of Bombay on the 
Uard 1873 ^tb a Htnmg^ rvcommendatiou that it i^hoald be a^ 
to ia oc^ that thi« long discuasion mifflit Iw closed. In it 
Irtier ti I5tk ^^"^J ^^^^ ^ ^ Secretary of State, the Goverom. 
nf Indik iMOttT ' f'lO adoption of the rules Huggwatttd 

tim Oof«nn«Bi -^y, niid tho Secretary of Stau*. in Ij 

^MBatoh of the i7ih July 1873. sanctioned the «t^tMement, will 
2^^uo that, 01 CMC* of -proved iujuelice, it should bo withi 

ion of the Uao, on the (uivice of the Poliricnl Ap>Dt, to 
UDeeaeary quaab Iho prooeediDgs of any of tlie IHi&yad 
_ fbrwardiDf? those despatches the Ctovemmpnt vf 
on the 28th Febrnary 1573, director! tho I'nlitiral Aj^nt 
fore tho Vtio and the Bhayad the settlement that bad but'n 
kI by the highest aatborityj and to infunn tbo Ilbayad timfc 
rnsMiri) of tho guarantee in each iniliTidtinl cai^c woald 
a tULMf faithfal allegiance to the I(ao, tho performance 
aa might in tbo npinion of Qtiremment bo attached 
I, ftnd tho poncrai good management of tliPir OBtiif-CH. 
time the rohticul Agent waa called on to Drjre the Kjio 
and Babniit rules of prooodnra for tho coufiruiaiioa of 

Chapter XX. 


7(h November 1873, tho Political Agent reported to 
eot that tho Riio had asnontod to oocnpy bia btgitiniato 
appcllato jadgo of the Jddeja coort, and on tho ^th 
74, BDhmitted for approml draft niles, ondur Article 4 of tho 
lomont, for tbo procedure of tho conrt. In reviewing thcMO 
rrvrtuoent (ibii of the lOth Aagunt 187-1} suggusKid 
dmngee, stating that if they wore aduptud hy thu Iti'io, 
Kmt were prepared to accord thoir approval of the mlt-d. 
was requested to reriso the draft and to sat btfy GovomniQut 
a intemion to appoint a pmperly qualttied officer aa 
' ' Court. On tho Cth October 187-i, tho acting Political 
L on Ihe aniondrricnts which thn Kilo propo^iid ahnuld 
tin tlm MttIf>mont. On tho 16th April 1875, tho PoliticiJ 
■pprTted tbit Mr. Vinfiyak Niiruyan Bhiigvat had born 
d N^ib Diw/iO and ProHidont of Ihe Jtldeja Court^ Imt that 
I obioctod to his ontoriog on his datios nntil tho conrt had 
ualfy made over to tho R^u*a charge. 

lir Beaolntion 36G1 of 26th May 1875, Govommont agreed 
b from tho trf-ittloment Rule VXI., rog-arding the sale by a 
N) biildcr of land with imn'&diction, nnd to rosorro the 
issno for fatnre settlement. Thoywonldnotagreo to tho 
ed by iho Itft'j in Itules III. and IV., bat Kubjuct to 
of tbo GovemiiioDt of India and tho Socrolary of Slnto, 
other aiuendtnonta and additions. They also ngi-oed 
lUuratiouH in tbo draft nilesof procedure snggOHtod by the 
hupcd that, no further delay might take place in the 
ion of tho Bcttlcroont. On the 8th October 1875, Gororn- 
' ' i.'daro gubiuitted with the Polifirail Agent's 

.hiT, and renucstcd that tho RiSo'k Higiiatiire 
-id. bimrtly after thia (Jannary lit, 187(5) t!io Rjiu 
V lUg aigufid thi* ]>up«.-ra. But aa it waa dhown iJiat ho 
acrcpiml tho Boltjiiini'ut and pi-ocedoro, Govcrimnmt, in 
T of 7th Jnly 1876, intimated that tbo jtignatnro was not 
DOf-L>sKi.ry. They directed tbo Puliticnl Ageut to iar'Tin 
' -had prc^rnli'd pntitinns (o thofJovomnient in 1870, 
i ihi-ir ri'(iui-its to Mnjor Goodfollow in 1872, (liut, 
itation with Itn) Knu, it hml Wua fuuiid necet^Kiiry to reviiio 
fleltteuifut of ld08 ; Uuil Ihit Itsti bad lat<'ly contt'Oled 




CbapUr IX. 

Jddf jA Cowt. 

to toko over the coart and work it under rcvisod mloa^j 
chotwn an erperienwd officer as Piesident ^ tliat hII of the 
guaranteed rights had been preserved bj the uon* ruleb ; 
Crovormnont had every confidence that the court would he' 
to the satis^iion of the Bhiynd, and adviaod tbeni to giw it a'' 
trial for at leaiit a year. Any reproaentation they migljC 
nmko would thon he hoard. Tho oourt was re-orgniuEod, aol] 
new rules of settloniont and procedure were brought into oj 
vu the 1st November 187G, when the I'olitical A^ol 
transferred it^ control lu the Council of Kcguncy. 

Special measures were adopted by the Counci] of Bej 
clear ofT the heavy arrears of the Jndeja court. On thv ilsM\ 
Council of Regency reccirod charge, the balance fltoo«^ at li^tSi 
and 154 cnininal cases. On 1st April 1879,' it was reduced to I 
civil and 1 1 crimitml cnses. In February' 1878, Governtnont At ' 
tliat the British guarantee enjoyed by the J/ideja chiefs applitdi 
to the ancestral land held at the date oE the treaty ol ISIi* «ii<!i 
to any Ituids since acquired. Government have aUo approvinl uf I 
Riio levying from the Hhayad a moderate snccession fee as a 
of recognition rather than a tiscal levy. 

Horing hia Tisit to Cntch in November 1877, His KKfellwicy I 
Eichnrd Templo, Governor of Boinltay, thus explained to the 
theduiiesand res p^msibili ties sltaching to (lu'ir toDiires. ' I ol 
one peculiarity here which is this, that while His Iligbi 
"Rio IS tho muster of the province of Culeh, and has to deff 
whole country, to carry on its entire administration, and toj 
resjtonsible for its moral tmd material pi-oftpenty, he enjoys 
half its revenues, the other half g'jing to his numerous relati^ 
called collectively the Bhayad. Jtis therefore fair that tho BhAj 
should hear their share iu the gent?rftl expenses of tho country 
oo-oporato with Hia Highness the Rao in effocfcing improvem( 
they shonld cdocato their peasantry aad retainers ; they 
cstahliHli tjchools not ouly in their own places of residence 
principal townti, btit nltio in their villagoa; ihoy should ulao 
to improve tho health of their people by opcnincr dispcnaariea 
adopting preventive measuros such aa vaccination ; they 
also contribute their fair flbarc towards the constrnction of 
order to carry agrieultnral prodoco to tho sca-|>ort8, and 
trade. The British Govemmuut have guaranteed the chiefs 
Bhiiynd in the enjoyment of their aTiooHiml laiul», but they 
ihoin to do thoir duty both towards tho Jloft and towflrds 
cultivators, and thus Euliil the obUgations attached to thi-ir teuui 
The Bhayild should remember that it is not enongh that thoy sh- 
collect their revenues, and preserve the peace. Thoy mi 
co-operate with the administratioD of tho B^o in all 
calculated toprooiiitethe moral and material prosperity of tho) 
Some of the Bliayjid hold certain civil and criminid jnria 
This is and will be based on their inteliigence, education, 
indastry, and also on the extent of their holdings^ but I 

' Gov. Bm. 818, ISUi FcLniAry lS7a. 

CTTTCH. 203 

that inriadicticm will be confirmed to those who are not Chapter IZ. 
^hf tibeir education and ability to personally eiercise it, or Justice. 
oldingB are petty and insignificant. If the Bh^yad duly . „ 

y dnties and responsibiliticis which I have just enumerated, *'* 

i-li Government will be always glad to see His Highness the 
itiided by a body of his own kinsmen, who by their position, 
•-', and experience, will, from generation to generation, 
:-j udmiaiBtration of the country/ In December 1878,^ 
-~ remarked that it was most gratifying to learn that the 
httcly effected between the Rao and his Bhdy&d was 
':appy results, and that a foundation had been laid for a 
iindeTBtandiag between the Rio and his leading subjects. 
'lOTeminent added, be the object of the Political Agent to 
iiha^d feel a pride and an interest in the state of which 
are component parts, but thoy must be prepared to 
lowards the expeuae of measure designed for the good 
>iu {HTorince. 

* Got. Bai. 5420, SSod Decomber 1878. 

(Bombay Oh| 

Ohapter Z. 

Bereniu and 



Tub total yearly revenue of the province^ including that < 
Bhdyad and other petty chiefs, is estimated at about £24 
(Rs. 24,00,000). Of this about £130,000 (Rs. 13,00,000) I 
to His Highness the Rio. In 1852-53 the state rerenm 
£71,540 (Rs. 7,15,400), and in 1876-77, £147,968 (Rs. 14,79,M 
an increase of 106'83 percent. During twenty-five years (1853- 
customs receipts have risen from £17,466 to £80,149 (Rs. 1,74 
8,01,490) or 358*88 per cent ; and land revenue receipts 
£20,719 to £41,262 (Rs. 2,07,190 - 4,12,620) or 99-15 per 
Under the terms of the treaty of 1832 the yearly smn due l 
RAo in return for military aid was fixed at £18,695 (Rs. 1,8^ 
Surplus revenue is invested in Government paper and the pnr 
of girAs land in the province. The state has no de^inga witi 



last tweutj.five years education hiis made very rapid 

ch. Id 1851- thero wius ouly ooe veniacular school 

I'when moro was spent than the amount received ia 

horut' by Iho BWo. Noitiier the Iliio nor his people 

T'^t. in txlur»ii<m. lu l.HiiO there were throe schoola, 

and two vernacular, with 460 boys on the rvlla 

j.:i u.><.> uttiindauoe of ^2{jpQpils. In 1870-71 there wero 

, nine in the K^*s territory and 6ve in the villages o£ 

liefs. Of fht-se two were for girls. In 1875-76 then) 

" lunil 2JI44 students. In 1 878-79 thero were, under an 

lipecfor, suTonty-one schools with, on tho rolls, 3%d 

average attendanco of 3251 . 'Ilie total oxpenditure 

lis amounted to £8169 10«. (Ua. 31,695), and the 

fees to £242 12«. (Ra. 2420). Of tlie seventy-ono 

i H high school with forty-ono piipiJrt t<«ehing up to 

iXJniveraity entrance test standard ; two were Anglo- 

Bboola with 9V' pupils ; lifty-eig-bL were primary schools 

[7 pupils; six were j(irlii' scIhxiIk with 300 pupils, and 
102 pupiht, were working-men's night schools. Besides 
is at ithuj a ptxihdi ur school for teaching Hindu 
It ' ' ■ - maintained by tho Darbdr, and at Mandvi, 
|1 livr and in a fair condition, a Sansknt 
lltAlii'd iuiJ iairly well endowed hy G(«Ai SuklAI Gir, 
in*. Ill tloly 1877 an art school was opened and 
A corafMtont teacher from tho Uombay Sir Jamsotji 
' * Art. At the end of March 1878 it had on its 
The late Rao rrAfliiiaIji was a warn biend 
In IS.') at u cost of £15,000 (Rs. 1,50,000) he founded 
)1 nnd itrimeil it tho Alfred Hiph School in honour of 
■ Iho Diiko oi EtUuburgh. In 1872 a Bum of 
:>oing raised to commemorate His Hiehncss' 
f, be added £2500 fRa. 25.000) to it, out of which 
)p) were offered t^i tho Bombay ITuivorsity, and two 
ibl« f'«r three years at any of tho rocoffiUBed 
! to be awarded yvery year to tho twij Cutchi 
Miitricuiatiou Esainiuatiuu with tho highest 
8eho)antbips arc al»o held out by tho DarMr es 
^-- tfludcatH to luuvo Cutcb and study in distant 


IBombar Q* 



ipt«r XL 

Litd^ mill 



Tho 1872 consaa rctams give, for tlio two diief races 
district, the t'otluwiag prtipurtiuu of paraona ablo to road and 
Of 67,008 the Mai llindu male popolaliuu not over tvtvU'v 
4537 or ti'7i per ocul ; of 33,3<H abovo twolvo and nut i>ver t 
4731orl-i-18porcont; aDdof 91,346 ovur cweaty, 15,307 or W 
per cent were able to, or wore lieing taught to, road and write. 
<>l,5(}lj titti tiiLal iliudu [omalu {Hipulaiion uut over twclvu y 
43 or O'Ofi pi^r cent ; of 29,816 abovo twelve and not mrire 
twuDty, l>o or 0'22 per cent; and of 8o,48lJ over twenty, I27orO"l 
per cent were able to, or were being taug'ht to, read and write. 

Of 23,046 the totat Kfusaluiaii mute population of not' iriore 
twelve years, 757 or 3*2S jwr cuut ; uf lO,4Utf above twelve and 
more than twenty, 584 or 5'58 per cent j and of 28,343 overtw 
1546 or 6*4o per cent wore able io, or were i>eiiijj; Utii'/iii f.. 
nnd write. Of 20,335 tho ttital MushIiiuIu femalu ; 
not more than twelve yeaTs, 74 or 0'37 per cent; of ;'•■ . j 

twelve and nut more than twenty, 55 or 0'5t!' per cent ; and ' ] 

over twenty, 1 37 or 0'52 per cent wore able to, or were being uuigli 
to, read and write. 

Of 39G9, the total number of pnpils in 1878; there were 75 
Br&hxnans ; 187 KshatriR and Rajputit ; 34 Kii^-niiths; 1479 V&ntli 
ShriTakflf Bhalias and Lt^h&n^s; 374 cultivators, Katib)»; 8S 
artiaane, indiiding Soni«, Sutlifira, KansAnis, Luhant, urn! Durjis 
4Gh£nchis; 82 lalmurers and servaatB; 22 Moohia; IIH otbt^rs 
and 676 Musalmiins. 

iThoro are three librarien, at BhQJ, M&ndri, and Mnndra. Tt 
Bnuj Library was establiahed in ISGSjaud iu lti74 wati, at a ooi 
of £2(>4 (Rb. 2640], provided with a building by Mr. Keahav 
Nitik, a Cutchi merchant and trader in Bombay. The nnmber i 
bubscribors is (1878.79) returned lU twenty-six, the ooUectioi 
during the. year at £16 (Rs. 160), and the expenses at £1 
(Ra. 120). \Tiio library catalogue shows a total of 747 volanw 
The Muudvi Library wa^ etitsLblisbud in 1864 and has a gut 
building nf ita own^ built in 1870 at a coat of £413 (12^.4130 
The number of flubucribers is returned at thirty-four, the colloctioi 
during thoyear at £29 (IIb. 2UQ) nnd tho expenses at £11 (Ks. 110 
Qt has a total of 739 volumes. ' The Mundra Libraty, established i 
i874, has no building of its ownj The nimiber of eubecriberB i 
returned at thirty, thu collections tluring tho year at £5 (lis. 50^ 
and the expenses at £3 (R& 30). Qt has a total of 314 voliimp.^ 
Two reading rooms have recently been opened at Jakhan and Nali 
respectivelya From a state printing prces attached to tho publi 
offices a fortnightly gauette the Cuteh Jidj Patra is iBsned. 



TiKhniine of 1811 and 1812 was, at the close of the latter year, 

fcDowed in Catch by an outbreak of pestilence so deadlyj that it is 

■Id to have destroyed half the people of tho country. What, along. 

jrith the weakened state of the people, must have strengthened, 

if ft did not give rise to, this plague, was overcrowding in the 

kmrn, where on accounb of the disorders of the four preceding 

Jtta, people from the villages had sought shelter. For two years 

tte disease abated. Then in May 1815, the year of the heaviest 

known rainfall, it broke out with deadly force at Kanthkot in east 

Cotch. As in Ahmedabad, its symptoms were slight fever followed 

•7 great weakness and weariness, and then swellings in the groin 

•od arm-pits suppurating in some cases and in others remaining 

*pd lamps. Few stricken with the disease recovered. Most died 

oBtween the third and the ninth day. The plague seemed in the air j 

«>ere was nothing to show that it had been brought from outside, 

^ Iraa spread by the touch. It seemed to attack most fiercely the 

^"^SRish and vegetable caters; Rajputs escaped where Brahmans 

pl« V&nias died in numbers. Oil-makers were believed to be safe. 

*> Bhuj, care was taken that no one should come from tho affected 

districts. One man died, those with him were turned out, and the 

T^pnse was smoked with brimstone and unroofed. From Kanthkot 

5fee disease spread to other parts of Vagad, causing much loss of 

^^ in the early months of 181ti. In &fay it crossed to Morvi in 

"^^ithidwar, and came back in August within ten miles of Bbuj,^ and 

^ the same time raged in Rddhanpur and Sind. In 1817 from 

Jforvi it travelled to Dholera. Since 1817 there has been no return 

of this pestilence. 

The prevailing diseases are malarious fevers, rheumatism, small- 
pox, measles, stone, and skin diseases. Fever is moat widespread 
about the close of the rainy season (October), and in some years ragea 
with great violence ; rheumatism is more complained of in the cold 
weather. In 1826 Dr. Burnes noted that cholera, though very fatal 
in the neighbouring countries, had never made much progress in 
Cutch.' But in 1876 there was a rather serious outbreak in eight 
months (March - October) causing 954 deaths. This was followed 
by a still severer attack in 1878. Coming from Kathiawar cholera 
made its first appearance in Vagad in April 1878, and continued in 

1 Dr. McAdun, Aujir and Cutch, Otb November 1816. Tnuia. Bom. Med. and 
Phy. Boo. I. 183-189. 
> Bom. Got. Set, XV. 230, 

CSuLpter X 






iptw m. (liPfereDl 




rtHi lo siij'prrss 
(listrilMilo ?n»"(irti 

is of Cutoh till Aognst. It cam© Uist to fihi 
ibi-ry very fatal. Ho cBdeavours were spi* 
Dpidemtc, ami armngcuierits wero madu ui 
Abatioff in Aupu't, perhaps by the hi-Ipof the very ht . 
to bo the hearieat sinco 1810, tliochcU-ra was in Sep'< 
by an epidemic of malarious feror that, attacked every viltnf^ aid] 
bamlot III the province, and tras so severe that in Vthaj alfiiu, uli ' 
iMipulaiionof 23,000 soola, for two mouths about forty diitl a day. 
Efforts were made to check the diseaw! and lessen the ?i-f^ 
EilradiHpenMrieswcrc ofiened, and Tncdicinej'dis^^ilJtltud h\ 
agents. A body of men was employed to visit the houfte>' 

dejttitnlo and supply them with cota, I>cds, and medicine. 'VliL' i. 

of (he fever wtrro disastrons. LandholdHrs cnuld not work in tlifir 
fields, tho supply of labourers ceased, and stato offices, st ' ' ' 
workshop!) had to bo closed. The niimlKjr of luscertji: 
from cholera and favor amounted to 15,71ti, or taking tbu i^jpn 
ot Cutch at 487,345, a percentage of 32. 

Ib 1878-79 besides tbe Bhnj civil hospital and Inmttic wtyTd 
ttiere were thn'o duipeDsariea, a!t M&ndvi, Aujar, and Naliit, ' 
apttned in March 1879. During the year at the Bhnj htwpi' 
at Mandvi and Anjar dispensaries od,l'23 persons wore 
5o2 of them in-d(K>r and •^2,571 out-door patients, The tniti] amf 
spent in checkin^i disease in 1878-79 waa £2332 (Rs. 23,320). 
chief forma of BJcknesa were apie, cholera, malarious fever, 
bronchitis, dysentery, mycitoma, and diarrhcea. 

The mvil hospital at Bhnj was bailb in 1 8ol at a cost nf fi' 
(Be. 7!J20) and has nxjm for thirty-five pnlieuts, Includf 

in-patients, the t«tal number treated wa? 23,839. Oftbitso lit,!:- 

oomt, 38'J5 left, 10i> died, and 302 remained nndertn^tment. Tte 
average daily aick was 365*92. The total coet during the year wai 
ilSSl (Es. 13,340). The Bhuj lunatic asylum, or rather Inck^p for 
lonaticH} establiiihed in 1S7C, but as yet with no bnildinn; of it^ owg, 
contained in 1878-79 twenty-one inmates, of whom two wero en 
and fifteen died, leaving; a balance of four. The total cmt d 
the year amounted to £91 }Ss. (Its. 01-9). The MAndvi diR|>en ^ 
opened in 1866, has a building of its own constructed al. a ci)Ht ef 
£773 (Ks. 7730). Inclnding 163 in-patienti!, tho total nnmber tpeat^jd 
wan 19,489. Of these 17.497 were cured, 1629 loft, eighty died, 
and 2SiJ remained ooder treatment. The averapj daily aii-k was 
318G, and the total cost during the year .£008 (Rii. 60*80). Tho 
Anj6r dispensary was openeil in 1877-78. Of 9795, tho tolnl 
number of patients, all out-door, 81 19 were cured, M20 left, thirty- 
three died, and 223 remained under treatment. The average daily 
Bick was 233-86 and the total cost during tho year £389 [Ke. ^KXi). 
Of the new diitpen-sary at Nalia, opened at the end of the 
official year (1878-79) no details are available. 

In 1878-79 the work of vaccination was, undorasupenntenden 
vacciuation, carried on by fifteen vaccinators. Tlio total niimlH-r of 
oporatiouR, inclnding 461 ro-vaccinations, was 11,763 against 13,747 
in the provioua yoar. 




le (onowing abstract shows the sex, religion, and f^ of the Chapter XIL 

ons vaccinated: 

CWdk FMeiMotion DOaib, I87S-7S and 1878-79. 


PmoKB Vaccdiatid. 
















inn-n ... 











llie total cost of these operations was in 1878-79, £654 (Rs. 6540) 
Fftfaoat 1«. 2d. (9^ antiaa) for each successful case. 

A. severe form of horse disease called yer&o; broke oat in 1878-79 
id carried off sixty-four state horses. It is described as a 
ciKming of the blood, brought on by the irritating and inflammatory 
etion of numerous and incossant bites of mosquitos and other 
neets. The horso's whole system becomes inflamed, the belly and 
Bet swell, the skin becomes tight and shiny, the digestion is 
■pured, and general debility follows, ending in death. In 1878 
imels also suffered severely. A disease called locally pMtoda, and 
•id to be contagious, carried off fifteen out of twenty state riding 
amels. The nature of tho disease, fatal alike to milch and baggage 
amels, has not been ascertained. Somo say it is the effect of 
jummerable fly and mosquito bites, and others ascribe it to some 
poisonous substance swallowed while grazing. The symptoms of 
the camel disease were, poverty of blood, swelling of the body 
beginning with the feet, impatience of heat, inflammation of the 
long>, nausea, aversion from food, and gradual wasting. It seems 
pMJjle that this as well as the horso disease and the very fatal 
ram of fever were due to the unwholesome state of the aii;, the result 
^ die excessive and nnusual rainfall. 



Cattle DiMMf 

a 236-27 

Clupter ZUL 
of Intsrest. 





A'desar, in Vagnd, on the Ban, baa a popolaHon of 
and some trade in grain and molasses, Tbo rained 
trftces of its bomlwrdment by Hno Bli^minlji in 191(>. 

Adhoi, a walled town^ U'lutigin^^ tu Morvi, on a hill, 
inhabitants, tuoA a conudcrable cotton tnide. Aboat two 
the Dorth an small bewn cavt^s, tmid to haro once boon smI 
hiding places by the K&tbis.* 

A'ma'ra, about forty<cight tnilos vmt of Bhnj, han u yey ll 
iji liouuur of Kara Kfeim , an Amir of Ghazuij who, travellUE 
wostcm In^ia, curly in tiK-'fonrtcwnthoPntury.was killed by t.IioSai 
Rajputs thou reif.Tiiug in Cutcb." The fair, beyinuiofr on (ho 
Monday ot Chnitra vad (April-MayJ and lusting,' tlvo days, i« iindm 
Bnpemsirm of Pir ShiSh Murdd of Mimdra. At first ri ■ 
a very humble tvcale, it has dm-ing the last tweuty-llvo ; 
into importance. Tho numlicr of pilfnims, mo»t u£ Ihum M u -id 
find low class Ilindus from Catch, HoMr, and Sicd, aTcr»^'C'i> J 
4000 to 10,000. The value of tho ofTerings paid to tho'tott 
cash, cocoanuts, cloth, goats, ^hecjt, irwoctmcats, and dates, ia, 
proBperons eeuson, abunt £100 (4000 korif), Tho trade in 
dates, coloured cloth, bullocks, oameLs, and Bwectrnt-ata, la valtH 
ahoat £2000 (75,000 karia). Payment is gtmerilly made in i 
but copper pots, bullocks, and camela, aro sometime* bart* 
Tliore in no crowding and Ihero havo boon no outbreaks of disei 

Ania'r. in north latitudo 23° 12' and east longitude "0^ 10', a 
twenty -n TO miles south-uaet of Cbuj and six from tbo noiihi 
ahoTQ of tho gnlf of Cutch, with aWut 13,000 inhabitants, is, for 
population, and trade, tho third in the province. Standing no 
largo lake in a plain Imru cu all (fides except to the west whero 
well wooded and highly tilled, the tomi is surrounded by a 
about sixteen feet high and six thick.^ Tbough about ten t 

irijui ^1 

I Mr. Palpatnlia P. Kbakhar. Moat or tbo legendary uid inti(|iiuijui 
tliia cba^t«r ue from Mr. Dalpatrim'a Kuport un tho Aatii^nities af i~ 
Cor. Sel. CUl. 

* TboMf(b the atary tliitre giTcn diOcr* from tbu, Kara Kiutint ia tbo 
it meiitioiMd balow, ^. 249. 

* Haniiltoa't DeBonptioD of Hindtwtla. I. 699- Tho w&lb, mnoh rai&cd tir tha 
flrtJlim*"'. <•'"<% repairci) in IKSfi. At Mtch o( th« five gntci a attme Blab krt 
the walla bu th« uucn[)tiun : ' •Shri, a(t«r wuntiip to RABoah, tu Aali&pum, llii 
Mahldcvriv, in tbe year of VikruD 1575 (181B a-d.) iu Uio nimUi of Jtith v 
ninth of UtB dark half of the nuxni oa WoiliicMur an Mtrth^oake tlMtroy«(l tho ft 
Anjir. During the minority of ttie iUDBtHoaa RAo DmuIji the rcfieitcy unlercr 
valla to be rvbuilt an<i in tho rootitfi uf Aahid in the year i;if Viknun 1882 (1S86 . 
fitt the ninth of tho owulb \Mnag ThorHUy tbo vnrk wna be^^, the jMxnib i 
iia|,ny, u)d tho city flouriahtng; At that time AmbArim hiUMia ww aDpenntoi 
vi the work awl Jagmil PiUmbar the head worknua' Tmia. 





Uio cooat, Aoj&r is c opridered a por t, taxd Tuna^ Rohar, 

ijm, and jiuighi, its iiindmf! ptnces. Of these the chief are, 

le mouth of tho NiUcti creek. And Bohar ou tho same 

miles further up. From Tuna resst'Is of 17 to 34 

1(50- 100 kftiindu] tradu not only in the golf, bnt with Bombay 

yr wektoru Itiilia{K*rt«i. The ruouth of tho crock is sheUered 

Takru island, but vo&sola wt»hiug to dischai^o havo, before 

tho pior. to wtirk their way about half a milo up a winding 

ctwk. Thin crwk fonticrly much chokod is being cleared. 

ba/^in nuw tu]d(*r couxtructJou at tho nieoting of tho two 

will reiJiitvo many of the diflictiUios of tho port. Tho tmfiio 

ia cbietly with VAv^ nya on the other sido of the inner 

Ich,^ d(.>i>oudeut on Aujiirj where the atato has a customs 


dio^' to local accountH Aujar wfi8 in 80a (S. 802} founded 

ril ' f the king of Ajm ir, who, defeated by «omo 

i' i.L'camo an aacf tic . By the uiiddlo of the twelfth 

It waa the cenlro of a ;froup of twelve villages. It ro88 

[T inijw^rtftuce under KUeiiy&r ji {15=18-1685), Mid waa 

by - Pegalji (1718- 1741) early in the eighteenth oentnry.' 

I tnc town, pr.rt, aud di'|K!ndt!Uciea of Anj4r were grinted to 

whamma/l, who hiifHcii himself in eitenoinjf its trade and 

li irbom- of Tun a. On tho 2dth December 1815, 

I od by a force under Colouel Eart t, and Tuna waa 

, ou the iwxt day. Ia the fulluwiug year tho fort and 

)t villa^'oti wore made over to the British aud hold by them 

In 1^10 tho towors and curtains of tho fort wall wore 

by tho inirthquiiku ; upwards of 1500 hoiiKOs were thrown 

id a» miuiy iiiortt niadu uu>«:ife. About 1 (j5 [KMiplo were killed 

many fnially hruitux!.' In IS;?7 AnjAr Imd 2-t34 houses 

xn<t rt ui.puluttuu of about 10,200 t^uU. The trade to Malab&r, 

and Afattkat Hupported about 200 botkta. In 1855 Anjar 

") liouflCD, and in 1861 an estimated population of a1x>ut 

lultt. Cotton, oil, f^tin, aud a oommou kiud of local cloth 

^ i^i; lilt: chief art i(-If.4 of tnulo. Anji^r )um a M'ldom used, mean 

ted ugly palace of tho It^wis and a very comfortable two-storied 

j-'Vliduuco fur Enropeona built by Captaiu MacMurdo in 1818.* Of 

Chapt«r Zl 




. .'" ■ " ■ ; ' : '-^ from north to sonth and «i£bt 

■rith huge Rtrnrnjn under water 
"i-ctl i aUi iiU Bi:|>ftratAl l>T a not 
'ui Qveiuilui long fcud trom 

DT. twl. LLIL {hw^ SwMJr J^ &I. Ua tbo 2jtd of tlui Inight half J'tUd 
!flW *,r), 

■ ■.■■•rr, ' iiFt«r mUing .-irnl hnttvinii; tti a nxMft awful dL-gtm, gAT* way 
woahtrn taou, lui'l, crumbliu^ (Juwn, buried gana and oairiagaa in 
io>nii[:uta(l«rll»e t(iw«nan<l curUioeof th«fort wilU.iumI apwanla of 
kliauabwl liuuM* were nMluc«d to ruins,' uid ab3al a aitnilar number naderad 
aViuliI.' ill oxcaptiti^ four «nir« cnt u it ir«n9 in Iwo, onc-h<dt enunUing ilito 
.kutl nutv-fivi- livcM WLTt I'jat 1>MJde«a nambwr trbo afterwardi 

Bu(£«s'Arch. Sur. Kci.>. 1871-75,203. 
.. .s<K. I. (I83ti-1»^]. ^;6om. Gov. SeJ. XV. 286; ud 
ir» aiiiH^iUan)-, II . (1>»0I), 124- 





public buihlinm tlicn; nro tho tomiilu ;''■'"■ 
VuslmaT slirmc, 07 foot by O-f and nir. 
hull and bluck and white niarblu floor. The image tjf bliu.-l': 
is placodooataMuuTurliuii widiHilrur. TlieflhriDu doun, ul^- j,.. 
with sikcr, bear an hiscriptioD dated Samvnt 1S(J9 (181*2 ajk). 
eomo of tho eight pUastcratbat sapport thedooto aro <- 
aud Koga ti^urus. Mohanrti'e tciiipk!, smaller ami . 
Mtttly carved wooden door, is nliK> a Vaislinitv'ihritii'.i.ii- 
Kriahna with Itadhaou his left, aud Chaturbbuj, t.hf : 
Visbua, uu hiB right. This tcinplo waa mbuilt butneun l^Hl 
1824.' Amba M^a'a shrino and the mtmastorjr close hr arc 
fmgmoate of oldor temples. Over the enclosure gateway is a < 
of hard reddish stono, carved all round, which from tbo repot 
of Dovi on tho jambs and lintels tnay have belonged to a Vai« 
8h&kta temple ; sculptured slabs also he about^ aud are boilt 
tho walls. Tho adjoining monastery belontrsto the Atits ofA i t 
Ajepjn's shrine, out3i<lo ihc town wbIIb, is a small tnodoni 
room, with ima^s of Ajep^l on horseback aud of Gnupati. 
tho door is an tnscriptiuu dated 18-^2. Tho shrino onjnvR 
revenues of S':>me villagesand certain privilnfres jjraiit*.''! i 
rulers. The Atita are Esbniv, the sacred bull with > 
holding u prominent place on tho platform at the entmncu lo 
shriue. Thoir headmen, jhts or gunt,^, ato boried around, and ibt 
Hinall collfl over thoir remains aro nmrkod by tho limf. Tbui I 
patron saint in a ChobAn kin^ of Ajmir, who gavn up liU thr 
DBcamc an ascetic, aud ended his days by a voluntary dt 
Kaira MiJiridcv'H l*iinplo, oiitsidc tho vraJls, is oorapamfiwly^ 
moaom, with a dancinj? ygitu as its goddesa Vitnka] M^Ui 
temple, to tho norib-wuttt of tho town, is dedicated lo aformuC] 
MhavAni. Hliarosvar at some distfuico to tho tHJuth-oast hnsul 
old shrino and spiro and a modem hall. To tho wo»t. of the Utiral 
is a now temple of Dy ^^fc4"'^'*^ ^'^^ clusu to it an unHnis' 
«■» Hn.Tiiinliflp|jj{, witb l.tuwi RhriTinH on 38 many sidcs of the I 
entrance hall, Bahuchara is tho " l ooking glaaa " godde ss, betor 
whom tho votary worships his own imago in a ])ioceoi silvorod gl 
Tho other two shrines aro dodicatod to Bhavaui and tho liiig.* 

To the caat of Ajop&l's monastery is a small tiled shod witli tomi 
of Mnhammadao iKvttem sacrL^d to dcsar . a ilndpja, and his 
Tnri, a Kiithi. Tho story of this shrine is that about tho niidt 
of tho foortoenth century Jesar, ffrandson of J&m Ijjikha Ji 
becoming an outlaw laid waste Holds and villages^ killed the 

' Bom. Gov, SoL CLIL (Now Son«), 32 ; Buifprn* An*. Snr. Rep. IS74-75, 210. 

> Bargou* Ardi. Sur. Rev. 1674-76) Sia Dcuula at thuM oaoutic* uv jrivvD to U 
" IWuUtion " chmpter, p. KL 

' Tbo rtory ol tliu ucotic king i» tlut he wm » brother of t cnrtain PHOivj'tAJ . 
Ajmir. A Mu lw m i i v adjHi bveu, wbo, (nr tlirustiiic bin huidB inbi x boM-1 of ttie kini 
Diilb hwl two fingnn rat offTwoit U> Bcr Ara)> anil <'»llcfl nn Miriii to Kvun^v his ha 
Uiriu c*Die bat WM kiDed bv PiithnrAj. T» nvotiu« hw <Wtb, Mirio'' i 
unchh thv Khwija Pir, «ttivokc<l umI tk-fi*At.-<l th<! Aimu brithur, AJMMll i< 
Aniir m hi UMhvrito. ITiu UUj iajiroU^ly a ralii; of auo til tnc t-j^ i i _l* 
invMiaM (885). Boui. Cov. SlI. (^Ltl. |Nuw Scricak 6fi. 

* BMrgom' Arch. Sar. Kep. I»;i-76> I'll. 


carriod ufT the cattlo. Ab that timo a Kaihi womon^ Tnri 1^ Chapter 
■'- ' r her ilevotion ami her skill iu iniikLng-hymii?, PlacesoTin 
>] fi>r hor Ivauty. She livod with an aaootic 

'.rj hor as hiK wtfo bnt an one vho 

i^ktiiti t)f bt<r lx;»uty ruaofaed Jesar^ 

L<^ tu cairry her ufl by lurco but fikilcd. Guia^ back in the 

of an fticfitic bn wfu woll ivcoircd, nutl arranged tti wAna ber 

midnight worship. His plaatt were fgund out-, aud, on hia 

\\m-. ^. < ' : .' nilo wan to grout Lho wiKhoF overy askcr 

jrti.n. . that ho becarao an ascitic JcsaraflT^od, 

i lliw rvatraiut, a^n trio J to airry off Turi by force, 

ttr , ;^ i deeds, and utbur wuudyrs, foiled liiiii tuid in time 

hiro into a mode) ascetic. Settling at Anjfir, JcAar died 

i woa buried olivo closo by his tomb. His dosct-udauls tho 

ll^mtB havo, in taacb of thu twulvo villages, a Hhrino of Jusar 

iriT The shrine at Anjar is under tho chargo of tho Ajepdl 

ahont Boven miles from Bhadrcsar, with 322 inhahitanta, Baopa. 

ift4HnburlM Burau memorial stoiies, ;Mi^''is, tho carb'cst dated 

(8, I7ur>) dinlifsiU'd to one Khsitri I'itrmrimind. Ilalfnrsiy 

[IB f^tr'l;i mid Vftphnra is a small 1*1111)10 of Mahadev 

•brnr, uK'vt-n fut-t by twelve, with writing (vhicb seems to show 

it wiw rflhuilt in 1837 (S. 180t) by one .Svami Surajgar. 

tlicr*wtim images of Pnn-ati, Hanonifin, and tho Sacred Bull lie 

ttandthereis a ruined ^nfimemoria] stone dat«d 1630 (fS. 1G87}. 

'. Ila^and Voghomwas, iu 186iJ (S. 1910), 

. . ;;vr Jivangar." 

Bola, in Tiilgad, with 'M'» t-l inhabifants, is tho chief mart of the Bku. 

Lid Tlmr and I'ni-kiir trade iu cotton and clarified butter, 
n>tu»i clutb imd ironware manufactiircs are of some local 

^b&cha'tL, nn nnwallod town in Vfigad at the foot of a fortified Bhwba^ 

with a {xipulation of ^1)68 souU, is tho hoad-quart«ctt o£ thu 

flhadrosar, a rillago of littlo importance on the coast about 
tj-liM* HixWa t;ttsl of Mandvi, with a population o£ 2H5 eouls, ia 
iU* of the aiirif'tit. rjcy of ]-th a'trAvati, whose traces stretch to a 
rable distance wut of the present village. Most of tho ruins 
[b*ou carried away, oven thtf foundations having boon dug up for 
ling Htotie. There remain a large and substtuitial though plain 
alop-woll with n liniol alxmt i«*vent«(!n feet lung by two &i:]uare; closti 
~ tho well lti(4 pilhir^and |«rt of thedome of thutibaiv temple of 
; and an oM .rain te mple of Jag ^ ffsha , the work of soveml ages, 
kitorodand rx'stored. The lower partof tho shrine is probably 
lost; next in ago, perhaps about 1170, come the temple and tho 

> Ttora. OflT. »d. n.IT. S7-ri. 

yj J-fc. \. Ill 1 . WTJ " "^'1 1 '.'5 I , .'-J. 

-' f! -I, IH, TTio writing on tho w«ll ia ' the ren old 
> lilt ,.^ii JivuigAT io 1853 lS«mvttt 1910).' Bom. 

Wtlltipga^ p, 


[Chapter JJH. corridors, llien Oio ootor win^, tWn tlio Bhrine, wnl Ia«t c 
loTLitanft ^'^^^ porch. Tlie gcueral plnu nf tho Bliodro&ar toiuplu ia. 
tif thi' Jaia tcmplofl of Uolv^da on mount Aba. It elands ir 
about 4y foet wido by 85 l'->ng, win-^mntlvd by a row of loi 
sbrioea wMii a txm'iilur iu fruut. Tbu tcmpio stouils rut" 
back in a courtyanl.ivhit-'b, from tho line of tho tcniple fron(,i» i 
by throe pilliirvJ tlomy«. The U'nii)lf, facing tho east, is eni 
a flight of fitcps that riso froui thi! uuter (lour to the cover 
front of tho sanctuary. Over the |wrch is another 
covering an area separated by a luw scn>en wall from t3u5^ 
the entrance ballj mandap, betweiMi it and tlii; fnmt of ibu] 
itself. At the sonth-wcKt ooruiT and bchiud tho veWn un 
side is a row of chambers with vellani enti-red by lif 
thigiitonoH in the floor. In t)io nhrine aro threo white 
images. Ilio central image is Ajimath, tho second oFtheTirt 
with the date 022 probably for S. 1622 or A.i>. I5t 
}iis riffht i» ParaHvauath with the flnake hood ms 
(8. 1232), and on his left Sdnlinith, the Itith Tirthanknr. nJHO 
1 17& (6. 1232). On tho exirt- me right is the iuiiiKif of the 
jtnmla Parasvanllth. Un the tuft of tho eciilptiiro imiiu<dial«lj 
tho luute are the Devifi, and on each side of the Dovis small 
ligurefl rare to a Jain temple.* The dilTereut temple tntditioos wi 
aboDt the bog-inniu^nftlw present Cfntiiry.compilod by a JaiuM^ 
Tho earlier parts, altered apparently to 6t with 622 the ^H 
Ajitniith'ft statue, contain few trustworthy details.' Porhaj^ 
earliest historical fact ia that in tho twelfth ocutary (_ll; 
JagdusUa, a merchant who had made a fortune as a grain de 
iu a time of faiiiiue, rcceivod a ^nint of Uhadreaar nr. ' ' ' 
temple HO thoronghly rcpairod that all traces of ami , 
removed. To this man is pmbably due the present pluu ui 
t^iiiplo and most of tho iMiildinj^ as it now stands. DyiiiK' chilli 
in 1181 (S. 1238)itfclltoMaaghan Vjlphcla, and inthotwilfrh 
thir1«enlh centuries was a uto&l popular plaeu of pilj^riiu 
Under tho Jiidej^ it was scieed by 3&m HiUa and aft^nv-Hrda 
Jam Rfival in 1535 (S. 1502). At the closo of the sevonte* 
century (1(>9^) it vrii£ plundered by a Muhumuiadou f<.>rce iiad w 
of the iniap^H wore broken. Since then it luw beiMi iicfrlDcled. 
1763 tho walls of the old fort began to bo polled down and 
stones used, for building, and about 1810 uveu the eld temples i 


* Dvigen* Arob. Sor. R«i:^ 1874^75, 20lt-90S. 

' The toimlfi » Mid to liavo tn-xn foundvil in tbo SIst year of tin Viir 
dodiutMl tn \'ftMU by SuUhoacn of tli« race of HAri. Hit aiicoouon wen _ 
KinMm, Bliojriij, V.\ur^, 8ifwi|fdev, Vinucn, Han»e>i, who Ii«-vi1 in th* til 
Viknun (.*>7b.(.-.). llten cana Kirtidlutn, Dli^niip^l, l>Q<r(Utt. And DuijiraJ. 1 
ftfteradincof oaiifui!i(Piicwna, l&l3(S.213), Vitarij Va^holji of Munjpur.nd kftM 
Vognti, lUtnAdfttt, And VijAvaniv. Xcxt, after a time m misnilc. tho K&tliU of Tkri 
««iMd BhodrivAta mad k«pt it for 147 yvarA. Afu-r theiii, &.M (S. \'A»), Ktuutk Ch 
of I^UU) t«N>k the oountcy. built thu U<m^il<:'. luiil iu US (S. 622] out up thv lain 
AjitiuUh. (This is AmiArcntly bruugbl m U lit thr dst« an the etutiic). Ku 
anoCMaur, Uimi^h invniir.! Iiy the MusolnafinE, wm MIuwoJ by hw miu Bhiivad 
Icat fail kingrloiu tti llui SuluikiHiif Hliliij'n'l. The new mien chanf;vd tbaj 
tii« place to liLa<lre«Ar. 7-»> i-S. '.im. ">') coatiuwd to bold it liU 1132 
Btuiieu' Ateb. Surv. Bap. I8j4-7:>. 206.207. 




to rapply stonce to build tho Roapcirk town of Honm or 

from the temple, nearly borie<l in tho sand, nro tlio remnins 

_ mosque biiilt of Iai'(];e blocks of stouo, witti pillars square 

[.Wso, octat^ual in the middle, and round above with bracket 

isapportiug tuu^sive nine feot lan^ linteU. Hontli>wo»t is 

' mofiquo, once entered from the east but uow from the north. 

^ if n fmaU apptircntly unhnishod chamber. Tlie walls are o£ 

most Jiocuralely jointed stones, and tho roofs of flat slabs. 

n*rt have drips orer them, two with semi-circular arches and 

hcirii mth liut-ols. The architraves aro carved with neat 

patterns and with larj^'o Huwera below. Pir fjiil Shobah'a 

'ta a small walled encti>sure, has a t«<|uaro p^Tamid shaped 

^utd in tho inside and supported on eight pillars set against 

lofiido iiro aomo Arab writingB in largu square Knfic 

and in the court some graves s^ with KaHa 

FUc«0 of Inter 

f Bhtli . the capital of Cutch, in north latitude 2-3° 15' and east Baogr. 

''iO° 'IW, ii tliiply-six milos nortJi of Mandvi and twelvo 
■!ie great Han. The t<«vn, wifh in 1872 a population of 
"24,000 aouU, is pluasmlly situated in a plain between two 
emch about two milus distant from tho city wall. In shape 
ir jKilvf^n, it is surrounded by a well kept solid stone 
ty-tive fei't hi^di and four thick, with towers at irrefjular 
lU nnnt'd with fifty-ono guns. In tho walls are 6ve 
the -Mahdilev, Piitvadi, Sirjmt, Bhidvfil, and Vduidvad. 
ttho walls, the stn^ets, narrow and crookedj hardly passablo 
' ean-iago, are lined by high stone walls, the cnclosnrcs of 
that often upon t>ither fi*om a corner or from a tjlde Ituie. 
(ttws, each in the eentrc of an ennlr»sing wall, thongh low, 
illy sln'ii}<ly bnilt of stone with small loopholo-liko windows. 
wuHl clo^te to the towu walls are two pleasantly laid out 
, the Sarad and KhiLs Uag, belongiug to Hia Highnnsn 
Kach buM its garden hoose and both arc well shaded and 
, ftnd gay with tiuwers. To the north is tho race couno.^ 

climate of Bhuj, though hot and at times oppressive, ia CUmaU. 

" lieolthy. Tlio well water ia hard and brackish, and 

mrcos'of supply are two ponds outside of the town, the 

'li-t-ast soon drj*, and the Hamirsar to tho aimth- 

Ija lis holding water all the year round. Of lato 

JO Hainir&ar lake has been much improved by turning into it 

jurwb from the hill range to tho south, and by reducing it^ 

building a causeway across it. lo other respects Uttlo haa 

mo to improve the town. Thu streettf though unlighted 

I dean by the city municipality.* 

»' Arch. Sur. Hep. IS74-76, aOS. 

•' Arch. Sur.ltep.IiT-l-Ti, 208. 210. ., , ^ . . 

I ; trans. Bum. Uewg. Sw. I. 310 j «»d HAnnltou'B rtewnptioo of 
L fiSKJ. * '-"yl- B»rtw>- 


chapter Xm. 

kof iDtercBt. 




Bbnj, formerly sacred to the gpake Bbnia ng,' vma in 1! 
as his capital by H&o Klien grtiji {1548-1585). After 
TUo was forced to Ehcknowlooj^ Moghal Bii pronmcy . Bhi 
aeem to have been knu^^'n umoni^ tno Masolmius aa yiilc 
Nagar.' The whIU ivero built by Ktlo Uotiji iu 1723, mid tha in 
Bhujia by Devkam Sotb in RiSo DcsoJ's time (1718-1741). Bhij 
been six ti mes attack ed. Jn two cases the defonco was suooH 
and in Four it failed. In 1728 an attack by gaybolim^ gl 
Viceroy of Gnjarilfr, was repnlw^ by Rao Oesaljt (1718- 1741), i 
in 1 705 Glmtam Sbjifa of Sind was, by a timely display nf the (rtrei 
of tho foriificatioDS> induced to wilhdruw. Unrin;;; tli(> crvil trou 
of tha reijrn of tbo mad IMo Raydban (1778-1813) Bhnj was H 
taken, by Mcghii Seth m 1786, by lian8riii_io 1801, aiid by Fi 
Mnhammad in 1303^ Finally on the 2Gtb March 1811) the TuH 
ofUhujia WH9 captnred by a Britis h dctnchiocut under Sir Will 
Keir. In 1818, Bhuj bad 20,000 people and wae fiimuns f 

artiets in gold nod ailvor. The groat earthquake of t'r 

year (16th Jnne I8I0) destroyed nearly ToOO honses with a lu 
ll'U) human lives. About one-third of tho building thai mo 
min wpro much shattered, and tho north fiico of tho town wall 
Welled with tho gronnd. In 1837 Bhuj is said to hitvo b 
population of 30,000 eouls, about 6000 of theiti MuBolmdna.' 

The chief objects of interest in the city ar e thopalac ea. Of 11 
there vo throe,lWoL&kha*8,RfioPrAgmalii's,an<] Fnteh Muhjimnn 
Bao L&khd's palace, built about 1750, is a large white stono man 
deoomtcd with beautiful curving and fine fretwork. The ( 
rooms arc an audience ball where darl'ir* are held; the hal 
mirrors, ditrn vuihdl ; and the state apartment. The luill of undic 
then hardly finished, is described by Colonel Tod in 18?~ 
nseful, ami comfortable. The chief wonder of the pal,. ■ , 
have cost over £200,000 (80,00,000 h>rh), is, he writos, tbo h 
mirrors. This, surroandod by a verandah, is about forty-six 
long, forty brood and sixteen high. The floor is inlaid with " 
tiles, the white marble walls are covered with mirrors sp 
by gilded ornaments, and adonicd with shelves filled wit 
fignree and vessels. Tho roof and pillara ai-o decorated with 
gold mouldings and other omamontti, and the small oomjvu- 
between them are Bopplicd with fittings of triangnlfu-ly i 
looking-glass. On tho floor are a numWr of Dutch and En 
chiming clocks all playing at onoe, a celestial and a terrestrial 
and Bomo antique pictures all attributed to R&msiTig. The i 
of tho verandah are covered with a straugo collection of porb 
Riiua Eaujitsing of Meywar, tho Empress Cnthoriue of Rn 
Kiija Bakhtaiiig of Marwfii-, Hogarth's Election, and other £ng 

■ TieffonUialer (1750) dewribca Bhnj m ' groat sad stnegthcnril with two I 
He Mys it took its nsmo fnm Bhnj>Uviui or the li%4wo jt,n\ ■oako «' ' 
Mopio wonhipped aotl fed ovonr day with milk tnii ric«. Bcai Uin, el 
riad«, I. 3!N!. 

> Bml'iMir&tiAhnisai, ISfl. 

* Trmna. Bnm. Lit Hoc II. S30; BurceM' Afch. Snr, Kop, 1^4-75. SOfl 
l>d«tJUu'C1itch.30. 1^ i *»-, *w 

iitth, mad Tndiaii subjetiU intertoiugled vfith tbe princes of 
[mnd aandry other portTsit.<;. CIoso to the hall of mirrors is 
kto apartuicat with, in H« ceolre, a suiall roon oigbt foet 
contnining Rao Liiklia's bed.' 

It Ib05. tbe iato Ruo Pr»gnia!ji, from designs prepcu-ed 

lonel Wilkins of tho Royal Eni^DOors, began a lordly 

;tm a Rite formerly used for stables and oot-housct). The 

led f'T » Dartjar-liall eighty feet by forty, aud forty feet 

■JVig cf the roof, with urL-liud Tc-nrndnhs all round 

rs. Lrttvol with tho Durbdr hjkU i-iius a suite of 

KKimp, five at right angles to the others, forming tbe 

quarters. 8taircait(>i9 lead to an apper floor with a sutto of 

eorTW(pi>cdiii)jr til those on tho first floor. A clock tower, 

high, is ojDuitt^d *rith tho main buildiug by covered 

l1ie rtMiuiH aud vurauduhs are well proportioned and 

the verandahs archad and open to the out«iido. The 

wid bases are all carved from special d^siguti. Tbe 

ioom are laid with teitselat«d Carrara uiarble^ aud some 

" ' - are paTed with Minton tiles. The walla and ccilinga 

:..fand galleries are painted ia oU coloura, each tower 

L£aJU.'ry with a uilTemut desiuTi. The iKiIuKlerH of the ^llery 

Ets are of varioRntod marble, many (>f them quarried in 

The original design of the interior of the DarbAr ball waa 

with an oiieii roof. But tlio Iato R&o wm iuduaid to bare 

31 decornteo in tbo Italian ntyle. A ceiling covered in the 

and from huse zinc rosettea chains were bung for 

'Hie rest ofUie ctiliug is ornamented with cupida and 

■jliug*. Round tho hall nnis a pure white gallery 

y cnryatidos. The doors below, and the windows above, 

, and decorated with fignred ploto glass. Ilctwcen each 

>aru marble columns, aud tbe whole is resplendent with gilding 

It. At r>ne tied of the ball is a full loagtb portrait of Rfio 


Tl , ..tber chief buildings in Bhnj aro tho jail, tho hospital, 
•ir stables, tbe schools, and Fatob Muhammad'a palace. 
ii>* -Kiij, a well designed building, stands in a walled eucloKure 
Bear tho Sirpat gat*;. A round centre tower with radiating 
Igea of coUa, it includes a workshop, kitchens, and women's 
lOATten. It baa room For four hundred prisouen!). Tho Hospital, 
a plain building near the jail, boa airy but floldom welt filled 
^-.-,T, ii... people preferring to bo treated at their own bousea. 
. built by the late RAo in IHGb, aro roomy and stron^y 
Ic Hiiu |y1:i;'s f'lr 100 horsuH. Not far (iff, aud built at the 
time, :ii<- ilir ii-lephant stables, high, airy, and well planned, 
ritfa fcupaiuto fetalis fur ten elepluuit«. Tho Schools Htuud iu one 


Places of lal 




WMt«rn huUm, ifiS ; Mn. Poctaiu' Catch, 40. 

irt-'riFlncnVj itn^^A ik-^Mf hoU with wsllj and o^ng dvoomtcd hj luUui 

-'•I'M, nintildtu^nnrl cntiutlsturM ivltnriyt with 

ll'irv rnnniiig ronud it* nmMr |)nrlii>D uphMd by 

' juirl doom ni pUtnglMt, with mUio 

with in SacX ail M nrnamenl Uirt Ui 

.«,.;. ,.^..=L-i.o<..yoi,, ,,..^-11. u iou^i u:iCulcti(Febnur> 1878), 2?. 





Chapter ZUL 
I*lBces of InterMt 


Tht Cantmiwumt 


loDe Uno on the rampArt close to the P&tradi gftte. 
wpIT cUiiHon, ami Iho buildings are ury, TOomj^jAain, 
planned. Kaleh MahamiDod's ptUace, naaed during ' 
power (-arly in tbo prMflnt contiiry, is a place of great 
uat-nxifod, vfixh elaborately earned windows. 

Outaidc tho town walls are Rome tombs, an oW fori, tha 
the Cantouinent, aud the Bbujia bill-fort. To thu 
town, on tbe border of the Hamirnur luki', stand tht- 
bnilt of red sandstone and verj' ricbly and cunotitdy dt 
BurroundodbysBtoneBcreen or lattice. Thetombi^ - 
earthquake <w 1810 aiKliirc now miit-h ruined. Of i! 
Bio Liikha's, built about 1770, is tliy Istf^-st aod 
tomb, polygonal in form, in purrouudi'd by o gnllt 
entrances. Tbo roof is cnrinnBly and lioaiititijlly cai 
BQpporttMl by a pillar at evoiy corner. The auitth wrch 
The contml dome ajvars an a[iar(*ntrnt Hurrffnndwl by a 
dwir on tbe ta-ft. In this room, wbeni the n^hra of ibp 
laid, is an imugt; of It^ Ijokha on bor»t('bat-k, ntH M 
atones uf his iifiet'ii wives, seven on IIih ripht ai. ' 
left. A short way from RAo !*Akhft'fl tomli ja n 
honour of R&o Rdyadlmn (1778 - 1813). 'fhe tomb of JUao 
the &tthor of tfao lato Rao PnSjnnalii, thongh nnnll is 
benntiful. Qnadmngnlar with a chhntri roof, the ."ddR pAnol! 
Bpirited gronps nf mm nnd animals admirably acul' 
IUm) Dcsalji's wivM did not perform «(iti the building hn- 
Bio Priig-inalji's tomb, next to his father's, is a fine special 
modern earring.' 

To the south of the tombs on the M&ndvi road is the Retid! 
and abont a mile eafit at the foot of Bhnjia hill, barren nnd bi 
trees, lies the Cantonment. Tbe camp conaJat-s of tl 
Infantry llepimeut, for a battery of Artiltury, Ofii' 
nent little church, barracks, and a market plooo. 

Some 2.^0 feet above the Canfonmeut rises the hill fort vl iii 
the ti)p surrounded by a parapet wall of no great Btreugth, en 
by one gate, and enclosing an irregular area with a few ecnt 
buildings. At one comer ia a small Btiuaro tower dedv- • ■ ' ^ 
worsliip of Bhujang, one of the anako mmily antl Iinttlu 
lord of the nnder-world, pdtdt, who came fixtm ThAu i: 
and freed Cutch from tlio oppross-ion of Oaityfie aud ■ -■>! 
The fort, built about 100 years ago by Rdo Gouji, ha^, sii 
been httld by tlie British. It was agreed that if certain 
the north of tho town was given as a cantonment, Hbuj 
be handed over to tho Rao. Bnt aa the laud in que 
never been offered the British remain in posseesion of the fort.= 

* PartaM' Cutch, 59. SO ; ToA'a Wmtcni IndiA, 4S6 1 BnrnBs' Ardb 
(lW<-:5), 212:00). Bwtnn. 

• M«JM J. W. Wfttwa. lad, AiiL IV. 106; Tmty of 1859, aiticio 

mnyli niiin-d temple of Blinvaneshvar ' 

ttji. ■;', nn'ii-Miriiiji' 313 ^'-"t ^5 3-'i iii^"lo, is ■, il 

itUitf» iuuj t {)iliujt4.Tci, m oa the screan witil and LJ ronod 

w. The [/illars tiro si]Uiire to about oue-tbird tboir huightt 

tefionol. Mil] laAt\y nitind. The shrine has been large, fully 

' u Lid on i2 pilaatcrs, 18 iuchos by 12, with four- 

hf. lir;»ck«'tfl, Tho bmckota of the hall columns 

■ n plinth, nine or ten inches deop, is 

I I palttTU. Tho froDts of tbit bracknla 

[vedL 'i'bf whUh ut Llw U'lupk* are uf stone throughout. Owr 

r ^ r ij) a I)i?vi, prrihahly Bhavini. On the pilasters to 

L- shrine ia on iiificripliou dated 128'J-I»0 (S. iatt>); 

' ' '' ore the uamoB of VanarSin and a 

- anccators. Bhnrad, who gare ita 

'■, IB Mild to have iteen a Clidrda chief, killed 

. or by Imkha Phiiltiai Jadcja about 1^20. Uia 

iR fiaid to liare fought it« way iv Bhuvad, where is a 

-" 'pointed headless figure, Near his shriuo are tall 

■ f have been rained over warriors who fell in the 

MlucU ilhuvutl was stain.' 

■"TihcT, on the coa^t sis mitef) west of liftlchpat, 

t !<ricks aud mud said to t-ontaiu the remains 

jv, liiil t.'lili:i'.ta,* ivlnj was dnjwncd while cnissing the 

crhiii ilearh hi' appfftri?d in a dream to tho people of 

Ltold them to build him a tomb, and vron*hip hiui as a ^aiat. 

Li held here, when people from the Burrounding 

eheir children to Uare their heads shared for the Brat 

Flaeee of Xnt 


tear tbc cuutro of YAjfad with 2508 inhabitunta, has, 
I the north, the ruinn of four teinpltw and a n>Horvoir 
thin, who, about tho yoar 1500, were spttled hore 
inmbem. One of the tcuiploK, nrubabty dt-dicutttd U> 
Rurt. woH built of fine ntouo with excel lout m^ulpturo. Tho 
in ruin^.and moat of the matoriaU have boen carried 
a mile tu thu ojuit are the reiuaina uf a pretty large 
among them the ruina of a small plain temple of 
date l.)02[S. ISoOj.* 

considorablo Tillage in yjigfid, ahotit fifty-three 
; and not far from the Hfln, with 2788 inhabitants, 
. -. from whieh in the di-y season the llaa in LWaa^d. 
[ 7»ii I hfr array of tho MjiliariSja of Jodhpiir was totally 
y Tuteh AJi Talpur of Sind. The scone of tlie fight is 
hjl the tombstones of fif^-eix Kajputa.^ 



AreiL Rnr. He].. I8T4-T5. H», 210 [ Bom. ««t. Sol. CUI. (N«* Scriost. 17. 
:■■ ■!..> t< ). Herivr'il fnini LtU mmuiiij buy, uul cuoCa duwovcrtd. 



lUoes of iBterwt 




Dhinodhar hill in the aorth-west of Ctitch tms OD its' 
p*ak asmull, domed, sjiTnewlia-t. cnu;ke<3 shrine of lii 
uiutl plastered with cement, biiilt bjr Bnihiiiii-Ksbatri Sethi 
Shivji til 1H2I (S. 1877).' This is sat-ml to the holy Dbc 
whfi, nft«T di>stroying' Standvij repenied of the losfi of 
dett^rmintKl to mortifr llie flesh by staDiling ou his hood on 
lonely bill. Travelling to the north he began to climb the hij 
hill be could see, bat it became Nanao " weijflied down " by hk 
lie chose another hill, but for it 1*kj the burden of puilt w« 
grrat iind it became Jhurio "broki-u down''. He chosi* a third 
and rlimbinp^ it backwards it bore him, and he cx)1lc<d it DhitKr 
"the palieuco bearer". At its highest peak, re»tuig it 
oonical stone, ho stood on his head for twelro yc&n, a 01 
woman feeding him with nn'Ik. Such merit and }>uwer did 
penance bring that the godtt took aJarm, and, scudiug a dopnl 
to wait on him, asked that, bis penance shunld ceiL»e. Dhonu 
ftaid, wherever he first looked, tho cuiintry would bocomu 
The gods arranged that he should fir^t look at the bco. 
np under his gaze and left the Han. Fearing that tho di 
many fish -wonld lo^e him bis mcrit> DhorauiUAth mov«d 
and looking at the bill it split into two. Them Dh< 
came down, kindled bis Hre, Wit a monastery, and iwtabl 
the order of the KanphaMs. In the shrioe ia a r ' 
triangular conical atone in which Dhorammith is said tu 
his head when performing penance. Outside of rJie shrine i 
original ascetic's fire, dhtini, which is lighted three da 
Bhi'ulrapad (August - September), when the bead, ^iti*, oj 
monastery comes to worship and receires homago from the ] 
of the neighbouring villages. At the foot of the hill, among 
monastery buildings, is another temple to TJhoramniith on a ; 
platform ^cing tho east, about seven feet ^juare amd witJi 
about seven feet high. Inside is a three feet high marble im 
Dhoramnlith, Aome t^mall ^'ti^«, and other brass and stone ia 
and a lamp a1way.s kept burning. In a large shed new 
ascetic's fire, dhuixi, said to hare been burning since tho ti: 
Dhoruinnnth. In August and October, at the Gokal Aehtam 
Jvavftitra festivalfl, rice and wheat flour sweetened with angi 
cooked and given to the people.* 

Dlna'ra has, about half a mile txi the south, tho mins ol 

limestone Jain temple, fifty feet long by eighteen wide, talj 
the place where Saderaut and Savalinga, Lho hero and 
a Gujardti romance, need to study.' 

Fatobgad. a prosperous village on tho edge of the Ran' 
north-eiist of VAgad with 316-1 inhabitantSj wae, early in tl 
century, founded by, and called after, the famona minist 

> Boro, Oov. Sol. CLn. (N«w SrHc). 9, la The tbrine Hum th« BMt 
doori. Itt nwMuremeDta kk 5J feet •qtun: nd ax U^, wttfa no cnt 
tiigh unl S wide. 

I Bom. Oo». SeL cm. [New SoriM). R. 9, 

' Bom. ihrr 8«t. CUI. (N«w 3«riM). 7a. 



,,-.. ,1, 


(178C-1813). Partinlly fori ifying the town lie made it 

.- ir, :^ vliurt linie, bo drew witliin iu walls the people "f 

s round. By carefully protectiup from robber 

; ^'v ;i-ltw&8 the Ran to GiijarAt., traders came to settle 

1 It ft-w yoai-A lafei-, in tbe tiiiip of the 18*23 famine, 

lar(?o fortunes. In 182S it was ono uf the mosb 

.11 Vagod with a jxipulaiion of 20OU -louls.' 

,' H TiIlagB in the north of Vigad with apopalation of 2770 

1 totw one of tbo oldest tuwiia in C'lituh. Ono of tho 

■ ; claim lo be the Viriit Nagar that gave shelter to the 

(imo B.C.). it >*» alat" said to bo the capital of the mythical 

llietiiTitTi^'ho, though foratimo forced to wiiar tho foiTuof an 

i-di'd in marrying the chiefa <Jaoghtcr and surrounding' tho 

, a wall o( brasB. Some of the asB, ijadlwt/n, coins have been 

r the rains. In course of time the town [lasM^d into the bands of 

lin named Madam. Fpi>m him it was wrwstcd by Pddariya 

and from tUum by VAgholda. This Vaghela chief seems at 

to have boon very powerful and to liave hold the title of 

as late as 1475 [S. 153^), Though afterwards subdued by 

bja^, the head of the family still has the tJtleof Kanaof Oedi. 

■lur is niuuteenlh ill doscoiit from the ffjuuJer.' 

itorest iH tlie whitc-lJmostone temple of Mahiidov 

'Achalc-hrar, built about 300 yeara ago (1579), by a Sachora 

R'"-''-nu GoviU Dave. Twenty-two fiHft long, eight broad, and 

■twi-i high, it hflA a domed porch and a iihrine, wirJi a four- 

uiC'j^) MahsdeT ttaid to be taken from an old temple built by Uttoni} 

princees of Viral., and dc<licated to TJttareHhvar, but lone since 

buniil. Near the temple, the Malan well, with half hiiriea pillars 

nT»TUT»>wTi with trees, seems to have been repaired in M7t> (tj. 1533) 

' by I'liakor Malar, the son of Makad. Though from ita brackiahnesa 

little a«ed for drinking, its water is thought to be medicinal. Of 

AiihitKa PirV tcmpto close to the well, nothing remains but a platform 

• feet square with inouldinfrs and two ruined tombs. 

^ temple is a terraced building, twenty-eight feet by 

■wpnty, with a large rerandnh in front of four shrines, and a 

'wHitnit .i.nic inpportod by sixteen pilhirs. In tho central room aro 

'ih.' le images, MaUarir in the middle, and on either side the 

limag^tiot Adishvar Bbngv^ andof SbintinathUiofifcliTirtliaiikar.* 

Placet of Int 



ii>n' M8. IB-iS. 

1 to tm a uiimuituxi of GhrilanJutdi/^i wliich u fouod in two iiiacrip> 

-. tinted 1271 1^- nSS), whfra it is nMuCioned as a Uree dinrlct 

-yjvycii Arjandcvkinj; of Aahilrflda ; RDdtheotlieria u«iiucrip- 

il(»cc ImIi^w). Itic nunc wotttd Been to mouthalatKl, ghdtd]faor 

rit nr'/M 1'hn IvKKixl is iluit Kmerdiiuit of Aokllvlftn in WMit of 

. , .: , itnktt by wnificfroiu MiUa«^ WRrakouin, wid «ft<inrafdi offenxl 

VBIu. 1 bin .Milkv retusod u tfae atotea batter had bwn re[>Iftocd hf tucwu n( 

'vTniLcii' nag. Ou boiagnsured that batter bad been Iijc1><^d, he took tb« mnii«y, 

ilttfao tcmplo.tbo w»ll, ud tlw puud. Bom. Ouv. 8«1. CLIL <X«w 

' CMI. IKgw f^riM). £7. Aceonling to ui«Uior Mooant, IVhul 
VI 4, Ibenji i* n stoDP At fnxLi with u date 000 VMn n]d. 
... .... ■~^-, .( cK^b of the «id« fi^rm ia > writing, tbkt an Aai*hvw Kirea 1477 

f&lAM}:thAtantlicbMkof tihAutiaitbgivea 18M(S.1921), Bom. (Dot. 8«l CUl. 


Zm. UabiTvK* km^^ —nawi 1 by tkc STiKtiw, baa tti «r;FV'. OM^j 
' - I inodB rapMHsd wish rtDocib T^b in^te ic snil m 

bittk lijr a V<an ttUMd IUbt, who, aceoninig to th« Wvl 
owaad a •crvr nag tfaaC b*d ikanrtneoC mfllmcim ■ 

{■iL AaaaHaf ■wdibytlKBa^chelpfaebadlJIabkv'ir 
MflkB wdl. nd the ILOar po^ T^ w«pl^ f Lal^ 
a pyr aai dd dviae vilk two dnaed pcm-hw, ' 
iwtrosr faec fafoad md <onj &M li%h, waa b<; 

OD the site of aa oM ta8i{iJB aud to have baen Uon^ -^ Uj 
fihfjiwkff. Iiuida, a marble ism^ of takuhminiraiTin. 

teat hij^pepkcMaaaadMBP- ' hijrbmu 

mtrtiTatftf! by 8ar£u~^ nf Sin': ^ . . _ :. .<« Iv.. 

tnaf^ vith thai ^jsa, »: 

beloDged to the •.-•■i u uij<t- whidi ia a^i L'- lum: i-- 

Piaiimn. In aoothcr mdut ta a sandacitae tiiia«e< * 

an biacriptiuB daitsi 161- 

RiarkM |Jiae« is a three tr 

On Ha pedvital iaaa inacnpuaa' ■■-■» *ti nL 

1211 (S. 12dS) u legiWu. It a »_. . ;- l^Te bot-j, ... 

the itakraaa Rajpatu at the timeof their aaCUomcak.' 

Oholalr, under the ChArdfa knovn an Sanagar Pi 
uotil eupened«d by Jaldi^, a plaffr ^ aome impoftancc. 
attll iimte objects of inloreafc. Aiaoag them, ^jst a mk' 
Gboliy, is a denned stone and bricdc btnldinicr, twro"- - " ' 
and twenty-eight high, said to lie the l'.>aib uf 
Jakhara, and to hare boea boilt in the foarteenib cuuiurt - bj 
an Jian Kftoii IL 
ImratVAU. Gundiyali, on thccDoei near Mandri with 4M*'- 

has, oa hieh ground nirroundod by htiy^ baniaa tr 
aereral milea, a handsome tomple wend to Bir 
1819(3. 1876) by 8<-Lli» S ' " ' "■ 

haTO boon bom m tho ; 

pelm of bis mother's hand, gained a nanie tor 
a ntimbtr uf Muwilmdn missiunanes who di- 
o( I>hnrainn&th. He afterwardii catne to G 
posaeosion of a Dal Itajpat Bamed Doraj, and 
the Biitbods. Onoe a year many Mosalmiina and HukIus Ci)tB»>i 
Towi, and bang flower fj^lands tvauil the necks of the 
that are ranged aboai the temple.^ 

Ovmu. Gunthli, a amall rillaga about thirty-Kix miles north-w««^ 

fihuj, baa the ruins oE a widled cily rijiug buldiy frum 
river.* The line of the walls, 2250 yards ronnd and 
au oblonff' aqnare in shape, though much decayed n: 
traced. In&iue ia noihiug but a heap uf niinSf the reniu- ■ 

ufip-'i [liiti 

■ BoiQ. Otfp. Sal. Ctn. (New Strita), 68, TIL 

* Bon. Got. Scl. CUT. (N«w Suriaa), 45. 

* Bon. Got. .'^L. CLII. (New 8erie>>, 8, 48. 

* Tka Dbwar Ulla into th« lUa 4bout 12 milra Ui Ui« oorlb. It u Mid 
ntute beon Davigahle, and Clwri at its inmilb to luv« bo«a a iw|>art. Sir JL 
MS. 1828, 

Tn lJi28 tho Tillagwa constantly tomod up jiioeos of 
iM coit)«, niui nixttitioiial boxes of monoj'. An oM 
waa bplicved tu lnjUi soake- guarded treasure.' Ou 
of a smull !ako i-i tho west of tho fort, sovon graro sronea, 
^th p.'aiIrMr (lcf«ij;ii9 bnt no writitiy, are said to have been 
AT of sovcu claiiniiats for tho hand uf GutiLri tho 
>E the BCTt?o SAnda, onco tho rolers of the fort.' It 
■ soveu Snuds, probably oarly in ih* fonrteonth 
::Lry, luii ihc i^&mm&a captured ihe fori and made thoinaolTea 
f irp?rorn Cntch. '('ho Hhir}- in rhat Mod and Mantij two 
■111 Sind, by treachery pfaiiied poefl«8«ion of 
;_ I IcD tutlca nurth of K^>m near lAkhpat. 
liMvUn, whom thu Samm^s killud, was a vassal of tho 
U. They at Krst threaioned poaJghjneut, but were 
y Iht) ofFt^r of a larger tribnto aud of oiiu of the Samiua 
•:i.:ri 11* hostage. Part of tho tribute was paid in grass, and 
thi> SaiiiDi&i, in eacli cart of firaes, hid nome armed m«u. 
[lajttifd thrutigh the city gate^ Iho blind gatokooper 
■mething more than grasB, Kiid, ' Thero is cither flwh or 
the cart.' A spear driven iuto one cart cat the thigh of a 
r. I5ut his uttering no Bound of ])aiii, as Iho Bpcar was 
oat rubbed off the blo*jd, aud, lu apito of tho blind man's 
ip -ta passed iu. At night tho armed men left the 

garrisuu, Belzud tho fort, and drove tho &ovoa 
into KathiaTt^.* 




^akha'u, A xrnpnrt town with 51 45 inhnbttantH, in north latitude 
lU' and eaai lunp'iindo 6^ 43'/ stimda on the Kouth-west coast 
1, mfjro than sixty milea west of Bhuj. The town, rather 
ricken with icattered stotie houses, lies between tbjee and 
It^ inland in a dri>ary plain bare of treea but yielding good 
ifn. <'\<a-e Ut the landing place and along tho banks of the Godia 
,'h the naid \a av all times pai^i^able, the land is lowlying 
The landing place is ou (Todia ereok five miloa^'om tho 
KKk. \N \t h n mnddy bed, this creek, dry at low water, has at full 
'I' of from eight to twelvo feet, and, at springs, boats of 
to twonty-Bvo tons {60-70 kfuindis) can paea. Three 
• : ' ' 'intr plaep, a second and distinct creek, following 

en- :^t, runs to Koteshvar, the landing place at the 

. oi (he liultiH, and forms a natural canal joining Jakbda 
iiiinB. lliii* bacVwatcr ia known as Bagda, and tho mile 
two brotul strip o£ land between the oauul uud tho «ea as Bugtari. 
II tAe backwater the daily tides rise (1828) from fire to six feet, 
aod all the year round make the creek navigablo for crait of from 
' (25 - 30 khiindie). Several small rivere run toward 
^rgest of them entering it two auda half miles north 


I ■ {fer A. IhtrvM' MS. IS'^1 

I '« Bna. Onr. »el UIJL (Now Son ea), 3?. The Siad* §Tt! geaenilj mppOMtl Co 

■ »urx»> Anh. .Su; Uap. )87iT5, 900. • CoL Bwton. 



Chapter ZHI. 




of Jakhiia. Tbe moaths of w>m« of tltem aro effected liy Ui* 
and »i>uMi iif tho villajro of Ramv^dn, (hr<Hr 
Bnjrtnri strip cnllcd Ncraui, bc«ta of tho sii 
DUvi|pito the fr^pk can entt-r it. Tho Tmiiift l>t»»ip iiini ' 
crock arc cltirQv from S1iiibbaiula.r, and Maghrib).' 
toilcs ftoath-casc of the Jakbiiu crcok, aiiother bnckwntcr caUi 
Sirif runs intaud to (he east for ulioiit- six nn'lea. Tliin, 
with only one outrance, is useless for tmfiii-. Jakli&ii c»rriMt 
largo trade with Bornhay, exporting (ieltl prodncu and imj 
piew-jfouds, (rrt,M;eriee, aud titnheJ". Vct^elx lyiii^ abnnt fcitir ' 
rrom tho landjug plat^ diochartre into Hcall boaiSj aud troia 
miall boats goods are carried in carta to tho nciffhbunT in-.' it 
ofNalijra, Tera, and KothAra. In 1828, with 4!Ki I 
popoUtifin of 2i 16 eoah, 109B Uiodus and 1018 Musalri 
corriod on a considerable trade, importing from l^ ■ 
eugar, and oil, and frtmi Slnd a friarso rod rice. Theru wtui 
alight triiffic ffith JUaskat and Daman.' 

Ja'rA, a hamlet forty-ti7o miles north-vest of Bhaj, at tlia 
of a hill of the same name, with a populacii>ti cF !t.^ soula, ' 
Bcene of tho grcab battle in which f]752) Ghnliim Shah of 
defeated and ilestroyed the Cutch army. 

Juran has, three miles to the northj aboat tweiity niitc-s m 
west of Bhuj, a great mangrove tree known aa the Knvdincher. TbaJ 
atem, twenty-one feet from the ground, ia from five to t*ni fne-ti 
aad the whole tree covers an area of abont 105 square yardii. 

Kantllk ot. in Vigatl in cast Cntch, an old fort on tho top of i 
isolated rocky hill about three miles in circumference, has mill 
built of massive blocks repaired in many plaae» by »ma1]er scones.' 
It is said, in the eighth century, to hare been tiio capital of tha 
Kfithisand to have been takeufrom thembylhoCh&vdis,* A' 
to the local story the preseot fort was begun about 8-i'3 i ' 
A part of the wall crosaed the fireplnoo of the great a-scetic K' 
nath, who in anger destroyed it. Tlien the builders appc;t 
aaoctic cnlled the fort after his name, nod were allowed to 11 ■. 
About tho middle of the tenth century, under the name Kautiiaunrj 
it appears as the place to which Mulr^j of Auhilv&da fled whc 
proBsod (950) by Tnilap of Kalyan Ketdh." In tho oloventb 
(1024] it is believed to bo the fort Khandaba, forty j>«i 

' Haghnhi n tho »pital nl the drutrict intnntcd on tha SirDU-, a freihurittcit br 
of thv inda» vatd tu tie twnntjr-Ionr miloi boy ond tbc lUkaiioi Kadov. Sir A. Bu( 
MS. 182& 

> Olfiael Barton's Tonr in Cutch (Fcfanuuy 1S7S). SI ; Sir A. Barnea' M8. 1828. 

» Sir A. BuniM" MS. IS2S ; Bargem' Arch. 8ur. Rep ISTI-T.-i. 215. 

'• Tod'a Wwtpm tnaia, 413- Tod s«y« JiilvUx. Unt w« nbovo under th« hmA 
"Rtttofy." Al)uirMU(13IW)«p«aluvICBtborEaliiuth«m«tropoli«atCtik4.1>il 

* Boin. Gov. Scl. CUI. (New Sonea), 13. The tnulitiotud bund«n imt Mod : 
and hu KPQ 9M. but their <I«t« was profcably Ute in the Cbiiteetith aeattuj. 
Arofa. Snr. Rn>. IS;4-75. 19&. 

* Bnrgcea (Arch. Sur. lUp. 1874-75, 21.1) civw, !isi', brn Tiiii»[r»iiittr_«i wuoIdMMiai 
t« have occurred near tha b^naiitg uf Molilj'it mga (942.3071. Ind. Aav VX ISL 

th« head 




1 between ihat. placo nud tbo de»crtj where Rhim- CliayUr 
:* ftxtiii Maliitiiid o[ Ghazoi.^ A-liout tbe middle piaceiofli 

lilii ceutury (I II^J} the Riija o{ KoiithogAni, probibly 

&^tn the west is mentioned as joixiiug tlio Nogor chief 

Kanmr Pal Solaaki (1143-1174) of AnhUvada.* In the 

^ - 'itury it tnia tho capital of the VSghcIils, from whom, 

!• iif the century (1270), it was taken by Mod and Manii 

lu " ' tiniii^ of rlie fiftcouth century (1410) it waa 

Ly -^ {l;WO - 14-11). It afterwards passed to tho 

h tif t he J H'U'jiiM," and at the close of tho sijrteonth coutory 

<1 )>y Abul ViLf.l ofi ciDeot' tho ckioE Cutck fotis.* In 1810 

I to n British detachment under Colonol EiLit, when tho 

1- 1 .iM wero razyd to the f^njuind. lu tbo west of tho hill in a 

arf- two Iftpgi; dupp wella and one ruined Rteu-woU built of 

110.^ On tho bill are tho remains ut three templos, 

- KnuUuulnath, the iiocoiid an old Jaia temple to 

•f the third a temple to the Sun. 

'.rh's shrine on the west point of the liill was, aboQt 

_v Uwbi Jii<it.'j(i3 in the place of a much larger temple, 

IJje Work of Mod Sanmia (1270), ruined by the 1819 

luke. The present shrine, built on a high platform, is domed 

s 2d feet by 14 aud 28 high. It has a fine domed 

-*od on fonr pillars, and inaidc a white marble imajE^ 

'itb sitting crosa-logged. Tho mnch raine<I temple 

:ja'.Li 1ms had a double entmneo hali, mtindap. A writinf* 

Mt npllnr in the entrance hall dated 12S3 (H. l$J-0) states that 

■vn were Atmiidevuath'n suns, Lakba and Sohi. On a 

in [he screen un the ontdido, Atmiidev^a rou PAsil is 

MU tn bo tbo builder. Tho family who built tbo compio are 

to be relatives of Jagdusha of UhadrtiHor. Clutie to the 

■i \h an old temple lo the Sun, surifa, the Kathis' 

god. Thfro is a writing, dcscrilKid as au incorrect 

. ^ ; logvlhur i>f tho untises of tSbiv undor the iucamation of 

Bwim. The temple Ktill contains tbo imago of tbo Sun god, 

'"'i?d with a mate and female attendant on each side. Tho 

much like that of Viiihitu. Near a more moderu slirine on 

I number of gravca of Hhaiv Atits, some of unusnal form, 

i-d on a series of round or nqnare plinths laid one 

o,iLi.i riya, north latitude 23* 5' and east longitude 70" 42', lies 

the s-jiitli-eaat coast of V6gdd about eleven miles north-west of 

in Kiii.hidwai-. A ruined Jain t.(!mple, probably about 500 

old, stands in tbo centi-o of tho village market place. Tho 

now much bid by bouao funudations, seem to show that 

aiai>t«r £ 
Placet of Inti 


1 IfiS. If Uiii identJSmtioa is oonwt tho Bau niut Iutd thsn 
r her curt tluui It now doM. 
wBdition), 142. 
Sill, Ken, ISTi;^ 100,315] WiitMo'* Gainst, 82. 


i^ioJ Ulinriiimoia IJIfect in diunoter and 76 deep, the Atber 
. .:: l.-i U.t roiiiKl ntxl ns Jmp. B<>m. Guv. Sd. CtiU. (N«w S«r>«»), 05, 


»:j:u— 28 




ttaptff SnL when in repair tho t-emplc stoo<l abocrt sixty feet liiKh iwd 
kew of latcrest. '^^ ^'^"^ ^ aboot fifty fcut. Ahove groond ore* tbe txtmnlcs uf i 
donuxl pardiea, each with five well carred pillarB, Lht>)« 
reAcbed by a atone ladder, is a chamWr, tbo roof siippi 
pillars and ecallopped orchos. Ou Ibc aider of thu ' 
uf^nro of Uanpati. On tho bank of a pool in the west ol' the 
is a Hinall plain BandetoDO temple. Thia, dedicatcf) to Mi 
DhadoshTafr about ten fcot eqiiaro and fonrtoen biisrb, kaa a 
•riBiiig; in a pyramid ofBtdps. The portico, w' ' inpom] 

A writing ou the Hntfl of tLe ontmneo door st.. ; it was I 

in 1082 (S. 17311) iu tbo time of Kuuvar SUri Ituvaji by« 
named VnsttipiU, probably the chicrs mnooger. Un the faanki 
pond nrif (wo ^att tombstones, ouo dated IC27 (S. IGSl), tbo 


EorOt on the Mnndvi road nbont twelve miles sonr' ' ^*^ 
vtllago of about 2057 inbubiLants, is u coavenicut baltii;^ 
B largo and strong fort, and a cx>nsidL-rahlL' iratle in 
iitmware.* It has rbrf^o objects of intcrost ; the mina of an nli 
fort and tomploj and tbo shrine of a modern &fqsaIm S - 
inicrost atiuclicu to tbo mina, lu! tliey are said to be 'Ih- 
tho capital o_f Jj&kha l*huliini the great Catcli hero, t --(h] 

amoo^ the ruius and tomlwtones baa T; ' ' ' ' 
much ditiputLHl iKtint uf Lakba'e date '! 

ninth eontitry, but tho muro trutstworiby A1uk:iiiiiuu rucvnU w 
unless tbcro was moro than ono faiitouu cliiof of thi: :-.:iijil< ii 
place him somewbcro in the 13th or 1-tth century, T' 
temple, built perhaps at tho end of tUu tenth coutur^, l^ 
lasting rU>vo portly red partly yellow. Except tlio whrino n. 
the temple was thmwn drowii by tho I8I9 oarthqunke. The 
noaeuros 8 feot inches square inisido, with walls 2 feet 7 i 
ibich, samiunded by a path 2 foot t! inches wide, ligbtod by two 
cut-stono windows. Of tho hall, which was 18 feet inches wt 
only a part uf tho north wall with one window iti loft. Tbo 
fiCQlptiiroH, though not numoroufl, are well exocutod, and on tbo 
of tbo spire is an elaborately cut ornament n-p resenting the c 
of a cAaiiyct wiudow, ropeattid over a triangular face, witli 
figures bi^tweon. Of tlicHc triajiglea oEsculpturo there aro oi_ 
each side, gradnally leasetung aa they rise higher one bohin 
other. The coruei-s of tho shriuo aro sunuountod by miuiaturo ff 
and above thorn are othor four similar, but set further in 
above these and tho sculpture, rises tho massiTo outline of the 
central spire all beautifully can'ud.' South-oast of Kora, a 
rillage, on a pretty rising ground, has the well-wooded nlirino of 
saint Ghidim Ali. Within the enclosure are threo chief bnildin 
a mansolcam, darndh, with a tomb under n canopy, supporltid h 
twelve smalt MnhammBdan columns. Against the pall lios 

> lUoultoB^ l>CMnuiifla of H[u<liuUn. I. 002 : Botn. Got. S«L CLU. (N«w SmIm), i 
•Cbwoo ud WoadiuU^ Uboclliuif (Iftf!)), 111. 13). 
' IlurgcM' KtA. Sor. Hop. {\b7*-V>). 213. 

)b of a Moghol saint, and bolow him Ilassan and Ilasain, 

lUMUiinl &amo the prophet Muhammad^ tho faco loft blank 

obodicuco to tho orclera of the Kur&n. In the middle of the 

jUi, in front of the niaoaolQam, stands a canopy, chhairaf with 

in»f and sido bnJcouios and atomhlosa maaBolotun to D&di Ali 

Tbed'AT)! havii proiectiiij? shields, botween floral oruamentu, 

. t>t.,<:v f. :iT|.| At Aloiji oahiba's touib at Junftgad and oa tho 

i^far in KothiiSwAr. Tho windows aro of ptorced 

iplo pactorns. Thoso tombs w«re built sbont eighty 

he Kboj4s of Kora in honour of a local Baint, Pir 

hml.a dascoadaut of Pir Sodr-ud-din,who, about 

ijt:.' . L'rt«d mauy Cutch and Gujar&t Hindus to the 

srh «t t)iL< lemailiau Shia Faith, whoso chief priest la H. H. Aga 

Pit Sildr-ud-din would scorn to have j^aftcd a Hinda 

(in tbu iBinniliau boliefti. This ho workod into a book styled 

rDuitraV' i incaruationa, nitio Ikmii^^ tlie incnj-iiatioim of 

iflB'J !: being that of the most holy Ali. GhuldinAli 

' ;(f£tled at Kiuli iu Gujarat. Pausing' through 

_ _ ![io 10 Kym, aud, liking tlio place and Imdineuio 

mdly, flottlMl thoro. By otcaritig of ripirita a hanntrd hill 

■ ■ ■" his fume spread. He raised a building called 

to the liv-Of Ali, Putima, Hassan, Hui^Hain, and 

ihafTi.T.'.,! Aluiut fdur years later (179r») Ghulfim Ali died in 

:bee. The K.hujhHof Kiirracheo winhud to bury hi ra there. 

he appeiirt-d iu a ilruam and ttild one of liiH followom that hia 

' had alrt^aily nnawd to Kora. Somewhat doubting*, they opened 

!d, and, finOiug only rose leaves, sent tho ouffin to Kcm where 

TUOeivi'd wiiiji ^reat ceremony and a tomb built. Hoaniig of 

Juebaud's dentil, Iiis wife, Ajaii Ribi, came from Gujarat and 

lin Ktini. Li'siu<» her son in ISU" she runounccd tho world 

It the rust (if lirr life as an aacetir, endowing an alms-house, 

t, where, to the dextituto of all caflt4>s and creeds, daily doles 

aro still given. Ajdn Bibi died in 1827 (::$. 1884). Boththia 

' md hur fausbimd Ghul&m Ali continued Sadr-ud-din's work 

Iding u» the Hindu element in their form of faith. He wrote 

•rk. and she some hymns, kirtan, on ii;piritual knowledge. 

They are ln^ih said to have paid great- njsiHJct to the 

..j,^(>n, and, within their lands, to hare forbidden the 

animal hfo. In their honour on the llth of the bright 

TfTi. ■..■fy.f^ (Marcli . April) a fair is held lasting for a week. It 

in i79'> by Klicja Lridak Sumir of Ghogha in Cutcb. 

l^ community of Kem manage the charitable institutions 

an accoant of the presents received from tlie followers, 

They would eeem to have separated th^aselvos from tho 

]l of Uia Highness Agn Kh&n.' 

Sbadir. au islandf see page 13. 

Kha'vda, north latitude 23^ hCf and east longitude 69" 50', tho 

lief village on Pachham island, lies on the west of Pachham about 

foriy-fL>ur miloa north-oost of Bhnj. It belongs to the Kaos of Cutch 

Places of Zat 

* BoiB. Gov. Sd CUl {Ntiw Scrios). W. 

Kta U&Ia (New Editioo), 229. 








nnii crime into their jyvssession under ratter cr\ 
On the birtli of prinw Uesal I. (171^-17+1) tUe -■> 
Aiixioos tn show their loyalty, offRnid tbr KAo as mni-h lood aft ■ 
couiiog from I3haj cotild pisa over iu ono flay. 'Hiu Sar- 
seem to hare mii^cailciilnUtd the dislauce, a» the curt pa." 
Sftiidhiira, Andh«a, Khari, TJhoImlra, '■ ' ' ' .:ai 

mid it was only by bribing the driver *<■ . it* 


Ehokra or Khakra, abont a mile south ijf Kanthkot,hrut in 
baeh land two ruined Sbniv tomidcs. The shrine of the 
Cftstcrly building h:ui a fiuo door, evidently old^ of hard CO 
ptoiie, with H cli'.iilf/'i window ornaineiit over each jnmh and 
the difTcreiil compart in cuts of tlio lintel. In the coiitrp of the 
iu very spirited stylo is a tairring of Urahmn on iho loft 
Vishna on the right. Some wdl sculptured pillars lie aboot." 

Kora, a villain about ton mileti south-east of T<;>lc1i]-uit on 
way to Miiudvi in a hilly country uoniainiu;; largu nuuntitiuii of 
ore, had in 1820 two or three xmolting fnmaecB.^ Tba work 
long been stopped but traces still reinrun. On a raided p' 
witb ft Bag fitarf, a wtoiie, in memory of Pir Aliyiji , is held in 
rfRpect by the people of Kora, who mako vowa to him and oi 
opium and sugarcandy. Out of respect to the saitit^ except ths 
iuraples nono of the Kora buildingu are paintod or tileil. IIm 
fltory of Aliyiji, who was the gfrandson of KhengArji (15ti> ■ '^'^'•^. 
K that, after his right to Bhuj was usurped by his unelo Blr 
he retired to Sabhnii where iie biiili tho Aliyn^ar lake. 1 
si'tlling at Kora, ho led a roving life. One diiy ho stido 
buffaloes from a Siud ascetic named Ilnrnn^hdh, and, refl 
giTO Ihem back, was cursed by the saint and died.* 

Kota'if p u the shore of the Itjiu abtmt twelve miles nnrth <jf Bhuj. 

has the nMnaiuH nf an old city and several ■ 
tho ei^rlior part uf th e ttmtli centu ry. T. 
Ku L^ikha'ti and ascribod to L&kha I'hn ' <ii[.> west is, 

without oeuioat^ partly buitfc of yellow and |-<<>, • -tone. 

aittlofl are oover od by groin s like the aiiiles in sumo eliaitj/a eaves 
navo7B_nH>roirthe kiuio w;; . , ; ' ' ■ ' : . !' 

area bi'ingttiVf'n'd wi*h in. 

whii'h a iK'ii' ' rlud. OuU-idu it l»;i>i >i ■ 

roofdividi-d . , ^ . lightly different heighta, lli^ 

U) the Hiiire )>ning the highest, nod the rcniato end tho Ir 
Tho door of tho tomplo is neatly carvod. Over Iho liutel ' " 
nine pati-ons of the planets, and the jairibs are carefully sen 
In tho t'lilnineo liall, vunulap, are four pillars with a s' 
sculptuivd bolow the lir«rket, and six pikt^iLvrs. Tho h\ 
a plinth, on which Rlaiids a block carved with colouiiettcM at 
comora, Tho fafos of tho block ai-o sculptured with figurcM of 




* Tborntnn'a l>U»t loduf^ituuatr.i, rv.1i ; Sir A. Iknw*' M8. I$SS. 

• B.U;:.-»»' Anih Siir, It.-jt, \Kl\ -,:,, 'Jld. 

' IIlUiiiIU'D's [Ii ^'ii|ituiii (t( lliii'liuvtjui, 1, 5S7. 

♦ Horn, (iov Sel, I'lOI (Ni:« Xiin), UP. 

I\ -p 



<, < 




luite. 0( the four JutnfHl fiRiiroH on thn hrftckots of the 

one is * female and one hiw iv fac* an the nbdomt^n. lu tlio 

recess are piliisters vpjth four-aniieii tif;uro8 on the bmcltot 

, Thr- riillnrs and pilnatora aro nil of tho Hindu brokea- 

fonn. The shriiic duor i» elaborately carved with two 

figures OD tho ir'wtc, Gaii])a1i ou the linitjl, and the Jambs 

T" nted. Tho art.« behind the central jamh in rvofed 

-, carved with. Bixteen fiffures liakod in one auothor's 

tn a cirdo, the k>f?B croKHod and tiirnnd towards the contro. 

^'Ii'ilfls a rod in eifhtT hand, tho left hand bciuy bent duwn 

.hi lip, and »o iaterhuvd with the arms cpf the iignres ou 

Thr.> rtKifs o[ the tltree aisles, at ihu side and in front 

■ral aroa, are very prettily carved with Howored ribe, and 

uiiri;MQtal bands inclusive of that from whioff they Bpriiijf. 

mnt niches advanced from the front wall of the shrinn, and 

hro oitoi! nette? in front of each there have l>een standing' 

in aUu-relievu neatly canopied by a lotus lluwer with bu<k 

i|^ over tho hcn<l dresses.* 

wBst of the tt![fiplo of the Sun, arc thrre sniall Jomples, 

thr- t-.\-'.t, and one, tho north. That facing the north is a 

'.■ tvinpb> with only a fragment of the shriDo 

v'i i:it- east facing templos, uno has only tho shrine left ; 

I.-1 are carved fignres of Surya ou the west ^e, and 

m tho rcceewa. Vjirali lias fafion olT the iKiuih wiill, and 

i fifniro of Uaiipati on tho lintel. Of the ol her loiuplo, jiart of 

- well as the shrine romaiiis. Over tho head of tho shrino 

I'^-xi the patrons uf the nine })tauots. Ontoide on tho 

j-siiiha and on the west Viahnu, both mnch timu-wom. 

i\ niviiiL- U} Tho north-east are fraginonta of two other temples 

west. Of the Crut and hijjher, only tho plain square pillars 

rho lowor part of the shrine are atandiuij. Tho do<jr 

I ^ an architruvo of three members, two fai^cio: carved 

r pattern, and a cyma recta with leaves. On tho lintel 

...j-.ii, and outaido two weather-worn figures. Tho lower 

n fragment of tho shrine of a Surya temple, with Oaupati 

"■ :>•], and thn nine planets on tho fi-iezo. There nn> no 

:ilo. Ob tlu» part of the hill, fonndationa show that wholo 

mi«t have been carted away for boildiug porposea.' 

KoteShv ar, Ihe ten million gods, a small seaport with apopniation 

^nt 3"iO snnlH, neartho mouth of the Kori river, in the wostof Cntcli,isby 

till ' -ilmoBtentirelycnt off fr<un the mainland." It ia suppoaed 

|i. ■■ Th -t '._'!» (OlO) 'Kie-tsi-nhi-fa-Ioon the westoi-n frontier 

.!«[ - totheriver Lndusand to tho great ocean.'* Tho 

fcily y-Ti^ iiVL' riMi' -^ (30 It) round ; there were eighty cwinvonta with 

fcboDt 5000 d'.<volued chiotly of the 8chool of tho Snmmityiis, and n 

Places of I 


' Buirpm' Arvli. Siir. Itcp, 1«74-7.^214. 
» fciiriNij" Arctu Stir. Kvu IS") 7'. 215. 
' W ~t i'lJI. I' 1 a"?, 

•l^i .Ancuiili. , i,I iuiiu, I. Aid. 


Iwes oriot«re«t 


dotoQ temples o( tlic gods, devalaya^, wbtitv aBb-flmciutHl be: 
lived. lu tba tniddlu uf tho city was tho teniplu of AL 
odorood with sculptoro and with a miracle - working 
worehipped by aah- smeared heretics. *^ £zoept some 
KottHtfavar shows few si^nis uf ita funuer groatncea. Tho 
on A sandstone monnd ubout n mile to tho north-west of the n 
litUDg buldiy from the »ea that wasbas their western face, 
encloBod by a fortified wa) l^ the gate approached by thrvu 
of steps. A writing on tho loft sido nf tho gat« showi* thacl 
present fort and temples wore bnilt in IS2U (fc>. 1677) by two 
fciiindarji and .lotha Shivji, Brahina-KshalxiH by cnaUi. Tba 
yar<l i« surronnclod by ft bnitlomenicd wall onned with 
small giiuH. In the uiiddlc, on a platform 4j foot high 
lung and 4'J%rDadj is a handsumt^ly built stono temple of Mah: 
Tho porch has threo domea with, under tho central domOj a 
and beautiful bnuia bull presented by lUo Dosolji (17Ii(- 1741) 
thu right doiiio il large sttUuo uf Hikuutnfin } and in the left dome 
of Ganpati. lD.sidc tho porch is the hall, vnintiop, 10 fuel y 
long and 24 feet B inches wide, with u liirgu ceutroj and i^ 
domes. On a marble tablet| Let into tho centro of tho hii 
tho namc» of Kshntri Jetha. and Snndarji Shivji are humbly r 
the feet of tho woruhippers may tread on thorn. At thu iii 
of the hall and Initweon it and tho j^hrine nro, on either ■ a 

of Gsnpati and Hanumfin. In tho screen wall of (ho slir n-o 

inscriptions referring to tho recent (1820) rebnildiug of tho ti-fnula. 
The fnuiio of Uio door is of carved stone. Tho duor itsolf, 2^ iwrt 
wide and 12$ high, is plated with carvod silver. Tho Khrino, pavud 
with black marble, is 11 1 foot square. In tho back n-all ia an imngo 
of Par\-ati} and in the west wall are two images of GnnfNiti uid 
KevAji, In tho centre of a husin, J ahitVi'iri, ratliyr far back Jn thn 
shnno, isafourfeet high A"ii(/ of tho kind called ftelf-bom^ svaj^omliKu. 
In the point of the ling are some iron nails driven into it, accoidilig 
to the local story, by Ala-nd-din Khilji (1295 - 131o).» 

On the site of this modern temple thcro stood an older building, 
one of whoso atones is said to have borne an inscription to tho effect 
that it was built by tho Kors of Gholiy. Thi^stonchas disappoBred, 
but among tho Kcrs, who arc now a Musalman clan, the atury Uiat 
their forefathers built the temple still remains. At the tiino of 
rebuilding tho tomplc (1820) tho foundation of the eaat wall was 
kept and it was enlarged on tho west. The change so altered tba 
position of the ling that it was uo longer under the central lotos. 
This was said to bo ominons to tho raler, and in 1863 (S. 1920) 
IWo Prilgmalji, when ho visited tho temple, ordered a silver canopy 
to be placed over the linif. Bv tho Itao's death the wurk was 
stayed before the plans were finished. In ancient times tho templo 
priest was a devotee of tho oar-slitting or Kanphati sect, lint for 
sixteen succoesions the oflice has been in the hands of Atits. Tho 
yoiu>1y rovenuo from lands granted by the K^ and others, one of whom 





to lifirp bwn ti Mnsnlmiin, ib abont £791 (30,000 Jom). Cliap! 
jlr man used to live ut UhnnAy tUroo miles eastuf Kotoslivw, pijcoaoT^ 
lluan»liing town of COOO soiils. He is said to have miwcd U> 

tt spot in the fifteenth cenlaryj when the Bmhm&cMri of *^yfi«Mi 

cetalilished his power. 

Ill tho chirf Koteshvar shrine is a smaller tcrople, built by 

la mon Hi)d ribout the same timo ia honour of Kalyaueshvar. 

(hi) fort n p;ivud causL'way, twelve feet broad and used as a 

' -Iry craft, nms oat for 520 feet. At the end is a 

M- filled by every high tide, whore Hindus perform 

■'■ri'inimy and balho. Ou thf middle of the pier iti a 

Biur-- n, koOm, on which ia built tho temple of Nilkanth, 

icnown as ^mmeshTar, faciui; the wc6t with a poroh and a siutUL 

'1'-!''n dome. It is said to have been originally built in tho 

•'cntury by God Rani who had oome to marry Ra Kanoj, 

ci me dJUereace arising, she went to Sind and married 

. Ghur^d. It was rebuilt by Mahnkonvar, wife of Dosalji I. 

JS* 1741), an.^ n"-pained by Kshatrl Jetha and Sundarji Shirji. 

was o^Q, in Ibo?^ repaired by Oos&i Dolatgatji Rovi&gur 

' lit a cost of about £200 (7S00 k^trut). 

'ksnm the Knri From Kotesbvarj about nine miles to tbo 
•wottt, is thw tomb of Ra Kanoj built in 1773 (S. 18^0), twenty 
'fed \'>\vj. by rtirttvn brt>iui and twonty-oijifht high, with one largo 
(vj:-,,1 i.pi.l [y}\\v ceruer domes. Ra Kanoj ia said to bo the son 
• i;^'htorof Kik Hhalntf chief of Ujain, who, about the end 

01 UK- u:tith century, in aHgbt with a Mnsalm&n army, was killed at 
!vk'>t a small Eon half a mile north-east 'A Nnniyansar. The prie&ta 
shrino used to bo sailors of the Bhadala caste, now thoy are 

Eotha'ra, in sonth Cntch aboat twelve miles aonth-cast of 
■ rh 3073 inhabitants, is a proaporouB town with a very 
: .' school, now iuiutisomo dwellings, and a well-to-do 
u( traders, who, natives of Cntch, have mailo money in 
ibsky, Zanxtb^r, «id other trade centres, and bronght it back 
^i^nmd in their own land. They keep up the credit of tho 
^_crprictor of tho village by lending Iiim money; they found and 
eoilow schools, bnild temples, dig wells and ponds, and in Bombay 
Di-' i;s<! high (bvellinga gaudy aud staring with overhanging 

T- c!ii7t-(l wItkIows, gay shutterSi and tiled roofa.^ In this 

v dufl in 18iU (S. 1918) the richest of modem Gutcfa 

U':..,. -. 1)0,000, the whole cost of the building, one-half woa 

inveo ^<^'i' Main and tho other in equal snares by ShiUi 

EUehu'ji .>M^;i.kaJii bhivji Nenai, Osv&lViniis or Kotbara now living 
in Tt4^/rn)»ty. This temple, dediaited to Bhiqfa iftb the sixteenth of the 
J: ■ -■-. after the stylo of one in Anmedabad, built by Cntch 

w < -r the supenntendenco of Sallit KaUiu oE Sdbbrdi. 

Through a very rioh two-storied entrance gate, an outer yard. 


1 Bml 0»v, flnl. CLn. (Naw Seriua^ 33, 37. 29, 
^CoL UartMt'i Tour in Cutcli (Fch 1875), 23. 



iipter XIII. BurronnUod by buildings sot apart for iho use of priests, 
Place* of interest '"t" * wallvd qaa/lraogle with a ehrino iu each wall, 
oontruof tho»iuadraiii^Iu, on aplioth six IimH ninoinchrs high 
K0TO4RA. j^^ ^ jjj^^j^ ^^1 fifteen aUijMi, is the tompio, 78 feet lonp GlU 
and 73J bigl), MupjKuled t>n throe aides by rich two-«t..nfii 
porches. The diuniid Imll, maminp, rises in tv. 
shrino is a epiro with rich!_y carved fig'urcs, i>- 
Iiwide, tho hull, maiidap, surruuDded by aisles ur vtruni 
u ricbly dysig-ued paveniuut of different coioanjd marblpg, hiteii 
two pilnfltcrs, and sixteon pillars, and a dome sopportod oa 
pillare with foilod arches and strDts. Inaidctof a wall, rl " ' . 
(if twonty I'illars richly cnrvod with Howors, leavea ai. 
the shrine, where, Riipp')rtcd on either sido by (ffven mi 
a lai^ iiuajfu of ShAnlinath crowned with a j^'-dden tTov. ■ 
cruAS'leg^d on a richly carved mnrhio tUrond. Tho ii . 
the hall, reached by gtone atepe from tho south-west ]>■•.....,: 
corridor with rich shrines each containiu;; a large iiuu-bic 
image. Below tho hall there is ob tmdergnmud shrine, wltb 
twcnty-6vc large white mai-blo figures with precious ntuues lot 
the eyes, cbesta, and arms. Besides tho undurgrimiiil Hhrioo 
is a secret cellar especially prepared agniUKt a time of tronhJe.' 

t'KAttiTA. La'kadiya, a walled town twolre milea from Vondj id said '-^ 

been settled about 300 years ago (1&78) by Osvals from 1- 
and Katilriya. Tho town has a saint known as the L^cadjya nr,j 
who has a cIoth-coTorod tomb, 3B| feet long by three broacC fnd< 
^ tower, furty-fuur fout high and thirty feet round, cn>vnied with '■ 
domtKl canopy.'* 

iuariT. I*akhpat» called aftor R4o Lakha who mlod in Sind abeitt 

middle of tho thirteenth century, in north latitude 23^ 4y' and 
longitude QtH^ 49', is a town of 2500 inhabitants in the ej 
north-west of Cutch on tho left hjink of the Kori river, &eveiitvj» 
miloft north-west from Rhnj.* In a barren plain of bare )r 
rock, the towers and walls of LakhjKit stand high ana in:; 
Inside tho walla the huddled poverty-stricken honsos fill lexs 
half the space. Westward lies a wide stretch of rnnd and wat 
in which, about a mile and a half off, ou a stiyltrly raised nut 
heap, is tho landing place. Within historic lit r ' t.pat hna 
only one very ab ort perio d ofprosperity. Fateli . liKl^alHintt 

close of the eighteenth ounturj', eulai-gcd and rebuilt ita wall, anj 
here for a time great jiart of the tiwie of Sind centred. Thuui 
thought it one of tho chief supports oFhIs power, Lakhpat dem^ 
against Fateh Muhammad when he opposo<l tho Rao in \8M. Ar 
years later (1800), the commandant of tho fort, Mohiiu Miyan, droi 

' Bom. Gov. Set CLII. (N«w .'Wi«). 19 . 21 . 

•The tmrwwM Iwill liy Jilile}«De»4ji in 1759(Si.l8l6). Bom. Qo7. Sd. CUL (St 
SoiM), 02. 

*CoI. Barton; Thoniton'a East Ittilia Guottecr, 569 : liBnultuu'«I)«gvriitbaBi 
UitulnxUn, L S97. 

« CuL Bftrtt>D i Tfuw. Boo. Gwg. 3oc XVI. (ItiCO- \SSSy, fil. 



««..«(_ ..r tT....^...^i 


i -rprned the towti on Iiis own Chapt 

I ^opU'^ aud j-ieUled u yearly place* of In 

- '', wlieu visited by Dr. Humes, 

.ihitams, wjufintiui.' chietiy y£ 

[JiiT i-^funtTirK aiid fir iiia 

- Were in m»u«l ru-pJi-i!; > ■ -tu^ 

did not till oue-tliird of the area. ^ In it>oI all 

town, tmd it has since tomainod povcrty-atrickwa 

.-J, Mm- 

, defended by roaod towers and 
iillanrw of considiirablo height but 
i.c fori the only object of int^^roBt is t he to mb 
a Syed of Lakhpat, haJf->lnsalma Ti Imlf.Hi nda 
wiw btrlitTcd tu have su])ernatural power. 
' ; BftVft Alia or Sa Sfilieb, from contributions 
I's followent, bej^nn to build a tomb. Tbia 
■, uu a pintfono fifty-fonr feet square and 
111 a conical dnmo iti foot 3 incbes high, ia 
shapo, with four aide doors art-hed mid richly corrcd, 
l__ -.^.;^ ducomtoil with patterns of flowt-rs and leaves. lm<idc, 
~ is pavtid with whilti and black marblo, Aiid tho gmTO 
rerod with n whito raarblc On the walls are pat»a{^ 
the Kunin." It itt still uufiuished. 

no Mad h. a villagg of 250 hoii^os, in north 

- : tlitj-liviiniilos nurth-woat of IJhuj luiJtwoufcy- 

■.rt of Lnkhfint, lies annroimdod by hilU on bnih l>ankfl 

jBui.iii -ireani. Intvretit attaches t *■ " "' *-■■■' * of 

f-nlciTn ninoiifncrupc, nnd as tho hen. . a 

' fjm*" !iic I ■■» imporljiiicf. O: Uu; iiUii;iu^' oi itUini 

' onnt hn- ready givcn.^ Tho pits are on tho north 

if iif till- riiiiige on the bank uf a Bmull stretiiii.* In a dell 

Lhn '.-illtti^ iti » tcuipid nf Ashiipnra Mata. To tliit< duily, 

! fifoddcajt of the H4o of Cuicli, a tompic \h »iid to havo 

'^ ■ -Timiinff of the 14t.h century by two Kanid 

,'^>>r, loinisters of the father uf Liiklui rhultitii. 

Iv," the larthunalto of IHI'J, wjim reliiiilt in 

by Bmlimn-KsluitiH Sondai-ji Shivji and Mohta 

I'htj liiinplu is ba ft'ot long 32 broad and o2 hiKh, 

opt that it has a pn£»>a^o for walkinf; round Uio gud, 

I tho same as the u-niple at Kntcshvar. Tho imngu in 

r.iuao ia n red -painted rock, about six foot high auu six 

• K«railvifi> r).-*i-ri|ilw»ii urHimfimUii.T. 5^7. 
1. sari, 'nwlv : 

.1-.H.J .•! I. .1 

■Dr. IlBr*« 
•Tmw. fS-ii.. 

R-rm. I- 

.1- |,"ii» 

tin«c witit Itumihcn'a (about IS30] 
lUxl nitli, FxcluaivQ uf soliiian, • 
Account i* muro likvly to be «OT¥Mt. 

ii.>. o.'s. 

I, I. 507. 
, il. 

i.iiry ISTS). 1 1. In TS?T it \vt>\ 220 b-wea *aA 
aiveti M.S. l^^ HW [lAgu 19. 




Supter XIIL 
UM of Interest 

lUajal or 
] Manjal. 

feci broad at the hoRe, nnrrowiDg* to a point in a sb^ 
sume roo^^'h likeness to u huinaxi form. It is luijtl to I^m 
f rom Jashod in Mirw^r. Iter© every year iluriiig^ \h' 
Ihe 11j4<j lolTars a WH'rilice of wtvu lunlt* bniliJops.' «. .'i.ti-.\i 
with this ttrinple art) two classes of people kmmti ns BhnTi«i 
KiipdiH, who, tlioiigh now Tory difTerent, are said t. . "i 
two brothers. Tbe Bbuvts, tb»uf;b not Jfvoli^c», '. 
revenueH nuH live a lift! uf ewMf iii tbt* villag>e. i 
marry, wMu* toag Iwanls, and eat with ull uicepi Lite I-. ' 
The kiSpdis arw devott^ts who du not marry, wrar no hair on 
faces, and eat only among thomsclvos. Accnrdiug t'- ■^- ■- 
Bccoout, tbey came from (.iujnrftt abont 1800 ycon ago. ' 
tbeyaay, tbfy bail evidence as late ok the ItatiltMkf Mm (I 
leavingtbeirvillageB, tbey lost tlu-'irrepords. 'J'lii'^ ai-e cbii . 
but all, except, nutcastea, aro nllowed to join. AlKiut itiit jtor 
ago tbi) HUccestiioD to the bi>»di>bip of the iiK-nnst^^ry was di>-|>iii»"l, 
and, cox reference to tbo Bao, it wiut decidi'd that one of the elitimntifjt 
abuuld bo head or H&w, and the other with the title Ror^i li<> IimJ 
elect. This citstont has ever aineo been kept ap. Ilie liilis ud 
all, except twenty-five Kfipdia, live in one court an'l ' ir 

ineals together. The RoruKi with bis twenty-fivo dl- . . ,.tj 
separate, bnt receives every noceasary of life from the K»j«'s Iwow, 
Iftbe Ror&si dies tbe eldest of his disciples succeeds. If thi- M'uh 
die» tbo Ror&si succeeds and tbo eldest of tbe KAja'a <'■ 
becomes Hor&si. Tbe K«ja ia treated with mncb respect a. ^. "« 
tbe privilcgo of receiving tbe K6o of Cutcb sitting. Tbey are ■ 
well-to-do community owning the villages of Mailh, N'l ■ 
Wnu, Kotda, nnd DiNlanini. These rovennea and tb*> l 
pilgi-jius enable tbemto feed every man, woinaa, and child u£ aqyi 
caste or religion that passes tbrougb their village. 

On tbe top of J&gora, a bill abont two mflea to tbo nnrtb <4] 
Mntano Mnab, in a small cave entered by a narrow opening, is a] 
rtingh red coloured stone. Ilus, the Jigora Ashapura, is visited by 
ViiniilH wbn come nnd stay three nights. A bituminous earth fonndl 
in tlic bill is burnt before the goddess. The smell isnnsavoury, but 
it pleasec tbe goddess, as it is produced from the body uf a giant 
iMitya whom she slew. Un a bill to the north-eoHt is a »etvmt 
temp\a to AsbiSpiira bnilt by a K4pdi in 1713 (S. IfiOO). Nciir tU 
village i» another shrine, tbe temple of Cb^bara Mtita. T!' 
piirt of tbe bniiding is hewn out of a sandstone rock, and t)i' 
ttnpported !iy rongb carved pillars. F.zoept by a lamp always k\ 
bumiug, the iu^^ide in nnligbted. From the same rock a stroaui u| 
water falls intoa twenty feet square pool with Hiehta of steps. Iti 
fifteen to twenty feet dee|i, and tbe water, which is ebai^^ • 
sails of sulphur, is used for bathing, washing clothes, and m ll 
mnniifactiire uf idiiui.' 

Majal , or Blaujal, a viUago scventoeu miles west of Bhnj, fan 
about two DiilesTo'tue north-wost, in a low country anrrounded by bill 

» B«u. Gov. Sel. cut. (N«w Soriw). 40. 

• Bom. Ciov. StL CUL |N«w Svri«»), 40. 41 ; MscUnrdu, TnwB. Buoi. Hi, Soc : 





[oTerpro^ni wiLh bualies, tlic ruins of Punvan'mopid, Padhart^d, 

lEna, still bhowing tmces of huvianf once been a lar^;c wolUptMipliul 

■ , ill 1830, a ffrcat nnmher of Indi>-.Sa.'*sauiftn coioa were 

.:-.,viJ ma wpper vesflcl.' Tbe walls, 2'-i8if jurda rouad, arc 

icetl, though all thu masoory, except one narrow f^teway on 

- 'ono to dycay." Within the walla arc the niios of two 

' , nnd a t.cnij*tc of Mahttdcv, all of ntonc without auy 

tit wwoii. In style thi'V dosety resemhic the Kera ruing. I'un- 

li'n wtory 18 that it was built about a thousand years !i^> (878) 

I oni? i'onTnr lOTi of Uliiia or (jhav, the chief of Kem iu Cutrh.' 

vUiin; with his family, Punvnr, whoBo cbiuf charactoriatic sijems 

ix« bi-va i.-ru«lty, resolved to found a city and call it aft-cr his 

tuum'. Wlicuthe city was fiuishcU., the architect was rewai>ded 

[hanng 1>oth his hands chopped oH that he might not do work liko 

HUT ono oUe. Soon after, aovon devotees renowned for their 

lUid niimi.l?^4 came fniin Bnm-Bham (Anatolia and Syria}, and 

: in a hi^rb bill near FuuvnxSnogad. Hearing of their fiune 

ru^a childless qia>i.-n bad an underground paasage dnff from the 

bo the devotees' hill. Uelpin;^ tbom in the anrvice of their god 

),or Jakh,8be after six mouths prayed thorn to aak the godtogire 

>a sou. But, for h6r husband's sine, until a gacri6ce was uEferud 

palace, the prayer could nob be gnuited.- By thenndergTonud 

the holy mt^n enten^d ^lo pal(u>e and were performing their 

wbeo i'^vur, bewring thero were strange men iu the wotnen'a 

forced hia way in, eeiuid tho devotees, and sot them with Ixtro 

ilnHwd out corn inathreahtng floor bristling with harrow-spikeft. 

tlb>ir Biiffertugs a friendly barber offered' to take the place 

'cjf thvui, whilo be went to^ call- Yaksh bo. Iheir aid. Yaksh, 

veaierD Aisia, beard tho prayer, and, with an earthquake tbafc 

tho hills, appeared with sevynty-one brothers and a sister. 

Called on to give up the holy men, Punrar refused and by 

help of thu gods and a magic amulet saffcred nothing from 

[bitowh of Yakiih's brothers. Ttu^a B&yari, taking the form of a 

bit Pnnvar on th^'' arm ho that ho drew off btti amulet, and^ 

jiegi», a Mono falling from the roof broke bia head. Yaksb 

Jiie towii and it has since lain deaolato." 

tbcr Btoiy is that in tho eighth century ol tho Christian em, 
Pnnrar oppreiuiinf; tba Songhdrs, tbcy sought the aid of Home 
ipers frran westoni A4i.v Soveaty.two hornomen came, and, 
ling ihemsolTca on a hillthroo miles from Punrarfinognd, took 
jrt and killod thu rbitf. TUo Sanphdrs named this hill Kakad- 
in honour of tho stranKe lowlor Kaka4l, and, out, of rcspoot for 
Baviours, called tlu>m Yaksbus after the Eair-sWinnodhorae-riding 

Chapter XIII. 
FUc«f of Intwc 


r »■ «^ Bcng. IV. B67. * Sir A. Biini«' MS. 1828. 

I 'ubch uitiqiiitks clouly conaoctod wiUi UkliA I'huUni tfas 
> «1 Uio ulU* ueai gH tbcir ruuiw!s fmm itviir flunking l»ftiiit Valcab t>n4 
», K»n*nt3ir linker; Dlirmbrn. theibakt-r ; L"iliha>1ij-n, miEi^ihloiM w»t«r j 
'•'IL AooUier hill unu callnl Kaiwlhit Bftsr U» yoangeM ol 

L^ .^- . iW 

nees or Interest. 

Majai. (If 

domi-gods of tliftt nnnic' In their hnnuur the S; 

oi tbo »ovoulY-LWu bonw^TOrn, set than on a .. 

Puuvnriuognd^ with their fnccH tAivntnls tho sculb, 

a fair on llio Mitond Monday of /'' ■' nil {SupWvi- i wjiu 

Tbi* Eftip lnBtin(» two ttays ih ti'i i uboaL U),(>tH> 


■ ■ ' : 1 . 


uiosily Ciitfb tliiidurt. I il.u 

Ucvotfvs of the YakBhin ■ ■ vq ■ 

pil^TiuiB ttttrnti I'itbcr ior Inwli; wr 
KUgo.T, uitj alinuiiiL), ca^llaIIlu>i1^. nn':-' 
wood, bullocks, hor»cts,«mu'l!^. 
artict(*it, IH valued at from .ti)lj>.-i' •>• ^ 
Tho Uiriw |«ilu«f, ii|>ih;t bUiHuJ 
qirodmiij^Io.iilH'ut li(ty-tivt* fn ■ 

l)iult >ii vL>ry lar^ hloukHof 6i rba.i 

Tbo frfjlit piirch and culoniiudL- aru ui uiitiuuU 
upper htory aiid tb« vtry bi'Hvy «louo tiM ■ . t' 

Bup]Kirtod by ei^bly-foiir pillars, ««:h pillar ouc bi' 
ruund, and witli capiialu carvud into (Igjirus ul men m.-^ ~>.- 
Tbc simdl, or biilt-dny jmlnout aiUlho into, for it wns only 
huitrs building, quo sUiriod, of Atone, and with r^hor puor 
i» forty fot't loujj by tbirty-tbrco br'xul. 'I'bfrw are two too: 
thu back wilU iv,\> vcrambibK. The ni*>f ia a Hut I' ' ta: 

fltuuo alalM, 1011! 


joiuod with iJoru-tnilH of iron ouii 
iMJiDoni 1} iiiclK'^ tliick. Itaot'iua to luivc-'ilo'iii in : 
by a woll now filled withcarlh ujid stonua and ovvr^. 

In the centre of a pInH'i>rni, 7 fppl U iuiUies bi^b UiU (^ 
and 41 wide. titatiJs a temple uf Mahadcv, 5() Fc(*t 9 iurbes 1> 
22 fevt. 3 iucbot) widti. In uach conair of the platforiu is 
nrinod bhn'ne. Between the ruined entrnuce m.' 
hollow fur Hucrillciai tiro, nr/fd'A'ftnW, 'Vhti toiiiplej i 
blm-ks uf jfHiy and black iron (MHnUtono put : 
iM-mcnt, must have atoodabout Kfty fcvt hi/b. Tin _ 
long and 18 wiile, baa 10 pilastoiij and 8 eqaani, 12 kvl bigb, pillar 
furuiing two ainluv. In tuu braekttta are il;jurcii of men ;uid liui 
Tbo dome has Enltcn, hot an tipper floor, wilh rnsutt^a in tbi; midc 
of the culling and a cornice of croupiti^' plants cut in the atoi 
entire. Above tho lintol aro larj^i ti^urcs of uinHiciaiis. ITjo 
]>!irt oi tbo fjbriae has fallen and been rebni'it. ^'■■ 
Boroo t«jUibstoues ajiparontly of later date, bnt with' 

) Aooonliux to Itoth Briltmui and BmlitbinL wnUuv- th« Vkkahivii an* ■< 
■niwrlniiiMuiiwtn^^K, whtttf, h.-uifl*oinff, an'l monntail ' " 

Veils, tlicy aPi;'"""T'">""l'r""»»l t* hawelwcji* lii 

An-iUM luul iluivlitiuH. iliiriut;. ur ihwji ftftor, tlwir cnt.^ .... :.., 

Yauttifl w«K is <UiDl-tinl. Yur hurwmon from lli« n<^t, th« lict th*t tbdr I 
ranuui) only an thi- ci.Mt would e«ni to *ln<w tbr.t tiir r-.unp by b«ii. 'fliJe en 
(r"wi Ui« uunilwr if jviAsiliUi VaktliAa, tlie G-' ' >%), thci 'i ■ 

Skythiaia ;HK) nc. - Iftl A.Ii.). ai>d Ui« WliiU' I ■ \.i..). Ti 

Rutnaw «f tlw lint, Um! Punt-via of thr\ Eixlli, im : im^ arnU iit UtomnTiut 
tha Komuu imy bt rojoctwL 11i«ir InvaitiuD in ilnnlitful abd Uanr omiU 
havo bron^t boftea. Arslw Um aocm antJkcly. Ituv wuulaUtnke tbeOiil«di| 
■• nxlilvantaa wtiita.uid.liv their ounHMMt of Sincf uul tti«ir «ttju3)u on W^ 
Xotlia, uio Anln w^n: t>i» w«ll kiioini Id li«rti0>e oontm uf bi^-iuid. It tbtrntwei 
IVobaWlu tliAt tlicAA YaiahJU were Uih Pcrauia who, Bt HiM tinw tli*i 
MftfantiK naltnn in the Indian mob, in tlio vixth ocnlorr. caaqiwr«d tlta Imror I| 
tait did nnt Mttlo witliilntwiag u aood u iLo locftl nusr unod to p« tdliati^ 
Kenuud'a Uemoir Sur. Hade. 125 . 12;. ' 

o tliRtanoe wosl of the fort aro two ruiocd Mnli/iilev tcDiplca. GiM^nffC^ 
Baid U) bave lK*L'n built by DIiL'tli or Mi>^hvdU, bul FlMMOflBt 
of the »cnI]U-an> nml tho htac auJ «tylo of tlio materials Mijw. ■ 

■A. OriL* of tliii'in, oftfaeiiamr AtonfiiLS tbc* half-day UAXiJi 

t n pln't'-?mj 70 fwt luDg 60 wide and 16 hijrh, 
.tL'd wiih bauds of carviufir aiid with 
In front of the ccntnd sliriuo wero 
no of which u Estill stiiudin^. In thi» porrh, 

L'^^ ,- > -nijiiKtrt a ilontu of exci'lk'ut wurkniHiushij) wilh. 

ocDire, asniit-Lil iirohtplluw, injnikuuit. The shriiie, with a 

' ' rwny, i-< leu fLvtHt|uaru. Tho citLer li-miilo, smaller 

n platform twmity foet broad, la nil tu ruins.' Of 

■■:■ titonc wall Piirliisiiiga sjklco of 120 by 

<<ro in a eiUuiII budding' iipparcutly ouix 

t'-"*".'!. or tho mnTt-, also calltnl Mnslca Miindri from a villam 

m old (itnevi known an Raipur or l{iv^D| in north latitmle 

idtr til*°20', a port of mach Irudo and a 

II Ktula, bcsoi) thu riK-ht bank of tho Bukbi 

ttiiiiut a. (iKiariLT of a indo from tho sea, 600 inik-s north-east nf 

hli:iv. 11-mI ili'ri v-fivi! M>n|.h-i'a9t of Bhuj, Along the coat<t tbo 

■Hg, thu wind nuKiug tho looee sauds iato 

. i<.v- 8va iu DUO placo eating away the land iu 

d in Buotbt'r tbronitig it back in sand banks. 

t i:ry i« luwlyinf? and Ijant with wuTinfir sand bills, 

■- iwn arc lar^^c slreicKos *il' rit-b (,1-0011 tiuide> w«ll tilled 

iidd. Uiit^idL' of tho t-troD^ linadsauic tuwn walls ai'c two 

the trading quartur or Now Snmya, Hlrotchiujf tu the Hhure 

>>f tho UiiUti, and tho Old tjaritya or itoafarinji^ quarter 

hii,'h ground ou Ihe rtvor'a e»9tfni bank, tiquare ia 

. n ■:( HumHiudt'd by a ntroug wuU built wall about twcoty- 

'k, ihroo to fuur bniad, and 27-10 yardn ronnd. It is 

1 hy twt'uty-five bastions, varying in height from 

■ ■ -four fi-ct, the largoat of thi-m at the south-west 

'iT-.f. There are llireo galea and two wicketa. 

Ii from tho 181^ L'arthc|uake> and, though 

J , I in many placMja. OuliiidH, on iho north, runs 

e dry except during the raina, aad to the north-fiut and 

I t^y'D and In"*** grow close to the wall. To the soutJi-weist and 

rivt'-T bank tliO ground in open. luHidf of Ihu walls the 

laro narrow, crrKikcd, and dirty. Alany of thchousoa aru well 

mid r->, two i>r ihrt-c nUirioa high, with terraced roofs and 

d ornaniciits. In othor parts the dwelliuga arc poor, 

)Ti riHof luatiiug and bamboo. Mi^Ddri is wt^ll Ktjpplied 

rilh water from wclla, many of them iunido thu k>wu, and from a 

lake tu tho west, ltd cool and ovca cUmatfl is a moat 

tihfid choage from tho dry inland heat.' 

Ua'vbvi. , 

» R-Fm. C-vr. fit CLH. (New Seric-l, 10. * Sir A. Bunww' Ma 1828, 

• < </• l*niion|>ti<'nof HiaJiufata, L5Mt Mn. PustAu'Cvtah, 

In !■ very (nrolromlaUf bttiMoa the blovinf of tb« Iftad 
lUfiMBn. ii.uir.. iMtu. Uou^ tjoc JLSl, 313. 





At the KAntha pate the bed of thn BuVhi creoV is aboat. 
wide. Hot, except in timea of flood, Ibu part next the U' 
«»n<ly, and bard^ ©aaily croMed by carte. Tlioiijifb ihu oi 
cbatmel doos uot cover more tban one-hRlf of the bed of ifac 
spring tides it is deep enon^h to allow vessels of Rcvcnty um* 
K/itltuiit) to como within .>00 ymxla of the town. Nctir i; - 
crvek uarrows to 100 _v»n.l9, and the eutranue ia diiiicuUj ^ 
troublesomoand shifting bar, except Cur a few uiimlim :> 
During the fair season, August to ^iay, though nqii 
iiQWulii and Kteamora have to He and dii)ch»i^ia the roa<i 

two miles fpom the shore, native craft apto about lO* i"ii- 

Ichdniiis) enter tho creek.* During the stormy seasou thu ]<>n u 
entirely closed. 

The question of improving the MSodvi harbour for ycon 
occupied tlie attcntiou of the lato R&o, In 1875 pious, dniw'n up Ity 
Mr. jBgonnAth Saddshiv who had much Dxperienco in buiJdiuK (ho 
Karrauhee breakwater, were approved by Mr. Orniist'jn, tiiii 
euKHieer of the Bombay Port Trust, and sanctioned by the lUo. 
Tho wiirka when finished will be known aa tho Pijiico of Wal« 
Breakwater. They consist of a breakwater of concrete blocks, ataftil^ 
from high-watCT mark at 6CM) feet to tho west of tho present oir-^t-'im 
boose, stretching in the direction of 10* we«t of south fur Ul- ' 
and built with a radius of one and a half mileu, tho geuonU di.^... .^ 
making an angle of 56° with tUo axis of the heavieet seas. At eztrpnie 
low tide the ont^r end will be two feet nnder vat«r. Besides Jxni^ 
a breakwater the wurk will bo a landing pier available on either ta& 
as tho wind blows, and when wanted it will be eaay to make slopes 
or stairs for possongen) and for landing or Bhipping cargo. It is 
proposed to raise the top of the pier to extremo high.water levoL 
On the east i^ide of the harbonr, to guide the river floods straight oal 
to sea, a. gruiu of rubble masonry with concrete fouudationa will 
start from high water mark under Old Saraya and Htrotch 1300 fooi 
to ordinary low water limit. At the inner end of iho groin, a eby 
banlr, twenty feet broad at topajidwith slopoaof three to one, airriod 
back to the high gi-ouud ou the left bauk of the rivyr, will prirv^'iit 
the flood waters escaping eatstVF'ard inside the gitun. On tho right 
bank of the river, an a whurf aud to guide the waters in ttmt;»i of 
flood, it is proposed to build from the landing-place gnto 2500 foe* 
seaward, a nibble masonry wall filling in behind the wall a lx>lt of 
land ou au average about 150 feut broad. It is also pro|>uKod to 
extend tho whiu-f 700 feet towards tho aea, eo that, at ordinary li>w 
tided, the end wilt lio in tho water and a shipping basin bo f»rniv(l 
between the pior and tho brcAkvmtor. This seheine is estimated lo 
cost nearly jCSO.OOO. tf necefesary, at au additional outlay of 
£60,000 tlio breakwater can be carried 2170 feot further.^ 

Of tho population of M^ndvi the most important classes sire ib& 
traders and seamen. The traders, chiefly BhatiAs and V&uds, arc 
prusperous and wull-to*do^ many of thorn having made forlunos ia 

I C^). Sart«o. 

* The Albeit Edward Ereakwfttflr (1876), 9,10. 



tiliKr, ami .TeWa. Of tlio cretra wlio trade to Arabia 

iflMiiie art' SI usaluiAus, but most, rto IIiu<]iis. 'i'he pilot--*, 

iPDi arc Hajinitfi, are lamoiia for tbcir skill tind daring. 

icm have qiiiulRmta and ca-n tel] the latiliide by suu and 

r, und the loDgittido by dead rcckuuiug.'' 

Iti, or Raipnr as it is still properly called, is a very old place 

Of tiiu history of thu old cowu, about twu tnilca to the 

the pn^RCJii ait**, notbinj? has b(M?n trncod. The story told 

t, on nrcoanfc of thfi utin^tnow of it« people to sonic iMjwerfuI 

(t wa« tivorthrown and coverod with earth aad ashes, in told 

■ Id Uaianlt ciiips. The prceout city dates from the 

N.'enth t-eotury (1 r>81, S.ltJ^S). It was, with the hrlp 

ItiQ oaiiiod 'IVmn, catabliHhed by Rro Kbeugarji, tho foundtT 

mil r )tu firal Jfidoja rulur of Ihu whole of Cutch. Thoagh 

barasscd by pirates, Mfindvi would Boera to have soon 

' of oonaideralilc traile. Towards ihe clo&o of the 

iiry TWo Godji (1 7fiO-1 778), a great patron of traders 

M 11, (iid much for the towa, makiag a patact'end a dockvard, 

looalty Kuporiiitcndiug the building of ship.'). One, bnilt in 

'" ri yard and manned and rommanded entirely by Cutchmyn, 

ly to ISngUud and hack to the Aialab&r coast. At that 

r&O). there is aaid to hare been a fleet of not lees than 400 

lit^y the prop«rty of rich Mondri merchants.' 

the first nnsuoceasful attempt to soizo lUo Rilyadhan 

i)f ilandvi, undor K^ji KhariU, threw off its allegiance to tha 

' >y. Two year* later Raniji Khavas was, on paying 

. to ki%p the town. Again refusing to pay tribute, 

>.' the merchantR, made over to Fateh Muhammad. 

i-^iusd to hift rival Hansraj, who, in 1809, entered into 

*ment with the British providing, among other terms, that 

agent with a guard uf forty men should be Htationed 

Ivt. lnunediat«ly aft4>r, in 1809, HonarAj diod, and the 

It w»« never carried out. He was succeeded by liis brother 

,iriiD saccoasfDlIy resisted ao attack by Fatoh Muhammad. 

1813 MAndvi,or as it is written Madi, is described aa large 

■ Kid, the houses indifferent chiefly of mats and 

. s considerable comiuerco with the Hritish 

It of Bombay, many of whoso morchantB had agenta ai 

There watt some trade with the Persian Gulf. Its chief 

waR & rather low class cotton.' Doriog the following years 

I woald 8cem to have greatly advanced. Captain UacMurdo 

it, in 1818, a« having 50,000 inlia!>itantfl,and a oonsiderablo 

)e «-iLh Marwdr and M^iwa. In spite of the bar, over 

laden b-xit of nujre than 35 tons (100 kfidndiii) could pass, 

a briik MA trade with Arabia, Uombay,and the Malal^iir coast, 

ujing upwards of 800 boats of from U to 178 tons (40.500 






Chapter XIII- HdntHj'), ftnd in jwrt and toim (In. 

UoM o7lnt«re.L ^l^^t £25,000 (iU. 2,60,WI0). 'ITie l!..- . . .^ ,. 

cotton Bilk, vuuhm, cloth, coorac picce-^oouB, oLam, and ' 

tmpijrti* were, from Damnn and Mnln' ' ' ti's, cocmuui:«, 

and limber; froio Mw'lia, ImlliiAj ; and Afri(!an ncmst, 

and rliiur>cero!i horn and hides.' lu l*^-'' 

Mindvi wan Hhariuu m tho ' nnivursal .- ■ _ 

pntorpriw?/ wid was suffering Bpecinllv truin the 

slave tnule. Still there worn (Jannnry 3rd) in :. 

rcadftcad two Or three hundred vesaele, one «' them t 

li«lt)Df;iug t*) the Rdo, Among' them wpro tho Afri' — 

trad(»r». AI>niit twenty nf tJio African fleot nvi-i 

hui' ' ' 

the I ■ ■ 

Bolutus, WL'rv tiiiiunud hy uiurry, niuililt-, aud wuil kult 

Tho Arab trading cnift^ ' ]in>biddy uu(duuij,'t«l sinuo ' 

Koirim (1000 it.c.)/ with enonjiouB sLrptclw'a of L-aorna 1; 

j-ards largo enough for tho main nnJI of n fimt rate Eatit Ip' 

Were dark in colour, their ntvniK han^ wi{h htindrodv of 

jars, tho (sailurs' ventures. Tho chief oxporta wero c(' 

rouad wt'Il prcBHfd IjaU-a,' ottnrso cott^»n cloth, ■<nf?nr. ' 

"buttor. Tho I'hii'f impvirU wort-, fu>m thi> Miikl 

graiw, copper, cardamoma, p^ppvr, jfingor, , i 

niuKk fertjffim, ot'hres, dyes, and drugs. From (ho CiT'-ian asdl 

Arab cuoHta, aroca-nat, ricu, cocixiDnt, dates dry iiod irvsh, 

and spicoH, and from Africa rhinoc«ro<i hides and ivory. 'Vht 

does were baid to yield a yearly revooiiu nf nb"ot i.lO,0(K), 

house-tax a further nuni of £;^5U0. U|iwnrd» of fifty lKvnkeni| 

K ynarly t&x of ilO, thf rirhc-^t iK'in^' tiodfiis, who, joining 

wtth religion, had branch ht>>B at I'uli and lti_>mtru«.' 

JnW7. Fonr yoara later (1827, Fehroaiy 18rh), Sir A. BnmM fa 

tbe MiJndvi river very ainall, the "bed about 400 < 
more than lialf on the wost side dry oxcopt in ti 
the chaiinel ontlie east deep enough at spring tides to l< 
rather boats of very hea^-y burden como within r-i'" 
town, tho crook narn»wing to nbout lOO yards and .; 
high springs, itwastwoaty fec-t near tJie mouth. OmMi; 
increasing Kand bank, that neeiued u» if nrtifpcia) nnvr 
wauted to clear it out. Largo vcaseli lay n' 

where was gtMnl anchorage. Boats lay niu r, _ 

house downwards. There were 2 14 boats* carrying ou an oxteiuli 

■ Mindv] ii Mid, ind I think it vciy wobfttilB, to contain SD,000 hiltalill 
npwarda ol 15,000 ol Uiem UiiAliAs, 10,000 VAiuAs 6000 Br&litnam. mnA th* 
liohitnic, Hnhunnukdana.anr] luw canter. Tnuw, Bom. Lit >"— n ■''Ui->'ii 

* Tho JoiBDti, whu kill^l m well aa rublwd their ca[>tiv< 
(or addiug monltir to |>ija>:<r ; * If nc do not kill yaa, it » i 
propoftjr, bnt did n<rt captare iU utd rcli^mi forbiJa our rutting tiH> Lr«iktliil 
wIiMn we iiMtnd when in oar power'. TvV* W««t«n> ludijL 4fiOL 

> Tod'i WMtmi India, 448 ■ 4A3. 

« Tlw*l«buli»rc:lkploiiipngtoII. n. UieRilo,C!loSiiDdftrii"«(jMiiiIv.7;lA VinElli. 
13 i t« BhUJAa, 72 1 to Loliinif, I ttoK&lutriA, CO i to Mftuuuu. 2 : tia UfaMlAlAk. 7Br 


1637 {January), tte streets were narrow, dirty, and ill-ordered, 
ly <-f tbo booses were comJuudiuuHj some two or Uuve stories 
Svirl] r.-rmcod roofit tind richly carved ornamonts. The 
>' Vdniu, UrShmaiis, nnd husbaudineu, seemed bard- 
titiboorfal, oniiceiibly busy^ woU-ttJ-do, iind fairly dressed. 
~ly and fi«irif\iny workod cotton cloth wna tbe chief 
■ ' '■■ wi'ro iimny boata nittkinK imd mending. 
■ irtuoit. C'oiUjo cloth WU8 the chief export, and 
limptrfj*, d;\te«, coffee, dried grapes, aotimonyj Benna, and 
■ moU from Arabia, and ivory nnd rhinoceros bom from tbo 
nau) onut. The scamon were Cntcb pilots and Arab sailors.' 

•eo yt'jirn lat«r (1840] tiie croek was much obtitruclcd with 

which, CJcccpt in Bcaaons of a heavy rain&Ll]^ left only a 

for boats of moderate burdon. There was good 

tudf IX mile from the shore. Mdudvi was very ricb and 

a hind i nulo to PiUi and othor placi»a in Sind, Jcitaliner, 

ami Gajar^t, and a sea trado to tbo MalabAr coast, the 

(juif, tho Kud Sea, and the African coast sometimes 

5 Moscnmbiqno. The average yearly rovenno from its 

land cnstoms was about £25,000 {Tin, 2,50,000). About 

bonl4 Siii led eveiT year to Africa. BxcejA two of 285 tons 

iadU), tbny viincil in fii»o From 53 to 92 t^ns (150-260 

A few wero Arab l>oats with Arab crows, but most were 

with Cutch crews, bouic JkliiHalmiinii but mcrst liujputa. 

season opened in the beginninjj^ of October and closed 

end of l^fay,' wlien the boats came back from Zanzibiir. 

engaged in this trade, many of them very largo and well 

*,, and carrying fonrcarronmlos, wero known as the Sovdli 

Ik JSS7. 

with Zaaiih&r, Arabia, Itflnakat, Sind, and Rombay, some of Cb&ptsr ZIII. 
■ ' ■ r Bombay i*arly iu Supteriiber or even in Augoat. piac« oTlntewit I 
ta weru coLUm and uutvcr. Tho imports wore, 1 

Ktttbiaw^ coast, firewood and grass ; from Sind, rico 
i4rc ; from Bombay, sugar and iliurope and China goods ; 
', wood, pepper, and rice; and from Arabia, sulphor, 
hom-y. The whole revenue waa estimated at £23,087 
(W?0 korif ) . The population was returned at 60,000 souls and 
at :io,000. But, in Sir A. Burnes' opinion, there wero 
tk»u lO.uoO houses and 30,000 people. Of tho inhabitants 
wore Hindus, tho V^uiis so powerful that they prevonUid 
s eating am'mnl food, and stopped fishing within a 
m miles. Even the chief streets were narrow, and beyond 
D filthy. Except the palace there was no house of any 
The poople complained that trade was dull. But Sir 
bted the justice of the complaint ; the town was very 
were a lutuibur of now bouts budding.' 


In IS40. 

toim a - 

IliiTOr » Mn. Pmtans' rntch, 9-lfl. 

. iftila In reach Kfuidvi liafaru Uic ■totmy teaaou acts in. 

< tlii-y >-;-<^ tt <_;iitiikji en (ho Kitbiiwar cmat Buid, anlro^ingUiers, Mod 

ita mimH \t-inL- ^> M^utvi, ULiKtcnod of its c&rgo the Urge v«md] WuIU fori 

uul lh«o nins latu Um Miodri crack. TKylor'« S«iling Directory, Put f 



of the cu&tuins dnea were lowered, tnule incrfosedj C3iaptcr ZUL 

two reuiolH of from 17 to 204 tons (50 - GOO khaudta) piaowoTLiterMt 

Tho fleob of Mttuilvi boats DumWix'd 244 rangiog Erom 

'^f -oi)0 khtirulis). In 187& the number of vessels 

'faUjUii burJi-n of 13,719 tons (40,350 tA4nrfi*), h^id been built. There were 1358 

;;;Lun.'y. The exports were eottoOj wool, alum, 

I garlu-!, and black cinth ; the imports, worth about fonr times 

h BA tbe exports, were grain, groceries, oilman's stores, cloth, 

liratT', iron, and bra«s aud cc^pper wares. Be!>ides the local 

1 'T'lodvi bad trada connections with Karrachee, 

-I'lir coast, and Calcutta, aud out of India with the 

. Aduu, and Zannibir. The cnsUmis dues bad fallen 

L. . ' Clts.2,M7,4IM)) in 1874 to £18,700 (Rs. 1,87,000) in 

1a the ocxt year they again, rose, and in 1876, though slightly 

luu in the year before, M-ere at £20,864 (Ks. 2,08,t>-t0). Tho 

r o£ re«*els was 260, twenty-one of them new.' The chief 

in the trade of lato 3'eans has been the competition of 

ra. SU-'JUJiors have occa^ionnlly for many yeure visited the 

Jf Cutoh. But it was only in 1872-7;{ that M&ndTi became a 

call for a regular line. Uuring the past season (October 

'May 1870), vessels of the British India line railed weekly 

ri, and besides the port was from time to time visited by 

ng steamers. The steamer traSic is almost entirely in 

t)jocta of interest there is in the town itself, about TOO yards Paiact. 

ieosl of the light-house, in a densely peopled part of tbe town, 
p 6at<roofod three-storied mansion bnilt by lUo Lakhpat 
f 1700) as 9 palace, and now, by the kindness of His Highness 
ya, net apurt as a rest-bouse for British officers. In style it 
'1. Built of whit*' stone in Enropean fashion, it 19 
; rich r.imng of dancing girls, tigers, and royatering 
B, each holding a bottle and ^bbs.* 

IB south-west bastion of the fort is a light-house, showing ifflU-Aotm. 
fixed light, of tbe fnurlh order, at eighty-three feet above 
)r level, visible in all weathers at a distance of from nine to 

Ugioua buildings there is the VaisbnaT temple of Sandarvar, 
V B£a Khong&rji when bo founded tbe town in 1574 
1). Tho plinw is covered about four deep with earth and 
facing tbe west, tbe t«mple, built of saudstoue, thirty-Sve 
fb and with two belts of carving round the wall, is entered 
led ball, iafihamandap, with domed porches on three sides, 
iogular projections ou the square of the h.&i\, 7nandop, on which 
10 sixteoD feet in diameter, supported by eight pillars, partly 


i Atbn, Rep. IB77-78. 

I Mntutoct tUmiiut;. wtit wm hrtmgbt np in ITnllUMt, nn hifl retnm did 
[imprnvB Catch matiti(ni-tiir«a. !limm&m,p. 1I& Mn. Poatuu' Cntcti, 14. 
tor's Ssiltsg Dinckiry. Pvt L, 342. 

[BomliAjr OiMt 



Cbftpter ZIII. octagonal ami partly ronnd. WitHin the ball is an oblo&c 
laoea oFlBterest wl"*'*^ scroen walla are nictcB with holy 





nhrino mcasnpes ten Feet Lyelt'TCD. On 

a woodcu fraitio, lined and coTcred with eflk, tuuUiuu a ncbl; i 

black baeiolt image vl tsondan'arji. 

In stylD like tho templo oE Soudamr, bat bu^r anil 
richly carvod, is RivDD*hvar*8 templo, a stone buildiDf* fifty- 
fool, by [orty-ei}^htf rostorod (<» its riR'senl fonn after the 
f--.irthi)iiako by Sotb Sundnrji ShivjL It w..uld »x>m ! 
bet'u built early in (ho soventounth ccutTiry 1627 (S. ItiSn '• 
to the local stor^*, by KAiniibAi ai»ter of ii&o Bbiriuaiji ' 
A Kmall ilImp^^ of V<l^heBhvor, placed by ihnt lady in 
Bhowu M^rns uf tho rough ii)*atro iL mot with nt tbe L;l 
Muiialmdii KAo Kl^\^him (1778 - 1818). Thft temple of Lakai 
Bilntyaii, like but richer than that of Hnndorviir, wns bn>lf l.v 
TujKin, the fiMinderof the tuwa, about !U07 (S. IGtH). T 
fiaDclihodji Mahursj, a Vaishuav temple uf the Vallabhu. ;...( ... 
in a Iwo-siunofl tiled huuse built ronnd an open ccmrt lilra 
dwelliugs of Mfijidvi traders. It is much resorted to by Bt 
who f^t there to worship several times a day. 

Of MufltilTTiiln places of worship there are tvnj plain mow^' 

Kfiiitali Masjid built in ItiOS {S. 1006), aud tho Jama Mifc, 

in 1603 (8. 1060). The Jdnia Masiitl is said to «how sipis ofhs^ 
om-u lit«on a IKudn totuplo. llie aomoa were thrown down by 
uaptlHjimbit of 1819. In their plsu-f a tiled roof has tann 
btiilt. 0» the coast, west of Miindvi, ea(;h on tho crest of a 
hiti, altout too feet high audui^-ful as kud-morks to stamen, 
two buildings, Pir TomAsa, a Musalmin tomb, about lhre«, 
Assar Mita.aHindn temple, about sovon miles from Maudri.' 

Morg&d, about eighteim miles 9onth-w(>«t of Hhuj, a pUea 
great antiquity, is said to have been founded by AhipHt the soa 
S&mautsinha ChiLT<U, who, after the oxpuUiou of thfi Ch^vdiis Sti 
Piitan aboab 9i2, established himself in Ciitch, andj couquennj^ 
900 viUai^es, inado Morgad his capital. Of this no trace ivtoaii 
except perhaps iu the name of the Chd\-adko lake. 

Mundra, in north latitude 2^*^ 50' and east longitude dD" 46', i 
port towu, with, in 1872, a population of 7952 sonlSj standa on tin, 
gidf of Cutch about twunty-uiae mile?) south-east of Bbni, hall 
way between Mfindvi on the west and Anjir on the oasi 
tJurrooudod by well watered gardens, aud cut off from ica 
placti by nbont a mile and a half of muddy swamp. Mat 
walled and fortified with twenty mworviceal-! 
part ot lEo masonry of the U^wu eomoa Ei-i 
Bhadresar, twelvo miles to the north-east, l-'ortiiic-d >u 1 7JK hy 
Devkarn'Selh, HTuudni waa in 175.T held aud dcfcuileJ by Godii 
when in revolt from his father, lu I HOI it was ^nveu by F 
Muhammad to Dosal Vcn, and in 1815, when hold by Mubaui 

* CtmrfUtmril, litorally (e^titwrtar, that in wnti^r in wlticb tbn (wt of nuU 
' Bom. Gov. Sd. cm. (N«w Seri«a)> j:i-]7 ; T«)-W'« Swliiif UmMSnty, t Ml. 




wuh tmsupcfssriilly atliickutl \>y Kflu niirtniialji. In 181S it is Chapter 

. bsiTe faati n |K>|Hilntinn of I2()U houIh and to liavo yielilcd FlacfisofXnt 

ina of iWOU (Us. 3U,U00). In 1855 it was in good ropoir wonliu 

mntniuL^d 15U0 Iioiiimjh. la 1861 it wua nulcd for puttj AIci«ju. 

of staiiijMMl wttoii. Except fur iinnll cr.imtiy craft the 

waa vwy Uiffivulf. aud was p:i-s«il)Ic ouly at hi^'h tiJu. 

is {187it) ft conjiideniblu tnulc- with Kiitbiiiwur, Cambay, 

, luid iVmibay, the chief exjK»rta being- cotton, castor »o«jU, ptilKO* 

luitl dyed cloth; luid the chief impoiia, mctAls, tiiuhor, ^Tiiiti, 

, gnttxiy, and piece irooda. Tha merchants arc*woll-io-do, somo 

' ■■ ■ ' I ' iLWH. At urcsL'Ut the port hiuj 

l\ he nukhi u ttvi GllfJ wiih i^ilb 

Tc«wls of mciix: tlinn 100 t<»nM bnnh'ii HMinot comi; near the 

III.' [I ..u; It ia pnjp'jBfd to cpuu a ruad tu Navinal a deep open 

1 seven milud irest of MiiDdra.' Atnuiifi; obJBcte of 

t.r a Ti-ry lar^ and handsome two-storit^d n*st-hou8e built 

of BhadrL-aar,' lUiil a ttiuopy, chhiilru, raised over the 

K l-'tf of a .rain hiirh priust of tla* Aiicbal' order, 18^ 

;•;•, witli a fifnall spiro over the marble slab on which 

•itpriuta arecnproved. The inside of the dome is neatly car^'cii 

run- uf standing musicians. Tho outsidu of the domo is modoraj 

Uiu scrwu wall, pillars, and interior are alj old in thirteenth or 

ylo. Ail the inscription round the fti(>tpn'uta is 

! < 13 probably the hall, mandap^ of au u\d templo. 

10 injut ui the j^pire, uhlkhar, over the marble slab bfura tho 

itjirinlaof the Gnru HaiisMil>,'ar, the discipleof tho Guru Jiviijt, 

10 weut lo tbe g«>ds in ifiirgiunmha vad 10th S. 1797 (17 40 iUP-)- 

(cor this tomb ia a momunal ntono, jja/a'u, apparently, from the 

ire nf a ship carved on it, nuseil to somo aoafaror.* At B&rdi 

' -rsrnndra, enclosed in a sma.ll court, ia a temple of 

. _j^v, or tho bbie-uccked Shiv, with, at the v'hAit sido 

shnnc door, an inscription dated I6(i7 (S. 1724), Tho ting 
.'mbitduwcd by a larifo soven-headed brass siiako. It is said to 
bTD beon brouf^bt from the tomplo of Duda at Bhudrusar.' 

Naliya, iu Abdasa, north latitude 23' 13' and east lonptado 68® 

• ti- miles from Tera, with a popuhition of 5238 wiuls, is one of 

' tbrivinff towns in west Ootch. Wallod and well built IC 

■ ' ■ 'lus tnwlen*, si^me of them local dealers in piccc- 

. suj^ir, others retired mcrcbanta who have made 

ii-s in Bombay or ^inzih&r.' 

Nara'ya nsar, north lauinde 23*^ 40* and east longtitudc 68° ^X, a 

TJllo^ an"[ pWv of pili^rim Ajyo on tho Kori entrance to tie fi^mal 

era Han, eiglity-one oiilus north-wost from Bhuj with 950 iul^biu 

n : Bom. Got. SaL XV. SJO ; CUosod «nd l?oodb&Il'« 

-.,..:. ^.Il&oy, n. USOI), 131. 

yatMa*. ol tbe Jtuui Mbout Mundr« tuc tha Aochal, Tap*, 



fBnobty CluHtMl, 



««i of loUrest- 

aDto,isal]ont lialhrnj botwoon Kotcahvor anil the mo. It stoniUnt 
u milled plot of nuntlatouv ruck aeparaUKl from the tnaiiiltuiU by 
8W»iiips which are cuvctvd at high water. Tho tt^mplrH, Uui 
buildings in the place, ore aurroundrd by n fortified mill, ontwc 
which clasttT t he »illajj;frn' h'Hises. Il is c<>nn«i:t*--d with the auunl 
bj a ratbur ruluouH yolluw sti>uo cauaowa y. »lHiut 3UU0 fi<et Joiij^ i 
(iftcen wide, bailt in 18G3 by a Bombay Bb^tia nnincHl Quia' 
Liiiiihar Padiiha, at a co«t o£ about l2i)O0 (1,00,000 
^■dnivau^ar, with Kotcshrar the only placvs ia Cuich risited 
pilgnnifl from ochur parts of India, was in very andont tmm 
f aiaoua for ita greftt lake. This, aj.rroeiujjr with the nco.nint 
laku {iiiind by Alexander, aud perhapK lusting till the i;hjinct 
cuurse of tho Indus (about 1000}, waa in part nsicffud I 
oarthquake of 1819. Beside the lake, there waD, trom early - 
a U'lnplo uf AdiiiarAvan in the rilla^ of Niiriyanaar. r. 
under prioata of tho KAnphnta u pct, tho tcmpio wb«, : <') 

(S. 1007), wrested from thutn by a Sanyrisi or A tit nmnc'; . ir 

from Jnnifjad^ Tliia I^Urang&T made lon^' »n<l bnNi<l ti 

about tlu! pool, an oblong sheet of water, lOoii feot by . . .^1 

by perforated stone waUet into a number of biithing places, and 
fiiruishitd on all Hides except iho east with flights uf BVtUf ^td 

Borronnded by rest-honscs. In a paved courtyard Ifil! l{, 

npprriocbcd from the lake by flights of stone steptt, and t^iu luimdod 
by a Btron^ wall are BOTen stone temples. Va^lioli Mah&knnvar 
Ihowifu of It ao Desalji (1718. l7-tl), displ aaedwith the Dw tirka 
p nesta, afHT taTtinp counacl with her ItrfthmAns, deicrmined to 
raw K ^r Ayansar to bo a place of rival sanctity. Accordingly, tn 

l^ljtihe nnst built the tenipTea of LaksT "'' ray 

in the smno ''-tyle as the IJwiJrka tempTos, . oes 

of certain vUIa^feB and €h6 proceeds of oertaia uucom, and tlien thoao 
of A dinArayan, GoTardbaim^. DvAik^nath, and Lakahm iji. Tbo 
temple of IVikainrfiy, in stylo and Hbape roHemhlmf^ that ai 
Koteiihvar, 72 feet lonf^ 58J broad and Gl high, Htand& oa a 5 fvot 
9 inches hi^h platform, and has three side pjrchus with a largo ond 
in tho centruj all ctip|«id witb domes restmg on twulvo feot high 
pHlars. Tlie central ptirch is 21 feet square, and i^ach of the amo 
porches 9 feet 9 inches. The 1819 earthquake tJirew down the 
central dome, but it lias sinne been rebuilt. The space betweeo the 
central dome and the nhrine is pared with white and black marble. 
In the cast screen wall of the shrine is a marble plate with on 
inscription. 'Hio doors are plated witlj Rilvor. In too nhrioe, on 
a silver throne, stands a black marble inia^rr> of Trikamr^y. Under 
tbo idol throne is a black marble figure of \'i&hnu's eagle, gantd, with 
clasped hands kneeling on one log. Over the image of 'i'rikamriy 
are forty gold and silver parasoln, tho offerings of devotees.* 

The other five templca boflt by Vagheli Mahdkunvor form, aIobj^ 
with the more lately bnilt temple of Kaly^nniy, a row of hii domes 
supported, by fourteen pitlarij, and forty -eight pilasters, with carrio^ 
on Uie baaee, shafts, and capitals. The brackets are scrolled volutes 

> TburntMi ; ColoBol Butnns Tonr io Catch (F«braaxy 1&76^ )(i : Bom- Ctv. 
8«L cm. (N«w Seriea), 82, 23 ; Bunua' Miemoir od But Bnocfa of Indw, BakUn» 


*"^ — — -^^.^ . «« -^^M ^: 





■ xoauj. 

fine BpiraJ fliitos an'3 riebly carved ' ' rigen, nnrl elinft* 

gud IB uf pmIjkIic'I black miirble. i . tlic^c builc tvm 
soft sandfttono netu* tho fort has at vnTJona times b<.H.m hull 
tibriaeH and owes. Tbey »rokiKr«rn as the Ha mgnplia, Lot 
g uphaj and ShedifrnphacaY eB. Krom tho brutlcncHSof tha 
BTo of no pTcat t<igo.^ Tw^MVIvrly ^'*^'*? '^''^ h(\)A li. . 
(April-May) whou alwut lOOO poopio assGinblo ; t 
10th to Iho 10th of K'irlik (Novt*iDbcr- December)^ when, irtim C 
Sind, Gujarilt, K&thiAwiir, Punjiib, Miirwiir, and GcDtml In< 
abuut 5000 pilKrimit como to perform fimeral cen'monius on thu 
of the Xdr^yikii biko. The iiicoino and oxpeiidituro ia nni' 
control of a Brahian£h6ri, apptiinrod hv iho 3t(iti>. Thn UanX 
arisjin^ fnjin thy funoral and thrvad ■ ' 

for sliaving, brtthinj'', umcUine the ■ ' ' 

the bonoA of thB dead into iho lake, amoantii to about £2)};) (^lOJ 
koris). The valuo of the doth, [^hjIs, groceries, uud other 
brought for sab vraa, in 1877, nstimatud at alK)ut £U>00 (1,50 
korta). PaytnoDt is Bomotimm mado incoAh and s^nnvtimcn 
The place, clean aad not crowded, has leldoui hwu xm 

Pachham, an inland, soe page 13. 

Pippar, ton milvB Bonthof Nbr&yniuuLT, hddby a lineal dcsoondaot 
of Jam Mau.'iij has, about a mile to the vrest of tho Tillage, foor 
stpmro miiiMiis domed tombs, om of them bearing date 16&G.' 

Punvara'nogad. Sob " Majal". 

Ha'ipur< Twa miles inland from M&ndvi on the borders ' 
Mdudvi crook, two hamlets inark tho ruius of a city known as Ji'< 'u 
OP Riiipnr. Tlus, according to one acconni, was the ivipitiil u( 
Gadhcsinp, the father of tho celebrated Vikmni of Ujain ' '"'* 
Latur on it waa one of the seats of the Cb4v<lAs who li' 'i 

beforo tho arrival of tho Sammfia (13(M)-1350). Ic was lunucrly a 
aeaport and a plars of great trade. Of its deatmction tho common 
story is that thu ascotic Dhoraiun&tlii the fuiuidiT uf the sect of 
KAnphaife, finding Iho people of tho town most wanting iu cli— i*- 
cursed it and it was destroyed.* In the ruins some of theasK ■ 
uud somo ludo'Sassauiuu cuius bavo bccu found.' In tht< < - 
of a turnttiod Bquainj is a toiripU;, forty-dvii ftHft wide and i *■ 
high, with dorac-s in Muhammadan stylo dpdicatod to Dho: 
and buUt by U&o Bhdrmalji in lOOD (S. lOCO}." 

> CoVmiA BHtun's Tonr in CnMt (Full. 1878), I? i Bom. Uov. 8d. VIM. (I 
Sorio*), 23. 

* Ikiju. nor. S«L CLn. (New Soruw), 45. Ono ot tho tomlN vrw tluown dniral 
tha 1SI9 earthqiuka , 

* Um»a ilnn. Alt. 11. 903-804) nuku* U&ipur, not Goli, [loe above, p. 2S1) { 
city which Qftdhcaijiz Mirrtnutded with n wall of bnun. 

* II Dtactvinnith Dftd any hiuiil in tta <W«tnioti(iji, tlic tlatc vrimld Iw 
14&a MAadri wm not roaiMlMl till 15?J. Uiidi. (.iov. Scl. OLU. (New 8erltf], t. 

* Tncl> \Veat«ni IdcUb, 453, 451 ; Mm. Po«tau>' Vutdk, 17 ; mmI Uom. Oov. 
CLIL (New 8«rioa), 47. 

' A wHtine nn the jiunb of the eatnuue door of Dho»nuiith*s tutiM ^■ 

bcftnthti <Ute Kxiuvat liWri, the Si'l ir>th of K-lrtik [XQQS a. a). 1: 
vjunemat BliiUiArinAth the tli<i>M'p)(i i>l I'miUinith , bin ilituripln PnLldiAt»&Ui,i.>i tun i 
o( DkoruoDltb, am\ uC EUu Bbiu-ntaljj. tbu n-iu uf Rio KhcoL;Jrji. Thon u no o1 
iufomutioD. A writang an t)ui laHbk itcduital in tJui Bkiinu of Dl)D««rauiUi : 
' ProMtntioii to tho ftwpiciotti deity Uuoih. The throne in tho t«inpIo ol DlwniB- 

ianoj, about eight milea north of Gunthli, on the north Chapter XUI. 
fi^e Kiunar, stn.'tdii's in ruiuud lieaps fur about a loilo. places oTint«re6t 
Hho Titins are indifitinct tracbs of an old fort and of tho 
ft^e city walls. TUl* U>wu would seem to liave been KAJiAaw. 

ped hy MubaliuimH, but of iCB dato uoihingis kuown. Abonl 
ales south-west of Ra Kanoj is the tomb of Kiaiin^ whoj 
mg to the local story, took and destroyed the city. Kitsiiii U 
hare- sent, a& a. prize to his sovereign the king of GhaKui, two 
chiefs danjjhtfra. At Ghaziii they wore treated with every 
m, but rtffu»ed to bo crmiforttid, sayiug', that while tiioy wcro 
luH cltfir^e, Katiim had violated them. Knragcd at ifac story 

ftwiUluut inqnii7, ordered K&sim to bo put to death and 
Dtto Ghazni. When it was abown them^ his accusers 
it they had aven^f^d their father's doath, and confessed 
li&im had done thorn no Iiarm.' On account of his uudosorved 
^Sti Ki'tHim became a aajut. The place wa» nut of any uolo 
Woe tK'giimiuf;; of tho present ceuturyj FaUth Muliunitiiad 
! tho nractieo of visiting it every year wth much «tat«. 80 
f in tiieir opiuiou dti they gain from beiuR buried aoar this 
[faftt the Jatd bring their d^id from groat distanocs, and the 
[■ Ctirtwn miles round in one great graveyard. KAaim'a tomb, 
Srp f..«>t long and five broad, is made oE frtouos piled up 
• I. It. itf iiu tlie Hite uf a tjhaiv tomplo, and the Ung 
(liis boon cemf>nlod, and is now worshipped both by 
Mut^iluians a& Kitsanicshvar. Tho temple pool, kund, 
ns. The Musalmins call the pool Kara and the Boint 
^deaortiseo pa^ II. ^'^^ 

r, Wllage of three hamlets in an opcu plaiu, nineteen mites J^*"* 

Dbolmri, has, on tho bank of a largn haiitlftonie pqnd>a temple 
pechi Miim hnilt in 1821 (S. 1878) at a cm^t of 1(5:13 (24,(lO0 
In the tihriue, euiearcd with red paint uurl butter and with 
per images at hi>r side, is a large statue of Ravechi M(Ua 
ipotiite it Naklaok or tho Horse inaimat ion standing on 
g^ ou a pilhir. The goddess is highly venerated by 
pplu of Vfigad, Out of ilio temple itioome about 500 cows 
tained, and travellcru arc fed daily wHth milk, curds, and 
uld temple, a niugu i>[ finely carved uiuo-doined shrinea 
built by the FiiiidavH, is said (o luivu been dentroyed 
^ ofoneof the BAbi chiefs. Atthecomerof the courtyard 
cmortal stuue with an iuscriptioa. dated 1271 (S. Iil28).' 

ttyAn hiu t)ecti l<Qilt by Pir .Shri Sbankamitb, on the 1 Itb of Udffh avd of 
^r»r l'.tl(t.KhAkr I7!i| (ISV.f a.H.} unii«r tkc MipenotetiileDCD of StindAmiltli. 
ft. Scl CLlh iNi'A i^ntu), Ki. Toil (WMtvni India, 4U> notictui a l«tn|il« 
bAthwiil iiiciiUi(t.!t itiat tiiu Mimlchml uoouueBta bokuigiii); to Uie [iriwtaof 
Mry mudl, cuuautiu^ of k a&iea of oooceDtrio rings oratope ending ta « litUo 

Mary u ttJtt of MnhmmnDul ILUim tho conqaBror of Sind (714, 715). CSiMJi 

[EUK*. I. SM. 

^ BArttm'i Tour in Cotcfa (Fcfanufy IS78), 10; Bon. Got. Kel. CllL 

lefauls ATB : 30 feet Inng 17 bmiuJ Mid M high, witit (wo domoil pnrdiM, 
jThut aqaBTfl Kud thaaecoDd 14 fe«t Ity 7. and « >hriuo H (ett by 13 niaad oa 
n 4i tcol lujjh. Boui. Guv. ScL (Now ikTKs), 71* 

l3ombay Oi 



FlacMof IntcKst, 



Bohar, on the gtilf of Cutch oTwnt twelvo mllwi iwt of Anj^ 
tho rliirf w\a|Kirt of tho AnjAr district. F' 
9«iatb aatst I'f rhoji^If, the paaaaffp of tKirty uii illy 

in two tides. As tliere &r« seldom more than fuur fi^c^ uf 
only small cmfi can pnns. It is tlirouf^li the uertwurk uf 
that ttnrroTind the .Sath^mda islanil thnt tho tntdn of K^ihnr fir 
outlet. The boat« crnjis the inner fpt\t principuJIy to ^' 
also do Ik BTnall ooaistiii^ tr»d<> in tho ouLur j^ilf. !□ ^ 
wiw ftblo to bold vessels of ahout 70 tons (200 // 
a hard sandy beach orer which carts could pab.- ,, 
A small fort, fidtin^ into decay, was still ost^ful o^- 
robbers. Water had been soarcOf bat tho supply hau laui^ 
improved by building a nen resenroir.' 

8a'ndha,'llj on tho coaet about thirty miles west of M&ndri, i 
to be the Sindan* which, alwnt 820, a certain Fazl, srrr 
formerly a slave of the faonse of Samina, look, and, hii 1 
mosque, had tho pmyors ruad iu Khuliph Miuniin's ''\-.- 
Fa£l was succeeded by his son Mtihamtniul, ivho-'i- [>!■->*■ 
was absent on an cxp(.'dition agaiofit tho ^ods of iiind, 
trcachpronsly nsurpcd by his brother MAhAn. To win ihu 
of thoKaliph Mutasim-bi-lMh (838-841), Mr'diAi) twnt tho^ 
and longest teak troo that had ever boon seen.* Hat tho 
of S6n&&n, preferring his brother, slew Miihiin and crn'-ifiwl 
Shortly after, they dfclarcd thenisflves indi'pt'oilfnl, 1 
mosgiio which the Mnhanim:nlnns coutinned to use c. 
In M'l Si^dhan, one of the conntrios of Sind, is mentioned as a 
where the teak treo and ctmes grow.* A few years latur (U-13 • 
it was said to be a stroogand grctU- city with a J£ma mosque, wl 
Jfuhammadan pre»copts wore openly observed and where inaa{ 
coeoanuts, lemons, and ricugrew in great abundance.' 

Shlka'rpUT, three milDS from V^dia, a large thrivioff tiI 
with a newly built furt, has the tombs of three Musalm&n satnl 
Pathn, Gebanslia Moltiini, and Awalja, Putha, who is said to fai 
come 5^>m Sind, earneil hi? fame by changing salt water iDt<> frciil 
Gebansha by going on fighting after his bead was off; auvi Aiuil 
by curing the blind. Tho tombs are plain unintoreeting Lui)din| 

Sikrft, about twentv-ono miles north-cascof filn' 
once boon n large and ftr>urisbing town. The el 
those of a tomplc of Mnhiidcv KAgoshvar, whrrc, acronimif 
story, Dharan V^helo, the groat graudlather uf Likha rhulani,! 

HauntltoD'i Deacriptiiyi of Hindtutin, I. 599 ; Cot BarUm. 

* Anotfaor Studiui, tlm modern Sanjia in tbe iiortli Konkon. la Rteired to < 
- eiHy Arab wriMto. The pasBues nobted in thu toxt seeni to reW Ut the 

town. (Soe EUiot, L 460). 

* Tho won] is arff (Klfiot, L 139), mt\ to mean vitlivr « toA nr n inak tra«. 
ioftk tm socnu mors Ukel; u Sftdui ia aflurwonU (913) mcntioowl m • plftco ' 
bekk tn«B grew. 

• Rlliot, L 129. 460. 

■ Ilni KhiiniildlM in EUiot, I. 4 «d(1 15. Tbo teak wu prol*l>ty btou^it Irvia 
UdlftMr coast. 

• lloi llaiiUI (!«»■ Om). RJIiot, I. SS. 

T Horn. Uuv. SiL ClAL (New Scri«), 02, 



day lo worahif). TUo ruins ore ovcrgrowTi with treoa. Oiapter XHL 
i«oath of the village, onoo it is said tho heart of the places of Intcreat. 
•» shriue, and two strong aAd well built Momna K»ubi 
>titi (S. 172tt). Near thcabrino is n handaomo Jain 
masonry biiilt in 171ti (S. 1773) and dcdicatod 
Tho bfauiihU marble image of Vaspuj, whon in 1785 
— *-if>d by tho Miyiiuiis, was taken to Adhoi.' Near 
■V moniorial stones, one of them bearing as old a 
(b. 10*60).'* 

is mentioned by Abnl Faal (1 5821 a a the capita l o£ Tadbj or Ta. 

Ktrong f ortg Jjira and -KMithkot .* Toj ia also 

I period to haTO been the metropolia of Sanrfaht ra, 

wlo country fr om t h e Indos to Daman .* Bat the 

iilj and thorc is now no town or ruins that can be 

!<? place. 

, a rillago abont thirty milos south-west oE Bhnj, has a 
ill huuonr of Rnknn Shiih, a Shiraz Syed, who^ on a 
■ ;*ai iu the thirtoonih century of tho Siuuviit orft> at 
>llitd ■with cLTl-ain Dal Kujpuls, and though hia head 
Eed on for some distance. The fairs are hold on the 
of Ckailra (April-May) and Bhadrapud (Soptember- 
At tbo sprin;? fair, when it lasts for two days, the nnmbor 
most of whom aro Cutch Musalmiua, avera^^s from 
&jOOO, and at tbo actHnin fair when it lasts for ono day, 
averages from 3000 to 4000. Bcsiden the saint's 
Fin th<! saiiio encloBure, shaded by banyan and tamarind 
I ttimba of his sisttir, father, and mother. In the neighbour* 
id, much resorted to by the pilgrims, whose water is 
.mro hydrophobia and other diseases, to make tho 
and to give sncoesa in trade. The value of the 
y goats and sheep, amounts to about £25 (lOOO 
tde in sugar, butter, ricu, sugarcandy, sugarcane, 
iMts is valued at abont £800 (30,000 horli). Payment 
in ciah. Fair arraugements, formerly in tho bands 
li of Mandvi, aro now mado by the Cotch police. No 
I L'pitli:mic are recorded in connection with this fair. 

thrc'O miles south of Am^ra, has a pond with sixty-fivo T£ja'iia, 

atoiiet^j and the mins of a Mahadev temple on a 
i'li fert by thirty-sis in a courtyard 100 foot by 82. 
jtinrfx pilliir-t <>i?bt fecb long, aud part of the back watt and 
! bull, remain. The stones aro yellow 
iimch carving. ITio mins ore said to bo as 

the mil of tlic t«mi)]a ol Vaspnli}! at Silm b : 'this m 
.3t wax 1773. ShaJif 163S (171G^ jLD.) in tiic Ijoruhl famU of 
.1. Bov, Sot V\AL (Now Seric"), Sfc 
r i"(d ouotAina \\vv inc:uiii|4«C« linut vonrajinB no meatilB^ 

>v«iiB8uiivat IOGO(10(X1A.D.}< fiom. Gar. SbL UUI. A [New 

I iia-i'&Uari, H. 7 1. At Bho} was at thNt timo tho CKptbd of Culcb, it 
i tJiTi: iJar^vaiikjnELSiiMen* 

t i liocn founded hy King Trj or Tejicim. 

ii'.ln-'ra tl<'H<:t<ii<li'il mim IlinhvnkD, I'uru, Biij 
-M o'.i .-.•I IU tli>: I'liriitH wburu I'uru u t.'&llr<] Eaela, 
'. uiJ the other Duj Kaobo, tbMfuQDdvE ul \Sko\. 



IBoratejr Oi 

Chapter XIII. 
lAces of Int«rett 


cua viu'oad 

or Pa'tuau. 

old as V&gbam-Ch^vtlagna (1200- 12^0). Acronlioir txi a 

t-"Ui)k't, (i3 Imshela (3J khdmiU) of Od. {1 .^ 
Imsnola (IJ hhtindia) ot Sit. (i fron) pieces ;. 
Mayax, anJ Tojanx.' 

Tera, about tUirty miles suiith-uast of Ltiklipnt on thft 3i 
road n-ilh 3292 inbabitantt, i& awollbiiilt {KtptilaiM Uiwti v 
iiiar^'iii (if a lake, aud Burroiuidod by a strou<; ^uuo wiill. Tbo 
tbnnvn duwn by tbo 1819 oarthqaako, wert* ropnired, and tha 
witb tbirty-ylx depundt^nl villages ■dssigned to Haiulrji, the ' 
oi tbo tatti H&o Pnigmalji.* 

Tuna, tbe syapjrt of AnjSr, abotit forty-air miTp«p«i*t- of Mtiiidi^ 
isaa inm^ificaDtplaco. Evennt bigh spriups, '■ 
difficulty fret tbt'rc ap a sniail ^TJiiding creek ni ■ _ _ i 

Va'ghamCha'vda'gadorPa'tgad, fire or six miles wmih- 
of Liikhp;i!j Iia-s ibr niiii-H uf tbu old cily of Vafrham ( " ' 
ftoconimg to thi.- ordinary wtory was, during the thirteeii ■ 
killed by liis nepbfws Mod aud Maoai. The city Beenu 
Btrutcbuu (pvcr [tiore than two inilas obit.'lty aloD^ the bank 
stroam. Tbe plots of gronnd known as Uio custom house, dj 
klmtctr, show wb&re nomo of the offices of the old city stood. Tii'; 
of tbo iovni veaXis aud the site of a dain, that must oucc havejiti 
faiTgo lake^ may still b(i tnia»d. There am boaps of iislit-K, ap 
tbo aituB of potter's kilns, aud pivct.'S of brokc-a tiloa 
carthoDwaro. Copper coins arc sometimes fonnd, hut ao caUm wHfc' 
rust that whoa baudtod they crumbla mtu duut. Twu Unui 
tbouf^b roudom^ Btond f«a the sites of old bnildingR, and call 
notice. The tt-mplfuf 132-1 (S. 18SI " ' 
JethaSuiidarjiaud Mcbt^ Vu]abhji,i«a^udijU:fQe tdiriut-' 
aud 2r> bi^'h, with a small piircb supported by four b(|iiui-u pilbira? 
Inside in the centre is a tlnff, with an image of IlannmAii on ibt; ri^bt 
aud of Gaapati on tbe loft'. The teuiple of Kalika Mata, on thtt sita 
ofj but on a smaller scale than, tbe old (<omple, nns ru-built in 1838 
(S. 1895) by a Parambansa, nnrood ManchlitoSth. It faces tho 
west, aud cionsists of a (itiTioo and a purcb. Un tho Hntol of tha 
shrine are nine biiHls said to roproBonfc Vri;?ham, his son, aud tho 
seven Sands, hot more pivibably intended for tbe nine plunetfi, 
grakui. In the shrine stands Kalika, 2j feet hig'h with four bands 
armed with spears and swords. Oue spear she thmsta into Mabi- 
diisnr'fl body trampling with one toot on him. In tbo nnU, 
opposite tbe imugu and above the entmncc, arc t^ro stono liosta 
fonnd in the ruins of tbe obi temple, aud said to bo those of Mod 
and Mnii^i, the early Samma settlers iu Cutch. Au old woru-oui 
Kalika lies by the side of the new imago, and outaide is another 
likeness riding on a Hon. In front of tho porch is a wcrirtcial 
pond, kund, re-bnilt in 1838 (S, 1895) by au Atit named Kwhiew. 
it IB oonsidered holy and tbo poor ptH)]»le of tho noij^hbonnn^ 
villi^es go thero to perform tbe thrdddh corcnmny and throw tha 

> Bnni. Oov. Scl. CLIL (?few Soric*), 43. 
» ('-iJ«(i«l Il*rt-i»*» Tiiur in Cutch (F«bnury 1878J, Iff. 
" TayloT* bailing Hirwtory, L 3+i. 

* The <1»U' is iI'Tulttfu] ; ftixordins to ob« •coount it vaa in Lho nlalh ccatnrr 
Bob. Gov. ScL CUL 3L "«»«,. 

of Uioir (load into Uio water. Half n Diilo to tlio wust of 

■ — cut in ihii soft Bandfltotio rock, is n. hall thirty-fivo feet 

iliirty witip, Biipp«.irte*l i>n two uijflit ft»ot Uip;h sixtcen- 

LitJ ^jiUira. Oti l}ii> ri^'lit is a eecuuil roum twolvo fcotBqoarc, 

tht-ri* \A a tlurJ bi-liinil.' 

^amu. On tb? Ron uight miles wost of Pdldnsva, near CaptAin 
' ' ■ ' ■ . ia, in a lar^ courtyard, a very old but not vi-ry 
irrni with a sliriuc and tliree p<'rcliC3 with somo 
iiijti ui*jt.l>.liDg-. Theorifriual teiujiie, waid to have been bnilt 
tlr6j of Aubdvada (D42- 997), was iTjMiiredJn I8t)2. Inside 
jnne are three red atneaved atoties, reprcsehliny Varuu 
broiber and Bister, according to one account Parmar 
ICnjpnts, and according' to onotJicr Jats.' 

Vinja'llf B ruinous dusty town of -iOO honsoa (1877) in a barren 
tr< .'.-.' I'liuntryt uboul fifUien miles from Bet with a popuhtiun of 
*, is believed to bo a place of considerable antiqnity. In 
' ' I "■ tiir, about two miles to the west oE the present eito, 
I hil;a Pattan. Its only traces are the ruins of a 
ftiirme ul Kalika Si^tn, a sliallow potA, and the remains of A 
.' About the time when Karai yamma caiuo from iSind, and 
!t a pal nc-e in i''oIadi}'a twelve milca eaat of KJinchiba, Viujdu 
frutn Gadbeeiu^ into the hands of Kanak Dev Chavda. 
I, wlio afterwards took it, removed tho town' to its 
»1« near the Vindh^'avaeini temploj and held it till 
Hrivoii out by Jn-saji, the nephew of Rjio Klicngilrji. 
V tcnu'k*. lately re-built, is in noway roiunrkabfo. 
A i(3 (if llakheshvnr Mab»der, built according to an 

ii. iu lOm. is ef hard yolluw stone on a pudental S^ feet 

hi^ n <■■■ . .nj? and ^rj wiilo. There are three domed porches with 
viuaII pynuMiilal spires ornamented with lions. The entrance porch 
b' ' t archei?. The entmnce haIl^mando/>, 18 feet by 16}, 

L liimo with conrnea of 8, IG, itnd 32 sides raerffinp into 

citcic-t, onu projecting over tho other, and rtiding in a central lotus. 
In tho cloisters are two coIos.sul statuus of Ilauuiuiin and Kalika, tho 
latter in the act ui killing Mahishisur. The shrine, 6 feet long 
}n 7^ wide and 32 high, has a Ung in the centre, and in niches iu 
iio opposita wall images of Ganpnti and I'tirvati. Tho whole is 
wuU bail(, and has pretty good carving.* 

VIra, about ferty milea north-east of M&ndvi, has a temple and 
lir of Jogui DovifKaid to bo 400 years old (1478 A.n.),bntrebnilt 
1, ■ favourite place for performing cereitienies for tho ilea^l. 

Tl. i.^u, iibt>ut200 years old^a small stone phi^tered tomb of a 

Eittd £)yed.° Vira belongs to the descendants of a Jain pric»ij whoj 
when he was still a fugitive, foretold U&o KbcDgarji's greatness (1537). 

« F-Ttr. flnr. Set CUT. (Kflw Sotim). 32, 3S. 

' < ' Set cut {K<9w 8«riM), 66. Viinro'a.hrotlMrMkd alter ara wonrhippcj 

bn Loir tlevoUon to hho. They took can ol his dowl Iwdy and bunul 

Ihiiiiii 1 1 1 1 with it. 
■ the tuunv Vjm.1n is »a>il t'l cnma Irom the ooddfiH Vimlhjwviitni, wlic wu 
!>-- viuiUtya rutKo t>y MJu-kand RirIiL Bufonithia gnl'lcn tbe four 
'JiruAr to ttv the pu^lo from tho oppnmuHi «r Uio KAnphiUi^ 
. and iTCtitvcd nrucn to take pououian of ^Joudl KotMbTU. 
I 1.11. (N.W, 4r, 
S«L CUL (Kuw Suioi), i6. » Bom. Gov. SoL CUl. (Kow Scriw), iP 




Appendix A. 






/l\^ I4M» Jid> i» (dtod mp. 

EhnUnKdhd UiOX Oodi or OUvjow 


^. (^ FlinQr'Fun«e(dMUH), 
g)ItotaBi;«dhu(dMliaQL j^ 

( Otto ivOodS((IM UN). 

-) -niiui(<lUl4l^ 

J^ ]lntMil(dMI«TI»X 

1 Kif orKinyoCdIodllOO). 

/u A'mi^I (died IGlO). 

' BUnji (died lOSG). 

- ■_, Hinlrji (murdered I63T). 





Allytll. ^'i Bio m»na4r L (died IMS). SihcbJL UfktjL 
^ Bliimul L (died ie31> 

/>' BbolrtJ (di»l IS46). 

{' , Eh«g4 







ivtl (fonnded 



^ f ■ 


(dlsd IBM), r- Tunicbl (died ItCl). 

|£ ' RAyndhRQ I. |dii^ 109T), 


BaiijL HoglinnU. 

Prignulji I. (died ITU). 

Goctjl I, (died ITie). 

Ttenijl L (<lopoacd IHIX 

lAUipat or Ukhi]! 
(died ITQO). 

GodjI II. (died mS). 

Riyiulbui II. 

(deposed 178e ; tgain 1801-1813). 

Bhiimal II. (dcpoMd ISIS). 

Dcaalji II. (died 1860). 


QuDg&ijl lU, (tbe pieKiit Chla^ 

Frithlr^ (died 1B01> 

■lp*Uofltan»diii(miclWfgh»,tpetwomDMdMd8tadh.Bkiii»,Bikii,E*»idl», iwlItaUvwML 

Appendix B. 


fcT» Uie hononr to eommnnicatc mch comttienAtons oa tiw Bobjoct 
*-* u Itai-e been 8ugj^«t«<i Uy my y'ml to tlmtcouulry. 

is n Uirritory of snuJI L>Kti>nt' ntid of littlo fertility. W&Jor is ncarre 
toften salt, thn Bin! is (fcncmlly eitlier nicky or santly, and tlin propor- 
' Uiat is cQUii-nl^id, tbungh very Bnpui'ior to ibat in K&tbiiiwar, tg 
E>L-Bt to sappurl ite uwn scnnty ptipulatinn. 

Loapital Bbui coutoiiis only ^OtC^ souls. Lakhpat Sanclar, Anjjtr, 

' i-IM Mundiu may bavo 10,000 inLabitauts encli. The ntuor 

jfiiv gtmerally niach smallur. Tbe eca-port of Miudvi alono bears 

of indti-ilry antl profipcrity. It tiirries on a conmderablo trado 

llr m'Ub Ambia and tbu eoatit of Africa and contuns from .10 to 40 

1(1 tohabitftnta. 

whnlo rpvMino of this territory w nnder 50 UikJiti of hms (aboot 

of Rnpora) ; and of this Ices than 30 liiK-h* of kcri* belong to Iho 

J ooontry wbich Tit-Ids tbe roraaiiiinff 20 Jiiktii bcin^ n^ssigned to 

itfrnl branrbrs of Hi* IHtrhnGss' family, each of whom i-c-eoived a 

appsnogi- on tbr ileath of tho KaO ftota Trhom it is inuncdiat^'ly 

Till! faKiily of tlwfgtr chiefs is dt'i-ivcd ut a rccilit period from 

Sisd, anil liny are all ispruii^j from a common aiici'stor Hftmirji, 

Bio KhiAHRar acquired Iho govcnjignty of Cuicb, In-foro the 

I of the l(itb ceiitnry of our oro, Tbe nuiubar of tbwie chiefs fa at 

about 200, and the wbolo Dumber of (heir tribe in Cntcb is 

at 10.000 or 12,U00 porsoiui. Thitj tribu 'm chWcd Jddeja; it is* 

of the Itajputa. The other inhabitants o£ Cutcb are computed 

fts tuUivM »1 fiOO.OOO Bouls, of which muro than one-third aro 

idanH (moNtly ootirert** from the reliffion of thy Bnibmana) and 

Hindus, cbiufly of tbo peaci^ful ciutteK : the Judejds arc all Boldicra 

' uatu) sujipty Uie rcstof the niiliUkry class. 

'OTclin^ry jurisdiction is confined to his own dcmcsno, each 
chi':* -ii^ unlimited antJinnty within bis own laiids. Tho 

Oil I i.iiii'jjls to serve him in war, but muHt furnish tlicm 

ky at a lixcd rale whilo they am with his army. He iH tho jruardian 
aliUe pouv, and as tnicb chastisE^H all ndilxirs and othL'r gcuvnU 
It would Beem tlmt bo ought Irkcwiitc to rC'pru£a privubo war 
1 to docido oU diffpatuB botwoon chiufs ; bat ibis proiogailvo, tbotigh 


Mr. £1 obit 



■ n»to(1 Cbolt&ri, Cittch, 2lit1) January 1821, 
' About ISO uitlca lou^ aad tixty bfOftd. 




Appendii 6. 

Ur. l-TI[iLiiiHt<mu*« 

Mi Till tc. 


ooitRtADlly oxeHod, it not ndmittcd witlinoi dispntfls. Each chief] 
Hiniilar \knly of kiiiflmi^, who poiues^ ehni-iw of Uk 'ii 

till' ftuiiily ftnd sLt-iid in the «uuo rdntion of nomJ:. 
that ho In-ftrw tit tin* RAo. These kinsmen form wimt iti ciUliii tin? 
or hrotlierhftod ^f iho chiVfs, and iho chiofs thomselvos cmn[ 
Bhilj-Ad of the RAo. The annual inromc of thcso chiefs Tiiriea 
WAA of *onV (npwari!« of Rs. .'tO,Oi>.') to 40i) which ta HttJo more 
Ito. ItiU. There arc not less than tifty whose laooniu oscoeds Ra. 
year anil who can hrinjr l.M) mon into tho field. Tho grvah 
amhitions of servinjf at the capital, for which tlioy rcceivonsimi. 
Reldom exoeedinjr R«. 15D ft month. Only thirteen chiefs »■; 
advADtago. B<>sideA the J&Ac}&«, tliere arc still in Catch a few 
inferior importAboe belonging to other Bajpat tribes, and a stiJi nu^oUcr ^ 
nmsbcr of the Mnhammadan religion. 

The nrosperitj of this principality appears to have been at ii^ 

ftboattlie middle of th« lajtt ocntnry, when RAo Ueeal is '■■''■^ 

poWMSed garrisons in Sind, in I*;irkar and in KalhiAwar. 'J 

pOSBOSaionH werv loflt by Kiio Lakhn, who sncoet-Mlod in K.-i m 

reign of nine yvara ilis»ipatrd the treasonM) oF his fnJlifTr in 

Inxary. Ha vnut Kuccecdud by bin son liao Qodji, whoxt) reh< " 

hiB fiU.hcr, nn wcIIhb bin miHpiciotts cbumctcr, and Wia fn-i 

and ovL-n uxccntion of bis miiiiittpra, aru proofs of Lhu <' 

bis territory. Ho wa« succefdfd in 1*»S by litMWjn H 

father of iho Ute K»o Bbarn or HlcLriiiatji. ILia ILkyi,: 

onderstandtng whs dcran^L-d, and bis mndiitTfta wax of sut-b n ^f^(-r:n- 

reqnu-e tho Htriotont pen^niuU restraint. His bntb^r I'rn I 

known by the name of Bhaiji Bava) was too young U> 

direction et nflairs and the government was eondnctcd by iwrf 

commanders of morctmary troops, who appear to iia-rt^ brcn 

Mnhammadans, and who were guidi-d by the authority of [toi^ Vcn. 

principal of their own body. Among those leaders wiw Fiitcb Mn!t"—" 

a native of Bind. This person appears to bavu buvn uiidutKl with 

and couni^'. Finding the govenimunt of Du«al Vcn at once «i- .a. 

odious, he successfully intri^nwd with the troops, with the miuisicrs li^l 

whom the civil bosinoKs of the gu^'umiiient was still conducted, n 

Home of Uiu loading JddL'jia ; until in the year 17'J'I, he wa^ cm: 

expel i>o«al Veo and lits colleagues an<l to transfer Ibo 

government into bis own liunds. Mu c^mdiicled lihedfTainof (lii( 

finnnaM and iibiiity tor ton years, until Bbuiji Bilva, in «!■ 

regent, K»leli Mubammiid iippusrs to li:ive iKlininixtered tbr 

became of nn age to feel the iiardKlii|>s of biaen-lnition from tb«? fU-j 

Hansrnj and other minititerH who wtrt^ di.s«»ti]ilied with tlw pmbim 

of Fateh Muhammad availed tiiemselrcH of thix feeling, and A'isini 

opportunity of ft caumal absence of Fateb }li[uhanimKd from the 

they carried off Blt.^iji to Mandvi of which Ban«rij wan at itiat time 

charge. 1^>e wealth and the reflpectable character of Tr< 

junction of the other ministei'8, and the popalar manners of cooduewt of his caasc, noon drew the majority to li 

Fateh Mnluunmad waa glad lo abandon Bhuj and to C(". 

claim to tlie administration, for the pueseseiitn nf thef"rt :«ld ■■■'\ 

of Anjar. The death of Itb&iii. whw^K .hntn 't'm'd in X^'''! (lt>ra< 

after the revolution), r(n.i' i '. ' i'lteh Mnlmr 

Hanxrai was a merchant, ki , wore ineni 

to make up tor the wnut (.i ; „' ,'■, J^^ 

-. . t --- . \ «'nli<le,iee n T»w 

'J '« be. «.I ^ 

He withdrew to Mand%-t. 

Muh&iumad while Lakbpat iiMidu, ALutdnt, Uittu 


rrraRifio'l In Hie hamU of imlependent clitefn, who, Uiou[.'}i 
,lhHB yfVTQ MuUatiimatUuis, wure all close cuafc'itenttes uf 

■ wore sniipurted entirely by their mercenary troops, 

ill Musalmanfi of Cntcli. The JAdej^s nppe&r to bare 

lull litllu WL'i^'hl and lo have taken llttlu interest in ttiu 8tntggI(^. 

- ,...,1 at tbfir forta entirely nentr&l, oUiers served the 

-. for pay anil alttioagh the lUu'a pvreou was in tho 

: ^Lii II .iluhfljnmad and llanRrjj had not even the aliadoir of 

aathimty. tbfj prenter part of thu niiayi'id were entertained in 

I or atluched to his party. Fateh Muhanmiad |irr>ceedeil witli 

rigiinnt such of these as camo within hia reach : ho fomented their 

-fls ; he hefieged their fnrta and lovii'd cuntributinno on 

loes. aa well tu Gil hiji tmuiary aa to gratify hU revengo: 

olilig^ him tu icup<>i<« mimerons and sevoro taxefl and fincfl 

itant^ and ryots; hut althtmg'h thoso proctcdings crcalvd 

diacuututit tb<:ni BC^mn to bavo bcnn no attempt to form any 

kioD aguiu£t him. ile ixmtinuod to govoru the cnjiifal and tlio 

p«rt of tho Itio'a territoripB, and io carry on dcpi-edalinns in tlio 

}ns of bin rivals ontil bis disth ; and iho nanio of ibu JamiietAr 

■tf ninch n.iijH.'ctcd in Catch aa that of anv of tho K^o'i;, bis 

lors in authority. Tho di-ath of Fatiih Muhammad took placo 

13j_it wras procodud by tliat of Hari»r&] and shortly followed by that 

fcyadhan. Tho iucap&city of tho JamiUUr's son Uusain Mia, 

'lirrij (who succcudcd bis father in tho poeBcosioQ of JBudvi) 

the cngiital and Ui rail Rdo Bharmal to Iho head of tho 

Mint about a ytaiT after the dt.<ath of Patch Bluhammad. Uusain 

Ui Aiijiir, wuuti.' he rvnuunud unmolested until that placo woa 

by tho iii-iusb. lioih hu and Oosal Vcn are now Uvini; in poverty 

. contempt. 

lO BhArmal had attained to llie age of twenty dorinff hia 

lie. tbi'iv api«ai« to bare been do tbon^lit of setting up hia 

1-1 thoc^e of the different u8Qr])«r8, nor ilid ho 

: ptisstrWfion of tho portion of the conntry thiit 

miiIa. Ltnt within bit) own nbare be Hoan aiiMamed 

"f >\w authority he had t^int'd. Shivraj with<lrew 

nd- nenit of the Btate waa carried tm for some timo 

i-ra who luul served onder Fateh Muhammad. 

lat Riio Bbiirmalji hud cnntmcted a habit of oonatant intoxication, 

diaqnolificd him from bu.'^inesn. wHiladed him from tho Bocioly of 
and miniHtt!rH, iind ultimately oxnepcratcd bis temper and 

L'd bi^ underHtanding. Hid mitt^overnment if left lo itH own 
Ltion would prohnldy have cudid Uko that of bis father in hia 

inmont and jM^rhaiw in the further partiliou of bis dominions; bnt 
'invaaioD of Cutr h by tlm force under Colonel East (whicli waa 

id unavoidable by the deprudationa of the people of Vignd) led to 
I farther interposition of the Uritiuh Govenimoui and at last brought 

into their present Hhupe. 

district of Vigad, which comprehends all the eaatem part of thn 
itarritory, thither had never been sabjcdcd to the Kioor luidlougago 
["off ltd detienduoco on him. It paid at ono timo occaalooal tribnto 
fawiibof Kadhanpnr; but tho cbiefit were no further coutndlrd 
17 *DT soperior and (»:iutiuaL-d to ptnnder tho lerritoricai of all their 
liglibnars inclnding those of the iUo of Cutch. Their iadcpeudeoca 
a :!3«~33 


Mr. Klj)liiii»tc 


IBoibUt Oi 



Appendix B- 

dr. nphi»(toi>«'a 
Ultra w. 


was flpst broken by Fafeb Mnhflmirmd who retlBcod tomo parte of VJ 

amlcr tlie KAo's direcL ftuUiftrity. sod levied " ' 

nil till' vhu-in t)E that country. Ho did not . 

prt'ibtl<»ry babita <j[ tboso t'luvfa, imJ Rio Bl 

[ititiiKli their iurtMidu iuui Knthiawir or to b. 

ubUi^-tl OS to otnamouce nuUtnry opcratiotu) wluuU cutiuU ia iLo 

That ■greetDPnt whs on the whole hr -no mciuia tuifavoacabla 
B&o. In the rt'ducUon of Vagtu], the naea Vl^^'-^on t!i ■•'■- 
the MiabltabmeDi of a mK^hu- tribal«, ho nbtainrKl an aiu : 
{or the QoropeiiBatioii vrhieh he wiui ohbi^'ed tii affunl ' ' 
been plundorod hy tho iiilmliilanlB of that oiioutry ; ai]< -cfl 

Aiijir wu Ik modeniti! price tor tfan rpstoiutioQ m£ Alondvi im-i liir 
djsnwmbored disf riiTta mid for the arruin whiL-b be mtiim t-uittilr 
rocoTPr from the aHur)x>ni uf those puBtieBsioiw. U ' 
proreuwi bis rnjoyin^ tbi-se Hdvuuta)^. Uo fi-il 
nattenjni nud hia di>itvm|)cred mind wan ur^cd uu ' 
eoimrila. UtaoltuncuBapuniitthu Uriliiih Oovcmuimt ' 
to roqniro rcpuLitiou. Ui- alivnutud the [uinUs ul bia a 
murdur of hiti couiiiu Ladhubha (the sou of Uhaiji B&vb 
Ibo lucooeaiuu bad at one timo butm set up in opposition to hai 
alanued bis iuuuiHliato adhvrunte for their peraunal Ml'oty, and 
tho L'luaily of the J4dtij£ti by attaubi im iudiriduab and ctpd byi 
dL-mand of a tnbate Ironi Lbo wbolu body. Motwilkstondiiu; 

Sirovocatiuufl, aaoh was tho sopuriority of bia martx'iiary ioivo il 
[ddi'jiiit offurcd no op[inaition. Thoy marched in bia train r 
foru of tbuir hrnthn-nj Jind thny roloctantly Bubacribed an 
•which tbnj boand thfinsi-lvM to pay the itix which was imj 
Bot thoir Buliiiiission was the cflurt of fiwr iiluue; Ihey •ocretly m'lilii 
for tbu oaaiiitauoo of Mm ItriliKh which in ttiuti wna ^.luutvd. T 
prlnoipal chie& joined tbo army on ltd iidvanco ; and fb** prr'f'" 
poveriinjont together with tbu hist treaty wen- 
with them. It was detci-uiiucd on all bmidu tlji 
imprisoned, bnt it i.s ^nid to bnvu bi<en the wish of tbu tlo 
government should still bo administered in bia namci S^ 
that tbia was not intended, Ihey Bofim to have been ioclinrd t" 
son of Lodhahha, but wore prevailed on by the ar^meiits of La 
toduweethe present H&a. They likcwieo entered into n tren^i 
name of tfao whole Jsdeja body and cetahlisbed the Bcgoncj wfaic 
ooodnots the government. 

At tho bead of tho Regency most be tvcVoned the British 
was iiiirodnced atthe e(ime«t request of the JidejaA, at, 
the other members who refused to take on tbemaelres fh^ H-Hffiiii 
of the oilice wtthont his full anpport and participation. Thi» ni 
Vnjerfijji or Vaair&jji, the Judeja chit-f of Hoha who derive* 
qacDoelrOBi hia experience, from his poaseasioni which oicoed 
any other chiof, froni his niih'ta.ry rotinnM and bia fort which i* n-ckt 
next to Bhnjia tho sti-onpeat in Cntcb ; 2nd, Prithiraj, tbo chii*I 
Nitgarecha, who, tbongh ronng and not distinpuiahcd btf abiliiy, 

cfaoeea on aoconnt of his mmily which is reckoned tho fl- ^i-r 

Jodejis ; 3rd, Lakhmidis, wbo^ family hiirclong bc«n mii 
himself waa prime miniatcr to Riio Mharmiilji ; -tib, Odh«- ji imj 
rich merchant who had been employed iji charge of districts and 
bijjh character in the country ; and" uth, RotaD«r. the nephew of " 
who, tboQgb his family have Monltb and weight in Catch, was 
wivcted in compliment to the Britiah Government on the mpport i 



iivly tlppL'nilfl. Uplidd hy that GoTornmcnt ho nuj bo 

^as tliu principal iUE!inlx>r uT tho Kri^Qcy, aiul be appeaca io 

If with ^kmI muae and mixluratiiin, at* as to givu pcrfuct 

Io iho Kngli'^li cmitlt^mun \Titb whom be haa acted, ul ibo 

Lliat tiis cuiiL-ilijttini; manncm exumpl hun f ram lliu unpopn- 

rbicb bis titi'lilvn elevation and hid conoection with tbo BritiKb 

li mt^bt 1n> L-(p.-ctud tci r&tso auiooff the Jadej&s. 

poAM>jttu?a an influence in the Kidney only infonor to that 

Ri. ill' hftA to»^ hron in power, is looked np to by the Jidt- jaa, 

in thf chAmrtcT and feelings of the jioaplc of Catch : from 

litiea no Wit than from bis abdjly in hiuinoss ho is a Talnablo 

'of the iC«yonpy. 

tuf the only i-fltcwnt meinbera. VHJerajji, n. selfiAb ol>I man 
|/> tV' ^iliijiry indc'jwndence of his own turf and only cntt^ring 
T ! 'mj duriiiij tlio intriytu's l.httt preceded a revolution, 

■(1 ordinarj" bii'!iiiic«3 and sridoin int^rfoiiis unkics to 
(Mitv' nii-iwurw calctiUUil to incruase hia intliHTneo or 
Sty. The »»th.jr two were oijty exin>"t<;d Io lend the aid of ibfiir 
I Mul ihcj are now both dead, Odbavji witbin the Inat w«etc 

■i rcTQBDua being farmed oot and each branch of hia oxpcn- 

■• tixud, the ordinary business of Iho Rcguncy ia to sco liint 

ppi p^^■^^>rm thfir cuntrael and that Uto chains do not cxct-ud 

»l'.- : (u (.-hm-Ic duprvdali'ins and ptmlsh offoncejs ; and ab.3ve all. 

i-UimB and dvuidu tbu disputes of the Judcja cbtefi. At 

.. ^ ::aut of ilu-sto coM^ Lbu llusidvnt assixta as he dovs at all 

t on poIitireU qn^niionR, foreign or dnmcj-iic. hat he jndicionsly 
^drtAil of the goveminput to ibe other mpjnhera and contents 
ulf with •■■luatniny a ibnroogh fcnowludgc of thior proceedings over 
: ezcrctsi^s Ul occaaional cantTol. 

>'» land rcrcnne amounts to l.'i,15,0i>0 kftris, and that derived 

>iiia and othi-r sources nnconuocti^ with the land to npWRjtla of 

sll !»h.>nt a^.oO.ilOO t.jru, of wldcb near 3,00.0i>0 is alicnattd 

lh<' Iftiiiia of the family, 3,0l},000 for charftable piirpriat-a, 

tOoO in Iiiim. His income thorefore is only 23,00,O0u hrfU 

1^000) and hia cxjicnsca, n» abown by the annexed table A, 

■"iwnrdjf of 2400,000 i-ort* (or H UlH* of Hapces) of which 

k<iru is thu sahaidy of the DritiBb Bngadp. Bnt »omc of 

arc of n t4'H)))orary fintnre, and there seems liWl« rL-iuwn Io 

onlinary years the liiu will be t-aaily ahl« to live within big 


Mr. Eljihi 


»ht of the Onvcnitnent is 12.o0,000 frorjr. .^f which apwanb of a 
inuaJly pnid fr<»n a fond sllotttid to tbvt olij>.-ct. 

ifl troopH conniflt of aliout &00 borso and 2000 infantry besides tbo 
il of the Jidejila It ts calcalatod that thci* cbiefa wold 
[ptfiOO men. hut. admitlinff this to ba tbo eoac, they can only bo 
force of which thu Hio can have tbo tervicw whenever be 
J4o my for tbein. Thi? nnmbcr nf thia body that is really 
nsbatily does not exceed fonr or fire tboosand. 

iternal ig^^venimeni of the lUo'a immodlato donusne appeani to 

••d. It 19 n grvui defect in the syfttcm lh&( the rcvennu U fanm^l 

the grentor becanaa the principal farmrra are nearly n^latifl to 

ilwirw of tho Regency ; but the original tenttrea of the huiil are 

lonhle to the cultivator; theiuperinUmdcncoof tbcBeBidcDtprBVCut* 



Appondix B. 

Mf niphliuitonfi'a 


tbcir beings enoroBched OD ; fchn ccrtaiotj of retaining tho lot 
jcftra is an indnccmi^ut to thu Cu-iolt to inipruvu hiH oonotnr, 
ncifrbboDrfaoixl of bo mauj cliit^a, iu wbosu iaiuU ui oppresecn rjot < 
6nd B refngo, ts a chvok on his ezaetioua. Tbe eomputitura (tf 
likewise sotmrcs tlioseou tbc buulBuf the Jidojiatrom opprentoo. I 
tboj <Io not pofsees thu favQurablu Icnaru wbioh u ^nvml tn Uui 
oonni-ry. The t^mnro it* colled Bula. It ^i\'«» a |Mir[M-(Tiit( rig 
ooaapanoj to tho ryut on his paying a fixed proport:" ' [i 

whi<» TartEH iu diScnmt plaox frvta ouu-liulf to o 
ffcncmllj DUc-tliird. That the KTOnnd is tbc Kao's apptnLni nmnr I 
qaoHtiouiid, but tho ryots 8ctt their right iii it wiliiout any 
genemlly at a very abort purchaso (aboat 5 yoarR). 

Tho ncigliboorhood of Sind (on importation from which it at lUl ' 
depends far a large portion oif its 8ulsi«tGnco) prcvcnti-d Cutrh 
bxilinilp Uio famine of 1813, so maoh as KaUiidvir. It has ncvi r 
mnch narMHod by phmderers and nlthonj^ tho oortbiiiiakje of ! 
a aOTOTO otUomity, it was not nno of that sort which scrioonly hSt 
popntation or cultivatinn, so thai Ciitch ia on tho vhoto prolnUj 
iloarisbing a condition as it over has been. 

The police ia good notwithstanding tho namlwr of iiidepe 
dirisi'oDg; indeed, tJio example oE this country and K^tUi4w&r 
one question whether wbon tho chief* are really well disposed tlic nu 
of persons iwsaessing iuUuonco dot-s not make np in polico for tho 
of exlenstTo jurisdiction, The only disturbers of the public ptmce Rp[ 
to Iw the outlaws who find a refuge in thy dcwnduncica oi Sind or; 
Uie desert. Justico is adminiaterud by the Patcla and by PaociulyatB und 
the people do nut complain of the want of it. 

Tbu hut rcTolation was effected at tho roqocst of Uie JfCdajds and thni 
treaty affords them a guarantee of their po6seBaions. It ml^'lit ther 
bo oxpcoted tbst they would bo ctint^nt mid accordingly I have not 
ablo to learn that any dissatlsfuctiun exista among ihuui. TUruc persons^ 
of that class came lo uio with ooiuplaiiits, bat all related to opt 
oommitted by Uhirmnlji or I'utch Muhammad and not redroaaud 
present Regency. 1 hud long scpamtu interviews with mora ihMa 
of tho prinoijal persons in Catch, and nithuugb it waa scarcely (o ba 
expected lUiit they would be very unreserved on such an occofiion, yet 
is satisfactory to xnow that I j^vu thuni many openiu)^ in the counw 
conversation to discover their real sentiments and tikewiae pnt di 
qncstirms to them n-f^anling tlio conduct o£ the Begency without he 
of anything ofl'ensivo or inconsiKtunl with former practice. One 
complained that thu decisions of tlie Kidney wore not always ju^> 
bu confineil himself to general censure, and I found that ho bad 
lost a cauw by the Itegenoy's counnuiu^ the award of a Pancllif 
against which be had appealed. 

Tho Jddeja cluefs have boon tbo great losers by tho carthqnnho whic 
demolished their forts, but they are still in a profijwrous condii-ina : ie 
of them are much in debt, they Lave fuw disnatos among them^ulvefl az.. 
no ])rivate ware. Some of them aro ruducea to poverty by the uumciroas 
(sulAdivisions of their estates, every younger brollier being oniiili-d to 
share oqual to one-third and often to one-half of that of the elder, hat 
the whole the number of estates that have descended to single he 
induces a suspicion that in Catch infautieide is not confined to fcmalos. 

Tho Jideja chiefs of Cntch orogt-ncrnlly accused of treachi-'rj* ; poisonin, 
is Hajd to bo a prevalent crimo among them ; bat in what I Imru 

ic persona ~ 



'I wto ty, T Imvo found no instance of it, anil I pcrcdro more of tho 

linNS thiit rrsnlu from indifference thua of dulilieralc trcoctiery in 

it pnhlic comlnct. Tbid want of nttachmsnt to any sorensign is 

iwoad hy Ihair own indopondence of tho Rao's antbority nnd by tho 

"tof esertfy in the rhief und consequent distraction in tlic adniinistra- 

i-whicli ki8 goTernnu?Dt tn common with most of those nnder Ilajputa 

sliTiost always dtoplayed. The appearanoo and behaviour of tfaa 

Uioagh not mnch polished, is deoeot, manly, and pnopoeaesatng. 

Tlui •"harACtcr of tho common pooplo appear!) to be poacefihlo an<l 

>o. Tho inhfthitantH of Vitoad are said to retain their propcnAity 

■ u>»lcr, tho Mahsmmadan herdiimcn in tha Banni (a tract of gras» 

eitiondin^c^ alnnj; tho edge of tho northern Ran) are reckoned 

And oosottJcd -, and the l^lianaa (another Mnhammodan tribe in the 

»t -if ihiy tUo'a torritorics) are notorious for their dcspcrato character, 

r-'sdy for hiro to nndertako any entorpriso howovor danjferouH 

.or flagitious. These tribes arc oodor horodit&ry heads of their 

""■) '"lations of Cntch scareoly dcwrve to Iw mentioned. lb 

1 nvap;ea an d exa ctif>nfl of tho ilar5thig_and it hns tnrioo 

■. i siuiia from Sm d. Ita offensivo operations since the days of 

rd Tisvo been confineiJ to thrco invnaiqns of tho n orth of K^Ui Jairir 

^aioh Mnhararaad and one incnraion to Varah J in thonojghbonrhood 

The nso of a connection with Cntch to ns is to curb the 

Vigadr to chcclc the Khosun, to keep Sind at a diirtance, and 

an opening into that country in tho anwdcomo event of our beinij 

, in a war with tho Amirs. The most dR§imbla situation of Culcu 

that it should be nnder a strong' and independent goTemment. 

of ihc&e conditions was fonnd to be nnattainahle and tha want 

^th has led to tl>e loM of itLdcpondonce. We arc now too deeply 

in the oifaira of Cntch ever to retreat, and tho option reserved 

if withdrawing from the suhflidiary alliance is rendered nugatory 

onr (piiirantec of the rights of the HAo and of tho JiidcjAa. Of all our 

'- - "i this is probably tbo most intimato and tho most difficult to 

since to free na from its obligations requires tho consent not of 

I'uu i imco bnt of 200 Nobles. 

It is thcrcforo of tho most importanco to consider tho mnraer in 
which oar inflaenco is to bo oxcned. During the Rao 'a minority we 
moEt oootiniio to euporintcnd and control every branch of tbo govemmont) 
but oar Itcsidcnt'fl iutcrfert-nco uhoidd bo oonfiiied, as at present, to 
0opprintondcnco. While Batuui is properly supiiorted ha nill always 
haw a prcpnudcranco in tho Begmcy, and will gaide it in tbo dinscLion 
which M given to it by oar Government. 

Unlraa the Resident be aupine I^khmidiis will bo an adequate oonnter* 
poiso to Katanai'n inflnenoo ; the very knowledge that there exists sach a 
rival randy to oommunicaii- any misconduct of his to the ResidcniwiU 
be 8uflicir>iit to make Ita(an>n cautions and moderate ; and as it is ibo 
icy of Lakbmidas and munt ho the ambition of ovory JAdeja in tho 
'~ Qcy to maintain the principles moefc popnlar among Uunr oonntry- 
the RcAidcnt, if he shows himself disposed to listen to their nom- 
mmiicnLions, can never bo tgnoront of any action advcrBO io tho anciuni 
prartir.i- or tbo public feeling. The chief buGiooas of tho Reaitlcnt musi 
bo ui nitU-h ovur i\w conduct of his colleagues in (faoi» points wbeni tboy 
ftn^ likr-ly to bo united bya cummon inUTUbt. In tho internal nuinagemont 
of the B4o's country ho ought not to axcrciu so minuto a oontrul oo to 

Appendix 1 

Mr. KIphir 







ilofttnr the Bpirit or lasses the rwpoiuifailHj of ths other uumfaen. 
»nr gnn( cliango of «T8tem is, ufooorse, hix '}■■■' *■■- 

it c&rufuUj ; bat except CD such occuicnu, it i«oBOii|tLi if L 
lu uumulMute and calU for explaontiom whpn iliej ao.'.-ii m do 
foaodea. In all measores affectiDie il)« Jidejas ho ooglit to laku a i 
ictivepurt. Kx.ppnciice has obiiwn that tbpy nre readj tosut 
goTerniaeiit of aiini&t«ni nappurt^d hy :l v-mcr nnouiinocted 
own, &ud it )8 pnjhuble thitt as long ns their per- ■■>\ir and i 

are attended to, tlicyn-ill be, if not friendly, » ■iiffcront to( 

proceealiogn ; bat it 19 necrsiiaty ihnr. tbcr (it^ i>c troated 
attentioo and oiviliiy nod (hut. caro Blinnlil bo takon ugt to oocxtiao&l 
their pr-irilegve. Tbi* rigUnncuof thu RcsideDt shnaJd goardagainH tlu 
Degligeoce, narfiab'ty, or eorrajiliiin whicb may bo ev-inoed by iIm 
R<>g«'ni'T in deciding on (be qoarruU of ilio ebii-f^, llig aatljnnty iboold 
ropivM sU attempts Oo their part Ui ii'nfw the pracHce of planoer or of 
priviito trar ; an<t his modiTAtion shiinld ^itrd a(j;ainsb tbe tcmptatioo of 
adding tn tho Kiio'ii posscwxions by forfL'itnrc« nvtm in cases where tht 
refiittance nf a cbiof ehotikl lm%*e retiuirud iba «iii|i1oyinmt of n military 
foTi^e. Withfjut thi* precantion a slifjhb offencii will lood to a tine ; ' ' — 
in payment, to the employment of a detnchmetit; and that ■ 
di^poRKTAiion of tho individaftl nnd tbe diAi»ntoiit and aJarm uf - 
other J.-idr-j]U). A 6no haa hcon the nnunl puiiituhnient and nag i 
td be sQllicieiit ;aod ifitfiboold b«ab<trilutctTnr'ce»sar)'lodi8pos8esa: 
the disinter«t(cdnojas of tbe Govommont Bhr-nld bfl i«h<i«rn by rp«t4Tr 
)And5 tohifl next. Iipir, The threomoatprobai ! ■ i:a Uw 

J.->drjnR ni-e, .loU ling their diflputci ftinong : i he prO' 

htliiliuliof f emu le infanticide; andcO[u[ielliiigLliciiiluiu!t)tiniiu5i, plaudunn 
within their own dietriccs. In tlio first, all dangiT niaj bt- uveried by tho 
prunipt and iiiij.iurtial administmtioD of juiilice; in thu aecond, br oaoliOQ 
and delicAcy m the mean» of detecting guilt and mndcrttiuD in potufhiug 
it. Tbf> third in an object of great imi«ortaQco. It is inure likel<r to b» 
attained by TJgilaoce than by seTcrity, by explaining whtit is expoctod. 
oeBsaring neglect, and comi>eLling regtitation wilh th« addJMon of a fine 
Ha llu» punifibmcnt of participation. Great caru itttoulil Iw taicoa to -< - - 'i 
any appciiraneo of arrogance in our treatment of the .ittdeja -. 
but I do not think there ia any nccnuity fur referaiLg p< • 
qacflt.iotiB to the decision of tbL-ir body lo tbe mt'-nl wl 
8npcr6ci&l virw of the comispondcncc at tbe Fl ■ ' ■ «vuiild l'_ 
to think iLSual. It is nntaiHl to euppoM ih«b ' r HAo* .. . 

Oou^nlt tho principal Jadejaa before they ratcrcd oti ^iny itm 
reiinired the cordial co-oi>eratiQn of the Bbaya<\d, in lii 1 ■ :i -al 
effieicnt Bovercign, it is still more rect'ssary that t! !;_!,■. '._hr.\ 
learn the sentirnentu of tlint body, but it docs not ap] •- 1 
to lie expected, or to bo pmcticjiblo i-hat all slmatd b' 
their votes ereo on the most important qoeRtions. '\ , ■ \ .-. 
oontuiae to oousnlt tho greatest ehirfa separalrly or togi^lher aa be : 
beat suited to the tkccosion, and may cxtoud or coutine the 11 1 
according to tbe impartanco of the i^ne^ion ; but I shonld Ibiuk I 
sixty the groateftt nmnbcr that need C7cr be oonsulted. These arc 1 
general oliaervatioDS that suggest thcmaelvofl, but tliero are \ 
subjects of iomporary importance which requiro oor immediate attttu: mu. 

Tho first is the ailoation of the Ut« lUo. 

The odinni of that prince's measures has been lost in tbe ftight of hU 
inii{fortnTip<t and all fear of his power aiaoTig the J£dej^5 ba« l)ocn removed 
by tho British giiamntee* The eome^ncnco is that bo is now an obJLiii 
of general compsasion. and, tmder the orroiieoiia impreasioa that 

CUTCH. 203 

power vonld afford a snflScient secnrity against a renewal of his Append 
nuBcondiict, the greater part of his late sabjects wottld probably be glad jtf El^iis 
to Bee biTTi restored to the masnad. An opinion prevails of the indefeasible ' Minu 
niglkts of a Prince to the nominal exercise at least of a sovereignty which jggi 

lie has once possessed and this is shown by the langaa<^c of the people 
of Catch who, when off their guard, generally call Bharmalji the Bao, 
and Bao Desal, only the Knnvar or Prince. I conanltod several of the 
principal persons in Gutch ai)OQt the succession to the Masnad in the 
ctrent of the death of Kao Desal, and all who delivered their sentiments 
with frankness dcidared at once for Bhiirnialji, although all agreed 
tliat he onght to be kept in prison and the Government administered by 
ft Beg«ncy. 

The wives of Bharmalji, especially the mother of the present Rdo, 
Are all natnmlly anxions to promote bis interests and with them go the 
wiaUes and intrigues of all the inhabitants of the palace, llao Bharmalji 
most have some adherents especially among the soldiery wlio were 
disbanded at his fall ; any unpopularity of the present" Government 
would throw the Jadejas into his seal ; the dwelling which he inhabits 
being built more for commodiousness than security, might easily allow 
of his escape ; and the Mianas and Jats would soon supply him with a 
desperate band who might protect him until further support could be 
obteined. For these reasons it seems highly desirable to remove Bhar- 
malji from Cntch or at least from Bhuj ; but this is unfortunately 
prevented by a stipulation in the treaty. The dangers I have alluded to 
can therefore only be counteracted by greater attention to the security of 
his person and by destroying the impression that he is ever to recover 
his power. To show the resolution of the British Government I 
declmed seeing him (although in the least offensive terms) and I rejected 
all tbe applications that were made to me to allow him to return to the 
palace. My coi-respondence with the Resident will show my sentiments 
regarding his restoration to his family in which I think humanity 
requires every indulgence that can safely be conceded, but I should think 
it a most desirable arrangement if he could be removed to some place of 
strength more completely cut off from the town. 

The next step that occurs for destroying tbe chance of his recovering 
his influence is to call on tbe Jadejas to declare an heir to the present 
lUo, but this on examination appears both unnecessary and impolitic. 
As Bharmalji has already been pronounced by the treaty to have 
forfeited the government as fully as can bo done in any public 
instrument, nothing could be gained by a new declaration to that effect, 
and as it baa never been disputed that the next heir is the chief of 
Ehiikhar descended from the Raja Godji, the only effect of a call 
for a declaration would be to invite a fruitless and probably an angry 
discussion. It is also not improbable that Rao Bhdnnalji may yet bavo 
children whom it would be both unpopular and unjust to set aside ; 
the insanity or incapacity of their father being certainly no bar to 
their claim and there being no distinction between the title which would 
be possessed by such children and that winch has actually been 
admitted in the person of Rao Desal. It seems therefore most expedient 
to treat the question of the succession as already settled and to admit 
no further mention of Bharmalji's restoration. 

The Regency ought no doubt to be filled np and as the object is to 
gain the confidence of the Jadejds as well as to have a natural mode of 
ascertaining their feelings I should think it desirable that the choice 
should fall on two Jadejas. I have requested the Resident to take the 



Appendix B. 

■ nut*. 


npinmtifl vl aa many chiefR ss he oonvenitfntly civn on this saliji-c; 
bo gaidutl by thu provniliog sBntiment amnng Uiem, T lie new i 
Hhnnld ouilDrsUioa that after thu expirutinn of the prtrveot I 
iniifttibur of the Hcgencj will be ttllowed to be b former of the Tt*\ i 

The t' xprtfw;<l tutA unoonaected ait oAti on of ApjAr finggeatod a n ,. r 
wlipther it might not be po htic to reMorfl it io t ha Rao'n (',.\. - n'n. . i 
Inking ft money [ttyment instead ; and if thin payment conliJ !-■■ -nr, 
BBcnred I do not see ft xinj^lo advantAge in keeping lfai> diittHct. 
lung BM our influence nt Bhnj continueai, it is of no om M -li..t. v.r r.i .1 
that inflartice were to expire, it wonld reqniro a otrong *■ 
evun then, the jealotL^y it woald occasion between na utd l .... i..,. 
pn^bnibly soon involve nn, as it did before, in hostiliCim with that 
The only qoi^tians therefore arc, whether we can ohtfip 
security for the revenue we giro np, and whether it wonld ht y 

to the ryotii if Anjar be restored to the R^. The failure dt - a 

Government in paying the anbsidy makes the answer to th^ i -« 

qaestion^ very donbt^I. I have referred both io the Boaidcnt lor his 

It would be popular to rwitore tlw fort of Bhnjia to the Rio and il 
woatdbei>opulantyei«ily purchased, for the forti», I beliere. :..■!-•'■)- of 
being deftinant cfi[K!cially in Hm pre»eiit iriAt« ; but a» it coi -^r 

cantonments it would bo necessary to move the brigade to !<><iui.- "LlMir 
gronnd. If a good position oould ho fonnd near Bhuj (for it ought not I 
think to be lit any dixtance from the K4o'» peraon) it would be dminiblf la 
remove the brigado thither and to construct » redoubt within which > 
reaidencemightbe erected for the late JUoandwhore the stowfs Ac. mti^hl 
be deposited if the force were obliged to more. The expeuso of such a 
work would however be consideruble, and it trill be Dee^s-'^ry to rail fnr 
BU eaUmalti Iwforo it can be determined on. At any rate the (»nL»nmi!ni 
can be movvd and some sort of &eld work thrown up for tliG Rtores. Tk 

E resent furce in Cutvh appears to me no more than ttoSioient. IL would 
e iii^uICcieiit if we hud any reafion to distroiib the good wiU of tb* 
iiibabitHnt>«. Tli« detachmvnte at raUin and Aajkol oould howorav 
reinforoe it within a fortnight. ^ 

The wish of the people of Bhuj ia strongly in fo,vonr of nrpairin)^ 
their walU, which 1 think oagbt to Im done as snnn an the financM of 
the dUite wiU admit of it. The same ofaiU<mil-inn.s apply to Lakhmt 
bandar, but 1 do not cbink it notxssarv to inrnr the pxpcnse of 

i to defend 


never Bparu an adequate 

Appendix O. 


iita other reuotw tor x-iaiting Cotch, one was my deairo to posscag 

' ' ' ■ lation on the «jKit before I proposed a. reply to tbo letter 

<mniitte« of the ytU January l^iT.*, rclniivo to our con- 

liuu u,tti it, from wbicli they express their (li-siro tbifi Govcmmoni 

' hi witbdravr * from »ll iiilcrfvrencQ in thi> aJTuin) of th^ coantiy, or 

iruasing our intlucnco over the Qoverniu^nt, as lo enable onr- 

wi«)tl all iu roM»arci?a, uad to give to tbo inli&bitaDts BOtoolbitig' 

woaltl bo worth their fighting for.' 

Th« Secret Comxaitteo after commanicatiiig their sentiments upoa 

iwfaolo Knbject in order to gaido the ])rooeedings of this Govcmmcut, 

-nth the following juat remai'k. ' Tho opportanilj of effecting 

- (alluding to oar withdrawing from tne allizuice) should we 

♦tcriiiiijr nn pnMiecQting it, might not be afforded before the period at 

rhirh tbi' H;io will attain his majority. Much previons preparatiou will 

- cm«e be required before we can safely change the luie of policy 

ivhnrh wo have, however nndecidedlj, been acting for many years ; 

is always an ndvAQtn^ to know what wo want, and to have a 

■ .Ijjcctin view. If tho objt-ctof a Government bo always tho same, 

urodocod by time will ultimatclyaJlord tbo means of obCaiuing 

..^^thcr snccoas nor credit is to Im found in tho following, 

knipiidly or wiihnut phm, docistoo, or pertioacity, any object, however 

^"nrnUo rany bo ita poaaesaion/ 

Tbnnph ft it not necessary to enter npon the past history of Cotob, 

■'■ntly Tery fnlly illnstrRt^d,' it will he nwfnl, before 

<:n as tu thn pnu^ticabllity or policy of w^thf^^a^v^ng 

rially changing oar connexinn with this statCi to refer fn the 

of onr (Wtmection noce its formation and its actual condition at 

^JnBBnt period. 

In I?*"? }^"r'--,- the qovpmor of Mandn, who had tiien gained a 

iemfmnvr>- ■ BhnJ, ofFtreJ to cod« Catch to tho British 

<^ -.miniT. on liio •'oiidition that it wonUgranra maintenuioo to the 

iradhan and bia rektioQR. This p ropoaal wya chaag ed in 1804 to 

I boflr of British troopsl In "ifiOZ, InC fetter offer 

: insi'aj djid FftUh Mnhommad conjointly: btit tbcy 

'<i*i (ori iLia oa on tho two former occaaiona) that vo did not 

■rfoTo witb tbe af^rs of Cutch. 

Id 1 909 Fateh Mn bammafl proceeded on his ti ftb eipedition aminjit 

'' *— and was rnef at HWriana (a town «out£^of the gnlFof Catch) 

t. on the pari of Coluuvl Walker w bowae then employed ia 
uiug cvAtht^wir. 

Appendix C 

Sir J. MaleoUall 


I Dalad Dipori, Jnue IKHO. 

' Tlra Uamotr at Cntcti Uuly priot«<] by Mr. BomeB. the Saiswm of Ui* B«nil«Dor. 

mr fall and cotTML 




Ippeodii C (;. A twfttr w aw pnton-^l into (to veh 


HannriiJ were wiTti 
[ifprl« fif Cotoli ; 

IT.,.',.,,;.,- ',- ,.- - 

V.u- r,>r tl.c 

Bg&iuBil any n 

i.tli' tliK claiiiiK of ttie 
_,. ; i.».i will, it should waru Uw At». .. 
I ocfupj" Cutth, 

7. In 1812, iJiin tnwty wns f-iiiml to hftvr born 

Cntch v^iv n"-i'"^<s tmliwrilicit. rr,T.,i-'.; 1 nl il .■,! 

liiK Bun ;^ ■ 1m> mnff M«1 I [nmer, t. 

"" > V'". ...u. ..,1; (hoKnlf of 1 . .,.:k«.. 

^ ami ci"»li»ur«. Every 
iuiii tos, ftnd FatoirSTllImii.inii;! n:ui cj. 111. nar i 

oni :iiO iif HuRAiii NnkvA. vho hwl \i\Mni\c.i-vd ■■ 

Ui ■ ' T' ■ '"'liil. Th(! Junian;ii- il;wi iiu 

mill- iwur. bn^t hiiiiM^'U niifVi 

iiir, nnti liad f*ivcTi proir liuil luimissil 

a I^t tlitab officer, Captain Phclftn, U, il.'a -^rtii Ikg.itMaL 

8. Cftjitnin Mnc>fnrdo vraa deput^l wjl.h a m*r'- 
rcmonatT^i*' ricniii>it tlii."SL' (inis« infractiotin of t'nijTii:{«»tii( 
witluiut diOiciilty in brini^ni; Slii^Tiij Hanftnij l<i U-nna. I 
liiul gtitie from Uhtij fij^iiiKt Sxnhvljinr vtlto tinli-rol liftrk, 
wure in pms^rofis for fttfin-king thn Vij^iul 1 ' 
onrn tnenM.ii»rieft wura callotlj when Fiit*:<)i Mu: 
ibe oooutry wns thrown iata complete coafuntjD. 

i). On the <l<«tli of Fftt eh Mnhftrn moii, his two «mn, H'l 
IhrJiUim Min, took hi!* ]>\mc na the din?olora of uffnire of (■ 
coniinnod to keep (ho R&o in custody an a p(yf*^iiL in wh^) 
nctod. The two brothers wercdiTidwiin thoirsontimmitHns ; 
thn rrmfiii?itmTii.-rrfl of the flritish Govcmnienr,hut at I ■ 
('Aplrtin MiirMnrdo w lihnj, to whom thny vntf-i in 
thi; tmiip-i hnd gone ftpniiist SAntalpHr under nn ithm t} 
within the nimniri|T nf the treaty of 1809; that thi? pii . 
and tho mnrdflTcr of Captain Phelan should he Kirtm up if fiinnd in Cntal 
and thnt n forco should he Bont into V&gad to pnt down the banditti. 

10. Cnptain MocMnrdo accomponivd Oi-' fon-r into VA[:tiiI. ntn] plarir 
its stay ill that, province, the plnndcrere ' 
nf nix w»Miltf( Ctipttun M;wMnrd'j crosrst-] 
hiul hardly kirivwl tlicro baftTo bu bwml timt thf 
Muhitmittiid biul liippfiruttMl from ihu ohK-r, uiid go:.. 
Umiili-a wUci bnd iilwnys opjKMcd any thin^ like c 
demands; whilo Kathiawar wae devuBta teii by plami..:ug ^itti^ug^ 
horxiQ and foot. 

11. The Critish Oovormnont now felt ibM*lf i-allnd on to rl 
rcinmifdmiico) into threats of jraniwhinent, which no V^ 
MuliAininiura eldt!fit Bon, whii was natTirally of a vvi-y lim 
thnt ht; joinixl tho Miuidra faction, and ilio whtdo of Kv ' 
family L-viiiRcd by tli«ir words atui aclicnft perfect ■ 
connf«tiijii ornlliauiT. The inarandin^ Hj-atem incpoiKr,i 1 
■was fclmo^f, Btoiiiiod from pinif»« ; Hnsn-in Nokva wao invii 
Sinii, whither liu whp said 10 hnvu mfimd, arid ih<; munlui'vi' ol Lai 
Phdan wu token intu the survicc of the chief uf Utindra. 

Thi< Fwoncilinttno of iha two farothon wua folloired hj tlio 

-' — - '■ tho mintK faT Jnt^iwnn i[chtii. and hig h rothcr R AmchanJrft, 

r iinithLT 11^ thu llinda friruily cnut<oclliimRcIf to he liurJiil 

liri'u wwjfcs snbscqacnt to ebose itorritl crenta, Ibr.'.: ■ 

■t of VTitiih Uuhammatl's aotta) wu stabbed to tBc 1' 

I M arvA<ii iami't'i ir, in prasonoo'of hln cMcr bmi!.<'- 

<tt*T LnkniiiictA^. Hosnin BnspcotinR that flu* }^i.^ 

' iiurtigixtcd the fftto of hia brathcr, <■- ■ t 

, ui(l ttaving taken the Miirradi s><l -/ 

hi3 {mt the wbolo at tlium, to the nanibur of thico handrf J. to 

Sir J. Mj 

Fritni tKn iimo of tluute Atrncitieo, ibore van lilcrnlly no ifovom* 

*' ,' 'li (up miiny wcijks; H: '"' ~ '" i' liiiuscK up. ji| ft bniitf^ 

rtt to any ono ; llic Ai.i ^ and OEACttnnx ng Uioy 

init .sevcriU tit tho towiu reiu-i'-tl obt'dicnco to the union 



•1 Hn^nn Miit hail by this time so cnmplcU'Ij nbown faia incauipit^ 

I iit: . 11 .'ijnutj tliac the ministtr Sbtvnix ITkii^rsj and AVkiirn 

rreil witli sniiw of tbo Jadoja tl I'vod bim from Uia 

—i oxcculivc head of the statt', ami , , ;.l ;.;».'ptj? thuRfio who 

It aiManicd tlia ruins of p>v«mmuiit. An np]^aiion was tuado 

princn on tbp pcvrt of tho British Guvcmment for rodroM ol 

flrio« wUiob ho not only n-f ust'd bat turnud H* natiro agont out •?{ Uhuj, 

' ' ' ■ 'njj Sundfljji Sivji in Ibnt Capacity; nnd oti il 

i' L'nrmiis in nil <iunrterH, ht; instilU^ hy his 

ojs couiIiK't [|i.^ .tndpj.M who ha<l come to Rhnj to Iw proK..'ntat 

diokL of whom rotnmed to tlit-ir estates in i^tat dix^iKt, 

in. AUmt thie time a British force was ordortHl to reduce J^di^ft to 
!?ir finnioriiy of iU righlfnl owner, iho Jam of Tfaviinagar ; and it wiw 
;i<i Lh:>L men and amnmnitido lindTj«'n fchI from Blioj to 
;t. • '. Il ilii drfrnni. It fell, howuvor, «i cjiaily ilmt Rao ni't"' '■■ • ■ ': 
klarru iirid with a vittvr t4iBptX! ibti inditHiatJon of ihu B' 
■ - ■ ' '( ■ ^''.'od ttiui tho ikvowctl determination ui bTij,[,n -i;,^ 

r unable or dtftmclined lo do so, he nuinrhid Ivirk to 
. i. Tho duprudationii of ihc Immlitti, whirh Iind fven 
■ -hi- R.-io'ji priweiiee in Viiipid were now rcni-wiTd with 
vjL;oiir. hi I ■ ■ ^paouof u few months IHO viUnjfcs in K 

iduniil ; ' " ' hood of cuttle were carried off, and , , 

innt of < /i* woA dniiiagod and deiiti-o<red in addli.ioii Ui 

the i: >vcmmont luxi CK^witded ten laca of ru]:M^ in 

ItifriuJve. choQ^'h frurtlcw, mcadorcB. 

for ' 

!«:.. .i, 

-in MocMiirdo wiu now nutmctod to make Apecifie demands 

;ion for the juut ; accarity for tho fntnre ; Uio sum^nder of 

•>f tlio famona freebooter SnmiSji r fttid an apology for tho 

■vffi'fod in expelUne oar afi^t from Bhuj, and in delaying' lo 

1 fcrcat.aa hMbooo lonR proini*>d. No answu™ wcn'ttfTordcd 

Lndmvithin tho ftpGcitieid time ;nnd it wna not till aftui* C'olonul 

o iUtCTOd Oiaclk^ilfc|gL^An Jft''i i^nd adNiiiiced within nix 

: irtRjSffloKioeSMorcd intoa treaty, by which ho ngroei 

.1^ an indcmnifirailiuo for nil Iohsl-^ and 

I ; .. . j-tii.nv\d tiiwTi oF ATi'i^r"i ^ith its do[)cu- 

'ir <ii X\1 "J> ''"' l'''^ "' fiii'hcr an am i two lakuH of 

Lj prOTcnt tho futorc tiMxaaea of thu S , ^ ■ i j to Bnppniaa 



Appendix C 

Sir J. Msli^tm* 


pincT; to pnrcDt BurapCATis of whatever nniinn f rmn < ' 

lilTiiin, or pusiag throngh tbc t^rritcriea, of CutcK: tn d 

alJ Aj»b moroe nariuB with tbc excepiiun of a g:>- 

mon tor liikha^t bandar attfi ptit to h»rl>' >'''' ■ 

from Ibeir Bighneseog the Pcsliwu's or tiiit^^ 

for tliew C0Bc«Biou» wo a grtad to redtajc l. . 

nod all reEroclory clitoftains to~tSe~in!EnoctaoD~or 

autiiohtT, and to mediate all cauaos of (uiuigraGnH;ut ur uis,'i:!<.x-ii.;ii uim„ 

migbt spring up in fntore. 

17. Tlio irarquia of Hosting afterwards cimspd onr jwrtion of llv] 
twenty iaiArf of nipocs (etstimntcd at ctfrlit /f(M») and al-*!^ ...., .. , .^ u -i • 
to tlic nrorniAcd trtbut«. T\\c remjuning nrticliai of th- 

fnlfilkd, and a triI«ito ''"'■- 

on Vilg&d. Cnptftin ■ 

Besid(.*nt in CnUOi, 'I'tn- i. mh- i-,V( iv.' ; i^.'-,,-- .-■: t-h; 

had to paj, by Rues on bis < ; •'liiL'ftnini', and dfrnan 

nnmc of voInnt«rj contributions tn.>ni thine who hod long tajjytd 

rcTcnuo from diffitrent parts of tliu country. 

18> As BOOD M tho Briitsb troops moved out of Cotcll. Oiid Biftl 
Bbirmal ji fpit tiinuwlf relieved from the terror ihuir j ■ ■ tiid 

CJcitod, bt' jfRVD way tii the nntnntl bent wf bis incIinatioDf .uae; 

nddicl'.fl tn amntant intoxicat ion and tbe lowest Hvnsual 
whole power of Ibi? GovHniinent fell into tbe bauds o£ 
favonritcji, men of ihv mesiieflt. snd mont. depraved charai'U'itt, wl 
priucipnl oliject wa» to ioKtil into bis mind sospieions o( bia new 
and partit^okrly of their repreeentotive Captain MacUnrdo. Tksj 
nivi'iiu'-^ fur li.Iit DJ-nfliti in advanc*- wor*> sriiwl from tho DUllivnUi 
tbt' fintni th(-boD8cli old o: 

nnd L:., _ .:- !_.:- :_.^, ■-. i... , n <bi< grossest dobfti 

No man of any wi'sltb was tsafo in the Tho JAdL'ja 

with ecarcoly one uici-ption retiiydt o Ujcj. taUites, ancTiiover 

19. Thme aoenrs were hmnirbt to a crisis by the Rao'a mnrdfrr of 
conain Ladhnbha, nn act which excited tho most nnqnnlified horror in 
ctliuwca. The British Government made an application m favour oi 
widow of the decwiaed chief which bo highly incensed the mnrdcrM- 
be immcdiAiely misod Arab tnxtps to attack .\niar. in consMm/>uce o: 
wliir-h Captain MacMnrdo cnlleci in another regiment from K«Uiii' 
which hftfl the tffect of making; him disband the new levies. 

20. Ontch was now iji a more miwrablu state than even in the iro 
fcimwtof Eoo Kiyadhftnandeverymwinsthst he could devise wiiTt- ■•-'■■■••- 
by UliAnniilji to iiiifult and injure the Uriitsh Oovernmuoi. ii 
80 high a duty on cotton "bought in bis villages by raerchauts vi _. 
that all traoc in thiit staple wa« at an end ; and be pnjbibited U 
from othi-r ports in bin dominions re«ortin<; to that of Tuns. Capt 
MacMnrdo proceeded to Dhuj. at gn.'ut. pK-raonal risk, to expostubtte oa| 
Uieso agressions, hut be exjierienoi'd nothing but insult and was compel' 
to retani to Anjdr without i-necting any good. 

21. All tho ministers at Bhoj, pxcept Lakhmidjiii and Katansi, 

qnitlcd the capital, as the only mpiuiii of oaving their lives; and tin 
Jadrja chiefs applied to the Jiombny Govt-rnment ftir its adnoe and aidj 
in »-xtrirfttinir ihP province frnm tlin iiilhrtile and misery into which jl 
bad bw-n plangfil, whiiJi thi-y jiii)i)o.-*»d lo vRtxt, hy deposing iJhirmaJji- 


howcror, ms neenliT'cd, and it is Impoawblu to Hnrmise 
)<,-im ttxf rcenlc liad nufc the lUo placDd himaclf in tho 

'v din^ctlv' iQok-Mtitigunr villngGH iu the An^Ar p<irgaiia, 
''--' lown of^j^jjiiyajjj^^^ggiijjf at a. lime when ttfl 
■ with the finl Lnnty, in uU<>ndiimw on Cajitain 
LiM" iiif hriucmcnt of bis dlffcrunoi-s witlitho Darbdr. 

\rff i.nil. r =:;- William Keir was, by orders fivm the OoTCraor 

Captain MacMamo was ordered to confer 

.... 1.-1 , f i!i..:pa irbich overlooks tlie ca^tiU 

■ivd himavli np, wns formally 

ir« (if agp) elwtwd in his Rtead, and 

ji*. in which after confirming most 

tie* i..[ til..- •,r,., l;, ut i^i'.', itf agreed to pay a t<nb«idy of two 

pf r iLiuium, and r-v fmaranteed ' the integrity of his 

all forL'i^ru and domu!<tic cnomioo. We aJso guaranteed 

tcf tli» whulu of liio Jadejas on the s ingle conditio n that 

" >p their funialc children. 

Kj* yvoA irnm<Ti1inlfIy nomirmtrd conaSstinfr of five penODBt 
tUf Hrit isti Rt-flidonL vraA afterward? added afl preiidaBi n-qncAt of the original momlicra ; and the 
tve Ixeii since administered by this body with 
[ftdvicm tif till- .Tiidrja nhayad or brothtrhood. By a new 
clndi:nift-.^fiii itic Britiith and Cntch Govommcnts in 
nctea wore restored to tbo KAo on hia 
[ikAted revenue of Rs. 88,000, making 
T>taat Wtf annually receive Erom the Cntch Qovemmeut, 

Appendix C 

Sir J. MaIcoIid'i 


tliia nsncifio etatement of the progress of our oonnoction 

it will W* siidlcifntlr evident it hsfi been forc ed upon ga iu 

if>'rf K.-ithluwiir ana the oonimotco of the coast, from incrcos- 

^ and of pInmlererH, and it ik farther evident thatwcro 

i. ^ijnnt>ction to-morrow, wc shonld the namo evils 

ftr, and lie in all probikbUity pnt to a Far greater expecBe, and 

to uach more omhan«asmffnt ihnn we ever can, by pre- 

^KUian<M>. OntheaoiBToandfi therefore, itisnotoxpedieat tuwith- 

!it ao, lliemni' ■ ■ ' ir faith renders such a meosnpo 

It is now eig ' his oountiy has been subject to 

iined, UI11.L It ii!iy during that porind enjoyed a 

. boyond what it ever before knew. The ex-Eio 

111 iionse of his son, and for pnme pnst has bcon 

I .t. for the Hritish gnard over him haH been for somo 

:iv. Hi« charaeler iri said t»i bo much chimgrd, and he 

' hia condition, but if he is nnt, he baa small mnans, if 

L rbftoce. Tho reigning prince ( RAo Deaa! ), with whom 

I !>•■ when at Bhnj, is a youth of uncommon promise 

• s whieh few in his aitiintion have enjoyed. The 
uel Fottinger has attended with much core and 

'II, aud cveiy pain hat been taken to rondtir him 

' <'- luM reaped graat benefit from the lossons of 

lain at llhuj. That respectable clorgrman 

- ii>i.n.-vi iu tbo improvement of hia papil ana tho 

pruof at evwry interview I Lad witii hini, that tho 

• d batt not bei'ii caat away. It was pleasing to 
^ coutiuually referring to the obeerrations of Mr. 




Appendix C 

tJ. MdeoliB'l 


! = • 1"! 

Ontfi whwn be deflcribed a» bejng most kind iinH nttentivc to bim 

giving him iuformauoii on all sQbj(<ot«. H? nwfttud to ido ■ 

bo had betm tanght, and th« principleB t.bstt bod bwa iiutii 

mind, and waa amusing in hXi eBK«rD«SB to «bew tbeij-if - 

ac()Rinxln[ tbe actign of stTOni anaoUior maUcmip whf 

Uunigh Haprrficinl, be c»atd not belp obrennng, waa tapcncpr w u 

UiQoo of bis own tribo, by wbom hi> wfts (turrouQdod. 

2fi. t dwell on thcnc facta biysiisc in a pott.7 state lilcn Cntdi 
thing d(^nt>n[lB npon tbucliamctar of tho prinoc; to H wo mn=* 
of HtAbility thnt cnit bo attained in anch an aiiianoo. [t is i 
ohiofB in a stnto like Cntch that iro muBi look for the TTfnnn ui 
iboiu* who inbabit tbis conntry. Wo have in onr trrntira 
■aoriQeoataaboliahiQhnticidv.thoiigfat llB\r. notwilh thnteffnoC' 
BO OATDOStJy dflsirod. Tbrongb tbe inSoenco ami fliiimitle alniu of ; 
prinow or cbiafB con this object bonocornpti.thod.and tbosoi 
gLVn taportanco to overr ofFort mado to proinoto ibo ii 
Hduumwdgod bend, of tno Jadcj&a. 

2G. Iwiwalt tbo JAdciacUicFs of Catch that wt'. Lii'itci 

Coloni'l I'oliinger informwi mo before (Ltv cirm.'. ■ 
about tjir cg fointa : Irt. tb o ratPOT a. 
Ibo Httijr>w»l being introdnwd nrnr 

diminnt iOD . of iho amoant paid Sv ii, it was ftatvd,' 

pviduutly moro tban tbe revenue rt^..<,^.i, Li„.j L-rcisiiCti hard opoai 
limited Tcaourccs of the priucipftlitj. 

27. Tbeso roqucala worn snoceaaivoly maAa tut tliu RmIiIi :o3.1 

To tlio lirsL I rapllud that tbo olliitnoe witii Cutcb luul Wil. . --'-■'■i 
»ouri.« of moro trouble and oxpciisc to the Ilrilish Qovurntm-iit. \haA 1 
political btmt'fit »» pL-ctmiary rcsom-ci^. That if prpcdiwiey ulont* 
congiilLcd, it wunld bcabandniied, but oar fuilb wtui jik-tl^o) tu tbej 
aitd to iho clticfa, and wonld bo mainlaiiiL'd as long aa tbcy falRIlu-f 
oI>ltgatti:ina, That ftio tVaal though yctyoon;! (only foorfccu) gavu ml 
ordinary proiafs'?, and that tho country bod for aotno perio<l kii^wu 
inU>rvaI of tranf)«illity to which li waa bcfi^ru a strajjgnr. Tho r-.-It!in 
had biion awnred waa poniLont for hia fonuLT crimca, and ainci 
to his son, and was believed to liavo abandtmcd all lutpiM of i 
tho rank he had by bis conduct forfeited. That owing to ihu^<-> uit 
Btanrea Llm rc^atraint nndi-r which ho luul bu-cii at 6i%t |ilaci>il, had 
gradually rclajccd until the trnard ovor him waa literally no luono 
one of hononr. That he liv(.-d tnthcpalaoo wilb hiaaou with whom hel 
free nnd constant intcrconrsc, and might, no donbt, if bu wax 
onongh to desire itv offcct hid escape ; but this waa in tbo opinion ot 
RcRidont, and of those most deeply interested in maintaining tba pi 
order of affaire, not to bo apprehended : and as I found th« young pi 
thcmimslorand all the Jddoja chiefs, anxiona on tho grooud of bouoi 
feeling, for the removal of the appcnrancc of con6ncmt-nt (for it 
nothing more), I had no hcsifatioD in comfdying with ihL^ir rcqaost ; 1 
I was happy tlvit tbis mark of confidence waa coincident with ibo romov 
of ono of tho corps from tho foroo stationed at Bhuj, u no 
meaanrcfl cooJd shew moro clearly tbo foundations on wliieh wo 
iho allianoo to rest., a complete conviction on tho minds of rbe prineal 
bis chiefs of tbe i-alno of the protoction tlicv received, and of tlio pi 
on which it was afforded them. If, I said (which God forbid » , nnr 
resulted from compliance wiih their requMi, on their hcod . tl 

ooosoquoDcu. Tbe British Govonuucnt would be cman- 

icofai Uuit oodIiI aloQo be boocficial from tliotr ooDtioainf; to 

*■■ !fii[irovL'mcot>auil \o roudur tlut inliabitiLntH of 

< p. Tbiwo thai uuw bi«nl mo, I adilud, Dli|;ll^ 

•If i-.i'Kvu, iui|ilort< io viljd tor Uiat euccciur by which 

li*«>ti sHtrd from ruin. Tha iiuiiistvr Lukiimidas, in Lhu name of 

\y " I'J the Jadujas on thoir i>wu |ttrt, ex[>re«t>uil much 

jiromiiicd remuTol of the (foanl. It look ult, Uiejf 

~<.miljr uf their rulers, and they would give, ad 

i Ui the Ec«i<k'iit, an cngageoiont which 

lltvir iiiituxiuul n'i>jH>utiibtlitf for Diaintaiiiing iiito Dcsal ami 

idwitB un iliu fH')/'."!'/ to lLc< jicr^jetool tixoliisino of iho ca-Ii^o 

wbn, I,Ih->, was [t.'C<.jncikxj to hia condition, and, if Dot, 

nur could cruatc, uicana of ro^imag authority. 

th« ii<yrfc request nf tho J&dej^ I obficrTeil that I nnw no 

' tho lUo Dcsftl bcinir introdnced into public dwids, 

J.' initiated into tho maii&gcmL-m. of liis own affairs, 

was yet too young to bo ruteasGd at once from tliat tuition and 

to which he owiil so much ; but that it would )x> tho anxious 

tut tho Resident acting in conformity with tho fortnor instmctioos 

icnt to ftpftortion tho weight of business to tho (rrowing 

:'of thoyouti;? princo, who, if bis education was completed in the 

lind fct-n comnioncc'l, might witliin a fow years, bo fully n^nal 

ir tho wliikl-! burden, and prove in tho exercise of power tho happy 

int of working great relorius tn his native country. 

£9. T't {hf request fur adecrcfLS<i in the attnnal pavmcnt tn tho nriiish 

T gave a decided m^ifativc. If Uiu Anjiir rovnnno hsd fidkiti 

expected amount it waa, T siuil. owiuir to raunea that wvro 

to rncur. Other resoum-a had iiicroaacd and were Ukidy to 

im tho tranijuiliily which the country cnjnyed, and which was 

lively rurcrred to ihv Uril.i(<hpry(oc(.i<fn. &» to tho sufcmeiitcd 

wln'oh they plcnduii frnm Uie ItAo'fi marrinKV, and the state 

io Iw siippurted, as wtd n» the chnr^rtna for ihv ostnblitfhnieut 

nz-Bao, the»«e miu)tlH< rod need, if iiio revctum ^va*i unequal io defray 

Thii (nmditiotj of thi} liiiiiniieti nf the llritijiih Govi'rtimeni, and tho 

livo (!!ttalili«!)mont« it Hiipjx'rt-ed, forbade, I informed thcin, tho 

(i{ anv iMtri iif (ho jiocuntary ntibKidy from Cuteh ; wbilo on tho 

buul, tbi* l»lU;r slate w.-kS by trcniy (>nsiir4<d n^itiH any inoreasu of 

At till'* jiitrt "if the ^oiiferenue, I took an opptirtnnity <if oxjilajn- 

and lliL'ir rokitinus, assfixiblcd to the ammmt of ri<.flrly 

-i>iiLimi-iilH nf thu unL-xuiii|il(<d conttitleralion with which 

hftM iriuitcd, and the inil ruLufn l.bcy had na yH. mmie for Huch 

' Yiiur hvudH* (I said) ' liave Wv.n ifuai-.tntt^ed to ya and 

inilunlH by ttiu JlntiMh Gov<'miui-nt witbnut tlie Ktipulntion of 

nf j«ocuntnry jiayincnt to it or to your princi', and witliont fixiniy 

aid iif tro«)[)* in the evt.*ui of iurnHiou, or of tho public pwico 

iirbwd. YoH hiivo »ubsct|nently penuttti!di4in»II anddeHpi(.-aiilo 

.{ilnudererato trflvl-ra*) tl»t> counti-y. and t-arryoff Ixioty frum (ho 

tovnui of yuar prince. I ha^n.- di-sirod thu Rcsidonl: luirl the 

ttiinfoi-mmu uf Lhi! name of any pernun that di4tini;ai«hed himiXTlE 

t-ui-H)ou of thc' Mt^iuui ; but not one nanio has iK-cn br(ia;;ht to 

1 i find itiJita hifffo b<3dy of l^ajpnt chiefs boosting the 

md of deirotud allcgianco to their nder, coosidorin^ 

li by onr too sonorous gnarantMi from tho jnifc reasnt- 

:ii^'ii )iiMi((.', iiiruio nut one effort to protect his towns from 

or his tiuldA from doniatatiQOf ftppftronllf Mtisfied If tbey 

Sir J. Malirat 




Appendix C 

! J. MitlMitiu'a 

iftrctt tlii^ir own cAtAtcs from fiimilar cti1<) : find in some inRt&noet 
tiroiigly 8UR[jectod Utat the exemption of theso from attack wu tit 1 
of a buie, if not a traitoroiM, moctinty.' 

30. 'This has past^* 1 obttervt'd, ' hot lei itlv known i- 
Iherc tfl nothing in the bt'thidhari or QoJknniev obligatiou wh- 
GovemmoDt has ^v?D to the chivfs of Outcb that excmj.ts si.- 
theirallegianoo, and the aid which in rirtuo of that tb»y nr-_i l 
give their prince on every occasion, whore hie parson or hi- 
atfaaunl. And any chief who is hercaf tor 8U)tiDc, and «> 
exert himseU to tho atmost, to oppose and drstroy hi^ -i . 
plnnderers, will be dealt with as one who aids them, and j-fial!. :i«1 
sUghteat puniBhtnvnt, be proclaimed to have forfeited all rigbUl 
British protection.' 

31. *Tho Beeidcnt,' laddod^'bad been instructed bf metoooa- 
mvoicate with all the cluefs individnidly upon this sabject which wu tatj 
of mach iinp«)rtaitce for them fully to understand. Ue would exjil«a tsj 
tbem tho mode iu which ihoy could best falfil obligations thai lielooifril 
to their condition, and which wi:ro nut specified in any eogn^meiit) 
treaty, bccatuo tbuy were implied as dnttua that could nfithtT he oniki 
nor ncffloctod without the total diwulution of thoeo tiee by whid • 
govcrnnicnt liko thai of Catch could alouo bo "1^ilT^^|^ine^^ imder tli 
present form and adnunistnUi<m.* 

32. ThcBC scntimonta wore fully explained by mo to the asMsnkM 
ehiefii 1 and that there might be no mistake they were nepfati^d io tay j 
name by the minister lAbbmidaa. No obBcrvntions were i^ffL-roil in -vlt} 
i2lO)a^ they wore invited to do so, beyond somo of the senior 
Mcpresring their assent to the fairness and JTUticc of what I lu- . -,. 
and their reaolntiom to merit by their fntnro conduct, the benefits 
dcrivod from tho protection of the British GoTcnmuutt. 

33* I took tho opportunity of ibis large oonoourse of chleb to give bj 
sentiments most fully on the subject of infanticide. ' They knnw/ I saiJ 
' the solicitude of the British Oovemment regarding tho abolitjon of : 
most barbaroos crime, which so far &om being coantonftnoed, or i 
tioned by the osngtua of Uiudus, was held in utter execmtion by all of tbi 
race except the few tribes of Bajputs hy whom it was inlrodurvd. 
oontinaed to be poictised from uiolivvs of hmily pride.' ' The Jij 
Cutoht'Iremarkeid, 'whomlamnowaddresaing.havelong been 
with this horrid and inhuman nsage. From the first of our count 
with this state, its abolition has been a subject of moat anxious solic 
Tho hope of effectiug it was recognized as a motive for tho allianoe, 
engagements wei-e entered into by Jadvja chiefs that I fear bnvo I 
little re8i>ected.' * I Iciujw,' I added, ' tbe difBcuIty of persuading men 
aWiidoii this piactice, however aMiomeiit to uatare ; but believe nu^ JC 
will hazard by the eontinuajico of infanticide the protection of Iho Brit" 
Oovernmeat, for the crime 18 licld in 8iich detvetatiou in Sngland, 
tho nation will not long be recont-iled to iiit irnate friendtibij) with a 
of men by whom it continues to be perpetrated in direct brencb of IbsE 
promises und engagements.' Tbe wtlemn warning I gave tliem on 
subject was (I concluded) dictated by an anxionii eoUcitndo for tbell 
welfare, and for tbe happy operation of an alliance which promised 
benefits to their country while it woQJd t«nd, if ull its obligations src 
fulfiUtnl and objects attained, to promote the reputation, and, with iL 
intoroataof tho British Qovenunont. 

34. A copy of these notes of my coufeience with the Jadejia 

:U'nan(-C«|oDel Pottinger for record in Lis ofiice, and bo 

'■■] to t»ku every opportunity of inipreiiNilig these cUieEs 

>.nc*» of their fally undi'rstanding nnd acting upOQ 

■{■c -'('.'J iiT^-iiiigB which are eqaally efttwntiitl for their owogood, aod 

in* U> tht(m and their dvncendaats a coutinnimcu of the favour and 

ption which thf-y now enjoy. The lU'ttid^ut sbonld al»o he instructed 

ce the young prince fully acquaitit«U with all thkt hod passed dd 


35. My commnntcationa with tbe JtdejAa, and ihc line of condnet I 
-nb«-d to tbe Resident, were groanded upon the conviction that do 

tiTQS bat dread of thu aapcrior power of the Briligh Government, and 
npon its faith roiUd reBtrain tbotn for a momnnt, from thoae 
liragCK wbiob fur guneraltuns have bin-n hiihitual io this class of obiefa. 
yield a ruspeciliordt^riug ap^m vennratiun, aa far as outward show, 
I the buaily of ihuir rohir, considurin^ htm tbn bead of that, aristocrary 
vrhtna Cntch has boon bag divido<i, but with all thoir [imfesftiona 
lb£ry bavo noFer hesitated, when it suited their jiersonal 
t or gratilicd their passions of revenge or ambition, to rebel agaliiht 
llbority, to plunder but lands, and at times io dethrone or murder the 
it of tbe maenad, placing however one of hia family in his plact}. 

36. Tbis oondact nn their part baa led their princes to Rtroitar acta of 
itxi -whoii they have had ab«ftlnte power either throngh ihe aid of 

»nw of ihoir <!e[>endentcbief« or foreign mercenaries. The poverty of 
/'ntch bn<l itfl WLlubrity have hitherto alike operated to dintorb its peaco. 
of nnjhuitt frame and with predatory habits bavo increased in a 
Uon beyond what the conntry could maintain in a manner saitiid 
wantM, and it may bo afGrmed that these canses combined with 
[ttnges and character of its foreign conqnerom the Jadcjiis, havo led 
irfr crimes and more acts of Tiolence, injastice. and atrocity being 
imitted witliin the laal centuni' in Ihi^ small and inanbited coontry than 
I almost any part of tho world with which we are acriuainted. 

S7. In dititat 


Appendix I 

Sir J. Malcil 

ty with the Jddej&s on which tho prcaont 
oonnefition iafoondod, it is much to ho rogrottod that we guaranteed ttioir 
estates and freed them from all specific duty or payment to their prince 
wHboat imposing' one obligation upon them in retam except that Lliey 
■boold aboudoD the horrid practice of infanticide. This homane articUi 
ol tbe tcvaty has. 1 fnar, been macb disregarded, and we possosa so jnoaaa 
of caforeing its strict fulfilment. 

Sft. Socnro in our protection and freed by it from all snpervision or 
responnhility in the management of their eetatos, the Jddoja chiefs have 
become indolent and indifferent to all matters that do not immediately 
olfrct thi'ir personal intereats. Lost in tho enjoyment of scnsnal pleasures 
t},ii^- ......Li.t all improvement and endeavour to snpply fnnds for aach a 

by every means of oppnsaion and outrage they can ventnre 

ii'Lit t^bas^d of their property. Notabove ooo has exposed his 

' forfeiture, bot that Hhonld bo rigidly enforced wlmnever tlu-y 

r<'!> Ilion or fail in their efforts to guard the conntry from foreign 

They should in sncb case either bo deprived of their ostaioa 

5ohjc''cted to hearr fines, naxrdiui, to their prince on snccoflsion or 

n. whii-h rbey fiilly njcognir^ shoold be stricUy enforced and 

ftl' '^'b a floaJe as osage warmnicd. Tbe chiofu of Cntcli 

cii . upon their ruler, till his ravenuce hear no just 

rtiiiii Ui hiH L-ondition tu* their heaiL, and it should be a principh' <if 

to take 0VU17 fair advantage of eroDts to ineraoM bis powur 

» 33^—33 



sir J. H^oetn'B 


to the diinination ol <hat deprAved, digobedient, ftnd nmnmoagesbb i 
of petty chiefs, wboE« exizteiice in UjcIt actuai f tste is kt TKrinscB * 
■11 [)Iru9 of iioprovciiient and calcala(-i.>d to render aiipP76t«b]o, if i 
destroj, tho altiacoe we have formed with this prindpalUy. 

S9. I luivo rocommendcd to tiie Resident tbo onlj meuam 
appear to me at oil likolj to rendor the continoance of Uioso rJiit 
jxtTTor fhaj enjoy Tritbiii tbeir reepoctive limits, safe and nsefoJ '. 
ihbir princo or tho Uritish Govenuasat, and among otbev potnUi to«lii^| 
I Iiavo dircQtud tm attCDtion is that of bringing near Im person ?oai-i 
tltoir near relations aud adberonts wkicli tlioy irill gladlv niaintii 
the impression of its being ibu means of acquiring influeuoe bsl: 
It will also bo valuod as giving tliom the opportunity of atAtinj any of tbtjr i 
petty griovaooes or wants and it Trill add to tbeir local importAQcct. Sndl 
are tu advontsgeB it offers them. To ns it givee a ^adaal inansat,] 
unattended with expense, to a small body of Irregular Horse, natirta 
Cutch. It fumubcs tlto best of cluuiucus tbroocb whicli we taua 
sdrioe or in any way promote improremeDt. Wo become *' 
daily ioteroonne intotfiKibto to rode men and obtain a con! 
prerenls incakmlable evils, for I am positive nine out of ten ' 
and rebellions 'We have hod to snppreea in India have tbeir < 
i^nomtiei* and dread of those who hare bad no opportoiiitiee of aoaii 
information of oor view* or intentions — much less of forming any id 
tbo principles of a Gorcrument so totally different to tlioae to which 
and their anoettors have been accostomcd. 

40. SaooesB to imparting this Iniowledge, as il i«nds to make 
Silence snpplant fear, will mainfain the pnbiic peace better than urniic 
antl in coimtrics like Cutch orKiirhiiiwiir (I spcAk f rom amplfl exprrt«n«< 
of n aimilar commnnilr in Milwa), tboM is no means so ndaptnl lo gwn 
these ends as the Resident having near his person or with thma ofiuers h« 
employs, the sons, brothers and relations or the chiefs oF thn ooantxy and 
puiicolarly when they are young and disposed to rrrpire inatmctioDi 
8Qc3l persons, if Hndly treated and no dnnos thej dishlce aro oxaeifld 
from themi and above all if tbey are at first allowed to gn to Lbetr homos 
at pleasare, will soon become a Unit not only of establtahing conBdmiM 
bnt of giving to the British reprMontatirc a place in the regard of 
hnndiBS of the fomily to which they belong. They nuky occn^ionall] 
carry from him some omall present to a mother or mark of notice to i 
father or nnclc who baa bcharod well and a faronr will bo estimated i 
ten times its value from being received throngh snch a channel. 

41. Tbis mode of conciliation and of promoting friendship sf w^D 
of reforming ii^iiorant and barbarons men requires no donirt ; 
kindcesa, homanitj and judgmeot, bat these qnalitJes we bavi 
to expect in the Agents select«d for high and delicate doiieB, and 1 mci 
state my conviction that the mode of conciliation I have noticed, mM 
applied (modiEed of coorse by local circomstancea) to every part ' 
wide territones that contains nncivilit«d and ignorant chiefs and 
and that where the Agent has a fair latitude given to him and is -■ 
potent to his daties he will effect more throngh such means in re 
or maintaining peace in the oonnbry under his managemrnt or 
than throQ(;h any others he can employ, bot he must neibher be 
by partial failurw nor slow progreM from perseverance in an 
which, when once obtained, 6xe8 the foundation of our inflnenas 
power on a hundredfold better foundation tlian ever can be effected 
loree^ for it rests npon willing obedience and conlidence on one part a 
a rsoDgnitton of ngbts on the other -, while force, if bucoesslul, atiflw- 

_ tatiing. a spirit of hostiUty, and in compcTUnt; tu to 

fgttb that have been under ail vicissitudea rtitamed lor agoe, 

'CMuea^o of t«n a huassing^ sad ex|)eiuiTO warfare. Tho laU4ST resatt 

h- ^. ' ''Id stAtc, too (roqncDt iu our Imiory. the mcasturcs by vhich 

ti {irodaced may slaud fi]j|)Qa>atly joi^tifiod ou our rucords, bat 

tl. ' foaiid Donlrary to the uaage of Iho best of tlio former nilora 

fif id at variance with tme policy in oar ureeoDtstato of powtir. 

^ :. t was more limited and of ft oioro doubtful chamctor solf-dsCanco 

V. :..ix.i I lis to roany acta wtuoh wo should now avoid. £!<roiy means 

•buold Dun hv usod to save us from tbo nectissity of alionatinff tho propoitj 

OT d«»lroyii]|," Lbo rigbfc of any ouo subject to our sway, and when wo act 

vith a full imprBBsion of tbo Tiduo of this policy wo shall Qnd that a 

wn'.\t or Jimrtion of thoee oa whom oar rigid rules procipitnto panishniont 

'nim want of knowledge of the roles and principluu of our 

I on and ignotaoco of our objcct^t than from any design of 

iusvItos in opposition or hostility to a Goverami.-Dt wUouo 

.— .. ■ > u., .kia Djument is lar too grout to adnut of tlioix cnLurtoiniug any 

Aop« of aoooesafal rcsiatouce to its aatborily. 

4S. Tho Ran between Catch and KAtliiAwar is no dofonco wtatovcr • 
for it is D'^'t nhove twelve miles at Jf-ilin where ifc can be crossed 
m two or : lira florioig nino tnnnths^ of tho year and a corps or 

body of hor ... l' Yf a y ^ tho mait fmitfnl diatrict of Cutch, would, 
to twenty railea distance, reach the tine.ut pari of KAthiawdr ; bnt tbo Han 
botwcrii Tutrb nnd Sind is a consiiiorabk, though not an inaarmountabla 
olBtar: ' the iDTasion oF any troop9 except predatory borso. Thia 

fact, tt. ■ '-^ of tbo torribnriEsi of Cntch *^ lafchllf * And its 

itamediate [ lo the delta of tlie Indus jriro it inoroaaed value as a 

mtUtaty r>r>r»i.i><i> at ii period when tbe two gretit Aidaiio Powora, Persia 
Mid Torirey, are no looger the formidable borriDrs they odco wcro 
■ooudored Bgainfit the approach of a Euro^n enemy to tho vicinity of 
o«F Baatern poflBeaaions, out thia is a subject I Bkall not anticipate as I 
intsnd rery enrlj to Uy befon tbe Board a memoir which will contain 
an tbo ioibmution I potaeaa nearding the line of our WestMn Prontien 
froB I«kbpftfc bandar to Jc&nlmcr, and tho means whidi a Eoropeaa 
ODSOiy wonld havo of attaekiD? it as well as those we poaaeaa of defence. 
A.t present T ^haH limit my onwrration on this point to tho conclosioa 
that if our pledged faith permitted ns to abandon oar oonnectiOD witb 
Catch, ii would be most impolitic to do ao. 

43. We are not to mppose that in resigning onr powerin thia conntry it 
would fall back into that state in which we found it. Our connectiun baa 
Ipvon ii comparative tmnqnillity, but it has hod the eO'ect of dimiiiisbiiig 
by this very reiioH ita power of reaistiag those foreign inroads to whicb 
it has always been expot>ed. X cannot have the least donbb tha.tdMana«d 
ia a manner as it baa been by our having so long had the ebarge of it* 
d«{tnoo it would fall an coBy conqoect to Sind and it cooM not have a 
Hia moro injunons to our interesta if ever a European enemy was in 
poaaeaiiion of the Indus, for we muat cither outr^e Sind by re-occnpyiog- 
thia country on ttie approach of an invader, or abandon ooe of the most 
important outworks to the defence of this part of India and the oua 
beyood all others moet likely to deter the mleni of Sind (roia forming a 

SiiJ. I 


* The sw ia (oreed np darinc tt>e & W. monsMH and Msdani it la m aiia hl i at this 
place in Joly, August uul S^tenber, but it may b« eroMsd lii^iar ap, tboach 




eOBOMtion with onr enemies us ita viotoi^ to tlio moaiha of Ui» 
Id l^tlk utd the port of Kurmcbee would ^ve us the gmntfirt 
in d c bto o j iag tbar trado or in invading tiu-ir territories. 

41, CucBnut&Dces procloding, u I o^nccivo ibcj do, al! id«l| 
■liMadumne the connoction "wkh Cal^h, it rcm&inB only to di4 
■whMi. is tno beet mode of maintaining it in order that we majr Cx, 
Secret Committne desire, what lino of polity wo mcui nndor all 
la jnnrsoo, uid also to decide on that which is most economical mod * 
wis prorent tho (xmnectioa with Uiia petty state being bu 
cor flnancM. 

45. If ever obliged by the <^ondnct of the prince or V '- 

iaWrftTo more directly than wo now do in tho aifairs of 
cxtHting ties wore by any circumstances dissolTed, we may »itb^r uk* 
under onr direct managcmtint tho whole of the conntry, or purtiftilj 
occupy that portion of it which was beet saitod to our parpone* ; tbo tiirmar I 
would \tc decidedly tho best coursoy as it would effect at once, what iim 
other must curly lead to with incrobsod expense and emborrMinncnt, bst I 
under no circumstanoca would I recommend tho introduction of ou-j 
civil adminiHtration into Cutch. If obliged, which t tnuit we uhaU not] 
be, to assomo openly tho administration of its affairs, It mnHt Atill htj 
Ticwod more as a military outwork which ncceosity compelled BltaJ 
occupy than a part of our aettlod prorinccs. Ono of tho prcAent fsam' 
of prinooa to wnicb the people mrc eingularly attached should ba nomif 
ruler, and those chiefs who had not forfeitt'd cTety claim to cowddemdoa' 
shonld be prMcrrcd in power. This small eountrr nbould be maMged 
bjr natives under the supervision of a Re^dcnt. The intn>ductiou of oorj 
luws aud reffulatioQS would cmale a jealousy and alarm not only in CotohJ 
but ihv neighbouring countries of Sind, Baluchistia and Maltan, while thai 
mode uf uiaiu^fetnent I have suggested would be oo mora than what iim\ 
inhabitaiila of Lbese uncirilized countries areaccustomed to ; for itd rulenj 
haw often been pageants in the bands of forcignera, and they must think J 
(tMir ara they far from tho fact) that wo at this moment exercise, Qpoaj 
occMiOD, atmost as obsoluto a power as if we were ita direct odminift*] 

40. In erprceeing my opinion that our civil government should 
eventually evuo, bo oxtondoi tu Cutcb, I do not mean to draw anyl 
oomporilon between its excellence and that which 1 propose should <m aai 
cmMnDoy oocorring be adopted in that country, but I d«em Cutcb only] 
TaloBue as a pooitiou of dufeuco on this p^ of our frontier, and l] 
raoonuMUid that system which 1 doom best cuJculated to promote the 
flbr whicfa mlone it ia oooupied ; and that end, 1 conceive, to be of 
mnitwle that most supeneae alt minor considerations and tho questionl 
k^ a wtoi* that wporatee it from tboM that relate to theadmiuistraCioBJ 
of otlksr parts of the territorioa of this Fresidcnoy. 

47. Tbo diminution of the force BtatioDcd in Cutch ia in pi 
I shall hinwHiii giro a statement of the actual differeuee of exponaa 
bjr nooTol of ourpa and reduction of establiBhmonts in that oountiy. 
wiU In nBuBut at present to ^e the results. 

-t& 1b Joboocj 1830, the disbursementa in Cntoh indoding all char 
poUiiool asd BuHtatT, wvro Rs. 6,3d,3<S0 per ammm. By Tarioas refoi 
abtl iIm inmoval of a natire regiment to another quarter of the oonntrT' 
-wbM« ilmeaiao& repaired, they have boon reduced to Bs. 3,94,700 and 
11^ ill b* fKrtlM- radocM oboat Rs. 40,000 by the recent order stxikti 
OtilU iHiTTVirnrL oad the whole ommectioa therefore cannot be < 




kU^MT umoal cost than &bont Be. 70,000 ' boin^ the difforence between 
IBT oiibBraeinonl^ Bod two lakhs and eigfaty-«igbt thoDs&nd mpcofl wbicb 
I leeeire fmm tlio Rio as safaaidy imd compenfiation for AnjAr. 

■i" Tbaagh tho preflent Potitical Saaidpnt LientcTuuit-Colonel 

1 1 - Tvcuircs in amount ondor different bends hift former baIatj, bis 

Ri<x-T:i«K<r will bare no more tban Hn. 1200 per mensom with his militArj 

iWBtwc, wbirb is in fact only Ra. 600 more tban any officer woald 

IT* in tbc militATj command he exerciser ; and aa nia anistant has 

mdoood salary of Ka. 4(X), the whole political dntj of tbia Residency ia 

. « cbar}*o of only Ba. 1000 por mensem, but indcpondent of tho great 

TXDg which rctralla from thiii combination of military and political 

iBties in Cutt^b it appears Co me qnite cRBentiat on other gronnds. 

{0- The Raiidnnt of Catch may be viowod under tho present system 
'Warder of the IIonler'frDm the Indus to near Decsa; and apon 
jadgoient and decision both in forming and executing big pbuiB on 
occurring, the peace of both Cutch and K&Uuawir may in a 
. drgrae depend. Vir.vring tbene duties a« I do, I am quite aatisfiad 
that the miliiAry and political Authority should coniinuo to bo comlnned 
in one indiridnal, and that, indopendont of the saring of ezponso from 
this arrangement wbirJi is very considcrablo, it ia calculated to promote 
th« public iutoiviiU, iMlb as it iocreasoa the local imprc-Si^ion of the power 
of Ibe prihtic officer who fills the station, and as it avoida all liaznrd of 
tho«e dekys and emborrnesmente which oft«^ result from difference of 
ofMnlon and the collision of civil and military officers employed at a 
distance from the seaL of government. 

I reqncst oopiea of this minate may be sent bj tbe earlioBb opportani^ 
to tbu Court of Directors Dud tho Supremo Government. 


Sir J. UtA 



I Tbia sUowi between Rre sad six thonaaiul mpMs, ooculookl bAOia to wpoys 
' on drtftcbiacot. 



^ lt^ 

^ ^ ■■; r^ -J •< >; 

< «■ M V 







TaM district uader tlie Palanpar PoUticaJ Superintendent, lying Chapter! 

alwoon 24^ H' and 23' 25' north latitudp, and 72"* 46' and 71* IC east Dneriptio 

utude, bus a total estimated area of about SOOO square miles, a 

lattoa of 5bout 5O'J,U0O souls or 62*5 to the squan} mite, and an 

uiled ;«ariy ruveuuo uf about £120,000 (Ra. 1^,00,000). 

tuated iu the aortb-weat of Onjarat to the east of Cutch, tbe 

trict 13 bimuded ou tbe nortU by Mi^w&r and Sirobi, on the east 

Mahi Kiinthfi, on tho Houth by tbe territory of His Iligbnesa 

iikw&r and by Kdlbidw^rr and on tbe weat by tbe Ran of Catch. 

Tho Snporintnndcncy includes a ji^np of t hirteen statea . of Divi«iisn«. 
»icb four, i'jjlfinpur, Uadhanpur, Vdnilii, and Ton-ada, are under 
M aealmiSn chiPftrTTtrvea, lliarad, Morvitia, Viv, Suigara, Diodar, 
SanUlpnr. and Chddchat, under BajputJi: "«rd"two, Bli^ar "aSd 
K4lllkiei, ooader Kt>li T hakurdaa of part iiajpot origin. Two of 
^whole nomboT, FAlanpur, with an area of about 2334 square 

JB, and a popnUtioa of about 215,000 eouls, aud Kddbanpur, 

nth an io'ea ei about 929 square mtlcs, and a population of about 
fioniB, rank aa Urst olaaa states. The remaining cloven are 
statoS) with an average population of about 20,000 souls, and 
'oVc-rago yearly revonuo estimated at about £3000 (Rs. 3Q,000). 

Ab « whole the district is a Bandy plain with, in some places, .Aapeci. 

ring aundbills and between them valleya of bbck day. Near 

knpur and to tho eastward tho country is nndulating and well- 

roedtiU ; to tbe north and north-east wbero it burder^ ou Sirohi it ia 

»ely dilHcuk, most wild and picturefiquo, covered with rocks 

itwt-cWl hill ranges, outliers from the Abn and Jiisor hillfl. 

Teat towurds Ibo Ban and aouth to Jhinjhnvfida, and theuoe round 

tfao east is one sandy plain, alightly wooded in the centre, but 

leloss both in the north and south and towards tho wcflt gradually 

ling away into a salt waste. This part of the country ncems to 

hnni been greatly changed einco 1830, when, according to Sir A. 

^J there wa4 no town or place of any size on the banks of 

., and few places were more wild and deserted than ita 

jighbourhood. The country was in no way cleared and abounded 

' tti w»is and tigers, and the greatest caution was required in tnTelling 

irom village to village.* 

Sir A. B<iRi«e. MS. Irt A[)hl 1829. 

a 8I&-36 

(BomWf 1 


Clupt«r I. 

In tlio nortb-eoat of tho diatrict ara aomo hiUs of 
lieight, onllicTS from the Ar^vst! nmge. Of these the ' 
about eiglitc'cn miles north ui IVilanpur, a hill i>f e 
Imrsta of grouite. This, about 35O0 feet high, i^ 
mmintatn, except that its water fupply ia ecantj, . 
uiTiitAriura. Tho top can, at pro«cot, be roached onlv by 
foot, but a path for horecmeii could, without mach difEcnlt 
made. The whole hill U covered with thick forust, on the 
chiefly bamboos. AJl the Tear round in three or four gorges 
pcMiJs of water are found. The other chief hilltt arc, bpgii 
mile to tho Bouth of the .^^ny ranffl and stretching easti 
CH nklodar Mata's h ill, taknig its name fnim a small shrine 
highoRt peak that risoa about 2500 feet aboro the sco. 
Karimabad is another hill of abont equal height. Both are 
with thick foroat. Tho conical hill^ called tho li'ini Ttinh 
•Qncen's Peak, nt the western end of tho Stirlmkri hiils and al 
mile and k half from tho town of Dttutivwla, in u m^nrked featORi 
the Doesa Ivnd^cape. Near its foot is the site of ibe niinod d^i 
Db6rApni' a nd tho Dharaaor iako.* 

' Of this hill th« follovtne Btory » told: ddUKlkn 8ml«,«ht*lnr Kmr] 
nim (lay nJing in ft Tilliigit on lh« nqrth chon of the RaD, ^' 
boor mulu f<.>r tho Baii, «ii<t iiunwxl tor k dij md ■ n 
fljie«rci] ou thti V&nd siJo of Lho Rui close In tbe vaili 
Ukha I'bul.lni, &a great kuig o( Uiu wivL Ifrjinng t<< 
loftVQ, iptMTud K boar onder his oastle walla ind hiMcn 
^tnlogy, Llkha I^ulini uid somu of his man Mnrteil in pttnmit. 
up to bin. Cliiiiiiiwi tnM to nidAin that he Iuk) cIumc4 llie hmr rir) 
{ram Pirlur. At fint Lildia wculd nut IntltDve, bnt ^' 
niiUttt tmn und midoiis fouihl in lUv bvar'n vtomadi. 'I 
liiin, he ngned to gin him his dkaght«r in marna^ pfi>iiii>i[.>; ii t 
Inoky dkv ahonld oome. Cbuidati on tUi meat homei But &• i" 
l)^^>l^, iliinkinff tlM atnui^rito fit ramtcb for x danghtCT "i Hn-ir Tn- 
the king'a frooiiae ibould o^ kept, bot tlutt Cluuiiiui iih'jv ' 
ao near th« marriigM rU^, that uotimo vanid he Ittft f-^r i< 
mp MO nflnr was arnt. his joumcf licin^ no urnDgod tJiat he •Imul.i u- 
tUl thie day twfnn; tlui Tiiarrta^ day. On hearing Ukha's meoMicu, 

bcart. went mvad hia people, bnt tlfere wuno bom nr rauii«l Uut roum intTfituti. 

dsv to Kcl»k»t. All framed loat whan a carpenter offenA * pair of tanm aiUUa, Mil 
yoking thirm to a cnrriago drove (liandan acivaa tbe Ran. RMc-hiitK KkUwI wH; 
m Uiu iii'iniiB;^ "F t)i« m.-irnii(^ dmv, th« bride'* himlly vooUt n\i«c no ftutlMV «b)»iitt« 
■nd lh« inamwo una duly coiupletod. QaeattooiDg Ckandan abmit t>la )A«iacy Ofl 
Itb^ liisard of the niijttid, &ail detormiuiuij to ^et hold of tb«in acctraetl thn earpvtOt 
«(Mra>nittiiigadiill«n7 witb ouv i>f the late kittjt'a wiitowa, and pvi hint in ftimm. 
^uagOil at the king f'>r dtucntiiDg hi-r, the duv^aecr qaeen amop<-<i to ran awmv vilh 
(h* carpsMer.anri. hy th« help of thi) mVj/dw they naened in ufety . 1'h«y took vnth thi ~ 
lit* HI I in'- daughter by a former biulund and aotilkd at a 7Ulaf(« called U 
AtUlt tw y«an, MAraT^tbo ijaesn'a daaght«r, growing to womubooil, wna 

JoHBg Soliald Bjuaed vinunji. An angry lover, Dmij. a yonng RabAn, _, 
k r»g« to the oonrt of Soda Sitmra ralor at Amsrki^t, An<t ao tnflain«cl bit 
with we* o( ftUni'a beantr, that he aeot hia brother aatl a iviy at hnnw^ and *- 
faer by form to hi* paWe. fiending vord to Mim that be WM coning to- 
Mini told kim tb&t abe bad takvo an oafb not to mc k mm far nx ramwa, au 
It* waited tiB the aix raoDtha vara otk, she wonld thm gladly n>oHrf hi* yIl. . 
tbie ]}od» Sunra agreed. MAm then wroto to Vimmji : 'For five m>.i:th* my 
llMjpt m» aafa ; totan qnickly with a Kood camp], th«Q I will join > i <ii, mid we 
iMtomthor. If you do not come, I wm die. I wiU bbvut rceeire tlio fU;a m 
lover. Wilh the flneat camel he couid bay, Vinui;}i maohed ArttarkuL and lotl 
Man kaow that he had oomr-. ttJiy«d in the market for tucne mt<nth» At 1a«t, wbio^ 
■ix montbi bad n*und. Mini MntamaMv^ to -SmU Sumra. ankiiig htm, aa the Htm , 
PTM onr, t« wna bar a eaotel that lllB'^)t;a(jile un it and ba froad traoi bar «ii 



two chief riven are the Baii^ and tho SunsTati^ also called 

BaiUb riiisf^ in Dhebar lake among the Udqiur hillfi, Qowfl 
•., past tlie doorishing town nad caotonmcnt of Duesa, and GnJb 
iho Ran of Cutoli by two iivoutlis near GokliStar in VarAhi and 
liAna in Sautalpar. Eutoring l*alaupur tii tho uorth-east of 
it pa^aus fur aboal twelve miles through thick foresi, and 
alMnit et(;ht miles more has rocky banks and ■ rocky bed. 
of thiii both bauks and bod aro luuidy, and durinfj^ the hot 
thfir tho stream ocaaca to flow. Townrd<4 Abu its channel is 
yard? wide, six mik» above Deesa a mile, at Deesa 7«0 yards, 
at [iadhaapiir 400. At Dtiesa, and a few miles above and bflow, 
u ninntng stream all the year ronnd.^ Floods in tho Banfin, tm it 
:Uto only draiaago line from Abn, often bring down a very Grreat 
of water, covering the Rim eight miles from sbore to tuiore^ 
with from sir to eight feet of fresh water.' Except when 
the litiD&s may almost everywhere be forded. Its chief 
are the Slpu and the niilnnim. The Sipn, rising to the 
the Nimftj hills in tho Sirohi district, joins the Itanaa near 
Bhanitb and Chhota lUapor in I'alanpur. The Balur^m rises in tho 
.oaiheoorth-cnst frontier, and (lowing by thoshnneof Bdlardm, 
loe it take«t its name, joins the Bam^'^ near Karja in P^lanpur. 
aro no tides lu the Bauds, and its stream is too shallow Eor 
U is not ufiod for irrigation, though by bnildlog dams maeh 
flood water might be stored. 

-.isvati, a small hot very holy strenm, ri>*es in tho Mahi 

Us, and crossing the south-east oomer of I'alanpur, pasHos 

hpnr and Pntnn. A few miles below PJtan it flows onder- 

for some miles, and again rising to the light passes through 

lanpar, and Howing almost parallel with the Bands, enters tho 

Ron a few miles to the Ronth of Anvarjiur. Except in tho rains 

Sar:v.;v<iti hns u vtTy small llow to tho west uf Patan, and may 

wet everyivliore Iwi forded. Throughout its course it has a 

bed and banks, and is overywhorfl too shallow for boats. 

these rivunt many KUialler atrcams add much to the 

of the country. 

se district eontmns no natural lakes, butj especially in R&dhanpor, 
oiany poods. Close to the hills tho water is very near the 
cc, but gradually sinks in tho &audy wt-stum plains. In 
PiUanpur, the depth varies from forty to fifty feoi, while in some 



Wttar Supply. 

Aantma to plnuc Iwr. Samtm aont all tb« eaneb ia the tnvn. M&ni eiAmiiMJ tbvn, 
and tbc^an Vimuji'a lummtod it, ood. skying iha wonM ri-ln rr<ni>it tUo (urt. nnroa 
avar. thit nf niglit tlioy bulk Ut« niiarjlpur rnail, »ni), Utouj^h |>un)UHil hy Siiim^ 
BMi* p»nil Uieir on-aiJi'. EaraK^-i at Wtiig uulwittvil, Suruni o»!l»I t'luaflmr bw troopv 
aail nrvKBoed kgiunit l>hirr,ipur. L'nsble to r±8Ut biin, Dh^-» - lUi, 

and lilt two tUtui. JalkD ad-I Mim, fl«d witti » icw fiillnwrT ■, 

pMnued tn the liilla tliny w-em KttackAil juiit dcfrjitcil. nnil l.>i>..i.i .-uun u^ni ■ ,iutu 
SotMiki lUiii, Tliiar (uttuues hopeUaa, Jalliii oiul MAni wiLLJren- to th« top of iba 

^mt p«*Jl, Mod, itreAding cftpton mart than doatli, xixntv UiiubuItm anor tbM 
jtiaox then Uii* Ium tnxa known as IIm 'Qucrti'* Peak', Iml. Ant. U. 339. 

tlu- A. BoTDM. US. Ut April ISaS. * Sir A. Haium. MS, lot Ai>fil tS2S. 




Chftpt«r I. 



parts of Th&rad it is as mncfa as 120. Witbio the Iftst few;_ 

the Wfttor-Ievel is said to have annk to twice its former dl 
Towiirdii tho Ran, wuter is specialty scarce and bnwktsh, 
this part uf the district, a scanty raiufall causes iiw '/ 
Tlie wator of the riverSj fw^sh and good in the ^ . 
Bfidhanpur, is, except when in flood, too salt for dnuiang or 

Kxcept in hollows where it is clay, and near the Ran where ■ 
mixed with bUch earth, the soil of the piniii coniury i» Handy. 
rocks are metamorphic, gneiss and mica-schist, with aphoavuU tbi\ 
oatbnrste of ccd and grey granitD. 

Tlie year has four seasons, hot and dry, rainy, hnt and molrt^i 
cold; the first lasts throogh March, April, .May, and Jaue;] 
second, throngh Jnty and August ; Urn third. throu;^h Sept 
October, and part of November ; and the fourth, thmojrh 
24ovombor, December, January, and Fobroory. In tho hot and 
season, the heat, even in tho Pdtanpnr territory, is frreat ; and in 
north towards MarwAr, and in tho west towards tho Kan, it is intet 
The tbnrmomctor rises to 120' in the shade, and the hot winds 
BO Berce B8 to keep oven tho people of iho count rj' from troT* 
during 'the day time. E»ipecially away from the hills and n< 
iCao, tho rains are sli^'ht Tho third seaiion, September, 
and November, is very unhealthy. Both Europeans and nativi 
Buffer from fevers of u bad type. The fourth s^oustiD is | ' 
for Europeans, healthy, the eold, ospedally l^^wards iht* 
at times very great. lint the cold does not last long, anit 
u month passes witliout some hot days. Tho total fall of 
Palanpur was, in 1S72, 28'(> inches; in I&IS, 21*8 inches; in \6^4 
35*41 inches; in 1875, 34'73 inches; in I87ti, 2G inches; and in 187^ 
14*79 inches.^ In 1878, the mean tompemturo was in Janui 
69-G; in May, 91 "4 ; in September, 86 ; and in December, 69*7. 

1 Sinct 1876, bMidca it PAUnnnr, nun snu;t<^ I^** ^"^i l(*1*t ■( TbuAd 
SinUlfiar. ITw totnJ rminlnll nt thou.- twr. j>)^e« wa* m I87tt, IHU lorht^Blil 
and I7']9 iaebai Bt Siotslinir ; tad ia 1»77. &-31 iuchea ftl Thuid uul 7-3A 



ToBBt is no limestone in RtnkU, but small lime nodalea ore foand 
; from ten to sixty, or even cig'hty feet below the surface. Mountain 
ine is fouad in some places, but it cloes not seem fit for 
a^Dtf on uii^r large scale. TUere is a Email timestcme quarry at 
MiKA nudor Sdnt^pnr, whore itissoldnt ISs. 8d. the ton (G mans 
ipee). Qmnite of good quality is also found, but fto far £rom 
that it is never tguai-ned. Gneiss and other metamorpbic rock 
" only near the hiUsj and almost all the building stone of the 
ict comes Fn>m the Dhrfinpadrn quarries in Klithiiw6r. A 
irirlile funtid at Punsvalj Oabhelaj Kampura, and Juni Vdvdi 
\-il, and sold at ISa. 8d. the ton (G vians the rupee}. 

The chief trees in the district are : Of Feoit trees, the Bel, hUi, 

los ; the mhowa, jnahttdn, Bassia latifolia ; the Imnt 

, Diospyroa montuua; the umla or dvla, Phyllantfius 

iblicch; the /limftrMJo, Kugcnta jambolona; the wood apple, A:of A. or 

Ihif Ferouia elepbautum ; the mango, dmba, Mongifera indica ; 

ran or rdynn, Mimnsops tniliua ; the tamarind, amCi, Taman'odus 

ica; and the jnjube, &oi-(/i, Zizyphiis jujuba. Of Timber treea. 

Babul, /'"'ri/, Aau:ia arabica ; the blackwood, sisam, Dalberj^ 

ihn khi'irOf Pm-opis spicigera; and the a^jan or eddado, 

flrmiuab't arjmia. Of SuADE trees, the adtiso, AJIanthos excelsa; 

Aim ur limido, lAU'lia azadinichta ; the ffundi, Cordia rothii ; the 

- -.r umltanUi, Ficus glomerataj the raJ, Ficns beogalensis ; 

•, Ficufl reliffiosa; the plpad, Ficus tsicia; llie karanj^ 

Iiibra ; and the kadiii, Stercniea urena. Of Ft-owEBiara 

..>la, Hutnl»ii malabaricum ; the garmdh, Cassia fistula; 

^ijTUt kluithro, Erythrina suberofia; the cham^a, Mlchulia 

ipnca i the bomuU, Mimusops clungi; and the alri, Mertada 

Of MisceuANBOOS trees, the catochn, kJier, Acacia 

0ha; the hormo, Acacia lencopbla»a ; the ekal /'un/a, Alaneium 

rkii ; the tingoriaf Balanites roxburghii; the kachndr, Bauninta 

area ; the asiindra, Bantiinia racomosa ; the rcvra, Bignonia 

ita ; tbo saldr or adlera, Boswellia thurifera; the bastard 

E, X:Aai:/tro, Butea frondosa ; the pardeei, Erythrina indica ; tbo 

umdit, Grcraia asiatica ; the aaragvo, Moringa pterigosponna; the 

rm, iStephe^'yue ]MU-vtfolia ; the Tnart/ct tthemja, luindia dnmetonim ; 

fnUir pilcti, SaWadora indica ; the ariikij Sapindus omorginatuB; 

lAfln, Soymida fobrifnga ; the ambada, Spcndias mangifera; 

iludfa, Sprinaa emodi; the bastard cypress, Tamorix indica ; 

belt^iin, Terminalia beleriea ; tbo bangdli baddttif Tcrminali^ 

; i and ibo pdraaj>ii>lo, Thcspcsia popnlea. 

MififiTThi. j 




Chapter 11 


The large foreBte in the north and iiorih-«ast o£ tlie VfX 
districts, tbongb at present of little value, mipht, if well nuDB 
yield a considerable revenoo. Tlic Bhtls and KdHs gather Imm*"' 
gum, honey, and the pode of the Casda fistula, (/tirm'i ■■ 
them to ViiniAs or Meioans who dispose of them in the 3 -.. 
A considerable nnmbcr of cattle are pastured in these forest* 
fttill more iu the ralloy of the Bod^ The bamboo woods 
places very 6no, especially on the top of the JAsor hitl. 

The oxen of the Kattkrej. Vav. and Tharad states wo coi 
better than thoao of any other part of the Snperintondtnicy, 
OT«r Gojar^ are found in the stables of the wealthy. They am I 
Btrong, wcU-built aoimala, of good height, and in culour gt 
white, mHsrfrt. They am bred by ciiUivutors and Kabart hi ; 
from two kinds of bulls known as the pi'Uvl and the tilhto. Th£:j 
pot to work at three years of aj^o. One pair vi bulkicka can 
work a well, snd, in hard soil, draw a wagon-load of nearly ha 
(13U nuiKs). In sandy tracts a pair of bullockfl can draw a carl 
of more than a third of a ton (20 ma«B), but for the larger wagone tw« 
or throe jwirs are wanted. Except during the rains when th 
Ukea to graze iu the grasft lands, ^iV, oxen are genor»IIy -^ 
They get gmaa or millut straw, hidln, pulj;e, y ■ 
oil-cake, feA/i/, cottMi-seod, frdpiiwm, and somctin.." 
They are seldom fed on grain, ia the cold season, or when tired 
fiick, they have some special dainty, vuutnla, givvn them. A r*''^! 
bull, tdndh, is worth from £2 I0«. to I* (its. 25 - <!€), and an >iHM 
bull from £2 to £3 (Rs. 20 - 30). The price of a pair of uxeoj 
ranges from £10 to £30 [Ka. 100 - 300). Pdhl bulla and oxen ar 
prized and well cared for; others are left to roam where ihey will] 
with the village cattle, and jiick up what they can. 

CowB calve in th^ third or fourth year, and giTe 6rom two to ni 
ponnda of milk, morning and evoning, from six months t "at 

a tame. They give milk up to their fourteenth or fifi 
Towns-people make over their calves to cultivators or to ttabun ant 
Sindi herdsmen, to be reared and given back when full grown. 
The pri(» of the calf is fixed, and when full grown and returned il 
is again valued by a committee, paneh, the herdsman getting 
one-half of the increaHe. If a calf di(^ in the rearer's hands, bo 
to pay the owner one-half of its original price. The rearer tm 
ha wishes, keep the animal, paying the owner the original price 
one-half of itR additional valne. A cow varies in price frc>m £1 
£5 (R«. 10-50). Milch cows are fed on oil-cakes, kiwi, ootton-sc 
Aopdjia, or pulse, guidr. The monthly oo6t of a cow's keep vaxic 
from 10*. to £1 (fts. 5-10). 

Female boQaloes uaoally calve in their fonrUi or fifth year, 
give from fonr to ten ponnds of milk, morning and evening, 
six months to one year at a time. They give over bearing at 
or aixteon. A herdsman's terms for reariug a buffalo are the 
BB for rearing a oow. The valne of a female buSaJo vaiioa 
£S to£10(Ba. 80-100). They are fed on oil-cake, khol, 

^ seed, JtajMeia, and poise, ffuvdr. The monthly cost of a buJIalo'fi 

* comes to from £1 is. to £2 10a. (Its. 12-25). 

loesj pada*, arc used fnr breeding, anrl somotiniea for 

WoT-hag«, pitkhaU, and ploughing. Buf^If>09 are 

ly bred by cultivatura and Sindis, who pat them to work in. 

' fotutb OP fifth yoar. The price of a malo buffalo Tories from 


Sbe<-p, generally white or white and black, are bred by Babdri 

lUf who icll the wool, milk, aod butter. Thoy are Bheored 

a yenr at the close of the cold scoson, and the wool is woren 

ita bliinketa or sold to traders. The price of a sbecp varies from 

84. (lis. 2 - 4). Among Mu»alm^Qs, rams are roared, and 

to fight. 

whil«, brown, blacky and of mixed colour, are bred both by 

and by Rab^i.4. They are of twn kinds, the small 

00a goat known as maliri, and the large Habsri goat known 

The milk or butt«r is sold, and tlie hair woven into 

teliB or sold to traders. The price of a goat varies from 2t. to 


^s are TMied by lasdholdem and by Kab^ri and Sindi 

Ll ' n. They are nsra both for riding and baggage. Inferior 

tlKwe of Thar in Sind and ftikanir in Rajpat&na, their value 

from £3 to JtlO (Us. 30-100). Thoy are usually fed on 

i, t/utur, and the leaves of the Urn or ntmfr, Melia azsdirachta, 

Wlieo tired, they sometimes get molasses, got, salt and alum. 

monthly cost of a earners ke«p varies from 10/. to£l 10«. 

6 -15). 

Hi'irws sre bred in these parts by large landlords. Tdlukddr* uid 

jfjftf'rii'ifA and by well-to-do cnltivfttora. They cost to bny from £3 

]{s. 30-300), and the monthly coat of their keep is from 

-.' (Hs. 10- 20). They are fed on grass, Indian millet, and 

ilao, gram or math, and, as a condiment, butter, ghi, in the hot 

' 1 1 molasses, <;»/, in the raina ; and spices, manAtOj in the cold 

Because they are more teachable, Tatukdars generally 

imares, anil, cxcf^pt one or two specially good ones set apart for 

ling, L-ithcr sell or hand over tneir horses to their attondants. 

A gliding 18 very seldom seen. 

fUvnlt. p.';irri^rs, and Etimbh&ni, potters, rear asses and uaa 
Khem a-a L>:i6ts gf burden. An ass costs to buy from £1 to £1 10/. 
I. lO-l'i) and for its millet, htijri, and pulse, math, about 6/. 
1^ 3) a mouth. 

Hens are of two breeds, the kulang, u largo and handsome, and 
'itxl, a smaller and moaner bird. The price of a hen varies 
!. to 1*. 6ii. (4 - 12 as.), and that of an egg from jrf. to }<?, 
{ii-ti pUs). Thoy are bred by Vagbris and Musalm^ns. Ducks, 
^—Tarying in price from 12s. to £1 4a. (Ra. 6-12] a dozen, ara 
^HvartHl only by V&ghris tu the Deesa caiop. 

^■^ Turknys, Pea-Fowl, and Guinea-fowl are not reared for sale. For 
^BS'urktrya and Uuinea-fowl Ahmedabad is the nearest market. 
^■I'aa-fowl are plcutifol, but, as tho people hold them aacrod, 'their 
^ •Uoghter is forbidden. 





Chapter n. 




Of "Wild AnimaU, the LioD, sahi, is now veiy rare. The other bi 
of prey are the Tiger, vdghj Felis tigris ; the Panther, dipdo, ] 
leopardus ; the Bear, rinchh, Ursns labiatus ; the hunting Pard, e. 
Felis jnbata ; the Hysena, tarachh, Hyesna striata ; and the Wolf, i 
Canis pallipes. Of Deer, there are the Sta^, sdhar, Rusa aristot 
the Spotted Deer, cldtal. Axis maculatns ; the Antelope, ka 
Antelope bezoartica j the Ravine Deer, hutdr ; the Blue Bull, m 
Portax pictua ; the Indian Grazeile, ckikara, Grazella benettii ; the 1 
Boar, suvar, Sus indicus ; and the Hare, sashi, Lepus ruficaudatns 
also found in the district. The average yearly number of de 
from wild beasts is about four, and from snake-bites about twen 

The district abounds in woodland and water fowl, and is sped 
rich in the variety of its wild duck. The other game birds 
Florican, ftarimor, Sypheotides auritus; Bustard, j^ordi, Eupoc 
edwardsii ; Partridges, titar, of two kinds, the Painted, Francd 
pictus, and the Grey, Ortygornis pondiceriana j Quails, Idvri, of 
kinds, the G-rey, Cotumix commnnis, and the Rain, Cotn 
coromandelica j Snipe, snap, of three kinds, the common, Grallii 
Bcolopacinns, the, Gallinago gallinula, and the Pain 
Rhynchoea bengalensis ; Wild Geese, jangli hans, and three kinc 
Sand Grouse, batdbat, the large or Ran Grouse, Pterocles senega 
the Common, Pterocles exuatus, and the Painted, Pterocles fascii 
are also met with. Pehcans, cfiamcka, are not uncommon. 

The chief fish are the maral, the padia, the dhebar, the eel, 
ham, and the singdra. 




I8I37-G8 a very rou^h unmljeriuit^ of tlio people was made, 
uturus ahewod 2I3,:i82 inalos ami 185,75'3 foinalea, total 
5 ; adtlinj,' to this il^^Jo for the Deosa camp, it gave a total 

for tlio whole suporiuteudeiioy of 408,470 souls or C7"59 to 
laro milo. 'L'hat these returns were very imperfect was shown 

1872 census wliicli gavoau increase of 94,110, tho total rising 
,o8G souls, or 02-82 to the square milo. Of tho total number 

2 were Hindus 32,950 o[ them Jaiiia, 4G,678 were Musalmans, 
were broui^ht under the he-ad ' Others.* Of the total population 
1 were males and 238,795 females, the porcontaf;fo of males 
total population being 52-40 and of females 47-51. Hindu 
numbered 221,780 ur 52-44 per cent, and Hindu females 

or 47*50 per cent of the total Hindu population ; Musalman 
numbered 24,791 or 53-11 percent, and Musalman females 

or 4G'89 per cent of tlie total Musalman population ; under 
■ad ' Others * males numbered 10 or G2*50 per cent, and 

3 or 37-50 per cent of the total. 

following arc the chief available caste and race details. Among 

3, iJrahmans have fivo principvl divisions, Shrimali, Andich, 

Paliviil, and Sarasvat. Most of these earn their living as 

. Of tho rest, some are endowed with land ; some aro in the 

1 of chiefs as readers of religious books and astrologers, 
few are traders and cultivators. Brahmans aro numerous, 
lUy in towns, and arc rarely poor. 

.er the head Writers come Brahma-Kshatris, a small woll- 
ilass generally clerks or pleaders, mukhtidrs. 

or tho head Merchants, Traders, and Shopkeepers como 
I, Loliiimis, and Bhatisia. Of Vduias there aro nine chief 
ns, Shrimali, Modh, Kapol, Osvii], Porvad, Jliiilora, Pancha, 
nd Lota. Tho Vanias, a very large class, are employed as 
and managers by largo landholders and engage in trade, 
tasa they aro wealthy. Tho Lobfinas, generally ahopkeepora 
erks, are few and poor. Tho Bhdtias, who aro all traders, 
r but wealthy. 

.er the head Husbandmen come six classes, Rajputs, KoU 
•d&s, Kanbis, Sathv^ras, Narodfis, and Kolis. The Rajputs, 
large class, belong to seven leading divisions; CMvda, 
Q, Rathod, Solanki, Parmfir, YAdav and Glohil, and are chiefly 
wners, village sharers, vdntdddrs, and holders of service laud^ 
«— 37 

Chapter ni, 








Chapter in, 







pamita. Tlieirpoeition and wealth variee, bat os a clacw Ibcying 
debt. The Koli ThAkardAa aro fairly niimerons and are ditiiia*^ 
eight leadiQir classes, Solanhi, Rithod, Cli"liftu, Pannilr, R\ 
D&bhi, Aroivaria, iind Kh»iiil»')ia- TlifBttdiHr-r &■ 
m having a strain of Itajput blotwl. They are gt- n. 
and are more gr leas iodebted aad allied with the prpdatory ci 
Kanbis with three cbief diviaions, Lora, Kadva, and Ann 
found only in moderate numbera^ As a cIoks tboy aro wBlI-t 
The Sathvaras, market gardeners and cuUiTabirs, are few 

rrircumstances. The N&rod&sare fairly Duinerotia and weU^ 
The Kolis form the bulk of the pc'ple and an? [HMjr. 
are daring thieves and highway robbers, aud aro miicli 

Of Manuf«rtnre« there are three clattses, Khatris an<! 
weaveru, and IMiavs&rs, calioo-printors. These arc few in ni 
and except the SAlvia arc well-to-do. Of Artisans thero are bc 
clasaes ; Sunia, gt>ld and iiilver smiths; f^nthirs, cnriNTit, 
Kans&r^, co]>per&mithB ; SaMta^ masons ; Luh&rs* bhi 
Dariiii, tnilom ; and KumhhArSj potters. Theao ore few auu t-j.f.xj 
the last well-to-do. 

Of Bards and Actors thoro are three clasBes ; HhavayrLii, Htrollai 
comedians, few and poor; Charans, genealogists and cattle 
fairly iiiimcruns and poor ; and Bh&ts, bordsj few but well-to-do. 

Of Pergonal Servants there are fotir clastses ; Bhubhis, u'a«) 
men ; Sunre, Rajput cooks ; Yalanda, bai'bers ; and Kbavibt, dot 
aervantji. These are fairly ntmierona ; the Su6ra,* MiSrwilr bar! 
and cooksj ueldom uiicd iu the Hahi Kautha, aud Y&lands are i 
circumHfances. The Khnv^, children of slave f^rls, crif 
domestic slaves are now hereditary domestic servants. 

Of Herdamen and Shepherds there are three classes : Bal 
cattle gnusiers; BharvAds, shepherds ; and A hira, herdsmen. 
Ahirs are found only in Santalpur. CoUivators by profosHion, 
are strong-built and generally well-to-do. in dre«i and oti 
particulars they resemble K&nbJH. Rabiiris, a fairly numeroori rl 
breed cattle, sheep, and camels, or cultivate- Some of tbem 
well-to-do and are village headmen. Bharvads keep goats and sbi 
or graze cattle. They are generally poor living on milk and 
cakes. Strongly built and of copper complej^ion, they Wda 
headctoth, a short coat, and short trousers, kdeh. Among Rabiria i 
marriages are celebrated on the same day. 

Of Labourers and Misoellaneous Workers there aro eight oil 
Saninifis, knife and sword sharpeners ; Ods, pond diggers and 
wall bnilders ; GoWranas, grain sifters ; BajoniSs, aCT'obats ; Vi 
snake cbanners and jugglers ; JWvalp, salt makersand sellers ; Mh 
gatherers of forest produce ; and Vfighris, fowlers and hunt 
These are in poor circumstances, and, except the V&gbris, ore few] 

' Probalily frDtn the Sanikrit Ktketm^, abaviiiig, 


fndcr th ^BW i^^>o"g''"*^ Tribes come BbiU, a very poor anil 
oUua. ^PD^rally found in ur near iortisU, tWy tiaru a scButy 
by ^thering gum luid uthL-r furest prudtico. Tbey aro aliio 
Ig CAttle stealing and robberj, bat are not so dariug* as the 



tbe bead Ijeotbcyr Workers came Uochts, sboemakers, and 
taiuiera. Th«y are fairly uameroas and puor. 

tbo (jh&DUidi&a there arc two Doprasscd castes : Dheds, 

] tberti are two divisioosj Garudas^ Dhed prie>!jts, aod 

aiid •nuim^iriU or Bliaugl^a^ sweepers. Theae are puur and 

numorcma. The Dhcda support theiuaclvcfl by weaving 

cottou clutb. 

ler the head Beggars come S^dliua and AtJts. The Sfidhns 
rvliirioiui a^vtica, most oE them pcKir; the Atita aro marritd 
!I n-ell-4«-dQ cJaas. 

■. ^ j iilfition of 4fi,678 aonU, 41^349 were Sunnis 
toUoV iShias. Id additiou to tho four nsaal diriaions, Syod«, 
18, Fath&iis, and MoghalH theru are nix seeiH ; Mehdaviyyoh, 
is, Memans, Moinniis, 'V&i», and KhojAs. The MehdaviyvaK aro 
it^ruiiK, but as tbe Jbaluri bouiMj which rules at I'alaupur ta 
I'miiivsiuQ, uiust of ihf m aro in a guud eouditiuu. Called 
ithtr Mn.salmans Gher Mchdiit herausc they do not believe in 
Uor the comiug Imdm, the Mehdaviyyah are converted Uindiia, 
)llowers of a certain Mtihainmad Mididi burn in 1-1-13 
r.) in Jaunpur a village near Benares. At the age of forty 
kmuiad became a Euint, tru/i, and both at Jaunpur and 
rai-ds at Mecca made many converts. After his return to 
in 1497 and 1499 at Ahmudabad and PiUan, ho ulaimed to 
Iho liKiked-for Mehdi. He ia iiaid to have worked many minu^les. 
lile trsrenitig he died at Forah in Khora&an, and part of hie 
lldweRi under Syed Kbuudiuir ruturuod to Guj^ar&t aud for some 
-' ui)uu'iteht4>d, profoAsing their faith openly and 
lThv regai-ding ita origin and truth. They 
jw lu numljiTp aud imjKirfaure uutil the ywir IbiH (930 H.), when 
idcr the ord»*rs of SuUan MiizafTar II. (I.'»13. 1526) aomo of their 
kamber were killed aud troopfl wero oent again&t tho rest at Patau. 
rosistauca they were defeated aud their leader 8yed 
lir killi-d. la 16-lo when Aiiraugxeb wiw Governor this sect 
ittil at Aluiiedabad, and, for declaring that Mebdi 
■i was gone, scvi-ral of them were put to tho sword. 
iey Btiil, althoofrh tree to profess their faith, practise caution, 
^ah, aud am all anxious to pasi^ as orthodox Muslims. Sluaa in 
tbev bitlfl thai Muhammad their saint was the laal InHim and 
Mebdi, and as he is como they neither riipeot for their stna 
for the souls of the dead. They are said to bury the dead 
fane down. Marrying only among tbouudves tbey have 
Iman but form circles, ddricm,^ govornod by rules of thoir 





Ouster m. 



owti. Property iu default of heira belongs to tlieir Syeds. 
a cla68 tho IVilanpur Musalin^um aro iiut fouaticaL bat rather lit 
minded in uinitera of rclif^on. 

Except the DiwAa o£ I'alonpur, the NawAb of Ridlumpor, 
Th^kor of Thur&dj and the HJliui of Vhv, the petty chieltamsj 
liulo removed from the riuik of CDltivntora and arc 
poverty, crime, and ignorance. In the snuUIur ealatott, owing 
ODUstont) cattle thefts^ housu-breukiug, aiid bighwny rofal 
unless GovLTouicnt 8u|)orvi8ion were very active f 
wuulil hiiitlly cxitit. The dau^i^eroas clod^ce, KlI 
and Thakardiia, earn a scanty living by Jield work lu tiie 
season, and by cuttiiif^ grass or ht'lpinp the upper land-'"^"-^'^ ^">T 
cold seafiuD ; but both tho cold niid hot seiutuus iiro ci 
in cnttle-ateoliiijf, himao-breftkiuR, and IiigliwHy rohbtrj. l'i 
April aud M^y, KdIIs live chielly on tho berry of the ;n7u, 8a)i 
peraica. The Kimbu*, cliiflly of the KnJra caste, art.* little 
off than the lower oli^n^ cultivat^inij 6ix.*i.'ed on tho odd hiind hvl 
chiefs* officers aud revt-iuio farmers, aud on the (it her by Kc 
whom over aud over aj^u they pay t«ll money, tnifrhfuii, to gut 
their stah-n cattle.' 

TIio p«>plo have not as jTjt sho^vn any toiiden«' to gather ic 
Iwwiia, but tho Dpeutiig of the ruilivDV will jirobably cauBa 
change. In this diHtrict there is one villafre or town to about 
six miles; each villrige coiitaininjr an aveniK^' of t8I 
and ivlMiut iiinuty-six hout^t;». li].\KL'|>t tlir |>i.'u[ite of . 
Diimberiiig t;t,oi.)ii smila, or it'tf? pur ct<nt of the entin> iuhikbtt 
tlie |K)pulatiim i)f tlie Piilanpnr diBtricts lived, in 1872, in 
rillagiTS with an average of ■^^ souls to each villn^'e. 'Hiroc loi 
rAlaiijiiir 17,189, KAdlmopiir 13,010, and Deo sa 12,fll7, hado^ 
10,001) sonla; and one, Sajni MSfi, had IwtwLvn lO.OW and ol)O0j 
Of thy whole uuniber of vil!ag(;s SOd- Imd less thiin 20t» '-. 
4-Bl had frv.m 200 t^i COO ; 201 from SOJ to lOoO ; 72 fi 
2000 ; U fi\>ni 2000 to 3000 ; and 2 from 3000 tu 6(«jO. 
regards the nomber of houses, there was in 1S72 a loial of 101,S£ 
or an averago of Ift-75 bouses to tho sqaara mile. Of tho t< 
numlwr only 4157 honaes lodging 20,122 ixrrsous or 3-W per cuai 
of tho whole population at the rate of 4*84 ivmls to cnch hot 
were Ijuililings with brick walls and tiled roofs. Tli 
bonses, flccoininoflating 491,799 persons or 90"O7 per ' 
population pur house of ^00 sools, included all buddingH oovt 
' with roods or whose outer walls were of mud. 

In ordinary yoars there is little or no movements among tho ' 
In bad yoara outsiders may press iu from MArw&r and a few 
the local poor may move south into the Gaikwar hmds of F^ltan one 
Visalnagar, aud in good years a few may bo drawn to PiUonpurJ 
Bnt these moTementa are never on any largo scale. 

' Thn tonn mortMt t« nptiltcJ lo money piud to inlocinen tot Rcorariag i 




soil is of tliree kinds, blact, hitelar ; li^ht mixod with 

1, girriidit ; ftud Hindy, thtilia. Of bb^su the black bolI is suited 

)D, rice, millet, and wheat, but speoially to cottun, nud ifthera 

r, to itagarcuie ; the light, gorddu, lo fitted (ortbo diflereut 

of pulBO ; and thu Bosdy, tbalia, for puleo luid talj Soaininm 


Witbin ibu P^inpur state tbero ia a very large tract of f^ood 

land, sTToml milps in pxtont, to tho nortb^Miat of 

',t owing chiL-lly U? tho wiiter bi-iug unwlioiesome and in 

lOi ■ to insecurity of lifo nTuI pn»[iorty, outeiderH cannot bo 

-. settle, and tijlafjie spreadii slowly though land is ofTennl 

. lsos for several yeurs. The re^on tbtis lying desolate naa 

nu-d nnder former Uiijput inilurs. In other sfabea and snl>- 

' itiR, thcrp i« vrry littlo wanto am-ble land. All such lands came 

loutly uv SQ wbvn order was introduced under Britidh 

Tbi' ill is not been surveyed, and an in some places the 

;tii hi leriod ou the plouu'b and not ou tlie laud, the exact 

IE nnkntrwii. Its spc'cially large nunilwr of cattle want 

naff land tlinn tit required in other parts of Gujantt Roughly 

Ir :" ' I if Iby whole is under tillajre, and of the remaining 

;miiile wuste arid Uio other nnarablo. In the hot 

, vrbeat, grain, rnpeaecd^ spicea and coudiments are growu in 


K^(^rf r.n irrigated lands, mannre ia not generally used. "When it 
■i-a either bike it from the nllnpo dungliill or keep 
.^.. l.^^psin their o\m yards. Aa a rule what is wanted 
Hpeviol cropn as sugarcane is taken from the villago 
Sghill. In some di«trictfj uuwaterod lauda are allowed to Uo 
jw. In wiitorod lands yielding throe crops in a year, the crops 
' >wn in rotation. In uuwatered lands there is no rule of crop 
1, oxrapt thai: in tUo case of ^uivlr, Cymnop.tis psoralioidca, 
~ of change is bo &r admitted that it is not twice sown in thd 

f-mMtjj fuxe of a plongh of land, or tbo area that can be tilled by a 

^ough drawn by one pair of oxen, varies from twelve to eighteen 

jprw. The field tools wanted to till a plough of land ore a ploagb, 

I; aclud crusher, jramur; a sowing drUl, cAui-ar; a harrow, (lonit^; 





rioDgb of '. 




Ottpter XT. 




a woodier, sioall tidlardu ; and a stubble clearer, largo ddtarim j < 
whole togethor iritb a pair of buUucks beiii}^ worth about £12 ' 
(R«. 125). 

HoldbgK vary from cig-ht to fift; acn» anil apwanlm. A &n. 
boldiog would Dot make a cultivator aa well off tut a retail shupl 
or aa a man ua 10*. (Rs. Q) a month. 

The crops are, of CereaU ; rice, d*in^ar, Oryxa satiTa ; wheat, tri 
Triticum restivum; millet, btijra, Ptontcilliiria ><i)ifata; fndiati 
jMLw, Sorghom vulpare; kuri (uot idciitiiiiid) ; hnnti, I', 
spicatum; ftariiwyor kang, Patiicum it-altcum ; barley, jac, Uv 
hosasticbon; kodrachina, Fospalum burobiimlatum ; taat7>v 
Zea mays; and iMirt*^ Panicnm frumcntaceuiu. Of 1 
Phaseolua radiatus; tttvtr, Cajanna indiciis; gram, eh>'ni 
urtetiuuin ; iidnd, Phasttuhis man^; j(i/or or tnra cat, I' 
lablab; ckola, Vifroa catianj?; and guviir, Cyaniopsis paori 
Of Oil aecda, rape-«u.ttd, Mtrsar, BnLi>nca napu5 ; Soaai: 
Sosamnm indicnin, and castor-iioed, pranda, Ricmus oommamB. Or 
Fibres, cotton, kapdn, Gttsaypintn herbaceam ; Bonibay heiop, (> 
and son, Crotalaria juncea ; and mtinj, Sacchnniiu miiiija. 
Miscellaneous cr»i])Sj sagarcaue, serdij Kiicchanim *■"' 
opium, uplii}), T'apavcr aomniforum j mulberry, tth- : -if 

iiidica; toboccxi, tambaku, Njcotiana tabacum; mcMi, Tri-r-'inil* 
fa-uumf^TiBcmn ; ajmt>, Apimn iiivolucratum; coriiindep aoed, tHuiua, 
Coriandj-um sallviun ; cumin seed, jiru uttni, Cumiuum cyininomj 
nijijaro, AmarantUua jwlygamas; red pepper, vtarchn. ''■-.- nia 
frutescens; mustard, nii, Bimipis spicata; and variiili, < iin 

paumonim. The staple crope of the district are rice, oullut., wUuatj 
bunti, kuri, aud gram. 

lUce, Oryxa satiTa, of two kinds, kamod and mW, sown in ntmvricB 

and tlu'H planted out, prowa only in mai-shy )■ lands. 

Bain-wnt.ered rice sown in July is ready for reaping in ^ 'i-r ; and 

well-watered rice sown io the middle of Jane is reaped in October. 
Wheat is sown in October or Novemlwr and reaped in March or 
April. It ia of two kinds, kdtha and vdjia ; the fomier retiuirta black 
soil, and if it be tiUghtly salt the crop grows all the lM;rti^r ; the 
latter flourisbos in any soil, bot wants wator and mannro. Millet, 
bdiro, Fomcillaria apicata, grows in any soil, but does l>i-st in n 
mixture of black soil and saud. Tbeotlitfr cereals ore sown in Jotf 
or August and reaped in October or November, and roquiro nfr 
particalar soil. 

TuvnT, Cajanus indious, is sown in July and Aagnst and reaped 
in February and March ; gram, ehatua, Cic^r ariettunm, ih sown in 
October and November, and reaped in March and April. Hie other 
pulses are sown in Jaly and August, and reaped in October and 

Cotton Fibre, kapas, Goasyjnnm herbacoum, requires black or rich 
allu^-ial soil. It is of three kinds, «im, dhdhinin, and roUin'u or 
IdJiv, all of them sown in July and Auguat and picked iu March and 
April. In 1876-77 the area under cotton was 40,678 acres and cbo 




32.485 cwts. against 38,4fi2 acres and 30,087 cwts. in 

-76. Bombay Hemp, Mn, Crotalaria juncca, is sown in Jaly to 

Qxteat> and reaped in Januarj'. Muoj, Snccharum munja, 

t' aa 'fltraight, every part ginooth oxce|>t tlio insido of the 

'of ihe cuaped long' margined linear whito-nrrvod Ioqtcs' grows 

^gbt lo t«a fuet iuf^h. Tbe stalk when apHt longitudinally 

a Hbn.) moasuring abuut 4) feel long with a Tory ligbb yoUow 

>ur outside and whitisb inside, and makiiig cordage of fair 

uie, iftrdi, Saccbarum officinanim, can witboat watering 

in tbe niarsby lauds nt^ar the bills. The cultivation of 

Lpoppy has Iwen forbidden by G«vernni«ut since iBt October 1878. 

itbon-y, fftfluT, Moras indica, bears freely, but in only crown 

id there in gardens. Tobatxo i» a crop of little importance. 

igh witli no uiarked advance in tbe atylo uf tillage^ Bugaii^aue, 

in, and wbeat, liavo of late yearn, to a oonsidorable extent, taken 

itaoc of millet. In mia-watered lands second CTXip8 are not as 

grijwn, and where grown tbe yield is Hmall. Tbe approximate 

I of produce to tbe acre is for wheat SfiO to 720 llw. (9-18 mnns) 

_ to tie soil ; of millet, h'i jro, 300 to 600 pounds (7A-16 mang), 

ilBdian millet, /uvar, 300 to COO pounds (7^-15 maw), 

Most of tbe land is in tbe bands of holders of service lands, 

' ''ii, who work in tho fields in tbe rainy wasou, and during Ibo 

:' tbe year busy themselves chiefly in cattle -stealing. Skilled 

hoabandmen are ct^tmpiira lively few in number and tbe mHJurity of 

i>i. m are ham(>cr<,'d with debt, and more or less in the bands of 

<i money- tenders of tbe V^ia caste. There is a largf^ class of 

■itii.-t-^ day-Ial)ourers who, when not cattle-stealing, house-breaking 

rolibint; bitrhways, hire tbeuiseWes as day-labonrera. Women 

cbildrtii are larj^ely employed. They are Qsually paid in food 

i^aiu, with perhaps a little money. 

crops are liable to suffer from 6ve cauies ; frost, him ; locastSf 

havu come thrice during tbe past ten years ; the larva of a 

moth called the katra, which appears at the ii|M!niug of the 

■•ta; a rod wheat blight railed gt^u and a black Indian 

;bt or smut called agio. Of these tbe locusts have, during 

St thirty years, tour times injured the general harrest, and at 

finning of the 1873 rains, the katra did much damage. 

[Close to tho Baniia tho land is liable to bo flooded, but the floods 
not at furthest pass more than a mile from either hank. 

'"Except near tbe hills, tbe district is Hahle to droughts from want 
of rain, and in 1813, 1825, 1833,' 1839, 1870, ajid 1877, suffered 

Chapter IV. 





Crop Fnitar 

■ Roibui^h'a Flor» Indica, I. 340. 

■Tliia WU3 jrmr erf grmt ncoroity unoantiiijr to fMnine. Tlia cwlf oroptwera 
tire); ilcstroyvd, and gnin priL-M mk to a Itdent upknowa since the gntt f«tiUD« 
mix To help the irnporution of gnun aaa lighten dtttrcH Uw LHwin removed 
t»iiatl (liiti'v. an-1 ^vo *vciy Kacoat»anuant to ■inking wolla. tinat 
ti»iiN hivil til Iv Ukm tci pnsnrra tit* ptlMic pew?, nuob thrvaluncd by 
nry Iwnilf of Uwkwi utarviii^ KoUs. Som. Gav. to tlu> Conrt of Uinctora. 
tWccmber 1933. 




Ch^ter IT. 


severely. The years held in remembrance as times of scarcity i 
famine are 1747, 1756, 1785, 1791, 1804, 1813, 1825, 183-1, 18 
1842, and 1849. Of these the sorerest was the famine of 1813. 
1811 the crops ^led, in 1812 a promising harvest was destroj 
by locusts, and in 1813 the crops again failed from want of rain, 
ench straits were the people brought that some are said to 
lived on human flesh. In such numbers did they die that tlttl 
survivors could not carry away the dead. Villages were left desolate,! 
and parts of the district formerly under tillage have ever since taiai 
waste. The price of grain was six pounds the rupee. In Palaapor 
efforts were made to relieve the distress. A state grain store wm 
opened selling grain at sixteen pounds the rupee. Useful yioAi '. 
were undertaken near the city and the workmen fed^ and the nmt 
watch -was increased. Similar measures were adopted in Radhanpnr. 
In the other years scarcity has beon partial, the distress and wautcf 
grain not rising to famine. The chief measures have been to keep 
order and save the fields from plunder by employing bodies m ' 
armed patrols, and by advances of money and grain to encouragB 
the people to bring more land under irrigation. From 18G1 to 1865 
on account of the very high price of cotton, and also from scanty 
and unseasonable rain, millet prices roso to eight pounds the rupee. 
The Bhils and other lower classes fed on roots and bark, and deaths 
from want aj^ said to have occurred. In years of scarcity it baa 
been the practice to stop all export of grain. 



Whix ruttimtors save money, Ihoy oilJicr hoard it, or toni it 

''■1 fnr their women. Traders invest their savings 

." and inouoy-IemiiH)?. There ar« no lai^ Ijankinp 

-, Imi: Ueoaai Pdlanpnr, and KAdhnupur havo hankera of 

->f>le wealth. Except by Talukdaj-s who borrow from town 

t her within Piilanpur or Baroda limita, loana are chiefly 

jroin Tillago Hhnpki^fpors. By adrancing money and paying 

" ft( harvest time, the viUage Vania absorbs almost all tho 

ibon' little gains. 

-"\rlyrate of interest varies from six to fifteen percent. 

L-atingH, wh«Q an article is givtjii in pawn, the rate ia six 

ctut ; in Ifirpv dealings with a mortgJigo on land, houses, or 

e pnr»p.^rty, it is nine per cuni ; in petty agricnliural 
mces, if thi-rn in a lien on the crops, the raU' in twelve i»r cent ; 
if on personal wcnrity, from twelve to tifteen per cent. On 

invextt'd in buying bonaos and lands, three or four per cent 

be doomed a fair return. 

630 the daily wage of a man employed in Geld labour was 
I tw.} and twu poimils of millet, of a blacksmith tjd. (1 a*.), of 
.JrlavertW. (4 wt.), juid of acarpenter lOJJ- (7 «"■)• 'n 1870-71 
►daily wagt" of a field labourer wiw -i^d. {'Z{ an.) and two pounds of 
of a blafkumirh or VinVklaycr IW. (fi oh.), and of a carpcnU!r 
(10 ajt.). In 1^74-76 held 1 a Iwurera earned 4^(/. (3 an.) and tvrp 
of grain a day, blacksmiths and bricklaverR U. (8 as.), 
ntera 1«. &d. f]2 as.). In 1877-78 the daily wage of a man 
in Beld lalmur waa -i^d. (3 as.) and two pounds of millet, 
ksmith \u. (8 a*.), of a bricklayer \g. Zd. (10 as.), and of a 
»Qter If. W. (12 an.). Women and children are largely employed 
■m. Tho uBual terms aro a little more grain than is 
il, and from 'M. to 4Jd. (2-3i as.) in money. 

Ml following- tabic givoH tho chief produce prices in ISW, 1850, 
1,1871, 18/5, find 1878: 

Palanjmr Haf^ Proitwa- Pricta m Povnrft, 18S0- IffTS. 











II' ■ ■ 

V ■ . , ■; ::; 








Chapter V. 








Weights and 
M«Mni«B. ' 

[Boiuliay aanttHn^ 


Gold and silver are weighed according to the following scale: 
six rice grains, one rati ; three ratifi, one vdl ; sixteen rah, ou 
gadidna ; two gadidnds, one tola. Articles of bulk are weigbed 
according to the following scale : two adhols, one nartank ; ei^ 
navtnnka, one ser ; forty sers, one man. Of these one adhol is equl 
to 24 rupees' weight. The measure of time is sixty vipalu, one 
pal ; vxxiypala, one ghadi; eight ghadiii, one pohar ; eight pohan, 
one day and night. The lUdhanpar grain measure is twen^ 
rupees' weight, one paraiu; twopavalds, one adkvdli; two adhvdlit, 
one pdli ; fire pdlia, one mdnu ; four mdnda, one aai ; and sixteeo 
eaia, one fcalW. The Palanpnr grain measure is If sers of forty 
rupees' weight each, one adkvali ; two adkvdlis, one pdli ; six pdiit, 
one mdnu ; and sixty-four fndna«, one A;a!». In other parts of the 
district, the pdli weighs from \\ aers to three «ers of forty rupees* 
weight each, and one mdnu contains from fonr to seven pdlia. The 
measure of length is eighteen iaaits or finger breadths, one hoik 
or cubit ; twenty-four tasue, one gaj ;\\ gaj, one vdr, yard j \\ van, 
one karam ; add eighteen hundred karama, one gdu. Land is 
measured by the following scale : 6^ square hatha, one square 
karam ; fifty square karama, one uplu ; two square uplua, one it ; 
and fifty square is, one oZtaca. One olidva is equal to about 4^ 




rmnn tbe limits of the Pillanpar SupcriDtendenf^ tlierc are 
1 country tmrks bnt no made roads. Raj pot^ua traders comioj^ 
Piili to Dbolern, generally pass throagn Paloapnr, aod Uidhq 
ffoi'ntr to Ciitch, thronj^li 'rharAil or V&r. In P«la.npor the roods 
■p with sand, and for heavily laden oarts fiii: or eight bullotkil 
".kuted. in the Thiirad districts, where the ground is harder 
the rrxuls lighter, goods are generally carried on carts or on 
lela. In 1873-7+, from Palanpnr two and ahalf miles to Jugana, a 
fhroad was made with brokeu bricks and tiles. lu Ihc eikU Iho 
TeBtcni lUjpntannStattiUailwayoponedfiirtraflicontheloth Novom- 
1671) paA'sea throngh abonl forty milca of tho iSiipei-iDl<>adeucy. 

are in all four post offices, two in the Pihlanpiir stato at 
lanpur aud Deesa, ooe at Itadlianpur in tbe B«dhaupur titat^, 
the fourth at Hiiigam. These post officOH arc under the 
Kdperrifii'm of tho inspector of past offices, Ahmcdabad division. 
frinil iDfisseugerg are also employed; one, at the Pdlanpur poet 
<ifflcc^ dolivers lottora in tho vitlagos roandj one, at Suig^, narrien 
lettcn to and from Tharfid through V&v; and ono to aud from 
firdhi from iho post uSice at Itadhanpur. 

chicE traders are V&m^, Loh^fiR, Mcroans, Bohorifl, and 
ktria. Thdcliiof articloa of trade arcof oxports, saltpetre, grain, 
)-acod, Ko&nmiim, cotton, thu essence, attnr, of chdmpa, Michelia 
ipnca, and kevrtn, Pandanu8 odoratisaimus, cattle, and ohirifiod 
ttcr; aud of imporU, tobacco, fruit, spioos, moloasea, sugiu-candy, 
IT, and cotton aud silk cloth. The cstitiiatvd yearly value of the 
trade, alMul equally divided betwoeu esportsand importfl, i^ 
1 1 1 00,000 to £ 1 5o,0(K) (lU. 10 - 1 5 Idkhi) . The export* go chiefly 
rw6r, Cntch, KAthiaw&r, Qnjar&t, and Bombay. Among Ihem 
export of cattlo is of special iuterestj oren of the Vadbilr, 
Kinkrej, and Doosa broedi^, iho largest and handsomest cattlo in 
" ijtait, fiHchiug from £10 to £^{0 (Us. 100 - 300) a pair. A small 
jtimtioo of opium in the Pdlaupur state hae, since October 1878, 
)u stopped nnder an ongagemonb with the Bombay Goremmcnt. 
I^lbo iiiip'jris tho fniit, tipicua, tobacco, aud sugar come fi-om 
iibay, Knira, Piirkar, and M4rwiir ; the cotton cloth, much of 
KurutH-au uuike, (roiu Bombay ;Aud tlio silks from Ahmedabad 

Chapter VL 

Pott Officm. 

tBombajr Oi 






VL Thero U a coUon giutung factory ai Sami, tnanagod hf 

Bwrclianl and l]el|>ed hy ibu Itmlhaapur chioL Coarse cIoUi is, to) 
GKUill cxUmi, wovc'U ia luuid-louius. 

Trade is carried on at pemiaaeat markets, Uie leadini; 
c-entrus beiDg I'alnnpar, Kadhanjnir, Dueeaj Saiui, aud *'' 
Except connected with tho camp at Dceaa, no largt:* mnr 
of lale been developed ; and Qwiagto tbo rialc of plamicr by robbcaj 
and the competition of railways, traffic has desiirteil the old higbaijrl 
between Mdrwilr and (lujar^t through PAIi and Piilanpur. 

Of twenty-four yearly fairs the chief arc : the Simkembvar fiitr,] 
at Sanknhvar in Radbanptir, held on CJiiutnt mid 1'' 
in honour of Doela ruiiKUHib. Tbiti. a Jaiu fe^uvul : 
abonl£04)0 Shrivak^i, and by traders from Ahmedabad, Vi»i 
ViramgsMi, Tatri. and P&tau, lasts for eight daya. The 
■rtidee sold are siJk and coLtuu cloth and cupper and brass veg 
The Lot^^hrar fair at Trakod in Kjtdhannnr, held on I'lui^n 
3rd (February) in honour of Loteubvar Afabadev, is a IHrdhiuuD 
festiral, utteudud by about 2000 Hindus, and lasts f<ir tbr 
Th*' chief articles sold are n^liginiis books and bra«s \> 
wonhip. The Dbariiidhar fair at Dbeina in Tharad, ht'Id oa •/^'kj 
*Hd lltb (June) and Phthjau tnul lOlh (February) in hou'inr 
Dhamidharji, tlio third incarnation of Vishnn, lasts each time fa 
one day, and is attended by about 8000 pilgrimH. The nnlynrtic' 
sold are nreotmoBtB. The Oghd Thall fair at Tervndn, held 
Athihl raJ 30ili (July) In bouyur of Oghad Natbji, a iliu'l 
isi altctideil by ubifut, 2UUIJ Hiodus and lasts for one day. 'i 
BO trade except in snt-etnimts. 1*lie Gotarka fair »t Uotnrka it 
Radtianpur, hold on loth XUhfld in honour of Pir Miih Bulisha, i^ 
Btipnded by about 5000 Miicialinans and lasts for two duya. Ont 
ordinary frnits and sweetmeats are sold, Tho other fiurs att 
by fntui nboui; st>renty tv loOO portions and lasting vuly ont 
are of no importnacu. 

To prepnre rK'trnp-t and hn'iln essence, a tinned copper kettle ! 
AtlAT. with clay in tilied with frt'shwafer flowers and leavcK and set 

hearth. Noar the kettle bimI jnin(Ml to it by a clnyliued lui 
tube, aiiotlier clayliued resset, Hlled with sanual oil iu the pro; 
of one pound of oil to ten poandn of wa(<>r in the kettle fltnnds tu 
large earthen pot filled with ara(er and Itmdedwirh a weight, fit 
18 applied till the walerin the kettle boils, and the sicnm^ pnnslt 
through the bamboo ttilw, is condeiisiMJ in the cool oil-p<>t. Wht 
this is orer, the oil pot in empltt^-d into a third we[l-4.do8ed vetuiel Willi 
a liolo wliich can Iju ojieued or whut at will. Wlien the oil and waUl 
liavu settled the hole is opened, anil the water encaping Ic-avea *J 
csMintiul oil, (ifftif. In making tlie belter quality uf essence 
proi-ussis several times repeated. 



Tab torritory incladud in the Political Supurintaiiiloncy of 

■ tip hii»j like iho raon) central part* nf Giijarfit, paased during 

it LiiuflK uudur the sway oE tbu dilToreut Kajput dynuties of 

K4d» (74tS.130i); then of thrt Ahmodal-ftd Sultilns (1390- 

I); then of th« Moghal Euiperora (157;3-17o7) ; tbcu of the 

'th& (1757- ltil9) ; audlast under thu JtritiKb. Local historical 

nre given undur tho heads of the diiTerent fltatcs. 

VHicD those districts camo under tho charge of a Britiah officor 

; hoy included the stati-s of Pdlaopurj Radhnnpar, IliaPfUi, 

.w*, ViiT, Diodar, VArahi, T!]r\'ida, Suigilm, Santalpoi", 

tliar, nod Chadt-hat. The K liukre j pL-tl y slates rLMiiiiiiieJ 

the Mshi Kftntha Agency till, iu IBl-i-, because of thoir 

lical positiou, they were tiiiusfcrTcd to tho rdhiupar 


British connoetion with PAIanpur dates from 1809 when an 
n-wr-nt wita duawn up similar to the Kathifiwfir enp[affeui«'nts, 
iiich Palaiijmr promised to yny the tldikwAr a yearly trilmto 
^., i„u tHs. r>U,(XtU).' In IHia the chief, Diwan Firor. KImn, 
murdered by hiit ofBcora and hia sod Fatoh Khan appealed for 
sc'lp io the Brititih uud Gaikwar Govorumenta. A fi>rce was sent 
Pdlanpur and Fatiih Kh4n was formallv adopu»d by hia onolo 
wiber KhAn, who had been raised to the vacant chiefship by 
Trvbel ofiieerH, and it was arranged that Fatoh Kh&n should 
Sbamsher Khan'fl dauj^ht-er and (hat Shamsher Khan should 
iantig« tW fttato. As the uncle and nephew did not agree they 
rcre ia 18Iti sanuuoDed to iSidhpur. An inouiry showed that> BiDce 
ptilS tho state di'Iitn had largely increa-Hod ; tuat the GSikwAr tribote 
bi'en nu|Mii(l; nud that Shain^iher Khan had by nuu-iithtirizc-d 
grants given awiiv nearly lUU villages or about a fifth part of tho 
.wbi}lo state. When tShamshcr Khan saw that- the decision of tho 
Iriliflh officer was going against him he persnaded Fateb Kh&u Ut 
(turn tu P&lanpur without aakiug leave. As a punishmeut for 
conduet a force was in October 1817 sent to PfUanpnr, and tho 
. asRAuUed and taken. Fnteh Kh^n speedily submitted aud 
Uu Miloswosnppoiuted Political Superintendent with a miuutn 
antrol over tho finaDCoa of tho state, the reveuau being aaaignod 



I ^U- 1 8791 


> No. MX. A)t«liiMMi s Troatiua (I&7QI, IV. 17. 




Clwpler VIZ. 



OiW Siatn. 

to the state banker nnder Govorntnent gaarantee.' A 
allowiuico was sot apart for the persooal cxpenaos o£ tbo clurfi 
tha BaQCtion uf the Saperinteuclcnt was made neoesaaiy taj 
hnpurtftDb disbursements. The chief aprpcd (28th No\ 
among other things to receive an agent fnjui tho C 
eonfiouncti of the Uritish {Jovernnient., wbose suggt 
bound to follow in all matters relating to the Gm 
Bubsidiee a body of 250 horse ; ' to pay his tributo panctooll; to I 
GAikwir ; and to protect no offenders ti^inst tho Britufa 
GiUlcwilr GoTerrunents.^ In September 1822 Fateh K1i4n 
to forbid the transport of contraband opium through his terrJI 

The relations of tho lUdhanpur state with tbo Bi 
Government dale from 1413 in the timo of Shor Khan Btibi, 
Captain Camncthen RflsidontntBaroda concloded (Itith Decern! 
u treaty of four articles with the Nawab. According t-o this 
the Gnikwir, though be could not meddle with tho int 
wncagomeut of Rj&dtmnpnr, wua empowered under tbH advu-e 
mudmtiou of the British Gf vwnment to coutrol its external rolatit 
and to Iwipthc Nawab in defending his statu from foreign tnvaeiu 
During lluj next five or six years the Nawib finding himsi 
powerless to check the raids of the Khoaas and other mnratid 
from 8ind sunght the help of the Briiidh Government, and ofFe 
to pay his share of the cost of rrushiug the banditti, ilulp 
at oDco given. In I81P Colonel Barklay exnOlcd tho maraad 
from all ports of Oniarat, and Major Miles who accompanied 
as Political Agent, by the orders of tho Bombay t/ovurnme 
negotiaU'd nu ngreemont with the Naw6h {6th July )8'20). Uo 
the terms of this ngreement the Naw61i bound himself not 
harbour robbers, plunderers, or enemies of the British Government 
when ncL-essary to accompany tho Britii^h troops to chajitigi 
inamnden* ; niut to pay a ycnrly tribute' in proportion to his means.' 
On the Ib'th February 1S22 tho yearly tribute was for live yean 
fixed at a sum of £1700 (Its. 17,000). It cuntinui-d in force unli 
1825, when the Ijonoorablo Court of IHriMifcors conrndering tho stan 
unable to pay so Urge a sum, the demand wat>, by the order of th< 
Bomliay Govcmmontj remitted in full on tho 2i>th July of thai year 
Binco then Ridhaopnr has been free from all tnlmte. This chief ti 
m22 subticribed to tho opium eugagement. 

Except Kankrcj, the relations l>etwecn the remaining statd 
and tho British Ouvernment date from 1819, when muchhorossej 
by tbo raids of Khosaa and other desert plunderers, tho chid 
prayed the British Government to help them, offeriog lo pay a ahar 
of the charges incurred in restonng order. la 1820 after tl 

' ReoetiU^ (I1T4) Gflvemmmt luvo thungfat fit to vitU^niw the pianulM auJ 
mrikx 1U» iuiunt« Giuuieiiil •nperviikin. ^ 

' HodanMl to \S0 vndvr IIh- uni-tinn df Ooranuncnt dfttod the Snd jMiasry 1&I8. 
f Aitcluaao>Tr«Btiec iU:6), tV. SQ-H. 

• AitctuMU'a IVcalm (I87S), IV. 99t 

♦ AitchUon's Treaties <IS70|, IV. 65. 

■ AiuiiiMMi'a 'nc«L>c> (is;u), tv. ss. 




had been driven out, the chiefs entered into afrreementa 

3ar to the K^dhanpur engagement of 1820. As regards tribute, 

the 14th February 1821 the British Goyemmcnt agreed that 

Che case of Thardd no tribute should be exacted until the 

Bnne had increased one-half, when one-third of the increase 

I to be paid. This remained in force until 1825, when all these 

tea were freed from paying tribute. In 1826 further agreements, 

tly in supersession of the former ones were signed and delivered 

2ie British Government, wherein the chiefs promised to allow no 

Ks, Rajpnts, or armed men of other districts to live in their 

Titories without informing the British Government; to give up to 

9 British and the Baroda Governments any robbers and peace- 

lakers who had sought shelter in their domains ; to help with all 

idr forces in suppressing the Khosds and other freebooters, 

1 to commit no irregularities in the neighbouring districts.* 

ese chiefs have also subscribed to the opium engagement of 


At first the relations of the British Government with these states 
hre purely political, but as the Superintendent held the position 
universal arbiter, it soon (1820) became necessary to place 
bordinate officers called agents, hdrmnSf in the small states, with 
▼iew both of collecting information and keeping order. These 
irA:«7M are now being gradually changed into tkdnddrs or 
nnmandantB of posts, officers invested with certain fiied civil and 
iminal powers. At the beginning of British management these 
Irtricts were the haunt of daring freebooters, some of them people 
[ the country, others, KhoB^ from Sind. Though the states are 
m backward and tillage spreads slowly, disorder has been stopped 
M considerable progress made. The Superintendent's head 
Jttrters are at Pdlanpur, the chief town of the district, though 
[ith Radhanpur and Deosa are nearly as rich and populous. 

Chapter TIL 




AitchisoD's Treaties (1876), IV. 61. 


ipter Vm. 




Except in the unusual case of persona boMinji^ lanrl hei 
karam. jodia, as it is nilloil, who have an occnpoucy right, or 
land id almodt pvprywhiTO in the hands of tonnnts-at-will, Tr{ 
whom in slate villugea hold direct (rata the chief, and 
hhiyaii, or proprieiary, mul gin'mia, yillopes from the .—..-^ 
proprietor. There are no Hinall land-hoIdor» tliut do not buld 
some landlord. The cultivator baa no power to inako dt 
holding bj sale or otberwiae, and bo lun^ ^^ ^° P^^y^ ^^ 
chief, though ho may do so at nny time, seldom distnrbi* 
If forced to give op biB laud, the cultivator cannot cUijn for 
spent by hira in improvcmenta, bnt in some cases rich croj 
lightly assessed, because of the private capital spent in 
Ibein. In the P&huipur state, when a tenant buildw a w^i: 
paid 20». or 2U. (Ra. 10 or 12) by the state, who iw-qnir 
proprietary ri^ht in the woll, and if the tenauc gives up 
has no claim for compensation. On the other hand, in JUi(lh;iupur,l 
a tenant is forced to leave his land, ho is paid for any improvL^uiui 
he may bavo made. Rent-free service lands, piuaitat and la&d 
granted in charity am EiomotimeB snb-let to pcasauta, whoj 
rent (o the original holders ; on inch lands the state receii 
share of the assessment, but under the name tal'im! the origii 
holder makes the statt.- a small yearly payment. Kxcept for specii 
reasons, charitable, dharmada, lands are never resumed and 
held hereditarily on condition of loyal conduct on the part of tl 
^rant«e. Holders of service lands aro liable to bo tnmed ou^.j 
they fail in their scrvico ; and the chiof may or may notcon^ 
service lands from father to sou. In K^dbaupur holders of 
and chanty landn have no poiver to transfer the land, unloea 
original grant contains a proviso to that effect. No land is Itab] 
to be sold by order of the civil courts in payment of a cultivaloi 
private debts, and when a decree is passed against his property, 
itpecial exception is made in favour of bin Held tools. In 
difitricta of Decsa, Dhanera, Khimut, D&ntiviidaj and Eume vii 
in weat Dhandhar, the assessment on tobacc-o, pepper, and . 
early crops is paid in money at fiied rates on the number 
ploughs. In the rost of tfaa district, except in some few villages 
the Kddhanpur state, the roronDe is collected under thi» trop-Ahai 
hltd(/hatdi, sybLem. The bhare is filed uu a rough ebLituat«j Mdl < 



irA' made by a stat/' nffirial and the villacrc pttt^i, who, aeconling 

Uie ciwtom of tli« tillngL' aod the unture of tUu crop," credit tlie 

kte with a certaio number oE manx of prcHlucie. The state share 

from about \, a point it fwldom rpaoheii, to J. Village 

jms differ widely, depending on varioos causes, among which 

ohicC r^ro tiuiiriiesa to markets, quality of soil, and size of 

Thn ready money, Hiujdi, levies are small. In aBsessing 

; it lA not the custom to deduct the cost of production from the 

hbte uultuni. The only e.\ct>ptiou is the case of sugarcane in 

l*Alanpnr Btat«. In the Dhaodhar snb-dirision of the Pfilanpup 

Uie BBBesHment is paid in four instalments in January, April, 

~ October ; in Deeea, Dhanora and other sub-divisions, the 

[for pnyment of assps^nrtent ari? not fixed, but the collections ara 

lly made after the hoU festival (March- April) aud up to the 

time. The practice of leasing villages to revenue contractors 

3r general m I'alanpar. Under Lionel Kcily in 1851, the 

}r of villages leased to rovenao contractors was reduced, and 

1870 under Colonel Disbrowo the practice entirely coasod. 

*!■ ■ PAlanpur and Radlmnpur states, the rents are collected by 
ronntiints, lalditjj under the control of revenue manageni, 
inTu, who again lire eul>urdiuate to the cbiefs revenue minister, 
necessary, cli^rkH are apiwiutod to help the Ichsihldrs to 
tbo crops. In other parts of the Superiutcndcncy, except 
Sd and Vav, where the chiefH share of the reveuuo ia 
by officials appointed for the pnriKise, the proprietoca 
Ivea realise the revenues with thehofp of talattn ancTinanagem, 
tan. To recover arrears, the iehnilddr may impose a billet, 
tl, on tho defaulter, taking from him, Ix'sidcs the cost of the 
billetted on him, a diuly money fine of frum J<(. to GcL (1 - -i 
IS a billet fails, as much of the caltivator's property as will 
the demand is attached and sold. If a cultivator becomes a 
iper, the reveuae due by him is recovered gradually whenever 
nay bo nble to pay. In tho Thartid and V(iv estates, tho chief 
I, jBcorerg tho arrearafrom the property of defaulter himself. In other 
ttates, tho proprietors have to ask the ihiiiflnr or officer in charge 
' iir district to recover it. lu the Fiilimpur state, if n crop is 
9yod by fire or if owing to scanty rainfall, a crop is likely to 
lort, tho power of granting remissions rests solely with the 
lief, and is not cntruttted to any officer of the state. In Rddhunpnr 
lions oTo grantod only when the crops arc damaged after the 
ito, dhal, has been made, and such remissions can bo granted 
iy by tho revenue niiniater with the permission of tho NawSb. 
other porta of the Superint«ndcncy remissions aro also granted 
b'bon nccoseary. On tho whole, the Land aasewment U not heavy, 
ir ia the Bystom of cotleodng it oppressive. 



Tbera t> no differance in moiuiing twtVMn dhdl and bUHiT, Tho tcnn tUmt b 
■not to Ridh«i|i«r, «ad kattar in PdUnptir, 

- Tb«iMuiiU* of lba«)f» of rioe,iin^r.lirn\ Itttv, and (oMffgnuuuiaAdc Mot% 
and Uut nl tMijri, tfAMi, poUe, ud ciil-ic«d kttsr, Uto crop ia cat. 

BZUi— 39 


Chapter tX. 





nKflniKB tho chiefs of Pfilanpnr and 'Hfidhnnptir wlio, 
limitB o£ Ihoir 8Uit«s, exorciise full civil and Lxiuiinal pcrwpr 
some of thH smaller chicfHj who enjoy a limito<"l y:v 
DnftintenaTico of order and sapprosrion of crime m 
Potiticnl Suporinleudont, vested in cix police aud tnn^'~i 
Btylod thanddrsi or commandaiita of posts, and sUUioiK<. ..>. 
y&v, Diodar, 6&ota]par, Vir^, and Kduiu-ej. 

Tn Pnlaiipur, under tho IKwdn, tho chief judicial officcra 
ministt^r, tmikhi kuiUuiri ; the judge uf thu appt*]lat« coaii, 
uyiitfiidJiUh J the ciril judf^, dtvuni nydijdilhiKn : aod tho 
jiidgc, faujddri nyiitft'tdhijih. At Docaa and Dhanom oro 
with limited revenue, civil, aud criminal powers. Tbo 
judge can pass scutenoes up to tive years' inipriM>inii<'t 
JEIOO (R«. 1000) fine. In any coee calling- for severer pHDii" 
he poseeB eentence after ooDArnmtion by the chit't or ffstir 
The Deesa criminal jndgo may impri-son op to six montha 
up to £& (Rs. 50). Capital offeucos are tried with the 
aasoBsoro. I'ba P&lanptir civil judge cao dispose of suitB 
value, the lieesa civil judge up to £100 (Ra. lOf^O. m 
Dhanera civil judgo up to £50 (Rs. 500). Apjicala f; 
courts lie to ihe courts of the civil and criminal judgt 
from theio again au appeal lies to tho court of appeal at 
andfinally to the Diwiii's court. Caste diBpntcB, mn~" — :-— ^ 
qnc^ions, and pftints alxint land and house pn-j ■ 
coinniittet's, jinitchdynlg. At Kudlianpur there is u 
AthHat, whicu exercises full powers Iwith in civil i. 
subject in crijuinal matters to oouBrmjition by the - 
court, composed of fourof the head managers, hlrUiuri^ 
of the Nawab, hears appeals front all other courtii. I 
Court a tiual appeul lies to tho Naw4b. There are tm • 
the civil court, fiiiv/Ji* «*'(//«/, having full powers in . 
and the criminal, /aujddri adt'dat, with power to try all 
punislmble with imprisonment up to foortcon years, to impul 
amount of One, and to whip np to sixty stripes. There areof 
criminal courts at Sami and Munjpur; the former with jui 
over all cases up to JBIO (Rs. 100), and the latter with 
imprison for three months, fiue up to Jt5 (Rs. 50), and whip ^ 
twelve stripes. At Balodhan there is a criminal court *'h-i-h 
unprison up to one month, fine up to £2 (R«. 20), and v. 
six stripes. The commondiuitsuf posts, thinddra, Iiave etii- .- . 



np to tight diiys and fine up to 10*. fRj?. 5). Besidca tho ChaptW' 
, at Hiidlianpur a conrt UfAra cases in which subjects of foi-oign Jugtice. 

are ooncemeU, or which havo been received throuph the 
Supcrinlcndoni. Arbitratora are occasioniilly appointod to 
lo cn^tc disputes. The Th^or of Tharad has the powers of a ThanUL 

pnratu of the first clofis, and hears cinl suits up Co £1000 
10.000) in volao. Koaidiinryjurisdictidt] inThanid is Tostod in 
~ >Htical Sapermtendont whose court is tho court of appeal from 
" tho Thikor. 

[Tho Bamof V6v has second class mag{st«rial powers, and in PnOfSteUt,] 

mULlCK can hear oases up to £50 (Rs. 500). Tho Th&kors 

Ten'ilda, and Bhdrul have tho powont of third cla&s 

and can bear civil suits up to £26 (Its. 250). Besides 

petty uhioEs of Sintalpur^ Dim, NaroH^ and Y&rihi have, 

tion of eropIo)'iD|7 competent officials, been invested, the 

EWith both civil and criminal powers to try suits up to £25 

Tnnd to award iiiipt-iMOinnuiit up to one inouthjand fiao up to 

>0], and the rcmaininfif chief;! with powers to imprison np to 

>Qth, and liue up to £2 10<. (Rei. 25). As these chiefs bavo not 

^OL-tober, 1S7D) employed competent ofiii-ials, they have not 

to exercise thoir powers. Except in the estates of chiefs 

■tod with civil and oriminal powers, jurisdiction ia exercised by 

oommandants of poets, tiurui'h-n, stationed at Thar^d, V^v, 

SAntalpur, Varahi, and Kankrcj, who havo third cla^ 

jUirial powers and hcnr suits np to £25 (Rs. 250). The first 

of those ifuinddrs are nndor tho senior native assistant 

nnteudcut, and ihe lust throe under the iuoiur uativo 

it Huperintendont, who exorcise the powont of a diviiitional 

of a second cUm roA^fistrato. The assistant -niperintcndcntfl 

al»o award impriaoumunt up to one year subject to confirmation 

the Folitia&l Suporiu ten dent, and thoy can commit cases to the 

aoDsOourt. In civil mattersthey can dispose of suits to any valne. 

, Political Snperint4.>udent oxorcisee tbo powers of a District 

and of a SossiuuH Jiidg-o in criininnl iimtters, and liciira 

flppc&ls from the decisions of the thdiul'irs, tho native sAsistants, 
id Crom the chiefA who have limited civil and crimiuul powers. As 
Sessions Judge the Fulitical .SnporiDtondent can award any 
B^^'"'"* , sentences of death and of over seven years* imprisonment 
t to the oonfirmatien of Qovemment. Except in cases 
i^uuiu by a small c-».ntu3 court or iu suits relating to movable 
property when he oontirins the award of the lower court, an 
" against the deciMJuns of the Politinil 8nperint(<ndenl lies to 
Commissioner, N'orthem Division in crimioal, and to Guvonuneni 
ciril and political cases. 

In Pdlanpnr in suita for tho recovery of debt, tbo period of Ci»ilSoit«.l 
litatiou is Qfttien'years. When a suit is filedafue of 3i pt^r cent is 
iod. In dii^putes regarding' lands, houses, and caste difToreneGS, 
fee of 2x. (Ho. I) is char^fed at the outset and on settlement 
iuuD udditiottal fees are iBvitNL In Kadhanpur the limitation 
arc, for civil wiiits, eight yenrfl for tho recovery of money lent 
fbond : MX ycar:9 for money doe on an account ; and eixtj years 




Clwpt«r IX 





for Uio rodempUoD of mortgaged immovable property, Ti 

fooa ara taken on aII aaits and on oppeob at tbo f 

7i per cent on claimi ap to £1000 (Ra. 10,000) ; oat'] 

claims up to £2000 (Ks. 20,000) ; add 5 per cent 

Jt2000 (Ba. 20,000). lu divorce suits when tho div 

a fee of 10$. {Ua. 5) is leriod. Whon the portioa are Mi 

the Edsi takes the fee. 

Both in Palaiiptir and lUdhanpnr written oodon of dvll 
criminal urocoduro were iutrodocod in 1S7&-7C. From the dt-cis 
of the P&laQpur and lUdhanpur chiefs no appeal lies to tho 1' ' 
Buperinteudeut, cxcupfc in t i^king-coinj)e ns ft tion) p'J'jia 
caaoa. But if a ropi'i/senfation is maae, th« Poll' 
aska for tho rttoonl of tho case aud if jiistiL't' lui' 
state ageiitx, vnJciU, aro advised to have the decision recooind 
Tho pnMiuduro in the coorts of Tharad and other potty fitate.-* '<= 
eouio modifications faasod oo bfao oodes in foroa in British di 

For police purposes in tho city of Palanpur and in oncb luga 
(own of tho state is an officiT, javiadiir, nith a certain number of i 
oonstablvft ; and iu each village there is a police paUl with a fori 
watrhuHHi, chmhiuts. Ktnall (hitachmouts of horsOj Bavdre, ar^ 
iu miitablo villnffos to k«>p onliT tlmmgh the atato. Thi- I 
tSupenntondunt has for thi» parposio at hia disposal a body of 
horBO luid 100 footmua, called the Palaiiinir levy suhstili&oil bj 
at&te. The village watch are Rajputs, Kolis, Thnknrdfi!;, and 
and aronBoalty paid byagrantofeorvioOfjin^iiiVn, landman ' 
in Bomo cases, with monthly cash [Kiymfiits, var)*ing :. i 

10*. (Re. 1-5). Besides the waldi tlioro ia, in each vilUjje, 
messenger, havuhldr, whose 8{)ocia1 duty it is to prorent cuttival 
from taking away their crops before the state eharo hae 
fixed. Tho ordinary villa^ jpolice system is in force throngfac 
R&dhanpar. The headnuia oi each village is a police paiel wbo 
under hirii a certain niimber of watchmen, ebattkuitjt, 'paid by ^ranl 
of reut-fn» land. Th© village police i^ixteh and watch of eacl 
sob-diviKiuo are under the anperiutcDdoDcoofa suh-diviBiGoal poli^ 
officer, and all tho siib>divisional officers aro under tho chief polic 
officer, of the state. In some of the villages small ontposts 
mounted police, savarit, aro stationed, llio villago police systom ii 
in force throughout tho smaller states. Each villago has its polic '_ 
vaUl, watchmen, and tracken*, j^atjis, paid by grante of rent-fre*" 
land and sometimes in cash and grain, osually at tho cost of tbo_ 
viUagera. Small b«idios of tho Gaikwar's horse aro poafced in soi " 
of tha more disorderly villages. 

Botli at PAIanpur and at lUdhanpor thoro are jails, the PSlan} 
jail with room for 300, and tho Badlianpur with room for 26< 
prisonons. Persons convicted by tho Superintendent ajid 
aasistantfl are at present sent to tho Pdlanpor jail. Bnt a 
to accommodate from 100 to 150 prisoners and to coat ^wnt 
(Rs. 25,000) is under constroction. In Piilanpur villagrs polic 
paieU have, for petty offences such as slight afiRault, power to fine 
to 2*. 6(1. (Us. 1-4-0). In more important cases, it is nsoal to Mm 
warrantts and summons. ~ 




ten the Ptianpnr territorieB came under British iatipeniBion it 
ound that the J&dei^ of Stotalpar and Gh&dchat were in the 
of killing their children. In 1828 Colonel Miles, the Political 
intendent, obtained agreements promising to abolish the crime, 
urn fumi^ed in 1850 showed a marked disproportion between 
imber of boys and girls. Precautions similar to those taken 
thiawSr were introduced and have since been maintained. The 
(1879) returns show that the numbers, 700 girls and 760 boys, 
learly eqnal. Female infants still suffer from want of care> 
bsea of wilful murder are believed to have ceased. ' 



Cb«pt«f Z. 



Ih 1 877-78 the grow revBimo of the PAlanpnr Soperintondr^— 
retnniedat £124,IS5 (lU. 12,41.850). Ii is drawn fmm f 
eourcoSj land, salt, customs iknd transit duos, and mi«vUiua*ai, 
ceBses. llio foUowiug statement ^vca tlio Icadiug dutaJls : 

Pdtauptir Stak*, Jtevtmt AbOraet, isn-is^ 






















lUanwiMr .,. .„ _. 
TbarM ^ .„ ., 


■ h> 













TbvM i/MnM Tin*ir«a „. _. 
V*r ml 1 Vi* ilfaia 





















IHodw.nrTl^KiidatnllrfNr • ... 
















XMtMt .„ 














Unki«i ... .- 
















* 0( Uik XSS6 an icodrpd Imm CtnUfdi. 

Palanpnr, and tlie collection of small Iioldiogs coutaioed in ll 
Kinkrej division, are the only two Btatca that pay tribute. 
Pfilanpnr state pays a yearly tribnlo of £5000 [Ra. 60,000) U> 
G&ikwar, and the Kjinknjj state pays the Qdikw^r £500 (lU. fiOOOl| 
yearly, £3G5 (Its. 3ti50) aa ceegos, tjhaMitana, and £130 (Ks. 1^0)| 
as rental, jamma. Cash receivc-d is lodged with a tumkc 
nnder the anperintcndenco of the minister, mukhi kdrbhiiri, and 
all tribute and adminialrative charges are met by d'-nwitig^ oi 
this deposit. Kloney realiised by the aalo of land for building 

Eurposos, &om succesflion and appoiatmont feee, nasars,^ due to ibc 
liwfin, and the reTonae of two villagca Bct ajMirt for hia aso, tc 
the private income of tho head of the state. TlieAe are fn.'dit« 

the private treasury, tosha kJuina, account. In Hddhanpnr 1 he r*}\ 

te paid into tho troagury in the Nawdb'g {mlace at Itiidbnnpur, ont 
tho balanco after all expenses have been met is paid into (ho] 

' JVaBoraare levied oa OQWyasf'a dky, oo Uie ftpiMiinttneRt nl vU]|gg |»aJ(Ii, ud 

whmrrm ths chief incun tnToUicg oi otLer MinoroiiMry cKpeuMi 

^ftwAh*)! privale treasury, loxfia khd7M. Desiiles Ibis balaace, 

-nrt, and the revenue of certain villaifea BPt apart for Uia 

to muko up the cbief'ii private incouKj. Tho reveaaes of 

Wllflges nmnagiitl by tfio NuwAb's brolIitTH Jiml other 

of his family are onjnyoil by tbcm as private income. Ttio 

rovonuc! Is lodgetl wtfa a banker iiudcr tho direct supervision 

state mauagcrf kdrhiiari, 'llic Kiina of V&v also lodges the 

lOB of his estate with ft banker. In tho K^krej estates thd 

of tho rovonao are lodged -with tho village accountaQtSj 

f, who, after pajang the tribute and police charges, divide tho 

0iirpluis beiweon tho shareholders. Tho petty chiefs of the other 
states keep thoir rcvonae in thetr own faauses, or lodge it with their 
nuumgon, kamdart. 

PAUnpnr transit dnos, and import and export duties are levied at 

"^^oroat rates in its several sub-di vis ions* jwrj^awt*. The yearly 

lootnc derived From these suuroos aiuoouta to about £MOt 

14.010) fnim transit; £910 (Rs. 9400) from import, and 

J300 (Ks. 13,000) from export, duties; also £2^0 (Its. 25,400) 

£20-1 (Rs. 2040] froQi duties levied on opium and salt 

actively. Some minor cesses snch ns a conveyance cess,^ and a 

itaka, ore* in addition to trautsit duties, levied iu the districts 

Bhanera, Dhandar, Dantiv&da, Ilfithedra, and FAvti. 

_ men, n/iUrjlant, are employed by tho chiefs, nnd traders have to 

vj wiitt-hmen, thauhiatSt to guard their goody. If a guard is paid 

ar, the st-ate is ht-ld responsible fur the safety of tho goods and has 

tfiy compensation for robberies committed within, or traced into, 

'ituits. In the four tsub-divisions, mahdh, of tho RAdbanpnr 

RAdhftnpnr, Sami, Munjpur, and Balodhan, trnaait dnea and 

'■:■■-} import and e.tport of gootlsj are levied, but only once 

•it through the state. Transit dutioa are also levied by 

slate at tho following places beyond its borders : KilUna, 

rham, Charanka> Tervada, and Jhandada. In TbartUl aud other 

estates transit, import^ and export dues are levied, but only 

during passage through each state. Tho dues are gathered 

toll men, n'tke-d'tra. Uuly in Thar^d is a guard of foot and 

kept to prolpct traffic. In other states traders and travellers 

I to provide thotnselves with an escort, which may always be bad 

\tcft n small payment. If robbed while thus escorted, travellers are 

[entitled to rcceivo componsution from tbochief in whose territory 

, Uiey have been attacked, or from the chief into whose territoir the 

EootHteps of the robbers have b«en traced and cannot be followed 

fnrthiT. In tho states under the direct nmaofcment of tho Political 

Superintendent, detachments of the GAikw(b-s contingent patrol all 

tho year ruuud to euaui-e, as Car as pos&ibJc^tbo safety oi the principal 


In P&lanpur, besides the land tax, the lands of tho state yield certain 
minor items of revenue snch aa cattle, puehhi, and grazing, cAordt, 

* Tbia oiled Uic Ha ocaa, qtui&iy U & BiuU tu levied hy aertua peisou not oa Um 
valuv «f tlw Kwdi bot Kwroinjc to tho nnmbc« of coavcj-uico. 


--""""' "- - 

• CBomlaj OtuttHr, 

312 STATES. 

Chftpter X. fees. The cattle, pwhki, literally tail, cess is, at vmying rates, levied 
20^^110, from Bab&ris, Eanbia, artisans, and others for grazing cattle. Tba 

grazing, chardi, fee is levied from outsiders, who bring herds of 
cattle and camels to graze within its limits. Of non-agricaltnnl 
cesses there are taxes on oil presses, ghdrU, on shoemakers, aalddU, '] 
and on weavers, salvis. There is also a tax on Uqaor stills and a hooaa ' 
tax levied from Y&ni&s, artisans, and others. In B&dhanpnr tin I 
minor cesses are mnch the same as in Pflanpor ; a plough*tax, the 
two classes of residents' and outsiders' grazing fees, and most of the 
non-agricnltoraJ cesses. Tharfid and the other petty states levy 
grazing fees and cesses on oil presses, shoemakers, homed cattle, 
marriages, houses, and water. Craftsmen work for the chief without 
wages ; is return Bome of them are freed from the payment of tana. 




thn whnlo Sapprintondency thero wore, in 1878-79, twonty-two 

In, twenty-one for bovB s.u^ ouo for girls, with a total 

i 1 153 pupils. UniU'r the Dirooti)r uf public instruction 

I i Jition Inspector, nnrthoni division, the schooling of the 

ipurinu-'udeucy was in 1873-79 couductad by a local staff sixty 

Inmg. Of Lhcsti, uno waa a deputy iuspuctur, two wurc hcodmoaterB 

Kugltsh schools drawing yearly £t)0 (Tti). 600) ; the ro«t were 

itoTB o£ Oajarat) Bchools with yearly Balsiries varying from £36 

360) to £2 8(j. {Ks.2t). Of twonty-two tho total number of 

tbuula, m'Ti Gnjardti only was taught, in two English, and 

ono L'ttraiou and Urdu. 

Twfmty years ago (1859) there vrero in the SuperintcDduncy six 

s with n total att-cndaucc of 281 pupils. Of these the 

jmr and IWdhaupnr achwtU were maintained by those stattJit 

ft of £117 (Ra. 1170) and £22 (lis. 220) reanectivoly. Tho 

nilii schmil was supported by a slian«hol(ler of that state at a 

t of £1-1 [Ita. bM.1), and l^he Tbiira 8ch<xi! was kept up frt^ni thu 

ruu! Fund, siueo tinned the I'alanpur A^'cncy (fencral Fund. 

185i-G5 tho nnmher of schools remainod the same, bnc thu 

tal attoiidauce iuereasod to 388. Tho flgnre^ for 1878-79 are^ 

RliDwn almvo, twunty-two schools with a t*ttal attondanoo of 

63 pupils. Compared with thoso for 1859-60 these figures givo a 

lyfuiirfohl iiicn^'atit; iu tho uumburuf schotds and of pupils. Of 

S, ibo total aitPitdaiiO(! in f-iovurnnient and aided private achoola, 

wore in 1878-79, 110 or 9"-t per cent Brahraans, 5 Kayasthfi, 

or 17'0 per ocut Jaiua, SO or 6'8 per cout VfiuiaB, trudors, and 

or 3'3 per cont slioplceepors, 32 or 2*7 portjcnt llajput-s, 35 or 

•9 per cont cultivators, 91 or 7'7 percent artisans, 6 labonropa, 

Mi>chis, sh<K>maken9, and 4^1 or 3'5 per cunt luisccllaueous ; 164 

H'Ol per ci.'iit Miisalnitfne, 3(i of (.hem Uiihorae, 37 Mcmans, 

.Miy^iiM, and 7 M(.«ghals. Four of the fHipils wore I'lirsis. 

In PAlanpar thero are nine vernacular schools for boys and one for 

iris, ft IVrsian school, and a second ^rddo Anglo-vernacular school. 

iringlS7tf-79 tho numlwr of pupils on thernlls was 592 and 

average attendance 459, tho fee receipts £25 (R8.250), and 

yearly charges £;J99 {Rs. 3990). There are in lUdhanpur ono 

Lnplfj-vcrcac.ular and four vernacular schtxiis. During 1878-79 

■ n!r of boys on tho roll.t was 206, tho average at UMidanoo 

■ 1 the yearly chargee £U2 (Ks. 1120). Thero aro boys' 
■ 230-10 






Cfc^^ ^^ vernacular schools at Tharid, V^v, Vfir6hi, Sdntalpnr, and at Than 
Initractbn. in the K&nkrej division. The school at Thardd is kept by tlu 
Thakor at a yearly cost of £27 (Rs. 270). Teaching up to the sixth 
Btanilard, it is attended by forty pupils. The school at Tiv is 
supported by the R^na at a yearly cost of £22 I4«. (Rs. 221). 
Teaching ap to the fifth standard^ it is attended by 97 pupils. 
Tho school at V^rfihi, is at a yearly cost of £18 12«. (Rs. 186) 
supported by a shareholder of VArdhj. Teaching up to the fifth 
standard, it is attended by 55 pupils or 1'65 per cent of 3337, the 
entire population of the town. The school at Santalpur is supported 
by the TdlukdArs of that place, at a yearly cost of £15 12». (Rs. 156). 
It is attended by thirty pupils or 2-04 per cent of 1474 the population 
of the village. The school at Thara is paid for out of tho K&nkrq 
tJuina fund. The charges amount to £25 2«. (Rs. 251). It ia 
attended by forty-four pupils. 

Libraries. In this Superintendency there are two libraries, bnt no local 

newspaper. Tho ' Native General Library ' at P&lanpur was 
established in 1872. Besides fourteen subscribers paying £5 8«. 
(Rs. 54} a year, the library has for its maintenance a fund of 
£350 (Rs. 3500). With no building of its own, the library is 
provided with eighty-eight English and 308 vernacular books. 
The 'Bisinilla Khdn Bahadur's Library' at Radhanpur, established 
in 1878 at tho cost of the Radhanpur Nawab, in a well famished 
building, has ICl English and vernacular books. 




Ih the year 1815-16 the districts c£ Badhanpnr, Sami^ and C 
Uuujpur were visited by a disease very like pla^e and so fatal that 
it carried off about one-half of the population. The disease appeared 
imder two forms, one with swellings in the arm-pits and groin, and 
the other with fever and spitting of blood. Except when the buboes 
snppurated and discharged fpeely, the patient seldom recovered. 
The same disease again appeared in 1820 at and near Rddhanpur. 
No treatment proved of any avail. Formerly cholera and small-pox 
almost yearly visited the district, but of late years the outbreaks 
have been less frequent. About the year 1843 an epidemic of 
cholera coming from Sidhpur in Patau, lasted for about three 
months. Four years later (1847) there was another outbreak caused, 
it was thought, by excessive rain. The disease again visited the 
district in 1860 and lS(i4, the 1804 outbreak being specially severe 
in the Dhanera and Deesa sub-divisions of the Palanpur state. Five 
years later (1869) cholera again appeared and raged for about three 
months. It was again prevalent both in 1875 and 1876. In 1878 
(September- October) typhoid fever with choleraic symptoms 
prevailed amongst the European troops in the Deesa camp, and in 
the hot season of 1879 it again broke out in some parts of the 
district. Of 689 cases reported, 335 were fatal. A very fatal 
epidemic of small-pox and measles raged in the district in 1854-55, 
and another in 1877. 

Fever, one of the commonest disea^s, is very prevalent from the 
middle of September to December. Besides the common yearly 
fever there are occasional more fatal outbreaks. These epidemics, 
accompanied with cough, diarrhoea, vomiting, and swelling of the 
feet were specially severe in 1862, 1865, 1871 and 1879. In 1872 
dengue fever was very prevalent over the whole district. Next to 
fevers, chiefly in the cold weather, bronchitis and other affections of 
the chest are the commonest complaints. Other prevailing diseases 
are derangements of the digestive organs, and different forms of 
skin and eye affections. 

In 1878-79 there were two dispensaries, at Pilanpur and 
iUdhanpur. The P61anpur dispensary is under the charge of an 
assistant surgeon, who is also in medical charge of the superintend- 

* Contribated by Hi. Manilil Gaiig&d^ De»&i, Assutaat Sorgeon. 




Chairter XII. oncy ostablishmenfc and the jail. The cost of the diBpensary is 
Health. ™°*' ^y *'^*' Diwdn of Palanpar and the charges for the snperintond- 

oncy ostablishment and prisoners by Groyemment. The total 
number of pationts treated during the year was, including in-patient^ 
9897. Of these 5835 were Hindus, 4002 Musalm^s, and 36 
F^rsis. The Radhanpur dispensary was established in 1875 by tlw 
Nawdb of Rddhanpur. It is under the charge of an hcmpital 
assistant. The total number of patients treated during the year 
1877 was 4454, of whom 2891 were Hindus and 1563 Musalmins. 

Vtociiutioii. Tho Diw^ of Pilanpur introduced vaccination in his state b 

1849. In 1878-79, under the superintendent of vaccination seven 
vaccinators operated on 15,150 persons at a cost of £186 (Rs. 1860) 
or about Sd. (2 annas) ahead. In the town of Fdlanpnr are five 
local practitioners, three of them Hindus and two Musalm&ua. 





Pa'lanpur, wilh ita three tliviHlon s, Dhjlndfir, Peeea , and 

inern, Htrt-tches nlwut torty-tivo miles north atia soath from 

tk Abu to the Oaikw&i- districtti uf Tatac, und about sixtymilca 

knd west fram Virtunpur tu Thardd. It w buiiniled on the 

1 hy Marwi^ and Siroht ; on the cnst hy Sin»hi and Danta in the 

K^ntlui; on tho south bv the Gdikwilr dihtrictji of I'atun and 

Uu; tind on tho wOHt by Iliudar and Tiiarad. The total area 

l-( sqoare milesj tho lS72 population 215,972 souls or on au 

0D'd9 to t.ho square mile, and tho eatimatod gross rcTonuo 

i78 aboat ttO.OOO (Its. 4,00.000). 

Nuar the town of Tflianpar tho land rises in rows of sandj hill ocks; 

the north and east among tho outliers of tho AniTAli hills tho 
mutrr is wild and rough ; and west towards Thar&d and K&nkrej 
I is a level plain much of it covered with low brushwood. About 
Ito miles north of Palanpur, a range of high hills begins, and, 
kniiuig nearly north to mount Abu, partly divides Falaapur from 

Bxoopt in Soptombor and OcioHer, the climato is good, though 

beat al tiuuti 15 o:cce»sivt;. The ruaxiinuiu and mean ranges of 

n ter, is, in January 72'" and 59", in May iiH" and 83^, 

: 83*' and 72°, and in Decombor C5° and 63®. The 

ore due about the end of June, bat ore often as lato as tho 

^ddlo of Julv; they set in and pass away with blight storms of 

idor and ligbtuing. The averago rainfall is about eighteen 

The common coniplaiutti are skin disuAses, diarrhcca, 

rctSj eye afleetions, rheunintiHiu, aniall-pox, measles, and cholera. 

lator was first appointed in 1849 and since then steady 

has boon made. 

, Tho HvetB tliat^ water the Piilanpar territory are the BaDiS», tho 
ivati, the Uniardaki, and Home small alrcnnis. Th«y all rise 
the mountains in the north<eastj and, (lowing west, fall into iir 
tppeur near the San. The chief of thc-m, the Bania, on whoso 




* Tba rtotw m airwgcd aocot^inp to Ibctr lin and wMlth. 






loft Imnlt is tlio Dctwa rautonmont, fills only aXti-r vury liui 
njid is at other times dry. Tlie wiOLt nre j^uonilly r^.i-r; ■' 
but, ovriujf to dn:mj,'bt or other kuisijs, Ihy watt'r ItiVX'l ' 
yoars, Kunk tu From fifty to suvcotv^livo ftx.'t. Fur tluM:r»^ »4U:: a 
usually raised in the leather Imp, bos. 

To tho Dorth and west tho suil ia li^jj^ht autt saudy, watitinp litttl 
waicr Imt most of it yielding otily unn crop a year ; to tl ■ 
L'iu-^t, tnwai-ds the hills, it is a rich Mack, able, in udo ;- 
good raiuhdl, to raiso thrco cropn. 

Pilanpur in early times is said to have heeo colled Pr 
P&taii, and to Iiare been f fiundcd by Pralliithui Dev, bt 
Dhiriirarab PaJTiiiir of Cliauilrd^'a ti ; it is said in buvc ' ■ 
two ocntarios bef >jm t he I iL-;jri u n i n ^ 'jf (ho SiiinvaL era i 
was ftfterwiwds rc-|>eoplc d liy I'alansi C holiHii from « ' 
its mudem name. Othei'S s:iy thiit it wa^Tuiidod by i 
whoso brother Jagdev fuuiidod Jag^oa. It sc'L'his prot^iblti 
falling waj>to ftboot tho time of the c onqneat (I3 <'''' ^ y^- 
C handravati by the Dev ra. ChuhA nB. it may liavo bc< ■ by 

Palatini.' Tlio Gholuina .«oeni to h;ive hold Palanpnr;inil m-,. 
round lill.abootthti iiiiddU^of the fnnrtooitOi i.eutiiry,rliry woi . 
out by the southward progress of ; iliiiins. Tho Sliisnimiui 

leatlera who Dmtiuort' 
family originally of tho 



.'-a wero the J hlllonli, a 

I j-ihani Afglmu atock, who ct.iim i 
been gavcrtton, mhhti^, of Vihfir. About IJJ70 Malik Yi^f^pf. 




houl of tho family, with reliLtioiia and retainers, left Vibyir 
u svttlouieiit elgewliere and failiuj,' On;* to ^x) to Meeca. ' ' 
(o Hooco, ho and his ]>arty carno to Hi'V-^il Jlu'd or, tht t,. 
of tho Soopid Ch'ihfins of whom KflTSrTIPviTn fftvcmriio l(Hipii» 
boro. This, abrtiife 1373, Malik Yiisutt(<uk, smuio say frcim Viranidcv, 
aooio from Visaldev, and most from PopmbAi, Viaaldev'B widow. 
Dying in 1!J95 (7ft7 H.), after ruling fiir twouty-lwn \. *Vilifc 

Yusaf was suocoedoil by his buu Malik Hmmu, who t . bu 

kii]>^lom and was rocognuu:d by the Emporor an the ruler<tt.JbiUifr. 

While the Tughlik djTiwjty {\^2r} , l-t-OH) lasted, tho JhiUirin, 
ihou^^h almost independent, were their vassoOs undtT the control ol 
the KnlihAdSr at Pfitan. After Timor's invasion (I39f>), thu Tlelhi 
Wtvorcijfiis were OTiablo to control their distant provinteh, mid tho 
Jhnloris For a time became independent. Jtiit soi.^q (14'12) ilia 
powerfid kiiifs uT Ahinedabad assorted their away, and ihe J 
iiouBiO Vi i^sals, serriog them with 700U horse. 

After a nu^^'tt itl lurty-five years Malik Hasan died in 1410 
Zilkaad 843 U.) leaving thr(-c sons, Aln l j lc Riila r. Malik Usmrm, andJ 
iletnm Khiu. Of these the eldest, Malik S&ldr, succeeded, and rulin^J 
furtwenty-ono yearsdied in 1461 (8*j5 11.). Malik S/Jlrirwiissuctiectl 
by his brother Malik Ugniap . alsocalled Malik Jabdal,achu>( fnmo 
tor his mapnificoncc, who was converted to the Mt-Tu i 
which tho jhdloris hare atnoe belonged. It is said': 

' Tlic IwftI Icfptmls itivs UiBvity KDiucb l)if;lier vititiuitjr, jiiaouig ita m-foaiidtDS] 
nad«r its proecul umbo latmc faaok as ihu fifUi 4iaalaiy. ■ 

■s *Bci stayed Fop fonr irmntlis at JhAtor, and tljat it was on Uiia 
iiiD rJiat Malik Jabdnl wiw converted. Aitcr a reijyn of twoiity- 
won* Malik Usmrin ww^ in imS (S8« 11.). succopded. by bis 

ik -IJmUi^, »"u of Siilar Khiiii.' Mnlik Bittlhiin rfiji^nud '. 
v. J VL'ars and acvtm nicintlis, and, dyinj^ in l.jOo ('.'»! 1 1!.), 
d by hisfjn Malik MnJiiUid Kban. Once, when buQting,i_3 
:id Klulu wiw surpriiiuTaiiu carriod priauDor tu ijin>bi. 
ii'd with j^w»t kindness, ffivon a pnlac« to live in, and* 
iiim-it .ii,\iiry as he chose. In revenge for hia captors MalUca 
nnd IMfli-a, iho lenders of his fnrt-es, ravaged the Simhi 
, nnd iiiit' iii;.'hfc ninkinjf their wny tn the palace where Malik 
i was Lvi[ifiin'd, f^juud hinieujoyiiiif the society of a beiiiitiEui 
I). [Id refused to leave thu lady and the Maliks returned 
nled. Shortly aft-er, they siKXprdcd in captnring Knnvar 
■■. the heir to Sir<jhi, while he was sitting at night over a forest 
• fur tninie. 'riin.'jiteiting tu luidto the Kiinvar a 
n, Mic .niilorirt sii fi-ij^ditcned tho H&o, that he not only 
•e but cede d to him tho district of Virg^nu 
r fi'r fivo years Miilik Mnialiid died in 1509 
While Mujiihid wrm in captivity at Sirohi, Malik Hctam 
tulcd in OluiK'r. Ait«r Majithid Khiin's death Sultan Mabmnd 
iafntruBtod the nde of Jhiilurand SacLor to ShahJiva son of 
Tn Kli&n. Hying in l.il2 {918 H.), he waa sncceedeJ by Alalik AU 
JUer, >--ii nf H-i'!li:in Khan Jhnl'jri. During Malik Ali JshcL's mle, 
tfai' : li^ur in Udlwa a«lvancud agaitiHt Ja^r, Eorcitd 

i. - ; ..if city, and were with difficulty driven back, 
jratlireedByB fight. Dying in 1525 {031 U.).Alifc>hor was followed 
by his son Malik bihiady Khfiu, who, like his father, sofforod j^ 
fruin the attacks of ' tiifl Hindu neighbours. In 1542 (949 H.)» "^ 
tiik) Mabh.'V iif JodJbi PPr besieged, took, nnd pl undered Jhnl or, 
and, in tho noxt year (1543), took nnd pl nndc n- d Ijjic hor. Dying 
in 1548 (0&51i>)j Malik Sikaudar was succeeded by Malik GtuKui 
y}-^ - .. .,( MetJiin Khan, who, during a reign of two years, 
■ er of the JTiilori fcimily, nnd wns aaccceded by 
man of great Lntvery and of prodigioua personal 
■.."> {W'2 H }, f^VKytarw ai'l-or tlio death of Ghazni Kh&n, 
[Jv la and IWdhanpnr, one of the most 

. i.,._ t. -J , lieu, luarclied against Jhalor. Mulika 

(nji and Khurnm Klifm jninud ImttTc withtTie Bnloch force lieforo 
ir. But, in gpitc of tho groatcat bravery on tho part of its 
iders, JMIor was taken and Khunun Khau alaiu. l*or fifteen 
Uic Ualoch held Jhalor. Thon, 1570 (1»77 H.), MahTt KhAnji, 
jring Bome f'jlluwers, cHiio agaiust tlio city. They foond tho 
riiMm ready to moot them and streugthoued by au elopbitul of 
iiizc. Malik Khanji »Uled to hit) men : 'Tttero are two foea 
•lephant anil tho garrison, which shall J tnko.' 'Elephant/ 
the. ' ' Id go ag:uuHt elephant.* and Malik rushing forward 
k1 wi- i^ foe, it turiiod to lly, throw tUu defundors into 

diaonlur, luid lust thorn the day. 



> KUUtn-uiSatuiiAn. I'arl 11. lu Fut L it » Raid that lUlik Jttnhl WU 
by Uu brotbcr Ul-Uuii KMb. Mftj»r J, W. Wataoa. 


AUtufc n^ht years later (1716) Ajitfling lUthod of JodJjpur was 

Itoseu Viccrov uf Gujarat, ajid, as he piused from Jhdlor to 

loda^md, FiroK KhiVu wout to riii;»;l. liiiii, iind m retiim for 

If v'd the Sii-ohi district of DiSntftvflfla. In 

rd about tbia time (1720), the Jhaloris 

ihuir thoughts to gaia mdepondotico. On tho doath of Ftroa 

(ii)h>ui 1722] his two sons KauiAl Kfain and Karimddd Khnn 

j^lud for the cbiefxhtp. KuJQjid^jj^JUi^ won in the oud and 

hit bn^lher to doatb. During his vit-erayalry of Gujarat, 

^md&d ftL'coiupauiod itathod Alihaysiog, Miihiirilja of Jodhpur, 

DXpodilion amunat Sirtdii, and wnn Pfilanpnr, Dltiinorn, 

feiirlwikri, DAbela, H-jh, and Sarotrafrom oirohi. Dying' 

Imut 1 7M lie waa BUccwided by hh son PjjWj^JJ](4Uj ^'^'l^'J ruled 

Liil alxjQt 17-tl, when be died without male issuo. During his 

1e, in 17^, Kantnji Kadam and MalhilrniT Holkar made a sudden 

•orlh (fujari^t and phindcrod Palaapor, wbou the chief 

;y a trihul*.' of ,tlO,0(X) (Kh. 1,(XI,00(0. On PahSr Khan's 

his undo fiixh^^^KMn. .ion uf Ftroz IChto, mccoeded and 

lood in tbi> clnetSjpturi708.' In 17oy Bahadur Khan wa* 

by Pntel Vitlial Sakdev to agree to a yearly payment of 

' i, 10,0(10), and iive years later (1 758), the Peahwa's deputy, 

RAmchandra, compelled him to pay a tribute of £8500 

_ _ ,^0n). He tvafi BQCceeded by hi»5on Salim Khan. Bnhfidur 

;h*n dr«>ve Chuhi'm Jutmalji of Dhenia oiTTot 'I'bariid and held 

ite until disjii.api^^sod by NawiSb Kamal-nd-din KhAn B^bi, 

ly known as Jawdn Mard Khan II. Salim Kli&n ruled till 

^1761, when he ditid and waa succeeded by liis soa 3bor Kli&n . who 

1;T!...i hiii brothers fearinff that they niipht compete with tiui for the 

;*. Sher Kliau died without male isane in I7f8.' On his 

ULain his sister Sona Bubu, who had married into the Biibi family, 

niseil her son Mnbariz Khiin to the chiefship. The imhlos iltHpteaaed 

al her e<iu<luct, revulted and dethroning Mub^z Khfin plaeod 

ih aoishcr KhA u on the throne. Firo z Kli^n , son oi Fut-oh Khan, 

the gnutdson of Firoz Khiin, now pi-oforred hia claim, and, the 

>ld raaaala mllying- round him, gained the chiefship in 1704. The 

was, in 180y, brought in contact with the British Goverument, 

rhon on agreement wba entered into by the chief to pay the 

UkwAr a yearly tribute of £1375 {Bdlxinhii Ra. 50,001).' For 

years, the chief power ha^l beon in the hands of a faction 

Kadi Jani&d^H, who, in Ibl2, under tho suspicion that he waa 

fclont to rriluce their power, murdered Firoz Kliin, when oat hunting. 

~^ey nffered the succession to his only son FRt"'- '--'iiin, then 

thirteen years old. Fateh Kh&n, by the advice' other, a 

'TOHg mmd who well know that her son wuuiii iw a tool 

lin '.. ..of ilio Jiimndsrs, refui9iJ thn ofTcr, and applied to the 

JritjiUi ikxkd GAikwfir Govomnienta for help and protection Irom hia 

Chapter XII] 
States. J 



* t>HrTD2 bii T«igtt Bfthiilor Kkin boilt tl)« Pdknnor eiljvaUe. Bmr. Odt. 
U. XXV. 15. 

■ Bom. Cow Hel XXV. 15, nuts 8hcr Khia't death fet 1701, uii] tiUbe* tlut lie ia 
•unpo*cil Ui b^ve U<in tir>iKHiea by Itia autcr. 
> AitdUKm'a TfttktiM (1879), IV. 47, iUC 


(Boatey fitnUiir, 



Chapter XIIL 


ffltbQr*a miirdHn»rs. On t)ii« the jAinA^Unt «m"w^ and impriMoed^ 
him, nnil miscd his uucle '^' ' K_hfin. t' 

of Do*'sa nnti Dhanem, tn i ^hip. M' 

Gftikwir OortTnnienls depniiiig il nocossoj-y trt iiitorforo m i&vo 
the rightful heir, Captain Caraitc, 1h» ItoaiJciit At B»rt>()», with ' 
Brilish nnd GiiikwSr frirccs umlor the command oF Ocuera] Qot 
prooprtlrd t<i PAlanpiir to ro-storc Katt'h KUAn. Oii Iho way 
wnB brought, thnt, uii the Bjinrtnirh of the foive (o PiilBOpnr, dw 
JatnAilars inUMuJiHl to cRrr_v oft Faieh Khiiu in c liiaiJpewaw 

ini^hr ^tve a KaoctioD in the* cnuiitry tu an^ . iiieikstinii il 

might suit thoif interi'sts topursne. General Hulme*, in the hope of 
pnivuntiug the oarrying of! of Kat«h Khitu, luarcbeJ at onc« to 
i*fUan]iiir and threetenttJ to a^nault the town tinless Futcb KIi^d wm 
inim&diatoly given up. This thrrftt cainKofl tho surr r Ffttoh 

KhAn, whiob was ehortly fiilltiwwi \>y that of Shaiu- iD, aiu] 

the luwn whh given up, tliQ JamiidorB llj'ing to the hili^ 

After much dtMrnssiun regarding ShAmsher Kh^n'ft claimn, itww 
decided to consolidate the intereots of the rival claimanta. On tb* 
2t!n<] DfLX'nilier lHl:tj f^ateh Khan wiui inrmited with V. ■ !up 

of lYilimpur, and Shamshor Khfiu, having no iaane, aii :in, 

and, except » small ])rovision for r son of bis own nimulJ uB* 
bo bi.>rQ, made him heir to all hla poBsessionB including Deesa 
and Dbdoera. It was alsu arranged that Hhamaber Kbdu sboulil 
manage (be state and give his daughter in marriage to Fateb 
Kbdn? From this to 18lti iras a timu uf eonetaot disBonsioBH 
Wtween the iinclM and nephew. About the end of ISlti, Fobeh 
Khdn c<:>mplAined to ihe Resident at Barodn of his unrteV rondact 
in alienating the rerenuw of the st^te and utber niiH management. 
Jjieutcnaut RobortBon was eont to PfUnnpur to inquire into tbo 
grieTancea complained of. Both the parties were Hnnunoned to 
Bidhpur, about eighteen miles from Palaupar, and a long inqutrT' 
Bhowod that Shamtsber Khan hod, in Bcreral instances^ doparted 
from his agreement, and that wince bin'Tnanagement tho debts of the 
state had greatly incroamd, that mnce1AI3 the Gailcw^r LrilmW of 
£4375 {BaJ>d$hdi Rs. oO,(K>0) a vear had remained unpaid, and that 
he had, without the conaento^ Fatvh Kh^, alieuaied about 100 
Till«4^ to his own distant relations therohy depriving the stRt«of 
nearly £5000 (Rs. 50,000), or upwards of one-fifth oE the yearly 
revenue, 'ilie Agent also learnt that Shamsher Khfin hod tbreMenaa 
to take the life of the young chiefs should he be deprived of tho 
nmnagement of affairs. Lieutenant Robertson, liaring rec«iTwl 
instrnctiona from the Resident, addressed a letter to Shamsher KliAn, 
in the name of the British Govenunoni, informing him that in 
consequence of his having failed in administering the affairs of the 
state aocording to his agreement, it was deemed essential, in ordor 
to secure the rigbta and interests of Fateh Khdn, to deprive him of 
all authority. He was also told that any rcsislance to this measnra 
would deprive him of all claim to conaiaeration and tho chanoe of 
retaining hia authority over Deesa. On receiving this letter. 

> Aitcliiaoa-a TraUes (l»7«). IV.47-9S; XX. 

iMr Kliin, as a laat rosource, opeaed coiumuuicatioD with 
KUiln tryiug Ui piTfiuiulu him chal ihc Hntirih Uuvorumcnt 
shed t« bent'tit. itself nt thuir i^xpoaso luid that Faleh Khdn would 
•no their ptinsionor. He aliwi promiued at once to marry 
Ui Ui liiiu, a uiuaatire ho loog delayed by their miarrQla. 

tlutu tin; <U'^ire(l (.'HtH-t. Fateh Khau, in company with Snamsher 
I, aocrutty left the Ajfont's carap and withdrew to Palanpur. 
this fi!&iiU!Ulaiit KubertaoD returned to Baroda, aud a forco, 
toder Culuuol KlriugtoQ, was urdcred against f&laapur to caforoo 
Bettltimetit of itu affairs, and Captaia Miles ocoompanied it to 
tho negotiations. On its approach on the lUth October, 
irirnaher Khaa with the PAlanpiir troops altaekod tho force, 
id afit-T a Kliglit skimiinh rutreatf.'d ini^iilL' the walls. The town 
then adsatiitod and carried. ShamAher Khan and his followera 
lirod to the hills taking Fateh Khitu with them. 
Bt'ing pursnod, Shanisher Kh&n took refuge in the forrign 
;mtory nl Kimaj (NWmiich), and Kateh KhSn speedily submitted, 
id, in conaidt^rutioQ of his youth and inexperience, was received 
favour. Uuablu Uy manage the Htate he, a fuw days later, 
tnragh tho Gnilcwiir Government rcauoxtcd the British tu allow 
'~'L*n EDgliHhnfHiHir to his afFaint, and aleothat the 04ikw^ 
rnmoni would depute a i-cspuctabk* native as agent to help in 
mo matters, and ensure the rogulnr pa^iuent oE tho Giiikwir 
>ute. Hoth requests weroagi-cod to. Captain Mil^s was appointed 
kioftt Agent; the TillagL'H alienated by 8bnnisher Khan were 
nod; and an agreetueul was entered into by the chief to 
ahsidiEo 250 honto, to roccivo an agent from the GAikw^r in the 
'vnSdcncc of the British Qorernmcnt, and to follow his advice, to 
ly tho tribute punctuaJIy, and to proteet no offendci-s against tho 
" " " or Griikwftr Govcmmenta. A gnarnnteo was also given to 
banker, and tho chief plnced on a fixed allowance, netnnult, 
and the remaining ineoinu was not to be spent except with the 
ion of the Political Superintendent. Next year (181ft) 
ishcr KhAn xurrendercd himfsetf, and vas given nine villages, 
line about X.2bW (Rs. 2o,l)(K») a year, for his life. On his death 
lt?:U a provision to tho amount of 1000 {lie. 60U0} a year was 
'• his widows. In 1822 I'atch Kban agreed to forbid the 
! of coutraljiiiid opiiira throiiifli his tomtory.' In 18-1-fl tho 
[ipomtment of the Gnikwiir's agent wa« abolished, aud, nix years 
lUre {\fih-i), Fateh Khan died leaving four Kon», /^ornwar Khdn and 
khmad Khftu by Shamsher Khiu'it daught^-r, and Usm^ Kh^n and 
iikandar Khan by auuthei- wife. Ue wait succeeded by Zor^y^ r 
tlma who gave the British much help in tho mutiny of IHoT, He 
tied on tho 2Hth August lS7n and was sauceuded by hia son Shar 
[ Kbiin tlie present chief. 

The Diwdu of Pdlanpnr, a 6rBt class chief, with full civil and 
linal iiowera over all bat British subjecta, pays a yearly Uiikwir 
ribute yf £ 1370 (eo^rt^r/uiiRs. 50,000) and receives £50 (Rs. 500) 



Pa kA5n 

» AiUhi»-i.'»TTO(ill<«il»7fl), TV. 62-.VI.XXI. 
> AitchiwQ't TtMtiM <1$T6K IV. 56, XXIL 




and 'rervAda; oo the east by the Patau districts j on 

[ajutb by MandAl and trhinjuvada ; and ou the west by Y&r&hi. BDapo and about tUirty-fivo miles across, it. Ime an area of 

toiIl'Sj a populati'in of yi,57l> souls, or an avera^ of 

the sqaare mile, and an estimated yearly roreaae of from 

' to £fiO,(XtO (Ks. 5,00,000 - 0,00,000). 

eonnr47 is a n open plain without hilU and with few trees. 

close to the Kan, during April, May, June and July tbo 
I Tcry great. If raiu falls, August and Soptcmbcr are pleasant, 
sU Oct*jber aud November are hot ; Decemberj January, 
ry and March arc dclifi^btful, with a much keener cold than 
Palunpur. Hain gonerally falls during July, Au^^t and 
;niber, but the supply is small, lighter even than iu Pfihiupnr. 
>gb with grootor extrcmvti of boat aud cold than I'alaupur the 
is healthy. 

Baoas, that croasea the district, is in the hot weather, too salt 

ik. Many Tcry fine built ponds hold water thronghnut the 

That at Vftgbel, with steps all round, built by tbo Vaghula 

its and in good repair, is probably the finest in Gujarat. The 

lie trufit for drinking water to the ponds, finding it even after 

arc dry, by digging in the beds. Near the nnriFace the water 

tweet ; but the deeper down the loore brackish it grows. In 

lupnr, during the hot mouths, tlio people suiter much from 

of water, and many move N^ Sami where all are fluppliod from 

ioeut take. \Vater is found from ten to thirty feet deep, 

arc usually dug iu bods of pouds or streams. 

three chief soU^, sandy, black, and salt, yield all the common 
la. Except vegetableit no watered crops are gruwu. 
nUianpnr, now held by the celebrated Rabi family, who, ever 
the reign of llumaiyun (1&30 - 1550), liav^eei^^ominont ia 
jorat hidtorv, is Baid to have formerly belouged to the VagheUt), 
to \ been called Lan/kv^da aiter Vaghcla Luu£jlc^%a 
I b of that trilje. Subserpientty, it washeld as a fief 
i;immadan kings of Giijardt, by Fate h Khip Balooh , 
lid lo have l«?on naiuud K.'iilliiiii|iiir after tUtlhan KISStrbf 
Jy. The first Babi that eutorud Uindustfin was one who 
lied iiunmiyuD. Aftur the time of Akbar, they wero 
to Gujarat, where one ^^abiMBr fij)^" B&bi waa, in iho 
Sh/ih Juhau (1627 . 1656), appointed manager of TharSd, 
SOD isher K^^u Biibi was (1664 - 1657) sent to aid Prince 
Baki^li III tlio guverumeut of Gtijnrdt.^ Iu lOOJ, he waa 
manager. tii<i>uhir, of CUttttB^'-' I" lOOS, hisaon J affor Kha n, 
tsJunl and local inilucnce gained hiiu the title of Safdar 







''AooorillniltouioUMiriocauiib th« ri>nti<Ii<r if Hiu Cunily came from UpbAliAB ia 

L- ' ■ ItlMBKrvioa g[ SuIUd MuutBxIU. of AhmnlnUd (l&Hl • 1572). 

■ L XV. 38. The •Utcmenl ^i'^ift) th»t the Junigad tuaHy ii 
>.rothcr of Shrr Kliin tj m'-orctcl.. Tlic founiln'Tlftas luuljf WM 
(^mmlwD, Maimuuad Bahadur, alao.calW Shw KhAo. 

XBam'U.j OmVm, 




Hiitory. v'' 

Khan anJ tlie charge of fi^hanpnr, Bamt, Munjjmr, anil Tr 
was deputy i,'iiviTiiur of PAtau ond eleven yetn 
governor of ilijiipur. In 170ti, liu wae los*!" p"v. 
Hi» eqa KliAn JahAn oy KhAnji Kha n, witli 
KhAnfwaa,in 1715,QppoHriP!^ovefn(.'rur H ' 
of Pfitan. Fonr yt^ara later/ whilo govt-ruoc ot I'ctioti, .. 
hand oF a Roli of BiUor, hid otde^ sod K^i&Und^dui 
given the title of JawAn Mm*!! KJiA n, and hia'Swonc^oc 
Aawa r> Uio title ot Safdar Kh& n, w-itli the 0lI8fg6 ' 
SPfBTMon jpu^' y haiTii ^.^Bi prj^and Varahi,aud lb,0 
hignAs) of land m an iaiet in tlie Ran.* 

I>uring the next twonty-five yeara, {1729-1744), Jowin Ua»d| 
Khiin wnaoncof ibo Ktronf?eat of the Gnjanit nobles, and, at ttwi 
lime, a branch of tbo house established >^<>1f J^jUj|B^I 

m the Bowa Kdiitha. 'if^^^mwrl 
of th o Jna^gnd ho nao, wlio wraaalflo the first Udhi of HAliisinor, 
"nr, otherwise known as ShorKMn- la 

t Vadiia giu-, and 

w(i8 M u h mnmad B a Jb adn 

1730, Jawan Mrird Kbdn was appointed Koveruor ^^ 
Uii-ee years later of Virainy ani. From VinunjMiu by wa«, m iba, 
next year, transforred to Kndtand Bijitpur, and, in 1738, wn« »miI 
to P^taU j his bi-plhor ZimLwar ITllfn j>)tliiiir Khernlii iu>«tfad nf. 
}^r&ntii. About 1713, Jawin Ward KliAu lie ^^ to oflpiro lo tbo 
poat of V iceroy. He was already Inyiug claim to tho revt?uoc nf the ' 
distnct Txrand Ahmedabad, when Fida-od-din^ who had, by a ffirgi>d 
order, nsorped the viceroyalty, appointed Jawdn Jiurd Khan hi* i 
deputy. Soon after, Fida-ud-.*lin'«tri>op4 motinied and he flod leaving 
Jaw&n Mard KliiUi in po8sosKion of the dty. Jawiin Hard Khui 
now ue urpcd the Ticeroyalt v, and upp-jst-d and dofcatod the next two , 
Viceroys, MnftakW Kwa and Fakhr-ud-dnulnh. A thinl Vioeroj] 
Klahar^ja Vakhatsing novor took up hia appointment. 

In 17^3, while Jawan Mard Khan and his brotlier ISorfiwnr Khfitl^ 
were lovring tnbnte in Salmr K^ntltu, Ra^huuiithr^v l^cshwn 
DAmfiji GAikw ar suddenly appeared before Abuioilftljad. 11 . 
byTorcecTmarches, Jawan Mard Khdn reat:bod Abuithlabad 
night Bncceeded inenterinj^ the city. Altera most brilliant dt'fs 
hia funda failed him and ho was forced to surreud»3r. lb ' 
agreed that, for himself and hia brothers, JawSo Mard Rh^n itboul^ 

receive, free fn-; y.,-.\.^ claim, tho '■■--■- "^ "-'in,| 

Vadnagnr, Sami^ ' ;^lr/nla^l<I, pari 

with Terviida, and_Jiijjipiir, and that one of .Ju.uiiii .Moi.l IvUiui'al 
brothers iEonlcL eerre the Marathaa with 300 hor«o and &(H) foot,/ 
the eipouses of the force beiu^ paid by tho Marathna. Tt wi 
at tlio eamo tiiiio agreed that the Mardthas shotUd giva Jawd 

> WatMA'a Oufftntt, 83, M, 8G, Sa Auotbar Mcnunt uvs tint ia IWO 1m obt 
« aft i>( th« di»lr.ct o( Tharid- Bom. Ow. Set. XXV. 2*' 

' W»U.iii"ii finjurtt, 91, too, and Bom. Gov. Sal. \XV. 33. 

> Mninr KeiW (Bom. Gnv. Sol XXV. S6) give* 1733 uhI am that ba «m1 
morully wounded At BAIor by Uin MkrithAi. 

• Bom. (lOT. Sel. XXV. is. Majur W*tMn IGniiuit, 105) «?■ tti»t Ui« di , 

got the duincU of S*mi mkI Muiiji«r, ud the hooou tb» govuniutifc of R4dliiB{aE.j 



Tftnl Khi(n the Bmn of £10,000 (Rg. 1,00,000), besides presontiug 

with an clopliiuit and other articloa of value.' In 1755, 

in bj Momin Khnn from Ahmcdabad, tbo Man^tbds callod 

Mord KhAn to their aid. Coming from Patau be helped 

[ftrithis, and, in 1757, after the titirrender of the city again 

tu Patau. After cbi- deaih uf Jawan Mard Khiin, Diirn&ji 

fcr, m ITdSj Huo-eodcd in vrn'sting from his sons G t^g^ H^rdin 

raxm-ud.d!u, P^tau, Visaloagar, Vadoagar, Bijdpnr, and 

la, leaving thoni only Rddbanpur, Saiiii, Altinjpnr, TharAd, 

ids, and two vUUgos in Pdtan, Danora and Piilipar.' 

iteii and ifuQJpiu' were kept by Gaz>ud-din Khiin, and 

Ibanpur, Tliarad, and TorviMla \>y liis brother, wliu, dying child- 

in 17S7, tko districta lapsed to the elder brother. Gas-nd-din 

hftfl two SODS, Skg^IyuifLAnd Kam&I-ud-din Kb&n. On his 

ID 1813, iho older son fc ept Rdd bappnr and tbo yoiinger| Sami 

jijpur. Thartid and Tervada seem to have bconToaf! 

>rtly after his acccsyion, under the advice of Captain Camoo, 
^._it at Baroda^ Slior Kban made a treaty with the G&ikw&r. 
Ilia the TtiUkwdr, thoug'h ho could not nicddlc with the intornat 
igement of HAdhiinpur, was empowered, under the advice 
>d loodiatiou of the British Goveminont, to control its external 
elations and to hulp the Nuwdb in defending his 8tat« from 
fortrtgn itivaaicm.' During the next five or six years, the Nawiib, 
finding himself powerless to check the raida of the Khos& and 
other Sind maranders, Boagbt tbe help of the British Government^ 
and offered to pay his share of tbo cost of cniBhing the banditti. 
Help was at once given, lu 1819, Colooel Barklay expelled tho 
monndera Emm all parta of GujarAtj and Major Miles who 
accompanied him aa Political Agent, by tbo orders of tho Bombay 
Govemnieul, negotiated an agreement with the NawAb. Under the 
!nns of th]H agreement the Nawib bound bimself not to harbour 
)bbers, plundererftj or enemiufi of the Britiah Govemmeat ; to 
ompany the British troops with all bia forces; and to pay a yearly 
ibate lo proportion to his meana-* On the 18th Febmary 1822 tlie 
rly tribute was for five years fixed at a sum of £1700 
I. )7,0O0). Itcontinned in force for three years, when (26th July 
i82o) tho Coort of Directors, deeming the state nnablo to pay so 
rge a sun, remitted it in full. Tribute has never again been 
ipoaed. , v—^ 

Kam&I-ud'din KbAn, dnng in 1824, hii elder brother sncceedacl 
lo the pBtatc and died in 18'i5. He was succeeded by his {llegituoate 
son Zor awar Khan, a child of three years old, Sardir Bibi, the second 
wife of the late NawAb, being appointed regent. When of ago, iu 




> WaUon's Gnj«HI. UI.I-12. Thin AArenosat bcAriii^ dftta 1756 ia in the poacMJOO 
of tbo Niwih. B-'iii. Gov. f<*l. XXV. '51. ... - 

• Bom fiav. t<«l. XXV. 7i. Tbo ilcml of ennt b; tlie •«■ of Dimiji bAwtiig d*ta 
1770 ia in puMMuion ol lh« Kftvrab. 

» Ait«hi»ii't TWAtiw (1876), IV. M, XXV. 

* Aitchiwa'* Trw^u (1876). IV. 69, XXVL 


k DRA>CfTB. 



'(Bonuix < 



1837, Zor^iwiu- Khin vrns GnLmsttitt with the numap^inoDt of tb] 
Btate, and, after ruliue for fifty yeftre. was, in October 1 Uli, mixm '^ 
by bis eldest son BiamJllar Kh^ii. the present chwf, mtw (^ 
tfiirty.soTcn ycara <if ago. Hm waf' i 

and criiuiual powprs oror all bat i ■ 
pfttentj 8anin{,oi ad'tplion, and Uentitlf'd to a Ralnh? ci 
and to a guard of houour. Thu military forc« ><r tliif 
of ^6 bone aud 362 ioot, 

Tbe foUuwing is tbo TUdlionpar family tree : 

BdnAdar Khta. 


Sh-r Khin. 

(I.) JafJkr Kbin. 

MaUhB Kl>an. 

MunlTiir Khin 

{U.) KhAoji Kfa&D or Khin .ItdiiM 

(JawAn MmxI KhiUi I.) 

(died I72l». 



(UI.| Kuuil-uil-diit Khin | | 

(.UwAm MmJ Khin n.l. ZorAww Khin. Anwar KUU. 

(IT. I Qu-ud-din Khia K»imuddiJi Khin. 
(died 1813). 

(V.) Slur khin 
Idied ISaSl 

(VI.) Zoriwar Rhlo 

|di«d 1S74). 

SftiQil>nd-dtn Khitt. 

(VII.) Biuailb Kliiii r«t«li Jbiig. 
(tlw praacnt ChisT). 

Mnrtan Kliiu.' 

Th« Homm muoanla thorn Uia ofdat of nooawdoo. 

Taxti'D. Tharajd it) bonnded OD tbe Dortb by Atdrwdr, oo the 

Pdlniipiir, on the Kuuth by Diodar aud .Sui^i^nij and on the 
VAt. It has an aroa of 644 Rqnaro milps, a population of 4-ijbW 
sonls, nr an averagft of 69-11 to the sqaare mde, and, iucln" 
Jlorrfida, an estimated grow yearly rovenuu of £8;>00 (Ra. S6,( 

Tbo land, thoagh generally flat^ is in parts waving, withoat 
o£ any aiKe. but coverod here and there with low bmafawood. 

The elimato is leas t«iaperftle than in Pdlanpar; it isliotteriiL 
April, May and Jiint', and c^jlder in January and Fubmary only] 
The common forms of Bicknees are much the aame aa in Filanpnr* 

Thcra are no riverB. But thoro is a good store of ponda ant, 
leaeiTOirBj loany of theiOj in average years, holding wat«r till Marcdi. i 



1*8 wator-HiippIy is drawn entirely from wolia frgni 
lu 120 fottt deop. 

<tutl i* T*(>or ntitl itaiuly, yiettliRg but one crop a year, and, 
I 1. iiiij lilt- y^x-at ilf'plb uF tbu water-bearing 

I'lent on the raitifall. 
iij eald to 

Chftpt«r ZXn.' 


to bave orifrinally Iwloaped to Pariu&i- Rajpute, Rf 
'■ many PamiAiti of tbc Siivitr and Kalma clan s are 

:iu;itit' pi.>uit.iuus iu llio Thii-riid vllluyxn. Atrurdiuff 

ii ■' lut, f\w hitfl of tbn I'unnur liue bci-aiiit' a (;<itivurt to 

\\u- .'. ^ and rosij^icd bis chiffdi-nu tn bi« si.slifr's snn, tbe 

iol. OtlierH Hay tliat tlio Cliobtiu killed his maternal 

1..^ .^--j |i!m1 thiMrhit'fduia. The ^^L^jjjaii^, with iiw title ot[9} 

riiloi] i\t 'I'h.inid f(ir iibont, sis gciK'nuioua, (ill, in tbo reign 

i'i, tlii'y won> iiKacfceii by ibe ^fidiatninurbiD", tboir 

1, auii Ihfir eliief uluiu.' littuucrorward Tbarad 

1.' u Muli;imii!;ii]it!i linldiiig, aiiil.for siivor-al Kt^iic-nititjns a 

v,U], till' II iMim^iiiii: Muitaui ruled as \in^\w'v}tors,j<hjhirildrti, 

fluiiuldrK, Am civil aduiiiudtRU^ji-sof an i&olated 

■ m-y wen' iiirrwUid mtli tbo titht nf Diwiin, and tbia 

■f. ivcugniso<i by tbe BrilisL Guveruiiujut, coutiuuoa 

(iii-MiiiL day. 

" ' - - ' ■ - - I'^f^st pmbably took plaro in tbe rpi^, 

b-ud-aiu (jlmn(n74-120(}) or of Kutb- 

i^lJUu - 1210). In Hit* lii(tt-r monftrfli's roipn, tba 

:U fniin Ifaliii)* to Ui-llii, and liii^ iiiiiiicnjita w;ini, made 

11 lamily'a poBitiou very diHicutt. That they v/tim able to 

., ,L' own was dao to tho aid of & family oF KAik s, wbo, 

illy CbubArw, bad bo-come c onverta ^p lul& ui. lu return fer 

TTui Ni'iik family recoivod tbe^iut tif SKveral villoma 

1 1 bold. At tlti'^ fi"!)' th'« «ninl!(!r estat-os were chiefly 

I tu Hi"' iMiniq «'f vii>*8a!s of 1' I IVnu ar clauK. Knbbfira 

and Lf'diiu wrw bfid by (' ■ , ' ■.-.i.j Koluij and Tltb^n by 

I Die Ubitria Vii:.'h^ l:i^ of Hbilri;u7ul ; Kta and other villages by the 

'' ' ■■ 'rf <.'!' Cbibdia livdbmans wUu held llieui (n>m the Itatbods 

nnd the rest by owntra fif whom scarce a traco romniua. 

■ ilmim iMnijuost ol Tbar^d, the wife of Il^na }*anjAji, 

-le, (ifd ivitU her infant »ou to her father's bouse at 

r. iia fintveiixf^ up, htT eon Vajnji, rotumin)? to 'Iliardd in 

..Li ijiiilt a Wt>ll, C'lr, and, anccossfnlly boating off the attacks of 

Uie Muttauiti, tauk tbu title of Kaua, and, after bis wetl^ called hla 

town V'fiv. flin deKcc^ndants rule ibero to this day. 

C»'in|i!Lruil with that of the Multani family, the canse of the Vay 
R/iaa wok pnpular, and though for fear of drawing oD themselves 
^^ nnny of the Pritan governor, they dared not attempt, to win 
^■Dk 'I'h.inld, thoy slowly spread their rnle over many of the 
^Kdler Ii ' iind built up a fairly powerful chiefdum. l^^ir 

P|actsgr.>'! -liuback muny of the Thiiri^d liuldinga, turning 

Kscnunt tlut Uic Cbofain Kitipala wcro driren out by th« Rdtboda 
t'tM Wvfo VaiVirinU-'l liy the MulutnuiiAdaas. Bom. Oov. Sel, XXV. 37. 

k '^36-42 




OQt Lfae Goliil SnTilr nn<l Knlma Itajputs, tmt contiauiii^ to 

tlic'ir estntea frum ThiirAil whtwo rulfr tiioy pr-' ■' 

with gitt,«, nnzdninih. In llii* way ini>«t of Il< 

fiefs fell iuto the hanils of Nddol a CliijliAp g. cadot 

or of tbo old RAnfia o f TbarS 3 "Sy whom thoy nro iL... 

On tlie rUo of the Masalmin dynasty of AJiuedaliail { 1 
MultAiii family berame the\r ■ Lutor on I'ntoh Ki :;(] 

one of the cliipf Giijftr/it n i 'Id Tei-vAiIii and Iwn 

ODstiDg the illultdui family who saok into obsouritjf and now 
only Uio Tharad vilbge of Kothigiiin. 

AVheo, aUmi 1700, the Jhfilori family wptp driwn from 
and Betlled at Pfilammr, Kim?. Kli^ji Jhiili .ri ohiained tha^ 
power at ThsrAd. This la^iod only a ult.-irt rimo. About 
Tharfidwiui ^von to Jawnn Mnrd Khiin Biibi of Itiidliaa pnr. 

»0OD aftor, whc?u AM-f-- ■■■■- ""V* I^"'"' ■ :i,^ VioiToy "■ ■ ^''tJi 

taiund out, and in I : <ii(-d at 'i 

next nilcr of Thuraii uiis L IimIkui -Jt 

whtn;f<lalilif*h(!il liiiiHt'lf tlu-rt' in I7mI 

Vajrajji, thohoad nf thn Vnv honse, foarinp that Jflmalji migfal 

a dangerous rival, invited iJahiidiir KJuin of Tala npiir to ourI 

Bahduur K-h&n applied, and, drivinf^out .'lotmolji, kept tho ciiiof 

in hia own hands. Within a few years (abiml IT'", 

was given either as ati ewtalo, jtiijhinlnri, op a» i» 

to Xawnl) Kav- ' "rill, in 1759, lie ■ 

V 6elit'Ia i^yvI^ ■ i^oue of tht' i^iMi 

family. Thia Kftnjt bolougotTto tha ISij: 

Vdghcl a tribe who took thoir;o...j... ^l . 

in Saur^ijditra.' A man of mueli talent and strv-ugtb i . 

his death (1780), snccsQwlBd in nmkiiii* him&elf i'l ' 

former patrpo. Ho waa succeeded by his hr. 

AlKiiit this tiuio (1819), Thanid being mueh hnni».M;<l imd 

unpeopled by the i-aids of Khosiifi and other desert phindero-.^ _ 

chief Horbhamji prayed the British Govemiaont t4>ht'i]ihini, uCbril 

to pay a ahaio of the cowt. In 1620, aftor the Kb<js48 

driron ont, tho diiof entered lulo an ^ a greement sitiillartti ih»!b\ 

with Rddhanptir, and, on tho I-4th Fel' > ■ ^ i 

by CoveruuiL'ut, that \w tribute should b' 

had increased tme-lialf, when one-third of the increase 

paid. In 1823 Harbhamji died and was Mtiix'etid(od t"- 

Two years later tl820), ttio state was freed Erom tr 

182*3 a further agreomont, partly in snperst'sston of lln' i<irni( 

WfW sipned and delivered to the Britis^h Govenitnent, whei 

chief agreed to allow no Kotis, liajputH, or nnned nieii nf oH 

districts to live in his territory ; to give up to the liritish and Br 

' Bom, tlov. Sd, XXV. 37. 

' 7'hifl fortress. iicd^uctwI by Vlghela Mulnji Erom CharAma Bliim, «u IusIeI ' 
tlie Vi^bulAi fur tfarc« ^uionitioniL Tbcn VAgbeU LncAji wm etpcllod by Vd'ln 
the he«i1 i>f tliu JAdrj* bon.'ie of Itdjtiot. LddAji coiiqucrcd ^^tUuiBM)', \'i 
KiiorJtt. Sill- ' ■■ ■ CuWw IiiH7»(S. I5M) ocw pTRTdwceo^ 
Eiiia Visal 1' \a. «Uyiiig its Clidvftd cbiatHigaJi. umI 

Kiajt'ii forcfu.:: ., ..l :;;uta. 



loTommnnts any robliprs or pearR-brtmkyTs wlin sonpljt shelter in 
^nutLu ; tu nid iho bi'itiah forces in the suppn'ssion of rubbera ; 
thti public peacti and wn^ no private war; to refer all 
tiio Itrihsb Onvommidit; and to lie respt^nsiblo for 
coinmiitL'd iu tlio uuikrbboiirinf? IlritUh or (Jaiktriir 
by Lliti KuH, Itajput, or otbur tulialfiCaiiU i>f \m distriut,' 

Knnuiiduif died lutd watt auccoe>dt!d hy Kltengarsing , tho 
iofj now (lS7y) furty-tbrtio ^■otirs tif age. Ii« Iuih iIhj 
n first ' >.nd Livil jnrisdirtwin np In tlOUO 

JOJ.' 'Jii .. vl iLo sUitt» ia fifty borao and 

''T abont tliirty-fivy milps alonj? both banks 
■n tbe nuHh by IMUuipur, tm tlie ea.-*t by 

, _r» 

Wfb.^T";-.. 1^ I, : . ..,.,..._ ..... _^ 

.iJt*t.riot.!», on the luintb by IwUlhanpnr, and on tho west 

• V. ..■■j.L .iiid Diodar. It baa an area of_&07 B(|iuire miles, a 

tion oE 37.771 sonls or on an averajre Ti'lO to tko sqaaro 

I'l ■ ' v'.ai-ly revenue of £KM)M (R>»,-tO,WO). 

, its diiuiktc ii muuli the suniu as that 

ir. 'i i H tbroii;^ii iLu distriL't, and thniif*h 

lio liot V. . . .:■ ii^d is Hrtually dry, watur is plautifid 

m uiM-t pbicDR from thirty to forty feet beluw tliu surface. It is 

Ti r - "v rowed by tho k'aLhcr bag, km. Tho noil, sandy in some 

id bliick iu utbcrSj yields the usual rain and walcrod cold- 

■■:■ ■]M. 

. ■•■'■ijiis twentj-«?v .i;^t;...«t i>«ut€fl, Imld by Koli 
I of tborn I: r inlcrmarriod with 

thrm soirift tii>niiic> iuv r^^inkis, nomc ChnbA nn. 
>ni)Hi'im' I'ariiirirs. Thu lariri'Hlaod mnst imjwrtajit 
id'lLiini, wh(i«i! chitifw art! Viip'hula K(ili;4, nrijriiiHlly of tho 
IhtLni Viiulioli* rribii mi'iitiouoJ in tho TliarAd slcot«,-ii. It ia 
irthy of rt'niark tbut tb<>iH* Vfi^hi-'liUi^ thoiiK-b at one ttrao degraded^ 
'v marryini; into Rajput horiHiiH and n.>fTiHing bit oat with their 
:i th£t V»^'lic-la tColii*, been re-admitted into the Hajput 
tionm chieUof unblciuisbcd iJesL-out miy^ht n-fuse Uj cat with 
But tJiuy bavo a bott*'r trilsd p(«ition than the Jadfijaa, 
find no diAicnlty in getting in marriago tbo daughl^rs of 

Tbrra is mnch sameness in the history of those ostatAO. KbgoJjpi 

uuiv !"■ ^■'^■t■D as a ri'prr- In \4(Hi (S. 1450-57) an army 

i)tjii-r I'lMiL' Aliniud 8ii i:. -'lundcr of Alitnndaliad, marched 

;i.^-!.i.'i8t tht> iS'.iIiUiki cbii-numi of Ka]rit,nMl, two to throo luiloa 

I 'il'-'-'itufTlin^liaraji. Tlio fight wa^lnugarid ban!, but in tho end 

iki chiofuiina TL-jmaljij Snmngji.and Vojroji were slain and 

mod. On the victor's Bido, forty-two nobles among 

. Khan, 1301) num, and Bereutceu eleptumttt wero 

gJaiu. Tbb dudwndaots uf tbc Kalrigad iSolankis sottleu in different 




1 Ait/-7,; 
» 1 

, T-vtl 

■ -. 11876). XV. Bl. 82. XXVin. 
1 I, ■ vuaal i.f tbc niariil "niilsiw o«ttii](; t»«n rillfteu, Hm thil 
•ae taa^itlnl« uxi civil jurudictiou ajj to £25 (Ba. 2fi0). 



kpter XTTT. 

plnct'a. Sumo front to Khemat uiw ondor Palnnfmr, «mw 

Dhaminprir, some to Virpiir, and othm*a to tl' 

FCitled lit Kupavatiuagri. When V'ejroji ftili 

wiFo Anopbdi, a Ilevri Kajpiit of iho nirjhi stoclr, bci: 

fled vfitli 125 liorsi? and iiuiny fnllowprg, of wl.^.i" 1 1 

Siikiira Virchaud tliu niiaisUsr, liurivalitb u 

burlier. Vela a poKyr, and Dudo the fiuiiily prif - 1 , it 

Oghar forost, which atretclu'd for inihts nmnd wlien- 

UEiw Htiuids, and there Founded a vi]|»i;i;:>, calLiu); it 1' 

Dudo. thu family priust. 8ukhm Virchand ibu lupi 

well, and to the east of the Tillajye a temple of Mahadev. 

Anopbdi uUo boiU a well acd gave birth U> n Kon tilled Vc 

who, wht'O he gruw up, rathea*J 300 hnr«?mea, ftod, nndrrtliei 

of Mohologi, tiiok to a life of plunder. Wlien h>> h:-' 

8U1U0 foi"tv-two villa^s, tht; ^HUaire hfadineu, witli Iii_-|i 

their hwwis in token of sribiiiis.'iiuii, lH's(m>.'ht Ahm 

now on llio (hnmi?, f>ir iiid. Ahmiid »>l»ih wiif an 

whom, with thuir handti bouud in tokou of ffiii 

Virchand, DtuUVAjLTa the headumu, and tithi'-' 

tiioni. Ahmad Shftli ordered them to prndnce ^ 

did EO, but to bido hii^ (irigin ]^>a»i^ed him off iis h i 

Ahmad Shah fortted him to miinv K;it:inti."ii, ilnifj^ 

Tli&kor of TprviiiLi, and thi-ii 

Oudtisaii, Kiikhol, Kliftru, Sriiij;l;i. ..L„.i., ;. 

Cbnntdn, Kalodhi, Vodiii, and VuloJu. Ahmad ShiSh ^ 
villagew in gift, and a fOpjier plate dutfd aud a writinij, m tint 
Anchhi'K hook, were drawn np. 

Vunidfin hjid three )ioiis by his Koli bridu, Vsijnrdjji, Ji 
Nllnoji. Je&uji left Dudosan and eamo to KhamUti, wlion:- nx nii]> 
four wolls. HiB du-vendanlct are called Khamb»inti. Ki 
Hori ' \' : ' Shall ami wils (■». i ■ ' iiil to b>' 

till- i Cbuiivjil, and i him Ai 

twelve vill"><y^-rt. Hi^ dewfiiilaiits an- callod Ariiivadia*. 
KhHiiiU'i hrtd thi-oo sons, F.lmm'ji, Khemoji, and KI«im1 .P; 
and Khomoji hBTtng olimderoil ChimviU, Ahmed < 
sent a^ttinst them and Ihuy wi-re forced to huIiumi, liiuiii'ii 
one »oxi, SiimJarji, mid his hi*otlier Klietiiu;ji had ftnir. 17* 

Udctj), iniiiriniilji, and KajmrjI. 


Arduvada. Siindarji had ihreoKons, Hhii' 
The deHi-endaiits of Napoji were owlh^d ViisniriniH und tt 
Mepiiji, Khokhauis. The connoction of Kt'uikn'j «-ith rite 
Government dates fn)m I8lit.20, when the Mahi Kautha Jif 
wasformed. It continued part of Ihe Mnhi Kiiiiltia till, in IS^ 
account of tl^ neiirnecs Lo i'alanpur, il, wa^ tRiusfLii-rotl Ui 
Palanpur SniierinU'ndency. 

I'xTAirux. Sa'ntalpur, in the rainy season an island in tho Ban^ 

Cha'i'CHat . ihe strip of land to the ea«l of 8ruitidpur, are boi^ 
on the north by Snifrum and MorvBda.ou thueast bv iiil" ri 

Vdrdhi, and on Ihe wmuIIj and wc•^( by the Kan. About , 
miles long aud M-vrnt'-i-n hroud, they have an area ot -Kir 
miles.ft pupuIuiioiiciE lii,lC:3b«4s'-'r <^"t"iavwsgt;-U vMtotb.- 

■ -O^aiit] 



mile, and an estimated gross yearly revenue of £3500 (Rs. 35,000). 
Flat and open, the climate is almost tiie same as in B^dhanpur. There 
are no rivers, but many ponds, which in average eeasona hold water 
till March. During the hot season, water is drawn from wells 
generally from five to twenty feet deep. None of the three soils, 
clayey, sandy, and black, 3^eld8 more than one crop of common 
grain a year. Natural salt, ghdsia, is formed in large quantities. 

The proprietors of S&ntalpur and Chadchat are J6deia Rai'p uts. 
According to the local history, before the Jadejds came Hantialpur 
was held by Turks, probabl y a colony from Sinti- After them came 
the J^ala?^ one of whom founded and gave his name to the village of 
Sintalpur. Santal Jhala married a sister of Lunfiji Vaghela, the 
conqueror of Gidi and Radhanpur, but, offending Lunaji, was attacked 
by him and sliiin. Santalpur did not long continue under Vaghola 
rule. Sarkhaji the son of Lunaji was driven out by Rao Kheng^i 
of Cutch (1518-1585) who took both Santalpur and Chadchat. 

Clia'dclia>t is said to take its name from the Chavad or ChAd 
branch of the Parigar tribe who conquered the district,' till then 
occupied by Turts, probably the same who settled at Kantalpur. 
This tribe was afterwards known in history as the Chava d Raip uta. 
though in reality a sub-division of the ancient tribe of Parmars, 
Five Chadchat villa<j;es were wrested from the Jadejas by 
Vaghela Kanji of Morvada and annexed to his domain. These states 
are divided amongst a nmubcr of cluefs, the principal of whom are 
Devising, now (1879) forty^wo years old, and Lakhaji, twenty-seven. 
They have the powers of third class magistrates and civil jurisdiction 
up to i,25 (Hd. 250). 1'heso states mado agreements with the 
llritish Govornnicnt similar to tho Radhanpur agreement of 1820 
and th(; Thardd agi-ecment of 1820. The agreement now in force is 
dated ^rd January 1827. They have also signed tho agreement 
forbidding the transit of opium. 

Va'v stretches from north to south about thirty-fivo, and from east 
to west about fifteen Tiiiles. Buunded on the north by Sachor in 
Marwar, ou the cast by Tharad, on tlio south by 8uigam, and on the 
west by tho Itan, Vav baa an area of 3GU square miles, a population 
of 23,081 suuls or on an average Gt'll to the square mile, and 
an ostiinafeil gi-uss yearly revenue of £3000 (Rs. 30,000). Like 
Thariid, Vilv is a Hat iilaiii, sandy, except ou the west, where the soil 
is hard and clayey. The climate docs not dilfcr from that of 
Riidhanpur. There are no rivers, but in average years ponds hold 
water till March. During the hot season water is drawn from wells 
of which there arc many, with a fi'Co, though somewhat brackish, 
supply. The sauily soil yields only ouc crop a year, and that of 
common graiu. J-iargo quantities of natural salt, gluisla, are formed 
in all the Rjtu pans, but its export is forbidden. 

Tho Vav family came from Sambhar and_Naujit)I, in Maxwar, and 
claim kindred with Pruthui-iij, the Choh an king of Delhi, who was 
deEcjited and slain by the Afghans in 1103. After many turns of 
fortune, Dedlirav, driven out of Nandol, settled at Tharad, then 
under the Anhilvadu kings. Raua i'unjaji, the seventh in descent 







from Deillirnv, vias ki1k>(] in battb, and his son R£u« y:> 

ui till) 'I'huruil eslHhiK,' built the town of Viv. From 

of Vav, tlic proAt;ut Itiina Cmcdsin^ is cifrfitt^utJi in d' 

orig-iu mill luituro of tlie relntions t^ 

GuTtTiiiiifnt ililTtT litUt' fruui ihuse ■ 

Khof>A.i andothei'mamiulrrH, tlii:^ ntnte, m Ibl'.'.noi 

the B-iil of till.' Britiali (JuvcnuuL-iit, and ia the fullf 

litiiiLttic hound by Lhu Hame u^^^'eomt^nt. ua that aii 

RiidhnnpiiT elfLtO in 1S20. tV*etI fmni ^^ - ~: 

1 S2l>. the chief, ou tho 2itth Au^ist of Umt ,\ 

liki^ thut ai tht' siunu time ooni'luded mtli Ui<. 

remains in force to tho present day. Tlio | 

Umedinnp, oight«?nth in descent from tho founder oi V ftr, m i 

Lliirty-cnD }i'ars old. And hns iho powurs of asouond ctasa maj 

and ci\-il jurisdiction up to £&0 {Hs. 500). Tho military fort* 

t hirty hone and twenty foot. 

Vi'u'n. Va'ra'hi, honndod on iho nnrth by Ohadchnt, on (hf. o^'i r.v' 

B&dJianpur, ou the south by the l{an, ondoii tho ^cst b'. 
abimt twi^uty-Gvo miles Umi^ und ten broad, hn.^' - 
fiquam milcB, a popnlntion of 20,(KJ(1 souls or an n 
to tho square mile, nu'l nn estimated (mjas yearly r 
[Ss. 4O4UOO). In npneaniniHi and climnto Vjij^lii li <tn 

lUdhaiipur. The J fau;is rum throng^h the district frum wist iat 
weetj but is dry except after rery heary raius in tlie Abu und otberl 
eastern hilU. There aro many ponds, and, ta at It^dlmupor, wbiMii 
thuy aru dry. water is fouudbydit^ngiu their beds and in t' ' ' 
of slnsuuB. Only near llio Kurfnco is the wutergood. 'I'herf r- 
«U)i!s, sandy, blaefc, and, b'lwards tho Jlan, eult. The 
yiuld a yearly crcp of one of tho common j»niins, mth 
of cotton, and much oxoollent whcat^ gronm aa in 
without watcrinjf. In tho western lands much natural . 
in formed. But its salu in forbidden, the chief bcin<2^ • 
for his loss of reveouo. 

This rafato was formerly held h? tho R^ yfl^y fnnii wh^m it 
WTCsto<i by its n resent J i^y ^ olJorfl. ^Thoso Jats, ori^iujilly inhabit 
of I}aluchi»(a u and JMakrau, are said to havo eome m 711 with 
army of Mulianunaij K aaiin, and settled at Vauga in Sind. Ir 
■aid that a Siod ruler sought to force into Iiis h;ii-em two of !MahIc \ 
Uuuir Kh&n's daughters, and that the Juts rcsigciiig wero HMAi-l(i>dj 
and forced to fly t^i C'y^ -h. Finding no shelter, they fled toJ 
■K athi6w4r where the PaijiwaofMgJi helped them. In rvturu fyrl 
their BorvioeB at the si^c^ru^mp&ior (1461), Mahmud BegmlaJ 
gave the Jats the di-siriut of Baj ana in ^ J h^yad under ihoj 
K4thi6wAr Agency. Afterwords tiiey got leave' to attiul.- M.imtJ,! 
and took it after Bomo days fighting. Ueforo huig, rito] 

disfiiyour with the Ahmedabad guTernmeni, Manda! wn^ i.ih<-[i uom 
theui, and the family was spilt i^y ^ * i^ f^Y J jP^"*'* "*'^- ^^ which Iho 
chief were Malik Ilaidar Khilu's a£ Ba^na. IdaUic Ldkha'^at 8itapar 

1 Bom. Gov. Set. XXV. 41. 8«e Above, "Tlurtd*. 



^T Tanad, rnul Hifiilik Is/iji's at V;tliy»j.i . Malik Is^ji^ caDod in to 
"^M -iTfinnTvI bctffut-u Havuijia CocTiir and Loklia i>f \"iirahi,' took 
■)« rif their diMtensifinM to slaj the one and drive away the 
iiucr, wiio.afier holding om forsometiiODinthoTillBp* of Lunkhan, 
to Ki.niiuT Kariiri in Ch<tr Vn^'tar, and Boltlod thoro. Tho 
I slAV^'d in VtiniliijWoro given tho villagos of l^hnmd- 
itri, and - AutiLrn cs. while Malik Isiliji assomoatha 

Chapter ZIII. 


Tho Juts havt' always boon fond of rubbery and plunder, and 

iliKv tilt.' time of [tritirt)iriili', were notorioiLs fruebootors, plumlennf^ 

T(fn 1^1 t.Iio walU tjf Ahiiicdubad, aud forcing thoir weaker 

fUrhbours to buy their fui-boanuice and prococtiou by a niouoy 

mt known aa vol. In tho time of Nawsb Shcr Khiin of 

inpuT, it bocanie necos^tary to put domi their excesses, and by 

irUtT ui tho Put)hwa*s govommont they wero attacked in 1812 aud 

Hod, antl their chief Unmr Khiin taken priaonor and nont to 

lanpiir.' Aft«rwftrd>*, t'Kcapiiig- from confinement, the NawAb, 

15, oinfirtnnd him in hiii [toH-^tctt-sinuR. Since Lhon, under the 

l»h (hivfmntont, thoy have given up raiding and robbing, bnt 

aru Mtitt <]iian-elM>me and fond of going* to law. 

Thilkiir ShuHt! ICbfin died in 1SI7. ' > widowa, twooE 

wT. ■VI ivt-ro brouglit to ln»d of sons . : • after his death. 

I ' iuiacy of the children wai^ qiicAtinnod by tho noxt of kin ; 
i-'. >..- .r proofs failed, and Umixr Khdn ^ tho cMor child waa named 
riji-'f. nnri his osluto nmna^'od hy tho Political Superintendent. 
I I'hiin, now (1879) nbont thirty-two years old, is still chief, 

! : power to iuiprisoa for fifteen dayi and fmo up to £2 10*. 

^ ' '' 'OM between fho potty stato of VilrAhi and tho British 
M-ni da(« frtim tho year 1819. In 18'20, its chief signed an 
-"d into by tho NawiSb of Itadhimpur; in 
i n« transit of <'piiint; and in 182i> wan freed 
tribute on thu eomo terms us thuso accepted by tho Thiu-^ 

Dfodar, bounded on tho north by Thar&d, on the eosfc by 

II ■ , on tlio aonth by Bhabhar and TiTnida, and on tho west by 

■ and Tlianid, about twelve miles Ioii)> and twenty-five 

luulf (135 an area of 210 square miles, a popuIuLiiiuof ]i),701 Bonia 

nvcrugo oE 82*03 to tho sijnare mile^ and an cetimatcd 

irl^ revenue of £2500 (Rs. 25,000). A flat gapdv pla in. 

riul wifli low bruMhwood, in climate it differs Utile from 

ipar. There ore no rivers, but in avorago seasons ita ponda 

iM water till Jliirch. Tho rather brackish hot-weather supply is 
from wells generally from forty to sixty feet deep. 
i» no irrigiition. Tho sandy soil yields only one crop of tho 
imoner grains. 


Aihrthdr weoant otktMthat the Jut* gaitutl foaaoMum d V&rtht from Um 
UuMlnius, Bom. Gov. 3rX XXV. 32. 

Oor. 8«). XXV. 33. The lUta 1812 MMnrni <)oabtful aa, accordiDf to tbe 
bt fiber Khia did not ao««cd tUl liVi (Ditto, 27]. 

Chapter XIII. 


t^hcUs,' who. 


Dioru tiir 

Diuilar is hoM l>y llio B] |ilri^ "^ 
Kajpnt jiowtT in Pitati, u>i.>k 
utid fur (K>iiiu goncrutinur* Imld it. 

ihi'i', in turn, lictf] t?;i > ■ i 

'i Vrvada in 'I'har.Irl, 

Oi' I lie ot cighiy-iouj' viliuj^B, iJiotlnr ik ti 

iUTi li...^ .; . lunimr Eize, mnch of it haviu-' "»■- ■ 
K^uikrt-j anil HIiithharKuliit. In thu funiinu of I7f><< 
H I, tUt* cbiuE with bJK riiiutly bftikiui;!)- niai 

I , «oo uf till) Ilbajail, t-'ok wrviL-e ^^ 

Itiutluiupnr, ani] ^ivin^ much •n, »ilh i tb 

to win bock tlio jliodnr di^il lu tbu K< : n 

it when Lho Viit^huIi'iH left, i*unja.ji, at ooiL-%Hlf>raM 
re'C^tAblished sonic uF tho villnge^, tmil, tu the ub<u>uc«i-i lu'- ••kut-i 
branch, asurptid its rights!, aud rofuscd i*t n»iuru tlujoi nn the 
return of lho chiof. 'J'by dn' - ' '' " 

Miles in 182S, hnt, ns the 
cstabli!<hDiL'Ut ot British authority, thu uidcr bra: 

but only provided with u niaiutouanco. The a .. > . ;.j 

by tho two sons of Punjdji, Akhe«inj» aud Ch«udiiji, whi> w«n 
ctilLiitlurmI tho chii-fn of Diodar, Id »iipi.'ri;rsy,ii»nul l) " ' ■ ' 
Akhf^iu^iUid Clinndilji have dii>il,[uid MuIuii,Hon • 
Bhi)jwit*iug, (»randKi'n of < '" " ■ ■, atv tho [irfMeDt i 
have tho powL'ra u£ third l i -latnitoB iiuil civii 

to £25 (lU. 260). 

Tho state has entered into rui.'-.i ■'■^ with '' i^-ii 

Gorornraont similar to tho Jladhanpiir . . .i-xtt itf I. iw 

Tharad t'ligu^^ineiit of IS'Iii. It has ai^u tji)>ru<.*d aii n^pruumvilt ' 
forbiihlinjf the transit of opitmi throogh its torriiory.' 

Suiga']]! is bounded on tho north and oast by V&v, on tho wnilh 
by Chiidchnt, and on the west by tho Ran. About twenty lailM 
loug aud eight broad, it has au area o( ItJl (t()uaro aii]i<ii, a 
population of 10,10-1' soald or an avorajs^ of 6'2-7'i to lho squara 
mile, and an estimated gross yearly reveane of t\*H)i> 01s. iO,t}<)0), 
Tho dJFitrii:t is Hat aud open with a chtualo much likf that of 
R&dhatipur. It has no rivers but tnany prmil-H thai in arcraga 
8ea«ous hold watc-r till March. Tho hot-wciathor watnr supply ti 
from welU, brackish aud i-athtir ecauty, but found at a depth uf out 
nioro than fifteen feet. Tho soil, Aandy and salt, yioldo only potur 
cropdt of the eommon gi-ains. Nat-und salt, ghariaj itt fonued iu 
lurge quautitiea on the Kan. 

Tho Suigim Tiilukdiirs are apmng from PacMnii, the yonnf;e«l 
Bon of Kina Saugoji o£ Vav^ who, in 1569 (S. 1625), founded tho 
village of Sutg&m, naming it after Sui, a Rabin by cnate, who lirod 
ther». KiJRiii, one of Fachilnji'a dcaceudanta, foandod the eet»l«, 
conquering Kadhosau and its five villages from Aj4ua Chuli/in, and 

■ IIk-w Bhilru VtolxlAs noM Awneil TatvAiIa, t small dUtrtol la tho poucuHOi o 
K j-xuii^ir Uiuich of Oie IlivAd VAghelAs. BoOL Ow. Sel. XXV. 44. 
1 Bum. iiov. a^t XXV. 42. 




|V' ' * Aiiil ntliiir villagos from tho J^tfl. Tho bends of the 

. TH libfiputiiiu^ au'i Natkiijij hnvo uuilor lh»iu a tar^^ 

;|>t'uiit*ut, body of cftdots, foniiorly noted froebootors and 

the Kho8u«, but now fur fifty years au orderly peasantry. 

kto'6 rotations witb tbo Britiiih Ciovuniment aro fixed by tbe 

nf *V, — TTiPots of 1820 and 1826, tbo samo as tho 

of 1820 and the Tharfid agreement of lti2ti. 

Terva'da. ia bonudud on ibo nortb by Diodarj on ibo cost by 
ikToj. on tho south by Rjulhanpur, and on the woat by Bhiibhar. 
[boat- fiftooa miles long and ci^btficn broad, it faoa ul area of 100 
miles, a population of 7:j:{8 souls or an aroraf*o of 73*33 to 
loare mile, siid an oatimated yearly j^osa revemio of £1200 
)0O). KJat iiiiJ opon with low brushwood in a fow placosy 
£ke otlier diatrifts etrae to the Kan, a light rainfall, a bracing 
III wrsithfr, and a hot season of scorching winds. The cominon 
i» of aicknesE aro the samo as in Piilanpar. Though without 
HTH tho district is woll supplied with ponds. Well wotor,bracki9h 
the Borth, i* found from thirty to sovcuty-five feot deep. 
mI, sandy and in places blaek, yields only one comioou gr&ia 
Thcro ara no watered lands, ajid mach is used only for 

TervAiU, onoo the chief town of a large district, was, along with 
^boiiring e«t«t« of Diodar, held by the Qlulfji^pXUiilfil^* 

i>.' Abmedabnd SnltAns, Terviida together with Radhanpur, 
[om, Sanii, Muujpnr Ktiulcrtij, Kantalpur, and Thnrdd, came into 
ids u£ Ftttt'h Kbdu and KuMtani KJiAu BHbjc b. raemhem o£ 
the moat [vtwerfiil fumilicq nf (injiiriit tiililos. With Tiir\'llda 
ir bead riimrters, the Babich family contiuned to hold thcso 
iniU lijl, early in the pix"btetmlh century, tbuy were taken by 
K:irii.'il-ttd-din Khiin Hnbi, and conlinneil to him by llio 
Mubariz-nl-Mulk (172:5-17^0). Tho present Baloch 
■■iaira to bo tho desamd;inta of the old Baloch family : tliiii 
unihanpur chief denies, stating that tboy are soldiers of fMftuno 
owo their riBo to his homw. But a«i ho brings forward no 
to 5iipp«'jrt. his statement, it seems |)r"babIo that the claim 
ii-rviida family is well fnnnded.* During; tho oij^htoenth 
Dtury, Li'sldes the [larta ma<lo over to tho Babi family, much of 
Tervudii cstat'e wii« filebod away from the weakened bead of the 
by his Koli and other manwdiiig neighlKiura. Of tbe fortnor 
orvada villages only sixteen remain. These wero, in 1822, 
eii to Bulocb Klidn, tlic father of tbo present chief ThAkor 
n Khiin, as thn Nnwab of Radhnnpnr failed to di^pnive hif* 
iio. Tbiikcr Xatbii Khan i» now (187^') forty-nine years old and 
tho ]H>werg of a third class mugiatratc and civil juriiidiction np 
120 (Ha. 230). Tbe state ha.1 entered into tho Lbrao regular 
mentaof 1819, 1822, and 1826. 

' Tilt fwniljr niiw ill jHMBPSiion nf Turrililii i)ri(,-iaallv tititii.' (inm Sin-L l-mmtha 
jrit liitv in)i"-Rr l.i livi- nIttc):o>t tin tj ..i1v.;-8 t'> ihv*, imrAin;; n> •■liiuil* 
.I>1) atlcn. ! ywl na iKiinilart in ii« 

i.M tnik A'l I ilic timca to »nricL - ■ st 

it i.-i|^:ia.. nl tt.L'i( i:iiu>U)(, Uis MftwAb oi K4:ilUiuinur, Uom. Uov. SoL JlXN'. 2i. 
•li«ior J. W. Waliun. 

Chapter ' 



f Bflnbiy Oi 






Horva'da, boiimlod on tho norlli bj Sni^m, on tbo coilW 
TervnJn, aii>i on thu tttiuth itnd west by Cbuildmt and SAQUt|||J 
hnii lui aren of iiiut*ty-<iix oqaare mtlen, witb a [Mipulntitm of 
soals or an averajt^u oi 08-/4 to tbe square iujIl*. It ■ 
idclnded in tho n»vennos of the Tharrid *tftto.^ A flat - . 
with B Eow larire tree!* nuar Lbe villii^ii and but little brofhwr 
bush, tho dimtitij d'XiM iu>C difTor from tlisi of Thordd. Thi^raj^ 
»u rivers, bnt many pondfl whicb in aroraf^ seasoits bold wut«r| 
March. Uiiriiig the hot scnuujn the people (lejx'ud ou i" 
W(U«r is found within a ft'W fd^l. i>f tho Burfait.', und i 
loat-her bag, ito-i. As in Thariid, tho fl*Hl i.i poor and saiidy. V< 
little grnia, bat a large qoaiitily of regotobk's, is grown fium 

MorrAda is said funnerly to havo bol'mir«d io Ttrrfca and l<» 
been oonqiU'recJ fnnu thi-m by Ch&vda kaj|iiits, who in 1 I*! 
1535), wore cTjiolIod by VisaldeVj a dosct^mhint of Lnn 
It is still in Iho j)0]*s«*Biou of the Vstfhela buusu ot ; ... 
lineal deaceDdaals of Visaldov. 

Bha'bhar !!> bounHed on tho north by Biodar, on • 
soulli by Tcn-dda, and rm tho wr^st by Snigfiro and Tliii- 
Uiti Tnilefl Innf^ and nino hrt>nd, it has an nronof nrTpntr-tvro !V|i]nn> 
milo8> a pupnlation of &t)59 souIh or an average of TS'&'J to tha 
square mile, and lu eatirautod {!fro«s yearly rormuo of £3&0 
(lU. 2500). Flat with mach bnuhwood, the climate is like that (4 
PAlanpiir. Thure anj 8om« poudM, but ia tho hot Besflonj water if 
almost cntirt-'ly drawn finm wells from thirty to fifry ftrct dedp. 
Ito soil, chietiy Bandy, yields only one crop of the oouimon grains. 

Bh£hhar, hnid by KoHThjlfcjjrdfw, has a histmy closely lik« tb« 
of the K^nlcro] estates. Originally part of tho iVmida di' 
wnfl takfn in farm by IWthud llilthiji of K^nkrej, who in 1 7 i _ : 
ndvantBge of tho prcviiilinp auarohy, to establish tho vilta^ ttt 
BhAbliar, and by dofrrpcs to ^n poftsesnion of the desertad land* 
of Turv4da. At present, under two uomtniil chiefs, the rillaf^ laodA 
are parcollod among a largo body of codcta, blmyiitl, win 
their original connection w^ith tho parent stem think th* ■■ 
independent, and submit to no control from their senior bntrii.'hi>?t. 
Britiah relatious with Rhiibhar date from 1820, when the chief 
signed an agreement like the llltdhnnpnr agreement of the Mime 
date, and in 162G an agreement with the same oondiLioDS as thiC 
of Tharad. 

' See »l»ovc, "ThMUd*'. 

' Aooording to nnoUivr McounI the ViRliela RnjimtB obtalnad pnm 
Morr&iU from lfa« dulrda Kajputs about 1M& Ugtn. Uw. ScL XXV. 37. 





Ihilrigad, an andont seat of the Rlulora Vjighclfe^Tina marblo Ctiapt«r_XIV. 
of liuiuHiM aud welU. For years its rums bavo boon 8tya<iily pUcesofXnt 

riod away iitiil art) irradually uisappcnring. Only a well or two 
kCirl A few pillars nre left above ground, tboii^fa digging brings to 
liglit btjAUtifnl marble carvings in a high stylo o£ art. 

r^-nadra'vati, or Chandra'vali, in a waste forert tf act' abont CHjjiDu'YAn. ! 

iiiik'8 K'>utb of mount Abu and a little more tban twolvo niiloa 

■ifinoi^ of Aitibtt ULavani and Tilrin ga, has the miiiaof an 

. I . gftid to have once been eighteen miles iu circuit.^ Not 

far (n*m one ot" th e main linea of traffic betwe en the coast aod 

T'...-.r India, and midway between the uhrinea oi Amba Bhav&ni 

>riuga on the one Land, and Abu on Iho other, ChaDdnivati 

ii}K)rrnnt buih as a religious aiiJ ii comnierriul foutn;. Tho 

- -if the old city, and tho tompK'aof Abn.shew the wealth and 

iifrchimts, iiud the talent of it» architects and uiaeous, and 

iiu nkill of ChundnWntJ weavem and dyers that, iu after- 

tinius, the silks and calicoes of Abmodabad owed most of their fame. 

' ■ ' -r\ty Heenw to havo lasted from tho soveuth to the bepuning 

nth neutury. Tradition gives it an earlier orifrin than 
mjiaog it tlio metropolis of Western India, when the 
..•* was panuiiuaut lord to whom tho nine catitle a of tho ' 
worn tho granrl hubunliuato fiefs.* Iu thit sovciitli centary, ' 
„ .,u bi)rJiaikto U ii Dhar. it pwjved a ])lace of rofugo to Rftja Itho j, 
Bn» by Sfjmu imribern invader, he was forced to Uee from bis 
■hj. From tht- Parimirfl itw-oa wrested by tho Chohdii chieftaina of '. 
Iu,* and, on tho establisluuout of tho Solanki dynasty o£ Auhilviida 

[Fnim .iW tr> Oi3ui<lrdvkU, ».\y» Ch>I. Tml (l®^)t t^'^ mute ruiu Itirouvh rino 
9UUIU (»rot>t nti'l the sito of tli<! cilj* U uwr^wn witit Imuliwoixj. Wesurn 
inO. ^inI:<> 1S-J3. except that moot of Ui« ruina (wvc diaappwcd, Uwatata ot 
ilg Afi "f til" ''•><>ntry rrninil icmatna UBchftom). 

. iiiil<» luDiGtiorlti.wcHl. tawdh>bav«b««ao(teofiUNul«irba 
^jit«a. Wi-stcm Inilia. IM. 
i4f ioLiij..a.v.u. It must Imvu l>oi-u li«[ori)tIwaev«nthe«tttnry. lUjutliin. 
ifli- Aliu BJiil Cbatiilr.Uikti uctu titlil froin tfao reuotoil tLiDM by th« I'ltnn&iv. 

;. \\ w,i:.,T. Ill iii.i Aiit, IV, 1'.-:. 

ii. : : -UOi*. I. SIT" 

Rjut IV'-Uwu iu luJ. Aut. IV. I It*. 


iBombaj Ots«tlMr, 



*IacM of Inter eat. 


(9-(2) therolere of Chandr&mti bocmne their Ta»n!p,* Tb» 

ijotliat Chandnivatiaiidon mount Al'. 

Hii'l Ivn-lhh cfutui'io siistlic tinn'<'f l-i 

Id 11^7, iU riiliTK i 'mliliMlao and Ij -h^asfi'- 

Dev II. (1 178-12i3yorSiiEi!vwlii,i tii aijiiiing neap Ai-n, .n 

to lioUI tliocntmuco intoliujanil. iivtuii*!- KnUj-ud-din Aibiik (II 

1210). NorwitliHtaudJng tUeii- Bi! iuon limy wi- 

duft-alod, aud put \o Hight. V,i . ili foil luto 

liandti, and, nfthu fxitJiiiHlon and tuck AiibtlvAda, it itt ]< 

ou his wuVi bu ]]luudi.*rud C'liaudrnvutJ.* Kutb.ud-diu^^ . -.,.. 

waa littlo mort^ tbn.napu»siu^raid,* and Dliiiri'ivnrali'flKon st 

tim. U">, or Ilia niicce»»i»>r, was almut lil7l> dffr; ' ' 

(lut bv tbo Clujlit'iiiK (jf Nndol, iiud thuy iii turn iil 

ChobiuH oi I)w»ra.' Thfii (1301) onmo AJo-u ' 

of tiujuTbt', aud CbaudruVEiti, with AiiliilvauiL ;i- 

itiilu iwwtT, lotit almost all indeivudunco.' An-iihyr liiuidrHl: 

compldtinl itfl ruin. In the be^ntiin)^ of thn 6ft(.-(-tith ' 

tbL' foutidioiif of Bimhi (1405), UhundrtiYiiti ceased to I 

a Uiiidit tihiuf, aud, a few years later (Mil -141^], tt.'^ buuiliL^ 

fekillt'd craftsmen wore carried (iff tn enrich the in-w cajiit 

Sultan Abiiiad (1411 -14-W).^ Since then Chandra vat i Lae rui 

foFBaki'u aud de&ulat-e. Evi-n ila ruiu.S} sold and earru.>d uiT as 

ing materials," have all but difiai>poared. Though Aome aro nw 

raodpm, most of thu Chandravuti rctnaina bchmir ■ ■■ -^ 

and twolfth ccnturica, tho hc»t period of Abu or i 

lU7}y lu 1S24 Sir Cbai-leii CoIviUe aud hi» p;uiy, 

Eiiropnan riaitora to ChandrA\-ati, found twenty marilo edit 

different sizes. One lirilbinanio temple was adr.nied with rich,T< 

Wtill executed sculptured ligures and omaiueuts in hiyrb rvlicf, nuu 

of thefi^niroH almost qitito detached. The chief imaKc^ wema thr 

headed nuilc fignrc sitting on a car with a woman on its kiicc 

large g<x>8e in front- ; two Sbivs, one with tweuty arms, tho i 

with a bulTalo on tho left, the rjf^'ht font. niiHed and renlmj 

suiall eag-lo, !7flru<i ; and a fipure of death with twoiity arms. 

beet executed were tho dancing nymplis, with garlands 

musical insti-Qincnta^ many of them extremely graeefui. Gxci?|it 

roof of the domcB, whose ont«r marble cover waa g"no, Ui© temj 

was wbito marble tlu'oughoatj the lustre of the prominent 

3 TI)o t'amiAr rulen of Abu ftckDowIedced Iho mpnaacy of Mol RAi fit^Iaol 
AnIiUvidi m2-W:). Rlx M]il&,47. tliucfih vawals, tfadr temturtM *wn 
iucludvii in <jn]»rAt. RAa JnHAitf IR7. 

. * luMTtpliunii refer to « (,Tf;it liattltf Iwtwi-c-n tbp I'.innlnFof din- • r} 

Choh am o f K ftdtil ftl-out tilt' miil'llfe i-f tlif t« clUli cuuturj'. WmUi .h, 

> Itiriri Mirtt-i-AliniiMli. !M ; Kas MiU. IM». ltd. 

•Tlw rwliert tcm]>le fft A liu, tlmt nf the )>r>>tli«n Teipdll unci Vaatn|MU, WM 
beeiin im*' -f- r 'hi« inTttMuiH <11W- 12*7)- KwinJowiB Arehiltcture, 2S^ 

•tVi:: . 132; KiailAU.ill. 

'An II I'll mount AIju spcAks nfftCholtili prittooof Chuidtlt-iti (u| 

laSS. B« Mllt^ 2Ii ; Ind. Ant. II. 2G6. 

' Wwl-rn Imiia, 129. 

* In 182A tbv ntntaiiui vtra bang diJIy ililApiilatuI, Urn Oinnu- ; nu ■ , 
■urVilcft to An>- wbt> hAd UilAUid aoncy to bu> tli«in. \\tatviu lu-.:..:, L;i 

* l-Vit'UMvu'B Arcbiteictun^ t!39. 




nndimmed.^ Near the templo, two riclily caoTred columns, supporting Chapter XIV. 
ftn entablature and sculptured pediment, are probably triumphal places oflntere 
pillars, kirti stambh, like those at 8idhpur.' When visited by Mr. 
Burgess in 1874, of the twenty buildings not more than three or 
four were left. 

'Deesa, north latitude 24° 14', oast longitude 72° 5', with, in 1872, Dkesa. 

inclnding 5940 living in the cantonment, a population of 12,917* 
souls, stands on a rising ground on the east bank of the Banfis river. 
A low wall that once surrounded the town is now in utter ruin.* 
About two miles north-east of the town is the British cantonment GintonmeiU, 
with a force of one regiment of Native Cavalry, a battery of Royal 
Artillery, and a regiment of British and of Native Infantry. 
In 1820, the plundering and marauding habits of the chiefs 
between Cutch and Abu, and the incursions of the desert ajid 
Parkar Khosas into Vagad and north-west Gujarat, induced 
Government to assemble a small field force on the banks of the Ran, 
and was ultimately (1821) the cause of a brigado being stationed at 
Deesa. The effect was satisfiictory ; disorder ceased, and from the 
strong positions held by outpusts, order was for years maintained 
nnbrokon." The cantonment, with its population of 5940 souls of 
■whom 3031 were Uindus, 977 Musalmans^ 1843 Christians, and 
89 'Others', is commanded by a Brigadier-General. Sanitary 
arrangements are controlled by a cantonment committee. The 
station has five hospitals, four of them military and one a lock 

In the town, though tho houses are crowded and irregular, and the Tomt. 

streets narrow and dirty, the water supply is good and the public health 
better than in Palanpur. Decsa, under tho name of Faridabad, 
is said to have once boon a flourishing town." Like Palanpur it 
camo under the present chief early in tho seventeenth century. 
Of 3582 the total 1 872 population, 1 784 or 49'80 per cent were Hindus, 
and 719 or 20'08 per cent Musalmans. Deesa gives its name to 
tho Desaval sub-division of Vanias chiefly Vaishnavs in religion 
and found as traders in all parts of Gujarat. Tho Musalmans, 
husbandmen and constables, are poor. The Vauia traders, both 
Brahmanic and Jain, aro well-to-do. Without any special local 
manufactures, Deesa, on tho highway between Marwar and Gujarat, 
and as the grain market for tho country round, is a more important 
place of trade than Palanpur. Tho chief e.xports and imports are 
tho same as those of Palaupnr. Deesa is the head quarters of a 
state sub-divisional officer, ^elmldtir, with limited revenue, civil. 

' Western India, 135. » Ria Mala. 195. 

' The present (1879) population is returned at 13,103 souls, lodged in 4542 houses. 
Of tho whole 37G8, in 1502 houses, are within the militaiy, and 9335, in 3040 
bouses, within the civil limits of tbe cantonment. 

• In 1828 the waU was in repair. Sir A. Bumes' M.S. Irt April 1828. It was begun 
hy B^iilur Khdn (1750), and finished by Shamshei Khin early in the present contary. 
Haniilton's Dcacription of Hindustiin, I. 628, 

" Sir A. Bumea* MS. 1st April 1828. 

" According to local story it was once the head of 500 villages. Hamilton's Deocrip- 
tioD of Hindust^ 1. 628. 




ClmpUrXIV. and criminal powers. Tho only objects o{ intcrost uvj 
I ac«8 of Interest. i^'^'^I^ticu of tbo cIiiuE, at presuut In bad ropair, a lar^ 

jj building richly carved and surrouuded by a wril hnilt wn