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G A Z E T T E E n 





Under Govermnerit Oi'dcrc. 

Bombay : 


138 Jt 


As far tu posNililc t^e names of ooDtributor* are given lu the body 
ofiliebouk. Spt-ctal acknavs-led^inenis are doe to the ifpntloinoti 
niinipd in the subjoined table : 

CBiSF Ooxrutcioas. 


8CW1CT; . 

C<do»el L '.'. Bui-iuii 

Populntton ;Lno<]Ailmttiislratfori ■.Jo'tlcfi; 

KeTenuo and Finiincr . and Itntructiou. 

Major H. U Nntt 

Agrioultun! aod Uome-breDdiag. 

Usjor J. M. BuDtcr 


Mnjor A- \V. Uiiird ..- 

1. . f or (>utcb ; Qulf of Cunbnj nxcept 11m 

llt^to^«ld and »lting fnrtToM, bikI Uw 

Lidlt: Run. 

XttttutviiiiDt-Coluiiel W. HcoU. 


Mbjof p. 0. Jackwin 

Arareli UnliAIs. 

K. I^Sim^ Esq 

'IVidv itnd [Uitifidl. 

Hnjiir J. n. Lliivd ... 

AB{K'i-t -, Hillfl ; Bivcrs ; ainl (Icolugj-. 

TW di^tricil accounts proparod by Lioutouani-Colgaul A. M. 
Phillips, Lieiiteuant-Ci^lonol C. Wo<lehonse, Major H. L, Kutt, uij 
Mftjiir E V. Stfli^ wure of greal uw, 

Tlio Cotupiler lui» receive*! cordial help from all the. Kiitbiiw&r 
Stat«s, Bad particularly from JanAgad. Bhirnagar, Limbdi, Vale, 
and Wadhwau. Mi'is&rs. Vaje&Iiankar Oavri-' BojibliHi 

Maiiishatikikr, and Uariddsi VihAmUs have supplir : i inlunna- 

tion for Bhivnagar, Vala, and Wadbwiu renpectivoly. 

ArhfSrya Val«l)liji Ilaridat has by his general acbylai ly knowlf^lgo 
of the hij(ti)ry of the province and spocially by his Waneki-it acquire- 
incntM been of material assiatance, Mcser*. Bdwa Miah. Mauishankar 
JotAuhatikar, and many others have also boon of much service, the 
former fmnt his acquaintauce mth I'ersiau. and the latter from hii 
anliqiinrian kii'iwtcdge. 

HreHident uf thti K&thi4wir 

fJojitMh, AfrtI J«ii.i. Hdjaathiinik Court. 







Chftpter I- — Oeicription. rjuis 

PosittoD; Bonndarieti ; Sab-Divmons; Aspect; HUls; Gulf of 
Catch ; Gulf of Cfttnbay ; Bivers ; Creelu ; Islands ; Wella ; 
IU9»nroin ; Lake« ; Rons or Salt Waatos ; Geology ; E&rtb- 
qnmkes i Romfoll ; Cttmitto 1.89 

Gbapterll.- Frodaction. 

Uinenls ; Foresta ; Domcfltic Animals , Wild Animabt ; 
8nalce«;Fish ,.. .. 90*107 

Chtpter in. — FopalAtiim. 
Censos Details ; Rajpnta ; K&this; Bibrils ; Ahin; BUto ; 

Chinnt; RabAris : Bliarridfl ; Men; Mahiis ; KolU; 

Kanbis «. «. 108U2 

Brilmtaos ; Viaiis U3-liS 

Craitsmen ; Sailors ; Fiahers ; Beggara ; Servants ; Leather 

Work«n ; Depnas»d Claaiai ; Labooren ; Wandering 

ClaMw 14» 151) 

UunlmiiM ; ChriBtians ; Parsii 160-160 

Villages; Hooaes; Dross; Pood;CoiBtntiDittos i Movements.,. 170-174 

Chapter IT. —Agriculture. 
Soil : Rich Tracta ; Uasbandmen , Seoaoos ; Wells ; Manure ; 
Fitild ToqIk ; Carta i Firld Lnboar, Rotation; Procesaee; 
Crops i FaniiDea ., ... 175-108 

niapter V. — Capital 

Capitaluts ; InrcstQienta ; Cnrrcncj ; Cankera ; Moncjlcnd- 
iog ; Bocnrity , Borrowers ; Interest ; Book-keeping ; 
[nsanmoo; OsmbUng Tnioaaotious ; Mortgages ; Forced 
Ubonr ; Wagrs . Prices ; HeosarM „. ... 1^-218 

Chapter VI— Trad« and Crafts. 
OldRoBtM; RoaiU; fUilwaja ; Bridgn; Toll.^ ; FerriM ; 

Vioels ; Rest Uoumm ; I'ost OETioes ; Ught Hoostm ... ^19S35 

Porta; Tmda Crotnis : Fairs ; Markets ; Shopkeepers ; Car- 
ricfs ; Pcddlan ; Imports and Exports ; Crafts ; Unilds . 23il-3GC 


Chapter VII. — History i-io 

Kmly Hindus (u-C 227 - A.i'. tj-'UJ) ■, ChudAsumaH (a.h. 875) ; 
Jctliva.t (a.i>. DOO) ;MnhDiuduf fibaziii (a.u. 10:^4) ; IMulruj 
(A.p. 042); JbaliiB (a.i>. lU'JO) ; Sidhnij JaynHiiiffh (a.d. 

112.-.): Oobils (a.d. 126(1) 2tir-2M;t 

M ulKitnmadan Viceroys (a,i>. 1^-17 ■ 1 73'*) ; Portugucat' (A.l). 
1536); Mai-atlwH (a,d. I"0t-18u7) ; Colonel Walker's 
ScltU'itiL-nt Ca.d. 1807-8); Uritiah Pammount (1820): 
liuforms (1S03 1883) 281-314 

Chapter VIII. -The Land. 

TcQtii'Cei; CesscB ; Taxes ; MihIu of AsscsHnicnt ... ■.. 31S-^t2:i 

Chapter IX.— Justice. 

SyBtom ; OrdcaU ; Piracy ; Outlawry ; Reforms ; Conrl« ; 
Policc;Jail8 324-33(.» 

Chapter X.— Bevenne and Finance. 

RcvcDQc; Transit Duties ; Local Fundh ... ... ... 337-34:2 

Chapter XI.— Instruction. 

Subouls : Tminiug College .: Kujkamar Colk-gC' ... ... 3-13-34!> 

Chapter XII.— Health. 

I'lHgoos ; Hospitals aud Uispcnsaries ■ Vocciiiatiou ... ... 3jO-3o4 

Chapter XIII.— States and Places 3Ai>-i.>07 


INDEX 713-7::i 


fme 07, line 10, Tor port md/orl. 
Piigv W, lino SO, tur nortk rMd lamik, 
F»tse TV, Unv 5, (or Upie raul Cplita. 
Pa^ 91. Una W, for SaurtUa nrnH SanrMa. 

„ ItitB 41, tor m^/h read Hhti'Ua. 
i'tgH 101, ll&e 8. for A<7/ r-aH iL-^;. 

yf Hoc 16, for /(« read tic*. 

,. liiM 3d, for 5»iA or £Mr mail jAJitw. 
r«g« 102, |[dc 22, Tor (^Aarfu rcul fcifjM. 
Vagv 10», nob) 2, for FUrikhi-SmitIk mad TdrUth-l-SoraHi. 
i'lfo 110. line 6. for a li^xAnnmimf retu) a» hoiwimL 
Pafe 131, Udc 45. Tor Vruvv'ji A'JUMnrf nmt KAumdn* raul Mioecii Trt^^ 

niui the K\d<-)utr» mut JKAamiftu. 
■"r^ 132, liao 4S, far ^niM nNkd ^(fni. 
PagD lfl3. Imp 10, lor iW»jirMJn)i'« nod Mjluaice. 
Page S33, line 37* tor taria rwul MtiU, 
l^tge M9, Utw 2S, for/onuf read Mwmf. 
fafte 36S, lint 14. for narOt-teul nwd norM-toEM. 
P>^ 376, line fl5, for Irmple, Vioangdivi md ronj^/f o/ F(iaaN>T(/^, 
rage 381, line 33. for WaJhmia raut L'mMi. 
Pago 3K5, line .13, for PI'ivfAiniH nud Limlidi. 
Pkgt 9M, line 'il, for Talde rtiui Taiaja. 
V»g!> 996, Hue 46, far A/i« i«mI m in. 
Page 307, Hue 31, tar a read Hit. 

P«(p) 427. lino 4t, tat novi t)/ Ahmad' Juui Tt*d nuuStiiKxhddr f^AhmaiinffOid, 
Page 4ai>, line 23, for ww/n^nw/ reucl ?>m«/'. 

„ line 33, tor laJit road lAol. 
Pag« ftfl. line IS, for maA mod iAton and foe lien read Jkwi^M. 
Page |iI7. Uao 3), for /laitlar AH mul //(i«jnr ^Wi 
Page t4S&, litiu S7. (or dWd^d Aim read cOHtiJiuuf. 
n^p 9l(t, line 36. for .dbui road Una. 
n&ge OSS, llii« ^. (or •ii' or t«uI /or. 
Page 577. tine IS, For eanjumlioM nad rOMfrjuutton. 
PajfB 607, line *7. for owing mad o«r>MH(7. 
Paga 618. lim 3$. far Unhatak read Jfaiaa». 
., line 47, for iVnfai/aA read MaUuta. 

P«tte S72, hue 3, for V I J road Vl^ 

Pane ^3. Uds 33, for mnnd nUa'ja rmd rtr«r<!il rAe riflat/et. 

Page GOI, line n, fi>r d^tarlftt read Ifofhal dtpartfid. 

hmo 60.'^. liiiv 13, fo( JMf«>N^ (Arw (w-o AroMf^Ai read JM|nJjtjr tmnfghl. 


Ka'thia'wa'r, as peninsular Gnjar^ ia now called, lies on the 
mast of India between 20" -W and ^^ 25' north latitude and 
&' and 72^ 20' eaat longitude.^ The poninsula Laa an 
of about 23,500 sqnare miles, a population, according to the 
II oeuos. of abonfc 2,600,000, and au «?stiuiRtod yearly revenue of 
"£1,530,000 (Rs. 1,53.00,000). Of those totals about 1320 miles of 
arc5ii, 100,000 people, and £2G,G00 of revenue belong to the Gogha 
and Dbandhnka sub^triaions of Ahmadabad ; about seven miles of 
AToa, lO^SOO people, and £6800 of revenue belong to the Portuguoso 
island of Diu; aud about 1320 miles of area, 148,000 people, 
And £10,900 of rcvonno belong to Ills Hivhnoss the Gnikwri.r'g 
paaaessiona. There remain, for the territory which forma the Political 
AgvMicy of Kdthi^wdr about 20,880 miles of area, 2,180,000 people. 
And £1 ,i88,700 of revenue.* 

I KithiAw^ is a sqaare peninsula standing boldly oat into the 
■rabian sea between the smaller projoctiun of Catch and the 
Kaight line of the Gnjardt coast. Its physical featnros snggesb 
Bit it uny once have been an i-tlaud or a group of islands of volcam'o 
Wgin. Half way along its northern border stretches a 6at desert 
Called the Itan, which in the rainy season becomes a Hlmllow lake 
■ad in thn dry season is bare of vegetation aud studded with 
of salt. Between Kilthiiiwiir ami the Gujardt mainland a 
ad, wiih occasiounl marBhes and jgols, shows that at 
one timo a c baPiiel ipiued the iCan wifh tlie ^nlf of Cambsv,. and 
that the wholn nortnem mat^n of K < i , from the gulf o( Cutcfa 

, .1 — ^f pf Cambny, was once wa-iiiiu ii\ the «ea. Ihc silt of tho 
I branch of the Indus, of the Lani, the Banitq, the Saiasvuti, 
' i,aud tho S4barmati,haa gradually filled the shallow sea bod 
i it fell, and has joined north-eaBt KAtliiiwdr with the main- 
land. Except this alluviiil tract, thosorfncc of KrUhidwdr iseverywhere 
Dndnlating or broken into hillH. The highest eminences lie in an. 
ftrs •€»»« the south of the {wninsola, the loftiest sammita from west 

Chapt«r 1.1 


' Thi UtUn'li^ iwtl lonoitutlM Rre Ukoa from tb« ]tid«x Chvi of th« Gnat 
* 01 ibM< WM and |K>iiuUtin flgorw an bill; acouate. Tbe tvvmut 




to eut liciD^ tho BardiU which reach 3000 fe4>t, tbo OshAm 
Dear DhorAji, tho Ciirnlir At JuuiLgad S6fU} fout aboTO thu a 
the nummiu of the Gir from l&OO to 2100 feet, and Shntntr^ 
l{t77 foet. North of thit oro of hilts is a rough tract, U 
■oulU-wtst to Qurth-<-UMt, i}w hi^hi^«t suiumiu m which Ul. ;... . 
inoro than 70O or 800 foot abovo the sea. Theae hilla fall a« 
towards tho north, tho lane conspicuoaa emineooe being- an isokt 
hilt at C'hotita 1173 feet hi^'h. North tknd east of Chotila a n 
rolliiif;; plnm, merging graclualty into the Kan im i! >i and t 

Nal on the enat, contains only one ranf^ of iinpurta MAaA 

hills about 800 feet hijrh. The highe»t table lan<3 io tbu peainfl| 
in the centre, fmm which rivers run towards every eide. The ^Sf 
roeks nro limestone in the south and sandstono in the north, both 
good qoality for bnildiog. The higher hills such lu tho Gimir s 
vranito ; tho lowor hilla, trap and baaalC. Carious straiffht dykes 
bwolt, from fiftj to a handred foot hi<^h and many milea long, m 
common in the centre and 8outh-e»»it ol the prorinco. In the oldi 
parts of Kathiiwdr the rock is nesLT the sorfoco and water is bw« 
and abundant. 

The isolated position of Kilthidwiir did not aeclado it from d 

fDDoral hifltorj' of India nor protect it against attacks from V 
t appears to have acknowledged the soprcmacy of the earl i 
dynasties and to have suffered invaaiou and conqaoBt by Ui 
Ifuhammadikua, aud jmrtiAt subjection by the ManLthj&s, to ill 
letter of whoin, as represented by the Poshwn and the OAikiff) 
most of the chiefs became tril>ntary. Uere may also bo mentioai 
the incursion of t he Kfithi s, a tribo who came H]>parentJy from til 
north-west and established themsolrcs by force of arms in t| 
ceutro of K&thi&w(ir, on lands which they wrested From tli{ 
landholders^ or, on the dccny of the Empire, from the Muhammada( 
government. Tho rest of tho history of KithiiiwAr is madd i^ 
of the conquests, vicissituden, feuds, and alliances of tho chiefl 
mostly Rajputs, who have inhabited tho country from a remofl 
date. That, until very recent times, there was little secariey I 
life and property, is shown by the bastions and curtaiua wuc 
surround all the largo towns and even many of tho villi ^ 
especially in tho south. To this day too can be seen iu m 
villages a solitary masonry tower where wafcch was constantly 
and from which an alarm was sounded directly a roving 
of maranders was seen in the distance. On hearing the cai 
the cattle were hastily driven from pasture, and tbo inhabit 
prepared for defence. Most of those towers are fttill in 
condition, but some am miued. They sometimt^ stand in a pt 
the soUtary remnant of a once prosperous vilUgo. Since, in 18 
tho British Governmeut mediated to protect the K^thjAwdr 
from the MardthrU and from each other and to guarantee rigl 
of property as they then stood, peace and order have given 
opportunity for a great incroasy of prosperity. I^ind has acquircdj 
new value. Ijargo areas of waste and bush have disnppearoil befc 
the plough, and the long tract of wo odlan d known as the Gir , 
stretrhing from near Meudarda to Pa litaaaj is tho last remnant 
the ancient forest. 


I laudlorilti' rights !d Kdtliidw&r are bcld b; tbo roling races 

I ATO tbo faiuiliott of furruor ur oxiii>tiDg chiefs mostly Rajputs, bat 

eluding a few UubnniDiadan familiea and the Kiithi coumunitiea. 

je tenanta aro Kitnbis, KoMa, and other miscciiaucous tribes. 

*Tho teiuutte bave no largo or well deGcod rights, and tho 

;e system of India, if it over provailod, ia not now maintaiDod 

Qsaal strength. Yet the agricultural fKtpulatiun is fairly 

}&peron6 as it is nowhem dense, and cultivates a soil of tolerable 

ttlity, while tbo chiefs protect their tenantry from any atringent 

ion of their civil courts. The staple of the province is cotton 

]h ia produced of good qoality along with other rich produce in 

6oath<eastem, north-Mstem and central districts, and alternately 

ith food grains in tho north-weatom. The alluvial plain 

tween tho Han and the gulf of Cambay producoa wheat. 

cotton IB purchased by local tradcnt auu by the agents of 

irchanta in Bombay, and is exported in largo quantities from 

portji estabti:jhed on the creeks and estuarie;) which art; found in 

of the maritime states. The province is enriched by tho prico 

for its extensive exporta^ and the numerous petty courts of the 

fa forniflh a great demand for home-grown commodities and 

Bkilled labour. The Eacilities for export by sea arc not yot 

y developed, but the Central India railway has penetrated 

Ubi&w£r from the north-east and it( prolonged through (bo heart 

[fac peuiuBuIu by a railway owned by two of tho principal stntee. 

ih rents hare been sobatitntcd in some of tho leading states for 

It in kind, and the agricnltaral popnlation hare thug been placed 

position to profit by the iucroaaing activity of trade. The least 

iprovahle class, the most impecunious and tho least intelligent, 

the petty landlords known as GartUids, the romot« deaoendants 

the ruling families, who are too poor and too ignorant to welcome 

~ iLary reforms. The above are the churactcristics of the jiopula- 

in nil parts of Kithi&wflr, whether the ruling class be Jhala, 

ul or Jiduja llijpuls, Mosalm^ns, or Kfitbis.' 

province is bounded on the sonth nnd mnth-wesi hy tho 

kfaian soa, on the north-west by the gulf of Cutcb, and on the 

by the gtilf of Cnmbny. from tho apex, of these two gnl£s, 

K&Bs of Catch nudCnmbny, n-aste trikcts half salt morass half 

dcflcrt, stretch inland towards each other and oomplete the 

KAthuiwAr, except one narrow neck which counecU it on 

■oast with thajnai plan d ol'fliijnnlt. ___^^_ 




^T!io oM (ir popular division of the province is into ten districts, 
V^ilvid in the iiorth-easL, Machhukdntha in the north, Hii&T in 
the north-wost) Okhitmandal in the west, Rarda in tho south-west, 
>t%A and BdbriAvild in the south, Gohilvdd in the sooth<«ast, 
irraiya in the east, add K.-ithiflwtir in tho centre. 

T ip i n tho north, with an »rea which may approximately be 
ron wiTl?^ aqoaro milos, takes its name from the tribo of Jh&la 
jputo who own tho principal estates. It includes various sab- 



> The HonounMc J. B. r«le, C&L 


ctXuSb J out 

^n»g ■long ll»« 

mtkft. II 
'th» Jf«wl^ » afeite «l JraiyJ. tfa bmU holdiag 

■TTvrTihi9-ShC^* * k«ljise ^v*** Soaded dniw tb<> soatb.west 
imin*. wbK^ ■tmc&r* wkta^ the cmM 1k«v«m IfaTi'lMnJAr imd 
MAHuBrpmr uid fham in muaa wilh tW bkc* or yimr* ftilunLed 
vitbia iu liiirils ; tbe KnliMalhm wkicli is the cciontrj on the baokv 



Ill© Noli river tramediatelj to the eoath of fcheGhed ; jh e NiJglier, ' Chapter I. 

narrow atrip stretching ^ong the coast Ivom MAdliavpur t<j tlie Description, 

>Btiers of iMbndviUi ; and t he Qir. an extensive tract uf hill and . 

>rest in the interior of the dtriSST^ 8ub.D.TUi«««. 

DAbawXvAd, a small district of nboat 500 square rniips^ lies on the JJdiaridwW. 
lit twlweon 8orath And Gohilrild. It takes its name from the 
[B^baniU, a cl»n origiiiftUy settled near ThAn, whence they were ' ' , 
{drirea by the KAthi immigration. Besideii numerous potty states 
lielfl nnucr complirated t«iiiireflj this district includes the Janjire 
Habahi.1* possessuoTi of jAfarabad. It is now absorbed in Sorath^ 

GouilvAd talcee its name from the Gohil Rajputs who own tho Oi^Htgd 

[grtjBXc'r part of it. It lies along tho gulf of Cambay, and has an 
of aboot i20d square miles. In addition to the Gobi! gtstes 
Rh<gTi»ip^p^T'^lit^ p» r^thi^and Vala i it comprises the Gqghfi 
I 1 of Alimiulabad and t^c PAmnagar anb-divisTon of 

Jai- lib was acquired by Diim&ji GAilcwAr from LAthi when he 

[tnamt'd the chief b daughter. 

UvpsAavAiY A, now absorbed in GohUrdd, is tho smallest of all Untitat 

Itbe eub-JjviKU)Ufi, with an area of about 160 square miles. It 
Itonofaus tho gulf of Cambay on the east, and stretching back along 
like Kintli bank of the river Shatranji, is surrounded inland by the 
[districts of Gofailv&d. 

KAtuiAw Au, or tho KAthis* Inud, occupies tho centre of tho pro- KiMwh/Or. 

[Tiiice, a<i<l Iws au area of about +0W aquare miles. TUo south-western 

pnrt uf this division is occupied by tho state of Jgjt^ur under Vila 

KAiliiA. In the remaining portion are tite sub-diTiaions uf VasAvn d 

iboIonRing to a family of DesAia, KbArApiit ^ A lag-DhAnA oi, anA 

[V — II- ^ £^ j^j^ contains the minor Hwdin^fs ot C botna and 

ir uf the KhAchur KAtliis, SadAmrn, aud Dhifndalp nr of 

iru.i Kithw, and thn snb-di'vTsTnnsof Amrcli y hAw'- and 

Dhautarvdd which wore acquired by Baroda from tHe NawAb of 

lnaiZgaT*and noighbouriug KAthi landhuldcrs during the famine of 

612. It is now absorbed in Sorath. 


The lands included in these ten districts fall into three clas ses : 
Territiiriea unilcr Ahmadab ad comprising the sub-divisions of Dbaii- 
dhukn in .IhiLlrtvAd .ind of Gogba in GohilrAd ; territories under 
in dflyonduD t gOvemmeuts comprising tho Portuguese sutlleuic-nt 
of Dm and the possiiHsious of His Hignuoss lKo GAikwArof Bunidn, 
uaftioly the district of Okhdmandal, and tho sub-dirisions of Amreli, 
DfaAri and DhAntarv&d in KAthlAwAr, Kodiu^r in Somth, and DAm- 
nagar in QifhilvAd; one huudreil nud uinety-threo estate s of local 
dufifuuuLlaadowDenj whlcb embrace all Ibe remiuniag Uuids of 

1 Ai^>^Titij> t4MMUvdi)(TVis&, Bom. I>t. Soc. I. 2S4}. Uiis bact tool its tumo 
n^x III fotatman tU« Nut»ir RajpiiU. It ienot MS^tuuyirbAt jtoojrlonro 
» ' - ffjuurty mint xl KkTMAr uul IJwUinr in UMneot timaa, but thcrt- u» 
N ' ' I with KlDiiiwiir. XAgA* arv aUn mentioned m ad 
l» Milt (InJ. Atit. IV, ll»7), Nitchcr w ii ttri^ oi» the »ix 
n.; <lio ubod Uiiilt uf PoHMoilAr uid JniUgsd and ronvkly 
FiJ«mh*<t. Itia rMlly Ndglwror not iihai sad hMOotilni: 
-,, L....ticlJ. W. Watwm. 


IW proprinton of tfaese 193 estotee vaiy from the Jam q{ 

Kwiwgir. tk) lord of 3800 eqiure miles witb a popalatifm of about 

And » j«ftrij rerennc of £280,000 (R& 28,00,000), to tbe 

of dM fr»rtWB oC » village. Utile more titan a peaoftott 

mho ii cAm Inrd preBwd to fnrnisli bm share of tribotu. In IMS 

«i» K^j of cAiwftaiBS iims diitirniutcd among sevon claasta vith 

IksfltkukB Bitd pririki^tt Tvrj-ing from full ciril and crimiual 

j ttii w I ii tfli oD to pomm hUle moro than noniiDaL Somo idea of th« 

obtritw^oQ odt tJbe work of administering K^tbiilw^ may be fo: 

Vjr UTMfing Uw «Btal«a of the seren classes of chiefs under 

jiQiipa. la the fint sroap Dodor ordinarr circumstances 

MH^pBoai is in tiia nuiaa of the diief^; iu the second 

tht m%mMmmt u ahand botweon the chicU and tho Polf 

Afivat WM ki> Msisto ata ; in the third group the burden 

aa miaiafa a t ion note almost eatirdj on the political officers. 

6i«t KTOop with a total area of 14^810 sqaaro milca a popnlal 

of 1,S&3,W0 and a ^-iwl.r rpvenae of £975,605 (Gs. 97,65,0o0j, 

iobliMlea Aa tanUmoi of thirteen chiefs, fuar of the Srst atul 

viaa of ik» moood grade who hare fall ciril and criminal powers, 

Mkd w h o— ■HMgeoNnt is, under ordioary circumstance^ neither 

^jnnlHMtttfd aor diroctlj conirulled br the Puliticsl Agent. The 

^^^^■d liTonp, with a total area of 3445 square miles a popnlaiioa 

^Ww.iUO and a jrarlj r«Teni» of £211,891 (Bs. 2I,lM10l, 

tucladcs the torrilorr of twcntj-B re chief s, seven of the Lhird, 

■Ci T'lirth, nine of tl\d nKh and two of the Bixth gnda 

ii ■ ^.>lm''thinf; It'^s than fall civil and criminal jarisdictioni 

whoso }H>wcrs are stipplcmontod by those of the Political Agent. 
.X^ie tlnni gr\tu» with a total area of 2625 square miles a popatation 
^' 2i>4,USd and a wariy revonne of £130,G40 (IU. 1.1,0(>,400), 
rludos the torrilones of 155 pot ty chicfa of the sixth seventh and 
in^jiirisdictional gimdes nndiT Ihp thdna circles or whose powers of 
Iministerinji* [h>l)roand jastico have almost entirely boen transferred 
the political i>tllo»r«. 

For purposoB of gtmeral supervision aod control the prorinoe ia 
livided iuto fo ur distrieta or pranlt, JhAlAvAd, HAlAr, Sorath, and 
GDhilvitdj ench of which is partly coutrullud and jjortly managed by 
a political assistant. Jlmliivad in tho north-east, with an area of 480« 
square miles a population ol -tlO.o^H) and 706 villages, comprises the 
first class state uf DlirAngadni, the second class states of V&ukdncr. 
Limbdi and Wadhwiin, the third class states of lAkhtar, S^la, and 
Cbnda, the fourth class states of Muti and Bojiloa} tbe fiftli class 
states of PAtdi and Vanod, and fifty-three estates under the chi 
of officers called Hutndarii^. H iUilr , to the north-west 
centre of the peninsula, with on area of about 7060 sqnare 
miles a population of G40,200 and 1229 villages, comprijies the 
first class state of NavAnagaTj the second class states of Morvi, 
Dhrol, Rdjkot and Gondnl^ the fourth class states of Kotra, Vitpur 

[BoabKy 0«ntiMT 

, hvm ibe Kfid nndy if 

a the mtft cDvervJ with 

MBla ci ihe Gil, when 

gladm ; {rom the JcsdIoM 

wfcpTJ vhere tHrougboat 

iho bjb; from Um 

Andwatarieu in the 

water- wke^ oredc the 


aad JliiUvti: 

oTor th«' 


_ _ 'aidn from Oopoit] 
aad 120 fram OkmmamlBl 
Tl» HTiet7 TB3n from Arati at 

tlw head «f ^ B^ o' OnW; to Oap»*^ u putly a low. muJd ly 

^M. mJ f^ aapdr and rodcy. '~ 
Ho Ua Iwi pr aM at a snoot 
- Bold 
wooeed e*di otlrar, the wn 
k fay vilk diwcw tf tiinag >iiwli aad fe«v7 laden. coitoD craft, and 
Ifce ikwi^ nkad tte liiiw cl vfate breakers •pp™r deep greea 
Ivoad MtaarsBa an vitm% of rculiug pUiits and 
«i flnvoff lAa. 1W OM ksadnd and sixtj mOea fraa 
to tfaft peat oi Orti— fcl j^RODenltjr flat ud friDgwl with 
a fine of wiadhlo ro aad hJB s. Tim oae hnndred and twdsty 
sSea fn»B OkltAaaadal poini to the head of tlie golf of Catch U 
tboogbo^ a ba* of Icnr reefe and mMt fbredbo rc fringed with 
maagtvnm, low iq;1j etrrtdtes otten ti«» A nr ui e d ^ the inimgo into 
shifting mmm o< rick and caetle, ahadj grons, and stiU lakes. 

The eoui Gne^ whether nrnddv foreshore, olilb, or sand hOIs, is 
broken at intnrals br the mooihs of nrers and credo, throu^^h 
whkh, eepeciallT in the Ghed d gtn cts of t he soo th, the sea gams 
•eeeos to a ciaia of salt wast ea ooTored tn pahs with mangrove 

Behind the nit wastes, Iiee a belt of flat coltiTated ooiuitry. 
In parts, as in the ftoath.west and aoaU, ii holils trc«h'waicr and 
is of great fertility. Moistened bj the sea dews from the 
Boath and ennchod by the diminam bom the greater and losaer 
Gir which boand it on the north, this strip of oonntry cailcti ttta 
KAebcr. higblj cultirated, dotted with groves of shady txves, 
and with many rich wstfred fields, is one of the most favom^ 
parts of the province. Cnliko the Nilgher, roost of the country 
ui?ar the coast is cliarg«d with salt, and after the «ar]y cro{» have 
bocD hsrvestod, itn hedgelees fields and bare treeless etri>tehu8 are 
in the hic;hef>t degree monotonotis and nninterosting. to many 
parts, eepeciallr along the north-east frontier, the salt rises t<« tbo 
surface and cororf Inrjre areas with a while crast ; while in JhjiUvod 
aod t he BhfU, as the hot weather advances^ wcUs and streams 

tnm salt, and the people are driven to the rillago ponda for a scanty 
ipply of had water. In the BbAJ land along tho north-eaat, 
inng the rainy season (Jane •October), the coaotry is andcr water 
between the lew iaiund rillogo extps communicatiDU ia cat off 
■pt by boat lo the cold weather (November-February) the BhAl 
cohered with miles of unbroken wheat fields. The harvest 
[ebniary-SfiLrt:h) is a time of life and activity. Bnt when the crop 
lod, this black levrl tract, open to a burning sun and swept by 
Is aud clouds of taUt dast, in a region to be abunued almost 
carefully aa the noighhouring Ran. Beyond those coast tracts 
eoontry is a roUug_£lain watered by niunoroas streams and 
>kea by groups and mayea of hills. 

Chapter L 


Kilhi&nAr hills belong to one of two syatem a, whiob, running 
-«aat and aonth-weat, form irregular cliams, crossing the country 
iM%rIy parallel itnes. 

Of these the northern series begins with some wild-Iookinj^ Iwirren 

,, which ri»e near the centre uf the province a little to tliwoaatof 

town of Kotra (Pitha}, and stretch northward in worn masses or 

w ridges, nntil, about the centre of the chain near the towns of 

Lnandiiiir and Bhidloi they form plateaus over lOOO feet above tho 

Throwing olT branches to the right and left the range again 

WB into a snceoasion of rocky heights, which carry on the 

dirvctxm northwanl past Vilnk^ner until they end in the 

near the town of Morvi. Of the two hmncheH llirown off from 

central range, that to tho north of tho RAjkot and WodhwAn 

is known as the Mflndav range ; while that to the south of that 

is called the Tbinga chain. These pass reapectirely the towns 

and Chotila, and the northern branch sinks finally into 

in the neighbourhood of Dhrj&ngadra at the north-cast 

f the peuiuBula. The left branch begins with stony plat«aa 

barrou ridges, and gnulualty develupcH into a socoeasion of 

rocky rangeit, which tie for the most part north and south and 

llow oaoh oOiur in detached groups, repretiented by the hills that 

from KothAria to Kotro-Sing^i, the Dallaa hilts from R^lilvar 

BhAyivador near Uplota including those near I^Ipar, and tho 

hills stretchiug Irom DhAuk to KhAgasri, each group growing 

as they stretch towards the south-west, where the series 

in a bold isolated chain of hills, known as the Barda 

tains, which ran north and south nearly parallel to tho coast 

t twenty miles, and. with peaks rising to 2U0U feet, orerlook 

of the Arabian sea at rorbaudar. 

ing generally the norlluTii senys of hills is characterised by 
. In their eaatom extension they preeont low ridgoHoE white 
lb sandstone,' and porple green or grey shales,* through 



UTotlioTi S€f1n? 

' Valaithb (inArna ur Torkt^l in ouiny parU of JUUvid, and the wUMlltonw of 
labigsdni m fam»u4 thrr)T]Kh''><>< Hnjarit. 

'TImm AalM. ImHak the ' ;U Mftid t« (>A KvkiUbla DMT ChotiU, were tiactl 

ion »f Ihw RAji' luUiwln rmJ, im) Uw wiogstvd ippMianc* 

_ .. J lo tba m%A by Uim unum colonn wu u curiou u tbo dart tato vhJch 
Ury imliwi**! wm to, tanoytng rntun of Uio icsuv. 





whioh tmu ocoMunuJly crop.' Towards the centre large areM 
occnpied bj 60*0 of baaalt, aad woitvsrd. tnps aad 
iroH'cIuy ara met, pMsitig agsia imder beds of cbUkj 
III {Mirta, the hills are attorljr bureo ; in othen ihey are 
OOTUR'd with patches of cactos scrab sad low boBfaea, bot 
in tlio shapo of a tree is seen until, in iho (ixIreiBe westk aoa 
mora Hedudod vaDoys of the Barda hills am filled vidiai 
grciwtU of trees and bamboos. 

Amoii^ tho moro noteworthy hills of the northern senea maj 
moi)tii)ri<-<l Ktinilula, near Thitn, renowned as the site ol aa 
tvniplo ta thu sua ; tbo hill of Chotila, a conical maas rising 
fivo hnndnwl feet above the surroDodiog ooanti^^ and I IT 
abovo soa loTol ; tho Oop hill at the northern end of the 
Ifroup, fauioiiH for tho asoeticimu practised on its stunmii in 1 _ 
ttinen i* tho Aloch range at the southern extremity of the 

>i)p, inchidinff tho hoights OTorlooking the ancioDt 
'tllntila Pnttat), MuDffi Pattao, or Kehev^ Pattan/ and ether] 
overlooking thu Uaddhist cav es of Sidhsar and the JhiQJhart 
and, Insttv, tho temple-crowned peaks of the Abhpaia, tlie 
point of the Uordn moantains, overlooking Ghomli the mined 
u( tho JubhvAs, where in 185U, the Okhiiiimadal Viighers in 
from Dwdrka, were scattered by a force under Colonel Honner*! 

Boyoiul the Aloch, and on tlio south bank of tho Bl 
nnirly opposite tho town of Gnnod, scarcely to be inclnded in eiUi4 
ihii ttorlliorti or (ho soathern series, is the is olatod mass of 
Ot hitm , a rocky hill about one thoaeaad fecfEtgb^ crowned 
ftfi <nd fort unil trinple to Shri MAtri M^ta, its summit coTered mt 
nlmiilifin, which aroni-Hing to the local story, is a trace of the bit 
alivd iu tho PAudav battles/ 

Tlio gennrnl direction of the southern series of hills is sii 
tlint of the nnrtliom sorlus or Gir, but ia physical cbaract( 
ly dilTor noiiHiilentliiy. Beginning at its weet end, within 
niilcB iif the count nnt far from MAugrol, and Icftving on the noftli 
tho grvul iNolnled Girnflr, which, rising from an encircling chain 
Wnoily hilU, rears ita granitR peaks 3GO0 foot above tho sea, tho 
hllU HU'ot4.>h ntiMtwnrd in a rlioos oT peaks ridges and ontlytng S[ 
(Wnst^ly olullutU with foront, andyarying in height from loOO 
nvur SUOO foot. Tho range, which at first consit-ts of a few dotache 
inndcpal<'ly sisod hilU, «oou IiUk a hreaiUh of nearly thirty mile 
and itgnin narrow" lU it ircuda eastward, while the forest gives pti 
ill urnun and low bruMhwood, antil in the neighbourhood of G^hakc 
and Anibilili, n hroak occurs, and tho spars of the Gir sink into a 
waving plitin, cn^ftHod by low stony ridges and scored by the head 
sln<utnH of thu Uhilntarvar river. Beyond the Dtuiutarvar they 

* A ttMKtlmwi of rsd tnp is the IndUa Mns«iuii South KeoBiiigtOD, ia 1a1m>11«i1 ttem 

* Till' intidiluna of tho -w-Mt ia 'vrell knowu in Bombny nndor tfao nunc of P^rbuicltf 
■tnii«. Who<> firrt brciaght to lb» *urfaoa it ia aoU uid ««ulf cat, but harilsaii (» 
MpoMin lud bwomM a uwful buUdiuj; atviui. 

f Brtm. r.oY. M. xxx\ar. ». 

» Bum. «oV. 8el. XXXVU. 9. 

* Now known u Dhitik. 



n rise, and, under the name of tlio Lossor Glr or Mordh^r 

ige, circle north-oust, folloTring the bond of tho coast in a suc- 

of rocky mugos, up to a second break wheri> the river 

iji cuts its way to tho sea. Beyond the Hhatrunji tbts rango 

more appears in tho dotacbed masses known as tbo Sbatrnnjaya 

LoDch hills, rising abruptly to heights of 1500 and 2000 

Fespcctireir, and in two ranges of less eleration, called the 

dh^ and Khokara hills, which carry on the direction northward 

the neighboorhood of Sihor, where they sink within sight of the 

tern of the guU o£ Cauibay. 

llie general formation consists of traps of varying compoBition 
associated with granite and gneiss, and passing nnder beds of 
oalcarouiis sandstone which in purt« assumes the nature of limestoneu 
In an;>earance the varioua ranges coiiipoeiing the series differ 
c-.n-iiiierably. At the eftstorn end the bills are rocky and barren, 
lhuu|jh s(.>we, as thu Shittruujuya and Lonch hUU, are tbinly covered 
with low bnishw(V>d and uiany furnish abnudance of grass. To tho 
Btiurh of the Shotmnji the Mordhiir hilla, or Lesser Gir, present a 
contiuuoua range of rocky grass-covered slopes, which riso abruptly 
on the north side and on the south end in long spurs ranning to tho 
»ijnth-west. The hill-tops are generally bare, bat the ravines hold 
sinuil timber. Westward lies the wild tract of the tiir proper. 
Ue oiiti^kiris the hills are covered with little bat grass, and 
brnshwood, chiefly pnlas Bittea f rondosa and K-kair Acacia catechu, in 
the ravines. Further in the forest gradually thickens till, tbrougboat 
:(■ wf<et«m portion and again in the outlying group of the OimfLr, 
Mil sides are donsolv clothod with tree«, including sa^ or teak 
•lis crandia, si'ijad Terniitialia glabra, roma Soymida febrifuga, 
I officinalis, molarda Odina wodier, karanj Pooganiia 
; (i (iarrnga pinnata, timi/ru Diospyrus exAcalpta, sal edn 
■ glabra, beheHa. Terminalia bellenca, and ujai Nauclea 


Chapter L^ 


Bilk, fl 

From June when tho sonth-wost monsoon begins to December the 
ngurous to live in, owing to the m alaria produced by its 
foroata and its poisonous water! Tbo pimr villagers, 
by favonrnble terms to settle on its ontakirts, have a 
yellow corpse-like look, few of them without scars prodnced 
, cmntcri'. Sidis alone seem able to stand the noadpaa c limate. 
few of them, chioHy the tloscondants of runaway sTarea, occupy 
nleta on the borders of the Qir, without appearing to suffer, and 
id tho cattle, wliich at all seasons thrive iu the Gir. In Novom- 
% after the unhealthy mouths ara over, droves of cattle frequent 
Gir, and tomporarj' hamlets or neseg aro inhabited chiefly by 
rans, » few of whom ai'e sooiotimee tempted to remain through- 
it tho year.' 

Amoog the sMoially interesting hills of tho soutbem series are the 

' rnA r, ancnenUy Ujayanta and Kmvata, famous for tbo Jain temples 

I ill sommit and tbo inBon'pti ons of Monry, 8<h, and Qopt a kings 





fof Cutoh. 

carretl on a grsTiitQ boulder noar ite baae ; SLatrunjaja or P^lit 
liiH crowned with magTufia>ttt Jain temples ; XiukIivoIo and T^ 
Sbvam bills of the Oir, the former a welUlaiown landma^ 
sailnn), the latter cxnitauuiig a not«d Bhrioe and hot spring reel 
one nf the moat aaored spots in the pruviiico; and tho bills 
Toliittj Lor, aad S^na famoos for their Duddhiat caves.' 

In both the northern and sonthcrD hill tracts, aa well as in tl 
centra) highlands, occor dykes of oolomnar basalt, which gcnerftUy 
runniug uurlh-east and eouth-weat and sometimes crossing this line 
at right anglei4, score the face of the ooantry with long narrow 
ridgM. "SardhAri, the most reinBrkabio of these dyltfis, runs withont 
a bend over thirty miles from a point a little to the north of Jaadan, 
post Sordh^r to the neighbourhood of Lodhika, in a long narrow 
ridge, varying from forty to a hnndred feet in hoight and from 
twelve to eight feoi in breadth. Major Pnlljamoa describes one of 
these dykes near Thiin as about eight feet broad with columns oE 
basalt, horizon tiU liko tho strata oi sandstono throagh which they 
have been forced.' _^.^__^^_^_^^_^^_^ 

The gnlf of Catch' is a large bay of the Ambian sea, ^jvig 
between the coasts of Cntch on the north and of KAthiAwAr on the 
south, with its head bounded by a portion of the debateable land 
called the Ran. The mouth of tho gulf may bo amsidered to 
stretch from Vomfini point, tho extreme north-east of OkhAmandal 
in KAthiAwAr, to some point on the mainlaad of Catch. The longitade 
of a meridian across the month may bo taken as approximately 
69° 5' east, the longitude of the head of the gulf being abont 70*15' 
east, aud the length of the bay from eighty to eighty-five miles. 
Tho mouth of the gulf lies between north latitude 22^ 30' and 22''52'. 
Thus tho gulf is about twenty-five miles across at tho month, and 
barely eight at tho head. 

The general direction of the gulf is slightly south of oast for 
some forty miles to a point on the Cotch const opposito XowauAr 
whero it la somo sixteen miles across. It then bends north-east 
io its head, where it enters tho Little Ran by three largo crooks, 
Nakti in the nortli, Kudlo in the north-east, and HanathiU in the 

On the Cutch coastp tho chief towns are MAndvi, eometimaa 
called Cutph-M^ndvi, Mundra, and AnjAr, the last some distaneo 
from tho foreHliore, aii<l approached by the Tuna creek. On tb« 
EdthidwAr coast is tho town of Bot, in an island generally known 
by that name, but properly called ShankhodhAr, whoa© templei^ 
with the great temple of DwArka, are yearly visited by thonsandi 

' Det«>ls i>[ t)iiM« liilla am givfrn under Pliwea of Interest. 

• Mmjor FiiIljiMHM ail'U (list thg pooplo of Thiu obuia an ahnndMk npplr «( 
gova w*t«r by tAtmcttag the bjwalt and )o»»iug the uodatoM on oicher ddi 

•Contributed by Cj4il»in A. W. BniH. HE. Tho writer fa {ndobtod, for nnich 
« Uw BUitt«r of tliw Article, to C«pUiii PiiO'Im Tnjlor. th« Sntwrintrodeot of Um 
Grort Truonooiotdcal Surrey, ud Co the ofBcon in cbane of the K&tliiiwir Mrtv of 
til* Onat TrlgaawtMtnaal Sorvcy. '^ ' 


of thegamfcefciMliBl imp of the tide wm f&and to be liafert 
At Nowaa&r, Mll-wmr op ue gnlf, die greatest Tftuge regisrered 
ma 19-6 feetw And st Haosdal, at the head of the golf, tbs 
poaiuit nuge waa fouoi to be 20*2 feec, that is from two to ftnir 
leei Bora titan tbe range fuiiueily given in tlie marine charta. 

By Om eonfaiaataoo ol tbIosb derired from the tidal obgervatioiu 
and the Toaolta of the iBTeDing operations, the mean level of tbo 
aea, at the head of the gulf, iras fotmd to be seren inches biglier 
than it was at the open sea ccaet, and at Nowandr^ half-nay Dp 
fte gnlf, the mean aea tefel waa four inchea higher than at the 
month of the gnlf. 

The approximate valoes of the progreea of the tidal ware ap and 
down the gittf are as follows: High water at Nowatiiir, half -way 
np the gnlf, one bonr Sto minntea after Okha at the mouth of the 
gall : l£igh wvter at Uaosthal, at the head of the gaU, one hoar 
forty minutea after Okha at the month uf the gulf : Low water 
at Nowamtr, half-way up the gulf, one hour thirty-stx minutes 
after Okha at the moalh of the gulf : And low water at llauslhal, 
at the head of the golf, two hoom fifty-throe minutes after Ok!^ 
the month of the gulf. 

The rednction of the tidal and meteorological observations, 
what in termed Uarmonic Analysis, wa» carried oat by Ca 
Boird, R.E., and the Talues of the amplitudes and epocha 
determined^ thus furnishing all data required to foretell tne tidea 


Tid4ii JMa, 1374-76. 























a 1 

























E 3 

E 1 
K B 











R 1 







K I 





Ml 77 



R > 

K 3 
K 1 






E 1 




R 1 








K 1 








R S 




K t 








R 3 



n « 














B a 







i: ft 






Cram As gnlf o 

■IJifllllllJ OQ 

of the wiad ocmrrii 
of Atmosplwric 
be tokeo «« ftboat 
of ilie gmU, and sa at 
; Kk NowiaAr and Mandm 
oo tbe ojmMite ooMi 
40 ■mali^ and afc Jodi ja 
fbnmri^ aeooaat ol tha wad and weaUier of Uw 
&m tke Saiba^ Diractary. agiea^, in Ao ntain. with 

BndS iilHLiiBiwm b tbe fdf of Gntcb west and 
viadi pravaO from FiiUaaiy to October i&daaiTe. and 

; and ^aaaiy. la tbe Lat 

il oooHioaaUy Uows frwfc, bai a grer more than two or 
a timm, t u Bo— d by K^it winds and ealnu or light 
iatWaftanooa. TW ba nj ai u t M rises with tjwaei 

la tha ktlar part of Jaaaacy and Ae tteginnn^ of Te\ 
taam faaaka of lag ar& freooentlj aeen at earij dawn on tho hi 
' a oaia aight ; whea the ana rises, theae drift lo sea with 
hadwiada, aad an Uown hack faj west wiada, ohscnring all ol 
lief gmanSXj oocae ia heavy j j fl l a rhfd atasMS, wetting 
aad aliBoat ohwiroriwg Iha aaa, whidb, hamror, shtnes oak 
afipaxcntlf grcaCer whmA Anhw As iatanala. These fogs 
he expeotsd oatil the latter cod ci Fehrasfy, aad are isTariablj 
Ikese fioK8 pRrai] on the cosat of Siadh at the mmt ■eaaon, over 
■wampa of she Indns. Fnwi the Bxwt week ol Vtbnauj fresh 
laajr be S Jtu etited tram weeK to sea th wa s T ; theae are i 
faj a dtght all ia the iai iiiUw , laafc far two d^ji^ aad are fol 
Inr calms or light wiads. Horth Barters am skill hhiw ooeaai 
anec this date, bat th«j axe lare aad onfy aa land winds m 
monnsg or alter Bidnight. A slight rise of baroowier precedes 

Aiier the beffiaiiiag of Kazdi the west wiod^ may be said to 
fnllj set in, and oalas and fight north east winds are onlj 
Towards the TScnal eqainox. or soow tuns in the aeoond or third 
of Uarch, there are one or two days in which Ihaader and hailst 
strike at die bead of the gnlf, in hea^ sqasfis from sosth-eaat 
north-east. The bsroowter girss no warning of theae storms. 

In April, westsnd sonth-weat wiads pravadyths wind hen^ stmn| 
in the aftsmooa as a aea breeas and Modassts fram atdaight till 
next foraaoon. Frosa tha beginuinf of Maj the heaTy swell oT ^ 
smiUi-wesl monsoon has begun at the en t r a aes oE tlw gulf, w)4] 
beoomea difficnlt to work round the north-west point of 01 
from Bet to Dwijka. vmx with the strovig ebb tides that prermill 
thatlocahty, as theswsUontho Gnnr Aoalissobsavy andoonf 
Onlj the larger Cntch koHitd* attenpl it after mid-Hay, . 
thef haTo to lie inside Bet and take adviatsfe of any break ia 
strength of tho wind to try sad get out 

TBrnSmj BaatAtmi, 







ttinifitnA. He kn» vmhI ialW«« at Ugk iprisg lideB 
bvaqv in over Ife ter cl tbe lUaM creek. 

FrowNowhertoliiiMijUcagrth tiMluiitlpwfreeh ooUide Uie 
nif. It V pradeet Cor nanb wiifcing to worit into it to «oc 
tor ft few bans off DvAzfcs, iv EaeUagedb, Aoald it be ebb 
UTI-TS. ' BBd altermrds atait «itk Ae ioed mrms the nooth ot the gait 

Ae ObIiA eoael, vhatv the walv ie aadi sneotfaer. A coarse ol 
■boal ■orA by vbM, or witii ^>™s tiJee pertape » neerly north 
eooae &oei KedUgedk point, mef thoe be made good, leMJeg e 
vmmI nea^ hetwane the Oomr and Imahrngtum ahodi toHBrds tbe 
OotA ooMft, aloac- wUdi ahe laM awtiBae woriring' to the east. 
if the wind be B^t, ahe toy eawor to w&it for tbe next flood ti 
or tiU ahe caa naakb heed egaiBal the ebb. 

Tbe giMteal nfacitaBS in tveatj-fiDor hooi ragisterad in 1874- 
byO^^in Baird'a aaeaioBieter wen 630 milee at Okha on the 2 
Jane, 8dO miloe et Howaa^on the 26lh June, uid 1130 miles 
nmwJttimi QQ 1^ 5t)i Afigaat. Oa the fiih Augofi the ant-mometor 
at Haorthal leoorded 27Q mDen faetwven 9 i.a. anil noon. CaptAio 
Baird waa not eotiTely aatiiSed with the performancet o£ thoto 
ia&tmmenta, bat ooosidenDig that they were made small to be hg 
aod easaljr carried, and that tb£j wrre exposed to fierce windji, 
fain, and wome than all to the constant oxydising of the sea, it 
improbable thai anj instnuneota would hMve giveu much 

Rato-gattges were set np at each tidal station. The total raio 
daring tbe monsoon was 1075 inchee at Okba, 13*61 iucbei 
Nowanir, 18*40 inches at Hansthal and 2191 incbee at RAjkut. 

It will bo seen tluit, so far, a greater range of tido, a 
Telocity of wind, and a greater rainfall, bare been registered at the 
hoad than at the mouth of tbe gnlf, and intermediate vdoee at the 
midway station of NowanAr. 

The scientific T«lne of tbe tadal obaerrations is greatly utore 
by the oontemporaneona observattoa of tbe baromatrio preBBore, 
Telocity and directiDn of wind, and the rainfall. 

The following details of tbe light-houses of the gnlf ara ta' 
from tho List of Light-hoosee and Light-veseels in British 
pablished by the Marine Surrey Department. 

At M&odvi, on tbe soutb-weat bastiun of the fort, north latitei 
22"* 49*41' oftst longitude 69° 20' 19", is a white fixed tight, visible 
at eighteen miles in clear weatlier, winch lightens an arc of ISO' and 
Saoea eoutlt-west. It is a white masonry tower above the fort w^, 
115 feet above fai^-wuter, the height of the building from liase 
vane being fifty-sis foot. Tho light is a catAdioptrio of the fou 
order. The tower was bnilt in 1873 and is kept np by His Hig' 
the Kito of Culch. 
J^iKL Tuna, at the edge of the mangroTe swamp south of Tekra ial 

north latitude 22* 55' 30' east longitude 7(f 7' 5", is a while fixi 
light, a cummuu lantern, visible for &i& miles in clear weather, on a 
atone building aorontoon foot above high water. It was buitt on 
the 5tfa September 1878, and is kept np at the expense of tho 
of Catch. 


ibU> sevec uiilea in clear wenrtbor^ lig-hting an arc of 120°, 
ptwecn nouth-ecffit by east a qaarter t-itst round hy tlio eoutli to 
lath'West by weai a quarter west It stands on a whito round 
iwor forty-two fwt ahovo high water. It waa baiJt id 1867 by Hia 
[ighnosfl the J^m of NarAnagar. 

Bst, the higbe&t and nearly the oontrnl part of Saulni island, north 
litnde 22° 23' east longitnde 68" 57', is a white fixed light 
dblo twelre miles in clear weaiher and lighting an arc of 180". 
[t is set on a white masonry stone tower thirty-five feet above high 
" tter. The light in a Ciktatiiuptric of the fourth order. It was bmlb 
1870, at the cont, of His Highneas the Q&ikwdr, and is intended 
a guide to the harbour and for vessels orossiug the mouth of the 
iLf of Cutch. 

Dwiirka, on the cliffs of the mainland west of the town, 350 feet 
.within high-water line and close to the Stanhope colamn, north 
itude 22"" IC ecwt longitude 68^ 57' is a white fixed light, three 
eroaino lamps, visible six or seven miles in clear weather and 
lighting an arc of 180^. U ini Get on a white square stone tower, 
seventy feot above high water. It w»h built in 1860 to prevent 
native cmft running on the headland and servos as a guide for 
choring in the small bay opposite Dw,^rkft. A new catadioptrio 
of the fourth order will soon be supplied. 

Chapter L 

Gnlf of Cutcb. 



AiT Tomb, abont twenty-three miles north -north-east of Sai^i Amv To 
nd and seven west of Mandvi, umy be called the north bonndair 
the gulf. It ia in the dirtvt lino bctweoa Saii&ni island, the sooth 
mndary of the gulf, and Nando hill in Cutch, the principal landmark 
that province. Asaar is a Musalm^n tomb, on the crest of the sand- 
Is clu«e to the sea ; it« dome rises to a height of 113 feet, and may 
oieB be seen twelve miles off. To the south-west rocky gronna 

three miles with overfalls from nine to throe fathoms. It 

lOald not bo approached within three and u half miles. 

Another tcmb stands midway from Assar to Miindvi, and is a JUr TamdAa. 
andrf-d feet above the &ea. The little creek to the oast ends 
mpily in the high saud-hill of Mir Tamasha a steep sandy 
ufl, which, on moonlight nights, was formerly seen almost aa 
■oon as the old Miiuilvi light. Vefiseln bonnd to MAndri should 
make tliia coast with Natiao hill in a line with or to the left of Assar 
biwrtug about north- north -east, that being the mark for clearing 
the Wfftt end of the flanvilra shoals which have patches of throe and 
6va fathoms rocky ground, at the distances of six and seven miles 
to the Kiuth of Ajtsar. Mtindvi light may be steeivd for, when 
bearing ea^-iUnorth-east, but ahould bo kept on the port bow, as the 
aocborage for large ships is two and n half miles south of it. 

From the shoolest part of the Itanv&ra shoal the light-bouse bears Rtuitdra Shoal. 
m north to north by east, and is seven miles and a quarter distant. 
'bi9 iwtth, on which am always heavy breakers, is about one and 
a tutif mill & long ivuit and west and abuut half a mile broad ; the 
bottom is sand, shelli, uid rock, and the least water two foot. Tho 


[Bombay 6uet 



Chapter I. 
ttulf of Uuieh- 


foul ground of RanvAra covers tea miles from eaat to west, and 
largo ship should approach ^[Andvi from seaward when tKo lig] 
bears betwoon north-cast, by east and nortli by west, until tthu j. 
inside of RaJivara. In the day time, the tomb called H&rhl Pii, 
two miles caat of MAndvi fort, when ia line with Nando hill, is a 
eafe mark for clearing the oaBt ond ol the Bonvira shoaL 

ifAndvi, north latitude 22*' 49' oaat longitude 69" 20*, the ch« 
trading town in tho gulf, about throe and a half miles east of 
I'amiWha, ia a targe uuarly square town, wnlled and Banked witl 
bastions, The Boulh-wcst ba«tion ia the highest and ou it tUo 
light-house in built. The Kao's palace, a largo flab-roofed building, 
etonds about 100 yards to the east of the light-honHo. Tho sea 
gate is near the south-east augle of the fort, from which the narrow 
channel of the liukiuavati creek, which skirts the east side of tir~ 
town and at high wator gircs passage to small boats, ia distant i 
moro than a cable's length. 

To the east and north of the town the craek runs inland, hut it 
merely the bed of a water-coarse, with a standing pool bee* a 
there, except during tho periodical rains and the night spnug tid( 
of the fine season. Tho crook mouth is blocked by saiidliani 
■which, though nearly dry at low water, shift with the least chan{ 
of wind and consequent swell. Small boats can enter soon ail 
the flood has made, and coasting oraft of moderate burthen soon 
after half-fl'iod. During tho rainy season, freshets from the iutyrior 
have an oxcellout scouring effect ou the fair channel of tho Miiudvi 
creek. Bnt the Hrst aoa broeze after (he rains again chokes 
channel with sandbanks. 

Bouts drawing more than nine feet of water can seldom enter tl 
creek 07on at the most favourablo season (October to Pobi 
when the rains hare scoured a deep channel. With the west 
the cotranoe begins to got choked with sand, until, in May, a 
drawing seven or eight feoC baa to bump 07er the bar to get 
the crock. In the Initer part of May and the beginning 
June, a dozen vessels aro often made useless by this bataping, 
as many more have to undergo a tboi-ongh repair. Those 
coming from Bombay and distant parts, knowmg that it is al 
high wat«r, never give a thongbt as to the depth; but running 
take the ground, and bump till the receding tide loaves thom ~ 
and dry, when their goods arc landed in carts ; and the vessel, 
lighten^, floats in at next high tide. It isf high water on full 
change of moon at M&udvi at Oh. lorn., but the timo is sometii 
retaraod sovoral minutes dnring west winds, and accelerated dm 
east winds. The rise and fall is Hfteeu feet at ordinary springs, 
Bometimos sovonteeu feet at high spniiga. At neaps it i& nine or ' 

In navigating the gulf of Cutch, vessels should always mako 
allowance for tho tides, which rnn fonr or five miles an hoar' 
springs and three at neaps, east and west between Chinri ree£''| 
tho south nnd Ranr&ra shoals to tho north. All across tho mc 
of the gulf tho bottom ia uneven, and tho rapid tides cai 



coofnaed breaking sea, eren in a depth o£ thirty (aihoms. At 
the auohoroge off Mdmlvi, tho tidea^ iti three to 6ve fathoms wator, 
ron lit the rale of three knotg an hour on the springs^ and of lesa 
th»n two kiiQta at Deaiw. Further from the shore they iucreaae in 
■troogthj and, <m tho llanvara abon], gain a speed of live kaota on 
the springn and throo at ncapa. Thitt strength of tidn is mainuunod 
betveeu ihu Kauv&ra shoal ami the reeffl of Ch^kna, Kora, aod 
Bbaidhar to tho aouth^ and causes a heavy decoiring break, in many 

Stacea where deep and shallow water are close togothtir. Between 
[iad viand Tam^ha, the soundings gradually increase off shore to 
•boat ten fathoms at four toilea. Outside of that and to tho vreet 
towanb Aasar and a littlo heyond it, there are overfalls from fivo to ton 
ud iu placeu twenty fathoms. The tides run with great force over 
these rocky patches and cause a heavy rippling and hreak, which is 
dfloeiving to a stranger. There is good anchorage for ships, in 
three to fire fathoms at low water clay botiom, from one and a lialf 
to two and a half miles due south ut IhufoK ; and nearer the shore for 
Roall steamerSf in two fuiJioru.s sand and mud, with the light. honse 
north by we«t, and the T'olitical Agent's flag-staff, on tho ooBt side 
of the crutik to the right of the large banyan tree, bearing uorth'east 
by north. Thorn is a shoal rocky putch bearing south-west a half 
•oath rather more than two miles from the light-houso, haring 
eleven feet only at low Bprings. 

tl^Tal Pir is a white tomb seventy feet iibove the sea, in a chimp 
of trvoB on sand-bilU, two and a half miles east aouth-eost of Uiindvi 
fort This tomb when in Hue with Nan^ hill clcaov the east end of 
the RanvfiraBhoala. Between Baval Pir and the M&ndvi fort, by the 
village of Serais, standn the marine rosidenoe of the Political Agent 
in Cutch, with a Qag'.stafl[ in front. Mudva point is eight miles east 
uf MAndvi. The intermodialy «hore is fmnf4!d with sand.hills, thirty 
to forty feot high. The- paint itself is a high aand-blulT, and off it 
thBto is a ledge of rocks dry at low water, which are doep-to, having 
three and fcmr fathoms close to them. Inside the point is an extensive 
backwater, which mns back to within two miles of lUval Pir, but 
m only entirely IlocKled at very high spring tides, and at high water 
in tho buiith-west mon^joou. Behind Modvu point there is excellent 
shelter for small vessels hanled up in tho flonth-west monsoon. This 
is better than M^ndvi creek aa there is a depth of more than two 
fiatboms on tho bar at high water springs, and it is protected from 
West wiiidii. The ledge of rocks before mentioned' extends nearly a 
mile t'l the eant. To the sonth-west of the bluff, when tho tide is out, 
the Blind is dry for nearly a mile from tho shore, Tho coast'lins 
to the Ctnfifc nf Modva faces back from tho low water line from two 
to three inilus, but there ai-e long thin striixs of sand from five to 
ton feet alvwo hij^b-water mark, fronting the sea, which aro from 
half a mile to one mile di.Htant from tho sua at low water. }3etween 
iheso and the mainland is an oxtcnsivo swamp, covered with 
Hi ^, and orossod by numerous small cre«ks where boats go 

ti: .rood. 

Niivin&r point, twenty roiloa east of MAndvi, oonsiste of two or 
titnw thin strips of sand, the highest part of which is not ten feet 

Chapter I. 
GaU o( Oath. 
CMeh Mdadvi 


[BombAT Ouett 



fcpter L 


' Darti Stoal 

andra Creek. 

MtJiilnt Ihrt, 


Mundra SlioiUa. 

mbore high-wator mark. The maiulaini li ere Calls back four mill 
from tbo point, nod betwecD is u vast swamp corercd in placoa wit 
niungrovti bushes, through which hid the NaTitUtr aud 
BmalTor creeks. Navin^ point is deop-to having eleven uad tweli 
fathums ttuuth of it leaa tuau three-quari«ra of a mile o5. To th& 
oaatof Naviu^ point there is aholter for a fow amall Teaaela during 
west winds, in two to three fathoms with tho point woat-south-wcst, 
out of tho strength of the tide. 

The Sonar Darri sandbank, botwMn Modra and Navini! 
consiats of detached sands which are dry at low water, with df 
water between thein. The west banks are four and a half uiileai 
BODth-oaat of Modvn point, and tho east Bands lio 6^ mitoa west by 
south of Kaviiiitr point. The south sides of tlieae bauks are deep-to 
having twelve fathoma at two or three cablee. A vessel ought not to 
Bhoal under 6fteen fathoms. During the Bmt half Bood and nfUtr half 
ebb, the shoals may be known by the rippling of the water ; and 
may always be distinguished from the mast-bead by the discolonred 
water on them. Theao shoals bear oast-south- oast, and are twolvo 
miles distant from tho anchorage in Mfindvi roads ; choy stretch 
fuUy three miles off the nearest shore, 

Mnodra crcokj botwoon rows of mangrove bnahcs, bears noi 
north-east three milee from NarinJir point, and rmis to a landing-house 
a little more than one mile north-norlii-wost. Tho landing-boo 
is isolated at high water springs, the tide flowing a mile to tl 
north of it. It is three and a half miles north by east of Navii 

Mundm fort, two and a half mllos north of the landing-house, has 
a white moeque, distiDguishable a good way off, and a grove of high 
cocoauQt treosj half a mile to tho west of it. 

Throe miles to tho oast of Navin^ point there is the aouth> 
west Gud of a two- fathom bank, lying north-east and sonth-weet, two 
and ahalf miles long and three or tour cables bi-oad, and north-oaat of 
this again there is a throe-fathom bank, two miles long lying nort-h 
oorth-4?ast. Between tho south end of the former shoal and the 
shore luw-water mark, which is here four mitesi from the mainland, 
there is a small patt;h having only seven feet of water. On account 
of thvse banks off Muodra, a vesnel shuuld not shoal under tea 
fathoms in going east till Bhadre«hvar temple Iwara north-north-c 
when she may stand in to five fathom.4. Tho bottom is mud. 

The Catch coast from Mundra to the Nakti or Tuna creek 
nearly straight, about uikHt by north half nnrtli, and the mud dries 
nearly four miles off the shore near Uundra and two mtlce off towarc 
Tooa. The Booudiiigs are regular and the bottom is mud. 
along the Cotch coast water-conrsoa ompty themsclvoa into the 
daring the rains, and tho whole ooast from Modva to Tuna is vci 
low, with cocoannt trees by all the towns to the west of Bhadreshvi 
temple, which is eleven milea east-north-east of Mundm, and has 
small white dome which may be seen nine or ten miles ofT from 
vessel's dock. There is a grove of trees one and a quarter mill 
aoobh of the temple, aud Bhadreshvar fort is a little weet of it. Tui 
fort stands somo distance inland, about a dozen miles east noi 




01 Qhadreahrar fort. Tho shore is low and aandy with two 
I or three littlo Tillages. 

Kskti creek, also called Tana crock, as one branch, of it leads to 
iTittub landing* place, is tUirteeu miles east of Bbadre&tivar. IIb weet 
[point is very low, coyored with mangrovo bashes, and nearly 
lowed at high water. The only natural object that marks the 
itraooft of Nakti creek is a tree-covered mud island, tifieen to 
twenty feet high, callod Tekra by tbe natives, h is about three- 
qoarters of a mile long, north-west and sonth-fiant, and about a 
mite north of Tiioa sandy point, from which the Tnna laudiiig- 
place bears about four miLea norlh*we6t. Pilots are needed to gaide 
Bmall vessels to tbe Inndine. 

I A Ifght-houBO bnitt by Hift Highnens the THo stands at the edge 
of the mangTX)ve swamp on tbe south o£ Tukrs, io north latitude 
33^ 55}' east bogitnde 70° 7'. It shows a small light seveDteen 
Cpet aboTS high-water IctcI. 
Bo«t« bound from M^udvi to Jodiya, on the opposite side of the 
golf, in tho north-east monsoon, run along shore and sight the 
Tekra before they branch to the sooth. Jodiya landing bears 
ftboat south-south-east half east distant fifteen and a half miles from 
Tnoa landing-place lica four niiics north-we«t from Tekra, and 
thoogh it is the port of the large town of Anj&r, is an iosigQiEcant 
Elaoo. Boats of ^ty tons burden can with difficulty got there at 
igh spring tides, as it is up a small creek, not thirty yards wide 
branching from tho Nakti. Except by posts set up on each side 
of its entrance, the creek could not be made out. The flood-tide 
M. roshos by the small month of Ibis crock to tho north with a speed of 
!■ Ibor miles an hour. A local pilot is needed U) take the vessel in. 
H In the Qortb-east monsoon, from November to Febninry, the Ran is 
dry. and passable for men and camels, bat the duo sand stirred by tho 

kDorth-eaHt winds blinds the traveller. During the west monsoon, 
the sea water is driven by the wind many miles to the east, and the 
Ban is Lhuu a gruat impassable sea. This vast sheet uf wat«r, 
near the thruu largo creeks which drain it, tho Nakti the Kudio 
and the Hanstlialj is sul>ject to the regular tides, but the rise 
and fall is of no extent, though during ebb from tho great height 
of tho inner waters tho UnuHiTiui gains a speed of six to seven milos 
an hour. In January 1852, when the rise and fall of the gulf water 
off the mouth of the creekt) was fifteen feet, it was only five or six 
feet to tho south o£ Jaughi, some fiftocu miles from Hausthnl mouth. 
Captain Baird, U.E., subsoijueutly found Iho extreme range of 
tido at Hnnstlifl] to be twenty feet. This tlifferenoe of levol makes 
tho ebb-tido in tbe Ilaosthal deep channel last longer and tho 
flood shorter, or respectively about eight and four hours. 

Tho north shore of KAthiaw&r which forms the south side of tbe 
gulf of Cotch is under the J&m of Navfluagar, whose land begins 
with the banks and creeks which He south and oast of the HansUiid, 
luid stretchoN to tho groat liar^ reef fifty milea west of Nav^nagar. 
Tbu U&l&r coast ban no high land, but in clear weather the llarda 
hilU, io inner K&thiiiwiir, are sometimes visible from the sonth 
ftdo of the gulf. 


Onll of Cotch, 
ifakti Cnck, 


The Jin 


liapter I. 

GnU of Cntoh. 

•Tocf^a Fort, 

\ Laiiding. 


Monprn Roof, to tho north-west of Jodiyn, has its west ood at 
diatjince of ei^ht miles from the fort, and ita east end at six anilfl_ 
lialf miles, JfVora it tlie mouth of the Uanslhal bcarfi north-east by 
north nearly tun roUeH, and at low water the mud becomes dry to ft 
line between thotn. The east end of Mangm reef ht^mrs soutb-cnufb 
throo-quartcrs south, about twelve milos from TunaTokra, The west 
end of the reef is doep-to, having- five and six fathoms close to it. 
At three-fourths of a mile from this west extreme a heap of aaod 
and shells, which is the first part to dry, lies with the nurtb-wosfc 
bastion of Jodiya and the Darb^r house nearly in a line. Tlie 
breadth of the Mangra reef is one mile at the west end and half a 
mile at tho oast. There is a deep channel along the sooth and a 
vosael may anchor and be sheltered from strong north-east winds 
with tho sand-heap bearing from north to north 'uorth-eaet two 
miles off. Tho north anchorage is in throe bthoms at low water in^ 
muddy bottom, with Jodiya fort east-soutb-east. 

Jodiya fort, on the aootb shore of the gulf, bears soutb -east 
south twonty-ono miles from Tnna fort. The north-west bastion? 
which is about eighty feet above the sea, and the Darbar house 300 
yards south-east of the bastion, are high and conspicnous. Outside 
of the fort, nearly a mile to the sonth, ia a grove of high trees. 
These three marks, which point out the plac«* unmietakeably, may be 
seen in clear weather ten to twelve mites off from a vossel'a deck. 
Jodiya north-wcat point is of low sand, and bears west-north- west 
three and a half milos from the fort; the lauding is more than two 
miles to the north-west of tho fort, and one and a ball miles to the 
east of the north-west sandy point 

Tho Jodiya laudingstands north-west half noTtb two and aqoarter 
miles from tho fort. The entrance of tho creek, among mangroves, 
is with this house one milo distant and in a line with the Jodiya 
trocfl. Boats comiug from M&ndvi to Jodiya keep along the Cutch 
coast, aud sight Tuna Uill before they slant to Jodiya, and ran 
round the east end of Mangra reef, with the landing bearing sonth 
into Jodiya creek. This cannot be done till aftor.flood by boats 
drawing upwards of seven feet of water. It is high water on full 
and chan^ of moon at Jodiya at two o^clock. Tho rise and ^1 of 
the tide is sixteen feet at ordinary springs, nine or ten at neapSj 
ftnd eighteen or muetoon at highest springs. 

B^ldchadi is a small Tillage bearing sevt^n and a half milos 
south-west from Jodiya fort. At three-fourths of a roilo to tho 
north-west of the Tillage is a small, ronudj conical bill, detached 
from tbe main, and insulated at high water, on the top of which is 
the shrine of Aku Pir, and half a mile souih-west, on the west 
of the village, a range of rocky mounds sixty to eighty feet high 
fronts the sea. They stretch north and Kouth over half a mile, and 
are a hoaltb resort for the English residents from Rajkot These 
tent-hills are insulated at high water springs. Between these 
hillocks and Aku Pir there is a small creek, off the mouth of which 
is a large rock dry at half-tide, and the mnd and the rocks 
dry ont at low water for one and a half miles to tho west. A 
back of BjU^chadi a range of hills about one hundred feet 




id nther sharply to the south at one and a half miles to the soath- 

of the villa^. Shottl water Btpetcbes more llian five mites west 

Bilachftdi), and tlio place is approachable only towards high water, 

with a native pilot. The shore between it uud Navftuagar ia 

lOLod with mud and coral bauks. No Teasel Bhoulcl go near li. 

KftT&iuigBreigbteeQ miles south-west of Jodiyahas theUrgestand 

; ifort in the j^ulf. The fort, which is more than seven miles sonth 

_Mfit i>[ the anchorage off Nanlnagar, stands ia north latitude 22^ 

id vani loiigitade 70° 3'. It is a high, circalar, turreted 

ig on the west Bide of the town, 182 feet above mean sea level. 

>iii its whiteness, in dear days when the refraction is great., it 

vf be seen at twenty mileci distance, and commonly at fifteen miles. 

sr more than half a mile to the oast stands the palace, a 

building with a gable roof at either end, and half a mile to 

nonh-west, outside the fort> is a look-out tower. Ail three are 


Bodi, a little villa^ and fort wboro stands the port of Nardnn^ar. 
I two and n half miles north-west of the fort. Koats can come up 
the crvek to witliin three-quarters of a mile of thi.s little fort The 
mouth of the liedi creek ia about two miles from the anchorage otf 
Navdnagar, and nearly one mile north-west of Rojhi temple; its 
vest lide is rocky and the east aide soft mud. 

Rojlii is a little Hindu temple with a Itag-stnfF, midway between 
the ancbom^e and Bedi fort. It is high water at Kojhi, at full and 
ehange of moou, at lli. 40m. The rise and fall at high springe is 
;_«ighteen fec-t, at onlioary springs sixteen, and at neaps tctt. 
le anchorage off Kavfiuagar i& with Pirotan island jnet seen out- 
le of the lai^ mangrove island between it and liojbi and with 
aihi temple bearing aoutb by west, or both the towers of 
' jagar open to the left, or eastward of all Rojhi land. It is in 
' ttireo fathoms at low water well sheltered from the west winds 
iich prevail from February to October inclu^iva The bottom is 
audi very soft mud, that a vessel can safely anchor in her owa 
diHugfat of water; the entrance of the creek will bojir from this 
choroge south-west by south. Half a mile west of this anchorago 
«. Binali detached reef dry at low water, having a passage between 
and the main reef. One and a half miles north by west of the 
]rage, lies a two-fathom rocky patch. The stato-honso 
)tichiDg tbe vast extreme of Rojhi land is on the line of both tbeso 
shoola. In coming from tho west a vessel passing a mile to tho 
north of tho Pirotan roef most stand on the east course, till from 
luft oil tho Uig-h towers of NavAnagar are seen, to the left or east 
Rojhi ; this is to avoid a two-Mhom patch five miles east of 
I. In coming from the north-east, Bedi fort shoitld not be 
to tho left o^ or east of Rojhi, for on this line uid all east of 
ground is rocky at the distance of one and a half miles from 

Hjve mentioned anchorage, no that the limits within which to 

ichor are with Rojhi temple beariug from south half west to south- 
itfa-west half west. Stretching a long way to the north and west of 




C&oinbfty ' 


Chapter I. 
Calf of Cotcb. 
/^rabiN Trtt*. 

the cntraiice of Bedi creok, is a mangrove swamp, with a sandl 
on ita norih-cast f&ce, the north extreme of which bears 
west from tlie auchoi-age de9cribe<i aboro. To the west of this sand 
and at the distaDce of six miles north-west by iTCst of Hojhi, 
is a detached mangn^ve islaud, whose trees are twenty to thirty f< 
above high water, the highest being at the nort-b-east end. T 
is Pirtttan, an excetlent laiidinark in making this coast, as the 
like those of the Tckra on the Cutch coast, are not allowed to be 

OS Firotan a vessel ought not to eboal under twenty fathoms, 
its high trees bear to the west of south. A coral reef steep-to and 
dry at low water extends off this island one mile to the north-east 
and three-quarters of a mile to the south-we«t. The west aide of 
Pirutou forms the east side of the Sarmat Kli&dt entrauce, and 
when the reefs are dry, a vessel may conveniently anchor, to get 
shelter from north-east wtuds, in the mouth of the Sarmatj with the 
Pinitau troen bearing nocth-eafit by east in five or sis fathoms, 
muddy bottom. Pirotan high trees are in north latitade 22^ 37' 
and east loogitude 69° oT. East of a line from Xavan^ar, on tho 
Bouth shore of the gnlf to the Tuna hill on the Catch coast, there 
was in 1852, at tow water, nowhere more than ten fathoms of wator 
across the gulf, whereas the charts of 1S21 represent the head of 
the gulf as much deeper, and there can be no doubt it is gradual! 
6Iliiig. Kast of a line from Pirotan to Bhadreshvar there 
nowhere more than twenty fathoms. 
TIk natdr Ciwt. From NavAuagar for more than thii-ty miles west, the mainland 
of n&ldr falls back from four to six miles within the sea face of tho 
reefs which bound this coast. Except two or three bills, which are 
too far off to set aa landmarks, it has no distinguishable objecttt, 
but clumps of mangrove trees on the reefs form excellent guidns. 
They are nut allc^wed to be cut, and arc named by the boatmea 
Pirotan, Dera, Nalia, Kaliinibhrt.r, and Dhnni. Dera differs from 
the rest of these marks in being a sand-bill, which from a distauce, 
when the sun shines ou It, Iooks like a tent. The Carda hills aro 
frequently visible fi-om this side of the golf; and, off Rojhi| thcj 
may be seen on a clear day, a distance of forty-six miles. 

Sctrmai, South-west of Pirotan lies the entrance to the Sarmat inlot, 

between roofs alii-tle more than three-quartersof amilewide. At tha 
same distance within the entrance oi'c some rocky patn-hes, which 
render it unsafe to run far in without a pilot, but a vessel may 
anchor from a quarter of a mile to half a mite south-west of the 
Pirotnn reef, in five fathoms mud, with the high trees bearing 
north-east to east-north-east, and sheltered against strong north- 
easters. It will not bo prudent to run in there till a couple 
boora after high water when the edge of the reef is dry. 

Dera Sand, Dora is a range of low sand-hilla six miles south-west of Pi 

The name is applied to the coral reef surrounding it, or the wh 
space included between the Sarmat and the Sika inlotfl. The norl 
west end of Dera sand is a hlaS, about fifteen feet high, and off 
are a few scattered stunted mangroves. To the east the trees 
thicker, and there aro two or three sinf^le couspicuoua trees I 
one to one and a half miles east of the bluff. The reef extends 





Derm nod-hitt nearly oao and a half milon to tb« nortli-we»t, and 
One ml i» to the south-weiiL cl it. 

ISiln Inici is two milra weat-sontb-west of Dcra, and is narip^blo 
for odIj four or five inilofi at. low water. At liigh water large boats 
can psiM through cbaDuelu amuug the maugrDrc bushes, almost in a 
direct lino to Kiijhi and Bcdi, 

L Kalia, a clump of trees with a sand bank before it, Htandsabont eij^ht 
H in lies west-aonth-wBst from Dera sntid-bluff. Tho reof cxtonds off 
" it one and a half miles to the north, where tho rocks ore bighost, and 
twomitefi to the north-east. A maugrore ewamp joios Nalia clamp 
with the tnainlaDd. In the centre of the bay, between it and 
Dcru, lies tho Gus recj more than three miles long east and west and 
two miles broa*). At half a mile from it^ii uorth side there is a long 
eandbuuk that dnos before tho reef itself and shows well. On its 
^•AQth and west sides there are deep wat«r channels, which, as well as 
< along its east side, bear tho name of Sika iulel. The»o chaunels 
' used by uativo veeseU whoa it is blowing fresh as tht-y avoid tbe 
set, onfcside. The north edge of Gus reef is on the lino &om 
[Dem blnflF to Nalia. A vessel shonld not, in working, come under 
'twelve fathoms betwoon Nalia and Pirotan^ and not under fifteen 
fauhnma when north of the Nalia, and l>etwcen it and Kfilumbhftr. 
There ic nowhere so much as twenty-fire fathoms at low water to the 
east of aline (r*im Dcra in KAthijiwrir There aro 
ntcky patches of seven and eight fathoms in the middle of tho gulf, 
Dudway in the Crack of reBaels from Miudvi to Salaya. 

Kiilnmhbitr is a mangrove island^ four miles long oast and west 

and a little less north and south, with a clump of high trees on ita 

I north edge, which bears from Nalia west three-qoartem south six 

fmilea. North of theso trees tlie reef dries odo and a half milctt off, 

forrntug a projecting point, from which the line of reef on tho one 

Inde treads to south-west four miles to tho entrance of SaUya 

I inlet, and, on the other, takes a souih-cAst direction for two and a 

[half miles to nnotber channel that leads round Kiilumbhdr ishmd 

lo SaUya. The mouth uf Saljlyu channel is uearly midway on the 

itin6 from Nalia to Kdlumhbiir. It is very deep but narrow, and at 

I three mile-a up is navigable at high water ouly by boats standing 

lover tbe reefs and the mud-Qata. A vessel may run in for half a 

I'Dtiln at low water when tho reefs aro visible, and be well sheltered 

\ttom westerly winds. Tho point of rocks north of KdlumbhAr is 

I'deep-to, and a vessel should not come under twenty fathoms. Bat 

with tliu trees bearing south-east a vessel can cotne into fiftooa 

fathtims mud ; and with the trees bearing cost-south-east into seven 

fntb-juis. Bctwtwn the trees of K^umbhilr and thuse of Ch&nka 

jialaud, tlicre is nowhere to tho »oulh more than tea fathoms at low 

|iratcr, except in the month of Saldya creok. 

Saldya, the entrance to which hea between K&Iumbh^r and Dbniii 

■nay, at no very remote day, become tho Liverpool of 

.■^Ar. Salilya is already a leading native port, being tho landing 

of KLambhalia, a large town about six mites inland, and its 

ition, as regards the cotton fields of tho jxttunsula, together with 

^the great depth of water ia the inlet, and the perfect shelter it 


Gait of CutalbM 



HalAya or 

rBombay Ou«t1 




Onl/ of Cut«h. 

Saldffa or 

SaUga laJtt. 




ttHcrda, mark it as deserving the attention uf European mercluiiil 
The tad of ita belonging to a native chief, who has no ona 
advise him on maritime mattorv, hindunt thu developmont of tt 
at 8aUy& inlet, whose entranco has as great a depth at low water 
the MerBej at Liverpool has at high water. Sal&ya month i» in noi 
latitude 22° 28' and east lougitudL' 69° 32'. From KAlambhilr trees I 
thin low strip of sand, with mangroves on tho sea side, rans to we 
south-west two and a half mitca ; it^ W4?st cud is higher and 
bashes on it, the tops of which are ten feet above higb<water mai 
The rocks dry a little more than a mile west of thii^ sand. In ihl 
entrance of Saiflya inlet a vessel will find excellent shelter frc 
aorth-oastors, by anchoring two or three cables length from the 
rftof, in six to ten fathoms luiid. llie nearest point of the sand 
should hear east by north, after the Kilnmbhdr trcen have passed 
behind the north point of high saud. and a large banyna tree in 
line witli a little conical hill, eleven and a half miles inland, should 
bear south-south-east half cast. Towards low water tho reefs aro well 
marked, and, at any time, the masthead look-out man will see tbai 
whou within two or three cables length. 

Dbuni is a tuft of trees on sand, six miles west-Bonth-west 
K61uinbh4r, forming tho west point of Saliya inlut, which runs 
nine miles to SnlAya landing. Tho chief town to which goods 
carried by laud is KhambAlia, which is six miles south of Sall^ 
The creek ts known by both names Solilya and Khambhd.lia; it 
not yet been snrveyed on the large scale, and a vessel bonnd 
SaUya had better take a pilot at Cutch-MAudvi. 

Chsnka is a little island covered with trees, the north end U 
north latitude 22° 32' and east longitude 69" 23', nine miles noi 
west of the Dliaiii trees. From this to Vomini, the north point 
Okh^Hiandol, this oud of the gulf has nolhiug hut roefs and islands" 
with good channels among them, which arc most useful to coasting 
craft during strong bi-eezes, whou there is a heavy swell outside. 
Chanka is the north-east of four islands on the Great BaWil, or 
Chinha reef, tho north face of which is ten miles long. The 
north-cast end of tho reef foruis a fall semicircle, with a radius of 
one and a half niiU<8 round Chiinkiv island. After tho first quarter 
ebb tho rocks at ita margin begin to show themselves. Chanka 
bears about sooth by east from M^dvi. 

BnboHir Rock, on which a small post used to bo visible, lying 
rather less than a mile from the east edge of tho above reef, beara 
Eoath-east by esst two and one-fonrth miles from Ch:inka trees. To 
the east and south'oast of Chiinka trees there is good shelter for ships 
of any tnto against westerly winds. A good anchorage is in five 
fathoms mud, at low-watyr about half a mlto south-westof the rock ; 
but a vessel only taking shelter for a single tide may anchor to the 
north of it in eight or nine fathoms mud, on the edge of the slioal 
Bonndings, with Dnbasir beacon south by west and Chanka trees 
west. This anchorage on tho east of Chftnka for tho sontUi 
west monsoon Js worth knowing. A vessel disabled botw( 
Dwdrkft and Karachi, and Hnablo to claw off tho coast, need w 
now, with tho latest charts on board, hare any fear to seek sheltc 





in the giilf of Catch. Rain seldom falls, and tho nhore is not so 
compI(-t«-ly hidden as oft Bumbuy. lu the daytime the towns and 
Iraus betwecu Dwjirka and BqC island will bo sccu from uloft, and a 
ircMel can ran in either to the north or the sonth of Bokn shoAl. A(t«r 

ling Chinri i-eef, she wonld be unable, with a south-wost wind to 

1 up to the south to clear Hanuman-ddnda, and fetch tho 
uicbomge on the east side of Bet ititand without tacking. She should 
therefore run for the nheltorod iu)chorap;c behind Chankn. To du 
Uus she mast stand la thu east along the north face of the BanU 
reef. Care slionld be taken, iu approochiu^ this rocf at high-water, 
to keep A |B^>od Iook>ont for the ^ces on Nora and ChAnka, which 
ahould nut be approached nearer than three uiilea tilt the vtmsol ia 

Ch^inka. She Bhonld then haul to tho soath-caKt^ when the 

trees bear south and the water soon becomes smooth. 

maj anchor in eight or ten fathoms mad, about one mile to 

east of Bubasir rook, and three or throe and a half milctt from 
Chiinka, with the trees bearing west-north-weKl. Id this pusitiou 
tbe ebb lets to north<woiit and tho flood to Bonth-eA«t. 

Lar<re native vessels from tho Malabdr and African coasts, after 
the bvginning of the sonth-west monsoon, seek shelter to leeward 
of Ch^oka, and there discharge ibe bnlk of their cargo into smaller 
boale, which, watching their opportunity, bring the goods over to 
Cmch-MAndvi. Tho larger vessels follow at spring. tidei*, and 
boldl? run into M^ndri creek at high-wat«r in the daytime, when 
the tides are highest. 

Between Bubasir and the Dhom fringing reef five miles to the 
■onth'eaet the water ia not deep. The bottom is generally mod 
ihoairh a few casis of hard grouua are found. In working to the 
the roots and islands, the native boatmen usually wait 



till -iig tide makoa the banks apparent. The moat minute 

clatcnpiiuu of the channels among these islands would not bo 
Mongti for the guidance of a large vessel. A large vessel should 
teke a native pilot, as the tides are so strong in some places, and 
an i&tiinate knowlodgo of their set is necessary, as tho eudiea make 
n reaacl anmnnogeable in light winds. Tlio set oE tho ebb stream, 
during thy first hour of ebb, when it runs out over the reef, is very 
ditfcrvnt from the direction it takes after half -ebb, when it is confined 
within narrow deep chauucls. 

The Tast coral roof known as BarAl Reef surronnds the islands of 

Ohinka. Nora, Bliaidhar, and Chusra. It is completely covered at 

' ' : fprings, the islaadsunly being risible. Its north face ia 

,1, the soundings very irregular from twenty to thirty-six 

io», «iid the tide rnsboa by with a velocity of four to six ktiot«, 

ita north-east end the water ia shoalcr, lifteen to nineteen 

bthoms, and beyond this there ia a bank, on which are rocky 

Etches of aevcn and eight fathoms. There is no danger on tfaia 
ak whiuh extends more than Ion miles to tho north-east of 
Gh^ka, although thn shoal water and uneven bottom couao heavy 
nppling> B.nil ljn>uks, tho rush of tide being very stroDg. 

Kon is a large low mangrove island, on the Qroat Bardl reef, 

west ol the Chduka trees ; it is ueorlj 

Chapter L 

Gull of Cutoh. 

Bardt i?f V"- 


Chapter I. 

Goli of Catch. 


Pdga. or Tnrtk 

tlircc miles cost and west ; its nortli f»ce is fronted with sand, 
the east end of which are the hiKhest trees, about twoDty-five feo^ 
above bigh<wat«r. Oa tho north of Nora the Bar&l reof in deeply 
iudcntedj and tbu souadiugs are mostly mud near (he reef in the 
two anf^les. whore Biiioll coaators, whoo working tide-work with 
westerly winds, can at low water find anchorage, whore they wait 
for tho next ebb. CLAuka, the uorth-east Island, has been ulread; 

Bhuidhar is a mangrove island nearly two miles across. Its wi 
face IB fronteil with sand, the mirth end uf which is higheal> beia^ 
nearly twenty feet above high-wator. It lica throe miles souih-wes 
of Nora, or about half.way totvarda Chuara, and about fivo milea 
east by south oE Fiiga sand. 

Chnsra, a small rocky islet, with a clump of trees on its nort' 
cndj stands twe and a half miles sonth-weiit of Bbsidhar, and marka 
the south extreme of tho BarAl reef, as it iy only throe cables length 
within the south point of tho rocks. Tho Chusra troca are aa» 
excellent mark for navigating these inner channels. 

The Norih-AVest Extromo of Bar^I roof strotohos nearly si 
miles to the wc»t of tho Nora trees, and is sovon and a half miles 
north of Chu«n». The rockn al its edge are piled up iu three places, 
which aro dry in rattier raoro than ono hour after high-water Bprinpa 
and at ueaps are searcely covered. A boacou on the point would 
be a valuable mark as vessels might avail themsolves of this 
excellent shelter against north-mat winds. It is a snug anchorage, 
with a depth of fonr or five fathoms, maddy bottom, three or four 
cables length to the west of the fringing reef. The bcoi-inga of 
this shelttir are : Chiinka trees seen from aloft, just touching 
the north sandy face of Nora islandH, bearing east, and Chosra trees 
bearing Bouth by east quarter east. This is a good anchoragOj ia 
four or five fathoms mud, whoro no ebh stream is felt, and very 
little Bood. To the sooth are patches of shoal water, and a hnnk 
o£ sand and rock, with overfalls from five to seven fathoms, which 
Btretchoe to the west of tho Chinri reef and south to the PlLga 
rocf. Over this bank the sonudings are everywhere alike, ranging 
between five and tea fathoms ; but in tho centre thoro iu a deeper 
gut having twelve to fifteen fathoms. The bearings of the land 
must' then be the sole guide, as the soundings except iu the 
centre, will not show a vessel's position. At spring-tides tho npplings 
and breaking water freijuently alarm a stranger. 

Turtle Reef lies three miles north.we8t of the Chosra trees and 
weBt of Bhaidhar, allowing a passage one mile broad between it and 
BariSl reef. Its greatest length is nearly four miles nonth-east and 
north-west. On its west side there is a bank of sand, which ia 
completely covered only at high water springs, and forms a good 
mark; this »and -heap lies three tniles eust of tho east end of Bet 
island. OkhAmandal tableland to tho south-east, seen between the 
Brothers or Sahu islands, ia the mark which will keep a vessel free 
of the south-east extreme of the P^;a reef, and will lead in clear to 
those islands. The highest peak of the Barda hills, in lino with or 
ouo degree to the left of tho highest part of Ajar ibland, seen from 






^Bloft, clears the nortTi-eaat side of P^ga reef. The north lip of the 

^veef, wliiuli never shows above Trater, lies three and a half mile!* to 

tho eaal of the Chinri sands, and bears about west-south-weftt from 

tho anchorage dc.icribed an av&iUble during north<easters, at tho 

norih'Wost ertreme of Boral reef. 

Chisri Reef, about two miles north of Bet island, haa also a sand- 
heap only covered at high springs, ou its south m\v, which bears 
>XtDnh-weet hy nest hnU west four and a half miles from FagiL eaod. 
Ttu? reef that dries scretches more than one mile, and shoal water 
■tretches nearly two milcft to the north of tho sand ; thoeaRt extreme 
ol this shoal water bears east north-east, nearly two miles from the 
«u)d. To the south of Chinri sand tho reef in dccp-to, and there ia 
a paasage, one mile wide, between it and the reefa of Bet island; 
and between it and SaiiliDi island the water is ohoal, with overfalls 
from throe to eight fathoms. 

The east end of Bet or Shankhodh&r, which ts composed of sand 

, hillfi and bashes, is called Mouke^ or Hauiun&n point from a temple to 

^KBuiamin about half a mile wiihni tho point. Tho reef to the north of 

^Kthis point is called Banumau-d^nda and extends west for one and 

nno-third miles to the north-east of tho sand-hills that bonier the 

k north atdo of Bet. Tho island from north-east to south-west meaAnros 
five miles; bat, being s narrow and crooked strip of land, is in it« 
wiodings half' as long again. Its soath-west half is rocky tableland, 
, 6fty or sixty Eoct high. Temples in honour of Kriahna abound ; 
^fttbc (leople, mo<if. of whom arc Brlthroans, arc mainly snpportod by 
Ppilgrims. Wlteii Bet tort wns taken from the VAghereby a British 
force in 1869, some of tho priocipal temples wore blown up with 

rthe fort ; boforc that time ttio island had 500 houses and 3000 
inhabitant*. Bet fort tlag-statf is in north latitude 22° 27^' and 
■ut lougiiudc 69° 5'. A vessel oomiag in along the south side of 
Chinri nx-f must pass it^ fuiud-heap at one eable's distance, and 
stand to the, not letting Ardniblmda tower diijappeor behind 
Bet ixland, till the Cho-xni treett touch the right or south aide of Ptlga 
Band. Theae bearinga will lead the vessel clear of Uannnuln point. 
fibe may then steer to the south-fast with tho latter marks on, 
oally opening thero as she hauls to the south and aa tho Kia 
ilta Wgin to appear to tho loft of the bushes on UanumAn point. 
Tbt^n she moy steer for those hills, keeping them just open to the 
aouth of tliu bushy point, or about south-west by south according 
to the tiiio, remembering that the ebb will force her west against 
Hanomon point; and then anchor off the east end of Bet island. 
Thu anchorage off the east end of Bet laland is well sheltered from 
imilerly gales, and, approached as above, may be had in five or six 
.fathoma road nithiT moro than h&If a mile from the shore, with 
BoDomiin teuijile north'West by west, the sandy extremes of Bet 
iilond from Houth-west by west to north-norih-west, the Chinri aand 
h^g jnst shot out of sight by thu latter bearing. To the esHt of this 
* niM the bottom is rocky, so it is well to anchor near tho 
, the water during westerly winds being smooth. 

Baiween tho sandy soath-oaiit side of Bot inland and the mainland 
f OkhAmnndal tho pn^ssgo is very shallow, having a bonk in 


Golf of Cvtsk. 



[Bombaj Qax«tte«i', 


Chapter L 


iolfof CtiUh. 
SUara Bag. 

The BntJitri, 



mid-chaunci which is snarly dry at low tide. Tlie wat«r dee 
towards thn south oE ilie isliLmlj but tho luany saoken rocks mak 
it unsafe foe navi^tion TCithoat a. pilot. Poshitara point is nearly 
four miltis soulL-east of itie va^t eud of Bet, and tlie town oE 
Poshitara is on high ground nearly two miles eoath-wost of the 
point. Two largo banyan trees to the north-west of tho to^yn aro 
oouepicaoQs objiHtts. Tbcro is a Bunkon reef one luilo north of tho 
point i and to the eaai of it is foul ground for nearly two niiles, 
A sand-bnnk on this foul gronnd, called Bona, and covered only 
towards high-watcr, marks the east extreme. A eepojute little 
rtKif lies ncrth biitween wliich and f'Aga reef the fair t-hauiiel is 
one and a half miles broad. The Chnsra trees, tonchincf the north 
end of Aj&r island, are the leading marks through this passage. 
When clear U) the north of these Boria reofs the Kiu hills are u 
littlo open to the north of Poshitara point. When clear to the east 
of theiu tho south-east bluff of OkhAuiaudal table-land is seen 
botwoen tho Brother lalanda. 

The Brother Islands, called by the people ShAn, lie two and a 
half miles south-east by south of Poshitara point. The west islet is 
hirger with a Hat top about sixty feet nigh ; the east islet is 
small and conical. There is good anchora^at half a mile east of tho 
Brothers, and also on their west side in six to ten fathoms mud, and 
Bholterod from all winds. Attention has lately been called to this 
Poshitara harbour as affording doop-wator sholtor for the largest 
ships within half a mile of the mainland of Okhdmandal. This 
territory belongs to His Highness the Gflikwdr of Baroda. 

Sai6ni Islet, north latitude 22' 29' east longitude 69° 4', bounding 
the north side of the Bet inner harbour, ha.s a sandy spit stretching 
one mile to the north-wottt. In the centre of the island a little 
tomb called Sai^i Pir stands forty feet above high-water level, 
and a li^'bt-houso has lately been built by its side, a most 
useful mark which may be seen nine or ten miles from a ship's 
deck. Ourur shoal of sand and rock, on which the depths vary 
from ten to three and a half fathoms, stretches over a teugth 
of ten miles north-oast and south-west. It has a sandy knoll 
called Beka, juat dry at lowest ivater of spring tides, whose 
Dorth-east end is at five miles from the mainland. Bet cocoa-palms 
just to the right of Saiflni Pir, bearing sonth-east half south 
mark this little patch which dries at the lowest spring tides. The 
depth between tho Gurur shoal and the shore reel varies from 
twelve to twenty fathoms ; the bottom is aand and shells. Tho south 
and west of the Gurur ahonls are free from danger. But to avoid risk 
Dw^u-ka temple sboald not be brought inside Kachhigadh foi-t or 
to tho Boath of south by east. The south end of Gomr shool is 
joined with the shoal water off Chora sand-btlls by a shallow 
neck, having ten fathoms water, with much deeper water on either 
side. As these inequalities in depth are so deceiving ships had 
better pass to seafnuxl of the Guror. Between the Gurur slioal 
and tho main, during a calm on the ebb tide, the sea sometimes 
breaks even in deep water, and on both tides there are heavy 
ripplingSj causing alarm to a stranger. ^Vhen standing in toi 

ihe Goror the change in the colour of the water, the ripplings, and 

I the great patches ofdriftiag sea-wued, would auffiuiuutl^' point it out 

Ihfday. But tho sounding are a sure- guide. Tho twenty fathoms 

[line is docitlediv mnrtced, nnd when tho flood tide quickens tbo 

'¥«»«sel** speed, the water will gcuorully shoal tu t^JU luthoras nt a 

^esiit. During westerly winds there is n hollow hroakiiig fiwell on 

the Onrar. Hy night a Urge ship not hound tor the Gulf o( Cutch 

I should not shoal under twenty EatbomsuS its mouth, as tho following 

bonk lies to the north-west of the Crumr. Lushington shoal, called 

Ani-t Uor hy Cntch boatmen, is a shoal patch of sand and rock, the 

sand d'jahtlesii brought by the currents from the coasts of Siudh and 

Cntt-'b iind depositetion the rocky nucleus, where tho ebb from the 

Gulf of Ciitch conBlotfl with the south-east ocean current of tho 

Boutb-wesl monsoon. It is supposed to be emdnally shoaling : thren 

, amd a half fuchoms at low water was the least fonnd in ISoO ; but 

jtbero may bo a less depth now. The soundings near it vary from 

fiftec'C to sixteen fathums at two mil(3s to the south, and from twenty 

[to thirty between it and the Giimr, from which it is distant eleven 

A caAtfif five fathoms was found at four miles to the south- 

twest of LuKhiugtou tdioal, iu which direction a tun-hUhom bank 

extends sixteen miles. Rhoal patches of eight fnthom.4 lie to the 

wut of it ; bom ten to eleven fathoms is the depth on its north- 

|weet aide, wheucc the water gradually shoals to the Catch coast. To 

' the east, hetwt'cn tt and RnnvAda shiMl, there is a deep gut with 

Lt'um thirty to thirty-five fathums. Thu three and a half falhoma 

;h vi the Luahington shoal is in north hititude 22° 37' and east 

igimdo GH" 48'. From it Nanao hill, in Catch, boara northeast 

[half north forty-Bix nilefl, and i» risible in clear wither ; Beka 

[ihoal bean eaat-south-east thirteen miles, and DwArka tompio 

fconth-»^uth-east twcnty-6TC miles. Tho tides on Lnshington shoal 

'set east by north and we^t by south from one and a half to two aud 

:» half kuiit9 un hour. High wat«r on full aud ohango is at Llh. 

fSOm., whan tho ordinary nse is ten feet. 

For a steamer or a ahip with a fair wind bonud into tho GuU of 

Catch, the passage between tho Gurur and tho mainland of 

|Ukb&inandal should be u»ied, care being taken that in giving that 

ihoal a wid» berth tho vtsst^el does not ^o too near the spit off 

Ifvuiliu. Tho fair channel is threo miles wide, From UwArka tho 

bides make strong iu and out of tho Qulf of Cntch, setting with tho 

iiae of coast, two or throe knots an hour, increasing to three or four 

lear Bet. Vessels hound to MAndri from the south, passing 

)etwM-n Guruxand Lushiugton shoals, should keep Dwiirka temple 

Kflchhigadh fort iu ouc Hue or beariug south by east, ao long 

tthor can be seen &om aloft of that line. Aasar tumbj on tho 

Tnti-h coast, ehould bo steered for, and will bear about north-east 

twnuty miles distant from out«ido tho Gurur. 

To the north of the Ganir,betwecn Lushington and RanviUla shoals, 
ifi a gnt of small extent, haviug over thirty fwthoms water ; 
>in this deep bo-tin, which is a good guide to a vessel's position 
>o « fine day, NanJlo hill in Cutch may bo seen bearing north-cast 
biy north and all vfill bo clear before you. Care must bo taken to 

Chapter I. 



D<ep Waiff, 


Chapter I, allow for the tides, which set eont and west in the moutli lA 
Soaehotion ^'^'^ almut thi'eo miles an hour. Tbo above bcariag of Nan&o hill 
feadi clear in mid-channel botwocn Loshing-ton and Gorur shoaU. 
Cntch. ^Vhon bound to MAudvi in the daytime, a, steamer may conveuiautly 
Holer. paae botweoii the Gorur shoal and the coast of Okhiiajandal, and, 
bj taking a freah dcpartaro from SaiAni island, will not only mafca 
more certwu of steonng straight for Assar tomb on the Cut<^ coast 
bat wilt save Bovertd milca. 

Imcr ffarbovr. Det Inner Harbour on the west of the fort is from its rocks nnGt 
for lame ships. If you want to anchor oft Bet fort, after the sjntb 
end of SftiAni ia brought to bear west-north-west, itand to the 
sonth-eaat over the flat for the cocoanul trees when they are in 
lino with a laivo round treo, nntil the Kouth-west btuiT of Bet 
iaiand ia just disappearing behind HAji Karman's point. Then tHe 
steamer must be hauled to the sontn and west, and may round 
Hiji Karman'a point at less than two cables' length, and anchor to 
the south-west of it, with Bet fort east-nouth-eaat to ext by south 
in four or live fuLhomii with rocky bottom, None but a tsteamur 
oan ontor in this way, but a small (tailing vessel may work in with s 
north-coat wind. 

[jBMering Bet. There are sovernl chnnnolsinto Bet at high water. For steamora 

the passage ronnd the east side of SaiiSni iaiand is beat, as t 
rocky point of it-s reef shows plainly, and a vessel should p; 
dose to it. There is no Hood tide felt in this passago, though 
north of it across its month the flood stream runs three or four 
knots to the east and the ebb runs out to the north-west. A sandy 
spit stretches for a mile north-west of Saiilni island. Beka shoal, 
the north-east end of the Gurur, which has a little sandy knoll dry 
only nt lowest spring tides, is marked by the Udital Sai^ni tomb jusi 
to the loft of Bet cocoanut trees. When from aloft the trees are 
seen welt to the loft of Haiiini island, the ship is clear to the east 
of the Gurur shoal, and if hound for Bet, she should stand 
onwards to south-oost allowing for tide, with those marks a little 
more open till Chinri sand boars east, when she may gradually 
open out the whole of Bet Island to tlie left or eastward or HaifUii 

To enter the passage along the cast sidoof Saidoi, havine arrive 
as above, within a mile north of tho island, keop a look-out 
the north-east tip of it« roefj and steer for it south-9onrh-w< 
paying great attention to the tide, which rushes past the tip 
tke rocks with groat force. Two sandy paints of the Okha she 
between Saiilni and Arilmbra will bo seen in line ahead. Keepit 
these in line will load a vessel in ch^ar to the east of Saidni re< 
which is only partially covered at high water. Steer sonth-sout 
west along tho east side of the island, not opening the ean< 
points till the south end of SuiAni bears west-north-west when 
vessel may go a little further south and anchor two or three cabl 
to the east of the first aandy point, Okha point, in five to 
fathoms, and with Vom&ni pointy which is one mile to the soath-i 
of Saiuia island, bearing west. With a west wind a ship must ^ 
till half-flood, and then cross Bet bar, with the east sandy poil 







oi Olclu&iiiandal in line with Bet fort. Tii tlus paesage slie will hare 
more than four fathoms towaixlii hij^^h n-ator. When in docp water, 
with Saiini Pir bearing east, whore it hroaka oven in ten fathoms 
when the tide is ranninf; to windward, she must borrow towards the 
■oath end of that ialond, and, whou ap to it, haul to the sonth and 
•Dehor to the cast of Okba sandy point, VomAoi mound bearing 
jyegt. as before. 

-The Gnlf of Cambay,' as anderstood by seamen, incladea the 
area of water which lies between the soath-east of Kdthi&w^r on 
the one side, and the coasta of Broach, Surat, and port of the 
North Konkan on the other. The gulf proper has ita aonth-west 
limit at GopnAtb point in Kilthi^w^r, and its eastern limit ia 
the mouth of the T:ipti. From thin it runa north, gradually 
tapering till it reaches toe S«Lbanoati on the north and the Mahi on 
the north-coat, at wboac mouth is the old trade centre of Cambay 
or Kbaiubh&t, from which the golf takes its name. This area 
stntohes between north latitude 21° and 22° 20' and cast longitude 
72'' 5' and 72° -15'. Its total length is about eighty miles and ita 
breadth vnrtee from about thirty miles at the mouth to about twolra 
miloa half way up. 

The mouth of the gulf is choked by a series of sandbanks called 
the Malaiki or Malacca Banks, which greatly faioder narigatiun and 
ore a sonroo of danger and anxiety to the seaman. Though narrow 
tongues of shoal water ma as far south as north latitude 20^ 20', 
these bonks may be said to cause no danger oonth of a line drawn 
between Daman on the Surat coast and Jafrabod on the sonth-east 
coast of KAthi&w&r. Their northern limit of danger is marked 
by a lino running east and west, between Tena creek above Vbdx'b 
tomb and Gopndth point. North of this line all banks have 
distinct ire names. Between CropnAth point and the N'arbada the 
gulf has never been thoroughly examined, though the chart shows 
a pnt4!h of five fathoms in the very centre. The western limit of the 
llaUiki banks Ues thirty miles south-south-west of Qopn^th point, 
on tho south-east coast of K&thiiw^. There are four banks, tho 
Kaatera, tho Breaker, the Nrirbada, and tho Western; and though 
then ore deep channels between them, they are so narrow at their 
oovibvra months, that the posaage through them is nnsafe. The 
Narbada bank, halE way between Sar&t road and Hahuva harbour in 
KiithiAwdr, shows at low wator a large extent of dry sand. The 
Breaker Bank has, at twenty miles south-west quarter south from 
Tiipti light, a knoti of sand, which is seen at high water of ueap tidee, 
thongh Hooded at springs. This sand is m north latitade 20^ 
&0' and east longitude 72^* 2'<i', aud from the mast head may 
bo seen a great diBtanco when tho ana shines on it. The head 
or north limit of the Malaiki banks should never be approached 
with an ebb tido. Being Btoei>-to, tho suandings giro no suflicient 
warning, and, wore a vessel to ti^o the ground, tha tide would 



ihterkiff BH.I 

GoU of CsmUi 

' Tliit Mownt of Ibft gaU of Osmhny, sxoobk th» puiArmih on ailthis wid tho 
kirtorioBl Mcttofi, hm U«R nxtraolcd for tho R^xottMirbv t\ptMnA. W.Butd, R. E.. 
!■«■ (kptafat A. b. T»ylw-« W«rt Cowt of lliadiufUa iMot, 

Chapter I. 

of Catnb*)*. 

overset her in an instant. Tho castmost danger of these banks is 
about 5ve mile-t from Surat bar, which has ouo and two fathoms on ib 
at low water ; Vaux's tomb, orTdpti light, bears from it north-east. 
The eastern patch of srwid, which is dry at low wator, is eighteen mUos 
west of the entrance of Kuntli Khiiili, or thirteen milos south-west 
by south from Surat roads. Tho North-Kiist D&ageT, or head of the 
banks, is six mites west of tho little hill close to the seiv, about firo 
miles north of Tipti light and two north of Sav&li sand-hills, whero 
according to Fryer (11573) is Tom Coryat'a tomb. 

The Sutherland channel between the banka and tho shore, part o 
which the early navigators called the SuvAh roads, is about three 
miles broad, the shore bank standing out one and a half miles at low 
water. Those arc sometimes called the inner and outer 8uv&li sands 
and both are dry at low water. The great rnsh of tide makes the 
eastern roof of tho Malaiki Banks very steep-to on ita eastern face. 
As the deepest water is within n mile of danger, a vessel in working 
should be warned by the deep water, and go about at the first 
shoalor cast. 



The following are the details of the coast of tho gnlf, hofjinninjy 
with the month of tho Tiipti in tho south-east and working ronnd 
the head uf the gulf down the west coast to Gopnath point 

Between Daman and the month of the Tiipti the hind near the 
ia low, covered with trees, and, in places, particularly near rivers^ 
flooded during high tides in the stormy season. When round the fonl 
ground of Sanjau and abreast of ]>amanj a vessel should steer along 
the shore for Surjit road, and not stand farther off than seven or at 
most nine miles, nor deepen above fourteen or sixteen fathoms. In 
working she should stand in to five or six fathoms on the soft Imtik 
lining the shore. But if anchoring at high water on the edge <>t^^ 
this bank, to benefit by the first of the foUowing Hood, she shuul^^f 
not anchor nnder so^-en fathoms at spring tides, because tho water^l 
sometimes falls nineteen or twenty feet. In 173H the Gunjiivar, a 
large ship drawing tweuty-one feet, bound from Qbina to Surat, 
anchored in <>^ fnthoma and at low water grounded in tlio soft mnd. 

"With PArncra hill bearing about east half north, the UraarsAdi 
isnrrow spit of sand strctchos far oat, with depUis varying from 
eight te thirteen fathoms. This may sometimes bo a guide at night, 
when pasHtng five or six miles from the shore, if the lead is kept 
going, as the wator shoals suddenly in crossing it, and soon returns to 
the former depth when over tho spit. Having passed ten or twelve 
miles north of Pdrnera hill, a sliip should steer along shore in 
soundings from seven to ton fathoms. But, in working, if she 
stands fnr out and gets a cast of hard gronnd or shoal on tho cAga of 
the Malaiki banks, after passing through tho deepest water, she 
shonld tack instantly towards the land. When within twelve oi 
fifteen miles of Surat Road, she ought to work from six and a half t 
seven fathoms towanls the shore, to ten or twelve fathoms in t~ 
offing, as the channel then l>ecomc8 narrower j uino or ton fatbo 
is a good track with a fair wind. 

Surat Road and River are at the narrow part of tho entrance 
the gulf of Cambay. Tapti lightj close lt> Vuus's tomb on Suv 

it, tho north entrance point of the river, is twoIvG milos north- 

It of the Nnvsj'iri rivta* entraUL-o, and sisty-sevcn miles duo north 

by compiaRR from that enter part of the Sanjfi.n or Dah&nn rot>f, 
which nearly dries at low water. The distance from the har to tho 
city oF Sarot is with windings aboat eighteen miles. Kor nearly 
two-thinis of the di-stouco thoro is a continued chain of banka, many 
of them dry at half tide, n-ith very »n)uU depths at low water in the 
channels between them. Above Umra and uoAr the city of Snrat, 
the river is narrower with deeper water, 

Tiipti light is a fixed light, on a oolnmn about 140 foot above 
mean iea level, a few yartls from Vaax's tomb. It is a good light, 
viiiible more than Bfteen miles in clear weather, but only ton uidea 
when tho air Ls hazy. Xo directions can be given for crossing tho 
bar into Surat river, becnuse the Hundn are contimmlly ehnnging, now 
channels opening, and old ohanncU closing. Formerly tho llamas 
ofaannet was the deepest and waa generally used. It strack on tho 
east side of the banks, towanln the village of Dumaa on the eastern 
sh.ire, hot it ia now filled, being navigable by boats only at half tide. 
llio propor channel over the btu' i» at present between tho -^aud that 
projects above one and a half niiloa from SnvSli point, forming tbo 
nort h side of the bar, and other extensive saoda which fiil tho middle 
of the river and the eastern shore. After turning round the point 
of SuT/iH n&n6, tho channel strikes north, close along the western 
shore of the river, where it becomes deeper, and safer than between 
tho sands uuttiido. AJtliougb this is tho projMjr channel for entering 
the rivt?r, it is narrow, and at low-water spring tidea there is not 
depth enough for a small boat between the dry sands near the bar. 
BtAta pasKing down with the latter part of the ebb are carried along 
Tory speedily by tho rush of waior, and, as it is very shalloWj they 
uv liable to toucli the bottom, when the sailors always leap out to 
ropport the boat and keep it £rom upsetting. 

The anchorage for large ships in Surat road is in seven or eight 
tathoms at low water, with Vaui's tomb bearing north quarter east 
to north half east in a stiff clay bottom, and with Bliiinpnr Pagoda 
Di>rth-(->iet by east and Dumas flagstaff north-oaat by north. Ilere, 
va tho spring!!, the tides run very rupidly, purticularly the i.>bb abuve 
fire knots an hour to south •soutli-caiit. Farther in, whcro small 
voMols lio near tho bar, in four or five fathoms at low water, with the 
tomb or Tapt) light north half west, they do not run with equal speed, 

' they itet north by west and south by east. 

Sumt Road, and in the entrance of the gulf southerly winds 
and blowing ^reathor set in sooner than at Bombay. It is dimgerous 
for shipA drawing much water to ronuin in Surat rond after tho 
middtu of April. In this month, and ettrly in May, smart southerly 
wtttds often blow during the springs, especially at nighty with ;i flood 
tide. These winds rniflo a considerable sea, which, by the strength of 
ika tido, strikes hanl ngnlnst a ship, causing her tu drive and bring 
both anchors ahead. When a ship is kept in »:>urat road late in the 
muon, it is advittublo to He at singlo anchor, with a good cable 
down, sighting ii. when ounvouiont. By 8o doing she will ride better 
in blowing weather than it two uucltors woru duwu ; and shoold 


tinlf ofCambay 


Tdpli Light. 

Chapt«T I. 

Islf of Camber. 
TUpti Light, 


\ Point. 



circumstances make it necessflry to cnt or slip, only one anchor will 
bo left on the Ki'ouiid. At auch times it is prudent to keep a pilot 
on board, that he may carry a vessel into tbo rivor, or to CK^hai 
where she will be shelterud by the reef snd island of Piram. In 
aome etorms late in April and early in May, several ships have been] 
loet by remaining too long tit their anchors. 

The coast north of TApti light has a few sand-hills, called th© 
SavfUi hilla, off which tbo Suvdii bank dries for one and a hnlf miles at 
low water. This bank is of sand at its edge, with mud and sandy mud 
inside, towards liigh-water mark ; but the shore by the TApti light 
ia very steep-to, and off there it dries only half a mile. Tena creek, 
in a bight seven and half miles north of TApti light, and less than 
two miles north of Tom Coryat's tomb, is said to lead into Snrat 
liver. From Suvdii hills to Tuna creek the coast ia lined with 
thick groves of brab or palmyra palma. From this creek twonty 
miles to the banks of the Karbada, tbo coast is low and marshy, cot 
by numerous creeks, and overflowed at spring tides from one to 
four miles inland. 

Diindi point, a low bluff reddish point, the sooth eitremo of 
D&ndi island, and about twenty foet high, is thirtoen and a half milea 
north-west from Tiipti light, and hfw off it some dangerons sands. 
The passage between these sands and the Gnlvala bank should not be 
(ittemptt'd without a pilot. The low point of Bhagvais two or three 
miles north of DAndi. DAndi point has a small fixed light, visible 
about ten miles, bearing north by west fourteen miles from Tdpti 
light, and twenty-one miles sonth-east of Ptram light. 

Gnlrala bank, five mile.i west of Dandi point, is between fivo and 
six miles from north to south, and its south-west danger is 13i miles 
north-west by north ol Tapti light, and nearly six miloe south-wost 
of the D^di light. 

Tho sands off Bhagra stretch, about five miloa from shore, and are 
called the Oulvala and Bhagra sands. Between them and the 
mainland i.s a channel throagh which small coasting Teesels pass in 
three and four &.thoms. At night, or in a large reesel, it ia 
advisable to keep well to the west. From iho Dandi point to Broach 
bar a continuous bank stretches along shore, and at Broach ri' 
stands out about five miles. 

Kiin river has its month obout four miles north of tho D&ndi 
light ; tho entrance is dry at low water ; but, after half-flood, larga 
native boats can lio in. deep water close to the bank by the village 
of Karanj. 

Broach point or Lahara point, on the north of which are tho 
Cehej sand-hills, is twenty miles north by west of Dandi light, and 


eleven miles east by north throe- quarters north of Piram light-house 
Thia is the highest part o£ the coast, and consists of aand-hilla covoreQ 
wiUi bushes. Near by are several topes of banyan trees, and a little 



to the oast tho small grove of Jagoshvar brab trees. 

Karbada Kivor has ita sonrce in the Vindhya monntains, in the 
BiUspur district of the Centnd Provinces, 800 miles from the gulf of 
Cunbay. Few rivers have a more direct course ; and porhapa do 



nror of the same siae recoivos so fow trifoataries. Tbo tido paasos 
^twantf-fivo miles above Broach, or fifty-five from the sen; and, 
brongbout this tidal leogtli, its broadth exceeds one mile. At Broacb, 
thirty miles up, it is a noble sheet of water, two miles wide, btqd 
1 when the tide is uot. 

B VeweU of considerable burden may reach Broach as the channels 
are deep in many places, but they are too intricate to be navigated 
witlioui a pilot. 

H Broach Roads, oS tho bar at the ontrnnce of the Narbada river, 

^are ftmr or 6ve Voiles south-west of Broach point and eighteen milee 

north of the isoatheni danger of Gulvala banka. Th« bar o! the 

»riv(.T is alwut four miles from Broach point. A vessel may anchor 
oS the bar with Broach point north by east, distant four and a half or 
' (ive mites, and Piram ligbt-hoose west half north in six fathoms at 

I low water. 
From Broach bar to Jarabusar or Taokdna rood, a flat, dry at 
low water, stretches 1^ or two miles from the shore, with deep 
soundings close to it. The coast from DcjbAra creek to TankAria 
is low and marshy. Oaiidhar, the only vill^e near the coast, has 
a coDspicnous building. In passing along here a vessel sbonld keep 
within tbrc« miles of tho shore, in seven or eight fcithoma at low 
water; and in working, she ought uot to stand for off, as the 
M4kn^ bank ties five or six miles off tho shoru btuik, and the tide 
is BO rapid that, wore the wind to fail while the vciiaol ia in the 

IolBng, great ditlicutty will be found in regaining the shore. 
Oojbdra shoo] is a small saiidbauk, with uot less than throe 
fathoms over it, 1^ mile* long, and lyinf? ]MiraIlel to the shore from 
which iL is separated by a uhamnel half u mile wide, with ten and 
eleven faihoms of water. From tho south end oE this shoal the 
Deib&ra brab trees bear cast throe-fourths south and from it« north 
end a single bmb bears due east. 
MAkrah birak, composed of sand, ia ©loven mileB north and south, 
luid five ^tr six uiilva from the Sural coast, between Broach point 
and Tankilna point, tbn ends of the bank being about five milea 
UurtaDlfrom each of those points. In the centre of tho bank is a patch 
which driofl ut tow-wat«r springs, but the general depth is from ouo 
tt> two fathoms. Ita north-oast end is broadest, almost reaching to 
^Tank(Lria roads. No large vessels should attempt to come hero 
witlioQt a pilot, as tbe tides are lo r^id and the soundings are veiy 
Utile guide. BetwucQ the Dejb&ni ahoat and Mikrab bujok there ii 
a channel two mtlee wide. 

I TankAria landing Is a town on the north shore of the Dbidhar 
riTcr, about seven miles north-east of Devjagan and nine miles 
from the anc^iorago in tho Jambusar roads. There is a custom-hoaae 
with a crook where bouts take in cargo. Tho river ia only three- 
loortha of a mile wide at Tanki^ria. From this river, cotton, grain, 
and oil go in targe quantities to Bombay and other places. 

TankifiriB, or Jambosar road, may be known by the cntranoe of the 

[river bt^Dg open, and by a t<»mpIo called Doviiigim on the north »ide 

>f it. 0& this vtwwU may anchor in seven fathums at low water. 

Chapter I. 
Descriptioa. j 

OnU gf Cun W< \ 
Broaeh Point. 

BrMtik BoatJa. 


ifdtmA . 


Cbapter I, 

ina Jioatl. 



tho t^mplo bearing north-oast by north 3) mitoa and thenea 
land on the sonth bank of Tank&ria bearing sonth-caae fonr 
uiilets, or the Oebej eaad-bilts, wliich are seen onlj from the inaat- 
hcnd, fioutU by cast. From this anchorage the bar bearg half a mile 
oast. To avoid the strength of the etream is the great object nod 
a g^>od berth c&n be chosen only by a pilot who knows the place. 
Horabargh (1^17) directs vetiwiB to anchor %vith Devjagan tomplo 
bearing uorth-east by east half east distant four or five miles, and 
Jambasar i>oint oast by north with the dry part of some flat distant 
I^ miles, and says, * Here they may ride in safety, the north part of 
the flat breaking the sti-ength of the tide/ Since 1817 the banks 
have evidently altered. A small fixed light is now shown on a mast 
fifty feet above liigh water, at a little diHtance north of the temple. 
This is called Derjagan or Tonk&ria light. The best anchorage in 
Jambusar roads, m 1S30, was with the square house north-east half 
north and a conspicuous building at the village of Gandhfir aboat 
east thrce-fourtha north in seven fathoms, sand and clay. This is o 
of the streagtb of the tide and in convenient for entering the riv 

Gangva town lies fourt-een miles north by east of Devja: 
temple; its large trees may be seen from aloft ten or twelve mile« 
From Jambusnr to Gangva is about seveuteen miles. The channel 
formerly used was from one to two miles wide, but rendered very 
dangerous by the rapidity of the tides ; the soundings were 
from two to seven fathoms at first quarter flood. The tlat to the 
north of Jambnsar stretchca in places four miloa from the shore, 
and a vessel formerly kept within three cables of it iu passing 
^ong in two, three, nud four fathoms, aatil a small clamp of treee 
■waa bearing east. It then hauled for the shore, keeping within 200 
yards till abreast the town of Gangva ; the anchorage was about 
one cable's length from high-water mark : there rossols gronndod 
in the mud at first quarter ebb. It must be remembered that the 
sands aud chaunels iu the north of the gulf are liable to shift every 
year by the violence of the freshes. Siuce 1835 the above channel 
to Gangva has closed, and there is no anchorage off the town ; a 
new channel has formed, through the centre of the golf, which 
leads to Cambay and the Mahi river. 

From Gang\'a to Cambay is about ten miles ; the small vosseU 
that used to navigate hero always weighed at first quarter floo'^ 
and stood over, keeping the temple at Cambay bearing about, north b; 
east three-quarters east and from north by west to north-east by nort 
in working to the north of Degdm, for that shore was kept close 
aboard until they passed thiit place. The soundings wore from two 
to four fathoms, with overfalls, and the tide was so rapid that a 
Tossel taking the ground would Immediately ovoraot, and probably 
ovoty person on board perish, a result which has frequently 
bappened through the neglect or obstinacy of the pilots. In this 
port of the gulf the flood sets north-east into the Mahi or Cambay 
river, and the ebb south-west. The smallest vessel should n 
attempt the navigation without a pilot. 

Mai bank lying iu the centre of the npper part of the gulf is botweo: 
Tankdria and Bhdvnagftr. When first surveyed iu ISO!-, it w 




dAteribod m Uiree bftuks ; the northera, called Mai ; a central group 
of detaclied banks, callml Torinui's shoalti, from the uuino of the 
•unreyor's roasol ; and the soutUorn ono, the Balimia bank. Next 

rjear tI)o bank? wore so chan^red a» to bo described as one lai^ 
oaulc This has bcca uamod the Mdl bank. Ic is pear-Hhapod, 
\ho Btalk to the south. When aunreyed in 1S35, its Inogth vrm 
surtooo milesj but it is supposed to be iucreasing southward. la 
Xa^'i the survDjring' rossol Paunab when passing from Broach to 
Gogba, found mnch shoalcr water nt the south end of this bank than 
the published charts show. It is supi)osod that a greater deposit hna 
nihered at its south end, which may now be marked by a line 
umwn from Gogha to Dejbilra brab troea, rU the back of Dehoj 
saad-hills. There is a ch&Dnol two miles brood between the MdJcriUi 
bank and the Mdl bank, and between the Mdl bank and a Hat 
which dries off the shore north of Devjagan temple. The Malcolm 
channel, ronnd the west side of the M&I bank, is deep, but must 
Boc bo tried without a local pilot. The numerous lights now bhown 
to Cambay gulf make navigation easy; but the bulks and shoals 
change much especially near the head of the gulf. 

Thoiw facts show that any special directions for such a locality 

9 naeless. Stoamera going to Cambay mast take native pilots. 

Shikot&r MAt», • temple on tho point between the Mahi and 
SAbarmati twelve miles west of Cambay town, is n high building 
with a flog-BtafF. Tho coast is high and well tilled, and great 
quantities of cattle are reared. Dov M^ta. is a small temple on the 
same shore, six miles north of Shikotar. Abreast of this place in 

►December tiio atroam was found to be nearly fresh at low water. 
About half-way from Cambay towards the Ran of Cutch is a 
romarkablo depression, callod tho Kal^ which lies about thirty miles 
to the south-west of Ahmadabod. 

From the Sabarmati the west or K^thiiiw&r shore of the gulf 
atrotchea sevijuty mites south from Khun landing to Goptiath 

Kroro Khan landing to Bhdmagar, for several miles inland, tho 

shore is lined with maogrxive thickets covered in parts with a 

ooono grAsa nnfit for cattle. It is seamed by many crocks and 

- OTtfrHowod at high tides for aouusiderable distance iulaad. It rises 

towards Ro^ha and soaie IitUo hills are seen in the background. On 

■ tttoweat bonk of tha SAhannati, between Amii creek and East 

BCsM, the surveyors, in 1837, found that a strip of bank, from 

HQP to 1300 yards broad and five miles long, had disappeared in one 

^^^pr. Sinee then, so much has been carried away, that Bast Cane has 

I^^Bnppcared and now stonds five miles nonth-sonth-west of its toroier 

pMitwo, and Dhokra creek mouth or Khun landing is now iust soath 

Amli point, or ten miles higher than the old Dholora creek 


The twenty mites of coast from Qogha to Morchand is tolerably 
mnch broken by mvinoa and with trees near tho villages. 

10 country belongs to the ThAkor of Bhivnagar, whoso territory 
ronnd Gupoiitb point and west as {nr as Chinch crook. 

beCwoon Mitiviri and Gopnl&tfa point is low oud (ringed 


Chapter I. 

Siih>tar Udtn. 

Wttt Cwt. 


QLapter X. 


GnU «f Ountajr. 

I Point. 


with sand-hill^j and dry banks run oat two miles from tbe bIioi 
Insiilo the Band-hills, towards Shetninji rivpr, the country is loi 
aud overflowed at spring tides. Sonth of thnt rlrer to Gadhnla, a 
littlo north of Gopo&tb, is a low sundy shore. The country inland 
\b open and rather well tilhid, with im Imnhy trees escopt near tho 
villages, but the leiifless thorn-bush is seen all over the coontry. 

Gopuilth pointj the soath-Dast end of Kdthi&wflr is of moderato 
height and visible id dear weather upwards of fifteen miles. The 
whole of tho south coast, from GopuAth to Chdnch, ia Baudaione. 
Along the seaboard the oonntry averaj^ea about lOO fcM)t and rise« 
towards the interior. East of ShiAlhet inland, thcro are no 
remarkable bills except Sbatrunjaya the PiUitjina mountain twenty 
milca inland. 

The south-east coast of K^thUw&r, from Diu head to Oopnitth 
point, is generally b<ild and nafo to approach, of moilcrato hifight, 
though rather low in places. Except near villages there arc few 
trees or signs of tillagu, and tho shore is without a harbour where 
ships can enter and ride during a galo of wind. Shidlbot inland 
might be made a harbour of reftigo, or CYon a port, for south-east 
Edthi^wAi*. The depths along the coast are nearly equal at differeai 
distances from tho Bhoro, so that souudinga do not give safBoiont 
warning of the distance from the coast. The gToatest depths are 
o9 tho more prominent capes and rocks, so that, as a mlc, a deep 
oast gives warning that a shoal is near. Towards the sea, tho coast 
rises in steep overhanging cliffs, hollowed into onvos, and worn 
into sharp points by the wearing of the south-west monsoon on the 
orumbling sandstone. Among the chfis are bays of mud and Hand ; 
it is everywhere safe to approach, from five to nine fathoms being 
tho average depth within two cables' lengths of the cliffs. 

The following are the details of the chief points along tho west 
omat : Khun, at the entrance of Amii creek, on the west bank of the 
BlUnnnati, four miles west of Shikotar MdtA tomplc, la tho northmost 
port in the g^ilf of Carnbay. The channel into it from Kast Cape 
is close along the west shore and about due east of Dholera town. 

Khun has now a fiiod light on a wooden structure, forty-#ight 
feet above high water, near the present East Cape, and bearing about 
pOTlh by west, some ton miles from Shikotar WAta. Between the 
15th of Juno and tho 1st of September this light is not shown. 

East Cape was in 1837 about seven miles south-east of Khna 
landing; but this land is too liable to shift to be described with, 

The coast between East Cape and Bh^vnagar, a stretch of nearly 
thirty miles, has three creeks on which are the important cotton. 
marts of Dholem, Havli^ri, and Sundrai. Vessels going to these porta 
must take pilots. 

Uore rocks, at the entranee of the Sdbarmati, in 1837, bore south- 
east by cast two miles from East Capo aod eight miles south of 
Shikotar TA&ta, No description ia recorded. Bearings noted at high 
water neapa seem to show, if at all, that they are covered only at 
high-water springs. 



BUTDagar town, bearinf^ sontb aonth- west half vest, tvonij-se-ven 
mfle* from Kast Cape, is a large plaoe. It was formerly hard tv reach, 
bt)iiu^ approached by a iviiiding' creek. Now a good light-houae 
Blanaa at tha ciitrauco of! which a vesiiel may auchor in seren 
to eight fathoiDS having tbg Bhilivaagar t»hoal aboat a milo east, 
Crogba Light beariug south by east chrco-fourths oastjor Firata light 
aoath^oaih-east half east, tho centre of Bhfivnagar town aboat west, 
aod the light-housd about west by north. 

Bh^vnagar thoal is a sandbank lying 1^ milos from the ehora 
bank, and between six and seven miles caat of tho town. The ship 
c h an nel is to the weat of Bhdvoagar sboalj and at springs the tides 
rao through it six knots an hoar. 

Central Banks, formerly five miles aonth-east of the Bhtlvnagar 
•boal, are sluftiug Bauds which may be said to bo conuecteil with 
tbe Bhnk bank tho north end of which ia off Bavlifiri creek, 
There is a patch of 31 fathoms on tho tail of tho great M^ bank, 
eact-nortb-east of Oogba, and rather more thaa six miles north of 
Pinun iigbt-hooso. Further oastj in lSo2, wore soandings of seven 
and eight fathoms abont six miles north-eaat half north from 
Firam bght-houao. Tho position of those banks ia uncertain as they 
seem to keep moving sooth. 

Oogba, a walled town, nine miles south-east of Bh^vuagar, has a 
Binall fixed light on itn north-east side, which is six and Ihree-fourtha 
miles norlh-wost half north from Pimm. There is a largo banyan 
tree at four miles west north-west of Qogha ; and to tho south-west 
;of the town, at a diatanoe of throe cables, is a very conspicuous hirge 
poakedtree. The best seamen in India aro natives of Gogha. Ships 
toocbiag here may procure water and refreshments. Firewood ia 
scarce. Oogba Kood ia safe for small vessels daring the soath-wcat 
monsoon, or to ran for if thoy part from their anchors in Sural road, 
as it hnn a wide stretch of anchoring gronnd with mud and clay 
bcFttom. Gogha Shoal is a narrow eaadbauk lying in tho direction 
of the stream, its sooth end being nearly three miles east of the 
tovrxi. One mile uorth-west of the shoal, or two miles north-east of 
ogha Ught, is a little rock called Perigee Hock, which covers and 
nncovers. At low water of ordinary springa it is just awanb, and 
•ometimcs is throe or four fwt above water. Sooth of Porigea 
rr>ck, nnd east of (rogha white mosque, there is a patch of clay 
^ - only live foet at lowest tide. At tho north-east corner of 

wi ui a small fixed light about forty feet above high water, 
risible fur seven or eight miles. The light is close to the 
th of tioglta creek which runs along the north side of tho town. 

ICohomdi Bank, the shore which stretches from the rocky reef 

Koda point to tho entrance of Uh^vnagar creek, is chiefly 

impovfrd of a n-d and yellow clay, with occasional patche.'i of sand ; 

« Gogha shoal is one of sach sandy patches on this Mohamdi 

ail tho rocky part on the soath end of the Mohuradi bank is 

within a radios of three mites from Kuda village to the 

-cut. Tliorv an two shoal banks, nearly dry at low water, 

aad three miles east of Gogha light. To avoid thuAO, when 

anchorbg boat Gogha, keep the large peaked tree in sight to tho 

Gulf of CmbIwj 

Cfntrat ft«53 



I Bombay Oanttaer, 

apter I. 

' vf Cuiilwy. 



south of the town waUs. But a stnall vessel arriving here towe 
liigh-waior can go over all the shoals, and pick out doop water 

Tlicro is a little tleop gut cS Gogha town which the natives cao^ 
point OQt Btit owing to the numerouii patches of i^houl wiitt-r oa 
Mohnmdi Imiik, large voasels must anchor in 6vc to ten fathonifl, 
clay bottom, about 3^ miles from Oogha, with Piram iight-bouso 
south by oast, Knda point south-west by south, and the peaked 
tree beuring about west three-fourths northj or with the larae 
banyan tree four milos west-north-west of Gogha, just open to tbs 
right of the town. From this anchorage the northern shoal patoh of 
Piram reef, having only six feet of water, bears one mile- south-east. 
The anchoni^ for large ships off Gogha is one mile north-west o£ 
the l*iram shoal, where in the south-west monsoon the swell is 
troublesome only towards high water. 

Piram Light-house, in the eontre of Piram island, bears six and 
throe -to urths miles south-east three -fourth a south from Gogha light ; 
about eleven miles west-suuth-wosl from Bnmch putut; uud twenty- 
one miles north-west a (]uarler north from D&udi light The part of 
the island which is always above watar is very narrow and stretches 
half a mile to the north-west and soDth-east of the light-bouse. The 
rochy reefj which surrounds the island, runs oui furthest to the north 
and south-east; and, tliough this, when dry at low water, appears 
steep'to, a gnidually shoaling .-^arid and clay bank stretches off it OD 
the north oast and south. Ou the west it is very deep, and, between 
the north-west end of the i.slnnd and Gogha, where, at low water. 
the inssage is tittle more than half a mile wide, there is a depth of 
sixty fathoms. Here the strength uf the ebb tide wasonco climated 
at twelve knots; the surveying vessel went through it, but was 
pcrft^ctly unmanageable being turned round &«quenLlV by the strong 
(.•ddic^t. The bottom in thischannel is a yellow cuy. Thesoil on the 
island is sandy, with low sand-hills at the west and north ; the east- 
cm side is tilled by the people iu charge of the light. There is excel- 
lent water in a well twenty-six feet deep. Tlio base of the island 
is pui!ding-st«iue, which shows at low water at the south end of the 
reef, wlii(.-h endH in a L-liff, exposing horisontal stnita of pudding- 
stone, from one to three feet thick altemalely with fine cIht only a 
few inches thick. Many fossil bones have been dug out of the reef. 
So strong are the tides near I'ii-am that in a light wind it is hopeless 
to keep the vessel nndcr control. On the east the island may be 
opppuached within two miles; on the north-east not within three 
miles; and on the north not within four miles, as a shoal rotky 
palrch, which is here called Pimm Shoal, having one fathom only, 
lies on the north side of Piram bank. A cable's length to the west 
of this shoal there is a depth of thirty fiithoms. Little or no flood 
stream is felt on the north of Piram reef, bat the ebb is veiy strong. 

Piram light-house shows a Gxed light, one hundred feet nbovo 
high wat*'r, on a brick tower above a solid stone basement, sihmtcd 
pn a sand-hill. In clear weather it in visible from a vessel's deck, 
twelve or thirteen miles at high water and fouHccn or fifteen uitlea 
low water. 



■ a Tillacre nine utiles Booth-sontb-wcst of Knda point. 

iflAun the biuik of clay stretches iroai two to three milos off 

uid ts good anohorage, but the shoro itself is fringed with 

■ukI ia not easy laadiag. Inland the conntry is hiliy, 

land, a village four 'miles uorth-norLh-west of Kitiviri, boiog 

. st the toot of a hill. There are thick Irci^a round all the 

3.1, and a leafle-ss black thorn growa freely in the valleys. Along 

coast ecTeral streams uf fresh water fall into tho sea for a 

rt tiuie after the rainy season. 

GoriilU, a village with a white tower, a notable mark from 
seaward, stands two miles inland, and three and a half miles to the 
■oath-weat oE Mitiviri. Between Gonali and tho sea atands Soshia 
Tillage in hilly grass-covered laud. Off Soshia are patches of 
r'-fk, one mile off shoro. having seven fathoms close to them. 
V '. -:-t;ts ahould not shoal under ten fatboms. 

^fathviida is a sTnnll village bearing south-nest half south seven 
miletf from Mitiviri on the sonth extreme of thf^ hilly country. 
The bank off Mathv&da isbelves gradually ^and is safe to approach 
into five fathom:? to tho north of Sultdnpur shoala 

IVija Hdl, eight miles west-»onth-west of Btfatbv&da^ t«Q miles 
north-north-west of GopnAth point, and four and a half miles north- 
wysi- of Siilt.-inpnr, is a small steep conical hill rising about four 
hundred feet from a level plain. IJetwoen it and Dhiivnagar is a. 
range of hills. On the tup of TalSja hill is a Hindu temple, with 
ci^f^ems of excellent water; the hill has caves cut in the solid rock, 
I, as late as 1823, were the resort of pirates. 
liLiina Monntain, formerly known to seafarers as Shatrunjaya 
Hilt, staudjs about thirteen miles north-west by west lialf west 
tm TaUja hill and twenty north-west of Oopndth point. It ia 
lated to rise abont 2000 feet above the sea, and may be scon in 
ir weather &om a greater distance than Tal^ja hill. 

SnltAnpnr, a small trading port, tho first to the south of Qogha, 

the banks of the Shatmnji river, bears soutli-west by south 

ten miles from Mathv&da. Close to tho landing, about a milo 

ritbin tho entrance of the creek, is a well with good water. Between 

SnltAnpur shoal and the town is gfood anchorage for small craft, 

fathoms mud. Sult^upur shoal, of rock sand and clay, 

Ifh a patch of sand nearly dry at lowest spring tides, lies 4J milea 

of the entrance to Shatmnji river. The north end of this foul 

id bears north-east three- fourths north nine miles from Gopudtli 

it. With Taliija hill bi^aring west half north a vessel is clear to 

north of it. It is almost joined with Gopn^th point by other 

between which there are passages. 

GopnAth Temple, near tho point of tho ssaae name, stands about 

IfiO leot abore the sea, and is six miles south of the entrance to tho 

"^' ' ji river. Tho temple is nearly snrronndcd by a oopse of 

(^cs, tbree-fonrths of a mile to the north -north-west of the tip 

}l Ijupiiath poiut. It may be seen in clear weather fifteen or sixteen 

lUcs. Off GopniLth point a reef runs north-east almost joining tho 

JoUAopnr shoal. South of the point the coast may be approached 



Golf of CuBttSiy. 

Taktja IIUL 

PaLUna Movtitain. 


Oopndlh TtmpU, 


_gulf of l^ambajr. 
ili Tempii. 



clnso into BC7oa {athoms. The channel between GomiAth she 
and the Malaiki banks la only six miles brottd. The neai 
dangerous shoal of the Malaiki bsioks bears soath^eaat six miles from 
Oropniiih point. Tho intermediate soundings are irregular and tha 
depth is no guide, but sandy bottom will be Eound near the bauke, 
and mud towards the KathiAwar shore- The bed of this chauncl, 
between tho coasl and tho Malaiki banksj appears to be very jlat ; 
and tho soundings do not show how far a vessel is off shore. To 
the west of Gopnath point is a line of high sandstone clifis. It is 
everywhere safe to approach into six fathoms, at low vrat«r, this 
depth in some parts being close to tho cliffs. 

Except the M&l bank, and tho dotachodsboala off its south end, 
which strotch nearly five miles to tho cast-north-caat of Gogha, iho 
gulf is clear of danger across to Broach point ; but according to the 
testimony of native boatmen, the Mill bank now dries more to tha 
south than formerly. 

If forced to leave Sural road by strong southerly winds, and not 
intending to run for Gogha, it is possible, with tho last of tho 
flood, if tho weather becomes favourable, to stretch across tho golf 
to the north of the head of the Malaiki banks for the coatit about 
Suh^iiipur, whore is an anchorage in smooth water to the north of 
the bank abreast the river. The coast between Piram island and 
Sultfinpur shoal is safe to approach iniu eight or nine fathoms. If 
enough ebb remains, or with tho next ebb, if circumstaiices permit, 
a vessel may work to the south round Gopnilih re«f and point, and 
afterwards to tlio west along tho coast to Diu. 

After the south-west monsoon is begun, when the wind hangs to 
the south, it may not always bo practicablo to beat from Gopndth 
point or from Gogha to Diu Head. Hut a handy ship that Bails 
well, having good canra-s and proper gronnd tackling, may find Httlo 
difficulty. Fur this the moonlight nighta are most favourable as 
the winds are not then so vtnlent as during the spring tides at the 
change of the moon. A ship, prepared for strong winds, if bound 
to Bombay or other purt.j of India, should sail from Gogha road at 
high water, and steer round tho uorth-east part of tho hard ground 
off Piram. Wbon round Piram, she ought to work to the south 
with the ebb, and may stand in to seven or eight fathoms in tacking 
from tho shore. If a nhip intends to work along tho Gujardt cooab 
to Diu head, a pilot for the gulf of Cambay should be on board, 
who may be procured at 8urat or Gogha. He may bo lauded at 
Diu in paeaing, or carried to Bombay, as circumstances require. 
In crossing the entraooo of the gulf from Diu to Bombay, tho 
soundings will tell how far tho vessel is being swqit into tho gulf, 
as the line of twenty fiithoms runs straight from Din to tho offing 
by Bombay, In the eouth-weat monsoon no ship should shoal 
under twenty fathoms, until she sights aoino of tho Bombay land- 
marks, or is to the south of tho latitude of Kanhllri island. 

In Surat roads it is high water on full and change of moon 
about 2h. 45m., bnt tho flood stream lasts one full hour longer. 
The rise at ostraorJinarysgrings is twenty-three feet, at ordinary 
apringB uiuctcca foot, and at ucape twelve ur thirteen feet. *" 



fir-' ■ ■" Fnllfi nioro than a fathom boforo tho obb stronm 
. i\iv Aunrevore did not find the tides ao stroug att ibey 
furmurW bcvD. At Broach ronds the tido Bows till about 4h. 
SOm. oa full and change of moon, but ht^fa vrutor occnrsat Sh. 30ai. 
The ipecti tg soraetiraes 6re or nix Icnota an hoar, the tide rising 
itioro thirty feet at springs. Ou the east of tho gulf tho flood 
liraAm eeta. al>out north by cast and the ebb south by west, 
except where their directiuu is changed by tho form of tho sands. 
&t Jambasar ruad high w»ter occnrs Alnmi four hours on full and 
AsDgB of moon, but the flood ntrram run? one hour later ; the tide 
ridM &Din tweuty-aeven to tliirty^three feet at springs and from 
fiiirtaeii to eightoeu foet at neaps. The greatest speed of tide in 
the road.*) is six ktiota. 

At Gogha it is high water, on full and chaugu of moon, at 3h., but 
the stream flows for a full honr after thoagh the wat«r has ^len 
Bore than a fnthom. The rise aud fall at very high springa is 
thirty-fonr feot, at ordinary springs twonty-sovcn t-n thirty feet, 
md at neapa twelve to eighteen feet. Through tho deop gut 
between Piram and Kada point, which at lowest water ii little uiuro 
than half a mile wide, the tide rushes with great speed generally 
aevon or eight and sometimes ten knots; the passage had better not 
be attempted. Inside the SuU^npor and Qopnitn shoals, it waa 

K»d to be high water, at fall and change of moon, at 2h. 25nt. 
I the ebb stream did not make till more than one honr after, and 
tinued for more than li hours after tho water had begun to riso 
by the tide gauge on shore. At neaps the flood Btream was found 
to run two hours after actual high water. The rise and fall at 
ordinary springs was sixtoea foot, at high springs eighteen or 
maeleca feat, and at neaps nine or ten feet. 

Teseela passing north of Piram island !«hould been their guard 
Sguust the dangoroDs rushiug tide called tho 15ore. 'llie bore is 
ft rapid tide-ware, forced through a narrow passage over tho 
remains of tho ebb tide, the counter-action of which gives tho 
wave a steep wall'liko face. Below Gangva on the oast, and 
Dholera on tho west, there is no bore. To tho north of these placca 
there are two. Tho Eastern or Principal Bore rises to the east of 
the Bore roclca abont eleven miles south-west of Cambay town. It 
is not perceptible at neap tides, unless the previous springs have 
been very nigh, when it may be noticed slightly through tho 
qo&rtcr. When the springs begin to lift, it plainly shows itself, 
growing in height and speod till two days after now or full moon, 
when it docliues. The highest tides are said to occur, when the 
new moon coiooidos with perigee and tho full moon with apogoa 
Ihe bore varies with the night and day tide. Between September 
KBd April tho night tide is six to eight fuot higher than the day 
tide. As the flood of both night and day tide mus for about three 
Iwars, the night tide in the fine season and the day tide in the rainy 
aeaaon bos the greatest speed. 

In January 1837, at very high springfl in Cambay creek, about 
fire miles weet-soulh-woat of tho town, the bore was observed six 



The Bo 

tBombiLy Gi 



Chapter I. 


Oalf <>[ rAinbay, 




feet biffh, advanciug with a loud noise at the rate of ten knots 
hour alon^ a passage about 50O yards brood, between the st 
clifff) on tho north and tho sandbank on the sonth. A qimrter 
an hour after the boi-e-wave had passed, the stream was running- 
4| knots only. But again, three-quarters of an honr after it passed* 
the flood had gained a speed of eight knots. After thin it graduullj 
declined ; the ebb stream beginning three hours after tho paftaage 
of the boro-wave. The rise of the night tide in those three hours 
of flood was thirty-one feet. In the first ten loinntcs the wntoj^J 
rose six feet, in the 6rst houreiKbteen and a half feet, in tho seco^^J 
hoor eight and a half feet, and m the third Lour fonr feet ^| 

From tho point where these facta were noted the main bore 
rushed on to within three miles of Cambay. Then, tnmed aside by 
a aaadbank, the principal stream crossed south-east towards 
KAvi, and from K&vi north-east to Daran on the Mahi, The littlo 
bore mored past Cambay and lost itself over the banks. At the 
eame place the day tide rose only twenty-three feet. The ebb tides 
ran steadily. They do not gain Ihi'ir liighcst speed, which is aboai 
seven knots, nntil moro than half tide, when the high banks >ra. 
left bare and the ttti'eam is confined to its narrow channel. 

Oif the Tillage of Davan, on January 10th 1837, the bore 
obserred seren foet high, with an initial velocity of ten knots. 
After the wave passed the speed fell to fire knots. It rose again to 
seven knots three-quartors of an hour after, when it gradually grew 
weaker till tho obb made. Tho western bore, which nm« up tho 
S^barmati, is very like tho eastern bore but not so high or so strong. 
Botl) cut a.wa.y old banks and throw up new banks, caoaing such 
changes as to make navigation impossible to strangers. 

For its siKo the gulf of Cambay receivM the waters of a remarkablo 
number of rivers. Theao rivers belong to two main classeSj great 
west-flowing rivers from tho continent of India with lengths varying 
from seventy to 750 miles and draining an area of from 700 to 32,000 
square miles, and smaller Streams about eighty-£ve miles long and 
with a drainage area of 23S0 square miles flowing east from the 
peninsula of KilthiAwilr, Tho large continental rivers are, in 
order, passing up the gulf, tho Tapti 400 miles bug with a 
drainage area of 20,230 squai-e miles, tho Kim with a length of 
seventy miles and a drainage area of 700 square miles, the Narbada 
with a length of 800 miles and a draino^ area of 32,000 8<{uare 
miles, tho Dhddar with a length of seventy miles and a drainage 
area of 1050 square miles, tho Mahi with a length of 300 miles and 
a drainage area of 10,700 square miles, and the 8Abarmati with a 
length ot 170 miles and a drainage area of 7650 square miles. 
The smaller K^thtAwdr streams are, beginning from the north to 
the west of the Sibarmati, the Suk fih&dux the UtJtvli Kolubhar 
and the Shatrunji. 

Tho question of the disposal of the silt which in times of flood is 
borne to the ecaby these rivers is of mach importance in connection 
with the navigation of tho gnlf. The following is the suhstaoco of 
a paper on the Silting of the g^ulf of Cambay which was read before 
the Bombay Geographical Society on the 24th of Tebruary 1870. 


H« eiglit main riTcrii tfiRt fnll into tho Cambay gfnif liavo an 
wtbnatcd droioage aiva of ubcuL &'J,000 square milc<e. The amount 
of jcsrljr rainfall over thi» artMi is Tariod^ but thirty -kix inches of rain 
maj be fixcil aa tho avorago falL Taking n faJI uf ono inch orer the 
■roa of H:),000 squaro miltw to contain 71,0(;8^22,331 tons of 
wster^ tho total qaantity of tho thirty-six inches whicOi fall on the 
ftroas drained by tho different rivora is 255,847,603,020 tona. On 
tbo hoiiia of Or. WliewoU's thoonr thnt two-thirds of tho rain which 
fiiUa npon thu oarth passes oR by absorption and ovapomtion, and 
UiBt tho remaining third finds it« way direct to water-coureoa and 
rivors and bo to the sea, tho quitutily over the whole area for ovory 
inch of rainfall would be enough to fill a hike about twcnty- 
foor sqoare miles in area and 100 feet der>p. To hold the whole 
■oason's thirty-six inches of raiu would reqiiiro a lake about 830 
■qaare miles in area and 100 feet deop> that i>! nearly one-third the 
capacity of the Cambay gulf. One inch of rainfall from all the rivers 
15 OQ> -Qic^h to mise the wat«r lo the gulf nearly one foot, and, a thirty- 
ax inch fall would he ample to raise it thirty-three feet, so that, 
dnriof^ soch a heavy fall of rnln as ten inchos in a day, which 
sometimes occur.s, there would be a rise of tun fei-t in the gnlf. It 
ia ft fall of ihis kind happtming during spriDg-tidoa that causes the 
tf^muudons floods that sometimes do sncn damage near the coast 
Tbd qaantity of water that falls into the gulf dnring an entire year 
is ftboot eqaal to tho qiiautity of tidal water which oomes into the 
gulf every twenty-four hours during spring-tides. 

Judging from their muddy appearance during the rains, the 
qQnntttj of silt held in snsponsion and brought down every year 
by these rivers is very great. It is ouly during the rains thai 
tho river waters are ailt-lotlen. Immediately after the rains, 
liho water, whioh ia beyond the influence of tho tides, booumes 
BOBipttTutively clear and pure. At the same time, in the gulf and 
for fOO nn1es beyond its ontmncc, over tho whole expanse of ocean 
callod tho Bombay Bank of Soundings, tho waters of the sea are 
thick and muddy. This Iiak always been considered to be due to the 
great qaantitj of silt brought down by the Cambay group of rivers. 
Till* is doubtless correct, but the mud hold in suspension ia not 
the silt which comes down from these rivers doily. It is the immouso 
gmtherings of ages which are dredged from tho bed of the eeu by tho 
scaur of the great tidal wave, which mllH twice a day into the gnlf. 
The node of this tidal wave is at Mate Atol, one of the Maldiv 
Islands in north Uitiliide 2° 30', and tho head is in tho gulf of Cambay 
in north latitude 22*30*, a distance of twenty dogroes. 

To eatimaie with any great accuracy the quantity of silt which 
is brought down by the Cambay or Khaiubhdt group of rivers 
wonid be most difficnU ; but a fair approximation is not impossible. 
Experiments show that a gallon of water holds in suspension 320 
grains and a cubic foot of water about 2000 grains of solid matter, 
whicli. aasoming tho pound to be equal to 7000 grains and the cnbio 
foi>t to bo about ti2| pounds is about '045 of the weight of the 
water. On tho asinimption that the total quantity of water 
brought down by the rivers ia 2,368,918,4-iO tons for every inch of 
■ au— 7 


GnU of Cunbfljr, 

17 Oazett 



Chapter I. 


}al( of Canibay- 

rain, or 85,282,534,640 tons (or thirty-six inches, the qnantity 
Bolid matter brought down hv one inch of rain would be lO.OOO^tj 
tOQB, and a fall of thirty-six inches of rain would bring down so* 
matter cqaa) to 38^,771,405 tons. That is the silc brought dnwn 
a £all of uuu iuuh of raia ia uqual to au island ouo isquare mile in 
and t(>n fcnt hi^'h, aqd the Kill of the whole thirty-six inches is eoi: 
to an ishind about thirty-six sqaarc miles in area and t«n feet hig 
Were this itilaud allowed to rcnmin in the gulfj it would soou fill 
leaving only channels for the rircrs to pass through. Bub tho 
ocean wave, which rushes iutothe narrow gulf with sDchtremendc 
force, dredges or scours tho bottom, and keeps the earth 
suspcDsioii, BO that only a small ptirt of the whole is left as silt 
the gulf. The greatest depth nt which this scour acts has be 
supposed to be ten fathoms. Hui a model chart very clearly 
that the scour acts as deep down as fifty fathoma Kren if the 
whole sill settled in the gulf, which is roughly seventy miles 
long and thirty-fivo wide, that is 2450 miles in area, and in some 
places it is fully twenty fathoms deep at low water, it would take 
lUOU years to fill it to mean sea level. But, as it is probable that 
not more than one per cent rests in the gulf, the remajoing 
muety-uiuo being carried away by the tide, it would require 
10,000 or at the present rate 100,000 years to fill the gult In 
making these calculations, it must be remembered that the silt 
is brought down only during tho monsoon months, whilo the 
BCOiiriug of the tide continues all the year round, consequently the 
actual deposit in the gulf uiu be only a smaU proportion of tho silt 
which ia brought down by the monsoon floods. Still there can bo 
no doubt that there is a regular yearly deposit. How large th« 
deposit is, is clearly shuwn by tho areas that ha?o been raised so 
high, that they are only occasionally corcrod daring extraordinary 
high tides or floods. Along with this silting or warping another 
process goes on. As the silt sproads. the river channels are 
narrowed and d leepgne^ \jv the greata r scour. So those islands, 
on the Bouth side' of the Karbada, seem to have gTadually risen 
out of the bed of the river above the height of the tidal wave. 
Other influences also call for explanation. When tho river channel 
is narroweil, if the same quantity of water continued to come 
up the gulf, it would stilt overilow tho i^landa Hut the gradual 
deposit at tho entrance of the gnlf chocks the inBux of water 
and drives it in somo other direction. In the case of the gulf 
of Cambay tho tidal wave teada to be driven west into the 
gulf of Cutch. As roffards tho Narbada tho cSoct of this gradual 
silting bos been to ^epen the mid-channel, giving it a greater 
capacity for navigation, though, in all likelihood, the actual tidal 
flow inwards has slightly decreased. What happens in the Tfipti is 
different. The Narbada has a broad open e.ituary facing right down 
the gulf. The Tipti outers tho sea immediately behind a low head- 
land called Taux's Tomb, and this headland prevents the ebb scour 
from clearing the silt. On the contrary, an eddy ia made 
behind Vaux's Tomb, and so large a bar is formed that the yearly 
floods have little effect in sweeping it away. Tho consequence ia 



that tbo ^raduQ.1 f^rowt.b of lliis buge bar caascs a most markod 
BiltiD^f in tbu tidal part of tho Tfipti. 

Wbatever may bo tho resolt of the gradual silting oE the gulf 
one thing ia certain, thai tnurB or los» auiplo channels will at all 
times remain open for tho pasftago of tho watora of the large rirerit 
tliatemptjr themselves into the gulf. The silt brought dotni by these 
rivera IS gradnally carried to a atiller part of tho great Indian 
Oce*n, along the western coast of India, and on Direction, AdaSj 
Asgria^ and other bank», and at the M^ldiv and Lakhjidiv Islands. 

The silt gradually travelling (o the aontb ia enough to cause a 
deposit three iDcbes deep and a mile irjde aJong tbo cooat, and oat 
to tho MAldiv itslauda. But tbo deposit ia actually spread over a 
belt at least twenty miles broa*! all along tho coaat; it is therefore 
only O'Ulo of an inch a year or fifteen inches in a contnry. As tbo 
vhore slopes at about one fathom a mile, the coaat line gains at 
the rate of a quarter of a mile in a century, so that it will reach the 
Dirertion, A<las, and Angria banks in about 80(X) years. These 
oalcntationa afo cnrion.s as showing one factor in the changes that 
are taking place. Hut other intluencea are doubtlesa at work 
which materially modify the distribntien of the silt. 

Id connectioD with the anestion of tho silting of the gulf, a 
writer in tho Bombay Saturday Keview on tho 18tb of August I860 
brought to notice that, in spite of the large amount of silt brought 
down erery year by the Cambay rivora, the BfaAruag ar , Dholero, and 
Wahuva L-reeks were yearly enlarg ing, and quanfciues of soil were 
detached from their banks by tbe nigh tides of Jane and November. 
During the high tides of June (1866) the sea washed away a 
conifidorable portion of tbe MuKaluito borying-grouad at Ciogha, 
and found ita way ander the stone ombankmunc of tho pier forming 
a pool of salt wnter between the town and ita sea wall. The earta 
embankment that once stood botweon tho sea wall of Qogha and 
lh« aea bad been gradually carried away by the sea, which now every- 
where ticked the walls of the town. The town wall was being 
nndormined, and, in a few years, the south-oaet portion of Gogha 
would disappear. Tbo masonry abutment, which protected a 
small MusaliiiAii shrine in the wall close to the travellers' bungalow, 
had been completely broken by the sea, and ita fragments would 
be WBabcd into the ooenn by tho high iidej« of November 18C6. 

Thia article cansed mnch excitement'. The matter was referred 
for rvport to Mr. Oblliam the Superintendent of the GixtlogicaL 
. rTDT of India, and to the political nfncera of Kdthidwfir and Cutch. 
In rapir, Mr. Oldham atated that in hia opinion there was no doubt 
that tbo watoni of the T&pti, Narbada, Mahi, and Sjibarmati, must, by 
tba Urge discbargo of sill., rapidly tend to fill the gulf, and to puah 
^Lrrward the line of coast that lies between their mouths. At the same 
time, while this land- making went on in one part of tho gulf, in other 
parta thono wna a corroaponding land wasting. The heav y d iscliarge 
of lb* lyfgfl rive rs which drained into the golf from the enat, tended to 
fill dMbMin imlliL* east side, and steadily, thongb slowly, tended to 
th row tha force of the Htream on the western abor e. The oonaeqnenco 
•momT (o be ihatj wbilo tbo easteru shore was gradnally 



Chapter L 


Oul/ of CKinUx; 


[Bombfty Oftxett 



QoU of Cttinbay. 

advaociug, llie western shore was being remored and swept swa; 
Tlio aniouDt of wat^tr yi^rly tbrowu iiilo the gulf wbh probniily n 
diniiniHUinir, and cvcrj-thing which tended lo throw this body 
water more aguiiist oue shore than the uther would ttiud to prudui 
mx encroachment of the sen npon the land in that diroction. 
Oldham thooght there waa nothing to show that the hvnd-wosti 
Bt Gogha was not local, and on the wholu of small iniportance, 
that it was not compensated by a gain of land ou the opposite 
eastern shore of the gulf.' 

Captain Le Qeyt's local inqiuries iti K^hiAwdr showed that 
J&farabad, within ten or twelve years, the sea had gone back abo' 
fifteen feet. At VerJlval also the sea had gone bouk considerabl 
Where vessels of 3M) tons (1000 khiUitlu) could ride at anch 
6fty years before, there was not depth for vessels of more than 1 
tons (300 khdndis). At the ports of DliAraj Eajpura, NavAbaudar, 
SutrapAm, Chorr^, Mangrol and Sil, the sea had for years neither 
gone back nor encroaohed.' In enstern Kathiiiw^r, Captain now 
Lieutenant- Colonel Wat^iOQ found that at Gogha the encroachment 
of the sua had been considerable. Since the article in the Bombay 
Saturday Review had been written, a large portion of the Gogha 
■oa wall, opposite Mr. Anding's house, had been beaten in by tho 
violence ol the wave:}. A considerable quantity of land on the 
Bfa4vnagar coast villages had been covered by the sea dnring a 
few preceding years, and the salt element in the Bhavnagar and 
Sonar&i creeks had increased.' The Political Agent, Colonel Keatiuge, 
was eatis&ed that tho sea waa gaining on tho west shore of tho 
Cambay gulf. He thought there was nothing to show whether 
this action was due to a change in tho set of ctirrcuta or to the 
sinking of tho land.^ 

These inquiries favour two conclusions; first, that in spite of th 
vastbody of »ilL thruwn iiitothu giilf> its Ktmi-i^'bt Klmpe and itu mighty 
tidal wave prevent any mpid siltiug, and second, that what silting 
there is, is not a steady gix>ivth of laud and narrowing of sea, but 
the deposit of irregular banks which ore thrown up and again swept 
away by changes in the set of two great currents, the sweep of t 
n\-er floods and the rush of tho tidal wave. 

Such historical references as have been collected seem to Bnp\ 
both of ibe^e conclusions. During the lost sixteen hundred year 
though there have been repeated changes, the general character 
tile gulf, especially near its head, has remained unchanged. 

Tho unknown author of t he Peri p] a s of the Erythi-^ou Sea, wh< 
probably wrote about the middle ol tiie third century after Christ 
has left eo detailed and vivid a picture of the gulf that he scorns 


* Goologtcal Action, Cntcli vxA RitfaiiwAr, 321 of 1867. Ccooml Department. 1 

* Captain U Qoyi to the roliUdtl Afcnt, 6th April 18C7, Vol. 21 (ti<>n£iiO 

<^C^>tnii) Watsott to the Fvliticnl Agent, 50th Marcb IS^TT, Vd. 21 (tioiwral 

^Political Auvnt to tho PrcNdout BoniUiy (iaographical Soctctf, Vul. 21 (Geti>;r 
DBpwtmeat), m 




I hinuell passed tbroogH its porilp.^ In his fcimo the cectro of 
tnule waa Bronch , ur fiaruguzo, which ho corroctly duscribus 
xmt thirty mllcH up tho rivor Namnadois or Karmadn. Ho 
[dBScribea iho ffolf of Cam bay as be^nning ab p jjike or GopnAth 
it, which be ooticea to be near AtitakaprH, a naiue which haa 
identified with Unstakavapra now Ufithkb near Bbavnagar 
ter pApike, says the author, is another ^If exposed to the 
lOD of the waves and raDQiii^ up to tho north. Near its mouth 
island called liuiiitnt^ts. the uiiHlern PJrani, and, at its very head, 
receiTPS a vast river callc*d the Mnis or iiabi. Those bound for 
[firvoch sail up this gulf which haa a breadtb oE about SCO stadia. 
I They leare Piram island to thu left, till it is scarcely visible in the 
ibuiiaoD, and thon shape their course cast for tho mouth of the river 
[that leads to Bant^fuxa. This river is called the LamuaUis an 
lua reading for Namnadios." Tho passage iiiti> t)io gulf of 
that is the guit of Cnmbay, is narrow and difHcult to those 
:hing it from the eea, fnr thoy are carriud either to the right 
ilie left, the left being tho better passage. Ou tho right at tbo 
ontranoeof the gnlf lies a narrow strip of shoal ground, ronghand 
>t with rocks. It is called Herone and lies opposite the Tillage of 
ksmmoni^ perhaps the month of the Kim river as if Kimana Unndar.' 
the left side, right ngainst this is the Papiko promontory which 
lies in front of Astakapra (Il^thab near Uh^vusgar), whcro it is 
l-diflicQit to anchor from tho strength uf the current and bocanso the 
[cables are cat through by tho sharp rockfi at the bottom. Even if 
jibe possagie into the guU is secured, the mouth of tho Barugaza 
[nvGr ia Bot eaeiy to liitj sinco tho coast is low and there are no 
[cflrtain marks to bo seen until you are clftso upon them. Neither, if 
. is discovered, is it easy to enter from the shoals that are at the 
ith. For this reason pilots are appoijitod by govcromont with well 
long boats calloa irappugi (tardjtpa) and koHmha [kothia). 
vessels adrasce as far as Surustrene or Sorashtra, abon tVerAya l, 
[wtd wait there to pilot ships to Bamgaza At the head orcntranoo 
[of the gnlf, the pilot, immediately on taking chargo of a ship, with 
|the help of his own boat's crew brings round tbo ship's head and 
[Jcoeps her clear of tho shoals, and tows her from one fixed station 
[to another, moving with the beginning of the tide and dropping 
[•ochor at certain roadsteads or basins during ebb. These basins 
ir at pjinta where the rirer is deeper than usual all the wav np 
'MUgasa, which in 300 stadia distant from tho mouth of tho river, 
>D sail up the stream to reach it. 

India, he goes on, has everywhoro a great abundance of rivers, 

[ snd her seas ebb and flow with tides of extraordinary strength. 

These increase with tho moon, both wbon new and when full and 

) for three days after each, and fall off in the intermediate time. In 



OiOf of Cimt«3 

^TiuB Ante ot the rcrinliia is Torfoooly «tinutt«(l *t from A,t). 60 to a.i>. 247. 
ffia aiucti grrmiew kiiowIeilfR! of Oujardt Menu ■tronglv iu favour of tho view that ho 
' irmta kftvr I>tol«tny a. d. Im). * Vol« in McCnixllo's Pari^iltiii, 1 15. 

' RiRi Bnuid&r is up tho cnek of tluC owne, not fu- fnm t^« nulwsy. Taylor's 
I bUin^ Directory, 365, Ptolciajr ha* « CnntuiiM od tke oout bebwe«n Barugaza awl 

{Bombay Gazette* 



upter I. 

GuU of Camba^. 

the gfilf about BarogaM Ibe tidea are more riolent than elsowliet 
All uf a sadden you rgq tlie dpptlis laid bare ; portions oF tl 
land tamed into sua, and tbo sea whero ships were jue^t befor 
satliiig, turnod without warning into dry land. The rivers aga' 
on the access of tho tide rnjihing into thoir channels with the wl 
Lody vt the sea, arc driven upwards against their nstnral course fd 
A great number of miloa with a force that is irresistible. Shii 
trading to Broach wore exposed, both in coming and going to gre 
risk, if handled by those who were unacquainted with the gul 
During high springs tho fury of tho tide, having nothing to stem 
slacken it, was so great that no anchor conld hold againo-t it. Le 
vcsaels, if caaght in it, were driven athwart from their course by tl 
speed of the current, till they were stranJc*! on shoals and wrockei 
The smaller craft wero capsized, and many that had taken Tvia^ 
in the side channels, being left dry by the retiring tide, turned ot« 
on one side, and, if not sot. up by props, worii filled on tho retut 
of the tide with the very first head of the flood and sunk. At ne 
moons, especially when they occurred iocuujuuctioa withanigt 
tide, the flood sot in with such (extraordinary violence tbat^ on it 
boginning to advance, even though the sea was calm, its roar 
heard by tbo*o living near the river's mouth, sounding like tl 
tumult of battle heard afar, and, soon after, with its hissing waves, 
burst over the l>are shoals.' 

This, which is still one of the host if not the best acooant of tl 
golf of Cambay and of its bore, has tho special interost that it 
true of the golf as it now is and bears out the view of the writer in, 
the Bombay Geographical Society Journal, that, in spito of tho vasb 
unoant of silt that is ponrod into it the .scnur of the tido clears it 
nearly all off. In tho seventh and oieb^h ct'uturies the mouth of tha 
gulf was open enough to allow Cliinoso ships, which we ro always 
largo vessels, to trade to Broach,' TiTQlS tho Arab traveller 
Majudi describes Canibay as on a deep gulf larger than the Nile, 
tho Euphrates, or tho Tigris. The shores wore thickly dotted with 
towns, villager, fields, and paira gardens, full of peacocks, paroquets, 
aucl other Indian birds. From the sea to the citv took a little less 
than two daya At low tide the sands in the bed of the gulf wcro 
laid bare like tho dry plain of the desert, and no water was loft bot 
a little in the middle of the channel. On his way to Cambay 
Ma^udi saw a dog lying on the sand which the water bad left dry 
like the bare plain of a desert Suddenly tho flood rushed in from 
the mouth of the bay like a high mountain. The dog seeing thg 
danger did hia utmost to roach the dry land, but the rapid and 
fierce flood caaght him as it passed and drowned him." Undor the 
BovereigDB of Anhilviida (942-1240) a colony of Upper India 
Brfihmans was settled no ar Cam bay,* and the city was moved from 
it« former site at Naghera, three mdos inland, to where it now is, on 
the shore of the guir.^ In the middle of the twelfth century (1103) 

» McCrtndlo'B P«iplo«, 116.120. ' Yolv't Cathay, L Ixxviii. Urix. 

■ Pniriw d'Or, I. 2S4-25ft. * Baiii. Got. 8cI. (New SrrU»U XXVL 7ti note 

'The niins nf Noghcr* arc tnontioried hj Ean>pfan writ«n of the Mv«otoeaU) 
ccoturjr (DelU VkUc, 1623 wid Ogilb/, 1(370) wbo notice a l«agtic horn C»mi».y tbo 



tpber Edrifti descril)ed Cambaj as aeoaslmg station of good 
tUo head of the gutf, where Lliere was pletily of water 
ships coald enter and ca^^t anchor. In tne middle of tho 
ith century (1340) IIjd Batata noticed that tho tides in tho 
guU rusu and fell in a n:markabl0 manner. Travellers had 
\va small bnat.4 or by laud from Cambay tii Kandbjir (Cyaudh&r), 
Gogba had to anchor four milc3 from the shore on acooant 
vast n:cesaion of the tide. In tho boginniiig oE tho fiftconth 
(14 1 1) Gogha ro6C to cmino pcc as oJl larger vessel* came 
or ia ito deeper waters and there discharged their cargoes 
emalUtr crsJt for traanniaaioii to Cambay wkeQoe thoy woro 
1>y land to Ahmadabod.' Oari ng the ajxteenth c entorv 
harbour wa a nnserrice able for~Targe trading vessels. At 
oing of the centary (Id03-lo06) largo or middle sized 
would seem to hare been able to pass to Cambay at high 
Vessels sailing from Cambay to Din had to start at night, 
ise at the end of the season tho wind blew from the west during 
ay, bat dnringthe night frttra the shore." The navigation was 
ly tlifficult. A few years lattir (161-tJ Bar bff^ advised no 
ithouC the help of a native pilot to veatare as far as Gandhar, 
a Cambay and Broach. In the gulf the tibb and (low 
so great that in a very short space o£ time tho sea left 
rered funr or fivo leagues of dry land and in some places 
Though large tossoIs occasionally pasnod to the head of 
piiS, as a rule ships trading tv distant porta loaded and 
ded in Diu, Qogha, and Gaiidhiir, the goods finding their 
to and from Cambay in small boats.'' Tho sea ebbed and 
d with such wonderful speed that any ships caught in tho bore 
certainly lost. To avoid this danger a man on an emincuoo 
a gave notice with a horn when he snw the torrent approach.' 
nout^^of the Ta pti about thid time (1530) was so full o f s and 

ha larger ships of war did not attempt tho passage and small 
took one day to reach Surat' Towards tho close of the 

•y ( 1585) the head of the gulf seems to have been still Iwa 
No cract but suukll vessels or barks went to Cambay and these 

twice in the mouth, at the time of the new and of the full 
lo the bogianinK of (he seventeenth oeutury (1606), though 

i «s clHer town, tba uwient royal wst uid ohier city of Sonttb. Thia town 
r'allc aamwXa^raiUttcn. 108) and Otrilby AgiiL (Atlas. V. 213). Th« aatlior 
Mu3ivi-Ahiuft<li (l748-L7(iZ) tiaa nolicn th»t in ftncicnt timm there irasa 
taty where Ibn TiUngi> »f N^licn now in, three tntica from Oftoibny. Witli 
to tbo dat« when ttiv tuwn moved th«re, it weoia wortliy of aotetoAt while 
' ' (IM-U66K who wraU) bofore SidhrA)*i gmot, tiUeca tha town of 
mile* (one iianung) itiluid (Klliut*n<l Dowmoq, l.3»). Edrisi (l).'>3|, Trho 
Um grant, [ilaoea it only thnia milaa rrum th« aea (Jaubort's Edrisi, LTlj. 
of tba old city la «t<U well known. 

(.iattltecr, IV. 87. ■ Badgor'a Varthama, 17. 

. S.>c. Beag. V. (2), M3. ' Rtanloy'a B«rboM, 64. 

'a Ain-i-Akbui, II. OL * Faiia m Kcrr'a Vnyagei, VI. 237. 

Karr'a Vnyagrm. VI. aW. 
io Hakiayt'a Voyagos, XL MS. Alwut the aatne timt) Liaachosten 
lh«t Din waa a great port beooaae foreign traders, Araba, Turka, Peraiana, 
na, anil otb«ra foaod it ao ooovenieot for loadisg and unloading Uwir ahipa, 
dc U KarigAtimi, 19. 




abay Oftxett 


ChXpUlT 1 


|ttU gf Cafflbay. 

thoro was a topping trade for all sorts of cloth and rich drags 
C&mbny, none of tht- English or Dutch ships Beem over to have pm 
to the head oi tho gulf. &nd, though the r.h&nnol of the Taptt 
' fair,' it coald bo used only by veosuls u£ le&a than fifty tons.' 
1616 a Mn!5alman writer Htaied thut 8hips could not enitB r ttie gc 
bat anchored at Gogha whore thoy were loaJo3~ and untoade 
Eight years later (IGi-l) tbu lUiliati traveller _ Df l la Va lle st 
tliat, though ships camo to Cambay from, different qnartcrs, 1 
tcsscIb conlJ not remain near the head of the ^If.^ Nor, at t\ 
time, waH tho Tapti much froor from aaad than it now is. In 
Sir T Herbert, aa was then the practice, wont _by_land from ^ 
roads to Surat. ' ITio TApti,' he saySj 'is good neither for dri 
nor for navigation.'* In lO^JS Slandelslo described the Cam! 
haven as ' inconvenient enough.* At high tide the water was bo^ 
fathoms deep; at low tido the ships were almost swullowed 
Rand and mud.' The same traveller Eound the T^pti so shallow tl 
it could scarce carry a bark of seventy or eighty tons. The ' 
ondt Boem as a rnle never to have gone further np the gulf tfai 
Qogha.* About the middle of the (Tntury (1012- lOGft) Tavernia 
says ' The trade at Cam ! \ i ; ; I '.., hecaitso the sea that once 

cam^ so close to the town in.ii .- . cssels could anchor by it, 19 

now half a league distant from it, ani, uear the coast, is so shallow 
that groat shipn cannot come within throo or foar leagues.'^ Al)oat 
the same time (1000) BaldeauB described Cambay as seated at tho 
entrance of one of tho hirguat channels of the luduH. This channel 
■was almost dry in tho winter though at high tido it rose several 
fathoms deep so that ships might come to tho very wall of the city, 
where, at low tide, it waa fordablc. The same travuller dosoribes 
Gogha as a safe rather shallow road where Ahmadabad and CambAj 
merchants hud their ships careened aud WctuuJled before going to 
Arabia and South India. In 16^6 tho passage up the T4pti waa so 
difficult that even a small boat took ten hours.'* Four yoars I.^vtor 
(1670), according to jDgilby, Cambay had no haven of any oon8©(|uuuce, 
only a bare road. Still it was culled a havon because of tho great 
number of shipa which came thither fmm all places. These were all 
small veaseU as ships of burthen were forced to lie a good distance 
from the shore in deeper water. At high water the small boats 
conld anchor close before tho city but lay dry at low water. Tlie obb 
aud flow of tide at Cambay was exceedingly swift, tho sea rising 
in a momont aud iu less than a quarter of au hour reaching its full 
height. This was done with such wonderful swiftness that no horse 
could outrun it. It came so furionsly out of the st^ that like a 
great carrant it overflowed a vast tract of land." 

Of the passage of the mouth of the Mahi Ogllby gives the following 
details. Aboai a lesguo southward from Cambay glides tho rivor 

* Wikiiti JftUnsiri ia Elliot uid Dowaoa, VI. 351. 

* HorWt'i Trevola, 44. 

* Mandelaloin Uarria, U. 119. 

1 Finob in TTurrii, I. 84-89. 

■ DoU« ViUe, 65. 

• Ikfuidalalo in Il&ms, n. 116. 

> Huria' Voy«g««, 11. 353. 

> 8iut« d« Voyaoo do U. d« TboveDot, V. 1 1 B«ldffiu« in ChordiiU, III. fi06, 61-1.' 
» MUi, V. 21a. 

i wbose shore must be travelled at the low ebb of tlie sea, and 

iritliout great danger, because the stia rising fluws ap above five 

imgnes, and at low tidn y<iu am foroed Eo wodo lhrouj<h two or 

tknc deep places. If any one should voDtaro to nodo through at 

flhe coming iu uf tho tide, he would uudoubtedly bo swallowed hy 

IhvaBBj foT, wboQ tbu wntor flows with greater strcugth mid highw 

Asa ordinary it carrie.s and wiLahes away both horse and mnn, and 

Afceotimes with such force thnt an elephant cnnoot wiihacand tho 

lamc, nor all his weight prevent him from being carried away ; 

lh*Tefore all travellers wait for a certain time to niide through tho 

mute, namely, when the sea is low, which in at the new muon, at 

^ucb time chtn' may go over it in uuacheit or horseback without 

•ay dAOger. Coaches arc commonly hold fast on both nidea thaii 

Iwy mmy not be ovcrturued by tlie waves. Those tliut go on foot 

■trip IbuJuaelveB naked, and tying up their clothes, carry thorn on 

their sboaldcrs. Many times a whole cai-avnu with abundanoo of 

ale travel over the same, aome on horseback, and otheni on foot, 
men and women stark naked, accouotiug it aeiiher shameful 
aor immodest.' When Fryer (157:i-li>81) <jrcMse<I the Narbada at 
Broa^, he found the stream broad, swift, and deep. The bed was 
■mch hampered by Hand brought douu by the raio». Bui, with the 
Wlp of skilful pUot<», good Insty vessehi were brought to tlio city walls. 
B^^^ifi (l(>i>(J-1720) describes Oogha as a placo of some trade with 
karooor fit for the largest (1000-1500 tooa) shipSj though aground 
»tTow water. About the same time Ovin^io n (1688) eaya that goods 
wero brought up the Tapti to Surat in hoys, yachts, and country 
bcMte with groat convenience and expcdttioo.- Niebuhr in 17tiiJ 
tnmd the T&pti m full of Bundlmnkd tluit ships could not eater the 
Wrbour. The river was too low in tho dry season and ift tho rainy 
.■asfion it swolu so suddenly as to overilow all the neighbourhood.^ 
Tm yoars later (1773), on his way by sea to Cambay, Forbes haltod 
at Gangra. When tho lido had obbed a few hours his^boat was loft 
aground, and, before the flood made, the ground was dr>' for leagues 
•round. The tides, he says, flow with uinaziag rapidity and occa- 
Aon fatal accidents. When the soutb-west monsoon blows strong 
they are said to rush footer than tho swiftest hor«e can gallop and 
•omelimes riso to tho height of forty feet. The quicksands in the 
gnlf were frequently alarming. Constantly shifting by tho conflux 
of the tide, they rendered the navigattun didicult and formed largo 
banks eutinily ucnibSj whiuh prevented ships and vessels of heavy 
burdou sailing higher than tho Narbadn.* Small orwft couvoyod by 
light galtivats went on to Cambay. At Gaugva when the tide 
^bed tho straudcd boats wore sapported by strong polMi. Uad it 
aot b«DQ for this prccontion, so great was the rush of the flood 
tide tJiat they would have been overset. ^Vhcn afloat tho tide 
oorried them with wonderful 8t>eed. They stopped a mile and 
a half from the south gate, for the sea no longer waahod the city 
UrilU, but was separated by a bare bank of sand apparently ton 


Uulf of Luabi 

I AUm. V. 315. 

1 Ki«(itU)r in PiukertoH, X. 21L 
» flU-S 

* CMarUm'^ Voru* to Sunt, 163; SIS. 

* Facbct* Oriental Mnnoin, U. 10, 11. ID. 

I Bombay ^» 

Chapter I. 

^u1/ of Coiubfty. 




feet above aea level ain3 so free from flooding that a 
was pitched close to the water side aud near th* citjp wall wi 
three well grown trees. About the samo time Stavorinua (17' 
says, that on tho bar at tho mouth of the TApti the depth of wai 
varied from three feet at low tide to eighteen feot at sprin] 
Ships of cousidcrablo size could theo pass tho bar. Furtl 
np iu the river wore other banks of wliielj that near tho villi 
of Uiura, half a league below Surat was the ahoaleat. Except wl 
iu waut of repairs bhipt; eugaged )□ the European trade rcumii 
ftt anchor in tho roaUti, tho morchauta taking thotr goods to Soi 
either by land or in small boata.^ 

In the beginning of the niiieteeutb century (1810) tbe tides 
the Ctimbfty gnlf were strong and rapid. At high water ppring 
tides there were five or six fathnms water and ships conld ariL-hor 
Dear the city. At Iom' water it was quite dry except some chanQols 
in which three or lour feot of water remained.' About tie samo 
time Dho lora roee to be one of the c hief ports io Gujartit. But in 
18T2 tho riv er Bh^a r, whose stream ~Tormcr'ly" scoured the crock, 
forsook its oonrs e, and this probably hastened the accumulation of 
silt wTiIcTi by 1S17 had ho advani.'cd that navi^tion became unsafe. 
About 1 820 Uauiillou nutiued that the ln.'lioC Iheu prevailed that the 
Cambay gulf was gradually silting. The tides in tho gulf ran with 
wonderful speed. No vessels attempted to go above Uangva, ono 
'i tide from Jambusar, it being often daugcrous. In many places tho 
current was so rapid that if a ship took the ground ano imme- 
diately upset and probably the whole crew perished. Pifloou miles 
east of the town oE Cambay the bed of the guU was reduced to six 
mites broad and was dry at ebb-tide. But the passage was not to 
be attempted either on horse or on foot without a native guide as 
there was dauger of waudering among the mud and quicksanda, 
and being uvortakou by the buro which rushod in furiously.^ 

Up to 1820 the bon^ roller! up tho Cambay gulf with great forco 
in a wave at times uearly se ven feet hig h. Native vessels used to 
lie close to tho town of Cain bay and scnrcoly a year passed without 
several of tho trading boats being dashed to pieces. Up till then it 
had been tho practice of tho Nawdb of Cambay t o make ofaaaDe ls at 
tho months of tho wator-coui-scs and take advantage of tliei'r floods 
to clear the silt that during the fair season gathered at the headol 
the gulf. About 1S20 the Nawib ceased to use tho rain Hoods to 
clear away the silt and sandbanks were thrown up and tho scour 
of the bore lesBonod.* In 1822 Colonel Tod describes a long muddy 
beach at Cambay stretching at low tide as far as the eye could 
reoofa. He vaa obliged to wait at Gogha several days nntil hia 
bag^ge was taken by a winding ronto across the Ran at the hoad 
of the gulL' In 1825 instead of runuing into the road of Cambay 
the bore turned three or four miles tf> one side. Sometimes it set 

* Milbum's Orieatol C«aiin«nw, I. 154. 

' SuvorUtua' Voy«e«, 11. 447. 
' DMwiptiarrnf HiiidulAi), L «SS-e89. 
* Taylor a Wvat Cuut of Huidiut4ii Pik>t. ^uf. IniUu Nftvy to Got. ICth Hovtta- 
ber IkU, Bt>m. Gov, H^. Murine Dept. 12. — "^ 

^ WrflWrn iDilia. iUi. 

tho Mahi bat more often it joiDeU the irestern bore and 
iiiUad with great force ioto the Stibannati.' Id the Hiiine yeiir 
'JL82G) when Biahop Hcbur visited Kroach ho noticed that the 
JbrtiAdA was very shallow and tlmt, no vessels larger than mode- 
nU<el^ sixed lighters could come beyond the bar.' la 1335 at low 
nhng tides except a very amall flat gut as high as Gangva and at 
bmeit a little above, whore tbero reraainod about three feet of water, 
all for Fourteen milea below (Jambay was dry. The etitraaco to the 
gat vrati blocked by a bank close to which the water waa deep. This 
Mok striod at, Vyvr tidea from six to ei^ht foet above the water. 
Tb« tide hud to How for more than ao hour, that is during its period 
of £fre»test force, before the water, which was driven ugainat the 
hank, ooold liad a vent. When, with this huge presauro behind it, 
dio wat^rrose to the le\'etof the bank, instead of having tUo whole 
leral of the golf ro flow over it was pent into a uarrrjw channel and 
lonned the w&tl-tiko wave of the bore. The Rame obstiicles, though 
IB a leas de^roe, uontiuued to resist the tidea' passage and cause 
repetitiona of the uiain boio on a Hniallor scale. At Oangva on the 
Fall-moon springs in November the bore was not mor« than two feet 

In 1K&4 the Cambay gntf was described as funeing neither n Rafe 
r a roomy harbour for shippiug on account of the constant shifting 
its bml frDiii the force of llio tidos and the currents of the rivers 
Mabi and S^barmati.* In 185S the Cambny gulf was descnbed as 
ahallow and abounding in shoals and sand-banks. The tides whicb i 
vent very high, rising upwards o! tliirty feet, rnshod in with great 
force ranging much damage to tthippiug, and this hiiitnrd was greatly 
iQcrooKd by the continoftlly shifting phoals cauflcd by the fi*efjnent 
inundations of the rivers fulling into the gulf.'^ Ten yearn later 
(1867) the port of Cambay was described ni in a miserable plight. 
BoatJ) lay two miles from the shore ond every import and export 
kad to be dragged through that extent of solid mud.** Owing to the 
bod state of the Cambay harboar the Acting Collector of Koira 
hi the following year (1868) roc-ommonded Government, bnt without 
fOooeM, to establish a port at the Uritisb village of lUnbij aboot 
three miles cost of Cambay.' In 1870 the Collector of Kaira and 
the Commissioner of Customs proposed that the payment of transit 
datiw received by the NAwab shoeld be 8top]>ed and the amonnt 
roBliaed spent in uoustmctioff a pi^r or a causeway across the miles 
of mnd tbmagb which carts bad to paas.^ Govomiuent stopped tho 
payinentibat, on the NawJib's representation, the order wasaft«rwards 

At present (Idt*!) the Catnbay harbour is no harbour in the 
ordinary sense of tho word. The vessels are grounded as fur up 
the madbank as they can roach at high water. The landing 
or bandar ts two miles from tho cnstom houae which stands on 

• Sail Indion Nftvy to O^v. Itfth Nov. 1835 in Bom, Gov. Bee. Matuis Dept. I'2. 
— • Hatwr't >'»nai>vB. 11. 189. 

'Snpt. Indiwi Nnvy'a LetMr 16th Nov. 1835 in G«v. K««. Marine Dept 12. 
I BmU- Our. ii*\- XkVL (N«w iimm). 46. * Tbombun's Ouetteer, i;9. 

* .AOine C<i{l»ct«r pf Kiuni'« WH ol 21th Febraxiv 18CT. 

' KMirt L-allMU>r a &U ol •UA Aug. IStid. * K*i» CoUr.'a 309 uC 7tb Aptil 1910 



[Bombay Gaiettwi 



IChupter I. 


of CkinWy. 



wbnt was once the sliorc. AcrosR these two inilcs the cargoes 
taken in carta whicli toil througli alitnc, mnd, and sand, makinf 
sometimt'S ouly one trip and seldom mare than two tripsin a dan 
The spring Lido still overflows this dismal flat, and for a day or 
oftor spring title, till the ground dries a little, the road to the ships 
is almout impaflsable for carts.' 

A sarrey of the Cambay gnlf was made by Lieutenant Ethoreoy 
in 1S34, 1835, and 1836. Hia first operations extended from Din to 
Qopuith Point, along the K^thidwar coast, and so along by tho 
west side and bead of the gulf as far east and BOuth as Surat. He 
examined and laid down the debouchures of the groat rivers Rdbar- 
matt, Mahi, Dh&dhaj', and Narbada. Liuutenaut Kthersey left 
UDBarreyed sixty-five miles of coast Hno botweon Dumas and the 
month of tho Tiipti and St. John's and again botwoon Bassoin and 
Bombay. In 1636 Elhersey resumed his sarvey at Dahanu aud 
contiunod to Arnala island, a further distance of thirty miles to tUo 
Bonthward, terminating at the northern shore of the island of Baascin 
thirty-four miles north from Bomlmy light-honse. The examination 
of the unfinished portion wan resumed by Lieutenants Rennie 
and Conijitablc in 1850^ 1851, and 18o2. Theaa ofHc^rA not only 
laid down tho coast lino, bat soundnd with caro to determine if 
poBsiblo whothcr eili <jr imnd Imd hoajied up einoe the date at which 
tho chief soundings had previously been taJcon. Lieutenant Ronnio 
made a targe number of obaorvatioua on vertical dech'nation at 
Vanx*s Tomb. His survey oxtondod from Vaux'sTomb toDith&nu 
a distance ofsixty-one miles. He once more reeumed his oliservations 
nn tho portion Rurroyed by Lieutenant Ethersey in 1886 and (vintinued 
the inquiry down to Bombay. On the nortn-wentern shore, along 
the KMhidwAr coast a 8ur\'ey was i»ndnct<4d by Lieutenant 
Constable from Vorndni Point to below Porbandar.- 

Th e two boita o f hill country that cross the breadth of Kitbi^ 
wAr constitute two ^ITfltinct water partinga, and from them, aa 
well as from a narrow slroicTi oF tm)To'-Iand which occupioa tho 
centre of the province and fonns a connecting link between them, 
flow all llie rivers and streams by which tho peninsula is drained. 
At first swift and clear, gliding along rocky channels, between steep 
banks, these rivers How from the inner of tho two hill tracts, out- 
ward to all points of the compass, and winding sluggishly through 
tho lowlying lands of the soa-hoard, enter tho sea at points nearlv 
opposite the slopes where they take their rise. Thus on the north 
and Qortb-wcst, they Qow fn)m Lhe bills to the Ran and gulf of 
Cutch ; on the east they head direci for the Ran and gnlf of Carabn-y ; 
and on the south and south-west they carry the drainage from the 
Qrefttor and Lesser Gir into the Arabian sea; while, from tho 
counter slopes of the opposing chains of hills, the two largest rivers 
of the province, the Bhadar and the Shatrunji, rising at almost 
opposite points flow inwaril towards each other, until meetiujf the 
drainage thrown from the flanks nf the connecting links of tableland, 

■ CunlMy AdmioiatMlioii Ra|Mirt for IS804I. 

' Trjuuactiom Bomlwy t9«(>grafihic«l Society, XIl. LXXXVIH. 




bond to either banfl. And receiving ttie contents of varionB 
ri^at&rios as thoy alnrt the liAse of their renpcctiTe ranges, flow 
»gh the plaios scpiirHtiug the tvro hill tracts, the Bbddar 
rd to the Arabian sea, Iho ShatruDJi eastward to tho gulf of 


1^ during the soath-west monsoon thoy poor Bcaward in 
irbid Hoodft, the K^thiaw&r rivers are of inconsiderable sieo. 
joDg them are nine leading streams, the Bh&dar, Shatronji, 

*iu, Aji, Bhogivia, Sukha-Bh(tdar, Keri, Ghela, and KalubbSr. 
Of these tlie BhAdah, the largest river of the province, rises from 
springs in a range of bills a few miles to the north of the town of 
Josdau,^ and before falling into the sea at Nari Bandar, has a 
eoorso of about one hundred nnd twenty miles. This is dividefl into 
Jhree parta, tho first about sixty miles from its rise to the town of 
-'tpiir ; tlio swoinl about forty miles frdm Jptpiir tn the town of 
ruciana; and the third about twenty milos from Kntianato tho sea. 
the fii-st twelfo miles of its course tho Bhddar flows south, bat 
sr passing tho town of Jasdan on tho right, it bends west, and 
jnt twenty-five miles from its source, roeoives from tho right tho 
rtnnl, flowing from the hills about the town of Sardhfir. Thence, 
ing about ten miles to the south-west, it is joined fi-om tho left 
the VftsAori, which flows past VaBiviid, and, further on, a few 
les above Jetpiir, it receives from the right, the Gondali, on whoso 
banks stands the town of Gondnl, the capital of the J^eia state of 
that name. Thronghont thia section of itfl course the Hh^dar haa 
the character of a hill stream, flowing with a swift current io a rock j 
itmoL From Jctpur to Kutidna the course of tho river ia west- 
iy, and its vcilnme is increased by various tributaries, most of 
which join it from the right. Thus it receives in gncoession, tho 
^tavli. one branch of which flows under the walls of Meugni ; the 
icphnl, rising in Xjodhika ; the Moj, on whose bnnks stands the 
)wn of Uplota; and the Yinn, flowing from the hills ronnd Dr&pha. 
ibiA section of its course the Bh^dar flows in a broad sandy bed, 
ink between banks of alluvial clay, ita courao hojng marked by a 
rhly cnltivatcd belt of irrigated crops. At Kutiina tho Bhidar 
within the inflaenoe of the sea, and winds a tidal river twenty 
to Navibandar on the west coast. About ten miles below 
Kniiana it receives from the right the Minsar, which flows through 
■the valley separating the Barda mountains from the hills of tlie 
iloch group, ami From the left nwir its mouth, the Ojat, flowing 
>m Vanthali. During the south-wost monsoon, tho sea, driven by 
ae south-west wind, meets the volume of water brought down by 
the Bhadar and its swollen tributaries. The result is a yearly flood 
gVbich is felt thronghont the lower portion of tho river's course. 
ring to its low luvet and the nearness of the sea, one of the chief 
ktnre« of the district between JunAgad and Porbandar is its salt* 
IMS. Salt water rises from below, fills wells and streamSj impreg- 




* ThuM liilta are (i.inutiDu» called the UAadbkv hiUa from the vilU^ of that riuDa 
b1 their cwterii ba>e. Thej rauat not b« ooafoiuid«d with the Maudtur hiUa Uwt 
■nrroui'l the raiu of M&aiuuvgad near Tbio. 

iBomhaj Gaut 



Lpi«r L 

The Bhadar. 



nates the soil, and occasionally appears aa au e£ilor<.>3ccnce on tbo 
surface. In short the uonnal cnutlition oE tho cuuotrj is salt, nad,^ 
withoat ooimtcractiog inilueDcos, it would soon become nuinhabitable^ 
The yearly rains to some ext«nt gweeton the soil and supply fresl 
water, bat the good they do would gpon pass away were it not fo 
tho yearly Hoodiiig of the Bhfldar and it.i tnbiitariea, which for tnilesi 
covers the conntiy on both banks. This flooding happens once,'! 
twice, or oven three iimv« during the rainy season, and the vaat[ 
Tolnme of frc^h water thus thrown on the land, sinkn to a great 
depth, displacing the salt and thoroughly »wt-et«ning the soilaj 
besides tilling ponds, wellts, and streams with fresh water. At the ' 
same time those Hoods are not without ill oSocts. The fields along 
the river banks are yearly more or less eaten away to the great lofis 
of tho husbandmen, and at times the river quits its bed and cats a 
new channel engnlSng valuable lands and mining the owners. 
Again, the effects of the inundation on the surrounding conntry 
are most capiicions. Sometimes when the flood sabsiaes, largo 

auantities of alluvial soil are found spread over the snrfaoe, and to 
le great gain of the holder bArren spots suddenly become fertile 
fields. At other times the violence of the flood sweeps away the soil, 
turning cultivated fields into barren waoto. Again, those floods by 
taking place at unexpected and unseasvuable times, occasionally 
iuBict oonsiderablo loss by damaging growing cro])6. Thus in 
those parts for good or for evil tho flooding of tho Bhfidar is one of 
the chief events of the year, Tho harm is slight and partial ; the 
good great and general.* 

After tho firHl; floods, the Bliii^lar is navigable by small boats of 
three to five tons (10-15 hhandiA) sixty miles to Jaitpur on the 
main stream or thirty miles to Tanthali on the Ojat branch. At 
other times it is navigable only twenly miles as far as Kutiina. 

The sacred Suiiausji has, including windings, a south -easterly' 
course of about one hundred miles, from its rise in tho Dhundi hills 
of the Gir, to SultSnpur whoro it enters tho gulf of Cambay. 
Flowing at flrst in a north'erly direction, it passes the small canton- 
ment of Dhari, and, about twenty-Sve miles from its rise, receives 
from the loft the stream of the SatAli. Then, bending to the right, 
it takes a south-easterly course till it ^lls into the gulf. On its 
passage it receives a number of small feeders, among them the 
Sittgavftdoon whose bank stands the G&ikwjlr's town of Amreli ; the 
Gdgodia flowing under the walla of L^thi, the capital of the small 
Gohil stAt-eof that name; and tho Leo or G&garia which rises in the 
Girne&r LAkha Ptidar.' At Kntnkach the Shatrnnji is joined by two 
BtreoniB, having dangerous quicksands and ilomng through a nitrous 
soil whose brackish waters aro said to affect the Shatrnnji for the 
rest of its oonrse.* 

Tho M&cuu, with a courao of over seventy milos, rises near tbo 
town of Anandpur in the northern belt of hills and flows under (he 

1 Bcpoct on fche Separation uf Iater«*tit b«tiT»«a JaoJigMl tmJ Porbuiditr, 1SG6. 
^Tnoa Bom. Lit W 1. 205. * Bwa. Ckpv. Sol XXXm. (New SeriM), 12. 


walls of ViSukJtnor and Morti into the Ran of Catch (it MAlia. In 
(he earlior Rcctinna uf h» course it in renjarktible for Ha rocky 
ckiuincl iLTid ragged precipitous sidea. Maiij' a \ojig detonr hm 
U> bd Qiade l>efore a place is found passable for carts.' Beyond 
Uorri it flows throogh a flat treeless pbiu, it« waters becoming 
bratkiafa aliont tea miles from it^ mouth aad the gtroam pofiaing 
ihroagh ^alc wastes till ii lo-ies itaelf iu the salt sand and mud o£ iho 
gulf uf Cutch. 

The Aji, which is Romowhat Bimilar in character to Iho Machn, 
riMS near Sardliir in the same series o£ UilU, and flowing under the 
walls uf KAjkot receives from the loft^ some twenty niiles boyond 
that iovrn, the nnitod Btrcains of the Dhoudi and tlio Niari, on 
who«e bulks stands the town of Pardhari, and after a course of 
about sixty uiilos falls into the gulf of Cuteh near Balsinbha. It is 
fiamcd for the Dxoollenao of it^s water. Small riiiantitioa of gold dost 
are said to have formerly been obtained in its bed.' 

The Wadhwtin and Limhili BnooAvA with coorsos of about aoventy 
mile.-*, rii^ near each otlicr in the bills about Chotila, and dow eaat- 
ward iu broad sandy shallow uhauuuUi, uuder the walls of Wadhwiiu 
and Limbdi reapectivuly, losing thouisolraa in the sand and silL u£ 
tbo Nnl or Raa of Cambay. 

The KcKHA BilCdab, of about the same size as the Bhogav^, 
rides on tho eastoru Hank of tlio hills in which it» namesaico the 
BbAdar has itm source, and, flowing t<j the oast iuKtead af to the 
WMt, passea the town of Ranpur, and outers the Ran of Cambay 
near its junction with the gulf. This river originally flowed post 
DbaudUuka and formed the creok of Dholera. Id 1833-3-1, as it 
had before done in 1812, it left tt^ old bed and col its present 
chanoel aboat four miles west of Dhandhuka.^ 

The Keri, the Uheln, and the ICilubhar are simitar iu size and 
character in tbe three last mentioned rivers. They flow east From tho, 
central highlands and meet on tho ooaat, forming tho ttdnl creek 
which voU-rs the gulf of Cambay tiear the town of Bhdvoagar. 

Of flmall streams are tho Und^ flowing from Lodhika north to tbo 
KoU of Cotch at Jodiya; tbe Demi flowing from Anandpor under 
the walls of Taukiira; tho Bimbhan rising near Tb^ ; and the 
Phnlka flowing past lihrilugadhro. all lowing tbemsolves in the 
Ran of Cufth ; and the MAlan, -Machiindri, Dhatarvari, Siagavada 
and the pictaresquo liaval, all rising in tbo hills of the Grcatur and 
Lesser Cir, and flowing soutli Ui the Arabian Sea. To these may 
bo added the Iliran and .Sarasvati,' sacred streams which rise ia tho 
Oir, and meet each other and tho soa near tbe temple of Somn&th 
PAtJin. The junrtinn of the utrtains called Triveni, is held espocially 
■acred osrhf- place where Krishna died and hiit ashes were sprinkled. 
£i^bt. luiloa nearer the hillsi tbe Saranvati passes through a reservoir 
c»llud the PrAchikundj much visited by devotees. La8tly> may be 

t ^ 




The MachK. 





' Trigonometrical Surrey Report. 1873-74. 

^ UtcMnnLj in TrMiu. Bviil Lit. Soc. L SS9. Tho daCemcnt in aot oorroboratod 
bf any intiariiudnt wriWn, 
* .tgqnwl Umi'lja)' Brnovb Royal Axiativ Hooioty, V. 112. 

fBombay OitxettMi 


Chapter X. 




meutiuuud tlio Ubeii atid llic» Oiat, which, rising uear each uther va 
tho uortbora elopoa of cho Girliills, dtvoi^o to the right and left 
they flow towards the interior of the province, and after encirclii 
thu detached iiman of the CrirD^r raouulaiiLS, join their waters w 
tho town of Vantbali, wlieuce they flow iu a united streum to 
the BhfUlar a tittle above Navi bandar where it falln iiiru tho ae 
Besides these there arc tho Ndgtaati which risea in the hilly count ^ 
thirty miles south of Jimuugar, the Ndui and Moti Phuljhar, auc 
the Manvar. 

Of salt water croeks the most important are the Uunsthat 
BhAvnagar, Sunanii, B&vHAli, aad Dholom creeks. 

The lianstbal, the deep channel that connects the outer and inof 
gulf uf CuU-h, Uowa Eroui tbo head of the gulf of Cutch for above 
two miles iu an easterly direction, and thou bonds north-east with 
mangrove swampa on either baud. At five inUea from its month it 
dindea into two channels, one leading northwards towards Catch 
imd colled the Catch Khiidi, the other leading south-east towards 
the shores of E41&r an^ called the HilUi Kbfldi. This ktt«r is 
naTigable by vessels drawing nine feat of water (or a distance of 
four miles, and afWrwards, though little more than a ditch, allows, at 
high water, native craft of (50 to 100 tons (200-300 khandit) to pass 
aa far east a^a Vavauia about ten miles up the gulf. 

The Bh^vnagnr creek, which forma tho channel between the town 
of that name and the gulf of Cauibay, is a safe but winding passage 
fUkvinble by large native craft for about five miles, or within a mile 
of the town. At spring tides, boats of from three to five tons pass 
up the Chela as far as Ghelri in Vala fourteen miles from Bhamagar. 
Of late years the Bh&vnagar state has spent large sums in improv- 
ing the port. 

The Dholcra creek is the channel loading to the important trading 
town of Dbolem whieh i» situated about ten miles inland. The 
channel is winding and the passage greatly depends on tbo state of 
the tide. 

The Siinar&i Ehddi is about eight miles north of Bfa^vna 
It is said to cuutaiu a fine broad chaauol of various dept 
for about 44 wiles (tJ ko8) inland, with a good muddy boltonij 
SAvigablo for boats of from 100 to 16)) tous (3(H).. >00 hfidtuiU) 
The channel does not dry like the Dholora creek, and is frei 
from mud banks and other serious impediment-s. The largest-' 
rcssels OBod in the coasting and gulf trade can make the landing 
place in one tide. The binding place is about 4^ miles [3 (o$) from 
the mouth of ihe creek, the cbnnuel near it holding water ounugh to 
keep laden and unlsulen vessels aHoat at any time of tho tide. In 
November and December 1822. a nautical survey of this and the 
Deighbouring creeks was made by Lieutenant Domioicetti of th 
Company's Marino, who described Snnarjli creek as in latitud 
20' 0' 30' north and bearing from BhAvuagar creek 8t miles no: 
24 east It ran weut and north-west from the sen upwards of twelve 
ntlee, for about half of which it was navigable. Its breadth for 
tho first throo miles varied from 650 to 800 feet and for the uext 


^ kAthiAwIb. 

^M tfarae miles wna about 370 (cct. Tbo depth at high water Bpring 

P tides ia the large reach ranged from thirty-nine to forty-eight feet, 

Bad at tow water &om six to fiftoon foot. In the small reach, with 

as moch as from thirty to thirty-two foet at high tide, it waa dry at 

low water ; the perpendicular rise of the tide was thirty-throe feet. 

■ li was high water on fult-moon and at the change of the moon at 
file entrancti at -ih. 28m. f.u. and 5J miles op at oh, 2Gm. Tlie ubb 
nuk 6} and tbo flood 6^ boors, the former 3^ the latter 2^ milcit an 

The BdTliAli crock is aboat two miloa north of the Sunar/ti creek. 
It is said to bo about eight miles long and for the fimt five milos to 
rarr in breadth from 5^0 to 000 fooL At high wator the ilepth of the 
Bpnng tides Tories from twenty -six to thirty-fivo feet ; and at low 
WAter it is nearly dry except at 1^ miles from the eatrauco whcro 
throe to five feet remain. During the neaps it never has less than 
twonty-throo feet at high water, and is not dry for more than 2^ 
Or three hours ia twelve. The tides ai-e not so rapid as in Simardi. 
At tbo springs the fiood runs 1| and the ebb 2{ miles an hour. It 
18 high water on full and change of the moon at 4h. 32m. at the 
eatnuice and at 5h. 36m. pjc. five miles up. The bottom ia chiefly 
mad or mixed mud and sand.' 

Among smaller creeks may be mentioned the Mahuva creofc leading 
two mOoa to tho landing phvco ; tho Chanch creek flowing 
l^^throngh a mangrove swamp at the back of Ghdnch island about 
Hlw«lre miles west of Mahuva and raaning inland for five or six 
Hmilea ; tho M&ndva crock, running to the village of Velan, from Din 
^■liead, tho southom extremity of K^thiflwdr; the Somdr crook, 1) 
^miles to the north of Mol Dwirka near KodinAr; the Sil creek 
between U&ngrol and Naribandar, which might be made naTigable 

■ to native craft of the largest sij^e, bat is yearly stopped by a bank 
of sand orhich forms across its mouth at the close of the rains ; the 
Vartu creek leading to Mi^ni which can only be entered at high 
Wkter, when there is about nine feet of water ; the Salfiya creek 
rtmning about nine miles from the gulf of Catch to Sat^ya ; the 
Beri creek leading to Beri the port ofNav&nagar; the Jodiya creek 
mnntug about ^\ miles to Jodiya, but navigable only to the frantior, 
nbootouo mile ; and tho Vaviinia crcok loading about two miles to 
the Morvi port of Vavauia. 

Notwithstanding ita extent of coast K^thiiiiv jr has no really good 
Willi III! II. except B^t nt the north-east comer of Okhdmandal -miere 
bonU eao lie liirough the south-weet monsoon. Its principal porta 
are VavAnia, Jodiya, Keri, SalAyaj in the golf of Cutch ; Dholera, 
and Goglia, in the gnlf of Cambay ; and Mahava, 
Din, Verdval, M&ngrol, Navibandar, and Porbaodar on 
iwittb and week coasts. Of these Vaviinia, Jodiya, Beri, SaUya, 
'ifarifaftodar, Hahava, Bhivnagar, and Dholera are on creeks, and 
flonunnntcacion with them depends on the tide ; while Gc^ha, Ven&val, 
. iiAngfvl, and Porbaodar are little better than open roauateada. Of 

ChaptST I. 



■ Trana, Bow. Qwig. Soo. U^ 98. 

Chapter I. 




Vordral, for the improvement o£ which largo eoms of money hai 
boon spent, Mr. Onniaton wrote in 1S69 *I do not know roani 
places wbick posseBS fewer natural advantages for a harbour. It ia 
opon to the Indian ocean, and the bottom of the harbour is bare rock, 
and, therefore, bad holding groand. On the other hand, it \a the 
only good port of Jiin^gad, and ifi said to be as good as any of the 
other harbonrs along thucoafit.'^ Diu roadstead ia well sheltered 
from the sonth-weat monsoon, and vessels freqnently take refogo 
there from Veraval and other places. An excellent harhoar could 
be made at Pipiivao in the Ciiauch creekj where the Bhavnagar 
•tat« haA bnilt a pier. Tho Nawiib uf Junllgnd has established a 
port called Bherai on a branch of the same creek, but it is diffioolb 
of access and cannot bo compared with Pipilvau. 

The leading islands on the KAthidwfir coast are, Piram in tho gnU 
of Cambay ; Chilnoh, i^hidl, and Diu off the south coast ; Uoi in tho 
west I and the Ch^nka islets in the gulf of Catch. 

Piram, a small naiTow island about soven miles south of Gogha, is 
flurrouuded by roeky reefs which run two or three miles to the north 
and south-east, and are dry at low wat«r. The surface, which is 
partly diift sand partly a liglit arable soil, rises on the west side 
into low cliffy of hardened clays and conglomerate rock. On a 
aandy knoll in the centre of the island a fourth order dioptric 
light has been sot in a stone tower bniit on the rnins of on old bastion. 
(k»od water is procnrabie from a well, but from Juno till October 
the island is unhealthy. Piram is mentioned by the author of 
tlie Poriplus {A.D. 247) under the name of Baiouos. In modem 
times it was famous as the stronghold of the Cohil chief Mokheriiji 
who was defeated and slain in A.i>. 13t7 by the troops of Salt^ 
Muhammad Tiighlak. It is interesting from its fossil remains of 
extinct varieties of elephant, rhinoceros, hippopotcLmus, and gigantic 

Gh&neb, which though ai high tide nearly surrounded by water, ia 
never really an island, lies off tho south coast about twelve miloa 
west of Mahuva. It is a narrow strip four or five mites long and 
about half a mile broad, with its surface rising gradaally towards its 
eastern end. The village of Chinch stands on it« south-eastf 
corn or. 

ShiAl Bet is a rocky island nbont three quarters of a mile long anj 
half a mile broad, about three miles west of Chjinch island and serf 
miles oast of Jdfarab&d. It is about two miles from the maiulanj 
with a surface rising gradually from tho north to tho south, whc 
atee]) cliffs overhang the sea. It contains some old fortifiuatii 
ami was once a famous piratical stronghold. Its ancient name 
aaiti to have been Sinblingpur. At its osstem end is a rocky is 
called Savai Bet, detached at high tide, on which stands the loi 
of a Pir or Muhammadan saint called Savdi Pir. 

Diu is an island of irregnlar outline, about seven miles long and 
from two miles to half a mile broad, with a sprinkling of cocoa palms 

* Bepert on tbo Barbour of Verir&I in KUhilwAr, Bombfty 1869. 





and othiT trees. It is o( uaudstone, presontioK on its sooth fnce a 
line of cliffs wasbcd by the aca, ami itH f*iirface is eTerywhen? honey- 
eombed Trith quarrica, tho stone having been used in malctnf;; the Corts, 
Hnirches. raoua8tvrie!i> and other building^s o£ which the island is 
fnll. Besidex the town of Diu there aro four villages, MitnekrfLda, 
Bocbarv^da, Brankvdda, and Niifiva, the last having a small fort. 

Bet, or the islaud uf EShaukhuddhiir, is a uarrow crooked strip of 
»nd and rock to the cast of Okhamandal point and about eight miles 
long'. It ia famoas for it^ temples and ahrluoa of Bkrisbua, the chief 
of which was in tho fort of KAliikot and was blown up witii the port 
by u British force in 1859. Bot is ono of the porta of Okbdmandal, 
aikd fts noticed above form-saaafc shelter dtiriugthe whole south-vest 
monsoon. Early European navigators called it Sangdnia, fi*om the 
fiunona pirates oE that uamo whose original strougbold was at 
Kachbigad, five miles north of DwArka, where the ruins of their fort 
nmain on a point of land to tho woot of the present fort. All 
round the island, conch or ahankh shells ore foand in abundance. 
Thoy form an article of commerce and hare given their name to the 
aLand, the Gate of Conch Shells.' 

In the gulf of Cutch. a few miles from the mainland of H^ilr off 
8ainya,are the ChAnka i<iland9, a grotip of 6vo, ChfLnkhfl, Nora, Baida, 
AjAr, and Chusda. They are raised very litile iibtive the sea and are 
mere banks of hard rough rock on which sand has gathered. They 
are chiefly important on acoonat of their beds of pearl oysters, which 
are gathered without diOicnlty and without diving. The pearls are 
of good lustre, quality, and size. 

In the inland parts of tho province the supply of water for 
boosehold wonts and for cattle is obtained either from the rivers 
and streams with which the oonutiy abonnds, or from the wells with 
which every village is provided, Several thousand wells were soak 
dnring the scarcity of 1877-7H and were invaluable in raising hot 
weather crops. Many wells fell into disuse when the scarcity was 
over, but tho net result has been a large increase to the irrigatioaal 
power of the province. Tracts near nvers are wat-ered from oriae or 
pits dag at convenient places in river beds, with a lift and bullock run 
on the bank above. Sometimes the sides of the bank are faced with 
mMonry, hut when the bank is steep and tho soil rocky and hard, 
tfaey are often left in their natural state. At Kotra near D&tha 
on the south const is a well at which thirty leathern buckets can be 
worked at tho same time ; the water is aaid always to remain at ono 

The village welts called vdva or bavdit, are generally bnilt o£ 
substantial masonry and are occasionally of very elaborate and 
elegant deaigu, A flight of broad richly ornamented stops with 
several breaks or Inndiuga loads to tho water. From the first huidiog 
tlie view stretches through a longvistaof three or four cupolas. At 
tho next landing, a Cow steps lower, the view is along and throagb 




' Some loc^ P>iulita say the iuudc of tbe tslaod oonras front Shutkli Jixun. who 
waa ■Imu Iiv Kntbn* nml oliUinnl niUvktiou or utldhar. HeDOO th« proper form is 
Hhinkh'MlilIi^ auil n-jt Sliunklni-lvir. OthetB uy JtdcrivM it« naiiw tntntkaiUik 
Mul viar, tiut U tluiwd lik« > jAuitiA. 

Chapter X 




The A'oL 


parallel rows of cupolas ; and on reaching ttie bottom, near the lev* 
of the water, a thiril row forms a basemeut of very elegant triple 
storied onpolas. These are built over each of the three or four 
vrells at the bottom, aod the whole are surrounded bj a stone path^j 
way giving access to the smaller wells and to a Urge open oin:ulaNH 
Wll ftt the other end, from which water can be lifted to the tup hy 
a leather bag. However rich the interior of the well may bo, 
nothiog shows above ground but a Htono wall a1>out two feet higb.* , 

In some of the lowlying districts, particnlarly those to the north 
nnd nurth-weat, where the soil is so charged with salt that the water 
^fbtaincd by digging is more or less brackishj almost every town 
and village has its pond or reservoir, holding water through tho 
greater part of the year. During the montbt) of April and May, 
many of these ponds become dry, and supplies have to be draw 
£rom wella which, in most instances, are «ink in the beds of t' 

{)ond8 and lined with brick or masonry. Some of the ponds a _ 
arge enough to deserve mention, notably those of Patn, Khorva, 
Sitna, Chandrelia near Tb&a, S^la, Adila near Dh^ndalpur, Sardhiir, 
Cbruibdri aud the Sardh£r talav at Jnui,gad. Halvud has a beauti- 
ful lake with the palace rising from the water on ita eastern side. I 

The province contains a few lakes larger than village reservoirs. 
The most remnrkable is the Nal, an extensive sheet of slightly 
brackish water on the north-eastern frontier of the province, at the i 
head of the Kan of Cambay. With a depth of water rarely _exeeeding 
six feet it has Ijeea estimated to cover n early fifty eqaare m iles. 
If 13 snrronnded on the south and west by a mass of reeds and giant I 

frrasBos, while the eastern aud part of the northern shore is a smooth, ' 
ight coloured, aud gently sloping beach. Among the coarse grassee J 
and reeds growing on the marshy lauds near the Nal is a species, | 
locallvcuUed ri<for6M?,whase bulbous root ia eaten in times of scarcity. ] 
Thiti bulb ia of a dark colour and co%-ered with hair-like fibres. It is 
dng up and dried in the san; the fibres are carefully removed and I 
the bulb is ground into flour. The bread has a sweetish aud by no 
means unpleasant taste, something like ginger bread. To those 
accustomed to it from their birth it is nutritions enough, but, 
incautiously eaten by persons used to more wholesome food, it is apt 
to bring on violent and often ht^ dysentery and inflamraatinn of 
the bowels. The fibres ai-o supposed by the people to bij a deadly 
poison. It is this bulb alone that makes the ground on wbicb it 
grows valuable nnd an object of contention among the villagoa 
around tho Nal. Another bulb called Iheg is also made into bread 
and largely eaten by the lower classes in tho Nal KAnlha. 

Tho Ghcda, situated in the neighbourhood of Madhavpur on tho 
eouth-west coast, are largo sheets of water, which in general 
appearance resemble the Nal and are usually known as the Ajakand 
Sil, Ijacasra, and MAdhavpnr Glieda. During the cold weather all 
these lftke3,as well as thoGheds at MiiSui,IUval, Birvdda.and VisAvida 
and other parts of the coast, are the resort of large flocks of 

■ Trigctumotrical .Siirve)' RepQit, 1872-78. 









Scab 12 WiM . 1 beb 




' . ;->;!» 




dock, t 
Of tl 

Ban of 


^□d snipe. 

Rans or salt wastes, which encircle the oaat and aorth-eu6 
iw^r, the most remarkable are the Ran of Cutoh and the 

the head of the Gulf of Cutch ' stretches the dry bed of 
golf that oDce Barrouiidt>d Cutch od the soatb-oaati 

8C. or gmi that once Barrouiiat>d V.'Utcn od 
cast, at.d north. This tract, which, for at least 2000 yoaxs, has been 
kaown oa the R»n, that ia A ranya or the salt wast e, ia supposed 
to cover au area of about OMO square rnilee. for convenience, 

chanK-tf^r, this 
to the north 
west, eighty 

miles from north to sooth, and an area of aboub 7000 squaro miles, 
and the Little Ran , to the south-east and south of Cutch, about eighty 
miles from east to west, ten to forty from north to south, and an area 
of about IGOO square miles. A detailed description of the Great 
Ban is given in the Statistical Account of Cutch.^ 

From tho top of the Golf of Cntoh, at the month of the Hansth&I 
creek, the Little Ran stretches north-east for about sixty miles, a 
ohannol or crook varying from fire to thirty miles in breadth. It 
then stretches east and north, a wide three-cornered sea bed about 
forty miles east to the great Kb^&ghoda salt works, aud about 
thirty miles north to tho narrows between Chor^ island and Adesar 
in Cutch, which is generally considered the south limit of the Groat 
Bon. The Little Ran ia bounded on the north by Catch, tho Great 
Ban, and the island of Chor&l; on the east by VdnUii in Ff^tanpor, 
Jhinjhuvflda in KtlthiAwdr, and tho outlying salt works of 
Klu^rd^hodu in Ahmadubad; on the north by Dhriugadra aud MorrJ 
in K^thtfLwdr; and on the west by the head of tho Gulf of Cutch. 

Though the Little Ran is a v ast lifeless d wert, it is not without 
some variety of detail. In the eztreme weet at the top of the 
Onlf of Cutch, besides a network of small inlets and channels, 
there are thr ee main cre eks, Nakti close to the Cutch coast, 
Khudlo about sevon miles to ibe east, and Hansthal crook, 
tKe main channel abont six miles from the oast and about 
eiijlit miles from the KiAhiiw&r coast. Up the Hansthal cre ek. 
which is half a mile to a mile broad and very deep, tlie tide 
runs about Bve miles to the Inner G ulf, around shnJIow lagoon aboub< 
ton mites from north to soutli and eight miles from east to west. 
To the eatit stretches the Ran ; aud to the west and south are largo 
^salt swamps covered with water at spring tides and during the sottw* 
west mousoou. At other times they are iaiauds, ttlightly raised above 
tho water, and covered with mangrove boshoa. To tho west of the 
lagoon or Inner Gulf, cot off on tho north by a network of small 
creeks aud on the west by the Nakti crook, ia SAtsherda island , a 
driary tract about fifty square milos in area, flooded at springs, 
eroeot tho toi>9 of its mangrove bushes, on which at low tides herds 




* Vnai so Mooant bv Captain A. W. Burd, K E.. 'Tbe Ontf gnA Little Ru of 
'^ " BoinU4>188a' *BoQiUy GiuHtoar, V. 11.16, 

[Bombay Ofu«tt«er^ 




Little Rui. 

of c amola graa e. lu the east o( the island is a gprJiig of jresl 
wator which Uecpa its swoetcess though at times it is overflowoc 
bj tho sea. Captain Baird's levela show that t he liiiid noar tho 
mouth ot tho Haasthal Cre ele i36"781 -|^2-7o fe et a bovf mean sea level, 
and that, furthor in, near the head v( the creeV, TEia level rises a 



i I 



foot or two more, and about thirty miles eas fc, near the Shik(ir]iar- 
Ufiiia line, it is onl jr 6 781 feet ftpove ""^^S, sgft Jov el. or 
nine inches lower than at the mouth of the BaoatTial Creek. 

Captain Baird describes the foartoon milea between tho^ 
K^thiilwtlr coast and the tidal station at tho month of the Hansthal 
Creek as withoal landmarks save two small monnda raised to guido 
postal rnnnors. Inside of the lagoon or Upper Qulf, between TaT^nia 
in Kathijiw^r and Tuna on the Cntch Coast, are two crooks, the^J 
VAfTfirdhrAi and tho Chhiich. Tho VAgardhrAi, which is near tha^H 
Outch coast, reaches, at its north-eaat end, to nearly three milea ^ 
from ShikfLrpur. It ia fmin 500 to 600 feet brnad and has from, 
ton to twelve feet of water at low tide. The stream of tho tida 
rushes with great Tiolence washing away much of the land. A' 
high fipringa tho water overflows tho banks and covers large 
Btrotchea of the noighbonring llata. Tho Chhdch crock passes about ' 
two milea east of the Bagasra- Jhangi postal line. For the last thirty 
or forty years this crock has, like tho V^Agardhrai crock, bccu 
eating away the land of the Ran. About eight uiilea further east, 
at the Sbik4rpur-MfUia line, tho Kan is at its narrowest only eight 
miles across. On the south bank about a mile and a half north of 
Mj^lia, before falling into the Han, the Machn river divides into 
Bovora! streams. The How of its water when in the Ran is very 
Blow, 80 that it loavt's more silt than it washes away. The water 
flows to the south-west close to the coast of the Han, and, if a large 
qoaotity is dischai^ed the pool reaches tho Vavania crook after 
passing Bagitsra and Touk. The di.scharge oeAses by the end of 
November or the beginning of December; and, by the end of 
December, the broad oxpause of water on the Rau begins to dry. 
For about a milo along the KiithiAwAr and Cutch baukrt tho li;ivel 
of the bed of tho Ran is from a foot to eighteen inches higher than 
in the central belt of six, miles. The whole w dry from Novenihe 
till the end of March, a blackish grey with patchen of glistening 
salt. About the end of April or the beginning of May strong south- 
west gales and extraordinary high tides force the water up tho 
Hansthal creek far over tho Kan. 

At this narrow part of the Ran, uloug the north or Cuteh side 
an almost unbroken hne of Bmall hills runs along the shore for a 
milo or two. Further inland are smaller hillocks of black sand 
covered with thick vegetation. On the K^thitiwdr border of the 
Ran, near the top of the Gulf of Cntch, beyond the fielde o: 
cotton wheat and millet is the dry salt-laden Ran, half sand half 
black earth, baro and desolate and without sign of life except 
sometimes, in tho early morning, a herd of antelope coming buck 
from their salt gronndn. Along the outer edge of the dry waste 
is a line ci low sandhills, and beyond the hills, as for as the eye 
can roach, are widespreading swamps covered with dense mangrove 
thickets and carved into u network of salt streams. At sprin, ' 





tides tKe sea comcB cloie to the base of the sautUiillB ; at other 
Uiufs it in Cai- uway beyoud the stretch of mangrove swamp. Sea 
birtU ftit over the slimy ooso and largo herds of camels browse ou the 
Baogrovc branches. 

Further cast, where H broadeus into the bed of a great sea, the 
Ran is a vaat Rat desert. In some places the desert Ls fringed 
vith a Eitrip of land on which grows short stunted grass the food of 
cattle and wild asses. In ullier plaices the Ran stretches inland, tip 
l-bc befis of riTors. which sink and are lost in its sand. The surfaoo 
and subsoil seem to be in fairly regular layers of sand and clay 
with a largo mixture of salt. There are a few island s in this part 
of the Ran some of them more or less covered with ^rass.* In the 
extreme eouth-east corner of the Ran are the great Kb&riighoda salt 
works. Further norths to the west of Jbiuihuv^a, a sligbl but 
cnarked fall leads, from the mainland^ acrnss a l>e1t covered with 
abort dry grass bits of sandstone and fine white iliut, to the waste 
of sand and salt mud. This bare salt plain is, in places, covered 
with a cnist of crystal salt, white as snow where the salt is thick, 
and cream coloured where it is a mere film. In places the soil is 
clay, honeycombed with cracks, shrunk into sharp sancerdiko 
hollows, or piled in gaping layers. Sometimes the surface is 
roaghenod with deep fissures, again it is soft mud, firm clay, or 
city gravel, with divarfed, leailesa, and dust'tnleored shrubs. Off 
the Jhinjhnviida coast, is the island of Vrichra S Q,Ut.Dki, bare, browa, 
and desolate, with a low dry shore rising gently from the Ran. 
Till the end of March the island is cut off from the coast by wnter, 
but it can be reached from Khorda north-west of Jhinjhuv4da> 
Passing to the south-west, from the Khorda cotton fields, is an open 
space covered with sand and dotted with prickly shrubs. Near the 
Ran is a yellow sheet of glaring sand, fringed with withered busbea 
luid stunted trees; the island standing struugo and weird in the 
quivering haze. It is a weary trudge from Khorda, seven miles 
across a dead level of orange sand, over ground dotted by small 
coluurlesa shrubs, through salt wastes, without a plant even without 
earth, to V ^ra j^ olap ki. a narro w strip of sand widening into a 
pUin and b oondea qy masses of r ock. Tna island has neither stream 
nor well, bnt it has one or two springs whose waters are said to have 
healing power and draw tliotisands of pilgrims. On the east shore 
of the island is a large house belonging to the R^haDpur State, and 
round it are a few thatched hnta used by aereu or eight horeemen 
and some salt guardsmen. 

Near Yachra Solanki the Ran is Hooded by the Rnpen and 
Sarasvati. The Rupc n, with a general course from east to west, 
cro8«es the cotton plama north of Jhiujhuvilda, till, on entering the 
Ran, it forms a crescent and passing to the tiouth-webt joins the 
Snrasvati a little to the west of Vichra t^olanki. At the meeting 
the streams mcrcosc greatly in breadth, one arm atrotchiag round 
the aonth of the island. Much water remaiiu as late as March. 

■ Colonel WatMHi tiutatifliu Kcnnil ahand by DhrtUffuln and Cntch. and two 
BhuignnA iilAii<la, two lUtm ialaada, SahlbUiu, Vftla Duogui and Jarok^ UoniZMri, 
viA ManUk UiU all in DrAogadlira. 



Ijttlc Itam. J 


(Bombay Oautteor, 


Chapter X. 


LiUlo Ban. 


It shrinks as the hot woather sets in and by May hsa disappear 
There is a local belief that boats used to plj in this part of th 
Raa. In several places before the Rupon reaches the Han, th 
water is lost in the sanJa It reappears hen; atiJ there, while ii 
the Ran iteelE its WHt«r keepa entirely to the surface till it is loatii 
the plaiiiH aonth-west of VAcbn* Solanki. Much of the water h 
no fired limita and is drifted about by cnrrenta of wind. From th 
bore Rao, the laud oa the eastern bank rises in sandy hillocks au< 
beehive mounds, three to five feet bij<h, coTored with dwarf 
tamarisk and other withered shrubs. Further inland are small 
patches of tilla^, with well grown trees on two raised spots. Thou.: 
the land stretches east a rich plain with clumps of troea, cactu 
hedges, and fields of grain and cotton. Korth from JhiQJbuvfii 
Mid V^hra 8ohmki, the limit of the Little Kan may be fixed ab! 
the island of ChorAd, and the low-lying strait between Ghor&d 
and Adesar in Cutch, which is seldom dry till January. 

The yearly flood ing of the Little Kan, daring the fiouth-weat 
monsoon (May-S epto mber), was formerly sapposed to be almost 
entirely due to specially high tides accompanied by atmng south- 
west gales forcing the waters of the Gulf of Cutch up the Hanstlial 
Creek. Captain Itaird's level and tide observations in 1874 1S7 
and 1870 have Bhowu that this explanation does not fully meelt' 
the ^ta of the flooding of the Han. An analysis of Captain 
Baird'a tidal observations at Hansthal station, at the west end of 
the Little Ran, showed, during July, that the mean level of tho 
water ranged from live inches below to nine inches above the mean 
level of the year ; for August, from fonr inches below to ten inches 
above the mean Level of the year ; and for S'eptember from fonr 
rnchea below to one foot above the mean level of the year. Thia 
rt'sult hardJy justifies the opinion that tho Little Ran la entirely 
flooded by the water of the Gulf boiug ponded up and poured into 
the Ran along tho Hanstlial, IChundlo, and Nakti creeks. Captain 
Baird's operations show that the mean level of tho Ran betweoa 
Mi&lia in KAthiAwAr and ShikAroor in Cutch, about thirty miles 
north-eafit. of the month of the Hansthal Creek, is only 0-781 foet 
above mean sea level, white at the month of the Hansthal Creek, 
between Hansthal, BAlambha and Jodiya, the gouoral level of the Ran 
is about two feet nine Jnohes higher. In the cold weather the tide 
frequently" rises at Hansthal eight and sometimes nine feet abov« 
mean aea level, and yet, between MALia and Sbikdrpnr tho Kan ia 
usually dry from November to Maroh. This shows that there nmslj 
be a considerable rise in the lovol of the Ran hetwooTi the head of 
the HauBthal Creyk and tho Malia-tJhikarpur line. Again ia 
levelling (January 1876) from Catch to ChorAd island, at the bead 
of the Little Ran, the channel between Coteh and ChorAd was 
found to bo two feet lower than the MAUa-ShikArpur level. From 
ihcee observations Captain Baird canio to tbe c^jiiclnsion, that dnrin^ 
the soQth-weet monsoon the tides wore high enough to carry the aea 
water of the Gnlf over the rise in the Ran between the Hansthjd 
Creek and the Mfilia-Shik&rpur lino, and that from there the wat^r 
flowed towards ChorAd island filling the hollows of the Ran. Agaia 
during June, July, and August the 6ood waters of the BanAs and 

I- ^^ 


other rivers arc discharged iuto tho Ran, and in the Jnlv, Aagnst, 
jftnd Soptf^iubcr high tides, tbo ovorfiow of the Orfdt Itan passes 
^Dthiranls from tho north beCtrecD Cutch and Chonid. ]n this wav 
mora water is thrown into the Liltle Rau than tho Uansthal, Nakti, 



aad Khandlo Creoks con draio into the Qulf. After the close of tho 
raiDH the drainng'e steoditj goes on, the rise betwcrm the Ilansthal 
Creek aiid the Mfilia-Shikai-par line beiug hi^'h cuough to keep out 
l,ho ordinary high springs of tho oold weather. Tho part of t)io 
Little Ran which is last to dry is the sliallow bosia near Cborad 
bland. In January IS7G thisbajjin bad one to two feet of water white 
the MAlia-Shikdrpnr line was dry. 

The mira^ is one of tbo most notable pecaliaritiea of the Rail. 

At midday, iu the extreme west of the Itan, tho soil, glittering 

with tialt cryt^talt*, changes to a sea of glass, in which appear 

giant trees lofty houses and maasive rillage walls ; or the ooza 

bocomes a still summer sea with white gulls, old dismantled boats, 

and a ditttanc lino of grey uiast Further np the Ran, near 

Jliinjhnviida, soas and Uken appear with trees, hill, and bare grey 

rocks, reflected iu their clear waters. Villages, flush with tho 

groiindp look as if pecched on half-transparent rocks, whose 

roundetl edges fade into a golden haze. Wild ossea look like 

ounels, cattle-bones like crystal boulders, and an antelope not 

^more than fifty yards oH has been mistaken for a rock. Once, 

Bsays Mr. Peyton of the Trigonometrical Surrey (1876), a perfect 

. i^i^ture of trees, fringing a long narrow lake, beguiled me soma 

milcA oat of my course and faded in the wild expanse of sand. 

In spit« of tho saltness of the land, fresh wate r is not wanting, at 
least along the south coast of the Kan. Even in tho hot weather 
drinkable water can bo found all along the KfithiAwAr boundary, and, 
aa a rule, a liltle care and arrangement are all that is required to 
ensure a sufficient supply. In the Sjithsaida ishind, at the head of 

I the Onlf of Cntch, is a spring of fresh water which keeps its 
sweetness though overflowed by the seA. In the islands of Mardak 
and Gonya, on tho Tiknr-L'alitnsva ruate, there are pools and wclla 
of Bwoct water, i'^initlly in the oaRt of the Ran, in an island otT the 
JhiiijhuT&da coast, are one or two hot gpriog a whose waters are said 
to have a healing power. 
Though the Itan is a bare desert tho salt swamps han-c patches of 
^raas, and stretches of close evergreen mangrove bushes. In the 
higher pati.:lic.s the ground is in places covered with grass, small and 
stunted except in the islands, where it yiolda a good crop. There are 
numbers of prawns and Ushes many of which seem to be killed by the 
mixing of the salt and fi-esh waters. Of larger animals gulls and 
water oirda feed on the ooze, antelope leave the tilled lands to refresh 
Iberosolves wiili the salt of the Rau, wild asses live on the islands, 
and largo droves of camels move about in the slime, browsing on 
mangroTe branches in places where no camel but one of this local 
breed can k^^p its foo ting. 

In the cold weather the Ran can bo si^ly crossed by day. But in 
tho h ot wf iither to spend a ilay in the Ran is al mmt certain d eath. 
To more than one case iiioii have loat their way and wandered in a 
circle till they fellexlmust^id. Tho routes across tho Little Rau may 

Cb&pt«r I. 


Utile Rau. 




^Chapter L 


I^ttk lt4n. 



for convenienco bo divided into two gro apa, five root^ s betw& 
KiLthiitwur and CutcU u crosa tha paryqw part yi i he Kan, from ais. , , 
forty ruilea east of tho oast shore of the loucr Gulf; and uleyon 
routeSj across the aonth-cast corner o f tho Kan, faetwocn thcTillagoa 
of TMirdngadhra ou tLe 8outE~TjaaE, and of Jhinjhuvada, Oduj and 
Khdrdghoda on tho east bank of tho Ilan, Of the fivo routes ncrosa 
tho Ran between Rathiilwar and Cutch, one is from MftUa in 
RfLthiflniir to EShikdrpur iu Cutcb, about sixtoen miJoB onst oE tho 
Inner Gulf. Tho Bouund and third pass from Vetidsar in KiltbifLwdr 
abont twelre mites oast of IVf^lia to ^^Anamba about six and to 
K^nmer about eighteen miles north-eant of Sbik6rpur; and t 
fourth and fifth pai^u From Tikar in KiJthiilw^r^ tkbout Con niilcB e; 
of V^cDfifiar to PalAoBva about six and to A'desar about cigbt«i 
miles east of K^nmor, l^e M^Iia-Sbikiirpur route passes 
Kanjarda and Lfikhi^r in Katbiilvriir to Shikarpnr in Cntch ^about 
14 miles north) and, beyond Shikjlrpur, direct to Manamba (6 miles 
Bast), and by a circuitous roat<i to l^Ulasva (24> miles north-uost). 
Camels and horses can croAH by thin routo at alt seasons, but during 
the^mins the pasaagy: for caiucU and horAoa is dangcrona and b oa ts 
are almost always used. Carta can crvsa only iu tbe fair weather, 
as a rule, not before the bogiouiug of Decinnher. By the twetitiotli 
of March strong westorly winds flood tliis route with sea wator, 
and, till tho oad of Docomber, in tho uiTddlo oE tho Jlun^ ia a 
flooded space about 1000 feet wide. Tho Venisar-Kiinroor linOj 
about twelve miles above the M:ilia-81nkitrpiir tine, is not flooded 
till AprU 2'Uh, but takes longer to dry than the ^lalia-Shikitrpur line. 
Tho Tikar -Palfinsva line is about eight milos cast of tho Vennsor- 
KAiimer line. From Tikar the tract enters tho Ran and about six milos 
to the north passes acroga a hollo w about sia miiea broa d, which begjna 
to be flooded from the Gulf oF Cutch abont May, tlie water standing 
aboutfiftoen inches deep. When rain falls thewatecrisestotbreeor 
tbreo and a half feet, aud, when the iJands is in Hood, it somctimoa 
stands sis or seven foot deep for eif:;ht or ten days. It does not bogin 
to dry till about tlio end of October. Beyond this hollow is " " 
islan d of Kesfam al. about ouo and a half mileit broad. Then comi 
aco ond hollow about eight mtloa broad, rather shallower than 
Sni. Next is the island of Guuya about a mile aud a half bro 
with wells of s woet w ater. Beyond Quuya uro two miius mora 
Kan with a foot of water during tho monsoon and about thn 
loot when tho BanAs is in Hood. From tho island of Gunya 
tract tnrns to the left to Ktllumcr. About hvo miles east of t, 
Tikar<Palansva tract and nearly parallel to it a routo posses froi 
Tikar about forty miles north to Adesar in Catch. OE tho foi 
miles abont tweuty-two are Kan. In tho Ran tho routo pa&e 
across tbe first hollow iatho Tikar- I'alansva route, over a rid( 
called Bliangoria about a milo wide, ncroi^s tho second hollow 
au isluud uliout two miles broad called Mardak, with a few pool 
of Bwc«t water a small pond and a temple of Vamu. Beyond 
Mardnic ia a belt of Ran about fivo milos broad. Tracks from tho 
KAthidwdr village of Khod, about three milos oast of Tikar, joia 
tho routes to Ciudnsva and Adosm-. Many routes cross the south- 
east corner of tho Littlu Kan froiu Jogad, Kuds, Mdtvau. auU 




SalUnpnr on the south bank» to Jliiiijlitirddaj Odn, and Kh&Mgho<Ia 
DD the oast bank. OF theso tbo route hot ivcon Jogad and Jhinjhuviida, 
aboat tfairty miles north-east, lies aoross a grti&l breadth of water 
and is at all timeit difficult in tho rains. Thcothm' routes are shorter, 
from iwoniy-fijur to sis miles, and drier, aa the Ran is never flooded 
with iwa water but only with rain and river floods. Besides theae 
rognlar ront(«, paths lead from Jogad and other towns on the 
KathiftwAr coast, about forty miles north to ChorAd, and thirty-Bve 
north-out to Amrdnur. These paths arc impassable from the 
beginning of May till November, 

The following statonjent gives the chief details cf the routes from 
Dhr^ngudra villages to tho north and cost coasts of the iian : 

JIMef ocnm (Ae Liute Ban, 




lforth«nd lut 


i PUannt ... 

iKifinicr ... 

\ A iliMir ... 

lOftiru^kd ... 
JAir itio *ii. 

j 1*|C«* lOtMt 
I bIioti*. __ 

JMnihui Ida ~ 



TlrU '1 
LMHb ... 

, n... 

■'Jin»rfct» Do. 

..^J IhOM J Do, 

tikitlH A l>o, 

*&u>*. I no. 

0>ld ... .:LIbuiil»i«U»]t1^j<ine. 
Jt)l*tlMivM* ... Do. ... Do, 
Ho. ■mlO'N. IV. tyi. 

IM. ... . 1J.1. . [M 


. Dtt. 




u rua. 



The }{an is a raisod sea bed. Off tho Jhinjhurilda coaat the 

tradition remains that the Ran in those parts was formerly always 

under water and was used bv boats. Of the changes lu this part oi 

|tho Ran Mr. Peyton of tho IVigonometrical Survey wroto in 1876; 

'In oldon timet the Ma beat on a gently sloping shore and ran 

inland far euat over tracts now covered with cotton. I^tcr, ns thu 

ibed of thy eea filled with silt the waters narrowed till the last 

rcmnnnt of the sea was a long etiip, forty or fifty miles broad, 

[enclosed by thucooot lines o( Cutch and KAthidwiir. In time this 

|tract also filled and tho 8ea withdrew to tho Gulf of Cntch, leaving 

Itfao now 'plains oovei-cd with a crust of briny silt. Every sand 

finuuud litM still truces uf the sea, aud Ihu Haiidbanks look o^ if tho 

tide IuhI liTt them only a few hours.' That, the sitt brought by tho 

BfitiAft, Riipen, i^iirAsviili and gther siiiHller streams has beeu the 

I chief means of raisiug the bed uf the Kan is admilt<}d. Whether 

Chapter 1 


I Bombay O&xetteer, 


CliApMr 1. 


LiUlo Kui. 


tho silting' has hoon helped by a vol canic ra ieiDg oF tbo bod 
duiibtful. In 1807 a loss of land in aomo norit KAthi&wAr villa, 
led u writer in lUo Burubay Saturday Review to start the theo 
that tho rif^iu^ uf tbo bod of tho Han hod been tho result 
volcanic action and that a time of depression was bepnninj^. Th 
etibjuct was taken up by Government and detailed information 
calltd for. About April 1 8G7 two loeal officers Captain liebbert an 
Captain Watson supplied this information. Captain Watson roti 
that siaco 1815 much laod had been covered by sea at the h 
of tho tiulf of Cutch in the extreme west of the Kan. There 
was ft local n^e mory of a foot path between tho KAt hiawar villayo 
of Bhimkata au3 the Cutc h vUlage ofl'un aj acrosa a tract, iiioat of 
which Ts iiuw iritlm Guirof Culch. Tlie limits of Bhimkat« village 
had been fixed by Colonel Rigby only a few yeara before Captom 
Wateon wrote; in that short time several acres had been ovorllowed 
and become Ran. Captain Watson agreed with the view that tha 
bed of tho Ran had formerly been rained by volcanic agency, an 
that the same forces were again at work lowering the level. At 
the aamc time Captain Wateon noticed the important fact that while 
the Vdgad and JhaUvdd ^ariruA or depressions, along which the flood 
wat«r8 of the Ran drauied west to the Gulf of Cutch^ were slowly 
oating their vnj Baatw ard, tho yearly silt from^eBon&e and other 
streamB wa s raJsiag ^ cast of the Ran. In 1813 tho Tikar-Adesar 
route was open to' carts from the loth of Jannnry to the loth of 
April ; in 1 807 the same nmU^ was open from tho 10th of December 
to the 10th of May that is for five months instead of for throe. 
Again in 1813 the ttea water was stopped opposite Koparui and 
about sixteen miles cast of Tiknr, until it ruse over a low ridge of 
aand and drift and then flowed to P^tdi in the extreme sooth-eaat 
comer of tho Ran. In 18C7 the salt water never passed within 
eight miles of Konarni. Captain Hebberb was HalisKtHl that, for 
many years, thorc had been no genera! change in the level of tho 
Run. Tlie loss of laud which had attracted the notice of tbo writer 
in tho Bombay Saturday Review was, ho hold, merely tho result 
of the yearly scour at the month of the Ran. If, from volcanic 
aotion> a time of sinking had set in, large lakes would rcm&ia in 
tho upper part of tho Kan, and thoBo lakes would grow fi-om year 
to year. There were many such lakes, but inquiry showed that 
thoy bad neither grown in number nor in size ; on the contrary 
that some of them had become smaller. Again tf tho land waa 
sinking, the level of water in the wella should bo rising ; this was 
not the case. It was true that at the mouth of the Ron the drainage 
had materially Incrensod tho length and riopth of some of the 
tnnddy ci^eoks. But this change waa not the effect of volcanic 
action ; it was the result of the eating away of the tidal scour. 
In Captain Ilobbert's opinion the matter could be settled only by 
taking levels and by fixing permanent bench marks. The question 
was then referred to Dr. Oldham the Director of the Geological 
Snrvtnr of India. Dr. Oldham doubted the correctnoHS of tho view 
that the Ran had been raised by volcanic forces, and qnctod Mr. 
Blauford's opinion that tho bed had been lilU-d by rivcr-boruo silt. 
The queetiuu uf a general sinking of the level of ihe lion cc 


Bottlod only hy can-ful olisorvatioua lasfing over several years. 
Boliil marks sboold be setup and tho bciglit of each mark above 
LracBD sea level sLould b« carefully £xu(l. Dr. Oldbau's prtipusals 
Fwero approved ; but, oa account of roductions in the ttlnff of 
Ltlio Tri^onomotrical Savvey, no officer could bo spared till 1873. 
flu tbat aud the two followiug years, Captaiu Buird U.E. took 
iBlflbomto levels on tJio Kan and fixed ponufinent lovcl marks at 
[(hrcu sites, at the month of Ran, as far up the Ban as posaibte, and 
'midway between the firat and second sites. 

As has boon aln-ady noticed, the result of Captain Baird's levoUtng 

H was to show that the highest part of the Ran was near the top of 

BUiu UanstUal creek; that from there the surface fell about thi-eo feet 

' iiiue inches to the Mjitia-Shikilrpiir line ; and that there was a further 

^i of abont two feet to tho channel betwcpn Ohorfid island and 

»Cutch. Caplain Baird's minute examination of the Ran bore ont tho 
corrcc.tnc!^aof furuior obnervations, that, in HOmepIamij the Bca wa a 


g ainipff on tho la nd. Tho landinjfa at Vnv^ia, the K^tTiiAwir end, 
and at JauglLi, the Culchond,of the post route, about five milee oast 
of tho head of tho Inner Gulf, wera easier ' (or b4;ntfl than they had 
formerly been. In tho monsoon, at low tido, there seemed to I)0 
nowhere less than three feet of water. The Hausthal Creek waa 
rapidly wearing away ita banks. In 1866 tho poat lino between. 
VAVtinia and Tuiik waa a mile further west than it was iu 1S73, and 
in earlier times the lino waa oven further west. About fifty years 
a^ the post line from Judiya went by two ruined stationH to the 
Ilanflthal creek. The creek wflR passed in a boat and the runners 
bcrOMed on foot over SAthsaida isliind and tho Kbundlo and Nakti 
cs to Cutch.' About six railus u\) tiio Kan innn the V^avtioia* 
iJanghi post line was a route that has boon closed by the 
eucroacbmout of the sea within ttn yearu before Captain Baird's 
survey. In spite of these changes. Captain Baird waa satisfied that 
there was no reason to suppose that the level of the Ttan waa 
[sinking-. Tho only oucroac qui eats of the sea were where lai;gQ 
crooks or channels discharged into tho gulf. 

Along with tho levelling a scries of careful tidal observations was 
taken by first utass instruments, at throo points on the Golf of 
Cutch, and linos of levelling were made in connection with tho 
tidal observations. These linea passed over some fifty miles of 
Uki Little Kan, and the actual relation of the mean sea level and 
those portions of the Jtnn was determined. A repetition oE these 
opomtions after an interval of about twenty years (1896) will settle 
'Uie i^uestion of the supposed change in the level of the l(au.'' 

Chapter L 


Ltltio lima. 


The Itan of Cambay is a long shallow rocky channel or dry 

OAtuary, stretching from near the mouth of tho Siibarmati at the 

upper end of tho gulf of Cambay north-weat for about thirty-five 

[miles. The tower part is partiallj occupied by marine silt, and 

Baa of I 

' Anoonling to infonnatjon sapiiliad hy thai Naviiugar atitt* Hia Uighiwai tho Uto 
Nah&nlfa JAm Shri Rlvalji crouetl tlie Rui bviu Janahi to BOUnba l^ » foot path 
\ edWl BAtbuida. The Huutb&l cr««k aeema to bavo Uwa been dry. 

* A ileUilvd Bccouot nf C&pt. ilainVn viewB on the cbsni^ia the level of the Baa 
to pv«ti St (tftgw 47—66 of " The Oulf uid litUv Baa of Culch, Bomboy ISSO." 

[Bombay Gazettoer, 



vpUsT L 
iftu <4 Cambny. 


dniinp; the rainy season^ with a. hifth tide and southorly wind, tho 
whole uurfaco Its occasiuiiall^ UouJud by the soa. For t'ight months 
iu the year tbo upper ond is dry and 6lled with stroDg grass and 
re«dn. It erorywhero abounds in salt, and apparently ia on inland 
Bea-craok whose level has been raised eight or ten feet above it« 
former hoi<fht.' According to Dr. Bukt, who crossed the upper 
end of the Cnnibny Han in 1S55 , the road was a mere cart tract, 
through what, for half the year, must bo a nearly impagsable swamp. 
In January the surface mud was dry, but the wheel rata were from 
eight inches to two feet deep, and that the wheels did not sink to 
the axles, was due to the roots of the reeds and giant grasses which 
farmed an impenetrable mass afl maud. Even the tops of the carta 
wliich followed a hundred yards olf could not be »eon. The air 
was stagnant and the heat oppressive, the whole scene was one of 
unHpeaUnhle desolation. To this it may be added that durin<;^ 
the south-west monsoon the Cambay Ran joins tho Na! and forms a 
connected sheet of water which spreads over the neiKhbourlug tracts 
oE tho Bhdl and tho Xalk&ntha, turning tho villagcft into stands and 
cutting off oommunication with Ahmadabad.' Tho upper end of 
tho Ban is now crossed by tho railway between ViramgfLm and 

In tertiary and poat-tertiarj- times KAthi&wir was an island." Tho 
Indus, or some other largo nvor> flowed into an arm of tho sea, 
which probably stretched nearly if not quite ae far north as Ldhor. 
"When the Indus, or other river, changed its course and entered the 
sea through the Lesser Ilan, Jhdidvad was a shallow muddy lagoon 
connected with the sea both through the gulfs of Cutch and Cambay. 
During this period the laterite found so nniversfllly in JhiilAvsid 
was deposited, and the south-western portion of the peninsula may 
have been connected even at this late epoch with Africa, aa it 

Srobably wan in more ancient times, as suggested by Messrs. 
[udlicott and Blanford. As tho weateru portion of the oonnoctiug 
land area faccamo depressed, this south-western portion of tho 
peninsula seems to have been raised, probably by tho volcanio 
action which forced "p the GirnAr and Barda ranges, and when the 
Indus forsook the Lesser for the greater Itan, JhAldvAd gradually 
emerged and the south-east comer of the inland sea began rapidly 
to silt. In time the Lesser Ban which had formerly stretched east 
at least to Yiramgilm, narrowed to its present siso. And K&thidwdr, 
thoogh an island dnring a great pait of the year, continued to gain 
more of the character of a peninsoln. As tho gulf of Cambay retired 
rapidly the liliitl district was gradunlly formed, while the lesser 
Ran contracted its limits eapecially in the south-east comer. Wlieu 
the Indus changed to itt» present bed, Jh^avdd bocamo each yoar 
more fertile, ftod though now a moHt excellent whcAt and cotton 
soil, it still partakes of tho generally sterile aspect of laterite areas/ 
Most of Ino groups of rock that occur iu GnjarAt ore also found'! 
in Kdthidwilr. Quartz and other motamorphic rock appear here and< 




1 Tma, Bom. Geo. Boc. XIH, 42. ■ Bom. Gg». Scl. S-XXm. 13. 

* As the O«olo)[ici0 Survey in E*tlu&wAr is stUI iu progrwB, this sketcli . 
pnpuod tsbMRy from Mr. O. liicobald's P«por oa Unju&t Urology U incotnp1«tc uid'l 
iwowbly not (roe from en-or. 

u kAthiAwar, 

Btherc, etnbeddod in Iho saadstouo in .T1i/ili!v:l(l nr mora rnrcly in 
Bg^parato bctU. Omnito or syeoito as well as trachyte arc foond in 
Gimdr; in the CJiaiiUlrdi range about niuutuen miles north'weflt 
^of BhavuBgar; and to tho north-wpst of Y&rAa&iU about 9.) miles 
Bvrest of tliu Oshdm bills and twelve miles santh-woat of Uple on 
"the DhAukroad. 

In tlio north of tho province, ospocially in JhAlAvAd, is a l«i^ 
area of sandstono beloogiag to the Umia group of Cutcb, au upp^i' 
membor of the Qondviina 8yati>m of tho gmlugical survey. 'rhBBO 
Umia be*l.s aro of jiiraiwic ago and aro tbo oldost rocks yot mot in 
tho provinoo.' Tha not«d building atone of Dhrangadra is qoarried 
from bods prusuinably of tliJK group. 

Cbort is foand in places in J)xii&vdd, notably iu Wadhvran camp 
wberu it contains intortrappean fossils. Que of tho most distiuctivo 
provincial beds aro tho conglomerates, whoso ago is not yet 
rUytormined and which may prove to be teriiury or uveu nower. Tboy 
[occur ill the soath'Ca^t comer of the pruviuco at Akvtlda, MdJunka, 
)d Adhevida near Oogha. The same formation is seen at Gogha 
id L&khanka on the coast about eleven miles further south, and 
[it runs southward bo Chopra on the coast about six miles cust of 
ITalija and twelve milos north of OopnAth point. Al the above 
itbree place* the conijlumerate runs from nine to twenty inches thick, 
.at front n'lJi U> fifteen feet ahove lii^h water mark, in some places 
cropping out on the surface, in others lying five or six feet below. 
At Adhevada in some of the quarries the conglomerate passes into 
u hard compact gn^ytitono. 

I Beds of a very bright though somewhat soft latortte are found at 
Tliordi aix or seven miles and near Uhauddria about twelve miles 
sontb-wcst of Gogha. To the ChAmpAncr group may also probably 
bo referred tho isolated patches of submetamorphic rocks iu 
KAthiftwAr, tho i-emnants of a scries of beds broken through, 
overspread, and in part embodied in the universally developed 
volciiiuc effusion of a later date. One such isolated patch occurs 
on a Lirge spur running down to tho plain south-c^ast of Junagad. 
It is miBrt:tite with bands of conglomemte irregularly dispersed 
tlirough it containing numerous quartz pebbles. A much larger 
exposure of sclui^tose beds occurs south of KluS^eri (north lat. 21*^ 
45 ; east long. 70'^ i'), and near the village of rleUbili about four 
miles north-east of Kutif^na. Between this last village and 
DhnivAla alwot- 2J miles to the norlh-west, dark Hiliuiuus schist 
occurs, greatly bent and contorted. A curious variety of schist also 
ttccompuuius it, which appears to have been of a more clayey nature, 
and to have shrunk under tho metamorphic forces to which it boa 
been subjected. Ii often resembles a fine clayey sandstone, perfectly 
honeycombed and crossed in every direction by niiuuto strings of 
hyaline silica, which, on a weathered sorfacoj project and give tho 
the appearance of a piece of tripe. In places the rock is 
ly vesiculur, many u£ the cavities being nearly an inch long. 


' TrnpruB^ona of fein leave* and oarboftiuwoua •httlea oveumng bear Thiu Aow m 
froill wMcr origUi (or tlMw buds. Mr. F. I'Mdm. 

Chapter I. 




Vokanie Ro<ki. 

They arc irreffularly arrangcl ami vary in aiie, but are al! liuod 
with a crrjp oT minute (juarta crystals, forininj^ a layor tio Uiickor 
than a coat of paint. Theso beds arc mainly coaBaed (o tho hills 
south oi DhruTsla and to part of the Kh^asri nmge. Tliey may 
occur as isolated patches in parts not yet examinod. 

Of volcanic rocks them arc IkiIs of "Deccan trap or honiologona 
beds, associated with a feoniowhat difTurent group of volcauic, rocket 
as far as rogards aspect and rompo-iition, bnt whii^h in a f^ooto^uol 
sense aeetn to lietongto the same ayst«in of eJtusion as the Doccaa 
traps. Duriug the fiasu re- eruption or Dcccan trap period the 
ffreatORt part, if not the wholo of Kathiiiwiir, was Hooded ^^'ith trap 
flows which gathered to a great thickness. Snhaoqiient denudation 
oonsidombly reduced and iu some parts entirely romovod the traps, 
thus exposing the eand-stones beneath. The ti.ssnres or sources of 
effusion are still conspicoous in the form of dykes, the aoliditied 
matter filling the cavities of the fissures. Being harder than the 
ndjaccnt beds, they hare more effectually resisted decomposition 
and denudation. TTiey may be seen standing above the- neighbouring 
ground like old ramparts or massive ruiued waits. Occasionally 
the dyku raaturial is wifter tlian the ro'Ck on either side, and I.hedyko 
ftasnmes the appearance of a partially filled ditch. Theiio dykes are 
very numerous, the central of the provinco being » net- work of dykea. 
Many arc of large aiiso forming bill hdgos, and may be traced fi 
more than twenty miles. 

The beJded traps or flows are for the moat parts nearly level, with 
a gentle but genei-al slope towards the coast in the sonthorn and 
weatorn quarters of the proviace where sedimentary marine beds of 
a later period supervono.' Theso KAthiAwiir beds consist of 
quartziferous felatflnea poipliyritic and tr-achytic, some even 
approaching a gi-anito in character though belougiug to the great 
trappean auriofi. Theao peculiar felsparhic beds seem to corrosjKind 
with the trachytic beds of eastern GujarAt and with those classed, 
by Mr. Wynne in Catch as Intrusire Traps- Iu K^lhiiwdr they do 
not present features that would make such a title particularly 
appropriate. In central KilthiAwjtr and all round the central system 
of hil^, usually called Chotila but locally known as the Thdug& 
hills, and in the M^ndav SSIimiil ningos there have been trap 
overHows. Next there are the Rarda hills, which, though they rise 
to 2050 feet, appear to have been avast elevation of trap with little 
or no overflow, for the whole surrounding plain is limestone, 'i'ho 
same may be said of the Alcch range and of the Dal&sa bills, though 
these latter seem to have overflowed. Then there are the Gir, 
Leaser Gir or Gohelviid hills. Hie Und range culminating in tho 
peaks of Shatrunjya, Lonch and KAnilo, and in tho Sihf^r and 
Khokhru ranges. All these are trap aud basalt overQows with 
limeetono at their base.* 



> Mr. V. Fodden. 

■ Ctilooel WkUoo rworda the follniring aectian in it hvor h&nk near KhuDbhilJa': 
Mnroni «bout aix fwnt ; Doane liineatone about six fp«l ; miinim and trap more i>r 
lew dliiuto^ratet) »bi>ut iiz feet ; thrw to six incbos vf brilliant rod luteritQ ; inuram 
uul trap AHiit BIX feet and th«a liaiottonc. 




TIio QirD&r or Jun^ead hilLs are a typical ranety of theso rocks. 
Tho central peak is of precisely the type of form so common in 
Bengal in hilis of granitoid gneiss, bat the GirnAr rock is mainly 
oomposed of whit« felspar. In places whure u little bomblendo 
is preeont a marked contrast is produced between the dark and 
ligDt rook. This girca tho appearance of intmsiro reins, though 
the veins are not intrusive as either rook is seen crossing the ulhor 
and tho two aro geologically identical. This rock also forms the 
low outlines near ChamArdi, north-west of Bhivaagar, the low ridge 
BOQth-wcat uf Khimpiidar ten miles sontli of Juuiigud, and the ii\i^\i 
bill near Vilniaiira. Besides this massive rock whioh weathers by 
concentric exfoliation, there is a rariety found at RAiupar about 
fifteen miles north-oast of Purttatidar, so friable as to cramblo 
between the fingers. It is probably to the ooso with which this 
portion of the rock falls to pieces ander atmospheric actioa that the 
TV0UirkiU}le physical arrangements of the groups which surround tho 
oontral peak is mainly due. In this decoying portion of rock a little 
nuty-black mica occurs, and it is only whore it jMis^es into the 
oompoot variety that this tender portion anywhoro shows sutScient 
compactness to fracture under the hammer. 

Other varieties of felapathic rocks are common in KilthiAwjtr, 
Taryin^ ia composition and colour, some being what may be termed 
quartziferous felstones, while others approach more nearly ordinary 
porphyrito and trachyte. A common form of trap is an ordinary 
oftsalt, which decomposes sphoroidically and ia devoid of distinct 

t is seen in tho Bardits and at Sihor to the west of Bhiivni^ar, 
trachyte occurs in the upper caps of somo of the higher Bania 
peaks. The north coast is of the usual l)asaltic trap wii:h Urge 
aeposita of clay and mnd forming a long and very shallow foresboro 
broken by creeks. At Bjilambha, about nine miles north-east nf 
Jodi^-a and only a few mttos from the soath-easteru comer of the 
(folf of Cutch, an extensive deposit of calcareous grit overlies tho 
b«p. This is oompo9ftd of gooa-siaed pebbles cemented by chalky 
matt«r. In other plaooe the trap is seen more or less charged with 
Bcotites and qnart£ geodes, as in so many of tho Doccan traps. A 
rock of thia description of a plum or chocolate colour is largely 
developed sonth-wost of RAjkot. A not very dissimilar rock, but 
less charged with zeolites, occurs near BhAvnagar where it is veined 
with carbonate of lime and is seen to support a newer flow of 
entirely difforant aaiiect. This upper flow is also largely espoaed, 
and it, or a similar rock, forms many of tho hills in tho 
neij;;hbourhood of Khdgasri and UbAnk. This rock is harsh and 
splintery, of a palegrey, weathering toa pale yellow. The Shatrunjaya 
hill oousists of basMt varying from light to dark-groen. The lighter 
BOtt dresses easily under the hammer and is rather brittle and 
sonorous, but the darker rock is extremely tough. In some places it 
is fiparingly amygdoloidal, bnt such is not ira general character. 

At three spots beds of pitchstooe or obsidian occur, at Oehdm hill 

in the plain al>out eight miles south of Upleta, in the hills near Kajula 

aliout twelve miles north-east of JAfamtMud, and at Nfiguosh uoar 

BAapur south of Wadhwdn. The Oahdm hill is an isolated block, 


Chapter I, 


Chapter I. 


. Jtumnntkie 


tte Terthriet. 

mainly composed of a homogcneoua trachytic rock, boIJly ftcarped, 
auii prL'seDliug in many placvs botitliug cliiTii 200 Ivvt and upwunls 
in liL-i^ht. Tlio base of the hill consists o£ a soft decaying amygdaluid 
with keTnela of a yollow soapy bole and qaortu geodea. Tho 
thiclcnessuf this bedia not s(>eo, but it is idoatical withaeiiuUur rock 
at Uajnla. Above this bed, generally hid by a frin<ro of fulleu blocks, 
18 a bed of black pitchstone very granular and friable, and only a few 
foot thick. Above this, forming the upper throo-fourths of the hill, ii a 
Lugo bed of trachytio rock presenting fine scarps. This rock is muoh 
divided into scales and presents the appearanca of woody fibre similar 
to that shown by some clay slates. This peculiar structure results 
from bends of the pliinua of tho scales <IeveIop6d during the slow 
cooling and progre^.'^ive motion of the mass in a viseon.s condition, and 
may be likened to the striped structure of aome Venetian glass, eome 
of the planes having curves of not more than an inch riulina. Tho 
surface of the scales is either smooth or finely wrinkled ; and though 
individual Bcaleu aro often no more than one-tenth o£ an inch Jtt 
thtcknoss, the rock shows small tendency to split. MHiere tho acalf 
strnctare has ceaaed, the rock breaks with s sub-conchoidal fraotore, 
and would form gor>d building material very easy to dress. At 
Kiijula a very similar arrangeuiout of bcda prevails, save that tho 
pitchstone is hero some twenty feet thick, very compact in parts, and 
breaking with a highly oonchoidal fracture. Tliis Led can boirnccd 
fifteen milos in a oast-north-east direction, when it gradually 
disappears below the sarface. The rock that forms the top of R^jula 
bill is excellent building stone. The distauce from Pip^ivao tho 
new port of KAthiawar about twelve miles south-oftst of Rkjula, is a 
trifle less, and the road is somewhat leveller than that by which the 
best Porbandar stone is carried for shipment. It would not, perhaps, 
coat much less to dross than some or tho more durable stonea nt 
present used in fJombay ; but from its bedded character and the 
smooth upper and under tiurfaces of the beds, the amount of dressing 
it would requiro would be far less in stones of equal size in tho ease of 
the lUjnla stone, than is called for in tho atone ordinarily employed 
in heavier works in Bombay. The light red stone of Rdjpura near 
Sihor, the light redstono at Jithri a mile west of Songad station, 
and the aalmou-coloured stone at Khijdia near Liiubra, eighteen 
milos north-west of tjougad slatiou, are much the samo as tha 
Kdjula stone. 

The nummuHlic beds which are oommon in the islands of the gulf 
of Cuteh roach as far as the Okha Ran and throughout Okha. The 
bods are muoh covered by now groups. No detailed separation 
has yet been made between tho two, wnilo denudation has no doubt 
greatly curbiiled the area once occupied by the older tertiary beds. 

New tertiary deposits occur between the lully country of tho 
interior and the coast, and formerly overspread almost the entire 
area, as is proved by the occasional patches and remnants 
distributed over tho plams of the interior, sometimes in protected 
spots along the banks of rivers, somelimea in broken patches on 
the lower hill^lopes and other trifling eminences. Beyond sncb 
scattered and insignilicant patches those bods are confined to a 
beUpr country along tho coast, narrowing towards the cast to loss 



a mile bat oovpring a mnch broader area towards the west. The areft 
oocupi«d b> these beds is bruadest opposite the Gir, hut it soon 
narrowsagnin and verges towarda the const, ranoing aloug the foot 
of the Barda hills, west of which it hns noi \wen tracnd. Hetweon 
Oogha and Din these beds are overspread by a newer group of 
prDuably post tertiary age. Miliolite Umostone occurs iu greater or 
Ic% quantities, almost anywhere except in Jliiiliiv^ where sandBtonoa 
prevail, and in the Bh&X. 

Thofollowing throo divisions of new tertiary rocka may be spocified, 
though they are of very unequal value a« regards development and 
importance. It is possible that Bomo of the first beds may be 

Fenw granosa Bedt, lumpy mottled clay, passing into coarse 
mbbly limestone with Venus tjranom and other fossils, found 
also iu Sind and Cutch, in beds which are referred to the miocene 
B^ ; Firam Beds, blue clay, passing into silty clays and 
BOZulstoDO, with intercalate layers of shelly grit, sandstones, and 
ooarso conglomerates; Miliolite Beds, meagre, iron sand-t and 
clsye, remarkably croaa-bedded, passing apwarda into Dr. Carter's 
miliolitti more or loss pure. The lower betis contaiu several species 
of living land shells associated with the marine organisms. 

The Vmius granosa beds are probably tho samo as the G^ beds 
of Bind and the argillaceons group E of Mr. Wynne's Memoir 
ou Catch, and come between the nuramuiitic and newer tertiaries. 
Too little is known of tho ground to permit of more than the 
general statement that beds of this cUvision occur raihor sparingly 
m. western Kathi^w^r, where they are covered by the uppermost 
members of the group and the miliolite of Dr. Carter. Kear 
. FiUikra, about twelve milos north-west of Porbander and west of 
platan, nummuUlic fossils occur iu intimate association with Venus 
tfraaoaa and other fossils usually Foiiml witli tlmt spocios. It is not 
doterminod whether any stratA of nummulitic age exist hero in 

ftlace, or whether the nummulitic fossils met with may not be derived 
rom boda of tho newer group, wherein thoy are meroly of oxlrancous 
origin. Compared with the Venus granosa beds of Cntch, there 
most bo a prodigious elision or oocultation of tho second division, 
oithor throogh dcnndation, or more probably overlap, as in this 
western part <>i K/tthidivAr these lower beds are immediately covered 
by the miliolite, which can hardly bo regarded as other than the 
ytmogest member of tho tertiary series m tho province, neither tho 
Pirara beds nor any representative of them being anywhere interposed. 

The variety of newer tertiaries known as Piram beds is not widely 
dovelopod in KAthiaw^r, bat from the boring carried on by Major 
Palljames at Goghn, where -^Vl feet were pierced, it seems to attain 
ft greater thickness than either of the other bodft If those Hiram 
depo«dca ropresent tliat prodigious succession of bods oomprohon- 
BiTBly termed Siedi^, 4000 foot, Ur. Blanfurd's highest estimate 
of ''' ' ' \ne8S of the tertiary series iu Gnjanlt, is pnibably under 
raijj i over the mack; though Mr. Blandford rightly remarks 

that ' the estimate tssoarcely moretlian a guess, and is merely quoted 
to convoy an idea of the great thickness which tho tertiary buds 

Chapter I. 
Description. . 

Gcolog}'. I 
New Tertiarltsi 

CItapt«T I. 


Ifmt Ttrtiarir*. 

display.' Tlio higlieat portion of the present division ia thai 
coufltitutinjrPiram island, wliich, throagh its rich mammaliaa fauua, 
is oonncctod with the greAt Siv&lik deposita that fria(,'C the 
Him^yau range. Bones of the following mammals hnvo been 
found at Pirain : Kastodoa lutidensaud M. puriiuensiii ; DiuL'tlierium 
indicam ; Aoerotherium porimenao; Rbinocwus sp. ; Bratuathenom 
perimeuBo; Camelopardalia sp.; Capra ^. ; Antilopo sp. ; ami 
BUS hysudricus. Several of these are also found in thoSivdlik bods 
of Northern India, bnt Brahmatherium, a gigantic four-homed 
mminant allied to Sivatheritim, Dinotherium indicum, and soma 
other species have, hitherto, been found only in Piram. 

The bono-yiclding bods of Piram do not seem to occur to any great 
extent on tho mainland. At Gogha the fossil molar of a horse has 
been found, and the recorded occnrrenco, near Broach.of the remains 
of A Mnatodou together with silicified wood, renders it probable that, 
though fossils are scarce, the Ptram beds reappear here and there in 
other pai-ts of Gujarat, their general absence being probably duo to 
exooeaivo denudation. The bods seen at high-water mark i^ Qogfaa 
nra pale silty sandstones, varying from clayey to eandy, much seamed, 
and crossed by courses of shelly grit hard and comnncti, and often 
formieg a thick bed of marked character. In this beu fish bouee and 
shark's teeth occnr, with fragmunts of shells and Balani, and, in the 
more clayey portions, ill preserved casts of Area, Cardium, Scaluria, 
and a slender spetries o£ bi-auching coral, very characteristic of the 
bed. To about tho same horizon may, perhaps, be referred the bcda 
composing the lower hills near Malikia which is close to Oundi- 
Ruli^lk} tun miles south uf Qogha. These beds extend to Mathivilda 
on the sea coast about eight miles cast of Tfitdja, beyond which they 
gradually thin towards Qopu^th, aud are nowhere again met to the 
south. They vary in character from coarse iron-bearing grits to 
coarse conglomerate, firmly eomcntcd by iron, tho coarsest boda 
usually occurring towards the top. In some places, as west o£ 
Thalsar, about eleven miles south of tiogha, they rest on a sorioa 
of white or mottled white and red clays, and this fat white clay is 
in many places dag for whitewashing houses. A little fossil wood 
ia sparingly found in these bnds, but apparently no bones, though 
Major Fulljames seems to have held that bones occurred along the 
coast from Piram to Gopudth. A yellow clayey limestone is quarried 
near the viUopo of Unchdi about six miles north-west of Gopnfith. It 
is used as a decorative material in tho temples of Pilit^a, fyt this 
it is pretty well adapted, though it is not either so lasting or so 
faondaomo as some of the harder traps which wore formerly csod for ] 
the same purpose. 

Where the Miliolite or Porbandar stone, as it is more usually called/ 
is well developed, as in the extousive group of bills called the Gir, 
or in plains and valleys some distance from the hills, it is nsually 
aeon to rest on a bod of day, sandy, or even conglomeratic towards 
tho base. This clay is not often mure than ton or twelve feet thick, 
and passes upwards into tho miliolite. It seems without organic 
remains, is of a mottled yellow and white, and, when purest, is rather 
lumpy or notlalar. Towards tho base this bed ooc<mie8 nithor 
muogrc and liuudy or even cougbmerattc, from mixtore with tho 



weoruiga of the trap on which it raeta. Near the coBBt this clay 
changes aomevhat in character and paases into a mbbly Ume6tone, 
moro' or less nodalfkr and iron^hearing, often containing numerous 
loaticular mwsH&s of a tough indurated yellow clay, pitted on tho 
Bar&oe whose cavities were prolwvbly formed hy boring raollnsks, 
or oconpicd by ascidinn tunicaries. Tho holloirs and tubalar 
CBVititis aro often filled with a dark homc^ueous grit, which, beioor 
harder and more resistant than tho clay, stands ont in relief, and 
the surface then appears studded with a profuse crop of tabular or 
pyriform casts. Theueclay masses cuntain nothing but an oecueional 
DOrio^ shoU, but in the limestono aro numerous fossils, montly in 
tho shape of casts, and seetningly identical with many fiffureu by 
Captain Grant or associated with the Venus granosa in Cutch. Tho 
rooi may be seen near Kdmpura, oppoaito tno island of ShiiU Bet, 
and thence along tho trap boundary to a little west of Him^, twelve 
milea north-west of Jdfarabad, where it ia covered by tbo miliolito. 
From this to Pfitan tho miliolitc covers tho whole face of tho country 
save in a few low gpota where tho uudorlyiug beds aro oxposod. Six 
miles west of Patau a liraoatono ia fairly oxiwscd in tho road cuttings, 
nhtch affords numerous fossils, some of thorn suggestive of an early 
tertiiry age, Olohulus, Nutica, Oyyrcea, TurhincUus, Conue, Jrc«, 
Cardium, and Bomo Echinodermala. Near Piitikm, nnmmnliteSj 
aMociated with corals, and echinodenns, are sparingly met proving 
the existence of romnuits o£ tbo nuuimulitic group beneath tho 
jniltolile. The precise extent of tho nuinmulite cannot at present bo 
determined. Tho railiolite, or Porbandar stonOj is a widespread 
deposit, a somewhat coarse grit, highly chalky, and abounding in 
foramiuifera to the westward, but towards the eaet containizig fewer 
organistiiA in proportion to the incren^^ed admixture of clayey matter. 
This du]jo»it is well seen near Gopndth, where tho upper beds oontaiu 
foramitufera ntther sparsely, and mixed with those marine forms 
MTeral species of land shetLs, among which may bo specified Balimns 
tionclatusj B. insularia, Otopoma hinduorum, and a few tlun-shelled 
Naaiuo). Where not oxpoaed to a cnishin;^ weight this stone forms 
excellent building material. It is Inrgoly Quarried about twelve 
miles from Porbandar from which it ia shipped to Bombay and other 

In the west of Kathi^wilr a marine member of the post-tertiary 
£^np occurs in the shapo of an earthy chalky grit, very porous 
ftod friable, and of a dirty, mottled, co [fee-stained appearance, aud 
light ashy colour' These lieds first appear to tho west of Diu idaud, 
whore they form a narrow band along tho coast with an increasing 

Chapter I. 



2few Tertiartet. 

Aflunat IkpotStl 

* Anoog Um nedinMtitarjr nuuine t)«d« of tertiary utS p<wt-tertUi7 age, m tax 
M b known, them appvftr to be ropnMiit«tivM ur trace* of IIm nmuDulitio 
(Jtbwnr). tbtt Ctj {.Viotrnt), and tbe Slvllik iPUocene) ftroupa ; b«ddee moru nwent 
-tttrttan' ilu{H>aila indnding milialito. ■ parous opon UtBMtoae with 6ne Tolitic 
«. eiuJuaing minute nr^^aiiismi. Thii limMtoiM th<ntgfa of nikriDc orij;;iii, U 
rictMl to tli« ploina )i(>TiliTing t)ie coMt. It ia [oand alniimt Dirimghoul tfao 
: in pat<^H aud abutintiuta on thesiilcs of tbe tnp hills, and Buinctimoa 
ingioa their inmniitB, sa on L'hotila hitl. thu highest cmiiicnco in north KlthiftvAr, 
) ttiia it may be iuferred that a viify large nn^-i, if imt tti« whole country, haa been 
eaard below the lovol ul tho na. within ouuumiiiTcly recent gwlotfiwl tUava. 
K. redden, »" / ^ ^ 

iftptor I. 





importance snd dovelopmont towards tho west, though not pro' 
attaining a much greater thickiicaa anywhere than sixty fcot 
stout!, tliuugh purous, is much estoemed along the co«»l fur bullclinf^. 
No mortar is used na tho stones nataraliy anite bv the action of rain. 
Between Pdtao and VoMval they are seen resting on the abraded 
surface of the miliolite, and the same relation may be noticed alo 
the margius of the small islands or banks in the low swampy t 
or Ran near Porbandar. As a building stone tho grit is inferior 
the njiholite, but at Mlidharpur larger quarries are opened in i 
At Porhandar a coarse shelly grit of the same ago is nuarned 
which the -walls of the Eoropoan graveyard are built. The upp 
beds ve osaally without fosails, but towards the base they coutaia 
moat of the species now found commonly living on the coaut. The 
prci^ent situation of this bod over high water ia one of the many 
signs of the gradual rise of the we&t of Kathidwdr^ a prooeas probabl; 
not yet entirely stopped. 

On the 29th of April 1864 an earthqnalce occnrred in many ps 
of tho province a little after II a.u. The shoclE was preceded by' 
a low minbling noi*o as of distant thunder, followed by a vibration 
for six aeconids, causing widespread panic and excitement. In nome 
places a slight reiwtitiou of the shock seems to have been felt on 
the same day a little after dusk. The shock was not attended with 
any injury.' On the 27th of November 1861 at midnight a sh 
of eartlujuako vras felt at R^iikut. The motion, which waa froi 
aouth-wost to north-oaat, lasted five or six seconds.' 


Tho^ rain retoms in the Appendix from sixty-eight stations 
different ports of the province give for tho fifteen years ending 188 
a mean yearly rainfall of twenty -three inches. The highest averaL 
iTiiutill at any station i.s forty-two at Jafarabadand tho lowest fonrtoon 
atSaola. Ksoepta few fitful showers, the supply of rain comes between 
June audOctooer^thatisdiiringthemonthsof the south-west mousooo. 
As regards rainfall the province may be divided am'ong fifteen river 
basiuH and coast tracts. Of those lu the north is tho coast streams 
tract with an area of about 1872 Bquaro milea, four stations, and an 
average fall of 20'9l inches. In the north-east are two river basins, 
the Bhogdva with an area of 1535 square miles, eight stations, and an 
average rainfall of 17'fi7 inches, and the dry Bb&dar with an area 
of 938 square miles, two stations, and an average rainfall of 2296 
inches. In the oast arc three river basins aiid a const tract. The 
three river basins are tho Ut'dvli basin with an area of 389 square 
miles, two stations, and an average rainfall of 23*42 inches ; the 
KhfUkbolio basin with an ai-ea of G08 square miles, one station, and 
an average rainfall of 21 '2(3 inches; and the BUdvnsgar basin with 
an area of 1603 square miles, nine stations, and an avorpgc rainfall 
of 23'75 inches, and a coast stream tract with an area of 1 76 square 
miles, one stution, and an average rainfall of 2G'G8 inchtw. In the 
BOuth-east there are the Shatrunji river boein with an area 
2083 square miles, six stations, and an average rainfall of 21*3 

» Boni.O«).Soc.Tr>iiB. XVIlI.(tWW.I8rt4|'2<Ki,;217. 'Colonel L. G Bftrboo.* 

* CoBtxibutcd by Mr, U, I'. Huia, £xvk.-utivu LJigiuoM', UAtliiAwAr. 



indios, and a part of tho soath coast tract. In the south comes 
tbe coast tract with au urea of 33J1 8(|uare uuleti, two statious, and 
au avorag'o rainfall of 8't*ij4 iiiehea. In tho south-west aro ]wrts of 
the Bh&dar river basin with two statioua, and of tho wpst coa^t 
streams tract with four atatioos. Xu tbe ivest is the coast atreanis 
tract with an area of 3437 square miles, seven stations, and an 
average rain^l of 21-16 inches. In tho north-vest arc the four 
rhrer basins, the Uud, with an area of 583 aijuaro milo?, throe 
siataons, and an HTerago rainfall of 21-79 inches ; tho Aji with an 
area of 700 !)(|Tiaro miles, fonr stn,tion<9, and an average rainfall 
of 22'8-l inched; the Domai with an area of 409 square miles, one 
station, and an average rainfall of I9'93 inchea j and the Macha 
vith an area of A77 aquaro milcfl, two station», and an average 
rainfall of 2\'42 incbea, and a part of the west coaat streams tract. 
In the interior of the pnivince there arc the basin of the Uh^dar 
rivt-r, which han an area of 3017 square miles, nine sUtiuns, and 
on averajre rainfall of 24'9o inches, and parts of the Und and Aji 
rirer basms. 

Of those river baains and coast tracts those in tho sonih have the 
largeat supply of rain, the average fall (1867-1878) varying from 
thirty to fifty inches in the south, against twenty-oue to twenty-three 
in tho cost, twenty to twenty-four in the west, and soronteen to 
twenty-three in the north. Tho variations in the average rain&U 
in diSercat parts of the country are due to tho working of two 
inQucucea, nearness to the south ooost which gets tho full bonoiit of 
the rain-laden cloods, and height above the boa which causes an 
Bvera^ difference of about ten inches between the fall in tho central 
uplands and in the central lowlanda. Tho place with hoiiviest 
rainfall is prol>ahly the Gir in tho south, which is high and well 
wooded, and at the same time has tho full benellt of the rain-ladoa 
monsoon clouds. 

Tbe rain retoms in the Appendix show that 1878 was a year of 
extremely heavy rain, tho fall at Jnn£gad being 76 inches in excess 
oftho previous moans. On theother hand, there have been cousocutivo 
mns of dry years in which the fall was only from eighty to eighty- 
five per cent of the means or a fall of about 1!)'2 inches. Taking the 
yoarly means, 1869 1870 and 1871 give a sequence of dry years 
followed by another set^uence embracing 1875, 1870, and 1877. Of 
the dtjpth of rainfall in each of the monsoon months, the close 
percentages of the means are t'H inches in May, 14' 95 in June, 
31*27 in July, 24-87 in AuguRt, 24-12 in September, and 3*65 in 
October, Of the number of wot days in each of tho monsoon 
inotiths tho close percentage of the meftns are 14'48 in June, 34'39iit 
July, 27'37 in Angnst, 19-91 in September, and 385 in October.* July 
then is tbe wettest month of the year. Tho ma3umum number of wot 
days in tho year is sixty-eight, the minimum twenty, and the average 


* Tb« uoouly of huring iminfall in Majt >ritfaoiut uiy wet (Iajk mftv b« tboa 

ittzfiUiiu^L llic entry mien to ui uxccptioonl nUDfall wbicfa occurred taroughoat 

the p(i>viuc« in IS^l, ilunng Uio tut ff« daja ot Miv. Tito (all »a» hoavy und 

ihnwod u apprcciKbtn percviiluiir : at th« uuna titn« tb« peroeutoge of th« number 

of dftya WW iBAp];>r(;0)*)>l« uul inu tbarolurv voiittwl. 

IBonlMy Oazett 




4-t'2. The masimnra nombor of days on which the rainfftll was o^ 
two inchos is seven, and the average 2-9 ; the maiimani nnmhor. 
days on which the Call waa bebfreea one and two inches is tbii 
and the avera};^ 4'4 ; the maximum nnmber of days on which 
fall was betwcon ono and half an inch is eleven and the arorn<;e 6* 
and the maximum Dumber of days on which the fall was under 
an inch is forty-five and the average 30-7. 

Two extraordiuary falls of rain have been recorded, one ia If 
the othnr in 1881. On the 28th of May 1850, a violent eior 
occurred accompanied by a heavy fall of hail and tumnltuous wind. 
The storm blew down some stables, killed a charger, tore up trees, 
and knocked over sentry boxes. The camp aeoms to have been the 
centre of the cyclone, and tho effects of tho storm Eioom to hnvo 
been confined to it and a circle of five or &ix milea round.' During 
tho twenty-four houra, from six in tho momiDg of the 27th Jnlv to 
six in the morning of the 28th July, twenty-eight inches-' of 
rain fell, which, with four inches dnriug tlie preceding twouty-four 
honrs and tlireo inches during tho succeoding twenty-four honra, 
made a total, from the morning of the 26th to the morning of the 
29th, of about thirty-five inches. This fall was nearly equal to the 
average total fall during the whole monsoon in the preceding seven 
yeans.* During the day and night of the 27th the wind blew with 
great fury generally from tho south, but occasionally veering round to 
tho aoHth-weat, west, and north-we^t. During tho whole time there 
was thunder and lightning. Tho heavy rain caused much loss of 

Eropcrty especially in the camp. Many trees were blown down^ the 
ridgo joining the camp with the town was partially washed away, 
and many ont-honaos and nearly half of the huts of the cavalry 
lines oa well as one of the round bostiona of the totvn wikll fell. 
There was no loss of human life, but on tho flood subsiding tho 
river-bed was stnddod wilh tho bodies of drowned cattle.* 

A similar storm barst over tho north-west of tho province on tho 
21st of July ISfil, The axis of tho storm atrnck the coast between 
Porbandar and Mi^ni, and travelling north-west passed ovOT 
Khambhaiia, Junagadj Jodiya, and Vavfinia, and then crossed the lessor 
Ran of Cutch. The average fall of rain during twenty-four hours 
in tho country traversed by the storm was tweoly-fivo inches, housoa 
wore wrecked in every village, trees wore rooted up by thousands, and 
BDimals of all descriptiong perished from cold and wet. Rivers over- 
flowed their banks and ruined the country, and the wind blew a hurri- 

) Truii.Boiii.O«».Soo. IX.1d5. 

» The dfttaJU of rainfall during tho twonty-foar hourm ara Jaly 27, (rom 6 a.m. '■ 
10 A.M. 6'83 inchea ; from 10 a.u. to nwm 0'48 ; from noou to S-30 r u 1 ti? ' fi 
2.S0 r.M. to 4 F.M. 617 ; from l ?.«. to 5 p.m. 226 ; frnm 5 r.M. to B p.M-'o',- 
fromCrii. trt 8 v.vL 290! from 8 i'.m. to 10 p.m. 270; (rum 10 r M to 12 ri 
tiisbottto waaapset; July 28. from 12 p.m. to 5 a.m. 3-50 aod txtm S a.» tal 
A.SI. 0-68, twUl 2S-9i Tu thi- i« ^. Im) a<l.lcd tho prol»blo loas ot 2 inotics by 4 
ovCTeowinp of Ui« bottlfl from 2-30 p.j*. to 4 pjj. and upturning from 10 i- u tol 
p.m., nuking tht whole total of SStnchu. 

* at lUjkob tho runfttll d«Uils dnrinc the •<>veu years Boding IMP MW ■ U 
27*56 inoliM ; 184-I, 22-43 ; 184.'-, 12 ID : IMO, Sll.-i ; IK47. 21-«[7lSI8. 21 21 ; U 
C3-W iach«8. * Tniu. Bora. Geo. Soc. XII. (IS54-56), 7.|9. 




CU10, and aAAoH greatly to the horrors of tho Btorm. Tho effects of 
Uiu stona were felt for fully fifty miles ou each side of its ceutral 
back. One notablo circnmstanco vas that aboro Dhoraji the 
Bh^dar w» not in flood, while below UboMji it was filled to OTer- 
Bowiag by tho drainago from tho Bardaand Aloch hille. 

The climsite of the peninsula is in general pleAsnnt and healthy. 
Janoary, Febmary, and March ive marked by heavy dews and thick 
fo^. These fogs, which are mora commua t aland than on the ooaat 
and which are generally followed by very hot days, form at day- 
break and are dispelled by the sun about nine. They are not 
unhealthy either t-o Ktiropeana or natives. The hot weather bopns 
in April and lastd Oiitll the rain felU about the middle of Jane. Tho 
hot wind blowa in various degrees iu difTereut parts and is hottest 
in the south. On the coast it is Uttio felt and very partially on the 
JhilAcAd Ran. The hot weather months (April to Juno) are the 
healtliieab iu the year. There is always a cool light breeze. The 
rains generally begin in force at tho first change of tho moon in 
July aad are spent by the lolb of Shnlvan fud (August-September). 
Unlike other parta of Qujar&t the ruins aro never severe and grow 
lighter towards tho west. Except that slight fevers prevail in July, 
no diseaae is specially prevalent between Jaly and September. From 
tbo end of September the climate audorgoos a change and becomeB 
unhealthy both to Europeans and natives. In September and 
October the beat of tho sun is acntely felt, though the weather ia 
cloudy. The latter part of November and the whole of December 
aro in all respects like January. 

The weet Oohilv&d and HU&r is perhaps the pleasantcsl and 
healthiest part of tho province. The netgiibourhood of the Ran 
thaagfa hot and dry is not specially sickly, tho people being heal thy, 
Btout, and goud-Iookiug. But the stagnant watv and excessive 
vegetation of tho Nal make it very unhealthy. Violent bilious 
Attacks, yielding in four or five days and followed by ague and fever, 
are tho only special KAthiiiw^ disease. In the hottest weather the 
Uuamometor is seldom above 110° in tho shade, although generally 
between 102° and 104°. In the cold season it ia seldom or never 
w 42\ 

Chapter I. 


IBombay Gazottasi 

ipUr n. 





KXthiAwAr ahonnda in minonilH and ia particularly ricli ii 
buildiuj^ Bloue. Tbe principal motal is iron, which in former dayfl^ 
waH worked botliinthe Barda districts and in Kbambbilia. ln)a 
ore abounds througfaont tbe northern unrtion of tbe peninsula 
ferric oxide and in other forma. Owin^ tc the absence of co« 
tho pcfircity of wood, and the cheapness of European iron, tho or 
docs not pay the cost of working. A («>al whale haa been found in tl 
Thilo district aoder Lakhtar, but it is not of a kind Ukely to prove 

In 183S BIX iron foundries were in regular work, and two or three 
more were occafKionalty used. The two principal fonndries wenj at 
E^ndvdT t«ii miles cast of Porbandar, and at i(jlnpitr in Hnv^DOf^e 
about nine nules sonth-west of Bhdnrad. The fonndries were fixed aft 
those places becanse they were close to tbe Barda foresta. They a: 
at some distance from the parte of the hills which are richest in 01 
The ore used in the RanfivAv foundry waa bronght from t 
TJIbges of BAkharla, P61ikhra, aud Vis^vjida. At Bkkharla the o 
occurred in a ridffe about twenty feet above the general level j 
P^likbra it was in the plain close to a ridgo about thirty fi 
high ; and at Via&vdda it was in the open country. Bdupur wa6 
Bupplicd from If^n twonty>seven miles distant ana about fourteen 
miles west of KbambhAlia. Of tho throe ores tho ViaiSvilda ore wu 
the best, the Palikhra the next, and the RAaavAv ore the poorest. 
The mines wore round pits from five to twenty foot deep. When a 
rich vein was reached, trioy were hollowed all rrjuud as far as pickaie, 
arm, and shovol could reach. The ore was handed to the top, sifted, 
washed, and sent to the foundry ia carts, or on bullocks and UGnkeys. 
The process of smelting was simple. Under an oblong shed, tbe 
ground was dug ia tbe centre to give room for two furnaces, which 
occupied the ends of the shed. Tho furnaces wore long and narrow, 
to gire a good draught, and the masonry or brick work was lined 
with clay to keep in the heat, The opening for the bellows 
stopped by a bit of pUuk coated with clay. Into this plank 
fitted a pipe joining the nozzles of tho two pairs of bellows, which Wi 
stopped afresh with clay each time the smelting was bogo 
Opposite each other wore two openings of tho same size, one for t' 
bellows, tho other a small ash door. Between these two openings t 
space was filled with charcoal, in which along each side 
were hollowed for tho ore, and a layer of charcoal laid over the whol 
The bellows were of bullock hide sewn round bamboo hoops in veriii 
ting^. and worked alternately by downward pressure, the blowi 
closiug the mouth of the sack by pressing it with his chest an 
arms. The bellows threw into the furnace a stream of air, powi 




V tmaagh, id ten tninatpi^j to bum to ashes a small piece of lighted cool. 
" Thommaco when full held a little more than 196 pounds (seven 
Bombay matu) of oro. Thiti took from six to eight hours to melt. 
^ The HUMS of metal was theu taken out to he haudlml by a second set 
H of workmen and thefnmacorciillod. Tho famacewas thrice emptied 
" ever^ workinfr day. Tlie second furnace, over which the head emetter 
preeided,wa» like the Grst, except that it was built unat the month. 
To protflct the workmen from the scorching' heat, tneir sandals or 
ratbur shoes were provided with a large extra sole, which sheltered 
the hands as well as the frnt Tho headman who worked sitting nscd 
his feet almost as much as his hands. After being worked, the ore 
wae again heated, split into equal parte hj a wedge, and wrought into 
aniall bars of the avcmgo size of four to a local man of twenty-six 
pounds. Tho heating in the second furnace freed the mcfal from 
much dross, and when the heating was over the metal was ready for 
the market. The average yield of iron was about forty per cent^ 
Two kinds of iron were made. A cheap iron called cAon/iaronghly 
•baped of poor ore or of fragments broken by the wedge. The poorer 
sort was sold at 1 ^d. the pound (5 ki>ri« the man), and the better sorb 
called marJca at 2^d. the pound (8 koris tho »ianj. According to the 
headman at it^npar, east wind suited iron smelting better than w^st 
wind. In a west wind only five mans of iron would come out of a 
quantity of ore, which in an east wind would yield seron man$. 
The difference was probably due to the furnace drawing better in 
A dry east wind than in a damp sea-breeze. Tho iron smcltora 
began work at dawn and gouenUIy stopped a littlo before stuiBct. 
They soemed to work with much steadiness. No iron was smelted 
daring the rainy seosoo. Tho yearly outturn of a foundry was 
betwoeo sixteen and seventeen tons (t>5 Bombay khdndis), so that 
(he whole yearly outturn for the six foundries was abont a hundred 
toos. The daily working expenses were estimated at £1 2«. (Us. U) 
»nd the produce at £1 Vis. (Rs.16).* About I8l8j according to 
Captain ^fac^kfurtlu, small quantities of gold dnst were found in tho 
bea of the Aji river which nows under the walls of Rdjkot.* The 
■tatemont hn« not been corrobomted by any snbsecnient writer. la 
1842 according to Captain afterwards Sir Qeorge IjoGrand Jacobs 
guld in minute quantities waa said to be obtained by washing the 
annd of the Saurekha which has its source in Gimflr. The expense 
of extracting the gold waa more than the Talno of the produce. 
Abuut thu some time copper ia said to have existed in the small 
lidge of hills running sontn from Ilhadle and also near NavtLaagar, 
bnt no minoa were ever known to hare been worked. There oro 
two mineral spring!;!, one at Tulsi Shilm in the Gir, which is a hot 

■ mhog and reckoned one of the most eacred spots in the province ; 
fcbtt oiher is at Piud Taruk in OkhdmandaL* 

The north-east comer of tho peninsula oonsiats entirely of laterito 
deposited in tertiary or post tertiary times. Jhi&lATAd abounds in 
Ifttorito and sundstono varying ia colour from deep red to pink 

Chapter XX. 


I Bon. Got. S«1. XXXVII. 409-171. >TnBi. B«a. Ut Soc. 1 SSO. 

* Don. Gov. Sd. XXXVL 98. 

(Bombajr Ouet 

ChKpter II. 




yoUow and white. The eoath-west coast and JhAHvAS, exce] 
the centre, abound in lime«toaoa admimbly tiuited fur buildi 
Of these the Porbandw miUolite and the grey sandstone of 
Dhr&ngadrs m Jbil^v^d are perhaps the hest known. The grey 
sandstone has the great defect of decayiDg or rusting away on 
expoanro to salt air or to water. Thin layers of marble are found nt 
several places in the west and south>wet<t of the peninsnia. Ilio 
marble aecma good in quality, and some of it is nrottdy veineti, but *" 
is said to be too hard to be easily worked. Be8irt*?sthe limestonea 
lateritaSf namerotu rarietieB of trap and basalt are much used 
building atone, and, near Goghaj an excellent oungtomerate is tarj 
qnarried. Granite occurs at Gimitr, ChaniiSrdi, and elsewhere, 
has not yet been used atj a building stone. There are depo«its o1 
grpBum in the Kau and parta of the Bhil, and saltpetre can l>o 
o1)tained in large qoAntities at JhtnjhiiTMa and itB noighbourlioo"^ 
The prices for cut undressed stone at Rfljkut are, Kudn'a iLmuBto 
£1 to £1 4gi. (Rs. 10 - Rs. 12) the 100 cubic feet ; common limesto 
l&r. to £1 (Rs. 8 • Rs. 10) ; trap or ba.ta1t £1 U. to £2 i». (Rs. 12j 
Ra 22); rubble masonry including mortar 7s. to 10«. (Re. S^-Rs. 
the 100 cubic feet. The Wadhw&o prices for cut undressed san' 
atone are 16«. to £1 4«. {Rs. 8-R§. 12) the 100 cubic feet. 
prices in other parte of the province dtfTcr but slightly from those. 

K/itbiAwdr salt is broadly classed as Vadiigm and Gha»ia. Vada, 
is the fioe crystal salt such as is made at the GoTemment works aii 
KhAriighoda. Ghtuia is a gcnenil tonn for poorer siilt, whether 
made fi^>m brine or made by the sun on the Ron and in thi3 niimeroua 
creek.s which indent the Kathi^w^r coast. The manufacture oE 
Crystal salt has been described in the Statistical Account of Abinad- 
abad.' The only pUce in Kiithi^wiir where this fine salt is made 
is at Kuda on the Rau of Cutch, about fourteen miles north-west 
of Dhri&ngadra and within the limits of that state.' This salt is equal 
in quality to that produced at Khiinig-hoda. The yearly yield of tho 
Kuda works is about 40,000 ludian mmia, and it can be enlarged 
to any extent. Pits might be duganywhero in the triangle whoM 
base rons from Ukat at the month of the Bjimbhan to Hiitamos Ot 
the mouth of the Ban&s. West of the Bilinbhan the brine Io9«8 lh4 
qualities necessary to prodnpo large crystals, and in other placov 
where salt is made mim brine the result is inferior Oltaiia salt. 
The crystal or Vad^iyra salt is exceedingly hard, while the Ghaaia 
salt, as its name implies, is friable and does not bear carriago. 
Along the coast west of Kuda, the chief salt pans are at VavAnia 

1 Bombfty Gaisotteer. IV. llS-ISt. 

* In the Mil iiiMmFiu;tniT •( Kn<l»thoiMiiB vary in mm from SSOOto 10,000 •qnsr* 
bat. Then! |)xiui, iiiilikd thoao at P^ltdi, arci Airnngoil Jn no order- Tbe Bllt it niMta 
bom tJi» nirf>co wst«r, bs tbe bnoe spriiifj* **l>)ch atford eo rich » crop %% Pitdl sr* 
■ot obtoiiuUe, tha wboU groond bviag nnderlniil with muram. The «ftlAr ntbiu 
deftcuDt both in qsAllty taA qiUDtitj, And two nvlla are reqairetl for euili lane nut. 
Ttic manufacture is MiueraUy atouped iii )lueh ur April on acco'iint of (b« douda o( 
duel aud wild, and irom want ol wat«r. Tlie wvU -Emking and poD-making are tbrn 
work of the Auriaa or aalt-makcra, who arc hi-lix^t l.y their wtvu* and chitdrcn. The 
|)Toduce is goaetmUy Bohl al U. 3d. ioU.'jyi. 1lg-13(U.} thcdoukey-lo*d (2^ maiw). 





in Morvi, at Jodija Beri and PindAra in Navdnagar, at Knoliri within 
Porbftndar limita, at MjAri^ Dhamloj, and Bherai in Juniigad, at 
Vadcra under Jdfarabad, and at Mabuva, Talftja, and Bb&rn^ar in 
tbo BhAvnapir state. Those works could yield an ample supply for 
iho whole pcntnaalo. 

6a]t was formerly of Uttlo or no ra1ae in Kathiawdr. The states 
within whose limit» it is prodnced chargtvl a small royalty on 
the manafoctare asd paid no ivgard to its dttitribntion. Salt 
b&wkera attended the works with pack-bullockn or donkeys, and 
carried the salt for sale to the interior paying a nominal sam for the 
salt and charging for it in proportion to the distance they had to 
carry it HuBbandnien, tannors, and Gsh-curors wore allowed to 
father as much natural sca-watcr aalt or Ghasia as thoy pleased. 
ll was not until the question of excising aalt waa raised m 1879^ 
that salt was regarded as a source of revenue. Then all the smaller 
estate-hddcrs, or tAlnhiar9, within whose limits salt was formed 
Or could bo made, b(j«an to aisseri their rights and put a fiotitious 
valne on what they mfcd bithorto considere<l unworthy of notice. 
In 1879 it was proposed that all minor worka should be closed, 
and that the six leading salt-uiukiog states should either give up 
the entire mana^moutof their works to the Britit^h Govcrnmont, 
or that they should equalise their selling price with that obtainiug in 
British territory andi^ree to the appointment of Gorornment ofBcialH 
fo superintend the monufootnrc and sale of the commodity. Tho 
•tales would not agree to these t^jrms. In the beginning of 1880 they 
entered into draft engagement's for concentrating their works, re- 
stricting tho outtam of aalt, forbidding tbo export by sea, keeping 
strong protective establishments, and adopting all meai^nrea roqnirca 
to prevent the amuggling of salt into British territoir. Theso 
nrranj.'cmenta were very distasteful tfl the inland states. Thf^y cora- 
plaJnod that a monopoly hml been placed in the hands of a few coast 
chiefs, and that they had lost all choice as to where to bny their 
salt. Many further complained that theirsnhjects had hitherto been 
allowed to collect inferior salt free, and that they would feel and 
resent any interference with such rights. They further complained 
Uiat thoy woold be pnt to groat cost to prevent smuggling, while 
the jnrofi(4 wonld be absorbed by a limiteil number of their more 
fortunate uoighbours. These arguments have been fully considered 
by tho Government of India, and it ha.i nt last been decided that 
matters should remain pretty much aa Ihey were before thequeslion 
waa raised ; that tho chiefs should bo lioutid to prevent smuggling j 
and that tho frontier customs lino cstablUhod to prevent tno car- 
riage of untaxed Kithi^wdr salt into British territory should bo 

Pearls of good quality, but iuferior in lustre to Basrah pearls, 
aro found in tho gulf of Cntch within Navfinagar limits ; a few 
are also found in Juod^gad and Bh^vnagar near Bherai and Chdnch. 
Here is no trade in NavAnagar pearls as all are kept bv the 
J&m and distributed by him to his officers and faToariccs. tVliite 
coral of no market value is common both on the Navinagar coast 
and along tho wost and south-west as &r as Kodiodr, Bod 

Producttflo. I 




Chapter IL 


coral is sometimes foaud in small qaoatities at Mdagrol and Sil. 
BlijtjdBtijne ami iigatoa are common near TankAra in MorvL 
They am seat to Caoubay and made into ornaments, boxes, and 
paper-weights. According to Dr. B.ov6, wbo viaitud Kdtbi&wir m 
177H, borax or cfutnjdlthir whs tboa made in Limbdi f rom oarihj 
that was du;; abont four days' jonmcy oS and brought in boat-s. 
In making borax the only apparatus used was a Inrgo hollow 
copper plate about fifteen foet square wliich wns placed over a squapo 
fire place. On this copper platu the curth wa» heaped and covered , 
with comout. At the bottom uf the hollow plate was aa opeuingj 
from which, as the borax melted ont of tho earth, it Bowed througn 
a copper conduit into a reservoir of boiling water. It hardened 
in the water and was scot to Surat, Broach, and the inland countries.^ 
In Limbdi borax coat oj^d. a pouud (Ka. G a rnan).i 

lUthi&w&r in early times was covered with dense fore«t. It is now 
comparatively thinl y wooded eiceptthe Gir t oreata in tho eoath aud 

the Barda forwta on tlie west^coast. 

' ?ore«t IS about sixty mileal 


long by thirty miles at tho broadest, but coutaiiis no vuluable timber. 
The portion of tho Barda liillt* belonging to Navdnagar is thickly 
wooded, but in Porbandar the hill sides are l>eing rcckleBsly stripped. 
Another small foreiit iu the Sihor range in BMvuagar is cai'ondly 
looked after, but tho timber is small aud stunted. Tho placo 
where forests are most needed, sjui whence timber baa been most 
recklessly cut, is tho central platoau where aH the rivers rise. In 
time a judicioua system of planting would rc-clotho the hilts, 
improve both the climate aud the water supply, and provide 
R much needed store of fuel. The hills near Chotila, Tbiui, an 
Bamaubur, though now bare, had till lately cover enough to 
attract lions. Tho mangrove abounds along the ahorea of ih 
gulis of Cutch and Cambay. It is moat volusblo as fuel and the 
leaves and berries are largely osod as food for camels and cattle. 
Tfao berries are said to increase the luilk-giving powers of cattle, and 
when green are sometimes eaten by the people of the coast. Nowhere 
in tho provinco is timber allowed to grow to any size. It is doubtFuI 
if a single teak plank twelve feet long by one foot broad could bo 
found in tho entire Gir forest. Building timber is imported chiefly 
to Bluivnagar and Jodiya from Balsar, E^man, and DiiliSnu, and still 
morelat^ely fi-oiu theMnlaijdr coast. Of late yearn several fiuu planta- 
tions have boon started iu Bhavuagar, but the neighbouring states a 
slow to follow tho example. Teak has been sown at Sihor, Chokva, 
and Bhdvnagar, and has grown strongly. The bfival. Acacia 
arabica, has been sown In the Blijil, at Sedarda, and at Dolia near 
Mahuva. The ca suarin a has been a great saccesa near tho coast^ and 
has grown rapidly, especially at Mahuva, Itiiniviida, and Bhavuagar, 
Mangoes have been planted at Mahuva, Bhdvnagar, Chokva, p-ad ' 
Bekri, and cocoa palms in largo numbers at Mahuva and in smaller 
plantations at Khandera and Bhavnagar. 

Tlie best Mang^tes are grown at Mahuva in BhAvnagar from 
Bombay grafts. In the opinion of good judges, thoy surpass Bombay 

O I 

lUoi-J'sToura, 120. 

vuOkffow both in flavonr onA in firoioess. Tbe eonimon cotmfry 
nuuigo tree is largely grown and very quickly rcnchcs iiiiiturity. In 
JnnJ^ad a tree begins to bear nhen Bva yeani old. Some of tho 
b«rt iBavoarDd mangoes are grown at Songod, Vartej, Kart«], and 
KoliAk, and tbo mangcjcs oC MAlia in Jun&gad ae well as tboso oE 
Vanthli and Jun^<^d iUtolt are a1»o considered of good qaality. 
The north i^ scancily anppliod with mango trees, and in JhilUvAd 
maugo trees are almost tmknowu. 

Though littlo attention baa been given to its growth, the Cocoa 
Palm grows rapidly and boars titttadily all along tho Booth coast. 
If well placed the tree begins to bear in five or even in four yoara. 
At Hahura, in 1875, 1500 acres were planted with 170.000 palmB. 
At Khandera there is a garden with 7000 polms, and there aro 
above 2000 at Uluivnagar. The advantage of the coooauut over 
the mango is the uniformity with which it bears, A good mango 
crop can be expected only once in foar or tive years, while oocoa 
palms boarevery year. Be-.iidG3 this the frnit-bearing season is longer, 
and the nuts do not spfjil like mangoes. The cocoa palm grows nn 
the seaboard, in Nav&nagarj Forbandar, and Jmi^gad, but, L'xcepb 
in Bhitvnagar and at Navinagar, no plantations nave been made. 
A singular fact abont the cocoa palm is that it grows freely in solid 
limestone, provided a hole about three and a half feet deep by three 
foet in diameter iti cut in the rock and filled with monld. All tho 
treat atGopofith are planted in solid rock. 

Tho Wild Date-palm, A7«y"i*ri, Phconix aylvcatris is fairly common 
in parts of the province, nsually in river liods. It is valued solely 
oo acconnt of the liquor extracted from its juice. The ti-cc is tapped 
when it is about fifteen years old. When ready for tapping it is 
pierced jaut at the bottom of the head tuft of leaves, and an earthen 
Teuiet is tied over the wound and left for twonty-four huurs and then 
removed. Next morning the wound is slightly opened, and, after a 
month of drawing, a rest is given for fifteen days ; then the juice is 
drawn furauothcr monlh; then follows another rest of fifteen days, 
the tapping and resting giving on for four months. At the end of 
tho fonrmontha tho jnico gets thick and gritty when the earthen pot 
is removed and tho wound allowed to heal. After one season's 
tapping tho tree mnst rest for two yoara, when it can bo again 
tapped at a little distance from the onginal cut. A tapped tree 
bc^s dates, but they are inferior ; and, if the tree is tapped too often, 
it ceases to bear fruit for a year or two. Tho local dates, which 
are called tthaleJa, are eaten largely by the lower clattties, but ore not 
SOade into pickles or preserves. Cattle, sheep, and goats feed on. 
tiiem. Basrah dates aro used in two forma, khajur and kharak. 
The kkajur is the oi-dinary dried date and is moist and sticky; 
the kharak. which is distributed at marriages, is dried till all tho 
jtuco has left it. 

A good date tree yields ten pounds of juice daily and an 
xndifforont troo five. Ihojuiwt, which is called tddi, is gathered 
in large casks. When 480 poundo (12 mant of 40 lbs.) are collcctod, 
it is placed in one large vessel in which 100 pounds (2^ murui) 
of dried mahnda blossom aro mixed, and left to soak for about a week. 



Cocoa Pa 

Wild Dale-Pat 

[Bombfty Oftzet 



WiU Datt'Palm. 

•■ AinanU. 




It then fcrmento and is placed in large etUls and dietilled. Tba 
liqnor so pruiluccd ig called ekmria or Einglo. From the original 
480 poirnds (12 matu) of joice and lOOpoanda (2i mans) of miAudA 
blosaoin, 240 potmcLt ( mans) of liquor are distilled. The first 
I2U poiuiiU (3 maiui) distilled are conBidort^d better than tho aecund 
120 pounds (3 mans). If these 240 pounds (6 nana) are asain 
diatilled, tho; l>&coiuo 120 pounds (^ mum) of almost pure aloobd. 
This, which is called hemrio or double, reqntrea to be niado 
with great care, as it is so pure that it is apt to catch firo. 
Sanosra, about twout^'four milea from Riijkot, there are at 
60,000 date treoa for which a yearly rent of £30 (Ra, 300) ia 
There are distilleries at RohisAla and Jodhpnr in Horvi, a 
otlier smaller places. Single strength liquor ia sold at td. to 
(4-8a«.] the quart, and double strength at X^s. to2<. (12 u«.-Re. 
The refuse of the distilleries is eagerly eaten by cattle. 

Of the Doraratic Animals of the ppovinoe tho chief arc tho boEFn 
tho cow, and the horse. There are four chief kinds of buffalc 
known as deahan or local, aindhan from Siadh, ^uigli or ham 
and gvjur from tho Gujarat mainland.' Of these the deahdn or Ic 
are tho best, especially those from the Oir or Barda country. 
Bhimagar Cbief has a famous breed of very large Gir buffaloes 
haTo won namerous prizoa. A good doBka-n. buffido will yield sixt 
quarts at a milking or about thirty -two quarts a day. The milk is rti 
rich and by the natiTes is preferred to cow's milk. The other 
of buffalo are reckoned inferior to tho deahdn and yield lesa 
The points in a good dmhin buffalo, besides great stae 
itatore, are a peculiar form of horn which almost covers the oja 
and causes tho animal to rosomblo tho A&ican buffatoj Bubalns 
caffor, of which it suems to be a oongener. The buffalo graziers 
sup]>urb themselves almost entirely by the sole of the clariHod 
butter whicli they make from the bu^lo milk. At KAjkot or 
Wadhwdn tho price of a good cow<buffalo of the deahdn. breed 
varies from £7 to £10 (Rs. 70 - lis. 100). Male buffaloes, whoa 
used at all, are omj>loycd in carrying water ormanure, and in therainj 
season are sometimes ridden. The price of a male buffalo varies 
£rom £3 to £4 (Rs. 30 -Ks. 40). They are powerful animals, and an 
attempt is being made by the Wadhwdn state to utilise Uiem for 
draogbt purposes for which they seem suited.' 

Kftthidwfir cows are considered good milkers. They are of four 
Icindi*, deahdn or local, vndhinri from VadhiAr in Pittaupur,?»'.i/L'i from 
Malva, andfcJnpra a small inferior animal. Of theso tho (hshan« are the 
best milkers, and the vadhiana, though poor milkere, are the moat 
beantiful. The maUi and hdngra are inferior breeds. A good deal ' ~ 



* Aeoording to Dr, Bari, in 1787 there w«re nwiy wild 'baffiUoM m lioibdl 
towanb Uio deMTt ooaotry. They wore niiniirk»l>Iy (i«rr« and ■© ofUu stUcw 
^MWMn that IIm people in Bpite of reiigiou* scruple*, were forced to •liwt them : 
BttU^efenM. Toora^ 79. 

» Fall-growD buflklofs will face a lioo. By tfckiag it uuwaroB or wlieo Bepwut* 
from ita comp«uioiu, the lion eometlRiCH niAuaKG^ \n kill n (nll-^'ro'wu bu&^olo, bul I 
dans DC* attook one in tho niidiit of « bord, ] mmcilUluIy tin? hiiflal"^ hl-c tho li< 
ttacy form a aemidrole and witlt & paouliw b«Ut>ir roah «t hi™ utd diive lum off. 

cow will gire aix qoarta at » milking or twelve quarte a day. The 6ir 
00W8, £&roared by the richoesa of the ^aes and the abondance of the 
water, are femoaa. Tliough the milk of the cow is coii«i<lered inferior 
to Uiat of the buffalo, it is admitted to be more digestible. Most of 
it ia tnado iuto butter. No cheese is made from either buffalo or 
oaw milk. The price of a good dMhan cow is £2 10*. to £4 
(Ha. 2.^ - Re. 40), and of a Gir cow, which jielde ton to fifteen 
poonda o£ milk a day, £1 to £7 (Ra. 4U - Ra. 70). 

At certaiD seoRons bullocks are largely imported from Vadbi&r, 
mdlianpar^ K^krej, Vigad, and 8in&. Of these the Vadhiir and 
the KAnkroj huUocka are the best. The local, or deshif bnllocka are 
hardworking and fairly good animala, except in Ndghcr and along 
tho coaat whore they are smalt and poor. A pair of bnllocka fit for 
light work oosta £5 to Z8 (Rs. 50 . Ha. BO). 

Elephonta oro kept for show and state processions by the greater 
duefs. Tho bost aro found at Jundgad. Most of them are brought 
from Haiderabad in the Ueocan, but a few African elephants are 
imported when yonng from Zanzibar. They vary in price from £60 
{R& 500} for a yonng animal to abont £1000 (Bs. 10,000) for a very 
good one. The points of a good elephant are size, height, breadth 
of skuU, and length and shape of tusks. White marks on tho trunk 
and forehead are much admired. 

Horses of the well known S^thiilw^ breed are still found in 
many parte of Ki&thiawdr, though of lato bru^dors hnve not carried 
on tht^r business with the same zest aa of old. There is no more 
trustworthy nccooot of tho origin of tho Kilthi horeo than there is 
of the KAlhie thcmselTos.' It ia probable that they brought nmroa 
with them when they migrated from the north, and there is a legend 
that a boat contiuiuug a number of Arab HtsUions was wrecked on the 
coast.' VVliatever may have been its origin, tho breed no doubt 
owea much of its eioellence to repeated croswee with tho Arab. 
VerAval, during the rule both of the Ahmadabad snlt^ns and of the 
Moglial emperors, waa one of the chief porta to which Arab horses 
were brouglit for the imperial ntablcs, and there neems little doubt 
that the local breeders! availed thomaelTee of their services aa they 
poased through the poninsula on their way to tho capital. Tho best 
norse-'brcoding district is Panchal in the heart of the proWnto, 
including Chotihv, PiXiAd, Anaudpur, Bhimora, and Jasdon. 
Every nHiuirement to succcBsful horse-breeding is found in the 
PaucbftI, favourable soil for the formation of the foot, hilly ground 
for the development of muscle, running streams of pure water, 
inoBt nonrishJDg grasses, and a dry and hot climate. From 
early times this tract has been visited by agents of Rajput^na 
and others anxious to secure the K^thi blood. Unfortunately 
proprietors of the Panchil ore more or less impoverished and 
Iiave taken no pains to cultivate the breed, which, in better hands, 

*■ Wtr t^ origin af the RAthL horM n« below nttdcr Hiatory 

' Cm pMWOt (1B80) Supitiiitettdtnk at tho Otikwir Coutinsoot Mggorts th«t tltt 

' Buy hkre »pniDg froni the wild bone of KAthiAwAr. a Bort of Qnftggk. 

n C13— 13 


Clutpt«r n. 


I>oinotti« Aainu 



Chmpter n. 
DMde Anitnola. 



might have reached a very high degree of excellence. In spite 
noglcrt, conliuinff the yonng stock, and want of care in the choicfi o( 
BtallionB, handaomo spocimeDS of the old K^thi brt'ed may lx» fotiod. 
The pecaliarititss of the animal are, thacit itt ^norMlIy urnIcr-Hizedand 
BmaU-boQed ; its distinctive marka ar2 a l)lack cross down the back 
and biwk Imra on the legs, the colour of the coat varjing through 
erery shade of dnn. A well-brod KAthi is teachabto and honest, free 
from rice, full of spirit, and wonderfully lasting and har<ly. Tha 
horses are seldom kept by the owner except a few as stallioo?. 
The rest are given to Chfirana. All the care of the breeders is 
givQD to the mares, ivbich are like^l b<>caaRo they are Bilenc, 
while tho horses are noted screamers. Of late yearn, by introducing 
English and Arah stallions, Goveruuiciit liavu niadu many offorto 
to improve the K^thi breed, llicito efforts have not been vciY 
BQccesMfitl. Tho Kitbia have been averse from shuwing their 
xn&res and those that were brought to tho stallious have generally 
been poor.^ At the same time there ia a good demand for service- 
able oolts, and in time bretnlere may lt<aru diat their interest lies 
in correcting the defects of the Kithi horse. The following list 
gives the twenty-eight leading varieties of the Kdthi breed in order 
of merit : 

JTdfAi Barter 









DtiMB In BtiAmaMt. 





ChatMHIM ... 



ArtMi .» ... 

SMiUbulft Kltiita a| 






rSfit - ... 




BMoMla niMilsldk 


Vtut/i CUhU iif ObMk 


laUi ... 





Urt _. „. 



nv*" - - 



Mil ... ... 

Ubra. _j 1 





JEMf .„ ^ 

imuin JnntM^^^ 


KtmtJi „. 

Si nalft RUhU. 



ii.i«4 ^^^ 


AU4 ... „. 



mmT .- .„ 

limlMit. f^U 





1 1 Riulmi 1 n hha i-ii^^^ 



j- A'BUdpW. 



UkhUr. ^M 



Mull HxlM. 


DttUiaitiSpat. ^H 





So proud lire the K^this uf llicir mares that first-rate animals 
seldom Sold, Tho inarvclli)UH deeds of Hires and dams, in 
troubled times wUou a man often owed his lifn to the strength 
speed of his steed, are woven into many Kiithiaw^ tales and 
The offspring of snch renowned aniiunls have a special 
Fancy prices reaching aa high as £300 (Rs. 3000) have been 
are still paid for tho best blood, bnt cspital nags of from fourteeni 
fourteen and a half hands high, aoand, suro-footwl snd hanly, 
ajid decidedly good-looking, can be pirked op without much dtffict 
at £10 to £S0 (Ra. 100- Rs. 300). The chiefs of Palit 
Bh^vuagar, and Qoudal have all more or teas successful hoi 
breeding establishments. 

> la 1813 Coloiwl Stanhope uid ihitt his ngimeiit, the SoreDtoentli Dngoonn, he 
ctueflr la KAthiiwlr wm bottor mounted ihno uiv other legtmmt in the 
Bom. 0«T. Set XXVUI. (New Seri«), 57. 




Eicullunt CamoU, botli for ridiuK i*"<l carrviajj, are Inr^'flj" broj 

Okliii, Navdaajfar, jMiilia, aud tlio Ma*;liu KAntlia, and also in 

igrol, Una, DoIvAila, and Mahavft. They abound where the 

igri>ve g^ws fi-eely aud graze in the Bwauips. Camel's uiilk is 

j'Saod for feeding yonng horses and in cases of diseased spleen. A 

i^ooA riding camel costs £10 to £20 (Rs. 1OO-Bs.2O0). n good 

'carrying camel £8 to £12 lOx. (Ra. 80 - Ba. 125), and au ordinary 

camel £5 to £7 (Its. &0 • Ita. 70}. 

The local breed of Assoa is particularly fine, and a large whito 

JTaric'ty, found cbiefiy inn^ldrand Jbiltivda, is famoQS for its eizo 

(«ud 3treD<>th. This variety has no list down the back or strino 

[on the withers. Prices range from £2 to £6 (Es. 20 - Ra. 50) for 

irst rate llAlaris, and from £X to £1 lOs. (Ra. 10- Re. 15) for the 

laller breed. 

The onliuary villsge Dog diffent little from that of other ports of 
''India. The provailing colour is rod. 

Village Cats are rarely fed or cared (or, and are almost always 
in and hulf-^tarved. 

Neither Sbeep nor Ooata get much attention. They are taken out 

the morning to the forest or waste lands on the buuudaries of 

Ja^, or to river beds and bauka, and allowed to graze. The 

mg fee is smalt, Oil. (4 us.) a month for fifty, 1«. (8 as.) 

>m oO to 100, 1«. Qd. (12 as,} from 100 to 200, and 2t. (Ro. 1) 

[for 200 and upwanls. No grain is given them, and, after spending 

day picking what they can, they are brought home and penned 

>r the night. The hardiest and beet breed of sheep comes from 

Eirwir. A gixxt Mtlrwdr sheep weighs upwanls of sovouty 

jonnds, and, in fair condition, is worth 4*. to 6*. (Rs. 2-R8. .3). 

tides the Marw^ shuop there are two local breeds, the horned 

id the horoicss, of whicu the horuod variety is the more cstoomod. 

"le yield of wool is small, on an avemt^ not more than two ponnda 

|at each shearing. The oheop is shorn twice a year, iu March and 

in *.Vtober, the produce of the Haroh shearing Iwing tho more 

vmluable. The wool trade has its head-qoartors at Jodiva in NaT^ 

igar. Tho sheep is not reared for food; the shepherds make 

Iheir living by selling clarified batter and wool. Tho women weave 

Iwoollf n clothes for themselves and their husbands, and soil any they 

fmako in excess of their wants. The milk, which is particularly 

(rich and very nourimhiiig, is mixed with gout's milk aod sold in 

jwns and villngo^i by liharvAd women. 'Hie nsual prioo is abont 

t|<I. (\ anna) a quart. Sheep's clari6ed butter is also mixed with gout's 

ritiofl butter. The present (ISSS) price ia about four ponnda the 

ipee. A good owe yields about a quart of milk at each milking or 

|twu<|uart8aday. The price of a g^aeweisfrom6«. to lOs. (Rs. 3- 

IBs. b), and of a wether 4b. to G«. (Rs. 2-R8. 3). The wool of 

single sheep is worth In. to 2$. (8 aJi.- Re. 1], and its skin Qd. 

In. (4-8 <M.) ; sheep leather is laj-gely used in tho province. 

Vajetihankar Gavribhunkar, a wealthy official of Bh^ynagar, 

las lately started a small sheep &irm on his estate of Turkha. This 

'&rm has already yielded a profit of about sixteen per cent. 


Chapter II. 

Production, i 

IXitnesUc AuiiuU 



ChApter II. 

Ilciin««tic Aoiiukla. 

Tho Kdtbi/LwAr Goat ia usuaUj black, Bometimm brown, and ia 
rare cases white. Tho 1)tark are ocmsidored the hardiest and 
beet. The rich Veep py&tn of tfa« Sarat breed. The KlithiAw^ goat 
yields u qtiart at a milking, that is two quarts of mi]k a da/, and 
& goiid 8urat goat about I^ quarts at a tnilkiof^ or thrco qaarta a 
day. The mUk of tho Korat goat is richer and swoofcer than 
that uf the local breed. Qoats are hardier ibao sheep, and tmt 
bush leaves which sheep will not touch unless forced to by hunger, 
and then they will ent only tho leaves of the hdval Aracta nraSica 
aud the honli Zizyphus jujuba. Their milk is inferior to sheep's 
milk for making butter, but is more digestible and is aFt«a 
ffireo to children. Thin ropo and stout twine are made of goat's 
Lair, bnt only when the animal diea, as goats are not shorn. Sheep 
and goats are peuiied on bare fii^KIs fur the sake of their mauurSf 
the hus))audnien pacing tho Rabins a trifling sam. The price of 
a sho-goat varies from 2«. to 6«. (Ke. 1 - Its. 3), and of a he-goai 
from 2«. to 3«. (Re. 1-Ra. 1^). Surat she-goats are wurth £1 
to £2 (Rs. 10 - Rb. 20). A she-goat has the advantage over a owe 
that she can bo milked at any time, morning, uoon, or evening. 
The sliephtmis know nothing of the treotment of diseases and ao 
not administer medicine in cases of sickness. Dysenteiy is one 
the commonest complainte.* 

Among the Wild Animals of Kiithi/twiir the moat ftimons is the 
Lion. The Lion formerly abounded all over the peninsulaand Gtijaratf 
it even spread to Central India. U is now fonnd onl y in llie Qir 
fbresL Compared with the African lion its mane is shorter and its 
colour ligkter. It in go much likea camel in colour, that its ordinary 
name is the cami-1 tiger or unlia voijh. The lion is about the sama 
aixe as the tiger, somewhat more bulky bnt probably an inch or 
two shorter, the length of a full-grown male i-aryiag from aboat 
eight feet tea inches to nine feet six inches.' The lioness ia aboat 
ten or twelve inches shorter.' The lion ia rather darter than tho 
lioness and is a little heavier about tho head and shoulders. When 
full-grown ho has a 6ne mane, which in old aijimals grows black 
and tho whole body becomes darker with age. The lion travels at 

' In 1817, Aocor^linK to a writer in Uie Bombay Qeognphioal 'AinnoUoiHu t'H, I 
ooltivatiun iu Kiithiawir wm altoust OQgU'i:t(>4l and tbo people Uvod ohisBy on ml: 
uil butter Partly from tiiia cckono ami pnrtlv from tho feeling ag&inM tnking 
ooiliial life, every fjtnil}- hnd a Urgu atoirk of catU«. Thewe, amcmntiu^ to bundfwla 
or IfaouannOH Aooonlin;^ to tbr ni/n of the town, were drlveu within the walla it 
■outot, Miiil [Mniiuil for tli4! iiiulit in tho nuDfl liouBM oa the people Fuw of the oat 
•oetnud froo (rum diicaec. Many were in th« mort wrotehed state, crippled 
crawliDtf with pulfy Icj^ and acahiiy ■Iudo, 

* lu 1871 ( jiptniu TrutUir, nf tbe KAthUwir TriKOOometrioal Sarvey, abotsfii 
grown Bialu lion, which aa it lay dead on the ^ttmu niHuarod from tho noeo to i 
tip of tbo tail 8 foot 10 inithoe, of which 5 feet 1 1 inchea were the leoRth of the bt 
aad fi feet 1 1 inchu the len^ or tiw tail ; tLu height at tho akoolder wae S 
4 incbee 1 the girth of neok S feet 6 iiicboM ; the girth of cbtat i feet 1 inch ] 
mrlli uf foTMrm I foot 9 inchea : aud th« length of the hair ou tbo mano 5 incl 
Larger meanurvmenta aru rooanled. Ono by Major Jackmn B feet ; two hy Colo 
^VatSDD, one 9 feet and the other (ect I inch ; ono by Captain LiMthes 9 feet aadj 
tachM ; mid OM by Captain Hebbert 9 feet 4 iocliea. 

* Cul. Wulaou hu ahot a raiDarkably line Uonea* with apeta very plainly mi 
wbivh measured 8 feet 6 inchoe ; Uajor Jacluou baa alao aiwt a Uoneaa of tho 
Bii». Both of tboBo are uooiually )ar|^. 




Digbt, leaving his resting-place abont sanaet. He first go«a to drink 

mad ihca wanders in senrch of food, often travelling many miles over 

hill anddalo and even along beaten roada. Be kilts about once in 

threv or £our days. Hia favourito foodie nilgai, Aim/j(ir, wild hog, 

d oicn or cows, hut ho often kills a stray buffiilo espwsially one 

'balf or thrive -(quarters grown. ^ I£ tho auiinal in killvU in the 

early evening and the iion is hnngry, ho will at once begin to eat, 

fant he will always leave the hill abont daylight and go and rest for 

the day at some lonely spot in the neighbourhood. E!«pecially after 

they have killed, lions are fond of roaring at nigbt, a monmf al rather 

than a Hurc« sound wbich can be heard Bve or Bix miles. The 

lion haa a horror of being diatarbcd during his midday sleep, and 

seeks the loneliest E^j>ots either near water in the shade of the 

"kavAnda Carissa carandas, and other trees, or, what is perhaps 

commoner, be chooses the top of a lew hill where he may bare a cool 

'ytecuB, and lio in the optin nnder the Rhade of a rock or of a large 

janyan tree. When diatarbcd the lion doos not slink away like the 

Itigor or panther, but walks or runs upright without any attempt 

■ to hide hims(ilf. As ho ia nearly of ilie cfjlour of tbegnmnd, it 

[is flifiii-nlt to S43e a lion Itcfore he has begun to more. unlike the 

Itiger or panther, the lion never lives close to a village or hamlet, 

jtbongh st night be prowls near villages and even enters them. He 

iSTOiils man more inan cither the tig^r or the panther, but frivo 

are recorded from the Oir in which men sleeping on cota 

>titaide of thuir houses were carried away fay lions. In conrage 

the lion is pqual to the tiger and nearly eqnal to the panther, 

but be is probably not bo daugenjus as he is simpler and less 

[OTnlty. Ho is as strong if not stronger than tlio tiger but less lithe. 

^n ia fonder oE company than tho tiger, and moves in family 

, three generations being sometimes found in one party. The 

less has generally threocubs, but the first-born ia always devoured 

\ by tho mother.' As a rule, if the lion and lioness are together^ and 

lioness ia woandcd, the lion will charge; and sonictimus the 

less will clmrgo if (he lion is wounded. In Kilthi^wdr the lion 

klled aavaj, probably a name of Arabio origin, meaning ho who 

Uses the flocks to bleat. The lioness is called »i»h or »inv, and 

a pair of male lions hunting together are called heldr. There are 

probably not more thnn ten or a doxen lionK and lionettses left in 

the wbolo Oir forest. These are strictly preBcrvod. 

Tho Panther, Felis pardns, in former times was exceedingly 
JRhnudant. It is still found in some of the hJlls, but it has 
labuost disappeared from the plains. It is exceedingly daring as 

Chapter n. 

Wild AiUBuIi, 

' Uata ■waetimoi cMiwt maeh damage U> Utn honla nf IniSaloM tlurt kra taken 

slo Ui« Ciir Toratt io f[ru«. Owing to the grcst lie&t th« ualU» arv genorally alluwod 

Jto vixtlo* in th« uiuil aiHl lie ondor ta«o« during tbo hutteat part vi tho day. and itt 

fiiigbt tlu-y Kic dnvcti ont to jpiue^ As a nil« they keep together, aod tluiti IIm 

liiiti itaiia nut lUaturb Utem. Bui ahould a mivk anioul cEiauc« to Iau IteLiod oF 

waiidOT from tbo real, tlio lion, if there h» ouo noar, is rare to ktU Iiiiu nuwcvsr big 

' and 7 - :' tic may l>c Captain IVottcr. 

' n( lion oabt w«rQ I-ath in Janiind in IS81. Id th« lint wv« tonr 
)l<> . ' -uiIm and uue tnak ; iii the lecoBd thara wvna Ume <nib«, two fanudea 


"• ^'-^^ 

IBorabaj 6e 



Chapter II. 



well M most clevor and canning ; more people are killed and wonnj 
cd by panthers than by oitlier liona or tigers. Some say tliei 
are two kinds, the small or dog*panther kalla dipdo, and the lar 
or »»" dipih. After long ex|>eriencej Colonel Watsun has come 
the conclusion that there is but one kind, and that the diSerei 
in size is owing to age and condition. The Temale panther measures, 
aa she lies, from about fire feet elerca inches to six toet ton iaohc 
and the average lougth is fnnn six feet to six feet four iuchoe. 
niulo measures from about six feet ten inches to Beren foot six inche 
and averages from seven feet to sevea feet three inches. The pantl 
like the lion, kills only ouoo in three or four days, but some 
bold enough to kill almost every other day. They arc particuh 
fond of the donkey and tho goat, but will kill the cow, the 
liorsQ, and even the camel. The panther is perhaps tho most 
daring of Indian wild animals, and when wonnded is most dangerous. 
He will often charge, when nnwounded, and will face an elepl 
without the least hesitation. The panther has not the Itnn'e boi 
of being distnrbcd or his love of solitude. He will live in sngar 
and other green crops and lie close to villages. Ho ia not eaail 
disturbed by man and is most daring and foarluss iu seizing his pro) 
In K^thiiiwAr ho is usually called dipdo or tho sjKtttod one, 
tiwharva in Gujar&t. Brnthers, as a rule, live in tlxed plaOM 
do not wander so much as lions. 

The Hunting Leopard, ekifah, Felis jubata, is sometime* founj 
but there are probably not twenty of thorn in the whole of Kfithidv 
It is of very wandering habits, though it sometimes tukea an ii 
quarters in a selected spot. Ohitdhi nsually hunt two or three 
together, and Avill stay in one place from two or three days to thi 
weeks, according to the abundance of deer. A solitary chU 
sometimes stays for months in one place, but when three or more 
hunt together they are pretty constantly on the move. They never 
dwell in thick forest but iu grassy plains. They are wonderfully 
agilo and have gi-eat speed for fifty to throe hundred yards, bnt aro 
far less powerful than panther. Their claws are not retractile, the 
tail is particularly long and stout. 

The lly waa, jar akh, llyajna striata, is common, and, in the col^ 
weather when his coat is in good order, is rather handsome. He 

i'aws of great power and will drive off a small panther. His scent . 
:eeu and he is an unrivalled scavenger. Ho sets out on his nightl 
rambles just after auuKct and returns to his den or lair at dawn. 
lires on bones and dead atiima1<i. He will not seek sheep or goat 
nor will he (ace the shepherd, bnt he will attack a lame or sick she* 
or a solitary goat or kid, if ho comes across one in a lonely pU 
The male ia much larger and taller than the female. 

The Wolf, lu'ir, Canis pallipes, is very bold. Wlien pinched wit 
hanger he will attack a flock in broad day even in pvcsenco of tl 
shepherd. Wolves frequent large grassy plains, and, though the 
usually live iu paii's, throe or four or more aouiotimes hunt togethc _ 
They hunt with great skill and persovoranco ; prey, pursued bj 
three or four wolves, rarely oscapos. Tho male ia of much great; 
HiKC and height than the (emalo. 



Jackal, shidlj CantB aureuft, is mucli smaller IBan tlie wolf, Inil 
ni&kes up in cniiztiDg for what ho lacks in sizo and fttrGiig^tb. He 
IB a QQivereal scavenger and is coidihOd evfrvwbcre. The jackal i» 
very (ond <if swHotu, oud docs mucli mischief iu sugarcauc uutds by 
^nawiDg tlic cano. 

The Fos^ lokili, Vulpes bengaleusts, in a small pretty crettture aboat 

the BiKe of a bnre> and has a long bliick-tipped tail. They are 

Lcomuiou in stony ridges where tney live in hulos or burrows. 

I'bey gives good spyrt wbeu coursed with grey-bonuda, from their 

~ and akill in doubling. 

Tbo Lynx, sUihgofh, Folis caracal, though roro, is fotutd both iu 
Okha and in tho Ijfir&ri district under I^avanagar and sometimes 
io JhaLivad. When tamed for the chase it is caiefly used for bare 

The Indian Badger, called ghnrkhodia or tho eorpso digger 

Ullivara. iudicB, is not nnconimon in the Gir and Bards country, 

Vbut from its nocturnal habits, is rarely seen. Tho only variety 

ithat hjLs been seen by Colonel Watson was black underneath and 

above, not more tlmn throe feet long but powerfully built, with 

[long claws, and a broad sijuure bead armed with stout t^^oth. Tho 

i natives declare that when about ia attack, it rears like a bear, and 

that it digs np and dovoora corpsea. It is said generally to attack 

iwomen. Tho hnnters of the Gir tell stories of a large badger which 

lis verj' fierce and dungi^mua. Bnt there seoms reuson to believe 

the common stories about the strength of the badger are 


The Ant-eater, fdndlio, >fani<i cnusicandata, is a cnrions animal 

it three feet long, with a bulky body and strong thick tail, covered 

a tbick anoour of scales each ol wbicli iw from two to tbroo 

tehp>t long. It }mn a very small bead and a long tongue. It digs 

a njund hole in white-ant nests and devours the ini[mte& Judging 

from tlie numlxir of these liolesj tlio ant-eater cannot be rare, bnt it 

^ is seldom 8C«n. 

There are several beautiful Wild Cats, Felis chaus, some of which 
nearly njinniHch tlio lynx in shape, siac, and oolour.and like tho lynx 

1 Iiavo hla<'k (iiiftsuu tlip tipsof rh(fir rodears. The tail is remarkably 
B abort and marked with black rings, and tho hind legs are striped 
P externally and tho fore logs intomally. One kind, probably Felis 

chaos, Btondfl high and is a big powerful animal. Another variety 

^has a haTulKome rod or chestnut collar round tho chest and neck, 
probably FcUb torquata. The Genet, Gcnctta vulgaris, i.s nncommon 
and rarely seen, as it nsnally lives in trees or the roofs of houses. 

House Kate and Field Ratji abound. Field rats of the &iwn-oolotired 
black-tailed snocica nomotimes appoai- in vast nnmbers and cause 
great toss. The year 1614-15 goes by the name of the Rat Year, 
Umlariti Sal, from tho famine csosed by their ravages. In 
1840, alao, rats did great injnry. They saddonly appear about 
harvest time (October-November) in dense masses, past connting, 
as if they sprung from the earth. Nothing can stop them : fires, 
ditches, and water have been tried in vain. Thoy move along a 

Wild Aalmals. 











dupier n. 

Wild ■*"''"»*f 


T«dg« Hog. 




rierntd . 

mighty host, eating all that comes in their way and then sodt 
vanish as if by magic, and for years not one is seen. 

Tliorc are two Tarieties of Mnngootie, no/19, Berpeotes ^ 
one with a white tip to its tail and the other with a black tip. 
are verj nsefnl in Killing snakes and other rormiii, but oro 
enemies to ponltry. 

"Wild Pig, hhund, Sns indicna, ahoond in the Gir forest and 
country, but many are destroyed by the Kolis and others for ft 
and their nnmbers are diminifihiDg mpidly. They are rarely foan^ 
in the plains. 

The Wild Monkey, vdn^ra, Presbytia entcllas, thongh nothing 
like so commoD as in GuJHrAt, is tolerably numeruus in the Qiroir 
range, especially near the Bh&miith temple, where the aaoctica and 
pilgrims feed them. They are also fairly nnmerotis in the Otr 
roreat, and occur in small numbers in the towns and villages of 
the coast- belt aouth-eastof Porbaodar. There are a good many in, 
Somn&th Ptitan. They are a favourite prey of the panther^ who g€ 
nlly catches them by lying in amboah near water. 

The Porcupine, ahedhil, Hystrix lencara, is exooedingly comi 
thrrtughont the province, especially in hilly country and along 
seaabore where they find shelter in tho rocks. They come outi 
night, and seek tueir food in fields and gardens. Porcnpinoa 
very fond of molona and work much havoc in melon beds. The fleah 
of the porcupine is said to be good and in flavour to be not unlike 

The Hedge Hog, jangli ehuta, Einaceufj collaries, is by no means 
uncommon, though it is not often seen owing to ita nocturnal habi^ 
It lives on insects and is harmless. 

The Siimhar, Rutta ari&totelis, is fonnd only in the Gir foi 
Gim^r, and the Barda hills. Occaaionally a fine pair of horns 
be obtained in the Gir, but, as a mlc, the horns are smaller 
those of the Gujarat udmhar. 

The Spotted Deer, chital or pashti, Axis maculatus, is found 01 
in certain parts of tlic Gir fores^t, but vrithiu those limits it is Eaii 
abundant. Aaa rule, Gir cAifuZ, both in sixe and iu length ofhoi 
are finer than tbosc Eonud in Gujari^t. 

The Blue Boll, ir47<;(ii or rot, Portax pictus, used formerly to abat 
all over the province. It ts now found only in K^tiuawar proper and 
in the Gir forest, having been driven out of tho other parts by the 
increased growth of cotton. A few wander here and tnero in other 
places, but they no longer abound as they u&ed to. Excellent shields 
are made of the thick skin of tho chest and neck. 

Tho Antelope, kaliydr, Antelopo bczoariica^ was formerly fooud 
everywhere in large horda, but of late their numbers have been greatly 
reduced. They were and are fomoua for their length of horn, some 
of which are as much as twenty-seven inches in length. Whits 
antelopes, both bucks and does, are occasionally seen and a few have 
been snot. 

Small Deer with four boms^ Tetraoeros quadricomis, as well as 




ther Tarietj, Cermlus anreus, with two horns like those of a doo 
foimd in sniall numbera ia the Gir forest. Thay are rarely 
it Both kinds aro indiDcriminatoly called guntra. 

Tbe Indian Gaaello, ^thinkdnihf Gazolla bonnetii, like the antolope^ 

lerly obonndedj bat ta now oomporatirely rare. Tho homa of the 

sk reach fourteen iuches iu length, and those of tbe doe are 

graceful when polished. It gots its name from its hal>it of 

Mting or sneezing called in GujarAti ehhink Its sroall rostloas 

;k tail gives it the name kdlpunchk or black tail Chhinkdrak 

liaon is dry and inferior in flavoar to antelope venison. 

The VTild Ass, kkar gadh, Eqnaa onager, stands from twelve 

thirteen hands at the witherti. The colour is a pale roan 

ling to whiirO on the belly, breast, and inside of the limbs. 

tnazzlo al*o ia white. A chocolate stripe rans along the back, 

lich becomes very broad over the croup and again gets markedly 

rrower towards the tail. There ih also a stripe on tho shoulder 

the lega ore barred. It is tolerably plentiful in tho Lessor Ran 

a herd of ten or twelve is not uoconunon. In the hot and cold 

tfaer it lives during tho day in tho Ban, feeding on the coarso 

and plants which are found sparingly here and there. At 

fht it comes inland to feed aud rotams earl^ in the morning. 

ring the rains the asses retire to the islands in the Han where 

breed, and where they feed on tho grass which springs at 

•easou. In the cold and hot weather they return to their 

on the ahores of the Ran. Wild aH<>es may always bo seen at 

r, Khodj and tbe neighbourhood. When captured young they 

nme very tame. It eeema probable that iu former times marcs 

put t<) the he-aasos, and that this is perhaps the moaning of the 

^(0 in tho story of Sindbad, which tells uf tho grooms of king 

ikraj (Itfahjiraj) and the marea tethered for the horse which came 

out of the aoa. The duu colour and the marking of the truo 
E&thiAw^ horse, the bay and other shades being due tothe Arab cross, 
A|kMv)y oorrosjKind with the colour and marking of tho wild ass of the 
Hito. A KfLtlii horse with two stripes on the withorsj and a chooolate 
Ht like the wild aas'a, broader on the croup and narrower near the 
^■il, mad with barred legs, won the prize for three^year olds at 
^■loool Kcatinf^V horse-ahow at Ilajkot in. 1804. The wild aaa ia 
Pw7 swift and untiring, only very gfXMl horaea can get near them. 

Soakaa are fairly plentiful throughout the province. The chief 

■fedi are the Indian Python, a^goTt Python inolunis; tho cobra, n&g^ 

Bftjntnnii<li.^iiit; the phnrta, Bchiscarintta; the Whip-anako, Pasaerita 

' luyL-'toruaDS ; the ilh'imun, Ptyas muco^us ; and the andlU or as it is 

commoaly called the two-headed snake, Kryx jonii. 

Tho Land Tortoise ia common, and all rivers abound in fresh 
water Turtle. These turtles are universal scavengura and aro the 
il« of the rivem, in which they grow U* a large size. In the 
' Macho near MAlin, a wounded alligator ha.<! been seen surronnd- 
; 1»y thtwe crBatures, which tore out his entrails while ho was still 
|vc, eulstgiog the original bullet wounds with their homy beaks, 
biis dying agony tbe alligmtor maoagod to reach the shore, where 

Chapter II 

Wild Aninuib. 

WtM Au. 


Land Tot 




iptor n. 



he wti5 found dead half iu and half out of the water sod Burroni 
by turtles. On auothdr occasion, in the Sbatrunji river ne&rTaUjij 
an alligator was shot dead throiiRh the head and sunk. Two or I 
days after his dead body xrm found sun-ouudt-d by turtles. 

The chief Game Birds are the Peacock Pavo cristatua, Bual 
EuiwdotisedwardsiiGrcy Partridge Artigaruis pondicerinna, Pntat 
Partridge Linus pictus, Painted Sand Grouse T^remclea excuB 
Coramou tiaod Grouse Pteroclea fusciatusj ConnnoD bnipo Uallii 
gallinaria, Jack Stiip (lallioaeo galUuulu, Paiutod Snipe Khynohc 
beagaleiisis, the Wild Grey uooso Anser ciuoreus, and a dnri 
kind, as well as the nukla or Spurwinged Goosv Surkidivr 
melanonotus, and the oi-diuary kinds o£ Dut^k aud Quail. T( 
Green Pigeon Crocopus chlorigaster, Uombill, and other bir«la 
found iu the Utr forest, as well as most of the ordinary Indii 

In the gulf of Cutch B^h are chiefly caught in atoi 
endosuree built on the muddy or sandy shore. After tbo tit 
has ebbed the fish are left 8tranded, or in small pools witbii 
the enclysores, whare they are easily taken by hand nets. lor 
Bsh are caught iu bush or thorn enclusurea made furthcT out 
not far al>ove low-water mark. These enclosures are princi|>allj 
made of bdcal branches staked tirmly iu the sand and seci 
by stones. Iu these ihurn enclosures very large saw-fiuh mat 
sting-ray, and occoHionally a dugong Halicor indicua, are caughl 
Sharks of all kiuds ai-e common. Pomphlet are caught in the thor 
enclo^ture?) but rarely enter the Htono uuos. Smaller lieh^ sucliaa 
TOM4 And hboi, are caught in the Abonc cnclotmres. Another vc 
Tftlnable fish is the got machhi frum which ieingluiis is made. 
i» caught principally from iKMits, but i« also found iu tho thora^ 
enclosures- The local names of the chief lish caught in the stone 
enclosures are srri, haria, yoniia, kaku, kachki, sarcar, and kht-tar, 
and, in tho thorn enclosures, 8nrmm, girlnl, ktirli, ijof, kolmi, -muw, 
ehielian, eamra, hornt!, chhiiri, ntdidr, pnhijri, jftdnjliant, <7a», and 
dantio. Oysters, both pearl and commou oysters^ aru fuuud in large 

Of these fish the following are specially worthy of notice : 

KatJddKiLr FUtu. 


muw KMMM. 


SOKfTinc SahK 


Torpedo ... 

Rkai* _. » .. ... 

Ba«r-«ih ... -.. 

A ipBdM OC Slllirw* 

SXf- ::; ::: :: 

JUiijJUat ... 




jr4Ur ... „ ., 
/♦*VW ... _. 


Satlear iMBni*. 

* T1ti( b cunjectiiini. 

I U [imlMln •umD Wr 

BT VBrki^gf durong. bat lh« flrtivnaon iNwrlli* H 
ifl m hanK. 

The pompblet and solo, aud a Fpccics of whitebait called hank or 
fcur, aawell as tho bfioi and kongn, nre delicious eating. Sevoral 
kinds of sharks or »»a^r<i« are also caught. One of the most 
valuable fishes is the got, a specea of siluroid. The swim-bladder 



largely pxportfld for the raanHfactiire of isinglaaa, 
iladder beiogwiinh 'iil. (2 a^.). Oil ia mailu from the dugoiig-, 
I, Kivr.ritsti, uud ukate, aud is sold at ubout six (juurts for 
!«. 1). Tho fisbcrmcn are macli afraid of the torpedo and 

BO Dse of it. Shields are made of walrus skin, and the 
Den Tnako shoes of the fkins of tho skate audeaw-finh which 
ear when fiahiug on tho oyater-ooverod rocks. Tho sliurk fins 
tt and dried* and sold to Navdna^far traders at the rate 
lot four ponnda for 'is. (lie. I). The fishermou dry three 
of fish, prawn, the whitebait or kur, and tho kolmi another 
fish, ^lone of these are swltedj and the prawn is boilud 
it is dried. Other fish are «alt«d and sold bj the fishormeu 
ueighboaring towns and vitlagos. Traders uf different parte 
em reody-saJtod on the spot^ at the rate of forty pounds for 
1 1). Tbe I(aa fishes are of inferior quality and are sold either 
\ qrafc or clos-o by. They have an earthy flavour and aro 
: than tho gulf fishes. The principal kind:^ are bUinffiiru, kalJtiaf 
urakho, jarho, popri, aonia, pdla, »vli, kftumia, ehori, and 
a. On the shores of the Indian ocean, es{)eciatly at Porbandar, 
il>I, and Verdval, the fishermen arc very skilfu] in catching 
I iuAa from boats. The state levies a cess of one or more 
1 every boat-load. Pomphlet, BoIe, hhoi, p^lva or pdia, and 
Vtbe prerailiQg kinds, bnt numorons other species abound. 
told weather large unmbers of fishing buatA come from the 
lb oooat. Daman, and Bassein, and catch fish on the sonth 
etween Velan and JAfnrahad. They dry the fish on the 
employing alarge amount of local labour. They stay for three 

months, and then leave taking the fish with tbom. The 
id chief levies a trifling due from these foreign fishermen. 

gulf of Cambay, little attcutiuu is given to the fisheries, 

excellent lish are found all along the coast, especially the 
vfaich iscommon fn'>m BhAvnagar to Htlthab. Fish are used 
anre in tbe coooannt plantation at Mahava, and in mango 
IB obng the coaei, 

fiwwh water fi^h are inferior in flavour. The morel is by 
onsidered good, bnt most of them have an earthy taste. 
Arties aro canght all round the coast, bnt no use is made of 
■ad tho fiidiormoa usually boil them down to make oil. 


TBombay Gi 

Chapter in. 


Ctnsw Dvtwb. 





Tni earliost date For which population figures are aTailable is H 
In that year the population of the whole peninsula onder 
Political Agency waa ostimated at 1,475,700. The 1872 c©j 
showed an mcronao from 1,475,700 to 2,318,642 or 6712 per ooi 
The 1851 census showed an increase of 1*08 per cent, the toi 
populfttion of tho provioco amounting to 2,343,899 or 113 to 
aqaaro mile. 

Of 2,843,899, the total population of the province, Hint 
noinborod 2,038,799 (males 1,060,857, fomnloB 977,942) or 86"! 
per cent ; Mnaalmilna 803.537 (mnles 15G,973, females 14fi,5e4) 
12-95 percent; Christians 605 (males 457, femalofl 148); P^ 
489 (malea 285, fomaloa 204] ; Jews 1-15 (males 60, females ' 
and thoro were 324 (males 151, females 173) Others, 
percentage of males (1,316,803) on the total population was 51* 
and of females (1,125,096) 4800. 

Of the total population, 2,250,727 or 96'02 per cent were bora^ 
in the pruviuco. Of the 93,172 who were not bom in the provn 
60,629 wore bom in CJujarSt and 14,679 in other ports of 
Bombay Presidency. Of the rest 5749 were born in Benifa] and 
Central Provinces, 4265 in Kajputdna, 4753 in the Korth-W* 
Provinces Panjaub and Oudh, 241 in Madras, 2.^83 in Aral 
Afghanistan and Beluchistan, 78 in the United Kingdom, and 195' 
in Africa. 

Of tho total population 942,976 or 4023 per cent vere below 
fifteen years, 754,lSl or 32*17 per cent between fifteen and thirty, 
491,165 or 20-95 per cent between thirty and fifty, and 155,577 osj 
6-63 i>er cent above fifty. 

Of 1,218,803, the total male popubtion, 578,533 or 47-46 per 
wore married, 571,011 or 46"85 per cent were never married, and 
69,259 or 568 per cent were widowed. Of 1.125.096, the total femal* 
population, 573^719 or 50-9!l were married, 38.5,228 or 34'23 per 
were never married, and 166,149 or 14'76 per cent wore widowc 

Of 1,218,803, the total male [wpulatiun, 1,052.777 or 86-37per« 
were illitorato, 131,324 or 1077 per cent were instructed, and 34,702 
or 2'S2por cent were under instruction. Of the l,125.(t06 females 
1,121,356 or 99-66 per cent were illiterate, 2692 or 0-23 per cent wi 
instructed, and 104^ or 0'09 per cent were under instruction. 

1 Contrilmtffd hy Colan«l L. C Barton, Pohtionl A^nt, KitthiAvlr. 

* Two KttcmptB were m»de, in 1807 uilI in IS31 , u> ntimaLc Lbe popoktion of 
prnrince. In 1807. est-ludiiig JifamlNtd (Ikhftmuidnl uid BAbriivAd, tbo u»tiuU4 
wu Mtiinatel bI 1,!)75,«» wiuIb wid in 1831, wccluding OkhAiDUuUl aad J4far*t 
at 1,759,280 eoula, but t)i« ntsnlti verv coiiaiilcrKl untrastvrortby . Uor. 8o 
XXX VII. 2, TlMi Urge inrnwao, niN»rIy SSfl.OOO. found mX tfee^ ISjS ceoiWB 
that tfaa 1812 lettiriu w«r« not •ran »|)preuaMt«ly cotnol. 




The Dumber of iuBnn persoas waa returned at 9317 or 039 por 
cent of the popiilntion. Of theae 645 or 6"02 per cent were of 
nnsoand miuu, 1051 or 17'72 per cent were deaf aud mute, C500 or 
69"7tj p«r cent were blind, and 521 or 5"59 per cent were lepers. 

Of the male popnlntion 52,+i6 or 4-30 por cent were engage<^ in 

serrice, learned professions, literature, and art; 9144 or 075 

ent in domestic service ; 415,404 or 3'5(i por cent in trade and 

commerce ; 435,221 or %'70 per cent in agricolture; ]70,07UorI4-44 

per ceDt in crafts and indnstriee; 502,516 or4r23pcr cent, including 

children, in indefinite and unproiluctive oconpations. 

The following are the chief census details of the four ndministrativo 

dinsions or prdnU. Sobatu, with an area ofabrtut b22i) sijunro miles 

1205 villages and 175,5;J4 hooscB, has a population of 6tJ9,780 or 

27*29 jper cent of the popolation of the province ; EAlar, with an 

'anm ot about 7060 square miles 1227 villagca and 194,727 houses, 

^basa population of 684,327 or 20'19 percent; GoniLr^D, with an area 

|«f about 4208 square miles 99ii villages and Io4,li32 huut>es, bus a 

[popalatiou of 5S0,103 ur 24' 7/i per cent ; and JhAlavAd, with an 

tarea of about 4:192 Kquare miles 702 villages and 140,138 honses, 

[]|M a population of 439,629 or 18*75 per cent.' 

Xittlo is known of the oarly history of Kdthiiwir, and the origin 

[of the earlier tribes is lost in romance and fable. KfithiAwar waa 

; probably orig^iually inhabited by a few wild Knlis and Bhils, over 

^irhom the Ahira or bbepherds gTa<lnaIIy gained control. ^_^ 

According to the 1881 censn-^ ^ii.- M ij|nit pnj;,iilnliui. "',000 

'of whomC7,600weremalesaiiil '■! IK) fomak^ji. Tborock lUKcription 

at the base of the Girn^ in u.i i.i: < showit that more than 2000 

.years ago (b.c. 22&) the great Gupta king Asboka ruled over 

Sorashtra ae well as over Central lD(Ua. 

The ChaVda'8 (882) were probably the first cf tlio great Rajput 
cinns to iuvadu the puuinHuIa. lliey came from Gujari^t, and 
established themselves at vanouH plaeeR on the coast, notably at 
DvArka, Patan, SomnAth and Din. Though their political power 
haM long passed away, Ch&rdAs are atill found huru and there as 
upper landholders or giriMui«. 

k After the Chavdis came the Chudasama's (2775), an offshoot 
^■pf the Samma tribe, which reigned »i >iagar Thatha in Sindh.^ This 

' Tbe uvft ileUili an takeo from tb« return Bnpplii>d by the Topognpbioal Sorrnr. 
The pepulfttion aod vilU^ AetMlfl giron kbore «t pogca 6 xad 7 wo from the 1S72 
C«Oxuii : tliv iliitaili iu iSiiM pura «ro fruiq the 1681 c«nnu. 

* It iv ilooliU'u) M what extict perioil tha Chadteamfla «t)t«ro(I tlie provinoe, bat it 
wu pnilttbl^ in the Krcotb or oighU) century. Their munc li Dommonty deriTed 
IruDi L'huil**Ch&i)<lrii, whniaaftkLto hftve been their i:hi<>f when they ent«r«) the 
fMoinsutii. Their Unit Mat of goranmeDt «u VimuMth^i, tlio roodem VuiUili, 
uul tho) on Bin to h»ve had grmt MCAndaw^y in thr paniamulA. In Inter times, owui£ 
icr onnun^y owing allcKiMKie to tbe kiaffi of Anbilvi(U-Pit«n in Onjartt, tbor 
Irulrrl fur At ICMt 4CVCJI 1(1101 eight centnrieB after the fall of Anhilvida, jutd, thougn 
fjMiii>it>l ShAli (l-HO) huinUed the R« of Jnnignil, it wa« not until the time of 
IMabmu'l Ik'Kada {U70] that th«ir rale wu Giuully overthrowu. Even Umo, if wo are 
|la> Uhcvc liivAo FlAnchodjt'i Kirikh-i-florBth, their doac^udantj lingarodu tributary 
xllonU hnl-ting lui csUte nndor the uiltAiis of Cjujarit, until the final oontjiurt of 
;ejaijit by Atbar iu JM3. CokQel J. W. WatMo. 

Chapter ' 
Population, j 

C'«iLiua Details; 






rBomhay I 



Chapter ZIZ. 

Raj rim. 



tribe wtabliBhod itself bi QirnAr in the hoArt of tho peninsnlA, 
mlod Sorath imtiljn a.d. 1472, Jnu&gad whd taken bj JUahmud Shah 
Begada of Alimadabad and the lout of tho local rulers, R« Id^ndlik, 
Burrondorod himself to the conqueror and forBook tho faith of hit 
Others. Sorath bccrjne Mo«lum tcrritor}-, and Rs MAndlik, sft«r 
living; a dishonoarod Itfo at Ahmadaltad, was on his death ru'iM^d to 
till) nink uf a saint under tbu titlu of Kh6a Jahin. Thoogh fev 
Cbiid^mAs are left, tho daughters of the ohut are held to be fit 

brides oven for ro^ houBoaxJ 

The noxt. clan to invade the province were t}io Jethva'a who tn. 
1H8I uniiiU.-red 1GU3. Thuirungiuiaubacuru, but Lheypnjbably came 
from the north, and Gfbi cstabliohtid tUomselvcfl near Morvi. Thencv 
they sproad westward along the coMt, captured Drdrka from tha 
Oh&vdfis, and then, moving to the sonth-weet, established theuisdna 
in the strip of land between the Barda tulls and tho eea. They never 
paned far inland. Their first capital was at Ghumli. FiY^m Ohnmli 
thej moved to ChhAya, and, in the decline of M u^almAn power, esta* 
bljshed themselves at l*orbandar. This has siuct- b«eu their capital, 
and, thotigb tho tribe is compnratively small, it is distinpiished from 
the other ruling riK^es of Kathi^wir by being united under one head. 
The JothvdtH, who, according to the last infanticide returns, have a 
popnUtion of tif>4, claim a distingnished origin. Makaradhvaj, the 
founder of their clan, waa, they say, the son of HauamAn, the 
nioiikey-god, and of a female alligator, and, until recently, it w; 
said nnd bclicvod that as a mark of their descent the Jothvis 
born with toils. 

The Solanki (506) and Vala (000) Iriben of Rajputs also cl 
to belong to KathirtwAr. But tl; ': ' i ii ^Ii;rnt fonndatic 

and they hare almost entJrelv !■ ^^ "! nu i^e«l into 

and more powerful tribes. WhaLevHr iua_v Imvo bocu Iheir cl 
to sovereignty, the Cha dAaanuts and JothvAB appear for se^ 
centuries to have divided^ between them all the we gt of 
peninsula. They not only carried on wars against each other, 
were anbjccted to frequent incursions from tho Hercc TiirtAr ho 
which poui-ed down from Central Asia and overran Hiudustin. 
K.v. 1021, tho great temple of Somndth was captnrcd and pill 
by MahTiHid of (jihazni, in spite of the gallant resistance of 
Qindasamis, the Chivdas, and other Bajputa who flockad firou 
and hw to defend tbuir sacred Bhrine. 

Tho Vaja'B (25») and Va'dhelB (336) who aro branches of 
grout liMthud clan, entered tla* pruvinco about the thirteenth oeal 
from RajputAna. Tho Vitlhels treacherously drove out the Chdi 
from Dvarka and Bet, and established themselves thoro, while 
Vaj&a settled on the south coast, their leader Vujo founc 
Vejolkot on the BAval river in the sonth of the CKr. From Veil 

* nwlsDdlonb or ^diida of Uudfia u« now tb« prindp&l nproscnUtlrM <4 
•odeiit rojrftl noo, *"" 


^diidM of UulAn u« now tb« prindp 
The StTvaris, RAijAdto. BAIw. and i 
m to be »l tM Lgnu'riM mu which 

otben are also prot 
ThojT claim to be »l th* iMnax i*ci nbU Wbich Kri»hiui lOiraujj, i 
which the Bhltia of Jnulmer wid the JideJAa u* bnoobe*. (Colonel W&Uoaj. 
ThAkon of CborviU ud Kwotl «1m ehim to bi dncanduiU of the ChadiMnuU. 



^Utey coDqaorod Una, and spread Lhoir rule east to Jhaujhnier and 

the Mankri river. Liiter on, (Jiey were much harassed hy the 

I y»nfWi(jc aod 8ou>;bt tho prutectkm of Bh&viiagar, where they are 

[now found as smaU laudholders. 

ilu: Jhala 8 (17.014) were probably tho nest to iiivado Kiithti&trar. 
I Their aucustor Uirpiil betun^'^d, ii is said, to a Uakvaua famil/ of 
Cntch, who in the thirteenth century moved to tiujar^t, and tiiok 
service with Karon Ghelo, the last Vigheht prince of Auhilv^kla 
Patan.* lliat chieftain probably gavu Uirjuil a grant of territory 
on tho east of tho Kan of Outch, and ho CArablishod his roAidcnoe 
at Pfitdi, Tlie next capita! of the clan was at Kuva, M-henco boicg 
dnron by Mahmad lie^da of Unjarat, in 1 188 they estabtishea 
thamwlvea at Halvad, and in 1800 ugnin moved tho acat of 
I govurntueat to DhrAngadra.* The coinioon derivation of the name 
i Jbila is faneiful. Hirpal'a sons were in danger of being trampled 
by on elephant, when their mother snatched them op and carriud 
Ehem to a place of safety. From this they were called Jh&la or caught 
op. Tho tribe hntii maintained iUsfilf in Katliiilwiir^ and, frnin 
the parent intern of Dlirangtidni, liesidcH other small estates, hare 
Kpruog the independent chiefshijis of V^nk^cr, Wadbw^, LunbdJ, 

^ of the ShAU» came the Ja'deja'a. This tribe, 

■witii 1* hLri'ii ' iho l-SSl rotame, of 2!(,:i5H, i», like tho 

Cbnd&tiamn&, at. ' it of (he grea.t Samma race that mled in 

Sindh and claimed descent from one of the four Jidavs." The 
Samnida ruled iu Sindh for many years, and were probably driven 
south by tho incursions of the TnnArs from Central Aaia. They 
Mtablijihed thoir rule in Cutcb, and thenoe ponetratfd into 
KAthiiiwAr.' It i» said that about A.l>. 13^, tlikhmaui Samma led 
a Itand na far as Ghumli in the Banla hi!l», then the capital of the 
jethva^, and destroyed it, but did not gain a permanent footing in 
the cenntty. 

Tn !.^17 Cntoh was divided botwccn two Jddeja chieta, Jim 
llaTnirji uud Jdju IijUyuI. ICaval treacherously killed Uamirji and 
teiKcd on hia dominions. Hamirji'a bod Kheugkr flud to Abmadabad. 





' tDrpil Dev nadnnH gnat B«rTi«e* la Kwrui GWo the ImI of tfie AnhUviJa 
BDiroKt^M (i.v. tSOO) uid rv<.-«irri] B larw tntvt vf vuuuliy rn>iu U»t ruler. 
TliM tm-t wm« ckUed JtoUvatl, aod iaoluacd not uuly thv jvirtion of &ar&aliti« 
Ml i:*ll«il kt the jircwnt A%y, but mut of Viramgdm aod part uf thn CliMUvAl, 
Endv-tiRi: tb» tovno of Vinuiidlm Mill Minilal. AJimm) ^hili of (lujnMt uowjtNrod 
■ltd atmQTcil Vinini^;irii, uk) tiio JlutUa reiinHl to ("itdi, thwuv* to Kuka or Kua, Hid 
fiuaUv 1.. H»Ina<^ i:< :<-.ncl J. W. WMooti. 

* Omlortbe M<if[liali>, Uio presciit pnMcasionB of the chief of Dhrin|jiMlni wrro 
beLl hy ft MabamniM'Ua aitblv naiiuiil 5t.-tgmr Ali Khin, Mid llftlvftd iiwU wu named 
Mnt .i!iun.Min»,l(«r. CuloOel J. *tV. AV»Uoii. 

■ iiUVfl UMfMM from tho doetniction of SomsAtti- Pit^n nn ihe^ »nutli 

<«ii- iwdr in till! Inltuloaa iigcii, «n(l took rrfiiKv wiUi ifingUi Mil* iu Siiulli. 

One '•'' lU'ii aIw-iii aho bid Id Iter ntoatU, ■vrtt* taller .Uiirj a, tromjdda the luoatb, 
uil ruled over Smdh. Uuvcrrmiviit 8«leutioii», XX.X1X. 207. 

* Llhlut l'fai.Ui>i ia mppOMil to h»vo oomiJotod tJio oonqneat of Catch bi A.n. 13'JO. 
wu succevileil Itf 111! ncp]t«w Lhuivuro, And oo PnDTMv'a ilcMtl) lii* widuw aeat to 

L41Uia tliu Mn u Jido. Fram this t4iiw tba SammAa uftlknl the 

(Bombay Oax«ttc<r, 


Chapter m. 


and ingratiatiD];^ lumeelf with the roigninfr Sultan, ^tah ollt 
to Bottle at Mun-i in K^thi^n-iir, aud was honourod with the title i 
R^. From Morri Riio KUeuj^ir attAckod hiu node R&i 
nud finally, in 151^, drove him from Cutch. JAm Rdval aouj 
refuge in K.Athiaw:6r, estebh'shed Navdnagar, and j^duallj apt 
Lis power over the whole of Qorth-west Kathijiwflr.* Since Si 
RAval established himself is Kathidwfir, Dhrol, BAJkot, (jonc 
Virpurj and several minor estates have sprung from the pai 
Btem. In addition to those, the states u£ MurW and M^ia 
ruled by Jddeja chiefs, but they are ofTshuota from Cutch and 
from Navanajffar. The Morvi and the Malia chiefs are dinger 
deecendauta of lUo Itavaji of Citti.-h. who was killed in 1097 by hi» 
younger brother Pnij^'-inalji. Kavaji's eon KAuyoji 08tnMi.-*hi'd 
himself ill Morri, and KAnyoji's son Morji sepamtod and becamu chiel 
of M^lia. The J^deja tribe baa thus acquired nearly one-third of 
KAthiiwAr^ and Nar&nagar, Oondal and Mon'i are among 
richest and most considerable states in the poninsala. 

Tn fomior times the Jadejfis were nol-od for the praotice 
female infanticide. The origin of this nnnatnml cnstom is envelot 
in the cloud of romance and fable which usually enshrouds n( 
handed down from time immemorial. The received acconnt ia t1 
a Rajput chief of the Samn\a tribe had an only danghter who 
rery beantifut and accomplished. Wishing to find her a suitol 
match, he sent bin family priest to travel in search of a youth wl 
should be the girl's equal, not only in rank and age, but in boaii^ 
of person and in mental accomplishments. The BrjLhman travvlU 
in vain and returned anftucoeHHful, reiwrtiug to his mast'er th^ 
Buch a parac;on was not to be found. The chief was in despair, 
among ItajpuLs a gruwn-up unmarried daughter is a disgrace. _ 
consulted the RMLnmn, aud the Bralimait advised him to put his 
da»ight«r to death. This advice the chief very rclnctantly followed, 
aud thenceforward the J&dej&a adopted the practice of fumalo 

Whether or no this story is true, it is a fact that when the British 
Governmont firet interfered in the affairs of KAthiiiwdr, the practicse 
of infanticide was universal among the JAdoja, Sumra, and -IcthTa 
tribes of Bajputs. Their only excuse for so barbarous a crime was 
the ptoa of cnstom ; and in the eyes of the surrounding pi>|H]latioa 
custom was considered a sufficient eicnse. Brdhmanswhowoiildnot 
destroy the most hurtful reptile, and Jains, who cover their moutha 
that they may not iujure the smallest insect, looked on with apathy 
from generation to ^^neration, never raisiing' their voice in behalf 
of the helpless creatuixw, who, year after year, were sacrificed 
the ahrinc of superstition and pride. 

It is probable that the Jiidej^, before they were driven 

I After tli« MnitluU canq^Dciit of On^r^t tbe J4m« l>oc«tn« tribuUiy, wad Vavi 
WM nion tb&n onca oi^ccipied by ttic Uynet of the AhiuAdabad \\aeroy. lu thft 
of AsnnRiob {16A8-17U7) NftTAnrngnr wu ixmqiiered by lli« governor oi JunJigad i 
Tnsd« an unporiid distnct or lUcUta Kiritilr. It was alUrvranla nstond to its i 
rulcn. Colonel J, W, Wktaoa. 

Kndli and while strnggUng with AIuhammadaQ inradora, wore cut 

>ff fr<MD intercoarse witb their kiuiired tril>es in Rujput^us, and 

were thus debarred from inarryiag their daughters. Under these 

circamstauces, they may have ruivort«l to the expedient of killing 

\eir danghters rather than faco the fiharae of leaving them 

itnarned. When once estabhshcd in Cutch ami K^thiflwdr tba 

isity for so rovoltiug a practico coasod. Bat by that time tha 

ntorn hiid become universal, and, aa the practice saved maoh 

_ )ablo and coat, the voice of uaturo wati attilod, and fur hundreds 

of yeara Bcarcoly a daiif^hter waa roared in the tribo.' 

This monstrous oril did not escape the Itritish authorities Tvhen 

lh>-y began Co examine tho condition of K^thi&w^r, and Colonel 

Walker turned alt the resouroea of hia vigomua mind to suppress, 

and, if possible, root out the practice. Ho roasonod with the chiefs 

b^nd people, ho pointed ont the onormity of tho crime, and quotod 

Wme paasago in tneir aacred hook^. ' To kill a Br&hnian in equal to 

^tillm^ a hundred cows, and to kill a woman is equal to killing a 

hundred nrabmans, to killa child is equal to killiuga hundnid women, 

kill a hundred obildrcti is au offence too heinous for compariBon.' 

oxertiona triumphed over all obstacles, and twenty-eight of the 

icipal JjSdeja chiefs aiguod an agreement, in which they promiaed 

renounce infanticide. But the growth of centuries could not bo 

onco suppressed. It took years of trouble to root it out aud it 

mainly owing to the exertions of Mr. Willonghby, when PoU- 

Ageut in K&thiiSw^ (1831>188&)j that infanticide l-cascd. That 

ict'r gave rewards to those Rajputs who kept their daughters 

s, he pnnixhcd with severity all who were caught breaking the 

r. and ho appoiutod censors^ who yearly viHitcd all families in the 

ribeft given to tho practice, and rocordod all bii-tha and deaths. 

it first the excess j?f Iwys over girls was astonishing, but ye»r 

" M year a more hc-altby rcKuk was obluinod, and now the annual 

1 show an equality of births. Fines levied from rlioae who broke 

le rules are ci-edited to a fund called the lufauticide Fund, aud, 

■ of this, dowries arc assigned to tho daughters of those who are 

poor to betroth their children without assistance.' 

Chapter m. 


biiBotneoMHrytoiIcKnbotho modn or killing Die unfortun«t« rJiildrpn. Tb«T« 
I ■ev«nl MMiiodB. It UiiotJifflL-uU tokill a newborn cliild. Wlat Inbtior m 
B iu erwaliint; k UowarT taiA a JAd«j* chief on boing ukod wbat nivana vwm 
[tlflyftd. Tbr crane wm> iarmvVf no uniTdnwl, Uuit difMUv a fr-rntUo \nlaxA wia 
1 WM liillial by tbe if(uii«ii of the huuM, uuletw tbe itiXhrsr hiul jjivco exptaM 
p Itvforebuid tlut it ihould be sMrad. md asch an urdur wm rax«ly ^v«n. Ilia 
f-nevcmw Uie infftot bimMlf :no ^wkvk prebiadnl to be aocoDKioua of (Iw 
' HAair. iktu\. if uiy dug rcnturuil to mU biiu tlie raaalt of bia wifo'i pr«fiUlioy, 
> ktuwcr WAS " ni>Ut(nK." The event wtu alwnyB iNUNod over in ailenoe, ood ovoa 
_ MDHgirl'f UfewwapMvd, there wm no rojoicing. It wiur»rely iad«wltii*t« Jft«i«ja 
Muot »puvd hia luoMlboStiun-afi,. (.'oiniicl Walker could only diMcivvr Sva cases, aod 
U< UMe two only ftpiiear t^ btve •[iniDfi from nfttural MirMtioD. In one of tbeM tba 
**>LT waa ft {trufnued robber, it barborisa in mann«c and B[ipc»nui«c, yet he must 
tkkil n £«nt]o aid bnvo heuY, for Iw uved bis danghttr agaiiuit the dubom 
"" 'era of hia tribe. 

sach nouui «er« aeoeuary in oonMquenc* of tiie tmportaaca attached by 

■I to hia dinghtor raakin^j a vmiA matcli. It haa alwaya been an object M 

_. B for the tritw lo marry ihuir ilau|;htera into bibber familm than tboM from 

^^8wy tako their wivn. To ;{aiii ihia object they havo a* a rale bean obliacd 

' (p ve duwriee mnch bayood tli«i[ ro^aii*. Tbry aro now beoomiog more aeauoM : 

1013— la 

h)ipt«r ni. 


,00ier DrUtt. 

Tho OohilS (7453) ore tbo fourth greAt division of tho Rajpot 
which still liiilils sway in KAthiAwAr. This tritw claims descent fron 
ShilivAhftn, a contemporary of Vilcmm&itt, who dknl fifty-six yew* 
before tho Christian era. The txibe lived in Marw^ for many 
hundred yearn, and, at length, abont a.d. 1290, were driven oak 
by their rivals the lUthodft. Thoy paAsed into Onjar&t ander a 
leader named Sejak. Sejak married his daughter to tho etdtivt 
Bon of Ra Karitt, tho Ghuddaama sovorciffn of Sorath, who f^t« 
him a few rilla^s in the east of his dominions. Here Sejak 
estabUshed himself, and hailt a town which ho named aft«r hiniseU. 
fiejak left three Bona Hjinoji, Sfirangji, and Shah^ji. iUDojt 
the eldest onoceeded to his father's e^^tate, and, in addition, 
received the district of Umrala fram the Ra of Jundgad. Ri^noji 
IB the direct ancestor of the honsc of BhAvua^r, HAran^i of 
Ldthi, and Shahjtji of Pilit^na. RAnoji'B son Mokhraji concjnoped 
the island of I'crim and spread bis power to the south ooaaL of 
KAthiAw^, He was defeated aJid slain at Perim by the eraporor 
Muhammad Toghlak (1326.1361), bnt was succeeded by his non 
I>uiigai-ji, who was captured by the Muhainmodans and reiutitated 
by them.' The younj^er son Semamingji fled to Gujarflt and 
afterwards became RSja of BAjpipla. Many amall ostales in 
Gobilvdd aro offKboots from the parent stemj bat in addition to Lh«ao 
mentioned tho only important cetato ia VlUa,' whose capital is tk^ 
flpc icnt citj of Vallabhipn r.* flH 

The I^nna'rs (0077) do not aprtaar to have inv&ded K^hiitwffi 
in force. According to the RAs Miila, at some remote peri'^d 9000 
Sodba Parmtirs came from P&rkar during a limine, aud *->- • 1 

tEemselvus near 8i(eta. The Vighela, who then ruloil at \'> ; : i, 
employed Majo their head, to attack the Bhil chiefa Aho and )*b&to 
who lived on the banks of the Sdbarmati, hoping that the attempt 
would end in disaster. But tho Sodlula were successful, and too 

Wadhw&n rhie-f jTAVt^ thflm thn fniir (lii>>;yi<*i.H iff Mniji 'RHtoi Chota 

and Chobir i. OFtbese. at present the eata^ oi Mmi iJS e is 
by yarma rs. 

In addition to tho dans mentioned abore, mombera may 

they u« cvrtBQing nuurugs oxp&iwct, and un i^rMUig to rvooirti hi»b«»ds for 
tbtaTgirbi from chMe tribu from vhich thny )^%•n htea •eoa«ton«d to taltc witm. 

> Taft MuhuninAdAa oonquMtof Unjiu^t ntul KAlbiiw4r depriTfed the GohiU ol 
much ot th« luiil thoy h»A ftcjaireil, but nt tlic ooIUpw ol Uia Hoglud ampir* 
Ui«y recovered tbvir old poawMipui ftod mucli buidoa. 

* It is prolmblv that tb« VUa tribo ot Rajpat*, tba head of which ii aaw rappmaotBd 
bjr ttto j/mMd* oi [>h&nk , tm iwnnukti of toe ChAvd& mien of ValUbhipor. 

* Tbo Vfcl4s claim to bo of tlio Qtm-bom or Saiynmiuhi bnuicb ol KiduitriB. Tlrtnr 

1>vds and local hiitorinDs are exoowitely iitnursiit , but Lh«r« *Minui naaaa to boliavt 

, ad tl 
!iU-T>nr. It in _ 
NOdhudMiiof NotliirtlUi, vrbo. aa Mubammaalnn hi>>torinnii ontion, came to 

that tboT bavo djdma to this honoar, and that they are tho o«i(uial stock, oj tlM 
tfttnoaa sinodia hooaeof lM<.'T>nr. It in poaaiblo that thoy tuay im doacoadaata of 


Hotbad waa wbaeqnoncly'alnin in bntUo witli au iinny lod l>y hU father's mti 
bat hit deteeii<UnU mar hav« survived and coma south, and eithar [ovnded i 
dectroycdtbo kingdnm ofVnllabhi. If th« Vdlda bo doscondod h«ai tbo danghter 
of tho taat Saaiinian VauUgard, who » waid to havo on»e to India aft«r her fathrr'a 
doath, tbny vonld atill protttbly bavo retained tho worahiu of the ann. if nnt of fire 
also, and being of meh nahed Itneago wonld in all probikDtlilnr have claiincd the nv 
aatbe origin of tbnr ract. Thay datm to have foundod Vila, Whtn expelled 
from Vila they reioDod for nany nan at Talnja and Bhadrtir, %aA gavn to that 
part of tb« pcauuiui tho oamo of YAkk (VAl Kihetn). CoI<m»1 J ■ ^V. S\ ataoo. 




alt the groat Rajput tribes and sub-tribca, YdgheUs^ 
Id, Makv^tuU, D&bhis, Solankia, Riltbods, BhAtis, JAdAva, 
i, Moris, llehvars, Gholota, and Narodila.' The intertriboJ 
ttvi^iuQii, which generally take the driuo of &a iudividual, aa 
lyitaia from Maya, Jotbauia from Jutha, are very numonnw and 
^rplfixtng*, and in some caocs have been obscnrod by lapse of time, 
^itajput can marry a womaa of the same family stock or gntra. 
ITS are all of one stock, and tnembera of that great bousej 
ioy J^dejiiA, ChudAsamas, or BhAtis, cannot, or rather oagbt 
not, to iDtermarry. A Jadeja should not marry a Chudj&«ima 
wuinan, akhuugh the tribes separated in prolii»toric tirneK. Many of 
the divisions of a tribe take their samanic from some didtingiiiahed 
ancestor. Thus ibe descendants of Lriikha arc Lakh^iu, of Deda 
ad4uiE, and soon. This add» aaothcr element of oonfuBiou to a 
ibject, which is Hufficiently intricate, oven though the great tribal 
ti".-'--r- nre alone kepr ■:: ■,■■■■-. _ 

the mlin? Ii.> 

u KiithiAwAr arc the JAd eifa, 

The JotliTaa altine have coutiniie*rth« 

m oao_ia 

dividual, the BAirn of Porl 
retimine hoaaes have eata 

i^ (jubiU, 

ip of the tri 

the otliers, cadeta of the reigning ^oaaes have eata^ahed 
lemsolvos 04 independent chiefs. It has always boon tfao custom 
_ L Kajput bouses for eaoh son to receive a eortain portion of laud 
\a his patrimony. In aroordanco with Hie rank and position of tho 
chief, tho number of his sous, and thoir relations with himj the 
share has rariod from a district to a rillage. A favourito sou is 
Kimrdednithalargoestato, while a rel>ellioLi8 or distasteful one oomea 
badly off. As thcMte sons have again to divide their lands among 
Uieir >0D8, a rapid breaking up of estates would have taken place, U 
fh» law had always been followed. But the chiefs were always at 
warfare with their neighbours, and, in tho confusion that followed 
thebro»k-up of Muhammadjin power{1707), and the iucursious of the 
llarAth&s (1736)^ many of the most enterprising younger branohee 
enlarged their borders, not only at the expense of their feudal lord 
aod bruthniD, bat at the expense of neighbouring tribes. Tbe weak 
Mid timid either lost their lands or assigned most of them to 
f£saoe powerful neighbour, keetMng enough for subeiintence, and 
Iheinselves under the protection of the chief to whom 
d assigned their lands. This cIohh were denominated 
itjirihj.iji , tu contr a J tiftiociiou to tho tjirdsiii^ who still kept their 
us and the jurisdiction belonging tg lUem. 

The male members of tho family of a reigning ohief ore 
klledtbe Bhi 

IS cal 
led property. 

talker uppeanMl at the beginning of the present century. Whole 
3(8 were in diapate and the oiSy remedy was to reooguize the 

' lUtiy nprcwnUtivM of tbua aiicicDt rftcea have be«D nduowl to mctiUI Bcrvico. 
'"in»n hunbla peuuitpriHtriekon witb ocJUOulj ^'^ enoogb to support tluir 

■ Thla U genn«)l/ oUlwl ivi^w/ mnU or akuU •Uro, Uul i*. Uia piitriiiiQoy writtw 

OUptor ni. 

Other Tribtt. 



[Bombay Qaist 



'Chsirter m. 

possessions of eacb chief as they stood at the time. Thi'fi princi 
Doa been adhered to ercr since. No chief can claim land held 
mnotfaer, on tho score that it was in hta pusseatuun before the date 
Walker's settlement in 1807, and noono can be diapossoased uf 
which ho can show was in bis hands at the time of that Mttlemi 

This was the basis of the fainuos arrDugBiuent mado by Cot 
Walker to sapersedo the practif« of colled ing the Manitha tr 
by military furco. The chiefs agreed to pay the G&ikff&r a 
yearly tribute t hrough the liritish Ooverii meni) uud to respect 
other's and their mider-botdora' possessions. But this a^p-eemei 
was D Ot obeorve d. and a few years later it became necessary 
establish a direct supervision over the peninsula, lu 1820 lui om< 
of Government stylini a Political Agent was placed in KfUhi^wtlr. 
spito of his eSorta to luaintain order, iOUhiawAr, for iitnuy years^ 
one of the most lawless countries in the world. Tho chiefs eooght 
every pretextof harassing and oppros.sing tho nndcr •landholders, snd 
the undur-holders, when they found redress denied tbem, went iutu 
outlawry .' Abandoning their villaf^es and taking refuge with some 
noighWnring chief, thov ihenw stUliod furth.anddUl as much mischief 
iUjtbey could to the ImiAs and subjects of their oppressor. They burnt 
whole villages, murdered and mutilated wujaen and children, 
carried on these barbarities nntil they forced their chief to come 
t«nns, and restore thom tlio Isuds of which they had 
dkpossessedj or to which they laid cluim. Tliis going into outlawry, 
or hah-'irvnfut as it was termed, was a recognised institution. 
The outlaw aud his followers might he killed in fight, and this was 
a chalice for which they were always roady. But, if he lived, be 
in tho end gained his purpose. Whatever crimes he might commit, 
his lauds were never forfeited and he was always regarded as- a 
hero, not as an assassin. The right of asylum was i-laimod and 
recognized by all landliolders in the province, and at lust, -so 
universal did the cnstom become that a man would go out fur tho 
most trivial cause, a squabble- about a woman or about ornaments, 
or a dispute about a cow or a buffalo. Between 1850 and I8t>4 
thousands of these outlaws roamed over the country, striking 
villages, and working all sorta of mischief. At let^h it was 


> Tli« right of revcngirg ppreoiUkl wroitj[a ia nuiutAinetl by itU, and wbera 
|Mu-tiM from thoir tiilatii:y iriilnbe kU the prcjnttici-s of tliifir caflt«, wu duty B^CPCVi] 
n oft«a eKctteil. Tliu right of siTurclmg proWotK'u lu fagitiviw Bud onmiuAla u iji 
auotbor rooMrkalilv fmtura intba •ocJcty. It ia s phiidple of bonoor which ta 
th«m to allbnl nratectton. and that {ffoteclion is »cI<lou) or iMv«r vioUtcd. 
c«rUiuty of Bnding pixytcction whoraver tituy iti»>- Uk« mfugo, joibrxl to 
disbonoar to thoir ca«te krA pnifeauun of subniittiu); to uiy pennoal wroajf m inji 
wiUiout revHugiuEtt, uv powerrul incitenootKtotbe ItAJpotB or giratiAt ta rt^ 
to oiitlAiny or oahhTvaiia. Ttiis leiBl IB derived from ttahar without Mid C(f4 
rotuA, aiid implies that the l>cr»oa acta hnpropn'ly. It imiHiata in makina U 
i)e|Kiu(Iaiitii nnit tlivir Datire villitj;* which ia snficr«d to rtmain waatc, W^nUfti 
Uudlord with his brethr«a retires to aome ajijlsm whcnc« he tnayc&riyoal 
revoa^ Md daprodativiiH with tDipnniCy. Being well aoquaioted with th« eooot 
and til* rftdrasB of grii^vaniir^ Wing a oontmon cauao with the isfcrrior membcra 
9Ttsy family, he baa Ittlle tu f«ar froni thoas who are not in the itninrdiat« int«n_. 
of hia «n«>By, and he i«. Id coaaeqiieDOCi eDahleil to oummit very ext^OKive tnischief, 
nutil ho may lie cxtirnatod or itis pri»ci|M] foiv«d lo coiniirormee tlir duput«. 
Walker in (iovernmcnt bdecUou XXXIX. 9ti. 



unod to sujtjftesB them, and forces troro organized to htrat 
ttliein down. Tfaey were called on to surrender, &ad state their 
psvances, aod ut states were forced to roEatjo Ujem elmlter. At 
Bomo time it was felt that the largo landholders wore inucK to 
rnme, aod that it was their denial of justice and their usurputiou 
ti£ land that hod driven a largo projKtrtioo of tho outlaws to a 
oonrso th»t had become intolerable. After mnch discussion it was 
^rexolved, with the consent of the leading chiefs, tliat a tribunal 
Bcalled tho K4jnsthdnik or Landlord's Court should be established oa 
Ha Ronl oourt of appeal to which all t/irt'uuU aud mul'jirdeitU should 
^presort in the event of iheir not obtaining justice. This court hag 
^now (1882) been in tjxistenco tor nine years, and has done great 
■ £0(x] in permanently soitHng tho rights uf subordinate landowners. 

H At the beginning of the present century, owing to tho confusion 
^katised by centuries of misrule, the limits of the various chiefshipa 
^pvare nndetincd. Rival chiefs claimed whole villages, nay wholo 
^^districts, and savage and bloody boundary fi;;hts wero matters of 
^fiucb ctjuimon occurrence as to bo regarded with indifTercnce. 
^LDtsiricts and single villages wero shared by two or more chiefs^ 
^and the diutribution of tho crops garo riso to endless quarrels. 
Up to ISOit K:tt.hidvrilr continued a hot-bed of di^tscnsion and land 
aqiiflbM«>a, and tho clainmnts were kept from open war only by tho 
portJuDitl iuHucuce of the PuUtical Agent uud his aasistants. Since 
the introduction of tho new policy, all or nearly all laud claims have 
been settled. Joint interests have been divided, the limits of every 
, estate have boon fixed, tho rights of landholders arc rcspoctcd, ana 
^border frays are unknown. 

From the aljove it will bo gathered that a largo proportion of 

■■the hiudc-d proprietors of Kdtbidwdr belong to Itajput tribeej wbicK 

bnvti invaded the province one after another, and have settled 

jlrithin iDoro or less defined limits. The number of Kajputs given 

tin the 18H1 census is, us has been noticed, 129,000 or about TroOper 

^omt of the population. It is not poasiblo to estimate tho strength 

I of the different claus. The JAdejfis are the most numerous, then 

the JhAUSj and aft«r tliem the Gohils. l'"ormorly Rnjputs were 

Dole<) for their headlong bravery, for feats of strength and 

cnduratice ; they were bold riders and skilful awordsmen, they 

delighted in all manly and martial exercises, and they preforrod 

dcntb to (lishonuiir.* With peace and order many of thcsa 

.chwn«'t<rristicB have disappeai-ed. The Bajput no longer maintoina 

hi> : by the strength vi his right hand. Ho is not liable to 

<i>ii to serve his lord at a moment's notice. lie does not 

forth with his men to fight a neigbbouron the boundary.or to 

a foray un his enemy's village, lie carries his sword, it is 

0, hut ho never draws it from tho scabbard in anger. Martial 

is seldom affected, and manly exercises, as a rule, are 

Kitbtiwilr Hitmt uw valoiir of pmvioui gcticritiotia. 

iM^laa rto pM fonnd *t the enta^nce nf almoat erecy tiUxgo in 

■ Owins to ibe «xt«mioD of imula riuuU uxl thu uitrwluotiou of csnisgw, RaJpaW 
el nak. nowulky* an Mldum scvu oa bonebsck. 

Chapter IIL 



I Bombay 






The chief nnd IhStfAd are alwan battduinelj, nnd, oo ^ 
oocosioDs, brilliantly dressed. Their turbaaa are oeuallv _^, 
•oma bright colour enriched wilh cloth of gold ; tho»e of tlui 
J&dej&a ftnd JliiUiU), composed of eodlMit yards of cloth, rioB high 
above the head uuUiuff in a one-aided cuuicat peak. They an 
exoeoding^ly heavy aud irksome to wear. The saali or Jcanvirbimd 
ig alao composed of rich materials freely bespaoglod with soU. 
It is worn very broad at the back, rewiLing almost to the iimidu of 
Uie knee, and is tied in front in volumiuous folds. Tbo Lilt of » 
iewelled dag^r generally shows amoug the folds, and« besides tia 
dagger, aome chiefs carry quite au armoury of small wc^wds. 
The drawers are worn tight to the log, the material beang gcDurally 
fine wUte calico. The coat, on ordinary occasions, is of siiuilar 
inaterialj bat, in state ceremonies, it is usual to wear an OTorooat oE 
velvet, or silk, or brocade, lavishly adorned with gold embroiiltrv 
or rows of seed pearls. This is surmounted by agorgeons necklace iA 
diamonds, emeralds, or other precious stonus ; ear-rings too arc worn, 
and the hands of the chief gonorally spiu'klowith tnagtvificent jewels. 
Lower in the social scale, upper landholders or jfirisuig dress 
more or less richly according to their meaun. Men past middle o^ 
generally wear wliite turbans, aud are otberwi»e plainly drei4.T;iif|. 
The younger men are given to finery, especially in the matter d 
gorgeooa torbana and waistclotlis, gilt - handled daggers aud 

Rajput women are, as a rule, carefully hid in tko women's 
quarters or tendna. They love rioh clothes and ornaments, and 
are fond of displaying them ftmong themselvos. Polygamy is allowed 
aud widely practised. A chief of high rank has seldom fewer thoo^ 
eight wires, who load lives monotonous and dreary beyt 
conception. As the proverb has it, they are married to the st 
and not to the chief, and whea the excitement of the wedding 
over they are immured for life. Scarcely, if at all, educated, thej 
have nothing to occupy their minds beyond the petty qnturrelA, the 
gossip and the scauoal of the womc-u's apartmuuta. They havQ. 
laoda, but they are obliged to leave thorn iu the hands of stewards. 
A favourite wife may bo consulted by the chief, and at times women 
of intellect have exercised conaidomhle iuflueuo« in state aOairs. But 
their lot is generally miscrablo. Those who have children are deadly 
rivals, and are looked ou with jealousy by those who have uonc 
None are allowed oven to prepare food for their lord, or to cat wit 
him. Shonld they du anything to displease him^ they are puuishe. 
by being depriTod of their attendants, and their allowaoce ant 
oven their food is curtailed. They have no redrcaa against petty 
tyranny, and must auiTer in HJlence any indignity pnt on them. In 
largo states the guards inside the zendna are eunuchs. There is a 
guard of Arabs at the eutnince to the apartments, and the rooma 
B warm with female atlondauta and their children. These serving-, i 
women are called Goli>)or Vadharans, in other words household ^lavea^^ 
They are boru and brought up In the eendna, and are man'icd a^^ 
the will of the chief to the E^viis or male slaves. Thoir marriages 
are very casnal. Should the chief dismiss a Kh^vt^, ho is not 
allowed to take away his wife witli him. Sho aud her family remain. 




aho may bo bsBilcd oror to anothor RbaTftfl, or may be Rent 

. one of the daiight'ora of the chief an part of her dowry. The 

iviis are brought ap in bhe palace and are personal attendonU of 

chief and of his ohildren. Some become favourites, and with 

I vaak chief gnin ranch power.^ Tbcy aina&s irealtb, build splendid 

ituoB, and weAr rich drcsACS ; but they may be stripped a£ 

fthin^ at thuir tnastor'd caprice. 

The Rnjpat tribes are generally well featured. The nose a 
raiglit or booked ; tho eyca in yooth are largo and lustrous, the 
louth small, and the face oval. Tbe men near whiskers and 
10 mon^tacho, which they cultivate with care, and dye long after 
haa lost its colour. In youth they are lithe, spare, and active. 
It seldom robust or tail. A. life of Bose and indolence soon tells on 
lbcm,and they become wom-otitand effete. Since tbeestabliehment 
>f the imkumAr College in KAjkot a marked improTcment has 
'taken place in the physique, intelligence, and activity of tho 
youngof chiefs. Hitherto boys had boon brought up in the lendna^ 
■ in eH'Tninate ways and babitti, and in a tainted mural and phyaical 
Htklmo^^phere. A healthy school life, withits regular habita and ont-door 
HexerciHee, has developed emulation in minfl and body, has made 
^Ihose who have come under its iutluonco self-reliant, manly, and 
honest, and has created thoughts and aspirations hitherto unknown. 

But these inflaonces are confined to a small circle, and the liajput 
ohftnkctoriBtJcs are still, to a great extent, unchanged. A Jiajput 
loveA ease, indolence, and pleasure. He loves to gossip with hia 
neighboors and his friends, sitting in his own courtyard, watching 
hia dependants go through their daily wtirk in an oaay listless 
aorposete-Sd way. He loves to entertain strangorB, to pass round the 
lipe or the opium bowl, to uxiitniue hitt horses Qr cattle, to fondle his 

[chihirt-n, to go on visits or pilgrimngos, and to idle away life. 

[BuHine.'is he hate«. Tbe smallest landowner has Ms agcncor kdrhharij 
shrewd Vflnia or needy Brfihman, to whom he leaves all his affairs, 
to does not obiec-l to a law enit or two; they odd to bis dignity, 
sat he hates to u troubled about them. His affairs are generally 
involved. He is a kind and generous landlord, and does not press 
for hia dues ; on the other hand he is a spendthrift, and pays much 
larger sums than he can afford on his children's marnagos and other 
social Dccasioas. Aft«r his sons have grown up, he is often at feud 
with them as regards the division of his property, and his relations 
with hia wive* are generally the reverse of cordial. Ho haa very little 

» morality as fur as love affairs go, nor is it considered disreputable 
For him openly to keep a mistress. His religion consists in 

I The moat nobUile ioBtanc* \* tli»t at M«ru KhKrAs of N«TiUiwar, This ruo wm 
MUruutly a, filtuM iIavo aI Dlir&iipulni, fttiil Aa;i>tn)>An>»(I a ilAU{{ht«r of tkat haoM 
oonrt mftiTS>)c<^ to Jim LAkhA ol KavAuBgu- La a.d. I'fiO. H« •oon Mquired meh 
i ff fl u. Ui» Jim thftt he bociUne his nintstcr, and for muiy jmn was *l»oliikQ 

SMti floniAtU peftc« uhI war, eoD«liid«d tmttcs.uid j^efwjtdad hia 

»•»« •^Teni.ta WiMlii|)lt*o chUdrttt iwtol Rajtmtlilood, When hw inSueiice wM 
Oo tlut WMtv.'ho j>er«uulsd Uic Jftin to awigD bim the districu <xl Judij-A BAlanba 
and AiBbnu. dis dMceodiuit* atOI bold Ambno. an Mtat« of twentyfrnir villjwM, 
inter Um Jab. TIu tw«oty-(HM v^sge* of Jodiya lUUmbft w«n mtorad to tbe Jitn 

Chapter Zrt 



Patty t')^ 





XBftkiiig Suij obeiBuice to kk tnteWy goddoM, or, in fol 
of s TOW, ia mdring • pO^ranage to SonuuUfa, Dvnftrk*. or 
or oa flpeoial ncc—iona to tkt NsrfaadA, lo NiaOc, or to Bcnorat. 
ia ao pet ti tioM, wad bdierea in spdU hoA omeas^ &od, abore 
Iw ia * ttickler for •tkjiMCte tn all cnvmooies and social cast< 
On ibe birth of a ion, an aatrologeria aimuuiied toeaat hi« bor 
Od tbe sizth dajr, a mimm of flovTi oUrifiad batter, and mi 
known ai U|ms u distribatod to nJatiooi and friends, and 
Bother pemnns Uio ckkaihi'mi-p»ja or sixth daj wi 
OffcriDfm arc made to tbe eoddess en a pea and aoine re^ powi 
witb wDtcb tb(* fat« oC tbeinfont is rappoaed to be written to 
or fortonate characten. A Brfliman p er fo r m s tbe adoration and reci 
prayers for the mothor to repeal and ta paid partly in uncooked food 
parilj in casb. 

On the tweUlb day tbe child is swnng in a cradle, bia name ia 
proDounoed bj bis fotber'a aister, and taoIaae«s and boiled wheat 
are distribated to ruUiions. No oerenioniea taiw placo on tbe birth 
of a daoghter. 

Wbeo » girl is betrothed, her relations send tbe intended bride- 
groom a cocoannt bj a cjotidtoitial meaaetiger, whu delivers rbfr* 
ooooannt and dinributen tnolassea to the people in tho boose. Giria 
ar« married before tbej come of age and boys from FoorteOB 
upwards. When tlte tiiuo fur the marriage has come, and the dowry 
and other pr^liminorios ore settled, a depntAtioD is sent Sxom tits 
htidegroom's boose to wait on the bride. Tbe deputntion consists 
of a female elsre, who goeii in a covered foar-wbeelod boltook 
cut, osoorted by as many moontod retainers as the bridegroom can 
master. On thc'ir arrivEU at the bride's village, they alif^'bt at the 
place ajipointt-d for them, and, when tho family priest lumounoos 
that the auspicious moment has oonw, tho slave proceeds tu the 
bndu'a bousv. Waring in her hand the bridegroom's sword, 
cnvdoped iu bis waistclotb. The bride takes hold of one end of 
this cloth and follnwH tho slave three times ronnd tbe rooin, tho 
&mily priest, generally a R^jgor Brdhman, sitting in the middle 
mnttcring prayers. The hIuvo then luavos ber hold of the waistcloth 
'ffbicb remains with iho bride. On the aj)p<jinted day, they set 
out for the bridegroom's village, tbe bride and tho lilaro in the 
cbsriotj oL'CompHnit.'d by relations and friends and dopcndanta, 
with dmms and fifes. Near tho bridegroom's village the girl 
takes leave of bor friends, who depart amid a noisy show of grief. 
The procession then goes on close to tho gates of tho town or 
Tillage, and a mossage is sent to the bridegroom, who sallies furth 
with all bis friends to meet the bride- Tho friends make it a point 
of honour to race to where the chariot is standing. The firat to 
arrive receives a cocoouut and a silver coin, and the othora 
Bweetmoats in succession. When tbe bridegroom approaches bo 
calls to tbe slave to give up bcr place tu him. She refuses, and be 
oflora ber money, \vben she ia satisfied she dismounts, and tbe 
bridegroom takes her place. The covering of the cart i» tbromi 
open, and tho pair drive throng the town, side bv side in full view. 
Arrived at the bouse of tbo bndegroom's father, tuny dismount and 




iter a place Ijuilt for 

occasion in front of tho house. Hero 

^ prieftt is in attendance, nittinj^ in the centre with a pot 

meen^e by bis side. The bride aud bridegroom nraUc slowly rooud 

and the bride's brother or near relation places in the vessel 

e unoont of her dowrr. Part of the marria^ ceremony constAts 

knottiiif? the end of the bridegruom'e ahuuldercloth or waistolotfa 

the bride'a veil or chnnAmli, and those aro always loosened before 

the goddosa. A feast concludes the ceremony. Widow marriage i» 

)t alio wed. 

SometitneB the bride, instead of bringing a dowry, receives a sum 

>f monoy from her haabttud's father, and, in cases where the brido 

of high rank, it is ooatomary for the bridegruom, iust<.md of being 

^ ied by the sword as described above, to travel to her fether't 

and there marry her and escort her back. 

Id the seventh month of pregnancy tho ceremony called khola 
Sharon ia perforaiod. The husband gives a feast to all his 
I relations and friends, and the lady's parents make her a present of 
Ksloihcs. She then walks from one room to another on cloth 
^%trctched for the purpose. 

A Rajput, on the point of death, is moved troxrk hia cot to the 
groond, which has bwjn fresh plastered with cowdung. Curda and 
^jTold are put in hia mouth. Alter death the body is bume in a 
^Ettor to tbe fmieral pile and burnt. It was formerly the custom 
Pfor the wife or wives of a Rajput to bam with him.* This custom 
^ which was nuiversal at Che beginning of the century, has now 
■fceen entirely suppressed, 

H^Rajpute worship Shiv and Yishnu and their tntelary goddesses. 
Brho following ore the matat or mothers of the different clana. The 
^JidejAs worslup Ashdpari tho hope- ful filler, whose principal ghrina 
is in Cutch. Tho J1iAI4h adort' Stiakti' whoso shrine is at IlnU'ad, 
The G-ohela worship IChi'idiad MiltA, whoso chief shrine is at R^jpoim 
Dur Sihor. Tho guddt-as of the JethvAa is Vindhviisni, whoeo 
original shrino is on tho N^^fmdta river close to Navinagar, and 
wboflo chief temple is at ChhAya near Porbandar. The Parmirs 
Worihip the goddess Maudavri whoso temple is at Muli. All 
Rajputs visit their Mflta in company with their brides directly they 
ara married. Bhrinea are generally kept in every Rajpat houao 
of cooseqaenooj and there are attendant Brihmana to perform tho 

I, »' 

\j aarvtce. 

» In 1807 Colonel W«lk«r wrota : The prwtiM o* mUi, or of a wonun burning 
li«r*eU witli Ii«r huhsod's oorpM, ta. m in other parta of lodU, very fnxftiout in tlua 
tmuitrr, lutd thuAOt u oonunemonUwl tiy Uie erection at a, HK^morul *>toae besring » 
Wita bfp ioscrifttUMi aod Uw figure of » wouMnV lioud nnd area. This coKtom ii not 
■ '" -toth« widova or vrivm td aaj OMte. In JhiUvid it i* cUJmed chiefly m tbe 
of the loirut cMtM, ud unoag Um J&d«jAs thii piwrf uf afi'iMtlau in cUiinatl 
;bed l>y tho miNtnn. 
«kt,i i> aoiipovod to bave ftided UirpdI. thv foutidcr oF thti family, in aoqaincg 
loTTiloTv uow pdMeued by tbe JliilM. Karwi Vighcly (A.n. 1290) who mind «t 
iLiibUva.!A'l'atiui,prnini»«-l him kll th« viltagoB wboie jMes hp conld bitwl wiCb 
fkrluiU in on» night. Witji IJltakti'* kid be Wnd the gates of 3300 villagM. 

* A (igan of thv goddos Aabi^ri U sol in the oiiiit at Ni^-iLtiagnr, but, althoagh 

• LfvpB a wit«hfDl tyo oo tbe workmen, ihc caonot [nvv«Bt lawiilatinn. 

■ aa— 10 

ChaptAT nc 





[Bombay Qaxet 



}tn UL In atldilioo to tfao pilgrimage which ererjr Hajpat makea to 

DpoUtioD. ahrins oE his clan goddeaa, each, according to his own codtIc 
Tiait« one or more o( iha more £amouB places of pilgrimaga 

ttnm. The Ka'this, 2S,o00 strong, form one of tho most carious 

mterastiog muuti tu Ibo pcniufiula. Like many Rajput tribes, tl 
entered Kathi&wdr from Cutch, bat whence the^ camo is nnoei 
The cradle of their race is unknown, but there ts no doubt th^t the 
came from moro remoto regions than the lUjputa, and it is probabi 
that they were wanderers in Central Asia, and were driven down 
the delta of tho Indus by the tide of MahammadAn invasion. The 
do not appear to have hod any fixed habitation in Sindb, thoug]i 
Colonel \\ alker relates that they estahlished thomnolves in the di.'Sfn 
between Sindh and Cutch. It i-i probable that their only occufjatioQ 
wai) that oEgraziurs, for it is said that they first entered Kiitbiiw^ 
about tho year 140D in company with a band uf ChlirauB on the 
occasion of a famine. A party of thf m, under the Icadci-ship of Umro 
Patkar, punotrated to Uhi^uk, then, us now, ruled by a Vila 
Kajput. Umro had abeantiful danghter named UmrdbtU with whom 
tho Dh&nk chieftain, Dhan Vala, fell in love. When Dhan asked 
her in marriagu, Umro agreed on condition that they should eat 
together. To this Dhan submitted, and his brothren, considering 
turn degraded, drove him out. He became the leader of the KAthif), 
and, by Umrdbdi, had throe wms, Vila, Ehnmin, and Kh^^har, 
whose deaceudanta bear thoir names and are considered tho threa 
noble tribee of K&tliis. They are called Slutkhayats while the 
desoendaDta of tho original K&thia are called Avartiils ur 
Dhan Valo's Katliig seem to hare returned to Ontch, and 

' The Kilhii theintelvuN dnUt thoir origin frntn the timn of the MAhihlulnt whjffc 
nUtM bow the I'lodiiTB or fiva ntynl hmther* firuj^ht for their heretUUr; domioiim at 
Hwituiipur, which had h«cn naurpcd hy th«ir counin DuryudiiAiL &r>d hia mnet j.nia^j 
brethrun. The PitiKlitvii had gamblnl with Uuryodhui , nnd liut their wMmr, ft) 
jMBAlty WM that th«y should mnain ia DDOCoalmnit fvr twrt!lv« yoftn, After : 
yoftra of -HAmlering tuoy oa[n« to tiujarM ukd touk refuge in tho town of VipAl _. 
oalled Oholka. DaT7odban heard ninixura of thi^. uid IcAHinz DimtmApur miuvbc 
npOD ^''irAt atteiid«il hy • l*Tgi» Army. Ue vran minlilo tu ulitoiu xlmttlAooo, or ai 
to diMxrrcr if th« Piiidani werv witbiD tho wbIIh. Iu tbii dilvmma lii* inini>t 
Kano. tumostvd UuC thay should drive off th« cutclo of Vjrjit which 
hsro the edect of fi«lliii| forth All tho hnvM of tb« town to the rescue. It 
howoTor ronsidared diagntoeful for « Rjijpiit to rtoup to ofttUo-Ufting, so Kumu 
■truck iuB staff on the ground ftni) produced s newly created man who wm c«Il»d 
KbAt (tho vema«tUar for wood), uwl, who, in rvtum for bis carrying off Uw eattle, 
to be granted iauDnnity to oommit theft, cftpccially of cattle, In ail fntun ~ 
Khn oarri«d out Ut« wishe* of Karan, sod liis deeoend&ntN. iha KAthis, g' 
legend u ft proof of tb«tr right to commit robbery. In PoroM* Ria yUU . 
it i« Hta4«d tbnt the Kftthia wen vjussls of tbti Sumri kiug of Sindb mnd I 
in Pint land. Onoe nn & time a femsle dancer ridicn1«u tfao king m 
perfurniod before hita, upon which ahe was coDtlcinned Co baniahmcnt, TM KUt 
chinfa called the actnw to tfa«tr qaarten, and unuMd thcmmlvwi by causing ber 
tniinj^the snngwbieb bad offcoded the king The ebiot being infortned ofthis 
IwliaTiour, iBSDed eenteoee of expnlnun against the K&this. At that time a lUjn 
of the VAIo nc« ruled at Dhink near UhorAji in Korath. Tho KAtliia flying 
from 8indh, t.iuk mfu^c iu bi< doniiuious and became his follownrs. Tlw> ^jhAkhiyats 
invariably mniTythwdaughtcnmfAvarthii*, or Ahiin. orBal'rii*. and the ArsrthuUv 
iocladiug th« Ahira and BihciAa, marry the daogbters of SbikltlyaU. 


the whole tribe quarrelleU with tho rulor of Culch and 
him for dishonouring one uf their women. Thoy fled 
his sncceuor, who pursued them to ThiLn, but was defeated in a 
battle, t^robably because they could uo louger hope to bo 
oA to |];t> hiu-k to Cntch, the KtlthiH eeizod Tli^ and Chotila 
th e S^Mlha Parm tlr^!. Th to t hey made their hoad^uart^rs 
BoHTaTempIeTolho Sun. "TTtey grazed large herds of cattle 
the wide plains ronnd Tliiin, and iasuod thence to plunder the 
hUjoriug Rajau. Tho three bobs of VAlsj Khtuniln Khfichar 
Uaraur Vata, nettled at Chotila, Mithiali^ and Jetpur. For 
ny gcaeratioDs tho K^this thou;!:ht more of making their 
ng by plunder than by tho acquisition of territory. They 
husbandry, all they cared for was a Eastness to which 
could reirt'at when hard preaBodj and in which they oould koop 
r Bpoil. Hence, thouyh their name was a terror to tho country. 
Were not large landowners during the first 150 yeara of their 
ice in K&thiawar. Only when the Muhommadon power 
to show siffns of breaking up, did thnir corth-hnngor begin. 
^theyapread themselves through the heart of the peninsula, 
ng J aHuan and other districts from tho J&dej&s, and Alay 
_ .oA Di trom the Junagad cliief. They penetrated to Ine 
aoTgnbourluKMl of Ainreli, and settled at K undla aad other places 

ttbo bordcra of B^briavitd. The Sarviui^A coded Chital to them^ 
A many other Rajputa followed their example. 
VThen settled, by alow decrees they became more respectable, 
t their reformation was gradual and pitrtial. In 1803, Colonel 
alker wrote : The KAthis aw distiogmsbod only for rapacious 
bits and robbery. To tJiJa mode of lifo thoy attach neither diagraco 
nor reproach. On the contrary they boast of Ihuir devaatations and 
rapioe, and, without seoking to cloak the matter, call themaclvea 
plainly thievea. Without property, and freqoently withoafc a fixed 
place of residence, tho Kathis dospisc and brave tho rosentmcot of 
MatM who are mach more powerful than themselvoa. They pursue 

itioufi habits without restraint. Tho disorder and misery 

'' from this Btato of perpetual hostility is easily traced 
throughout this country. 

In miirkcd contrast to this state of thinga Colonel Walker 
describcji tho eatablishment of order in tho now aourishiug diatriot 
f.'' ' -■ -Chital, under tho sway of the Valas. These ho doaignatoa 
r KAthia. They acquired Chital from the Sarvaiis aboat 

A.i». i '.".">. Boon af tor, a wealthy merchant of Amreli annoyed by 
the exactions and ojipredsiun of the olHcers of tho Jnn^god NawAb 
ftooghl n-fugTs at Chital. He offered tho KAthia half of whatever 
p"ninn of hia prc»pcrty they could recover for him. Tho K&this 
tu.iiie a raid on Aiureli, and n?c«vured the merchant's property, and 
then rtfsijlvcd to put him to dfAlh and keep it all for themselves. 
Th'\v n"i-<' ditJnsiaod from this hv ono of thoir women, and not only 
r t back all his good;), but refused to take the share 

»' : i . luiised them. Thoy had their rowar«l, for not only 

did tho morchont settle at Chital, bnt others, attimcted by tho 
report of such generosity, oBtablished themselves there also. Tho 
ntn^booriog proprietors put thomsolves under the protoction of the 




{Bombay Oozettecr, 




KiithiB, and in &.v. 1700 Uto NnwAb of Jaodgad ceded to them tb»J 
iiuportont diatricta of Mondardn, Bhilka, and Jeipur. Tbo Kailiia 
fimliDK that Uuuusty wb8 the best pulley^ gave up plunder and 
gainod a great name for good govemoieot. 

Tbe IDltbi chief of Jasd^o vroa not long in foUowiDg the examf 
of hia brethren of Jotpur-Chital. About the middle of tfaell 
c^ntnry, Jetsnr Kh^har, the chief of Jaadan, waa a note 
freebooter. By his ekill and daring he had asaumed the leadersUi 
of his family, anij had led them in many a foray, and eetahli^liedi 
claim to blackmail in Limbdi, Dhandhoka, and RAmpiir. Ho mot 
death during one of his raids, and waa sacceeded by his n^pfa^wj 
Vadsar, who managed to pnt togt^iht^r a compact ostato of thirty' 
two villogea, tmd, ceasing from his predatory habits^ set np aa 
model landlord. 

Some of the most daring and tronblesome of the 
established themseWes in the Gir hills, and, sallying from 
faatnes^es^ becamu the terror of the whole country. In the eQ< 
of the last century the districta of V'iaAvadar and Chhelna wero i 
the hands of some Y&la K^this. lliese districts covered a 
ttren, but were thick with forest and almost devoid of inhabitani 
and, aa the Kdtht proprietors wore unable to guard their poaiieaaii 
in 1782 they wrote over one-half of the revenue to the Nawith, 
rc-tic-rving the other half and a nmintenunoo to thtmisolvea. In 
17i)i the NawAb bestowod his ahare aa a morria^o gift on the chiat* 
of Bautva. The latter soon began to harry and oppress the KAtlii' 
propnotors, who fled into the Gir, and became outlaws. Tha 
mntvft chief aubsoquimtly hxmdcd over the half share of the distnct 
of Visavudur to one of the Kathis, V&la Itaniug, who was at fend 
with the rightful owner VdJa M6bc&. The btter was the frioaii 
and companion of the rebel G&ikrrAr Malh^rrfiv, who was betrayed 
by Villa Haning- Vala Miiti-a immediately laid wast« Vi8Sva4!ar, 
and, in spite uf his friendship with the G&ikw&r aathonties of Amreh^ 
drove Vdla Raning from Dhl&ri. He was however reinstated, and 
y&la M&tra died soon after in outlawrr, leaving an infant son named 
H&rsur Vfila. Colonel Walker called upim Vlla Riluiog to surroa- 
dor his hrredttary estate to Ilarsnr, upon which Rdning also became 
an outlaw, and died leaving a son called Bava V&Ia. 

This BAva Vdla booame a renowned freebooter, and his name is 
still celebi-ated, in consequence of his having in 1820 seized a C^tcun 
Grout of the Indian Navy and kept him in confinement in the 
Gir fof fonr months. The unfortunate gontloman commanded tba 
Gaikw&r's navy, and having been summoned to Amreli on bosiQeftat 
was travelling through the Gir^ when he was caught by Bilva ViU& 
He went through groat hardships, of which some aoooant is 
^ven in a foot-note.* Bava V^a was killed in 1824, and the 

' ' I WM (oreej.* writca Okptmn Orant, ' tn rcnKrant niv hunts muA gallop olT vrith 
i1i» j{au(t whv took rae into • large forevt colled tbo Gir, where I wu kept iirisuuor oa 
tho topuf a niiiuntaiij fur two months aotl lif t«)Mi (Uys. Ihiring the whola af this 
timt two nrinr<) m<rrn wit}i dntwn mrottl* kcptgtunf ovur nno. I laid Uiinngal tha 
Tucks, rlrcoclKd witli min night acd day, wilb tb« exoepttOD at two iiigbls wlwii " 


rholo of tbo ancestral poRAOssions of the inhe, except a bare 
maintenance to the snmving members, pAsnod into the hands of the 
KawAb of Joniigad. A song composed in honour of Biv& VAla is 
AtiU snag hy the K&ihi womon^ a trauslatiou of which is given below.^ 

^Lag (orcvd me to MOOiBpuiy tbem, uid wo stoppsd in a friendly vtlligo. In this 
pRpaditiun I wu ooa>aciD*lly aIIowmI ta ride, but dw«,yB •uttcmwIaiI by k ibiAig 
iMBtl that mftd« all kltempt to oaope in)|WM)Ue. lu one vilU^ wbcm the ixxfjila 
bTottnxl B**s Vila, tlw wnnwB took m; pwrt and npbnud«d him and hia m«n for my 
orqsl traatOMnt. TowaniU unfriendly villa^ it wu ths cuatum of tb« htani to titU 
1^ to the pates asd chap aS the heads of liUlo boyi at plar, anil then go off lancbing 
•nd Kjowiog at LhBir cunod exploit*. Whoa tb«v returnea to tho «ncainpai«nt after a 
day's monlaritw focws, tJio yoons Rithis naad to Doaat iunt many men tliey hwl kil]«d. 
aiM 0*0 day I heard the old nUowa (jDOvtioniiie them rather putioulariy, whether 
they wart) nirv thoy had IcQIad th«Jr nctimA. Yes, thoy aatd, thoy had so«n tfaoir 
qwan through th«iu. &[)■) were oertain they wcra dead. 'Ah/rcmAned a&oM KUhL 

* a bwnan bewn ia woaao to kill than any other animal ; nnvet be rare they are dead 
tOJyoa teethe body on one ride of tho nwd end the head on the other.' At timeeUK 
tthid Bftva TilBt inaaCatoof Mapor froino]^nm, would oomc and sit by my lidc.aa^ 
holdh^ hi* dagger over me, ash me how m.x»v itLabH it wmild i*ke to kill me. 1 aaid 

* I thofuht one would do', utd I bopod he wnuld uut ue out (if uiiaery. ' I auppoae yon 
llilnk.'DewDald answer, 'that I won't kill you ;i have killed M many hnman bcinge 
Mm orar Ashermao killed Gah, and 1 altouM think nothing of patting an end to you. 
But I shall keep you a while yot, till I u-c if yvai go%-GrniueDt wiU giir« me back my 
propmy ; if so, I will let yon oB.' When not pluuderiiig, the gang slept moet of 
ilw dav. At night the halterofoMh hotae WMtMd tohia SMttar^MBL WbiD tii» 
aoAmmn beard ruieee t)>4y togfed, aad lb« nun wore up in an liutaiit. OoawioiMlly 
«b«y would inform me how uaoy people titej Ind kiOed, and the netiiod they 
pnrmod wh«n rich travallen nfuaod to pay the snm demaDded. This was to tio tho 
poor wntclies to a boun MTonnvellliy their Idgs. with their hendi touching thu 
waf . and then to saw away at the rope until the tortured TietiinB eatisfiod their 
densAds I then the KAthis would haol them up. get from them a huncU or bill om 
aocue agent, aod keep them prisoner t>U this was p*id. Uoawtimvs Xhc men t^ld mn 
ol thatr master's intention to ronrder nw, whfadi waa noi pleasant Uo and his raea 
had nuny dispntcM about me, w hopes or fears « the 'consoqucDOBS of my 
ioqjrkonmeDt provxutcd. I can nerer fotj^ oo« stormy night when they wv« all 
atttil^ round a great tire. I lay behind tb«m. LJons and wild boasts roared aronad 
OS. but did nut pw veafc ny heann^j a dfi'mte upon the snbleot of what sboiild b« don* 
with me. Tho mso eoapmiaed tluit th«y ha<l been two months in the woods on my 
aeooBirt. Their tenflies were in thr viiUecs rcr)* poorly ofT for fo»iI, and that ttey 
would stay no longer. Tfaoir chivi rvpUeHi. ' Let ua kill him and flua to some otiier 

Kt of the oomtry.' To this tbev objected that the English would send tioops, nod 
s thair familisB prisonon and iil-nsa them. So in tho end it waa agreed to keep 
me for the nrumt. Hy release waa effected at last throngh oar PoUtKnl AgeoC 
CapUiti lUlUutine, who prevailed on the NswAb of Jnnigad to use his iuflueDOe to 
got anntber Kdthi who had (oroibly taken lUva VAla's district to rastore it to htm ; 
aitd Bava Vivla thns haviiiit gained hie object let mo froe. My tottenag/i daiiB| 
mnntiMnriit w^n almott b«yond endnmnoe, nod I naod to pray in the evaBing ihak 
J Mulit nevwc see anutlMr nonung. I had ray tM»ta on mv feet fur the AnA month. 
Sot ueiiu able to get then off from the oonatant wet until I wae ledneed by sicknss*. 
<•»■» Sner with sgna and inflwnwatlop of Jiver came on me, and with eroowiw to the 
epM air dnnm me delirious, ao tiut when I was let >o I was fonnd waBdoriag in th* 
mMs at ai^t; oov«Te>l with vermin from head to foot. The fever mkI agne then 
e«ilf»oleil oratinuKd un ms for tiveyean, and the iUeAi(rlaet)l] remain, ny headhei^g 
at tnnes greatly trvubkd with gMltuness, and I baveserere Btaof ague. My memory 
!• mach Lfacted, bat I can never forgot the fosvgoing incidents, thonria tt is bow 
■pwnrds of flf ty yvan dne* tbey oecariwd. ' Lowli Indian Navy, 1. 281 •IMS. 

* Kong bi bonoir of B*va VAIa i 

Oh ! Blva, B<m ol Rinink'. incaniiite Rij* and preserver of ths eoostcy, tluw 
■IHMt »l VlMviMlar. and Biva. Biogvo is thy village. Thy skill as a swwnliiUB, 
O BAva Villi, hiM ransnl thy name io m: retn«mli«r«d. Ob ! eun of Rdning* 

Biva ViU» bad a bruUior csJIed MAtro Tbey were iodc«d a noble pair. Tbey 
w«nl with the army of Mua Eotib aa obiefi of toe force. Oh 1 son of Rining. 

niMB the IriMpa of Bdkar KIdhi a.>unded the dram, the jwopla of Dedaa beeuns 
afraid : •nddonly Bivs, soo of Blning, appeared, and the Sidht fioroe fled. Oh I soa 
of EUatitg. 

Chapter I] 


[Bombaj Qasettan 



Towards tlie cIobo of the last centniy, the most varliko clan of 
Kulliis ID the »oath-eaAt of the poDinsula were the Khamiias. Tbii 
tril)u had appropriated to tbemselrra the rich dioLriet of Kuodli, 
and, for a lone series of years, carried on their depredations ia 
Bh&vu^&r and deEed the power and authority of its chief. Al 
length, (lisaensiuna arose among them, and they were oompletelj 
snbdaed by the gooitui of VakhtMingit. In 1796 tbej gave iip the 
district of Kundla iMhim, reserring portions for their mainteDance. 
In like manner, Vakhtaingji subdued the Kbichar Kiithis of Kut&i 
and Gadhda. Under a settled goveminont the power of the Kiithd 
has entirely snccumbed. Except the large estate of Jetpur-Chital, 
and the sinall comimct estate of Jasdan, there are uo K&shi 
poaseuions of any conseqncnc«. Those that are left with a show of 
tndepuudeuce, as Bagasra^ Chotila, Bdbra, and Pali&d, are divided 
among a number of shareholders, and must in coerso of time be 
brukon into fragment.s.' This is due in great measure to Che law of 
equal inheritance wliich they strictly observe. The KAthi proprieton 
themselves perceive this, and there is reason to hopo that> befora 
long they will adopt the system of primogeniture which prev^te 
among the Ilajputs. As a pastoml roving tribe, the Knthis were 
always fond uf animals. They still have iai^o droves of cattle^ and 
pride thomBelves on their breed of horses. 

The Kithis worship the sua, and use it as a symhut on oU their 

Bin Vib had twdvt bflnouBQ with him ; be hiniwir tlie awonUnua wu th* 
Uurteeath ; may be poHih who IciIImI thia bnvc w»Trior . Oh ! aoa of JUning. 

Tb« ntrohanta cned Uiat Umt bftd lo«t th«ir irtalth, Um>- hftv« xslmvd Ui«ir 
■hoM ; friuD ■!!▼« money wm awtterwl Erooi tbr samwnts, nad now that thaa aft 
dead, see th« r«d powdCT fiyiog ia eari-loidf. Ob ikw of Rtaiag. 

Ur. Onuit ud Alwn Ui* w«ra goiua to Anrdi : BAvo looked oat mad nid* 
'cortain acribM «ra c>onung along tbe road. Oh I son of BAning. 

He eeincd tho bat-WMmr, ho took him to the hilk, ho kept bim inpriKmad lor 
four month* ; tho uewB wont to Kugfauid. Oti! BAva VaIo, preserver of tb« eoafitry. 
Oh I MR of Rftaing. 

Voa gar* him food whon be aakeil for it, yon treated bJoi with honour i ToB ocnihl 
not flaiT fani to yuo gave bim ihdJAar leavea. Obi ago uf Riljung. 

Tlio Xnwib cf Juii%kd oaUed Bftva VaJo to api)«ar boforc him; He «ud, ■[ 
M-tll iiul trtirt thc« cxoopt Kcaarbii bo givon as a hoatoKc' Oh ! m>a of lUnioft. 

Thy hoiwn grit^vui, thy nunjpon n^evca (gr theo, thy friuuda in»urQ for tbea^ thy 
young man laiiwut« thco, where art Uioa, Ob I Ridor. Oh 1 son t^ BjUiing. 

Thy bed bmonta tbiH. thy bedstead grievea forthoo^ tiiy fiirnitnn mouraa for 
thee, thy mrdena and thy flowora lament thee, t«ara flow tmni thi»r eya for tbee, 
Ofa! aon oTEUniiig. 

They bcvrL-d a etoue ae*t for M&vo V4ln to ropoM ini they. p«tnt«i1 it with 
vflRuinon that the whole world might make a pilgiima^ to it. Oh I aon of IlAEung. 

A atar cama from th« north to call the warrior FUra Vilo. When they had 
offi'retl thtwi inconae. thy body was left by thy a[Firit. Oh I aon of KAninij, 

^N'hen Vithoba DivAn at Buroda hmid of thy dualh, be rofoBod to est ; tha 
nnivoree was plnngwl into grief at thy death. Oh I aon o( lUuing. 

No priest or morohont, no bard or pool, baa aung tby pnu»« ; but DhitDini 
Vadar hua tliua oekbrated thy name for orcr. Oh I aon of RAning, keeper of tha 

> la 1807. Colonel Walker, wrobo : Tkoir peovliu mode o( inhtritaiiRe aiid 'the 
perpetual aubdirUiuo of property areperbapa jerMt«r obataclaato the tiii)>r^>vcm«nt 
of UM lUtbi*, tlutn their Iic«ntiouR tnannvrs. Tnia oiutom funna a couttnaal <:haok 
to tbo aooumtiULiii'ii uf indiridaal prvuerty and the augmonUtinn n( b-rritorial 
ponenioQ ; tl piTikctuatea a great niunuar of amall and iiidepoDdeot oommuiiitvM, 
which are without thsmeaoa of protection agaiiul internal injuries, and cootoio 
the permanent »c«d uf iutonwl diMvdw. 




The ayiabul has much poaamblance to a spider, the rays 

ling Cho lefTK. Rut thiil there may be no mistake, nudorncath 

iu always written: "The witness of the holy sun." It is said 

their tint tt-tuplo was at Thfiu, but they do out worship thoro 

loii{i^r, and boih tomple and ima^ have been aj>propriated by 

Parmars of Mali, who call the god ifandarri.* The Kathia adore 

sun and iuvoke its protectiou and aid iu all their audcrtukinga. 

contact with Hindus has gradoally inntiUed into them some 

t for tho ordiaary Hindu goda and for BrShmaus. They are 

adiugly superstitious, and believe in omens, placing rhe greatest 

piliance on the coll of a partridge to the left. Atfnneral ceremonies, 

of feeding crows they feed plovers and have a strong friendly 

ating towards them. Tho K^this are exceedingly hospitable, and 

always sociable and friendly. They are illiterate and indolent. 

jndinfz their time in gossip and social entertoiumuntj^, and rarely 

>ab1iu^ their heads about their affairs. They have Adopted the 

tndu feeling about the holiness of the cow, othorwiao they are not 

ticular aa to their food or liquor. 

I Their tromen are proverbially handsome, and boar a high 

racter. They are on a social e^pmlit^ with their husbands, and 

treated as compantous. A. Kuthi seldom marries more than 

wife, though they are not limited in this respect. Widow 

riage is allowed, but it is seldom practised, except in the case 

a husband dying and Ii3aving a younger brother. In such cases 

mlo is porcmptory that the younger brother most marry his 

jlher's widow. 

The following historical sketch of tho Kfithis by Colonel J. W. 
Watson differs in some respects from tho account usually received. 
^It is valQabtc as oonfirming tho theory that the tribe came from some 
irt of Central Asia. 

[There are two more or less plausible acooants of this bunons tribe, 
liuh iu modem times has given its name to the whole pouinaata 
SaonUhtra. According to one account the Elathis had their 
pnal seat iu Kurdist&u in Asia Minor, whence they were driven 
7^gl4rh Pileeer I. of Assyria, who, according to Rawlinson, 
*udi'd the throue about B.C. 1130. Iu the Assyrian inscHptiona 
are described as Khatti, and, in the Old Teataoiont, aa Hii.tites. 
the won of this monarch, distinct mention is made of the Com^nj 
mmans), Bawlinson mentions that at this time tho chief city 
' the Khatti or Htttitos was Carchemish, an importaut place, aud lie 
{Ts that tho Com&ni could bring into the tield an army of 30,000 
m. At this period the Khatti, or Hittites, appear to have been 
rkable for their fondness for horses and chariots, to havo been 
Toeapable of settled government, and to have been fond of serving 

After the time of Ti'gldlh Pilesor tho Khatti appear to have 





I The Suwkrit ioKriplion on th« pedetial of th«d«i^ia newly ilkgible, uul 
mi baloken kh wlier poriod tbui that fixed for tbo imnugntkui of ttw K&thia 
I Ceoiia L«Graad Jncob. 

[Bombay Ouett 




ioiDe>d Bonhftdad king of Dainaacns ia warring with Shalm^i 
Ji. of Assyria, ami to have finally been subdued b_v him. Sa 
of Assyria is mentioned by Rairliuson as having warred in Knrdist 
but wlictbvr with auy branch o£ the Katbis is not raentigoed. Bol 
Rawlinson specially notices that Sargoo in all hid wmra largc^] 
followed the castom of wholesale deportation of oouqa« 
nations. Whether in his time or afterwards, when the kiagdc 
of Media and Persia were poramonnt in Asia, tbe K&thifl apj 
to have gradually trarelled eastward until we find them oppoaiogj 
Alexander the Great at SangiUa, three days march from the rivei 
Uydraotes. It is notable that Arrian, in hie nhort descri|Hi4a o( 
the Kdthia, desorihea them as roving tribes, not under the antl 
of any Indian sovereigD, and speaks of them as associated 
other free Indiana. That they were recent invaders soeiua cl 
for Arrian specially mentions that Poms and Abisaares, both Indka^ 
kings, had united against them, and bad called iu the aid of tnaoyl 
other Indian princes besides, but liad been unable to effect anythit^ 
against them. Thongfa gallant and warlike they were defeated witb 
great loss and driven from Sangila, and we may be sore that Pons 
and the other Indian kings took oare that thoy never retomed to 
their dominions. 

After A.D. 1168, during tho reign of ShAlivilhan of Jeaalmlr, 
according to the Bh^ti annals, the KAthia we^e dwelling as (ar 
south as between the city of JiUor and the Aravali moantains.' 
Their own annals are untrustworthy before the fourteenth and 
6fteenth centuries, because they show tracea of having be<ai 
oonoocted by bards in comparatively modem times. But it seeuifl 
probable that they lived in Malwa for soma time and thence came 
to Cutch, whence they entered the peninsula of Kathiaw^. U is 
however possible that they came to Catch direct from the 
neighbourhood of J&lor. 

It is difficalt to say at what date the Kathis first entered 
pcninsnla. On the whole it seems probable that tho V&l&a 
established before the arrival of the KhAcham, and that the BA 
were probably earlier than the V&\is. The Khumins also are 
either earlier than, or coeval with, tho Khfichira. Regarding tho 
AvartitU or miscellaneoQS KAthis it is impossible to say anything 
certain, except that the Dh^dhals, ths most celebrated among them 
took their rise about tho time or just after the arrival of " ' 
Khftchars. Of the other trib>p8 many doubtless are earlier than 
many as early as the KiuUhars, but, except the Dhandhab none 
later arrivals. 

The arrival of the Kh^hars can be calculated within a few years, 
and may roughly be fixed at a.o. I'lOO. Their first settloment waa 
at Thin, and their next seat was Chotila where they are still found. 
From these two seats they spread all over the Panoh^, and it was 
they who by their daring forays, in later times, drew on themsolTea 
tho vengeance of the imperial governors of Guiariltj and 




jnently they proved do less troublesome to theMnrfitbia. Tho 

St known mention of a Kfithi, occurs in the Minit-i-Sikandri 

rhero Loma tChumnn of KKcrdi is spoketi of as having sheltered 

Inltiin Mozafar of Gnjamt in about A.T). 1583. The first mention 

Katliiiwir as a sab-JiviHioD of the iieninsula of Saordshtra is 

jtieretl to occur in the MirAt-i-Ahmadi, which, in its notice of 

Lzaro Khan (aboot l(>3g-l'>42), mentions that he marched to 

itiuiw£r and ciitiKtised the Kf&thia who were continually ravaging 

Dhandhuka districts In another pafua;^ the same anthor 

itices that Azam KhAa m:ide such exct>lleui aiTangetnenttt that 

i^vellers coald pass safely through Jlniliiv&d, Kiithi&wdx, the 

mntry of the JAm of NavAnagar, and Cutch. Another mention of 

ic Kathin nocnra in the same work in tho notice of tho vicoroyalty 

[lirtniab Khan, who had been CDUoblod by tho litlo of Shujdat 

Tbid officer, about a.d. 1692. stormed Thin and dispersed tho 

plunderers who had made that place their head -quarters. 

Valjla seem to have been settled in iCAthiilwar before the Kdthia 

e TArikh-i-S'ipftth sneaks of a battle between Shamsud-din 

Khan the vic(*n:iy<tf Sultan Feroz Tughlak and Viila Champrai, 

capital wa« situated at Kileshvnr in the Burda hilla. This 

have been between a.d. 1351 and I8S7. 

According to bardic tradition 


J, „ ion Vorfivalji, a VAUi KajpuC of 

■^hink house, married tho daughter of VishlUo Patgnr, an Avortia 

^Katlii, and from her spnmg the tribes of Vdln, KhumAu and 

^KhicW Kathis, 'called from their high birth Sh&kh^yat or those of 

phs branch; other tribes are called Avartia, from avar otlier. Thus 

Ibe modern Kathis dinded themimlves into two great clans, tho 

Bhilchayat or those of tho branch who are the offspring oE Verivalji, 

mnd the Avartia or other or loi^cellunoous clans. 

Thi« acoonnt is far from satiafactory for the following reasons. 

*ie VaUs of Dhank wore a branch of the great Vdla house of 

TAia Chamdrdi, who reigned also at Talija Bmidrod, indeed over 

"lo whole Bub-diri.sion of GohilvAd called Valak or VSUkshetra. 

ien Verjkvalji umrried tho K&thidni about a.d. 1350 at tho 

rlieat, there must have been at least 500 Vahi. liajpnts alive. 

low we are asked to believe that tho offspring of Verdvalji alone 

hu increased to % greater extent tlian the ofT^])ring of tho 500 

^iia Ilajpalfl then in existence. At the present day there are 

least t«o VAla Kilthis for one VAla Uajput in the pro?inco, and 

jet y^&loji, after whom they profess to take their name, was only one 

tbu sons of Voravalji. Another objection is that tho name 

kh&char in anknown &.■< the name of a mac, though it exi<«ts stn the 

HUd of a tribe, yet if Khachar was really the name of cbo founder 

of thid sub-tribe many of his descendants would have been proud 

bear it. I^ha samu objection applies in a less degree to Khiimin. 

I he name Khnmdnaing, though rare, is not unknown among 

ajputs, bnt is never hoard among KAthis. 

The most probable explanatioa sooma that tribes more or less akin 

tho Habrids aad Jechvis passed into the province in earljr 

and were followed by a tribo of Vfilds. Of these tho 

ftihvia managed to get thcmaclves recognized as Rajputs, as did 

Chapter m. 








the 7^^ of Vila Cliamfirdi. This sinpalnr fact romaini 
tUo aDualB of Ibu JetlivAti show tlmt tlit>^ furtuerty itit'errtunrri«d1 
both with Biihrifid who do not protend tn bo Raipnts and with Vili% 
And that the Dhiiulc hoiiso of bo called \6.\a Hajpiiis int«r>>^ 
marTii:<« with them to this day. Strangely enongh, thoogli the HI 
ohioftaia is HuppoBcd to be a V£ln Hajpat and not a Kiithi, 
Porbandar recortls ahow that the Dhtink lady i.s alwayn Ktyled 
KAtliiaui Dili or Kathiiioi Mn, and their residence in Nai 
IB Culled the pfilace of the Kftlhi lady. Though they are uoal 
gire the reason, this fact clearly prnrc^ft the K6thi origin of 
V&la Uajputs. The truth probably h that the JethTAo and 
or two hranchefi of the VAIa KAihis uiauagod to get recognized as 
Rnjpnt!4, and that tho rost of the tribe continued to be collca K^thia. 
An fxcfllyut instance of the process of conversion from a lower 
caale into a Rajput <K.'cnps in tho caao of the VAghcla chieftain of 
Thara Jampin- in KiSnkrcj in north Gujariit, This family wm 
origiuMlly Kult, but by steadily marrying iuto Rajput families, it 
baa, within tho last hundred years, acquired tho Itajpnt statua, and, 
though their origin is koown to tbetr immediata neighbours, they 
nro V^ghelK Rajpiitn to pernons at a distance. 

By the second account, tho Kithia oarae from Nopil, the capital of 
which place is still called K&thniaada. Wherever the KAthia have 
come, they have had. a M^udn; thus Mdndu in Miilwa is said to havo 
originally be«ii named a'tter the Mdndu in Nepal, and tho KilthiA aro 
said to have made a long stay in Malwa, According to thia theory 
a branch of them went to the Panjib and Bottled at Tlian or 
Mnlthiii, the modem Mill t6n. When they apjicnniiKAthidwar, they 
bring with them both M^ndav and ThSn. Than being an old »*?atof 
theirs, and the Maudnv hilU being clone to the town, the districts of 
Udlwa near the Reva K;ljiLlia are still called Kati. Itisdifficntt 
toaaywhecbcr thti Klithifl originally entered Katlii^war from M^lwn 
or fi-om Mtiltliu. Ou tho whole it NeemH pmbable that while \M 
Vila lijitliis, afterwarda styled Hajputa, cauie fn>m MlLlwa^ itiij 
Khuio^s and the KMchar Kathis came from Unlc^n by Jc ~ 

Abu, andCulch. 

Each tribe of Kathis consists mainly of two separate cl 
Shikhfiya ts who do not intermarry either withVlansmen of th 
own triue or wilh Shakluiyat* of other tribes; and Arartif ta w' 
intermarry with ShakhAyalH and with whom Shlikhiiyats mterroarry, 
but who do not intvrumrry amongst themselves. The Shakh^iyata 
include five ti-ibes, VAlAs, KhumAnH, Khilchars, Hdtis, *and 
Jogia Ivhnmiins. Tho original Kathis consiitt of 5i>ven tribes 
or, according to aomOj of eight, M^jarii.'*, TohriAs, Narads or 
J^rod&B, Garibds, GuliAs, PAdvis, NAtis, and I'atgRrs. The 
AvartiAs inclndo over 100 tribes, 'I'hGrc i« aJao a connecting Jin 
betw<*eu K/Ului^ and Abii-i», namely the Bibri^ or Barbnrs v/. 
marry with ShAkhavat Kdthts and dso wit^ Ahirs. The th: 

chief tribes of BiibriiU are, Koti Ua, DbAnkd its. and VaruB. Tbi 
Sub-tribes do nut iuienuarry iiTtlie same trihe, tut efwh with t 
other. Thus a Kotila cannot m:ii'r>' a Kottla nor a DbiSnkda 
Phiukdaj hot a Kotila may marry a Dh&ukda or a Varu, aud a Varu 







Kofila or a DhAnkda. But a Kotilft, Vara, or DhAndka may marry 

^either a Shfikhayat Kiithi ora common Bibria or an Ahir. In brief, 

ifa, with the oxoeption noted above, can marry not only among 

Belres but with Sh&khAyat Kj^thia and Aliirs. It eeems 

)babte that the reason of their not marrying with the Avartia 

springs not so much from any objection on their part, bat 

|lTom scruples of tho Avarliris who look on theip aiso oh Arartida. 

Then comes the cognate tribe of Ahira. They hare no objection 

[to intermarriage among tbemaeWea or among DiLbriits and 

IShlkhiiyat KAtbis, bub thuy do not marry with Avartia K^tbis> 

^probably for ilic reasons which forbid tho fidbriiis allying themselves 

with these tribes. 

The aHinity of the K&this and the Ahirs was noticed by Abut FazI 

'id his Aiu-j-Akhiiri (151)0). Of tho diatrict of Sorath, he wrote : 

''In the serenth division arc VAgheliia. They haro two hundred 

Itome and the »ame number of foot. And there are many K&thi^ in 

Hue country whose caste is that of Ahir. These pooplo roar and 

[train horacs. lliey haTon force of dOUO horflo and 600U foot^ Somo 

>ns consider the horses to be of Arabian blood. They are of 

cnavish conduct, but hospitable, and they eat food cooked by any 

lacrt. They are very handsome. "When aj'i^rdAr goes among any 

, of these tribes, they tirst exact a promise from him not to levy 

[fines from them on account of tho imehastity of their men or women. 

i Tharo ia a tribe of Ahirs dwelling near the K&thia, on. tho bank;) of 

' the river Pondt, who are called Borich^ They have 3UO0 horse 

land alike uuiuber of foot. These aro constantly at war with the 


The Kathis. who, for distinction, have been called the ancient 

VViU», have no dtnibt been in the province for at least a thousand or 

rtw«lre hnndreil years, aa they are mentioned in the earliest records of 

both Uie Jcthvas and the Chud^samds. But the modem VaUa and 

Khtim&iui hare not been in the province for more than twenty or 

twenty-two generations, say about oOO years. The Kh^hars seem 

I to be pven 1at<>r comers, and not to hare crossed from Cutch before 

l_Uu» middlu or the end of the fifteenth century. Thus when J&m 

itered tho pn)vinco ahonl. i^n^ middle of the sixteenth century, 

ffd with tho Kdthis and drove them as far south as the river 

Bbadar. Tho next historical mention ia of Loma Khuman of Kherdt 

who iheltercd tJultan Muzafar about the close of the sixteenth 

euntnry. Then fnllowa Abul Kazl'a account in tho Ain>i-Akl)ari, 

ve, and tiiially tlie mention of the storming of Thin and 

'II of the Khdchiu-a by Shajfiat Khan in A.n. l^^'Z, m the 

Mirat.i>Ahm»di. Lastly wo havo the excellent local history of 

(Dtwan ftABchodji, who too di^linjifuiahes between ancioDt and 
Suudcrn Kiitlua, tliat is between Kh/ichars and KhuuiAus. Ho wya : 
'The Kathis constat of thirty tribes or clans, who came &om 
KhonUilfi, and Komo from I'rtvar which ia one of the cities of SJndh. 
iThg VilAa aru of ihii stock cf the Hnjput \&Us, the lorde of Ohdnk, 
Niiroagh the murriagt> of one of thout with a Kfithi damaol. 
Thi* chii'f was expelled fn»m hi^ caato owing to his marriage with 
an inferior tribe and entered thai of the KALhis. From hur sprung 
two bona named KhumiLn and Khitchar. to whom tho rular of 

Chapter HI, 


(Bombftf Oaxett«er. 

kftpter nx 




Jun£gad granted a small territory. When litis region becuM 
populuuti, it iTOH called Kathidw^. It is iit.HO rulated that Shatot 
Kh&n' hana)^ nlaia the Vitla chief in battte* conquered the town of 
KilfMhvar whicli is in the Barda hilU. Afterwards he conqaered 
tiie district of Okha and orerturuud Ibu temple of Jagat, and havini; 
tiiriuid it into a inosqiie, nitnrned. At this time he heard thai 
Ch^npr&j, the sod of Ivblmt tho K^thi, had a beautiful dan^'Lier, 
and bi'faine enamoured of Iut from the descripttou of hur charma, 
though he had not himself see-a her. Ho therefore demanded bor 
in marriutfe. But Champr&j refused to giTe her saying he couH 
not ally his daughter to a chief of another rehgioo. Shams Khia 
thoroforo led an army against bim^ and Ch^iprtij after patting 
his daughter to death, was slain together with 1800 galloui 

'One Vera VAla with the permission of the NawAb Bahddur KliAo 
boilt the fort of Jetpur. The Kathis pay much tribute to JunArad, 
and the ruler of Jandgad also takes yearly a horse from them. Thusa 
Kdthis exist by freebooting. The beauty of their women ia famous, 
for it was formerly the custom of the KhumAn Kathis to carry of! such 
baodaome women among the lower (.lasses as they could lay their 
hands on. But in these times the KAihi women are like ogres or 
dcmaus. Tlio Kilthi race ia brave gallant and hospitable, and there 
are in KAthiiwdr tho fortresses of •7et])uratid Mandarda Bilkho, 
Bagasraj Kundla, Jaadan, Chilal, Sud^iraj An&ndpnr, Bhadla, 
Db^ndbalpur, PAliid, and others, but some of these are not 
Strong-ly fo rtified.' 

Babkuh. The Ba'bria's, who inhabit a small dwtrict in the south nf 

\SMUmthi KaihiawAr, have bcea erroneously styled KAthis. They come froui 

an entirely diffe rent sto ck. Their first establishment in K^thiAwir 
was ttt^Thfin. Whence they came is not known, nor is it knowo 
whfthiT Uiey held Thin before or after the Panuara." Oue of 
their traditions speaks of their ln-ing tnnied out of Thlin by the 
JhAl^j and that they migrated to Bogasra, Amreli, andKundln, 
and were driveQ thence by the Kitbis. The district now known as 
Bibridv^ was then in the bands of the Viia Ha jputs. Thesa, 
wore gra3nnlly dnven out by the T^AbriAs and the allied tribe ol 
Ah ire. and the lauds were parcelled among a nunTBcr t^ pet 

In spite of their small numbers, the Babria clan has no less tl 
aev eiity-tWQ div iBJuns. It will be necessary to notice only the th ree* 
p nncipal _ divialuns KotilaSj DhAnkdiW, a nd Varu s, nndor one or 
other of which the others are included. The kotifia claim descent 
from a Jain BrAhman of Sihor by name Trtkai^ According to the 
story, Trikam kilted his brother and fled from Sihor. As he waa 

•Thk ii8h»in».nd-.lm Anwar KhAn.i-iPcr-jyorSultAiiFiroi Tugblftk (I55I-138S). 

* Tho TMtT Bajpul tnl>e rt.-i^i«) «t Dcllii (or livo gDtumtiaos, sail, bcin^ driraa 
ibeaoe. alwut the time ol tho l'AlllU^■a, Mitn]!*! I'uircMnato TIiIlii sod then rrigoedj 
Hesupbcrtod &il tho j>«(i|tle u bu (Imki-d tliUbvr. Inraaaeqaencttof « great funis e th^ 
mtrt left id W-nroh of vmtk Ims-ing their vivn aod childnm at ThJUk nww wrrr of 
dilfvrtvt caatiHi ami were hence called B&bor or Rabcr whidi in the h>c«l dialect 
■tgnidM niixod. They adciuards Ivft «u<l MtAbliiihcd tl>oaiaelv«a in the eooth at Iha 
psntasplfc brncr called BiibnAvAd. .Sir Omr^* Lc<imiid Jacob, 



w>9t\ng at l^lfija, an Alur*8 daughter uauied Dera Dorola fell iu 
I«v« with liim.' At that timo Kblm! Valo, the ruler of TaUja, 
was disiributing dowries to the maidens of his r«tlm, and, hearing 
thnt DeVA Dorela koh tsxiBvrmg from unrequited lore, he porsaadod 
the Brnhiimn to marry her, promising that his son should be chief 
unung the BibriAs. Trikam'a eldest son was calletl Kotila, 
preAuuiably from the father's forehead mark or tHa. He married a 
B6hri&, and his descendants ai-e said to hare settled at Thitn. As 
Gbhat, the Vdio chief, ruled at TaUjain the foort^tonlh century, the 
inttxjduction of his name shows that this branch had ite rtsu about 
SOU yifirs ago. 

The DhAnkdAs and Varus claim an earlier origin. The Dh6nkdila 
■tate that they are descended from the P&ndars of ifostinSpur, 
one of whom took refuge at AnhilvMa-P&tan, and, in the 
third or fourth generation, the representative of the fomily, 
called USbriu, migmted to ThAn. His great-grandson wan named 
DhAnkdiii, a t-erm thenceforth assumed as the patron^Tnic of the clan. 
Thi' Var»« lall themselves Jpthv^s and claim descent from Hanum^ 
through Nogjan the father of Jethve, the ancestor of the present 
lUna of Forbnndar. Nsgjan's other son Halman had a son caltod 
[ek, who waa united to a Dhiinkda woman named M&I. Among 
le children of this marriage was Varu, from whom came tho 
Ltronymic of the clan." As tho DhiinkdiU and Vams are both 
ire numerous than the Kotil&s, it is probable that they are older 
ca. Dot, bovond tmdiciou, there is nothing' to fix the date of 
loir entrance mto KAtluitwiir or of their settlement in BAbriiivAd. 
ley are now an effete rac e, having fallen to the rank of peasant 
rtprietors, and owning only thirty-fonr vUlagcs. Fonr a( thoso 
ilong to one set of proprietors, the Kotilfls of Dedan ; the rest 
divided among a number of shareholders. For some time 
rfore and after Oulonel Walker's settlement, the Babrias lived 
lost outipfly by plunder, and whatever indopmidence they had, 
destroyi'd by I'arbUashankar, tho Diwan of Junagml, in 1793. 
>rlou^ after this they were fugitives. Their villages, spai-soly 
.ttf'fttd over the oonntry, were mere collections of mud ho ta. 
id they levied blackmail on any traffic that paased through their 
its. They gave free asylum to outlaws, aud cherished their 
fends more invDtarately oven than the Kathis.^ They happened 




* .lecnrtUae tn the bard wben THksm wu (Irivui rrom Sihar. h« rwtod Bcar TaUj* 
Mid pnfMnd hta fmd. Ctev* Dorelft, tbt daufjhttr of » IVUik Abir snd ber aister-ia. 
Iftw, pAMiitji to letch witar mw tha atrangcr cliitnuily trjing to cook. Dnva Dorelk 
a«ld ' Thi> liwMUotBo Bnlbniwi M«ii» in trouble.' Ihe nUteruwvondttiJtst, 'Yon wo 
...k fur hiiu.' Thm Ikmla rrpliixl ' I do oa yon bid, Ton *re mj eldest 
le. ^id Ui nie M * luotlicr ' ii\ic tilliil her pitcher at tti« wot), utd lu ah» 
, ».>!■ UiiJiuuin aho uid, ' I atii yoor wifo taid you are my Umi,' buL be auaworad 
~~ln abe aiud. ' U you at; ito I kill myMlf.' So tho UriUiman agreed, 

. k aoUl U> bare \mea bore «hen the Jetbria ruled at ObnmJj, and Ghtimli 

_ M tu lute been dL-*trviytMl hy Jam tUmnioji in tbc r>iuit£«ntb oentuiy. 

' Ijq Ifkin, 31t. CouUna, Kirvt Auuitant Political Agont, wrote : Only three yconi 

• vOla^B. not Uitve milea bom the Thiiidih «tntt(.ii, vnu dn«tt«(i by all ita 

*^ctaBta tliroDgh dread ed a gang vt untlxwH hvadul Ity a relation of the proprictiir 

tTilUgr, who had gmur ont a* on oublaw. No ouu Tcmoined but tbc proprietor 

biaarlf. Uia <iirif«> his luu oud daugbter, aad ooe attendant. A night attack, waa made 


[Bombay Ouettetf. 


Charter IIL 



to be settled hi 


COItUitl >s 11 

habit's \oTiir 

A littlo JrggjJgJ 

, ^ ^ <'f ♦*»« cooiitiy, ia 

t oe tenia and riwneg o f the Muham 
'■ Ka j pnta of QotflT^ . Tliey never caini) 

■.■]^'h aiittiorities, and elms kept tiielr barlmi 
Liit^> jN.i>pi(j of tho more open districts had scttli 
into quiet and orditrly ways. Tboy pradually pAmed under 
prot^ciion of the Na wAb of Jnmlga d, and in IMLtlie district 
for mally annexod to Els douuiiious. 

Since 1864 tho law of equal tiivisimi of property, which is held 
tho B&brids in oomniun \<r\ih the tCatbis and other tri)x-s, has teni 
to weaken and brt-ak this tribe. Tbey marr y . . ^'fa'-'J'' dn ughtorg 
K/tthia, and lake in marriage tho daughtorg olf~Al iirs.' iTiey are 
restricted aa to (lie number of wivow, uiarryiDS' as many ub 
arc able to maintain. Their chief idolti and Miit^ are Gh. 
Khodiad, Ch^vand, Bhut Bhav.lni, and noxably tho image CslU 
Sh^mji MahirAj, which presides over the but springs of TuUi S 
ThiH idol is a four-armed Bgore supposed by some to rep 
Vishnu. In their rites and ceremonies the B&briils conform to 
usage of tho Ahr- ^ ^-^th ia. 

A'hirs. 4ii,i;^ m clos ely allied to the B AbriAs. 

claim to be older and »»v that The H&ji&i are an oSshoot fr 
them. 'The BAbriils, A}iir8, and Rab^ris/ says Colonel Wn 
coupling them aa kindred tribes, *are tho aborigines of _ 
country.* Ho traces the word Ahir to the Sanskrit word Ahai 
eignifyiug banting.' 


«i Um rillMft. The pioprietor wu woqdiImI, hb vm wu kQled, nd hb wir*. wvaal 

tawronkJ pWea, g&Te birth thnt night tondiiM which died before tho nigbtiraamnMj 
Th« Btt«0(lsiil aiao was kilhsl. And tlic rloaghUtr ww Uh only one of tbo party 
OMimd tuinjuml. Tborc wft* uo ptirauit. 

' The dowry Is t*koa hy Uio paroaU vf the brid« aod ia rejpiitliid by tlivm aboi 
ai jmrchaw money. 

■ 'IVlai SUm, i^r thr goddMs Tnliti, that is lAkflhtni attdhor tpoaieSlitoiorKruhBa, 
baitaalftd in ILilmivAi'l . Hvn are Lot welU, wtiicli are b<ud uored t>y llimtua 
whopocfunii iiilKriuiafji!* fur thn purpnw of bathing in limm. Tb« tteiple of I'uUt- 
Sbambvery pkioreMiuely titualwl inUiv heart of thelatKOGir. and it only aocMBihla 
hf Tvy roa^ roada. The hoi apnng is rfrceiv«d in alatse raetnnjjnlar cuUston* 
Msdn. oril-uiid', dtTtdod into seven pvitious by walla, to tliJit differvut caNiea 
batba in it. 

* Aooonling to the barda, in the country of Sindh a king oaoiMl Sqtnra had 
BOUH, tliu first Vftif, the ivmnd Rauiliii, tho thini Kaltiar, the finirth Marni 
and tht lifth Amdn, whn ii«ltle<l iti the llarcl.t country. Va^j's rtkce waa aa follows : 
FAlao Juvllut Vnaa, Ui wh^>iii vtn Iwm thno nDna, Jaw, lAkho, and Dyo. J, 
^aoeration was Aso Sahir, Sitthn. atid Vera, who rvccivcd hia share in N 
to thti Kimpnra district. 8ithi>'s aoound boo Ryo r«ceiv«d half KiUnpiara, 
hia thin) Khnku bad three soiw ; tho eldwit Mujo nveirad Jiuipodiu- and (mm 
apmnu ihe Jimpoda tribe ; bii aeooad Yaoo r«ci3vMl JolApur, and fnmi him a 
the Jolapari tribii : his tibird eon EAao had also his share in JuUpnr and hm ijunc ' 
with Uiv others ; the fourth aoQ was Raklii), who n-ceived Uanjavadiir and 
which last i* under BhArnagar ; U>r fifth um KAtii rvecived Vijuka whit,'!) » 
as D«Dka now under llajnia. * * The LakhQutraaiid BAin tribes aro dcscen' 
from the Stflacki Hajputs. ArjnpSolatikircignednverDiu, the eldest eon Lslchin 
manud into till! Sotithia Abirs and liis dcaccndauta are termed LakLuolra 
•MOtid son Jonto nisnied into tlio N«j>il Aliin. I.nkhuotra's son Libniv had 
■ona- of Uieiti I>)-*iirtlM Cfst n-<X'it'firEi>TDKa.-niilu received Uor^o aad Dan 
and Khuvat thu third reoeived L'ntiaTndar and Targm which last la under Toa. 

From tho V'llla Rajputs apmng V'aluji who had five aoiui. The firat 
Pinjur nhu inarric]] into tL« Alitn and froai liim aprana the Finjur triV'. W 
rcooi vvd Uamiatin, Mnhuua Vadar, aod RnmlMUio now under Bliivnaj^-nr. The ■' 




'Hipy claim descent fr»m the Sarnra d^-nosty of Sindh, and state 
iftt tliuy uiArried with tho Sulauku of Din, with the VM&i of 
>nth KJiihi&w&r, and with tho Parmirs of Ujain. Aocordinj^ to 
^Doibor BccoDDt tboy accompanied Krishrub when he camo to 
tarsitlilra, and saitlod in the \-icinity of the Gimnr hill, and were 
leucQ failed Soratbia Ahirs. There ia ao doubt a close ooanection 
dsta betwccQ the Ahirs and the Yadavs. 

The Bubdivifiions into which the tribe has broken may be grouped 

ider the two heads of Gujar Ahira wI}o live in towns, and Nei^ak 

ihirs who live in hamlets or nea. Tho Ahirs hare gradually f^ven 

■.-•herdiDg, and are now mostly busbaadmen and email 

lura. Thoy profess to haro ousted the Vali\ KajpiiLs from 

tbnavad, and it is prolmble that they entered the south of tho 

UDSula in company with the BabriaH, They are closely allied to 

rucD and give their daughters to them. The legoad that Ahir 

hijai gave bin son to be killed instej^d of U» Noghan of 

id (a.d. 1100) shows that tho Sorathia Ahira were established 

the land three or four centorieH before the IMbriiia and Ahira 

^l>taiued a fuotiug in Bilhri^v^. 

The Ahiri are a toll active race, and their women when yoaag 

1 not bod-looking. Like the BdbriiU t lu>y reveriMice Tulsi-Shd.m 

Gir and a Damlx»r of local goddesses. In their religions 

jnies tbey EoIIqw the Hindu ritual. They are free livers, 

uuttun, venison, and other game, but uut beef, and drinking 

ijritii in moderation. Tho widow of an Ahir marriea her late 

msband's younger brother. 

, Bha'ta or Ba'rotS, (in Euglish Bards), 4327 strong, aro a 
^b^rr aoinoiit race. They claim to liave Kpmng from MahfUle?, 
^BSd Bomo derive tho word Bhat, from bhiil the forehead ami 
^EUa bom, in allusion to their being produced from tlte sweat 
Pcf Mahailer's bruw. The Bhiita aro divided into Brahma BhAts 
ood Sumtliia UhAls. Tho8e of the latter who wv genealogist's ani 
lied [>4jngr^*). Brahma Bhilta Forbid widow mnrriago and wear the 
Lhroad. Tht\V fantiol dine or marry with other Bhitta and they will 
lot oat with Chdmrut. Sorathia Bti^ta allow widow marria^ro and 
[only oeawionally wear tho sacred thread. They eat and marry with 
lolbipr BbAta, and do not object to ent with Kajputs. By professinn 
ilhey are bnrda nud gimealogists, and by right** they nhould live on 
cKahty, but they have lung given up austerities, aud as a dasg are 
; wcll-to-dti. SAiiie of thftii are engaged in baukingainl innneyli'nding, 
iitr* till their own lurids. At tlie beginning of tho oontury they 
in general rtMiue-it ns securitied, and ao de*?d ur tnuisactiou 
Poiuidereil valid until it had l)ei>n eounteniiguod by a Bh&t. 
lII tho tvcurity bouda taken by Colonel Watkor from the chiefs 



^■loji of thb fMea k»d four fncu. the «ldnt Vt^o^ rrom whom th« T^tur trlb« 
d^MModvd. Th* Mooml Van-io (root wboca <»ma thn ^'Al-^IUi ; thn Uunl Kintutr 
wbiim ouiw ihe Kiukui'U: tlio f>i*rlh Chaw wh(i*« ii«4CQfulacit4 u-u uill«d 
Vuur. Ttwir nImd) wm 'iri/iu&lly in EU^wia, Alurir&rda ia RiJ|i4fn in Uie 
jMt MHiiitr)-, Mibtniiivnllv in DoiiliA. Vxlor, u>J Jiilua, The FiiUl trilM 
. jpTUijc truni th* k<ti){ <•( L^itm, Vikntin I'atniAr, hv » #aBiU) of KnuDwt (i««tw, 'lliv 
tmiu «u PanaU Dbuvu. aaii ids Kia wh I'aiM wiw nwrrtod iute tU« Aliin. 

Cbxpter tlL 




of Kithiiwir in 1907 were signed by BhAts or Cbirans. Ti 
were also largely used aatreoauro escorts, fur their persoiui wereh. 
sacred, aud the more threat of a Bh&t that ho would Kouod 
himself was onuugh to scare any baud of robbers, emd lo prefiorre 
Talnable goods untouched.' 

Erery Kaiput chieftain and land proprietor has a BhAt attacWI 
to his family, and Mudi Bbiil hsA a certain round which he ftom 
©Tory year. He is welcomed on arrira! at tie chiers honse^ and i» 
ootorUuDed during his stay. Ue brioKS bis book of chronicles, and 
from it recites all the meuiorablo deeds of the clan, and tnicBs tbev 
genealogy to the heroes of old. Ho also entei-s in the family reiivird 
any birtn, marriage or death that baa taken place tiince hia IsKt 
visit. They receive a foe lor all the entrina tliey make, and ayi^arty 
present ac<!ording to the liberality of the chief. Many of i' 
own small plots of land in every state they visit. 

The KAthifiwAr Bh^ts are generally a respectable class, diffmn^ 
in ihis from the Bh^ta of MiU-war and RajpntAna, ivho are bold 
robbers^ carrying off cameU and horses with much cleverness. 
There is also reason t-u suppose thai they are extensively engaged in 
Iddnapping girls and seUing tKcm as household slaves to Rajpul 

Cha'rans, 15,370 strong, also claim a divine origin and say that 
the first of their race was created by the god Shiv as a graaier, M-biclt 
the word Charsn means. They aiv closely allied to the K4thi<) and 
Ahira, and a band of them ia stated to have accompanied the first 
troop of KAthis, who, according to local tradition, were driven 
by famine from Cutoh into Kiitbi&wfir about a.d. IKK). They 
probably roamed over the country, like other pastoral tribes, in 
Boorch of grazing grounds. But they always kept their connection 
with the KAthia. They keep KAthi gcneaJogioa, and re<'ite their 
praiics and the crploit^ of their forofatheni, and like the Bhitts, they 
Qsed to stand security and enforce the execution of agi'eemeuts by 
Belf-wounding or trdga. To judgo by the monumental stones 
BCRttored over the country, instances in which members of this cUb«j 
both men and women, preferred death to dishonour were not 

* Tb« nutom of Mlf-iraundtng, mfr d/ fo, hiu now died oat. It mu onco vDr>- con 
aod the knnwlnl^ thiit * BhAt Monrity wohIiI wnunii nnd, if noceiunr}-. Kill hil 
arone of his (Aiiulv, prvreuted mftny lui iKt i>E bwt fiutli. The ruUuwuii; iu^taa. 
trdffa is r«Jal«>) t>y Colnnol Wnlkir : 'Tlifi Jjtd#j« otuel of Milia hjtd fumiMhe 
Bhitiu hb security but fnilod ill liidMi^ntfvmvat. Tbo Bhit vniliwToarcd Ut obt 
hiA |Mint )>f thBtiof, but! wiUwut affect ; and sn hia charut«r wu at atAke ha rcool^ 
on |iuttiii^ hiuu«U to dectli. From this hti vinm diMiuuled bj- aoutbet BbAt, 
inainiuttea that, iu> ntliotm tlsDciidiid an hia Itfo, it would be betc«r tlwt tbi» cpe 
■bmld di«. An afToutiu^ deWte took plouv Iwtwocn thotn, uid at loagth tin ol 
of the Meritioo was dumped tothuyouogoat da&shUir <>f U>e original Kcurity. 
two nwu spent the nig^t in bating and pntyer, an^, in Ibe muniiiiK. tho littlci daugUI 
•iz yoKn old, waa bmn^t ant tmd tolilshe mast die ti} mv^ her mliw'B hrmour. j 
WM lad to a prupur ii)>»t, vrticra she vohuitarily nat down, and adiutit4:<d h«r lo 
hair to praronl ita interfering with the fatal dtMKe which wu givem by the hanif 
her iiarent.' Bom. Oov. Scl. XXXIX. I'nit I 227. 

' In almost every part of Kathi&w^, in thv op«n, nvar tho entry of tha ril 
antoba wvaatonca like tomh-Btonoa. Tbeeo are called pdttifj or guardinni and' 
nuaod in memory of Cb tew.lboti] mem and wonwu, who have killed thomaelru to pcef 



IB womon have always been nir>re bi^poted in asuerting their 
kima to siwciftl honour and sanctity thau the men, and in conse- 
auco they are highly respected aud maay of thorn are trorBhipped 
motberB ur M^cds.* 

KOh£r&Dfl are scattered all orcr Kathi&w^r, aud in somo parts 

'Mts of laud, sometimes of wholo villagea. They are poor 

>, and depend chieriy on charity, thoir foos M genealogists, 

the produce of their cattle. Some employ Ini'ge numlwra of 

9k bullocks in the carrying trade betsrcon Kiitfai&w^r and 

hjpatAna. Others cnga>fe thomitolves as serranls, or enlist in tho 

itgnlar forcos kept by chiefs. Their profession aa secnritios and 

consequent aacreduods have died out^ and with the chan^ 

have lost mach of thoir reapectability. Of late years they 

lAken to cattle-lifting, and many of them joined in the Vagher 

B to 130S) di.sturbances. They are » tall, good-looking, Ught- 

_iod race, both men and women. They obeerve Hindu cuBtomti 

iallow widow marriage. They worship the Khutliar and Ashitpnm 

«., but Bhav^ni is their cliiei deity. 

Raba'ris, a class of cowherds, 48,1 50 strong, thongh scattered over 
t peninaula are ctiefly found near the Barda and Gir hills. Colonel 
ilker ranks them among the early tribes, but they themselves slate 
that they came fmni Milrwdr.' They breed cowh aud are porticu- 
rty fond of camels, tending them in the largo salt marshes which 
ingc the penJD»ula. Tlieir droves of co^vg aud buffaloes are kept 
land, finding duriug the cold weather and spring iu the plains, and 
iuv driven into the Gir aud Barda hills when fodder is scarce. 
I Rabins make their living chiefly from the sale of clari Hod butter. 
main article of food is cornel's milk, and on this they thriva 
live in the meaueat wattlo huts in small hamlets cedled nes. 
ora a qniet cont<inted kindly people, wandering over the land 
;h of pasture, and when pasture fails, moving to Cutch or 
Gajarit. They seldom work as husbandmen. In Barda a 
«» of Uabiria has attached it-self from time immemorial to the 
tUtv&B* Mid like the Mers can be cjdied on for inihtary service 
so Tvqnirod. In return for this they have to pay fewer taxes 
I oiheni and a sum uf £10 (Ra. 100) is paid to the heirs of any 
who is killed in the chief's service. 'Ihcy arc a hardy active 
dftrk-akiiuied, and well builL. They practise polygamy, and 



_ .^ dtf «r to raooTw tho oattls of llio villagt from the mdalciy KAtbis, 
twaw of Ibo CbArao. the <t*te, mm! tba olijeet «ra vrilt«a on tba itotM. whUe a 
wsltilwn ■hiiwi tba «>y Id which th« McrifiiM wa» ptritmund. Moa geiieralljr 
1 tbWMlvM on bntwha«k villi k sword or apMU- [ woman by ranning n dagger 
>iMUr UirMclii llMir tkrtiaL 

* ikntm Chinn wonm, tan tlM legend, wore tniTvlUnj; (rotn Snlkhinpnr to a 
▼UIsM*! wb«a UM ICalia fttt««l(ttd »nd plniulflrpd thatn. Uiw o( (ha 

_ _ 1 BshttMHUV BAtehad n iwonl irvm m boy wbr> Bttvnded h«r, And wiUi 

bolb h«r brah*la. Mm iiiinB<]i*t«ly nnruWl. fl«r >ul«n Bat uid fbJiU 

iltadi'" )l>f<vu wullix KftliDohua hoesma Dork. Shri BAhachAriJi 

inp»d it< ^al, hut Mdt* ftt Xnwi nMT Kot, ud B«Uil Devi Kt 

I «boiil liit^'o H»i*a t<Nth of SUior. Porbw' fUi MiU, [I. Ml 

* Od. Watkar wraU io IMT : ' Kvsry UsditiuBAl lecoant that I prMsred Msmcd to 
tint tiM lUtacM^ Abin, aad lUbthi w« Ibt aborigisM of tfit Moatnr.' Bon. 

r, «•! XXXVa2T8, 

» CI3-J8 

rBombay Guct 



»pt«r m. 



willows piany tl»«ir deceased husband's brother. They are Hinii 
worahipping Mat^, aad performing the asual marriAgu and ot 

Bharva'dSi 66.600 strong, are shepherdflj leading much the 
life as Rah&na, bnt living in larger commanittos. Their flocks of 
and goats nro kept in tno ontskirts of villages, and are driven o 
graze hy day and brought back at night. Tbey claim descent 
Hand Mer, Krishna's fuster-fatber, and utate that they can 
K&thi&w&r from Gokal Vandrivan near Delhi. They worship nn 
or MAt&s, and observe most of the ordinary Hindu customs. 
are an a1)stemiou8 raoej living chiefly on milk and niittet cukes, 
are generaUy poor and of low social position. The men are swarthy 
and well built, better loukingthao the women. They celebrwte tb^ir 
marriagca evory ten or twuiro years, and all the marriages lukt' ptare 
on one day and in one pbicc. The oeremony u called milk-drinking 
or dudhpino, from the quantity of milk or chirlfied butt«r that is awd. 
Thebutterhasavery exeitingeffectonthe women, who become frantic, 
ainging obscene songSj breaking down hedges and spoiling the 
BUrrounding crop*. lliey buy a piece of ground froni a lauduwaer 
upon which the marriage ceremonies are performed. Thia ground 
cannot be used a second time for the same ptirpoee, but ■» 
thenceforth kept as pasture, and an ornamental wooden post called 
the marriage pdlar is set up in it> and preserved to show the purpose 
to which the ground has been applied. Widow marriage is allowed, 
the younger brother of the deceased husband having the first choice. 
Bharvdds do not eat animal food. 

Mere, 23,850 strong, are a race which has attached itself from time 
immemorial to the Jethva Rnjpats. They call thenuelves Ilajpats, 
though this claim is not admitted by the JetbvAs^ and say tbnt they are 
descended from one Randhirji, a Jethva, who held twenty-fom* villager 
in the Barda district.' They are a kiud of feudal miUtia, hable to 
military service They hold their lands oo a service tonufe,' and in 
common with the Rabdris, are allowed many privileges and immnnitica. 
They do not pay rent for their lands but a hearth tax, and. if they 
caltivato, they pay a small sum as plough tax. They also pay a quit* 
rent or sulehdi, for the village assigned for their maintenance-' If 
they breed horses or camels they are bound to give the males to the 
Kdua. Their military service has now ceased, but iu fonnor times. 

1 Th«y an probftbly U>e Kine u th« HWU, Hers, or Mio<l8, who were the nuwt 
pDWvrfiu tribo in Lowor Sindh at tho timoof tlic Arab congiie^t (A.ti. 712). (Elliot 
and Dnveou, L 128). The legend of their orkin » that whcu Rim built Uw 
bridf^o lietvraen Hiuduitlti aud Coyloo, vad crawwT over it vith kin amy of niuraluya. 
b» OTMrtvd a man from a hair from tho baok of hi> nock, and luft him to guard th« 
faiidgo. He called Urn Eethvila Mer, from tr^li hair. Whiin he rcUtmod fran 
C«]rlan he married tht< Mer to a lUkahaa or dnnon w liom he had brouyht bock with 
him. Their dc«ceD dan ta married into Rajpub tamitiea and vrvre the oriein of ths 
tribe. Wnlk«r aava they were oallail M«r trom their bung OD twtti of Irian dahip 
niAer with the Jethvia. 

* A Mer can nerer ba tndnced to maintain hinuelt b/ labonr. When bia 

KIrimony it too unxU to support hia faDiily, be beconea a charav oq the JUna. 
.ni, fW.v. M. XXMX. 168. 

* Kur ev«ry Mirr oUin io action the fUna pays hJa hcin £10 (Re. 100) and ■oi» 
additioaol incoms. 

wore tho great stand-by of the state. Thoy conld ttira ont 

or four tboiisaiul Bti-ijug, and, ibuu^b tbey obeyeil tlie Tliina 

gCmsrslly, they were uuUur captains cboBtm by themselves fram 

none rheir own nninber. The Mers are divided into four clans^ 

le KeshvaUs, Raj^ukhiU, Gobild, and Adidr^ (descendtuita of a 

Sarani Kajpal). They iuteriiuuTy and alluw widow marriagu, bat 

ti otht-r renpecta conform to RajiHit ciiHtomH. Tboy are a fino raco, 

Lronu'iiQd tail, brown -skJimed aud well f&atured; they are abstemious 

thfir habits, seldom catiu^ meat, but liviuj^ uu millet bread aud 

They are Erngal and hospitable, simpto and kindly, bat not 

t! from thievish propensities. Their disputes are settled by a 

meenug of oMers. Many of them joined the Y^hers during the 

revolt of that clan, with which they have many sympathies. 

Kallia'B, 2000 strong, claim a Rajput origin. One account 
itAt^s that the name of the clan is derived from their ancestor 
kya, while according to another account they came from the 
ughboorbood of the fiilahi river, and hence were called Mahifis, 
are chiefly found in tho di»trict of Sorath, in certain villages 
funigad, Jetpar, and Biintva, aud are generally included under 
the name Kuli. They are n turbuU'ut, excitable tribe, aud at times 
hava given much trouble. In 1SG7 they wore in open revolt, and 
establt:«faed thomeolTes in the Qir hilb. Afterwards on being 
recalled, certain lauds wore made over to them ou service tonuro. 
Tboy were disnnnod in 1873 and since then havo qniotod down. 

The tribe has no aubdivbions, and the members intermarry. They 
keep imagoa iu their houses, and have priuHts called Mankhetria 
BrAhmons, who are Audich Brihmana long sottled in Maukhctra 

kneur Maagrol. Tho BrAhnuUis are di?ided into two sects called 
Mdrgipanthis who arc Vaishnavs, and Mdti^mnthis who worship K61i, 
many of them eating animal food and drinking spirits. Thoy are 
poor bnsbaQdmeu and have more of the soldier's instinct than of tho 
laboorer'a. The men are tall and strong, with bronzed skins and 
aquiline noses. They dress like orilinary Rajputs, and in tho main 
foQow Rajput ctiAtoms. They are very ignorant and set their faces 
againat education or any handicraft. 

^ EoUs, who are scattered all over K^hidwir and divided into 

HnDmerous tribes, number 330,850. They assert tliat thoy sprang 

^brom YuTan&shva and remained for many gonorations on the 

Baea shore in the delta of the Indus. At length thoy were 

remored to the country near tho Kal by tho goddess Uingl&j. 

They were then called Mers, &a well aa KoUa, and Sonaug 

Mtjr was tlieir leader. Sonaog had twelve sons each of whom 

Ibnnded a clan. The etymology of the word Koli baa never 

been determined. According to Mr. Kinloch Forbes' they Imd an 

^anrfst-jr whose name was Koli. He was brought up in tho 

fun.*»t by a sage, and always lived a wild life, whence it 

jliappeueu that his descendants, though in the towna they am of 




1 &ta Mib, 103. 



[Bombay Ouetucr, 



little iuiportance, are Moaa in the forcwtfi.' EAtbl&w&r KoUi 
IjtilnDf^ tu 6ve lentliDg divisinna : TfUabdAs, Chanvdliia, V^kUi^ 
KbADt«, Qod Ghcdiiifl ; and tlicso nre again enbdirided into 
uiituerous braaches, uud uisrge into the allied clans of Mere, M&litiU, 
and [UUvaliAa. The TalabdAa bold tbo bigbost ptacu amongct 
Kolis. Thft word means local, and there is tittle doubt tbnt momlnn 
of this tribe are the oldest remainiug iDliahitantft of GojorAt and 
Kfithidwar. Acuortlhig to Ititthup Ueber they and the BUila wen 
the ori^ual inhabitaDtfi of Contml and Wcsiom India, and irnv 
driven to their fastneases and deaperate and uii»L>mble life by the 
invaitiou of thu tribes, who profesa the BrAhtnauical religion .= Tbdr 
subdivisions at the present day are Jlldar, Sarvivn, ChudAaama, 
IMbhi, Makv&na, li^thod, Jhiila, Gohil, M^of^liit, fCataura, Rara; 
Chobflii. Cbdvda, Solanki, Jethra, rormar, Kb^ia, Kiiuitia, V^bela, 
Mer, ShiAl, and Kochhela. These include Uie uatncH of nearly all 
the beat known Rajpat clans.' It ia probable that the prosenl 
roprL-»>eutativeaiin^ partly d(<g(>uL-rate Rajput«, pirtly KoUs, wlu>haT« 
Bttauhed tlu'inselves to a partjirultir Raipui house and follonred its 
fortane aa in the case of the Mors and JethTAs. Whatever their 
origin, it is certaiu that the TalabUa« as a body enjoy a higher rank 
ana jp'eater considemtion than the ChnnvAIi^ and other sulxlirisioas 
of the tribe.* Tliey intermarry only among TalalnlAs, bnt will not 
allow marriages between members of the Same subdivision, thereby 
lollowiug the example of RnjptitB. ItajputM, whoiire uoL landholders, 
will somotimPB marry the daaj^htcr oE a Ttihib da, bnt, as a rulo, snch 
marriages are disallowed. Nor can a Rajput eat with a Tija 
openly, though they secretly eat fo<jd cooked by Talabdas. At 
beginning of the present century tho Kolia were a much despised 
race. In 1804, Colonel Walker wrot*: 'Most Kolis are thieves by 
profession, and ombmoo every opportunity of plundering either 
public or private property. It ia these habita, contrasted with the 
obsequioQS character of tho re^t of the tuhabitanta, that baa given 
rise to tho uauiev of K^ti or peaceful and MehvAa or faithless.' 
These ubservationa reforreil principally to the ChunvAlia Kolis. Tbo 
Talabdbs have always been more peaceable and, in Kdthi^witr, bare 


I en, I 



^ CMflml J. W. VTataoD ia inclined totliink that Koli ia derired flitlior trma kol a bmt, 
■oabrinc, t>ctngii distinctive occupittkin of Kolii, or «b6 tb»t Dr. WilioB^ anggertioa 
thitl Kol) nusun clanMiiKii in c<imTi;l. 

* In thsaa ttoiM, B»y th« liiu^l, ther* wu not ao dnttt ft popaUtioQ in Oujulb. but 
the Bliila and Kolia Urod in aocurity. Tiicy were dvubbloas tiran, m now, hereditary 
and profcR&lnul plintdcren, 'soldicmot theui^fht'u thej dcMtibe tbeotMlres. Raja 
Kaiau Sotankt «A« the flrat nUer bl Oojardt who devoted his attention to cnrbing 
thoM wild tribcB, « Uuk which 1m« cRiMmt morn or l«m anxictj to idl hts »tic<-i jwora. 
Aceordiue to Mr Kiulocb forbM when th« Ctul\-da dynaaty uud«r Vaurij e$tAbliab«d 
itMtf at Anfailvada (a-d. 746) north Gnjarit waadaatatnta ol&ny uiliabitants bnt tb» 
Kild origtntil tnltra. 

*TI».'»a K«j]jut chiufii Ii^niltng trilwa (it aboriginal dvaaant a0brd jnraUel to tba 
forvi^ loiidvra of Ifiitbknd dutu in Scotfauid. Baa Mala. II. M. It awnie thitt tbo 
Celtic pM>]>lv, energetic, bmva and onduhog aa foUowera. reqoirod, liko aoiDa 
oriental races, thb leaiicrdiiji of captaiiia belongii^ to racva b«U«r tiUod ta or]ganiaft 
anil eoiiiiiinnd. Bitrton'a Lifo of Ixwii Ijuv&t. 

■AincHi)! TnUlnlii Kolia, Jddav CbudiUiLiuaa and Sar\-iyaa an moat eat< 
Both tho IMIiLi niid Mjikv&na tribon, whether of Itajpot or Koli origin, an 

and, fn 


antiijiiitir. am) ('iuImIiIj' mUnj th« Mninxnla with the OhudiaamA*. ai 
long rraduico, cnjnjr a lii|^ d«gt«c vl cotuidaratJOO. Culmud J, W. Wi 







ilwayn borno a good uaoie. They are for tlie most pari huabandmon' 
'lOu^h tiiauy work as day- labourers or are employed as sepoys and 
watchnieD. They are geiiiTftlly Btronp- and well-inade, thrifty and 
well-to-do, and ae Uusbuudmmi are iuforior ouly to Kuobis. 

Tbo name of some Koli eobdivisioiiB is essentially local. The 
Sbidb, formerly noted pirateK bat novr nettled to a qaiet life, are called 
aftor the islaiid of Sliiiil fin the sntith foast. Tlie RhiiMiAsare named 
rom the villngo of Kh&a in Dhandhuka which was the portion of 
' eir reputed ancestor Viaoji Oohil. The ChiiuvaliAs take their 
name from the Chunvil, or forty-four villages, in east KdthlAwiSr. 
ChiiDViVlias are altogether a wilder and loss tractable race than 
bd^, and at one time were the terror of north Gujarat. Under 
Mar^thfis they were in chronic revolt, living by a system of 
Drgouized plunder, which took many years and many sharp 
iahmonts to abi)liflh. Under their chiofa or mdhanlarf, they 
' Contributions ou the country' round. Idle and thriftlessj they 
■corned to make their living by lillagi! and proferrod the excitement 
and adreutnro of a life of plunder. They laid their plana with groat 
'" and method, and carried them out with boldness and cunniug. 
me of them, though nnwiltiogly, have taken to husbandry and other 
lings, but in most the old turn for thieving has by no means. 
isappearvKl. They have tweaty-one principal subdivisions/ and 
inteniHirry among their own class alone, but not among members of 
'iGsamo subdivtsinn. They do not eat with other tribes isnch as 
alakiaa. Their subdivisions are namwl partly from Rajput huuseB, 
tly from local aKSOciaCious. Thus the JhiDJhuvddids are named 
'rom that town, which, with some subordinate villages, is held by a 
number of Chunvfilia Thakarda shflrehoidcre.' Ilie Tbilkardis 
having married into good families are good-looking and hiir lik« 
the Talabdas, but most of the Chunvfiltis have mora of the features 
and chamcteristicfl of the Bhil, than whom they ore only a little 
higher in social jtosition and inlt- lligeuce. They are excellent trackera, 
oxamplee of the time-honoured proverb ' set a thief to catofa a thief.' 

The VaiftkiA*. who take their name from the KithiawAr district 
of Valak, inhabit the aonth-L-ast of Kdtbidwi^r and have a stronger 
Mrarn of Khil blood even than the Chunvjllias." Formerly tht^y wirre 
uotcd pirntes; they now live almost entirely by labour. They marry 
aolely in their own class. 

The chivf of the Khfint tribe claims descent from a BhAti Raj]int ;• 
thvlHuliug families are known by the title of Mer, which i» aaid to 

* Til* i>ABwM« - Ali*u>iA. AJMnuL IUrt>p,BMuki«, I>ibhJ.DhitDe(U», Dhudliakia, 
[r^ilxl, JninUrtn. >llii'i]!iiir^.|i4. Kni.rja, Ijl&tmra, &[&kTiiui, Fale^A, Puiiuir, Hpli«, 
I V4Vri«. HMn*. »ik>Uuki Vft.l)>l>khu, aud VJafaeU. 

* Tbay an klAkrAna K (tli* ilenRBiiiled f ran awv HAkvim. 

* Th«y an mn HimiM tkr nlT>i<nnit at ttM Blitl*, who tomtfatf with Eolis fraqtuated 
th" •ntitlitnj «n<l •uotli'WMUni ouuto wlien nJrmry w*a SlmotA muromJ. TiKsn lud 

tfap hiirtfry of tlio V»i» ohiofUia* t4 KejJkot, JhMijhmor, ami Vaahm K'>«<l». • 
~ I ■rhu'l) (i]>*iilr iKkctttod piracy io ancwat ihuw, i|Mcial mcBlKn ii mad* of Umr 

I allin*. Culunol J. W. WttaoB. 
17^. . n _ .. . .. .k.. .,.r-o regardinit th* marrlm ef the Klitot nuldi* b* 

fit- -r. ntiili lull utai pamo tkU Padmmii ; Kkatri PattJ, 

^iik.'- 1 . . u«JcaaImtT. <>fv«w«(liM KTMrtrtrmsth. married tb« 

■ jUul i'Mlnwiu, klMin i'AUl (nuuiivd) the Kbiat. Coloavl J. W. W«tnB. 


Chapter n 





mean elder or chief, and to be derived from tho old GojarAii 
mfn- mcaniiif^ the largo»)t bood iuh uncklaco. Bat it seems prubnUo 
iliat tho&o finmilios hnvo a. strain of lato Kolij that is Hh«d, M&nd, or 
Mur Lpl(K>d. One of their ettrly leaders Dti^db Kh&nt tna the son 
of Sooang Mor and is said to havo conaaered Dbaodhaka, and to 
have founded Dbdndhalpur in the PanchfU. Anotber leader P4i«l 
KbAnt is said Co have conquered PetUd. But their most famoM 
loader was Jcsa or Jesing*, hy wbose betp ilie uin]H?ror BInbammad 
Togblak (a.d. 1330) tonic Junagiul from Ka Khon^dr.* In retoro 
for their help the emperor ia »aid to have bentowed on the KbaiiU 
the hill of Girudr and the twcuty.four villages of Bilkba Cbavisl 
A contorj later when Mabmnd Bcgada oonqucred Joniigad (x.o. 
1472). bo found the KhAnta dwelling in the GimAr.s The Kbint* 
are most snmcrous in Sorath, bat are found in all -parts of the 
province. Tbeir Mers, or leaders, are good-looking men, and so are 
the mixed races of Gobil, Kb&sia, Jhala, Sarvijm. and Vala 
Kh&nts, sprung from the anion of Khants wilh thn^e thbes. 
The lower orders are worse-looking than the generality of iha 
Talabdas, and are mncb given to thieving. They marry in tho 
tribe, and the widow of a man marries his younger brother. 

The Gbm^s are Bupposcd to take their name from the town of 
Gedi in Cutcb. Tboy are said to have accompanied the Jetbvai 
when they invaded Kathi^war. Thoy resemble the Mers of Barda 
in their manners and dress. They are more respectable than other 
Kolis, live chiefiy by tillagej and have given up their predatory 
habits. Tbey are a good-Tookiag race^ and live in houses, not, 
like most KolLs, in huts. They eat no moat, but live on finh, 
vegetables, millet, and fruit. Their women invariably wear a coin 
or two as ornaments; they are oonsJdt^red tho Iiighe.'it tribe of 
Kolis and only marry in their own claas. Kotis worship the ordinary 
Hindu gods, and respect Brtlhmans, whom thoy employ in all 
their ceremonies. Some respect certain Miittla or belong to 
Svitminirttyan Keet. As a rule they arc fond of spirit-s, bnt 
ao fond tut GujarAt Kolis. They can marry more wives than o 
but seldom do >H). Their nuirriagus are arranged by their poroo 
It is a point of etiquette that tho father of the bridegroom should 

Eretena to search for a wife for his son, and, after he has found 
or and arranged with her parents, that he shonld stumble over 
the threshold on his departure. 

nie Kasbis of Kfithi&wfir, 197,000 strong,'di!rer" little from their 
brethren in other parts of Gujarit. They ore divided into the two 



' Tfae foUowjnf veno commeraor&tM thue uhicvcmcDta : Dhdrndh* DKamiKuto 
Kdho, POaUtmo Pellitd; Jane Oadk Juno UJJto. Va^rri MAar Jidf; Tiukl u, 
DbAodb look DliAiidliuka, FlUl Uxik Petiid : Jmw took th« auoieDt fortnu i 
Met BAm took Haberi. Colowl J. W. Wataon. 

*Th« autfaor of the Mir6t-i-8ikiuidri thus dCACribw lfa» ineideat : 'ItivnllAj- 
la two1v«ito8 in extent, ui>l this valley ia a <)cDBt< foreat of iuterlaced tre«*. ao Dial a 
hi>n>ft cannot piua ihruit^b it, and thera ant no nn-n th<>r« nor aught (kv« wild aiiimnla 
uulbinU, excepta trilw of Kiflra whom they call Khluta, whuae caatotiu rvaambls 
tboMof wild beaata, and thay dwell on th« aUi[»»of that moantait), and if anj^ 
taarohae againat tkeiD, tber aec aad bide in Um caves and iu tbo foiMta.' 
J. W. Watwn. 






of LovAs and Kndviis, and there is also a araftll proportion 
ijn^. The woM Kftnbi is Iracetl to tbe Sanskrit Krijthmi a 
IploaglunaD, while the popalnr explanotioa of tho imme in kan graia 

' hi seed. The K^tni^wnr fCniibi apholda tho high came oi tho 
Gnjanlt Kanbi for bard work and skill. His lauds are always the 
be«t tilled ; his cattlo are iu tho bettt condition ; he is honoet 
thrifty and hardworking. He is in his fields at dawn and toils 

iently until nighifall. Ho is not givon to any vices, and rarely 
Omniit^ a crime. I a his domestic relations he is a good bon, hus- 
Innd, and father, and only on tho occaeion of a marriage ia ho guilty 
of extraTagance. Kdthi^wiir Kanbis are generally on^y tenants of 
■tbe laud they till, not landholders, as in Gujariit. Only two 
IS of Kanbis have gained the rank of landed proprietors, the 
'Hea&isof Pfltdi^and c>f Dtui^n Kni and Sankli. PiUdi was obtained 
by grants from tho MarAthAs in lion of rights pro^-innsly enjoyed In 
Viramg^ai. It was at one time iu the pos&ussiou of the Jh^a 
Rajputs, who were dispossessed by tho Muhauimadans. Dhaaa 
fonnerly belonged to some Kathi proprietors who made over their 
rights to a Kaira Desii in 3661; Uie same family obtained tho 
,viUflge8 of Kiii and Sankli in 1H08 from a younger member of 
ibfl Limdi family, l^o Jjevaand Radva Kanbia, as a nile, worship 
ha Bhaviini, but of late an increasing number have joined the 
BBOt of Svdmiudriyan. They allow widow marriage. They are 
cliieSy cultivators, but some of them, who came from Gujarat and 
hare settled iu Dhoraji and Nav&nagar, are gold and silver thread 
workers.* Tbe Anjna Kanbis are descondauta of Rajputs, and 
in their fond and dre?8 keep many Rajput cnstoms. Their widows 
marry, and their women, like those of other Kanbis, work in the 
fields, la religion they are pnni-ipally VaiBhuavs. 

The other classes engaged in husbandry are SatittAeAs, 
KicHtiiXs, BnASsALiB, MAlis, and RAJfcrs. Tho Sathvir^ (37,-t50) 
are chiefly found on the south coast near P^tan. They, the K^hhiis, 
and the Mills (3250) raise vegetables, fruit, and Uowcrs for t«mplo 
niic, and arc generally found near largo towns, especially at Junflgad. 
The Bbams.(lis (1301) claim a t)ulA.nki origin, and state that 
thev took to husbandry insteod of soldiering in the time of 
SidhrAj Jaysing and so became a sepamte casto. >1okc uf them aro 
cultiratora bat some aro tradeni. They are thrifty and hard. 
Working, and are fulluwers of Vishnu, thoir tutelary godde«s being 
Mahiiniya. Thoy allow widow marriage and betroth thcirchildren 
at a very early age. Rajput hnshandmen form a liirge claas, 
recruited from all the tribea that inhabit tho penin.<tula. They dnua 
like Kanbis but in manners and cnstoms differ in no way from other 
Kaiputs. They ore poor hashandmen, lazy, unthrifty, fond of opinin 
and gocdip.aDa not allowing their women to work in the fields. 

Brft'hmana according to the 1H81 census numbered 140,090 of 
whom 76,662 wore maloaand 66,968 females. They belong to three 

1 ThU art k cMtflBMl to a few (kioiUeii. Tht mort sxpcrt at Uiein dnir out tbe cold 

u>] ' ' '' (rum finall in^U into th« moat (letiL-*te thnaila, 700 or 800 yard* In 

tU< "T, whil«oth«ra, nuMtljr vroiDOD, spin IhoM tbiwodi an oUitfr equallj 

■diui l..,^<•... -1 ulk. Thaao thrwdaaro lb«u wuvdo uito lh« tuMry cloth of gold callM 


Chapter nr 




chief divisions : NioARfl (7500), AmitcnB (32,000), And Shum. 
(.^700). Tbo originnl goiit of tbe NAoab Bribiiuiaa in Gujarat wu 
Yadnof^, one of the oldestt cittcii in tbo provinco, the fouodatioa 
of whicb bas been osni^Dcd bj tradition to tbe raco of Kanftkaan. 
^Vben Visaltler Cboban built Viwdoai^ in A.D. 1043, be 
performGd a aacriScCj which was attended by many Vadnagar 
Bnibmani. ThoM> refused to receive alms from the king*, bol 
Visaldev, resorting to stratagem^ forced some of them to aooMi 
grants of land. Thi'v veerv exconimunicated by the rest ot ths 
caste, and founded tbe Visftlnagar Njitfar sect. Similar oecarrencM 
at S&tbud and other places produced the Sdtbodra, Cbitrods, 
Prashnora, and Kra»hnom Nigar Brdhmans. Among NAgais 
there is a division ctJIcd Bdrads compoacd of persons, irho, nnablo 
to procure wires in their own caate. bare taken them from other 
castes. Tbough much despised, and compelled to quit their native 
village, this aobdivision continues to increase.' 'ITie Nioi* 
BrAhmans in K&tbi4war bt^long almost exclusively to the 
Viuluagar tribe, but there are some families oE Prashnor&s in 
BhAmagar and Central Kathiawdr, who practitie as native docrtors 
and as Pur^ readers. In 1842 there were 1263 £ami1ira 
KAgara found in most uf the large towns, chieBy at Jon 
Bbavmigiir, luid Xavdnogar. Nagars Imvo played a di.itingnidi 
part iu Kdtbi^w^r politics. They are aafiite, putthing, and ioud 
power, and have gained and kept a loading influonoo iu some 
the larger courta. In the end of last ccntnry, Umarji, a Nilgar of 
Mfingrol, was aU-powerfnl in Jnn^gad, and his sons sncceeded him 
when ho was assassinatod.' Mr. Gavrisbankar Udeyshankar has for 
many years been the leading spirit uf the Rhiivnagar administration, 
and huA now been succeeded as Diviin by his nephew. In the time 
of the MarAtJiAs a N^ar &mily bULxeeded in untering the circle of 
the landed aristocracy of Kdtbiiiwjir, by a('<|uiring thn estate of 
Vas&var from the Kathis. Members of this class are found in 
almost every state, in Qovemment employ, and as pleaders. In 
every department their shrewdness and intolligenco stand them in 
good stead. Members uf this class who follow secular pursuits are 
called Ktfgars, in oontradiatinction to the N%ar Bninmans who 
perform religions offices and live on alms, but tbe two chi-sses ara 
of the same caste and eat together. A Niigar will not take food 
horn any other Brtibman, and is very strict ia his obsemuices.' 

> mm MiU, II. 293. 

■ Kvu Qbelok king ol Anhilrida (a.d. 13O0), biul two ouaiftert MA<U|4t aod 
Keshnv, vbo were Kdgar Brthmuis. Ras M&la, L £78. 

■ Of thoM lh« moat strict U an ohMrraiioe nf the NAg«r BrAhnwiu cftllwl nomM 
or uiintjr in ra^tard ti> fuixl. Hftviug htitfaeK), he tlra>«w hinuolf iii silk or woollaa 
eloUies. or if he is requircJ to wtt cotton KKrmimta, they tuuat b« d)p)i«(l to water. 
vning out. nnd dricil in bohw ))1ag« whore uothing impcni can tfluct them. Tima 
bAl>it«t] \>« Bibi itown to dinner, but bo must pr«Herv«! himwlf from iiumerooa 
■ccidcnti wbii:h would reader him inipum. uod oonipel Jiiiu tu dvsut frou kia 
■bmL^ If ba touch mn aartheo t«U«1 b« h delilwl, nn)mH tb« VOTwl hav* oavw 
oontaiavd watar. The touch tJ a piec« oC cotton civtii, or of a pieoc of loatber 
or paper, whicb lie mny accidoaully Knre Bat dou-u ti[>on, ntnd«tm him iiDi>ur«, bat 
if Hinda letten havo been writUin on the {napsr tb*j preaen,-* hitn from aefileinent 
bocauMthej* rvpraaent ^raavati, If , bDw«ver Mten b« writt«a ga cloth or ktlbar. 

Aroicn BriShmans were ro naincd, Iwcanse tliey cftme from tlie 

•uortli m the time of Miilrsj Sulnnkt, who died about A.t>. 997. 

AtMjni lOOO came ou the kiug^'s invitntiuii to 8idhpur. A number 

settlod at that place, and were catlLn] Sidhjiurian. To others the 

Idn^ wttve Sihor, and llii'ir desicODdatits ar» Sihorifijt. A few 

rejected his giha for a time, but ho persuaded them at last, and 

gave thorn Cambay with twelve dependent villajjea. They wcro 

calied Tutakias and form a separate caste. In coarw of tima 

numj Audich Bribmaos, throngh poverty or other reasouB, became 

[family priests of KoIIb, Kanhin, and Mochis, and losing position 

tomied other subdivisions. Otiicrii again settling in new districts 

[dt towns, became known as Sorat hid^, Milrv^is, aud Gohilv^s. 

ttbera are Folluwors of Sbiv, and thoac not omptoyod in priestly 

~)oea are husbandmen, Mtrologers and beggara.' The Audich 

tnbntana of Hadiaua in HdUr are notable for the power they 

VK gained by oxorcising evil spirits, fortune -telliug, aud 

inttering incantations. The Audich Briihmans claim descent from 

'Gautam the sage, and Gautam is said to have been the oSspriug o£ 

a hare. 

The Kajoob BraUmans are an offshoot of the Aadichs, but are 

»]DokiHi on aa inferior, as thoy eat food cooked by V&uiis. They ore 
the family priests of the Kajpnt and Kiithi chiefs, and in oonsoquonco 
fcnjoy several privileges. At marriages and other social ceremonies 
Ihoy are the ministering priests and receive largo gifts, especially 
un the death of a chief or of a member e£ his family.* 

p The SiiRiMiLis, like the Andichg, claim descent from the sage 

HOantam. They say that Snaixit was given to their ancestor 

l^by Ijnkshmi the wife of Krishna. In time there was a division in 

the caste, the original stock of Shrimfilis migrated to Anhilvida, 

and thence over K^thiaw^r and Cutch, while the dissenters 

Ieslahltshed theninetrea at Pushkarkshctra and thence were named 
LPDahkarnas or PokarniU. Of these again a large nnmber adopted 
ftbo Jain roligiuu, aud having dined with some Oavil Vkai&s, were 
culled [Ihiijaks or caters, and formed a separate subdivision. The 
• Shrim^is again are subdivided into the followers of tbo Yajarved 

th*y r««*in Impare. Tbiu it the Oil«, or juty Dortion of Kriptnn ha ratjolred Tor 

" . ii maU Ltt Imiiiiil witli aitk naa not with cotton ; lnath«r mail 1m 

ii|4ia>l of s t.-'imtnon tuutoot tlourand wmter, Um l>ind«r maat ompjuy 

.H |"'Uii<itKl UOMnuiI iMMxl. A priuUid bixyk will not aiuwerhu uiupow, beuauM 

..ia(ifik oontaliM tffipim nuttar. Some think that tbg toiKih nf dwr or tiffsr »hin 

I aot lUAltt. lUw ooltuu lion not tvixlvt liim iniptirt, bat if it hM bcoo twictsd 

for tiw wivk of K Iftnip, by a [Mnum not in a ataUi uf iwiKcn, it tloex. and aj^io if it 

h»» Imkd dippod In o(l of clarified bottflr it does not Ilon«a defilo. but wumco's 

rivgry arnihit* do not, osHipt in thoae parta of tha country whore they ar« lot uanally 

iwofn. Tbo Inniih oi a oUild nt tlu> aamo uaate, who haa not tearood tn cat Mrain, does 

BOt dofllv, tnit if Um obUd haa Mt«fi grain it doM. Tha toach of a donkay, a dog, 

ur a nu dvIUca t WBU MT tiut tlw toucli of a tint aJao defiUa, olhera am iodiood to 

, ihhiR that U doaa not. Deonuo (n tnlb it ia not eaav to keep ibc mtout. If« 

^BnUuDW wtut im in iMira ba MtJng. or if he have rliMt from Mnng. the toach of bit 

hBenon defiln anotbar UnUitnan woo ia in >mk> Iwt baa not Iwgvn him dioiicr- ItAa 

! Hlla. II. iKVS. 

' Thrj inairy a» many aa flva or tu witm. 

* Atulicb Bnthnuuia ant uld to hare been rmployed m family priAta by Hi* 
Saanaia at Kapi-Tbatta. 

■ fU-ll 






Chapter IH. 









a ia 

and of the Sdmvcd, cacli of which has aoven subdivisions, 
are prJestH of tho 81u'ira6ii VfLnids, and olau act oa cooks. SooM 
are husb&ndmon and others live on alms. As a class they an 

The PokabkXs, B50 strong, act as priBsts to Bhdcii(a and ora 
chieSy settled ia H^lLr. Tho QirnXbAs state that they were 8t>tTl»d 
on Gira&r by Krishna, when lie rrwo from the IMmoUar roservoir 
in tbo bed of the Son^rckha river. A number of (hem aro still 
found near Qtni&r. But thev aro scAtterod. all over KathiAwAr, and 
are specially strong in M&dhavpar, a aoa-port aoder Porbandar. 
They aro followers of Vishnu and have four subdivisionSf Bardiis 
from the Barda hitlg, Ajeldas from Ajekin, ChorTi^4s fr(«n 
Chorv&d, and Panai's from I*aau. Some of them are priests ia 
Vaitihnav templeH ; other are tradorSj moneylenders, oooks, 
husbimdinen, while others malce their living by begging. 

Tho Soui'DkAh, 860 strong, aro tho dosooodants of tho pn 
that used to mimater in the famouH temple of Somnath. Tl 
are followers of Shiv, and some of them are still attached to 
tbo temple boilt by Ahal>'a B^ (1800) in the place of the one 
destroyed by tho Malmmiii idnu-i. They are now acattorod and 
poor, depending on alms and on the charity of pilgrim?. The sams 
may be said of the Guaus, Lho attendant priests at the tamplos at 
Dwjirka and Bet. But in conscquouco of tho intlns of wwihhy 
pilgrims Co those shrinus, the Guglis are able to drive a good trade. 
No pilgrim can bathe in the Gomti, or visit tho temples at Bet or 
Dwdrka, before ho has satisHed the attendant Biiifamans, and these 
always drive the hardest bargain they can. The legendary origin 
of their name is that, when they were first sent to Dwiu'ka tboy 
were opposed by a demon, whom they drove away by offori 
sacrifice of aloes or gagai. They are followers of Vishnu. 

The SiKASVATSj 3100 strong, arc tho priests of the Lob&o&s 
BhanaAh's. They are by faith Shaivs, worshipping the goildt.v'a 
Sarasrati, and are by no moans orthodox. They derive their origia 
from the Sarasvati river in north Gujarat, and in addition to their 
priestly culling many of them are traders, servanta, and clerics. 
They allow widow marriage. 

The AsoTifl state that they were introduced into DwArka by 
Krishna, aud are mostly found there as temple attendants. They 
are Vaishnavs, and those who are not temple servants live by 
begging. A few aro found as cultivators in the Barda district, whero 
also are a few Thaakis. KjkNlK>LlA8 are priests of the Sorathia and 
Kapol V^aa, BO called from tho village of Knndolia where is 
their tutelary goddess SAmudri. Thoy are Vaishnavs by rolij^ion. 
MoDHS take their ciame from tho village of Modhera in Panintij 
whence they are said to have sprung. Tho ciisto has six subdivisions, 
Chntur^'edi, TVivedi, Jethinial, Dhinoja, TiSodalja, and AgiiroBa. 
They arc priests to Modh Vaiiias and are by faith Shaivs. Tho 
Jethimals aro professional wrestlers. 

Of Writers besides N^gar and other Brahmans, VAniAa, 
P&rsis, and Muhammadaus, there are two small classes Brahma- 
Kahatris and K&yastba. Brahma- Kshatris came iuto tho provi 





trom the north through Cuicti. Th&y clahn to be SuryaTanefai, 
ftod tu liare escaped from the north of Hindust^ at the time of 
FftrflbaMm's persecutions. Th&y are mo«t1y foitnii in Jao&gad. 
They nre laadholders, and hold grants from the emperon of 
Di'jfii. Their family goddess is Hingldj and their family prtosta are 
SAnL^vat Brdhmans. 

Under Merchants, Traders, and Shopkeepers come the 

Ihrw great Hindu divisionB of VXniAs, LuuixAs, and BnAriAS. 
Tbt> VasijIs are divided into two leading sects, the ShrAvaks 
(PO.loO) and Meshrie (03,400). 'Ilio Shr&vaks are by far the more 
niiiru-nms ; thiTf i« scarcely a village of any size that has not two 
or niopj Sbrdrnk families. The origin of the Jain faith is involved 
in obscurity. It seems as old as, if not older than, the Buddhist 
bith. Both were opposed to the religion of the Vodas and to the 
Bnkhinanj, and vi both the fundamental doctrine is that t^ndernesii 
U* life comprehends all moral and devotional duty. The Jainu aHwert 
thai there are six of^ or «imjB, corrraponding with the fonr yug$ 
of tho Itrahmanical Hindus. In the- third ilra lived Nabhi Raja of 
the raoo of Kaahyap the aa?o. His wife was Mdru Devi and their 
eon was Rishabh Dev or Adin&th, the first of the Jain pontiffs or 
tirthankart. Of the tweuty-four tirthxtnkara, the last^ Mah&rir 
8r4nij. becamo incorporated vnth the divine essence in the year 
470 before Vikmm that is b.c, 520. 

Id Katbiiwflr there are twofftmons places of pilgrimage to which 
8br4vakj, or laymen of tho Jain fnith, resort in crowds. The lirst 
istbe aacrod hill of Shatruiijaya' cl»<h> to Pdlit^a; the other is 
the GimAr mountain which towers majestically over Jun^gad, Tho 
fint is dedicated to Adin&th tho Grst, and tho scoond to Ncminiith 
the twenty-second of the Jain saintLS. The view of the ShatruDJaya 
hill top is exceedingly curious and interesting. Hundreds of 
temples of every shape aod size are crowded together each in its 
owa Htjuare, atul the whole arc surroanded by mASsivo walls, with 
gaardoi] gates. The temples are exceediogly rich, and are profusely 
•dvmed with gold and precious stones. In each of them are ono 
or more fi^area of AdinJtb or of the other Inomrchs marble and 
with jovcllod ornaraftnts, flitting in the orthodox Jain fashion 
with crossed legs and staring i-oaud eyes.' Ny Shravalc spends 
Uio night on the hill. Th«y are forbidden to touch food on it or even 

Chapter nh 


■ The bnl-r fnonnUJa of ^fltniHllTh mcred to Adin&th, tb* fint of tho twmty* 
(rttir " . rophimlA, ruea newly 2000 (cot obove tbo plftla. Tho |«lgnm 

ai>i - pauMtoUw faow of th« mnanUin through tba Iowa of I'iJitAiu 

Mill ^.'.. - .. mn<l, OB dther alUu of whiuli ruwa of buiyan ti*M afianl him a 
«]<Mater-Lk.cilicitcr &otath« lM»t of tlt« ran. After a tailioow Mvont of from (wo 
to tliri.-.] mi!.;* np tlw febnotdar of tho mnantAin, over a prtb nuk»d on oitbcr 
Hit' lit raliDg pI»o«a, npi'liml with w-elts anil poob of WKt«r, fttid ftdonwd 

vii: i>.plea wbove kltKD) u« iinrireacetl vilh the holy foot of the hierftr«ha, 

bi At IcL^th uri«-G8 in aigbt of the i^«iul-Iika uppvr biU, formed of iMwitiraUy 
•tUonrMl rocks oo irhich atau-l Iho Bhriuca of his religion. RiB UiU, L 6. 

' Tbr JaiiM wh their luiami in w»t«r, briuh Uiani, amotf them with Miula], 
mm) B'turathcm irith )pwela. TbeShrAvglu.aiidpMticaUrly the woman of tbJkt fkith. 
entry mill tli<an wb«n tbor ko to woiriiip & haniUMne bw ooatainin^ rico. Uwu the 
iilnl in 1.1 i h.,x mth a hftle lo the lid. into which ihcy drop tho ncc. Thia boi ie 
(jIMDcd ti'.'ny ri^ior too lUyw. tb»t ita oontoula may hv thrown to the ptgooaa or 
utbcrwue d»[iowkl of trgfoto life is geiwn»t*d. 

Chipter m. 




to spit. All pilgrlmngcs mnst bo completed in the Any time, 
to go rouud all tie temples requires nine^-aine pilgrimagea. 

Tlio temples on Ginidr arn olustortnl on tho plateaa just an^lpr- 
noath tho peak nearest to JanA^&A. Thoy are not so cxr 

VT KO tick as tlio«e of Sliatrunjaya, but tliey are beM in hifrU (..■__ , 

&nd DO piWinmgo is completo which does not include a vbit^ 
to them, ana the ascent is eo mach more ntggoA thaife additic 
merit is obtained by overcoming its difficulties. 

Tho officiating pricatt in Jain temples are generally Bhojakai 
ttomo equally low caste Brdhiuans. They may be of almost any 
except a Skravak, who is not eligible. 

Jains are of two loading Beo^s Di«7amfcflM or air-clad, tho imspM 
oE whose saints are naked, acid Sfnel<'tmltar» or nrhtt«-robod, the 
imaffos of whose saintH are clotliod. Socially Shruvaks are 
dinded into three classes, ShriuiAlia, Osr&ls, and Porvtids. The 
Shrim^is agaia are subdivided into Visa and Dasa, literally 
twenty and ten.* The former do not worship images, while the 
latter do and assimilate more in other respects to Brnhnianiral 
niticlus. Tlie family priest-s of both are ShrimiUi Br,-il.- 
and thoy claim to be derived from the same town.* Ksu 
sweetmeat makers, are an offshoot of the Dasa Sbrim&IiR, though 
they have separated and become a diSereat caste. The OsvAls 
and Porv&ds stato that they camo from PArkar and have settled 
chiefly in the sea coast towns of Kathi&wi(r. They too have 
their Hnbdivimons of Visa and Daita, and there is a snbdivision of 
the Das&i called i'duchiis who allow widow marriage. Taken as 
a body the Shrdvaka are shrewd men of business. They are 
bankers, merchants, moneylenders, and sho]i keepers, and many of their 
class hare within the last few years entered government and ntate 
service. But tho hulk are engaged in trade, and are found in every 
sitoation of life, from tho miHionairo banker to the villngo grocer. 

Mesbri or Br&Umanical Vfinias aro chieSy of three classes, 
Modbs, Somthids, and Kapols. They are much leea numerons 
than 8hriivaks, and are mostly found in Gohilvild and Sorath. 
The Modhs claim to have come from Modhera in Par&utij, und 
have throe divisions, GoghvAs, AdaljAs, and MfindoliAs. These 
again are subdivided into Visa and Dasa. They are Vaishnava 
and are allowed to marry more than one wife, Tho Sorathiis 

1 Fntu the gikt« of the oity of Kbvng&r (o)towini{ Uie riv«r SootlreUi* towardi 
its aourvv. • pitthwitiy. worn by tiM foot of nMuiy a pil(irljn, loii>da to tlw eaiaiolc of 
GiniAr. At the ffxit nf the mountain the atruwar pB«aH by tho venerable rooks 
«ht«h MV h*llow«il by tho OMata of tha jnut anil bdnv'Toloot Ajtbtilca. TImol'v, by a 
wiudingUMl rugi^di 4uc«at of sbgut It lutle. ho reaabntlie potut u-hero th« irwtcra 
Npar or Bhonlder of thu inuuiitun cuda at tho foot of the scarp. For the mat of 
tii« a*o«iit, theMcrtMlntonntaia ritca, an immiMiie barr, black. Uid isolated gnuiit« 
rock, preMiiting all tho gigantic ninMca uiMiiUar to ita fonnalioo, on tlie annitnit of 
nrliiob.uccnpjriug a ntuJI loilgo or tnblelaad, Burrouaded by a fmrt wbow wall ia 
built 1.(1 the wry fttgc of the Karp, ataad thu t«mplM of tho Jain tirlhaid«n. 

■The ijiaputca betireOB the liro kcU, caUw) locally PlivodiiVi and TapAa, arA T«rff 
bitter aod they have frrauantly omu into colliaion wh«a th« tdoli have «ufiWM 
scroraly. InalauoM of tikis kind hare occamd at iloniUl. VdJikitur. CfauJa, and 
other plaoM, » See aUrro, Shnwfcli Brahmam- 



Chaptar UL \ 


follow the same icnots as the Uodhs, and, as their namo implies, 
daim their oripn from Sorath in KAthiawar. Tlio VaniiSs of the 
•eft-coHst towuB, I'orbaudar, Mdngrt'I, Veraval, Jdfarabad, and l>iu, 
MTV remarkAbli! ffir Hunr enturprise. From ancient. (iineH tlu'y have 
bpPii in tho habit of making v^yageM to Zanzibiir ftnd Arabiaj 
B^inff in their youth auil ruturuiu^ tu thuir native toiru with tho 
irujtn oi a life of industry and toil. On their return thoy genemlly 
ry. They are called Bakhais, probably from Mokha iu Arabia. 
The Vdiiia brokers, known as Chhipriiia iu Bombay, are generally 
from thu Kiitbiawiir cooat. Kapulfl are not divided into Visa and 
'Dai«a like other Vfiui^a. They dine with other "VaniA^ but marry 
only in their own class. Their principal places of residence nro 
DelviJu, Mahnva, Amreli, and Kilior, Their (aniilj priesta or gorg 
are Kaudoltu Bnihmans, who take their orig'iD from Randola near 
Than, Their fatuity goddess is Sdmudri whose shrine is at Sandri, 
a DhrangBdrn villain) twenty milea north of Thiin. 

LooASAs, 55,0[)0 strongr, are found in most parts of the province, 
They »U\te that they tako their name from the port of bohn in Sindhj 
bat Burton aays that they came from Lohiinpnr near MultaUj 
and that they were driven south by the Munammadans.' They 
enterc-d K&tbii.war from Cuteh or M/irwiir, prubiibly iti the train of 
one or more of tho Rajput trib<us that invadf'd the province in the 
fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. The wealthier are dealers 
iu gT'iiu, and tho poorer are husbandmen, masons^ labourers, and 
Testable sellers. They are Vaishnava, but cat fish and fleah and 
drink spirits. They also reverence tho Daria Pir or the Indus 
[Spirit. Very few of them yenture on long- voyages. They allow 
widow marriage, and may marry more than one wife. 

BaATi.<-6, 5300 strong, are a wealthy and enterprising class, Bhdi\&i 

vhooro found chioHy at KhambtiAlia in Hiildr. They claim descent 
from tho Bhdti Rajputs of Jesalmir. They were probably forced 
by the Mulianunadans from the Paujib into Sindh ; from Stndh 
tbey moved to Cutch, and from Cutch made their way to Kathiiwar. 
They are stricter in their tenets than the Lohanas, anil are Vaishnava 
by religion. They do not allow widow marriage and are divided 
into Das&B and Yis^. 

DipAuU are an oSshoot from the Loh^nds, and are chiefly found 
in Dhr&Dgadra, whore is the temple of their god Narsinf^i. They 
arc stono masans. Of other traders Bhansdiis are described under 
liiUilAudmen, and Bohonls, Khoja.% and Komans, nndcr MuBolmftna. 

Almost all classes of Artisans and Craftsmen claim descent MAMcrrAcr 
from the Kahatria, who, under various disguises escaped destruction 
by ParahurAm, the son of tho Brihman sage Jamadagni.' 

> Barton's SiiKlh. .114. 

* Tbff If^eaiL u tii&t there werq two sistorfl, one of whom inuTi«d the Kohatri kiQff 
ibasrirjaa, aod tfa* otJt«r JanuKlngni tUe Br^knuui au;». Janudaeti'a wi[« iaiiatod 
I tlM w^ Mkinff tb« kli^ toA hU ratiunv to diov. Il* did m, nncn ii){Miut hi* will, 
■od the king tlnmn^ thkt the HugQ fed thum nil frum s never-tming cow luid pitcher, 
oairieil ftway both *.nA mAltrmtMl th« <t»^, Thu wife caanaitted snividc froni ^rief, 
wad tbdr BOO PM«liur.tia iworo to destroy tlw raoe of KthatrU, and, with the 
niMlitiiia oi a few (uiptiru, niooeftdfld. 

IBombfty Qu«ttc«r, 



ChnptOT m. 


Gold and Silversmiths, Sottis, 16^500 stronR, aro mostly of tl 
VAnia Soni caate. A few are ParajiilM,' ho auted from the vil 
of Parj^v uuder Jani^rtd. The P&raji^fi are inferior workmen ftnd 
uso their tnlenta priucinally as forgeni of baite metal. The V 
Sonis are generally Wfll-to-da. They claim to be tho descnnda 
of VAniRS, who took to working in tJic precions metals. None 
them have any Hpecial style, like that oi tlio Quick Sonib ; th 
work is confined to ordinary onuntry-made ornamonta. Some o£ 
Amrel) Sonia however are celebrated for plain burmahed wo 
Their family goddess is Y&ghoabrari. 13 ut many of them are 
Vallabh&chdris and SvdmiuarAyans, whiltj others reverence MAtAs. 
OoKUuiitUs are in pretty gotjd condition, their earnings, about £30 
(Ra. 300) a year, being enough to meet their expenses. Their 
women do not help them, but their sous do. They work twelve 
bonra a day and have one holiday a week, besidea the days on 
which they attend caste meetings. 

Coppersmiths, Kanadraa, 3800 strong, are fonnd all over 
Eathiawar. In some plaeen, notably in Sihor, there are romarknbly 
good workmen in both brass and copper. In aildition to Iha 
ordinary honaohold vcMcIa, they tarn ont doHcat«Iy carv 
ornameats, such as peuholdere, inkstands, betelnut-boxes, idol 
lamps, and belts. They claim a Kshatri descent and roveron 
Mfthflkali as their chief deity. They allow widow marriage 
Copperamiths are poor, and generally in debt, their average 
earninga being £15 (Rs. 150) a year; vie members of the family 
help the men to burnish pots and work the lathe. They work 
twelve hours a day, and Lave one holiday a week, besides days of 
leieare »t caste ceremonies. 

Carpenters, Sutkdrs, 2G,750 strong, are of two classes, Gujara 
and MArvfidis. Tlie Qajara claim deeoeut from Yishvakarmo, iha 
f Tamer of the universe. The Marr&dis state that before tho timo 
of Parshurain they were Kshatris. In addition to ordinary village 
carpeuterinKi some of them are clevur wood-carvors, showing their 
skill not only in the woodwork of hnnses, bnt in the more delicate 
carving of blactwood and sandalwood boxea Sandalwood carvinff 
is a specialty of the M^ngrol carpcnttirH, who supply Bombay with 
mnch carved work.' They have no settled belief as a caste. Each 

h o^ 

< r*rajia Snnig are dirlded into twobnoche*, Gariuu uul E^t&nL OnogD tfas 
foundw uf tlifi formor branch, wubltsbsd hinudtf at Gim&r. His d«M«ailuita txe 
ttmoA in Hiiir, 8oriith, and RhAvnngiiir. There may be fiOO bousoa of Uicm 
altogeUier. NuuUu, tbe fuunderuf tin- I'Aluii Imcich. wgiit to P4taa in tho time ol 
SiilhrAj. H« is «aid to iiavn astonisho-l the kinx by hi« iluU. Tbv coldunitlia of tho 
tovru muriiifiwtarud tome t^xild-fub which vmn ablu to swim, vhile Nando by the aid 
of hia godduas madnaf;iil<]Gnf:(KiM whichswallawodUicliah. SidbrAj wm so )>1i^iim->I 
that ho promiaL'd Xitiidu tu givo wbateritr he aslted. Nando aakod to b« nlluid 
lo retell lu Filan (or three nnd ■ half days. Durinit Oip tbree dayi b« remiltvd all 
t*x« and H«t frve all priioncn, oud for thoie charitablo acti<ma hia deacandanls claim 
inmuDity from givtu; anything to beggars, lliorc are 2300 houwa of I'ftiani .Suuii, 
ohiefly in .Mahum, UiCtha. IMIitina, BbivDagiir, Uagnura, KnodU, and Ainndi. 

* Tho Sihor fitifAdrs aro alio famous for making Urge wckmIuu oheata, oxooediDgty 
nuiMiro and Uviahly oiTtamcntod with broaa. No wndding oatllt is oomplele 
without ouo or more of tfaeao chesbs. 



but most do not go beyoad ordioary 
They claim KshAtri ae«ceiit, their 

dirision or Family has ita petmliar mother or Mdtn ; some are 
Vkinhnavs, otbera folhjw Shir, and niaay have adopted the tenets 
of Sv)imui4nkyan. Ciirpeatei-a e»ra about £25 (lui. 250) a year 
which is enough to luaiutaiu ihem and thoir family. Thoir womon 
do not b'.'lp ttiL-m io their wurk. They work eight hours a day and 
have oDL- holi.lay a week in addition to caste holidays. 

OIucksmiihEi, Luhdm^ 26,200 strong, aro fonud ftll over the 
proviace. Somu are skUtud workiuoo, tuminjEr out good swords, 
dag^^om, maiclUnok:^, and other weapons. These, as also the 
locksmiths, como moatly from Ciitch. Bhavini is tho hlackmitha' 
family duity, but they are aluo members of one of the Hindu Bocts. 
They allow polygamy and widow marriage. Blackamitha aro 
Benerally poor, esniing about £15 {Rs. 150) a year. Their women 
do uot hvlp thorn in thcar work. They work eight houm a day and 
have 6fty-two holidays in the year bt^iiides days of coate ooremonies. 

Tailors, Varjlt, 20,350 strong, are found in every town and in 
most uf the larger villages. A few are good embroiderers and 
skilful in other finoworkj 
bommmg nud stitchiug. 

f'.rcfftthera escnping tho wrath of Parshurtim by becoming tailors. 
Thoir family goddess i-i FlingUj ; but ihey worship other MAtaa, 
and follow tho sect and teacher that ploasos them best. They allow 
widow mn-rriage. Tailors earn ou an average £20 (Rs. 200) a year 
and pay their way. Their women and children help in thoir work. 
Thev work twelve boors a day and have twenty holidoya in oddltioa 
to doys of caste oBremouial. 

Masons, Siildls, 2G50 strong, find constant employment owing 
to tho richness of Kathidwar in building 8t(.me. They earn 
aboni £25 [Rs. 250) a year and are well-to-do. Their families do 
help them in their work. They work eight hours a day 
have one holiday a week in addition to the days Dccupie<l in 
ensie ceremoniala The Porbandar oolitic Umc-atone is well known 
io Bombay, and the sand-stono of JIuiUTdd is not only an 
osoolk'nt boildtng stone, but at Dhruugadra ia worked int-o articleti 
of domestic uae and ornament, Buch an filters and water bottles. 
The trap rocks of Central KAthiiwdr are extensively quarried. 
The pablic works and buildings that have been constructed in 
the last fifteen years have demanded the labour of more masons 
and bricklayers than coM bo hicnlly supplied. Tho quarrjtnnon, 
aro most export, detaching very larae rectangnlar blocks with 
the greateBt skill. The UepdJAs of Dhritngadra, who have been 
noticed under the head of Lohdnas, aro the principal qoarrymen 
of that lucality. PArv&ti is the tutelary goddees of the stone- 
maaous ; they generally belong to one or other of the Uinda sects. 
Tliey allow widow marriage. Some Navanagar masons have a 
talent for portrait pointiug, thoir skill in catrhing the expression 
being marred by laughable mistakes in drawing and perspective. 

Pott*r8, Kumlkdrs, 85,120 strong, ore a despised class, and, 

though very uisoful, are held iu little esteem. They live by 

aaking earthen vi>muIs, and are attached to every town and Urgo 

viUago. Many of ihcm hold service lands, nndor condition of 









furnishing chiefs and gaeats with earthen pots. Ch&ran Mita 
their family goddess. Some Kathiiwar KumbhArK lire enl' 
aa huabaDdtnen, particularly ia Kav&oagar. Potters earn on u 
average £15 (Ra. 150} a year whioh »ulBcee for their exponsBS. 
Their womon and children help them in bringing clay and waUjc 
and doiuff other nuscellauooua work. They work daring the eight 
fair-weathor months, resting twenty-eight days daring the busy 

Calico-printers and Dyers, KhatrU^ 13,000 strong, also wenva 
silk and cotton, while some of thpm arc calenders. Clothe are 
dyed all througb tbe proviuco, but thutte of Nav^uagar are moet prixed. 
lue robes, aSlla*, printed by uiombors of the craft at Porbandar, 
KavAnag&r, Sihor, and Kij kot, are much sought after. A.t 
NaT&nagar and Porbandar members of this class maanfacture itilk 
from raw material brought from Bombay. Their hiindhui or 
knot^tying of sdtiiit and silk cloths is very superior. In this work 
they are helped by their wives. They claim to be Kshatria by 
descent, and allow widow marriage. Khatris earn about £la 
(Ra, 150) a year, which sufRoas lor their maintenance. Their 
Tomen add as much to the family earnings as the mon. They wi irk 
eight hours a day for eight mouths in the year. During the raiuy 
months they only knit. Thoy hare iwenty-«ight ho]iday<i in the 
eight months in addition to the days passed in caste mei^tiogs. 

Bhavs^, 400 strong, are dyers and calico-printer? all 
through JhdlivTld ; in other parts of KathiAwiSr they are dhobi ot 
washermen. Tbey claim to be K^hatrisand i^tate that they became 
calendera to escaiH) the persocutiou of Pnrsliiii-nin. They revoronce 
Choal Miita as tlicir family goddosti, and follow thn tenets of one 
or other of the Hindu sects. They allow widow marriaga 
Bhiivfijirs aro Iwidly off, earning on an average about £15 (Ha. 150) 
a year. Their women work as mach as the mon. They have a 
holiday once a week. Those who are dyers do no work during the 
lainy months. 

Weavers, Vanj}ids, 3990 strong, arc found principally in Amratt 
aud in Bagasara and Porbandar. They weave mixed silk and 
cotton, fna^Aru. Borne of them ore tailors. Many of them claim 
supcruaiiiral powers, and impose on tho ignorant by casting out 
evtl spirity. They claim doscent from the Ksbutri kiug Sahasrdrjan 
who was destroyed by Parshuifim. They allow polygamy and 
widow marriag©, and reverence llinglaj Mata. VVeHvera earn 
about £10 (Rs. 100) a year and are poor. Their wives prepare thu 
thread, bobbins, and starch and do other miscellanoous work. 
They work t-cn hoars a day and have twenty-five holidays ia the 
year, besides days spent in ca8t« meetings. 

■To KbntrnftW belong tlie tuni«n,Saagh4(li&i, aod brMekt-tnakeni, Chtxlgan. 
Tho ivrxaet work in wood, bonu. ftnd ivory, and [inhiuce mimy <|ti(uut ehildnm* ioy», 
Beeat-box«a. uit) legi for cots Mid cmdlca, cci]oon>i] in atripM witli lao, ^lie Cliuduta 
tiMko bnweloto of wood bd(1 ivory. Th« wimd t>nKwl«te oolonred n-itli liu w* vnm 
by the liigh«r cUum of Hiailu womui. Thti lower Tilmnn w«ftr buigka of w<w4 
a&d bone, sad CrMjuently of oolourcd glui. 


KAihiAw^ has always b(^pn ftinious for its Sailors. In timea of 
nnsetOod government, when every man's hand wa-s against his 
ighboor* the coaat« of Kilthi&war hare swarmed with pirates, who, 
from tlio shelter of every creek and faoadlaud, touk toil on all 
merchandise that was rarricd on the Arabian Hoaa. Along the 
southern coaett the loading pirates were Kolis, while, in the gulf o£ 
Catch and near Dwdrka and Porbandar, from an early datOj 
V^hers, Hi^n^, and Sanghars made their names a terror to 
merchante. In time Huhammadana joined the local pirates, and 
roamed the eieas with their Hindu alUett. 

In the time of the Anhilritda tings (740-1297) the aailors of thd 

gulf of Cambay were so famous that a square in the chief city was set 

apart fi^r them. About 1320 Mokhrilji Gohil took the island o£ 

Piram from tlic Baria Kolia, and levied tribute from every ship that 

poaaed, till his power was destroyed (^bout 1340) by Mohammad 

Tcghlak Shah. Subsequently the Vaja chieftains of Vejalkot and 

Jdujhnier openly practiiicd piracy; and in the beginning of the 

preeeiit century the eiceaaos of the Vighcru ami Sanghilra of 

Okhamandal ended iu their suppression by the British Government J 

Before this time, Vakhtsingji of Bh^vnagar (1772] wrested Talitja 

from the NawAb of Cambay, ond^ establishing his autboriCy over 

tbe district of V&lak, brought the coast of sonth-cast K&thi&w^ to 

^ordcr, and reduced the predatory tribes who had hitherto made a 

Bliviug by piracy. Since then the seamen of KiithiSwdr have gradually 

^bbondooed piracy and are now known aa the beat sailors in Uindust^ 

P They are divided into Kb&rvils, Bh&delfis, MiiLniiii. and Vdghers. 
Kfairv^ are of three classes^ K^jput^ Koli^ and Musalmflo. The 
first claim to he descended from Raipnt'S, and call themselves 
Solankifl, R^tbodSj Jh&l^j and Qohils. They probably date from the 
time of the Anhilvilda dynasty. They eat with Hajput^ and follow 
many Bajput customs. Thoy belong principally to Ver^val, 
H&ugrol, and Purbandiir. The Koli Kh&rviia are desoendants of 
the pirates that used to infest the sonthem coast, and have a strong 
infusion of Koli blood. They assume such local names aa ShiMi 
and TalAjia. They do not differ from Kolia in their ways. They ara 
found chicdy at Bhavnagar, Mahuva, TaUja, and Jithirahad, The 
UoaahniLa KbiUrds belong principally to Gogha, where thoy aro 

i called Kaab&tts. Their ongm is obscure. They call dicmselvea 
PathAns, but they are probably a mixed race with Hindu and Arab 
blood iu them. The island of Piram was assigued to them by the 
X)t*Ihi omperora, and they also hold ront-froe lands in (rogba, 
BhAdellb aro MusalmitDa by religion, and arc said to be settlers 
from Arabia. Thuy are found principally iu Jafarabad, Jodiya, Din, 
BaUra, Dw&rkii, and Bet. 

Afl till) above are skilful and intrepid seamen. They man the 
native craft that visit Zaiuiib&r, Aden, aud the whole coast of 
BindtutAu, eastward aa bir as Sing&pur; and thoy are employed 
in steunnrs plying between Bombay and LondoOf in some oaaas 
^fonuing the entire crew. 


* Bis HiU, II. 31S, 


(Bombfty OaatttafR' 


Chapter in. 




The MiAn^ and VAghers are not so eniorpriiiing as Ihe Khirrii, 
nnc] coDliiifj thi'initt^lvcH priucipnllj to couHtiiij^ rraft. They are 
iDhabitAnts of the «ea-side TillogCii in the gnlf of Cutcb. clue6jr 
Jodijra, VavAnta, Bodi^ and SalJtya. — 

The Bea fishonnDii belong to all tbo above classes of 
On the south coast thoy pat n>Idly Co sea and sccnrc tht>ir fiah bf^ 
IrBTrling. They Homolimes barpoou porpuittos und lot their boatH 
be dragged by thorn for conaidomble distoucoa. Whan the 
porpoise ia exhausted he is secnre^l to the side of the boat and hi« 
liver taken out and placed in earthen pots. The oil is used ai 
varnish to protect the sidea and lK>tioniH oF the boats. In tho ^V 
of Ciitrh and Cambay, and in the many crocks that indent 
shore they noe stake net« and also catch Bsh in walled enclose 
or vAiias. These oncloaurcs fill vrith water at high tide, and 
ebb the fiahenncn pick np the Bah that hare been stranded. Ki 
of all sorts, soles, pomphlet, and ninllet, are caught in (he 
enclosarea. A kind nf Beh is dUo caught from which i$ingla£i 
made. The fishing'- trade might be much (li'vi'lnjwd, ewpmrially 
the gnlf of Cutob. With good Baanagoment it could yield 
considerable rovenne. but as yet it has not attracted usacb attenlioo. 
During the fair weather, boats are employed all round the cooat 
catching and salting tish. They sail with a laupply of salt, and 
it for curing the fi»h as thev catch them, putting back to tl 
original {>ort when loaded, or when their sujifily of ttalt and proi 

M^chhis and Bhois are fre^h-water fisheruieu, who are found only 
near largo towns. The Mdchhis are generally river bootmea aiw 
ferrymen, and the Uhois porters, boose sorvanta, and water-oarriera. 
They catch Hsh with a casting net or hook, and sometimee, thongh 
rarely, with the drag not. The power of the Shnivaks in most of 
the large towna prevtnits these clati«eB fnjm carryingon their culling 
and they have, when possihlo, taken to agriculture. 

The Bacredae»s of RaLhi^wdr brings into the provinoe awamis of 
devotocB and religions boj^ara on their way to Dwdrka, PAtan, 
OimAr, Shatmnjayn, and many other places of smaller note. 

The general terra for ail cinaaea of devotees is Sauyfisi 
anchorite. Banyilais are for the most part persons whn have lost 
their property, or their children, or suffered some other calamity, 
too grievous to bear. The recluse amuigos with a spiritual guiuo 
to take liim into some roligioiis order, and, when tho stars havo 
fixed the proper day, breaks the saoi^ti cord if he is one of the 
regenerate claases, removes tho hair of his head, assumes the 
monastic dress, and with alms and prayers receives initiation. 
Sony^ia are somotimeit consecrated at an early age. A person 
who despairaof baring cliildron nut unfreqacntly tows to consecrate 
Obe son if two be granted to his prayer?), and, among tho Jaina, 
where diHcipIcs are scarce, the n^onks purchase children for tba 
pmposc of initiating them. 

Alits or Gosfiia arcgenerally fonnd aa officiating priest^s in Shir 
and Devi temples. They are voiwd to celibacy and poverty, and 
many aiuoug tuem lend a wandering life and subsist on charity. 







Others take to secalar callings, scrrinjif in military and civil employ, 
gBtherittgwea1thaflb&akor».a.nd, taking udvaQtage of their suppi>si>d 
'mIwms, giving thems^lvee great license in food, driuk, aiid womon. 
Otiiers are grent landhulders, the heads, mahaiitg or Juiriui, of the 
moiiBStenes of (Jrorakhmadhi, Tametar, Sithft, Singtada, and 
Gopnath, owning large estatue. The; admit reoruita from uU clasHos 
ana dress in orange tawny clotius. The Hecteriun mark tiJak on 
their foreheads is horizontnl. Tboro are two hccta among them, 
those who live in monasteries mathdhfirin, oud those who lire in 
hooses fjharbdria.* 

Vairiigis are nfGciaiing priests in Vaiahnar temples, and vooi' a 
white droaaand au upright brow mark. Sir George LeGraod Jacob 
bas givoTi t-hu fulh^wiug aceuaQt of thu momuttery of GurakluDodhi : 

" The fiava Pirnath ui Gomkhnmdhi, a voucrablo man of sixty-iwo, 
enjoys several villages in the neighbourhood of the sacred Sarasvati, 
which first feedft the holy reiiervoirii of Pr^hi, and, after washing 
the walls oi the Bavil's palace, emptiois itself into the equally sacred 
Triveni^ about sevea uUea from his reHideuce. Guraichnath, tha 
guru of Riikmib^ the wife of Krishna, is the deity of tKis monastery. 
Hid ehrine lies deep uudorgrouud in the villaj^^u uf Gorakhinudhi, 
to which lie fans given his name. Here the Bdva bos his state cushion 
or yi'?*, nnd is Rurniondod by about forty brethren, who are pXi 
distinguished by the custom of slitting the central cartilage of both 
earsi whence ear-slit, or kdnphdia, has become the name of their 
clOiS^. Gorakhmadhi is said to be the centre of the brotherhood, 
and Bhvu Pirnatb the head of the sect. This ostabtisfanmnt, like 
the mooastoriea of the west^ holds everything in eommou, and ita 
TBoraberH »« under vowB of celibacy. The HAva alone is free from thia 
vow, in order to keep up the incccasion. Failing iasne he adopti a 
epiritoal son ot chela from among his flock. The ceremony of initia- 
tvin. is performed in youth. They receive disciples from most Hindu 
OMtes, not being particular about parentage, but ostonHibly they 
neither accept Muhammadaus or Dheds. The ear is slit down the 
oeatre to iht< length of an inch, and the wound kept open by a 
•lick of n lilt wood, wrapt round with the soft downy feather of a 
peaoook's qiiJH, and kept wet. When siiffioiently heftled, large light 
HngB of lacquered earthenware are inserted, and, after a year, thew 
■re exchanged for ringn of wtvtd, horn, or hollowed metoi, silver or 
gold. TheM riogs they consider the symbol and stay of their Eaith, 
and the Sdva iiuonned me that ne Kiaphata ever snri-iv^ their 
loaa.' ^10 KAnphata's only object of worship is Gonikhn&th ; but 

1 TlM« AM apw*rdA nf k M*>r* of pcnnn Mlkd GiMkuiji MaliArAji, Um liMulfl 
«f tW VaBftMiAvtiAn Mut of VM«Hn»v«, uid tiu AtaetmAutU of the Imdoiu Mint aad 
nUfloo* toadier ValUlfb, % TnU»aga BrAhiRM^ who (IfiOO) aUrtol » d«w form a( 
Tblin« wonLip uvt wm reccired u « god. BMtUeii (oar ■Ukkiu or cAdJuti, ut 
JmnktmA. Anrali, Mav&UMgmr, «nd FarliuiSxr. vlierV (key rcaidc. tbcM blgh jiriMkl 
■ilitUi* (HOJuak iwhodicAlly lu gnnt *t»t«, liks pontitfa, to reccin AdM»tioii ud 
■BIWT from Uwir ooolu. 

* MrGecrg* l^tnndJMobtiwnthimtlM «•»«(« KtophMawliMooDiDpuiiofiluul 

Wtn kfliad ud bU ova «Mritt|t out off by an autkv. 'tat abbot tmd lo ftnma^a 

t htm tn lot tho «M- bo wim and thn nng ropUotxl. BuL the niffervr hu dcAf to all 

F«nU«aty, * All tbiiwi happon br G<xl'a oonunaitd , mi<1 Uim is 0*d'« aiipi that I aud 

■ly Imtbar ^onld uia tggvlhvr. Tlxry wn« liariad in tlw mjov tfrarv. 

Chapf«r m. 






they acknowledge tLe Hmdu gods. They are under uo restraint in 
matters of food. Kxoopt that the cow is held saored and the hog 
tmclean, they eat fi-eely of fish, fleah aiid fowl. Travollera are freely 
reoeired and fed, hospitality being part of their roligion. Tht" 
religion otherwiso appears to consist in worshippiug their ic 
momio^ and evening. Tho rest of the day ia passed in amusenu 
or in indolence, except at stated times for meala, when they nil 
together to Eeaat with such strangors as may wish to join them. 
Twice every day provisioDs are distributed to all who may ask for 
them. When the proTisions are cookod a serranfc of the abbot's 
goes to the bank of the Sarasvati and calls twice with a lond voice : 
'Whoever is hungry come, the abbot's table is spread', whoever 
comes gets a meal." Their turban does not differ in shape from that 
worn by tlte Kolia of the neighbourhood but ia of a special oranf 
tawny colour. 

Jain aacetira are callod Jatis. They liaTO no properly, and nei 
quit their dwellings except for food, lliey carry a fan of 
hair, with which they remove every living thing from the path 
which they tread, or the gronnd on which they sit. They wear! 
screen of cloth over their month.4 lost they should inhale and destroy 
insects. Their bodies and clothes are filthy and covered wit 


During the rainy season some of these Jatis take a vow, 
aantbdru, pledging themselves to fast till they die. As aoon 
Jati has taken this vow tho news ia carried to all partes of the country, 
and large numbers of ShrAvaks meet to worship him. For fift^den 
days tho victim is sometimes able to maintain a sitting postara; 
after that he lies on tho floor. Those who surround him dab his 
fevered body with moist cloths, but are careful to prevent his 
receiving any sustonnnce. From the day on which the monk has 
taken his vnw, proparationn for his funeral begin. A litter is made 
and ornamented with coloured paper and tinsel, rf>n which whan 
his last moment draws near the Jati is placed sitting. Music soutida 
before him as he is carried in prooeaaioQ, and women, who seek 
the blessing of a male child, strive to secure it by creeping beneath 
his litter, or by joining in the scramble for fragments of his clothes.' 

'Wherever tho pilgrim goes in K&thiAwflr he is as<mrcd of food and 
lodging. Besides iu religious institutions, in most large towns a 
Saddvarat or eating house is kept by the piety of tho chief or of 
some of the members of his family, or by tho merchants of the 
town, where froo gifts of food are made to all comers. 

Personal Servants are of three classes, 30,000 HAilMs or 
Vdlands, barbers; 3500 DaoBis or washermen; and FakhAlis or 
Bhistis, water-drawers. There is in addition the very large class 
of domestic servants, who, under the name of Khavds, perform all 
the menial duties in a chiefs house. Barbers are hot h Musalm&ns and 
Hindus, the Hindus being more nnmorous. In large towns almost 
every sect has its particular barber. Even in Zauzib^ and Arabia ' ' 

> fUM UAK U. 332. 




Hindu merchants are careEnl to provide themaelTes with barbers from 
their native cuuutrj. The wives of barben generalty act as midwives, 
•ad are uften go-betweona in love affairfs. Dhobis, both MusalTntin 
and nindo, like barbers, are a part of every Tillage comuianity. 
Slanj of the lliodu Trasbcrmeu aro Bbdvsdra. Tboy are helped in 
their work by their wivea. Bhiatis arc the same aa in other parts of 
Gajardt. The Rliavibi hnve been already described under Rajpata. 

Of Leather WorkerSi Mocma (23.000]^ shoomakora and 
aaddlcret, c-laitn ^jpnt descent, and call themselves Holankia and 
Pa rm Ar*. Some of thero, especially in Jhitlavfid and GohilvAd, are 
excellent workeni of embruidored »>addio cloths and horse trappings. 
Thoj are on the whole well-to-do, and are mostly foUowora of 
tSvfUainJirayan. Dal^ars, both Iliudaa and Musalioauet, make leather- 
boUloB for ciarifiod butter aad oil, aud also sti-otch leather over drums 
and tabora. Chamdra, or currjors, belong to the depressed classes. 
Their occupation is to tan hides, aud one or more families are found 
in every village. They arc allowed the hides of all animals that die 
to the village. 

Among Depressed Classes, besides 2160 CoavAbs or curriers, 
are Dbeds, GAbcuas, Tcbis, and BoakqiAs. Even the doprossed 
castes have their pride of birth and claim to have been ori^nally 
Kahatris. Tbo Dheds are attended by the G&md&s who are their 
priests, aud by Turis who are their bards and genealogists. In 
native elates meiuberA a( the depressed classes are not allowed 
to leave their hereditary callings, nor to dross themselves in 
bandsome clothes, nor to build bouses of the better class. In former 
days Dheds were forced to live at a distance from the towns ; 
they wore untwisted cotton round their heads and a stag's horn 
hsuging from their waists, so that people might avoid touching 
them. In the time of Sidh K^j (1094-1143) the king ordered 
that a Dhed namc-d Mayo ahonld bo beheaded in the Kahasraling 
.tftok at Patau in order that it might hold water. At the time of 
his death ^layci bogged, as ft reward for his sacrifice, that the 
Dbeds ahonld not be forced to remain at a distance from tho townsj 
nor to wear a distinctive dress. The king assented, and these 
priviIogf»(j were afterwards permitted to the Dheds for the sake 
of llayo. In times of cholera and other epidemics Dheds and 
Bhangi^ are always suspected of being in league with tho goddess 
of destruction, and not uufrequeutly children of these classes have 
been surreptitiously seized, and sact^oed to appease her wrath. 

BhangiAs, nnmberitig 21,200, are divided infco six classes, wbo 
l>ear tho illustrious Rajput names of Makv&na, Parm&r, RAthod, 
Solanki, Vd-gbcla, and i3hoH, and claim descent from one V£lam 
who introduced sweeping about 2000 years ago. They and the 
Dheds who number 123,000 are found la every village community, 
and play an important part as scavengers, rural mossongors, and 
ffnides, and in consequence are allowed to hold their lands rout-free- 
Dhed!« are also weavers of coarse cotton cloth. It is pollution to 
other Hindus to come into personal contact with these classes. If 
auot her Hindu chances to touch one of them he must purify himself 
with fire or water, aud must go through the same ceremony with 

Chapter ID. 




Ck*pt»T III. 



Class KH. 



uiy article that the Dhed or Bhuifria luu touched. 

specUlly «©t ftpart for their u»e in erery vilUge. 

Of Labourers nod Miscollaacfias Workers thero is ia Kathi£ 
as in other die^tricts, a large floatiog population that liroft enti 
by day wages. This class is principally composed of Kolis, Bl 
Dheds, V&ghris, and Muhammadans. In good times they find 
plenty of emploympnt in field labour, and a« Inni^aA thero ta work 
ther keep in one place. Mauy of them receive a monthty wagft, 
and are einploy^fd as ruanors, moHseugerB, cat tic -tenders^ and 
houBo Horrnnta, but in times of scaroity tho day laboorers, the 
class that live from hand to month, suffer severely. As tho price 
of grain hfies and labour is less in demand, tbcy become re^tlen, 
wander in search of work, take to petty pilfering, gather in lowns, 
and begin to beg. Their clotiies are reduced to rags, they gr 
daily more emaciated, disease spreads among theiu, and tbcy 
in numbcrB. The wilder clasaoa rcK)rt: to tho woodlands or 
borders of the Kal, and lire On rootfl and grasaoa. Without resou 
or forethought, reckless and thriftless, the task of keeping people 
of this class alive derolvea in times of famine on the state, 
and, OS the sonrcea of ordinary labour are cut offj it becomes 
neceaauy to opoo relief works for those who are able to workj and 
kitchens for such as are old, iutirni, or weakly. 

VAouRis are one of the early tribes. When out of work they are 
inveterate poachers. They snare game at all times of the year, 
and net hares, partridges, florican, quail, wild duck, and snipe. 
They arrange their nets iu lines, and drive the game quietly before 
them. Somotimesthey nsehair>nooeesandin oneway or another they 
manage todoan immense amount of damage to ground game. They are 
also poraistout thieves and bo^^are. Tlicy indulge freely in liquor, 
and eat all kinds of meat ezoopt the oow, from which they refrain 
only not to offentl their stricter neighbonrs. They grow water melons 
in river bedy, and prepare and sell ^fii-a/ tooth-brushes or dJfa;!. 
In some places they also make stoue handmilis. Their women are 
employed to tattoo other women. Thoy allow polygamy and widow 
marriage, and divorce is easy. If a woujan tirwj of her husband 
she tears the end of her skirt and prosonta it to hira. She can then 
take another who has to give a caste ontertaiumont. Melri Mata 
is their ttibal goddess ; but sooie of them prefer tiie Becbar&ji or 
Khodiad Matiis. 

SarXniJU are aj-ms-cloaneTS and sword-sharpeners wbo travel 
over tho country in search of work. They probably came from 
M^w&r. They are Hindus, ^vorshipping K^lka Mate and Hanum&n. 
Their marriage ceremonict are ]x^rfurmed iu the open air. While 
the bride aud bridegroom are seated together, tho mother of the 
bride and the father of the bridegroom fasten an oorthcn vessel 
to the lower port of tlioir stomachs, and mn at each oihor 
until the pots are broken to pieoes. This closes the oeremony. A 
woman ctm iive with another man only after the death of her 
husband. Some of them bum their dead, others bary after placing 
a wisp of lighted bay on the corpse's face. 

Ods are profeesional pond'diggcrs. They claim to bo Kshatris, 



Uie dpseenilants of Bliagirath nun uf Saear. According to the 
RAs Miiln,^ aUlh HAj sent for b nnmber of CXln from M^Iwa to dif^ 
the S-ihaAmling- Uke st P&Lan. Uu fell in luro wiLli one uf th(<m 
calleU JftBDia, uiii] wiskod to tako her to bis palatjo. Sb« decltDod 
and triod to make her esca]>o. He porsiicd hor and on over- 
taking her Rlew several of the Uds. Jasma committed suicide, ciu'iiiug' 
the king, and doclarinff Ihnt bin lidcc should uorer hold water. 'Vho 
cureu vrae removed, an uamitod elaewhiTe, by tho attcriHre oE Mayo 
• Dhed. Tbo Oda load a vandering life, c^min;;? to Kdtbiiw^ 
Cor tvurk, and returuiug to tbeir bumus in Mdru'dr and Central India 
during tbo rains. 

VakjjLkjIs or cai-rters aro not natives of Katbiawdr. They vuiit 
it oocasioually, bringing grain and iubuccx) on lung firings u£ 
fanllocka, and retui-uing with salt. They havo largo colonies in 
BAJput-&Da and Central India, and always return there for the rains. 
0*riug to the spread of roads and railways tbcii' ttudo is fast d^Hng 
out. They rhiim a Rajput origin and thoircbief object of worship 
ij KAIka ilrita. Thtfy allow widow marriage and bum thoir doad. 
Somv ore Malianrniadans. 

RiriLLU, a brauib of Kolis, are ropo and tape makers. They 
livB mostly in Jhatavid, and ono of their cbic^ oceupattons is to 
liawk salt un donkeya. Tbcy allow widow marriage and bury their 

BuiKiAs (1160) are acrobats and rope-dancers. Some are 
Biuduft and otliera Miisalmlins. Thoy only ovicasinnally come to 
Katbi:iw5r. Their recognized bead Uvea nt Rndbaupur. They 
allow widow marriage and divorce, and burn their dead. 

Nat8 (75) aUo live by rcipo- dancing, bogging, and st-oaling. Their 
beadqaarters are in Miirwar, and they visit Kdlhi&wdr in their rounds. 
They are Hiudua aud worship Melri Itt^ta. They allow widow 
narriagCj and bury their dead after burning hay on the fac«. 

YAdis aro seUerB of stone hand-mills, winnowing fans, and 
-straw circlets to roet earthcu pots on, but tbey oaru their living 
[ trincipally as jugglers and snake-caichura. They are both 
■Ilindue and Mnharuaiadans and allow widow marriage. olao deal in liand-rnills, and aro professional dancers. 

Some arc Hindus, athersi Musalraana. The former worship Khodiad 

"'«, the latter believe in Bibi Fatma. They allow widow marriaije 

bury their dead. 

TnosiHsc'U bamboo brooms and oalt.andgrns.i circlet?, )*HfM(Mii> and 

£ulhmg, for currying water-]HJt8 on (be head. Some are .\[uflalmiin9, 

lOthera Hindni*. Joois ore wandeiing religious beggars, who aliw 

*' 'ce tbeir living by selling bdad tooth-bmshes, brooms, salt, and 

\onis, sHthiiUf and nendonia, a kind of pad for women's hair. Thoy 

cast out evil spirits and cjitcb snakes, and gain their Hvinif 

1 gtaierally by the ci-edulity of their dnpes. Thoy bary their dead, 
■after bmnding the great toe of the right foot of the corpee. Tbcy 

» Vol. 1. 177. 













Chapter m. 





renpecfc varioas Hinda gods, indulge in a pluralitj of wiTes, and 
freely allow dirorce. 

BtLisDS come from MArwiir, and gain their living b^ begging. 
Some of lliem are mimics and ventrjloquists and \ery clever 
imitators o£ the criea of birds and other aaimals. They are 
Hindus and believe in Chaturbhuj. They alloiv widow marriage and 
burn iheir dead. 

According to the 1881 census Musalma'aa numbered 303,550 
or thirteen per cent of the total population. The first Mu<ui]mAn 
invasion of Saurishtra was that of Muhauunad of Ohazni early in 
the eleventh oeutory. Ho is said to have taken SomnAth P6tan in 
1024. At the close of the thirteenth century, Alagh Kbd.Q again 
overran the province, and from that time the MusAlmAns have u«d 
a more or less permanent fooling in Katblawar. They established 
governmentn on the »oul.b cnnnt, andj though these were ti'injionirily 
removed, SultAn Mnhainmad Toghlak (I325-13*)1) again established 
Huhammadau supremauy, and oouquered JuiiSgad. Jundgad was 
restored to the Kji^of Sorath. But by little and Uttle the MaBftlnu&iu 
encroached on the independence of these prince-s who were 
compelled to pay tribute to the emperont, and allow the emperor's 
representative U> be pl»ce<l at the capital aa a ThiimUkir. This oflii-inl 
was exjielled by Ra Mclak, about 1400, but thirteen years later 
Bult^ Ahmad defeated the Ra, captured JunAgad, and plst-ed his 
officers there to collect tribute and exact obedience from the surround- 
ing landowners. Again in 14t)9 Sultan Mahmud Begada attacked 
Junagnd, and four years later finally defeated Ra Mandlik and 
annexed his dominions. He changed the name of Junagad to 
Mustnfabad, and for a short time took up his ro^idouce there. Ho 
invited Syeds and other Mosalmina to sottlo in the district, snd gave 
them graul« of laud, and from that time Sorstb was govomed by 
a deputy of tho Gojarilt Sultfins. The Ghori family, as deputies, 
except in name, made themselves independent of their sovercignB ; 
bnt, in 1591, their power was broken, and Sorath became 
Babordinate to the Imperial viceroy at Ahmadabad, who mniutained 
a deputy under the title of Foujdfir. Tho last of the FoujdAra, Sher 
Kh^ Babi, takiug advantage of tho decay of MuKalmin power at 
Ahmadabad, assumed the title of Naw&b of Jun^gad lu \1 Vi. 
Since then his successors have ruled tho district, and the estates of 
R&npur and B^ntra have been assigned as appnnages to members 
of tho family. After Sher KbAu's death, many Syeds and others 
who bad received grants of land in different parts of Sorath 
attempted to become independent of the authority of tho Nnwtib, but 
were reduced to obedience by the firmness and talent of the DivSn 
Amarji. The Shaikh of M&ngrol also possesses an estate under the 
Boveroignty of JunAgad, which will lie noticed further on. Although 
Mnsalman power was paramount in K4thiaw4r (1410-1583) under 
the Gujsr^t Sultdus, it left few permanent traces of sovereignty 
except iu Sorath. Jhilivdd was overrun by the forces of the 
Ahmadabad kings, who, in 1486, destroyed Kuva, tho capital, and 
established a post there ; but the only marks of the invasion wore the 
ostablishmout of two families of Maliks as proprietors of tha estates 

^pf Bai£na anii DasSra. HdUr did not attract ronoh notice from the 
^KMnsalmdns till much later. About 1590, the Jdm having* eapoiised 
^■the cnose of Siilt&o Mnznffai- tho last of tlie Gujarat Sidr&iis, was 
^MU>twked and defeated by the imperial vioero; Khsn Azam Mirza. 
■TroEO tbat time Navdnagnr becamo tributary to the Mogbols. In 
1610 Jam Lakbaji attempted iodepeodeDce, ami withheld tribute, but 
was promptly brought to order by the viceroy KhAn Azam. Again 
„in 166-i Jam Uaisingjt rebelled, bat was slain by KQth>ud-din, th^ 
Ifonidar of Sorath, NaTioagar was captared and named Isl&mnagar, 
ind it and all it!) dejiendeDcies were annexed to the empire. la 1673, 
the stBt« wsR>rud lo J&m Tamni'hi, and a few yuars later Jdm 
t^iu^, taking advanlaM of their losn of power, expelled tho 
[uhammadau ulEeialsj and again made Xav^uagar the capital of bis 

Thi* Goiuls camD into cx>llisioD with tho MasalmiinB not long after 
their cnfrnnco into Kfithidwdr. Kanoji, the son of Sejab, fuunded 
Baonur. but wa« driren thence by the -Sluhammadans in 1309. Ilis 

»«on Mokhraji moved south, and conquered Ciogha from tbel'ath&a 
EaihAtis, but was defeated and slain by Muhammad Toghlak in 
With the rest of R&tliiilwilr GohilvAd came andcr the sazeraiuty of 
Alcfaar in 1583^ aud had to pay tribute. In the end the sagacious 
^Bfa^rHUgji, who may be calU-d tho foaudcr of the present state o£ 
VBhavtiagar, watrhinjf tho iutnirui>a and di^iscnxioDs amon^ the 
^Dfufialmin leaders, with great address and patience played off one 
^ngainst ilie otluT, consolidated hi» lands, and ousted the posts that 
"had b^^en estabtii>ihed in various parts of the country. This jjoHct 

iwas continued by his grnmUou VakhatJ>ingji, who was ahrewd enongii 
to nnderatand the advantage uf being on good terms with tide 
rising power of tho British. This liiw of coadnct coupled with the 
anpremacy asserted and maintained by the MarfithAg over the 
declining Masalmans, destroyed any vestige of Musalmto power in 
On the confines of this division, in the neighbonrlng district 
of Bfibriavdd, is J^fknibatl one of the best ports of the peninsula. 
The port and on orea of about forty-two miles with 0405 people 
and a yeurly revenue estimated at £3260 (lis. 32,600) are the 
property anil arc undttr the management of tho 8idi chief of Janjira 
in lliL' Coniral Konkrvn. In 17'*1 this port and small territory was 
handed to Sidi Hilol, thea admiral of tho Moghal lleot, as raneooi 
by Turk potil and other Koli landowners ami pimtes. A. fort was 
^ built in 1 740, and, with the hel n of the English the Sidi'a claims 
Hwere confirmed in 1759.' The district of Barda became subject to 
H thti Gti jard,t Sultans after the ronquest of Jun£gad by Muhammad 
BBegsdain 1471, and a Mughal parHfionwas stationed at Porbandar. 
On the collapse of MubaDinmdau power, Ilan.-i Sultanji took possession 
of Porbandar in I78o and made it the capital of his territory. 

M&ngrol appears to have been in Muhammadan bauds from tha 

^ K«Ai\m mA JkRiint : Bombftj- GikwttMr, XI, 44*. 



» «13-'Jl 



Chftptor ni 




time of thetr first incursions into Sorath, and from tbe itact of Iti 
beiug a port, waa ouusitlerud of importance. In the midillo of Uw 
eighteentn C(>ntur)', the deputy g-oTemor of the place attempted to 
make himself independent. Id 17i>4lie was attacked b; the Juii4fi^ 
forces, cumpulltid to owu tbo suzerainty of tht; Nawah, and yiuld half 
his revenoea to that puwor. Msngrol has ainoe heen a depmdency 
of JutUigad. 

From the above it will bo gathered that, thoagh the Muliam- 
madans were at one timo all-powerful in KftthiawAr, thoy uovor 
»aoce«ded in destroying the iudepeudeuce of th» local chiefs, and 
that their posBossious at tho present day are limited to Jutticad, 
BibitvBj Btknpnr, Mingrol, ana AmrApiir in Sorath, and to Bajaiw 
and Dasira in dhdlAv^d! In addition U> this, lieveral Syeds and other 
Muhammadans hold estates of ToriouH bikos in difTuruut ports of the 
coDDtry. This claas of landholders is particularly strong on the 
south ooast, and they are found in Urge numbers in Una, I)elvadik, 
Sutrapara, Patan, Verbal, Kotiyiina, BAntva, and other towns. 
They have lost whatever independence they formerly possessed, and 
An sow only relics of the departed grandeur of Moghal rule. 

According to the 1881 census returns, of tho four main diviftions 
of Masahnins. Syods numbered ld,700, Shaikhs 42,200, PathAns 
7700, and Mo^Omls UtX). As their tuuuoa import, all claim to be 
partly deseondcd from the foreigners who came in tinth the tido 
of MuhanuDsdan invasion, and remained in tho province, most of 
them as landholders, or soldiers uf fortune. Their imporUuivo 
has decreased from the timo of the Mogliol emperors, and is still on 
the wane. As their numbers hare multiplied their estates hav« 
become more and more sulKlirided, and they have, for the uiost 
nort, sunk into sloth and idleness- They are far behind llindus 
u iutelligeuce or cuterpriee, and have no wish to educate their 
children. They are as indolent and self-indulgent as the Rajputs. 
So long as a man can boost that he is the owner of one or two 
fields ho will not work, hot spend his days in gossip and smoking. 
They do not differ in any marked degree from their bruthren in 

M EKAHS are a large class in KAthulw&r, numberingno loss thaa i 
58,400. They are of two divisions, Cutchi Memans who are sappoaed i 
to bo the descendants of converted Luh^inils and to have cone 
originally from Siud, au<I Udlsi Momatu the descendants of 
converted Kdchhiits. Tho Hdltiig have an hereditary chief or muJtAt 
who lives at DUorfiji. Mymans are hiisljaindmen and in Lowiis are 
dealers in groceriea and clotli. As a class they are hardworking 
and quiet, but rather stolid and npithotic. The two classtss do not 
intermarry; the men of both shnvo tho hoad and wear beards. 

BouobAs, according to the 18S1 oensoa, bad a population oE 
28,700. Their origin has not bceu clearly awortained, but they are 
probably chiefly tho descendants of converted Hindus. They tarn 
of two distinct classes, Shias and Snnnis, ShiA BohorAs are well- 
to-do. For the most part they are traders who lire in towns and 
trade bejrond the limits of tho province. In spiritual mattarB 
(bey follow the Mnlla Stiheb of Surat. Sunui Bohortia are chi 

K KAruiiwiR. 

HnoltiTators and small tradern, and am of leas sociiil importaaoflt. 
Prbe two sw:t4 do not iQorry with oEher Musalm^iu.' 

KhojIs bto entered in the 1881 ccdsos roturaa at 28,650. The 
lialk of thorn arc converted Hindtis, followors o{ Uia Highness Agbft 
All Shah, the representative uf Ja6r Sidtk, (he last, of the Iniamii. 
They Are a prosperous pushing set, living chiefly ia. sca-ooast 
towns, and trading with placea outside tho province. They marry 
only in their own class.' 

MnvNlfl (S400) are boliovod to ho dcscondanta of Leva Kanbin, who 
were converted to the tenets of Muhammad three or four cenluriea 
■go.' Tiicy aire by no moans orthodox, and their customa are Hindu 
rather than ifusalra&n. Thoy are scattorod over the prorinoo 
tnostly in ViUilcflDer, and are chieSy hushaudmen. 

Under the term Sip^his, comes a larg'e mirtcaltaneoun Mtiliammadan 

gtpulntion. They include not only the Araha, MalcrAnis, Sindhia, 
Dlachis, and PathauSj who from time to time have found their 
way In Knthifiwnr, hut al8o the descendants of those who have 
settled in the province, and the very large class called Kasbdtis 
and Maleks. The ancustora of this class originally formed the 
staDdii!)^ garrisons of the towns which wore ia MohamDiadaa 
poeseKsion. Some of them were of foreign origin, others were 
converted Rajputs or Kolis. They received grants of lajid, and 
gained conaidorahlo influence in tlie towns in which they were 
settled, and in the conntry round. This influence has been much 
reduced oE late years. Two families of this class have acquired 
oet&tcs in the nonh-east of KAthiflvriJir, liaj&na and Dasdra. 

In addition to those are some mit^cellaneous clashes of T^is, 

PinjflriA, Matvds, and G-hdnchis. 'ilio float ing Mnhammadan 

b population made np of the«ic classes is generally poor, improvident, 

■ Bod living £rum baud to mouth. A few till, others take service 

10 nessougers, others live by daily labour, and not a few by charity. 

All the batchers in the province are Mnsalmdns. 

TAjfl, or TariIs, are Sunuis by faith, and were converted to Isldm 
phen a Musulnuln dynasity reigned at Ahiuadabad, Tliey are 
, similar to Uiudus in dress and appearance and in their way of 
liriDg. They are found cbioHy in Dhordji, Navduagar, and DhriUi- 
gadra, and are weavers by profeasion. Those of Dhonlji are a 
thieving mischievous class, nntonous as honse-hreakera, btit as a 
rule they are quiet and hardworking, and earn enough for their 

PorjiaXsj or cotton- carders, are found in almost every Tillage. 
UATvis or cowherds are found in Kdikutj Navdnagar^ Morvi^ 




ItomitU. I 


> Tlw Boluwia t4 VAnkiiMr and Xkvinupir are geoonlly weavon. Thijr dudb> 
iSctare »cAp in IIiom tnwiu, anil in DLrftn)jaiIra, Limdi, uiri WailhvAn. They itrc <mI- 
|H»miri. in tUjkot iu)ilOaii4aJ. ami gmccru, inm-nion^era, tiu-workcni, Mid aukart 
qI Smuorlu sad •vailrr ganiKiwikr, kU over tb« provuio«i 

' KbrtjU are eliiolly fouod in BhlTnagkr, Dhoriii, BliayivB<W, Snpnli, I'plet^ 
feOid puts of Sonth, Many of tKeo gaia tbvir living fay jiarclttiig ric« and gnwi, 
■id wllinii vagatablci. Soma arv wMv«n. Tlie pwgOe of^thb oUn wbo Uvt in tb« 
o( TiksraalM a naob-pruad oloUt kaoira H fihyWL 





VdnkSner, anil in olniust all tlie big towns. M1B8 ftti(t LiKCnffXil iM 
boggart), niaintaiuiug tbouisclves by playJDg on a kiud of fiddie. 
TfacM clasaca are poor, but not Bcrimped for food or clothes. Tbey 
Bpenk Gujariiti iu their boii»ei^, and butb mea and woutea drws as 
iimduH ftud fiillow many Uindu customs. 

SretAs nro a class of sepoys who are sapposed to have eomo 
onmnally from Sind. Ai one time they bad considerable }K)«aeE)siona 
in KfLthiiiw^r, incloding I^thi, and other placoa. Thoy ha,vc since 
become a dependent class, with tbe solitary exoeptioa of the 
proprietor of the small estate o£ Amripur. 

ScMDiSj according to the last infanticide returns, nnnibor 1465. 
They are found cbioSy in Navanagar, Morvi, and Dhrol. They 
are the remnants of the Sumda tril>e of [iajputs that roignod in 
Sindh and were cynvertod to Islam in the time of Moharamadaa 
aupremauy. They arc now labourers and sailors, and are in reduced 
crircninsnances. They are one of the tribes given to infanticide, 
and are closely watched. 

V AoBBBB ^iiumhering 400, arc partly Hindus bat cliioHy MusAlmaus, 
an declaim 'to be the earliest settlers in the district of Okhamao dal. 
a small peninsula iu the north-west corner of Kathiiw&r. Tha 
legend of the origin of tho Vngbcrs dates from the time whea 
the god Krishna sport-ed in the sacred waters of the Comti at DwArka. 
Here he was annoyed by the demon Kash&sur, and here mounted 
en his eagle he ovfrciune the demon and plunged him in the 
bowels of the earth. From the hole thus made issued tho first 
Vagher, and they t^'ace their bad qualities to their unfortunate 
origin. Whatever may have been their origin the VAghora havo 
undoubtedly inhabited Okh&mandal for many centuries, first 
as fishermen, then as pirates, and then as landholders.' In tho 
eleventh century the district of Okh^uiandal was divided between 
the Hcrol and ChArda Ha jpnta, and a ftMid having arisen Imtweeo 
these races, they were trea.cherou»Iy slaughtured by some It^ih^da 
whom both sides had called to their aid. The Heroic KougKt 
an asylum among the VAghcra and were received into their tribe. 
Some time afterwards llamirji, a V6dhol prince of the house of 
Cutch, came over to OkhAmandal, and fell in lovo with a girl of 
tho Herols, %vho was being brought up amongst tho Vrighers. He 
married her, and their descoudants, though classed as VdghorH, took 
the title of Mauiks, and ultimately became rnlcrs of DwArka 
aTid Ronth Okhamandal. From Oklinmaudal fiie "Vagliers hare 
spread along tlie south coast of the UuU of Catch, and are now 
found in most of the soa coast villages and towns of HAUr engaged 
as fishermen or sailors. Thoy have been converted toMuham- 
madantsm, while their brethren in Okinttnaudal profess Uindiiism. but 
tho latter are by no means orthodox, gladly marrying thuir daughters 
to any Muhammadan who can pay for them. They are a strong 
fine-looking race capable of any amount of fatigue. Like somo 
Rajputs, I(ab;iris, and Chdrans^ thoy {part the b eard in the mi ddU 



curling np tbe ends Ijohind the cars. Tlioy are rostIoB8j ttirbnlent, 

»tid impBtieiit of control, and hAVc stitl strong prcdabii-y leanings. 

Tbose of UkliSmundal arc remurkably turbuleul. At tbe beginniag 

Lof this centary, Ihoy wore the terror of thfi Arabian Soa, scouring 

[the coast from Sindb to Diu, and doing as mnch damage as they 

[could to all pcuuufut Irad^M-s. Aa their exceeseA were luu great to 

uopunished Okhamandal was captured by a British force in 

J 810 It wan h anded o^er to the GAJlnv &r. but the Tagliers 

FquicEly rebelled, drove oat the Gdikwdr's force, and re-established 

itnornfsoWcs in power. 'ITiey were agaiu sulidiied by a British force 

in 1 820,. and a second tiiiio handodover to the administration of the 

Gaikwar. Dut the local authorities were unable to cope with the 

H;wild restless spirits that t'nnned the bulk of the papulation. They 

^trere in a chronic state of revolt, and did exactly as they pleased, 

mi, i n 1857. excited by the news of the vnccess of the aiuduatia 

mntincers, they drove nut the Uaikwilr garrison. Dwdrka was 

again taken by a British force, and, for some time, tbe district 

was a dmioiatered by British offiop ys. It was ouce more handed over 

to the 6&ikwitr,^nd agnin tbo officers of that state were set at 

nanght. In 1 865_ tbe VfJ -aVra ove rran the wjiolo of K^thtaw ijr.and 

^4lid immense damage before iliey were finally b rouglit to order in ] 8 73. 

B&lnoe then they have given no more tronbloTand ore supposed to 

^■liove completely quieted duwii. The Vrighers of HtiUr have uot, as 

■ body, givuu trouble, though they syiuiMithised with their brethren 

in OkhAmandal doriug the disturlutncts, gave them shelter, and 

sent many recruits to join their mnks. They are by no means a 

respectublc tribe, dirty in their habits, ignorant, sapemtitious, and 

l^-aTcrso to education. They marry among them^plves, but give 

Btbeir daughters to Muhanamsdans. They have little self-respect ; 

' even a so-cnlled chief will take a few rupees in charity. 

The SisoHARS are closely connected with the Vag hera. not by 

i«co or descent, but by siuiilarity of instincts and occupation. 

!■ They claim descent from one Sangaii,' who was a noted pirate in 

Bthe thirteenth century. Ho spread his power west as far aa 

" Khauibh^iiya in Hilar, and south iuto the Porbaudar country. 

In the time of Bhimji, the son of Sangnn, Mahmud Begada took 

»Bet and Bw^rka, and drove out the pirates ; bat Bhimji quickly 
retornod and recovered Bet, and the Muhammadans withdrew 
shortly afterwards from Dwarka. This nccunnt of the Saoghars ia 
not consistent with the one usually received, that they are tbe 
daacendants of the Sangaras described by Noarchus. There may 
bave been a confu-sirin in cooseqaence of tbe similarity of oamee 
and pursuits. But this mncb is certain thnt for many gencrntiona 

I the Sangiiras, or Saugaois, bare been known as dariug pirates, 
and, though tho Viighcrs were much associated with them, the 
Sai^rdriis appear to have so far oxccodod tho Vdghers in ferocity 
•nd daring that their name became synonymous with pii-ate aloug 
tho ooaets of K/vthitiwar. They are Muhammadans but probably 

Chapter lU 

> One of the rilUgce ia OkhinuiKUI is ctill cnlled S^agKa Kotr*. or tho fnrt oE 
lBBgw>> It ii ui ialaod at high tidw Mtd awd tu ba a o«l«t>r«t«d n«ort for pinbM. 

Quiptar IIL 



oonverted Hindus. Thejr niRrry ia their own tribe. Tliey are 
for the moat part sailors and tishermeii, and lire in the soa- 
^lagos of tho f^lf of Catch. 

MiAjfis, of whom, according to the last iuEanticiJe censu:*, the 
ftfhowur or Mdlia Minuiiti iiuinb{>n>d 2002, nra Imecd by C<.il(inel 
Walker to Sindh. ConcorDing the ori^a of the t«rm Miiba 
there are, Bavs Colonel W«lk«r, two opiuions, one that it ia not 
descriptire of anrtbin;; and is odIjt o fumily name or patronymic 
from one Mia or Mi&n their ancestor ; the other is that the oripnal 
name of the Mi>infts waa Meh, which, in the language of 8iiiJh, 
Fij^ifios a mean or lowcaato. In Sindh, the orij^nal country of tho 
^li&a&a, they are fijihermen, but in Ilhnj and ^[Alia they are thieTes. 
It appears that the 31i&n^ had been settled in Catch for many 
fifRneTBtionB,' when about 150 years ago, the tirst chief of Malia, 
Morji the ison of Kayaji, invited a nnmber of them to aid him in 
bia disputes with hia brother, the chief of Morvi. They camo to 
M51ia, had lands assigned them, and tm\od Morji in acquiring 7illi^^e■ 
from Morvi, and becoming independent. Morji'a descendants have 
had to pay dearly for this btep ; fur, umougat the many turbulent 
tribes of KfithiriwAr, the Mian&s have lioon prc-emioeot for their 
depredations, and their contempt of anthority,' and the chiefs of 
Malia have been iinalilo to keep them in order.* Tall, muscular, 
and active, fond of shooting and riding, and of nnqnestionablo 
courage aud unuaual intelligence, they have the makings of excellent 
soldiers. It is to be rdgitittod that their talents have been turned 
into bad channcU, and, though they arc not as bad as thoy used to 
he, they still bear an evil name as thieves, cattlo-liftors, aud high- 
way and gang robbers.* Besides the M6lia MiAnils, a number of 
femilies are settled in the coast towns of the Navanagar rttalo, 
Althuugh their character for honesty sisnda by uo lueaus high, 
thei^e Xavfinngar Mianas have nut as bad a reputation for turliulenco 
as the ilalia and CuI^tH Miriiiiifl. There are as many as thirty-ona 
subdivtHions of Miflnfis, of which the principal are noted bulon*. 
These again group themselves into clans, each of which bos an 
acknowledgnd leader.^ 

During a groat part of the yeartboy live in the open oonntry, and 
meet in groups of a few farailipa in temporary huts, made for the 
most part of millet stalks aud grass, each group of hute being called 
a pdudJi, From theso vdndh* thoy start on their forays^ and after 

* Th«ir anooator Uis in uid to have settled «t Kaothiria in Uw Vini] diriLriet of 

■Tb« cbarmcter o( Ibe Miinie of Ualia ma; bs gathorvd froa tht follmdi^ 
flbntj. One day w1ilI« an Arab of (ha (lAiltwir's armj wu li hia piayon, a Miaaa 
paaaM hj and cnquirt-'l of biui who be wm afraid ot, that he b«nt nia bead chat 
wa^. The Arab nriibAfl tliat he fearod no one but nod. *Ohl then,' aaid Iha 
HiAna, 'come aJuag with rutito M41ia, wcdotit fear ev«n Clod than.' fUa Mlla, 17-73. 

'Fruin Milia th« Mi^Aa carriad oii a uttifomi ajvtem of depredatioo. Thej 
an prindpally feoLtuGii and exoci tt> the uso of the m-unL ; and in eoaaeq^DeiKa ' 
s great atlvaoUigo in a ni^C attach on a villagD, Coloul Walker. 

• M»jnr Salmnn, IS75. _ 
> Jeda bna -li h<Ri<uM. Minok 38, Bhati 64, JAm S3, Ifaaoar 113, KAiardta 90, 

BaidUi IS. SaadbvAoi 25, Ualaai U>, ud KbattisM. 



Uietr returo from sa expedition display grmt skill in burying aod 
bidiDg aJi titolon property. Many attempts have been made to bring 
this tribe to order. Boada for goorl behaviour have from time to lime 
hwin signed by their headmen, bnt have never been iK-tfd upon.' The 
chief ot Mdlia boa, over and over affain, engn^d to keep them in 
order. Bnt they have only laughed at his authority, and at length 
(1880) it hae been found nccesiiary to disarm the tribe and phice an 
armed post at M^Iia to overawe it. 

Tliey are a good-Iooking tribe, the women famous for their beaatyj 
bnt with no great niuna fur chastity or modesty. Both hoxos have 
thick cnrly black hair, with regular features and avrarthy skins. 
The men are active aud uuliriug. They wear tight pHntalooos and 
B short ooat, or go about with the upper part of tho body bare. 
The KTomen wear a long waistcloth instead of a petticoat. They 
cmll themaelve!) Muhammadana, aud bury their dead, and hold 
certain pirir in esteoni, but tlioir mode of life is moru like that of 
fiajputs. They are bad husbandmen, thriftless, idle, and sunk in 
~ ibt. They graze large quantities of cattle, most of which are stolen. 
ly marry among themselves, and, if they choose, can have more 
than one wife. They have no knowledge of reading or writing and 
no wish to Icaru. 

When Colonel Walker settled .ThAldvid hi 1807, he described 
the country as gi-eatly depressed. K^this, Jats, Miin^, and other 
To^nng tribt'S kept itn few people in conltuual alarm. In most 

ELTts of Jb/iUvAd the hnskindman went armed to the scene of his 
boar, and, in every village, a tall tree or other raided slntion was 
usod as a wiiti-h tower, fn>m which a soutinQl gave notice of the 
approach of the much dreaded pi'edatory horae. The cattle, which^ 
with their household vessels aud ploughs, formed Iho villagers' solo 
Wealth, were hoatily driven from the fields to the shelter of the 
scanty vilUgc dt-fencos, or, if overiaken by the freebooters, were 
soon weuduig their way ocro&s thu Bau to a ready m^irket in Cutch 
or Vagnd. 

The Jats are probably offshoots of the Jats, or J&te, who form the 
tnlk of the labouring population of the Fanjab. They wpre con- 
Terted to ^ruhammailam'sm, and, after their arrival in Kd.thi&w£r, 
for many generations led a roving life a« freebooters. A number of 
them settled on the east of the Kan of Cuteh and obtaicud twenty- 
four villages near Bajilna. The tract was thence called SAna J^tvt^. 
They are a restless race, cattle-dealers by profession, but more 
frequently cattlo-ateolers ; bhey can stand much &tiguQ, and travel 

Chapter m. 




\ * ftmne Dt the attpnistiona Sfrreed to look u if the Miilnta were pokinc (no mt 
Um oAew bduK wbotn thoy Rigntid. Wituoaa the following: 'llio Holt being 
m HJndn EwlirKl in the excit«nptit of which we h«v« no ri^t to partivi[tat«, wa 
fnaoiM not to i&dnlgv (or (h« fultiro iu uur tmbit of canuniuiog bnri^uiec at that 
ammn. We pnmue aba to giT« op lianging About the tows gitM at ■Mm and tvtm, 
»ai aanoyin^ f«tnaIo pnMon-by with mir ranurk*. MAIJa and Kii^aHa Hkall no 
longvr e<>niiiiiie to \m «i--miuariei far th« prnpo^titici of our ctiatoiiii. Wo admit 
ibM U i* <rcT>- wT(i»e U> make holea in the fnrt walla for our eaiicr exit. Wc ivOl 
aoi again » nffnuL Tbef readily eri«d oat mMt euhn and promiaed not to affeati 
•gun, bat rotunMd lo tbeu- old babit^ ownmittbig burglaruN bafort tbt ipk oE iko 
■yiiiMOLt wa« dry. 

Chapter m, 


loae distancos across tlio Ran after commitliDg a robbery or cattle 
theft. They are a bold, good-looking race, loving the desert and i» 
ways, and batiog civilization in any sLapo. 

DfimSji G&ikwAr cittnblished liimseU in Gujarat in 1734, and 
three years later shared with tho Hoghalsthe authority and rerenne 
oE Ahmadabsd and its dependencioa. From that timu began 
the periodical tributo-IoTying incuraions of tho Mar^th^ into 
KithuivrAr. In 1757 Ahmadabad was 6nal1y taken by the i(am- 
th&8, and tho reveuao, iucludiuer the Kathiawar tribute, was abared 
equally between tho Peshwa mid Uaik^Tar, In the beginning of the 
present centory it was discovered that mnch of the Gaikirar's 
revenue depended on the tribnte from Ki^thiaw&r, vhick wa« collect- 
ed by a military force. The British GoTomment, by a^n'eenieDts 
posaed between the chiefs and the fiaikwAr, fixed the tribnte, and 
so did away wilh the animal armed inciirHinn. Up to this time the 
Maritha possestdons iu Ki'itliiawAr wore very amali, a few villages 
near Anireli which wei-e fanned for £1200 (Ks. 12,000) & year. 
But the control over the Gdilrwdr dtstrtcta was banded to an able 
nnaoriipulotm uiau, named Vithalr&o Devdji, and he so managed 
matters that when ho handed over charge in 1826, the revenues 
bad increased to i;:35,45U (Rs. d,o4,520). At that time ha 
received the greatest credit for his exertions from the Darfa&r 
and the liesident. But the additions he then made were for 
long a fertile source of complaint agniust the Oaikw4r by the 
landholders and chioEs of SAtbiawfir. His system woa to include aa 
much land as he po8aibly ouuld, in the various eetateg under his 
charge. lie never let a chance go by. He ac^iuired the lialf share 
in, the Kodiuar estate iu 1811-12 by supporting the succf^sful 
candidate in a disputed wutrceKsiuu at Jun^jrad. In the great famine 
which devastated Kfithidwar during the following year, a utimber of 
KitUi proprietors wrote over their lands to him in perpetuity in 
exchange for a bare Bubidatence. Amrali rose iindor his auspicoa 
from a small village into a large walled town, and was laid out by 
him with considerable skill. Trade aud agriculture tlounshed under 
his mlo, and the turbulent Kuthis, Bi^briaa, and Kolis were held in. 

In addition to the districts thus ac{{uired, which are now 
superviKed by an officer on beh-ilf of Hia Highness the G6ikw(tr, the 
family of Babdji Appdji, one of the Baroda Sirdars, acqnin?d \'dnt» 
and three or four other villages in JK&lavad. and Kasnal and Pipalva 
in fiohilvad. The present representative of thia family in the only 
Maratha landlord in the province. As the Mardthda are all furtign- 
ers they have no local characteristics. A few ent«r tho fiorvice 
of various local landtorda, but they have taken no root in the soil, 
and return to thoir native land wheu their term of service is over. 

There are two Native Christian communities in Kdthidwiir, one 
at Kajkot and one at Goghn, both being in connection with the Irish 
Presbyterian mission. KAjkut. was tho first Kathiaw&r atntioa 
occupied by a Christian mission. Tho first two missionariea of the 
Irish PrcRbyterian Church, tho Reverend Dr. Glasgow and tho 
BevereodA. KeiT, reached R^jkot in ltiI41. Within six muDll 

Mr. Kerr died. Other miesionnrics came fram Ireland, and Por- 
boDd&r also was occopied aa amission station in 1813. In conao- 
quence of (he oouvention of a bigli-clasa Muiiammadan in Por> 
bandar in October 18i3, Eeoling' ran »o high that the missiooariea 
were obliged to withdraw. The Muhammadan^ who had been 
k baptised, wh8 joined within a few years by hia vrifo and four 
■ children, his fathefj a sister, and a brother with a large family, 
a]l of whom were admitted into iho Christian Church "by baptism. 
The Muhammadan gentleman has long worked and still worlcs in 
Sural aa a Christian preacher and teacher. One o( his daughters 
became the wife of a CThristian missionary who bad been a Parsi, and 
who, after his conversion, got a collegiate education in Scotland. 
B^io niiasiouaries at K&jicot established and maintained schools, both 
^^Bngliah and Temarakr, at a time when no other educational 
■genciej existed in the province. They had even to write their school- 
_ bookf), there being then no schooUbuuks of any kind in tho 
B language of the people. They also wrote tracts and books in Gnja- 
^ rati netting forth the truths uf Christianity, assisted in translating 
tho Christian scripturoB intoGiijardti, and ma«le many evaDgelistic 
tonra throui;'hout K4thifiw^. Thore have been few conrertB to 
Chriistiauity m connection with the Kajkot mission. These oonverta 
at present (1881) number twenty-nine baptiAod pcraonR, inclndinf^ 
fifteen men, eight women, and six children. iJesides these there are 
eloren onbaptised persona who have a nominal connection with the 
mission. Oneof tbeliuptiscd coQTcrts was a Brahman; another a 
Vania ; another ifTjobina; two, a father and sou, wore Kulis ; but 
moat hive been from among the Bhils. Of these Bhil Christiana, 
n one is a printer, another a trarelling clerk for a native merchant, 
H and the rest are aertanta chiefly to European residents. These 
^ Bhil Christians attend public worship pretty regularly on Sabbath 
at the Mission House, whore a Christian service with sermon is 
conducte<I in GujaritJ. The Chntttian children attend school so long 
as their parents can afford fb send them. lu respect of food, dress, 
and amunenienta, these native Christians scarcely (HITcr from other 
natives of similar social iKtsition. Animal food is allowed, though 
£rom ita cost few are able to procure it ; the use of opium and of 
•intoxicating drinks is diseonntcnanced. Bhil Christians «how no 
[ disposition to marry with Christians pfanyothor section of the people, 
long these native Christians the montlily ex)Xinditure on food ia 
hboDt 8s. (Ba. 4) ahead, and tho yearly coat of clothing from IGu. to 
|£1 4«. (Rs. 8-Ra. 12). Kone of the native Christians, except two 
Eimssiou BgeutSj are in any way dependent on tho mission for 
support. Thoy live in their own houses and maiatain themselves. 

Farslfi number aboat 480, of whom nearly half ai'e fuuud in 
r IWjkot, .Somo also live in Bhiivnagar, Porliaiidar, Naviluagar, lutd 
H^forri, Some are shopkeepers and liquor-sellors, othorasorrants in 
'native states, while a few are employed in Govemraent offices. 

Tho community is generally wu11-to*do, and tho membora possesalho 

nsnal energy of their class. 

According to the 1 881 census, ciclnsivc of Din and of the Giiikwdr's 
est«tes, there were 4168 towns and villages in K^thi&wdr, or one 

Chapter Zn. 




(Bombfty Ouett 



ipter HI. 


village to every 4'9 miles. Villoges arc of all aizoa, from tho ooll 
cf a few mud LuU iuliabited by Aliirb, B^hn&s, or Cliarans, to 
walled town where tho laud proprietor lives in state. Owing- to 
configaradon of the gronnd, and iho rocky natture of the 
water is geuorally near the sur^e, and perennial etreanis are 
at frequent intervals, and, wherever it is practicable, the rill; 
and towns are situated on the bank of a river or streamlet. 
few ponds to be seen are principally in. Jh^Uvad, and each of 
has a villa^ close by. Tho absence of trees is a marked feat: 
the KAthiAwdr landscape, and, what trees thorn are, are 
near villages. The better class of villages contain the house 
proprietor. This is generally about the centreuf the group of housi 
and towers above them to tho height of three, or even more 
Sometimes, if tbere is a rivor or pond, the proprietor's butue 
built on the wall overlooking the water anil, where there a 
shareholders, each of the priucipnl ones hait a darfxir or house to 
himself. These are surrounded by a courtyard, in which rows of 
hnta aeoommodato tho domestics and animals. Clustering round lF 
proprietor's mansion are more or less prctontionft houses, belong! 
to tJie proprietor's relatioDs, and radiating from them to the gal 
of the tt>wn are tho chief streets. In one of those is the murk 
inhabited on either side by tradesmen and artisans. Rich mercban 
whore there happen to be any, live in laigo blauk-wallod huuseej 
back from the main street. Huru aud there a temple rears its apt 
Close to the gates, and often ontside them, live tho depress' 
classes, tho shepherds, and others, and near their hnts are t 
monumental stoues or piiUds, an image of Ilanumdn, or 'a small De 
and tho village grain-yard or kluUaotid. The walls of the lar, 
Tillages are generally of stone, with gi^tes which are carefully do 
atnightfall; othersarc surroimded with mud walls, with swing gat* 
of thorns, and, even the amallost have a good qtiick-set or ibo 
hedge round tbem, and the entrauces closed at night with brambl 
A distinctive featuro in many villages is tbe round tower 
Jc/itha, now generally ruined, where watch and ward used to bek 
against maraaders. Directly a sign of horsemen was seen, tbe watc! 
man gave the alarm, the cattle wore driven in, and pre|<nratinn8 
were made for defence. Happily the towers are useless, but t 
cattlo are still driven in and housed cvvry evening. 

The Dumber of houses afctho 1881 census was 744,174-, or a litt' 
over three persona to each house. The bonses arc of all sorts va ^ 
sizes, iwin tbe palace of tho chief to tho mud hovel of the Uho<I 
from the monastery with its imposing frontage and large area, to t 
screen of thatch or leaves where the mendicant sits by the roadside 
importunately demanding alms. An isolated house is seldom seen 
in KithidwAr. It is only of late years that men have ventured to 
build outside the protecting walls uf a town or village. Of lato 
years suburbs have sprung up near alt' large towns, and isolated 
telegraph and railway stations may be eeen in various parts of tho 
province. Tlio houses are moetly built of stone. Those of tl 
better class are solid and comfortable, and ai-e often ortiamented wi 
rich wood carving. 




The people of KatIiiJlw(i.r are better clotliecl than the people of the 
Doccan. The ineD in ^oural^ear coarse unbleached cotton drawers, 
with a flhort coat of the Baune material. The women a robe of cotton 
dy^-d a uniform colonr or stamped with a pattern, or a dyed petti- 
coat of the same material. The bodice is of finer testare> If possible 
of i^itk. Ic is open at the back merely oovoring the breaate and 
Bhonlders. Higher in the scale coarse hand^mado cloth changes to 
calico for the men's, and eilk for tlio women's garments, and tho 
turbnn and waist-sash become more volnminous and of better 
material and richer colour. 

Flat cakes of millet Hour, with a little pickle or some vegetables 
an a relish, form the ntAple food of the Inbonrin^ classes. Thaw who 
can afford it eat pulse with butter. Uico ia little eaten and is seen 
only at the tables of the wealthy. Those who can afford i(, eat sweet 
cakett of whcatcn flour and pastry made of various and rich ingredients 
fiaroured with c<^ndimenta. Fruit is seldom seen except tu tho 
lens of the rich. 

In KAtht^w^ every village belongs to one or more proprietors. 

'^It either forma part of some state, or it has boon assigned to a 

relation of tho ohiof, or to one of his wives, or riven in charity, or 

service tenure, or it may have been divided among a number 

flliareholders. Whatever tho rights of proprietorship, the couati- 

ition of the village remains nnclmngod. Each, oven the smallest, 

itapatel or headman, its havdlddr or constable, aud its pagi or 

Theae are the genus of all tho villa^ officers who are paid 

ie state or the inhahitanta, and in them rests tho executive 

p>wer of the community. 

The arcrago percentage of the cUssos who mako np a %*il1age 
community are, according to Sir G. Le Grand Jacob, two familiee 
of cnrpDnter«,two of blackamiths, two of tailorsj two of potters, one 
or two of shoemakers, two of barbers, four of shepherds, eight or 
ten of Dheds, throe or four of TiaiAs, and eight or ten of 

AH these classes have to settle the terms of their residence with 
the chief or nroprietor and have to pay certain taxes according to 
tho nature or their calling, one of the most atriking of which ia veth 
or unpaid service. As the community increases in number It drawn 
utisaus and mechanicB of a higher order to meet its wants. Tho 
vaUt is the most important member of the vllla^ ; his office ia 
neredibary And is coufined to the leading family of the moat 
itnportsnt section of tho community. In some instances, where the 
husbandincn arc divided into several sections, each section has ita 
own headman, 

Tho headman generally enjoys his laud rent-free or on payment 
of » small qniUrent, and receives many perquisites in the shape oF 
its of food or complimentary diuuers. His duties consist in 
J tho chief part in all religious ceremonies, in raising subscrip- 
tons for ffcneral purposes, such aa sinking a well or repairing tho 
iUage wul or pond or temple, or for the entertainment of guests, 
in proteoting the rtllage boundaries, in being answerable for tha 

Chapter nt 



Chspter ni 


Irncks of «1! thievpH brought within the limits, in providing 
for tho public service, and iu pi-otect:itig tbe tnterett oE tbe cotn- 
miinity ami of iho Htate. Ho has to see that the crops are carri^ 
to the rillagc thrc-ithing floor, and are thero properly heaped until 
tho atat-e has taken itfi share, that the oultivatorH do uol eucroaoh 
on traeh otber'a lands, and that oriniinaU aro not liarbnurod. He is 
in fact the goneral referee and tho most important member of tba 
small Hiicioty, and on his ttitnper and judgment in a groat iu«unm i 
depends tho freuQral wcll-boin^ of tho cnmmnnity. Of luto yc*n a 
poiicH patel has bL>ou added to the li»t of the village ofliciala. The 
oilier may be bold, and in several instances is held, by the hereditazy 
revenue patel- Uia dulioB arc, to report all crimoa to tho nearest 
police authority, and lo aid the police in discovering offendws and 
bringing tboiu to justice- Tho havdlddr or constable of the village 
is the patel'a henchman and personal assistant. Be watches t£e 
crops, and wos that they are not carried away by stealth. lie aUu 
keepB a sharp eyo on tho grain in tbo vitlfl^ threshing floor, and 
aeeathat the claims ni the chief are duly respected. He commands 
tbe village watch and trackers, and nssignn them their duties ; he 
sees (hat Htruy animals are poanded, that the utreeta are kept clean, 
llmt the gatt'8 am sliut at tiightfall, tbai itnpropor characters do not 
find shelter lu tbe villag-e office or chvra, that supplies of grass and 
wood are provided for guests and travellers, and lliat municipal rolea 
ore not broken. He holds land rent-free, and has a right to a share 
of each heap of grain. In some villages he receives a £xed salary, 
and when his duties are enlarged, as iu tho ca£e of a largo populous 
village or town, ho becomes a kolvdl or Buporintendent oi too city 

Pa*d\td« are the village guards and police ; tbey arc under the 
general conti-ol and supenntondence of the constable and headman, 
and are Muhaiuniadaus, Kajputs, KoUs, Abirs, and Mahilts or Mors 
iu iiic parts of tbe province where those ti-ibos aro most numerous. 
They are appointed by the chief, and bold subsistenco lands on service 
tenure ; their office is generally hereditary, but they can bo removed 
at tho chiefs pleasure. Komo cf thorn, e&poeiidly tho Koliii, are 
excellent trackers ; they are also the village messeugens, and carry 
conimnnications botweeu the chief and tbo bead of the village. 
The carpenters, barbers, and tailors, wbo go under tho general name 
of viixv/iyds, are paid by the rest of tbe community for ordinary 
work in kind, and for special work in cash, la some villages they 
hold i-eut-free lands. !I>heds do the ordinary scaveugering of eacli 
Tillage under tho direction of the headman, and, in addition to 
holding rent-free lands, are entitled to the skins of all animals that 
die within the village limits, though in some places the chief takes 
the skins as a perquisite, and fanns the collection of them to tbe 
highest bidder. Nearly ever^' village of any size has its priest or gor, 
jrho performs marriage and other ceremonies, and is paid a fee for 
each ceremony. Another religious Hindu officer is the vyd» who reads 
extracts from Hindu mythulogy. Among Muhammadans, the 
kciji and muUa perform similar duties to the f;or and vyds. They 
ue paid in food, cloth«s, or money, according U> the people's meaoL 

Three sections of the people leave their homes or move from place 

place; tmdors who go toother couatries to »ook their fortune^ 

muidoriDg tril»es who make periodical viaita to the provinoo, and 

t«us<«ilaQeous classes includiDg labourers who move about in search 
of work. 
I The traders who \eave tho prorineo for the sake of profit are 
SnoRtljT BMtiia, Luhaii&i, VAciibi, Kliojas, Kolionis, and Memans. 
Most of those who go to Zan:nb&r, Maskat, Aden, and other placen in 
Arabia aud Africa are restd«nts of the Kathiaw^ coai>(> while tbose 
who gii to Bviiibav or other Indiuu cities bolong to inland as wcU 
oa to coast towns. ITiey goncraily start young, leaving thoir fnmilios, 
^aud rcturuing to their houies when they have made enough to lire 
Hon, their places being supplied by younger memborti of thou* families, 
H'Tbe most projiperons traders have ihoir chief house of business in 
Bone of the isea ecoist tuwus, with branches at Zaazih&r or some 
r other foreign Irado ceutro. They employ tbcir own shipping and 
^tako all risks, and as a rale are enterprising shrewd and bold. 
HiTfaose who tradawith the Indian coast are constaally on the move 
^netween Bombay aud Kathidwdr, and now that steam has made 
Htrarelliug easy, the traders' families also return to KflihitiwfLr to 
^celebrate social ceremonies. 

Tho wandering tribes aro.CnjlKASS, who have nofiied habitationSj 
and movo whenever fresh pasture is required for their cattle, accom- 

Sauicd by their families and all their worldly goods ; 0d6, or 
iggors, who como in search of work; religious boggors who move 
iroro shrine to«hriiie; travelling performers, soeh as rope-dancors, 
hear and monkey leaders, soakc'charmers, and acrobats ; travelling 
crafcsmen.sacb aa blacksmiths, copper-smiths, and sword -sharpeners ; 
carrier*, such as Vanj&ria, Ahirs, and potters ; itinerant horae-dealera, 
cattle -dealers, sellers of twaiB, cssances or attar, fruits, and jewelry. 
Representatives of all these classes are constantly moving through 
tho province, bat except the Charans, seMom make it their permanent 

The third class ieoludos tho largo laboanng popidation who livo 
from hand to mouth, and who appear wherever work is in demand. 
Id the cold weather thoy are employed in cutting and stacking 
grua*, or as harvest hands. Later on they are busy in cotton picking, 
or they bring in grass and wood aud forest produce for sale to the 
towns. In ordinary seasons thoy are not pinched for food, but in 
timca of scarcity their reetlessnesa increases, thoy gather in tho 
towns, they take to begging or petty thieving, and they wander 
further and further from their homes in search of work and food. 
Many are professional beggars who gather wherever feasting or 
a big ceremony is going on, and swarm round every sugarcane 
field while it is being rnt; Under this head also como the BuAts 
■who yearly go to their supporters, and live on them. Like wandering 
BBnUimaDB or religious beggars, they appear at every large wedding 
Hor ftooial ccremouyj and demand food and alms. Lastly there are the 
Hcrowda or jdnt who attend the bride or bridegroom on their way 
^to be married. These are mostly local, except when some chief 
chooeea a bride from a Kajput house in Gujanit, M&rwdrj or Mey wflr, 



Qiapter III. 


Chapter in. 


[Bombay GhoMtoV)^ 



or gives his danghter or sister in marriage to a scion of sone 
foreign house. 

Within t^ last twenty years one noticeable change haa taken 
place in the habits of the people of K&fiu&yr&r. Formerly it was 
considered undignified for a chief to go beyond the limits of his 
state. Now the edncation of a proprietor is not complete tmtil he 
has made the grand tour of Hindustan ; and a trip to Bombay or 
Calcutta is the more enjoyable as it can be accomplished withoot 
the encmubrance of a standing camp and an army of retainers. 

As the land is more taken for tillage graders disappear, and 
as roads and railways spread carriers with their droves of pack 
bullocks leaving the main lines of commonication for by-ways give 
up their old camng and take to tillage. 




KAraxXwAfi has the chief essentials to prospcrona agricultnro. 
climate is on the whole temperate, the rainfall moderate, 
IS abound, ponds and wells are fairly nnmerous, and there is 
variety in the texture quality and depth of the BoiJ. On the 
hand the province is thinly peopled ; cnltivatora take more land 
they can properly till, and the style of farming^ ia slovenly, 
ir, as ia aiteu the case, one man, with a small family and only one 
pair of indifferent balloclcs, tries to work thirty-three acres or 
too vigdJix o£ land, the result cannot be encouraging. From 
inning to end, from the breaking of the ground to the reaping 
>f the crop, rho haAbanJman is engaged in a struggle with natare, 
id tares are frequuutly mure plentiful thuu ^vheut. Still in a good 
>n bampcr crops are grown in various parts of the country, and, 
hoagh he cannot be called industrious, the KMfaiAvr&r hasbandmaa 
bhows considerable skill in the use of his somewhat rude tools, and is 
careful to hand down to his son the traditions and the experience by 
-which he has himself profited. 

The productive powers of the province are great The central 
Panchiil district is eminently soiled ^r breeding horses ; the Crir in 
the south for rearing milch cows and buffaloes ; the Ran near Morvi 
and MiUta for camels ; and JhflUviid and Hdldr for asses. 

The soils of KAthi^witr taay be classed under two main heads, 

ihdli or black and goniJu or red, the red being considered an 
Mghth less valuuble than the black. 
There are five kinds of black soil : fc(impalablaclcallnrial deposit, 
the be&t cotton soil ; Jt«»/» bcanr a dark brown soil also suited for 
Dotton and for watered wheat or barley ; ni ratu kardl a soft mould 
which breaks into small clods; hathan kanil a hard mould 
generally of good depth, with yellow clay and brackish water below; 
and reehak a clayey somewhat salt earth nearly impernous to water. 

The red suits ore of four kinds: kdinpul a red alluvial deposit 
Buit-ud for watered wheat, barley, and vegetables ; malin a sweet 
mould that breaks into small soft clods with sweet underground 
water; retul which is three-quarters sand and is suited for til 
Sosaroam indicnm, pnlses, and Indian millet ^Mfdr; and reehak or 
karam, like the bUck rachakf a clayey earth saltish and nearly 

■imperviuuirto water. 

™ Besides the black and red varietieB, there ara two gravelly and 
one clayey soils. The two gravelly soils, locally known as patharia 
>r kdnicrial, are jdc/ior which ia mixed with gtavel and mineral 

) Costx{l>ut««l Ly Mftjor U. a. Mutt, AMiitAut roUtic*! Agent, KAtbUwir. 






ipter IV. 
' AgTiculture. 



fragniCDta ; and mphdrin jalin which conststa of a light 
of soil with rock or largo stonca beneath. Neither of theso grai 
ttoik ia wurtU macb. Some parts of K&tLiAwAr have a sticky 
clay, rod whit© or yoUow in colour, with a thin covering of eit 
black or red soiL This ia known as ehdndanai. 

Some of the richeat tracUi in Ki&tLi^tw&r lie alooD^ Iho couxm 
the Bh&(lar river, which, riaitig near Jasdan, aowa aoiith-^ 
paat Adhot, Jaitpur, Dhoriji, Upleta, aud Buutva iuto lh« ArabioD 
Sea. Qobilv^d has eome highly proiluctivo lands, notably Bi 
MahnTa and Lilia, vhcrc excellent b-ait and vegetables an 
grofwn, aweet water being found ton or twelve feet bolow the sorfaocu 
At all the places uamod sugarcane is grown wiih auceuss and 
without impoTcrisbiDg the soil. In Soraih, Chorvdd is noted tor 
its betel viaea whose loaves are superior to any in ICathi^war orevea 
in GujarAt. In UriMr the neighbourhood of Khambhaliyu is ^vety 
favoorably known. Gondal cotton is famous, and so is that 
which is grown in Jhalavad and finds its way to tbe Wadhwja oottoa 
market. In the northern ond easteru districts of JhaUvid 
and Gohilnid mnch cotton is grown; H^Ur in the west yieldi 
excellent juvdr, bHJn, wbeat^ and other grains; and Somtb in the 
wuth is rich both in cutton and in grain. In the tract known aa 
the BhAl in liimbdi, on the extern coast of KdlhiAwA- bordering 
the gulf of Cambay, are lowlands which in the rainy season reooira 
the silt of fuur rivers. Tliis fertilising flood uiakea the soil well 
suited for wheat, which is fiucccasfiilly grown in the cold pc 
without manure and with less atteuliou than onliuary land reij 
Cotton and gram are also grown. 

The chief cultivating classes, are, in order of merit, among Qiudi 
Knnhis, Suthviinls, Rajputs, Ahirs, Mere, and K.olis ; aud^ amoi 
Musalmans, Momniis, Ghdnchi Bohoras, Sindhis, Jats, and Mil 
Of these the best cultivators in the province are tho Kanbis. T] 
sole Dccupatiuu i» tilling tbe land, and they are most hardworkii 
The uiDro Kanbia a village has tho more prosperous it is aud 
better tilled are its lands. The Kanbts arc generally well-to-do and 
bettor clad than their neighbours. Their coarse haudwoveu or danyri 
cloth is strong and suited to the climate. Their fowl is simple. Their 
morning aud midday moals are millet cakes and pulse ass vegetable 
witli cow or buffalo milk htuI butter milk. Tho evening meal is millet 
pounded and boiled, and mixed with pulscandalittloclarifii'd bntter 
and sweet oil, fyllowed by a drink of milk or butter milk. Tiiey are 
most t-emporato using noithor liquor nor narootio drinks ; ihey seldom 
even amoko tobacoo. 'ITicy cook their food in earthen pots and 
eat out of metal vessels. They are independent of other claaaea, 
have their own carts and cattle, and, should tho need arisaj 
can movo without help from one village or sob-division to another. 
It ia this class that supplies carts to travellers and Oovemnient 
troopa. Rich Knnbig live in stone bouBos, middle class Kanbia 
in mud houses with tiled roofs, and poor Kanbis in mud or wnttlo 
and daub huts with thatched roofs. The mud bouses are often 
roomy and there is always a separate place for the cattle. A 
well-to-do Koubi has no lack of household goods and gear, coppor 

cookiug pots and braaa vosaols, ornaments worth some fanndreds 

Hot nipoos, a good stock of cattlo and tools, and enough grain 
lo last for at loaat a year. An ordinary hnabandraan is satisfied 
with earthenware vessels. His ornaments are worth JEo to £10 
(Ba.aO-Ka. 100), and his livo stock iacludes two pairs of bollocks, 
K she*bn{Falo, and two oows. The poorest have stilL less. 

The peasantrv of KMhiawAr as a class are orderly, sober, dirty, 

and religioos. Thoy arc fairly thrifty iu cvenr- Jjiy iifo, but foolishly 

wastefofon betrothuls, marriages, and funerals. Fheir character as 

husbandmen varies greatly. Kaubis and MomuAa are often skilful 

and careful workers, knowing the vatae of water and manure, wliile 

Talahda and Chunv^lia KoHs are eqnally often unskilled, lazy, 

careless and sometimes given to driok, hmibandmen of the worst 

I type, ihe nholo of their produce being often taken by their croditors 

Klo whom they have to go for everything oven for grain. The 

j^outtum of the land by inferior seed and scanty manure, by shallow 

Wrfnce ploughing, and by the want of proiier hoeing and wooding 

is often reduced to a fraction of what ft Kaam would make it yield. 

There are no special field tools. An ordinary husbandman's 

Kfitock inclndea a nide plough or hnl, a harrow or kaiin, a aower or 

^AinUl, a grabber or heii, and a hand-woedor or kharapdi. Thoso 

loots are generally strongly made and in good order. The country 

^ carta thongh clumsy are well suited to the people's wants. As a 

■mla husbandmen are merely tenants-al-wtll, tne land belonging to 

^tlie Chiefj and ejection if it is noceusary is never particularly 

1^ difficult. Of lato some of the chiefs have told the people that so 

^Uong M they pay their rents and keep their 6elds in good order, they 

VWilT Dot be interfered with. This promise has done much to foster 

mdividual exertion. Thongh the practice is by no means universal, 

many husbandmen eko out the produce of their fields by carting, 

•elling drtiry produce, weaving, spinning, cotton -ginning, bhinket- 

aakittg, hunting, rearing fowls, and fishing. The chief adch'tions 

are from ginning and cleaning cotton and weaving. Dairy prodaca 

often brings from £7 \0s. to £10 (Rs. 75 - Ra. 100), and carting £10 

(o £12 (Rs. 100 -Its- 120) a year. Fowl-rearing is much neglected. 

Excopt a few of the poorest who when hard pressed escape to 

some other state, the people are all settled. 

Though indebtedness is common it is not dne to high rents or 
to heavy taxation. The rents are low enough to make tillago 
proBtablo to any man of ordinary intel ligence and energy. 
Kanbis often save as much as twenty-five per cont after mooting all 
Boal cxpousesL Unfortunately saving is no guarantee against debt, 
n the contrary, credit draws many husbandmen to ruin, tempting 
lem to reckless expenditure on marriages and funerals. The 
yearly rates of interoBt vary from nine to twenty-four and average 
hbout twelve per cent. Grain ftdvanoeS for food or for seed oro 
Idom rutjuired except iu bad seasons. Loans of this kind aro 
urged double or treble the quantity lent. 

The effects of the 1877-7S famine, though gradually disappearing, 

still risiblo in parts of the province. The roaoorccs of all classes 

)f husbandmen wore sovorely taxed to till the places of tho cattlo 

rbo died during the fauuno. Tho stock ia now nearly rcpbcodj and. 






lapter 17. 


A rioagh. 


tlio puhtic works lliat were carried out. daring the famine, 
llio wells, havo nddcd to tbe agricultural wealth of the p 
Within the Inst twenty years, even within the last ten 
thd opening of roada and railwayn, by enhancitiff the valoe 
produce, has notably added to the care and tkill with which 
crops are grown, fhere has alao been a marked spread of til 
Tonnger sons have had to leave their father's land and take up 
holdings. SUU there is no crowding and little difficulty in Am 
waste land. 

Thero haa also boon a great increase in the growth o£ £ 
Tegetables and flowers, cabbages and caulitluwers, potatoes, tnrsi 
beetroola, Icttnces, and tomatoes ', radishes and peas are m' 
grown by chiefs and large landholders, and all the leading to 
have capital ganlcuH whore these vegetables are raised in I 
quaQtitie«. Ten year* ago almost the only flowers were the P< 
rose and tho iessamin. Mow there are many varieties of rose^ 
many KngUsh and foreign plants and lowers which have 
brought bom Bombay or from England in seed, in cnttinga, c 

Though, besides the chiefs, there are a few large landholders, 
bulk of the Kiithiiwir peasantry live a liand-to>mouth life, carel 
to lay by for the bad scaaons which every now and again 
without fail. 

Great millet, ^'layir, Sorgham vulgare, whicli is one of the 
food grains, has no particular soafion, as it is grown during tho rai 
tho cold weather, and tho hot weather. For rainy-season jfrimr 
the setHl is sown ulxmt the end of June and reaped in October or 
Novcinljer ; llie c<>td>we»ther crop is sown in the end of Septombor 
and reaped in January ; and the hot-weather crop, known bs 
cfi^tatia, is suwn in February and reapt-d in May. Bdjri Peuicillaria 
apirAta, ckala Vigna catjang, viag Phaseolus mungo, malh 
Phaseolus aconitifolins, banii Panicum flavidum, tal Scsnmn 
indicum, l-iitig Panicnm italicum, kuUhi Doliclios uniflorus, 
aJad I'ha^^'ilus mdiatus ara sown about the setting in of the 
in the hitter rnrt of Jnno, and are reaped in October and Novem 
wheat gJutu Tnticum ttstivum, barley jav Hordeam liexutichou, 
and gmm chann Ciccr arietinum are sown in OctobtM" and 
November, and reaped in February and March ; cotton kapdr 
GoEBvpium indicum is sown in tho iH'^nuniugof July, and is gathered 
in Jnniinry February and March ; and sugarcane scrJi Saocharnm 
officiuarum is sown in February March and April, and after a yeeiT 
is cut in tho some mouth in which it waa sown. Chenna Pauio 
Bpieatnm ii sown at any time and is reaped after two months. 

The sdnlhi or plong-h of land ^'ories from about thirty-three 
in easily worked land to twnuty-five acres in tho stiffor soils. 
nsnnl local vig'ih is one-third of an acre, bnt itvarioa slightly; 
Bh^\Tiftgar it is equal to twu-fiftha of an acre. 

Water is generally eli>»6 to the surface, and wella are nume 
especially in tho south. There are many fine old wells of groat si 
and capacity. At Kotda, on the southern coast, there is a well w* 
thirty-two koseii or leather-bags, which, when worked by tho 
uumber of koset Lnoia morning till evouiug, loi^es only one foot ta 



_ til, the well when at rent being seldom more tliaa four feel deep. 
Sftes for wells are chosen with great saccess by water-diviners or 
jfdnikal^, whims scrpiuos can be Dogogeil at tbn rato of 2tt. 6d. (Rs. 1^) 
ft well. Their jnilgment is nnerrinfT', and many instances are oa 
record of their practical ability. They can alsa generally t«Il at 

twbat depth the spring will be tapped. 
The neater care and Hkill shown in tillage have lately increased the 
domiLod For manare. The scarcity of firewood forrros the people to 
Vara cowdnog cakes, and the land h thus robbed of one of its moat 
powertol furliiiBera. Where there are largo Hocks of sheep the 
urmer bargains nitJi the abcphi>rd to food and pen them npon 
&J8 fields, a good stipply of sheep-dang enriching a field for two to 
five years. In BtiAmagar poudrette hae been in oso for five years, 
and it« great valuo in admitted. Tho advaotages uf bone as a 
tnanaro are now recognised, and in many states the export of bones 

■ has been stopped. A small deposit of bird's dung or tjuano has 
H licx^D foand on the sonthem coast, but, owing to the difiicnity of 
V Ifetting at it, the price ia almost prohibitive. 

f The Geld tools in ordinary nso arc the plough or kal costing 
about 8*. ad- (Ra. M) ; the barrow or nimp costing 3«. (Ra. 1^] ; the 
roller ur kaliu coating 7«. Gd, {Ha. 3J) ; tho grubber or Mi costing 
4b. 7^d. (Ra. 2-5) ; t^ seed-drill or dantdl for sowing and raking 
coating 8». l^d. (Re. 4-6) ; the rttpto for covering seed in the furrow 
costing Ht. (Its. 4), and tho pat for breaking clods costing 4«- Gd. 

i(Rs. 2i). The whole stock la worth about £2 -U Gd. (R8.221). 
Besides thew there ara other hand tools, the pickaxe or koddti 
worth Is. (ti tuf,); tho shovel or p»L->eIo worth 1«. id. (lu. 8J) ; tho 
aicklu or dtitardu worth 6d. (4 ojf.) ; the rake or kampdli worth 
ML (4 a«.) ; and the woodor or kfiarapdi worth Si. {2 as.) ; the 
joiau'ho for carrying thorns worth ii\d. [i^ a*.) ; a mallet or 
moffri for brt'ttkinir clods worth 2^4. (1 1 cu.) ; on axe or kuvddi for 
CQtting wood and felling trees worth lO^d. (7 as.) ; and a Hah for 
digging holes worth Is. Zd. (10 as). A set of hand tools costa 
i^nt Ce. (Rs. 3). Tho yoke of the plough or htl, which is usually 
L of teak, is tied to a blackwood shaft by a strip of tanned leather 

■ half an inch thick. The coulter and other parts, except the 
F iron share, ore of bdhul. The chora or forefoot, upon which 

the share rests, is a separata piece, becauee especially in stoay 
districts it has to be renewed abont onoo a monttC This and other 
repairs are carried out by the village carpenter or blacksmith, 
who, in return for his servicea, receives at harvest time a present of 
grain, generally one man to each plongh. Tho husbaudmau supplies 
the mat«rial, and, if a new too! is wanted, he pays the craftsman 
a small money fee. Of tho hajrow, tho yoke and abaft are of teak, 
the loriu or beam, on which the driver stands to pr(!?a it down, is of 
blackwood, and the movable blade is of iron. The tcoih of the 
ehi'uniu wre of babul tipped with iron and set in a beam of blackwood. 
Thuy require renewing about once every three years. The yoke and 
ahan are usually of teak. Tho seed-drill or dant'il has five bamboo 
tubes. J^h tube is tixetl in tlio croes-bar of tho dantul, and all five 
dopiog inwards converge to the top, and are there kept together by 

Chapter IT. 





a Latioar. 



botap sccnred to tho bottom of a bowl or wooden cap, wliich Uie 
gower keopa fillingj and from wliioli (lie seed pai^Hea down tlta 
bamboo tabes. Of £bo timber used in making' field tools, blackwood ' 
ia employed where any groat strain has to bo mot as La the sbait oE 
the piuti^h. It is exjMJosivo but ia joatly coottidcrod etrongpr aitd] 
more lasting than any other wood. Neit to blackwood comos'' 
whidi is specially valut^i for yukc^s. The smaller parta of moat 
are of babul. 

ybe common remark that tho ordinary nativo plough mefdj 
acrat'ches tho ground is incorrect. It Is trno that when handled 
a hizy ploaghmaD, and drawn by half-fcd bullocks, the plough only' 
scratches the surface. But this is not tho fault of the plough. In i 
the hands of a skilful Konbi the ploug^h breaks tho soil to theJ 
depth of a foot. The faults of the Indiau plough are the want of s| 
mould board and the narrowness of tho Bbaro, which mafco it work ' 
more slowly than an English plough. Bat this disadvantage is ofj 
little consequence as the native farmer is seldom pressed for time. 

Any plough intended to take tho place of tho ^tlougb at preaeDtJ 
Dsed in Ki&tbiiwir mast possess throe qaolifications; it most bo] 
cheap simple and light. 

Several kinds of carta suited to the nature of the ground, are] 
used by the cultivating classes. In JIidMrild a eloping vehicle Uj 
in vogue, with high thick wheels, known as the Idngda and valned 
at £7 10*. to £15 (Rs. 75- Rs. 150); the redva, a long straight cart on 
high wheels, is also found in Jhdl^T^. In H&Ur and tjorath the 
ehavitia or ravaiya is used, a smaller and mora straight-cut cart 
with much lower wheels. In GohiWad the commonest cart ia the 
Bhivnagri ilamni, a small straight -built cart with aides. These oartflj 
are cheaper than tho Idngda coating £4 to £8 (Rs. 40 - Ra. SO). 

The ordinary day wages of field labourorej besides food, are 4} 
(3 fif.) for a man, Sfd. (2^ as.) for a woman, and 2J'/. (I ^ om. 
for a child. Laboorcrs engaged for tho harvest arc usually pait 
about eight pounds of grsiu a day and a meal in addition. ThosaJ 
engaged in weeding get 4Jd. to 6a. [as. 3-4] but no food. Coiton-i 
pickers are given oue-sixtoeuth to one-twentieth of the quantil 
picked in the day during tho Grst picking, one-twelfth during' Ihe^ 
second, and one- fifth to one-sixth during tho third. A ht-lpor 
adfhi, engaged for a sugarcane field, besides food and clothes laj 
paid yearly £3 12«. to £4 IQs. (Rs. 36 -118.48) during tho wholaj 
period of his service, which generally laeta over a year. A ^mtm 
OP well worker gets 8«. (Rs. 4) a month besides food. Th< 
hired laboorera often employ their spare time in cleaning cottot 
with the native wheel or rhnrkha, and this they do in the busj 
season with little rest day or night. For luriug carts and animals,! 
the cultivator pays doily '2s. (Re. 1) for a cart and a pair of 
bullockA, Iff. Qd, (12 as.) tnr a pair of bullocks, 1*. 6<f. (12 as) for ft j 
camel, 6i. (4 as.) for a donkey, and 1«. (8 at.) for a bullock. ■ 

In the poorer lands centals are grown every year. As a nile, ' 
irbere cotton is cultivated, the rotation is simply outtou in tho first 
year and juvwr or bajri ia the second year, Tal i£ somotimee grown 




poop soil aa a Ihiril year crop. In virgin boi! tho Bret crop raised 
generally tal^ then juvdr, then cotton, then juvdr again, or gi'am, 
cotton, and so on. 

Jirayat or min-crop fields as a rule are twice plong'hed, the sornnd 

iiTowioR being croRsvriBO ; vtuli or R;nrden lands are generally 

loaghod three or (our limes, each ploughing being deeper than 

\e one boforti. Ground which has lung lain fallow, in AifhAd 

rnne-Jaly), ait noon as the first rain has moistened it, is plonghed 

] cross- ploughed with the hal. It is allowed to lie untoachcd 

tbo next rains, when it is again turned over more than unce by 

plongh. Kspecially in east KiSthidwir the plough 13 seldom us«d 

ept for opening waste or fallow land. For a field which is under 

it is generally enough to open the surEaco with tho Iiarrow 

(lit. The kaliH, whoso proper work is to cut wccdit does 

like the plough, leave a ridged under-sarface, is inferior 

depth of furrow, and docs etill less to turn over tho soil and 

it to the air. The blade passes just below the surface with 

other result than to lo<ifien the earth. At the same time 

is to bo noticed that indigcriniinate deep ploughing may ruin 

land for years by throwing up the heavy subsoil of half rock, 

little, plant-food, and which, if at all, should be opened with 

it care. After it Y\aa. been once harrowed and Hoaked with rain, 

ground is thoroughly cleared of largo stones, tree roots, and 

sdfl hy the chasiniu. Next the clod-cruaher, which is a log of 

weighted by the driver and if necessary a friend or two, is 

sed over the field, and tho surface thoroughly smoothed. Finally 

soil is once more stirred with tho harrow, and ia then considered 

ly for tho seed. Tho sood-sower dantul or rdvania is skilfully 

Is. It is not unlike the Knglish seed drill. The grain is poured 

wooden bowl at tho top, from which it runs down four 

bamboos, and out through a hole at the back of each of 

llip prongs of Uio harrow. Two persona usually work tho seed 

'rill, one driving, tho other filling the bow) from a bag tied round 

is waist. Tho yoke is rather wider than in other tools, so that 

le bnllocks may keep clear of tho furrows. Another kind of 

^ drill also duled vavam'a, with a larger and heavier beam and 

beper fnrrows, ia used for wheat, and also, in coiiseauouco of 

har*lnofis o( tho ground, for cold-weather juvar. After the 

drill the harrow is run lightly over the surface to cover tho 

To olror growing crops the weeding harrow shaped like 

10 harrow but with a bladu only about one foot wide, is passed 

»twoen tlio furrows, and clears the ground of weeds, of which the 

aro ^ro or grass, ilamro not uuliko an onion, the Jch^e, and 

10 eameru. As soon na the plants aro well started, ^'utMtr and 

ijri ore thinned by hand chiefly by women. 

Ia a ooantry almoei entirely open and visited by Socks of birds 

heitis of antelope gazelle and ni'/l^fif, tho guarding of tho crops 

of grwt importance. About hfteen days after tho seed is sown a 

itchor is hired at 10«. to I2jt. (Rs.t^-Rs.G) amoQth. Ho watches 

om iovuniy-fivo to a hundred acres. At first ho lives in a hut on 

I groundj but Iat«r on, when tho crops grow high, ho is perched on 

Chapter PT 





ipter IT. 



A ircc in die mictdlo of his ebftrge. He bIioqIb loadly, sliags 
or pollcta of clay, cmcka with a long lash of flax or cotioiii or lii 
a drum. lo vnld p&Tt& ho is given a ainbfiao}ta.nio, that is & lai 
oarthoii vessel with its mt>uth covered with leather. A. small holel 
mndo in the leather, and a ])«aoook'B feather is passed throDgh 
hole nod drawu gontly bockirards and forwards, making a noise 1 
the muffled n.iar of a lion. A. bullock's skull at the uud of a stick 
whitfwaahed inverted earthen pots are the usoal scarecrows. 

Erotection of the crops from the tiny ineect called hhtt, which makea: 
omo in the stalk andspocdilj kills the plant, is loft to the Almighl 
When the field has been cropped with oottoDf the plants are 
one by one with the diggor or koddlu Crops of rice, wheat, 
barley are reaped with tlte sickle close to the ground. Of jw 
and bdjri only the beads are at Tirfit taken off. Later on the stems 
are cut close to the ground. Millet beads as they are cut, are thr'jn'U 
into a cloth which is tied round the reaper's waist, and arc again 
emptied from the cloth into a sheet apreau in the comer of tbe field. 
From the sheot the heads are taken in carta to one of the two or three 
Tillago thrashing- grounds, whore the grain is trodden out by mnzzled 
oxen. The khitia or thrashing- grotuid is a spot outside the rillago 
walls, chosen for the purpose, and cowdunged and beat till it is 
pcrfoctly smooth and hard. It is feoced with thorns and protected 
by a guard. 

In winnowing grain, iho workman stands on a three-legged stool, 
called a ghodi or horse, and shakes the grain from a tray-liko fan, 
60 that in falling the chaff is blown to ono side. If the air is still 
two men stand below waving a sheet. ~ 

The landlord's share is sometimes estimated while the crop 
standing, and sometimes at the tbrosbing-fioor. In either 
delivery is made after winnowing, the husbandman carrying 
rest to his honse. 

The following list ^res the names of the chief crops and fruit 
found in the province : 














OvmI milM 
Splknl ndUM ... 

Th«l „ 

PlUMOMd (bDM... 

nilak-akiiui«d mUM 
Indinii oaro 
lullkn mtlM 
D*. do. 


fifMO im 
Voaiamtt gnta ... 
MldDn' bnn 
SCMdllraltnl hldrar 
BUcypoddcd 40. 
LMn^TuiM daUohM 
8Md-IMMd du. 
Horn gnm 



Soirhim fuIaarK, 

Uofcw iirtaMH Otrtt. ruklcUlMb 

Trltkuu ^Utuik, 

^MtrnJiim fcmtMuMim. 
KlMuiiM oorocmak. 
Pkufcwn OaTlduin. 

PbikoM IttUaun. 

Oftfuni Indleot, 

PbMwiua MOfillUoUm 

PtaHooln* ndkW 
Dalloho* taliitb. 




^F OtiieeJi, KbTfM, Ifattolk*, and Dgt** 








OliVdly Md 

SMKmiun IniUnnn. 


«r«wa - 

OMter-aD Med ... 

fltrtnto commaniifc 


at* ~ 

Hwtknl ... 

Outhwma UfKtoriM. 


XmmmM ... .^ .- 



Mt*tii^ „. .. ~ 



Atwfali lirpeffM. 


BH> ^'I *-- •<' 

Cotton _ 

Bemtay kamp 

OaMjptnin Indletun. 
Crat«laila JuiKn. 



JUwirlMii alD* 


IbAm hemp 

UlbfMW CMtnaMnuK 


nta>Ufai ... - 

Toltteeo ... 

KI«9Utii* lakocnm. 


•iNa ■- - -' 

H«-p - 


OuU»bU NtiTk 


A I 

^nnerio „. ,., 

OaicanM lain. 
Moitote dedoHi. 




Itoddor .« M -. 



JToaHMlM ... 

BaflgiwM - 

Owtfeamai UiutdriM. 




AoKtt uabJ«L 


^H Coutiitarul* nnti Hftic**- 





OUinf ... ... .M 

awgftw- oMcfaflo. 

jr«Rifca - » - 

Ch|ate«B Hiran. 


Do. ItoMMieM. 


Ouk KtoinMUii, 


t— rm 

AlllDin Mttmm. 


^*UMr ... .„ ... 


CwraiDk hinik. 




Fcnnal .- ._ ... 

PMnkaloM pMiMMfaoi. 


■ >«1 


Ml m^ „ 

Awtbni wwk. 


1 « l<M<a ._ „ 

Oortonriw -. 

CMUMbim ntiTunk. 



i/*m •»•»••• 


OBRlaini •radamt. 



JV#(ftf . „ ». 

MsiMriita tenwnmicitai. 



J«M« .„ ... ... 

OoMneo ntalart - 

iBdkkn «^ 



nufl ,.. .» «. 





A-nOM w « ... 

ItaMikid - ... ... ~. 

fkHwriMdn Indkft. 



Hmmbum » ... . _ 

Coons BatU«vB. 


H OJ -. » - 

MdMH ... 

atttihAraaa oHdoMun. 


U AtdM « « .. 


ll«Mh« mMnm. 


IB toOmb ._ ^ 

OTMO COrtMldM' ... 

OMfuulrvM Mdvtn. 


^^ r<yf(«lAIr^. 




BUt^t » .. ^ 

>dbb liftijy ». .- ... 

AbclBMiAu MrakntaUL 


A'V'lA ■■■•■«*-' 

nftter fliMilu ,., ... «., 

Hionnofdlek obutnte. 



(huOr ,. .- .. 


OTUUVlfa [MurailoMM. 



rJ£4 » «, .. 


BntenfUB OTtfmn, 



Kito . » .» 

Had poniildii _ 

CwarUn oMilOH, 



II«4U ... „ ^ 
CkffeMi ... » .. 

nwi ... ... ~ 

WUta nnmAtn 

A apwlaa tt emambm ... 
Onoimbar .» ... ... 



ffkirait ,_ ... ^ 




hmtAt» „ „ 


BoUmnn liihMwilin 



jr«ait a. m » 




XtnwH „ - .~ 
JTaatdl* _ — _ 

Oi^M ... -. ._ 
RANdinrt „ ... .. 
jMUraK „ >. .„ 

Anton OM, 



Ihita _ — » 

Aidtah .. « 



e««r .. _ » 


DmBOM «M«tK, 



IWiw* ...... 

WfttaviHihn — u. 

OnnfMto cttnlhii. 




JatafMI ... ... .-- 


IBomtaj 6i 


ipur rv. 






BarawML. ^^| 





entkMwemi » 

IU(.iftlM radlab... 

LrMiuee ... ~. >■ •« 

TriiAematket MC«Im. ^H 




W :: •:: ::: 

BapliaRiM oiMdaua. ^H 



Saivj -. ... 

OtMT ... _ -. ... 




wT^ ... -. -. 

BmMM ». ~. ..^ .- 

Brtanicula. ^H 




Caillioorgi ... •.. 




K^it^ .„ ._ „. 
jir«tt<tikt ... 

CNU«« ... > 

iMksEl ... -. 




IHoMora* aOlnL ^^| 
Do, akia. ^H 








■f»»* - - 

AniafaMlhiM fN>Oi»iA«a. ^^1 


KaBUi anm 

OdMMl* anUoOOTUB. ^H 



AU. .„ 

HoMard ... » 





RmtMr Imbd 

SwMt Mndp 




tMHi ,. 




itiHM ... .„ 


Ptjpcbetai ktnru. ^^| 



SiM „. -. 

DMpMd ... 

AwiiHuiBi ■)<•». ^^H 











Oat^m ... .1 ... 





Chola _ 


SmalUraltod doBelu* ... 

Tlgna atjaair. ^H 





laiwliiiiM ■!■!■« ^1^1 



fiJtWTt ktU 








Mra ... „ J 




aanka^i _. 











IM iUiva 

1 1 

/"niiV Trrf*. 






«M«B .M 


Ooooa KiMlltfK. 




ndllUIK ... 

BatiiMH hbenUaraila. 



KHaiwi ._ 


»«• „. ._ 

PhonU i^TwIrt*. n 



PomecnnUa ... 

Pmtaa gnaatnin. / 



JmmnJM „ 


PMInn pomllvrun. I| 



J4mi*^ - 

tmdStn4tnMm ... 

Sjrarclaiuii JuiiImlBiiuni. | 



Oanunbu ... 

A*>m>M caruulrute. 



Ataterl .„ ... .. 

■iillMrry ... ... 

Unnii tiuUi:^ 1 




na ... „ ... ... 




FMOt „ ... 

Jick „ ,. -. .-, 

Atniaiuu liiUvrtMliM 
Phrlaaww vmMMa. 







AMMaa tiniawnw. 




Otanipi „ 


Chrua aimaUuiD. 
Do. brtfaala. | 



jnuf UmM 

SwMt Itnw 

Do. Itiiwua. ' 



Pmpaiuu .u 

i^wiolo ... ... ._ 

Un. dacomana. 





Uan^ltMa. Indloa. 




lUnarfudiu [ad>ek 



«»•■ - 

Klml , 

MlnitiHopa haiaD4li>. 




J(0«ba ptum „. ,. 

Du«U ktlMla. 



ir«Amfa - 

Hown _. „ ■,., 




Wood«ppl» ... .. 

KcfTVlaia ukpliantnm . 




■b»l ... .- ... ... 

^Iv nMTIDolW. 
AihiHoida dWllala. 
Ckrlaa BiwiiUM. 



MaakfT brcad-tne 

Oonuiiu „ 



ir«»Muu ~. „. 






AoaitaMk Mlhrk 





Do. rabn. 



KHh .„ 

AaMafdIm oocUmW*. 




dirat ... 




XMnlH _ 1 Onp* 

HWdn] bbankar. 





»T|JUM/aN ... ._ „, Sat** Mp(hutl(Mk-| htMl) .., 

Abmu MUnkH. 

The leading- KAtLiitwAr ci-opa m-o cott 

on, rice, Indian millot. 


Bpikod milletj wheat, bnrloy, ftoc/ra, &««</, In 

dt&n conij Italian millot. 

* 1 




, BBreral pulses, tofasora, sagarcaae, and onions. In ordinary 
)na the atepls foot) grain is bajri. In seasons of Aronghtj nvdr 
a the foroinoat place because, unlike other grains, it can be pitted 
serenl years withoat ujioiliug,^ 

Cotton of three kinds is grown, tdliK in which the pod bursts 

Sen itis ripe; dkankniw, dhumar, or ddbliu, that is hidden, whoso pods 

~aaiQ clotted ; and UihurJitut a hijtfb class but very nnoommon crop. 

fiu ripens earlier than dhdnkiiiu, and is lens liable to the attack 

worms; but when ripe it lo^s value by lalliug or half falling 

the pod and getting dirty. In this and in several other 

tk& dhdnkrtiu IB the better cotton. la picking Idliu, the 

is taken from the pod, but the dhiiukniu is gathered iu the 

which is locally styltnl kdla. After Idliu is picked, all that 

lutns is to separate the cotton from the seeua, whereas the 

4nknt\i has first to be freed from the pod and then from the seed. 

iliti ia chiefly growu iu Qubilv&d and south Jh^Ifiv^d ; elsewhero 

kniu is tho conimonor variety. Lahurkiia is called from a well 

name near M.ingrol, tho soil near which is specially suited 

jn, and the little that is grown has a fine silky fibre. Black 

il suite the cotton plant well, as it holds moisture, is of good depth, 

id contains plenty of Ume, an essential for healthy vigorous 


Ijaiid on which cotton is to be grown is plouglied four or five 
times during the hot weather. Soon after the first fall of rain, 
twelve to nfteen pounds of seed are sown in each acre in drills 
about a foot apart. If the seed is good soveuty per cent will 
nprf>ut in about a week. When tho plants- ara six to eight 
inchi>s high, the field is hoed and any weeds that remain are 
dug out with the woeder. A socond hoeiug is given a mouth later, 
s third if necessary. In Jh^IaTiid, cotton flowers in October 
November and sometimes as late as December ; but, as a rule, 
end of October is the lloworing season. The crop is ready for 
nngiu Pebniarv and March^ but much depends on tho rainfall. 
Nth an enrly rainfall cotton is ripe by the end of Jaaoary; with 
>lftte rainfall it is not ripe till Aprd. 

There are generally two pickings. Tho average aero yield is 
■bout 480 pounds of cotton with seed in pods, about 360 pounds of 
coiloa with seed without pods, and 120 pouuds of clean cotton. 

Cotton is sometimes watered from wells. Watering greaUy 
ioeraucs the yield, in some cases with tho help of manure, doubling 

tuven trehling it. Tho use of manure, though not uuual iu black 
1, nearly douUes the produce giving an average acre outtom of 
3ut 2-U) poandi of clean cotton. 

The coet of raising an aero of cotton ia estimated to rary from 
]8#. (Rs. 0) witli slovenly tillage and neither water nor manure, to* 
£$ S«. (Bs. 81) with careful tUli^e and the use o£ both water and 
mftDoro. ColcnlntianB seem to show that high fiirming yields a 
much larger balance of profit than oaralew farming. An acre ol 

Chapter 17, 



' Bon. Oor. 6«l. X&XVU. 37, 

a «1J-M 



Chapter IT. 





cotton carefully lilItMl watered and mannred at a co&t of JC3 Si. (ftL 
will yiolil about 3(!0 poDuds of clt^D cotton wurlli £7 lOs. U) 
(Ra. 75.Ba.80), that is a profit of about £\ \0m. (Rs. 4r>) or 
per cent. An acre of cotton slovenly tilled and neither watered 
Diannrod costs about Ids. (Rs. 9), and yields aboat sixty poituda 
cloan cotton wortb about £1 Gs. (Rs. 13), that is a profit of ubooi 
(Re. 4) or forty per cent 

KdthiAwAr cotton is exported from Wadhwiln where tliore 1; 
cotton market, lUtAvnagar, Jdfa-rabad, Ver&val, Jodiya, Porban" 
and Vavduia to Bonibaji wbere under the name of Fair DholorSi 

■ fetches a good price.^ 

SevenJ attempts have been made to raise cotton from 
aeod, bnt as yet none have done so well as the local kinds. 

Rice, (f4iri|7<ir. OryzA SAtiva, is fprown throoghont tho prorini 
It ia chiefly raised in black soil of the hili aud karat varieties, and 
Dhrflngailhra in the red soil known as gorddu. Rico is sown in 
end of June or in tho begrinningof July, and is reaped in October 
November. Tho soil is ploughed, watered, niannrod, and weed 
but tho soodlings are not planted except in Bhfivnagur aud in 
parts of Jhii,Iilvji<l. There are two main classes of rice, chngtUi or 
yellow which is much esteemed being long and fine, and dhnih' oe 
red, an inferior variety. Most of the rice crop is used locally, rice 
being one of tho chief food grains used by an classes. Tho finost 
rice crops are grown in tho Nal K&ntha. 

Great miWet, juvdr. Sorghum vulgare, is one of the moat importi 
crops. It grows thronghont the province in different soils,' b' 
thrives beat in the Ami raf varieties of black soil. A field of mill 
is plonghed and weededj but, except in irrigated lands, it is neither 
watered nor manured. Tlie seed ia sown after the first fall of rain in 
June, the young pUuts appear in about a fortnight, and the crop ia 
ripe in November. Watered millet, which is locally known as 
difiiiaelln or tho sixty-six days crop, is sown in the end of February 
uid reaped in tho beginning of May. Four kinds of millet ar« 
grown, dholio or whilo with sweet grain aud long sweet »talka ; 
gundaJt with thin swoot stalks, a capital fodder; tu7tkadi with short 
thick stalks cot much nsed as fodder ; and nitad or red with sweet 
grain and stalks. In ordinary' years almost the whole millet crop 
IS used in tho province. It is the staple food of tho haBbnndmen 
and the poorer classes throughout the peninsula. In good seasons 
millet is sent from Naviuaear, UhfivnaKar, and parts of Jhalavud. 
Millet stalks or kadab arv the most widely used fodder. As a r ~ 
in Uilliir, tho crop is not so good aa in the other divisions. 

Spiked millet, bdjri, liolcus spicatus, a moat imimrtant ci 
grows in all soils except in sand, and thrives best in black i 

■ Like great millet it is sown after the first rain in June, begins 
to show about a fortnight later, and is reaped early in November. 
Tho soil is plooghed aud weeded as for great millet. There aro 
two kinds of spiked millet which differ only in stae, one beiug 



' Detail* of Uk expert of cottou «n giveu uiulw TnuU. 




ftgor than tho othi>r. Spiked millot la tbo staple food of nil, 
icciftlly of the wpnlthier classes, tho laDiilorda or gnrantas bcmg 
Njciully fond of millet floor cakes with -warm biiXfalo batter. la 
iny parts of Kdthiawdr spiked millet is thought bctCur fur horsea 
grom. Hillet titalka when greon ara oaten by cattle, and, 
len dry, are used as fuel and for thatching. As a rule, the whole 
]t!t or bdjri crop is uaed iu K^thiiivs-ar, bat ia good seasoua ii is 

Epurtcd (rutn Nav&n^ar and Bhilvnagar. 

iWheotf ghau, Tnticum tostivuiD, is an important crop ia all parts 
K&thiiw^r which havo good water aud suitable soil. It grows 
black soil and is nsnally wat^'reil, except in the east of the 
^TiDce where the InnlandA of BhiU, Nal Kdatha, Jhinjhuvada, 
!iadi>al, Balagnm, Mahiari, and Gauod, eoriched by yearly Hoods, 
jptd crops oE wheat without water or mauure. Tho unwatcred 
mt girea a lods yield than the watered wheat but commands a 
itly higher price. In other parts of tho province to grow wheat 
soil bos to be ploughed aix times and watered tea times, aud 
ph acre requires fifteen to twenty cartloada of manure. Wheat 
sowu in the end of October and reaped early in March. Growing 
frlieat, either from frost or from heavy rain, is liable to a blight 
led gheru, which stops the growth of the seed, and in some cases 
troys it. There are two leading kinds of wheal, ktiiha or dtdtia 
^large sweet bard grain not much subject to the attacks of vormin 
id fctchiug a good price ; and vxujhia a smaller variety of loss value 
%A darkcT ojlour. Wlioat is nsed by all classes, but, as it is dearer 
millet, it is tho staple food only of the rich. Part of the crop 
gtmerallT exported from Uhdvnagar and Limbdi. Tho exports 
117 greaUy from year to year. In a good seasoo ^fihavnagar has 
exported as much as 2500 tons. 

Barley, j'ai', Hordeum hcxasticbou, is grown hope and ihero in small 
^nnlities chiefly in the north where it thrivoa host. It grows in 
zk Soil, and like wheat is sown late iu October aud reaped early 
,Harch. For barley tho soil should bo ploughed six time.i, watered 
time*, and eoriched with twolre cartloads of manure the acre. 
I lileo Inquires weeding. Oulyunckiudof barley isgrown. Barley 
; hold sacred by Brimmans, who in some of their ceremenios keep 
imwing grains of barley into the aacred fire. Ou the twelfth day 
Iter childbirth all Iliu'lu wouien make l>arlcy necklaces a.<i a tnlisman 
it any evil befalling the child. Only the poorer classes uso 
Tey as food. It is also given to horses, but moro gonerally to 
led cattle. 

runctnrod millet, hulm, Paspalum scrobiculatam, is an animpor- 
)t cr*ip Bparwt'ly giiowTX iu Jnnjigad and Bliavnagar. Kodra 
likes sandy soil. It in sown after the first fall ol rain and reaped 
.Octobcr-Novcmber. Tho soil requires plooghiug nianoring and 

millet, bantl, l*anicum flaridum, ia a crop of SDiaU 
irtonoo bat found iu all parts of Kiithiiiwj&r, It likes baar or 
jntvrn soil, aud is sown in July and reaped in October. Tbo soil 
phfttghod aud weodud iu tho same way as for inijii. Banli is 
Uy used only by ibo poor. 

Chapter II 







[Bombay Oi 












Indian com, maPdi, Zeft majs, is on imimpnrtant crop grown 
Kinull exUmt in Jhalflv&dj Junagad and BhiiTnagar. It gron 
blnck and red soil, either in the rainy season or iu the but w< 
Tbo rnitiy soaiwn Indian com ia miwd in Judo ia email qoanti 
fftinerallj for priratd nse, and reaped in November. Tho hot-weati 
Indian corn ia sown in March and resped in May. The soil reqtt' 

Elotiching and weeding in the same way as for bdjrL Makdi is 
J all classes. The green oars are generally roested orer a 
fira, and the seeds eaton. In some cases the poor grind the 
into Boar and make the floor into porridge. 

Italian millet, kdng, Panicum italicom, is a crop of small 
importance found in all parts of Kathiiwdr. It grows in block 
soil. It is sown after the first rain in Jane in small fjoantitiee near 
juvdr and bdjri and reaped in November. It is locally nsed by 
poorer classes. 

Chena, Panicam spicatnm, is a crop of small importance 
in most parts of E&tiiidw^. Like kdng it grows in black soil, 
sown in Jane, and reaped in November. It is locally used by 
poorer classes. 

Common gram, ckana, Cicer arictinum, was formerly an im 
crop. It is not now so generally grown, bec&Qse for a la 
onttnm the land should lie fallow during the rains. Still with t 
help of manuro it can be grown after iajri, or, if the lato rains are 
good, even without mantire, On the other hand, if land has been 
mllow, gram can be grown even without lato rain, tliongh it is 
always a Ener crop after a late rain^l. There are two kinds of 
gram, common or d^hi, and ghedia a better sort grown in tho Ghod 
or marsh lands on the sonth-westem seaboard. Gram grows in 
black isuil. It is sown at the otid of October or the beginning of 
November and reaped about tho end of Jannary or tlio beginning of 
February. Tho soil should be twice ploughed and wants nuinnritig 
and weeding. Gram ig locally used by all cla-sses instead of 
vegetMbles »ud iu sweetmeats. It is also given Co horses. 

The Kidney Bean, math, Phaseolns aconitifolins, is fonml in 
all parts of Kiithtsw^r. It is usually grown with other crops in 
poor suit and is sown in Jnno and July, and reaped in October and 
Ndvcmbcr. It ia locally used by all classes as a vegetable ; it is nUo 
nsed for futtoning oxcu and horses, but it is not given to mil 
cattle, as it t^nds to prevent tho fiow of milk. When given to o: 
it is broiaod and steeped in water for a few hours to soften ; w 
it is given to horses it is mixed with bdjri. 

Tho Siiiailfroitod Kidney, mag, I^haseolos mnngo, of middling 
importance, is found in alt parts of Kdthiiiwdr. It grows in black 
soil along with juvdr and hijri, and is sown in Jone-Jnly and reaped 
in October. November. It is locally used by all cliw.«i«, gencrall^J 
mixed with rice when it is called khkhadi. It is also giveu boil^H 
and mixed with clarified butter to fatten cattle. '^' 

The Uairy]K>dded Kidney, adad, Phaseolus radiatuB, is sown and 
reaped in the same way as ma/j, and leaves much the same margin 
of profit. 

' and 

i nUo 






The Tjargofruited Kidney, vdl, DoHcboe kbUb, is a crop of email 
itttporUuco foand in the N:ig'her on tho sonth coast. There ia only 
one kind cf vdl which groivs iu iMtudy soil aud is suwn in the 
iKghmiDg of the rains and reaped in the middle of the cold weather. 
The Boil requires ploughing, inanariDg, and weeding. It is locally 
OMed aa human food. 

The Smallfniitcd Kidney, eholoy Yigna catjsng, is a crop of small 
importaace found near the coast It grows in black soil, and is 
Bown aftor tho tirst laia in Judo and reaped in NovQinbcr. It is 
aometimoa grown separately, bat gonoroUy with bAjri and juvar. 

Iw soil is ploughed, manured, and wooded. Chola, of which there 
but one variety, is locally used as a subatitate for vegetables, 
Borae Gmra, frtif/At, DoUchosuniflonu!,isacropof nmallimport&aco 
own to a limited extent in all parts of Kitbkw^. It crrows in 
KM* Boili requires ploughing and hoeing, and is sown in July and 
apod in October. It is locally osed by the poorer claasea and is 
^r»u to cattle. 

HOtngelly Seed, lal, Sosamnm indicom, is widely grown. It grows 
H black soil, which requires to be thrice ploughed and twice 
^■ed. There are three kinds, athadi lal or white, h'da katva 
!K blaek, and purbia or rod. The white and block aro usually sown 
in July and reaped in October, while pxtrhia is sown in the Piirta 
Hakthafra in September and reaped in Deoombor. Of tho throo 
'ttie while is the best lasted and the red tho largest yicldor. The 
oU obtained from ashddi is awector and pnrer than that from 
Ufurbia^ Titaeed is hy all classes eaten sparingly with sugar or 
nolwwfl, but is ohieny pressed by oilmen or Qhi^cliis. llio oil in 
— -id for laiups and in seasoniug vegetables. Thoso who can affoi-d 
give the rofuiie or oil-cuke to their mUch cattle, as it fattens 
•tu anil onricties their milk. Oil-cake was krgely eaten by the 
or iu the 1877 famine. Tal is also exported to Bombay. 

Castor Seed, erandi, Recinis commonisj is a crop of small 

rrtance found in all parts of K&thi&w&r. It grows in black 
and is both a hot weather and a rainy season crop. The but 
i&tiier castur-pLiut is sown in March or Aprd and reaped in 
VovemlKT or December ; the rainy-woather castor plant is sown in 
Jiiuo and reaped in October. Tho oil is locally used for lamps. 

Tobacco, tambiikti, Nicotiana tabacom, is an important crop in all 

rta of EAthittW&r. It grows in any soiJ, but thriven best in slightly 

t land. The soil requin?« ploughing. Tobacco is sown in July, 

ted iu September, and cul iu November-December. It is locally 

' for chewingand smoking, andassnnfF. Each village grows eiiougn 

~ own wants. Where American seed has been tried it has 

well. A kind of tobacco oolled dcasan hujjur is chiefij 

wn by Viijjhris, one of tho poorest tribes, whose only other 

Uivatiou is ruisiug musk and water-melons in the beds of rivers. 

.ia tobitcco is nofib for use until it is made into yadtiku. To 

kko gtulikuihe tobacco is cnt into pieces and pounded in a mortar, 

ilasses is added and the mixtnre is softcnod with water, and made 

tto bolla anil placed in a leather bag. Qaddka is smoked chiefly 

GartUfiAe and other weil-to'do pooplo. 

Chapter TV. 







[Bomb*/ Ointtacr* 

*er IV. 





Ilemp, awhrnlx, Cannftbis indica is grown in ranall qnanHtiea. 
Frum its 6oM-fr8 yunja is made and mnokc'd. Beforo KRi'-'Vii^cr, 
a BOiaU qaautitv of tbu (lower is laid on tbo palm oE the hand, ncd 
the seed, if the Hower contains aeod, la ramovcd. Il is tLeu wfdl 
mixed with a little tctb&cco and a Httlo wMcr, placed in the pipe, 
and smoked. The only class of people who smoke <jnnju to excou 
aro iho hd^tae or inondicants. 

Sugarcane, fhcrdi, Baccharum officinaram, is an important crop 
all over K^thi^n-iir except in parts of Jhdlilr&d. It grows in blncK 
soil and is p1ant<?d in February and March and cat at the end of a 
year. The soil is* ploughed ten times, broken once, levelled twice, 
manured once at the rato of bixty CArt-loods to the hare, weeded 
four timoB, and wstorod a hnndrod times. Two kmds of BUBarcano 
are fcTOwn, a roddi*h black and a white. TIio reddish black i« tke 
MHiKtly generally caltivatod; the white is foond in Ki&tbi^wdr proper 
and in porta of HdlfL.r and Porbandar. It is used locally fur 
making molauG6 and as fruit. The green topa are nscd as fuddcx. 
Bngar is not made in E^thidTr^r. 

Mustard, rdi, Sinapis iudica and Fenngreck, fii«(^i, TriganeUa 
foDnuingnucum are sown at the end of Oelubur and aro cut in March. 
Mnstard is much nsod in pickles aud curry powders. Fenugreek 
seed is used aa a vegetable, aud is also given to milch boffolocs, aod 
used in carry powders. 

TKeg, Cypcras jcmcnicuB, ohicSy sown hi the northern district, is 
mostly ased by Brfihmuus on fast da,ys. Thiu grain is first ffroimd 
into floui', mixed with soft sagar or sugarcuudy and clarified batter, 
and then made into bolls and cooked. 

Onions, dungli, Allium ceps, are grown in Verival, At^ngrol* 
PatiAH, and Sil. Ouions are »put in largo quatitics from Kathidwir 
to Bombay. VenlTal onions are fainons and are sent to Bombay 
as well as to all parts of the peuinsula. They are Urge and 
mild much like tUo Spanish onion. They may bars boon introduced 
by tlio Portugnoso. 

TTie Betel Vine, p&n, is grown chiefly in Cborrdd in the Bonth of 
the peninsula, whose leaves aro noted for (heir pungency and are 
in demand all over the peninsula and even in Gujarat A small 
quantity is also grown both at MiUigrol and Miihnva. 

The first famine' of which record romaius occurird in a.d. IPoO. 
Tliis, which is called Jagdu Shah 'a famine, is mentiouodonly in the 
Nav&nagar records. Ja^a SUdh is said to bavo been a V&nia who, 
fbrosocing the approacbmg famine, laid in large stores of grain, 
and distriboted them with such liberality that his name is 
remembered with honour by oU clasBca. A spot on the eaatem 

>CoBU-ibatedbyCcloDGlJ. W.WatMD. Ttiia Aocount of rormerfsininM i» Ukon 
trow the foUowin;; lODroca : (1) E'xti-AcU frAm tlio reconla of Uie JnnlgiMl, NftTAii«|^, 
Bb&nuskr, and UhrAn^hn alstes HUiniuArisetl bj Anm rrilnjivui VisbvaoAth, 
tbfi AlirTvi mi-tiiWr of tho ICijiuthnikik Court, wlio Iiab also ibldwBUO^ dvttvila thi> 
i«aaU of inijuiiies stt WudhwAn; (2) E)(trnrl«i from tho n(Aict» of tuninoi in tho 
Mint-t-AJituiuli ; tA) Extrurto froai Ut« omUim uf («tnin«i> in the TArtUi-i-&onth ; 
aiMl (4) Ettncbi ol aottcoa Ui the Gujiwit voluaw of tlM! BvmlMy OaMttw.- 






tk of the Aji river, opposite IWjkot, is Btill known aa tbe site of 
jdu Sb^fa'a tower. No rlot«ii8 of this famine remain oxcupt that 
it vraa very severe^ aod that the saSorio^ of the poopio wore 
moL'h lightened by tlio pruiienco and liberality of Jagdn Shdh. 

In 1631-32 (Samvat 1687) came a fauiine which is knoim as tho 
first Saiidsio or Eiphty-aoven famioo to distinj^iiah ic from the 
eccond Saiidno or Kighty-seven famlno which happened a huodrod 
year^ later in i.D. 1731-32 {Samvat 17fl7). The rains of 1681 failed 
both in tiajardt and in the Dtjccan. Thu poor were willing to poi-t 
with their children for a loaf of bread, but , found few parchaeeia 
Hand many were abandoned. Tho Mirat-i-Ahmadi m&utions that 
B tbose who in ordinary times had been charitable to others, wore 
(orcod to oonio into the atreota and bog. Dog's flesh was sold 
^^inatead of mntton, bones were gronnd to powder and mixod with 
^Hoor, and men ato one another. Mnch difficulty waa found ia 
^vdisposing of tho dead, and people feared to go oJono or unarmed, 
Kilest others should kill and eat thum. In this, as in all great famines, 
" tho poor flocked to tho large towns in hopes of food or of 
emphiyment ; and many strangers died in tho streets and found no 
one to bury tbcm. Largo numbers flod to other parts of India. 
This famiuo is said to have been more severe than any former 
jfanune, and was followed by excessive mortality. RoIiof-hoQEOs or 
lait'jar khdntU were opened in Ahmadabod and Surat, and a 
ecial grant of £oOOO (Its. 50,000) was made for the starving 
pnlation of Ahmadabad. Nearly all of the cattle porimhed. And 
tiiough large remissions of roveuuo were madoj the country did not 
vor for many years. 

In lC-17 Kdthiilw^r again suffered from a famine. The onlynotico 
is in the Navdnagar records, and no details are given beyond tho 
statement that a famine occurred. 

In l(i81-62 tjiore was a famioo and scaroity throaghont Gnjariit 
and tho penin.iula, but it appears to have been loss severe than in 
|k)G3l-;^2. There seem to have been riots in Ahmadabad owing to 
Hibu dcaruoss of graiu, bat notluug like the sufforing and mortality 
"of l(>3I-32. The duty on grain imported to Ahmadabad appearn 
p to have been remitted. 

B In 1686 there waa short rain and so mnch scarcity that the import 
"floty on grain was remitted. 

In 1C04 there was scarcity not amounting to famino. Tho distresB 
waa more severe in the south of tiajar&t and in the poninsola thwL 
in the north. Grain was sold at reduced rates to tho poor. 

In 1006 there wss another scarcity which was chicBy felt m 

north GtijarAt, K^thiiiwdr, and MiSrwjir. Grass and water failed in 

tho northern districtti, and no rain fell between l*ittau in Uujardt 
and Jodhpur in Mdrwdr. 

In 1718-10 (Samvat 1775), according to the Mfrat-i-Ahraadi, 

ooourrod tho tanrholra or Sevonty-tivo ^mino ia which the price of 

bo/rC aud of math is said to have risen toa shilling the poond (4 »cr$ 

^ihe mpee}. In Ahmadabad special arrangements were made for 

Kho Kuo of grain. All grain eut«rmg the city waa taken to tho 





IBomtMty Qftutteer. 






residence of tho Diw&n TtAj?hanAthcUs and thero dinilod into snuU 
porltoiis and sold to the poor. Kain foil twice, but. at Hni-h times u 
to be uf no U0« to agriculture. Tbo jioor miUDtaiacd themaelTM 
by coobiug the leaves and roota oC wild planU, but aEt«r a time thia 
anwbolesome diet caused a poatilonco and many died. P^^ls 
iver« r&duced to flsUing their children for one or two rnpeca. Tbs 
Nav4nBgar recordH notice this famine as having been tery seret^ 
but do not furnish details. 

Id 1723, according to the NavAnagar records, there waa again 
bimino. Ko details are given. 

In J 731-32 (Samvtit 1 787) occurred the seoonti Satiaxio or Eighty 
Bovcn famincj a hundred years after the first Eighty-seven famioc. 
The rainy season was veir severe. It is noticed that heavy min fell 
withont slopping for fourteen days, and comuoUed M^hArAj 
Abliayaing, viceroy of Guinr^t, to raise the siege of Dabhoi. BeEi ^ 
this heavy rain the price of grain is noticed as being high, so that i 
prccodiog year or two wore probably yenra of scarcity. According 
to tbe Mirat-i-Ahoiudi the country was flooded and the roads were 
impaaaable. Gnuia was not procurable and horses and cnttlo were 
forced to feed on the leaves of trees.' Grain rose to aboiir 2s. the 
pound {ifpakka ser the rapee). After tho rainy Reason fcvor ani 
cholera broke out. Ahmadabad was crowded with the faminu-siridt 
£rom the surrounding villages. There was no time to bathe, shrooj,' 
or bnry the Muhammadaa dead. Two corpses wore put in one 
coffiiij and only two bearers oonld be found instead of four. So 
numerous were tho Hindu dead that tho stores of firewood ware 
exhausted. Tho bodies could not be bnmt and were Song into 
the bed of the S&barmati and left as a prey to tlia dogs and 

One singular circnmstance connected with this famine is men- 
tioned in the Mimt-i-Ahmudi- Tho M^rvililiA bought many Mnham- 
madan women and made them Hindus, purifying them by burning 
barley on tbeir heads and cansing them to eat cowduug. The MiLrvadiS 
are said to have eoornfnlly observed that they were tsking revenge 
for the forcible conversion to IsUm of the inhabitants of Jodh 
when that town was conquered by the Muhaaunadaos in the rei^ 
of the Kmpcror AuraiiK'-^eb. After their purilication the womi 
Were sent to in largo numborn. According to the TArik 
i-Sorath a somewhat similar conversion occurred during the 
of the Kmperur Uahmud Ghasnavi (1024), when certain of his fi 
lowers were captured by RiSja Bhimdeva of Anhilvfida. The TAril 
says that tho conquerors married without scruple such of the 
Turki, Mogliol, or Afghan prisoners as wore virgins, oonsideriu^ 
them pure. To the others they adminiatorod emetics and pur- 
gatives and then distributed them according to the verse, 'The 
evil women to the evil men, and the excellent women to tho excellent 
xaetxi the noble to the noble^ and the base to the base.' The 


' Tbo wut of groM Menu ■bmago alter k> heavy a niofaU. But th« roconla of 
•nmo of the stntea Bbow that if rain fivlla continuoiiAlx fw over ten lUfi Uie 
laila. Tbey tjoote ifac lamina of a.u. 1610 aa an itictauce. 




and monstaclieBof thi! rrspecfablo mou wotn slmvon and snch 
wme nncireamcised were adopted into tho Siiekhdvat and those 
'ivUo wer« circnmcisod into the Wjtdhel tribe of K^jjfuts, a name 
ihiehj according to the TArikh, moans eircamciscd. Tho lower 
were incorpopstfd in the Koli, Khilnt, Mcr, and BAbria 
These ACfountA are related in good f»tth aud probably 
a touudacion in tact, 

Tho Wadbwnn records bricfl)- notice the ^rniue of 1 731 -32. They 
not KiVD dftatls, but throughout K/ithiavrilr and Gujarat t^e 
jto still sing a £amino ballad beginning vrith the Uaes : 

ft uw wit 1797 truly cssmJ many to luava tfa« world : 

Bigkty-eiglil was alM * year of madi troablo and o( mut; minomi.' 

la this drtiadful famine ohildren were sold by their parontd for a 
mpeo. No mention is made of the eating of haman flesh. 

The oext famine was in 1717 {Snmvat 1803) which in GiijariSt is 
Uf called the Tiloira or Three famine. It is distinguished from 
ler fatuiues by the complete fa.ilure of rain in nofth Gujarat and 
thiiiwiir. North of Ahniadabad not a drop of rain ft.'ll. Tho 
iT were redaced to eiiting the roots of wild plants and dead cattle 
lyfto throats had not been cut in the lawful maniiCr, Tho want of 
;r was worse than the dearneBs of grain, and, especially in 
and tho difltrictii north of Ahmadabad, the people fled from 
their homes. Many tillages fell desolate, aud according to Mie author 
of the Mirat-i-Ahmadi remained waute up to 1760. Tho Navii- 
aagar acoonnts notice that there was great deamess of grain owing 
to tho failure of rain and that people were entirely supported on 
^il-stored jitvdr. The dintrcHS does not appear lo have been so 
H^Mt in the peninsula as in Gnjardt. The Wadhw&n aoconnts say 
Mat people were obliged to lire on bid roots (Scirpus kysoor) 
and ftheinn^Rt 3ee<Ia (Solanum jaoqtitni). Ouly the rich were able 
to buy grain, l^fany people and many onimala died, though the 
Boriality was apparently less than in GajarfU. 

Between 1751 and 1759, and again in 1764 and in 1774, there was 
ity and great doaroeas ofgiuin throughout tho peuinsula, but 
scarcity hardly ainouuted to famine, iatill there was much 


In 1780 and again in 1785 there wan scarcity throughoat the 
rince and a partial failure of crops. There was much freebooting 
much distress, but no great m<irtality. In 1786 the distress 
IS to have been most severe in JluilAv^. 

to famine of 1790-91 {Samvat 1847) is usuany known ae the 
ftd/a or Forty-seven famine. This famine was very severe. The 

thor of the TArikli-i-Sorath says that to obtain broad many 
idua >>ocamc Musalm&^ie, and many Mubanimadaua forsook their 

Ih. Tic notices ravages caused by Arabs and other daugeroua 





■ThoGajaratt a: 

Xnmvat ttUlar tnlydnir rratlili t^tit^i mttjfa ; 
Atdiiya a%Uwe vidA ricU jiOdi tip<ttg«. 

• CU-3S 

lBomb&7 (^tt 



Chapter IV. 



1913. 1S14. 


rlBBOca. Grnsfl was ns costly as saffron and fi^in was pTcr^r! 
dear. Children wore sold or dosortod and numbers of dead caltlp •■ 
Bheep were eati'D. ThouHauds of people dii>d, lusDy cattle peris 
aud jiiany villages foil wasto. The di-itrri*3 was uuivertuil. It 
scarcely bo acvoro in Kar^na^r as in other ports of the peninaali 

la 1801 there wbb h drouj^ht follonred by dearuess of ^^ia 
forage in Jhtllar^ and Hilldr. In the south also grain was di 
but there was no great scarcity. 

In 1 811 there was a fomino in^, and in the peninstttla <;< 
rain and scarcity. The local diatrosa was increased by crowds 
Miirwdr who wandorcd over tho produce, committing cnmt 
spreading dtsoaao, aud enhoncing the price of provisions, Thoscamity 
of ISll was only the bog^nuing of troubles which, with incn,*a>'ini; 
Bovcrity, pressed on tho prov inco for four years more. In 1812 tliore 
was a bimino in Ciitch, a want of rain in KitthiAwiir, and lacnats in 
Jh^vad. Grain was very dear, and over a limited area there woa 
much dialresH. 

In 1813 tho scarcity was still more severo. In 1814 there was 
excessive caiu aud dci^ti-uctive floods, especially io JhAUr^i, and to 
1815 there was a plague of rats. These terrible colataitjcfl 
desolated the countr}', and hundnnls of villages fell wa?te. In 
Morvitfae namberof inhabited villages, though this is perhaps an 
exaggeration, is said to have sunk from sixty to fifteen. Kav&nagar 
U said to have lost sixty villages. But this is below the -mark. At 
least a hundred villages must havebeeu temporarily abandoned, white 
two or throe hundred more were greatly euftvbleu. The aocountd of 
many villages show that their tillage and revenue are 'even now losa 
than they were before the 1814 famine. It is difficult to acoonnt for 
the ptagiie of rnt-s. Probably tho rats of the towus and villa^<<«, 
nnable to obtain sustenance fljnong the starving people, loft iheir 
nsual haunts aud took to the liL'Ids, This view is strengtht>ued 
by tho fact that a plaguo of rats is never known to occur savo 
towards tbe close of a famine. Locusts seem to have done moro 
damago in Gnjarat than in the peninsula, bat Jli&Uvid and the 
north of GohiWa<l suffered. As in nil gpoot famines pestilence broko 
out io tho second year. According to tho author of the Tarikh- 
i-Sorath, no rain fell in 1812-13, many died of hunger, and 
of the survivors tnnny were swept away by tho pestilenco of 
1813-14. Corpses remained exposed in the, the 
Hindus were unable to bum or tbe Mnhammadans to bary their 
dead. Children were sold aud deserted, and in some cases were 
eaten. Some public works wore niidertaken, wells were dag, and 
the chiefs aud rich merchants Bubscribed handsomely tc> lighten 
dietress. But tho relief was partial. Men and cattle perished by 
thousands. Tho famine was most severe in IliUr, Hachhn K^ntba, 
and in the north aud west in parts of which tho supply of grain 
was' exhausted. Many of tho famine-stricken moved from EaKr 
to Gohilvfid, where, though sevore, the famine raged less fiercely 
than in HfilAr. The poor, reduced to a diet of leaves roots aud seedt, 
fell an easy prey to postilenoe. Dead animals were devoured and 
animals were eaten by classes who ia ordinary years never tosttcl 


flpfsli. So famous ia this famine tliat people stiU swear by its sin 
Bod misery. A man will say, ' If what I state is false let ttie Bin 
ot (Samroi 1809 cliuR to me.* Another will say, 'Swcnr to me 
by tlio misery of Samvat 1869.* ThoiigU this is familiarly called 
the a'jHatnj or Sixty-niue £»miue [Samvat I8ii9, &,». 181-1) it 

ignn in Samnai 18tJ8 an<l did oot end till Samvni 1671. In 

uuval 1870 (A.D. iSlo) oxcessive rain rotted tlie crop«) and the 

lu were so oufeebled by peetUeucu that they were unable to 

iw the cold woatbor crops. In thiu year also destructive floods 

inod many houses and in some places swept away whole rilli^^. 

le Tilrikh-i-Sorath mentions that all these calamities were 
lUtributed to the comet of 1812. 

Ill 1820 the rainfall was excesiiivc, grain became dear, and 
pefitileace caused great mortality; but the sufferings of the poor 
were roach leas than In the 181i famine, 

In 162-v there was a scarcity of i-aia and many cattlu and human 
beings died. This famine ia noticed in tho Tiirikli-i-Sorath. 
^^ortonately graiti and forage were less scarco in Qnjarat and laivd 
qoauLities were brought into tho peoinsQla and tho soffcnngs of the 
people wore mnch alleviated. Locusts visited Jlullilvdd in 1826 
Snd did miachicf. 

In 1834^ there was a short rainfall and a bkiloro of crops owing to 
want oE rain and to tho ravages of .locusts. 

In 1638 there was little or no rain and tho crops failed. Doriug 
year, to employ tho poor, S6.ui Kanmalji of Nuvsinagar builL tho 

otlin and LAkhota and dog tho pond which sun'onnds tho latter 
.uildtng. This work and large disLributious of imported rico 
prevented much misery. The other Chiefs also helped their jHKiple. 

In 1810 there was a scanty rainfall and a partial bilure of crops. 

In 1857 and again in 134Jl there w^ a partial failure of crops 
'owing to scanty rainfall, and grain rose high; but the distre^^s was 
leither sovero nor widespread. 

In 18€i scanty and untimely rain and the largo arcA of land 
ider oottoQ in consefjuenoe of the American war made grain very 
T. But the people were so woatthy from their gains in previous 
that the scarcity affected few except suluiers and others 
jkut who drew fixed pay. Colonel Keatingo import<?J 
(pom' Kar^bi, and sold it to tho poor in dulos slightly 
low tho market price. This eonipelled the gnun-aellors, who 
wore holding back their stores, to lower their prices, and tho orisis 
was tided ever. Throughout the pruviuco the Chiefs helped Ihoir 
people^ and no serious ilistresa occurred. 

lu 1809 hugo tlightd of IucuhLs devoured tho rain crops. Their 
ambi-ni darki-ncd tho sun, and large branches on which they 
Itled were br'>ken by tlioir weight. Tlif*y ato not only the leaves 
ut tho bark of trees. l''oi-tunntely they left after two or throe 
oeka. And as the rains lasted lute the culd wiHLthor harvest almost 

do up fur the Iws of the nuu cr<i|B. There wuji no distress, 
,ly n touipomry rise of prices. 

Chapter IV. 






[Bomtifty Oaiett 



iRpter IV. 


The famine of 1877 and 1878 wm in every respect a ij 
famiue. Tliei-e was no eating of homan fle-ah and there wcro_ 
rats. OtliurwisQ it was compleU) iu vvury Xoroi o( futuine 
^'otiunatuly the sovptely afEoctcd area waa coiuparatirDly ami 
the good cold ivcathor cmps of 1878 follovred by the aeaaoi 
rains of 1879 quickly bronght rieliet. To this must he added 
unremitting exertions of tho Political officers and the generooa 
furnished by the Chiefs. Nevertheless, from January to Ai 
1878, over a certain area severe dial-resa prevailed, and everywl 
there waa want and suffering. Tlie most severely alTeded 
may be dedned b; a line drawn from VerAval to I'al.'ija. Tl 
territory between that line and the sea to the Boutb and west 
very severely affected. The part of the country which auffert-d oe 
to tho cxircuie south waa the bolt botween it and a line cDnuocLii 
Jodia ivith Uondal and then taming eouth-eafit to Bhi^vnagar. 

?ortion was severely affected, tho west sufferinf^ more than the 
tl this area almost all the deaths were caused by fever. Few if any 
died from starvation exei-pt iu tsulalud parts of NavAuagar and 
Drapha near l^filpur llhdnvar and Jodhpor^ where the hills and the 
distance from local marts made help almost impossible. 

Over the reRt of the province there was great distress, but nothing 
like the suffering in tho south and east. The history of this famiue 
is marked by almost all the concomitauta of the earlier famines. 
There were several ycai-s of scanty rainfallj a climax of deficient 
rain, a year of Dxeossivo rain, a sovom pestilence of fever, locnst*, 
and a fxirtial paralysis of trade and other sources of labour. In 
tlio KAlliiAwiir of 1H77 no rumediul nieasurt^s could loosen the grasp 
of such a famine. Tho greatcut difliculty was caosed by the paralyRia 
of tho ordinary Buuroe» of labour. No super\'tsk>n or aid could 
supply the place of tho maehinory by which in ordiniuy years tho 
people are led. What conld be done waa done, and public works 
and other measures saved thousauds of lives, JJeverthelebs thuusands 
died, iu the most eeveroly affected parts niuo-tr-uths may havo 
died of fever and pi?slilen»;e, and one-tenth of starvation. In tho 
middle zone the average of deaths from stnrvatiou probably did not 
exceed live per cent, and over the reet of tho province tho mortality 
from starvation was probably not more than one per cent. 

Tho {leriod of scarcity which came to a crisis in 1878 began fl 
1875. Tho monsoon of 1875 waa so scanty, that in IlAjkot th( 
wells were dry by the end of September, and a scarcity of food was 
threatoued. The rainfall of lS7tj was ogaiu sainty and the land 
revouno was reduced Iu 1877 iu almost every part of tho province 
the rain held off during June July and August. There waa a 
pretty general fall in the beginning of Sept^^Miiber nnd another 
fall in October, bnt they were too late to save the rain hdjri 
and jiiVi'ir which form the staple fiKid of the country. Cotton 
almost entirely biilud. Tlie cold weather crops were also poor. 
Kspecially in the north the seed was destroyed by swarms of larks or 
banditU, wheat was attacked by blight and rust, and tho outturn 
was moch below the averngo. Still llui provinwj held out, thonj^h 
the people wore beginning io bo hard pressed, and many cattle 




Ticn came tho cxcossivo rain of 1878 which in tho ponth-west 
?pt the conntry of its crups. What little remained whs dovonred 
lucottts of many shades, red, yellow, pink, brown, and greon. Of 
w five kinds the red and yellow were the moet common ; then the 
c, then the bmwn, and liislly the green. These locusts were 
»troved by the heavj' rain, but not until they had laid eggs from 
young lacQHts were batched oad fur a short time devastated 
le tWd weather crops. Tho hen'.'y rains were followed by a violent 
»iuitteDt and intcroiitteut fever, which killed thousands of the 
wealthier people and of well-to-do cidtivators w well as of the poor. 
~7he ordinary sources of employmont ccaawl. Thoro was little houso- 
ilding and almost no other work. Qiian'ying ceased in many 
and then; was alrnosl no oiuployiiiout in tho fivlds. Kelief 
rorks conld not take the place of jiutd labour. They could not bo 
every ouo'b door ; the strong ooald not leave the weak ; and tho 
ik conld not work. Then bogau tho eating of roots, leaves, and 
ler Qiiwholesorae food followed by pestilence. Chfldrcn and evoa 
>tDai were sold or abaodoned. And in outlying places whero 
lere was do store of grain people began to die of starvation, la 
srtain places the difficulty of disposing of the dead was felt to a 
lall extent. Corpses were thrown into old wells or left in raWues 
'^and river-beds. No case of the eating of hnman flesh was heard of 
and probably no case occurred. The abandonment, of villages for 
Urge towns was ver}' marked. In the most severely affocted distriuts 
Uie hibouriug clfifises flockod to Yer^val, Jdfarabadj Mahuva, and 
TaiAja. Many obtained sustenance at llahuva as tho Chief albwed 
'le dci^titute without charge to cut green gra»!5 in bin great cocoa 
Im planiations. This grass was eagorly purcliasod for fodder and 
jm[>n.ratively few cattle died in the neighbourhood. Along the sea 
M of Jundgad and Jftfarabad lai-ge numbers were maintained by 
ring the fish caught by fisheraicn from tho Gujahlt coast and tho 
'ortugiieso possessions. Tho catches of fish were good and as 
symeut was partly in kiudj the sea coast villages were saved mticb 
Teriog. Had other states encouraged fishing and protected 
Ishermon, and aided the transport of fresh dried and salt tiah, many 
pros would luive been saved. In this respect Navdinagar was tho 
loet enlightened, and then Jun^igad; Bliflvnagnr did not move in 
le matter. Public works, especially road making, saved Urge 
lombars, and a few were relieved by local charities. During April 
id May of 187H tho hot weather hmtr, which is lo«»liy called 
ih-inntui, grew luxuriantly and afforded food for cattlo and labour 
the det^litulc. Had the famine lasted six months longer tho 
jnaetjueDces would have boon serious. Fortunately distress waa 
lyci by the good season of 1S79. And as tho lalworing olassea 
rere tho only soctiuu of the people who were seriously affected, as 
)D as the natural sources of employment were opened, ihe Eamine 

Among the circumstances which helped to lessen the distress 
in 1877 were good cnips in tho Gber lauds in the south and in tho 
'iliAl lands in tho east. The Gher lands, which occupy most of 
tin- ^ I rip of coust from Miilui i<> Vorrtval, iioL being, as they usually 

V, under water for mouths, yielded cxcoJlent crops in 18/7. For 

Ch»pt«r IV. 





pt«r IV. 


the same rft&son the Bhdt, tlio strip of tnoro or lew salt lands son 
of Laklitur aud siretubiug a» far as tbo head of thu (iulX u£ Cumba^, 
yiohlod largo cropy of whuat wliirh omployod th*) labouring claswa 
Tfho were farthci- helped by gathering and making bread of tha 
bulbs of tkag, Cyperus jemoaicog, which are found in the BhiU 
and tho Nol Kdntlia as well as on the shorcfl of the Kan of Cntcb. 
Bid roots, Scirpus kysoor, were also largely consamed. In 1878 
no crops wcro raised cttLcr iu tho Uhal or in tbo G her, bat as the 
people bad to undergo only one stKtsun uf scarcity tbuy pa 
through it witliout much suffering. 

The mangrove awamps proved another valuahlo soorco of relief 
The fruit was oaten both by cattlo and human beings ; and Uiti 
gHtheriug of the leaves fonuBbeJ work tor tho |K>or and wippliod a 
fodder which suppurtod thousands of cattle. The charity of the 
groat religions corporations, the ShrAraka, MiihAjans, 8wAmi- 
niriyans, and others, supported many of (he destitute ; tho states 
everywhere gave cordial aud efficient aid ; and, in a. quiet way„ tbo 
amall landlords foand much valoahle employment for their poor 






Tac amomit of prodactiro woalth in tlio provinco of KdUuiwilr 
^ cars but a small proportion to tho ajfgrogata wealtli of the 
inhabttants. Tliis comparative absence of capit-al invested in 
productive agcntncH is to bo aflribiiteJ to the character of tho 
people, among many of Vfhom it is still the ctistom to bury savings, 
ft custom bred of many generations of strife and insecurity. Pence 
luid g'ood government oro gradually drawing capital from its hiding 
traces, and there arc now in Kfithiawar, as in the rest of Indisj 
oonspicooiis instances of the investment of capitAl in prodnctive 
entcrprisos. These invcBtments are not roWvuIs of tbe ancient 
LcmftA and niannfacluros which wcrecrnshed by war and mipgovcrn- 
rinent ; they are now channels for the flow of capital opened by tho 
demands and improved by tbe appliances of western civili»ittion. 
I Tho principal ancient forms of investment were, trade, shipping, the 
I weaving of cloth, brocade, shawls, and the forging of weapons of war. 
These iudnatries rose and fell in pmsperity according to the funeral 
state of tho pmvincG, until they cumo into competition with'tho 
cheaper inachine-mado producta of the west They have now been 
almost driven uttt of the market. la 1842 Captain LoGrand Jacob, 
Political Agent of KathiftwfLr, wrote that tho local txrta and 
manufactures had been nearly aDoiliilated by the nuitod power of 
English capital and jitnam machinery. Since 1842 these forces have 
Lbeen still more actively at work. Cloth-mills have forced the hand- 
aro weaver to give up the munofacture of the liuer fabrics, and 
[the iraraenao import of kerosono oil is crippling the native oil- 
pressers. The industries towards which in the future capital ia 
[^likely to Qow arc ginning and spinning factories and agricultaro. 
i'rhe development of other special industries is almost too distant to 
I deserve notice, but tanneries, glass-works, paper-making, dyeing, 
Ittod calico printing may, in time, be expectetl to draw capital. The 
iBlUiTDagar state has already set np the machinery required for a brick 
[imd tile factory and several thousand tiles similar to those known 
[by the name of ' Uangalore tiles ' have huea turned out. Ginning 
"ictories are the most promising investments, as with good 
laoagement they can be made to pay hnndsomo dividends. 
[Machine-ginned cotton is preferred by the Bombay mills to hand- 
cleaned cotton becaose it -ia easier to card and is free frtim 
lulteration.. Cotton apinning mills offer a safe and remunerative 


* CODtributed by Optftin J. M. UaBt«r. 

[Bombay OattUwr, 



Chapter V. 



inycatment for tUo sai-plus capital of tboproyiocc. To anccccd Lbey 
shodld mannhctnrD coarse yam only, sach aa aizea and tens, so u 
to meet the chief local demand and compete with the local bsad- 
looms instead of trying to ondersell Manchestor yam. Cotton which 
could he vrorkc-d into this coivrse yam can bo bought in Kathid-vrtU* 
at about a balf'penny the pound (Rs- 20 a Utandt) less than wliat 
the Bombay mills have to pay. A coarse yam mill soems to offnr 
80 much prospect of success tha* the neglect of this branch of 
industry can bo explaiueil only by the want of originality and 
enterpriae among nativu capitalists who re<iuire European lirms to 
lead the way. Agricnltiiro offers an unlimited acnpe f«r the 
investment of capital chietly in irrigation, improved motliodd 
cultivation, sugarcane- pressing, and sugar-roficing. 

B^eidea in shipping and in the cotton ti-ade money is invc 
in retail dealings, in house property, in omaments, and in 
to tradesmen landed proprietors and others. In fih^trni _ 
especially, a considerable amount of building is going on to proTtc 
Docommodation for the increasing mercantile and laboi 
popnlation which has been attracted to the capital by trade 
the railway. The purchaser of land for building purposes obtati 
a freeholder's title and the investment generally yields six to ei<::!iL 
per cent. Merchants, Bhopkccpcrs, state servants, and cultiviitor.^ 
ore the classes which usually invest in building land and house 
property. Modern houses are loftier and constructed to adi 
of more air than old-fashioned dwellings, and the cooking root 
of the better class are now placed outside of the main buildin] 

These changes have considerably increased the cost of dwelling 

Houses in native states may be divided into three classes. Those 
bolougitLg to the chieb; those which, with the site on which they 
are built, are the proprty of private individuals; and thoae which 
have been built by private persons on site.i belonging to the state. 
The first class of houses are used by the chiefs, aud their relations 
and servants, the latter consii^tiug of Khavjls and ^ndhis. These 
houses are liable to a yearly rent; they aro not transferable by the 
occupants, aud aro kept in repair by the state. Houses aud sited 
which aro the property of the holder are transferable subjoct to astato 
ceas or cAizu/Aof six and a quarter per cent of the value. Houses 
built on sites belonging to the state aro liable tu a nomiiml rent. 
The occupiers are permitted to buy the aite at ratoa which vary 
according to situation. lu Bhitvnagar the price of building land ia 
about 13«. (Rs. 6}) the buudi-od square feet outside the town walla 
and £2 (Ks. 20) for the same area inside the walls, provided tho 
occupier can show possession for not less than thirty years. 
Bccontly, for tho purpose of erecting steam cotton-prcssos, land haa 
been lot ou leases of ninety-nine years and in some cases for on 
nnliinited time, under an agreement that tho site will bo used for 
no other purpose than tliat of tho lease. The leaseholder is at 
liberty to tenniuato tho li'ftH« and remove his machinery and, 
buildings should the undertaking fail. Laud not used for the 
parposG of the leaae within a your of tho agreement is Hablo to bo 
resumed. No cases aro known of laud being purchiwed by 
gpcculatora for the purpose of being sublet on building leasee. 



All classes iuvost savings id ornAmcnts. Somo coltiratora and 

I Tillugers still bury their savings, bat the long period of puico wlituh 

iho couuiry litis enjoyed, has made tho concealing of property 

Dnii5aal and the display of woalth in the shape of oi-unmout'S ou the 

jnsuEinen, womeu, nnd children often seems to challcngn nibhery. 

ronum of Lhe Nagnr Itrahman, Vania, Uohani^ Mcman, and Khoja 

always wear indoors ankleta either of gold or silver culled 

lU) or baijaLlama, chain anklots called /-oi/as or gdnkltiit, silver 

rings on their toos, and on their arms coloorod ivory bracelets inlaid 

[irith gold colled bcildi or chudU, and glass bracolcts called baiig<li$. 

)On their necks thoy wear Bovcral oruainouts such us diiniu^, 

}k'ituj'iiilht^,kaiithi$jtimA,jharmai'gnnd»(lnktu. Thoircarsaro adorned 

iirith trne or false pearls according to lio wealth of Iho wearerj and 

.other faucy ornaments such as pnudadis, tlh(i»k'is, JJidh and tholuis. 

Chddreu's fuot are loaded with a great variety of ornaments, gold 

uad silver chains, kaSia*^ barfaUanas, jhdnjnm, polarias,lanyaruU 

1^ and vaiias. Konnd children s woist-s are listened gold and silver 

Bbelta called Icandord/i, while their arms arosetultby gold bracelets 

" adlod dar»hania* and patlU. At woddinga and on other festive 

t occasions, woinon adorn their necks with guld uceklacea und jewelled 

HArnaments and they also wear rich strings of pearls, bracolets, 

^nioae-rings, armlets, and jowcllod car ornaments set to rcsombta 

Hfiowers. Some wear silver belts and chains round their waists and 

^Wikloo. Thoro hna been no change in the shape of ornamcnta 

worn by natives, but the growth of capital has largely increased 

Bihe demand. New designs have been produced, and the ornaments 

^tro more solid and valoablo, and the wurkmanahip is butter than it 

nsed to bo. 

The Imperial mpco ia current throagbont the province. There 
UD locnl uitnt.s al JunAgad Navduagtu- and Perbandor whoso coins 
are in use in those states only. Formerly BhfLvuugar had a local 
[Taint, but it was closed in 1S40 under an arrangemont with the 
3niisb Government. The silver coins struck in the Junfigad mint 
•re kiiown by tlio name of diwaiwArit Itoria each hori being worth 
Vomothitig less than one-third of a rupee or about Bd} They bear 
au iuticription in Persian, Bdilahdh Qhdzl Sluhammad Akbar Sicca 
Zaral-fi Jundgad Bubi and 8hri Uiiedn, with both the Samvat year 
in the Nagri character and the Hijri year. On an average 7,4.0,000 
Jcori* are coined in the year. Some of tbu recently struck coins 
the legend Nawab 3Idhdbal Klui.n Bahadur and Shri Diwdn on 
no side, and on the other side the Samvat and UiJri years, tbe 
word lidhif and Zarahe Jundgad. In making theso korts, silver 
-with the prescribed amount of alloy is turned into plates ont of 
hich tho coins are out weighed and stamped. Tliis is done by 

Idsniith^. Coppur coins called dvkdt'ts worth about a farthing, 

,ud half doSulda worth about half a farthing, thirty-six ilokdus to tho 

korij ore also coined. The gold and silver coins manufactored in 

Kavinagar are known Bajar»*Auiiorts. Thirty silver koris are equal 

to one gold Jkt>r» and 100 silver Jcoris eqnal 2tf-i-4 Imperial rupees. 

> Aooonllng to Mat Atny Tablet 100 korU cqn&l 2T.2-S Imperial nipew. 
• Cl»-SO 





Chapter T. 




1 lor 

the : 

About 14,06,000 horia ftro coined every year. They boar 
inscription in Persian Sttltdn Uuzafarshah Eijri 978 nnd in Guja 
Shri jtxm. Half koris are also coined. The mode of manufsc 
is (ho saino aa in Jon^gad. The NavAnagar copper CQina m 
doVdtU, twcnty-fuur of which go to tho knri ; dhinghh equal to one 
and a half dohihu, and a halE-rfofciia called irdmhia. Of the 
Porbandar silver coins or fcon« 100 are oqnal to 31-7-11 Impt-'nal 
rapees. They are known as mwishdi koris&nd bear an inscription in 
Persian Suttdn Muzfi/arghaJt Ilijri 807 and in GajarfUi Shri lianth 
Half koris &nd quarter konn arc alHo coined. On an average 5,05,000 
leoris are coined ovcry year. One and a half per cent is chargocl for 
couTerting bnllion into fto/w. The Porbandar copper coins are the 
same aa iu Nar^nagar. 

There are no pabHc banks in Kitthifiwir. Id tbo larger to 
men of wealth advauco money, discount bills, and grant bills of 
exchange. In BHmagnr a U!w firms take money in deposit and 
grant intercat at four and a half per cent a year (6 ai. on na. 100 a 
mouth) ; but these cases areexceptional. They arc private contract* 
rather than parts of a regular system. The probabW reason of the 
absence of interest'-paying banks in that cnpitnl in not considered safe 
in the hands even of the wealthiest firms. In 1 864 a branch of the old 
Rank of Dunibay was uutublishcd in BhAvnagar. It carried on bo&inesa 
for about two years, when the failnro of the Bonk in Bombay caused 
the Bh&voagar branch to be closed. No other European banking 
rentare has since been attempted. Still the opening of the braacb 
bank conferred a Kreat benefit on trade. It lowered the rate of 
exchange between Bombay and Bh^vnagar from three to one per 
cent, at which figure it haa since remained. It is donblfnl 
whether a tlnropeen bank could compete with the cheap local 
capital which is available at BhAvnagar. 

Commei'ce and money-lending have from time out of mind been 
the chief openings for capital. Still there have been openings for 
capital peciuiar to jvarticular epocha and special social conditions. 
One of these openings was the system under which a banker 
advanced the laud revenue of a partii^ular district to the local 
gorerumeut and recovered the amount by collecting the tolls and 
taxes of the diatrict. Tlic firms of Yakhatchaiid Khushfllchand of 
Ahmadabod and of Uori Bhokti and Sdmaldds Bechardri^ of Baroda 
have accommodated government in this manner. The charges debited 
against the government were five per cent discount, twelve per 
cent interest, and the cost of collection. The interest varied with 
the power and the credit of the state. In native states, bcaidoa tho 
security of the local land revenue, a member of the ChAran or tbo 
Bhdt caste and an Arab jamdddr in the service of the state, 
frequently became securities. Bankers also oocosionally accompanied 
the armies of chie&i advancing the pay of the stipendiary troopa 
and providing tho food of those outitlcd to subsistence. 

In tho year 1810 tho richest merchants in Bhivnagar wore 
Mirw&r VaniM from Plili, Jodhpur, and Patuhpur. Some of theati 
afterwards transferred their business to Dholora ; and, in 1832, tJio 
measures adopted by the Collector of Ahmudabad induced others to 

tie in Qoglia. These stibsequentlT retarned to BMmagar. But in 

180*, on the openm^f of the Bombay BariKiaaiul Central India Rail way, 

tttey left the KilUiiiitn&r coast and havo not rotnrned. They seem 

nerer to have settled in K^tbi&wiir, and onl^ titaid so ton^ as waa 

necessary to carry on tlioir trodo. There are now no Mfirwar Vinia 

merchants in Bhavnagar. 

SoTeral capitalists owning fi-otn £ 1 00,000 to £120,000 (Rs.lO.OO^OOO- 

^ B«. 12,00,000) carry on business in Bhiivuagar. Large merchonta 

H employ their capital principaUy in the cotton trade, making advances 

^ to smaller merchants and cashing and granting bills of exchange. 

Some have taken shares in the Bh^vnagar cotton mills and presses, 

and it is probable that in fature more capital will be embarked in 

similar undertakings. 

Large bonkers generally belong among Hindus to the Vania, Ndgar 
^ BrAhman, and Bhiltia castes and among Musalm^ns to the class of 
H Sfaia or Sulaimdni Bohoris. Thc^ bankers deal only in loans to 
H large landowners, or in rognltu' advances to merchants for trade 
H purposes. Ab noticed in Chapter X. the heads of states havo of lato 
" years started state banks and lend money to their people and also 
under Agency gaarantoo to other states. 

In old times, when the country was infested by highway robbers 
and commnnication was difficult and dangoronSj treasure and other 
Taluftblea were carried by parties of messengers locally called 
^m Angaria The eatabl it>)i mcnt of order, the opening of railways, and 
B'&e ease with which exchange bills and monoy-ordora can be gent 
~ by post havo almost extinguished tho Angaria system. It lingers 
in Gondal,, and a fow neighbouring to^v^3. An Angaria 
party is formed oi Rajputs, Kolis, Ithila, and other armed classes, ia 
fcU about EftooQ or twenty persons. Each party has a headman 
called muktidam. When a merclukut wishes to forward cash to 
any distant town, he sends for the head of a gang of guards^ and 
after arranging terms a nnmber of men are sent proportionate to 
Kihe amount i>f treasure, each man cari^iog on his back a bag with 
^iOO to £100 (Bs. 600 -Hs. 1000). The daily charge ia now not 
more than -^f to i per cent. They travel throughout the peninsula 
and to the neighbouring towns of Qnjan(t. Thoy are armed with 
■words and matchlocks and in a few instances with muskcta. They 

PBJV not pftrmanently employed, but are engaged for the trip. When 
noable to find work as guards, they sunre as messengers or oven as 
labourers. The money is paid by the merchant to the headmaOi 
who divides it among the guards levying a small oommiastoQ. 
Those guards bear a high character, and money entrusted to their 
uhargc is rarely or never lost. They are not liable to vaitar, and 
xdeed haro not the means to make good losses. The average day's 
ah is twenty to tweuiy-fuur miles. Thoy usually start early in 
morning and if necoBsary travel all day. At night they watch 
treasure in torus. Few instances are known of fights between 
AngariAa and rubbers. The Angaria profession is not strictly 
gerodilary, bat formerly in most cases one or more sons followoa 
10 occupation of their father. The occupation is not monopulised 
any caste or tribe, but is generally followed by all the anu-boanng 

Chapter V. 

[Bombay Oazett 


CJlftptOT V. 


Money -lenders bdlong to three olauoa; sahukdn or banken, 
ndndvaiiti or moDCy-chaDoen, and vohora* or Qsurcrs, also cu ^ 
vorgtUitis, who reimond tn tno tknaliati of Oajiir&t. Besides thcso t 
claaaet of professional monoy>lDDdors mcu of altnoat eTcry caeto 
have capital do a littio muDey-Ieudiug wheu opportunity oi 
Regular moDDy-lcnders uBUolly belong to oao oE nvo Hindu 
V^iAs, Nfigar Br&hmans, LobiiD^ BhMi&s, and Kanbis. Am 
Huaalm&ns the only professional moncy*lon.dcrs are Uemana. 
word mkukdr accoraing to one into rp rotation is a cormptioa 
ttiJhuJair, that is of gontlo birth. It may more probably be deri 
from the Tcrsian t>hdhu uxcellont and fear occupation. The term 
now applied only to merchants of weight and rfs]iftctabiUty 
their exchange and loan bnsiness those merchants add transactions 
opium ami other branches o£ wholesale trade. Ndmicati ur niune, 
changer^ the local term for fforrt/ or shroff, is a comi>oimd of ntina 
cash and r<Ua0 discount or oxchango. Those men grant and cash bills 
of exuhaagOj deal in gold silver and precioita atones^ and vccasioually 
lend money on aBinallcr bchIi! than Imnkora. Vokorda orasarers, tba 
third class of monoylcndors, ai-o nut the same as the Mnbammodan 
BuhorAs, They may belong to any caate but are principally Hindus. 
Tliename donotea the cliaractor of their basinoas, the word vohomttt 
meaning to disponso and the Vohora being the man who dispenseil 
or rutniled grain and other supplies. Vohort'ui are also Eomotimos 
calloil koildria, a word peculiar to Kdthiiiwdr, derived from tiiuu , 
food. These are the petty village money-lenders who provide ^l^M 
lower classes with funds grain and provisions. ^H 

The security raqnirod depends on the character of thn transaction 
and on the position oE the borrower. Bankers, unless the borrower 
la a stranger, do not require socurity from the small trsdosmou to 
whom from tirao to time they advance fnnda for trade porpoaea. In 
thesQ tran-sactions they keep au account witii the borrower but do 
not require either bund or security. Landholders and other 
borrowers havo to pass a bond and to furnish secnritr in the phapo 
of ornaments or immovable property, lu such cases the lender 
satisfies himself by ]>ersoua! inspection that the security <jfFc'n?d is 
good and sufRcient. Ho occasionally asks ono or two nrighbours 
BO appraise the projM^rty &» there are no professional snrvevors 
or valuers. Ornaments are takun to an experienced goldjsmiLli to 
bo roughly valuod and if ncccA.tary tested. These valaors nro 
distinguished by the term pdrakk or assayer, a name which 
soiuvliines clings to a family for gonemtiuus after thoy havu 
Ciiafiud to act as valuers. Monoy is usually advanced to thruo- 
quarters of the valuo of the property pledged. When a custoinur 
o[Knia au account with a mouoylondcr he ia aomotinios chnrgod a 
half to fivo percent under the name of mandamaui. Among the 
lower classes of moneylenders when a frotih loan is made a discount 
termed ftothti chho*Uimani, Literally bng-opuningj is charged. 

The most indebted bccaoBO the most improvident class are tho 
fiotly Inudowneru. Most of them are tbo descendants of yoongor 
bnincliea or.thc retainers of largo landholding faniilioa wlw havo 
received ono or more villages from the head of the house. (Since lUy 



Tnnt Ihoy liavo multiplied and diTided their patrimony, until 

■oitto iu&tanoes tboy havo falJOD to tho coudition of peasant 

1 ' tore. At tlm snmo time they bavo ret^iQcd indolent hahits, 

i^nttiisles, nod traditions offrce-haiuled expense. They habi- 

ll^i' exceed their in(x>ti]e, iiacl pay no attention to the mani^^ciucntof 

>ir estates. Men of this class hare the reputation of nut adhering 

the terms of the bonds they execute. In aomo inittancos, ivhen 

e creditor has obtained puttsostiion of the land ia satibfoution o£ his 

leeree, tho Lindowner hna prevented tho cultivator from sowing and 

"ins nallificcl tho crcditoi-'a remody. For these reasons nionoy- 

are nut uuxioub to have duoUn^j^ nrith borruwertt uf thin cluae. 

When they do make advances the interest they charge is as hi<^h as 

I twelve to oigUtoC'u per cent a year Of the cultivating classes most 
oCthe Kolis and Ahirs are steeped in debt. Tho FalivAl 13rahmaus, 
Poncholi Knmbhfirs, and Kharaka' are well-to-do, industrious, and 
intelligent ; but even they are obliged to borrow to defray the cost of 
their expensive weddings, funerals, and first preg^oaueies. According 
to their ehanvcter antl rehuun^'ea men of lliis class are charged 
twelve to eighteen per cent a year. These classes generally borrow 
from Vohoms or Vorgatids, who supply graiUj oil aad sugar as well 
M cash. Tho pooror oullirators, the Kolis, Ahira and OhAiiehia, 
are entirely in the hands of these petty monoy-londors. From them 
tbey obtaiu provisions and seed, and at DicUli (October - November) 
pay bofk from the harvested grain what they have borrowed with aa 
additional twenty-fire per cent of b<ijn and fifty per cent of juvar. 
Tho provisions supplied are also paid for in seed, tho moneylender 
^ crediting the cultivator with the market price of the grain. In gome 
B cases the moneylender meets the state demand and takes tho whole of 
W^ the crop, part of which ho advances again to the cultivator for food, 
and crodils bis account with the balance. This system gives tho 
^lundermany opportunities to dcfrand an illitorato debtor who baa no 
V meaus of ettt-iking tho price which the moneylender has allowed him 
for his grain. The poorer huHbundmeu seldom free theinaolyes from tho 
■ money-lendor's yoke. AVlienthe cultivator is so hcnTilj in debt that 
be cau obtain no further advances of food to keep him till the next 
luirvcst, arbitrators are called in who osamino tho accounts and 

|iii(|nire into tho cultivator's means of pavmont. If the del>tor has 
no moans of payment the arbitrators taVe his bulloclc or bufTalo, 
voluo it at eight or ten timos its worth, baud it to the creditor 
Id part-payment of tho debt, and fix instalments fur tho payment 
of the balance. Tbe cultivator then proceeds to open a fresh 
account with another money-lender. The 6rst debt continues to 
accumulate and tho araoant is finally struck off as a bad debt, tho 
money-lender having really lost uotliing by his dealings with the 
oultivator. This is an extreme case. As a rulu, tho moneylender 

Iaccomiuodatos the debtor in such ^ way aa to retuu him as a 
'The Klianlu wa & cJam of cultivators trho arc ronnH in oiui-lcrAMo niimbcra in 
VftUk vmI in th» moaXb of tfau paiiiiisula. Aa hiubandmen thvy uv ooauiJcnxl 
\niwoT ouly to Kuiliiii. Tticy cat witb ImUi KimbU aud tiuinr Sutbdi-». Itut niarry 
ml)* ta tWr own dam. 



Chapter V. 

1 UuTTowm. 


Artisans onjoy boiter credit than onltimtors bocauso they ara not 
burdened with the cost of plough-bollocks which have to be fed all 
the year round and, from time to time, have to be replaced. At the 
same tinto arti&aus oro iuiprovidont. Fow oE them carry on their 
oaUing on their own capital. Weavers, rope-makers, turners, aod 
toy-mttkers have to borrow before they can buy the mntorials req' 
by their craft. 

Interest depends on risk. Of late years the rato of interest 
greatly fallen in oonscquonco of peace, security, and the developm' 
of trade. In the coso of potty traders tho rates of interest ba' 
fallen from seven and a half to nine in 1820 to six to seven and 
hiUf in 1382; in tbo case of husbandmen from twenty-fyar 
1820 to from nino to eighteen in 1882 ; and in the case of laboarera 
from twenty-four in 1820 to from nine to fifteen in 1882. At 
presont (1882) if bouse property or ornaments are given in security 
money can be obtained at six to seven and a half per cent. 

As the object of tradora in recording; their monetary tranaaoUotia 
is the same alt the world over, it is natural that tho same books of 
account should bo fonnd in widely distant conntries. The accounta 
of native merchants have their exact coonterpart in thoae kept by 
European firms. Even tho names of the books agree. At the same 
time tho intricate and extensive charactor of western trade has 
nocossitated an elaboration of tho system of keeping accounts afe 
which native traders have not yet arrived. Thus the Italian system 
of double oatry, in which the ba.<tine6R is divided into separate 
branches each keeping a debtor and creditor account with the oth< 
does not obtain among native trudors. 

Tho account department of a native merchant doing a lari 
business is simple to a decree. He may be seen at tho close of t 
day's work casting up his accounts by the light of a small wick 
dipped in an earthen saucer of oil. The accounts of a money- 
lender puce and simple who does not engage in trade consist of 
one book, called a betha'khdta. In this book ho enters tho moniea 
and supplies advanced to his debtors and credits their paymonta in 
srraiu or cash. At Dxv&H ^Octuber - November), tho end of the 
eaniBai year, a balance ia struck which ia signed by tho debtor and 
attested by a witness and sometimes a separate deed is drawn np. 
[f, in addition to monoy-londing, the merchant engages in trade he 
keeps two other account -book a, the livro or day-book and tho Uhnt'lrahi 
or ledger. ThefcAji^/rnAiisn ledger to which tho entries in the day- 
book or journal are carried and placed under separate hcadingi^, This 
is the principal accouut-book in the native as well as in the }<!uropean 
merchant's office. Each book opens with an invocation to Ganeah, 
the son of Shiv, the god of beginnings. At the worship of account- 
books a ceremony which every Hindu merchant observes on tho 
Samoai new year, Kdrtik $ud ekam (November), he records an 
obeisauco to Ganeah, Lakshmi, BjihucharAji and other deities, and 
invokes thorn as wituosHoa to the hunoHty of his transactions. Each 
heading in tho lodgor is prefaced by the syllablo nhti which refers 
to Lakshmi, tho goddoss of wealth and the wife of Vishnu. But 
though shri prefaces each scparato branch of accounta such as 


expeoditnre, &c., it doos not preface an ordiuarv indmdoal'a aooonnt. 
AooordJne to tho native Hystom of book-koepicg all Bales 
sod parcnosoa are first cnt«n>d in a journal callea tho nondh or 
memonuiduni-book^ wliilc all pu^'tneuts are rocorded in the rokad- 
Mwl or catth-book. From tht>KU books tho roagh ledger called 
0Mtikdvdhi is posted. As the transDctions recorded in thorough 
ledger have not been adjusted they are only approximate and are 
bject to correction. Correctioua are made when tho several 
cot'imU are settled. Tho entries from both hooks are then posted 
to tho lodger or khdUivahit which thus contains the mercbanfa 

t denlinga. Home merchants iiicorpurate tho journal and oash- 
iQok in one book called tho <it*ro or journal and from tho dvro 

ledger is posted- In addition to these regular accoimt-hooks 

larger traders keep tho foll'jwing books : Hiq vachhml vti/ii'ia 
ich ail Bolcft to costoiners or to their order are entered ; tho httndi 
ntmtih or bill-lx>«k in wliich all bills o£ exchange given or accepted 
■re recorded ; at aea ports the 8atmi nondh or manifest-book ia 
vhich the invoices of cat^es are rompiled ; in the cotton trade the 
iCo^c^dt vahl or bale-book, a record of all salea and purchases of 

a with the amount date and the names of the buyers or 

re; the ejj'ij vahi or intereBt-book, in which on each DtvdU the 

Interett on outtjtnndlng acoounta is eutoixM] ; the l-tinta vahi or 
icales-book, ia wliich all goods sold or bought or weighed iii or out 
ore entered ; tho vitna vahi or insurance book, containing tho 
amount for which the proper^ has been insured and the names of 
the underwriters ; and the kab<Ua nondh, a book kept by cotton 
tnercliauts and those who speculate in time bargains in which tha 
details of each speculation are entered and from which a Jtabata 
vahi or kabdla ledger is posted. 

present almost all merchants and aorae private capitalists 
accept risks in partnei-ship with others. There are no houses of 
bnainoBs which confiue their transactions to insurance. lieforo 
the British settlement of tho province property in transit either by 
land or by sea ran enorinoua riska, among which piracy was 
perhaps the greatest, insurance was seldom effected on goods 
travelling by land. The property was either protected during 
tnuuit by armed escorts, or immunity fi-om atticks by robbers was 
purchased by tho payment of blackmail to the heads of the thieving 
clasaoa who became nisponsible for the safety of the goods. This 
was practically a rude form of insurance. Before ihcy had dealings 
with Karopeaa traders natives are said never to have ensured 
iaHi lire. 

Before the decay of the power of the Moghal admirals, and the 
consequent spread of piracy in the eighteenth century, there is said 
to have been a systematic marine insurance among tho traders of 
tho KAthiiiwiSr ports. Sea insnranoo has revived since the Ontch, 
SMhi&tf&r, Konkan, Malabar, and Arab pirates were destroyed by 
the British in the second half of the eighteenth and the first twenty 
years of the nineteenth centuries. Marine insurance is carried on 
under a different system fi-um that which obtains in Europe. Thora 
are no special insurance ofBues, but two or more firms accept a joint 


■ B 



Chapter V. 





riflk in specifieil proportiona. Tlio cmstora ia for a lirolcer to 
round among IhfrfiD mcrclinnU trho ongago in inBDnmco basin 
and BJ^ortain H'bnt sharo vf tbe risk of luiy fmrticular ct\ri:^> thejr 
ore vriliin^ fnno(!i>pt. Wben the Uytai vnliio bna btxm tnkcii (be bmkcr 
draws no the policy, specifying tbo proportion uf risk cjich firtn has 
undLTtaKen. ITiia deed ia termed a kab<Uo or sffmcment, bnt ilio 
Kn^bsb term policy is comiug iuto cummou iisu onacr the comtpttjd 
foFBi p*Ui«ri. The docnment is then signed %iy Ibo niidcrwriters, who 
(ire termed matu muA'an't, that ia Bi^atnre-patter*. The onder^r ' - ^ 
liabiHiy docs not appear to bo clcitrly df'fmed. In liurt tba bti 
is cam'wl on in a earcless and random manner. Tho gonoral i>- 
is that the undenrriturs are not liable 80 long as Ibo cargti n. 
in the boatj however much it may be damaged by 6ra or wntcr. -.w.-i 
that their liability arises only if tho vessel is wrecked or tho ■ 
thrown out tu Hgbten the ship. This doctrine is termed / 
salamnti or plank safety, and implies that no compensation im tiun 
so long as the cargo is saveil by tloatiiig on a plank. According to 
another riew which finds expression in the phrase ;>'\Wiy'r pohonchlo, 
literally as far as couiiigneeH' bouse of business, the nnderwritfirs'- 
liability in continunun until ibo prnperCy has reached Ibe 6rm to 
which it is consigned. Tho plank-noacing doctrine dooa not seem 
to bare boon accepted by tho Bbdvnngar court in the only 
insnmnco cose which has come beforo it. In that case tho cargo 
was bnrnt nt sea. The nnderwriters pleaded imtnanity from 
liability to pay compensation on tho groand that they did not 
accept lire nslcs but only storm risks, and that as tho property hod 
jiot been thrown overboard they were not liable. On cxniniuini^ 
tho policy it was found that tho extent of the nnderwriters' 
liabiUty was defined by the n-orda raja-knja or will of God. This 
term has mnch tho same moaning m tho more common dxrndni- 
su^Mni, the sky or the king, which coiTOt)|wnd8 to the English plirobo 
' hand uf God and tho king's enemies.' At tho sarao time it haa a 
wider sigitilicnnce a^ the vvonl kaja means at'cident or miafortane. 
The court held that the policy covered the loss and awarded 

Insurance is effected on an amonnt twenty-/ire per cent in excess 
of the value of the propcity iustirod. Tho premium or saidmati 
is paid on this sum, bat compensation if paid is limited to eighty- 
seren per cent of the actual value of the property. The rate ol 
premium vai-iea with tho time of the year. It seems not to vary 
with tho class of gootls insured. At the beginning of the open season, 
that is in Oetohcr and November, the promium is one.qnarter per 
coui. As tho season advances it rises to two and a hiilf per cent, 
and in April and May, n-bcn Htiirnm may bo expectedj the rato 
rises to as mtich as throe and a half per cent. European firma 
in Bombay accept iusurances of goods proceeding by sea to 
Bh&vnagarat tho rote of | to f, (8* 9 amin^ in Rs. 100) per oent 

S-omium. Tho broker reoeires one-eighth per cent (2 anaa« in 
9. 100) on the premium. The native underwriters in Bh^vnagaT 
seem to take no steps to oscortoiD the seaworthiness of the vesads ia 
which tho property is loade*!. It wonld be difficult for them to 
Satisfy tbeuuwlvf.'S ou tliis point, for thero ia do registry of uai 



BbiivDagar or at tiny other K^tliidw^ poH. Thus Uioro is 
tnoro chanco than motUod iu tlie nativo 8jrstom of marino insurance. 
The couseqaeuco ia that the public Ii&tc no coufidence in the 
nndonvriiLTB, oud though the European firms in ]tonil)ay charge a 
]»ighi:r prt^mium Taluablo proporfcy ia insnrod with them in preference, 
^'otivu uLUrcLuuts do not alw;ikjt-s tutiure their goody; uiany tukc their 
anco. ^Vhcn part of n cargt> ia lost through stress of weatfaor the 
following: procedure is obserred. The captain of the boot on rcachiujjf 
Bombay reporia the hm to the agent, who immediately informa tlm 
ilchajiin Sheih or head of the native mercuDtile community. The 
thiik aonda a man to visit the boat and make a list of and take in 
charge tho remaining cargo. The list of cargo is eent to tho pirt 
from wliich the boat Bailed, when the compensation ia Sscd by 
arbitrators and the liability diridod among the nndorwritors 
ing to the risk each had accepted. A fee of one and a half per 
on tho amount of compensation is paid to tho person who 
e out tho inventory of tho cargo. 

Two kinds of gambling transactions are common and popabkr in 
KAthidnar. These are timo-bargains known aa aaitdt or spcculationa, 
and weather- wagers known as katdid* or agreements. 

Time-bargains arc fictitious solos and purohaeca of cotton or opium. 
Except in comparatively small quantities no other article of commerce 
M mailu the subject of these phantom tranEactiona, This kind of 
Bpeciilation has boon reduced to a system nnder elaborate rules 
enforced by an association. A agrees to buy from B a certain 
nninbur of kJulndis of cotton on a certain date at a Epccified price. 
No mfrchaiuliso changes handsi but on the fixed dato tho parties 
acttJo at* if there had been an actnal transfer of property, li tho 
prioo of cotton falls when the bargain is running the seller receives 
xrom tho buyer what be would liave gamed by on actual sale. On tho 
other hand if the price of cotton has risen, tho soUor pays what ho 
would bare lost. The American war caused a break in this 
■peculation and a change of systom. Before Uio American war tho 
chief centres at which speculation waa carried on were Bombay, 
BhAvnagiir, and Uholera. Thcru wore two settling days iu the year, 
the second of the light half of Mdtjshvr (December) and of Vaisiuikh 
(May). On thcAC settling days tho difference between tho price 
agreed upon and the current valne waa paid punctually though in 
800)0 instanocH large sums of money weru lost. Herchuuts living 
at a distance speculated through brokers. Tlic abundance o£ 
inouoy caused by tho high price of cotton during tho American, war 
causi.-d a rccklessnoaa among the trading classes. This recklcaa 
spirit found vent in gambling 'tmnsactiona which aasunicd larger 
proportions than ever before. At the close of the war tbe sudden 
mil in the price of cotton from 25(1 to hd, tho pound left sonio 
of these gamblers dcfanltcrs in sums which tncy could never 
hope to jKiy. 'I'bia collapse discredited the system of time-bargains 
and for yearn tiJt att^impts to revive it failed. Eventually a 
nunilLMM- of pt^tty brokers in Bombay, under the direction of eight 
or luuo iufiucnLial men, formed an association for the purpose of 
reviving time-bargain spoculatioiLS on a safer footing. They drew 


TImh B*rj'umt, 



Chapter T. 

' (lUllblillJI 

np a set ot rules, tho priDoipal uf wbidi tfas tbnt encli inemh 
filu>uld enter in a book »U transactions cither oti bis owu aocoual 
oron tboacconntolacotislilueut. Bach memburalso bound biniwlf 
to settle all claims ariaing out of Biich trauaaotiotia on iho firHt hjh 
market day in Goch roouth according* to tUe rate fixctd by tho dirf^ct 
Tbe difference la the price waa to be paid iu aiiricu iu8ti.-ado£j 
rapeea as bitbertoj tLat is the notoal liubitiiit» vroro mduoed 

As ibis system was foond to work BatiBbctorily two asaocdatic 
for a similar purpose wera formed in Itbiivnagor about 1877. The 
associations are governed by much the same rules as tho BomI 
association. The otUy diEEerences are in minor poiuta and that tbcy 
have separato settling days. ~ 

In BbftTDagar there is a director whose dnty is to obtain 
carrent price of outton on tiettling day» to exaniiao the books of 
membora weekly that Iho security they have deiwsiled cov( 
their liabilities, and to aoo that all claima are punctually satiafiL 
Aa he ia persoually respousible for the claitus of the uiumbt 
against each othur tho director is forced tti fulllt hifl dnti<>s vril 
caro and attention. Each member roccivca a book uiii]<.;r tl 
signature of two directors iu which all tmusHctiuus must be ciitero^ 
This book contains a license to speculate up to a spociBod nnmber 
khdnM* ou condition that a sum calculatod at £6 &«. (Rs. t>2j 
on every 100 khdiulis is deposited with the director. Taking tl 
rupee as oneanna this deposit covers arise or fall of ten per coi 
in tho price of cotton. It the price flactnates beyond this limit tl 
director calls fur a farther deposit. This money is kept by ti 
direotor and usoit in any way he pleases so long as the owner of tl 
deposit remains a member of tho association; it is restored to him 
soon as he ceases to be a member. Ou entering the associatiun 
memljer jjays a license fee of 9d. (Q one.) on every 100 kKdii'lia tif 
speculation. On every £10 (Ks. 100) of profit ho pays 3». (Ha. lA) to 
the director. The director credits these piiymeuts to the funds of tho 
(issociutiou (I'om which expenses arc paid. The Imlanco is devoted tu 
charitable ohjocla. A further preliminary required of a new member 
is to execute a bond to the dirc<ctor en stamped paper, biudiu|f 
himself tu conform to the mios oE the aBsociatiou and not to sue tli 
director for the deposit-money, should tho director, in the evei 
of his defnulting, pay it to bis creditors. These associations ha'V 
brauohoa iu the towns of WiulbwAu, Lirabdi, and Dhoiera, and 
brokers in BhAvnagar have constituents on whose account tboy ' 
speculate in the towns of Viramg^m, Ahmadabad, Dhrdngadns 
BotAdj Mahuva^ Kusdbi, Pdliulua, Taliija, Ougba, and Bombay. 
The tranaactioQ is decided by tho market price of cotton on tl 
third day of the light half of the moon in each month. Formerly tl 
price-current was fixod in Bombay and tho Bblivnagar spoculatio( 
were settled accordingly. But as this arrangement left an opening 
for fraud, it was discontinued. At present on each full-moon 
director iu BhAvnagar despatches a letter to each of (ilteon rcsp 
able oottou merchants in Bombay asking them to intimate on tl 
third of the moon what is tho current prico of tho best cotton, 
receipt ol Ihe^c replies the director sirikea an average and sutllcmcnl 




ftccorjmg to that price. Ta each lottor o£ inquiry one 

ru^K-Li in stuMipii is DDcloiitHi wbiuh tbu c«m-i>|)UDdtiul tliiipoHtia of in 

idiarityin Kotnbay. The clnra ofootton, ti|M)u the cnrreiit pricti of 

['whusb the iiuttlemontA are baaed, varies according to the time of the 

y«ar. Tbo cotton which bappona to be commg into Bombay in the 

gzeatost cguautity ia takon as tlio liasJa. From February to April 

I Ik la fnll-prcsaod Oonir cotton ; in May and June it is fnll-prosaed 

Waithwdii find Blitivnagar cotton ; and from July to Januai-y it is 

half prt'ssed Imlcs from WadbwJLn and Vinmigsliu. 

On the stxtli of the monCb tUo mombors meet at the pdiia duhin 

or sign-board ahop, that is the exchange, and the dirootor inqniros 

wliethor all acconnts have been settled. If any remain unsettlod, 

ho satinfir-s the creditor from tho defanlter's deposit. Similarly 

I at the wt-ukly examination of books vhould a member rafose 

, io enppleinuni his deposit, the original dupoHit is handud to 

tboBO with whom ho has tranvtctions. Tho broker, who aliio 

■pecututea on hiso^s'u accoant, charges half an anna a kfuindi on all 

trnn&actiuns ufTected by him, and is reHpcinaibto for the liabilitica of 

his clienta. Tho larger morchanta upocnlato through brokera. Each 

of tht'Se associatiuuti has tireuty-flvo to thirty niembL-rs betiidus 

Uieir cliunts. If any mcmbor breaks tho rales of tho association 

I be is liable to expulaioo. 

Tho director receives do pay for his labonr oxcepb Booh iuberost 

may bo able feo make ont of tho dopoeita 

bhcr species of gambling cotton dealings is btooght within 

lizauce of tho law by certain formalities observed at tho time 

"mftking the agreement. These are tenuod vditia, that is a 

promise or RtipQl&tion. The difference between vduias and the 

ti Die- bargains is that at the time of eutoring into the contract the 

bnyer pays earucst-muney and the Bollor has tho option of spocilia 

arformanoo of tho contract by tendering tho cotton at any time 

reen tbe ugrcoment and tho stiptdated day which is always tha 

id of tbo Viiiiiliiiih light half (May). Should tho tiellurnot oltum 

ific performance before tho day of agreement or vdida, the 

snco between the price of cotton on the day of agreement and 

tho ratu s[)ecilicd in tho agreement is paid in full, not, as in the 

liraivjii time-bargain, at tho rate of one anna tho rupee. Tho olaBs 

of cotton specified is always ' good fair.' Merchants enter these 

Dgnxnuenta in separate note-books. Many employ brokora who 

rocuiTO A commisAion of \\H. (3 an*.) tho khandi the charge being 

bt)me equally by the Roller and the buyer. The market rate on the 

■greemeut day is tho rate in the IJombay market. It is fixed by 

a committee of merchonta ohoaon under tho superintondunco of 

^the DhAvnagar customs officer. These time-bargain spoculationa 

^kre recognised by the local courts and actions lie to them for breach 

^nf contnu^ts wluch must bo on a doonment bearing a t-anna stamp. 

^^This form of speculation is popular in Bhivnagar, because, 

"whether Ihu seller Ends it to his advantage to deliver tho oottoa 

boforo tho day of agreement, or tho buyer insists on tho speci6a 

grfermanco of tho agreement, plenty of cotton is generally available. 

Tbo next class of gambling transactions is that of ncathcr-wagers. 

[ThoHD are simply bote that within a cortain time rain will fall iu 






WtoAer Tfa 

TBoubay Ouetten', 



Chapter T. 



eufRciont qnnntity to ran in a continoouB stream off tho eaves 
a particular bunse. The season for rain-botH begins m'th tlin Arudr 
Kaki(hatra or the Arwira asterUm on the 20th June and lasts to tho 
Klophant or JJilthia asterism in October, The leading wpoeuiHtur* 
cfaooBo thp house and n trustworthy man is appointi-sl to wntcb ita 
eaves. If tUo ram Hows o(f the eaves in a continuous strojiin tt 
TAt<Jier cUtjiB his hands. If it fails to flow be watidiUH till Lhelimoj 
ovcr> and retires^ Th& odda arc usually agajnitt tho rain, though 
times tho chances are conoideredto be erenly balanced. The (i| 
lators meet daily in eomo opon npaco whenco tho appt-aranco of 
cIond» nnd the direction nud force of the wind can bu observed. Frrx 
these siirns they dmw ihoir couclusioos as to the probable weather fur 
the day snJ wake their books accordingly. A long break and ii lii^jh 
Trind will uend the odds to as much ae 100 to I o^inst rain, whi' 
clonds or lightning in the north or a northerly 'wind will bring doi 
the odda to eight to one. A saro sign of rain at Bh&vuagar is 
disappennuico of southern clooda below the horizon with lightnii 
in the north-east. The winners of the betj? pay Id. the 2«. {\ 
the ni[Joe) to a cliarituble fund from which Uie wages of tho w»t 
uro paid. Ksccpt the richer nierchantB, who think these trat 
(liitrcpntable, all classes speculate on the rain, tho poorest dol^ 
to risk a few penca 

AnoUier peculiar form of transaction was known as the tint or cr 
system. Under this system no cash changed hands until tho 
gtnerhl seltleuieot. The seller parted with hia goods ou the crclif 
of the buyer and bo inthosamo way passed the gooiU to sumo one else. 
This system is montionod in tho Uirst-i -Ahmad t as having been 
Stopped in A.D. 1715 by Hohtarimkh&n, Diwun o£ Ahmadahad. It 
aftcrwanH revived but broke down after tho great fauuuo of 1S3S 
{Samvat 189-i) when credit was destroyed. 

The revival of tho credit system in the eighteenth century wna 
probably at least partly duo to the scarcity of coin, as largo quan- 
tities wore huried. Tho disadvantages of the system ai-e obvious. X( 
enables needy speculators to trade without capital, men of straw wl 
disappear ou the approach of gcttling day. 

Several modes of pledging property as socurity for d^ht 
distinguished by varying rights in tho pi-operty pledg^ed. Unt 
tho form of 8tin-*firoj which corresponds to a collateral mc 
or hypothocation^ poAsession remains with the mortgager, 
when tho mortgager fails (o make the prescribed payment.^ 
the mortgagee suo for poesessioUi This ia not a common fc 
of pledge, probably hceanso of the risk to tho mortgagee, h 
giro is a mortg^e in which the mortgage© rwoives possession 
of tho thing pledged. This form of mortgage includes two di^tincb 
arningements. Under one of these the mortgagw) has possoesion 
of the thing pledged without the u^e of it ; under tho other the 
raortgague luis both possession and use. When use as wdW as 
poaaesaion is granted, tho morlgage is termed bko'j gareiUu or 
enjoyment pledge. Under one uirm of this mortgage known na 

fihiu garvniu the creditor enjoys the use of tlie property plet1gc<l t'a 
ion of interest. ^ In thefonn.i known aa oghdchJiut and pui' ' ' 

H}httii;yirritm mnr tw 1iU.-r»llv l-nuiaUloiI Afi mortKiige witii Hvuft uvt ot lU ;...ii., 
owrtjja)^ ill hiiu of iut4jron. OirluucI J. \V. Wataou. 

^ kAthiAwAk. 

Bbotli capital nod inte^es^ are taken to Have been repaid by tiio 

BcrvUiUir Lavin;;- the Qsc of the property for a t^pooitied period.' 

This is a common nrmii^ment where money is borrowed on land 

I and the debtor has exhausted his security. The rate of interest 
clur^^ on a uiortgaffe varieM from uino to twelve per cent a year. 
Forfi-iturc or foreclosure of tbo thing' pledged is known as alkt agluit 
from the word (i/(i/.: a limit. This condition in n mortgage is not 
recognised in the Bhdvuagar civil coarts. When suuh a condition 
c5riBt» the property ia sold by order of the court, the proceeds are 
pftiil to the creditor, and any balance is handed to the debtor. 
^m The custom of cultivators and labourers inortgaKiug their lalxniF 
Bfor a term of years does not exist in KathiATror. In villagcn, a 
» well-to-do cultivator sometimes advances a labourer a year's wage 
whoD thoUkbourorisbound to work off the advance. No bond is tokoa 
from tho labourer who is supplied with btmrd and Io(I^n(» at tho 
.tmiploycr's eipeuse. The ordinary cash portion of a tield labourer's 
■agoa for a yc-or is about £0 (Us. bO). Under such circumstancca 
)o creditor has no right to tho sorricos of the debtor's wife or 
fcbildrco. tiuch an arratigement would only be entered into with an 
dd Bcrvftnt or a Inboumr of rospectahlo character over whom the 
Ictnployer had some hold. The creditor would probably satisfy 
IhiniselE aa to tho diaposal of tho advance by Iho labourer. If that 
jwere placed bcyoud liis control, then he would bo dcpeudent on hiti 
(tfrodiior for his daily food, aad this would keep him faithful to hia 

The recovery of a superior'a dues by tho nnpmd laboar or vftJi 

)f his inferior is a common practice in K/ithiAwar. Tho word vetfi 

somes from vahiiru, that in unprofitable labour. It is applied to 

10 services to which the landlord has a claim in consideiutioa 

A ft certain yearly supply of ^aio. Tho persons who roceivo 

[this graiu aud perform the lab*jQr are termed vtuvdt/ii* from tho 

lirord ravtivavH to inhabit, that is they represent the classes whoso 

[presence is esseiitinl in popidatinff a village. They arc the Kum- 

fbhAr or jKitter, tho Vihmd or barber, the Snthfir or carpenter, Iho 

Ijxjhiir or blacksmith, the Darji or tailor, tho Mochi or louthcr- 

[worker, the Dhed or sweeper, and the Bhangia or acavongor. Tho 

Itn whirh is divided amoug these people is taken from a heap 

led in('ji<'AJ.ra, which is roughly calculated as sufficient to satisfy 

r^o demands of tho va»V'iij<i* and other Ifi^ois and also to defray 

I tho stato khamjai.. The lomaioder, if not more than fire mai^s 

[per kalai of the entire produce, is taken by the cultivator as surplus 

[or pttrtfidr. Should tho remainder exceed five maps per i'-a/w 

[of the produce, then after tho cultivator has taken parUuir at tho 

iruto mentioneil, tho remainder is divided proportionally between 

[Uie state's and tho cidtivator's heaps. "vVhoro tho landlord is 

entitled to a fourth share of the crop, according to tho custom 

I hi each village, tho ^rain is divided into five eqnal shares, one 

>f which is divided among tho vasvdyde or sottlere ajnd Idyvin 

Chapter T. 



1 Ofifm Utnrklly iikmiis a liesp and in uanalljr *n>'''^ *° <■ ^i^op ^' niUIct lUlks « 
L^nu«.' StjnQvl; rWfi iumub a sinnlltiuiKllu oi gram ur millet stAlka. C'AAid uc«ai 
[nJouv.vwetttiuu. L'tUonul J. W. Watsou. 

(Bombfty Ountoer, 



QiaptOT T. 


(»■ claimants* and devotod to otlior misoeUaneons oxponses. In retui 
for this grain, tho futlowing services hare to be perforuuK] withni 
further remnneration. The potter Bupplios the revcntjo anil piilit 
pfficiuls with earthen pots and provides villas^'Cuoitts auvh as Ilhal 
and Cliiraus with tliu necossury reit.svU. Hu fotcbos vatc-r and make 
bread for those to whom hu in honnd to supply Teasels and cl 
their dishes. The burbor makes the beds in the chief's bonw, 
tho lamps, and shnmpaos tho logs of tho members of tho landlord^ 
&mily. lie fetches supplies from the grocers and at night acts 
torch-bearor. H there are &cvLTal !;»miliea ot potters or of barl 
tho grwn is divided amoDg them and ihoy take the duty by 
These two olaaaca arc oxempt«d from the ulihaii vcro or an»cttlc 
which other vatviiyi* are bound to pay.* Dheds fetch fool and foddi 
lor the landlord and his uflicials, and carry letters. Uhangi&s act 
gaidos, sloop in tho grain-yard during harvest time to wotoh 
gnun, and publish orders in the village by heat of drum. The otbt 
riuwyitjr aro boond to work for the liiudlurd whenever callctlui 
Cultivators are bound to carr>' tho landlord's share of tho grain 
tho grain-storo or to tho residence of the pwsou to whom tt 
landlord may have suld tho grain. During tho journey they recoil 
forage for their cattlu and food for the cartmon. Husbandiae 
and sometimes tradesmen arc also obliged to lend Itedding or jyograi 
inoludiug cots mattresses and quilted oovers, for thoaae of the land 
lord's gucsta, Vugris have to pruvido tooth-sticks for tho landlord! 
gaoHtfl and rcooivo a dH3''s food in return. Shephf^rds of tho Ual ' 
aod BharWld castes must provide milk for the landlord and 
guests by tarns. The above system can bo carried out only in 
Tillages, la towns the landlord keeps his own miioh cattle and y 
be reqnires aVillcd labour it is obtained throagh the headman 
the craft and paid for at tho rate of threo-fourths (12 anniw in t 
rii[)eo) of the regular market waga The system of uodt^r-p 
labour is gradually (ailing into di<iuse. It is becoming the mlo fc 
chiefs and laudlonls to pay at tho same rate as private people. 

Tho wages earned by field- labourers depend on t'ho time of tho yc 
and the character of the labour. Field labour is nsually paid in kti 
For clearing and weeding men receive three poaudii (three »erg) and 
women two pounds (two ecrs) of grain a day. I^bourore employed if 
harvesting are paid in kind at tho rate of ono-twontioth to on( 
sixteenth of the amount collected. T)ii» ^h.ire is termed tbe mt 
or original waga In addition Co it the midday meed is provided 
tho employer. Tho cotton-pickor roceivos one-sixteenth to on( 
twontioth of tho first picking which is termed (Jh»»<jra, literally! 
heap or share, one-twelfth of the second gathering, and oue-fiith 
or ono-aixth of the third and lost picking which is called jhunjha 
or lost, a word whiuli is also nned for tho last child of a family. 
After the lost picking the villugurs aro allowed to gloan 

> lAlyrtt are tboM who have tttdgar rtj{ht to share In tlie grain. 8acb 
mnj bu Mtuaiifl or th« print of s viU«(fs tonplv or my penoa entitled by* 
graot CoIoimI J. W. W«t«on. 

* irb^ad li(«nU; meaus uuxtlled m op|M«ed tu cnltiviitAn who un rogardwt 
settled or attochiMtotbfflnnd. >Vb»D ■ jjnrdxla lo«M tlw pro|motAry right ovt^r1 
Imd he ie said to b«cuDiu a kitntSa or taK-pnyer. Uhkad Mrv is the tax ti'vi<^'1 from 
■1ioplLOc|>on, uiiMDB, Ulxraren otul vULigen otbor tbw oaltivMon. Coigttol J. W^ 

remainder. This picnning is called nolo and it is permitted also 
ia I^Tfun lielda after the crops arc carried. lu sugarcauo and other 
irrif^nit-vd fioliis tho wurknmu are paid id cash from t3 I2d*. to 
£4 IGff. {K& ;}li- Rs.48) a year and food and clothing in addition. 
If thoy are engaged for a shorter term they are paid 8e. (lis. 1) 
a month biwdoH fr)od, but without clothing. Threo workmen are 
n.-qD)ri?d iu a nngarcano field, the 2><i»etia or wat«rer who guidus 
tbti water into the furrowti, tho kotiai or water-bagman who drivos 
tlio bollocks which raiso tho wator, and tho hhuria whose duty 
is to cnt tbe cane when ripe. Tho working honn are from six 
in tbe morning to eix at night with an interval from iwolve to 
two for food and rest. Field-workers who are not engaged by the 
I year, find employment in ploughing, cleaning, weeding, and 
' picking. This employment last^ for about nine months. It is 
calculated that the wages which they earn daring this time aro 
euffici(.tnt to provide them with the necessaries of life daring tho 
I wholo year. At harreat time the workers are paid far higher wages 
thou any other employer of labour can afibrd to ^ve. Muccllancous 
labcorcrs chiefly oelong to fonr castes, Rhots or litter-hoarcrs, 
Ghiuidaria or coir-rope inakcrM, Koliu, and KhavuH the ofTi^priug 
iti the female servaubt of chiefs and landlords. These aro jHiid in 
cash^ tho daily wages of a man being 3i. to 4|d. (2 -3 annas) and 
^of a woman 2iiC to 3(t (U-2 anna«). In mills and cotton 
H presses tho wages OTon of unskilled labour are higher, a man 
^■rooeiving 3|d. to b\d. (2^-'i\ (inntur) and a woman 3d. <2 aniwn) 
^f B day. Some forms of nnskilled labour are paid by the amount 
^ of work done. Women who art usually employed to separate tho 
coilon from the pod can ule:ui forty {Kiuuds (1 man) of ooltou iu a day 
and for tbifi they receive dd. (2 anntu) and the pods aa fuel. One 
roan can unhusk 750 coooanuts in a day, for which ho is paid at tho 
mto oE 2m. (Re. 1) tho tboasand. 

During tho cotton scaaon trained workmen in .steam proaijes and 
ginning fActories earn 7|d. (5 aianxs) and at screw prc&svs us uiucb 
m2». (i<o> 1} a day. 

ktfaaons nBually bclonff to the following castes, Kanbis, Kiichbia 
Ililjput3,Khard8» Jogis, UAvuliiU, and Mubammadans. llieirwagoa 
vary according to their skill. The best banda earn as mach as £1 1 2a. 
{Mb. Id) a month, an average mason makes abont £1 bn. (TCa, 12 J}| 
Kand an inexperienced workman not more than lAn. (Rs. 7.) An 
BAVorago carpenter makes 15t. to II &«. (Rs. 7i - Hs. 12^) a 
' month, white a skilfol workman may command as moch as £1 iO«. 
(Its. 15). SotbinihaTonottbomonopoljr of cnrpontcring. Knmbhilrs 
LohArs and Darjis freely compete with them. Blacksmiths are 
tuttblly employed by large oetablislimeots who pay them £1 10«. to £3 
(Rs, 1o-K«. 20) amonth. A few work on their own account making 

Ibotelnnt-sdasora and native cooking vessels. Stone-cutters belong 
to atiy casto. They make £1 18«. to H (Us. 19-R& 20) ur even as 
much ha £.2 4s. (Be. 22) a month. Tho oUsa of stono-cntters called 
Bouipara SaUts aro considered specially good workmen and earn a« 
much as £2 lOs. (Re. 25) a month. Except aniong I»hirs or black- 
smith t. whose Aons blow the bi.'Uows,thcwouienand children of skilled 
uroftnutiu do not help the mou. Tlicso difleront clotutov o£ skilled 

Chapter T. 

[Bombay Ottwt 



[Ckapter T. 




InlwoTcre are raofttly Hindns, Tlioy keep fcho following hnlidnyar 
Hamnavmi in A'pri],Jatiani(ishttttni iu AagiiRt, Skirrtitri in Fcbniury, 
two days at each ocUpse, lloli in March,, Dtvtili (the Saiuvat Now Year) 
in tiarcmher, Mafulgankrdnti iii Januarr^itDd Homvati Aiwis thai ia 
dark fifteenths foiling on Mondays. 1 bo uioro religions rest from 
work on tlie eleventh and thirtieth of each Imtftr month. They betriu 
work at seven in the morning and go on till six in the uveniug 
no interval for dinner and rest between twelve and two. Tliey 
paid in eafih. The wages of skilled labour have risen L-onside 
within llio last twenty years : those of carponterK freni tiri. (4 an 
ill 1600 to Is. (8 anyitif) in 1881; of bricklayers, HUiiths, tiilor^ 
and sfaoemakors from (id. (4 anna*) in 18G0 to ^tf. (G anria«) ia lSt3I ; 
of maaona and sawyers from 7)d. (5 annas) in lti(jO to Is. (8 anmtrj 
in 1881. Doring the same time the wagos of anakillod labour h '" 
risen from 3d. (2 annas) to 'i^d, {S annaa). 

The prices of wheat, millet, and Indian millet for the last hnnd 

years so far as they are available, are given below in tabular form.* 

An examination of the statement shows that in tho cose of millot, 

for which the details are most complete, during the last hnudrcd years 

there have I^een twoyearsof nnnsually low prieoa. In 1789 as much 

as 120 pounds conld be bought for one rupee: Millet has never agiiia 

been so cheap as this. Tho next cheapest year wasi 1797 when millot 

sold at 101 poonds the mpee. Then comes 97 p^iosds in 1786, 90 bx 

1844, B-i in 17a0, 80 pounds iu 1799, TSpooudain 1849, 73 pounds 

in 1843, 07 pounds in 1827, 1S29 and 1832. 6tj pounds in 1833, and 62 

pounds in 1831. Ou tbeother hand there have been years of scarcity 

in which the nipoo could not buy more than twenty pounds of millot. 

Tliese years were, in 1864audiu 1813, 11 pounds; in 1805, 16 pounds; 

in I7yi,I7pyunda; iu la(i6, 1.S79, and 1S2.% 20 pounds; in lS70aud 

1878,21 poonds. The yours 1791 and ltil3 wore years of famine, 

and 1820 1878 and 1879 were years oE scarcity. The uuparallelod 

dearnesa of food gi-aina in 18t»4 and 1805 whs chiefly doe to tHo 

abundance of money which followed the hi^h ])rice of cotton during 

the Amorican war. Theavcrago price of milletduring the ten years 

ending 1882 is twelve pounds tho rnpeo higher than It was during 

the Brut ton years of tho ceniui-y. At tho same time, ccmpjired with 

the relative abundance of money, which during the curly part of tho 

century was exti'omely scarce, grain is probably cheaper now than it 

ivas then. Between those periods the price of millet him ptisttcd 

through greats fluctuations. In 184-1 the rupee could purchase 90 

ix.unds of millot, whereas in 1801 only 49 pounds and in ) 882, only 

28 pounds were obtainable. It will be noticed that the price of 

food grains has never returned to its low avyrage during the twunly 

years before the American war (1843-1863). It is almost certain that 

food grains will never again be bo cheap owing to the steady aud 

growing demand for cotton aud wheat which reduces tho area of land 

■under millet and Indian millet 'ITic levelling influonco of rfiilwnya 

also tends to prevuut a glut u£ grain aud cousot^uooL cjiceptiuaul 


. — — 1. t 

■ PiTparul fnitn tha Bli&ruagat rooofdi of tkc wis of tho rtnta than ai Lbs i>roJuco«^ 
llua IS ^rotebly a j^oond or two cbc*per tbu tho nitail jawlut nUi. 




iding UiQ bmino years of 1813 and 1820 the firat twenty.fivo 
,rs of tho centarj appear to bavo boeo Tears of aTcm^ pnceSj 
lowest rupee price being: 55 pounds in 1818, tha highcat 
2jj pounds in 1614, aud tho average 39 pouod& 1825 was a ye&r of 
ty which affected prices in 1826. From 1827 Ut 1S32 was a 
1 of clieap graiu, tho average rnpee price Ijeiug 57* pouDds. 
was followed by aix years of high prices the rnpeo prico avorofi^g 
3S| peiinda. The forty-twD ybars since 1S83 uiay bo divided into 
two nearly eqaal periods, separated by the years of the American 
vrar (18t>3-1865). The first of these periods was a time of lowpricea 
mhI the seootid, which still continuoitj haa been a time of high 
prioeA. Treating 1S64 and 1865 as ciccepttonnl, during tho past 
tweutjr-two years the ropee price of millet has i-au^^ from 80 poands 
in the cheapest to 20 pounds in the dearest year and has averaged 
£7 pounds, nearly doable tho average price during the previous 
twenty years. 

As has been shown above, this rise in the price of graii; has been 
aooompanied by a nearly proportiooot'e rise in tho money wages of 
noskilled ami of most branches of skilled labour. The poorer classes 
have not suffered, while tho bulk of tho people who own or who rent 
laud h:ire hod the weight of their caish payments considerably 
lightened : 

KaiUtitvdr Grain Prit«» {1183- tSSi), Potmda the Aw^ee. 

Chapter 7. 





i » 








I- E 



































































tiklkH UllkC 















atapt«r T. 















































U ' 14 














SI *» 




Liillui Bitlct 

•0 1 VI 














» u 



PiiuDouds, rubios, and other precious stoues are weighed by rd 
Bud idnka. Six graiuH of ricp nre uqtiBl in weight to a rati 
twentj-four Totis niako a tank. These wcighta are made of: 
and are flat and round. 

Brass copper and other nietola ore weiglied by man* of forty 
of iuriy toliia each s^r, and by lihantlisj each Uhnndi being oqual 
twenty vians. The ser is usiially equivalent to a pound. 
weights are sqnnre pieces of ii-on and he&r Ihu tjlate stamp. Kxc< 
cotton all articles of bulk are vroigbcd according to the table 
znetala. In Db&vnajrar the Uhandi of cotton is etjual to tveuty-l 
iraam and six ponndo, and in Mahuva it is equal to twonty-firu nt 
Gold and silver are tveighod by tvlat, ijadiiimiit and nifx, the 
being Bixtoon vaU one tjadtdna, and two gudidnde one tola. 

Wilk is Bold in eera, half sers, and quarter arrs. Oil is sold ii 
measure callod nsolo which ireigb^ half a man or twuuly poundn. 
ia also sold by the man. Lime and grain are sold by ttuint'ts and 
A mana is equal to nino8flr« anda/wi/i is equal to one-fiflh of a maii 
100 mands o<,|ual one kahi, but there are many local di£forenL*6. 

Silk and cotton cloth are sold by the gaj of twenty-fonr inches : 
the htUh of eighteen inches. Coloured clothes are sold by the acoi 
knri. A gaj is equal to tweuty-four luaus and eighteen ia«u& 
a bdfh, the tusit being equal to an inch. Oarpcts, mats, and glaaai 
sold by the square foot and yard, Stones, masonry work, and timl 
are sold by cubic feet Bougb hewn and dressed stones are it 
either by cubiu feet or by number. Building land is sold by Lho pal 
hdth irliich is a strip thirty hath* long and one hnth broad ; the ~ 
eqaaU twenty-oue iucbea 

The local huid measure is the vigha which is divided into sii 
parts or dmtdji. The aixe of tho vtyha has never been accural 
tixed and varies in different parts of the province. Captain LeUi 
Jaoob gives ita area at ninety-tive cubits or forty-Gve yards sqt 
But thia is nominal as the side is reduced to forty-two yards by 
mode of applying the line. In 1U03 Colonel Keatiugu laid dc 
that the relative area of tho viyUa and acre should bo taken as aai 
to tUrco. This vma arrived at by assoming tho side of the local 
rt^/jft to be eighty /i<i(A# which averaged 119 to 121 Eoet. Takiug 
tho ncaa of tbesu 120| feet as the siile of tho vijjha its area equal- 
led exactly ono*ihird of an acre. The people have never adopted thiaj 
estiiuate. They take the side of tho vigha to be eqaal to two slxt 
six feet cliaius and make the proportion of the vigha to the 
I to 2^. This cstimati>, subject U> local peculiarities, haa gonoi 
been adopted in settling laud di»putea. 





Ik oM timefl, the chief trade route in the province followed the coast 
Erom Gogha south-wust to .S<mmfit!i aiul th(?nco to 
DvirkiL Tlic cliiuf land roiit«s wtav thosf- joining th(>p*min.'jnla with 
the mainland. Of these tlie iDOstfretiuwutL-'] mswl byjJJuiyliuvtuia 
atvl P AUVi t o Wmlliwdn, luxl by Viraiagjini to WajJhwi^ Tli« rout*;« 
by Dholka anJ Dhondhukft to Wadhwiln andValabhi wore also 
in common okc , ^Therti wreins also to have been a road joininjj 
Val4!>hi with Jiinfkftw] nod Vanthli. But as mo-st of this road pas.4«nl 
tiir«my;h forest Bn«i thioly ptoplod country, the tiwie route foJiowi*d 
the coa^t line.yX<ater od, the Solaiikis of Anliilv^la (109'i<<114-3) 
constructed a aiiljt4»ry road from WadhwAn to Junrftfad by SAela. 
DliJtndhiillitir, ChobAri, Anandpiir. BhAdla, Sai'dni rj Qomial. 
VitfuiE.Jjetpur. and trade followed Uub rouU for many years.* 
In &liiha)iiiiia<lan tiiiicK, CHpifcially under the imperial viceroys 
(Io"3-l707), the interior of thii- pfuinsula became populous, rout.-s 
increu-sfjij. and a road was oiK-ueil from WwlliwAn dlicct to 
Dw/irka by Nav Ana^ar and Kl iainbh AlJa." Befoie the iCAjkot- 
Wa«lhwdn ma"! wnt i^aii^., ffi*. nTTT rft^tffi jfrflBi&fckg^- tP Wfldhff^ 
pagtscO by Sanosra. OhiAvad^ Mahika. Thto , TTmardn, and Itnli : 
aorj Iivfore the cxtenlHoD of roUwav to Wocmwin, the road from 
WaiiUwiin t<> Alinia<iiJinii passwl by Tal aAna, Slidhpur, .SAnand, 
and Sarkhtj, When Dtiolera and GogHa" were Hie cKief iwi-ts, 
the routijrt to DboU'iii fr<nu WatlhwSii and other plaws hi JhilmvAd 
, Weri! by rJiiiViii nnr} Dhnnillnika, oud from Haljtr and KiithiawAr 
Iproper by \ put, and Dhandhtiko. The trade 

routes t*) Li ,.,..,. ;.-.i.i iv.;.i..L... ■..u" proper and GobilvAd were by 
JaiAl tiu r. _ Ulidfu ka, Ohanghli, and Vm-ti-j. Before the Bhivnagar- 
■Oondol" riuTwny wjw oprnrd, thi'> chief road from Ahmadabad to 
|Oohi!vtiil was by lJliolk«j Koth. HadAla. Dhtuidhuka. BftrvAl^ Vala. 
'an! Sihar, when- art- lari,"' Shravak n-.Ht-houses for pilKriins to 
Pitii/iruk ThooMtr.vli 

jwM by Dhrol^T: _„____, _ 

[The opening ot l..<. i;.....ii.v from WadhwAn to Aiimadalo'l has 
. Utailo the high road from RAjlrot to WadhwAn, one of the chief lines 

■Liti^ from NavAnaia£.tpJjUJar;it audita wa 


Old RotttM. 

' ' ' r is rnmpitod ohicBjrfrom inkbcri&la supplied by Mr. R. Proctor>Sinii, 

Bli-' iv Engineer. 

> Ihu roi'J u Mid to turn bevn mado by Sidhntj Jsyiiiig uf Auliilvida (I4M-1M3) 
to whom tuv »twibiit*d moet of tbo forto posdi and Mtnplai tdanff tbe tine of rood. 

'Tbu chief viccrors wlin tatahlialicd nrder in Mm poiinauU were AMnlKllAD(l(>3&• 
lR4->), Mir»U> l<n I'V Khin<I'M-'-l&U)>Sh&iaUh Khiu (lti4C-lU9Hid ftgain le&E- 

[Bombay OftzetU«r, 

Cliaptw IV. 





of comniuniciLtion in the province. The roads from Bh^v 
to Ri^jkot and £rom R^kol to Jundgad, are of litUe infen- 

tip to 1865, there were no made-roads in tlie province. Dari 

the rwny .'reason (June -October) when the porta wore closed 

the rivers flooded, outade dealings were at a stand, and there 

little movement witliin the province. Track.i for wheeled vehic 

usually ran along the gravelly beds of sjnoll streamHj as the » 

van there harde-it and the friction least. But at the best of ti 

tho pOHsa^ of the larger streams was a grievous hindrance. In 

weather it wan, and in parts it sUll is, no uncommon sight to s 

train of hiden carta halted at the bank of a river, anii the cat 

of three or four carts formed into a team to drag one across ; 

when the cart was by itself ta see it unladen, token across fimpty," 

mid filk'd on the opposite Imnk, the load being carried over bit l>y 

Iiiton luen'K heads. In 1805, Colonel Keatinge, then Political Agent, 

began syrftcmatic road-making by constructing the Rajkot-Wadhwdn 

road. Thirty miles of this rood were made at a cost of £14-0 

(Rs. 1400) a milft At first it was neither bridged nor metalled. Th 

surface WBR only gravelled, the water crosaingH hardened, and 

approficheH to the IrmIs of streanw •^lop<'d by an easy fuJI. One ^ 

cent on the tribute paid by the chiefs, about X700 (Re. 7000) a ye. _ 

were Uie only available funfLi. Whun a beginning had been nmde 

from imperial funds, the cbicts were pressed to make roods. In tin.* 

following year 260 miles of tracks wei-e taken in hand, thirty-five 

miles from Chotila to Wodhwin, forty-five milcn from lUjkot to 

Jetpnr, fifty-two miles from Riijkot to Nav&nagar, and 1 20 miles 

from R^jkot to Bliivnagor. 

The following in a summary * of the chief roads that have bo; 
opencil since 186S. 

Thei-e are about S30 miles of firHt class bridged and metal! 
road ; sixty-tivo from IWjkot to Wadhwiin, fifty-eight from RijI _ 
to JunAgad passing through Oondal Virpur and Jctpur. twenty* 
fonr from TankfLria to Mor^i, thirtt;en from Kandornato Porbondar, 
thirty-five from Maliuva to Knndia, three from Uahuva to 
BhAdrod, fifty-two from Iihi\-nagar to Cha\-and, thirteen from 
Bh^%'nagar to Bhanddria, three from Bhrt-vnagarto Sidsar^nincfroi 
Blifi^Tiagar to Gogha, thirteen from Songad to P^t^na. eight f ~ 
Pipla to Noghanvadar, twelve from Wadhwiin to Linibdi, tw 
from Wadhwdn to Ohningadra. eight from Jetpur to DhorAji, 
four and a half from Dhontji to Junitgad. Besides these tliere 
tlio roada in and around the head-quartei-s of the difierent chiefs, 
aggregating probably between twenty and thirty miles, and 
Oogha-DhMidhnka road within the liniits of Ahmadabad. 

Of .second class or gravelled road-* there are 224 miles ; fifty -thre* 
from RAjkot to Ohavand, fifty-two from IWjkot to NavAnagar, 
twenty-four from Morvi to X'avAnia, four from Jetpur to DhorAji, 
six from tiondol towards Derdi, thro« and a half &om Dhoriiji to 


' PubrMiWorkAMidlmproveiticiilaof KAtluAvrirbyR. D. Booth, Etn-.U.Iast.CJfk. 
AgMi.7 Eogbwvr, IBW^ - 





Uplcta, cloven and a half from Dhonlji to Navihandar, twelve from 
Buj)^ to BliAyitvailar, U*ii iroui Kandoma to PurWiidur, twuiiiy- 
6vtt from Jotpur to M^kv&da, fifteen from JtiUiikv^la to Bilkha, 
aod i'ii^ht from Maoikviida to Bagosra. 

Of ibu total leogtb of roailti, altogetlier about 550 miles, alioiit 
fiftv-sevcn ppr cent wcrv made l>y tho Agi^ncy engineer and aro 
maintttincl from tlu; Tniiik Road Fund aubscriV'd bv the chiefs oo 
the suggi'stion of Mr. Ptile, Political Ajjcnt from Iy73-I878. Tho 
remaininf; forty-three per cent were made and paid for liy the 
chiefs. JExeludiiif^ larg« bridj^'es the cast has averageil about £500 
(TU. &000) a mile for first class roads and X150 (\{& 1500) for aecoud 
claK» rowLs. It was at first dillicult to tiud funds for road-mending, 
but the roailb are now regularly repaired, as materials are easily 
obtaincnl. The cliicfroa<biunduf construction are from llhandAria to 
UiUiiivu tliirty-iiino niile«, from Je^tar to Katliivodar Hamiar twenty- 
bcven mik'8, and fixmi Kundla to Noghanvadar thirty-six mili;a. 
Since tho opt^ning of the BhAvnagar-Gondal railway feeders to the 
diflei'ent btatioas have been taken in hand. 

BeRtdfH by rowlfi, oomuiunicalion has been improved by tho 
pvr iftneRonibayBaroda andCentralTndia Railway forty milofl 

t" '.n, and by the upfiiing of the Bhdlviutgar-Ciundal line a 

d I 201 miles. A railway fiwm Gogha to Gondal was plannod 

ill . I.'- -ly private enterprizc, but no survey waa made. In 1872 
ftDOther lino was proposed from VorAval to JooAgad and Dhor^ji and 
was irarveyed by Mi. A. W. Forde. C.E., but tho cost wos beyond tho 
in€«n5 of the JunAgnd ehief and the scheme came to notbing. In 
1874 A thini line was thought of from BhAvnagar U> WadliwAu, but 
« difference of opinion as to the prnper route and the probable cost 
prevente^J action; it w&h not till June 1877 that steps were taken to 
begin the BhAvnagar-Gondal lino. The available funds were the 
savings whicli ha'l accumulated to tho Bhivnagar and Goudal states 
under Brit-tHh management during tho minority of the ehief. In 
1877. Colonel J. W. WatHon and Ajani Gavriahajikar Uday^hackar, 
G.S.I., tho Joint Aduumstrators of tiic BliAvnugar Htuu>, »4tarted a 
B«rvcv under the Executive Enpneer of the state for a line through 
tho BliAvnagar territory ; the Oondal state employed Jtr. Forde, C.E., 
to survey an extension of the line to DhoirAji ; and Government 
oomnuHsioned Mr Hargrave, C.E., of the Barotia Railway, to survey 
HI) ext^n.ynn of the lihA\-nagar lino to Wailhwtfn. All three 
engineers InlKiured under restnettons as to route, but tlieu: united 
lalionra nwiiKed in a line which, on the whole. ha.s l»een browlly 
followed, except that Mr. Fordc's alternative line for the Gondal 
suction was tiJiosen inNteafl of tlio liuu ho actually surveyfl and 
Icvcllfyl. The tirst sml wan turned on tho 20th March 1879 by 
the State Engineer of BhA.vnagar in presence of tho Asidfltant 
p.r ; ' \.,'ent of the JivLvion, and about two miles of embankment 
IV. iL'd whentheEiiginwr -in-chief, appointtil for the whole line 

by the Uovemintuitof India, arrived and ti^^k perwvnal chai-go. The 
mainline wa.s openud for tiTdhconthc l&tUDeceml>«r 1880 by His 
Excellency Sir James Fcrgusson, Bart, Governor of Bombay, and a 
uionth lotor, the branch Ime Cor DhorAji was opened by Colonel L, 
^j^SuWq* th\: Political Ageot In the J.06 miles between Bh^vnagai- 




Chiptcr IT. 


and Waiihwdn, th«m are si.xtP4*n stations on the main line. Thcs 
are the Uhjivnagor whoi-t", the startinjf point, the BhA\Ti8|;'ar cit] 
stabiun ^itlilu tlic firttt iui<l second mile, the Gwlichi or Locoinotiv< 
Htatinn in the fourth mile, Vartcj in the eighth, Sihor in the fifl^'entli,' 
Songad in the nineteenth, Sanosra in the twenty-sixth, tlie Dhola 
junction in tlio thirty- tlilril, Ujalvdv in the thirty-ninth. KingiUa in 
the i'ortyeighth. ButAd in tUu sixtieth, ItiLnpur in the Miveuty-Uiird, 
Chuda in thi* oiglity-fimrth, Linihdi in thi! ninetieth, Kh^rva in th€ ' 
ninety -seve nth, WadhwAu city station in the lOSrd, and the junctif 
with the Buin1>ay Barotlu and Central Railway in the lOCth mile. 

The Itronch tine, which Ktaii^ at Dhola junction and the inilee 
on which count"! from Bhdvnflgur, has twi'lvo stations : MAndva 
the tliirty-ainth mile, Dlia-^ in the forty-seventh, LAtlu in th< 
fifty -Heventh, AdtAla in the sixty-fourth, Chital in the sixty-eightl 
MayApi'lar in the seventy -seventh, KunkAvAv in the eighty-fiftJ 
KliudkliaJoi-SuluwipurKoad, in the ninety-second, Vivtli in thel Olst 
Jctjmr in the 108th, JetaUnr in the 113th, and Dhordji, theprestmi 
terminus, in the 122nd mile. There are in all 201*6 miles of line' 
The »tttti<in8 have on the whole Iwen well plawrfl. Kuch damago wi 
done to the einl«nkments from too snuUI a provision for wat^ir-waj 
and Hevcral of the suitions and building feu l)cfore thfy were nsec 
These miMtakes have heen put right and it i« e.xpect«d uiat the lii 
will certainly jjay its way. For the fii-sthalf of 1882 the net profit 
are al«»ut X-SO.OOO ( Rs. 3,00,000) tor about three per cent on a capita 
of jWGO,000 (Rs. 80,00,000). Tho net profits of the whole j'oar An 
about 4'G4 pec cent on the outlay. The Rauj/e is the metre gau^'e ani 
the ruling gi-adient is one in two hundred. The line was oonst-ruct<?i 
at a cost estimated at £H60,000 [M^ 86.00.000) which was borne li 
tbcBhtlvnagoraudGondal states iuthe proportion of about two-thi 
to one-third. The line is worked bv a manager under the onlt 
of a committer of which the Political Agent is the Pre.sident and thj 
DiwAn of BhAvnagar and the Eunapean joint administrator of Goat' 
are members. The cost of the general nianageniL'iit is shared by the 
states ill proportion to the length of line con.structed by each. The 
working i!Xpen.sos and earnings ou the main line from BM\*nagar 
to WadhwAn are claimed by BliAvnagar alone ; while the net 
profits ou the liranch line between Dhola and DhorAji arc shared bj 
BhAvnagar and Gondal iu proportion to tho length of tho branc 
line constructed by eack 

The chief bridgOH in tlie provinco arc the BhAtlar bridge 
Jetpur. of flfcono ma»onr}' with twenty spans, twelve of fifty and eigl 
of twenty feet The piers of the bridge are thirty-five fe 
to tlio spring, and the road is fifty-foor feet alxii'e the river bed. 
The pier abutmcnta spandrels and wings arc of bine trap from 
quarry about two mile* from the bridge, wliile the arches 
parapets are of light butf lime-stone from the hill rangiwof Kalwric 
altout four miles distant. When in tlood the stream has beer 
known to flow thirty feet deep through this bridga It was built at 
a cost of £20.000 (Rs. 2,00.000) at t^c Joint expense of Juniigad, 
Gondal, Jetpur, and the Trunk Road Fund. The foundation stona. 
wa-j laid by Colonel W. W. Anderson in Jime 1874,and itwasopem 
Cor traffic on the 17Uio£ June 1877. The Peile bridge at tSui 




also BcroBa the Bh^iur, has eleven spans of sixty fed The height 

of the "leepest pier from the liver Wxl to the -*T»nng is forty-K\'e 

ft!oL The briiigu, which is of Ktonu maMotiry similur tu the BhMor 

briJge, was Ho-'^ignt^I hy the ijtaic enijinwr Mr. Gancsli GuvinH and 

built at thf; j»oU: cxpi-n.-ic- of the Oondal stati;, and cost £2i,500 

(R«. 2;;.i,l>00). It was opeuuJ for tmffic on tlitf 10th of Juno 1879 

hy Coionyl Eiarttjn. The Koisar-i-Hinil bridge huUc ovpr the river 

Aji at KAjkot at the expense of H. H. Sir TakhtAKin^i, ICC.SX, 

of Bhdvno^^, in comru<mioratton of tho proclamation of Her 

MiiJL'sty as Empress of India, is a stone niaaonry structure with 

fourt/'on archtis of forty-tiv^r feet span. It wasrh-signi'd and built by 

ilr. Booth, at a wwt of Jt 1 1.750 (lU 1 .1 7.-300). TIr- iiititfrials and style 

ani iiuicli th« stimu aw thow: of thi.' Bliiidaraiid Pvilu tiridgfs. The 

spring of thu aitJu^ w nint-tiron feet aI>ovc low water. Tludiridgft was 

DpuQtHl by Colonel Baiton on the 19Lli of Aufrust 1879. The Goudal 

bridjfi'. a stoim inasnnry structuri\ deiiign«d by the statu Gngin«er 

Mr Oanesh Govind and built ovc-r the Gondali at Gondal hy the 

Oondal Htatt- at a cost of about £72CKI (Its, 72,000), consists of 

seven Hpans of forty feet and two of twenty feet The piers and 

^pandrels are of squared tnip and the parapet and arches of lime-stone 

Tl»e sprinjj of tlie arcliiw is m-vi-nte^m firct above Uiw water. The 

brid)^ was (jpuned by His Excelk-ncy Sir Pliilip Wodehouse, Governor 

of B«)iii>»ay, m January 1875. The Beti bridge, bnilt ovw tho Bet! 

near Biiumnbor on tlu* RAjkut-Wa<lliwAn roail, hai nine itpaus of thii*ty 

ftictojid twooftwi'nty feet, and cost £Ii)0O(Ks. 19,000). Thu piers arc 

seventeen feet long by aix feet thick, njid the arches seven and a 

half feet by a foot and two-thirds thick. Over the piers openings. 

four fvet by six, have been left for the pa-isi^t; of extraoi-diuary 

flooibi. The foundations i-est on rock from four to ten fe«t below the 

mirfaco. Except the hearting of piers and ahiitinents and the 

tockinu^ which is rubble, the masonry throughout is of fi«.iuarcd titoua 

Tho hndgc was opnied for tratlic in June I87-V The Bhogftva or 

Keatinf^e bridge at Wadhwiin civil statiou Is an iron girder bridge on 

screw piles, witli eight spans each sixty-one feet and teu inehea long, 

and a pair of nia.-tomy' andie,s forty-live feet spun at each end, and two 

land arches on either side of forty-five feet span. The briilge, which 

was opened in April 1S7S. cost about iW.OOO (R». 1,30,000). Most of 

tl)ii!< aninuiib wiui paid by the Wndhwilii state, the balance being wet 

from the Piuviiicial Tnink Road Fund The Bho"rfvawhen in flood 

is often twt-uty feet tievp. The Morvl or Machhu bridge, on the 

Machhu at Moi'i'i, is tlu: lai;gest yet built-. It has tift^'eu spans of 

sixty-two feet each. The piers are partly built of black basalt 

quarried in the Wd of the Machhu close to the site of the bridge, 

Uid piii'tty of sandstone from the quarries of Itaf^iu. The arcliea 

and Hirjurstriietiire are being built nf lint? white sand.'itone fmni tho 

(;■ ■■jf DrAmania in the VAnk^ior state. The arches ai-c 

.-■I . I of oiie-hftli ritw. The sjjriug of the arches i.s foi-ty-tivcfvct 

above low wot*jr, and the i\«wlway is sixty-two feet above the river 

beil. The total length of the bridge including abutments is 1 150 feet. 

The whole cost of the bridge, estimated at JC30,000 (lU 3,00,000), ia 

being luet by the Mor\'i state. The foundation stone was laid by 

U- ii. 8ii* Richard Temple. Governor of Boml»iy, in February 1 S79. 

Chapter y^ 

rBomb&r ' 


ipt«t VI. 

In the NavAnogar Atate a toll of i\d. (I anna) on each cart m 
leviud at tiie port oE Bedi. Throe years a^o another toll of 1< 
(1 anna) a cart whm abu luvktl at Fardliari, but it haa bt.'eu al 
Tlio toll receipts are npoiit in mending the 1*00(1 from Navdnagar 
tl»« harbour. At VerAvol in the JunAgad state, vesscU np t o. 
fifty tons bunluu are chai-g<.-<l lit. (8 ant.) for aiichoi-age in tl 
rainy season. To meet the cost of tbo li^ht-houHc oad oth 
works, every ship U charged a harbotir fee of 2*, (Ui, (Ba. 1- 
On ^[oods, tliere is a general ctiorgu of two per ovnt and 
one-fourth per cent for municipal iluea and for charity. Muttl 
this iiwiiey is spent in public works. At Porbondar, the inint 
customs duty is 6| per Cunt on grain, 0} on ttiulier, and fi-uni fol 
to five per cent on other goods ) tbo export duty is twenty per cd 
on stone, two rnpeos and a half a kkdndi on cotton, and four to li^ 
per cent on othur goods. 

Duriii)^ the fair season few streams are not fordable botwc«n ar 
two iwiuw of oi-dinary travol i but during tlie rainy season wh*__ 
the rivers ate in floo<l traffic has nsually to wait until the floods f.all. 
There arc no points at which fuiry boats regularly ply. In Jund^Ti-J 
three ferry boats ply at the Chati'&va ferry on the Bhddar oji tho 
frontier of Porbaudar. During the rainy months when the riv< 
is flooded, boats ply from the mouth as far as Kutidna. The ' 
are all built of t^k at VerAval. They are twenty feet long 
eijfht broad and four deep and draw two feet of water. Tbo nuinl 
of the crew is not fixed. When tinilier and other ai-licles are earn* 
up-countiT from ^avibaiidar, a crew is hired in proportion to tl 
cargo- There is no state monopolj*. The Ijoatd generally ear 
fifteen passengers, each man paying liJ. (l anno) from Na't'i 
Cliflti-Ava. They seldom cari-j- Iiorsc^s, bullocks or parts. Another 
fen-v boat, on tbo BhAdar at Kundii Tad, is twenty-four feet long 
by ^vc feet and a half broad. The boat carrier* possuugers at t)it» 
rate oF i</. (1 dokda) and earts for 2d {8 doktUia\ In the Ojhat, thei^" 
are two ferries, one near the isle of Gwan the other near Tukdn 
The Gi^aa ferrj' boat, which Is guided by one boatman, carries four 
or five pa.sacngcrs at the rote of |<f. (1 dokda) a hoati. The feiTyii 
is stopped in the dry sea.son, when a dam i.s throwTi acros.s the rive 
The Tukda ferrj' boat which is eighteen feet long by about foi 
feet broafi, is guided liy two ferry men. and elmi-gns li (4 dohl'iu 
for each pa.i.seiigcr. The ferry boat pliea in the rainy season, anc 
in the dry season, only when the water is high anil not fordaW 
Instead of pajnug in cash husbandmen give the fen-j-men a cei 
qnantity of grain at har^'est tliiic. 

Bvsides in the rivers, small ferr)' boats are kept at BhA\*i ^ _ 
IHu, J&fnibad. Jodia, Bedi, SalAya, Porbaiidar, antf Navibandar, to 
cross creeks aud sea inlets where tlie daily ebb and flow makes it 
impos-sible to cross even at low water. The Bhitvnagar creek is now 
spaimeil by a steam chain ferry boats Tliis was one of the fii ' ~' 
work-s sanctioned by the chief, 11. U. Sir Takhtosingji, imuiediat 
after his installfition ; with the apiiroacbe-s it cost over £I0.( 
(Rs. ! .00,000). The hull is of ii-on. titty-seven feet long and twentj^ 
thi*ee broad, but the total lengUi of the vessel from stem to stem 
ninety-tiirce feet. The iron-work with the engine and boiler-houf 

(upe of EnglUh nmVe, thp W00.1 work was i lone in BtKl\Tini,'ar. In 
ita pa.s^KJ^*' iiCT>>s« ttio uret.-k thu U«it is {^uitli;*! hy two hcBvy chains 
wwighinj,' rirarly twrnt-y tona Tlie cliains pniw through the wholu 
ien^h C't the vessel over driving wheels, the ends Wing seciirt-Iy 
inoDnnl to 1)h> ojiposito nhorwi; Uie motive power is a pair of ten 
honw' pnwi-r Ofmiirnmng gmsshopppr enginf-s- This feiTy-lxmt, which 
ij« cslK**! aftvr till- cliief , necaii to ply for tralTic un the 3Ist Jauaary 
1879. It wurkt-'ilsuccL-safiilfy foroac year, when the hawtie-holesaiiii 
plummet IjIocIch holding one of the chains gave way, and the weight 
of the mooring wju* thrown to the top of the driving wheel, and, 
with a 5tning spring-tide driving below in the oppomte way, it 
DaiviiKi <l and remained under water for a month before it coufd be 
raiwd. Tt will shortJy Ik- 6tt<:d with sti'-el wire ropee, so placed as 
not to endanger tlio eenli-o of gravity. The great range in the rise 
and ThII nf tin? tidi*. about thirty-two feet, and a cuiTeiit of over aix 
knotrt, at the full and change of the moon, arc great difficulties, hut 
it ia exiwcted that thwy will soon be overcome. The ferrj'-lxmt, whose 
toiinagi' ia a^Kmt 205, draws eighteen inches when empty and one inch 
more for evi'ry three tons of loail It has an engineer and a Breman. 
boUi Miisalnidn^, an^i two Koli seamen, and carries horses. bnlKwk^ 
ponies, caiiiel.'*, sheop, and cai-tn. I*uiK'n carirfi, of which it carrier 
five or six at a titne with two Imndn-d pawsejigei-s, can drive on and 
off with ease. The cunt of ferrj-lng is jt/. (4 anna) for a poasengorj 
l|j:. (1 anna) for a hopjc, bullock, pony. cow. Imfialo, or aw j 
Sd. (i (WM.) for A camel, 10a (Ha. 5) for an elephant, H- H anna) 
for a slivep or goat, 4'i. (J aano) for a colt or calf; 3c/, (2 ang.) for 
an empty cart. lid. (| anna) a matt for com, i^d. (1 anna) a faan 
for cotton, and l|(/. (^ anna) a man for cloth and spicea 

At Joilia. Befli, and SjiUya in NavfLnagar are harbour-boats from 

nine to fourteen feet long. TTiey are huilt at the.-w ports by 

c&rpcntera of the Vddha ca^to. llie crew, who are Miiin^ Bharleljia 

and KhrtrvA-H, nuinU<r from two to four. The l>Oi^itfl are private 

property. They cju-ry from 6ft«-'«n to thirty passengers, and charge 

6d.{iantt.) a head forgoing to and coming fiYim a ship to tho 

shore. In portA luiraea bullockH ponif„s an'i carts are carried 

at the rate of is. (Ro. 1) a head by larger boats from eighteen to 

twenty-two feet and a half long. Forty -three ferry boats ply in t)ie 

Porltfindar creek, two thirty-four feet long by ten broad and foor and 

la half de.-p with a drauglit nf thn^c to four feet; ten thirty-two 

ifttet long by ten bnwd and four deep with a draught of thrca 

I to four feet; fitiirt^-cn twi-nty-sis feet long hy .six brood and 

' two anil a i|n/u-ter 'U-<'p with a draught of two fc*:t ; and fteventeen 

I twenty feet long hy four and a half broad and thrcti deep with a 

draught of three to four foot. These ferry-boats are bnilt of 

MiilabAr teak at Porbandar by VAdha carpenters. The crew 

which avenige al>ont live are Hindu KhArv&.s and MusaUato 

|Kii))dvaHii.s. The larger Umiti cnrrj' at the rate of 1& Bd. (Hang.} 

la heft'l, from twenty to twonty-tive pa-'wengrrB, the middle-six*^ 

Ibofttt from tif teen to twenty passengers, and the .stiiqU boats from 

[(ugbt to ten. They can also carry cajia, honwtn, and buUocks. 

th» Navihnndar creek there is a ferry-lxat twenty-fonr fe6t 
Aod live futil and a half broad. It ia worked by two 







sailors. Hinda Ehirvis hv cnstc. and came* from twenty 
twenty-five passengers, at the rate of \it (1 doktla) a haaiL It 
a]»o cairy two cartd. two horses, or four buUocka at a. tttno, 
which Sd. (1 kori) is chargaS. Thi- fem'-boat, which wiw built of 
teakwood at NaWhondar, draws only ciKotpcn inclK's. Bt«idtet tliU, 
thirteen other boat« aiv iwe^l in bringing and carrying j»o«la from 
iihi]w onchorwl off shore. They also py in tlie iJhJUlar and Ojhak 
rivers to various villages l)rin|;ing and carr^'inggOiKla. Tliv lorg 
boat carries three or four tons and charges about 3a (4^ feoru) 
a trip of nearly six milea. 

Of aailing vt-sscls, there were, in 1882, 150 ships In tite Navf 
state, forty-fiv<, at Jo<lia. fifty at Bedi, and fifty-five at SaKy*. "OT 
thcae, there ai'e foi-ty-.siiven large vesselti, Heveutoen at Jodia, ten al 
Bedi and twenty at Sali&>'a; wstv iniddlp-mw^d v^jshcIs, twenty at 
jclia. twenty-five at Reifi and i^ftpcn at SaUya; and forty-tnr« 
smalt craft, eight at Jodia, lifU-'vn at Bedi and twenty at SalAys- 
The large vesselH from Uiirty-six to forty-eight feet lonj,' ran-', 
tons (400 khanM^), and ore valued at £700 to £1000 (Rs. t' 
Rb. 10,000); the middle-sized from ciphtcen to twenty-two feet loni; 
carry thirty-seven tons (100 khdndis), and are valuud at £50 to £10 
(Rs, 500 -Ra 1000), and the small craft from nine to thirt.en ft^ 
long carry eleven tons (30 khdndit), and ar« valued at £20 to 
(RB.200-Rfi. .100). ThoBO vestielH belong to tnerchanta and H&ilors < 
art! built by Vddha carpenterH. Tlie larpfer veaseLs have two mi 
and two sails, and the Hinall veftsels one mast and one tiail. 11 
larger vossola sail to Bonilmy, Kardehi, ('alcutto, Basrah, Adc-n, 
Zansibflr ; the middlc-mzcd' vtsseb to Kanlchi, Bombay, and 
Malab&r coast ; the small craft ply within the gulf of Cutch. 
their way to Bombay, the larger vessels call at 5lAnd\'i, Bnrbandj 
Verdval. Diu, and JAfaraI>mL They take a month and a half to 
and return from Bondwiy, one month to Kai-Aclii, four nionth» 
CtUcutta. three and a half to Basrah, four and a half to Aden, 
six to Zanzilnir. The sailors, who lomi and unload the vesftel, v 
the sails and navigate the ship, are Khdrva and Koli Hindus 
Mitina BbAdela and Sidi MusahniLns. Betudcs one pali (2] Ibo.) 
wheat grain a day, the sailors am paid for a trip to BomiiAv 1' 
6d. (Ra H) and fis. (Ra 3) iotVFo' or extm pay ; to Kaniclii 1< 
IBti. 5) and Gs. (Ra. 3) kd<do ; to Molabdr £1 (Rs. 10) luid 10>. (R& 
icaidoy to Calcutta 16«. (Rk 8) a month ; and to Zanzih&r £3 
(R& 32) and £1 4s. (Rs. 12) kaMo. The ndkhuda, ndkhuo. muaUi* 
or captain receives double the pay of the »ailor. A boy is olwal 
engaged to cook at half the pay and the aamo amount of c^ratn i 
a sailor. The grain due for one trip is paid in a^Ivanct and the hlU 
is paiil when the sliip come* to port 'ITie trips to Bomiwy and 
KorAcld are takvn between September and June (Bhiiiirnji'ul ~ 
Jatht), to Boaiflh l>etween September and December {Aihiiti 
Aldrgaahirah), to Calcutta in SeptemWr-Octolwr (Ashvin). and 
the MalabAr coast from September to March {Aakoin to Phdlgm 

> Kdido [a m auia in «xoeM of pay gnatftl to wulon oh tlks urintl ol a vmuii 
Mr ckatnwtipa. 






TDnring the miny season (June to Septemlwr), when th^ nover pufc 

lO iwa. stations uitlit-r work at homo aa lalMjurLTS or prepare ropes, 

iiiatw. Itfu-^keta and other articles offadaot date palm leaves brought 

from ."Sin-.lh imd tha Maktrdn coast VcmkoIs Irailicg with Bombay 

tako cotton grain wool and sc^samiim, and bring l>ack groceries cloth 

ehinaware metals and dmgs ; vessels trading with Kar^hi tako 

gnin daritii'd butter and »e»amum, and hnng back rioo grain 

mad dates; rcfwds trading with Zanzili^iU- take earthen potA nilkand 

^oes, and bring back timber cocoanuts wax i\'ory and grain. To 

Calcutta. Hasmh.anii MaUbAi", veaswla generally go empty, and bring 

~—- fnjm Calcutta, dates from Bafaiih, and timlier cocoanutw ginger 

inds and pepper from Malahitr. The freight charges for each 

ft are 1#. to 3*. (S «n*-Rs. 1 J) to Bombay ; 2*. to **. (Ke. l-Ks. 2) 

to KarAchi; 8*. to 32*. (Ri>.4-B». C) to Zanailwir ; 2«. to 4* (Re. 1- 

Rti.2} from Bonilutv; U. Gd to Uti. i'lZ ans.-RsAi) from Kar^hi; 

6*. to 8». (Its, S-K-i i) from Malabfii- and Ba>*rAh ; 12». to I4». (Ra. 0- 

H*. 7j from CalcutU; and £1 to £1 4.s. (Ra. 10- R«. 12) from Zanzibrix. 

Thi-co or four vessels are gtinerally loat every year. The cliicf 

riangc-rs by sea are storms and tiio age and bad repaii- of the ships. 

A form of marine insuronoc is in dsc which is called keel or pathdn 

iiLturanco. All deep-sea vessela have a compass; some vesseU have 

■^p charts. Besides these voa-scLs a boat plies ou ittate bosiucss 

Bnreen the Narioagar and neighbouring ports in the gulf of Cutcli 

and al.*^ carrieH patsengers to and from steamers to the ports. 

In the BhAvTiagar state thero are 1G8 sailing vessels. 115 at BhAv- 

nagarand fifty-three at Mahuva. Of the 115 veaseJs at Bhi&vnagar, 

■tnra are upwards of seventy-five tons, two are from fifty to seventy- 

ly lon.s. twelve from forty to fifty tons, eleven fi-om thirty to forty 

^, HiJtteen from twenty to thirty tons, eighteen from ten to 

j_. _ itv tons, and fifty-four are small craft of umler ten tona Of the 

! fifty-lnree ves-sels at Mahuva, one is upwards of seventy-five tons, six 

ore frr)m fifty to seventy-five tons, seven from forty to fifty tona, 

■even fi*oiu thirty to fort}* tons.twenty-onft from twenty to thirty tons. 

ten from tt-ti to twenty tons, and one under ten tonst Of the 115 

Vessels at BhAvuagar, twenty-three wore built at Bainir, fourteen at 

Oogha, nine at Damon, eight at Bhitvnagnr, seven at Bilimoraj 

^aix at UmbargAm. five at MAhim, four at KoHAk, four at BadAli, and 

Bihn?e at Surat ; it is not known where the remaining thirty-two woro 

BlniiH. Of the fifty-three ships at Mahuva, twenty-two were built at 

HUahnra, ftmrteen at BalsAr, five at JAfaral»ad, two at TalAja, one 

"at Daman, one at Surat, one at DelvAda, one at Dholera, one at 

Tflj-Aiiur. and one at Boinlui^', Of the 115 Bhd\Tiagar Hhips, Ax cost 

" 11 £200 to £400 (Rs. 2000-Rs. 4000). five from £150 to 200 

(. 1500- Oi. 2000), six from £100 to £150 (Rs. lOOO-Ks. 1500), seven 

from £7Oto£lO0(Rs.7O0-Ra 1000), nineteen from £50to£70(Rs. 500- 

"3.700yfivefrom£30 to£50 (Ra. 300- R.s. 'lOO), forty-four from £10 

£30(R^ lOO-Hs.300). and twenty-three under £10(Ra. 100). Of the 

ifty t!jive Mahuva »liips, seventeen cost from £100 to £150 (Rs.1000- 

ti I .'»()0). twelve from £70 to £100 (R«. 700- Its. 1000), ten from £flO to 

■70 ( Rs. oOO-H«. 700). eight from £30 to £50(R'( 30O-Ra. 500), and two 

rom £10 to £;W (Ra. 100-IU30O), the coat of the four others is not 

inown. Of thc60 ships, those above twonty-five tons have two masts 

[Bombay OuoMmTi 



mnd fonr atiil»; those from t«n to twcnty-tWe tons have two lua^is i _ 
two Boila, and am all craft unJer ten t/msliftvii tme mast anil vrrt' 
sail Tlie tjliipu generally »nil to Bomliay, Surat. Broach. Bal 
Vcrdvai, Suwirdi, BiUiuoro. Bawscmaiid AgA«hii tliyysctmijtimiyi 
B8 far itA Knchin, Kaliknt, Kfirwiir. TirApur aiid Mmtknt. A 
io Ooa, Kochiu unil Kalikat ou the MulnliAr coiist takes frcvm twoh 
tu ttrii.-un <)a}-s, auU to Bunili&y anil the CujarAt porta from ctw 
«ight (lay.s. 

Dunng the past open &«a»ou from S«pt«9nb«r 18S1 to Jane ll 
lh(! port of BhAvuagar was viHitwi hy .Wi>0 veaaels including ~ 
coa-Htin^,' Hteamnrs.' Tlu: ajiTgri'tjttt*^ hunlon of theae vobbuIh anu 
io 101.S>41 tous of wliich yS,412 Urns U-Iouged to countiy 
8592 to ftUiaint-Tft. The othiT four ports of the Uh&vnamr 
MahuTa TalAjA Rj(jula and SundrAi, were xasited by 2019 vvi 
of an aggregate of 39,515 tons. Of the craft which carrj' merchaut 
to and from theao ports only a few were boilt at BhAvuagaT i 
Uahuva. Tin: majority came from the Guiar&t ooAHt south of Sui 
Formerly many ship-huiUh^rs lived at BliAvnogar but they have 
moved Uf Buiiihay. The cost of l.nilding th<'M' country craft '~ 
altnut £15 (Rj*. 150) the ton; the nialt-rialH are teak and hhair wi 
Thoy are known hy a variety of names acconling to their hizp bw 
and rig. The ba<fhta is the largest and varies from thirty to i 
tons; Uie batdo, kolhia, dkangi and ganjo are from tifti^u to 11 
tons; the rdodi, padao, fatemdri, galbnt, and ntaugall arc un< 
wjventy-five tons ; the hodi is between ei^jht and Iwp.uty-f 
tons; and the marhhfa the 3malle,><t of aJl rangcfi from o 
end a half to twelve tons. Tlie freights charg»x1 to BoiuK 
by country craft and titenmer vaiy accoriUng to the lime of I 
year and the characU;r of the cargo. In the fair season, fii 
November to March or April, the freight for full-pressed Ijalos 
cotton by country craft is GJ. to 74</. (4-5 annas) and by stf-amt 
Is. Od. (12 anmuf) the hale. Half-preisscd bales ai'e chnr<'ed Is. Oii. tu 
8». (12 u«.-Ka, ij) b^- f«mnli->- craft and 5*. (Hfl.2i) by Kteam*-r'<. 
Cotton forms almost the sole article of export from BhAvnagar bl 
8ca. The following is a Hitninjary of the unliuary freight^i froi 
Bomlmy to Blidvuogar. By cotintrycraftgrmiiischaTgcd '^t^. to ' 
(&-8aHiia«) the JihandC; bullion 1 1. Gd to 2tr. (12 an«.'Re 1) 
tbouttaud rupeos; gitxicrics or nandhUinu, uicluding sugar, pe] 
coriander-Kced, anil metals, 7^d. to Is. Ad. (5-10(in«.) theton. 
and balos of cloth are taken at the same rate a.s fvitbpr4\s.sed bah 
£t steamer uniin iH charged 28. (He. I) the hhindi ; bullion 2^. 
(Ua.1|) the thousand ruriecM; and groceries, and iih-IaIs, 2ti. <Re. 
ton. From Apiil to the boginning of June, freights are fifty per c* 
higher on all meichaudi^u except Imllioii for whicli fi-eight remai 
the same throughout the year. Short-delivery i.4 made goo«l by 
ca]itain nf the Vx^at by deduction from the freight. The frfight 
paid in two instalments, one inataluient by thf coujdguorat tbo til 
of starting ; the other instalment by the consignee at thu time 
arriving. Freight* arc subject to brokerage and doaccura eall^ 

^ Tlw BlUTUjpu thin>u>S detwis fa»vo been cuulnlwtMl Uy CajfiMhi 3. H. lit 




shla aukdhi amouiitjug to^Uier to about ten per cent of the treighU 

thu cnptain Fiuls to ^ati^fy the claim fur Hliort-tli'livury out of 

30 EreigUl, the owuer of the gootb way claim agoiiiKt the vewol. 

o«no of the lioats which carry to and from Bhuvuagitr buloiig to 

)hi£vnagar merthants. Imt most of tht-ai ace tho propirty of w/icAAi* 

or OtyarAt boat-cftptftins who have a lxtt*::r name for »ki]l and 

^lioiu-sty than the Bh^vntLgar captains The Uirgu vesaiclK owned 

:1>y iiii.'rcliaiiia carry trargo to aiul from Bombay, ami Iho flmall 

[TCASt>l« or ntnchhcas, owned hy tandtU, bring grass from the state 

via near tite creek an<l tiruwood from near the month of the 

iiirlni'la. Tlio crew of a iiativo vessel vary uccoriliiig to tliu toimago. 

liL- usual Mtroui^h of crew in a craft of h-^n than twenty -Hve totw is 

i'from fuut tu viu'hb and iu larger vt.seula from eijjht to faiVuii. The 

jcrew arc [>iu() by the voyage, the amount varying with the HeaKoti 

>f the year. In atldition to their wages they receive daily ratioas 

it tho (expense of the owner of the veastA or of tbu coutraotor wlio 

ruimiD;^ her for the sca-son. Wap?H arc calculated on the probable 

ngth of the voyaj;e. Ewch of tlie crew of a vessel l-ound for 

}oiut<ay and the MalaliAr coast receives 12«. to IGa. (Rs. G-IU, S) 

^tbt> vij^'u^tv tlie bclmMiiaa lutlf aa much a"uin, and tlie captain 

ibotit twice ns much. To Sumt, Broach. BiiUiir and other Uiijarit 

orts luid to all KrithiAwAr ports the rates are about onobalf sua 

lUch ua the rates to Bombay. 

The native craft whifh visit Bhavnapar are usually of fifty tOHixty 

iom A vc»-el of tliJs »i/c carries about i2o balf-prcKSt^d or UUO 

fult-prcf^a) ImUh of cotton. The freight to Bomhav of 125 half- 

pbrcwed l>uleA at 3ff. (IU I )) the bale amount-^ to £ltS I'd^. (IW I87|). 

lIK'ductuig £1 17«. 6d. (Bo. Itjj) for brokei-age and other extrB.s, the 

Ibfttanr.- dne to the boat-o«-ner is £1G 17«. tt<l (Rs. ItiSJ). (hi the 

^turii voyiigc a vesst'l (if this carries \oO khdudiji of grain, 

p'wbich at 1^. (U anim") the khiindi, less lov. (Rs. 1\) for brokera^'e, 

I'ield.H u freight of £6 Ija tU.s.C7i): that is, the "ross earnings 

tor tlie two voyages amount to about £23 \2». (Ks. 236). 'I'he 

ragca and allowances to the crew for the two voyages n-prettent 

ibout £13 (Rs. ISO], leaving a balance of aliont £10 12<. 

|(IU lOG). Of thi« £1 U. 6d. (Rn. lOJ) would go to port-dues, 

und the net protit to the owner of the boat for tine two voyagea 

Ivould In £d 10«. (R^^ !*o). During the eight and a liulf months of 

Itho open seoAon a native ve.'isel can make abt^iut twentv voj-ages 

bween Bombay and Bhilvuagar. ten before the middle o£ February 

ten betwei:n the middle of February and the middle of 

ly. During the former period when there is little risk of a atona 

hhe uvl ewiiings an>ouut to about £2 10». (Bs. 25) a voyage. During 

Itliu .st-'cmd half of the season, when thcru is much hardship ana 

liderabJo risk, the pnjtits amount to a» nmcli n.-ii £D 10«. (Ks: 9.i): 

i."i a grow? yearly income would amount to £120 (Ba 1200). 

■"roui this about £30 (Rt, 300) would have to be taken to meet th& 

>5t of rcpairn and maintt^nanco ehargi-3. This leaves a net balancei 

£i>0(Rs.9UOjoroua ve<^*-l which baa cost aWut £600 (Ks. GOOO) a 

prutk of lifleeti per cent This high rate of interest is seldom resliH<,Hl. 

iVA-ii-l. \ui\i- often to Mill with letw than full cargo and oocaKionally 

rl of thu earuiiigs is lost in meeting claims for shoiirdeUvcry. 

(ampler VI. 



CSuipter yi. 


Tlicre is a\so thu cleiuctit of risk. 
ojv never iiisim»l. 

In Blidxiiagar the crew of natix'e ves^dfi is lunuilly comxK>!H>d vi 
Koli», and in (iogha, of Knltn anti K1iAr\*fEA. Tlie Kli(ir\'iiA arc ilw 
[lesccndantfi of thu furnierMuhaiiiiiimlan seafanni; population of that 
town. Native Hhip-owiiors ofti^ii li-t thoir veawlfi fnr the sca»nn for 
ft fixed sum. This sum ispayablp by thi^ Itsscoin three in-' 
in Decenitx't March and Jtine. Should any accident bapi'i 
boat during ilic term of the lease the o^'nor is bound to n.-j>air the 
damage and indemnify the lessee for the time the l>oat in )ai') <=r> 
Petty rcpoiirs are executed at the expeiue of the hirer. At tht 
of tiie open season thu boat is replaced in the owner's pONsesMon 
who ha>« to maintain her during the rains. During the continuauoa 
of the Wase the lessee is liable for any damage to or loss of en- ■' 

Mercliaiits usually avoid vetisels wlucli ai-v run under thv ai 

conditiona !>pcause the Icwsce is often a man of sti-aw, from whom tho 
owner of the cargo would find it difficult to recover dagiages. 
Several shipping agencies iu Bhi^vnagar coutract with European and 
native cottou mordiants to deliver cotton at Bombay at a fixwl nt 
for the whole year. This arrangement is confined to cotton, bcc.. ■ 
the imports are on a smaller !»calc und merchants prefer to W ; i 
to avail thumaelvea of a tumiwrary fall in freights to bring ili.r 
goodii across. But the risk of careleffmefia or trand is avoided by 
ui« practice of keeping back half the freight till the cargo ha^a 
lieen delivered. Vessds are often lost, tlio chief daugcra bcin^f 
stonna and rocks, osperially near Piram, Djindi, and Danian. TvV 
the creeks the craft are eithex- dragged by a rope or pushed by 
poles ; when at sea, suil.s only are used. Theae vessels 
oompassea but no charts, and do iu&tnuaent to tneasuro the b 
of the sun. 

Besides these veaicis, there are three sailinfr steamem and 
boat built by the state at a coftt of £13.500 (Rs 1,3.^.000). The 
largest steamer, which was built at Bombay, is of 10tj| tuns. 
second is of fifteen and a half tons, and the "thinl of four i<;>n^ ; ti 
boat which wai bnilt at Surat is of twelve tons. 

In JuiiAgail tliere are about cightv-'wven vessels, seventy 
Verfival and seventeen at M&ngrol. ^ere are besides sevent; 
eight small boata. thirty at Vertival, eighteen at M&igrol. t«u 
Bhorai, and twenty at other ports. The VenSval veasolH vary 
inner measurements from thirty to fifty feet long and from twel 
to twenty fevt bi-oad, aud iu tonnage fmm twenty to 125 
Ail of these ships are built at Verstvaf They belong to Mu! 
and Viiniila and sailors and arc worth from X80 to JC200 (Ra. 
Ba. 2000). Tliey have generally tM'o maata, a main-mast in 
middlu and a mizzeD-mast towards the stem, and three sails two 
the main-mast and one to the miznen-mast They sail to Bom 
Goft, the SialaliAr coast, and Kochin on one side, and to K 
Maskat, and Aden on tliu other side. The voyage to Bombay 
about a week, to Kochin a month and a ha.\f, and to Aden three to 
four months. The ships are guided by native helmKmcn 
captains, who steer &om experieuoo with" little knowledge of 
theory of navigation. Thu ships begin to sail in November 

L^ by_ 
d on^^ 


f tM 
r on^l 




ip sailing at the end of May. Dnring Ihe runy season when ahips 

not stir one of tho hiu-bnar, th(% ^oaiuon work at home. The 
ipH take ^atn, cotUui, wool, uiolatRtv^, and onjoiut, and bring 

iton-seeiLs. <l«t*';^. baiiil^xw, timber, oil, clarifi«ii ^mttt-T, piKce-gooda, 
and grain. The freight charges ai-e 2*. (Re, 1) for a passenger to 
Boiidiuy;for ordinary cargo tno rate varies according to distanco 

ni I*, to 3«. (8 an^-Rs. ij) a khdndi and from Is. to 6». (8 ant,- 
'3U. S) for cotton. The rink in the fair sea-son in not great; insurance 
rates varj* Erom one-fourth to two per cent No ship has been lost 
(lurinj; the ten years I'lidini; 1881. Tlie chief ilaJiger, when ships 
ftTi* within the hftrlwnir. Is tlie south-wc.'it wind, and when at sea, 
he rcef.s in the Arabian Sea. The captains have tiujall oompassea 
lULd a rougl) liook of charts. 

At MAngrol, thei-e are seventeen ships, all built at M&nerol at a 
oofitof £30 to X600 (li«. 300 - lU G()00) and from about fifteen to 
» htmdred tons burden. The sliips have two masts and two ladla. 
Two of them 1)clong to the Shekh of Mfincrol, and the rent to local 
''merchants chiefly V^^. Mt'Oians, and E3iirv^. The other 
nhipping rIetaiU are the tuuno a.s at Venival. 

Besides th.-Ko large vessels tliere are at Verival about thirty boafa 
I witli unesail from tontotwenty-Hvu fit't long and of a proportionate 
Hwidth and depth. Beside.? carrying gooils to the ships in harbour, 
Hbhoy aotl to the K^thiiiwfir port«> butweeu DIu and Porbaadar. The 
Hlnftts ftre built at Verdvaf and belong to Vilnius, Mentans, and 
"iiulors. Besides these thirty boats at VenSval, there are in the 

Juiulea'l Htate ten boats at Bhurai, eighteen at M^grol, and twenty 

at other porta. 
Tliere are no steamers belonging to the Junitgad state, but the 

steamers of the Bntihh India SU-aiu Navi-'ation Company ply twice 
^pt week to Ver^val ajid Mingml. and other Bombay Htciuuera visit 
^Btbcsa two ports during the fair season. 

At Porl<andar, there are seventy-two vessels, twenty-two owned 
by BhAtiiis, seventeen by Lohiin^, fifteen by Kh(lr\-6s, five by 
BrAhutans, five by Musalmsin.'j, four by V^^, two by Uhans&li.s, and 
two by PAi-sis. The vt's-suls have eacii two niastw awl two soils, and 
■rt-ftllbuilt at Prirl>ftndar,two of tliem costing' nbout £800(R3. 8000), 
jthrev XOOU (lU GOOO), two f .'.00 (Ks. 5000). seven £400 (TU 4000), 
[seven £300 (Ra. 3000), nine £250 {lis. 2500). tiftceu £200 (iU 2000) 
tught £150 (Rs. 1500), ten £100 (Rs. 1CK)0), and nine £50 (Rs. fiOO). 
~*orbaadar craft generally sail toKariichi, Bhflvnagar, Broach. Surat, 
iilimora, liomhay, and the Malabar coast, and sometimes to Alaakat, 
fita'inlh, Aden, Lambn, Zanzibar, Koloud)0, Calcutta, and Malacca. 
Iln thrir voyages the ships generally loi^d and take tn cargo at the 
■^ortt on their way. The gomg and return voyage from Baarilh iokea 
kbout two niontluH, and from Calcutta by Bombay and from ZanziliAt 
tb(>Qt four months ; but with a favourable wind and with no 
Fiitoppngi! at int^rrncdiate ports, ships come from Calcutta by Bombay 
Iwitiiiii two montha The seamen are KhAr\'a Hindus and Kfllidvalijt 
[unalmAns. For a voya^ to Calcutta tho captain is paid £2 ( Its, 20) 
moath, the mate £2 (Rs. 20)^ and the seamen from £1 to £1 4jr. 
,10>Kh.12); for a voyage to Zanzib&r the captain and mate 





CtiAptar VL 


art) each pAhl £7 10«. (Bm. 75), And the Bcan)«n from £^ 4<#. to. 
12«. (Ils.32-Rs.50);forii voyagntn A.I.n th. . 
ciuih pRii] £5 12ff. (Ks. 2(i) oiuJ the !s<.'a]iifn 
(Ra. 2J-Bji. S5); for a voyfu,'^ to Boiuluiy Kai-Acin .Suna niiU Bn«clC 
for which no iiinio is rvquirwl, the captain is paid £1 U*. (Ri"*~ 
(uid the :^-Atnen frcmi lirf. to £1 1«. (R<l7-B«. tO|); and for « voi 
to thu Mahil)dr porto, the CAjitain is jiaiJ £2 1U«. (Km. 25). Binf 
Reanit'n from £1 to £1 IOm. (R«, lU-Rs, l.i), Ht-mdoft thi-s inuh ptirnii'itt. 
thft fw>amcn arft p^o^^dod ■with fooil by the nhipnwi! ■ ~" i 
captnin or ttm'lel, who i» alwayi* a native, manager i / 

Olid thi; HiaU; or mvalUrn act« a» thi* Aaitin;^' iiiOAter. kecpin<^ tM 
lustnimoutA charU and lo;;. Vcnscla soil from the KikttuAwAr j 
Beii^'al in July-Augiut {Shrdcati) oud rutum in NovemWr-] 
{Afiirrf shirth) ; Ui BastAh in 3u\y - Au^i^t {Shmran) and rcl 
Octol»c-r-Novenil)er(AVT'/i^); and to Zanzihitr after Jaimary-F.-liruaji, 
{l*ogk and Mnijh). Tile rnU* of inxiirancej which is ^onii-tiiiifs ini 
for a sDintler and .somctinics for a larpitT amount thiu\ the value nf I 
goods shipped, is nearly two per cent (Rh. 174 P*"" thousand rnpeni 
Shtp^s are sehJom last. T\ivy use the compass, charts, and -<.•>;( 
Vesttuls are laid up during the ruins and rujtaired. 

At Navibnndnr, there arc ten vcascls of twc-nty-five to 8c\ 
Rvo tons. Of the ten vassels. seven I>eIonp to BhittliU 
to Masahudus ; two weru built ut Mdiidvi, one at Forlmjid 
and the re-si ut Navi. One ciK^t a1x>ut £aOO (Rs. oOOO), four £: 
[Kx 2500), four £150 (Rs. 1500), and one £oO (lU SOU). Tbo 
ships which sail to Malacca Blaskat aud Zanzibar have two 
and three salts, and the wiialler crsift which h;ive two inaHta 
two i^ails sail to Kai'Achi, Broach, Sm-at, IV>iidu'ty, nud tlie MidMh 
coast The crew, who are Hindu KharvtiK. U-sidet* grain for f<> 
are paid bi lamp Huina railed khilas. 71io captain or Mutillim for a 
trip to tJiuMalandr coast is paid £1 2.9. (37 ^nV) and the seamen 7ff. 
14«. {9-mkori*). Vetwelsdonotsailto Malacca Maskiit and Zuuxit 
aftor the end of February -March (i'Aa/^im) nor to Domlmy and 
MaUhilr cotwt after the month of April- May ( Vaijihiikk). ]3urin( 
rains the crew work at home ax Uliourers. VessolM take grain i 
ati<l wo<iI, and bring elaritknl butter oil timber iron groceri* 
grain. Tlie frpight chargcH are Ra t^ a kbdmii for a trip 
Malab&T cooMt, aii<.) 1 2 ang. to Re. 1 a hhdndi to iJroach, Snrat 
Bomliay. VuhhcIh are tnanrod at one and one-fourth per cent 
Malab^, at thrua-fourths per cent for Bombay, and at two and a hi 
per eent for ZtmuWa. The chief dan^ru arc the storui.s at t 
closo of the suiling season. All ships liavo compaasea and tlu 
oommandLfl by lawtlUntg have charts. At J^farabad there a 
thirty-nine ships of nine to 1 1 1 tons (2^-300 khdndis). All are 
at Jt^ralxul. 

The ships which anchored at the ton chief porta of tho province ; _ 
the year 1880-81 varied in burden from two to 201 fcon« and tli« 
steamers frtjm fifteen to 2000. The tonnage of shipe varies! fmr 
ninctv-ei^dit and a half to thrcii at Uhdvtiugar, from ninety-three w 
a half to two at Mahuva, from 10+ to fourteen at MAugrol. f roiu 201 
fourteen at VerAval, from 150 to twunty-tive at Navibandar, from I! 
hi twuDty-fivo at Forbaudar, and from 125 to five at Jodia, 

^^lll Ralriyfi. Thi; tonnage of steainerB vftri«;J troin fifteen to S(t8 at 
Huiviijt;^ur. anJi'roiii Hftt-en to 20OOat Porbaiular. 

Of 9770, the total number of ships entered in the ten chief poi-ta 

)f the |irovitu:i> ill the year 1879-HO the (rT<'»tivtt inimlter wan at 

~"jjivnBf[w an<l the lowest at Na\-iltau(lar. The details were 5244 at 

ihuviiotiar, Oil at Malnivn. .100 at Jrifaralwl, »00 at Miingrol, 080 

It W-rkvol. 132 at Navihaiidar, 530 at Poiliaadar. 201 at Saliya, 

[84 at Ue(li,and 182 at Ju^lia. OF 8427. the total number of .iliips 

tle*rod in the 3'car 1 S79-80, the gi-eat^at number was at BhAvnagar 

" the lowest at NavibanUar. The details were 5247 at Bhivnagar, 

)22 at MahuvB, 475 at JAfnratwd. 127 at MAugrol, 510 at VerAval, 

at Navihaudar. 34:J at PorlMindar. 236 at SalAya. 2til at Bedj, 

and 2^*0 at Jtxliik Of 502, the total number of steamers entered 

in the year ls7y-Sfl the j^reativst niimlHT was at Porbandar and tho 

" ivrest at Bhivnagar. The detailN wore seventy-one at BhAvuagar, 

I at Veraval, and 231 at Porbandar. Of 'M2, the total nuniberof 

ime.r.H cleared in the year 187fl-80 the greatest nundier was at 

jyeriv&I and the lowest at BhAvnagar. 'ITic details were sixty-nine 

it Bhiivuaf^ar. 200 at Vcr£ral, and lOL at Porltandnr. 

Af* native villajjroM and towns have little aecouuiKxIation suited 

for European traveller!! rest-houses arc ucces-sar}* alonj,' the lines of 

iblic roads. Provinion for thetie buildings has been made by the 

fjenry oiit of funils supplied by the chiefH, and the province of 

[KathiAwitr is now fairly supplied ■ft'ith them. \\*hen Ooyha wha 

the chief port of KiithiiUvAr, eipht were built on thu 

»o;rha-R(ijkot road, iit Uojjha, Vartej. Dhdruka, Dlia.-yi, Bdbra, Adkot, 

(irdhflr^ and Riijkot. Suiee 1805. twenty-four others have ln-cn 

fcdiled, makio-j; thirty-two in all. at Wadhwan, MuU, Dolia, Ohotila, 

uiianbor. Pardhari, Dhi-ol, Uondal, Jetpur. Manekv^a, Bilklia, 

huirtg'ad, VerAval, BhiS\TiajMr, Sihor, Dhor^ji, ViidiiHada, Porbandar, 

JiiiUii, Vala, BarvttJa, Dhandhuka, Kandoma, and VAnfcdner. 

riiesc rest-houses are ten to l^fteuji miles apart, near some town or 

[rillfttje where ordinary nf'w.ssftries con be ha<l. Most i-est-houses 

liavv two to six living ro'jms, with pantries, godo^vns and bath- 

DinSf and a Ktabh*- and miiw of servants' oHices. For native rest- 

is or dharmjthnUiH Kiithi^wilr wait t»ully off at the beginning 

the century. Caravansaries date back to Muhamma^lan titne4, 

t us Kdthiawar lay olT the nuiin tra«lu routes, ib has no old 

\tis\ neraig. Nuw a native tiTLVidltT can lind a rest-house of 

-Tt in every vilU^'e or towu. The poorest form of rest- 

louse is the c/fOM which is little more than a room ten feet squara 

snclose*! on three aides by a mud wall. Lni*go and roomy rest- 

liou.'ic--) have af lat« been built in great numbers by the lilK-rality of 

Tlie betti-r cln-ss uf modern rest-house ia generally a larga 

1 ([Uadrangle with a single entrance gate. The court within 

II roundi.-il by a covered nlieil opening inwards for the a^ie of 

jiory traders tuni travellers, ami with a Htabhi at the rear for 

lion-e'. and enttle. In adilicioii to this, the best rost-hou-si-s are 

irox-ide*! with two or more rooms for the u.<4e of native gentlemen 

id tiicir attt-ndaJits. Traders gciierallv contrilmte to budd animal 

lOines or f'l ■ I ■! rnndy to Imilif rost-houstis or dUarmnhalag, 

liiwi ttl-:-. ■ . ■ '.'I by a light tax on oartaJn articlca of trade 



Mid C 

But BoBwa. 

[ Bombay Ouet 




ia managed by the leading moi'chaiite or theUUds and is chicSj 
in feeding aniinoK 

In the year 1S72-7S, thcPD wpro thirty-ninoImperiaJ pout o 
iwcnty-mnc lettcr-bose*. twenty -tight nitui messengers, and 
li!Ucr-\">x P^'ODM. In lH7y-74, Umrt! were Uiirty-eiglit j> 
tw«iityM-i{ilit letter-boxes, twenty- cicht rural uiL'ssengi-rs. 
Iett«r-u>x |>oou. Ill 187 4-76. tIicuuiiil-_Th*l nscu to forty t«.'^t 
tliirty-fout lL'tt*;r-l»oxtw, thirty-two rural nicsspngvrs, and five 
hex peons. lu 1875-76, the total was forty-two post offices, se 
lu I87t)-77, there were forty-tivo post offices, ninety- four 
boxes, fifty rtiral iiu-asengcre. and six li'tU-r-liox prons. lu IS' 
there wi-rv -(fvoiity-oiie [Xwt offic<-«, -05 h;ttcr lj«»xt;s, seA't-iitv-f" 
rural nir-ssengurt, fmd Hvv lutti-r-liox i-t-ons. !ti IS7rf-7i), 
eight postomces, 212 lt;tti;r-!»oXfS. eiKlity-two niml incsfiei.p; ., .. ; 
three lett«r-box peons. In ]87'J-K0 thort- was n fall to seventy -thr>-< 
post offices, 170 lett«r-lxixcn, fifty -oight ruml meBa«;ngurR, amJ thrrr 
l«tter-l)ox peons. The iiuniWr of articli?s given for flflivetA" diirini* 
till* second week of Fehniary 1880 were, paitl ' ~ ' 

8971. At-rvice privili-gtil i-ight, and regUt-tiiHl :: _ 
iicwMiMipora 2*27 ; lH)oks mid pattoruB <ir(liiinry 21*4 imd i 
eight : and parcels, paid HI and unpaid tifty-one ; rmikii ^ , ,. i 
of 47;)G0. 

Besides the IinperiHl post offices, privnt* postal 
made by the states of ^avjinogor and Jiinitga'd. 1 
thir scat of the Central i>ilice. two lines pas>*. lUie to tlie eur^l jitu 
other to the we«t,thi-oiigh tlie chief tow«>^ of t)ic various Rub-diviM i; 
The post reaches the lost ntation within twenty-four houra and 
rotams in the same time tohc«d-(juarters. .It is carried by rurrur^ 
stationed seven iulle»t a^tart In the tjub-diviHioniil post uHiee a X-'ir'. i >. 
nets as pj>Kt master. IVople from villagctt where there l" no (jovernni' la 
post office or |xxst«!-iiox. wnd their letters thmugb thi-H st (. 

f)Ost and are n-fjuired l<o affix h stniiip of the vaUie of \if. t > .i 
Btter weighing up to half &to(a in weight. As Uiese ]»ost«l Iti) 
are almost entirely use*! iji carrying state letters and jiu 
they cost the state al"out £(HM) (Rs. (J00O> a year Iti Junitgad. the 
is a .slate past office at Vt-rilval. I1te centml office i.s at Juiiag 
and the postmaster of .Tmiiigad is the hea<! of the departmrn 
Runnci-3 ai-e slationed at interval!* of eight miles. Stamps of tl 
value of one-sixteenth of a kori are used. Letters are also regislere 
and parct-ls carried up to ItJO tofAs in weights AcctHuitM 
rendered to the head accountant of the -state. 

Except OopnAth and the Coral rwsfs in the Oulf of Cuteh, tlie 
of KAtliiAwAr is reckoned safe thi-ongliout its whole length. 
cuiTeuts sot along the sliore and by day a vessel may ^ail safe! 
along the coast- At night no ve»tsi.>l .shoiili) pass within the twcni 
fathoms line. The coast i-s now fairly lightwl. Many of the ligh 
are still aiuiple lanicnis, Imt improved forms of liy;l.Liugare hcii 
grmluallv introduced Beginning from the north, tne latest Marin' 
iSurvey Department list notices the ftillowlug lights. - The Ijearin 
given are magnetic and from the slap not from the light. 
given dJstanccH from which the lights aix> risible are calculated for a 



f lieight Hf tccn feet above the sea, the elevation of the lights bciss taken 
fin all ca«e3 aa Hbove high water. Kojhi, north lat 22" 32' sS\ east 
ilou^. 70^ 1' 30", a wliiU) fixwi liglit, threu conimon kcroMcnc lamps 
.OD a, white round tow.rr forty-two feet high on the Rojhi temple ou 
the iiorth-t-ast |wuit of Rojhi islan'l at thy month of the Naviiiaj^r 
crv4^k. It wiLs built by H. H. tin- .btiii of Naviiiiawir in 1867. The 
lijght can be seen seven miles in clear weathf-r ari<f H^Iitc-iia aa are 
tcl I-O'' or l>etween the bearings of .south-oaat by east a t|uai*tor 
l«ftst ronnii by south to south-west by Wflst a quarter weat On 
[the inlanil of "Kanuobhar, north lat. 22'° 26', east long. CO** 4'. a light- 
Ihouae win courw (18H3) of oonstruction on a whituwashed tower 
ftlurty fctt ML,'h. The li"ht will bo an ordinary lixod white lighfc 
buntiiij^ kir.vjM'ne oil. The arc of illumination i» from S. 59 W. 
Itn N. 18 W. Tlie light will l«e visible in clear weather at a 
distance of tea niite.s. Bet, north lat. 22" 29', cast lone;. G0° 4' 30", a 
[vhiic fixed light on a white stone masonry house thirty-five feot 
bigh, on the highest and nearly the ceutralpart of Saiania island was 
ihtiilt in 1870 at the »ist of H. H. the Ci(iikw.'4r of Barodaas a guide 
tto th.' harlxiur of Bet and for vessels c-ro.s.*iiii{; tlm mouth of the Gulf 
[of Cutch. It is a catadioptric light of the fourth order and can 
tic sp«'n twelve inile.s in clear weather. It HghteiiH an arc of 180 " 
; hetwpL-n the bearings by east round lij- east and south 
Ito soutli-west by south. Dwfiika, north lat. 22° 14* 0", east long. 
wS" 57' 0", a white fixed light, three common koxwene lamps 
nievetity feet high on a white square stone tower, on the cliffn of the 
fmainlan-l weat of the town, and three hundred and hfty feet 
Iwithiiihigh water line. It was built in 1866. It is int^-nded to 
|pri.'v*'nt Dative craft ronning on the headland, and also serves as 
FA guide for auchoriu^ in the small bay oppotiite Dwaika. It is 
[«up|M>.setI to be visible sis or seven miles in clear weatlier, but la 
lot seen beyond three or four. It lighu-na an arc of 180° seaward. 
new dioptric light of the fourth order will shortly be used. 
iPorlMindar. uorih lat 21° 37' 10', ejtst long, 69" 35' 0", a white fixed 
llighi eiyhty-fi\'fc feet high, catailioptTic of the fourth order ou a 
liimall white tower above u gray «touu tower at the water gate of tlio 
[(own wall It was built and la kept up at the cost of the Rjina of 
|PorUindar and has been in use since 1876. It can be seen tifte^n 
lifes in clear weather and lightens an are of 180°. M^ugrol, north 
iL HV C 0", east long. 70^ O' 30', is a white Ibied light, a country 
lantern set on a ?'iuaro house, sixty feet high and four hundred 
^'ur<js fj-uui tlie lauding place. It lightens an arc of 18(t" uid in 
ieen eitdii mile.'^ in clear weather. It boa Iteeu in use since 1874. 
[VerfiviJ, north lat. 20" 63' 30", east long. 70*^ 22' 0*. is a cala- 
]!optric white Bxed ticht of the fourth order, on a white masom'y 
>ou-:*', lifly-sis feot liigli on the west side of the harl«ur. It is seeu 
liirt.i:n miles in clear weather and lightens an arc of ^60^ It has 
!ix in use siiiee the 5th of March 1S76. It was built and is kept 
Jpby the Xawilhof .liiniigiKl. JAfarabad, north lat. 20-51' 30',ea/it 
long. 71° 2;i* 30", a fixed white light, six kerosene lamps with a 
|ilvt!re<l ghtby in tlie centre, on a uia^tt seventy feet high at the mouUi 
* the creek on the south side. It can bo seen for eight miles round 
clear weather. It was built and is kept np by the Naw&b ot 


Light He 

IBombtj Ouet 



ipter VI. JaiiJirA atiil 1ia» \Mn:n> 

187G. Midiiiva. norUt Int. VP'. 



M PurU. 

21". m^t lotij; 7r 4ir liVr. H fixo.! wliitv 
iinltT iiiiK-tj'-nine f*^et liigh on ihi.- 1« 

liouKe on tli^ htutt'at tin- entrance of tliu Mnlmvn crpi.'k. Id 
wcAthcr it can U^ -wen f(»r thirtueii inilos nil round. It 1i«m 
us« since 1871. OopiiAth, north lat 21° 11' 3^. east lon^^ 72' 
white Kxetl catadioptric light hixty-rif;ht feci hi^h on n buff-n>!( 
Iini<*fltone tower, on a hillock two humirf-d ani\ rnrt.y yunl-i inihr- 
froKiGupndth fK»int. His ncenata distnnrcof nim-miU-s 1» ' 
Ijeiirint^H ut" HtuiLli-Miutli-w»'nt throu-j^h wtst to noith-n>irili 
\rtw hiiilt ami is kentuiil-y theBh(i\'nB^jar9tolt' to mark the t-iopi 
rvef. Piiaai, north Ut Sl'So' 54'. cast luug. 72" SCa"'. a white 
tlioptric light of the fourth onlcr, one liundn-d f«ut high, a 
ronml hricK tower on the niin» of an old Itostion on tlic iitti 
it can U- sL'vn over an aj-c of SSH" l>etwwn the t.<earin<pt uc 
itLst hy noilh tlirou^h north-went and suiitli to eotit hy sonfh oni 
half south. It was first lighted in Dfceirdicr Ifttj.'i. luirl was huil 
and is kept up hy Oovenum-nL Oo;jha, north lat 21* +0' aO". *ii»4 
knig. 72'^ 10' iT, a whit4: tixtHl ligiit twunty-five fet;t liigh, a loii^ 
fJiip's lantern on a post at the nag »tatf <m the Iwach near th» 
Cluluin-hDUHp. It is supposed to he M-en five niiltrn and i^ meant 
aHastnall port light. It has U-t-n in n»« kuic*- IHilli. Bhnvim-.'Bf. 
north lat 2r -Mi* tO". i-ast long. 72^ 12' 15", a white fiserl , 
light of thv fourth order is forty-vight feetliigh on a M-hii 
fi-aiiie-work on the south stiorc of thp cnwk, Tn clear wcstlior it 
can l» aocn for ten miles all round. It serves local purpoocs only 
oud was built and is kept up by tlie Bln&vuagar »tate. 

With a scalwurd of (ive hundred miles, und no plaee more 11;.!^ 
sevcnty-tive miles from the coast, the produce of KathijlwAr tiinJ- l 
ready outlet Kvcry little creek proWdes a means of access and has 
its trftile ccntnt. In 1842 sixty-two of these were mentionei^ r-:- 
places where trade centered.' Of tlie-»e sixty-two ccntn-.s, t%v > 
were cIo)«.h1 in 1842,' some owing to the silting of channels und o(,)i. i 
to their luifitness for modem trade., Of the Hfty reinaining cruu . -, 
only twelve, Jodio, Bedi. SalAya. Porbaiidar. Navibandar. Mtingi 
Verdval. JAfarabad, Mahuva, Gogha, Hhitvn/igar, ami Ohotera. ^ 
an exteusivo trade. With the artdition of WadhwAn, the weslc 
terminus of tlie Bombay Baroda and Oenti-al India Railway %} 
twelve portti are slill the chief centrea of comniei-cft 

Tlie chief hi^^ti>rie ports of Kdtbidwjir ore. Gogha, Din, 8omuitth^ 
Pdtou, MAugrol, tuiu Porbaiidar. MAiigi'ul hoj^ Uiou suppustHJ 

* Thfi ukOKB beginniag in orttor from thv pilf oS Cntch to IIm gaU at Cunli«; u«1_ 
VM-iuia, .Intlift. Harlilim, BAlirhaiU, Kbin, NavilmwUr XAfpin., Hoihibdni, hvdt, 
Satniiit, !s«Iftyti, Pimlan, nitjEiani. I'Dshitra, A»ml>hdn. Bet. Kncliliig*<i. Itupaa,. 
Uutllii, Bbogat, MuUli, Porbondar, Nikvi. MiilliAvitnr. Sil, BI^Krvl. Chomd. ViMi 
Hir&kot, Sntr&iArla. Uh&Diloj. KwlinAr. Vdui, Vnniiibini.OouUa, Diu, N*vibuu 
JAfantuul, Wicrtl, KAnirara, Katliivailw, Shui! btt-ChabC-h, D»v&li&. M«hti«, Kalj _. 
RitllAr, Kotdk, GulhuK SiiltAnpur. NaluUm <Jfpu4th, Mithivjrili, Knila, (^oghl 
EvKtun, Akv^dn. lthA\-n*giir. AdWli. (.inixiaii), KaI&ThUv, Bav»liilli, aad DholCM 
Bom- (lev. .S.;I. NtwS«nM XXXVII. AiJ|K;ndix Q. 

' riie l*i-lvt .l«iKTl«.l tr<t.l(M.>«titn«iier<t: HfcliUia. N4gn», Bojbibirii, Sil, DcviJul, 
Kaliir, Kotda, UwUial*, N«hAa» GopDAtb, MUhirirdi, Kttda, and KvMila. 



[Sir H Yult! Uj he Ptoleuiy'» Muiioglmsuui EiupoHum, but no other 

>Mi4v reference U> the place hsfl been trnceo. At the hoginning 

[of t(i>? i«u;b;«>nth cvDtury tli<.> Portu^rucw traveller tituliosa (luscril>ou 

it Qo a jrix^i |>i>rt wIhti- imuiy »niiis from MaliiMr touched for 

HurM*. wli'jit, ric", coium, clcithji, itml V('jj[ftaliti.--.N, ami brought 

cyKiiwiimt'A, •iin-ry, wiix, ciuxlmuuius, aii'i otUt-r smctrn. It was cailwl 

8uratt. tlmt i>* iiiiratlii Mjiii*;ior In (listiiif^iKli it fitJUi the Mulabaii 

WAii'^lor.' Soiiiniith-Piltftn, tts a famous place of pilgrimage for 

iHiiploH, ami, atiurwardtf. a» aii ouiliarldng }x>rt for Ilu.salni.-Ui5 on 

.thrir way t<i tlu-ir holy plaen'i in i'ersia ajul Ai-ahia, long contiiiut'd 

irioh an*l nojiulous. In the sixteenth centui'y Dio wa« a ffiuious 

'port (if call for all vessels boun'l to ainl imm tjujarrtt, Ihu IWd Sea, 

Ami tlu! F.-rsian CJuIf. Hotli VariliL-uin (150:{) And Barbotm (IoI4) 

noiiCQ tho uniuensc trade of Diu and desciibe it as *tlie chief 

> omporiuni in all tlicM; parts.' Diu seems to havo reached its highfjtt 

noiut of ptuBpcrity about the lM>giniiiiig of tho sixteenth ccjitury. 

Thirtitdt it r«-innincd one of thoir chief centres of trade it deeUned 

ofU-r it.s ac«)uisitiou by the i*orlugui.-(>e in 1535-30. Gogha, Fdtan, 

MiiiiL'roI. and Porbaniiar wei"u ttunrishing p<ji-ts up to the close of 

Auraugzeb'a reign (1707). Gogha fell first under the Pcshwa and 

t]it*n luider the British (Jovernuicjtt, while M^igrui and Pdtoa 

I continued for a time to lat held by their own nilertj. But the Nawflb 

of Junagnd conipellod thcHC towns to acknowledge him as tiieir 

impi;ri"r by comnuiring PrfUui and humbling the ruler of iliiugrol, 

who at pri-.spiit iiold-s nominal »way in hi.s own town, Hurler the 

rTriceroy" of (.lujariit, ilahuva, Jiifai-nlwul, and other minor ports 

I'Came into notice. ]>uring nio<lurn timcH the opening of Bhdvnagar 

;,in the Houth-eost and of Jodia in the north has caused a great 

change in tho course of traffic. Bhtivnagar has ruined Gogha and 

hu:* ilmwn to itsidf much wealth, population, and local trade. Jodia 

Kn[ " '" country OS far south a/) Kiljkiit with grain timber and 

otii' ^arieB, exporting chieHy wool and cotton. 

Omitting details for (Joglia and Dholcra, wldoii, thoiM;h in 

'itthirtwfir, fonn part of the Ahmadaba*! distnct, fifteen of the 

Krtthiawiir |K>ri.« call for special notice. Accoi*ding to thw rear 

1S7V.*-H0 the value of the trade at each of these ports is of tho 

[following relative impoilaiicc : BhAvnagar 4-t'ii. Mahuva lfi*6, 

iVor&val 13 6, Beili U-2, Jo.Ha 4-1I, PorUin.lar 37,M4ngi-ol 2i>, SaUya 

• 2I»', Jiifiiraliad 23. Vavdnia V'3. Navil.andar 09, Bherai Ofl, 

Kathiva«)ar 05. Talaja 0'4, and Sundr^i 0*1. 

Bha'VBagar stautl» on the Bhdvnagor creek, six miles from its 
|tQoutb and filtout Mr\-en an<l a half miles ahovo Ut^ha. At tho 
Imouth of the crwk in anheltcred spot near the light-house, « vessel 
'can anclior in hovcd to ten fathoms. The creek, which is a mile brood 

at thti mouth, narrows opposite the Bhavnagar landing place to 2074 
Jleel at highe«t water and 910 feet at lowasfc water, and 1823 feet at 
[high niiap tidts. In the creek o|ppo8it« the landing plac« th« depth or 
[water is 22'lU f^et nt lowest water s]irings, aDSfj fuetat low-wattr 

ivfi{Hi, 441MJ at high-water neap-s and 54-29 at Iiigh-water springs or 


OM fgrta. 


Staoler'a barbou, pago 69, 

(Bombay GurUcc ' 



hapter VI. 



a risti of tide at the full ami change of the moon of over ihin.y•X^ 
foot Thu average npced of the llood at the londinc pbtoa ' 
little over four luih-a an hour ; the speed of the ebb m Ia« 
Uikcs a third longer thun thu flood. The luicltorage is fail 
thu scour hjifi esjioscd the rock in place's, niMi at nnriugs «tv4 
have been known lo "Irttu their michors and lioen fcto 
keep their eiiginfj f^^^' <''our coastiu;^ steaiuerB have ofteo' 
off the lauding place at the haido tima Tht'y swing casilr to i 
tide. Such vciiscdjj visit the port only at th«> close of tl ^ ' 
wlien it is uecea&arj'' to hurrj' to B-juihay as much &» \ 
cotUni which tht; country craft hiivii n<*t l)ts;ii able t' ■ 
Much ntoufy lias Ix-'^n spent in in!pro\"ing the port, 
unproruincntA will Rhorily be made. A Ltoat ba<iin. lias been 
with 1280 feet of wharfago. Imniig nineteen feet of <Kaiet 
Ai>rings and ten at neaps ; chain moorings will soon l>c laid H 
the uiaia creek ; aad hydraulic cranes wi along thy piot 
capaliililii^ of the jwrt are not confine/l to the creek. N"Br 
light-houw; is an excellent entranci^ for wet docks to wl 
railway cuu easily l>e carrit-'d on. The Mariuo Survey 
examination of the channel from the gulf of Cambay into th 
Bhitvnagar creek provwt that the aaiid banks which ba\-i 
increased ou its uorth-oa^ side, complctc-lv shelter the anchoraeu fo 
ships of thti largest hikb. Thu viilue of the imports for I > 
years ending 1879-80 was £77S,847 (IVs. 77,88.470) in 
X54:i.517 (IK O+.3.5.170) in 1878-79. and X779.HW (Rs. 77.!' 
1871t-80; the exports f(ir the tiame purioil aniunnuul t« i. 
(Rs. 90.31.630) in 1877-78. X286.75:} (lU. 28.67,«30) in ligs. 
and £488,229 (Ra. 48.82,290) in 1879-80. Grun i^ the chief iu^ 
of import and cotton of export. A sixth ordt-r iliii|Ttric port figl 
stands on the hydraulic accumulator tower at the wharf hi-* 
and is littcd with re^i tuid greeu sUpH to niai'k thi< nii\-igabl 
channoL The time of high tide at full and change of Uie moon 
at four P.M. 

Kahuva, the second port in the province, belong); to Bhivi 
It fitandti on the MAl&n river, the town being aUiut tlirx^c. mil 
fi-oni the whort Country craft of 110 ton.i (300 hhtinJi») 
enter the creek at high tide, tho entrance being uiarktsl by 
excellent light. It in high watvr at one P.M. on full luid chaitj 
of the moon, and tlie rise of tide in twelve feet at .springs m 
seven feet at neap*. At low tide the creek is dry. Fre^h wfti 
is found in on excellent well below Jigri bluff near the light-houe 
Katpnr or Kutliapur was tlie name of the old port. Tlie value 
the impoi-ts for the three v«-arA ending 1879-80 was X21o,2!I 
(Rs. 21.52,120) in 1877-78. '£174,487 (Rs. 17.44,870) in l-S78-7( 
and £212.y01 (Rs, 21,23,010) in 1879-80; and the exiwrts wei 
£2.^.8.189 (Ra 25.81.890) in 1877-78, £199.083 (\U. 19,90.H30) ii 
1878-79, and £232,344(8*. 23.23,410) in 1879-80. Gi-aiu aad rii 
are the chief articles of import amoxuiting in 1877-78 to £IOO,I)0( 
(lU. 10,00,000), cotton was the chief ai-ticle of export amounting 
£20,00(1 (Rs. 2.00.000). 

Vera'val, the thinl port in KAthidwfir. belongs to Jnuilgad. U 
has a, considerable trade with Moskat, Karachi, Bombay, and othf 




ports. li \a open to the Indiati Ocean, and as within a 

>t1i oC uleven fathoms (hu 1>ottoiii ih Itare nxrk, it hnx no 

Liirttl advantft^es. In IS64, th*? Jimrtf,'ntl Htato 5p<*nt al>owt 

!3W) {lU. 2ii.0f)Q) iti tnipiyviiig the hailtour, ajitl X295([ 

i;i>.5(J0) iti ^urvi'ying a lincut" ruilway fnmi JDhurjiji to Vt-nival. 

for lengthening the pif-r a further snni of £3000 (Rs. 30.0U0) 

betai Kauctiuncd. 'lliu r^lway sditoite is aloo nndur consiJcra- 

l>nt Iho making of tlie Bhdviui^^-Ouiiila] line lias rais^nl 

tanl i(UCstions which mnst he scttltd Wforo the JuuitgaJ 

coiimiitJi itself to any ilt;tinit« scheme. The beach within 

wiitirr mark is of sond and rests on a ludgti of a linic-stoiio, 

whicli tht' whole fort'-shoru is composed. The leiijjth of wharf 

rail that has tjeea coinpWtvd h 164G feet to a heiglit of eleven 

:t along t]ie sea shore, and huhiiid the wall aWut four acre^i of 

d have been reclaJmi^d. A'.light guards the entrance. Coot] 

:>■ in «"ile\*en fathom-s with vmtd l><>ttom i.s found alM>ut a 

. ; n half fnjui Bludlihanjuii, which liw between Verdval and 

U«ri. The value i>f the iniportH for the two v*'ars ending' I.S78-79 

X.*I23,7aa (Rm. a2.27,:«0) ii» 1B77-78. and j;279,.sy4 {lis. 27,98,940) 

187S-79: tliij exports are £iiSJ>r}-3 (Ra. H.y*7,53()) in 1877-78 

id £107.325 (Ra. 10,73,250) in 1878-70. Grain chiefly millet, 

^heat, !!H-a&muni and rice are the chief imports and cotton the chief 


Bodi, the (wapori of Navdu^^r, on the Gulf of Cutch, helonpt to 

the ilAm of NflVitnagar. Vessels como tip the Bedi ci-cek to within 

three ([uarters of a mile of the Utile villni^e and port, the entrance 

to the Redi cn-ek twinj^^ alwnt two niiles from tho andiorago otf 

Ia\'lUia^ar. Tht- rtst- of tule at highest springs is eighteen fci't, at 

linarj' spring* '^ix^^en feet, and at neaps ten feet. The time of 

{Ii watiT at full ami chanj^e is at one o'clock forty miuutest Tlie 

Irolan ti^'es, a range of uiaiigi-oviw which rum Ij-om twenty to 

iirty ioet alwve high water, form an excellent land-mark in 

laknig the coast. A light is yhown on tho Kojhi temple whicli sLanJa 

lidway lietween the Naviinngar anchorage and iV'di port-. Tho 

lu<- M*l' till- iiupMi-t-* ft^tr the three ycaw ending 1870-80 is, £106,772 

l(;.fi7,72U) Ui IH77-7S. £Io3.0lH (Ra. Io.39,I30) in 187S-79, 

an.l £13.'j..'ir.+ flU l^I.-'i^.fJlO) in 1870-80 ; (he exi>tii-t*; for the name 

jV'riwl are £+.'..;i23 (R< +.5:1,230) in 1877-78. £706 J (lis. 70,640) in 

■07tf-7O, and £41,939 <R^. 4,19.390) in I87i>-80. 

Jodia iH'Ion^ to Navdnagar. Tlie north-wcatem Iw^tion of 
l1i>' fftiT tlie jtalace, and a gro\-e of high trees are noLaMe marks in 
'.c iK)rt from wawanl. Th'-n^ are niunlstalciiM'-' signs that 
"f til".' milf of (.'utch lta»* siltt-«l, for ves.wl.n have liet-n dug 
Jin a mnMidei-ahle depth IjpIow the present surfacp. Ve*«ilH 
kwing over seven feet cannot enter at less than half Hood. Tho 
of the tidea is ahtitmt the isiuiie as at IJedi ; the time of liigh- 
' - i.4 two o'clock. The value of tins imixirU for Um 
, ^,.!in._. 1K70-.S0 wa« £13-».12;l (Rs. l;VH.2.'10)in 1877-78, 
tl U«- ; in IS7S-70. and £74'J:iO (R'^, 7.42.200) in 

; the - , : . >v«re worth £72,liO (lU 7,21,200) in 1877-78. 
(Rm. 1.40,060) in 1878-70. and £ttl.7t!0 (Ka. 6,17.000) in 





t Bombay 





Porbandar wns on« of tin! chiof porta on tlii* Kdtliiilvriri 
when, ill 178o, tlu- lidiui inovf-d lii.s neat froni L'liliitya U' 
The port, wliicli iM iiiarkcji I'V a Iij;lit-lKim*e. luw Oil- Ciini.-. 
IuIIh an laiul iiiArks. C-oa^tiug i-raft ooclior within h 
lenjith of the town whore they are ahelu^red fr-om thu nrtrth-i 
by a rocky spit. Inside of nine fathoms the hoMiii^ ground in 
eood. Largo vessels anchor nearly two mileg from the fort in 
fathoms. The entrance to the treok is rocky ami at !<■ 
hivt onJy eighteen inches which j^railunlly <k-<-penfi to :. 
the jetty. High water at springs \» at iiin*; o'chiek fwrijr- 
ininutea It in earlier her*.' titan at anv othfr part of the 
ag the flood divergent north and sontK The rise and fall at 
HpringH in niut' feet In the ollinfc tin? tidut^ are K«id not 
p<^rceptihUv The valoe of the imp*>ftfi for the four vi**rs «ul 
1880-81 was. £113.452 (lb. 11.^520) in 1877-78. £ir 
(lU I2.78,(m0) in 1876-79. i.47,04.3 (lis. 4.70,4301 in 187D-80. 
£82.400 (Rfi. S,24.IK>0) in lSHO-81 ; the HX]K>rt-i wnotintwl to, 
(Ra. 8.23.930} in 1877-78. 148,305 (Rs. 4,.^3.0B0) in 1878-7?). I2i 
(RtL 2.83.d50) in 1879-SO, and £22,915 (Ra. 2,2'J4^0) in 18S0-8] 

Ma'ngrol hdonjjs to the Shekh of Milnprol. ThongI 
ancii^nt renown it ha'* very scAnty anchoiuge. Tlie wharf nl'^nj 
wliich L>oate load and unlwul is foniied of a ledge of thit 
which has Injeii cut away for the pnq>06& The rme of the __ 
19 ahont seven feet at spring an<i three or four at neap«. and lh(| 
high water si springs is at ten o'clock forty minutiis. T] '" 
sireams aitj not jicrctiptiUe. Tmjmrtft durini; the thnji> vear~ 
1870-80 amounU^d to £44>.002 .5* (Rt 4.60,0^2 J) in 1877-78. It 
(Rs. 6.84.990) in 1878-70, and £73.4:19 (R^ 7.34,390) ii, 1871 
and exporto to £17,152 (R«. 1.71,520) in 1877-78, £6815 I( 
(Rs. 68.155) m 1878-7», and £7703 10*. <Ra 77.035) in 1879-80. 

Sala'ya is a valuable natural harbour. Iioacons an<l Ii?til 

being all that is required to make it available for siiuari 
vencla. It is sheltered from nU wimU and im^«i^<tM:-.s th<- aiI' 
over Bombay of l>eing 300 luilew to windward m the south-wt 
monsoon when the strong winds blow for only thn*e or four tlaji* i 
a time and then lull for a day or two. KhanibhAlia is tho cK 
town to which good.s oi-e earned from SalAya. The port l><*t 
the Jam of Nav^na^pir who at prefieut seisms not to be in a ; 
to impmvr it. Tfie uiiportw w.'r<i £100,621 (Rs. 10.0(J.210) in ; 
£70,:{.S5 (Ra 7.03.S50> in 1878-79, and i:4l,7RG (R^. 4,17 
187!»-S0 ; and the ex]K>i-ts £oO,3(i2 (Rn. 5.03.020} in 1877-78, X 1 4 44i 
<Rs. 1,44,420) in 1878-79. and 135.503 (Rs. 3.55.(i30) in 1K79-80. 

Ja'farabad, belonging to tbe Halmhi of Janjjra. artbrtN lintc 
aheltcT tij lai'ge vessels, but from its large sandy beach iscoi 
for coa-iting craft, esm-cially for Hshing boatrt. Tjirg*< vv- 
outside in sevi^n or eight fatbouiM. Even if it was a l.>ctt<:r p'jrt, it I'aii 
never be of use owing to tho difficulty of bri'i"''-- 'Tr-"!!!"!- *'- ■■ i 
theOir. The Nandivclo hill 1741 fooA^kh 
an the two p«;aks Icnown as the Cc 
marks in approaching tlic coast 
waUr springs is ten fui>t, at or^ii 




90Dr feci and a halt High water at fHll-moon and change of the 
noon in at eleven o'clock thtrty-frvu minut^^. Imports amount^ 
to £35.964 (Rs. 3.59.640) in 1378-7!), and 1:34.205 (lis. 3,42.0r>0) in 
1871}4*0; (jxporis to £3i>,911 (Rs. 3,99.110) in 1878-79 and £31,319 
(Rs.3,!3,l90)in 1S79-80. During the ten yars ending 1879-^0, 
ibe valuu uf thti cUKtuios duties has gnulually ri^vn from £iOoO 
{R*. 10.610) in 1S70-7I, to £1531 {Rs, 15,310) in 1879-80. or fifty 
T Cent This iraprovenifnt in trade in jiaid to lie largely due to 
i« criiuinaJ Jurisdiction, being entrusted under British officers. 

VaTa'nia is a (ntmll port on the little Ran belonging to iho 
■Tbikor of ilorvi. Tlie imports for the three years endmg 1879-80 
,'iuiio(int.,il to £2I.3B0 (R«. 2.18,000) in 1877-78. £27,304 (Bh. 2,75,0401 
in I878.79, and £19.771 (Rfl- 1.97.710) in 1879-80; and the expoits 
to XS7.040 (Rs. 8,70.400) in 1877-78. £46.409 (R«. 4.64.090) in 
1878-79. and £18^72 (R«. 1.83.720) in 1879-80. Vaviima was onco 

port for lanrc vessels, but it is silting so rapidly that in a few 
years there win not be water even for small craft. 

Navibandar harl»oiir, thongh at the mouth of the Bhfidar the river in Kdthi6w4r, is shallow rocky and hard of aoccsa. 
The imports amounted to Xy5,900 {Ra. 5.59.000) in 1878-79 and 
£ii3,006 (Rs. 2,30.050) in 1879-80 ; and the exports to £39,484 
(R* 3.94.840) in 1878-79. and £5147 (Rs. 51.470) in 1870-80. Both 
exports and imports show a serious falling off. 

Bberai, belonging to the Juniigad state, and Kathlvadar 
btdongingto the BTiAvnnga.r state, under the shelter of ShiAl Island, 
have a common entrance along a creek known as the Mota pdt. 
Bhav-nagnr has threeportH at tliln ]HU't of the coast, Cluinch, Kathi- 
VBilar, and Pipdvdv, Trade now centr&s at Kothivattar, as it has l>ccn 
extended to within Heven or eight miles of the entrance. At Bherai, 
Ui« imports for 1879-80 were valued at £9907 (Rs. 99.670), and 
the exporta at £8152 (Ra 81,520). At Katliivadar, the imports 
for 1679-80 were valued at £11,&36 (R& 1,15.360), and the exports 
at £4347 (Rb. 43.470). The rise of tide at highwt HpringH at 
PipAviLv ia fifteen feet, at ordinary springs ten feet, and at neaps 
six feet During the quarter of the moon there is often no 
nerci'iptible rise of tide. There ia high water at full and change at 
italf-ptutt two. 

Tala'ja or Sulta'npur, belonging to Bhivnagar, is a small port 

at the moutli of the Shetrunji. U has a good anchorage for nmall 

craft in tliree fatlioma of water between the Soltdnpur alioal and 

ic village of SultAnpor. This anchorage is much used by wind 

Ud»>-bound ci-oft sailing up and down the gulf. The TaUja 

.hill lA a notable land-mark on ncaring iKm |>ort. At full and 

there is high water at quarter past two o'clock. Tlie 

- for the four yews ending 1879-80 amounted to £10,996 

Rrs 1.00 .960) in 1876-77, £15,168 (Rs. 1.51.680) in 1877-78, £15.167 

Ra. 1,51,670) in 1878-79, and £11,844 (Rs. 1.18,440) in 1879-80; 

the exporU to £9757 (Rs. 97.570) in 1876-77, £3.346 

'(Rs. 33,'WO) in 1877-78. £3845 (Rs. 38.460) in 1878-79. and 

4UMU (Rs. 1,18,440) in 1879-80. The falling off in exports and 

incr^^asc in imports daring 1877'78 and 1878-79 were due to 



Jtkemi and 


[BonlULjr Oout 





Sundra'x in Blidvnogw, &n inagniiicant port, in omm) cMeHjr 
the oxpoH of grain, mosuy wh(?*fc grown in uib BhAl <Ustrict. T 
iinpoi-tfl for ili« four vejirs ending 1870-80anioiinted to £1 51 (Rs-lAl 
in 1876-77. 1195 (IK 19&0) in 1S77-78. £195 (Rs. 1900) in 1878-! 
»nfi JLiGS (Ra. 4080) in 1870-80; and the cxpoit» to tS' 
(R«. 20.140) in 1876-77, £4o57 (Rh. 45^70) in 1877-78, ti 
(Ba 45,270) in 1878-79, and £2814 (lU 28,140) in 1S79-S0. 

Be«<lc« tlieae fifteen porU, there ftrp Poshitra an<l Bot lw!rm| 
to the Borotia stott. and Diulwlon^ng to the I'ortuL'uef*. P( 
fttTords dcen water shi-H-tT for the largest shiiw witliin half 
of the mainland of OkhAmandfl]. At Diu, the high spn 
eievtin fe«t, ordinary iqiriiiKK six fwt. and neaps thivc* feet. 
Hea<] or M^dva Uic Barmla statti in tho f;^eral intcn«ts o( 
•hippin);; haa agreed to build and maintain a revolving dioptric li^hl 
of the fourth ordur. Tliis Ii;^Iit will Iw the cliief land-mark on tnU 
port of tlie coast. Alon^ with tlifMo ports may bo doIichmI Shijj 
Bet which affonls an excellent harbour of refuge to the p<irtn ol 
Katldvmlar and Bherai. Tlii? was an old pirate stronj;hold and 
now bcloiigH to tho HaUshi of Jaiijira. On tlie north side of SUiAl 
Hot, sayn Captain Dunda-i Tnylor, there is capital anch'-ir. "' 
afibrding Hhultur in the soutli-west monsoou. At Uiis anc) 
there la a depth of fivo or six fathoms at low water with u n 
bottom. With the development of railways, it is not iiiipi' 
that the good anchorage Rtfor.ied tinder Shial Bot and the eSi 
harbour uf Salaya, will hereafter becotuv two of tlie luain >.' 
for the sea-borne trade of KdthidwAr. 

Tlie chief trfi<le oentroa are : Of sea port*, Jodia. Bcdi, Salij 
Porbaudor, Navibaadar, Bldugrol. Verdval, Jafarabad, Mohu' 
and UhMiiagar; ofpIacoMon tTie railway line, Wadhwiin, Liml 
BotAd, Sihor, ChitaT, L&thi, J^-tpur, and Dhoi-iiji ; and of h>« ' 
towos, Uh^nvad. Mor\'i, Kundla, SAela, TTpleta, B)iay&va<lar 
Kutiyiina for cotton ; Halvad and Dbrdngadra for atone and aiH* 
Via&vatlar, Sarsoi, Mendarda, Knv^dva, Baga%ra, DcdAn, and nh&ri 
for clarified butter ; Ambran. Balambha, and liadjdna for wool ; 
BiUvo, Vinchhia, Rd,ikot, KiuKlui-na, KitUvad, KJiaud<hd.lia, and 
LAlpur for grain ; Amreli for cotton and grain ; and Vas;ivad for 
wkkA and gi-ain. Tlio lea'Ung merclianU in these trade ceutrw aro 
among Uindu^, Vituifts, Bhjiti^, aii<l Loh.'liiil.s, and among MuHahn^na 
Vohords, Memaus, and KhojAa. Some of the traders of the m-n r>-'^^ 
and of Wadhw^ Jetpur, and Dhor&ji own capital up to £l< 
(Rff. 10,00,000). They trade direct mth Boml>ay and other inr;;i! 
markets, sending cotton, grain, clarified butter and other local 
produce, and bringing cloth, tiuiber, grocerie-'*, ami metiils. Tlio 
imports are bouijht fix>m whole»ule merdiantH at tlie Wlin^ trado 
centres by local dealers who acll them retail to the peojiTe, and 
the exporls are bought from the hushandinen by local dcalera "*'" 
sell them to wbolc^e merchant in the leading trade centroH. 

Twenty-two foiru aro held in KjithiAwAr, eleven in Porbandi 
fivo in Navflnagar, one in Juuiiga'l. one in Wadhw^i. one in Kajki 
one in Lakhtar, one in VAnkAner, and one in Bhaiidhuka Tboy 
l^t from one to seven days and are attended by 700 to 30,1 



Almost all the fairs are h«](l during the rainy season, and 
iy in tht> month of Shravan (July- AuguntX Tho Kiitlti&wfir fuirtt 
mtv not held for trade, hut cliielly for pilgrimage and in sonio cukok 
for pleAsnre. Sweetm^'Ats, cloth, tiinkets, toys, metal pots, and 
«thrr arttdc4 aru )>ruught to thoRC fairs hy nm^'hhoiiruig petty 
di^alcr-i who «>t »ip lx>olhK. SweetmeutK are sold hy Kandois, and 
other ariicies chieny hy VAniM and Vohorit. Tlii^w ai-tlcles are 
bou^'lit inp.t»tty for ca»h and ttumutiwuH fur grain. A cattlu fair and 
vi^tahlu bIiow was hiJd hy Major Nutt at WadhwAn in 1874 and 
18«t). and at Kundla in J 875, to which cattle, pri^n, vegotaWes, and 
other I'X^l prothicu were bi-ought from ditfcrL-ut parts of Khathid- 
v&r. Tlie .'diows woro larjjoly attended by chiefs and thuir foilowors. 
Ftiw ti-ansoctiona were made : 

KiUMrtuir Fiurt. 




Dats n 




Junteid -. 



KlnvMiUU _ 





It "- 






$*ri)m> .. 

Julj-Avgiul _, 



THuuMlhofck . 



Vtnhlmr ... 







AngVal ■ Soptevi W. 



jt4r> lagn ... 

A ugort- Scptcra b«r. 



l>DrlMBiUr ,.. 

A Add ... 



H — 

m ►'! 

Skn»nm .., 

Jalj'-Annid ,., 
AuglMe - MpMBlMT. 


*t — 

N ■'■ 




iunmrr ■ ri»>nuy . 



Ckaiint ,.. 




■t ■-■ 

Sirrim* .., 

JunMr7 ■I'cliciMfT . 



•f -•' 

««*« ., 



J* IH 

B/irttinn ... 





Advdu „ 

n I-- 

JOmm ... 



No w.x'kJy markets an-- lnl,l in KatliiAwiSr. At BhAvnagar 
"Kif ■ and Junagad a dailv luaiket cullud jhjVi" w held from 

ffou •. in tlie evontn^. Vln! gujri Is attended hy about 

la hiuiiirud wdlerg and two hundrell buyer.% retdilcnts of tho 
I town. Clotli. knives, nut-crackers, toys and other articles to the 
[vftltw of about £10 (Uh. 100) are sold for cash by retaU cloth- 
[dealcrs and other craftsmen. Twenty vearH ago there were no 
[wparatc Uuil'IingM for ^iiin and vegetable market's in KAtbij&wjLr. 
'r^^'tablcH wure usually carried in basket^J by women to 
'ditlen'ut parts of tho town and sohl in exchan;^ for j^rain. 
At TiTest>nt (1H82) there are buildingB for grain and vcgutahle 
.uiantetH in almost all the cliief towns, wltcre vegetable growers 
taad vogi'Uible and grain dealers bring vegetables and grain for 
^^pL Bcyiiilu.^ these V(^tahlc and grain markets, a cotton market 

Ij lately been opened in the WwlhwiUi civil station, where cotton 

inHpi9cti:<l and cotton bales are markeil with the market seal. 

duty of la. (on*. 8) a kh'inUi is levied at inspecting fee hy the 
lWu<l1>w:'ut ^tul>-. Several European Grms have agencies in the 
IWadhwau civil statJou, and large dealingri take place there. 



CBombaj QtaeUmA 









Elxccpt a few liUcIy opened cattio markets in JhjtllLvAd then- tj»\ 
no catUu tuarkeU in K&lliifiwAr. Cattle are nio«tly bru 
Ch&raiiA and SindluH, who always sell their cattle ouUUlu t... 
or village. Aa hnshandmen are seldom ablu io pay in cafih. the 
Sindlm often atroage witli tlicm to recover the amount at tbc^ 
harvest, HauKitiinos l>v instalincnts and Mraetimea at uoee. 
is a cattle market called jrtt(/;r.f4; in Nav^ina^^ar wheru toi 
Mmetimeo bring tlieir cattle fur na.l<i. 

Except the very small hamlets o£ shepherds and grazicTB ealld 
nMWJi, everj- village lias at least one shop. The 'vHlIaf^ .'shoplce 
is a VAnia. Lohitna, Bhfitia, or Ueman. He »ellii to U»e [nfopl 
his village clarified butUT. oil, t<tigHr, molasses, groceries, cloth, 
other artlclefl, Mmetiincs for cash and sometimes in barter fot 
KTikiu andcottuu. The village shopkuvperia generally al»o a moo*] 
lunder, and recovers Uic money lent in graia at horrost time. 
is generally connected with a merchant m one of the leading ( 
centres to whom he seuds cotton and grain lionght from; 
husbandmen and from whom he bays grocvjieu and pieou- 
Thp villftce shopkeeper oftf-n lemls grain to the Imwhandmen 
liadhfiro, tliat is on condition of being repaid at har\-«st onv-fuar 
or (Hic-half more than wai< lent. 

The local trade is carried on jMirily in carts and partly on 
bullocks and asses. The cart Uaffic in Navdoiagar is in the 
of Lolijin^, BhanstiliB, Mcmans, and KhoJAs, who carry passcngc 
and cotton, grain, cloth, groceries, timber, cloritied butter, and oil 
Before tlie opening of the railway to WaiUiw^ cartmen used 
go to different parts of NavAn^ar and to Rfykot. They noi 
generally go to Wa«lhwAn and Jctpur. Many cartmen carry fa 
hire. A few buy from hu.->bandmuu mid village shopkeepers al>oat 
£30 (Ra. 300) wortli of goo^lH and acII them in retail from \-iUaga 
to village. Traffic on pnck-buliocks and asses is in the hands of 
Komans, Majothis, OolArAn&«. JogtrAval», and ChArans, who canj* 
ffTUU, ootton-tweda, Holt. cloi'itiwl butter, oil, and gomnyi, ISaixy of 
uiem carry for hire, but ifomc buy from hu-sbondmen and whototialQi 
dealers goods worth about £200 (Ea. 2O0O) and svU them to the 
people and traders of other districU. 

Besides carriers, there are peddlers, mostly Vinii&s, Lohini 
Ith^tiAs, Vohorda, KhojAs, and Memans. The peddlers gencrallj 
deal in groccnu8, clotli, ve-getable-s, and other misoellaueouK articleo 
They 611 their packs in thu larger villages and carrying them yr 
their own backs or on buUocka, sell to the people of neighbuurinj 
Hmall \'illages, rately for cosh and moiitly in barter for cotton anil 

The Import trade of KAthiAwir, excluding the ports belonging* 
to the British Government to Portugal and to His Highnew the „ 
GAikwAr of Bamda, according to the 1879-^0 rcturnii, amountcdfl 
to £2.172.7:^8 (Rs. 2,17.27.:)80) and the exports to £10.O(>.887^ 
(lis. l.(J0,tJa.S70). The details of imports, in order of importonce, am 
grain 82.351 tons valued at Xai0,6.'i3 (lU 81,05,530), rice wid pulse, 
1*.021 tons worth £202.723 (Its. 20,27.2:j«), cloth worth £1.85,281 
(Ra. 18,52,940), sugar 3791 tons worth £107.704 (Ra. 10.77,040), 




id cash amonntiiig to £107.100 (Bs. 10,71.000), molasses 
tons worth i81,;Ult (R«. 8.13,490), Bcaamuin huwI 6180 tons 
1 X71,330 {R8. 7,13,;iD0), cloritiefJ bntter 833 tons worth £63,787 
0,37,970), metal 1031 too-s worth £60,000 (Ra. 6,00,060), dates 
tons worth £5i,855(Ra 5.28.560), oU U63 tons worth £41,292 
4,12.020), timber worth £34,88r) (lU. 3,48,850), opium nine tone 
h £31,104 (Ka. 3,11.040). Utclnuts worth £23,323 (118.2.33,230), 
it 1536 toiw worth £21,577 (lU 2,15.770), seeds »74 tons worth 
)38 (Rs. 2,10,380), cocoanuts 4487 tons worth £20.260 
(,02.600), Uac-H 77 tons worth iU630 (R«. 1.40,300), tolmccoruid 
808 tons wortli £14,073 (R*^. I,40,730), cotton weds 1852 tuns 
£10,287 (Rs. 1,02.870), beer wines and spirits worth £0765 
97.650), grocLH' 203 tons worth £7911 (Bs. 79.110), dry datw 
tons worth £7374 (Rs. 73.74*1). silk worth £7056 (Rs. 70,660), 
/m yum worth £7000 (R%. 70,000), coir 502 tons worth £6765 
67.0o0), Kackcloth 199 tons worth £6008 (Rs. 60.080), maJiuda 
toiLs worth £5211 (Hs. 52,110), spic«» 290 tone worth 
n33 (R«. 51^10), twist 52 tons worth £4430 (Ra 44,500), paper 
[73 tons worth £3516 (Ra. 35,160), firewood 166 ton* worth £3488 
34.860). grttundimU 344 tons worth £34:J9 (Rs. 34,390), aiigar- 
ly 46 tons worth £25()7 (Ra. 25.670), colour 116 tons worth 
»505 (R* 25.050), ivory threo tons worth £2103 (Ra. 21,t)30), coal-t 
t<^in8 worth £2021 (Rs. 20.210). lime 28 tons worth £46* 
4C40) grass 191 tons worth £343 {Ha. 3.430). umhrtdlas worth 
JO (R% 2300), tea one ton worth £216 (Rs. 2160), coffee three 
worth £ 1 78 (Rs. 1780), cotton tliree tons woi-th £1 30 (R». 1 300), 
worth £112 (Ra 1120). salt 35 tons worOi £94 (Rs. 940), tlax 
and hemp one ton worth £85 (Rs. 850), wool one ton worth £70 
& 70O), soap niiiu tons wortli £63 (Rh. 630), stone 28 tons worth 
E2 (Rs. 220). ca-st-or-oil worth £8 (Its. 80). and other miscellaneouH 
bides 642 tons worth £109,335 (Rs. 10,93,3.i0). 
Of Exports the details, in order of importance, are cotton 32,277 
IS valued at £925,311 (Rs. 92,53.110), gold silver and ready cash 
inting to £493,163 (5*40.31.630), wool 888 tons \-aIned at 
}8.oG8 (Bs. 5.85.680). grain 69S8 tons valueil at £44,484 
AMAM)\ wjtton yam 1268 toas valued at £10.527 (Rh. 1,65,270), 
54 tons valued at £6272 (Rs. 62.720), ciaritieil butter 52 tons 
lued at £&950 (JU 59.500), stone valued at £4268 (Rs. 42.680). 
:kcloth 1 61 tons valut-d at £3460 (Rs. 3-l.GOO), kap<U 188 tons valued 
,£2470(Ra. 24,700), cloth valued at £2424 (R«. 24,240), dates 221 
18 valued at £l77l (Rs. 17.710), hides 477 ton.s valued at £I4o7 
(lia. 14,570), red dungry cloth 436 tons valued at £1042 (Ra. 10.420), 
aes 63 tons valued at £947 (Ra. 9470), seeds 40 ton» valued 
£864 (R<«. 8640), seaamum seed valued at £720 (Rs. 7200), 
iirita valutid at £540 (Rfl. 5400), sweet oil seven and a half tons 
' tued at £357 (lU 3670), cotton seed 62 tons valued at £31 1 
8U0), grocery nine tons valued at £243 (Rs. 2430), spices 
xm and a half tons valued at £182 (Rs. 1820), castor-oil seed 
touA valuc-d at £156 (Rs. 1560), colour six tons valued at £129 
1. lohocco six tons valued at 128 (Ra, 1280), fruit and 
- 10 tons valued at £95 (lis. 950), timber value<l at £70 
700), peacocks' feathers valued at £65 [Ra. 650), soap nine tons 





rBombay OuBttatj 





valued ftt £G3 (7U C30>. coaJs eight tons rilncd at £43 (TU. 4-r>y 
Uiivu ionn valued nt £J9 (Kh. 390), red ochre tiftueu anil a '■■ 
valu^l at £34 (K& 340). salt ten ami a half tons valm^i 
(Ra. 280), miJitt^ln ono ton vnlti^d at £37 (JU 270), cocoAnuUJ 
ti>iiH valtx-l lit £2[) (lU 20U), graxK ilw tons \uJuo.l at £0 (lU 90>,1 
mi'»cullam'ou-s articloa valued at £34,04^ (lU. lI,4C,43C>)i 

Of Imports, the chief articles are graiD, ^mgar, 
metala, (jrocorieB, iiye», ivor)', piycci goods, cotton yam, «il 
hot4>lnuts, coooanuts, timber, conlaj^e, clarifit-^t Imtuir, oil. tr 
totjacco, vmhiuln. fjjiiuin. and liquor. Vndcr yraiii ■ ■ 
millet, I'uM, aiid ditfurc-iit kinds of piiLsu. Whi^t, ttiui. 
a largo tstt-nt in KAthidwiir, is in such exceptional \ 
fantuo of iH7G-77, broujjht from the I^'orth-Wefet Provn--- 
Panjdh. Millet, lioth spikes! uiillct or bdjri and Indian ii 
ju,var, arc brought from Kurdclu, and, like wheat, in yean? < 
BCAitiity, from Uppef India. Rice comes from Botijjal, Ow Koul 
and O^jardt. Tiiu local supptit» of vuuj, tuOul, uud ^luui 
supplementod from V^ad and Giijaritt, and ttivrr which is 
KTOwn in Kdthifl'w^r i^ uroo^ht chtt-dy trout Kaira' Fi.x>ui BoiK 
Duforo tho opening of ihu railway wcru broogliL by mmi 
arc now Lrou^'ht botli by sea and land, Emffor, sngaccandy, nn 
oo(ton and wtwllen cloth, cotton yam, groceries, glass and cnin«> 
wooden furnituro, toys, Kuroptuui liijuor, silk, koroseue oil. o 
ivor\% and iiidi^^o. The iniiKjrta of cloth in 1876-77 »' 
£117.708, in tho two fullowin" years of di.stiv« they 
nearly hulf that aioLumt, and in 1878-80 a^^uin rose to X ' 
The main chaimel for the»e importa chleily of Manchcsti : 
CooJs \va« BhdNTiagar witli ono-thiril, Bedi adnuttcd £21,!) IS and 
tiio ru!«t was equally distributed amon^' other poi'ts. The imiiort« 
of sugar in 1879-80 wero 3791 tons worth £107,704, agaln-tt i!;i73 
torn worth £57,289 in 1878-79. Of smpai-candy about 450 t*>us 
worth .CI 1,723 were imported in 1877*78 ; thu uaual import appear* 
to Ik) betwv«.*n 400 and 500 tons. Dates, hivajur and khdmk come 
from tho Arabian and Persian Gulf ports ; Ix'telnuts, cocoojiut 
timber, and cordagu troui Ualabdr, Koukan and Zanziliir, opiai 
and 8ora->igi froni M^wa, clariiied butter tuid oil from Parkar auJ] 
Pitanv^a, and silk cloth, molawes, toliecoo, fciwumftd, and inahi 
from Ahmailabad and other parts of GujarAt. Coir is bi 
chietiy in tho form of coir-Mring amJ n>po. This import amoi 
to £6706 in 1879-80, and tho highest import was £1 6,20G in 1 878-1 
TIio supplies of tiu;1>er on the Ou'andCardahilkdouot nearly e«|Ui 
the dcuiand.and larj^, nnantiti&'i an; iiuportcd. In 1808 firewood wi 
so scarce that Colonel Walker wixjto ; ' The want of lirewooii ia a m( 
serious inconvenience in the country, so much so that it was not 
unusual, wlien the governor's army was pos.'tinj^' tlirough and the] 
villages were nnable to Htinply fuel, for the Inndlonl to cjiuhf al 
villo^ to bo dcicitod, and its timbvi- used as fuel.' In later timc-^ 

' The ifniMWtfe of grain, vxcliidlnK rioa aod poke, ^laatuiU^ to 31,200 b>ns valav4 
at £S1R,07:S in 1977-78, tv (35,5tfO ton* at £719,303 tu 1978-79. wmI tu 70.315 toiui U 




vrero occasionally small exports of timlier. In 1845-40, 
l\'u.i;itAr «xpoi-t»>«l timV>Hr worth X1!)0; in IK40-50 the exports 
tlic JuiJiVi^ml coawt uniouiiU*J to i:ii;JOiuiil in 1S64 tlioni: from 
Navaiuyiir outltttH wirn; worth £1KH,H. Siiitt! 1S(H there st-em to 
kvo been iiuexrx.'rts. On tho otliur.haod larjfe quautities of timber 
iinnJortoiL BnA\nia{jar imported tiinhcr worth £I8iiO ui 1845-46, 
ysOo ill ls7a-74, X4ii,i)00 in 1876-77, £13,335 in 1S77-7S. md 
in 1879-80. Nftvanai.'ftr iniporto«i timber worth £97G in 
£U.392 inlSC4.£15,293 in I87i. £14.230 in 1877-78. fU.GHtt 
"ll^TS 7il. anJ £9584 in 1870-80. Jmifigad importc'd timl>or 
111 £i:.';3 in ISlO-oO. £2279 in 1800-70, £4774 in l87tl-77. 
in 1878-79, and £i!oU in 1879-80. Thu total imports in 
jro\-ince ainountwl to ll.'j.OOO in 1876-77. £30.060 in 1877-78, 
tl in 1878-79. and £34.885 in 1879-80. Thft cause of this 
ig oir in import** waa the- famine of 1878-79, when Iiouso 
mg waH stfipptni in ahuost nil part^ of the provincf. Largo 
)« of t<-nk an.' importoj from Kiinvdrnnil Manlinain an<l rafters 
Bal^iir antl other portn ot-ar tlie Siii'ut D^n^ In native houses, 
UhiTva, in logs of three or four tons each, ia almost midy used, 
spt opium, sonntgl. clarified butter, oil. sUk-cloih, totiacco. 
\ffnbo, and mahwUu, imports are brought into the prtninco 
jio merchants of the chief trade centix-s, cliioHy Vdnida, BhlUiji», 
'«Ah, Parsis, Vohorfts, KhojAs, anc! Memans, from whom town 
^•ilJasrc petty dealers buy and sell to the people. Opium ia 
■truught by (_iover"nnn!nt to Ihi-ir wan.ihousi; at Hdjkot, and ilicro 
Id. to the opium farmers of differc^nt Atate^t who retail it. Buforo 
je opening of railways, s^nnu/i was brought from MiUwa by 
TidnuiA. DejMVliUi, and Vonjdi^tis on pock-Imllocks and »o)d in retail 
the dyer-*. It \n now import<.'d by rail chiefly by Viinia and 
?'obora nK-rchanta of the leading trade centres and sold in 
*taU to the dyei-s. Kspeeially in the northern divi-sion clarifiet) 
butter and oil are eenerally tirought by Parkar traders in kundda 
>t skin-pot*, and &oTj to wholesale dealers. In other parts they are 
firought by merchant-) Itelonging to the main trade cenlrca Bilk* 
l«t.h which 18 iiHrtl throughout the province chiefly for women's* 
■^.■arves and petticoat*t,couif» from Ahma'lalwteitlierthrough 
inerchants who go to Ahmadabad to buy it or Uimugh 
I.I mtrchant* and manufactures, who send their agcjits to 
It II tl.L-chief KfltluAwAr townsand Wllages. Molasses, though 
ir>'|mj-e<l in and sent in small quantities from Sorath, Hdljlr, 
Xiitliiitwar antl Qohilv^l, is largely imported from Navs^ and 
>ther ilistnctH both in ifha0.d» or ewthen pots and in ruiyia or sack- 
' ' lilt?* of the leading tra»lo centres. The exports of 
. , -i 79 wertf valued at £4989 and at £527 in 1879-80. 
The iiujkirt- in 1878-79 were 3093 tons worth £lo,9n and in 
,18?9-80 384o tons value'latESl.Sig. Kaubis from Charotar anj 
ther |>aris of (lujarAt bring ami still tol>acco in tlieir own cartA both 
traders and to consumers. Before the extension of the railway 
Wadhwdu. mangoes, fruit, and vegetables were brought fnnii 
■ I ' : and now come by rail and are diUribut^d oy retail 

.-;r or hviUirtJjtt 18 brought by trailers, dyers, and 
j*rat laudhulUent, and mahttda by Kal^ or distillers who ant 



[Bombftj OtatliKiJ 





ffnncrolly V&mia, MartllluLs, atid Pfircle*ihis. Of nietols. iroa ii| 
brought from Biimliay by Vuborlb, who Hell U in Imnt and sfan 
to bUckxiniths or bo htuhandmen and labonrcrs who have H ni 
into Held touts. Nails, raiting:^, cluiins, Uttico work, aud 
iron articlf'.-* are sold ready mailu by Vohoriia. Axes and 
tool;*, whidi were formerly made by local smiths, now come rcoilj 
niailc fruiii Bouibov. Gold, silver, cM>pper and brass are imporkd] 
by VAni&d and oihtT central luerchanta. The merchants sell guMJ 
and ttilver in retail to petty town roerchantH, who sell it to consununj 
or to goldsmiths who work it into oriiaroents. For some yc 
^ter 1863 when busbaiiduum amassed ntnch money owing tu 
high price of cotton ajul other produce, largo quaiititiew of J 
and sih'er were import^-'d into tne province ana bought by 
husbandinea A few years later gold was exported to Buiiil 
where its price was very high, and during the famine y«r 
( 1877-l}i79), largo quantities of gold and silver omaiuents w«ru toild 
hy hosbajidiufin and other middle-clafis people, melted into 
and aent to Bombay. Copper and brass are chiefly booghl 
Kana&ria who maku them into cooking, dining, driakiztg, atid wal 
pots, and »oiuetimeM in shet^-tH b}' well-to-do people who have tlu'i 
made into pot* and vcssols by coppersmiths. In the pm^rot 
times of tbe American war (1HG3-1805) large quantities of copf 
an<t hrvussi were imported and metal pott) came into general wml 
instead of earthen ones; but during the famine of 18^-1879 thai 
people were forced to part with lai^ qaautitiea of their brattl 

The chief expwts ans ^tton, grain, oil, oiUs&eds, wool, clarifiwl 
butter, and stone. Of thet^e cottou is the chief. From DiiftJi, 
that ia the Iwginning of the Vikram or Gujantt new j'ear (October- 
November), hualmndmen begin to bargain with the villa^ dealvn 
to deliver a certain quantity of cotton In the eeauon, getting part 
payment in advanca Tlie village dealers in turn mrgain with 
wholesale merchants and nweive cash from them which they pay 
the husbandmen. The village dealers receive from the husbaiidtnei 
cotton as it comes from the field, and, after having it ginni 
by the hand cleaner or charkha make it over to the wholeaali 
merchant. From the wholesale merchant, cotton passes to tJii 
chief trade centres, where it is preiwed into bales and sent t 
Bombay. Before 1864 cotton went from the Kdthiilw^r porta i 
loose biles called dhokdds and kotJdis. Half presses are now four 
nut only in every leatling trade centre but also in the chief distrii 
towns. Before the railway was continued to Wadhw^ the wboi 
of the JhAl6vAd cotton went to Dholera and was theuee sent 
Bombay. Several outside merchants, including Bombay Eun 
finiH, had their agencies at Dholera which Ixinght large quanti 
After the extension of the railwa)* to Wa^lhwAn, Dholera 
almost all its trade, tm the cotton goes by Wadhw^ to Bomba;, 
by rail. Must of the agencies have been moved from Dholora to' 
Wadhwitn. The opening of the Bh&vnagar-Qondal railway haa 
now tamed a part of this trade to Bhfivnagar, whence cotton 
ahipped to Bombay. The cotton exporters, who belong to 
main trade centres, are chietiy V^fLs, Bhtiti^, Lob^as, Ale 

ton iaH 
o th^ 



on'i KhojAa. A few vcara since, some Bombay European firma 
opt'iiL'-l offices and kept European Hgents at Bhiviiagar and 
WiflhwAn. These buy cotton from local merchants for their own 
tiroiii as welt ba for other Bombay and English firms, and export 
it to Bonilioy. The agents have set np ftiJl prcasat in which they 
prt-^-* thoir own and other merchants' cotton. Much cotton waa 
foruitirly spun by native women wjtli common spindles or irnttda 
Mid the yam was woven into ooarso anti other country cloth by 
UlieJs. Vohonia, and TariAs, At that time tlie growth of cotton 
waa much more limited than it now is. The export was small, 
Eind as country cloth was commonlj- used, thero was little import 
of foreij»n pitice ffood.s. At present foreign piece goods are rapidly 
e'H ■ Mg the local manufacture. The area under cotton varies 
t^ .1 extent with the price it fetches. Wlien prices aro high 

the people increase the area, and reduce the area when prices fall. 
Uouy tracts which were under cotton during the American war 
an DOW under grain. Cotton does not pay unless it fetches more 
than £14 (Rs. 140) the ytdndi of seven hundredweight or four pence 
the pound in Liverpool 

Two kinds oE cotton are thrown in ilie pro\'ince, vdyria or dJuiiiknia 
' ptini/utiu or liUUi. Vd'jria is almost solely grown in the north 
vast districts in Jb^AviUl and Dhandluika, and UUia throughout 
rest of the province;. The pod of the viUjna does not open when 
so as uj allow the seed cotton to be picked. It only slightly 
and clasps the cotton tightly, so that the pod and all luis to be 
.__L Ihapiimndia when ripe bursts open, and tlie cotton ia 
lily picked from tlm pinl a.-> it hand's fmin the tree. Vd^rxa cotton 
nigh inferior to it can by careful handling ho prepared so as to 
k very much like pibmadUu Vdgrki has the advantagu that the 
can U- atorcd during the rains without iniury. Vdfjria cotton 
and cleaned in December is called fuizioalu It is whiter than 
but in other respects is poorer. The chief varieties of 
i:otton are locally called after the divisions from which 
A as U^Ar and JhfUdvfUl. The best cotton cornea from the 
atate. The whole crop of PAlitdna cotton is only alwut 
Si 00 Uins (tfOOO khdndU), but it is by far the best prepared for 
ket. being well cleaned and free from ailultcratioa It is bnllcy 
1 good brtght crcamv white with a yellowish tingo, and tho 
,jla ia oven hne and fairly strong and long. It classes from good 
fine The cotton grown in the Bhfivnagar districts is called 
n. It closely resembles FiilitAna cotton but is not so well 
, and is occasionally dampe^l to add to its weight or mixed 
Ht<ed, especially when prices rise beyond the rates at which the 
was solil. The Bh^vnagar crop averages almut 9800 tona 
,000 ihdndU). and most of it classes in Bombay and Europe aa 
^__id. With care it coald easily be made as fine &i the Pdlttdna 
^tton. Tho cotton grown in Wadhw&n, Limbdi, Holvad, Chuda 
Oujorvcdi is known as V^lgria JhtLUv^ and is grown froiu 
liar seed. In Bombay and Europe it is known as Dholcra 
itoa When properly picked and cleaned, it is reckoned good 
.^^ton, being a bright white which does nut readily fade. Its staple 
loo is strong fairly long and even, and it has much body and bulk. 

B 613— 32 



Chapter 71. 




Chapter VI 




Spinners refliHlv Imy it to uiix with other kinds of eotton wl 

lack thfse quaiitifts. It is .seldom properly prepftred. most of^ 

being full of linB powdurud k-af, which, after a certain stage, it U 
ahnost imptissihlc to remove. Jatvdd cotton, grown lietween 
Wadhw&n and Vlranigdm, finda ita way into the Kathi&w^ uiarkt^tri; 
it is of a very low quality. Mahuva cotton, grown chiefly in 
the Mahuva, Lilia, Amreli, Kuudla and TaJ^ja dietricU, cloeelj 
resembles PalitKna cotton, and like Palitdna cotton clo-sses from good 
to fine. What upecially recommends it to buyers is its purity and 
deannesa In ISHO-Sl jMirceU of thia cotton fetched as high a price ai 
machinc-ffinncd Brooch. In the Bbal and the neighbuuring dintrlci 
of Dhandiuka, a better cotton i.s known as pv,madia or Idha. Thia 
vhen cleaned by Piatt's Macarthy gins itt sold au, and when properly 
prepared clu»ely rcKcnihlcs tnachine-ginncd Brooch. The bulk of ib* 
crop from these districts as, well as from Limbdi, R^npur, Borsad, 
Cauibay, and Dholka, is marreil by leaf and is known as atkidia. A 
weak flimsy cotton finds its way into Kathiiiw6rfroni thew diNtricta 
and is known in Bombay as sugar. It is harsh, short btapled, ami of a 
dirty white much like wool in appearance and touch, and mixed vri\h 
salt and clay. It is known at ouce by its smelL The cotton of Sorath 
and Hdlilr is inferior to that grown in other parts of K6thidwar and 
is known in Bombay and Europe by the names of its place of export, 
Vcrdvol and Mdngrol. It is soft and flimsy of a bluish white, and 
though the staple is fairly long and silky, it is weak and inucl) niixt-d 
with dark broken leaf and jtt^cd. Here, aa elsewhere, except in 
Mahuva and PiUiUna, adulteration is common and uoiit difficult to 

The cotton crops ore gnthered and begin to arrive at Bhi' 
and Mahuva in January, supplies bemg plentiful in April 
Wadliwdn it begins to come early in March, supplies Icing ploni 
in May. At Dholera, Veraval, Mdngroi, Jodia and other poi 
be^ns to como in March and is plentiful in April. 

In spite of the competition of ginjiing factories* large quontil 
of Kiitnidwar cotton arc still cleaned by the common hand gin 
duirkJui. Between 1866 and 1SS2 several attempt* at opei 
ginning factories have been made, some of which are still work 
others from various rea»oiis have been closed. The common hi 
gin or cimrkha consists of a stand RUpporting an iron and wi 
rollers revoKTng at such a distance from each other as to allow 
cotton to pass between them but uot the seeds. There are two han< 
moving the rollers, one at each end of the frame, which rw^uire 

porsous to work, one of whom feeds the rollers with seed-cott 

About IS to 14 sera of seed cotton or kapds can he cleaned in an 
hour by thia inHtrumont giving from 4 to 4| sere of cleaned cottoo. 
Alniost every cultivator owns a hand-gin by which with the help of 
his family no cleans his cotton. At the large towns in the cotton 
districts, sucli as Blidvnagar, Botdd, Kondla. and Ga<lara, merchants 
collect the owners of hand-gins in a yard to clean the cotton whicii 
they have purchased. These ginning enclosures are called auk 

> The ootUn ^joaag ud pnuioe deUUa hkra b«ea ooatrilrated by Captuo J. K 



Tho lalyjurers arc paid by the amount of cotton they clean. If tho 
ptopriutor of tile ud provides them with three mcaLs a day aud 
tobacco fuel and water, the work is paid for at the rate of 2*. 
(Ro. 1) for fi\'e to seven Dwnjt. If the labourers provide their own food 
they receive payment at the rat« of 2». (Re. 1) lot three to four mans. 
The rate of remuneration varies fi-oni year to yt^ar aeconlincr to the 
Rtate of the labour market. In 18C6 the Wa^lhwdn Cotton Gin aad 
Pr«9B Company Limited was started by Mr. J. M. Drennan.^ This 
omnpany liad two branches, one at Wadhwdn civil station couijisting 
of a complete factory of ntxty ginn and the other at Dhandhnka with 
a similar number of gin?*. The WVIhwin branch has been long 
closed owing to cxr>ent)i\'e managcuicut and a badly chosen Rita 
from which most ot the buildings were washed away in a flootl in 
1867. It also suffered from the opposition of the Muhajan or local 
tnidt;.s union. The Uhandhuka branch is still worked at a profit 
by the Dholera Press and Ginning Company Limited. But profit is 
posriblo only owing to the capital now invettted being not mora 
than X27O0 (Rs. 27.000) agaiuat the original outlay of £11,700 
(1(8.1,17,000). The ill succeaa of this property was duo to eausca 
Htinilar to those which led to the closing of tne Wadliwiin branch. 
Though it is now worked at a profit, the Dhanduka branch will 
never prove a satisfactory investment^ because cotton of good daaa 
is not grown in sufficient quantity in the neighbourhood to keep 
the machinery in full work. The factory abo suffers from the 
competition of the hand-giniUDg yanla. The factory started at 
Limbdi by Messrs. W. and A. Graham of Bombay was not a 
HQcoesfi. A small factory was built at Vala consisting of ten gins 
and U still worked at a prolit, but it is too much of a toy to 
attract buAine88 aud is not very favourably situated. 

In 1870-7] a ginning factory and cotton pre«s of fifty Piatt's 
Uacarthy gins was opened at Dhor&ji in tiiu Gondol state at 

canitaf cost uf al)Out £20.000 (Tl«. 2,00,000) a*ivancwl by the tttote 
to ilr. Drennan at five per cent Interest. Great difficulties were 
experieuce-i iu setting the factory going, Erst from the failure 
of mauufactarers, from quarrels with ^e patentees, from the 
foundering of the boata bringing the machinery, and mofit of all 
from the owners of native or bond gins. Though thene difficultiea 
were overcome the retitult was not Kuoce-isful and no return was 
obtained on tho capital expended. Lately tho management has 
lieen reformed and rendered more efficient. The factories have not 
been working long enough under the new arrangement to judge of 
tlic financial resmt. But the administratora of the state who now 
direct the management are sanguine of success as the town of 
Dhoraji is now the terminus of the Bii6vuagar-Gondal railway 
and both factories have been lately patronised by the local cotton 
dealers during tho pa^t sca-son. The press is worked by an engine 
of sixteen horse-power, it employs thirty-five men twelve women 
and ten cluldren, and is capable of turning out 150 full-pre&»ed balee 
every day. The cost of preasiug one bale including hoops and 

Cbaptw YI. 


' Compiled &om LufonaAtioii Mpplkd by A. WluUt«, Sai\, 




I. covering U 7*. (R& 3J). The ginning factory consists of fifty 

drivtu \iy & twenty horsft-power engine and iscapaU^^of turoing ^ 
400 inaTiB of cleaned cuttou a ilay. It enipluys duriii|^ tli« seMOiT 
Export!. forty men, Me%Tiity women, and thirty -six cliildrcn. ilithurto onhf 

'^^'^^^ inerciuuiU have bi-otight thcuf cotton to be cleaned. Tho hu8tiiu)if< 

men cuutinue to clean their cotton at home Ly means of the hand-^ 
or duirkkdt. 

In 1874-75 a ^nning factory with John's patent gina wa* 
utarUtd at LfLthi with capital HubftcrilHnl by thieo Europeans of 
Bh&vnagar and a native. The gin used was an invention uf <me 
of the European shareholders who claimed for it the adrnnta^of 
effoetivety cleaning the cotton without damaging the fibre. T^ia 
result was rualLseirbut the cotton-dealere in Bliiivnagar, being need 
to the appearance of cott<)n cleone^J by Piatt's gins, declined to 

{lUTchase the cotton turned out of the new factory except at 
ower rates. This circumstance combined with mUutanagi^neut Ifd 
to the financial failure of the nndortaking. The machinery was 
sold at one-tenth cost price and removed to Broach. 

Since the opening of the railway (1880) a mnning factory 
been .starU-d by a native merchant containing fifty of Platt'j* pa 
gins worked by a uineteeu horse-power engine aiid emiiluyi 
sevcnty-tive hands during tho cotton season. The rate for cle 
cotton in this factory is Is. Sd. (10 amuis). 1& dl. (12 ainww) 
l8. ifd. (14 (iTimiB) the nuin of cleaned cotton according to the 
quality of the cotton. The better classes of cotton having fewer 
sceda, are cleaned easier and charged lower raU^s. The nee<l h 
rctuj-ned to the owner. There is no special t&x on this industry and 
the financial results of the first year's working are satiafactory and 
encouraging. It is probable that these factories ^vitl lie established 
at the cotton centre^} in the interior of the province along the 
line of railway. There is not much dift'erence in the relative cost 
of cleaning cotton by the stcaui gin and the common haud-gin or 
cfmrkha. But the steam gin works about twelve timea a.** fast as the 
bnnd-gin and the rapid changes in the price of cotton is making 
this saving of time a matter of the tinjt importance. Hand-gin 
cleaned cotton is paid for by the weight of the -seed extracted, while 
machine gin cleaned cotton is paid f^^r by the weight of thts c]eane<I 
cotton. M.achine ginned cotton ftttches about five i>er cent more for 
everv klidndi than cotton cleaned by the native procoRR. Machine 

ffinnmg mu-st therefore extend ; and, owing to the saving in manual 
abour which it eftects, will inevitably deprive a number of people 
of part of their means of livelihoocf. An economic change is 
at work among the native population, the result of which it is 
difficult to foresee. It is probable tbat by degrees the population 
which does not depend exclusively on agiicuTtnre, such as KoUs 
Ahirs and Bharvdds, will leave the villages and settle in the larger 
towns OS a fixed labouring community. The pressure of population 
on the land will thus bo reduwfd and the tillage of the soil will be 
left to tliose classes who will Jo it most Ju-sttce. If this expectation 
is realised,, landowners cultivators and labourers will benefit 
by the introduction of steam and machinery into the province. 




K&fchiiw&r cotton is pressed by stcftin presses and by native screw 

preases. la spite of -the facilities afl'orded by steam presses, tbo 

railway draws so much cotton to the Bhavnagar port for shipment 

to HomViay that native ocrcws for half pressing are in full work 

during the stAson (March. June). There are seven gteatu cotton 

^presses in tliu province, tive at BhfLvuagar, one at Maliuva, and uno 

Hat WailhwiLn. Of the flt«am cotton preHse.^ at l^hAvnagar the lifHt 

Hvas the Volkart United Pres* o^med by the VoUtart United Press 

HCom|>any and started in 1871. It has a capital of £15,365 

(Ri 1^3,650); has two presac-s worked by an engine of twenty 

hoTBC-power; it daily employs 199 men and forty women, 

and pays £930 (Its. 9500) everj' year as wages. The second steam 

P press is the BhAvnagar Cotton Press, owned by the Bhflvnagar 
Cotton Manufactory Company Limited. It was started in 1872. 
It has a capital of £12,500 (Rh. ; ha.s three presses worked 
by an engine of twenty-five horse-power ; it daily employs fifty-two 
workmen, and pays £400 (Rs. 4O0O) evei-j' year in wages. Tho 
tiiird press is thu Went Prwif owned by the West's Patent Press 
Company Limited. U was started in 1877. It haa a capital of 
£8000 (Rs. 80,000) ; has two pi-eases worked by an engine of twenty 
horse-power ; it daily employs sixty men and tbii-ty women, 
and pays f.5\)i) (Rs. 5000) every year in wages. Tlio fonrth press 
whicJi lk;longs to the FcH Press Company Limited, was started in 
1877. Ithaaa capital of .£10.000 (Ea. 1,00,000) ; has three pressea 

Iworkiii by two engines of forty lior»o-|)Ower each ; it ilaily employa 
fifty-three men and forty women, and every year pays £680 
{RtL C800) in wages. The fifth press is the New Indian Presa 
owDed by the J^ew Indian Press Company Limited. It was started 
inlSSS. It has a capital of £15,000 (Rs. 1,50,000) ; has four pi-eHses 
worketl by two engines of twenty horse-power each ; it doily 
employs 150 men and twenty women, and every yeai- pays £1500 
(Rfi. 15,000) in wagn«. The sixth cotton press is the Mahuva Cotton 

■ Prt.'ss at Mahuva ; it is owned by the Bhiivnagar Cotton Manufactory 
Company Limite*!. and it was started in ltJ77. It has a capital of 
£7000 (lis. 70,000) ; has two presses worked by on engine of 
K eighteen horse-power; it daily employs forty-five workmen, and 
■ every year pays £^230 (lU. 2300) in wages. The seveutb press at 
HWadhwdn civil station Is owned by ^ddiim and Company and 
|Vlia8 a capital of £12,600 (lU 1,25,000); has two presses worked 
by an engine of fortv-five horse-power ; and it daily employs 116 

I workmen. No tax is levied by the Bli&\niagar state on the steam 
press industry ; on the contrary, when practicable, facilities and 
concesBions are made for 'their convenience. Tlio usual tenna 
which tlie proprietors of presses make with the' state are that 
the land occupu'd by the pi-css should be rented from tho state 
for a yearly payment of £5 to £30 [Rs. 50 - Its. 300). The lesseoa 
&re forbidden to use the land for any purpose except for a 
steam cotton press. The period for which the land ia leased is not 
specified except in the case of Messi-s. Oaddum and Ox's New Indian 
neaa Oomp&ny which ha-t a lease for ninety-nine years or up to such 
tima u the company shall remove their establishment. The average 
charge for full-pressing a bale of cotton varies according to th« 



£x porta. 

[Bombay QauttMT. 



sosAon from 28. 10^ (Re. l-7)to3& Qd. (lU 1)) or 6a. (Ra. ,3) 
the bale when bogging and steel hoops arc proviilcd hy the prens. 
From 125 to loU full-presstHi I>ales can hit tnmwl out in on« day 
from each pretis. It is calcuiateil tliat a Hteam press, fully occupied, 
will recoup the capital outlay in about four scaaona. 

The primiti\'t' native screw for pi-essing cotton into what are termed 
hftlf-prf-ssiHl Iwles ia rapidly disappearing from Blut^magar. Tho 
scrfwsarobcing'inovtMl inland along the line of railwayatLAthi.Botid 
Dlior^ji, lUnpur. Jutpnr, aud Bhiiyavadar, as the nuiway charges are 
more favourable to half-ptx!itiH.iI fialua than to dhakdda. The screvs 
are made of local Ixifntl wood on account of ita peculiar toughness. 
The frame is made of teakwood imported to Bhflvnagar from )Lalab£r. 
These hctcwh are net up by local carpenters at a cout of aUnit £hO 
(Rs. fiOO). Tliey last ten to fifteen j-oara within which tiuio the 
screws liave to l>e occasionally renewed. Twelve men are required 
to work one screw press. Such a gang working from six in the 
morning till seven in the evening with an interval fur meals would 
turn out fifty to nixty IjoIcs f or 'whidi they are paid at the rate 
of 12 10». to Hi (Its. 25 - Rs. 30) for 100 bales. Each man earns 
about is. (He. I) a day. The ordinaiy size of a half-pretvK-d hal 
about 6* X 4' X +' and tfio average weight is seven hundrcdweig 
Sacking and coir rope are used to secure these bales instead o' 
steel liooi).s uiuployetl in full-pressed bales. This covering is 
btirJdn or tare and weighs fi-om twenty-one to twenty -eight pounds. 
There used to be about thirty-fivo of the^e screw presses at fibAv- 
oagar alone. The cost of sending every half-pressed oale to Bomhay 
by sea is for freight 3». to 5s. (Rs. 1|-Rb. 2j), cai-toge 3«^ (2 ayts.), 
pressing 7{d. (5on«.),andgunny os. (Rs. 24).or a totid of 10«. lOJti 
(Ra. fi-7). The cost for a full-pressed bale is for freight 9*1, to 1«. 
3rf. (6-10 ams.), cartAge ^d. (J a7iJKi), for pressing 3a. (Ra, I J) and 
for gunny 2jt. 7 id. (Re. I-S) or a total of 7«. (Rs. 3i). As cnte 
half-pressed, bale is twice as heavy as a full-pressed bale it follows 
that a gain of about Ss. {Rs. IJ) on cverj'liale iaohtaineil by sending 
cotton to Bombay In thoidiapeof half-pre.-ist-dlwle-s, but the pilfering, 
adulteration, ana wastage to which the lialf-pi*e6oed bales are exposed 
oil the way And at the time of sale in iSombay is so serious that it is 
found more advantageous to put the cotton in full-pi-estieJ bale& 
The greater popularity of the full-pressed form is proved by the 
export statistics which show that from September 1881 to June 1S$2, 
434,220 hundredweights in 124,063 full-pi-eascd hales were exported 
against 143,143 hundre<iwcight.-) in S0,449 half-preesed bales. The 
owner of the screw-press receives a fee of one anna on each hole. li 
is ciilculat^^d that in a favourable Neason a screw-press will bring in to 
the owner £20 (Ks. 200) clear gain. Th© screw and shed represent 
a capital outlay of about £2U0 (Rs. 2000) ; the return is thereforo 
about ten per cent. 

It u difficult to come to any satisfactory conclusion as to the 
amoimt of cotton grown and sent from tho prottncc. The following 
roughly represents the recorded exports of cotton during the eight 
years ending 1880-81 : 


Kdtkidwdr ColUm Export* (in Bale*), i873-t880. 















187*- TB 





















un-w' „. 






W7HB* ,. 







IBTS-eO _. 










It, wo 




' PftiBlua }'cu¥. 

■ For some time before 1861 the average price of cotton in Bombay 
F^ waa about 8*. (Rm. *) a man. In 1864 and 1865 the price rose to 
£3 IQs. (Rs. 3')), it then greatly fell aii.l at pivsent (1S82-83) is 18a 
(R& 9) a man. Before 1861, the freight to Bomliay wa^ thrt-e- 
lourtbsof the present freight, and in ]Hti4 and 1865 it was four 
times the present freight. In HiilAr. lAlia cotton at present 

^ fetches £1 (R«. 10) more a khdndt than d/idnknia cotton. To the 
KavAnagar merchant the total cost from ginning to exporting 
to Boinl«ay is aliout £17 6*. (Rx. I7ii) the hhdntU, and he gets in 
Bombay on average price of about £19 (R*. 190) the yi4ndi. leaving 
him an avei-agc net profit of about £1 I4«. (Rm. 17) the Windi? 
To grow Idiia, which is the chief cotton in Kdthiawiir proper, the 
total cost to the original dealer is about £21 4vf, (Ra 212) on the 

idkokda of twenty-five mans, and the procecd-s at Bha vnagar £22 1 2«. 
(Ba. 226). leaving s profit of about £1 6a. (Ra. 13)« The 
BhAvnagar merchant getu in Bombay £23 \h8. (Rk. 237J) for a 
Su>kidii of twt>ntv-five mana, and the expenses incurred are about 
£23 (Rm. 230). leaving hiin a net profit of about 15s. (Ra.7i) the 


Wbeatimillet. and pulses arc sent to Bombay and Kar^hi by VAnia, 
Bhdtia, Meman. and Kiioja merchants. W lieut, cIiiuHy grim'n in 
the BhAl, gotvs in large (juantities from BhA\iittgar and Wailliwdn. 
Millet, chiotly growing in Hftltlr ami Kjlthidwrtr, and pulses grown 
in the Machhu Kiutha.are sent from the port« oi HAlfU- and ^rath. 

>Thed«UiUara: Eighty nuiiM cotton mpodto7i«ldogaoiA<tn<Uof c(}ttuii£16, ■tote 
Harm On kdtiia tx cotton-poAt l-i*.. taking the «ottoo oatoftbe pod 8«.. ginning £1 12c, 
c«rt-hire to Navitnkgu 5«., prtMuty &<t. Itrf., c&rt-hiro to tho whjurf 2Z, «xport A-aXJ 
3#. M., fniaht to Bomlxsy 3<>. €ff., total £19 13>. 6^. Ddhict m xtlae of c<rtt<in moA 
£2 7'); totd chargm £17 Sf. &/: thdndi price iu Uombay £10; kMmii proQt £1 
13*. &/. 

■ Tha ilettila ua : Ba^ng Hventy-Gvo nMM ctf nncleuied cattoa or kapdt, inulnding 
loeal itatfl tAXMt to prodncv ona dhoMa or tweaty<f[re maiw of ootton £SI 11«. SA, 

Imniuff £1 I0«., nUaeeUaaeoaa i^, ■wklag Sa.. axobango on bUI 2a., cart. fair* bo 
Cliiu) -li., railway f&ro from Chital to BbAviugU' 7s., BbAvnagv durgas 12«. ; total 
£24 12*. 3><. IkiliictM vftliie of OAtton scedfl £3&9. 7i<t ; toUl cfairgw £21 ^.l\d.% 
itkokda rata nl BliArnagar £22 12«.; net dhoixla profit to ttto KAthiiLtrir morchAiit ftt 
Sbavw^tr £1 6ti. 4 id. 
> Tb* d«tuU «n) : Coil ol a cttoitta »t fibiWAgw £33 [2&, owt-biro to tho wharf U., 
Uboar 6d., (night to BocobKj4«., cut-bin tM other exjwnut ia Bomb» 2<. M.; 
ioUl oost to tbe DhAimBgu- morcbwit £23 Oi. 3c<. Seltuig jprioe ct ft lUo&fa at 
Bgiabay £23 Ifla. t profit to tho BbUvoigw mercluat 14*, M. 


Prioft and • 

Chapter VT. 


Theso articles are bought Ky export houses from village trad( 
who gH them direct From thu urowt;rs. In KSUiidvriir it has l>e 
a custom to store in ihc ^uiia a large quantity of grain, diieily 
juftir anil Ixtnti, as a defence against scarcity. But except a few 
ctuef« wlio keep to the oM practice, all dispose of their Hurplna 
grain to the traders who sell it either retail to the people or to 
export merchants. The exports of grain, exchuiing rice ami fidl, 
amounUnl to 8S4S tons valued at£ll2,l9G(ii«. ll.SI,960)in 1877-7$, 
to 6212 tons valued at £56,071 (Rs. .%C0,71O) iu t87S-79,aiid to57U^ 
tons valued at £43,077 (Ra. 4,30,770) in 1879-80. jHj 

Under oil-see^, come »eisamum and castor-oil. These are prot\Ti bi " 
alniOiSt all pai-t.-) uf the pniviiice and are sent in small ijuaiititieis fmiii 
all trade centres to Bomoay and Karachi. Much siisainum and castor- 
Bood is pretisod into oil for local a.w, Uie aesamum seed by MuH&Uoin 
Ghtochis and the castor-oil seed by the women of the husl>andmen'ti 
familira who pound castor-seed, and, after boiling the powder 
in a vessel, exti'act caotor-oil for burning. Sheep are sheared by 
shiiphenls and butchers and the wool is sold to district traders^ 
generally Mcmans, Tlie district trailers sell it to whoh 
Dierchaots who send uofit of it to BomWy. In tlie Naviin , 
etate a large quantity of wool is bought by the tradun> uf Auu' 
B^ambha, and UadifLna, and sold to the mcrchanti at Jodia. 
aend it to Bombay. A small quantity of tliia wool in locally wov 
by Dheds and others into the blankets which are worn by slicphc) 
Woollen ropes are alw inaile. 

Clarified butter or gki is chiefly produced in the diotricis of Pani 
in Kdthi&wdr proper, and in Barda and tlie Qir forcKt in Soral 
These districts have always a large number of cattle beloi 
to ahepherds. The centres of the trade in clarified butter are 
KuvtUfva for the Pauchdl, whence it goes to llijkot and other places ; 
VLsavadar, Sarsai, and Mendaitla for the Oir, whence it goes to 
Jdfarabad and Vei-dval and thence to Bombay ; and BhAnvai- and 
Porbandar for Barda. Building stone goes in large quactitiea from 
Porbaudar and DlirAngadia. The Porbandar stone is sent from 
Porl>andar to Bombay, and the Dbriingiidra stone goes by rail to 
Gv^^'^ '^^ opening of the railway has greatly incrBaise<d tha 
cjLpoi't of tho DhnLngadra stone. 

In JhAUvad.the openingof therailway has stopped the former^ 
bullock export of stone, salt, and grain, and the uuportof dyes'fi 
Muvid, Ktiirwiir. and MiUwa. Since the opening of the rtulwsy th 
has .spiTing up an export of cotton to, and an import of picce-go>_ __ 
from, Bomriay. Vaddgra .lalt.made at Kuda in Dnr&ngadra,is carried 
to diifcrent parts of the province but ia not allowed to bo exported. 

In Gohilvitd, the port of BhiLvnagar between 1760 aud 1810 was 
Oonnecte<l by trade with P(Ui, Jodhpur, Sirohi, Udepur. Jayapur, 
Ujain. KatiAin, Indor, BurhAnpur, Penth, Ahma^laliad, Ddnta, Pjitan, 
Rddhaiipur, PjHanyiur, Vadiiagar, Visalnagar, and Sidhpur, but thia 
trade baa been now entirely absorbed by the railway. Blxivuagar also 
formerly carried on an extensive eea-ti-wle with Kanichi and Kalikat, 
Maskat, Basrtdi, Mokha, Jidda, ZanzibAr,Mauritius, Mozambique; and 
with Ceylon, SingApur, Pining aud China. In 1802, tlie opening 



of Dholera by the British Government turned much tratie from 
BbAvua^ar to Dliohrra, and for nomc yeare after 1832 Gogha was 
the chief centre. After 1S46-47, trade returned to BhAmagar and 
Bh^^^laga^ has now absorbed nearly the whole trade vf Uogha and 
& great part of the Dhotcra trada 

In HilAr, the sea-lrado of NavAnagar was formerly confined 

within narrow limits by the dread of the Oldi^iandal pirates. An 

iive land ti-adc was carried on through Chi&rans, Atit8, and 

ojitnSs with Mdrwdr, MovM, and GujarAt. NavAnagar has now 

laiyu wa-lrade with Boiul>ay and Karflchi, Tliore wa« formerly a 

conwi'lerable export of cloth from Navjiiiagar, but it haa Iw^un aliinwt 

entiix'ly supplanted by the import of European ptece-good& At the 

chief port of Sorath, Vcrdval the ancient »omn^lh-P&tan, there )ias 

been of late an increase in tlie export of cotton and molassos, and in 

the import of grain and piece goods, and a decrease in the export of 

^raiu and clariticd butter. The trade with distant port^ has 

deaoaHed while that with Bombay, Kai-dclii, and Gujardt has 

Hie chief KAthi&wdr crafts arc, at Nav^nagar, gold and silver 
(hrf-od -making or soneH, knot-printing or btindhm, the weaving 
of bilk ov atlas and of brocades or Hnhhdb, the making of red 
powders km^ku and ffiU^il.oi tr&gtant oils phulel tknd swjanajird;/ irl, 
of perfumed sticks agai-bati, of perfume*! powder piuli, and of rose 
wd other essences or atars. At MAugrol the chief crafts are in- 
Uyin<^ ivor}' and car\ing sandalwood ; at Ruiidia &jid Muli making 
native horse saddles ; at Wadhwdn making sfvap ; at Dhrdngadra 
and Halvad making stone hand millv. cups and other articles ; at 
Kuda in Dlirungaclra the manufacture of salt; and at Bhilviuigar 
the machine wca\-ing of cotton cloth. 

The Jiavdnagar eonen or gold and silver thread is not only tho 
best in the province but holds a high place in foreign markets. 
The workers, of whom there are about fifty fflmiliea, are Kadva 
Kanhis, ojUled tdrkadJids or ni re- beaten^, who were brought from 
Alimndaljad by a Musahni&n governor during the reign of the Kmperor 
Auraiigi:eU Except about ten familicflwho have capital, thcf({r^'(t(/A<i« 
&re labourers supplied with oiuterialai by Viuia and Vohora merchants. 
The maii^rialK come from Bombay. A silver bar about 100 toldit in 
weig^it in covered with gold leaf of from two to six tolas in weight, 
either by goldsmiths or by MusalmjUi jai'ddis of whom there 
are aboat ten families in Navduagar. The jarddis then beat 
tlio bar aud drag it »feveral times through many different sized 
holits pierced in a rough iion plate. When it tx-comes as fine as a 
cotton thread, the wire is sent to the IdrkAnda or wire-beater who 
[after beating and flattening it, twists it with yellow silk, and cither 
Itho wire-Itcater or a labourer winds this joint thread into skeins 
chV 'ihlis. Except during tlie rains the dcmaitd for gold 

a thi- .irly brisk throughout the year, especially during the 

H [namagu montbs of February aud May. The wire-beaters work 
Bjor nine hours a day from six to eleven in the morning and from 
Hone to five in the evening. The tdrhuUida arc goddess or mother 
^worsliippers. Their favourite holidays are the navrdtn or the fira* 

Chapter TL 


QoH Thretut. . 

{Bombft7 O^xctteer, 



nine daj^s of Aafivin (Stptember-October). Btisidea these. Uwr 
keep every amds or the laHi day of every Binda mouth, i)Kwi 
(Octobcr-Noveniher),ffr*/i (Febniary-March),*/otir«rfM/</)jii(Atijrust- 
Suptember), aud ullivr Uiudu ItoliiUvM. Tbu womuQ help bv tout- 
ing toifoUit^r the gold and mWi thrcutUR and thci chiMri>n by dre*suig 
tlie Hilk and flattening tlie wire. A lianlwurkiog «-ire-drawei 
eanis about 2s. (Re. 1) a day, his wife about Is. (H ana.), and a 
child about Gtl. (4 ans,). The akcins ore wld eithur retail to tbe 
people or wholesale to local or outsido traders. Tlie sellen tni 
wi'll-to-do wire-drawers or the Vdiiia and Vohora merchantii 
employ the wire^lrawera. The gold thread is boui^ht by b 
weavers and cloth dealers who luspose of almost the whulw »u 
to local chiefs and large laudholdei's. A ifunehhli or skein weigh- 
ing eighteen vdU costs from 1«. ^\d. to S«. A\^tl. (3-6 koris), that is, 
a fo/u of gold-thread costA from^ to €«. (lUli-Rs. 3). As a dasi 
the thrcad-makurH are not well-to-do. They arc neither thrifty 
nor hardworking and Hutfur from debts ineurre<l daring tho lati 
(1S77) famine and from the competition of Bombay threat!. 
l/VWinff. JJdntVini or knot-printin? is carried on in almost all the chiel 

towns of the provinca In Navdnagar, where the best KfLthiAw^ 
knot'prints are made, there are about seveuty-Qve families oi 
printers all of them Khatris. Aiiout one-third of the Khatris hard 
capital; tho rest work for wages. Half of them work as 
bandhdrds or kuot-lyem and half as dyers. Of the raw 
material the cloth comes from Bombay and the safHower or 
ka*umho from GujarAt. Whole pieces of jaconet or muslin are 
bought by well-to-do dyers and priucvrs. If unwashed they an 
washed with soap. The cloth is then cut into pieces of the sin 
ro<|uired for turbans, gfunYholdji or scarves, and women's other 
cazTnents, aud given to the knot-tyer. Before beginning to work, 
the knot-tyer, according to agreement, kecjw the cloth single 
or folds it double, triple, or fourfold. He measures with a string 
tho dificrcnt p&rts of the cloth which are to be printed with fffru 
or red dust in the inUivel or flower pattern, hdthivel or elephant 
pattern, morvA or peacock pattern, j90/>H(ne/ or parrot pattern, and 
vtrmar or border pattern. With his thumb and forefinger nails, 
which are kept long for the pun)ose, lie picks up the dots of cloth 
that arc to lie left white and tios them in a knot with doubled eotloa 
yarn. The cloth is then taken to tho dyer who dyes it yellow^ by 
dipping it into a mi.^turo of tunneric. \{' lien the cloth is dried, the 
kuotter tics up the parts which are to remain yellow. If green is 
wanted, he paints little patchL>s with a mi:xturc of indigo turmeric 
andj'rtnii a yellow dye maiie from satllower, pick.stheni up, and ties 
them with thread. The cloth is then relnrm^l to the dyer who dips 
it in boiling water mixed with soap which whitens tho cloth except 
thu part which is tied in tlic knots. The dyer then puts safflower 
in ajholi or wallet hung in tho air, and pouring water over it.) 
lets the water drop into a pot. This coloured water is called I 
jiinli. The ilyer next mixes mdjikhdr or soda with the safHower,! 
tramples the mixture to powder, and putting it again in the wallet, 
pours water several times over it The coloured water which drops 
from the wallet is allowed to gather for a time in one pot. When 

by repeated wnt«riiigs the colour begins to grow faint, a socood pot 

tia set Ui cntcli it, ruid whun it Iikooiiiim still Iigl)t<T. it in allowed to 
drop into a third pot. The coloured watiir in the second and third 
pots is tuixtid with u wutc^r uiudt.- tix^ui ttiiuarind, lime, or drri6o^ia or 
drj' nianj^ rimis. After the elotli ho-s been dipped in the jttrdia of 
dim-rent strenfjth a little satflower of the first strength is token from 
the first pot, and mixeil with sour water made from tatnarind. Hum or 
^ndntluL The clotli is dipped in this mixture put in a wetaJ |>ot over 
a Bre, and when heated is token out, squeezed, and again dipped in 
another mixture of the he^jardi safllower and acids. The process 
is repeated several times, the colour Wcoming hotter the oftoner the 

^ cloth is dipped in the mixture. After a final dipping in a paste of 
kbe bust jardi and acids the cloth is laid in the sun to dry. 
When the cloth is dry tliH threails that tietl the knots are taken 

out and the cloth U drawn straight. Except during the rains 

when wr>rk is dull, the dyers and kiiotters are fairly busy 
- throughout the year, e>p«ially during the marriage months of 
k February and May. The knot-ters work for nine hours a day, 
P from six. to eleven in the morning and from one to five in the 

evt^ntng. Tliey rc«t on the amda or last day of ever}* Hindu month, 
k on J^'fi/t (October- November), iJo^i (Fcbmary-Marcb). Si'/waf^m 
H (August -8optomlK:r), JnnnuiAlttami (AugiiHt-Septeinl)er) and other 
H Hindu holidays. The dyers' women and children all know how to tie 
B kuoU and they help the men ; outside knotters are engaged only to 

Buppienient the family's work. When employed in knotting if he 
L ia a steady worker, a man can earn Se. (Ra. 1 J) a day, a woman Iff. 
B(tt anJi.), and a child 6d. (4 ane.). The Khatris or dyers dispose 
P^of the bdndftni cloth to foreign traders through their agents at 

»Navnnagar, and sell it retail to the people. A j/httrchola or knotted 
print large enough for a woman's scarf about four yards and a 
naif long and two and a half broad, generally ranges in price from 
G& to £1 lOo. (Ra. 3 - Rh 15), but some of the richest patterns aro 
worth as much as £40 (Rs. 40O). A gharchola for which the Kliatri 
is paid tie. (Rs. 3) costs him about 58. l^d. (R& 2-9), and leaves him 
a profit of lOid (7 an*,); one sold at £1 lOe. (Rs. 15) oosts £1 8s. 
Oitl (Rt. 14-4-3) and leaver a pixitit of Is. of^d. (11} an«.), and ono 
sold at £-^ (Ra. HO) costs about £4 10& Gd. (R& 45-4-0) and leaves a 

»pratit of 'M. 6d. {Ra. 4{).> 
Tho Khatris or knot-print dyers who are well off and the 
Bandhanis or knot printers who are fairly off are both in a better 

1 Tho details tro : A ghafz-hata noM %t Ra (TU. 3) tiM cMt the djftr U. l^d.i^atu.) 

tar ci|i;lit jwda of cotUm, '2m. { Ra. I ^fur two Mri •>( taoiniAo, Ia (!^ niu. ) dir Uic knottsr*)! 

Uboiir. ami ]•. {» n/u, ) for other obarcea, making a total of Sp. )}r/, {&», 2-9). Tfaecott 

of a o/ian-Jtoh t-M at £\ lOi. (Ra. IS) u2f.6d. {R«. U) for eight uiil & half y^rA» of 

" ■"" ■ (lU. 8-7) for eight »rrt nf •afflower, 1U (U«. 7) fo*" tho knottcr'a 

wage* (nr at leart fiftceo d«yi, 'I^J. 

m ufUMi) far tbrtie-ftMiKhi of a 

_ ..... "f turmerML 

lU'' ('I aiu.) for one akoiii ot cotton yarn, 7^''. {Hatu.) lot tamarind. Uhm and 
otlior ariilfl, IJ'f. (I nttna) for gnteil, l^r/. (1 anna) for tA4fikluir, l^ii. (1 aiuta) 
for waUr, 2«. (Ki;. I) for one day's wkfptn of a dyer, ami 1«, (S ff*u.) for ad «xti« 
laboun-r, makiiit; a total of CI 8«. 6|'/. (H«. 14-4-3). T1h> <:o«t of a ghiurtAoia uld. Ofc 
£) tlta. AO) IB Sj. ( Ka. 3}) for nine and a baU ^ards of mualin. 12a. 6d. (Ra. 6^) Cor 
flftMU »-r« of Mflk>w«r, fi«.<Ua.24l for desiring th« p*tt«rD, 3«. (Its. IJI for eottoa 

{am tunneric anil oth«r thintpi. £S (Ra 30) Tor Uic knntter'n wages, and i*. [Ba. 24) 
or th« dysr'a w«it«», makiog a total of £4 10*. 6d. (Ba. 4£|). 

Chapter VI. 

Knot Printinf. 

Cbftpter VI. 




1 00. 



condition tban the tdrJxidhdt or gold-thread worker* 
EuNipoan wjiiipi'tition presses tliem close and several of the _ 
families 1im.v<? not freed themselves from debts incurred during Um 
fauiinu of 1877 and 1878. 

Silk and brocade weaTin^ is carried on br Hindu Rhatris and 
Vinjhfci'. Tlu'se men, of whom there are about fifty fuinilios of 
silk-weavers and twenty of brocade-weavers, are generally well-to- 
do, and many of them nave capital The silk in brought in boJes 
fvQUi Bombay in its pure, white state, either hv Khatri weavers of 
by V^ia and Vohoi-a merchants, who either sell it to the weaven 
or get it woven into silk clutti for sala Silk is eilber woven by 
the KliatrU into white .silk cloth or it is coloured and koM to retail 
ulk sellers or to consuuers. The Khatri^ and V&njhAtt also dispote 
of the silk to knoit'Crs or bnndbdni* to nwke kuul-])rintiS and to 
dyers for dyeing. The wholeJtalc price of silks varies from Isi to 5«; 
(8 an^-Rs' 2A) the yoj (2 feet). 

Their women and children help the wearers Inr dressing and 
spinning silk and tying the warp. To weave brocade which is sold 
at 10a to £2 lOs. (Ra.5-R8.25) theory (2 feet). gold thread or aottrrk 
is bought from the idrkadhin or tliresd-inakcrs. Of late the inereaaed 
imi)ort of foreign or machine made silk has depressed the craft. 

The Red Powders known as gulal and kanku. are made in 
large <iuantitie9 at Navunagar by Nftghori VAniAs, of whom there 
are alout ten families. Oxddl is m^e from tapkhir^ ]••■■ ' 
mixed with jtatar^g or Ciesalpiuia sappan wood. To make V 

Ipowdenni turmeric is dipped in water with kJidro or soda and tUatt 
old in the sun. The process is repeated till the powder becomes a 
bright rctl. GulM Is sold at five aen and kanku. at from ooe to 
four sen the rupee. 

Phulrl Flower Oil, also known as Jeasamine-oil or fnoghrel, is 

made at Nflvrinapnr and sent over the whole of KAthiAwAr. It la 
mieU by woiiieu and to.a less extent by men as a hair oil. It coats 
8s. (Rs. 4) the poimd. To make flower or jessamine-oil, aesamam 
seed is soaked in water for a few hours and the husks removed, 
A layer of jessamine flowers b laid in an earthen vessel and on 
the top of the flowers a layer of aesamam seed. Another layer of 
flowers is a«lded and again a layer of sesamiim seed and so on with 
alU>niate layein till tlie jar is full. The top layer is always of 
flowers. The jar is eluded and after standing for five or sixd^s 
the flowers ai*e thrown away and the seed sent to be presved. Tba 
oil keeps the scent of the jessamine flowers. The jars are packed 
by Vohorila and BliAtiits ami the seed is pressed by ^hilnchia. 

Sweet Smelling Oil or Sugtindniii is made and sold in the same 
way and by the same people as jessamine-oil. The sweet smelling 
snlkstancca which are ponnded and packed with the &e.samam ae^ 
are chiefly sandalwood, camphor, aloowood, khaekhua grass or 
Andropogon muricatum, and rose leaves. This oil is much cheaper 

> TajAhir ii » whiU powder imporUd Crom MftUUr ud ia Mid to poncM oooUnff 
piopertiN. • 





than iessftmine-oil, selling at 38. (R&. I i) the ponnd. 

added to coloiir it red. 

Agarhciti« or aloe-lights we made ^i various sweet smelling 

articlvs of which alo^-'wooJ or uijar is the cliief. They are 
lixod with gum benzoin instead of oil and rolled into sticks. Tho 
icks are then burned as incense or used as perfume. Tlie price 

varius from 1$, to 48. (8 ana. - Rs. 2) the pound according to the 


Perfumed powder. iHithj ndndcdi or piidi, h ma<le of the same 

in^reHiieuts as thu aloe-li}^lita, but tliey arc not mixed with gum 

benzoin or rollcfl into itticka. It is sold at ia. (Re.1} the pound. 

It iH chielly used to iKent the store of clothes which are laid by in 

all well-to-do families. 

The favourite easeoces or atiire are of rose and of jessamine. 
The flower teaveatkrc boiled and the steam is introduced into sandal- 
oil or into rosha oil mode chieily in Kh^indeah from the wild 
nwAa An'iropogon schcenanthus grass.' The distilling is repeated 
jlttt'cral times, the price varying from 1«. to 6?, (8 ang. - Ra. 3) the 
vtota according to the (|iiiLntity of Bowers used and the number of 
the essence is dlstille>l. 

JunilL'ad hafi few important crafts. Three local tndnKtries have 
tely die'l out, slu-dl-uracelet making, ivon" tulaying, and hand- 
loom weaving. BraccletH were formerly made of eonch shellfi. but 
tho use of shell ha-s almost entirelj- given place to ivory. Formerly 
a colony of workmen at MAngrol*l to carve sandalwood and 
inlay it with ivory. But the local demand dieil out and the work- 
men moveil to Bombay. The competition of European and Bombay 
machine-made cloth has destroyed the old l»and-loom weaving at 
VerAval. At present (1882) iM>me Arabs at JuniSgad under state 
patronage wpave very- line gold brocaded scarfs and cloth. Besides 
at Vurivfil the local hand-lcK>m we-a^nng has of late been much 
depretuied by the competition of Bombay and European maebine- 
tnado cloth. 

Kundla, al-oul fourteen miles south-east of Anireli, and Mull, alwul 
eighteen mih^ west of WadhwAn, have a local name for the skill 
and t/wte of their MoeliU in making native horse trappings. The 
fimldles are made of broailcloth above and red cotton or danffri 
cloth below. They are atufTcd with wool, tho cloth being em- 
hroid(*red with coloured silks and gold and silver thread. The 
britilf stirrup holders martingale and crupper are also covered with 
embroideretl cloth. The trappings made at Kundlu are considered 
the niont tasteful and those made at Midi the most lasting, A set of 
harness generally costs from £1 10a. to £5 (Its. 15 - Ks. 50). 

Wwlhwin is the centre of the manufacture of native soap. 
To make thiK snap castor-oil. Tnalnuia oil and soda and lime are 
mixed and Iwiiled in a large iron |jan. Tlie surface is skinimtnl 
and is either poured into moulds, or, which is tho older and the 


Juulgkd CrkCta,] 



< Tbr pmcAH of diMillina Uie rotka oil hu Uon given la KliAnd«*b GMetUW at 

a^ 227. as. 

commoner praetioe, left to cool and then rubbed by the hand into 
cakeft. In Aomc c&sc» perfumes or colours ore mixed with Uw 
BOttp. The luak&ni are cliielly Vohoris. The soap Is sold AoconUtig 
to quality at from 3<l. to 2d. the pound (8 - 12 ners the rupee). 

At Dhi-jUi^:a<Jra and H&Ivad in the Dhr&ngadra state arc import- 
ant stunt.' hand-mill factoriea The workers aru maaoDii or SaliUa, 
C***''*!?- most of whom are men of capitAl who employ labourera. The 
Blone which i» taken from the state quarries is sand-atoof of 
various qualities, the harder or gkantia being workc<I Into hand- 
mills and the softer or kuttdi into stone dishes cups and othw 
articles. Tlie tools used are the tdithia or chisel, the g)utn or 
lar;^. hammer, the rhhina or scraper, the kuJuUIo or batclict, the 
wt!dgi\ and the koihUi or pickaxe. The demand is dull during 
the raiua and brisk during tlic rest of the year. The SalitH, 
who work for eight hoar» a day, bcsi<ies oil the leading Hindu 
holidays, keep four holidays in each lunar month, two agidraa 
or the elevenths of each fortnight, new-moonday. and ««/ trij or 
the third day of the bright fortni<;ht The women w\<\ nothing 
to the family carningH, Ijut the children help. A hardworking 
SaUt generally earns t\ lOe. (Rs. 15) a month. Most of the stono 
article.'^ are nold by the >SaUU to R^valjo^s and Cliamth^ who 
carry them to di-itant parts for sale. A hand>mtU costs from ^ to 
8s. ('ks.2-R«.4). 

The manufacture of salt is carried on hy Kolis called Ac-ariis 
about a mile and a half from Kuiia in the Dhrdngadra state. The 
manufacture, for which there was fonnorly more than one salt 
pan, was an important source of revenue till, in 1877, Oo\*cmment 
lorbode the export of salt except when indente<l for by other 
KAthi^w^ states. The salt work belongs to the state, and the 
workers are labourers. Thej* work for nine hours a day and take 
no holidays. The women and children only occasionally help. 
Their average earuiugs are about £10 (Rs. 100) a year. 

After the ground has been cleared of dust» salt pons are made 
in the Ran and small wells dug by their sidt's. The [^muiik are filled 
with water from the-ie wells, and their Ijottoms tramples! until 
they become firm. Tlie salt pans are thereafter daily watered, 
till, at the end of about a foHnight, cry!^tal.>« arc formed wlitcb 
are broken by trampling. The watering la continued for a month 
when the produce is raJced into a heap, and, under the supeiin- 
tendcnco oi a state ofEcer, called salt commissioner, is sold at a fixed 
price of Is. Zd. (10 ans.) the Indian man to license-holders helonging- 
(o DhrAngadra and other states who bring a license from uieir 
chiefs to buy fixed quantities of salt and soil it within fixed limtta. 

The chief craft centres in the BhA^iiagftr state are Bhit\'nac«r 
Sihor, Kundla, Mahava, Kijula, Botdd, Oodhra, and Murala. The 
ci-aftsmen are Sonls, Kans^nU, Khatris, 8ardnias, 8aughiUiiils> 
Bhfivsirs, Salbirs, Loh&rs. Mochis P6rsis, Memans and Tws. The 
chief artichis manufactured arc carriaees, carts, chairs, llower 
vases, boxes, kalniruldns or pcnliolders, bangles, brass coppt^r and 
tin vessels and toys ; silk and cotton cloth, reta or men's waist- 
doths, dfiolia or d^oji, pdffhdis or turbeju, rumdU or bandkerchiefa; 


a variety of women's scarves called sdlua, eholia, addiaa and chJidyaU ; 
honuj tuuidle-s, Ua»kets, wood and metal lattice work, awonis, lauces, 
Bheatlia, ivory and wooden toys, gold and silver ornauieut<t, pad- 
locks, necklaces of s^dal beads, and snuit These ariick's find a 
largo local market Except cotton which grows in the Bliiivnagar 
atato liiost of the raw materiabi cotno from Bombay. Most uf the 
craftHuiun have capital and can pay for the raw materials retiuired 
for their craft. Snth&rs and Loners, carpenters and blacksmiths, 
work with their own bands, mostly with European tools. 
SanghdfliiU work on lathee, weavers on country looms, and Ranaiirds, 
who cast in brass copper tin and zinc, use hammers and lathea 
The dyers both dye and print. The chief tools used in the crafU* are, 
of carpenters' tools, the vanalo or adze, the vituIAnv, or chisel, the 
katiHit or saw, the pluirsi or laree chisel, the ahdrdi or borer, thekdnas 
or file, the rando or plane, the Kavddocv ax.e, the lioUwdi or hammer, 
and the adnslii or pincers. Of ironsmiths' tools, there are the ^rdi 
or lx)rer, the kdn^is or tile, the hdihodi or hammer, the wiWu" or 
pincers, the tnnkna or iron chisel, the eran or anvil, the lihaman 
or liellows, and the aij/ra or vice. Of uohJ^miths' tools, there arc 
a small shdrdi or borer, kdnas or Bles, hathodi^ or hammers, 
ndtiii/ttit or pincers, eran* or anvila, tianis or vices, and lidpiiiii or 
cutters. Of stonumaaona' tools, the chief is haikodi and tdnkni or 
stone chisel. Of weavera" tools, there are the sdl or loom, the kdntklo 
, or shuttle, and the piiirki or spindle. Of printers' tools, the chief 
■ is the l/ilni ur pattern for printing clotli or typesL jVml of 
^Uttmers' t<x>L*i the anngftddi or lathe. Craftsmen usually work 
Hhi hours a day, and tlieir work h* steady throu),'hout Uie year. 
^^Raiilim three hoUtlays in ovcry liindu month, two ayldras or 
elevenths and one atjida or last day, craftsmen r&st on all the leading 
Hindu holidays, I^itw^i (October- November), DevdivtUi (October- 
NovenilHir), Siuvicrdnii (12th January), tthivt-diri (February), 
Jloli (March), lidmnavmi (March -April), JUaiev (July -August), 
/a7iHMi[(/i(aiiu'(AuKU»t-September),and /)a#tfm(September-October), 
The women and children help the men in preparing the rougher 
partfl of the work. GoliLsmitlis, carpenters, calico-printers, and 
other first class craftsmen eant £50 to £iOO (Ks. 500 -Rs. 1000) a 

Iyt-ar and Sarilni^ or turm^rs and other lower cniftsinen £10 to £30 
(Rs, 100 - Rs. 300). The articles are ^tly s*ild by the craftsmen at 
tlieir own houses, but lU'-wtly sent tor sale to their ageuta in dis- 
tant partH of the proviiice. 'fhu state of these crafUsiuen is good. 
During the IS77-/8 famine most of them worked as labourers 
on relief works ; a tew lived on their capital. Of Blwtvnagar 
craf ta two deserve special mention : the copper and hrarts industry 
of Sihor and the weaving cotton mills of BhA^-nagar. The 
manufacture of bi-ass and copper vessels for which the town of Sihor 
|ia famous eiuploy.s a ctmsiderable amount of capital. The copper and 
zinc use<l is brought from Bom)>ay by eight or ten firms of metal 
ImetvhantA and sold to the metal workers who number about 400. A 
few of them work on their capital ; the majority either borrow capital 
id anil their vessels to tin; inerchant^i, or woi'k for the merchants 
"for wages, the merchants supplying the metal. In this maimor 
copper and brass vessels worth £50,000 to £00,000 (5-6 Idkhs) aca 

Chapter TL 

(Bombay QiLMttMCi 




tnumfaetored and sold yearly at Silior. Thran hram worTtsre o^^ 
KdUsirAs aa tliey are cnltc*!, from the worvl Md-^u. an amalgun of 
copper and tiu, havu becii seiUvd in Silior for thu lafit bmidred 
yoari Tlioy came from ChArapAnfir from which they fled on tU 
capture by Mahmud Begada in 1434. Home souf^ht refuge in the 
towns oE Gujarat and othera who Hed to ^iArwur are uow known 
aa HAru-KaiisAritt. They neither eat nor iotcnnurry with the 
other aectiou and allow divorcw and re-marriago during the lifetime 
of the firHt huulund. Owing chietiy to improvident habits and 
extravagant domestic custonut these people are not welt-to-da, ei^'hljr 
per c^ni of them being in debt Hut their condition is nlowly 
unpro\'ing. Thoy work twelve hours a dav, from six to eleven In 
tho morning, from one to balf-i)a8t five ami from eight to half-past 
ten. They are paid 2d. to £1 (Re. 1 - Rs. 10) the nian of coppei 
Bocording to the claNti of vetMul, the amallur and mure elaborate 
vesaela iKing paid at higher raloH. Brass work t>t paid at 2.9. (Re. 1) 
the man for plates, 1«. (B am,) per ser for tea-kettles, and 6<L 
f4 aTWj.) per ser forcup«. They work in b«ll-m«tal or loinmt. at 12«,j 
(Rb. 6) pur man. They pay twelve per cent interest on loans.. 

la 1873, in con-tultation with tliR BhA\-nftgar .Toint Administrator 
Uessrs. E. U. FerciviU, C.S., and Gavrishanker Uduyil'ilmiikar, C.SX,j 
Bteam npinntng and woaWng mills were Atarted at Blii-vnagar 
HettKHf. Forbes and Oo. of BomV>av. The compaiiv was rwristerwl 
in Bombay as tliu BliAvnagor Uim and Pi-ess (jompany Limited! 
Tho Bh^N'nagar state granted the free u»e of watt^r m>m a noigh-j 
bouring pond and thirty years' exemption from custonis duties on' 
niayhiiiery ami material.^ imiiortod for tho mill. Thy fun'is of ihe 
company consisted of 300 shares of £200 (Rs. 2000) each or a total 
of £00.000 (Hs. (j,00.000) held by dOO shareholdei-H. Tlie shares wero 
allotted in England BoQibay and Bh&%iiagar. Nearl}' a third of tha 
capital was subscribed in BhAvnagar, and a few shares were token] 
in Hombny by European and native merchants. The real wei 
purgliiuifd in England, The milU were carrie<l on for some tiuK 
under European managemout. But tlw.-y did not pav. partly from 
the hca\'y cost of tho cstabliahraont, partly from friction between 
tho local uuuiagers and some of the native otficiaLi. In Scptumbti 
1875, 600 new preference shares of £50 (Rs, 500) each wei-e addc 
to the original capital, the holders drawing nine per cent & yc 
on the net profits of tho comnany, pi-eviuus to any distrilmtion' 
among the ordinary shareholaera Each of tho original share- 
holders hod the option of taking two preference sbarett. For a ti«n 
the mills were worked at a protit, but the charges were Ktill 
heavy and in 1879 the balance sheet showed a monthlv deficit ol 
£500 (Ra. 5000). In June 1879 Messi-s. Forbes and Co. becaia* 
bankrupt, but the comply by raiang a loan of £33,000 (R«. fJ,30,000J_ 
and mortgaging tho mills contrived to carry on the business. Tha' 
money was advancM chiefly by Mr. Veui^hankerLakJimishauker, a 
local banker, and the control was vested in a board of dirt^ctors. 
Under Mr. Venishanker Ijakhmblianker's managenient which began 
in July 1 879, the mills yielded a profit of 13387 2a. (TU. 33,87 1) in 
1880 and of £599* 8s. (Rs. 59,044) in 1881. 

In October 1881 the company was reconstructed under the nuuo 


ol the BhitiiiAgar Cotton ilflniifacturinjj Company Limifcotl, with 
capital of £90,000 {Rs. 9.00.000) diviaed into 9000 sliai-es of £10 
100) each. Of these 2695 are prefcrcneo shores ami ore 
titled to iiJne per cent a yuar on the net profits of the company. 
Alter paying iutet-est on the preference siiares tlie remaining 
profile aru divided etjually among the other shareholders. To 
uicet the loas^^'i sustained hv tlio coinpnny the original shares of 
£200 (Rs. 2000) have beeii reduced to X160 (lis. IGOO). that is 
each former holder of a single share of £200 (Ka. 2000) has 
received in lieu of that stharo sixteen ordinary shores of £10 
(Rs. 100) each. The preference sh(u-es of £30 (Ks, 600) werd 
divided Into five shaiv^s of £10 (Rs. lOO) each with fumtlar pr)viU'<;eH 
to those they fonuerly jKwsessod- The mill consista of a hoiler-room, 
engine, hlowing. sniniiiiig and weav-ing rooms. The machinery 
•which is by Cui-tis Farr & Modoley of Manchester, Hetherin^^fton of 
Manchester, and LoM Brothers of Todnorden, includes thirty-two 
cardinjCt engines, twenty*six throstle-frames with 73G0 spindles, 
foni' self-acting mules with 4U7-1> spindles and 120 self-acting 
looms. Tiie engines are hy W. i^ J. Yates of Blackburn of eight 
horsr-power nominal, Tim sti-.ini is generated into two hoilers 
thirty feot long, 'llie machinery is at work for twelve hours 
a day in the cold season and for thirteen hours during the 
t '"est of the year' The average daily number of workmen employed 

■ doiins IH»L was 2'fl wen 59 women and 110 cliildrcn or 420 in 
Hall. The entire amoimt of wages difihnrsod in 1HR1 was atx>nt 

■ £5050 (Rs. 50,500). Tlie workmen aix- chiefly Rolia, BhiU. and 
' Muhanumulaii-s. Be^idi^s cloth and wni-stcloths or (fhotai'9 the mill 

tnrus out number-twenty yam. At the rate of 9d. (6 ana.) tlm 
^. d of yam, 1*. A? (10 amt.) the pound of dJiotarg, and In. (8 ang.) 
the pound of cloth, the value of tac cloth and yam turned out of 
the mill in 1881 is ostimat<.>d at about £48,000 (Rs.4,80,000)l 
Mast of the produce Itoth of cloth and of yam is suited for local 
u»e. A portion is sent to Bombay mostly for the China market. 
In 1881, l,359,HiO pounds or about 600 tons of cotttm wei-e «.simI in 
L the mill. The cotton us«l is all grown in Kathiaw^r. Nuinl*r 
Htwcnty yarn is too fine, and steps are )>eing taken to turn out 
^coarser (|nalitics more suite^l to meet the local demand. 

(lol'lsmitlis, carpenters, coppersmiths, tailors, blacksmiths, potters, 

barbers, shoemakers, and otlier craftsmen, being generally of ooe 

esAto, have each a caste organizatii^n or ninhdjan, which to Home 

extent take the place of craft guilds. Dealers in cotton, grain, 

groceries, piece-ffoods, andothcr articles belong to several castes, and 

form a trafle giiiU distinct from their caste organization. Tljis ti*ade- 

H guild in thi-' Ueati m'th'tj-t /tand is compose*! of four or five of the leading 

H local nierchant^. These leading men have the title of ^tuthut. There 

H Is no regular or hore<litary past of head menchant or ■na/fai'Rhctfi iu 

^ KilthiAwAr, though the title is s<jmetiuies used out of respect to a 

trader of ntarked wealth or unnsual persoiuU influence. Social 

IThciUtaiU were, iii JonuMj- )8Sl. II. 170, in Kflbruary 9532, iu March 11.163, 
tja Al>nl 11,263. in May ll.OU' Juno 10.020. in July I0C49, iu Aut;ust I0.7GG, 
^io S«pt«iDliiir 11,2911, in October ll.ZBO, in Noyeinber 10,791, uid id Decraibcr 12,133 

Dpl« were ooployed. 

Chapter Tl. 

BhAnunr i 


(Bombay Oatetteer, 



Chapter TI. 



tlixptiteA are settled by caste councils or maJn^an*. If the i^ocision i 
tlio ciLsU* council is nut oVwytnl tlio ilffaultcr bt uitluT iinvJ or tin 
out V\w» ntcnvcroil from (IfFniilttfrM fomi n caste fund wliieli 
URi'ii either in gi^Tng dinners to the casto or in l)uyin(; cooking (in>l 
drinkiii"; vesKels. r)]8]mU>a ahutit tiinul*ai^ninM ami other complicfit'.-*! 
tnulc <|noMtion.s arr jjcncrally rnfiimwi to the hoa<l miUidjan or tnui« 
gtiilil. If tliy iK-cision of Ih*' tnule ciiild is not obeye<1, the 
(li!faultttr», a." a nile, ore cut olf from ali trade intercoarsc and in 
addition arc soinetiimM^ iurnetl out of casU?. In l;^7K the Br^liman 
traJvrs of "WadfiwAu n.-fu^'d lo pay a religious tax IeWe*i l>y 
yAmmiutJnijtin or trwlc guild. Thu V^uiu guild forbade all dci 
with the Knthnian tnwlci-s. and the BiiUiuians were force<l to yiel 
In many case.s the trade gnild levies a tax on traile and manufacturo^, 
and. under the management of the hoad {^uild spends the procwU 
in feeding the (xxir, in svipivirtinganiiiiHl liuines or fulnJriiiMifM. mxl 
in building rest-house-s or JhumtfjtfUtU, eattlc troughs or luiv' 
and water-rdwiU or jKtniiMi. To decide ijuesuous in wluch the ^. l. . 
tndii»tnn] ctaaei i» intercstetl tlio several ca.'^tt' guilda meet, and, wheru 
the (juciiition is one of taxation, go to the local chief to rwlrew then 
grievance. In somo caHO-s. a man who takes to a craft diftenmt 
thnt pnietLse*! by his father has to pay a sum in charity 
(Uuit'uui'fa on joining the guild, 

Htrikcs or Ktm>pageH of work in sign of tliHContcnt arc 
uncommon. Craftsmt':n go on strike for one of tJiree reoson-i: inj 
dispute between two cattea if the Mtiite supjwrtf one wdo aud dt 
not give I' to the other ; in a tli^pute alHiut .stiite taxation 
rwIres3i8notobtiunc<l !<y petition ; ami when an act of the chief or) 
his sulxii-dinates wounit the religious feelings of tlio people. Soi 
years i^:;o at Oondal (alMut liJ4.)-46] some Menians and of 
MusalniAns in spit*} of complaint, persisteifl in selling flesh openly 
the public street. Ajsthoy got no redress, the VAuiaeoinumnity close 
their sliujxs till the state pass4id a rule forbidding Musnlimins to kilL., 
aninialfi in pulilic and onluring them to cniTy tU-sh in cuven'<l l>asku< 
In 18.')7-5(i the ViUiiAs of IJhoritji wounded the religious feelii ^ 
of the MuHaliitiln.s wliu attackei^l them so severely that several of them 
were kilK^l. The Gondal state punished the leaders of the affmy 
and the Meinaus and other Musolmans struck work antl a few of 
them left DhorAji for JutiAgad. TJus strike failed. InHt«a4l of giving 
in the (Jondal state ordere«l the re-st of the Mu.'«lmAn.i to Icavo 
DhorAji, a courw which so siirprised them that they called back 
their iriendj* from Juud<ja/1 and opened their Hliops. Recently at 
Mor\n (in 1331) some VohorAs kdled a cow ami a bullock, and 
the Vani&s stopped work for three ilays till the otFenders wuro 
Kentcnceil to imprisonment. In 1880 the Wadhwiln liarWrs struck 
for a rise in wages, but they failed to cany their point When a 
strike fails, desertion or emigration i-s sometimes threatened. In 
former times when piniplc were few aud states competed with 
each other for the service;* of husltandmen and craftsmen, deserlion 
or emigration was a aeriout) threat aud was often »JUCCCssfiiL Now 
from the growth of population and the ca-se with which people can 
Ihj brought from a distance, chiefs have little flifficnlty in supplying 
the place of de*ji-ters and threata of emigration ore rare. 





In very ancient tiioos, tliat is to say probably before the iavosioa 
of Aldxauder the Great (B.C. li'Z7), the hoatj-iiiiartere of iliu Jiul»v 
race wore at Mathuraiu tho North-Wcstorn Provinc<>s, whi^ro Kaiisa 
rnled uu behalf of bia father Ugrasena. Devaka, brother of 
Ugraapiia^ had a cUughtor namcil Duvki who inarneO VaHiiiluvn a 
kiii^man of Uffraseoa. On the occasion of the weJilin^, Kaiiiia, to 

Eay Pevlci rf*<p«ct, hiinsvlf drovo the bridal charivt towaixis tlio 
DUffl! of Vasuuijva. At this time there catne a voicu fnirn htitaven, 
aaying that though be showed suoh ros)X)ct and alToctiun for 
Oovkt her oITspnnjj by Vasudova would kill Uim. Ou huariug this, 
Kansft becaiiiu violently ennigwl and driiw lit» sword to slay Dovki 
and thna prevent lior prof^ny cauitin^ his death. Vaandova 
iotercode-l for Devki and promiiied iu baud uver his sous to KnQ»a 
for slanghtor if only he would Hparo her lifu. Kansa agrccdj and iu 
thta manner slew tho 6rst tilx sons of Vasudova and Dcvki. 1'ho 
soveuth »iu, BuUlevaj thou<;h e^^nceived by DovkJ^ ^vas uiicaeulously 
tranfttu'n-ed to tho womb of KMhini, another wife of Vasudcvu's, and 
WA8 lx>m at Gokul, a t<jivn e'lx tnilos soubh-va^t of ^ftkihllra in tho 
-West ProviuiiOK lu the house of the Ahir chiof Nanda, who 
, staunch friend of Vasiideva's. Krishna wa.s the eighth son. 
Itnmcdiatoly he wait born, his father Vanudcva carriod hiin toGoknl 
to the houao of Nuuda and left him thei-e, replacing; him by a 
dan^^htor of Nanda who was bom that itnmo ni^ht. Vaaudova handed 
over thin itifaut to Kausa. to alaug^hter as iras hU wont. But whoa 
Kauiia atteiupt^id to kill her, tho j^irl babe flew up out of ht!i hands 
into heaven, and said, 'Wheroforo do yon thna, without canso, 
mnrder the inaoceut cbildroa of Devki f Know that your enemy 
is already born and U otsowhere in safety.' Kausa then issued an 
order for the promiscuous slauj^hter of all now-b<iru raalo infants. 
TIio slaughter commenced hut was stayed by Narad the sage, 
who told him that his imoiny had been born in nio house of Nanda 
at Gokul. Whon Kftu»a thus haraaacd Vasndcva and Devki ami 
the JiidnVB of Mathura many Jadavs quitted Matbura and betook 
thouiAuIveH to foroiga countrica. These countries are named as 
feUowa in the tenth Sknndha of tho Bhagrat Pardoa : Kunidcsli, 
PanchjUdesh, Kaifcaidesh, ShAlvadesh, Vidarbhadeah, Niiishadhdoah, 
Vidohadesbf and Koshaladesh. During Krishna's stay at Gokul bo 
prosecuted his amours with the Gopis or milkmaids. !li« most 
reaownod miatreBS was the celebrated ItAdha or R:Ulhika who was 
the daughter of Vmahabhilnn, an Ahir chiof of Varsilun, a village 
near Ookul. The BhAgvat Purilna does not mention lUdluh by name, 
but she in fully dt'Hcribed, and aa account of her marrii^ with 
Krishna m giren iu tho Kri.ihnajimma Kbanda, which is a jwrtion 
of tho Brahoiu Vaivarta Purina. Rjldha is associated with Krishna 
iu his worship throughout Xudia, but lliudus gengrolly look ou Bddha 

Chapter Til. 

Euty UinJiu. 


IBomlmy Ganttetr, 


■rly IJintliuk 


u Krisbnn's mistress and not OS his wife, relviTiB^ probnbly on ihc 
oniisttioH o£ her uame iu tlio Bl)6gA-«t. Novertlieless On- KrUhim- 
jaDma Khnnda sajs that Bralioia performed the marriap) ceremuajr 
between tbem. Kanaa empluyed nanny stratai^izis to denrujr 
Krinhna, but all wore nnsacceuEol. Eventnally, after Krishnii \uA 
atUiioed the age of eleven yeoK, Kiuisa inrited him and NudOu to 
bin court, inlundiiig Ui put him to death on his nrrival. But Krishna 
foiled all his echemes, and Sonlly killed Kansa himselL And u 
KanRa had imprisoned his own futhor U^raeena Eor taktufif the part 
of Dovki and Vosudova, Krishna released him, and cominonced to 
rule in his name. Now Asti and Prapli, the widow* of Kanaa, wort 
daughters of JarAaandb the ChandravuniKhi kin;; o( Magadh. Uo 
Ihoreforo soventoon timos invaded the Mathura territory to revenge 
the death of Kansa, but was each time repulsed and defeated %f 

'J'hinga were in this state, when KtUayavan, a Mlcchhn chicftAin, 
led an army agaiiut Mathura, oa hearing which Jar&saudh re8oIvt.d 
to miae another artoy and uiako aa cifphtocuth attempt ngniost 
that kingdom. When Krishna aod Baldera his brother heard of 
the invasion of KiUararan and the iut«ntion of Jaril.saiidlt, tliey 
deepaired of being able to resist them. Thoy accordingly fouDdt>d 
(he city of DivArka, and transported thither ftll the inlmhitanra uf 
&[atliiira. Then rettimitig to Matbui-a, Kriahoa barefooted and 
without armour sought the eamp of KAIayavan, whose anny 
reached the place. In thase days it wbh one of tho condittnns 
holy warfare or tVtarma-nnddh, that thechollouged should adi>pt thi 
same weapons as the challenger. KflUvavan ihetvforu came to nieel 
Kridboa in battle, also barefootoil an4 deroid of armnnr. 'Wliei 
Krishua saw KAlayavan advancing, ho tied before biai towards ^[oun< 
GimAr. Here lay tjleopiug the dread kiugMuchnkiinda, of whum i\ 
had boon foretold that lie should slay with his Gory glance whoo' 
ahonld dare to arouse him from his slumbors. Krisliuu, aware of tbii 
prophecy, covered Mucliukuuda with his own scarf, i*o that tho sleeping 
mouapcli wasoasily mistaken for him by his infuriated pursacr, whil* 
Krishna ooncoalod himself ina uoighbouriujjcavo. Kalayavau soeing 
the prostrate king mistook bim for Krishna, and kickoil biin to arouse 
him to tbo combat. In a moment the fiery glanco of Muchukunda 
burned him to a heap of ashes. KriahDa now returned to Mathnra 
and pluudoi-ed KAIayavan'e camp, and set out with his brother 
Baldora for Dwfirka laden with his spoils. While thus occupiyd 
they wore attacked by Jariisaniih who carried off tbo entire plunder 
of Kiilayavan's caraj) and forced Krislina aod BaUova to tlco to 
DwArka. Jartbandh purnnod the fuj^icives to a certain mountain 
covered with dense forest, un which they took refuge. Hero, 
unable to discover them, he set fire to the forest and returned to 
Magadh. Krishna and his brother reached Dwflrka in safety. Oa 
his way to DwiLrka, Krtabua is aaid by the Bhdgvat Tunina to havo 
paased through tho following conntriea: Kurudcsh,, 
Plinchiildeah, Surnsendesh, Yanumadesh, Brahmavart^lctsb, 
Karnkshftra, Sfalsyiidesb, StLrasvatdeshj Marudcsh, aud DbiinvadoBh. 
Having passed ihrongh these countries ho canio to JSauvira and 
Abhira aud tiually to Anortndesh of which Dwfirka was tlie capital. 


Thoancientnamoof Dwftrkawas Ktwhaflihali, anil it was tliecln'ef t-ity 
of Annrtiiloka. The former rulerwas liAja Revata, fatlier o£ Revatij 
wife of Krishna's elder brutber Buldera. Bevala appuars to havo 
■Efcrwanls quitted DwArka for the fiimir winch is atill called 
Rj?vatjichal after him. Owiag to Baldova's allinnco with RAja 
Romta's daughter the J.idav8 first became at-quaiutod with DwArka. 

Kriabiia now commenced to rule at DwArka on bcludf of 
ITgrasena, and married maDy wives, the moat renowned among 
Whom were Kukmini SatTabbama and JArabuvati Kukmiui v/an 
the danghter of BhiBhmak king of Kundanpur, tho capital of 
Vidarbhailesh (pojwibly the modem Katpur) and was carried off by 
Kriiibna in spite oE the oppositioD of her brother Kukmaiyo. The 
niarria^M of Kri«hnn and Ilukiniui was celebrated at MAdha^Tinr, 
and theuce they rL'lnrned to DwArk;i. The other anifor for the hand 
of Kukmiui was HbiKhupAl, Raja of Chedidesh, atid to him Rukmaiyo 
wished to give liiH sister. This ShislmpAl was aftorwards slain by 
Krishna at Indraprastha. 

A certaiD Jadav of DwArka, uamod SatrAjit, had a valiiRble 

I diamond which Krishna askod him to give to hiin, but SatrdjJc was 
unwilling to part with it. One day Praaen, brother of Sati-Ajit, 
Weot to hunt weariug this dinmoud. A lion slew bim in tho 
forest and took tho jewel. But JAmbuv^n tho Bear, who had 
aocompanied RAma in his expedition to Lanka, was residing in this 
forest ; he met and killed the lion, and took the diiunond from him. 
Satrdjit, who was unaware of what had occurred, accused Krishna 
, of having killed Pi-asen in order to obtain the diamond, aud thd 
^ft latter to L'loar himself from this calumny, took some jAdavs witli 
■ lum and wunt forth into the forest to search for Prasen. ITioy soon 
found hiui lying dead, with his horse also dead beside him, nod the 
^ footpriula of a lion near bis body. On foUowing the tracks they 
B shortly came to tho dead body of a lion, from which went tho 
^ftlootprints of a bear, which they tracked to an adjacent cave. Krishna 
^■on entering the cave, found JSmbuvAu there, who imnjcdiately 
■'attacked him, but after some time was forced to yield to Krishna^ 
V prowess, and adored bim as an incarnation of his old master RAma. 
JaudmvAti then gave Krishna his daughter JAmburati in marriage, 
^ together with the diamond. After this Krishna returned to DwArka 
B with JAmbuvati and the diamond, and convinced SatrAjit that he 
H was guiltless of the death of PrasoD, and restored to him tho 
H diamond. SstrAjit, however, feared lest Krishua should remember 
this against him, and acconlingly, in order to appease him, he gave 
bim his daughter SatyabhAma in marriage together with tbo 

KnMhna favoured the side of the Pdndavas in the great war of tha 
MahubhArata, because they were tho sons of bis father's sister Kuata, 

I who hail manicd the RAja Pandu. When Krishna was yet at Mathura, 
he sent his uncle Akrnr to IlastioApura to request the Kanravas to 
grant some land to the PAndavas, but they would not consent. But 
on the occasion of the celebration of the PAndavas* marriage with 
Dranpadi, Krishna finally succeeded in procuring for the PAndavas 
Iho allotment of Indraprastha. Heina the PAndavas attained t<( such 
power and glory that they performed the H'tjinytyadnya ceremony. 

Chapter VTI. 

Garly liimlos. i 

rBombay QaieitMT, 





On tliis occasion both Krishna anO Dur^rodhan aitonded tho assemb^. 
Drmupai'li seeing- Dan'fKlhnn puxzk'd how to pr<x«ed iu thoir elan 
palact*, aud thnt lie h»<l knoc-ked hiingolf agaiust a wall, lunjcffaod u 
him uud said, ' Tho bliod haro bliud sons/ alluding to tho btind- 
ncss of big father DhrituriUhtm. Diiryodhan wm greatly incensed 
by this aud swore he would rain tho l^daras, a purpose which lie 
eflt)L'tod by gambling with tbeio till thoy had lost alltheirposseBsian 
inchidiiig their wife Dranpadi. Duryodhan ordered DuEshiswiW 
bring Drnupadi into Uiu court, and ho dragged her thither by the 
hair in spite u[ her slrngji^leR. Duryodhan then soatod her by forcv 
on his Icnco and oommonccd to tear her clothes. Aft<.T thug 
disfrracing her be drove ber foitb. The Tiadavas now rettnxl for 
twelve years to tho foreat and tho thirtoonth year rcmainod coucunlcd. 
Tlion thtty rcturood to Uostiuiipura nnd demandeJ to be rcJnslaLcd 
but lliu Kauravas dcclui-ed that ihvy had not [uIGIlod tbo coDdiriim* 
of their lianishinunt, and ordiircd tbcm to depart again. Krisbua 
iuierci*i3ed ou their behalf but the KanmvsA remained obdurata 
The I'linilavas refused to depart and thu Mah^bhdrata cnmmeaced 
After the victory of tho P&ndnras Yudhiahthir waa acAted on Uio 
tbrxme of Uaatioupura and Kriahua returned to Dw&rka. 

Uukmiui gavo birth to Pradyumna, who mnn-ied Rukhm.-ivnti 
the daughter of Kukhmaiyo (brotlier of Rukmini his own luotbcr) 
who ainco the abduction of his sister by Krishna bad left Kundiuipur 
and takoQ up his residence at Uhojkat (the inoderii Bh^rod noar 
Mahuva). Pradyunina's son Aniruddh by Rnkhmiivsti, nmrritfil 
Unkbrnaiyo's granddanghter Rochna at Bbojkat, aud afii-rwardd 
espoused Okha, the daughter of Bdu^nr king of 8hrc>niipiir in 
Northern India. It is said that Okhaimandal dc-rives it« usmu from 
the fdir Okha, aud is after her called Okh^'s country or Ukh&uiandala; 
but tho tnio derivation is probably from u*ha or ukha salt aad 
mandat country. 

By bis wife J]imbuv*ati, Krishna had a son Sdmb who resided in 
DwArka with his uiutbor J&uibuvali. Uo waa much addicted to 
practical juking, and on one occasion when Durrdsa and other 
Bishis bad come to DwArka uu a pilgrimage, aud were performing 
Bhnlddh at PindtArak » few uiiles from DwiLrka, he dressed up as a 
woman, and went with other Jiitlav boys to tease the sages. The 
boys representing that Samb was a pregnant woman, asked tha 
aagus whether the pretended woman would bring forth a son or a 
daughter. Tho sagos oodorstanding the trick which was l>uing 
playud on them, became maeh enraged, and cursed tho buys, savtug 
that the woman would bring forth an ir<m jwstlo which should p'mvo 
the deatrnction of their race. Now the boys had lied cloths in 
front of Siimb so as to make him look like a pregnant woman. 
When thofie cloths were taken off, an iron pestle waa found among 
thorn. The boys were much terrified, and cinie with it to Ugrasena 
who advised tbem to reduce it to powder on a sword-grinder's 
wheel. They accordingly took the peatlo into the Gomti and thoro 
nibbed it ou a grind-stono until the greater part was reduced to 
powder, and but a smaU piece of iron remained. This, together 
with the powder, they throw into the river. But this dust wna 
borne iuto the sea, and was swept down the coast to Somuiltb. 







•TO the iwn filings grew into Pan reeds, while the piece 
awalluwml by a fish. This tiah was caught by a Bhil 
who put the piece of iron as a poiat to one of his nrrows. 

Much terror still possessed the J&davsas to the camo pronoimccd 
aKaintit thtim by tho Hishis, and to roraore this Krishua induced 
aD the ahle-lxxlied J^ava to perform tho pilgrima<2;o to Soumiltfa. 
Thoy wont there and got intoxicated and fuu<,rht amongst them- 
jselves with fchoae Pan roeda antil ntl of their nnmbcr were 
kilhid except Krishna, Baldcva, their charioteer, and four or five 
others.* So great waa tho confasion that the two brothers 
Pradyumna and Samb foaght together and tho former was alaia. 
IiBgond asfterts that S&mb escaped and went to Mathnra dreading 
to return to DwArka. Unldeva in grief performed Saniddki, and 
thns passed awny, and Krishna and the charioteer Ddrak alone 
nmained. Krishna, while sleeping under a ptjml tree near 
BoranJith, was shot through the foot by a Bbil huntsman, who was 
named Jnm, with the very arrow that was pointed with the iron of 
tho pestle* Tliis wa« done in mistake, tho lihil mistaking Krishna's 
foot for a doer. Krishna before ho died Mut DAruk tho charioteer 
to i)w.irka to toll the 8a<l tidings of thu dt^Htriurtion of tho JiidavSj 
snd desired him to beg Arjuna. (who hud come thither on a viitit to 
Krishna} to Lake all the survivors from Dwdrka to Mathnra, as 
Dwdrka would ho snbniorgod beneath the Bea on tho sevonth day 
after his death. After giving these injuuctions Ki*ishna died. 
At this time, nrmnling to the Tlwurkii Mdh.'itmya, tho Gopia had 
oomo to Dwfirka to visit Krishna, but on arrival heard of hia 
melancholy death at PrabhAs. In their grief they bnried 
thctmsclvos oliro, and tho spot is still known as the Gopi Tuliv. A. 
kind of yellow clay or ochre i.s found in this tank, which is called 
0opichandaii, and which is applied to tho forehead to make the 
aectarian mark of tho Voishnava faith. The remaining four or five 
vs seem to have gone to tho south-east, but the charioteer 
k retarnt-d to Duiirka and told tho sad news. On hearing 
it, Ugrasuna, Vasudeva, and mnny other old JAdava died of grief. 
Hundreds of Jddav widows died on tho funeral pile. Arjuna 
however in obedience to tho dying request of his fneud took tho 
survivors of DwArka towards Mathnra. But thoy luul not 
procooded many miles before they were nltscked by the K&bda 
(ancestors of the modern Vaghers) who plundered them and carried 
away suvorut women. Tliis disoomfituru uf tho imconqaered 
Arjmia has been commemorated in a local stanza : 

Time is ever puwerfnl, 

Mai) in Qi^Ter atroufj. 

The KiiAi [iluiiilortid Arjuna, 

Though he tuul the aaian (mighty) bow and arrows.' 


EaHy Uinilua. 

1 BhAgnt Piu-Hnn. 

*'rhi4 ln« ID ■Lill cftllod tbe PnlelU l*ipni, nad &U nilgriioa to SoauUthwa 
oUiKeil In viidt tbe trau and pffrform ibe ShrAiittk ceremony thvrw. 
' Tbe i:uD|ilt9t ruua : 

Sntla Aamajf baliUitH hni. naJt! purvtA laidMll 
Kale ArJHHtt Mi]io, thi ^uhui/i tAi Mn. 

Cliapter TIL 

Eftrijr niualuiL 


After tliia ro^Drao Arjnna aafoly Donducted the fafritireis to^ 
Mtttlmrft, and tliorc placed Vajranibh son of Aniraddh on t!i 
Arjdiia bimselE dis^aled with life placed his graudaon I'ai > 

tho throuQ o£ lias tiud para and iu company with uthor Pandavus ami 
jAdar» sought death in the mountains of tho north. Huru tho 
five I'&uduras, Yudhishthir, Bhim, Arjnna, Nakul, and Sahadera, 
mot their death, but a portion of the Jddavs penetrated to 
Kabal and oonqaored mnch of tho conntry. Hence, after many 
jmn, they again retorned to India, and founded th eSauimad ynitgi.v 
of SominaffBr so named probably after Sdiub who toay wotl Lava 
acoomp-inied the J^dars on this exodus. Ho being of tbo royal 
race of Krishna was naturally one of their chief Wdera. A braai^ 
of these Jd<lav8 dirergod into MArw^ and there founded tho stAto 
of Jesalmir. 

In BO. 327 Alexander the Great invaded India, conquering 
the north-western comer, and impressing tho ncighboanog 
monorcha with a «enao of bis irroisiatible powor. After hi 
death, the greater part of India from tho Him&Uyas as far soul 
as tbo ooasb of Coromnndel and the Pdndya kingdom, and 
Magadha in tho eaiit to the remote ponin«nla of Sanrd^htm 
tho wettt. foil undor the sway of tho Maurya emperors, of whoi 
tho celebrated .^SfafiJIiL tloori^hod early in the third century befi: 
Christ. This great monarch has left lasting momorials of hi« reij 
in his famous edicts engiaved ou the rock at Girni r, at Kapurdij 
in I'esh&var, at Kdlsi in l)ebra-Dun, at Uhanli in Ciittitck, and 
Jangada in Ganjnm. These breathe n bnmane and cbantablo spii 
both towards bis BnbjcetB and co-religionist's and towards those wl 
followed other foithfl. Though a fervent Huddliist, be seeroa 
have houourt'd both the gods and Brdbmana, while in his t<;iidom< 
for animal life he resembled tho Juns. His tree-planting alot 
the road-sides for the benefit of men and cattle, as well aa 
collecting in certain places healing herbs for the cure of i\ 
ailmcuttj, and biit planting fruit trees and digging wuUs for thefi 
convenienee, prove him to have been actuat-cd by wide s^'mpathi*' 
and pure beuovulunce. Tho selection of Oirndr for one of th« 
rook iuscriplioiig i>howg that even in those remote Limes it was 
place of note, if not of great sanctity. It seems reaaonablo 
suppoae that in bis days this province was ruled by Ic 
governors^ probably seated a t JunAgav l, under his orders, 
his dcatn tbo Greek Baktrinn moniirclis appear to have 
theii- rule throughout the luduij valley, and on the east their swi 
may have been acknowledged as far as the Ganges, while Cnl 
and the Saurtishtran peninsula formod part of their dominions 
But their lientenanta in SauriUbtra, who form the Kst 
or Sdh dynasty, appear to hnvo asserted their independence at 
early period, and we have a list of twenty-six kings who ruled ovt 
Cnt«li, Satn-Hshtra, Gujarat as far as Cumbay, and possibly over 
of MiUvra.1 

■ Dr. Bubler. the hlffhcnt tiring nuthority on the »&eiant kist^iry o( Uujkrit, iiiaV mj 
the Sunga djrtukstj' (olfuw tbe MwiryM, und h« cImmm Um fiUta ur Serut* an K Biiiktr«|M 

eilit mM 

and plftCXA timm aftor tho Sunn*. ThU theory m«iiu qiiibo m worthy of >;r«ilit mM 
the oae giwQ aWve whish wouU extend tho Baktriau nik M iwmmib m SaurMbln. 



Tho following are tho 

1. Nnlinpina. 
S. Unknown king. 
3. Unknown king. 
•4 ffnimi L'ha^iituna. 
A. Jajra Dima. 
0. Jira Uima. 

7. Badra J)Ama. 

8. Radra i^mha. 

9. Radrft SAb. 

namoa of twenty -four of theae kings* : 

Ilndm Bih. 
ViBva SimhE. 
Atri D/tmo. 
Visv6 S4h. 
RndrA SimhA. 
Asa Dftoift. 
Svarai Rudm&itb. 




SfinRh DimB. 
UAma H&h. 
Viuia Diima. 
DdniaJAta Sliri. 
Vim Diimik 
Tfivam DaltiL 

17. VijayaSAh. 

18. D^majatA .Shri. 



Dr> OlJeul>org, in anablcarticia in Uic Indian Antiquary for Aiignet 
1881, points oQt that tho namo Siib is i ncorroc t. and that it is a 
mislectioti for^Senu, and ho suggests that ChftdhtaDa wait the firat oi 
this dynasty which immodintDly followod the Kshahar&toB, of which 
fiftmily Nanaptoa was a member. 

Of this racu vfti know from their coins and R adra DAma's inscrip tion 
at Oirnitr, that thoy were great and powerful aoToreigna. ' We see 
that they largely employed local chioftaina, Ahirs Mers and 
others, and the tuscriptions of neighbouring 80vereiim.s throw a 
faint light on tho cxtont of their territories and on their relative 
iinportanco. Their cyiua i^ iinulate those of the Greeks, though inferior 
in oxocution to those of tho Baktrian suvereignSj which in this 
pTOvinco at loost aro comparatively rare, llioy seem to bare 
coined a fairly large cnrrency, though nothing like their saccessora 
tho Gupt&fl. In tho coins, tho monarch is depicted wearing the 
Ma cedonian helm et, while the reverse shows a_firo-altar and 
representations of the San and Moon. Tho legend nsnally gives 
tho nnmo of the sovereign and of his father, and in tho cose of the 
earlier kings the titlo of Muhikahacrapa. Probably they worahipped 
both the sun and fire. ^^.^^^__ 

Thoso kings were replacod or conqnered by the Gnptfa. a d;rna."ity 

reigning between tho Ganges and Brahmaputra nvera. Kuioiira 

Gupta is i^id by local tradition to have himaolf effected the conquest 

^ of tho peninsula when yot a prince and before his acccsflion Co the 

■ throne of his anooetors. On his departure to his country, he left a 

Hlocal governor or vioe r o y at Vamansthali, the modern Vaiilhl i. 

B His succeasor Skan flha Cru'p ta has left an inscription on tho rock at 

~ Junfigad, but tlie Gnpta eonnertion with this province ceased 

either with this monarch or his successor, and their lieutenants the 

PSaryavamsi race of Valabbi appear to bare become hcreditafy and 
Independent monarcRs. We know no more of these Guptas than 
their predecessors. Their coins show them to have the title of 

■Ilafaiiraj^lhir^i, and their cogtiiKanco was Parvati, a peacock 
displayed, and a ^'I'^t^iuM or trident. What is most notable abont 
the Guptks, at least specially about Kuuiara Gupta, is the large 
number of his coins which aro found in the peniuaula. Tbeoe 
must have boon brought by him when he invaded the country, for 
'if thoy hod been struck at a local mint, we should expect to find as 

Chspter TU j 

Eu-ly Hindu. 

1 Mr. Kflwtgo, Jgunul Boui1»y Bnucb SvyU Aaiatra Sodoty, IX, 

• ns— 39 




rly HlBtlBB. 



many of bis saccoasor Skandha Gapta or of o» of his immediate 


Of the ^fii^b^^ dynaafcy whicb supplanted the Goptia in the 

Eenmsula wo know more, as many of their copper-plate grants 
are been discovered. Tliese aboiv thom to have beeu HlqiIus, 
WQrahJpptDg Sh iv, but liberally inclined to ward s lioddbistn. The 
names KDd order of succossion oflheir sovereigns as given by Dr. 
Binder, the latest and mont aocurato writ«r on the dynasty, ia u 
under : 

1. BhftttArka Senipatl 

5. Dhanwen* I. 

3, Dronasimha. 

4. Dlinivaaena I. 
£. Dba»patt&. 

6, QuhaiieQ&- 

?. DharMcna IT. 

8. Shil&ditya I. 

9. Kfa&ragraha 1, 

10. Dhanaena III. 

11. DhravasMia IT. 
13. DhacM«uatV. 

1$. Shiliditya VI. 

13. Dbmraaena TIT. 

14. Kbam^T&ba IT. 
16. Shiliditja II. 

16. ehiiiditya UL 

17. Shil4dit|-a IV. 

18. ShiUditya V. 

The date of the commencement of the Valabbi era is nsnalli 
afioribed to A.l>. 318 on the antfaority of the Yer ATal inacrip t ion 
Samvat 1820 (Vikrama). This celobratix] inscription gives i 
only the Vikrama Samvat, but the Valnbhi (945) Hijri {<iC2) a 
Shriaiugh [151) eras. And if this inacription be correct, a« the 
seems primd facie no good reaaon to doubt^ then the Valabhi et 
must commence in a.D. 318. Nonas SbilAditya VI. was i 
in 447 of the Valnbhi era' the sack of this capital csoilt 
have occurred before a.d. 703, and probably five to fifteen years 
later. 'J'hw would bring the ruin of the city utid dj-nasty to snch_ 
comparatively modem times, that it may fairly ho attriboted 
Mubammadanafrom Siudh, and cutirely precludes the ro»sibiIity ol 
its destroyere IwiDg 4S»K.^iinian kings as conjectured by r)lnhinstonoj 
Nevertheless one bardic li ne (sec AVodhwAn in Places of Int'erest] 
meutiouing the repulse of the IrSnis or I' eitiinn a by Ebhal I. seeoii^ 
to give colour to the idea that at all events thoy were Pcn^if 
This however may be oxplainctl as a loose epithet applied to ai 
Uuhammadansf, who in bardie verse arc also frequcntty called 
Tarks. If only another inscription conid be found bearing boti 
eras, the question wonld bo sot at rest ; bat thongh lliore are 
several which have the Yalabht Samvatj at present no other 
bearing both eras is known tfi have been found. If Or. Burgees 'a 
explanation (note I. p. 76. vol, IV. of the Archmological Survey) 
be followed then the 4-17 of the plate of ShiMdityu VL Mould be 
A.D. 642 and the Sassanian may after all have destroyed Valabhi. 

After the fall of Valabhi, it is pa^ible that tfae Anhilv£d» 
ChAvadis were paramount in this province^ though probably their 
dominion was not extended eo far as this. Itut whether it were so 
or not, Mulriij, t he founder of the Solanki line, no doubt became 
supreme both in the peninsula and TSuJardt. And as loug as a 
Hiadu sareretgn sat on the throne of Anhilv&da the supremaoyj 




orer tho. poninBala was tlieirs withoat diapnte. Tho assertion of 
indcpcnJeTico of the Chndiljiania chieftains and their war with 
BidhrAj Jaya^iogh nevur afTc>i'ie<i Lhe actual saperiority of the 
throne of AohilirlUla, Lai on the other handj rather ro-ostabliBhed it 
on a firmer baBia 

Thero are two seta of vcrj interesting copper-plates which throw 
some light on the Valahhi period. One of tliuse is tho Morviplato 
pablished in tho Soptcml}er nnmber of the Indian Antirjaary for 
1873. This is dntcd Samvat 585 of the Gupto Kal. Uufortunatelv 
I one of the two plates furmiug this set lias been lost> and with it 
'the name of the BoTorc-igo, and thus invaluable information as to 
Vbese latter times ia lost to us. 

Another compltite set of plates are dated Samvat 71 i of 
VikratQiiditja. Ilieso bear the name of a new king called 
Ja yikdoy a. who ia styled the Adhjpati of the SaurAahtra M andala. 
BntThii^ monarch spoaka of Dhiuki as bei ng Jo the flftBternporti on of 
hk dominions, thus showing that t hr Saura ali tre of those days waa 
limitc'I Ut the coaat bol t of the peninsula, Tor Dhinki is situated in 
the oastom portion oF t)khitGaa"dal. Thia king, therefore, may havo 
been apoworful vassal of Valabhi, almost it not quite iudopendent; 
I or the Valabhi era cannot have commenced in A.t>. 318. 

These plates are specially peculiar for the following reasona 
Tbfnr are not dated fro m Valab hi, nor in there auy meution either 
of that city or its rulors,~t hough they mention Bhumil ikaj probably 
Bhumbhli or Gumli in the Barda hills, as tho capital of the king 
whose namo they boar. Thoy do not mention the name of the 
father cf king Jayikdera, nor is his raoe mentioned. Possibly ho 
may havo l>cen a Jetliv a, and if this rwx be really of Jat origin, ho 
may havu for i)ieso reasouii omitted praise or muntiou of his race. 
And if ho were the first of hia race to attain to sovereig-n power, ho 
might for this canse have omitted to mention his father. Still 
there is difficulty in getting them to lit in with the Valabhi kings, 
with one of tho monarclis of which line Jayikdeva must have been a 
contemporary, if tho Valabhi era really dates from A.D. 318. 
The oinissiou of all mention of Valabhi and its Hovoreigos is aUo 
peculiar. Lastly wo find the D evanAgari charact er though in an 
ancient form used iu these plates^ whi le the 'V'alahh i character is 
still employed even in tho plates of SEn^r^~TT. Iti Spite of 
these diHicidties Dr. Buhlor oonaidorB these plates genuine. If 
tho Valabhi platee are dated iu the Gnpta Kfll aa mentioned by 
Dr. Burgess, it is easy to uhderstaudtlie omission of all mention of 
Valabhi na well as why Jayikdeva should style himself Adbipati of 
tho 8aar^htra Mandala. 

It would seem that tho sea-coast of this province has been 
populated and ciiltivatod from very ancient times. This is but 
natural, as the sca-coost portion woidd probably be earlier civilised 
by contact with other nations whose veasels visited those shores. 
This coast lino was called Sanr^shtra. In vur^' auuiout times tho 
peninsula waa doubtless an island, and in still more distant agee the 
northern and eastem portions wore probably covered by a shallow sea. 
Of this bolt of ciUtivatod and £opuluua laud on tho sou-coast the moat 

Chapter V) 


EiLrly iliudui. 




ipter Tn. 

£aily Iliniliu. 

pOfuIdUB imd fanicuM was t he portion called Nig h or, wliicb 
rougHy speaking, fro m Miidlui vpiir to J^^jAmL The Ixtlt hoi 
«xt«Dded from Jodu to QogKa anS many othor portions 
populoos aud cultivated from remoiu ages, aucU as Dw^ka, the 
belt near Purbandar which at an early period fell nnder Jotbva mlci 
Mahuva and iu neighbourhood, Din and the adjacent coantry, not 
to mentian Gogba itsulf aud other spots. All theso place:) wwu 
known in very diiitant iimos. Tho breadth of tbo b elt in no csm 
excM>dLil fi fteen or sixtoon miles, the int|9 rior of the provinco Iwins 
covered with den^ o faw wC TThiu portion may hnve beeu iucluded 
in Abhiria and was principally inhabited by Ahirs^ indeed tbo 
Chad^a ama chieftein or Jun&g ad was in aft«r*times called tboAhir 

Horo may bo fitly quoted section 41 of the Pen plgs of tho 
Erythrsaan sea, whoee probable date is about a.d. 54/7' ' To the 
Gulf of BarAko succoeds that of Uairnguea aud the maiuland of Aridke 
a district which forms tho frontier of the kingdom of the Mombania 
and of all India, The interior part of it which borders on Skythia 
is called Aberia, and its seaboard Surastrene.' , 

Mr. McCrindlu in his note:;! to sections 40 and 41 identifies the 
gnlf of Bar^c with tho gulf of Cntch and the Kan, and tli« fratt 
of BarugaM >' ■ ^ ' ■■ gulf of Cambfty. aud this identifi<- 
seems cettaini) ■ .. It seems possible that L£nko ahou!.. i 

sabstitutcd for Anako in the portion quoted, if these are not more 
or le68 synonyms for tho eame eountty'j L4nko commcnoinjr sooth 
of tbo Narboda and cuding about tho Vaitaraa river in InAna or 
perhape not bo far aouth . Arifike corresponded to the Northern 
Konkan. This tiqw, as mentioned in the note, has been held by 
several writers of authority. The promontoi7 called Papike is 
probably OopuAth point, both as being comparatively near to 
Astakspra (identified by Colonel Yule with HStnab) and from tho 
mention of the second gulf which iuvlades the Island called Baioncs. 
This Mr. McCrindlo no doubt rightly identifies with I^imm island, 
and his identiUcation of tho riror Mais with the Mahi is clearly 
equally correct. 

This account shows that even in those ancient times tho 
belt was cssontially distinct from the iatenor, supposing tl 
interior to have been known as Abhiria and Anarttn, and Rubncqucnt 
histoty confiruia tluit view. In the interior, excejpt V^dabhi, Va nthJi, 
Junfi^id, Wadhw^, and a few other towns and Titlagea, must of 
the central portion was d anae fo rest 

The moat popul ons porbo n o^tho ValabhJ kingdom was no doubt 
tha Bh ^ coim try. the Dholka Dhandhuka and Gogba sub-dirisions 
and W w^yS a Mid the nM'^ftMllfbig disfcncis. 'Kfiil no doubt both 
Jttni jptd and Vanthli wor o subordinata to the Yalabhi rulers, and 
a oopper yJiate reoenflr found at M4lia in Sprath bhows that their 
rule CTfccoided aa iar ae that town. ^Vhotlicr N^ghor was subject to 
their sway is doubtful, but it possibly was so iu common with 
whole peuinmila. 

•V^ ' Mr. McCnndlo ut Indum Autiquuy lor May 1879. 



hn liUer tiro es, Sanr&ihtra and its hmilinr abbrovintion Sorath 
npp liftd to the intorior of the proviuce, first to tbe kiugnoroTof 
Oh udAaap &a, and latterly to the crown .t^gipaio govomcil by 
ftmjdnr of Jun&gml. '- '* • . ■ . i n -.^ ,. -r^ ,. 

It tliil not indndc JhaMvdd nor Hfilu* 

Chapter VII, 

Bftfly Hindu. 


nftcr the conqncBt of that portion of thn ]x>itin:^ii]a by tlie J^idejds 
(I3l:j). CuLilv^dand K;'.tlii;iwiir i.n; mud tmrls of Siirath until 
the Miirdtha pcriod^TT^"*;, but aiur >li r K'liiin Rnli? n-iycrtod his 
independtfuee (1748) the term Las been c^n ii.^4 i- ri.. ajmimona 
under "tlioJBitln away. 

Tlins, at ihe close of tbo sixteenth century, Abul T&nl in the 
AJL^i^Aklj^i Bays : Pargauaha of uci^HmijAili, Juiiuend willi the 
HavTujSl^^iiR""', Sarvn, V-!>>"-ivad, Clm f ■ i;;i,...i- fCandomtt, 
U,^«l.aj«ii."[pH Mcud^i : ulrod an ooiuos a 

valuablo hooding, Par^inah.s ■[ ij-^w^rni i. ;ulL-a ai^L- Nigjjflr» 
Piltan. Sp mtUtth. trpft. j ^fAdu. Mi'ai;;njl, K'ociiuiir^ Alol-iJwft^^ ^ C»A-S 
Chor vfuTp 'li m. and others. "— 

At tUis time then the northern sea belt vaa inclnded in H&Iir, 

and the portion south-east of Sfi fini to MAdhavpor wm MiHo dBarda. 

Mahuva and tliat purtion nf the was inolnded in Vfililk, while 

Oogha and rho neighbourhood was GohJlvA d, but Nttghcr was still 

called old Sorath. ' ~ 

It is necesHary to make this explanation as eUc tfaero woald ba 
confusion in dwcrihinjf the different miers of the province. Both 
fSaorfUhtra and Abhiria formed in all probability apart of thcgi-cut 
'riugdoiu ot Portia, and it &eenvs poBsiblu that the Smi dynasty may 
wo been Satraps of the Greek naktrian kingdora, and ineir capital 
ran probably at JunAgad. Afterwards when the supremo power 
I passed to the G'upta and Valablii dynasty, it sccma Ukoly that lioth 
[the central portion of the peninsula and the sen belt passed under 
jtbeir Bway, but in tbe absence of direct proof it is difficult to 
Drononuce decisively on the point. When VaJabhi foj^l groat distress 
fnnd anarchy scorn to hare prevailed in the centra! part of tho 
province, and it rapidly fell waste, and the den '■ again bogaa 

^ to assert its hold over the country. StilOliL , ... .:^.i3t remained 
■popnloiifl, and while the centre of the province appears to liare been. 
BnMtitnte of roads and almost impervious to a regolar army, 
^IPtninnnioations were comparatively in an advanced stage in the 
■ ooftst b^lt. This part of the country was then held by the ChAvad^ a, 
B a tribe of Baiputs uf groat antiquity, and the SuryaTftmsTii Gohn 8"or 
B Gohiluts.* They are also mentioiiod in immediate propinquity with 
™ the Sogdinns (SotlhAa) and the Gandhdriana, if not with the I>adicm 
and the Parthiaus.' The S odli^a of Ums i-kot and Nagar PArkar 
must have boon the iunnediaio neighbours of the ChudtiaaraAs at 
Nagnr Thatha, and thoy were not far distant from the northern 
iisetticmentH uf the C hAvadaa in C a U'b. The Gand hAri As are still 
ito be foand in thojidninsula. To the Dadicie no fuHhter refcrcnoo 
boon traced. There seems no reason why they may noi haTO 

1 Tbo data of tbo Mtablutuaant of Ui« QUvadii hna out boon detsnuiaod. 

ohil* or Gohil«U wen- [irolvkbl; etAeU of ValAbbl. 
' BawUtuQU'a liun^dgtua, IV. 63. 


CBombay Qtaatxee, 



iipt«r vn. 

rl; Hiadoa. 

I CSmtlAaamia 
i Janind, 

ib 4.0.900. 

been the prenent depresjied doss of Dkcda. This is tlu3 more lUc^j 
bocaaso thef would have had loss objoctioD to foroig'n aervioe. 
is by no means improbable that the KAtUi s were of Parthian dc 
as wave after wave of this sinf^ar raco^ closely i^iecj t o fil brijia 
(Barbara ] and A hira with both of whum they uat and intormarry to 
this day, Appeaflo bavo entered this provinco from time to timo. 
The oarliest certain inroad of Kuthis was jwyljsbly that uf the ViUs 
of Vala Cliamiirdi, who afterwords spread tu 'I'aljija and T TIiSIrod, 
atiil'WTroftre now repro3<?Dtcd by tho VA lAa of UhiJo k. Thoy seem 
to have intor married with ChudAsamAs, Jethv^a, ^ id. BiibriA^, 
ftod, though in later timos, the V&Iis in oommon with .h 
ChaditsamfU nnd JethvAa asserted Hajpnt origin, there seonia tiule 
doubt that Ihcy are hII part of tlieswarnis left by the uorth-wetitorD 
invaders of indta. It is corioufi that when a lady of tho DhliuW 
VAIa (Rajput) family marrie s into the l^orbandar or NsTAnagar 
house, sho is called KAthi^nib Ai or TK'^hiiinima. These V&lAs 
were in all probaljiliiy preoedwd or aceompanicd by the Bdbi 
with whom both thoy and the JethvAij intermarriedi thongh 
latter are now ashamed of and try to explain away rlic fact. In tnitl 
lliore were no others in tlioso limes of douse jungle and bad road»^ 
with whom they could ally thomsclvcs. 

There is no proof that the earlier Aubilrida kings of tlie Chi voda 
dynasty had any protcnsious to paramount or perhaps to any power 
in tho provinoo of KAthidwAr. Indeed they were probably by no 
means paramoont in Gujar&t itself, though they were the most 
powerful ehieftains in the country. During their time though possibly 
previously tho ChudAsamAs. a race of Rajpnta claiming JAdav_ 
descent, establish uTTncmseTveu at Vaathli and JonAg ad, and thenc 
soon spread their power throughout tho interior oi tho proviuo 
Their onginal seat was at Nagar Thatha in Sind. The name 
probably derived from Chudachondraj t7ie founder of the Jun&gi 
Vanthli house, who was of the Samma branch of the JAdaTa.^ 
His descendants thoroforc, to diHtingiiisli rl --^ from ihe Sind 

SammASj called thti^mselves ChudA!^amil- ' re is a carious 
similarity in their name to that of the anoieot Choraamiaus^lmt this 
is doubtless merely accidental. 

About &.ii.9(X}, though possibly S50 years earlier, ^l^IjiLliyAs 
entered the province from Cutch, driven probably from Sm^oliey 
crossed tho linn and conquering Morri^ ostabl ished themselves thoro. 
They afterwards spread (.heir power along the southern shore of tl 
Gulf o_f _Cii.tflh. Thence they proceeded to Bard a, where Shrii ^ 
wns one of their earliest settlements. Shortly after their occupatic 
of the Bardn coast, they extondod their rule to tho Barda hills, whei 
Sal Kumdr founded tlieir celebrated capital of Ghnmli, perhai_, 
more commonly called Bhumbhli (Bhubhrit-palli), and* it was hero 
that they reached th e clJm ai of their power. They do not appear t^ 
have interfered orclaslied with the ChAvadds, either of OkhAmaudi 
or NAgher. They were accompanied in their immigration by 
Mer tribo^ which bos always occupied a positiou suburdinato to 
JelTiv^. The Mers are to this day settled in Barda. Either these" 
Hers or a Jethva appears to Tiave ruled aT 'Hmbilnaka tho modern 

TimfiiiA on tbe bocks of tbe ShatrtmJAyi rivor in VAldlc, It seems 
probaTne tlmt the JetWAs are merely tli e niling famiLy or nijkula 
of tlie iler tribe and that, they arc all o^ odo hlood. Tn some bardic 
poelrv. quot«!(1 tinder ArlJiila, & neighbonring Mor chieftain is called 
(he llehar Rrina. This tribe were advanced to great posU under 
the AubilvAda kings, u» is seen by thoTimami copper -plate, in which 
the local rulor is Alehai' Sri Jiigin^t. TbTs~9p<!lItQg Mebor suivirod 
in the old agency records as Mber. 

ChftptM VIIJ 


It was about, this iiioe (a.d. 1024) that Mahmnd of (>hA::ni made 
his famoas invasion. It is exceeilingly ditficiilt to nay wliHt route 
he pursatfd on eateriog the province. There seem to have been in 
those days onl y thttio route s unicticablo to an army, one along 
the southern shore of the gulf of Cntch, another along the southern 
coast of tbe peninsuta by Gogha, and the third by Janit^;^. If 
Mahmnd had pnraui'd the Jundgnd route, it seems probable that ho 
would have attac^kt-d the ChudAaama of that fortress. And if ho 
had fulluwud the southcru shore of tho gulf of Cutch ho would 
intallibly have first destroyed and plondcrcd the temple of Dwarka. 
The aonthom road seems too circuitons, bat the mention of 
Babnivfida or EtelvAda in the K&mil-ut-Xaw^rikh (Elliot and DowHon, 
II. 468), as well as iho omission of any conquest of JunAgad or 
Dwfirka, induce tho conviction that it was by this route that 
Mahmud approached Somndth-Fatan. 

At tho time of Mahmud's invasion, tho northern portion of the 
coast belt wjw ruled by the Je thviia aa far as _KhBmbhAha, 
and Okhdmaudal and tho coast proTmlTly as fur as itiiiui by 
tho Cbfiv ada s. The Gohild still \iv\il Wiuigrol and tho coast a-s far 
S8 Madfiavpar if not Navi. Bar da .igai ii, perbajra as fur nn Navi, 
bolouged to theJctlivds, while t"Eo w hLuo of Miigh cr, and as far possi hly 
oJi the gates 1 iT ll;ihiiv«, owned the ChAvada sway. M ahiiva and t ho coast 
of VaUk (Vtila FTKlietni) waa hehTbyTIie VAlds and tho remainder 
of the count was prubably iu the bauds of Kolis as hir as Qogha. 
Tho contru of tho pro\nnuo was subject toTho ChudiisamfU of 
Juuaf^iid, then potty chieftains with an almost impregnable fortress 
.jyercbtJ un the sununit of an a]>parently inaccessible rock, and 
surrounded with tlie dousest jnnglc. Tho local ballad of the fall of 
VAtan (Indian Antiquary, Jnne 1 879) represeuta that Malimud marched 
by KAnieahvar Kotra against Mdngrol and after conquering that town 
returned itgainst Sumniilb-Patan. ilo is t>aid to have done this et the 
advice of the local chieftains. The advice was no doubt sound. 

»MfingTol a largo and fortitiei,! town governed by a powerful king 
relatttd to the king of Suinnfith-l*jUan, would have been a dangerona 
neighbour to him, and ho might any day have been attacked on one 
ude by the SJAngrol forcoa, aud on tho other by the army of Somni&th- 
FAtan. He is said to havo first roducod KfAngrol, and then to have 
marched npon Soranilth-PfLtan. After defeating tho RAja more than 
Houoe in the field, he formally laid siege to the town, which was 
Hboth attaokod and defended with the utmost bravery. Itio nambers 
Huid discipline of the Muhammadan army at last prevailed. The 
^^(tia made a galknt resistance, but was overcome, though Bhim of 
AnuiWdda made a fruitless dtversiou iu his favour. 'BhTm'waa 



(Bomb&7 Ofltettoet', 


Chapter VIL 

KlAhmnd of 

defeated and pat to flight and tho tompio and toTrn given over to 

Siluuder, but the temple dous not appear to bavo been octnnlly cast 
lon-o, though tho iilul wa.s hn)kf?n, tlie gtttes carried away, and the 
saactiiarj^ desecrausd. Doubtlosa aUo the earring was much defac^L 

Many Bpoculations have been made as to tho fort in which Bhim 
t ook shelt er after his fraitless attempt to relievo Somtuith. M. 
Ruioaud ind Dr. Weil hare consid ered KandhAr (Q a n dbAr) in tbe 
ffulf of Cambay, to be tho spot indicated by tha HoIuHnmaTidnc 
oiatoriaos. Oolonel Briggs thonght that Gandovi in G i ' 
answered most noaj'Jy to the deacription. More rocently, Dr. Idi!. 
boa identihed this place with Kuntbkot in Cu tch-VAg ad. Thia 
last identification certainly deserves considenl£on, but it seems 
more roasoaable to phkce the Qandaba, where Bhim took rofage. at 
tho waste site oE (^ndhvi in thn Kiithiiiwtlr coast belt, a few miles of Mi^ H Tho conditions aa to tide would be here 
fulfilled, whoreaa tidft does not reach _ KaD thkot , and that place 
wonld in the fair season never Tjo Hurrootideil by water. (JAndhvi 
both the modem village and the waste site are by some oversi^'ht 
described in tho Great Trigooometrical map of Kdthiiliwdr aaG4Ddhn, 
bnt G^dbvi is con-ect. As Muhmud advaneod nftir the conqoMi 
of this place to Kind by way of tho Ran. the position of Gandhvi 
sooms in every way to meet the requirements of the case. 

Mahmud appears to have been c harmed w ith the exqnisitti 
cli n i ate of K^ghe r, and to have been Btmclc fey the wealth and 
fertili^ of the country. So much was this the case thatat> one time 
he seemfl to have thought of permanently residing at Som-ndth-P 
But hia followers, eager to return tu their liomys with their I 
and donbtlcsa bribed to porsuado him to withdmw by the liindn 
claimants of the throne and others, finally induced him to grant one 
of those claimanta tbe crown on a vassal tenure, and on condition of 
annual tributo, and thou to rotnrn to his own country. 

Then follows the Dsibisalim stnry of the Muhanimwlan historial 
Some writers have conRiderod that this ftpplies to Durlabhsen 
ValabhsoD of Anhilvddtv,^ but the dates do not tally and the : 
as given iu the originnl, points distinctly to a local chieftain b«i 
installed^ as was the Muhammadaa custom. A Musaliiidn govemt 
called Mitha Khiin was left also at Somn.-fth-Futan in roilitar 
command. This governor possessed the real power, and it is 
that it was he and not Mahmud who actually cast down the tempi 

■ Th« Mint-i-Abnuuli <l»ttnctly m>'a UinC Mklimn<l left Chaxaj in A.n. 416 or 
A.n. 102\ that ii when Bliimdeva vna ruling. Tt in true the Miml-t-AhiuAiIi also myi 
tb&t Rliiii Jiiuuiid |C'liltnMind) vtm th«n rcijifiiitif;, whicli «iui not tkn oiuw, Imt grnntiud 
tbot Mobinuil loft (.ihutii in W22 wliili? Ihirlabh Rij win on Ch« ihroDtl etill ttiM wiu 
sMaeaonDt for tho pctaMtnce •.•{ Vao uthir D&lnMhlim (Vnlnbh Rij> vhow ruin iwumA 
in 1010. Dcsi<)<M tho Mirat-i-AhntAili ]>rfiOetMlB to My Utnt Mahmud trpeal tlir- ' 
nod nix Diantlui tn ladi* on this OocMion ftsd then only wdb it tliat b« a|>|> 
DibiMliw, Assin bod he earned on* of ihv princes book to Uhiuui m liv ia ui. . , 
have <miri«dDAMMl!m, it would M-tthontEulnavtt been noticed in tli-j .liin uiiuUb. Ihit 
thi^ are ail«tit on thtj point Again the MtmC oonimciicwi to t*lk .if llhim's RKronina 
to tbo throue of AiihilvidA, and tbe WMuod DA)>iuliui'ii IcinKiliim i* mcnlinnod w 
being merely ebiowlicre thau Suninith. vliile tbe tuuKdoin of Somnitth ia expTTuIjr 
mentioneil by name thrmii^bntit tht iiMTAlive. Tlti; AnhitvAda kingtloia ii uImi iu 
all other pUceanwci^ly mcuti(>iiL-<l by name. Why tlivu should it huve boea omitted 
here if Uiui kiDgdom wore AntulTikt»T 

Here it is ncccsaary to go bock a fow yo&rn, and roo what liail been 

'goinfir on *t AnhilvAda. In a.u . 942 Mulntj Solank i diMplacinfl; 

B&matBingh Charada luouated the thi-ouo of Auiiilvti/ra-PAtau, and 

from this time th e Solanki dyiia atj jicrmaoontly succeoded tliat 

of ihe ChAvada in the first Idiigdom in Gujar&t. ilidrij reignod 

long and successfully, thoagh even at the cloee of his long rule, 

the lords of Aohilvada do not appear to have entirely establishcKl & 

paramonnt domininn. His wars i n Sorath with _ the Chodfa ania of 

. Jnntend are specially mentloiiocr ftut he a"ppoars not to hare 

[ ponOtrated to the coast bolt, aud to hav^c confiued himself to the 

I eluwtisement of the Ra Trltoso capital he cou<[t]ered, placing there a 

iThj&nabd^r. From this time the Anhilvdda sorercif^s appear to 

liave contiideretl the chieftain of JunAgiul in a manner subordinate 

lo them. No_io8cripUoQ8, however, of this time are to be found 

either in the coast oclt or in tho interior of the proviooe, and on 

the whole this is what might be expected.* 

Meanwhile, in the coast belt, tho authority of the Muhammadiin 
governor daily g rew w eaker and tho power of the loeaT Cliiivada 
, ohieffains proportionally increased, until at length the ^fuRalin^D 
I sway became a mere shadowoE the past, though still surviving in a 
I modified form. An inscription of Samvat 1320 at Verdval shows 
' that a Muhammadan was then allowed to liuild and endow a 
mosque there. This was a time of great prosperity in the cxjosfc 
^m holt and specially in tho Nfighcr Vingdnm. The connection with 
Hthe Muhamtoadaas caused trade with the Muhammadan govern- 
^uients on the »ther side of the ocean to spring up. Dui-Jag all this 
^f time tho paramount sway of AnhilvSda bccnmo more extended, 
■^though up to A.». 1 100 it had not reachud Niglier. 

In abont a.d. IOOO tho Jh.llAs o ccupied tho north-east comor of 
the peninsnla, as well aa AiriuOa.! aud ViramgAm in Guj'ariit, and 
thence began to extend their possessions to the west and south. 
As tho Jhfil^<4 woro vassals of Anbilviida, this extension of the 
Anhilv^da kiugdom implied a corresponding curtailment of the 
ChudiUama power, but N^her and the coast belt stUl remained 
niiaffected by these changes. 

Wlion in a.d. 10!*l, 8idhr<l j Jj^y^*'^.? ^* mounted the throne of 

kAnhilv&da, he speedily turned his thoughts towards the conqaest of 
Sorath. With this view he caused largo reserv oirs of w at^r to be 
coDStructod at Silel% Aditia, and other places, so that he might posh 
thcnco in one march tbrongh tho hills in tho cantro of the province, 
ftnd find himself in the cultivated districts of the chieftain of Jun^gad. 
Several causes are nxt^igned for this quarrel with Jundgnd. Among 
them wore tho breaking down of ouo of tho AnhilvAda gates by 

Ra KheugAr during the absence of SidhrAi in Mfilwa, and the 

[«spousnJ by this chii>ftain of Rdnik Devi who had been sought aUo 

[in raarriago by Sidhrdj. Thcso expeditions of the Anhilvddft 

>vereigaa against the chieftain of Junagad caused the Solanki 

Clupter Till 



00Di|iicra Ju 

'In ji.P. 1020, tlio Xhir9 and oth«n rBioKtaUtd B« Noghw, wo of R»Dy4«, whom 
lolntj hot) •lain, &ad oxpoIlcJ imgpnatMkai natond tb« CbndiMtupi 


a 613-36 

Gi»pt«r vn. 

Ibril Jaysaingh 
|u»n Jiitulgvl, 

military roinl, so to &ty\e it, 

to bo made dire ct from Anl iilyit'Ta" m 
'rhis road waasiinply ft'frack ihronjj'b tlie iurem 

irii raramoiint, 

A. D. 1125. 

Ra Nngtuui ITL 


luruiitbed wTtlTKrtified posts, ponds, and wcTIs at regnlor stages 
Somo of Vixew oaiopii uud poata were Wadliwf^i. SAela. Adat la, 
D lrihldlia hi.M»_ J3bjd>ilii ADftudpurj Sardaarj Gondal. Virpu r, and 
J^XMrT J^teTWKnlBtam miliiary road "b ecame bfe rtg nlnr rotxl for 
travel luni, and ibo coast routi-s were gradually uegleutud save tut 
religious pilgrimages. 

In A.D. 1 125 the AnhilvAda army entere d the prorince- TUey so 
ovetTuu the Ka's dominions, but for Bome time vrens uuable to take 
Juull^'ad. At last the Ra'n nepbf^ws DoKal and Xisn\ pUrcd th^ traitor 
and Juullgad was takeu aud the Ua slnio. Sidbraj put Ka Kbca^ar'a 
Bona to death, and carried off liiltiik Dvvi iu tbu hopi< of persu:ului); 
her to be hia hride. But she 'was unablo to Eor^ro the doath of 
her husband and cbildrua, and after cunsiog Sidbraj. mounted the 
funera! pile at WadhwAn where hor abriuo stands to iliia day. 

Menliou may boi-o bo fitly made of the Gotu U who were of 
Surya?anisbt race, and cadets of tbu old Kajds ot Valabbi. Their 
prir'^i'v;' s'^Tt w.t-j Mdngrol, but they held the Bea-toaat at least aa 
fii ri IK trtTie noi-tb-west and probably as far as Navi or 

eveu l\, close to the dominions of the Jetfav^, wliicb in 
those days did not extend to tho south of the Itokbira creek. To 
the south their poHSeBsiona were conterminous with those of the 
Cbavndas uf 8oma^lb. Colonel Tud says that tbu Cliitviida? and 
Gobils wore botb cadets of Valabhi and A seems probable that this 
ira9 the caue. Anyhow either CbavadAs or Gobite were the 6 rrt 
oceapa nte of the coast belt throughout its length and breadth, 
thougb in VdlAk, Barda, the nt-ighlxiurhoud of Qo^Iia, and even 
NAgher, tbey were at un early puriLid su|ipiautA;d by V alA»^ Jeth vaSj 
Kolis, ttud BubaO(iuu nUy b y y3.ja8. 

After the conquest of JnnAgad Sidbritj Jaynsingb visited Soun£tb 
and the coaat belt, and obtained tbu allegiancu and sabmiaaion uf tho 
local chieftains. JJe waa the firgi. Hoyereijpa of AnhilvAda who was 
coiifussodl y paramount both in tlie inlenor a537u the coast belt ot 
the peniuHuTa. Subsequently he visited Giru^r and Shatniniaja 
and tburonghly established bis power. When he returned to 
Anbilrida, Sidbraj left behind him a viceroy at JupAgad, and 
probably a deputy in tho coast belt. This depaty was possibly 
expelled in a.d. 1113 by a chieftain of tho Gobil race which ruled 
at Mangrol ; who, to commeraorate the event, founded the Sbri 
S ingh era i n that year. The Mjinifrul inscriit tion alludes iu thtsT 
and says that Sidijig Gohil, son of Sab/ir nud father of 8omr&j 
who flourished in Samvat 1202 {t.D. 1 I4G) the date of the inscription, 
tarniahed tho glory of the Cboulukyas.* It is, however, possible 
that this era was fonnded by one of the earlier JetbvAa or even hj 
a VAja of Soniuilth. 

Sliortly after the return of SidbrAj to his capital, bis local 
go vernor of JnnAgad was also exp elled by the inhabitants, and Ba 


Koghan TTl. ascontled the throne in a. a H25. It seems unlikely 
that Sidhr^j would have tamely suffered such aa insult, uor if he 
had, would the locul bikrds huve alKitaiiied frum depicting' the proweaa 
of Noglian in the moKtgluwing'CoIonrA. But thoy are silent repfitrding 
the events both of his reiga aud of that o£ bis successor. I^robnbly 
whili- Ha Niighani-xpelled the governor he sect a handnonio tribute to 
Auhitvada aud made submissivo rcprosontations coupled with bnbca 
to the principal uonrt officers. These persona may bive reprefionted 
to Sidhr^j the difficulty and expense of warfare in Sorath, and the 
namerouti chieftains nearer home who would be ready to tfike 
advantage of bift absence. This may p<)ssibly explain both Uio 
snpincnesa of 8idhraj and the silence of the bards. 

In A.o. 1 Hi SidbrAj Jayasingb, the great«Bt of the Anhtlviida 
monarcbs, was succeeded by KumAr I'Al, a sovereign of almost 

2|ital renown. At Hrat a worsTilpper of Shiva. KuuaAr l*Al 
terwanU adopted the , jaio fa ith, at the inatauce of the celebrated 
HemiichArTa . In his earuer years he visited the sbriue of SomniVth 
hi the coast belt, but subsecjaently confined his attentions to the 
Jain temples on the sacrod mouutaina of Shatruujaya, Gim^, and 
Tdringa. 6till he was, at the commencement of his reign at all 
events, paramount equally on the mainland and in tho peninsula. 
AbcatA.D. 1225 tho UAthod tribes of ^'AJhyi ^ s^ J^ Yii^ff ■ '^ho are 

lid to have been nprung from PAbji RSthod, eutfred lU'.- provmce on 

pretence of a pilgrimage to Divilrko. Ucrc they tnsichoruusly 

isacredthoCh&vaoa and Harol Rajputs and B cized QkhAman dal. 

Owing to this slaughter, those who remaiue<l in OEKa adopted tha 

name of Vddhols from tho Sanskrit word vadh a massacre. Tho 

yidhcls not only obtained posst.'.Haicm uE Oktiiitnnndial, bat 

acquired K hamUiiilia and t he iiei^jtbouring co aat on the Houthern 

shore of the gulf of CDtcbj while on the ooath-weat coast their 

^noMcsaiona touched or almoat toiirhed the Vartu river . One of tho 

Horethren named Vejo went Nnt;)i ;nid diRnosseased the Chdvad^ 

" t)E Soinnatli, ooiiqooring fruni lb> "■ hg lg of NA gber v- • 

the Oohil f-hieftancy of Mangro l. ; liiavejo, tte tribt' ; 

to have been called VAjis. 

hVejo, or Vinjal, afterwarde became a favourite name of the Vdja 
lers and a chieftain of this name wn<i a contemporary of the la<)t 
iSlandlik. Another Vinjal founded Vinjalkot or Vejalkot on the 
KAral river, iu the Gir, and thence conquurud Una Du'lvAda and 
TJneha Kotra and other placai. The VAj^ arc alluded to in local 
inscriptiyns, and specially in the inscriptio n at DhAmle j of A.p. I 3tj_l 

■(Samvtti 1437) where Kilramslii who built tho reservoir and caused 
the inftcription to bo engraved doiscribes himself oa minister oE the 
YAja K&ja Bharma. 

In A.D.] 260 the (lohila who now hold Bhfivnagar, PAIitdna, and 
LAtht, entered the province nnder Sejakji, son of JhitnjharBi, tho 
HchiefUiiu of Kher gaclh on the Luni i n Marwilr. They had been at 
Hfeud with the O^bhia, tlie original owners of Khorgadh, who still 
Brotamed a share in the chiefdom, Both parties besought the 
^interrereuce of the KAthods, who treacherously massacred Gohila 
Ddbhis alike, at a rcconudiation feast to which they were invited. 

Chapter TIT.; 

of JDliit;;ii<l, 

suovemla ; 

Thfl BiUiu 
V&dhcl anil ViK 
A.D. 132&. 

A.ii. Ii!:tH). 


Tba Kobilo, 


' TioKTon Id 

Sojakji escaped, and made good his way to Soratb where otht;r8 
hifl race tiourished. llprp hu nought the protecti on of Ra Kli eugir 
who grant'etl him a hmnlet on the AnhilvaHa or Jb&I&TM frontier, 
which ho naincd iSejakpur.i 

The three sons of Sejnkji were Uanoji Strang]! and ShAhji. 
li^oji was by a different mother from tlie other twu brotht-rs, who 
vent to tho court of tho Ka with their sister VtUnin Kuuvarba, 
whom R» Kh<>ugir iiuwried. On this occasion the R* granted to 
Sdrangii tho Arthila Chovisi, while to Sh4hji he gave the ChuTifti of 
llfladvi. Rdnoji inherited the paternal poseesaions and Hiibscqaently 
acquired K^npur, bnt was driven thence by the Mnhanimad&ns. 
AIlerwiirdB he acquired UiurMa, and theace advanced to Khokhni, 
and finally adopted a pirate's career in ,the island of Piram. y^ 
RAuoji sprang the honw of Bhivnftg ar, from Shihji the chielf ' .?_ 
of PAIitAna , and from Sdrangjt the line of L^thi . 

One more tribe remaina to be noticed, tho cbieftaind 
Vanthli. It is not clear of what stock they were, but iuscriptJoR 
show that ihey wiiro allied by marriage with the V^holjis 
Dholka. llio Dbolka Viiffhola a were the first honae in Gaja? 
and one wliich replaced the original Solanhi line in the puramoi 
power, both in Gujaiiit and in the peninsula. It was doubtlosa 
their aid that the Vanthli chioftains couqnered that town from 
Chud&samas, and held it for five aucccsaive gepor^iopa. 

In tho course of tiino, the VitgheU power grew waaicer, 
and in about a.d. 1297 Anhilv&da was conquered by Alaghkhiint 
the ooromandor of the army of SuUAn Ala-ud-d io Khilji of iXdhi. 
and bo fthortly afterwards ovorran GiijarAt. In A.n. 1297-98 ho 
conquered SoianAth- PAtan and gave up the town and temple to 
plunder and a66'dtien~ at all evoiifa I ho KAghor portion of Sorath. 
What ia poculiarly remarkable about this invftainn, as in the eaao 
of that of Mahinud Qhaziii, is, that no mention ia made of either 
Jun&gad or Dwarka. This may be ooooantod for by aesuniin^ 
that Ala^HVhKri marched along the sonthem coast. Some say that 
the anciont DwArka waa sitnatttd at Mul-DwArka near Kodiudr, 
which temple be destroyed, and tbaf. fK'iii This" time the present 
shrine of Dwiirka, which has been eRtabli^bed some throe or fear 
hundred years, commenced to acquire superior sanctity. 

From this date olt^orat h Iwcame a Muhammadan pro Tince, and 
waa ruled by a goTeruor wtoee seat was at t:omn&tb-l*£itBa. But 
new Soiftth. or the dominioni of th e ChudAaanm Ra, remained 
so parater'and unsubdued . In fact for a time the Muhnmnuuilan 
power existed greatly on safferanco. 

The \nceroy of Gujarat whose seat was at Anhilri&da-Piltan waa 
£ar distant. The country was destitute of roada and the viceroy had 

1 It KCRtt probable tbat UiJ* branch of thu Roliilt •tiit^rat«cl to Mirwir (rwn 
6anri«bln, auit thvrafore DAtBTiilly retnnK*! t» tint peniuwlB. A «o>ifinajitifni of 
thU ■■■Il^KitioD may tjo fuiuxl in tbo fact Out th» eUnt sou of tha Ra of JnnAgftd 
mArried >4i)Kkji's dauKbtttr. Hiu! tlicy mfiely b«Mi fugitiroa Inini Mdrwir it is not 
pro)jabIi^ ibat li« would biivo mcUh.! tliut, tut U they w«r« uciiiu«LtioiH uf thv Sarya- 
vainehi (loLila of tbu ouaat b«lt. th«n> u Do oocuion ft>r ■uriniitci. 









EoDoagli to do to bold his own without detaching any important forco 
Fto the Sorath coast,* 

In A.D. 1 317, tho Emperor Mi]li»ifl ^ ^d TatylilaTf entered 
'Gujnrfll. Aft^r crushing Mokhera Gohil iu a fight near Gog'ha, 
be marched attjn g the coast b elt and thoroughly gubdned it as tar 
BS Una Dclv dda, but on this occasion did not reach S^^niorith. 
Afterwards in A. p. 1350 he marchetl against Junoijad, humbled Ka 
Kheogar the cluBftain7~citptured the luivt.'r fortress, and extorted 

On bis death in A.D. 1 3ol Muhammad was succeeded by Emjj Tugh- 
hik who about a.d. 13G0 invaded Gujarf&t and re8t<:>rod Mubammadan 
anprcmacy in old Sorath. This Emperor appointed Znfar KhAn to 
the viceroyalty of GujarAt whose name is moutiouecl in a Delvfida 
inscription. Ijatnr in tho roign of this Emperor, a forcfiiindvr Ix- 
nd-din and Syad Sikandar waa despatched against the Gufa jl RAval of 
MKn^rc^lj and after some warfare they conquered his entire cTucttaincy 
an^r firmly established the faith of Isldm. 'ilio H&val's tcmpto 
was changed to the R/iraU mosqaOj and a grandJimaMaaj id waa built 
which as far as exterior is concerned compares favourably with 
the Jama Masjid at Ahmadabadj though perhaps inloriop to that at 
Cb&mpinor. Intemalty it is less beautiful than the mosqae at 
the capital of Gujarat, audit wants minarets. Htill it ia a handsome 
Btructuro. This conquest extended Sluhamnj.. ' ver as far as 

Madhav-apnroD Iheuorlh-weat, andaiTMangrol v. : . „ . u ao important 
port gave a great im petus to trad e ia the coast belt. An interesting 
Pertiiau inscription recently discovered at Miiugrol dating from the 
reigo of the Emperor Firoz Tughiak celebrates tho foondation 
of a mosque in a.d. 1385 (a. a. 787} at that town by Muhammad 
Ehw^jah tiadar-ttl-Akiibir. 

Muhatumadsn rule was now acknowledged in the coast belt 
faotwocn Mddhavapur and Di'lvfUla, and a lmost as far a» Jftfarahnd, 
which town hon-everttraa not yet founded. In^l591 Zufar KbAn bin 
"Wrtjih-ul-Mulk, afterwards Sultiiu Muxufar, was appuinteiT^ceroy 
of tiujarit. In a. d. UVJH, iho load chiot'tainH wuro' growing 
restless in the coast belt, and the world-renowned fame of Somn ^th, 
already twice destroyed^ had risen a third time from im ashes lii Frnth 
glory. Zufar Khiln at once marched thither, and after severe fighting 
conquered all opposition, and fur the third tim e utterly ruiued and 
desecrated the temple.' It whh on this occasion that Xlamir Gohil 
and Vegiido Bhil were probably slain fighting for their faith. Zufar 
Khan lirrnly eatabliidiod the Muhauunadan power, aud appoiuted 
one Maiik Badar Danjhal as his governor in Sorath an<l Malik 
Shekh bin T.-ij as his deputy at Mdngrol. Tho Sorath governor's 
ac at was at Somndth-FuU tu. 

In the meantime much of tho forest lan d in tho central portion of 


M uhninnuid 

Piroc Tni 

Zufar Kliin, 
Vkeriiy of Ut 



* Ooglu ABd otiuix jiimxa in tbo vicinit; on the se* baud Appour to hare been held 
Id same totvi, bat t^ie MuhammKlaii j;Krri4'<riii grmliiAlly bcofttiir iii'tcjwuileul til tliu 
ountag r«(pt8, mad thuK wars uion; eauly tubiocd by l<Kal clitcfUuua. 

' ItAa MtU, Edjtion of 1S7S, |>. 27&-6. 

(Bombay QtMttta^ 



Chapter VII. 


AJ>. H14. 

tho pcniosnia had beon brouf^lit nuder tillage. Flourishtug towns 
exihtUiI iu luauy placos, while tHo ChadaHama chioftaiu from the 
ioaccejuibility of tho upjwr fortress of Gimir, as well aa ihe 
difficulty o£ the couutry, was a formidable neighbour. But his 
anuoyauces wore limitod to mere predatory excurgioDS, and he was 
ntstnuncd by the lirmnesa of the tSulLotiB of Gnjardt and 
rulers iu the coast belt. 

In 1411 when Ahmad SKA h mounted the throne of GujarAt^ the 
Sorath coast wasTi^mponSut posaessiou, especially aa it. contained 
the ports of VerAval^ M.-lugrulj Silj and Hutrtlpdda. It waa necesfw^ 
to mabo tho RAa feel tho weight of tho Muhammadan anns. 
Ahmad ShAh accordingly, in a.o. 1414, led an army against the 
Chud&sauia chieftain Ka Melak of Jun&gad. A pitctlodbatlle was 
fought near Vanthli in which the Ba was defeated and fled to 
Juu^gad, whither SultiinAhiuad pursued him, Aft«rtioraedifHculty, 
the Suluin captured the tovm and lower fortifications, but (ho Ra 
took refuge in the upper fortress of Ginuir. Still BultAn Ahmad 
compelled the Ra tu become a tributary. According to the Mirat-t. 
Sikandan, ' tho greater part of the proprietors of Sorath bocama 



obedient and consented to service/ ^rhe Blirat-i-Alimadi uses 
much the same language, and the Mirat*i>Sikaudari adds that t 
officers wore left behind to collect the tribute. 


From this date the Sulti^us of Gujnrdi eoosidcrcd that they bad 
right to inlerEere iu the affaire ol new Sorat h or tho central part 
tho province as well as in their old nosseasions in the coast belt. 
The old possessions were also guarded with greater care, and a royal 
prince Fateh Khdo^ the son of Ahmad Shdh^ was appointed riceruy 
in the coast belt. It appears from an inscription at MAngr^.^T, that 
duriug this prince's Ticcroyalty he made an expedition against 
Jun^^nd. Thia was probably nnsuoceasfnl, and is not mentioned 
either by the Uirat-]<Ahmadi or Mirat-i-SilcandarL Poiutibly the 
victory of Ra Melak over tho Yavau, alluded to iu the Alandlika 
K&vytx, refers to a victory over this prince. 

Nor was this all. Ahmad Shih press ed the Jli&lfa sore, and drovo 
thuui from I'ivtdi to Kuva, and thro^ghoui hia reign bo citendod 
Idnhammadan inflnoQoc as far as was practicable throughout 0x9 
peaiusola. So great was this iuduence throughout tho coast belt^ 
that the names of the tiuiariit Sultans replaced those of the 
Anhilvdda Icings and the Delhi Emperors in all public inscriptions. 
Ahmad Sh^h also levied tribute regularly from tho Uohils. 

In A.i), 1441 on the accession of Sultin Muhammad I I. to tho 
throne of Gujarat, the !k(uhammadau power waa lirmly seated in tho 
coast belt. T he VAjA a had been driven from Somnkth-PAtan ant) 
had retired to Uncha T j^otra and other holdings on the southern 
coast. Miihammndan rule extended from nea r MA dhavapur to the 
neighbourhood of JAfarabad. And in the peninsula, regular mbiite 
waa exacted from the Jbiila and Gohil cKieftains and nominal, 
allegiance, if not regular tributOj was duo to the Sull^ from the 
chiefs of tho central portion of the province. 

Even in tho time of Mahammad'ti unwarlike successor Kutb-ud-din 



e Jfohammadftn mle was Btill firm in the coast belt, as is shown 
ij tliu PuHbuavui-a iuscriptioD.' 

At the Bame time the c hieftains of the interior appear to have 
occasionally resented the conttvi l of the Jiipagad chieftain.' And 
it seems clear that lie was held rt'spoosiKlo oy tho Ahmadabad 
^cdt&ns ^r their. raids inGujarAt territory." 

Tn A.D, 1459 the celebrated Sult/in Malimud Begajda sacceeded to 
the throno of Gujanit and appears to have early scon the necessity 
of crus hing the ChndAsama Ra of Junfigad and curbing the raids 
of iho other chieftains of new Sorath. Accordingly ho called on 
the Rn Mnndlika who was the reigning chieftain, to chaa tiae Dud o 
Gohil of Arthi la who had been i-avaging the froutier dtalricts. 
Ba Mandlika waa both wise and brare. Ho marched against Dudo 
and slow him and Backed Arthila and averted the Saltd.n'a wrath. 
He then turned his arms against Sangau Vad hel of Ok ha aod 
humbled bim; and by his wisdom, niotleration, and warliko proweaa, 
began to consoUdiit*} a powerful chiefdom. But he had fallen on 
evil times. His great contemporary Snltan Mabmud Bcgada was 
^etfually warlike and enthusiastic, and ruled an infinitely stronger 
Hlcingdom, mid Hoon choriBhed dcHtgiig of conquering Jun^gad, and 
^thus consolidatiug the entire peninsula under his rule. Pretexts 
fur aggnajsioo were easy to find, and in a.d. 1467 the SultAn 
marchm against Junilgnd. Ra Mandlika, with~nie~Dioderation 
which always characterised him, made an ample eubmission, and 
the Saltan, for varioos reasons, thought it auTisable to content 
biuisclf with the success be had gained, and returned to Ahmadabad. 
lu the next year, on the pretext that the Ra visited his temple with 
a golden umbrella and otbor cueigua of royalty not bclittiug hia 
portion, an army wa.'i sent against him. But when this army 

■ reached Junagad, Ra Mandlika who was resolved to give no cause 
for offence, sent the Kultaa the obnoxious umbrella accompanied by 
fitting presents. Nothing however was of any avail. In 1-169 tho 

■ Sultan sent a large army to ravage new Sorath, and resolved on the 
entire conquest of the district and the capture of tho fortrcKa of 
Jtmiigjul. With this view ho was advancing, when Ra Mandlika 
with a few attendiuits repaired to his camp, proEegsing his anxiety 
to do anything the Sultan might demand, and bese>eching him nob 
I to thnft- ruin him without hia having committod any &nlt. The 
H Sult&n received him sternly and asked him what hiult could 
^ bo greater than infidelity. When tho Ra perceived that no 
submissioQ would avail him, and that bin destruction was determined. 

Pnpon, he made hi»i escape at night from the Sultfiu's camp, and 
hastily returning to JuniLgad, prepared to defend himself to the 
uttermost. The Snltin soon arrived at Jmutgod and besieged tho 
plHce.* Local tradition has it that Ra Mandlika was betrayed by his 
minister Vania Visal, whoso beantifnl wife Mobini ho hnd seduced. 
Others have it that ho was doomed to fall by a cur^c prononnced 
against htm by a Charau female named NfLgbai whose virtue he 

Chapter VII- 



Fint Expcdlt 
tuMunut JnuiWkd, 
*.D. 14(17* 

1 Induui Antiquwr (or July 1879. VIH. ■ UukdUki KAvya. 

■ Mint-1-Sikudvi. * Tbt) Uirat-i-Sikaodtd sbo kdopU this vkw. 

(Bombaf Ouettter, 



ipter Vn. 


erf a/OUn, 


Had nnsnccoaafnlly asaailod. Thoao Bxa more or less idle tftlos. 
The iirubability is thai tko siogu was skilfully conducted, that thtf 
provtxioiis m thu fnrtresa woro consumed, and tUat no diversions wore 
mad«; hy other eKioftains of the puninsola moat of whom Ha Mandlika 
Lad Hiteuated by bis couduct. Anyhow in 1473 he nurron dered 
the fortresH and becomo a cxtnyert to Isl Am, and acoompauiod tho 
Snttjlo to Ahmadabad, wbero he oveutnaUy died, and lies buried in 
thu Mduik Chok oE that town. 

Sultan Mahmud was ao struck with the beaaty of tho Bite of 
JunAgad, that ho at one time seriously thought of making it bia 
capital, and he resided there for a louff time. During his stny he 
built the fortilicatiuns of the town autf tho mosqiiu in the Upurkok 
and cnnsed his principal nobles to erect palacoa. With a new 
disseminating isl&m, be summoned Syads aud other ruligioiu m' 
and appointed K&tM and Muhammadan law officers to all tbo 
pnnciiMl towns. While at JuniLffod he reooived the aubniisHiou 
of all tho ]) rinoiptd zainin<Ux7^ of the country. The author of tho 
Hirai-i-SiKandan epecially notices the dense foreat sorrouuding 
Jun^f^ail and says that it was inhabited by a wild race of 
called KhdutH who are still to be found in tho province. 

Abont this time the Sulldn heard of the outrages oommiUicd 
the V idhel chief Bhim of ^ j ^jj a- especially an attack on Mnl 
Muhammad Samarkani]!, who impl'ji-uil Mahmud in person to avenge 
his wrongs. Tho Snh/in accordingly marched to J agat,' took the 
fort, and destroyed the temples. Then he conqnered the island 
of Shankhodvdra, the modern Bct^ and after building a mosque at 
JngAt returned, leaving the government of the country in the hands 
of Farhat-iil-Mulk. According to the Mtrat-i-Bikaudari this was tho 
fir^t lime that Dwiirka had lieen conquered by the .MuhammadaiDt. 
The Vfldhel chieftain Bhim wiwi taken prisoner and sent to 
Ahmndabad, aud the governor Muh^fiit Kb^n was directed to hew 
him in piocos and affix a portioD of him to each gate of the city, 
and this was accordingly done. In a.d. 1 ISO, eight years subsequent 
to the conquest of Juojigad, Sultan Mahmud returned to Gujarat. 
During those eight yeitrs iniwldition to the conquest of Okh4mandaI, 
the eutire affaira of the peninsula were settled, the tribute fixed, and 
tho administration of the crown districtH of Sorath waa arranged. 
This arrangemont was somewhat similar to tho system pursued at 
War in the days of Mulmmmadan aacendancr. ABonofthe Ra 
ilaiidiika was appointed J& iflrdiir. bat he was aasocJato d wit^ a high 
Muhammadnn official called t he Thfa ahdAr wbo commanded the 
garriaon, and who was the snpremo authority in all disputed cases. 
The revenue jurisdiction appears to have roiuaincd with i\xo jaginlar 
and this is nerltapa tho reason why, while BAdah/ihi grants of 
villages aind lands arc common, those of the SuUaus of Gujarat are 
exooodingly rare, if indeed they exist at all. Tho firat j(i<;ir'/(ir was 
Bhupatstngh also called Melag, who was a son of Ka Mandlika. 
These j/ujirddrM and their descendants, from being sons of tho 
last Raj were call ed IUi»6daha to distinguish them from other 

' Jt^ot i" uwtber noaie for Dvirks. 



[CIiadi8a]n£s, and tlioj retain tbe appellation to tbiH dav. The 6rst 
ThAnahd&r was T&tilr Khdn, and ho waa siiccc»de«l liy the Sultdn's 
eldoBt son KImlil Kh&n who afterwards guocccdcd his father on the 
throne of GujarSt by tbe title of Sultan Mazafar II. 

About this time, the JhiUAa of Knva in the north- east comer of 

tbe province, began to he tnuiijleRome, and repaiwd an altompt of 

Khiilil Khdn to reduce them to order. Sutton Mahtnad, wbo 

tnever woald tolerate rebellion or disobedience, marched at once to 

KoTa and gtormod the f^rt, siurked the town, and placed a Tbi&nahddr 

there, aiid dnivo out the Jhalaw slaying their chief VS^hoji. Tho 

I province was now; entirely rednced to order. The chief seat of 

I gore nuneat wag at Jmuip id ingt^Tof Somuath-Pitan s,adlhdnahs 

were es^bliabed in t^ more important positions. Later in this rei^, 

the island of DJo, from its important position at the mouth of the 

golf of Catabny and because it was a port of call for vessels trading 

with the Red Sen and thp. PorHian gulf, roso into iTn|Hirtaiice, and was 

frsqacntly the seat of tho local governor of the province instead of 

: Jiui&gad(]513-153(3). Klialil Kh&u, afterwards Muzafar 11., during 

<bu go7erntnent of Uie province, Imilt tho suburb of Jan^gaa 

I caUed Khalilpnr. The Sil-Bagaara Chovisi, or estate of twenty.four 

I idllages, was the jdgir allotted to the RaizSdaha of JanSgad, but 

t'lhoy aeem to have generally condocted tbe rorennc af^ir» of tho 

' ider of the Soratb district, probably either by farniiDg the 

IvOTGDoes or paying a moderate asseasmeut in the shape of a fixed 

som. Bhnpatfiingh was sucoeedod in a.d. 1505 by his son Kheng^r. 

tin A.s. 1513 Snltin Mahmnd Begada died, and was succeeded 
by his son prince Xhalil Kbtin who assumed tho title of Sultdn 
llu zafar T L This prince is said from hi? amiable disposition t^ have 
been cnlk-d Mnzafar lialim, or MuKafar the gentle. During his 
reign Malik Kios was governor of Soratb, and be placed TAli(r 
Khan Ghori in Junligad while he himself resided in Din. Snltio 
Mazafar, from bis woi-b with Malwa, was unable to devote much 
Bttt'olion to tho affaTra of tho peninsula, and the despateb of Malik 
KiA/ in A.D. 1521 against the Rana of Udayapur caused tho power 
in the pouinBiila to concentrate itself in tbe bauds of TAtAr KhAn 
^I^IJQ, This officer, who was Malik Eidx's deputy at 'junSgad, 
was an able and ambitious man and aimed at iadependence. The 
iMdisgnce of Malik K\&z on the failure of the Udayapur expedition 
Hptnogthened bis position. Indeed at this time it may be said that 
f^wbile the entire sea coast waa subject to Malik Eiiia, the centre 
of the prtivincH waa more or less under tho independent control 
of T&t&r Khan Ghori. In 1525 M^alik Biilz died and his possessions 
wad position wore coutirmed to bis son Malik Ish&k. 

Early in the sixteenth century the modern Kj^^bja. each bringing 
*ritb them their own AvarUAs or tribes other than ShAkhiiyats/ 
seem to have entered the province by cronsing from Cut^ih on 
being driven from PAvarg od in Cutcfa hj the JAdeid g. At first 

1 It ae«iiu panibi* that theea Avsrtifta m&y be Avus, or > brucb of tb*t tritw 
'liob M hMBsed Uie BytMitaiie Empire in the time <4 the Gmperor Juatiniui muI 


Chapter Vn. 

HistotT' I 

SalUn MAhrao4 


If nnfar : 

A.D. ia].3.1B2S. 


[Bombay OuettMT. 

(auipter vn. 






all seem to bare Rettled at T^ n wbich they conquered from 
B&bnAs. Subseqaently t be Hitia wmt ■ont h to or near 
present seat at M^ i a , while th e -Khgiyipaooomiiei JBIher iii 
eight miles east of tUjlcot, and the Kha chars d rove the ParmArs 
Chotila, which boa erer since remained id tiieii possession. Fi»w.. 
Chotilalhe Khachura nprcad to the east and Houth^ occupying by 

Bot^irthe TbeUuis yt Pallid , luici the Mokauia of iJhaiui. Tl 
are also nameroue luiuor divisiotuj. 

The KhumAns' first aettlementj as above mentioned, was at 
where the tanioas Loma KhamAu 
Ahclt«rcd Saltan MHralar 

ilo moro tlian oat 
a fugitive after the Emperor 

_^__ ruled. 

Akbar's couquestof Guj&rat (a.d. to73-l66S)andwae with Uuzabr 
when ho retook Ahmadabad in 1583. Ilo is aftonrardti said 
to have deserted J&m Sata on the fatal tield of Bhuchar Uori. 
Loma Khiuuan was without doubt the most famous partisau of his 
time. He founded the village of Loma K^di now under Xnandpur. 
After his capture and exeoition at Nagar^~~tlie lEhumans were 
forced to quit Xherdi. They retired to Lol ^-jna , wLuro Jaao 
Khara&n heciuni^ Hulruublesoiue that hi^ was driven thence \yy tba 
Afahammadana, and an imperial ifidnah ef^tabli^bed at Lotydna. 
The Khumdos uow settled io the Kuudla pa rganah atAsudar, 
Kr&nkaj, S&var, Jira, au d Bhonngda, where Hiey have' ever since 

It is diflieuU to dis ontaDR lo the modern Villjs from their more 
ancient nrodecessors of Vffla anTTTWbja.Tut It certainly seems that 
a branch of the tribe did accompany the Khi^chars and KhumiAnii 
from Cutch. Tbit) ia accounted for in various Irak's. Tbe nsaal 
legend is that the Vfila Kajpot, who turned KAthi after m.-irryinff 
the daughter of Viah^lo Patgnr, on being expelled from easte by hia 
tribesmt'D, retired to Cutch, whence he returned with the Khdchara 
and KhtimdnH and acquired actniHiderable tcmtory. The conquy ata 
of the ViUa were principally fi-om the Sa rvej&s of Am reli. At one 
time they conquered B hadl i bu t seem to lave lost it again. At last 
they acquired CbitaljFrom tTie Sarveyas, and establishing themselves 
here and at Amre li, overran the i nteiTening ooontrf from BA bra 
the north to Chebia in thu Gir furest, and rr om C oital on~nie 
to Billchft on the west. Jetpur on the Ronth hank of the Bhi 

river is tbeir c'hJef se at, and another principal town is Mends, 

on the borders of the Gir. Much of this was wrested fromlEem by 
the Muhammadana, and mnch was recovered by them on ~ 
downfall of the Mogbal power. 

cOQD«etioa butwcon Iho S]ulkh&\-Bt KAthii uul the ArtLrtiU re*Mn)>lM ■otuowbAt 
tlwt hetwera the Jetlivto nml tho Mrn, ttut ia nnm intiniato. it corrMpoudl rtlU 
nor* nvsU-ly to t)ie cvnm-L-tiuti Iwtuem tin.- Jnta ftuii their Uclik*. 

I la KauuAwdr, Kagu lauaiu alwayi N&vUnRgAr, or m it ia blao Mllad JimniMr 
juit M in th« D«oc«a Nigv st*nda for AbiuadiMijU', klso called CluUidKbuik 

In A. D. 1525, lUisJdah KbengAr was sacceeded by his sod 
lo^iaiL After the death of Malik Eiaz, disseaaionB broke out amonfif 
Ilia aoDs, aod id a.d. 1526 aftor the brief roij^ of Siittin Sikandar, 
^tUtfin BaMdor mounted tho thmno of Gujarat. The Portuimese 
rho had lL>ug beou anxious to obtain po8BeHsiou~'oF Uiu, wero 
iLrifTuing with Malik IidhAk for tho Burrcoder of (hat island, but 
nj Snhan disoovored tho plot and displaced Malik Ishik and 
spointcd Kiw&m-ul-Mulk govoruor of tho island. Afterwrarda in 
>26 some Turks, who bad come to GujariSt to fight agninst the 
jrtuguese, woro as:signed Diu a^ a place of reaidonce, aud Malik 
3gh&ii, auothor bod of Malik EiAz, was appoiatod governor of tho 
rod. Majiihid KJifio JJchlim appears to have been appointed to 
in place of TaWir Khan Ghori, bnt it seems doubtful if he 
' Bssamod char^. If ho did he was shortly afterwards replaced 
TaUr Kh^n Ghori. 

What might have been the fate of Gujarat and tho peninsula had 
Bahidur Shahj instead of foolishly quarrelling with the Emperor 
Hnmaiyun, confined himself to consolidating his vast kingdom, it ia 
unpostiible to Bay. In a.u. 1535 h e was detts^t^d by HumaJyu n and 
speedily lost not only all hi s conqueBts in Jadlwa but also toe enti ro 
kingdom of "Gnjarit, part ot tno] penmsola' al one excepted. Here 
ho tooC~rofuge an3 oocupied himself with negociating with the 
Portuguoso for aid to erpct thn Moglials. This waa readily granted, 
and BahAdur in tura permitted the Po r tu g uese to establish a 
^ctory at Diu. During thu Sultdn's almc-iuxi, m \ 536 , when ho was 
:upiod in frcemg GH J arAt from the Mo^'halfl, the Portugneso 
inverted the factory into a fori aiiid seized and fortified the island. 
SuIt&Q became alarmed, and proceeded thither as soon as he 
ind leisure from the pressing affairs with which he was then 
occupied, but was kiUod iu au affray in which both sides medituttid 
chery. This took place in a.d. 1 536, a nd since then Din has 
^ffluned a Portngnese possession. 

I During the reign of this Sultfiu, th e JhAlfa of Ku va, who had now 
']li@hed themselves atHulvud, attacked and billed the Dasiida 
W«r. Sultdn Ba^iMiir, who wna absent in MAlwa, sent 
Kluiuiiu, the jfi^trdur oE Viramg&m, against ilieni. This 
arienccd warrior not only rocorered Dasada, but took from 
[ausinghji the chief of Halvad, M&ndalj "Vu-amg^m, and Halvad. 
lausiugbji retired to Cutch and thence organized raids on the 
Qjartit territory both on tho mainland and the peninsula, but oouJd 
nothing. Finally he sought the SuIUin himself, and on 
ting sabmission, Halvad was restored to him, but Viramg&m 
id M&adal were reft from his bonsc for ever. At the close of 
lU^n Bahadur's reign, after his reverses in the campaign with 
lumaiyuD, his authonty oscopt in Diu and along the sea coast bad 
id thrunghout the peninsula. Tho Okha piratea expelled the 
[ulm.iiun}*dan garrison. Tittiir Khan Ghori bedame indepen dent at 
lu dgad , and J am llftval. a Jiidcja cU iofUiia of ^ gtcb. eroftsing the 
Ran with a numerons and w(?ll appointed army, subdued the 
district now occupied by the JAdejna, aud c alled it -^^|^ after 
his ancestor Jam U^lu. Uo bad in fact no {broe of importance to 
oppose. The Maliammadan garrisons of this part of tbo conntry 

Chapter VII. 

SnlUn B^hildur, 

Tha Portogue 
gam Ihu, 

A.D. 1635. 

Ch^pt«r Til. 

Jun RAvm] 
•Opqavn HaUt, 

A.V. ]53ft. 

I«liu»mA(I IIL, 

lUn Ahinad II., 

had been mostly eipellcd by t he JethT<» c>t Nt ynali Ban 
the VAdhela of Khambh4lia. tlie Ch&vad&s ol JJhrol anil r.ho Dc 
of Amran antT it* neighl^ourhooil. Tliefle chiefs were uim.hlii m 
copo with n regular Rmiy and were all speedily rtHliiced to 
Buujection. Next tho KAthia were driveo south and in A. ». 
1540 J&m R^ta) found loiaare to foancl liis ts apita l of NMJfflWWr ob 
the banks of the lUnfimati rirer near its conflDence with the 
N&gTD&ti Btreom^ and wout two inflee from the old Jethv a pint 
of NAgpfth. After the death of IJulUn Uoh^lor in 1536, the 
BQCcecomg Snll&ns of Gnjarfit never recovered their authurity 
within tbo peninsiilft, which cxcoj^t HiJl&r and portions like 
OkhAmandal which had asserted their indopendOBoe, was entirely 

under the "authority of the G hori hooae of Junigad. Little dstui 
of these times is avaita^oi but it appi^rn that the Gboris 
decidedly encroached on tho power and authority of tho Jmutgad 
jdgirddrt who nevertheless was still au important personage in the 
peninsula. T^t&r KhAn thnagh mliDg* in the peninsula on an 
entirely independent basis, still acknowledged himself to be a TABni) 
of tho SuUAu uf Ahmadabad and indeed played a by no meaai 
unimportant part in tho politics of tho period. Morvi was hold at 
thifl time by Futeh Khan Baloc h, a Mnhammadan noble of great 
import&noo in tbo abairs ot u'ujariit, and whoTmui his commandiug 
position at Morvi and his possessions in iho mniuland of Gniaiit, 
was rather a dangerous neighbour for Tfitar Kbiia Ghori. 

After the reign of SultAti Muhammad III. (a.d. 1536-1554) 
during which no change was made in the goTemment of the 
peninsula, Sult:Sn Ahmad II ., a minor, was seated bj the nohlen on 
the thwne of OuJATST. TTHring the reign of this SultAn, aa in that 
of his preilecefwor, the authority of the Ghoris wag stre ngthened, 
while the Navdnagar principality became copflotidJed on an 
independent Imaia. Trq Jethva cfiieRaTns "were practically 
independent, but they were soro pressed by the Jddejas of NaT*- 
nagar. The J halAa of HalTad, though nearer to Gujarat and 
snrroimded by powerful Muhammadan nobles, also began to assert 
thoir power. The rest of t h e pr orince, excepting Fatah Ehiu 
B&ioch'H parganah of MornTBelongod lo TAt&r Khfa i Ghori. 

During the reign of SultAn Ahmad, the celebrated partition of 
GnjarAt b y the nobles took place. On this occasi(m TAt&r hhiln 
GEorPwas coiiGrmed in his pooBOsaion of SoratU, while Pateh Khan 
Baloch*s share was RAdhanpur, Sami, and Munj pur tn addition to 
Moryj . In the aubsequent disseusions among tno iioblee, Fateli 
ffl5E"BalochtookthoiiartofItimAd KhAn, while TAtArKhAn Ghori 
and the FolAdiaof AnmlvAda-PAtan in QnjarAt were opposed to him. 
By means of tho Foladis, TAtAr KhAn contrived to crush Fateh 
Kh6a and seized ou his parganah of l^lorvi while the FolAdi.<< tooV 
RAdhanpnr, Sami, and Monjpur. Theja^irdnr of Junfigad contiuned 
to enjoy his Chovisi of SU-Bagasra, Keaod and Chorvir, though it 
•eems probable that the revenue management of the rest of the crown 
domain of Sorath, or at all events the greater part of it, together 
with all tho tribute from the subordinate hoIdGrs, had passed intn the 
hands of the Ghoris. Somewhere between a.d. 1570 aod 1575 TAlAjr 



Kh4n Ghori diod after a long" and succossful caroor during which 
he had firmly established hia power on an indopondent ba.sis. He 
was succeeded by hia sou AmJu Khaii Gh ori. lu A.v. 1561 jSult'&ii 
Mosafu*, tho lost Saltan ot liujanVt, mouutod tbo throue, and the 
diaseiuioiu among the noblcfi increased rathor than diminiBhed. 
So ranch was this iho caiie that oyeuloally Iti mAdKh&n inv ited the 
interferen ce of the Moghal Empefoi* Akbar. 

'' ' , yonn^ entliasiaatLC and ambitiottfl, wa« only too glad to 
acifjiL 'his iuvitatioHf and advaociof^ rapidly by way of Disa, 
speodily ponqnered the country. He appointed Mirzah ^ia 
KoknllAsh as first vicerwy.and returned to hia capital. This conqiiest 
thuiigirii iocliidod Auhilviida-I'titan, Kadi^ Ahuiadabadj Uroach, 
and ourat, did not include So rath, which romainod nnder Amiu 
Kb&n Ghori mowi' mdepeu3cu'i' tliau over. 

In A.D. 1575 Mirzali Rh^ii, Khdn Kh&uilnj superseded Mirzoh 
Aziz KokaltAah oa viceroy of Oii]arfifc,"T>ut tho gftTemmeiit was 
conducted by tho deputy Vazir Khfiu, as Mirzah Khdn was quite 
s youth. Hia jifiivo rumen t was iinsticcossful, and ho was relieved 
in A.D. 1577 by Sh ahdb-ud-din Ahmad K hAn third viceroy o( 
G ainrat. 

(In 1581-82 Fatoh Khdn Shirv&ni oommandor oE Amin Kh^n 
Ofaori's Eorces quarrelled with that chief, and leaving his service 
repaired to 8)iahfi.b-ud-din Ahmad KMn. Ho persnailod tbia 
vioBToy to attempt the conquDa t of Sornth and tho bait was too 
tempting to be refused. ShahAb-ud-din sent his', nephew Mirzah 
lluiu at tho head of -lOUO horse against Janigad aoeumpauied 
yy Fateh Kh^n Shirv6ni bub thia pcraun died daring the siege, and 
~ie Jiim of Nav^nagar who had been rammoned to hia aaaistunce by 
Lmin KE^ii, appeai-ed at tho head of a large and well equipped army. 
Mirzah IGian brt-aking up the siege of Jun&gad r etired to ilAng rol 
to which phtte he laid f*iego, but was followed thtilier by ihe Jam's 
army. Amin Khan too, issuing from Jun&gad, joined in tho 
pursnit. Mirzah KhAn hastily retreated to KodinAr bat was followed 
■o cloaely that be was forced to give battle. He sustained a 
severe defeat^ lost tho whole of his baggage anti elophants and many 
men, and liiraKolf escaped with difficulty wonnded to Ahmadal>ad. 
lil A.v. 1533, news arrived that tiultAu Mu^tafor had eHOap od from 

^ Delhi and returned to Gujariit. Ere he could put hia troops in 
moti'ou SbahAb-nd-din Ahmad Khin was recalled and Itim^ Kh&a 
Gnjarati was appointed viceroy. 

This was a had solo ction. Tho timoa rcqoircd a man of decuion. 
and a good soldier, and itiinid Kbdn was neither. "Muzafar rebelled 
in A.e. 1583 and soon ovorran tho conntry, and by fordo or' fraud 
obtiuned possession of CiUnVwiy, Surat, Uroach, and Baroda. 

The greatest anarchy and confusion now prevailed in the 
peninsula. The Ghoris of Jun&gad endeavoured in vain to retain 
coDiTol over the whole province which was being rent asunder 
by the encroachment's of the new JAdcia kingdom of Navfiuagar, 
Tni<l8 of the Kathis, and the smuggles for inde|)endenco of the 

tnor chieftains. Muzafar'a hour of triumph was brief ; ho waa 
expelled from Ahmodabad aftor being signally defeated by Mirzah 

Chapter Ytti 

History. I 





Conqneat n( 

AhmndAhiMl by 



(Bombay (Hxet 



ipt«r Vn KhJJD, KhAn Khto& n, who was 

jawt ot 
LtinuwUlwl by 


XaiiruiE K hin, 

KMd, iUiAn ■K.hto& n, who was dow a ppointed viceroy of GnJArit, 
tie ifaen soafjrbt rttlngo in the peninsnla, and by tbe conniviuiCQ of 
the tnmi$ithira and the aid of Loma Khumiin managed for a time to 
evade purutiit. 

In A.D- 1591 , he indaced J4m Batiji of Navinanir, Danlatkhin 
Ghori oE «lun<i^d, Loma Kbnm&a or Kherdi, and tbe KAie^ds' 
jdgirtlar Kheng&c of JuuAgad to espouse his raose, and opei 
r ebelle d. The imperial viceroy Khdn A'zam Miraah Axiz Kokalt 
marched prouijttly against thorn and the opposing forces tnt 
on the Geld of Bhuehar Mori near Dbr ol. Both eidea api 
to havo 7ought~ gallantly, bnt eventually the breeze of virtoi 
fanned tbe imperial banners, and the allies snffei-ed a dieastrons 
defeat. More than this, Uaulot Kb&u tihori died ' 



hia wonnt 

and Jnpligad in a.p. 1502 waa beaiege d and i^kijni anti hcncefor 
this tuwn became the apot of an impe rial foui ddr. Tribute « 
exacted from the J4ra and all the zamxrut'irs of ^rath, and togetl 
wiib Sorath the entire oottat line yaa ann6«ed to tlie im] 
domain. But the domintonB of i^e J&m remained^ aa an independei 
thongh tributary kingdom, incrmirng tho portion uf the coant lii 
yitending from J odia t ct Saldya. From tnis date Sorath bocai 
a khdla ah Sarkar, or crown aoma ftp. and the Rdiuidab juyirrfj 
KhengAr was dismissed to his entate uf Sil-Bagaara, Keeod 
Chorvar where he subsequently diod in A.n.1608. 

Nsorang Khfin was tho first of the imperial /ot^Warj of Jna&gaA 
and ho was succeeded by KaHirokhAn. Tho officer in charge of 
Sorath appears to have been a great official and his rale was aemi- 
iudopondont, though nominally undor the orders of tbe Gtijnnit 
viceroy. Immediately after tho conqnc«t of Jundgad, Mazufar 
was captured in Cuk-h and committed suicide while on hisway oa 
a prisoner to Almuidabad. During the reign of Akbar, and while 
experienced oBicers like Nanrang Khdn and Sayad E^m held tbe 
office of foujdar, tho poninaola enjoyed a rest from warfaro and 
misrule, but on the accession of the emperor JahAngir to the 
imperial throne, Httlo attention was paid to its affairs. Tbe 
Portuguese rava ged the southern and tho Viiirhers of Okha the 
norllicrn ajitT western flea line. Inland tl; icrrwched and tbe 

Kdthis plundered. The reveuno apix-ar^ , i..w<j been collected in 
two ways, by direct administration in tho crown villages, and by 
farming the garaaia or lalukdari villages to their original owners 
and others. The ancient system o f hhdfjvatiii, or the state levy of 
a share of the produce inKt<nid uf ii 'hxJh sum in mliney, appears 
to luive prevailed in the peninsula, though a money assessment waa 
levied in Gujarilt 

In A.D.1611, foor years after the accession of Jah^gir, Malik 
Am bar tho governor of Daulatahad in the Deccau, and a 15hief 
noble of the Nizim Sh&hi court, invaded Gujnntt and plumlorod the 
wealthy towns of Surat and Ban)da. Aftentiuu was more than ever 
drawn fmm tho affairs of the peninsula, which began to suffer from 
constant mtsmauagemeul, and the desolating effect of raiding and 

In A,D. 1616 the Emperor JahAng ir yj ated Gjijarat, and the J&m 

of Nar^iiftpar repaired to his camp to pay his respects. Prince 
^BbaL Jahtiti wus left on this occaaiou aa viceroy at AJimodabad, 
Kbut whon tliis princo rebe lled j , i^ I-Q2 2, affairs in the pcuinsnla 
^Afjain fell into confnsion. The J Am increased hia ajinage of 

im mWi«' and disregarded the authority of the /oujdiir, the chief taiiis 

anarrL'lled amoD|^t themsolTos, and the Kdthis oontinaed their 
eprcdations unchecked. 

In A.u. 1027 the Emperor JahAajC^ir died and waa BQccccdod by 

hih JaMn, and in a. d. 1631-32 there was a terrible famine 

in Gujarat and the peninsula, galled the ealiiUio'^dJ'oT' Famiuo 

of Samval Kih?. TIiih iticreapod thu disorder, and finally in 

AjD. 1630 the peninsula was waste and censed to 3rield any revenue of 

importance, while it afforded a safe asylum to the maraading K athis 

who pan aed over by R6 niinr into Gujaiiit and laid waste the fertile 

diatricts of Dholka and DTianTThnlia. The Emperor who was at last 

taforuiL'd of tlie slate oT aCEairs, sent Azatu Kh&n a noble of 

much importance at court, whoso daughter wae betrothed to prince 

Sboja, the Emperor's son and who waa not only of exalted rank, 

at a good general, au active soldier, and eminently qualified to 

OBBTVC order. This ablo viceroy after crushing the Kolis of Gujarilt, 

oronghly hnmbledthe K^tbiaand bnil t the na atla af BAmj^jr. which 

lie named Sbahpur, and garrisoned with a strong force to hold the 

Kfilhis in check for the hituro. In a.d. 1040, finding that the Jdm 

had withheld tribute and conducted himself with Brrogi»nce, he 

marc hed to N'avaiia^ r and not only caused him to close his mint 

^bnt pay arrears uf tribute. 

H A year or bo previons to the appointment of Axam Kh4o aa 
Hricoroy, Mi raah l«a Tar Kli An, anoflicer of tho highest promise, had 
Bbeen appointed foujdorr of Sorath, which district waa granted him 
io jVii;i>. He rebuilt the fortiBcationa of Jau^gad, preserved order, 
and occupied himself in revenue reforms and Htudying the local 
ays tom of hhogiiiiiU which he found eminently suited" to the genius 
of the peopf?anulhe prevailing tenurcB. So much so, that when 
in A.D. 1012, he was appointed viceroy of GujarAt ui place of Azam 
Khin, he introduced this system in that province, m place of the 
money UBesBmont hitherto prevailing there. 

In A.D. 1542, Mirzah Isa Tar Khdn waa appointed viceroy of 
GojariU in place of Azam KhSn, and took up bia appointment. 
He int roduced th e hhuijval iU syBtum o f revenue assessment into 
Gnjardt, and by this and other revenue reforms restored the 
produce iu a short time to a prosgenma condition, and perceiving 
the importance of keeping order in t£^o peninsula, he procured the 
appointment of his son Indyat Ullah to ho foujddr of Junilgad. 

After prince Muhammad A uran gzeb had relieved Mirsah Isa 
Tar Khdn aa viceroy of Giijar&t in 1644, that noble returned to 
Jonagad aa foujddr, since he held the revenues of Sorath in jdgir. 
He seems to have continued to hold the appointment not only 
daring the vioeroyalty of this prince, but also of his saocesflor 


Chapter TtT. 


Amm El 


A.U. IC 




^ Tbo modani tori oamt^oulM to tb« old maknmdi. 

Chftptflr VII 


tnh Shdcoh 
« 0uj4Tit, 


Sliaiatali Kh£n ; and it was not till a.d. 1050 ^ -whon pripc e D^m h 
Sbekub wsa viceroy, tliat be was summoned to court. On this 
oc(!fU(!on bis son Hohaminad B4Iib eacoeoded bim a>i foujddr of 
Junagad. He in his ttim was reliered by the celebratod 
din .Kbwbffi in a.p. 1653, w ho was granted several imiAa 
fS^SP^uirKar in jtigir. 

During the tenure of Sorstb inja^V by Mirzah Isa Tar 
an<l bis suns, attention sepms to bare been i^iven to revenno ref t 
and tn repairing' tbe fortifications of JunAprad itself, bat not 
interference waa exercised with the zamindart of tbe province. 
R anmalji had fuceoedod 5&xn L&kba in 1645 and tbe lesson 
by A nam Kbiin waa yet too rocont for NaWLnagar to ventnn'~ 
assert independence. Akher6iji of Sibor waa not yet of sufficient 
impnrtaiice to attract attention. Uo appears to have been a 
politic chief and to have conciliated the tbdnahddr of Loliana, an 
important official in the south-east comor of tbe peninsula, and in 
one way or another obtained a grant of a fourth of the revenues of 
the port of Gogba. The chief objects of the fouyldra of this tinw 
appear to have been, to obtain as much revenue as possibla 
from the crown domains, to check the ra ids of tho Kiitfai Sj and 
to kee p the Jfim of NAvunagn.r in snl^joctlon. OlljerwTio they 
were careless of what hnppencd provided tbe zamiixddnt paid their 
tribute regularly. Each year in ortier to realize the roronne with 
less difficulty, the distant districte and outlying tdlukdt, tapas,^ 
and villages were fanned to the l oca l chieftains, until the tenors (^ 
thcso latter became almost a settled possession^ liable only to a 
variable ^fima which represented the stun tot which the districts and 
villages had been originally farmed out. In this way the ' 
Mfninddr managed largely to increase his territorial possi 
and he conducted himself vrith so much judgment, that bis iufluenco 
was usually courted both by tbe LoLu&oa thdnahddr, and tbe officials 
of the port of G-ogha. Kut b-ud-d in while contiuuing this modeot 
govommout watched Nav^nagar carefully, and at the same timo 
preservod order in tbe peninsula. AVbeu in a.d. ltio7 pnnce Mor&d 
Bakab, who was tbon viceroy of Gujar&t, rebelled, Kutb.ud>din nerer 
■wavered either in loyalty to the llirone or in preserving order. 

In A.D. 1658 when prince Muhammad Aj yanggg b mounted 
imperial throne, keening bis father Sbih JahAn in confineme 
Kutb-ud-din transferred bitj allegiance to htm, and served 
faithfully, and when prince DArah Khekob in a.d. 1 65£t made 
raid upon GnjarAt and for a time occnpied tbe capital, Kutb-ud- 
remainod faithful to the £m]>eror. He was reworded for his lo^ 
conduct on this occasion and marked out for promotion. When 

A.D.iytil the MahariiiaJaswintsingh then viceroy of Gujarat recci 

orders to march to the Deccau, Kutb-ud-din was directed to officiate 
for him until the new viceroy should arrive. Msbabat K han the 
now viceroy arrived in A.n. 1662 and Kutb-ud-din then returned to 

1CUI ana i 

I A topa coonrta woaU; of tweWe viUn|^, but bt IookI; ^)pli«d to uiy ' 
0t rilUgcB Urn tktM (vea^-four whidi naks • rhoviai. 




. Here he soon found gomotbtng to do, for on the denth of 

D Banmalji of y»vAoaga r. his brother Itdiainghji usiinx nl the 

U, to the exclusion of his son Satoji, whom Ko doclnrod to bo 

larioiui. Kuth-iid-din marehtid at once on Navanairar and dofoated 

ChapiOT VIL 

K^Hingbji a t SbBkhpA t. Jdm lidittinghji foU to this battle 
Kuth-ud-din took ji^v^agy r and n aining i ^ ^gyjfflpgar 
and h11 ita dependencies to the crown domTmonsT^ He 


Eurned to JnnAgad, whence in x.o. lOfj-l he waa sent to 
to asfliat the MahBrdjn Ja^ivnntsingh, &nd Sardllr Eli&a 
hiiB at Junagud tui/ouj(Ltr v( SMt-atfa. 
S ydilr Khi n made many imprgTomouts at Juniif^a<l ; he bnilt 
SanhU* Bdgh, and oxcavntod and conatmctod the groat raservoir 
ihat city known aa tho SardAr talav. He also preserved order tn 
proviuco. In a.d. 166i*-70 he was relieved for a short time by 
DIIlt Khan and trcnt to Idnr, but at the end of 1670 ho rottimed 
to Jan^gad and again took charffo of the Sorath foujiiuri from 
DiJer KhAn who dcpartod to the Deccan. Sarddr Kbao hohl ufBca 
till about 1685-8 6 when he waa appointed viceroy of Thatha in 
"'nd- He died at Thatha in 1686, and ia aaid to have been buriod 
are and not in the tomb wkiuh he had built fur himself in tho 
]4r B^h at Jnn&ffad. Ho was sucooodod in the Sorath J^u/ddn 
S yad A fahammad &b£n. 
I Up to thiH dato tho ^vomment of the provinco waa good, 
the departure of Sardar Khiln it became more Uj, but still 
ktil the death uf tho Kmporor Anrangzob in aTd' 1707 excellent 
ler was preserved. It was after tho death of this great man 
It difiorJer and anarchy of every sort bocarao prevalent not only 
in the poninsula but throughout Gujarat. 

During the period np to Sarddr Khan's relief, Jitm TamAch i son 
<if Raisingh had made some troublesome forayai but had been 
drive n back to Cnt ch. He was however popular in the prrjrinoo and 
&mnuLrlv ^)oken of aa Tam^-hi Taga<l or Tainiichi the riever. In 
AM. 1673, throngb the influenoe of iha Mah/iraja Jaavantaingh, he waa 
st ored to the q ddi but thu city of Navuuugar remained under tho 
il of a Muhaniinadaii J'onjtLir, and tho J&m kept wliat little 
he was permitted aL Khamy^^^ 
[The diificultios of tho empire in the vrarw|||J|^glyv^ji in tho 
were hfdlod with dolight by all the imperinl f eodatori es, 
by nono more so than by tbose of the peninsula and Uujar&t) 
profound sympathy was folt not only fur Shiv&ji but for 
ontiro Mar&tha nation. On tho mainland, RAjpipl a actively 
inived at t ho Mwfitha inroad s^ and the chieftaina'Cook advantage 
.every sign of wealcness or want of vigilaixx) to oncroaoh. Amongst 

A.D. 1707. 

its former status. 

_ __ Then ca'oie tho Jethva of ChhAy ft. who had 

commenced assorting hia infiaenco at PorbanJar, and in about 
4.0. 1 686 h e on one pretext or another bnilt a small fort there. This 
lacbment waa the less strictly checked a* Porbandar was a good 
isolated from tho scat of government, and because tho 
nmadan oHIcer of the important town of Mdngrp l on the sea 
himself tndulgod in druama o f indt-pood gnce. 
■ 013-38 

Chapter VTL 

Diiordor io 

1 dHBHV 

Thcro was also tlie chieftain ot Siho r io the south-east comer, 
who was ^ulunlly iiKisoliiliitiitjr n kuihU domain eithor ARzaTnin-ldri 
or nd fftrnifd distriota, wliiL-h la^tt in tho nunienjua cbanges of latter 
times aud tho coutinuikl warfaru were tiufferud to ^11 entirely 
into his pHSAoasion. DhrAngadrn too in tho north-east did what 
it could, but it was moro subject to tho attacks of tho tribate- 
txi ^epiff g or mu/fcjf iri arm y which usually untorod tho provinco 
by wny oi ViraSga m, and its chieftains thonjfh bravo and gsl" 
VWRT^^l^pTOOT^or pijlitic as tli0i>c of Sihor. Nor Tras it. 
alouo that oucroochod. Kvfiy petty zaminddr cucrQachc'd 
host of his ability, and tiie atlemptB^ many of them sucoe>Bad 
the Mulianimadan ihannhddra andyoiyrinrs and othor loral 
to assert their independence, made the task of disiutegratiou much 
more easy. 

Thus when a distant thdnah with say twonty-fonr villf^s nnder its 
away, refused to acknowlcMjgo the central authority, and saccoBsfuIly 
MSdrtod ita indopondcncc, encroochmonts on its possessions by the 
neighbouring chieftains were looked on not unfavourably, and so 
far from boinf^ resented as aggi'essions, were frequently r*' 
ed with the connivance if not ihc actiml aid of the /"^ 
was ouly too delighted to thus humble his rebellious vassal. 

Tho death of tho KmpororAurangEob in 1707 wa-^ ;i "" 
to the central power. ' Hie Jam "expe1lg3 t i 
fouj'hir iu 17(ir' ;i'i>l ro-ocoapied his cap ital. Tlio CUhuyii irUi' 
stylod himselt' ■■irutud ar of Porbaiidn r of which place lio now 
obtained firaicr hold, 'I'be Wihor c biiTtniu mutiuui."*! t«j cxttMid his 
power, while almost every detached Muhammadiuo post or thdnah 
of any importanco became independent; and while some were uinch 
ctirtailed of their poasessions, others wei-e overwhelmed entirc-ly by 
tho neig'hbouring zamin-ldri', who. Imt for their intestine fends, 
miKht in tho (vnirso of a few ytwnT huvo wholly exlin;niishi'<l Iho 
Muhiunmadan power. The ]x>wcr of tho/ou/iAji* wan ilii-n t-infint-d 
to the limits of new Son dU, aud such thniniht! or iwsts^i tlif coast 
belt and cIsexvhcrG as romainod loyal. Thrm^h uoioinally he hmt 
the right to collect tho tribute of the samin'idrt, he was ra.rely 
able to do so, and was de[)ondout on the arrival of a mulkgin forco 
from Gujoiiit. With this ho used to co-oporato. 

Other causes of disinl-egration and anarchy speedily snperre: 
which will bo detailed heivaflur. 

' h. 




S ya<l Mnhanimad Khnn who snccocded SsrdAr Khan s a/t)uj ttar 
Sorath did not loui; retain tho post, as tho rovomios of SoratK wore 
in A.I). lfi8C f^rantod m a ixTsonal estate to prince Mp hftmmad 
Astam S hirs' Bahiid ur. Tho pnnce senTtliither bia deputy Shaht Ttrrli 
Kh^u to manage uffuirs. Following on this, KArtalab Kh^n was 
apiKnntod/(nyV^ir,Rnd smm after ]>rince lIulmTnmad Azam Shah was 
croatod vicepiy with K^rlalah Khiin ns his deputy, but ;1 ■ ■-; 
iinmediiitely Kju'talab Khu n was ii[ipointo<l viceroy jjf Gh jwi'.l .. ,1 
also placed in c harge' of .TtidU] iiirj Slier^Rliitii son of 
Shiihvardi Khiin sac«>eding iiiui st Jun^gad. In A.n. 1GB7, 8her 
Afg^u Kfa^u was relieved by Bahlul ShcrJloi, but ia A.D. IGS8 he 
again waa appoiul4>d to Jauigad. 



About tliia tiiiio tho midn of tlie KUAchnr and othoT K ^lfeip into 

the Ah madabtKJ di strictw bocnme very freqnent, ami ot Iftst in_liift2 

Tdrtalab Khiu the vicwroy^ who had beoQ eunobled by tlie title of 

tBhuj^it Khun for tho bravo nnd resolute manner in whiolTteTuid 

jUiU'lIriT a fuutiny i>f the soldiery at Ahniadiibad, niun'lied at tlie 

hc«d of a large force into JliAlivAd aud Surath. IIii firnt collected 

[the arrtttirs of tribute aud then Hta rmed the fiirt «f Thau the heud- 

IQKrtors of tho Kiithi rievora. This fort he de&troycd and scattered 

je Kathis in aUdiruttioos. 

From this timo it will bo soon that thojjmdar of Borath waa 
nnable himself to coll ect the tribute of tho ohiefa of the peninsnU^ 
and ft became accessary for tho vic eroy in person to make an 

il _exiKHliti'iu t" ■ ' " ' ~*' 

co-opprated with this 


annual _exiKHliti'iu thllher railed lauikoi ri. '1 he Horath foujd&r 

■co-oporated Vith this force, as did in later times the faujildr of 
Virumj^m. Ju ]C»i*S Muhammad ISeg Khiin wiw ujipointod foujthlr 
of S<^)rat!i, but like tiin imnicdiatu prcdoreKKorD ho wan tiiiablu to do 
moro tban barely hold tho (M-owti distrirfs, and the Klitbia nm un 
rosuuied their old doprt'daiiona in thy DlmudUu ka parganah then 
buld in Jdgir by the cclubnitcd Uur^diiA if/itlmd. Hia uuiuagnr 
applied to the viceroy for aid, and that official dii-ected Muhaminad 
g Ktuin, the fonjd-ir of 8oruth, to iniiroh at^iiust them. 
IjiiU'V on in A.^, 170-J Muhammad Bej; Khan -nras relieved by 
iBaraud az K h&u. Very li ttle Jntcrcs . t waa now taken in the 
airs of tho |x*nint«ul» iia attention wan poncentratod on the 
thrcatocin^ attitude of tho Ma f^fl^a a on tho frontier of southern 
^Oiijarat. After tho Mar^^tha invasion of the Houtherti distrioce and 
Hthe defeat of the imiierial forces under Abdul Hdmid Kh^,even leu 
^KfiiU'iirtou was bci^towcMl on provincial tLffaira, The cliiufa bccamo 
BreHtli->i8, and oue of the 8i{^us of the tiiiiuii wm the^expulsion 
of is'azar Ali Kh&u from his jagir of Ualvnd, by ChandraaJngji 
of VJiitaiii^r. Then como the death of the Emperor Aiiinn}«ieb in 
A. D. 175?, and oonfualon pruvaileJnJotlTin tlio peninsula and 
Oujanlt, The warfare for the throne between the imperial piincec 
was decided liy the ilefeat. autl death of prince Muhammad Azutn 
ShAh, and prince Muhammad Muozzani Sliiih iho victor mounted 
tho thro ue of tho ump ii-e with the tide of BulmdurShdh. 

8ya d Ahmad GJl flni wa« nnw foujii/tr of Sorath, aud ho at 

o Btimmons of tlio vicuruy jiiined that officer aud contrihulyd to 
defeat of the Murdtha army in A.u. 1711. Tho Kmporor died 



in A.D. 1712 nnd was 8UCceo<lctT by JaTuin dar Sh ahj who 
succeeded in a.i>. 1713 by the Kmporor Farru^SIyar. In 171-4 
the Euipei'ur married tho dan^htcr of the M^iSr^a Ajitaingh of 
Miirwfir who &oui his aon Ab hyesingh to court. Abhyesingh waa 
ftpp(.int«d /oiy